(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

1 



II 


















ill 






I 





1! 










ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

AND 

v/ 

PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 

I 



* / 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SEC 'ION 

OF THE *S T I O ^ X/ 

' 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIEN< 

OF 

PHILADELPHIA. 




VOLUME XXVII, 1916. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 



HENRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D. ( Editor Emeritus. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE : 



EZRA T. CRESSON I- A. G. RKHN. 

ERICH DAHCKF 
PHILIP LAURENT H. \V. \VI N/l-l. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

ENTOMOLOGICAL ROOMS OF 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 

LOGAN SQUARE. 

1916. 






The several numbers of the NEWS for 1916 were mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office as follows : 

No. 1 January December 31, 1915 

" 2 February February 1, 1916 

" 3 March March 1 

" 4 April March 31 

" 5 May May 2 

" 6 June June 3 

" 7 July June 30 

" 8 October September 30 

" 9 November October 31 

The date of mailing the December, 1916, number will be announced 
in the issue for January, 1917. 



JANUARY, 1916. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. No. 1. 




^ 3 



John Lawrence Le Conte, 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 

T. CRESSON. J- * G - 

PHILIP LAURENT, HrCH DAECKE. . W. W&N*Bt. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 

Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-C 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS I 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL. SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

"1 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $ r.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 

Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June 15th, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September i5th. 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

C^~ The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-live copies, 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, 20 cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper, 30 characters or less. 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 

C. V. BLACKBURN, 12 PINE STREET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate I. 





STICTOLOBUS SUBULATUS-METCALF. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



JANUARY, 1916. 



No. i. 



CONTENTS: 



Metcalf The Rediscovery of Membra- 
cis subulata Say, with a Descrip- 
tion of a New Genus ( Homop.).. .. i 

Girault Notes on N. Amer. Mymaridae 
and Trichogrammatidae (Hym.).. 4 

Weiss Additions to Insects of New 
Jersey, No. 3 9 

Hebard Spring Orthoptera found on 
the Islands in the Vicinity of Char- 
lotte Harbor, Florida 14 

Psota A Suction-Pump Collector 22 

Greene A Correction ( Hym. ) 23 

Wright Phycitinae of San Diego, Cal- 
ifornia, and Vicinity, with descrip- 
tions of new Species ( Lep. ) . 24 

Williamson A New Dragonfly Genus 
of the Legion Protoneura (Odon.) 30 

Girault Three new Species of Cocco- 
phagus, Family Encyrtidae ( Hym. ) 33 

Wood Argynnis diana(Lep.) 53 



Wood Accidental Color Variation 
(Lep.) 35 

Editorial Remarks on Labelling 36 

Greene Euparyphus tetraspilus Loew 
(Diptera) 37 

Entomological Literature 37 

Review of Nelson : The Embryology ol 
the Honey Bee 41 

Review of Punnett : Mimicry in Butter- 
flies 43 

Doings of Societies Feldman Collect- 
ing Social (Col., Dip.) 44 

Amer. Ent. Soc. (Lep., Hym., Col., 

Orthop. ) 44 

Newark Ent. Soc. (Lepid., Orthop., 
Homop., Col., Hymen.) 45 

Obituary Prof. Raphael Meldola 46 

Dr. Fred. William Russell.. 47 
Charles Kerremans 

Corrections, etc 48 



The Rediscovery of Membracis subulata Say, with 
a Description of a New Genus (Homop.). 

By Z. P. METCALF, North Carolina Agricultural College and 
Experiment Station, West Raleigh, N. C. 

(Plate I) 

In 1831 Say described Membracis subulata in a paper en- 
titled "Descriptions of New North American lleniipterous In- 
sects Belonging to the First Family of the Section Ilomoptera 
of Latreille." As far as I am aware this species has not been 
seen since. Van Duzee first suggested that it was a species of 
Stictoccphala (Coding's Catalogue of the Memhracidae, page 
410). Later (Studies in North American Mcmbracidae. p. 
50) he accepted Coding's statement on rider's authority that 
this species is but a variety of Say's Atyinna inornate. It was, 
therefore, with a great deal of pleasure that 1 discovered among 
the Homoptera collected last season, a specimen that agreed 
in every way with Say's description save for a fev minor 
points. It is of interest further to note that while the wing 



2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

venation is similar to a Stictocephala, the general shape of the 
insect suggests a Cyrtolobus. I propose, therefore, a new 
genus to include this rare and interesting form. 

STICTOLOBUS new genus. 

Allied by wing venation to the Cerasini near Stictocephala 
Stal. Pronotal hump entirely different, suggesting Cyrtolobus 
Coding. 

Head with median sulcus faint, two rather prominent oval 
callosities either side, between the ocelli ; ocelli about equi- 
distant from each other and eyes ; eyes rather prominent, their 
diameter equalling one-fourth the width between eyes ; head 
with median length only one-half width between eyes, contour 
of cheeks convex, basal contour of head sinuate, disk of face 
vertically rugose. 

Metopidium a little wider than high ; lateral angles short 
triangular directed backward ; a smooth callosity above each 
eye extending from lateral margin about one-third distance of 
the base of the metopodium ; median carina almost obsolete at 
base, becoming stronger posteriorly ; whole metopidium finely 
and uniformly punctured ; pronotum long, not high, highest at 
middle ; base distinctly sinuate, whole surface, save two im- 
punctured lines either side, finely and evenly punctured ; im- 
punctured lines arising above and behind humeral angles ; one 
running along the lateral margin of the pronotum to behind the 
middle ; the other arising about half way between the humeral 
angles and the dorsal carina, curving upward and backward 
and eventually downward in a wide curve to meet the impunc- 
tured line on the lateral margin of the pronotum ; posterior 
process long, subulate, strongly curved downward, equalling 
the abdomen, shorter than the fore wings. 

Legs normal, hind tarsi longest. Fore wings, venation simi- 
lar to Stictocephala Stal. Subcosta marginal unbranched ; 
radius with three branches ; medius with two branches, medius 
i plus 2 and medius 3 plus 4 : medius merging with radius for 
more than half its length, then suddenly divergent and running 
free until it branches ; medius I plus 2 merging with radial sec- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL; NEWS. 

tor through its middle third, then diverging and forming with 
radius 4 plus 5 a triangular stylate terminal cell ; cubitus un- 
branched, connected by two cross veins with medius ; three 
anal veins. Radial cell undivided; cell radius one narrowed 
apically ; first radius three nearly quadrangular ; second radius 
three smaller ; radius five terminal, triangular ; first medial cell 
triangular; second medial cell larger, constricted medially; 
medius two smaller than first radius three ; medius four equal- 
ling first medius in size. In the hind wing, radial vein two- 
branched, radius 4 plus 5 not confluent with medius i plus 2, 
but connected by a short cross vein ; medial vein two-branch- 
ed ; cubital vein unbranched ; cell radius three small, shorter 
than radius five, \vhich is terminal truncate ; other cells about 
as in Stictoccphala. 

Type of the Genus, Membracis snbulata Say. 

Stictolobus subulatus Say. 

General color of pronotum soiled testaceous yellow, more or less 
marked with yellowish ; two impunctured lines either side yellowish ; 
dorsal carina anteriorly yellowish, posteriorly blackish testaceous ; 
callosities yellowish; face reddish; eyes black; mostly yellow beneath 
with legs pale yellowish ; rather closely set everywhere with paler 
hairs; fore wings transparent slightly infumed apically; veins brown- 
ish. 

Female genitalia: last ventral segment deeply, 1>n>;id1y, roundly 
emarginate, pygofers long, slender, slightly exceeded by the ovipositor. 
Length of pronotum, 4.6 mm. Width at humeral horns, 2.0 mm. 
Height from humeral horns, i.i. mm. 

Described from a single female specimen taken at light at 
Raleigh. Early July. Perhaps from oak. Collection of tin- 
Department of Zoology and Entomology of the North Caro- 
lina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, \\\->t KaK-igh. 
N. C. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

All the figures relate to Membracis (Stictolnlnis} subnlata Sav $. 

Fig. i. Lateral view. 

Fig. 2. Dorsal view of the pronotum. 

Fig. 3. Anterior view showing head and metopidium. 

Fig. 4. Fore wing with cells numbered. 

Fig. 5. Hind wing with cells numbered. 

Fig. 6. Last ventral segment and genitalia. 



4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Notes on North American Mymaridae and 
Trichogrammatidae (Hym.). 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Washington, D. C. 

1. Abbella subflava Girault. The following specimens: "Para- 
sites of chinch bug eggs, J. W. McCulloch, Manhattan, Kansas." 
Also, "Reared from jassid eggs, C. N. Ainslie, Elk Point, South 
Dakota, July 25, 1914. Webster No. 11874." 

2. Abbella auriscutellum new species. 

Female. Length, 0.60 mm. Black, the scutellum and postscutellum 
bright golden yellow, also the caudal margin of the scutum narrowly 
(and apparently the median line of the scutum more or less, very 
faintly). Coxae and femora black. Scutum scaly reticulate. Rest of 
legs very pale yellow, including the knees broadly. Antennae dusky 
yellow, the two fuiiicle joints subequal. 

Fore wings with the distinct substigmal spot continued right across 
the wing, the stripe broader and fainter than the spot and often broad- 
ly interrupted caudad of the middle; the wing also infuscated across 
under all of the submarginal vein and part of the base of the mar- 
ginal. Discal ciliation of the fore wing dense, normal, about twenty 
lines where widest, the marginal cilia rather short (about one-sixth 
the greatest wing width). No line of cilia back from the stigmal vein. 
Caudal marginal cilia of hind wings distinctly longer than the longest 
cilia of the fore wing, about twice longer than the average width of 
the blade. Caudal wings with two complete lines of discal cilia cepha- 
lad and one caudad, the latter spaced farther apart in the line. 

Abdomen about as in Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead. Abdo- 
men disto-dorsad suffused with yellowish. Mandibles tridentate, the 
two outer teeth more distinct than the inner. 

Described from six females "reared from eggs of Drae- 
culacephcda mollifies, Tempe, Arizona, May 26, 1914, E. H. 
Gibson, Coll. Webster No. 12, 211." 

Type: Catalogue No. 19182, United States National Mu- 
seum, Washington, D. C., a female on a slide with two 
paratype females and two heads of paratypes. 

3. Oligosita americana Ashmead. Several specimens of both 
sexes reared from jassid eggs, Las Vegas, New Mexico, C. N. 
Ainslie, Webster No. 6089. 

4. Oligosita sanguinea claripes new variety. 

Female. Like the typical form but the legs are white excepting the 
red caudal femora (not all pale brownish as 1 in the other form) and 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. 5 

the caudal tibiae just below the knees dorsad. Also, the scape and 
pedicel and funicle i are white and there is no suffused stripe across 
the wing from the substigmal spot. Compared with paratypes of the 
typical form and with type giraulti. The latter has a silvery band 
across base of the abdomen, at least ventrad. 

Described from one female on a slide labelled "W 5529. 
Secondary parasite of Asphondylia miki on alfalfa seed. Saca- 
ton, Ariz., June 5, 1911. Smyth." 

Type. Catalogue No. 19183, United States National Mu- 
seum, a female on a slide. 

5. Lathromeroides neomexicanus new species. 

Female. Length, i.oo mm. Dusky yellow, the abdomen with three 
to four black cross-stripes, thus like fasciatircntris but the antennae 
and legs are pallid except the distal half of the club (joint 3), proxi- 
mal two-thirds of the pedicel, coxae, femora, most of tibiae and dis- 
tal tar sal joint which are dusky. Exserted valves of the ovipositor 
black. Pedicel elongate. Two-ring joints. 

Described from one female reared from jassid eggs, Las 
Vegas, New Mexico, C. N. Ainslie. Webster No. 6689. 

Type. Catalogue No. 19184, United States National Mu- 
seum. 

The hypopygium is very prominent in this genus. 

6. Trichogramma minutum Riley. The following rearing rec- 
ords : From eggs of Estigmcne acrcae Drury, Dallas, Texas, W. D. 
Pierce. A male from eggs on Cyperus, Lakeland, Florida, G. G. Ains- 
lie. Webster No. 5272 AA. Three females, same locality and collec- 
tor, from eggs of Eudamus proteus. Webster No. 8390. January 6, 
1913. A male, same locality, from egg of Bactra lanccolana, Web- 
ster, No. 5272 T. Two females from alfalfa, Tempe, Arizona. T. S. 
Wilson, August 3, 1913. Webster No. 7222 G. And a female from 
eggs of Anisota scnatoria, College Park, Maryland, August I, 1914. 
N. Kisliuk, A. B. Gahan. Also many specimens, 9-7, 1912, Mitchell- 
ville, Maryland, from eggs of Ceratomia catalpae, A. B. Gahan. 

XENUFENS new genus CHAETOSTRICHINI. 
Female. In my table of genera runs to Japouia but differs 
notably in the structure of the antennae, which are short 
and strongly cap^|^^the club short and enlarged, the funicle 
transverse-sendB ^tlar, both joints much wider than long, 
the pedicel o^WJKalf the size of the club, the one ring- 



,. 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

joint distinct. Moreover, the abdomen is as in Ufcns. The 
venation in poor specimens resembles that of Trichogramma, 
but the stigmal vein is distinctly shorter than the really 
straight marginal, yet well-developed, the oblique hairless 
line from it containing many setae and is complete and more 
or less confused with the discal ciliation which is mostly 
normal. Hind wings with two complete lines of discal cilia 
which are cephalic; a short caudal line under the venation. 
There is one more or less distinct line of discal cilia from 
the apex of the stigmal vein to apex of the wing. Tarsal 
joints not long but distinctly longer than wide. 

7. Xenufens ruskini new species. Genotype. 

Female. Length, 0.45 mm. Jet, the face and vertex yellowish, the 
fore wings slightly infuscatecl out to the end of the venation, the apex 
of the abdomen above and the parapsides, orange yellow. Venation, 
tarsi and antennae dusky yellowish. Fore wing with about fifteen 
lines of discal cilia where broadest. Funicle i longer than 2. Man- 
dibles tridentate. 

Described from eight females reared from the eggs of 
Eudanius protcus, Lakeland, Florida, G. G. Ainslie, Webster 
No. 8390 B., January, 1913. 

Type. Catalogue No. 19185, United States National Mu- 
seum, two females on a slide. Two slides with six para- 
types in the same collection. 

8. Anagrus armatus nigriventris Girault. A female from jassid 
eggs, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 2, 1912, C. N. Ainslie, Web- 
ster No. 8827. 

9. Anaphes perdubius new species. 

Female. Length, 0.65 mm. Agrees in nearly every particular with 
the original description of iole but the thorax is normal, no longer 
than the abdomen and the distal funicle joints are somewhat longer. 

Described from one female on a slide with No. 8, same 
data. 

Type. Catalogue No. 19186, United States National Mu- 
seum, one female on a slide. 

10. Anaphes picinus new species. 

Female. Length, 0.75 mm. Differs from gracilis Howard in having 
the segments of the funicle different thus joint 4 is subquadrate in 



Vol. XXviij ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 7 

gracilis but here distinctly longer than wide, longest or subequal to 6; 
the legs are distinctly darker here and while the discal cilia of the fore 
wing are about the same, here a midlongitudinal line of 3 to 4 
isolated setae runs farther proximad. Also, here, there is a more 
distinct infumated cross-stripe on the fore wing about midway be- 
tween the apex and the venation (much less distinct in gracilis) ; 
otherwise about the same but larger. Differs from cinctivcntris 
Girault in that the latter has hyaline wings (including the hind wings, 
these maculate dusky here), its hind wings bear two lines of discal 
cilia at cephalic margin and one at the caudal (proximad) as in gra- 
cilis but here the two cephalic lines are more separated and the fore 
wings are broader in cinctii'cntrls. Cephalic tibiae, tips of other tibiae 
and the tarsi pallid. Across the widest part of the blade, only about 
four lines of discal cilia. Compared with type of cinctiventris and a 
specimen of gracilis. 

From two females on a slide labelled "No. 5054. Koehler, 
N. Mex. No. cages 3.5 B. H8, F. H. Gates." " 

Types. Catalogue No. 19187, United States National Mu- 
seum, the above specimens with type of the following species 
(on the side nearest the white label). 

11. Anaphes gracilipes new species. 

Female. Length, 0.58 mm. Differs from gracilis in having the 
funicle joints longer, 6 the longest, nearly twice longer than wide, 
the legs are much darker, the discal ciliation of the fore wing all disto- 
cephalad and distad (about three lines, more or less) and there is an 
isolated line of five (5) cilia caudad of middle about as in the preced- 
ing new species (piciiius) ; a line of discal cilia does not go around 
the apex and along the disto-caudal margin as in gracilis; funicles 
2-3 are longer than wide. From cinctivcntris in the maculate hind 
wings, the shorter fore wings and much less discal ciliation in the fore 
wing. From the preceding new species (f>icinus) in the hyaline wings, 
the shorter wings, the different arrangement of the discal ciliation in 
the fore wing and in having funicle 6 longer than 4. Compared with 
the three species in question. 

From one female mounted with the types of picinns, same 
data. 

Type. Catalogue No. 19208, United States National Mu- 
seum. 

Anaphes picinus and c/racilif>cs belong really to Ervtlunclits 
Knock like gracilis and its allies. 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

12. Camptoptera pulla Girault. Two females, Compton, Califor- 
nia. Reared from leaves with Alcyrodes species and Heliothrips fas- 
ciatus. H. M. Russell, collector. 

13. Camptoptera saintpierrei Girault. The type is on a slide in 
the United States National Museum, Catalog No. 19188. The spe- 
cies was described in the Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, III. 

14.. Gonatocerus dolichocerus Ashmead. The fore legs are all 
pale yellow. 

15. Gonatocerus dolichocerus ashmeadi new variety. 

Female. Length, 1.15 mm. The same as the typical form but funicle 
i is longer, somewhat longer than the pedicel, twice longer than wide 
and the legs are all light lemon yellow except the dark hind tibiae 
(hind femora dusky distad in the typical form, rest of legs yellow). 

The male has a very short scape, not twice longer than wide ; pedicel 
a little wider than long; funicle i is shortest, somewhat longer than 
wide, 2 nearly twice longer than wide, subequal to the following, the 
club joint a little shorter, all longitudinally striate. 

Described from three males, one female labelled "No. 965. 
Ooctonus homalodiscae Ashmead, August 14, 1904." The 
host has been published. 

Types. Catalogue No. 19189, United States National Mu- 
seum, the above specimens on a slide. 

16. Polynema striaticorne Girault. Two females, Hagerstown, 
Maryland, July 21, 1912. Webster No. 5967. 

A. Polynema striaticorne boreum new variety. 

Differs from the typical form in having the scape all black, the body 
black not brown-black, funicle i is as long as 4 or 5 (4 longer than i 
in striaticorne, 5 still more so) and the wings are somewhat smaller 
but not greatly (funicles 4-6 increase in length in the typical form but 
here they are subequal). Also, the cephalic femora are wholly black 
(mostly yellow in striaticorne}. Differs from consobrinus in having 
the wing longer and the discal ciliation somewhat finer; also funicle i 
is longer. The species brittanum has shorter wings and the general 
coloration is brown, the cephalic tibiae lighter. 

Described from one female taken by sweeping wheat, De- 
cember 29, 1914. W. 8844, C. N. Ainslie, Elk Point, South 
Dakota. 

Type.' Catalogue No. 19190, United State National Mu- 
seum, the specimen on a slide. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 9 

Additions to Insects of New Jersey, No. 3. 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

According to Mr. Buchholz, the Lencania e.rtincta Gn. 
(Lep.) records in the 1909 list, "Insects of New Jersey," re- 
fer to Leucania linita Gn., which was wrongly identified as 
e.vtincta. Mr. Buchholz further informs me that Leucania 
extinct a is a Southern species and has never been taken in 
New Jersey. This correction was made in my second list 
(Ent. News, June, 1915, p. 261) without the above explana- 
tion. In Dyar's "List of N. A. Lepidoptera," linita Gn., scirpi- 
cola Gn. and amygdalina Harvey are given as synonyms of 
Heliophila (Leucania} e.vtincta Gn. Leucania scirpicola Gn. 
is recorded as a distinct species in my second list by Mr. Buch- 
holz. In Smith's "Check List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal 
America," extinct a Gn. is listed with amygdalina Harv. as a 
synonym. I would appreciate hearing from interested per- 
sons concerning the above confusion and difference of opin- 
ion. 

Ochria sauselitae (Lep.) should be cancelled from my first 
list (Ent. News, March, 1915), as Mr. M. H. Mead informs 
me that the record was based on a misidentification. Papai- 
penia necopina Grt. (Lep.) is mentioned by Smith in his 1909 
list as being sure to occur in New Jersey. In my first list of 
additions it is definitely recorded from Passaic Park by M. H. 
Mead. In my second list, Mr. Buchholz states that necopina 
has never been taken south of Buffalo, New York, and that 
Papaipcma maritima Bird, which he records from Union 
County, New Jersey, should take the place of necopina in the 
1909 list which was wrongly identified. In order to clear up 
the doubt in this matter, it will be necessary for the gentlemen 
in question to compare their specimens. 

To Mr. J. R. de la Torre Bueno, I am indebted for the fol- 
lowing notes and corrections relating to the Heteroptera in 
the 1909 list. Thyreocoris latcralis Fab. equals Thyrcocoris 
gilletteii V. D. and all records under the latter should apply 
to the former. Lygaeus reclivatus Say is a \Yestern form and 
not found in New Jersey. Orsillus scolopa.v Say is still tin- 



IO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

recognized. Cynuis claviculus Fall, is really disc or 's Horn to 
which all records under the former should be referred. 
Heraeus plebejns Stal. is the only species in New Jersey, orbi- 
collis Uhl., being a mss. name and undoubtedly referring to 
the same species. Rcdmnolus pallescens Rent, is a synonym 
of R. sordidus Reut, and all records should be transferred to 
the latter. Barce simplicipes Uhl. is a variety of annulipes 
Stal. 

Mr. Torre Bueno also gives the following species which 
should undoubtedly be found in New Jersey: Blissus hirtns 
Mont. (New York) ; Carpilis ferruginca Stal. (Long Island 
in cranberry bog) ; Lcptoglossits magnoliae Heid. (New York, 
Long Island, Massachusetts) ; Tollius curtulus Fab. (New 
York); Ceraleptus americanus Stal. (Long Island), (to be 
found in sandy places probably at roots of beach bushes) ; 
Garzaphla angnlata Heid. (Eastern States) ; Carthasis deco- 
rata Uhl.; Merragata hebroides B. (Staten Island); Enico- 
cephalns culicis Uhl. and farmicinus Uhl. ; Milyas barberi Ds. ; 
Fitchia spinosula Stal. (Long Island) and Phymata vic'ma 
Handl. (New York). 

Order MALLOPHAGA. 

Docophorus platyrhynchus Nitzsch. From Buteo lincatus. C. H. 
Richardson. 

Order NEUROPTERA. 

Sisyra lampra Navas. Lakehurst, June 28, 1911. Torre-Bueno. 
Hesperoleon placidus Navas. Pt. Pleasant, July 25, Bueno. (Brook. 
Bull. Vol. x, No. 3). 

Order TRICHOPTERA. 

Neuronia pardalis Walker. Lakehurst, June 5, 1909. L. B. Wood- 
ruff. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. 21, p. 163.) 

Oecetina fumosa Bks. Pemberton, June 20. H. B. Scammell. 

Piectrocnemia cinereus Hg. Pemberton, June 24. H. B. Scam- 
mell. 

Order ODONATA. 
Agrion aequabile Say. Great Notch, May 30. W. T. Davis. (Jour. 

N. Y. Soc. Mar., 1913.) 
Lestes uncatus Kirby. Newfoundland, August 4. W. T. Davis. 

(Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1913.) 



Vol. XXVH] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. II 

Enallagma cyathigerum Charpentier (annexum Hagen) Ramsey, 

May 20. (Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1913.) 
Enallagma piscinarium Williamson. Lakehurst, May 29, 1910. 

Woodruff. (Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1913.) 
Enallagma ebrium Hagen. Newfoundland, Lake Hopatcong, July. 

(Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1913.) 
Gomphus abbreviatus Hagen. Greenwood Lake, June 18, 1911. F. 

M. Schott. 
Cordulegaster erroneus Hagen. Bear Swamp, Ramapo Mts., 

August 18, 1910. Chas. E. Slight. (Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 

1913.) 
Lanthus albistylus Hagen. Bear Swamp, Ramapo Mts., June, July. 

C. E. Slight. (Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1913). 
Tetragoneuria spinigera Selys. Newfoundland, May 28, W. T. 

Davis. Greenwood Lake, June 30. Watson. (Jour. N. Y. 

Soc.. Mar., 1913.) 
Williamsonia lintneri Hagen. Paterson, May 4, J. R. Grossbeck. 

(Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc., Vol. 8, p. 93.) 

Order THYSANOPTERA. 
Hoplothrips karnyi Hood. Pemberton, August 29, 1914, on dead 

tree. H. K. Plank. 
Cryptothrips gilvipes Hood. Pemberton, April, 1915. In cocoons 

of Gelechia trialbamaculella. H. B. Scammell. 

Order HOMOPTERA. 

Aphis sorbi Kaltenbach. Throughout the state on apple. T. J. 
Headlee & C. H. Richardson. The rosy apple aphis. (This 
is the form malifoliae of Aphis malt of the 1909 list.) 

Aleyrodes coryli Britton. Norwood, August, on hazel nut. H. B. 
W. 

Aleyrodes packardi Morrill. Westwood, May, 1915, on strawberry. 
G. Kircher. 

Aleyrodes waldeni Britton. Somerville, July, on leaves of Juglans 
sp. H. B. W. 

Chionasois wistariae Cooley. Rutherford, on wistaria. Plants or- 
iginally came from Japan. H. B. W. 

Chrysomphalus perseae Comst. In greenhouses on orchids. H. 
B. W. 

Leucaspis bambusae Kuwana. Riverton, March 16, 1911. On 
bamboo. H. B. W. 

Order HEMIPTERA (HETEROPTERA). 
Aradus shermani Heid. Lakehurst, May 25. Torre-Bueno. 
Drymus crassus V. D. Camden, Torre-Bueno. 

Acantholoma denticulata Stal. Schooleys Mt., May 20. Lutz. (Jour. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. 20, p. 138). 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Order COLEOPTERA. 
Trechus borealis Schaeffer. New Jersey, Nicolay. (Jour. N. Y. 

Soc., Mar., 1915). 

Atheta virginica Brnhv. Vineland, March 10. H. B. W. 
Oxypoda (Sphenoma) obliqua Casey. Vineland, September 14. 

H. B. W. 
Philonthus varians Payk. Franklin Furnace. F. M. Schott. (Jour. 

N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1915). 
Ips caelatus Eichh. Rutherford, May 10, 1915. In shoots of Finns 

mughus. H. B. Weiss. 

Monotoma parallela Lee. Anglesea, March. H. B. Weiss. 
Zenoa picea Beauv. Red Bank, July 4, 1908. Kaeber. (Ent. News, 

Vol. 26, p. 238.) 

Hylecoetus lugubris Say. Coytesville, April 18, 1915. R. P. Dow. 
Dyscinettts (Chalepus) rubra Web. New Egypt, May 21. H. B. 

Scammell. 
Leptura exigua Newm. Hewitt, June 21 on flowers of Cornns 

paniculata. Woodruff. (Jour. N. Y. Soc., Mar., 1915.) 
Sphenophorus solitaris, Whitesbog, July 16. H. B. Scammell. 

Order LEPIDOPTERA. 
Pachnobia salicarum Walker. Passaic Park, April, 1914. M. H. 

Mead. 
Xylomiges dolosa Grote. Passaic Park, April 24, 1914. M. H. 

Mead. 
Euharveva carbonaria Harvey. Passaic Park, April 7, 1914. At 

light. M. H. Mead. 
Catocala innubens Gn. var. hinda French. Passaic Park. M. H. 

Mead. 
Notolphus antiqua Linn. Rutherford, on roses in nursery. H. B. 

Weiss. 
Tornos scolopacinarius Gn. Irvington, August 15, 1914. F. Lem- 

mer. 
Sesia rhododendri Beutm. Somerville, August, 1914. Larva in 

rhododendron stem. H. B. Weiss. 
Diathrausta daeckealis Haimbach. Browns Mills Jc., June 22, 

1907. E. Daecke. (Ent. News, Vol. 26, No. 7.) 
Evetria buoliana Schiff. Somerville (U. S. Bur. Ent. Bull. 170). 

Rutherford, May 12, 1915. In Pinus mughus. H. B. Weiss. 

The European pine shoot moth. 
Epagoge lycopodiana Kearf. Pemberton, August 25, September 

23, October 7, sweeping cranberry bog. H. B. Scammell & 

H. K. Plank. 
Zelleria haimbachi Busck. Wenonah. Bred from short needle pine. 

F. Haimbach. (Proc. Wash. Soc., June, 1915.) 



Vol. XXVl'i] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 13 

Dichomeris vacciniella Busck. Pemberton. Bred from cranberry. 

H. B. Scammell. (Proc. Wash. Soc., June, 1915.) 
Symmoca novimundi Busck. Montclair. W. D. Kearfott. (Proc. 

Wash. Soc., June, 1915.) 
Stenoma algidella Wlk. Whitesbog, May 20, 1914. Adult resting 

on cranberry vine. H. B. Scammell. 
Coleophora limosipennella Dtip. Hackensack, summer of 1914. 

H. B. Weiss. Case bearer on elm. 
Coleophora laricella Hbn. Rutherford, on larch. H. B. Weiss. 

The larch case bearer. 
Anaphora busckella Haimbach. Jamesburg, July 4. Haimbach. 

(Ent. News, Vol. 2G, No. 7.) 
Urophora tephrosinella Dyar. Woodbine, Sept. 20, 1914. Larvae 

in seed pods of sand vetch (Cracca virginiana). H. B. Weiss. 

Order H YMENOPTERA. 

Kaliosysphinga ulmi Lund. Westfield, summer of 1914. H. B. 

Weiss. Leaf miner of elm. 
Rhodites mayeri Schl. New Brunswick, J. B. Smith (Bt.) (Bull. 

Brook. Soc., Dec., 1914.) 
Stigmus conestogorum Roll. New Brunswick, mid-summer. C. H. 

Richardson. 
Oxylabis bifoveolatus Brues. Snake Hill. (Canad. Ent., April, 

1904.) 
Itoplectis conquisitor Say. Browns Mills, Sept. 24, 1914. Bred 

from Peronea minuta Rob. H. B. Scammell. 

Order DIPTERA. 

Prosimulium notatum Mall. Pemberton, April 22. H. B. Scam- 
mell. 

Proctacanthus nigriventris Macquart. New Jersey, H. S. Harbeck. 
(Annals. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 4, No. 2.) 

Aphiochaeta iroquiana Mall. Pasadena, October 2, 6, 7. Bred 
from grasshopper. H. K. Plank. 

Pipiza albopilosa Will. Palisades, May 10. Osburn. (Jour. N. Y. 
Soc., vol. 22, p. 336.) 

Leptocera palliceps Johnson. Clementon, May 12, 1899. (Psyche, 
vol. 22, p. 22). 

Phytomyza aquifolii Gour. Rutherford. Leaf miner in English 
holly. Has also been taken on holly imported from Hol- 
land. H. B. Weiss. 

Monarthropalpus buxi Lab. Peapack, July, 1914. Boxwood leaf 
miner. 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Spring Orthoptera found on the Islands in the Vicinity 
of Charlotte Harbor, Florida. 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

In May, 1915, the author was able to investigate a number 
of localities in this region 1 . The work covered only a brief 
period, but in that time the various environmental conditions 
of these islands were, in several cases, thoroughly investi- 
gated. The material, 216 specimens, representing forty-five 
species, is in the collection of the author. 

HAMMOCK. 

Scarcely any "hammock" jungle condition was to be found 
on these islands. One small area, however, on the north end 
of Captiva Island was examined, where, in the heavy scrub, 
occasional gumbo limbo (Bitrscra simamba} and other of the 
typical trees of this environment were found. Scarcely any 
Orthoptera were obtainable, probably due mainly to the dilute 
condition of this element, the surrounding groves of cabbage 
palmetto (Sabal palmetto} proving almost wholly unproduc- 
tive and nearby extensive sandy stretches of short grass 
revealing only a few of the more ubiquitous forms. On one 
tree (E.rothea paniculata}, scarce in this hammock growth, a 
single specimen of Oligacanthopus prograpius was found, while 
from nearby bushes a specimen of Cryptoptilum trigonipalpum 
and of Cyrto.vipha gundlachi was beaten. 

LIVE OAK GROVES. 

Useppa Island is in part considerably elevated and on this 
ridge are found numerous live oaks (Oucrcus virginiana} and 
cabbage palmettoes (Sabal palmetto}. This area is compar- 
able with the oak groves on the borders of the hammock at 
Miami. Few Orthoptera, and only well known species, were 
found during the day, but at night Pyrgocorypha iincinata was 
to be heard everywhere in the tops of the palmettoes and 

1 See J. W. Harshberger for map of this region with particular 
reference to botanical conditions. Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci., 
Phila., xii (1915.) 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 15 

occasionally in other trees and bushes, while on the ground 
Hapithus agitator quadratns was found and in a wild grape 
vine a single specimen of Tafalisca hirida. This locality in the 
autumn would be far more productive, as indicated by the 
numerous immature examples of various species of Orthoptera 
present in May. 

PINE WOODS. 

On Pine Island, a large flat area of pine woods (Piiuts cari- 
baea), with low undergrowth, the dominant plants of which 
are saw palmetto (Serenoa scrnilata) and wire grasses (Aris- 
tida sp-), was twice visited. In this area the Orthoptera were 
found to be very similar to those found in the pine woods 
(Finns caribaca) about Miami, Florida. Of the species found 
here, however, Macneillia obscnra was present in greater num- 
bers, and was more general in distribution than at any locality 
we have previously visited. The presence of Gymnoscirtetes 
pusillus and Falcicnla licbardi, not known previously from 
Southern Florida, is of particular interest in showing the 
incursion of a more northern influence than is found at Miami, 
at this locality, situated very near the extreme southern boun- 
dary of the distribution of the long-leaf pine (Finns pahts- 
Iris) . 

MANGROVE SWAMPS. 

Large areas of black mangrove (Aiiccnnia nitida} were 
examined without success, both on Useppa and Pine Islands. 
In brief areas of red mangrove (Rhisophora manf/lc], border- 
ing Useppa Island and forming the dense covering of several 
small adjacent islands, nothing was found, though at the 
former locality a small colony of Orocharis gryllodes and 
occasional individuals of Pyrgocorypha nncinata were to be 
heard every night. 

SALT MARSH KS. 

No salt marshes were to be found on the borders of tlu- 
islands visited. Such areas have, in the spring, proven almost 
wholly unproductive of Orthoptera in southern Florida. 



l6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

SEA BEACHES. 

As on Biscayne Bay, sandy beaches were found on the 
seaward margins of the outer islands. On these Trimero- 
tropis acta was locally not scarce, and back of these on the 
sand Scirtctica mannorata picta was local and few in numbers, 
much as on Biscayne Bay. 



The following list cannot be considered in any way complete 
for the forms present in this region in the spring 1 , but will 
serve to indicate the majority of the species to be found on 
these islands at this time. 

BLATTIDAE. 

Ischnoptera uhleriana fulvescens Saussure and Zehntner. Useppa 
Id., Fla., V, 17, 1915 (H.), 1 juv. $. 

Eurycotis floridana (Walker). Useppa Id., Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; 
on ground in heavy tangle after dark), 1 2. 

MANTIDAE. 

Stagmomantis Carolina (Johannson). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., 
V, 18, 1915 (H.), 1 very small juv. $. 

PHASMIDAE. 

Manomera tenuescens (Scudder). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
20, 1915 (H.; rank vegetation near sand dunes), 1 $, 1 juv. $. 

Manomera brachypyga Rehn and Hebard. Pineland, Pine Id., 
Fla., V, 18 and 20, 1915 (H.; occasional in undergrowth of pine 
woods, locally moderately numerous in low bayberry bushes 
(Myrica ccrifcra)), 12 $ , 6$, 4 juv. $, I juv. $. 

This series and the specimens of M. tenuescens are of par- 
ticular interest, taken with other material before us, in prov- 
ing that the proportions of the abdominal segments, which 
so readily separate adults of the two species, are of equal 
value in separating immature examples in the later instars. 
Moreover, the material shows that, in the immature condition, 
the males of both species have straight, delicate in structure 
and pilose cerci. All of the immature specimens in the present 
series are in the instar preceding maturity. 

In the present series of adults the extremes of length are : 
males, 66.3 to 74.8; females, 82.2 to 92.8 mm. The males 
average much smaller than the typical males from Homestead, 
Fla. (87.4 to 88.5 mm.), but appreciably larger than a male 
from San Pablo, Fla. (69.6 mm.). 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. I/ 

ACRIDIDAE. 

Nomotettix cristatus floridensis Hancock. Pineland, Pine Id., 
Fla., V, 18, 1915 (H.; juv. very scarce in undergrowth of pine 
woods), 1 juv. $. 

Neotettix femoratus (Scudder). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 
and 20, 1915 (H.; occasional in undergrowth of pine woods), 
75,59. 

Neotettix bolteri Hancock. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 
20, 1915 (H.; undergrowth of pine woods), 1 $ , 1 9. 

Radinotatum brevipenne peninsulare Rehn and Hebard. Pine- 
land, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 20, 1915 (H.; moderately numerous 
in undergrowth of pine woods), 11 $,9 9. 

Mermiria intertexta Scudder. Useppa Id., Fla., V, 17, 1915 (H.; 
grasses on shore), 1 juv. 9. 

Macneillia ( 2 ) obscura (Scudder). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18 and 20, 1915 (H.), 36 $ , 19 9. 

This insect, usually so rare and local, was found in small 
numbers everywhere throughout the undergrowth of the pine 
woods and the large series taken was easily secured. Though 
individuals in this series are not as highly colored as is often 
the case, the females particularly exhibit a great variety of 
coloration. Of the entire series but two females are marked 
with green, this color phase rarely developing in the present 
species. 

Amblytropidia occidentalis (Saussure). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., 
V, 18, 1915 (H.; undergrowth of pine woods), 1 9. Captiva Id. at 
Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; in hammock), 1 $. 

Orphulella pelidna (Burmeister). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18 and 20, 1915 (H.), 2 $, 1 9. Captiva Id. at Captiva Pass, Fla., 
V, 19, 1915 (H.; common in short grass areas), 2 $ , 1 9. 

2 Caudell, adhering strictly to a one letter rule, has recently at- 
tempted (Proc. U. S. N. M., xlix, p. 28 (1915.)), to resurrect Mc- 
Neill's Pedeticum for this genus, preoccupied by Pcdcticus of Laportc, 
and for this reason renamed Afacncillia by Scudder. Caudell's acti< >n 
is unwarranted and if consistently followed would cause endless con- 
fusion. The matter has long been settled by Mammalogists and Orni- 
thologists, the one letter rule being suppressed unless indicating dif- 
ferent word derivations. At a time when the first glimmering of hope 
for nomenclatural stability, at least in certain groups, is beginning 
to dawn, we strongly object to changes of well-known nanu-s where the 
validity of such a change is either everywhere debatable or consid- 
cn-<l utterly incorrect by all but a very few. 



iS ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Arphia granulata Saussure. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla. (H.; scarce 

in undergrowth of pine woods), 3 $,2 9. 

Chortophaga australior Rehn and Hebard, La Costa Id. at Boca 
Grande Pass, Fla., V, 18, 1915 (H.; low grasses near strand), 1 $ , 
1 brown juv. 9. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18, 1915 (H.; low 
grasses in field), 1 9. Captiva Id. at Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 
1915 (H.; few juv. in areas of short grass), 1 green juv. ?. 

Scirtetica marmorata picta (Scudder). South Boca Grand, Gas- 
parilla Id., Fla., V, 18, 1915 (H.; sand grasses on shoreward border 
of beach), 1 $. La Costa Id. at Boca Grande Pass, Fla., V, 18, 
1915 (H.; sand grasses near strand), 4^,39. La Costa Id. at 
Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 20, 1915 (H.; near strand), 2 $, I juv. 9. 
Captiva Id. at Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; on strand), 2 $ . 

One male from La Costa Island at Captiva Pass is excep- 
tionally pale, being drab in general coloration, with char- 
acteristic dark markings weak and greatly reduced. 

Psinidia fenestralis (Serville). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla.. V. 20, 
1915 (H.; sandy area near dunes), 1 juv. 9. Captiva Id. at Cap- 
tiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; sandy area of short grass), 1 9. 

Trimerotropis acta Hebard. South Boca Grande, Gasparilla Id., 
Fla., V, 18, 1915 (H.; numerous on broad sandy area, about sand 
grass and a local fleshy-leaved beach plant, Sesuvium portnlacastruin), 
8 $, 9 9,3 juv. 9- La Costa Id. at Boca Grande Pass, Fla., V. 18, 
1915 (H. ; few in much restricted area like the above), 3 5,3 9.1 
juv. $, i juv. 9. La Costa Id. at Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 20, 1915, (H.; 
in small numbers on strand, particularly about a beach plant, Sesu- 
vium porhtlacastrum) , 5 5,39,1 juv. $, I small juv. 9. 

The present series is in every way typical, but one female 
from South Boca Grande has the tegmina unusually suffused 
(army brown marked with bone brown) ; the characteristic 
weak darker markings of the species are, however, as distinct 
as is usual. 

Series from different beaches of slightly different shades of 
color show an average correspondingly slight difference in 
general coloration ; the whitish suffusion, characteristic of the 
species, however, remaining the same. Thus, in the present 
series, those from South Boca Grande show weak cinnamon 
browns (light pinkish cinnamon to wood brown) ; from La 
Costa Island at Boca Grande Pass, weak ochraceous browns 
(light ochraceous buff to weak sayal brown), and from La 
Costa Island at Captiva Pass, drabs (pale drab gray to avel- 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 9 

laneous). The wing coloration and width of band are as in 
the typical series. 

Romalea microptera (Beauvois). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 
and 20, 1915 (H.), 1 juv. $. 

Schistocerca serialis (Thunberg). 

Schistoccrca amcricana of authors. 

Useppa Id., Fla., V, 17 to 19, 1915 (H. ; moderately numerous in 
scrub), 2 $ , i 9. 

Schistocerca damnifica calidior Rehn and Hebard. Pineland, 
Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 20, 1915 (H.; scarce in undergrowth of 
pine woods), 3 $. 

Gymnoscirtetes pusillus Scudder. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18 and 20, 1915 (H.; few small colonies of juv. in undergrowth of 
pine woods), 1 juv. $, 2 juv. 9. 

The southernmost previously known record for this species 
was Lakeland, Fla. 

Eotettix signatus Scudder. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18, 1915 
(H.; damp spot in undergrowth of pine woods), 1 very small juv. 9. 

Melanoplus puer Scudder. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 
20, 1915 (H.; widely distributed through undergrowth of pine 
woods, but never in colonies), 15 $, 11 9,3 juv. 9, 1 very small 
juv. 9. 

This series averages about the size of the smallest indi- 
viduals in the large series before us from Miami, Fla. ; dis- 
tinctly larger than material from Lakeland, Fla. The increase 
southward in size of the present species is very rapid, the 
dissimilarity of the extremes remarkable. 

Paroxya clavuligera (Serville). 

Paroxya floridana of authors. 

Useppa Id., Fla., V, 17, 1915 (H. ; juv. occasional in low vegeta- 
tion of red mangrove swamp), i juv. 9. 

Aptenopedes sphenarioides clara Rehn. Useppa Id., V, 17, 1915 
(H.; juv. occasional in low vegetation of red mangrove swamp), 
1 juv. $. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 20, 1915 (H.; only one 
adult seen, juv. numerous in undergrowth of pine woods), 1 $ , 

1 juv. 9. 

Aptenopedes aptera Scudder. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 
and 20, 1915 (H.; only two adults seen, juv. numerous in under- 
growth of pihe woods), 2 $. 

TETTIGONIIDAE. 

Arethaea phalangium (Scudder). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18 and 20, 1915 (H.; very scarce in undergrowth of pine woods), 

2 $, 1 9. 



2O ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

The capture of adults of this rare and striking species in 
May, adds to the weight of the opinion we have held, that 
the species appears in greatest numbers considerably earlier 
than do the majority of the species of this family and that by 
August only occasional survivors are to be found, over all 
or the greater portion of the insect's distribution. 

Scudderia texensis Saussure and Pictet. Pineland, Pine Id., 
Fla., V, 20, 1915 (H.; undergrowth of pine woods), 1 9, 1 juv. 9. 

Amblycorypha floridana floridana Rehn and Hebard. Pineland, 
Pine Id., Fla., V, 20, 1915 (H.; in tangle of rich vegetation near 
dunes), 1 $. 

Belocephalus sabalis Davis. Pineland. Pine Id., V, 17 and 20, 
1915 (H.; juv. in moderate numbers in undergrowth of pine 
woods), 1 juv. $, 4 juv. 9. 

Two of the immature females are being bred. They are 
active only at night and are thriving on various green vegetable 
matter, lettuce appearing to be most relished. The growth 
of the species is exceedingly slow. 

Pyrgocorypha uncinata Harris. Useppa Id., Fla., V, 19 and 20, 
1915 (H.), 4 $. 

This species was heard everywhere after dark on Useppa 
Island, singing in the tops of cabbage palmettoes (Sabal 
palmetto}, where the insects were usually located in the berry 
clusters. A few were also to be heard in bushes, in the under- 
growth^ of the heavier tangles and in mangroves on the edge 
of the swamp. 

The song is very loud, the notes rapid, rhythmic and some- 
what metallic in timbre, dsit-zit-zit-zit-zit-zlt-zit-dziit-zit-zit-zit, 
these sounds produced at a rate of twenty-two to five seconds. 
While singing, the males were very wary when approached, 
usually ceasing their song even at a distance of fifteen or more 
feet. Locating the individual was, however, alone difficult, as 
the insect was found to be slow in its movements, clinging 
tenaciously to its support and easily seized if approached 
cautiously. 

Conocephalus gracillimus (Morse). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18, 1915 (H.; very scarce in undergrowth on edge of pine woods), 
19,1 juv. $. 

Odontoxiphidium apterum Morse. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18 and 20, 1915 (H.; adults very scarce, juv. numerous in under- 
growth of pine woods), 2 $ , 1 9,2 juv. $, 3 juv. 9. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 21 

Atlanticus glaber Rehn and Hebard. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 
18, 1915 (H.; in undergrowth of pine woods, found occasionally 
on first visit but none seen on the second), 1 $,5 $. 

GRYLLIDAE. 

Ellipes minuta (Scudder). Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 20, 1915 
(H.), 13,3 juv. 

Cryptoptilum trigonipalpum Rehn and Hebard. Captiva Id. at 
Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; beaten from bayberry 
(Myrica cerifera), in hammock), I juv. $. 

Oligacanthopus prograptus Rehn and Hebard. Captiva Id. at 
Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; under bark of tree (Exothca 
paniculata), in hammock), i juv. Q. 

This extraordinary species was previously known only from 
the type locality, Miami, Fla. 

Nemobius ambitiosus Scudder. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 
and 20, 1915 (H.; common in undergrowth of pine woods), 1 $, 
3 $. 

Gryllus assimilis Fabricius. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 20, 1915 
(H.; common in pile of decaying grapefruit), 1 ? . 

This specimen is a strongly marked individual of the 
scuddcrianus variant. 

Falcicula hebardi Rehn. Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 20, 
1915 (H.; undergrowth of pine woods), 1 $, 1 $. 

This species was previously not known in Florida south of 
Gainesville. 

Cyrtoxipha gundlachi Saussure. Captiva Id. at Captiva Pass, 
Fla., V, 19, 1915 (H.; beaten from bayberry (Myrica cerifcra), in 
hammock), I juv. $ . 

Hapithus agitator quadratus Scudder. Useppa Id., Fla., V, 19, 
1915 (H.; low vegetation on ground under oaks, heard occasionally 
after dark), 1 $. Captiva Id. at Captiva Pass, Fla., V, 19, 1915 
(H.; beaten, in hammock), 1 juv. $ . 

Orocharis gryllodes (Pallas). 

Orocharis sanlcyi of authors. 

Pineland, Pine Id., Fla., V, 18 and 20, 1915 (H.; juv. not scarce 
in undergrowth of pine woods), 2 very small juv. 

The species was heard, but not taken, on Useppa Island. 

Tafalisca lurida Walker. Useppa Id., Fla., V, 19, 1915 (II.: 
feeding on wild grape flowers on vine, after dark), 1 juv. $. 

This is a large immature specimen (length 21.4 mm.) ; the 
tegminal and wing pads are, however, very short, (length of 
wing pad 2.9 mm.). 



22 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[Jan., i6 



A Suction-Pump Collector. 

By FRANK J. PSOTA, Chicago, Illinois. 

Up to the present time I have not been able to find any 
convenient apparatus for collecting small specimens of Cole- 
optera without harming them. It is true there are many 
devices for this purpose, but these are complicated and clumsy 
in design. I hope that the introduction of the simple contri- 




Two longitudinal sections through suction-pump collector and (to the right, above) a 
cross-section through the same above the middle, looking upward. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 23 

vance here presented will do away with most such difficulties 
coleopterists experience. After the collector becomes ac- 
quainted with the apparatus, it will render itself indispensable 
to him. As everyone knows, collecting small Coleoptera is a 
difficult task because most of them are swift runners. Many 
rare specimens are lost for this reason, and even if captured 
are often injured. This suction-pump collector is especially 
adapted for class studies, because it is easily carried in the 
vest pocket and because it enables one to observe the speci- 
mens at the time of capture. 

The apparatus is shown in the accompanying figures : A is a 
cork with center hole ; B, a glass tube four inches long, one 
and one-eighth of an inch in diameter, and one-eighth of an 
inch thick ; C, cork of type similar to A; D, glass tubing bent in 
S-shape; this curve is very important because it destroys a 
straight path for insects and dust ; H, glass tubing one-fourth 
of an inch in diameter with enlarged edges on both sides of 
the cork ; F, rubber tubing which is of the desired length, 
(usually 20 to 30 inches), with mouthpiece on one end, the 
other is slipped over the glass near the cork ; G, short piece 
of rubber tubing which prevents the glass tube from breaking 
wheri insects are collected on or around solid objects and in 
crevices ; H, silk netting which is stretched over the end of the 
tube and tied with thread sealed with wax in order to prevent 
it from fraying; this netting prevents the entrance of dust 
particles into the 1 tube. 

The end of the rubber tube G is placed near the objects 
desired, such as small beetles, shells, or any small specimens, 
which are then drawn into the main chamber through the glass 
tube D, by the suction which is created by a sharp inhalation 
at the end of the rubber tube F. 

Specimens in the main chamber can be emptied into a 
cyanide jar by removing the bottom cork C, which is only 
partly pushed into the tube for about one-third of its length. 



A Correction (Hym.). 

Both specimens of Mutilla slossoncie Fox mentioned by me, F.nt. 
News, xxvi, p. 37, January, 1915, are males. GEO. M. GREENE, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Phycitinae of San Diego, California, and Vicinity, 

with Descriptions of new Species (Lep.) 

By W. S. WRIGHT, San Diego, Cal. 

San Diego lies in the extreme southwestern corner of the 
great "Southwest," which Mr. Hulst thought should produce 
many species of Phycits. That his ground was well taken is 
proven beyond a doubt by the many discoveries of recent 
years. In this paper I do not presume to have given all the 
species of this locality, as the field has as yet been but poorly 
covered, and there is little doubt but that as more careful and 
complete collections are made many new species will be added. 
Most of the species listed here were taken in the immediate 
neighborhood of San Diego, those taken elsewhere are noted 
in the text. La Puerta, which has produced some very inter- 
esting forms, is a small valley about one hundred miles from 
the coast on the edge of the desert, and it is rather to be 
expected that the fauna of that region will partake somewhat 
of the character of the Arizona fauna, lying, as it does, on 
the opposite side of the same desert. Also our proximity to 
the Mexican border is sure to discover many Mexican forms. 
Both of these facts suggest future studies when more exten- 
sive collections have been made. 

This paper lists thirty-six species, two of which are described 
as new. No attempt is made to make the sequence logical, 
but it is hoped that the list, together with the notes, will be 
of interest to many who may be interested in this particular 
group. 

In the preparation of the paper I have had access to the 
rather extensive collection of Mr. George Field, whose tireless 
work in gathering as complete a local collection as possible is 
commendable ; in fact many of the species here named are not 
in my own collection at all. I also acknowledge help from Dr. 
Harrison G. Dyar. 

1. Myelois puertella Dyar. One specimen, a cotype, Coll. Geo. 
H. Field, La Puerta, Cal., July. Type in National Museum. A 
very pretty and well marked species. 

2. M. culinginoidella Dyar. Flies abundantly during June, July 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2$ 

and August. It frequents the low scrub oaks that are so plentiful 
in the canyons near the coast. It might easily be confused with 
Alpheias denticulalis Barnes and McDunnough as it has the same gen- 
eral color and habit; it is easily distinguished, however, in a large 
series. 

3. M. alatella Hulst. Seven specimens in my cabinet. Six of 
these were taken in March and one, an exceptionally dark and 
well marked specimen, is labeled "Febr. 13." I do not find any 
note of this occurrence nor do I recall the circumstance, but it was 
probably captured, like all the rest, at light. 

4. Tacoma submedianella Dyar. One specimen, a cotype, from 
La Puerta, Cal. The specimen is considerably worn but easily 
recognizable. It has the characteristic desert appearance. Taken 
at light in July. Type in National Museum. 

5. Salebria yumaella Dyar. One specimen, Coll. Geo. H. Field, 
Jacumba (on the edge of the desert about ninety miles east from 
San Diego and near the Mexican border). The species is a de- 
cidedly interesting one. Type in National Museum. 

6. S. ochripunctella Dyar. Four specimens, San Diego, October 
and November. A sombre-hued species that is conspicuous only 
for the ochre-colored dot that suggests its name. Types in Na- 
tional Museum. 

7. Pasadena constantella Hulst. Four specimens collected at 
La Puerta in July. This seems to be a distinctly desert species. 

8. Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller. Two specimens labeled Oc- 
tober, 1907. San Diego, Cal. An interesting little species appar- 
ently quite local in habit. These four specimens are the only ones 
taken in ten years' collecting. 

9. Epischnia boisduvaliella Guenee. Five specimens, San Diego, 
February to May. A beautiful, not very common species. A single 
specimen stood in my cabinet for several years and the other four 
were but recent captures. 

10. Megasis edwardsalis Hulst. Eight specimens taken at light 
in January. 

This is one of the largest species taken here. Its flight is 
limited to a few weeks, probably not more than three or four. 
It is quite variable as to expanse and color. Some specimens 
are light gray and others appear to be almost black. The 
ordinary marks are all very indistinct. 

11. Hypochalcia truncatella n. sp. 
Venation, typical. Expanse, 23 to 25 mm. 

Primaries broad, termen rather squarish. Reddish ochreous at base 
of wing and in the outer field. Median area ochreous with a heavy 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

sprinkling of black scales. Pale ochreous streaks on vein i, the me- 
dian, and a broader streak on the costa, all dusted with black scales. 
Basal line distinct, pale ochreous, remote, perpendicular to inner mar- 
gin, broadly toothed inwardly on vein I and on the median, a dark 
streak on the costa and a blackish spot on the angle of the tooth. 
Outer line concolorous, distinct, parallel to outer margin, subcrenu- 
late, rather distant from margin, inwardly bordered by a narrow dark 
line more prominent on the costa. Terminal space gray, more or less 
suffused with reddish ochreous. Terminal line black. Blackish streak 
at apex. Discal dots distinct. 

Hind wings fuscous, darker on outer margin and at the apex. 

Fringes lustrous, concolorous with the wings. 

Thorax reddish ochreous, palpi fuscous, darker at the tip. Abdo- 
men gray and more or less distinctly annulate with lighter color. 

Cotypes, 3 males, one of which is in Coll. Geo. H. Field, and 
two in my own. The right wings of one specimen are 
mounted in balsam as a microscopic slide and bear the number 

"12." 

In general appearance the species is close to Lipographis 
leoninclla, but may be distinguished by its broader wings and 
the squarish termen. The species seems to be not common, 
these three specimens being the total catch of two collectors 
in ten years. 

12. Lipographis leoninella Packard. 

Some years ago the late Mr. Frank Merrick labeled two 
specimens for me, one as L. leoninella, and the other as L. 
humilis. They stood thus in my cabinet until recently when 
I was led to make a close study of a series consisting of about 
50 specimens. The result of this study has convinced me 
that humilis does not occur in San Diego. Leoninella is so 
plentiful that at times it becomes a nuisance, fairly clogging 
the traps. I have often taken as high as 60 specimens in a 
trap in a single night. 

13. Etiella schisticolor Zeller. I have but one specimen of this 
fine species taken at Witch Creek, in the mountains, about forty 
miles back from the coast. 

14. Sarata umbrella Dyar. I have two specimens, cotypes, 
neither in very good condition, and Mr. Field has three fine speci- 
mens in his collection. Thes five, with the two types in the 
National Museum, are all that have been captured in this .vicinity 
to date. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2? 

The species flies only near the shore of the ocean and the 
larvae probably live on some of the "salt grasses" growing in 
the swampy places. It is an interesting species and quite con- 
spicuous owing to the depth of color deep reddish ochre 
with shades approaching white. 

15. Melitaria fernaldalis Hulst (?). A single specimen in the 
collection of Geo. H. Field, San Diego, October. 

I have never seen another specimen of this species. It is 
quite large and rather inconspicuously marked. This particu- 
lar specimen looks much like the darker specimens of M. 
edzvardsalis. 

16. Yosemitia graciella Ilulst. Three specimens in the collection 
of Geo. H. Field, La Puerta, Cal., July. A fine species and has 
the typical desert appearance. 

17. Yosemitia maculicula Dyar. Four specimens in the collec- 
tion of Geo. H. Field, one a cotype. March and June, San Diego. 
Seven specimens in my own collection. A rather neat little species. 
The earlier captures seem to be somewhat darker in color. 

18. Euzophora aeglaeella Rag. Mr. Field has one fine specimen 
of this very interesting species which seems to be quite rare in 
this locality. 

19. Euzophora fuscomaculella n. sp. 
Venation typical. 

Antennae but slightly bent above the base, lamellated tufts in the 
bend more or less appressed, beyond ciliate, outer one-third slightly 
setose on both sides. 

Palpi. Labial palpi ascending, slender, scarcely exceeding the head, 
third member half the second, dark fuscous, white annulus at second 
joint. Maxillary palpi distinct, rather heavily scale-tufted at the tip. 

Primaries. Expanse, 28 mm., light gray, well sprinkled with fus- 
cous scales on the disk and outer third, dusted with black scales on 
outer costal region, washed with fuscous along the inner margin, 
nearly straight on the costa, a large irregular dark fuscous spot near 
the base. Basal line moderately remote, white, a rather deep sinus out- 
wardly near the middle, strongly bent inwardly on the median, nar- 
rowly margined with fuscous inwardly below, and a broad dark fus- 
cous spot costally on the outer side. Outer line pale, indistinct, a sharp 
tooth inward on the subcostal vein, wavy dentate below. Discal spots 
coalescing to form a dark lunule, the lower limb extending towards 
the outer angle and becoming lost in a pale fuscous shade; a whitish 
streak in the middle field just above the discal fold. A terminal row 
of blackish dots. 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Secondaries. Shiny white, semi-transparent, immaculate save at the 
apex. 

Beneath, primaries pale fuscous gray; secondaries as above. 
Abdomen tufted, annulate with white at the joints. 

Described from two males in my own collection. Taken at 
light, May, 1909, San Diego, Cal. 

The species is quite different from anything I have ever 
seen, and since these are the only specimens I have taken in 
some ten year's collecting in this locality, I conclude that it 
is quite rare. 

20. Vitula edwardsii Packard. Mr. Field has one specimen bear- 
ing this label; the condition of the specimen makes it quite impos- 
sible to tell whether it is correctly named without good compara- 
tive material, which is not at hand. 

21. Vitula serratilineella Rag. Two specimens which I take to 
be this species were captured at light in June. A third specimen 
gave up its wings for a slide. 

22. Heterographis morrisonella Rag. Two specimens from La 
Puerta collected by Mr. Field in July. A third specimen bearing 
a San Diego date label was identified for me some years ago by 
the late Mr. Frank Merrick. Its rubbed condition, however, makes 
it doubtful. It is kept here for the present and hopes for future 
captures still linger. 

23. Hulstia undulatella Clem. Eleven specimens of this pretty 
little species grace my cabinet. It is awing from April to October 
and scarcely a night passes that the traps do not entertain at least 
one as a guest. 

24. Honora dotella Dyar. I believe the types of this species are 
in the National Museum. My first capture was near the seashore 
among the dunes; later I took several specimens some miles back 
in the hills. March and July. 

25. Homeosoma striatellum Dyar. Mr. Field's collection, San 
Diego, March. 

26. Homeosoma mucidellum Rag. Something like Lipographis 
leoninclla as to numbers and a nuisance in the traps. I have thrown 
away enough good specimens to stock several museums and still have 
a large drawer full. 

27. Ephestiodes gilvescentella Rag. Five specimens which were 
compared with a specimen in Mr. Field's collection that was named 
by Dr. Dyar. My specimens were collected at La Puerta by Mr. 
Frank Stephens and as far as I can see they are identical with H. 
nigrclla except in alar expanse, which might be easily due to the desert 
conditions. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2Q 

2S. Ephestiodes nigrella Hulst. This is a very common species 
near the coast and is awing most of the year. 

29. Ephestia nigrella Hulst. The only specimen I have ever seen 
is one from La Puerta belonging to Mr. Field. Date of capture, 

Jly. 

30. Zophodia stigmatella Dyar. Many specimens from San 
Diego. A cotype is in Mr. Field's collection. Types in the Na- 
tional Museum. 

At first glance one might easily take this to be Yosanitia 
inaculicula Dyar ; the outer third of the costa, however, is 
less arched and the spots are more distinctly separate. 

31. Zophodia fieldiella Dyar. Types in the National Museum. 
One cotype in Mr. Field's collection. 

A fairly well marked species, but may be easily confused 
with Yosemitia graciclla Hulst. It is smaller, however, and 
the dark discal streak is curved downward, also there is some- 
what more whitish. La Puerta, Cal., July. 

32. Eurythmia lignidorsella Rag. Have fourteen specimens 
which I take to he this species. 

33. Valdivia mirabellicornella Dyar. Eight specimens of this 
fine species grace my cabinet. Two more are referred here but 
are doubtful. A cotype is in Mr. Field's collection and if the types 
are not much better specimens, it seems to me that a redescrip- 
tion from good material might be profitable. 

The species is quite variable, one perfectly fresh specimen 
is almost devoid of all marks, another is so suffused with 
black scales as to appear quite gray, losing almost entirely its 
ochreous color ; in others the spots and streaks are strongly 
accentuated. It was almost impossible for me to be sure 
from the original description that my identification was correct 
even with a cotype for comparison. 

34. Martia arizonella Rag. Three fairly good specimens taken 
at La Puerta in July. The species, like all others from this local- 
ity, has the peculiar "desert look." 

35. Petaluma inspergella Rag. Four specimens, of which two 
are labeled "Jacumba" and two ".San Diego." Jacumba is close to 
the Desert and very near the Mexican line. Again we have the 
"desert look." The species is almost immaculate. 

36. Bandela cupidinella Hulst. Another almost immaculate spe- 
cies of which I have but four specimens. 



3O ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

That more systematic collecting will produce many more 
species from this locality seems altogether probable. The hills 
about the city are covered with the Adcnostoma, which seems 
to be the breeding ground for many species. The low grow- 
ing oaks, the varieties of Rhits and of Ceanothus are also 
good producers. Farther back in the hills are to be found 
many other shrubs and undergrowth that seem to abound in 
members of this group. Then, too, the length of the season, 
January first to December thirty-first on the coast, and from 
March to December back in the higher altitudes away from 
the coast, together with the lack of local collectors, makes it 
quite reasonable to suppose that the Phycit student could 
spend many profitable hours in this neighborhood. 



A New Dragonfly Genus of the Legion Protoneura 

(Odonata). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

Recently, in sorting over the South American Agrionines 
.collected by B. J. Rainey, L. A. Williamson and myself in 
1912, I discovered two males unfortunately overlooked when 
I studied the genus Protoneura (sens, lat.).* 

PHASMONEURA new genus. 

Closely related to Psaironcura. Colors dull ; abdomen long 
and slender. Runs out in key page 620*, to Psalronciira. For 
Psaironcura, following c 1 under b 2 , read as follows: 

M2 in front wing arising at seventh postnodal ; in hind wing at fifth. 

Phasmoncitra 

M2 in front wing arising proximad to seventh postnodal, usually 
at the sixth or more proximad ; in hind wing at the fourth 

or proximad Psaironcura 

The subdivisions under ci under b2 remain unchanged, all relating 
to species of Psaironeura. 

Cui in the front wings is very close to the wing margin, ter- 
minating at the descending cross vein in three wings, while 

*Notes on Neotropical dragonflies or Odonata, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. 48, May 12, 1915, pp. 616-636. 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



3 1 



in one wing it meets the margin proximad to the cross vein 
about midlength of the second postquadrangular cell ; in the 
hind wings, on the other hand, Cui is more widely separated 
from the wing margin and terminates against the descending 
cross vein which is angled at that point, with the posterior 
portion deflected apically. 

Rs is distal to the subnoclus about the thickness of the vein 
or a little more; M3 proximal to the subnodus, the two (Rs 
and M3) narrowly separated at their origin (as in Psairo- 
ncura and Epipotoncura as contrasted with Protoncnra and 
E pi pi con euro}. 




Apex of Abdomen, Phasmoncura olmyra n. sp., <f , dorsal and left profile views. 

M2 in front wing at seventh postnodal ; in hind wing at 
fifth; Mia in front wing at tenth postnodal; in hind wing at 
eighth. In both specimens there is no variation in the position 
of M2 and Mia. M3 ending distad to the level of the stigma; 
M4 under stigma. 

Three antenodal costal spaces subequal. Second antenodal 
just proximal to the arculus. Cubito-anal cross vein distal to 
the first antenodal about one-third the second antenodal costal 
space. Rs and M3 distinct but closely approximated at first 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

descending cross vein. Upper limb of arculus scarcely one- 
half length of lower limb. 

Stigma black, regular, one and one-fourth times as long as 
wide, covering one cell or less (in one left front wing more 
than one cell, but no variation in the stigma itself). 

Male appendages : Superiors long, slightly shorter than ab- 
dominal segment 9 and not quite twice as long as 10; inferiors 
short rounded tubercles, each with a short lateral spine. 

Type, Phasnwncnra olmyra, n. sp. 

Phasmoneura olmyra n. sp. 

Abdomen, 32 mm. ; hind wing, 20 mm. Proportionate lengths of 
abdominal segments i to 10, as follows: */\, 1^4, 6, 7 l /2, 7 l /2, 7, 5/4. 
2 l /4, i, y 2 , appendages 4-5. 

Labium pale, middle lobe deeply and broadly divided for nearly one- 
half its length ; rear of head pale. 

Genae pale yellow ; labrum pale yellow, basal half black, the lower 
margin of the black stippled ; anteclypeus yellow, bilobed medianly 
with black which is continuous with the black postclypeus ; frons nar- 
rowly in front and medianly pale, stippled with black, remainder black 
or dark brown, more or less stippled adjoining the eyes; antennae 
dark brown, the second joint darker at its apex; vertex black with 
slight bluish or greenish reflections. 

Prothorax black or dark brown, laterally with some pruinescence, 
an indefinite trace of a narrow pale area on the anterior edge of the 
front lobe and of a small median spot on each side of the posterior 
lobe ; propleuron pale yellow. 

Dorsum of thorax entirely dark brown or dull black with indefinite 
narrow streaks of rust color, the dark area reaching the humeral su- 
ture and, below, slightly posterior to it, this posterior border rust- 
colored and obscure; mesepimeron and mesinfraepisternum pale, ap- 
parently dull (or pale) blue with considerable pruinescence (on one 
side of on.e specimen the mesepimeron has a black blotch 
on more than its upper half ; this black has a pattern that suggests it 
is due entirely to postmortem discoloration but the black looks like 
pigment) ; metepisternum darker, clearer blue, almost black in cer- 
tain lights; metinfraepisternum pale yellow; metepimeron very palu 
blue, some black strippling along its anterior suture above, and near 
the posterior suture near its midlength; metasternum almost white. 

Coxae and legs pale yellow ; femora with stippled narrow dorsal 
lines, broader apically, shading out basally ; indefinite brown stipple. 1 
areas give an impression of rings or bands on the femora and tibiae, 
the darkest area at the apices of the femora; all joints with slight 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 33 

brown ; spines brown, short and not numerous, 5 or 6 on tibiae and 4 
on the second and third femora. 

Abdomen above black, narrowed basally on i to form a nearly equi- 
lateral triangular area ; basal two-thirds of 9 dark rich blue, apex of 
9, all of 10 and appendages black (in one specimen blue is not evident 
on 9 which is pruinose with a large rounded median pruinose spot on 
10) ; sides of i and 2 extensively pale, almost white; a small basal 
spot of same color on 3 and a longer, ill defined inferior pale area sub- 
apically on the same segment, or the entire side below except the ex- 
treme apex pale ; 4-6 similar but with the spots successively less con- 
spicuous posteriorly, the subapical spot disappearing on 6, or with the 
pale the full length of each segment below except the apex, narrow- 
ing progressively from 4 to 6 ; 7 narrowly pale at base, encircling the 
segment, pale the entire length below except at extreme apex ; 8 pale 
blue or yellowish basally, not reaching the apex where the black of 
the dorsum extends over the sides for one-fourth the length of the 
segment, but the black does not reach the extreme lower border: 9 
similar to 8 but distinctly blue, the apical black slightly less extended 
than on 8; 10 and appendages black. 

Appendages as figured. They are peculiar in the longHeteragrion- 
like form of the superiors, and the so-called rudimentary inferiors, 
which in this case alone so far as I know, unless tenmssima is an ex- 
ception also, have a minute lateral spine. 

Described from 2 males, Rockstone, British Guiana, B. J- 
Rainey, L. A. and E. B. Williamson, Feb. i, 1912; in the 
writer's collection. 



Three new Species of Coccophagus, Family Encyr- 

tidae (Hym.). 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Washington, D. C. 

1. Coccophagus magniclavus new species. 

Female. Length, i.oo mm. Deep orange yellow, the following parts 
black: Caudal half of parapsidal furrows, club, a small round spot in 
the middle of each parapside, apex (cephalad) of the much advanced 
axilla, suture along cephalic margin of scutellutn, thorax transversely 
laterad of scutellutn, propodeum except broadly across meson, imme- 
diate center of the occiput transverselv and dorsal abdomen (but as the 
incisions sometimes show through, then the abdomen appears to be 
alternately striped white and black). Abdomen orange yellow at base 
transversely. Club blotched with yellowish. Pronotum black except 
laterad. Legs white; the fore wings hyaline; venation, pale yellow. 
Tip of abdomen above and ovipositor valves yellow. 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., '16 

Pedicel small, very slightly longer than wide, funicle 3 shortest of 
the funicle, somewhat longer than wide, I and 2 subequal, each about 
twice longer than wide, very much longer than the pedicel which is 
shorter than funicle 3 ; club twice wider than the funicle but shorter, 
its joints wider than long. 

Stigmal vein linear, not long, more or less parallel with the marginal 
vein, without a distinct knob. Marginal vein a little longer than the 
submarginal. Marginal fringes of the fore wing short. 

Scutum with many short black hairs, the scutellum with from four 
to six long ones. 

The male is very similar. Ring-joint short. 

Described from one male, six females reared from Al eu- 
ro chit on species, Berlice, Demerara, British Guiana, March, 
1913 (G. E. Bodkin). 

Types. Catalogue No. 19343, United States National Mu- 
seum, the above specimens on a slide. 

2. Coccophagus mexicanus new species. 

Female. Length, 1.60 mm. Tn Howard's (1897) table of species 
runs to calif ornicus, but differs in having the caudal tibiae black except 
at tip and the caudal coxae white, the middle tibiae lightly dusky 
above and so on. Differs from albico.ra Howard in having only the 
apex of scutellum lemon yellow, the abdomen coarsely scaly, the face 
sometimes yellow to the clypeus from a little below the vertex and 
between the eyes, the scape and pedicel yellowish (the pedicel dark 
above except at apex) ; from howardi Masi in the coloration of the 
legs. 

Fore wings slightly stained along under the marginal vein, the 
stigmal vein minute. Tarsi white. Black with the apical border of 
scutellum lemon yellow and the hind coxae white (the other yellow 
markings as noted). Occipital border of vertex yellow. 

Scutum with many minute setigerous punctures. Thorax micro- 
scopically scaly. Funicle I somewhat longer than wide, longer than the 
pedicel, 2 and 3 subequal, each a little longer than wide. Funicle 
subcompressed, the pedicel nearly as long as funicle 3. Club not en- 
larged, its joints not long. 

Described from two females, labeled "Porto Bello, Panama, 
March 18, 1911. Busck. On a fig lecanium." 

T\pc. Catalogue No. 19344, United States National Mu- 
seum, the two specimens on tags. 

3. Coccophagus coxalis new species. 

Female. Like the preceding, but the head is all black, the funicle 
joints all somewhat longer, the apical half of the scutellum, the post- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 35 

scutellum and the propodeum (except along meson narrowly and the 
cephalic margin) lemon yellow, the black of the scutellum running a 
little farther caudad at lateral margins. Scape yellow, also the pedicel 
except above at proximal half. Fore wings slightly more infuscated. 
Abdomen compressed. 

Described from one female taken with mexicanus. 

Type. Catalogue No. 19345, United States National Mu- 
seum, the female on a tag. 

The species co.ralis is close to albico.ra, but the yellow on 
the propodeum and scape and the different form of that on 
the scutellum seem to be characters sufficient to require dis- 
tinction. 

Argynnis diana (Lep.). 

Dr. Henry Skinner (Ent. News, vii, 318, 1896) calls attention to 
the fact that the females of this species vary considerably, some speci- 
mens being blue and some green. 

Among a short series of specimens collected for me by Mr. C. Har- 
vey Crabill in August, 1914, at Camp Craig, Virginia, is one female 
which differs in another, and very marked respect, from the typical 
form. W. H. Edwards' description of the female (Proc. Ent. Soc. of 
Phila., III. 431, 1864) says of the under side of the primaries, "apex 
and hind margin brown," and of the secondaries, "basal two-thirds 
dark red brown," "the outer third of the wing blackish brown." 

The specimen in question has all these areas described as "brown" 
of a dark bluish black. Has this variation been noted previously? 
WM. C. WOOD, New York City. 

Accidental Color Variation (Lep.). 

I have in my collection a specimen (?) of Sphinx jamaiccnsis. form 
gcniinatus, in which the pink color of the discal area of the secondaries 
is replaced by lemon yellow. The primaries are rather light in tone, 
with the brown markings reddish. The pupa from which it emerged 
(May 12, 1905) was the only one of a batch to reach maturity, the box 
having been alternately too dry and too wet. 

Mr. S. D. Nixon (Ent. News, xxiii, 127, 1912) describes from a 
single male specimen a variety of "Smerinthus jamaiccnsis." which 
would seem to correspond very closely with my specimen, the chief 
point of variation from normal being the replacing of the pink of the 
secondaries by yellow. 

In the collection of the National Museum in Washington there wa^. 
several years ago, a specimen ($) of "Smcrintlins occllatus Linn." 
in which the pink of the secondaries was replaced by yellow, in pre- 
cisely the same manner as in the foregoing instances. Also a specimen 
( $ ) in which the pink was so reduced and faint as to make it an 
intergrade between the normal and the pale forms. 

Ts it not probable that this disappearance of the pink color is an acci- 
dental effect? The history of my bred specimen is at least suggestive. 
WM. C. WOOD. New "York Citv. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., JANUARY, 1916. 

Remarks on Labelling. 

The labeling of type specimens of new taxonomic forms, 
species, subspecies and varieties has become a recognized prac- 
tice among all good students of entomology. It is not too 
much to say that this is obligatory, whether the types be pin- 
ned or be mounted as a microscopic slide. 

It is probably much less common to mark material which, 
without being typical of new taxonomic forms, is the basis of 
published figures illustrating either whole structures or details 
of anatomy. Yet this also is very important and highly de- 
sirable, as it will enable a later investigator, examining that 
material, to explain, in many cases, why two writers on the 
same subject have reached divergent conclusions. The con- 
verse of this practice is also desirable, viz. : that the legends or 
explanations accompanying such published figures should in- 
dicate the exact place in a given lot of material from which 
the illustration has been made. For example, in connection 
with a drawing based on one section of a microtome series, it 
should be stated on which slide, in which row on the slide, 
and in what position (number) in that row that section is to 
be found. No honest and candid worker need have any fear 
of subjecting the evidence for his conclusions to the exam- 
ination of his colaborers, contemporary or of later date. 

One of the many good offices rendered by the late Profes- 
sor John B. Smith to entomology was to mount in balsam the 
preparations of the mouth-parts illustrated on plates V to X 
accompanying Dr. George H. Horn's memoir "On the Genera 
of Carabidae." Horn had left these upon pinned cards labeled 
with the generic name. Smith transferred them to standard 
microscopic slides, each one of which is labeled in this style: 
"Carabus, PI. V, f. 13, Coll. G. H. Horn." As long as these 
slides (now at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia) are in existence, it will always be possible for the stu- 
dent of the ground beetles to comprehend Horn's results. Tt 
is to be hoped that all entomologists will follow the example 
set by the recent State Entomologist of New Jersey. 

36 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 37 

Euparyphus tetraspilus Loew (Diptera). 

As an error occurs in the minutes of the June meeting of the Amer- 
ican Entomological Society (Ent. News, xxvi, p. 376, October, 1915), 
I thought that, while correcting it, it would he appropriate to publish 
the available records of capture of this species. I captured the first 
and only New Jersey specimen of this species recorded at Boonton, 
Morris County, June 14, 1901 (Ins. N. J., p. 737, IQIO). On June 2, 
1908, the first recorded Pennsylvania specimen of this fly was caught 
by myself in Philadelphia, resting on a window pane accidental of 
course. Mr. Harbeck and my brother, Chas. T. Greene, visited a 
small swamp near Thorp's Lane, upper Roxborough, Philadelphia, 
June ii, 1911, and found several specimens on the "arrow leaves." 
Later Mr. Harbeck, Mr. Haimbach and I visited this swamp, June 
13 and 27, 1915, where I captured about twenty-five specimens on the 
same plant. I do not remember the exact circumstances under which 
the Boonton specimen was caught, but as most of my collecting was 
done along the Rockaway River and the "arrow leaves" were common 
there, it is almost certain that it was on these plants in which it prob- 
ably breeds. Subsequently I visited the swamp alone July 6th and 
found none, but in their place Odontomyia virgo Wied. was numerous. 
The following records may be added : Danville, Pennsylvania, June 22, 
1915, A. B. Champlain ; Aweme, Manitoba, Canada, June 21, 1911, E. 
Criddle ; Calgary, Alta., August I, 1907, and Ottawa, Canada, July 2, 
1907, Dr. Skinner; Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, June 4, 1908, and "N. 111." 
in the collection of the American Entomological Society. GEO. M. 
GREENE, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 
The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered in 
the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of systematic papers arc all grouped at the end of each 
Order of which they treat, and are separated from the rest by a dash. 

Unless mentioned in the title, the number of new species or forms are 
given at end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. 

For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 5 Psyche. 8 The Entomol- 
ogist's Monthly Magazine, London. 9 The Entomologist, Lon- 
don. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 12 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

Comptes Rendus, L'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 28 Archives 
d'Anatoniie Microscopique, Paris. 38 Wiener Entomologische 
Zeitung. 40 Societas Entomologica, Zurich. 46 Tijdschrift voor 
Entoniologie. 50 Proceedings, U. S. National Museum. 59 Sitz- 
ungsberichte, Gesellschaft der naturlorschenden Freunde, Berlin. 
68 Science, New York. 74 Naturwissenschaftliche Wochen- 
schrift, Berlin. 84 Entomologische Rundschau. 153 Bulletin, 
The American Museum of Natural History, New York. 161 Pro- 
ceedings, The Biological Society of Washington. 164 Science 
Bulletin, University of Kansas, Lawrence. 166 Internationale 
Entomologische Zeitschrift, Guben. 184 Journal of Experimental 
Zoology, Philadelphia. 190 Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 
"Iris," Dresden. 195 Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge. 216 Entomologische Zeitschrift, Frankfurt 
a. Main. 238 Anales, Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 
324 Journal of Animal Behavior, Cambridge. 344 U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 410 Journal, Washing- 
ton Academy of Sciences. 438 Bulletin, Illinois State Laboratory 
of Natural History, Urbana. 457 Memoirs of the Coleoptera by 
Trios. L. Casey, Washington. 490 The Journal of Parasitology, 
Urbana, Illinois. 509 Revue Generale des Sciences Pures et Ap- 
pliquees, Paris. 517 Pennsylvania Department of Forestry, Har- 
risburg. 518 Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station of the 
University, Knoxville. 519 The Scientific Monthly, Lancaster, 
Pa. 520 Proceedings, British Columbia Entomological Society, 
Victoria. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Anderson, E. M. Insects recorded in 
the Atlin district (Northern Br. Col.) during the summer of 1914, 
520, 1915, 122-32. Apstein, C. Nomina conservanda, 59, 1915, 119- 
202. Athanasin & Dragoin La structure des muscles stries des 
insectes et leurs rapports avec les trachees aeriennes, 28, xvi, 
345-61. Day, G. O. Nomenclature and classification, 520, 1915, 
99-110. Fabre, J. H. Obituary notice, 216, xxix, 62-4. Obituary 
by H. Rowland-Brown, 9, 1915, 271-2. Henderson, J. The publi- 
cation of new species, 68, xlii, 725-6. Heyden, L. von Obituary 
notice, 84, xxxii, 61. Hollande, A. Ch. Coloration vitale par le 
"carmin soluble" chez les insectes, 12, clxi, 578-80. Mann, W. M. 
Some myrmecophilous insects from Hayti, 5, xxii, 161-6. Roe- 
ber, J. Gesichtssinn bei insekten, 40, xxx, 60-1 (cont.). Schirmer, 
C. Altweibersommer. Ein miniaturbild aus dem insektenleben, 
216, xxix, 53-4. Studhalter & Ruggles Insects as carriers of the 
chestnut blight fungus, 517, Bui. 12. Turner, C. H. Literature 
for 1914 on the behavior of spiders and insects other than ants, 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 39 

324, v, 415-45. Weiss, H. B. Some old classifications of insects, 
4, 1915, 369-76. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Mack, J. B. A study 
of the dimensions of the chromosomes of the somatic cells of Am- 
bystoma, 164, ix, 119-27. Stark, M. B. The occurrence of lethal 
factors in inbred and wild stocks of Drosophila, 184, xix, 53 1-58. 
Zeleny & Senay Variation in head length of spermatozoa in seven 
additional species of insects; The effect of selection upon the "bar 
eye" mutant of Drosophila, 184, xix, 505-14; 515-30. 

MEDICAL. Agramonte, A. The inside history of a great med- 
ical discovery, 519, i, 209-237. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Cotton, E. C. The N. American fever 
tick (Boophilus annulatus). Notes on life history, 518, Bui. 113. 

Chamberlin, R. V. New Chilopods from Mexico and the West 
Indies, 195, lix, 495-541. Weidman, F. D. An arachnoid (Pneu- 
monyssus foxi) parasitic in the lung of a monkey, 490, ii, 37-45. 

ORTHOPTERA. Mann, W. M. (See under General.) Walker, 
E. M. Xotes on a collection of O. from Prince Edward Island 
and the Magdalen Islands, Queb., 4, 1915, 339-44. 

HEMIPTERA. Ball, E. D. New genera and sps. of Acoce- 
phalinae [3 n. sps.], 161, xxviii, 165-8. Mann, W. M. (See under 
General.) Parshley, H. M. Systematic papers on New England 
Hemiptera. II. Synopsis of the Pentatomidae, 5, xxii, 170-77. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Blackmore, E. H. Further notes on the 
species of the genus Hydriomena occurring on Vancouver Island, 
B. C., 520, 1915, 114-5. Brunner, J. The Zimmerman pine moth, 
344, Bui. 295. Chrystal, R. N. Notes on Lithocolletis gaulteriella, 
520, 1915, 111-14. Hoffman, F. Ueber eine verdienstvolle tatigkeit 
beim kodern, 216, xxix, 57-8. Lyne, W. H. Comments on some 
peculiarities in connection with the life history of the codling-moth 
on the Pacific Coast, 520, No. 7, 33-5. 

Blackmore, E. H. Notes on the changes in Geometrid nomen- 
clature, with records of species new to the list of Geometridae 
found in Br. Columbia, 520, 1915, 116-22. Bowdler Sharpe, E. M. 
Descriptions of three new Neotropical butterflies, 11, xvi, 411-12, 
Fassl, A. H. Neue Pierieden aus Sud-Amerika, 190, xxix, 170-81. 
Fruhstorfer, H. Neue neotropische Nytnphaliden, 40, xxx, M. 
Giacomelli, E. Contribucion al estudio de los lepidopteros Argen- 
tines, 238, Ixxviii, 161-175. Niepelt, W. Neue formen sudameri- 
kanischer tagfalter, 40, xxx, 63. 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

DIPTERA. Chidester, F. E. Sarcophagid larvae from the 
painted turtle, 490, ii, 48-9. Hutchinson, R. H. A maggot trap in 
practical use; an experiment in house-fly control, 344, Bui. 200. 

Banks, N. Notes and descriptions of Pipunculidae [4 new], 5, 
xxii, 1G6-70. Cockerell, T. D. A. A new midge from Guatemala, 
4, 1915, 315-6. Dietz, W. G. Two new Tipulidae from northern 
Alberta [2 new], 4, 1915, 329-32. Felt, E. P. New So. Am. gall 
midges, 5, xxii, 152-7. Malloch. J. R. Some additional records of 
Chironomidae for Illinois and notes on other Illinois D. [2 n. gen.; 
12 n. sps.], 438, xi, 305-63. Mann, W. M. (See under General.) 
Schmitz, H. Neue beitrage zur kenntnis der myrmecophilen und 
termitophilen Phoriden, 38, xxxiv, 311-30. Townsend, C. H. T. 
New neotropical muscoid flies, 50, xlix, 405-40. A new generic 
name for the screw-worm fly, 410, v, G44-6. 

COLEOPTERA. Chapin, E. A. Early stages of Staphylinidae. 
I. Xantholinus cephalus, 5, xxii, 157-61. Heikertinger, F. Ueber 
skulpturveranderungen auf kaeferflugeldecken hervorgerufen durch 
kochen, 38, xxxiv, 377-9. Muir, F. Notes on the ontogeny of the 
genital tubes in C., 5, xxii, 147-52. Netolitsky, F. Verbreitungs- 
karten zur insektengeographie, 38, xxxiv, 387-91. Reitter, E. 
Festschrift zum siebzigsten geburtstag. . . .am 22. Oktober 1915, 
38, xxiv, 215-87. Stellwaag, Dr. Das springen der schnellkaefer 
(Elateriden), 74, 1915, 635-7. Wusthoff, A. Ueber das praparieren 
kleiner kaefer, 166, ix, 75-6. 

Casey, T. L. A review of the American sps. of Rutelinae, Dy- 
nastinae and Cetoniinae [many new sps.] ; Studies in some Sta- 
phylinid genera of No. Am. [many new], 457, vi, 1-394; 395-450. 
Leng, C. W. List of the Carabidae of Florida [3 new], 153, xxxiv, 
555-601. Swaine, J. M. Descriptions of n. sps. of Ipidae [9 new], 
4, 1915, 355-69. 

HYMENOPTERA. Cockerell, T. D. A. New Mutillidae from 
California [3 new], 9, 1915, 249-50. Cosens, A. Notes on the 
strawberry leaf petiole gall (Diastrophus fragariae), 4, 1915, 354-5. 
Phillips & Demuth Outdoor wintering of bees, 344, Farm. Bui. 
695. Willem, V. -Comment les fleurs attirent les abeilles, 509, 
xxvi, 539-43. Wasmann, E. Viviparitat und entwicklung von 
Lomechusa und Atemeles, 38, xxxiv, 382-93. 

Beutenmuller, W. A new Diastrophus on strawberry, 4, 1915, 
353-4. Brethes, J. Prospalangia platensis (n. gen., n. sp.), 238, 
Ixxix, 314-20. Mann, W. M. A gynandromorphous mutillid from 
Montana, 5, xxii, 178-80. (See also under General.) Smulyan, 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 4! 

M. T. Notes and descriptions of Tenthredella [4 new], 4, 1915, 
321-26. Turner, R. E. On a new sp. of Pepsis [S. Am.], 8, xvi, 
413. Wasmann, E. Eine neue Pseudomyrma aus der Ochsenhorn- 
dornakazie in Mexiko, 46, Iviii, 29<>-:;25. 



THE EMBRYOLOGY OF THE HONEY BEE. By JAMES ALLEN NELSON, 
Ph.D., Expert, Bee Culture Investigations, Bureau of Entomology, U 
S. Department of Agriculture. Princeton University Press, Prince- 
ton, October, 1915, I2mo. Pp. vi, 282. 95 text figs., 6 plates. $2.00 net 
The broad and comprehensive way in which the Bee Culture Investiga- 
tions of the Bureau of Entomology have been considered and treated, 
since Dr. Everett Franklin Phillips was placed in charge of them in 
1907, is strikingly illustrated by the publications which have emanated 
from the investigators concerned. Snodgrass has given us the results 
of a careful and original re-examination of the anatomy of the honey 
bee, 1 Casteel has corrected our notions of the manipulation of the wax 
scales 2 and the behavior of the bee in pollen collecting, 3 Mclndoo has 
informed us on the olfactory sense 4 and on the scent-producing 
organ, 5 Phillips, C. A. Browne, B. N. Gates, G. F. White and G. S. 
Demuth, singly or in conjunction, 6 have dealt with various practical 
phases of apiculture and especially with bee diseases, while Phillips 
has summed up these and other researches and experiences in a 
recent volume 7 in The Rural Science Series. Now comes the still 
more esoteric volume on the embryology of the Honey bee. The 
keynote to all this work is in the first sentence of the preface con- 
tributed by Phillips to Nelson's book before us : "The good bee- 
keeper is he who is interested not only in those things which have to 
do directly with the production of honey, but to whom everything 
pertaining to honey bees has a deep interest." The conception that 
"everything pertaining to honey bees" should include an extensive 
and intimate knowledge of structure, physiology, behavior and em- 
bryology exhibits a breadth of view which it is a pleasure to em- 

1 Technical Series No. 18, Bureau of Ent, etc., May 28, 1910; 162 
pp., 57 figs. 

2 Circular 161 of the same. Oct. 4, 1912. 13 pp., 7 figs. 

3 Bulletin 121 of the same. Dec. 31, 1912. 36 pp., 9 figs. 

4 Journal of Experimental Zoology, xvi, 265-346, 24 figs., April, 1914. 

5 Proceedings, Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1914, 542-555, i text-fig., 2 
pis., Aug. 21. 

6 Bulletins 75 (1907-1909) and 98 (1912) of the Bureau of Ento- 
mology Farmers' Bulletins 442 and 447 (1911) and Bulletins 92, 93 and 
96 (1914) of the U. S. Dept. Agric. 

7 Beekeeping: A Discussion of the Life of the Honey Bee and of the 
Production of Honey, New York, The Macmillan Co. Aug., 1915. 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

phasize in a journal devoted rather to pure than to applied entomology. 

Biitschli (1870), Kowalevski (1871), Grassi (1884), Blochmann (1889), 
Petrunkewitsch (1901, 1903), Dickel (1903) and Nachtsheim (1913) 
have described various phases of the development of the egg of the 
honey bee, but Nelson's work is more extensive and thorough-going 
than any of these, although it is devoted to the embryonic history of 
the workers and queens only, not of the drones. 

The first chapter (3 pp.) gives an historical review of the embry- 
ology of the honey bee, the second (pp. 4-15) describes oviposition 
and the organization of the undeveloped egg. Chapters III-VII (pp. 
16-112) treat of the development of the embryo as a whole from 
cleavage, through the formation of blastoderm and germ layers to 
acquirement of the external form of the larva. Chapters VIII-XIV 
(pp. 113-245) deal with the development of organ-systems, especially 
the nervous system (Chap. VIII, pp. 113-166), and the fate of the 
yolk and yolk cells. 

Special efforts were made to determine the rate of development and 
as a result the seventy-six hours spent within the egg are divided into 
fifteen stages, designated by the numerals I-XV, whose several lengths 
extend from 2 to 22 hours. These are discussed (in Chapter XV), 
tabulated (p. 247) and illustrated on the plates which represent views 
of entire eggs fixed, stained and mounted in balsam. (Certain dif- 
ferences in the ages of these stages will be observed on comparing 
page 247 with pages 99-105). 

The sixteenth chapter comprises a description of the technique 
employed and an excellent summary of the entire course of develop- 
ment (pp. 253-261). A list of abbreviations applying to all the figures, 
a bibliography on insect embryology (pp. 265-272) and an index (pp. 
273-282) complete the text. 

The book appears to us to be very clearly written and the figures 
excellent. Although there are nominally ninety-five text figures, their 
actual number is much greater, as many of them are two-, three-, or 
even five-fold. Dr. Nelson does not confine himself to his own careful 
study of embryos, but compares his findings with those of previous 
investigators of the embryonic development of the honey bee, of other 
Hymenoptera and of insects in general. These features will render 
his book of great use to all laboratories where any phase of insect 
embryology is touched on, however lightly. 

Turning to a few of the special or novel features of this volume, 
we may note the useful summary of the conclusions of embryologists 
as to the origin of the mesenteron of insects (pp. 71-77). Dr. Nelson 
thinks that the relation of the mesenteron rudiments in the honey 
bee may be interpreted in either of two ways : they may be referred 
to the mesoderm, or considered as purely blastodermal in origin, 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 43 

"hut a final decision. .. .seems premature" (p. 78). He believes it 
more appropriate to consider the premandibular, or second antennal, 
"appendages" "as exaggerated ganglionic swellings," with a dimin- 
ished probability that they do represent appendages (p. no). The 
supralingual head segment of Folsom is wanting (p. in). Twenty- 
one embryonic segments (6 cephalic, 3 thoracic and 12 abdominal) 
and twenty neuromeres (n abdominal) are recognized (pp. no, in, 
!37> 256-7). "The writer was never successful in finding anything 
which could be safely construed as abdominal appendages. They cer- 
tainly occur, nevertheless, in certain Hymenoptera" (p. 112). In a 
comparison of nervous systems of different insects "a larval stage" 
is denied to the Orthoptera (p. 117). Previous investigators have not 
mentioned the degenerating cells within the embryonic nerve tissue, 
isolated and in small number in the ventral cord, but in the brain 
abundant and to a certain extent localized in definite regions ; the 
significance of this degeneration is not apparent (pp. 164-166). A 
pair of tracheal imaginations on the second maxillary segment give 
rise to the anterior ends of the tracheal trunks ; they had been over 
looked by Nelson's predecessors. On the basis of this discovery, the 
homology of the tentorial invaginations with those of tracheae "is 
made decidedly problematical" (pp. 172-175). 

Comparatively little interest has been taken in insect embryology 
within the last decade, but this valuable book will unquestionably 
direct more attention to this highly important field of entomology. 
P. P. C. (Advt.) 

MIMICRY IN BUTTERFLIES. By REGINALD CRUNDALL PUNNETT, F. R. 
S., Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Arthur Balfour Professor 
of Genetics in the University of Cambridge. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York. 159 pages, 16 plates, in color. 15 shillings net. This is 
is very interesting review of the whole subject of what is termed 
Batesian and Mullerian mimicry. The condensation from a vast 
amount of literature is efficiently accomplished. Mimicry in a number 
of North and South American species is treated and several plates 
ar-e devoted to them. The- author does not accept the usual ex- 
planation for the phenomenon. From the "Conclusion" we extract 
the following : "From the facts recorded in the preceding chapters it 
is clear that there are difficulties in the way of accepting the mimicry 
theory as an explanation for the remarkable resemblances which are 
often found between butterflies of distinct groups." .... "The sim- 
plicity of the explanation is in itself attractive. But when the facts 
come to be examined critically it is evident that there are grave, 
if not insuperable, difficulties in the way of its acceptance .... 
Nevertheless, the facts, as far as we at present know them, tell 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., '16 

definitely against the views generally held as to the part played by 
natural selection in the process of evolution." 

For those who do not have time or opportunity to consult the 
original papers, this work will be of value, as it gives a comprehensive 
summary of them. H. S. (Advt.) 



Doings of Societies. 

Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of September 15, 1915, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart St., Philadelphia. Eight members were present, President 
H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Coleoptera.- Mr. H. VV. Wenzel exhibited a specimen of Calosoma 
sycophanta Linn, collected by Elmer Wenzel, Philada., July 27, 1915. 
Dr. Castle said he had collected in the meadows at Ocean City, New 
Jersey, August 28, and found Conotrachelus fissnngms LeC. and Both- 
rotes arundinus LeC. in numbers. At Pine Beach collecting was poor, 
but at Seaside Park, September 5, he had found about 500 Balaninus in 
the "washup." Mr. Laurent said he had taken about sixteen hundred 
specimens last year which he considered a poor season, but this is 
still worse. He had taken a few good things in different orders; in 
the Coleoptera he considered among his best captures a male Lcptura 
mutabilis Newm. on ironwood, and a male (August 18) and a female 
(August 14) Scaphinotus viduus Dej. All three specimens were col- 
lected at Chestnut Hill and were exhibited. Mr. Haimbach reported 
a clover weevil, Phytonomus melcs Fabr. as common on his place in 
Roxborough, Pennsylvania, this summer. Mr. Geo. M. Greene ex- 
hibited a male Malacorhinus tripunctatus Jacoby collected by H. Mit- 
tendorf in New Braunfels, Texas, April 4, 1902, representing a Chry- 
somelid species new to the United States. 

Diptera. Mr. Daecke said that men cutting down trees at Rock- 
ville, Pennsylvania, had left behind a barrel used by the horses for 
drinking purposes. He had noticed mosquito wrigglers in this Aug. 
I5th and had taken them home and bred Mcgarhiniis scptentrionalis 
Dyar and Knab; this is the most northern record. Mr. Geo. M. 
Greene stated that he had caught a specimen of this species at Chain 
Bridge, Virginia, September 8, 1915. 

Adjourned to the annex. 

GEO. M. GREENE, Secretary. 

American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of October 28, 1915, at the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. Dr. Philip P. Calvert, President, in the chair. Twelve 
persons present. The President announced the death of a member, 
C. Few Seiss, September 5, 1915. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 45 

Lepidoptera. Dr. Skinner exhibited a living yucca plant brought 
from Enterprise, Florida, by Dr. D. M. Castle. The plant contained 
the boring larva of a Megathymus which had pupated; the pupa \vas 
in a tough silken cocoon protruding centrally among the leaves of 
the plant. The two species of Megathymus found in Florida are yuccac 
and cofaqiti, and the present species cannot be known until the imago 
appears. 

Hymenoptera. Mr. Laurent exhibited Sircx cressoui var. nnlco- 
lur. taken at Alt. Airy, Philadelphia, July I7th, and Pristaulacus flari- 
crurus. Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, July ijth. 

Coleoptera. Dr. Calvert referred to previous discussions on the 
presumed antenna-cleaner on the fore leg of Carabidae (see Ent. 
News, xxv, 141, 142) and read an extract from Miall's Aquatic Insects 
(pp. 376-378), in which such structures and their function are de- 
scribed. 

Orthoptera. Air. Laurent exhibited a green roach, Nyctobora 
lacvigata Beauv. taken at Germantown. Philadelphia, by Air. Thomp- 
son.: It is a tropical species and probably arrived in a bunch of ba- 
nanas. Air. Morgan Hebard spoke of the value of a two per cent, 
solution of formaldehyde in fixing the delicate colors of the Orthop- 
tera, particularly the greens. The specimens are allowed to remain in 
the solution for two hours. 

Mr. Wm. T. Davis was elected a member. L!ENRY SKINNER, Rcc. 
Secretary. 

Newark Entomological Society. 

Meetings held in the Newark (New Jersey) Public Library on 
October 10 and November 14, 1915. Pres. Buchholz in the chair. 
Average attendance 12 members. 

Lepidoptera. Air. Doll exhibited some southern and western 
species including Papilio troilus L-, from Florida; Phohts tyMinn 
Klug., from Arizona, and ^anna rubra Behr., from California. Air. 
Herman H. Brehme showed some exceptionally fine regalis larvae 
from Alorgan, New Jersey, which he had inflated and colored. Mr. 
Buchholz spoke of having reared Crocnta immaculata Reak. and Crn- 
cota trimaculosa from eggs, getting a fine series, the majority of which 
were females. Air. Brehme at the October meeting stated that At- 
tcra punctclla Cram. & Stoll was very abundant at Morgan, New 
Jersey, on goldenrod. This species is recorded in Smith's 1909 list 
only from southern New Jersey. At the November meeting, Mr. 
KmniiK-l exhibited the following captures: Apantcsis uais Dm., V, 12; 
A. radians Wlk.. V, 18; A. rittata Fabr., V, 12. all from Tppcr AI< mi- 
dair, New Jersey, and Apatura ch'tnn Bd., VTT, 20; Libythca bnrh- 
mani Kirtl., VII, 20, from North Arlington, New Jersey. Messrs. 
Buchholz and Lemmer reported the captures of Xylinn /v.nita Grt. 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

and Xylina cafax G. & R. at Lakehurst, New Jersey, October 17, and 
Messrs. Mayfield and Keller the capture of Catocala screna Edw. 
larva on shellbark hickory at Orange Mts. Reserve, New Jersey, dur- 
ing June. Mr. Weiss mentioned the occurrence of Utcthcisa bclla L. 
larvae in large numbers on Lcspcdcza at Jamesburg, New Jersey, 
September 2, and of Evetria bnoliana Shiff. larvae in the tips of Mugho 
and Austrian pines at Rutherford, New Jersey, during the past sum- 
mer. This last is the European pine shoot moth recently established 
in New Jersey. He also stated that Melalopha inchtsa Hubn. larvae 
were more abundant than usual during the summer on poplar trees in 
different parts of New Jersey and recorded Pinipestis simmermanni 
Grt. from Eatontown, New Jersey, August 5. 

Orthoptera. At the October meeting, Mr. Weiss exhibited eggs, 
nymphs and adults of the European mole cricket, Gryllotalpa gryllo- 
talpa L., taken at Rutherford, New Jersey, and stated that the firm 
on whose premises they were found, claimed to have destroyed at least 
20,000, including eggs. This is another European insect recently found 
inhabiting New Jersey. 

Homoptera. Mr. Rummel at the November meeting recorded 
the Periodical Cicada during May and June, 1915, from Garwood and 
Upper Montclair. Records of this brood in New Jersey are scarce. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Stortz commented on the scarcity of Lixus 
concavus on dock the past summer and exhibited specimens of this 
species. Specimens of Corthyhis punctatissimus Zimm. and their work 
in rhododendron stems were shown by Mr. Weiss, who stated that 
this insect had recently become somewhat of a pest on a private estate 
at Somerville, New Jersey. He also showed Eucactophagus graphip- 
terits Champ., a Calandrid whose larva lives in soft bulbed orchids. 
This species, which is a native of Central America, was taken in a 
New Jersey greenhouse. Mr. Weiss also showed Plagiodera irrsi- 
rolora Laich., a Chrysomelid common in Europe, which was found to 
be established in New Jersey at Arlington and Irvington, feeding on 
poplars and willows and doing considerable damage the past summer. 

Hymenoptera. 1'tcronus hudsonil Dvar, August, Rutherford, 
Trenton, New Jersey, larvae on poplar, were recorded by Mr. Weiss, 
who also remarked on the unusual abundance of saw flies the past 
season, especially such species as LopJiyrus abbnttii Leach and I,. /<*- 
contei Fitch on pines. HARRY B. WEISS, Rcc. Secretary. 

OBITUARY. 

Prof. RAPHAEL MELDOLA, who was President of the Knto- 
mological Society of London in 1895 anc ^ T 8o6, died in that 
city on November 16, 1915, according to a despatch published 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 47 

in the daily papers. He was born in London in 1849 and at 
the time of his death was professor of organic chemistry in 
the University of London. His work was mainly with the 
chemical structure of organic compounds containing nitrogen 
and devising synthetical methods for producing coloring mat- 
ters, as from coal-tar, but he found time to devote to ento- 
mology, especially on its physiological and evolutionary sides. 
One of his earliest papers was On the amount of substancc- 
wastc undergone bv insects in tJie pupal state, u<itli remarks 
on Papilio aja.v (1873), based in part on W. H. Edwards' 
tables, which led to a mild controversy with S. H. Scudder. 
At least eight papers, from 1872 to 1905, dealt with protec- 
tive resemblance and mimicry, and he was one of the earliest 
exponents in England of Miillerian mimicry. His presidential 
addresses to the Entomological Society of London (which he 
joined in 1872) were on The Speculative*Method in Entomol- 
ogy (1895) and The Utility of Specific Characters and Physi- 
ological Correlation (1896). On the one hand he translated 
and edited Weismann's Studies in the Theory of Descent 
(1882) and on the other indulged in local faunistics, as evi- 
denced by The Lepidoptera of Leyton and Neighbourhood: 
a contribution to the County Fauna (1891) and U'hat has 
become of the British Satyridac? (1911). He was a member 
of the Royal, chemical and other technical societies and had 
received several honorary degrees. 



DR. FREDERICK WILLIAM RUSSELL, for many years a prac- 
titioner in the town of Winchendon, Massachusetts, died at 
the residence of his son-in-law, Dr. Frank J. Hall, 4119 Cedar 
Springs Avenue, Dallas, Texas, November 20, 1915, aged 
seventy-one. 

He graduated from Harvard College in the class of 1869, 
and from the Medical Department of New York University 
in the class of 1871. He was a hospital steward during the 
Civil War, and served in that capacity under his father. Dr. 
Ira Russell, who was commissioned by Abraham Lincoln to 
organize the hospital service in Tennessee, Missouri and Ar- 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Jan., 'l6 

kansas, both father and son being in service at the close of the 
war at Prairie Grove, Arkansas. 

After his graduation in medicine he associated himself in 
practice with his father in Winchendon, where father and son 
together conducted "The Highlands," a private institution for 
the treatment of mental and nervous invalids, established by 
Dr. Ira Russell, and one of the first of its kind. 

After the death of his father, in 1888, Dr. F. W. Russell 
continued "The Highlands" up to three years ago, when from 
ill health he gave up active work to make his home (together 
with his wife, Mrs. Caroline Marvin Russell, who survives 
him) with his daughter, Mrs. Frank J. Hall, in Dallas. Dur- 
ing his brief residence in Dallas, because of his genial nature 
and interest in all social and scientific bodies, he made many 
friends. 

In connection with his medical studies, Dr. Russell made a 
lifetime study of entomology and formed a collection of moths. 

His remains were taken by his son, Walter M. Russell, of 
Emporia, Kansas, to Winchendon, Mass., where they were 
laid to rest in the family lot. F. T. H. 

[Dr. Russell was a substantial friend of the NEWS in its 
early days and his interest in the journal was continued to the 
last. The number for April, 1915, contains an illustrated ar- 
ticle from his pen : "A Remarkable Abdominal Structure in 
Certain Moths."] 

A card from Mr. P. Wytsman, from Brussels (Belgium), 
informs me of the death of M. CHARLES KERREMANS, which 
occurred on the tenth of October, 1915, at the age of 68 years. 
M. Kerremans was a student of the Buprestids, and his great 
monograph of this family remains, unfortunately, unfinished 
with the first part of the seventh volume of this monumental 
work. A. FKNVES, Pasadena, Calif. 



The number of KNTOMOI.OCICAL NEWS for December. 1015, was 
mailed at the Philadelphia Post Office on December 3, 1915. 

The first line on pa.^e ii, volume xxv, of the NEWS should read, "The 
M-vcral numbers of the NV.ws for KM.}," etc. 

Vol. xxv, page 445, I3th line from bottom for "1892" read "1852." 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHMITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough around the front, 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of the front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in addition to being abso- 
lutely dust, moth and dermestes proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos- 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42 in. high, 13 in. deep, 183 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameled green outside. For details of Dr. Skin- 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological News, Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside lined with cork; the outside enameled any color 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are 9x13x24 in. deep, but can be furnished 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. We do not assert that this wooden box has all the quali- 
ties of the metal box, especially in regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 
a box, we think, superior to any other wood insect box. The bottom is cork lined. 
Outside varnished. For catalogue and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WARD'S ~ 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE. ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 189O 

When Writing Please Mention " Entomological New*." 



K-S Specialties 



Entomology 



THE KNY-SCHEERER COMPANY 

Department of Natural Science 404-410 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Kxotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 




JLNSKCT BOXKS We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and cara 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 

NS/3o8s Pla'm Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15% in Each $0.25 

NS/3085 SizeSxio^in Each .15 

MS/3091 Lepldoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 
cover and bottom of strong pasteboard, covered with 
bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 
Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf (peat). 

Per dozen -: 5.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Per dozen 6.00 

Caution : Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 




NS/309I 



(For exhibition purposes) 




NS/3I2I 



NS/3I2I K.-S. Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 
fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8x11x2% in. (or to order, 8%xio%x2% in.) 

Size 12x16x2% in. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 

Size 14x22x2% ' n - (ot to order, 14x22x2% in.) 

Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 



$0.70 
1.20 
2.00 



THE KNY SCHEERER CO. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 

6. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 



PARIS EXPOSITION : 
Eight Awards and Medals 




PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 
Gold Medal 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION : Grand Prize and Gold Medal 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc. 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kinds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Paplllo columbus (gundlachlanus), the brightest colored American Papilio, very 
rare, perfect specimens $1.50 each : second quality $1.00 each. 

i Writing: ritMi.se Mention "Kiitomological New*." 



P. C.Stookhausen Printer, 53-55 N. 7th Street, Philadelphia. 



FEBRUARY, 1916. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. No. 2. 




John Lawrence Le Conte, 
J825-J883. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M,D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 

KERA T. CRESSON. J. A. G. REHN. 

PHILIP LAURENT, ERICH DAECKK. H. W. WENZBt- 



PHILADELPHIA : 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 

Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $r.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 

|g?" Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, 
15 cents ; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, 20 cents ; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents ; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 



PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper. 30 characters or less, 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c. each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing 

C. V. BLACKBURN, 12 PINE STRKET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate II. 




EMPOASCA OBTUSA LEONARD. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



FEBRUARY, 1916. 



No. 2. 



CONTENTS: 



Leonard The Immature Stages of two 
Hemiptera Empoasca obtusa Walsh 
(Typhlocybidae) and Lopidea robi- 
niae Uhler (Capsidae) 49 

Oberthiir Lycaena piasus et rhaea 
( Lep. ) 54 

Sell Hunting Butterflies in the Ozarks 
(Lep.) 55 

Braun Neplicula rhamnicola nom. 
nov. ( Lepid. ) 56 

Woodworth A New Descriptive For- 
mula 57 

Mr. E. A. Schwarz Elected Honorary 
President 58 

Dunn Hermetia illucens Breeding in 
a Human Cadaver (Dipt.) 59 

Cockerell The Bee-genus Halictoides 
in North America ( Hym. ) 61 

Banks Two New Species of Cerceris 
(Hym.i Philanthidae) 64 

Hebard A new Species of the Genus 
Gammarotettix from California (Or- 
thoptera, Tettigoniidae) 65 



67 
69 



82 



Schwarz Observations on the Habits 
of Catocala titania Dodge (Lepid.).. 

Girault Two New Mymaridae from 
the Eastern United States ( Hym. ). . . 

Hancock Pink Katy-Dids and the In- 
heritance of Pink Coloration (Orth.) 

Braun Notes on Lithocolletis with 
Descriptions of new species ( Lep. ). . 

Editorial A Source of Annoyance and 
Trouble 85 

Westcott Rarities (Hymen., Neurop. , 
Odon.) ^ 85 

Ellis The Change of Color in the Win- 
ter Eggs of Myzus rosarum and Mac- 
rosiphum rosae ( Hem., Horn.) 86 

Entomological Literature 86 

Notice of Ectoparasites, part i. Vol. I.. 90 

Notice of Revista Chilena de Historia 
Natural and Anales de Zoologia Apli- 
cada 

Doings of Societies The Convocation 
Week Meetings 91 

Obituary Francis Marion Webster ... 96 



90 



The Immature Stages of two Hemiptera Empoasca 

obtusa Walsh (Typhlocybidae) and Lopidea 

robiniae Uhler (Capsidae).* 

By M. D. LEONARD, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Plates II, III) 
Empoasca obtusa Walsh (Plate II). 

During the early spring of 1915 twigs of the common cot- 
tonwood, Populus deltoidcs Marsh, and of the Lombardy Pop- 
lar, Populus nigra italica Du Roi, were brought into the Cor- 
nell Insectary for the purpose of rearing a species of Idio- 
ccrits (B\tlwscopidac} which was known to infest them. Four 
or five days before the nymphs of Idioccnt's began to hatch, 
several small, greenish-yellow, first-stage nymphs were ob- 
served running actively about on the opening buds of the 

* Contribution from the Department of Entomology of Cornell Uni- 
versity. 

49 



5<D ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

Lombardy poplar. These greatly resembled nymphs of the 
apple leaf -hopper, Empoasca wall Le Baron. One of these 
first-stage nymphs was described on April 15, and the first 
fifth-stage nymph was observed on April 25. The trees from 
which the twigs were taken were not again examined until 
July 31. On the latter date one adult was found on each spe- 
cies of poplar. No egg pouches were observed. 

The following descriptions of the nymphal stages are 
based on rearings made in the Cornell Insectary during the 
spring of 1915. The drawings were made by the writer. The 
adult was kindly determined for me by Prof. Herbert Osborn. 

R. L. Webster ( Ent. News, xxi, 265-266) states that "the 
young nymphs were characterized by dull, reddish tibiae and 
tarsi. The eyes and antennae were red brown." In the speci- 
mens which the writer reared the tibiae were entirely pale and 
the tip of the tarsi was dusky in stage I, more brownish in 
stage II. The eyes were dark reddish and the antennae dusky 
rather than red brown. 

The Egg (Fig. i). Empoasca obtusa spends the winter in 
the egg-stage. On April 17 egg-pouches of this insect were 
observed on the twigs in the Insectary. They resembled those 
of Empoasca mail Le Baron, and were situated on the outer 
side of the larger bud scales. (See Fig. 2. Tissue has been re- 
moved to show anterior end of egg.) This differs somewhat 
from the observations of R. L. Webster, who states that he 
found the egg-pouches placed "in wood two or three years old, 
which on poplar trees is comparatively soft wood." The buds 
at this time were just beginning to burst. Eggs are placed 
singly in the pouches. 

Length of egg, i.i mm.; greatest width, 2.7 mm.; pale translucent, 
shining, cylindrical, rather strongly curved, bluntly rounded at posterior 
end, tapering somewhat and more sharply pointed at anterior end. 

Stage / (Fig. 3). Length, i nun.; width of head, including eyes, 
.36 mm. General color pale greenish yellow or pale translucent slightly 
tinged with greenish. Thorax slightly suffused with dusky, eyes red- 
dish. Antennae, except hasal segment, dusky. Legs pale translucent 
tinged with dusky, tip of tarsi, and the claws darker. 

Stage II (Fig. 4). Length, 1.44 mm.; width of head, including eyes, 
.414 mm.; general color pale greenish yellow. Eyes reddish. An- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 51 

tennae and legs as in preceding stage, tip of tarsi, and the claws 
brownish. 

Stage III (Fig. 5). Length, 1.7 mm.; width of head, including the 
eyes, .558 mm. ; general color pale greenish yellow. Thorax sparsely 
mottled with faint dusky spots. Eyes dusky. Antennae and legs as 
in preceding stage. Wing-pads becoming apparent. 

Stage IV (Fig. 6). Length, 2.25 mm.; width of head, including 
eyes, .684 mm. General color pale greenish yellow. Thorax often 
faintly mottled on lateral margins with dusky spots as in preceding 
stage. Eyes pale, faintly tinged with dusky. Antennae pale, slightly 
tinged with dusky, except basal segment. Wing-pads extend back to 
second half of third abdominal segment. 

Stage V (Fig, 7). Lengtn, 2.61 mm.; width of head, including eyes, 
.846 mm. General color pale greenish, abdomen tinged with yellow- 
ish. Mesothorax often with a faint dusky spot on either side near 
cephalic margin. Wing-pads reach back nearly to sixth abdominal 
segment. Antennae pale yellowish. Eyes pale yellowish, slightly 
tinged with dusky at inner margin and with a reddish stripe near 
outer margin. Femora pale greenish ; tibiae and tarsi pale yellowish, 
extreme tip of second tarsal segment, and the claws dusky. 

Adult. The original description of this species, as given by Walsh, 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9, 316 (1864), is as follows: "Pale grass 
green. Front of head forming a very obtuse angle with the apex 
rounded off. Each ocellus surrounded with a fuscous spot. Eyes and 
tips of the tarsal joints fuscous; elytra greenish-subhyaline ; tips hya- 
line. Triangular cell peduncled. Wings hyaline. Length to tip of 
wings, three-sixteenth of an inch." 

Lopidea robiniae Uhler (Plate III). 

On June 10, 1915, a number of reddish, first-stage Capsid 
nymphs, with a white band at the base of the abdomen, were 
observed on the leaves of the common locust, Robinia pseudo- 
acacia L., at Honeoye Falls, New York. On June 21, third 
and fourth-stage nymphs were obtained, and on June 26, the 
first fifth-stage nymph was observed. July 7 fifth-stage 
nymphs were very common and on July 10 two adults were 
taken in company with the nymphs. These were kindly deter- 
mined for me by Mr. H. H. Knight as Lopidea robiniae Uhler. 
A few fourth-stage nymphs were also present on this date. 
Although the younger nymphs were more commonly seen on 
the leaves, the older ones rested, for the most part, on the 
smaller twigs. When the hand was brought near they would 
run rapidly, keeping always on the opposite side. By July 31 
most of the nymphs had transformed to adults. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

It is possible that Lopidea robiniae is two-brooded, at least 
in New York State. Mr. H. H. Knight has kindly informed 
me that during 1915 at Wyoming, New York, most of the 
nymphs had matured by the latter part of July. No specimens 
were again taken until August 12, when 8 adults and 3 fifth- 
stage nymphs were collected on locust. These were appar- 
ently stragglers from the first brood. Although constant search 
was made for Lopidea robiniae no more specimens were 
found until September 14 at Wyoming, when adults were very 
abundant. Five or six fifth-stage nymphs were collected and 
about 163 adults, many of which were teneral. 

If the species is one-brooded it is possible that the excep- 
tionally cool, rainy weather which prevailed throughout west- 
ern New York during; June and July, 1915, delayed the hatch- 
ing of many of the over-wintering eggs until the early part of 
August. This would give the nymphs about a month to pro- 
duce such a large number of adults as was found by Mr. 
Knight on September 14. 

The foliage of the trees on which the nymphs were most 
abundant was injured to a considerable extent by a character- 
istic yellow stippling and sometimes in addition the leaves were 
crumpled. When feeding, the nymphs remained mostly on 
the under side of the leaves. 

Stage I (Fig. i). Length, 1.35 mm.; greatest width of abdomen 
.576 mm. Head pinkish, a whitish, rather indefinite procurved line on 
vertex connecting the eyes. Each thoracic segment with two dusky 
spots as shown in the figure. Laterad of spots on pro- and meso- 
thorax, whitish; whole of metathorax, median line on thorax and 
behind spots on the two thoracic segments, tomato red. Abdomen 
tomato red, except for second half of first segment, the whole of the 
second and a rather indefinite spot on lateral margin of segments 3-6 
inclusive, white. Opening of dorsal gland indicated by a dusky spot. 
Antennae reddish, paler at joints; terminal segment covered with fine 
golden hairs; other segments more sparsely clothed with longer dark 
hairs. Legs pale brownish, tarsi dusky. Dorsum sparsely clothed 
with rather long black hairs. 

Stage II (Fig. 2). Length, 1.8 mm.; greatest width of abdomen, 
.792 mm. General color tomato red. Tlead pale grayish or dusky, a 
white spot behind eyes. Dusky spots on thorax much larger than in 
preceding stage. As before, lateral margin of pro- and mesothorax 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 53 

white, the metathorax, the hind margin of pro- and mesothorax and 
the median line of thorax, tomato red. The median line meets a pro- 
curved line on vertex of the same color which connects the eyes. 
Abdomen as in preceding stage. Eyes and antennae dark reddish. 
Legs darker than in stage I, almost dusky, femora sometimes slightly 
paler at tip, tarsi somewhat darker. Body more hairy than in pre- 
ceding stage. 

Stage III (Fig. 3). Length, 2.34 mm.; greatest width of abdomen, 
i.oo mm. General color a little darker than in preceding stage. Head 
and thorax washed strongly with dark grayish or dusky, except for 
narrow median line and the narrow hind border of the pro- and meso- 
thorax which are tomato red. Head marked as before. Abdomen as 
in preceding stage. Eyes very dark reddish. Antennae dark reddish 
to dark brownish gray. Legs dark brownish gray, femora sometimes 
slightly paler at tip. Wing-pads just beginning to show. Body more 
hairy than in preceding stage. 

Stage IV (Fig. 4). Length, 3.12 mm.; greatest width, across 
wing-pads, i.i mm. More elongate than in preceding stage. Head and 
thorax entirely overlaid with dusky except for the white spot 
behind the eyes and the narrow tomato red median line which meets 
the procurved line of the same color on the vertex. Abdomen as be- 
fore except that hind margin of first segment and second half of 
second segment are whitish ; seventh segment also has a white spot on 
lateral margin. Eyes very dark reddish. Legs and antennae almost 
black. Dorsum now thickly clothed with fine blackish hairs, more 
abundant than before. Wing-pads reach back nearly to third abdom- 
inal segment. 

Stage V (Fig. 5). Length, 4.00 mm.; greatest width, across wing- 
pads, 1.62 mm. Head similar to preceding stage. Ground color of 
thorax red, strongly washed with dusky except for narrow pinkish 
median line. Two large, more or less distinct, subquadrate dusky spots 
on prothorax. Wing-pads are blackish and reach about to second half 
of fifth abdominal segment. Abdomen with first and second seg- 
ments marked with pinkish rather than whitish as before ; the spots 
on segments 3-7 also pinkish. Eyes blackish. Legs and antennae 
more slendtr and slightly longer than in preceding stages and almost 
black. Dorsum and legs still thickly clothed with hairs as before. 

The individuals of this stage seem to vary in size and color some- 
what more than those which I have examined of the other stages. 
Some are slightly longer than 4.00 mm., others somewhat smaller. 
Also some specimens are considerably darker, especially on the thorax, 
than others. 

Adult, female (Fig. 6). Length, 6.25-6.50 mm.; width. 2.0-2.5 mm. 
Orange, with a broad black stripe which extends the whole length of 



54 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 



the insect. Head orange or brownish-yellow with a broad blackish 
stripe either side of the median line and a small black dot behind the 
antennal tubercle. In front of the antennae the two stripes fuse into 
one which runs to the base of the beak. Eyes dark red. Beak, an- 
tennae and legs black; coxae and trochanters pale-translucent; venter 
pinkish. 

Male. Slightly smaller and narrower than female. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate II Empoasca obtusa Walsh. 

Fig. i. Egg. 

Fig. 2. Bursting poplar bud with egg-pouch. Tissue removed 
to expose anterior half of egg. 

Fig. 3. Stage one. 

Fig. 4. Stage two. 

Fig. 5. Stage three. 

Fig. 6. Stage four. 

Fig. 7. Stage five. 
Plate III Lopidea robiniae Uhler. 

Fig. I. Stage one. 

Fig. 2. Stage two. 

Fig. 3. Stage three. 

Fig. 4. Stage four. 

Fig. 5. Stage five. 

Fig. 6. Adult. 



Lycaena piasus et rhaea (Lep.). 

Je crois que les Lycaena piasus Boisduval et rhaca Boisduval dont 
j'ai donne les figures sous les Nos. 1950 de la PI. ccxxxvii et 2078 et 
2079 de la PI. ccxxxix des Etudes de Lepidopterologic Comparee 
appartiennent a line seule et meme espece. 

Le nom rhaca doit etre supprime, comme faisant double emploi 
avec piasus plus ancien. Veuillez remarquer ce que j'ai ecrit a la page 
43 du Volume IX, lere partie : "II est etonnant que Boisduval ait oublie 
1'espece qu'il avait appelee piasus losqu'il a decrit rhaca." J'indiquais 
ainsi mon opinion relativement a rhaca synonyme de piasus. 

Dans la collection Boisduval le type piasus n'est pas bien frais. 
Sagittifcra Felder (Novara; tab. xxxv, fig. 20, 21) est egalement 
synonyme de piasus. 

Done le synonymic doit etre ainsi etablie : 
piasus Bdv. 
sagittifcra Felder, 
rhaca Bdv. 
CHARLES OBERTHLJR, Rennes, France, 30 Octobre, 1915. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate III. 




LOPIDEA ROBINIAE-LEONARD. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 55 

Hunting Butterflies in the Ozarks (Lep.). 

By R. A. SELL, Houston, Texas. 

Southern Missouri embraces the only highland region of the 
Mississippi Valley. These highlands can almost be regarded 
as one of Nature's scrap heaps, since they contain so many 
features that are both striking and unique. Being well sup- 
plied with water and a diversity of food plants the protected 
coves and glades and brushy weed patches form an inviting 
refuge for the butterflies that feed in the open fields of the 
adjoining states. 

Most entomologists are aware of the fact that the Ozark 
region offers exceptional opportunities for collecting butter- 
flies especially in the adult stage but it may astonish some 
of them to see the unusual range of this list taken in five days. 
There were three of us in the party and we tramped over the 
brakes, heavily wooded knobs and the open fields of a district 
extending from about forty miles northeast of Springfield in 
a rather wide circle to a little south of east. The start was 
made on August 22 and the weather was fairly satisfactory. 
This being the real harvest season, apples, melons and other 
dainties were very plentiful. Many wild flowers, especially 
of the composite family, were in bloom. In little coves near 
the open fields many widely different varieties of butterflies 
took shelter together. A fifty mile walk in this country will 
include various kinds of scenery and there are some very pros- 
perous farms in close proximity to scrub-oak wastes and rocky 
knolls. 

The people, mostly of the friendly, easy-going independ- 
ent small farmer type, are not over curious and are not given 
to sentiment. "What are you goin' to do with them things?" 
and "How much do you get for one?" are typical questions. 
Every one seemed to have plenty of time to stop and talk to us. 

Our list is as follows : 

Basilarchia disippus Chlorippe celtis 

Basilarchia weidemeyeri Pyrrhanaea andria 

Basilarchia astyanax Debis portlandia 

Basilarchia arthemis Satyrodes canthus 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[Feb., '16 



Neonympha gemma 
Neonympha eurytus 
Coenonympha ochracea 
Satyrus alope 
Satyrus charon 
Calephelis borealis 
Thecla halesus 
Thecla autolycus 
Thecla melinus 
Thecla cecrops 
Chrysophanus thoe 
Lycaena lygdamas 
Lycaena comyntas 
Anosia plexippus 
Euptoieta claudia 
Argynnis idalia 
Argynnis diana 
Argynnis cybele 
Argynnis alcestis 
Brenthis myrina 
Brenthis boisduvali 
Melitaea harrisi 
Phyciodes nycteis 
Phyciodes ismeria 
Phyciodes phaon 
Phyciodes tharos 
Grapta comma 
Grapta satyrus 
Vanessa antiopa 
Pyrameis atalanta 
Pyrameis huntera 
Pyrameis cardui 
Junonia coenia 
Nathalis iole 



Pieris protodice 
Pieris rapae 
Catopsilia eubule 
Meganostoma caesonia 
Colias eurytheme 
Colias philodice 
Papilio marcellus 
Papilio turnus 
Papilio cresphontes 
Papilio asterias 
Papilio troilus 
Papilio palamedes 
Papilio philenor 
Epargyreus tityrus 
Eudamus proteus 
Thorybes bathyllus 
Alchalarus lycidas 
Hesperia tessellata 
Hesperia centaureae 
Pholisora catullus 
Pholisora hayhursti 
Thanaos lucilius 
Thanaos persius 
Amblyscirtes vialis 
Erynnis ottoe 
Thymelicus aetna 
Atalopedes huron 
Polites peckius 
Limochroes taumas 
Limochroes pontiac 
tEuphyes verna 
Euphyes metacomet 
Poanes massasoit 
Phycanassa viator 



Nepticula rhamnicola nom. nov. (Lepid.). 

The name Nepticula rhamnella, used by me in describing a new spe- 
cies of Nepticula in the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural 
History, xxi, 96, 1912, is preoccupied by Nepticula rhamnella 11. S. of 
the European fauna. 

I propose the name Nepticula rhamnicola for the American species. 
ANNETTE F. BRAUN, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. =57 

A New Descriptive Formula. 

By C. W. WOODWORTH, University of California, Berkeley, 

Calif. 

The writer has used in his classes for a number of years 
certain methods for pointing out features of structure which 
are very evident to the eye, but not easily expressed in simple 
descriptions. 

One of these, which has been particularly helpful, is pre- 
sented below. It consists in the use of shape formulae for 
Hemiptera and Coleoptera. It has been found possible to thus 
describe the structure in question so well that a student can 
reproduce a recognizable picture from a line of numbers with 
more accuracy in detail than found in many published illustra- 
tions. 

The plan in these formulae has been to determine the meas- 
urements a careful artist would make when laying out a draw- 
ing and by always arranging the numbers in the same order 
avoid the necessity of specifying what each measurement in- 
dicated. Instead of making these measurements in fractions 
of inches or millimeters, it was found better to use a portion 
of the body as a unit and the dimension finally adopted was a 
tenth of the length of the prothorax. This proved sufficiently 
accurate for the purpose and not too minute. 

The sequence of taking the measurements is indicated on the 
accompanying figure. The head measurements are taken from 
measurements from the front edge of the thorax, and the 
thoracic and abdominal measurements from the hind edge of 
the thorax. The widths 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 are measured 
from side to side, the others along the middle line parallel 
with the axis of the part. Where the axis of the body bends 
there should be added (14) the number of degrees bend at 
the head and thorax articulation and (15) the angle at the 
pro- and mesothorax articulation. When the pygidium is want- 
ing 3 and 4 would be given as the same size and 13 would 
read o, and if the thorax is widest at the hind angles then 7 
would be o and must be included to avoid the necessity of ex- 
plaining its absence. The formulae for the bug and beetle 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[Feb., '16 



8 



shown on the two sides of the middle line in the figure, are 
respectively : 

5 2 21 27 3 9 5 14 18 18 7 10 10 
5 6 15 27 2 8 3 16 13 20 6 12 16 
The first measurement is the length of the head which is 5, 
that is 5/1 o the length of the prothorax in both cases, the sec- 
ond the length of the scutellum, 2 
and 6 respectively, the third to the 
ends of the corium (21) or elytron 
(15), the fourth the total length 
behind the prothorax which in both 
cases figured is 27/10 of the length 
of the prothorax. 

The next three pairs of measure- 
ments give the location of the wid- 
est part and the width of each of 
the three regions of the body. Thus 
the beetle, at its widest point, is as 
wide as 18/10 of the length of the 
prothorax and this point is 18/10 
behind the hind edge of the pro- 
thorax, while the bug is 20 wide at 
its maximum width, but this point 
is further forward, being only 13 
back of thorax. The last three 
numbers are the widths at the three constrictions. 

In using these numbers the length of the prothorax, ac- 
cording to size desired, is measured along a line which will 
serve as the middle line of the insect ; then, in order lay off 
the other dimensions, finally connecting up these points in the 
way an artist calls "blocking in," giving a sketch very accurate 
in proportions. 

Mr. E. A. Schwarz, Honorary President. 

A note in Science for Jan. 21, 1916, states that the Entomological 
Society of Washington has created the office of Honorary President 
of the society and has elected Mr. E. A. Schwarz thereto. We tender 
our congratulations to His Honor and to the Society. It is intended 
that this position will "be tendered only to active members who have 
been especially prominent in the affairs of the society and to convey 
with it expressions of gratitude, respect and honor." 




Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 50 

Hermetia illucens Breeding in a Human Cadaver 

(Dipt.).* 

By L. H. DUNN, Board of Health Laboratory, Ancon, Canal 

Zone. 

The flies of the Stratiomyidae, or "soldier flies" family, 
seem to have a great variety of breeding places, especially 
those of the species that are terrestrial, some being carnivor- 
ous, while other nearly allied species will only deposit their 
eggs on decaying vegetable matter. Hermetia illucens, the 
species so common in both North and South America, shows 
a considerable variation in the selection of food material for 
the larvae, but in the literature at hand I have been unable to 
find any record of their breeding in a human cadaver as in 
the case which came under my observation, and which may 
be of interest to those who are engaged in making observa- 
tions on this family. 

A few months ago the body of a man was found lying in 
the jungle about three miles from one of the settlements in 
the Canal Zone. It was evidently a case of suicide and death 
had occurred as the result of a gunshot wound in the head. 
The body was identified by the metal check and other articles 
found in the pockets of the clothing as being that of a man 
who had been missing for more than a month, and evidently 
had been lying on the ground exposed to the elements for 
that length of time, and was badly decomposed ; the clothing, 
bones, and a little flesh remaining. 

When found, the remains were covered with the long dark 
larvae of H. illucens. They were in such great numbers that 
some parts of the body, and even places on the sodden cloth- 
ing, were covered with crawling masses of larvae almost half 
an inch deep. There must have been several thousands of 
the larvae on the body upon its arrival at the morgue (which 
is a building connected with the laboratory), and these were 
but a part of the numbers covering it when first discovered. 

* Read before The Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone, 
October 16, 1915. 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

Several hundred of the larvae were collected and placed in 
a glass jar having about two inches of damp sand in the 
bottom. Within twenty-four hours all of the larvae had 
burrowed beneath the surface of the sand, but not deep 
enough to be seen on the bottom of the jar. None afterwards 
went to the bottom. They apparently remained just out of 
sight below the surface. The sand was not kept moist and in 
a few days became very dry. No food was placed in the jar 
until the seventh day after the larvae had been placed in it, 
and then a small piece of decomposed beef, about one inch 
square, was placed on top of the sand to determine whether 
the larvae were ready to pupate or whether they would con- 
tinue to feed. At the end of twenty-four hours all that re- 
mained of the beef was the damp place which represented 
its former position on the sand. No other food was placed 
in the jar. 

The larvae did not cast their skins while pupating but 
passed the pupal period within the larval skins, which re- 
mained unbroken and but very little changed in appearance, 
until time for the adult flies to emerge. The first adult emerg- 
ed twenty-three days after the larvae were placed in the jar 
and they continued to emerge as late as eighty-one days. It 
was impossible to make a correct estimate of the pupal period 
as they did not all begin to pupate at anywhere near the same 
date and the period of emergence was so long. 

All of the several hundred larvae collected and bred out 
were H. illuccns, no other species being present. No larvae 
of any other dipterous families were found in the cadaver. 
This, by the way, is remarkable, considering the number of 
Chrysomyia macellaria, and other flies whose larvae are car- 
nivorous, that are found in this region and which are always 
ready to deposit their eggs in decaying animal matter. A de- 
composed body, either human or animal, is a favorite breed- 
ing place for C. macellaria, but not a single larva of this 
species was found. It is not improbable that the larvae of 
//. illuccns in such numbers were sufficiently predaceous to 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 6l 

destroy all other larvae that attempted to live in such close 
proximity with them. 

Howard states : "There are observations on record which 
seem to show that the larvae of the curious American genus 
Hermetia may live in bee hives, and in the nests of wild bees. 
At all events, H. illuccns has been seen hovering about bee 
hives and thrusting its eggs through cracks in the hives. " : 
The dissimilarity of breeding places as mentioned by Howard 
and the case which came under my observation would seem to 
show a considerable diversity in this species in the selection 
of breeding places. 

I wish to express my thanks to Mr. Frederick Knab, of 
Washington, D. C., for his kindness in identifying the flies for 
me. 



The Bee-genus Halictoides in North America (Hym.) 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, University of Colorado, Boulder, Col. 

The genus Halictoides. as the name indicates, consists of 
more or less Hal ictus-like bees, which however belong to the 
Panurgine series. The species are not very numerous, but are 
often remarkable for their secondary sexual characters. One 
of the most extraordinary, with the male legs elaborately pro- 
duced into spines and angles, has been separated by Viereck 
as a distinct genus, Cryptohalictoides. This species, C. spiiii- 
ferus Vier. comes from Nevada. Several subgenera have also 
been recognized. Cockerell and Porter (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
Dec. 1899, p. 420), after investigating the mouth-parts of a 
number of species, concluded that typical Plalictoides (type 
H. dcntivcntris Nyl.) was not represented in America, and 
placed the American species then available in a new subgenus 
Parahalictoides; with the exception of H. marginatus, which 
fell in another subgenus, Epihalictoides. A third American 
subgenus is Conohalictoides Viereck, based on H. novaeangliae 

* Howard, L. O "The Insect Book," Page 128. Doubleday, Page 
& Company, New York, 1912. 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

(lovelli Vier.). Ncohalict aides Vier. cannot be separated from 
Parahalict aides, the type of the former (mounts) being closely 
related to that of the latter (campaniilae.). 

The following table separates the known species. Halic- 
toides oryx Viereck is confirmed as a valid species by the dis- 
covery of the female. I find I have a female taken by Mr. S. 
A. Rohwer in the Canadian Zone on North Boulder Creek, 
Colorado, at flowers of Grind clia erecta, Aug. 21, 1907. It is 
larger than H. tinslcyi, and is readily separated by the distinct- 
ly green mesothorax, and greenish tints on middle of ab- 
domen. The head is very broad, and the mesothorax very 
hairy. 

Stigma clear amber color ; wings perfectly hyaline i 

Stigma dusky or dark ; wings usually brownish, or at least not quite 
clear 2 

1. Area of metathorax dull, minutely sculptured (late summer and 

autumn species) marginatus Cress. 

Area of metathorax shining (spring species) . .fulchricornis n. sp. 

2. Face narrow, facial quadrangle conspicuously longer than broad, 

(species of N. E. States) noracangliac Rob. 

Face not thus narrow, usually quite broad, (species of W. States). 3 

3. Face covered with stiff black hairs, especially dense and abundant 

between antennae maurus Cress. 

Face not thus covered with black hair 4 

4. Mandibles with an extremely long curled tuft of tawny hair beneath ; 

hind tibiae fringed with extremely long white hair, (S. 

Calif.) davidsoni Ckll., $ 

Mandibles with no such tuft 5 

5. Middle basitarsi expanded into a large flat lamina (S. 

Calif.) rirgatus Ckll., $ 

Middle basitarsi not thus modified 6 

6. Hind tibiae enormous, claviform; hind tarsi very short, the basi- 

tarsi expanded into a flat lamina (S. Calif.) . .mulleri Ckll., $ 
Hind legs not thus modified 7 

7. Male abdomen with a large tuft of dark fuscous hair subapically 

beneath, (species from Washington State, allied to 

mounts) cawpanulac Ckll. 

Male abdomen without such a dark tuft 8 

8. Males ; clypeus densely covered with long hair 9 

Females 



Vol. XXviiJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 63 

9. Mesothorax distinctly green, rather closely punctured all over; an- 

tennae very long (New Mexico) oryx Vier- 

Mesothorax shining hlack 10 

10. Disc of mesothorax sparsely and weakly punctured, .hari'cyi Ckll. 
Mesothorax with strong well separated punctures. saitndcrsi Ckll. 

11. Clypeus polished, hardly punctured, with a projecting lobe at each 

lower corner (New Mexico) fallugiae Ckll. 

Clypeus roughened or conspicuously punctured 12 

12. Mesothorax entirely dull; small Halictus-like species (New Mex- 

ico) tinslcyi Ckll. 

Mesothorax shining 13 

13. Front and vertex bluish ; abdomen with white hair-band on third 

and fourth segments mullcri Ckll. 

No blue tints 14 

14. Abdomen with conspicuous white hair-bands rirgatits Ckll. 

Abdomen without hair-bands 15 

15. First four segments of abdomen with very broad and conspicuous 

testaceous hind margins, (S. Calif.) saundersi Ckll. 

Abdominal segments not thus margined (N. M.) . .harreyi Ckll. 

Halictoides pulchricornis n. sp. 

<3 . Length about 7 mm., slender, black, shining ; head and thorax 
with long white hair, dense and pure white on face ; head broad, facial 
quadrangle broader than long; mandibles black, dark red at apex; 
labial palpi with first joint about 270 microns long, the other three to- 
gether about 400, the second joint about 170; joints of maxillary palpi 
subequal, the shortest much more than half length of longest; antennae 
long, the flagellum, except at base, bright orange-fulvous, dusky above. 

Mesothorax polished, hardly punctured; area of metathorax depress- 
ed, shining, the basal half with fine plicae; tegulae rufotestaceous ; 
wings hyaline, stigma amber color, nervures darker ; b. n. falling short 
of t. m. ; legs black with white hair ; middle femora short and deep ; 
hind tibiae large. 

Abdomen with hind margins of segments broadly ferruginous, bases 
of segments with thin white hair-bands ; apical plate small, spatulate. 

9. More robust; clypeus shining, with rather large shallow punc- 
tures; flagellum very short, bright orange-fulvous, except at base: face 
very broad; vertex depressed on each side of ocelli; abdomen broad. 

pfab. Mesilla Park, New Mexico, at flowers of plum. April 
14 (Cockcrcll}. Allied to //. saniidcrsi Ckll., but easily sep- 
arated by tbe clear wings with amber stigma, and the very 
feeble, evanescent punctures. 

Type in my collection. 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb.,'l6 

Two New Species of Cerceris (Hym., Philanthidae). 

By NATHAN BANKS, East Falls Church, Virginia. 
Cerceris posticata n. sp. 

$ . Black, with yellow marks. Face, most of the mandibles, two 
spots on pronotum, tegulae, postscutellum, bands near hind border of 
abdominal segments, that on first narrowly interrupted, that on second 
segment very broad and not narrowed in the middle, the others narrow, 
but widened on sides, lateral spots on second, third and fourth ventral 
segments, all yellow. 

Antennae rufous, except blackish toward tip above; last joint of 
antennae barely longer than the preceding, but little curved, third joint 
plainly longer than the fourth joint. Legs yellow, a black spot on pos- 
terior side of each femur. Wings dark, stigma yellowish, marginal 
cell reaches barely beyond the third submarginal cell. 

Clypeus convex, lower edge black, and with three small blunt teeth ; 
hair-lobes one and one-half times their breadth apart. Enclosure 
obliquely striate on the sides, middle area smooth, elevated, and with a 
median groove. 

Abdomen rather broad, basal segment much broader than long; 
pygidial area about one and one-third times longer than broad, the sides 
parallel, except converging close to base, tip truncate. Body moderately 
coarsely punctate. 

Length n mm. 

From Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, n July (Woodgate). 

Cerceris stigmosalis n. sp. 

$ . Black, with white marks. Face, under side of basal joint of an- 
tennae, base of mandibles, two spots on pronotum, outer part of tegu- 
lae, postscutellum, band near posterior margin of abdominal segments 
(except first), that on the second segment broad, barely narrowed in 
middle, the other bands very narrow, all yellow. Venter without spots, 
or very small ones. First segment of abdomen sometimes with small 
spot each side. 

Last joint of antennae no longer than preceding, but little curved, 
third joint slightly longer than fourth. 

Wings dark, stigma still darker, marginal cell extends plainly beyond 
the third submarginal cell. Legs pale yellowish, femur of front and 
middle pairs mostly black, the hind femora black on apical half or two- 
thirds; hind tibia black near tip; all tarsi mostly rufous. 

Clypeus slightly convex, lower edge truncate, black, and with three 
small blunt teeth; hair-lobes about twice their breadth apart. Enclos- 
ure obliquely striate on the sides, a median groove. 

Abdomen moderately broad, first segment a little broader than long; 
pygidium about one and two-thirds as long as broad, sides parallel, 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 65 

tip truncate; sides of last ventral segment with rufous hair. Body 
moderately coarsely punctate, about as in C. nigrcsccns. 

Length 12 mm. 

From Fargo, North Dakota, September, on Solidago 
(Stevens). 

Differs from C. nigrcsccns in absence of large ventral spots, 
in the dark stigma, and in the longer marginal cell. 

The types of both species are in the writer's collection. 



A new Species of the Genus Gammarotettix from 
California (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Gammarotettix cyclocercus new species. 

Closely related to the genotype, G. bilobatus (Thomas), dif- 
fering in the somewhat more slender form and strikingly dif- 
ferent male cerci, which in bilobatns are awl-like, but in the 
present species are longer and strongly incurved. In cyclocer- 
cus the male supra-anal plate is similar, but somewhat more de- 
cidedly produced. The somewhat more slender form appears 
to be the only character available in separating females of the 
two species. 

All previously definitely recorded material of bilobatns, as 
well as other specimens of that species before us, were taken 
in the coastal region and coast ranges of California, while 
the present species is known from a locality on the lower west- 
ern slopes of the Sierras. 

Type: $ ; Placerville, Eldorado County, California. May 
20, 1913. (E. O. Essig). [Hebard Collection Type No. 407.] 

Description of Type. Size small for the group; form compact and 
robust, but not as stout as bilobatus. Body cask-shaped ; narrowing 
cephalad and caudad, truncate. Vertex strongly declivent : fastigium 
with two small tubercles, deplanate between and briefly below these. 
Eyes small, suborbicular. Maxillary palpi short: first and second 
joints subequal in length, the two slightly longer than third joint ; 
fourth slightly longer than second; fifth or ultimate joint nearly as 
long as third and fourth joints taken together, gently and evenly ex- 
panding to the truncate, very slightly oblique, apex. Pronotum ex- 
panding slightly caudad, cephalic and caudal margins transverse, lat- 
eral lobes with ventral margin very weakly convex, ventro-cephalic 
angle sharply rounded obtuse-angulate, ventro-caudal angle broadly 




66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., '16 

rounded actite-angulate. Coxae unarmed. Femora short with margins 

smooth. Cephalic and median tibiae with 
margins smooth, each supplied distad with 
four minute spines ; caudal tibiae with dorsal 
margins supplied with alternating brief and 
very brief spines, armed distad with two pairs 
of short spurs, the dorsal pair being slightly 

view of supra-anal plate t j ie i on g er . Caudal metatarsus supplied with 

and cerci of type, male. . 

(Greatly enlarged.) a sharp dorso-distal spine. bupra-anal plate 

produced between the cerci in two large lobes with apices external, 
these lobes forming a deep cleft mesad, this continued as a medio- 
longitudinal suture to the base of the plate. Cerci stout, curving in- 
ward mesad above the supra-anal plate, with thornlike apex directed 
at a right angle to the proximal portion of the cereal shaft. Sub- 
genital plate large and full, surface slightly depressed meso-distad, dis- 
tal margin subsinuate, transverse. 

Allotype: 9 ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection.] 

Description of Allotype. Agrees with type except in the following 
features. Supra-anal plate short, bilobate ; beneath produced in a 
shield-shaped plate. Cerci small, awl-like. Ovipositor short, curved 
weakly upward; dorsal valves bearing on distal half of dorsal margin 
a number of irregular, moderately broad, transverse teeth, which in- 
crease in size to the apex which is formed by a longer, heavy, upward- 
curved tooth ; ventral valves supplied in distal third of ventral margin 
with five heavy, broad, transverse teeth, the surface of the valves con- 
cave between the bases of these. Subgenital plate produced in three 
long acute projections, of which mesal is slightly the longest, the space 
between these deeply and narrowly acute-angulate emarginate. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

33 ? ? 





Type 
11. 


Paratvpes 
11.-1S. 


Allotype 
12. 


Paratvpes 
10.-13. 


Width of bodv 


44 


4.3-4.5 


4.6 


4.3-4.7 




3 


2 9-33 


36 


3.4-3.6 




7.6 


7.4-8. 


78 


7.4-7.9 


Leneth of ovipositor. . 






4.3 


4.1-4.6 



Color Notes. General coloration prouts brown to buckthorn brown, 
slightly speckled with a darker shade. Mesonotmn and metanotum 
marked laterad with two heavy bands of dark mummy brown, which 
diverge regularly and strongly but become gradually weaker, caudad. 
Outer faces of caudal femora with numerous minute interrupted streaks 
of dark brown. Subgenital plate of male, as in bilobatus, bears a strik- 
ing dark transverse bar near its proximal margin. 

Tn addition to the type and allotype, we have before tis a 
series of six males and twelve females, bearing the same data, 
which may be considered paratypes. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 67 

Observations on the Habits of Catocala titania Dodge 

(Lepid.). 
By ERNST SCHWARZ, St. Louis, Mo. 

July, 1913, offered me the first chance to see Catocala 
titania in its natural environment. It was on the 4th and 5th 
of that month when I was so fortunate as to take four speci- 
mens of this species. All were quite worn, which would indi- 
cate that they must have been on the wing for some time. 

On June 7th, 1914, I happened upon a tract of woods, of 
about 20 acres, located in the Mississippi bottom, consisting 
chiefly of water elm, hawthorn and honey locust, with no un- 
derbrush. As the place was used for pasturage the lower 
branches of the hawthorn, Crataegits crus-galli, had been trim- 
med a few years ago, so as not to interfere with the grazing 
of the cattle. It occurred to me that such a place was the 
proper environment for titania. After a careful search that 
day I was disappointed, but I captured a fresh specimen of 
C. insolabilis. 

The next day, June 8th, 9 A. M., found me in the same 
place. The weather conditions were not promising, as the 
night had been cool with a northern breeze. Searching every 
hawthorn, I at last succeeded in locating a specimen ; however, 
not in plain view, but below the surface of the ground, on 
the trunk of a hawthorn where the dry weather had con- 
tracted the gumbo soil, leaving a crack of about an inch and 
a half. Blocking off with paper both sides of the crack, then 
placing the cyanide jar above the space left open. I expected 
the specimen to become alarmed, but it gave no sign of life. 
After a few minutes' impatient waiting I tickled it with a 
blade of grass, when suddenly the moth responded, full of 
life, trying to escape, but it was mine, for I had successfully 
covered the jar when it had entered. Thus I made my first 
capture of a perfect Catocala titania. 

On June loth I captured four, on the nth five, in a 
similar manner. The night from the nth to the I2th was 
warm with a southern breeze. On this day titania was to be 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., '16 

found resting up to seven feet above the ground. All speci- 
mens taken so far were males. On the I5th with similar 
weather conditions to those of the I2th I took five males and 
my first female. It is a beauty, about one-fourth larger than 
the males. All males taken this day were resting from two 
to six feet high, and the female on a branch about seven feet 
from the ground. The I4th and I5th brought me nine more 
males and two females. This closed the season for titania, 
as rain set in, with a north wind, which means here much 
pooler weather. Only a few battered specimens were seen 
after this. The two females taken on June I5th I placed in a 
paper bag with the object of procuring eggs from them. This 
proved a failure both died the second day of captivity. 

On June 25th, 1915, I took two females and one male. Ar- 
riving home I placed them in a glass globe, such as is used 
to cover street gas lights, about 18 inches high by 16 inches in 
diameter. In this I put a one inch twig of Crataegus crits- 
galli to which I pinned some bark of the trunk. The bark of 
crus-galli is quite shaggy and, I considered, would be an ideal 
thing for titania's egg depository. 

At 8.30 that evening I observed the male courting the fe- 
male, much like a sparrow, trying to make itself attractive by 
many peculiar antics, such as running from one side of the 
female to the other with wings half extended, exposing the 
beautiful color of the hind wings. In all these performances 
the wings were vibrated violently. 

In searching for a suitable place to deposit her eggs the 
female runs about head up or down but oviposition takes place 
head up. The eggs, from one to sixteen in a batch, are placed 
beneath the outer layer of the bark. 

These observations were made with the aid of an electric 
light, which was turned on and off at short intervals. 

Summary. Catocala titania always rests with head down 
on Crataegus crns-galli, in cool weather very low, often shel- 
tered by weeds or grasses. In warm weather they rest up to 
seven feet high, always in plain view ; there is no need to hide 
themselves from sight as their color harmonizes with that of 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 69 

the resting place. They are not easily disturbed and not at 
all by any kind of sound. Only when corning in direct con- 
tact with foreign material are they on the alert at once. When 
so disturbed they sometimes alight on the ground, keeping 
themselves perfectly motionless. 

C. titania is confined to a single species of tree, C. crus-galli, 
on which it deposits its eggs, feeds and rests. This tree grows 
in clusters in rich soil along the margins of swamps or near 
streams, which clusters are widely scattered, often having 
great distances between them. It is this which prevents, to 
some extent, the migration of C. titania from one cluster of 
C. crus-galli to another. Also it explains Mr. Dodge's and 
Prof. Rowley's futile search for the species in the type local- 
ity between 1900 and 1915 inclusive. Mr. Dodge had, un- 
doubtedly, exterminated it in the cluster of C. crus-galli where 
he first found it. 



Two New Mymaridae from the Eastern United 

States (Hym.) 
By A. A. GIRAULT, Washington, D. C. 

The following species are the first of the genus Ooctoinis 
Haliday to be described from North America. 

1. Ooctonus americanus new species. 

Female. Length, 1.15 mm. Black, the wings hyaline, venation dusky, 
the abdominal petiole and legs reddish brown, but the femora and 
tibiae suffused slightly with dusky. Incisions of abdominal segments 
white. 

Fore-wings with line discal ciliation as in rolynciim striuticornc, the 
marginal cilia short, not more than a seventh of the greatest wing 
width, distinctly shorter than the caudal marginal cilia of the caudal 
wing, the latter with six lines of discal cilia. Fore-wing with about 22 
lines of discal cilia where broadest. 

Distal tarsal joint black, the proximal joint of the tarsi of moderate 
length only. 

Flagellum slender ; funicle i suhequal to 2, longest, a little longer 
than the usual pedicel, the latter pale at tip ; funicle i about thrice long- 
er than wide ; funicle 3 somewhat shorter than 2, 4 considerably shorter 
than 3; 5 and 6 subequal, shortest, not quite two-thirds longer than 



~ o ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

wide; 7 and 8 stouter than the others, subequal, each as long as 3; 
club stouter than the funicle, equal in length to the three preceding 
joints or more. Club obliquely truncate from beyond the middle. 
Mandibles with three equal, acute teeth. 

Described from one female captured April 26, 1915, in the 
forest at Rock Creek Park, District of Columbia, by sweeping. 

Type : Catalogue No. 19353, U. S. National Museum, the 
specimen on a slide. 

2. Ooctonus silvensis new species. 

Female: Differs from the preceding in having the legs, except the 
yellowish hind coxae and whitish proximal three tarsal joints, jet black, 
and the following antennal differences: Funicle i is distinctly longer 
than 2, which is only somewhat longer than wide, no longer than 3; 
6 is globular and shortest, shorter than 5, which is subequal to 4; the 
marginal vein is distinctly longer; otherwise the same as far as could 
be seen. Mandibles tridentate in both species. In this species the sculp- 
ture is coarsely scaly except distad of a convex line on the scutellum 
proximad of the middle, where it is glabrous. The propodeum has a 
median carina, which diverges widely a little out from the base and also 
strong lateral carinae. 

Described from one female captured with the preceding. 
Type : Catalogue No. 19375, U. S. National Museum, the 
female on a slide. 

Pink Katy-Dids and the Inheritance of Pink Color- 
ation (Orth.). 

(PART ONE) 

By Dr. JOSEPH L. HANCOCK, Chicago, Illinois. 
In 1907 Wheeler published a paper on "Pink Insect Mu- 
tants," in which he brought together the various recorded in- 
stances of the finding of pink katy-dids in the United States. 1 
Moreover, in this resume some data gathered from personal 
observations were presented in attempting to disprove the 
earlier supposition that environmental conditions are respon- 
sible for pink coloration in katy-dids. The assumption was 
taken that the pink coloration could not result from temper- 
ature acting on the normal green pigment. Katy-dids were 

American Naturalist, Vol. xli, Dec., 1907, pp. 778-780. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. Jl 

found by Wheeler while sweeping the low vegetation in the 
prairies of Wisconsin and Illinois, and on one or two occasions 
he found in his net a few pink larvae and nymphs. It was 
these young katy-dids that gave him the clew as to the heredity 
of pink coloration, for the young insects were colored like 
the adults, and they occurred in the same sweepings with many 
specimens of the common green form of Amblycorypha ob- 
longifolia. Under these circumstances the only interpretation 
that could be drawn was that the pink katy-did is pink through- 
out life; the pinkness is therefore congenital or germinal in 
character, and not the result of environmental conditions. Fol- 
lowing upon this supposition it was assumed that the pink form 
of katy-did was a mutant. 

In addition to the normal green form of Amblycorypha 
there are known to be pink, brown or tan, and yellow forms 
of katy-did, though in the case of the latter only one specimen 
appears to have been reported. 

Wheeler seems to agree with Scudder and Shull in suppos- 
ing that the pink and probably the brown individuals also 
represent sports or mutants. The various phases of color 
above noted with the exception of the green have been regarded 
as analogous to those of albino animals and certain white 
flowering plants. 

In considering the subject of "Color Sports Among Insects/' 
Grossbeck 1 seems to regard the pink coloration of various 
insects as indicating sports or mutants, and he does not regard 
the color as the result of environment. 

On the other hand Knab 2 draws attention to pink and green 
caterpillars of the same species as being analogous to green 
and pink coloration of katy-dids, drawing therefrom the con- 
clusion that in all probability the difference in pigmentation 
is due to absorbtion of the coloring matter of the leaves of 
food plants on which the insects feed. 

In regard to the latter theory as to the cause of pink color- 
ing, the evidence which I have acquired from my breeding 

Science N. S. xxvi, pp. 639-640, 1907. 
2 Science N. S. xxvi, pp. 595-59?, I97- 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

experiments in crossing and rearing pink katy-dids, as will 
be noted in the sequence, is in direct refutation. The color 
of the hybrids confirms the view that the pink coloration is 
undoubtedly hereditary and obviously of germinal origin. It 
would follow from this that the color is in no way dependent 
on the food taken in the body by the individual. 

More recently a number of pink katy-dids have been found. 1 * 
Mr. Gray of Woods Hole, Massachusetts, found a male pink 
katy-did in the early part of the summer of 1912, and several 
years ago a yellow form was taken. 

According to Glaser 4 who reported the latter specimens, a 
speculative suggestion was made to him by Prof. Morgan, that 
two factors may be involved, the presence of both of which 
produced the pink form, the absence of one the yellow, and 
the absence of both factors the ordinary green form. 

Up to the present time but one attempt has been recorded 
to mate a female pink katy-did, Amblycorypha oblongifolia, 
with a male of the green form. This experiment was attempted 
by Wheeler, but failed completely. The reason of this negative 
result was attributed to the fact that it was tried too late in 
the season, or because the male may have been moribund, or 
exhausted, before it was placed in the jar with the female. The 
eggs laid by this insect a few days before her death were 
thought to have been unfertilized. 

Glaser mentions in connection with the live male pink katy- 
did found at Woods Hole, previously cited, that he intended 
to cross it with a normal green female to find out what the 
mendelizing characters are. But no record of the outcome of 
this proposed experiment has appeared. 

EXPERIMENTS IN CROSSING PINK WITH GREEN KATY-DIDS. 
The preliminary results of my experiments in crossing pink 
katy-dids and rearing the hybrids are set forth in the follow- 
ing account. In the course of this investigation I have noted 

3 Jpur. New York Ent. Soc. xxi, pp. 74-75, 1913 Davis reports 
specimens of Amblycorypha oblongifolia found on Long Island, and 
Grossbeck thought the allied species unusually abundant in New Jersey 
during 1912. 

4 Psyche, October, 1912, p. 159. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 73 

a number of facts relative to the life history of Amblycorypha 
oblongifolia which were apparently not recorded in the liter- 
ature. It is expected that with the further breeding experi- 
ments now contemplated, the factors of heredity, or gameto- 
genesis, can be more definitely suggested, in spite of the re- 
markably long period required in hatching the eggs. 

SOURCE OF MATERIAL FOR EXPERIMENT; THE ORIGINAL PINK 

FEMALE. 

In the summer of 1910 Miss Nettie Isom, a resident of Ken- 
ilworth, Illinois, offered her assistance in obtaining a live pink 
katy-did for crossing and study, and it was due to her two 
years' vigilance that she finally succeeded in capturing one of 
these insects for me on July 14, 1912. l I received the living 
insect two days later, July 16, at my summer quarters at Lake- 
side, Michigan. Miss Isom reported in a letter that the pink 
katy-did was found on a currant bush at Kenilworth, and in 
the two days she had it in captivity "it had grown and changed 
remarkably," and I infer from this statement that the insect 
probably molted. On its arrival it was immature, in fact 
it was a nymph in the instar just preceding the adult stage, 
and it belonged to the species known as Amblycorypha oblongi- 
folia. It was colored an exquisite rose-pink or diluted crimson 
above, with the underside of the body much paler. After 
the seventeenth day of its confinement in the cage, it molted 
August 2, during the night, transforming into an adult. Im- 
mediately after molting it was quite pale or blanched, as is 
the case with molting insects, but by the next day it was 
nearly the same beautiful shade of pink that it was before the 
final ecdysis, excepting that in addition to the pink some small 
dark spots appeared in the adult stage on the now unfolded 
first pair of wings. The hind tibiae were shaded dark, and 
slight traces of lines of pigment occurred on each side of the 
thorax. It is this female pink katy-did that forms the basis 
of the following experiments. 



idea of crossing a pink katy-did with the ordinary green form 
presented itself as long ago as 1893. In the autumn of that year I 
found an adult pink female oblong-winged katy-did at Kenilworth 
while looking for Orthoptera, but it was unfortunately lost. 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., '16 

FIRST SUCCESSFUL EXPERIMENT IN CROSSING THIS ORIGINAL 
1912 FEMALE PINK KATY-DID WITH A MALE OF 

THE NORMAL GREEN FORM. 

On August 9, 1912, a normal green male was introduced in 
the same cage with the female pink katy-did. Two days later 
die male was seen making advances to the female, and on the 
fourteenth conjugation was effected, and the female was no- 
ticed with a semi-transparent spermatophore attached to her 
body. She carried the latter about for a number of hours, 
when finally I saw her devour about half of the capsular mass, 
the remaining part dropping to a leaf below the point where 
she was standing among the leaves of mint growing in her 
cage. Several times subsequently, notably on August 19 and 
21, I saw her with a spermatophore attached to her body, thus 
establishing the fact that fertilization of the eggs had doubtless 
occurred, and especially as her abdomen became distended with 
eggs by the last of August. 

EGGS LAID IN THE GROUND. 

It was not until August 28th that I actually saw her oviposit, 
though on the 26th, I saw her searching about on the earth in 
the bottom of the cage. Near six o'clock in the afternoon of 
the 2<Sth, I saw her slowly walking about on the wet ground, 
having come down* from her usual abode among the sun-ex- 
posed leaves of the mint and goldenrod. At the roots of the 
latter she nibbled at the soft covering of earth. Then she 
brought her large ovipositor forward under her body, and with 
the aid of her mandibles she guided the end to a chosen point 
on the ground. She was only a few minutes forcing a hole 
with her ovipositor and laying her eggs in the soft earth. Im- 
mediately afterwards I again saw her go about in a similar 
manner searching the ground, and only a slight distance away 
she oviposited a second and a third time, apparently only lay- 
ing a few eggs at a time. Similarly at six o'clock in the 
afternoon of September 9 and 10, she was seen laying eggs in 
the vegetable mold. In all probability she laid eggs occasion- 
ally in the interval between these dates, as she was incidentally 
noted from time to time on the ground. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 75 

It was about this time that the normal green male began 
to languish and show signs of enfeeblement in his movements 
from loss of vitality, and I introduced another wild green male 
in the cage on September 10. This second male was a fresh- 
appearing vigorous individual, caught in the vicinity of Lake- 
side, and he superseded the first male which died two days 
after this second male was placed in the cage. These two males 
were distinguishable by the hind tibiae. In the first male they 
were brownish, while in the second one they were green, other- 
wise they were quite alike in color. The second male lived 
until October 17. In the meantime the female proceeded to lay 
her eggs on the morning of September 15, and also on the i6th 
and 27th. 

At intervals the cold weather affected the pink katy-did, but 
she showed much more vitality than either of the males. On 
November i, a frost occurring in the night so paralyzed her 
movements that I decided to remove her indoors to another 
small cage ; the original breeding cage bearing the eggs being 
placed at the same time within my large screened insectary, 
where it was secure from molestation. After the female was 
put in the new cage she again oviposited on the evening of 
November 3, at Lakeside, also once more after I removed her 
to Chicago on the 8th, so that between the latter date and 
November 14, the time of her death, she had not been with 
the male since October I7th. During the entire time, she 
probably laid in all about thirty eggs, almost all of which I 
verified by marking the sites. 

UNEXPECTED TIME REQUIRED IN HATCHING THESE 1912 
EGGS ; SOME OF THIS BATCH Two YEARS, 

OTHERS THREE YEARS I.N HATCHING. 

These katy-did eggs were, of course, subjected to open out- 
door conditions. It was natural to expect that as they were 
laid in the autumn, they would hatch the coming spring, such 
as occurs in Acridiidae for instance. At least, I first went on 
this assumption as there was no literature on the subject. I 
looked in vain in my insectary for the young katy-dids to 
emerge from these eggs laid in 1912, throughout the following 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

spring, summer, and fall months of 1913. I began to wonder 
if ants or spiders had eaten either the eggs or the prospective 
newly hatched. To satisfy myself on this point I dug up 
several of the eggs for examination. I found their outer cov- 
erings intact, and they appeared unscathed, with no evideiice 
of having hatched. Between the idea that they were not fer- 
tilized, or that they were alive, but that they had not sufficient 
time to hatch, I adopted the latter view, and fortunately placed 
the eggs I had examined back in the cage, covered them care- 
fully, and securely closed the insectary for the winter of 1913- 
1914. 

THE PINK AND THE GREEN HYBRID PROGENY OF 1914; MORE 

PINKS THAN GREENS ; ALTERNATIVE INHERITANCE. 
It was not until the second year, or June 14, 1914, that I 
found the first evidence of hatching. Injhe insectary a small 
living pink katy-did was discovered clinging to the wire screen, 
and after making an inventory of the family I counted ten of 
the living progeny in vigorous condition scattered among the 
foliage of the numerous growing plants, and on the ground. 
When the eggs hatched the young crawled out of the hatching 
cage and sought the freedom of the larger area in the insectary 
for foraging. This progeny consisted of eight pink and two 
green individuals. The bodies of these insects ranged from 
ten to twelve millimeters in length ; they had evidently under- 
gone one molt. At this time they were in the second instar, 
and of course all were the same age. On June 26, one of the 
green katy-dids molted, and rudimentary wings became visible, 
and on the next day two of the pink individuals molted, enter- 
ing the third instar. It is an interesting fact that out of this 
1914 progeny of ten, the sexes turned out to be evenly divided 
into five pairs, including one pair of greens, and four pairs of 
pinks. As they went on maturing these insects maintained 
the same pink or green coloring; beginning with the larvae 
shortly after hatching the color remained the same throughout 
the different instars. With the addition of three retarded katy- 
dids hatched a year later, 1915, and which is really a part of 
this progeny, the proportion of pink to green is modified to 
give a ratio of nine pinks to four greens. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 77 

INBREEDING THE PINK AND GREEN HYBRID 1914 PROGENY. 

I was able to definitely determine the sexes by June 27, and 
by this time I had erected a series of cages for pairing purposes 
containing growing plants. Into these cages was placed the 
pair of greens, and four pairs of pinks, each pair being given 
a separate apartment, where they were allowed to mature and 
inbreed. 

At this time, June 28, these insects were placed in charge of 
Mr. Charles Brewer, of Lakeside, who supervised their care 
during my absence in California during July and August. On 
my return to Lakeside, September ist, I found the mortality 
confined to one pair of the pink individuals. This male and 
female were in the same cage and had met with death through 
becoming entangled in the wire netting. I found the dead 
female's abdomen full of eggs, and though her body was partly 
decayed I removed by dissection thirty normally formed eggs, 
besides two which were not fully formed. These eggs were 
placed in the ground, simulating the method of the mother, 
with the expectation that in the case they were fertilized they 
might possibly hatch. The other four pairs of katy-dids mak- 
ing up the remainder of the progeny flourished, and all four 
females oviposited during August, September and October. 
The expectation is that some of these eggs will hatch in 1916, 
others in 1917. Or, it is barely possible a few may remain 
until 1918 before they hatch. 

COLOR OF THE 1914 HYBRID PROGENY: GREATER INDIVIDUAL 

DIFFERENCES IN THE MALES. 

The four mature pink females were nearly all the same shade 
of pink or diluted crimson, varying somewhat in the degree of 
dilution, two being very nearly identical with the beautiful 
figures given by Scudder in Entomological News, May, 1901. 
These insects were all paler on the underside of the body. In 
the males there was a more striking difference in the color 
among the individuals, and this was evident in the early 
stages, though not so pronounced as in the adults with fully 
developed wings. One of the males was a deep conspicuous 



/8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

crimson on the wings and exposed areas of the body, excepting 
the dark stridulating portion of the wings. Another male was 
decidedly paler with pinkish flesh-yellow on the upper parts 
and wings, while a third was purer pink like the females. 

That these variations of color signify some differences in 
their gametic constitution remains to be determined. All 
these shades of color were seemingly influenced somewhat by 
humidity, becoming deeper-hued in rainy weather, and return- 
ing to lighter shade in hot dry weather. All of this progeny, 
that is the remaining eight, died between October 25 and 29, 
from the effects of lowering temperature and resulting frosts. 
They are all preserved for record. 

THE BELATED 1915 PROGENY; HATCHING FROM 1912 EGGS 
WHICH PASSED THROUGH THE RIGORS OF THREE WINTERS. 

What seemed to me to be the most remarkable feature in the 
life history of pink katy-dids was my discovery that some of 
their eggs may pass through three winters in the ground before 
the young emerge. I have already shown that some of these 
original pink katy-did eggs had skipped a year and passed two 
winters before hatching, but that the eggs could withstand the 
rigors of three winters and then hatch showed a most remark- 
able endurance to physical conditions. 

In regard to this 1915 progeny, I first noticed in my insec- 
tary three newly hatched katy-dids from the original 1912 eggs 
on the 1 5th of May, 1915. Two of these insects were green 
and one was pink. This small brood of course was the be- 
lated part of the same progeny that hatched in the spring of 
1914. These three larval katy-dids were very small, and at the 
time I found them they had been hatched only a few hours or 
possibly a day or two. Two of these delicate insects in the 
first instar, one pink and one green, were later unfortunately 
killed and eaten by an agalenid spider. I succeeded, however, 
in rearing the remaining green female, and she came to matur- 
ity August 22, 1915. A normal green male was placed in the 
same cage with this green female on September 3rd. This 
male was found the previous day in my yard at Lakeside, and, 
of course, the female is the hybrid offspring of the original 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. /9 

pink female which was crossed with a normal green male. On 
September n, and again on the i8th, I saw on each occasion 
that she carried a spermatophore attached to the end of her ab- 
domen, showing that union of the sexes had occurred, and it is 
reasonable to suppose her eggs had been fertilized. I saw the 
green female on the ground several times, her body at this 
time being fully distended with eggs, and while I did not see 
her oviposit, she doubtless laid most of her eggs. Proof of 
this fact was shown by a post-mortem examination following 
her death, November i, 1915. I found at this time on dissec- 
tion only eight eggs in her body, and as the usual complement 
is about thirty-two, she had doubtless laid in the ground the 
larger portion. I supplemented these by placing in the ground 
the eight eggs I recovered from her body. 

HABITS O<F PINK KATY-DIDS: THEIR EGGS AND How THEY 

ARE LAID. 

In reviewing the habits of pink katy-dids, I find that they do 
not differ from those of the ordinary green form. However, 
in the course of my investigation, I have observed some points 
relative to the behavior of Amblycorypha oblonglfolia which 
are of general interest, and seem worthy of record. These in- 
sects enjoy the sunshine, seeking sunny exposures when possi- 
ble ; are slow and cautious in their movements, and they feed 
on a variety of leaves of plants, as well as the petals and pollen 
of flowers. They are especially fond of the leaves of some 
mints, and the flowers of some of the goldenrods. The adults 
of the ordinary green form more often frequent the edges of 
woods and thickets in damp situations. They live above ground 
among the leaves in preference to the ground, except when 
laying their eggs. The young emerge during late May or 
early June, and mature about the first week in August. From 
the time immediately after they hatch, throughout their lives 
they remain the same color, showing that this is a character 
which is hereditary, though as I have noted, the color may be 
temporarily intensified or may become paler through the action 
of humidity and temperature. These color fluctuations were 
determined in my pink katy-dids by comparison with a scale 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

made in Japanese colors, and making the examinations under 
different weather conditions. 

As in many of the Locustidae during courtship, the male 
makes advances to the female. Raising his wings at an angle 
to the body, and lowering his abdomen, he backs toward her to 
effect conjugation and transfer a spermatophore. After this 
courtship the female often carries the spermatophore contain- 
ing the spermatozoa, attached to her body for a period of sev- 
eral hours ; this is done in order to give the spermatozoa time 
to enter the vagina. She finally rids herself of this apparent 
incumbrance by arching the abdomen downward and forward 
so she can reach it with her mouth. She then proceeds to pull 
it off and eat it. The eggs to the number of about thirty de- 
velop in the body during the first week in August, and gradu- 
ally maturing, a few at a time are laid during August, Septem- 
ber, October and early November, when conditions are fa- 
vorable. 

There is a noticeable difference between the manner in which 
the members of Amblycorypha lay their eggs from that exhib- 
ited in the allied genera Scndderia and Microc cut ruin. When 
the pink or green mother Amblycorypha oblongifolia is ready 
to oviposit she usually comes down to the ground from the 
vegetation which she frequents. She then searches about 
on the ground, often among the dead leaves, to find a suitable 
place to deposit her eggs. She does this very deliberately and 
slowly feeling her way with her palpi, often nibbling the sur- 
face as if testing a suitable place. At times she appears to be 
quite exacting in her choice of location when at liberty, one 
of these requisites being a certain amount of dampness of 
soil, as well as certain surface conditions. When she finds a 
suitable spot, she curves her abdomen, which is now distended 
with eggs, forward underneath her body and at the same time 
seizes the end of the large ovipositor in her mandibles. In 
this way she directs its point to the desired place in the 
ground. Then she forces or drills a hole in the earth for the 
reception of each egg or cluster of eggs. Sometimes they are 
laid at such a shallow depth in the ground that the rains 
splash away the dirt covering, fully exposing them to the air. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 8l 

THE EGGS. 

The eggs of this species are distinctly compressed and oval 
in form, with one side strongly arcuate, and the other much 
more flattened. They are rather large for the size of the in- 
sect, as they are slightly more than five millimeters in length, 
and average two and a half millimeters across the middle. 
When the young hatch they make a vertical rent at the larger 
pole of the egg, the vertical slit turning transversely part way 
across on one side near the middle of the egg. About thirty- 
two eggs may be laid by a single female. 

Contrasting with the habit of laying the eggs in the ground 
by Amblycorypha, we find in the genus Scudderia that mem- 
bers lay their eggs under the epidermis of a green leaf. The 
insect seizes the leaf with her legs and using her ovipositor as 
a lance at the edge, she slits a pocket receptacle for holding 
each egg. The leaf containing the eggs usually falls to the 
ground later, and there remains through the winter. In Micro- 
centrum, the eggs are fastened to a twig in two rows, the fe- 
male preparing the place where they are to be deposited by 
roughening the surface with her jaws. In the process of lay- 
ing her eggs, one egg is laid under the other in forming the 
rows by the use of the saw-like end of the ovipositor. 

In the late afternoon of September 27, 1914, I heard a 
male pink katy-did stridulating. In the sounds made by this 
insect and two others I heard, I could not detect any differ- 
ences in the notes from those made by the ordinary green 
form. Stridulation was indulged in more vigorously on hot 

nights. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

i. I have shown that the pink katy-did crosses freely with 
the normal green form. 

2. A virgin pink female was mated with a normal green 
male. Some of the hybrid progeny Fr which hatched two 
years and others three years later, respectively, showed in the 
total progeny two types as follows : Nine bearing the pink 
coloration like the mother, and four green like the male- par- 
ent. The sexes were about evenly divided in both the pink 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

and the green forms. The inbreeding of these hybrid Fi types 
have thus far been carried to the stage of crossing, their eggs 
secured in 1914-1915 which are expected to hatch F2 genera- 
tion in 1916-1917. 

3. The pink and the green color which appeared soon after 
the first molt in the individuals of the progeny Fi remained 
practically the same throughout their lives. The pink color as 
well as the green is hereditary and is undoubtedly of germinal 
origin as surmised by Wheeler. This precludes the idea of 
these colors in katy-dids being dependent on absorbtion of col- 
oring matter taken in with the food as supposed by Knab. 

4. The eggs of Amblycorypha are laid in the ground, this 
habit being materially different from the egg-laying habits ex- 
hibited in other katy-dids. 

5. The time required in hatching the eggs is two or three 
years, showing remarkable endurance to physical conditions. 1 



Notes on Lithocolletis with Descriptions of new spe- 

cies (Lcp.). 

By ANNETTE F. BRAUN, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Lithocolletis insignis Wlsm. 

A number of mines of this species were found on the un- 
derside of leaves of deer-brush, Ccanothus integerrimus H. & 
A. in Yosemite National Park, California, July 26, 1915. 

The mine occupies a comparatively small area in which the 
leaf substance is almost entirely eaten out, and the lower epi- 
dermis is closely wrinkled at maturity. The unenclosed pupa 
is formed at one end of the mine. 

The single specimen reared (imago, Aug. 15) is somewhat 
paler than the usual form of the species and lacks some of the 
dark margins. The basal streak is connected with the dorsal 
streak merely by a broken line of white scales. A slight indi- 
cation of the saffron ground color toward the outer edge of 
the basal white patch places it somewhat intermediate between 
the extreme forms described by Lord \Yalsingham. 

In connection with the variations just mentioned in L. in- 
signis it is interesting to note that similar modifications in color 
and pattern occur in L. lun/cni, its nearest relative. In pale 
specimens of L. haijcni, the dorso-basal white patch often ex- 



distribution in the United States of pink katy-dids, Ambly- 
corypha oblongifolia and the allied species will be presented in a sec- 
ond contribution. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 83 

tends to the costa, so that the configuration of the basal part 
of the wing is essentially that of L. arbutusclla, unmarked how- 
ever by the line of dark scales which limits the outer margin 
of the costal portion of the white area in that species. Such 
specimens always lack the apical spot and some of the dark 
margins. 

Lithocolletis leucothorax Wlsm. 

Mines of this species were collected August 8, 1915, on the 
lower side of leaves of scrub tan oak, Qncrciis dcnsiflora var. 
echinoides Sargent, growing at Rocky Point, Upper Klamath 
Lake, Oregon. The larva consumes the entire leaf substance 
within the mine and at maturity throws the* lower epidermis 
into several folds between which are numerous fine wrinkles. 
The pupa is suspended by a few silken threads. 

Lithocolletis diversella n. sp. 

I recently reared two specimens of an undescribed species 
of Lithocolletis: One was a miner on huckleberry, Gaylns- 
sacia baccata (Wang.) C. Koch and the imago appeared Au- 
gust 31, 1914; the other a miner on sorrel tree, Oxydcndrum ar- 
boreum (L.) DC., and the imago appeared May 10 of the fol- 
lowing year. Both were collected in the "Sugar Grove Re- 
gion" near Lancaster, Fairfield County, Ohio. 

While the two specimens are identical as regards the con- 
figuration of the color markings, there is a very striking dif- 
ference in the degree of specialization of the scales, and the 
resulting brilliancy of markings ; the metallic luster is found 
in the specimen from the overwintering pupa only (which is 
a female). The more brilliant specimen is regarded as the 
type ; absence of the specialized characters in the other speci- 
men (a male) is noted in the description of the species which 
follows : 

Palpi whitish, face metallic golden, tuft dark brown; antennae dark 
gray, with the eight or nine segments preceding the apex whitish; ter- 
minal segment dark. (In the other specimen the tuft is reddish ocher- 
ous ; antennae pale gray throughout.) 

Thorax deep metallic golden, this color extending onto the extreme 
base of the fore-wings, which elsewhere are golden or reddish brown, 
luit not metallic. The coloring is identical with that of L. ostensack- 
cncUn. (In the other specimen, the scales of the thorax and fore-wings 
are identical in structure ; the color is a little paler and more ocherous.) 
The markings of the fore-wings, which are lustrous white in one speci- 
men, scarcely shining in the other, are placed as follows: A very short 
basal streak just nhove the fold, margined with dark brown toward the 
costa; an almost straight fascia at one-third dark margined intern, ill\ 
two posterior costal and two dorsal spots, internally margined : the first 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

dorsal spot with its apex projecting a little beyond the corresponding 
but smaller costal spot; second pair of spots curved and almost meet- 
ing. A dark brown irregular apical spot, preceded and encroached upon 
by a streak of white scales. Cilia golden, gray toward the tornus ; ter- 
minal line of scales dark brown. 

Hind wings gray, tinged with red. Legs dark brown, spurs and ter- 
minal segments of tarsi whitish or silvery. Abdomen dark brown, 
whitish or silvery beneath. 

Expanse: 5 mm. (male) ; 7 mm. (female). 

The mines on Gaylussacia were collected at Lancaster, Ohio, 
August 21 ; those on Oxydendrum at Sugar Grove (about sev- 
en miles distant) and southward, August 20. The mine is of 
the usual tentif orm type on the lower side of the leaf ; except 
for an occasional patch in the center, the leaf substance in the 
mined area is entirely consumed. One-half of the mine is par- 
titioned off to form a pupal chamber. 

Lithocolletis picturatella n. sp. 

Palpi whitish, dark on the sides ; face and tuft reddish ocherous, the 
latter with some whitish scales; antennae dark brown above with paler 
bands. 

Thorax and fore-wings brownish ocherous. There are four costal and 
three dorsal white spots, the second pair uniting to form an outwardly 
angulated fascia; all are dark margined externally. Of the first pair 
of streaks, the dorsal is the longer and in some specimens almost meets 
the costal streak; it is parallel to the dorsal arm of the fascia. The 
external dark margin of the fascia is continued outwardly at the angle, 
usually as a dark shade, rather than as dusting; this dark shade some- 
times extends between the third pair of spots almost to the apex. Third 
pair of spots small and opposite. Scattered dusting in the apex is pre- 
ceded by a small curved costal streak. 

Hind wings and cilia gray, brownish tinged. Fore-legs almost black 
on the upper surface, tarsi white, conspicuously spotted with black 
above; middle and hind legs ocherous, with some darker shading, tarsi 
white, with black spots near the ends of the segments above. 

Expanse: 6.5-7. mm. 

Described from eighteen specimens bred from mines on bay- 
berry, Myrica carolinensis Mill, collected in July at East River, 
Connecticut, by Dr. Chas. R. Ely. Mines of this species have 
been found in a number of other localities in New Jersey and 
New York where the food plant occurs. 

Types in Dr. Ely's collection, the United States National 
Museum, and in my collection. 

The mine is a brownish blotch on the upper side of the leaf. 
At the tune of pupation, a single prominent ridge extends 
across the mine. 

The nearest relative of this species is L. bcthunclla Oiam., 
from which it can be most easily distinguished by the conspicu- 
ous black spots on the upper side of the white tarsi. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. _ 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., FEBRUARY, 1916. 

A Source of Annoyance and Trouble. 

A large amount of material is received each year at museums 
that is not mounted, and if it is to be made available for study 
it must be in condition to go into the cabinet with exact data. 
The collector knows where he captured the specimens, but must 
often think his correspondents are mind readers, as he fre- 
quently fails to properly convey this information to those to 
whom the specimens are sent. Dates are not legibly written 
on the containers and frequently it is impossible to determine 
whether figures represent the month or the day of the month. 
Places not on the map are written on envelopes and the county, 
state or country omitted. Often names of places are scribbled 
in such a way as to make translation a difficult and irritating 
procedure. All data should be written or printed in such a 
way as to never leave any doubt in the mind of the recipient 
as to what is meant. 

It is a pleasure to receive material from persons who exer- 
cise care and good judgment in matters of this kind. From 
our experience there are many entomologists that should take 
this to heart and make their specimens of more scientific value 
and add to the comfort and peace of mind of their correspond- 
ents. H. S. 



Rarities (Hym., Neur., Odon.). 

It may be worth while to put on record the fact that I once took 
Khinopsis caniculata Say at Maywood, Cook County, Illinois I passed 
the rare insect over to Mr. Ashmead, then busily engaged at Washing- 
ton in the study of the Hymcnoptera, and no doubt it now reposes in 
nine one of the Washington collections. 

More than two-score years ago I took in Wickford, Rlimlc Island, 
a specimen of Ululodcs quadripunctata Burin. \ have m-ver been so 
fortunate as to see a second one. 

In August, 1889, on the island of Hawaii, I took the female of AIKI.V 
sircnuus Hagen. It is the largest of my Odonata. I was on my way 
from Hilo to Mt. Kilauea, and it may be superfluous to mention that its 
capture was effected in the midst of a driving rain, since those familiar 
with Hilo are aware that the rainfall there is measured not in inches, 

85 



86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., '16 

but in feet. The female of Anax strennus was described by Hagen 
from a specimen taken on the island of Oahu and preserved at the 
Copenhagen Museum. 

My Anax strenuus is still in perfect condition. My Rhinopsis canicu- 
lata, I trust, is equally so. My Ululodes, alas! is possessed of only a 
thorax, four perfect wings and one antenna. Accidents always hap- 
pen to uniques, and there was more truth than poetry in the student's 
answer to the question, how many legs has an insect? Some have 
three, some five, some two, but none ever have six. O. S. WESTCOTT, 
Oak Park, Illinois. 

The Change of Color in the Winter Eggs of Myzus rosarum and 
Macrosiphum rosae (Hem. Horn.). 

There is a city park near the Entomological Laboratory of the State 
College of Forestry. Here the writer found this fall two species of 
rose aphis, Myzus rosarum and Macrosiphum rosac, on Rosa rugosa. 
They were abundant November ist. November 4th the winged females 
were first observed ovipositing. The eggs on deposition were a vivid 
emerald green, some of which by November 5th had turned to the 
characteristic black of winter aphid eggs. On the stems at this date 
were taken all intermediate colors, varying from a bright green, a 
greenish-tan, deep olive-brown to a black. 

It was observed that fresh aphid eggs from these species remained 
of a greenish hue much longer in the warm laboratory than out of 
doors. It would be interesting to definitely determine whether the 
change from green to black is essential; whether or no the change to 
black keeps the eggs during the winter months at a higher temperature 
than the temperature of the surrounding medium. A number of fac- 
tors might be responsible for this color change, such as light, tem- 
perature, the presence of an enzyme in the egg. W. O. ELLIS, Ento- 
mological Laboratory, State College of Forestry, ^Syracuse, N. Y. 



Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded 
The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered in 
the following- list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of systematic papers are all grouped at the end of each 
Order of which they treat, and are separated from the rest by a dash. 

Unless mentioned in the title, the number of new species or forms are 
given at end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. 

For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series B. 

1 Proceedings, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia. 4 The Canadian Entomologist. 8 The Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine, London. 10 Nature, London. 11 Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History, London. 14 Proceedings of 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 8; 

the Zoological Society of London. 21 The Entomologist's Rec- 
ord, London. 42 Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology), Lon- 
don. 68 Die Naturwissenschaften, Berlin. 68 Science, New 
York. 92 Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie. 97 
Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Leipzig. 141 Proceed- 
ings, Indiana Academy of Sciences, Indianapolis. 143 Ohio Jour- 
nal ot Science, Columbus, Ohio. 153 Bulletin, The American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York. 179 Journal of Economic 
Entomology. 191 Natur. Halbmonatschrift fur alle Natur- 
freunde. 198 Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Woods Hole, Mass. 204 New York State Museum, Albany. 216 
Entomologische Zeitschrift, Frankfurt a. Main. 218 Mikrokos- 
mos. Zeitschrift fur die praktische Betatigung aller Naturfreunde, 
Stuttgart. 249 Journal, Biological Chemistry, Baltimore. 313 
Bulletin of Entomological Research, London. 344 U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 409 Journal of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 2nd Series. 411 Bulle- 
tin, The Brooklyn Entomological Society. 447 Journal of Agri- 
cultural Research, Washington. 477 The American Journal of 
Tropical Diseases and Preventive Medicine, New Orleans. 482 
"Bios" Rivista di Biologia Sperimentale e Generale, Genova. 485 
Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, London. 491 
Transactions, American Microscopical Society, Decatur, Illinois. 
505 Agricultural News, Barbados. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Arndt, C. H. Some insects of the be- 
tween tide zone, 141, 1914, 323-36. Blair, K. G. Luminous insects 
(Abstract), 10, xcvi, 411-15. Champlain, A. B. A method of ship- 
ping insect collections, 411, x, 105. Crampton, G. C. Notes on the 
derivation of winged insects through several lines of descent, 92, 
xi, 269-73. Escherich, K. Zeitschrift fur angewandte entomologie, 
Band II, Heft 2. Fabre, J. H. Obituary notice, 8, 1915, 332-3; also 
21, 1915, 264; also 4, 1915, 381-3. Fagnoul ? Bauernregeln aus dor 
insektenwelt, 216, xxix, 69-70. Fehlmann, J. W. Hydrobiologie 
auf grenzwacht, 218, ix, 113-17. Felt, E. P. Report (30) of the 
State Entomologist on injurious and other insects of the State of 
New York, 204, Bui. 180. Howard, L. O. The edibility of insects; 
The desirability of host labels for parasites, 179, viii, 549, 550. 
Loeb, J. The salts required for the development of insects, 249, 
xxiii, 431-4. Morris, F. J. A. The centenary of Kirby and Spence's, 
4, 1915, 384-6. Smallwood, T. O. The international rules of zoo- 
logical nomenclature with appendix and summaries of opinions, 
Nos. 1-56. [Pub. by T. O. Smallwood, Washington, D. C.] 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Boring & Fogler- 
Further notes on the chromosomes of the Cercopidae, 198, xxix, 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

312-15. Foot 6c Strobell Results of crossing two hemipterous 
species, with reference to the inheritance of two exclusively male 
characters, 42, xxxii, 457-93. Lutz, F. E. Experiments with Dro- 
sophila ampelophila concerning natural selection, 158, xxxiv, 605-24. 
Nelson, J. A. The embryology of the honey bee, 282 pp. (Prince- 
ton Univ. Press). 

MEDICAL. Hewitt, C. G. An early reference to the relation 
of insects to disease, 4, 1915, 396-99. Townsend, C. H. T. Two 
years' investigation in Peru of Verruga and its insect transmission, 
477, iii, 16-32. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Barrows, W. M. The reactions of an 
orb-weaving spider, Epeira sclopetaria, to rhythmic vibrations of 
its web, 198, xxix, 316-332. Wells, B. W. (See under Diptera.) 

Banks, N. The Acarina or mites. A review of the group for the 
use of Economic Entomologists, 344, Of. Secretary, Kept. 108. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Folsom, J. W. Directions for collect- 
ing Collembola, 411, x, 91-4. McAtee, W. L. A remarkable flight 
of caddis flies and chironomids, 68, xlii, 694-5. Turner, C. H. 
Notes on the behavior of the ant-lion with emphasis on the feed- 
ing activities and letisimulation, 198, xxix, 277-307. Wasmann, E. 
(See under Coleoptera.) 

Bagnall, R. S. On a collection of Thysanoptera from the West 
Indies, with descriptions of new genera and species, 42, xxxii, 495- 
508. Engelhardt, G. P. Mecaptera of the northeastern U. S., 411, x, 
106-112. Walker, E. M. Notes on Staurophlebia reticulata [2 new 
subsps.], 4, 1915, 387-95. 

ORTHOPTERA. Ball, E. D. Estimating the number of grass- 
hoppers, 179, viii, 525-7. Burr, M. On the male genital armature 
of the Dermaptera. Part II: Psalidae, 485, 1915, 521-46. Fox, H. 
Notes on O. and Orthopteran habitats in the vicinity of Lafayette, 
Indiana, 141, 1914, 287-322. 

HEMIPTERA. Hartman, F. T. List of the Coccidae in the 
collection of the N. Y. State Museum, 204, Bui. 180, 92-109. 

Funkhouser, W. D. A new membracid from Trinidad. 411, x, 
103-5. Leonard & Crosby (See under Hymenoptera.) Van der 
Goot Beitrage zur kenntnis der Hollandischen Blattlause. Ein 
morphologisch-systematische studie, 600 pp. (Berlin, R. Friedlander 
& Sohn). 

LEPIDOPTERA. Alfaro, A. La mariposa de la pacaya, 3 pp. 
(Revista de Educacion, organo de la Escuella Normal, San Jose, 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 89 

Costa Rica). Braun, A. F. Evolution of the color pattern in 
Microlepidopterous genus Lithocolletis, 409, xvi, 105-166 (1914). 
Cleare, L. D. A butterfly injurious to cocoanut palms in Br. Gui- 
ana, 313, vi, 273-78. Punnett, R. C. Mimicry in butterflies, 159 pp. 
(Cambridge Univ. Press). Stephan, J. Die spinnkunst der rau- 
pen, 191, 1915, 427-30. Webster, F. M. Migrating notes on the 
milkweed butterfly, 4, 1915, 406. 

Grinnell, F., Jr. Some observations on the butterflies of King 
River Canyon, Sierra Nevada Mts., California, 411, x, 100-2. Ober- 
thiir, C. Etudes de Lepidopterologie comparee, Fasc. X, 457 pp. 
Seitz Die grossschmetterlinge der Erde. Fauna Americana. Lief. 
67-74. 

DIPTERA. Felt, E. P. Gall midges in an orchard, 179, via, 550. 
Hewlett, F. M. Chemical reactions of fruit-flies, 313, vi, 297-306. 
McAtee, W. L. (See under Neuroptera.) Macfie, J. W. S. Ob- 
servations on the bionomics of Stegomyia fasciata, 313, vi, 205-30. 
Valenti, A. L. Sulla determinazione del sesso nelle mosche, 482, 
ii, 265-91. 

Alexander, C. P. New or little-known crane-flies from U. S. 
and Canada. Part 2. Designation of the single-type (lectotypic) 
specimen of N. A. species of Tipula described by H. Loew. [21 
new], 1, 1915, 458-514. Edwards, F. W. Three n. sps. of the dip- 
terous genus Olbiogaster, O. S. in the Br. Mus. collection, 11, xvi, 
502-5. Felt, E. P. A study of gall midges, III [many new], 204, 
Bui. 180, 127-288. Knab, F. Some new Neotropical Simuliidae, 
313, vi, 279-82. King, W. V. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, 68, 
xlii, 934-5. Wells, B. W. A survey of the zoocecidia on species of 
Hicoria caused by parasites belonging to the Eriophyidae and the 
Itonididae, 143, xvi, 37-59. Whitney, C. P. A new Tabanus, 4, 
1915, 380-1. 

COLEOPTERA. Ellis, W. O. Leptinotarsa decemlineata, 179, 
viii, 520-1. Haddon, K. On the methods of feeding and the mouth- 
parts of the larva of the glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca), 14, 1915, 
77-85. Lamson, G. H. The poisonous effects of the rose chafer 
upon chickens, 179, viii, 547-8. Shelford, V. E. Elytral tracheation 
of the tiger beetles, 491, xxxiv, 241-52. Sell, R. A. Some notes on 
the Western Twelve-spotted and the Western Striped Cucumber 
beetles, 179, viii, 515-20. Wasmann, E. Neue beitrage zur binlngic 

von Lomechusa und Atemeles Beitrag zur kenntnis der myr- 

mekophilen und termitophilen, 97, cxiv, 233-402. 

HYMENOPTERA. Ballou, H. A. West Indian wasps, 505, 
xiv, 298. Parrott & Fulton Cherry and hawthorn sawfly leaf 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., '16 

miner (Profenusa collaris), 447, v, 519-28. Wasmann & Valken- 
burg Ein neues buch ueber das leben und wesen der bienen, 66, 
xxxviii, 485-8; 497-500. 

Banks, N. New Fossorial H. [13 new], 4, 1915, 400-6. Cockerell, 
T. D. A. Descriptions and records of bees (cont.), [3 new], 11, 
xvi, 482-89 (cont.). Donisthorpe, H. Descriptions of a Pterergate 
and two gynandromorphs of Myrmica scabrinodis, with a list of 
all the known cases of the latter, 21, 1915, 258-60. Leonard & 
Crosby A n. sp. of Gonatocerus (Mymaridae) parasitic on the 
eggs of a n. sp. of Idiocerus (Bythoscopidae) feeding on poplar, 
179, viii, 541-47. 

The NEWS has received a copy of Part I, Volume I of ECTOPARA- 
SITES, edited by DR. K. JORDAN and the HON. N. CHARLES ROTHSCHILD, 
M. A. It measures n x 7^4 inches, consists of pages 1-60 with text 
figures 1-64, and is dated as "Issued December 30th, 1915. Price, 
Four Shillings. Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., London 
and Aylesbury." The second page of the cover states : "This publica- 
tion will be issued at irregular intervals. Each part can be obtained 
direct or from booksellers at the price stated on the cover. All com- 
munications referring to this publication to be addressed to Dr. K. 
Jordan, Zoological Museum, Tring (Herts)." The contents of Part 
I are four papers as follows: K. Jordan and N. C. Rothschild, On 
some Siphonaptera collected by W. Riickbeil in East Turkestan and 
Contribution to our Knowledge of American Siphonaptera; N. C. 
Rothschild, Further Notes on Siphonaptera Fracticipita with descrip- 
tions of new genera and species, and On Ncopsylla and some allied 
genera of Siphonaptera. 

It is of interest to American readers, although perhaps already 
known to them, to note that Mr. C. F. Baker's collection of fleas has 
been acquired by the Museum at Tring (p. 54). 



The Revista Chilcna dc Plistoria Natural announces in the first issue 
of its nineteenth year (dated Enero-Abril de 1915), that, in conse- 
quence of the European war, the subvention which it has received from 
the Chilean Government has been reduced and that the volume will 
suffer a corresponding diminution in number of pages. Nevertheless, 
it commences "con el entusiasmo de los primeros dias," and numbers 
i and 2 (combined) include a description of Acrotripteryx portcri, a 
new genus and species of Ptiliidae (Trichopterygidae, Coleoptera) by 
Jean Brethes and an announcement of Tricliotnphc taiif/olias Kl. v. G. 
as a Microlcpidopter new to Chili, whose larva was found attacking 
potatoes, by Carlos Silva Figuera. Both articles are illustrated. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 91 

The indefatigable editor of the Revista, Prof. Carlos E. Porter, 
founded in 1914, the Analcs de Zoologia Aplicada, as an international 
American publication devoted principally to the biological and syste- 
matic study of zooparasites of the Neotropical Region. Among its 
entomological contents thus far are papers by F. Knab on Simuliidae 
of Northern Chili (3 pp., I new), C. Bruch and J. Brethes on a new 
Ipid (Scolytid) and a new Encyrtid, respectively, both from Chili, 
E. Molina on a formula for destruction of scales and other insects, 
C. H. T. Townsend, Resume of the work in Peru on Phlcbotomus 
verruca-rum and its agency in transmitting verruga, and Prof. Porter 
himself on materials for the economic entomology of Chili (Coccidae). 
All these articles are well illustrated and, with the exception of M. 
Brethes', which is in French, are in Spanish. 

Both journals are published in Santiago de Chile, printed on good 
paper, and both contain sections on Scientific News, Chronicle. Corre- 
spondence and Bibliography. (Advt.) 



Doings of Societies. 

The Convocation Week Meetings. 

The entomological societies announced in the News for December, 
1915, (pages 456 and 474), held meetings during the week December 
27-3!. I9 J 5. at Columbus, Ohio, in affiliation with the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science and other scientific bodies. 
Forty-one papers were listed on the program of the American Associ- 
ation of Economic Entomologists (excluding the section of Horticul- 
tural Inspection), twenty-seven papers and exhibits on that of the 
Entomological Society of America, sixteen relating to insects or to 
problems of general science (and hence, including entomology) on 
the programs of the American Society of Zoologists, the Botanical 
Society of America, the A. A. A. S. in general and its sections B and 
F, and are mentioned in the accompanying list. The total is 84, as 
compared with the convocation week figures of 1912, Cleveland (85), 
1913, Atlanta (74), and 1914, Philadelphia (96), respectively. If we 
subtract 13 papers (of the Section of Horticultural Inspection, Am. 
Ass. Econ. Ent.) from the total for 1914, we have 83, comparable with 
the figures given for 1915, 1912 and 1913. 

In the following list of papers presented at Columbus, classified by 
subjects, those unmarked are from the program of the Economic En- 
tomologists, those starred (*) from that of the Entomological Society; 
others are designated by the names, or abbreviations of the names, of 
the respective societies hearing them. 

GENERAL SUBJECTS. DR. CHARI.ES WILLIAM ELIOT, retiring 
President of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 



(J2 ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

ence, The Fruits, Prospects, and Lessons of Recent Biological Science. 
GLENN W. HERRICK, Ithaca, N. Y., annual address of the President 
of the Amer. Ass. Econ. Ent, The Need of a Broad Liberal Training 
for the Economic Entomologist ANTHONY ZELENY, University of 
Minnesota, The Dependence of Progress in Science upon the Develop- 
ment of Instruments, (Vice-Presidential Address before Section 

B.J Symposium on The Basis of Individuality in Organisms, C. M. 

CHILD, E. G. CONKLIN, O. C. GLASER, C. E. McCLUNG and H. V. NEAL 
(Amer. Soc. Zool.) F. E. CLEMENTS, Climaxes and climates of West- 
ern North America (Bot. Soc. Amer.). DR. C. GORDON HEWITT, Do- 
minion Entomologist, Ottawa, Canada, A Review of Applied Ento- 
mology in the British Empire.* W. H. LONGLEY, Goucher College, The 
Doubtful Validity of the Hypothesis of Warning and Immunity Col- 
or (Amer. Soc. Zool.). F. M. WEBSTER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, 
Ethnoentomology.* 

CYTOLOGY. DR. FRANK R. LILLIE, The History of the Fertiliza- 
tion Problem. (Address as president of the Naturalists and as vice- 
president of Section F, A. A. A. S.) F. PAYNE, Indiana University, 
The Mitochondria in the Germ Cells of the Male of Cryllotalpa 
borealis. (Amer. Soc. Zool.) CHAS. W. METZ, Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, Pairing of Chromosomes in the Diptera, and Sections 
Showing Pairing of Chromosomes in the Diptera. (Exhibit, Amer. 
Soc. Zool.) 

PHYSIOLOGY. WM. L. DOLLEY, JR., Randolph Macon College. 
Negative Orientation in Vanessa antiopa. (Amer. Soc. Zool.) BRAD- 
LEY M. PATTON, Western Reserve Medical School, The Change of the 
Blowfly Larva's Photosensitivity with Age. (Amer. Soc. Zool.) C. H. 
RICHARDSON, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, The At- 
traction of Diptera to Ammonia.* N. E. MC!NDOO, U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology, The Olfactory-Gustatory Sense of the Honey Bee,* and 
The Olfactory Organs of Lepidoptera. (Amer. Soc. Zool.) F. E. 
CHIDESTER, New Jersey Agric. Exper. Station, The Influence of Sa- 
linity upon the Development of the Salt Marsh Mosquito.* E. P. 
FELT, Albany, N. Y., Climate and Variations in the Habits of the Cod- 
ling Moth. (This paper is concerned chiefly in recording variations 
observed in New York State and attempts to explain these by local 
variations in temperature.) A. FRANKLIN SHULL, University of Mich- 
igan, Parthenogenesis and Sex in Anthothrips rcrbasci* W. MOORE, 
University of Minnesota, How Gases enter Insects.* S. I. KORN- 
HAUSER, Northwestern University, Changes in Thclia bimacnlata (Fab- 
ricius) Induced by Insect Parasites. (Amer. Soc. Zool.) A. C. BUR- 
RILL, University of Wisconsin, House-Ant Trails and Their Bearing 
on Economic Control.* RALPH R. PARKER, Bozeman, Mont., Disper- 
sion of Musca domestica Linnaeus Under City Conditions. (An ac- 
count of dispersion experiments conducted on a large scale.) 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 93 

GENETICS. Joint session of the American Society of Zoologists 
with the American Society of Naturalists for Symposium on Recent 
Advances in the Fundamental Problems of Genetics. E. CARLTON 
MAcDowEi.L, Carnegie Institution of Washington, The Influence of 
Selection on the Number of Extra Bristles in Drosophila. (Amer. Soc. 
Zool.) ROBERT K. NABOURS, Kansas State Agricultural College, Ele- 
mentary Color Patterns and Their Hybrid Combinations in Grouse 
Locusts. (Amer. Soc. Zool.) 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO PLANTS. W. E. BRITTON, Connecti- 
cut Agricultural Experiment Station, Notes on Certain European and 
Other Foreign Insects Occurring in Connecticut* and Further Notes 
on Dipriou simile Hartig. (Notes on the distribution, injury, number of 
generations and parasites of this European sawfly in Connecticut.) L. 
HASEMAN, Columbia, Mo., An Investigation of the Supposed Immunity 
of Some Varieties of Wheat to the Attack of Hessian Fly. (Brief 
summary of the first year's work, including data collected from plots 
of different varieties of wheat grown side by side, together with notes 
on some chemical and physiological variations in the different varie- 
ties.) GEORGE A. DEAN, Manhattan, Kansas, The Hessian Fly Train. 
(Brief account of the Hessian fly infestation in the State; the organi- 
zation of the special train ; how the train was conducted and the results 
accomplished.) H. A. GOSSARD, Wooster, Ohio, County Co-operation 
to Prevent Hessian Fly Damage. (Describes a method by which an en- 
tire county was kept solidly in line, almost no one sowing until advised 
by the county agent and Station Entomologist to do so.) H. C. SEV- 
ERIN, South Dakota State College of Agriculture, The Life History, 
Economic Importance and Control of the Carpenter Moth in South 
Dakota.* S. B. FRACKER, Asst. State Entomologist of Wisconsin, The 
Immature Stages of Schroeckensteinia, a new raspberry pest.* M. P. 
SOMES, Mountain Grove, Mo., Some Insects of Solatium carolincnsc L., 
and their Economic Relations. (Review of life history of certain in- 
sects found on this weed and their development when transferred to 
related economic plants.) GEORGE G. AINSLIE, Nashville, Tenn., Notes 
on Crambidae. (Brief outline of the economic significance of Cram- 
bidae and notes on the work carried on at Nashville.) WM. P. HAYES, 
Manhattan, Kans., A Study of the Life History of the Maize Bill Bug. 
(Distribution in Kansas, economic importance, life history and habits, 
and methods of control.) R. W. HAKXKII, Agricultural College, Miss., 
The Small Pink Corn Worm, Ratrachcdra rilcyi, in Mississippi. (Brief 
notes on occurrence of this insect in Mississippi. It must be ranked as 
a pest of considerable importance.) W. J. SCIIOENE, Blacksburg, V;u 
The Economic Status of the Seed Corn Maggot, Fcyomyia fusciccps. 
(Discussion of the food plants and the condition of the food attacked.) 
-J. G. SANDERS, Madison, Wis., Records of Lachnostcrna in Wiscon- 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feh.,'i6 

sin. (Report on the results of using trap lanterns for capturing May 
beetles.) JOHN J. DAVIS, West Lafayette, Ind., A Progress Report on 
White Grub Investigations. (Summary of Lachnostcrna investigations 
to date.) E. N. CORY, College Park, Md., The Columbine Leaf Miner. 
(Life and seasonal history. Control.) F. B. PADDOCK, College Sta- 
tion, Texas, Observations on the Turnip Louse. (Bionomical observa- 
tions made upon this insect in Texas during two years' study of the 
pest.) S. W. BILSING, College Station, Texas, Life History of the 
Pecan Twig Girdler. (Life history of the pecan twig girdler, Oncideres 
texana; methods of control; injury done; food plants, etc.) H. A. 
GOSSARD, Wooster, Ohio, The Clover Leaf Tver, Ancylis angulifasciana. 
(Life history, character of damage and control.) J. S. HOUSER, 
Wooster, Ohio, Dasyncnra ulmca Felt, an Elm Pest. (Causes malfor- 
mations in the terminal twigs of elm), and A New Method of Sub- 
terranean Fumigation. T. J. HEADLEE, New Brunswick, N. J., Sulphur- 
Arsenical Dusts Against the Strawberry Weevil. (Among the fifteen 
different treatments given the plants just as the weevils began their 
work, the sulphur-arsenical dusts gave the best results and afforded a 
high degree of protection.) C. L. METCALF, Columbus, Ohio, The Ef- 
fect of Contact Insecticides on the Larvae of Syrphidae. V. I. SAFRO, 
Louisville, Ky., The Accurate Determination of the Nicotine Content 
of Spraying Solutions WALTER C. O'KANE, Durham, N. H., Arsenic 
on Fruit and Forage Following Spraying. (Sheep poisoning; loss of 
lead arsenate residues on hay; maximum residues on fruit; conclusions 
as to factors determining amount of residues.) W. H. GOODWIN, 
Wooster, Ohio, The Control of the Grape Berry Worm, PolychrosiJ 
I'itcaua. (Deals with the life history in Northern Ohio and the devel- 
opment of control methods for the berry worm.) J. L. KING, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Notes on the Control of Lesser Peach-tree Borer. (Cul- 
tural methods such as pruning and cultivation ; also time to "worm 
the trees.") See also under "Physiology," "Parasites of Insects" be- 
low. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO MAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
WILLIAM MOORE, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn., Fumigation of 
Animals to Destroy their External Parasites. (An account of a new 
material which can be used to fumigate animals and destroy their 
parasites without injury to the animal.) DON C. MOTE, Ohio Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, Warble-Fly Injury.* (Exhibit.) See also 
under "Physiology." 

APICULTURE. MORELY PETTIT, Guelph, Ontario, Outline of 
Apiary Inspection in Ontario. H. A. SURFACE, Harrisburg, Perm., Sug- 
gestions for Efficiency and Economy in Apiary Inspection Service. 
E. R. ROOT, Medina, Ohio, The Desirability of Inspection Work from 
the Standpoint of Queen Breeders. A. II. Mi CK\Y. Washington, D. C., 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 95 

Some Difficulties in Cross Diagnosis of Disease. H. A. GOSSARD, 
Wooster, Ohio, Honey as a Carrier of Pear Blight Germs. 

PARASITES OF INSECTS. L. O. HOWARD, Washington, D. C, 
An Appreciation of the Hawaiian Parasite Introduction Work. (Brief 
account of observations made and facts learned on a visit to Oalm in 
August, 1915 an effort to show more emphatically than has hitherto 
been done, the importance of the results accomplished.) JOSEPH H. 
MERRILL, Manhattan, Kansas, Life History and Habits of Two New 
Nematodcs Parasitic on Insects. (One of these nematodes is parasitic 
upon Sapcrda tridcntata and the other upon Lcucotcrmcs lucifugus.) 
I. W. CHAPMAN and R. W. GLASER, Forest Hills, Mass., Some Non- 
bacterial Insect Diseases. (Methods of diagnosis, distribution and 
etiological investigations.) E. W. BERGER, Entomologist of Florida 
State Plant Board, Fungus Parasites of Scale-Insects and White-Flies 
in Florida.* (Exhibit.) 

ARANEINA. J. H. EMERTON, Boston, Massachusetts, Circulating 
Collection of Spiders.* (Exhibit.) 

ORTHOPTERA. See under "Cytology" and "Genetics" above. 

ODONATA. PHILIP CARMAN, University of Illinois, Specific and 
Individual Variation in the Gills of the Nymphs of Zygoptera.* 

COLEOPTERA. V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois, An Analy- 
sis of the Color-Patterns of Cicindela.* C. C. HAMILTON, University of 
Illinois, Notes on a Twig-dwelling Cicindelid.* See also under "In- 
sects Injurious to Plants" and "Parasites of Insects" above. 

LEPIDOPTERA. J. R. WATSON, Florida Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Life History of Anticarsia gcmmatilis* (Exhibit.) PAUL S. 
WELCH, Kansas Agricultural College, Contribution to the Biology of 
Certain Aquatic Lepidoptera.* See also under "Physiology" and "In- 
sects Injurious to Plants" above. 

HYMENOPTERA. J. W. McCoLLOcn, Manhattan, Kans., A Pre- 
liminary Report on the Life Economy of Solcnopsls molcsta Say. 
(Data thus far obtained on the life history of the kafir ant.) W. R. 
MCDONNELL, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Notes on the Biology of 
Paraphclinus spcciosissitnits Girault* See also under "Physiology," 
"Insects Injurious to Plants" and "Apiculture" above. 

DIPTERA. AI.VAH PETERSON, University of Illinois, The Epiphar- 
ynx and Hypopharynx of the Diptera.* J. L. KING, University of 
Illinois, The Life History of Pterodontia. C. L. METCALF. Ohio State 
University, Metamorphosis of Syrphidae.* E. N. CORY, College Park, 
Md., Notes on Pccjomyia hyoscyaini Pan/. (Life and seasonal history.) 
W. J. SCHOENE, Blacksburg, Va., Notes on the Biology of 1'ct/innyia 
brassicac Bouche. (The more important observations on the life his- 
tory of the species.) See also under "Cytology," "Physiology," 
"Genetics," "Insects Injurious to Plants" and "Insects Injurious to 
Man," etc., above. 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l6 

HEMIPTERA. E. S. COGAN, Ohio State University, The Homop- 
terous Mouth.* H. A. GOSSARD, Wooster, Ohio, Distribution of Peri- 
odical Cicada in Ohio for the years 1906, 1914 and 1915. (Maps of 
the areas in which they appeared and remarks thereon.) D. M. DE- 
LONG, Ohio State University, Notes on the Jassoidea of Tennessee.* 
R. D. WHITMARSH, Wooster, Ohio, Life History Notes on Apctcticus 
cynicus and maculiventris.'EmtiL M. PATCH, Maine Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Host Plant Outlines of a Few Aphids Based Upon 
Original Observations in Maine* (Exhibit) and Concerning Problems 
in Aphid Ecology. (An outline indicating certain phases of aphid study 
with especial reference to life cycle work with migratory species.) R. 
W. COLEMAN and W. A. RILEY, Cornell University, Wax Model of Re- 
pugnatorial Glands and their Muscles in Anasa Nymph. See also under 
"Physiology," "Insects Injurious to Man," etc., and "Parasites of In- 
sects" above. 

THYSANOPTERA See under "Physiology" above. 

OBITUARY. 

Professor FRANCIS MARION WEBSTER died of pneumonia 
in a hospital at Columbus, Ohio, at 4 a. m. of January 3, 
1916, and was buried in Illinois on January 5th. His death 
removes an active and familiar figure from the annual en- 
tomological meetings and from the Federal Bureau of Ento- 
mology. Previous to assuming charge of grain- and forage- 
insect investigations for the United States Department of 
Agriculture in 1904, he was connected with State entomologi- 
cal work in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, his title of Professor 
being derived from the chair of Applied Entomology at Pur- 
due University, which he held from 1884 to 1888. He visited 
Australia and New Zealand in 1888-89 on a mission from the 
Federal departments of State and Agriculture. 

Professor Webster was the son of J. S. and Betsey A. 
(Riddle) Webster and was born at Lebanon, New Hamp- 
shire, August 8, 1849. He married Maria A. Potter, of Sand- 
wich, Illinois, August 21, 1870. 

Extended notices of his life and work are in course of 
preparation for the Journal of Economic Entomology, Science 
and the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ll'asli- 
ington. 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHMITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough arouDd the front, 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of the front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in addition to being abso- 
lutely dust, moth and dermestes proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos- 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42i in. high, 13 in. deep, 185 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameled green outside. For details of Dr. Skin- 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological News, Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside, lined with cork; the outside enameled any color 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are9x!3x2J in. deep, but can be furnished 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. We do not assert that this wooden box has all the quali- 
ties of the metal box, especially in regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 
a box, we think, superior to any other wood insect box. The bottom is cork lined. 
Outside varnished. For catalogue and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WARD'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 1890 

When Writing Pleaie Mention Entomological New*." 



K-S Specialties 



Entomology 



THE KNY-SCHEERER COMPANY 

Department of Natural Science 404-410 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Exotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 




INSECT BOXES We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and can 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 

NS/3085 Plain Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15% in Each $0.25 

NS/3o8s Size 8xio^ in Each .15 

NS/309I Lepldoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 

cover and bottom of strong pasteboard, covered -with ,mmm^^^a^^mm. 

bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf (peat). 

Per dozen 5.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Per dozen 6.00 

Caution : Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 




NS/309I 



(For exhibition purposes) 




NS/3I2I 



NS/3I2I K.-S. Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 
fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8x11x2% in. (or to order, 8%xio%x2% in.).... $0.70 

Size 12x16x2% in. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 1.2C 

Size i4X22X2>H in. (or to order, 14x22x2% in.) 2.00 

Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 



THE KNY SCHEERER CO. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 
G. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 



PARIS EXPOSITION : 
Eight Awards and Medals 




PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 
Gold Medal 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION: Grand Prize and Gold Medal 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc. 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kinds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Papilio columbus (gundlachlanus), the brightest colored American Papilio, very 
rare, perfect specimens $1.50 each ; second Quality $1.00 each. 

When Writing Please mention "Kutoiuological Mews." 

P. C. Stookhausen. Printer, 53-55 N. 7th Street, Philadelphia. 



MARCH, 1916. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. No. 3. 




John Lawrence Le Conte f 
J825-1883, 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 

KRA T. CRESSON J- A. G. REHN. 

PHH.IP LAURENT, KRICH DAECKK. H. W. WENZKL. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 

Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $r.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race-Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 

NEWS. 

8^"Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. ____ 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

FS?~ The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, 20 cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents ; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper. 30 characters or less, 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 

C. V. BLACKBURN, 12 PINK STRKET, STONKHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate IV. 






x 





1, 2, SATYRODES CANTHUS, N. VAR. FUMOSUS cf, 9; 3, 4, SATYRODES 
CANTHUS LEUSSLER. 

5, ARGYNNIS ALCESTIS, N. ABERR. SUFFUSA; 6, CHLORIPPE CELTIS N. 

ABERR. INORNATA-WOLCOTT. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



MARCH, 1916. 



No. 3. 



CONTENTS: 



Wolcott Description of two Hitherto 
Undescribed Aberrations, the one 
of Argynnis alcestis, the other of 
Chlorippe celtis ( Lep.) 97 

Leussler A new Variety of Satyrodes 
canthus irom Nebraska (Lep. ).... 99 

Dietz and Morrison Phenacaspis spi- 
nicola n. sp.; an apparently new 
Coccid from Indiana ( Hem., Horn.) 101 

Parshley New and Noteworthy He- 
miptera from New England 103 

Hood A new Species of Heterothrips 
(Thysanoptera) from Eastern Uni- 
ted States 106 

Weiss Additional Records of New 
Jersey Acarina 109 

Smith and Morrison South Carolina 
Ants(Hvm.) no 

Johnson Additions to the Coleoptera 
of Meriden, Connecticut 112 

Slosson Connecticut Coleoptera 125 

Dinner to Prof. Herbert Osborn 125 

Watson New Thysanoptera from Flo- 
ridaIll 126 



Florida Entomological Society 133 

Editorial Discontinue the Fahrenheit 

Thermometric Scale 134 

McAtee Punkies feeding on a fish-fly 

(Dip.: Chironomidae; Neur.: Siali- 

dae) 135 

McAtee Curious behavior of Cicin- 

dela unipunctata (Col. : Cicindeli- 

dae ; Hym. : Formicidae) 135 

Yancey Vanessa californica and Frost 

( Lepid . ) 136 

Smyth Color Phases in Argynnis di- 

ana ( Lep. ) 136 

Entomological Literature 137 

Doings of Societies Ent. Sec., Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila. ( Lep .. Dipt.. Orth.) 142 
The Convocation Week Meetings 

Horticultural Inspectors .... 142 

Feldman Collecting Social (Dipt., 

Lep., Col., Hym.) 143 

Chicago Entomological Club (Lep., 

Col.) 144 



Description of two Hitherto Undescribed Aberrations, 
the one of Argynnis alcestis, the other 

of Chlorippe celtis (Lep.). 

By ROBERT H. WOLCOTT, University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Nebr. 

(Plate IV, figs. 5 and 6) 

There exists a lack of agreement among entomologists as to 
the degree to which the various forms of an insect shall be 
recognized by name, especially when the form in question is 
in the nature of an aberration. Nevertheless the writer ven- 
tures to describe two such aberrations, believing that the re- 
cording of all such marked departures from the type which 
may occur in nature is desirable from the point of view of the 
student of variation, and that reference to all such departures 
is facilitated and rendered definite by the bestowal of a name. 

The first of these aberrations is a form of .-In/yntiis alces- 
tis Edw. which may be appropriately called 

97 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

Argynnis alcestis n. aberr. suffusa (Plate IV, fig. 5). 

The whole surface of the fore wings is suffused with black, except for 
a narrow strip along each margin. Two fulvous spots remain in the 
discal cell and faint indications of the fulvous spots just within the 
submarginal line, which is very broad. On the hind wings the submar- 
ginal line is also very broad and a black suffusion covers the greater 
part of the discal cell. In the usual form there is an area beyond 
each of the median row of black lunules which is of a slightly paler 
tint than the rest of the wing but in this specimen these areas are 
largely suffused by black, causing this row of narrow lunules to be re- 
placed by a band of conspicu6us black spots. Beneath, the black 
suffusion on the fore wings ceases abruptly along a line extending from 
a point two-thirds of the way out from the body on the inner margin 
to one three-fourths of the way out on the costal margin and parallel 
to the outer margin. The apical silvered spots are almost obliterated. 
On the under side of the hind wings the silvered spots of the sub- 
marginal row are to a considerable extent suffused with black ; the 
silvered spots of the median row are largely black ; and much black 
appears about and between the silvered spots on the basal portion of 
the wing, these spots themselves being slightly larger than in the ordi- 
nary form. The black, silver, and cinnamon brown of this surface of 
the hind wings produces a lively contrast which is quite pleasing. 

This form is described from one male specimen collected in 
a bog south of Grand Rapids, Michigan, in August, 1897. It 
has the appearance of showing the effect of cold, but if that 
factor was the only one involved in its production it seems 
strange that such an aberration is so rarely met with among 
the species of this genus. 

The second form is one of Chlorippe celtis Bd.-Lec. 

Chlorippe celtis n. aberr. inornata (Plate IV, fig. 6). 

In this form the ground color of all the wings above is of a browner 
tone than the average specimen. The median band of white spots on 
the fore wing is gone and the olive-brown ground color extends out 
over the discal portion of the wing, leaving only an apical black patch 
with four white spots, and a black border along the outer margin. No 
trace of submarginal pale lunules is present and the eye spot between 
the first and second median ncrvules is represented by <mly a small 
dot. On the upper surface of the hind wing all markings are obliter- 
ated except a faint trace cf the two eye spots next the anal angle and 
the faint markings in the discal cell. An irregular submarginal black- 
ish band extends across the wing and is broadest toward the costal 
margin. On the under surface, the wings show the same tendency to 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 99 

obliteration of the markings, only the spots in the discal cells of both 
wings being clearly defined as in the ordinary form. However, very 
faint traces of the rest of the eye spots on the hind wings can be seen 
and the markings near the inner angle of the fore wings, including the 
spot between the first and second median nervules, are very faintly in- 
dicated, as in the usual type. 

This form also is described from a single male specimen 
collected near Ashland, Nebraska, June 14, 1913. The name 
inornata very naturally suggests itself as appropriate. 

The types of both of these aberrations are in the writer's 
collection. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. I. Satyrodcs canthus Linn., n. var. fumosus. Male. 

Fig. 2. Satyrodcs canthus Linn., n. var. fumosus. Female. 

Fig. 3. Satyrodcs canthus Linn. Male. 

Fig. 4. Satyrodcs canthus Linn. Female. 

Fig. 5. Argynnis alcestis Edw., n. aberr. sitffitsa. Male. 

Fig. 6. Chlorippe celtis Bd.-Lec., n. aberr. inornata. 'Male. 

(Photograph by Ralph W. Dawson.) 



A new Variety of Satyrodes canthus from Nebraska 

(Lcp.) 

By R. A. LEUSSLER, Omaha, Nebr. 

(Plate IV, figs. 1-4) 

Satyrodes canthus Linn., n. v. fumosus (Plate IV, figs. 1, 2). 

This is a variety of canthus, very large in size and extremely dark 
in color, with the spots on the upper surface of secondaries enlarged, 
elongated and intensified. 

$. Measures 27 to 31 mm. from centre of thorax to apex of wing, 
most of the specimens examined measuring 31 mm. 

Upperside : Ground color a very dark smoky grey instead of the 
pale mouse brown of the typical form, fresh specimens having even a 
blackish appearance. Number and arrangement of spots the same as 
in the typical form but the spots on the secondaries larger, blacker and 
more or less elongated. Submarginal line like that in the typical form. 
Lighter area in outer half of primaries generally less pronounced than 
in typical canthus. 

Underside: The same darkening of tone prevails, i. e., var. fumosus 
is as much darker than typical canthus on the under surface as it is on 
the upper. The spots are large and well ringed with yellow and pupilled 



IOO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

with white, making them stand out prominently. The various other 
markings are the same as in the typical form. 

9 . Measures 28 to 32 mm., in most of the specimens examined 31 
or 32. 

Upperside: Somewhat lighter in tone than the males, yet of the 
same smoky grey. Spots larger than in the males but with the same 
characteristics. Other markings same as in the males. Lighter area 
on primaries more pronounced. 

Underside: Also lighter than in the males and in the limbal area 
there is a distinct light patch, most pronounced in the spaces on either 
side of the third median nervule. The spots are prominent, as in the 
males. 

Described from 17 males and 8 females, collected in 1912, 
1913, 1914 and 1915, of which one male is designated the type 
and one female the allotype. The type and allotype are in the 
collection of R. A. Leussler at Omaha, Neb. 

The habitat of this variety is a spring-fed marsh in Sarpy 
County, Nebraska, a few miles south of Omaha, where wild 
rice, rushes and tall coarse grasses flourish. 

It seems quite probable that this form of canthus has been 
developed as a result of geographical isolation. 

A striking character of this variety is its very large size. 
Holland in his Butterfly Book gives the expanse of canthus as 
from 1.65 to 1.90 inches. A number of Michigan specimens 
examined vary from 21 mm. to 25 mm. in the dimension cor- 
responding to that given above. Minnesota specimens average 
slightly larger, and apparently the species tends to become still 
larger farther west. 

Edwards figures a dark canthus in Vol. Ill of his Butter- 
flies of North America (fig. 5, PI. I, Satyrids) which he desig- 
nates "var." and in the text refers to some large Colorado ex- 
amples, which he states exceed any eastern ones, the males 
being 2.2 in. and the females 2.4 in. in expanse. Then he adds 
"but they do not differ in other respects from their congeners." 
The variety here described besides being of very large size 
differs very materially from its congeners. 

For purposes of comparison specimens of typical canthns 
from Michigan are shown in Figs. 3 and 4 in the plate. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. IOI 

Phenacaspis spinicola n. sp. ; an apparently new 
Coccid from Indiana (Hem., Horn.). 

By HARRY F. DIETZ and HAROLD MORRISON,* Indianapolis, 

Indiana. 

The following description of what seems to be a new species 
of Diaspinae is published as a preliminary to a systematic paper 
on the Coccidae of Indiana, which is now completed and will 
be issued about the first of April. 

We have had some difficulty in deciding the generic posi- 
tion of this species, but after a careful study of related species, 
including the type of Phenacaspis and eight species of Chionas- 
pis, have concluded that it should be included in Phenacaspis 
Cooley. 

Phenacaspis spinicola new species. 

Scale of Female: Length 1.5-2 mm.; strongly broadened behind, 
widest behind the middle, apex broadly rounded, sometimes more ir- 
regular in shape, thin, somewhat convex, color normally white but 
often gray or dirty gray; exuviae large, occupying fully one-third of 
the total length of the scale, the first pale brown and shiny, the second 
very light yellow and dull ; ventral scale well developed along the 
edges, very thin or wanting in the centre, often remaining attached to 
the dorsal scale. 

Scale of Male : Length about .8 mm. ; elongate, narrow, sides ap- 
proximately parallel or slightly curved ; white, more or less distinctly 
tricarinate, roughened above ; exuvia, pale yellow, occupying fully two- 
fifths of the total length of the scale. 

Body of Female: Elongate, narrow, broader just in front of the 
pygidium, distinctly segmented, cephalic segment almost' triangular, 
apex rounded, the two segments preceding the penultimate segment 
more or less distinctly constricted at the sutures. 

Pygidium of Female: Rather large, parabolic in shape; deeply in- 
cised at apex by the sunken median lobes ; median lobes large, deeply 
sunken into the pygidium, broad, the outer margins nearly straight, 
then angularly curved to the median chitinous thickenings, inner mar- 
gins strongly curved from base to apex, close together and parallel 
for a short distance at base, distinctly crenulate, second lobes distinctly 
divided into spatulate lobules, the inner more prominent than the med- 
ian lobes, inner lobule of third lobes well developed, but broad, only 
slightly projecting, with serrate margin; no incisions in the margin of 
the pygidium; with a more or less distinctly hexagonal thickening on 
the median line at the base of the median lobes, this deeply notched 
caudally; no plates present, gland spines as follows: one just outside 

*The arrangement of the authors' names is alphabetical and indi- 
cates neither seniority nor precedence. 



IO2 



ENTOMOtOGICAl, NEWS. 



[Mar.,'i6 



median lobe, one just outside of the outer lobule of the second lobe, one 
beyond the rudimentary outer lobule of the third lobe, one about 
half-way between this and the base of the pygidium and a group of 
two to four just caudad of the base of the pygidium; spines as shown in 
figure ; anal opening circular, slightly nearer to base than to apex of 
pygidium ; circumgenital gland openings arranged in five groups, median 
8-9, anterior laterals 10-15, posterior laterals 7-10; marginal gland open- 
ings as follows : one between the first and second lobes on a slight 
prominence, one on a slight prominence between second gland spine and 
inner lobule of third lobe, one just beyond this, opening at the outer 
angle of the inner lobule of the third lobe, one, the first of a row, on a 




Phenacaspis spinicola n. sp. Pygidium of female, dorsal surface to right, 
ventral surface to left. (R. E. Snodgrass, del.) 

slight prominence a little beyond the third gland spine, one a little 
beyond this, a little inside of the margin, apparently opening into a 
pocket, one on a slight protuberance beyond the fourth gland spine and 
'the last a little beyond this; dorsal gland openings somewhat variable, 
but about as shown in figure ; micropores so far as observed as follows : 
two, one in front of the other, cephalad of the outer lobule of the sec- 
ond lobes, one close to the second gland opening of the first row of 
dorsal gland openings. 

Types deposited in the writers' collections, co-types in the U. 
S. N. M. Coll., Cornell University collection, collection of Prof. 
R. A. Cooley, Ohio State University collection, Stanford 
University collection and Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia collection. 

This species has been found in two places just outside of 
Indianapolis, Indiana, September 15, 1915, and in two places 
east of Vincennes, Indiana, August 31, 1915, in all cases on 
the honey locust (Glcditsia triacanthos), infesting especially 
the green spines on the trunk of the tree, but also to some ex- 
tent the bark, twigs and leaves. In all cases it was scarce, and 
cannot be considered as being of economic importance. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 03 

New and Noteworthy Hemiptera from New England. 1 

By H. M. PARSIILEV, Bussey Institution, Harvard University. 
During the past two years I have examined a large num- 
ber of New England Hemiptera, among which I have found 
several new forms and numerous species not hitherto sup- 
posed to occur in this region. The records noted herewith 
are of special interest, and in several cases the known range of 
the species is materially extended. Such results show clearly 
how inadequate is our present knowledge as a basis for gen- 
eralizations on the distribution of the Hemiptera, and they 
emphasize the importance of intensive investigations restricted 

to limited areas. 

GERRIDAE. 

Gerris argenticollis sp. nov. (Fig. a). 

Dark velvety brown above with fine sericeous pubescence. Anterior 
lobe of the pronotum with median and marginal yellow stripes, the 
former faint, the latter clothed with thick silvery pubescence ; poster- 
ior lobe with yellow margins. Inner margins of hemielytra marked at 
base with white between the veins. Under surface black or silvery 
depending on the direction of the light; acetabula, bases of anterior 
legs and margins of abdomen marked conspicuously with yellow ; om- 
phalium and legs variable, black to pale brown. 

Relative proportions: of antennal segments, 1st 26, 2nd 13, 3rd 12, 
4th 10 ; of intermediate legs, femur 50, tibia 43, 1st tarsal segment 20, 
2nd 10. 

Thorax comparatively robust; abdominal spines not reaching apex 
of abdomen. 

$ . Fifth abdominal sternite notched at middle of posterior margin ; 
sixth abdominal sternite not carinate, ventral surface of abdomen not 




Male genitalia of Gerris, ventral view ; a, G. arffn/icoilis n. sp. ; 
b, G. margiitalits Say; c, G. biirnni Ivirk. 

1 Contributions from the Entomological Laboratory of the Bussey In- 
stitution, Harvard University, No. 109. 



IO4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

distinctly depressed just anterior to genital segment (as it is in 
buenoi), median ventral (second) emargination narrow, semicircular; 
genital segment narrow, Fig. a. 

$ . Lateral plates of genital segment together very slightly wider than 
long, widest at middle, carinate ventrally. 

Length from tip of tylus to apex of abdominal spines, $ 7.5-8 mm. ; 
9 8-8.5 mm- 

Holotype ( $ ) and allotype (taken in copulation) in my 
collection; paratypes in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge; Boston Society of Natural History; United 
States National Museum; and the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences, Philadelphia. 

Described from 10 males and 16 females taken at Forest 
Hills, Massachusetts, 26 April, 4 May, 20 May, 1915, from a 
woodland pond where it was associated with G. marginatus 
Say and G. bucnoi Kirk. A female specimen from Southern 
Pines, North Carolina, 15 March, 1915 (Manee) belongs to 
this species. This form pertains to the subgenus Gcrris. It is 
distinguished from G. buenoi and G. marginatus by the white 
markings at the base of the hemielytra, the form of the geni- 
talia, Figs, a-c, and the marginal stripes of the anterior lobe of 
the pronotum which are not silvery in the former and lacking 
in the latter. 

MlRIDAE. 

Heterocordylus malinus Reut. Durham, New Hampshire (No. 
3485, W. & R). 

This is the most northern record for the species, and the 
first indication of its occurrence in New England. It is seri- 
ously destructive in New York, where it is known as the 
"apple red-bug." 

Pithanus maerkeli H. S. Eastport, Maine, 15 July, 1909 (C. \Y. 
Johnson). 

In going over some unmounted material belonging to the 
Boston Society of Natural History, I recently came across 
seven brachypterous specimens of this European species, 
which were taken by sweeping in a field. This record, 
the first for New England, indicates the establishment of the 
species in this country. It was first recorded by Olsen, from 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. IO5 

Long Island, and I have lately seen a specimen from Truro, 
Nova Scotia, taken by Mr. W. H. Brittain. 

HEBRIDAE or NAEOGEIDAE. 

Hebrus (or Naeogeus) burmeisteri Leth et Sev. Edgart<>\vn, 
Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, 28 June, 1912. (C. W. Johnson). 

One specimen only of this species has been present in the 
material which I have thus far examined. 

REDUVIIDAE. 

Apiomerus ventralis Say. Monmouth, Maine, 26 June, 1906, 
Framingham, Massachusetts, 12 June, 1904. 

One of several unusually interesting Hemiptera collected by 
Mr. C. A. Frost, the coleopterist. It has been considered a 
southern and western species. 

Zelus socius Uhl. Monmouth, Maine, 18 July, 1914 (Frost), 
Hopkinton, Massachusetts, 14 June, 1914 (Frost), Portland, Con- 
necticut, 10 August, 1913 (Walden). 

These I believe to be the first New England records for this 

species. 

TINGITIDAE. 

Galeatus peckhami Ashm. Mt. Washington (Glen House, Os- 
good Trail), New Hampshire, 20 July, 1915 (C. W. Johnson). 

This curious Tingitid is a notable addition to the New Eng- 
land fauna. 

CORIZIDAE. 

Corizus hyalinus Fab. Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 2 July, 
1905 (J. A. Cushman). 

This species inhabits the warmer regions of the Old and 
New Worlds and is an addition to the rather long list of more 
typically southern forms occasionally found along the south- 
ern coast of New England. 

COREIDAE. 

Anasa repetita Heid. Wallingford, Connecticut, 1911 (D. J. 
Caffrey), Boston (near Chestnut Hill), Massachusetts, 24 Sept., 
1914 (Parshley). 

The first New England records for this species were pub- 
lished by Mr. C. W. Johnson, Psyche, 1914, p. 82. I took the 
specimen noted above while sweeping underbrush in open 
woods, together with A. armigera. 



I0 6 ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

Anasa armigera Say. Boston, Massachusetts, 24 Sept., 1914; 
13 Oct., 1915 (Parshley). 

I believe that these are the first New England records for 
this species. The two specimens were taken at almost the 
same spot in two successive years. The individual captured in 
1914 differs in some details from typical western specimens in 
my collection, but the other is so distinctly intermediate as to 
forbid even racial separation from typical armigera. 

PENTATOMIUAE. 

Zicrona caerulea Linn. Newbury Neck (near Surrey), Maine, 
22-24 June, 1904 (F. A. Eddy). 

This cosmopolite is widely distributed in the West, but there 
is only one other record of its occurrence in New England. 
(Mt. Washington, New Hampshire)! I have compared the 
specimen with others in my collection from the Caucasus and 
Java and note but slight differences apart from size. 



A New Species of Heterothrips (Thysanoptera) from 
Eastern United States. 

By J. DOUGLAS HOOD, U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, 

D. C. 

Heterothrips vitis sp. nov. 

1913 Heterothrips arisaemae Morgan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
46, p. 44. (Appomatox, Virginia; on wild grape). (A misidentification, 
nee Hood, 1908). 

Female (macroptcrous). Length about i mm. Color dark blackish 
brown, with tarsi and distal ends of all tibiae very pale yellow ; basal 
portions of antennal segments 3 and 4 more or less yellowish, the re- 
mainder of antenna grayish brown. 

Head about 1.6 times as long as median dorsal length and about 0.7 
as long as prothorax, widest near base, cheeks tapering roundly an- 
teriorly; surface closely transversely striate and with a few minute 
spines, impressed in the region of the anterior ocellus; frontal costa 
with deep, U-shaped emargination ; ocellar area not delimited by chiti- 
nous lines. Eyes setose, about two-thirds as long as head, slightly 
wider than their dorsal interval, not bounded behind by a chitinous line. 
Ocelli of posterior pair twice the diameter of anterior ocellus, about 
half as wide as their interval. Antennae about 2.8 times as long as 
head ; segment 3 more or less conical and about 2.8 times as long as 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. IO7 

wide; 4 much shorter than 3, about twice as long as wide, sides broadly 
rounded in basal fourth, nearly straight beyond ; 5-8 more or less barrel 
shaped, with sense cones, 5 narrowed at base ; 9 about three times as 
long as wide, obliquely truncate at base, its axis tipped more or less 
outward from that of rest of antenna ; segment I slightly lighter than 
head, 2 about concolorous with it, very slightly, if at all, paler at apex ; 
3 and 4 pale yellowish, with orange pigment apically, 3 narrowly and 4 
widely, darkened with gray at apex ; 5-9 grayish brown, 5 paler sub- 
basally. 

Prothorax about 1.4 times as long as head and about 1.6 times as 
wide as long, broader behind, sides and posterior margin rounded, an- 
terior margin nearly straight ; notum with a few inconspicuous bristles, 
its surface closely transversely striate with anastomosing lines. Wings 
of fore pair nearly half as wide at middle as near base, the greatest 
sub-basal width (exclusive of scale), about one-ninth the length of 
wing; costal margin, anterior vein, and posterior vein with about 30, 
26, and 16 spines, respectively. 

Abdomen stout, pubescence dense, disposed on close, anastomosing 
striae; posterior margins of abdominal tergites 1-5 fringed at sides 
with numerous slender spines which are not at all coalesced at base to 
form plates or scales; tergites 6-8 and sternites 2-6 with their entire 
posterior margins similarly produced. 

Measurements of holotype: Head, length 0.090 mm., width 0.144 
mm.; prothorax, length 0.126 mm., width 0.206 mm.; prothorax, width 
0.269 mm.; fore-wing, length 0.780 mm., width near base 0.084 mm.; 
width at middle 0.045 rnm.; abdomen, width 0.319 mm. 
Antennal segments : 123456789 

Length in microns 20 35 61 44 32 29 14 15 14 

Width in microns 28 25 22 21 18 15 12 10 5 

-Total length of antenna, 0.264 mm. 

Male (macropterous) . Length about .7 mm. Color and structure 
essentially as in female. Tergite of abdominal segment 9 with a pair 
of heavy, fingerlike, chitinous processes between the usual two pairs of 
long bristles behind middle. 

Measurements of allotype : Head, length 0.076 mm., width 0.125 
mm.; prothorax, length 0.102 mm., width (inclusive of coxae) 0.172 
mm. ; pterothorax, width 0.209 mm. ; fore-wing, length 0.552 mm,, width 
near base 0.072 mm., width at middle 0.039 mm.; abdomen, width 0.166 
mm. 
Antennal segments : 123456789 

Length in microns 18 33 53 37 32 29 14 14 1 1 

Width in microns 24 21 19 18 16 14 n 9 5 

Total length of antenna, 0.241 mm. 



io8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

Described from 49 females and 15 males, as follows: 

Maryland: Plummer Island (type locality), May 23, 1915 
(W. L. McAtee, L. O. Jackson, J. D. Hood), on flowers of 
wild grape, 10 females, 3 males; Great Falls, May 23, 1915 
(W. L. McAtee, L. O. Jackson, J. D. Hood), on flowers of 
wild grape, Smila.v and Rhus toxicodendron, 31 females, 8 
males. 

District of Columbia: Washington, June 6, 1915 ( V. A. 
Lawrence and J. D. Hood), on flowers of wild grape, 7 fe- 
males, 2 males. 

Virginia: Great Falls, May 19, 1915 (L. O. Jackson), on 
flowers of wild grape, I female, 2 males. 

The types are now in my collection. 

The specimens here described are very uniform in most of 
the characters used in the differentiation of the species. Other 
individuals, particularly males, taken at the same time and 
possibly in company with them, exhibit variations in the pro- 
portionate lengths of the antennal segments, the sculpture of 
the pronotum, and the abdominal armature ; but more material 
of these forms is needed before their proper status can be 
decided. 

This species is allied by the simple, spinose fringe of the 
lateral, posterior margins of the abdominal tergites, to minor, 
sericatus and an alls. The transversely striate pronotum sep- 
arates it readily from minor, which was described from Pana- 
ma ; and sericatus, a Porto Rican species, differs radically in 
that the legs of the female are yellow and the body of the 
male orange yellow. Its affinities, then, are with analis, known 
only from Maryland. This is the only species of the genus 
with which it agrees in the male sex in having the ninth ab- 
dominal tergite produced in a pair of converging, fringe-like 
processes. In analis, however, the third antennal segment is 
very long, being about 3.6 times as long as its greatest width ; 
the middle portion of the antenna, from segments 3-5, inclu- 
sive, is a very pale grayish yellow ; and the mid and hind tibiae 
are annulate at both ends with pale yellow. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. ICK) 

Additional Records of New Jersey Acarina. 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 
For a preliminary list of New Jersey mites, see Entomologi- 
cal News, Vol. xxvi, 149-151. 

Linopodes antennaepes Banks. Fort Lee (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 

Vol. xxi, p. 221). Common under pieces of wood, bark, etc., that 

have been on the ground for some time. 
Bdella cardinalis Banks. Fort Lee. Under leaves, in moss, under 

rotten wood. (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. xxi, p. 219.) 
Bdella marina Pack. New Jersey seashore. (Trans. Amer. Ent. 

Soc., Vol. xxi, p. 219.) 
Anystis agilis Banks. Fort Lee, on grass, trees, bushes. (Trans. 

Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. xxi, p. 211.) 
Tetranychus mytilaspidis Riley. Occurs on citrus stock growing 

in greenhouses in New Jersey. H. B. Weiss. 
Trombidium granulatum Banks. Fort Lee. (Canad. Ent., 1902, 

p. 171.) 
Tetranobia clavispinis Bks. Pemberton, May 20, on unidentified 

grass in cranberry bog. H. B. Scammell. 
Galumna octo-punctata Ewing. Pemberton, Feb. 21,> under loose 

bark of catalpa. H. B. Scammell. 
Galumna depressa Bks. Whitesbog, Sept. 27, on J\icciiiiniii corym- 

bnsuni (blueberry). H. K. Plank. 
Galumna armipes Banks. Fort Lee. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

1906, p. 492.) 
Galumna robusta Banks. Fort Lee. (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 

Vol. xxii, p. 7.) 
Oribatula pallida Banks. Fort Lee. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

1906, p. 494.) 
Eremaeus pilosus Banks. Fort Lee. Common in crevices of the 

bark of trees. (Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. xxii, p. 11.) 
Liacarus nitidus Banks. Fort Lee. Common on ground under 

wood, bark, stones. (Trans. Amer. Fnt. Soc., Vol. xxii, p. 10.) 
Oribata minuta Ranks. Fort Lee. Common in decaying animal 

substances; also occurs in moss, under bark on the ground. 

(Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., Vol. xxii, p. 12.) 
Oribatella signata Bks. Medford, May 29, on foliage of cranberry 

beneath the surface of the \vater. IT. B. Scammell. 
Oribatella formosa Bks. Pemberton, May 8, on laurel. IT. 15. 

Scammell. 

Rhizoglyphus hyacinthi Boisd. Newark, October, injuring hya- 
cinth bulbs. H. B. Weiss. 
Eriophyes cephalanthi Cook. Riverton, July, August. Elizabeth, 



no ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

Aug. 10. On Cephalanthus occidentalis (button bush). H. B. 
Weiss. 

Eriophyes cornutus Banks. New Jersey. Causes silver sheen on 
peach leaves. (Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc., Vol. vii, p. 141.) 

Eriophyes eucricotes Nalepa. Kingston, Elizabeth, Riverton, 
Rutherford, Springfield, on Lycittm barbatum (matrimony vine). 
H. B. Weiss. 

Eriophyes fraxini Garm. Springfield, July. Galls on ash leaves. 

Eriophyes oleivorus Ashm. Occurs on lemons and oranges grow- 
ing in greenhouses in New Jersey. H. B. Weiss. 

Eriophyes rosea Schult. Plainfield, on sugar maple. Red frost 
gall of maple. H. B. Weiss. 

Eriophyes tristriatus Nalepa. Elizabeth. Felt mite gall on wal- 
nut. H. B. W. 

Eriophyes vitis Landois. Chester, Sept. 28. Felt mite gall on 
wild grape. H. B. Weiss. 

Eriophyes sp. Trenton, Springfield, Riverton, August. On pearl 
bush (Exochordia'). H. B. Weiss. 

Eriophyes sp. Rutherford, on Sambucus canadensis. Margins of 
leaves involute. 

Eriophyes sp. Rutherford. Brown warts on upper surface of alder 

leaves. 

i <> 

South Carolina Ants (Hym.) 

By M. R. SMITH and W. A. MORRISON, Entomological Labo- 
ratory, Clemson Agricultural College, South Carolina. 

The following represents a list of ants collected from vari- 
ous localities in South Carolina during the fall of 1915. Where 
no locality is given the species was collected in the vicinity of 
Clemson College. The identifications were made by Dr. W. 
M. Wheeler, to whom the writers are greatly indebted: 

Subfamily DORYLINAE. 
Briton opacithorax Emery. 

Subfamily MYRMICINAE. 
Solcnopsis geminata Fabr. Marion. 
Solcnopsis pergandei Forel. 
Solcnopsis molcsta Say Marion. 
Phcidolc morrisi Forel. Marion. 
Phcidole dentata Mayr. Marion. 
Fheidole crassicornis Emery. 
Phcidole vinelandica Forel. 
Cremastogaster lineolata Say. 

Crcmastogaster lineolata Say, var. lutescens Emery. 
Cremastogaster victima Smith. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. Ill 

Aphaenogastcr trcatae Forel. 

Aphacnogastcr lamcllidcns Mayr. 

Aphaenogastcr tc.tana Roger, var. carnlincnsis Emery. 

Pogonomyrmcx badins Latr. 

Lcptothorax curvispinosus Mayr. 

Trachymyrmcx scptentrionalis McCook. 

Subfamily DOLICHODERINAE. 
Dolichodcnis (Hypoclinea) mariae Forel. 

Dolichoderus (Ilypoclinea) taschcnbergi Mayr. var. aterima Whir. 
Dolichodcnis (Hypoclinca') plagiata Mayr. 
Dorymyrmcx pyramicus Roger. 

Dorymyrmcx pyramicus Roger, var. flavus Pergande. 
Dorymyrmex pyramicus Roger, var. nigcr Pergande Marion. 
Tapinoma sessile Say. 

Iridomyrmcx pruinosns Roger, var. analis Andre. 
Iridomyrmcx pruinosiis Roger, var. hitmilis Mayr. Charleston. 

Subfamily CAMPONOTINAE. 
Prenolepis imparis Say, var. minuta Emery. 
Prenolepis imparis Say, var. tcstacca Emery. 
Lasins nigcr Linn., var. americanus Emery. 
Lasius (Acanthomyops~) clavigcr Roger. 
Lashis (Acanthomyops} intcrjccfus Mayr. 
Formica pallidc-fuh'a Latr. subsp. schaufussi Mayr. 
Formica fusca Linn., var. subscricca Emery. 
Camponotus castancus Lat., subsp. americanus Mayr. 
Camponotus castancus Latr. 

Camponotus herculeanus Latr., subsp. pennsylranicus DeGeer. 
Camponotus fallax Nyl., var. ncarcticus Emery. 
Camponotus fallax Nyl., var. dccipicns Emery. 

The species here given were found attending Aphis-maidi- 
radicis, the corn and cotton root louse, by Prof. W. A. Thom- 
as of this Division. 

Crcmastogastcr lincolata Say, var. 

Dorymyrmcx pyramicus Roger, var. niger Pergande. 

Solenopsis molcsta Say, var. 

Solcnopsis gcminata Fabr. 

Phcidolc dcntata Mayr. 

Phcidole morrisi Forel. 

Prenolepis sp. Emery. 

Pheidole rinclandica Forel. 

In this section Prenolepis imparis appears to be one of the 
most numerous and hardiest of ants, as it has been active all 
winter, though the winter here has not been severe. 



ii2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar.,'i6 

Additions to the Coleoptera of Meriden, Connecticut. 

By HARRY L. JOHNSON, South Meriden, Conn. 

In my first list of the Coleoptera of Connecticut published in 
the issue of Entomological News for July, 1915, I made the 
statement that it was my intention to add further species to 
this list as they came into my hands. Since I now have some 
275 specimens which are additions to the list, together with 
several corrections, I think it is advisable to publish them. 

I am greatly indebted to the following entomologists for the 
identification of many species and without whose help this list 
would have been necessarily incomplete and uncertain : Mr. 
A. B. Champlain and Mr. Charles Leng, of New York, have 
identified most of the Carabidae ; Mr. Schwarz, of the Na- 
tional Museum, together with Mr. C. A. Frost, of Framing- 
ham, Mass., have determined the bulk of the material, while 
Mr. Fisher, of Washington, D. C., is responsible for most of 
the Cerambycid determinations ; Mr. E. D. Harris, of New 
York, Mr. N. S. Easton, of Fall River, Mass., and Mr. W. E. 
Snyder, of Beaver Dam, Wis., have also helped in determin- 
ations of species, while Mr. Britton and Mr. Walden, of the 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, are largely re- 
sponsible for most of the corrections to my former list. 

A short description of collecting grounds in connection with 
this list is deemed necessary. To the northwest of South Meri- 
den there lies a long, narrow valley enclosed by hills and cliffs 
which is traditionally known as "Oregon" by the inhabitants 
of the village. Through the center of this valley flows the 
Connecticut river, on its northern bank runs the track of the 
"Cannon Ball Express," while along the southern bank a road, 
known as the Cheshire or Oregon road, wends its way. Every- 
thing from sandy shores to deep woods and dense vegetation 
is found in this valley, thus affording a varietv of collecting 
which is not easily imagined. My favorite collecting route is 
along the Oregon road for a couple of miles until T come to 
a bridge which takes me across the river, allowing me to make 
my return trip along the railroad track and thence home. 

Black Pond is a large and very deep body of water, more 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 113 

than half surrounded by high cliffs situated to the east of the 
city of Meriden. The fauna of this locality differs consider- 
ably from that surrounding my own home and almost always 
supplies new names for the list with each visit, an abandoned 
road through the hills to the north of this pond being one of 
my favorite collecting places. 

Family CICINDEUDAE. 
Cicindela hirticollis Say. Rare. Taken from June 7 to Aug. 6. 

Family CARABIDAE. 

Carabus limbatus Say. Rare. Taken in a trap made by sinking a 
glass jar containing some molasses into the ground so that the 
top was level with the ground. Dense woods were selected as 
best for the trap and a specimen of C. limbatus was secured in it 
on May 30. 

Calosoma willcoxi Lee. Rare. Taken with C. frigidum while 
killing caterpillars. May 21-27. 

Calosoma frigidum Kirby. Not common. Taken from May 27- 
June 12. All my specimens were captured while running along 
the fence on the Oregon road where they were busy killing and 
eating the caterpillars of Malacosoma americana. These worms 
fairly swarmed along the fence and every now and then would be 
seen an open spot where the Calosomas had broken their ranks and 
left the dead and wounded on the field. 

Calosoma sycophanta T.inn. Rare. 1 specimen May 14. 

Scarites subterraneus Fab. Rare. 2 specimens on June 30 and 
July 7. 

Schizogenius lineolatus Say. Very rare. Secured one on the 27th 
of May. 

Bembidium contractum Say. Rare. Taken on July 9. 

Tachys nanus Gyll. Common. Sept. 19-20. 

Pterostichus adoxus Say. Not common. Taken under boards and 
stones on May 15. 

Pterostichus sayi Brulle. Somewhat rare. Under boards from 
May 1 to July 7. 

Pterostichus corvinus Dej. Several taken July 14 and 16. 

Pterostichus mutus Say. Quite rare. Taken from April to Sep- 
tember. 

Amara exarata Dej. Seldom taken. Appears during August, Sep- 
tember and October. 

Amara apricarius Payk. Not common. Taken September first. 

Dicaelus elongatus Bon. Rare. Occurs under damp boards and 
leaves. May to October. 



114 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

i 

Platynus sinuatus Dej. Found under stones from April 3'0 to Aug. 

26. 

Platynus excavatus Dej. Occurs near and under rocks in July. 
Platynus octopunctatus Fab. Quite rare. Have taken but two 

specimens. 

Platynus crenistriatus Lee. Not common. Found in moist locali- 
ties from April 11 to Sept. 27. 

Platynus rubripes Zimm. Very rare. 1 specimen Oct. 3. 
Lebia grandis Hentz. 1 specimen taken in Wallingford, Conn., 

on July 27 by Mr. D. J. Caffrey. 

Lebia atriventris Say. Fairly common from June to July. 
Lebia fuscata Dej. Rare. May 31. 
Dromius piceus Dej. Not common. Taken from March 20 to 

July 18. 
Axinopalpus biplagiatus Dej. Not common. Found under moist 

bark of ash and oak from March 8-15. 
Cymindis americana Dej. Rare. Taken in moist localities on 

Sept. 7. 

Chlaenius aestivus Say. April 11-Sept. 20. 
Chlaenius pennsylvanicus Say. April 29-July 7. 
Lachnocrepis parallelus Say. Rare. 1 specimen July 13. 
Oodes americanus Dej. 1 specimen June 2. Very rare. 
Stenolophus conjunctus Say. Not common. March 3-May 14. 
Tachycellus badiipennis Hald. Quite common from April 11 to 19. 
Anisodactylus rusticus Dej. Common from April to August. 
Anisodactylus nigerrimus Dej. Common. Found in wet localities 

under boards, stones and rubbish from April 20 to Sept. 14. 
Anisodactylus sericeus Harr. Rare in my experience. 1 specimen 

May 24. 

Family HALTPLIDAE. 

Haliplus fasciatus Aube. Not common. I have one taken on 
March 10 and another specimen taken in Hamden, Conn., by Mr. 
B. H. Walden on Oct. 24. 

Haliplus ruficollis DeG. Rare. 1 specimen April 6. 

Cnemidotus edentulus Lee. Common during March. 

Family DYTISCIDAE. 

Hydrocanthus iricolor ? Say. Rare. 1 specimen on April 10. 
Laccophilus maculosus Germ. Rare. Taken in a small pond 

known as Little Hanover on April 5. 
Laccophilus undatus ? Aube. Common in Little Hanover during 

March and April. 

Hydroporus americanus ? Aube. Not common. July 18. 
Copelatus glyphicus ? Say. Rare. Taken in sluggish pools on April 

5. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 115 

Family GYRINIDAE. 
Dineutes emarginatus Say. Common. July 12. -Oct. 17. 

Family HYDROPHILIDAE. 
Sphaeridium scarabaeoides Linn. Rare. 1 specimen from pasture 

May 2. 
Cercyon nigricolle ? Say. Rare. 1 specimen May 13. 

Family STAPHYUNIDAE. 

Staphylinus maculosus Grav. Taken while flying. May 3-June 1. 
Staphylinus cinnamopterus Grav. Sept. 27. Seldom taken. 
Philonthus lomatus Er. 1 specimen July 6. 
Stenus juno ? Fab. Very rare. 1 specimen May 15. 
Platystethus americanus Er. Taken from under rubbish on July 

10. Rare. 
Triga picipennis Lee. Taken from beneath bark of maple on 

March 15. Rare. 

Family PHALACRIDAE. 

Phalacrus penicillatus Say. April 20-July 14. Quite rare. 

Olibrus apicalis. Common. Taken from flowers in May, June 

and July. 

Family COCCINELLTDAE. 
Hippodamia glacialis Fab. Common on alfalfa from March 29- 

Aug. 31. 
Brachyacantha 4-punctata Melsh. Rare. Occurs from June to 

September. 

Family EROTYLIDAE. 

Languria gracilis Newm. Rare. Taken by sweeping. June 8- 

July 9. 

Family CUCUJIDAE. 

Silvanus surinamensis Linn. Taken under bark on July 12. Not 

common. 

Silvanus planatus ? Germ. Found under bark of elm on March 19. 
Laemophlaeus fasciatus Melsh. Taken under moist bark of trees 

from April 20-May 25. 
Laemophlaeus testaceus Fab. Not common. Found under wet 

bark of elm, March 28. 
Laemophlaeus pusillus Sell. Very rare. 1 specimen August 1. 

Family CRYPTOPHAGIDAE. 
Telmatophilus americanus Lee. Common throughout the month 

of May. 

Family DERMESTIHAI . 

Byturus unicolor Say. Not common. May 2~>. 

Attagenus piceus Oliv. Quite common from June 2-July 4. 

Anthrenus castaneae Melsh. Rare. 1 specimen by sweeping on 

June 30. 
Anthrenus lepidus. Rare. Taken by sweeping in Oregon on July 

2. 



u6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

Family HISTERIDAE. 
Hister merdarius Hoffm. Very common. 

Family NITIDULIDAE. 
Stelidota geminata Say. 1 specimen taken July 16. Quite rare. 

Family LATRIDIIDAE. 

Stephostethus liratus ? Lee. Swept one specimen of this rare spe- 
cies from deep grass on July 16. 
Melanophthalma cavicollis Mann. Rare. 1 specimen July 23. 

Family TROGOSITIDAE. 
Tenebrioides corticalis Melsh. Taken from under bark of elm, 

maple and oak from March 28-April 13. Very common. 
Tenebrioides americana Kirhy. Took one specimen under bark 

of maple on March 28. 

Family PARNIDAE. 

Psephenus lecontei Lee. Took one specimen July 11. 
Elmis vittatus Melsh. Rare. 1 specimen by sweeping June 18. 

Family DASCYU.IDAE. 

Anchytarsus bicolor Melsh. Rare. 1 specimen July 13. 
Cyphon ruficollis Say. Not common. Swept from flowers of wild 

carrot and wild parsnip. May 31-July 6. 
Cyphon obscurus Guer. Rare. Obtained by sweeping in boggy 

meadows. 
Cyphon variabilis Thunb. Rare. May 7. 

Family ELATERIDAE. 

Microrrhagus triangularis Say. Rare. 1 specimen July 13. 

Oedostethus femoralis Lee. Rare. Taken by sweeping cat-tail 
June 19-July 3. 

Monocrepidius aversus Lee. Very rare. Taken at light on win- 
dow July 16. 

Monocrepidius auritus Hbst. Taken by sweeping in May. 

Elater miniipennis ? Lee. Rare. June 21-25. 

Elater laesus ? Lee. Found in his home by Fred Kaiser of So. 
Meriden, on March 26. 

Elater rubricus Say. Rare. Taken in June. 

Elater obliquus ? Say. Rare. Swept from elm foliage near little 
Hanover from April 9-July 7. 

Agriotes mancus Say. Not common. Taken by sweeping mead- 
ows from June 1-July 7. 

Melanotus pertinax Say. Rare. 1 specimen May 14. 

Limonius stigma Hbst. Very rare. 1 specimen April lf>. 

Limonius griseus ? Beauv. Common on meadow grass from May 
21-June 9. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 1/ 

Oestodes tenuicollis Rand. Common. Taken from cat-tail June 

2-20. 

Sericosomus viridanus Say. Very rare. 1 specimen May 8. 
Corymbites tessellatus Linn. Taken from bark of elm and other 

trees. May 3-16. 
Corymbites cylindriformis Hbst. Common. Taken by sweeping 

in May. 
Corymbites tarsalis Melsh. Very rare. Swept from foliage on 

April 29 and May 2. 
Corymbites hamatus Say. Rare. Taken from foliage of elm on 

June 7. 

Corymbites inflatus Say. Rare. May 21. 
Hemicrepidius decoloratus Say. Rare. July 9-16. 
Melanactes piceus DeG. Very rare. Taken from dead and dying 

trees July 7. 

Family BUPRESTIDAE. 

Dicerca pugionata Germ. Very rare. 1 specimen May 3. 
Anthaxia viridifrons Lap. Taken in Wallingford from dead hick- 
ory on April 24, by D. J. Caffrey and also in New Haven on 

dead hickory by H. B. Kirk on May 10. Have never met with it 

in my locality. 

Chrysobothris femorata Fab. Rare. Taken from June 19-July 7. 
Chrysobothris 6-signata .Say. May 9-July 28. Taken in New 

Haven by Mr. Walden also. 
Eupristocerus cogitans Web. Rare. Beaten from blackberry 

bushes and oak from May 20-July 13. 

Agrilus acutipennis Mann. Beaten from shrubbery. Rare. 
Agrilus anxius Gory. Rare. Picked off from low shrubs. 
Agrilus cephalicus Lee. Rare. Beaten from oak on July 6. 
Agrilus arcuatus var. coryli Horn. Very rare. 1 specimen July 16. 
Agrilus masculinus Horn. Rare. Obtained by beating from May 

31-June 14. 
Agrilus obsoletoguttatus. 2 specimens from No. Branford, Conn., 

collected on June 23 by B. H. Walden. 

Family LAMPYRIDAE. 
Calopteron terminale Say. Rare. Taken along fences and marshy 

places from August to September. 
Pyropyga nigricans Say. Fairly common. Taken from flowers of 

meadow-sweet and wild carrot during the early part of July. 
Photinus marginellus Lee. Common from June to August. 
Telephorus nigritulus ? Lee. Very rare. Taken from meadow-sweet 

blossoms on July 13. 

Telephorus rectus Melsh. Rare. 1 specimen June 19. 
Trypherus latipennis Germ. 2 specimens taken on sandy shore 

of Little Hanover July 6-13. 



Ii8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

Family MALACHIDAE. 

Collops eximius Er. Rare. Swept from flowers of spicebush. 
Collops 4-maculatus Fab. Quite common along fences and on 

cultivated land from March to July. 
Anthocomus erichsoni Lee. Quite common on flower heads in 

July. 

Attalus terminalis Er. Common. Occurs with A. scincctus. 
Attalus scincetus Say. Taken on flowers of meadow-sweet June 

7. Rare. 

Family CLERIDAE. 

Cymatodera bicolor Say. Rare. July 6. 

Clerus rosmarus Say. Common. Taken by sweeping from April 

to July. 

Hydnocera cyanescens Lee. Rare. June 25-July 7. 
Hydnocera tabida Lee. Very rare. 1 specimen July 13. 
Necrobia violacea Linn. Common. Occurs in numbers around 

skeletons of horses and cattle from April 8-May 18. 

Family PTINIDAE. 

Sitodrepa panicea Linn. 1 specimen taken by sweeping July 6. 
Hadrobregmus carinatus Say. Rare. 1 specimen June 10. 
Anobium notatum Say. Rare. Taken by sweeping on July 2. 
Endecatomus rugosus Rand. Frequent in the sapwood of an aged 

elm. 
Lyctus caniculatus. Rare. 1 specimen June 18. 

Family CUPESIDAE. 
Cupes concolor Westw. Rare. Beaten from oak on July 6. 

Family CIOIDAE. 
Cis fuscipes Mellie. Common under bark of trees in March. 

Family LUCANIDAE. 
Platycerus quercus Web. Quite rare. Taken flying April 29 and 

May G. 

Family SCARABAEIDAE. 
Copris anaglypticus Say. Common. Found on roadsides and in 

pastures in June and July. 
Onthophagus pennsylvanicus Harold. Rare. Taken by sweeping 

August 27. 
Ataenius gracilis Melsh. Very rare. 2 specimens by sweeping 

on May 14. 

Aphodius vittatus Say. Very rare. 1 specimen April 24. 
Aphodius lividus Oliv. Rare. Taken by sweeping in April and 

June. 
Aphodius inquinatus Hbst. Common. Taken on the wing during 

Marcli and April. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. I IQ 

Hoplia trifasciata Say. Common. Taken on wild cherry, etc. 
Hoplia modesta Hald. Rare. Taken from low shrubs during the 

early part of July. 

Serica trociformis Burin. Very rare. 1 specimen July 12. 
Diplotaxis atlantis Lee. Not common. Taken from poles at 

light in May and June. 
Lachnosterna tristis Fab. Taken at light in April and May. Very 

rare. 

Lachnosterna gracilis Burm. Taken at light in July and August. 
Anomala oblivia Horn. Common. Occurs on the blossoms of 

wild cherry in the spring. 
Ligyrus gibbosus DeG. Taken at light in May. Rare. 

Family CERAMBYCIDAE. 

Elaphidion villosum Fab. Rare. Taken at light. 
Elaphidion unicolor Rand. Taken at light July 18. Very rare. 
Purpuricenus humeralis Fab. Very rare. 2 specimens taken on 

wild parsnip July 13. 
Clytanthus ruricola Oliv. Occasionally found on wild carrot in 

May and June. 
Cyrtophorus verrucosus Oliv. Rare. Taken on meadow-sweet 

and wild carrot April 24-July 9. 
Anthophilax malachiticus Hald. Taken in Oregon by my sister 

on June 9th. Found on the ground at the edge of a small brook. 
Acmaeops directa Newm. Fairly common on the blossoms of wild 

carrot. The specimens I have taken here vary considerably from 

the type in having the thorax a dark brown or nearly black in 

some cases. 
Arhopalus fulminans Fab. Quite rare in my experience. Mrs. 

Deming, of Middletown, has taken it in considerable numbers 

from wood-piles and in wood-sheds. 
Typocerus acuticauda Casey. Quite common on wild carrot and 

parsnip from June 2G-July 9. Occurs earlier than T. I'clntinus. 
Leptura proxima Say. Very rare. 1 specimen July 12. 
Leptura mutabilis Newm. Rare. Taken from wild carrot in May 

and June. 
Leptura mutabilis var. luridipennis. Very rare. Have taken but 

one specimen of this. 

Leptostylus macula Say. Quite rare. Taken from July 1-24. 
Liopus alpha Say. Not common. Beaten from dead oak June 15- 

July 4. 
Oncideres cingulata Say. Rare. Taken on electric light pole on 

August 20. 
Saperda obliqua Say. Very rare. My single specimen flew into 

my study room on the night of July 4th and lit on a pinned 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

specimen in one of my cases, where it clung so tightly that the 
mounted specimen was ruined before I could disengage it. 
Oberea tripunctata Swed. Rare. Taken by sweeping deep grass 
June 14-July 6. 

Tetraopes tetraophthalmus Forst. Common on milkweed in June 
and July. 

Family CHRYSOMELIDAE. 

Donacia aequalis Say. Common on low foliage at edge of pond 
from April to July. 

Donacia rufa Say. Not common. Found on skunk's cabbage in 
May and June. 

Orsodachna atra Ahr. A common species of great variation. Oc- 
curs in the following forms: Yellow thorax, yellow legs and 
black elytra; black thorax, yellow legs and black elytra; yellow 
thorax, brown legs and brown elytra; black thorax with dark 
brown legs and black- and yellow-striped elytra, and a small 
uniform brownish form. April 14-May 29. 

Zeugophora scutellaris Suffr. Very rare in my vicinity. 1 speci- 
men July 13. 

Lema brunnicollis Lee. Rare. Taken in the early part of July. 

Lema trilineata Oliv. Rare. Occurs from May till August. 

Babia 4-guttata Oliv. Rare. Taken from flowers of meadow- 
sweet July 2-6. 

Chlamys cribripennis Lee. Rare. Taken by sweeping from April 
15-August 21. 

Bassareus formosus Melsh. Rare. Taken on July 14. 

Bassareus mammifer Newm. Rare. Taken during July also. 

Bassareus lituratus Fab. Taken sparingly in June. 

Cryptocephalus 4-maculatus Say. Common. Taken from leaves 
of blackberry in May and June. 

Cryptocephalus ornatus Fab. Fairly common. Taken from 
meadow-sweet flowers. 

Cryptocephalus cinctipennis Rand. Rare. Also taken from mead- 
ow-sweet. 

Pachybrachys viduatus Fab. Rare. Taken from meadow-sweet 
on July 6. 

Pachybrachys roboris. Very rare. 1 specimen July 9. 

Monachus saponatus Fab. Common. Taken by sweeping marshy 
meadow grass in July. 

Xanthonia villosula Melsh. Very rare. 1 specimen July 6. 

Adoxus vitis Linn. My single specimen is a product of the sweep- 
ing method. Very rare in this vicinity. 

Tymnes tricolor Fab. Very rare. 2 specimens on July 4 and 7. 

Chrysodina globosa Say. Rare. By sweeping swampy land in 
July. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 121 

Colaspis tristis Oliv. Common. Taken from low shrubs near 

Black Pond from June 25-July 7. 

Prasocuris varipes Lee. Obtained by sweeping in May. 
Chrysomela lunata Fab. Rare. May 21-Aug. 13. 
Chrysomela spiraeae Say. Rare. Have taken one specimen of 

this species on sumach. 
Phyllodecta vulgatissima Linn. Fairly common from June 7- 

Sept. 5. 

Cerotoma caminea Fab. Taken crawling along the ground in April. 
Galeruca decora Say. Common from May to July. 
Monoxia puncticollis Say. Taken by sweeping, but very rare. 

July 7-13. 

Hypolampsis pilosa 111. Very rare. 1 specimen July 13. 
Oedionychis vians 111. Rare. 2 specimens taken in April and 

June. 

Oedionychis thoracica Fab. Common from April to September. 
Oedionychis fimbriata ? Forst. Very rare. 2 specimens taken on 

April 25 and June 1. 
Disonycha xanthomelina Dalm. Taken by sweeping. 1 specimen 

Sept. 22. 

Disonycha rufa 111. 1 specimen April 27. Very rare. 
Haltica chalybea 111. Rare. Taken from April 29-May 2. 
Haltica marevagans Horn. Rare. Taken from low shrubs on 

July 12. 
Crepidodera helxines Linn. Taken by sweeping. Common from 

May to July. 

Crepidodera rufipes Linn. 1 specimen May 25. 
Orthaltica copalina- Fab. Taken from poison ivy on June 19. 

Common. 

Longitarsus melanurus Melsh. Rare. 1 specimen July 9. 
Phyllotreta sinuata Steph. Common. Taken on plants allied to 

the fennel family in June and July. 
Phyllotreta bipustulata Fab. 1 specimen taken by sweeping. Very 

rare. 

Chaetocnema minuta Melsh. Rare. Taken from May 3-10. 
Chaetocnema subcylindrica ? Lee. Common. April 27-May 3. 

Swept from poison-ivy. 

Dibolia aerea ? Melsh. Quite common in May. 
Microrhopala xererie Newm. Rare. 1 specimen July 2. 
Odontota horni Smith. Rare. 1 specimen June 14. 
Stenispa metallica Fab. 3 specimens taken by sweeping from May 

24-July 14. 

Family BRUCHIDAE. 
Bruchus alboscutellatus Horn. Rare. Taken by sweeping in July. 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

Family TENEBRIONIDAE. 
Xylopinus rufipes Say. Taken on electric light pole on night of 

July 18. Rare. 

Tenebrio obscurus Fab. Fairly common from June 2-July 20. 
Uloma impressa ? Melsh. 1 specimen on May 14. 
Paratenetus punctatus Sol. 1 specimen July 12. 
Platydema excavatum Say. Occurs plentifully in company with 

Hoplocephala bicornis Oliv. under bark of fallen trees in March and 

April. 
Platydema subcostatum Lap. Very rare. 1 specimen July 18. 

Family CISTELIDAE. 

Capnochroa fuliginosa Melsh. Rare. Taken at light clinging to 
pole on July 10. 

Androchirus erythropus Kirby. Taken at light on pole in Hem- 
lock Grove on July 18. 

Family MELANDRYIDAE. 
Penthe obliquata Fab. Very rare. 2 specimens dug from under 

rotten stump. 
Synchroa punctata Newm. 1 specimen at light on July 19. 

Family OEDEMERIDAE. 

Nacerdes melanura Linn. Very rare. 1 specimen taken from the 
post office building in Meriden on June 17. 

Family MORDELLIDAE. 

Anaspis rufa Say. Rare. Took one specimen June 19. 
Mordella scutellaris Fab. Taken by sweeping. Fairly common 

from June to July. 
Mordellistena pustulata Melsh. Very rare. Taken by sweeping 

on July 2. 
Mordellistena bihamata Melsh. Very rare. Swept from flowers 

on July 13. 

Family ANTHICIDAE. 
Corphyra collaris Say. Taken with Orsodachna atra on willow 

catkins in May. Very common. 
Macratria confusa Lee. Very rare. Taken in June and July. 

Family MELOIDAE. 
Meloe angusticollis ? Say. Not common. Taken crawling over 

the grass. 

Macrobasis unicolor Kirby. Very common. 
Epicauta vittata Fab. Rare. 1 specimen June 7. 

Family RHIPIPHORIDAE. 

Rhipiphorus dimidiatus ? Fab. Taken from heads of white daisy 
in July. Rare. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 123 

Family OTIORHYNCHIDAE. 

Hormorus undulatus Uhler. Rare. 1 specimen June 7. 
Otiorhynchus ovatus Linn. Taken by my sister in late spring. 

Family CURCUUONIDAE. 

Sitones hispidulus Germ. Common in meadows from May 3-24. 
Sitones fiavescens Marsh. 3 specimens taken from July 7-20. 
Apion nigrum Hbst. Common. Obtained by sweeping. May 16- 

July 13. 

Phytonomus punctatus Fab. Rare in my vicinity. 
Listronotus caudatus ? Say. 1 specimen on August 9. Very rare. 
Hylobius pales Hbst. Rare. 1 specimen May 10. 
Onychylis nigrirostris Boh. 1 specimen May 18. Rare. 
Bagous transversus Lee. Rare. Taken by sweeping in May and 

July. 
Magdalis armicollis Say. Rare. Immature specimens are of a 

light reddish color throughout. Found during May and June. 
Anthonomus scutellatus Gyll. Rare. Another result of using the 

sweeping net. 

Anthonomus sycophanta Walsh. Quite rare. Taken by sweep- 
ing in Oregon in May. 

Elleschus bipunctatus Linn. Fairly common. Evidently an in- 
troduced species. 

Tychius picirostris. Common from May 24-June 8. 
Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst. Rare. Found in deep grass. This 

beetle imitates bird droppings to perfection and thus escapes 

the notice of many people. 
Gymnetron teter Fab. Common. Taken from mullein in June 

and July. 

Tyloderma aerum Say. Rare. Taken by sweeping in May. 
Cryptorhynchus parochus Hbst. Rare. Taken by searching low 

shrubbery from April 26-June 23. Have one specimen taken by 

Mr. H. B. Kirk in No. Branford on June 23. 

Cryptorhynchus lapathi Linn. Not common. May 21-Sept. 9. 
Cylindrocopturus binotatus Lee. 1 specimen collected in New 

Haven on April 28 by Mr. Walden. 
Ceuthorhynchus cyanipennis. Rare. Taken by sweeping April 

22-May 24. 
Ceuthorhynchus septentrionalis Gyll. Rare. Taken by sweeping 

flowers in May and June. 
Rhinoncus pyrrhopus Lee. Common. Taken by sweeping in May 

and June. 

Baris scolopacea. Rare. Taken by sweeping on July 16. 
Madarellus undulatus Say. Very rare. 1 specimen April 22. 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar.. '16 

Family CALANDRIDAE. 

Cossonus bohemanni ? Horn. Rare. Taken from under bark on 

March 23. 
Cossonus impressifrons Boh. Common. Under bark in July. 

Family SCOLYTIDAE. 

Xyleborus caelatus Eich. 1 specimen taken in Stafford, Conn., 
by Dr. Britton on Aug. 24. 

Family ANTHRIBIDAE. 

Hormiscus saltator Lee. Very rare. 1 specimen July 13. 
Cratoparis lunatus Fab. Found under bark of oak in the spring. 

In connection with the preceding list it is necessary at this 
time to make several corrections to my first list published in 
Entomological News for July, 1915. The following names 
should be erased from the list as incorrectly determined : 

Carabidae : Ardislomis viridis Say, Pterostichus pennsylvanicus Lee., 
Amara pallipcs Kirby, Platynus dec ens Say, Lebia collaris Dej., Chlae- 
nius diffinis Chd. 

Gyrinidae : Dincutes horni. 

Staphylinidae : Qucd'ms fulgidus Fab., Dianous sp. 

Dermestidae : Dcrmestes marmoratus Say, Anthren-us thoracicus 
Melsh. 

Elateridae : Elater hcpaticiis Say, Monocrepidiiis liridus DeG. 

Scarabaeidae : Tro.v uiiistriatus Beauv., Hoplia triz'ialis Harold, Ser- 
tca intcrmi.rta Blatch., Lachnostcrna gibbosa Burm., Cremastochilus 
harrisii Kirby. 

Cerambycidae : Ncoclytus capraca Say, Acanthodercs quadrigibbus 
Say. 

Chrysomelidae : Donacia pusilla Say, Galcruca notata Fab. 

Tenebrionidae : Xylopintts aenescens Lee. 

Meloidae : Epicauta cinerea Forst. 

The following corrections in synonymy are also advisable : 
Cicii'.dcla vulgaris Say. should be Cicindela tranqucbarica Herbst. 
Coccinclla sanguined Linn, should be Cycloneda nwnda Say. according 

to Mr. Britton, of the Conn. Agricultural Fxp. Station at New Haven. 
Copris Carolina Linn, should be Pinotus carolinus. 
Leptura zebra Oliv. should be Leptura nit ens Forst. 
Toxotus vittiger Rand, is now listed as To.rotus trivittatus. 
Galcruca saglttariac Gyll. is now listed as G. nytnphaeae Linn. 
Hoploccphala bicornis Oliv. is now Arrhenoplita bicornis Oliv. 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



125 



Connecticut Coleoptera. 

By ANNIE TRUMBULL SLOSSON, New York City. 

I have read with interest the list of Connecticut beetles by 
Mr. Harry L. Johnson published in the NEWS of July, 1915. 
I find that I can add a few names to that list and append them 
herewith. All were taken near Hartford, my old home. 



CARABIDAE. 

Notiophilus aeneus Hbst. 
Pterostichus sayi Brullc. 
Dicaelus elongatus Ron. 
Chlaenius aestivus Say. 
Chlaenius pennsylvanicus Say. 
Anisodactylus verticalis Say. 

GYRINIDAE. 

Dineutes vittatus Germ. 
Dineutes emarginatus Say. 

STAPHYLINIDAE. 

Staphylinus cinnamopterus Grav. 
Philonthus aeneus Rossi. 

NITIDUUDAE. 
Epuraea rufa Say. 
Stelidota geminata Say. 

TROGOSITIDAE. 
Thymalus fulgidus Er. 
Bactridium cavicolle Horn. 



ELATERIDAE. 

Betarmon bigeminatus Rand. 
Limonius plebejus Say. 

CERAMBYCIDAE. 
Cyllene pictus Drury. 

CHRYSOMELIDAE. 
Diabrotica lemniscata Lee. 

TENEBRIONIDAE. 
Platydema excavatum Say. 
Platydema ruficorne Sturm. 
Platydema laevipes Pfald. 

MELOIDAE. 

Meloe angusticollis Say. 
Epicauta vittata Fab. 

OTIORHYNCHIDAE. 
Otiorhynchus ovatus Linn. 

CURCULIONIDAE. 

Pseudobaris nigrinus Say. 



Dinner to Professor Herbert Osborn. 

A dinner in honor of Prof. Herbert Osborn was tendered him by 
about forty of his former students on Wednesday evening, December 
29, 1915, at the Chittenden Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. The occasion was 
highly enjoyed as a home-coming by both Professor and Mrs. Osborn. 
Some verses entitled "Herbert Osborn, an Appreciation," composed by 
J. O. Sanders, and followed by the signatures of other students, illumi- 
nated in black, red and gold on vellum, was presented to the guest of 
honor. The sixth (last) stanza read: 

"Fond memories of you, kind sir, we hold 
Most dear in summer's heat and winter's cold ; 
We pledge our love, our faith, in ease or stress: 
Good friend vour best reward is our success." 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

New Thysanoptera from Florida III. 

By J. R. WATSON, Gainesville, Fla. 

(Plates V and VI) 

Aeolothrips floridensis n. sp. (Plate V, figs. 1-3). 

9. Measurements. Total body length 1.7 mm.; head, length 0.17 
mm., width 0.2 mm.; prothorax, length 0.16 mm., width 0.25 mm.; 
mesothorax, width 0.25 mm. ; metathorax, width 0.37 mm. ; abdomen, 
width, 0.4 mm. 

Antennae: Segment I, 32; 2, 53; 3, 129; 4, 96; 5, 70; 6, 13; 7, 12; 8, 
15; 9, 12 microns; total, 0.4 mm. 

Color, dark brown with much red pigmentation, which is particularly 
marked on the lighter pterothorax and base of abdomen. 

Head about one-fifth longer than wide, elevated a little between the 
antennae ; cheeks slightly arched, diverging very slightly posteriorly ; 
there are no prominent spines but minute papillae with short hairs 
occur along the cheeks; dorsal surface with minute cross striations. 

Eyes prominent, black, with large facets, sparsely pilose, oval in 
dorsal aspect but greatly elongated on the ventral surface, where they 
end in rather a sharp point. Ocelli present, approximate, the posterior 
pair not touching the margins of the eyes. 

Mouth cone acute, reaching beyond the middle of the prothorax. 

Antennae nine-segmented, segments I and 2 concolorous with the 
head, segment 3 and the basal half of 4 yellow, the very tip of 3 and 
the remainder brown. Sense areas on segment 3 greatly elongated. 
Spines rather numerous but short. Those on segments 2 and 3 dark, 
the others colorless. Two on the dorsal surface of the second segment 
near the anterior end are a little stouter and longer than the others, 
while between and a little anterior to their bases is a dark, round 
papilla. 

Prothorax more than half again as wide as long, a little shorter 
than the head ; sides quite markedly bulging and diverging posteriorly, 
deeply notched in the middle ; without prominent spines. 

Mesothorax much wider than the prothorax, markedly rounded at 
the anterior angles, without spines. 

Metathorax narrower than the mesothorax, sides moderately convex, 
converging posteriorly, no spines. 

Legs rather long, concolorous with the body (i. e., reddish brown) 
except the tarsi which are light brown, without the reddish pigmenta- 
tion ; fore femora but slightly enlarged ; tibiae with a short spine at 
the anterior end. Legs sparsely furnished with short but rather thick 
curved hairs. 

Wings moderately long, membrane of the fore pair reaching to about 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 127 

the end of the ahdomen. Near the end of the posterior border the 
wings are densely margined with long brown hairs, none on the basal 
portion. On the anterior margin the hairs are rather short and sparse. 
The posterior half of the wing is shaded a decided but not very dark- 
brown and is clothed with short hairs, as is also the hind wing; the 
second longitudinal vein has heavy dark brown spines. Hind wings 
nearly as long as the fore, no brown longitudinal shading as in the fore 
pair; on the anterior margin the hairs are rather short and dense. 

Abdomen spindle-shaped, abruptly narrowing at the seventh seg- 
ment. One or two short, weak, curved, inconspicuous spines on the 
lateral margin of each segment. On the eighth and ninth there are 
eight very long stiff spines ; two much shorter ones at the end of the 
abdomen. 

Described from a single female taken on oats with Acolo- 
I'hrips bicolor at Gainesville, Florida, April 26, 1914. 
Type in the National Museum. 

Key to North American species of AcolotJirips* 

1. Fore wings with dark cross bands. 

a. Wings with cross veins. 

b. Last 4 segments of antennae much longer than the 5th ; 
abdominal segments 2 and 3 and the posterior half of I 

white or yellow Ae. bicolor, Hinds. 

bb. Last four segments of antennae little if any longer 
than the fifth. 

r. Prothorax and segments 2 and 3 of the ab- 
domen white Ae. albocinctus, Haliday. 

cc. Without white bands Ae. fasciatits, Linn. 

cia. Wings without cross veins. Last four segments of antennae 
about 1.25 times as long as the fifth Ac. nastnrtii, Jonesf 

2. Fore wing with a dark longitudinal band along posterior margin. 

a. With normal veins in the anterior wings. 

b. Antennal segment 3 about as long as i and 2 together; 

segment 4 brown Ac. kmvanaii, Moulton 

bb. Antennal segment 3 about 1.5 as long as i and 2 to- 
gether; basal half of segment 4 yellow, 

. /r. floridensis, n. sp. 
aa. Anterior wings without veins Ac. lonciiccps, Cra\vf<>nl 

* Modified from that of Moulton, KJII, U. S. Bur. Ent., Tech. Ser. 
No. 21. 

t Hood, in Ent. News, xxvi, p. 162, expresses the opinion that this 
species is the male of Ae. kuzt'cmnii. 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

Anthothrips floridensis n. sp. (Plate VI, figs. 10 to 12). 

9. Measurements. Length 1.3 mm. (i.i to 1.5). Head, length 0.19 
mm., width o.iS mm.; prothorax, length 0.16 mm., width 0.26 mm.; 
mesothorax. width 0.29 mm. ; abdomen, width 0.29 mm. ; tube, length 
0.107 mm., width at the base 0.049 mm., at the end 0.035 mm - ; antennae, 
segment I, 20.4: 2, 41; 3, 40; 4, 49; 5, 41; 6, 36; 7, 37; 8, 26 
microns ; total length 0.276 mm. 

Color dark brown, fore tarsi and tibiae yellow, mid- and hind-tarsi 
light brown; segments i and 2 of antennae dark brown; 3, yellow; 
base of 4 and 5 yellowish brown; tips of 4 and 5 light brown; 6, light 
brown ; 7 and 8 dark brown. Eyes reddish brown. 

Head a little longer than broad; cheeks slightly arched, without 
warts, posterior portion of dorsal surface quite noticeably transversely 
striated. Ocelli large and well separated, posterior pair placed about 
opposite the middle of the eyes whose margins they nearly touch, dark 
brown; postocular bristles well developed, sharp-pointed. Mouth cone 
shorter than its breadth at the base and very rounded at the tip, reach- 
ing to about three-fourths the length of the prothorax. 

Antennae eight-segmented, not as long as the width of the meso- 
thorax, seements short and stout, the fourth a little thicker and con- 
siderably longer than the others, sense cones short. 

Prothorax considerably' wider than long when measured to outer 
angles of the coxae, somewhat triangular in outline, sides converging 
anteriorly, a spine on each posterior angle. 

Mesothorax somewhat wider than prothorax. sides nearly parallel 
but somewhat narrowed in the middle. 

Legs short, fore femora but slightly thickened. 

Win?s well developed, membrane reaching nearly or quite to the 
end of the tube in most individuals ; decidedly constricted in the mid- 
dle ; hairs of the fringe long and nearly equal, in a single row except 
on the hind border of the fore wing where there are eight hairs of a 
second row. 

Abdomen about as wide as mesothorax, usually widest at the base 
from which it slopes to the tip, gradually at first and then more ab- 
ruptly. Tube rather small and short, tapering but little, six terminal 
spines longer than the tube, and a number of shorter ones. Spines on 
the remainder of the abdomen weak and inconspicuous. 

Described from nine specimens, Gainesville, Florida, April 
22, 1914. Food plant maize. Male not seen. 

The type is in the American Museum of Natural History, 
cotypes in the author's collection. 

This species differs from A. nigcr (Osborn) in its smaller 
size, the presence of the post-ocular bristles, the relative 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate V. 





1-3, AEOLOTHRIPS FLORIDENSIS ; 
4-6, LIOTHRIPS CARYAE FLORIDENSIS-WATSON. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate VI. 




10 



12 



7-9 LIOTHRIPS FLAVOANTENNIS ; 
10-12 ANTHOTHRIPS FLORIDENSIS-WATSON. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

lengths of the antennal segments, especially the greater length 
of the fourth, in the relative dimensions of prothorax, head 
and abdomen, in the shape of the abdomen, and in the long 
hairs on the tube. From A. variabiUs Crawford it differs in 
its smaller size, in the sharp tips of the post-ocular bristles, 
the longer mouth cone, the shorter antennae, relative size of 
head and prothorax, shape of pterothorax, the weak spines of 
the abdomen, and the relative lengths of the antennal seg- 
ments, especially the fifth. 

The following key (modified from that of P. R. Jones, U. 
S. Bur. Ent., Tech. Series, Bull. No. 23, pt. I, 1912) will enable 
one to separate the North American species of Anthothrips. 

1. Postocular spines wanting; antennae almost uniformly brown except 
segment 3 and base of 4, which are light brown A. nigcr, Osborn 

2. Postocular spines well developed. 

a. Postocular spines and most of those on the postero-lateral mar- 
gin of abdominal segments knobbed A. flavipes, Jones 

aa. Postocular and abdominal spines not knobbed. 

b. Apex of femora with a small, anteriorly directed, tri- 
angular tooth within; antennae uniformly brownish 

black , A. nigricornis, Jones 

bb. Apex of femora without such tooth. 

c. Segments 3 to 6 of antennae bright yellow, ab- 
dominal spines (except those of the tube) 
slender and rather faint... 4. verbasci, Osborn 
cc. Segments 3 to 6 of antennae light brown, ab- 
dominal spines stout and conspicuous, 

A. variabilis, Crawford 

ccc. Only segment 3 of antennae wholly bright 
yellow; abdominal spines short and inconspicu- 
ous A. floridensis, n. sp. 

Liothrips flavoantennis n. sp. (Plate VI, figs. 7-9). 

9. Measurements. Total body length, 1.8 mm. Head, length 0.24 
mm., width 0.185 mm.; prothorax, length 0.14 mm., width 0.31 mm.; 
mesothorax, width 0.365 mm. ; abdomen, width 0.41 mm. ; tube, length 
0.19 mm., width at base 0.072 mm., at the end 0.038 mm. Antennae: 
Segment i, 27; 2, 56; 3, 81 ; 4, 74-5; 5- 63; 6, 54; 7, 52; 8, 33 mi- 
crons; total length 0.4 mm. 

Color uniformly dark brown except the antennae. Head nearly one 
and one-third times us long as wide, sides slightly arched, widest a 
short distance behind the eyes, converging slightly behind; warts on 
the cheeks small and with small short spines, surface of the head show- 
ing rather faint cross striations, postocular spines long, stout, knobbed 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

at the end, dark, but the knoh white as are most of the spines on the 
body. Eyes dark in color, rather large. Ocelli rather large. Posterior 
pair placed near the margin of the eyes and anterior to the middle; 
anterior pair directed forward. 

Month cone very long and sharp-pointed, reaching fully to (and 
sometimes beyond) the posterior border of the prothorax. 

Antennae one and two-thirds times as long as the head. Segment 
I dark brown, only a little lighter than the head ; segment 2 brownish 
yellow, darker at the base ; segments 2 to 7 bright yellow ; 8 brownish 
yellow ; segment 3 averaging only slightly shorter than i and 2 to- 
gether, in some individuals longer, in others shorter ; sense cones and 
spines about one-third the length of segment 3, very pale in color, 
almost white. 

Prothorax subtriangular in outline, seven-twelfths as long as head 
and over twice as broad as long, measuring from outer angles of 
coxae. A very long, stout, knobbed spine on each posterior angle ; a 
short, thick one on each anterior angle, and between them one inter- 
mediate in length ; a pair along the anterior border. 

Mesothorax one-fifth broader than prothorax. Legs rather long and 
slender, concolorous with the body except the tarsi which are a lighter 
brown. The fore tarsi often darker than the meso- and metatarsi; 
fore femora considerably less than half as wide as the head, sparsely 
provided with short, very stiff, almost spine-like hairs ; these are longer 
and less stiff on the other femora and on the tibiae and tarsi. 

Wings well developed, not at all constricted in the middle ; hairs long 
and copious, from eight to thirteen (usually ten) near the end forming 
a second row ; membrane brownish towards the base where it is pro- 
vided with a short vein which bears three very heavy, long, knobbed 
spines. 

Abdomen with rather convex sides, at the widest portion (which is 
about the fourth segment) one-ninth wider than prothorax. Posterior 
angles from segments 4 to 9 with spines ; those on segments 6 to 9 long 
and heavy. Tube rather narrow, tapering to nearly half its diameter 
at base ; length nearly three times the width at the base ; terminal hairs 
shorter than the tube. 

Described from nine females taken from wild grape vine, 
April 23, 1914, at Gainesville, Florida. Males unknown. 
Type in the collection of the National Museum. 

Liothrips caryae floridensis n. subsp. (Plate V, figs. 4-6). 

9. Measurements. Total body length 2.6 mm. Head, length 0.275 
mm., width 0.24 mm. ; prothorax, length 0.25 mm., width 0.39 mm. ; 
mesothorax, width 0.51 mm.; metathorax, width 0.49 mm.; abdomen, 
greatest width 0.53 mm; tube, length 0.228 mm., width at base 0.09 
mm., at the end 0.046 mm.; antennae, total length 0.5 mm.; segment i, 
34; 2, 61; 3, 94; 4, 84; 5, 75; 6, 68; 7, 61 ; 8, 34 microns. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 131 

Color brown to brownish yellow with heavy red pigmentation on 
thorax and abdomen. 

Head rather large ; cheeks somewhat convex and slightly converging 
posteriorly, covered with numerous minute serrations, each of which 
carries a small hair : vertex with strong cross-striations ; postocular 
spines prominent, about as long as the eye, with sharp-pointed tips. 
Eyes bright orange color by reflected light, facets rather small and 
numerous, not pilose. Ocelli rather prominent, orange yellow; pos- 
terior pair situated well forward, anterior to the middle of the eyes, 
the margins of which they approximate but do not touch; anterior 
ocellus directed forward. 

Mmi tli cone rather long but rounded at the tip, reaching seven-tenths 
of the distance across the prothorax. 

Ant*'in<ac somewhat less than twice as long as the head; segments 
i and 2 light grayish brown, 3 yellow, 4 to 8 yellowish brown, becoming 
darker toward the tip, 4 frequently brown only at the base, and the 
base of 5 often yellow. Spines and sense cones light-colored and in- 
conspicuous. 

Prothorax triangular in outline; nearly as long as the head but con- 
siderably narrower than the mesothorax. One strong spine on the 
dorsal part of each lateral margin projects backward, and a smaller 
one on the ventral part projects forward. There is a short spine near 
the anterior angle. Pterothorax without prominent spines. Legs 
rather long, concolorous with the body; fore tibiae somewhat enlarged. 

Wings scarcely reaching .75 the length of the abdomen : membrane 
clear, bordered with long hairs, 17 to 22 hairs of a double line inter- 
located on the posterior border of the fore pair. 

Abdomen long, widest at the base, whence it tapers gradually to 
the sixth segment and then more abruptly to the tube; hairs short, 
pale and inconspicuous, especially on segments i to 4. Tube long and 
narrow. 

$ . Very similar but usually smaller, averaging less than 2 mm. in 
length. 

Larva. Ground color pale yellow. This extends over all parts of 
the legs and antennae. The thorax and abdomen are so liberally pro- 
vided with a blood red pigment as to cause the insect to appear deep 
red to the unaided eye. There are no white or black bands on the 
thorax as described for L. caryac by Fitch. 

Described from numerous individuals taken from deserted 
galls of Phylloxera on hickory leaves, Gainesville, Florida. 
Both young and adults feed on the succulent walls of the galls 
which ultimately become hard and black. The larvae are very 
common in these galls from late April to June, but the adults 
are more difficult to find and have not been collected before 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. [Mar., '16 

the middle of May. The entire life history of this generation 
of these insects is spent in these galls instead of their being 
used only as a place of protection during metamorphosis as 
was surmised to be the case with L. caryac by J. D. Hood 
(Proc. Biol. Soc. \Yash., XXVII, p. 160)." 

The type will be placed in the U. S. National Museum. 

Differs from Liothrips caryae (Fitch) in color (including 
that of the antennal joints), size, length of wings and the 
longer prothorax ; the larva is quite different in color. It 
should perhaps be given specific rank, but its characters and its 
ecological relationships are in many ways so similar to those 
of L. caryae that it seems best to give it only subspecific rank. 

The following key modified from that of Moulton (1911) 
will enable one to separate the North American species of Lio- 
thrips. 

I. Head about 1.3 (or less) times as long as wide. 

a. Fore wings brownish at the extreme base ; tube .8 or .9 as long 
as head. 

b. Head 1.15 times as long as wide; marginal abdominal 
spines yellowish; usually only segment 3 of antennae 
all clear yellow. 

c. Black ; postocular bristles blunt, .6 times as 
long as eye; fore wing with about 14 hairs of 
a second row ; antennal segments 5 and 6 
mostly blackish brown to black, 

L. occUatus, Hood 

cc. Postocular bristles sharp-pointed and almost 
as long as eye ; fore wing with 17-22 inter- 
located hairs ; antennal segment 5 yellowish. 
d. Color brown or black; length about 
2 mm. ; wings long ; prothorax .6 
times as long as head ; antennal seg- 
ments 6-8 blackish brown, 

L. caryae (Fitch) 

dd. Color brown to yellow with much 
deep red pigmentation; length about 
2.6 mm.; wings reaching only about 
75 the length of the abdomen ; pro- 
thorax .9 times as long as head ; an- 
tennal segments 6-8 yellowish brown, 
L. caryac floridcnsis, n. sub. sp. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 133 

bb. Head 1.3 times as long as wide; color dark brown, 
spines light brown ; antennal segments 3-7 and apex 

of 2 clear yellow L. flai'oantcnuis, n. sp. 

an. Fore wings nearly black in basal half; head about 1.3 times as 
long as wide ; marginal abdominal spines nearly black ; tube 

.6 times as long as head L. umbripcnnis, Hood 

aaa. Fore wings brownish in basal half, 

L. umbripcnnis mcxicanus, Cr. 
2. Head about 1.5 times as long as wide. 

a. Antennae lemon yellow ; spines on prothorax large and prom- 
inent ; mid-laterals present, fully as long as anterior marginals ; 

tube two-thirds as long as head L. citric ornis, Hood 

aa. Antennal segments I and 2 concolorous with the head ; spines 
on prothorax not prominent ; mid-laterals wanting. 

b. Antennal segments I and 2 almost black, 3 light yellow 
to light brown, others brown ; tube one-half as long 
as head. 

c. Head converging anteriorly, 

L. fascicv.latus, Crawford 
cc. Head distinctly converging posteriorly, 

L. fasciculatus stenoceps, Crawford 

bb. Antennae 1.25 times as long as head; segment i and 
base of 2 concolorous with the body, apical half of 2 
and of 5 and 6 to 8 light brown, 3, 4 and base of 5 
yellow ; tube one-half as long as head, 

L. maconnelli, Crawford 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES V AND VI. 

Plate V, figs. 1-3, Acolothrips floridensis n. sp. 

Figs. 4-6, Liotlirips caryac floridensis n. subsp. 

Plate VI, figs. 7-9, Liothrips fla-roantennis n. sp. ; 7, posterior portion 
of abdomen; 8, dorsal view of head and prothorax; 9, dor- 
sal view of left antenna. 

Figs. 10-12, Anthothrips floridensis n. sp. ; 10, dorsal view of 
head and prothorax; n, dorsal view of right antenna; 12, 
tip of abdomen. 



Florida Entomological Society. 

In Science for Feb. 4, 1916, we are advised that the Florida Ento- 
mological Society has recently been organized at Gainesville, Florida, 
with Prof. J. R. Watson, President; Mr. Wilmon Newell, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and Mr. R. N. Wilson, Secretary-Treasurer. This is the first 
Kntomological Society organized in the Southern States. We wish 
it a long and useful life. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH, 1916. 

Discontinue the Fahrenheit Thermometric Scale. 

In the House of Representatives, on December 6, 1915, Mr. 
Albert Johnson, of Washington, introduced the following bill, 
which was referred to the Committee on Coinage, Weights and 
Measures, and ordered to be printed. 

A Bill (H. R. 528) to discontinue the use of the Fahrenheit thermom- 
eter scale in Government publications. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the centigrade 
scale of temperature measurement shall be the standard in United 
States Government publications, the use of the Fahrenheit scale being 
discontinued, at the option of Heads of Departments or other inde- 
pendent branches of the Government, either immediately upon the sign- 
ing of this bill or at any time before January I, 1920, except as pro- 
vided in Section 3. 

Sec. 2. During the period of transition, the Fahrenheit equivalent 
of centigrade degrees may be added in parentheses or as a footnote or 
in any other way, if in the opinion of Heads of Departments or inde- 
pendent officers it seems necessary. 

Sec. 3. The use of the Fahrenheit scale shall be permitted after 
January i, 1920, in cases where it is required by State and municipal 
law, or in certificates of tests of instruments graduated in the Fahren- 
heit scale.' 

On December 14, 1915, this bill being under consideration, 
Mr. Johnson spoke in its favor. His speech, followed by ex- 
tracts from letters of 200 scientific men whom he addressed on 
the subject, has been printed and furnishes a strong body of 
evidence in favor of this change. 

The subject is one which largely affects entomologists and 
their work. All of us have surely experienced the inconveni- 
ence of translating values from one thermometric scale to an- 
other. As long as the Fahrenheit scale is used by the United 
States Weather Bureau we shall have to take it into account, 
and yet the Centigrade scale is that in which temperatures are 
stated in the majority of scientific publications of the rest of the 
world. There can be no question as to the desirability of one 
international scale. Dr. S. W. Stratton, Director of the United 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 135 

States Bureau of Standards, writes in Air. Johnson's pamphlet: 
"In my opinion the strongest reason for the adoption of the 
Centigrade scale is the one given above, viz., the international 
uniformity." 

The American Entomological Society in Philadelphia fully 
endorsed Mr. Johnson's bill on December 13, 1915. We hope 
that other entomological societies will take similar action and 
acquaint Mr. Johnson of their act. Letters to members of Con- 
gress from individuals and from associations will help the 
cause. Mr. Johnson will be glad to send the reprint of his 
speech and of the letters to any societies whose secretaries will 
express a wish to that effect. 



Notes and News. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL GLEANINGS PROM ALL QUARTERS 
OF THE GLOBE. 

Punkies feeding on a fish fly. (Dip.: Chironomidae; Neur.: 

Sialidae). 

On July 4, 1915, while eating lunch beside a delicious spring which 
feeds one of the characteristic bogs near Beltsville, Maryland, my at- 
tention was attracted by motion in a nearby bush. Upon looking for 
the cause I found a fish fly (Chauliodcs fasciatus Walker) crawling 
along a small twig. This large insect partially lifted its wings at fre- 
quent intervals and hitched along as if in discomfort. When I picked 
up the Chauliodcs, a flock of about six minute flies appeared in the 
air about it. and as I held the fish fly between thumb and finger seem- 
ed reluctant to leave it. This disposition on the part of the little flies 
enabled me to capture one of them. The specimen has been identified 
by Mr. J. lv. Malloch as Ceratopogon fusicoruis Coquillet, a species 
\\hicli with two new species Air. Malloch has recently segregated* in a 
new genus Huforcipomyia. W. L. MCATKK, Washington, D. C. 

Curious behavior of Cicindela unipunctata (Col.: Cicindelidae; 

Hym.; Formicidae). 

On July 14, 1915, the writer chanced upon a specimen of Cicindela 
unipunctata Fab. in a woodland road just east of Dead Run, Virginia, 
a locality opposite and a litt'e down stream from I'lummer's Island, 
Maryland. An ant, Formica fnsca var. subsericea (Say), was running 
all over the body surface of the beetle, which stood high from the 

*Bul. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist. XI, Art. IV, December 1915, pp. 
312-315. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

ground. It even ran over the face and onto the lower side of the head. 
As I had frequently seen tiger beetles capture and devour ants, I fully 
expected that venturing about that part of the tiger beetle would be the 
end of the ant. But it was not; the beetle maintained its pose and the 
ant continued reconnoitering. 

My next thought was that the beetle must be dead, so in a leisure- 
ly careless way I stooped' to pick it up. At the approach of my fingers 
it ran like a flash and I almost lost it. 

Having revolved in my mind several theories that might account for 
this behavior, I offer my favorite. That is, that being perfectly quiet 
and waiting for something to come within pouncing range is this tiger 
beetle's way of hunting, and that having established itself on guard it 
was not to be swayed from its poise, even by what would seem most 
annoying attentions of the ant. W. L. McAxEE, Washington, D. C. 

Vanessa californica and Frost (Lepid.). 

Oh November ist, while pruning fruit trees in the upper Wenatchee 
Valley, I observed a Vanessa californica flying just above the tops of 
the young trees. The morning was quite frosty ; in fact, the crust on 
the ground was thick enough to bear my weight ; the sun was ob- 
scured by high-flying snow clouds, while a light but raw breeze off the 
snow fields of the Cascades made the feel of my heavy mackinaw coat 
very comfortable indeed. I was so surprised to meet with a butterfly 
under such conditions that I called to my brother-in-law, Mr. J. C. 
Hopfinger, who was working nearby, and together we watched it for 
some time. It w'as headed into the wind, but was not making any 
progress, and presently began to drift, but rising higher as it did so, 
finally disappeared from our sight. 

Its movements seemed rather sluggish, not at all like the flight of 
californica in summer and I kept expecting it to drop to the ground, 
but it did not do so, and at the last seemed to be flying more strongly 
than when I first observed it. 

This occurred near Leavenworth, Washington, in the higher foot- 
hills of the Cascades. J. D. YANCEY, Port Columbia, Washington. 

Color Phases in Argynnis diana (Lep.). 

I note with interest in the January issue of the NEWS, page 35, the 
query of Mr. W. C. Wood as to the color of his female specimen of 
A. diana, caught near here (Blacksburg, Virginia), in which specimen 
the basal two-thirds of the underside of the hind wings is dark, bluish- 
black instead of "dark, red-brown," as described by Edwards. 

I first collected Argynnis diana near Asheville, North Carolina, in 
the summer of 1880, since which time I have collected it throughout 
its Alleghany range, particularly near Brcvard, North Carolina, and 
Caesar's Head, South Carolina, and for the past twenty-five years, 
here in Montgomery, Washington and Giles Counties, Virginia. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 37 

During this period of years, I have taken the female from the ist of 
July until late in September, and have handled hundreds of specimens 
in various stages of perfection and wreckage, and have in my collec- 
tion a carefully selected series illustrating different color phases. 
From my experience with the fly, I am inclined to believe that perfect, 
freshly-emerged females always have the underside of the hind wings 
and apex of fore wings of the dark blue-black color described by Mr. 
Wood, and that this speedily assumes the rusty brown as the insect 
ages, even before the upper surface shows any wear or dimness. The 
case is similar with Protoparce rustica, which, when freshly-emerged, 
has no trace of the familiar rust color, but is of a clean black and white. 
All the fresh specimens of diana in my collection, as well as my recol- 
lection and notes of other captures, indicate the correctness of the above 
idea. Some slightly worn females show in direct light the brown 
color, but held at a slight angle, and particularly in artificial light, the 
blue-black can still be seen. I have one female, nearly fresh, in which 
the outer third of hind wing, underside, which usually retains the blue- 
black, is also rusty brown, with blue-black angular dashes running to 
the outer margin. I have specimens showing the green coloring on the 
upper surface, instead of the blue ; also specimens showing various 
shades of blue, and the blue area on the upper surface of hind wings 
varying from an almost complete band to isolated, blue, angular dashes. 
ELLISON A. SMYTH, JR., Va. Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Vir- 
ginia. 

< 

Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 
The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered in 
the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of systematic papers are all grouped at the end of each 
Order of which they treat, and are separated from the rest by a dash. 

Unless mentioned in the title, the number of new species or forms are 
given at end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. 

For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series B. 

2 Transactions, American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 
3 The American Naturalist. 4 The Canadian Entomologist. 5 
Psyche. 6 Journal, New York Entomological Society. 8 The 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 10 Nature, London. 
11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 13 Comptes 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., '16 

Rendus, Societe de Biologic, Paris. 40 Societas Entomologica, 
Zurich. 50 Proceedings, U. S. National Museum. 67 Entomo- 
giske Tidskrift, Stockholm. 68 Science, New York. 69 Bolletino, 
Societa Italiana Entomologica. 84 Entomologische Rundschau. 
87_Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 102 Pro- 
ceedings, The Entomological Society of Washington. 180 An- 
nals, Entomological Society of America. 185 Journal, Quekett 
Microscopical Club, London. 189 Journal of Entomology and 
Zoology, Claremont, Calif. 193 Entomologische Blatter, Cassel. 
198 Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Hole, Mass. 216 Entomologische Zeitschrift, Frankfurt a. Main. 
275 Philippine Journal of Science, Manila. 278 Annales, Societe 
Zoologique Suisse et du Museum d'Histoire de Geneve, Revue 
Suisse de Zoologie. 324 Journal of Animal Behavior, Cambridge. 
335 Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 344 U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 369 Entomologische Mit- 
teilungen, Berlin-Dahlem. 383 Proceedings and Transactions of 
the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, Halifax. 407 Journal of 
Genetics, Cambridge, England. 420 Insecutor Inscitiae Men- 
struus: A monthly journal of entomology, Washington. 438 Bul- 
letin, Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, Urbana. 447 
Journal of Agricultural Research, Washington. 477 The American 
Journal of Tropical Diseases and Preventive Medicine, New Or- 
leans. 490 The Journal of Parasitology, Urbana, Illinois. 521 
Bulletin Mensuel 1'Academie des Sciences et Lettres de Mont- 
pellier. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Adams, C. C. An ecological study of 
prairie and forest invertebrates, 438, xi, 33-279. Ainslie, C. N. 
An improved collecting bottle, 5, xxii, 211-12. Bradley, J. C. Rules 
for entries in bibliographies, supplementary to the American and 
British Library Associations' Catalog rules. Published for use of 
students in a course on the technics of entomological literature 
(Ithaca, N. Y.), 8 pp. Cockayne, E. A. "Gynandromorphism" and 
kindred problems, 407, v, 75-132. Croft, H. H. Obituary, 4, 1916, 
1-5. Davis, W. T. Shooting insects with a bean-shooter, 6, xxiii, 
253-4. Fabre, J. H. Obituary notice by W. M. Wheeler, 324, vi, 
74-80. Heyden, L. von Biographical notice, 193, xi, 193-203; 369, 
iv, 255-67. Krausse, A. Ein neuer automatischer gesiebe-auslese- 
apparat, 369, iv, 278-9. Lampa, S. Bibliography, 67, xxxvi, 273-281. 
Meixner, A. Die beiden auflagen von Dr. G. W. F. Panzer's Faunae 
Insectorum Germanicae Initia, 369, iv, 268-78. Nelson, E. M. 
Various insect structures, 185, xii, 593-6. Webster, F. M. Obitu- 
ary by W. R. Walton, 68, xliii, 162-4. Woodworth, C. W. Quan- 
titative entomology, 180, viii, 373-83. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 139 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Patterson, J. T. Ob- 
servations on the development of Copidosoma gelechiae, 198, xxix, 
333-72. 

MEDICAL. Roberg, D. N. The role played by the insects of 
the dipterous family Phoridae in relation to the spread of bacterial 
infections. II Experiments on Apiochaeta ferruginea with the 
cholera vibrio, 275, x, 309-339. Townsend, C. H. T. The insect 
vector of Uta, a Peruvian disease, 490, ii, 67-73. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Barber, H. S. Migrating armies of My- 
riopods. (A correction), 102, xvii, 189. Moles, M. L. Three com- 
mon spiders of Laguna, 189, vii, 209-10. Parvlowski, E. Sur la 
structure des organes phagocytaires chez Scorpio maurus; Sur la 
phagocytose chez Scorpio maurus, 13, Ixxviii, 746-47; 748-50. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Krecker, F. H. Phenomena of orienta- 
tion exhibited by Ephemeridae, 198, xxix, 38.1-88. Lloyd, J. T. 
Notes on the immature stages of some New York Trichoptera, 6, 
xxiii, 201-12. Warren, A. A study of the food habits of the 
Hawaiian dragon flies or Pinau. (Coll. of Hawaii Pub. No. 3) 45 pp. 

Cummings, B. F. New species of lice, 11, xvii, 90-107. 

ORTHOPTERA. Caudell, A. M. The genera of the Tettiginiid 
insects of the subfamily Rhaphidophorinae found in America No. 
of Mexico. [2 n. gen.; 6 n. sps.], 50, xlix, 655-90. Three interesting 
O. from the vicinty of Washington, D. C., 102, xvii, 189. Giglio- 
Tos, E. Mantidi esotici, 69, xlvi, 31-108, 134-200. 

HEMIPTERA. Amans Sur le vol des Cigales, 521, 1915, 182-92. 
Ball, E. D. Adaptations to arid conditions in Cercopidae and 
Membracidae, 180, viii, 365-8. Dewitz, J. On the poisons of plant 
lice, 180, viii, 343-46. Funkhouser, W. D. Life history of Vanduzea 
arquata, 5, xxii, 183-98. 

Davis, W. T. A new Cicada from Arizona, 6, xxiii, 239-41. 
Quaintance & Baker A n. gen. and sps. of Aleyrodidae from Brit- 
ish Guiana, 180, viii, 369-72. Wilson, H. F. A synopsis of the 
aphid tribe Pterocommini, 180, viii, 347-58. 

LEPIDOPTERA. De Gryse, J. J. Some modification of the 
hypopharynx in k-pidopterous larvae, 102, xvii, 173-79. Essig, E. O. 
-The brown Ctenucha (brunnca), 189, vii, 241-4. Fracker, S. B. 
The classification of lepidopterous larvae (Illinois Biol. Mon. ii, 
No. 1), 164 pp. Klotz, W. Abnormitat von Philosamia cynthia, 
216, xxix, S4. McDunnough, J. Notes on types of L. in Snow 
collection, 4, 191G, 25-s. Scott, H. Tineid moths of Central Amer- 
ica [Review of Biologia Centrali-Americana, Vol. IV, Lepid.], 10, 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

xcvi, 533-4. Winn, A. F. Heliotropism in butterflies; or, turning 
towards the sun, 4, 1916, 6-9. 

Barnes & McDunnough Notes on some recently described spe- 
cies of N. A. Lep., 4, 1915, 282-4. Closs, A. Xylophanes algrensis, 
sp. nov., 369, iv, 290-1. Fruhstorfer, H. Neue neotropische 
Rhopaloceren, 40, xxxi, 3-4. Zwei neue Pieridenrassen aus dem 
neotropischen faunengebiet, 84, xxxii, 76. Heinrich, C. Two n. sps. 
of Coleophora, 420, iii, 143-4. Perrin, J. Additions to the catalog 
of butterflies and moths, collected in the neighborhood of Halifax, 
N. S., 383, xiv, 49-56. 

DIPTERA. Back & Pemberton Effect of cold-storage tem- 
perature upon the Mediterranean fruit fly, 447, v, 657-66. Barrett, 
H. P. Notes on the breeding places of Anopheles, 477, iii, 406-10. 
Bishopp,,F. C. The distribution and abundance of the ox warbles, 
Hypoderma lineata and H. bovis in the U. S., 180, viii, 359-64. 
Hutchison, R. H. Notes on the preoviposition period of the house 
fly, Musca domestica, 344, Bui. 345. Moreira, C. L'habitat du 
Masicera brasiliensis, parasite des Anosia, 87, 1915, 269. Shannon, 
R. C. Eastern Symphoromyia attacking man, 102, xvii, 188-9. 
Thompson, W. R. Sur la biologic de deux Tachinaires a stade in- 
tramusculaire (Plagia trepida et Strumia scutellata), 13, Ixxviii, 
717-21. 



Aldrich, J. M. Two new Canadian D., 4, 1916, 20-2. Alexander, 
C. P. New or little-known crane flies from Colombia, Ecuador and 
Peru, 2, xlii, 1-32. Two new crane-flies from Porto Rico; New 
nearctic crane-flies in the U. S. National Mus. [12 sps.], 420, iii, 
104-7; 127-42. Banks, N. Notes on some Virginian species of Pla- 
typeza [5 new], 6, xxiii, 213-16. Dyar & Knab Notes on the spe- 
cies of Culex of the Bahamas, 420, iii, 112-15. Edwards, F. W. 
On the systematic position of the genus Mycetobia, 11, xvii, 108-16. 
Felt, E. P. New gall midges [5 new], 4, 1916, 29-34. Hunter, W. D. 
A new species of Cephenomyia from the U. S., 102, xvii, 169-73. 
Jennings, A. H. Two n. sps. of Simulium from tropical America, 
102, xvii, 199-200. Johnson, C. W. Note on the species of the 
genus Acrocera, 5, xxii, 198-203. Knab, F. New Ceratopogoninae 
from Peru; A new American fruit-fly, 420, iii, 109-11; 146. Malloch, 
J. R. A revision of the N. Am. Pachygasterinae with unspined 
scutellum [2 n. gen.; 2 n. sps.], 180, viii, 305-20. Some additional 
records of Chironomidae for Illinois and notes on other Illinois D. 
[13 new], 438, xi, 307-03. Shannon, R. C. A new Eastern Brachy- 
opa, 420, iii, 144-5. Townsend, C. H. T. New western and south- 
western Muscoidea [19 n. gen.; 18 n. sps.], 6, xxiii, 216-34. Diag- 
noses of n. gen. of Muscoid flies founded on old species, 50, xlix, 
617-33. Nine new tropical American genera of Muscoidea; New 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. I4 1 

gen. of muscoid flies from the Middle Atlantic states [5 n. gen.; 5 
n. sps.l: Synonymical notes on Muscoidea, 420, iii, 01-97; 97-104; 
115-22. Van Duzee, M. C. Notes on Chrysotimus, with the de- 
scription of a n. sp., 4, 1916, 23-4. Walton, W. R. The Tachinid 
fly Mauromyia pulla, and its sexual dimorphism, 102, xvii, 190-93. 

COLEOPTERA. Barber, H. S. Macrosiagon flavipennis in co- 
coons of Bembex spinolae, 102, xvii, 187-8. Brocher, F Recher- 
ches sur la respiration des insectes aquatiques, 278, xxiii, 401-38. 
Coad, B. R. Studies on the biology of the Arizona wild cotton 
weevil, 344, Bui. 344 Frost, C. A. Remarks on collecting at light, 
v/ith a list of the C. taken, 5, xxii, 207-11. Harris, J. A. On differ- 
ential incidence of the beetle Bruchus, 6, xxiii, 242-53. Hyslop, J. 
A. Notes on the habits and anatomy of Horistonotus uhlerii, 102, 
xvii, 179-85. Knab, F. Dung-bearing weevil larvae, 102, xvii, 193-4. 
Leng, C. W. Coccinella transversoguttata, Trichodes nuttalli, and 
Malachius aeneus, 6, xxiii, 254. Morse,. E. S. Fireflies flashing in 
unison, 68, xliii, 169-70. 

Blatchley, W. S. Notes on Smicronyx with descriptions of a n. 
sp. and a n. var., 4, 1916, 10-12. Carnochan, F. G. Notes on the 
genus Phelister [2 new], 5, xxii, 213-14. Champion, G. C. Notes 
on Melandryidae, 8, 1916, 1-10. Morse, A. P. Leptura emarginata 
in England [Notice], 5, xxii, 212. Schaeffer, C. New C. and mis- 
cellaneous notes, III [5 new], 6, xxiii, 235-8. Schenkling, S. Neue 
beitrage zur kenntnis der Cleriden, 369, iv, 310-22 (cont.). 

HYMENOPTERA. Mclndoo, N. E. The sense organs of the 
mouth-parts of the honey bee, 335, Ixv, No. 14, 55 pp. Morgan, T. 
H. The Eugster gynandromorph, 3, 1, 39-45. Rohwer, S. A. The 
mating habits of some saw-flies, 102, xvii, 195-98. Wheeler, W. M. 
On the presence and absence of cocoons among ants, the nest- 
spinning habits of the larvae and the significance of the black 
cocoons among certain Australian species, 180, viii, 323-42. The 
marriage-flight of a bull-dog ant (Myrmecia sanguinea), 324, vi, 
701-3. 

Cockerell T. D. A. New Californian bees [4 new], 189, vii, 230-33. 
Crawford, J. C. New No. American H. [3 sps.]; The bee genus 
Holocopasites [3 new], 420, iii, 107-9; 123-6. Grimshaw, P. H. 
The Greville collection of Chalcididac and Proctotrypidae in the 
Royal Scottish Museum, with some reference to Walker's types, 
206, 1915. 344-51 Morley, C. A revision of the Ichneumonidae. 
Part IV, Tribes Joppides and Banchides [British Museum Publi- 
cations]. Rohwer, S. A. Ametastegia glabrata, a holarctic sawfly, 
102, xvii, 198-9. Wheeler, W. M. A new hog-inhabiting variety of 
Formica fusca, 5, xxii, 203-6. 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Mar., 'l6 

Doings of Societies. 

Entomological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

Meeting of November i8th, 1915. Twelve persons present, Mr. Phil- 
ip Laurent, Director, presiding. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Daecke exhibited Thecla liparops, taken at 
Carlisle Junction, Pennsylvania, July 9th, 1909, and Thecla edwardsi, 
Hunter's Run, Pennsylvania, July nth, 1914, the latter species being 
abundant. Dr. Skinner exhibited the Academy collection of the Pierid 
genus Delias and called attention to the predominance of orange in 
butterflies that extend their range into the tropics. 

Diptera. Mr. Hornig said he had found Citlc.r pipicns breeding 
on November 1st and Anopheles punctipcnnis on November 5th this 
fall. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn referred to the area from Florida to 
Texas, over which he had collected in conjunction with Mr. Hebard 
this summer. Former studies of the Orthoptera in the adjoining terri- 
tory were mentioned. The distribution of certain species was pointed 
out and the various delimiting barriers mentioned and illustrated. Mr. 
Laurent exhibited a mounted specimen of Pardtenodera sincnis in the 
act of catching and holding a humming-bird. He related the occur- 
rence of a Mantid of this species, catching a humming-bird, in Ger- 
mantown, Philadelphia, and represented the act by the mounted speci- 
mens shown. HENRY SKINNER, Recorder. 

The Convocation Week Meetings: Horticultural Inspectors. 

The fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association of Offi- 
cial Horticultural Inspectors, an affiliated division of the Association of 
Economic Entomologists, was held in Columbus, Ohio, December 28 and 
29, 1915. The following papers of an entomological character were 
presented : 

HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, N. J., Foreign Pests Recently 
Established in New Jersey E. R. SASSCER, Washington, D. C., Im- 
ported Insect Pests Collected on Imported Nursery Stock in 1915, 
Remarks on Inspection Facilities in the District of Columbia, and 
Vacuum Fumigation and Its Application to the Control of Insects Af- 
fecting Plants and Plant Products J. G. SANDERS, Madison, Wis., 
The LJniform Horticultural Inspection Law J. H. DAYTON, Paines- 
ville, Ohio, Report of the Legislative Committee of the National Nurs- 
erymen's Association (Reported the acceptance of the Uniform In- 
spection Bill by the nurserymen at their national convention in Detroit, 
Michigan, June, 1915; said that it was a gratifying advance in horti- 
cultural legislation to note the closer feeling of co-operation among 
the nurserymen and the entomologists: conveyed the sentiments of 
the nurserymen to this Association and expressed a wish for the con- 
tinued good feeling and co-operation existing at present.) F. M. 
O'BYRNE, Gainesville, Fla., Nursery Inspection in Florida. J. EDWARD 






Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 143 

TAYLOR, Salt Lake City, Utah, Co-operation in the Establishment of 
State Quarantines. N. E. SHAW, Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio Inspec- 
tion System. 

During the discussion of Atr. Weiss' paper it was moved by Dr. 
Headlee that it is the sense of this body that the federal quarantine be 
strengthened and that an absolute quarantine be placed on all plants 
imported with soil about the roots, except such as are introduced by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture for experiment and those to be held 
in quarantine for a reasonable period. This motion was passed unani- 
mously and the Secretary instructed to notify the Federal Board of 
this action. Mr. Burgess reported that Christmas trees and greens to 
the extent of over forty-one carloads, containing 1200 to 1800 trees 
each, had been shipped from the quarantine area in New England, all 
of which had been inspected previous to shipment, and a considerable 
number of egg clusters of the "Gipsy Moth" had been found on these 
trees. All carload lots went from New Hampshire and Maine and had 
been shipped to many of the States of the Union, including Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Washington and Oregon, where already grows 
a plentiful supply of Christmas trees. It was the sense of the inspec- 
tors present that the Federal Quarantine should be replaced on Christ- 
inas greens, otherwise several of the States would absolutely quaran- 
tine the shipments of Christmas trees originating in the moth quaran- 
tine area. 

(From notes furnished by J. G. SANDERS, Sec'y.) 

[To the total of 84 entomological papers and papers of general bear- 
ing on entomology, listed on pages 91-96, antea, as presented at the 
Convocation Week meetings of 1915, the above notes add 9. ED.] 

Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of October 20th, 1915, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart Street, Philadelphia. Twelve members were present, Pres. 
Wenzel in the chair. 

Diptera. Mr. Hornig said he had found many mosquito larvae 
in Cobbs Creek, Pennsylvania, all of which at the time he had consid- 
ered Culc.r pipicns Linn., but had bred from them some Acdcs jainai- 
ccusis Theob. 

Lepidoptera. The same speaker said he had found larvae of 
Jlcmilciicd inahi Dru. at Westville, New Jersey, in 1013, which pupated 
the same year. Some of these emerged in 1913 and two came out within 
the present week. Mr. Haimbach recorded Racheospila atripcs Druce 
from Homestead, Florida, v-14-15, collected by Dr. Castle. The type 
was described from Panama and is in the Staudinger Collection. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Daecke said he had found many Tc.rntiis 
triiittdtus Say, which never varied until lie caught one at Cove Alt., 
Pennsylvania, June 27, 1915, which he exhibited, and which lias the prox- 
imal portion of the marginal stripes on the elytra missing; also exhib- 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. [Mar., '16 

ited a specimen of Dicerca obscura Fabr., Rockville, Pennsylvania, Oc- 
tober 3, 1913 ; the New Jersey list records this species in July and 
August. A specimen of Dicerca lepida Lee. was shown from Hum- 
melstown, Pennsylvania, July 13, 1915, collected on ironwood by Mr. 
Knull ; this is extremely rare. Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited a female 
Scarabaeid from Huachuca Mts., Arizona, (July) collected by H. A. 
Wenzel. This is undoubtedly a Xyloryctcs and most likely a new spe- 
cies. Geo. M. Greene exhibited Eurytrachelus bucephalus Pt. from; 
Java and Hutrachelus tcmmincki Latr. from Borneo in comparison 
with our local Dorcus parallchis Say, and Eupsalis minuta Oliv. 
Adjourned to the annex. 

Meeting of November 17, 1915, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart St., Philadelphia ; eleven members were present. Pres. Wenzel 
in the chair. 

Hymenoptera. Mr. Kaeber exhibited a pair of wasps in copulation, 
beaten from hickory at Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, vi-28-15, which 
were identified by Mr. Harbeck as Methoca stygia Say. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Laurent stated that though he knew the season was 
late he was surprised to see on November I3th specimens of Colias phi- 
lodicc Gdt. flying at Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Coleoptera.- Dr. Castle stated that the Balamni mentioned in the 
September minutes as common at Pine Beach, New Jersey, are B. nnt- 
fonnis LeC. and they are much darker than California specimens in 
his collection; he exhibited a weevil, Clnoyanthobius schii'arzi Pierce, 
from Enterprise, Florida, vii-io-15- Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited Coc- 
cinella affinis Rand, and Una scripta Fabr. found by H. A. Wenzel at 
Westville, New Jersey, xi-i4-is, and Plagiodcra armoraciae Linn, from 
Staten Island, New York, ix-9-15, collected by Wm. T. Davis. All 
three species were hibernating on willow. 

Adjourned to the annex. GEO. M. GREENE, Scc'y. 

Chicago Entomological Club. 

Meeting of November 21, 1915, at the home of Thomas Smart, eleven 
members present, fc 

Lepidopterists exhibited specimens of Melalopha and Dalaua 
and discussed their characteristics and larval habits, etc. Local cap- 
tures reported were Melalopha apicalix, inchtsa. stritjosa. albnsigma and 
brncci; Dataiia nriuistra, aiifjnsii, pcrspicua, integerrima and contracta. 

Coleopterists had the Meloidae as a subject and extensive series 
were exhibited. Notable among them was a specimen of Pomphopoea 
sayi (not quite typical) taken by Mr. Wolcott at Beverly Hills, Illinois, 
on blossoms of Spiraea salicifoUa on June 7, 1915. This is new to the 
region. Mr. Liljeblad showed a specimen of Nemognatha cribrnrid 
taken at Hessville, Indiana, August I3th, also new to the region. A. 
KWIAT, Secretary. 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHMITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough around the from 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of the front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in add i: ion to being abso- 
lutely dust, moth and derniestes proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos- 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 424 in. high, 13 in. deep, 18J 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameled green outside. For details of Dr. Skin- 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological News. Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside lined with cork ; the outside enameled any color 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are 9x 13x24 in. deep, but can be furnished 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. We do not assert that this wooden box has all the quali- 
ties of the metal box. especially in regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 
a box, we think, superior to any other wood insect box. The bottom is cork lined. 
Outside varnished. For catalogue and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 



WARD'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE. ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, iV. Y , we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
'orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 1890 

When Writing Please Mention " Entomological New." 



K-S Specialties Entomology 

THE KNY-8CHEERER COMPANY 

Department of Natural Science 404-4 1 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Exotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 



INSKCT BOXES We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and can 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 

NS/3085- Plain Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15% in Each $0.25 

NS/soSs Size8xio54in Each .15 






i Lepidoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 
cover and bottom of strong: pasteboard, covered with 
bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf (peat). 

Per dozen 5.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Perdozen 6.00 

Caution: Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 

(For exhibition purposes) NS/3I2I _ K . s Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 

fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8xux2^'in. (or to order, 8%xio%x2% in.).... $0.70 

Size 12x16x2% in. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 1 .20 

Size 14x22x2%, in. (or to order, 14x22x2}^ in.) 2.00 

Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 
NS/3I2I ^ 

THE KNY SCHEERER CO. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 
G. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 



PARIS EXPOSITION : ^ PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 

Eight Awards and Medals wWvl Gold Med " 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION : Grand Prize and Gold Medal 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kii.ds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Papilio columbus (gundlachianus), the brightest colored American Papilio, very 
rare, perfect specimens $1.50 each ; second quality $1.00 each. 

When Writing Pleaae Mention "Entomological News." 

P. C. Stookuausen. Printer, 53-65 N. 7th Street, Philadelphia. 




APRIL, 1916. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. No. -4. 




John Lawrence Le Conte, 
I825-J883. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 

KZRA T. CRESSON J- A ' Cl RKHN - 

PHILIP LAURENT, ERICH DAHCKK. H. W. WENZEL. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 

Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than fi.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 

Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September 15th to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon, at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

tW The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, 20 cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents ; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper. 30 characters or less, 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 

C. V. BLACKBURN, 12 PINE STREET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate VII. 




Fig.l 



Fig. 4 





Fi a. 5 




Tig. 6 




T"' r-t tKfleo.4 

x z 0.7 



A RECENTLY PATENTED COLLECTING NET-WEISS. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



APRIL, 1916. 



No. 4. 



CONTENTS: 



Weiss A Recently-Patented Collect- 
ing Net 145 

Cresson Descriptions of new Genera 









and Species of the Dipterous Fam- 
ily Ephydridae III 147 

-"" Girault A new Genus of Eulophidae 

from the United States (Hym.) ... 152 

Johnson Insect Notes for the Season 
of 1915 (Lep., Col., Dipt.) 154 

Cockerell A new Phalangid from the 
Coronados Islands (Arach.) 158 

Hebard A new Species of the Genus 
Neoblattella from Costa Rica (Or- 
thoptera, Blattidae) 159 

Weiss Additions to Insects of New 
Jersey, No. 4 162 

Williamson A new Cyanogomphus 
(Odonata) 167 

Prof. Herbert Osborn Research Pro- 
fessor 172 

Notice of Disposal of Manuscripts, etc. 172 

Ball Some new Species of Athysanus 
and Related Genera (Homoptera) 173 

Editorial How manv languages must 
an Entomologist know ? 177 

A Dipterous Larva Parasitic in Earth- 
worms 177 






Townsend New Muscoid Genera 
(Dip.) 

Cook What the House Fly Did 

McDermott The Unusual Prevalence 
of Ground Beetles ( Harpalus) dur- 
ing the Summer of 1913, at Ashland, 
Ohio (Col.) 

Cockerel! The Biota of Nantucket... . 

Cockerell The Cactus-feeding Volu- 
cellines ( Dip. ) 

Girault Proportion of the Sexes in 
Uloborus geniculatus Walck., with 
a Few Notes (Arach., Aran.) 

McAtee Note on use of Antennae in 
Collopsvittatus(Col.,Malachiidae) 

Stoner Additional Iowa Pentatomoi- 
dea (Hem., Het.) 

Entomological Literature 

Doings of Societies Am. Ent. Soc 

Feldman Collecting Social (Coleop. , 

Hym.) 

Chicago Entomological Club (Col., 

Lep.) 

Newark Ent. Soc. (Lep., Hem.) 

A New Entomological Club 

The New Ecological Soc. of America 

Obituary Miss Adele Marion Fielde... 



178 
178 



179 
1 80 

1 80 



181 

182 

182 
183 
187 

187 

188 
189 
190 
190 
191 






A Recently-Patented Collecting Net* 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

(Plate VII) 

To collectors in general, but especially those of Lepidoptera, 
who are desirous of obtaining specimens in as perfect a con- 
dition as possible, the net recently patented by Mr. Marvin H. 
Mead, of Passaic, New Jersey, should not be without interest. 
The accompanying Pinto VII shows so clearly the construction 
of the net that only a few words of description are necessary. 
The most important part is the specimen chamber or dome at 

*U. S. Patent Office, Patent No. 1143721, to Marvin H. Mead, Pas- 
saic, N. J., June 22, 1915. 



145 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

the end of the net proper. The frame-work of this (see figure 
3) is constructed of light weight, flexible metal and covered 
with gauze, preferably of a transparent quality. The re- 
mainder of the net may be made of any suitable material such 
as is ordinarly used for butterfly nets. 

The net is used in the usual manner, but the addition of 
the specimen chamber secures the following advantages. It 
permits the collector to catch a number of insects simul- 
taneously or in succession without danger of mutilation or 
rubbing. In other words, the insects are free to fly to a certain 
extent while still in the net. By reason of this the rubbing 
and crushing actions of the folds in an ordinary net are avoid- 
ed. With a net of this kind, the operator can also readily 
introduce a cyanide jar without danger of the insects escaping. 
On account of the spaciousness of the specimen chamber, the 
jar can be easily moved about inside and the insects gently 
tapped into it. 

For arc light collecting, it is impossible to overstate the ad- 
vantages of a net of this kind. It is not at all clumsy to handle, 
the additional weight of the specimen chamber, (diam. i ft., 
height, 6 in.) being negligible. Mr. Mead has used such a net 
for the past several years and has collected many specimens 
so perfect that he has been accused of breeding them. 

Figure i is a view of the net in perspective ; figure 2, a view 
in perspective on a smaller scale showing the net in position 
to retain a captured specimen ; figure 3, a view showing the 
form of the structure for insuring the dilation of the specimen 
chamber, and figure 4 illustrates the operator with a cyanide 
jar introduced in the net. 

A smaller cylindrical net for capturing microlepidoptera is 
shown in figure 6, this being five or six inches in diameter and 
eight to ten inches high. Figure 5 shows the light weight, 
flexible metal frame which is covered with fine gauze as shown 
in figure 6. Figure 7 shows the net grasped with the hand 
so as to form a special chamber into which the cyanide bottle 
can be thrust and the specimen removed in as good a condi- 
tion as when it entered the net. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 147 

Descriptions of new Genera and Species of the 
Dipterous Family Ephydridae III. 

By E. T. CRESSON, JR., Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia. 

TYPOPSILOPA n. gen. 

Allied to P silo pa from which it may be distinguished by the 
two well developed dorso-central bristles, arranged i + i. 
The face is distinctly foveolate, with foveae well removed 
from the orbits ; two distinct facial bristles each side, although 
the upper is much stronger. Psllopa, typically, based on its 
genotype, Notiphila nitidula Fall., has no dorso-central bristles 
and the facial foveae if noticeable are very near the orbits, and 
the face has only one side bristle, very low. The present 
genus is apparently allied to Clasiopclla Hendel, differing in 
the presence of two dorso-centrals. Whether the presence or 
absence of these bristles is of generic importance may be ques- 
tioned. 

Genotype Typopsilopa flavitarsis Cress. 

Psilopa atra Lw. also belongs here. 

Typopsilopa flavitarsis n. sp. 

Black ; knob of halteres white, all tarsi yellow or tawny, apices 
brownish. 

Similar to Psilopa atra Lw. Frons with the proclinate orbitals 
slightly below the reclinate frontals. Face about twice as long as broad 
and nearly as broad as vertex, with the upper bristles about at middle, 
in profile. Antennal spine as long as third joint. Length 3.0 mm. 

Type $, Bill Williams Fork, Arizona, August, (F. H. 
Snow), [University of Kansas Collection]. 

Paratypes 3 $ , topotypical. 

In comparison with atra this species differs principally in 
the longer face, higher placed facial bristles and the contrast- 
ing yellow tarsi. The frons seems less shining, so that the 
opake frontalia are less differentiated ; the face also is less 
shining and more or less irregularly wrinkled. 

Ilythea flaviceps n. sp. 

Similar to spilota but larger. 

Yellow ; frons and thorax brown or darker ; abdomen and all bristles 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

black. Wings with series of fuscous bars between veins; veins brown. 
Opake. yellow pruinose ; thorax more or less shining; mesonotum and 
scutellum somewhat metallic-tinged; abdomen shining but obscured by 
gray dust. Face with patch of silver inside at base of upper bristles. 
Arista with 8 hairs. Wings with 4-6 bars in marginal cell, 4-6 in sub- 
marginal, 4 in first posterior beyond post. c.v. Length 2.5 mm. 

Type $, Bill Williams Fork, Arizona, August, (F. H. 
Snow), [University of Kansas Collection]. 

This species in form simulates splloia Curt. It however is 
quite distinct in having the legs as well as the face yellow. All 
the pruinose coating is yellow or golden through which the 
metallic tints of the mesonotum and scutellum are apparent. 

Discocerina parva var. nigriventris n. var. 

A variety separated on account of the palpi being mostly black and 
the abdomen more shining. The tibiae, especially the hind ones, en- 
tirely shining black. 

This variety is probably confined to the Pacific coast region. 
Type. $ , Berkeley Hills, Alameda County, California, 
April n, 1909. (Cresson) [A. N. S. P. No. 6100]. 
Paratypes. 4 5,4$, topotypical. 

Discocerina setigera n. sp. 

Black; base of third antennal joint, palpi, knees, apices of tibiae and 
all tarsi except apices, tawny ; halteres whitish ; wings hyaline, veins 
yellow, costa dark. 

Opake, cinereous; frons black or brown pruinose; orbits narrowly 
white; face and cheeks densely white; mesonotum brownish-tinged 
medianly ; abdomen similar, becoming cinereous laterally ; femora and 
tibiae cinereous. 

Frons broad as long ; orbits parallel. Face narrower, concaved above, 
moderately prominent at middle, strongly retreating below ; three pairs 
of converging bristles and another series of smaller laterally curved 
bristles nearer orbits; parafacials bare. Cheeks hardly as broad as 
third antennal joint. Arista with 4-5 hairs. 

Mesonotal setulae numerous, irregular ; prescutellars present. Scutel- 
lum rounded apically. Abdomen ovate ; segment 5 of $ triangular 
convex. Length 2.5 mm. 

Type. $ , Mesa Grande, Sonoma County, California, May, 
1908 (P. C. Baumberger), [A. N. S. P. No. 6101]. 
Paratypes. 3 $ , 59, topotypic. 
A species belonging to a group possessing a second series of 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 149 

facial bristles directed laterally, i. c., in opposition to the regu- 
lar converging series. The cheeks are rather narrow and the 
parafacials are not noticeably setulose above; the dorsum of 
thorax and abdomen cinereous or but faintly brownish. 

Discocerina argyrostoma n. sp. 

Black ; apex of proboscis, bases of tarsi, tawny ; halteres yellowish- 
white. Wings clear hyaline. 

Shining ; front opake brownish, orbits whitish below ; face opake 
silvery or grayish white ; antennae white or gray pruinose. 

Frons longer than broad, with orbits parallel ; one orbital bristle. 
Face as broad as frons, flat, slightly retreating below, with two bristles 
below middle: foveae weak or absent. Mesonotal setulae erect; pre- 
scutellar bristles near margin. Scutellum convex, triangular. Ab- 
domen ovate, apex acute ; segments subequal ; hypopygium incon- 
spicuous. Length 4.5 mm. 

Type. $ , Berkeley Hills, Alameda County, California, 
April n, 1908, (E. T. Cresson, Jr.), [A. N. S. P. No. 6102]. 

Puratypcs. I 5,3$, topotypical. 

This is not a typical Discocerina. The face is flat and broad, 
with no, or very weak, foveae. The shining black thorax and 
the Hat, silvery white face will separate this species from all 
the others of the genus. 

Mosillus tibialis n. sp. 

Black ; third antennal joint sometimes, tibiae except middle of hind 
ones, and tarsi except apices, tawny ; halteres whitish ; wings hyaline, 
lacteous, veins yellow. 

Polished, with faint metallic reflections; parafacials (but not the 
cheeks;, ;oveae, middle of face except prominence and lateral papil- 
lae, all outer surfaces of tibiae, silvery; third antennal joint and meso- 
notum somewhat faintly gray. Frontal triangle, mesonotum and scu- 
t el him subopake, minutely punctured. 

In other respects similar to M. subsiiltans Fab. 

V'V/T. $, Wildwood, New Jersey, July 18, 1908, (E. T. 
Cresson, Jr.), [A. N. S. P. No. 6103]. 

Paratypes. 19 5,5$, topotypical. 

This name is proposed for the American species. It is 
possible that \Yalker may have described it. Our species dif- 
fers from the European sub sultans in having the tibiae tawny, 
not black, and in general it is more distinctly sculptured espe- 



I5O ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

cially on the frons, mesonotum and abdomen. The silver of 
the face is not noticeable on my specimens of subsultans. 

This species has been known in the American collections as 
Gymnopa nana Walk, and G. acnea Fall. It is not the latter but 
may be the former. Walker's type cannot be located in the 
British Museum by Mr. E. E. Austen to whom I submitted 
specimens for comparison. 

Lytogaster willistoni n. sp. 

Black; third antennal joint except apex, knees, and tarsi except apices, 
tawny ; halteres yellow with black knobs ; wings clear hyaline with 
black veins. 

Subopake ; abdomen shining ; face gray with silvery orbits ; pleurae 
sparsely gray. Disc of frons, two median thoracic stripes, disc of scu- 
tellum granulose ; abdomen minutely pitted becoming very dense on the 
depressed dorsum of second segment. 

Abdomen very broad, convex and subglobose ; lateral margins revo- 
lute ; second and more or less of third segment depressed on dorsum 
with lateral lines of delimitation sharp; fourth segment very large, 
convex, two to three times as long as second and third together; fifth 
triangular, nearly as long as fourth, with two shallow depressions near 
apex. Length 2.3 mm. 

Type. $ , Berkeley Hills, Alameda County, California, 
April 20, 1908, (E. T. Cresson, Jr.), [A. N. S. P. No. 6104]. 

Paratypes. 4 5,62, topotypical. 

This species is found in most collections under the name 
Ephydra or Pclina brevis Walker. As I do not know Walker's 
species I cannot recognize the name. The species is distin- 
guished by the large, shining, convex, subglobose abdomen, 
with the fourth segment much developed. The surface of the 
abdomen is minutely pitted as described. 

Parydra tibialis n. sp. 

Structurally similar to P. bitubcrculata Lw. 

Black ; halteres, knees, tibiae and tarsi tawny ; wings clear hyaline, 
veins tawny, cross veins not clouded. 

Shining, more or less sparingly obscured by gray or brown pollen, 
which on the face is dense and white, and on the abdomen and femora 
is variegated with minute bare dots at the bass of setulae. Mesonotum 
reddish coppery-tinged; abdomen greenish-tinged. Scutellum with two 
small bristle-bearing tubercles, well separated as in bitubcrculata; lat- 
eral bristles with or without minute tubercles. Length 4.5 mm. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 151 

Type. $ , Oak Creek Canyon, Arizona, 6000 ft. alt., Aug- 
ust, (F. H. Snow), [University of Kansas Collection]. 

Paratypes. 5 $ , 15 $ , topotypical. 

Belonging to the bituberculata-group, and distinguished 
from its congeners by the clear wings and tawny tibiae and 
tarsi. The entire surface in general obscured by the sparse but 
distinct coating of gray pollen. 

Ephydra niveiceps n. sp. 

Similar to E. subopaca Lw. 

$ . Black ; metallic green ; halteres, knees, bases of tibiae, tarsi ex- 
cept apices, tawny. 

Opake, gray or whitish; frons polished, with gray orbits; mesonotum 
subopake with metallic tinge, with broad more whitish median stripe; 
abdomen more obscured but metallic color evident. Face and cheeks 
glistening silvery or snowy white when seen from above. 

Frons nearly horizontal ; pref rental bristles well developed, nearly 
equalling frontal orbitals. Face in profile, projecting greatly, nearly 
equalling horizontal diameter of eye; parafacialia broad, at least one- 
half length of third antennal joint in width; bristles normal; cilia of 
posterior orbits normal. Mesonotal acrostichals in well defined series 
anteriorly; posterior margin of mesopleuron with only 4-6 bristles. 
Abdominal segment 5 not longer than 4; genitalia not noticeably de- 
veloped. Length 5.0 mm. 

5 . Similar, but the gray face not so glistening. 

Type. S , Wawawai, Washington, [A. N. S. P. No. 6105]. 

Paratypes. I 9 , topotypical. 

I have also seen a series of 3 males, I female, from 40 miles 
north of Lusk, Wyoming, July, 1895, [Kansas Univ. Coll.], 
and a female from Manitou Park, Colorado, [Kans. Univ. 
Coll.]. 

This may possibly be only a variety of E. subopaca Lw. or 
of E. milbrae Jones. The general gray color, not brown; the 
snowy white projecting face; the broad facial orbital areas 
and seriated acrostichal setulae are noticeable in the material 
before me, as differing from the above mentioned species. 

Ephydra pectinulata n. sp. 

Similar to niveiceps. 

Opacity more brownish, especially on the frons and thorax ; the grays 
not whitish except on the face; abdomen more olivaceous, not opake. 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Frons less horizontal, face not so projecting being white but not 
glistening snow-white. Cilia of posterior orbits developing into two or 
three stout bristles at buccal extremity. Mesopleural fringe, of more 
numerous bristles, especially of $ , is very dense and close. 

Scutellum of $ longer and more acutely pointed with noticeably 
long pile. Bristles of fore femora very long. Length 4.7 mm. 

Type. $ , 40 miles North of Lusk, Wyoming, July, 1895, 
(U. of K. Lot 425), [Univ. of Kansas Coll.] 
Paratypes. 2 5,6$, topotypical. 

DIMECOENIA n. gen. 

This genus is proposed for the reception of Caenia spinosa 
Loew, its type species. It differs from Cocnla, as based on 
its genotype, Ephydra palustris Fallen, in the absence of pul- 
villi and having the claws long and nearly straight. In these 
respects it resembles Ephydra, but in the present genus there 
are only two frontal orbital bristles and no post-humeral or 
prescutellar bristles. The pre^-frontal bristles are strongly 
developed. The genus seems intermediate between Coenia 
and Ephydra but is constant in the characters mentioned. 

Here also belongs Ephydra austrina Coquillett, of which 
Caenia virida Hine is a synonym. I have examined the cotypic 
series of Coquillett's and Hine's species. It is strange that 
both authors overlooked the characteristic tufts of hair on the 
hind tarsi of the male of this species. This is described by 
Aldrich in his paper on "Two Western Species of Ephydra."* 



A new Genus of Eulophidae from the United States 

(Hym.). 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Washington, D. C. 

PSEUDOLYNX new genus. 

Belongs to the Omphalini and is characterized by its robust- 
ness, the elongate stigmal vein and middle tibial spur. 

1. Pseudolynx io new species. Genotype. 

o . Length 3.00 mm. Robust. Head a little wider than long, large. 

Dark metallic green except the reddish brown femora, tibiae, tarsi 
and scape (except above along more than the distal half). The fol- 

*Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xx, 101, 1912. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 153 

lowing parts reddish yellow : Mouth, margin of the eyes very narrowly, 
a narrow line across the vertex from the eyes and behind the lateral 
ocelli, the large prepectus except a spot dorso-cephalad, the dorsal mar- 
gin broadly of the cephalic of the two mesothoracic sclerites, a narrow 
line across the face about halfway between antennae and cephalic 
ocellus, lateral margin of scutum at about cephalic third (a triangle), 
mesal margin of each parapside from near cephalic end, broadening 
caudad (thus a longer triangle), lateral margin narrowly and caudo- 
lateral corner broadly of each axilla, lateral and apical margins of scu- 
telluni narrowly, postscutellum excepting a large area filling the entire 
meson. 

Fore wings with a smoky area under the marginal vein, ending 
against the stigmal and not extending quite halfway across the wing; 
it extends more suffusedly proximad. 

Marginal vein somewhat shorter than the submarginal, the stigmal 
long, over half the length of the marginal, the postmarginal somewhat 
shorter than it. 

Hind tibial spurs double, stout, very unequal. 

Head densely scaly, below the antennae with many thimble punctures 
of moderate size, the genal suture distinct. Antennae inserted a little 
above the ventral end of the eyes, g-jointed with two ring-joints and 
three club-joints, the flagellum thick, the club large-oval, obtuse at 
apex, wider than but not quite as long as the funicle whose joint I is 
elongate, somewhat over twice longer than wide, 2 somewhat longer 
than wide, the pedicel a little shorter than it; club 3 a hemisphere. 
Ring-joints large. Mandibles rude, tridentate. 

Thorax coarsely scaly, the axillae advanced, large, the propodeum 
rather short at the meson, with a delicate median carina and no others, 
longer laterad. Scutellum simple, large. 

Abdomen conic-ovate, produced beneath, as long as the rest of the 
body, densely, finely scaly like most of the propodeum. 

Described from one fejnale in the United States National 
Museum from North Saugus, Massachusetts, May 24, 1907 
(J. C. Crawford). 

Type: Catalogue No. 19630, U. S. N. M., the female on 
a tag, the head, a pair of wings and the hind legs on a slide. 

2. Pseudolynx flavimaculatus new species. 

9. Length 4.50 mm. Differs from the preceding in being larger, 
the mouth more broadly yellow and a broad oblique line runs from each 
corner of it to the end of the eye, between the antenna and the genal 
suture; the propleuron is yellow except ventrad, the axillae are mar- 
gined with yellow all around and the lateral margin of the parapside is 
rather broadly yellow (very obscurely and narrowly in the other spe- 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

cies) ; the scape is all yellow and the lower half of the pedicel. The 
infuscation of the fore wing is narrower, more along the venation 
(marginal and stigmal veins, mostly, against and beneath them). There 
are also on the abdomen above, near base, two obscure marginal spots 
of ochreous and along the sides a rather conspicuous broken stripe of 
the same color (ventro-lateral aspect), the spots of which it is com- 
posed being much longer than wide on segments 2 and 5 ; this stripe 
does not extend to the apex by some little distance. Otherwise about 
as in io. Both species have a glabrous plate, wider than long, just 
cephalad of the spiracle and there are thimble punctures on the scu- 
tellum in longitudinal lines laterad (two lines in io, one of three or four 
punctures in this species). Submarginal vein distinctly, abruptly broken 
in regularity in both species. In this species, the middle tibial spur is 
very long and slender (also in io). 

Described from one female in the U. S. N. M., labeled 
"Olyn.v flavimaculata Ashm., Ramsey County, Minnesota/' 

Type: Catalogue No. 19631, U. S. N. M., the specimen on 
a tag; middle and hind tibiae and the antennae on a slide. 



Insect Notes for the Season of 19 15 (Lep. t Col., Dip.). 

By HARRY L. JOHNSON, South Meriden, Conn. 

Abundance of Feralia jocosa, etc. (Lep.). 

I have taken jocosa sparingly for a number of years on the 
common hemlock (Tsuga canadcnsis?}. A little grove of 
these trees is situated on the Oregon* Road on a cliff of rocky 
formation overlooking the Connecticut River and I have made 
it a point to visit this place each year for this species, usually 
securing two to three a day for several days. This year, 
however, I decided to visit what is known as Hemlock Grove, 
situated about halfway between Meriden and South Meriden 
in a park known as Terrace Garden. This grove is also on 
high rocky ground overlooking a stream, so that locality and 
surroundings being similar, I expected good results. 

Three warm, sunny days in April were selected as best for 
collecting. On the first day, April 7th, some twenty-six speci- 

* Oregon is a small cliff-enclosed valley bounding South Meriden on 
the northwest. This place has always gone by the name of Oregon or 
the Oregon road. Possibly the place took its name from this road, 
which goes through it. The place is very thinly settled and is desig- 
nated on the map of Meriden as Cheshire Road, although it is always 
spoken of as Oregon. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 155 

mens of jocosa together with several Phigalia titca and three 
Nyctobia limitata were taken from the grove from three to 
four o'clock in the afternoon. Most of the jocosa were found 
low down on the bases of the trees but P. titca was usually 
higher up. The Joker moths were easily bottled as they are 
sluggish, but Phigalia titca and Nyctobia limitata required the 
use of a net, as they were inclined to fly up when one got to 
within several feet of them. The second day, April 8th, was 
still warmer and clear but the result was not as anticipated as 
only about ten specimens of The Joker were secured. On the 
third day, April 9th, which was decidedly cooler but still clear, 
I took over eighty specimens of jocosa from the grove, prac- 
tically all of them freshly emerged specimens. 

When pinning and spreading these specimens care has to be 
taken to remove with cotton all the oily substance which exudes 
from the wings, around the pin, etc., as otherwise the wings 
stick to the spreading board when dry, spoiling the specimen 
by tearing the wings. 

This species is well named The Joker, as it forms one of the 
most natural mimics of the insect world, being almost a perfect 
copy of the lichen found on hemlock. 

Euchloe genutia Fab. (Lep.). 

A pair of Euchloe genutia fell to my lot for the first time 
this year. On April 24th while walking along the track of the 
"Cannon Ball" express in Oregon I spied a butterfly which 
did not seem familiar and as it was a slow flier I captured it 
and found it to be the male of E. gcnutia. On the next day I 
happened along the same route and took the female in practi- 
cally the same place, but although I visited the region steadily 
after that, I could not add more to the number. 

Vanessa milberti Godart. (Lep.). 

I'anessa milberti was also present in my vicinity this year 
although I have never seen it here before. One specimen was 
taken on the blossoms of wild plum near Hanover Park on 
April 29th, and later in the season I took several fresh speci- 
mens near the same locality on the flowers of alfalfa. These 
last were undoubtedly of a second brood. 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Pieris napi, aberrant form virginiensis? Edwards. (Lep.). 

Another butterfly new to me, P. napi virginiensis, fell to my 
lot this year, making three new butterflies in one season. Six 
specimens of this species were secured on the Oregon road. 
They are somewhat smaller and weaker fliers than P. rapae 
and are readily told from them and as easily taken with the 
net. 

Abundance of Melitaea phaeton Drury. (Lep.). 

This butterfly has always been rare with me until this year. 
One or two specimens each season was all that I could pos- 
sibly obtain even by the most strenuous hunting. These single 
specimens I always found on swampy land in Oregon. This 
year I was fortunate in discovering a new place for this spe- 
cies on the road to Meriden. While walking along this road I 
saw a single specimen around a wet place in the road and after 
taking it noticed two more further along, then three, then sev- 
eral more. Knowing their habits I began to investigate and 
found their gathering place in a marshy field of grass about 
three feet high on the side of the road. Phaeton was here in 
abundance flying lazily around and alighting on the blades of 
grass. I took thirty on July nth inside of fifteen minutes; on 
the 1 2th I took twenty and thirty-five more on the T3th. All 
this helps to prove the theory that nothing is rare if you know 
where to find it. 

Tenacity of Life in the Spice Bush Silk Moth. (Lep.). 

On returning home from work one July noon, I noticed an 
unfamiliar object through motions made by an insect which 
was partly concealed in the leaves near the house. On a closer 
inspection I found it to be a Callosamia promcthca which I 
had taken the previous day and had thrown away after sup- 
posedly killing it. The family cat seeing the specimen had 
deprived it of its head, all the legs and three of its wings, leav- 
ing only the body and one wing and the insect apparently dead 
at the time. That it was not dead was proven by its lively 
actions when I rediscovered it. It kept up continual motion, 
the lone wing flopping from side to side, causing the body to 
jump around somewhat resembling a sailboat in a choppy sea. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 157 

Deciding to see how long this action would keep up I left the 
specimen and on returning at six o'clock that night the mangled 
specimen was as active as before, whereupon I crushed it with 
my foot as I was satisfied that it was fated for several more 
hours of torture whether painless or otherwise. 

Calosoma sycophanta I. inn. (Col.). 

While collecting at light in Hemlock Grove on May 14, I 
took a specimen of this beautiful European beetle which has 
been imported to fight the gypsy and brown-tail moths. This 
insect is reputed to be a good climber which seems to be upheld 
by the fact that the specimen was more than halfway up an 
electric light pole when captured. Mr. Britton, of the Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station at New Haven, 
states in a letter concerning the specimen, "Apparently you are 
correct in regard to the specimen of Calosoma sycophanta 
Linn. I did not suppose that it had yet reached a point so far 
west as Meriden. A colony was liberated in Stonington in 
1914. None were planted in the town of Thompson but the 
beetles were found there in moderate numbers in 1914 as the 
result of spreading from Massachusetts towns." 

Curious Food Habits of Musca domestica (Dip.). 

Having occasion to use a quantity of gummed labels in the 
course of some work on my collection I was surprised to find 
that any uncovered labels which T left on my table over night 
would be minus the mucilage in the morning. Sometimes the 
mucilage was removed in spots and blotches but almost always 
the paper was entirely cleaned as though with a vacuum 
cleaner. This condition and its cause baffled me for quite 
awhile and I was on the point of laying it to a cockroach which 
I knew to be in the room when, happening to go to the study 
after dark one evening, I was astonished to discover a group 
of house flies on the labels. Afte*- watching them a few min- 
utes I was convinced that they wer:> feeding on the sticky sub- 
stance. The weather being quite warm the mucilage on the 
labels was somewhat soft, allowing the flies to remove it. Not 
having heard of this habit of the housefly before I record it 
here. 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

A new Phalangid from the Coronados Islands (Arach.). 
By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 

Last August my wife and I visited the South Island of the 
Coronados group, off the coast of Lower California, Mexico. 
Among the interesting arthropods collected was a Phalangid 
of the family Trogulidse, which proves to be an undescribed 
member of the genus Ortholasma Banks (Psyche, 1894, p. n.) 
It may prove to be peculiar to the islands. 

The table given by Banks (Pomona Coll. Jn. Entom., 1911, 
p. 417) may be enlarged and modified to admit the new species 
as follows: 

Process of eye-tubercle relatively long and narrow, with six or more 
transverse ribs on each side ; femora and tibiae not banded, 

rugosa Banks. 

Process of eye-tubercle relatively broad, spoon-shaped I 

i. Femora and tibiae banded; apical projections of process of eye- 
tubercle beyond rim longer than broad pictipcs Banks. 

Femora and tibiae not banded ; apical projections of process of eye- 
tubercle beyond rim much broader than long, 

coronadcnsis n. sp. 

Ortholasma coronadensis n. sp. 

Length of body 3.5 mm., 4 mm. if process of eye-tubercle is in- 
cluded. Process dull white, constructed as in pictipcs, with the same 
number of ribs, but even broader, the outline not far from circular 
(excluding the narrower base), and the projections beyond the rim 
very broad and short, with sloping sides ; anterior spine-like processes 
of cephalothorax as in pictipcs. 

Legs sepia-brown, without bands. Body sepia-brown, the dorsal 
surface with numerous white tubercles, the principal ones in two 
longitudinal rows of six each ; these tubercles are connected with 
transverse somewhat darkened ridges in the cephalothoracic region, 
and on abdomen are situated on a lattice-work pattern of dark ridges, 
forming a net-like structure with square meshes, the corners directed 
laterad, caudad and cephalad: the margin of the body posteriorly is 
furnished with a row of pallid blunt processes, connected by dusky 
transverse bars, like a fence; the body beneath, ' including the coxae, 
is densely beset with pallid round tubercles ; palpi bristly, last joint 
short ; legs minutely hairy, trochanters strongly tuberculate. 

Type in the author's collection. 

Found in a cave-like hollow under a large rock, a consider- 
able distance above sea-level. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 159 

A new Species of the Genus Neoblattella from Costa 
Rica (Orthoptera, Blattidae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

In studying material of the family Blattidae, accidentally in- 
troduced in the United States, an undescribed species of 
Neoblattella has been encountered. As we desired to describe 
the species, if possible, from material taken at a locality at 
which it is native, we have gone through the undetermined 
material which we have and have found the additional series 
recorded below. 

Neoblattella fratercula new species. 

This species is apparently rather closely allied to N. brun- 
ncriana. When compared with specimens before us which we 
believe to represent that species 1 , the present insect is readily 
distinguished by its smaller size, tegmina and wings with cross- 
veinlets less strongly indicated 2 , slightly iridescent wings and 
very distinctive male genitalia. 3 

TYPE: $ ; Isla de Cocos, Costa Rica, January, 1902. (P. 
Biolley.) [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type No. 5298.] 

Size medium small for the group, smallest of the more nearly related 
species; form rather slender. Interocular space wide; ocellar spots 
weakly defined. Maxillary palpi very elongate; third and fourth joints 
subequal in length; fifth (distal) joint about two-thirds as long as 
fourth, obliquely truncate to near its base. 

1 From San Rafael in Vera Cruz, 'Mexico; Port Limon, Reventazon, 
Juan Viiias and Azahar near Cartago, Costa Rica. 

2 In brunncriana very numerous and conspicuously defined in darker 
brown distad, both on tegmina and wings. 

3 The only male of brunncriana before us is from Port Limon, Costa 
Rica. It has the sides of the subgenital plate nearly vertical and sud- 
denly abruptly truncate, leaving mesad a quadrate aperture: the bottom 
margin of which (representing the mesal portion of the distal margin of 
this plate) is irregularly truncate, with a small mesal knoblike projec- 
tion, slightly longer than wide, and styles briefly distant on each side, 
of almost the same size and form as this projection. From within the 
plate, near this margin, spring aciculate, chitinous. somewhat decurved 
projections, which reach a short distance beyond the margin of the 
plate, projecting from the narrow channels between the styles and the 
small median projection of the distal margin. 



l6o ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Pronotum with disk very weakly raised, the whole surface in nearly 
the same plane; cephalic margin moderately truncate, weakly convex; 
angles broadly rounded, the cephalic more so than the caudal; caudal 
margin truncate, very weakly convex. 

Tegmina very delicate; with seven longitudinal discoidal sectors (this 
including the median vein, all its branches and the production of the 
ulnar vein); cross veinlets very weak; wings very delicate; six of the 
costal veins rather heavily clubbed distad, ulnar vein with four 
branches, intercalated triangle small, axillary vein with three branches 
which are directed away from the costal margin. 

Abdomen with dorsal surface little modified ; sixth segment more pro- 
duced than the others, with distal margin broadly and weakly convex 
lateral and broadly and more decidedly concave mesad; seventh segment 
somewhat narrower, with distal margin sinuous; eighth segment still 





Fig. i. Lateral outline of subgenital plate of Fig 2. Ventral outline of subgenital 

type. <f. (Greatly enlarged). plate of type. <f. (Greatly enlarged). 

narrower and normally almost completely concealed, broadly cleft 
mesad; ninth segment very much narrower, very little produced; 
tenth segment (supra-anal plate) distinctly transverse, triangularly 
weakly produced with blunt apex. Subgenital plate with lateral mar- 
gins weakly elevated and declivent distad forming small and narrow 
emarginations at their juncture with the mesal portion, within which 
emarginations are situated the styles which are minute almost micro- 
scopic pegs with apices acute; the remaining mesal portion of the plate 
is produced latero-distad in acute-angulate weakly divergent thin 
plates, the remaining very brief mesal portion of the margin between 
these transverse. 

Limbs very delicate with delicate spines; ventro-cephalic margin of 
cephalic femora with long, slender, widely spaced spines in a little more 
than proximal half, which slightly decrease in size distad, remaining 
distal portion with very much smaller and more closely set spines. 

Allotype: Same data as type. [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.] 

Agrees with male except in following features. Dorsal abdominal 
segments not differing greatly in outline, supra-anal plate very small, 
strongly transverse, weakly triangularly produced, with lateral margins 
weakly convex and apex briefly and very shallowly notched. Subgeni- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. l6l 

tal plate very large and strongly produced, in general form scoop- 
shaped; distal margin strongly convex latero-proximad, then nearly 
straight for a decidedly greater distance to broadly convex apex. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length of Length of Width of Length of Width of 

cfcf body pronotum pronotum legmen legmen 

TYPE 8.3 2.4 3-3 IO -7 3-i 

Paratypes (5) S.-9-3 2.3-2.4 3-2-3-3 io.-io.s 

Lincoln, Nebr 9.4 2.7 11.4 

99 

Allotype 8.5 2.6 3.4 102 

Paratvpes (5) 9-5-'-8 2.7-2.8 3-4-3-6 g-S-'O-S 

S. S. Tenadores (2) 10.10.2 2.9 3-7-3-8 11.1-11.3 3-4 

The specimens taken away from their native habitat were 
almost certainly from the east coast of Central America, those 
from the S. S. Tenadores were taken on at either Bocas del 
Toro, Panama, or Limon, Costa Rica. The measurements 
would indicate that the species on the Isla de Cocos averages 
somewhat smaller than material from the mainland. 

Coloration: General color warm buff*, lateral margins of 
pronotum and all of the tegmina clear translucent warm buff ; 
disk of pronotum antimony yellow, with a few slightly darker 
(buckthorn brown) markings and very few much darker 
(mummy brown) minute dots. Wings hyaline with a very 
slight iridescence, veins and distal cross-veinlets translucent 
very pale brown. Head warm buff with a very slightly darker 
diffused broad brown band ventrad between the eyes, a similar 
but much narrower band between the ocellar spots and on the 
face traces of two interrupted very narrow bands of the same 
shade. Abdomen buckthorn brown, ventrad with a large dif- 
fused dark brown marking proximad and with a dark brown 
dot laterad on each segment. Antennae and limbs warm buff. 

Specimens Examined: 15; 7 males, 8 females. 

Isla de Cocos, Costa Rica, January, 1902 (P. Biolley), 6 $ , 
6? , TYPE, allotype, paratypes, [A. N. S. P. and Hebard Cln.] 

Material adventive in United States. 5 

Lincoln, Nebraska, July 15 (introduced in bananas, prob- 
ably from Central America), i $ [Hebard Cln.]. 

S. S. Tenadores, en route New York, N. Y., to Jamaica, 
October 19, 1913 (Hebard; dead in hold), 2 9 f Hebard Cln.] 

4 These colors are all taken from Ridgway's Color Nomenclature. 

5 In these specimens the eyes are slightly wider and the abdominal 
colors slightly paler than in the typical series. 



l62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Additions to Insects of New Jersey, No. 4.* 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Mr. Raymond C. Osburn informs me that the genus Tubi- 
fera Meigen, 1800 (Dip.), has priority over Helophilus 
Meigen 1804, owing to the acceptance of the 1800 paper, so 
that all records under Helophilus in Smith's 1909 list should be 
placed under Tubifera. 

Gracilaria asaleae Busck recorded in Additions to Insects of 
New Jersey, No. 2 (Ent. News, vol. 26, p. 262), has been re- 
duced to a synonym of Gracilaria zachrysa Meyrick. 

To Mr. E. R. Sasscer and Mr. Rust I am indebted for the 
determination of certain scale insects and mealy bugs; to Mr. 

C. A. Frost for identifications made in the Coleoptera; to Mr. 
L. C. Bragg for the identification of Rhopalpsiphum lignstri 
Kalt., and to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn for the determination of the 
two species recorded in the Orthoptera. 

Inasmuch as it is convenient to have the references to the 
New Jersey fauna as complete as possible, attention is called 
to Additions to the New Jersey Tipiilidae (Diptcra}, by M. 

D. Leonard (Ent. News, vol. 24, p. 247), in which eleven spe- 
cies are recorded. 

Order MECOPTERA. 
Panorpa latipennis ,Hine. Hewitt, June 18 (Davis). (Bull. Brook. 

Soc. vol. 10, p. 109). 
Panorpa subfurcata West. Ramsey, June 23, Hewitt, June 18 

(Davis). (Bull. Brook. Soc. vol. 10, p. 110). 

Merope tuber Newman. Chester (Dickerson). (Bull. Brook. Soc. 
vol. 10, p. 111). 

Order THYSANURA. 

Achoreutes armatum Nicolet. The Mushroom Spring Tail. Occurs 
in mushroom cellars in New Jersey. 

Order NEUROPTERA. 

Conwentzia hageni Bks. Rutherford, May 30, bred from evergreens. 
E. L. Dickerson. 

Order HOMOPTERA. 

Cicada auletes German This should replace C. tuargiiiata Say of 
the 1909 list. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 23, p. 2) Davis. 

15 Nos. 1-3 were published in the NEWS as follows: xxvi, 101-107, 
March, 1915; 260-262, June, 1915; xxvii, 9-13, Jan., 1916. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 163 

Cicada pruinosa var. latifasciata Davis. Cape May County, Davis. 

This record should replace C. pruinosa Say in the 1909 list. (Jour. 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 23, p. 8) Davis. 

Livia vernalis Fitch. Trenton, July 2. E. L. Dickerson. 
Pachypsylla celtidis-mamma Riley. Makes leaf galls on Celtis. 

Riverton, June 25. E. L. Dickerson. 
Pemphigus ulmifusus Walsh. Elizabeth. Gall on leaf of Ulmus 

pubcsccns. H. B. Weiss. 
Aphis hederae Kalt. In greenhouses on English ivy. Not common. 

H. B. Weiss. 
Aphis houghtonensis Troop. Riverton, on gooseberry. T. J. 

Headlee. 
Aphis nerii Fonsc. In greenhouses on oleander. Not common. 

H. B. Weiss. 
Aphis rufomaculata Wils. Green aphis of chrysanthemum, in 

greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
Rhopalosiphum ligustri Kalt. Jersey City, July 15, on privet. H. B. 

Weiss and E. L. Dickerson. 
Macrosiphum sanborni Gill. Black aphis of chrysanthemum, in 

greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 

Myzus rosarum Kalt. On roses in greenhouses. H. B. Wjeiss. 
Aleyrodes mori Quaint, var. maculata Morr. Palmyra, August 6, 

on sweet gum. E. L. Dickerson. 
Pseudococcus kraunhiae Kuwana. Rutherford, July, 1915, on 

Taxus cuspidata. Evidently introduced from Japan. H. B. Weiss. 
Antonina crawi Ckll. On Bambusa hcnonis and B. aurea. Riverton, 

Aug. 6. Evidently introduced from Japan. H. B. Weiss. 
Eucalymnatus tessellatus Sign. On palms in greenhouses. H. B. 

Weiss. 

Coccus pseudohesperidum Ckll. Rutherford, South Orange, Sum- 
mit, in greenhouses on Cattleya orchids and other greenhouse 

plants. H. B. Weiss. 
Toumeyella pini King. Asbury Park, July 26, on pine. E. L. 

Dickerson and H. B. Weiss. 
Aulacaspis zamiae Morg. On Cycas rcvoluta in greenhouses. H. B. 

Weiss. 

Chrysomphalus rossi Mask. On orchids, rubber plants in green- 
houses. H. B. Weiss. 

Order HEMIPTERA (HETEROPTERA). 

Stephanitis pyrioides Scott (azalcae Horv.). Rutherford, Arlington, 
Palmyra, Riverton, Nutley and other parts of the state. August to 
November. Feeds on foliage of azaleas. Originally imported from 
Japan. H. B. Weiss & E. L. Dickerson. 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Sphaerobius quadristriata Barber. Lakehurst, July 4, Sept. 7 (Davis 
& Barber). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 19, p. 24). 

Jalysus multispinosus Ashm. Lakehurst (Barber). (Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc. vol. 19, p. 23). 

Pseudocnemodus canadensis Prov. Lakehurst, July 11 (Davis). 
(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 19, p. 26). 

Order ORTHOPTERA. 

Pycnoscelus surinamensis Linn. Rutherford, in greenhouses. H. B. 
Weiss. 

Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa Linn. Rutherford, May, June, July, August. 
Lives in burrows underground and cuts off the roots of various 
plants. The European mole cricket, introduced from Europe. 
H. B. Weiss. 

Order COLEOPTERA. 

Molamba fasciata Say. Tenafly, June 5, in bark of maple tree. 
H. O. Pond. 

Phaedon (Plagiodera Redt.) versicolor Laich. Arlington. Eliza- 
beth, Aug. 13, Irvington, July 28. Dickerson & Weiss. Adults 
and larvae destructive to the foliage of poplars and willows. 
This is the common P. armericac of Europe. 

Eugnamptus collaris Fab. var. fuscipes Pierce. Egg Harbor, June 
15. H. B. Weiss. 

Eugnamptus collaris Fab. var. nigripes Melsh. Egg Harbor, June 
15. H. B. Weiss. 

Magdalis barbicornis Latr. Burlington, May. H. B. Weiss. 

Ceutorhynchus affluentus Dietz. This should replace C. rapac Gyll. 
in the 1909 list as Mr. Dietz states that C. rapac so called is not the 
same as the Eureopean species of that name. C. A. Frost. 

Xyleborus saxeseni. Tuckahoe, Oct. 5, in dead sugar maple. T. J. 

Headlee. 

Order LEPIDOPTERA. 

Apatela (Acronycta) afflicta Grt. Passaic, Rutherford, July 2, at 

light. M. H. Mead. 

Hadena misera Grt. Rutherford, Aug. 3, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Baileya doubledayi Guen. Passaic, May, June, at light. M. M. 

Mead. 

Semiophora tenebrifera Wlk. Passaic, April 26. M. H. Mead. 
Noctua fennica Tausher. Passaic, July 2, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Euxoa redimicula Morr. Passaic, July 2.8, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Mamestra assimilis Morr. Rutherford, July, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Mamestra capsularis Guen. Passaic, May 27, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Xylina baileyi Grt. Passaic, Oct. 12, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Epiglaea pastillicans Morr. Lakehurst, Oct. 17. (Buchholz and 

Leramer). 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 165 

Orthosia lutosa Andrews. Passaic, June 30, at light. M. H. Mead. 

Parastichtis discivaria Wlk. Passaic, July 31, at light. M. M. Mead. 

Calymnia orina Guen. Passaic, July 13, at light. M. H. Mead. 

Bomolocha deceptalis Wlk. Passaic, July 26. M. H. Mead. 

Cissura spadix Cramer. Passaic, May 6, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Probably a visitor. 

Melalopha strigosa Grt. Passaic, May 29, at light. M. H. Mead. 

Schizura apicalis G. & R. Passaic, May 26, at light. M. H. Mead. 

Coenocalpe magnoliata Gn. Lake Hopatcong, July 15. Lemmer. 

Pinipestis zimmermanni Grt. Eatontown, Aug. 5. Larvae in ter- 
minal shoots of Austrian and other pines. H. B. Weiss. 

Eois demissaria Hbn. Elizabeth, Aug. 15. Lemmer. 

Orthofidonia exornata Wlk. Lyons Farms, April 29, May 2. Lem- 
mer. , 

Pero marmoratus Grossb. Irvington, Aug. 10. Lemmer. 

Plagodis fervidaria H. S. Passaic, April 28, May 3, at light. Mead. 

Plagodis alcoolaria Gn. Passaic, May 19, at light. Mead. 

Order HYMENOPTERA. 
Tenthredella nortoni Smulyan. New Jersey. (Canad. Ent. vol. 47, 

p. 321). 
Strongylogaster alboannulatus Rohwer. Brown's Mills Jc. Daecke. 

(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 43, p. 238). 
Pteronus hudsonii Dyar. Rutherford, Aug. 19, Trenton, Aug. 20. 

Larvae on poplar. H. B. Weiss. 
Acordulecera caryae Rohwer. Ft. Lee, larvae on new shoots of 

pignut hickory. Dyar. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 43, p. 248). 
Acordulecera nigritarsis Rohwer. Brown's Mills Jc., May 30, Roh- 
wer. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 43, p. 250). 
Acordulecera parva Rohwer. Ft. Lee, Sept. 3, larvae on young 

leaves of black oak. Dyar. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 43, p. 248). 
Acordulecera quercus Rohwer. Ft. Lee. Larvae on young leaves of 

black oak. Dyar. (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. 43, p. 251). 
Diastrophus fragariae Bt. Athenia, August, E. L. Dickerson. The 

strawberry leaf petiole gall maker. 
Spalangia muscidarum Richardson. Bred from pupae of Musca 

domestica at New Brunswick. C. H. Richardson. 

Order DIPTERA. 
Lasioptera corni Felt. Mountainville, Sept. 24. Dogwood leaf gall. 

On leaf of Cornus paniculata. H. B. Weiss. 
Neolasioptera perfoliata Felt. Mountainville, Sept. Boneset stem 

gall. H. B. Weiss. 



l66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Dasyneura parthenocissi Steb. Different parts of state. Midrib 
gall of Virginia creeper. H. B. Weiss. 

Hormomyia crataegifolia Felt. Kingston, Aug. 20. Cockscomb gall 
on Crataegus leaf. H. B. Weiss. 

Hormomyia verruca Walsh. Mountainville, Sept. 24. Gall on wil- 
low leaf. H. B. Weiss. 

Neocerata rhodophaga Coq. The rose midge. Found in green- 
houses. Maggots in leaf and flower buds of rose. H. B. Weiss. 

Phytophaga violicola Coq. The violet gall midge. Maggots curl 
leaves. Found in greenhouses. Not common. H. B. Weiss. 

Prosimulium hirtipes Fries. College Farm, May 10. C. H. Rich- 
ardson. 

Hydrophorus intentus Aid. Atlantic City, May 6. Johnson. (Psyche, 
April, 1911, p. 51). 

Eristab's arbustorum Linn. Palisade, Lakehurst, Ramsey (R. C. Os- 
burn), Fairlawn, Sewell (E. L. Dickerson). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. 
Soc. vol. 23,. p. 142). 

Eristalis latifrons Loew. Snake Hill, July 16 (Grossbeck). (Jour. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 23, p. 145). 

Hypostena tortricis Coq. Cliffwood. Endoparasitic upon larvae of 
Bellura obliqua. H. H. Brehme. 

Sarcophaga bullata Mans. College Farm, May 19, July 18. C. H. 
Richardson. 

Sarcophaga dalmatina Schiner. College Farm, Aug. 21. C. H. 
Richardson. 

Sarcophaga falculata Pand. College Farm, July 27. C. H. Richard- 
son. 

Sarcophaga scoparia Pand. College Farm, July 18. C. H. Richard- 
son. 

Sarcophaga utilis Aid. College Farm, May 25, Oct. 5. C. H. Rich- 
ardson. 

Ravinia communis Parker. College Farm, May 19 to Sept. 26. Also 
reared from cow and pig dung. C. H. Richardson. 

Ravinia latisetosa Parker. College Farm, May 19 to Aug. 7. Also 
reared from cow and pig dung. C. H. Richardson. 

Bottcheria latisterna Parker. College Farm, Sept. 28. C. H. Rich- 
ardson. 

Coquillettina plankii Walton. Pasadena, Aug. 8. Reared from 
grasshoppers. H. K. Plank. (Proc. Wash. Ent. Soc. vol. 17, 
p. 104). 

Leptocera (Limosina) ferruginata Steub. New Brunswick, July to 
Sept. C. H. Richardson. 

Lonchaea deutschi Zett. College Farm, July 22, Aug. 25. C. H. 
Richardson. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 167 

A new Cyanogomphus (Odonata). 
By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

(Plates VIII, IX) 

Three specimens of Cyanogomphus have been recorded. 
Each is the type of a new species. The genus was established 
by de Selys in 1873 (Trois. Add. Syn. Gomph.) for the new 
species ivalthcri, known from a single male from Rio Janeiro, 
Brazil. Its relationships with Epigomphus and Agriogowphus 
were discussed and analyzed for several characters. Perhaps 
the most striking single character of C. waltheri is the remark- 
able shape of the tenth abdominal segment where the lower 
posterior border is cut out with the resulting peculiar relative 
positions of the bases of the superior and inferior appendages. 

The second specimen was described by de Selys (Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg. xxxviii, 1894) as C. ? demcrarae. This specimen 
was from Demerara, British Guiana, and unfortunately lacked 
the last four abdominal segments. (The text is confusing on 
the extent of the injury ; at one place it is stated 7 segments 13 
mm.; at another the 5th-ioth segments lacking; in the text 6 
segments are described.) The anal triangle is 2-celled, and 
brief mention is made of the accessory genitalia. It is much 
smaller than C. waltheri and de Selys remarks, "C'est une des 
plus petites Gomphines connues," adding that it will be neces- 
sary to know the abdominal appendages before deciding cer- 
tainly that it belongs to the genus Cyanogomphus. 

The third specimen is a female from Atoyac in Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, described by Calvert (B. C. A.) as C? lumens. The 
specific name refers to a peculiar swelling on the rear of the 
head above, behind the eyes "the swollen portions continuous 
with the occiput and extending outward and downward along 
each posterior eye margin to about the level of the upper sur- 
face of the frons ; when the head is viewed from the side the 
point where the swelling ceases inferiorly is seen to coincide 
with a posteriorly directed obtuse angulation of the posterior 
eye margin." This character is not mentioned for de Selys' 
two species, though I believe it probably exists in both. In 



1 68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

lumens the most remarkable venational character, in the light 
of its probable relationship, is the relative position of the 
arculus and the proximal angle of the subtriangle in the 
front wings the arculus is widely basal to the proximal angle, 
and in the hind wings they are about on the same level (com- 
pare with wing venation in the two species figured in this 
paper.) This is the only reason I see for holding the generic 
position of the species in doubt. It has the distal side of the 
triangle of the front wing straight as described for d 
dcmerarae. 

Cyanogomphus conchinus* n. sp. (Plates viii. ix, figs. 1, 6-11). 

<J. Abdomen 32 mm.; hind wing 23.5 mm. 

Face greenish brown, labrum slightly paler and clearer green, brown- 
er at base, extreme lower edge black or dark brown; rhinarium 
browner, the nasus again lighter and the frons in front darker; genae 
brown. Frons above, vertex and occiput obscure reddish brown ; frons 
in front shaded greenish; antennae black; transverse keel posterior to 
lateral ocelli distinctly tri-lobed; occiput posteriorly straight, without a 
posterior keel or edge, but rounded off, with short scarcely discernible 
hair; occiput laterally on either side behind the eyes swollen as de- 
scribed by Calvert (B. C. A.) for lumens (see note above under that 
species). Rear of head reddish brown; labium dull yellow. 

Prothorax brown, markings if any obscure. 

Thorax robust ; above brown, on either side, starting at the antealar 
sinus, an obscure bluish stripe reaching about two-thirds the distance 
to the mesothoracic crest; its lower end just inside the upper end of a 
short yellow stripe which extends down on to the mesothoracic crest; 
a bluish or greenish obscure mesothoracic half-collar, divided at the 
middle and not joined, or if so very obscurely, with the yellow dorsal 
stripe at either extremity. An indistinct narrow pale bluish ante- 
humeral stripe which passes below on to the humeral suture; a very 
narrow and more obscured posthumeral stripe of the same color. 
Mesepimeron black or nearly so, obscurely pale yellow over a very re- 
stricted area above, and more extensively and clearer posteriorly be- 
low. Mesinfraepisternum nearly black, paler below. Metepisternum 
similar to mesepimeron, but yellow below more extensive and clearer; 
metinfraepisternum largely yellow, brown bordered. Metepimeron 
broadly brown along the second lateral suture, except above where the 
brown shades out into yellow which occupies the balance of the scler- 
ite. Beneath pale yellow. 

* Referring to the shell-like first hamules. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate VIII. 




CYANOGOMPHUS CONCHINUS, 1; C. WALTHERI, 2-5.-wii_LiAMSON. 



ENT NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate IX. 








CYANOGOMPHUS CONCHINUS-wiLLiAMSON. 



Vol. XXVll] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 169 

Abdomen slender; i yellow, light brown above to level of the auri- 
cles, except at the extreme base which is pale; 2 similar, dorsal pale 
brown narrower on anterior half of segment, extreme posterior border 
brown on the sides as well as above; 3 brown, fading out anteriorly 
into clear light yellow, especially on the sides which are nearly one- 
half the lighter color, while on the clorsum the brown, grown very pale, 
reaches the anterior border of the segment; 4-7 black, bright yellow at 
base of each segment, where it is very narrowly divided by black in the 
mid-dorsal line, this black line a narrowed continuation of the apical 
black which occupies two-thirds to three-fourths of each segment; the 
yellow and black encircle each segment; 8-10 dull obscure brown with- 
out definite markings, sides slightly paler, yellowish; 7 similarly paler 
basally; 8-10 dark at extreme apex. Superior appendages pale dull 
green, black beneath and basally; inferior black or dark brown. 

Stigma brown ; venation black. Femora brown, first pair greenish 
beneath, all alike armed with numerous short equal spines ; tibiae and 
tarsi black (right hind tibia and tarsus pale brown). First hamule and 
horizontal shaft of second hamule very pale brown or flesh colored, 
second hamule at the subapical elbow shading darker, becoming black 
at the apex. The hamules are both remarkable, but the first probably 
more so. It consists of a short cylindrical, truncated base, the inner 
side of which is produced in a large, thin, shell- or leaf-like expanded 
plate with its concave face directed outward, and its apex bilobed. 

Described from a single male in my collection, taken near 
Wismar, British Guiana, January 31, 1912. Between Wismar 
and Christianburg is a small stream flowing into the Demerara 
River and crossed by the footpath between the two towns. In 
the afternoon the backward flow of the river due to tides 
makes this stream almost unwadable near its mouth. We were 
attracted to this muddy, log-choked creek by the beautiful 
Diastatops dnnidiata which we found nowhere else. The 
banks of the creek are generally covered with impenetrable 
brush and the exposed margins are slippery and treacherous, 
due to the rise and fall of water over them. At places logs 
are piled so indiscriminately in the creek that progress is slow 
and difficult ; and at places the overhanging bushes completely 
shade the stream. While working through one of the log piles 
I flushed the only Cyanogomphus seen, which flew weakly to a 
bush on the bank, alighting on a leaf at an elevation of 10 or 
12 feet. The specimen is apparently young, though I believe 



17 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

fully colored, and has suffered an injury at emergence, by 
which the fifth segment is spread out flat and bent at a right 
angle. Apparently the body cavity is completely separated at 
this point. The injury will explain its weak flight. 

C. conchinus, as a comparison of the figures will show, has 
the peculiar characters of the genitalia and appendages of 
zvalthcri still more exaggerated. It is separated at once by 
these characters from zvalthcri. From dcmcrarac it is separ- 
ated at once, so far as I can judge from the description, by 
the sectors of the arculus less widely separated, by the convex 
distal side of the triangle of the front wings, and by the 3- 
celled, not 2-celled, anal triangle. There are some differences 
in the color of the abdomen, and the striking hamules of con- 
ch-inns could hardly have escaped de Selys' notice. From 
tumcns it is separated at once by the venational character 
mentioned above under tumcns the position of the arculus 
relative to the proximal angle of the subtriangle. C. dcme- 
rarae, hind wing 23, is a smaller species than zvaltheri, hind 
wing 27, and is separated from the latter by the anal triangle, 
2-celled in dcmerarac, 3-celled in zvaltheri. Apparently both 
are separated from tumcns by the closely approximated sec- 
tors of the arculus of tumens. 

In the figure of the wings of zvaltheri the cross-veil; shown 
in the supertriangle is undoubtedly not normally present. The 
brace vein at the stigma is less marked in conchinus than in 
zvaltheri; in zvaltheri the sectors of the arculus are widely 
separated at their origin, in conchinus they are still separated 
but are very close together; conchinus has the proximal angle 
of the subtriangle more basal, relative to the arculus, than 
zvaltheri, which in turn has it more basal than tumcns: in the 
number of distal rows of cells posterior to Cti2 in the front 
wings, tumens and conchinus are alike with 2 rows, walthcri 
has 3 rows; but in the hind wings zvaltheri and tumcns have 3 
rows, while conchinus has but 2; in zvaltheri there are 2 rows 
of postrigonal cells in the hind wings, and I row in tumcns and 
conchinus. 

The grand genre Gomphus of de Selys has long been a prob- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 71 

lem to taxonomists. De Selys in 1873, largely on the size and 
form of the male abdominal appendages, divided the asso- 
ciated genera into 2 major groups, the latter 'of which was di- 
vided into 5 subgroups, one of these being in turn divided into 

2 groups and one of these subdivided on geographical grounds. 
I believe that these groupings have litt.le basis in fact, but that 
two groups of real taxonomic value can probably be distin- 
guished on the basis of the number of cross-veins between Mi- 

3 and M4- In the larger number of genera the number is re- 
duced in the front wings and in the hind wings there is nor- 
mally only one, which is strengthened and definitely placed. 
In the remaining genera the number of these cross-veins is 
relatively larger (the complexity of venation must be taken 
into account), and in the hind wing there are always two or 
more, instead of one definitely placed cross-vein. These 
genera known to me are Macrogomplnis, Microgomphns, Lep- 
togoinpluis, Epigomphus, Cyanogomplins and Agriogomphus 

a group of striking and remarkable forms. Microgomphns 
and Agriogomphus have much in common, including the un- 
symmetrical forking of Mi-2 and M3, and the single row of 
cells in the anal area of the front wings ; in Microgomphus 
there are two rows of postrigonal cells, one row in Agriogom- 
phus. The remaining genera have a basal antenodal of the 
second series present in all wings. In only one, Cyanogom- 
phits, has the stigma a brace vein, at:tl in this genus alone the 
distal thickened antenodal is the fifth, being more distal in the 
others. In Epigomphns and Macrogomphiis there are two 
cubito-anal cross-veins in addition to the inner side of the sub- 
triangle. 

To summarize, the genus Cyanogomphus, as a member of 
the legion Gomphus, may be venationally defined briefly as 
follows: Cross-veins between Mi -3 and M4 numerous; stigma 
with a brace vein; M4 and Cui divergent; basal subcostal 
cross-vein of second series present ; one cubito-anal cross-vein 
in addition to the inner side of the subtriangle; anal area of 
front wing proximally one cell wide, distally two or three 
cells wide; three postanal cells in hind wing, distal to postanal 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

cells two or three rows wide, two rows of postrigonal cells in 
front wing, one or two in hind wing; distal thickened ante- 
nodal the fifth ; anal angle well developed in the male, the tri- 
angle 2- or 3-celled (the venation of C? dcmcrarae known to 
me only from de Selys' brief description). 

The figures of C. waltheri have been prepared for me by 
M. Menger at Bruxelles through the good offices of Dr. F. Ris. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES VIII AND IX. 
All the figures are of males. 

1. Wings of Cyanogomphus conchinus, n. sp. 

2. Wings of Cyanogomphus ivalthcri. 

3 and 4. Abdominal segment 10 and appendages, in profile and dor- 
sal views, of C. Ti'althcri. 

5. Abdominal segment 2, in profile, of C. zvalthcri. 

6. Diagram of thoracic color pattern of C. conchinus. n. sp. 

7. Abdominal segment 2, in profile, of C. conchinus, n. sp. 

8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and appendages, in profile, of C. 

conchinus, n. sp. 

9 and 10. Dorsal and ventral views of abdominal appendages of C. 
conchinus, n. sp. Notice in fig. 10 the curved basal projections of 
the superior appendages which overlap the broadened base of the 
inferior ; apparently the only way in which the superiors can be 
released is by a wide spreading in the dorso-ventral direction of 
the superiors above and the inferior below. 
u. Tarsal claw of C. conchimis, n. sp. 



Prof. Herbert Osborn Research Professor, Ohio State University. 

The Ohio State University has recently inaugurated a plan providing 
for Research Professorships which enables the holders to devote their 
time especially to research work, and Professor Herbert Osborn has 
been elected Research Professor in the Department of Zoology and 
Entomology. He will be relieved from routine, class and department 
duties, devoting his time to researches, especially in the line of Entomol- 
ogy, but will continue to have direction of research work of graduate 
students in his particular field. 

Notice of Disposal of Manuscripts, etc. 

Manuscripts and originals of figures which have been published in 
the NEWS during recent years and galley proofs of the same to and 
including the number for December, 1915, will soon be disposed of. 
Any one desiring any of these manuscripts, drawings or proofs may- 
have such on application to the Editor, 4515 Regent St., Philadelphia, 
before June i, 1916, if postage for transmission be enclosed. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 173 

Some new Species of Athysanus and Related Genera 

(Homoptera). 
By E. D. BALL, Logan, Utah. 

In working with the leaf hoppers the writer has found that 
the species are as a rule either confined to a single plant or else 
to a group of closely related plants. The few exceptions to 
this rule include many of our most injurious species. These 
forms being able to change from one plant to another are not 
restricted in location or season. Fortunately for us the num- 
ber of these polyphagous forms is very small compared with 
the total number of leaf hoppers. Some of our most injuri- 
ous species are on the other hand very restricted in their food 
habits. The grape leaf hoppers and beet leaf hoppers are ex- 
amples of the latter class. The beet leaf hopper is a striking 
example of a rare and almost unknown insect becoming a seri- 
ous pest under the influence of civilization. This insect is a 
native of the alkali deserts of the Southwest and was unknown 
until 1895. Soon after this, sugar beet raising was introduced 
into the region and this insect quickly transferred its affections 
from the desert plants of the beet family to the beets them- 
selves, causing losses running into the millions of dollars in 
favorable seasons. 

The writer is attempting to work out the food plants of all 
the leaf hoppers of the Western region, and in doing so has 
discovered a number of new forms that must be named before 
they can be included in the list. 

The types of these new species are in the writer's collection. 

Athysanus calvatus n. sp. 

9. Resembling symphoricarpae, but with a broader and much more 
inflated vertex and front. Straw color. Length 5 mm. 

Vertex distinctly broader than in symphoricarpae, the apex obtusely 
roundly inflated, about two-thirds the length of the pronotum ; front 
very broad, much inflated, the margins only slightly narrowing until 
just before the apex, where they are abruptly constricted to the clypeus. 
As seen in profile the apex of the front is distinctly above the clypeus 
and bulges so' that it meets the rounding vertex margin at almost a 
right angle. Elytra rather long, venation simple, as in raccinii, often 
an extra nervure or two on clavus to the suture and occasionally an 
extra cell in the outer anteapical, apical cells long. Female segment 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

moderately long, the outer angles prominent, the posterior margin with 
a slight median production, margins usually dark-marked. 

Color: vertex bright straw, or lemon yellow, a pair of angular black 
spots well back of the ocelli and a pair of smaller ones behind these 
near the base, occasionally a trace of transverse brown band on disc. 
Face bright straw, sutures dark and occasionally a trace of brownish 
arcs on front and a pair of spots near apex. Pronotum all clear straw 
or dirty straw with the anterior light margin set off by dark spots. 
Elytra pale subhyaline straw, the nervures inclined to be lighter. 

Described from four females from Logan and Richfield, 
Utah, collected by the writer. The inflated shining front and 
vertex gives this insect a distinctly "bald-headed" appearance, 
which is its most distinctive character. 

Athysanus shastus n. sp. 

Size and form of rams, nearly resembling striatulus in pattern, bul 
with fewer markings. Stout, rusty straw with darker margins. Length 
4.5-5 mm. 

Vertex broad slightly roundly right-angled, with the apex narrowly 
acutely produced, three-fourths the length of the pronotum. Front 
broad not inflated, narrowing regularly into the broad clypeus. Face in 
profile almost flat, acutely angled with the vertex. Pronotum long, the 
anterior margin curving deeply into head. Elytra very broad and ex- 
tending well beyond the pygofers, broadly rounding behind with short 
apical cells. Venation strong, resembling arctostaphyll, but with a large 
number of irregular cross nervures on clavus and occasional super- 
numerary cells in the outer anteapicals, second cross-nervure often 
present. Female segment broad, moderately long, truncate, the apical 
angles slightly produced, pygofers very short strongly angularly in- 
flated. Male plates together spoon-shaped, narrowed apically. 

Color: vertex dirty straw, a transverse black band just back of 
ocelli, another just before this broken forward in the middle, both bands 
inclined to be emphasized at the end and against a narrow median line 
which bisects them; occasionally nothing is left but these enlarge- 
ments. Front black with a triangle at apex and short arcs straw color. 
The rest of face straw color with sutures and an oval spot on clypeus 
dark. Pronotum rusty straw, darkening posteriorly to a dusky cloud 
on disc, anterior submargin with a few irregular black marks. Elytra 
smoky subhyaline, the nervures light, very narrowly lined with fuscous, 
emphasized in the smaller cells. 

Described from two females and two males from Dunsmuir, 
California, collected by the writer. The broad form with short 
inflated pygofers renders this distinct species somewhat of a 
connecting link between the obsolctus and striatulus groups. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. 175 

Athysanus escalantus n. sp. 

$ . Resembling simplarius, but much shorter and stouter, straw col- 
ored. The vertex margin with a black line above and below. Length 
4 mm. 

Vertex twice wider than long, margins almost parallel, disc flat, an- 
terior margin between the dark lines broadly rounding to the flat, re- 
treating front. Front rather narrow, wedge-shaped, margin continu- 
ous with the clypeus margin. Pronotum scarcely longer than vertex, 
distinctly narrower than the head with eyes. Elytra broad and short, 
just equalling the pygofers, narrowing apically. Venation deltocepha- 
loid, the central apical cell elongate, slightly constricted, apical cells 
short. Female segment short, apparently truncate. 

Color: vertex straw yellow, a spot on each side against the eye and 
just back of the margin, a pair of elongate, partly coalescing spots in- 
side these on each side, forming a slightly interrupted sub-marginal 
black band. Pronotum and scutellum soiled straw color. Elytra pale 
greenish subhyaline showing the rusty straw of the dorsum set off by 
two round black spots on the pygofers. Face straw yellow, slightly 
tawny, a narrow dark line under the vertex margin with a black spot 
just below and against each eye. 

Described from a single female taken at Richfield, Utah, by 
the writer. In its broad head this species resembles parallelns 
and its allies, but in other characters it is distinctly allied to 
osborni. 

Athysanus lassus n. sp. 

Resembling scxvittatus in size and form. Brown and white with 
a pair of large, round, black spots on each of vertex, pronotum and 
scutellum. Length 4 trim. 

Vertex obtusely angled, the apex rounding, shorter than sexvittatus, 
only a little longer on middle than against eyes, two-thirds the length 
of the pronotum, slightly acutely angulate with the front, the margin 
blunt. Front broader than in sc.vi'ittatus, margins slightly rounding 
but continuous with those of clypeus. Elytra equalling or slightly 
exceeding pygofers, nearly parallel-margined, flaring. Venation delto- 
cephaloid, the central anteapical slightly constricted, sometimes divided, 
but not extending much beyond the adjacent cells. Female segment 
short, lateral angles rounding, posterior margin excavated with a 
broad, short, median tooth. 'Male plates broad at base obtusely tri- 
angular, the apices acutely produced. 

Color: vertex creamy, a pair of round black dots just back of the 
apex, a pair of large round black spots on the margin between the 
dots and the ocelli, sometimes another pair of black dots behind the 
first and often traces of brown stripes towards the base. Pronotum 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

milky, a pair of large, round, black spots on the anterior margin 
behind the two on vertex, usually two pairs of brown stripes, the 
inner pair arising some distance behind the eyes and curving slightly 
to join the inner pair just over a pair of black spots on the scutellum 
partly hidden by the pronotum. Elytra milky, an indistinct brown 
stripe on each clavus and usually two on the corium omitting the 
veins. 

Described from two females and two males from Quincey, 
California, collected by the writer. The three pairs of black 
spots will at once distinguish this species. 

Platymetopius compactus n. sp. 

9 . Resembling abruptus and nasutus but broader, with the short 
vertex of a brcvis. Broad, short, dark above and below. Length 4.5 
mm. 

Vertex scarcely longer but somewhat narrower than in brcrls, form- 
ing a slightly sharper angle, length slightly more than the basal width, 
about equalling the pronotum, angle with the face about as in brcrls, 
the face in profile almost straight. Elytra broad and rather short, 
venation normal except that the fourth apical cell is extremely wide, 
due partly to the first reflexed veinlet being placed far forward and 
partly to the extremely narrow base of the third apical which appears 
to be cut off by a dark marking to form a small circular cell. Female 
segment very short and almost truncate, disc slightly convex with the 
posterior margin raised, giving a concave effect. 

Color-pattern of nasutus nearly, vertex heavily irrorate with fuscous, 
omitting a transverse light band before the eyes narrower and more 
uniform than in nasutus, and an ivory spot at apex. Pronotum paler, 
irregularly irrorate with fuscous, omitting the anterior margin. Scutel- 
lum irrorate with fuscous, omitting a pair of spots on disc and 
the apical margin. Elytra milky, nervures and coarse vermiculations 
dark, the reflexed ones margined with black. A dark irrorate cloud on 
clavus and in the apical cells, omitting two pairs of round spots along 
the sutural margin, the first apical cell, a round spot at the base of 
the other apicals and one in each end of the anteapicals as well as the 
costal margin before the middle of the fourth apical. Whole face 
heavily irrorate with brownish fuscous, omitting a narrow margin 
against the vertex and a triangle below the apex. Below dark except 
the disc of female segment. 

Described from a single female taken at Dunsmtiir, Califor- 
nia, by the writer. The short vertex and wide apical cells will 
separate this from any other species. 

(to be continued) 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., APRIL, 1916. 

How many languages must an Entomologist know? 

It would seem to one who lays no claims to successful pre- 
diction or seership that the present European conflict will re- 
tard progress toward internationalism, cosmopolitanism, the 
adoption of a universal language, the Parliament of Man. It 
will continue the effects alleged to have been caused when the 
Tower of Babel was checked in its upward growth and will in- 
tensify the use of its peculiar tongue by each of the many tribes 
inhabiting this terrestrial ball. We were never especially at- 
tracted by Esperanto and similar artificial dialects and evident- 
ly entomologists must make up their minds that they must, 
individually or by proxy, enlarge their acquaintance with Euro- 
pean and Asiatic languages. We are moved to these reflections 
by the recent receipt of an installment of a large and ambitious 
monograph on the Odonata of Russia and neighboring coun- 
tries, whose scope, in spite of the title, appears to be wide 
enough to include the description of a new species from Ohio 
in six lines of Latin and forty-four lines of Russian, follow- 
ed by twenty-one lines of comparative notes, also in Russian. 
To be sure there are two figures of details, -but 

We blame neither the Russians nor the Japanese for using 
their own vernaculars ; we do the same. But the languages of 
science are a heavy burden to us whose memories balk at the 
acquisition of words utterly unlike those of western Europe in 

form and spelling. 



A Dipterous Larva Parasitic in Earthworms. 

At the meeting of the Biological Society of Washington, Dec. 4, 
1915, Dr. L. O. Howard called attention to the cluster-fly (Pollcnia 
rudis), an insect resembling the house-fly hut collecting in houses in 
autumn and leaving a yellow stain when crushed. Its life history was 
unknown until recently a foreign entomologist has shown that the 
larvae are parasitic in earthworms in France. Dr. Howard is having 
large numbers of earthworms examined for such larvae, but so far 
without success. He hoped that anyone finding any grub parasitic in 
earthworms would communicate with him. (Science, March 3, 1916, 
P- 330). 

177 



178 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Notes and News. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL GLEANINGS FROM ALL QUARTERS 
OF THE GLOBE. 

New Muscoid Genera (Dip.). 

The characters of the following new genera are given in a paper 

which has been submitted for publication, but which will be consider- 
ably delayed : 

Myocerops gen. nov. Genotype, Musca carhnfrons Fall. Europe. 

Sumichrastia gen, nov. Genotype, Hystrichodcxia anrca Gig.-Tos 
Mexico. 

Pilatea gen. nov. Genotype, Masicera celer Coq. Louisiana. 

Masiceropsis gen. nov. Genotype, Masicera pauciseta Coq. So. Cali- 
fornia. 

Cnephalogonia gen. nov. Genotype, Gonia distincta H. E. Smith- 
Connecticut. 

Dichoceropsis gen. nov. Genotype, Dichoccra oricntalis Coq. Mass- 
achusetts. 

Megistogastropsis gen. nov. Genotype, Megistogaster wallacci BB. 
East Indies. 

Pseudoservillia gen nov. Genotype, Echinomyia flavopilosa Big. 
Java. 

Sericotachina gen. nov. Genotype, Paratachina vulpecula Wulp W. 
Java. 

Eutheropsis gen. nov. Genotype, Euthcra mannii Mik So. Europe. 

Gerocyptera gen. nov. Genotype, Trichoprosopa marginalis Walk. 
Amboyna. 

CHARLES H. T. TOWNSEND, Washington, D. C. 

What the House Fly Did. 

Last year our class in Zoology began a campaign against the fly. 
We started out with the idea that advertising would be our main means 
of getting the campaign started, and we were right, for very soon the 
campaign seemed to fairly take care of itself. Students from the class 
made speeches before all the Patrons' Clubs in the city during the 
month of February. One of our prominent daily papers promised to 
print everything we handed in on the subject. The class working to- 
gether wrote weekly articles that were spicy and interesting. These 
attracted such attention that other papers demanded articles on the 
house fly. An insurance company requested that they be allowed to 
print pictorial posters on the subject, and that these be distributed 
about the city. The Electric Company asked to be allowed to give 
away fly swatters. One of the local theatres presented moving pic- 
tures of the fly, especially for the school children. Later the various 
clubs of the city asked to be represented in the movement. Finally a 
federation of clubs was formed to make this campaign an annual event. 
Rut right here is where disaster came to the enterprise, for the work 
of last year at least. Two factions arose, each demanding that certain 
officers be elected and certain policies be carried out. The feeling wax- 
ed so strong that when officers were finally elected, and policies were 
finally presented, everyone was far too angry to carry out anything. 
This smacks somewhat of other campaigns in our national affairs where 
very little is accomplished for thr i-eiu-ral good. This all goes to show 
that even though the teacher interests the parents most keenly, the 
parents are harder to work with than the children. NETTIE COOK in 
School Science and Mathematics, xv, 146. February, 1915. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 179 

The Unusual Prevalence of Ground Beetles (Harpalus) During the 
Summer of 1913, at Ashland, Ohio. (Col.). 

While in Ashland, Ohio, during the summer of 1913, the writer ob- 
served that there was a rather unusual number of the common ground 
beetles, mainly Harpalus pennsylvanicus and its near relatives, and a 
few specimens of what appeared to be Diplochila major, to be found 
under stones, bark, etc., in the surrounding country. Small stones 
would frequently hide a dozen or more, often representing one insect 
to every two square inches of ground covered by the stone. Unusual 
frequency in the city of Ashland was not noted until about a week 
after this observation; then one evening about the first of August, 
swarms of the insects appeared around the arc-lamps in the business 
part of the city, and during the following two evenings spread to the 
other sections. The house at which the writer was staying was about 
a quarter of a mile from a wooded patch of a few acres, and about 
seventy-five feet from an arc-lamp, the latter being the last one out in 
the direction of the woods. On the second evening of prevalence the 
insects struck this section of the city, and the arc-lamp near the house 
was the center of a swarm. The side of the house illuminated most 
strongly by the arc had hundreds of the beetles running over it, and for 
perhaps an hour the sound of them alighting on the walls, floor and 
tin roof of the front porch was suggestive of rain or scattered hail. 
Parties out for automobile rides were forced to return on account of 
the inconvenience produced by the number of beetles flying about. The 
writer attempted to walk up the road toward the wooded path (going 
away from the arc-lamp), but the insects were encountered in such 
numbers coming toward the arc, that after going only a few hundred 
feet and extracting several beetles from his hair and collar, he decided 
that discretion was the better part of valor, and returned to the house. 

After the third evening of unusual prevalence, the number of these 
beetles seemed to diminish rather suddenly, and while quite common, 
they did not appear in excessive numbers during the rest of the writ- 
er's stay, to August I7th. It is reported that the insects were very 
plentiful also in the Pittsburgh district about the same time. The only 
unusual condition which seems to have prevailed in the places where 
these swarms were noted, was the heavy rains and following floods in 
March previous; the Ohio district had also had a very heavy rain and 
flood on the I3th of July, previous. That the flood conditions should 
admit of an abnormal number of these insects coming to maturity does 
not seem probable, or at least the connection is not very clear at this 
time. The writer was again in this town during about the same period 
of 1915, but there was nothing resembling what had occurred during 
1913, nor was there any report of similar conditions during 1914. The 
summer season of 1915 was very rainy in this locality. 

F. ALEX. McDERMorr, Washington, D. C. 



l8o ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

The Biota of Nantucket. 

For a number of years past Mr. Eugene P. Bicknell has been publish- 
ing in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club a series of papers on 
the vascular plants of Nantucket, in which he has brought out a num- 
ber of very interesting facts. Intensive study has not only yielded 
much of interest in connection with distribution, but has brought to 
light a number of new species, belonging to such genera as Amclan- 
chicr, Ilex, etc., conspicuous members of any Flora. It can hardly be 
doubted that a similar study of the animals, and particularly the in- 
sects, would yield like results. Sorting over some material which 1 
collected on Nantucket several years ago, I found some species which 
it may be worth while to record. 

Hymenoptera (bees): Halictus capitosus Smith, 9, smaller than 
usual; H. pilosus Smith, 9. 

Neuroptera: Chrysopa harrisi Fitch, det. Banks. 

Araneina (Spiders, all very kindly determined by Mr. N. Banks) : 
Epcira pratcnsis Hentz, E. triznttata Keys., Zilla atrica Koch, Plectana 
stcllata Hentz, Theridium frondcum Hentz, Ccratinclla emcrtoni Cam- 
bridge, Agclcna naevia Walck., Clubiona sp., juv., Xysticus triguttatus 
Keys., Phidippus podagrosus Hentz. T. D. A. COCKEREI.L, Boulder, 
Colorado. 

The Cactus-feeding Volucellines (Dip.). 

South Coronado Island (Lower California) is extensively overgrown 
with cactus, apparently Opuntia littoralis. When my wife and I visited 
the island on Aug. 21, we found what appeared to be a single variable 
species of Volucelline fly very abundant. Several were collected, and 
on examination prove to represent two genera and species, namely 
Volucclla ainda O. S. and Copestylum marginatum Say. At Boulder, 
Colorado, July 19, I collected a superficially similar insect (more like 
the Copestylum than V. avida) at flowers of Helianthus annuus; this is 
Volucclla fasciata Mcq., a variety with dark reddish antennae. On 
looking up the literature, I find that all these three insects feed in the 
larval state on cacti. They form a peculiar group, and in all respects 
appear to be closely related, except for the extraordinary antennse of 
Copestylum. The latter genus surely evolved from Volucella, but who 
can say how the change came about, or what purpose it serves ? There 
was, so far as we know, no change in habits. One is reminded of cer- 
tain strange modifications of the antennae of chrysomelid beetles, pro- 
duced by Professor Tower under experimental conditions at Chicago, 
and wholly without functional significance, so far as we can learn. One 
of the females of V. avidd from S. Coronado is quite small, no larger 
than V . fasciata. 

The Atriplcx bushes on S. Coronado carried many galls, doubtless 
belonging to Asphondylia atriplicis Twns., as no difference was appar- 
ent. T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 






Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



181 



Proportion of the Sexes in Uloborus geniculatus Walck., with a 
Few Notes (Arach., Aran.). 

The collections tabulated below were made in a single dwelling house 
in Nelson (Cairns), Queensland, Australia. The sex in the young is 
recognizable after one or two molts, but the very young were ignored. 
The individuals were killed after being recorded. 





MALE 


FEMALE 


Dates 


Adult 


Young 


Total 


Adult 


Young 


Total 


April 26, 1913 


17 


22 


89 


49 


19 


68 


Mayl, 


10 


19 


35 


58 


28 


86 


May 20, " 


4 


3 


7 


10 


9 


19 


May 23, " 


8 


25 


33 


15 


58 


73 


June 2, 




3 


3 




8 


8 


Sept. 27, " 


10 


5 


15 


6 


31 


37 


Oct. 14, " 


13 


3 


16 


55 


42 


97 


Dec. 8, 


1 




1 


10 


11 


21 


" 22, " 


1 




1 


4 


5 


9 


" 27, " 


1 


3 


4 


3 


2 


5 


May 5, 1914 


1 


1 


2 


5 


1 


6 


" 23, " 


3 


12 


15 


13 


22 


35 


Totals 


75 


96 


171 


228 


236 


464 



Out of 635 individuals 171 were males, or about 27 per cent., less than 
a third. In 303 adults, 75 or about 24 per cent, were males ; 96 males 
occurred in 332 young, or 28 per cent. Males appear to be more num- 
erous when young. 

I haven't any notion how mating occurs with this species, but the 
sexes from an early age inhabit separate nests and the males being less 
numerous, cannot be wasted. The males differ in coloration, but on ac- 
count of their scarcity, wastage in sexual selection would seem poor 
economy. Yet, one selected male might fertilize many females and 
more than offset any wastage. 

The egg-sacs of this species are of a lilac color and star-shaped, one 
side flat, the other conically raised centrally into a blunt cone or nipple. 
There may be from five to eight points to these star-shaped sacs and 
s< line of the points are occasionally bifid at apex. When just hatched 
the young spiders are white, with lilac abdomens. The young escape 
from the sac through a single hole. The eggs are white, gradually 
turning to lilac when the embryo is perfect. All females do not make 
their egg-sacs alike, for in one nest three sacs were found bearing 
6, 7 and 8 points, respectively. 

The young can live considerable periods without food. Six of them 
isolated from birth lived 20, 23, 30 and 34 clays. Six others lived in 
this manner, 27, 29 and 32 days. Two adult females taken when feeding 
and kept without food, lived slightly over a month. The egg stage is 
about eleven days (one case). A. A. GIRAULT, Washington, D. C. 



1 82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

Note on use of antennae in Collops vittatus. (Col.: Malachiidae). 

Dr. George H. Horn described* the structure of the curiously modi- 
fied second (or as he says really the third) segment of the antennae in 
males of the genus Collops in 1870, and assumed their function to be 
grasping the female antenna during copulation. Another use to 
which they certainly are put appears from an incident observed 
by the writer on Plummer's Island, Maryland, on July 7, 1912. 
A male and female of Collops vittatus (Say) were found on a leaf 
over the surface of which they advanced and retreated, constantly 
maintaining a head-to-head contact. Upon close inspection, it was 
seen that the female had her mandibles widely spread and that the tips 
of them rested in depressions in the anterior surfaces of the modified 
antennal joints of the male, the antennae of the latter being held 
straight out in front and approximately parallel. If one of the pair re- 
treated, the other followed, preserving the relation of the parts as de- 
scribed. They were also observed to separate and to resume the same 
posture. This behavior probably is a mating ceremony, and may per- 
haps be properly regarded as a Collopid soul-kiss. W. L. McAxEE, 
Washington, D. C. 

Additional Iowa Pentatomoidea (Hem., Heter.). 

During the past two years the writer has indicated from time to 
time some Pentatomids that have not before been recorded within the 
borders of the State. As a partial result of collecting done during 
the past summer the following additions to the State fauna may be 
given at this time. 

Cydnus obliquns Uhler. This fine Cydnid, which commonly occurs 
in the western States and which has recently (1910) been recorded 
from Nebraska by Zimmer, was found in some numbers in a sand area 
near the Iowa River, two miles north of Iowa City. All the speci- 
mens collected were found among the roots of a Rush Grass, Sporo- 
bolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray, which grows in considerable abund- 
ance in this small uncultivated area. In two instances, four individuals 
were found about the roots of a single plant, but usually not more than 
one or two were found under one plant. None of the bugs were ob- 
served on the open sand. On May 31 a pair of these bugs was found in 
copula. Thirty-six specimens are at hand, collected in May and No- 
vember. 

Euschistus tristigmns var. pyrrhoccrus H. S. This variety seems 
much less common than the typical tristigmits Say. Five Iowa speci- 
mens, collected in August and November at Iowa City and Solon, are 
at hand. The specimens collected in August were taken on wild rasp- 
berry ; those in November from under dried leaves. All five speci- 
mens have the antennae entirely pale, the humeri spinose and average 
somewhat smaller than tristigmus. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Ill, p. 80, June, 1870. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 183 

Prionosoma podopioidcs Uhler. Two specimens of this western 
species have been taken in Iowa. One was collected in June at Ft. 
Madison, near the extreme southeastern corner of the State. The im- 
mediate region bordered a wooded area and was somewhat sandy and 
overgrown with rank weeds. Later in the season, October, a second 
specimen was found under the leaves of a mullein plant in a cultivated 
sand area near Iowa City. DAYTON STONER, State University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, la. 



Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 
The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered in 
the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of systematic papers are all grouped at the end of each 
Order of which they treat, and are separated from the rest by a da^h. 

Unless mentioned in the title, the number of new species or forms are 
given at end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record. 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. 

For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series B. 

1 Proceedings, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia. 2 Transactions, American Entomological Society, Philadel- 
phia. 3 -The American Naturalist. 4 The Canadian Entomologist. 
5 Psyche. 8 The Entomologists's Monthly Magazine, London. 
9 The Entomologist, London. 11 Annals and Magazine of Nat- 
ural History, London. 12 Comptes Rendus, L'Academie des 
Sciences, Paris. 13 Comptes Rendus, Societe de Biologic, Paris. 
16- Bulletin, Societe Nationale d'Acclimation de France, Paris. 
18 Ottawa Naturalist. 37 Le Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 68 
Science, New York. 153 Bulletin, The American Museum of 
Natural History, New York. 166 Internationale Entomologische 
Zeitschrift, Guben. 179 Journal of Economic Entomology. 195 
Bulletin, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge. 200 Bul- 
letin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique, Paris. 216 Ento- 
mologische Zeitschrift, Frankfurt a. Main. 267 Memorias, Real 
Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, Madrid. 285 Nature 
Study Review, Ithaca, N. Y. 313 Bulletin of Entomological Re- 
search, London. 336 Board of Agriculture, Trinidad. 344 U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 394 Parasitology, 
Cambridge, England. 401 Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

in the British Museum, London. 411 Bulletin, The Brooklyn En- 
tomological Society. 447 Journal of Agricultural Research, Wash- 
ington. 479 Washington University Studies, St. Louis. 522 
Association Francaise pour I'Avancement des Sciences. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Bagnall, R. S. A note on Mr. Walsh's 
observations on the survival, etc., of insects, 8, 1915, 267. Blaisdell, 
F. E. Minutes of meetings of Pacific Coast Entomological Soci- 
ety, 12 pp. Herrick, C. W. The need of a broad, liberal training 
for an economic entomologist, 179, ix, 15-23. Loyer, M. L'Expo- 
sition internationale d'insectes vivants, de poissons. . . ., 16, 1915, 
355-65. Russell, F. W. Obituary notice, 5, 1916, 25. Webster, F. 
M. Obituary by S. A. Forbes, 179, ix, 239-41. Zukowsky, B. In- 
sekten und bliiten, 166, ix, 119-20. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Dehorne, A. Sur les 
chromosomes de "Corethra plumicornis" (Dipteres Nemocere), 
522, 1914, 527-9. Fernandez-Nonidez, J. Los cromosomas goniales 
y las mitosis de maduracion en Blaps lusitanica y B. Waltli, 267, 
x, 149-87. Lecaillon, A. Sur la ponte des oeufs non fecondes et 
sur la parthenogenese du Bombyxae du murier (Bombyx mori), 
12, clxii, 234-6. Wenrich, D. H. The spermatogenesis of Phryno- 
tettix magnus, with special reference to synapsis and the individu- 
ality of the chromosomes, 195, Ix, 57-133. 

MEDICAL. Shircore, T. O. A note on some helminthic dis- 
eases with special reference to the house fly as a natural carrier of 
the ova, 394, viii, 239-43. Townsend, C. H. T. Recent questioning 
of the transmission of Verruga by Phlebotomus, 313, vi, 409-11. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Cummings, B. F. Note on the thorax in 
Anoplura and in the genus Nesiotinus of the Mallophaga, 11, xvii, 
171-4. Dow, R. P. The weaver of the web, 411, 1911, 6-10. 

Nuttall, G. H. F. Relating to the genus Ixodes and including 
a description of three n. sps. and two van, 394, viii, 294-337. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Howe, R. H., Jr.-A preliminary list of 
the Odonata of Concord, Mass., 5, 1916, 12-15. Patch, E. M. A 
Psyllid gall of Juncus (Livia maculipennis), 5, 1916, 21-2. Snyder, 
T. E. Termites, or "white ants," in the U. S.; their damage, and 
methods of prevention, 344, Bui. 333. 

ORTHOPTERA. Urich, F. W. Locusts or grasshoppers, 336, 
Bui. XIV, 120-28. 

Rehn & Hebard Studies in American Tettigoniidae, VII. A re- 
vision of the species of the genus Atlanticus (Decticinae) [l new], 
2, xlii, 33-100. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 185 

HEMIPTERA. Baker & Turner Morphology and biology of 
the green apple aphis, 447, v, 955-93. Leonard, M. D. The imma- 
ture stages of Tropidosteptes cardinalis (Capsidae), 5, xxiii, 1-3. 
Paddock, F. B. Observations on the turnip louse (Aphis pseudo- 
brassicae), 179, ix, 67-71. Parker, J. R. The western wheat aphis 
(Brachycolus tritici), 179, ix, 182-7. Patch, E. M. Concerning 
problems in aphid ecology, 179, ix, 44-51. Rosen, H. R. The de- 
velopment of the Phylloxera vastatrix leaf gall, 68, xliii, 216-7. 
Weiss, H. B. The Coccidae of New Jersey green-houses, 5, 1916, 
22-4. Whitmarsh, R. D. Life-history notes on Apaleticus cynicus 
and maculiventris, 179, ix, 51-3. 

Abbott, J. F. A biological reconnaissance of the Okefeenokee 
swamp in Georgia. The Corixidae [4 n. sps.], 479, ii, 81-6. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Ainslie, G. G. Notes on Crambids, 179, ix, 
115-119. Briggs, F. J. Means of expansion of wings of L., 9, 1916, 
38-39. Brittain & Gooderham An insect enemy of the parsnip 
(Depressaria heracliana), 4, 1916, 37-41. Felt, E. P. Climate and 
variations in the habits of the codling moth, 179, ix, 107-110. 
Gerould, J. H. Mimicry in butterflies, 3, 1, 184-192. Hoffmann, F. 
Das ei von Vanessa antiopa, 216, xxix, 86. Keith, E. D. The 
dance of the ghost moth (Hepialus argenteomaculatus), 411, 1916, 
21-2. Meder, O. Gibt es geschlechtsunterschiede bei schmetter- 
lingseiern, 166, ix, 118-119. 

French, G. H. A n. sp. of Catocala, 4, 1916, 72. Hampson, G. H. 
Catalogue of the Amatidae and Arctiadae (Nolinae and Litho- 
sianae) in coll. of Br. Mus., 401, Suppl. Vol. I, 858 pp. Wolley Dod, 
F. H. Noctuid notes from western Canada, with descriptions of 
two n. sps. and a variety, 4, 1916, 58-70. 

DIPTERA. Fitzsimons, F. W. The house fly: a slayer of men, 
89 pp. (Longmans, Green & Co.). Guppy, P. L. Breeding and 
colonizing the Syrphid, 336, Bui. xiii, 217-26. Hodge, C. F. Con- 
trol of flies as a nature study problem, 285, 1916, 79-95. Hyslop, 
J. A. The host of Zelia vertebrata (Dexiidae), 5, 1916, 24-5. Keilin, 
D. Recherches sur les larves de dipteres cyclorhaphes, 200, xlix, 
25-198. Lagendre, J. Sur un nouveau mode de transport des 
larves de moustiques, 13, Ixxix, 26-7. Schoene, W. J. The econom- 
ic status of the seed-corn maggot (Pegomya fusciceps); Notes 
on the biology of P. brassicae, 179, ix, 131-3; 136-9. 

Alexander, C. P. New or little-known crane-flies from the U. S. 
and Canada: Part 2 [many species], 1, 1915, 458-514. New nearctic 
crane-flies (Tipulidae) [ll new], 4, 1916, 42-53. A biological recon- 
naissance of the Okefeenokee swamp in Georgia. The Tipulidae 



1 86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

[1 n. sp.], 479, ii, 97-8. Cresson, E. T., Jr. Studies in American 
Ephydridae. 1. Revision of the species of the genus Paralimna, 2, 
xlii, 101-124. Lutz, A. Commissao de Linpas Telegraphicas Estra- 
tegicao de Matto Grosso ao Amazonas. Annexe No. 5. Hist. Nat. 
Zool. Tabanideos, 9 pp. Malloch, J. R. A new gen. & sp. of 
Helomyzidae, 411, 1916, 14-16. Townsend, C. H. T. New and note- 
worthy Brazilian Muscoidea collected by H. H. Smith, 153, xxxv, 
15-22. Van Duzee, M. C. A biological reconnaissance of the 
Okefeenokee swamp region in Georgia. The Dolichopodidae [5 n. 
sps.], 479, ii, 87-96. 

COLEOPTERA. Davis, A. The genus Pleocoma, 411, 1916, 
11-12. Dow, R. P. Note on Psenocerus supernotatus, 411, 1916, 20. 
Germain, F. Buprestidae known to occur in the Ottawa district, 
18, xxix, 129-30. Histerides captures a Ottawa et dans les environs, 
37, xlii, 103-5. Hayes, W. P. A study of the life-history of the 
maize bill-bug (Sphenophorus maidis), 179, ix, 120-130. Herrick, 
G. W. Observations on the life history of the cherry leaf beetle, 
447, v, 943-9. Hyslop, J. A. Prothetely in the Elaterid genus Me- 
lanotus, 5, 1916, 3-6. Johnson & Ballinger Life history studies of 
the Colorado potato beetle, 447, v, 917-25. Lameere, A. Les car- 
acteres sexuels secondaires des Prionides, 200, xlix, 1-14. Walsh, 
G. B. Observations on some of the causes determining the survival 
and extinction of insects with special reference to the C. (cont.), 
8, 1915, 257-61. Sell, R. A. A migration of beetles, 285, 1916, 55-6. 

Casey, T. L. A new sp. of Baryodma, 4, 1916, 70-1. Fall, H. C. 
-Three new C. from Washington state, 411, 1916, 13-14. Hyslop, 
J. A. Elateridae and Throscidae of the Stanford University expe- 
dition of 1911 to Brazil, 5, 1916, 16-21. Leng, C. W. A list of the 
families of C. in America north of Mexico, 411, 1916, 1-5. 

HYMENOPTERA. de la Baume-Pluvinel, G. Sur les formes 
larvaires de certains Hymenopteres parasites internes des larves 
de Dipteres, 522, 1914, 510-14. Howard, L. O. Eurther notes on 
Frospaltella berlesei, 179, ix, 179-81. McColloch & Hays A pre- 
liminary report on the life economy of Solenopsis molesta, 179, 
ix, 23-38. Wheeler, W. M. [Review of] British ants, their life- 
history and classification by Donisthorpe, 68, xliii, 316-18. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. The bees of the Coronado Islands [3 new], 
4, 1916, 54-58. Two new bees from New Jersey, 411, 1916, 11. 
Gaige, F. M. The Eormicidae of Charity Island, Lake Huron, 507, 
No. 5, 29 pp. Wheeler, W. M. Ants collected in British Guiana 
by the expedition of the American Museum of Natural History 
during 1911, 153, xxxv, 1-14. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 87 

Doings of Societies. 

American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of December I3th, 1915, at the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia. Seven persons present. Dr. Philip P. Calvert, President, 
in the chair. 

The annual reports of the Treasurer, Librarian, Curator and Corres- 
ponding Secretary were read and ordered filed. 

The death of Charles Kerremans, a corresponding member, was an- 
nounced. 

A new Agreement with the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia was adopted and the President and Recording Secretary auth- 
orized to sign the same. It was voted that House of Representatives 
bill no. 528, to discontinue the use of the Fahrenheit scale thermometer 
in Government publications, be endorsed. Dr. Witmer Stone was 
proposed for membership in the Society. Mr. R. C. Williams, Jr., and 
Prof. Clarence E. McClung were elected members. 

The following were elected officers for the ensuing year : Presi- 
dent, Henry Skinner; Vice President, J. A. G. Rehn; Treasurer, E. T. 
Cresson; Curator, Henry Skinner; Corresponding Scc'y, Morgan Heb- 
ard; Recording Scc'y, R. C. Williams, Jr.; Librarian, E. T. Cresson, Jr. 
Executive Committee, Philip Laurent, D. M. Castle and H. W. Wen- 
zel; Finance Committee, J. A. G. Rehn, D. M. Castle and Morgan 
Hebard ; Publication Committee, J. A. G. Rehn, E. T. Cresson and P. 
P. Calvert. HENRY SKINNER, Recording Sec'y. 



Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of December 15, 1915, at the home of H. \V. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart St., Philadelphia. Ten members present; Pres. H. A. Wenzel 
in the chair. 

Coleoptera Mr. H. W. Wenzel said it was surprising that a very 
large insect could remain in collections for years wrongly identified but 
such is the case with what we have known as Cotinis mutabilis Gory. 
Col. Casey, in his Memoirs, vi, has pointed out that this species never 
reaches as far north as the United States and our form is really two 
species which he describes as new: ariconica with narrow yellow mar- 
gin and texana with half yellow elytra. 

Adjourned to the annex. 



Meeting of January 19, 1916, at the same place. Eleven members 
present; Pres. Wenzel in the chair. 

The present officers were re-elected to serve for 1916. 

Coleoptera Mr. Daecke exhibited a specimen of Soronia ulkei 
LeC. from Rockville, Pennsylvania, v-i4-'n. Mr. Wenzel has a speci- 
men from the District of Columbia and H. A. Wenzel has collected it 



iSS ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

at Tybee Island, Georgia. There are several records from New Jersey 
Ins. N. J., p. 273, 1910. Mr. H. W. Wenzel said the only specimen he 
had seen of Buprcstis conncxa Horn was the type in the Horn Collec- 
tion, but recently he had received a specimen labeled Corvallis, Ore- 
gon, collected by G. F. Moznetti ; this was exhibited. 

Hymenoptera and Coleoptera Mr. Kaeber exhibited Liopus 
fascicularis Harr. bred from sumac collected at Clifton, Delaware 
County, Pennsylvania, v-23-'i5. The Liopus began emerging May 27 
and continued to about June 2. The first parasite noticed was on June 
2 and continued emerging for about one week. Of all the specimens 
reared about 15 per cent, were parasites; these were identified by Mr. 
Rohwer as Capitonius ashmcadii D. T. 

Adjourned to the annex. 

GEO. M. GREENE, Sec'y 



Chicago Entomological Club. 

Meeting of December 19, 1915, at home of Charles Krueger. Fifteen 
members present. 

Coleopterists had as a subject the families Endomychidae and 
Erotylidae. Notable among local captures reported were Rhymbus 
minor Crotch, Rhaitis unicolor Ziegl., Phymaphora pulchella Newm., 
Mycctina perpulchra Newm., Stcnotarsus tcstaccus Ziegl., Langura 
uhlerii Horn, Mycotrctus sanguinipcnnis Say and Tritoma mimctica 
Crotch. Mr. A. B. Wolcott also exhibited the type of Symbiotes duryi 
Blatchley, described in 1910 in The Coleoptera of Indiana. The same 
species was later re-described as new by Mr. L. B. Walton in The Ohio 
Naturalist, Vol. XII, p. 463 (Feb. 1912) under the same name, giving 
locality as Gambier, Ohio, and making no mention of the real type lo- 
cality, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Lepidopterists had the Notodontidae as a subject, local captures 
reported (other than Datana and Melalopha) being as follows: 

Apatelodes torrefacta Schizura ipomoeae 

angelica telifer 

Hypcracschra stragula cinereofrons 

gcorgica (rare) semirufcscens 

Odontosia elegans unicornis 

Notodonta simplaria (i A. Kwiat) badia 

Pheosia dimidiata Icptinoidcs (rare) 

Lophodonta angulosa Hyparpa.v aurora 

Nadata gibbosa Centra multiscripta (i E. Beer) 
Nerice bidcntata occidcntalis 

Symmcrista albifrons Harpyia borcalis (rare) 
Hctcrocampa obliqua cincrea 

biundata scolopendrina (rare) 

guttivitta Fentonia marthcsia (i A. Kwiat) 

bilineata Gluphysia septentrionalis 

lanassa lignicolor Ellidia caniplaga 



Vol. XXviij ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 189 

'Meeting of January 16, 1916, at home of Mr. Frank Psota. Sixteen 
members present. 

Coleopterists reported 44 species of Histeridae as having been 
taken locally. Mr. Wolcott showed the type of Saprinus illinoiscnsis 
and also a gigantic species of the same genus, the description of which, 
he stated, will soon appear. 

Lepidopterists exhibited their specimens of Liparidae and allied 
species, local captures reported being as follows : 

Habrosyne rcctangula Malacosoina.amcricana 
Pseudothyatira cytnatophoroides disstria 

expultrix Heteropacha rileyana (C. Krueger) 

Orgyia leucostigma Gastropacha amcricana 

Parorgyia playiata (Fox Lake, V.udcUlnca hcnniniata 

Illinois. A. Kwiat) Greta rosca 
Tolype velleda marginata 

lands (Millers, Indiana. irrorata (2 A. Kwiat) 

E. Liljeblad) Drcpana arcnata 

gcnicula 

A. KWIAT, Secretary. 



Newark Entomological Society. 

Meetings held in Newark, New Jersey, Public Library, December 12, 
1915, and January 9, 1916. Pres. Buchholz in chair; average attendance, 
ii members. At the December meeting, the following officers for 1916 
were elected: Pres., Otto Buchholz; Vicc-Pres., Henry H. Brehme; Sec., 
H. B. Weiss; Fin. Sec.. T. D. Mayfield ; Trcas., G. J. Keller; Librarian, 
Louis Doerfel; Curator. Chas. Rummel ; Trustee, Geo. Stortz. At the 
January meeting, Mr. Herman H. Brehme read a paper on Collecting 
at Morgan, New Jersey, during 1915. 

Lepidoptera At the December meeting, Mr. Rummel exhibited 
Lycaena pseudargiolus (ladon Cram.) taken May 14 and the forms 
hicia Kirby, marginata Edw., violacea Edw., taken from April 16 to 
July, and also Nonagria oblonga Grt., all from__Mxiatclai r > New Jersey. 
At the January meeting, Mr. Lemmer recorded the following captures 
in New Jersey; Glaca inulta Irvington, Oct. 21; Epiglaca pastillicans 
Morr., Lakehurst, Oct. 17, (Buchholz and Lemmer) ; E. trcmula Harv., 
Lakehurst, Oct. 17, (Buchholz and Lemmer); E. apiata Grt.. Lakehurst, 
Oct. 18; Cocnocalpc magnoliata Gn., Lake Hopatcong, July 15; Eois 
demissaria Hbn., Elizabeth, Aug. 15; Orthofidonia exornata Wlk., Ly- 
ons Farms, April 29, May 2; Pero marmoratus Grossb., Irvington, Aug. 
10; Hamochlodcs frltillaria Gn., Irvington, July 27, Aug. 12. Mr. Weist 
exhibited Japanese postal cards decorated with Colias hyale L., Radena 
I'ulgaris Butl., and Jnnonia lemonias L., the color and markings having 
been transferred perfectly to the cards. 

Hemiptera Mr. Weiss exhibited specimens of Stephanitis 



I9O ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

pyrioides Scott (azalcac Horv.) which is firmly established in different 
parts of New Jersey and which feeds on the foliage of hardy azaleas, 
this species having been introduced from Japan; also Lcptoypha muti- 
ca Say which was taken in large numbers while feeding on the fringe 
plant during the past summer at Hammonton, New Jersey. This spe- 
cies is recorded as rare in Smith's list. 

HARRY B. WEISS, Rec. Secretary. 



A New Entomological Club. 

Editor of Entomological News: I wish to call to your attention the 
formation of the "Boston Entomological Club." Meetings are held on 
the second and fourth Tuesdays of each month at 8 o'clock P. M. at 
the home of Prof. William Reiff, 366 Arborway, Jamaica Plain, Massa- 
chusetts. Although an entomological club we are especially interested 
in the collection of Lepidoptera. Entomologists visiting Boston will be 
welcomed at the Club meetings. At the annual meeting the following 
were elected officers for the coming year : Rudolph C. B. Bartsch, pres- 
ident ; W. F. Eastman, vice president ; E. F. Knight, secretary ; H. J. 
Law, treasurer; Prof. William Reiff, superintendent of sales; Ernst 
Grebner and Nathaniel Stowers, members at large. E. F. KNIGHT, 
Secretary, g Fairfield St., North Cambridge, Mass. 



The New Ecological Society of America. 

A meeting of ecologists was held at Hotel Hartman, Columbus, 
Ohio. December 28, 1915, under the chairmanship of Prof. J. W. Harsh- 
berger, for the purpose of considering the organization of an ecologi- 
cal society. About fifty persons were present, nearly all of whom 
were enthusiastically in favor of forming such a society. Over fifty 
others who could not be present had notified the Secretary of their in- 
terest in the movement. In view of these facts it was definitely voted 
to organize under the name The Ecological Society of America. The 
new society has an initial membership of more than one hundred bot- 
anists and zoologists interested in ecology. The constitution adopted 
declares that membership "shall consist of persons interested in ecol- 
ogy," that an annual meeting and field meetings shall be held and fixes 
the annual dues at $1.00. The officers chosen were President, Prof. V. 
E. Shelford, University of Illinois; rice-President, Prof. W. M. 
Wheeler, Harvard University; Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. Forrest 
Shreve, Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. 

The charter membership has been doubled since the Columbus meet- 
ing, and there is every prospect for an active and influential organiza- 
tion. The roster of names indicates that the collective interests of the 
society will be of the broadest character, embracing every phase of the 
relation of organisms to their environmental conditions. The Ecologi- 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

cal Society represents the union and co-operation of men who are in- 
terested in animal and plant material, in marine and terrestrial organ- 
isms, in the broader floristic and faunistic problems, and in the precise 
experimental study of organisms or the exact measurement of environ- 
mental conditions. Such an organization will be able to do much 
toward emphasizing fundamental problems of general ecology, and 
toward placing this science in a position correlative with that of gen- 
eral physiology. 

The constitution admits of great freedom with regard to the holding 
of field meetings, and it would be difficult to overestimate the value 
that they may be made to possess. There will be an added stimulus to 
travel, there will be profit for every ecologist in seeing new regions 
under the guidance of men who know them well, and there will be 
profit for the science of ecology if the students of plants and animals 
can unite frequently for a consideration of the biota as an indivisible 
unit. 

There will be a field meeting at Chicago in June, under the leader- 
ship of Dr. H. C. Cowles ; one on the Pacific Coast in August, probably 
at San Diego. The Secretary will give early announcement of the de- 
tails of these and of any others that may be initiated by different 
groups of members. The first regular annual meeting will be held in 
New York during the next Convocation week. 

The Secretary is gathering information from the members as to their 
past ecological work and that in progress, their specialties, their willing- 
ness to undertake identification of material, their knowledge of various 
geographical areas and kindred topics, all to be published as a Hand- 
book of the Society. 

The membership of all interested in ecological work is desired. 

[From circulars issued by the Secretary, Dr. FORREST SHREVE, Tuc- 
son, Arizona; temporary address, 2753 Maryland Ave., Baltimore, Md.] 



OBITUARY. 

Miss ADELE MARION FIEI.DE died in Seattle, Washington, 
February 24, 1916. Born in East Rodman, New York, March 
30, 1839, ar >d graduated from a New York State Normal School 
in i8fa>, she taught in her native State for some years and 
then went out as a Baptist missionary, first to Siam in 1866, 
and later to China, especially in Swatow. Having become 
deeply interested in the theory of evolution she returned to 
America in 1883 and, at the suggestion of Dr. David Starr 
Jordan, pursued studies in biology in Philadelphia, especially 



IQ2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [April, 'l6 

at the Academy of Natural Sciences. Here she made the ac- 
quaintance of Dr. Edward J. Nolan, librarian of the Academy, 
who has paid a warm tribute to her memory in the columns of 
the Philadelphia Public Ledger for February 28, 1916. Dr. 
Nolan relates that it was Miss Fielde's desire for work in 
biology that led to the foundation of the Biological Department 
of the University of Pennsylvania, although she never became 
a student therein. 

She returned to China in September, 1885, but in October, 
1892, engaged in science teaching in New York and studied 
and lectured during the summers of 1900-07 at Wood's Hole 
These years witnessed her chief entomological work on the 
senses, activities and behavior of ants. She set forth the view 
that "the antennae of the ant are a pair of compound noses, 
certain segments having each a special function," restating it 
in a paper On certain vesicles found in the integument of ants 
in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia for January, 19*5, accompanied by a list of twen- 
ty-three papers which she had published, chiefly in the same 
Proceedings and in The Biological Bulletin, on this group of 
insects. Her interest in the olfactory sense developed by these 
researches is to be seen in two other short papers in the Pro- 
ceedings for 1915, one concerning dogs, the other entitled A 
new hypothesis concerning butterflies. 

These were not Miss Fielde's only contribution to entomolo- 
gy, however, for during her second period of residence in China 
she addressed to the Academy brief communications on the 
preparation of Fishing lines from the Silk-Glands of Lepidop- 
terous Larvae by the Chinese (Proceedings, 1886, pp. 298-9), 
On an Aquatic Larva [Hydropsy chef} and its Case (1887, pp. 
293-4), An Aquatic Insect, or Insect-Larva having jointed dor- 
sal appendages (1888, pp. 129-130, plate viii) and On an Insect- 
Larva Habitation (I. c., pp. 176-177), all recording observa- 
tions made at Swatow. 



Correction. ENT. NEWS, vol. xxvi, p. 445, I3th line from bottom, 
for "1892" read "1852." 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHMITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough around the front 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of the front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in Hddition to being abso- 
lutely dust, moth and dermesles proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos- 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42 in. high, 13 in deep, 18? 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameJed green outside. For details of Dr. S v ' 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological News, Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabin*' 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside lined with cork ; the outside enar- 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are 9 x 13x24 in. deep, r-- 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. We do not assert that this w- 

ties of the metal box, especially in regard to safety fro**" .iip- 

ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened - makes 

a box, we think, superior to any other wood ; cork lined. 

Outside varnished. For catalogue and pric> 



BROCK BROS., Harvard 



Bridge, Mass. 



WARO'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE. ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Go.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for oar special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 189O 

When Writing I'leaae Mention " Entomological News." 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, fi.oo ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $r.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 



all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

t^~ The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, 
15 cents ; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, vO cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper, 30 characters or less. 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 

C. V. BLACKBURN, 13 PINK STREET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate X. 







DR. FREDERICK DUCANE GODMAN. 

FOUNDER AND EDITOR OF THE 'BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AVERICANA. 1 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



MAY, 1916. 



No. 5. 



CONTENTS: 



The Completion of a Great Work 193 

Ferris Cervophthirius crassicornis 

( N.) (Anoplura) 197 

Malloch Triphleps insidiosus Say 

Sucking Blood ( Hem., Het. ) 200 

Felt Gall Midges of Certain Chenopo- 

diaceae ( Dip. ) 201 

Malloch A Hermaphrodite of Andrena 

cressoni Robt. ( Hym.) 203 

Ball Some new Species of Athysanus 

and Related Genera ( Homop. ) . . . . 204 
Cockerel! Some Neotropical Parasitic 

Bees (Hym.) 208 

Skinner The Genus Parnassius in 

America ( Lep. ) 210 

Townsend Description of Two New 

Tachinids (Dip.) 217 

Hebard Certain Features Found in 

the Genus Panchlora, with other 

Observations and the Description 



of one new Species (Orthoptera, 
Blattidae) 217 

Girault Descriptions Hymenoptero- 
rum Chalcidoidicorum Variorum 
cum Observationibus. Ill 223 

Kwiat Collecting Papaipemae (Lep.) 228 

Parker Tribolium confusum Duval as 
a Museum Pest (Col.) 234 

Somes Eleodes tricostatus Say in Mis- 
souri ( Col. ) 234 

Editorial The Biologia Centrali- 
Americana 235 

Parker Rearing of Winthemia quad- 
ripustulata from Rhynchophorous 
Larva (Dip., Col.) 236 

Leonard A Tachinid Parasite Reared 
from an Adult Capsid (Dip., Horn.) 236 

Buchanan Homophoeta 1 us trans 
Crotch in Iowa ( Coleop. ) 236 

Entomological Literature 237 

Obituary Theodore Pergande 240 



The Completion of a Great Work. 

(Plates X, XI.) 

In the News for November, 1915, page 422, the appearance 
of the Introductory (and final) volume of the Biologia Cen- 
trali- Americana* was announced in a quotation from The 
Times Literary Supplement of London and we then expressed 
the hope of presenting a more extended notice of the Introduc- 
tion at a later date. 

The News for December, 1905 (vol. xvi, pp. 317-322) gave 
a notice of the Biologia as a whole in the state to which it had 
then arrived: fifty completed and eight incompleted volumes. 
Other notes on progress made have appeared from time to 

* Biologia Centrali-Americana, Zoology, Botany and Archaeology. 
Edited by Frederick Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin, M. A., F. R. S. 
Introductory Volume. By Frederick. Ducane Godman, D. C. L,., F. R. S. 
1915. 4to. Pp. viii, 149. 2 pis. 8 maps. 



193 



194 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

time in this journal, and may be found by consulting the an- 
nual indices. 

In our notice of 1905 (/. c., p. 322) we quoted an an- 
nouncement from the paper covers of the original parts in 
which the Biologia was published: "The Editors will give at 
the conclusion of the Work an Introductory Volume, wherein 
the physical features of the country will be described and 
illustrated with maps." We continued: "Mr. Champion in- 
forms us, however, that this has become doubtful, owing to 
the death of Mr. Salvin." Fortunately the doubt has cleared 
away and the volume before us is a realization of the Editors' 
hopes. 

The contents of this Introductory Volume are as follows : 
A preface (pp. vii-viii), and the Introduction proper (1-86) 
by Dr. Godman. Resumes on the Origin, etc., of the Fauna 
and Flora of Central America by R. I. Pocock for the Mam- 
malia, Arachnida Opiliones and Acari excepted , Chilo- 
poda, Diplopoda and Prototracheata (87-104, 118-144), by 
C. Tate Regan for the Reptilia, Batrachia and Pisces (105- 
117) and by W. B. Hemsley for the Plants (145-149). 

The first twelve pages of the Introduction are largely auto- 
biographical and recount the early life of both editors, their 
meeting as students at Cambridge, their visits to Central 
America and to Mexico, the inception of the Biologia and 
some details of the manner in which the materials on which 
it is based were brought together and worked out. Salvin and 
Godman were very close contemporaries, the former born in 
1835, the latter in January, 1834. Salvin visited Guatemala, 
British Honduras and Panama in 1857-58, 1859-60, 1861-63 and 
1873-4. Godman accompanied Salvin on the trip of 1861 and 
went through Mexico from El Paso to Yucatan in 1887-1888. 
By their own exertions and those of collectors whom they em- 
ployed, the two associates brought together in London "a very 
large amount of material especially among the birds and in- 
sects" from both Central and South America. Yet Dr. God- 
man tells us: "It was not until the year 1876 that it was sug- 
gested that the Biologia should be undertaken, and three years 
later (September, 1879) the first part appeared." 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

Our method of publication was to bring out six quarto parts a year; 
each part to contain twelve sheets made up of various subjects with 
six colored plates, the plates and letterpress so numbered and paged 
that the parts might ultimately be broken up and bound together in 
their respective volumes when completed. In this way it was possible 
to keep several subjects in progress at once, and the plan answered 
well. We were, however, unable to adhere to the original scheme of 
completing the work in 60 parts, owing to the ever increasing amount 
of material received from our collectors an amount so great that 215 
Parts of Zoology alone have been required, the dates of issue ex- 
tending over a period of 36 years. Even now some families of in- 
sects, the Crustacea, &c., have not been dealt with though this is 
chiefly attributable to the fact that no experts on these subjects were 
available. 

On arrival in England, the various consignments were opened, every 
specimen labelled, with its exact locality, and the name of the collector 
attached. The animals sent were then sorted into their respec- 
tive orders and families and as occasion offered, handed over to spe- 
cialists to be worked out. It was obviously impossible that we could 
undertake every subject, but the birds and the butterflies we set aside 
for our own share of the work. The names of the various authors 
who kindly helped us will be a sufficient indication of our good fortune 
in securing the services of so many eminent men all of whom joined 
the enterprise with great spirit (p. 8). 

For several years after my return from Mexico [in 1888] , Salvin 
and I continued diligently to work out the material on hand and the 
ever-increasing amount sent over by our collectors. Salvin's failing 
health finally obliged him to relax his efforts, and though he still came 
to London as formerly, he was unable to take the same active part in 
the work and the difficulty of concentrating his attention on any one 
subject became increasingly great. He died suddenly at Hawks fold, 
Fernhurst, Sussex, June 1st, 1898, leaving me alone to complete the 
Biologia. 

The severance of a friendship such as ours had been for forty-four 
years was a terrible blow to me, for we were more intimately con- 
nected than most brothers, and, besides the personal loss, I missed his 
knowledge and experience in all things connected with our book 
(p. 10). 

Plates I and II, portraits of Dr. Goclman and of Salvin 
respectively, illustrate this highly interesting personal portion 
of the Introduction. 

Pages 13 to 43 are concerned with the "Physical Features, 
etc., of the Area treated," based mainly on the observations of 



196 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

the Editors and their collectors although including descrip- 
tions from other (but by no means all available) sources. 
Pages 44-45 briefly enumerate the "Sources from whence our 
material was obtained" ; pp. 46-54, "Itinerary of Mr. G. C. 
Champion's travels in Central America, 1879-1883," much of 
which appeared first in the NEWS for February, 1907 (vol. 
xviii, pp. 33-44). A "List" and "Analysis of Contents of 
each" of the 51 volumes on Zoology, 5 on Botany and 5 on 
Archaeology, which constitute this vast undertaking, fill pages 
55 to 86. 

In the Preface, dated June, 1915, Dr. Godman remarks: 

It had been our intention at the termination of the work, and after 
a careful study of the Zoological and Botanical material accumulated 
from this hitherto little known but exceedingly rich country, to have 
summarized the result and discussed its bearing on the interesting sub- 
ject of geographical distribution. Salvin's death after a long illness, 
and my own advancing years and ill-health, compelled me to abandon 
this project, and I should have been obliged to content myself with the 
conclusions arrived at by the various contributors in their respective 
Introductions had it not been for the assistance of Messrs. R. I. Po- 
cock and C. Tate Regan [whose essays are cited above] As re- 
gards the Insecta generally, which occupy such a large portion of the 
work, so little is as yet known of the fauna of other tropical regions 
that no satisfactory comparison can be made. 

Of special interest to entomologists is the fact that of the 51 
volumes of Zoology, 4 are devoted to Arachnida, i to Myrio- 
poda and 38 to Insecta (18 Coleoptera, 3 Hymenoptera, 7 
Lepidoptera, 3 Diptera, 4 Rhynchota, i Neuroptera, 2 Orthop- 
tera). All the insects from Mexico and Central America and 
the Editors' collections of butterflies have been presented to 
the British Museum. "Our own general collection of butter- 
flies probably included nearly 100,000 specimens and the 
beetles alone from Mexico and Central America perhaps 
double that number." The other insects, as presented up to 
1906, were estimated as 17,525 Diptera, 10,000 Hymenoptera, 
5543 Heteroptera. Subsequent gifts include 3000 Odonata, 
5500 Homoptera, 6293 un worked parasitic Hymenoptera 
(p. 12). 

The eight maps with which the Introductory volume ter- 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XI. 




OSBERT SALVIN, 

1835-1898. 
FOUNDER AND EDITOR OF THE 'BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA. ' 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

minates comprise (i) a key map and (2) an orographical 
rriap of Mexico and Central America, on a scale of i : 
12,000,000 (i inch - : 189 statute miles), five (3-7) maps of 
portions of this area on a scale of i : 3,000,000 (i inch - : 47.35 
stat. mi.) and (8) a map of part of Guatemala showing Mr. 
Champion's route 1879-1881 (i inch 15.5 stat. mi.), all 
beautifully executed. 

This Introductory Volume is dedicated "To My Beloved 
Wife, Alice Mary Godman, who has taken the deepest interest 
and given me much assistance and sympathy in the completion 
of this work/' and special acknowledgment is made in the 
preface to Mr. G. C. Champion and Mr. A. Cant for "valuable 
assistance" and "very important help." 



Cervophthirius crassicornis (N.) (Anoplura). 

By G. F. FERRIS, Stanford University, California. 

Through the kindness of Professor W. B. Herms, of the 
University of California, the Department of Entomology of 
Stanford University has recently received some specimens of 
an Anopluran from the black-tailed deer, Odocoileus colum- 
biainis, taken at Laytonville, Mendocino County, California. 
I regard the species as identical with one Hacmatopimis cras- 
sicornis N., which has previously been recorded only from 
Cervus claphns, the "noble stag," of Europe, the last record 
being that of Giebel in Insecta Episoa (1874). The rediscov- 
ery of the species in North America being a matter of some 
interest, I had prepared a short paper for publication and was 
on the point of sending this to press when there came to hand 
a paper which necessitates an entire readjustment of my own. 

The description and figure given by Giebel leave much to be 
desired, but there are certain peculiarities about the species 
that could not well be overlooked and the identification is rea- 
sonably certain. The species has nothing to do with Hacmato- 
pinns and I regard it merely as a rather peculiar member of 
the genus Linognathns. However, Mjoberg (Entomologisk 
Tidskrift, Vol. 36, pt. 2-4, p. 282, Dec., 1915) has established 



198 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[May, '16 



a genus, which he calls Cervophthirius, for a very closely re- 
lated, if indeed not the same, species taken from Cervus tar- 
andus in Sweden. 

This genus differs from Linognathus only in the sharp pos- 
terior-lateral angles of the head and in the presence of but one 
row of hairs on each abdominal segment. I have available for 
study six species of Linognathus and have concluded from 




Female. ( Drawing made from specimen 
which has been cleared in caustic potash.) 



Cervophthirius crassicornis (N.). 

(Above) Genitalia of male. Only the 
more heavily chitinized parts are shown. 
(Below) Genitalia of female. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 1 99 

these, and from the illustrations of others, that the number of 
rows of hairs on the segments of the abdomen is hardly a suit- 
able character upon which to Split up this genus, in fact the 
knowledge of the genus is at present so slight that any attempt 
to divide it is likely to lead only to confusion. The new genus 
having been established, however, may be retained. 

In his description of the new genus and species, Mjoberg 
compared them with Solcnopotes capillatus Enderlein, a genus 
and species from Bos taurus, which were obviously based upon 
immature specimens. I have at hand an immature specimen 
of Linognathus vituli L., which in general appearance and in 
the chaetotaxy of head and abdomen agrees very closely with 
the description and figure of 5\ capillatus. The shape of the 
head does not agree, but immature specimens are very liable 
to distortion and are not to be too closely depended upon. The 
abdominal spiracles do not protrude, as they are supposed to 
do in Solenopotes, but they are disproportionately large and it 
is worthy of note that the figure of L. zntuli given by Giebel in 
Jnsecta Episoa indicates the abdominal spiracles as protruding. 
Taking all these things into consideration, I am forced to re- 
gard Solenopotes as a synonym of Linognathus, and 5\ capil- 
latus as a synonym of L. vituli. 

Satisfactory progress in the study of the Anoplura depends 
at present very largely upon the satisfactory fixing of the 
status of certain species which were described before the neces- 
sity for careful and full descriptions and accurate figures was 
fully realized, and I therefore take this opportunity to present 
a description and figures of Cervophthirius crassicornis. 

The description follows. The only fully mature female 
available is not in satisfactory condition for measurement and 
this is consequently omitted. 

Head about twice as long as wide. Anterior margin very roundly 
convex. Temporal angles moderately prominent, temporal margins 
nearly straight and parallel. Posterior-lateral angles sharp and promi- 
nent. Occiput much produced into the thorax. Extending across the 
head in front of the antennae is a conspicuous, curved, chitinized area 
and along each temporal margin is a narrow chitinized area. Chaeto- 



2OO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

taxy of the head as follows : A median group of four very small spines 
just behind the transverse area, four slightly larger near the base of 
each antenna, three along the inner edge of the chitinized area of the 
temporal margins, two long hairs and a short one at each posterior lat- 
eral angle and a median pair of two small hairs on the occiput. On 
the ventral side a single hair near the base of each antenna. 

Antenna conspicuously long, the first segment longest and widest, the 
remainder becoming successively smaller. 

Thorax shorter and considerably wider than the head and with con- 
vex lateral margins. A single long hair on each "shoulder" and one 
just in from each mesothoracic spiracle. Sternal plate irregularly 
shaped, longer than wide. Legs very large and stout, of the type com- 
mon to the genus. 

Abdomen elongated oval, each segment with a single row of hairs. 
First segment with a median group of four hairs, the outer ones very 
small, the inner ones quite long. Second segment with two long me- 
dian hairs and with four very small hairs between each of these and 
the margin. Third segment with two long median hairs, four very 
small hairs between each of these and the margin and a long hair close 
to the margin. Fourth segment with three long median hairs, two very 
short hairs and two long hairs near each lateral margin. Five with 
median group of four and lateral groups of three long hairs. Six, 
seven and eight with median groups of five or six and lateral groups of 
two. Nine with five very long hairs. Chaetotaxy of ventral side very 
similar except that there is no row of hairs on the eighth segment. 

Spiracles rather small. Gonapods blunt and rather short, each with 
a fringe of short hairs along its inner margin. Immediately behind 
each gonapod is a long sharply-pointed process with three or four 
hairs on each side at its base. A group of two or three long hairs at 
each posterior lateral angle of the ninth segment. 

Description of male. Much smaller than the female and with a 
slightly reduced number of hairs on the abdomen, but in other respects 
very similar. Genitalia very heavily chitinized, the basal plate long and 
slender, about twice the length of the parameres. Genital plate lyri- 
form. 



Triphleps insidiosus Say Sucking Blood (Hem., Het.). 
One day near the end of October, while collecting insects at White 
Heath, Illinois, I had the experience of being bitten by a specimen 
of Triphleps insidiosus. A companion also had the same experience. 
The species is well known as being of predaceous habits, but I do 
not recollect having seen records of it attacking man. J. R. MALLOCH, 
Urbana, 111. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2OI 

Gall Midges of Certain Chenopodiaceae (Dip.). 

By E. P. FELT, Albany, New York. 

The discovery in 1913 of a species (Aplony.v sarcobati Felt) 
leferable to an European genus and at that time unknown out- 
side of the Mediterranean region, was most interesting. The 
rearing early this year of a closely allied genus, described be- 
low, from greasewood, adds to the interest, and on investigat- 
ing the distribution of these gall midges and their close allies, 
it is noteworthy that none have been found outside of the 
Mediterranean region and the arid plains of the West. The 
conditions obtaining in the former section are suggestive in 
that they may throw some light upon probable revelations fol- 
lowing further exploration. In the Mediterranean region, spe- 
cies of Aplony.v and Stefaniella have been reared from Atri- 
plcx, Dibaldratia and Stcfaniola from Salsola, Baldratia and 
Baldraticlla from Salicornia, while in America Aplony.v has 
been reared from Sarcobatus and Protaplony.v from grease- 
wood, ( ?) Sarcobatus vernriculatits. 

All of these genera are closely related in that they present 
the typical Lasioptcra aspect. They may be distinguished by 
the simple or feebly dentate claws and a distinct tendency to- 
ward reduction in both the antennal and palpal segments, the 
former ranging in number for the seven genera above named 
from six to fourteen and being mostly twelve or thirteen, while 
five of the genera have but one palpal segment, Stefaniella 
two, and Protaplony.v four. There is also in this group of 
genera a marked tendency toward an aciculate, chitinous ovi- 
positor. 

The Chenopodiaceous flora of our great plains is at least 
moderately abundant and it is reasonable to suppose that there 
is a number of new species and possibly new genera in addi- 
tion to the one described below, awaiting discovery. These 
saline- or alkaline-loving plants present certain characters in 
common and as in the case of Aster and Solidago, appear to 
have a peculiar midge fauna. 



2O2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

PROTAPLONYX n. g. 

The genus has the typical Lasioptera wing, the normal short 
mouth-parts, 12 or 13 antennal segments, the third and fourth 
not coalescent or at least separated by a distinct constriction ; 
quadriarticulate palpi, heavy simple claws and an aciculate 
ovipositor in the female. Type P. hagani n. sp. 

Protaplonyx hagani n. sp. 

The small flies described below were reared January 4, 1916, 
in large numbers from small, folded, swollen leaflets of grease- 
wood ( ? Sarcobatus vermiculatus} by Mr. Harold R. Hagan, 
of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Logan, Utah, from 
material collected October 25, 1915, on the Austin farm, 
Wellington, Utah, in a locality near Price. 

Gall. The insects appear to prevent the unfolding and cause a swell- 
ing of the leaflets, producing somewhat irregular, slightly distorted 
growths about 12 mm. long and with a diameter of 1.5 mm. Appar- 
ently one or more larvae may occur in each of the infested leaflets. 

Larva. Length 2.5 mm., moderately stout, reddish orange. Head 
small, tapering to a narrowly rounded apex. Antennae bi-articulate, 
the basal segment disk-like, broad, the terminal segment with a length 
nearly four times its diameter and tapering to a narrowly rounded 
apex; segmentation moderately distinct; skin coarsely shagreened ; 
posterior extremity produced as a pair of sublateral, somewhat irregu- 
lar, tapering, finger-like processes with a few short, coarse setae api- 
cally. 

The small larva in the preparation has a length of .75 mm., is short, 
stout, with both extremities broadly rounded and with no sign of the 
conspicuous caudal appendages described above. The skin is coarsely 
shagreened and unfortunately the head is concealed. 

Pupa. Length i mm., reddish brown, the wing cases extending to 
the fifth abdominal segment, the leg-cases to the seventh abdominal 
segment, the dorsum of the abdominal segments in the male at least, 
thickly set with short, stout, triangular, chitinous spines. 

Male. Length .75 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the abdo- 
men, sparsely haired, dark brown ; 12 segments, the third and fourth 
nearly free, the fifth with a length one-fourth greater than its diam- 
eter; the terminal segment, evidently composed of two, closely fused, 
with a length nearly three times its diameter and tapering apically to a 
broadly rounded apex. Palpi ; first segment indistinct, second with a 
length about twice its diameter, slender, the third nearly as long as the 
second, the fourth a little longer than the third, dilated and broadly 
oval. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2O3 

Mesonotum dull black, the submedian lines sparsely haired. Scutel- 
lum and postscutellum dark reddish brown. 

Abdomen nearly naked, reddish brown, darker basally ; genitalia 
dark brown. Genitalia; basal clasp segment short, stout; terminal 
clasp segment moderately long, swollen at the base and tapering api- 
cally. Harpes moderately long, swollen basally and tapering to an ir- 
regularly rounded, sparsely setose apex. 

Wings hyaline, costa reddish brown, the third vein uniting with the 
thickened costa just before the middle, the whitish discal spot small, 
the fifth vein joining the posterior margin at the distal third, its branch 
near the basal third ; halteres yellowish white apically, pale straw bas- 
ally. 

Coxae dark brown, legs mostly brownish straw ; claws moderately 
slender, strongly curved, simple, the pulvilli as long as the claws. 

Female. Length .75 mm. Antennae short, dark brown; 12 segments, 
the third and fourth narrowly fused, the fifth with a length one-fourth 
greater than its diameter, the terminal segment with a length nearly 
three times its diameter, narrowly rounded apically and evidently 
composed of three closely fused segments. Palpi; first segment short, 
irregular, the second narrowly oval, with a length over twice its diam- 
eter, the third one-half longer than the second, more slender, slightly 
swollen distally; terminal segment about two-thirds the length of the 
second, narrowly oval. 

Mesonotum dull black, the submedian lines sparsely haired. Scu- 
tellum and postscutellum dark reddish brown. 

Abdomen reddish brown, the basal segments dark brown, the stout 
ovipositor a little darker than the distal segments. Ovipositor when ex- 
tended probably as long as the body, the terminal portion slender and 
tapering to a narrow, aciculate apex. Other characters as in the male. 

Type: Cecid. a27<x), State Museum, Albany, New York. 



A Hermaphrodite of Andrena cressoni Robt. (Hym.). 
On April 25, 1915, while collecting bees from the blossoms of plum 
trees at White Heath, Illinois, I obtained a specimen of Andrena cres- 
soni that presents in itself certain characters of both sexes. The en- 
tire head including the color of the clypeus and sides of face is that of 
a male. The head is symmetrical and the antennae are both typically 
male. The thorax is rather stouter than that of the normal male. The 
abdomen is typically female and the genitalia including the weak sting 
is of that sex. The hind legs are identical with those of a nor- 
mal female, the scopae being well developed. In the great majority 
of cases hermaphroditism is evidenced longitudinally; here the divi- 
sion is transverse. J. R. MALLOCH, Urbana, 111. 



2O4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

Some new Species of Athysanus and Related Genera 

(Homoptera). 

By E. D. BALL, Logan, Utah. 

(Continued from page 176) 

Platymetopius trilineatus n. sp. 

$ . Resembling slossoni in general appearance but much larger and 
with a dark face and a longer and definitely trilineate vertex, in the 
male. Length 5 mm. 

Vertex longer than in the male of any known species, three times 
as long as basal width or length of eye, face definitely concave in 
profile. Elytra narrow, appressed, outer anteapical definitely shorter 
than the central one. Third apical cell very broad with a partially 
formed supernumerary cell at base. Male valve enlarged, gibbous, 
the margin concave to just before the blunt rounding apex, plates 
together broader than valve or pygofers, lateral margin concave at 
base, then slightly convexly rounding to the broad blunt slightly 
divergent apices, extending one-third their length beyond the valve and 
slightly exceeded by the stout pygofers. 

Color: milky white and pale brown, similar to slossoni, vertex with 
a definite median white stripe extending nearly half-way back from 
apex and two of equal width arising just outside of this at apex and 
extending back just inside the black margin to just before the end of 
the median stripe where they almost articulate with a pair of slightly 
curved stripes and which in turn articulate with a pair of narrow 
approximate lines at the base, the whole forming an almost continuous 
pair of light lines from apex to base curving outward on disc. Re- 
mainder of surface composed of alternate black and white vermicula- 
tions, washed with brown at the base. Pronotum and scutellum 
irrorate with light brown, seven stripes on the former and the apical 
dots on latter white. Elytra milky white, the nervures brown, the 
apical and costal ones black, whole surface irrorate with pale brown 
except the sutural and costal margins, circular spots alongside all cross 
nervures and the narrow margins next the nervures. Face uniformly 
irrorate with brown and scarlet, omitting a white line under the 
vertex margin set off by black vermiculations. 

Described from two males taken at Pasadena and Santa 
Margarita, California, by the writer. The exceptionally long 
trilineate vertex will at once separate this species from all 
others except slossoni, from which the dark face and widely 
different genitalia will at once distinguish it. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2O5 

Platymetopius nigricollis n. sp. 

Form of brcvis nearly but longer, with a blunter head. Green with 
the head, face and below black. Length 3.5-4 mm. 

Vertex in the female slightly obtusely rounded, scarcely one-third 
longer at apex than against eye, about equalling the pronotum; male 
still shorter and narrower. Face as seen from the side convex, front 
broad and short. Elytra compressed, venation obscure, third apical 
narrow. Female segment moderately long, margins parallel at the 
sides, the median half of posterior margin roundly produced. Mala 
valve rather narrow, long-oval, plates together narrow, long-triangular, 
their acute apices exceeding the valve by one-half its length. 

Color: vertex black, minutely irrorate with white, three ivory white 
dots at apex and an irregular basal margin ivory white. Pronotum 
unicolorous, green, or with a few minute black dots. Scutellum green 
with two black spots at base in some specimens. Elytra green, nervures 
unicolorous, surface peppered with minute black dots, omitting the 
usual circular spots, reflex nervures scarcely dark marked. Face finely 
heavily irrorate with dark brown or black. Below black. 

Descibed from two females and two males from Mojave, 
California, and St. George, Utah, collected by the writer. 
The short black head on the definitely green body renders this 
a striking species. In life there was a definite golden cast that 
partly disappears in the dry specimens. 

Platymetopius brevis var. torridus n. var. 

5. Form of brcris but with the entire insect of a fulvo-testaceous 
cast. 

Vertex with three apical ivory dots and usually a narrow light 
margin on each side of the median line anteriorly. Disc irrorate with 
testaceous. Pronotum and scutellum fulvo-testaceous, usually un- 
marked. Elytra uniformly washed with fulvo-testaceous except for 
the usual circular spots which are milk white in striking contrast; 
sometimes the nervures and reflex veinlets are pale sanguineous. 

Described from four females from Mojave and Calexico, 
California. The color of this variety is so much higher and 
more uniform that it would scarcely be recognized as belonging 
to this species as described. It is possible that all the material 
from the Western deserts may prove to be distinct from the 
Jamaica examples. 

Chlorotettix delta n. sp. 

$. Size and general appearance of tcthys but with a much sharper 
head. Pale green with a slightly tawny cast towards the tips of the 
wings. Length 4.5 mm. 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

Vertex right-angled, the margins straight, apex with the front 
sharply conical, length very slightly less than the basal width, nearly 
equalling the pronotum. Elytra long and narrow as in lusoria, giving a 
trim wedge-shaped appearance to the insect. Venation distinct, reg- 
ular, the nervures. slightly raised. 

Genitalia : male valve short obtusely rounding. Plates narrow ap- 
pressed, equilaterally triangular, their apices produced as minute 
slightly separated finger-like processes as long as the plates and equal- 
ling the rather broad and foliacous pygofers. 

Color: pale green, eyes dark, the usual indented arcuated line on 
pronotum. Apex of vertex and tips of elytra with traces of tawny. 

Described from a single male from Arizona. The conically 
pointed head and distinct genitalia render this a strikingly dis- 
tinct form among the smaller species of this genus. 

Neocoelidia ramona n. sp. 

Length 3.5-4 mm. Resembling lactipennis, slightly narrower and 
with a longer vertex and more definite nervures. Female segment 
two-thirds as long as its width, apical margin slightly rounding. Male 
plates nearly three times as long as their basal width, triangularly 
narrowing on basal half, then rapidly roundly narrowing and together 
forming a single finger-like process which equals the length of the 
long and slightly curved pygofers. 

Color: pale creamy to dirty straw, vertex creamy, a black spot on 
apex, a narrow median light line bordered by a pair of narrow brown 
ones enlarged in three points. Pale specimens may have these lines re- 
duced to an anterior dot and a posterior crescent. Pronotum dirty straw, 
scutellum paler with a pair of marginal black spots in the male. Elytra 
pale, milky subhyaline the female with pale brown nervures, obscure 
at the apex and along costa, the male smoky subhyaline with heavy 
brown nervures except on apical cells. Tergum and venter black in 
the male giving a dark cast through the elytra. 

Described from two females and two males from Ravenna, 
California, collected by the writer. From Candida this species 
can be separated by the absence of anteapical cells in the elytra, 
from lactipennis by the distinct nervures, while the male plates 
?re longer and narrower than in any other known species. 

Neocoelidia orovila n. sp. 

Length 4.5-5 mm. Resembling Candida but more slender, slightly 
larger and lighter colored than ramona with a shorter vertex. Female 
segment rather long, posterior margin truncate. Male plates slightly 
over twice longer than wide, gradually narrowing to the blunt tips. 



Vol. XXVJi] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2O7 

Color: vertex light creamy, a black apical spot, three pairs of brown 
dots along median suture, the posterior pair sometimes connected. 
Pronotum creamy, scutellum creamy with two black marginal dots. 
Elytra creamy with brown nervures, tergum and venter pale. 

Described from two females and two males from Beaumont, 
Chico and Oroville, California, collected by the writer. The 
lighter, larger male will readily separate this species from 
ramona, while the venation will easily separate it from rcticn- 
lata and Candida. 

Neocoelidia pentagona n. sp. 

Resembling obscura but slenderer, with a longer head and indistinct 
nervures. Length 6-7 mm. 

Vertex almost perfectly pentagonal, the anterior margin carinate, 
disc almost flat, vertex as long as pronotum, longer than its basal 
width, pronotum short, deeply, angularly emarginate posteriorly. Ely- 
tra long, narrow, venation indistinct, a rather small outer anteapical 
cell present. Male plates nearly three times as long as their basal 
width, gradually narrowing and slightly surpassing the pygofers. 
Pygofers with the dorsal margins semi-circular, slightly produced as 
a tooth at the apex. 

Color: bright straw or creamy, a black dot on apex of vertex, faint 
but rather broad submarginal and median orange stripes on vertex, 
the median one sometimes continuing on to pronotum and scutellum. 
Elytra pale, slightly greenish subhyaline, nervures concolorous. 

Described from two females and two males from Medford, 
Oregon, collected by the writer. The long carinate vertex and 
lack of ornamentation are quite distinctive characters in this 
group. 

Neocoelidia triunata n. sp. 

Resembling pentagona but smaller and with a shorter vertex. Pale 
straw with blood red markings. Length 5.5-6 mm. 

Vertex flat carinate, long, anterior margin slightly wider than long. 
Male plates appressed, together tubular, tapering, very long, resembling 
a slender Indian club, exceeding the pygofers. 

Color: pale straw, vertex with a black dot at apex, a semi-circle 
just back of this, a triangular spot against the anterior corner of each 
eye and a median dot on posterior margin, blood red. Pronotum with 
three stripes, the median one extending across scutellum, the lateral 
ones arising behind the eyes and slightly widening to the outer an.ulrs 
of scutellum. Elytra pale subhyaline straw, with a marginal red 
mark on each side, the tergum showing through. Nervures indistinct. 



2O8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

Described from four examples from Logan Canyon, Utah, 
collected by the writer. The blood- red markings will at once 
separate this species from any other described. 

Neocoelidia coronata n. sp. 

9. Resembling pulchella in size and form, smaller and slenderer, 
creamy with scarlet markings. Length 6.5 mm. 

Vertex acutely angled, the apex blunt, twice longer than its basal 
width, disc flat, the anterior margin carinate. Angle with face much 
more acute than in pulchella. Pronotum short, the margins parallel. 
Elytra long, venation obscure, a single anteapical cell, apical cells long. 
Female segment of medium length, posterior margin broadly rounding. 
Pygofers very short. 

Color: creamy with scarlet markings, vertex lacking the customary 
apical black spot, a broad median stripe from the apex to just before 
the base, a marginal stripe against the eye on each side, extending half- 
way to apex where they are joined by a transverse stripe, the marginal 
stripe triangularly expanded opposite the eye and almost reaching 
the median one, the whole marking on vertex suggesting a scarlet 
crown. Pronotum with three parallel stripes connecting along the 
anterior margin and extending across the scutellum. the median one 
forking before the apex. Elytra creamy, a broad scarlet stripe extend- 
ing along sutural margin, the apical cells slightly infumed. 

Described from a single example from Central America. 
The striking pattern will at once separate this species and justi- 
fies its description from an unique. 



Some Neotropical Parasitic Bees (Hym.). 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 
Hypochrotaenia pilipes (Cresson). 

It appears from the account given by Ducke that the genus 
Nomadosoma Rohwer, 1911, is identical with Holmberg's 
(1886) Hypochrotaenia. The type of the former is Pasites 
Cr., and of the latter H. parvula Holmbg. 



POLYBIAPIS gen. nov. (Nomadidae). 

Allied to Nomada, but resembling wasps of the genus 
t'olybia; wings long, with only two submarginal cells (first 
t. c. absent), the first s. m. fully three times as long as second, 
receiving first r. n. a considerable distance from its end ; meta- 
thorax long, very oblique ; maxillary palpi long and slender, 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2CX) 

six-jointed; labial palpi four-jointed, the two small joints 
rather stout. Type Polybiapis mimus sp. n. ; also includes P. 
polybioidcs (Nomada polybioides Ducke), which is much 
smaller and has less yellow. 

Polybiapis mimus sp. n. 

9- Length a little over 10 mm.; anterior wing 9; black, the pleura 
and first abdominal segment dark brown ; bright yellow markings as 
follows; small spot on labrum; mandibles except apex; clypeus except 
upper margin and very broad side bands ; subquadrate (longer than 
broad) supraclypeal patch; broad lateral face-marks which narrow 
above, extending to top of eye; broad band (narrowing above) behind 
eyes; malar space; two longitudinal distal stripes and obscure lateral 
(marginal) bands on mesothorax; greater part of tubercles, small spot 
behind tubercles ; large subtriangular patch on anterior inferior part 
of pleura ; smaller, more suffused patch on posterior middle of meso- 
pleura; large area on mesosternum; axillar spots; rather small spots at 
sides of scutellum ; two transverse marks on postscutellum ; large 
marks on sides of metathorax ; band along sides of first abdominal seg- 
ment, and very narrow one (slightly interrupted) on apical margin; 
narrow bands on second and third segments, and slender ones at sides 
of fourth and fifth; and two broad bands on venter. 

Pubescence scanty, brownish above, white beneath; eyes greenish; 
face smooth and polished; antennae entirely black, third joint longer 
than fourth; vertex coarsely punctured; mesothorax smooth and shin- 
ing with scattered punctures, and a deep median groove; scutellum 
flattish, with a median sulcus; tegulae dark reddish, polished with a 
small yellow spot anteriorly ; wings strongly reddened, though not 
very dark, the apical region paler; nervures and stigma ferruginous; 
b. n. meeting t. m. ; coxae with yellow keels, those on middle and hind 
coxae very large and sharp, the latter black anteriorly; legs suffusedly 
yellowish in front, mainly dark, brown behind, but the femora with a 
more or less evident posterior yellow band, very large and distinct on 
middle femora; tarsi bright ferruginous, middle and hind ones long; 
abdomen extremely minutely and densely punctured ; sides of apex 
with black hair, but last segment with a short fringe of silver hair. 

Hob. Corcorado, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 13, 1912 
(G. E. Bryant; Brit. Museum). This is a beautiful case of 
"mimicry." 

Odyneropsis batesi sp. n. 

$. Length about n mm.; black, with the sides of face, upper border 
of prothorax, metathorax except median band, under side of thorax and 
large part of coxae, more than basal half and sides of first abdominal 



2IO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

segment, and most of under side of abdomen, all covered with ap- 
pressed silvery white hair; labrum large and broad; labial palpi very 
long, third joint short and stout, fourth long and cylindrical; tongue 
very long, extending about 2 mm. beyond labial palpi; maxillary palpi 
rudimentary, apparently I -jointed; clypeus dull, granular, with a me- 
dian keel, failing below ; facial quadrangle much longer than broad ; 
antennae long, brownish-black, third joint about half as long as fourth; 
mesothorax densely rugoso-punctate; scntellum bilobed, axillar teeth 
large; legs with white hair; spurs pale ochreous; small joints of tarsi 
pale ferruginous; tegulae large, black, punctured; wings basally hyaline, 
more than apical half fuliginous; b. n. going far basad of t. m. ; three 
submarginal cells, first r. n. joining second near end; abdomen finely 
and densely punctate, without bands or spots. 

Hab. Ega, Brazil. (British Museum, from the Farren 
White collection). On account of the locality, and the remark- 
able "mimicry" of a wasp, it is appropriate to dedicate this 
species to Bates ; who, indeed, very possibly collected the speci- 
mens. In Friese's key to Rathyinus, in which he includes 
Odyneropsis, this falls next to the much larger 0. apicalis 
Ducke, which occurs in Mexico. 



The Genus Parnassius in America (Lep.). 
By HENRY SKINNER. 

(Plate XII) 

Four species have thus far been described from North 
America. As in the European species, a number of names 
have been proposed for the variations of these very plastic 
butterflies. To consider the various forms in a. rational man- 
ner it is necessary to fix the types of some of the earlier 
names, as some confusion has been caused by authors not 
knowing what certain names actually represented. We need 
more knowledge as to the distribution of these insects and 
also date of capture and altitude of the localities where the 
specimens are taken. Lepidopterists are not agreed as to the 
retention of names based on one sex or on size of individuals, 
this variation in size being usually due to difference in the 
altitude where the specimens are taken. 

Parnassius clodius was described by Menetrics in 1855 and 
the locality given is California. It is well figured by W. H. 
Edwards in his Butterflies of North America. Two forms of 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 211 

this Calif ornian species were noted and both were figured by 
Mr. Edwards ; the one he called clarius is not the European 
clarius and he subsequently changed the name to baldur Ed- 
wards. Baldur is immaculate on the secondaries above except 
for the two red spots. Clodius' has a submarginal line of 
curved lines parallel to the margin. The females of the two 
forms differ very little, if at all, from each other. 

Menetriesii Henry Edwards differs very little from the nor- 
mal form. From the figure of the type it will be noted that 
the two red spots on the upperside of the secondaries are a 
trifle smaller than in the general run of specimens. It is a 
rather common occurrence to find that red and yellow in in- 
sects are interchangeable and in some of the species of Par- 
nassius the spots may be either red or yellow. Dyar has called 
the clodiiis with yellow spots, altaurus. I believe the name 
should be dropped. Workers in some of the other orders do 
not believe in naming color phases. Mr. Oberthiir has de- 
scribed and figured a remarkable aberration of clodius under 
the name lorquini. There is a dark border to the primaries 
and two black dashes in the cell, one near the middle and the 
other at the end. The secondaries are immaculate above. 
The writer described a Pamassius under the name immaculata 
which may be an aberration of clodius. It was taken July 
30th, 1905, by Mr. J. W. Coxey, on the Fire Hole River, near 
Old Faithful Geyser, in the Yellowstone National Park, Wyo- 
ming. 

H. Stichel in 1907 published a revision of the Parnassinae 
; n the Genera Insect orum, and ' introduces some new names 
for American variations. He gives the name claudianus to 
specimens from the coast region of Washington, British Co- 
lumbia and Vancouver Island. These do not differ in any 
way from specimens found in California and figured by Ed- 
wards. Gallatinus Stichel I also consider to be a synonym of 
clodius. It is represented by the figures of clodius given by 
Elrod in his Butterflies of Montana. 

On plate I of his Butterflies of the West Coast, W. G. 
Wright gives a number of figures that show some of the vari- 
ations of clodius. Lusca Stichel is an aberration with the lower 



212 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

red spot on the hind wing nearly obsolete. It is practically the 
same thing as menetriesii Hy. Edw. 

Clodius is found in California, Washington, Oregon, Utah, 
Wyoming and British Columbia. In the collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia are five speci- 
mens from Corfield, Vancouver, June 25th, males, and a fe- 
male, July 2nd. Three males from California without accur- 
ate data. One female labelled Columbia River (Peale collec- 
tion). Of the baldur form there are specimens from Uma- 
tilla, Oregon ; Fort Klamath, Oregon, July 2/th ; Kaweah, 
California; Mt. Shasta, California, July Hth; Ogden, Utah, 
July 1 6th, and City Creek Canyon, near Salt Lake City, Utah, 
July 4th. 

Systematic work goes through a period of evolution first. 
A number of names are proposed and then the value and rela- 
tionships of these names are studied, some are retained and 
others rejected. Of the species under consideration the two 
names that really seem well warranted are clodius and baldur, 
the relationship being subspecific. Whether the names of 
aberrations should be retained is a matter open to discussion. 

Smintheus was described and figured by Doubleday and 
Hewitson in 1847. The locality cited is the Rocky Mountains. 
This species has also been given a number of names. Bchrii 
Edw. is the variety with yellow spots instead of red. The 
name sayii was given to the female by W. H. Edwards. It is 
a pure synonym. Hermodur Hy. Edw. was described from a 
dark specimen of the female from Colorado. W. G. Wright 
named a form nigcr which is characterized by having the red 
spots of the inferior wings reduced to small black spots. He 
also called some large specimens magnus. We possess speci- 
mens from British Columbia that agree with his figures. This 
name hardly seems warranted. 

Nanus Neumoegen is a small form with the upper spot of 
hind wing obsolete and the lower one reduced to a point. It is 
much like Wright's niger only smaller, and may have been de- 
scribed from extreme specimens. A series from the original 
locality would probably show much variation. The localities 
mentioned in the original description are "Fort Calgary" and 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 213 

"Spence's Bridge," British Columbia. Mr. Charles Schaeffer 
says there are two specimens labelled type, a male and a fe- 
male, in the Neumoegen collection, now the property of the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. The male is labelled 
"British Columbia," and the female "Fort Calgary." There 
are also four specimens in the Jacob Doll collection, two males 
and; a female from Laggan and one female from the Bullion 
Mts., Colorado, the latter collected by David Bruce. Mr. 
Schaeffer very kindly sent me the photographs of the male 
and female types and the female from British Columbia. 
Having considerable doubt about smintheus var. nanus having 
been taken at Calgary, Alberta, I wrote to Mr. F. H. Wolley 
Dod and received the following reply: "Smintheus occurs at 
Laggan and Banff, both at the eastern side of the divide. Ar- 
thur Hudson, who formerly collected with me, claims to have 
seen, but not captured it, about 25 miles southeast of Calgary. 
He is not improbably correct, and it may occur even a few 
miles nearer than that. In Geddes' days 'Calgary' might have 
meant anywhere within 50 miles or even more." 

Size in smintheus, appears to be largely governed by alti- 
ture. Mendica Stichel is the small form which so far as I 
know, is only found at high altitudes. It is figured by Mr. 
Edwards in volume I of his Butterflies of North America, pi. 
4, f. i, 4, 5, as taken on the top of Berthoud's Pass, Colorado 
(11,300 feet altitude), August i6th. We possess fifteen speci- 
mens of this small form, all taken at very high altitudes in 
Colorado, Bullion Peak, July 25th, and Berthoud's Pass, Au- 
gust 22nd. The exact relationship of this to nanus remains to 
be seen. Smintheus appears to vary more in size than does 
clodius. The females of smintheus vary considerably in 
color, some being much darker than others. The white in the 
centre of the red spots of the inferior wings is also quite 
variable in specimens found at one time in a given locality, 
and at times are present on one side of the butterfly and ab- 
sent on the other. The form called apricatus by Stichel I have 
not seen and only know it from the figure in Grossschmctter- 
linge der Erde. The locality given is Kadiak. 

\\'e have specimens of smintheus from British Columbia, 



214 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

northernmost point, and from the top of the Las Vegas Range, 
Rocky Mountains of New Mexico, the southernmost. Smin- 
t he-its has been recorded from California, Nevada, Utah, Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, Montana and British America, although 
I have not seen specimens from California or Nevada. 

Smintheus variety hermodur Henry Edwards. This was ap- 
parently described from a single female as the author says 
"this extremely interesting insect was generously given to me 
by my friend Dr. James S. Bailey, of Albany." The locality 
given was Southern Colorado. The females in smintheus in 
certain localities are quite dark and it is a question whether 
hertnodur should have any standing. The specimen figured 
is from the Henry Edwards collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History, and is numbered 2791 in the Ed- 
wards collection and bears label in Henry Edwards' writing 
"P amass, hermodnr, type, Colorado." I am greatly indebted 
to Dr. Frank E. Lutz for photographs of hermodnr, thor and 
mcnetriesii. In the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia are specimens of these dark females 
from Colorado and Montana. William H. Edwards figures a 
large form of smintheus under the name hermodnr, in the 
third volume of his Butterflies of North America. The 
examples figured were from the Judith Mountains in Mon- 
tana. These are evidently a larger form. Mr. W. H. Ed- 
wards accepted the name hermodur to cover all the dark fe- 
males. 

Parnassius eversmanni. Very little is known about this 
species in America. The sexes are dissimilar in appearance 
and have therefore been given different names. There are a 
number of good figures of both sexes. Thor, described by 
Henry Edwards, has been treated as a variety, but is only the 
female. The females appear to differ more than the males. 
I give a figure of the type of thor and it is now possible to 
compare it with the figures given in the European literature. 
The records for the species are meagre. William H. Edwards 
records it from the Ramparts, Alaska, two hundred miles be- 
low Fort Yukon, June I5th. Dr. W. J. Holland received nine 
males and one female, taken in the mountains, between Mis- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 215 

sion and Forty-mile Creeks, N. E. Alaska, July 2Oth-24th. 
The female described by Henry EdWards was taken 800 miles 
up the Yukon River, Alaska. At the time it was described, 
he probably did not know the female cversiiianni or the figure 
of the female by Menetries. The species has some varietal 
names in Europe that are based on one sex or on very slight 
geographical differences. 

Parnassius nomion Fisch. This species has been recorded 
from Alaska, but I have not seen the typical form. We possess 
two specimens of nomion noniinuhts Standerger that bear 
merely the label "Alaska." We need additional material with 
exact data to have a good understanding of the status of this 
species in North America. 

Time alone will elucidate the value of the many names pro- 
posed for the variation of the very plastic species of this 
genus. At the present time I see no use for names based on 
sexual differences or on individual variation. One may often 
take a number of specimens of a single species, in a given lo- 
cality, in a short space of time, and find that each one is dif- 
ferent in markings from the others. For the benefit of Ameri- 
can students, I append the references to our species published 
since the appearance of the supplement to my Synonymic 
Catalogue of North American Rhopalocera (1904). I have 
briefly indicated in the above account of the species what 
some of the names actually represent. Eventually the species 
will be placed on a firmer foundation. Dealers in butterflies in 
America have lamented the fact that we do not run to varietal 
names as is the case in Europe where there is a good market 
for these slight variations. 

LITERATURE. 

II. STKHKL, Genera Insectorum, Parnasiinae, 1907. 
evcrstnanni, p. 13, pi. i, {.3, $. 
thor H. Edw. is treated as a subspecies. 
baldur Edw. p. 14, pi. 2, f. 4, $ is treated as a subspecies. 
lusca, Stichel, p. 14, as a new form. 
mcnctricsii Edw. p. 14, as a form. 
lorquini Oberthur, p. 14, as a form. 
claudianus Stichel, p. 15, as a new subspecies and cites the figure 

of clodins Verity, Rhop. pi. 22, f. 17-19 (1907). 

gallatimts Stichel, p. 15, as a new subspecies. He refers to Elrod's 
figures of Montana specimens. 



21 6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

mendica Stichel, p. 20, new form. 

hermodur H. Edw., p. 20, as a subspecies. 

sayii Edw., p. 20, as a doubtful subspecies. 

nanus Neum., p. 20, as a doubtful subspecies. 

behrii Edw., p. 21, as a subspecies. 

m'#<?r Wright, p. 21, as a form. 

magnus Wright, p. 21, as a subspecies. 
H. STICHEL, in Grossschmetterlinge der Erde, Fauna Americana, 1907. 

apricatus Stichel, p. 48, pi. i?d. Described in Berlin Ent. Zeit., Vol. 
51, p. 87, pi. 2, f. 13, $, 9, 1906 (Kadiak Isld.). 

The following are figured on pi. 17 of the Fauna Americana; claudi- 
anus, $ , Q ; clodius, $ , $ ; behri, $ ; apricatus; sayii; mene- 
triesii; baldur, $ ; hermodur; smintheus, $ ; lusca. The figure of 
behri does not represent the yellow-spotted variety described by 
Edwards. 

eversmanni, $ , 9- , are figured in Grosssch. der Erde, Fauna Palae- 

arctica, Vol. I, pi. 10. 
ROGER VERITY, Rhopalocera Palaearctica, 1909-1911. 

nomion, p. 64, pi. 13, f. 6-13. 

var. nominulus, p. 67, pi. 14, f. 15, 16. 

var. smintheus, p. 70, pi. 16, f. 18-23. 

eversmanni, p. 93, pi. 22, f. 6-9. 

clodius, p. 95, f. 17-19. 

apricatus, p. 106. 

nominulus Staudinger, Iris, 7, 241, 1894. 

nomion Oberthur, Etud. Comp. 9, p. 85, pi. 264, 1914. 

immaculata Skinner, Ent. News, 22, 108, 1911. 

smintheus Doubl.-Hew. Newcomer, Ent. News, 21, 316, 1910. 

(life history) 

Wolley Dod, Can. Ent. 40, 188, 1908 (Laggan & Banff, Alberta). 
clodius Men., Cat. Mus. Petr. i, 73, 1855. 

Edw., But. North Amer., figs. 5, 6, $, 1871. 

Wright, But. West Coast, pi. I, f. i, b, 1905. 

Stichel, Grossschm. der Erde, Faun. Amer., pi. 17, d, 1907. 

claudianus Stichel, Gen. Insector. Parnassiinae, p. 15, 1907. 

Stichel, Grossschm. der Erde, Faun. Amer., pi. 17, c, 1907. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII. 

1. P. thor Hy. Edws. Alaska. Type. $ . 

2. P. mendica Stichel. Colorado. 

3. P. menetriesii Hy. Edws. Cotype. Utah. $ . 

4. P. nanus Neumoegen. Ft. Calgary. Type. $ . 

5. P. nanus Neumoegen. British Columbia. Type. $ . 

6. P. nanus Neumoegen. British Columbia. $ . 

7. P. immaculata Skinner. Yellowstone Natl. Park. Type. $. 

8. P. hermodur Hy. Edws. Colorado. Type. $ . 

9. P. nominulus Staudinger. Alaska. $ . 

There are two specimens of mcnetricsi in the American Museum of 
Natural History marked type. One bears number 2783 in the Edwards 
collection and has the name on it in the writing of Henry Edwards. 
The locality is Truckee, Sierra Nevada, California. This may be 
taken as the type. It is practically identical with the figure of the 
cotype shown on the plate. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



1 ' / 

'AjLQAvtAJtS 



Plate XII. 




PARNASSIUS IN AMERICA-SKINNER. 

1. THOR, 2. MENDICA, 3. MENETRIESII, 4-6. NANUS, 7. IMMACULATA, 8. HERMODUR, 9. NOMINULUS. 



ENT. NEWS, Vol. XXVII. 



Plate XII. 




PARNASSIUS IN AMERICA-SKINNER. 

1. THOR, 2. MENDICA, 3. MENETRIESII, 4-6. NANUS, 7. IMMACULATA, 8. HERMODUR, 9. NOMINULUS. 



Plate XII issued with this number is to replace Plate XII 
of the May number. 







~>/is. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 217 

Description of Two new Tachinids (Dip.). 

By CHARLES H. T. TOWNSEND, Bureau of Entomology, 

Washington, D. C. 

The following species are described at this time in order to 
allow the use of the names in forthcoming economic papers. 

Doryphorophaga aberrans n. sp. 

Length of body, 6 to 7.5 mm.; of wing, 4.5 to 6 mm. Differs from 
D. doryphorac by facialia not ciliate, at most some bristles on lowest 
one-third; ocellar bristles vestigial or wanting; abdomen thickly sil- 
very pollinose; front golden posteriorly; tegulae of ordinary size. 

Four males, Blacksburg, Virginia ; three reared from Lep- 
tinotarsa decetnlineata Say, and one from Blepharida rhois 
Forst. (W. J. Schoene). 

Holotype, No. 20126 United States National Museum. 

This is an eastern form. D. doryphorae is from the Mis- 
sissippi valley and westward. 

Euphorocera floridensis n. sp. 

Length of body, 11.5 mm.; of wing, 8 mm. Differs from E. tachino- 
moidcs as follows : Parafrontals and parafacials deep golden, also 
orbits. Abdomen without any red on sides ; the posterior black of 
intermediate segments produced forward in a triangle on each side to 
near front margin, heavy on second segment, these forming with 
median vitta a black trident oh those segments. 

One male, Gainesville, Florida; reared from Anticarsia gem- 
matilis Hubn. (J. R. Watson). 

Holotype, No. 20127 U. S. Nat. Mus. 



Certain Features Found in the Genus Panchlora, with 

other Observations and the Description of one 

new Species (Orthoptera, Blattidae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD. 

In studying material of this genus introduced into the United 
States, it has become necessary to examine all the series in 
the Philadelphia collections, a total of 247 specimens, repre- 
senting at least 24 species. 

The genus is undoubtedly difficult, but were the males de- 
scribed with full reference to the supra-anal and subgenital 
plates, cerci and styles, only rare specimens showing some de- 



218 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

gree of aberration from the normal type would prove to be 
difficult to determine. As the matter stands, however, 
scarcely anything of use can be found in the literature on the 
genitalia of the numerous described species. Those of dis- 
tinctive marking and coloration can usually be located, but 
among the descriptions of the plain green forms (with or 
without minute dots on the wings and with immaculate an- 
tennae and no dark lines on pronotum or tegmina) seldom 
anything of diagnostic value may be found. It is evident that 
the types of the species, thus insufficiently described, must be 
studied before the nomenclature of the plain forms of the 
genus may be put on anything like a secure basis. In the 
meantime, we only urge that, in studying such material, the 
male genitalia be always carefully considered. The females 
offer scarcely any genital features ; as a result, while the sexes 
of the more distinctively colored specimens are rather easily 
associated, those of some of the plain green species are difficult 
in the extreme. 

MALE GENITAL CHARACTERS. 

The supra-anal plate in different species has the distal mar- 
gin weakly convex, transverse, weakly angulate-emarginate 
or strongly emarginate. Though constant 'in most species, 
this margin varies in at least one very widely distributed form 
from very weakly convex to distinctly obtuse-angulate emar- 
ginate. The cerci are of subequal width throughout with apex 
broadly rounded, distinctly tapering with apex sharply 
rounded, or tapering to last joint which is slender and elong- 
ate, while differences in length are also found in different spe- 
cies. Very little variation is found in these appendages in the 
majority of species, but in one widely distributed form not 
only do they vary in length, but also in proportionate diam- 
eter. The subgenital plate has the distal margin between the 
styles transverse, triangularly produced with apex rounded, 
triangularly produced but weakly emarginate mesad, and 
weakly convex to strongly produced sinistrad and so asym- 
metrical in different species. Very little variation is found in 
this feature. The styles are elongate cylindrical, varying 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

from minute to relatively large in different species, reaching 
from about one-sixth the distance to the cereal apex to nearly 
the apex of those appendages. 

FEMALE GENITAL CHARACTERS. 

The degree of production and median emargination of the 
supra-anal plate is not a feature of diagnostic value, while the 
cerci, which Shelford has stated to agree with those of the 
opposite sex, 1 we ! find to be much less specialized than in the 
males and in the great majority of species useless as a diag- 
nostic character. The subgenital plate is also generally simi- 
lar in most of the species but in one before us, thalassina, it 
is found to be very much more deeply concave mesad than is 

usual. 

OVERESTIMATED CHARACTERS. 

The width between the eyes is always less in the male sex 
than in the female : the character is not of considerable help in 
all or even many of the species, as Shelford has implied, 2 but 
only in those in which decided differences in this feature 
occur. On the whole, if slight differences were employed in 
sorting series, these would prove not only unsatisfactory but 
dangerous diagnostic features. 

In the female sex, some species have the transparent mar- 
gins of the pronotum and tegmina much clouded or even 
solidly opaque ; the males of these species show this condition 
to a very much less degree or not at all. 

Minute dark brown dots are found on the tegmina in a 
number of species. The number of such dots is individually 
variable, and they are found both present and absent in indi- 
viduals of the same species. Overestimation of the value of 
the number and position of such dots has unquestionably led 
to the erection of a number of synonymic names. 

DISTINCTIVELY MARKED SPECIES. 

In the species having the antennae annulate, the pronotum 
with narrow lateral black lines, or other distinctive features of 

1 Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1907, p. 463. (1908). 

2 Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1907, p. 464, (1908). 



22O ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

coloration or marking, not only are genital features to be found 
but also the character of the antennal annulation, cephalic, pro- 
notal and tegminal color pattern and general coloration, afford 
excellent diagnostic features. In a number of these species, 
general size and form and width of tegmina prove to be of ex- 
cellent value in further distinguishing the species. 

NOMENCLATURE. 

The names, 3 in the order in which they have been proposed, 
are, for the plain green species : nivea, chlorotica* viridis, 
mrescens, 5 *exoleia, *prasina, *cubensis, antillarmn, 6 poeyi, 7 
glanca, 8 peruana, luteola, lancadon, *thalassina, punctum. 

For the species having the antennae annulate and the pro- 

3 An asterisk before a name in the present list indicates that the 
species is represented in the material before us without question of de- 
termination. 

4 This name must be considered unidentifiable. The original de- 
scription and figure are both wholly inadequate for locating the species. 
The type is no longer in existence and was described from the Cape of 
Good Hope, a locality either in error or the type was an adventive 
specimen, for none of the plain green species of Panchlora are found 
native in Africa. In any case, description, figure and locality, all are 
valueless. 

5 Shelford, who has examined the types of both nivca and vircsccns, 
places the latter name in the synonymy under nivca. 

6 This name is an evident synonym of cubcnsis; the description shows 
no feature of real diagnostic value. In the extensive series before us 
from the West Indies, but a single species of plain green Panchlora 
is found. 

7 This name is also a synonym of cubcnsis, (see footnote 6). The 
type is a male, the types of cubcnsis and antillarum females ; the sexual 
differences led Saussure to describe the present specimen as distinct. 

8 Brunner has, in our opinion, correctly synonymized this name 
with prasina. Saussure and Zehntner have resurrected glauca in the 
Biologia, with apparently only the type of that species before them, 
giving there for the first time "oculi plus quam eorum latitudine re- 
moti" as is true for prasina. The name glanca was evidently based on 
a small example of prasina, showing an unimportant variation in the 
subgenital plate. We have now before us an example of prasina 
larger than any other specimen in our series of the genus and other 
smaller specimens of which the smallest is no larger than the type of 
glauca. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 221 

notum without narrow dark lateral lines : hyalina of Saussure, 
nigricornis, *acolhua, *fraterna, *montezuma, cribosa, fcstae, 
transliicida. 9 

For the species having the antennate annulate and the pro- 
notum with narrow dark lateral lines: quadripunctata pul- 
chella, asteca, zendala, *mc.ricana, mo.ra, erronca, tolteca, 
vajas, latipennis, *nigriventris. 

Kirby has, in addition, placed alcarazsas in the present genus 
with a query. 

ORDER OF LINEAR ARRANGEMENT OF SPECIES. 

In the linear arrangement of the species of the genus we 
consider that those which we term the plain green species 
should properly appear before the more distinctively colored 
forms. Of the plain green forms we would place first the 
species having in the males the distal margin of the subgenital 
plate transverse, next those having this margin triangularly 
produced, here including the few more distinctively colored 
species also showing this feature, and last those species having 
this margin produced sinistrad and asymmetrical, after which 
.ollow the majority of the more highly colored species which 
ilso show this condition. 

The following small plain green species must shortly be 
recorded in a paper by Mr. James A. G. Rehn. As it is evi- 
dently new, we offer the following description. 

Panchlora bidentula 11 new species. 

The present species belongs in the second division of the 
genus as arranged above. 

TYPE: $ ; Igarape Assu, Para, Brazil. January 17, 1912. 
(H. S. Parish.) ' [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Type No. 5295]. 

9 This name has been proposed by Kirby for the species described 
as hyalina by Saussure, which Kirby considered preoccupied by Blatta 
hyalina of Stoll. As Stoll's description contains not a single character 
of specific diagnostic value and as the type is not extant we consider 
his name unidentifiable and in consequence hyalina of Saussure must 
stand. 

10 Selected as type of the genus by Kirby, Synon. Cat. Orth., I, p. 
154, (1904). 

11 In allusion to the minute mesal productions of the margin of 
the male subgenital plate. 




222 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. -[May, 'l6 

Size small, form moderately slender. Head with eyes very broad in 
front; separated by a very brief space in width less than one-tenth 
the greatest diameter of the eye. Pronotum and tegmina of normal 
form, the clear margins of these parts somewhat tessellate with green- 
ish and in consequence partially opaque. Tegmina and tegminal veins 
very delicate. Femora with normal hairs and spines extremely deli- 
cate. Supra-anal plate subrectangulate, decidedly transverse but still 
produced beyond the apex of the produced subgenital plate, dorsal 
surface weakly concave and covered with short hairs ; lateral margins 
straight and longitudinal to rather broadly rounded disto-lateral 
a-ngles, between these the distal margin is truncate, transverse with a 
minute mesal emargination. Cerci 
small, extending very slightly be- 
yond distal margin of supra- 
anal plate, tapering very gently 
and evenly to flattened, narrow 
and rather sharply rounded apex. 
Subgenital plate transverse, sym- 

, i i < , 11 r is:, i. Pancnlota bidentnla, n. sf>. Yen- 

metrical, weakly triangularly pro- tral outline of cerci and subgenital plate of 
duced distad, the lateral margins type. (Greatly enlarged.) 
not strongly convex to brief mesal portion which is weakly concave, 
this concavity on each side terminated by very minute triangular pro- 
jections of this margin. Small cylindrical styles situated on this margin 
at the inner margin of the base of the cerci and equal to about one half 
the cereal length. 
The female of the species is unknown. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length Length of Width of Length of Width of 

cf cf of body pronotum pronotum legmen legmen 

Caparo, Trinidad. Paratvpe K.7 3.6 4.5 13.2 4.4 

Igarap Assu, Brazil, TYPE 12.3 3.4 4.4 12.2 4. 

Igarape Assu, Brazil. Paratype 12.3 3.5 4.4 13.7 4.3 

Coloration. Dorsal surface light lumiere green fading to hyaline 
distad on tegmina. Lateral margins of pronotum and field of tegmina 
hyaline, weakly obscured with greenish. No traces of lateral cream 
colored lines on pronotum and tegmina, so often found in the plain 
species of Panchlora. Eyes very dark brown, the very brief interocu- 
lar space ferruginous; head otherwise unmarked. Antennae antimony 
yellow, immaculate. From one to two minute and inconspicuous 
brown dots are present on the tegmina in their distal half. 

Specimens Examined: 5; 5 males. 

Caparo, Trindad, VI, 1913 (S. M. Klages), 2 $ , 12 [A. N. 
S. P.]; VIII, 1913 (S. M. Klages), i$, paratype [Hebard 
Cln.]. 

Igarape Assu, Para, Brazil, I, 17, 1912 (H. S. Parish), 
2 $ , TYPE and paratype \ A. N. S. P.]. 

12 In these specimens the caudal margin of the subgenital plate is 
slightly uneven mesad ; in one the minute projections are not decided, 
in the other they are suggested merely by angulations of the margin. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 223 

Descriptiones Hymenopterorum Chalcidotdicorum 
Variorum cum Observationibus. III. 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Glenndale, Maryland. 

Eupelmus inyoensis new species. 

9. Closely allied to juglandis Ashmead but differs in having the 
middle tibiae metallic except at each end (hence the legs concolorous 
except the knees, tarsi and tips of tibiae) and the caudal tibiae all dis- 
tinctly metallic. Distal three tarsal joints black. The abdomen is 
somewhat more slender than with juglandis and the postmarginal vein 
is only slightly longer than the stigmal (much longer in juglandis). 
Otherwise about the same. Differs from brevicandus Crawford in the 
coloration of the legs only. 

$. Similarly colored. Compared with types of the named species. 

Described from five females on tags in the United States 
National Museum labelled "428 Inyo County, California." 

Types: Catalogue No. 20130, U. S. N. M., the above speci- 
mens, an antenna on a slide. 

Eupelmus coccidis Girault. 

Differs from linmcriae Howard only in bearing no metallic 
en the caudal tibiae. One female among the type material of 
brcricaudus Crawford and similarly labelled ; the caudal femur 
v.-as nearly all metallic centrally. There is slight metallic 
laterad at apex of cephalic femur. 

Pseudomphale ancylae new species. 

9 . Like li.vironts Crawford but a third smaller and differing most 
noticeably in that the distal half of each tibia is white not merely the 
tips. Differs also in the following particulars : Segment 2 of the abdo- 
men is distinctly longer being about half the length of that region 
and moreover it does not show a broad cross-stripe of scaliness dis- 
tad (and which widens laterad) as does the other species but its distal 
half bears rather dense, exceedingly delicate pin-punctures; the other 
abdominal segments dorsad do not show a distinct, rather coarse scali- 
ness ; the petiole is somewhat longer than in li.vii'onis and the propo- 
deum glabrous (except within the grooves). Scutellum subglabrous. 

Postmarginal vein very slightly longer than the short, usual stigmal : 
funicle joints subglobular, i a little the longest, a little longer than the 
pedicel, club with a distinct terminal spine. Mandibles bidentate and 
with four or five minute teeth within. 

$. The same but the club is solid, the funicle 4-jointed (three ring- 
joints), the joints 3 and 4 subequal, globular, longer than the pedicel, I 



224 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

somewhat longer than wide, the scape short and dilated ventrad, the 
flagellum clothed with rather dense, soft greyish hairs. 

Described from one pair reared from Ancylus nubecidana, 
Winchester, Virginia, April i, 1915 (B. R. Leach). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20131, U. S. N. M., the above pair 
on tags, the heads and a pair of female wings on a slide. 

Pseudomphale steirastomae new species. 

9 . Differs from metallicus Ashmead in that the cephalic femur is 
concolorous (in the type female, the cephalic legs yellow except coxae 
in the other species) and the tibiae are distinctly marked with black; 
in nigrocyaneus Ashmead, the tibiae are all white and the propodeum 
mostly glabrous ; closely allied with- lixivorus Crawford but differs in 
having the cross-stripe of scaliness on segment 2 of the abdomen dis- 
tinctly shorter and less distinct, the eyes are larger; floridanus (which 
differs from microgastcr mostly in the male sex) has the tibiae all 
white, the propodeum glabrous and the second abdominal segment with 
minute pin-punctures (except broadly at base) ; from brasiliensis in 
having the tibiae dark, the second segment of the abdomen shorter 
(only somewhat less than half the length of the abdomen not three- 
fourths its length as in brasiliensis) and the different sculpture of the 
latter; from ancylae in the different coloration of the legs, the scaly 
propodeum and the different sculpture of the second abdominal seg- 
iment; from hypatia in the scaly propodeum only. Of the stature of 
hypatia. 

The pedicel is elongate, somewhat longer than funicle i ; funicle 3 
is somewhat closely attached to the club so that region superficially 
appears 3-jointed (transition, no doubt). 

$. Similar; its funicle 4-jointed, the joints short, the scape dilated. 
Three ring-joints. Funicle I subequal to the club (more or less) 
nearly twice longer than wide, the others subquadrate. Mandibles hi- 
dentate and with four or five comblike teeth following the acute second 
tooth. 

Described from six males, four females reared from the 
larvae of Steirastoma deprcssum, Erin, Trinidad, British West 
Indies, January, 1913 (F. W. Urich). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20132, U. S. N. M., one female, three 
males on tags and a head of each sex on a slide. 

Pseudomphale graciliventris new species. 

9 . Of rather small size for the genus. Similar in stature and so 
forth to atroscapus Girault but the abdomen is more slender and grace- 
ful and differs in sculpture, there being no distal cross-stripe of scali- 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 225 

ness, as in the Florida species, but instead there is a similar area of 
dense minute pin-punctures (extending broadly over half way to base 
along the meson) ; the second abdominal segment is a little longer. 
Also the funicle joints are somewhat longer, I somewhat longer than 
the pedicel. 

$ . Similar (but segment 2 of abdomen occupying the entire sur- 
face?); funicle 4-jointed, the club solid, the scape distinctly com- 
pressed. Funicle i somewhat longer than the pedicel, 4 subequal to the 
pedicel. 

Described from one male, seven females reared from an 
egg-mass of a Cassidid, Erin, Trinidad, British West Indies, 
March, 1914 (F. W. Urich). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20133, U. S. N. M., five females on 
tags, male and female antennae on a slide. 

Psilophrys pulchripennis Ashmead. Genotype of Hdbrolepopteryx , 

Ashmead. 

Mandibles rather long, with three acute, subequal teeth; head shaped 
as in Berecyntus; scrobes forming a distinct semicircular depression; 
frons moderately narrow; club 3-jointed. Funicle i twice longer than 
wide. Frons subprominent; eyes not very large, longer than the 
cheeks. Knees, tips of tibiae (broadly in cephalic tibiae), tarsi and the 
long middle tibia, lemon yellow. General habitus of Paracalocerinus 
australiensis Girault except the ovipositor. From types in the 
U. S. N. M. The generic description is otherwise correct. 

Habrolepopteryx pulchripennis Ashmead, aeneiscapus new var. 
9 . Similar to the genotype but the scape is concolorous. 

Types: Catalogue No. 20134, U. S. N. M., the specimens on 
tags. From two females, part of the type of the typical form. 

Paracalocerinus americanus new species. 

9 . Agrees with the description of australiensis but the ovipositor 
is extruded somewhat farther, the oblique eye-spots on the fore wing 
are larger, their distance from the wing apex is much greater, the 
cephalic one against the short postmarginal vein (as in the genotype) 
and besides the fore wing bears a conspicuous longitudinal hyaline 
streak along the middle from a point between the oblique eye-spots 
(where it is narrowest) to apex (where it is broadest). The post- 
marginal vein is slightly longer than the stigmal (the marginal linear, 
six or more times longer than wide). The frons a little narrower 
than in the genotype, the scrobes longer and more distinct (the head 
is somewhat as in Habrolepopteryx but the inflexion is less) yet not 
very long, the mandibles stouter. Funicle I smallest, somewhat like a 



226 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

large ring joint, 2 longest, somewhat longer than wide, 3 quadrate, 
longer than i, the others wider than long. The pedicel is somewhat 
longer and the sculpture of the body is finer than with the Australian 
species. 

Described from one female in the U. S. N. M., from Onaga, 
Kansas (Crevecoeur). 

Type: Catalogue No. 20135, U. S. N. M., the thorax on a 
tag; rest of the body on a slide (including wings) with a 
female of australicnsis (Kuranda, Queensland, forest, Sep- 
tember, A. P. Dodd). 

(Eupelmus) Aphidencyrtus schizoneurae (Ashmead). 

The tibiae are dark, the mandibles as in aphidiphagus, that is, the 
third tooth truncate. The type female is in bad condition, without 
wings. The frons is wider than usual. 

Holcencyrtus physokermis new species. 

9. Length, i.io mm. Dark metallic green, the wings hyaline, the 
venation dusky, the blade of the wing very slightly infuscated distad 
and caudad of the marginal vein ; knees, tarsi and apex of the tibiae 
pale, middle tibiae more broadly pale at tip, distal tarsal joint dusky. 

Pedicel somewhat longer than wide at the apex, subequal in length 
to joints I and 2 of the funicle which are subquadrate ; funicle 6 no 
longer than i yet somewhat wider; club two-thirds the length of the 
funicle and somewhat wider, its joints larger than those of the funicle. 

Head and thorax densely scaly, the vertex, scutum, axillae and 
scutellum with scattered minute setigerous punctures which are not 
dense yet rather numerous. Axillae slightly separated. Mandibles of 
tolerable length, their teeth short, equal, the first two acute, the third 
obtuse but not broad. Head (cephalic aspect) quadrate, the frons 
broad, not prominent, the eyes ovate, not large, slightly longer than 
the cheeks. Face inflexed. Pronotum transverse linear. 

Marginal vein quadrate or a little longer than wide, thick, the post- 
marginal and stigmal veins subequal, a half or more longer than the 
marginal. Hairless line not closed caudad, with six or more lines of 
cilia proximad of it (these cilia enclosing proximad a triangular naked 
space). Costal cell broad (with four or five lines of discal cilia). Fore 
wings ample, densely, finely ciliate. 

Ovipositor inserted distad of middle, the abdomen from its insertion, 
obliquely truncate. 

Proximal tarsal joints not long (longest in the middle legs, shortest 
in the cephalic ones). 

$ . The same but the marginal vein is over twice longer than wide, 
somewhat longer than the postmarginal or stigmal; cephalic and middle 
legs, caudal femora and tarsi (except last joint), a cinctus on caudal 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 227 

tibiae joint below the knee and tips of caudal tibiae and the antennae 
except the pedicel and dorsal edge of the scape, pale lemon yellow. 
Scape short, convexed distinctly beneath ; pedicel globular ; funicle 
joints narrowed at each end, shorter than the solid club, clothed with 
long, scraggly hairs, subequal, 6 thickest, two and a half times longer 
than where widest. 

Described from one male, twelve females reared from 
Fhysokermes picea, Madison, Wisconsin, May 12, 1915, June 
30 (F. A. Fenton). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20136, U. S. N. M., one male, six 
females on a slide (with other male encyrtids) ; two females 
on a slide as paratypes. 

Encyrtus ensifer Howard. 
The mandibles are only bidentate, the second tooth broadly truncate. 

Xenocrepis mexicana new species. 

9. Length, 1.55 m.. Dark metallic blue, the wings hyaline, the 
venation fuscous, the knees, tibiae (except sometimes the caudal tibia 
just below the knee, a fuscous band), tarsi and scape pale yellow; rest 
of antennae blackish, the pedicel lighter. 

Head and thorax densely scaly punctate, the dorsal abdomen glabrous 
except distad where there is delicate scaliness. Head wider than the 
thorax, rather thick, the occiput obscurely margined. Antennae in- 
serted a little above the middle of the face; pedicel a little longer than 
wide, barely longer than funicle I which is very slightly longer than 
wide, 3 quadrate, 5 slightly wider than long; the three ring-joints all 
short, i a little the shortest. Flagellum filiform, the club joints sub- 
equal to funicle i. Mandibles 4-dentate. 

Postmarginal vein elongate, nearly as long as the slightly thickened 
marginal, nearly twice longer than the slender stigmal. 

Propodeum finely punctate, with lateral carinae, no median, from 
lateral aspect with a short, subglobose neck, conical, much longer at 
the meson than at the spiracle, the latter small, cephalad. Parasidal 
furrows only cephalad. Abdomen with a very short petiole from be- 
neath the propodeal neck, slightly longer than the rest of the body, 
pointed conical, not produced beneath, its second segment longest, 
occupying somewhat over a third of the surface. 

Cephalic femur not swollen. 

$. Similar except that the body is weaker and the tibiae metallic 
except at each end. 

Described from ten males, four females on tags in the U. S. 
N. M., labelled "Scymnophagus toumsendi Ashmead, 6427 
= 6. Townsend. Issued November 30, 1894. Type No. 12725, 
U. S. N. M." 



228 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

Types: Catalogue No. 12725 U. S. N. M., the above speci- 
mens and a slide bearing a head of each sex, a male first femur 
and three female caudal legs. 

The species is parasitic on a Scymnid larva which preys 
upon Lecaninni oleae on orange, San Luis, Mexico. Also at 
Monterey, Mexico, from the larva of Azya orbigera. The 
scutellum has a delicate cross suture near its apex. 

Polynema piceipes Girault. 
The legs are concolorous as the name indicates. 



Collecting Papaipemae (Lep.). 
By ALEX KWIAT, Chicago, Illinois. 

My object in writing on this subject is not particularly to 
recount my own experiences but to serve as a guide to others, 
who, by its aid, might become interested and succeed in adding 
to our knowledge of the various species of Papaipema and 
their life histories. 

A great deal of careful and painstaking work on this group 
has been done by Mr. Henry Bird and others during the last 
eighteen or twenty years and the results published from time 
to time. My intention is merely to summarize a few of the 
known facts so that anyone who wishes to do so can seek in- 
telligently for the larvae of species whose food plants and 
habits are known and rear them to maturity. Anyone work- 
ing along the lines suggested will not only add materially to 
his collections but also may discover new species and the life 
histories of others hitherto unknown. 

In general the larvae of the Papaipemae are borers in the 
stems or roots of persistent annuals or perennial plants and, 
in at least one instance, in the young shoots of an indigenous 
tree. 

The moths appear rather late in the year, the earliest spe- 
cies about August I5th and the latest about October 5th. They 
are sluggish of habit and seldom fly far from their breeding 
place. This sluggishness and the late period of flight accounts 
for their scarcity in collections. 

Eggs are deposited on or near the food plant and hatch the 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 22Q 

following spring and by the middle of May, in some instances, 
the work of the young larvae may be observed. A wilted or 
yellowing leaf or stunted growth often tells the tale and almost 
invariably the presence of frass at or near the opening by 
which the larvae entered, indicates its whereabouts. Often a 
leaf will wither from some other cause in which case the ab- 
sence of frass renders further search needless. Where no in- 
dication but the presence of frass is mentioned, it will be 
found that affected plants are usually stunted or shorter than 
those unaffected. 

The larvae are readily recognized by their characteristic 
markings up to the penultimate stage. They are usually of a, 
brownish color with five longitudinal pale stripes. These 
stripes are in some species continuous throughout, in others 
with only the dorsal stripe continuous and in a third group 
with all stripes interrupted at the first four abdominal seg- 
ments by a dark-purplish brown band which encircles the body 
and is a character appearing more or less strongly on all the 
larvae during the earlier stages. 

Pupation sometimes takes place in the burrow but more 
often in the ground and the pupal period lasts from four to 
five weeks. 

It may be assumed that a species is found or is likely to be 
found wherever its food plant occurs. Where the life history 
is unknown, I have shown as habitat, the places where cap- 
tures have been reported. 

The species are here listed alphabetically and no attempt is 
made to indicate synonymy, the latest authentic name only be- 
ing given. 

anargyrea Dyar. Life history unknown. Habitat, Colorado. 

angelica Smith. In "stem" and "root" ot Psoralea macrostarcha. 
Habitat, California. 

appassionata Harvey. In root of Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia pur- 
purca). Pupates in ground August rst to lotli. Evidence, 
orange-colored frass. This larva usually changes to a new plant 
early in July. 

arctivorens Hampson. In stem and root of Burdock (Arctiuin 
lappa) ; also in thistles (Cirsium hillii, lanceolatum & arvense). Pu- 
pates in ground about August loth. Evidence, frass. 



230 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

astuta Bird. In stem and root of Stone Root or Horse Balm 
(Collinsonia canadensis) . Pupates in ground August ist-ioth. Evi- 
dence, white frass and dry stalk. 

aweme Lyman. Life history unknown. Habitat, Manitoba. 

cataphracta Grote and var. fluxa Bird. Very general feeder in 
Burdock, Thistle, Parsnip and other plants, in stem and root. 
Pupates in its burrow about August 10th. Evidence, dwarfed or 
sickly plant, often breaking at opening. 

cerina Grote. In stem of Lilium superbum. Pupates in ground 
about August 1st. Evidence, small hole and little frass. 

cerussata Grt. & Rob. In stem and root of Ironweed (Vernonia 
noveboracensis). Pupates in ground about August 5th. Evidence, 
frass and burst and often bent stem. 

circumlucens Smith. In stem and root of Dogbane (Apocynum 
androsemifolium and canabinum) ; also in Baptisia tinctoria and 
other plants. Pupates sometimes in burrow, more often in ground, 
about August 1st. Evidence, wilted or brown foliage in July or if 
stem is very thick it merely bends at the opening. There is much 
frass of a reddish color. 

duovata Bird. In stem and root of Solidago sempcrvircns. Pu- 
pates in burrow about August 15th. Evidence, several openings 
in stem. 

duplicata Bird. In root of Stone Root (Collinsonia canadensis). 
Pupates in burrow about August 15th. Evidence white frass 
and dry stem. 

errans B. & McD. Life history unknown. Habitat, Arizona. 

erubescens Bird. In Thistle (Cirsium occidcntalc). Pupates in 
burrow about July 25th. Evidence, frass. 

eupatorii Lyman. In lower stem and root of Eupatorium pur- 
pureum. Pupates in burrow August ist to loth. Evidence, frass. 

frigida Smith and var. thalictri Lyman. In root of Meadow rue, 
(Thalictrum) . Pupates in ground about August ist. Evidence, very 
slight, little frass. Not rare. 

furcata Smith. In young shoots of Ash. Pupates in ground about 
July 20th. Evidence during July, dried black terminal leaves. 
The fresh shoot is first entered and when the larva leaves it a 
new burrow is made, often a considerable distance lower, in the 
preceding year's woody growth. Here only a clean cut hole is 
visible, as the frass, being unusually dry, drops to ground and 
scatters. If the terminal work is evident, a slight bending of 
the woody portion will cause a sharp break at the point where 
the larva is to be found. Should be located early but not taken 
in until shortly before pupation, as ash stems dry too quick-h- 
and larvae will not thrive. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 23! 

harrisii Grote Lower stem and root of Heracleum lanatum. Pu- 
pates in ground about July 25th. Evidence, hole in stem and 
frass. 

humuli Bird. In stem of Hops often as high as 20 feet from base. 
Occupies a cigar-shaped gall which serves as evidence. Pupates 
in ground about July 20. 

impecuniosa Grote. In stem of Aster umbellatus. Pupates in 
stem about August 20th and is usually tightly wedged in burrow. 
Evidence, frass. Also feeds in Sneezeweed. 
imperspicua Bird. Life history unknown. Habitat, Franconia, 

New Hampshire, and Buffalo, New York. 

inquaesita G. & R. In sensitive fern (Onoclca sensibilis). Enters 
frond stem and bores to end of advancing root stock. Pupates 
in ground about August 1st. Evidence, orange-colored frass 
and during June the withered leaf. 

insulidens Bird. Life history unknown. Habitat, Vancouver Is- 
land. 

limata Bird. Life history unknown. Habitat, Pullman, Washington, 
limpida Gr. Lower stem and root of Burdock at Montreal, Que- 
bec. Pupates in burrow or ground about July 15th. As burdock 
is not native in America this species must have some other in- 
digenous food-plant. Type was from Illinois. 

lysimachiae Bird. In stem of loose-strife (Lysimachia quadri- 
folia). Pupates in the ground, August I2th to August :8th. Evi- 
dence, brown leaves and stem. 

marginidens Gn. In stem and root of Cicuta maculata, also Rumex 
and Cosmos and Burdock. Pupates in ground about July 20th. 
Evidence, fallen top or branch and frass at base. In burdock 
only frass. 

maritima Bird. In base of stalk of Hclianthus giganteus. Pu- 
pates in burrow about August 15th. Evidence, large gall-like 
swelling at base and frass. Habitat, Atlantic coast of New York 
and New Jersey. 

merriccata Bird. In root of Mandrake or May Apple. Pupates 

in ground about August 10th. Evidence, yellow leaf and frass. 

necopina Grote. In base of stalk of Hclianthus tubcrosus and H. 

rigidus. Pupates in burrow or ground about August ist. Evidence, 

swelling at base of stem and frass. 

nelita Strecker and var. linda Bird. In lower stem and root of 
Rudbeckia laciniata. Pupates in ground July I5th to August loth. 
Evidence, frass. 

nepheleptena Dyar. In stem and root of Turtle-head or Snake- 
head (Chelone glabra). Pupates in ground about August 15. Evi- 
dence, white frass. 



232 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

nephrasyntheta Dyar. In root of Eryngium yuccifolium. Pu- 
pates in burrow or soil about August 15th. Evidence, yellow 
leaf blades and much brown frass. 

nitela Gn. and var. nebris Gn. The commonest of all. Feeds in 
stems of Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and over-runs into Burdock, 
corn and other plants. Pupates in stem about August loth. Evi- 
dence, frass and holes in stem. 

ochroptena Dyar. Life history unknown. Habitat, Denver, Colo- 
rado. 

pterisii Bird. In stem and root of common Brake Fern (Pteris 
aquilina). Pupates in ground July 2Oth to July 30th. Evidence, yel- 
low leaf and orange colored frass. 

purpurifascia G. & R. In root of Columbine (Aquilegia canaden- 
sis). Pupates in ground July I5th to. August isth. Evidence, frass. 

rigida Grote. In root of Heliopsis helianthoides, also in Helian- 
thus decapitalis and Zizia sp. Pupates in ground about August 5th. 
Evidence, frass. 

rubiginosa Bird. In stem and root of Heracleum lanatum and 
Angelica atropurpurea. Pupates in ground July 2Oth to August 5th. 
Evidence, frass. 

rutila Gn. Life history unknown. Habitat, Illinois. 

sciata Bird. In root of Speedwell (Veronica virginica). Pupates 
in ground about August 15th. Evidence, frass and sometimes 
dry or broken stalk. 

stiphii Bird. In root of Silphium terebinthinaceum, S. laciniatum 
and S. perfoliatum. Pupates in ground about August loth. 

speciosissima G. & R. In root of Regal and Cinnamon ferns 
(Osmunda regalis and cinnamomea.') Pupates in ground about Au- 
gust ist. Evidence, slight, sometimes a dry leaf, usually only frass 
and this a rusty-brown mud-like deposit. 

stenocelis Dyar. In root of fern (Woodwardia virginica). Pu- 
pates in ground about August 10th. Evidence, frass. 

unimoda Smith. Life history unknown. Habitat, Colorado. 

verona Smith. Life history unknown. Habitat, Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba. 

Some instruction as to the necessary equipment and the 
proper method of handling the larvae is essential. A strong 
jack knife, a garden trowel (the writer uses a steel intrench- 
ing tool, such as were carried by our soldiers in Cuba) and a 
botanical collecting case or, in place of this, an ordinary grip, 
are indispensable. A number of small vials or test tube? of *4 
inch diameter and about 2 inches long are very useful. These 
tubes should be corked and numbered for identification. They 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 233 

will serve each for one larva, if it should leave its burrow 
when disturbed. To induce it to return to the burrow is a 
waste of time. Then, too, if it is desired to transfer a larva 
to a fresh food plant, the tube with the larva in it can be 
placed over the end of the fresh plant and the larva is thus 
forced to feed there, instead of exhausting itself by wandering 
around in search of its former home or some other plant more 
to its liking. 

In general it is advisable to gather the larvae as late as pos- 
sible before pupation takes place. Some species, however, are 
more easily detected in the earlier stages, and these have been 
rioted in the list ; such can be located early and taken in later. 
The time for taking them in is also limited so, as soon as July 
sets in and even before, it behooves the collector to "get 



busy." Care must be taken to keep the various food plants in 
separate boxes and specimens should be labeled with the name 
of the plant in which it is bred. A goodly number of boxes is 
therefore needed and they should be deep enough to contain 
4 inches or more of loose soil or leaf mould and still leave 
about 6 inches clear above the soil. 

It is best to take some root with the food plant whenever 
possible. It is also advisable to cover the soil with sphagnum 
moss (which can be obtained from any florist) to prevent its 
drying out as much as possible. The soil should be kept moist 
but never very wet. If the plant in which the larva was found 
is frail, it is best to supply a new plant at once. When the 
larva pupates in its burrow and the plant begins to dry and 
shrivel so as to pinch the pupa, the latter should be removed 
and placed on the soil and covered with moss. 

These moths when mounted, usually become greasy, to pre- 
vent which, we break off the abdomens after the specimens 
are completely dry (not merely rigid), whether they show 
signs of grease or not, and immerse them in pure gasoline or 
benzine for one week, replacing them with the aid of Lepage's 
glue. Needless to say that the bodies must not be mixed. Small 
vaseline jars or jelly glasses are handy to use for the gasoline. 
Four to six bodies of different colors or sex can be placed in 
each at one time and the gasoline used only once. While in 



234 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

use these jars should be kept in a dark place to prevent fading 
of colors. 

As an indication of what may be done in the group, I need 
only state that in two seasons, the writer, with Mr. Emil Beer, 
of Chicago, who co-operated throughout, successfully reared 
to maturity 19 of the species listed above, all from the imme- 
diate vicinity of Chicago. 

In conclusion I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Mr. Otto Buchholz of Elizabeth, New Jersey, who first sup- 
plied me with a list somewhat similar to that here given, and 
also to Mr. Henry Bird, who supplemented the efforts of Mr. 
Buchholz with valuable suggestions. 



Tribolium confusum Duval as a Museum Pest (Col.). 

During the late summer and fall of 1914, a sack of bran which had 
been partly used in grasshopper poisoning became the breeding place 
for the small flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Duval. From this bran, 
which hung in the attic, the beetles became generally diffused through- 
out the laboratory, finding their way into the temporary insect boxes. 
Aside from being a menace to the collections by crawling about in the 
boxes knocking off legs, antennae, wings, etc., and small specimens off 
points, they made further depredations by actually eating specimens. 
Many smaller insects were eaten in the boxes, which work was, no 
doubt, that of this insect and at one time the writer discovered five of 
the adults within a cavity in the abdomen of a moth eating vigorously. 

This insect was found breeding in boxes of stored unpinned Lepi- 
doptera by Mr. Wm. B. Turner, of this Station. Many larvae were 
present, some inside the bodies of the moths, others about on the bot- 
tom of box and in crevices. That they had been feeding was quite 
evident from the fragmentary matter sifted down to the bottom of the 
box. Pupae and newly emerged adults were present also. (Mar., 
I 9 I S)- H. L. PARKER, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Cereal and 
Forage Crop Insect Investigations, Hagerstown, Md. 

Eleodes tricostatus Say in Missouri (Col.). 

Blaisdell in his Revision of the Eleodiini (U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 63, 
'09) writing of this species mentions having no records of specimens 
from Missouri, Arkansas, Minnesota or Louisiana. Stoner (Ent. 
News, xxiv, 81) has recorded this species from about Fergus Falls, 
Minnesota, where I have also taken it in considerable numbers. With- 
in the last three years' collecting in Missouri, I found it not rare at 
most points in the Ozark region. M. P. SOMES, Mountain Grove, 
Missouri. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



PHILADELPHIA, PA., MAY, 1916. 



The Biologia Centrali- Americana. 

Elsewhere in this number we notice and quote from the 
final volume of one of the most extensive single works on 
natural history yet attempted the Biologia Centrali- Ameri- 
cana.. Not the least remarkable and noteworthy feature con- 
nected with its completion is that its senior projector and 
editor has the happiness of beholding the accomplished deed. 
Many a similar work has failed, or been left in an unfinished 
state, owing to the death of its author, but to Dr. Frederick Du- 
cane Godman Fate has been more kind and we can at present 
recall only Sir John Murray as having been equally fortunate 
in a somewhat comparable undertaking. 

The Biologia affects us of the New World more than it 
does the nation to which its editors and most of their col- 
laborators belong. Although the Rio Grande and the Gila 
form the northern boundary of the territory to which the 
Biologia is devoted, many of the plants and the animals with 
which it deals wander far to the north of those rivers just as 
on the south they extend far beyond the peaks of Darien. The 
Pan-American scope of science is more assured than Pan- 
American policies and from the very situation of the area to 
which the Biologia refers, this great work must always hold 
a most important and authoritative position. 

We speak of the completion of the Biologia, yet Dr. God- 
man himself reminds us that various groups were unavoidably 
left untouched and that additional material came in from the 
collectors too late to be included in the appropriate volumes. 
The fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America is still 
imperfectly known, as the exploration of the lepidopterous 
fauna of Costa Rica by Messrs. Schaus and Barnes has re- 
cently very clearly demonstrated. The discoveries which 
the future has in store make it improbable that another 
Biologia Centrali- Americana of equal scope will ever be, and 

235 



236 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

the magnificent undertaking to which Messrs. Godman and Sal- 
vin have devoted their lives and their fortunes is likely to re- 
main an incomparable monument in the study of Central 
American nature. 

To Dr. Godman then, and to his assiduous secretary, Mr. 
G. C. Champion, go our hearty congratulations on the ter- 
mination of the Biologia! 



Notes and. Ne\vs 

ENTOMOLOGICAL GLEANINGS FROM ALL QUARTERS 
OF THE GLOBE. 

Rearing of Winthemia quadripustulata from Rhynchophorous Larva 

(Dip.. Col.). 

On December 5, 1914, while following the plow in a sod field near 
Hagerstown, Maryland, several larvae, undoubtedly belonging to the 
group Rhynchophora were found. These larvae were brought into the 
laboratory and placed in a tin box with dirt. On December I5th it 
was observed that some of the larvae were dead and two Dipterous 
pupae had made their appearance in the box. One pupa was attached 
to the remains of a grub. The pupae were removed to separate boxes 
in which the adults emerged on January 7, 1915. The adults were 
determined by Mr. W. R. 'Walton as Winthemia qu-adripustulata. Con- 
cerning the individual larva from which the fly was reared, Dr. Bov- 
ing, of the National Museum, says : 

"The larva looks to me as a Curculionid. Mr. Craighead thinks 

the same I am confident that it is no Cerambycid nor 

Bostrychiid." 

The mid-winter activity of the parasites was probably due to the 
fact that they were brought into the laboratory which was well heat- 
ed. H. L. PARKER, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Cereal and 
Forage Crop Insect Investigations, Hagerstown, Md. 

A Tachinid Parasite Reared from an Adult Capsid (Dip., Horn.). 

On June 26, 1915, three adults of Miris dolobrata Linn., were placed 
in a small vial which was plugged with cotton. The next morning a 
live dipterous maggot about 7 mm. in length was found in the vial. 
One of the Capsids was examined and a large hole was found in the 
center of the abdomen. The maggot was placed on some finely sifted 
earth in a small flower pot and it immediately burrowed beneath the 
surface. On July n the adult had emerged and was found alive in 
the cage. This was determined by Dr. A. O. Johannsen as Phorantha 
occidentis Walker. According to Aldrich (Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 8: 
81, 1915) this species was reared by F. B. Milliken from Nysius angus- 
tatus Uhler. To my knowledge no dipterous parasites of the Capsidae 
have heretofore been recorded. M. D. LEONARD, Ithaca, New York. 

Homophoeta lustrans Crotch in Iowa (Coleop.). 

During October, 1915, a single specimen of this beetle was taken in 
a sweep net at Hills, near the southeastern part of the State. The 
collecting was done along and near the Iowa river on various weeds, 



Vol. XXvii] K XTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 237 

though I am unable to state the plant on which this particular indi- 
vidual was found. Up to this time Homophoeta lustrous Crotch has 
not been recorded from Iowa, it being a more southern species. Horn, 
in "A Synopsis of the Halticini of Bereal America" (Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc. xvi, 1889), says of it: "Occurs in Texas." This Iowa record will 
bring the distribution much further north than before. There seems 
to be no doubt as to the identification, for the specimen agrees per- 
fectly with those in the collection of H. F. Wickham. L. L. BU- 
CHANAN, Iowa City, Iowa. 



Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, 'will be recorded. 
The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered in 
the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of systematic papers arc all grouped at the end of each 
Order of which they treat, and are separated from the rest by a dash. 

Unless mentioned in the title, the number of new species or forms are 
given at end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record. 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. 

For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series B. 

1 Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
10 Nature, London. 13 Comptes Rendus, Societe de Biologic, 
Paris. 14 Proceedings, The Zoological Society of London. 34 
Proceedings, Iowa Academy of Sciences, Des Moines. 40 Societas 
Entomologica, Zurich. 46 Tijdschrift voor Entomologie. 68 
Science, New York. 87 Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, 
Paris. 142 -Report, Michigan Academy of Sciences, Lansing. 161 
Proceedings, The Biological Society of Washington. 166 Inter- 
nationale Entomologische Zeitschrift, Guben. 184 Journal of Ex- 
perimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 186 Journal of Economic Biol- 
ogy, London. 189 Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Clare- 
mont, Calif. 195 Bulletin, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge. 198 Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Labora- 
tory, Woods Hole, Mass. 216 Entomologische Zeitschrift, Frank- 
furt a. Main. 278 Annales, Societe Zoologique Suisse et du 
Museum d'Histoire de Geneve, Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 285 
Nature Study Review, Ithaca, N. Y. 322 Journal of Morphology, 
Philadelphia. 324 Journal of Animal Behavior, Cambridge. 344 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. D. C. 359 Con- 
necticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven. 410 Jour- 
nal, Washington Academy of Sciences. 447 Journal of Agricul- 



238 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, 'l6 

tural Research, Washington. 469 Annual Report and Transac- 
tions, Manchester Microscopical Society. 477 The American 
Journal of Tropical Diseases and Preventive Medicine, New 
Orleans. 507 Occasional Papers, Museum, of Zoology, University 
of Michigan. 523 Bolletino delle sedute della Accademia Gioenia 
di Scienze Naturali in Catania. 524 Technical Bulletins, Entomol- 
ogy, University of California, Berkeley. 525 Meddelanden fran 
Statens Skogsforsoksanstalt, Stockholm. 526 Ectoparasites, ed. 
by Jordan & Rothschild, London. 527 New York College of 
Forestry at Syracuse University. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Cook, O. F. Determining types of 
genera, 410, vi, 137-40. Pierce, W. D. A new interpretation of the 
relationship of temperature and humidity to insect development, 
447, v, 1183-91. Mottram, J. C. Some observations on pattern- 
blending with reference to obliterative shading and concealment 
of outline, 14, 1915, 679-92. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Browne, E. N. A 

comparative study of the chromosomes of six species of Notonecta, 
322, xxvii, 119-47. Hegner, R. W. Experimental studies on the 
relation between the structure and development of the eggs of 
chrysomelid beetles, 142, xvi, 49-54. Lewis & Robertson. The 
mitochondria and other structures observed by the tissue culture 
method in the male germ cells of Chorthippus curtipennis, 198, 
xxx, 99-124. Shull, A. F. Parthenogenesis in Anthothrips verbasci, 
142, xvi, 46-48. 

MEDICAL. King, W. V. Anopheles punctipennis, a host of 
tertian malaria, 477, iii, 426-32. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Andre, E. Anomalie de 1'appareil buccal 
d'Ascaris megalocephala, 278, xxiv, 251-3. Francaviglia, C. (See 
under Hemiptera). Hilton, W. A. Mites from the Claremont 
Laguna region, 189, viii, 35-6. Hirst, S. On the "Harvest bug" 
(Microtrombidium autumnalis), 186, x, 73-7. Turner, C. H. Notes 
on the feeding behavior and oviposition of a captive American fake 
spider (Eremobates formicaria), 324, vi, 160-8. Willis, H. G. 
Spiders [Notes on], 469, 1914, 50-9. 

Banks, N. Revision of Cayuga Lake Spiders, 1, 1916, 68-84. 

New Californian mites [5 n. sps.], 189, viii, 12-15. Chamberlin, 

R. V. Results of the Yale Peruvian expedition of 1911. The 
Arachnida, 195, Ix, 177-299. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Legendre, J. Sur un nouveau mode 
d'elevage de Pediculus vestimenti, 13, Ixxix, 203-4. Snyder, Tho. 
E. Termites, or "white ants," in the U. S.: their damage and 
methods of prevention, 344, Bui. 333. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 239 

ORTHOPTERA. Francaviglia, C. (See under Hemiptera). 

HEMIPTERA. Stoner, D. Notes on Iowa Pentatomoidea, 34, 
xxii, 347-54. Baker, A. C. Identity of Eriosoma pyri, 447, v, 1115- 
1119. Francaviglia, C. Emitteri ed Ortotteri parassiti dell'orecchio 
umano; Acari parasiti dell'orecchio umano, 523, 1915, 14-20; 21-27. 
Lundbeck, W. Some remarks on the eggs and egg deposition of 
Halobates, 13 pp. (Mindeskrift for J. Steenstrup, xxvii, Koben- 
havn). 



Van Duzee, E. P. Review of the genus Macrotylus [4 n. sps.], 
189, viii, 5-11. Synoptical keys to the genera of the No. American 
Miridae [5 n. g. ; 3 n. n.]. New or little known genera and species 
of Orthotylini [2 n. g.; 5 n. sps.], 524, i, 199-216; 217-227. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dolley, W. L., Jr. Reactions to light in 
Vanessa antiopa, with special reference to circus movements, 184, 
xx, 356-420. Ebner, A. Interessante Catocalenzucht, 166, ix, 131-2. 
Mallonee, A. M. Frogs catching butterflies, 68, xliii, 386-87. 
Shufeldt, R. W. Nature-study and the common forms of animal 
life. V. [Insects], 285, xii, 115-24. Tragardh, A. I. Bidrag till 
kannedomen om tallens ach granens fiender bland smafjarilarna, 
525, 1915, 813-874. 

Fruhstorfer, H. Eine neue neotropische Nymphalide, 40, xxxi, 
14. Neue neotropische Nymphalide, 216, xxix, 97-98. 

DIPTERA. Buttrick, P. L. A mosquito survey at the mouth 
of the Connecticut river, 359, Bui. 189. Garnett, H. A note on 
Simulium, 469, 1914, 37-40. Jobbins-Pomeroy, A. W. Notes on 
five N. Am. buffalo gnats of the genus Simulium, 344, No. 329. 

Malloch, J. R. The generic status of Chrysanthrax Osten Sacken, 
161, xxix, 63-70. Jordan & Rothschild. Contribution to our knowl- 
edge of American Siphonaptera [2 n. g. ; 5 n. sps.], 526, i, 45-60. 
Rothschild, N. C. Further notes on Siphonaptera fracticipita, with 
descriptions of new gen. and sps. fl new sp.]. On Neopsylla and 
some allied genera of Siphonaptera [2 n. gen.; 6 n. sps.], 526, i, 
25-29; 30-44. 

COLEOPTERA. Andrews, E. A. Color changes in the rhin- 
ocerus beetle, Dynastes tityrus, 184, xx, 435-56. Blackman, M. W. 
Observations on the life history and habits of Pityogenes hopkinsi 
Swaine, 527, Tech. Pub. No. 2, 11-66. Du Porte, E. M. Death feign- 
ing reactions in Tychius picirostris, 324, vi, 138-49. 



Grouvelle, A. descriptions de deux Telephanus de la Jamaique, 
87, 1916, 84-7. Swaine, J. M. A new species of Pityogenes, 527, 
Tech. Pub. No. 2, 8-10. 



240 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [May, '16 

HYMENOPTERA. Brun, R. Le probleme de 1'orientation 
lointaine chez les fourmis, 278, xxiv, 355-88. F. The recent mor- 
tality among bees, 10, xcvii, 7-8. Wasmann, E. Nachtrag zu "Eine 
neue Pseudomyrma aus der Ochsenhorndornakazie in Mexiko," 
46, Iviii, 125-131. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. Bees from the northern peninsula of Michi- 
gan [2 new]; Some bees from British Guiana, 507, No. 23; 24. 
Wheeler, W. M. Ants collected in Trinidad by Roland Thaxter, 
F. W. Urich and others, 195, Ix, 323-30. 



OBITUARY. 

The death of THEODORE PERGANDE on March 23, 1916, in 
Washington, is announced in Science for April 7. He was 
born in Germany seventy-six years ago, came to America at 
the outbreak of the Civil War and served in the Federal 
Army. He became assistant to Prof. C. V. Riley, then State 
Entomologist of Missouri, and accompanied the latter to 
Washington in June, 1878, so that he was the oldest scientific 
assistant, in point of continued service, in the Bureau of En- 
tomology at the time of his death. Among his published writ- 
ings are: Habits of Thrips (Psyche 1882 [1883]), The Cot- 
ton or Melon Plant Louse and Observations on Certain Thrip- 
idae (Insect Life, 1895), The Plum Plant Louse (Bulletin 
No. 7, Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., 1897), A New Coccid on 
Birch (with H. G. Hubbard) and The Peach Lecaniitm (Bul- 
letin 18, 1898), List of Coccidae Collected by Mr. A. Busck 
in Puerto Rico, 1899 (with T. D. A. Cockerell) (Bull. 22, 
1900), The Life History of Tzvo Species of Plant Lice In- 
habiting both the Witch Hazel and Birch (Bull. 9, Tech. 
Series, 1901), The Southern Grain Louse, To.voptera grami- 
num (Bull. 38, 1902), On Some of the Aphides Affecting 
Grams and Grasses of the United States (Bull. 44, 1904) and 
North American Phyllo.vcrinae Affecting Hicoria (Can 1 a-) 
and Other Trees (Proceedings Davenport Acad. Sci., 1904). 
To the NEWS he contributed a Description of a A 7 ra> Species 
of Idolothrips (1896), Description of Tu'o Neiv Genera and 
Three Nczv Species of Aphididae (1906), and a rhymed 
effusion, A Happy Family of Bugologists (1908). 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHMITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough around the front 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of tlie front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in addition to being abso- 
lutely dust, moth and dermestes proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos- 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42i in. high, 13 in. deep, 18| 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameled green outside. For details of Dr. Skin- 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological News, Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside lined with cork; the outside enameled any color 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are 9x 13x2i in. deep, but can be furnished 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. We do not assert that this wooden box has all the quali- 
ties of the metal box, especially in regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 
a box, we think, superior to any other wood insect box. The bottom is cork lined. 
Outside varnished. For catalogue and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WARD'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleop'tera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 189O 

When Writing Please Mention " Entomological New*." 



K-S Specialties 



Entomology 



THE KNY-SCHEERER COMPANY 

Department of Natural Science 404-4 1 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Exotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 




INSKCT IJOXKS We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and can 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 

NS/3085 Plain Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15% in Each $0.25 

NS/3o8s Size8xio}4in Each .15 

NS/3ogi Lepidoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 
cover and bottom of strong pasteboard, covered with 
bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 
Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf (peat). 

Per dozen ' 5.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Per dozen 6.00 

Caution : Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 

( For exhibition purposes) 




N 5/309 1 




NS/3t2i K.-S. Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 
fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8xux2%'in. (or to order, 8%xio%x2% in.) $0.70 

Size 12x16x2% in. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 1 .20 

Size 14x22x2% in. (or to order, 14x22x2% in.) 2.00 



NS/3I2I 



Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 



THE KNY SCHEERER CO. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 
G. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 



PARIS EXPOSITION : 
Eight Awards and Medals 




PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 
Gold Medal 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION : Grand Prize and Gold Medal 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects? of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc. 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kinds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Papilio columbus (gundlachianus). the brightest colored American Papilio, very 
rare, perfect specimens $1.50 each ; second quality $1.00 each. 

Writing i'leaxe Mention "Entomological New." 



P. C.Stookhausen. Printer, 53-55 N. 7th Street. Philadelphia. 



JUNE, 1916. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. 



No. 6. 





John Lawrence Le Conte, 
I825-J883. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



SERA T. CRESSON 
PHILIP LAURENT, 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 



SRICH DAHCKK. 



J. A. G. REHN. 
H. W. WENZEL. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $ r.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 

|&"Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June 15th to September 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

ty The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, 20 cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper, 30 characters or less. 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 

C. V. BLACKBURN, 12 PINE STREET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, Vo. XXVII. 



Plate XIII. 





ISOGNATHUS RIMOSA WOODI, 1. rf, 2, 3, 9. 
I. RIMOSA RIMOSA, 4. ?.-RAMSDEN. 




ENTOMOLOGICAL 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



JUNE, 1916. 



No. 6. 



CONTENTS: 



Ramsden The Status of Isognathus 
congratulans and a New Form of 
I. rimosa from Cuba ( Lep. ) 241 

Crampton The Lines of Descent of 
the Lower Pterygolan Insects, with 
Notes on the Relationships of the 
other Forms 244 

Knab Mycetobia and the Classifica- 
tion of the Diptera 259 

Hebard Two new dark-colored Spe- 
cies of the Genus Eurycotis (Or- 
thoptera, Blattidae) 263 

Reed Butterflies of a Mountain Park 
in Colorado (Lep.) 267 

Entomologists at the Graduate School 
of Agriculture 268 

Somes The Phasmidae of Minnesota, 
Iowa and Missouri (Orth.) 269 

Chidester and Patterson The Influ- 
ence of Various Concentrations of 
Sea Water on the Viability of the 
Salt Marsh Mosquitoes Aedes sol- 
licitans and Aedes cantator (Dip.) 272 



Rau The Sun-Dance of the Sawfly 
(Hymen.) 274 

Editorial A Duty of Specialists 278 

Index to Minnesota State Entomolo- 
gist's Reports 278 

Weiss Parallelodiplosis cattleyae 
Moll., in New Jersey ( Dip.) 279 

Smith Observations on Ants in South 
Carolina (Hym.) 279 

Parker Feeding Habits of Sinea dia- 
dema ( Het. ) 280 

Somes Targionia dearnessii Ckll. 
(Hem., Horn.) 28-1 

Entomological Literature 283 

Doings of Societies Feldman Collect- 
ing Social (Coleop., Hym., Lep., 

Dip., Homop.) 286 

Chicago Ento. Club (Col., Lep.) 286 

Newark Ento. Society (Dermaptera, 

Col,, Dip.) 287 

The Ecological Society of America 
Announcements 287 



The Status of Isognathus congratulans and a New 

Form of L rimosa from Cuba (Lep.). 
By CHARLES T. RAMSDEN, Guantanamo, Cuba. 

(Plate XIII) 

Drs. Rothschild and Jordan in their monumental work, 
"A Revision of the Lepidopterous Family Sphingidae," Lon- 
don, 1903, page 357, say under Isognathus congratnlans: 
" $ bands of abdomen distinct. Forewings, above, for the 
greater part blackish brown. This may be an c.rtrcmc form of 
rimosa. (The italics are mine.] In Tring Museum I $ from 
Cuba ; also in Berlin Museum." 

Unfortunately the Tring Museum did not have a long 
enough series to determine whether it was a good species, or 
only an extreme form of rimosa, as Drs. Rothschild and Jor- 
dan suspected. 

241 



242 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. f June, 'l6 

During a recent visit of William C. Wood, Esq., of New 
York City to Guantanamo, we went over the series of more 
than fifty specimens of rimosa rimosa, and congratulans in my 
collection and, after deliberate and careful study, came to the 
conclusion that congratulans did not have specific standing, 
for the following reasons. 

In the above mentioned series were intergrades from rimosa 
rimosa to congratulans, not one, but several of them. The 
specimens of this series were all taken at light in Guantanamo, 
the dates ranging over a number of years. 

However, it was Gundlach who first noticed that there was 
no specific difference between them, and he mentions the fact 
in his work, "Contribucion a la Entomologia Cubana," Ha- 
bana, 1881, where, on pp. 215-218 he discusses Dilophonota 
rimosa. I herewith translate the part referring to congratu- 
lans, as follows: "In 1858 I found, at Santiago de Cuba, an 
individual which I considered a different species, and named 
it congratulans. I made this known to Mr. Grote, who also 
considered it a new species, describing it as such in the Annals 
of the Lyceum of Natural History, New York, Vol. viii, 
November, 1865. The type was not returned to me. Through 
Mr. Grote's carelessness this specimen, together with specimens 
of other new species belonging to me, went with the collec- 
tion of the unfortunate Mr. Robinson, when it was given to 
the Central Park Museum of New York. This I learned from 
a letter of Mr. Grote. 

In 1878, I reared a batch of caterpillars of this species and 
found among the moths some dark colored individuals that I 
must consider the same as my congratulans, and for this rea- 
son, I consider this name applicable only as a dark form of 



rimosa." 



Gundlach then goes on to describe congratulans as follows: 
"It differs in having the forewings so dark that one cannot see 
the ashy ground color of the type [by "type" he means rimosa}, 
in another example of my collection the lighter ground color 
of the type is slightly evident." 

There can be no doubt from the above as to the status of 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 243 

congratulans, as Gundlach bred, not only the dark as well as 
the normal form of rimosa, but also the intermediate, all from 
the same batch of larvae, and my more recent series, with its 
several intermediates, seems to confirm the fact. 

Besides the above there is a third, and still tindescribed 
form of rimosa from Cuba. This differs so much in color as 
well as in pattern from rimosa rimosa, that I am almost tempt- 
ed to give it specific rank. This may be decided later; for the 
present it may be known as : 

Isognathus rimosa woodi n. subsp. 

Differs in general appearance from rimosa rimosa in having the 
ground colour of the forewings blackish instead of greyish. 

Male: Expanse (one wing) 42 mm. Female: Expanse (one wing) 
46 mm. 

$ . Upperside. Forewings blackish-brown divided perpendicularly 
into two parts by a greyish-white band which begins as a broad costal 
patch, just beyond the cell, narrowing at the center of the wing, and 
again broadening into another patch at the inferior margin. 

Hindwings with marginal band entirely blackish-brown, nearly 
black, otherwise as in rimosa rimosa. 

Underside. Forewings and hindwings with a broad marginal black- 
ish brown band, perceptively darker toward its interior edge. Re- 
mainder of wings similar to rimosa rimosa. 

9. Similar to $, but dark portions of wings are intense and uni- 
form in color. 

Body same as rimosa rimosa. 

Types $ and 9 deposited in the collection of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Paratypes in the collec- 
tion of the author. Specimens taken, $, July 12, 1911; 9, 
May 3, 1914, at electric light, Guantanamo, Cuba. 

These specimens have long lain in my cabinet, and it is at 
the instance of that enthusiastic, and far too modest student 
of the Sphingiclae, my very good friend, Mr. William C. Wood, 
of New York City, that I have decided to describe this insect, 
which I take pleasure in naming for him. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII. 

Figs. 1-3. Isognathus rimosa woodi, n. subsp.; i. $, and 2. 9, upper 
sides, 3. 9, under side. 
Fig. 4. /. rimosa rimosa, 9, under side. 



244 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

The Lines of Descent of the Lower Pterygotan Insects, 
with Notes on the Relationships of the other Forms. 

By G. C. CRAMPTON.* 

It is a rather interesting' fact that those structures which 
are apparently of no vital importance to the organism, are 
frequently of the greatest value as indications of relationships 
between the larger groups (orders, etc.) of insects. This may 
perhaps be explained by the fact that structures which are of 
vital importance to the organism would be the ones most 
directly concerned in the struggle for existence, and would 
therefore be the ones most acted upon and most profoundly 
modified by natural selection or, as a Lamarkian would ex- 
press it, these structures would be the ones most frequently 
employed, and would therefore be the ones the most pro- 
foundly changed by use. 

The nature and arrangement of the thoracic sclerites furnish 
examples of such structures, which are of little or no vital 
importance to the organism (since they are practically want- 
ing in some forms), yet are among the most important charac- 
ters for determining the relationships of the different groups 
of insects, since they remain as "true to type," or as little 
modified, as any structures of the body ; and in most instances 
have furnished the clues which were followed out and verified 
by the study of other structures. 

Other structures which have proven to be of considerable 
value in determining the relationships of the lower insects 
are : the character of the antennal segments, the nature and 
location of the compound eyes, the outline of the head, the 
character of the mouthparts (particularly of the labium), the 
nature of the terminal abdominal segments and their append- 
ages (the female external genitalia being especially "true to 
type," or but little modified) and the appendages of the thorax. 
Conclusions based largely upon an examination of the wings 
alone, which is apparently necessary in the study of fossil 
insects, may lead to entirely erroneous results, unless verified 
by the study of other sets of structures, and this may in some 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 245 

measure account for the marked difference in the lines of 
descent here given, and those depicted in Handlirsch's "Fos- 
sllcn Insekten." 

It is an almost hopeless task to attempt to determine the 
lines of descent in the different groups of insects, unless one 
is able to compare together the most primitive representatives 
of the groups in question, or to make a study of the annectent 
forms combining in themselves characters common to several 
groups. On this account, I am deeply indebted to Mr. A. X. 
Caudell, Mr. C. C. Gowdey, Maj. A. D. Imms, Dr. K. Jordan, 
and Dr. E. M. Walker for the use of valuable specimens such 
as Grylloblatta, Timcma, Ari.venia, Labidiirodes, Embia, etc., 
which have been of the greatest service in furnishing clues to 
the relationships of the lower insects, and without which the 
present work could not have been carried on with any degree 
of certainty or satisfaction. The clues furnished by these 
primitive or annectent insects have been further carried out 
and verified by a comparative study of the principal struc- 
tural features in the different groups of lower insects ; but 
the detailed discussion of these structures may be more profit- 
ably taken up in a series of articles, in which they can be more 
fully treated than in the present paper which is therefore 
offered as a brief resume of the results obtained from the 
more extended study of the insects in question. Furthermore, 
the present discussion is largely limited to the consideration 
of the lower groups of winged insects, since the rather com- 
plicated interrelations of the lower insects must be clearly un- 
derstood, before one can proceed to the study of the higher 
forms. 

The accompanying diagram is offered merely as an expedient 
to aid in visualizing the points brought out in the following 
discussion, rather than as an attempt to portray the actual 
relations of the various groups, since it is practically impos- 
sible to depict correctly the true relative positions of the 
different lines of descent, in a diagram drawn in one plane. 
It requires a figure of three dimensions to portray the fact 
that several groups approach each other from different angles, 
and if an attempt were made to represent this in a diagram 



246 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[June, '16 



drawn in one plane, there would result such an intricate cross- 
ing of lines as to render it practically incomprehensible and 
therefore useless. 

Since the .termination "-oidea" has always been restricted to 



CO 



Q 



CO O O $ 

HI |a 3 ea i-q 

O JID 3 CQ -O03 

s s 

^ " 

fk< : _5 (-3 EH O 

a a .a 9 s " " 

OQ S EH 
I 



O l- EH - CD O 
EH Q M O - O 




groups of the rank of a super-family (e. g. Muscoidea, Ich- 
neumonoidea, etc.), Handlirsch and his followers have done 
violence to established usage in employing the termination 
'-oidea" to designate groups to which they would attribute 
the rank of an order. On the other hand, the method of 
designating the different groups by some familiar term ( which 
immediately calls to mind the typical or well known repre- 
sentatives of the group as a whole) is self-explanatory in a 
diagram, and therefore has much to recommend it. On this 
account, I have used the termination "-oides" (rather than the 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 247 

pre-empted termination "-oidea") in connection with the name 
of a well known or typical family merely as a convenient ex- 
pedient to designate the different groups shown in the diagram. 
With the exception of the Grylloids and Tettigonoids (which 
form the Orthoptera, in the restricted sense), I would regard 
all of these groups as of the rank of an order, and have there- 
fore referred to them in the text, by terms ending in "-ptera" 
(e. g. Dermaptera, Plecoptera, etc.) in accordance with gen- 
eral entomological usage. 

As is shown in the diagram, the Phyllioid forms, or Phyl- 
liidae, are closely related to the Phasmoid group, or Phasmidae, 
yet occupy a position somewhat intermediate between the 
Phasmidae and the true Locustidae which are usually incor- 
rectly called "Acrididae." Although the Phyllidae are closely 
related to the Phasmidae, they are as distinct from them as 
the Neuroptera are from the Mecoptera, and should therefore 
be classed in a distinct order, the Phyllioptera, as was men- 
tioned in a previous publication (Entomological News, Vol. 
26, p. 347). It may be remarked, however, that the distinc- 
tive characters there given, apply chiefly to the females, since 
the males of the Phylliidae (e. g. those of Phyllinni scythe) 
have long antennae, and well developed hind wings. 

The true Locustidae (usually termed "Acrididae") occupy 
a position intermediate between the Phylliid-Phasmid group, 
and the Gryllid-Tettigonid group, as indicated in the diagram. 
Phasmoid forms, such as Thncma, have retained many char- 
acters suggestive of the ancestral condition of the Locustid 
group, thus suggesting that the Locustid line of development 
may lead toward the Phasmid line of descent, while that of the 
Gryllid-Tettigonid group, although closely paralleling the Lo- 
custid line of development, may lead toward the Grylloblattid 
line of development; but this point may be better taken up 
under the discussion of the relationships of the Gryllidae and 
Tettigonidae. The reasons for considering the Locnstoid 
forms as representing a distinct order, the Diphtheroptera, 
have already been given (Ent. News, Vol. 26, p. 348) and 
need not be further considered here. 



248 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

As is indicated in the diagram, the line of descent of the 
Tettigonidae (which are usually incorrectly termed "Locus- 
tidae") closely parallels that of the Gryllidae, the more primi- 
tive members of the two groups being very closely related, 
although the more highly modified members of the two lines, 
are quite widely divergent. The Grylloid and Tettigonoid 
forms comprise the order Orthoptera (in the restricted sense) 
which occupies a position somewhat intermediate between the 
Phasmid and the Grylloblattid lines of descent and is also 
related to the Perlids. A study of the extremely interesting 
insect Grylloblatta campodciformis Walk., led me to believe 
that the Gryllids and Tettigonids approach more closely to the 
Grylloblattid line of descent, while the true Locustids ("Acridi- 
dae") approach rather more closely to the Phasmid line of 
descent ; but an examination of an extremely primitive Gryl- 
loid insect from Thayetmyo, Burmah (which bears a slight 
resemblance to an Ephemerid!) would indicate that the Gryl- 
lids also approach the Phasmid line of descent, and such primi- 
tive Tettigonoid forms as Phasmodes (the Prophytoptera 
Ent. News, Vol. 26, p. 348), are remarkably Phasmid-like, so 
that it is doubtless more correct to consider the Grylloid-Tet- 
tigonoid group as arising from forms intermediate between 
the Phasmoid insects and the Grylloblattoid insects (which also 
approach the Phasmid line of descent). 

Certain Phasmoid insects, such as Timema, have retained 
many characters suggestive of the Perlid group, and many 
other facts indicate that the Phasmid line ultimately leads 
back to that of the Perloid insects. The Phasmid line of 
descent also converges toward that of the Grylloblattids, and 
at the same time approaches the Mantoid group in some re- 
spects, although the Mantoid insects have followed a some- 
what different course of development. In order to show in 
the diagram, that the Phasmoid line not only leads back to the 
Perloid line, but also approaches the Mantid line, and is like- 
wise connected with the Grylloblattoid line by intermediate 
forms, it was necessary to swing the Phasmoid line around 
from its position near the Mantoid line, and over the other 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 249 

lines of descent, in order to bring it into a position in which it 
could be shown in the diagram that the Locustids, Gryllids, 
etc., sprang from forms intermediate between the Phasmid 
group and the Grylloblattid group. In thus swinging the Phas- 
mid line around over the other lines of descent, it became im- 
possible to show that the Phasmid line also converges with 
that of the Grylloblattids, etc., upon the Perloid line of descent, 
so that it should be understood that the Phasmid and Gryllo- 
blattid lines are much more intimately related than is shown in 
the diagram. The Phasmid group (called the Cheleutoptera, 
Ent. News, Vol. 26, p. 348) forms a distinct order of insects, 
second in importance only to the Perlid group, from the stand- 
point of phylogeny, since it is paralleled by, or is approached 
by, so many other lines of descent ; and in some regards it is 
fully as important as the Perloid line itself, although I am 
inclined to consider that the Perlids, as a whole, are more 
primitive than the Phasmids. 

As was mentioned above, the Grylloblattid line of develop- 
ment parallels, or converges toward that of the Phasmids, and 
both lead back to the Perlid group. This, however, does not 
mean that living Grylloblattids were descended from living 
Perlids, but is merely a way of expressing the fact that the 
Perlids have departed as little as any group, from the ances- 
tral condition characteristic of the common ancestors of the 
Grylloblattids, Perlids, etc. As is shown in the diagram, the 
Grylloblattoid, Forficuloid and Embioid lines all converge 
toward the Perloid line. It could not be shown in the dia- 
gram, however, that the Grylloblattids are quite closely related 
to the Termites, and at the same time that their closest affinities 
are with the Forficuloid and Embioid (with the Phasmoid) 
lines among the more primitive forms, although it is indicated 
that the Gryllids, Tettigonids, etc., occupy a position intermedi- 
ate between the Grylloblattoid and the Phasmoid lines of de- 
scent. The Grylloblattoid line is much more closely paralleled 
by the Embiid and Termitid lines of descent than is indicated 
in the diagram, since a comparison of a wingless female Embia 
major with the wingless female Grylloblatta suggests a very 



250 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

close relationship between the two ; but for that matter the 
lines of descent of the Perlid, Phasmid, Grylloblattid, Forficu- 
lid, Enibiid and Termitid groups all converge as we trace them 
further back, so that it is extremely difficult to tell which are 
the most closely related. The Grylloblattid group forms a dis- 
tinct order termed the Not opt era (Ent. News, Vol. 26, p. 347), 
which are among the most interesting and important of the 
annectent forms surviving to the present day.* 

As shown in the accompanying diagram the Coleoptera are 
rather closely related to the Forficulids, and also to the Em- 
biids and Grylloblattids, but ultimately lead back to the Perlid 
line of descent. Indeed, the Coleoptera are a much more an- 
cient group than is usually thought to be the case, and although 
some of the representatives of the group are quite highly 
specialized, others show undoubted affinities with the lower 
insects as shown in the diagram. The Apocolcoptera (Platyp- 
sylloides) or Platypsyllidae form a distinct order, arising as 
an offshoot from the main line of descent of the Coleoptera, 
and in some respects they resemble the parasitic Forficuloid 
group Hemimeridae. Whether this is due to a convergence in 
form as the result of similar modes of life, or is due to the fact 
that the Coleopteron and Forficuloid lines of descent closely 
parallel each other, is not clear. 

The Forficulid line of descent parallels that of the Embiids 
and Grylloblattids rather closely, as is shown by a comparison 
of the rather primitive Forficulid Labiditrodcs, with specimens 
of Grylloblatta and Embia major Imms. Furthermore, such 
primitive Forficulids as Arixenia, show undoubted Perloid 
affinities, and the Embiid, Forficulid, Grylloblattid and Perlid 
lines of descent are to be considered as paralleling each other 
extremely closely. Together with the other groups just men- 
tioned, the Forficulids converge toward the Termitid and 
Phasmid lines of development (the Phasmid Timcma having 
retained certain characters suggestive of those found in the 

* The color of these insects is likewise extremely primitive, yellow 
to brown-yellow being apparently the original color of the ancestral 
Pterygota, while the paler shades (white or tinge of gray) are more 
characteristic of the Apterygotan forms. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 25! 

Forficulid Labidurodcs} . I have not seen specimens of 
"Hadotermes japonicus" described by Hagen 1868 (Proc. 
Bost. Soc. XI, p. 399), but Sharp (Insects, Part I) states that 
this insect described by Hagen as a Termite, is really a Forfi- 
culid, so that this Forficulid must be very similar to the 
Termites, if Hagen was deceived by it. The H emiwierus-\\Vx. 
forms represent an off-shoot from the Forficuloid line. The 
Hemimeroides are not represented in the diagram, but their 
affinities are undoubtedly strongly Forficulid, though they 
may perhaps represent a distinct order called Dermodermap- 
tera by Verhoeff. The term Dermaptera, applied to the For- 
ficulids, may possibly be restricted to another group of Orthop- 
teroid insects, on the grounds of priority; if this be necessary, 
the later term Euplexoptera might be applied to the Forficulid 
group. 

The Embiidae as a whole, are extremely closely related to 
the Perlids, perhaps more nearly than to any other group of 
insects. The wingless females of Einbia major Imms are 
exceptionally favorable for comparison with the wingless fe- 
males of Grylloblatta and Timema, and their unusually large 
size and well pigmented sclerites makes the study of their 
structural details a comparatively simple matter, although the 
more primitive genus Clothoda would doubtless be of greater 
importance from the standpoint of the determination of the 
genealogy of the group. A study of Einbia has convinced me 
that the Grylloblattoid, Embioid, Forficuloid, Termitoid and 
Phasmoid lines of descent all converge upon the Perloid line. 
Furthermore, the Embiids combine characters common to the 
Termites and Forficulids (with the Grylloblattids), so that 
they may be considered as occupying a position somewhat 
intermediate between the Forficulids and Termites, as shown 
in the diagram, although their closest affinities are with the 
Perlid group. I formerly (Ent. News, Vol. 26, p. 346, etc.) ap- 
plied Packard's term, Platyptera (used in the restricted sense) 
to the Embiid order, but I find that the designation Platyptera 
was applied to the Diptera by Meigen, 1803, and to the Pisces 
by Cuvier 1837, long before Packard applied it to the Orth- 
opteroid insects, so that it is mrt-^sary to change the term 



252 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

Platyptera to Euplatyptera, in referring to the Embiid group. 
As was mentioned above, the Termites occupy a position 
somewhat intermediate between the Grylloblattid-Embiid- 
Perlid group and the Blattidae, and in many respects, they ap- 
proach very closely to, or parallel the Blattoid line, in their 
phylogenetic development. I have been unable to study such 
primitive Termites as Mastotermes, but I feel certain that 
these will show marked affinities with the Grylloblattid-Embiid- 
Perlid group, since those Termites which I have been able to 
examine all indicate a close relationship to this group, and I 
think that the Termitid line leads back to the Perlid rather 
than to the Blattid line of development, as is indicated in the 
diagram. As will be discussed later on, the Blattid and Perlid 
lines ultimately approach each other quite closely, so that the 
resemblances of the Termites to the Blattids may possibly be 
explained as the retention in both lines, of characters inherited 
from the common ancestral group from which sprang the an- 
cestors of the Blattids, Termites and Perlids. The affinities 
of the Termites to the Blattid group may, on the other hand, 
be much closer than is indicated in the diagram ; but this 
point can be definitely determined only upon the examination 
of the most primitive representatives of the Termitid group, 
which are not at present accessible to me. Since this group 
froms a distinct order, the term Isoptcra should be applied to 
it. Although I have been unable to obtain specimens of the 
rare order Zoraptera, described by Silvestri, I would judge 
from the figures of these insects, that they form an off-shoot 
from the main Termite stem, and have departed but little 
from the rest of the Termitoid group. 

Since the Perlid line of development is approached or is 
paralleled by so many other lines of descent, it forms one of 
L he most important of the lower groups of winged insects, the 
only other lower group which rivals it in this particular being 
the Phasmid group. The Perlids as a whole are as primitive 
as any winged insects, and, with the Blattids, must be regarded 
as the nearest living representatives of the ancestral winged 
insects, since the group as a whole is as little modified as any 
known winged forms. The nearest relatives of the Perlids 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 253 

are the Embiids (and Forficulids) but the Phasmid, Grylloblat- 
tid and Termitid lines all appear to converge toward the line 
of descent of the Perlid group, such forms as Time ma, Gryllo- 
blatta, etc., being very similar in many respects to the more 
primitive members of the Perlid group. Such Orthoptera- 
like Perlids as Eusthe,iia would doubtless be of great interest 
from the point of view of the study of the rather close rela- 
tionship of the Perlids to the Orthopteroid forms ; but, unfor- 
tunately, I have been unable to procure specimens of this in- 
teresting genus for study. The Perlid group constitutes the 
order Plecoptera, and, as will be discussed further on, the Per- 
lid and Blattid lines of descent converge as we follow them 
further back, and ultimately approach the line of descent of 
the Lepismids. Indeed, such immature Plecoptera as nymphs 
of Peltoperla are surprisingly Lepisma-\ike, indicating a rather 
close relationship between the two groups, although we are de- 
pendent upon immature forms to furnish the "connecting links" 
between the ancestors of the Perlids and the ancestors of the 
Lepismids, while in the Blattid group, even the adult forms 
have departed but little from the condition characteristic of 
the ancestral Lepismids ; so that the Blattids are probably 
somewhat closer to the Lepismids than the Perlids are. 

The Mantoid line of descent parallels that of the Blattoid 
group quite closely, and also approaches the Perloid line near 
the point at which the Blattoid line draws near to that of the 
Perlids, as is shown in the diagram. Certain Mantoid forms, 
such as Mantoida littcola exhibit affinities with the Neuropter- 
oid forms; but this is to be expected, since the Mantids and 
Neuroptera both approach the Perlid line of descent, and 
would therefore have many characters in common. On the 
whole, however, I would place the Mantoid line somewhat 
closer to the Blattoid line, than to the Perloid line of descent, 
as is indicated in the diagram. The Mantoid forms constitute 
a distinct order, which may be termed the Eiidictyoptcra, 
since both Mantids and Blattids were formerly grouped 
together in the order Dictyoptera. The reasons for regard- 
ing the Mantids as a distinct order will be given elsewhere. 

As may be seen from the diagram, the Blattoid line of de- 



254 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

scent is the most direct of the developmental lines leading 
from the ancestors of the Lepismids to those of the winged 
forms, and even in the adult stages, the Blattids have pre- 
served many characters common to the ancestors of the Le- 
pismids and Blattids of today. The Blattid line of development 
is very closely paralleled by that of the Mantids, and ulti- 
mately the lines of descent of the Blattids and Perlid.s con- 
verge, if we trace them back far enough. Indeed, it would 
appear that those features wherein the most ancient Blattoid 
forms differ most from their modern representatives, are 
those in which they approach the closest to the Perloid forms, 
so that the two lines of descent in all probability sprang from 
ancestors similar enough to be grouped in a single family, 
although their modern representatives have followed rather 
widely divergent lines of development. The Blattid line of 
development is rather closely approached by that of the 
Termites ; but the Termite line of descent appears to lead 
back to that of the Perlids rather than to the Blattid group. 
The Blattids are enough different from their nearest relatives 
to be grouped in a distinct order, and were therefore desig- 
nated as the Palacoptcra in a previous paper (Ent. News, Vol. 
26, p. 349). 

The foregoing statements may be briefly summed up as fol- 
lows : The Phylliidae are closely related to the Phasmidae 
and also to the true Locustidae (usually termed "Acrididae"). 
The true Locustidae ("Acrididae"), Tettigonidae ("Locusti- 
dae"), and Gryllidae arose from forms intermediate between 
the Grylloblattid and Phasmid lines of descent. The Phasmid, 
Grylloblattid, Forficulid, Embiid and Termitid lines of descent 
all converge upon that of the Perlidae, although the Forficulid 
and Embiid groups are somewhat nearer to the Perlidae than 
are the other groups. The Perlids, as a whole, are the most 
primitive of the groups thus far mentioned, but are not more 
primitive than the Blattidae. The Mantid line of development 
closely parallels that of the Blattid group, and approaches the 
Perlid line of development near the point at which the Blattid 
and Perlid lines of descent converge. The ancestors of the 
forms giving rise to the Blattid and Perlid lines of develop- 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 255 

ment were doubtless similar enough to be grouped in a single 
family, or sub-family, whose ancestors in turn, if traced fur- 
ther back, would be similar enough to the ancestors of the 
Lepismid group, to be classed in a single family with them. In 
the same way, if we continue to trace the lines of descent still 
further back, the ancestral groups would be successively more 
and more inclusive (i. e. the ultimate ancestral types become 
more and more alike, the further back we go) until we at 
length reach the ancestral stem-family containing the similar 
forms which were eventually to give rise to the various Ap- 
terygotan and Pterygotan lines of descent with all their sub- 
divisions and ramifications. 

In a recent issue of the Zeitschrift f. wiss. Insektenbiologie 
(Bd. XI, 1915, Heft 9-10, pp. 269-273) I expressed the opinion 
that there were several lines of descent leading from the an- 
cestors of the Apterygota to those of the Pterygota*, and I 
further suggested that the similarities in structure between 
the Protura (or "Myrientomata") and the Plecoptera, or be- 
tween the Dicellura and the Dermaptera would indicate that 
there have been lines of descent leading from the ancestors of 
the Protura to those of the Plecoptera, and from the ancestors 
of the Dicellura to those of the Dermaptera. The study of 
new material (such as nymphs of Pcltopcrla, specimens of 
Lepismids from the Galapagos Islands, etc.) not available at 
that time, however, has led me to interpret these facts in an- 
other w r ay. While I still believe that there are numerous lines 
of descent leading from the ancestral groups which gave rise 
to the ancestral Apterygota to those groups which gave rise to 

* This paper, which was submitted for publication more than two 
years ago, recently appeared in the "Zeitschrift" despite my request to 
withdraw it. Furthermore, since the proof sheets were never sent me 
for correction, the article is full of obvious typographical errors, such 
as the total absence of capital letters in the title, misspelled words in 
the text (e. g. "sence" for sense), and even the omission of certain 
words which have totally altered the meaning of certain of the state- 
ments (e. g. on page 271 the statement "the Apterygota are no more 
to be regarded as degenerate Pterygota, than Amphioxus is to be re- 
garded as a vertebrate" should read than Amphioxus is to be re- 
garded as a degenerate vertebrate (!)). 



256 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

the ancestral Pterygota, I do not think that there was as direct 
a line from the ancestors of the Dicellura to those of the Der- 
maptera, or from the ancestors of the Protura to those of the 
Plecoptera, as my former statements would lead one to infer, 
and I would prefer to explain the similarities between the Di- 
cellura and Dermaptera, or between the Protura and Plecop- 
tera, as follows: 

The Forficulid and other lines of development of the Or- 
thoptera-like groups converge either toward the Perlid, or the 
Blattid line of development; and both the Perlid and Blattid 
lines ultimately lead back to, or closely parallel, the Lepismid 
line of descent. Ultimately we reach the more remote ancestral 
group containing the common ancestors of the Lepismid, Blat- 
tid and Perlid lines of descent. If we trace the lines of de- 
velopment of this ancestral group still further back, we find 
that the more remote ancestors of the forms giving rise to the 
Lepismid line of descent, in turn possessed many characters 
common to the remote ancestors of the Japygid, Proturan, and 
other Apterygotan groups ; and the common ancestors of all 
these were doubtless so similar that they might be classed in 
a single family or even sub-family. From this common ances- 
tral stem-family there arose the various lines of descent lead- 
ing to the different Apterygotan and Pterygotan groups of in- 
sects ; and since all these lines have a common origin, it 
is merely to be expected that the Forficulids, for example, 
might retain certain features which have also been retained 
by the Japygids, or that the Plecoptera might have retained 
certain features which have also been retained by the Pro- 
tura, etc. The resemblances between the Japygids and For- 
ficulids, or those between the Plecoptera and Protura, might 
therefore possibly be regarded as due to the retention in each, 
of certain features derived from their ancient common ances- 
tral stem group, rather than due to the fact that they indicate 
that there are distinct lines of descent leading from the imme- 
diate ancestors of the Japygids to those of the Forficulids, or 
from the immediate ancestors of the Protura to those of the 
Plecoptera, etc. At any rate, the ancestors of the Forficulids 
and Plecoptera were too closely related to be descended from 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 257 

two distinct groups of insects, and such annectent forms as 
the nymphs of Pcltopcrla serve to bring the Plecopteron line 
of descent very close to that of the Lepismids ; so that I am in- 
clined to believe that all of these lines of descent of the Or- 
thopteroid insects ultimately approach very close to that of 
the Lepisma-like forms, as is shown in the diagram. It should 
be borne in mind, however, that since no group of living in- 
sects is descended from any other group of living insects, 
close resemblances are largely an expression of close parallel- 
ism in the lines of descent. 

Before leaving the discussion of the lower winged insects, 
it is necessary to briefly touch upon the relationship of the Li- 
bellulid, Ephemerid and Neuropteron groups to each other and 
to the Orthopteroid groups of insects, since the Libellulids, 
and Ephemerids in particular, are very primitive, although 
somewhat aberrant types of insects. By the term "Orthopter- 
oid" is meant all of those Pterygotan forms whose lines of de- 
velopment approach that of the Blattids or Perlids (e. g. the 
Perlids, Phasmids, Phylliids, Locustids, Tettigonids, Gryllids, 
Grylloblattids, Forficulids, Embiids, Termites. Mantids and 
Blattids). 

The Libellulid group or Pansy go ptcra (i. e. Zygoptera and 
Anisoptera) is apparently related to both the Ephemerids and 
the Neuroptera (i. e. the line designated as the Neuroptera- 
delphia) and also approaches closely to the Perlid-Embiid line 
of descent, as is indicated in the diagram. The Libellulids 
may perhaps be regarded as occupying a position intermediate 
between the Neuropteroid insects, such as the Ascalaphidae, 
etc., and the Perlid-Embiid group, but possibly ultimately ap- 
proach the Ephemerid line of descent. 

The Ephemerid line of descent is a rather puzzling one to 
trace. It approaches the Neuropteron group, and also ap- 
proaches the Libellulid ("Odonatan") line of descent, but 
ultimately appears to draw near to the Perlid line, as shown 
in the diagram, although it does not parallel this line as closely 
as one might be led to expect from the rather close relation- 
ship between the Ephemerids and the Neuropteron group. 
The Ephemerids are in certain respects among the most 



258 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

primitive of winged insects, although in other respects they 
are decidedly specialized. They are to be regarded as a 
markedly aberrant group related to the Neuropteroid insects, as 
well as to the Libelluloid and Perloid lines of development. 
They appear to approach as closely to the Lepismoid forms as 
to any of the Apterygotan insects, and the immature stages of 
Heptagenia and He.vagenia are strikingly Crustacea-like in 
certain respects (such as the mouthparts, etc.) as will be dis- 
cussed in another paper. The Ephemeroid forms constitute 
the order Plectoptera of Packard. 

The Neuropteradelphia form a section of the class Insecta, 
containing the Neuroptera and those insects which have de- 
scended from forms not unlike the ancestors of the Neurop- 
tera. As was mentioned above, the Neuropteroid forms are 
related to the Ephemeroid group as well as to the Libelluloid 
group, and also approach the Plecopteron (Perloid) line of 
descent. The Neuropteron line of descent not only approaches 
that of the Plecoptera but also approaches the line of the 
Blattids and Mantids from another angle, which cannot be 
shown in the diagram, since it would be necessary to draw the 
Neuropteron line in a plane perpendicular to that of the dia- 
gram, in order to bring out this double relationship. The rela- 
tionship of the Neuropteron group to the Plecopteron (Perlid) 
group is somewhat closer than that of the Neuropteron group 
to the Blattid-Mantid group ; and the resemblance between the 
Neuroptera and the Blattid-Mantid group may possibly be due 
to the fact that both are related to the Plecopteron group in 
other words the Neuroptera may be related to the Mantids 
through the mediation of the Plecoptera. A comparison of 
certain Mantid forms (such as Mantoida Inteola) with cer- 
tain Neuroptera, however, has led me to think that the 
Mantids, Perlids and Neuroptera may form the three apices 
of a triangle, each apex of which is connected with the other 
two by mutual bonds of relationship, so that the relationship 
between the Neuroptera and the Mantids is possibly more di- 
rect than through the mediation of the Plecopteron group, to 
which both are related. 

( To be continued) 



Vol. XXVJi] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 259 

Mycetobia and the Classification of the Diptera. 

By FREDERICK KNAB, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of 

Agriculture. 

In a paper read at the ninth annual meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America, the writer proposed a new group- 
ing of the lower families of Diptera, generally called Nema- 
tocera, dividing them into two series according to the char- 
acter of the larval respiratory system. 1 In one series, Oli- 
goneura, were placed those forms in which the larvae showed 
the more primitive condition of a series of lateral spiracles, 
such as occurs in most terrestrial insects. In the other series, 
Polyneura, were grouped those forms in which the larval res- 
piratory system had become profoundly modified in adaptation 
to aquatic life, a single pair of large functional spiracles oc- 
curring posteriorly. The grouping thus brought about appeared 
more natural also when the adult characters were considered. 

In examining the available data concerning the larval spir- 
acles, but one seeming contradiction was found. This was the 
genus Mycetobia, universally considered a member of the 
family Mycetophilidse. Its larva was said to differ from all 
the others of that family by possessing but a single pair of 
spiracles, posteriorly situated, and showing a remarkable re- 
semblance to the Rhyphidge. This contradiction within a large 
and otherwise homogeneous group was already strongly felt by 
Osten Sacken. 2 He accepted the statements of three most 
careful workers, Lyonet, Dufour and Ferris all agreeing 
on this point, but ended the discussion of the subject with the 
remark, "this is a problem yet to solve." The writer, finding 
Mycetobia the only case conflicting with his proposed group- 
ing, became convinced that some error existed and suggested 
that the three great observers just mentioned might after all 
have been mistaken. It has now been made clear that they 
were correct, but the seeming contradiction has been ex- 
plained in an unexpected manner, most gratifying from the 
view-point of the writer's ideas. 

1 The Nemocera not a natural group of Diptera. Ann. Ent. Soc. 
Amer.. vol. 8, 1915, pp. 93-98. 

2 Berlin. Entom. Zeitschr., vol. 37, 1892, pp. 442-443. 



260 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[June, '16 



Mons. D. Keilin of Paris, a careful student of dipterous 
larvae, becoming interested in the question at issue, reinvesti- 
gated the larva of Mycetobia, and determined that the corre- 
spondence with Rhyphus is even closer than had been sup- 
posed. Evidently his suspicions were aroused that Mycetobia 
had been wrongly placed with the Mycetophilidae, for he now 
suggested to Mr. F. W. Edwards of the British Museum an 
investigation of the images. The result of Mr. Edwards' 
study have appeared recently and tend to show that Mycetobia 
does not belong to the Mycetophilidae, but to the Rhyphidc-e, as 
was indicated by the larval characters. 3 For the detailed dis- 
cussion of the characters upon which Mycetobia is referred to 
the Rhyphidae, the reader must consult Mr. Edwards' original 
paper. As this will not be generally accessible, the importance 
of the subject leads me to quote what he has to say regarding 
the wing-venation : 

The Rhyphidse and Mycetophilidse agree in having a costa which 
does not extend beyond the tip of the wing, but differ widely in that 
the former have a three-branched media and a discal cell, whereas the 
latter never have more than a two-branched media and no discal cell. 

At first sight it is not easy to connect the two types, but if in the 
wing of Rhyphus we suppress the third branch of the media, and with 
it the cross-vein forming the discal cell, a condition very much re- 
sembling that of Mycetobia is arrived at, and the following points of 
resemblance between the two genera become more apparent : (i) the 




Cur* 



Fig. i. Afycftobia, venation. 



3 On the systematic position of the genus Mycetobia, Mg. Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., 8 Ser., vol. \7, no. 97, Jan. 1916, pp. 108-116. 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



26l 



radial sector forks basally to the R-M cross-vein, or, in other words, 
the small cross-vein is situated on the third longitudinal vein, instead 
of on the praefurca; (2) the lower branch of the cubitus 
is distinctly sinuous, the cell Cut having a convexity on the lower side 
towards the base. The resemblance between the venation of Myceto- 




Fig. 2. Olbiogaster, venation. 

bia (fig. i) and Olbiogaster (fig. 2) is in some respects still more 
marked, and it is worthy of particular notice that in Olbiogaster afri- 
canus Edw., and still more conspicuously in O. sackcni Edw., the low- 
est of the three veins arising from the discal cell (M 3 ) is less strongly 
chitinized than the other two, suggesting that the venation of Mycetobia 
has arisen directly from that of Olbiogaster through the obsolescence 

of Ms. 

In almost all other Mycetophilidae the radial sector, when it forks at 
all, does so nearer the wing-apex than the position of the R-M cross- 
vein, which, besides, is usually sloping, and not straight as it is in 
Mycetobia. The only exception to this rule is the genus Pachyneura, 
in which the radial sector forks exactly at the R-M cross-vein. In all 
other Mycetophilidae, with the exception of Leiomyia (Glaphyroptcra) 
and its allies, the cell GUI is concave instead of convex on its lower 
margin. Ditomyia and Symmerus, genera which, together with Myce- 
tobia, have been made to form the subfamily Mycetobiinae, agree in both 
these respects with the other Mycetophilida-, and I therefore consider 
that they are not at all closely related to Afycetobia. The genus Ms- 
sochria, recently described from the Seychelles Islands, is, on the other 
hand, closely related to Mycetobia. Its venation is very interesting, as 
the media is evanescent; it evidently represents a further stage of evo- 
lution from Mycetobia, in which the lowest branch of the originally 
three-branched media has already disappeared. 

A comparison with other Diptera as regards the position of the 
radial fork reveals the fact that in the Tipulid.-c, Culioidse, Psychodidae, 
Orthorrhapha P.rachycera, and Cyclorrhapha, it always takes place 



262 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

anteriorly to the R-M cross-vein, whereas in the Chironomidse, Simulidae, 
and Bibionidse the radial sector is usually simple, but when it forks 
does so beyond the R-M cross-vein. An apparent exception to this rule, 
however, is the Bibionid genus Eupeitenus. It is also noteworthy that 
in the families of the first group the media is primitively three- 
branched, while in those of the second it is never more than two- 
branched. 

Mr. Edwards disclaims having made an exhaustive investi- 
gation, but expresses the conviction that Mycctobia belongs 
with the Rhyphidae. The writer hopes that other workers will 
be stimulated to take up the study of the relationships with- 
in the Diptera, and their bearings on the new ideas. With 
this end in view, I quote the summary at the end of Mr. Ed- 
wards' paper : 

1. Mycetobia agrees with the Rhyphidae and diverges from the Myce- 
tophilidae in the possession of a large gular plate, in the structure of the 
second palpal joint, in the position of the forking of the radial vein, 
the course of the cubital vein, and in the chitinous spermathecae of the 
female. Since the venation of Mycetobia has been shown to be di- 
rectly derivable from that of the Rhyphid genus Olbiogaster, it is prob- 
able that any resemblances in this respect to the Mycetophilidae are due 
to convergent evolution, and not to relationship. The genus Mycetobia 
(and with it Mesochria, though not Ditomyia or Symmerus) must 
therefore, on grounds of adult as well as larval structure, be trans- 
ferred from the Mycetophilidae to the Rhyphidae. 

2. It is at least possible that the characters of the gular plate and 
of the position of the radial fork will be found on full investigation 
to divide the Nematocera into two groups, and there is evidence that 
these groups may coincide with those founded on other characters, 
notably the tracheal system of the larva; this evidence, therefore, 
tends to confirm Knab's recent division of the Nematocera (Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Amer. vol. viii, p. 93, March, 1915) into Oligoneura, with peri- 
pneustic larvae, and Polyneura, with amphipneustic larvae. The genus 
Pachyncura seems to require special study, owing to the intermediate 
character of its venation, and Eupeitenus is also aberrant. 

3. If, as seems probable from many considerations, the higher 
Diptera have been derived from the Polyneura and the Oligoneura 
represent an entirely distinct line of evolution, the primary division of 
the order should be neither into Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha, nor 
into Nematocera and Brachycera, but into Polyneura and Oligoneura, 
the former including, in addition to the Tipulid-Culicid group of the 
Nematocera, the whole of the Cyclorrhapha and the Orthorrhapha 
Brachycera. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL XE\VS. 263 

Two new dark-colored Species of the Genus Euryco- 
tis (Orthoptera, Blattidae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

(Plate XIV) 
Eurycotis abdominalis new species. (Plate XIV, Fig. 2.) 

The present species appears to be widely separated from 
any of the known forms of Eurycotis. Its position in the 
genus is after the smaller and more slender species (which 
include the genotype, . mystcca) and before the large and 
heavy species (in the linear arrangement of which we would 
put first, . tibialis, here described). This insect is distinctive 
in the shining blackish coloration with striking vinaceous- 
rufous spots on each side of the metanotum and the six proxi- 
mal dorsal abdominal segments. The shape of the caudal 
margin of the pronotum and of the lateral tegminal pads, the 
degree of latero-caudal production of the fifth to seventh dorsal 
abdominal segments and the shape of the supra-anal plate are 
also of decided diagnostic importance. 

TYPE: 9 ; Central America. (Rev. T. Heyde.) [Hebard 
Collection Type No. 420.] 

Description of Type. Size medium large for the genus, form robust. 
Head much as in E. opaca; large, face weakly convex, ocellar spots in 
normal position (meso-dorsad of antennal sockets) almost obliterated. 
Pronotum with polished surface smooth hut showing faint irregular- 
ities, evenly convex except cephalo-laterad where the convexity is more 
decided; cephalic margin transverse but convex ventrad, thus embrac- 
ing the head, the cephalic angles thus being deflexed, these broadly 
rounded; lateral margins broadly convex to caudal angles which are 
produced caudad and sharply rounded ; caudal margin transverse but 
rather strongly though broadly concave in each lateral third, the mesal 
third being broadly convex. Tegmina represented by small lateral pads 
extending to end of basal fifth of metanotum; surface polished but 
criliroso-rugulose, weakly convex except at costal margins where tin 'y 
are flattened; costal margin weakly convex, sutural margin strongly 
convex to sharply rounded apex situated on costal margin. Surface of 
mesonotum, metanotum and dorsal abdominal segments including 
supra-anal plate, as polished and smooth as pronotum. Caudal mar- 
gin of metanotum very similar to that of pronotum but with produced 
latero-caudal angles more sharply rounded. Latero-caudal angles of 
fifth to seventh dorsal abdominal segments produced in increasing 
ratio caudad with sharp apices, these productions not nearly as decided 



264 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

and broader than in opaca, the longest less than half the diameter there 
of the segment. Supra-anal plate triangularly produced; surface con- 
vex mesad, becoming somewhat more decided meso-distad, concave 
laterad; free margin weakly convex laterad, sharply and roundly 
emarginate mesad, the lateral productions thus formed rounded to an 
equal degree. Subgenital plate of normal form in the genus. Limbs 
and armament of the same normal for the genus, no indication of en- 
largement or flattening of the caudal tibiae. 

frleasurements (in millimeters) of type. 

Length Inter- Length Width Length Width Greatest Length of 

of ocular of pro- of pro- of of width of caudal 

body width notum notum tegmeni legmen abdomen tibia 

9 30.6 4.7 8.8 13.1 6.6 3.2 15.7 11.6 

Coloration. Shining blackish brown above and below ; a large, longi- 
tudinal, oval, slightly raised spot of cinnamon rufous laterad on the 
metanotum, and each dorsal abdominal segment with a broad lateral 
mark of this color, these widening caudad as their internal margins 
are oblique, but at the immediate caudal margin of each segment a 
narrow invasion of the dark general coloration occurs. 

The type is unique. 

Eurycotis tibialis new species. (Plate XIV, Fig. 1 and Text Fig.) 

This unicolorous insect is likewise anomalous, but should 
be placed first among the broad species of the genus ; imme- 
diately following, but in no wise closely related to E. abdomi- 
nalis. 

This species is followed in linear arrangement by E. opaca 
but differs widely from that insect in the more decidedly flat- 
tened head, distinctive lateral tegmina, less produced margins 
of the fifth to seventh dorsal abdominal segments (in this 
feature intermediate between abdominalis and opaca}, distinc- 
tive supra-anal plate in both sexes and subgenital plate in 
male, remarkably enlarged and flattened caudal tibiae and pro- 
portionately longer caudal tarsal joints which are contained 
1.24 times in the caudal tibial length, (in opaca 1.5 to 1.73 
times.) 

TYPE: $ ; San Francisco Mountains, San Domingo, Sep- 
tember, 1905. (Aug. Busck.) [United States National Mu- 
seum.] 

Description of Type. Size medium large for the genus, form robust. 
Head much as in E. opaca but with face distinctly more flattened; 

1 A third of the tegmen is covered by the projecting latero-caudal 
angles of the pronotum. 



Vol. XXVH] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 265 

large, face very weakly convex, ocellar spots represented by minute 
buffy dots in normal position. Pronotum with polished surface con- 
vex, this more decided mesad, microscopically punctulate particularly 
laterad ; cephalic margin transverse but convex ventrad thus embrac- 
ing the head, the cephalic angles being deflexed but not as suddenly as 
in E. abdominalis, these being broadly rounded; lateral margins broad- 
ly convex to caudal angles which are moderately broadly 
rounded, the lateral and caudal margins forming an angle there of 
very slightly less than a rectangle; caudal margin transverse but with 
a very weak and broad convexity indicated on each side. Tegmina 
represented by small lateral pads extending very slightly beyond the 
caudal margin of mesonotum; surface polished but microscopically 
punctulate, flattened with costal margin alone thickened, cingulate; 
costal margin very weakly convex, sutural margin very weakly con- 
cave, distad oblique truncate with sutural angle slightly the more pro- 
duced. 2 Surface of mesonotum, metanotum and dorsal abdominal 
segments including supra-anal plate as polished and even less punctu- 
late than pronotum. Caudal margin of mesonotum rect-transverse in 
mesal third, very slightly produced laterad with latero-caudal angles 
sharp and sub-rectangulate. Latero-caudal angles of fifth to seventh 
dorsal abdominal segments produced in increasing ratio caudad with 
sharp apices, of the form found in abdominalis but more decided, 
when compared with opaca the latter is seen to have these productions 
distinctly more slender and more strongly produced. Supra-anal plate 
produced, decidedly less transverse than in opaca, lateral margins con- 
cave proximad, distad the plate is briefly bilobate, the weak median 
emargination thus formed being rectangulate, the distal margin de- 
cidedly hairy but without serrulations as found in opaca. Subgenital 
plate strongly transverse, with stout and very elongate and tapering 
styles placed symmetrically meso-laterad in decided emarginations as 
is usual in the genus ; median half produced, with distal margin broadly 
and roundly obtuse angulate emarginate, this weak but distinct. Cepha- 
lic and median limbs and armament of the same normal for the genus. 
Caudal femora heavier than usual; caudal tibiae also heavier than usual 
and very decidedly broadened just proximad of the mesal point, where 
on both cephalic and caudal faces a distinct oblong concave area is 
found, this nearer the dorsal than the ventral margin; caudal tarsal 
joints unusually long for the genus, contained but 1.25 + times in the 
caudal tibial length. 

2 The tegmina are asymmetrical in the adventive female before us; 
the dextral is normal, weakly oblique-truncate distad with sutural angle 
slightly the more produced and more obtuse-angulate, both angles 
rather sharply rounded ; the sinistral is decidedly oblique-truncate with 
sutural angle decidedly the more produced and acute angulate but 
broadly rounded. 




266 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

Allotype: 9 ; San Domingo. August, 1905. (Aug. 
Busck.) [United States National Museum.] 

Description of Allotype. Agrees with male except in the following 
features. Size slightly larger. Produced latero-caudal angles of dor- 
sal abdominal segments very slightly more decided (as shown also by 

this sex in opaca}. Supra-anal plate produced, 
narrower and more strongly emarginate meso- 
distad than in opaca; lateral margins weakly 
convex, mesal portion deeply subrectangulate 
Eurycotis tibialis new sp e- emarginate with margins weakly convex, the 

cies. Caudal face of caudal lateral productions thus formed being equally 
tibia of allotype ?. (x2.) .... 

convex on each side with apex rather sharply 

rounded. Subgenital plate of normal form in the genus. Caudal tarsal 
joints contained 1.28 times in the caudal tibial length (in the other 
female before us 1.24 + times). 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length Inter- Length Width Length Width Length Length of 

of ocular of pro- of pro- of of of cau- caudal tarsal 

body width notum notum tegmen 3 legmen* dal tibia joints 

c?, type. 27.5 3.7 9.4 13-3 6.8 3.6 11.2 8.9 

^.allotype. 29.5 3.6 9.8 139 7.2 3.9 11.9 9-3 

Adventive ?. 31.0 3.7 9.8 13.7 7.4 3.8 11.2 90 

Coloration. Very dark brown except inconspicuous minute ocellar 
dots, antennal sockets and soft portions of clypeus which are buffy. 
Pronotum, mesonotum, tegmina and metanotum almost black to black- 
ish chestnut. Head and abdomen above and below black with a brown 
suffusion. Antennae auburn becoming blackish near the base. Coxae 
and femora almost black, to blackish chestnut, the latter in the paler 
condition becoming darker distad ; tibiae and tarsi black with a brown 
suffusion. 

Specimens Examined : 3; i male and 2 females. 

San Francisco Mountains, San Domingo, September, 1905. 
(A. Busck), i $ , type, [U. S. N. M.]. 

San Domingo, August, 1905, (A. Busck), i 9, allotype, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Adventive at Orono, Maine, i 9 , [Maine Agric. Exp. Sta. 

On.]. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fig. i. Eurycotis tibialis. n. sp. Dorsal view of allotype. 9. (X 2.) 
Fig. 2. Eurycotis abdoininalis, n. sp. Dorsal view of type. 9. (X2.) 

3 The tegmina in nearly their proximal half are concealed by the pro- 
notum. The measurement is of total length. 

4 This measurement is taken at the margin of the pronotum. 



ENT. NEWS, Vol. XXVII. 



Plate XIV. 





1. EURYCOTIS TIBIALIS, 9; 2. E. ABDOMINALIS, ?.-HEBARD. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2f>7 

Butterflies of a Mountain Park in Colorado (Lep.).* 

By E. L. REED, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, 

College Station, Texas. 

During the summers of 1914 and 1915 the writer made a 
study; of the true butterflies of Boulder Park, Colorado, and 
vicinity. The park is located forty-seven miles from Denver 
on the Denver and Salt Lake Railroad and has an altitude 
of 8989 feet. It is surrounded by mountains and is about two 
and one-half miles long by one mile wide. The floor of the 
park is composed mainly of dry grasslands and meadows 
while the surrounding mountain sides are covered with pine 
and spruce forests with occasional patches of aspens and 
alders. South Boulder Creek flows in a winding course 
through the park. Four gulches lead into it; South Boulder 
Canyon and Mammoth Gulch at the upper end, Jenny Gulch 
and Jenny Lind Gulch at the lower end. About the center of 
the park is situated the village of Tolland. 

The altitude necessarily gives the park a cool summer 
climate, scarcely three consecutive weeks passing without 
frost ; ice is sometimes formed in mid-summer. The mean 
July temperature is about 58 degrees Fahrenheit. The first 
part of the summer season is usually without much rainfall 
but the latter part has numerous showers. Throughout the 
summer there is an abundance of flowers. 

The butterflies listed in this paper were collected in the park 
and the gulches leading into it. Three families are repre- 
sented by twenty-four genera and forty-three species. Twen- 
ty-five of the species are exclusively montane and boreal 
forms. The other species are lowland types that reach the 
altitude of nine thousand feet or more. Twenty-six species 
appear in relatively large numbers each year but the other 
seventeen species are seldom abundant and one or more of 
these may be entirely absent during any one season. Those 
marked with an asterisk (*) are relatively abundant each year; 

"This is a part of the work done at the Mountain Laboratory at 
Tolland, Colorado, in a course in the graduate school of the University 
of Colorado. 



268 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. f.T une >l( 5 

the others are seldom found in abundance. The nomenclature 
is that in the "Butterfly Book," by Dr. W. J. Holland, New 
York, 1901. 

Family NYMPHAUDAE 

Anosia ple.rippus Linnaeus Grapta gracilis Grote and Robin- 

*Eitptoieta claudia Cramer son (alpine and boreal) 

*Argynnis cdwardsi Rcakirt Vanessa antiopa Linnaeus 

cornclia Edwards inilbcrti Godart 

* citrynome Edwards *Pyrameis cardui Linnaeus 

Brenthis freija Thunberg (alpine hunt era Fabricius 

and boreal) *Basilarchia weidemeyeri Ed- 

helcna Edwards wards 

epithorc Thunberg *Coenonympha ochracea Edwards 

Melitaea nubigena Behr *Ercbia epipsodca Butler 

Phyciodes camillus Edwards *Satyrus charon Edwards 

tharos Drury Oeneis chryxus Westwood (al- 
pine and boreal) 

Family LYCAENIDAE 

Thccla irns Godart *Chrysophanus thoc Boisduval 

*Chrysophanus helloides Boisdu- *Lycaena hctcronca Boisduval 
val * lygdamas Doubleday 

rnbidus Behr * rnstica Edwards 

sirius Edwards saepiolus Boisduval 

Family PAPILIONIDAE 

Pieris napi oleracea-hicmalis Har- Euchloc sara julia Edwards 

ris *Colias alexandra Edwards 
napi pallida Scudder eurytheme Boisduval 

protodice Boisduval and Terias mexicana Boisduval 

Leconte *Parnassius sininthcus Double- 
rapae Linnaeus day and Hewitson 

*Nathalis iolc Boisduval Papilio astcrias Fabricius 

*Buchloe ausonidcs Boisduval * " solicaon Boisduval 



Entomologists at the Graduate School of Agriculture. 

The prospectus for the elaborate courses of this School, to be held 
at the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass., July 3-28, 
1916, includes the following names among those who are to take part 
in the course or. growth: Professors C. M. Child, V. E. Shelford and 
H. T. Fernald. 



Vol. XXVl'i] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 269 

The Phasmidae of Minnesota, Iowa and 
Missouri (Orth.). 

By M. P. SOMES, Mountain Grove, Missouri. 
The Phasmidae, or, as commonly known, "Walking Sticks," 
comprise a group of most interesting insects and since those 
found within our territory are of good size and simple struc- 
ture they should be better known. But one species has been 
commonly recorded from this area. As known at present, 
there are four species, representing three genera. The genera 
may be separated as follows : 

Elongate, slender wingless insects, with the mesothorax four or 

more times as long as the prothorax ; tarsi five-jointed; middle and 

hind tibiae ventrally carinate to tip, without an apical areolate area; 

the antennae longer than the fore femora Subfamily BACUNCULINAE. 

Hind femora in both sexes with a mid-ventral row of spines, 

large and strong in the female but often reduced to low knobs 

in the male; male cerci broadly spatulate; insects of very large 

size Megaphasma Caud. 

Hind femora with but a single, subapical, ventral spine, or with 

but two small spines ; male cerci not at all spatulate ; slender 

insects of small or moderate size. 

Hind femora of both sexes armed beneath with a subapical 
spine, prominent in the male, often minute or wanting in the 
female Diapheromera Gray. 

Hind femora with no subapical spine beneath in either sex 

Manomera Rehn and Hebard. 

The genus Megaphasma Caud. is, so far as now known, rep- 
resented by a single species, dcnticrus Stal, the largest of 
our North American walking sticks and may readily be dis- 
tinguished from any others within our area by the characters 
given in the key. The female has the mid-ventral row of 
spines on both middle and hind femora strong and distinct, 
while in the male these spines on both the middle and hind 
femora are all variable in size, save the prominent subapical 
spine. The ventral margins of both middle and hind femora 
are variably serrate. This species, heretofore considered as 
belonging to the area of the Gulf States, is not uncom- 
mon in the Ozark region and gradually scarcer to the north- 
ward. The most northern points at which we have taken this 



270 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

species are Hamburg and Clarinda, Iowa. We have, however, 
had, an insect described to us from near Fort Dodge, Iowa, by 
a very accurate, though non-entomological, observer, which, 
judging from size, must certainly have been this species. In 
this genus as in the following, the males are more highly col- 
ored and have the anterior femora green, while the females 
are almost unicolorous grayish or brownish. The immature 
forms are grayish, brownish or green, with the middle femora, 
especially in the female strongly marked with white spots. 
The legs of the young are quite short and decidedly stout. 
The species is found on shrubs and trees and does not appar- 
ently differ greatly in habits from the well-known Diaphcro- 
tnera femorata. 

Diapheromcra Gray is represented by two species which may 
be separated by the following characters : 

Male cerci with a blunt basal tooth on inner margin ; female cerci 
scarcely more than one-half as long as the eighth abdominal segment 

D. fcmorata Say. 

Male cerci with an acute slender basal tooth on inner margin; female 
cerci decidedly more than half as long as the eighth abdominal segment 

D. zviiei Walsh. 

D. femorata Say is the most common and widely distributed 
of American walking sticks and because of its wide range is 
quite variable in size and coloration. It is probable that many 
records of this species may include one of the two following 
species. It is found throughout both Missouri and Iowa, while 
in Minnesota it is most common in the southern and eastern 
portions. The immature stages are of a soft greenish color 
and occur on tall grasses and herbage, while later in the sea- 
son the adults are found on shrubs and trees. 

D. vclici Walsh is much less common and tends to be rather 
local in distribution. It has been taken through most of west- 
ern Missouri, from Joplin northward and through all of west- 
ern Iowa, extending far up into the valley of the Red River 
of the North in Minnesota, where the writer has taken it as 
far north as Crookston. In the eastern portion of these three 
States, however, the records are more scattered. We have 
taken it at Spickard and Memphis, Missouri; Ehnira, Central 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 27! 

City, Humboldt and Fertile, in Iowa, while in Minnesota, 
Staples is our most eastern record, though two immature speci- 
mens from Hinckley may possibly be referred here. This 
species averages smaller than fcnwrata, especially in the males 
and these also tend to brighter coloration, being often quite 
distinctly marked with two light colored lateral stripes, the 
pleura being light colored in life though after drying the color 
is less distinct. This species tends to frequent tall grasses 
and low brush rather than trees and tall shrubs. It is often 
found on such plants as Andropogon scoparms MX., Lespc- 
deza capitata MX. and Sali.v humilis Marsh. 

Manomcra Rehn and Hebard has, within these three States 
so far as known, but one species, M. blatchleyi Caud. In size 
this insect averages as about intermediate between the two 
species of Diapheroniera just described, while in structural 
characters and appearance, it is very closely like D. vdiei, 
save in the fact that there is no subapical spine beneath the 
hind femora in either sex. The coloration of the males is 
usually darker than in velici which brings out the light col- 
ored pleura into stronger contrast. The females are scarcely 
distinguishable from those of veliei, save that the front mar- 
gin of the first abdominal tergite is nearly straight, while in 
vdiei it is arcuate. This insect has been taken as locally 
abundant at several points in the Ozark area and a single male 
was found at Center View in the northern part of Missouri. 
In Iowa it has as yet been taken only at Hamburg and at Moul- 
ton. It has not been taken in Minnesota and in all probability- 
does not extend far into Iowa. Recently a well known col- 
lector told the writer that he had come to believe this insect 
must be parthenogenetic from the fact that while in his local 
ity the females were plentiful, he had never taken a male. 
This has not been the case in our experience, as the sexes have 
been taken in about equal numbers. Specimens of both sexes 
have been compared with the type at the National Museum 
and show no differences. 

The writer will be very grateful for any data as to new rec- 
ords and will be glad to examine Phasmids from these States 
for any interested collectors. 



2/2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

The Influence of Various Concentrations of Sea 

Water on the Viability of the Salt Marsh 

Mosquitoes Aedes sollicitans and Aedes 

cantator (Dip.). 

By F. E. CHIDESTER, PH.D., and RAYMOND PATTERSON, B.S. 

(From the Entomological Department of the New Jersey Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, T. J. Headlee, Entomologist.) 

In the course of an extensive study of the activity of the 
killifishes of the New Jersey coast, which was undertaken by 
the senior author at the request of the State Entomologist, it 
was deemed desirable to obtain records of the salinity, spe- 
cific gravity and temperature of the water from which each 
collection was made. In the course of such record taking, it 
was noted that considerable difference in salinity existed in 
pools which contained mosquito larvae. 

On April 18, two series of experimental jars were set up 
in one of the laboratories of the Entomology building. The 
first series of jars began with 100 cc. of sea water from Rari- 
tan Bay, with a salinity of 13 per cent, and ran down by steps 
of 10 cc. dilution with distilled water to pure distilled water 
in the eleventh jar. The object of this experiment was to de- 
termine what changes would take change in the larvae of salt 
marsh mosquitoes taken from pools with a degree of salinity 
of about 7 per cent, or 8 per cent, and forced to develop in 
water of a low salinity. The intention was to also subject 
Culex pipiens to a saline medium and try to change it into a 
salt water species. 

The second series consisted of boiled down sea water, grad- 
uated in series by eight steps from 16 per cent, to 35 per cent, 
salinity. In this experiment the object was to determine what 
was the lowest toxic strength of salinity for the species used. 
The two series were supplemented by controls and by two 
jars of a 50-50 mixture of 13 per cent, sea water and redis- 
tilled water, placed at different temperatures, one kept low by 
running water (53 F.), the other placed in a greenhouse 
where the temperature ran up to 75 F. at times. The jars 
were covered with cheese cloth after having been supplied 



Vol. XXVJi] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2/3 

with five second moult larvae and ten first moult larvae of the 
mosquito Aedes cant at or. In the preparation of these experi- 
ments Mr. Raymond Patterson not only determined the spe- 
cies, but aided in the preparation of the jars of solution. 

In the series running down from 13 per cent., it was noted 
that the larvae died rather quickly in the distilled water and in 
the higher per cents. In the series graduated from 16 per 
cent, up to 35 per cent, salt, all larvae died in the 22 per cent, 
jar and above in two days. Just as the records of these pre- 
liminary experiments were being considered and plans were 
being made for a more extensive series, the writer was in- 
vited by Mr. Patterson to go on a collecting trip to the marshes 
of Port Mon mouth. On this trip we took records of the salin- 
ity of numerous pools, some of which contained no larvae. 
Two pools in particular engaged our attention. One with a 
temperature of 64 F. and a salinity of 22 per cent, contained 
many larvae of the species Acdes sollicitans of the second 
moult ; the other pool, not ten feet away and similar in size, 
depth and character of bottom, with a temperature of 67 F. 
and a salinity of 24 per cent., contained no larvae at all. While 
probably of no great significance, the observation seemed at 
the time most important in the light of the preliminary ex- 
periments performed in the laboratory. Accordingly Mr. Pat- 
terson and the writer decided to carry on a large series of ex- 
periments to discover the effects of high salinity on the via- 
bility of mosquito larvae at different stages. Mr. Patterson 
was shortly forced to discontinue his work, but has aided 
substantially by furnishing larvae and field notes as well as 
by advice and information. 

The records furnished by Mr. Patterson, Mr. H. I. Eaton 
and others indicate clearly that in the field Aedcs sollicitans 
Wlk. lives and thrives in marsh water of a higher salinity than 
that which seems favorable to Acdes cantator Coq. 

Extensive experiments carried on by the senior author show 
clearly that under laboratory conditions the viability of the 
larvae of the salt marsh mosquitoes in salt water depends not 
only on the salinity of the water from which they were taken, 
but also depends upon the species of larva. While rains may 



274 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. f June, 'l6 

lower the salinity of certain pools to such an extent that one 
finds larvae of several species of mosquitoes in the same pool, 
it has been shown conclusively that the resistance of the larvae 
to high salinities is different, following closely the records of 
the usual environments of the larvae. 

There is much evidence to indicate that the distribution and 
time of appearance of the two dominant species of salt marsh 
mosquitoes is in part dependent on the amounts of salts pres- 
ent in the marsh waters at different distances from the sea. 
It is very probable that we shall find that a certain salinity is 
more favorable to the development of the eggs of one species 
than another. 

Further discussion of the many experiments performed by 
the senior author will appear in the Journal of Experimental 
Zoology and in a technical bulletin of the New Jersey Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. 



The Sun- Dance of the Sawfly'* (Hymen.). 
By PHIL RAU, Saint Louis, Missouri. 

A narrow strip of ground, five feet wide or less, lay between 
the River des Peres and a high railroad embankment. It was 
well overgrown at this point with grass and low dock and 
elderberry sprouts, with some scrubby trees nearby. The 
sun's rays beat down strongly on this April day, and the breeze 
was all cut off from this spot, so it seemed a humid, swelter- 
ing hole. Here in the bright sunshine, hovering above the 
vegetation, were thousands of sawflies, dancing in swarms 
like gnats. They were in several distinct groups of a hundred 
or more. The individuals were in constant motion, flying about 
with a smooth, gliding stroke in all sorts of round figures, 
circles, eights, S's, etc., but keeping within the limited space 
of the group as if that portion of the atmosphere had an invis- 
ible wall around it. 

Each separate swarm poised in the air in one spot most of 
the time, but occasionally a whole group would move slowly 
and imperceptibly, like a rolling, floating cloud, for a distance 

"""Identified by Mr. S. A. Rohwer as Macrophya sp. nov. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2/5 

of a few feet. It was a voluntary motion (i. e., they were not 
merely carried by the wind, etc.), and yet there was no more 
evidence of the leadership of one or more individuals in the 
movement than there is evidence of one particle of fog lead- 
ing a moving cloud. These changes were made so gradually 
and smoothly that the observer could scarcely notice them 
until he became aware that he must change his position to 
watch them. 

The insects were so imbued with life and activity that I at 
once suspected that close observation would show this to be 
the marriage dance of this new species, so for four hours I 
watched them in an effort to solve their behavior. 

It was soon apparent that, whatever the origin and signifi- 
cance of this frolic, it might safely be called a sun-dance, for 
they centered their dances only in the brightest spots of sun- 
shine, where no leaf or twig marred the light. 

They were almost always on the wing, but here and there 
a tired individual would drop to a leaf to rest, preen her an- 
tennae, brush her abdomen or wings with her hind legs, or 
rest quietly until she was chased away by another eager for a 
mate. They were never observed to rest on the ground, al- 
though in spots along the path the vegetation was sparse enough 
to encourage it. 

While the great mass of the insects was whirling and danc- 
ing most of the time, I did not observe among them a single 
copulation or an attempt toward it on the wing, but among 
those which fell out of the dance and dropped down upon the 
leaves a very playful kind of mating frequently occurred. 
When a female alighted, she usually enjoyed only a moment's 
rest before she was disturbed by a male who pursued her, 
running backwards and attempting to mate. Sometimes he 
was active enough to catch her and accomplish a brief mating 
on the run ; at other times he barely touched her abdomen as 
she reached the end of the leaf and fell off, when he would fly 
away into the dance again. 

In this species the male does not mount the female as is the 
manner of some insects, but they always mate by the tips of 
the abdomens, with their heads in opposite directions. In 



276 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

spite of the reversal of position the rear insect had no trouble 
in keeping up the race running backward, but I sometimes 
suspected that the female pulled him along with her while she 
was trying to get away. One might watch an active group for 
fifteen or even thirty minutes before seeing a case of this 
mating. 

In watching them circle about in their dance I was not able 
at any time to observe a male chasing any one female, but when 
a pair was on a leaf ready to mate, or actually mating, several 
others would alight on the same leaf, attempt to mate and 
make life miserable for the couple, and usually break up the 
marriage. Perhaps this accounts for the instantaneous mat- 
ings, since either opposition from the female or interference 
by other males makes it necessary. Sometimes three or 
four males were together in a heap, fighting for the possession 
of the female, but in these cases I think the female in question 
must have been a very attractive one, as I shall show in one 
case later. 

Their very behavior led me to suspect that they were 
polygamous, and I personally observed enough repeated mat- 
ings among them to confirm this impression and to make me 
sure that they are freely polygamous, although in a few in- 
stances I saw among them some slight expression of prefer- 
ence for certain mates. One pair mated in my presence and 
immediately a second male came along and separated them, 
pushed the rightful owner to the other end of the leaf and at- 
tempted to mate. The wife was faithful to the first, however, 
freed herself from the impostor, went to the other end of the 
leaf and again mated with her husband for the usual duration 
of a few seconds, walked to the end of the leaf and soared off 
on the wing to join her comrades in the dance. (They usually 
walked to*the end of the leaf to take flight back to their group.) 

The one case observed which, I was sure, was an actual 
copulation was of somewhat longer duration. They were 
united when I discovered them ; how long they had been there 
I know not. Others soon tried to crowd in, and still others 
were on the same leaf. In an instant they were all one teem- 
ing mass of struggling life,' many males burying the couple. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 277 

Jn order to make sure that it was a case of rivalry among the 
males I took them to ascertain the sexes ; they were so intent 
upon their business that with one grasp of the hand I captured 
all of them but three ; the eleven insects captured were ten 
males and one female. We may only surmise the sex of the 
three which escaped. When I placed those captured in the vial 
I noticed a mass of yellow substance hanging from the abdomen 
of the female ; it was a cluster of a half dozen eggs. Whether 
these had been protruded after mating, or in sweeping with my 
hand I had forced them out, I do not know, but this seems cer- 
tain : some females are more attractive than others, and this 
may be in relation to the maturation of their eggs. This may 
show also the value of the sun dance ; the playfulness and the 
"false matings" being merely steps to the discovery of the 
individuals which are physiologically ready for immediate 
mating. 

Later in the same week I went out to this place at 4.30 in 
the afternoon, looking for the sun dance or sleeping behavior 
of these sawflies. The weather was cloudy and threatening 
rain. Over the low grass over which they had frolicked so 
lustily a day or two before none were to be seen, but many 
were on the box elder leaves where, I judge, they were prepar- 
ing to spend the night. They were not gregarious, but there was 
usually one to a leaf ; they walked drowsily about, occasionally 
slowly biting at the leaf with the mandibles. They did not 
penetrate the leaf deeply enough to leave a mark upon it, but 
it appeared that they were getting the benefit of some invisible 
substance from the leaf, perhaps some liquid or some fuzz, 
but the whole process was slow enough to assure an observer 
that the activities were only those of tired creatures. A little 
later, about 6 o'clock, many were resting motionless upon the 
leaves, and while I could not return during the night to see if 
they were still in their places, I felt confident that they were 
settled for the night. 

One week later, May 5, I returned to the place in the fore- 
noon when I hoped for better results, but in my search from 
10 to 12 o'clock T found only three wandering individuals, all 
females. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., JUNE, 1916. 

A Duty of Specialists. 

We recently received a letter from a specialist on a group of 
insects, with which none of the Editors or Advisory Commit- 
tee of the NEWS are familiar, criticizing unfavorably the work 
of another writer on the same group published in the NEWS. 
The criticism was chiefly directed against the creation of 
synonyms by the second writer, who was taxed with ignorance 
of the existence of the Zoological Record, the Concilium 
Biblio graphic wn and the bibliographies given in the NEWS. 

The author of the letter suggested an editorial on this sub- 
ject, but at the same time appears to overlook certain aspects 
of the case. An exact knowledge of the species of any group 
of organisms is possessed only by the specialists on that group 
and on them devolves not only the right but also the duty of 
pointing out the errors committed by other students. It so 
happens that descriptions of alleged new species by the writer 
complained of have appeared in the NEWS for several years 
without calling forth any protest until this present. The Edi- 
tors of the NEWS must take into account, as far as possible, 
all the various motives which actuate entomologists (who, after 
all, are human), and must refuse to undertake those tasks with 
which as non-specialists they have no business to meddle. At 
the same time they must remind the specialists of their own 
duties to be performed either by direct communication to 
offending authors or by frank and open criticism which the 
NEWS will always be glad to publish, as evidenced by its record 
in recent similar cases. 



Index to Minnesota State Entomologist's Reports. 

We have received from Prof. F. L. Washburn, State Entomologist 
of Minnesota, Circular No. 38 from his office, dated April 4, 1916, 
entitled "Index to the Fifteen Annual and Biennial Reports of the 
State Entomologist of Minnesota, published between 1895 and 1914, 
both dates inclusive, together with an appendix listing other publica- 
tions of the State Entomologist and the Division of Entomology, Uni- 
versity of Minnesota." This pamphlet of 40 pages has been compiled 
by O. J. Wenzel. The Index is "a combination of the indices of the 
fifteen annual and biennial reports of the State Entomologist of Minne- 
sota . . . and it is hoped that it will be found useful to those pos- 
sessing a complete or even partial set of the reports." 

Every bibliographic work of this kind is a valuable guide in tlu> 
great maze of entomological literature and the State Entomologist of 
Minnesota deserves our hearty thanks for this Index. Prof. Washhurn 
asks us to state that his office, at St. Anthony Park, Minn., will be glad 
to mail copies to Entomologists as long as the supply lasts. 

278 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 279 

Notes and. News. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL GLEANINGS FROM ALL QUARTERS 
OF THE GLOBE. 

Parallelodiplosis cattleyae Moll., in New Jersey (Dip.). 

After searching various greenhouses during the past several years 
for this insect, I was at last definitely rewarded by finding it in orchid 
houses at Secaucus and Madison, New Jersey. The larval stages are 
passed as yellowish-white maggots in swellings near the tips of the 
roots of Cattleya and other species of orchids. This of course checks 
growth and disfigures the roots, sometimes causing them to die back 
and become black. One orchid grower informed me that a shipment 
of orchids received from Guatemala was so badly infested that practi- 
cally all of the roots had to be trimmed off. This pest, known com- 
monly as the Cattleya midge, is often confused by greenhouse men 
with the "Cattleya fly," Isosoma orchidearum West. (Hymen.), many 
of them assuming that the latter species is responsible for the root 
galls. The Cattleya midge is not by any means widely distributed in 
New Jersey greenhouses, but can undoubtedly be found in more than 
the two localities mentioned above, if persistently sought for. 
HAKRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Observations on Ants in South Carolina (Hym.). 

On March 18, the writer noticed ants attending Toxoptcra grami- 
ntint. The ants had nests at or near the base of oat plants on which 
the "green bugs" were feeding. The writer's attention was attracted 
by the unusual number of ants and nests in the field. The ants were 
identified as Iridomyrmex pruinosns var. analis. 

Mr. J. A. Berly, of this Division, found a number of long, slender 
black ants in attendance upon the same species of plant-lice. The ants 
were Dorymyrmex pyramicus, or the common black lion ant. 

The writer found Prcnolcpis imparts attending the black elder aphis, 
Aphis sambucifolia, on elder. Mr. G. M. Anderson, of this Division, 
found the same species of ants in attendance upon the cottony cushion 
scale, Icerya purchasi. 

Two species of ants, Crematogaster lineolata and Prenolepis im- 
parts, were found attending the scale on pine, identified by Mr. E. R. 
Sasscer, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, as Toumeyclla pini. Cremato- 
gaster lineolata was also found attending Aphis brassicae on an uni- 
dentified plant of the mustard family. 

Prenolepis imparis were observed swarming on March 19. One pe- 
culiar thing that was very noticeable was that spider webs had caught 
a large number of the winged forms; as many as six or eight were 
found in the same web. 

A remarkably large nest of the small black ant, Dolichnderus tasch- 
enbergi, var. atterina. were found near a path at Clemson College. 
The nest was built under and around a large clump of broom straw, a 



280 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

very common weed of waste places, and was so well concealed with 
particles of straw brought there by the ants that only very close ob- 
servation revealed its location. There must have been several thou- 
sand in the nest, as they covered the ground everywhere. The writer's 
attention was attracted to this nest by the trail of the ants leading 
across the path. A large number were observed crawling up pine trees. 
This genus is recorded in Wheeler's "Ants" as an aboreal type. The 
identifications of the ants in most cases were made by Dr. Wheeler to 
whom the writer is indebted, while the Aphids were identified by Pro- 
fessor Thomas of this Division. The following species of ants were 
collected and added to the South Carolina list (see antca, page no) : 
Crematogaster victima subsp. missouriensis, Crcmatogaster lincolata 
var. lutea, Prenolepis (Nylanderia) parvula. M. R. SMITH, Entomo- 
logical laboratories, Clemson Agricultural College, Clemson College, 
South Carolina. 

Feeding Habits of Sinea diadema Fabr. (Het.). 

The nymph of this Reduviid when its attention is attracted by a 
moving object assumes an attitude of alert waiting. If the prey then 
becomes still, having the appearance of being dead, the Heteropteron 
will not molest it but will turn and walk away unconcernedly. If, 
however, the prey continues to manifest signs of life and starts to 
walk away, the Sinca will boldly stalk it, capturing it eventually. If 
the larva, perchance, starts toward the young Sinea, it does so only to 
meet death sooner in strong spiny arms. 

On preparing to attack, the Sinca rears back until the body is almost 
vertical, the antennae point backward, the front femora point back, and 
obliquely down away from the body; the tibiae extend upward and 
away from the body, forming a very obtuse angle with the femur. 
Sometimes the position is not so pronounced. The insect only rears 
slightly on its hind legs, allowing the front femora to point away from 
the body in a position ranging from obliquely upward to obliquely 
downward. The tibiae in cases like this extend outward and upward, 
still forming the very obtuse angle with the femora. The beak all the 
while remains in its normal position under the abdomen. The proper 
moment having arrived, the insect with a quick rush closes on its prey, 
simultaneously bringing the front legs down and fixing the larva 
firmly in the angle formed by the union of the femora and tibiae, 
where it is firmly held by the strong spines which are fixed to both 
these joints. At the same moment that this rushing attack is made, the 
comparatively long sharp beak of the young Reduviid is brought for- 
ward and plunged with a single quick stroke into the body of the prey. 
In a majority of cases the beak is found to be inserted into or near the 
thoracic region of the larva, and in one instance it was inserted almost 
into the base of the head capsule of a newly-hatched Prastcria erech- 
tea larva. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 28 1 

If the larva attacked be large enough, it throws the young nymph 
about violently as it struggles to rid itself of the undesirable predator. 
The nymph struggles to retain its hold, however, at the same 
time attempting to crawl backwards in an effort to drag the prey, which 
it does if the latter be small enough, thus keeping the struggling larva 
away from its own body. In case the young nymph is thrown loose 
from the larva it usually gives up the attempt to capture, unless it be 
especially hungry or has the larva placed before it again, in which case 
it again attacks. Should the nymph retain its hold on the larva with 
the beak inserted, the prey soon ceases to struggle, giving up completely, 
seemingly rendered inactive by the pain of the inserted beak or per- 
haps by a fluid injected for that purpose. 

Young Sinea no further advanced in development than at most the 
second instar have been seen to attack and capture lepidopterous larvae 
half an inch long. In one instance a squirming larva of Drasteria 
erechtea was held in the air in front of a young Sinca diadema. The 
nymph, about ^ inch long, approached cautiously and rearing back 
until the Body was vertical, sprung off the floor almost straight upward 
for a distance of about one-fourth of an inch and captured the prey. 

Living as this young insect does on larvae that are more or less 
active themselves, it is perhaps necessary that it be agile or it might 
as a species be materially reduced, if not drop out entirely, in the 
struggle for existence. 

Adults feed in much the same manner. 

The abundance of this species in the fields in summer together with 
this predaceous habit, establishes an economic factor of no little im- 
portance. H. L. PARKER, Bureau of Entomology, Division of Cereal 
and Forage Crop Insect Investigations, Hagerstown, Md. 

Targionia dearnessii Ckll. (Hem., Horn.). 

This rather conspicuous scale, though widely distributed, is not com- 
monly noted, for some reason. It first came to my notice by a purely 
automatic reflex and not at all as a result of search. I was, at the 
time, walking briskly along a country road, in late fall, when it sud- 
denly came to me that there had been something peculiar about a small 
twig I had passed in the road. Retracing my steps for perhaps a rod, 
I picked up the twig, possibly six inches in length, and discovered that 
it was rather plentifully spotted with a whitish scale, having an Aspidi- 
otus-\\ke appearance but entirely unknown to me. Upon sending it to 
Mr. E. R. Sasscer, of the Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, I learned 
that it was Targionia dearnessii Ckll. Examining the twig I dis- 
covered that it was Ccanothus americanus L., or, as commonly called, 
"New Jersey Tea." This was in southern Missouri, some three years 
ago and, not being at that time familiar with the flora there, I was un- 
certain whether my find was local or, perchance, dropped from a load 
of hay imported from elsewhere. Early the following spring search 



282 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

discovered the Ceanothus as local and further the fact that in scattered 
localities it was more or less coated with this scale. Keeping the facts 
in mind during my numerous trips throughout the state, I found this 
scale on the New Jersey Tea at numerous localities in most parts of 
the state. Later in Iowa, I found the same to be true there and in one 
little prairie valley near Iowa City, it occurred in greatest profusion, 
literally encrusting every stem. At this spot it was noted that many 
of the heavily encrusted stems were weakened and killed, while upon 
young stems this scale produced a very characteristic deformation, 
the stem being flattened and distorted. While widely distributed, it is 
within this part of the country at least local and has usually been 
found only in areas of a few square feet or at most square rods, while 
elsewhere in the locality, though the Ceanothus is abundant, it is free 
from scale. It is parasitized to some extent but we have been unable 
as yet to mature the parasites. Mr. Sasscer has been kind enough 
to give me the following data regarding the distribution of this insect, 
to which I have added those noted by me. To Mr. Sasscer I am fur- 
ther indebted for most of the citations of literature which follow : 
Targionia dearnessii Ckll. 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, shore of Lake Huron, Canada. 

Bahia sp., Stevens Creek Canon, California. 

Ceanothus americanus, Weeping Water, Nebraska; Tryon, North 
Carolina ; Great Falls, Maryland ; Mountain Grove, Cedar Gap, Spring- 
field, Hollister, Marionville, Cape Girardeau, Hematite and Memphis, 
Missouri; Hamburg, Onawa, Iowa City, Moscow and Keokuk, Iowa. 

Ceanothus ovaius, Tarkio, Missouri; Onawa, Iowa. 

Greasewood (Larrca), Riverside, California. 

Vaccinium sp., Grand Rapids, Wisconsin. 

Liatris gramini folia, Ambrosia art emisiae folia, Cranmoor, Wiscon- 
sin. 

Antcnnaria plantaginifolia, Arlington, Virginia. 

Symphoricarpos vulgaris, Mountain Grove, Missouri. 

The principal references to this insect are the following: 

Aspidiotus dearnessii Ckll., Can. Ent. XXX, p. 226; p. 266, 7 (Oct. 
'98) n. sp. Ckll. 

Aspidiotus (Targionia) dearnessii Ckll. Bui. 111. State Lab. Nat. 
Hist. V, art vii, p. 395, '99. 

Targionia dearnessii Leon. Gen. Spec. Diaspiti, Aspid., p. 266 (1900). 

Targionia dearnessii (Ckll.). Leonhardi, Riv. Pat. Veg., VIII, p. 

343- 

Aspidiotus (Tarc/ionia) dearnessii Ckll. King, Can. Ent. XXXIII, 

P- 199- 

Aspidiotus dearnessii Ckll. King, Can. Ent. XXXIV, p. 160. 

M. P. SOMES, Mountain Grove, Missouri. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 283 

Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 
The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered in 
the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of systematic papers are all grouped at the end of each 
Order of which they treat, and are separated from the rest by a dash. 

Unless mentioned" in the title, the number of new species or forms are 
given at end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record. 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. 

For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series B. 

2 Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Phila- 
delphia. 3 The American Naturalist. 4 The Canadian Entomol- 
ogist. 5 Psyche. 6 Journal, New York Entomological Society. . 
9 The Entomologist, London. 11 Annals and Magazine of Nat- 
ural History, London. 68 Science, New York. 76 Journal of the 
Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 86 Annales, Societe Ento- 
mologique de France, Paris. 99 Cornell University Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Ithaca. 102 Proceedings, The Entomological 
Society of Washington. 179 Journal of Economic Entomology. 
1ST) Annals, The Entomological Society of America. 181 Guide 
to Nature, Sound Beach, Conn. 197 Proceedings, Royal Society, 
Biological Sciences, London. 223 Broteria, Revista de Sciencias 
Naturaes do Collegio de S. Fiel (Ser. Zoologica). 242 Transac- 
tions, The Royal Society of Canada (3rd Series), Ottawa. 420 
Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus: A monthly journal of entomology, 
Washington. 438 Bulletin, Illinois State Laboratory of Natural 
History, Urbana. 447 Journal of Agricultural Research, Wash- 
ington. 475 Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise de Sciences Naturelles. 
528 Zoologica: Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoolog- 
ical Society. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Beebe, C. W. Fauna of four square 
feet of jungle debris, 528, ii, 107-19. Bishopp, F. C. A method of 
keeping alcoholic specimens, 180, ix, 04-6. Crampton, G. The 
phylogenetic origin and the nature of the wings of insects accord- 
ing to the paranotal theory, 6, xxiv, 1-39. Dury, C. Natural his- 
tory notes of southern Arizona, 76, xxii, 4-13. Hewitt, C. G. A 
review of applied entomology in the British Empire, 180, ix, 1-34. 
Martin, J. F. The thoracic and cervical sclerites of insects, 180, ix, 
35-88. Russell, H. M. Life and works by Quaintance, Hyslop & 
Walton, 102, xviii, 3-5. Van Duzee, E. P. Priority in family 
names and related matters, 180, ix, 89-93. Webster, F. M. Obitu- 
ary notice, 4, xlviii, 73-6. 



284 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. f June, 'l6 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Chamberlin, R. V. Two new Texan Para- 
juli, 5, xxiii, 33-6. Hewitt, C. G. A contribution to a knowledge 
of Canadian Ticks, 242, ix, 225-39. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Banks, N. A classification of our Lim- 
nephilid caddice flies, 4, 191G, 117-22. Needham & Smith The 
stone flies of the genus Peltoperla [7 new], 4, 1916, 80-8. Osburn, 
R. C. A migratory flight of dragonflies, 6, xxiv, 90-2. Williams, 
F. X. The pupa of Boreus brumalis, 5, xxiii, 36-9. 



ORTHOPTERA. Cockerell, T. D. A. The fossil O. of Floris- 
sant, Colorado [2 new], 9, 1914, 32-4. Hebard, M. The genus 
Ceratinoptera; A new genus, Cariblatta, of the group Blattelites 
[1 new], 2, xlii, 125-34; 147-186. A study of the species of the 
genus Stenopelmatus found in the U. S., 6, xxiv, 70-86. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker & Turner Some intermediates in the 
Aphididae, 102, xviii, 10-14. Comstock, J. H. Reports on scale 
insects, 99, Eul. 372, 601 pp. Doncaster, L. Gametogenesis and 
sex-determination in the gall-fly (Neuroterus lenticularis), 197, 
Ixxxix, 183-200. Wilson, H. F. Additional notes on the genus 
Pterocomma, 180, ix, 103. 

Ball, E. D. New sps. of Eutettix and Phlepsius [7 new], 4, 1916, 
124-30. Cockerell, T. D. A. Some grass-feeding mealy-bugs [2 
new], 179, ix, 312-13. Davis, W. T. Notes on Cicadas from the 
U. S. with descriptions of several n. sps. [5 new], 6, xxiv, 42-65. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bird, H. Xanthoecia buffaloensis, its larval 
habit and occurrence within our fifty-mile faunal zone [of New 
York City], 6, xxiv, 86-90. Gerould, J. H. The inheritance of sea- 
sonal polymorphism in butterflies, 3, 1, 310-16. Gibson, A. The 
life history of Leucobrephos brephoides, 4, 1916, 133-8. de Joannis, 
J. Etude synonymique des especes de Microlepidopteres decrites 
comme nouvelles par Duponchel, 86, Ixxxiv, 62-164. Van Zwalen- 
burg, R. H. Notes on the life history of Ecpantheria eridanus, 
420, iv, 12-17. 

Barnes & McDunnough An apparently n. sp. of Phalonia, 4, 
1916, 144. Braun, A. F. New sps. of Microlepidoptera [3 new], 4, 
1916, 138-40. Mosher, E. A classification of the L. based on char- 
acters of the pupa, 438, xii, 17-159. 

DIPTERA. Knab, F. Four European D. established in No. 
Am., 420, iv, 1-4. Richardson, C. H. A chemotropic response of 
the house fly (M. domestica), 68, xliii, 613-16. Townsend, C. H. T. 
Non-intentional dispersal of muscoid species by man, with par- 
ticular reference to tachinid species, 102, xviii, 18-20. 



Vol. XXVJi] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 285 

Cockerell, T. D. A. Two D. of the genus Rhamphomyia from 
Colorado [new], 4, 1916, 123-4. Cresson, E. T., Jr. Studies in 
American Ephydridae. 1. Revision of the species of the genus 
Paralimna, 2, xlii, 101-124. Dietz, W. G. Synoptical tahle of the 
No. Am. species of Ormosia, with descriptions of new species [11 
new], 2, xlii, 135-146. Johnson, C. W. Further studies on the 
Platypezidae [6 new], 5, xxiii, 27-33. Knab & Shannon Tany- 
pezidae in the U. S. [2 new], 420, iv, 33-36. Malloch, J. R. Three 
new No. Am. species of the genus Agromyza, 5, xxiii, 50-4. Schaef- 
fer, C. New D. of the family Asilidae with notes on known spe- 
cies [8 new], 6, xxiv, 65-9. Townsend, C. H. T. Designations of 
muscoid genotypes, with new genera and species [6 n. gen.]; Elu- 
cidations of New England Muscoidea [11 n. gen.; 4 n. sps.], 420, 
iv, 4-12; 17-33. Travares, J. S. Cecidomyias novas do Brazil, 223, 
xiv, 36-57. 

COLEOPTERA. Cosens, A. Notes on hibernating ladybird 
beetles, 4, 1916, 104-5. Leng, C. W. Notes on Cychrini, 6, xxiv, 
39-42. Pierce, W. D. Notes on the habits of weevils, 102, xviii, 
6-10. Sanders & Fracker Lachnosterna records in Wisconsin, 
179, ix, 253-61. 

Achard, J. Descriptions d'especes nouvelles de Scaphidiidae, 86, 
Ixxxiii, 555-62. Blatchley, W. S. A new gen. and sp. of Nitidulini, 
with descriptions of other n. sps. of C. from Indiana and Florida 
[1 n. g.; 8 n. sps.], 4, 1916, 91-6. Calder, E. E. Cicindela hirti- 
collis var. rhodensis n. var., 6, xxiv, 93-4. Champion, G. C. A new 
genus of Pythidae from the Falkland Islands, 11, xvii, 311-13. 
Dury, C. Two new beetles from Cincinnati, 76, xxii, 14-15. Glas- 
gow, R. D. Phyllophaga Harris (Lachnosterna Hope) : A revi- 
sion of the synonymy, and one new name, 438, xi, 365-79. Swaine, 
J. M. Platypus wilsoni a new sp. of Platypus from Br. Columbia, 
4, 1916, 97-100. 

HYMENOPTERA. Britton, W. E. Further notes on Diprion 
simile, 179, ix, 281-2. Falk, H. O. Animal intelligence again 
[ants], 181, viii, 393-97. McConnell, W. R. Notes on the biology 
of Paraphelinus speciosissimus, 18, ix, 97-102. Miller, J. M. Ovi- 
position of Megastigmus spermotrophus in the seed of douglas fir, 
447, vi, 65-8. Ramsay, L. N. G. Note on the oviposition of Rhyssa, 
9, 1914, 20-22. Rohwer & Gahan Horismnlogy of the hymenop- 
terous wing, 102, xviii, 20-76. Timberlake, P. H. Note on an inter- 
esting case of two generations of a parasite reared from the same 
individual host, 4, 1916, 89-91. 



Cockerell, T. D. A. Sunflower insects in California and South 
Africa [1 new], 4, 1916, 76-9. Descriptions and records of bees. 
Ixxi [14 new], 11, xvii, 277-87. Forel, A. Formicides d'Afrique et 
d'Amerique nouveaux ou peu connus, 475, 1. 335-64. Girault, A. A. 
Descriptions of eleven n. sps. of Chalcid flies [1 n. g. : 7 n. sps.], 
4, 1916, 100-103; 113-6. New Encyrtidae from No. Am. [5 n. gen.: 
11 n. sps.], 5, xxiii. 41-50. Notes on two South Am. parasitic H., 
9, 1915, 213-14. Wheeler, W. M. Some new formicid names. 5, xxiii, 
4d-l. Williams, L. T. A new species of Thripoctenus, 5, xxiii, 
54-61. 



286 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 

Doings of Societies. 

Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of February 16, 1916, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart St., Philadelphia. Eleven members present ; Pres. H. A. 
Wenzel in the chair. 

The President read his annual address, which had been held over 
from the last meeting. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Kaeber exhibited four specimens of a rare 
Nitidulid, Psilopyga histrina LeC., which he had found at Narberth, 
Pennsylvania, IX-6-'i5 in decayed fungus, Mutinus caninus Huds. Mr. 
Greene said he had found specimens at the same time and place. The 
latter exhibited a specimen of Plagiodera versicolor Laich. which he had 
collected at Normandie Park Inn, Clifton, Passaic County, New Jer- 
sey, IX-ip-'iS; willow is very common on this property. This is re- 
corded from Bulls Head, Staten Island, New York, by Schaeffer, J. N. 
Y. Ent. Soc., xxiii, p. 236, 1915. 

Hymenoptera. Mr. Daecke said he knew this was a peculiar 
season but he was surprised to see on January 3Oth about a half dozen 
honey bees on flowers at a stand in Harrisburg. 

Lepidoptera and Diptera. The same speaker stated that he had 
found larvae of Bcpantheria deflorata Fabr. at Rockville, Pennsyl- 
vania, X-i9-'i5, which immediately pupated. From these two parasitic 
Diptera emerged, XII-9-'i5, Blepharopeza adusta Loew. These were 
exhibited. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Geo. M. Greene read an article from Popular 
Science Monthly in which it told how the Sioux Indians used the larva 
of a butterfly to bore the pith from ash twigs so they could be used 
for pipe stems. 

Homoptera. Mr. Hornig said he had found eggs of the Seven- 
teen Year Cicada in 1912 and they are still alive. 

Adjourned to the annex. 



Meeting of March isth, 1916, held this evening at the same place; 
eight members were present. Pres". H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Coleoptera. Dr. Castle exhibited two specimens of DnrcaschcHua ol- 
tcrnatum Say, which he collected at Enterprise, Florida, May 24. Gen- 
eral discussion followed. Adjourned to the annex. GEO. M. GREENE, 
Secretary. 

Chicago Entomological Club. 

Meeting of February 20, 1916, at home of Mr. Henry Ramstadt. 
Eleven members present. 

Coleopterists discussed the Bruchidae and compared specimens. 
Lepidopterists: Mr. Kwiat read an article on "Collecting Papai- 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 287 

pemae" which was published in the May NEWS. The genus was discussed 
generally and the following species reported from the Chicago area, 
all but ccrina and inqnaesita having been bred. 

cerina Grote. merriccata Bird 

cerussata G. & R. necopina Grt. 

circumlucens Smith nelita Strk. 

cupatorii Lyman var. Undo Bird 

frigida Smith nephrasyntheta Dyar 

var. thalictri Lyman nit da Gn. 

furcata Smith var. nebris Gn. 

harrisii Grote ptcrisii Bird 

impecuniosa Grote rigida Grt. 

inqnaesita G. & R. sciata Bird 

marginidens Gn. silphii Bird 

arctivorcns Hamps. spcciosissima G. & R. 

A. KWIAT, Secretary. 



Newark Entomological Society. 

Meetings held in the Newark (New Jersey) Public Library, February 
13, March 12, April 9, 1916; Pres. Buchholz presiding; average attend- 
ance, ten members. 

Dermaptera. At the March meeting, Mr. Weiss showed a male 
and female of Forfictila auricularia L., the European ear-wig, which 
had been taken at Newport, Rhode Island, where they had been found 
in considerable numbers. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Stortz at the April meeting, recorded the capture 
of Lixus julichi Casey, at Arlington, New Jersey, as early as April 2 
and Mr. Weiss exhibited specimens of Agrilus riridis which breeds in 
rose stems in different parts of north Jersey and also Hxochomus 4- 
pustulata from Riverton, New Jersey, this being an introduced "lady- 
bird" which has only been taken in this State a couple of times. 

Diptera. At the April meeting, Mr. Weiss also showed aerial 
orchid roots which had been deformed by the larvae of Parallelodiplo- 
sis cattleyae, found of course only in greenhouses in this climate. 

HARRY B. WEISS, Rcc. Secretary. 



The Ecological Society of America, Announcements. 

An Illinois Section of the Ecological Society has been organized 
through the activity of Professors Forbes and Shelford. This local 
organization already contains 21 members, and is planning the prosecu- 
tion of an ecological survey of Illinois. 

Preliminary proposals have been made with regard to the carrying 
out of a soil temperature survey of the United States through co-oper- 
ation of the American Society of Phytopathologists and the Ecological 
Society of America. Prof. L. R. Jones and Dr. J. B. Ovcrton, of the 



288 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l6 



University of Wisconsin, have been chiefly instrumental in advocating 
this project. The Secretary will be glad to hear from members of the 
Society who have soil thermographs, and are interested in the arrange- 
ments for such a co-operative investigation. 

A four-day field trip to the dunes of Lake Michigan, in the vicinity 
of Chicago, will be conducted from June 14 to 17 by Prof. H. C. 
Cowles, Prof. V. E. Shelford, and Dr. G. D. Fuller, in case a sufficient 
number of persons express interest in the trip. It is expected that one 
day will be devoted to the sand ridges and slough near Buffington and 
Clarke, Indiana, largely under the guidance of Professor Shelford. 
Other days will be devoted to the dune successions at Miller, Indiana, 
the moving dunes at Dune Park, the eroding dunes at Michigan City, 
Indiana, and those at Sawyer, Michigan, where telescoped successions 
and dune and climax forests are well displayed. The interest will 
centre in the interrelations of plants and animals, and the relation of 
each to the environmental conditions. The entire expense for lodging, 
meals, and transportation for the four days will be about $10. There 
will be no further general announcement of this trip. Members who 
plan to join it, or have even a remote prospect of doing so, are re- 
quested to communicate at once with one of the conductors. If 
enough favorable replies are received to justify offering the excursion 
a definite announcement will be made to those interested. 

A field trip will be conducted at San Diego, California, on August 
12 to 14, in connection with the meeting of the Pacific Division of the 
American Association. Prof. W. E. Ritter has invited members of the 
Society to visit the Laboratory of the Scripps Institution at La Jolla, 
near San Diego, and to examine the work and environs of that centre 
of marine ecological investigations. One or two days will also be 
spent, under competent guidance, in studying the biota of the chapar- 
ral at several favorable localities near San Diego, and in the foothills 
of the Cuyamaca Mountains. Further details of the San Diego trips 
will be announced about May 15. 

Prof. A. O. Weese, of the University of New Mexico, proposes to 
conduct a field trip in the vicinity of Albuquerque, New Mexico, for 
those who may be able to stop off there on the way to or from San 
Diego. Several other men located on transcontinental railways have 
expressed a willingness to give some of their time to members of the 
Society who may be able to stop over with them at any time during the 
summer. The Secretary will be glad to have early information from 
those intending to be present at San Diego, and he will be glad to give 
information to prospective transcontinental travelers regarding possible 
stop-overs with other members. 

The Secretary-Treasurer is no longer in Baltimore, but should be 
addressed 

FORREST SHREVE, Tucson, Arizona. 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHMITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough around the front 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of the front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in addition to being abso- 
lutely dust, moth and dermestes proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos- 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42i in. high, 13 in. deep, 18J 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameled green outside. For details of Dr. Skin- 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological News, Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside lined with cork ; the outside enameled any color 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are 9x 13x2i in. deep, but can he furnished 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. We do not assert that this wooden box has all the quali- 
ties of the metal box, especially in regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 
a box, we think, superior to any other wood insect box. The bottom is cork lined. 
Outside varnished. For catalogue and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WARD'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE, ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 189O 

When Writing Pleace Mention " Entomological News." 



K-S Specialties 



Entomology 



THE KNY-SCHEERER COMPANY 

Department of Natural Science 404-410 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Exotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 




INSECT BOXES We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and can 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 

NS/3085 Plain Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15% in Each $0.25 

NS/3o8s Size 8xio^ in Each .15 

NS/309I Lepidoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 
cover and bottom of strong pasteboard, covered with 
bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 
Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf (peat). 

Per dozen 5.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Per dozen 6.00 

Caution : Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 




NS/309I 



( For exhibition purposes) 




NS/3I3I 



NS/3I2I K.-S. Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 
fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8x11x2% in. (or to order, 8%xio%x254 in.) $0.70 

Size 12x16x2% |n. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 1 .20 

Size 14x22x2% in. (or to order, 14x22x2% in.) 2.00 

Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 



THE KNY SCHEERER CO. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 
G. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 



PARIS EXPOSITION: 
Eight Awards and Medals 




PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 
Gold Medal 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION : Grand Prize and Gold Medal 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc. , 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kinds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Papilio columbus (gundlachianus), the brightest colored American Papilio, vens 
rare, perfect specimens $1.50 each ; second quality $1.00 each. 

Wlin Writing Please mention "Entomological News." 

P. C. Stookhausen. Printer, 53-55 N. 7th Street. Philadelphia. 



JULY, 1916. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. 





John Lawrence Le Conte, 
1825-J883. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



BZRA T. CKESSON. 
PHILIP LAURENT, 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 



ERICH DAECKE. 



J. A. G. REHN. 
H. W. WENZEL. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matur. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS * 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 

logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 

and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $1.00 Ca*sh in advance. 



remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 



all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

t^~ The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, ?0 cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents; greater numbers of copies will he at the corresponding multiples of 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper, 30 characters or less, 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 

C. V. BLACKBURN. 13 PINE STREET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XV. 




BLABERUS GIGANTEUS, 1 ; B. COLOSSEUS, 2-5.-HEBARD. 



JUL 3 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



JULY, 1916. 



No. 7. 



CONTENTS: 



Hebard Critical Notes on Certain Spe- 
cies of the Genus Blaberus (Orth., 
Blattidae) 289 

Crampton The Lines of Descent of 
the Lower Ptervgotan Insects, with 
Notes on the Relationships of the 
other Forms (cont.) 297 

Skinner A New Catagramma from 
Brazil ( Lep. ) 307 

Photographs Received for the Album 
of the American Entomological So- 
ciety 307 

Dickerson and Weiss Notes on Lep- 
toypha mutica Say ( Hemip. ) 308 

Moore A New Killing Bottle 311 

An Efficacious Endoparasite of Chry- 
somphalus dictyospermi Morg. 
(Hym., Horn.)..." 312 



Williamson On Certain Acanthagri- 
ons, Including Three New Species 
(Odonata) 313 

Kennedy Notes on the Penes of Zy- 
goptera (Odonata) 325 

Brues An American Species of the 
Ichneumonid Genus Heterocola 
Fb'rster (Hym.) 330 

Editorial The Need of Carefulness in 
Identification 332 

Wolley Dod A Correction for Parnas- 
sius smintheus ( Lep. ) 332 

Skinner A Remarkable Abdominal 
Structure in Certain Moths (Lep.) 333 

Entomological Literature 333 

Review of Needham and Lloyd : The Life 
of Inland Waters 336 



1916 



Critical Notes on Certain Species of the Genus 
Blaberus (Orthoptera, Blattidae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(Plate XV.) 

Recently, in studying the species of the present genus ad- 
ventive in the United States, it was found necessary to exam- 
ine all of the material of the genus in the Philadelphia col- 
lections and to consider carefully the literature on the sub- 
ject, before these forms could be properly located. But two, 
B. colosseus (as the synonymous inc.vicana} and R. dlscoi- 
dalls (as the synonymous cubeiisis), have been recorded from 
this country; confusion of the first of these with the closely 
related B. gigantcits has made necessary a full discussion of 
that species as well. 

The following discussion is based upon more extensive 
series of the species involved than have ever been assembled 
at one time in the past. 

289 



290 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

Blaberus giganteus (Linnaeus). (Plate XV, fig. 1). 

1758. B[latta] gigantea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, I, p. 424. 
[America.] 

1813. [Blatta] gigantea Stoll, Natuur. Afbeeld., Kakkerlakken, p. 
2, Register p. I, pi. Id, figs, i and 2. (No locality given.) 

1865. Bl[abera] stolli Brunner, Nouv. Syst. Blatt., p. 374. [$, Cay- 
enne, [French Guiana].] 

This species is closely related to B. colosseus (Illiger), 
differing in the distinctly broader form. The broader pro- 
notum has, in the female sex, 1 the cephalic portion more 
ample, the curvature laterad of the cephalic margin less de- 
cided, thus leaving distinctly more extensive lateral margins 
which are subparallel for a short distance (as described for 
gigantea by Illiger). In our material the length of the pro- 
notum is contained in its width 1.49 to 1.5 times (Saussure 
gives for this species 1.48 to 1.50). The tegmina are propor- 
tionately broader, with marginal fields distinctly wider, than in 
colosseus. Linnaeus gives "diametro ovi gallinacei" for this 
species ; the series before us of colosseus are decidedly too 
slender to fit this description. 

We have given Stoll's reference, as Brunner has described 
such material as B. stolli. We are satisfied that the features 
given by Brunner for the separation of that condition are of 
no specific diagnostic value, being due to recessive coloration 
and slight individual differences in the interocular width and 
rounding of the apices of the tegmina. 

The great size and very pale buffy general coloration of 
giganteus and colosseus readily distinguish them from any 
other species of the genus. Both agree in numerous features 
of interest given here under the latter species. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length Length Width Length Width Width Length in 
of of pro- of pro- of of of costal width of 

9 body 2 notum notum legmen legmen field pronolum 

Cincinnati, Colombia 66.0 17.3 25 8 66.8 25.2 8.3 X 1.49 + 

Cincinnati, Colombia 58.2 17.2 25.7 66.2 25.8 8.4 X 1.5 + 

Cincinnali, Colombia 630 16.6 25.0 65.3 25.0 8.0 X 1.5 



1 Lack of males of the present species is unfortunate, but it is prob- 
able that the contrast between the sexes in giganteus is in every way 
comparable with that found between the sexes in colosseus. 

"The body measurement is taken to the apex of the subgenital plate; 
the supra-anal plate, in the present genus, extends beyond this point. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2QI 

Coloration. General color of pronotum and tegmina cinnamon buff. 
Pronotum with a large polished blackish brown mesal spot, which nar- 
rows slightly caudad and is in full contact with the caudal margin of 
the pronotum. 3 Tegmina with proximal fifth of humeral trunk blackish 
brown; a broad band of warm sepia crosses the exposed proximal por- 
tions of the discoidal fields of the tegmina when at rest; the distal 
portion of the discoidal field of the sinistral tegmen, exposed when at 
rest, is again suffused, but less heavily, with snuff brown. Dorsal 
surface of abdomen shining blackish chestnut, margined laterad with 
cinnamon buff, all but a brief basal portion of the supra-anal plate of 
this color. Underparts and limbs shining blackish chestnut, the ven- 
tral surface of the abdomen with medio-lateral spots on the proximal 
segments and each segment with smaller latero-marginal blotches of 
yellow-ochre. 

The specimens before us undoubtedly represent the inten- 
sive coloration of the present species. The insect probably 
shows all of the color variation, due to recession and intensi- 
fication, found in the series of colosscus before us. 

Specimens Examined: 6, 5 females, I immature male. 

Cincinnati, Santa Marta, Colombia, VII, 10, 1913 (M. A. 
Carriker, Jr.; fundacion), 5 9 , i juv. $ [Hebard Cln.]. 

Blaberus colosseus (Illiger). (Plate XV, figs. 2 to 5). 

1802. Blatta Colossca Illiger, Mag. Insektenkunde, I, p. 186. [Deme- 
rara, [British Guiana].] 

1862. B![abera] mexicana Saussure, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2e Ser., XIV, 
p. 233. [Mexico.] 

1864. Blabera mexicana Saussure, Mem. 1'hist. Nat. Mex., IV, p. 
234. [Tampico, Tuxpan, Cordoba, etc., Mexico; New Orleans, Louisi- 
ana.] 

Saussure, considering B. gigantea and B. colosscus synony- 
mous, described mexicana in 1862, this name being based on 
Mexican material showing features of difference from y'njan- 
tea almost exactly as had been described for colossea by Illi- 
ger. Saussure's more detailed discussion of mexicana in 1864 
shows convincingly that the name is an absolute synonym of 
colosseus. 

3 In the species of the present genus showing this feature, large 
series almost always include examples having this spot barely reach- 
ing, or entirely failing to reach, the caudal margin of the pronotum. 
Overestimation of the importance of this mere individual color vari- 
ation has resulted in a number of decided errors in the past literature. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

The present insect is very closely related to giganteus, dif- 
fering chiefly in the distinctly and strikingly more slender 
form. The less broad pronotmn is much more regularly oval 
and the marginal fields of the tegmina are distinctly narrower 
in the present species. 

Both the present species and qiganteus, as far as we arc 
able to determine from females, agree in the following char- 
acters: 

Head with interocular width in males from slightly less than to a 
full one-fourth the interocellar width, in females from one-fourth to 
one-third the interocellar width. Head shining blackish, the ocelli and 
soft portion of clypeus buff. Ocelli with flattened surfaces slanting 
laterad, the inner margins slightly raised above the flattened plane of 
the space between the ocelli. Tegmina very ample, rounding broadly 
distad to distinct but not sharply rounded apex which in position is 
situated slightly nearer the costal margin. Dorsal surface of abdomen 
in both sexes with sixth segment strongly acute-angulate produced 
latero-caudad; seventh much narrower across abdomen and but slightly 
projecting beyond caudal margin of sixth, with small rounded latero- 
caudal projections; eighth still narrower across abdomen with caudal 
margin straight ; supra-anal plate strongly quadrate produced, bilobate. 
Cerci moderately slender, slightly incurved, tapering distad to acute 
apex, with about seventeen short joints, (in females of giganteus 
twenty to twenty-two) ; polished and slightly convex above, very 
hairy and strongly convex below with narrow deep lateral marginal 
channels. Concealed male genitalia : Mesad, from above a soft sur- 
rounding mantle, a moderately stout short tapering blunt chitinous 
projection extends caudad ; the surrounding mantle having the free 
dorsal and distal margins fringed with small blunt chitinous projec- 
tions, these longer and more like short blunt teeth of a comb on the 
sinistral margin. Dextrad of this organ, from a broad chitinous base, 
a stout subchitinous shaft is directed caudad curving regularly out- 
ward, the convex surface is subchitinous, the inner surface soft, the 
apex more chitinous and flattened, broadened and blunt. Male sub- 
genital plate convex, asymmetrical, distal margin broadly convex from 
sinistral base to mesal portion of distal half, there rounding sharply 
into deep concave emargination at dextral base, within which the mar- 
gin is much softer and subchitinous. Minute slender cylindrical styles 
present on this margin at the inner bases of the cerci, the sinistral five 
times as long as broad and situated in a small indentation of the exter- 
nal surface near the margin, the dextral eight times as long as broad and 
situated in a more decided indentation of the margin itself. Ventro- 
cephalic margins of cephalic femora supplied proximad with three or 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 293 

four short stout widely spaced spines, succeeded distad by a close 
set row of short stout hairs, these terminated distad by a single short 
stout spine; ventro-caudal margin of cephalic femora and ventral mar- 
gins of other femora supplied with a similar single distal spine. Me- 
dian and caudal femora armed in addition with a single longer genicu- 

lar spine. 

Measurements (in millimeters}. 

Length Length Width Length Width Width Length in 
9 of of pro- ol pro- of of teg- of margi- width in 

body notum notum legmen men nal field pronotunu 

Caparo, Trinidad 58 3 16.8 22.0 69.6 22.4 6.3 

Caparo, Trinidad 56.6 15.6 20.7 63.8 21.3 5.6 

Caparo, Trinidad 57.0 15.0. 20.0 64.3 21.0 

Gorgona, Panama 53.6 15.6 22.7 63.0 22.3 7.0 

St. Jean, French Guiana 58.8 15.7 22.2 70.7 25.2 7.6 



31 
33 
33 + 
.46 



Guatemala 54.6 14.3 20.2 53.8 20.7 6.0 X .41 + 

San Carlos, Costa Rica 59.6 16.0 23.2 67.7 24.5 7.7 X .45 

Costa Rica 58.7 16.9 24.6 70.8 24.8 7.0 X .45 

San Esteban, Venezuela 64.0 16.0 22.8 69.4 25.0 6.3 X 1.43 

San Esteban, Venezuela 60.0 14.9 20.7 64.7 22.9 X 1.49 

Maroni River, Fr. Guiana 59.0 16.6 23.7 68.4 26.2 7.0 X 1.43 

Coloration. In intensive examples (Costa Rica) exactly as described 
under giganteus. Through recessive stages first the distal suffusion of 
the tegmen disappears (Trinidad), then all markings except the black- 
ish brown proximal fifth of the humeral trunk. In the condition of 
maximum recession (majority of Trinidad material) the pronotal 
margins are warm buff, the tegmina clear transparent warm buff with 
but small dashes of blackish brown at base of humeral trunk. Three 
recessive examples before us (Trinidad) have two dots of zinc orange 
mesad in the pronotal spot, while an intensive specimen (Costa Rica) 
has four of these dots. The pronotal spot is often in full contact with 
the caudal margin of the pronotum, usually it is distinctly narrowed 
there, while in a few specimens it fails to reach that margin by a nar- 
row interval. 

Specimens Examined: 23, 16 males, 7 females. 

Olas de Moka, Solola, Guatemala, 3,000 feet, IX, 1908, 
i $, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Senahu, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala, (P. Haase), i $, [U. 
S. N. M.I. 

Guatemala, i$, [Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

San Carlos, Costa Rica, (Schild-Burgdorf), 2 $, 2 9, [U. 
S. N. M. and A. N. S. P.I. 

Costa Rica, (M. A. Carriker, Jr.), i 9 , [Hcbard On.]. 

Gorgona, Canal Zone, Panama, i $, [A. N. S. P.]. 

4 Saussure gives for his material, the length contained in the pronotal 
width, in giganteus 1.48 to 1.50, in his mexicana (synonym of colossetis) 
1.40 to 1.45. 



294 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama, i $, [U. S. N. M.]. 

San Esteban, Venezuela, X to XI, 1910, (M. A. Carriker, 
Jr.), 2 5, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Cerro Aripo, Trinidad, VIII, 1909, (M. A. Carriker. Jr.), 
i $, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Caparo, Trinidad, VI, 1913, (H. S. Parish), i $, [A. N. S. 
P.] ; VIII, 1913, (H. S. Parish), 7 $, [Hebard Cln.]. 

St. Jean, French Guiana, (W. Schaus), i $, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Maroni River, French Guiana, (W. Schaus), i 9 , [U. S. 
N. M.]. 

Blaberus discoidalis Serville. 

1839. Blabera discoidalis Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 76. [9, 
San Domingo.] 

1839. Blabera atropos Serville, (not Blatta atropos of Stoll, 1813), 
Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 77. [5,9, San Domingo.] 

1839. Blabera varians Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 78. (In 
part.) [$, Cuba.] 

1864. B[labera] cubensis Saussure, Rev. Mag. Zool., 2e Ser., XVI, 
p. 347 [Cuba.] 

1865. Bl[abera] atropos Brunner (not Blatta atropos of Stoll, 1813), 
Nouv. Syst. Blatt., p. 375, pi. XII, figs. 55, A to G. (In part.) [5,9; 
(probably) Jamaica; Venezuela, and Colombia; (probably not) 
Brazil.] 

1868. Blabera subspurcata Walker, Cat. Blatt. Br. Mns., p. 4. (In 
part.) [$ ; San Domingo; (probably not) Brazil.] 

1894. Blabera rufesccns Saussure and Zehntner, Biol. Cent.-Amer., 
Orth., I, p. 119, pi. V, fig. 22. [9, Cuba.] 

In 1839, Serville discussed three supposed species of the 
genus from the West Indies, describing two of these as new, 
but stating that all might be varieties of discoidalis (in which 
remark B. dubia was included, that species now standing as 
genotype of Blaptica). It is evident that all of his West In- 
dian material, except the female of his varians, represents mere 
color variations of the same species. 

In 1864, Saussure described B. cubensis briefly, later in the 
same year discussing the insect more fully, comparing it with 
his mexicana (~ B. colosscits, see page 291), but evidently 
overlooking Serville's discoidalis and confusing that author's 
atropos and varians with atropos of Stoll. His species is 
clearly a synonym of discoidalis and later, with Zehntner, he 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 295 

added another evident synonym, rufescens, to the present list, 
giving for the basis of that name only such characters as slight 
differences in the shape of the ocular margins and shape of 
the pronotum to separate it from cubensis, features attributable 
wholly to individual variation within the species. 

We find Walker's subspwcata to be based primarily on 
material of the present species, though the Brazilian specimen 
included probably represents a different form. This name was 
placed by Kirby under cubensis in 1904. 

The present insect is the smallest of the North American 
species of Blab ems and is a rather robust species. Decided 
variation is found in the pronotal form, while the extremes of 
intensive and recessive coloration are very dissimilar in gen- 
eral appearance. 

The following features are of interest : 

Head with interspace between eyes in males from one-half to three- 
quarters the interocellar width (normally three-quarters), in females 
over one-half to (normally) four-fifths the interocellar width. Head 
shining blackish, ocelli and soft portions of clypeus buff. Ocelli with 
flattened surface slanting laterad, the inner margin hardly raised above 
the very weakly concave surface of the space between the ocelli in 
males, not at all raised above the deplanate surface of this space in 
the females. Tegmina very ample but short, reaching well beyond the 
abdomen in males, very slightly beyond the apex of the supra-anal 
plate in females; margins distad broadly rounding to distinct but not 
sharply rounded apex, which in position is slightly nearer the costal 
margin. Dorsal surface of abdomen much as in B. gigantcus but with 
apex of latero-caudal productions of sixth segment much shorter 
and blunt. Cerci shorter, less tapering and with apex more blunt than 
in gigantcus, with about fifteen short joints. Limbs shorter but arma- 
ment of the same as in giganteus. 

The extremes in the series from Trinidad are given above. Decided 
pronotal variation is shown in the material before us, frequently the 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length Length Width Length Width Length in 

of of of of of width of 

body pronotum pronotum legmen legmen pronotum 

Puerto Plata, San Domingo 42.1 11.9 16.8 40.2 163 X 

Porto Rico 364 11.7 16.7 40.7 16.0 X 

St. Joseph, Trinidad 44.9 12.8 17.9 43.2 16.6 X 

St. Joseph, Trinidad 36.8 11.6 16.7 40.1 16.4 X 

Panama 40.9 12.3 18.6 43.0 18.0 X 

Puerto Plata. San Domingo 49.4 13.8 19.7 41.4 19.0 X 

St. Joseph, Trinidad 51.0 13.6 196 40.8 17.8 X 

St. Joseph, Trinidad 44.0 iz.j 18.8 40.6 17.0 X . 

Caicara, Venezuela 43.8 12.8 18.0 38.4 15.3 X r ,41 

Panama 45-1 12.4 18.3 41.8 17.0 X 1.47 



43 
4 

44 
51 

43 
44 
.48 



296 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

two sides will be produced in slightly different degree or form. 

Coloration. Pale portions of pronotum warm buff (recessive) to 
clay color (intensive). Pronotal spot with caudal margin nearly two 
millimeters distant from caudal margin of pronotum (maximum re- 
cessive), grading through every degree to a great roughly quadrate 
blotch in full contact with caudal margin of pronotum (maximum 
intensive). In the maximum recessive coloration the tegmina are 
transparent light ochraceous buff, with humeral trunk blackish brown 
for one-third the tegminal length ; our series shows every degree of 
intensification to one in which the anal and narrow lateral portion of 
marginal and scapular fields are cinnamon buff, the humeral trunk 
blackish brown with this color spreading out beyond the anal fields, 
the remaining distal portions of the tegmina, exposed when at rest, 
deep chestnut brown. The portion of the dextral tegmen, concealed 
when at rest, has a faded and more buffy appearance. The wings are 
usually weakly suffused with brown, but in specimens of maximum 
intensive coloration this suffusion is rather decided and more pro- 
nounced in the anterior field. Even in the maximum recessive color 
condition the limbs remain shining very dark brown, the underparts 
much suffused with this color. 

Specimens Examined: 28; 10 males and 18 females. 

Puerto Plata, San Domingo, IV, 7 and 8, 1915, I 9 ; VII, 
6, 1915, I $, [both Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Porto Rico, i 9," [A. N. S. P.]. 

Vieques Island, Porto Rico, II, 1899, (A. Busck), 3 9, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

Kingston, Jamaica, VIII, i, 1913, (W. Harris), 2 3,6 9, 
[U. S. N. M.]. 

St. Joseph, Trinidad, XI, 9, to XII, 10, 1915, (R. A. Wood), 
3 $, 5 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Diego Martin, Trinidad, VI, 21, 1915, (R. A. Wood), 2 $ , 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Caicara, Rio Orinoco, Venezuela, i 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

Porto Bello, Panama, (A. H. Jennings), i $, [U. S. N. M.]. 

Panama, (H. E. Wetherell), i $, i 9 , [A. N. S. P.]. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 
Dorsal view. (Natural size.) 
Fig. i. Blaberus giganteus (Linnaeus). Female. Cincinnati, Santa 

Marta, Colombia. 

Fig. 2. Blaberus colcsscus (Illiger). Female. San Esteban, Vene- 
zuela. 

Fig. 3. Blaberus colosscus (Illiger). Male. San Esteban, Venezuela. 
Fig. 4. Blaberus colosscus (Illiger). Male. Caparo, Trinidad. 
Fig. 5. Blaberus colossci/s (Illiger). Male. Caparo, Trinidad. 

"Recorded by Rehn as the synonymous B. rufcscens in 1903. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 297 

The Lines of Descent of the Lower Pterygotan Insects, 

with Notes on the Relationships of the other Forms, 

By G. C. CRAMPTON.* 

(Continued from page 258) 

The interrelations of the different groups making up the 
section Neuropteradelphia are extremely complicated, and can 
be worked out in detail only after studying more of the primi- 
tive and annectent forms than are at present accessible. Enough 
material is available, however, to indicate the following rela- 
tionships. 

The Raphidoides (Aponenroptera) or Raphidian group is 
closely related to the Sialid group, but has tended to branch 
off along its own line of development. The Sialoides (Mega- 
ncuroptcra) or Sialid group comprises such insects as Sialis, 
Corydalis, Chanllodcs, etc., and is one of the most primitive 
of the Neuropteroid section, forming one of the main trunks 
upon which the other lines of descent converge. This group 
contains some of the largest of the Neuropteroid forms (hence 
the name Meganeuroptera}. 

The Chrysopoides (true N euro pt era} or Chrysopid group 
comprises such forms as the Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae, Co- 
niopterygidae, etc., and is rather closely related to the Sialid 
group, the two together constituting the most primitive lines 
of Neuropteroid insects. 

The Myrmeleonoides (Zygoneuroptera*) or Myrmeleonid 
group is related to both the Sialid and Chrysopid groups and 
has retained certain characters suggestive of a relationship to 
the Zygoptera, or Libellulid forms. This group contains such 
insects as the Myrmeleonidae, Ascalaphidae, Nymphes, etc., 
all of which are quite primitive forms, so that it is rather diffi- 
cult to determine which of the three groups (Sialids, Chryso- 
pids or Myrmeleonids) is the most primitive, although the 
Sialids are apparently as little modified as any. 

The Mantispoides (Dictyneuroptera) or Mantispid group is 
related to the Chrysopid group, and also shows some affinities 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 



298 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

with the Panorpid group, which is also rather distantly related 
to the Chrysopid group. These insects (e. g., Mantis pa) re- 
semble Mantids in some respects, but the relationship between 
the two is not very close although the Mantids are distantly 
related to them, as may be seen by comparing a specimen of 
Mantoida luteola with the members of this group. 

The Nemopteroides (Eunemoptera) or Nemopterid group 
occupies a position intermediate between the Neuroptera 
(Chrysopid group) and the Panorpid group. Such forms as 
Nem-optera are extremely Panorpid-like in the structure of the 
head, etc., but have retained other Neuropteron characters, 
thus making them annectent between the Neuroptera and Me- 
coptera, or Panorpids. 

All of the groups described above (i. e., the Raphidian, 
Sialid, Chrysopid, Myrmeleonid and Mantispid groups) might 
be considered as suborders of the "Neuroptera" (used in the 
broad sense), but they are for the most part as different from 
er.ch other as they are from the Panorpids, and if the Panor- 
pids are to be regarded as a distinct order (the Mecoptera of 
authors), then these different groups of Neuropteroid insects 
should also be regarded as distinct orders. 

The Panorpoides (Mecoptera} or Panorpid group is com- 
posed of two distinct subdivisions represented by such forms 
as Meropc, Panorpa, and Bittacus. The Meropoides (Promc- 
coptera), or Meropid group, differs so much from the others 
(i. e,, the mouthparts are not drawn out into a beak; the ter- 
minal abdominal appendages, wing venation, etc., differ mark- 
edly from the other Panorpids) that it might possibly be con- 
sidered as a distinct order, although I would regard it as a; 
sub-order, until more is known of the other representatives 
of the Mecoptera. The Bittacus group is quite distinct from 
the Panorpa group, but the differences are apparently those 
between groups of a family rank, rather than between 
suborders. Mcrope tuber is one of the most interesting 
members of the Panorpid group, and exhibits certain char- 
acters (terminal abdominal appendages of the male, etc.) sug- 
gestive of the ancestral condition of the Diptera and other 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 2O/) 

higher forms. I have captured in North Carolina some insects 
related to the Meropid subdivision, which suggest affinities 
with the Hymenoptera, but this can be determined only after 
a more thorough comparative anatomical study of the groups 
in question. The Mecoptera are related to the Chrysopid- 
Mantispid group, and also to the Nemopterid group. They 
also approach the Trichopteron line of development, and have 
retained certain features suggestive of the ancestral Diptera, 
so that the more detailed study of these forms should be of 
considerable interest from the phylogenetic standpoint. 

The Phryganoides (Trichoptera} or Phryganid group is re- 
lated to the Panorpid group, and also to the Neuroptera. The 
Trichopteron line of descent likewise parallels that of the Lepi- 
doptera very closely, and the group furnishes us with many 
clues as to what the ancestral condition of the Lepidopteron 
line of descent must have been like. The Diptera also resemble 
the Trichoptera in some respects, and the Homoptera resemble 
them rather remotely. The closest affinities of the Trichoptera, 
however, are with the Panorpid and Mantispid-Chrysopid 
group, and with the Lepidopteron group in particular. 

The Psocoides (Cllnoptcra) or Psocid group is an extremely 
interesting one, and the question of its relationship is still a 
matter of dispute. As far as the winged forms are concerned, 
they are undoubtedly near the Neuroptera, and exhibit certain 
characters strongly suggestive of affinities with the Homoptera 
(which are themselves related to the Neuroptera). Some of 
the features retained by the Psocid group are strongly sugges- 
tive of affinities with the Blattid-Perlid group also, and they 
may possibly be considered as occupying a position somewhat 
intermediate between the Blattid-Perlid group and the Neu- 
roptera, although the closest affinities of the winged forms are 
with the Neuroptera, and they are undoubtedly very near the 
group which gave rise to the lines of descent of the Homop- 
tera. The Hymenoptera resemble them in certain respects, 
but I have not been able to determine the meaning of this as 
yet, unless the Hymenoptera are also to be regarded as occupy- 
ing a position intermediate between the Blattid-Perlid group 
and the Neuropteron-Panorpid group. 



3OO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [J u ty> ' J 6 

The "Hemipteroid" insects, or those usually designated as 
the "Hemiptera," form a rather heterogeneous collection of 
insects, which arose from ancestors somewhat intermediate 
between the Neuroptera and the Psocid line of development. 
They should be divided into at least two orders (possibly 
more) known as the Hemiptera proper and the Homoptera. 
The principal subdivisions of these groups are as follows : 

The four most primitive lines of descent of the Homopter- 
cus forms are those of the Fulgorids, Cicadids, Psyllids and 
Aphids. The Fulgoroides (Neurohomoptera) or Fulgorid 
group is an exceedingly primitive one, and is closely related 
to the Neuroptera, such Fulgoroid forms as Pochazia 
(Ricaniinae) having retained certain features strongly sug- 
gestive of a Neuropteron ancestry. The Fulgorid group is 
also related to the Trichoptera and Lepidoptera (and some- 
what distantly to the Panorpids), but they are much more 
closely related to the Neuroptera. 

The Cicadoides (Enhomoptera} or Cicadid group, is close- 
ly related to the Fulgorid group, and has also retained cer- 
tain characters which show a relationship with the Ascala- 
phids and Chrysopid group. Together with the Fulgorid group, 
the Cicadoid forms are among the lowest of the Homoptera. 

The Psylloides (Mesohomoptera} or Psyllid group is quite 
closely related to the Cicadid group, as far as I am able to 
judge from the material available. They are also apparently 
related to the Coccid group, but this can be determined only 
after a more thorough study of intermediate forms. 

The Aphidoides (Clinohomoptera} or Aphid group is re- 
lated to both the Fulgorid and Cicadid group as well as to the 
Psyllids, etc. Their line of descent apparently arose from 
forms intermediate between the Neuroptera and Clinoptera 
(Psocids), and they have retained many features suggestive 
of the Psocids (Clinoptera) in particular. 

The Aleurodoides (Coniohomoptera} or Aleurodid group 
is closely related to the Fulgorid group. These insects have 5 
retained ' certain characters suggestive of affinities with the 
Coniopterygidae (Neuroptera), which is to be expected, since 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 30! 

the Aleurodids are related to the Fulgorids, which in turn are 
closely related to the Neuropteron group, of which the 
Coniopterygidae are members. 

The Coccidoides (Microhomoptera} or Coccid group, is 
rather closely related to the Psyllid group, in its general 
features, and is also related to the Aphids. A further study 
of intermediate forms is necessary in order to determine its 
closest affinities. 

The preceding groups of Homopteroid insects might be re- 
garded as sub-orders of the order Homoptera. I would con- 
sider that the Fulgorid, Coccid and Aphid groups are suffi- 
ciently distinct to be regarded as orders, however, but this is 
largely a matter of personal opinion. 

The Hemiptera proper (sometimes referred to as the 
Heteroptera) are as closely related to the Homoptera as to 
any other insects; but, aside from the similarity in structure 
of the mouth parts, they have much less in common than is 
ordinarily supposed, and the Hemiptera proper should un- 
doubtedly be considered as an order distinct from the Homop- 
tera. Four typical groups or sub-orders of the Hemiptera 
proper are the Notonectid (Enhcniiptera) and the Capsid 
groups (Mesohemiptera), which are among the more primitive 
of the Hemiptera and the Pentatomid (Mctahcmiptcra} and 
the Berytid groups (Apohemiptera) , which are more highly 
specialized. There are other groups which might be regarded 
as sub-orders, but the above mentioned ones will serve to 
illustrate the principal subdivisions of the Hemiptera proper. 
The true Hemiptera are so highly specialized that they are of 
no great interest from the standpoint of the study of phylogeny ; 
but the Homoptera give some valuable hints as to the rela- 
tionships of certain of the higher forms. 

The Lepidoptera arose from ancestors whose lines of de- 
velopment occupied a position intermediate between the 
Chrysopid-Myrmeleonid group, and the Phrvganid-Panorpid 
group. The line of development of the Lepidoptera also ap- 
proaches that of the Homoptera in many respects. Some of 
the main subdivisions of the Lepidoptera are as follows : The 



3O2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

Micropterygid group (Tricholepidoptera) is extremely primi- 
tive, and might possibly be regarded as a separate order, but 
it is preferable to give it the rank of a suborder. This group 
is closely related to the Neuroptera and also to the Trichop- 
tera. The Tineid group (true Microlepidoptera} is closely 
related to the Micropterygid group, the two together constitut- 
ing the more primitive lines of descent of the Lepidopterous 
insects. Of the higher groups, the Pyralid group (Mcso- 
Icpidoptera) is somewhat intermediate between the lower 
forms and the Hesperiid group whose line of descent closely 
parallels that of the Papilionid group (Eulcpidoptcra). 

The ancestors of the Diptera arose from forms occupying a 
position intermediate between the Meropid group and the 
Nemopterid group, which is closely related to the Neuroptera, 
so that the Dipteron line of descent, if traced further back, 
ultimately approaches that of the Netiropterous forms. The 
line of descent of the Diptera also approaches that of the 
Homopterous insects, but the relationship is not a very close 
one. Of the lower Dipterous forms, the Psychodid group 
and the Tipulid group (Prodiptera) have retained cer- 
tain characters suggestive of the Neuroptera, Trichop- 
tera and Meropid group. The Leptid group (Mesodlp- 
tera) is related to both the Tipulid group and the Muscid 
group (.Eudiptera) . The Hippoboscid group {Metadiptera) 
has become markedly different from the remainder of the 
Diptera, while the Nycteribiid group (Apodiptera) has be- 
come so greatly modified, that it might be considered as a dis- 
tinct order. The Braulid group (Paradiptera*) has departed 
sufficiently far from the main Dipteron stem to be considered 
as a distinct order, since these insects have lost the halteres in 
addition to the wings, eyes, ocelli, etc., and the tarsi and other 
parts have become profoundly modified, so that they would 
scarcely be recognized as Dipteroid forms, -did we not know 
their mode of reproduction, etc. The Phorid group (Siphono- 
diptera) serves to connect the Diptera with the Siphonap- 
tera (Pulicid group), although it has not departed mark- 
edly enough from the Dipteron stem to be considered as a 
separate order. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 303 

The Siphonaptera, or Pulicid group, forms a rather homo- 
geneous order of insects, which has been considered as a sub- 
order of the Diptera, by many investigators. They have be- 
come sufficiently modified from the Dipteron type, however, 
to be considered as representing a distinct order, although their 
affinities are clearly with the Diptera, especially with the 
Phorid group, which evidently resembles the ancestral group 
which gave rise to the Siphonaptera. 

The Hymenopterous insects should be divided into two or- 
ders, the Prohymenoptcra or Tenthredinid group, and the 
Hymenoptera proper. The lines of descent of the Hymenop- 
teroid forms are rather difficult to trace, and until more ma- 
terial consisting of very primitive or annectent forms, is avail- 
able, it will be very difficult to determine with any degree of 
certainty, or satisfaction, the closest affinities of these insects. 

On page 347, of the Ent. News, Vol. 26, 1915, I made the 
following statement : "The Hymenoptera very probably arose 
from ancestors not very unlike those of the Isoptera and Gryl- 
loblattids . . . this point, however, can be decided only 
after a more extended study of the Hymenoptera, and an ex- 
amination of intermediate forms not at present accessible." A 
further examination of the primitive Hymenopteroid insects 
(Lydidae, Xyelidae, etc.) has indicated that these forms bear a 
strong resemblance to the Psocids, and certain features in 
them suggest a relation to both the Meropid-Neuropteron line 
of descent and the Blattid-Perlid line (to which the Isoptera, 
etc., belong). The resemblance to the Meropid-Neuropteron 
line is especially noticeable when the lower Hymenopteroid 
forms are compared with certain Meropid insects, which I 
captured in North Carolina, but have been unable to identify. 
This resemblance to both the Blattid-Perlid group and to the 
Meropid-Neuropteron, group is a rather puzzling feature, but 
may possibly be explained by the fact that the Psocids, to 
which the Hymenoptefa are related, also occupy a position in- 
termediate between the Blattid-Perlid group and the Netirop- 
tera, so that the Hymenoptera might also be regarded as some- 
what intermediate between the two groups in question, al- 



304 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

though their closest affinities can be determined only after 
the examination of annectent forms not at present accessible. 

The Hymenoptera are considered by some investigators, as 
quite near to the Coleoptera, but I am not ready to accept this 
view at present. The fact that both have a complete meta- 
morphosis has no particular bearing on their relationships, 
since in the Coccid group alone, the males may have a com- 
plete metamorphosis, while the females have not ; so that 
this is of no great importance from the standpoint of the de- 
termining of the relationships of the different groups. 

The 1 Coleopteron line appears to lead back to the Perlids 
and closely parallels that of the Embiids and Dermaptera, and 
unless it can be shown that the same is true of the Hymen- 
optera, the relationship between the Hymenoptera and Cole- 
optera must be considered as very distant. Whether the dif- 
ferences between the less modified Coleoptera and the Curcu- 
lionid group (Paracoleoptera} are sufficiently great to be con- 
sidered as of the value of an order, is largely a matter of 
personal opinion. I would regard the Curculionids as one of 
the suborders of the Coleoptera, however, while the Platy- 
psyllid group (Apocoleoptera), on the other hand, has become 
sufficiently modified to merit the rank of a distinct order. 

As far as the other higher, or more modified orders are con- 
cerned, it is practically impossible to determine their closer 
affinities until more material of an annectent nature is avail- 
able. I would venture the opinion, however, that the Thy- 
sanoptera will be found to be related to the Psocid group, and 
that the Strepsiptera will be found to be related to one of the 
lines of descent leading from the Neuropterous forms, rather 
than to the Coleopteron line as has been hinted at by Pierce 
(Monograph of the Strepsiptera) but whether they will 
prove to be near the Heteroptera or to some other group re- 
mains to be seen, and any opinion unsubstantiated by a study 
of very primitive or annectent forms belongs to the realm of 
pure speculation. 

As may be seen from the foregoing discussion, it is possible 
to divide all winged insects into five (or fewer) sections, on 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 305 

the basis of the closeness of their lines of descent. These are 
as follows: i. The section Palaeopteradclphia, or Palaeop- 
teron (Blattid) brotherhood, comprising the Blattids (and 
possibly the Mantids also.) 2. The section Plecoptera- 
dclphia, or Plecopteron brotherhood, comprising the Ple- 
coptera and those insects whose lines of descent parallel 
that of the Plecoptera (e. g., the Embiids, Forficulids, Gryllo- 
blattids, Coleoptera, Termites, Gryllids, Tettigonids, Locustids, 
Phasmids, Phylliids, etc.). 3. The section NcuropteradelpJiia, 
or Neuropteron brotherhood, comprising all of those forms 
descended from ancestors similar to those of the Neuroptera 
(e. g., the Neuropteroid insects, Homopteroid forms, Hemip- 
tera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, etc.). 4. The Zygopteradclphia, 
or Zygopteron brotherhood, comprising a small aberrant group 
(Anisoptera, Zygoptera, etc.), which may possibly be included 
in one of the other sections. 5. The Plcctoptcradclphla, or 
Plectopteron brotherhood, comprising the very primitive though 
strongly aberrant Ephernerid group. These five sections rep- 
icsent five evolutionary groups, although some of them might 
possibly be included in certain of the other groups, thus re- 
ducing the number ; but I think that each of the five is distinct 
enough to merit being regarded as a separate line of evolution. 
The section Plecopteradclphia (Plecopteron brotherhood) 
and the section Ncuroptcradelphia (Neuropteron brotherhood) 
comprise the greater part of all winged insects, and are thus 
by far the most important of the evolutionary lines. Whether 
the Plectoptcraddphla ( Kphemerid brotherhood) and Zyyop- 
teradclphia are sufficiently distinct from each other and from 
the Plecopteron group, to be considered as separate sections 
is open to question; and the fact that the Palacoptcradclphhi 
(Blattid brotherhood) is closely related to the Plecopteron 
group also raises the question of its being sufficiently distinct 
to be regarded as a separate section. It must be borne in 
mind, however, that all of the sections are ultimately closely 
related, and the Plecopteron group itself is closely related to 
the Neuropteron group, but both appear to represent definite 
foci about which numerous other forms cluster ; and the other 



306 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

sections seem almost as distinct as these two, so that tempo- 
rarily, at least, I would regard all five sections as representing 
distinct limbs of the developmental tree, two of which exceed 
the others in size and importance. 

Among the Apterygotan forms] there are but three sections 
which also represent the main evolutionary lines of develop- 
ment in these insects. These sections are the Proturadclphia 
(or Proturan brotherhood) comprising such insects as the 
Eosentomidae, Acerentomidae, Neelidae, Sminthuridae> Acho- 
rutidae, Entomobryidae, etc.; the Rhabdnradclphia (or Rhab- 
duran brotherhood) comprising the Rhabdura, Dicellura, etc., 
and the Thysanuradelphia (or Thysanuran brotherhood) com- 
prising such forms as the Lepismidae, Machilidae, etc., and 
about these three nuclei all of the wingless insects group them- 
selves. 

The Thysanuran line of development appears to approach 
as closely as any to that of the lower winged forms, but the 
retention of many of the characters found in certain wingless 
forms, by certain of the lower winged insects, makes it rather 
difficult to determine the exact relationships of the different 
lines of descent ; and it is: very probable that no one group of 
Apterygotan insect^s occupies the position of "mediary" be- 
tween the wingless and winged forms, but the winged forms 
probably approach all of the Apterygotan groups to some ex- 
tent, or arose from ancestors combining characters common 
to a number of Apterygotan groups, and therefore occupying 
a position somewhat intermediate between the groups in 
question. 

The lines of development of the Crustacea (e. g., Bathy- 
nella, Koonunga, Anaspidcs, etc.) and "Myriopoda" (e. g., 
Scolopcndrella, etc.) very closely parallel those of the lower 
insects, such as Eosentomon, Anajapyx, Machilis, etc., so that 
the Crustacea, "Myriopoda" and Insecta may be regarded as 
forming the three apices of a triangle, each apex of which is 
connected with the other two by mutual bonds of relationship. 
The lines of development of such Trilobites as Triarthrus, 
Neolenus and Nathorslia approach rather closely to the lines 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 307 

of descent of the Crustacea, Insecta and "Myriopoda" (i. e., 
Diplopoda, Chilopoda and Symphyla) and are not far re- 
moved from the most primitive Crustacea, such as Apus, 
Branchipus and similar forms which approach the Annelida 
in many respects. The Merostomata, Arachnida, etc., on the 
other hand, have followed a course of development rather 
widely divergent from that of the Insecta, and are related to 
Insects only very distantly. The more detailed discussion of 
these Arthropodan lines of descent, however, is beyond the 
province of the present paper. 



A New Catagramma from Brazil (Lep.). 
By HENRY SKINNER. 

Catagramma oberthiiri n. sp. 

$ . Expanse 58 mm. Primaries blue, apices and margin black, base 
of wing in discoidal cell orange, extending from the base into the wing 
14 mm. and for half this distance on the costa. 

Secondaries blue black on inner two-thirds of the wing, outer third 
blue. 

The underside in general is like the other forms of the excelsior 
group, except that the orange band is the same as above. 

Described from two males from the Rio Madeira, Brazil, 
8 deg. 45 min. South, 63 deg. 54 miu. West. Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

This species is related to ockendeni Oberthur and is named 
in appreciation of the splendid work on the genus in Etude.'; 
Lcpidopterologie Comparcc, Part XI, by Mr. Charles Ober- 
thur. 



Photographs Received for the Album of the American 

Entomological Society. 

During the year 1915 photographs for the Album were received and 
acknowledged from those whose names follow and the members of 
the Society wish again to thank the donors for their gift? which are 
much appreciated: R. A. Sell, William A. Riley, Walter Dannatt, 
George A. Chandler, J. F. Monell (from J. J. Davis), R. W. Brauchcr, 
Charles L. Heink, C. 11. T. Townsend, E. D. Ball. 



308 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

Notes on Leptoypha mutica Say (Hemip.). 
By EDGAR L. DICKERSON and HARRY B. WEISS. 

(Plate XVI) 

In Banks' Catalogue of the Nearctic Hemiptera-Heterop- 
tera is found the following reference to this species, "New 
Harm. 26, 1832; Compl. Writ, i, 349, 1859 (Tingis), U. S." 
In Smith's List of the Insects of New Jersey, it is recorded by 
Barber from Madison as rare. Mr. H. M. Parshley 
states that he has no records of it from the New England 
States and Mr. H. G. Barber says that he has come across it 
only rarely in material which he has examined from the South- 
ern States. Taking everything into consideration, it is evi- 
dent that the species is not at all common. 

An additional locality can now be listed from New Jersey, 
namely, Hammonton, where for the past few summers it has 
been extremely abundant on Chionanthus virginica L. growing 
in a nursery. These plants originally came from Norma, New 
Jersey, some years ago, but the bugs were noted by the writers 
only recently. In Stone's Report of the Plants of Southern 
New Jersey (N. J. State Mus. Rept. 1910), Chionanthus rir- 
ginica is listed as occurring "only in low woods along the 
lower part of the Maurice River and Cohansey Creek and up 
the tributaries of the former to Buena Vista." Hough, in his 
Handbook of the Trees of Northern United States and Canada 
gives the natural range of this plant as along both sides of 
the Allegheny Mountains from southern Pennsylvania to 
southern Texas and states that it rarely attains a size greater 
than twenty-five or thirty feet and eight or ten inches in 
diameter. It is known by various common names among which 
are fringe tree, old-man'sTbeard tree, snow-flower tree, sun- 
flower tree and flowering ash. While spoken of as a tree, it 
is really grown in the nurseries and sold as a bush most fre- 
quently, and is listed by the nurseryman as white fringe. 

At Hammonton, the insects were abundant enough to in- 
jure practically every leaf on all the fringe bushes in the 
nursery. The injury first appears as a slight, whitish dis- 
coloration on the upper surface along 1 the mid-rib, due to the 
abstraction of sap by the insect on the under surface. These 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 309 

whitish patches gradually enlarge until the leaf has a mottled 
appearance and in severe infestations, the entire leaf becomes 
yellowish brown and withers completely. The under sides of 
the leaves also become covered with the brownish excrement 
of the nymphs and adults. Where the plants were growing in 
the sun, most of the insects were found on the under sides of 
the leaves, but in shaded situations and where the foliage was 
dense, many nymphs were found on the upper surfaces. After 
the second stage, the nymphs seem to migrate somewhat and 
feed singly and in colonies on any portion of a leaf which is 
shaded. No particular portion of a plant seems to be pre- 
ferred as entire bushes were found infested from top to bot- 
tom. 

On July 7, 1914, a few adults and all stages of the nymphs 
were found. On August 15, 1915, adults and nymphs were 
very abundant, and on September i, 1915, adults and last stage 
nymphs only were present. It is quite possible that there are 
two generations each season and that the adults hibernate. 

Egg. Length, 0.36 mm. ; greatest width, 0.22 mm. The 
somewhat flask-shaped, smooth, whitish eggs were found on 
the under surface of the leaf, inserted as a rule in the mid- 
rib, but sometimes in the leaf tissue adjoining the mid-rib. 
Usually they occurred in small clusters, being stuck sometimes 
vertically in the tissue and at other times at an angle. The 
necks of the eggs seemed to be bent slightly so as to bring the 
caps on a level with the leaf surface. Where many eggs were 
found in a mid-rib, a distortion was present, the rib extend- 
ing out on one side and being thickened at that point. The 
tissue surrounding the eggs was somewhat hard and corky 
and each egg-cap was topped by a brownish scab-like crust 
evidently deposited by the parent insect. 

COLOR NOTES 

ist stage nymph. Length 0.56 mm., greatest width 0.26 mm. (exclus- 
ive of tubercles.) Dorsal and ventral surfaces, light brownish red in 
general appearance. Abdomen posteriorly and medially tending toward 
brown ; head, same brownish color. Antennae pale except at extreme 
bases. Coxa, trochanter and most of femur, brownish, remainder of 
legs, pale. 



3IO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

2nd stage nymph. Length 0.64 mm., greatest width 0.44 mm. (ex- 
clusive of tubercles). Ventral surface similar in color to that of the 
first stage; dorsal surface somewhat darker; antennae pale as in first 
stage except for the apical ends of the distal segments which are dark- 
er; head lighter medially; bases of legs darker than in first stage. En- 
tire appearance of this stage is smoky brown with light ashen specks 
due to numerous secreting hairs from which hang clear drops of a 
somewhat sticky liquid. 

yd stage nymph. Length 0.92 mm., greatest width 0.62 mm. (ex- 
clusive of tubercles). Ventral surface darker and markings more pro- 
nounced except medially and laterally; dorsal surface brownish red; 
distal segment of antenna darker ; legs darker ; head lighter, eyes dark 
brown ; ashen specked appearance more pronounced. 

4//z stage nymph. Length 1.28 mm., greatest width 0.86 mm. (ex- 
clusive of tubercles). Ventral surface slightly darker; legs, except 
tibiae, smoky brown; tibiae pale; antennae light brown except apex of 
penultimate and antepenultimate segments. Dorsal surface pale brown- 
ish red except medial parts of the abdomen, thorax and wing pads. 
Head pale brownish red. Specked, ashen appearance very pro- 
nounced. 

$th stage nymph. Length 1.84 mm., greatest width 1.22 mm. (ex- 
clusive of tubercles). Similar to preceding stage except that the dark 
markings are more pronounced and the wing pads are dark at the an- 
terior and posterior edges. Specked ashen appearance very pro- 
nounced. 

Adult (from Vol. I, Complete Writings of Thomas Say on the Ento- 
mology of North America, edited by John L. Le Conte) : 

Tingis mutica Thorax and scutel with a single line, hemelytra with 
a brown spot. Inhabits Indiana. 

Body grayish brown, unarmed, not dilated on the margin ; with much 
dilated punctures; antennae, second joint rather thicker than the first; 
thorax with a paler, slender, glabrous line and paler line each side ; 
scutel with a paler line on the middle and a short one each side, not 
elevated; hemelytra like the thorax with dilated approximate punc- 
tures; on the middle an obvious darker, irregular spot or band; mem- 
brane reticulate with brown ; beneath dusky, tibiae paler. Length to 
tip of hemelytra over one tenth of an inch. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 
(R. S. Patterson del.) 

Fig. I, egg. Fig. 5, fourth stage nymph. 

Fig. 2, first stage nymph. Fig. 6, fifth stage nymph. 

Fig. 3, second stage nymph. Fig. 7, adult. 
Fig. 4, third stage nymph. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XVI. 




LEPTOYPHA MUTICA-DICKERSON AND WEISS. 



Vol. XXV'ii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 31! 

A New Killing Bottle. 

By WM. MOORE, Asst. Prof, of Entomology, University Farm, 
University of Minnesota. 

In Bulletin No. 167 of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, mention is made of the feasibility of using para- 
clichlorobenzene as a substitute for potassium cyanide in kill- 
ing bottles. Being interested in the benzene derivatives and 
having a number on hand, killing bottles made of various 
derivatives of benzene were tried out. They all proved of 
value, but paradichlorobenzene being a solid gave the best 
results. 

By placing a few pieces of paradichlorobenzene in the bot- 
tom of the desired bottle and heating to 55 deg. C. either over 
a flame or by dipping in hot water the paradichlorobenzene is 
melted. The bottle, without being corked, is then carefully 
placed in a cool place or in cold water until the paradichloro- 
benzene has solidified. Crystals are often found on the sides 
if the cooling is rapid, but these can easily be removed with 
a cloth. 

The advantages of a paradichlorobenzene killing bottle over 
potassium cyanide are: First, the ease with which it can be 
made ; second, the fact that paradichlorobenzene will not ab- 
sorb water and thus spoil the bottle and specimens; third, the 
paradichlorobenzene bottle is full strength as soon as made 
and remains full strength as long as there is any of the mate- 
rial in the bottle ; fourth, the bottle can be easily remade by 
putting in fresh paradichlorobenzene and melting, rfifth, 
paradichlorobenzene is not very poisonous to higher animals 
and great care does not have to be taken to clean up all the 
small pieces if a bottle is broken. This is of particular value 
where the bottles are used by students. 

The disadvantage is the fact that if the bottle becomes warm 
and is then cooled that crystals are apt to be formed on the 
sides of the bottle or even on the specimens. Those on the 
bottle can easily be removed by a cloth, while the crystals on 
the specimens will soon evaporate without injury to the speci- 
men when it is removed to the air. 



312 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

A strong cyanide bottle freshly prepared with potassium 
cyanide and plaster of paris was used in comparison with a 
paradichlorobenzene bottle. In the cyanide bottle a honey 
bee was rendered inactive in three-quarters of a minute, a 
house fly one-half minute, a cockroach (P. genwnica} one 
minute, a carabid two minutes and Troinbidium sp. two min- 
utes. In the paradichlorobenzene bottle the honey bee re- 
quired four minutes, house fly two and one-half minutes, a 
cockroach (P. gennanica) ten minutes, a carabid ten minutes 
and a Tronibidium sp. five minutes. This time was for the 
cessation of all violent motions since slight movements of the 
legs or antennae were noticed for a much longer period of 
time. Probably the greatest value of the paradichlorobenzene 
bottle will be for students' use, because of its non-poisonous 
nature, but they should be warned that large insects such as 
beetles should not be collected in the same bottle, as delicate 
flies and moths, as the slow action of paradichlorobenzene 
would allow the larger insects time to injure the delicate speci- 
mens. 

Paradichlorobenzene may be used as a substitute for naph- 
thalene in insect boxes. A hot pin can be run into a lump of 
paradichlorobenzene as easily as into a moth ball and the box 
will be better protected than with naphthalene, as paradi- 
chlorobenzene will even kill the pests already present in the 
box. 



An Efficacious Endoparasite of Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Morg. 

(Hym., Horn.). 

For some years past the Reale Stazione di Entomologia Agraria in 
Florence has been seeking a natural means of combating this scale 
insect. A valuable check on the ravages of the coccid has been sent 
from Madeira by Prof. C. P. Lounsbury and has been described as 
Prospaltclla lounsburyi by A. Berlese and G. Paoli (Redia, xi, 305-307, 
Feb. 24, 1916). This Chalcid fly attacks not only the adult Chrysom- 
phalus but also the male and female larvae. The parasitized female 
larvae are of a more intense yellow color and have a thicker cuticle 
than the normal individuals, while on the other hand the adult females 
are almost transparent and colorless and their cuticle is particularly 
fragile. The percentage of parasitized females in the material ex- 
amined was estimated at 60 per cent, for the larvae and 40 per cent, 
for the adults. P. lounsburyi is 470 microns in length. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 313 

On Certain Acanthagrions, Including Three New 

Species (Odonata). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

(Plate XVII) 

This paper is a brief account of material collected in Gua- 
temala, British Guiana and Trinidad by B. J. Rainey, L. A. 
Williamson and myself. At Tumatumari, British Guiana, we 
were aided by Mr. A. F. Porter and Mr. J. M. Geddes ; and in 
Trinidad we enjoyed the frequent companionship of Mr. F. 
W. Urich and Mr. P. L. Guppy. 

Pruinescence. It is a matter of common observation that 
in many agrionines pruinescence appears first on the under 
parts of the thorax. Pruinescence in certain calopterygines 
is known to be displayed by the male and it is possible that 
pruinescence in agrionines may serve a similar purpose. In 
Acanthagrlon there are between the first coxae, and probably 
also between the second coxae, bright shining black areas 
which, in the case of the first coxae at least, are not covered 
with pruinescence. These black areas in their white field 
might be displayed by the male fluttering over the female. 
However the female is about as definitely marked as the male 
and the theory of sexual display seems rather improbable un- 
less the female uses the same parts to advertise her sexual ma- 
turity. I have not examined species in other genera to see 
how common this type of ventral coloration is. It may also 
be noticed in this connection that the lower posterior angle of 
the thorax is tipped with black and there is a more or less 
definite dark longitudinal mid-ventral line on the first ab- 
dominal segment. These various marks produce a definite 
and uniform ventral color pattern, the most plausible value of 
which would seem to have to do with the relation of the sexes. 

The Penis. In his study of the penis of Zygoptera Mr. 
Kennedy has given systematic odonatology a new and valuable 
tool. Specimens from Trinidad appeared, when judged by 
conventional characters, to be scarcely distinct from gracile. 
However, there were enough differences to excite suspicion, 
and when specimens were given to Mr. Kennedy for study, 



314 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

to our great surprise, he found that the penis of these Trini- 
dad specimens was entirely distinct from that of gracile. It 
is therefore very appropriate that this Trinidad species, the 
positive recognition of which has been possible only through 
Mr. Kennedy's work, should be named Acanthagrion kennedii. 
The mesepisternal fossae. In Plate XVII, figures 10, u, 12 
and 13, I have figured a portion of the right dorsum of the 
thorax of four females. In these four species there is, on 
cither side of the middorsal carina, and immediately adjacent 
thereto, and at varying heights on the thorax, a small more or 
less semicircular depression which, in these species at least, 
functions as a socket for the reception of half of the posterior 
dorsal termination of the tenth segment of the male. These 
depressions have the middorsal carina between them variously 
modified. As shown by the figures, and as might be expected, 
the fossae are placed higher on the mesepisterna in gracile 
than in kennedii and still higher in ascendens. The name, mese- 
pisternal fossae, given to these pits or depressions, has been 
suggested by Dr. Calvert. 

Acanthagrion kennedii n. sp. (Plate XVII, figs. 5, fi, 8, 11). 

Abdomen $ 24-27, average 25.5, 9 24-25; hind wing $, 15.5-17.5, 
average 16.6, $ 17-18. 

$ . Genae, labrum and rhinarium green, the rhinarium usually dul- 
ler than the labrum, and the labrum with an impressed posterior me- 
dian spot and posterior lateral margins dark brown or black. Nasus 
black, the extreme posterior lateral corner green. Frons in front with 
a large quadrangular, slightly oblique bar on either side, varying in 
color from green to obscure green, yellowish or brownish, and vary- 
ing also in size, in rare cases reduced and so obscured as to be scarcely 
evident. Head above black ; postocular spots greenish blue rounded, 
with very little variation in size, about equal to a circle enclosing the 
ocelli. Rear of head above level of foramen black ; below pale, dull or 
yellowish or greenish tinged. 

Front lobe of prothorax pale or yellowish, with a black posterior 
spot on either side and with the anterior border more or less black; 
middle lobe black with a variably-sized yellow spot on either side near 
the lateral margin, this spot never large, reduced to a mere point in 
many cases, and sometimes wanting; hind lobe black, a small yellow- 
ish spot at either extreme end, this spot almost directly posterior to 
the spot on the middle lobe when the latter is present. Propleuron 
largely yellowish or greenish, black above. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 315 

Dorsum of thorax black, a pale yellow or yellowish blue ante- 
humeral stripe, expanded above at the antealar sinus, then gradually 
constricted to about one-half the maximum width above, then gradu- 
ally widening till, at its extreme lower end at the end of the sclerite, 
it is about three times its width at the narrowest place above; the 
stripe slightly variable in width in different individuals. A black hu- 
meral stripe, wider than one-half the dorsal black, occupying much of 
the mesepimeron and extended across the mesinfraepisternum, leav- 
ing only the lower posterior border of the latter pale ; this humeral 
stripe above notched with pale on its posterior border, and joined along 
the wing base with a more or less distinct short black spur on the first 
lateral suture; sometimes this short spur is joined to the humeral su- 
ture also across the pale notch in the latter, in which case a pale iso- 
lated spot is enclosed. Remainder of sides of thorax pale yellowish 
or greenish, a black spot above on the second lateral suture which is 
usually produced as a narrow, sometimes indistinct, stripe on the 
metepisternum along the second lateral suture, in its maximum de- 
velopment scarcely reaching the level of the mesostigma. A more or 
less distinct broad greenish or bluish band across the metepimeron 
parallel and adjacent to the second lateral suture, the posterior tri- 
angular area thus marked off being more heavily pigmented and more 
distinctly yellow than the area anterior to it. Beneath flesh-colored. 

Abdomen above black, I with apical integument blue ; black on 2 
more or less narrowed subbasally, at the extreme base expanded later- 
ally as a mere line, widened subapically over an extensive rounded 
area, in general about as wide as the pale sides and as the black on 
i ; 3-7 with narrow basal pale rings or spots ; 7 apically blue beyond 
the row of spines in every case and in many cases an equal area basal 
to the spines also blue; 8-9 blue; 10 black. Sides of i and 2 with 
lower two-thirds greenish, posterior border of i black; base of 3 
greenish, fading out posteriorly into yellowish which reaches about 
mid-height, expanded basally to form the basal ring, and constricted 
apically by the expanded dorsal black which, at the extreme apex, 
reaches the lower edge ; 4-7 similar but yellowish, with little or no 
bluish or greenish, at the base of each, and with the paler lateral area 
progressively narrowed by the widened dorsal black which reaches a 
maximum on 7; 8-9 blue; 10 black, beneath yellowish brown. Append- 
ages black, inferiors yellowish brown at base. 

Legs yellowish brown, femora black on the superior surface, in- 
creasing apically where the black surrounds the femur, more extensive 
and intense in some individuals than in others but in all darkest on the 
first femora and palest on the last; first tibiae, and second more or 
less, black-lined on anterior face, the line tending to break into a series 
of connected spots; tarsi varying from brown, with apices of joints 
dark, to largely dark ; tooth on tarsal claw similar to gracile. 



316 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

Wings hyaline to slightly brown tinged ; stigma black, shorter than 
I have seen in gracile. 

9 . Labrum yellowish brown, darker at base, shading out insensibly 
to the pale lower border. Genae, rhinarium and frons in front olive, 
the two latter the darker, the frons sometimes dark reddish brown. 
Nasus black, one specimen with an obscure spot on either side. Frons 
in front with the pale areas, as compared with the male, generally 
greatly more extended with the result that in some cases the black 
is reduced to a longitudinal median stripe, wider above and below. 
Head above as in the male with the postocular spots more bluish; in 
some cases there is on either side a small round brown spot just be- 
hind and external to the antenna, and indistinct areas of the same 
color in front of the median ocellus. 

Prothorax similar to male, but pale color bluish. 

Thoracic pattern similar to male, but pale blue replacing the yel- 
lowish colors of the latter, except in the posterior triangular area of 
the metepimeron which is more or less distinctly yellowish. Mete- 
pisternum from the wings to slightly below the level of the stigma is 
a darker blue than the color which bounds it on both sides and below 
(in the male the corresponding area is more or less slightly more 
green than the surrounding areas). 

Abdominal segments 1-7 similar to male; 8 black (pale basally on 
either side in one case), apex pale beyond the spines (and in one case 
for a distance anterior to the spines equal to about one-half the part 
posterior to the spines) ; 9 with apical half or two-thirds blue, this 
blue encroaching on the black in a large quadrangular median spot 
which reaches the base of the segment or is separated therefrom by a 
narrow transverse line of black; 10 blue. Seen from the side similar 
to the male but with blue or bluish replacing green ; 8 in one specimen 
with a blue basal spot as described in dorsal view, in others black, the 
narrow inferior yellowish margin slightly widened basally; 9 with the 
blue appearing as a large distal superior triangular spot, the base of 
the triangle on the apical border of the segment, extreme lower mar- 
gin of segment yellowish; 10 blue, lower half paler and duller. Ap- 
pendages black. Vulvar spine large, black tipped. 

Legs as in male, but black greatly reduced especially on parts distal 
to the femora. 

Wings as in male, but stigma light brown. 

Trinidad, 1912: Cunapo River, Feb. 27, 10 $ , i 9 ; Arima, 
March 4, 15 $ , \ 9 ; Cumuto, March 6, 8 and 10, 88 $ , 8 9 ; 
types a $ and 9 , Cumuto, Trinidad, March 10, 1912, in the 
writer's collection. Named for Mr. Clarence Hamilton Ken- 
nedy in recognition of his work on Zygoptera penes which has 
made the recognition of this species possible. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 317 

Males of this species were sent to Dr. Calvert and Dr. Ris. 
Dr. Ris writes, "It is almost exactly similar to a few Acan- 
thagrions taken by myself in Bahia in 1890; I have considered 
them nearly typical gracile." Dr. Calvert says, "It is nearer 
gracile minarum than no. 2 (indefensmn} is. I am inclined 
to so consider it; almost the only objection is the presence of 
black stripe on second lateral thoracic suture." In view of 
these opinions any comment on the difficulty of recognizing 
this species is superfluous. 

In Calvert's key to the males of Acanthagr'wn of the gracile 
group (Od. Neotrop. Reg., Ann. Carnegie Mus., Vol. VI, pp. 
161-2) keiinedii will run out to gracile or g. iiiinanini. J\Iina- 
rum was described by de Selys from material from Minas 
Geraes. It is possible it may prove to be specifically distinct 
from gracile, but there is no reason to think it is the same as 
the species here described from Trinidad, ridiia de Selys, 
from Venezuela, might possibly be expected in Trinidad, but 
it is not represented in the material before me unless ascen- 
dcns should turn out to be a synonym, which I think is im- 
probable. 

Compared with material from Guatemala determined by 
Calvert as gracilc* males of kenncdii differ in the blue color of 
the head, thorax and basal abdominal segments of gracllc be- 
ing replaced by green and yellowish, thus approaching asccn- 
dens. A comparison of the descriptions will show that black 
;s more extensive on the head and thorax of kenncdii than of 
gracile. In posterior views of the male appendages, the su- 
perior appendages of c/racile- are seen to be longer (higher) 
with the superior rounded angle reaching well above the con- 
striction in the dorsal elevation of segment 10; in kenncdii 
the appendages reach this constriction but do not extend above 

[*Since this paper was written, a study of the penes of specimens in 
the Cornell and Harvard collections has brought to light two more spe- 
cies included under the name gracile. As both are from Hra/il it may 
be that one or the other of these will be found to agree with the type 
of gracile in the Selys collection. Neither of these Brazilian species are 
described or figured in Mr. Williamson's article or in my own in this 
number of the NEWS. C. H. KENNEDY.] 



318 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [J u ty> 'l6 

it. Venational differences may be noted in the tabulation 
which closes this paper, especially the more apical position of 
the arculus and of vein A and the larger number of post- 
nodals in kennedii. 

Like ascendens (see postea under that species) the female 
of kennedii runs out to C, under B, under A. As might be ex- 
pected the mesepisternal fossae of kennedii, corresponding to 
the shorter (lower) appendages and the less elevated tenth 
segment of the male, are placed lower on the sclerites than in 
gracile. It is possible the form of the mesostigmal lamina 
may be of value in separating the two species. As in the 
male, the female of kennedii has much more black than the 
female of gracile; for example gracile has the nasus largely 
pale and the dorsum of the head more extensively pale- 
marked, and the dark markings on both thorax and legs are 
reduced in extent as compared with kennedii; in gracile in 
some cases abdominal segment 8 in side view is largely pale, 
the black occupying the upper third of the segment for about 
two-thirds its length from the base ; in those cases where the 
black is more extensive and reaches the apex of the segment 
the inferior yellowish border is fully twice as wide as it is 
ever found in kennedii; segment 9 is similarly conspicuously 
paler in gracile and even in the darkest examples the superior 
apical blue area -posteriorly blends insensibly below into the 
pale inferior margin which is much wider than in kennedii 
where the posterior triangular blue spot is definitely separated 
by dark from the narrow inferior pale margin. 

Fortunately we took a large number of this difficult s^ ,cies, 
and this material will be so distributed as to give students 
generally an opportunity to know the species from specimens 
as well as from my description. It is to be hoped for the sake 
of convenience that definite characters, in addition to those of 
the penis, may be detected. Much of this material was col- 
lected at the small swamp at Cumuto where we took three 
species of Metaleptobasis, a new Telagrion, and many other 
things (see Notes on Neotropical Dragonflics, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Vol. 48, 1915, p. 601). 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 319 

Acanthagrion indefensum n. sp. (Plate XVII, figs. 3, 4, 7). 

Abdomen $ 23; hind wing $ I5-I5-S- 

$. Similar to kcnnedii and gracile but smaller; like kcnnedii as 
described except as noted below ; one specimen with a large blue spot 
on either side between the apex of the second joint of the antenna 
and the eye, and a small obscure yellowish spot on either side just in- 
side the first joint of the antenna, the blue postocular spots in this 
specimen much larger than in the other specimen where they are about 
the size of the spots in kennedii, and in both specimens the postocular 
spots are irregular lobate in outline as contrasted with the entire out- 
line of kcnnedii. Rear of head above, about foramen, and below adjoin 
ing mouth parts, black, thus differing from both gracile and kcnnedii 
which are pale below. 

Prothorax black, thus darker than in kennedii; front lobe with a 
median bright 'blue spot. Propleuron below dull or leaden blue. 

Thoracic pattern similar to kennedii but clear blue replacing the yel- 
low or yellowish-tinged parts of kennedii, in which character indefen- 
sum is like gracile. The black stripe along the second lateral thoracic 
suture is more definite and more intensely black than it ever attains in 
gracile and as it very rarely attains in kcnnedii. 

Abdominal segment i variable ; in one specimen the dorsal black, 
which is about as wide as in kennedii, fails to reach the apical integu- 
ment by a distance equal to the length of this integument, that is, the 
black is a quadrate basal spot; in the other the black is narrowed api- 
cally, but reaches the blue integument, and there is a median blue spot 
which is contiguous posteriorly with the integument. Sides of I and 
2 blue, instead of green or greenish, thus again resembling gracile. 
Remain.der of abdomen like kennedii with apical integument only of ^ 
blue. 

Legs much darker than in gracile or kennedii', first femora entirely 
black except the base on the inner surface ; on the second femora the 
pale b~.sal color on the inner surface not quite reaching the middle of 
the fc .wra; the third femora still paler, with a pale line on the an- 
terior dorsal surface, .this pale line broader basally and disappearing 
before the apex where the femur is completely circled with black, the 
inner surface otherwise pale; first tibiae with anterior dorsal surface 
black ; second and third tibiae black at base and apex ; tarsi black, 
claws dark amber, darker than in related species, toothed as in 
gracile. 

Wings hyaline ; stigma black, similar in shape to Kcnnedii. 

\\~ismar, British Guiana, Feb. 16, 1912, two males in my 
collection. 

One of the specimens was sent to Dr. Calvert who writes, 
"Most like A. gracile minanim of anything I know but ab- 



320 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

dominal segment 10 not so elevated, superior appendages not 
so high, and an additional black stripe on the second lateral 
thoracic suture." Of the four related species of the gracilc 
group considered in this paper, indefensum has the lowest 
tenth abdominal segment, and the superior apical apex is 
strikingly rounded as compared with the others. It will be in- 
teresting to know the female of indefensum and to note what 
modifications of the middorsal thoracic carina between the 
mesepisternal fossae have taken place. May it not be expected 
that here the carina will be indented rather than elevated as 
it is in ascendens? In spite of its close resemblance to 
gracile, I believe that this species offers no such difficulties as 
kenncdii, since the appendages are strikingly different from 
its closer allies. These differences, however, are concerned 
with parts of inferior appendages which have received little 
attention. In many genera of Agrionines the inner posterior 
surface of the inferiors are variously modified, the most com- 
mon form being a dorsally directed, acutely tipped, tubercle. 
These parts are concealed in lateral views, and are incon- 
spicuous and usually neglected in dorsal views. In kenncdii 
and gracilc the inner face of each inferior appendage is pro- 
duced in a great flattened, inward curved, obtuse tubercle ; in 
indefensum this is reduced to a small inconspicuous promi- 
nence ; the appearance in posterior view of the apex of the 
abdomen of indefensum, as compared with gracile and ken- 
nedii, has suggested the specific name (see figs. 7, 8 and 9, 
Plate XVII). 

On February 16, my father and I collected near the canal 
and government sawmill at Christianburg about a mile below 
Wismar. A short distance above the sawmill a dressing room 
for bathers is located. We collected in brush on the right 
bank of the canal below this dressing room, and along a small 
stream on the left side of the canal, parallel to and only a 
short distance from it, in the brush. My notes fail to show 
just where the two specimens of indefensum were collected. 

Acanthagrion adustum n. sp. (Plate XVII, figs. 1, 2, 10). 

Abdomen .$ 21-22.5, average 21.95, ? 21-22; hind wing $ 14-15, 
average 14.75, ? 16. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 321 

$. Genae light orange. Labrum light orange to dark orange or ob- 
scure reddish brown, narrowly black at base and on posterior lateral 
borders with a basal median black impressed spot. Rhinarium slightly 
darker than labrum. Nasus rarely entirely black, usually a median 
transverse orange bar, sometimes this larger with margins orange, ex- 
cept at base, thus reducing the black to a submarginal black ring. 
Frons in front light orange to obscure reddish brown, naso-frontal 
suture black, wider in the median line which is produced posteriorly 
in a more or less distinct narrow longitudinal black line which joins 
a distinct short transverse crescent-shaped black area of varying width 
lying in front of the median ocellus, and between the antennae from 
which it is separated by about its own length. Color of head above 
very variable in the extent of black; in the palest there is a short 
oblique black line on either side of the median ocellus and a median 
triangular black spot back of it; starting posterior to the lateral 
ocellus a suture-like line runs outward and forward to the eye which 
it meets on a level between the antenna and the median ocellus; an- 
terior to this line all is slightly dull reddish orange with the restricted 
black markings above described, and posterior to this line the dorsum 
is solid black except for the large isolated postocular orange spots, 
and a narrow orange edging on the occiput. In darker specimens the 
ocelli are surrounded by black with a small orange spot in front of 
each lateral ocellus; from the black spot about the median ocellus a 
short bar runs outward and forward on either side toward, but not 
reaching, the antenna; the inner face of the second joint of the an- 
tenna is black, and posterior to this joint a short rounded bar runs 
toward, but does not meet, the eye; posteriorly from this bar, on a 
line with the antenna, there is a more or less distinct black connec- 
tion with the large posterior black area. In the maximum develop- 
ment of black this becomes a wide black bar; the bar from the me- 
dian ocellus reaches the antenna ; midway it sends off an anterior 
branch which runs forward and inward to spread out and fuse with 
the black anterior to the median ocellus and the median transverse 
black bar on the frons; this above described anterior branch also near 
its middle throws off an anterior branch which runs outward and 
forward to the angle of the frons, then outward and backward across 
the first joint of the antenna to the inner face of the second joint. 
The orange or reddish brown postocular spots vary in size from as 
small as the area within the ocelli to fully twice this diameter when 
the lateral and posterior margining black is narrow, but in every case 
the spots are completely surrounded by black. Rear of head black, 
yellow margined against the eyes. 

Prothorax with front lobe orange, more or less black posteriorly 
on either side; middle lobe black with a geminate median orange spot 



322 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l6 

of varying size and, on either side, an orange spot of varying size, 
in some cases large and conspicuous, and in some cases entirely want- 
ing; the difference between extreme cases, as in the case of the head 
markings, is striking; hind lobe largely orange or this reduced to the ex- 
treme posterior edge and divided in the median line by black. Pro- 
pleuron black above, yellow below, less variable than the median lobe. 

Thorax above orange or reddish brown ; on either side a straight 
black stripe, about two-fifths the width of the mesepisternum, sep- 
arated by a pale median stripe starting at the antealar sinus and 
widening uniformly below, variable, scarcely more than a line in some 
cases and, in others, at about its mid length, almost half the width of 
the adjacent black stripes. A posthumeral stripe, slightly wider than 
the black stripe on the mesepisternum, entirely black in the brightest 
colored specimens, in others fading out along its posterior border, the 
black above and below being most persistent with the intermediate 
black reduced to the anterior line at some points ; this posthumeral 
stripe continued across the mesinfraepisternum which is yellow in 
about its lower half. A black spot on the second lateral suture above, 
continued below in most cases as a black or brownish stripe lying on 
the anterior side of the suture, this stripe varying in width from the 
merest line to about one-half the width of the dorsal black stripe, and, 
in its extreme length, almost or quite reaching the metastigma. Mete- 
pisternum pale yellow and dull orange or orange brown in irregular 
pattern, in some cases the darker color is almost exclusively present, 
in others it is confined to the median and posterior portions of the 
sclerite. Metepimeron with a wide stripe of pale yellow parallel to the 
second lateral suture, the posterior triangular area dull orange. Metin- 
fraepisternum pale dull yellow, narrowly black above. Beneath pos- 
terior to coxae dark colored or black, early becoming pruinose, orange 
brown adjoining the abdomen. 

Abdomen above black, i and 2 usually with purplish reflections, the 
others with greenish reflections; apical integument of i pale blue; 
3-8 with small basal, pale blue or green spots or rings ; on 8 these 
spots are small, bright blue, and widely separated by the median black, 
not always present or, at least, not evident, in dried material; apical 
fourth to three-fifths of 8 and all of 9 bright blue, the blue on 8 in- 
denting the black in the middorsal line in a more or less triangular 
area, the apex directed anteriorly ; 10 black. Sides of abdomen pale, 
in the brightest-colored specimens bluish or greenish yellow on I and 
2, and the base of 3, then yellow on 3-7, 8-10 bright blue ; apical edge 
of 1-6 narrowly dark or black ringed; pale sides of 2-7 continuous 
with the basal rings or spots, apically on each segment the dorsal 
black widens and, with the apical black ring, separates the pale area 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 323 

of one segment from the succeeding segment; seen from the side the 
blue and black of 8 are about of equal width, the black descending 
possibly a little more than half way, and there is a very narrow apical 
black ring; on 10 the dorsal black is extended narrowly on the sides 
of the segment at the base, reducing the blue to a large apical spot, 
beneath dull yellowish brown. Superior appendages black, sometimes 
brown on their posterior face, the apical inner angle with a minute 
acute spine; inferiors dark brown or black, pale at base and below. 

Legs brown, coxae black-spotted in front at the base; femora dark 
on the superior face, increasing apically where the black surrounds the 
femur, the first femora the darkest, the last the palest, and varying in 
individuals; when reduced tending to break up basally (where it first 
disappears) into spots; tibiae with their anterior dorsal face black- 
lined, darkest on first tibiae, least developed on the last; tarsi black; 
tooth on tarsal claw as in gracilc, possibly very slightly less developed. 

Wings hyaline; stigma orange or reddish brown, conspicuous in 
color to the unaided eye. 

9. Similar to the male, slightly duller and darker and with the 
black markings reduced. Genae lighter, light yellowish brown. Ap- 
parently as variable as the male in the color pattern of the head and 
thorax; the posthumeral black stripe noticeably more reduced than in 
the male, the upper and lower ends distinct but the intervening space 
represented by the merest black line or an indefinite row of discon- 
nected obscure dark markings. On the metepimeron the distinction of 
pale yellow and dull orange is not so well marked. 

Abdomen above black with greenish reflections, most marked on the 
proximal segments and completely disappearing or_ the distal seg- 
ments; 3-6 with narrow basal rings or spots, slightly duller than in 
the male and with the pattern less definite; 7 with basal ring scarcely 
evident, and no trace on 8 of the basal blue spots often present in the 
male; extreme apex 7-9 blue; 10 blue except a small narrow triangular 
median black spot, the base of the triangle on the base of the seg- 
ment. Sides similar to male; 8 with the entire lower edge narrowly 
yellowish ; 9 apically at midheight with a large indefinite blue or yel- 
lowish area ; 10 with the black on dorsum produced laterally nar- 
rowly along base, the sides bright blue, yellowish below ; the restricted 
dorsal black results in 10 being much paler in the female than in the 
male, in contrast with 8 and 9 which are much darker in the female 
than in the male; appendages black. Vulvar spine large, black tipped. 

Legs as in male. Wings hyaline ; stigma pale brownish yellow. 

Wismar, British Guiana, January 30, Feb. 15 and 16, 1912, 

20 5,2 ? ; types $, ?, Feb. 15, in the writer's collection. 



324 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

The specific name is suggested by the prevailing pale colors 
of the head and thorax giving the insect a brownish or sun- 
burned appearance. 

Males of this species were sent to Dr. Calvert and Dr. Ris. 
Dr. Calvert writes, "I do not know it." Dr. Ris says, "It is 
unknown to me and I cannot identify it with any of the de- 
scribed species ; note its long feet and comparatively long 
spines." In Calvert's key to male Acanthagrion of the gracile 
group (Odonata Neotropical Region, Ann. Carnegie Mu- 
seum), adustum might run out to C, p. 161, or CC, p. 162; 
if the latter, it is separated at once from truncatum by the 
form of appendages, the basal black of abdominal segment 8 
of adustum, and many other characters, noting especially the 
yellow colors of adustum. If run out to C, p. 161, it would 
go in the key to HH, under which two varieties of gracile are 
distinguished ; adustum is separated at once from these two by 
having the basal two-fifths to three-fourths of segment 8 
black (blue in others) and by the yellow coloration of head 
and thorax of adustum. In de Selys' arrangement (Le Grand 
Genre Agrion, 18/6), adustum properly belongs in his prc- 
mic-re section, though, so far as the origin of A with reference 
to the cubitoanal crossvein goes, some of the wings are as de- 
scribed in his seconde section, a section, however, recogniz- 
able by other characters ; adustum belongs to the gracile group, 
under de Selys' premiere section, running out to temporale, 
from which species it is separated at once by the postocular 
spots not continuous with the rear pale color of the head (as 
in temporale) and by the extensive black on segment 8 in 
adustum (blue in temporale). 

In Calvert's key to female Acanthagrion (loc. cit., p. 162), 
adustum might run out to B or BB : in either case it may be 
recognized by having abdominal segment 9 black, 10 largely 
blue, pale colors of head and thorax largely yellow or yellow- 
ish, not blue. 

This species flew with Enallagma- or IscJinura-\\ke flight in 
the vegetation bordering the canal along its left bank just 
above the sawmill at Christianburg, a mile below Wismar. 

(To be continued) 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XVII. 












ACANTHAGRION ADUSTUM, 1, 2, 10; A. INDEFENSUM, 3, 4, 7; 
A. KENNEDII, 5, 6, 8, 11; A. "GRACILE," 9, 12; A. ASCENDENS, 1 S.-WILLIAMSOI 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 325 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Figs, i, 2 and 10. Acanthagrion adustum, type $ and ?, Wismar, 
British Guiana, Feb. 15, 1912. i and 2, appendages of $ ; 10, 
portion of right dorsum of thorax of $ , showing the mesepis- 
ternal fossa and mesostigmal lamina. 

Figs. 3, 4 and 7, appendages of $ of Acanthagrion indefcnsnm, type, 
Wismar, British Guiana, Feb. 16, 1912; 7 posterior view. 

Figs. 5, 6, 8 and u. Acanthagrion kcitnedii, type $ and $, Cumuto, 
Trinidad, March 10, 1912. 5, 6 and 8 , 8 posterior view; u $, 
same as- 10. 

Figs. 9 and 12. Acanthagrion "gracile." 9, posterior view of $ , Morales, 
Guatemala, 'May 27, 1909; 12, same as 10, $, Gualan, Guatemala, 
June 10, 1909. 

Fig. 13. Acanthagrion ascendens. Same as 10, $, Georgetown, Brit- 
ish Guiana, January 27, 1912. 



Notes on the Penes of Zygoptera (Odonata). 

No. 1. Species Limits in the Genus Acanthagrion. 
By CLARENCE HAMILTON KENNEDY, Cornell University. 

(Plate XVIII) 

In the fall of 1913, when I was working with the Argias 
and Ischnuras of Washington and Oregon 1 I discovered that 
the penis, hitherto overlooked by systematists who had studied 
the Zygoptera, was in some cases an excellent generic char- 
acter and in other cases even a good specific differential. In 
the Fall of 1914, when I was working over my collection of 
California Odonata and found it expedient to describe two 
new genera, 2 I went into a careful study of the penis in these 
and related genera, which convinced me that the penis had 
characters worth studying and made me desirous of carrying 
the study further. This opportunity came in the Fall of 1915, 
when I had the privilege of spending several weeks studying 
with Mr. E. B. Williamson in his private collection and 
laboratory at Bluffton, Indiana. At this time T drew two 

'Notes on The Life History and Ecology of the Dra^onflies (Odon- 
ata) of Washington and Oregon, C. H. Kennedy. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. 49, pp. 259-345, 1915. 

2 Notes on The Life History and Ecology of The Dragonflies 
(Odonata) of Central California and Nevada. (In press.) 



326 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [ July, 'l6 

views each of the penis in over three hundred species of Zy- 
goptera. Since my arrival at Cornell I have had the privilege 
of spending altogether two weeks studying the species of Zy- 
goptera in the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, and of Dr. P. P. Calvert through his courtesy. 
To date I have drawn the penes of over five hundred species 
of Zygoptera, having made altogether over one thousand 
figures, and am hoping to continue the work until the subject 
is completed, as a monograph.' 

I wish here to thank Mr. Williamson and Dr. Calvert and 
Dr. Skinner of the Philadelphia Academy, who have so gen- 
erously opened their collections to me, as it is only through 
such interest and generous assistance that this study has been 
made possible. 

When this work was begun, I felt some assurance that the 
penis would be, not only a good generic, but also a good 
specific character. More extended study however has shown 
that only a monographic study of the penes in the entire 
group of Zygoptera will reveal just how far these organs can 
be trusted to show true relationships between species and 
groups, for it has already become evident that the value is 
very different in different groups. 

The accompanying text figure is a diagram showing what 
seems to me to be the zygopterous penis stripped of its special 
modifications, in other words what might be its most general- 
ized form. I have no evidence that this is also its most primi- 
tive form, as in those genera usually considered most primi- 
tive the penis may be most fantastic in the complex modifica- 
tions of these simple parts, so that it appears that there has 
been a" tendency to a reduction in its complexity from the 
more primitive forms to those more recent. However there 
are undoubted exceptions to this. The zygopterous penis 

3 On Jan. i, 1916, Dr. Needham received a copy of Dr. Erich 
Schmidt's interesting paper on this same subject of penes (Vergleich- 
ende "Morphologic des 2. und 3. Abdominal-segments bei mannlichen 
Libellen. Zool. Jahrbiichern. Bd. 39, Heft, I, 1915.) It was the first 
intimation I had had that some one else was working on the same 
subject. Dr. Schmidt has dealt with seventy species of Zygoptera. 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



327 



which is an appendange of the ventral side of abdominal seg- 

ment two consists usually of three segments and two, usually 

unchitinized folds. Segment I is the basal or proximal, slen- 

der, heavily chitinized shaft. Segment 2 is the moderately 

chitinized median segment, while segment 3 is the apical or 

distal segment which folds 

forward on the median 

segment and is usually un- 

chitinized. The median 

segment ordinarily carries 

across its ventral surface a 

fleshy ridge or fold, the 

inner fold, and across its 

posterior end the terminal 

fold. This latter is prob- 

ably erectile in many Spe- 




Internal fold. 
Terminal fold 



Diagram showing the parts usually found 

in the z >'^P teroi 



cies. Either or both fleshy 
folds may be lacking and in the Legion Lestes segment 3 is 
much reduced. The differences between penes are usually in 
the shape of the distal or third segment. 

I have introduced this present series of papers with this 
one on Acanthagrion to have it appear in conjunction with a 
paper on some species of the same genus by Mr. Williamson. 

The study of the penes in this group at once cleared up the 
hitherto obscure relations of the various forms which had 
variously been termed varieties and subspecies. Those that 
have been studied are, as far as the penis is concerned, good 
species. Mr. Williamson and I were both much surprised 
when we found the great structural differences existing in the 
penes of the so-called "subspecies" (ablittuin, ascendens, ;;//'- 
warwm 4 ), of yracile. The penes of the thirteen species of 
Acanthagrion I have been able to examine vary more among 
themselves in form than those of any similar group of closely 
related species of Zygoptera. If I had seen the penes only, I 

4 The minantin referred to by Mr. Kennedy is the species described 
by me (anted, p. 314) as kennedii. It was determined independently by 
Dr. Calvert and myself as niinarum, but is probably not the ininnrnin 
of de Selys. E. B. WILLIAMSON. 



328 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [ July, 'l6 

would have unhesitatingly believed that they represented at 
least four genera. 5 

The only single character which runs through the entire 
series is the absence of the internal soft fold. Probably the 
spines along the shaft are also a character of the entire group 
but they are so delicate that they have to be looked for spe- 
cially, and in late rale and ad u stum I did not notice their ab- 
sence until the drawings were assembled in the plate. An- 
other character' which runs through the entire group, but 
which is not so obvious, because it appears in a different form 
in each species, is one or more outgrowths (septa, lobes, 
spines, hooks, etc.) which appear along the median line of 
the dorsal or internal surface of the distal lobe. Outgrowths 
along this line, though they do occur in a few other genera, 
are rare. The singular paired outgrowths of the lateral edges of 
the distal segment, as they are developed in tcmporale, apicale, 
graclle, ablutwn, ascendens, kennedil, cuyabae, and truncatuui, 
are unusual, though they also appear in other genera. The 
strangest and least comprehensible development in the entire 
series is that of the pair of heavily chitinized hooks on the 
apex of the distal segment in apicalc (Plate XVIII, fig. 3). 
A strong chitinization at this point is all but unique among the 
more than five hundred species of Zygoptera examined. The 
terminal soft fold varies in development in this series but I 
should hesitate to say that it was entirely absent in those 
species in which it is not figured, as it is at times gossamer- 
like and if the specimen is the least dry clings so closely to the 
terminal segment that the most careful dissection may fail to 
loosen it. However I can state that it is as a rule poorly de- 
veloped except in chclijcrum, (PI. XVIII, fig. 26). 

The following brief notes are to amplify the characters 
shown in the figures on Plate XVIII. 

Acanthagrion ablutum Calvert, figs. 10-11. The edges of segment 3, 
twisted at its base and turned in, form a pair of "shelves" between 
which is an ill-defined median septum. 

"Prof. O. A. Johannsen has just called my attention to a condition 
similar to this in certain genera of Mycetophilidae. In some genera 
in this family the hypopygium in the male varies between species so 
much that the parts cannot be homologized. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 329 

Acanthagrion aduslum Williamson, figs. 20-21. A thin septum-like, 
median, internal hook pointing distad on segment 3. 

Acanthagrion apicale Selys., figs. 3-4. Segment 3 with a pair of 
heavy, chitinized, terminal hooks between which is a median globular 
swelling. 

Acanthagrion ascendens Calvert, figs. 12-13. A median internal api- 
cal hook on segment 3. 

Acanthagrion chclifcrum Selys., figs. 26-27. An internal median 
swelling on segment 3. A thin, chitinized median hook on segment 
2. Terminal fold well developed. The ridges in fig. 27 may have been 
due to the drying of the preparation. 

Acanthagrion cuyabae Calvert, figs. 16-17. A median internal enlarge- 
ment between the two lateral lobes of segment 3. 

Acanthagrion "gracilc" Rambur, figs. 8-9. Peculiar in that the tip of 
segment 3 is divided horizontally into three septa. 

Acanthagrion indcfensum Williamson, figs. 22-23. A delicate me- 
dian, internal, barbed hook on segment 3. 

Acanthagrion interruption Selys., figs. 5-7. A median internal hook 
on segment 3. See fig. 7. 

Acanthagrion kennedii Williamson, figs. 14-15. A thin septum along 
the median, internal line of segment 3. 

Acanthagrion latcrale Selys., figs. 18-19. The most simple of the 
series having merely an internal, median swelling to indicate its re- 
lationships. 

Acanthagrion temporale Selys., figs. 1-2. A thin septum as in ken- 
nedii. 

Acanthagrion truncatum Selys., figs. 24-25. A median internal hook 
formed by the turning in of the edges of segment 3. 

In conclusion, certain venational characters divide this 
genus, as it has been understood in the past, but the penis, be- 
cause of its evident great variety of forms, is of little assist- 
ance in defining groups among this series of species. How- 
ever the study of the penis has shown very definitely that we 
are dealing with structurally, well defined species rather than 
with subspecies and varieties based, as hitherto, largely on 
color. 

In addition I might say that I shall treat in another paper 
of a series of species in which a condition exists just opposite 
to this which occurs in Acanthagrion. In this other series 
what are apparently generically distinct species have almost 
identical penes. 



330 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [J u ty ' J 6 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII. 

Drawings of the penes of the species of Acanthagrion, being lateral 
and ventral views of the last two segments. 

Figs. 1-2, Acanthagrion tcmporale, Chapada, 'Matto Grosso, Brazil, 
det. P. P. Calvert. 

Figs. 3-4, Acanthagrion apicalc, Tumatumari, British Guiana, Feb. 
10, 1912, det. E. B. Williamson. 

Figs. 5-7, Acanthagrion interrupt it in, Concepcion, Chili, Jan., 1905, 
det. P. P. Calvert. Fig. 7 shows the median internal hook. 

Figs. 8-9, Acanthagrion "gracile," Gualan, Guatemala, June 14, 1905, 
det. E. B. Williamson. 

Figs. 10-11, Acanthagrion ablutum, Coroico, Yungas, Bolivia, May 
10, 1899, det. P. P. Calvert. 

Figs. 12-13, Acanthagrion ascendens, Cunapo River, Trinidad, Feb. 
27, 1912, det. E. B. Williamson. 

Figs. 14-15, Acanthagrion kennedii, Cunapo River, Trinidad, Feb. 27, 
1912, det. E. B. Williamson. 

Figs. 16-17, Acanthagrion cuyabac, Cuyaba, Brazil, det. P. P. Calvert. 

Figs. 18-19, Acanthagrion latcrale, Bogota, Columbia, Lindig, 1863, 
det. P. P. Calvert. 

Figs. 20-21, Acanthagrion adustum, Wismar, Brit. Guiana, Feb. 15, 
1912, collected by E. B. Williamson. 

Figs. 22-23, Acanthagrion indefcnsum, Wismar, British Guiana, Feb. 
16, 1912, collected by E. B. Williamson. 

Figs. 24-25, Acanthagrion tnincatum, Chapada, Matto Grosso, 
Brazil, det. P. P. Calvert. 

Figs. 26-27, Acanthagrion cheliferum, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
H. von. Ihering, det. P. P. Calvert. 



An American Species of the Ichneumonid Genus 
Heterocola Forster (Hym.). 

By CHARLES T. BRUES, Bussey Institution, Harvard 

University. 

In 1890 Ashmead 1 erected the genus Dolichopsdephns for a 
species of Porizontine Ophioninae with greatly elongated maxil- 
lary palpi. Dolichopsclephus has recently been regarded by 
Szepligeti 2 as a synonym of Heterocola Forster, a genus rep- 
resented by three European species. The characters given by 
him for Heterocola however, do not agree with those given by 
Ashmead for Dolichopselephus in several respects and it is 
evident that Szepligeti has been led by the peculiarly modified 
maxillary palpi to consider the two genera inseparable. They 
may be easily distinguished as follows : 

Antennae with not over 20 joints: metathoracic spiracle lying very 
close to the pleural carina Heterocola. 

Antennae consisting of 30 joints; metathoracic spiracle not lying next 
to the pleural carina Dolichopsclephus. 

1 Bull. Colorado Biol. Assoc., No. i. p. 23. 

2 Gen. Insec., Fasc. 34. p. 56 (1905). 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XVIII. 




23 25 

PENES OF ACANTHAGRION. -KENNEDY. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 331 

I find in my collection a specimen from Forest Hills, Massa- 
chusetts, which is evidently a true Heterocola and establishes 
the occurrence of this genus in the Eastern United States. It 
is described below. 

Heterocola americana sp. nov. 

$ . Length 2.8 mm. Black, with the abdomen beyond the middle of 
the petiole ferruginous ; scape below, mandibles, lower portion of cly- 
peus, mouth-parts, tegulae and legs, including coxae, honey yellow, 
apical joint of palpi black; ovipositor concolorous with the abdomen, 
its sheaths piceous; wings tinged with brown, stigma and veins dark 
brown. 

Head subopaque, very finely shagreened, more shining on the temples 
and distinctly so on the cheeks. Antennae 20-jointed, inserted midway 
between the vertex and base of clypeus; scape short, only half longer 
and no thicker than the pedicel ; flagellum narrow at base, the first 
joint as long as the scape, but only half as thick; second joint two- 
thirds as long as the first, third and following thicker, those toward 
the middle a little longer than wide; clypeus shining, coarsely punc- 
tate. Mandibles long, nearly twice as long as the malar space and 
equalling the width of the eye; labrum elongated, pointed, as long as 
the eye and extending considerably beyond the anterior coxae; maxil- 
lary palpi with four subequal joints, reaching, when extended, almost 
to the middle coxae. 

Mesonotum and scutellum opaque, shagreened, separated by a deep 
punctate groove which is terminated at the sides by a sharp carina 
that extends back over the basal angles of the very convex scutellum. 
Metathorax short, obliquely truncate, with a short basal median carina 
followed by a large area which includes the whole of the posterior 
slope of the metathorax ; posterior lateral and pleural areas large, dis- 
tinct ; spiracle minute, circular, close to the anterior end of the pleural 
carina; surface of metathorax finely rugulose; pleurae shagreened. 

Abdomen widest at the third segment, acutely narrowed apically; 
petiole slender, scarcely widened to beyond the middle, then suddenly 
wider, more gradually so near the apex, its spiracles just behind the 
middle ; body of abdomen moderately compressed toward apex, its sur- 
face smooth and shining ; ovipositor as long as the abdomen with- 
out the petiole. 

Legs moderately slender. Wings with the transverse cubitus short, 
almost punctiform, recurrent nervurc received just beyond it; third 
discoidal cell completely closed. 

A single female from Forest Hills, Boston, Massachusetts, 
taken during September, 1913. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., JULY, 1916. 



The Need of Carefulness in Identification. 

One of the common complaints of the time in entomologi - 
cal, nay zoological circles is the difficulty of obtaining the aid 
of specialists to identify material. Every specialist becomes 
flooded, even overwhelmed, with the quantity of animals, of 
insects, which he is desired to determine. Delays of months 
or of years ensue and he who wishes his collections examined 
by competent authority must often send them to the one who 
will report on them the soonest, rather than to the one whose 
knowledge and carefulness are greatest. The conscientious 
specialist himself is obliged to decline to add to the tasks 
which the eager collector or museum officer presses upon him. 

Under all the conditions, it is inevitable that some, not 
really fitted to identify species, take up the work without a 
full realization of all the safeguards to identification that 
honest work demands. It is not enough to compare specimens 
with others already tagged, it may be erroneously. Constant 
recourse must be had to original descriptions and to other 
published sources of exact information. Comparison of speci- 
mens is, indeed, important, for thereby the confounding of 
two or more forms under one name is discovered. The ulti- 
mate appeal is, of course, the comparison with types, but few 
of us have access to these courts of last resort. 

The constant checking up of new material, as well as that 
previously determined (including types where possible), willi 
the literature is the obvious duty of everyone who undertakes 
to pass definitely on the systematic status of speciments of nat- 
ural history. 

> 

A Correction for Parnassius smintheus (Lep.). 

I chanced to see a recent issue of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS last night, 
and noticed under your article on Parnassius that I am quoted (Vol. 
xxvii, page 213) as recording smintheus from southeast of Calgary. 
This should be southwest. The correction is rather important as every- 
where southeast of Calgary is open prairie ; there the species is not in 
the least likely to occur. F. IT. WOLLEY Don. 

332 



Vol. XXviiJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 333 

A Remarkable Abdominal Structure in Certain Moths (Lepid.). 

In Papilio, III, 41, 1883, R. H. Stretch published an article entitled 
"Anal Appendages of Lcucarctia acraca" and figured the appendages. 
In ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, XXVI, 166, 1915, F. W. Russell, M.D., pub- 
lished a paper entitled "A Remarkable Abdominal Structure in Cer- 
tain Moths." This also was illustrated. Both observers described this 
curious organ in acraca. The species is a common one and the insect 
evidently only protrudes the organ on special occasions, otherwise it 
would be more commonly observed. At the time Dr. Russell made his 
observation he was not aware that the organ had been previously 
known and described.* HENRY SKINNER. 



Entomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it Is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico are given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied Kn- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

1 Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
4 The Canadian Entomologist. 9 The Entomologist, London. 
11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 16 Bul- 
letin, Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de France, Paris. 50 Pro- 
ceedings, U. S. National Museum. 51 Novitates Zoologicae, 
Tring, England. 60 Anales, Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires. 
79 La Nature, Paris. 86 Annales, Societe Entomologique de 
France, Paris. 161 Proceedings, Biological Society of Washing- 
ton. 177 Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, London. 
184 Journal of Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 206 The 
Scottish Naturalist, Edinburgh. 259 Publications, Carnegie In- 
stitution of Washington. 272 Memorias, Real Academia de Cien- 
cias y Artes de Barcelona. 285 Nature Study Review, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 291 Proceedings, Staten Island Association of Arts and 
Sciences. 447 Journal of Agricultural Research, Washington. 

* See also Papilio, III, 84, 1883. 



334 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [J u *y> 'l6 

475 Bulletin, Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 490 
The Journal of Parasitology, Urbana, Illinois. 524 Tecl nical 
Bulletins, Entomology, University of California, Berkeley. 529 
Journal of Zoological Research, London. 530 Memoires, Societe 
des Sciences Naturelles de Neuchatel. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Hegner, R. W. Gall insects and in- 
sect galls, 285, xii, 201-12. Pictet, A. A propos des tropismes. 
Recherches experimentales sur le comportement des insectes vis- 
a-vis des facteurs de 1'ambiance, 475, 1, 423-548. Young, R. T. 
Some experiments on protective coloration, 184, xx, 457-508. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Morgan & Bridges- 

Sex-linked inheritance in Drosophila, 259, No. 237, : pp. 

MEDICAL. Britton, W. E. The house fly as a disease carrier 
and how controlled. 12 pp. (Connecticut State Board of Health, 
1916.) Coupin, H. Le danger des moustiques pendant la guerre, 
79, 1916, 295-9. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Herms, W. B. The pajaroello tick (Or- 
Tiithodorus coriaceus), 490, ii, 139-44. 



Brolemann, H. W. Essai de classification des Poly 
86, 1915, 523-610. Carl, J. Die Diplopoden von Columb : 
beitragen zur morphologic der Stemmaloniliden, 530, 
Kraepelin, K. Beitrag zur kenntnis der skorpione und p. 
Columbiens, 530, v, 15-28. Ribaut, H. Contribution a !'< 
Chilopodes de Colombie, 530, v, 67-95. Strand, E. Sp'' 
familien Sparassidae, Lycosidae, Sicariidae und Pholc 
Kolumbien, 530, v, 810-20. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Brethes, J. Descripcion de un 
nuevo y una nueva especie rie Tisanoptero de la Rep. Arg 
60, xxvii, 89-92. Hood, J. D. Descriptions of new Thysa 
[8 new], 161, xxix, 109-124. Longinos Navas, R. P. Neuro 
nuevos o poco conocidas (Ser. vi-vii), 272, xii, 119-36; 219- 

ORTHOPTERA. Foucher, G. Etudes biologiques sur 
ques Orthopteres, 16, 1916, 116-22. 

Brethes, J. Un nouvel O. de la Republic Argentine, 6, 
333-34. Rehn & Hebard Studies in the Dermaptera and Or 
tera of the costal plain and Piedmont region in the soutl e. i 

U. S. [9 new], 1, Ixviii, 87-314. 

HEMIPTERA. Gibson, E. H. Some 1915 notes on a fe<- i- 
mon Jassoidea in the central Mississippi valley states, 4, 1916, i<.-9. 



Vol. x:cvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 335 

Imms, A. D. Observations on the insect parasites of some Cocci- 
dae, 177, Ixi, 217-74. 

Baker & Davidson Woolly pear aphis (Eriosoma pyricola n. 
sp.), 447, vi, 351-60. Van Duzee, E. P. Notes on some Hemiptera 
taken near Lake Tahoe, California [13 new], 524, i, 229-49. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bailey, J. School room experiences with 
the cecropia moth, 285, xii, 226-29. Davis, W. T. Notes on the 
Microlepidoptera of Staten Island. II, 291, v, 94-7. Whittle, F. G. 
L. from the Argentine and Canada, 9, 1916, 106-8. Wolley Dod, 
F. H. The Heath collection of L., 4, 1916, 161-67 (cont.). 

Giacomelli, E. Algunas novedades de lepidopterologia argen- 
tina, 60, xxv" -356-364. Rothschild & Jordan Corrections of and 
additions to >ur "Revision of the Sphingidae," 51, xxiii, 115-23. 
Schaus, W. A generic revision of the American moths of the sub- 
family Hypeni'nae with descriptions of new genera and sps., 50, 
1, 259-399. 

DIPTLV.A. Ashworth, J. H. A note on the hibernation of 
flies, 206, 1916, 81-4. Grimshaw, P. H. The study of D., 206, 1916, 
85-8. P j n, B. M. The changes of the blowfly larva's photo- 
sen c ' with age, 184, xx, 585-97. 

PTERA. Barbey, A. Biologic du Cerambyx heros, 

6. Davis, W. T. A beneficial beetle (Carabus nemo- 

', htly found on .Staten Island, 291, v, 92-3. Harris & 

'- Cicindelinae of N. Am. as arranged by Dr. Walther 

"enera Insectorum (distributed by Am. Mus. N. Hist., 

i>p. Payne, O. G. M. On the life-history and structure 

jrus lituratus, 529, i, 4-32. Simanton, F. L. Hyperaspis 

4- ' predatory enemy of the terrapin scale, 447, vi, 197-203. 

SNOPTERA. Brethes, J. A proposito de la nota del 

F. Lahille sobre Prospaltella berlesei; Hymenopteres 

S de 1'Amerique meridionale, 60, xxvii, 353-58'; 401-30. 

. A. A few observations on the apple maggot parasite 

res rhagoletis, 4, 1916, iiis. Lahille, F. Nota sobre Pro- 

berlesei, 60, xxvii, 111-26. Packard, C. M. Life histories 

iods of rearing hessian-fly parasites, 447, vi, 367-81. 

Cr .ey>, W. C. Ants from British Guiana, 11, xvii, 366-78. 
Fore '** Quelques fourmis de Colotnbie, 530, v, 9-14. Girault, 
A. A \ new Phanurus from the U. S., with notes on allied spe- 
cies, 1916, 149-50. Santschi, F. Descriptions de fourmis nou- 
velk , \frique et d'Amerique Fourmis de 1'Argentine, 86, 1915, 
509- 



336 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

THE LIFE OF INLAND WATERS. An elementary text book of fresh- 
water biology for American students. By JAMES G. NEEDHAM, 
Professor, and J. T. LLOYD, Instructor, in Limnology in Cornell 
University. 1916. The Comstock Publishing Company, Ithaca, 
New York. 9*4 x 6 l / 2 inches, 438 pp., 242 figs., 19 initials and tail 
pieces. Price $3.00. 

This book has developed in connection with the course in general 
limnology at Cornell University, begun in 1906. Its scope is naturally 
much wider than that of entomology, but insects figure largely in its 
pages. After an historical introduction (Chap. I, pp. 13-24)1 the na- 
ture and types of aquatic environment are described (Chaps. II, III, 
pp. 25-99). Under Chapter IV, Aquatic Organisms, pages 100-158 are 
concerned with plants and pages 158-241 with animals; of the latter 
section, the insects occupy pages 195-230, with 37 figures. Owing to 
limitations of space, smaller taxonomic groups than families are not 
considered. Perhaps the most interesting part of the book is Chapter 
V, Adjustment to Conditions of Aquatic Life (pp. 242-292), such as 
flotation, improvement of form, avoidance of silt; withstanding the 
wash of moving waters, etc., etc. Aquatic Societies, both limnetic and 
littoral, are discussed in Chapter VI (pp. 293-375), which vies with its 
predecessor in attractiveness. Finally, Inland Water Culture is treated 
in Chapter VII (pp. 377-412). There is a bibliography under author's 
names arranged alphabetically (pp. 413-419) and an index (pp. 421- 
438). 

As mentioned above, the insects are formally treated in Chapter IV, 
but many other references to them occur in subsequent pages. The 
reader will not find in this volume any keys to the identification of 
aquatic organisms but the numerous figures and the text will enable 
him to become acquainted with the names, habits and environmental 
relations of many plants and animals associated with any group of 
water beings in which his interest chiefly lies. "It is the ecologic side 
of the subject rather than the systematic or morphologic, that we have 
emphasized," say the authors, and every entomologist looking into 
this book will be the better for such a consideration of aquatic life 
as he will find here. 

The text is pleasingly written, the type is clear and large, the illus- 
trations useful or beautiful. We must, however, utter a protest against 
a fault too common with our American books. This volume is too 
heavy; it weighs 38 ounces, a quality which has already discouraged us 
from carrying it with us to while away an enforced wait when read- 
ing was almost the only resource. The common practice of printing 
half-tones in the midst of the text, with the use of coated paper 
throughout, is the responsible cause. P. P. C. (Adv.) 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 

FOR SCHIYIITT BOXES 

These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trough around the front 
lined with a material of our own design, which is adjustable to the pressure of the front 
cover. The cover, when in place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps, causing a 
constant pressure on the lining in the groove. The cabinet, in addition to being a! 
lately dust, moth and dermestes proof, is impervious to fire, smoke, water and atii 
pheric changes. Obviously, these cabinets are far superior to any constructed of non- 
metallic material. 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center. On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42i in. high, 13 in. deep, 18J 
in. wide, inside dimensions; usually enameled green outside. For details of Dr. Skin- 
ner's construction of this cabinet, see Entomological New*, Vol. XV, page 177. 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
groove, clasps, etc. Bottom inside lined with cork; the outside enameled any color 
desired. The regular dimensions, outside, are 9x 13x2i in. deep, but can be furnished 
any size. 

WOOD INSECT BOX. \Ve do not assert that this wooden box has all the quali- 
ties of the metal box, especially in regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 
a box, we think, superior to any other wood insect box. The bottom is cork lined. 
Outside varnished. For catalogue and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WARD'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE. ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y:, we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Onr live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 

FOUNDED 1862 INCORPORATED 189O 

When Writing; Please Mention ' Entomological New*." 



K-S Specialties 



Entomology 



THE KNY-SCHEERER COMPANY 

Department of Natural Science 404-410 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Kxotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 




INSECT IJOXES We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and can 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 

NS/3o85 Plain Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15^ in Each $0.25 

NS/3085 SizeSxio^in , Each .15 

NS/sogi Lepidoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 
cover and bottom of strong pasteboard, covered with 
bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 
Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf (peat). 

Per dozen 6.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Per dozen 6.00 

Caution: Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 




NS/3091 



(For exhibition purposes) 




NS/3I2I K.-S. Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 
fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8x11x2% in. (or to order, 8%xio%xa% in.).. 



$0.70 



NS/312I 



Size 12x16x2% in. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 1.20 

Size 14x22x2% in. (or to order, 14x22x2% in.) 2.00 

Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 



THE KNY SCHEERER CO. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 

6. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 



PARIS EXPOSITION : 
Eight Awards and Medals 




PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 
Gold Medal 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION : Grand Prize and Gold Medal 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc. 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kinds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Papilio columbus (gundlachianus), the brightest colored American Papilio, very 
rare, perfect specimens $1.50 each ; second Quality $1.00 each. 

When Writing Please Mention "Entomological New*." 

P. C. Stookhausen, Printer, 53-65 N. 7th Street, Philadelphia. 



OCTOBER, 1916. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII. 



No. 8. 





John Lawrence Le Conte, 
1825-1883. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



KZV.fi. T. CRESSON. 
PHI/.IH LAURENT, 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 



ERICH DAECKE. 



J. A. G. REHM. 
H. W. WHNZSl.. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 

NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1.90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $1.00 Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 



all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September isth. 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be given in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

t^~ The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 
given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies. 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, SO cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples ol 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper. 30 characters or less. 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 

per 1000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printlno. 

C. V. BLACKBURN. 12 PINE STREET, STONEHAM, MASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XIX. 




BROOD 11,192.8 



BROOD vi. 1932. 



BROOD VIII, 1917 




BROOD X.191S 



BROOD xiv, 



BROOD xv, 1924 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE PERIODICAL CICADA IN NEW JERSEY-WEISS. 










- 



ENTOMOLOGICAL 



AND 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



OCTOBER, 1916. 



No. 8. 



CONTENTS: 









Weiss The Distribution of the Perio- 
dical Cicada in N. ]. (Hem., Horn.) 337 

Abbott New Species of Corixidae 
( H eteroptera ) 340 

Alexander New Species of Crane- 
Flies from the West Indies ( Tipu- 
lidae, Dip ) 343 

Girault A New Genus of Tetrasti- 
chini (Chalcidoid Hymenoptera). 348 

Annual Meeting of the Ontario Society 348 

Williamson On Certain Acanthagri- 
ons, Including Three New Species 
(Odonata) 349 

Baker The Identity of Eriosomaquerci 
Fitch (Aphididae, Horn.) 359 

Ferris Anpplura from Sea-Lions of 
the Pacific Ocean 366 

Haskin Butterflies as Food for Squir- 
rels ( Lep. ) 370 

Weiss Vincetoxicum japonicum as a 
Mosquito Catcher ( Dip. ) 370 

Editorial A New Department in the 
News 371 



New State Officials 371 

Bonniwell Location of Pupae of Me- 

gathymus cofaqui ( Lep. ) 372 

Entomological Literature 372 

Review of Oberthiir Etudes de Lepi- 

dopterologie Comparee 377 

Doings of Societies Ent. Sec., Acad. 
Nat. Sci., Phila. (Lepid., Odon., 

Hymen., Orth.) 378 

Amer. Ent. Soc. (Lep., Col., Hym., 

Orth., Odon.) 379 

Feldman Collecting Social (Coleop., 

Dip., Hymen.) 380 

Chicago Entom. Club (Lep., Col.). . 381 

Obituary Geoffrey Meade- Waldo 382 

Frederick Enock 382 

Dr. Karl Kraepelin 382 

Lucas Friedrich Julius Dominikus 

von Heyden 383 

Elie Metchnikoff 383 

Ignaz Matausch 384 

Sven Lampa 384 

Miss Cora Huidekoper Clarke 384 



The Distribution of the Periodical Cicada in 
New Jersey (Hem., Horn.). 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, N. J. 

(Plate XIX.) 

The present information concerning the distribution of the 
several broods of Tibicen septendccim in New Jersey has been 
obtained from Bull. 71, U. S. Bur. Ent., by C. L. Marlatt and 
the reports of the entomologist of the N. J. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
from 1889 to 1915. Since the 1902 report of the entomologist 
of the N. J. Agric. Exp. Sta. by J. B. Smith, in which there 
appears a map showing the distribution of broods II, VI, X 
and XIV, no attempt has been made to bring all of the New 
Jersey records together in one paper or to map the distribution 
of each brood separately. 

From Marlatt's numbering and distribution of the broods 
in the United States, it appears that six are present in 
Jersey, these being IT, VT, VI IT, X, XIV and XV. Broods 

337 



338 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

II and X are the most important in point of numbers and are 
the best recorded. Brood VI is rather unimportant in spite of 
its somewhat extended distribution and brood VIII with a 
single record in New Jersey represents only scattered indi- 
viduals. Brood XIV appears to be so considerably reduced 
in numbers that it amounts to almost nothing in New Jersey 
and the same can be said of brood XV, which, according to 
Marlatt, consists of retarded eastern colonies of brood XIV. 
Broods XIV and XV may never be reported from New Jersey 
in the future. 

On the accompanying maps, the distribution is by counties 
only, these records having been obtained from Marlatt's Bull. 
71 and the New Jersey reports. A more detailed distribution 
will be found below. In a few cases, some of the marked 
counties failed of confirmation in recent years. This may 
mean that the cicada was absent or that no reports of its oc- 
currence were received. It was thought best however to 
record all counties where the insects appeared, even though 
some indicate old records, so that persons interested will know 
just where to look for them when due and so that accurate 
information can be obtained in the future as to whether the 
insects have been actually eliminated or simply overlooked. 
By consulting the following detailed account the exact locality 
can be ascertained. 

DETAILED DISTRIBUTION. 

BROOD II, 1877 Union, Essex, Morris, Monmouth Counties in large 
numbers; Warren Co., Hainesburg; Sussex Co., Monroe Corner. 

1894 Bergen Co., throughout, especially from Tenafly, Carlstadt, 
River Vale, Mahwah. Passaic Co., Paterson, Greenwood Lake dis- 
trict. Sussex Co., Huntsburg and Papakating. Morris Co., Boonton 
and eastern districts. Essex Co., everywhere. Hudson Co., every- 
where except flats and marshy portions. Union Co., everywhere. 
Somerset Co., in a few localities. Warren Co., Rocksburg. Hunter- 
don Co., northwestern corner. Mercer Co., along road to Hightstown. 
Middlesex Co., irregularly distributed, more plentiful north of Raritan 
River, becoming less toward south and west; along Raritan River from 
Perth Amboy to Bound Brook; Jamesburg. Monmouth Co., slight in 
eastern part. Ocean Co., in small patches; Toms River, Cassville. 
Burlington Co., in small patches; Pemberton. Camdcn Co., Pensau- 
ken, Clementon; along Camden and Atlantic and Reading Railroads 



Vol. XXVliJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 339 

toward Atlantic County line. Gloucester Co., Franklinville and north 
of this at several places; along line of Cape May Railroad. Salem Co., 
Friesburg. Atlantic Co., irregular throughout; Hammonton to coast 
along Atlantic City Railroad. Cumberland Co., irregular throughout; 
between Bridgeton and Millville; along railroad from Vineland to 
Cape May County line. Cape May Co., throughout in large numbers, 
except on lowlands; plentiful at Woodbine. 

1911 Bergen Co., from Fort Lee northward to New York State line; 
along top of Palisades and on both slopes ; none in Hackensack valley 
and in low marsh areas ; Rutherford, Ramsey, Westwood, Tenafly, 
Carlstadt, River Vale, Mahwah, Englewood, Alpine. Passaic Co., 
Paterson, Totowa, Little Falls ; along line of S. & W. Railroad they 
extended to Morris County line ; in Lake Macopin region ; Hacken- 
sack. Sussex Co., Sparta, Newton, Huntsburg, Papakating. Warren 
Co., Washington, Hamburg, Port Murray. Morris Co., along line of 
D. L. & W. Railroad to Lake Hopatcong : Morristown, Morris Plains ; 
from Newfoundland and Charlottesburg to Sparta along line of S. & 
W. Railroad ; Newark watershed, Chatham, Denvill'e, Dover to Whar- 
ton, Mendham, Millington, Mt. Tabor; north and south of Dover; 
Pleasant Hill in patches ; Mt. Olive. Essex Co., infested everywhere. 
Hudson Co., Snake Hill; very little Cicada ground now remains in 
this county. Somerset Co., Washington Valley back of Pluckamin and 
along road to Basking Ridge ; in spots from Bound Brook to Bernards- 
ville; Somerville, Raritan. Hunterdon Co., High Bridge, throughout 
hills southeast toward Lebanon ; Fairmount, Lambertville, Stockton, 
Ravenlock. Union Co., Roselle, Fanwood, Summit, Elizabeth, Spring- 
field, Rahway ; county generally covered in much reduced extent. 
Middlesex Co., New Brunswick, College Farm ; from Stelton to Union 
County line ; along north bank of Raritan River from Bound Brook to 
county line ; Rahway to Perth Amboy ; Metuchen to Perth Amboy along 
north bank of Raritan River; Old Bridge, Milltown, South Amboy. 
Mercer Co., between Hightstown and Yardville ; Princeton. Mon- 
Dunith Co., Matawan, Cliffwood. Ocean Co., around Lakewood, South 
Lakewood ; west of Lakewood, Ridgeway. Burlington Co., no records. 
Camdcn Co., Clementon ; along line of Atlantic City Railroad to Atlan- 
tic County line ; Almonesson, Blue Anchor, Florence to Williamstown 
Junction, and along this branch to Gloucester County ; Haddonfield. 
Gloucester Co., Woodbury, Malaga ; along line from Williamstown to 
Glassboro. Atlantic Co., irregularly throughout on gravelly knolls or 
areas. Cumberland Co., Husted, Bridgeton ; Bridgeton to Rosenhayn 
along Central Railroad ; Vineland, along trolley line between Malaga 
and Newfield ; Millville, irregular throughout county. Salem Co., be- 
tween Elmer and Palatine only. Cape May Co., all wooded areas of 
peninsula in gravelly lands; Woodbine, Ocean View, Tuckahoe, Den- 



340 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 



nisville, Sea Isle Junction, Wildwood Junction, Seaville, Swain, South 

Seaville. 

BROOD VI, 1881 Essex Co., Caldwell in small numbers. 

1898 Middlesex Co., Piscatawaytown. Passaic Co., Charlottesburg. 
Morris Co., Hanover. Cumberland Co., Vineland. 

igi$ Union Co., Cranford. Essex Co., Upper Montclair. Passaic 
Co., Oak Ridge. Mercer Co., Princeton. 

BROOD VIII, 1900 No records in Smith's reports. Essex Co., 
(Marlatt). 

BROOD X, 1885 Burlington, Camden, Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, 
Morris, Passaic, Somerset, Hunterdon Counties. 

ig 02 Warren Co., southwestern corner; well covered south of Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey and along Delaware River. Hunterdon 
Co., southern half. Mercer Co., pretty well distributed, except in ex- 
treme south. Somerset Co., not heavily visited, except at Rocky Hill ; 
Middlebush, Martinsville, Franklin Park, Bound Brook, Raritan, Somer- 
ville, Neshanic, Three Bridges, Harlingen, Kingston. Middlesex Co., 
Piscatawaytown. Monmouth Co., highlands of Navesink, Locust 
Point. Ocean Co., New Egypt, Collier's Mill, Prospertown; between 
Jacobstown and Ellisdale (Burlington Co.). Burlington Co., Ellisdale, 
Indian Mills. Camden Co., Delaware Township. Salem Co., Salem, 
Yorktown, Woodstown. Gloucester Co., Swedesboro and between 
Swedesboro and Harrisonville. Cumberland Co., Shiloh ; no records 
from Hudson, Essex, Bergen, Union, Passaic, Sussex, Cape May, Mor- 
ris and Atlantic Counties. 

BROOD XIV, 1889 Bergen Co., Englewood. Mercer Co., Princeton. 
Burlington Co., Palmyra. Gloucester Co., Red Bank. 

1906 No reports of occurrence except in Bergen County by Marlatt. 

BROOD XV, 1890 Essex Co. Cape May Co., Anglesea. 

1907 Cape May Co. Union Co., Plainfield to Westfield. Morris 

Co., Newfoundland. 



New Species of Corixidae (Heteroptera). 

By J. F. ABBOTT, St. Louis, Missouri. 

From time to time collections of "water-boatmen" have 
come in to me for determination, which have contained unde- 
scribed species. I have put these aside until such time as they 
might be included in a general survey of the group upon 
which I have been at work. But as it is the wish of those 
whose material I have examined, to include the names of such 
species in lists which they have in preparation, it seems de- 
sirable that formal descriptions of them should be published 
at once in order to avoid the publication of manuscript names. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 341 

1. Arctocorisa lucida n. sp. 

Tegminal markings (typically) coalescent into solid black. Sutures 
marked with yellow. Head yellow. Embolium and outer portion of 
corium, sordid to smoky, but without markings, as if the black were 
condensed into the inner angle of the corium and etched away from 
the outer margin. Membrane smoky but without markings (or with 
very obscure markings). Pronotum unicolorous (in paratypes, with 
occasionally indications of 7-8 very narrow scratched lines). Male fovea 
ovate, extending to the middle of the eyes. Pala short, ligulate; 20 
pegs. 

The species resembles A. kenmcottii Uhler in size and 
facies, but differs in the markings of the corium and the 
smaller number of palar pegs. 

Holotype, a male from Cheshire, Connecticut, May 6, 1911 
[B. H. Walden]. 

Allolype, a female, same data. 

Paratypes from Kingston, Rhode Island, New Haven and 
Hamden, Connecticut, Forest Hills, Massachusetts. 

2. Arctocorisa ornata n. sp. 

Sides parallel. Head wider than pronotum. Color tawny yellow 
with umber markings. Surface very rastrate. Pronotum with 4-5 in- 
definite lines. Sutures pale. Lineations of both clavus and corium 
coalescent into longitudinal seriations. Membrane with a central vitta 
from which radiate vermiculate markings. Frontal fovea large and 
conspicuous, elongate ovate. Pala cultrate; pegs in a single curving, 
interrupted row, 18 plus 18 equal 36, in number. Length, 9 mm.; 
width in middle of body 2j^ mm. 

Holotype, a male from Ithaca, New York, August 21 [Kir- 
kaldy coll.]. 

Allotypc, a female from Orono, Maine, April 20, 1912 
[Coll. Me. Exp. Sta.]. 

Paratypes from Orono and Amherst, Massachusetts, and 
Cheshire, Connecticut. 

3. Arctocorisa decorata n. sp. 

Yellow, with dark brown markings. Surface rastrate. Pronotal 
lineations, 8. Lines of clavus broad, somewhat forked; those of 
corium tending to coalesce into indefinite longitudinal lineations. 
Membrane covered with vermiculate markings, suture denned by a 
yellow line. Male fovea small and shallow, barely exceeding the eye. 
Pala falcate; pegs 37, the distal 12-14 about three times as long as the 
proximal. Length, 9 mm. ; width, 3 mm. 



342 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Holotypc, a male from Amherst, Massachusetts, August 

26, 1904 [Coll. H. M. Parshley]. 
Allotype, a female, same data. 

4. Arctocorisa dubia n. sp. 

Surface shining, finely rastrate ; chestnut brown. Pronotal linea- 
tions 8, rather broad, straight and unbroken. Lineations of clavus, 
corium and membrane uniformly coalescent to form a dark back- 
ground with narrow flecks of lighter color. Posterior angle of corium 
conspicuously bordered by a V-shaped yellow band. Male fovea very 
shallow, not reaching middle of the eyes. Pala oblong-cultrate ; pegs 

27, crowded distally as in A. interrupta, nitida, etc. Length, 8^ rnm. ; 
width, 3 mm. 

Holotype, a male from Peru, Massachusetts, August 27, 
1904 [Coll. H. M. Parshley]. 

5. Arctocorisa parshleyi n. sp. 

Near alternata Say. Lineations similar to alternata but color umber 
on a cream to ochroleucous background, approaching the typical colora- 
tion of calva. Width of male pala 3-7, the length (1-3 in alternata) ; 
pegs 29-30 (38-40 in alternata), along the upper margin (in alternata, 
the row starts from the middle of the base) Strigil square, small, 6 
striae. Length, 6^/2 mm.; Width, 1^4 rnm. 

Holotype, a male from Providence, Rhode Island, June 18 
[Davis coll.]. 

Allotype, a female, same data. 

Paratypes from Ithaca, New York, Mercer and Orono, 
Maine. 

6. Arctocorisa seriata n. sp. 

Near scabra Abbott. Pronotum and clavus very rastrate. Colora- 
tion dark brown. Pronotal lineations 5. Those of clavus entire for 
the most part. Those of corium and membrane much broken and in- 
definitely seriate. Head yellow. Fovea deep, extending past middle 
of the eye. Pala very short, cultrate, about twice as long as high, 
with 17 pegs in an angulated row. Length, 4^4 mm.; width, i$4 mm. 

Holotype, a male from Peru, Massachusetts, August 27, 
1904 [H. M. Parshley]. 

Allotype, a female, same data. 

Paratypes from Cheshire, Hamclen, and New Haven, Con- 
necticut; Pownal, West and Orono, Maine; Kingston, Rhode 
Island, and Durham, New Hampshire. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 343 

7. Arctocorisa modesta n. sp. 

Tawny yellow with brown markings ; pronotum clavus and anterior 
half of corium strongly rastrate. Fovea elliptical, reaching middle of 
eye. Pala cultrate, slightly produced at base and somewhat incurved ; 
pegs 33 in number in a single row, the distal ones slightly elongated. 
Pronotum subtriangular with 9 unbroken brown lines. Clavus nar- 
nowly margined with yellow, the brown lines broken, forked and con- 
fluent. Corial lineations inosculate, tending to coalesce in a vitta to- 
ward the inner margin ; those of the membrane coalescing in a central 
fleck. Strigil minute. Length, 5 mm.; width, \y 2 mm. 

Holotype, a male from Piney Branch, District of Columbia, 
May [D. E. Clemmons]. 

Allotype, a female, same data. 

Paratypcs from Washington, District of Columbia; Plum- 
mer's Island and Great Falls, Maryland, and Charles Bridge, 
Virginia. 

New Species of Crane-Flies from the West Indies 

(Tipulidae, Dip.). 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Ithaca, New York. 

The material upon which this paper is based is largely the 
property of the American Museum of Natural History and I 
am indebted to the curator, Dr. F. E. Lutz, for the loan of 
the same. 

Subfamily LIMNOBINAE, Tribe Eriopterini. 
Gonomyia (Leiponeura) helophila, sp. n. (Text figs. 1, 3.) 

Male. Length, 4.6-5.2 mm.; wing, 5-5.3 mm. Female. Length, 4.8- 
5.3 mm. ; wing, 5-4-57 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brownish black. Antennae with the scape 
dark brownish black below, yellow above; the flagellum light yellowish 
brown, the terminal segments blackish ; flagellum with an abundant 
pale pubescence and very elongate hairs. Head yellow with a vertical 
brownish mark. 

Pronotum with the scutum yellowish white, broadly grayish brown 
on the dorso-median area ; scutellum light yellow. Mesonotal prae- 
scutum light gray with four light brown stripes; middle stripes elon- 
gate becoming confluent behind and prolonged caudad on the mid-dorsal 
line of the scutum: tuberculate pits far up on the cephalic margin of 

* Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory of Cornell Uni- 
versity. 



344 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

the sclerite, rather closely approximated, black; pseudo-sutural foveae 
elongate-oval, reddish ; extreme lateral margins of the praescutum 
whitish ; scutum gray with the lobes brown ; scutellum light gray, more 
yellowish on the caudal margin. Pleura with the dorso-pleural area 
light yellow extending from the pronotum to the wing-root; remainder 
of the pleura dark brown with two white stripes, the ventral stripe 
broad, clear-cut, beginning on the fore coxa extending to above the 
hind coxa; dorsal stripe suffused with dusky, not clear-cut, sometimes 
obliterated ; the brown vitta separating these two white stripes well- 
defined. Halteres light brownish yellow passing into grayish brown on 
the knob which is obscurely tipped with dull yellow. 

Legs with the fore coxae brown and white; middle coxae with the 
basal half brown, the terminal half light yellow; hind coxae light yel- 
low; trochanters light yellow; fore femora dark brownish black; mid- 
dle femora yellow, tipped with dark brown ; hind femora brownish 
yellow, slightly darkened toward the apex ; fore and middle tibiae 
white, the extreme base and slightly broader apex of each dark brown ; 
hind tibiae white, the extreme base and apex light brown; fore and 
middle tarsi dark brownish black; hind tarsi dark brown, the basal 
half of the first segment whitish. 

Wings with the costal margin, Sc and R china- white; remaining 
veins dark brown ; wings subhyaline ; stigma distinct, oval, brown ; a 
vitreous spot before and beyond the stigmal spot. Venation as in fig. 
i; Sc very short, ending far before the base of the sector, this distance 
about equal to from one to two times the length of the sector ; Rs short, 
only a little longer than the deflection of R4 + 5; cell ist M2 open, 
except in abnormal specimens where it may be closed. 

Abdominal segments brown, the caudal margins broadly dull light 
yellow. Hypopygium as in fig. 3 ; dorsal appendage of the ninth pleur- 
ite fleshy without chitinized hooks or teeth of any kind, but with num- 
erous bristles ; middle appendage a very slender, somewhat sinuous 
hook with the apex blackened ; ventral appendage prominent, the 
apex flattened, smooth, chitinized, the ventral angle produced into a 
slender finger-like lobe, the apex of which is blackened; the dorsal 
angle similarly produced but the lobe shorter and broader; ventral 
margin of the appendage with two prominent teeth whose inner margins 
are minutely denticulate, the tips blackened. 

Habitat: Neotropical region. 

Holotype : $ , Lima, Peru ; August 4, 1914 ; altitude 500 feet 
(Parish.) 

Allotpye: 2, topotypic; August 19, 1914. 

Paratypes: 18 $ $ , topotypic; August 4-24, 1914; 392, 
Bartica, British Guiana, December 31, 1912; February 4, 1913; 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



345 



Mallali, March n, 1913 (Parish); $, Roseau, Dominica, 
British West Indies, June 22, 1911 (Lutz.) 

The Guiana material, represented only by females, was de- 
termined as G. (L.) alexanderi Johnson in my paper on Brit- 
ish Guiana Tipulidae (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., vol. 40, p. 242, 
1914) ; the Peruvian specimens were determined as probably 
representing a new species closely allied to alexanderi (Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc., vol. 42, p. 17, 1916.) 

The two species, G. alexanderi Johnson (Nearctic) and G. 
helophila sp. n. (Neotropical) are closely allied and may be 
separated most readily by the structure of the male genitalia, 
these differences being expressed as follows : 




Fig. 1. Wing of Gonomyia (Leiponeura) helophila sp. n. 
Fig. 2. Wing of G. (L.) alexanderi Johnson. 

Fig. 3. Pleurite and appendages of the male hypogygium of G. (L.) helophila ; d, 
dorsal appendage ; v, ventral appendage. Dorsal aspect. 
Fig. 4. The same for G. (L.) alexanderi. 
Fig. 5. Wing of Eriocera aetherea sp. n. 
Fig. 6. Wing of Erioeera domingensis sp. n. 

Dorsal pleural appendage triangular, the caudal angle a prominent 
spine that is heavily chitinized apically; middle pleural appendage 
apparently lacking; ventral pleural appendage with a broad flattened 
blade, the inner caudal margin with about five or six acute, chitin- 
ized, appressed teeth of which the innermost is the largest (see figs. 
2, 4). alexanderi Johnson 



346 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Dorsal pleural appendage a fleshy lobe bearing many hairs; middle 
pleural appendage a slender acute spine ; ventral pleural appendage 
with the apex flattened, smooth, chitinized, bi-lobed; the ventra 1 
margin of the appendage with two prominent teeth whose margin" 
are minutely denticulate (see figs, i, 3). helophila, sp. n. 

Tribe He.vatomini. 
Eriocera aetherea, sp. n. (Text fig. 5.) 

Male. Length, 11 mm.; wing, 9.3 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae with the scape black, the 
flagellum broken. Head brownish gray. 

Thoracic dorsum clear reddish orange without darker markings, the 
scutellum and postnotum with a very indistinct bluish cast. Pleura 
yellowish red. Halteres black, the base of the stem brownish. Legs with 
the coxae and trochanters reddish ; femora black, more yellowish bas- 
ally, this area narrowest on the fore legs, broader on the middle legs, 
the hind legs broken ; tibiae and tarsi black. Wings hyaline, the costal 
area dark brown, this color continued around the wing as a narrow apex 
extending through cell R$ of the wings ; veins slender. Venation as in 

fig. 5- 

Abdomen orange-red, including the hypopygium. 

Habitat: Santo Domingo. 

Holotype : $ , San Lorenzo, Santo Domingo ; June 27-29, 
1915. (No. F 3785, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 

Eriocera domingensis, sp. n. (Text fig. 6.) 

Male. Length, 14 mm.; wing, n mm. 

Rostrum short, reddish brown; palpi brown. Antennae short, first, 
third and fourth segments black; second segment subglobular, brown; 
flagellum beyond the second segment brownish yellow, darker toward 
the tip of the organ; each of the first two segments of the flagellum a 
little longer and stouter than the third. Head lead-gray, along the 
inner margin of the eye with numerous short black hairs. 

Thoracic dorsum dull reddish, the mesonotal stripes just indicated, 
brownish red; remainder of the dorsum slightly suffused with brown. 
Pleura yellowish red, shiny, the mesepisternum with a large black 
area that is continued up to the wing-root and cephalad along the lateral 
edge of the praescutum; a narrow black line running from above the 
middle coxa across the mesepimeron to behind the wing-root. Hal- 
teres short, black, only the base of the stem a little paler. 

Legs with the coxae dull reddish yellow, the outer faces suffused 
with black; trochanters dull yellow; femora of the fore legs dull yel- 
low, the tip broadly dark brown, a very broad median area brownish ; 
middle and hind femora black with an indistinct dull yellow subapical 
band ; tibiae and tarsi black, the claws of the latter concolorous. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 347 

JvVings light yellow, heavily suffused with brown, including the costal 
jarea, broad seams to all the veins and cross-veins restricting the 
.ground-color to the central portions of the cells; apex of the wings 
:broadly seamed with brown. Venation as in fig. 6; forks of Rs and 
R2 + 3 acute; the deflection of R4 + 5 longer than r-m; r-m and the 
deflection of Mi + 2 in a line. 

Abdominal tergites bright orange-red, the first segment black at the 
base; hypopygium black; sternites yellow, trivittate with black, the 
median stripe interrupted, heaviest on the basal sternites. 

Habitat: Santo Domingo. 

Holotype: $, Sanchez, Santo Domingo; May 28-31, 1915. 
(No. F 3682, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 

This group of the genus will probably be found to include 
many species when the crane-fly fauna of the Antilles is better 
known. - It seems to be a case comparable to that found in this 
same genus in Ceylon where there are in the neighborhood of 
a dozen species forming a peculiar group or section. There 
are now four species of Eriocera known from the West Indies 
and they may be separated by the following key : 

1. Wings hyaline with the costal margin brown, this color running to 

beyond the wing-apex; (body-coloration light orange-red). (Santo 

Domingo). aetherea, sp. n. 

Wings hyaline or yellowish with brown markings on the wing-disk. 2 

2. Wings with three bands, the first at the wing-root, the second at 

the origin of the radial sector extending across the wing and con- 
necting with the basal band in the anal cells ; wing-apex largely 
dark, the cells RS, RS, Mi and MS grayish hyaline in their middle 
portions ; thorax yellowish with a grayish blue bloom especially on 
the pleura and coxa; abdomen with blackish bands on the anterior 
margins of the segments, the incisures yellowish. (Porto Rico.) 

trifasciata Roder. 

Wings not trifasciate; thorax orange without grayish blue bloom; 
abdomen without blackish cross-bands. 3 

3 Wings with an interrupted brown pattern that is ocelliform at the 
base of the sector; thorax orange, unmarked; legs with the coxae 
orange; femora yellow tipped with dark brown; claws yellow. 
(Porto Rico). ocellifera Alexander. 

Wings light yellow, heavily suffused with brown, this consisting of 
very broad seams to all the veins; thorax orange with black spots 
on the pleura ; legs with the coxae largely blackish ; femora dark 
brown with a dull yellow subterminal annulus; claws black. (Santo 
Domingo). domingensis, sp. n. 



348 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

A New Genus of Tetrastichini (Chalcidoid 
Hymenoptera). 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Glenndale, Maryland. 

The following genus is based on a common species in the 
eastern United States, namely Euderus columbianns Ashmead, 
a species very little known because of its obscure and inaccu- 
rate description. 

GALEOPSOMYIA new genus. 

Female: Form as in Secodclla. Antennae inserted in the 
middle of the face, n-jointed with three large ring-joints, the 
club 3-jointed. Scutellum with a marginal groove on each 
side and a median groove. Marginal vein long, the postmarginal 
absent, the stigmal moderately long, not a fourth the length 
of the marginal. Caudal tibial spur stout, single. Abdomen 
stout, conical, twice the length of the thorax, a little stylate at 
apex. Propodeum with distinct median and lateral carinae. 
Scutum simple, the scutellum with the three grooves as de- 
scribed. Mandible bidentate. 

The genotype has the apex of the femora and distal third 
of the last two pairs of tibiae yellowish white and its color is 
dark metallic green or purple. Pedicel over twice longer than 
wide at apex, subequal to funicle I ; funicles 2-3 subequal, 
each somewhat shorter than i , twice longer than wide ; club 3 
with a distinct terminal nipple, smaller than i which is a little 
longer than wide. Whole body densely scaly. Segments 5 
and 6 of abdomen longest, 8 as long, conical. 

The large size, densely scaly, stout and conical abdomen, 
bidentate mandibles and median groove of the scutellum should 
make this form easy of recognition. I have taken specimens 
in meadows at Glenndale, Maryland, as late as September 30. 



Annual Meeting of the Ontario Society. 

The Entomological Society of Ontario will hold its 53rd Annual 
Meeting at its headquarters in the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, 
Ontario, on Thursday and Friday, November 2nd and 3rd. There will 
be a goodly gathering of our Canadian members from all over the Do- 
minion and some visitors from the United States. CHARLES J. S. 
BETHUNE. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 349 

On Certain Acanthagrions, Including Three New 

Species (Odonata). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

(Continued from page 324.) 

Acanthagrion apicale Selys. 

Abdomen: $, 28-30; average, 29; hind wing $, 19-20; average, 
19.8 mm. 

$ . Face in front orange, the genae paler, yellow. Labrum 
with median posterior impressed spot, extreme posterior edge and 
posterior lateral border, black or dark brown. Black on nasus variable, 
in palest specimens a small quadrangular black spot near the anterior 
border on either side ; in the next darkest stage there is also a rounded 
median spot near the anterior border between the two quadrangular 
spots, this median spot connected or not with the black posterior to it 
on the suture ; in still darker stages these three spots are more or less 
connected and the exterior ends of the quadrangular spots fuse with 
the black on the nasofrontal suture. Naso-frontal suture black, wid- 
est in the median line. The frons in front is usually slightly darker 
than the labrum, and rarely is obscured and much darker ; in about 
half the specimens the black of the frons above joins the black of the 
naso-frontal suture in the median line. Head above black, usually 
with a small orange spot on either side of the median ocellus, and 
more rarely with a similar spot between the apex of the second joint 
of the antenna and the eye ; postocular spots orange, orange red, or 
rarely yellow, about the size of an area enclosing the three ocelli, or 
slightly larger. Rear of head above and surrounding the foramen, 
black ; below pale, slightly yellowish-tinged or not. 

Anterior of lobe of prothorax with a large, median orange or yellow 
spot which nearly reaches the anterior border, reaches the posterior 
border, and is wider than long, in some cases reaching the lateral mar- 
gins where it is more or less obscure; remainder of prothorax black. 
Propleuron largely brown, black above, the adjoining brown orange- 
tinged. 

Thorax above black with an orange or orange red antehumeral 
stripe, slightly wider below and as wide as, or a little wider than half 
the black mid-dorsal stripe, which latter stripe is about equal in width 
to the black humeral stripe, which extends broadly across the mesin- 
fraepisternum, leaving only the lower corner of the latter brown. A 
short black spur on the first lateral suture above, broadly joined above 
with the humeral stripe, and narrowly joined with a broad stripe about 
half as wide as the humeral, just in front of and parallel to the sec- 
ond lateral suture, this stripe narrowed above, where it overlaps the 
suture, and continued narrowly along the wing margin nearly across 
the metepimeron ; below it does not quite reach the metastigma. Mese- 



350 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

pimeron and metepisternum, where not black, orange or yellowish 
brown, duller below. Metepimeron pale bluish in a broad band parallel 
and adjacent to the second lateral suture, the posterior triangular area 
and above adjoining the wing bases to a variable extent, pigmented 
yellow. Beneath pale, yellowish- or greenish-tinged. 

Abdomen black above; i with black on either side with two shal- 
low rounded indentations in the apical half and with the extreme 
border black to the ventral edge; 2 with a single, similar, but deeper 
and more conspicuous, subapical indentation in the black which, just 
basal to this indentation, is wider and rounded; sides of these two 
segments green or greenish ; 3-7 with narrow, interrupted basal rings, 
green on 3 and usually distinctly green or yellowish on 4 and 5, but 
often obscure, blue or bluish on 6 and 7 and usually not discernible 
in dried material; apical dorsal fourth to more than one half (usually 
about one-half) of 7 blue (thus differing strikingly from the descrip- 
tions of de Selys and Calvert, where 7 is described as black), this 
blue area wide for its entire length but narrower basally, widening 
apically, but not reaching the ventral edge, which is black ; apical in- 
tegument of 7-9, seen from the side, with a shining black spot below 
midheight; 8 otherwise blue, the extreme lower edge dull pale yel- 
lowish brown or with the lower edge with some traces of black which. 
in extreme cases, fuse to form an inferior longitudinal stripe, most 
developed posteriorly and fusing with the apical black spot in the -in- 
tegument, very rarely extending the full length of the segment ; 9 
similar to 8 ; 10 black, beneath reddish or yellowish brown. Superior 
appendages black, apically and posteriorly brown; inferiors dark 
brown or black, very restricted yellowish brown at base as seen in 
lateral view. 

Legs dark, pale colors yellowish or greenish brown ; both anterior 
and posterior faces of superior surface of femora black except at ex- 
treme base, more or less running out into spots basally, especially on 
last femora ; anterior superior face of first tibiae black, other tibiae 
with minute lines or spots or unmarked ; tarsi black, more or less pale 
at base of joints; tarsal claws amber, black-tipped, toothed like 
"gracilc." 

Wings very slightly tinged to yellowish brown-tinged, stigma dull 
red or reddish brown (same shade but slightly darker than in adus- 
tum.) 

This species has been determined independently by Dr. Cal- 
vert and myself as aplcale. Because of some differences from 
earlier material described by de Selys and by Calvert, I have 
thought it advisable to give the above description of the Hrit- 
ish Guiana specimens. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 351 

Tumatumari, British Guiana, February 7, 10 and 12, 
1912, 15 males, 3 collected by A. F. Porter. Along Tiger 
Creek, especially on the right bank near Washerwoman Falls, 
are more or less extensive pools left by gold diggers. These 
pools are grown up with vegetation, and are very suggestive 
of old brick yard pools or deserted gravel pits in Indiana. 
However, some of these placer mining pools are very small, 
being only a few feet long and 2 or 3 feet wide. On the right 
bank of the creek below Washerwoman Falls the pools are 
more extensive and are immediately adjacent. Here we 
found both Perithemis lois and thais. Apicale was found 
about these placer pools and nowhere else. It is the hand- 
somest Acanthagrion I know, and is an unusually conspicuous 
and alert agrionine. 

Acanthagrion ascendens Calvert (Plate XVII. fig. 13). 

Abdomen: $, 27-29; average, 28; 9, 26.5; hind wing $, 17-19; 
average, 18; 9, 18.5 mm. 

$ . Genae, labrum and rhinarium green or olive, labrum marked 
as described for kenncdii. Nastis black, yellow and green in varying 
proportions ; the green is confined to the lateral borders, the black may 
form a broad crescent inside this, the horns resting at either side on 
the posterior edge of the nasus, the curve reaching the anterior border 
of the nasus in the median line, from which median part a longitudinal 
median black line projects backward, dividing the enclosed yellow into 
two spots of varying size ; the horns of the crescent, in its minimum 
development, may not reach the posterior border of the nasus, and the 
longitudinal median black line may be incomplete in which case the 
enclosed yellow is constricted, not divided, in the median line; in the 
maximum development of black the green lateral borders remain, but 
the yellow is reduced to a small spot on either side just anterior to the 
posterior border, or the black may occupy even this area ; in extreme 
cases of minimum black the black crescent consists of only three 
spots, one median and one on either side, the median spot with or 
without a posteriorly directed prolongation. Frons in front with a yel- 
lowish or greenish bar on either side as described for kenncdii; the 
obliquity of these bars results in a low broad triangle of black on the 
lower edge of tbe frons, the apex of the triangle produced dorsally 
in the median line in a bar of black of varying width to the dorsal 
black of the head ; usually the pale quadrangular bars are confined to 
the frons in front but in tlu-ir maximum development (minimum 
black) they are extended over the frons above and, in a 1 in tad mass of 



352 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

color, reach over and cover the anterior surface of the first joint of 
the antennae ; in such a case their quadrangular shape is of course 
entirely lost. Corresponding to the variation in nasus and frons in 
front, there is decided variation in the marking of the head above ; 
in the darkest individuals the entire head above is black, with yellow 
postocular spots slightly larger than a circle enclosing the ocelli ; in 
the palest coloration the yellow markings are as follows : The pale 
color of the frons in front encroaches on the frons above; back of 
the antenna and on either side of it are two spots, the inner one of 
which is connected posteriorly with a spot or stripe which ends oppo- 
site and close to the lateral ocellus ; there is a 3-pronged spot in 
front of and between the lateral ocelli, and a crescent-shaped spot in 
front of the median ocellus ; and the occipital crest is narrowly yel- 
low ; the two spots back of the antenna may fuse with each other and 
with the stripe to the lateral ocellus ; and the pale crescent in front of 
the median ocellus may fuse on either side in front with the pale color 
of the frons ; in such a condition the head above is, of course, largely 
yellowish or reddish brown, depending on age and it may be described 
in terms of the black markings as follows : A more or less regularly 
elliptical median black spot on frons above ; an irregular stripe starts 
from two points, the median ocellus and the lateral ocellus, and runs 
forward and outward to the edge of the frons, then turns at a right 
angle and runs backward and outward through the antenna to the 
eye ; some black about the ocelli ; and postocular spots black-bordered. 
In young males the postocular spots and any markings on the occipital 
crest are pale blue, the markings of the face are slaty, but the pale 
markings on the dorsal surface of the head are distinctly yellowish. 
Rear of head as in kennedii. 

Prothorax and thorax similar to kennedii but with the yellow 
brighter and clearer on fully colored specimens. The spot on the me- 
dian lobe of the prothorax is often larger; the posterior lobe may be 
largely or entirely pale-bordered behind, and in some cases there is a 
median geminate yellow spot on the median lobe. In fully colored 
males the antehumeral stripe is clear yellow or orange, pale blue in 
young specimens ; the humeral black stripe is slightly less developed 
than in kennedii and is sometimes reduced on the mesinfraepisternum 
to an obscure line ; superiorly it is narrowed from both sides, the pos- 
terior side not giving the impression of being notched as usually in 
kennedii, and the black spur or line on the first lateral suture above 
is weak and linear and without any tendency to fuse with the humeral 
stripe to enclose a pale spot. In the same way the spot above on the 
second lateral suture is reduced and usually no trace exists of a line 
parallel to the suture on the metepisternum ; rarely there is a short 
obscure line. The sides of the thorax are much yellower than in 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 353 

kennedii, except in younger individuals which are as blue as "gracile." 
Posterior triangular portion of the metepimeron heavily pigmented 
yellow except in younger individuals where it is blue, similar to adja- 
cent areas. In Trinidad specimens of ascendens the humeral stripe is 
often less intense black than the dorsal stripe, tending to a reddish 
tinge; rarely the humeral stripe is entirely dark reddish brown, the 
margins, especially the posterior, not sharply defined and with black 
confined to the extreme upper end and a trace, if any, near the mesin- 
fraepisternum. Such differences are not due solely to age; a pruinose 
male from St. Ann River, Trinidad, is the palest individual I have 
seen; in this specimen, head, prothorax, thorax, abdomen and legs all 
have the black reduced, not as readily noticed in the case of the abdo- 
men ; the legs are especially pale, the last legs with only a trace of 
color near the apex of the femora, the first femora with a little more 
than the apical half of the anterior dorsal surface dark, and the mid- 
dle legs intermediate in color. 

Abdomen similar to kennedii, but the dorsal black on i is narrower 
than on 2, and greatly constricted subapically to a varying extent, 
rarely reduced to a line, but usually this apical black is a stripe about 
one-third as wide as the basal black area anterior to it. Segment 7 
black to apex with integument brown, or apex with a large semicircular 
blue spot which, in the midline, reaches anterior to the apical row of 
spines a distance equal to three to five times the length of the integu- 
ment posterior to the row of spines. In brightly colored specimens 
the pale colors on the first six segments are all yellow or yellowish, 
blue first appearing on the basal ring of 7, which segment, like the 
preceding segments, has the sides below yellow ; in duller specimens 
the basal rings on 4-6 are obscurely colored. Sides similar to kennedii, 
with blue more extensive on i (see description above of dorsal view) ; 
segments 8 and 9 blue, unmarked except for a shining black spot in the 
apical integument just below midheight, conspicuous only by reason of 
the clear blue surrounding it, or the entire lower border of 8 and 9 
may be black, except the base of 8, this black broadest on 9 and, on 
both segments, produced dorsally in the apical integument to join the 
shining black spot described above ; between these two extremes all 
intermediate stages exist; 10 black, dull orange or reddish brown be- 
neath, in one Georgetown specimen a small round median blue spot 
on the side. Superior appendages black or dark brown; inferior ap- 
pendages dull orange or reddish brown, darker at apex. 

Legs light brown or cream-colored, paler than in kennedii and with 
more restricted dark markings ; the first femora the darkest, the last 
the palest, dark markings confined to the dorsal surface of the femora, 
darkest apically, and greatly reduced or almost wanting on the last 
femora, some of the Trinidad specimens the palest of the series. 



354 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Wings slightly brownish-tinged or hyaline ; stigma brown to dark 
brown or black. 

$ : The female of ascendcns has not hitherto been described ; un- 
fortunately the single specimen I took is teneral. Yellow appears only 
on the dorsum of the head and nasus, the postocular spots and the 
pale markings of the thorax and basal abdominal segments being 
light clear blue, just as in "gracile." The pattern of the dorsum of 
the head is pale, but the black is not reduced to the extreme degree 
found in some males ; probably the pattern will be found to be as 
variable in the female as it has been shown above to be in the male. 

The antehumeral blue stripe is wide ; the humeral stripe is reddish 
brown, diffuse at the edges, black at the superior extremity, and dark- 
er below, near and on the mesinfraepisternum. There is no trace of 
the black spot on the second lateral suture or a dark line or stripe on 
the metepisternum along this suture. The metepimeron is bluish- 
tinged above and along the second lateral suture but fades rapidly 
into the cream color of the coxae and under parts. 

Abdominal segments i and 2 patterned as in the male, the pale color 
light blue; 3-7 with basal rings less conspicuous than in the male; 7 
with the apical integument only blue, but this will probably be found 
to vary in this sex as in the male ; 8 with the apical third or fourth 
blue ; 9 blue with a larger quadrangular dark spot on either side, this 
spot produced posteriorly at its two posterior corners, these points 
reaching about the middle of the segment; 10 blue; appendages brown. 

Legs pale, as described for the pale males. 

Wings hyaline, stigma light brown (teneral). 

Georgetown, British Guiana, January 25, 26, 27 and 28, 

1912, 15 $ , i $ ; Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, Feb. 23, 1912, 

i $ \ Trinidad, localities as follows, all in 1912, Cunapo 

River, Feb. 27, n $ ; St. Joseph River, Feb. 28, March 10, 

2$ ; St. Ann River, March i, i $ ; Arima, March 4, 2 

$ ; Maracas River, March 5, 2 $ ; Cumuto, March 6, i 

$ ; Baracon, Chaquanas, March 7, i $ . 

Ascendens has hitherto been known from a single male from 
Cachoeira, Brazil. A male from Georgetown was sent to Dr. 
Calvert who confirms the identification. Ascendcns is one of 
the gracile group in which the fully colored male (and prob- 
ably older females) has departed from the ancestral blue col- 
oration of the thorax and basal abdominal segments and has 
taken on green and yellow colors. The wide distribution of 
the species as shown by the present collection should make the 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 355 

discovery of the species in some of de Selys' material not sur- 
prising. The species is a pond or sluggish stream inhabitant. 

In Calvert's key to females of Acanthagrion (Ann. Carnegie 
Museum, vi, Odonata Neotropical Regioli, p. 162), ascendcns 
runs out to C, under B, under A, in which also will fall A. 
kennedii described below. The female of ascend ens may be 
recognized at once by having the mesepisternal fossae at about 
the midheight of the mesepisterna, the carina between the 
fossae, as seen in lateral view, elevated into a small semi- 
circular prominence. In "gracile" and kennedii the fossae are 
placed much lower, the carina not elevated but bevelled off 
anterior to the fossae. 
Acanthagrion "gracile" Rambur (Plate XVII, figs. 9, 12). 

In view of Mr. Kennedy's work on Acanthagrion penes.* and 
because of the specific distinctness of forms otherwise scarcely 
separable, the true status of gracile and the many varieties dis- 
cussed by de Selys is a matter for future determination. The 
following notes refer to the common Central American form 
determined by Calvert as gracile (Biol. Centr. Amer. Neurop., 
pp. 115, 382). 

$ : In the darkest specimens the dorsum of the head is entirely 
black excepting the blue postocular spots and a more or less definite 
blue trace on the occipital crest; in the palest, the pale color on the 
anterior side of the first joint of the antenna is produced inward and 
upward to make a rounded connected spot on the frons above on either 
side; back of and just outside this is a spot opposite the apical end of 
the second joint of the antenna, and another spot between the apex of 
this second joint and the eye ; between the median ocellus and the sec- 
ond joint of the antenna is another spot lying close to the ocellus.. 

On the middle lobe of the prothorax the blue spot on either side 
varies considerably in size. The black spot on the second lateral su- 
ture above is often inconspicuous, though always present so far as 
the present collection goes, but never produced as a line beyond the 
depression in which it lies. 

In the extent of black on abdominal segment I there is considerable 
variation, and but little variation on 2; the black on I is basally about 
as wide as the black generally on 2, but on I the blue on either side en- 
croaches subapically on the black in a triangular dorsal projection, 
which may fail, in varying degrees, to reach the mid-dorsal line or 
which may broadly meet its fellow of the opposite side, in which case 

*See this volume of the NEWS, pages 325-330. 



356 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

the black is reduced to a quadrate basal spot and a very narrow sub- 
apical transverse ring. The black on 2 has a similar subapical narrow- 
ing, but in this segment there seems to be but little variation, and the 
black is reduced only to about its width throughout the segment basal 
to the dilatation just basal to the subapical narrowing. The blue on the 
apex of 7 is variable especially on the sides ; on the dorsum it varies 
in length but never equals the diameter of the segment ; on the sides 
the black may reach the apex of the segment (in which case the blue 
is a dorsal spot) or, more generally, the black is reduced and laterally 
the blue occupies a greater length than dorsally, varying greatly in ex- 
tent. 

Wings usually hyaline, sometimes slightly tinged and in one case 
deeply tinged yellowish brown. 

9 : Varies more in pattern of dorsum of head than does the male; 
the markings are yellowish above (except the postocular spots) as in 
the male, but in the darkest female the pattern is as described for the 
palest male, with the addition of a small spot in front of each lateral 
ocellus ; in the palest female the head above is yellow, marked with 
black as follows : A trilobed spot in front of the median ocellus ; an 
edging around all ocelli ; a more or less indistinct irregular bar from 
this black edging past the apex of the second joint of the antenna to 
the eye ; a definite border around the blue postocular spots ; interme- 
diates between the darkest and palest exist. 

The humeral black stripe is more or less rusty-edged, and in one 
specimen it is reduced and is entirely rusty red except the extreme 
upper end, which remains black. 

Apparently the same variation in black on abdominal segment i as 
described for the male may be expected in the female. Apex of 8 
black to the transverse row of spines in only one specimen, in the 
others with some blue, not very variable, the integument blue in all 
cases. Width of dorsal blue basally on 9 not very variable but the 
length of the basal black on the sides more variable. 

Guatemala, localities as follows, all in 10)09: Puerto Bar- 
rios, May 25 and 30, 3 $ ; Morales, May 27, 2 $ ; Los Ama- 
tes, June 21, 2 $ ; Gualan, June 12, 13, 16 and 18, 6 $ , 2 9 ; 
Agua Caliente (on Ferrocarril del Norte), 20 $ , 2 9 . A 
common widely distributed species, in life suggesting Enal- 
lagma c.rsulans. 

Acanthagrion cuyabae Calvert. 

Georgetown, January 27, 1912, a single teneral male in poor 
condition. Dr. Calvert who examined the specimen writes 
of it, "In appendages, blue color and pale mid-dorsal thoracic 
carina more like cuyabae fimcnse than cuyabae, but differing 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



357 



from both in the pale reddish line bisecting lengthwise the 
black humeral stripe ; different from fimense in size and in 
black on abdominal segment 2 not narrowing anteriorly. Per- 
haps it is the Guianan race of cuyabae." In the condition of 
the specimen nothing more definite can be stated. 



VENATIONAL CHARACTERS OF SIX SPECIES OK 
ACANTHAGRION, EXPRESSED IN PERCENT- 
AGES. 


tt 

"3 
u 

'5. 

CD 


ascendens 


Ji> 

'o 
a 
u 
M 


kennedii 


indefensum 


adustum 


M 2 front wing arising at fourth postnodal 












5 


nodals 




5 


20 


5 




5 


" at fifth postnodal 
" " " " midway between fifth and sixth post- 
nodals 


40 
40 

10 


80 
15 


80 


75 
10 


60 
50 


80 
10 




10 






10 






M? hind wing arising just proximal to fourth postnodal 
" at fourth postnodal 


60 

40 


75 
15 


90 
10 


75 
15 


100 


100 






10 


















10 






Mia front wing arising at seventh postnodal 
eighth 
ninth 
tenth 


60 
40 


5 
90 

5 


20 

80 


50 
45 
5 


100 


10 

90 


Mia hind wing arising at seventh postnodal 
eighth 
ninth 


50 
50 


40 
60 


70 
30 


20 

70 
10 


100 


100 


Proximal side quadrangle front wing=about }^ posterior side 

" 2 /7 
ii 11 it it ti i/ tt 


100 


100 


30 
60 
10 


80 
20 


25 
75 


100 


Anterior side quadangle front \ving=about %-% proximal side 

" slightly shorter than proxi- 
mal side 
" about equalling proximal 
side 
slightly longer than proxi- 
mal side 
" i l / 3 proximal side 

ti ti it 11 tt T l/ t< 

*7a 

i% 


50 
20 
30 


5 

5 

60 
25 

5 


20 

50 

20 
10 


45 
50 
5 


50 
25 
25 


10 
40 

30 
10 
10 


Anterior side of quadrangle hind wing^i^-i^ proximal side 
1% 
" i/4 " 
about twice proxi- 
mal side 
slightly more than 
twice proximal side 
about 2 1 /, proximal 
side 


20 

GO 

20 


5 

15 

55 
25 


20 
40 
40 


40 
45 
ir> 


50 

25 

25 


10 

40 
20 


Arculus front wing at or scarcely distal to second antenodal 
slightly distal to second antenodal 
distal less than length of upper limb of 
arculus 
distal about the length of upper limb of 
arculus 


90 
10 


70 
30 


1110 


30 
45 

20 

5 





85 
15 



358 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[Oct., '16 



VENATIONAL CHARACTERS OF SIX SPECIES OF 
ACANTHAGRION, EXPRESSED IN PERCENT- 
AGES. 


~ 
a 
u 

"B. 
a 


ascender? 



'o 

rt 

s> 


kennedii 


indefensum 


adustum 


Arculus hind wing at or scarcely distal to second antenodal 
slightly distal to second antenodal 
distal less than length of upper limb of 
arculus 


70 
30 


45 

45 

10 


90 
10 


30 
50 

20 


50 
50 


75 

20 

5 


A front wing arising slightly basal to C-A crossvein 
at C-A crossvein. 
" slightly distal to C-A crossvein 
" " distal to C-A crossvein less than length 
of the latter 
" " distal to C-A crossvein at least length of 
the latter 


30 
70 


35 
65 


20 
50 

30 


5 
5 

10 

80 


50 

50 


30 
50 

20 


A hind wing arising distinctly basal to C-A crossvein 
" " slightly basal to C-A crossvein 
'' " " at C-A crossvein 
slightly distal to C-A crossvein 
" " distal to C-A crossvein less than length of 
the latter 
" " distal to C-A crossvein at least length of 
the latter 


30 
70 


50 
50 


40 

60 


5 

25 
70 


25 
50 
s!5 


15 
30 
55 


Stigma front wing with costal side shorter than either proxi- 
mal or distal side 
about equal proximal side 
longer than either proxi- 
mal or distal side 


40 
60 


15 

85 


100 


100 


50 
50 


20 

20 
GO 


Stigma hind wing with costal side shorter than either proxi- 
mal or distal side 
about equal proximal side 
longer than either proxi- 
mal or distal side 


30 

70 


30 
70 


100 


100 


50 
50 


20 
60 

20 


Stigma front wing covering much less than 1 cell 
less than 1 cell 
Icell 


90 
10 


90 
10 


90 
10 


10 
90 


50 
50 


100 


Stigma hind wing covering about % ce " 
much less than 1 cell 
less than 1 cell 
" Icell 


90 
10 


55 
45 


20 
80 


20 
75 
5 


100 


20 
80 


Postnodals front wing 8 
" 9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
' 14 


50 
30 
20 


35 

55 
10 


90 
10 


30 

55 
15 


50 
50 


10 

85 
5 


Postnodals hind wing 7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 


50 
40 
10 


5 
45 
50 


70 
30 


40 
45 
15 


100 


45 
55 



The foregoing tabulation is based on the wings of the following number of specimens of 
each species : apicale, 5 males; ascendcns, 10 males; " gracil?" 5 males; kennedii, 10 
males; indefensum, 2 males ; adustum, 10 males. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 359 

The Identity of Eriosoma querci Fitch (Aphididae, 

Horn.).* 
By A. C. BAKER, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

The species of Anoecia upon Cornus in America has for 
many years been considered to be corni Fab., of Europe. 
While working over the species in 1909, the writer was con- 
vinced that the American form is distinct from the European. 
At that time he had no European specimens and was unable, 
therefore, to prove or disprove his suspicions excepting by 
literature. Since that time he has studied specimens from sev- 
eral localities in France, Germany, Belgium, Russia, the Ma- 
deira Islands and Japan. All of this material and a careful 
study of the European literature and the forms met with in 
this country have proven that the American form is quite a dis- 
tinct species. It, however, winters upon plants of the same 
genus as does the European corni and migrates in summer to 
grass roots as does the European species. The Japanese form 
seems to agree with the European. 

It will be seen by the accompanying figures that the fall 
migrants of the two species are quite different. The third 
segment of the antennae of corni is armed with twelve to nine- 
teen sensoria and these are narrow, not subcircular, in shape. 
The average number in all the forms examined by the writer 
is between twelve and thirteen. Segments IV and V have from 
four to six similarly shaped sensoria. The fall migrant of 
the American species on the other hand has usually six or 
seven sensoria and these are oval or almost circular in shape, 
very different from the narrow elongate sensoria met with on 
corni antennae. Segments IV and V have two or three sen- 
soria and these are oval or subcircular. The spring migrant 
of the American species shows two or perhaps three sensoria 
upon Segment III. These vary greatly in size. Sometimes they 
will be minute and sometimes there will be one large one and 
one small one. Again in other specimens some will be absent 
altogether. This also holds true of the sensoria upon Segment 
The early summer alate of corni has about six or seven 

*Published by permission of the Chief of the Bureau. 



360 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



[Oct., '16 



sensoria upon Segment III, and these are oval or sometimes al- 
most subcircular like those upon Segment III of the American 
fall migrant. 

Another thing which should be mentioned is the absence of 




Fig. i. Antenna of Fall Migrant of An- 
oecia corni Fab. 

Fig. 2. Segment III of antenna of another 
specimen. 

Fig. 3. Antenna of Spring Migrant of 
Anoecia querci Fitch. 

Fig. 4. Antenna of Fall Migrant of An- 
oecia querci Fitch. 

Fig. 5. Antenna of Summer Aptera of 
Anoecia querci Fitch. 

Fig. 6. Antenna of Summer Alateof An- 
oecia corni Fab. 

Fig. 7. Antenna of Summer Aptera of 
Anoecia corni Fab. 

Fig. 8. Antenna of Stem mother of An- 
oecia querci Fitch. 

Fig. 9. Antenna of Summer Alate of An- 
oecia querci Fitch. 

Fig. io. Margin of abdomen of Summer 
Aptera of Anoecia querci Fitch showing 
hairs. 



the large quadrate patch on the abdomen of the spring migrant 
of the American form. In his description of the spring mi- 
grant of corni Koch (1857) does not mention this marking 
and his figure does not show it. The writer supposes, there- 
fore, that it is absent from the spring migrant of corni also. 

The writer has never seen European spring migrants and is 
therefore unable to give the number of sensoria. Judging 
from the American species and from the early summer form 
of corni he would suppose that it possessed about six or seven 
somewhat oval sensoria upon Segment III and in this way dif- 
fers from the American form which possesses few sensoria. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 361 

Measurements of different forms of corni are here given 
for comparison with the descriptions of the American species 
also herewith included. 

Fall Migrant. 

Segments of antenna: III, 0.464 to 0.512 mm.; IV, 0.16 to 0.176 mm.; 

V, 0.16 to 0.176 mm.; VI (0.144 to 0.176 mm. + 0.064 mm.) 
Spring Aptera from Roots. 

Segments of antenna: III, 0.32 mm.; IV, 0.128 mm.; V, 0.128 mm.; 

VI (0.128 + 0.048 mm.). 
Fall Apterous from Roots. 

Segments of antenna: III, 0.32 to 0.352 mm.; IV, 0.128 mm.; V, 0.128 

mm.; VI (0.128 + 0.064 mm.). 
Spring A late from Roots. 

Segments of antennae: III, 0.32 mm.; IV, 0.128 mm.; V, 0.128 mm.; 
VI (0.128 + 0.048 mm.). 

Since the American form proves to be distinct from corni, 
the correct name to apply to the species must be ascertained. 

Two species were described by Walsh (1862). These two, 
comic ola and fungicola, are undoubtedly the same species as 
that common upon Cornus. 

Fitch (1858) described Eriosoma querci from oak in Illinois, 
the description of which agrees fairly well with our Anoecia 
upon Cornus. His notes upon the species give the following 
collection numbers 7946-9 and 7950-1. Of these numbers 
7948 was mounted from the Fitch collection by Mr. Theo. 
Pergande and deposited in the National Museum collection. 
The writer, in studying the Fitch collection, located also the 
numbers 7949, 7950 and 7951. These specimens were pinned 
and carried Fitch's labels. On mounting in balsam, all of the 
four specimens proved to agree with the species so common 
upon Cornus. Anoecia querci (Fitch), therefore, must be the 
name to apply to this species. 

Cowen (1895) referred to querci Fitch a species found by 
him upon oak in Colorado. Later Davis (1911) gave a more 
complete description and figures of this same species and 
placed it in Phyllaphis. Davidson (1910) also recorded the 
insect from California. Gillette (1914) renamed Cowen's 
species quercifoliae and separated it from the eastern one. 
Specimens collected by the writer in Virginia prove that the 
insect referred to by Davis if not by Davidson is a very dis- 



362 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

tinct species which may now be known as Phyllaphis querci- 
cola n. n. It is. however, not a typical Phyllaphis. 

While working at the Deciduous Fruit Insect Laboratory at 
Vienna, Virginia, the writer had the opportunity to observe 
the migrations of querci to and* from Cornus shrubs. It is on 
the basis of these observations that the present paper showing 
the distinctness of querci has been written. The migration of 
the species from Cornus to grass roots was first pointed out 
by Osborn (1889) who placed panicola Thos. (1879) as a 
synonym of corni Fab. He took Oestlund (1887) as his au- 
thority for using the name corni, and therefore included 
venusta Pass, as a synonym of his summer form. Osborn 
was entirely right as far as his observations on the migration 
were concerned, although his presentation of the case has not 
been altogether followed by American writers. Recently Dr. 
Patch (1916) has pointed out this fact and made reference to 
the records (Mordwilko, 1907) of the migration of corni in 
Europe, which species she considered the same as the Ameri- 
can. The writer believes that this retention of panicola Thos. 
is due to a lack of a sufficient knowledge of the variation of 
our Cornus species. As will be seen by the following descrip- 
tions and figures, the spring and fall migrants differ very 
much in antennal characters, and spring migrants vary greatly 
among themselves in regard to the sensoria of the antennae. 
The summer forms show other differences, the most important 
of which is the presence of prominent long curved hairs on 
the body. These, however, are present to some extent in the 
spring forms also. In some cases no sensoria are present on 
the third segment of the summer alate form and this might 
lead to its being considered a distinct species. A study of the 
different summer specimens has convinced the writer that 
panicola must become a synonym of querci. It might possibly 
be considered that the forms showing the prominent curved 
hairs are a distinct species and that the summer forms of 
querci though living upon grass roots would not show them. 
Since they are, however, indicated upon the spring forms 
there seems little doubt in the writer's mind that one species 
only isi represented. 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 363 

Thomas (1. c.) also described a species which he named Rhi- 
zobius eleusinis. In the Bureau collection there are speci- 
mens, of this species reared by Mr. Pergande from the roots 
of Elc-usine indica Gaertn. and determined by him as eleusinis 
Thos. These seem to agree in all important details with sum- 
mer specimens of querci Fitch. The apterous forms agree 
well with the description given by Thomas. It seems evident 
then that eleusinis is a synonym of querci. 

Wilson (1911) has recently described a species of Anoecia 
under the name of oenotherae. The principal differences be- 
tween his species and querci are said to be the small sensoria 
on the antennal segments. These and the color are given as 
characters. As has been mentioned, the sensoria upon the 
spring and summer forms of querci vary greatly, sometimes 
being small and circular, sometimes large, sometimes absent 
altogether with the exception of the permanent ones.. The 
color also shows considerable variation in the main body color, 
though the black lateral patches are usually about the same. 

The writer is inclined, therefore to believe that oenotherae 
is only another of the root-feeding forms of querci, which in 
the particular case was feeding upon Oenothera. That the 
forms do not migrate in the regular way can hardly be taken 
as evidence of a distinct species. The writer has summer 
forms of corni taken on wheat roots in April and it was evi- 
dent that two generations at least had already lived there. In 
the same way, summer specimens of querci can be found very 
late in the year upon the roots of various plants, much later 
than the usual migration period. The proportion of the seg- 
ments seems, however, to be different in the measurements 
given by Wilson. 

Anoecia querci ( FITCH) 
Eriosoma querci Fitch 
Rhizobius eleusinis Thos. 
Schizoneura panicola Thos. 
Anoecia corni, American authors. 
^Anoecia oenotherae Wilson. 

In the vicinity of Vienna, Virginia, the eggs of Anoecia 
querci hatch about the middle of April. By the end of the 



364 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

month the stem mothers are mature and are producing the 
second generation practically all of which becomes alate. The 
spring migrants are in the pupal instar by about May 6. In 
another three or four days the migration commences and lasts 
until the fore part of June, a few insects becoming alate at a 
time. Alate forms as well as apterous are produced during 
the summer upon the roots of various grasses. Toward the 
last of September the return migration commences and ex- 
tends almost to the end of October. The sexes are deposited 
as the alate forms arrive so that we have fresh migrants and 
nearly mature sexes upon the leaves at the same time. A few 
straggling migrants are on the trees even after the eggs are 
being laid. The eggs, are not placed thickly upon the twigs 
and are many fewer than would be expected from the num- 
ber of sexes present. 

It may be mentioned that the writer was unable to rear this 
species on the flowering dogwood, but was able to get it to 
feed only upon the narrow-leaved dogwood which borders the 
streams. 

Stem Mother. Morphological characters: Antennae composed of 
either six or five segments with the following measurements : I, 0.064 
mm.; II, 0.064 mm.; Ill, 0.176 mm.; IV, 0.064 mm.; V, (0.08 + 0.032 
mm.), or I, 0.064 mm.; II, 0.064 mm.; Ill, 0.112 mm.; IV, 0.048 mm.; 
V, 0.064 mm.; VI, (0.08 + 0.032 mm.). Segments armed with a few 
stout hairs. Eyes very small; labium short extending about to the 
second pair of coxae ; body elongate oval, with scattered hairs, length, 
1.76 mm. 

Color Characters : General color deep reddish brown, sometimes 
purplish or almost black. Antennae dusky; abdomen with broad trans- 
verse bands of black. 

Spring Migrant. Morphological characters: Antennal segments as 
follows: I, 0.064 mm.; II, 0.064 mm.; Ill, 0.208 to 0.24 mm.; IV, 0.08 
to 0.09 mm.; V, 0.096 to 0.112 mm.; VI, (0.08 to 0.096 + 0.048 mm.). 
Segments III to VI, covered with numerous imbrications composed of 
rows of minute points and armed with long hairs. Segment III, with 
2 to 4 subcircular sensoria varying from fairly large to very minute in 
size. Segments IV and V with usually one sensorium each and seg- 
ment VI, with one large and several small sensoria at the base of the 
unguis. Labium moderately long, reaching to or past the bases of the 
hind coxae. Length from vertex to tip of cauda about 1.7 mm. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 365 

Color Characters : Head and thorax black; eyes deep reddish brown; 
antennae, legs and distal extremity of rostrum black or dusky ; abdo- 
men greenish orange or brownish green, with the cauda, anal and 
genital plates and a row of patches on either side of the abdomen 
dusky to black. No large black spot is present in the middle of the 
abdomen. 

Summer Apterous: Morphological characters: Antenna! segments 
as follows: I, 0.08 mm.; II, 0.08 mm.; Ill, 0.128 mm.; IV, 0.064 mm.; 
V, 0.08 mm.; VI (0.096 + 0.048 mm.). Segments with no sensoria ex- 
cepting the usual ones, but with very many prominent hairs thickly 
covering all the segments. Labium extending about to the hind coxae; 
length from vertex to tip of cauda about 1.6 mm. Entire body covered 
with rather long somewhat curved hairs. Some specimens are consid- 
erably larger than the specimens measured. 

Color Characters : General color milky or pale yellowish and covered 
with a fine white powder. Abdomen with rows of small blackish mark- 
ings along the sides and several broken dusky bands in the region of the 
cornicles. Antennae dusky. 

Summer Alate : Morphological characters : Antennal segments as 
follows: I, 0.064 mm.; II, 0.064 mm.; Ill, 0.224 mm.; IV, 0.096 mm.; 
V, 0.112 mm.; VI, (0.08 + 0.033 mm.). Segment III, sometimes armed 
with two or three minute circular sensoria very much like the smaller 
sensoria upon the corresponding segment of the spring migrant; other 
sensoria normal. All segments armed with the prominent curved hairs 
similar to those of the apterous form. In some cases there are no 
sensoria present on segment III. Labium extending about to the hind 
coxae. Total length from vertex to cauda about 1.6 mm.; entire body 
covered with prominent curved hairs. 

Color Characters: Head, antennae and thorax black: abdomen whit- 
ish or pale yellowish with blackish transverse bands between the corni- 
cles and with a large quadrate patch on dorsum. Lateral spots of the 
same color are present on the margins of the abdomen. 

Fall Migrant. This form and the sexes have been described by 
Weed (1888). Only the measurements of this form will, therefore, be 
given here. 

Antennal Segments : I, 0.064 mm - ; II, 0.032 mm. ; III, 0.208 mm. ; IV, 
0.112 mm.; V, 0.128 mm.; VI (0.128 + 0.048 mm.). Segment Til is 
armed with 6 to 7 subcircular sensoria; segments IV and V with usu- 
ally 2 each and segment VI, with the usual large one and the small 
accessory ones. This form has the large quadrate patch upon the abdo- 
men similar to that of corni Fab. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

1857. Kficn. C. F. Die Pflanzenlause Aphiden, p. 275. 
1858. FITCH, ASA. Fifth Kept, of State Ent. of New York, p. 804. 



366 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

1862. WALSH, B. D. On the Genera of Aphididae found in the United 

States. In Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. Vol. I, p. 304. 
1878. THOMAS, CYRUS. Nat. Hist, of 111. Bull. 2, p. 15. 
1879. THOMAS, CYRUS. Eighth Rept. of State Ent. of 111., p. 138. 
1887. OESTLUND, O. W. Synopsis of the Aphididae of Minnesota. In 

Geol. & Nat. Hist. Survey of Minn. Bull. 4, p. 28. 
1888. WEED, C. E. Contributions to a Knowledge of the Autumn 

Life History of certain little known Aphididae. In Psyche, 

V, p. 129. 
1889. OSBORN, HERBERT. Identity of Schisoneura panicola Thos. and 

S. corni Fab. In Insect Life, Vol. II, p. 108. 
1895. COWEN. Aphididae in Hemiptera of Colorado. Bull. No. 31, 

Tech. Ser. I, Agr. Exp. Sta. Colo. p. 116. 
1907. MORDWILKO. Beitrage zur Biologic der Pflanzenlause, Aphididae 

Passerini. In Biologisches Centralblatt, XXVII, No. 23, p. 

787. 
1910. DAVIDSON, W. 'M. Further notes on the Aphididae collected in 

the vicinity of Stanford University. In Jour. Econ. Ent. 

Vol. Ill, p. 372. 
1911. WILSON, H. F. Two New Genera and Seven New Species of 

the Family Aphididae. In Can. Ent. Vol. XLIII, p. 63. 
1911. DAVIS, J. J. The Woolly Aphis of Oak. In Ent. News Vol. 

XXII, p. 241. 
1914. GILLETTE, C. P. Two Colorado Plant Lice (Hemip.-Homop.). 

In Ent. News, Vol. XXV, pp. 269-275. 
1916. PATCH, EDITH M. Concerning Problems in Aphid Ecology. In 

Journ. Econ. Ent. Vol. IX, p. 45. 



Anoplura from Sea-Lions of the Pacific Ocean. 

By G. F. FERRIS, Stanford University, California. 
The Anopluran parasites of the seals and their allies consti- 
tute a small family, the Echinophthiriidae, containing less 
than ten species, all of which are adapted by a thick coating 
of spines, or spines and scales, to the aquatic life of their hosts. 
Opportunities for the examination of these marine mammals 
are not common and consequently new records are of much 
interest. The present paper records one Anopluran species 
previously described and another that appears to be new, both 
taken from sea-lions of the Pacific coast. 

Echinophthirius fluctus n. sp. 
Two mature males, a mature female and many immature 



Vol. xxvii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 



367 



specimens taken from a stuffed skin of a sea-lion pup in the 
collection of the Department of Zoology of Stanford Univer- 
sity. The skin bears no data, but the host is almost certainly 
the Stellar sea-lion, Eumctoplas jnbata, the range of which 
extends from California to Alaska. 




Fig. 1. Echinophthiriits fluctus n. sp. 
Fig. 2. Echinophthirius fliictus n. sp. 
Fig. %. Echinophthirius fluctus n. sp. 
Fig. 4. Echinophthirius fluctus, \\. sp. 



female. 

genitalia of male. 

1st (?) stage of larva. 

occluding apparatus of spiracle. 



368 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Through the kindness of Mr. James Waterston, of the Im- 
perial Bureau of Entomology of Great Britain, it has been 
possible to compare the new species with specimens of Echi- 
nophthirius horridus (Olfers) (= E. phocae Lucas) taken 
from Phoca vitulina, a common seal of the Atlantic. The 
new species is very distinct, differing not only in its notably 
smaller size but in many structural characters as well. The 
extremely long spines on the temples, the slenderness of all 
the spines as contrasted with the short, blunt spines of . hor- 
ridus and the extremely small, sharp claws of the anterior legs 
serve to distinguish the new species immediately. It is in 
fact so different that it will probably eventually be placed in 
another genus. 

Types, a mature male and a mature female, in the Stanford 
University collection. A paratype, a mature male, in the pos- 
session of Mr. James Waterston of the Imperial Bureau of 
Entomology of Great Britain. 

9. Length (cleared specimen), 2.4 mm. Body weakly chitinized 
throughout. 

Head slightly more than half as wide as long, the anterior margin 
quite convex, the temples very prominent and sharp, the temporal mar- 
gins converging rapidly to form the prolonged occiput. Antennae 
four-segmented, entirely destitute of spines except for very small 
spines at the distal end of each segment. The chaetotaxy of the head 
is entirely too complicated to describe in detail and only the more 
prominent details can be noted. Each temporal margin bears a pair 
of long stout spines which extend back to the middle of the thorax. 
The remaining spines are small and slender except for a transverse 
row, both dorsally and ventrally, near the posterior margin, which are 
much larger and stouter. 

Thorax slightly longer than the head and but little wider, the lateral 
margins straight and nearly parallel. Along each lateral margin is a 
narrow chitinized area, which enlarges at the anterior lateral angles. 
From this enlargement a narrow bar extends diagonally a short dis- 
tance toward the meson. A narrow, backwardly bent, transverse bar 
marks the dividing line between the meso- and metathorax. Meso- 
thorax beset with numerous small, slender spines and with two or three 
conspicuously larger spines at each posterior lateral angle. Meta- 
thorax with a cluster of three or four small spines and two or three 
larger ones at each posterior lateral angle. Ventrally the thorax is be- 
set with numerous small spines. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 369 

Anterior legs very small and with small, slender claw. Middle and 
posterior legs very large and stout, with large, heavy claw. 

Abdomen elongated oval, widest near the middle, very weakly chi- 
tinized and thickly beset with slender spines, which are so arranged that 
a narrow, bare area is left on each side, about half way between the 
meson and the lateral margin. All the spines very slender and irregu- 
larly arranged except for a more or less regular, transverse row near 
the posterior margin of each of the first three segments which are con- 
spicuously larger and stouter than the others. Chaetotaxy of the ven- 
tral side very similar. Gonopods practically obsolete, their positions 
marked by tufts of spines, and behind each gonopod is a thick cluster 
of spines. 

$. Length (cleared specimen), 2.2 mm. Very similar to the female, 
except for a noticeable reduction of the number of spines. Genitalia 
quite conspicuous, the basal plate short and rather broad, the para- 
meres about half as long as the basal plate, rather weakly chitinized, 
slightly expanded posteriorly. There are no chitinous supporting 
structures as in E. horridus. 

Immature stages. There are apparently three immature stages, dif- 
fering from each other only in the increasing number of spines on the 
abdomen in each successive stage, but all differing very markedly from 
the mature form. In several instances the developing structures of 
one stage are visible within the body of the preceding stage and the 
sequence can thus readily be made out. Aside from the reduced num- 
ber of spines all these stages differ from the adult in the extremely 
heavy chitinization of the skeletal elements of the head and thorax, 
the presence of numerous short, heavy, almost wart-like spines on head 
and thorax, the prolongation of the forehead and the small, weak 
claws. Figure 3, which is of the youngest stage found, obviates the 
necessity of an extended description. 

T radical system. There are present seven pairs of spiracles, one 
pair on the mesothorax and six pairs on the abdomen. The segmenta- 
tion of the abdomen is so faintly indicated that it is impossible to de- 
termine upon which segments the spiracles are borne (apparently they 
are on the third to eighth) and also, owing to the conditions under 
which the specimens were preserved it is difficult to speak with cer- 
tainty of the distribution of the tracheal trunks. The occluding appara- 
tus of the spiracles, however, presents some points of considerable in- 
terest. 

All the spiracles, including the mesothoracic pair, are very small, so 
very small indeed that it is difficult to distinguish the openings. All 
are closed by the same type of apparatus. This consists of three chi- 
tinized pieces, a very small triangular piece that seems to border one 
side of the spiracle and that lies between the curved tips of two elon- 



370 ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

gated pieces. Apparently by some combination of muscles these long 
pieces can be brought to bear upon the small triangular piece, thus 
closing the spiracle. The arrangement of the parts is indicated in Fig. 4. 

Antarctophthirius microchir (Troues. & Neum.). 

A number of specimens, males, females and immature, from 
the California sea-lion, Zalophus calif orni anus, obtained 
through the kindness of Mr. P. J. Fair, of the California 
Academy of Sciences. The species has previously been re- 
corded from Phocarctos hookeri, another member of the Ota- 
riidae (Auckland Island). The description and beautiful fig- 
ure given by Enclerlein in the report of the Deutsche Siidpolar 
Expedition (Vol. 10, pp. 511-512, ff. 176, 177, 183, 184) per- 
mit a definite determination of the species to be made. The 
California specimens differ hardly at all from those from the 

Antarctic. 

> 

Butterflies as Food for Squirrels. (Lep.). 

The latter part of May, 1916, was noticeable in the vicinity of Los 
Angeles, California, for the great numbers of Melitaea chalcedon. 
On the 27th I was resting by the roadside among the willows at the 
upper end of Griffith Park. Great numbers of chalcedon were flitting 
up and down the road and settling on certain moist, sandy spots. 
Suddenly a gray ground squirrel ran out on one of these spots and 
apparently caught a butterfly, then sat up on its hind legs and worked 
over it. I tried several times to get closer, but succeeded only in 
scaring away the squirrel. Each time, however, it returned and went 
through the same performance. Finally I walked up and examined 
the spot, where to my astonishment I found quantities of chalcedon 
wings. To satisfy myself I counted roughly up to a hundred wings 
or enough for twenty-five complete butterflies. The squirrel evi- 
dently took the opportunity to obtain a meal while the butterflies were 
easily caught and gathered plentifully on the moist ground. J. R. 
HASKIN. 

Vincetoxicum japonicum as a Mosquito Catcher (Dip.). 

While it is generally known that some species of female mosquitoes 
feed to a certain extent upon the nectar of flowers, very little has 
been said of the herbaceous perennial, Vincetoxicum japonicum and 
its mosquito-catching ability. It is known commonly as the mos- 
quito plant and its small white flowers which appear in June, secrete 
and trap by means of a sticky nectar, various small flower-visiting 
flies and mosquitoes. During the past season, T have found females 
of Culcx plpicns and Acdes subcctntans firmly held fast by the flow- 
ers. It would appear from this that females of these two species oc- 
casionally feed on nectar. In addition to flies and mosquitoes dif- 
ferent species of Ccomctridac were noted, swinging helplessly, each 
with the tip of its proboscis fastened in (he flower. I'.ees have no 
trouble in securing the nectar and getting safely away with it as they 
are evidently too able-bodied to be held fast. HARRY B. WEISS, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., OCTOBER, 1916. 

A New Department in the News. 

We all wish to improve our methods of doing things, so 
that we may obtain results previously out of our reach, or that 
we may save time for more important things. We ourselves 
do not always contrive such improvements, and although some- 
one else often devises the very thing we need, we remain un- 
aware of his success. It has been suggested that mutual help 
may come by the institution of a department of "Questions 
and Answers" in the NEWS, whereby we shall aid each other 
in our problems. We shall therefore make a beginning with 
a question which has been submitted to us and we invite those 
interested to send in replies which, if brief, we shall be glad 
to print in the earliest possible issue of the NEWS. Other 
questions are also welcomed, although the Editors must, of 
course, reserve the right not to publish questions or answers 
which seem to them objectionable or inappropriate. Those 
sending in either questions or answers will please indicate 
whether they wish their names, or merely one or more initials, 
to appear in connection with their contributions, but all such 
must be accompanied by the full name and address of the 
writer for the information of the Editors. 



I wish to ask the opinion of entomologists as to the practical use to 
them of a transparent mount which I have devised that will emibk- 
both sides of an insect's wings to be examined, that can be handled 
with perfect freedom without breakage and that can be filed like a card 
index in standard cabinets, giving a reference collection right at the 
desk and doing away with the danger of breakage incident to using 
specimens from the main collection. C. 



New State Officials. 

Professor J. G. Sanders has recently resigned as State Entomologist 
of Wisconsin to become Economic Zoologist of Pennsylvania. Mis 
work at Harrisburg began September 16, 1916. 

Dr. S. B. Fracker has been appointed Acting State Entomologist of 
Wisconsin by the Commissioner of Agriculture, and will have charge 
of the work of the State Entomologist's office until a successor to 
Professor Sanders is appointed. 

371 



372 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 



Notes and. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL GLEANINGS FROM ALL QUARTERS 
OF THE GLOBE. 

Location of Pupae of Megathymus cofaqui (Lep.). 

While collecting pupae and larvae of Megathymus yuccae I observed 
in one clump of Yucca aloefolia where I was collecting, several pouch- 
es of what I thought were Meg. yuccae but I noticed they were nearly 
all a light colored yellow instead of black, as is common, and were lo- 
cated on the sides and prostrate stems of the plant some were even 
on partially rotten stalks instead of in the top of the leafy cap as is 
usual with yuccae. My first impression was that they were the pouches 
of new larvae and was very much surprised to find on examining them 
that the majority contained pupae. The pupae were much smaller and 
slightly different in appearance from yuccae. I took home a few of 
these pupae and some of the larvae. The larvae I kept in their sec- 
tions of the food plant with the ends put in an inch or so of water, 
which I changed twice a week. When the pupae emerged I noticed 
immediately that they were different from yuccae, although the latter 
varies considerably, and after several examinations Mr. Jacob Doll 
pronounced them to be M. cofaqui. So far I have succeeded in ob- 
taining four males and four females and I have one or two pupae and 
two larvae yet to hear from. The females vary quite a little but the 
males not so much. Mr. R. E. Ludwig, of this place, has also obtained 
one male cofaqui from a number of pupae that he supposed were 
yuccae. He states that he did not notice any difference in the pouch 
or position on the stem so it may be that my observations relate to 
some purely local condition. These pupae and larvae were obtained in 
the early part of March and I still have two that are in the larval state 
although the others have pupated and images emerged from the pupae. 

J. G. BONNIWELL, St. Petersburg, Florida. 



EDntomological Literature. 

COMPILED BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., AND J. A. G. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. . Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico are given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied TCn- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 5 Psyche. 8 The Entomol- 
ogist's Monthly Magazine, London. 9 The Entomologist. Lon- 
don. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 16 
Bulletin, Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de France, Paris. 18 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 3/3 

Ottawa Naturalist. 36 Transactions, Entomological Society of 
London. 37 Le Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 46 Tijdschrift 
voor Entomologie. 50 Proceedings, U. S. National Museum. 56 
Alittheilungen, Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft, 
Schaffhausen. 68 Science, New York. 79 La Nature, Paris. 86 
Annales, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 87 Bulletin, 
Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 128 Proceedings, Lin- 
nean Society of New South Wales, Sidney. 131 Proceedings, 
South London Entomological and Natural History Society. 143 
Ohio Journal of Science, Columbus, Ohio. 153 Bulletin, American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. 179 Journal of Econo- 
mic Entomology. 180 Annals, Entomological Society of Amer- 
ica. 184 Journal of Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 189 
Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Claremont, Calif. 198 
Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 
Mass. 200 Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique, 
Paris. 229 Trabajos, Laboratorio de Investigaciones Biologicas 
de la Universidad de Madrid. 240 Maine Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Orono. 278 Annales, Societe Zoologique Suisse et du 
Museum d'Histoire de Geneve, Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 290 
Biological Series, Michigan Geological and Biological Survey, Lan- 
sing. 322 Journal of Morphology, Philadelphia. 324 Journal of 
Animal Behavior, Cambridge. 350 Bulletin from the Laboratory 
of Natural History of the State University of Iowa, Iowa City. 
389 Archives du Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. 394 Para- 
sitology, Cambridge, England. 407 Journal of Genetics, Cam- 
bridge, England. 411 bulletin, The Brooklyn Entomological So- 
ciety. 420 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus: A monthly journal of 
entomology, Washington. 447 Journal of Agricultural Research, 
Washington. 480 The Annals of Applied Biology. 509 Revue 
Generale des Sciences pures et Appliquees, Paris. 519 The Scien- 
tific Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 524 Technical Bulletins, Entomology, 
University of California, Berkeley. 529 Journal of Zoological Re- 
search, London. 531 Boletin, Direccion de Estudios Biologicos, 
Mexico. 532 Proceedings, National Academy of Sciences of the 
United States of America, Washington. 533 Memoirs, American 
Entomological Society. 534 Proceedings, California Academy of 
Sciences, San Francisco. 535 Annual Report, State Entomologist 
of Indiana. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Cajal & Sanchez Contribucion al co- 
nocimiento de los centres nerviosos de los insectos, 229, xiii, 1-168. 
Caudell, A. N. Nomenclatorial consistency, 68, xliii, 852-3. Cou- 
pin, H. Les insectes qui fabriquent du papier, 79, 1916, 5<-<;i. 



374 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Dixey, F. A. Seasonal dimorphism, 131, 1915, 1-14. Dow, R. P. 
Plaster-casting insect burrows, 5, 1910, 69-74. The testimony of the 
tombs, 411, xi, 25-38. Felt, E. P. American insect galls. 18, xxx, 
37-39. Herrera, M. La inteligencia y el instinto de los insectos, 

531, i, 389-98. Janet, C. Constitution metamerique de 1'insecte, 
56, xii, 354-67. Lameere, A. La metabolic des insectes, 509, xxvii, 
370-76. Meade-Waldo, G Obituary notice, 4, 1916, 196. Moore, 
W. How gases enter insects, 180, ix, 224-6. Pergande, T. Obitu- 
ary notice, 4, 1916, 213-4. Shannon, H. J. Insect migrations as 
related to those of birds, 519, iii, 227-40. Slosson, A. T. Entomol- 
ogy and literature, 411, xi, 49-52. Swynnerton, C. F. M. Experi- 
ments on some carnivorous insects, especially the driver ant Dory- 
lus, and with butterflies' eggs as prey, 36, 1915, 317-50. Wells, 
B. W. The comparative morphology of the Zoocecidia of Celtis 
occidentalis, 143, xvi, 249-98. Williams, J. B. Obituary notice, 
4, 1916, 248. Woglum, R. S. A handy field and laboratory binocu- 
lar magnifier, 179, ix, 370-1. 

PHYSIOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY. Hegner & Russell- 
Differential mitoses in the germ-cell cycle of Dineutes nigrior, 

532, ii, 356-60. Metz, C. W. The paired association of chromo- 
somes in the diptera, and its significance, 184, xxi, 213-280. Rob- 
ertson, W. R. B. Chromosome studies, 322, xxvii, 179-333. Throw, 
A. H. A criticism of the hypothesis of linkage and crossing over, 
407, v, 281-97. 

MEDICAL. Herms, W. B. Medical and veterinary entomol- 
ogy, 393 pp. (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915). Jennings, 
A. H. Mosquitoes and man, 68, xliv, 201-3. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Baylis, H. A. The types of the species of 
Ascaris described by Baird, 394, viii, 411-19. Hilton, W. A. The 

central nervous system and simple reactions of a rare whip scor- 
pion, 189, viii, 74-9. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Evans, A. T. Dragonflies of the Doug- 
las lake region, Michigan, 290, Pub. 20, 39-60. Hood, J. D. Oeda- 
leothrips hookeri, a new genus and sp. of Thysanoptera, 411, xi, 
64-5. Ris, F. Ueber ontogenese der flugeladerung bei den Libel- 
len, 56, xii, 328-32. Tillyard, R. J. On the development of the 
wing-venation in Zygopterous dragonflies, with special reference 
to the Calopterygidae; On the physiology of the rectal gills in 
the larvae of anisopterid dragonflies, 128, xl, 212-30; 422-37. Walker, 
E. M. The nymphs of Enallagma cyathigerum and E. calverti, 4, 
1916, 192-6. Wildermuth, V. L. California green lacewing fly, 
447, vi, 515-25. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 375 

Folsom, J. W. North American collembolous insects of the 
subfamilies Achorutinae, Neanurinae and Podurinae [many new], 
50, 1, 477-525. Hood, J. D. A synopsis of the genus Oxythrips 
[1 new], 420, iv, 37-44. 

ORTHOPTERA. Bordage, E. Phenomenes histologiques de 
la regeneration des appendices autotomises chez les orthopteres 
pentameres, 200, xlix, 199-35. Bugnion, E. Les pieces buccales de 
la Blatte (Blatta americana et australasiae), 56, xii, 383-400. Burr, 
M. The opisthomeres and the gonapophyses in the Dermaptera, 
36, 1915, 257-73. Carl, J. Acridides nouveaux ou peu connus du 
Museum de Geneve, 278, xxiv, 461-518. Crampton, G. C. A com- 
parative study of the maxillae of the Acridiidae, Phasmidae and 
Phylliidae, 5, 1916, 83-7. Foucher, G. Etudes biologiques sur quel- 
ques orthopteres, 16, 1916, 263-73 (cont.). Turner, C. L. Breed- 
ing habits of O., 180, ix, 117-135. 

HEMIPTERA. Cogan, E. S. Morphological studies of the 
superfamily Jassoidea, 143, xvi, 299-325. Dietz & Morrison The 
coccidae or scale insects of Indiana, 535, viii, 191-321. Ewing, 
H. E. Eighty-seven generations in parthenogenetic pure line of 
Aphis avenae, 198, xxxi, 53-112. Ferris, G. F. A catalogue and 
host list of Anoplura, 534, vi, 129-213. Horsfall, J. L. Additions 
to the Jassoidea of Missouri, 143, xvi, 354-5. Lees, A. H. Some 
observations on the egg of Psylla mali, 480, ii, 251-7. Maulik, S. 
The respiratory system of Nepa cinerea, 529, 1, 41-58. Osborn, H. 
Studies of life histories of leafhoppers of Maine, 240, Bui. No. 
248, 53-80. 

Drake, C. J. A new tingid from Tennessee, 143, xvi, 326-8. 
Quaintance & Baker -Aleyrodidae, or white flies attacking the 
orange, with description of three new sps. of economic importance, 
447, vi, 459-72. Van Duzee, E. P. Monograph of the No. Am. sps. 
of Orthotylus [many new], 534, vi, 87-128. de la Torre Bueno, J. R. 
A new tingid from New York state; The Veliinae of the Atlantic 
states [4 new], 411, xi, 39-40; 52-61. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dognin, P. Heteroceres nouveaux de 1'Ame- 
rique du Sud, Fasc. 1X-X. Essig, E. O. A coccid-feeding moth 
(Holococera iceryaeella). 179, ix, 369-70. Hampson, G. F. Descrip- 
tions of new Pyralidae of the subfamilies Epiposchianae, Chrysau- 
ginae. Kndotrichinae and Pyralinae, 11, xviii, 1M6-160 (cont.). 
Holloway, T. E. Larval characters and distribution of two sps. of 
Diatraea, 447, vi, 621-26. Johnson, C. W. Parasites of Archips 
cerasivorana, 5, 1916, 81. Joicey, J. J. New South-American Arc- 
tiaclae, 11, xviii, 5:5-02. Meijere, J. C. H. (See under Diptera). 



376 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Mosher, E. The classification of the pupae of the Saturniidae, 180, 
ix, 136-58. Pearsall, R. F. Operophtera (Rachela) bruceata, 411, 
xi, 68-9. Tower, D. G. Comparative study of the amount of food 
eaten by parasitized and nonparasitized larvae of Cirphis unipuncta, 
477, vi, 455-58. Welch, P. S. Contribution to the biology of cer- 
tain aquatic L., 180, ix, 159-90. Whittle, F. G. L. collected on a 
trip around the world, 9, 1916, 135-9 (cont.). Woodlock, J. M. 
Some experiments in heredity with Abraxas grossulariata and two 
of its varieties, 407, v, 183-7. 

Barnes & McDunnough Some new cases and sps. of No. Am. 
L. [8 new], 4, 1916, 221-26. Grinnell, F., Jr. An unnamed butterfly 
from San Francisco, 189, viii, 83-5. Swett, L. W. Geometrid notes. 
New sps. and. aberrations [3 new], 4, 1916, 249-52. 

DIPTERA. Cory, E. N. Notes on Pegomyia hyoscyami, 179, 
ix, 372-5. Dyar & Knab Eggs and oviposition in certain species 
of Mansonia, 420, iv, 61-8. Evans, A. T. Some observations on 
the breeding habits of the common house fly (M. domestica), 179, 
ix, 354-62. Graham-Smith, G. S. Observations on the habits and 
parasites of -common flies, 394, viii, 440-544. Knab, F. Dispersal 
of some Ortalidae, 411, xi, 40-46. The earliest name of the yellow 
fever mosquito, 420, iv, 59-60. Malloch, J. R. A comparison of the 
pupae of Promachus vertebratus and P. fitchi, 411, xi, 66-8. Meijere, 
J. C. H. Zur zeichnung des insekten-, im besonderen des dipteren- 
und lepidopteren-flugels, 46, lix, 55-147. Parker, R. R. Dispersion 
of Musca domestica under city conditions in Montana, 179, ix, 325- 
54. Townsend, C. H. T. Muscoid flies from the southern U. S., 
420, iv, 51-59. 

Banks, N. Synopsis of Zodion and Myopa with notes on other 
Conopidae [13 new], 180, ix, 191-200. Cole, F. R. New sps. of 
Asilidae from So. California [6 new], 5, 1916, 63-9. Dyar, H. G. 
Mosquitoes at San Diego, Calif. [1 new], 420, iv, 46-51. Johnson, 
C. W. Some New England Syrphidae [3 new], 5, 1916, 75-80. 
Shannon, R. C. Two new N. Am. D., 420, iv, 69-72. Van Duzee, 
M. C. Table of males of the N. Am. species of the genus Asyn- 
detus with descriptions of six n. sps., 5, 1916, 88-94. 

COLEOPTERA. Beaulue, J. I. Les coleopteres du Canada, 
37, xliii, 10-16 (cont.). Bernhauer & Schubert Coleopterorum 
catalogus, Pars 67, Staphylinidae V, pp. 409-498. Champion, G. C. 
-Notes on Melandryidae, 8, 1916, 144-157. Clausen, C. P. Life 
history and feeding records of a series of California Coccinellidae, 
524, 1, 251-99. Harris, J. A. The habits in oviposition of the beetle 
Bruchus, 324, vi, 325-6. Mclndoo, N. E. The reflex "bleeding" 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 377 

of the coccinellid beetle, Epilachna borealis, 180, ix, 201-23. d'Or- 
chymont, A. Notes pour la classification et la phylogenie des Pal- 
picornia, 86, Ixxxv, 91-106. Observations sur le mode de respiration 
de quelques Palpicornia aquatiques, 87, 1916, 139-41. Runner, G. A. 
Effect of rontgen rays on the tobacco, or cigarette beetles...., 
447, vi, 383-88. Schaeffer, C. New sps. of Throscidae [3 new], 411, 
xi, 62-3. 

Angell, J. W. Two new lucanids from No. America, 411, xi, 70. 
Fall, H. C. New N. Am. species of Notoxus [7 new], 411, xi, 
33-38. Swaine, J. M. New sps. of the family Ipidae [7 new], 4, 
1916, 181-92. Wickham, H. F. New fossil C. from the Florissant 
beds [many new], 350, vii, No. 3, 20 pp. 

HYMENOPTERA. Cornetz, V. Sur 1'orientation chez des 
fourmis, 278, xxiv, 519-2-0. da Costa Lima, A. Consideracoes sobre 
a campanha contra a formiga sauva (Atta sexdens); Sobre alguns 
Chalcidideos parasitas de sementes de Myrtaceas, 389, xix, 179- 
192; 193-203. Cresson, E. T. The Cresson types of Hymenoptera, 
533, No. 1, 141 pp. Prison, T. H. Note on the habits of Psithyrus 
variabilis, 411, xi, 46-7. Holland, E. B. Detection of arsenic in 
bees, 179, ix, 364-6. Lutz, F. E. The geographical distribution of 
Bombidae, with notes on certain sps. of Boreal America, 153, xxxv, 
501-21. Meade-Waldo, G. Notes on the Apidae in the collection 
of the British Museum, with descriptions of n. sps., 11, xvii, 448-70. 

Andrews, H. A new ant of the genus Messor from Colorado, 5, 
1916, 81-3. Cockerell, T. D. A. Some Rocky Mts. andrenid bees 
[2 new], 4, 1916, 252-4. Descriptions and records of bees [1 new], 
11, xvii, 428-35. New and little known bees from California [27 
new; 1 n. gen.], 189, viii, 43-64. Girault, A. A. Descriptions of and 
observations on some Chalcidoid H. [7 new]; A new gen. of ptero- 
malid chalcidoid H. from N. Am. [2 new], 4, 1916, 242-46; 246-48. 
Timberlake, P. H. Revision of the parasitic H. insects of the 
genus Aphycus, with notice of some related genera [many new], 
50, 1, 561-640. 

ETUDES DE LEPIDOPTEROLOGIE COMPARE'E, by CHARLES OBERTHUR, 
Rennes, France. Volume eleven of this important work has been re- 
cently issued. It is in two parts, the first consisting of text and por- 
traits of Lepidopterists, and the second comprises the colored plates. 
There are 288 pages and twelve portraits. One hundred and seventeen 
pages are devoted to tropical American Rhopalocera of the genera 
Catagramma, Callicorc and Pcrisania, and a number of new species are 
described. Several pages are occupied by historical matters in relation 
to the war of 1870 and then some of the Lepidoptera of Madagascar 



3/8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

are studied. Interesting studies of the genitalia of Acraea are given 
with figures of the organs of generation. Certain species of the Ly- 
caenidae, Satyridae and Hesperidae are studied and figured, and among 
the Heterocera certain species of Agaristidae, Saturnidae, Noctuidae 
and Nyctemeridae. The fifth part of the text is devoted to biological 
observations by M. G. Melou. The volume closes with remarks by M. 
Oberthiir. 

There are fifty-six colored plates with 448 illustrations. These plates 
for accuracy and beauty have never been surpassed and seldom equalled. 
Of these many illustrations, 185 are devoted to the tropical American 
genera Catagramma, Callicore and Perisama. They are now on a 
much firmer basis for study as not much has been added to our knowl- 
edge of these butterflies since the time of Hewitson. The geographi- 
cal individual variation is quite remarkable and is well shown by Mr. 
Oberthiir in the excelsior group, where the undersides of the insects 
are practically alike, and the uppersides show much variation. It is al- 
ways a pleasure to see a volume of the Etudes appear. HENRY SKIN- 
NER. 



Doings of Societies. 

Entomological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia. 

Meeting of December 13, 1915. Seven persons present, Dr. Philip 
P. Calvert presiding. The annual reports were read. Mr. Wm. T. 
Davis was elected a member. The following were elected officers for 
1916; Director, Philip Laurent; Vice Director, R. C. Williams, Jr.; 
Treasurer, E. T. Cresson ; Conservator, Henry Skinner; Secretary, J. 
A. G. Rehn; Recorder, E. T. Cresson, Jr.; Publication Committee, 
E. T. Cresson, E. T. Cresson, Jr., P. P. Calvert. 

Lepidoptera.- Mr. R. C. Williams, Jr., exhibited specimens of the 
chrysalids of Lycaena sonorensis. HENRY SKINNER, Recorder. 



Meeting of January 27, 1916. Eleven persons present. Director 
Philip Laurent presiding. Prof. C. E. McClung and Dr. Witmer Stone 
were elected members. 

Dr. Skinner complained of the pernicious use of the pest-breeding 
cigar boxes by many collectors and students. He also spoke of the 
power of naphthalene in keeping collections free from museum pests, 
and exhibited specimens collected in 1835 by 'Maj. John E. LeConte, 
which are still in good condition. 

Odonata. Dr. Calvert, commenting on an article by Alfred War- 
ren, entitled "A Study of the Food Habits of the Hawaiian Dragon 
flies or Pinau" (Bulletin No. 3, College of Hawaii), called attention 
to the proportion of the various orders of insects devoured. He ex- 



Vol. xxvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 379 

* 

hibited the illustrations charts showing these proportions of which 
the Diptera represented nearly one-half of the total. He also re- 
marked on his own experience along this line. Mr. Baylis said that 
he had caught a dragonfly in the act of devouring a Vespa maculata. 



Meeting of March 23, 1916. Seven persons present, Mr. Morgan 
Hebard presiding. Mr. William S. Huntington was elected a member. 

Hymenoptera Mr. G. M. Greene exhibited a specimen of Atta 
ccphalotcs, collected Aug. 9, 1911, at Chaco, Argentine Republic. Dr. 
J. C. Bradley exhibited some Mutillidae, calling attention to some 
structural characters which he discovered to be very constant and 
much more satisfactory than the color characters. In working out 
these characters he found that there are several distinct forms con- 
tained within the limits of some of the present species as based upon 
the color characters. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn exhibited a box of striking species of 
tropical American Tettigoniidae and Mantidae chiefly from Costa 
Rica. Three of the species shown are undescribed and two of the 
genera have not been recorded from Central America. He made a 
few remarks on the specimens shown. 

Mr. Hebard spoke of the high prices asked by foreign dealers for 
such striking insects, while the more inconspicuous specimens, even 
if they are types, may be purchased at a proportionately much lower 
price. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 



American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of February 24, 1916, at the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, Dr. Henry Skinner, President, in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers present. Dr. Witmer Stone was elected a member. 

Lepidoptera. Dr. Calvert reported the presence of fragments of 
insects on the silk larval cases of a lepidopterous insect in bag worms 
from Costa Rica (see also below). He also reported having seen 
sleeping clusters of Heliconins charitonius there. Dr. Skinner exhibit- 
ed a photograph of some of the types of the American species of the 
genus 1'arnassius. 

Coleoptera. Dr. Skinner exhibited a specimen of Alcgasoma ele- 
phas 9 and also a live $ ; both were brought in alive by an officer of 
the United Fruit Co. ; they were fed on bananas ; attention was called 
to the great strength of this insect as exhibited by the living example. 

Hymenoptera. Prof. Bradley reported that in 1907, in an arid dis- 
trict in California, he found Hymenoptera sleeping in clusters, there 
being five species so found; they attach themselves by their mandibles, 
their bodies and hind legs being extended. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn made a few remarks on asymmetry in the 



380 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

genital plates and appendages of certain roaches. He also called at- 
tention to the great extent to which sexual dimorphism is developed in 
the same group, illustrating this point by specimens. Dimorphism and 
polymorphism within the male sex in several species of roaches was 
also mentioned. 

Meeting of April 27, 1916, Dr. Henry Skinner presided. Twelve 
members present. Mr. William S. Huntington was elected a member. 

Lepidoptera. Dr. Skinner exhibited the imago of the Hesperid, 
Megathymus yuccae, which emerged from the larva in the yucca plant 
secured by Dr. Castle, May 20, at Enterprise, Florida (see Ent. News, 
xxvii, 45). Mr. Laurent recorded his capturing a $ and 9 M. yuccae, 
in March, 1907, at Melbourne, Florida. Dr. Calvert, referring to his 
remarks at the previous meeting on larval cases, reported that he had 
examined more of these, and had found the conditions to be the same 
in all ; he believed, however, that the portions of insects so attached to 
the cases, were not from insects captured alive by the larvae, but were 
more likely fragments of dead insects, found and so attached by it. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn called attention to and read extracts from 
an interesting paper by Mr. E. D. Ball on "Estimating the number of 
Grasshoppers" (Jour. Econ. Ent., viii, No. 6, 1915). He exhibited the 
Academy's series of the gigantic Katydids of the Group Steirodontes, 
including all but two of the known genera, and comprising half of the 
known species of the genera represented. The rarity of certain of the 
species in collections was commented upon, and remarks on the dis- 
tribution of the forms of the marginclla group of the genus Stilpnoch- 
lora illustrated. Mr. Laurent exhibited a grasshopper (Romalea mi- 
croptera) impaled on a twig of pecan tree probably done by a shrike 
or butcher bird (Laniidae) ; this was collected by him at Gulf Ham- 
mock, Levy County, Florida, March 15, 1916. 

Odonata. Dr. Calvert exhibited Gomphus amnicola Walsh, $ 
Marysville, Pennsylvania, July 14, 1912; <? Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
July 9, 1910, by H. B. Kirk. The only previous eastern record is from 
Bethlehem, New York, 1870. Gomphus quadricolor Walsh, one $ 
Heckton Mills, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, June 15, 1909, by H. P. 
Bailey; two more (supposedly local) individuals of the latter species, 
from the Academy's collection, with insufficient labels were also shown, 
leading to remarks by several members on the importance of accurately 
labeling all captures. 

R. C. WILUAMS, JR., Secretary. 



Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of April 9, 1916, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 Stew- 
art Street, Philadelphia. Twelve members were present. President H. 
A. Wenzel in the chair. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 381 

Coleoptera. Mr. Kaeber exhibited a specimen of Ligyrus rugiceps 
LeC., which he collected at light, Philadelphia Neck, July 19, 1915. Mr. 
H. W. Wenzel exhibited two boxes of about a thousand specimens of 
Aleocharinids, which were collected by the Wenzels, Senior and 
Junior, the past summer ; he showed a funnel arrangement containing 
a wire mesh, the funnel fitting in the neck of a cyanide bottle, and 
when fungi are placed in the funnel the staphylinids drop through the 
wires into the bottle. 

Diptera. Mr. Daecke exhibited a specimen of Promachus rufipcs 
Fabr., collected by Morgan Hebard, at Cedar Springs, New Jersey, 
August 26, 1914. This is new to the State. 

Adjourned to the annex. 

Meeting of May 17, 1916, at the same place. Twelve members and 
one visitor present. President H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Diptera. Mr. Hornig stated he had seen the first live local larvse of 
Aedcs canadcnsis Theob. on April 13, and of A. sylvestris Theob. on 
April 21. Mr. Daecke exhibited some leaves from an oak tree near 
Conewago, Pennsylvania, May 13, which with the rest of the leaves on 
this tree had the edges rolled up and browned ; these contain Cecid- 
omyid larvse. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Haimbach said he had seen the first Lachnos- 
tcrna at light on his place, Homebrook, Narberth, Pennsylvania, on 
May i. Mr. Laurent said he had collected many Silpha on a dead hog 
in Levy County, Florida, this spring after the buzzards finished with it 
and was surprised to notice that many of them had a small piece miss- 
ing from the edge of one elytron, and in most cases the right one ; S. 
americana Linn, and inacqualis Fabr. were exhibited showing this. Mr. 
H. W. Wenzel exhibited Pseudocleis picta Rand, and both its varie- 
ties, minor Casey and hudsonica Casey. 

Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Mr. Daecke exhibited three galls 
from Pinus amcricanus, collected at Rockville, Pennsylvania, April 16, 
1916, from which on April 30, 1916, one Podapion gallicola Riley 
emerged with two small Hymenoptera, presumably parasites of same. 

Adjourned to the annex. 

GEO. M. GREENE, Secretary. 



Chicago Entomological Club. 

Meeting of March 19, 1916, at home of Mr. Emil Beer. Seventeen 
members present. 

Lepidopterists had the Sesiidae as a subject and compared speci- 
mens. Local captures reported were: Melittia satyrinifonnis feeding 
in melon vines, Pndoscsia syrinijac feeding in ash and lilac, Mcmythrus 
tricinctus feeding in poplar, Mcmythrns asilipcnnis feeding in oak 



382 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

stumps, Mcmythrus dollii feeding in poplar, Bcmbecia marginata feed- 
ing in raspberry roots, Sesia tipuliformis feeding in currant, Sesia pic- 
tipcs feeding under bark of cherry trees, Sesia albicornis feeding in 
willows, Sesia acerni feeding in maple, Sesia corni and two or three 
others not satisfactorily identified. 

Coleopterists had the Hydrophilidae as a subject and compared 
specimens. A. KWIAT, Secretary. 



OBITUARY. 

GEOFFREY MEADE- WALDO, in charge of the Hymenoptera at 
the British Museum of Natural History since 1909, died very 
suddenly on March n, 1916, of the after-effects of an attack 
of pneumonia. He was born in January, 1884, educated at 
Eton and at Oxford, took part in the cruise of Lord Craw- 
ford's "Valhalla" to the Malay Federated States and Borneo 
in 1907-08 and had published on various groups of Hymen- 
optera in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History and in 
the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 
Obituary notices in The Entomologist for April and The En- 
tomologist's Monihly Magazine for May, 1916, give further 
particulars. 

FREDERICK KNOCK, known for the beauty of his micro- 
scopical preparations and for his studies of those minute Hy- 
menoptera, the Mymaridae, died at Hastings, England, May 
26, 1916. He was born at Birmingham, April 17, 1845. I n 
1887-88 he engaged in a controversy with Prof. C. V. Riley 
respecting the Hessian Fly. According to an obituary notice 
in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for July, 1916, he 
leaves a number of manuscripts and photographs illustrative 
of undescribed Mymaridae. 



DR. KARL KRAEPELIN, Director of the Natural History Mu- 
seum at Hamburg since 1889, who died June 28, 1915, was 
the author of memoirs on the structure, mechanism and de- 
velopment of the sting of bees (1873), the anatomy and phy- 
siology of the proboscis of Mnsca (1883), of the sections on 
Scorpions and on Palpigrades in Das Tierreich and of other 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 383 

entomological contributions. He was born in Xeustrelitz, 
December 14, 1848, and studied at Gottingen and Leipzig. A 
brief notice of his life, chiefly from the geographer's stand- 
point, is given in Petennann's Mitteilungen, Ixi, 315. 



LUCAS FRIEDRICH JULIUS DOMINIKUS VON HEYDEN, who 
died September 13, 1915, at Frankfurt am Main, is the sub- 
ject of an appreciative obituary notice and portrait in the 
Entomologische Blatter (Berlin) for December 30, 1915. Von 
Hey den was born in Frankfurt, May 22, 1838, and spent most 
of his life in that city, although he made entomological ex- 
cursions into Spain, Portugal, Croatia, Slavonia and Bosnia, 
as well as in the neighborhood of his home. His associates 
included Reitter* and Hopffgarten, the coleopterists, Saal- 
miiller (whose work on the Lepidoptera of Madagascar he 
completed), Moritz Schmidt, Oskar Bottger and Albrecht 
Weiss. He devoted himself chiefly to palaearctic insects, ac- 
cumulating a collection of 20,000 species, chiefly Coleoptera. 
By an agreement with the late Dr. Kraatz, his beetles go to 
the German Entomological Museum in Berlin ; his other insects 
he presented to the Senckenberg Naturforschenden Gesell- 
schaft in Frankfurt, which in June, 1911, established the Karl 
and Lucas von Heyden Fund (after father and son), of 50,000 
marks, the income of which is expended for scientific publi- 
cations. Von Heyden was the author of more than 350 papers 
and was very generous in loaning material from his collection 
to various specialists. 

ELIE METCHNIKOFF, who died in Paris, in an apartment of 
the Pasteur Institute, of which he was Sub-director, on July 
15, 1916, was chiefly known in recent years for his researches 
into the causes of old age, into various human diseases and 
into the functions of the white blood corpuscles. But as a 
note in the NEWS for February, 1915 (page 83), pointed out, 
he had, in the third decade of his life, devoted much time to 
investigations on the terrestrial Arthropods. Such were his 

*K(lmuml Rcittcr celebrated his 7<>th birthday on Oct. 22, 1915. 



384 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Oct., 'l6 

Embryologische Studien an Insectcn (1866), Untcrsnchungen 
fiber die Embryologie der Hcmipteren (1866), Embryologie 
des Scorpions (1871), Entwicklungsgcschichte des Chdifcr 
(1871), Embryologie dcr doppeltfilssigen Myriopodcn (Chi- 
'ognatJia) (1874) and Embryologisches iiber Geophilus (1875) ; 
all of these memoirs appeared in the Zeitschrift filr ivissen- 
schaftlichc Zoologic. His Untersuchungcn i'tbcr die intracclln- 
larc Verdauung bci zvirbclloscn Thieren (Arb. Zool. Inst. 
Univ. Wien, 1883) formed a transition to his later studies 
alluded to above. Among his more general writings were 
Immunity from Infective Diseases, The Nature of Man and 
Prolongation of Human Life. He was born -in Kharkov, 
Russia, May 15, 1845, studied at Giessen and Munich, was 
Professor of Zoology and Bacteriology in the University at 
Odessa 1870-1882, and went to the Pasteur Institute in 1888. 



An obituary notice of IGNAZ MATAUSCH (September i, 
1859 December 14, 1915) known for his papers on Mem- 
bracidae and especially for the large models of insects and 
other invertebrates which he constructed for the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York, has appeared in 
the June, 1916, number of the Journal of the New York Ento- 
mological Society (received August 15, 1916). 



In the Journal of Economic Entomology for February last, 
Dr. A. Boving gave an extract from Dr. C. Aurivillius' obitu- 
ary notice, in Entomologisk Tidsskrift, 1915, of SVEN LAM PA 
(1839 December 2, 1914), one of the founders of the Swe- 
dish Entomological Society in 1879, editor of the Tidsskrift, 
1891-1901, and chief of the Swedish entomological service 
1897-1907. Dr. Aurivillius' notice includes a bibliography. 



Miss CORA HUIDEKOPER CLARKE, born in Meadville, Penn- 
sylvania, February 9, 1851, died in Boston, April 2, 1916, was 
the author of several papers on caddis worms and a success- 
ful rearer of gall-flies. A brief account of her life is in Psyche 
for June, 1916. 



The Celebrated Original Dust and Pest-Proof 

METAL CABINETS 



FOR SCHMITT BOXES 



These cabinets have a specially constructed groove or trouch around the front 

" The" c"ve e r rl whe T" d <" V^ 1 ' " adJUStab ' e t0 the '" " <>' the front 
Ihe cover, when m place, is made fast by spring wire locks or clasps causinc a 

S^SS D rf h H linin ! ln th V"- The* cabinet, in addition to hein'uL 
ly dust, moth and dermestes proof, ,g nnpervious to fire, smoke, water and atmos 

c material 7 ' """" ^"^ "* *" 8Uperior tO ? constructed or , 

The interior is made of metal, with upright partition in center On the sides 
are metal supports to hold 28 boxes. The regular size is 42* in. high, 13 in deep! 
' J? lde ' I" 8 , 6 dlm , e " slonS ; . U80 *"y enameled green outside. For details of Dr Skin- 
ner s construction of this cabinet, see Entomological New? Vol XV pajre 177 

METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of t he "SB, et h.vin- a 

TT' ', B ", tt0m " 1Side llned With C rk; tlle outside enameled anv c.^or 
The regular dimensions, outside, are 9 * 13 x 2A in. deep, but can be furnished 



WOOD INSECT BOX -We do not assert that this wooden box has all the ojuali- 
S f h f ti * box espec.ally ,n regard to safety from smoke, fire, water and damp- 
ness, but the .chemically prepared material fastened to the under edge of the lid makes 

t^deTJ f rf S T n ^ any 0tl T W d inSCCt box ' The bottom is >rk 'ined 
ide varnished. For catalogue__and prices inquire of 

BROCK BROS., Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WARD'S 

Natural Science Establishment 

84-102 COLLEGE AVENUE. ROCHESTER. N. Y. 



As successors to the American Entomolo- 
gical Co., of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are 
the sole manufacturers of the genuine 
Schmitt insect boxes and the American 
Entomological Co.'s insect pins. Cata- 
logue No. 30 of Entomological Supplies 
free upon request. 

North American and exotic insects of all 
orders furnished promptly from stock. 
Write for our special lists of Lepidop- 
tera and Coleoptera. 

Our live pupae list is now ready. Let us 
put your name on our mailing list for 
all of our Entomological circulars. 




. 




Ward's Natural Science Establishment 



FOUNDED 1862 



INCORPORATED 189O 



When Writing Please Mention "Entomological Newi.' 



K-S Specialties Entomology 

THE KNY-SCHEERER CORPORATION 

Department of Natural Science 404-4 1 W. 27th St., New York 

North American and Exotic Insects of all orders in perfect condition 
Entomological Supplies Catalogue gratis 



IN.SKCT 1JOXES We have given special attention to the manufacture of insect cases and can 
guarantee our cases to be of the best quality and workmanship obtainable. 





5 Plain Boxes for Duplicates Pasteboard boxes, com- 
pressed turf lined with plain pasteboard covers, cloth 
hinged, for shipping specimens or keeping duplicates. 
These boxes are of heavy pasteboard and more carefully 
made than the ones usually found in the market. 

Size 10x15^ in Each $0.35 

NS/3085 Size 8xio^ in Each .25 

XS/309I Lepidoptera Box (improved museum style), of wood, 
cover and bottom of strong pasteboard, covered with 
bronze paper, gilt trimming, inside covered with white 
glazed paper. Best quality. Each box in extra carton. 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed turf- (peat). 

Per dozen 5.00 

Size 10x12 in., lined with compressed cork. 

Per dozen 6.00 

Caution : Cheap imitations are sold. See our name and address 
in corner of cover. 

i For exhibition purposes) , 

NS/3I2I K.-S. Exhibition Cases, wooden boxes, glass cover 
fitting very tightly, compressed cork or peat lined, cov- 
ered inside with white glazed paper. Class A. Stained 
imitation oak, cherry or walnut. 

Size 8xirx2% in. (or to order, 8%xio%xa54 in.) $0.70 

Size 12x16x2% in. (or to order, 12x15x2% in.) 1 .20 

Size i4X22X2>| in. (or to order, 14x22x2% in.) 2.00 

Special prices if ordered in larger quantities. 
NS/312I 

THE KNY-SCHEERER CORPORATION 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCE. 
G. LAGAI, Ph.D., 404 W. 27th Street, New York, N. Y. 





PARIS EXPOSITION: PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION 

Eight Awards and Medals Gold Medal 



ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION : Grand Prize and Gold Medal 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS 

North American and exotic insects of all orders in perfect condition. 

Single specimens and collections illustrating mimicry, protective coloration, 

dimorphism, collections of representatives of the different orders of insects, etc. 

Series of specimens illustrating insect life, color variation, etc. 

Metamorphoses of insects. 

We manufacture all kinds of insect boxes and cases (Schmitt insect boxes, 
Lepidoptera boxes, etc.), cabinets, nets, insects pins, forceps, etc.. 

Riker specimen mounts at reduced prices. 
Catalogues and special circulars free on application. 

Rare insects bought and sold. 

FOR SALE Papilio columbus (gundlachianus), the brightest colored American Papilio, very 
lare. perfect specimens $1.60 each ; second quality $1.00 each. 

When Writing Please Mention "Entomological Newi." 

P. C. Stoekhausen. Printer, 53-55 N. 7th Street, Philadelphia. 



NOVEMBER, 1916. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XXVII, 



No. 9. 

J>a </> 







John Lawrence Le Conte, 
J825-J883. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



KXRA T. CRESSON. 
PfJH.IP LAURENT, 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 



ERICH DAECKS. 



J. A. G. REHN. 
H. W. WBNZSL. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, 
LOGAN SQUARE. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

pnblished monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 

and the American Entomological Society. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $2.OO IN ADVANCE. 
NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS $1,90 IN ADVANCE. SINGLE COPIES 25 CENTS 

Advertising Rates: Per inch, full width of page, single insertion, $1.00 ; a dis- 
count of ten per cent, on insertions of five months or over. No advertise- 
ment taken for less than $r.oo Cash in advance. 



All remittances, and communications regarding subscriptions, non-receipt 
of the NEWS or of reprints, and requests for sample copies, should be 
addressed to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa, 
All Checks and Money Orders to be made payable to the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS. 

iST'Address all other communications to the editor, Dr. P. P. Calvert, 4515 
Regent Street, Philadelphia, Pa., from .September isth to June isth, or at 
the Academy of Natural Sciences from June isth to September 



complaints regarding non-receipt of issues of the NEWS should be pre- 
sented to the Associate Editor within three months from date of mailing 
of the issue. After that time the numbers will be furnished only at the 
regular rate for single copies. 



The Conductors of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS solicit and will thankfully 
receive items of news from any source likely to interest its readers. The 
author's name will be givert in each case, for the information of cataloguers 
and bibliographers. 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. All contributions will be considered and passed 
upon at our earliest convenience, and, as far as may be, will be published 
according to date of reception. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS has reached a 
circulation, both in numbers and circumference, as to make it necessary to put 
"copy" for each number into the hands of the printer four weeks before date 
of issue. This should be remembered in sending special or important matter 
for a certain issue. Twenty-five "extras," without change in form and without 
covers, will be given free, when they are wanted ; if more than twenty-five 
copies are desired, this should be stated on the MS. The receipt of all papers 
will be acknowledged. Proof will be sent to authors for correction only when 
specially requested. 

t^~ The printer of the NEWS will furnish reprints of articles over and above the twenty-five 

given free at the following rates : Each printed page or fraction thereof, twenty-five copies, /} 
15 cents; each half tone plate, twenty-five copies, 20 cents; each plate of line cuts, twenty- 
five copies, 15 cents; greater numbers of copies will be at the corresponding multiples of i 
these rates. 

PIN-LABELS ALL ALIKE ON A STRIP, 3-POINT TYPE 

Pure white Ledger Paper, 30 characters or less. 25c. per 1000. Additional characters 1c each 
000. No charge for blank lines. Trimmed one cut makes a label. All kinds of Printing. 
C. V. BLACKBURN. 12 PINE STKEET, STONEHAM, SJASS., U. S. A. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XX. 




METRIOCNEMUS EDWARDSI-JONES. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AND 



NOV 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. XXVII. 



NOVEMBER, 1916. 



No. 9. 






CONTENTS: 



Jones Two Insect Associates of the 
California Pitcher-plant, Darling- 
tonia californica ( Dipt.) 385 

Change of Address 392 

McDunnough On the Types of Certain 
Noctuid Genera occurring in North 
America ( Lepid. ) 393 

Girault Descriptipnes Hymenoptero- 
rum Chalcidoidicorum Variorum 
cum Observationibus. II 401 

Van Dyke New Species of Bupresti- 
dae (Col.) from the Pacific States. 405 

Felt New N. A.Gail Midges (Dipt.).. 412 

Cockerel! A new Cratomus (Hym.).. 417 

Beamer An easy Method of making 
Insect Labels 418 

Weiss Tenthecoris bicolor Scott, in 
New Jersey Greenhouses (Hemip. ) 419 

Rich Notes on Zonocerus elegans 
Burm. (Orthop. ) 420 

Andrews Ants Caught on a Trip to 
California (Hym.) 421 



Mengel New Lepidoptera from South 
America 423 

Weiss Coleophora laricella Hlibn. in 
New Jersey ( Lep. ) 424 

Heink The House Cricket a Pest in 
St. Louis ( Orth. ) 424 

Editorial How Knowledge of Insects 
Grows 425 

Questions and Answers 425 

Weiss Argyresthia thuiella Pack, in 
New Jersey ( Lep. ) 426 

Weiss Agrilus viridis L. in New Jer- 
sey ( Col. ) 426 

Entomological Literature 427 

Doings of Societies Amer. Ent. Soc. 

(Economic Entomology) 430 

Ent. Sec., Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 

(Lepid., Orth., Dip.,) 430 

Feldman Collecting Social (Coleop., 
Lep., Hymen, and Strepsiptera). .. 431 

Obituary Albert John Cook 432 



Two Insect Associates of the California Pitcher- 
plant, Darlingtonia californica (Dipt.) 

By FRANK MORTON JONES, Wilmington, Delaware. 

(Plates XX, XXI.) 
Metriocnemus edwardsi nov. sp. (Diptera: Chironomidae.) (Plate 

XX.) 

In September, 1875, Mr. Henry Edwards communicated to 
the California Academy of Sciences the results of his observa- 
tions on the insect associates of the California Pitcher-plant, 
Darlingtonia californica. Following thus closely after Melli- 
champ's and Riley's papers on our eastern Sarracenias and 
their insect victims and guests, it is noteworthy that Darling- 
tonia, by its peculiar structure, its insect-catching activity, and 
the number and variety of its victims evidently closely com- 



385 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

parable with the better known Sarracenias, yet seemed to be 
almost destitute of insect associates other than victims of its 
traps. For example, with our eastern Sarraccnia purpurca, 
from Canada to the Gulf, are found E.ryra rolandiana, ITyco- 
111 via sinithii, Metriocnemus knabi, Sarcophaga sarraccniac 
(or related species), Papaipema appassionato,, Olethreutes 
daeckeana, and other less constant associates; in Darlingtonia 
Mr. Edwards found only numerous small spiders (these are 

also abundant in Sarraccnia) and "invariably among 

the mass of decay some living larvae of a small dipterous in- 
sect, probably one of the Tipulidae." 

By the examination of numerous freshly-gathered vigorous 
plants of Darlingtonia furnished me at intervals through the 
summer of 1915 by Mr. A. A. Heller and Mr. G. M. Pendle- 
ton, I secured many living examples of the small dipterous 
larva noticed by Mr. Edwards, and also of another and larger 
species, both of which I succeeded in rearing in some numbers. 
The former proves to be closely related to Metriocnemus knabi 
Coq., the almost invariable associate of Sarracenla pnrpnrca, 
differing but little in the imago, but as might be anticipated 
presenting more evident structural divergence in the larva and 
pupa; for the water-filled leaf of pnrpurea offers to the early 
stages of knabi a habitat almost strictly aquatic, whereas the 
new species, which may be called Metriocnemus edwardsi, 
seems perfectly at home among the insect remains in Darling- 
tonia as long as they are even slightly moist, and its pupal 
stage is passed, not as by knabi enclosed in a watery welt-like 
gelatinous mass on the inner wall of the pitcher, but (in cap- 
tivity) outside the leaf, naked and loosely adherent to the 
moist basal portion of the plant or in the adjacent moss, over 
which it wriggles actively when disturbed. A single egg-mass, 
probably unfertilized, was obtained by confining the flies with 
Darlingtonia leaves and moist moss, but as they were not de- 
tected until after the death of the female which was found 
clinging to the partially-dried egg-mass, it is possible that 
further observation may modify the following description of 
the eggs and their method of (It-position. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 387 

Egg. Approximately circular in cross section, elongated, slightly 
more pointed at one end, clear pale yellow in color, of smooth and 
somewhat polished texture; length .22 mm.; cross diameter .11 mm.; 
deposited in a strongly adherent irregular mass; examined and meas- 
ured at 100 X. 

Lari'a. Slender, almost cylindrical ; smooth, pale, but darker than 
knabi and of a decidedly brownish rather than yellow-white tone; head 
darker, tending toward pale ferruginous ; eye-spots black, prominent, 
sub-oval, not so obviously formed by the fusion of two spots as in 
knabi; antennae inconspicuous, shorter than in knabi: mandibles and 
labium dark brown, the former with five teeth proportioned as in knabi 
(Knab's illustration), the latter with a single pair of small teeth 
medially (not two pairs as in knabi) followed by a series of larger 
ones ; claws of anterior and posterior prolegs yellowish-brown, in form 
as in knabi; dorso-caudal papillae slightly darkened and much lower, 
smaller, and less conspicuous than in knabi, in height about once their 
diameter, and armed with fine black setae which are often appressed 
into apparently one ; some of these setae are frequently broken at var- 
ious lengths or entirely missing, and the normal full number is prob- 
ably six; four retractile anal blood-gills on the twelfth segment; length 
before pupation about 7 mm. 

Pupa. At first pale, soon darkening to dull brown and then to 
almost black with the pigmentation of the enclosed imago ; of the usual 
form, with enlarged thorax but without projecting respiratory tubes or 
filaments ; caudal end broadened, paddle-like, partly cleft, the two 
flattened lobes held in the same plane and rounded, each with three 
fine black setae usually appressed and appearing as a single tapering 
bristle on its exterior edge; the abdominal segments near their dorsal 
posterior edge have a fringe of short stout downward-pointing spines, 
amber-colored tipped with brown. The pupa is naked and quite active, 
travelling over moist surfaces with considerable facility. The duration 
of this stage is very short. 

$. Smoky brown to black; antennae 14-jointed, strongly plum, 
with black hairs, the disc-like basal joint more densely colored 
than the remaining somewhat translucent joints; eyes black; palpi four- 
jointed, the first joint shortened and bulb-like, the remaining three of 
approximately equal length, the first three joints bearing long hairs, 
the last joint with a few very short fine ones. 

Thorax dark, concolorous, and with three lines of hairs springing 
from minute polished black rounded granules, the median line poster- 
iorly abbreviated at less than half the length of the mesonotum, the 
lateral lines broadening and terminating only slightly in advance of the 
scutellum ; a minute double pit medially, in line with the termination of 



388 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

the lateral stripes ; post alar callus somewhat produced and flattened, 
strongly haired ; prealar callus protuberant, roughened, and strongly 
haired ; scutellum narrow, rounded, pale brownish-gray, with a trans- 
verse row of long fine hairs ; post-scutellum deep dull black, faintly 
polished and obscurely pitted ; halteres club-shaped, usually pale, but 
smoky in heavily-pigmented examples ; legs smoky brown with dark 
vestiture, the femora hairy ; vestiture of tibiae shorter, though success- 
ively longer and more hair-like on the second and third pairs ; front 
metatarsi about half the length of their tibiae; all tibiae spurred. 
Wings not very densely clothed with fine short gray-brown hairs, 
stronger on the costal edge ; th-e R-M cross-vein either barely in con- 
tact with the radius without fusion, or in some examples failing to 
reach the radius by its own width ; fork of cubitus slightly distad of 
origin of cross-vein. 

Abdomen unmarked, smoky brown to dull black ; clothed dorsally 
and ventrally with long hairs, black but in some lights with pale brown 
reflections, springing from slightly elevated polished bases ; hypopygium 
with a central needle-like dorsal keel, the point translucent, the broad- 
ened rouqded base hairy; its lateral lobes strongly haired, their slender 
inward-hinged terminal joints somewhat clubshaped and ending with 
a pointed lateral projection on each. Length, dry examples, 3 mm.; in 
balsam, nearly 4 mm. 

9 . Much paler and more yellowish-brown than the male ; the ab- 
domen distended, not so conspicuously hairy ; the wings slightly shorter 
and broader; antennae of six visible joints, the disc-like basal joint 
smaller than in the $ and yellowish-brown; the second joint slightly 
larger than the remaining four, which are of nearly equal length ; all 
but the basal and terminal joints bear a few long sub-erect hairs; hairs 
of terminal joint very fine and short; palpi as in the $ ; eyes black; 
thorax more densely colored than the abdomen ; its hairs pale yellowish- 
brown ; leg-vestiture dark. The large bodied females shrink so in 
drying that measurements of them are deceptive; in balsam they slight- 
ly exceed the $ in length. 

Described and illustrated from many examples of both 
sexes, of which I designate as types, $ and 9 , a pair mounted 
dry and deposited in the U. S. National Museum (Cat. No. 
20317) ; paratypes are with the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, and in my own collection. 

Type locality, Mount Eddy, near Sisson, Siskiyou County, 
California ; occurrence of larvae, pupae and flies, apparently 
throughout the warm months ; hibernation probably as larvae 
of various ages. 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 389 

This insect, which I provisionally describe under Metrioc- 
nemits, eventually may find its place in a related genus ; knabi 
already has been separated by a European student of the group, 
who finds that it has well-developed pulvilli, a character which 
I have been unable to detect in edzvardsi ; slides of the $ geni- 
talia of the two species indicate that in knabi the keel is shorter, 
slighter and more transparent, and the lateral lobes propor- 
tionately shorter and broader. The presence of larvae of 
edwardsi in almost every suitable leaf of Darlingtonia contain- 
ing insect remains indicates that its association with this plant, 
like that of knabi with pnrpnrca, is habitual, and possibly ex- 
clusive. 

In the leaves of Darlingtonia, along with the larvae of Me- 
triocnemus and as far as was observed living in amicable rela- 
tionship with them, was found another dipterous larva sharing 
the same food-supply of captured insects. The larvae of the 
two species, often more or less entwined in their confined 
quarters, are not conspicuously different in size or form though 
separable to the naked eye by their different methods of pro- 
gression ; under low magnification it becomes immediately ap- 
parent that their relationship is remote. Eggs and empty pu- 
paria were also found in abundance in the leaves, and from the 
larvae numerous flies were bred to maturity. These prove to 
belong to the family Chloropidae, and, I am informed, belong 
to one of the three or more species standing in American col- 
lections under the name of Botanobia trigramina Loew ; tri- 
gramnm was described from the District of Columbia, its size 
is given as only about half the average and much less than the 
apparent minimum size of the present species, for which I 
propose the name of 

Botanobia darlingtoniae n. sp. (Diptera: Chloropidae.) (Plate 

XXI.) 

The eggs of this fly are deposited singly on the inner wall 
of the leaf, above the mass of insect remains and often well up 
toward the orifice of the pitcher ; they are not strongly adher- 
ent and are frequently wedged under the fine elastic hairs 
which clothe the leaf-wall. From one to twenty eggs may be 



39 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

found in a leaf, but even when most numerous they do not ap- 
pear to have been laid in groups or clusters, and the maximum 
number is attributable to the visits of more than one female to 
the same leaf. 

Egg. Cigar-shaped, roundedly-pointed at one end, the other with a 
short cylindrical or collar-like cap of less diameter than the body of the 
egg ; obscurely and shallowly wrinkled longitudinally ; white, opaque, 
pearly, faintly polished, under 100 X finely punctate; length .9 mm., and 
greatest diameter .2 mm. 

Larva. Slender, cylindrical, tapering and strongly retractile anterior- 
ly ; white, translucent, smooth, but segmentally with narrow ventral 
fusiform areas marked by short acute granules, coarser beneath and 
fading out laterally ; black cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton with two great 
hooks visible through the translucent anterior segments ; anterior 
spiracle inconspicuous, f ew-lobed, concolorous, not protruded ; the two. 
posterior dorsal stigmata in form of even-armed crosses surmounting 
prominent dome-shaped processes, the inner arm of each cross partially 
obliterated by the circular extremities of the tracheal tubes ; anal lobes 
low, smoothly rounded ; extreme length about 5 mm. The larvae are 
active, moving freely about among the insect remains and climbing up 
the vertical wall of the pitcher in search of food or when ready to 
pupate. 

Puparium. Shorter and stouter than the larva and hardening to a 
dull bronzy-brown color ; flattened ventrally where in contact with the 
leaf ; segmentation not distinct ; first visible segment flattened, trans- 
versely wrinkled, darker in color ; anterior spiracles small, hand-like, 
slightly projecting, black; second segment low-arched, the succeeding 
segments more highly arched until posteriorly they become almost 
cylindrical ; the anterior segments on their lateral edges above have a 
well marked longitudinal angular depression, outside of which the mar- 
gin is produced and rounded ; the terminal dome-shaped processes bear- 
ing the shrunken larval stigmata are prominent but less regularly shap- 
ed than in the larva, concentrically wrinkled, and the dorsal area im- 
mediately preceding them is also roughened and transversely wrinkled ; 
length, 3.5 mm. ; pupation usually occurs among the dry insect remains 
or on the inner wall of the leaf often well up toward the orifice or even 
in the hood; pupal stage (in August) eight to ten days. 

$ $ . Black, head and thorax not shining, surface roughened and 
thinly white-pollinose ; mesonotum and scutellum studded with short 
spine-like black hairs ; mesonotum three-striped, with an additional 
abbreviated dark stripe above each wing base; abdomen dark brown 
above (almost black when dry), broad, flattened, slightly glossed, micro- 
scopically punctate, finely haired; logs yellow and black. 



Yol.XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

Eyes widely separated, dark bronzy brown, finely pubescent ; ocellar 
tubercle slightly raised, usually paler by denser pollinosity, the an- 
terior ocellus inclined on its front edge ; no frontal triangle, but a 
prominent slightly sunken narrowly oval dark marking, laterally pale- 
bordered, extending forward from anterior ocellus ; orbits pale gray, 
those of the front sometimes tinged with brownish-yellow ; the front 
produced, broadly snout-like, over the base of the antennae, this pro- 
duced and rounded area being pale dull brownish-yellow, with several 
rows of recumbent and convergent hairs ; a pair of post-ocellar bristles, 
erect, converging, their points crossed; these, with a pair of erect and 
divergent outer verticals, are the strongest of the head bristles, which 
are black, usually from black bases. 

Antennae large, directed laterally, appressed to head; the first joint 
bidden, the second broadly bell-shaped, yellow often partially ob- 
scured with dark and with a marginal row of spur-like hairs from black 
bases; the third joint much enlarged, longer than broad, rounded api- 
cally, basally on inner side dull salmon-yellow, sometimes ferruginous, 
the remainder dark purplish gray, almost black, and both joints thinly 
and finely white pollinose ; arista black and tapering, shortly and sparse- 
ly haired. The cheeks produced in advance of the face, in color pale 
dull brown sometimes varying to and always merging into the gray of 
the posterior orbits ; cheeks conspicuously marked with black dots 
which form the bases of recumbent forward-pointing hairs ; a pair of 
well-differentiated brown vibrissal hairs ; the black dots continued in a 
regular row around the posterior orbits. Face black ; clypeus and well 
defined median carina pale. Mesonotum with a narrow black median 
stripe (a dull black area destitute of pollen) extending to scutellum. 
two similar lateral stripes abbreviated slightly in advance of scutellum, 
and two short dark markings above the wing bases. On each side two 
humeral bristles, one to two anterior and two posterior notopleurals, 
two post alar and one pre-scutellar ; the uppermost anterior notopleural 
weak and apparently sometimes missing. 

Scutellum broad, rounded, almost semi-circular in outline, discally 
flattened, in color and texture like the mesonotum, but laterally broadly 
darker; marginal scutellars black, four pairs distinguishable; median 
pair best developed, their points approaching or crossed. 

i Inheres long, club-shaped, white, unmarked, their stems sometime^ 
darkened to almost black. 

Wings transparent, unmarked, iridescent, their surface rouglu-ne 1 
with minute evenly distributed rasp-like hairs; veins dark brown; an- 
terior edge closely set with short bristly hairs directed obliquely for- 
ward, gradually merging into the short fine e\ en-leii^ili fringe; the 
costal thickening obvious to V I plus 2 (4th longitudinal) ; axillary in- 
cision very deeply out, its extremity rounded, separating from the rest 



392 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

of the wing a long finger-shaped axillary lobe which is edged interiorly 
with long black hairs ; second and third costal divisions equal, each 
twice as long as first; hind cross-vein twice its length from small cross- 
vein; III 4 plus 5 and V I plus 2 (third and fourth longitudinal) paral- 
lel. 

Femora and tibiae set with stiff hairs ; femora black usually shortly 
tipped with ferruginous yellow ; tibiae yellow, broadly black-banded be- 
yond the middle; tarsi yellow, terminal joints darkened to almost black; 
middle and hind legs with short tibial spurs. 

Abdomen as stated, that of the $ rounded posteriorly, of the 9 with 
an extruded hypopygium which is slender, tapering, finely haired, fur- 
cate and appressed, a long bristle terminating each fork ; lateral and 
ventral posterior margins of segments gray-edged. 

Average length, dry specimens, $, 2.1 mm.; 9, 2.4 mm.; minimum 
and maximum of twelve examples 1.9 mm. and 2.8 mm. 

Type locality Mount Eddy, near Sisson, Siskiyou County, 
California; types $ and 9 , are in the U. S. National Museum 
(Cat. No. 20318), paratypes with the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, and in my own collection. 

Eggs, larvae and puparia were abundant in the plants July 
26; emergences of the flies took place from July 2Qth to Au- 
gust iQth ; plants examined September 26th contained many 
empty puparia, no living early stages, and a single 9 fly, indi- 
cating probable hibernation in the final stage. 

In the preparation of this paper I am indebted to several 
entomologists for examination of specimens and courteous 
reply to my inquiries, and especially to Mr. Frederick Knab 
and Mr. E. T. Cresson, Jr., without whose generous assistance 
and criticism its completion would have been most difficult. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE XX. 

Metriocncmus edwardsi. Egg mass, male, female head, pupa, male 
genitalia, labium of larva, male palpus, larva. 

PLATE XXI. 

Botanobia darlingtoniac. Female, egg, head-profile, puparium, larva, 
cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal view of caudal end of larva. 



Change of Address. 

Mr. NATHAN BANKS, of East Falls Church, Va., Assistant Entomolo- 
gist, Division of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, since 1896, an- 
nounces that, after November i, his address will be Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XXVII. 



Plate XXI. 




.,^__ ^__ ._ _4_^_- - k^. - 



BOTANOBIA DARLINGTONIAE-JONES. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 393 

On the Types of Certain Noctuid Genera occurring 

in North America (Lcpid.). 
By J. McDuNNOUGH, PH.D., Decatur, Illinois. 

In the course of the preparation of a list of North American 
Lepidoptera the problem has presented itself to us as to 
whether the genera of the Noctuidae as used by Sir George 
Hampson, in the Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenac of 
the British Museum, can be accepted according to the current 
codes on nomenclature. Sir George Hampson has in every 
instance, irrespective of the work of any previous entomolo- 
gist, fixed the type of each genus, when not particularly speci- 
fied by the author, as the first species placed under the generic 
name ; this procedure has resulted in numerous alterations in 
our usual conception of the Noctuid genera and in many in- 
stances of most confusing interchanges of generic names. 
While personally we are rather in favor of this "first species" 
principle of type fixation we find both from personal conversa- 
tion and from our correspondence that the majority of sys- 
tematists are decidedly against such a procedure and are more 
or less agreed that the type of a genus should be fixed accord- 
ing to rules such as are laid down in Banks & Caudell's Ento- 
mological Code, Washington, 1912. Believing that the true 
interests of science will be better served if we abandon our 
own personal leanings and follow the ruling of the majority 
we have endeavored in the following paper to give the results 
of our search for the types of a number of Noctuid genera 
according to the rules of the above-mentioned Code, and it 
will doubtless be noted with pleasure by non-systematic ento- 
mologists that by this method the old conception of many 
genera has again been restored. 

We have decided to disregard Hiibner's Tent amen names 
and credit them mostly to Ochsenheimer (1816) ; even if later 
it be decided that the Tcntamen is valid and the genera there- 
fore be attributed to Hiibner very little change in the generic 
conception will be necessary as in most instances the genotype 
proves to be the species mentioned by Hiibner in the aforesaid 
work. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

The sequence is that of Hampson's Catalogue and \ve have 
in general confined ourselves in this article to those genera the 
genotype of which, as determined by our method, is markedly 
different from that as determined by Hampson. 

Heliothis Ochs., 1816. 

Type designated by Duponchel (1829, Lep. Fr. VII (2) p. 71) as 
dipsacca L. and confirmed by Curtis (1836, Br. Ent.), Westwood (Gen. 
Syn. 1840), Guenee (1852, Hist. Nat. Lep. Noct. II, 181), and Grote 
(1874, Buff. Bull. II, 35). Hampson's conception of the genus with 
cardui Esp. as type cannot stand ; Heliothis will replace Chloridca 
West, as used by Hampson. 
Melicleptria Hbn. (1825). 

Type designated by Grote (1. c. I, 116, 1873) as cardui Hbn. Anthoecia 
Bdv. (1840) will fall before Melicleptria, the type having been desig- 
nated by Guenee (1852, 1. c. 11, 187) as cardui Hbn. This genus will 
replace Heliothis as used by Hampson, whilst Canthylidia Butl. may 
apparently be used for his conception of Melicleptria. 

Agrotis Ochs. (1816). 

Type designated by Curtis (1827, Brit. Ent.) as scgetum Schiff. and 
confirmed by Westwood (1839) and Grote (1874). Hampson places 
scgetum in Eii.roa, owing doubtless to the slightly tuberculate front; 
the male genitalia as figured by Burrows & Pierce (Gen. Brit. Noct.) 
show however a structure of the harpe quite dissimilar to the bifid one 
characteristic of Grote's genus Carncades which is made a synonym 
of Eu.roa by Hampson. The type of Euxoa has been fixed by Hamp- 
son as decora Schiff. and a study of the genitalia of this species will 
be necessary before we can determine with certainty the correct usage 
of these three genera. According to J. B. Smith's revision of the 
Agrotid moths segetiun is structurally very closely related to ypsil^n 
so that very possibly Hampson's usage of Agrotis may be in a broad 
sense correct. 
Noctua Linn (1758). 

The first real designation of the type of this genus seems to have 
been by Latreille in 1810 as pronuba Linn., Duponchel's designation of 
exclamationis L. as type in 1829 being thus invalid. Pronuba being 
designated by Duponchel (1829) as the type of Triphacna Ochs. it 
would seem that Triphacna falls as a synonym of Xoctua L. In any 
case Hampson's usage of Noctua with stri.v as type and of Triphacna 
(which he credits to Hitbner) with inter jccta as type will certainly not 
hold. Pronuba is placed by Hampson under Agrotis and, if this asso- 
ciation be correct, it will cause Agrotis possibly to fall before Xoctita, 
but as we have already stated more careful study of the structure of 



Vol. XXVli] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 395 

the generic types is necessary to establish the relationships of the 
various Agrotid genera. Our N. American species listed by Hampson 
under Triphacna will fall into Rynchayrotis Sm. as the type of this 
genus was distinctly stated by Smith in his Agrotid revision (p. 9) to 
be cupida Grt. For further references regarding the types of Xuctidt 
and Triphacna we would refer the reader to a paper by Grote in Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc. Vol. XLI, 1902. 
Mythimna Ochs. (1816). 

The type was first specified by Duponchel in 1829 as albipuncta Fabr., 
but Hiibner in 1822 (Verz. p. 239) had already restricted the genus to 
oxalina Hbn. and acctosellac Schiff., a fact which was overlooked by 
all subsequent authors. Hampson's usage with oxalina as type would 
be therefore correct. Alcsogona Bdv., the type of which was specified 
by Guenee (1852) as acetosella Schiff., will fall as a synonym. 

Eurois Hbn. (1822). 

Type specified by Grote (1874, Buff. Bull. II, 12) as occulta L. and 
the genus will probably fall before Lycophotia Him., the type of which 
Hampson specifies as porphyria Schiff. Hampson's usage of Eurois 
with prasina L. as type is incorrect. Aplecta Gn. (placed in the syn- 
onymy by Hampson) cannot be used in its place as the type was desig- 
nated by Guenee (1852) as ncbulosa Hfn., a hairy-eyed species placed 
by Hampson in Polia. Matnta Grt. (type tencbrifera Wlk.) must ap- 
parently be used. 

Polia Ochs. (1816). 

The type of the genus was designated by Curtis in 1828 as ncbulosa 
Hfn. Hampson's usage of the genus is therefore correct. Duponchel's 
fixation in 1829 of the type as compta Esp. (conciniia Hbn.) is ante- 
dated by Curtis' action. 

Mamestra Ochs. (1816). 

The type was designated by Duponchel in 1829 as brassicac L. Grote, 
however, justly contends that Hiibner's restriction of the genus in the 
J'crzcichniss (p. 214) rendered Duponchel's action ultra vires and speci- 
fies the type as pisi L., which would cause Mamestra to fall as a syno- 
nym of Polia. 

Xylomyges Gn. (1852). 

Grote specified the type of the genus in 1874 as conspicillaris Schiff. 
and Guenee's name will therefore replace Xylotnatiia I lamp. 

Hadena Schr. (1S02). 

The type of this genus has been variously chosen by Duponchel, 
Curtis, Westwood and Guenee, but none of the authors lias mentionril 
one of the original specimens as type. Grote (Ent. Rec. VI, 78, 1895) 
designates the type as cucubali Schiff. and makes Dianthoccia Bdv. 
sMionymous. We would refer students to this paper and to the paper 



396 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

in Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1902, p. 13, for further evidence. Lederer's 
conception of Hadena which has been followed largely in Europe can- 
not hold nor can Hampson's with rcticulata Will, (typica) as type. In 
place of Hadena as used by Hampson Ncuria Gn. may be used. 

Meliana Curt. (Mclia Curt.) (1828). 

Hampson's use of this as a Noctuid genus with type flammca Curt, 
is quite erroneous, as Curtis designates the type of the genus as sodella, 
one of the Gallcriinac. Curtis in the text uses the spelling Mclia, wnich 
name is preoccupied, but in the index he has changed it 'to Mcliana, 
either in error or on account of discovering that the generic name 
already existed. Nclcucania Sm. may again be substituted for Meliana. 

Orthosia Ochs. (1816). 

Curtis specified the type in 1828 as instabilis Schiff. (incerta Hufn.). 
This genus will therefore replace Momina Hbn. as used by Hampson. 
If the Tentamen be adopted Orthosia will fall to Graphiphora Hbn. 
with type gothica; otherwise Graphiphora Ochs. (1816) will fall in the 
Agrotinac with type specified in 1839 as c -nig rum by Westwood. 

Cloantha Gn. (1839). 

The type was specified by Guenee in 1852 as pcrspicillaris Schiff. 
(polyodon Cl.)- Hampson in Vol. IV of his Catalogue sinks Chloantha 
Gn. (sic) with type hyperici Schiff. to Actinotia Hbn. and later in Vol. 
VI. uses the name Cloantha with same reference and type as solidaginis 
Linn. The first reference is correct in the light of Guenee's type fixa- 
tion; Xylophasia Steph., the type of which was fixed by Westwood 
(1840) as polyodon, will also become a synonym of Actinotia. In Vol. 
VI the name will be replaced by Lithomoia Hbn., the type of which 
was fixed by Curtis in 1838 as solidaginis Hbn.; in place of Lithomoia 
as used by Hampson Hyppa Dup. should again be valid. 
Xylena Ochs. (1816). 

Misspelt Xylina by Treitschke and all following authors. The type 
was designated in 1829 by both Curtis and Duponchel as c.rolcta L. so 
that Hampson's usage is perfectly correct. 
Tethea Ochs. (1816). 

Type specified in 1829 by Curtis as or Fabr. and the genus therefore 
falls into the Thyatiridae. Hiibner in 1822 had already restricted the 
genus to duplaris L. and fluctuosa Hbn. which are congeneric with 
or. 

Atethmia Hbn. (1822). 

The type of the genus was designated by Grote in 1874 as xerampcl- 
ina Hbn.; later in 1895 he changes this to subusta Hbn., but his first 
action must hold. Cirrhocdia Gn., with type specified by the author as 
xerampelina Esp., will fall as a synonym. Hampson's usage is correct. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 397 

Xanthia Ochs. (1816). 

The generic type was specified by Curtis (1825) as fiavago Fabr. 
(lutea Strom) and Xanthia will therefore replace the genus Cosmia 
of Hampson. 

Glaea Steph. 

.The genus, apart from the Tcntamcn, was apparently first used by 
Stephens in 1829 and vaccinii L. specified as type by Curtis in the same 
year; it will therefore sink to Conistra Hbn. 

Cosmia Ochs. (1816). 

Duponchel specified the type as diffinis Linn, in 1829; the genus must 
replace Calymnia Hbn. as used by Hampson. 
Parastichtis Hbn. (1822). 

Grote specified the type of this genus (Can. Ent. 1900, p. 212) as 
suspecta Hbn. The genus therefore replaces Amathcs Hbn. of Hamp- 
son, which in any case could not be used as Hampson uses it, the type 
having been fixed by Grote in 1895 (Ent. Rec.) as baja L. ; for Para- 
stichtis as used by Hampson, Scptis Hbn. is apparently the only avail- 
able generic name. 

Trachea Ochs. (1816). 

Hampson's usage is correct in a broad sense as the type of the genus 
was restricted by Hiibner in 1822 to atriplicis L. and specified by both 
Curtis (1839) and Westwood (1839) as the same species. 

Perigia Gn. 

Type specified by Grote (1874) as xanthoidcs Gn. ; Hampson's usage 
is correct. 

Oligia Hbn. (1S22). 

Type specified by Grote (1895) as stric/ilis L. Miana Steph. with the 
same type, fixed by Westwood in 1839, falls as a synonym. Hampson's 
usage is again correct. 
Luperina Bdv. (1829). 

The type was fixed by Duponchel in 1829 as tcstacea Schiff. and this 
usage is followed by Guenee, Grote and Hampson. 
Caradrina Ochs. (1816). 

The type was designated in 1829 by Duponchel as i-intactum Hbn. ; 
Hiibner however in the V crzclchniss had already restricted the genus 
to the species ncglecta Hbn., rcspcrsa Schiff., lacvis Hbn., blanda Schiff., 
alslncs Bork. and tara.vaci Hbn., so that Duponchel's designation was 
presumably incorrect. Curtis in 1837 gave morphcus as the type and 
Westwood in 1840 cubicularis Schiff., both of which for the same rea- 
son cannot be accepted. Guenee in 1852 named alsincs Bork. as type 
and this, being one of the species included in Hubner's restriction, is 
valid. Caradrina will therefore replace Athctis Ilbn. as used by Hamp- 
son. 



398 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

Trigonophora Hbn. (1822). 

The type was specified by Grote (1874) as cmpyrea Hbn. (flanunca 
Esp.) and the genus must therefore replace Rhizotypc Hamp. (1. c. 
Vol. VI, 3/3) leaving Phlogophora Tr. with type mcticulosa L., fixed 
by Duponchel in 1829, to be used in its place. Solcnophora H. S. and 
Brotolomia Led. fall as synonyms. 

Callopistria Hbn. (1822). 

This genus will have priority over Erinpus Tr. according to the latest 
investigations regarding the dates of the various parts of the Verseich- 
niss (vide Ann. Mag. N. Hist. Jan. 1912). 

Bryophila Tr. (1825). 

This genus, the type of which was designated by Duponchel (1829) 
as glandifcra Schiff. (mtiralis), will fall before Mctachrostis Hbn. 
(1822), the type of which is fixed by Hampson as muralis Forst. 

Diphthera Ochs. (1816). 

The type was fixed by Duponchel (1829) as orion Esp. and the genus 
must therefore replace Daseochacta Warr. as used by Hampson (1. c. 
Vol. VIII, p. 22). 

Acronycta Ochs. (1816). 

Type fixed by Duponchel (1829) as Icporina L. following Hiibner's 
restriction in 1822 to leporina and bradyporina. 

Lithomoia Hbn. (1822). 

The type was fixed by Curtis (1838) as solidayinis Hbn. the genus 
however being misspelled Litlwmia. As already stated Hyppa Dup. 
will be used in place of Hampson's Lithomoia. 

Gortyna Ochs. (1816). 

The genus was restricted in 1822 by Hitbner to the single species 
uricacca Esp. We imagine therefore that Grote (Ent. Rec. 1895) is 
correct in designating this species as type and overlooking the naming 
by Curtis, Westwood and Guenee of flavago Schiff. as type. If Grote 
be followed Gortyna will replace Hydroccia, the type of which was 
specified by Guenee (1852) as micacca Esp. Instead of Gortyna as used 
by Hampson Lederer's genus Hclotropha may be employed. 

Apamea Ochs. (1816). 

The type of the genus was fixed in 1829 by Curtis as chrysographa 
Schiff. (nictitans L. ) ; Grote's remarks (1902 Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 
XLJ) are hardly to the point after Curtis' action. Hampson's usage is 
correct. 

Nonagria Ochs. (1816). 

Type designated by Duponchel in 1829 as typJi<n I llm. and Nonagria 
will therefore replace Phragmatiphila llamp. a genus not represented 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. .V I ') 

in X. America. Scnta Steph. should apparently lie used for Xnnagria 
as employed by Hampson (vide Grote, 6th Rep. Peab. Acad. p. 29). 

Calamia Hbn. (1822). 

This genus, erected in 1822 for the three species wrens L- />/;n///- 
niitis Hbn. and flitxa Hbn. was restricted by Lederer (1857, Noct. Eur. 
1>. 125) to phragmitis Hbn. and lutosa Hbn.; as the former species is 
the only one of the original species included it virtually became type 
in 1857 and has been employed in this sense by all later authors. With 
phragmitis as type Calamia will replace Arenostola Hamp.. leaving 
Luccria Hein. to be employed for Hampson's Calamia. 

Erastria Ochs. (1816). 

Type designated by Curtis in 1826 as uncaua L. The genus will 
therefore replace Enstrotia Hbn. (type mica Schiff.) and Eininclici 
Hbn. must be used to replace Erastria of Hampson. 

Acontia Ochs. (1816). 

Hampson's usage is apparently correct as Hiibner restricted the genus 
to the sole species malvae in 1825 (Verz. p. 257) and the later actions 
of Curtis, Duponchel and Guenee were therefore ultra vires. 

Euclidia Ochs. (1816). 

Type was specified by Duponchel in 1829 as glyphica L. and the genus 
will therefore replace Gonospileia Hbn. as used by Hampson. 

Drasteria Hbn. (1818). 

The genus was first used in the Zutragc in connection with graphics 
Him. which therefore as sole species becomes the type; it has been mis- 
applied by Guenee for credited and allies and in this later authors 
have concurred. 

Mocis Hbn. (1825). 

This genus was restricted by Guenee (1852) to a group which in- 
cluded only Icviita Stoll of the original species which thus virtually be- 
came type at this time and would replace Celiplcra Gn. as used by 
Hampson, although the two genera may be held separate on secondary 
sexual characters. In place of Mocis as employed by llampson 
I'cliiinia Gn. (syn. Remiyia Gn.) must be employed. 

Colocasia Ochs. (1816). 

Type was specified by Guenee in 1852 as geographies Fabr. but in 
view of Hiibner's restriction in the Vcrccichniss 1825 to coryli I., and 
scoriacea Esp. Hampson's usage with cnryli as type must be held cor- 
rect. 

Panthea Him. (is:.'.')). 

This genus, erected for the sole species cncnnhitu F.sp., will repl. 
cru ( )chs. as used by llampson. 



4OO ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

Moma Hbn. (1822). 

The genus was restricted by Lederer in 1859 to the sole species orion 
Esp. (aprllina Hbn.) which thus virtually became type and Grote's ac- 
tion in 1875 in selecting astur Cram, as the type of Moma can hardly 
be followed. Moma in our opinion will sink to Diphtcra Ochs. and 
Trichosca Grt. will replace Moma as used by Hampson. This will 
necessitate changing the family name Mammae and we propose instead 
to use Panthcinae. 

Phytometra Haw. (1809). 

Following Stephens' doubtful restriction in 1829 the type of the genus 
was designated by Westwood in 1840 as aenca Schiff. ; Prothymia Hbn. 
with the same species as type will fall as a synonym ; Autographa Hbn., 
the type of which was fixed by Grote in 1895 as gamma L., will replace 
Phytometra of Hampson and the family name may be changed to Plu- 
siinac. Parilis Hbn., the sole species placed by Hampson in the genus 
Autographa, may for the present be removed to Syngrapha Hbn., the 
type of which Grote designated as dcvcrgcns Hbn. in 1895, the two 
species differing merely in some slight points of tibial spining. For 
Syngrapha as used by Hampson it may be necessary to erect a new 
genus but we would leave this to some future reviser to decide. 

Plusia Ochs. (1816). 

The type of the genus was fixed in 1829 by Duponchel as chrysitis L. 
Hampson does not separate Plusia from Autographa but for the pres- 
ent we would prefer to associate Plusia with the species of a metallic 
lustre ; if Hampson be followed Plusia has priority over Autographa. 

Caloplusia Sm. (1891). 

The genus was apparently first mentioned in the Brooklyn Bull. VII, 
p. 68, 1884, but unassociated with any named species ; in the 1891 Check 
List Smith uses it for devergens and hochenwarthi; the latter species 
being designated as type by Hampson, the genus therefore falls to 
Syngrapha Hbn. 

In conclusion we give a partial list of some of the most im- 
portant works where generic types of Noctuidae have been 
definitely designated. 

CURTIS. British Entomology, Lepidoptera, 1824-39. 

DUPONCHEL. Hist. Nat. d. Lepid, de France VIT (2), 71, 1829. 

GROTE. Buffalo Bull. II, 5, 1874. Ent. Record. VI, 27, 1895. List N. 
Am. Eupterotidae, etc. (Ab. Naturw. Verein, Bremen) 1895. Proc. Am. 
Phil. Soc. XLL 1902. 

GUENEE. Hist. Nat. des Lepid. Vols. V-VTI, 1852. 

WESTWOOD. Intro. Mod. Class. Ins. Gen. Syn., 1840. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 4OI 

Descriptiones Hymenopterorum Chalcidoidicorum 
Variorum cum Observationibus. IL* 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Glenndale, Maryland. 

Signiphora dipterophaga new species. 

$. Length, i.oo mm. In the table of species (Proc. U. S. National 
Museum, 45, pp. 227 ff.) runs to the nigra group and in that runs to 
nigra itself from which it differs in having the wings hyaline and the 
body much more robust and the caudal wings broader. Differs from 
hyulinipcnnis in being wholly dark metallic green except the tarsi, the 
marginal fringes of the fore wing are considerably shorter (those at 
apex being not quite a fourth of the greatest wing width), the pedicel 
longer (2^2 times longer than wide), the club shorter. Middle femur 
compressed, convexed ventrad (like a dilated scape) as in hyalinipcnuis 
but here the middle tibial spur is black and barely longer than the stout 
curved spine from the dorsal aspect of the middle tibia (between mid- 
dle and knee), longer in the other species. Fore wing slightly yellow- 
ish along the venation. Mandibles acutely bidentate. Caudal wings 
three-fourths or more the width of the fore wings. Thorax finely 
transversely lined, the abdomen scaly. Head lined like the thorax and 
with a few pin punctures scattered. Pronotum large, half the length of 
the scutum. Body glistening. Fore tibiae yellowish. 

Described from a large number of females reared from the 
pupa of a dipteron collected on sugar cane in a tunnel of 
Diatraea, Diego Martin, Trinidad, British West Indies, Jan- 
uary, 1914 (F. W. Urich). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20222, United States National Mu- 
seum, six females on a slide. 

Coccophagus aleurodici new species. 

?. Length, i.oo mm. Habitus of the species usually referred to 
l'ri>s/>altclla. Lustrous purplish black, the wings hyaline, the fore tihi.T 
and tarsi dull yellow, funicle 3 dull white. Venation pale yellow. Club 
as long as the funicle and distinctly wider; funicles i and 3 subequal, 
each a third longer than wide; 2 twice longer than wide. Pedicel sub- 
equal to funicle 2, the scape pallid, except the dusky dorsal ed.ye. Man- 
dibles with the second tooth broadly truncate yet with its dorsal an.qlr 
acute (so that there are apparently two small acute teeth and an innrr 
truncation from the base of the second). Marginal vein somewhat 
1'inuer than the submarginal, the stigmal oblique, of nearly uniform 

*The first of this series was published in this journal in May, i<n(.. 
pp. 223 ff. and marked III by mistake. 



4O2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

width, neckless. Marginal cilia of the fore wing short, the discal cilia 
uniform, about twenty-three lines where the wing is broadest. Strigil 
large. Thorax flat, with a velvety sheen due to the dense minute scaly 
sculpture. Abdomen shining. Distal four tarsal joints short, the first 
joint long, very much longer. Middle tibial spur long, a little stout. 
Ovipositor not extruded. Funicle 2 and all tibiae sometimes suffused 
with yellow. 

$ . Similar but the flagellum is filiform, the pedicel globular, the 
funicle joints subequal, each over twice longer than wide, the club joints 
each somewhat shorter. The male organ is projected for a length 
equal to that of the abdomen and is tapering and curved upward 

Described from a large number of specimens reared from 
Aleurodicus on Thcobroma bicolor, Trinidad, British West 
Indies, December, 1914 ( F. W. Urich). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20223, United States National Mu- 
seum, two pairs on separate tags with a slide bearing one male, 
three females and a female head (crushed). 

Encyrtus cecidomyiae Howard. Genotype of Pscitdcncyrtus Ash- 
mead. 

Original description of the species correct but the scape has a moder- 
ate uniform ventral dilation (seen mostly at apex) and thus appears 
rather much compressed, the dilation not being convexed. Funicle i is 
a little shorter than the pedicel and only a third longer than wide, 2 
quadrate; 6 a little wider than long. The club is 3-jointed, ovate, wider 
than the funicle, obliquely truncate at apex. The body is not punctured 
but scaly with very minute setigerous punctures scattered over the tho- 
rax. The marginal vein is twice longer than wide, subequal to the post- 
marginal, the stigmal a third longer. The fore wing is infuscated light- 
ly under the marginal and stigmal veins and there is a small substigmal 
spot directly from the end of the stigmal vein. Discal cilia of fore 
wing very dense, very fine, many somewhat coarser cilia proximad of 
the hairless line. Mandibles tridentate, the first tooth acute and longer 
than the subequal other two yet not projecting beyond them. Axillae 
just meeting, narrow. Propodeum very short at the meson, transverse. 
Face inflexed, the scrobes joined above. Frons not prominent, broad. 
Cheeks as long as the eyes. Ovipositor valves a little extruded. Abdo- 
men depressed. Funicle joints in the male about twice longer than 
wide, the club solid and much longer ; male scape short, greatly con- 
vexed-dilated (not twice longer than wide by far), the pedicel globular. 
Flagellutn (male) clothed with rather long hairs. From the male and 
female types in the United States "National Museum. 



Vol. XXvii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 403 

Neocatolaccus syrphidis new species. 

9. Length, 1.50 mm. Differs from Zatropis dcutcrus Crawford in 
having the femora concolorous and a transverse carina on the propo- 
deum at proximal third which forms the caudal margin of a transverse 
sulcus of some width and which terminates laterad in a fovea at 
cephalic margin (two-thirds the way over to the spiracle) ; from Z. 
cattilpae Crawford in having the transverse carina on the propodeum 
and all the tibiae testaceous ; from Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ash- 
mead) in being very much less robust, in lacking the lateral carina on 
the propodeum, in having the cross-carina abbreviated (ending at the 
fovea but in the other species much more extended, running caudo- 
distad from the fovea to nearly over the caudal coxa, hence to a point 
laterad of the spiracle and far caudad) ; also the spiracular sulcus is 
complete, distinct (in tylodermae abruptly cut off by the cross-carina) ; 
from Neocatolaccus nigrocyaneus Ashmead in having all the tibiae tes- 
taceous, nigrocyaneus is much more robust, lacks a cross-carina on the 
subglabrous propodeum and the lateral carina (but with a complete 
spiracular sulcus and a small fovea at cephalic margin half-way to the 
spiracle from the meson) ; also it bears two caudal tibial spurs. 

Dark metallic green and with the usual flattened setae on the head 
and thorax; wings hyaline, the venation pale yellow; scape, pedicel (ex- 
cept above), legs' (except coxae and femora), yellowish brown. Head 
and thorax finely, densely scaly punctate, the abdomen shining. Pubes- 
cence very sparse on the scutellum. Funicle I twice longer than wide, 
longer than the pedicel, 5 subquadrate. Mandibles 4-dentate. Post- 
marginal vein longer than the stigmal. 

$ . Abdomen narrower, the legs pale except the coxae and the cau- 
dal femur; the proximal third of the abdomen is yellow (except at ex- 
treme base and the lateral margins). Antennae with two ring-joints; 
funicle 6 a half longer than wide, i nearly thrice longer than wide. 
Mandibles 4-dentate. Antennae yellowish. 

Described from a large series of both sexes reared from a 
Syrphid pupa, Cocal, Trinidad, British West Indies, July, 1913 
(F. W. Urich ). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20224, United States National Mu- 
seum, three pairs on separate tags. 

The genus Zatropis Crawford is probably a synonym of 
Neocatolaccus which has a very short propodeal neck not a 
distinct one; the median carina usually dilates at ape\. 
Zatropis, however, may be distinguished from 
ii. lacking the cross-carina on the propodetim. N. 
Ashmead is not described; it is an Italian species. The male 



404 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l6 

type of Catolaccus pallipcs Ashmead has no cross-carina on 
the propodeum. Catolaccus car 'mat us Howard is a Ncocato- 
taccns and differs in having the pubescence less conspicuous 
yet much denser and quite normal ; also the cross-carina of the 
propodeum does not limit a sulcus but a plain surface and the 
spiracular sulcus is a mere fovea in which is situate the spir- 
acle ; also funicle I is thrice longer than wide (a 2 of carina- 
tus in the United States National Museum and apparently a 
paratype specimen, "St. George's, Grenada, H. H. Smith"). 
The propodeal neck in carinatns is somewhat more distinct. 

Eulophus magnisulcatus new species. 

$ . Length, 2.00 mm. Dark metallic green, the wings hyaline, the 
venation, tibiae, tarsi and scape pale straw yellow. Plead delicately 
scaly, the thorax densely scaly punctate, the propodeum more densely 
so and with a long median carina which joins the semi-circular carinat- 
ed apex of the propodeum and a deep distinct spiracular sulcus whose 
margins are carinated and which narrows caudad. Abdomen delicately 
scaly distad, round-ovate (dorsal aspect), its second segment occupy- 
ing about a fourth of the surface, the region not as long as the thorax. 
Propodeal spiracle small, round, placed in a boomerang-shaped sulcus. 
Marginal vein somewhat (about a third) over twice the length of the 
stigmal, the latter distinctly shorter than the postmarginal. Axillae 
half advanced into the parapside. Pronotum transverse quadrate. 
Antennae inserted on a level with the ventral end of the eyes, the 
scrobes soon uniting and running as a narrow sulcus to the cephalic 
ocellus. Funicle I twice longer than wide, 3 quadrate, as long as the 
pedicel which is yellowish ventrad. Club I somewhat shorter than 
funicle 3, largest, the third joint terminating in a distinct nipple which 
appears to be articulated. Genal suture present. Mandibles 7- and 8- 
dentate. 

Described from one female in the collections of