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PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D., Editor Emeritus. 









The several numbers of the NEWS for 1917 were mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office as follows : 

No. 1 January December 30, 1916 

" 2 February Februarys, 1917 

" 3 March February 28 

" 4 April March 31 

" 5 May May 2 

" 6 June June 1 

" 7 July July3 

" 8 October September 29 

1 9 November November 1 

The date of mailing the December, 1917, number will be announced 
in the issue for January, 1918. 





! ' JANUARY, 1917. 


Vol. XXVIII. No. 1. 

Henry Shimer 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D.,Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 






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Plate I. 








JANUARY, 1917. 

No. i, 


X Otto Heidemann j 

Rich Zonocerus elegans ( Orth. ) 2 

Knight New and Noteworthy Forms 
of North American Miridae ( Hem ) 3 

Williamson Correction of the Specific 
Name of a Dragonfly (Odon.) S 

Kennedy Notes on the Penes of Dam- 
selflies (Odon.) 9 

Dunn A Simple Method of Identifying 
the Anopheles Mosquitoes of the 
Canal Zone ( Dip. ) 14 

Girault New Chalcid Flies from Mary- 
land ( Hym.) 20 

Weiss Some Unusual Orchid Insects > 
( Hem., Lep., Dip., Col.) 24 

Ottolengui The Distribution and Syn- 
onymy of Autographa vaccinii Hy. 
Edw. (Lep.) 29 

A Collecting Trip in Colombia 32 

Wirtner A new Genus of Bothynotinae, 
Miridae ( Heter. ) 33 

Kipley Notes on the Feeding Habits of 
Adult Chrysopidae I NVnr. ) js 

Parshley A Species of M;u n.tnicheli- 
ella Found in New England ( 1 lem. , 
Anthocoridae) 37 

Editorial The News for 1917 

Questions and Answers 40 

Weiss and Dickerson Psyllia buxi in 
New Jersey ( Homop. ) 40 

The O. B. Johnson Entomological Col- 
lection |i 

Tillyard Phylogeny of Ant-lions ( Neu. ) 4^ 

Entomological Literature 

Review The Lepidopterist 

Doings of Societies Amer. Ent. Soc. 

(Orth., Col.).....- (5 

Newark Ento. Soc. (Lepid., Hynu-ii., 

Coleop. ) '. 46 

Entomological Section, Aca<l. Nat 
Sci. Phila. (Dipt., Lepid., Orthup., 
Coleop. ) 47 

Otto Heidemann. 

(Plate I) 

We give in this number a portrait of the well-known 
Hemipterist, Otto Heidemann, for many years a member "f 
the United States Bureau of Entomology, and Honorary Cus- 
todian of Hemipicra in the National Museum, who died Xo- 
vembef 17, 1916, after an operation at the Homeopathic 
Hospital in Washington, D. C. 

Heidemann was born in Magdeburg, Germany, on Septan - 
ber i, 1842. He learned the art of wood-engraving and prac- 
ticed this profession in Leipsic, Vienna, Munich, Stuttgart 
and Berlin until 1873, when he came to this country and ' 
lished an engraving office in Baltimore. Tn 187^ he moved hi- 
office to Washington and in the following years furnished 
many illustrations for various Government publication-. In 
1880 he entered the office of Captain G. \\ heeler's Gcographi 

2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [J an -> ' 1 7 

cal Survey west of the looth Meridian and in 1883 was ap- 
pointed engraver in the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
From this time his work became known in Entomology and a 
large number of excellent illustrations of economic insects, 
published by the Department are the work of Mr. Heidemann. 

With the development of photo-engraving his art ceased to 
be useful and in 1898 he obtained a position as assistant in the 
Bureau of Entomology becoming a specialist in Hemiptera, 
the study of which he had taken up only half a dozen years 
before, under the guidance and inspiration of his friends Al- 
bert Koebele, E. A. Schwa rz and Theodore Pergande. 

Although he thus began his entomological studies when he 
was well beyond fifty years of age, he applied himself with 
such zeal to the science, that he became known all over the 
world as an authority on Hemiptera. 

Heidemann was a member of the Entomological and Bio- 
logical Societies of Washington, and of the American Asso- 
ciation of Economic Entomologists ; he was a charter member 
of the Entomological Society of America and a Fellow of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science. He 
was elected President of the Washington Entomological So- 
ciety for two consecutive years 1909, 1910. 

His entomological writings number about 35 titles. 

Mr. Heidemann is survived by his wife, Mrs. Mica Heide-- 
mann, well known as a sculptress and as a maker of insect 



> ' 

A Further Note on Zonocerus elegans (Orth.). 

[Since the publication of the article on this grasshopper in the News 
for November, 1916, pages 420-421, the following has been received.! 

There is usually one generation a year, but a partial second one, con- 
sisting of a few individuals reaching the last nymphal instar, is found 
in favorable years and a few localities. The first instar nymphs appear 
from the middle of September onwards, being plentiful early in Octo- 
ber. The five nymphal stages are completed by January I. The differ- 
ence here noted is due to my previous observations covering only one 
season and that an exceptionally favorable one. S. G. RICH, Adams 
.Mission Station, Natal, South Africa. 


New and Noteworthy Forms of North American 

Miridae (Hemip.)* 

By HARRY H. KNIGHT, Ithaca, New York. 
In working over considerable miscellaneous material in the 
family Miridae the writer has found a few species that are of 
particular interest and takes occasion to present part of his 
findings in the present paper. 

Sericophanes ocellatus Renter. 

While studying Miridae in the collection of the United 
States National Museum the writer found two specimens 
bearing the label, "Texas Belfrage" which evidently represent 
original type material of this species. These specimens came 
from the C. V. Riley collection and no doubt were acquired 
from Mr. Belfrage at a time when that collector sent material 
to various entomologists and museums. Dr. Renter described 
the genus Sericophanes and the single species ocellatus in his 
paper of 1875, "Capsinae ex America boreali in Museo Hol- 
miensi asservatae descriptae ab" (Ofversight af Kongl. Veten- 
skaps-Akademiens Forhandlingar, 1875, No. 9, Stockholm), 
from an assemblage of North American Hemiptera collected 
by Mr. Belfrage and which in some way were acquired by the 
Stockholm Museum. It was this wholesale shipment of 
North American Hemiptera to European specialists in the 
early days that resulted in the description of many of our 
species. This loss of types to American students has made it 
difficult to always name our species accurately and some may 
never be known with certainty until comparison is made with 
the type specimens. 

The following notes are taken from a study of the above 
type material and are given here for comparison with the north- 
ern species described below : 

$. Length to tip of membrane, 2.6 mm.; length of pronotum .43 
mm., width at base .71 mm., apex .37 mm.; head, width across tin- 
.60 mm., width of vertex .25 mm.; color of head, thorax, legs and al>- 

*Contribution from the Department of Entomology of (.'"null Uni- 


domen, yellowish brown, or "dilute cinnamomeus" of Renter. The 
ocellate spot on the clavus and the pruinose bands across the corium) 
are quite similar to noctuans but the ground color is lighter. 

Dr. Renter, 1910, placed the genus Sericophanes in his di- 
vision Cremnoccphalaria, a group having the claws destitute 
of arolia. Perhaps Dr. Renter had poor material from which 
to work since the present writer finds after observations on 

Fig. i. Sericophanes noctuans. showing the claws and type of arolia. 

Fig. 2. Largidea davisi, tarsus and claws, showing type of claws and absence of arolia. 

several specimens with the aid of the binocular microscope 
that the claws bear free arolia with converging tips (fig. i). 
This type of arolia places the genus close to Pilophoriis and 
Ceratocapsus and in the tribe Orthoiylim of Mr. Van Duzee's 
recent tables. 

Sericophanes noctuans new species. 

Larger and darker colored than ocellatus. but otherwise bearing a 
close resemblance. 

$. Length, 3.6 mm. Head: width across the eyes .71 mm., width of 
vertex .28 mm., length .45 mm., height at base .37 mm. ; eyes large and 
coarsely granulated, height .43 mm., dark purplish brown in color ; 
jiiLiae. lorae, and tylus reddish brown, the jugae showing red most 
plainly; vertex dark chestnut like the pronotum, smooth shining, ca- 
rina nearly horizontal and turning forward at each side to meet the 
eye, slightly depressed bordering the carina; base of the tylus with a 
prominent hair at each side. Rostrum scarcely attaining the posterior 
margin of the hind coxae, yellowish brown, basal segment dark brown, 
the apex blackish. 

Antennae: segment I, length .25 mm., yellowish brown, with three or 
four prominent hairs on the inside; TT, length 1.25 mm., yellowish 
brown, slightly darker toward the apex : IIT, length .88 mm., dark fus- 
cous to blackish, brownish at the base ; IV, length .60 mm., slightly flat- 
tened, dark purplish to blackish ; all the segments with very fine pale 


Pronotum: length .57 mm., width at base .88 mm., apex .37 mm.; 
dark chestnut or blackish, smooth, shining, strongly declivitous, devoid 
of calli, collar narrow but distinct, lateral margins of the disk indis- 
tinct, rounded. Scutellum same color as the pronotum, basal 1 
prominent, strongly sloping backward, sharply cut away at each side; 
apical lobe small, moderately arched and rounded at the sides, very 
finely tranversely rugose. Sternum dark chestnut, shining; lobe of the 
metasternal orifice projecting laterally very strongly. 

Hemclytra : width at tip of corium .91 mm., across the middle only 
.77 mm.; clavus dark chestnut brown on the basal half and tip, golden 
brown bordering the scutellum, pruinose on the exterior basal half; 
apical half of the clavus with a cream colored spot which extends 
laterally to the margin; corium dark velvety brown, the cuneus and 
inner apical angles of corium with dark golden brown ; base of corium, 
a narrow band across the middle, and exterior half of the apex, prui- 
nose; sparsely covered with golden hairs; cuneus poorly defined from 
the corium inside of the fracture, scarcely deflected ; membrane evenly 
clouded, pale across the basal half of the large cells and bordering the 
apical one-third of the cuneus. 

Legs : fore coxae yellowish brown like the femora, darker at the very 
base; middle coxae dark brown; hind coxae pale, brownish at the 
base; femora dark yellowish brown, anterior pair paler; tibiae dark 
brown; tarsi pale brown, the apex and claws blackish. 

Venter: long and slender, noticeably flattened on the basal half, 
first two segments yellowish brown, beyond this dark chestnut to 
blackish, shining; genital claspers small. 

Described from 9 $ $ , June 22 to Aug. 10, Batavia, New 
York, all of which came to the light in the writer's laboratory ; 
i cJ , July 2, McLean, New York. 

Type : $ , Aug. 8, Batavia, New York ; author's collection. 

Mr. C. P. Alexander reports having seen this species flying 
up in large numbers from the grass after sundown, llra- 
chypterous and macropterous females of what is doubtless this 
species rather than the occllatits from Texas, are well de- 
scribed by Prof. Osborn (Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci., V, p. j^S, 
1898) ; the nymphs and adults found occurring on gras-\ 

Clivinema regalis new species. 

Bright orange red with blackish hemelytra, antennae and liln 
structurally quite similar to villosa but differing greatly in sixe and 
color, the pubescence without prominent recurved tips. Claws 


at the base, destitute of arolia, similar in structure to villosa. Prono- 
tum with an apical gibbosely convex area, stricture apparent only at 
the sides from which an impressed line extends to the rear margin of 
the calli. 

$. Length 5.7 mm. Head: width across eyes 1.05 mm., width oi 
vertex .54 mm., length .51 mm., height at base .60 mm. ; pale pubescent, 
vertex convex, ecarinate ; orange red, tylus and a transverse impres- 
sion at the base black, sutures and eyes blackish, vertex usually with 
two longitudinal fuscous to blackish rays. Rostrum scarcely attaining 
the posterior margin of the sternum, blackish, the first two segments 
mostly reddish. 

Antennae: segment I, length .43 mm., width .14 mm., blackish, some- 
times with reddish ; II, length 2.05 mm., width .14 mm., quite uniform- 
ly thickened, black, thickly clothed with short black hairs; III, length 
.60 mm., slender, width .06 mm., black, only a few hairs with very fine 
pubescence; IV, length .40 mm., similar to III. 

Pronotum: length 1.42 mm., width at base 1.99 mm., apex .80 mm., 
height at apex .91 mm. ; bright red or orange red when faded ; disk 
shallowly punctate, more or less transversely rugose ; calli apparent 
as impressed ovals, usually black, shining, joined at the side by an im- 
pressed line leading to the anterior angles, thus defining the arched 
apical portion or gibbosely convex hood ; coxal cleft extending high as 
the lateral margin of the disk, separated from the above impressed line 
only by a thin lateral projection. Scutellum bright red, pubescent, 
strongly convex, arched, with a broad median longitudinal impression. 
Sternum red, side pieces covered with a white flocculent wax-like ma- 
terial, often present in greater degree along the full length of the 

Hemclytra : greatest width 2 mm., black, shining, somewhat trans- 
lucent, roughly wrinkled, covered with long erect pale pubescence. 
Membrane evenly clouded with fuscous, except a pale spot at the apex 
of the cuneus, veins dark fuscous. 

Legs : bright red, shining, apices of the femora and a longitudinal 
bar or row of dots on the under side, blackish ; tibiae and tarsi black. 

V enter : red, pale pubescent ; genital claspers blackish, dextral clasper 
small, sinistral clasper long and slender, quite similar to that in Largi- 
dea rubida and davisi. 

9 . Length 5.6 mm., width 2.5 mm., more robust than the male ; sec- 
ond antennal segment more slender, thickest at the apex ; vertex with 
two longitudinal black rays ; the femora more so and the posterior 
margins of the abdominal segments and surrounding the ovipositor, 
blackish ; entire body above and below coated with the white flocculent 
wax like material. 

Described from 3 5 5 and 3 $ 9 , July 21-28, 1914, El 


Paso, Texas, collected by Dr. J. Chester Bradley, who re- 
marks: "Females were plump and very sluggish; collected 
from a shrub on the open mesa, possibly an Ocatilla which 
was in leaf at that time, on the side of Alt. Franklin not far 
outside the city limits of El Paso." 

Type : $ , July 28, El Paso, Texas, J. Chester Bradley ; Cor- 
nell University collection. 

Largidea davisi new species. 

Resembles grossa in size and color but differs widely in the form of 
the antennae and the length of the rostrum; dark fusco-rufus brown, 
head and body covered with heavy pale yellowish pubescence, more or 
less matted and depressed. Length 6 mm. 

9. Head: width across eyes 1.28 mm., width of vertex .77 mm., 
length .51 mm., height at base .80 mm.; impunctate, darker than color 
of the body, the vertex and sutures about the tylus, blackish; base of 
tylus clearly denned, a short narrow longitudinal pit at the base simi- 
lar to that in rubida; a prominent fovea just above the base of each 
antenna, vertex ecarinate, head shorter and more compressed as com- 
pared with rubida. Rostrum extending only slightly beyond the pos- 
terior margin of the fore coxae, or to the middle of the sternum ; the 
same in both sexes. 

Antennae: segment I, length .31 mm., greatest thickness .14 mm., dark 
rufus-brown, the apex and base blackish; II, length 1.28 mm., being 
exactly the width of the head, or less than the length of the prono- 
tum, greatest thickness .14 mm., fusiform, not flattened as in grossa 
or with depressions of any kind, thickly clothed with dark brown 
hairs, a few bristles intermixed, rich rufus-brown to wine color, 
darker toward the apex ; III, length .37 mm., with dark fuscous ; IV, 
.37 mm., same color as III. 

Pronotum : length 1.59 mm., width at base 2.19 mm., apex 1.14 mm., 
dark fusco-rufus, the polished hook-shaped line about the calli, black; 
calli as in rubida, typical of the generic characters; disk behind the 
calli coarsely, deeply and closely punctate, more finely punctured be- 
fore the calli; lateral margins sharply denned as in rubida. Scutellum 
roughly transversely, rugose along a slightly silicate median line. 
Sternum with longitudinal median impressed line, opaque beneath with 
a few scattered pubescent hairs, shining at the sides and with matted 

Hcmclytra: greatest width, 9, 2.5 mm., $, 2.1 mm.; clavus, corium. 
and cuneus uniformly colored dark reddish brown, inclined to wine 
color in the more translucent parts; membrane evenly shaded with 
fuscous, veins darker tinged with reddish; closely covered with tine 


and shallow punctures ; clothed with short oppressed yellowish pubes- 

Legs : dark fuscous brown, femora with a longitudinal row of dark 
spots beneath, not visible in certain lights ; tarsi blackish, the basal 
segment flattened beneath and extending well under the second seg- 
ment (fig. 2). 

Venter: mostly dark grayish brown, blackish on the posterior mar- 
gin of each segment; spiracles conspicuous, appearing as sunken black 
spots ; rather long and prominent pale yellowish pubescence. 

$ . Similar to the female only more slender : length 5.7 mm. The 
antennae and character of the first tarsal segment do not differ from 
those of the female, though the length of the second antennal segment 
(1.28 mm.) is slightly longer than the width of the head (1.14 mm.) 
across the eyes. The male genital forceps are quite similar to those 
of rubida thus not affording good specific characters but on the other 
hand showing generic relationship. 

Described from a male and three females, Sept. 24, 25, 
Promised Land, Long Island, New York, collected by Mr. 
William T. Davis and Mr. G. P. Engelhardt. I have also seen 
a half dozen other specimens from the same locality. 

Type : 9 , Sept. 24, Promised Land, Long Island, New York, 
Wm. T. Davis ; author's collection. 

The writer has studied Uhler's type specimen of (Clivinc- 
ma) rubida in the National Museum collection and was unable 
to distinguish from it Colorado specimens which were later 
determined as marginata by Mr. Van Duzee. It is evident that 
the character of the antennae and the length of the rostrum 
cannot be taken as generic characters but only as specific, 
since these differ in each of three species. The form of the 
pronotum and particularly the character of the calli and basal 
segment of the tarsi appear to be distinctive of the genus Lar- 

Correction of the Specific Name of a Dragonfly (Odon.). 

Metalcptobasis brysonima Williamson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Vol. 48, 
1915, p. 602. On September 4, 1916, Dr. Calvert wrote me that in the 
Kew Index he found no generic plant name Brysonima, but a Byrsoni- 
ma, and in Pittier's list of Costa Rican plants two species of Byrsonima 
are recorded. Under date of October 9, he writes me that he believes 
a correction of the specific name of the dragonfly is permissible under 
Article 19, Intern. Rules Zool. Nomenclature. This correction is here- 
by proposed and the name changed from Metaleptobasis brysonima to 
Metalcptobasis byrsonima. E. B. WILLIAMSON. 


Notes on the Penes of Damselflies (Odonata). 

No. 2. The Close Relations inter se of the Hawaiian Agrionines. 

(Plates II and III.) 

In my first paper* I discussed a genus (Acanthagrion) in 
which the various forms comprising it were so close in color 
and structure that many had been considered but varieties un- 
til a study of the penes showed each form to be a good species 
structurally, for the penes of the various species were remark- 
ably different. 

In this paper I wish to discuss a group, the Hawaiian Agri- 
onines, in which just the opposite relation holds. In venation, 
color, size, and in the structure of the male claspers the Ha- 
waiian Agrionines differ radically among themselves but the 
penes throughout are the same type. 

This opportunity came recently while in Philadelphia when 
I had the privilege of examining the penes of nineteen species 
and varieties of Hawaiian Agrioninae. These were a series 
of specimens collected by Dr. R. C. L. Perkins, and given by 
him to Dr. P. P. Calvert. In all cases the determinations are 
those of Dr. Perkins and so probably agree with his published 
articles. f Lack of time prevented an examination of the 
specimens other than of the penes. As the number of speci- 
mens was small, in some cases there being only a single male 
or female, an attempt to study the specimens with a view to 
possible grouping would have been inadvisable as Dr. Perkins' 
own studies of this group show great ranges in variation in 
many of the species. 

Ever since I first looked over the list of Hawaiian Odonata, 
I had been skeptical that twenty-four species of damselflies, 
the entire damselfly fauna of this isolated region, should be 
comprised in but two genera. Later, when I first glanced at 
the box of specimens on which this study is based, I felt cer- 
tain that there were at least three genera and probably more. 

*Ent. News, xxvii, 325-330, July, 1916. 

t Fauna Hawaiiensis. Vol. I, p. clxxv. ; Vol. II, pp. 63-77, 
693-696. R. C. L. Perkins. 


The large red forms with the richly veined wings, appeared 
at first sight more than generically distinct from the various 
small dark species and my interest and surprise increased 
steadily as I examined species after species and found 
throughout almost identical penes. The study of the penes 
but confirms the opinions expressed by McLachlan* and Per- 
kins that in spite of their diverse forms these Hawaiian 
species of Agrionines are so closely related inter sc that it is 
questionable whether they should not remain as a single genus. 

The figs, i to 38 show, better than I can describe, the uni- 
formity in structure throughout this group. Probably it ex- 
tends to those Hawaiian species in which the penis has not yet 
been examined. t This form of penis is peculiar among agrio- 
nine penes in that the third or apical segment is offset, or at- 
tached subapically to the second segment. The apical lobe 
has an apical, sagittal cleft, which in all but three species is at 
least half the length of the lobe in depth. All have the inter- 
nal soft fold, but in all the terminal soft fold of segment two 
is lacking, unless it is homologous with that part of the apex 
of segment two which lies beyond the insertion of segment 
three. All degrees of spininess exist from no spines to a com- 
plete row along each side of the shaft. 

The following classification is that of Perkins^ and is based 
on the male appendages as the most constant character : 

Group i. xanthomclas, pacificinn, nigrohamatum. 

Group 2. oresitrophnm, or abates, Icptodcmas, calliphya. 

Group 3. koelense, asteliae, amaurodytnm, cndytnin, adytum. 

Group 4. ncsiotes. 

Group 5. oahucnsc. 

Group 6. dcccptor, vagabundum, kauaicnse, molokaicnsc, jugontin. 

Group 7. oceanicum, blackburni, hetcrogamias. 

This does not include calvcrti or williamsoni the relation- 
ships of which species Perkins does not indicate. 

*Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 12, p. 240. 

t While studying the collection in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., I was able to examine molokaiense and 
the fallax and waianacanum varieties of amaurodytum. These all 
have the typical form of penis for this group. 

JFauna 1 Javvaiiensis, Vol. II, p. 694. 


In this paper I have used Megalagrion for these Hawaiian 
forms. The genus Megalagrion was established by McLach- 
lan* for blackburni and oceanicum, with blackburni the type of 
the genus. Perkins later described ketcrogamias and con- 
sidered it a close relative of these. He also pointed out that 
certain individuals of species in Group 6, especially of kaiiai- 
cnse, showed the venational characters of Megalagrion, thus 
preventing the use of this generic name to set off these three 
with the richly veined wings from the other Hawaiian forms. 
Perkins placed the entire group in the old genus Agrion, now 
Coenagrion. Studies of the penes in these forms show that 
the genus Coenagrion can probably be broken up and that 
these Hawaiian species are a compact group quite distinct 
from the other groups. As Megalagrion has been used for 
some of these Hawaiian species, it will then become applicable 
to the entire series of Hawaiian Agrionines as I have used it. 

I had hoped that the penes more than the other characters 
might give some clue to the relationship and probable origin of 
this group. The penes do show that these Hawaiian Agrion- 
ines in spite of the great range in their appearance and struc- 
ture are a compact group and undoubtedly have been derived 
from some single ancient immigrant that had strayed into the 
islands. It lines the Odonata up with what is already known 
about the birds (Drepanidae), the land snails (Achatinellidae) 
and those orders of insects in which there are large endemic 
genera with apparently diverse but really closely related spe- 
cies. These strange groups have probably in each case been 
derived from some single ancestor which has strayed into the 
islands in the remote past. 

More difficult is the origin and probable relationship of this 
ancestral Agrionine. A study of the penes in the species listed 
by Kirby as Coenagrion shows that the extra-Hawaiian forms 
fall into at least two groups, the group of which puella is the 
type (see figs. 39, 46-49) and the group of which llndenii is 
the type (see figs. 40-45). As lindcnii has been given generic 
rank by Navasf as Cercion lindcnii, probably Cercion can be 

*Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 12, p. 237. 
fBroteria 6, p. 55, 1907. 


applied to the other three species figured as having penes simi- 
lar to that of llndcnii. I have so used it, though I should have 
compared these species in other characters had I had time. A 
good series of intermediate forms exists in the genus Cocna- 
grion between the puella penis and such penes as are shown in 
figs. 46-49. 

Of the two groups represented by lindenn and puella re- 
spectively, the penes would seem to indicate relationship of the 
Hawaiian Megalagrions with Cercion rather than with Cocna- 
grion of the puella group. This agrees with McLachlan's ob- 
servation* that the Hawaiian forms seemed more like lindenn 
than any of the other Eurasian species. As the American 
Coenagrions have penes which are aberrant forms of the 
puella type, this agrees with what is thought concerning the 
origin of the other peculiar Hawaiian genera : that these are 
not North American in origin. 

My first paper showed that too much dependence cannot be 
put on penile characters alone, nevertheless a study of these in 
this case has thrown an interesting side light on this Hawaiian 


Drawings of the penes of Megalagrion, Cercion and Coenagrion, 
being ventral and lateral views of the last two segments. 
Figs. 1-2. Megalagrion pacificum (McLachlan). Northwest Koolau 
Range, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands; 1500 ft. elevation. April, 1901. 
R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 3-4. Megalagrion xanthomclas (Selys). Honolulu, Oahu, Ha- 
waiian Islands. Nov., 1900. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 
Figs. 5-6. Megalagrion leptodemas (Perkins). Northwest Koolau 
Range, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands; 1800 ft. elevation. April, 1901. 
R. C. L. Perkins coll. 
Figs. 7-8. Megalagrion amaurodytum var. pclcs (Perkins). Hawaii, 

Hawaiian Islands, 1901. Koebele coll. 
Figs. 9-10. Megalagrion calliphya (McLachlan). lao Valley, Maui, 

Hawaiian Islands. 1902. R. C. L,. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 11-12. Megalagrion calliphya var. microdemas Kilauea, Ha- 
waii, Hawaiian Islands. July, 1903. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 
Figs. 13-14. Megalagrion cudytum (Perkins). Lihue, Kauai, Hawaiian 
Islands ; 1000 + ft. elevation. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

*Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), Vol. 12, p. 240. 


Plate II. 




Plate III. 




Figs. 15-16. Megalagrion dcceptor (McLachlan). Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands. Koebele coll.* 

Figs. 17-18. Megalagrion blackburni McLachlan. Halealau, Hawaiian 
Islands. June, 1903. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 19-20. Megalagrion occanicum McLachlan. Northwest Koolau 
Range, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands; 1500 ft. elevation. April, 1901. 
R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 21-22. Megalagrion heterogamias (Perkins). Makaweli, Kauai, 
Hawaiian Islands ; 2000 ft. elevation. Feb., 1897. R. C. L. Perkins 

Figs. 23-24. Megalagrion ragabundum (Perkins). Lihue, Kauai, 
Hawaiian Islands. R. C.. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 25-26. Megalagrion oahuense (Blackburn). Northwest Koolau 
Range, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands; 1500 ft. elevation. R. C. L. 
Perkins coll. 

Figs. 27-28. Megalagrion koelense (Blackburn). Honolulu Mts., Ha- 
waiian Islands; 1800 ft. elevation. Dec., 1901. R. C. L. Perkins 

Figs. 29-30. Megalagrion astcliae (Perkins). Honolulu Mts., Oahu, 
Hawaiian Islands, 2000 ft. elevation. July, 1900. R. C. L. Perkins 

Figs. 31-32. Megalagrion nigrohamatum (Blackburn). West Maui 
Mts., Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Oct., 1896. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 33-34. Megalagrion nigrohamatum var. nigrolineatum (Per- 
kins). Northwest Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands; 1500 
ft. elevation. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 35-36. Megalagrion hawaiiensc (McLachlan). Palolo Valley, 
Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. May, 1912. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Figs. 37-38. Megalagrion nesiotes (Perkins). Kilauea, Hawaii, Ha- 
waiian Islands. July, 1903. R. C. L. Perkins coll. 

Fig. 39. Coenagrion puclla (Linn.). From male in coll. of E. B. Wil- 
liamson. No data except July 27, 1907. 

[*The specimen from which this drawing was made is not typical 
dcceptor, but differs in having 1 the inferior appendages almost as long 
as the superiors, more strongly curved dorsad in the apical half so 
that the upper margin of the inferiors is almost a (concave) semi- 
circle. The dilated part of the superiors is not as much as half the 
length of the appendages and is a little higher, proportionally and rela- 
tively, than in other specimens. There are four, not five, antenodal 
cells and less black on the body generally than called for by McLach- 
lan's description. These color and venational differences may be but 
individual variations, judging from other Hawaiian species, but whether 
the differences above mentioned for the appendages are explicable in 
the same way, I am unable to decide, having too few specimens. 


Figs. 40-41. Ccrtion lindenii (Selys). From male in coll. of E. B. 

Williamson. "K. J. Morton coll., May I, 1912." 
Fig. 42. Ccrcion quadrigcrum (Selys). From male in coll. of Dr. 

P. P. Calvert. Only datum is "Japan." 
Fig. 43. Ccrcion sp. From male in coll. of Dr. P. P. Calvert. 

"Japan, Chic. Exhib. No. 1397." 
Figs. 44-45. Ccrcion (?) sp. From male, with damaged abdominal 

appendages, in coll. of Dr. P. P. Calvert. "Madagascar. From 

Rene Martin." 
Figs. 46-47. Cocnagrion angulattim Walker. From a male in coll. of 

E. B. Williamson. Coll. and det. by Dr. E. M. Walker. 
Figs. 48-49. Cocnagrion cacrnlesccns (Fonsc.). From male in coll. of 

E. B. Williamson. "From K. J. Morton. Sebdon, Algeria, June 

23, 1904." 

_. . 

A Simple Method of Identifying the Anopheles Mos- 
quitoes of the Canal Zone (Dip.).* 

By L. H. DUNN, Entomologist, Board of Health Laboratory, 
Ancon, Panama Canal Zone. 

The purpose of this article is to endeavor to supply a long- 
felt want and present a simple method of identifying the more 
common types of Anopheles mosquitoes found in the Canal 
Zone, and it is to be hoped that it may prove to be useful to 
those for whom it is intended, sanitary inspectors, medical 
men, and others interested in sanitary work. 

The anti-malarial work on the Canal Zone is of sufficient 
importance to make it necessary that all those engaged in 
sanitary work should be able to identify the Anopheles com- 
monly encountered, and especially should be able to differen- 
tiate those that are known to be malarial carriers from those 
that are not. 

Each species of the Zone Anopheles has some characteristic 
markings peculiar to itself that make it easy to identify when 
they are once known, and provided the specimens are not too 
badly mutilated. Mosquitoes that have been in flight for some 
time before capture, or have been bred out from larvae and 
left in a breeding jar for several days before an attempt at 

*Read before The Medical Association of the Isthmian Canal Zone, 
September 16, 1916. 


identification is made, are often broken and rubbed sufficiently 
to remove many of the scales, and to lose some of the color 
markings that help to simplify identification, and are more dif- 
ficult to identify. 

As far as I have been able to ascertain eleven species of 
Anopheles have been found in the Canal Zone up to the pres- 
ent time. Seven of these species are commonly found in this 
region. The remaining four species are seldom encountered. 
The seven common kinds are placed in the following list 
according to their abundance on the Canal Zone at the pres- 
ent time : Anopheles albunanns Wiedemann, tarsi metadata 
Goeldi, pseudopunctipennis Theobald, malefactor Dyar & 
Knab, arg \riiar sis Desvoidy, apiciinacnla Dyar & Knab, ciseni 

The four species not commonly found are: Anopheles gor- 
gasi Dyar & Knab, critz'n Dyar & Knab, punctimacula Dyar & 
Knab, f rands c anus McCracken. 

Seasonal changes exert an influence on the abundance of 
the different species and the relative numbers of the Ano- 
pheles at certain periods of the year may not conform with 
this list, but it has been taken from the average for the whole 
year, from both the larvae received at the Laboratory for 
identification, and from the hand catches of adults in quarters 
that are sent in daily, from all towns and army posts in the 
Zone, to be identified. For example, A. eiseni that nearly al- 
ways breeds in tree-holes and hollows in rocks and other 
places of like nature, is few in numbers even during the 
middle of the rainy season, but may not be found even in what 
seem to be its favorite localities even after a long search dur- 
ing the latter part of a dry season when very little rain has 
fallen and its habitual breeding places are dried up. 

I have attempted to construct the following table in such a 
manner that it provides a simple method for determining the 
adult Anopheles found in the Canal Zone, and as far as pos- 
sible have avoided all entomological nomenclature so that it 
may be readily understood by those who are not .familiar with 
the anatomy of mosquitoes. 


Table for the Identification of the common species of Canal Zone 

i Hind legs with white feet 2 

Hind legs long and dark colored without white feet or white 

markings A. pseudopunctipemns 

Hind legs without white feet, but with white band at middle of 

leg (white knee) A. eiscni 

Hind legs without white feet but with all three pairs of legs 
covered with white spots and narrow white bands (having a 

freckled appearance) 3 

2 White feet with a narrow black band near the end 4 

White feet without a narrow black band near the end, 

A. argyritarsis 
3 With black spot, or patch of black scales, at extreme, or apical, 

end of wing A. apicimacula 

Without a black spot, or patch of black scales, at extreme, or 

apical, end of wing A. malefactor 

4 Female with tip, or apical end, of palpi white, separated from a 
narrow white band by a wide black band. The separating 
black band is more than twice as wide as either the white tip 

or the proximal white band A. albimanus 

Female with tip, or apical end, of palpi white, separated from a 
wide white band by a narrow black band. The separating 
black band is less than half as wide as either the white tip or 
the proximal white band A. tarsimactilata, 

But one specimen of A. gorgasi has been found on the Isth- 
mus so far, and during the five years that I have been at the 
Laboratory I have not received any specimens of either 
A. punctimacula or A. crnzii in either the larval or adult 
forms. A. franciscanus is so few in numbers that it is prac- 
tically nil, therefore owing to the fact that these four species 
are so seldom encountered I have not included them in the 
foregoing table, as doing so would only make the table more 
difficult for a beginner to understand, and in this case not in- 
crease its value for practical work. 

Anopheles pseudopunctipennis. 

A few words of explanation may serve to assist in verify- 
ing the identifications of the different species as made by this 
table. Beginning with A. pseudopunctipennis , which is about 
the easiest to identify, it can be seen that it is the largest of 
the seven species of Anopheles, and has very long legs. All 


the legs are used to support the body while at rest, with all 
feet on the resting surface. This species is easily identified 
by the long hind legs devoid of any white spots or bands, and 
without white feet. Each joint has a small yellow spot at its 
union with the following joint, and these spots should not be 
mistaken for white bands. Another identifying mark of this 
species is a light gray stripe on the back, or thorax, extending 
from the head to the abdomen. This begins as a very narrow 
stripe between the eyes and widens as it extends backwards 
until the posterior end becomes nearly as wide as the thorax. 
The palpi are dark brown with two narrow bands and tip of 
light yellow. The light-colored tip is separated from the 
proximal light band by a dark band about as wide as the light 
tip. The palpi somewhat resemble those of A. albimanus in 
the arrangement of the bands, but there is a difference in their 
width and A. pscudopunctipennis has light yellow bands while 
A. albimanus has white. The principal features of A. pscudo- 
punctipennis are that there are no white markings on the legs, 
and none of the feet are white. 

Anopheles eiseni. 

The next species to be easily identified is A. eiseni. It is 
smaller than A. pseudopunctipcnnis and can be differentiated 
from that species by having a white band near the middle of 
each hind leg. The feet and middle pair of legs are dark with 
no white markings. The single broad white band on each hind 
leg and dark feet makes this mosquito easily separated from 
all the other species having white feet or spotted legs. The 
wing borders of this species are dark-colored except for two 
white spots at the tip, or apex, of the wing. The palpi are 
dark except for the apical third, which consists of two white 
bands, or rather one white band and a white tip, separated 
from each other by a narrow black band one half as wide as 
either of the white ones. 

Anopheles malefactor ct apicimacula. 

The next group in order of simplicity of identification is 
composed of those whose legs are covered with narrow white 
bands and small white spots and have the appearance of being 


covered with white freckles. This speckled-legged group con- 
sists of two species, A. malefactor and A apicimacula, and 
can be easily separated from the other five species of common 
Anopheles of the Canal Zone by their speckled legs. Both of 
these mosquitoes are quite pretty and are almost identical in 
appearance and can only be separated from one another by 
the wing markings. A. apicimacula has a large black spot, or 
patch of black scales, at the upper portion of the tip, or apex, 
of the wings, and this deep black spot easily separates this 
species from A. malefactor, which does not have this deep 
black spot but has a few small scattered groups of black spots 
taking its place. There is also a difference in the arrange- 
ment of the black and white spots along the veins of the 
wings, but to anyone not accustomed to identifying mosquitoes 
this diversity may not be readily noticeable, and the difference 
between the decoration on the tip of the wing is the best means 
of separating the two species: the large black spot in A. apici- 
macula and the few small scattered groups of black spots in 
A. malefactor. It is rather difficult to distinguish between 
these two species when the specimens are very badly rubbed 
and many of the wing scales removed. 

Anopheles argyritarsis, albimanus et tarsimaculata. 

The next and last and most important group from a medi- 
cal standpoint is the white-footed group which consists of 
three species, A. argyritarsis, A. albimanus, and A. tarsimacu- 
lata. These three mosquitoes are readily separated from the 
other four common Anopheles by the fact that each of these 
three species has white feet on the hind legs. A. argyritarsis 
can be readily distinguished from the other two species by its 
hind feet which are snow white without any narrow black 
band near the end. The palpi of A. argyritarsis and A. albi- 
manus are very similar. A. albimanus and A. tarsimaculata 
both have white hind feet, but in both species there is a nar- 
row black band near the end. This black band is separated 
from the apical end of the feet by a narrow white band of 
nearly the same width as the black band. The similarity of 
the feet markings in these two mosquitoes makes it necessary 


to separate the two species by the markings on the palpi. As 
shown in the foregoing table the difference between the mark- 
ings of the palpi is in the arrangement of the black and white 
bands. The white markings of A. albimanus can be plainly 
seen with a small lens and they consist of a white tip, or apex, 
and two narrow white bands. The white tip is separated 
from the nearer white band by a wide black band more than 
twice as wide as either the white band or tip. This nearer 
white band is separated from the second white band by an- 
other black band about as wide as the first black band. In 
A. tarsimaculata the palpi have a wide white tip and one wide 
white band and another narrower one. The wide white tip is 
separated from the nearer wide white band by a narrow black 
band less than half as wide as either the wide white band or 
tip. This nearer wide white band is separated from the sec- 
ond white band, which is a narrow one, by a wide black band 
much wider than the wide white band. 

These two species seem to be very closely related to each 
other and the only practical difference between them is in the 
arrangement of the bands on the proboscis. Some specimens 
when caught as adults may have the proboscis so badly rubbed 
that they may be almost entirely denuded of scales. These are 
very difficult to identify as it is the scales of different colors 
that give the color markings on the proboscis, but the differ- 
ence in fresh specimens can be so readily seen that a glance at 
the proboscis is all that is required to separate the two species. 

All of the markings that I have described are so distinctive 
and well-defined on fresh unrubbed females that they are ob- 
vious to an untrained observer, and after they have been seen 
a few times are easily remembered. The best plan for a be- 
ginner is to acquire experience by identifying bred out speci- 
mens before starting on those that have been caught in flight. 

This method of identification only pertains to the seven com- 
mon species and does not provide for the classification of the 
uncommon species or for any new species that may make their 
appearance in the Canal Zone. These encounters are liable to 
occur but seldom if at all. After a little experience one be- 
comes so familiar with the markings of the common types that 
any new varieties can easily be detected. 


New Chalcid Flies from Maryland (Hym.) 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Glenndale, Maryland. 
CARLYLEIA new genus. 

Female : Like Parasecodclla Girault but the marginal vein 
is somewhat longer than the submarginal, the postmarginal 
and stigmal veins are nearly equal, distinct, moderately long, 
the former a little longer, the stigmal with a distinct neck and 
ovate club ; the antennae are inserted a little below the eyes, 
near the mouth-border and the club is solid and scarcely wider 
than the funicle ; the distinct propodeum is noncarinate (of 
uniform length or nearly so, its minute spiracle about central, 
or a little caudad of middle) ; the abdomen bears a very short 
petiole, is pointed conic-ovate, produced beneath, longer than 
the thorax, excluding the ovipositor which is extruded for a 
third of the abdomen's length. 

Otherwise the same but the mandibles bidentate. Parap- 
sidal furrows complete, distinct. Axillae scarcely advanced. 
Caudal tibial spur single. Marginal cilia of fore wing a little 
longer than normal (that is, not extremely short). Body slen- 
der. Coxae large. Prothorax conical. 

This group is somewhat anomalous but because of its hab- 
itus, noncarinated propodeum, venation and the ciliation of 
the fore wing and the paucity of teeth in the mandibles, I 
think it is correctly placed among the Omphalini. The sub- 
marginal vein is distinctly broken. 

Carlyleia marilandica new species. Genotype. 

9. Length, i.oo mm., excluding the ovipositor. Metallic blue green, 
the fore wings lightly infuscated throughout except for a more or less 
obscure, clear space across from the break of the submarginal vein ; 
legs white except all of cephalic coxa and femur and the middle and 
caudal femora (except at each end). Antennae black, the scape yel- 
lowish white except above at apex. First ring joint smallest; funicle I 
somewhat longer than wide, slightly shorter than the pedicel, 4 quad- 
rate; club without a terminal nipple, about three-fourths the length of 
the funicle. Head subglabrous. Thorax very densely scaly, the scutel- 
lum smoother. Scutum with scattered, prostrate setae, the scutellum 
with not more than four. 


Described from one female captured in the woods, May, 
1916 (Glenndale, Maryland). 

Type: Catalogue No. 20296, United States National Mu- 
seum, the female on a tag, the head and a caudal leg on a slide. 

Aprostocetus marilandicus new species. 

9. The same as whitmani but a third smaller, the antennae are 
wholly white except the bulla and proximal third each of the scape 
and pedicel, the third club joint dusky at apex; otherwise the same. 
Types compared. 

Described from two females from the woods, Glenndale, 
Prince George County, Maryland, April. 

Types: Catalogue No. 20300, U. S. N. M., the two females 
together on a tag, their heads on a slide. 

This new species is like Neomphaloidella scmilongifasciata 
and A r . pulchriventris of North America, purple species with 
a more or less yellow abdomen, margined with purple, the legs 
with the dark color more abundant from caudad to cephalad, 
thus similar to a number of Australian species of Tetrasti- 
chini and Eupelminae. 

Chrysocharomyia eleganta new species. 

$. Length, 1.30 mm. Abdomen conic-ovate, somewhat longer than 
the thorax. 

Dark metallic blue, the legs and antennae concolorous except knees, 
tips of tibiae, cephalic tibiae except for two obscure cincti, one near 
knee, the other at the middle, three proximal tar sal joints and the 
scape except above at apex. Venter of abdomen suffused with yellow- 

Mandibles acutely tridentate but the ventral side of the third tooth 
denticulate. Ring joints subequal. Pedicel a third longer than wide 
at apex, shorter than any following joint by far; funicle i longest of 
the rlagellum, two and one-quarter times longer than wide, slightly lon- 
ger than club 2; funicles 2 to 3 subequal, each nearly twice longer than 
wide or 3 subequal to club i and a little shorter than 2; terminal spine 
of club distinct, not half the length of its joint. 

Fore wings with a nearly complete smoky fascia across from the 
stigmal knob and which fades caudad of middle, and with a small 
round smoky spot against the marginal vein a short distance proximad 
of its middle. Marginal vein elongate, the postmarginal distinctly 
longer than the stigmal, the latter with a short neck and an ovate club. 
Marginal fringes of the fore wing distinct, short. 


Body densely scaly, the scutellum with a seta on each side before 
apex, the propodeum only with a delicate carina laterad of the spiracle. 
Parapsidal furrows complete but sutured cephalad only. 

One female, Glenndale, Maryland, from the woods, June 
24, 1916. 

-Type : Catalogue No. 20356, U. S. N. M., the female on a 
tag, a wing, caudal tibia and the head on a slide. 

Achrysocharis divina new species. 

Female : Length, 0.75 mm. Differs from the genotype in having the 
scape moderately convexly dilated ventrad, plainly compressed. 

Metallic green and densely scaly punctate; legs and antennae white 
except the coxae, middle femur at base, middle tibia just below the 
knee, caudal femora and tibiae, pedicel except at apex beneath, funicle 
i, apex of funicle 2, clubs 2 and 3, and the blotched scape which is 
metallic at proximal third of ventral margin and at distal third (or the 
apex broadly). Head pale yellow excepting the occiput (except nar- 
rowly across at vertex), a broken metallic line across face just above 
the antennae and a second convexed and broken line through the an- 
tennae ; also a more or less distinct spot near the eye on upper face, 
minute setae (few) of vertex from dusky dots. 

Fore wings distinctly bifasciate, the first fascia from the apex of 
the marginal vein along the mesal side of the stigmal, flat-bow-shaped 
and fading toward the caudal margin, the second nearly straight but 
with wavy margins, across near apex (at middle, about its own width 
from apex). Marginal fringes of fore wing between a fifth and a 
sixth of the greatest wing width, the stigmal vein slightly longer than 
the postmarginal. 

Cheeks moderately long, the mandibles 4-dentate. Flagellum clothed 
with scraggy hairs ; funicle i a little longer than the oval pedicel, sub- 
equal to 2, the club joints a little more slender, the terminal nipple dis- 
tinct, not as long as the joint bearing it. Parapsidal furrows distinct, 

One female, June 14, 1916, from a field of weeds, Prince 
George County, Maryland. 

Type : Catalogue No. 20320, U. S. N. M., the female on a 


Nearly related to Apterolaelaps Girault but differs as fol- 
lows : There is no arcuate carina on the face ventrad of the 
antennae, the carina separating the scrobes is at ventral third 


only, the mandibles are 4-dentate, there is no cross-suture on 
the scutellum, the neck of the propodeum is more distinct 
while the abodmen is subsessile, the petiole transverse-linear. 
Moreover, the antennae are 13-jointed with one ring-joint, the 
club 3-jointed. Maxillary palpi 4- jointed. Pronotum quad- 

Spalangiolaelaps argenticoxa new species. Genotype. 

$ . Length, 2.50 mm. Honey yellow, the coxae silvery-white, the 
caudal tibiae fuscous, the apex of the abdomen, a spot between the 
tegula and the axilla, a large area dorso-laterad just before middle of 
segment 2 of the abdomen (fuscous), caudal margin of that segment 
broadly, pedicel and rest of flagellum, save funicles I to 2, black. 

Head densely scaly-punctate, the lower face convergently striate. 
Pedicel nearly thrice longer than wide, distinctly shorter than funicle 
i, the latter subelongate, thicker distad or subclavate, four times 
longer than wide, a third longer than 2, 6 quadrate, 7 subquadrate. 

Thorax cross-reticulated scaly, the scutellum and axillae finely long- 
striate. Four long black bristles across pronotum caudad, two on cau- 
dal scutum, one on the axilla laterad, four on the scutellum at the 
middle, arranged in a semi-circle; long black setae on the vertex (8). 
Propodeum between the spiracles long-striate, the spiracle round, cen- 
tral. Parapsidal furrows as in Uriolaclaps yet touching the scutellum. 

Fore wings about twice the size of the posterior wings, both small, 
longer than wide. 

Abdomen delicately scaly, distad of segment 2. 

From one female, Hillmead (Glenndale), Prince George 
County, Maryland. Captured by sweeping the foliage of oaks 
and other trees of various species in the woods, June 4, 1916. 

Type: Catalogue No. 20305, U. S. N. M., the female on a 
tag, the head and a caudal tibia on a slide. 

Miscogaster ungutta new species. 

9 . Similar to flora but somewhat smaller and the middle tibiae also 
are metallic purple. Also, the short abdominal petiole is white. Other- 
wise the same. Mandibles 4-dentate. 

One female, Glenndale, Maryland, from the woods, June 4, 

Type: Catalogue No. 20313, U. S. N. M., the female on a 
tag, the head and caudal tibiae on a slide. 


Some Unusual Orchid Insects (Hem., Lep., Dip., Col.)- 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

(Plates IV and V.) 

The following notes relate only to unusual insects which 
have been found associated with orchids growing in New Jer- 
sey greenhouses. Biological information concerning such 
species accumulates slowly, especially when one is forced to 
study them in greenhouses, where material as a rule is ex- 
ceedingly scarce and the plants too valuable for unlimited ex- 

Two of the species mentioned herein are new, having only re- 
cently been described by Mr. G. C. Champion, in the Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine for September, 1916, page 200. 
These are the weevils Cholus cattleyae and Diorymellus laevl- 
margo. Inasmuch as the above mentioned publication is 
readily accessible to entomologists in America, it was not 
thought necessary to reprint the descriptions which Mr. 
Champion so kindly drew up at my request. 

Tenthecoris bicolor Scott (Hemip.). 

This blue and red member of the family Miridac is occa- 
sionally met with in New Jersey greenhouses where orchids 
are grown and has been taken at various times by inspectors 
examining orchids from South America. It is a common oc- 
currence to find the leaves of Cattlcya orchids imported from 
Brazil covered with irregular, white spots one or 
two millimetres in size, due to the abstraction of chlorophyll 
by this bug. (Plate IV, fig. 3). As a rule it is never abund- 
ant enough in greenhouses to do much damage, although it 
has been known in the past to occur in numbers sufficient to 
seriously weaken and disfigure the orchids. It is incorrectly 
known to many orchid growers as the "Brazilian thrips." 

The adult lives underneath the leaves of infested plants and 
both the nymphs and adults puncture the leaves and suck the 
juices. Cattleyas are especially subject to attack and Laelias 
and Sophronitis often show the characteristic spotting of the 
leaves. The following brief description from an account in 


the Gardeners' Chronicle for May 16, 1908, p. 313, by Mr. F. 
Denis, will enable one to identify this species. 

Tcnthccoris bicolor Scott 1886, synonym Euritotarsus orchidcarum 
Renter 1902. 

Head, pronotum and external edge of upper wings of a pronounced 
brick red color; thorax and rest of upper wings, bright blue; antennae 
and legs, yellow ; upper side of body and antennae covered with fine 
short hairs ; head conical in front with well developed eyes ; antennae 
more than half as long as the body. Pronotum constricted, with a 
deep ridge in the centre of the constriction. The under part of the 
body is of a reddish-yellow. The length excluding antennae, 4 mm., 
the breadth rather less than 2 mm. 

Castnia therapon Koll. (Lep.). 

This is a rare insect in orchid houses occurring only in a 
very limited way. The large, pinkish white larva of this 
species bores through the rhizome and up into the bulb, doing, 
of course, considerable damage. Oncidhnn crispum, Cattleya 
labiata and Catasctum spp. are the recorded food plants. 
Brief mention is made of this species together with a figure 
of the adult in Seitz's Macrolepidoptcra of the World, vol. VI, 
p. 12, plate 7, a, which gives Brazil as its native home. It is 
undoubtedly imported every year or so in orchids from Brazil 
and never becomes permanently established in the orchid 
house, as the adult is too large and showy to escape attention. 

ParalleloJiplosis cattleyae Moll. (Dip.). 

This species known as the Cattleya midge is another rather 
rare insect. The larval stages are passed as yellowish-white 
maggots near the tips of the roots resulting in unsightly swell- 
ings, which disfigure the roots and check growth, sometimes 
causing them to turn black and die. According to Dr. E. P. 
Felt, who gives a brief account of this species in the N. Y . 
State Museum Bulletin 180, p. 89, each gall may contain from 
one to seven maggots, each in a cavity by itself. Orchids im- 
ported from Guatemala often have the roots badly disfigured 
by these swellings. (Plate IV, fig. i). 

Eucactophagus graphipterus Champ. (Col.). (Plate V, fig. i.) 

This interesting and large member of the family Cctlandri- 
dae is a native of Costa Rica and the U. S. of Colombia. It 


feeds chiefly on such plants as Oncidium oblongatum, Lycaste, 
Odontoglossum and various other species having large soft 
pseudo-bulbs. The adult, which is about 17 mm. long and 7 
mm. wide and characteristically marked, gnaws large irregular 
depressions in the pseudo-bulbs and also feeds on the bases of 
the leaves, usually cutting them off more or less completely. 
(Plate IV, fig. 4.) Sometimes they feed rather openly on the 
leaves, but as a rule they can be found lurking at the base of 
the plant. The larva lives in the pseudo-bulb and excavates 
quite a large cavity, destroying much of the interior and pav- 
ing the way for decay. Pupation also takes place in the 
pseudo-bulb. The body of the adult is quite hard, it being al- 
most impossible to pierce it with an ordinary pin unless con- 
siderable force is exerted. That they can endure long fasts 

J O 

is evident from the treatment, which they sometimes receive 
at the hands of unfeeling workmen in orchid houses, who tie 
strings to their legs and hang them up for weeks at a time 
finally taking them down and killing them in disgust because 
they persist in remaining alive. 

Acypotheus (Baridius) orchivora Blackb. (Col.). (Plate V, fig. 3.) 
It is not unusual to come across this representative of the 
family Baridac and indications of its work in Dcndrobium or- 
chids growing in various greenhouses in northern New Jersey. 
It is a typical, little, dull black weevil about 3.5 mm. long, hav- 
ing the snout and legs thickened, the thorax wider than long 
and rounded on the sides to the hind margin. The elytron is 
convex and broadly rounded to the apex. The head is finely 
punctured, the thoracic dorsum more coarsely pitted and the 
elytra marked with parallel punctured striae, the ventral sur- 
face and legs also being finely pitted. It was described by the 
Rev. T. Blackburn in the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of South Australia, 1900. Mr. Walter W. Froggatt in Misc. 
Pub. No. 751 from the Agricultural Gazette of N. S. Wales 
gives a brief account of this species and figures an adult. He 
states that the insects were bred from the pseudo-bulbs or 
thickened leaf stalks of Dcndrobium canaliculatum and gives 
the following descriptions of the larva and pupa. 


Larva short, thickened, wrinkled and curled in burrow when at 
rest; head chestnut brown, lightest in center where it is bisected by 
two darker lines, arcuate on hind margin; jaws black, antennae and 
palpi reddish brown. 

Pupa Pale yellow with black eyes; tip of snout and spines on ab- 
domen reddish brown, wing-pads dark colored at tips; dorsal surface 
of head smooth, bearing a few scattered hairs; thorax broad showing 
a depression on either side and a central suture; abdomen tapering to 
extremity, each segment furnished with a spine on either side with 
anal one bearing two and a number of spiny hairs at apex; surface 
shows several fine hairs upon head with two longer ones above eyes; 
snout and legs curled downward, wings folded down forming a pad 
on either side. 

This insect was evidently introduced into New Jersey green- 
houses in orchids imported from some tropical country of the 
Eastern hemisphere and while it is not by any means common, 
it is not unusual to collect a specimen or two by diligently 
hunting through a house of Dendrobiums. During the middle 
of the day the beetles seem to prefer to rest in the curled, 
basal portion of the leaf, where a considerable part of their 
feeding takes place. In New Jersey, Dcndrob'mm findlayanum 
and D. crystallinum seem to be attacked more than other spe- 
cies as I have found entire specimens of these plants com- 
pletely riddled by the larvae. 

Diorymellus laevimargo Champ. (Col.). (Plate V, fig. 4.) 

This little, black, shiny fellow, which is only 2 mm. long and 
i mm. wide and also a member of the Barldae, is sometimes 
excessively abundant in orchid houses feeding on Cattleyas 
and Dendrobiums. Cattlcya mossiae and C. speciosissinm 
have been the ones particularly subject to attack. In addition 
to feeding on the leaves, pseudo-bulbs and flower stalks, 
the orchid-growers credit this beetle with doing considerable 
damage to the flowers and unopened flower buds. Plate IV, 
figure 2 shows the somewhat hard discolorations and spots, 
usually at the tips and edges of the petals and sepals, which 
surround the feeding punctures. I have been informed that a 
somewhat similar-looking injury follows improper ventilation 
and watering. Such markings of course make the flowers un- 
salable or reduce their value. The beetles can be found, some- 


times crawling slowly over the plants, but usually in the curled 
up, basal part of the leaf or in the sheath surrounding the flower 
stalk. Advantage is taken of this habit by the orchid-grower 
who sometimes sends a man daily through the house to hunt out 
raid destroy them. Up to the present I have been unsuccess- 
ful in my search for larvae and pupae and know nothing con- 
cerning the early stages. Mr. G. C. Champion writes that the 
eight known species of Diorymclhis are all from Central 
America and that this new species is related to D. octostriatus 
and D. 12-striatus. 

Cholus cattleyae Champ. (Col.). (Plate V, fig. 2.) 

This attractive species, which belongs to the Curculionidae, 
is about ii mm. long, 5 mm. wide, black and characteristically 
marked with white and has been found as a rule associated 
only with Cattleya gigas, but other species are sometimes in- 
jured. Its feeding habits are somewhat similar to those of 
Eucactophagns graphlpterus except that the damage is done 
higher up. The surface of the pseudo-bulb is irregularly 
chewed and the leaves punctured with large holes, the tissue 
surrounding these punctures finally turning black and becom- 
ing hard and dead. From information received from orchid- 
growers and my own observations, I am inclined to believe 
that the larval and pupal stages are passed within the pseudo- 
bulbs, as coleopterous larvae have been taken from these bulbs 
and they often contain large cavities and exit holes. Mr. 
Champion states that this species is allied to C. forbesi Pasc., 
from Ecuador, found among orchids and that two allied forms 
occur in Central America, these being C. nigromaculatus and 
C. nitjronotatns. Caltleya gigas comes from Colombia which 
is undoubtedly the home of this species.* 

Diaxenes dendrobii Gahan (Col.). 

This species, known as the Dendrobium orchid beetle, at- 

*Since the above was written, Mr. H. S. Barber has examined my 
specimens and finds that two species are confused. One is Cholus 
cattleyae and the other has been identified tentatively by him as Cholus 
forbesii Pascoe. In view of this, the notes under Cholus cattleyae 
apply equally well to ? Cl>.t>hts forbesii as both were found together. 


Plate IV. 




Plate V. 




tacks Dendrobiums, Cattleyas and Laelias. The larvae feed 
in the tissue of the pseudo-bulb and sometimes mine it so com- 
pletely that only the outer skin is left, while the beetles attack 
the foliage, pseudo-bulbs and roots. All stages, together with 
injured orchids, are figured in the Gardeners' Chronicle 
for July 24, 1897, by R. Stewart MacDougall. In the same 
article, an allied species, Dia.vencs taylori, is also mentioned. 
As far as I know neither of these species has been found in 
New Jersey. 



Fig. i Galls of Paralcllodiplosis cattlcyac on orchid roots. 
Fig. 2 Sepals of Cattlcya mossiac injured by Diorymcllns laevimar</o 

Fig. 3 Leaf of Cattlcya sp. showing discoloration due to feeding of 

Tcnthccoris bicolor. 
Fig. 4 Leaves of Oncidium oblongatum eaten at bases by Eucacto- 

phagus graphiptcrus. 


Fig. I Eucactophagus graphiptcrus Champ. 
Fig. 2 Chains cattleyac Champ. 
Fig. 3 Acypothcus orchivora Blackb. 
Fig. 4 Dioryinellus laevimargo Champ. 

The Distribution and Synonymy of Autographa 
vaccinii Hy. Edw. (Lep.) 

By way of a foreword I desire to state that after a lapse 
of fourteen years I am once more engaged in a study of Aiito- 
grap]\.a and Allied Genera (see Journal New York Entomolog- 
ical Society, June, 1902). I hope in the near future to pub- 
lish another monograph, this time illustrated with colored 
plates. To this end I already have colored drawings of all 
North American types in the British Museum, obtained 
through the courteous co-operation of Sir George Hampson. 
Also, about thirty colored drawings from my own material 
have thus far been completed by that wonderfully accurate 


artist, Mrs. Wm. Beutenmuller, who is at work on the other 
North American species. 

I would much appreciate the assistance and co-operation of 
American collectors and museum curators, not only in sup- 
plying specimens (for which I will gladly pay liberally in 
cash or exchange), but for information as well. The first in- 
formation requested is in regard to vaccinii. If any collector 
or museum is in possession of this species, taken elsewhere 
than above timber line on Mt. Washington or neighboring 
peaks, I would give much for the privilege of examining the 

In using the term Antographa as the generic name I am 
not at present denying Sir George Hampson's substituted term 
Syngraplia. I am simply using the term at present familiar 
to American collectors. 

Antographa vaccinii was described by Harry Edwards 
(Entomologica Americana, Vol. II, p. 170, 1886). It was dis- 
covered by Mr. Roland Thaxter on Mt. Washington, and he 
also found and reared the larva on a species of Vaccinium, 
whence the name. In his description Edwards points out the 
similarities and difference between his new species and 
ii-aurcinn. What did he mean by u-aureum f 

I first collected on Mount Washington in 1890. I also dur- 
ing that same summer collected at Jefferson, New Hampshire, 
which is in the valley. I collected on Mount Washington and 
about Twin Mountain for several successive summers there- 
after. My material was identified and named at that time 
mainly by comparisons made for me by Mr. Edwards and Mr. 

At that time the Grote Check List was in common use, in 
which vaccinn does not occur, but u-aureum Boisd. does occur, 
the order being u-aureum, mortuormn, ocioscripta, which was 
exactly as I placed them in 1902, with only slight rearrange- 
ment, viz., rcciangnla (syn. mortuorum} alias, octoscripta. 
Alias here replaces u-aureum because I decided that it does 
not fit the description of u -our cum, the name, however, which 
it was carrying in all Atlantic Coast collections. Hence my 


denominating it "alias," it having passed under an assumed 
name as it were. 

There is little doubt that "alias" is what Edwards had in 
mind when comparing his new species with u-aurcum. 

Prof. J. B. Smith tells us (Bulletin 44, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 
255) that the type of vaccinii is with Mr. Thaxter. This I 
believe is true, that type being at present at Cambridge, if I 
am not mistaken. But there is also a type in the Edwards 
collection, labeled correctly Mt. Washington. 

Sir George Hampson lists this (Cat. Lep., vol. XIII, pp. 
424-5) as Syngrapha u-aurcum, giving vaccinii as a synonym. 

I do not wish to discuss the validity of this synonymy at 
the present time further than to state that u-aureum was de- 
scribed from Dalecarlia, a Swedish locality. 

Hampson gives the distribution as follows : Canada Nova 
Scotia. U. S. A. New Hampshire, Mount Washington ; New 
York, Adirondack Mts. Alpine, Grote. 

Prof. Smith in his Bulletin says : Mt. Washington, Adiron- 
dack Mts., Nova Scotia. 

Dyar in his catalog says : North Atlantic States. 

It is my own opinion that vaccinii has never been taken else- 
where than above timber line on Mt. Washington or some 
other contiguous range. Personally I have collected on Mt. 
Washington and in the adjacent valleys at least during four 
seasons. I have always been able to take vaccinii at proper 
season above timber line. I have captured other Autographas 
on the summit, but never a vaccinii below it. Mrs. Annie T. 
Slosson, who, perhaps, has collected in this region more thor- 
oughly and more constantly than any other collector, tells me 
that her experience has been similar. 

Whence then the statements that vaccinii has occurre'd in 
Nova Scotia and in the Adirondack's? I have spent fifteen 
summers in the Adirondack's and never saw a vaccinii there. 

I believe that we have here a case of false identification. 
For example, only recently I examined the specimens in the 
American Museum Collection in New York, mainly the Ed- 
wards collection. Under vaccinii I found four specimens, the 


labels reading Mt. Washington, Adirondack Mts. and" one 
other locality, which I do not recall. The point is that the 
Mt. Washington specimens were vaccinii, one labeled "type." 
The Adirondack specimen was my alias, formerly labeled 
u-aurcum in American collections. The other specimen was 
octoscripta, the four specimens representing three species. 

I may add that I have found exactly similar confusion of 
these species wherever I have looked over collections, with 
rare exceptions. 

That is why I ask collectors to report to me if anyone has 
vaccinii from any locality other than the Presidential Range 
in New Hampshire. In case anyone has such a specimen, I 
should wish not only to hear of it, but to see it. 

It has been said of some authors that they would not be 
able to recognize their own species if locality labels were re- 
moved. The converse seems to be true in this group. 

In the American Museum in New York last spring I found 
a series which I declared were mixed. I separated them into 
angulidens and e.rcelsa. After so separating them, I exam- 
ined the locality labels. All that I had called angulidens were 
labeled Colorado and all the e.vcclsa bore the label Laggan. 
Excelsa, however, was taken by myself in the White Moun- 
tains. But if anyone has angulidens from any region out- 
side of Colorado, I should be glad to see the specimens. Sim- 
ilarly I would like to see sackeni from any locality other than 
Colorado, or snowi from any locality other than New Mexico. 
If anyone can confirm or disprove the above views, I should 
be indebted if he will correspond with me. 

A Collecting Trip in Colombia. 

Mr. E. B. Williamson, of Bluffton, Indiana, the well-known student 
of the Odonata, left his home on November 25 for a trip in Colombia, 
South America, where he will devote his energies to collecting his 
favorite insects. A card dated December 4 announced his arrival in 
Panama, where he expected to remain until the 7th. His plan is to 
return home in March. 


A New Genus of Bothynotinae, Miridae (Heter.). 

By M. WIRTNER, Monte Casino, Covington, Kentucky. 


This, our first American genus of Bothynotinae may easily 
be recognized by examining the membrane which is pilose 
above and below. 

Male oblong, female oval, or ovate in the short-winged fe- 
male. Head subvertical, pilose, short, behind the exserted 
eyes, constricted, immarginate ; vertex wide, somewhat con- 
vex ; clypeus slightly elevated, separated at base from the 
f rons, base on a line drawn between the antennal pits ; lorae 
discrete ; gula short, subhorizontal. Eyes medium, prominent, 
distinctly remote from the apex of the pronotum. Antennae 
inserted on a line drawn between the center of the eyes, 
strongly pilose, the basal joint incrassated, as long as or 
slightly longer than the width between the eyes ; second longer 
than the third and fourth united, or three-fourths as long as 
the basal width of the pronotum, or a trifle shorter than the 
pronotum and the scutellum united, becoming (especially in 
the female) slightly thicker towards the apex. Rostrum 
reaching the intermediate coxae, the first joint passing the 
apex of the prosternum. 

Prosternum triangular, sides straight and raised, its xyphus 
marginated ; orifices of the metapleura tuberculose. Prono- 
tum trapeziform, collar raised, hairy, posteriorly convex, 
towards the apex strongly declivous, basal width almost twice 
its length, or three times its apical width, deeply closely punc- 
tured ; calli confluent at the disc forming an arc, shining, 
smooth. Scutellum triangular, hairy, the base covered, mi- 
nutely transversely wrinkled, a carina beginning at the apex 
and disappearing in the depressed middle of the base. 

Hemelytra rugose, hairy, lateral margins ampliated, in the 
male semipellucid, opaque in the female; subcosta entire, 
forming an embolium, cubitus also complete; the hairy 
cuneus and the membrane much deflected ; membrane of the 
male very long, of the short-winged female reaching the end 
of the abdomen, biareolated, distinctly pubescent above and 


Feet pilose, posterior femora reaching the apex of the ab- 
domen, no thicker than the others. Tarsi: first joint longest, 
the second shortest. Claws without arolia but armed with a 
strong basal, acute tooth. 

Neobothynotus modestus n. sp., type of the genus. 

Body brown in the male, in the female piceous, shining. Head, pros- 
ternum, first joint of the antennae and the base of the second 
joint, the stricture, sometimes the base of the calli rufous. Head 
smooth, hairy, its width twice that of the eye ; clypeus piceous. Ros- 
trum in the male testaceous, in the female nigropiceous, the second 
joint the longest, as long as the second joint of the antennae. Antennae, 
apex of the second joint piceous, in some females both the first and 
the second joints are nigropiceous, the slender third and fourth soiled 
white, the third longer than the fourth. 

Pronotum deeply, closely punctured, hairy, brown in the male, in the 
female nigropiceous, calli (base always) piceous, stricture rufous. 
Scutellum deeply impressed at base, hairy, piceous. 

Hemelytra rugose, minutely punctate, a row of more evident punc- 
tures on the subcosta, claval suture and on the commissure, the color 
the same as that of the pronotum and of the pilose cuneus. Membrane 
smoky, iridescent, rugose, pubescent above and below, its length in 
the male longer than the basal width of the pronotum, in the ma- 
cropterous female as long as, and in the short-winged female three- 
fourths as long as the basal width of the pronotum; apex of the large 
cell wide, at the short round angle of this cell there are signs of two 
very short open apical veins ; a white spot on the membrane below the 

Abdominal segments of the male rufous edged with black, in the 
female almost or entirely piceous. 

Legs of the male testaceous, of the female sometimes entirely nigro- 
piceous, the basal acute tooth of the claws about one-third the length 
of the claw. One short-winged female is entirely piceous excepting 
the top of the head and the stricture. 

Length : male 5 mm,, female 4 mm., short-winged female 3.8 mm. 

Captured in September at Greeensburg, Pennsylvania, with 

the sweepnet in Col. Huff's park. It is also found in Illinois. 

Described from twelve specimens in the college collection. 

Type: A male, Greensburg, Pa., in St. Vincent College coll., 

Beatty, Pa.* 

The male of this species strongly resembles in color and 
general shape Renter's figure (I, plate IV, vol. V, Hem. Gymn. 
Europae) of Bothynotus pilosus Boh. 

*An allotype I will send to Philadelphia and a paratype to the Car- 
negie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Notes on the Feeding Habits of Adult Chrysopidae 


By L. BRADFORD RIPLEY, Dep't. of Entomology, University of 

Illinois, Champaign, 111. 

All of the statements that I have been able to find concerning 
the feeding habits of adult Chrysopidae agree that "in the 
adult stage the insects feed little, or not at all." 1 This quota- 
tion, from Dr. J. B. Smith, refers to the genus Chrysopa. 
Howard informs us similarly that the adult C. oculata "does 
not feed," 2 and Wildermuth, in his recent paper on the Cali- 
fornia Green Lacewing Fly, 3 states that "neither sex has ever 
been noted by the writer to feed in the adult stage, even when 
food was offered, and doubtless all of the lacewing flies take 
little or no food in this period of their existence." 

In the summer of 1916, in Glastonbury, Connecticut, the 
writer had occasion to keep in confinement many adults of C. 
oculata for the purpose of procuring eggs for embryological 
studies. The observation of these insects has afforded con- 
clusive evidence contradicting this prevalent statement. 

A large scarlet aphid common in New England, on the 
stems of Golden Glow (Rudbeckia laciniata), having been ni- 
troduced into the cage, the smaller specimens were vigorously 
attacked by the chrysopids. The prey was grasped in the man- 
dibles by the end of the abdomen, the juices sucked and the 
skin completely eaten. One female, while under observation, 
ate three aphids in rapid succession, but refused more food. 
These adults also drank from drops of water. When apple 
leaves were put in the cage, the insects ran over them rapidly, 
with their heads almost touching the leaves, as if searching for 
small insects or eggs. 

Adults of both sexes, soon after being collected, or a few 
hours after feeding, \vere often observed to discharge black 
pellets from the anus, which appeared to be animal matter, as 

1 John B. Smith, Sc.D., Economic Entomology, p. 74. 

2 L. O. Howard. Insects, p. 225. 

3 V. L. Wildermuth, California Green Lacewing Fly. Journal of 
Agricultural Research, Vol. 6, No. 14, 1916. 


viewed with the microscope, so finely ground and digested, 
however, that no tissue was distinguishable. 

After a few days of confinement without food or water, fe- 
males invariably died a premature death, with many eggs in the 
abdomen unlaid, whereas fed females usually laid all, or nearly 
all, of their eggs. 

Unfed females were observed to extract eggs from their own 
abdomens with their mandibles, and to devour them rapidly one 
after another. The performance of this operation by one in- 
dividual was witnessed three times in less than one minute. 
Only those insects which had been confined without food and 
water for a few days were seen to resort to this source of nutri- 
ment. In several instances, females were seen trying to extract 
eggs in this manner without success, the eggs being, presum- 
ably, too far within the vagina to be reached by the mandibles. 

Since this egg-eating habit is displayed only by unfed individ- 
uals, it is concluded that hunger is the chief stimulus to this 
reaction. Scarcity of food for adult Chrysopidae may have 
been of sufficiently frequent occurrence in the past to account 
for the development of the preservative instinct exhibited by 
the females, of eating the eggs. This instinct, however, does 
not permit the insect to subsist on its own eggs until its abdo- 
men is emptied of them, as evidenced by the fact of death by 
starvation with many eggs still in the abdomen. The rate at 
which eggs are available for extraction by the mandibles is 
not sufficient to satisfy the demands for nutriment ; however, 
when food is scarce, this egg-eating habit is doubtless of 
great preservative value in allowing the females to subsist from 
one meal of insects to another. 

To summarize: (i) Adults of both sexes feed upon small- 
er, soft-bodied insects, drink water and discharge solid excre- 
ment. (2) Unfed females die of starvation, leaving a large 
portion of their eggs unlaid. (3) Females on the point of 
starvation eat their own eggs, extracting them from the abdo- 
men as frequently as they are available a preservative in- 

Thus Chrysopidae are of even greater economic importance 


than has been known, since the useful work of the notoriously 
predaceous larva is supplemented by the predaceous work of 
the adults. In the struggle for existence, however, the posi- 
tion of this family is decidedly less advantageous than formerly 
supposed, inasmuch as, not only the larval food, but also the 
amount of food available for the adult insect, is an important 
factor in determining the number of individuals. 

A Species of Macrotracheliella found in New England 
(Hemip., Anthocoridae). 

By H. M. PARSIILEY, Bussey Institution, Harvard University. 

While examining not long ago some unmounted insects be- 
longing to the Boston Society of Natural History, I found an 
Anthocorid bug unlike anything I had previously seen. I sent 
it with some other doubtful specimens to Mr. O. Heidemann, 
who returned it without comment as "Macrotracheliella sp.," 
another instance of my friend's well-known acumen and will- 
ingness to give others the benefit of his great knowledge of 
the Hemiptera. This genus was founded by Champion in the 
Biologia 1 to contain a new species, M. laevis, of which he had 
examples from Mexico and Panama. The occurrence of a 
very closely related species in New England is one of those 
troublesome facts of distribution which every now and then 
arise to. confront us with our profound ignorance of what is 
or has been really going on, notwithstanding our theories of 
zones, soils, land-bridges, and so forth. 

The specimen at hand agrees in every particular with Cham- 
pion's generic diagnosis but differs from M. laevis in certain 
characters of specific value. For those who do not have ac- 
cess to the Biologia it may be of service to present the chief 
characters .of the genus, especially as it has not been 
reported hitherto as occurring in the Nearctic region. 


Anterior lobe of pronotum narrow and conical forming a 
continuous outline with the elongated cylindrical basal part of 

1 Biol. Cent. -Am., Ins., Rhynch. II., p. 322, Tab. 19. figs. 21, 22, 22a. 


the head, apical collar present ; eyes distant from the front of 
the pronotum ; rostrum short, not reaching the front coxae. 
Embolium narrow, linear ; membrane with only one vein, 
situated near the inner margin. Mesosternum greatly de- 
veloped, convex, with a short anterior carina ; metasternal ori- 
fices long, curved forward, reaching the lateral and anterior 
borders of the metapleurae. Legs slender, the femora some- 
what thickened. Body oblong, shining, clothed with sparse 
hairs. Wing-cell with a hamus. 

This genus belongs to the Anthocorinae and should be 
placed before Anthocoris which is easily distinguished from it 
by the much less elongate head and pronotum and the 4-veined 
membrane. Triphleps contains smaller species with 3-veined 

Macrotracheliella nigra sp. nov. 

Shining black, third antennal segment narrowly yellow at base, tarsi 
dark brown, paler beneath. First antennal segment not quite reaching 
apex of head, second about twice the length of the first, enlarged in 
apical half, third somewhat longer than the first, fourth missing. Pro- 
notum impressed just within the slightly knobbed lateral angles, pos- 
terior lobe convex, very finely punctate, declivous, meeting the im- 
punctate horizontal anterior lobe in a sharply defined transverse line. 
Scutellum convex and finely punctate basally, the apical half strongly 
depressed, flat, transversely rugose, acute at apex. Hemielytra very 
obscurely punctate, the corium longitudinally convex, the cuneus de- 
flected and slightly concave ; membrane extending beyond apex of ab- 
domen, brown, narrowly pale along lateral half of cuneal margin and 
at the inner basal angle. Clothed above and below with very sparse 
erect hairs, legs and antennae sparsely pilose, the pubescence of the 
tibiae finer and close. Length 2.5 mm. 

Holotype 9 , Chilmark, Massachusetts, 14 Aug., 1911 (J. A. 
Cushman), in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 

Closely related to M. laevis Champ., to judge by the de- 
scription and figures, but differs from that species in having 
the third antennal segment pale only at base and the hemiely- 
tra entirely black while the first and second antennal segments 
are shorter. (In the type specimen the fourth antennal seg- 
ments have been broken off) . 



The News for 1917. 

The rising cost of living and of everything else has begun 
to affect the NEWS but we shall not let it affect our subscribers 
if it be possible to avoid doing so. We shall not raise our sub- 
scription price or reduce the number of pages as long as our 
many present friends stand by us. We think we have been giv- 
ing as much (or more) in return for the annual sum of two dol- 
lars as any other entomological journal in the world and we 
don't propose to fall behind our past record in this respect. 
On the other hand, to run into bankruptcy would defeat the 
very objects for which the NEWS exists and it therefore seems 
advisable to adopt the following precautionary measure. We 
shall limit the number of plates in each issue to one or two, 
except where authors supply the blocks for the plates accom- 
panying their articles or pay for making blocks. This may 
mean that illustrated papers may be somewhat retarded in their 
publication, but the ways to secure earlier appearance are ob- 

We take this opportunity of reminding our contributors of 
the desirability of carefully considering the limitations under 
which reproduction of drawings and of photographs can be 
made. When these are to be reduced in size in order to come 
within the dimensions of an average NEWS plate (6 l / 2 by 4 
inches), it must be remembered that the details of drawing or 
of photograph must be so far apart that, when brought nearer 
together by the necessary amount of reduction of the whole 
plate, they will still be far enough apart to be distinct. This 
also involves the distances of the various figures on the same 
plate from each other. Also, since all the figures on a given 
plate are reduced at once and made into a single block, all the 
figures must be on such a scale as to bear the same amount of 



reduction. If a plate must be printed from several blocks its 
cost is increased, for several blocks are more expensive than 
one single block whose area is equal to the sum of the 
several. A little careful measurement of the "copy" and cal- 
culation will often save much time and disappointment in the 
appearance of the published illustrations. 

Drawings can usually be reproduced in zinc, but drawings 
with fine details and photographs require copper, which at 
present costs twice as much as zinc. All drawings must be 
made with jet black ink, not the common bluish writing ink 
which will not photographically reproduce. A half-tone, which 
is the form in which photographs are reproduced, ordinarily 
shows the background of the photograph, hence if several pho- 
tographs are associated side by side to form a plate and their 
backgrounds are of different shades of color, this difference 
shows also in the half-tone when printed and produces a dis- 
pleasing effect. All cutting away of backgrounds or any 
manipulation necessary to remove imperfections in the photo- 
graph is only done at additional charge. 

Questions and. Ans^vers. 

The NEWS invites those having any entomological questions which they wish 
answered to send such in for publication under this heading, and also invites 
answers from its readers or others to these questions. Questions and replies 
should be as brief as possible and the Editors reserve the right not to publish 
any of either class which seem to them objectionable or inappropriate. Those send- 
ing in contributions to this department will please indicate whether they wish 
their names or merely one or more initials to appear in connection with their 
communications, but all such must be accompanied by the full name and address 
of the writer for the information of the editors. 

QUESTION No. 3 Green geometers usually lose much of their color 
in the relaxing jar. Can this be avoided and how? I would like to 
hear from Lepidopterists on the subject. G. C. 

Notes and News 


Psyllia buxi Linn, in New Jersey (Homop.). 

During the summer of 1916 adults of this species were taken at 
Springfield, Rutherford, East Orange and Riverton on boxwood plants 
growing in nurseries. The plants on which they were found were old 
and well established, having been imported a number of years ago, so 
there is no doubt about the species being established in New 


Jersey. The curled condition of the foliage due to larval activities is 
quite a common occurrence on boxwoods imported from Holland and 
it was undoubtedly introduced from this country. It is probably also 
established in other parts of New Jersey, especially on estates where 
boxwood hedges and plantings are common and surely must occur in 
other Eastern States too, inasmuch as it has been mentioned at differ- 
ent times in the News Letters of the Federal Horticultural Board as 
being found on imported boxwoods. Considering its method of over- 
wintering, it is evidently being introduced more or less regularly every 
time imported boxwoods are received in this country. 

In Smith's "Cat. Ins. of N. J.," p. 109, can be found the following 
note : "Psylla buxi Linn. An imported species on Buxus scmpen'ircns, 
which has been found in Jersey City." This does not however lead 
one to assume that it is established in New Jersey. In Van Duzee's 
Check List of the Hemiptera of America, North of Mexico, it is not 

A brief account of Psyllia buxi in Holland and its importance as a 
pest can be found on page 176 of Vol. I, "Ziekten en Beschadigingen 
der Tuinbouwgewassen" by M. Van Den Broek en P. J. Schenk. This 
article states that adults appear in May and June depending on the 
temperature and locality and that later about the time the plant has 
formed new buds for next season, each female lays from one to three 
eggs on the leaves at the tips of the branches. These hatch before- 
winter and the nymphs which are covered with a white, waxy sub- 
stance hibernate under the buds in the axils of the leaves. When the 
buds develop in the spring, the whitish masses covering the nymphs 
are readily seen. The injury resulting from the activity of the 
nymphs consists in a curling of the 1 leaves so that they resemble little 
cups or hollow hemispheres. 

In New Jersey adults were taken about the middle of July and also 
in August and the tips of the branches of many plants showed the 
characteristically curled leaves. According to the Dutch authors, good 
results were obtained in the way of control by spraying in the spring 
with a 7.5 per cent, of soluble carbolineum emulsion. As far as is 
known, no remedial measures have ever been attempted against this 
insect in New Jersey. In fact, many persons have assumed that the 
peculiar curling of the leaves is characteristic of boxwoods and cer- 
tainly no great disfigurement takes place provided the infestation is 

H. B. WEISS & E. L. DICKERSON, New Brunswick, N. J. 

The O. B. Johnson Entomological Collection. 

Orson Bennett Johnson, professor emeritus of zoology in the Uni- 
versity of Washington, has given the university his valuable entomo- 
logical collection. Science, Nov. 3, 1916, p. 635. 


Phylogeny of Ant Lions (Neur.). 

There has heen a general agreement in looking upon the Nymphidae, 
a small family confined to Australia, as representing the probable type 
from which the Myrmeleonidae have been developed. But this agree- 
ment is not, so far as I can ascertain, based on any definite evidence, 
but merely on a general impression of the Myrmeleonid-like appear- 
ance of the well-known Nymphcs myrmeleonidcs Leach. We now have 
definite venational evidence to go upon, and we may say at once that 
it fully establishes the claim of the Nymphidae to be regarded as the 
remains of the ancestral group from which the Myrmeleonidae have 
sprung, the course of evolution being marked by gradual reduction in 
the general density of venation, in the size and prominence of the 
pterostigma and in the length of the antennae (which become stouter 
and clavate) and by a change from a wandering (probably nocturnal), 
carnivorous larva, with omnivorous tastes, to a sedentary, pit-dwelling, 
ant-feeding form. R. J. TILLYARD. (Condensed from Proceedings, 
Linn. Soc. Nciv South Wales, 1915, pt. 4, pp. 743, 745. 1916.) 

Knto mo logical Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico are given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 5 Psyche. 9 The Entomol- 
ogist, London. 10 Nature, London. 47 The Zoologist, London. 
68 Science, New York. 102 Proceedings, Entomological Soci- 
ety of Washington. 143 Ohio Journal of Science, Columbus, 
Ohio. 153 Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 198 Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Woods Hole, Mass. 240 Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Orono. 251 Annales, Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris. 285 
Nature Study Revue, Ithaca, N. Y. 313 Bulletin of Entomologi- 
cal Research, London. 324 Journal of Animal Behavior, Cam- 
bridge. 394 Parasitology, Cambridge, England. 421 Report, 
State Entomologist on the Noxious and Beneficial Insects of Illi- 


nois, Urbana. 447 Journal of Agricultural Research, Washington. 
450 Apuntes de Historia Natural, Buenos Aires. 457 Memoirs 
of the Coleoptera by Thos. L. Casey, Washington. 478 Miscel- 
laneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 
540 The Lepidopterist. Official Bulletin, Boston Entomological 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Bcdkin & Cleare Notes on some ani- 
mal parasites in British Guiana, 313, vii, 179-90. Brown, K. B. 

Microtechnical methods for studying certain plant-sucking insects 
in situ, 68, xliv, 758-9. Turner, C. H. Literature for 1915 on the 
behavior of spiders and insects other than ants, 324, vi, 383-99. 
Ramsay, E. P. Hints for the preservation of specimens of natural 
history, 32 pp. (Australian Museum, Miscel. Pub. No. 5). 


study of somatic chromosomes. 1. The somatic chromosomes in 
comparison with the chromosomes in the germ cells of Anasa 
tristis, 198, xxxi, 329-63. 

MEDICAL. Dunn, E. R. Mosquitoes and man again, 68, xliv, 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Levy, R. Contribution a 1'etude des 
toxines chez les araignees, 251, Ser. X, i, 161-399. Robinson, H. 
W. Some species of tick infesting polecat and otter [Bibliog. no- 
tice], 47, 1916, 399. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Harrison, L. The genera and species 
of Mallophaga; 394, ix, 1-156. Williamson, E. B. Directions for 
collecting and preserving specimens of dragonflies for museum 
purposes, 478, No. 1, 15 pp. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. C. A synopsis of the genus Cala- 
phis [2 n. sps.], 102, xviii, 184-89. Baker & Turner Rosy apple 
aphis, 447, vii, 321-44. Cushman, R. A. The native food plants of 
the apple red-bugs, 102, xviii, 196. Van Duzee, E. P. Note on 
genus Hyoidea, 5, 1916, 141. 

Osborn & Drake Some new sps. of nearctic Tingidae [7 n. 
sps.], 143, xvii, 9-15. 

LEPIDOPTERA. De Gryse, J. J. The hypermetamorphism 
of the lepidopterous sapfecders, 102, xviii, 164-8. Heinrich, C. 
On the taxonomic value of some larval characters in the L., 102, 
xviii, 154-64. Lathy, P. I. A new South American Papilio, 9, 
1916, 241-2. Reiff, W. Lepidopterological items from Massachu- 
setts, 540, i, 3-5. Wolley-Dod, F. H. A change of synonymy in 
Xylomiges, 4, 1J1G. 367-8. 


Bartsch, R. C. B. Two new forms of Catocalae, 540, i, 3. Beu- 
tenmuller, W. Description of a new sesiid, 4, 1916, 372. Busck, 
A. Descriptions of new No. American micro L. [l n. g., 15 n. sps.], 
102, xviii, 147-54. Eastman, W. F. A new form of Catocala pura, 
540, i, 2. Gibson, A. A n. sp. of tortrix of economic importance 
from Newfoundland, 4, 1916, 373-5. Swett, L. W. New species 
of Geometridae from California, 450, i, 5-6 (cont.). 

DIPTERA. Howard, L. O. A curious formation of a fungus 
occurring on a fly, 102, xviii, 196-7. Hutchison, R. H. Notes on 
the larvae of Euxesta notata, 102, xviii, 171-77. Knab, F. Egg- 
disposal in Dermatobia hominis, 102, xviii, 179-83. Metcalf, C. L. 
Syrphidae of Maine, 240, Bui. 253. Walton, W. R. The tachinid 
genus Argyrophylax, 102, xviii, 189-92. Webb & Hutchison A 
preliminary note on the bionomics of Pollenia rudis in America, 
102, xviii, 197-9. Weiss, H. B. Monarthropalpus buxi in N. J., 5, 
1916, 154-6. 

Brues, C. T. A remarkable n. sp. of Phora (Trineura), 4, 1916, 
394-5. Parker, R. R. Sarcophagidae of New England, III, Sarco- 
fahrtia ravinia, new gen. and sp., 5, 1916, 131-9. 

COLEOPTERA. Allard, H. A. The synchronal flashing of fire- 
flies, 68, xliv, 710. Barber, H. S. A new sp. of weevil injuring 
orchids, 102, xviii, 177-9. Craighead, F. C. The determination of 
the abdominal and thoracic areas of the cerambycid larvae as based 
on a study of the muscles, 102, xviii, 129-46. Forbes, S. A. Life 
history and habits of the northern corn root-worm (Diabrotica 
longicornis), 421, xxviii, 80-86. Frost, C. A. Collecting notes and 
random observations of the Maine C., 4, 1916, 381-90. Hyslop, 
J. A. Pristocera armifer parasitic on Limonius agonus, 102, xviii, 
169-70. Sell, R. A. Ways of the western flower beetle, 285, xii, 

Casey, T. L. Further studies in the Cicindelidae [many new]; 
Some random studies among the clavicornia [many new], 457, vii, 
1-34; 35-292. Wickham, H. F. A new brachyelytrous trogositid 
beetle from Colorado, 5, 1916, 146-8. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bradley, J. C. Taxonomic notes on Aga- 
thinae (Braconidae), 5, 1916, 139-40. Gray, H. St. G. Scarcity of 
wasps, 10, 1916, 209. Middleton, W. Notes on Dianthidium ari- 
zonicum, 102, xviii. 193-5. Wells, M. Literature for 1915 on ants 
and myrmecophils, 324, vi, 400-406. Wheeler, W. M. Note on 
the Brazilian fire-ant, Solenopsis saevissima; An anomalous blind 
worker ant, 5, 1916, 142-3; 143-5. Williams, L. T. Notes on the 
egg-parasites of the apple tree tent-caterpillar (Malacosoma ameri- 
cana), 5, 1916, 148-53. 


Cockerell, T. D. A. Some California bees [3 new], 4, 1916, 
391-3. Girault, A. A. A new genus of omphaline Eulophidae 
from N. America [1 n. sp.], 9, 1016, 249-50. Rohwer, S. A.-- -Notes 
on the Psammocharidae described by Provancher, with descrip- 
tion of a n. sp., 4, 1916, 369-72. A new bee of the genus Dianthi- 
dium, 102, xviii, 192-3. Viereck, H. L. New sps. of the bee genus 
Andrena in the American Mus. of Nat. History [4 new], 153, xxxv, 

THE LEPIDOPTERIST : Official Bulletin of the Boston Entomological 


Volume One, number one (four pages) of this publication has ap- 
pleared. The editor is Rudolf C. B. Bartsch, Roslindale, Massachusetts. 
The price of subscription is thirty-five cents a year. The last publica- 
tion devoted to Lepidoptera exclusively was "Papilio" and it died about 
thirty-three years ago. "The (Boston) Club has one feature which is 
new to entomological societies of this country. After each regular 
business meeting the Club holds an auction sale of specimens belonging 
to various members. A ten per cent, commission is charged which is 
placed in the treasury of the Club." Can you imagine such a thing in 
Boston! The Club advocates the publication of a priced catalog of 
lepidoptera to facilitate exchange among collectors. The editor appears 
to be the president of the "Kato Kalo Co.," which deals in the Catacolae 
of the world. A new species and several new varieties are described, 
but the dominant idea of the Club and the journal seems to be com- 
mercialism. There may be a place in the sun for a new journal of this 
kind which will appeal to the beginner and the collector and we will 
watch the experiment with interest. If something is not done for the 
embryo entomologist there is danger that the veterans may die off much 
faster than the ranks are recruited. The activities of our older ento- 
mological societies are too profoundly scientific to encourage or interest 
the tyro, who is to become the scientific entomologist of the future. 
H. S. 

Doings of Societies. 

American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of October 26, 1916, in the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. Dr. Henry Skinner, president, in the chair. Eleven per- 
sons present. 

Dr. W. J. Holland and Dr. W. L. Abbott were elected to resident 

Mr. Rchn made some interesting remarks on the Arizona field work 
of the past summer carried on by Dr. F. K. Lutz and himself, in the in- 
terests of the Academy and of the American Museum of Natural His- 


tory. Several particularly interesting ranges of mountains in southern 
Arizona were visited and examined for general entomological material, 
but particularly for certain Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The results 
were quite satisfactory and much information and evidence relative 
to the distribution and occurrence of insects were secured. The re- 
marks were illustrated by a map of the region visited. 

These remarks led to a discussion on night collecting with light, and 
Dr. Skinner mentioned collecting Sphingidae in Cuba late at night or 
early in the morning when the insects became chilled and in this con- 
dition on walls, etc., could be easily bottled, and thus perfect speci- 
mens secured. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Laurent exhibited nymphs, adults and egg- 
masses of Paratenodcra sincnsis, and read a paper by Prof. W. Loch- 
head in the Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario for 1914, 
page 64, speaking of the writings of Jean Henri Fabre, from which he 
quotes statements regarding the Praying Mantis (probably Mantis re- 
ligiosa). Paratcnodera sincnsis female, as observed around Philadel- 
phia, does not differ from what Fabre states for Mantis rcligiosa. On 
September 2oth Mr. Laurent placed a female in a large cage along 
with three males. Within five minutes a male copulated with the fe- 
male, and before the day was over the "husband" paid for his rashness 
with his life. The female ate the entire insect excepting the two hind 
legs and wings. From the 20th of September until the I4th of Octo- 
ber she devoured six husbands when she died without laying eggs. 
Although there were at all times from three to six males in the cage, 
yet the female only molested those that copulated with her. In the 
vicinity of Philadelphia the eggs of sincnsis hatch about the middle of 
May. By the end of August the majority of the insects are fully de- 
veloped, and from then on to about the 2Oth of October mature speci- 
mens can be captured. These remarks were followed by discussion by 
Messrs. Wenzel, Hornig, Skinner and Ilg. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Wenzel exhibited a specimen of typical 
Mci/ctra z'ittata and a very large specimen supposedly of this species 
lately received from the Hueco Mountains, New Mexico, northeast of 
El Paso. ROSWELL C. WILLIAMS, JR., Recording Secretary. 

Newark Entomological Society. 

Meeting of November 12, 1916, held in the Newark (New Jersey) 
Public Library. Pres. Buchholz in the chair and twelve members pres- 
ent. Mr. A. Goerner of Jersey City was elected a member. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Rummel exhibited Apatura ccltis from Ha- 
gerstown, Maryland, VI-29 and Apatnra clyton from Arlington, New 
Jersey, VIII-4, and spoke of his experience with and of the secretive 
habits of the adults of the latter species. He also mentioned finding 


thousands of the larvae on hackberry during October and later in the 
season under foliage at the bases of the trees. He exhibited hundreds 
of second stage larvae which he had collected at Arlington. Mr. 
Weiss showed two species of Geometridae which had been captured 
by the sticky nectar of the mosquito plant, I'incctoxicum japonicum. 
and also dried specimens of the plant. 

Hymenoptera. Mr. Weiss spoke of finding the European saw 
fly, Diprion simile Hartig, in New Jersey this past summer, and of its 
injury to pines and exhibited a male and a female. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Weiss exhibited two orchid weevils new to 
Xew Jersey, these being Acypotheiis orchirora Blackb., and Diorymcl- 
lus laevimargo Champ., both being injurious to greenhouse orchids, 
the latter species only recently having been described by Champion. 
HARRY B. WEISS, Secretary. 

Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences, 


Meeting of November 23, 1916. Nine persons present. Mr. R. C. 
Williams, Jr., Vice-Director, presiding. 

Mr. McAtee, of Washington, D. C., spoke of his interest in work- 
ing up the local fauna of that vicinty. 

Diptera. Mr. Hornig reported the finding of fresh pupae of the 
house fly on the 20th of this month which he considered noteworthy in 
view of the prevailing cold weather. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Ilg exhibited some specimens of the lo moth 
which he said are emerging now in his room. He said that birch was 
the food plant of these moths. Dr. Calvert called attention to a com- 
munication by Dr. Carpenter in the Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of London (for 1915, pages Ixix-lxxii) relative to his obser- 
vations in South Africa of birds eating butterflies. The birds seem- 
ingly preferred the Lycaenidae to the Pierinae. Mr. McAtee spoke of 
his investigation of birds as agents in the destruction of insects. He 
stated that, although there seems to be conclusive proof that birds 
eat butterflies, the quantity consumed evidently cannot materially affect 
their survival. He further stated that according to his observations 
a species is never exterminated by its natural enemy. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn made a few interesting remarks on the 
auditory foramina found on the cephalic tibiae of Tettigoniidae and 
Gryllidae, with particular reference to the external development of 
the same found in certain genera of the Gryllotalpinae. The features 
separating Gryllotalpa and a new genus related to the same were dis- 
cussed and material illustrative of this exhibited. Mr. Rehn said in 
answer to a question that the function of the so-called auditory organs 
has not been definitely determined. A lengthy discussion followed as 


to the correlation of certain characters such as size of the stridulating 
apparatus and ocelli in short and long wing forms of Orthoptera; also 
regarding the correlation of the size of the eyes and the habits of 
animals in relation to light and darkness. 

Meeting of December u, 1916. Eleven persons present. Director 
Philip Laurent presiding. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Laurent exhibited a collection of twenty-six 
species of Coleoptera and a number of other insects that he had col- 
lected in molasses traps during the past summer. The traps consisted 
of jelly glasses containing about an inch of molasses, which were sunk 
in the ground so that the tops of the glasses would be level with the 
surrounding surface; about an inch and a half above the top of the 
glass a flat stone or piece of wood was placed so as to keep out the 
rain. The speaker stated that few collectors ever tried this way of 
collecting. The principal beetles that fall victims to the traps are 

Mr. Hebard spoke of his experience with molasses traps in collecting 
insects, especially Orthoptera. He mentioned a time while collecting in 
New Jersey, during the migration of the army worm when his traps 
were so filled with specimens of this species that he had to give up 
his quest for Orthoptera. He further stated that sinking these traps 
at various places having diverse environments resulted in interesting 
captures and showed that certain species are more confined to certain lo- 
calities or habitats than is generally realized. The speaker also stated 
that he has tried to find specimens of some of the species caught in 
such traps, by making thorough search over a large area around the 
traps, looking under stones, pieces of wood, etc., but never has had any 
success. He said that this method of collecting, viz., with molasses 
traps, does not seem to be satisfactory in the tropics. General discus- 
sion followed principally on the apparent abundance of one sex of a 
species while the other sex is seldom or never seen. 

Mr. Williams called attention to some passages in "The Nightside 
of Japan," by Fujimoto, which describes the interest Japanese take 
in the song of insects ; a society has been formed in Tokyo for hearing 
insects sing, the "Mushi-Hanachi-Kai" (Meeting of Setting Insects 

The following officers were elected for the year 1917: Director, Philip 
Laurent ; Vice-Director, R. C. Williams, Jr. ; Treasurer, E. T. Cresson ; 
Conservator, Henry Skinner; Secretary. J. A. G. Rehn ; Recorder, E. T. 
Cresson, Jr. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 

The number of Entomological News for December, 1916, was mailed 
at the Philadelphia Post Office December 6, 1916. 

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Plate VI. 







No. 2. 


Blaisdell and Reynolds A New Omus 

(Coleop ) 49 

Cockerell Entomology at the United 

States National Museum 55 

Emerton Spiders in the Adirondacks 

( Araneina ) 59 

Shinji New Aphids from California 

(Hem., Horn.) 61 

de la Torre Bueno New York Scolopo- 

stethi (Family Lygaeidae : Heter.) 65 
Fall A New Genus and Species of Bu- 

prestidae (Col.) 68 

Griggs Return of Animal Life to the 

Katmai District, Alaska 70 

Huguenin A New Catocala Net 71 

Felt New Indian Gall Midges ( Dip. ).. 73 
Editorial The Convocation Week 

Meetings A Retrospect 77 

Questions and Answers 78 

Hiser Erebus odora and its Larvae in 

Iowa ( Lep. ) 79 

Advances in Knowledge of Fossil In- 
sects 80 

Laurent Collecting Insects by the aid 
of Molasses Traps (Col.)... 81 

Skinner Some Synonymy in the Hes- 
peridae ( Lep. ) 82 

Dolley The Rate of Locomotion of Va- 
nessa antiopa (Lep.) in different 
luminous intensities and its bearing 
on the "continuous action theoiy " 
of orientation 83 

Entomological Literature 83 

Review: Aldrich's Sarcophaga and 
Allies 86 

Doings of Societies Entomology at the 

Convocation Week Meetings 87 

Feldman Collecting Social (Coleop., 

Lep., Dipt., Hvmen., Streps. Orth.) 94 
Newark Entomological Society (Lep., 
Hemip., Coleop.) 9 

A New Omus (Coleop.). 

By F. E. BLAISDELL, SR., and L. R. REYNOLDS, San Francisco, 


(Plate VI) 

A recent collecting trip to Humboldt County, California, 
brought to light several very interesting facts and what is be- 
lieved to be a new species of Out us, which may be denned as 
follows : 

Omus cupreonitens, n. sp. 

Elongate, glabrous, deep black and shining; lustre varying from 
cupreous to glossy black. 

Head moderate, as wide as the pronotum, or slightly narrower ; eyes 
feebly prominent; interocular region adjoining the clypeal base promi- 
nent and convex, polished, very sparsely punctulate and feebly rugu- 
lose at its periphery, and defined laterally by distinct frontal impres- 
sions ; remaining frontal region irregularly and moderately coarsely 
rugulose, the upper part of each frontal impression exhibiting a dis- 
tinct vertiginous spot when viewed vertically from above, the adjacent 
rugulae being concentrically arranged ; supraorbital rugulae parallel ; 



clypeus usually glabrous or with a few obsolete rngulae laterally; 
labrum almost truncate to feebly lobed at middle, the angles being 
sub-prominent and narrowly rounded ; mouth parts nigropiceous ; an- 
tennae reaching beyond the prothoracic base and moderate in stout- 

Pronotum a little wider than long, sides feebly arcuate anteriorly, 
thence almost straight and converging to the base, bead fine and not 
quite entire at base, not interrupting the sub-marginal groove, the 
propleura visible posteriorly when viewed from above ; disc convex, 
feebly so in the central area, strongly so laterally and apically, less so 
before the basal angles, sub-apical and sub-basal transverse impres- 
sions distinct, median longitudinal line distinct and more or less im- 
pressed and quite obsolete beyond the transverse impressions, surface 
vermiculately rugulose, rugulae in the apical area somewhat longi- 
tudinal and somewhat obsolete ;' apex transverse ; base transverse and 
very feebly bisinuate. 

Propleura feebly and more or less transversely rugulose. Lateral 
plates of the prosternum obsoletely rugulose, the rugulae crinkly and 
transverse. Prosternum glabrous. 

Elytra oval, to slightly oblong oval, about one-third longer than 
wide, sides evenly arcuate and sub-parallel in the middle third ; humeri 
not angulate, broadly rounded or obsolete; sides more or less oblique 
in apical third and arcuately converging to the obtusely rounded apex, 
marginal bead rather fine ; disc moderately convex, irregularly punctu- 
ate, punctures moderate and sub-equal throughout, well separated and 
equally distributed ; nine to eleven setigerous punctures more or less 
impressed and visible to the naked eye, surface microscopically reticu- 

Epipleura glabrous at base, elsewhere obsoletely crinkled. 

Mcso- and metastcrna glabrous shining. Mesothoracic side plates 
obsoletely rugulo-strigulose ; metathoracic side plates more or less 
longitudinally strigulo-rugulose. 

Pemora sparsely and feebly sculptured. 

Abdominal surface glabrous and shining. 

Male. (Fig. i.) Fifth ventral segment deeply emarginate at middle, 
sinus evenly rounded at the bottom, as wide as deep, depth equal to 
about one-third of the segment, lateral lobes evenly rounded from 
within and at apex. First three joints of the metatarsi equal to the 
length of a metafemur. In the type (Fig. i) the humeri are inter- 
mediate between those of Fig. 3 and Fig. 2(9 Type). 

Female. (Fig. 2) Fifth ventral segment ogival at apex sides quite 
straight and converging to form the very narrowly rounded apex. 

Measurements: $. Total length, 15.0 mm.; of elytra, 7.75 mm.; 
width, 4.5 mm. Length of pronotum, 3.0 mm.; width, 3.5 mm. 

?. Total length, 15.5 mm.; of elytra, 8.5 mm.; width, 5.0 mm. 
Length of pronotum, 3.0 mm. ; width, 3.6 mm. 


Habitat. Humboldt County (shore of Humboldt Bay near 
Arcata), California. Collectors, Blaisdell and Reynolds. Num- 
ber of specimens studied 150. 

Types in the collection of F. E. Blaisdell. Co-types in both 
the authors' collections. 

It requires considerable courage to describe a new Omus, 
when so many are being described and founded on what are 
ostensibly intraspecific variations of known species. 

The unique habitat of cupreonitens makes it of especial in- 
terest. It appears that general habitus when studied in a large 
series is a more reliable criterion than details, which vary in 
degree to such an extent in intraspecific forms as to be truly 

Diagnostic Characters. Cupreonitens has a form more like 
calif ornicus than any other, while the elytral sculpturing is 
that of audouinl; the pronotal rugulosity is not like that ob- 
served in calif ornicus, but less dense and coarser. In colora- 
tion it is said to resemble vandykei. 

The type of vandykci was found by Dr. Walter Horn in the 
Rivers collection. Prof. Rivers had labeled it submetaUicus, 
and it is the only known specimen, having been collected in 
middle Oregon. Mr. F. W. Nunenmacher has collected other 
specimens in Humboldt County, that have been referred to 
this species, but we believe doubtfully. There is before us a 
specimen collected at Dyerville, central Humboldt County, and 
in the Fuchs collection ; it was obtained from Essig, who re- 
ceived it from Dr. Horn, if it is correctly labeled. It is not 
the same as cupreonitens. Calif ornicus and cupreonitens are 
coastal species, and in all probability have the same ancestry. 
Vandykei from central Oregon is related to audonini, orc- 
gonensls and humeroplanatus, the latter being abundant in 
Humboldt County (Green Point Ranch). 

We do not propose to study species of Oinus from uniques 
or from series of ten or twenty, but from series of fifty and up- 
ward. Each series must be collected in a single geographical 



The series constituting the present study was taken on the 
clay banks of Humboldt Bay, and separated by a dike and re- 
deemed marshes from the main land. The species lives in the 
transitional area between high water mark and the dike above 
mentioned. The highest elevation of the transitional area is 
'not over five feet above sea level and consists of the irregular 
clay dumpings of a dredger, the inland side of which is over- 
grown with swamp grass, millefoil and a few weeds. The first 
specimens were taken from beneath logs and boards left by 
high tide. Trechus ovipcnnis, Anisodactyhts californicus and 
Bcnibidia were their companions. Many specimens were 
caught running over the bare clay banks, both when the sun 
was shining and when the weather, was cloudy. They were 
taken in the greatest numbers on the intermediate and drier 
levels, from beneath boards and by digging the matted grass 
apart. Larval burrows were everywhere abundant on the in- 
land side of the clay dumps. Twelve larvae were dug out of a 
piece of bank twelve inches square. The larvae are to be sent 
with others of the Blaisdell collection to the University of Il- 
linois, where they will be studied. It is hoped that some defi- 
nite relationships will be determined in this way. 

Let it be carefully noted that the present species is founded 
upon the study of a series of one hundred and fifty specimens. 
Such a series shows the extremes of the specific aggregate. 
All the specimens were taken in the same area, which was about 
one- fourth of a mile long and twenty-five feet wide and as 
described above. The variations included in the series are 
analogous to those exhibited by similarly large series of other 
species taken in any one geographical area. 

A species studied in this way can have its limitations more 
understandingly worked out. The authors' collections include 
large series of californicus, sequoia-rum, edivardsii, blaisdcUi 
and ambiguus; some of the series of the same species are from 
different geographical regions or areas and exhibit identical 
variations, with some one particular intraspecific phase pre- 
dominating. These series' show beyond all cavil that many of 


the recently described species are nothing more or less than 
the extremes, sports or aberrations belonging to well-known 
specific aggregates. When the last word shall have been spo- 
ken if that occurs before evolution has had time to act- 
probably two-thirds of the fifty-two described species and vari- 
eties will fall into synonymy as forms (intraspecific variations) ; 
the remaining one-third will be species with their subspecies 
or races. 

Before drawing this paper to an end it will be worth while 
and helpful to the susceptible to study some of the intra- 
specific variations or forms. 


Smallest Male. Total length, 14.0 mm. ; of elytra, 8.0 mm. ; width, 4.3 
mm. Length of pronotum, 3.0 mm.; width, 3.2 mm. 

Largest Male. See type. 

Smallest Female. Total length, 14.0 mm. ; of elytra, 7.0 mm. ; width, 
4.3 mm. Length of pronotum, 3.0 mm. ; width, 3.3 mm. 

Largest Female. Total length, 17.0 mm. ; of elytra, 10.0 mm. ; width, 
5.5 mm. Length of pronotum, 3.75 mm. ; width, 4.2 mm. 


Female. Total length, 14.5 mm.; of elytra, 8.1 mm.; width, 
5.0 mm. Length of pronotum, 3.0 mm.; width, 3.2 mm. The 
setigerous punctures of the elytra are more noticeably im- 
pressed and subfoveate, eleven in number on each elytron 
and arranged in two rows. This specimen would without doubt 
be described as a new species if separated from the aggregate. 
As a control an abundance of intermediates are at hand. 

In numerous specimens the setigerous punctures are not im- 
pressed and therefore not visible without a hand lens. The 
visible subfoveate punctures by no means represent all of the 
setigerous punctures, especially those of the humeral and apical 

In cupreonitens the mental tooth is recurved, narrow and 
deeply grooved, and variable as regards those characters. The 
largest female has the lateral bead of the pronotum meeting 
the basal bead and interrupting the basal sub-marginal gromr 
so that it does not pass on to the basal border of the propleura. 


In the smallest male the marginal bead does not join the 
basal bead and the submarginal groove at base passes continu- 
ously onto the basal border of the propleura. Similar inquiry 
into the variations of the other species shows the same varia- 
tions in specimens caught in the same geographical area. The 
list includes californicus, dcjeani, sequoiarum, Iccontcl and 


The male has the mental tooth subacute, surface plane, and 
recurved as usual. In the females the mental tooth is stouter, 
more rounded at apex and the surface is plane. Variation: 
tooth less recurved and distinctly truncate at apex. The lat- 
eral marginal bead of the pronotum joins the basal bead in all 
the specimens at hand. 

MEASUREMENTS: Smallest Male. Total length, 16.0 mm.; elytra, 9.8 
mm. ; width, 4.8 mm. Pronotum. Length, 3.2 mm. ; width, 4.0 mm. 

Largest Male. Total length, 18.0 mm. ; elytra. 10.5 mm. ; width, 6.0 
mm. Pronotum Length, 3.8 mm. ; width, 4.1 mm. 

Smallest Female. Total length, 19.0 mm.; elytra, n.o mm.; width. 
5.5 mm. Pronotum Length, 3.5 mm. ; width, 4.5 mm. 

Largest Female. Total length, 21.0 mm.; elytra, 12.0 mm.; width, 
6.1 mm. Pronotum Length, 4.0 mm.; width, 5.1 mm. 

The above measurements have been made from specimens, 
selected from a series of twenty-two specimens that were col- 
lected on the same one-fourth acre of land (Davis Meadow, 
near Glencoe, Calaveras County, California) bordering a small 
meadow and sparsely covered by bull-pines. They were living 
absolutely under the same environment. Seven of the speci- 
mens have no humeri, and fifteen specimens have broadly 
rounded humeri. In the seven, the lateral elytral border passes 
directly and obliquely backward from the elytral base. One 
male has very nearly the form of augusto-cylindriciis, and the 
elytra are just slightly wider than the pronotal base. The 
seven without humeri are undeniably like inter me dius. Inter- 
mediates connect the two extremes. Such are the variations 
presented by a small series in which there can be no doubt of 
specific identity. No mention is made of a similar series taken 
two miles distant, for if the two series were mixed there might 


be reasonable ground to argue that two different races or spe- 
cies were involved. Similar series of cdivardsii, sequoiaruni, 
audouini, Iccontei, hunter oplanatus and cupreonitens tell the 
same story. The extremes of a specific aggregate are hetero- 
types. The specific aggregate of californicus includes vcrmicu- 
latns and sculptilis, as well as several intraspecific forms that 
have escaped description. 


Omus cupreonitens n. sp. Fig. i, male type, humeri moderate and 
rounded ; Fig. 2, female type, humeri broadly rounded ; Fig. 3, male, 
an intraspecific variation, humeri obsolete ; Fig. 4, an average female. 
Figs. 3 and 4 more highly magnified than Figs, i and 2. 

Entomology at the United States National Museum.* 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 
Several years ago, when going over the early correspond- 
ence of Spencer F. Baird at the Smithsonian Institution, I 
came across the following interesting letter, addressed to Dr. 
John Iy. LeConte, of Philadelphia: 

November 20, '58. 

You may as well return Vesey's bugs when done with, to be kept 
here with his other collections. I don't believe there is another speci- 
men here which you have not seen from the western territories. I 
hope the new Entomological Circular we are about distributing will 
stir up the insects generally. 

Yours ever, 


Vesey was John Xantus de Vesey, generally known in ento- 
mological literature as Xantus, who collected beetles, along 
with many other things, in Lower California. Dr. Horn (Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., 1894) stated that the collections were made 
in 1859 and 1860, but we have evidence here that LeConte re- 
ceived specimens as early as 1858. Such species as C\miato- 
dcra xanti Horn and Pachybrackys .vanti Crotch commemo- 
rate the Xantusian labors in this direction. 

*Read at the meeting of the Entomological Society of America, New 
York, December 27, 1916. 


Further contributions from the western territories were de- 
scribed by LeConte in 1859, in his work on "The Coleoptera of 
Kansas and Eastern New Mexico," published by the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Even in these early days it was recognized 
that the detailed facts were to be used synthetically, and the 
paper just mentioned contains a colored plate, illustrating the 
Entomological Provinces of North America. 

A Catalog of the described Coleoptera of the United States, 
prepared by Melsheimer, and revised by Haldeman and Le- 
Conte, was published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1853. 
A new edition, by LeConte, appeared in 1863. 

Other activities could be mentioned, but the above will suf- 
fice to recall the beginnings of entomology in the National Mu- 
seum. Following the custom of the Smithsonian Institution, 
which is continued to this day, co-operation with students and 
institutions in various parts of the country was sought, and the 
then small resources were made to go as far as possible. 

Thirty years later than Baird's letter to LeConte, I was in 
active correspondence with the Washington entomologists, at 
that time under the leadership of C. V. Riley. I recall my 
amazement at the kindness shown to an unknown student in 
the far West, at the numerous and valuable publications sent 
out free of charge. The story of American economic ento- 
mology has been told by Dr. Howard and others. Much of it 
is fresh in the minds of most of us, and it is not necessary to 
go into details. The point we are interested in at this moment 
is, that the great development of the practical side of ento- 
mology led to a corresponding development of its purely scien- 
tific aspects, of insect biology and classification. The Na- 
tional Museum, securing the co-operation of the Department 
of Agriculture, and depending on the staff of that Department, 
was able to build up a collection of first-class importance. Up 
to the present moment this dependence has continued, and 
comparatively little of the entomological activity in the Museum 
is under the jurisdiction of and supported by the Museum 
proper. This is not a unique situation but represents a common 
trend in American scientific affairs. Thus in the Museum a 


large part of the work on fossils and molluscs is done by offi- 
cials of the U. S. Geological Survey ; in the universities and 
schools researches are carried on by those who are primarily 
paid to teach. It is a wise policy to interpret the laws govern- 
ing economic activities liberally, so as to include, or at least 
permit, work which, though not directly economic, forms the 
basis of the designated undertakings. 

Having visited the National Museum at intervals, dating 
back to the time when entomology occupied cramped quarters 
in the building, I have witnessed with pleasure and admiration 
the great developments which have taken place. These devel- 
opments, however, have tended to increasingly tax the re- 
sources of the institution, and to-day it is impossible to keep 
all the collections in good order and up to date. Many of the 
men are so keenly interested that they work overtime, far into 
the night or on holidays ; but in the nature of the case it is im- 
possible for them to keep pace with the accessions and the 
developments of the science in all its ramifications. Being 
nearly all employed ostensibly as economic workers, working 
for the Department of Agriculture, injurious insects and cor- 
respondence relative to them naturally take precedence, and 
more purely scientific activities tend to be crowded to the wall. 

Fully recognizing the necessity and wisdom of the form of 
development which has brought the entomological division of 
the Museum up to its present high standard, I venture to sug- 
gest that we must in the future, perhaps in the near future, 
pass to another stage of departmental evolution. Ideally, the 
Museum has functions resembling those of a library in many 
respects. It is the business of the curators, first of all, to ar- 
range and classify the collections, and make them available to 
those who can use them to advantage. The Department of 
Agriculture has long ago developed its library facilities, instead 
of depending on the various workers to do library work. Even 
the Bureaus have their libraries. It would be entirely to the 
advantage of the Bureau of Entomology to have the care of 
the entomological collections taken off its hands, and assumed 
by the Museum. It would be advantageous to the Museum, 


from the standpoint of administration, to have control under 
a unified system. There is no possible reason why, under such 
an arrangement, the economic workers should not have the 
fullest use of the materials, whenever they required them, 
and the Museum would of course continue to profit enorm- 
ously by the labors of the Bureau men. 

Under Museum administration, every phase of the science 
would receive consideration, and each group of insects would 
have its own museum curator. Great developments would 
follow, which could not very well occur under economic aus- 
pices, stretching the law to the utmost. For example, the 
Museum is extremely deficient in exotic insects, especially those 
of the Old World. There are of course large exotic collections, 
notably the neotropical Lepidoptera donated by Schaus ; but 
when we come to compare the exotic collections as a whole 
with those of the British Museum, the comparison is humili- 

Without going into further details, I venture to suggest the 
appointment of a committee of this society to inquire into the 
subject and report a year hence. The first question is natur- 
ally that of ways and means. It would be necessary to secure 
a suitable grant from Congress, and in order to do that, ento- 
mologists would be called upon to press the matter in as many 
places and at as many times as opportunity offered. This they 
could or would only do if convinced of the importance and 
justice of their cause. It is easy to say that no museum, in any 
part of ,the world, has yet been able to deal thoroughly with its 
entomological materials. Even the British Museum has cabi- 
nets full of accessions, sorted only down to the major groups. 
Yet it seems reasonable to urge that in view of the great and 
increasing importance of entomology, and in view of the posi- 
tion of the United States in the world, we ought certainly to 
bring our national entomological collections up to a standard 
which will fairly correspond with our great resources and repu- 
tation for intelligence. ' 

I have recently had occasion to review certain phases of 
English nineteenth century history. It is curious to read to- 
day the discussions over the problem of popular education, held 


at a time when church schools were endeavoring to cope with 
the education of the masses, without even appreciating the 
magnitude of their task. If some of the really great and good 
men who opposed public education could now come to life in 
the United States, and see the vast expenditure of money on 
universities and schools of all grades, they would indeed be 
amazed. What we take now as a matter of course and of ne- 
cessity, would then have seemed ultra-chimerical. So, I be- 
lieve, the support given to science in future days will compare 
with what we now regard as large expenditures. With faith 
and imagination there is no telling what developments may be 



Spiders in the Adirondacks (Araneina). 
By J. H. EMERTON, Boston, Mass. 

In August last I joined a party of entomologists from Cor- 
nell University in an exploring visit to the neighborhood of 
Mt. Whiteface in the Adirondacks of northern New York. A 
large variety of entomological specialties were represented and 
three of us, Prof. C. R. Crosby, Mr. S. C. Bishop and the 
writer, devoted ourselves to spiders. The party assembled 
during August 2Oth at Wilmington, twelve miles northeast of 
Lake Placid, and began the sweeping of bushes and turning 
over logs around the village. The following day Prof. Crosby 
and I went to Wilmington Notch and spent the day sweeping 
the roadside and sifting the leaf mold in the maple woods at an 
elevation of 1600 feet. Most of the spiders found are known 
in other parts of the State and in Vermont and New Hamp- 
shire. Among them are the following: Ccratinclla hietabilis. 
atrlccps and brunnea, Caseola herbicola, Lophocarcunin sini- 
plc.r and longitarsus, Microneta viaria and cornupalpis, Diplo- 
slyla brcris, Bathyphantes zebra, Cicnrina brevls and Cryphoe- 
ca iiiojitana. In the bushes were Thcridion inontaninn and 
aurantium, Drapctisca socialis, Epeira aiujnlata and corticaria, 
Hyptioles cavatus. 

On the third day we went up Mt. Whiteface. The lower 
part of the mountain has been cut and burned and we did 
nothing until we reached the spruce forest at a height of 3000 


feet, and here as in the White Mountains we found Linyphia 
ncarctica on the small spruce and balsam trees and with it the 
more widely diffused Tlieridion montamtm, and nearer the 
ground Tlieridion se.rpunctatum. At about 4000 feet we spent 
much time sifting the moss which grows thickly on the decay- 
ing stumps, and the species here were the same as at a similar 
elevation in the White Mountains Tlieridion se.rpunctatum, 
Pedanostcthus fnscns, Lophocarenum castanemn, Lophocare- 
iinm (Ttncticns) armatns, Tmcticus montanus, bidentatus and 
truncahiSj Amaurobins tibialis and Gnaphosa bru mails. The 
rarer Tmcticus microtarsus and Nematogmiis drassoides were 
also found. Above the trees at 4500 feet were Pardosa un- 
iata, muscicola and lutcola. We camped two nights on the 
mountain and continued collecting near the summit and on 
the way down. Another day was spent at Wilmington along 
the lumber roads east of Mt. Whiteface, ascending gradually 
from 1000 feet at the village to 2500 feet in the undisturbed 
forest on the northern side of the mountain. The way passed 
first through open and partly cultivated country and here we 
found such familiar spiders as Theridion diffcrens and inura- 
rium, Linyphia phrygiana, marginata and variabilis, Hclophora 
insignis, Pardosa tachypoda and Dcndryphantcs flai'ipcdcs. 
In the clearing at the highest part of the road were Tlieridion 
montanum, Linyphia ncarctica, Diplostyla nigrina, Amaurobiits 
borealis and Liocraninn calcaratum. 

After leaving Wilmington we spent a day at Saranac on the 
boggy shores of one of the ponds. Here were Epcira stri.r, 
corticaria and prornpta, the two species of Argiopc, Sing a 
variabilis, Tctragnatha (Eucta) caudata and Sittacus palnstris. 
The black and white bog variety of Epcira labyrinthca also 
occurred on low plants around the edge of the bog, several 
having, as in the bogs in Maine, large conical nests containing 
the cocoons of eggs. Throughout the trip search was made, 
in the small conifers, for Tlieridion zclotypitui, which extends 
across Canada as far south as Sherbrooke and Ottawa, but it 
was not found. Altogether no species of spiders were col- 
lected, six of which need further study and may be described 
as new. 

Vol. xxviiij 



New Aphids from California (Hem., Horn.). 

By G. O. SHINJI, Berkeley, California. 

(Plate VII) 

Thomasia californiensis n. sp. 

Alatc 1'ii'iparons female. General color orange to salmon-red. 
Length of body excluding style, 2.6 mm. ; greatest width of abdomen, 
1.2 mm. Wing expansion, 5 mm. Head broader than long, dusky. 
Eyes red, prominent. Beak short, dusky, not reaching the second coxa 
as in apterous forms. Antenna dusky except yellowish basal part of 


Figs, i-io, Thomasia californiensis n. sp. I, winged viviparous fe- 
male; 2, apterous viviparous female; 3, first, second and third joints of 
the antenna of apterous viviparous female; 4, 5, 6, the antcnnal joints 
of the adult alate viviparous female; 7, cauda of the apterous form; 
8, cauda of the alate individual; 9, cornicle of the alate female; 10, 
cauda of the apterous viviparous female. 


III, provided with rather few, but very long, bristle-like hairs ; III 
with about 18 circular sensoria. Length of antennal joints: III, .6 
mm.; IV, .5 mm.; V, .3 mm.; VI, .2 mm.; spur or filament, .4 mm. 
Prothorax wider than long, dusky. Meso- and metathorax also dusky. 
Middle and hind legs black except orange basal one-third of the 
femur. Basal one-half of femora and tibia of the front leg orange, 
the remaining part dusky. Length of femora: front, 1.3 mm.; mid- 
dle, i.i mm.; hind, 1.7 mm. Abdomen of red-salmon color, with 
dark dorsal bands. Hairy throughout body. Cornicle black, wider at 
base than at apex. Style black with a few long hairs. 

Apterous viviparous female. General color salmon-red to orange. 
Length of body, 2.8 mm. Greatest width of abdomen, 1.6 mm. Head 
the color of body, broader than long. Beak beyond the second coxal 
cavity, tip dusky, remaining part salmon-red. Antenna shorter than 
body ; article III, salmon-red, provided with bristle-like hairs on a 
row facing outside ; IV and V, mostly dusky, but with a smaller num- 
ber of bristles each; VI, including filament, dusky. Length of anten- 
nal joints: III, ./ mm.; IV, .4 mm.; V, .3 mm.; VI, .2 mm.; filament, 
.4 mm. Prothorax slightly dusky, wider than broad. Meso- and 
metathorax also slightly dusky. Abdomen salmon-red, with a black, 
transverse band on each of the segments. Cornicles black, base de- 
cidedly wider than at the apex. Style dusky, somewhat rounded and 
provided with hairs. Legs slightly dusky, except at the joints. 

Host plant Acer macrophylla. 

Locality University of California campus, Berkeley, Cali- 

Date of Collection April 5, 1915. 
Types at the University of California. 

Myzocalis essigi n. sp. 

Alatc viviparous female. General color pale. Length of body, ex- 
clusive of style, 1.65 mm. Greatest width of abdomen .65 mm. Wing 
expansion 2.3 mm. Head broader than long, pale, width between the 
eyes .25 mm. Tip of beak slightly dusky. Antenna pale except at the 
joints of III, IV, V and most of VI including spur which are dusky. 
Length of antennal joints: III .6 mm, IV .4 mm, V .3 mm, VI .2 mm, 
filament .19 mm. Article III with 6 to 7 circular sensoria. Prothorax 
pale, .5 mm. long and .32 mm. wide. Mesothorax pale, width .55 mm. 
Metathorax also pale. Legs pale except dusky tarsi with claws. Abdo- 
men pale with 4 large, long, blunt tubercles on first and second seg- 
ments. Cornicles black, somewhat constricted near the middle. Style 
distinctly constricted, pale. Anal plate deeply and beautifully bifur- 
cated, pale. Wings hyaline. 

Nymphs are beautifully shaded with green and pale. 


Locality University of California campus. Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. Date of collection, April 5, 1915, and also June 15, 
1916. Host plant Qucrcus sp. 

Note. Absence of any dusky spots about the thorax and 
dusky color of the cornicle distinguish this species from its 
relatives, such as M. discolor, M. bcllus, M. quercifolia and 

This species is named after Professor Essig, who has en- 
couraged and in many ways helped the writer in the study of 
this group of insects. 

Myzocalis woodworthi n. sp. (Plate VII). 

Alate viviparous female. General color light green. Length of body 
excluding cauda 1.2 mm. Greatest width of abdomen .5 mm. Wing ex- 
pansion 3.1 mm. Head broader than long, width, including eyes, .35 
mm., pale. Tip of beak slightly dusky. Antenna dusky. Length of ar- 
ticles : III .55 mm., IV .4 mm., V .3 mm., VI .2 mm., spur, 2 mm. Num- 
ber of sensoria on antennal joints: III, 28; IV, 14; V, 12; VI, 4. Pro- 
thorax nearly as wide as head, width, .5 mm., length, .3 mm., pale. Meso- 
and metathorax pale with muscle lobes amber. Mesothorax with a pair 
of large spines. Width of mesothorax .4 mm. Femora and tibia pale, 
tarsi dusky. Abdomen pale, with dusky dorsal bands. Bands or mark- 
ings of this species fade somewhat in mounted specimens. Dorsal tu- 
bercles on the first and second abdominal segments present as in M. 
essigi. Cornicles dusky, about .13 mm. long. Style constricted at base. 
Anal plate distinctly and deeply bifurcated. 

Nymphs with checkered dorsal marking on the abdomen as in M. 
cssiyi, yl/. maiirci and M. passani. 

Locality University of California campus, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. Date of collection June 20, 1916. Host plant Qucr- 
cus sp. 

This beautiful aphid is named in honor of Professor Wood- 
worth, of the University of California, with whom the writer 
has enjoyed studying for more than eight college years. 

What seems to me M. hyalinus Mon. has been recently col- 
lected by the writer in this locality, although the spur is almost 
subequal to the base ; it may be a local variation. The writer 
has never had an opportunity of seeing any true form of M. 
hyalinus . This species agrees with Monell's description in sev- 
eral points. 


Myzocalis hyalinus Mon. (?). 

Alate viviparous female. General color pale. Length of body exclusive 
of style 3.2 mm. Wing expansion 3.5 mm. Head pale, width between 
the eyes .3 mm. Eyes prominent, black. Beak short, tip slightly dusky 
and lying between the first and the second coxa. Antenna pale except 
dusky rings near the joints of III, IV, V and VI including spur. Ar- 
ticle III provided with about 6 large circular sensoria near the base. 
Prothorax pale, smallest width .4 mm., greatest width, which is nearer 
to mesothorax, .7 mm., length .4 mm. Mesothorax pale, with muscle 
lobes orange ; width, .95 mm. Legs with dusky spot at the base of tibia, 
tarsi dusky, rest pale. Abdomen pale, very much inflated. Cornicles 
pale, slightly longer than wide at base, somewhat constricted at middle, 
length about .1 mm. Style pale, tip rounded, with spines about .25 mm. 
long. Anal plate pale, deeply bilobed, provided with long spines. 

Nymphs. As far as the writer's observations go, nymphs of this spe- 
cies were not shaded with green as in the case of related species. 

Locality University of California campus, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. Latest date of collection July 28, 1916. Host 
Querms sp. 

The writer has had opportunities to examine several hun- 
dreds of Aphid species, but never observed such a numerical 
variation as presented in this species. The following measure- 
ments obtained with specimens collected on the same day at 
one and the same niche will illustrate this statement : 

Numerical variation in M. hyalinus Mon. in millimeters. 

Specimen No. i No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 

Length of body including style 3.7 2.9 2.4 1.75 

Width of abdomen 1.4 1.3 .9 .8 

Wing expansion 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.5 . 

Length of antennal joint III 95 .9 I. .8 

Length of antennal joint IV 7 .9 .8 .6 

Length of antennal joint V 6 .75 .6 .5 

Length of antennal joint VI 27 .35 .25 .29 

Filament 27 .40 .25 .23 

Thus in my specimen the spur is not absolutely longer than 
the base. I am not as yet sure whether this is true liyaliuus 
Monell or not. 


Figs, ii to 18, Myzocalis ivoodrvorthi n. sp. n, Alate viviparous fe- 
male; 12, nymph; 13 to 16, the antennal articles of the alate viviparous 
female; 17, cauda, 18, cornicle of the alate viviparous female. 


Plate VII. 



New York Scolopostethi (Family Lygaeidae : Heter.). 

By J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO, White Plains, New York. 

Fieber, 1861, Eur. Hem. 66 and 188; Horv. 1893, Rev. d'Ent. 238. 

The genus Scolopostcthits of the family Lygaeidae was es- 
tablished by Fieber in his Europaischen Hemiptera, in the 
dichotomy. In the specific keys it was further defined and 
six species were separated. It belongs in the subfamily RJiy- 
parochrominae (Stal), V. D. Check List, or Aphan'mae of the 
European authors; and to the tribe Lethiini (Stal) V. D. 
(recte Lethaeiini), or Drymini of the Europeans, and follows 
our southwestern genus Hsuris Stal in the lists, or Cryphula 
Stal in our local fauna, being the last of the family Lygaeidae 
in Van Duzee's arrangement. This, by the bye, differs mark- 
edly from Oshanin and other European authorities, in whose 
arrangement it follows Eremocoris, its most similar neighbor. 

The Lygaeidae (or MyodocJiidae) form a very extensive 
family, being the third in number of species after the Mlrldae 
and the Pentatomldae, in this order. All have a very distinctive 
aspect, from the gaily colored species of Lygaeus to the gray 
and sober Nysius. They fall into a number of well-defined 
divisions recognized as subfamilies and tribes. The ApJianinac 
(Pachynierlnae, Rhyparochromlnae} are distinguished by hav- 
ing the sutures of the second and third abdominal segments 
more or less curved toward the connexivum which they do not 
reach, a sharp character separating them from all other sub- 
families. The Lethaeiini are separated from the remaining 
tribes of the subfamily by having no regular lateral lamellar 
pronotal expansion except at the middle, and the pronotum 
much narrowed anteriorly. 

In Scolopostcthns the head is triangular, anteriorly acumi- 
nate, the first antennal joint going beyond its apex ; the eyes 
do not quite touch the pronotum ; the rostrum reaches the in- 
termediate coxae, the pronotum is trapezoidal, sometimes nearly 
square, depending on the wing development ; the lateral mar- 
gins sinuate, laminate ; the incrassate anterior femora have a 


single long spine, followed by a series of shorter ones at least 
to its base and sometimes to its apex. 

Its chief characters are: the rostrum not going beyond the 
intermediate coxae and the first joint of the antennae not pro- 
jecting beyond the head by more than half its length, which 
distinguishes it from its most similar neighbor, Ercmocoris. 
It is separated on the other hand from Drymus by the nearly 
parallel body and the pronotum not so markedly trapezoid, it 
being strongly so in the latter. 

On recorded distribution, Scolopostethns is essentially palae- 
arctic, 12 of its 16 species being peculiar to that region, of 
which ii are found in Europe. Of the remaining species, 2 
are American or Nearctic ; I Maorian, from New Zealand, and 
2 Oriental, from China and India. It is unwise, however, to 
place much reliance on this distribution, since the species are 
smaller members of an inconspicuous group little collected any- 
where, except in Europe, where entomologists abound and 
where collecting has been most intensive. 

Four species are known from the United States Scolo- 
postetlms thomsoni, also European and described thence; S. 
atlanticns and 5". diffidcns, described in 1893 by Horvath from 
the United States ; and S. tropicus, described by Distant in 
1882 from Guatemala (as Ercmocoris}, and recorded by Van 
Duzee from "Pacif.," thereby meaning California, etc. ; Gil- 
lette and Baker, in Hemlptera of Colorado, record it thence. 

No species of the genus was known from America, North 
or South, until Mr. E. P. Van Duzee recorded 6". affinis from 
the United States. In 1893 Horvath described 5". atlanticus 
and .S. diffidens in the Revue d'Entomologie, in his paper on 
American Scolopostethi, "Les Scolopostethus americains," in 
which he also noted the occurrence of the European S. thom- 
soni Reuter, 1875, on both sides of the Atlantic, and that S. 
affinis was European only, so far as known. Our species are 
separable by the following key : 

I (?~) Two erect hairs near ocelli: anterior femora with one large 
spine near middle, with smaller spines running from it to both 
ends S. thomsoni Reut. 


2 (i) Without hairs near ocelli; anterior femora spined only to- 
ward apex from large spine. 

3 (4) Membrane grey; clavus with three rows of punctures, 

S. atlanticus Horvath. 

4 (3) Membrane dark brown, marked with white; clavus with 
four rows of punctures, basally confused S. diffidcns Horvath. 

Scolopostethus thomsoni Reuter (1875, Ann. S. E. F., 562) 
is a widespread species through Europe. With us it has been 
recorded by Horvath from Canada and California, and later by 
Barber in Insects of New Jersey (Smith), from Roselle Park, 
New Jersey, taken by sifting. In his Hemiptcra of Buffalo, 
Van Duzee states it is not uncommon among moss and rubbish 
in fence rows ; long- and short-winged forms were found hiber- 
nating together, in company with Blissus leucopterus; the 
young occurred in July. It is also known from Alaska. 

Scolopostethus atlanticus Horvath (1893, op. c. 239) is 
seemingly the most abundant species about New York. Hor- 
vath recorded it from Massachusetts and New Jersey. In 
Journal New York Entomological Society it was recorded from 
White Plains, from clumps of tussock grass or sedge, at the 
base, in May, June and July. My last catch was in June of 
last year, when I collected 54 by sweeping the tussock sedge 
growing in a marshy spot. These individuals came from the 
flowers or seeds at that time, however. In May I also took it 
under a board on a dike running through a marsh or swale. 
The species is to be found overwhelmingly in the short-winged 
form; out of some 80 before me only five are fully winged. 
It also seems particularly prone to defective antennae, three 
specimens having three joints only on one or the other antenna, 
and one has both antennae 3- jointed. It seems that Costa 
founded his genus Tritomaccra on such a defective specimen, 
and it may be that we shall eventually call the genus under dis- 
cussion by this name. 

I received this species from Colorado under the name Scolo- 
poscdis discoidalis, a member of the family Anthocoridae. 
New Mexico (Ft. Wingate) and Newfoundland (East Coast) 
are new records ex my collection. 

Scolopostethus diffidens Horvath (1893, op. c. 240) is re- 


corded by him from Massachusetts and California ; Barber has 
found it in New Jersey (Lakehurst) ; and I took it in Am- 
herst, Mass., one long-winged and one short-, under leaves in 

Very little indeed is known of these insects with us, so that 
it may not be amiss to note here the habits of the more col- 
lected and better known European species. 

Scolopostethits pictus, according to Puton, is found in ants' 
nests ; Fieber states it is found under fallen leaves, under 
plants on grassy mounds on dikes ; Guerin and Peneau find it 
on lake shores in July, on willow ; Saunders took it in the Eng- 
lish Fens. 

-S. affinis Schilling, Saunders reports as common in rubbish 
and as taken by sweeping nettles in summer ; Douglas and 
Scott say it is very common, especially under heath, nearly all 
the year through ; Guerin and Peneau find it common all year, 
in summer in the fields, on divers plants, in winter under moss ; 
Fieber records it on dry stony mounds, under Erica (heath). 

These are typical of the habit of the other species ; all seem 
to be found under leaves or near damp places or on dry fields, 
some, indeed, in all three habitats. 

A New Genus and Species of Buprestidae (Col.). 

By H. C. FALL, Pasadena, California. 

AMPHEREMUS. New genus. 

Body narrow, subcylindric, mentum very strongly transverse, 
arcuate anteriorly ; labrum short, bilobed ; epistoma broadly 
sinuate. Antennal cavities rather large, separated by slightly 
more than one-third the total width between^ the eyes, upper 
margins oblique and slightly reflexed. Eyes moderate, their 
inner margins nearly parallel. Terminal joint of maxillary 
palpi widest at base, feebly conical, a little compressed, apex 
truncate,, preceding joints obconic, as wide as long. Antennae 
short, rather thick, serriform from the fourth joint, the serri- 
form ioints densely finely punctate and opaque inferiorly and 
apparently with very small intro-terminal sensory fossae. 


Prothorax cylindrical, not margined at sides except for a very 
short distance at the base angles ; base with a short, broad, 
sinuate, feebly reflexed lobe. Scutellum very short and broad, 
scarcely entering the elytral disc, its posterior margin broadly 
arcuate. Elytra narrow, parallel, a little wider than the thorax , 
side margins not serrulate. Prosternum broadly convex, more 
strongly so between the coxae, squarely truncate in front, in- 
tercoxal process slightly dilated behind the coxae, then gradu- 
ally pointed. Mesosternum deeply impressed or divided 
throughout its length, the impression or excavation occupied 
anteriorly by the tip of the prosternum, but open for a short 
distance posteriorly. Front coxae separated by about their own 
widths ; middle coxae slightly more distant. Metasternal epi- 
sterna moderately wide, about two and one-half times as long 
as wide. Hind coxal plates not much dilated internally, the 
posterior margin concave and only a little oblique. 

Ventral segments 2-4 equal, first conspicuously and fifth 
slightly longer, sutures straight, the first fine but distinctly im- 

Legs moderate, tarsi subequal in length to the tibiae, basal 
joint distinctly longer than the second, joints 1-4 lobed beneath; 
claws simple. 

A. cylindricollis n. sp. 

Cylindrical, convex, viridi-aeneous, elytra distinctly cuprascent, clothed 
thinly above and beneath with fine whitish pubescence, the hairs inclined 
on the elytra, a little longer and erect on the head and prothorax. 

Head exactly equal in width to the prothorax, front convex, densely 
punctate and with two very small tuberculiform prominences at middle, 
between which is a slight impression. Antennae equal in length to the 
prothorax and attaining the middle of the latter; joints I and 3 mod- 
erately elongate, 2 and 4 shorter, 4 triangular, as long as wide, 5 to n 
transverse, their lower edges feebly then rapidly oblique to base. 

Prothorax cylindrical, a little wider than long, sides straight and 
parallel from base to apex, disk a little more strongly convex antero- 
medially, and with a short ante-median impression; surface nearly evenly 
punctate, the punctures separated by their own diameters or rather 
more, the interstices polished ; hind angles not in the least carinate. 
Elytra a little wider than the thorax, parallel to apical third, apex ob- 
tusely rounded or subtruncate, surface rather densely punctate and 
vaguely finely striate, the punctures of the intervals similar to and much 
confused with those of the striae. Beneath rather closely punctate and 


finely pubescent, the punctures coarser at the middle of the prosternum, 
somewhat denser at the sides of the body, the posterior margins of 
ventral segments 2 to 5 smooth at middle ; last segment subtruncate at 
apex. Length 6.75 mm.; width 2 mm. 

Described from a unique example of unknown sex taken by 
Mr. J. O. Martin at Palm Springs, California. Type in my col- 

The generic affinities of this rather remarkable species are 
not readily determinable by means of the table of tribal divi- 
sions as given in the LeConte and Horn Classification. The 
form is as slender as in many Agrili and the front may fairly 
be said to be contracted by the antennal cavities, yet the gen- 
eral facies and most essential characters absolutely forbid this 
reference. After a somewhat careful comparative study I am 
pretty well convinced that its place is between the group Chal- 
cophorae and Buprestes as now limited, and its nearest ally is 
perhaps the recently described Nanularia* of Casey, with which 
it seems to agree closely in antennal formation, and substan- 
tially in several other respects. The mesosternum and meta- 
sternum do not appear to be anchylosed between the coxae, 
neither is there apparent so distinct a cleft as in Nanularia. 
The palpi are unlike those of any of the genera of the Chalco- 
phorae or Buprestes and resemble more nearly the form in 
Acmaeodera. The punctuation is suggestive of Hippomelas, 
though not quite the same. The perfectly parallel-sided thorax 
with the merest vestige of a lateral margin at the extreme base 
is quite unique among our Buprestidae. 

Return of Animal Life to the Katmai District, Alaska. 

In the course of studies of the revegetation of the district devastated 
by the eruption of Katmai, under the auspices of the National Geo- 
graphic Society, some observations have been made on the return of 
animal life. The striking thing is that predaceous animals are returning 
before the return of herbivorous types. This is true of both mammals 
and insects. The area near the volcano was practically devoid of 
insect life three years after the eruption (1915), but was fairly swarm- 
ing with insects the year following. Most of these were predaceous, 
parasitic or coprophilous. The origin of these insects, their breeding 
places, and the reason for their sudden appearance are mysteries. They 
were ravenously hungry and many were dying from starvation. 
ROBERT F. GRIGGS, Ohio State University (in Program of the Ecological 
Society of America, Dec. 27-29, 1916). 

*Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. XI, p. 172, 1909. 


A New Catocala Net. 

By J. C. HUGUENIN, San Francisco, California. 

Collectors of Catocala will undoubtedly be interested in a 
new net for their special use. My experience and difficulty in 
gathering these moths is, no doubt, shared by others, and I de- 
termined on perfecting a net that would obviate many difficul- 
ties and preclude the possibility of losing a good specimen. 

As all CaYora/a-collectors are aware, many of these moths 
repose in crevices in bark quite out of reach of the collector. 
With the serrated rubber edge (D in the diagram) the ob- 
stacle offered by the breach in the bark, which provided a 
refuge for the moth, can be overcome. The flexible teeth of 
the net D enter all the uneven surfaces of the bark and a 
slight movement of the net is sufficient to cause the moth to 
fly. The teeth prevent the moth escaping along the crevices 
in the bark. The alternative is flight, and in so doing the moth 
enters the cyanide bottle through the paper funnel B where, 
owing to the peculiar construction, escape is impossible. 

The maker of this net has been able to catch Catocalac with- 
out effort at a height of 12 to 14 feet from the ground. 

The figure on the following page shows the construction ot 
the net so that only a few words are necessary in explanation. 

A cyanide bottle 2.y 2 x 5 inches showing the position and 
style of paper funnel B. 

B Paper funnel made of light, stiff paper ; the funnel is 
glued to the interior of the cyanide bottle at the mouth. 

C- Light wire screen funnel through which the actions of 
moth can be observed. 

D Metal net frame, 6 inches in diameter, with serrated edge 
made of rubber, one and a half inch wide, teeth cut so that 
they will be about one inch long. 

E Light metal (galvanized iron) clasp entirely surround- 
ing the bottle to hold the bottle rigidly against the net. 


[Feb., '17 


Drawings illustrating A New Catocala Net, described on page 71. 


New Indian Gall Midges (Diptera). 

By E. P. FELT, Albany, New York. 

In an endeavor to discover plants in which Pachydiplosis 
oryzac Wood-Mason might breed in the absence of paddy 
(rice), various grasses bearing deformations similar to those 
produced by the above named midge were found on three dif- 
ferent grasses by Mr. Y. Ramachandra Rao and a number of 
flies bred out and submitted for study through Prof. T. V. 
Ramakrishna, Government Entomologist of the Agricultural 
College and Research Institute. Several new species obtained 
are described below and it is worthy of note that Orscolla 
cvnodontis Kieff. & Mass, was reared not only from Cynodon 
dactvlon but is also recorded as issuing in association with 
Pscudhorinoinvia fluvialis and Lasioptcra fhiitans, both char- 
acterized below. In addition, females of another species were 
obtained and it is probable that further rearings would result 
in the securing of other gall midges. 

Lasioptera fluitans n. sp. 

The specimens were received from T. V. Ramakrishna, Gov- 
ernment Entomologist, Coimbatore, India, under date of 
August 4, 1916, accompanied by the statement that they were 
reared from galls in Paniciim fluitans along with Pseudhormo- 
inyia fluvialis described below. The specimens were labeled 
3, XII, '15, South India, Coimbatore, from Panicutn flnitans, 
Y. R. Coll. 

<?. Length 1.5 mm. Antennae extending to the base of the abdomen, 
sparsely haired, dark brown; 18 segments, the fifth with a length equal 
to its diameter, the terminal segment narrowly to broadly oval ; face 
with a conspicuous patch of white scales. Palpi yellowish, the first seg- 
ment irregularly subquadrate, the second with a length nearly twice its 
diameter, the third a little longer than the second, more slender, and 
the fourth a little longer and more slender than the third. Mesonotum 
a shining dark brown. Scutellum dark reddish brown apically, yellowish 
basally, postscutellum dark brown. Abdomen almost black, with lunate 
submedian silvery spots on segments i to 5, the apex of the terminal 
segment yellowish. Wings hyaline, costa dark brown, the third vein 
uniting with the yellowish costal spot at the distal third; halteres mostly 
pale yellowish orange; coxae and femora basally yellowish orange, the 

74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Feb., 'l 1 / 

distal portion of femora, tibiae and tarsi a nearly uniform dark brown. 
Ovipositor nearly as long as the abdomen, a thick group of moderately 
stout, hooked spines at the base of the slender, sparsely setose, tapering 
lobes, the latter with a length nearly three times the width. 

$. Length 1.5 mm. Antennae dark brown, sparsely haired, extend- 
ing to the base of the abdomen, the fifth with a length one-fourth 
greater than its diameter, the terminal segment narrowly oval. Palpi : 
first segment subquadrate, the second with a length twice its diameter, 
broader, the third a little longer and more slender and the fourth a 
little longer and more slender than the third. Colorational characters 
wanting; claws moderately stout, strongly curved, unidentate, the pul- 
villi as long as the claws. Genitalia : basal clasp segment rather short, 
stout ; terminal clasp segment long, swollen basally, subacute apically ; 
dorsal plate short, broad, deeply and triangularly emarginate, the lobes 
narrowly rounded distally; ventral plate long and tapering to a nar- 
rowly rounded apex ; harpes long, stout, tapering apically, with an irreg- 
ular quadrate tooth ; style long, slender, narrowly rounded distally. 

Type Cecid. a2 

Pseudhormomyia fluvialis n. sp. 

The midge described below is provisionally referred to this 
genus and was received from T. V. Ramakrishna, Government 
Entomologist, Coimbatore, India, under date of August 4th. 
1916. The species is stated by him to be very abundant locally, 
breeding on Panicum fluitans, a common grass in wet land 
areas, galls being found both in the terminal and the side 
shoots. The specimens were labeled No. i, 29, VII. '16, South 
India, Coimbatore, from Panicum fluitans, Y. R. Rao Coll. 

$ . Length 3 mm. Antennae one-half longer than the body, rather 
thickly haired, yellowish brown; 14 segments, the fifth with the stems 
approximately equal, each with a length one-half greater than the 
diameter; the basal enlargement subglobose, the distal pyriform and 
with a constriction near the middle, each enlargement with a whorl of 
long, stout setae, the basal with one and the distal with two circtnnfili, 
the loops moderately long and thick ; terminal segment with the basal por- 
tion of the stem produced with a length five times its diameter, the 
distal enlargement shaped like a truncate cone, the length one-half 
greater than its diameter and apically with an equally long, moderately 
stout, fusiform appendage. Palpi : first segment subquadrate, the sec- 
ond narrowly oval, with a length nearly twice its diameter, the third 
twice the length of the second, slender. Mesonotum purplish brown, 
the submedian lines sparsely haired. Scutellum and postscutellum 


yellowish brown. Abdomen rather thickly haired, purplish brown, 
the genitalia yellowish. Wings hyaline, the third vein uniting with 
the margin well beyond the apex; halteres yellowish bas'ally, yellowish 
brown apically ; anterior coxae dark brown, the mid and hind coxae 
yellowish brown; legs a nearly uniform yellowish brown, the hind 
tarsal segments yellowish straw; claws moderately stout, strongly 
curved, simple, the pulvilli as long as the claws. Genitalia : basal clasp 
segment moderately stout and unusually long, the length being nearly 
three times the greater diameter and with an obtuse internal lobe near 
the basal half ; terminal clasp segment stout, slightly curved and with 
a length about thrice its diameter ; dorsal plate nearly divided, the lobes 
long and tapering to a narrowly rounded apex; ventral plate long, 
broad, constricted near the distal third and broadly rounded apically ; 
style long, slender. 

2 . Length 3 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, sparsely 
haired, light brown ; 14 subcylindrical segments, the fifth with a stem 
one-fifth the length of the subcylindrical basal enlargement, which 
latter has a length five times its diameter, a distinct constriction near 
the basal third, whorls of long, stout setae basally and subapically and 
short-looped, circumfili near the basal third and apically, the latter con- 
nected by a longitudinal filum ; terminal segment reduced, tapering 
slightly distally, with a length about four times its diameter and apically 
a short, stout, subfusiform appendage. Palpi : first segment broadly 
oval, the second a little longer, more slender, and the third more than 
twice the length of the second and more slender. Mesonotum dark 
reddish brown to dark brown, the submedian lines almost naked. Scu- 
tellum and postscutellum yellowish brown, the abdomen sparsely haired, 
reddish brown, the segments narrowly margined posteriorly with yel- 
lowish brown, the eighth and ninth mostly yellowish brown. Wings 
hyaline ; halteres mostly yellowish brown. Coxae yellowish brown, 
the legs mostly a chestnut brown ; claws more slender than in the 
male. Ovipositor short, stout, the lobes broad, with a length about 
twice the diameter and tapering slightly to a narrowly rounded apex. 
Other characters practically as in the opposite sex. 

Exuviae. Length 5.5 mm., mostly light yellowish brown; antennal 
horns long, narrowly conical; antennal cases extending to the base of 
the abdomen, the wing cases to the second abdominal segment and the 
leg cases of the first, second and third pairs extending to the third, 
fourth and fifth abdominal segments, respectively; the dorsum of 
each abdominal segment with a transverse, irregular row of stout, 
cbitinous, unidentate spines, the anterior ones approximately half the 
size of the posterior series. 

Type Cecid. aj/77. 


Pseudhormomyia cornea n. sp. 

The midges provisionally referred to this genus were received 
from T. V. Ramakrishna, Government Entomologist. Coim- 
batore, India, under date of August 4th, 1916, accompanied by 
the statement that they breed in a grass, Ischaemum ciliarc, the 
galls being formed mostly in the side shoots, and labeled No. 
4, 2, VIII, '16, South India, Coimbatore, from Ischaemum 
ciliarc, Y. R. Rao Coll. 

$ . Length 2.5 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, sparsely 
haired, light brown; -14 segments, the fifth having the stems each with 
a length one-half greater than the diameter, the basal enlargement 
subglobose, the distal strongly constricted and with a length over 
twice its diameter; whorls of moderately stout setae occur upon both 
enlargements and on the distal two circumfili, the loops being moder- 
ately long, stout, and rather numerous. Palpi : first segment irregular, 
subquadrate, the second irregularly oval, the third more than twice 
the length of the second, more slender. Mesonotum reddish brown. 
Scutellum and postscutellum yellowish brown. Abdomen yellowish 
brown, the genitalia yellowish. Wings hyaline, the third vein uniting 
with the margin well beyond the apex ; halteres yellowish. Legs mostly 
yellowish brown. Genitalia : basal clasp segment with a length two 
and one-half times its diameter and a distinct internal lobe near the 
basal half; terminal clasp segment stout, curved and with a length over 
twice its diameter ; dorsal plate long, broad, deeply and triangularly 
emarginate, the lobes tapering" mostly internally to a narrowly rounded, 
thickly setose apex; ventral plate long, broad, thickly setose: posterior 
margin narrowly rounded ; style stout, tapering to a narrowly rounded 

Q . Length 3 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, thickly 
haired, yellowish brown; 14 segments, the fifth with a stem one-third 
the length of the cylindrical basal enlargement, which latter has a 
length about four times its diameter ; low circumfili occur at the basal 
third and apically ; terminal segment with the basal part subcylindric 
and having a length four times its diameter; apically there is an irreg- 
ular, fusiform appendage about half the length of the basal portion. 
Palpi : first segment irregularly quadrate, the second as long as the 
first and the third twice the length of the second, slender. Mesonotum 
dark reddish, the submedian lines sparsely haired. Scutellum and 
postscutellum dark yellowish brown. Abdomen rather thickly haired, 
pale reddish, the terminal segments and ovipositor mostly yellowish ; 
halteres mostly pale straw; coxae and legs mostly dark straw: claws 
moderately slender, strongly curved, simple, the pulvilli as long as 
the claws. Ovipositor short, moderately stout, the lobes sparsely haired, 
narrowly oval and with a length two and one-half times the width. 

Type Cecid. a2 



The Convocation Week Meetings A Retrospect. 

All expected a series of large meetings at New York City 
during Convocation week, and expectations were fully realized. 
We have no figures showing the number of persons present 
at the sessions of the various societies, but elsewhere in this 
issue, page 88, we give a list of the titles of papers presented 
and some statistics for comparison with those of previous 
years. It is always the case that some papers are merely read 
by title, but there seems to be no reason to think that a pro- 
portionally greater number of authors and speakers were ab- 
sent when their names were called at New York than at other 
places in previous years. The total number of papers of ento- 
mological bearing is 139 as compared with the highest earlier 
total of 96 for the Philadelphia meeting of Convocation week, 
1914. Floreat Entomologia! 

On the social side are to be mentioned the common head- 
quarters of the Entomological Society of America and the 
American Association of Economic Entomologists at the Hotel 
Endicott, enabling many entomologists to meet each other out- 
side of the meetings, and conveniently situated for visiting the 
collections of the American Museum of Natural History. On 
Wednesday evening, December 27, the visiting entomologists 
were pleasantly entertained at supper, at the Museum, under 
the care of Dr. F. E. Lutz and the Entomological Societies of 
New York and Brooklyn. Following came the annual address 
of the Entomological Society of America, given in the same 
Museum by Professor T. D. A. Cockerell. His excellent 
resume on ''Fossil Insects" presented valid reasons why this 
field. of entomology should be cultivated to a much greater 



degree than has ever yet been the case. This evening closed 
with an enjoyable smoker to visiting naturalists at the Aqua- 
rium, offered by the New York Zoological Society. There was 
the usual dinner of the American Society of Naturalists on 
Friday evening, December 29, at which Dr. Raymond Pearl 
gave an illuminating presidential address on the present status 
of natural selection. The same society held a session on Sat- 
urday morning, December 30, at Cold Spring Harbor, Long 
Island, and afterwards inspected the Eugenics Record Office 
and the Carnegie Station for Experimental Evolution, under 
the kind attention and hospitality of Dr. and Mrs. C. B. Da- 
venport, Drs. Blaikslie, Harris, Riddle, Banta and their asso- 

The annual question of arrangement of the meetings of the 
Entomological Society and of the Economic Entomologists so 
that there shall be no important conflict between the interests 
of the two bodies came up again, accentuated by the large in- 
crease in papers on the Economic program. Hitherto, the 
programs of the two bodies have not overlapped to any great 
degree. It does not seem possible to maintain this condition 
of affairs any longer and one suggestion (which, we believe, 
we received from Dr. W. Riley), that the Section of Horticul- 
tural Inspection meet at the same hours as the Entomological 
Society, seems to offer a partial and not very objectionable 
way of solving the difficulties of conflicting meetings. 

Questions and 

The NEWS invites those having any entomological questions which they wish 
answered to send such in for publication under this heading, and also invites 
answers from its readers or others to these questions. Questions and replies 
should be as brief as possible and the Editors reserve the right not to publish 
any of either class which seem to them objectionable or inappropriate. Those send- 
ing in contributions to this department will please indicate whether they wish 
their names or merely one or more initials to appear in connection with their 
communications, but all such must be accompanied by the full name and address 
of the writer for the information of the editors. 

QUESTION No. 4. Can anyone advise me as to where I can have 
foreign specimens of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and other orders of in- 
sects determined as to specific names? Alost of my material is from 
Japan. HARRY L. JOHNSON, So. Meriden, Conn. 


Notes and Ne\vs. 


Erebus odora and its Larvae in Iowa (Lep.). 

On July 3ist, 1915, a female Erebus odora was found resting on 
a screen door a mile and a half east of this town (Nevada, Iowa). 
It was rubbed some, but not badly. We have the moth in our collec- 

August I5th, 1916, we took another, a female also, three miles east 
of town where we were sugaring for Catocala. It had come to bait 
on an elm tree. This one was quite a fresh specimen. It was con- 
fined in a paper bag, and deposited over five hundred (500) eggs, whicli 
began hatching four days after being laid. The young larvae were 
offered leaves of Cassia marilandica, C. cliamaecrista, Honey and 
Black locust, A markka cancsccns, A. fruticosa and Kentucky coffee 
tree. They refused all but the last named. About two dozen ate leaves 
of the coffee tree and lived until past second molt, when they all died. 
Perhaps they had gone too long without food before beginning to eat 
and were in a weakened condition. It was a great disappointment to 
lose them at this stage, for they were a very interesting young family. 
They resembled young Catocala larvae greatly. 

The egg was small, round and a dull, dirty blue color. Two days 
after, they were laid the young larvae showed through the shell, and 
two days later they hatched. When newly hatched the larvae were 
over a quarter of an inch long, very slender, and as lively as Cato~ 
cala ilia larvae, which they resembled very much. Body color brown, 
with four tubercles to each segment. These tubercles were black and 
large, almost obscuring the body color and making the larvae look 
quite black. Head was large and black. Six days later they passed 
first molt, were light brown, and from each tubercle extended a long, 
fine, dark hair. The underside was light and had the dark spots 
characteristic of all Catocala larvae. A week later they molted the 
second time, and were about three-quarters of an inch long. Body 
color the same, with fine, dark, wavy longitudinal lines. The fine 
hairs which sprung from each tubercle were three-eighths of an inch 
long and were stiff enough to stand erect. Over the eighth abdominal 
segment the two dorsal tubercles were very pronounced. Head black 
and underside almost white, with large black spots. One day after 
passing second molt they all died. 

Since taking the moth two years in succession, two weeks apart, in 
practically the same neighborhood, and securing fertile ova from one. 
we wonder Are they breeding here? O. F. and J. S. HISER, Nevada, 


Advances in Knowledge of Fossil Insects. 

Our knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of insects in 
previous ages of the earth's history has been notably increased by a 
recent paper by Mr. R. J. Tillyard, Science Research Scholar in the 
University of Sydney, on "Mesozoic and Tertiary Insects of Queens- 
land and New South Wales." (Queensland Ceol. Surv. Publ. No. 253, 
Brisbane, 1916.) It deals with material collected during a number of 
years at Denmark Hill at Ipswich, Goodna near Ipswich, and St. 
Peter's, near Sydney, all in New South Wales and at Duaringa, 
Queensland. The Denmark Hill beds are referred to the Triassic, the 
St. Peter's claypits to the Jurassic, the Duaringa and Goodna deposits 
are of tertiary age, according to an account of the stratigraphical 
features by Mr. B. Dunstan, Chief Government Geologist, preceding 
Mr. Tillyard's descriptions. 

The Denmark Hill beds, which have been known since 1890 to con- 
tain fossil insects, have yielded the most interesting of the specimens 
discussed in this memoir. They represent eight orders (Blattoidea, 
Protorthoptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Mecoptera, Lepidoptera, Proto- 
hemiptera, Hemiptera), thirteen genera and twenty-two species, of 
which ten genera and seventeen species are new. The chief general re- 
sults are thus stated by Mr. Tillyard : 

"i. Certain insect types characteristic of the late Palaeozoic in the 
Northern Hemisphere, and not found in the Mesozoic, are now shown 
to have had fairly close relatives in the Trias of Australia. Such types 
include Austromylacritcs [Blattoidea], Mesorthoptcron and Mesoman- 
tidion [both Protorthoptera]. 

2. The first known appearance of a true dragon fly [Mcsofihlcbia, n. 
gen.], with nodus and pterostigma, can now be assigned to the Trias, 
instead of the Lias. It was probably an Anisopterid. 

3. A Panorpid (Mecoptera \Mcsochorista n. gen.]) scarcely dif- 
fering from a form [Tacniochorista] still alive in Southern Queens- 
land, existed in the Australian Trias. This group has already been 
recorded from the Lias in the Northern Hemisphere. 

4. A Lepidopterous insect, a fairly large moth [Dunstania n. gen.] 
is present in the Australian Trias. As the Lepidoptera have not until 
now been traced back beyond the upper Jurassic, this discovery is of 
great importance. Also, as this insect existed in a period long before 
that generally agreed upon when flowering plants first appeared 

(Lower Cretaceous), it is an interesting question as to what it fed 
upon and what its mouth parts were like. [A list of the fossil flora as- 
sociated with the remains of the insects at Denmark Llill is given by 
Mr. Dunstan, p. 6, and consists of 13 species of ferns, 2 of cycads, 
I of Equisetales and 5 of conifers.] 

5. A true Hemipterid (allied to the recent Jassidae) existed side by 
side with a large insect probably related to Huucrcon, and hence ref- 
erable to the Protohemiptera. Jassidae are known from the Lias of 


the Northern Hemisphere, hut the Protohemiptera did not survive be- 
yond the Permian. 

6. The large gap in the Insect Record (Trias) is at last in pro- 
cess of being satisfactorily bridged over." 

The dragonfly, Afcsofihlcbia antinodalis n. sp., is represented by a 
fragment, 21.5 mm. long, n mm. in greatest breadth, "of the greater 
portion of the distal half of the wing from a point on the radius about 
six cells proximad from the nodus, to a point just short of the wing- 
tip." Two of its most striking peculiarities are the "very great breadth 
of the wing in proportion to its length, and the close approximation 
[12 mm.] of the nodus to the pterostigma." 

The moth, Dunstania pulchra n. sp., is described from an "almost 
perfect specimen of a left hind wing," 20 mm. long, with a greatest 
breadth of 11.5 mm. A footnote informs us of the subsequent discov- 
ery "of the narrower and more elongated forewing of this same spe- 
cies." The formation of the cells of the hind wing "appears to differ 
in very important points from anything known in the Lepidoptera to- 

"The most striking point about the collection from St. Peter's is the 
occurrence of the gigantic Mcsotitan [Protorthoptera. n. gen.l, a form, 
which certainly links up the insect fauna of this locality with that of 
Commentry. Although the Giant Age of Insects ceased in the Per- 
mian as far as the Northern Hemisphere was concerned, yet at St. 
Peter's we have direct evidence that some at least of these forms lin- 
gered on far into the Mesozoic in Australia, existing side by side with 
far more highly specialized Coleoptera, and closely allied to present- 
day forms. The cockroach, Notoblattitcs, may also be classed as a 
representative of a very archaic group of Blattoidea, which attained 
their maximum development in the Northern Hemisphere, near the 
end of the Palaeozoic Age." 

Of Mcsotitan giganteus, "the preserved portion of the insect meas- 
ures 125 mm. long by 146 mm. wide, and appears to represent only a 
small basal portion of the wings. The forewing when completed was 
probably at least eight or nine inches long and three wide at its 
broadest part. If this estimate is correct, this huge insect must have 
had an expanse of about twenty inches." The description and the 
figure are disappointing on account of the fragmentary character of 
the remains and we would prefer to reserve our opinion as to the size 
and character of this fossil until more complete specimens are at hand. 

Collecting Insects by the aid of Molasses Traps (Col.). 

My attention was first called to this manner of collecting some four 
years ago, by overhearing some one remark that certain parties had 
collected a large number of beetles of the genus Cychrus in the moun- 
tains of North Carolina by using molasses traps. I made my first 
attempt with fly-traps, in which I placed a small tray of molasses; 
later on, I tried half-pint milk bottles, but had little success with either. 


This year I used jelly glasses, and my efforts were crowned with suc- 
cess. The glasses were sunk in the earth with the tops level with 
the ground. About two inches above the glass a flat stone or piece 
of board was placed to keep out the rain. In each glass I placed about 
an inch of molasses. The dark New Orleans molasses seems to be 
the best to bait the traps with. In removing the insects from the 
traps I used a rather stiff, flat brush about a half-inch in width, with 
which I transferred the insects to a wide mouth bottle of alcohol. In 
the thirty-eight years that I have been collecting, I have turned over 
thousands of stones and logs, and raked over a few hay-wagon loads 
of dead leaves, and have only found eight specimens of Carabus scr- 
ratus, while my four traps in four weeks caught forty-six specimens. 
This is not an exceptional case, as in the same time I removed as many 
specimens of Cychrus stenostomus and Dicaclus dilatatus from the 
traps as I have found in twenty years. The Cychrus and Carabus 
have no membranous wings, so, not being able to fly, we seldom find 
them around the electric lights; but they manage to walk, crawl or 
stumble into the molasses traps. 

Carabidae are the principal beetles attracted, but quite a number of 
beetles belonging to other families will be found in the traps, as well 
as many insects belonging to orders other than Coleoptera. In all 
the articles published on "Directions for Collecting and Preserving 
Insects" that I have consulted, little or nothing is mentioned about this 
way of collecting. -PHILIP LAURENT, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Some Synonymy in the Hesperidae (Lep.). 

Nearly twenty-four years ago I described a Pamphila in the Strecker 
".ollection and called it streckeri in honor of the owner of the specimen. 
I was told it was taken in Florida and had no reason at that time for 
doubting the correctness of the statement. As the species has not been 
found in Florida since, there is good reason for doubting the locality 
given for the type of streckeri, although it is not impossible that it may 
be found in that State. In the winter of 1914 I paid a visit to my 
friend Mr. Charles T. Ramsden, who lived on the San Carlos planta- 
tion near Guantanamo, Oriente, Cuba. While collecting a few miles from 
San Carlos I took two specimens of a Pamphila which reminded me of 
streckeri although I had not seen the latter for so many years. The 
two specimens were taken February nth. I sent a specimen of the 
Cuban species to Mr. W. J. Gerhard at the Field Museum, Chicago, to 
be compared with the type of streckeri, and he reported them to be the 
same. Also the description of streckeri agrees perfectly with the Cuban 

The species was originally described under the name radians in 1857 
and the synonymy is as follows 

1857. Hesperia radians Luc., Sagra, Hist. Cuba, p. <>50. 

1881. Pamphila radians Gundl., Cont. Entom. Cubana, p. 151. 

1893. Pamphila streckeri Skinner, Ent. News, p. 211. 

We will know some day whether radians is found in Florida or con- 
fined to the West Indies. 



The Rate of Locomotion of Vanessa antiopa (Lep.) in different 

luminous intensities and its bearing on the "continuous 

action theory" of orientation. 

If orientation in light is dependent upon the stimulation of both 
retinas by equal amounts of light energy, as is held by Loeb and his 
"continuous action theory," butterflies should move more rapidly in 
bright light than in weak. To test this the rate of movement of ten 
specimens of Vanessa antiopa in each of two lights, one about 2000 
times stronger than the other, was ascertained. They did not move 
faster in the bright light than in the weak, hut, on the contrary, 70 per 
cent, of the insects actually moved more rapidly in the weak light than 
they did in the strong. These results support those presented previously, 
which indicated that the orientation of Vanessa in light cannot be ac- 
counted for on the basis of Loeb's theory. Moreover, some positive 
evidence has been obtained in favor of the theory that orientation is 
dependent upon the time rate of the change of intensity, since the 
results of some experiments seem to indicate that Vanessa moves faster 
in intermittent than in continuous light. W. L. DOLLEY, JR., Randolph- 
Macon College (in Abstracts of Proceedings, Amer. Soc. Zool., Dec. 
27-29, 1916). 

Kntomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico are given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 11 Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, London. 50 Proceedings, U. S. National Mu- 
seum. 51 Novitates Zoologicae, Tring, England. 68 Science, 
New York. 87 Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 
92 Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie. 153 Bulle- 
tin, American Museum of Natural History, New York. 179 Jour- 
nal of Economic Entomology. 189 Journal of Entomology and 


Zoology, Claremont, Calif. 194 Genera Insectorum. Diriges par 
P. Wytsman, Bruxelles. 322 Journal of Morphology, Philadel- 
phia. 369 Entomologische Mitteilungen, Berlin-Dahlem. 373 
Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North 
America, by Wm. Barnes & J. H. McDunnough, Decatur, 111. 402 
University of California Publications in Zoology, Berkeley, Cal. 
411 Bulletin, The Brooklyn Entomological Society. 520 Proceed- 
ings, British Columbia Entomological Society, Victoria. 541 
Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences exactes et Naturelles, La Haye. 
542 Proceedings, New England Zoological Club, Cambridge, Mass. 
GENERAL SUBJECT. Cook, A. S. Obituary note by D. I,. 
Crawford, 189, viii, 169-70. Hamilton, J. A. Entomology in the 
public school, 520, No. 9, 60-2. Holloway, T. E. Moving lights 
versus stationary lights in phototropism experiments, 179, ix, 570-1. 
Melander, A. L. The pronunciation of insect names, 411, xi, 93- 
101. Petrunkevitch, A. Morphology of invertebrate types, 263 pp., 
ill. (New York, The Macmillan Co., 1916). 


-The rearing of Drosophila ampelophila in solid media, 68, xlv, 
21-22. Payne, F. A study of the germ cells of Gryllotalpa borealis 
and G. vulgaris, 322, xxviii, 287-327. Reeves, E. M. The inheri- 
tance of extra bristles in Drosophila melanogaster, 402, xiii, 495- 
515. Williams, F. X. Photogenic organs and embryology of 
lampyrids, 322, xxviii, 145-208. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Cockle, J. W. Notes on the wood-tick 
(Dermacentor venustus), 520, No. 9, 53-7. Moles, M. L. The 
growth and color patterns in spiders, 189, viii, 129-57. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Walker, E. M. The nymphs of the 
N. Am. species of Leucorrhinia, 4, 1916, 414-22. 

ORTHOPTERA. Caudell, A. N. Locustidae, subf. Saginae; 
subf. Hetrodinae; subf. Mecopodinae, 194, Fasc. 167, 10 pp.; Fasc. 
168, 13 pp.; Fasc. 171, 31 pp. Bolivar, I. Acridiidae, Pamphaginae, 
194, Fasc. 170, 40 pp. 

HEMIPTERA. Swellengrebel, N. H. Quelques remarques sur 
la facon de combattre le pou des vetements, 541, iii, 1-31. 

Hollinger, A. H. The shell-bark hickory mealy-bug (Pseudo- 
coccus Jessica [l n. sp.], 4, 1916, 411-13. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Barnes & McDunnough Notes on Walker's 
types of Geometridae in the D'Urban collection; Synonymic notes 
on No. Am. Heterocera, 373, iii, 35-48; 157-200. Clark, B. P. 
New American Sphingidae, 542, vi, 39-50. Jordan & Eltringham 


Rhopalocera, Fam. Nymphalidae, Subf. Acraeinae, 194, Fasc. 169, 
81 pp. Mabille & Boullet Descriptions d'Hesperides nouveaux, 
87, 1916, 243-7. Meyrick, E. Heterocera. Fam. Glyphipterygidae; 
Fam. Heliodinidae, 194, Fasc. 164, 39 pp.; Fasc. 165, 29 pp. Roth- 
schild, L. Notes on Amathusiidae, Brassolidae, Morphidae, etc., 
with descriptions of n. sps., 51, xxiii, 299-318. Stichel, H. Beitrage 
zur kenntnis der Riodiniden fauna Sudamerikas, 1, 92, xii, 238-44. 
Watson, J. R. Life history of Anticarsia gemmatilis, 179, ix, 521-28. 

Barnes & McDunnough New species of N. American L. [1 n. 
gen., many n. sps.]; Notes on No. Am. diurnal L. [l n. sp.], 373, 

iii, 1-34; 53-152. Grossbeck, J. A. Insects of Florida. IV, Lepidop- 
tera [many new], 153, xxxvii, 1-147. 

DIPTERA. Dove, W. E. Some notes concerning overwintering 
of Musca domestica at Dallas, Texas, 179, ix, 528-38. Hendel, F. 
Beitrage zur systematik der Acalyptraten Musciden, 369, v, 294-99. 

Malloch, J. R. A key to the males of the anthomyid genus Hy- 
drotaea recorded from N. Am. [l n. sp.], 411, xi, 108-10. 

COLEOPTERA. Benick, L. Beitrag zur kenntnis der Megalo- 
pinen und Steninen, 369, v, 238-52. Borchmann, F. Die gattung 
Colparthrum, 369, v, 228-37. Lameere, A. Trois Prioninae nou- 
veaux, 87, 1916, 233-5. Marshall, G. A. K. On new neotropical 
Curculionidae, 11, xviii, 449-69. d'Orchymont, A. De la place que 
doivent occuper dans la classification les sous-families des Sphaeri- 
diinae et des Hydrophilinae, 87, 1916, 235-40. Verhoeff, K. W. 
Studien ueber die organisation der Staphylinoidea, 92, xii, 245-9 

Pierce, W. D. Studies of weevils (Rhynchophora) with descrip- 
tions of n. gen. & n. sps. [l n. gen.; 1 n. sp.], 50, li, 461-473. Shaef- 
fer, C. Two n. sps. of Cebrio, 411, xi, 107-8. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bequaert, J. On the occurrence of Vespa 
austriaca in the northeastern U. S., 411, xi, 101-7. Nininger, H. H. 
Studies in the life histories of two carpenter bees of California, 
. with notes on certain parasites, 189, viii, 158-68. Smith, H. S. 
The habits of leaf-oviposition among the parasitic H., 68, xliv, 
925-6. Wheeler, W. M. An Indian ant introduced into the U. S. 
(Triglypothrix striatidens), 179, ix, 566-9. Wolff, M. Ueber die 
chalcidiergattung Chrysocharis, 369, v, 258-82. 

Girault, A. A. The N. A. sps. of Dibrachys with a note on 
Uriella; The occurrence of Neoderostenus in N. Am. [in. sp.]: 
An. gen. of omphaline Eulaphid chalcis-flies from Maryland ll n. 
g., 1 n. sp.], 4, 1916, 408-9; 409; 410. New sps. of parasitic II. [6 
new], 411, xi, 111-3. 



The Thomas Say Foundation of the Entomological Society of Amer- 
ica has certainly introduced a worthy and valuable addition to entomo- 
logical literature, namely, a revision entitled SARCOPHAGA AND ALLIES IN 
NORTH AMERICA, by J. M. ALDRICH. This work, appearing in octavo 
size, containing 302 pages and 16 plates, treats especially of the North 
American and also of some South American species of the Muscoid 
family Sarcophagidae sens, strict., containing the large genus Sarco- 
phaga. The American species of this dipterous family have been a taboo 
to all students, mainly on account of the numerous unrecognizable de- 
color and characters of its species, 
scriptions, of the scattered location of types, and of the similarity of 

The present paper is a preliminary revision of the North American 
species. The family as limited here may be characterized as follows : 
Eyes bare; proboscis stout, short; palpi distinct; parafacials with orbital 
setulae ; arista plumose both sides on at least basal half. Scutellum 
with at most one pair of discal macrochaetae. Abdomen generally gray 
or silvery and tessellated ; the segments without discal macrochaetae. 
Fourth vein of wing subangularly bent and ending in the costa distinctly 
before apex. 

This throws out some species that may very properly be placed in 
other allied families, or may have to be included when the limits of 
the family are more thoroughly understood. The author has been very 
consistent in the recognition of genera. Those not distinguishable in 
both sexes are not recognized as valid but are suggested as possible 
subgenera, although not treated as such in the present work. As the 
author says in his introduction : "A survey of the present status of the 
Muscoid Diptera indicates unmistakably that our present great need is 
not more genera, but a more complete knowledge of species. . . . 
One of the main objects of the present work is to make the identification 
of species as simple and certain as possible. . . . This object would 
inevitably be defeated by the erection of a considerable number of 
indistinctly separated genera." Let us hope that this family will not 
be invaded by the mathematical taxonomist with his generic formulae. 

Of the sixteen genera included and treated, eight are new. Among 
these 145 species and varieties are distributed, of which 125 are placed 
in the genus Sarcophaga, and 101 of these are described as new. A 
few European species are recognized and the status of some previously 
described American species have been established. A case of the latter, 
Sarcophaga sarraccniae Riley, illustrates the value of establishing a 
single type for a species. The species are based primarily on the male 
sex, which offers very definite characters in the genitalia, but in most 
cases, however, the other sex is recognized where possible in the de- 
scriptions, and possesses many of the characters of the male which 
can be used as guides to the determination. It is unfortunate that the 
females are not so readily determined, but after the species have been 


definitely determined by the males, the other sex can be more intelli- 
gently studied and that will no doubt result in the discovery of some 
satisfactory characters of differentiation. The species of Sarcophaga 
are for convenience divided into eight groups which are fairly well 
defined. A table of species is given which is very practical, simple and 
explicit. Considering the obscurity in which the species of this family 
have been existing, the ease with which the species can be run out, 
even within at least two or three without considering the genitalia, seems 
almost incredible. 

Another commendable feature is the consecutive numbering of all 
the species treated and giving the same number to all figures relating 
to each respective species. Although this adds some confusion to the 
sequence of the numbers appearing on the plates in the cases of the 
species not figured, this disadvantage is trivial in comparison to the 
convenience it gives in working with the paper. 

As to adverse criticism, I do not care to enter this phase of the 
subject at this time. The excellency of the work in its usefulness will 
far outweigh its defects. I must say, however, that I do not approve 
of the typography of the paper. There is too much monotony in the 
style of composition as one turns over page after page. With a few 
exceptions there are no catchy divisions between the description, notes 
and habitat data. The method of citing habitat data might certainly be 
improved. The use of the parentheses is not consistent. Sometimes 
they may include the name of the collector or, again, may include the 
name of the town of a State. In working over the tables I noticed what 
is evidently a slip of the pen, on page 67. Table of species of Group A, 
I, should read: Middle femur with . . . (not Middle tibia with 
. . ). The use of the term bristle is sometimes misleading. On 
the face the hairs may be described as bristles while in another species 
those of the same size and stoutness may be described as hairs. The 
same will apply in some cases to the hypopygium. 

In conclusion I wish to express my appreciation of the work as a 
whole, and I trust the author will continue to give us this kind of 
work, which is certainly needed in other groups of the Diptera. E. T. 
C, JR. 

[The above mentioned publication may be secured by addressing Dr. 
H. D. Ball, Capitol Bldg., Madison, Wisconsin. Price, $3.00]. 

Doings of Societies. 

Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings. 
Following our custom for the preceding three years, we present 
below a list of the papers having any bearing on entomology entered on 
the programs of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science and of the affiliated societies which met in Xew York City, 
December 26 to 30, 1916. Our reason for quoting these titles is to make 


known those entomological subjects on which students throughout 
the country are engaged. We have therefore classified them under 
one or more headings, the cross-references enabling the interested read- 
er to learn of work done either from the taxonomic or the biological 
side. Most of these papers will, doubtless, be published and, when 
they appear, will be registered in our monthly summary of Entomologi- 
cal Literature. As publication of many of them will probably not oc- 
cur for some months, the present list is justifiable as giving advance 
information to those who have not access to the programs on which 
it is based. 

In this connection, however, we would call attention to the printed 
abstracts of the papers presented to the American Society of Zoolo- 
gists (97 pages), and the American Association of Anatomists (147 
pages), published by the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 
Philadelphia, and sent before the meeting to the members of these 
societies, and also the abstracts contained in the program of the Eco- 
logical Society of America, also mailed before the meetings began. 
These three give often fairly full summaries of the contents of papers, 
although they include a relatively small proportion of the entomological 
papers of the week. 

In the following list unmarked papers are from the program of 
the American Association of Economic En.tomologists, those starred 
(*) from that of the Entomological Society of America; others are 
designated by the names, or abbreviations of the names, of the re- 
spective societies to which they were offered. The total number here 
listed is 139, of which 70 are from the program of the Economic En- 
tomologists (including 6 from the section of Horticultural Inspectors 
and 6 from that of Apiary Inspection), 26 from the Entomological 
Society, 17 from the Zoologists, 14 from the Ecological Society, 5 from 
Section F (Zoology), A. A. A. S., 3 from the American Society of 
Naturalists, 2 from other sections A. A. A. S.. I from the Anatomists, 
and I from the Physiological Society. The total is far in excess of 
any previous one, the figures as reported in the NEWS for February 
and March, 1916, pages 91, 143, being 85 (Cleveland, 1912), 74 (At- 
lanta, 1913), 96 (Philadelphia, 1914), and 93 (Columbus, 1915). 

of Mathematics to the Natural Sciences. (Sect. A, A. A. A. S.) H. 
F. OSBORN, Application of the Laws of Action. Reaction and Inter- 
action in Life Evolution. (Naturalists.) T. D. A. COCKERELL, Fossil In- 
sects* (Annual address of the Ent. Soc. Amer.) ; Entomology in the 
National Museum*. STEPHEN A. FORBES. University of Illinois. The 
Relations of Ecology and Economic Entomology. (Ecol. Soc. Amer.) 
C. GORDON HEWITT, Ottawa, Canada. Annual address : Insect Be- 
havior as a Factor in Applied Entomology. E. H. SELLARDS ET AL., 
Physical History of following States (Fla., Ga., 111., la., Md., N. J., N. 


C., N. Da., O., Okl., 3. Da., Tenn., Tex., Ver., Va., Wis.) (Sect. E, A. 
A. A. S.) 

METHODS. C. W. COLLINS, Melrose Highlands, Mass., Methods 
Used in Determining Wind Dispersion of the Gypsy Moth and Some 
Other Insects. S. S. GROSSMAN, Melrose Highlands, Mass., Some 
Methods of Colonizing Imported Parasites and Determining Their In- 
crease and Spread. W. H. GOODWIN, An Improved Pin Tray.* J. W. 
McCoi.LOCH, Manhattan, Kansas, A Method for the Study of the Life- 
histories of Underground Insects. Z. P. METCALF, Entomological 
Charts.* B. H. WALDEN, New Haven, Conn., Simple Apparatus for 
Insect Photography. 

F Some Homologies in the Epipharynx and Hypopharynx of the 
Nematocerous Diptera. A. PETERSON and A. D. MAcGiLLiVRAY, Some 
Modifications in the Legs of Insects.* WILLIAM COLCORD WOODS, The 
Malpighian Vessels of the Alder Flea-beetle.* 

Habits of Gerridae.* ULRICH DAHLGREN (Princeton University), In- 
vestigations of the Light Organs of Arthropods. (Zoologists.) B. H. 
GRAVE (Knox College), Life History of Zcugophora scutillaris. (Zool- 
ogists.) J. A. HYSLOP, The Phyletic Value of Ontogenetic Charac- 
ters in the Elateridae.* WILLIAM PATTEN, Dartmouth College, The 
Notochord of an East Indian Scorpion. (Anatomists.) MAX P. 
ZAPPE, New Haven, Conn., Egg-Laying Habits of Diprion simile Mar- 

CYTOLOGY. W. L. BAUMGARTNER (University of Kansas), The 
Chromosome Complex in Apithes agitator* (Zoologists.) C. B. 
BRIDGES, Deficiencies in the Genetic Materials of the Chromosomes of 
Drosophila. (Naturalists.)- E. ELEANOR CAROTHERS (University o 
Pennsylvania), The Segregation and Recombination of Homologous 
Chromosomes in Two Genera of Acrididae (Orthoptera). (Section 
F.) CAROLINE M. HOLT (University of Pennsylvania), Multiple Com- 
plexes in the Alimentary Canal of Culc.r pipicus. (Section F.) C. E. 
McCLUNG (University of Pennsylvania), Multiple Chromosomes of 
Hespcrotettix and Mermiria. (Zoologists.) D. H. WENRICH (Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania), Synapsis and Chromosome Organization in the 
Male Germ Cells of Chorthippus and Trlmerotropis. (Section F.) P. 
W. WHITING (University of Pennsylvania), The Spermatogenesis of 
Culcx pipicns, L. (Section F.) 

GENETICS (all at the Zoologists.) CALVIN W. BRIDGES (Columbia 
University), The Elimination of Males in Alternate Generations of 
Sex-Controlled Lines. ROSCOE R. HYDE (Indiana State Normal 
School), Effect on Fertility of Crossing Closely and Distantly Relat- 
ed Stocks of Drosophila ampclophila. CHAS. W. METZ (Carnegie In- 
stitution of Washington), Linkage in the Sex-Chromosome of a New 


Species of Drosophila. THOMAS HUNT MORGAN (Columbia Univer- 
sity), An Examination of the So-Called Process of Contamination of 
Genes. ROBERT K. NABOURS (Kansas State Agricultural College), Two 
Classes of Factors for Color Patterns in Paratctti.v. ALFRED H. 
STURTEVANT (Columbia University), An Analysis of the Effect of Se- 
lection on Bristle Number in a Mutant Race of Drosophila. ALEX- 
ANDER WEINSTEIN (Columbia University), Coincidence of Crossing 
Over and the Chromosome Theory of Linkage. 

PHYSIOLOGY. J. P. BAUMBERGER, The Food of Drosophila* 
WM. L. DOLLEY, JR. (Randolph-Macon College), The Rate of Loco- 
motion of Vanessa antiopa in Different Luminous Intensities and Its 
Bearing on the Continuous Action Theory of Orientation (Zoologists). 
S. I. KORNHAUSER (Northwestern University), Further Studies on 
Changes in Thclia bimaculata Brought about by Insect Parasites 
(Zoologists). N. E. MclNooo (Bureau of Entomology), Recognition 
Among Insects (Zoologists). S. MERGULIS, The Hydrolytic Products 
of Chitin (Physiological Society). BRADLEY M. PATTEN, Western 
Reserve University, Reaction of the Whip-Tail Scorpion to Light 
(Zoologists). C. H. RICHARDSON, New York City, The Response of 
the House-fly to Certain Foods and their Fermentation Products. 
V. E. SHELFORD, University of Illinois, Physiological Problems in the 
Life-histories of Animals with particular reference to Seasonal Ap- 
pearance; illustrated by Seasonal Succession of Spiders on a small 
plot (Ecol. Soc.). A. FRANKLIN SHULL, Parthenogenesis and Sex in 
Anthothrips (Naturalists). See also under General Subjects: Hewitt. 

ECOLOGY. CHARLES C. ADAMS, Syracuse University, An Ecologi- 
cal Survey of Oneida Lake, New York (Ecol. Soc.). DR. J. BEC- 
QUAERT, Recent Observations and Theories concerning the Origin of 
Social Habits among Vespidae.* M. W. BLACKMAN and H. H. STAGE, 
Ithaca, N. Y., On the Succession of Insects in Dying, Dead and De- 
caying Hickory. FREDERIC E. CLEMENTS, University of Minnesota, 
The Development and Structure of Biotic Communities (Ecol. Soc.). 
ALFRED E. CAMERON, Dominion Entomological Service, Relation of 
Soil Insects to Climatic Conditions (Ecol. Soc.). E. P.- FELT, Dis- 
tribution of Gall Midges.* HENRY Fox, Bureau of Entomology, Dis- 
tribution of Grasshoppers in relation to the Plant Formations of Tidal 
Marshes (Ecol. Soc.). A. I. GOOD, Insect Collecting in Cameroon, 
West Africa.* H. A. GOSSARD, Distribution of the Ohio Brood of 
Periodical Cicada with Reference to Soil.* ROBERT F. GRIGGS, Ohio 
State University, Notes on the Return of Animal Life to the Katmai 
District, Alaska (Ecol. Soc.). CLYDE C. HAMILTON, Cornell Univer- 
sity, The Importance of Soil Temperatures to Insects, as indicated by 
their behavior (Ecol. Soc.). THOMAS J. HEADLEE, New Brunswick, 
N. J., Some Facts Relative to the Influence of Atmospheric Humidity 
on Insect Metabolism. A. D. HOPKINS, Latitude, Longitude and 


Altitude as Factors Affecting Insect Life (Ecol. Soc.). MINNA E. 
JEWELL, University of Illinois, The Survival of Certain Aquatic Ani- 
mals in the Absence of Oxygen under different conditions of Acidity 
and Alkalinity (Ecol. Soc.). W. H. LONGLEY (Goucher College), A 
Revised Working Hypothesis of Mimicry (Zoologists). J. W. Mc- 
CULLOCH, Manhattan, Kansas, Wind as a Factor in the Dispersion of 
the Hessian Fly. HERBERT OSBORN, Ohio State University, Association 
and Succession in the Meadow Complex with special reference to 
Insects (Ecol. Soc.); Biological Notes on Miris dolobrata* W. D. 
PIERCE, Climate as Related to the Growth of Insects (Ecol. Soc.). 
V. E. SHELFORD, Evaporation as a Climatic Factor affecting Animals 
(Ecol. Soc.). GEORGE N. WOLCOTT, University of Illinois, The Influ- 
ence of Rainfall and some other factors on the Abundance of the 
Sugar Cane Moth Stalk Borer (Diatraca saccharalis} (Ecol. Soc.). 
See also under General Subjects : Forbes ; under Methods : Collins. 

ville, Tenn., Crambid Moths and Light. E. D. BALL, Madison, Wis., 
Economy and Efficiency in Grasshopper Destruction. GEO. C. BECKER, 
Fayetteville, Ark., Notes on the Peach-Tree Borer, S. cxitiosa; On 
the Control of Sapcrda Candida. M. W. BLACKMAN, Syracuse, N. Y., 
Notes on Insects Bred from Dying and Dead Larch. A. F. BURGESS, 
Melrose Highlands, Mass., and C. C. MCDONNELL, Washington, D. C., 
A New Tree-Banding Material for the Control of the Gipsy Moth. 
A. C. BURRILL, Insects of the Year in Idaho. R. A. COOLEY, Bozeman, 
Mont., The Sugar Beet Silphid (Silfha bitubcrosa Lee.). C. R. 
CROSBY and MORTIMER D. LEONARD, Ithaca, N. Y., The Farm Bureau 
as an Agency for Demonstrating the Control of Injurious Insects. 
IRVING W. DAVIS, New Haven, Conn., Present Status of the Gipsy 
and Browntail Moths in Connecticut. JOHN J. DAVIS, West Lafayette, 
Ind., A Chemical Feeding Analysis of White Grubs and May-beetles 
and its Economic Application. GEO. A. DEAN, Manhattan, Kansas, 
Results of Ten Years of Experimental Wheat Sowing to Escape the 
Hessian Fly. E. P. FELT, Albany, N. Y"., Side Injury and Codling 
Moth Control. W. F. FISKE, South Hanson, Mass., Insects Injurious 
to Vegetation ; Some Factors in the Natural Control of Insects. 
HENRY Fox, Clarksville, Tenn., Summary of Investigation of Llgynis 
rngiccps in Virginia. P. A. GLENN, Urbana, 111., Ash Seed Weevils; 
A New Oyster Shell Scale. (An oyster shell scale very destructive to 
certain ornamental shrubs and shade trees, heretofore classified as 
Lcpidosaphcs ulmi, is a distinct species.) HUGH GLASGOW, Geneva, 
N. Y., The Sinuate Pear-Borer in New York. L. HASEMAN, Colum- 
bia, Missouri, Hessian Fly Investigations. WM. P. HAYES, Manhat- 
tan, Kansas, Studies on the Life-history of Uyyrus gibbosus DeG. 
T. J. HEADLEE, New Brunswick, N. J., A Further Test of the Effi- 
ciency of Sulphur-arsenical Dust in the Control of the Strawberry 


Weevil. L. O. HOWARD, Washington, D. C., An Appreciation of T. 
W. Harris. E. O. G. KELLY, Wellington, Kansas, The Toxoptera 
Outbreak in 1916. QUINCY S. LOWRY, New Haven, Conn., An Out- 
break of the Eight-Spotted Forester, Alypia octomaculata Fab., in New 
Haven, Conn. SIMON MARCOVITCH, St. Paul, Minn., The Strawberry 
Weevil in Minnesota. JOSEPH H. MERRILL, Manhattan, Kansas, Further 
Data on the Relation between Aphids and Fire Blight, Bacillus amylo- 
i"orus (Bur.) Trev. Z. P. METCALF, West Raleigh, N. C., Lime as an 
Insecticide. WALTER C. O'KANE, Durham, N. H., Some Facts about 
Carbon Bisulphide. HERBERT OSBORN, Columbus, Ohio, The Economic 
Importance and Control of Miris dolabrata. T. H. PARKS, Manhat- 
tan, Kansas, A Country-wide Survey to Determine the Effect of Time 
of Seeding and Presence of Volunteer Wheat upon the Extent of 
Damage by the Hessian Fly. PERCIVAL J. PARROTT, Geneva. N. Y., 
The Radish Maggot and Screening. -W. J. PHILLIPS, Charlottesville, 
Va., Report on Isosotna Investigations. GEORGE I. REEVES, Salt Lake 
City, Utah, The Alfalfa Weevil. V. I. SAFRO, Louisville, Ky., Miscel- 
laneous Notes on Nicotine Insecticides. E. R. SASSCER, Washington, 
D. C., Recent Vacuum Fumigation Results ; Important Foreign Insect 
Pests Collected on Imported Nursery Stock in 1916 (Hortic. Insp. 
Sect. Econ. Ent.). W. J. SCIIOENE, Blacksburg, Va., The Weakness 
of our Present Svstem of Inspection of Foreign Shipments (Hortic. 
Insp. vSect. Econ. Ent.). HARRY B. SHAW, in charge of New York 
Port Inspection, Activities of the Federal Horticultural Board at the 
Port of New York (Hortic. Insp. Sect. Econ. Ent.) HARRY S. SMITH, 
Sacramento, Cal., On the Life-history and Successful Introduction 
into the United States of the Sicilian Mealybug Parasite. THOMAS J. 
TALBERT, Columbia, Missouri, The 1916 Hessian Fly Campaign in 
Missouri. F. L. WASHBURN, Minneapolis, Minn., The State Ento- 
mologist's Work with Pine Blister Canker in Minnesota ; Potato In- 
spection in Minnesota (Hortic. Insp. Sect. Econ. Ent.). DISCUSSION, 
How Are We Aiding Nurserymen by Enforcing Sanitation of Adja- 
cent Premises? Reports of Methods Employed in Various States 
(Hortic. Insp. Sect. Econ. Ent.). See also under Methods: Collins; 
under Ecology : Blackman & Stage. 

MALS. F. C. BISHOPP, Dallas, Texas, Some Problems in Insect 
Control about Abattoirs and Packing Houses. W. E. BRITTON. New 
Haven, Conn., Recent Anti-Mosquito Work in Connecticut. C. T. 
BRUES, Forest Hills, Mass., New Evidence Concerning Insects as Pos- 
sible Carriers of Infantile Paralysis. ERNEST N. CORY, College Park, 
Md., The Protection of Dairy Cattle from Flies. L. HASEMAN, Sar- 
cophaga hacmorrhoidalis Larvae as Parasites of the Human Intestine.* 
THOS. J. HEADLEE, Some Recent Advances in Mosquito \Vork in 
New Jersey.* C. W. HOWARD, St. Paul, Minn.. Insect Transmission 

Vol. xxviii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 93 

of Infectious Anemia of Horses. TRUMAN L. KELLY, University of 
Texas, The Effect of Hookworms and Malaria upon the Mental Ca- 
pacity of School Children (Sect. L., A. A. A. S.). GEORGE H. LAMSON, 
JR., Storrs, Conn., Mercurial Ointment, an Effective Control for Hen 
Lice. U. C. LOFTIN and E. W. BERGER, Mosquito Traps and Catches.* 
JOHN W. SCOTT (University of Wyoming), Some Experiments on 
the Transmission of Swamp Fever by Insects (Zoologists). 

APICULTURE. E. G. CARR, Some New and Practical Methods 
for the Control of European Foulbrood. BURTON N. GATES, The 
Principles of a Course in Beekeeping. FRANK C. PELLETT, Problems of 
Bee Inspection. MORLEY PETTIT, The Way I Would Like to Carry on 
Bee Disease Control. E. F. PHILLIPS, The Results of Apiary Inspec- 
tion. E. R. ROOT, The Opportunity and Rewards in American Bee- 

hoppers towards Coccobacillus acridiorum* E. MELVILLE DU PORTE 
and J. VANDERLECK, Studies on Coccobacillus acridiorum d'Herelle, 
and on Certain Intestinal Organisms of Locusts.* See also under 
Methods: Grossman; under Insects Injurious to Plants: Smith. 

ARACHNIDA. See under Embryology: Patten; under Physiology: 
Patten, Shelford. 

ORTHOPTERA. C. GORDON HEWITT, Observations on Gryllo- 
blatta campodciformis Walker.* See also under Cytology: Baumgart- 
ner, Carothers, McClung, Wenrich ; under Genetics : Nabours ; under 
Ecology: Fox; under Parasites of Insects: Glaser, du Porte and Ven- 

ODONATA. See under Ecology: Good. 

COLEOPTERA. J. A. HYSLOP, Hagerstown, Md., Notes on Intro- 
duced Weevil (Ceutorhynchus marginatus Payk.). J. A. MANTER, 
Storrs, Conn'., Notes on the Bean Weevil (Bruchus obtcctus Say). 
See also under Morphology: Woods; under Embryology: Dahlgren, 
Grave, Hyslop ; under Insects Injurious to Plants: Becker, Cooley, J. J. 
Davis, Fox, Glenn, Glasgow, Hayes, Marcovitch, Reeves. 

LEPIDOPTERA. EDNA MOSHER, The Morphology of a Lepidop- 
terous Head.* See also under Methods : Collins ; under Physiology : 
Dolley; under Ecology: Wolcott; under Insects Injurious to Plants: 
Ainslee, Becker, I. W. Davis, Lowry. 

DIPTERA JAS. S. HINE, The Genus Era.r in North America.* 
J. L. KING, Notes on the Habits and Immature Stages of Cyrtidae.* 
See also under Morphology : Leathers ; under Cytology : Bridges. 
Holt, Whiting : under Genetics : Bridges, Hyde, Metz, Morgan, 
Sturtevant, Weinstein ; under Physiology : Baumberger, Richardson ; 
under Ecology: Felt, Jewell, McCulloch ; under Insects Injurious to 
Alan, etc. : 10 papers. 

HEMIPTERA. R. A. COOLEY, A Guide to a Laboratory Study of 


the Scale Insects.* C. H. HADI.EY, JR., State College, Pa., and ROBERT 
MATHEWSON, Ithaca, N. Y., The 1916 Outbreaks of the 17-Year Lo- 
cust in Western New York. A. H. HOLLINGER, Taxonomic Value of 
Antennal Segments of Certain Coccidae.* J. G. SANDERS and D. M. 
BELONG, Jassoidea of Wisconsin, with New Species.* See also under 
Embryology: Bueno; under Physiology: Kohnhauser ; tinder Ecology: 
Gossard. Osborn ; under Insects Injurious to Plants: Glenn. Kelly, 
Merrill, Osborn, Smith. 

THYSANOPTERA. See under Physiology: Shull. 

HYMENOPTERA. See under Embryology: Zappe ; under Physi- 
ology : Kornhauser, Mclndoo ; under Ecology : Becquaert ; under In- 
sects Injurious to Plants : Phillips. 

Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of September 2oth, 1916, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 
5614 Stewart Street, Philadelphia, Pa. ; fourteen members and one visi- 
tor present. President H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Laurent exhibited two 5 Scaphinotus riduus Dej., 
which he collected at Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania, July 29, 1916. Mr. 
Kaeber said he had always heard it reported that the females of the 
Cyclocephalac were rare and had found it so himself, only having ob- 
tained one female in several seasons' collecting until this year in Phil- 
adelphia Neck. He collected also many Ochrosidca villosa Burm. at 
light, July ii to July 14, many in coitu, and in all fifty or sixty females. 
Mr. Hornig exhibited a specimen of the oriental longicorn Mclainist^. 
chincnsis Forst., collected near Wayne Avenue, in Germantown, Au- 
gust 6, 1916: also two Ciciiidcla umpunctata Fab. from Alloway, N. J., 
August 6, 1916. Mr. Hoyer showed pieces of cedar wood which have 
been in a cellar in Oak Lane all summer and are completely riddled 
with some Coleopterous larvae. Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited six 
speciments of a Helops, which H. A. Wenzel and he had collected on 
leaves of oak at Millville, New Jersey, July 15, 1916; this approaches 
cisteloides Germ., which he formerly had only from Missouri ; also 
Polyphylla variolosa Hentz, which was exceedingly common at light at 
Anglesea, New Jersey, July 3, 1916, but all specimens captured were 
males. Mr. Geo. M. Greene exhibited three species of Lcma, which he 
had collected at Plummer's Island, Maryland, August 30, 1916; L. sc.v- 
punctata Oliv. ; L. albini Lac. and L. n. sp. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Hornig said he had found many hairy Lepiclop- 
terous larvae on fungus at Alloway, New Jersey, but all died before 
he had the opportunity to identify them. Mr. Daecke said he had seen 
a female Papilio ajax Linn, flying at Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, July 23, 
which settled on a paw-paw tree and laid eggs singly here and there ; 
on same day he had seen larvae, large and small, so that he had seen 
all the stages in one day except the pupa ; he said that the food plant 


of Desmia funeralis Hhn. was commonly grape leaves, but he had 
reared one from "evening primrose ;" the common food plant for 
Pantagraplia limata G. and R. is oak, but he had reared one from 
linden; he exhibited and recorded Pyrausta unifascialis Pack, from 
Rockville, Pennsylvania, May 28, 1916. 

Diptera. Mr. Hornig said he observed at his laboratory at City 
Hall larvae of Psorophora ciliata Fabr. feeding on larvae of other 
mosquitoes. Mr. Daecke exhibited a specimen of Promachus rufipcs 
Fabr., which he collected at Ocean Gate, New Jersey, August 20, 1916; 
at the April meeting he recorded the first capture of this species in 
New Jersey. 

Hymenoptera and Strepsiptera. Mr. Geo. M. Greene said the wasp 
exhibited at the June meeting had been identified for him while in 
Washington, D. C., by Mr. Rohwer as Sphcx picipcnnis and later dis- 
sected by Dr. Pierce and found to contain two pupae of Hupathocera 

Adjourned to the annex. 

Meeting of October i8th, 1916, at the same place. Eleven members 
and one visitor were present, President H. A. Wen/eel in the chair. 

Coleoptera. Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited Cicindcla rugifrons Dej. 
from Manahawkin, Bamber and Pine Beach, New Jersey; also report- 
ed C. abdominalis Fabr. from the latter two places in September and 
stated that all Cicindelae were common in above region this season. 

Diptera. Dr. Skinner spoke of finding the larvae of a Ciitcrcbra 
in living white rabbits on his farm near Narberth, Pennsylvania. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Laurent exhibited GryUus domcsticits Linn, tak- 
en at Mt. Airy, Pennsylvania, September 14, 1916. 

Adjourned to the annex. 

Meeting of November I5th, 1916, at the same place. Eleven mem- 
bers were present. Prof. J. G. Sanders, State Zoologist of Pennsyl- 
vania, visitor; President H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Prof. Sanders gave an interesting talk on the State Zoological De- 
partment, past, present and future. Dr. Skinner related his experiences 
with this department in the past. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Daecke stated that he had collected this summer 
three species of galls of the genus Gnorimoschema on three different 
species of "Golden Rod" at three different localities: Peters Mt. and 
Neversink Mt., Pennsylvania, and Ocean Gate, New Jersey. The 
plants were kept in flower pots under observation. August iSth a 
specimen hatched, but got away, when the remaining galls were prompt- 
ly covered with veiling. On September 2nd a Gnorimoschema was 
found resting outside of a screened gall and since no other specimen 


had emerged it must have been the one which escaped on August i8th. 
It was resting on a gall of its own species and was presumably await- 
ing the emergence of its mate. Discussing this matter, Mr. Wenzel 
doubted the intention of this insect to await the emerging of its mate. 
Dr. Skinner said that it is a common occurrence in Florida to see sev- 
eral males of Heliconiits charitonius Linn, hanging on the pupa of a 
female awaiting her emergence. 

Coleoptera. Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited Mcgetra vittata LeC. 
from New Mexico, twenty miles northeast of El Paso ; also his re- 
arranged boxes of Chrysomelidae. 

Adjourned to the annex. GEORGE M. GREENE, Secretary, and FRANK 
HAIMBACH, Secretary pro tcm. 

Newark Entomological Society. 

Meetings of December 10, 1916, and January 14, 1917, held in the 
Newark (New Jersey) Public Library. Pres. Buchholz in the chair; 
average attendance n members. At the December meeting, the follow- 
ing officers for 1917 were elected President, Otto Buchholz; Vice 
President, F. Lemrner ; Secretary, Harry B. Weiss; Financial Secre- 
tary, T. D. Mayfield; Treasurer and Curator, Chas. Rutnmel; Librarian, 
Herman H. Brehme; Trustee, J. B. Angelman. 

Mr. Herman H. Brehme spoke of the method of heating the end of 
a pin on which was mounted a specimen, which one desired to remove 
without relaxing or danger of breaking and stated that the heat from 
an ordinary match was sufficient. 

Lepidoptera. At the January meeting, Mr. Brehme showed re- 
cently described specimens of Arzama brchmci Br. & McD., which he had 
taken at Cliffwood, New Jersey, during May. Mr. Lemmer, at the Decem- 
ber meeting, reported the capture of the following species not heretofore 
recorded from New Jersey: Eutolype bombyciformis Sm., L^nion Co., 
April: Nannia rcfusata Wlk., Hopatcong, July 20: Aids sulphuraria 
Pack., Hopatcong, July 20 (all in New Jersey). 

Hemiptera. At the December meeting, Mr. Weiss showed 
specimens and work of Psyllia bn.ri L., not before recorded from the 
United States and being found in different parts of New Jersey on box- 
wood. He also exhibited Trioza alacris Flor., the Bay Flea Louse, 
which he found at Rutherford, New Jersey, curling the leaves of bay 
trees. This species was introduced from Belgium and is recorded from 
the United States only in California. 

Coleoptera. At the January meeting, Mr. Weiss showed two 
species of weevils new to New Jersey greenhouses, those being Cliolns 
forbcsii Pasc., and Ckolus cattleyac Champ., both having been intro- 
duced from Tropical America in orchids. 

HARRY B. WEISS, Secretary. 

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Plate VIII. 







MARCH, 1917. 

No. 3. 


Newcomb Emily L. Morton 97 

Dickerson and Weiss The Azalea 
Lace-Bug, Stephanitis pyrioides 

Scott (Tingitidae, Hemiptera) 101 

Girault The Occurrence of the Genus 
Monobaeus Foerster in North 

America (Hym.) 106 

Weiss A Correction in Spelling 106 

Rehn Some Critical Notes on the 
Giant Katydids Forming the Group 
Steirodontia (Orthoptera, Tettigo- 

niidae, Phaneropterinae) 107 

An Aid to the Entomology of New Jer- 
sey 122 

Comstock Data on the Far South- 
western States Wanted (Lep.) 122 

VanDuzee New North American spe- 
cies of Dolichopodidae (Dip.) 123 

Photographs Received for the Album 
of the American Entomological 
Society 128 

Chaniberlin Notes on some Bupres- 
tidae of Northern California (Col.) 129 

Editorial Specialization in Entomo- 
logy 14 

Questions and Answers 141 

Entomological Literature 141 

Emily L. Morton. 

By H. H. NEWCOMB, Venice, California. 

(Plate VIII.) 

It was nearly twenty years ago that I first met Emily L. 
Morton. I had become much interested in her work of hybri- 
dizing the Saturniidae and accepted with great pleasure her 
invitation to New Windsor on the Hudson, to see her collec- 
tion and to hear her own account of her experiments. 

What a delightful visit that was, and what a wonderful col- 
lection she had. Since then we have become well acquainted 
and I am able to give a few of the more interesting events of 
her life. 

Miss Morton was born at Rocklawn, New Windsor, New 
York, on the 3rd of April, 1841, in the old mansion which was 
built upon land that belonged to her mother's family for four 
generations. She and her sister still live there, the sole sur- 
vivors of the family. Her father was Edmund Morton, her 
mother was Caroline M. Ellison, both of the city of New 



As a very small child her entomological fancies asserted 
themselves ; she would spend hours sitting by an ant-hill watch- 
ing the little insects running in and out. She would chase 
butterflies and, much to her mother's horror, bring home cater- 
pillars and other "bugs." 

When she was thirteen years old she was presented with a 
copy of Kirby and Spence by her cousin, Dr. John W. Green. 
He was much interested in her longing to obtain some knowl- 
edge of the life-histories of insects and took this method of 
helping her. She pored over the work day and night, learning 
it almost by heart, although it was very scientific, and she did 
not know even the common names of most of the insects de- 
scribed. She has since tried to read this book and wonders 
how a child could ever have mastered its contents, for a drier 
and heavier work could hardly be found. 

About the year 1860 another cousin, Robert R. Ellison, made 
a small collection of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, and while 
helping him she started her own collection, gathering promiscu- 
ously everything in the line of insects. 

With no books, except Kirby and Spence, no knowledge of 
names or terms, and no one to consult, it was uphill work ; still 
she persevered until she came across an antiquated book with 
a few figures of insects, uncolored and poorly drawn. This, 
however, helped her a little until one happy day she procured 
a copy of Harris' Insects Injurious to Vegetation, and from 
this most valuable work she was able to name most of the in- 
sects she had collected. 

Then Col. Thomas Arden, United States Army, presented 
her with nine volumes of the Agricultural Reports of New 
York. Scattered throughout these books were articles by 
Asa Fitch, then State Entomologist, and from these she ex- 
tracted an immense amount of interesting and instructive in- 
formation, which added greatly to her love for the study. 

Soon after this she met Valentine W. Andrews, then agent 
for the Canadian Entomologist, who told her that at the Astor 
Library, in New York City, she would find that wonderful 
work on Lepidoptera, Smith & Abbot's Insects of Georgia. 


Upon her next visit to that city she hastened to the library 
to see these treasures, and the good-natured librarian, noting 
her eagerness, installed her in an alcove, telling her she could 
study them there any time she was in town. 

Through the Canadian Entomologist she became acquainted 
with W. H. Edwards, with whom she worked out the life- 
history of that curious little butterfly, Fcniseca tarquinins. It 
was she who discovered the larval habits of this insect on 
one of her expeditions among the swamp-alders. She found 
the caterpillar living within the masses of the downy plant- 
lice, which swarm upon this tree. 

From Miss Morton's letters, Edwards has written in the 
Canadian Entomologist a full account of the early stages of 
this interesting insect, the plates having been drawn by Mrs. 
Peart, of Philadelphia, showing the curious woolly larva and 
the little monkey-faced chrysalis. 

In 1883 Miss Morton met Henry Edwards, who proved a 
very kind and interesting gentleman, and greatly assisted her 
with names and other facts. He was a most amusing and en- 
tertaining visitor, enthusiastic and in raptures over the many 
new specimens he caught while on a visit to her home. He 
was a noted tragedian and after his death his splendid collec- 
tion of Lepidoptera was purchased by his company for the 
benefit of his widow and presented to the Museum of Natural 
History at New York City. 

Among Miss Morton's friends was Prof. A. S. Packard, Jr.. 
who was a kind and courteous correspondent. She drew and 
painted many larvae for his contemplated work on North 
American Lepidoptera and she possessed a copy of his beau- 
tiful work on the Geometridae, of which group she had a large 

Another friend of hers was Samuel H. Scudder and con- 
siderable correspondence passed between them relative to his 
work of changing the old Linnean generic names, which she 
considered a grave mistake. In spite of their disagreement 
they remained firm friends until he passed away. 

She also met Herman Strecker and colored for him many 


of the plates of his famous work on the Lepidoptera. He told 
her that unless he succeeded in selling his magnificent collec- 
tion for $20,000 he would leave it to the British Museum. As 
a matter of fact it was purchased after his death by the Field 
Columbian Museum at Chicago. 

Miss Morton considers her experiments in rearing hybrids 
of the Saturnidae her most interesting and important work. 
The first moths which she succeeded in crossing were Samia 
cecropia 9 with the western glovcri $ . These produced the 
most beautiful progeny of any of her trials, being larger than 
either of the parents, beautifully colored in crimson and gray. 

Afterwards she successfully crossed cecropia with ceanothi 
and with Columbia. Cocoons of the latter species were sent 
to her by her friend, James L. Mitchell, of Battle Creek, Mich- 
igan, which were searched for by him with infinite patience in 
the larch swamps of that locality. 

Our luna paired with the Asiatic selene and produced splen- 
did great moths, retaining the shape of the latter, but having 
the delicate color of the luna. In every case the progeny of 
these matings proved infertile. 

Eight of these hybrids she sold to Baron Rothschild for $40. 
and this was the only money she ever made from her life-long 
work on Entomology. 

Among her many accomplishments was that of cabinet- 
maker. For her collection she made a big cabinet of sixty 
drawers, arranged in three tiers, doing even the glazing her- 
self. Besides this, she made innumerable boxes for the surplus 
odds and ends of her collection. 

Twice Mrs. Newcomb and myself have had the very great 
pleasure of visits from her to our home, which was then a* 
Dorchester, Massachusetts, and I shall always remember the 
keen enjoyment of a day spent with her roaming the Blue Hills 
of Milton with our nets. 

In 1904 she wrote me that her collection was becoming too 
great a care and that if I wished I might have it. \Yhat a 
wonderful thing to have a collection like hers to add to my own 
modest efforts in that line. T immediately went to New Wind- 
sor and together we packed it up and it was sent to my home. 


I soon found that I had more Lepidoptera than I could well 
handle, so the Geometridae were taken by Louis W. Swett, 
who is working in that group, and the Noctuidae by the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

The remainder of her collection is now at the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History, under the care of its efficient curator, 
Charles W. Johnson. 

Miss Morton begged me not to forget to mention her very 
dear friends, Mrs. Herring and the late Mrs. Gilbert, both of 
Plainfield, New Jersey, and the delightful two weeks spent 
with them at a hotel at Liberty, New York. They used to 
hire the Liberty stage and go on collecting trips in that beau- 
tiful section, where many rare specimens were taken. 

Miss Morton has lived an active, industrious life and al- 
though she has written very little for scientific publications, 
her work was of the practical, useful kind and her best efforts 
were devoted to helping others in their entomological studies 
and pursuits. 

(The photograph from which Plate VIII was made was taken about 
thirty or thirty-five years ago.) 

The Azalea Lace-Bug, Stephanitis pyrioides Scott 
(Tingitidae, Hemiptera). 


(Plate IX.) 

For the past several years this tingid has been present in 
New Jersey, but only recently has it become abundant and 
widespread enough to do considerable damage. It was origi- 
nally described by John Scott in his paper "On a Collection of 
Hemiptera Heteroptera from Japan, Descriptions of Various 
New Genera and Species," which appeared in the Ann. Mag. 
Nat. His. (4) XIV, p. 440. 1874. Horvath, in the Ann. Mus. 
Hung. III. p. 568, 28 (1905) et IV. p. 55, 3 (1906), contribut- 
ed to synonymy by renaming it Stephanitis azalcac. In Van 
Duzee's check list of the Hemiptera of America, north of Mex- 
ico, it appears as Stephanitis pyrioides Scott. 

*The arrangement of the authors' names is alphabetical only and in- 
dicates neither seniority nor precedence. 


It has been found by the authors at the following localities 
in New Jersey: Arlington, Rutherford, Far Hills, Riverton, 
Palmyra, Springfield, Nutley and New Brunswick, and is also 
known to occur at Bala, Pennsylvania ; Washington, D. C. ; 
Holland and Japan. It was evidently introduced into New 
Jersey in the egg stage on evergreen azaleas from Japan, as 
quite a few Japanese azaleas have been imported into New 
Jersey during the past few years. We have found it infesting 
the following species and varieties of azaleas : Hinodegeri, 
Amoena, Ledifolia alba, Benigeri, Yodogawa, Kaempheri, 
Pontica, Mollis, Indica, Shirogeri, Hatsugeri, Shibori, Amura- 
saki, Schilippenbachii, etc., the deciduous varieties, however, 
not being as badly infested as the evergreen ones. 

The injury is caused by the nymphs and adults feeding on 
the under surfaces of the leaves, abstracting the sap and re- 
sulting in a discoloration of the foliage on the upper surface. 
In severe infestations, the leaves become almost white, many 
of them drying completely and dropping off, and the under- 
sides of the leaves are also disfigured by the excrement of the 

The winter is passed in the egg stage and hatching takes 
place about the latter part of May in central and southern New 
Jersey. The length of each nymphal stage varies from three 
to six days, depending on the temperature. About the latter 
part of June adults appear and egg-laying takes place, this 
operation extending over an average period of two weeks. 
These eggs require on an average two weeks for hatching and 
by the last week in July and first week of August growth is 
completed and many new adults are present. During the first 
two weeks of August eggs are again laid and by the middle 
and last week in September many adults of this brood are 
present, the over-wintering eggs being deposited at this time 
and during the first part of October. Adults, mostly females, 
have been noted lingering on the plants as late as the middle 
of November. Thus there are three broods in southern New 
Jersey, the average length of each being about one month. In 
the central and northern parts of the State there are only two, 
and a partial third. On account of the extended oviposition 


period it is quite possible to find all stages feeding together at 
the same time. 

About the time the maximum number of adults have emerg- 
ed the proportion of sexes is equal. Later, however, many 
of the males disappear and about the time egg-laying is well 
under way the females are in the majority. As it approaches 
time for the hatching of the eggs the adults lingering on the 
plants are practically all females. It thus appears that either 
the females have greater vitality or that the males die soon 
after copulation. Egg-deposition requires from two to three 
minutes. The ovipositor is pulled from its sheath and the fe- 
male touches the surface of the leaf with it until a suitable 
place is found. It is then thrust into the tissue until the ab- 
domen rests against the leaf and then withdrawn. 


Egg. Length 0.4 mm., width 0.18 mm. These are smooth, white and 
flask-shaped, with the neck bent to one side. They are deposited in 
the leaf tissue along the mid-rib and larger veins, being found as a rule 
in the younger leaves. Each egg is inserted in the tissue with the cap 
extending slightly above the leaf surface, each cap being visible as a 
whitish oval or irregular circular ring. Sometimes, but not always, the 
cap is covered with a brownish scab-like crust. From one to ninety 
eggs have been found in a single leaf, most of them being placed 
irregularly along the mid-rib. In many leaves, the eggs can readily be 
located by holding the leaf up to the light and examining with a hand 
lens, each egg appearing as a light oval spot surrounded by a reddish 
or dark discoloration. 

ist Nymphal Stage. Length exclusive of tubercles 0.4 mm. Body 
elliptical, slightly broadest at middle of abdomen. General color white 
except tips of ultimate and penultimate antennal segments, bases of 
legs, line on front of head extending to base of rostrum, middle dorsal 
surface of abdomen and tubercles on head and abdomen which are 
brownish. Two tubercles on posterior margin of head, one on vertex 
in front and between them. One median dorsal tubercle on the 2nd, 
5th, 6th and 8th abdominal segments. Antennae three-fifths the length 
of the body. Rostrum extending to last pair of legs. Eyes lateral, not 
prominent, consisting of five distinct ommatidia. Antennae and tuber- 
cles in this and the following nymphal stages covered with secreting 

2nd Nymphal Stage. Length exclusive of tubercles 0.55 mm. Body 
elliptical, color white except tips of ultimate and penultimate antennal 


segments, line on front of head, tubercles, bases of legs, dorsal sur- 
face of abdomen and bands extending anteriorly near sides of thorax, 
which are brownish. Tubercles as noted before in first stage, but more 
pronounced and in addition, single pointed tubercles on sides of pro- 
and mesothorax, on sides of 4th, 5th, 6th, /th, 8th, gth abdominal seg- 
ments and two minute tubercles on face just below vertex. Rostrum 
extending to last pair of legs. Eyes similar to those of first nymphal 
stage. Antennae three-fifths length of body. 

3rd Nymphal Stage. Length exclusive of tubercles 0.8 mm. Similar 
to second stage except that coloring and structure are more pro- 
nounced. Body elliptical, color white except tips of ultimate and pen- 
ultimate antennal segments, line on front of head, bases of legs, dor- 
sal surface of abdomen, posterior lateral sides of thorax, some of pos- 
terior and lateral margins of head and tubercles which are brownish. 
Dorsal surface of abdomen and tubercles darker brown than re- 
mainder. Tubercles similar to preceding stage but more pronounced 
and in addition two white median dorsal tubercles on pro- and meso- 
thorax. Tubercles on sides of mesothorax rest on basal lobes. Eyes 
similar to preceding stage. Antennae tending toward yellowish white, 
three-fifths length of body. Rostrum extending to last pair of legs. 

4th Nymphal Stage. Length exclusive of tubercles 1.2 mm. Body 
broadly elliptical. Color white except tips of ultimate and penultimate 
antennal segments, line on front of head, bases of legs, most of dorsal 
surface of abdomen, posterior two-thirds of thorax, portions of lateral 
and posterior margins of head, outer sides of basal segments of an- 
tennae, outer surfaces of tarsi, rostrum and tubercles, which are brown. 
Antennae yellowish brown. Median dorsal tubercles on prothorax 
white except at tips. Tubercles similar to those of third stage but 
more pronounced. Lobes of mesothorax more pronounced, covering 
those of metathorax. Antennae about three-fifths length of body. 
Rostrum extending to third pair of legs. Eyes consisting of numerous 

$th Nymphal Stage. Length exclusive of tubercles 1.8 mm. Body 
oval. Color: antennae light yellowish brown; line on front of 
head and portions of lateral and posterior margins of head, posterior 
margins of pro-thorax, most of meso- and metathorax, basal three- 
fourths of abdomen, base and tips of wing pads, tubercles, outer sur- 
face of basal antennal segments, tips of ultimate and penultimate an- 
tennal segments, bases of legs, bases of tarsi, outer surface of rostrum, 
brown ; remainder white in part tinged with brown. Tubercles very 
pronounced, acuminate. Wing-pads extending to 5th abdominal seg- 
ment. Eyes more prominent, consisting of numerous reddish omma- 
tidia. Median dorsal elevation on prothorax. Rostrum extending be- 
tween 2nd and 3rd pair of legs. Antennae almost as long as the body. 


Plate IX. 




Adult. This was described by Scott from one example as 
follows : 

Ting is pyrioidcs. Extremely like Tingis pyri in nearly every particu- 
lar : and therefore it will only be necessary to point out the characters 
which will separate them. 

Tingie pyri Fab. Disk of the elytra from the apex of the rhomboidal 
cell with 5 transverse rows of irregular meshes. 

Tingis pyrioidcs. Disk of the elytra from the apex of the rhomboi- 
dal cell with 3 transverse rows of irregular meshes. Pronotum, lateral 
margins more upright than in T. pyri. Length I and 1/2 line. 

As a matter of information the original description of Tingis 
pyri by Fabricius in Sy sterna Entomologiae (1775). p. 696, is 
given as follows : 

Acanthia pyri thorace trialato, scutello foliato, elytris reticulatis, 
basi gibbis. 

Habitat in foliorum pyri pagina inferiori, ea maculans. Prof. Herr- 
mann. Caput parvum, albidum. Thorax alis tribus magnis, elevatis, al- 
bis, f usco-reticulatis ; lateralibus compressis. carinatis, acutis; intermedia 
globosa, breviora. Scutellum elevatum, foliaceum, acutum, album, ma- 
cula fusca baseos. Elytra reticulata, alba, fusco-maculata, basi gibba. 
Pedes albi. 

On the accompanying plate will be found figures of the egg, 
nymphal stages, adult, anal claspers of male, ovipositor and 
ovaries. Each ovary was found to consist of six tubes, some 
of which were empty, while others contained mature and im- 
mature eggs. The mature eggs in the oviduct showed slight 
brown discolorations at the upper ends. As shown in the fig- 
ure, a seminal receptacle was found slightly on the ventral 
side of each oviduct. 

These lace bugs may be controlled on azaleas by spraying 
with whale oil soap at the rate of 5 or 6 pounds to 50 gallons 
of water. To be most effective the spraying should take place 
shortly after the over-wintering eggs have hatched and should 
be directed against the undersides of the leaves. 

Stephanitis pyrioidcs Scott. 

Figure i, egg Figure 6, 5th stage nymph 

Figure 2, ist stage nymph Figure 7, Adult 

Figure 3, 2nd stage nymph Figure 8, Anal claspers of male- 

Figure 4, 3rd stage nymph Figure 9, Ovaries 

Figure 5, 4th stage nymph Figure 10, Ovipositor. 


The Occurrence of the Genus Monobaeus Foerster 
in North America (Hym.) 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Glenn Dale, Maryland. 

The following species is the first of this genus to be describ- 
ed from North America. The genus, as represented by the 
new species, has the parapsidal furrows distinct, as is also 
sometimes (or often) true for Ormyrus. The two genera 
differ in the number of ring-joints only. The species differ 
much in the sculpture of the abdomen, especially as regards 
the arrangement of the coarser punctures at the base of the 
segments. The club is sub-solid, but its articulations are still 

Monobaeus hegeli new species. 

Female : Length, 3.00 mm. Abdomen distinctly longer than the rest 
of the body, substylate at apex. 

Very similar to Ormyrus ventricosus Ashmead but more robust and 
the abdomen, besides the usual median carina dorsad and the scalloped 
cross-ridges, bears a single row of coarse punctures at base of seg- 
ments 4 and 5 and is densely pin-punctate instead of scaly, while seg- 
ment 6 is densly thimble-punctate. Also the propodeum is bicarinate 
at the meson instead of tricarinate as in ventricosus. Funicle I hemi- 
spherical, shortest, over thrice the size of the usual ring-joint; other 
funicle joints a little wider than long. Body downy. Types compared. 

Described from one female from Michigan (C. P. Gillette). 
Type: Catalogue No. 20239, U. S. N. M., the specimen on a 
tag, an antenna on a slide. 

Perhaps this genus may grade into Ormyrus; that is, the 
second ring- joint be larger and larger in relation to the first, 
so that it is no longer possible to distinguish one from two ring- 
joints in some cases. Then the two genera must be merged as 
Mayr has done. 

A Correction in Spelling (Col.) 

Mr. Edw. M. Ehrhorn, Superintendent, Division of Entomology, 
Territory of Hawaii, has recently called my attention to the wrong 
spelling of Acythopcus in my paper on "Some Unusual Orchid In- 
sects," in the "News" for January, 1917, where it appears as Ac\po- 
thcns. I was misled in this by following the spelling in Mr. Champion's 
paper in the "Entomologist's Monthly Magazine" for September, 1916, 
where it also appears as Acypothcus, evidently due to a printer's mis- 
take. HARRY B. WEISS. 


Some Critical Notes on the Giant Katydids Forming 

the Group Steirodontia (Orthoptera, 

Tettigoniidae, Phaneropterinae). 

By JAMES A. G. REHN, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

(Plate X.) 

The notes gathered together in this paper have accumulated 
while studying the material of this group contained in certain 
large South and Central American and West Indian series of 
Orthoptera, now in our hands for determination. The remarks 
are grouped under the genera considered, but, aside from the 
revision of the forms of the Stilpnochlora marginclla group, 
they are not presented as exhaustive or final, instead being 
intended merely as suggestions, to help the future student who 
has before him more material of this group of most interesting 
and striking species. 

1873. Stilpnochlora Stal, Ofvers. K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 1873, 

No. 4, p. 40. 
1906. Microccntrum Kirby (not of Scudder, 1862, as restricted), 

Synon. Catal. Orth., II, p. 455. 

Genotype : Phylloptcra marginclla Serville (by original des- 

Kirby is quite in error in considering Microcentrum the 
proper name for this genus. It is in part Microcentrum of 
Scudder, but the genotype of the latter genus was properly 
selected by us as affiliatum Scudder (=rhoinbi 'folium Saus- 
sure). 1 As shown at the time of our selection of the geno- 
type, Kirby selected as genotype of Scudder's genus a species 
not included in the genus by Scudder, so his fixation is er- 
roneous. The action taken by us retains the names in their 
time-honored positions and is in accord with Article 30 of the 
Revised International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 

The known species of the genus Stilpnochlora are all before 
us at present, with the exception of Saussure and Zehntner's 
ovalifolia, which was described from Brazil, 2 and concerning 

'Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1908, p. 398 (1908). 
"Biol. Cent.-Amer., Orth., I., p. 369 (1898). 


which we can say nothing. The other forms fall quite natural- 
ly into four divisions, which in a linear fashion we would ar- 
range as follows : vS\ thoracic a Serville ( = toltcca Saussure 
and authors) ; the marginclla group, comprising marginclla 
(Serville), couloniana (Saussure), quadrata (Scudder) and 
lanrifollnni (Linnaeus) ; S. aztcca (Saussure) ; and last, S. 
incisa Brunner. 

We would consider 3*. thoracica more divergent from the 
Steirodontid genera following Stilpnochlora than the other 
groups of the genus, and 5\ incisa nearer them, with ' azteca 
relatively close to it, both having a short inflated type of pro- 
notum and a tendency of the lateral margins of the pronotal 
disk to be elevated. The marginclla group clearly holds an 
intermediate position. At this writing we have no important 
information to give on any of the sections of the genus except 
the marginclla group, which is a very plastic assemblage of 
four species, the relationships of which were not comprehend- 
ed previously. 

Stilpnochlora marginclla Group. 

This group, the greater portion of which was formerly con- 
sidered to represent a single widely distributed species, for 
which the name marginella was used, is composed of four spe- 
cies, two of which marginclla and laurifolium are quite dis- 
tinct from each other and from the other forms quadrata and 
couloniana which are much more closely related. 

Serville's marginella? was described from the Cape of Good 
Hope, of course in error, as all the members of the genus are 
American. There is nothing sufficiently diagnostic in its de- 
scription to enable us to definitely place the name, but it is 
very probable he had Brazilian material, as much of his South 
American material came from that region, and Stul, the first 
author to comment on Serville's species, associated Brazilian 
material with it. In consequence of this we feel warranted in 
restricting Serville's name to the form of eastern Brazil and 
the Guianas, at least until an examination of the Serville 
material, if still extant, can be made. Saussure, in 1861, de- 
scribed the Cuban form of this group as Ph\lloptcra couloni- 

3 Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 405 (1839). 


'ana, 4 while, in 1869, Scudder described Steirodon quadratum* 
from Guayaquil, Ecuador, which appears to us to be the form 
of this species group found in Mexico, Central America and 
northwestern South America. 

Linnaeus, in 1758, gave the name Gryllus (Tettigonia) 
lanrifolius 6 to the insect figured by Sloane in his Natural His- 
tory of Jamaica, 7 which is the most distinct member of this 
species group. 

The distribution of these forms is most interesting and to a 
measure suggestive of the relationship of certain faunas. The 
eastern Brazilian species, marginella (Serville), ranges from at 
least as far south as the State of Sao Paulo, north to Trinidad 
and Surinam. The Central American form, quadrat a (Scud- 
der), covers an area extending from central Mexico south to 
western Ecuador and probably Peru ( Saussure as marginella), 
while along the north coast of South America it apparently 
extends eastward, as it occurs in Trinidad with marginella. 
The Cuban couloniana is known only from that island and 
Florida, while laurifolium is limited to Jamaica. The close 
affinity of the Mexican and Cuban forms is additional evi- 
dence of the Mexican influence in the Greater Antilles. 

The chief feature which distinguishes the species is the form 
of the stridulating field of the tegmina of the male. This is 
least extensive, with its free margin almost regularly arcuate 
and hardly angulate, and having a short stridulating vein, in 
marginella ; in couloniana the field is broader, with a rounded 
obtuse angulation at the extremity of the vein, which is some- 
what heavier and longer; in quadrata the breadth of the field 
is distinctly greater, the margin is more decidedly obtuse-an- 
gulate and but little rounded, while the stridulating vein is 
more elongate; finally, in laurifolium the field is very broad, 
the margin is more decidedly angulate and the stridulating vein 
quite long and greatly thickened and elevated. 

The pronotum of the male shows a corresponding increase 

4 Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 2e ser., XII I, p. 128 (1861). 

5 Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, XIT, p. 331 (1869). 

6 Syst. Nat.. X ed., p. 429 (1758). 

'II, p. 201, pi. 236, figs. I and 2 (1725). 


in width as the stridulating field widens, while in the female 
this difference in the form of the pronotum is apparently the 
only feature which will readily separate the forms. Females 
of couloniana and quadrata are very similar, so much so that 
they are sometimes extremely hard to separate. We have giv- 
en figures of the principal differences separating the species, 
as they are so comparative that their use in a key would be 
difficult and at most unsatisfactory. We find no other features 
of sufficient importance to use as diagnostic features. 

Stilpnochlora marginalia (Serville). Plate X, fig. 1. 

1839. Phylloptera marginclla Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 405. 

["Cape of Good Hope.""] 
1869. Phylloptcra magnifolia Walker, Catal. Derm. Salt. Brit. Mus., 

II, p. 377. (Part.) [Brazil; Guayaquil.] 

Trinidad. (F. W. Urich.) One male. [A. N. S. P.] 

Surinam. V, 1881. (C. G. Hering.) One female. [U. S. N. 

Cayenne. One male. [A. N. S. P.] 

Peixe Boi, east of Para, Para, Brazil. XI to XII, 1907. (H. 
B. Merrill.) Two females. [A. N. S. P.] 

Igarape-assu, Para, Brazil. (H. S. Parish.) One male. 
[A. N. S. P.] 

Bonito, Pernambuco, Brazil. XI, 1883. (A. Koebele.) One 
male. [U. S. N. M.] 

Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. One male, one female. [Heb- 
ard Cln.l 

The species has been previously recorded from as far south 
as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This form is smaller than the av- 
erage of the other types of this group. It has the narrowest 
pronotum and stridulating field of the male tegmina and the 
general form is faintly more compressed than in the other spe- 
cies. The specimens from Piracicaba have the lateral lobes 
of the pronotum faintly narrower in proportion to their depth. 
The male stridulating field is identical in its important features 
with the north Brazilian males. We consider these specimens 
to represent the extreme condition of marginella. 


Stilpnochlora couloniana (Saussure). Plate X, figs. 2 and 7. 

1861. Phylloptcra couloniana Saussure, Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 

2e sen, XIII, p. 128. [Cuba.] 

1862. M[icro centrum] thoracicum Scudder (not Stcirodon thoracicus 

Serville, 1831), Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 447- [Tor- 
tugas, Florida.] 

Cuba. One male, two females. [Hebard Cln.] 

Cabanas, Pinar del Rio, Cuba, IX, 5 to 8, 1913. One male. 
[A. M. N. H.] 

Santiago, Oriente, Cuba, X to XII, 1913. One male, one 
female. [A. N. S. P.] 8 

Guantanamo, Oriente, Cuba. VIII, /, 1913. (C. T. Ramsden, 
at light.) One female. [A. N. S. P.] 

This species is only known from Cuba, the Isle of Pines and 
the peninsula of Florida. In Cuba it seems to occur over the 
whole island and in Florida it occurs as far north as Gaines- 
ville. Elsewhere a considerable number of Floridan refer- 
ences have been given, which it is unnecessary to discuss in 
this summary. The affinity of couloniana with qnadrata is 
marked and its origin is to our mind clearly evident. Its dis- 
tribution and affinity is comparable to the distribution of Man- 
tolda maya and Phrl.ra maya. 

The tegmina of Cuban specimens of this species are broad- 
er proportionately than in qnadrata, and in the female sex 
this is the one evident feature to separate the two forms. In 
Florida material, however, the tegmina are somewhat narrow- 
er and the females are almost indistinguishable from Mexican 
individuals. The Florida males, however, are fully typical of 

Stilpnochlora quadrata Scudder. Plate X, figs. 3 and 6. 

1869. Stcirodon quadratum Scudder. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, 
Nil, p. 331. (April, 1869.) [Guayaquil, Ecuador.] 

1869. Phylloptcra niaguifolia Walker, Catal. Derm. Salt. Brit. Mus., 
H. p. 377. (Part.) (Not earlier than October, 1869.) [Bra- 
zil; Guayaquil.] 

Monte Redondo, Costa Rica. Ill, 30, 1805. (C. F. Under- 
wood.) One male. [Hebard Cln.] 

8 Previously recorded by us (Sec. Rep. Cent. Exper. Sta. Cuba, p. 
Jio, 1909) as S. marginella. 


Cartago,' Costa Rica. IX, 19, 1909. (P. P. Calvert; well 
sustained flight around electric light in plaza.) One male. [A. 
N. S. P.] 

Cauca, Colombia. (Fortunate Bonis.) Two females. [A. N 
S. P.] 

Medellin, Colombia. IX, 1912. (Fr. A. Maria.) One male. 
[Hebard Cln.] 

Jimenez, Colombia, elev. 1600 feet. VII, 1907. (M. G. 
Palmer.) One male. [A. N. S. P.] 

Caparo, Trinidad. VI, 1913. (S. M. Klages.) One male, 
[A. N. S. P.] 

All previous records of marginalia made by us on the basis 
of Mexican and Costa Rican material relate to this species. 
From our present knowledge quadrata has the widest distri- 
bution of any form of the genus. It occurs from north-central 
Mexico (Tepic) and northern Yucatan south to at least Ecua- 
dor and probably Peru, east to Trinidad, where its range 
touches or overlaps that of 5. marglnella. At its northern lim- 
it the range extends to the limit of mainland connections (Yu- 
catan) in the direction of its very near ally, the Cuban conloni- 

There is much size variation in the species, some in the gen- 
eral form of the pronotum, and to a lesser degree in the pro- 
notal outline, but the male sex is not difficult to separate from 
couloniana. The females, on the other hand, are much more 
troublesome, as Floridan female individuals of couloniana are 
almost indistinguishable from that sex of quadrata. On close 
comparison it will be seen that the females of quadrata have 
slightly more elongate tegmina, with the sutural margin show- 
ing a less distinct angle at the distal fourth and the marginal 
field more regularly attenuate. Cuban couloniana females, 
which show an appreciably wider tegmen, are more readily 

Stilpnochlora laurifolium (Linnaeus). Plate X, fig. 4. 

!758. [Gryllus (Tcttigonia}} laurifolius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., X ed., 

p. 429. ["Indiis."] 
1878. St[ilt>noclilora] coulonia Brunner (not Phylloxera couloniana 

Saussure), Monogr. der Phaneropt, p. 359. [Jamaica.] 


Cinchona, Jamaica. II, 26, 1911. (J. A. Grossbeck.) One 
male. [Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

Montego Bay, Jamaica. Ill, 1911. (J. A. Grossbeck.) One 
male. [Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

Montego Bay, Jamaica. XII, 1913, and III, 1914. (C. G. 
Hussey.) Three males. [Hebard Cm.] 

This is the most striking member of the genus, and it is 
found in a relatively restricted and most isolated habitat for a 
Stilpnochlora. Quite curiously it has not been previously rec- 
ognized from material since Sloane's drawing (the basis of 
laurifolius Linnaeus), aside from Brunner's comments on a 
male from Jamaica which showed differences from inarg'mella. 
Sloane's original figure was based on a specimen which "came 
amongst some Scotch Grass, brought from the Caymanes for 
the Horses, and was taken in the Stable and kept alive on Sugar 
and Water for some Time." 9 It is very probable the specimen 
was a native Jamaican insect, which found a congenial resting 
place on the Cayman grass. Linnaeus' name was erroneously 
used for a great many years for a North American species of 
Micro centrum, a misuse apparently due to the failure of au- 
thors to verify the source of the name. The figure of Sloane 
is clearly a Stilpnochlora, and as far as can be determined rep- 
resents the present species. 

The species has a development of the stridulating field of 
the male, which is very great ; in fact, it is the most striking 
thing about that sex of the insect. We have not examined 
the female and can make no comment on that sex, as it is ap- 
parently unknown at this writing. 

The measurements (in millimeters) of two representative 
males of this species are as follows: 

Montego Bay Montego Bay 

Jamaica Jamaica 

XII, 1913 III, 1914 

Length of body 31 33 

Length of pronotum 9.5 9-5 

Greatest caudal width of pronotal disk 8.3 8.4 

Length of tegmen 60 59.5 

Greatest width of tegmen 20.2 19.6 

Greatest width of stridulating field of tegmen 9.4 9.5 

Length of caudal femur 32.3 32.5 

9 Nat. Hist. Jamaica, II, p. 201, pi. 236, figs, i and 2 (1725). 


STEIRODON Serville. 

Kirby's treatment of the specific names under this genus is 
incorrect, as he completely ignores Stal's examination 10 of 
the Linnean material of Gryllus (Tettigonia} citrifolius. 

The original material, according to Stal, belongs to the genus 
Posidippus. As this material was examined by a competent 
student its importance completely overshadows the Roesel fig- 
ure 11 referred to by Linnaeus, which quite clearly depicts a 
member of the genus Peucestcs. 

Kirby, however, apparently without any justification, con- 
siders Linneaus' species to be a Steirodon. The above expla- 
nation will show the error of his association. 

As we have already shown, 12 the genus Steirodon must have 
as its type, there designated some months before Kirby's in- 
dication, Phylloxera citrifolia Thunberg (not Gryllus (Tetti- 
gonia) cifrifolius Linnaeus), the original material of which is 
a Steirodon according to Stal, who renamed it Steirodon 
r alidum. The Locusta citrifolia of DeGeer 13 is clearly a Posi- 
dippus, while Stoll's LocKsta citrifolia u is with equal certainty 
a Peucestes. 

The genera Steirodon and Peucestcs are extremely close, in 
fact females of Peucestes dentatus are quite liable to be mistak- 
en for species of Steirodon, as the distal ramus of the median 
vein of the tegmina in the four females seen reaches the apex 
of the tegmina, a feature supposed to be characteristic of 
Steirodon. Males of the same species, however, do not show 
this peculiarity, the ramus reaching the sutural margin. More 
material may show the necessity of uniting Peucestes, in whole 
or at least in part, with the older Steirodon. 


For remarks on the close relationship of Pcnccslcs and 
Steirodon see above under the latter genus. 

Peucestes striolatus Brunner. 

1878. P\cuccstcs~\ striolatus Brunner, Monogr. der Phaneropt., p. 366. 
f Pernambuco and Bahia, Brazil; Panama; Peru.] 

10 Recens. Orthopt.. II, p. 45 (1874). 

11 Insect. Belust, IT, p. 107. pi. XVI. fig. i. 

12 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1005, p. 807 (1906). 
: 'Mem. Ins.. TIT, p. 437, pi. 37- fig. 3 d773)- 

"Natuur. Afbeeld. Beschr. etc., Zahelspr., p. n, pi. IVa, fig. 12 (1813). 


Chanchamayo, Peru. Three males, four females. [A. N. S. 


The Chanchamayo series clearly belongs to this species, but 

may represent a new geographic race characterized by the 
greater compression oft the pronotum. 

Peucestes dentatus Stal. 

1874. r[cuccstcs] dentatus Stal, Recensio Orthopt, II, p. 45- [Pan- 
ama; Cayenne.] 

Orotina, Costa Rica. X, u, 1915. (A. Alfaro; night.) One 
female. [A. N. S. P.] 

Costa Rica. Two females. [A. N. S. P. and Hebard Cm.] 

Panama. One male. fU. S. N. M.] One female. [Hebard 

Cauca, Colombia. One male. [A. N. S. P. ] 

The species dentatus appears to us to be quite distinct from 
coronatus. Saussure and Zehntner seem to have had the best 
conception of the species of this genus and their relationship. 

The genus Steirodon is dangerously close to this species, as 
we have already remarked above. Females of this species, as 
we understand it, have the distal rami of the median vein of 
the tegmina reaching to apex. 

The Panama male is slightly different from the Cauca indi- 
vidual, but the differences are not specific. 

Peucestes champion! Saussure and Zehntner. 

1898. Peucestes championi Saussure and Zehntner, Biol. Cent.-Amer., 

Orth., I, p. 371, pi. XVIII, figs. 6 to 9. [Panzos, Vera Paz, 

Guatemala; Cachi (Cache), Costa Rica.l 

Cachi, Costa Rica, 3500 feet elevation. (C. H. Lankester.) 
One male. [A. N. S. P.] 

This specimen is perfectly typical of the species. We do not 
feel sure that Saussure and Zehntner's sex association is cor- 
rect, as the female, from the figure, seems quite different. We 
have, however, no evidence on this except that furnished by the 

Generic divisions united by Brunncr under Posidippus. 
A. Cephalic margin of pronotal disk with median tooth. Tegmina 
proportionately broad; marginal field equal to one-half tegminal 
width at proximal third. Median and caudal tibiae not distinctly 


expanded proximad. (Fastigii of the vertex and face subequal in 
width. Pronotal lateral margins regularly crenato-dentate. Cephalic 
tibiae with foramina narrowly open on cephalic face, broadly open 

on caudal face) Posidippus Stal. 

(Genotype: Gryllus (Tettigonia) citrifolius Linnaeus.) 
AA. Cephalic margin of pronotal disk without median tooth. Tegmina 
proportionately narrow, more lanceolate ; marginal field not equal to 
one-half tegminal width at proximal third. Median and caudal 
tibiae distinctly expanded or even lamellate proximad (except in 
Frontinus dcgcerii and rarospinulosus). 

B. Fastigium of the vertex produced cephalad of the facial fasti- 
gium, rounded at the extremity ; facial fastigium acuminate, 
narrower than the fastigium of the vertex. Pronotum with 
lateral margins of disk elevated, crassly dentate. Stridulating 
field of male tegmina with free margin sinuate. Cephalic tibiae 
with foramina rimato-conchate on both faces. Median and 
caudal tibiae compressed, decidedly lamellate in proximal half. 

Cnemidophyllum new genus. 
(Genotype: Posidippus lineatus Brunner.) 

BB. Fastigii equally produced or the fastigium of the face pro- 
jecting cephalad of that of the vertex, in width either subequal 
or the facial fastigium twice as wide as that of the vertex, both 
bituberculate. Pronotum with lateral margins not distinctly ele- 
vated, finely crenulate. Stridulating field of male tegmina with 
free margin arcuate. Cephalic tibiae with foramina rimato- 
conchate on cephalic face and open on caudal face. Median and 
caudal tibiae compressed, not decidedly lamellate. 
C. Fastigii equally produced, in width subequal. 

Frontinus Stal. 
(Genotype: F. dcgecrii Stal.) 

CC. Fastigium of the face projecting cephalad of that of the 
vertex, the facial fastigium twice as wide as that of the ver- 
tex, both bituberculate Steirodonopis Scudder. 

(Genotype: S. bilobata Scudder.) 

1874. Posidippus Stal, Recens. Orthopt, II, pp. 20, 45. 

Genotype: Gryllus (Tcttigonia) citrifolius Linnaeus. 

The restricted genus Posidippus certainly includes, in addi- 
tion to the genotype, P. ralidtis Saussure and Zehntner, while 
of the exact generic position of stali, dohnii and irregulariter- 
dentatiis Brunner and barellus Pictet we cannot speak at pres- 
ent, having examined no material of these forms, all of which 
have been placed in Posidippus as generally understood. 


Posidippus citrifolius (Linnaeus). 

1758. [Gryllus (Tcttinonia)] citrifolius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. X, p. 

429. ["Indiis."] 
1869. Stcirodon dcntifcrum Walker, Catal. Dermapt. Brit. Mus., II, 

P- 39 1 - [Unknown locality.] 

Bogota, Colombia. Two females. [U. S. N. M.] 

Chanchomayo, Peru. One male, one female. [A. N. S. P.] 

Contamano, Rio Ucayali, Peru. X to XII, 1912. Two males. 
[A. N. S. P.] 

Porto Velho, Rio Madeira, Brazil. (Mann and Baker; M. 
Bolton.) Two males. [A. N. S. P.] 

Rio Una, forty-six miles south of Bahia, Brazil. (A. de La- 
cerda.) One male. [M. C. Z.] 

Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three females. [Hebard 

This specific name has been variously considered to belong 
to members of three genera, i. e. Stcirodon, Peucestes and Pos- 
idippus, but all question of the proper association of it should 
be set at rest by Stal's examination of the Linnean material. 
Regardless of the Roesel figure, quoted by Linnaeus, which 
clearly represents a species of Peucestes, the testimony of Lin- 
naeus' material, which belongs to Posidippus, as here under- 
stood, is the measure of proof. The synonymy of dentiferum 
is given on the authority of Kirby, who examined the Walk- 
erian material and so associated it. 

The material now before us shows the species has some 
variation in the exact form of the free margin of the stridu- 
lating field of the tegmina of the male and, as usual in the 
group, in the exact number of the lateral marginal dentations 
on the pronotum. There is also an appreciable, though slight, 
amount of variation in the compression of the lateral pronotal 
carinae. This latter feature is correlated with the degree of 
concavity of the cephalic margin of the disk of the same. 
These variations appear to be almost entirely individual. 

The species is now known to range from the region of Bo- 
gota to Surinam and eastern Brazil, south to eastern and cen- 
tral Peru. 


Posidippus validus Saussure and Zehntner. 

1898. Posidippus validus Saussure and Zehntner, Biol. Cent.-Amer., 
Orth., I, p. 373, pi. XVIII, figs. 10 and 11. [Chontales, Nica- 

Panama. (Drs. G. W. and W. Nelson.) One male. [U. S. N. 

Hacienda Cincinnati, Santa Marta, Colombia, 4000 to 5000 
feet elevation. VII, 1913. (M. A. Carriker, Jr.) One female. 
[Hebard Cm.] 

These specimens are perfectly typical of validus, which is 
readily separated by the characters given by Saussure and 
Zehntner. The features of the stridulating field of the teg- 
mina of the male we are unable to compare with citrifolius, as 
the single available individual of that sex of validus has that 
area broken. The present female is slightly under the original 

The species is seen to range from Nicaragua to northern 

CNEMIDOPHYLLUM 15 new genus. 

1891. Posidippus Brunner, Verb. K.-k. Zool.-botan. Gesell. Wien XLI, 
pp. 183, 184. (Part.) 

Genotype : Posidippus lincatits Brunner. 

Form compressed. Eyes ovato-globose in basal outline ; f as- 
tigium of vertex narrow, compressed, produced, moderately 
declivent, sulcate, rounded at apex ; fastigium of face cover- 
ed by fastigium of vertex, very narrow. Pronotum with disk 
concave ; cephalic margin non-dentate ; lateral margins mod- 
erately elevated crasso-dentate ; disk expanding in width cau- 
dad. Tegmina lanceolate ; sutural margin straight for the 
greater portion of its length ; marginal field equal to two-fifths 
of the total tegminal width ; stridulating field of male broad, 
free margin sinuate, stridulating vein robust, elongate. Cephalic 
femora with four spines on vcntro-cephalic margin ; cephalic 
tibiae inflated proximad, foramina rimato-conchate on both 
faces ; median tibiae greatly compressed and lamellate expand- 
ed on proximal half, margins of expansion spined. Caudal 
femora simple, ventral margins spined ; caudal tibiae greatly 

lj From Kvrjfu<; greaves and 6v\\ov leaf. 


compressed and lamellate expanded on proximal one-half, mar- 
gins of expansion spined. Mesosternal lobes acute-angulate. 
Metasternal lobes broadly rounded acute-angulate. 

This genus includes, as far as we know, only the genotypic 
species. Its form is very striking and it is clearly denned from 
Posidippus, as well as from the aberrant genera Front inns and 

Cnemidophyllum lineatum (Brunner). Plate X, figs. 5, 8 and 9. 
1891. Posidippus lincatits Brunner, Verhandl. K.-k. Zool.-botan. Ge- 
sell. Wien, XLI, pp. 183, 184. [Upper Amazons.] 

Contamano, Rio Ucayali, Peru. X to XII, 1912. One male. 
[A. N. S. P.] 

This remarkable species has been sufficiently described by 
Brunner, than whose type our individual is slightly smaller. 
As the present specimen has been dried from alcohol it has lost 
all its original coloration, excepting the dark markings, which 
are distinctly indicated and disposed as described by Brunner. 
The minute striolations of the tegmina are also very faintly 

The species is known only from the two records. 

1874. Prontinus Stal, Recens. Orthopt., II, pp. 20, 46. 

Genotype : Frontinus degeerii Stal. 

We feel that no useful purpose is served in longer retaining 
within the genus Posidippus, the well denned species which 
constitute this and the following groups. In detailed charac- 
ters they are as clearly denned as any of the allied genera, 
while their general appearance is so distinct they are easily 
recognized. The policy of Brunner was to consider them 
members of Posidippus. 

From the related Steirodonopis, Stal's genus can be readily 
separated by the fastigii being sub-equal in width and length, 
while (in degeerii at least) the stridulating field of the male 
tegmina is broad and extensive, with the stridulating vein 
heavy, arcuate and sub-transverse. This genus includes raro- 
spinulosns Brunner in addition to the genotypic species. 

Frontinus degeerii Stal. Plate X, fig. 11. 

1874. J'ronliinis degeerii Stal, Recens. Orthopt., II, p. 46. [Surinam.] 


Costa Rica. (C. F. Underwood.) One male. [Hebard Cln.] 
This specimen fits the description of degeerii more closely 
than it does that of the allied rarospinulosus, but the acquisi- 
tion of Guianan material may show it to be different. Unfor- 
tunately at this writing no topotypic material is available. 
This is the first Central American record of a species of this 



1875. Steirodonopis Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, 
P- 259. 

Genotype : Steirodonopis bilobata Scudder. 

An examination of the unique type of Scudder's species en- 
ables us to associate his genus, which was ignored by some Eu- 
ropean students of this group. Quite evidently his work was 
done well within the year 1874, as the paper containing it was 
presented for publication December i6th, of that year. How- 
ever, the date of actual publication of Scudder's genus is 
March, 1875. 

From Frontinus the present genus can be very easily distin^ 
guished by the frontal fastigium being twice as wide as the 
fastigium of the vertex, the former projecting cephalad of 
the latter, while the stridulating field of the male tegmina is 
narrow, with the stridulating vein weak, nearly straight and 
oblique. In addition to bilobata, the genus contains brunnen 
Bolivar, which, however, may be identical with Scudder's spe- 

Steirodonopis bilobata (Scudder). Plate X, fig. 10. 

1875. Steirodonopis bilobala Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 

XVII, p. 260. [Peruvian Maranon.] 
1878. P[osidippus] fastigiosus Brunner, Monogr. der Phaneropt, p. 

37- [Quito, Ecuador.] 16 
1915. Stcirodonopsis (sic) scuddcri Bruner, Ann. Carneg. Mus., IX, 

P- 3 1 ?- [Province of Sara, Bolivia.] 

1U Doubtless Quito was the point from which the specimen was re- 
ceived, although there is no doubt in our minds but that, along with 
birds and other natural objects, it was brought to Quito from the east- 
ern part (Oriente) of Ecuador, or an adjacent portion of Peru or 
Colombia. Bogota, Colombia, served for many years as such a dis- 
tributing point for bird skins, as is well known to students of South 
American birds. Our opinion as to the true original locality of the 
typical material is re-enforced by Brunner's latest reference to material 
of the species from the upper Amazons. 


Bartica, British Guiana. II, 12, 1913. (H. S. Parish.) One 
male. [A. N. S. P.] 

Peruvian Maranon. One male, type. [M. C. Z.] 

Chanchomayo, Peru, 1000 meters elevation (two specimens.) 
Two with no date; others II and V, 1910. Three males, t\v<> 
females. [A. N. S. P.] 

As we have said above, the type of Scudder's species is be- 
fore us, a unique male, and there is no doubt in our minds as 
to the synonymy of Brunner's fastigiosus. Brunner's Sleiro- 
donopsis (sic) scudderi, from the Province of Sara, Bolivia, 
appears to us to be only a small specimen of bilobata ; in fact, 
the Bartica male here recorded is but faintly larger than his 
measurements. The material before us would fully fit his de- 
scription. Regarding Bolivar's Posidippus brunncri 1 ' we can- 
not speak with such certainty, as the description is not as con- 
clusive. It is certainly very close, if not identical, with the 
present species. 

The number of spines on the dorsal margins of the median 
tibiae vary considerably in this species, often greatly on the 
two limbs of the same individual. Our specimens show the 

following count : 

Dorso-cephalic Dorso-caudal 

margin margin 

3 4 

$ Bartica, British Guiana 

j o 

$ Peruvian Maranon, type 

other tibia missing 

Chanchomayo, Peru 

$ Chanchomayo, Peru 

5 6 

$ Chanchomayo, Peru 

I 6 

The range of the species is almost covered by the records 
given above. The previous records were all from the upper 
Amazonian region, except the certainly erroneous Quito one, 
upon which we have already commented, and B rimer's records 
of the synonymic scudderi and fastigiosus from the Province 
of Sara, Bolivia. 

"An. Soc. Espaii. Hist. Nat, X, p. 484 (1881). [Napo, Ecuador.] 


Stridulating field of the sinistral tegmen of male (x 2). 

Fig. i Stilpnochlora marginella (Serville). Cayenne. 

Fig. 2 Stilpnochlora couloniana (Saussure). Santiago, Cuba. 

Fig. 3 Stilpnochlora quadrata (Scudder). Jimenez, western Co- 

Fig. 4 Stilpnochlora laurifolium (Linnaeus). Cinchona, Jamaica. 

Fig. 5 C'ncinidophyllum lincatum (Brunner). Contamano, Rio Uca- 
yali, Peru. 
Lateral outline of tegmen of male (x 1^2). 

Fig. 6 Stilpnochlora quadrata (Scudder). Cauca, Colombia. 

Fig. 7 Stilpnochlora couloniana (Saussure). Santiago, Cuba. 

Fig. 8 C'ncmidophylluin lincatum (Brunner). Lateral view of male. 

Contamano, Ucayali, Peru (x i%). 
Fig. 9 CncinidopJiyllum lincatum (Brunner). Lateral view of fasti- 

gium of male. (Greatly enlarged.) a base of antennae. 
Fig. 10 Stcirodonopis bilobata Scudder. Dorsal outline of fastigii. 

Male. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. ii Frontinus dcyccrii Stal. Dorsal outline of fastigii. Male. 

(Greatly enlarged.) 

An Aid in the Entomology of New Jersey. 

Dr. John W. Harshberger, Professor of Botany in the University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, has just published an attractive volume, 
"The Vegetation of the New Jersey Pine-Barrens An Ecologic In- 
vestigation" (Philadelphia, Christopher Sower Co., 1916. 8vo., pp. xi, 
329. 284 figs., folding map). This is, of course, essentially a botanical 
work, which supplements Stone's "The Plants of Southern New Jersey," 
issued in 1911 by the New Jersey State Museum, "including only that 
which has not been mentioned by Stone, or in a very casual and un- 
emphatic way." Although there are three pages of "Notes on a few 
insect galls of the pine barrens," Dr. Harshberger's book will be chiefly 
of interest to entomologists in the vegetative background which it 
furnishes for the study of the rich insect fauna of New Jersey. 

Data on the Far Southwestern States Wanted (Lep.). 

The Entomological Department of the Southwest Museum (Los 
Angeles, California) is engaged in the compilation of a check list of 
diurnal Lepidoptera occurring in the Southwest. The territory in- 
cludes Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and California. It is planned 
particularly to secure definite data as to the exact locality of occur- 
rence and month of greatest abundance of all the rarer and more lo- 
calized forms, namely those which are restricted in range. 

With this list it is also planned, if possible, to include a directory of 
Entomologists residing in the four States named. 

The Museum will appreciate data from all collectors having material 
from the territory in question. Communicate with DR. JOHN COM- 
STOCK, 1275 Bellevue Avenue, Los Angeles, or with the Entomological 
Department, Southwest Museum, Avenue 46 and Marmion Way, LOS 
Angeles, California. 


Plate X. 

i. Stilpnochlora marginella. 
2- couloniana. 

3- quadrata. 

4. laurifoliutn. 


5. Cnemidophyllum lineatum. g. Cnemidophyllum lineatum. 

6. Stilpnochlora quadrata. 10. Steirodonopsis bilpbata. 

7. couloniana. n. Frontinus degeerii. 

8. Cnemidophyllum lineatum. 


New North American species of Dolichopodidae (Dip.). 

By M. C. VANDUZEE, Buffalo, New York. 

Key to the North American Species of Mcsorhaga. 

1 Femora wholly yellow ; (females) 5 

Femora more or less black 2 

2 All tibiae and tarsi black or brown (fore pair somewhat yellowish 

in the females) nigripes Aid. 

Tibiae yellow (males) 3 

3 Hypopygium with small yellow appendages albiciliata Aid. 

Hypopygial appendages fully one-third as long as the hypopy- 

gium 4 

4 Fore and middle femora black or green but yellow at base and 

tip caudata V. D. 

Fore femora wholly yellow, middle femora black at base on the 

lower side varipes sp. nov. 

5 All coxae black albiciliata Aid. 

Fore coxae yellow 6 

6 Bristles of the thorax mostly pale, hairs of abdomen pale 

townsendii Aid. 
Bristles of the thorax and hairs on the base of the abdomen 

above black borealis Aid. 

Mesorhaga varipes sp. nov. 

$ . Length 4 mm. Face and front green, the former broad with thick 
coarse white pollen which almost conceals the ground color in some 
lights; antennae black, bristles of second joint yellowish; ocellar bristles 
black with a bunch of small pale hairs back of them; a few long yel- 
lowish bristly hairs on each side at the upper corners of the eyes ; a 
few of the orbital cilia at the upper corner of the eye long and black- 
ish, lower orbital cilia white. 

Thorax blue-green; pleurae with white pollen; bristles on the anterior 
portion of the dorsum blackish, those on the posterior part and the four 
on the margin of the scutellum yellowish. 

Abdomen blue-green, its incisures very narrowly yellow ; hairs on the 
dorsum of the abdomen short and yellow, those on the venter long and 
white; hypopygium and its appendages shining black, the latter long and 
fringed with short pale hairs. 

Coxae black or green with white pollen; fore pair with long white 
hairs on the front surface; tips of coxae and the trochantcrs yellow; 
fore femora wholly yellow; middle femora with a black streak below 
from the base to about the middle; hind femora black with yellow tips; 
all femora with long white hairs below; tibiae yellow, the tips of the 
hind pair a little brownish ; tarsi infuscated from the tip of the first 


joint; fore metatarsi three-fourths as long as their tibiae and longer 
than the remaining four joints together; middle metatarsi about four- 
fifths as long as their tibiae and one and one-fourth times as long as the 
remaining four joints. 

Knob of the halteres yellow, stem brown ; tegulae white with black tips 
and long white cilia. Wings nearly hyaline; costa rather thick and 
black from the tip of the first vein ; veins yellowish at the root of the 

Described from two males taken at Eastham, Massachu- 
setts, June 27th, by C. W. Johnson. Type in the collection of 
the Boston Society of Natural History. 

Mesorhaga nigripes Aid. 

Two females and four males that seem to belong to this 
species are in the Cornell University material sent me for 
study. They come from Blue Lake. Humboldt County, Cali- 
fornia, and were taken by J. C. Bradley. 

Prof. Aldrich described this species from females. I give 
the characters of the male below. The females differ from his 
description only in having .all the tibiae and tarsi uniformly 
brown, and there is a small black bristle at the upper corner of 
the eye not mentioned by him. 

$ . Hypopygium rather long, shining black, with a few long hairs on 
the outer or dorsal surface; appendages becoming more yellowish 
towards the apex, rather thick and tipped with two stout, black bristles. 
Femora ciliate below with long white hairs, these hairs as long as the 
thickness of the femora; in the female these hairs are much shorter, 
less than one-half the thickness of the femora. Third antennal joint 
rounded at tip, about as long as wide, second joint with a very long 
stout bristle below; in the female the antennae are formed about as in 
the male and of nearly the same size, but the bristles of the second 
joint are much smaller. The fore and middle metatarsi of both sexes 
are nearly as long as the four remaining joints. 

Table of Males of the North American Species of Campsicnemus. 

1 Middle tibiae not or but little incrassated 2 

Middle tibiae incrassated at least at base 4 

2 Middle tibiae yellow, not flattened degener \\"h. 

Middle tibiae mostly or wholly black and somewhat flattened.... 3 

3 Femora mostly yellow arcuatus sp. nov. 

Femora mostly black nigripes sp. nov. 

Vol. xxviii ] 



4 Middle tibiae thickened only near the base hirtipes Loew. 

Middle tibiae incrassated throughout 

5 Middle tibiae with a pedunculated knob near their apices. . 

philoctetes Wh. 
Middle tibiae without a knob 6 

6 Middle tibiae entirely black oedipus Wh. 

Middle tibiae in large part yellow 7 

7 Middle metatarsi bent semicircularly thersites Wh. 

Middle metatarsi not strongly curved claudicans Loew. 

Campsicnemus arcuatus sp. nov. (Fig. 1). 

$ . Length 2 mm., of wing 2.5 mm. Face narrow above, wider below, 
covered with dark yellowish brown pollen; front shining black; an- 
tennae black, third joint larger than wide, rounded at tip. 

Thorax shining black on the dorsum with purple reflections and an 
obscure green vitta visible on the posterior part. Scutellum bluish 
black with a reddish border; it has one pair of large bristles and be- 
tween these are six hairs on the margin. Abdomen dull black ; hy- 
popygium concealed. 

Fig. i. Tibia and metatarsus of middle leg of Campsicnemus arcuatus sp. nov. 
Fig. 2. First and second joints of middle tarsus of C. nignpes sp. nov. 
Fig. 3 Wing of Liancalus hydrophilus Aid. 
Fig. 4. Wing of L. limbatus sp. nov. 

Fore coxae yellow with silvery pollen and minute black hairs on the 
front surface; middle and hind cox?e black; all femora yellow, the fore 
pair a little blackened at base ; middle pair narrowed near the apex; 
fore and hind tibiae blackened at tip for one-third their length, also 
somewhat darkened at base, more yellowish in middle: middle tibiae 
narrowed and briefly yellow at base, the remainder dull black, some- 
what flattened, strongly and evenly arcuate, fringed with long delicate 
hairs above, these hairs curled at their tips; middle metatarsi curved 
upwards and with a stout sharp spur at tip (Fig. i). 


Tegulae brownish with black cilia; knob of halter es yellow. Wings 
dark grayish with black veins. 

Described from one male taken at Victor, Colorado, June 
nth, at an elevation at 9800 feet. Type in the author's collec- 

Campsicnemus nigripes sp. nov. (Fig. 2). 

$ . Length 2 mm., of wing 2.5 mm. Face narrow with nearly paral- 
lel sides, covered with yellowish brown pollen which is darkened on the 
upper portion of the face; front black; antennae black, third joint longer 
than wide, rounded at tip. 

Thorax shining black with a trace of a green vitta on the posterior 
part; scutellum bluish black with a few delicate hairs on the margin (if 
there have been bristles on the margin, as no doubt there have been, 
they have been broken off). Abdomen black with green reflections. 

Coxae and legs altogether black, except the tips of the middle femora 
which are yellowish ; the four hinder femora ciliated with short stout 
hairs below; middle tibise long, flattened, with a few rather long 
bristles above; middle metatarsi (Fig. 2) slightly arched with a large 
subquadrate ending which has a spur-like projection at one corner; the 
second joint is attached at the base of this quadrate ending; on the con- 
cave side the metatarsi are fringed with little bristles or hairs which are 
about as long as the thickness of the joint and two longer bristles near 
the base. 

Tegulae and their cilia brown; halteres dark yellowish brown. Wings 
dark grayish ; veins black. 

Described from one male taken at Sacramento, California, 
June 4th. Type in the author's collection. 

Table of Males of the North American species of Liancahts. 

1 First joint of fore tarsi shortened 2 

Second joint of fore tarsi shortened 3 

2 Last three joints of fore tarsi of nearly equal length., similis Aid. 
Third joint of fore tarsi as long as fourth and fifth together. 

querulus O. S. 

3 The opaque white spot at the tip of the wing circular. 

genualis Loew. 
The opaque white spot at apex of wing oval or semicircular 4 

4 Wing deeply excised back of fourth vein and with two bristle- 

like pencils of hairs one either side of the excision 

(Fig. 3) hydrophilus Aid. 

Wings deeply excised back of fourth vein but without the pencils 

of hairs, (Fig. 4) limbatus sp. nov. 


Liancalus hydrophilus Aid. (Fig. 3). 

I took a single male of this species at Colorado Springs. It 
was resting on rocks over which water was trickling, in South 
Cheyenne Canon. It measures but 7 mm. in length, which is 
about 2 mm. less than Prof. Aldrich's type specimens from the 
Black Hills, South Dakota, but the length of the wing is 7 mm., 
while the wings of his measured 7.5 mm. The knees of this 
specimen are distinctly but narrowly yellow. The other char- 
acters are as he gives them (Psyche, Vol. 6, p. 569). The 
drawing of the wing is from my specimen (Fig. 3). 

Liancalus limbatus sp. nov. (Fig. 4). 

$ . Length 9 mm., of wing 7.5 mm. Face bright green with silvery 
pollen which is quite thick along the orbits, divided a little below the 
middle by a transverse ridge; palpi thickly covered with silvery pollen 
and with small black hairs; proboscis dark brown; antennae black, third 
joint only a little longer than wide, somewhat triangular; front dark 
greenish gray with a little white pollen ; ocelli placed on a small brown 
spot; the black orbital cilia extending down to about the middle of the 
eye ; below these are a few fine white cilia which are difficult to distin- 
guish from the long yellowish hairs which cover the lower half of the 
occiput; the two post-vertical bristles are prominent but not very large. 

Thorax bright metallic green with four golden-green vittae, the outer 
ones broken at the suture; thorax quite thickly covered with white pol- 
len which is almost invisible in certain lights; a single row of acrosti- 
chal bristles; six dorsocentrals on each side; bristles of the thorax in- 
serted in minute black dots; metanotum green with white pollen; scu- 
tellum with six marginal bristles. 

Abdomen green but so thickly covered with pollen as to appear whit- 
ish in certain lights; base of second and hind margin of second to fifth 
segments brown, which color extends forward along the center of the 
dorsum and reaches the base on the second and fourth segments: this 
brown color is due to pollen and the shining green ground color shows 
through it in certain lights ; sixth segment green ; abdomen with minute 
black hairs and more abundant and longer fine yellowish hairs, those on 
the sides and on the first segment longest; first segment with a few 
slender black bristles near the hind margin above ; hypopygium mostly 
brown with two flattened filiments which are sparsely fringed with pule 
hairs and are two-thirds as long as the abdomen. 

Fore coxae green with white pollen and fine white hairs on the front 
surface and two small black bristles near the tip ; middle and hind coxae 
more blackish; legs green; knees slightly yellowish; tarsi black; fore 
tarsi with the first joint long, second joint only a little longer than widr, 
slightly dilated and fringed below with short bristles as in (icnuitlis and 
hydrophilus, third joint longer than fourth. 


Tegulse white with sharply defined yellow border and yellowish cilia; 
halteres yellow. Wings hyaline with brown clouds, one bordering the 
costa faint from the tip of the first vein to the tip of second vein more 
distinct from there to the apex of the wing, one along the second and 
third veins filling the cell between them except in outer part, one on last 
section of fifth vein; also a brown streak between third and fourth 
veins which has the appearance of a spurious vein; this streak is bent 
and has a cloud extending forward at about its first third ; tip of wing 
dark brown with a somewhat semicircular opaque white spot at apex, 
this spot extending nearly from the tip of the third vein to the tip of 
the fourth vein; third vein ending in the apex of the wing; fourth vein 
a little angulated at the cross vein; there is a very small square cell at 
the inner angle of fifth vein and cross-vein; this cell is not quite com- 
plete in the right wing from which the drawing was made but is perfect 
in the left wing; cell between first vein and costa yellowish. 

9. Face and front with yellowish brown pollen; vittse of thorax 
more coppery; a few stout black bristles near the hind margin of the 
third abdominal segment towards the sides; feet simple; wings simple 
with a large brown cloud on fourth vein before the cross-vein on last 
section of fifth vein and along the costa from tip of second vein to apex 
of wing. 

Described from one male and one female taken at Berkeley, 
California, May 8th, on a wall of rock in a little canyon ; the 
rock was covered with water-soaked moss. Type in the au- 
thor's collection. 

This species is very much like the European species inrens 
Scop., but I think it is distinct. I have not seen vircns, but Dr. 
Lundbeck has a drawing of the wing of that species, which 
does not show the deep emargination back of the fourth vein, 
nor does he mention it in his description, and he does not 
show any cloud on last section of fifth vein. The little cell at 
the inner angle of the fifth vein and the cross-vein in the male 
of L. I'unbot'.is do not appear in his figure. This cell may not 
be a constant character, but only accidental. 

Photographs Received for the Album of the American Entomologi- 
cal Society. 

During the year 1916 photographs for the Album were received and 
acknowledged from the following, and the members of the Society 
wish again to thank the donors for their gifts, which are much appre- 
ciated : 

Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson, J. R. Malloch, F. Haimbach, M. S. 
Royal, of India, and Louis Laplace. 


Notes on some Buprestidae of Northern Califor- 
nia (Col.). 

By W. J. CHAMBERLIN, Forest Entomologist, Oregon State Col- 
lege, Corvallis, Oregon. 

This paper is the result of observations and collections made 
during two summers spent in northern California. The sum- 
mer of 1915 was spent at Weed, a small lumbering town in 
Siskiyou County, at the base of Mt. Shasta. The general ele- 
vation surrounding Weed is 4500 feet. The summer of 1916 
was spent in Siskiyou, Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino 
Counties of California. 

Regarding the species taken at Weed it might be well to men- 
tion that there are from 50 to 60 cars of logs brought in daily 
from the Trinity Mountains, some thirty miles distant. It is 
probable that the majority of the forest insects are brought in 
with this timber, though undoubtedly some are attracted from 
the surrounding territory by the odor of fresh pine. 

Buprestids were by far the most numerous beetles occur- 
ring in the vicinity of Weed and over 450 specimens were taken 
at odd times during a six weeks' stay. 

1. Chalcophora angulicollis Lee. 

Twenty-six specimens of this species were taken at Weed 
in 1915. The majority were captured resting in the bright 
sunshine, on buildings, telephone poles, on the wooden side- 
walks and a few were taken while in flight. No less than ten 
specimens were taken on piled lumber. They attract attention 
by the rasping sound made in flight and are easily captured in 
the hand. They seem to be attracted by moving objects and 
will often alight on horses, moving wagons, or on man. 

This species is common all over the northern half of the 
State, breeding in yellow pine, Douglas fir, white and grand 

2. Dicerca prolongata Lee. 

This species has been taken by Dr. Van Dyke on Populns 
trichocarpa in Trinity County, California, and on Populus 
trenndoidcs at Lake Tahoe. It breeds in P. trichocarpa and 
doubtless in P. tremuloides also. 


3. Dicerca sexulis Cr. 

This is one of the handsomest species of the genus and is 
found throughout the northern part of the State. I have taken 
it from Douglas fir, which seems to be its principal host plant ; 
also from yellow pine. Dr. Van Dyke has taken it from 
knobcone pine at McCloud, in June, 1914. I have taken speci- 
mens emerging from Douglas fir on April 4, at an elevation of 
3500 feet in the Santiam National Forest of Oregon. 

4. Dicerca tenebrosa Kirby. 

Of this species Dr. Van Dyke writes as follows : 
Have found the western phase of this species about Fallen Leaf Lake, 
Lake Tahoe, in July, 1915, on dead lodge pole pine, in which it no doubt 
breeds. It probably extends south through the Cascade-Sierra range in 
the lodge pole pine belt. 

I have never encountered this species in California, but in 
the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon it is the most common 
member of the genus and breeds in both Pinus ponderosa and 
P. contorta. Near Klamath Falls, Oregon, it was taken from 
Abies concolor. 

5. Dicerca hornii Cr. 

This species breeds in Alnus and Ceanothns in most coun- 
ties of northern California. It is quite common locally at cer- 
tain periods. 

6. Dicerca pecterosa Lee. 

This rare species was taken by Dr. Van Dyke at Lake Tahoe 
in July, 1915. In Oregon it breeds in peach, and I have taken 
it on the lodge pole pine in Grant County, Oregon. 

7. Trachykele opulenta Fall. 

I quote from Dr. Van Dyke on the two species of this genus : 
A number of brilliantly green specimens of Trachykele were beaten 
from the alpine juniper on the ridge above Lake Tahoe, during July, 
IQIS. by Ralph Hopping, E. P. Van D'uzee and myself. Many borings in 
dead juniper limbs were also observed which were no doubt due to this 
species. This species, I have generally been considering as Fall's opu- 
lenta, though it may be true blond ell Mars, about which there has been 
so much uncertainty. It is quite similar to other specimens which I 
have from Seattle, Washington, where it no doubt lives on Thuja pli- 
cata, from Shasta County, California, in the territory of Sargent cy- 
press in Marin County. In the southern Sierras, this species is also 


found but another green one is also found there. This last is probably 
the true opulenta Fall. 

The author has taken one specimen from the sapwood of 
Lebocedras dccurrens. 

S. Trachykele nebulosa Fall. 

"One specimen taken at Carrville, Trinity County, Califor- 
nia, in July, 1913. Others were taken about Lake Tahoe from 
Abies concolor by Hopping, Van Duzee and myself. It breeds 
in Abies concolor and A. magnified as specimens have been 
taken emerging." Both species of this genus undoubtedly oc- 
cur in favorable localities throughout the northern part of the 
State. They have been taken at Corvallis, Oregon, and also 
in Western Washington. 

9. Poecilonata cyanipes var. ferrea Mels. 

This species is found throughout the northern part of the 
State and probably breeds in all the poplars and willows. I 
have dug adults from P. trcmuloides and P. trichocarpa in 
Humboldt County. 

10. Buprestis gibbsii Lee. 

Not common ; found occasionally on oak and poplar in which 
they probably breed. One specimen taken at Garberville, Hum- 
boldt County, California, August, 1916. Found in Sonoma 
County, by Rivers ; at Nevada City and Lake Ellann, Tuolumne 
County, by Van Dyke. May breed in Oucrcns. 

11. Buprestis connexa Horn. 

This rare and beautiful species is never found in numbers 
in any locality. Three specimens were captured. The first 
specimen was taken July 18 from the sapwood of yellow pine 
(P. ponderosa], fully mature and would doubtless have emerg- 
ed in a few days. The gallery traversed the cambium for 
some distance, winding around in a very irregular pattern, 
then entered the sapwood to a depth of two inches. The pupal 
cell was just within the sapwood. The second specimen was 
taken on the 28th of July, resting on the foliage of yellow pine 
with numbers of B. rustic orum. The last specimen was found 
embedded in pitch on the end of a yellow pine log. 


12. Buprestis laeviventris Lee. 

This was the most numerous species encountered. Out of 
116 specimens taken only 8 were taken on the freshly cut 
logs. They seem to have a preference for old dry logs and 
poles without bark. Many were taken on railroad ties and 
in the dust along the road. This is the only species I have 
ever encountered which deposits its eggs in or on logs where 
there is no bark. I observed one individual deposit eggs in 
the weather checks in the end of an old dry log. How the 
young larvae were to enter a seasoned pine log and live is a 
mystery. On another occasion a female deposited her eggs 
in a small check on the side of a pine log. The place selected 
was destitute of bark, though less than six inches away the 
bark was still on the log. 

The specimens taken show a great variety of patterns on 
the elytra, varying from a few faint spots of yellow on the 
black background to great splotches, which cover over one- 
half the surface. The basic color varies from a shiny black 
to an iridescent green. The length ranges from 15 mm. to 
23.5 mm. 

13. Buprestis rusticorum Kirby. 

This species was found rather abundantly in certain situ- 
ations. Out of 79 specimens collected, 63 were taken feed- 
ing on the needles of Piinis ponderosa. Many were observed 
copulating during August and were easily captured by holding 
a cyanide bottle or other receptacle under them and jarring 
the limb or twig. When thus disturbed they fold their appen- 
dages and drop to the ground. It is not easy to detect them 
here as they immediately crawl into the grass, under twigs, 
rocks, or into any convenient hiding place. Another favorite 
resting place is the sawdust fills. Many were observed crawl- 
ing around through the coarse sawdust and debris. Breeds in 
yellow pine and Douglas fir, and occurs in all the northern 

14. Buprestis langii Mann. 

This is undoubtedly the female of Buprestis fasciata. A 
single specimen was taken in flight, July 7, 1915. Dr. Van 


Dyke has authentic records of this species being dug from its 
pupal cells in Douglas fir. It is very probable that it also 
breeds in yellow pine. They are often seen on the bright green 
leaves of the poplars and willows, seeking these resting places 
because of the protection they afford. 

15. Buprestis lauta Lee. (B. amlenta Linn.) 

Probably one of the most common species from Canada to 
Southern California. This species breeds in Douglas fir, 
yellow, lodge pole, sugar and Monterey pine, and western red 
cedar. The last named host is an Oregon record, the author 
having dug an adult male from a fallen Thuja pllcata log on 
the Coast Mountains in April, 1914. 

16. Buprestis confluens Say. 

This is ordinarily a Great Basin species, but Dr. Van Dyke 
states that it has been taken in the vicinity of Lake Tahoe, 
California, on one or two occasions. Breeds in poplar. 

17. Buprestis adjecta. 

One taken on an electric light pole July 20, 1915, at Weed. 
Occurs from Washington to Tulare County, California. Prob- 
ably breeds in yellow, Jeffrey and lodge pole pine. 

18. Melanophila consputa Lee. 

This species was very numerous and caused considerable an- 
noyance to the men employed about the mill pond by alighting 
on the neck, hands and arms and biting. Most of the 78 spec- 
imens gathered were taken resting on the logs floating in the 
mill pond, though some were secured from the stacks of cord 
wood. A most variable species ; in markings it varies from sol- 
id black to dull bronze and may have from two to fourteen 
bright or dull yellow spots on the elytra. In size it ranges 
from 4.5 mm. to 14.75 mm - m length, and from 2 mm. to 5.4 
mm. in width. The females are larger than the males, as in 
most species of this family. Breeds in yellow pine. 

I 1 .). Melanophila longipes Say (acnminata De G.) 

Twenty-four specimens of this species were taken about 
the log pond. They were even more of a nuisance than M. 
consputa. Their bite is not just what one would call agree- 


able and they cause considerable profanity to float out on the 
otherwise pure air. Breeds in yellow pine, Douglas fir and 
the true firs (Abies). 

20. Melanophila atropurpurea Say.* 

I have assigned thirteen specimens, taken at Weed, to this 
species. I must confess, however, that the difference existing 
between M. lomjipcs, M. acuminata and M. atropurpurea is 
almost nil in my judgment. The separation I have made is 
based on the shape of the prothorax and the difference here 
grades from one extreme to the other until it is a mere guess 
where one species stops and another begins. Statements un- 
der M. longipes apply to the species also. 

21. Melanophila drummondi. 

Less common in California than in Oregon. Breeds freely 
in Douglas fir, grand fir (Abies grandis} and to some extent 
in yellow pine. 

22. Melanophila gentilis Lee. 

This beautiful species was not uncommon, but was rather 
more active than any of the others and a capture of two speci- 
mens out of every five was a good record. Thirty-six speci- 
mens were taken; fully one-half of these were taken from the 
bark or debris on the cars after the logs were unloaded. This 
species, like Chalcophora angulicollis, will rest immovable for 
hours where they are exposed to the direct rays of the boiling 
sunshine. In cloudy weather neither species is seen. I find 
my specimens collected in California are slightly larger and 
less bright in color than specimens collected by Professor 
Wickham in Arizona. Breeds in yellow pine. Ralph Hopping 
states that it also breeds in P. lambertiana. 

23. Melanophila sp. 

A peculiar Melanophila, which Dr. Van Dyke believes is a 
western form of M. pini-ednlis Burke, was taken by him at 
Carrville, Trinity County, California, in July, 1913, and at Mc- 
Cloud. Siskiyou County, in July, 1914, on yellow pine. 

*It is possible that the true atropurpurea was not taken and the 
specimens here mentioned are mere phases of M. lonyipcs. 


24. Anthaxia aeneogaster Lap. 

Three specimens of this tiny Buprestid were secured. A 
pair in copulation was taken on the flowers of the pearly 
everlasting (Antennaria sp.?} and a single female on the dan- 
delion (Taraxacum officinale Web.). Dr. Van Dyke has rear- 
ed specimens from redwood and knobcone pine, and I have 
reared it from lodge pole pine. It undoubtedly breeds in yel- 
low pine, and has been reported from certain broad leaf trees. 

25. Anthaxia deleta Lee. 

Dr. Van Dyke finds this species common about willows at 
times. Across the line in Oregon it is taken commonly on 
blossoms in the yellow pine belt. 

26. Anthaxia sublaevis Van Dyke. One specimen taken in Siskiyou 

County, and others in Tuolumne County, California. 

27. Chrysobothris femorata Fab. Found throughout the State on 


28. Chrysobothris contigua Lee. 

This little Chrysobothris was not at all common ; five speci- 
mens were taken on yellow pine slabwood. They are decided- 
ly more active than most of the other members of this genus. 
Breeds in smaller limbs of yellow pine. 

29. Chrysobothris dentipes Germ. 

Doctor Horn in his monograph mentions the fact that he has 
never seen this species from California. I believe it is com- 
mon in the northern half of the State. Its large size attracts 
attention at once. Though only 8 specimens were captured at 
Weed, many more were seen, but unfortunately they were 
observed at times when it was impossible to capture them. 
Breeds in P. ponderosa. 

30. Chrysobothris californica Lee. 

Dr. Van Dyke gives me the following information concern- 
ing this species : 

One specimen, Castella, California, (in Blaisdell collection) and two 
from Nevada County, California (Van Dyke collection); nothing is 
known of the biology of this rare species. 

;u. Chrysobothris caurina Horn. 

This was by far the most common species of the genus found 


during the summer. Forty-six specimens were taken. They 
are very uniform in color and sculpture. Most of the speci- 
mens were taken on logs floating in the mill pond. Dr. Van 
Dyke says of this species : "Probably the most common yel- 
low pine Chrysobothris we have in northern California and 
eastern Oregon. Farther south in California it becomes scarcer, 
its place being taken by C. monticolac Fall. Undoubtedly 
breeds in yellow pine." 

32. Chrysobothris monticolae Fall. 

The species has a more delicate color than most of our 
other western species. It tends towards a lilac, sometimes 
hinting at a rose tint and in nature has more or less of a white 
powdery coating which, however, is easily removed by care- 
less handling. Two specimens, July and August. Breeds in 
lodge pole pine. 

Weed is about 200 miles northwest of Lake Tahoe, which is 
the most northern point hitherto recorded for this species. 

33. Chrysobothris dolata Horn. 

Two females were taken at Weed in July. Four specimens 
of this species were taken in Grant County, Oregon, in July, 
1914; three are females and the fourth a male. A close study 
of the six specimens at my disposal shows a wide variation and 
may possibly include more than one species. The five females 
exhibit four different forms, which will be more readily under- 
stood from the figures than from a printed description. Figure 
i is the clypeus of var A., Fig. 10 is the thorax of the same 
specimen ; 2 and 2.0, are clypeus and thorax of var B., etc. Aside 
from the variation in clypeus and thorax there is little differ- 
ence in the specimens. The antennae of I and 4 are dark 
cupreous, while 2 and 3 are green ; i shows no callosites on 
the front ; i and 3 are not as densely pubescent as 2 and 4. 
All show the same sculpture and all are of an iridescent violet 
color beneath. The prosternum of number 4 is a little more 
coarsely and deeply punctured than the others. Numbers 2 
and 4 are from eastern Oregon, while numbers i and 3 are 
from Weed, California. 

As far as I am aware there has never been published a 

Vol. xxviiil 



description of the male of C. dolata, which I believe is almost 
unknown. The following description is made from a single 
male collected by the author in the Blue Mountains of eastern 
Oregon, July, 1914: 

$ . Has the general appearance of the female as described by Horn. 
Thorax a little more angulated. Color beneath iridescent, reddish 
purple, antennae dark purple, basal joints slightly greenish, much 
heavier and with less taper than the female and the last four joints 
have a squarish appearance, third joint about as long as next two, not 


Chrysobothris dolata Horn. Figs, i to 4. Clypei of females. Figs. ia to 40. Thoraces 
of females. Fig. 5. Last ventral segment of male. Fig. 6. Anterior tibia of male. 


longer. Front as described by Horn, slightly pubescent, clypeus with a 
triangular oval emargination at middle, arcuate on each side. (This is. 
exactly as Horn describes the female). I find that the clypeus of the 
females varies considerably in all specimens I have seen but is usually 
as shown in Figures I and 2. Thorax more angulated than one would 
surmise from Horn's description, though fitting his figure admirably; 
two depressions each side of middle and a third one near the margin, 
center (I fail to find the crescentic or oblique depressions of Dr. Horn) 
coarsely punctured, the punctures running together transversely, giving 
a strigilated appearance. Elytra same as female, prosternum not lobed, 
coarsely and closely punctate, margin of last ventral (Fig. 5) serrate; 
tip deeply, semi-circularly emarginate, the emargination deeper than 
wide. Anterior tibia dilated at end as shown in Fig. 6. Length 13 mm. 

A single male taken in Grant County, Oregon, July 21, 1914, 
on lodge pole pine (P. contorta). This species probably breeds 
in P. contorta, P. lambertiana and P. ponderosa. 

34. Chrysobothris pseudotsugae Van Dyke. 

One specimen taken in August. This species bears a close 
resemblance to C. caurina, but is smaller and darker. The 
prosternum being lobed will at once separate it from caurina. 
Taken on Abies grand is, grand fir, at Weed, August u, 1915. 
Hopping has taken this species from P. ponderosa. 

35. Chrysobothris laricis Van Dyke. 

This species described from a series collected by the author 
in eastern Oregon on larch and lodge pole pine, and has been 
taken in the lodge pole pine belt above Lake Tahoe and in 
Tuolomne Meadows, California. It no doubt will be found in 
the higher Cascade and Sierra Ranges from Oregon to Central 

36. Chrysobothris nixa Horn. 

This species is fairly common in northern California and 
ranges over into the southwestern portion of Oregon. Breeds 
so far as known only in incense cedar (Libocedrus decnrrens). 

37. Chrysobothris viridicyanea Horn. 

This beautiful green species breeds in the limbs and smaller 
branches of Libocedrus decnrrens and is found in most of the 
northern counties of the State. The following counties are 
represented in Dr. Van Dyke's collection: Trinity, Siskiyou 
and Placer. I have two specimens from Siskiyou County. 


38. Chrysobothris sylvania Fall. 

The type material was collected from apple in northern So- 
noma County, California. Mr. Nunenmacher, of Oakland, 

j ' 

has taken it in Del Norte County. I have collected it in the 
Cascades of southern and central Oregon. A number of 
specimens were dug from the sapwood of Douglas fir, March, 

39. Chrysobothris mali Horn. 

Occurs throughout California, where it breeds in cherry, 
willow and oak. In Oregon the writer has bred it from prune, 
peach and apple. 

40. Chrysobothris pubescens Fall. 

I have a single specimen of this species taken in soxithern 
Oregon. Dr. Van Dyke states that in California it is generally 
confined to the Sierras. He has taken it at Lake Tahoe and 
in Shasta County. There are specimens in his collection from 
Reno, Nevada and from Tulare County, California. It prob- 
ably breeds in the smaller limbs of Jeffrey and yellow pine. 

41. Chrysobothris deleta Horn. 

This is not a typically northern species, but does occur at 
rare intervals, as shown by a specimen from Lake Tahoe and 
one from Castella. Shasta County, July 8, 1912 (in the Van 
Dyke collection). 

42. Chrysobothris cyanella Horn. 

This species although rare is rather widely distributed 
throughout the Cascade-Sierra region. The writer has taken 
specimens in the vicinity of Ashland, Oregon (just over the 
California line). It undoubtedly breeds in the twigs of yel- 
low pine. In the Van Dyke collection there are specimens 
taken in Shasta County, Siskiyou County, and Lake Tahoe, 

43. Chrysobothris prasina Horn. 

The type of this species is supposed to have been collected 
in northern California. Dr. Van Dyke has one specimen tak- 
en in Sonoma County, June 30, 1912. 

(To be continued.) 



Specialization in Entomology. 

Are there any readers of the NEWS who still read The Poet 
at the Breakfast Table and recall this piece of conversation, 
which The Entomologists' Monthly Magazine (London) print- 
ed as a motto on the title page of its fifteenth volume for 1878- 

I suppose you are an entomologist? 

Not quite so ambitious as that, sir. I should like to put my eyes on 
the individual entitled to that name. No man can be truly called an 
entomologist, sir; the subject is too vast for any single human intelli- 
gence to grasp. 

There were entomologists, just as there were giants, in for- 
mer days. Linnaeus was more than an entomologist. Fabrici- 
us, Latreille, Leach, Westwood and Burmeister were ento- 
mologists. In later years, however, we have specialized still 
more narrowly, except when we are entomologists by compul- 
sion. Not only do we have lepidopterists, but also microlepi- 
dopterists, nay, erycinidists and even catocalists. We are not 
sure whether there are not those who limit themselves to the 
study of a single species, which is certainly the case among 
those devoted to mammals. 

It is interesting to see how the journals have tried to keep 
pace with specialization. Papilio, the organ of the New York 
Entomological Club, fluttered for four volumes from 1881 to 
1884. The late F. W. Konow sustained the ZeitscJirift fiir 
systematische Hymenopterologie und Diptcrologie from Janu- 
ary i, 1901, to May, 1908, but it did not long survive its edi- 
tor. Entomologische Blatter, Zeitschrift fiir Biologic und S\s- 
tematik der Kafer (Berlin), has appeared from 1905 down to 



at least December, 1915. In general it seems that the number 
of specialists in any one or two orders of insects is not suffi- 
cient to support a special journal, and we know of none such 
provided with an endowment fund guaranteeing its perma- 
nency. In this matter we must still be entomologists, appar- 
ently, and yet the record of general entomological journals 
contains many a short-lived periodical. We have only to re- 
call The American Entomologist of three volumes, 1868-1880, 
and Entomologica Americana, of six volumes, 1885-1890. 

Questions and 

The NEWS invites those having any entomological questions which they wish 
answered to send such in for publication under this heading, and also invites 
answers from its readers or others to these questions. Questions and replies 
should be as brief as possible and the Editors reserve the right not to publish 
any of either class which seem to them objectionable or inappropriate. Those send- 
ing in contributions to this department will please indicate whether they wish 
their names or merely one or more initials to appear in connection with their 
communications, but all such must be accompanied by the full name and address 
of the writer for the information of the editors. 

QUESTION No. 5. Are there any recorded aberrations of Mclitaca 
brucci or Phyciodes camillus which have received names? We are so 
far removed from entomological libraries that it is impossible to ob- 
tain this information here. DR. JOHN A. COMSTOCK, 1275 Bellevue 
Avenue, Los Angeles, California. 

Kntomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico is given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 5 Psyche. 6 Journal, New 
York Entomological Society. 8 The Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine, London. 10 Nature, London. 11 Annals and Maga- 


zine of Natural History, London. 34 Proceedings, Iowa Academy 
of Sciences, Des Moines. 50 Proceedings, U. S. National Museum. 
68 Science, New York. 69 Bolletino, Societa Italiana Entomolo- 
gica. 128 Proceedings Linnean Society of New South Wales, 
Sydney. 153 Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York. 180 Annals of the Entomological Society of 
America. 334 Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, Boston. 406 Boletin del Museo Nacional de 
Chile, Santiago de Chile. 407 Journal of Genetics, Cambridge, 
England. 420 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus: A monthly journal 
of entomology, Washington. 449 British Museum (Natural His- 
tory) Publications, London. 486 Journal, Elisha Mitchell Scien- 
tific Society, Chapel Hill, N. C. 538 Lorquinia, Los Angeles. 
540 The Lepidopterist. Official Bulletin, Boston Entomological 
Club. 543 Genetics, Princeton, N. J. 544 Miscellanea Ento- 
mologica. 545 Proceedings, Entomological Society of British 
Columbia, Vancouver. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Crampton, G. C. The orders and re- 
lationships of Apterygotan insects, 6, xxiv, 267-301. Dyar, H. G. 
A psychological locality, 420, iv, 131-2. Joutel, L. H. Biographical 
notice by W. T. Davis, 6, xxiv, 239-43. Kenoyer, L. A. Insect 
pollination of timberline flowers of Colorado; Insect pollination 
of Frasera stenosepala, 34, xxiii. 483-86; 487-8. 


new members of a sex-linked multiple (sextuple) allelomorph 
system (Drosophila), 543, i, 535-80. Hyde & Powell. Mosaics in 
Drosophila ampelophia, 543, 1, 581-83. Metz, C. W. Mutations in 
three species of Drosophila, 543, i, 591-607. Safir, S. R. Buff, a 
new allelomorph of white eye color in Drosophila, 543, i, 584-90. 

MEDICAL. Cummings, B. F. The louse and its relation to 
disease; its life-history and habits; how to deal with it, 449, Econ. 
Sen, No. 2. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Emerton, J. H. Recent studies of Cana- 
dian spiders, 4, 1917, 13-16. Newman, H. H. A case of synchronic 
behavior in Phalangidae, 68, xlv, 44. 

Ewing, H. E. New Acarina. Part II. Descriptions of n. sps. 
and var. from Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, 153, 
xxxvii, 149-172. Hirst, S. On some new mites of the suborder 
Prostigmata living on lizards [l n. gen.], 11, xix, 136-143. 
McGregor, E. A. Descriptions of seven n. sps. of red spiders [4 
new], 50, li, 581-90. 


NEUROPTERA, ETC. Rich, S. G. Some respiratory struc- 
tures of dragon-fly larvae, 6, xxiv, 306-7. Tillyard, R. J. Further 
observations on the emergence of dragon-fly larvae from the egg, 
128, xli, 388-41G. 

ORTHOPTERA. Giglio-Tos, E. Mantidi esotici, 69, xlvii, 1-44. 

Morse, A. P. A New England orthopteran adventive, 5, 1916, 

HEMIPTERA. Brown, K. B. The specific effects of certain 
leaf-feeding Coccidae and Aphididae upon the pines, 180, ix, 414-24. 
Dickerson & Weiss. The ash leaf bug, Neoborus amoenus, 6, 
xxiv, 302-6. Stoner, D. Distributional notes on some Iowa Penta- 
tomoidea, 34, xxiii, 303-7. de la Torre Bueno, J. R. Aquatic hem- 
iptera. A study in the relation of structure to environment, 180, 
ix, 353-65. 

Baker, A. C. Synopsis of the genus Saltusaphis [3 new]. 4, 
1917, 1-9. McAtee, W. L. Key to the nearctic species of Para- 
calocoris (Miridae) [25 new], 180, ix, 366-390. Parshley, H. M. 
On some Tingidae from New England [3 new], 5, 1916, 163-8. 
Quaintance & Baker. A contribution to our knowledge of the 
white flies of the subfamily Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae), 50, li, 335- 
445. Wilson, H. F. Aphid notes from British Columbia [l n. spj, 
545, No. 5, 82-5 (1915). 

LEPIDOPTERA. Cockle, J. W. Notes on the habits of some 
L., 545, No. 5, 91-4 (1915). Day, G. O. Notes on the early 
stages of Calocampa cineritia; Notes on the early stages of Epir- 
rita dilutata, 545, No. 5, 86-7; 95-6 (1915). Figueroa, C. S. Los 
cosidos de Chile. 406, viii, 49-55. Forbes, W. T. M. On the Tym- 
panum of certain L., 5, 1916, 183-92. Harrison, J. W. H. A further 
probable case of sex-limited transmission in L., 10, xcviii, 248. 
Studies in hybrid Bistoninae, 407, vi, 94-161. Thierry- Mieg, P. 
Descriptions de lepidopteres nouveaux, 544, xxiii, No. 10-11. 
Wolden, B. O. The white admiral or banded purple butterfly in 
Iowa, 34, xxiii, 269. 

Reiff, W. Catocala arnica subsp. novangliae: Additions to the 
paper on Catocala arnica; Colias philodice f. nigro-fasciata, 540, 
i, 12-15; 21; 22-23. Swett, L. W. Geometrid notes: New species 
from California [l new], 540, i, 10-11. 

DIPTERA. Hadwen, S. A note on the occurrence and signifi- 
cance of Anophelinae in B. C.: A description of the egg and ovi- 
positor of Cuterebra fontinella, 545, No. 5, 81-S2: 8S-91 (1915). 
Johnson, C. W. The Volucella bombylans group in America, 5, 


1916, 159-63. Knab, F. Further notes on Syrphidae, 420, iv, 133-5. 
MacGregor, M. E. Calliphora vomitoria captured by an oyster, 
8, 1917, 18-19. Metcalf, C. L. A list of Syrphidae of North Caro- 
lina, 486, xxxii, 95-112. Parker, R. R. -Notes concerning Gastro- 
philus haemorroidalis, 6, xxiv, 253-5. Porter, C. E. Descripcion 
de un nuevo diptero chileno (Agromyza gayi), 406, viii, 56-7. 
Richardson, C. H. The attraction of D. to ammonia, 180, ix, 408- 

Alexander, C. P. New nearctic crane-flies. Part II. [9 new], 
4, 1917, 22-31 (cont.). Brues, C. T. A new sp. of Apiochaeta from 
New England (Phoridae), 5, 1910, 175-6. Sturtevant, A. H. Notes 
on N. Am. Drosophilidae with descriptions of 25 n. sps., 180, ix, 
323-43. Townsend, C. H. T. Miscellaneous muscoid notes and 
descriptions [8 n. gen.; 4 n. sps.]; Lithohypoderma, a new fossil 
genus of oestrids, 420, iv, 121-28; 128-30. 

COLEOPTERA. Boving, A. A generic synopsis of the coc- 
cinellid larvae in the U. S. Nat. Museum, with description of the 
larva of Hyperaspis binotata, 50, li, 621-50. Davis, A. A few rare 
beetles in logs near Pasadena, 538, i, 41. Frost, S. W. Biological 
notes on Ceutorhynchus marginatus, 6, xxiv, 243-53. Laurent, P. 
The supposed synchronal flashing of fireflies, 68, xlv, 44. Woods, 
W. C. The malpighian vessels of Haltica bimarginata, 180, ix, 

Liljeblad, E. New sps. of C. of the genus Mordellistena [8 new], 
4, 1917, 9-13. Schaeffer, C. New sps. of the family Elateridae 
[19 new], 6, xxiv, 256-67. 

HYMENOPTERA. C., G. H. Studies of H., 10, xcviii, 258. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. The panurgine bees of the genera Hesperapis, 
Zacesta and Panurgomia, 5, 1916, 176-78. Mickel, C. E. A review 
of the American species of Xylocelia [7 new], 180, ix, 344-52. 
Pellett, F. C. Life history and habits of Polistes metricus, 34, 
xxiii, 275-84. Turner, R. E. Notes on fossorial H. xxv. On new 
Sphecoidea in the British Museum, 11, xix, 104-13. Webster, R. L. 
Notes on two strawberry slugs (Empria fragariae, E. maculata), 
34, xxiii, 291-98. Wheeler, W. M. Questions of nomenclature 
connected with the ant genus Lasius and its subgenera; A phos- 
phorescent ant; Ants carried in a floating log from the Brazilian 
mainland to San Sebastian Island, 5, 1916, 168-73; 173-4; 180-83. 

Crawford, J. C. Some new American H. [1 n. gen.; 9 n. sps.], 
420, iv, 135-44. Girault, A. A. Descriptions of miscellaneous 
chalcid flies [16 new], 420, iv, 109-121. Wheeler, W. M. The moun- 
tain ants of western North America [32 new], 334, lii, 457-569. 

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Plate XI. 






VOL. xxvin. 

APRIL, 1917. 



Dietz Key to the North American 
Species of the Tricolor Group of 
the Dipterous Genus Tipula Lin- 
naeus 145 

Harrison Egg-masses of the Vaporer 
Moths Wanted (Lep.) 151 

Rehu On Coelophvllum simplex and 
certain of its Allies (Orthoptera, 
Tettigoniidae) 152 

Wolcott Influence of Rainfall on 

Abundance of a Moth ( Lep. ) 161 

Shinji Mating Hahit ol the Cottony 
Cushion Scale ( Hem., Horn.) 162 

Chamberlin Notes on some Bupresti- 

dae of Northern California (Col.) 166 
"Needham Notes on some recent stud- 
ies of Dragonfly Wing Tracheation 
( Odon. ) 169 

Hungerford The Egg Laying Habits 
of a Back-swimmer (Hem.) 174 

Buchholz A new Species of Acronycta 

(Lep.) 183 

The New Head of the Department of 
Zoology and Entomology, Ohio 

State University 184 

Goe Adult Chrysopidae Do Eat(Neu.) 184 

Editorial Ants vs. Men 185 

Porter The Host of Ablerus clisiocam- 

pae ( Hym. ) 186 

Entomological Literature 187 

Review of Barnes and McDunnough : 
Check List of Lepidoptera of Bor- 
eal America 190 

Doings of Societies Feldman Collect- 
ing Social (Lep., Col.) 191 

Entom. Section, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 

( Orth. ) 192 

Entomological Workers of Ohio 192 

Key to the North American Species of the Tricolor 
Group of the Dipterous Genus Tipula Linnaeus, 

With Descriptions of Four New Species. 
By W. G. DIETZ, M.D., Hazleton, Pennsylvania. 

(Plate XI) 

1. Joints of flagellum unicolorous brown 2 

Joints of tfagellum distinctly bicolored (> 

2. Basal six joints of antennae yellow fulvolineata Doane 

(f/raphica Doane Syn.) 
Basal six joints not as in the alternative 3 

3. Mesonotal praescutum without dark brown median line or 

stripe alexandriana spec. n. 

Mesonotal praescutum with dark brown median line or stripe. 4 

4. Median mesonotal stripe broad 5 

A narrow, median, mesonotal line vicina spec. n. 

5. Stigma brown, wing picture darker ... .aspidoptera Alexander 1 
Stigma yellowish-brown, wing picture very pale, 

comanche Alexander 2 

!Can. Ent. Vol. XLVIII, p. 49. 
-Ibid. p. 50, placed here tentatively. 



6. Costal stripe strongly bisinuate posteriorly bella Loew 

Costal stripe not as in the alternative 7 

7. Pleura with oblique, fuscous stripe subeluta Johnson 

Pleura not as in the alternative 8 

8. Median vitta of wing attains the apex 9 

Median vitta not as in the alternative 12 

9. Outer part of cell 1st M2 and basal part of cell Ro not hyaline. 

Abdomen with lateral fuscous stripes 10 

Cell 1st M2 entirely hyaline. Abdomen without lateral stripes 


10. Larger, coloration of wing dark fuscous-brown, basal half of 

cell M infuscate caloptera Loew 

Smaller, color of wing grayish-fuscous, basal part of cell M 
grayish strepens Loew 

11. Cell Ml and cell M2 partially hyaline conspicua spec. n. 

These cells entirely fuscous eluta Loew 

12. Stigma yellow xanthostigma spec. n. 

Stigma dark fuscous 13 

13 The hyaline antestigmal spot extends as an irregular fascia to 
near the posterior wing-margin fraterna Loew 

The hyaline spot not as in the alternative 14 

14. Thoracic stripes distinct tricolor Fabricius 

Thoracic stripes obsolete vitrea Van der Wulp 

Tipula alexandriana spec. n. (PI. XI, fig. 1, lA and IB). 

Joints of antennal flagellum with the exception of the first, uni- 
colorous, dark brown. Median vitta of praescutal mesonotum, divided 
by a pale stripe. Wings without fuscous costal stripe. The hyaline 
vitta does not extend beyond the extreme base of cell iM 2 . 

$ . Length 13-14 mm.; wing 16 mm. 

Head grayish-white, middle of front fuscous, occiput suffused with 
fuscous. Joints 1-3 of palpi yellowish-fuscous, 4 dark fuscous. Frontal 
prolongation rather short, yellow, with a whit'sh bloom, and, like the 
nasus, beset with short blackish hairs. Antennae robust; extended back- 
ward they reach to the base of the abdomen; scapal joints and basal 
half of first flagellar joint, yellowish, the rest of the flagellum black, 
segments with well-marked basal and sub-apical enlargement, basal 
setae of moderate length. 

Thorax. Pronotal scutum yellowish-fuscous. Mesonotal praescu- 
tum a sordid, pale yellow, stripes black, conspicuous, the median stripe 
narrowed posteriorly and divided by a moderately wide stripe of the 
ground color; lateral stripes abbreviated, parasntural foveae and an- 
tero-lateral margin of mesonotum black. Pronotal scutcllum and 
pleuro-dorsal membrane yellowish. Pleura black, overlaid with a heavy 
whitish bloom, which almost completely conceals the ground color. 


Scutum grayish-fuscous, darker in middle portion. Scutellum yellow- 
ish-fuscous. Postnotum grayish-fuscous, lateral margins pale. Hal- 
teres pale, knob fuscous. 

Legs slender, coxae gray and beset with soft pale hairs; trochanters 
and basal part of femur yellow, remainder of femur yellowish-fuscous, 
dark fuscous at tip, tibiae and tarsi dark fuscous. 

Wings grayish-fuscous, darker apically, yellowish at .the base and 
along cell C and cell Sc, no fuscous costal stripe; stigma dark brown, 
preceded by a conspicuous hyaline spot; the vitta occupying cell M is 
but a shade paler than the ground color, not conspicuous, and does 
not extend beyond the extreme base of cell ist M 2 ; vein Cu and its 
basal deflection conspicuously margined with fuscous. 

Abdomen deep yellow, paler beneath with a conspicuous black stripe 
each side, the latter does not extend beyond the sixth segment; the sev- 
enth segment entirely yellow, the extreme posterior margin of segments 
1-6 a trifle paler; 8 and hypopygium brown, appendages yellowish; 
eighth sternite simple, not emarginate ; ninth tergite short, posterior 
margin feebly emarginate each side; ninth sternite with rounded emarg- 
ination, from the lateral margin of which arises a pencil of bristle- 
like, yellowish hair, and a carina-like process at the base of the median 
suture; upper appendages broad, leaflike, inflexed, the lower append- 
ages form an ascending irregular lobe. 

9. Length 12 mm.; wing 19 mm. Aside from its larger size the 
female differs from the male by the much shorter antennae, which 
scarcely reach the middle of the mesonotmn, first flagellar joint yel- 
lowish-red, flagellar joints cylindrical with slight basal enlargement. 
Ovipositor brown at base, blades yellow, upper valves very long, al- 
most linear, the lower valves more than one-half the length of the 
upper valves. 

Holotype, $ . Foothills of Mt. Shasta, California, May 2Oth, 
1914 (A. Kusche). 

Allotype, 9 , May 26th, 1914, topotypic. 

Paratypc, $, Sonoma County, California, April iSth, 1914 
(A. Kusche). All in the author's collection. 

Readily distinguished from the other members of this group 
with unicolorous antennal flagellum ; from fulvolincata 
Doane by only the three basal joints of the antennae yellow 1 
and the veins in apical part of wing not margined with fuscous. 

1 A male specimen in my collection from Los Cerritos, California, 
and received from Mr. M. C. Van Duzee, I unhesitatingly refer to 
this species, although only three basal joints of the antennae are yel- 
low. The type of the species is a female. 


From aspidoptera Alexander and vicina sp. n., by the pale 
median mesonotal line. 

Two specimens, males, in my collection from La Junta, Col- 
orado (E. J. Oslar), I refer to this species, though apparently 
differing. The head and thorax are dark brown, the mesonotal 
stripes black. This difference in color is due to the process of 
preservation. The abdominal stripes extend upon the seventh 

Respectfully dedicated to Mr. Charles P. Alexander. 

Tipula vicina spec. n. (PI. XI, figs. 2, 2A, 2B.) 

Grayish-brown. Antennal flagellum brown. Mesonotal stripes mar- 
gined with fuscous, the median stripe divided by a blackish line. The 
hyaline vitta of the wing extends through cell ist M 2 and cell R 5 to 
the apex. 

$. Length 11.5 mm., wing 13 mm. Head Grayish-brown, paler 
along the upper orbital margin, with dark median occipital line. 
Rostrum sordid yellow, nasus beset with whitish hairs. Palpi fuscous, 
the last joint shorter than the preceding joints together. Antennae 
slender; bent back, they reach to base of halteres ; scapal and first 
flagellar joints yellowish-brown, the following joints fuscous, basal 
enlargement feeble, black, the setae shorter than the segments. 

Thorax Mesonotum grayish-fuscou.s with a yellowish sheen, the 
praescutal stripes scarcely darker than the ground color and margined 
with fuscous, the median stripe divided by a black median line; pro- 
notal scutum brownish ; scutellum and postnotum yellowish-brown. 
Pleurodorsal membrane sordid yellowish. Pleura gray with a whitish 
bloom. Halteres yellow at base, darker towards the club, the latter 

Legs yellow with whitish bloom; femora darker towards and in- 
fuscate at the apex; tibiae yellowish-fuscous, their apices and the 
tarsi fuscous. 

Wings grayish- fuscous; the fuscous costal border includes the basal 
portion of cell R and all the radial cells except R 3 ; a small hyaline 
spot before the stigma, the latter dark brown ; the hyaline vitta of 
cell M and outer part of cell R extends through cell ist M 2 and cell R 5 
to the apex ; a conspicuous hyaline spot at apex of cell R and base of 
cell ist M 2 ; vein Cu and its basal deflection margined with fuscous. 

Abdomen above pale yellowish-gray, a broad s pale fuscous stripe 
each side, a black transverse line each side, behind the anterior mar- 
gin of segments 2-5, lateral margins of segments broadly, the posterior 
margin very narrowly, paler, the former with a small brown dot on 
2-7; venter gray, yellowish towards the base. Eighth sternite 


simple. Hypopygium yellowish-brown ; the ninth tergite a little longer 
than wide and produced mesially into a short, obtuse lobe, the ninth 
sternite deeply divided, the postero-inferior angle produced; append- 
ages yellowish-brown, the upper broad, irregular, the lower presents 
an oval, outward bent lobe. 

$. Length 15.5 mm.; wing 14.5 mm. Antennae short, first joint 
grayish-brown, joints 2-4 reddish-brown, the remaining segments dark 
brown, scarcely darker at base. The dark dots on the pale lateral 
margins of the abdominal tergites less distinct. Ovipositor yellowish- 
brown, upper valves long and slender, lower valves about two-thirds 
the length of the upper, blade-shaped. 

Holotype, $ , Floodwood, Schoolcraft County, Michigan, 
July, 1915 (J. S. Rodger). 

Allotype, 9 , topotypic. 

Paratypes, one $ topotypic, one $ Lancaster, New York, 
May 3 ist, 1908 (M. C. Van Duzee). All in the author's col- 

Apparently close to T. aspidoptera Alexander, from which 
it is readily distinguished by the narrow median mesonotal line 
and all R 5 entirely hyaline. 

Tipula conspicua spec. n. (Plate XI, fig. 3, 3A, 3B). 

Joints of antennal flagellum distinctly bicolored. Thoracic stripes 
margined with fuscous, the median stripe divided by a dark mesial 
line. The hyaline alar vitta reaches to the apex. Abdomen yellow 
without stripes. 

$. Length 15.5 mm.; wing 17 mm. Head grayish-fuscous, a 
tuberosity behind the antennal insertion ; face and frontal prolongation 
.cream-yellow, nasus beset with short black hairs; sides of rostrum 
brownish. Palpi yellowish-brown, joints 1-3 pale at tip, the last 
joint shorter than the preceding joints together. Antennae slender: 
bent back, they reach to the base of the postnotum; scapal joints 
brownish with a whitish bloom above; flagellar joints slender, sub- 
cylindrical with a whorl of black setae, the latter shorter than the 
respective segments, yellow and, with the exception of the first joint, 
black at the base, with a whitish bloom. 

Thorax Pronotal scutum gray with a crescentic, fuscous line. 
Praescutum grayish-white, stripes light-brown, margined with dark- 
brown, the median stripe of equal width throughout and divided by a 
dark median line. Scutum brown, central part whitish. Scutellum 
sordid white, a tritle darker anteriorly. Postnotum sordid white, 
posterior margin darker, surface transversely rugulose, a brownish 
spot each side. Malteres yellowish- fuscous, paler towards the base, 
knob brown. Pleura and pleuro-dorsal membrane grayish-white. 


Legs slender, yellowish-fuscous; femora and tibiae infuscate to- 
wards the tips; tarsi fuscous. 

Wings grayish-fuscous, costal border, including cell R almost en- 
tirely and cells R 2 and R 3 dark fuscous, vein Cu narrowly, vein Cu 1 
more broadly margined with fuscous; the hyaline vitta begins at the 
basal third of cell M and extends through cell 1st M 2 and the bases of 
cells M 2 and M 3 , and cell M 1 almost entirely to the apex ; the dorsal 
border of cell R r> is hyaline in its entire length and forms an integral 
part of the vitta; a conspicuous hyaline antestigmal spot extends td 
the apex of cell R; basal third of cell M infuscate, bases of cell Cu 
and cell i A hyaline. 

Abdomen ochre-yellow without longitudinal stripes and rather faint, 
pale fuscous striae each side behind the anterior margin of tergites 
2-4; tergites 5-8 somewhat infuscate, the eighth sternite simple. Hypo- 
pygium yellowish-brown, ninth tergite longer than wide, posterior mar- 
gin incised each side, the median part somewhat compressed and pro- 
duced in the form of a cone ; from within the lateral incision arises 
a small inconspicuous pencil of stiff hairs ; ninth sternite long, deeply 
and narrowly divided; upper appendages large, blade-like, incurved; 
the middle appendages flattened with an acute lance-shaped process, 
directed dorsad ; the lower appendages irregular, ascending, and each 
ends in two small lobes. 

Holotype, $ , Black Mountains, North Carolina, September, 
1913 (W. Beutenmtieller) . In the author's collection. 

Closely resembles Tipiila clnta Loew, but differs in cells M 1 
and M 2 , being partially hyaline and the costal half of cell R 5 
fuscous. The hypopygium is different in construction. 

Tipula xanthostigma spec. n. (PI. XI, fig. 4). 

Yellowish-brown. Segments of antennal flagellum yellow, black at 
base. Thoracic stripes margined. The alar vitta extends into cell ist 
M 2 but does not reach the apex ; stigma yellow. 

$. Length 19 mm.; wing 17 mm. Head grayish-yellow with dark 
occipital line, face yellowish, frontal prolongation yellow, nasus beset 
with blackish hairs toward the apex; rostrum light brown on the 
sides. Palpi light brown, darker towards the apex. Antennae short, 
scapal joints brownish, joints of flagellum yellow, black at base. 

Thorax. Pronotal scutum pale brown, a fuscous line each side. 
Praescutum yellowish-gray, stripes broad, light coffee-brown and al- 
most entirely concealing the ground color and very narrowly mar- 
gined with darker brown; the median stripe narrowed posteriorly and 
divided by a blackish line. Scutum pale coffee-brown, margins paler. 
Scutellum and postnotum yellow, posterior margin of the latter brown- 
ish. Pleurodorsal membrane grayish-yellow. Pleura and coxae yel- 
lowish with a white bloom. Halteres pale, knob fuscous. 


Legs Trochanters and femora yellowish, the latter infuscate to- 
wards the apex, tibiae and tarsi yellowish- fuscous, darker towards the 

Wings light grayish-fuscous, costal border brown ; stigma sordid 
yellow; basal half of vein Cu narrowly, remainder and the basal de- 
flection more widely, margined with fuscous; a dark-brown spot at 
the bases of cells R 4 and R 5 ; the hyaline vitta begins near the base of 
cell M and extends into the base of cell ist M 2 , the cells bordering 
the latter, pale, narrowly margined with hyaline ; the very conspicuous 
antestigmal hyaline spot extends into the base of cell ist M 2 . 

Abdomen sordid yellow, a broad fuscous stripe each side extends 
from the base to the eighth tergite, the two stripes leave but a narrow 
vitta of the ground color between them. Ovipositor ferruginous, 
upper valves strongly narrowed towards the apex, lower valves a little 
wider and about three-fifths the length of the upper valves. 

Holotype, 9 , Chimney Gulch, Colorado, June Qth, 1914. (E. 
J. Oslar). In the author's collection. 

Readily distinguished from the other species of the group 
with bicolored, flagellar joints and the alar vitta not attaining 
the apex, by the yellowish stigma. 

i. Wing of Ti[>. alexandriana spec. n. 
i A. Lateral aspect of hypopygium of same. 

1 B. Ventral aspect of hypopygium of same. 
2. Wing of Tip. ticina spec. n. 

2. A. Lateral aspect of hypopygium of same. 

2 B. Ventral aspect of hypopygium of same. 
3. Wing of Tip. conspicua spec. n. 

3 A. Dorsal aspect of hypopygium of same. 
3 R. Lateral aspect of hypopygium of same. 
4. Wing of Tip. xanthostigma sp. n. 

Egg-masses of the Vaporer Moths Wanted (Lep.). 

I am venturing to appeal for help in connection with some studies 
in heredity I am making. I am studying the inheritance of the hair 
pencils in the larvae of the Vaporer Moths and am very anxious to 
get egg masses of the Vaporer Moths, Orgyia (Notolof>hus) vetuxtti 
and O. bad ia found on the Pacific coast and also of any other Oryyia 
found in the West. Furthermore, I want to study the gametogenesis, 
especially the spermatogenesis, of these species and also the behavior 
of the mitochondria. 

In return I shall be pleased to do all I can and I can assist in prac- 
tically every group of animals or plants. J. W. H. HARRISON, 181 
Abingdon Road, Middlesbro', England. 


On Coelophyllum simplex and certain of its Allies 
(Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae). 

By JAMES A. G. REHN, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

(Plate XII) 

In 1875, Scudder described from the Peruvian Maranon a 
very peculiar katydid, which he called Coelophyllum simplex, 
new genus and species. 1 These names were not mentioned 
again until 1896, when Scudder 2 said: "Coelophyllum is a genus 
of Phaneropterinae, not recognized by Brunner in his mono- 
graph or in the supplement to it, and which seems to be most 
nearly allied to the Old World genera forming his group Holo- 
chlorae, though very different from either of the three genera 
recognized by him." Kirby, in 1906, placed 3 the genus in the 
vicinity of Phancroptcra, while Bruner, in 1915, in a key to the' 
American genera of the Phaneropterinae, 4 apparently follows 
Scudder's suggestion as to its position, as he gives as its diag- 
nostic feature a character which differentiates the Holochlorae 
and certain other Old World genera groups. This feature is : 
"Anterior tibiae on their inner margin with the auditory fora- 
mina shell-like or sublinear, externally typically wide open." 

We now have before us the unique female type of Scudder's 
genus and species, which we find to be generically inseparable 
from Brunner's Prosagoga, erected, three years later than 
Scudder's genus, on a species from Surinam. 5 The insect is 
a most peculiar one, with the tegminal shape and structure, 
form of the head and pronotum, folding of the wings and 
structure of the ovipositor quite distinctive. The foramina of 
the cephalic tibiae are open normal width caudad, while cepha- 
lad they are narrowly open, with a trace of a conchate develop- 
ment ventrad, but this is weakly indicated and the surface of 
the membrane is plainly visible, not fully covered over by the 
bulla as in forms typically conchate ("shell-like") or linear. 

1 Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XVII, p. 263. 

2 Ibid, XXVII, p. 210. 
3 Synon. Catal. Orth., II, p. 437. 
*Ann. Carneg. Mus., IX, p. 289. 

5 Monogr. der Phaneropt, pp. 29, 320, (1878). 


It is quite evident the genus is a modified member of the Amer- 
ican group Phyllopterae, and not an isolated American repre- 
sentative of the Old World Holochlorae assemblage. In addi- 
tion the exact form of the cephalic face of the tympanum of 
the cephalic tibiae is not a generic feature, as it varies in form 
within the genus, of which eight species are before us. 

We are elsewhere recording or describing, in studies of Bra- 
zilian Orthoptera, material of three of the species of the genus. 
Of the section of the genus represented by crenulatuni alone in 
llrunner's last key to the species of the genus, 6 we now have 
before us five species: crcmtlatum (Brunner), simplex Scud- 
der and three other new species. These forms all agree in the 
important features given in the key for crenulatuni, i. e. the 
ramus of the median vein of the tegmina diverging before the 
middle; in the anal vein (posterior ulnar of Brunner) being 
acute and crenulate in the male and obtuse in the female, there 
crenulate only at the base ; in the caudal femora being unarmed 
on the ventro-internal margin. 

The five forms may be differentiated from one another by 
the following features : 

A. Marginal field of the tegmina regularly narrowing in width distad, 
at distal fifth equal to decidedly less than one-half the greatest 
tegminal width: apex of tegmina rounded or suhrectangulate. 

B. Pronotum more robust, less compressed, the greatest caudal 
width of the disk contained one and one-third times in the 
greatest length of the same. Tegmina with the ramus of the 
median vein furcate at its middle ; free margin of the stridu- 
lating field of the male tegmina rectangulate produced at the 
apex of the stridulating vein ; base of the ulnar vein of the 
tegmina strikingly marked with black. 

amazonicum new species. 

BB. Pronotum less robust, more compressed, the greatest caudal 
width of the disk contained one and one-half times in the 
grt-aU'st length of the same. Tegmina with the ramus of the 
median vein furcate proximad of its middle; free margin of the 
stridulating field of the male tegmina obtuse-angulate produced 
at the apex of the stridulating vein; base of the ulnar vein of 
the tegmina not strongly marked with black. 

6 Verhandl. K.-K. Zool.-bot. Gesell. Wien, XLI, pp. 169-170, (1891). 


C. Costal margin of the tegmina arcuate distad; general 
form of the tegmina elongate elliptical. Eyes proportion- 
ately larger ; face more compresso-bullate. Limbs rela- 
tively longer. 

D. Size smaller ($ tegminal length 32-33 mm.). Teg- 
mina proportionately narrower, the greatest width con- 
tained more than two and one-half times in the great- 
est length of the same. Head proportionately narrower, 
fastigium of vertex more acute. 

crenulatum (Brunner). 

DD. Size larger (' $ tegminal length 39-40.5 mm.). Teg- 
mina proportionately broader, the greatest width con- 
tained not more than two and one-half times in the 
greatest length of the same. Head proportionately 
broad, fastigium of vertex less acute. 

costaricense new species. 

CC. Costal margin of the tegmina obtusely rounded at distal 
third; general form of the tegmina having the costal and 
sutural margins approximately parallel. Eyes proportion- 
ately smaller; face less bullate, hardly compressed. Limbs 

relatively shorter peruvianum new species. 

AA. Marginal field of the tegmina very wide, slightly expanding 
distad, at distal fifth equal to but faintly less than one-half the 
greatest tegminal width ; apex of the tegmina very obtuse-angulate. 
(Size largest of the species seen. Head strongly compressed; face 
greatly compresso-bullate.) simplex Scudder. 

Coelophyllum amazonicum new species. (PI. XII, fig. 1.) 

Of the members of this group of the genus, amazonicum is 
characterized by the combination of a broadly rounded teg- 
minal apex, a distad narrowing marginal field of the tegmina, 
a median bifurcation of the tegminal ulnar vein, a rectangulate 
production of the free margin at the apex of the stridulating 
vein of the male tegmina and the broad, but moderately com- 
pressed pronotum. The type has been dried after immersion in 
a liquid preservative and, in consequence, has lost almost all of 
its original coloration. The only features of this preserved are 
small semilunate spots of black situated at the base of the ulnar 
and anal veins of the tegmina. 

Type. $ ; Contamano, Rio Ucayali, Peru. October to De- 
cember, 1912. [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Type No. 5312.] 



Size small (for the genus); form moderately compressed; surface 
smooth, of tegmina shining, very closely, finely and deeply cribroso- 

Head with the interocular space slightly less than the greatest width 
of the eye; fastigium acute, depressed, sulcate, the apex well separated 
from the fastigium of the face; paired ocelli large; fastigium of the 
face distinctly acuminate; face considerably bullate, moderately com- 
pressed ; eyes ovate in basal outline, compressed, distinctly directed 
cephalad; antennae surpassing the apices of the tegmina. 

Pronotum with the greatest caudal width of the disk contained one 
and one-third times in the greatest length of the disk, the same mod- 
erately narrowing cephalad; cephalic margin of the disk very shal- 
lowly and broadly obtuse-angulate emarginate, caudal margin of the 
disk very broadly arcuate, faintly flattened mesad ; lateral margins of 
the disk rather broadly rounding into the lateral lobes : lateral lobes 
of the pronotum with the greatest depth slightly more than the great- 
est length ; cephalic margin of the lobes moderately arcuato-sinuate 
caudad of the eyes ; caudal margin regularly and considerably arcuate, 
the humeral sinus deep, rounded acute-angulate; ventral margin of 
the lobes with the cephalic section oblique truncate; ventro-cephalic 
angle rounded obtuse-angulate, ventro-caudal angle indistinguishable 
in the regular curve of the caudal section of the ventral and the 
caudal margins. 

Tegmina surpassing the apices of the caudal femora by considerably 
more than the length of the pronotal disk; greatest width of the teg- 
men contained about two and two-thirds times in the greatest length 
of the same; form of the tegmina elongate elliptical, slightly pro- 
longed proximad, the distal half more regular in form : costal margin 
briefly oblique sinuato-truncate proximad, thence rounding into the 
arcuato-truncate costal margin proper, which regularly rounds distad 
to the broadly rounded apex; sutural margin (aside from stridulating 
field) moderately arcuate: marginal field broad, narrowing distad, the 
greatest proximal width but little less than half the greatest width of 
the tegmen ; mediastine vein weak, bifurcate; discoidal vein in general 
straight, with regular oblique rami diverging toward the costal mar- 
gin; median vein with the ramus diverging briefly proximad of the 
middle, this bifurcate mesad; ulnar vein at the closest point separated 
from the humeral trunk by one-half the distance separating it from 
the sutural margin at the point of their greatest remoteness; cross- 
veins of the discoidal field regular (see figure) : stridulating field rela- 
tively short and very broad, the free margin produced into a rectangu- 
late process at the apex of the stridulating vein; distad of this the 
margin is sinuato-emarginate ; stridulating vein straight, quite thick, 
sulcate; base of ulnar vein very distinctly paucicrenulate, proximad of 


the crenulations is a detached rounded area. Wings very faintly sur- 
passing the apices of the tegmina. 

Disto-dorsal abdominal segment with its distal margin arcuate, mod- 
erately emarginate at the bases of the cerci ; supra-anal plate acute- 
trigonal, faintly sulcate; cerci in their greater portion tapering, gently 
curving dorsad, the apex rather sharply curved dorso-mesad, briefly 
mucronate ; subgenital plate produced, narrowing, distal margin U- 
emarginate, styles relatively short, articulate. 

Cephalic femora with two to three spines on the ventro-cephalic 
margin; median femora with three to four spines on the same mar- 
gin ; cephalic tibiae with slender distal portion faintly longer than the 
inflated proximal section. Caudal femora equal to one-half the teg- 
minal length, moderately tapering; ventro-external margin with fifteen 
to seventeen spines distributed over its whole length, ventro-internal 
margin with three to five spines on distal half. 

Natural coloration of specimen destroyed by liquid immersion except 
for the following features. Eyes mars brown. Semilunate spot en- 
circling the detached rounded knob at the base of the ulnar vein of the 
tegmina, black; stridulating vein prout's brown; distal section of the 
sutural margin of the tegmina bearing several well separated groups 
of dark points, such as are found more decided in certain other forms 
of this species group. 

Length of body, 19.5 mm.; length of pronotum, 5.5 mm.; greatest 
(caudal) width of pronotal disk, 4.3 mm.; length of tegmen, 28.5 mm.; 
greatest width of tegmen, 11.9 mm.; length of caudal femur, 15 mm. 

The type is unique. 

Coelophyllum crenulatum (Brunner). (PI. XII, fig. 2.) 

1801. Prosagoga crcnulata Brunner, Verhandl. K.-K. Zool.-botan. 
Gesell. Wien, XLJ, pp. 170, 171. [Pernambuco and Alto Amazonas, 
Brazil ; Guiana.] 

We have before us a single male of this species from Ca- 
paro, Trinidad (June, 1913; S. M. Klages), belonging to the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia. It can be readily differentiated from amasonicum by the 
characters given in the key, but from costariccnsc the distinc- 
tions are not as easy to appreciate. Under costariccnsc we 
have given the diagnostic features separating the two forms. 

Coelophyllum costaricense new species. (PI. XII, lig. ?..) 

This new species is quite close to C. crciiulatnm (Brunner), 
from which it differs in its larger size, proportionately broader 
tegmina, somewhat less compressed pronotum and broader 


head, with less acute facial fastigium and more robust limbs. 
The male subgenital plate is also broadly V-emarginate in- 
stead of rather deeply emarginate, as in crcnnlatuiu. 

Type. $ ; Cachi, Costa Rica. July 16, 1911. (C. H. Lan- 
kester.) [Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Type No. 5311.] 

Size moderately large; form compressed; surface smooth, of tegmina 
as in amazonicum. 

Head with the interspace between the eyes faintly greater than the 
greatest width of the eye; fastigium acute hut immediate apex round- 
ed, undulate depressed, moderately sulcate, apex well separated from 
the fastigium of the face; paired ocelli large; fastigium of the face 
relatively acute; face very considerably bullate, rather strongly com- 
pressed : eyes ovate in basal outline, moderately compressed, directed 
cephalacl ; antennae elongate. 

Pronotum moderately compressed (less so than in C. crenulatum), 
the disk narrowing cephalad with its greatest caudal width contained 
one and two-fifth times in the greatest length of the same; cephalic 
margin of the disk faintly sinuato-emarginate, caudal margin of the 
disk strongly arcuate, with a faint median emargination, lateral mar- 
gins of the disk distinct and continuous, but broadly rounded : lateral 
lobes of the pronotum with their greatest depth faintly greater than 
their greatest length ; cephalic margin of the lobes sinuate, ventro- 
cephalic angle rounded obtuse-angulate, ventral margin strongly arcu- 
ate, faintly flattened cephalad, caudad rounding regularly into the 
arcuate caudal margin, which is faintly flattened mesad, humeral sinus 
subacute, deep, with the angle narrowly rounded. 

Tegmina surpassing the apices of the caudal femora by twice the 
length of the pronotal disk ; greatest width of the tegmen contained 
two and one-half times in the greatest length of the same; form of 
the tegmina elongate-elliptical, slightly prolonged proximad ; costal 
margin as in amazonicum, but the distal fourth is oblique arcuato- 
truncate to the rounded rectangulate apex ; sutural margin as in ama- 
zoniciiin : marginal field broad, regularly and very considerably nar- 
rowing distad, the greatest proximal width but little less than half 
the greatest width of the tegmen; mediastine vein subobsolete, irreg- 
ular, bifurcate; discoidal vein faintly flexuous, with rami toward the 
costal margin somewhat irregubr in position, furcation and trend; 
median vein with the ramus diverging decidedly proximad of the 
middle, this bifurcate shortly before its middle; ulnar vein at the 
closest point separated from the humeral trunk by not more than one- 
third the distance separating it from the sutural margin at the point 
of greatest remoteness; cross-veins of the discoidal field much sug- 
gesting tluiM- <if C. <niKt:-jtriciun. but frxviT (see figure) : stridulating 
field relatively narrow, of medium length, the free margin rounded 


obtuse-angulate at the apex of the stridulating vein, distad of this the 
margin is sinuate; stridulating vein much as in amasonicum; base of 
ulnar vein quite weakly but rather closely crenulate, proximal section 
less decidedly than in amazonicum. Wings very faintly surpassing 
the apices of the tegmina. 

Disto-dorsal abdominal segment with free margin much as in ama- 
zonicum, but median emargination less extensive; supra-anal plate?; 
cerci of the type found in amazonicum, but more incrassate proximad 
and more slender distad ; subgenital plate moderately produced, mod- 
erately narrowing, distal margin broadly V-emarginate, styles short, 

Cephalic femora with three spines on the ventro-cephalic margin ; 
median femora with two to three spines on the same margin ; cephalic 
tibiae with slender distal portion slightly longer than the inflated prox- 
imal section. Caudal femora less than one-half the tegminal length, 
moderately robust proximad, considerably tapering distad; ventro- 
external margin with twelve to thirteen spines distributed over its 
whole length, ventro-internal margin unarmed. 

General coloration of tegmina yellowish oil-green, of the abdomen 
citron-yellow, of the head and pronotum pale old gold (type) or the 
tegminal color (paratype). Head with the face whitish, a distinct nar- 
row postocular line bone brown ; eyes mottled russet and mummy 
brown; antennae with the proximal and second joint of the color of 
the face, remaining joints sudan brown, imperfectly multiannulate with 
threads of argus brown. Pronotum with the caudal section of the 
disk and lobes washed with greenish; vicinity of the humeral sinus 
and the median emargination of the caudal margin touched with 
mummy brown. Tegmina with (type) or without (paratype) three 
areas of pseudo-desiccation, of a prout's brown tone, these occasionally 
outlined in fuscous, and one situated near the base of the ulnar vein, 
another at the base of the median ramus and divided by the ulnar vein, 
and the third and largest at the bifurcation of the median ramus; in 
place of these areas the tegmina (paratype) may have numerous scat- 
tered fine points of fuscous ; distal section of costal margin, and to a 
lesser degree of the sutural margin, beaded with mummy brown ; 
bounding section of the stridulating field and stridulating vein marked 
with mummy brown. Limbs ranging from old gold to dull ochraceous- 
buff, the tibiae and distal extremity of the femora thickly speckled 
with fine points of fuscous, which are almost entirely absent from 
the ventral and lateral faces of the caudal tibiae. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 


Cachi, Costa Rica of 

Type 26 

Paratype 22.2 

of pro- 

Greatest (cau- 
dal) width of 
pronotal disk 


width of 

Length of 








In addition to the type we have before us, from the Academy 
collection, a paratypic male from Cachi, Costa Rica, taken by 
Mr. Lankester in January, 1914. This specimen shows no 
really noteworthy differences from the type except in color, 
which is mentioned in the above description. 

Coelophyllum peruvianum new species. (PI. XII, fig. 4.) 

Closely allied to C. crenulatum and costaricense, but more 
particularly to costaricense, from which it differs chiefly in the 
distinct and relatively .abrupt obtuse-angulation at the distal 
third of the costal margin of the tegmina, in the more sub- 
parallel major portions of the costal and sutural margins of the 
same, in the smaller eye, in the less bullate and more weakly 
compressed face, and in the shorter limbs. The tegminal form 
is fully diagnostic of this species. 

Type. $ ; Chanchamayo, Peru. [Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
Type No. 5310.] 

Size moderately large; form compressed; surface smooth, of the 
tegmina as in amasonicum and costaricense. 

Head with the interspace between the eyes subequal to the greatest 
width of the eye ; fastigium acute, immediate apex narrowly rounded, 
undulate depressed, deeply but narrowly sulcate, apex well separated 
from the fastigium of the face; paired ocelli large; fastigium of face 
relatively acute ; face moderately bullate, appreciably but not greatly 
compressed: eyes broad ovate in basal outline, moderately compressed, 
directed cephalad ; antennae elongate. 

Pronotum moderately compressed, the disk as in C. costaricense; 
lateral lobes as in costaricense, but the humeral sinus is shallower 
and more rectangulate, with the angle more broadly rounded. 

Tegmina as in costaricense. except for the following differences : 
Narrower, the greatest width contained faintly more than two and 
one-half times in the greatest length of the same; costal and sutural 
margins in large part subparallel ; costal margin with the distal third 
quite sharply oblique truncate to the apex, which is narrowly rounded 
rectangulate ; sutural margin straighter than in costaricense : stridu- 
lating field relatively shorter and broader than in costaricense, the free 
margin more arcuate distad of the stridulating vein. Wings very 
faintly surpassing the apices of the tegmina. 

Disto-dorsal abdominal segment as in costaricense: cerci of the usual 
type but more slender than in costaricense, less incrassate proximad 
and tapering more regularly: subgenita! plate of the type usual in the 
genus, the distal margin U-emarginate. 


Limbs shorter and faintly more slender than in C. costaricense. 
Cephalic femora spined as in costaricense; median femora with three 
spines on the ventro-cephalic margin; cephalic tibiae much as in costa- 
ricense. Caudal femora considerably less than one-half as long as the 
tegmina, slightly less robust than in costaricense ; ventro-external 
margin with nine to eleven spines distributed irregularly over their 
whole length, ventro-internal margin unspined. 

General color of tegmina oil green, the body and (occasionally) the 
proximal portion of the tegmina sulphine yellow (type) to dull light 
cadmium yellow (paratype). Eyes auburn to chestnut brown; a fine 
postocular line of bay more (type) or less (paratype) distinctly indi- 
cated on the head. Pronotum occasionally (type) washed with green- 
ish caudad. Tegmina with three groups of discoidal maculations ; the 
first, which is at the proximal third, is composed of two mummy- 
brown points, either or both of which may be ocelli form with a buffy 
centre, one placed at the sutural side of the principal furcation of the 
median vein, the other on the same side of the ulnar vein; median 
group, placed slightly distad of the middle, having a weak buffy base 
and three closely placed spots (the third sutural is occasionally 
subobsolete), which may be ocelliform; the third group placed along 
the distal fork of the principal ramus of the median vein, at the distal 
fourth, consisting of a buff line along the vein and on which may or 
may not be placed two or three mummy-brown points; distal half of 
costal margin mummy brown, regularly and sparsely beaded with warm 
buff, which also occasionally colors the tegminal tips; distal section of 
the sutural margin weakly marked in similar fashion ; sutural field 
washed along the principal veins with mummy brown, this tone strong 
near the ulnar base. Limbs of the general body color, the tibiae and 
femora marked as in costaricense, more weakly in the paratype than 
in the type. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 

Length Length Greatest (cau- Length Greatest Length of 

Chanchamayo, Peru of of pro- dal) width of of width of caudal 

body notum pronotum legmen legmen femur 

<f Tyfte 21.4 6.8 4.8 37.2 14 15.4 

<f Paralype 20.3 6.6 4.9 37.8 14.3 15.1 

In addition to the type a paratypic male from Chanchamayo, 
also in the Academy collection, is now before ns. This speci- 
men shows no important differences from the type, except 
for the color features mentioned above. 

Coelophyllum simplex Scudder. (PI. XII, figs. 5 and 6.) 

1875. Coelophyllum simplex Scudder, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XVII, p. 263. [Peruvian Marafion.] 

The unique type of this species, as stated by Scudder, has, 


Plate XII. 





5, 6. C. SIMPLEX. 


by immersion in some liquid preservative, lost all of its original 
coloration, excepting the dark distal section of the ovipositor. 
The species is the largest member of this group and probably 
of the genus. This statement, however, may require modifica- 
tion when both sexes of all the described species are known. 

The extensive character of the marginal field of the teg- 
mina and the form of the tegminal apices are quite character- 
istic of this species, while the compression of the head and the 
bull.ition of the face are marked to an exceptional degree. 

Type measurements: length of body (exclusive of oviposi- 
tor), 25.3 mm. ; length of pronotum, 8.2 mm. ; greatest (caudal) 
width of pronotum, 6.4 mm. ; length of tegmen, 42.8 mm. ; 
greatest width of tegmen, 19 mm. ; length of caudal femur, 
18.2 mm. ; length of ovipositor, 6.5 mm. 

The ovipositor structure of this individual, the only female 
of this species group known to us, is so striking it seems de- 
sirable to figure it. To what degree the other forms of the 
group exhibit a similar imbricated structure of the ovipositor 
surface remains to be determined. 

Outline of tegmen (lateral aspect), (x i^.) 

Fig. i. Coelophyllum amazonicum new species. $ Type. Conta- 
mano, Peru. 

Fig. 2. Coelophyllum creniilatum (Brunner). $. Caparo, Trinidad. 
Fig. 3. Coelophyllum costariccnse new species. $ Type. Cachi, 
Costa Rica. 

Fig. 4. Coelophyllum perui'ianum new species. $ Type. Chancha- 
mayo, Peru. 

Fig. 5. Coelophyllum simplex Scudder. 9 Type. Peruvian Ma- 

Outline of ovipositor (lateral aspect). -(x4_) 

Fig. 6. Coelophyllum simplex Scudder. $ Type. Peruvian Ma- 

Influence of Rainfall on Abundance of a Moth (Lep.). 

Results of several years' observations in Louisiana, Cuba, Jamaica, 
Trinidad and Barbados and careful status examination for two years 
in Porto Rico show that the abundance of the Sugar-Cane Moth Stalk 
Borer (Diatraea saccharalis) varies inversely with the rainfall. G. N 
WOLCOTT, University of Illinois. 


Mating Habit of the Cottony Cushion Scale (Hem., 


By G. O. SHINJL, Berkeley, California. 

While studying the life history of the cottony cushion scale 
{I eery a purchasi) for a certain experimental purpose, our at- 
tention was called to a peculiar process of mating exhibited by 
this insect. So far as our knowledge goes the mode of mating 
in the cottony cushion scale has never been described. It is, 
therefore, thought that the present paper may not be out of 

The adult male, soon after the last molting, folds his 
wings flat on his back and remains inactive for a period of 
about three days. Then, either early in the morning, or, more 
generally, on a warm, dusky evening, he crawls on a nearby 
twig to search for his mate. As soon as he finds a mature and 
yet virgin female, he crawls on her back, pats her abdomen 
with the tip of his genital prominence two or three times, and 
then slowly and gently slips alongside of his mate, but never 
across her head. Then he proceeds directly toward the upper 
end of the twig or the branch, as the case may be. At the end 
of the twig he turns around and comes back to the female 
again. If at this time the bride he engaged signifies her ac- 
ceptance by elevating her abdomen from the surface of the 
twig, a copulation takes place ; if not, he repeats the same 
process several times. In three instances we have observed 
the male, after the second approach to the female, which has 
not yet responded, try successfully to dislodge her abdomen 
from the twig by the use of his front pair of legs. However 
stubborn females seemed to be at first, they yielded to his 
wishes in the long run, and a copulation resulted. 

Altogether, 'in thirty-two copulations observed so far, the 
process was practically the same ; he curls his abdomen up and 
around the posterior end of the female until the penis is in- 
serted into the genital aperture of the female. This process is 
made possible by his holding himself on the fringe of the fe- 
male by the hind legs, and also by the support of the wings, 
which are placed firmly against the twig. No movement of 


antennae or of the wings was observed. While they are in 
copula his antennae are dropped freely downward, making a 
right angle with the long axis of the body. The first two pairs 
of legs are, on the contrary, stretched upward, making also 
a right angle with the line of the body. The hind legs, as al- 
ready mentioned, hold the posterior portion of the female's ab- 
domen, while the wings are held in such a manner as to em- 
brace the twig between their distal ends. 

One of the characteristic features observed in the copula- 
tion of the cottony cushion scale is, then, the right-angularity 
presented in the relative position of the male and female, and 
also of several parts of the male. Both the antenna and the 
legs of the male are each perpendicular to the body and the 
body itself (of the male) is, in turn, at a right angle with that 
of the female. In this respect the manner of copulation in 
Iccrya purchasl differs from what has been observed in other 
animals. Mr. Putnam, 1 who observed the process in the cot- 
tony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis Rathv., states: "the 
male mounts the back of the female with his head in the same 
direction with the female's and vibrating his antennae rapidly." 
Mr. Turner 2 observed a similar manner in one of the parasitic 
bees (Stelidae). Among other animals. Amphibia, for exam- 
ple, agree in the main with the type of copulation mentioned 
by Turner. My personal observations on Sinea diadcina, Zclus 
socius, most of the Aphids, Murgantia histrionica, certain Cap- 
sids, Meloe, Hippodaniia convergent, Diabrotica soror and 
Mitsca dotnestica among insects, and also on other inverte- 
brate, as well as vertebrate, animals, all agree with the type of 
copulation exhibited by the cottony maple scale, i. e., the male 
mounts the back of the female with his head in the direction of 
the female's. Certain Lepidopterous insects, the silk-worm 
moth, for example, are often observed in copula with the head 
of the male turned exactly in the opposite direction from that 

Putnam, J. Duncan. Biological and other notes on Coccidae. I. 
Pulvinaria innumerabilis. Proc. Davenport Acad. of Nat. Sci., vol. 
TI. Dec., 1879. 

2 Turner, C. Tl. Notes on the behavior of a parasitic bee of the fam- 
ily Stelidae. The Journal of Animal Behavior, vol. I, No. 5. 1911, 


of the female. But even in this case the body of the male and 
that of the female are in the same line. In other words, in the 
process of mating in all the animals above mentioned, except 
that which I found so far in a single species of scale insect, the 
bodies of male and female are arranged either in the same or 
in opposite directions, with of course, slight modifications, as 
against the exact perpendicularity observed in the case of the 
cottony cushion scale. 

The relative time spent in the courting, if we may term 
the behavior of the male visiting the female prior to the mat- 
ing as such, and the actual time spent in copula are as follows : 

Male No. i emerged Feb. 3, 10.30 A. M.; died Feb. 10, 10.25 A. M. 
Mating I, February 7 : 

Located female 3.00 P.M. In copula 3.06-3.13 

Left her 3.045/2 Turned body 3.13 

Returned 3.06 Left her 3.14 

Male No. 2 emerged Feb. 8, 10.00 A. M.; died Feb. 16, 9.10 A. M. 
Mating I, February 13: II, February 13: 

Courting 4.20-4.30 P.M. Courting 5.25-5.32 P.M. 

In copula 4.32-4.40 In copula 5.32-5.42 

Male No. 3 emerged Feb. 8, 9.45 A. M. ; died Feb. 16, 9.12 A. M. 

Mating I, February 13: In copula 4.40-4.48 P.M. 

Male No. 4 emerged Feb. 12; died Feb. 19. 

Mating, February 15 : Courting 4.25-4.36 P.M. 

In copula 4.36-4.44 

Male No. 5 emerged Feb. 12 (?); died Feb. 19. 
Mating I, February 15: II, February 15. 

Courting 4.40-4.48 P.M. Courting 5.30-5.45 P.M. 

In copula 4.48-4.57 In copula 5-55-6.O7 

Struggled to leave, 4.58-5.08 

Left her 5.15 

Male No. 6. 

Mating I, March 2 : Courting 4-25-4-43 P.M. 

In copula 5.55-6.07 

Male No. 7 emerged March 3, 10.00 A. M. ; died March 10. 
Mating I, March 6 : 

In copula .3.40-3.48 P.M. V. Courting 7-55-8.O5 P.M. 

II. In copula .4.35-4.48 In copula 8.05-8.13 

III. In copula .5.45-5.55 VI, March 7: 

IV. Courting ..6.55-7.05 Courting 7.20-7.36 A.M. 

In copula .7.05-7.13 In copula 7-36-7-45 


Male No. 8. 

Mating I, March 10: Courting 3-35-347 P.M. 

In copula 3-47-3-55 

Male No. 9. 
Mating I, March 10 : 

In copula ..3.50-3.57 P.M. III. In copula 540-5.50 P.M. 

II. Courting ..4.47-5.01 
In copula ..5.01-5.10 
Male No. 10 emerged March 8. 

Mating I, March n : Courting 2.33-2.44 P.M. 

In copula 2.47-2.54 

It is interesting to note from the above figures that there 
exists a certain periodicity in the process of mating. There 
occurred in almost all cases one copulation in an hour, no more 
and no less. This definiteness in time 'is also observable in the 
courting and in the copulation, the average time spent being 
about ten and seven minutes, respectively. The same table also 
shows the fact that the males do mate with more than one fe- 
male, to as many as six. 

Another very interesting fact observed in this connection is 
that which pertains to the function of the wings and balancers 
of the male. Since, as Mr. Gossard 3 stated, the male rarely 
takes to flight, the wings of this male scale insect are of more 
use as the support for the body during the process of copula- 
tion. In this explanation we see the significance of the pres- 
ence of a highly modified pair of balancers. The balancers of 
this insect end each with a booklet, with which they hold on 
the wings and strengthen the latter. 

If the wings are useful for flight only this elaborate process 
on the balancers may not be necessary. Dipterous insects pos- 
sess, as we know, a pair of balancers, but with no booklet. 
They nevertheless fly as easily as other insects do. The bal- 
ancers of the cottony maple scale again are lacking in these 
booklets. Reasoning thus, I am inclined to believe that the bal- 
ancers of the cottony cushion scales, whatever their original 
function might have been, have been so modified as to strength- 
en the wings during the process of copulation. 

3 C,ossard, H. A. The Cottony Cushion Scale. Florida Agri. Exp. 
St. Bull. No. 56, May, 1901. 


Notes on some Buprestidae of Northern Califor- 
nia (Col.). 

By W. J. CHAMBERLIN, Forest Entomologist, Oregon State Col- 
lege, Corvallis, Oregon. 

(Continued from page 139) 

44. Polycesta californica Lee. 

Found throughout the oak region of California, though 
never common. It has been taken from dead black oak 
(Quercus kelloggii) in Trinity County, Yosemite Valley and 
Mariposa County ; also taken from Quercus douglasii. 

45. Chrysophana placida Lee. 

Found throughoiit the coniferous area of northern Califor- 
nia and the Sierras, also* well distributed over western Oregon, 
and no doubt extends into Washington, since the writer has 
taken it 35 miles south of the Columbia River. Dr. Van Dyke 
has one specimen bred from the cones of P. ponderosa. Mr. 
Miller, of the Ashland Station, has bred it from the cones of 
Pinus attciv.iaia. Its common host plant is Douglas fir, but it 
also breeds in the upper part of small lodge pole, yellow and 
knob-cone pine, and in the edges of fire scars of Abies concolor 
and A. magnified. 

There are three phases : a striped phase, which is the more 
common, and is often taken in open fields on flowers in south- 
ern Oregon ; an all-green variety, which occurs at higher ele- 
vations of the middle and southern Sierras, and which the 
writer has taken at Corvallis, Oregon ; the third variety is un- 
striped, of a dark bronze or black color, and very scarce. 

Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, of the University of California, has 
very kindly furnished me with his own notes on the hosts, etc., 
of species he has taken in the northern part of the State. I 
wish, particularly, to express my indebtedness to Dr. Van 
Dyke for his notes on the genus Acmaeodera; practically all 
the information on that genus is due to his observations, since 
I have personally come in contact with but two species, A. 
vandykei and A. 

46. Acmaeodera angelica Fall. 

"Generally to be found flying about brush or in the flowers 


of Yerba Santa, Erydectylon. Very common in the Sierra 
Madre range of southern California, but also extends north- 
ward. I have specimens from the following more northern lo- 
calities : Mariposa County, Lake County and Lake Tahoe." 

47. A. hepburnii Lee. 

Very common in most parts of California. Generally to 
be taken in flowers, such as certain compositae like Bacrla and 
in the flowers of the evening primrose. 

48. A. acuta Lee. 

Perhaps even more common than the preceding and found in 
similar places, also as widely distributed. There are two 
phases, the common one, where the markings are broken up, 
and the other, where definite stripes are formed. 

49. A. connexa Lee. 

"Probably the most common species which we have in the 
State and widely distributed. Usually found in flowers like 
the two preceding. I have also dug it out of its pupal cham- 
bers from the dead branches of oak, Qnercus wlsUsenii, in 
Marin County, California." 

50. A. labyrinthica Fall. 

"This is generally a species of southern California. I, how- 
ever, have specimens from Castella, July, 1912, and from Tuo- 
lumne County." 

51. A. plagiaticauda Horn. 

Found throughout the Sierras, but rare. One specimen has 
been seen from Siskiyou County, California, and another from 
Lake Tahoe. Breeds in manzanita. 

52. A. variegata Lee. 

This Rocky Mountain and Great Basin species courses into 
California through the gaps in the mountains north of Mt. 
Shasta. "I have beaten specimens from the branches of dead 
yellow pine at Carrville, Trinity County, California, during 
June, 1913. I believe that it breeds in yellow pine." 

.".:;. A. vandykei I ; all. 

"Found throughout the northern and middle Sierras. It 
breeds in Ccanothus. I have specimens from McCloud, July, 


1914; Sissons, July 5, 1900 (type material); Shasta County 
and Mariposa County." This species occurs in southern Ore- 

54. A. mariposa Horn. 

"A species of the middle and southern Sierras. I, however, 
have specimens from Sonoma County and Lake Tahoe and it 
no doubt extends farther north." 

55. A. dolorosa Fall. 

"A southern species. I have specimens from Lake and 
Mariposa Counties, and it probably extends much farther 

5G. A. hornii Fall. 

"Of this Arizona species I have seen what I consider typi- 
cal specimens from near Placerville, El Dorado County, July, 
1906 as well as from Mt. San Jacinto, in southern Cali- 
fornia. I have also seen a phase in which the marginal patch 
of yellow is broken up into large blotches (otherwise not dif- 
ferent) from near Placerville, Siskiyou County, and from Tuo- 
lumne County." 

57. A. gemina Horn. 

"This species is widely distributed in the State, though no- 
where common. It is generally to be found resting on twigs 
or in flowers, such as those of the wild buckwheat, Eriogomtin. 
I have specimens from Mariposa and El Dorado Counties, and 
have seen them from much farther to the north. There are 
two fairly distinct phases, the var. nebiilosa Horn, in which 
the markings are much broken up, and the typical form, in 
which the markings are of a lineate type. These phases, how- 
ever, mate indiscriminately and may be found in the same 

58. Agrilus politus Say. 

Abundant throughout the West. Chiefly found on willow 
in which it breeds, but also on live oak, the fine twigs of which 
it often prunes, the larvae girdling the twig within the bark. 
There is a blue phase (perhaps a distinct species), which 
seems to be confined to the alder. 


5<J. A. vittaticollis Rand. 

"One specimen taken by F. W. Nunenmacher in Josephine 
County, Oregon, May 8, 1910, and two by myself at Carrville, 
Trinity County, California, July i, 1913, on willow." Dr. Van 

fiO. A. walsinghami Cr. 

Type locality, Yreka, California. Others have been taken 
in same region ; also in Inyo County, California. It breeds in 
one of the desert shrubs. 

01. A. nevadensis Horn. 

Western Nevada type locality. There are in the Van Dyke 
collection specimens from the Yosemite Valley taken on pop- 
lar. It may possibly extend farther north. 

Notes on some recent studies of Dragonfly Wing 
Tracheation (Odon.). 

By J. G. NEEDHAM, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

It was a fortunate day for the progress of our knowledge 
of the Odonata when R. J. Tillyard began his observations on 
the dragonflies of Australia. Previously many interesting spe- 
cies had been described from that country, but they were all 
known merely as museum specimens and known only from 
bare systematic descriptions drawn mainly by writers in other 
lands. It is fortunate when the fauna of any land is studied 
on its own soil ; but in the case of Australia it is especially for- 
tunate because of the large number of archaic types there oc- 
curring, concerning which a more intimate knowledge has long 
been desirable. 

Such knowledge has been furnished by Tillyard in a large 
measure; knowledge of life-histories and of habits, of ecology 
and distribution, of structure and development ; and it is being 
published in a series of fruitful papers of so great value that 
every Odonatologist must wish that the series may long con- 


Two of these papers 1 deal with wing tracheation, and, like 
the others, are based on a large first-hand accumulation of 
facts. Especially valuable is the contribution to the knowl- 
edge of the development of the Cordulinae, a subfamily that 
is represented in Australia by many remarkable forms. But 
all the groups of the available fauna have been extensively 
drawn upon. 

Tilly ard's studies of tracheation extend and entirely cor- 
roborate my own 2 in so far as facts are concerned ; but he of- 
fers a different interpretation of two matters: (i) the anal 
veins of the Anisoptera; (2) the radial sector of the Zygop- 
tera. I desire to restate my views concerning these in the 
light of the new evidence and arguments he has produced. 

Tillyard's interpretation of the anal region of the Anisop- 
teran wing differs but little from my own. He found, as I 
did earlier, that the anal trachea is closely approximated to 
the cubital for a distance and then descends through an ap- 
parent cross vein ; then bends again sharply outward and fol- 
lows thereafter the direct course of the anal vein. He pro- 
poses to call the apparent cross vein the "anal crossing," and 
this I consider an excellent descriptive term and better than 
"basal cubito-anal cross vein," whether it were originally a 
cross vein or not ; in one instance at least he has shown it is 
not the most basal of the series of cubital-anal cross veins. 
Tillyard would call the vein that forms about the conjoined 
portion of the cubital and anal tracheae Cu+A ; and I see no 
serious objection to this, especially since he then disposes of 
the vein hitherto known as the anal by a device so little incon- 
venient as merely labeling it A" 3 It was not merely the thought 

Tillyard, R. ]. On some problems concerning the development of 
the wing venation of Oclonata. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 39: 163- 
216, 3 plates, 1914. 

Tillyard, R. ]. On the development of the wing venation in Zygop- 
terous dragonflies with special reference to the Calopterygidae, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 40: 212-230, 6 text figures, 3 plates, 1915. 

2 Needham, J. G. A genealogic study of dragonfly wing venation. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 26: 703-764, 14 plates, 44 text figures, 1903. 

3 In his studies of tracheation of the Chrysopidae (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 
S. Wales 41 : 221-248, 1916), Tillyard also uses this simple device most 
opportunely to obviate a cumbersome terminology when apparently 
simple and direct veins are variously compounded. The condition there 
pointed out was previously noted by McClendon (Ent. News 17: 120, 


of an encumbered terminology, however, but a doubt as to 
real homologies of the vein that kept me from doing something 
like this earlier. I found that the anal trachea originates in 
the position of the straight adult vein, and only later in de- 
velopment moves up against the cubital, becoming twice angu- 
lated. I found the extreme base of the wing saclike and open, 
its membranes tardily fusing to delimit the vein cavities ; and 
it was easy to 'conceive that a small marginal trachea, like the 
anal, occupying a constricted place at the base of the wing 
might have slipped over where there was obviously more room ; 
and there was and is much doubt in my mind as to whether 
the vein ever went along with the trachea. This doubt was not 
resolved by reading Tillyard's paper, for he brings in no new 
evidence whatever, and I have not his confidence in the con- 
stancy of the tracheae. However, Professor Comstock, on 
reading his paper, set about it and found some new evidence. 
He reasoned that if the base of the so-called anal vein be a 
secondary development, some fossil form, if primitive enough, 
might show its absence. At once he found a single figure of a 
fossil Acschna liassina of Brodie, which shows this condition. 
At least the drawing as offered by Brodie 4 and copied by Hand- 
lirsch 5 shows it. In other parts of the wing, however, this 
drawing shows obvious inaccuracies. Wherefore, I desired to 
have the facts confirmed ; so I wrote Mr. Herbert Campion to 
request a re-examination of the specimen. He wrote at once 
that he though it was in the Warwick Museum, but on the 
I3th of May, 1916, he wrote again that it could not be found. 
Assuming the correctness of this detail of the figure, the best 
evidence now available seems, therefore, to be in favor of 
Tillyard's interpretation. 

Tillyard's interpretation of the radial sector of the Zygop- 
tcra differs utterly and irreconcilably from my own. He 
found, as I did earlier, that the trachea corresponding to the 
radial sector is not attached to the radial trachea in any of the 
Zygoptera, but appears as an added branch of the median tra- 

4 Brodie. Fossil Insects of the secondary rocks of England, PI. 10, 
Fig. 4. 

"Handlirsch. Die fossile Insecten, PI. 42, Fig. i. 

172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., ' ' l"J 

chea. If this trachea be conceived as a new development from 
the median stern, I see no particular objection to labeling it 
Ms; it it be the old original branch from radius that has found 
a new basal attachment it should still be labeled Rs ; but the 
vein which follows it I cannot believe to be other than Rs of 
Arisopteran wings. As to the adult vein, I entirely agree with 
Mr. Campion in the opinion expressed in his letter of March 
i8th last when he said: "That the Zygoptera do not possess 
Rs at all i,s a rather startling proposition and hardly one which 
can be accepted offhand. In Zygopteran and Anisopteran 
wings alike we find six longitudinal veins to be all located be- 
tween R and M. These veins occupy exactly similar positions 
in the two kinds of wings, and I find it exceedingly difficult to 
believe that they are to be interpreted in one way in the Zygop- 
tera and in another way in the Anisoptera." 

Tillyard demands ontogenetic evidence ; and yet, singularly 
enough, in support of his "unbranched radius theory" he of- 
fers just the evidence I lacked to give me the greatest assur- 
ance in the other interpretation. This evidence is not from 
tracheae, however, but from cuticularization of the nymphal 
wing a sort of evidence which he himself stresses heavily in 
support of his theory concerning the development of the anal 
area of the wing. This cuticularization (anticipatory vena- 
tion) of the nymphal wing he shows in his text Fig. 5 (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 40; 227). This shows an actual cross- 
ing, for which Dr. Ris' statement that it is "preparatory to the 
development of the imaginal venation" is no explanation what- 
ever. There is nothing like it in insect wings, except in ob- 
lique veins where tracheae either are present or have been 
present in earlier stages of development. This crossing fol- 
lows exactly the course taken by the trachea Rs in the more 
generalized Anisoptera and is probably the channel which that 
trachea once occupied. It is for me a most satisfactory con- 
firmation of the identity of the vein Rs of the two suborders 
of Odonata. 

Such differences of interpretation grow out of different 


ideas as to how the tracheation should be used as an aid to 
determining the homologies of veins. The tracheation of a 
nymphal insect wing is never identical with the venation of the 
adult wing. It may correspond closely ; it may entirely di- 
verge. Tracheation affords complete confirmation of vein 
homologies in some of the lower orders, such as Plecoptera and 
Corrodentia ; it is worthless for such use in other orders, such 
as Trichoptera and Diptera. It is an aid in most orders, but 
needs to be used with discretion and with a regard to its limi- 
tations. The interpretation of vein homologies by the study 
of the antecedent tracheae is a method which, like most other 
methods that we use in zoology, is of value only for what it 
shows. It is not all-sufficient. Let any one who is inclined to 
trust to tracheation too far read Miss Morgan's study of May- 
fly tracheation 6 and learn caution. 

The Odonata are not alone in furnishing examples of the 
replacement of one principal tracheal branch by another, in- 
dependent of adult venation. In explanation of its occurrence 
in the Zygoptera in my paper of I9O3 2 (p. 713), I cite the par- 
allel well known case of the attachment of trachea Mi to the 
radius in I'icris, a shift of tracheae which has never led Lepi- 
dopterists to change the designation of the adult vein. Indeed 
Tillyard himself is not consistent; for in the second of the 
two papers here under consideration he labels and discusses 
as branches of A, certain tracheae that spring from the cubital 
stem! If branches of the anal trachea may be shifted with- 
out disturbance of the adult vein, why may not those of the 
radial ? 

Fortunately, sufficient comparative study will enable one to 
learn when such shiftings have occurred, so that even in spe- 
cialized groups the testimony of the tracheae is not wholly in- 
validated. But if we proceed to change the designation of 
adult veins without first learning this we shall create for our- 
selves intolerable 'and unnecessary confusion. 

"Morgan, A. H. Homologies of the wing veins of mayflies. Ann. 
Entom. Soc. Amer. 5 : 89-106, 6 text figures, 5 plates, 1912. 


The Egg Laying Habits of a Back-swimmer (Hem.)t 

Buenoa margaritacea Bueno, and other biological notes con- 
cerning it. 

By H. B. HUNGERFORD, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

(Plate XIII) 

After having read in the text-books on entomology that the 
eggs of back-swimmers are inserted in the stems of aquatic 
plants, it was a matter of some surprise to the writer when 
he was informed that such was not the case with those ob- 
served in America. In looking up the literature he very short- 
ly discovered that the basis for the statement found in our 
texts was the fact that Notonecta glauca, common in France, 
was said by Regimbart (1874) to place its eggs in the "twigs 
and petioles of plants." In a paper entitled "Observations sur 
la Ponte du Dytiscus marginalis et de Quelques Autres In- 
sectes Aquatiques," among the other aquatic insects he de- 
scribes briefly the egg-laying habits of N. glauca and presents 
a figure of a stem containing the egg in situ, the cephalic end 
protruding from the stem. 

This article, though not the first to mention the method of 
oviposition of Notonecta glauca, has been widely quoted. An 
examination of the earlier literature will disclose the fact that 
the species N. glauca must also sometimes glue its eggs to the 
stems of water plants. The diversity of statements regarding 
the habits in question is best shown by a review of the Bibli- 
ography at end of this paper, wherein are added quotations 
from some of the various texts from Roesel (1746) to the 
present time. 

In 1896 Kirkaldy exhibited the ova of Notonecta glanca var. 
urcata before the Entomological Society of London and, after 
quoting Regimbart, made the following remarks : "The speci- 
mens before you, owing probably to the absence of rushes 
(Juncus) in the vessel, although Anacharis, which one would 
have fhought suitable, was in abundance, are entirely external, 
affixed basally to the stalk by a glutinous substance, as in the 
allied Corixidae. That this basal fixation is not usual is evi- 
dent from the fact that the ova are but feebly adherent, drop- 


ping off upon a slight disturbance, whereas the ova of the 
Corixidae are attached exceedingly firmly." 

In 1902 Mr. J. R. de la Torre Bueno called attention to the 
fact that N. nndiilata female does not make a slit in the epi- 
dermis of the leaf or stem, but merely glues the eggs along 
the sides in a rather irregular fashion on the surface. In his 
paper on "The Genus Notonecta in America, North of Mex- 
ica, 1905," he states that out of some 1300 or 1400 ova of 
four or five species observed, in all but one instance* were 
the eggs attached to submerged plants or twigs. 

Christine Essenberg (1915), in her studies on the habits 
and natural history of the back-swimmers, reports that the 
four species with which she worked at Berkeley, California, 
namely, Notonecta undnlata var. charon, N. insulata, Kirby, 
N. indica and an undescribed species, all attach their eggs 
to the stems of plants, as noted by Mr. Torre Bueno, and even 
to the backs of other insects, such as dragon fly nymphs. It 
would seem probable then that in the case of all of our Ameri- 
can species of this genus, the eggs as a rule are attached to the 
surface of their support. 

Thus a diversity in habits of oviposition between the com- 
mon European form, as reported by Regimbart, and our own 
species has been a matter of some interest, and it may add a 
trifle to our appreciation of the American back-swimmers to 
note that among them in the genus Buenoa is one which, with 
more parental concern than is evinced by even the European 
glauca, embeds its ova in the stems of water plants. 

At this point it may be well to recall that there are three 
genera of the family Notoncctidac in America north of Mex- 
ico. They are Notonecta, Buenoa and Pica, which are repre- 
sented by 12, 3 and i species, respectively. These may be sep- 
arated by the following table, wherein is included a key to the 
species of the genus Bucnoa.^ 

A. Legs all similar Pica Leach. 

A.A. Legs dissimilar, hind legs flattened and fringed for swimming. 

*This one instance was a case of A', undulata female which placed 
her ova quite deeply in the stem of a water weed. 
fAdapted from Bueno (1905) and (1909) and earlier workers. 


B. Last joint of antennae much shorter than penultimate, 

Notonccta Linn. 
B.B. Last joint of antennae longer than the penultimate. 

Buenoa Kirk. 

C. Large species over 6 mm. long B. maryaritacea Bueno 

C.C. Smaller species less than 6 mm. long. 
D. Eyes large and prominent; shape slender. 

B. platycncmis Fieb. 
D.D. Eyes large but not prominent shape more convex, 

B. clcgans. Fieb. 

Of these three genera it has long been known that the tiny 
Pica places its eggs out of harm's way in the stems of the 
aquatic plants. The observations have been for the European 
P. mintitissima Leach, but the same is doubtless true in the 
case of our own Pica striola, for the female possesses the 
necessary equipment for such a task. 

All American members of the genus Notonecta, at least 
those that have been observed, attach their eggs by their long 
axis to stems of plants, submerged brush wood and the like. 
The egg of N. undulata, our commonest species, is shown in 
Fig. 7, PL XIII. 

It is a pleasure to report some observations on the oviposi- 
tion of the female of one species of the genus Buenoa, which 
is endophytic in this habit. 

After futile attempts to obtain the eggs in the aquarium 
which, it was supposed, would be deposited on the twigs plac- 
ed therein for the purpose, an examination of the female's 
equipment for oviposition disclosed the device shown in Plate 
XIII, Fig 9. 

With this clue, the pond was visited at once and quite for- 
tunately the first object examined was literally full of the 
same sort of ova which had been noted in the bodies of the 
bugs. It was an uprooted smartweed (Polygonum^ floating 
in the pool some fifteen feet from shore. Not only were the 
stems of this green bit of smartweed swollen and distorted* 
by the many eggs it contained, but the leaves also were em- 

* Stem of smartweed 23 ova crowded in linear space of one centi- 


ployed as nidi with varying degrees of success. The leaves 
were punctured and the egg, when present, rested suspended 
beneath, attached by the collar shown in the drawing PI. XIII, 
Fig. i, to the upper surface margins of the incision. The 
many perforations or slits through the leaves gave their testi- 
mony to the many failures in attempting to employ so thin a 
structure for nidification. 

Subsequently eggs have been found in floating Typha and 
Juncus and have been deposited in the aquarium in the tissues 
of both of these plants. 

The drawings give perhaps a better idea of the eggs and 
young larvae than a description, but the following are sub- 
mitted for the purpose of their precise recognition. 


Size: 1.125 mlT1 - long by .406 mm. in its widest diameter. The size 
increases somewhat with the development of the embryo within, which 
causes a bulging of the stem in which the egg is inserted. 

Shape. The egg is an elongate oval when seen in surface view with 
the cephalic end the more pointed. (Surface view = the side, a por- 
tion of which is exposed to view as the egg lies imbedded in the stem.) 
In lateral view it appears nearly straight in the outline of its upper 
surface while the lower is quite strongly curved. 

Color. Pearly white when first laid the surface hexagonally reticu- 
late as in the eggs of Notonecta. A smooth and shiny elongate oval 
area occupies the anterior half of the upper surface. This is the por- 
tion exposed and is margined by a whitish band which marks the union 
of the egg with the surface of the stem when in situ. As the embryo 
develops, the entire egg becomes deep greyish yellow and the red eye 
spots and other red markings show through the chorion. -The part ex- 
posed becomes dark amber in color and very shiny in appearance. The 
surface appears reticulate under magnification. 


Size (in millimeters) : body length 1.85, body width .625, head width 
.5, distance between eyes .156. Fore limb: femur .25, tibia .35, tarsus 
.25 mm. Middle limb .387. .333 and .275 and hind limb .625, .630 and 
.625 for femur, tibia and tarsus respectively. 

Color. Ventral aspect: White the abdominal fringe of hairs, the 
ventral abdominal tuft, the hair tufts before the hind coxae and those 
of middle coxae black. The hairs fringing the hind tarsi are smoky 
black as are the middle and fore tibia." Eyes dark red. No indication 

7 8 


[Apr., '17 

of the red pigment in the abdomen so conspicuous in older nymphs and 
adults. White with the red eyes the only conspicuous marking. 

Structural details : The absence of the median abdominal carina from 
the venter, as is the case also with N. undulata nymphs, is the first and 
most striking peculiarity. The interspace between the eyes is large. Beak 
four-jointed as in adult. Tarsi all one-jointed, terminating in two claws. 
The spiny armature of fore legs is more generalized than in later 
forms. The fringe of the hind legs confined to the margins of the 


In order that space may be conserved, a table of measurements for 
the various instars is presented below and a discussion of the changes 
in structure as development proceeds appended. 







































































1 .28 



























6 ? 


2 2 











The adults of this species are separated in the synoptic ta- 
ble from the other two species on the basis of the body length, 
which is greater than 6 mm. This, with a diagnosis of the in- 
stars from structural characters, may serve to separate the 
nymphs of this species from those of the others. The table 
of measurements above is based on an average of ten speci- 
mens of each instar. A larger number would be desirable to 
obtain figures dealing with ratio of growth. The writer be- 
lieves that an examination of a sufficiently large amount of 
material would show for head-widths and limb measurements 
a ratio of i 11.25. That is to say, the width of the head of the 

* Bueno gives length of species 6.7-8.1, lat. 2.23 mm. 


second instar nymph would be approximately 1.25 times that 
of the first instar nymph. 

Upon attaining the adult stage a sexual dimorphism becomes 
apparent. Besides the structural differences of the genitalia, 
the anterior legs of the male possess on the inner faces of the 
femora and tibia peculiar stridular areas. 

The tibial structure is borne on the inner face of a promi- 
nence, which is formed by the elevation of the inner angle or 
margin of the tibia near its base into a thin but elongate spur. 
This spur is lacking in the female and not discovered in the 
nymphs. (See pi. XIII, Figs. 5 and 6.) 


Head. The notocephalic margins of the eyes which are near together 
and nearly parallel in the adult are relatively much farther apart in the 
first instar nymph. In the newly hatched bug, the distance at synthlip- 
sis is nearly 1-3 (one-third) width of head with the margins of the 
eyes diverging broadly to the vertex. As the development proceeds 
from instar to instar the eyes are brought nearer and nearer to their 
relations in the adult where the synthlipsis is reduced to about 7.14% 
of the width of the head. 

The beak is four-segmented and the antennae of the nymphs have 
much the form of those in the adults. 

Legs. The general form as in the adult. The tarsi of all the legs 
one-segmented and terminated by two claws. (The tarsi of the adults 
are two-segmented and end in two claws.) 

Wings. The wing-pads are very inconspicuous even in the later 
nymphal instars. By the third instar the pads appear on the antero- 
ventral margins of the mesothorax as little flaps, the distal ends of 
which reach a position on a line with the trochanter of the fore leg 
when flexed. In the fourth instar they arc much larger, the apices at- 
taining to a position on a line with the distal end of the mesothoracic 
tibiae when the limb is flexed. In the fifth instar they are still closely 
applied to the side of the thorax, but the tips of the more opaque pads 
reach a point on a line with the distal ends of the hind coxae. 


Bncnoa margaritacca is the common representative of its 
genus in the ponds and pools of eastern Kansas. It appears 
to prefer the open water and is in much better equilibrium in 
its watery world than the Notoncctae. 

Individuals of this species may be seen in large numbers 


swimming slowly or even poising in mid-water some distance 
beneath the surface. They abound in waters teeming with 
Entomostraca, upon which they largely feed, the crib formed 
by the closure of the anterior two spiny pairs of legs being 
nicely adapted to the retention of such prey. Their dexterity 
in the manipulation of this device and its efficiency in retain- 
ing small beings may be demonstrated quite readily under the 
binocular, and affords another of nature's illustrations of the 
fitness of form to function. 

Like others of the predatory class of water bugs they do on 
occasion fall upon corixids and other forms than the en- 
tomostraca, but not with the regularity of many of the others. 

Adults appear from early spring to late fall. The eggs may 
be found in May, the nymphs begin to emerge by the middle 
of the month and by the I5th of June form a dominant spe- 
cies to be noted in all stages of development from egg to adult 
in waters suitable to their needs. 

They are wilder and more difficult creatures to rear than the 
Notonectae, but no less interesting objects of study. So far 
as the Writer is aware there has been nothing 'noted hitherto 
concerning their biology and he is glad to record for them 
something of the economy of their lives. 


BADE, E. 1909. Das Susswasser Aquarium 3rd ed. 896 pages. Ber- 
lin. (On page 657. "Das Weibchen legt die kleinen hellgelben, ovalen 
Eier an Blatter ab, aus denen nach 14 Tagen die Tungen ausschlupfen 


BROCHER. F. 1913. U Aquarium de Chambre. Introduction a 1' 
etude de 1'histoire Naturelle deuxieme ed. Paris, p. 271. (Les No- 
tonectes fichent leurs oeufs, aux trois quarts enfonces, dans les tis- 
sues des roseaux; ou bien, elles les collent seulement contre un vegetal 
ou un corps immerge quelconque.) 

BROCHER, F. 1911. Recherches sur la Respiration des insectes 
aquatiques adultes la Notonecte. Ann. Biol. lacustre, 4, pp. 9-32. 

BUENO, J. R. DE LA TORRE, 1902. Notoiiccta iindulata, its oviposition 
in: Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc. X: p. 250. (In proceedings of society for June 


ID. 1902. Notonectidae of N. Y. in : Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc. X, p. 236. 
(Under Anisops platycnemis Fieb. is a description now applied to 
Buenoa margaritacea Bueno.) 


ID. 1905. The Genus Notonecta in America North of Mexico in: Jr. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc. XIII, p. 144. 

ID. 1909. Notonectid genus Bucnoa Kirkaldy in : Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

17, PP- 74-77- 

COVVEN, FRANK. 1865. Curious Facts in the History of Insects. 
Lippincott & Co. (N. unifasciata of Mexico lays eggs on the stems.) 
In Kirkaldy's Revision of Notonectidae this species is not recognized. 
.V. undulata. 

ESSENBERG, CHRISTINE. 1915. Habits and Natural History of the 
Rackswimmers in : Jr. Animal Behavior, Cambridge Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 

DE GEER, BARON KARL. 1778. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der 
Insekten. . . .Niirnberg, Vol. 3, p. 254. (". . . . das Weibchen legt 
viele weisse langlich ovale Eier, gemeinlich an die Stiele and Blatter 
der Wasserkrauter.") 

GLOVER, TOWNSEND. 1876. Manuscript Notes on Hemiptera. (Quotes 
Ballot A Mexican species of Notonectid lays eggs on water plants.) 

HENNEGUY, L. FELIX. 1909. Les Insectes. Paris. (Quotes Regim- 
bart, p. 283.) 

HOWARD, L. O. 1901. The Insect Book, p. 275. (Eggs in the stems.) 

KELLOGG, V. L. 1905. American Insects. (Eggs in the stem.) 

KIRKALDY, G. W. 1896. Notonecta glauca, its oviposition, in: Proc. 
Ent. Soc. London, 1896, p. xxvii. 

ID. 1897. Revision of the Notonectidae, Pt. I in : Trans. Ent. Soc. 
London, 1897, pp. 393-436. 

ID. 1904. Uber Notonectiden, II Teil in: Wien. Ent. Zeit. 1904, p. 
120. (Herein is created the genus Bucnoa for American forms hitherto 
treated under Anisops.) 

KUHLGATZ, TH. 1909. Rhynchota in : Brauer. A. Die Siiss-wasser- 
fauna Deutschlands. Heft. 7, p. 81. (N. glauca "Die Eier werden in 
Mehrzahl und zu einer Scheibe angeordnct an Stengeln und Blattern 
von Wasserpflanzen abgelegt. Hicrzu verankert sich das female mit 
dem i. Beinpaar und dem eingcbohrten Riissel an der Pflanze, in deren 
Parenchym es jedes Ei zu 2-3 einschiebt.") 

LAMPERT, K. 1899. Das Leben der Binnengewasser. Leipzig. (Page 
143 quotes Regimbart.) 

LEFROY, II. MAXWELL. Indian Insect Life. Calcutta and Simla. 
(Eggs are said to be inserted in the Stems.) 

MIALL, L. C. 1895. Natural History of Aquatic Insects, London. 
(Page 359, quotes Regimbart.) 

NOWROGEE, D. 1911. Life histories of Indian Insects II. Some 
aquatic Rhynchota and Coleoptera in: Memoirs of the Department of 
Agriculture in India, Vol. II, No. 9. Ento. Ser. Pusa. (Eggs of 
F.nitliarcs indica Fab. laid on stems and leaves of aquatic plants.) 


OLIVIER, M. 1811. Encyclopedic Methodique. Histoire Naturelle des 
Insectes Paris. (Quotes De Geer, which see.) 

PACKARD, A. S. 1869. Guide to Study of Insects. 9th ed. 1899. (On 
page 536 quotes Roesel 1746, who says Notonccta eggs are laid on 
the stems.) 

ID. 1881. Half Hour Recreations in Natural History. Boston. (Ch. 
6: p. 129. N. eggs on stems and leaves.) 

REGIMBART, M. 1875. Observations stir la ponte du Dytiscus mar- 
ginalis et de Quelques atitres Insectes Aquatiques in : Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr. (5) V. pp. 204-205. 

ROESEL, AUG. JOH. 1746-1761. Der monatlich herausgegeben. Insekten- 
belustigung. Nurnberg, 4 Vols. 

SCHMIDT-SCHWEDT, E. 1891. Schnabclkerfe in : Zacharias, Tier und 
Pflanzenwelt des Siisswassers. Vol. II, p. 113. (N. glauca lays its 
eggs on plants.) 

SHARP, DAVID. 1899. Cambridge Natural History. Insects, Part IT. 
(On pg. 567 quotes Regimbart.) 

TASCHENBERG, E. L., 1884. Die Insekten. Leipzig. (Page 602. 
Concerning N. glauca: "Mit Beginn des Friihjahres legen die Weibchen 
ihre ovalen, hellgelben Eier an den unteren Theil einer Wasserpflanze 
oder auf den Boden indem sic dieselben reihenweise zu einer Scheibe 
aneinander kleben.") 

WEFELSCHEID, H. 1912. Ueber die Biologic und Anatomic von 
Pica minuiissima. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, Jena, XXXII, pp. 387-474. 
(See pages 396-401 and fig. D., p. 399.) 

WESTWOOD, J. O. 1839-40. An Introduction to the Modern Classifi- 
cation of Insects, 2 Vols., London. 


All the figures refer to Buenoa margaritacca unless otherwise stated. 

Fig. i. Egg removed from the stem showing the clear exposed area 
of the egg and its margin of white. 

Fig. 2. Eggs in situ in stem of Juncus. 

Fig. 3. A portion of the stem of Juncus removed to show the egg 
in situ. 

Fig. 4. Ventral view of the female showing the appearance of the 
ovipositor and the crib formed by the two anterior pairs of legs for 
the retention of entomostracans. Compare with figure 10. 

Fig. 5. Inner view of the stridular areas on the femur and tibia of 
the anterior leg of the male, greatly enlarged from figure 6. 

Fig. 6. Inner view of the anterior leg of male showing the tibial 
prominence and stridular areas. 

Fig. 7. Eggs of Notonecta undulata glued to the stem of aquatic 
plant. Drawn from a photograph. 


Plate XIII. 



Fig. 8. Newly hatched B. margaritacca. Note distance between the 
eyes, the absence of ventral abdominal plate and the fact that the tarsi 
are one-segmented. 

Fig. 9. Lateral view of the terminal segments of the female show- 
ing the ventral plate drawn to expose the strongly dentated and chitin- 
ized ovipositor, by means of which incisions are made for the reception 
of the eggs in the tissues of plants. 

Fig. 10. Compare with figure 4. The anterior legs spread to show 
the concavities of the limbs and their spiny armature. 

A New Species of Acronycta (Lep.)* 
By OTTO BUCHHOLZ, Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

Acronycta wanda n. sp. 

Ground color a uniform, very dark smoky grey. Head blackish 
above. Thorax without markings save the usual black line from the 
palpi to the base of the wings. 

Primaries with all the markings fairly well defined. Basal line 
geminate, extending to basal dash. Transverse anterior line gemi- 
nate, outwardly oblique, the inner line a little more strongly defined 
than the outer, especially from costa to basal dash. A very feeble median 
shade runs obliquely from costa to reniform. The transverse posterior 
line is geminate, the inner line very faint, the outer line black, lunulate, 
the intervening space paler than the ground color. A diffusely lunu- 
late, interrupted whitish subterminal line. A dusky terminal line with 
larger interspacial dots, beyond which is a dusky interline in the 
fringes; the latter are whitish and cut with black. In fresh specimens 
the dots of the terminal line extend as fine black lines to the subterminal 
line. The basal streak, which in some specimens is bordered with 
white above, is heavy and extends to the outer portion of transverse 
anterior line and sometimes a little beyond. A fine dagger mark oppo- 
site the cell runs a trifle beyond the_t. p. line. A similar mark in the 
submeclian interspace also crosses the t. p. line and is much heavier 
than the other. All veins are marked blackish on outer half of wing. 
The orbicular is small, concolorous, black-edged, irregular and usual- 
ly complete. Reniform kidney-shaped, moderate in size and sometimes 
darkened inferiorly. The two spots are connected by a black line. 

Secondaries smoky in both sexes. Beneath whitish, primaries a little 
darker than secondaries, with the usual outer line and discal spots. 

Expanse, 1.65-1.90 inches (42-48 mm.) 

Habitat Union County, New Jersey, beginning of June 
and August. Four males and one female have been under ex- 
amination. This species belongs in the lobeliac group and sug- 
gest fio'dfcra in structure and ornamentation, but it is much 
darker, almost black, and the prominent marked veins serve 
to separate the two. Tn recognition of the persistent work in 
this group done by my wife, I dedicate this species to her 
Type a male in the author's collection. A male co-type in the 
collection of F. Lemmer, Irvington, New Jersey. 


The New Head of the Department of Zoology and Entomology, 

Ohio State University. 

Professor Raymond C. Osburn, of the Connecticut College, New 
London, Connecticut, has been elected Head of the Department of 
Zoology and Entomology of the Ohio State University, his appoint- 
ment to take effect July ist. He will assume the duties carried during 
the last nineteen years by Dr. Herbert Osborn, who was last year 
elected Research Professor and who will hereafter give his entire 
time to research work, including a direction of research work by 
graduate students, and, for the present, the Directorship of the Lake 
Laboratory and of the Ohio Biological Survey. 

Dr. R. C. Osburn graduated from the Ohio State University in 
1898, received a Master's degree from the same institution in 1900, 
and the Ph.D. degree from Columbia in 1906. Fie has been connected 
as a teacher with the Starling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio ; 
Fargo College, Fargo, North Dakota; Clinton High School of Com- 
merce, New York City ; Barnard College, Columbia University, and 
the Connecticut College, in which he is now Professor of Biology. 

Dr. Osburn is known to entomologists as the author of a number 
of papers on Syrphidae and Odonata and he was for several years 
President of the New York Entomological Society. He is much 
interested in the ecology of aquatic insects, but his main work has 
been upon aquatic invertebrates and fishes. 

Adult Chrysopidae Do Eat (Neur.). 

I was very much interested in the Notes on the Feeding Habits of 
Adult Chrysopidae, by L. Bradford Ripley, in the January, 1917, num- 
ber of Entomological News. 

By actual observation I can indorse Prof. Ripley's statement that 
Chrysopidae take food in the adult stage. While my observation was 
of short duration and of a single specimen, it proved beyond a doubt 
that these insects are far from being abstinent. On the evening of 
September igth, 1916, an adult Lace-winged fly was captured and the 
next morning, having just finished eating a juicy pear, I had occasion 
to examine this specimen which was in a stupid condition, as I now 
believe for the want of food. 

No sooner had I taken it into my hand than it began to gnaw at my 
fingers, which were yet moist with the juice of the pear. Taking a tip 
from this, I sprinkled some granulated sugar on my hand which it 
ravenously ate. 

Through a hand-glass we saw grain after grain quickly disappear, 
and this little creature did not content itself to feed among the scatter- 
ing grains, but waded into the thick of the sugar. This specimen was 
placed back in the jar with some sugar and water where it remained 
until the next morning when I took it from the jar to feed it some 
more pear juice. 

When placing it on my hand, as I had the day before, I found to 
my disappointment that I did not have the little pet that I thought I 
had, for it briskly flew away, showing that the gentleness of the day 
before was caused by hunger. After finding that these insects feed 
on sugar and fruit juice I have but little doubt about their feeding on 
the natural sweets of flowers and plants. WILTON T. GOE, Portland, 



Ants vs. Men. 

The President's address before the Geological Society of 
America at Albany, December 28, 1916, printed in Science for 
February 9, 1917, contains some remarks interesting to the 
entomologist which the latter would hardly look for in a dis- 
course entitled "The Philosophy of Geology and the Order of 
the State." The speaker, distinguished and honored for his 
many contributions to his science, "wishfes] to nail [certain 
theses] on the doors of our temple" of geology. Among them 

Nature makes for the individual ... In the progressive line 
of development which in the present terminates in us, the procedure 
of nature has been one of only limited concern for the family and of 
tried out and abandoned experiment for social partnerships and the 
division of labor. 

A lively account of the "six-legged articulate expression of 
existence" which "has led to most extraordinary displays of 
morphological and psychic differentiation," culminating in the 
ants, "nature's great triumph, her highest performance in com- 
munistic effort and in co-operative achievement," is brought 
to the astonishing conclusion that 

The six-legged type with all its purposes, in its highest expression 
lies prostrate on the ground at our feet, it and its achievements have 
risen to nothing higher than an ant hill, its communistic relations and 
subservience are entirely apart from the true genius of humanity 
. For the former the student of nature's history sees no out- 

We say astonishing, for, while we are well aware that the 
anthropocentric conception of the universe still permeates the 



great mass of humanity, we thought that scientific men at least 
were able to throw off the egotism of their own species and 
look at nature from a detached standpoint. We can as little 
foresee that there will be no outcome for the ants as Cuvier 
was able to foresee the downfall of his law of correlation of 
parts. With the human species at the present time engaged 
in an almost universal attempt to destroy itself, it is farcical to 
talk of its "active, progressive and fertile individualism," 
while the success of Argentine, leaf-cutting and other ants 
throughout the world, despite human objections, gives one a 
sufficient basis for expecting as long a continuance of these 
pertinacious insects on the earth as of the, one would like to 
say, satirically named Homo sapiens. 

The Host of Ablerus clisiocampae Ash. (Hym.)-* 

The following note is in corroboration of the observations made 
upon the host of Ablerus clisiocampae Ash. by L. T. Williams. (Psyche, 
October, 1916.) 

In the spring of 1915, the writer bred several specimens of Ablerus 
clisiocampae from the eggs of Malacosoma amcricana Fab., but at the 
time was unable to make sure that the parasite had not emerged from 
a scale insect, although it hardly seemed possible. In the spring of 1916, 
after a few specimens of Ablerus had appeared, a number of egg 
masses were taken from the twigs, and thoroughly examined for the 
presence of scale insects, but none were present. With all possible 
chance of the presence of scale insects thus eliminated, the parasites 
continued to emerge from the egg masses in fair numbers. A repetition 
of the experiment gave the same result. 

These observations corroborate those made by Williams and the 
original ones made by Ashmead, that this species, contrary to the 
habits of the family to which it belongs, does at least at times parasi- 
tize the eggs of a Lepidopterous insect. 

In addition to Ablerus clisiocampae, three other species of parasites 
were bred from the egg masses. They were kindly determined for me 
by Mr. A.. A. Girault as Telenomus coloradensis Crawford. Tctrasti- 
cluis malacosomae Girault, and Oocncyrtus sp. Of these, Tctrastichus 
malacosomae was by far the most abundant, the other two species being 
only occasionally found. B. A. PORTER, Amherst, Massachusetts. 

^Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. 


Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico is given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

1 Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
2 Transactions, American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 
4- -The Canadian Entomologist. 10 Nature, London. 37 Le Natu- 
raliste Canadien, Quebec. 50 Proceeding's, U. S. National Museum. 
68 Science, New York. 42 Journal, Linnean Society (Zoology), 
London. 87 Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 
143 Ohio Journal of Science, Columbus, Ohio. 153 Bulletin. 
American Museum of Natural History, New York 161 Proceed- 
ings, Biological Society of Washington. 184 Journal of Experi- 
mental Zoology, Philadelphia. 198 Biological Bulletin, Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 223 -Broteria, Revista 
de Sciencias Naturaes do Collegio de S. Fiel. (Ser Zoologica). 
235 Memoire, R. Accademia dei Lincei, 5th series, Roma. 237 
L T niversity of Colorado Studies, Boulder. 240 Maine Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Orono. 283 Bulletin, Societe Zoologique de 
France, Paris. 284 Bulletin, Museum National d'Histoire Natu- 
relle. Reunion Mensuelle des Naturalistes du Museum, Paris. 307 
Annales, Societe Linneene de Lyon (n. ser.). 324 Journal of 
Animal Behavior, Cambridge. 379 Proceedings of the Interna- 
tional Zoological Congress. 480 The Annals of Applied Biology. 
490 The Journal of Parasitology, Urbana, Illinois. 509 Revue 
Generale des Sciences Pures et Appliquees, Paris. 532 Proceed- 
ings, National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Amer- 
ica, Washington. 538 Lorquinia, Los Angeles. 546 Illinois Bio- 
logical Monographs, Urbana. 547 Journal. The Franklin Institute, 
Philadelphia. 548 Physis, Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de 
Ciencias Naturales. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Cockerell, T. D. A. The fauna of Boul- 
der Co., Colorado, III-IV. Diptera, etc., 237, xvii, 5-25. Dahlgren, 
U. The production of light by animals, 547, 1P17, 323-48. Falcoz, 
L. Contribution a 1'etude de la faune des microcavernes faune des 


terriers et des nids, 307, Ixi, 59-246. Jorgensen, P. Zoocecidios 
argentinos, 548, ii, 350-05. Labitte, A. Longevite de quelques in- 
sectes en captivite, 284, 1916, 105-13. Navas, R. P. L. Particulari- 
dades sobre las alas de los insectos, 379, ix, 767-73. Neveu-Lemaire 
Parasitologie des plantes agricoles [Paris, J. Lamarre, 1913], 720 
pp. Reed, E. B. Obituary notice, 4, 1917, 37-9. Stiles, C. W. Re- 
port of the international commission on zoological nomenclature, 
379, ix, 852-915. Tavares, J. S. As cecidas do Brazil que se criam 
nas plantas da familia das Melastomataceae, 223, xv, 18-49. 

factors in heredity, 10, xcviii, 479-80. Foa, A. Studio sul polimor- 
fismo unisessuale del Rhizoglyphus echinopus corredato da osser- 
vazioni biologiche. . . ., 235, xii, fas. 1, 109 pp. Goldschmidt, R. 
On a case of faculative parthenogenesis in the gypsy-moth, with 
a discussion of the relation of parthenogenesis to sex, 198, xxxii, 
35-43. Marshall & Muller The effect of long-continued hetero- 
zygosis on a variable character in Drosophila, 184, xxii, 457-70. 
Plough, H. H. Cytoplasmic structures in the male germ cells ot 
Rhomaleum micropterum, 198, xxxii, 1-12. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Macnamara, C. On the portrait of a 
wolf spider, 4, 1917. 39-45. Wheeler, W. M. The synchronic be- 
havior of Phalangidae, 68, xlv, 189-90. 

Ewing, H. E. New Acarina, Part II. Descriptions of n. sps. and 
var. from Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio [28 new], 153, 
xxxvii, 149-72. Weidman, F. D. Cytoleichus penrosei, a new 
arachnoid parasite found in the diseased lungs of a prairie dog, 
490, iii, 82-9. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Tillyard, R. J. A study of the rectal 
breathing apparatus in the larvae of Anisopterid dragonflies, 42, 
xxxiii, 127-96. 

ORTHOPTERA. Foucher, G. Etudes biologiques sur le Cy- 
phocrania gigas d'Amboine, 509, xxvii, 706-13. Serre, P. L'lle de 
la Trinite menacee d'une invasion de Sauterelles, 284, 1916, 101-4. 

Hebard, M. Studies in the group Ischnopterites (Blattidae) [S 
n. sps.], 2, xlii, 337-86. 

HEMIPTERA. Deletang, L. Notas hemipterologicas, 548, ii, 
263-71. Gibson, E. H. Additions to the list of Missouri Cicadelli- 
dae, 4, 1917, 75-6. Lizer, C. Sobre la presencia del Chrysomphalus 
paulistus, en el Delta del Parana; Ceroplastes gramlis, nuevo para 
la fauna argentina, 548, iii, 432, 438. Osborn, H. Studies of life, 
histories of frog-hoppers of Maine, 240, Bui. 254. Parshley, H. M. 
Insects in ocean drift, 4, 1917, 45-48. 


Drake, C. J. A survey of the No. American species of Mcrragata 
[2 new], 143, xvii, 101-5. Lathrop, F. H. A preliminary list of 
Cicadellidae of So. Carolina, with descriptions of n. sps. [7 new], 
143, xvii, 119-131. Shinji, C. O. The California species of Myzus 
with description of a n. sp.; A n. sp. of Amphrophora from Cali- 
fornia, 4, 1917, 49-51; 51-2. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Fox, C. L. A few notes on a collecting trip 
around Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, 538, i, 49-51. Gia- 
comelli, E. Sobre una nueva aherracion de Cyanohipsa stefanellii, 
A proposito de una Pierida del genero Hesperocharis, 548, ii, 293- 
295. d'Herculais, J. K. Les sphingides du genre Acherontia, 
Lepidopteres mellivores parasites des abeilles, 284, 1916, 17-49. 
Mabille et Boullet Description d'Hesperides nouveaux, 87, 1916, 
320-5. Pictet, A. Le role joue par la selection naturelle dans 1'hi- 
bernation des lepidopteres, 379, ix, 774-88. 

Swett, L. W. Geometrid notes: The genus Dysstroma [3 new], 
4, 1917, 64-72. 

DIPTERA. Baumberger, J. P. The food of Drosophila melano- 
gaster, 532, iii, 122-6. Cole, W. H. The reactions of Drosophila 
ampelophila to gravity, centrifugation, and air currents, 324, vii, 
71-80. Peterson, A. The head-capsule and mouth-parts of D., 546, 
iii, No. 2, 112 pp. Rennie, J. On the biology and economic signifi- 
cance of Tipula paludosa, 480, iii, 116-37. Szilady, Z. Vorlaufige 
mitteilung ueber eine Tabaniden-monographie, 379, ix, 744-5. 

Alexander, C. P. New or little-known crane-flies from the U. S. 
and Canada: Tipulidae, Ptychopteridae, Pt. 3 [many new], 1, 1916, 
4sr,-f>49. Cockerell, T. D. A. A fossil tsetse fly and other diptera 
from Florissant, Colorado, 161, xxx, 19-23. Cresson, E. T., Jr. 
A revision of the species of the genera Notiphila and Dichaeta 
(Ephydridae) [13 n. sps.], 2, xliii, 27-66. Johannsen, O. A. New 
eastern Anthomyiidae [8 new], 2, xlii, 385-98. 

COLEOPTERA. Brethes, J. Sobre la variabilidad de algunos 
Crisomelidos: cosa de "Chalcophana lineata"; Description d'un nou- 
veau genre et d'une nouvelle espece de Staphylinidae myrmeco- 
phile; Descripcion de un neuvo Carabiclo de la R. Argentina, 548, 
iii, 424; 431-2; 464-5. Bruch, C. Descripcion de un nuevo Tencbri- 
oniclo del Chubut Calymnophorus patagonicus, 548, ii. 292-3. Mis- 
celaneas coleopterologicas, 548, iii, 456-61. Ford, G. H. Observa- 
tions on the larval and pupal stages of Agriotes obscurus, 480, iii. 
97-115. Frers, A. G. Variabilidad en la coloracion de un Crisome- 
lido de la provincia Buenos Aires, Lema orbignyi, 548, iii, 4:<:i-5. 
. Gallardo, A. El mirmecofilo sinfilo Fustiger elegans, 548, ii, 254-7. 
Germain, F. Histerides d'Ottawa et des environs, 37, xliii, 125-8 
(cont.). Houlbert, C. La loi de la taille et 1'evolution des coleop- 


teres, 379, ix, 699-742. Leng & Mutchler Supplement to prelim- 
inary list of the C. of the West Indies, 153, xxxvii, 191-220. Lesne, 
P. -Notes sur les coleopteres terediles. Variabilite de certains 
Lyctides de 1'Amerique du Nord, 284, 1916, 92-100. McDermott, F. 
A. Observations on the light emission of American Lampyridae, 
4, 1917, 53-61. Pic, M. Nouveaux malacodermes exotiques, 283, 
xl, 95-7. Xambeu, C. Moeurs et metamorphoses des insectes, 16 
memoire, 307, Ixii, 25-42. 

Blanchard, F. Revision of the Throscidae of No. America [7 n. 
sp.], 2, xliii, 1-26. Fall, H. C. Short studies in the Malachiidae [24 
n. sps.], 2, xliii, 67-88. 

HYMENOPTERA. Brethes, J. Un caso anormal en "Polistes 
canadensis" var. "Ferreri"; Le genre "Xylocopa" dans la Repu- 
blique Argentine, 548, iii, 423; 407-21. Carpenter, G. H. The scar- 
city of wasps, 10, xcviii, 413. Kojewnikov, G. Sur les abeilles her- 
maphrodites, 379, ix, 743. Santschi, F. Formicides sudamericains 
nouveaux ou peu connus, 548, iii, 365-99. Stoehr, L. M. "Micro- 
bembex monodonta," 37, xliii, 113-19 (cont.). Wheeler, W. M. 
The phylogenetic development of subapterous and apterous castes 
in the Formicidae, 532, iii, 109-17. 

Brues, C. T. Adult hymenopterous parasites attached to the 
body of their host [l new sp.], 532, iiii 136-40. Mickel, C. E. New 
sps. of H. of the superfamily Sphecoidea [many new], 2, xlii, 399-434. 
Parker, J. B. A revision of the bembicine wasps of America, north 
of Mexico [some new], 50, Hi, 1-555. 

S.B., M.D., and J. McDuNNOUGH, PH.D. Decatur, Illinois, Feb- 
ruary, IQI?- Published under the patronage of Miss Jessie D. 
Gillett, Elkhart. Indiana. 

It has been thirteen years since we have had a list of North Ameri- 
can Lepidoptera and, as the authors say, many new species have been 
described and revisions made in many groups and also changes in 
classification. Such a list is always useful, as far as it goes, and thei 
present one has brought the Lepidoptera up to the present state of 
our knowledge. Six hundred and sixty-one species of Rhopalocera 
are listed as compared with six hundred and ninety-eight listed by 
J. B. Smith in 1903. This difference is due to some of them beiir? 
reduced to the synonymy and others being considered varieties or 
aberrations. The genera used are more in harmony with common 
sense than as hitherto used by some persons, but of course there is 
much to be done to place them on a firm foundation. Eight thousand 


four hundred and ninety-five species of moths are listed, whereas 
Smith's list went to seven thousand, one hundred and sixty-nine, 
an increase of one thousand, three hundred and twenty-six. This 
is a very considerable increase, and while there will be still more 
species of moths described, there will also bo a considerable re- 
duction by synonymy, varieties and aberrations, as the genera are 
revised and the relationships of the species better known. It goes 
without saying that other students will not agree in all cases with 
the authors in regard to the standing of the species, but that is to 
be expected, as such a work always shows a certain amount of 
personal opinion. Taking it as a whole the authors have been 
conservative. The complete index is valuable. We find nothing to 
condemn and much to praise, and trust that those persons for 
whom the work has been prepared will be duly appreciative. H. S. 

Doings of Societies. 

Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of December 20th, 1916, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 
5614 Stewart Street, Philadelphia; twelve members present. President 
H. A. Wenzel in the chair. Prof. J. G. Sanders, State Zoologist of 
Pennsylvania, elected an honorary member. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Daecke mentioned that a Mr. Anderson had 
found larvae of Vanessa antlopa Linn, on willow along the Susquehanna 
River, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, from which was reared one, on 
September ist, that has a yellow band covering the outer half of 
wings; this was exhibited and is var. hygiaca Heg. ; he stated that the 
only record he knew of this "freak" is in Holland's Butterfly Book, 
p. 169, pi. xx', fig. 4, 1910. 

Coleoptera. Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited his rearranged col- 
lection of Colydiida? and Cucujidse. Dr. Castle exhibited two specimens 
of Pelenoinus obscurus LeC. from Detroit, Florida, October 15: a 
species with very peculiar antennse ; he also has it from Savannah, 
'Georgia. Mr. Wenzel said all his specimens are from Texas. Dr. C. 
also reported breeding CaUidinm antennatitin Newm. from the larvae in 
logs brought to the meeting of September 20th by Mr. Hoyer. Mr. 
Laurent, quoting from an article published in Science of November 
I7th, 1916, entitled "The Synchronal or Simultaneous Flashing of 
Fireflies," stated that he did not believe any such occurrence ever took 
place, that it was nothing but the twitching of the observer's eyelid^. 
Some years ago he saw what he thought to be a case of simultaneous 
flashing of fireflies (Lampyridae) ; however, he soon discovered it \vu; 
nothing but the twitching of his eyelids that caused the effect and the 
insects had nothing whatever to do with it. Adjourned to the annex. 

GEO. M. GREENE, Secretary. 


Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 

Meeting of January 25, 1917. Eleven persons present. Director 
Philip Laurent presiding. 

Dr. Calvert exhibited specimens of some of the more striking insects 
which Mrs. Calvert and he had collected in Costa Rica and which they 
had arranged for reproduction as a colored plate in their book on Costa 
Rica soon to appear. He also exhibited plates showing the progressive 
steps necessary to produce the finished four-color plate. He also spoke 
of some of the peculiarities of these insects and why they chose them 
for their illustration. 

A demonstration was made of a new stereopticon purchased by the 

Orthoptera. Mr. Hebard exhibited a few specimens of earwigs 
showing extremes in size, the largest being 37 mm. and the smallest 
being 2.5 mm. in length. He also spoke about some of the interesting 
species of this family of insects. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 

Entomological Workers of Ohio. 

The Third Annual Meeting of Entomological Workers of Ohio 
was held at the Ohio State University on February 2nd, 1917, with 
thirty members in attendance. The program consisted of reviews of 
projects and reports on investigations of members of the Ohio Experi- 
ment Station, the State Division of Orchard and Nursery Inspection 
and the Department of Entomology of the University. 

The following program was presented : 

Distribution of Ohio Broods of the Periodical Cicada with reference 
to Soil, H. A. Gossard. 

General Reports from Heads of Department Organizations: 

H. A. Gossard, Ohio Experiment Station; N. E. Shaw, State Division 
of Orchard and Nursery Inspection; Herbert Osborn, Department of 
Zoology and Entomology, Ohio State University. H. A. Gossard, J. S. 
Houser, W. H. Goodwin, R. D. Whitmarsh, D. C. Mote and J. L. 
King, Reviews of Projects; Richard Eaxon, Nursery Imports; F. D. 
Heckathorn, Winter Work in Nurseries and Surroundings ; H. E. 
Evans, An Inspector's Itinerary for a Year; H. J. Speaker, Report of 
Control of Gypsy Moth Outbreak; C. L. Metcalf, Predaceous Insects; 
C. J. Drake, Notes on Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Hemiptera of Ohio; 
Herbert Osborn, Problems with Meadow Insects; T. L. Guyton, Aphidi- 
dae of Ohio. 

A permanent organization was effected and the following officers 
were elected for 1917-18: N. E. Shaw, Chairman; J. S. Houser, Secre- 

C. L. METCALF, Sec'y. 

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Vol. XXVIII. No. 5. 

Henry Shimer 

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Plate XIV 











MAY, 1917. 

No. 5. 


Banks New Mites, mostly Economic 
(Arach., Acar. ) 193 

Cockerell New Bees from Costa Rica 
( Hym. ) 200 

Torre Bueno Life-history and Habits 
of the Larger Waterstrider, Gerris 
remigis Say ( Hem.) 201 

Metcalf Two new Syrphidae ( Diptera) 
from Eastern North America 209 

Skinner Lycaena lygdamus Double- 
day and its Races with a Descrip- 
tion of a New One (Lep. ) 212 

Weiss Additions to Insects of New 
Jersey, No. 5 214 

Blaisdell Studies in the Tenebrionid 
Tribe Eleodiini, No. 2 (Coleop.)... 221 

Drake Key to the Nearctic Species of 
Gargaphia with the Description of 
a New Species (Hem., Heter.) 227 

Editorial Entomology as a National 

Defense 229 

Mr. E. B. Williamson's Collecting Trip 

in Colombia 230 

The Destruction of the House Fly 231 

Stiles Notice to the Zoological Profes- 
sion 231 

Skinner Pupal Differences in Mega- 

thymus ( Lep. ) 232 

McDunnough Synonymic Notes on N. 

American Lepidoptera 232 

The Collector's Exchange. 233 

Blaisdell A correction (Col.) 234 

Chamberlin A correction (Col.) 234 

Entomological Literature 234 

Doings of Societies The American En- 
tomological Society 237 

Newark Entomological Society 238 

Feldman Collecting'Social 236 

New Mites, mostly Economic (Arach., Acar.). 

(Plates XIV, XV). 

The following new species are part of the great amount of 
material sent to the United States Bureau of Entomology for 
determination. The species of definite economic value I have 
described, and also a few that represent peculiar genera, new 
to the collections. A new arrangement of the genera of red 
spiders is also proposed, including three new genera. 


Notophallus viridis n. sp. (PI. XIV, fig. 4; PI. XV, fig. 14). 

Dark greenish, legs reddish, a red spot on dorsum near tip, and 
one on venter also near tip ; mouth parts red. Body about one and 
one-third times longer than broad, almost globose, high and broadly 
rounded behind, above with scattered, fine, short, simple hairs. Legs slen- 
der; legs T and IV as long as, or a little longer than body; tarsi T about 
as long as the preceding joint, tarsus IV plainly a little shorter than 



the preceding joint, legs with long slender bristles, more numerous, 
but shorter, below than above. Mandibles with a slender blade and 
the opposite portion tipped with a process of several curved teeth ; 
palpi short and stout, last joint scarcely longer than the preceding 
Length, .8 mm. 

From Tempe, Arizona, December 14, 1911 (A. N. Wilson), 
and Wagoner, Oklahoma, December 3, 1914, on wheat. 

Tetranychus antillarum n. sp. (PI. XIV, fig. 5; PI. XV, fig. 13). 

Body yellowish, fully twice as long as broad, tapering at each 
end, with long stout bristles above; two each side in front, the 
anterior much shorter than the other, abdomen with five in a 
submedian row each side, and a sublateral row of four bristles, 
each as long as femur I. Legs shorter or barely as long as body, 
legs I and IV subequal, leg II about two-thirds as long as leg I, 
all with long bristles, one on the femur longer than the joint; claw 
of tarsus strongly bent. Mandibles (inside view) very broad just 
before tip, then suddenly concavely narrowed to the hook, which is 
small. Palpi very small and inconspicuous. 

Length, .35 mm. 

On leaves of Leonotis nepetaefolia, August 6, 1912, Rio 
Piedras, Porto Rico (T. R. Jones), also on Asclepias curassa- 



The stigmata are in a distinct horn each side at base of the 
mouth parts. Legs moderately long, first pair as long as the 
body; the tarsi are plainly shorter than the preceding joint, and 
end in a single claw. The body is furnished with fine, simple 
hairs like Tetranychus, and there is no four cleft plate on the 
front margin. The palpi are stout and the thumb tipped with 
fingers as in Tetranychus. 

Type Tetranychus longipes Bks., and includes also the fol- 
lowing new species. 

Tetronobia decepta n. sp. (PI. XIV, fig. 3; PI. XV, fig. 15). 

Body about one and one-half as long as broad, broadest behind 
the middle, and at this point very high ; clothed sparingly above with 
a few, very short, simple bristles, mostly behind, but one pair on 
front margin over the mandibles. Legs very slender; leg I as long 
as body, II not half as long as leg I, III but little longer than II, 


IV about as long as width of body; all tarsi shorter than the pre- 
ceding joint, but more plainly so in leg I; all with long, scattered 
bristles, most of them more than twice as long as the width of a 
joint. Palpi very short and stout; thumb cylindrical, ending in 
three equal fingers. 
Length, .65 mm. 

From Mesa, Arizona, on barley, March 27, 1913, collected 
by R. N. Wilson. 


There are no prostigmatal horns ; the legs are very long and 
slender, legs I and IV longer than body, and the tarsi much 
shorter than the preceding joint, each ending in a toethed 
claw, tarsi I a little enlarged near tip ; palpi stout ending in 
thumb and fingers. Body with stout, usually serrate bristles. 

Type. T. apicalis n. sp. 

Includes also, I presume, the Neophyllobius fiarti Ewing. 

Tetranychina apicalis n. sp. (PI. XIV, fig. 7). 

Body less than twice as long as broad, strongly convex above, 
a pair of bristles on the front, and two pairs of erect bristles near 
the tip of abdomen, the hindmost pair almost clavate, both pairs 
arising from tubercles and are minutely serrate. Legs long and 
slender with a few very short, fine hairs; leg I much longer than 
the body; femur I nearly as long as the body; leg II hardly more 
than one-half as long as leg I, leg III longer than body, and leg 
IV much longer, but shorter than leg I, all tarsi shorter than 
preceding joint, and tarsi I plainly a little larger near tip than 
elsewhere. Palpi rather stout, with a slender thumb, ending in two 
equal fingers, and a stout bristle or finger, near the upper tip. 

Length, .5 mm. 

From St. Bernard, Louisiana, on white clover, March 24, 
1912. (Parks). 


Basal part of mandibles united into a plate as in Tetrany- 
chus, and apical part long, styliform as in that genus. Legs 
thick throughout as in Tenuipalpus, but not wrinkled, two 
claws, tarsi as long as preceding joint ; palpi long, large and 
porrect, with the thumb not extending beyond the claw. Skin 
not reticulate, but finely striated. Spinning small dense webs 
under which they live. 


Stigmaeopsis celarius n. sp. (PI. XV, figs. 9, 11). 

Yellowish to greenish, mouth parts often reddish. Body about 
twice as long as broad, broadest in the middle, cephalothorax with 
two long bristles each side, one at humerus, four near tip of ab- 
domen, a pair of large ones near the middle of dorsum, and sev- 
eral pairs of smaller ones above. Legs short, thick, hardly longer 
than the width of body, with a few simple hairs; one near tip of 
femur is very long. Palpi somewhat curved outwardly, with an 
out-turned curved apical claw, the thumb pointed. Mandibular plate 
narrowed at tip, not notched. 

Length, .3 mm. 

From Oneco, Florida, living in small colonies under small, 
dense, white webs which are placed here and there, often near 
ribs, on leaves of bamboo (Bainbusa mctakc) (Sasscer). 

The description of the above three new genera in the 
Tetranychidae offers an opportunity to tabulate the genera of 
this family known to occur in our country. The length of the 
tarsi compared with the preceding joint, a character hitherto 
unused, readily divides the family into two sections. 

I Tarsi (at least tarsus I) much shorter than the preceding joint; 

at least leg I as long, or longer, than body 2 

Tarsi as long as preceding joint; leg I rarely as long as the 

body 5 

2 Front margin of cephalothorax with a thin four-lobed or cleft- 
plate; body with scale-like hairs Bryobia. 

No such plate on front of body 3 

3 Body with simple hairs ; prostigmata in a horn each side at base 

of mandibles Tctranobia. 

Body with spines or stiff serrate bristles; prostigmata not in a 

horn 4 

4 Tarsi I enlarged a little toward tip; palpi stout Tetranychina. 

Tarsi I tapering to tip; palpi small and slender; coxae close to- 
gether Ncophyllobius. 

5 Dorsal surface divided into many small areas; claws two, very 

large Raplni/uathus. 

Dorsal surface not so divided 6 

6 Palpi very slender, and not showing plainly the claw and the 

thumb arrangement; mandibles not elbowed near base 7 

Palpi stouter, showing plainly the claw and thumb arrange- 
ment : . . . 8 

7 Legs transversely wrinkled; large, bordered ventral aperture; 
eyes present Tenuipalpus. 


Legs not transversely wrinkled ; ventral aperture smaller ; eyes 

indistinct Tetranychoides. 

8 Prostigmata in a horn each side at base of mandibles ; body short 
and broad, with large, prominent spines above. . .Tetranychopsis. 

Prostigmata not in a horn, or body not with spines 9 

9 Mandibles styliform, elbowed near base; and with a supra- 
mandibular plate; body not elongate, and thumb not extend- 
ing much beyond claw ; spinning webs 12 

Mandibles less styliform, not elbowed near base; no supra- 

mandibular plate 10 

10 Coxae close together; body rather short Achcles. 

Coxae in two well-separated groups; body elongate n 

II Thumb extending much beyond the claw; palpi very long, 


Thumb barely extending beyond the claw Stigmaeus. 

12 Palpi very long, porrect; legs short and thick to tip. .Stigmaeopsis. 
Palpi shorter, pendant; legs slender, and tapering to tips.... 13 

13 Claws divided into four Tetranychus. 

Claws single, entire Oligonychus. 

Claws divided into two Schlzotctrany chits. 

Paratetranychus Zacher - : Oligonychus Berlese 1896. 

This genus is made for T. pilosus; we have it in this country, 
and also in this genus are T. bicolor, T. inodcstns, T. simplex 
and T. yothcrsi. 

Schizotetranychus Tragardh. 

This has recently been proposed for T. schizopus Zacher ; 
T. mytilaspidis and T. pratensis will go in this group. Tragardh 
has divided Paratctranychns, using Ncotctranychns for those 
species which have the single claw without a cluster of hairs 
at base: T. bicolor, T. modestus would go in it. T. latus and 
T. banksi on account of reduced claws would form a new sub- 
genus which may be called Eutetranychus. 


Spelaeorhynchus latus n. sp. (PI. XIV. figs. 0, 8). 

Yellowish; head and anterior part of shield brownish, a blackish 
spot on each side of the head and on each side of the shield in front; 
legs brownish yellow, except the pale articulations and bases of hairs. 
Head as long on sides as in middle, where it is faintly emarginate, 
above with crossed ridges. Dorsum of body as broad as long, broad- 
est behind the middle, the posterior margin slightly emarginate in 
middle ; a few short hairs above, one pair on front margin, on sides 


one between legs I and II, one over leg II, two over leg III, and 
four on each posterior side, and three each side near tip, the latter 
longer than the others, and a few on disc, mostly near the outer 
margin. Dorsal shield about one and one-half times as long as 
broad, broadest at lateral angle, much narrowed behind; legs not as 
long as body, with short, simple bristles, mostly at base and tips of 
joints, and arising from hyaline spots. Venter with a triangular 
shield, broader than long, and with two hyaline spots each side, each 
with a hair; hind margin of coxa I with a spur behind; stigmal plate 
twice as long as broad. 
Length, 1.6 mm. 

From Obispo, Canal Zone, on bat, January (Goldman). 

Differs from S. praecursor in that the body is broader be- 
hind, in longer dorsal shield, in head less produced in the mid- 
dle, in the longer stigmal plate, in shorter sternal shield, and 
the less hairy body. I consider that this genus is fully as 
closely related to the Parasitidae as to the Ixodidae, and would 
place it in a family in the super family Parasitoidea. The head 
is very different from the capitulum of the ticks ; and the 
sternal plate, posterior genital opening, and the retractile man- 
dibles ally it more to the Parasitidae. 

Iphiopsis obesus n. sp. (PI. XV, fig. 12). 

Yellowish brown. Body pyriform, about one and one-half times 
longer than broad ; the dorsum with a few scattered minute hairs aris- 
ing from hyaline dots, venter with larger short, almost spinelike hairs; 
legs with simple hairs, and four each side on the sternal plate, the mid- 
dle ones close together. Sternal plate, concave behind, not reaching 
behind coxae III; genital plate U-shaped, and plate rather large, 
broad in front, anus near its hind margin ; on the venter are two 
transverse, corneous plates, the outer one the larger. Spiracles not 
twice as long as broad, elliptical; legs very stout, hardly as long as 
the width of body, each tipped by a very large caroncle, most of the 
joints (except the last) broader than long; first pair of legs not as 
stout and shorter than the others ; palpi very hairy near tip. 

Length, .75 mm. 

From Altamonte Springs, Florida (F. H. Lewton, coll.). 

Tyroglyphus sacchari n. sp. (PI. XIV, fig. 1; PI. XV, fig. 10). 

Body pyriform, about twice as long as broad, broadest behind the 
middle; cephalothorax rather long, much narrowed in front, the man- 
dibles prominent. Dorsum with long, simple bristles behind, but not 


Plate XV. 








as long as in T. lintneri; in the female the bristles not as long as the 
body, in the male plainly as long as the body ; also long humeral and 
cephalic bristles. In male the legs I and II are plainly larger than in 
the female; no spines on tarsi, only fine hairs, that at tip of penulti- 
mate joint as long as the tarsus, sense-hair on tarsus I longer than 
width of the joint at that place; tarsus I about as long as the two 
preceding joints together; tarsus IV slender, plainly a little longer 
than the two preceding joints together, only a faint, short hair at 
the tip of the hind tarsus. 
Length, .35 mm. 

From St. Croix, Danish West Indies, June 14, 1913, on 
sugar cane (D. Longfield Smith). 

Chortoglyphus gracilipes n. sp. (PI. XIV, fig. 2). 

Colorless. Body broad, subglobose, in front the mouth parts form 
a prominent beak, the mandibles are very large and short, the palpi 
with slender joints. No hairs above on body. Legs very slender, but 
not nearly as long as the body ; the femora, patellae and tibiae are 
subequal in length, the tarsi extremely slender and nearly as long 
as the three preceding joints together; claws minute, all tibiae with a 
very long hair at tip, and in hind legs some hairs near apex of femora 
and patellae ; tarsi with a hair toward base beneath, but no preapical 
ones visible. Genital aperture of female very large, as large as en- 
tire beak, nearly as broad as long, angulate in front. At tip of body 
is a prominent down-curved spine, and each side of it a fine hair. 

Length, .3 mm. 

From Tampa, Florida, August 5, in tobacco infested with 
the cigarette beetle (Runner). The first record of this genus 

in our country. 


Fig. i. Tyroglyphus sacchari, legs I and IV. 

2. Chortoglyphus gracilipes, under side. 

3. Tetranobia deccpta, mandible, palpus and spiracular horn. 

4. Notophallus viridis, tarsus, palpus. 

5. Tctranychus antillarum, palpus, mandible. 

6. Spelacorhynchus latus, dorsum. 

/. Tetranychina apicalis, side, tarsus I, and palpus. 
8. Spelaeorhynchus latus, sternum and spiracle. 


g. Stigmacopsis cclarius, tarsus I, palpus with supramandibular plate. 

10. Tyroglyphus sacchari, tip of abdomen. 

11. Stigmacopsis cclarius, dorsum. 

12. Iphiopsis obcsus, venter, peritreme, caroncle and epistome. 

13. Tctranychus antillarum, leg I. 

14. Notophallits liridis, leg I. 

15. Tetranobia decepta, leg I. 


New Bees from Costa Rica (Hym.). 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 

Epicharis phenacura n. sp. 

$. Length about 21 mm.; anterior wing, 17 mm.; black, the head, 
legs and abdomen (but not the thorax) marked with yellow; eyes very 
large, orbits diverging below ; vertex and front with dark brown hair, 
cheeks with brownish-white; mandibles black with minute yellow spot 
at base; labrum, clypeus (except a broad black band on each side, not 
reaching upper margin), semi-circular supraclypeal mark, lateral face- 
marks (which are narrow, with a linear extension above), and nearly 
all of front of the short and very thick scape, all light yellow; clypeal 
ridges distinct, but obtuse; flagellum dark. 

Thorax with short dense hair, dark greyish-brown (seal-brown) 
above, gradually becoming rather paler below, scutellum bigibbous ; 
tegulae dark; wings fuliginous; upper and lower sides of second sub- 
marginal cell nearly parallel, recurrent nervure joining lower side very 
slightly beyond the middle; knees with yellow spots; anterior tibia 
with yellow band on basal half; spur of middle tibia contorted, and 
abruptly bent apically; tarsi ferruginous, more or less infuscated bas- 
ally, apical joint mainly yellow; hind basitarsi broad and long, pale 
reddish, with a prominent angle in front beyond the middle ; hind tibiae 
and especially tarsi with long ochreous hair behind ; hind femora with 
brownish-black hair. 

Abdomen not at all metallic; first segment with a narrow yellow 
band, failing in middle; segments 2 to 4 yellow, except a broad apical 
dark band; segments 5 to 7 honey-color; apical plate very large, nar- 
rowly truncate at end. 

San Carlos, Costa Rica (Schild and Btirgdorf). U. S. Nat. 
Museum. This remarkable species resembles Centris flavo- 
picta Smith in many respects, but it has the structure of Epi- 
charis. In Friese's table of Epicharis it runs near E. fasciata 
Lep., from Bahia, but is quite distinct. 

Epicharis conura n. sp. 

9. Length 22-24 mm.; anterior wing 16 mm.; black, with conical 
ferruginous abdomen (not marked with yellow), the first segment with 
the dorsal surface black, but the basin (especially its margins) red; 
hair of head and thorax mainly black, but becoming grey on cheeks, 
sides of thorax and metathorax, quite pale on lower part of pleura; 
mandibles black; labrum large, with three small yellow spots or a 
large yellow triangle; clypeus with a minute yellow dot in middle of 
the flattened, shining disc, and a pair of spots, more or less obsolete, 
near lower margin; a small triangular yellow supraclypeal mark ; lateral 


face-marks elongate, more or less semi-lunar, contiguous throughout 
their length with orbits; scape very short and thick, without light 
markings; apex of third antennal joint, the short fourth joint, red 
beneath, the extreme apex of flagellum also reddish; mesothorax gran- 
ular, with scattered small shallow punctures ; scutellum deeply emargi- 
nate behind; tegulae black; wings dark fuliginous; legs black, the an- 
terior and middle ones with mainly black hair, the hind tibiae and tarsi 
with an enormous pale golden scopa ; abdomen dull ; apical plate con- 
cave, broadly truncate. 

San Carlos, Costa Rica (Schild and Burgdorf). U. S. Nat. 
Museum. One specimen bears the number 5. Related to E. 
conica Smith (which I have from Maroni, Guyana), but 
larger, with yellow markings on head in female, and the scu- 
tellum differently formed. 

Life-history and Habits of the Larger Waterstrider, 
Gerris remigis Say (Hem.). 

By J. R. DE LA TORRE BUENO, White Plains, New York. 

Of all the bugs I know, I can think of none so amorous as 
our. common large water-strider, Gerris remigis of Say. From 
the earliest days of spring, when the Frost King releases the 
waters from his bondage, till the cloudy days of autumn, when 
the leaves fall and the winds grow bleak at his return, these 
beasties are common and familiar sights to the lover of the 
quiet flowing waters running to the distant seas. In these 
haunts, in some stil! little bay or moveless backwater, under a 
bridge, or in the shadow of a tree, or in the cool recesses of 
an overhanging bank, you may see remigis gathered in num- 
bers, rowing silently about, now and again skipping to escape 
the maw of some greedy fish, or pouncing on some unfortu- 
nate insect fallen into the water and struggling to escape from 
the clutches of that deadly element. Here they rear large fami- 
lies and spend at ease the sultry dog-days. When winter comes 
again the old generation have passed away and their young 
descendants, now full-grown, seek shelter against frost and 
snow under nearby logs or stones on the banks, .or crevices 
in them ; there to sleep until in the round of days Old Sol routs 
the chills of winter and spring once more ushers in the leaves 


and flowers, and vivifies all the reproductive powers of nature, 
in which Gerris is not the least factor. 

That great American naturalist, Thomas Say, who, finding 
himself in a new Paradise, like Father Adam of old, spent his 
days busily giving names to f he theretofore nameless multi- 
tude of living things which del.ghted his eye, was the first to 
recognize Gerris remigis as dis inct from the European G. 
pahidum Fabricius, describing it in 1832. Since his day other 
entomologists have referred to his species more or less at 
length, among them Packard, Comstock, Uhler (who has giv- 
en by far the best account of the insect in the Standard Na- 
tural History), and Howard, till we come to the present, when 
it has been the subject of many short articles and studies. Uh- 
ler has been heretofore the source of most of our information 
on this species and in the work mentioned he briefly describes 
its habits. The scantiness of information about the life and 
habits of Gerris remigis and of the other nearly-related forms 
led me to try to work out a life-history by breeding the spe- 
cies in aquaria. This was begun some nine or ten years ago 
and brought to a partial close in 1908, when, after some trou- 
ble, a single specimen was brought through to maturity. 

In nature the life-history of Gerris remigis appears to be 
briefly this : Breeding and oviposition begin as early as Feb- 
ruary, or in the first warm days of spring. (I have found 
them mating in early April, while one still slept under a stone.) 
It is seemingly continuous all through the summer, and it is 
not unusual to find nymphs in various stages in company with 
the adults. I have found them thus in late May and as late 
as the middle of October, nymphs in two or three stages be- 
ing together. The mother lays her cylindrical pearly eggs end 
to end along the edges of grasses or other vegetation growing 
into the water, to which she attaches them by means of a col- 
orless waterproof glue. Here they develop more or less quick- 
ly, according to the temperature, the little bugs showing day by 
day more and more plainly through the shell. At the end of a 
week or ten days they burst the shell and escape into the water. 
The little bugs remain submerged for an hour or two, swim- 
ming about, until finally they succeed in piercing the surface 


film and by main strength wrench themselves free from its 
fatal clutches. Some, indeed, perish by drowning, although 
their vitality is surprising. In time, some six days or so, they 
cast their skins with accompanying changes in structure. This 
takes place four times more before they reach the perfect in- 
sect at the end of about six weeks. It is thus possible for G. 
remigis to have at least three j generations in a summer, if not 
more, depending, of course, on the length and temperature of 
the season. 

For food Gcrris remigis depends on other insects and it is 
very voracious. I have found it sucking Capnia necydaloidcs, 
the small stone-fly, abundant in this latitude, so very early in 
the spring that it is frequently frozen into the snow when the 
sun that melted its surface no longer shines upon it. 

In the aquaria it is fed flies, the most common, abundant and 
obnoxious insect of the summer, although any other insect 
would do as well. A specimen I had in an aquarium played 
havoc with the other living things, devouring such tough cus- 
tomers as Notonecta and Dineutes, after a long struggle, in 
which each was endeavoring to get the other. It finally perish- 
ed to a Notonecta irrorata. If sufficiently hungry they will 
feed on their own nymphs and even on each other. 

Polymorphism is not displayed by this species, which is only 
dimorphic, being found, but very rarely, fully winged, its com- 
mon form being apterous. The possession of wings always 
causes a change in the structure of the thorax to accommodate 
the much enlarged muscles which the use of organs of flight 
requires. These winged adults are generally found solitary 
in the most unlikely places isolated little pools, springs, rock- 
holes, beach drift 1 , far from the favorite haunts of this stream- 
loving bug. 

The manner in which it uses its legs for propulsion is quite 
interesting. The first pair is prehensile and is used to hold its 
prey. In locomotion its tarsi only touch the surface of the 
water. The bug rows itself with the middle legs only, the 
tarsi being in contact with the water along their entire length, 

1 1915. Heteroptera in Beach Drift. Bueno, Ent. News xxvi : 277. 


while the third pair is used only in steering, both tibia and 
tarsus lying on the surface for this purpose. The wings, when 
present, are serviceable, the European forms being recorded 
as using them in night flights, not observed with our species. 

It is said that when closely pursued Gerris dives to escape 
and swims under water, but I have never been able to induce 
or force any of those I have seen to perform for me. 

Gerris remigis is parasitized by a bright red water mite, 
which attacks it in all stages of development. T have found 
in midsummer an individual with head completely covered with 
these larval mites, excepting the eyes and beak ; a winged speci- 
men had the thorax invaded. In September a young nymph 
was taken similarly infested. Matheson and Crosby 2 observed 
the minute Proctotrypid, Limnodytes gcrriphagus, also known 
in Europe as a parasite of gerrid eggs, ovipositing on those of 
remigis, one to each egg. 

The external anatomy of Gerris remigis is fairly known, but 
so far no one has worked out the internal anatomy and physi- 
ology of the species. Dufour 3 investigated the anatomy of its 
European congener, Gerris najas de Geer (canalium Dufour). 
He studied the digestive tract, the hepatic and the reproductive 
systems, and in pi. V, Figs. 59-64, he illustrated certain ana- 
tomical details and also the digestive tract. He states that "the 
stigmata of Gerris are of microscopic size and very difficult to 
detect because of the lustrous silky pile which covers them. 
There are six pairs, all near the outer edge of the venter, out- 
side of darker lines." He also says the trachea are tubular 
and elastic and of capillary fineness. Dufour also remarks 
that it has an alcalescent odor and quotes De Geer as calling it 
buggy. I myself have not noted this in remigis. Bergroth 4 
describes a perforated median tubercle in the metasternum, 
which he calls "omphalium," and queries if it be the unpaired 

2 I9I2. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. v : 67. Aquatic Hymenoptera in America. 
Robert Matheson and C. R. Crosby. 

3 1833. Recherches Anatomiques et Physiologiqnes sur les Hemi- 
pteres. Memoires de Savans Etrangers, pp. 197, 346, 371, 400. 

4 1902. On the Thorax of the Oerridae, Ent. Mo. Mag. (2), xiii, 


opening of the stink-gland. This omphalinm is perfectly visi- 
ble in G. remigis, in specimens with a reddish venter ; in dark 
individuals it is difficult to see, but with care may be detected 
readily. It also appears to vary in size somewhat and is plac- 
ed at the caudal margin of the metasternum, right at the su- 
ture. N. Leon 5 states that the Gerridae have labial palpi, which 
I have not ^detected in our species. Fyles 6 finds remigis weighs 
one grain. Henneguy 7 refers to the number and structure of 
the malpighian tubes in the genus and to the pulsatile organs 
in the legs (p. 87), quoting Locy and Behn. Uhler records 
that it varies in color, a circumstance scarcely worth noting, 
as it cuts no figure specifically, which is the reason for its men- 
tion here. Some species are recorded to fly by night, but ours 
have not been observed doing so. Two fossil species of the 
genus are known from Canada, perhaps the ancestors of our 

Gerris rcinigis is extremely hard to keep in confinement. No 
sooner is it in an aquarium than it begins to dash itself madly 
against the sides. Now and again a tamer specimen is secured 
and such will even breed in confinement. Ordinarily, however, 
they get water-logged from their frantic efforts and, sinking, 
drown. But even these sunken individuals, after some time, 
as Mr. C. E. Olsen has observed, if rescued before it is too 
late and carefully dried, may return to active life. Gerris 
remigis, like all the other semi-aquatics, is densely clothed 
with a velvety pubescence in all instars, which it furbishes and 
preens and currycombs constantly, by means of the tibial 
combs, with which each tibia is furnished, a toilet necessity 
found in them from their earliest youth. 

A very careful study of the reactions of Gerris has been 
made by Christine Essenberg 8 . She studied the Calif ornian 

5 1897. Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Labiums der Hydrocoren. Zool. 
Anz. Bd. 20, No. 527. 

"1910. 4ist Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 
P- 53- 

7 1904. Les Insectes, p. 80. 

"1915. Journ. An. Behav. v., No. 5, pp. 307-402. The Habits of the 
Water Strider Gerris remigis. 


Gerris orba Stal, which differs in some habits from ours, for 
instance, in floating on its back, something never noted in 
remigis, and in taking to land to escape pursuit. Remigis 
generally skates away at top speed and is quite expert at turn- 
ing and twisting to avoid an enemy. She also notes death- 
feigning, especially in some individuals. A number of other 
interesting tests were made which might with advantage be 
repeated on Gerris remigis. 

Life history notes on Gerris conformis and Liinnogonus 
hcsione were published by Carl J. Drake 9 . 

Gerris remigis is well illustrated in a number of places, the 
best being Fig. 8 in Comstock's Insect Life, and Fig. 225 in 
Folsom's Entomology. 

Gerris remigis mates "par superposition," as Gadeau de Ker- 
ville has it 10 and as Amyot and Serville describe for najas 11 . 
The period of gestation is not known, nor the number of eggs 
one female is capable of laying, although this has been deter- 
mined for other species of the genus. 

Egg. Long cylindrical, rounded at both ends and slightly concave at 
the micropylar end. There is one micropyle, and the chorion is some- 
what thickened at this end, except at the concavity, where it thins some- 
what. It is clear white in color when freshly deposited and the chorion 
is roughened superficially but not sculptured in regular designs. The 
egg is attached to the aquatic plants by a clear, colorless waterproof 
glue secreted by the female. 

This reproduces the observations of Dufour (op. c.} already cited, 
and those of Uhler (op. r.). 

In an aquarium they were attached to a little piece of wood, 
provided as a resting place, especially on the submerged part, 
but apparently were not glued on. The eggs develope in about 
two weeks or ten days, and the little bug emerges. It does 
not hatch out through a cap or lid, as do many of the Heterop- 
tera, but through a simple slit lengthwise of the chorion, which 
splits it for a varying distance in a straight line, at times not 
quite one-half its length, at others nearly to the other end from 
the micropyle. 

'1915. Ohio Nat. xv : 503. 
I0 i902. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 68. 
"1846. Hist. Nat. Hem. p. 415. 


Nearly immediately on emerging the nymph casts a diaphan- 
ous pellicle, very soft and hairy, so soft that it does not retain 
its shape at all and is nearly invisible on the surface of the 
water. This pellicle, which I prefer to consider in the nature 
of an amnion rather than as a true molt, shows the one-jointed 
tarsi, subapical claws, tibial combs on all legs, but the other 
details are much obscured. The covering hairs are long and 
matted. As already noted the just-hatched nymphs sink and 
have to break through the surface film before beginning active 

Nymph, First Instar. The antennae are moderately stout, joint 2 
shortest, 4 longest, as long as i and 3 together, next in length being I 
and 3. The ommatidia are round. All the tarsi are i-jointed and all 
the tibiae have combs. The first pair of legs is shortest and the 3d 
longest; the tibia and femur are subequal in the first pair; in the sec- 
ond the tibia is longer than the femur and in the third shorter. The 
legs are set apparently very far back, due to the excessive shortness of 
the abdomen arising from the very narrow, ringlike segments. The 
head is rounded and hairy with a few scattering long setae. The ros- 
trum is stout, with the third joint longest, then the 4th, followed by the 
2d and ist in that order. The 4th is black and tapering. 

Second Instar. This instar is much the same as the first, except that 
the legs are not apparently so far back on account of the lengthening 
of the abdomen. It is also changed as follows : The first pair of legs 
continues the shortest, but the second is the longest; the tibia of the 
first pair is shorter than the femur and in the second pair they are sub- 
equal, while in the third pair the tibia continues shorter. The second 
joint of the antennae is the shortest; the first and third are subequal 
and the fourth longest as before. In the cast skin in this and all in- 
stars, the second joint appears cupped at the distal end and the third 
joint is sunk into it nearly half way. In this instar in the cast skin, 
from which these dimensions and proportions were taken, a long spir- 
acle is seen on the propleurae, near the upper edge. 

The nymph in this and other instars was mounted in balsam, and in 
this case too much shrunk for exact study. 

On emerging from the first molt, the nymph is very translucent and 
rather colorless, excepting the eyes, which are red. 

Third Instar. In this the nymph is as in the first, except as follows : 
The anterior femur and tibia are subequal, the proportional length of 
the legs and proportional length of leg joints remaining as before. The 
antennae are as before, except that the third joint is longer than the 
second, the first longer than either, the fourth continuing the longest. 


Fourth Instar. The greater part of the characteristics of the nymph 
are as in the preceding instar. The antennal joints show the greatest 
change. Joints I and 4 are equal and longest; joint 2 continues the 
shortest, half as long as i and two-thirds as long as 3. The hind and 
middle femora show dark spots from each of which springs a long hair 
or seta. Scattered thorns are also seen on them. 

Fifth Instar. This cannot be described, as the only specimen brought 
to maturity died while molting and the cast skin was not available. 
The excessive heat and moisture of the aquarium apparently weakened 

Burmeister states that the nymphs of Gcrris may be distinguished 
from the adult by having single-jointed tarsi. This is the case with 
(7. remigis, which shows no sign of two tarsal joints in the fourth in- 
star, but has them in the adult. 

Table of development of Gcrris remi(/is Say. 

Oviposited April 6; May 31 ; Aug. 3 \ ^ d 

Emerged April 19; June 12; Aug. 15 I 

Molt T April 26: June 16, 17, 18; Aug. 21 6 

Molt II June 20, 21, 22, 24; Aug. 27 6 

Molt III June 25, 30; Sept. T 5 

Molt IV July 5, 6 ; Sept. 8 7 

Molt V Sept. 18 10 

Total days 37 (four molts) 46 (Complete cycle) 

From the above it is seen that the embryonal and four 
nymphal stages took thirty-seven days, from the end of May 
to early July ; the complete cycle, from oviposition to the adult, 
took in August and September, forty-six days, which, assum- 
ing a period of ten days for the last nymph, would make the 
time nearly equal. These are aquarium results, and this con- 
dition makes for stability, in that the moisture, heat and food 
are all there, and that there are not the fluctuations there would 
be in the open, with cool June days and a precarious food sup- 
ply. In nature, I would look for decided variations in the 
period, depending on the temperature largely. The embryonal 
period ranged from ten to twelve days; the first nymph from 
four to seven ; the second, four to six ; the third, from five to 
ten; the fourth, from five to ten, and the fifth (one example), 
was ten days. Mr. C. E. Olsen, working independently, found 
the fifth instar fifteen days long, in late June. 

In conclusion I urge the complete and detailed study of the 
life history of this bug, which, it is evident from this rough 
preliminary sketch, presents many interesting problems. 

ENT. NEWS, VOL. xxvili. 

Plate XVI. 




Two new Syrphidae (Diptera) from Eastern North 


By C. L. METCALF, Ohio State University, Columbus. 

(Plate XVI). 

Cinxia* carolinensis new species (Plate XVI, figs. A, B, C, D). 

At once distinguished from the described North American 
species in lacking the black facial stripe and in having but a 
single fascia, or pair of spots, on the abdomen. 

$. Length 10 to n mm. Vertex black, but little shining, with 
dusky yellow pile much lighter on the occiput. The eyes contiguous 
or nearly so for about the length of the vertical triangle. Frontal 
triangle densely whitish yellow pollinose, except for a shining black 
lunule above the base of the antennae and a very slender, median, 
impressed line. In some lights the blackish ground color shows 
through, especially next the eyes. The front covered with very deli- 
cate, silvery pile which continues down the sides of the face, gradually 
thinning on anterior orbits to the lower corner of the eye. Face yel- 
low; whitish yellow pollinose like the frons, except for a broad glab- 
rous band over the tubercle, but not reaching the base of the an- 
tennae, which is shining waxy yellow. Cheeks (jowls) brownish black 
with moderate pale pile and a broad contiguous band in front of the 
jowls from eye to oral margin deep shining black, bare. Anterior 
mouth edge narrowly blackened. 

Face in profile (Plate XVI, Fig. B) much produced downward and 
forward, more than usually concave below the antennae and with a 
prominent tubercle about equalling the frontal prominence; abruptly 
constricted below the tubercle and thence straight to oral margin. 
Lower mouth edge convex, forming with the plane of the occiput an 
angle of about 130. Posterior orbits somewhat inflated below, whit- 
ish pollinose, and with delicate pale pile. Proboscis and palpi en- 
tirely brownish black, about as long as the depth of the eye. 

Antennae brownish yellow, the first two joints darker, the third joint 
subquadrate, with angles much rounded, a fifth deeper than its length 
on the inner side beyond second joint. The arista two and one-half 
times this length, basal, reddish yellow, plumose, with about a dozen 
rays on the upper side not extending to the tip and two-thirds as many 
below, the latter wanting on the basal third and at the tip. 

Mesonotum moderately shining bronze black, with thick but delicate 
yellow pile, humeri whitish pollinose. The scutellum obscure reddish 
brown to black with similar pile. Pleurae shining black with thinner 
pile. A small indistinct brownish yellow spot on the upper sterno- 

*Cin.ria Meigen (1800) Scricomyia Meigen (1803). 


pleura and another above the middle coxa on the pteropleura. Plumula 
and tegulae white, the latter with yellowish pile, halteres yellow. 

Abdomen (Plate XVI, Fig. C) about one-fifth longer, and the second 
and third segments broader, than the thorax, broadest at end of second 
segment; black, moderately shining, rather strongly arched, with mod- 
erate pile, which is black on the posterior margin of the second and on 
the disk of the third and fourth segments, elsewhere yellowish, longer 
on the venter, on the genitalia and at the sides of the second segment 
where it is also denser, but in no place obscuring the ground color. An 
interrupted yellow fascia on the anterior half of the second segment 
which takes the form of two narrow, elongate, slightly oblique spots, a 
little less than one-fourth the width of the segment and attenuated 
somewhat toward either end ; interrupted by more than twice their 
width and separated from the lateral margin by one-half more than 
their width. The black of the segment contiguous to these spots is 
opaque. Elsewhere the abdomen is immaculate except for a slight mar- 
gin of yellow on some of the genital plates posterior to the fourth seg- 
ment. Venter with yellow as follows : posterior angles and narrow 
posterior margin of first segment, the second segment except a median 
black spot, and a stripe on the posterior margin of the third segment. 
Elsewhere, including the genitalia, black, shining. 

Wings (Plate XVI, Fig. A) on the costal third brownish, clouded, 
occupying most of the costal, subcostal and marginal cells. Veins 
brownish throughout. Anterior cross-vein four-ninths the distance 
from base of discal cell, the third longitudinal vein broadly but con- 
siderably bent into the first posterior cell, the latter pediform. 

All the femora slightly thickened, hind pair very slightly curved; in- 
cluding the coxae, reddish to blackish brown, the tips yellow. Tibiae 
yellowish, the anterior ones slightly, the hind pair much infuscated in 
the middle. Tarsi yellow, the last two joints brownish. Pile chiefly 
pale yellow, longer on the femora. 

Described from two males : The type collected by the writer 
at Raleigh, North Carolina, in mid-April, 1914, about blossom- 
ing pear; in the author's collection. Para-type (without head) 
collected by Mr. Franklin Sherman, Jr., at Raleigh, North 
Carolina, in late March, 1908 ; in the collection of the North 
Carolina Department of Agriculture. 

Sphaerophoria cleoae new species (Plate XVI, figs. E, F). 

9 . Length 8 mm. Vertex deep blue black, moderately shining. The 
black encroaches to a variable extent on the frons, particularly as a 
median stripe narrowing toward, and not reaching more than half-way 
to, the base of the antennae, or sometimes reaching nearly to the latter 


and widening slightly to form a biconcave arch above their bases. The 
black also projects on each side as slight points along the eyes. Re- 
mainder of the frons, the face and cheeks entirely wax yellow, shining, 
or, rarely, the cheeks and jowls slightly infuscated or even entirely 
blackened. The anterior mouth edge sometimes narrowly blackish and 
more or less infuscation on the facial tubercle but not forming a 
definite stripe. Posterior orbits densely pollinose and pilose; with 
somewhat flattened silvery white pile on lower half, infuscated and 
with delicate brownish yellow pile above. Pile of vertex black, that of 
fions mostly pale yellow, delicate. The face nearly bare a few very 
short delicate pale yellow hairs. Cheeks long yellow pilose. Antennae 
of the same color as the face, the third segment rounded, about as 
deep as long, the upper and distal parts more or less infuscated ; the 
first and second segments entirely pale yellow with minute stiff black 
hairs especially on the upper side. Arista brownish, bare, somewhat 
thickened on the basal third. 

Face in profile (Plate XVI, Fig. F) prominent, slightly concave from 
antennae to tubercle and again slightly constricted before the mouth 
edge. On lower part produced forward about half the width of the 
eye. Anterior mouth edge not equaling the tubercle. 

Thorax brownish black, moderately shining, with two faintly whitish 
pollinose, narrowly separated stripes, obsolete behind. The lateral mar- 
gins broadly and brightly yellow on humeri and to the suture, thence a 
little less brightly but still distinctly yellowish to the scutellum. Pleurae 
with the usual distinct yellowish spots on the prothorax, meso- and 
meta-pleurae and on the upper parts of sterno- and ptero-pleurae. 
Scutellum, plumula, squamae and halteres entirely yellowish. Pile of 
the dorsum yellow, fine, moderately abundant; the lateral margins, the 
scutellum, and more or less of pleurae with delicate pale yellow pile. 

Abdomen black, rvith doubly interrupted yellow fasciae, moderately 
shining, the lateral margins continuously yellow. First segment metal- 
lic shining, the lateral margins broadly and a very slender line on the 
anterior margin yellow. Second, third and fourth segments each with 
an arcuate, yellow crossband, which is completely or nearly interrupted 
on each side about a third of the way from the lateral margin to the 
middle line. The lateral parts of the arcuate bands consist of more or 
less prominent angular projections antero-mediad from the lateral mar- 
gin. Fifth and sixth segments each with an interrupted, arcuate yellow 
band, the halves resolved into somewhat hammerlike yellowish spots. 
Sometimes these segments all yellowish except a median spot and one 
on each side blackish. Narrow posterior margins of third to fifth seg- 
ments yellowish. Remainder of abdomen and the venter all yellowish. 

Legs including the coxae and trochanters pale yellowish with fine 
black hairs on femora and hind tibiae and tarsi; on the coxae long pale 


yellowish. Tarsi usually slightly infuscated, rarely quite black. Wings 
transparent, the stigma alone slightly yellowish ; veins brownish. 

Described from fifteen females taken at Orono, Maine, 
chiefly about blossoming mustard. Seven paratypes August 
n, 1.915; the type August 16, 1915, three paratypes August 19, 
1915, three paratypes August 24, 1915, and one paratype July 
12, 1916. Named in honor of Mrs. Cleo Fouch Metcalf, who 
collected the first and the type specimens. The type is in the 
collection of the writer, paratypes in the collections of the 
Maine Agriculture Experiment Station and the Ohio State 


Cinxia carolinensis n. sp. $ . 
Fig. A Wing, X 8. 
Fig. B Head, lateral view, X 8. 
Fig. C Scutellum and abdomen, dorsal view, X 8. 
Fig. D Genitalia, ventral view, X 7. 

Sphaerophoria cleoac n. sp. 5 . 
Fig. E Dorsal view, X 5.5. 
Fig. F Head, lateral view, X 8. 

Lycaena lygdamus Doubleday and its Races with a 

Description of a New One (Lep.)- 


So far as I am aware the typical form of this species is very 
rare in collections. We have two specimens collected by James 
Ridings in Hampshire County, Virginia (now West Virginia) 
in 1857. Last spring, Morgan Hebard presented a fine pair 
to the Academy, taken at Hot Springs, Virginia, May /th, at 
an elevation of 2,500 feet. These specimens agree perfectly 
with the excellent description of the species by Doubleday. The 
type locality of lygdamus was, in all probability, Jacksonbor- 
ough, Screven County, Georgia. This county is on the extreme 
eastern border of the State about the middle line. They were 
collected by Abbot and we are indebted to Dr. S. H. Scudder 
for information in regard to this famous old collector and 
artist.* Abbot lived in Jacksonborough, but the town no longer 

*Butts. Eastern U. S. & Can. i, p. 651. 


exists. Doubleday says the specimens he described in 1842 
were sent to England by Abbot, that they were taken in pine 
woods, March 2ist, and that the species is very rare. Double- 
day says Abbot confounded the species with Papilio crcbus 
Fabr. - = damactus Hiibn. 

The next name proposed was bchri Edw. in 1862, and the 
locality given was "California, from Dr. Behr." It is likely 
from this that the type locality was San Francisco. Bchri is 
larger, lighter in color and of more violet blue than lygdamus 
and the spots on the underside of the primaries are larger than 
those of the secondaries, whereas in lygdamus the spots are 
of the same size. 

Oro Scudder was described in 1876, and the author says, "I 
have only seen this species from Colorado." The description 
says it is close to bchri but averages larger. The upper sur- 
face of the wings of the male is almost entirely destitute of 
the pruinose bloom of Nomiades lygdamus and is of a tenderer 
blue, which permits all the spots of the under surface to be 
seen upon the upper side. Oro is exceedingly close to bchri 
and some specimens are difficult to separate except by the local- 
ity labels. The name may be retained for the central area 
form or the connecting link. 

Con-peri Grote was described in 1874, from the island of 
Anticosta, Canada. Scudder says it extends from Anticosta 
and southern Labrador to Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatche- 
wan. Afra Edw., 1883, was described from "the Deer River" 
country, from specimens taken by Captain Geddes. This was 
described from the female and may be considered a synonym 
of conpcri. Couperi covers the area from Illinois to Alaska 
and from Canada to Colorado. It varies greatly in size but is 
smaller than bchri and oro. I can't think of any species of 
Lye aena that varies more in size than lygdamus and its races. 

There is another form for which I propose the name 

Lycaena lygdamus Columbia ne\v race. 

It is of a deeper shade of blue than the other forms and the 
texture of the wings is less delicate. The spots on the xinder- 
side of the wings are larger than in bchri, but not as large as 


those of lygdamus, nor is it as dark in color below as lygdamus. 
It is the largest form, the males expanding 30 mm. and the 
females a trifle more. 

Described from type, male, from Port Columbia, Washing- 
ton, April 25th, 1916, and paratypcs, one male and two females, 
with the same data. They were sent to me by Mr. J. C. Hop- 
finger. There are other specimens from Olympia, Washington ; 
Corfield, Vancouver; and Lake Tahoe, California. Typical 
lygdamus is darker in color on the underside and the black 
spots are larger and the surrounding white line relatively small- 
er than in any of its races. 

Scudder made lygdamus the type of his genus Glaucopsyche, 
but later* placed it as a synonym of Nomiadcs Hiibn. The 
species nearest to lygdamus is .verccs Boisduval and its forms. 
I have examined about 150 specimens of lygdamus and its 
forms from various localities. The species flies during March. 
April and May, according to latitude and elevation, but is 
found a trifle later in the far north. We possess a few speci- 
mens taken in early June at Eagle, Alaska, and at Banff, Al- 
berta, Canada. Our specimens are from Eagle, Alaska ; Banff, 
Alberta ; Great Slave Lake, Canada ; Beulah, Manitoba ; Lab- 
rador ; Anticosta, Quebec ; Osoyoos, British Columbia ; Cor- 
field, Vancouver ; Port Columbia, Washington ; Umatilla and 
Fort Klamath, Oregon ; Los Angeles, Riverside, Truckee and 
Lake Tahoe, California; St. Ignatius, Montana; Madison, Wis- 
consin ; Taylors Falls, Minnesota ; Denver and Fort Collins, 
Colorado ; Chicago, Illinois ; Virginia and West Virginia. 

Additions to Insects of New Jersey, No. 5.f 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick. N. J. 

According to Mr. Chas. Schaeffer, in the Journal of the New 

York Entomological Society, vol. 24, p. 167, Elater carboni- 

color Esch., listed in Smith's "Insects of New Jersey" on page 

285, is an Alaskan species and should therefore be dropped. 

*Can. Ent. 1876, p. 21. 

tSee the NEWS, xxvii, p. 162. April, 1916. 


The species in question was Elater rubricus Say wrongly 
identified as carbonicolor. 

The present list contains over one hundred species and I am 
greatly indebted to Mr. S. A. Rohwer, Mr. Morgan Hebard, 
Mr. Harold Morrison, Mr. E. R. Sasscer and Miss E. M. Patch 
for identifications in their respective fields and also to Mr. H. 
B. Scammell, Mr. A. S. Nicolay and others whose names are 
mentioned in the text for their kindness in notifying me of 
their findings. 

Inasmuch as the 1909 list contains many Staten Island rec- 
ords, attention is called to the following publications of Mr. 
Wm. T. Davis dealing with the insect fauna of that island: 
List of Macrolepidoptera of Staten Island (Proc. S. I. Assoc. 
Arts & Sciences, vol. Ill, part I, October, December, 1909), 
Notes on Macrolepidoptera of Staten Island (Proc. S. I. A. A. 
S. vol. IV, parts I and II, October, 1911, May, 1912, vol. V, 
parts III and IV, October, 1914, May, 1915). 


Rhyacophila formosa Banks. Delaware Water Gap. (Slosson) 
(Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. vol. 37, p. 353). 

Wormaldia plutonis Banks. Delaware Water Gap. (Slosson) (T. A. 
E. S. vol. 37, p. 358). 


Micrutalis calva Say. Pemberton, June 21, on black walnut. (H. 
B. Scammell). 

Thionea bullata Say. New Brunswick, VII, 24. (Coll). 

Stenocranus dorsalis Van D. Whitesbog, Oct. 21, sweeping cran- 
berry vines. (H. B. Scammell). 

Megamelus nigrodorsum Crawf. Pemberton, Oct., 1914 (H. K. 
Plank) July, 1914. (H. B. Scammell). 

Diedranotropis cubana Crawf. Whitesbog, Oct., 1914. (H. B. 

Platymetopius irroratus Van D. Pemberton, Sept., 1914, Browns 
Mills, June, 1915. (H. B. Scammell). 

Platymetopius nasutus Van D. Pemberton, June, 1914. (H. B. 

Thamnotettix melanogaster Prov. Cookstown, Oct., 1914, (H. K. 

Psyllia buxi Linn. Springfield, Rutherford, East Orange, River- 
ton, July, August. (Dickerson & Weiss). An imported species 
which has become established in New Jersey on boxwood. 


Trioza alacris Flor. Rutherford and other places on Laurus nobilis 
in greenhouses during winter and outside during summer. 
Nymphs curl leaves of host doing considerable damage. Intro- 
duced several years ago from Belgium. (H. B. Weiss). 

Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis. Freehold (Headlee) and undoubted- 
ly other parts of the state. The false cabbage aphis. 

Macrosiphum luteum Buckton. Summit, in greenhouse on orchids. 
(H. B. Weiss). 

Rhopalosiphum rhois Monell. Arlington, July 8 on Rhus copallina. 
(Dickerson & Weiss). 

Saltusaphis americanus Baker. Whitesbog, Oct. 21, 1914, on bog 
grass. (H. B. Scammell). (C'anad. Ent. vol. 49, p. 3). 

Saltusaphis ballii Gill. Whitesbog, XI-13, 1915, on 3-square grass. 
(H. B. Scammell). (Canad. Ent. vol. 49, p. 4). 

Saltusaphis elongatus Baker. Whitesbog, Oct. 21, 1914, on bog 
grass. (Scammell & Plank) (Canad. Ent. vol. 49, p. 6). 

Asterolecanium hemisphaericum Kuwana. Riverton, May IS, on 
bamboo. Introduced several years ago from Japan and evidently 
doing well in southern New Jersey. (H. B. Weiss). 

Odonaspis secretus Ckll. Riverton, May 18, on Bambusa metake. 
Imported from Japan several years ago and doing well in N. J. 
(H. B. Weiss). 

Phenacaspis nyssae Comst. Milltown, July 22, on sour gum. 
(Dickerson & Weiss). 


Podisus fretus Olsen. New Brunswick, V, 18. (Bull. Brook. Ent. 
Soc. vol. XI, p. 82). 

Stephanitis rhododendri Horv. Should replace Leptobyrsa c.rplan- 
ata Heid. of the 1909 list according to G. C. Champion in Ent. 
Mon. Mag. Sept., 1916, p. 207. 

Microvelia fontinalis Torre Bueno. Westfield, Sept. 3, 1904. (Tor- 
re Bueno). (Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. vol. XI, p. 58). 

Phymata vicina Handl. Madison (Paulmier), Lakehurst, June 
(Barber). (J. N. Y. E. S- vol. 20, p. 134). 

Tenthecoris bicolor Scott. Occasionally found in greenhouses feed- 
ing on Cattleya orchids. (H. B. Weiss). 

Paracalocoris scrupeus var. diops McAtee, Lakehurst, VI-30 (W. 
T. Davis); var. bidens McA., Lakehurst, VI-30, Singac, VI-15; 
Ramsey, VI-23 (W. T. Davis). (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. vol. IX, 
No. 4). 

Paracalocoris colon var. colonus McAtee. Lake Hopatcong, VII-4 
(W. T. Davis). Trenton (A. E. S. A. vol. IX, No. 4). 

Paracalocoris adustus McAtee. Lakehurst, VI-13 (W. T. Davis). 
(A. E. S. A. vol. IX, No. 4). 


Blaberus discoidalis Serv. Rutherford, Secaucus, in greenhouses. 

Introduced from South America. (H. B. Weiss). 
Conocephalus crepitans Scudder. Erma, August, 1910 (W. T. 

Davis). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 21, p. 178). 
Conocephalus melanorhinus R. & H. Tuckerton, Sept. 1, 1907 (W. 

T. Davis). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 21, p. 177). 
Diestrammena marmorata Haan. In greenhouses in New Jersey 

(H. B. Weiss). 


Calosoma sycophanta L. Ramsey (Sleight). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

vol. 20. p. 205). 
Elaphrus cicatricosus Lee. Ft. Lee (Schaeffer). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. 

Soc. vol. 20, p. 74). 
Bembidium postfasciatum Ham. Little Falls, VI, G, by washing 

banks. (A. S. Nicolay). 
Sphaeridium bipustulatum Fabr. Upper Montclair (Nicolay), Hack- 

ensack Meadows (Wintersteiner). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol 20. 

p. 68). 

Atheta castanoptera Man. Little Falls (Nicolay). 
Stilicus rudis Lee. Lakewood, April 5. Found while sifting leaves 

around lake. (A. S. Nicolay). 
Cathartus longulus Blatch. Upper Montclair, May 29, under stone. 


Hister fungicola Schaeffer. Jamesburg. (Brook. Bull. vol. 8, p. 27). 
Atomaria laetula Lee. of 1900 list should be replaced by A. dis- 

tincta Casey. (Schaeffer). 
Dermestes pulcher. South Amboy (Schott). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

vol. 24, p. 309). 
Hetaerius blanchardi Lee. Upper Montclair, May 29, a pair in an 

ant's nest under a stone. (A. S. Nicolay). 
Microrhagus audax Horn. Ft. Lee, July 26 (Schaeffer). (Jour. X. 

Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 
Microrhagus imperfectus Lee. Ft. Lee (Schaeffer). (Jour. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 
Cardiophorus erythropus Er. At Highlands (Schaeffer). (Jour. 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 
Elater pedalis should replace E. luctuosus of 1909 list (Schaeffer). 

(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 
Melanotus opacicollis Lee. Lakehurst, August (Schaeffer). (Jour. 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 
Corymbites atropurpureus Melsch. Paterson, May 3 (Doll). (Jour. 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 
Corymbites copei Horn. Lakehurst (Schaeffer). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. 

Soc. vol. 24, p. 167). 


Throscus carinicollis Schaeffer. New Jersey (Bull. Brook. Ent. 

Soc. vol. 11, p. 63). 
Melyrodes cribrata Lee. Ft. Lee, May 23 (Woodruff & Davis) on 

blackberry blossoms. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 154). 
Anthocomus erichsoni Lee. Lakehurst, July 9 (Woodruff & Davis). 

(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 154). 
Attalus melanopterus Er. Lakehurst, June 17 (Woodruff & 

Davis). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 24, p. 154). 
Diplotaxis tristis Kirby. Palisades, May G (A. S. Nicolay). 
Mordellistena smithii Drury. Jamesburg, July 3 (W. T. Davis). 
Corphyra labiata Say. Passaic, common in grass (A. S. Nicolay). 
Rhinomacer pallipennis Blatch. New Jersey (Leng). (Rhyn. of 

N. E. A. by Blatchley & Leng, p. 51). 
Auletes albovestita Blatch. Orange Mountains, Anglesea, Brigan- 

tine Beach. April to August on bayberry (Myrica cerifera L.), 

also on foliage of leather leaf (Chamae daphne calyculata L.). 

(Rhyn. of N. E. Amer.). This species replaces cassandrae Lee., 

of 1905 list. 
Cholus cattleyae Champ. In an orchid house at Secaucus feeding 

on and breeding in the pseudo-bulbs of Cattleya gigas. Intro- 
duced from Tropical America. (H. B. Weiss). 
Cholus forbesii Pasc. Found with the above species. (H. B. 

Anthonomus atomarius Blatch. Ocean County, swept from oak 

shrubs (Leng). (Rhyn. of N. E. Amer. p. 290). 
Anthonomus likensis Blatch. Orange, June, by beating honey lo- 
cust (Leng.). . (Rhyn. of N. E. Amer. p. 30). 
Thysanocnemis balaninoides Schaeffer. New Jersey. (Rhyn. of N. 

E. Amer. p. 242). 
Thysanocnemis bischoffi Blatch. Bloomsbury (Bischoff). (Rhyn. 

N. E. Amer. p. 241). 
Tychius picirostris Fab. Palisades, May 23; Upper Montclair, 

May 29 (A. S. Nicolay). 
Ceutorhynchus neglectus Blatch. Chester, Hemlock Falls (Rhyn. 

N. E. Amer. p. 447). This species replaces pusio Mann of 1909 

Diorymellus laevimargo Champ. In orchid houses in New Jersey. 

Beetles feed on leaves and flowers of Cattleya and Dendrobium 

spp. (Weiss). 
Acypotheus orchivora Blackb. In orchid houses in New Jersey, 

breeding in pseudo-bulbs of Dendrobium spp. and feeding on 

various parts of the plants. (H. B. Weiss). 
Tricrania sanguinipennis Say. Lahaway, April 14, 1916. (R. P. 




Hesperia montivagus Reak. August, on clover, Passaic Park, 
1899 (rare). (M. H. Mead). 

Eutolype bombyciformis Sm. Union County, April (F. Lemmer). 

Anytus teltowa Sm. Elizabeth, September 2, September 20; Lake- 
hurst, September 27; Vineland, August 29. (Psyche, 1910). 

Arzama (Bellura) brehmei Br. and McD. Cliffwood, May 15. (H. 
H. Brehme). 

Nannia refusata Wlk. Hopatcong, July 20 (F. Lemmer). 

Alcis sulphuraria Pack. Hopatcong, July 20 (F. Lemmer). 

Brephos infans Moesch. Hemlock Falls, April (Watson and Corn- 
stock); Jamesburg, April 23 (Watson). Larva on white birch. 
(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. vol. 20, p. 218). 

Nymphula obscuralis Grt. Passaic Park, July 29, August 15, Sep- 
tember 1 (M. H. Mead). 

Achroia grisella Fabr. The lesser wax-moth. New Egypt and 
other parts of the State. Not numerous. (E. G. Carr). 

Tortrix georgiella Walk. Whitesbog, June 10, 1915. Bred from 
larva on blueberry, J'accininm corymbosum. (H. B. Scammell). 

Holocera elyella Dietz. Essex County (Kearfoot). (T. A. Ent. 
Soc. vol. 36, p. 50). 

Phuphena u-album Guen. Lakewood, October 1, 1914. Bred from 
pupa taken from soil of cranberry bog. (H. K. Plank). 

Ectoedemia populella Busck. West Norwood, August 15, 1916 
(H. B. Weiss). Gall on petiole at base of leaf of Populus trcmu- 


Diprion simile Hartig. Rutherford, South Orange, Elizabeth, July 
22. Larvae on pine (Dickerson & Weiss). An European spe- 
cies which has become established in New Jersey. 

Janus abbreviatus Say. Bound Brook, Rutherford, Irvington, Eliz- 
abeth, Secaucus, South Orange, Springfield. Larvae in poplar 
and willow shoots. (Dickerson and Weiss). 

Andricus brevicornis Beut. Lakehurst. (T. A. Ent. Soc. vol. 39, p. 

Meteorus trachynotus Vier. Whitesbog, August 2. Parasitic on 
Ancylis comptana Froehl. (H. B. Scammell). 

Cremastus minor Cush. Whitesbog, August, 1915. Bred from 
Khopobota racciniana Pack. (H. B. Scammell). 

Cremastus forbesii Weed. Pemberton, May, 1915. Bred from Ge- 
Icchia triolbamaculclla Cham.; Whitesbog, August, 1915. Bred 
from Rhopobota racciniana Pack. (H. B. Scammell). 

Sesioplex validus Cress. Pemberton, August, 1915. Bred from 
Hyphantria cnnca Dru. (11. B. Scammell). 


Sympiesis ancylae Girault. Whitesbog, July, 1916. (H. B. Scam- 

Eulophus magnisulcatus Girault. Jamesburg, reared from a cherry 

"Colcophor." (Ent. News, vol. 27, p. 404). 
Arthrolytus aeneoviridis Girault. Whitesbog, July, 1916. (H. B. 

Monodontomerus dentipes Boh. Bred from cocoons of Diprion 

simile. (Weiss.) 
Coelopisthia rotundiventris Gir. Bred from pupae of Plagiodcra 

I'crsicolora. Irvington. (E. L. Dickerson). 
Pleurotropis tarsalis Ash. Bred from pupa of Plagiodcra vcrsi- 

colora. Irvington. (E. L. Dickerson). 

Lasius murphyi Forel. Female at Chester, August 2. (E. L. Dicker- 
Vespa austriaca Pank. Ft. Lee, July 16 (Bequaert); Staten Island, 

July 16. (Hine). 
Halictus floridanus caesareus Ckll. Ocean Grove, July 12. (Bull. 

Brook. Ent. Soc. vol. 11, p. 11). 
Halictus oceanicus Ckll. Ocean Grove, July 12. (Bull. Brook. Ent. 

Soc. vol. 11, p. 11). 

Bombus ternarius Say. Lake Marcia (High Point). (F. E. Lutz). 
Bombus terricola Kirby. Ramsey. (F. E. Lutz). 


Culex brehmei Knab. Laurence Harbor, April 30, May 17. (H. H. 
Brehme). (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. vol. 29, p. 161). 

Lestodiplosis platanifolia. Larvae on under sides of plane tree 
leaves. Rutherford, Elizabeth, Trenton, Riverton, August 15. 
(E. L. D. and H. B. W.). 

Parallelodiplosis cattleyae Moll. Madison, Secaucus, in green- 
houses where orchids are grown. Larva makes gall near tip of 
root. (H. B. Weiss). 

Dasyneura communis Felt. Ridgewood, August 13, galls on ribs 
of leaves of Acer rubrum and A. saccharimtm. (E. L. Dickerson). 

Simulium jenningsi Malloch. Lahaway, May 30. (R. P. Dow). 

Promachus rufipes Fabr. Cedar Springs (Hebard), August 26. (Ent. 
News, vol. 27, p. 381). 

Hydrophorus intentus Aid. Atlantic City, May 6. (C. W. John- 
son). (Psyche, vol. 18, p. 51). 

Zodion intermedium Banks. Clementon, May, July. (C. W. 
Greene). (Annals E. Soc. Amer. vol. 9, p. 193). 

Neopales tortricis Coq. Parasitic on Pcronca minuta Rob. Browns 
Mills, August, 1914. (H. B. Scammell and H. K. Plank). 

Sarcophaga pachyprocta Parker. New Jersey. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. 
Soc. vol. 24, p. 171). 

Chrysomyia concolor Malloch. Lahaway, May 30. (R. P. Dow). 


Mosillus tibialis Cress- Wildwood, July 18, 1908. (E. T. Cresson, 
Jr.). (Ent. News, vol. 27, p. 149). 

Drosophila affinis Sturt. New Jersey. (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. vol. 
9, p. 334). 

Drosophila putrida Sturt. New Jersey. (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. vol. 
9, p. 339). 

Drosophila dimidiata Loew. Alpine, July 25; Riverton, September 
S. (E. L. Dickerson). 

Phytomyza affinis Fall. Springfield, Orange, Nutley, Rutherford, 
Elizabeth, Riverton, June. Larva mines leaves of clematis. (H. 
B. Weiss). 

Phytomyza ilicicola Loew. Pemberton. Mined leaves of inkberry 
collected February 23 and adults issued in late April and May. 
(H. B. Scammell). 

Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy. Rutherford, Springfield, Riverton, 
Elizabeth, June to September. Larva mines leaves of colum- 
bine. (H. B. Weiss). 

Aulacigaster rufitarsis Macq. Morristown, June 17. (E. L. Dick- 

Studies in the Tenebrionid Tribe Eleodiini, No. 2 


By F. E. BLAISDELL, SR., San Francisco, California. 

The following descriptions of new species and races have 

been in manuscript for a number of years. Nearly all of them 

have been distributed under the manuscript names, and it now 

becomes very imperative that they be published without delay. 

Eleodes manni n. sp. 

Elongate oblong-oval to ovate (some 9 ? ), subasperate and mod- 
erately convex, surface feebly shining. 

Head twice as wide as long, scarcely convex, feebly impressed just 
within the prominent frontal margins; frontal suture more or less 
evident as a glabrous line, sometimes impressed; surface rather coarse- 
ly and more or less irregularly punctate, punctures denser laterally 
and on the epistoma, vertex more finely punctured : antennae long, 
reaching slightly beyond the pronotal base, outer four joints moder- 
ately compressed and feebly dilated, third joint quite equal in length 
to the fourth and fifth combined, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh 
joints subequal in length and obconical, eighth obconico-triangular, 
ninth and tenth suborbicular in outline, eleventh obovate and obliquely 
truncate at tip. 

*Studies No. I was published in the NEWS for February, 1910, vol. 
xxi, pp. 60-67. 


Pronotum widest at the middle, about one-fourth wider than long, 
about twice as wide as the head in the female, and less than twice as 
wide in the male; disk very moderately and evenly convex, somewhat 
densely and irregularly punctate, punctures rather coarse, somewhat 
denser laterally and not noticeably granulate nor with the surface de- 
pressed, not declivous at the angles; apex very feebly emarginate in 
circular arc, very finely to sub-obsoletely margined ; sides broadly, 
evenly and moderately arcuate to the basal twelfth, there briefly sin- 
uate with the sides parallel to the basal angles, margin entire and 
finely beaded; base quite truncate and distinctly margined, slightly 
wider than the apex; apical angles not in the least prominent and very 
feebly rounded ; basal angles small and rectangular. 

Propleurae very sparsely muricato-granulate and obsoletely rugulose. 

Elytra oval, widest at the middle; base truncate and not in the 
least adapted to the pronotal base, equal in width to the same; humeri 
obsolete ; sides evenly arcuate, apex somewhat narrowed and rather 
broadly rounded; disk feebly convex on the dorsum, rather broadly 
and quite evenly rounded laterally, obliquely declivous posteriorly; 
surface rather closely and moderately coarsely punctate, punctures 
somewhat corroded and scarcely asperate centrally along the suture, 
there subserially arranged, the interstitial punctures more distantly 
spaced than the closely-placed strial punctures; laterally and apically 
the punctures are more confused and distinctly muricate. 

Epiplcurac moderately narrow, gradually narrowing from base to 
apex, superior margin very slightly curving upward at the base; sur- 
face dull, concave in basal one-half and sparsely subasperately punc- 

Sterna finely and densely punctate, punctures setigerous and the sur- 
face not noticeably rugulose. 

Paraplcurac rather coarsely punctate. 

Abdomen horizontal, somewhat shining, moderately finely punctate 
and obsoletely rugulose. 

Legs moderate in length, not stout. Profemora mutic; tibial spurs 
similar and the tarsi dissimilar in the sexes. Plantar spinules ferru- 

$ . Elongate, narrow, three times as long as wide. Antennae ex- 
tending about three joints beyond the pronotal base. Elytra as a rule 
scarcely wider than the pronotum, moderately convex. First two ab- 
dominal segments flattened at the middle, the intercoxal process more 
or less concave. First two joints of the protarsi not noticeably thick- 
ened beneath, but clothed with large pads of yellow silken pubescence; 
surfaces of the pads flat and subpatellate; the marginal and apico- 
marginal spinules rather long, silky, the latter longer and acute; 
plantar grooves distinct on the third and fourth joints. First two 
joints of the mesotarsi with silken pubescence on the apical half of 


each, plantar grooves nearly obliterated, especially on the first joint. 

$ . Oval to ovate, more robust, about twice as long as wide. An- 
tennae extending about one joint beyond the pronotal base, the latter 
one-twelfth of its width wider than the apex. Abdomen rather strong- 
ly convex. First joint of the protarsi slightly thicker beneath than 
the second, plantar grooves entire. 

Measurements. Males : Length 15.0-15.2 mm.; width 5.0-6.5 mm. 
Females : Length 13.5-16.0 mm. ; width 6.8-7.0 mm. 

Habitat. Washington (Wawawai, March 2Oth, April 24th 
and May ist, 1909; Ellensburg, March I3th, 1909; Almota, 
May 1 7th). 

Manni belongs to the subgenus Blapylis. 

Types ( $ and ? ) in my own collection. Paratypes in Mr. 
Wm. Mann's collection, to whom the species is dedicated. 

Eleodes variolosa n. var. (A new race of manni.) 

Oblong, elongate, more or less shining, subglabrous. Elytra very 
coarsely punctate on the disk, the punctures coalescing transversely; 
laterally and on the apex muricato-rugose, the small muricate tubercles 
coalescing transversely; intervals somewhat convex; humeri obtuse to 

Head coarsely, sparsely and irregularly punctate, the punctures 
crowded laterally and on the epistoma, very feebly convex, impressed 
laterally and along the pronotal suture. Antennae reaching a little 
beyond the pronotal base, moderately stout, slightly compressed in the 
outer four joints and not dilated, third joint a little longer than the 
fourth and fifth taken together; joints 4-7 inclusive subequal in length 
and thickness, scarcely obconical, subcylindrical; eighth triangulo- 
obconical, ninth subtriangular, tenth and eleventh subtrapezoidal, about 
as long as wide, the latter truncately obovate. 

Pronotum widest at the middle and wider than long; disk moderately 
convex coarsely, irregularly and rather densely punctate, more densely 
and subgranulately so along the margins at the sides, punctures sub- 
equal in size, intervals flat and forming small impunctate areas here 
and there; apex very feebly emarginate and obsoletely margined; sides 
evenly arcuate, feebly and not suddenly sinuate in basal seventh, 
scarcely parallel before the angles; base truncate and finely margined; 
apical angles obtuse and not at all prominent; basal angles subrec- 
tangular and not in the least prominent. 

Propleurae opaque, sparsely and very irregularly punctato-granulate, 
subrugulose about the acetabula. 

Elytra oblong-oval to ovate, widest at the middle, base wider than 
the contiguous pronotal base; humeri obtuse to obsolete; sides evenly 
arcuate from base to apex, the latter broadly rounded; disk moderately 


convex and broadly arcuately rounded laterally, arcuately declivous 
posteriorly; surface rather coarsely and not densely sculptured, cen- 
trally the punctures are coarse, shallow and somewhat eroded, tend- 
ing to coalesce transversely, laterally and apically muricato-granulate, 
the rather large granules coalescing transversely so as to appear 

Epiplcurae opaque, finely, sparsely and subasperately punctulate, 
gradually narrowing from base to apex; superior margin scarcely sin- 
uate beneath the humeri. 

Sterna and paraplcurae finely and not densely punctate nor asperate. 

Abdomen rather finely and sparsely punctate, more coarsely and 
rugosely so on the first segment, fourth segment with comparatively 
few punctures. 

Leys rather stout, moderate in length. Profemora mutic. Tarsi 
dissimilar in the sexes. 

$ . Somewhat narrow. Elytra oblong ; abdomen less convex, some- 
what flattened on the first two segments, and feebly oblique to the 

Protarsi with a blunt tuft of golden pubescence on the first joint 
at apex beneath ; mesotarsi without tufts of pubescence. 

9 . Somewhat stout. Elytra less oblong and more oval. Abdomen 
moderately convex and horizontal, i. e., on the same plane with the 
sterna. First joint of the protarsi thickened beneath. 

Measurements. Male. Length, 12.0 mm.; width 5.0 mm. Female. 
Length, 11.5 mm.; width, 6.O mm. 

Habitat. Washington (Wenatchee, May 8th: Ellensburg, 
March I3th) collected by Wm. Mann. Number of specimens 
studied, 3 (2 $ $ , i 9 ). 

Types ( $ and 9 ) in my own collection. Paratype ( $ ) in 
Mr. Mann's collection. 

Eleodes adulterina n. var. (A race of cordata Esch.) 
Syn. forma intermedia. See Bull. 63, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 381.) 

The name intermedia is preoccupied. This race of cordata 
Esch. was briefly defined as E. cordata forma intermedia in the 
above monograph of the Eleodiini as follows : ''Sculpturing 
more strongly muricato-tuberculate, with the intervals between 
the punctures less convex and consequently less reguose, ap- 
proaching pimclioldes Mann." On the central area of the elytral 
disk along the suture the punctures become less muricate and 

A series of 209 specimens collected by Mr. F. W. Nunen- 


macher, in Eldorado, Plumas, Del Norte, Humboldt, Placer, 
Monterey, Shasta and Lake Counties, California, demonstrates 
very clearly that adultcrina is the prevailing race of cordata. 
The specimens collected in Del Norte County are on the aver- 
age smaller than those collected elsewhere, otherwise they are 
true adultcrina. The above series is augmented by 156 speci- 
mens taken in Tuolumne and Mariposa Counties. 

Eleodes hybrida n. var. (A race of cordata Esch.) 

Prothorax as in cordata, except that the pronotal intervals are flat 
and more or less alutaceous. The punctures are rather ahruptly defined, 
more or less coalescent and irregularly placed, leaving small and im- 
punctate areas on the central part of the disk. The moderately deep 
punctures give the intervals the appearance of being raised, although 
not in the least rugose. 

Measurements. Males Length, 12.5-13.0 mm.; width 5.5 mm. Fe- 
male Length, 12.5-13.0 mm.; width, 6.0-6.5 mm - 

Types in my own collection. Type locality, Plumas County. 

Habitat. Plumas and Lake Counties. F. W. Nunenmacher, 
collector. Number of specimens studied, 55. 

In adidterina the prothoracic intervals are rugose as in cor- 
data and the punctures finer. The first two joints of the pro- 
tarsi at tips beneath, bear moderate tufts of piceo-flavate 
pubescence, and the first joint of the mesotarsi has a small 
transverse submarginal tuft at tip ( $ ) . 

Eleodes trita n. var. (A race of parvicolKs Esch.) 

Opaque, sculpturing eroded, oblong-ovate. Thorax somewhat trans- 
verse. Elytra depressed, humeri prominent and obtusely rounded. 

Head and antennae as in producta Mann. Fronotnm less transverse 
and less arcuate behind the middle than in producta; disk moderately 
convex, more or less slightly impressed laterally, rather coarsely and 
somewhat densely punctate, punctures shallow and eroded, denser 
and finely granulate along the lateral margin, the summits of the 
granules bright and shining; apex, sides, base and angles as in pro- 
ducta. Proplcurac sparsely granulate-punctate and more or less 

Elytra about twice as long as wide, less elongate than in producta', 
base truncate, distinctly wider than the base of the pronotum ; sides 
more or less arcuate and subparallel, becoming arcuately and some- 
what convergent in apical third, apex rather broadly rounded; disk 
distinctly flattened at base, thence more or less evenly convex, rather 
obliquely and somewhat rapidly declivous posteriorly, arcuately rounded 


at the sides; surface scarcely densely punctate, punctures rather 
coarse and eroded, irregular but exhibiting a feeble lineate arrange- 
ment, subequal in size throughout, about the humeri and along the ar- 
cuately declivous sides granulate, granules distinct, bright and shin- 

Epipleurae obsoletely and very sparsely punctate. 

Sterna. Prosternum densely punctate, more or less longitudinally 
grooved between the coxae, feebly mucronate at tip. Meso- and meta- 
sterna densely punctate. 

Abdomen densely and not very finely punctate on segments i and 2, 
third and fourth less so at middle and along the base, fifth more or 
less impunctate ; glabrous and shining at middle to base. 

Legs less stout than in producta. 

$ . Slightly more oblong, scarcely more depressed than the female. 
Abdomen slightly flattened at middle of the first two segments and 
feebly oblique. First two joints of the protarsi moderately thickened 
at tip beneath and there clothed with rather long flavate pubescence; 
tuft of the first joint larger than that of the second, both obliterating 
the plantar groove; third joint without evidence of increased pubescence, 
spinose on the margins of the groove, the latter smooth and shining. 
First joint of the mesotarsi also has a small tuft at tip. 

9 . More or less oblong-ovate, somewhat broader. Abdomen more 
convex at base. 

Measurements. Males. Length, 11.0-16.0 mm.; width 5.0-6.4 mm, 
Females Length, 12.0-13.0 mm. ; width, 5.5-6.0 mm. 

Habitat. Oregon (Josephine Comity, June 8th). Cali- 
fornia (Humboldt County, Del Norte County). 

Described from a series of 23 specimens. 

Types in my own collection. Collected by Mr. F. W. Nunen- 
macher, who possesses paratypes. 

Type locality. Del Norte County, California. 

Trita may have been distributed as forma opaca. Compared 
with a newly collected series of 42 specimens of producta 
Mann., and 280 specimens of constricta LeC., all collected by 
Mr. Nunenmacher on the same trip. 

Eleodes papillosa n. sp. 

Syn. granulata forma tubcrculata. 

During the summer of 1913, Dr. E. C. Van Dyke and Mr. 
L. R. Reynolds collected typical Elcodes granulata LeC. at 
Carville, Trinity County, California. When the monograph of 
the Eleodiini (Bull. 63, U. S. Nat. Mus.) was written no speci- 
mens of typical granulata had been seen, and the author was 


doubtful as to the status of the present species, which was de- 
fined as follows : "Thorax as in aspera LeC., elytra with the 
humeri subacute; disk sculptured with distinct tubercles, 
which usually show a serial arrangement, alternate series larg- 
er and not at all rugose." 

Habitat. California (Siskiyou County, collections U. S. Na- 
tional Museum). 

Papillosa is larger and more robust than yraiudata, and us- 
ually of an intense black and feebly shining. The pronotal 
punctuation is like that of Upis ccramboidcs, only that the punc- 
tures are distinctly separated and not coalescent. The elytral 
tubefculation is almost like that observed in granosa. (See p. 
131, Bull. 63, U.S. Nat. Mus.) 

Key to the Nearctic Species of Gargaphia with the 
Description of a New Species (Hem., Heter.) 

By CARL J. DRAKE, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

The genus Gargaphia Stal is represented by five described 
Nearctic species and a new one is added herein. The genus 
can readily be separated from the other genera of the Tingidae 
by the transverse, sinuous carina which interrupts the rostral 
sulcus between the meso- and metasternum. 

Key to the Nearctic Species of Gargaphia. 
i Elytra broad, costal area with four or more rows of a^eolae at its 

widest part 2 

Elytra narrower, costal area with not more than three rows oi 

areolae at its widest part 4 

2 Lateral membraneous pronotal margins widely expanded, with five 
or more rows of areolae at its widest part; first segment of the 

antennae blackish G. solani Heid. 

Lateral membraneous pronotal margins narrower, with not more 
than four rows of areolae at its widest part; first segment of 

the antennae testaceous 3 

3 Size small (less than 3.5 mm.); membraneous pronotal margins an* 

gularly expanded about the middle G. angulata Heid. 

Sixe larger (more than 4 mm.) ; membraneous pronotal marginal 

rounded G. tiliae Walsh. 

4 Costal area of the elytra narrow, with not more than two rows of 
areolae at its widest part ; membraneous pronotal margins very 
narrow, strongly reflected, and forming an acute angle with 
the thorax G. opacula Uhler. 


Costal area of the elytra with three rows of areolae at its widest 
part; membraneous pronotal margins broader, not so strongly re- 
flected and forming an obtuse angle with the thorax 5 

5 Costal area of the elytra with two complete and a partial series of 
areolae; nervures of elytra and membraneous pronotal margins 
not of a uniform color, the areolae more or less iridescent, 

G. iridesccns Champ. 

Costal area of the elytra with three complete series of areolae ; 
nervures of the elytra and membraneous pronotal margins con- 

colorous, the areolae hyaline G. albcscens n. sp. 

Gargaphia albescens spec. nov. 

Head armed with five rather short spines. Antennae slender, mod- 
erately long, beset with a few short hairs; first segment rather short, 
about twice the length of the second; fourth segment longer than the 
first and second conjoined. 

Lateral membraneous pronotal margins moderately broad, angularly 
dilated about the middle, composed of two quite regular rows of 
areolae and in some specimens with two or three extra cells at the 
angle. Hood moderately large. Pronotum punctate, tricarinate ; 
carinae moderately hairy, composed of a single series of areolae. 
Rostral sulcus deep, the rostrum almost reaching the transverse, sinu- 
ous carina. Hood, membraneous pronotal margins, and elytra beset with 
a few short, very fine hairs. 

Elytra moderately broad, reaching considerably beyond the apex of 
the abdomen; costal area composed of three quite regular series of 
areolae. Wings a little longer than the abdomen. 
Claspers in the male large and strongly curved. 
Length ( $ and 9 ), 3 mm.; width, 1.3 mm. 

Color. General color white. Head, thorax and abdomen black (in 
one specimen the thorax and abdomen beneath are brownish-black). An- 
tennae: first segment black, second and fourth (except base) seg- 
ments blackish, third segment and base of fourth dirty white. Legs 
dirty white, the tips of tarsi and nails embrowned. Nervures of 
hood, membraneous pronotal margins, posterior triangular process of 
pronotum, and elytra white ; areolae hyaline. Nervures of carinae 
white, except a few of the transverse nervures embrowned. Wings 
iridescent. Bucculae, rostral sulcus, and transverse carina broadly 
margined with white. Claspers in the male embrowned. 

Four specimens, taken at Sacramento, California, by Mr. D. 
J. Condit. Type in my collection : paratypc in the collection of 
Prof. J. G. Sanders. This species can readily be separated 
from allied forms by the characters given in the key. It is 
most closely related to angulata and iridescens. 



Entomology as a National Defense. 

Dr. L. O. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, 
United States Department of Agriculture, writes : 

It is unnecessary to call attention to the important work 
which the entomologists of the country can do in the present 
crisis in the way of increasing crop production by the control 
of injurious insects. The Bureau of Entomology is organiz- 
ing its forces to bring before the country at large essential in- 
formation of this character through brief publications and 
through the activities of men at various field stations. While 
no part of the field should be neglected, it is felt that special 
attention should be given to insect outbreaks involving staple 
crops, and to the preservation of stored grain, forage, etc. 
Probably in some instances it will be feasible to reduce infesta- 
tion or spread by prompt measures. For this reason the en- 
tomological service of the United States as a whole should be 
on the lookout for unusual insect conditions, and where con- 
certed action is essential, such co-operation should be arranged 
at the first possible moment. 

The Bureau of Entomology wishes greatly to increase its 
reporting service on insect pests. We will have the co-opera- 
tion of the crop reporters and farm demonstrators throughout 
the country and would like to have also the co-operation of all 
State and Station Entomologists. This service will be con- 
ducted with headquarters at Washington and it is hoped that 
all those assisting will keep the central office in constant touch 
with the status of insect pests in their vicinity. With these data 
in hand the central office will be able to tabulate and map the 
occurrence of all injurious pests and to indicate to the men 
in the field the sections which are threatened with insect dam- 
age and the means for combating same. With this informa- 
tion it will be possible to conduct a vigorous campaign against 
threatening pests. 

The Bureau stands ready to assist State and Station Ento- 
mologists whenever it is possible to do so. 

1 )r. E. P. Felt, State Entomologist of New York and Editor 
of the Journal of Economic F.ntomolof/v. writes : 

Our countvy has entered a gigantic struggle in which ma- 
terial assets ot many kinds play a most important part. There 



is urgent need for the conservation and development of all 
resources life, health, food to designate a few having a 
close relation to applied entomology. An army or navy can 
accomplish little without the foregoing essentials. There are 
many openings for the economic entomologist to demonstrate 
the utility of his calling. The urgent need of better camp 
sanitation, so far as insects are concerned, warrants an en- 
tomological staff attached to every large camp and hospital 
center and associated with the medical or sanitary corps in 
handling insect problems, particularly flies and other disease 
carriers, though body parasites and animal pests should not be 
ignored. These men should have a rank which would give 
weight to their recommendations, resources which would per- 
mit intensive studies of the entire problem if necessary, and 
facilities for the practical application of results to field and 
camp conditions. The work in the various localities should 
be co-ordinated and directed by a supervising entomologist 
in order to insure the greatest efficiency. 

It is very far from my idea to criticize directly or indirectly 
the administration by army officials of sanitary matters in re- 
lation to insect control in camps, and yet it seems to me there 
is a great opportunity for the practical entomologists to ren- 
der an invaluable service to the country, through co-opera- 
tion and the placing at the disposal of the sanitarians, prefer- 
ably working with them rather than simply advising, of knowl- 
edge which we have gained through the experience not only 
with flies and other insects occurring, or likely to occur, in 
camps, but also that gained from a study of other forms of in- 
sect life and which may be of service in solving problems of 

pressing importance. 

Notes and. News. 


Mr. E. B. WiNi amson ' s Collecting Trip in Colombia. 

From an article in the Bluffton, Indiana, Daily News, of March 15, 
1917, we learn that Mr. E. B. Williamson returned to his home in that 
town on March 14. He was accompanied by his cousin Mr. Jesse 
Williamson. He left Bluffton on November 25, 1916, was joined by 
his cousin at Colon, Panama, December 5 and, after two days in the 
Canal Zone, touched at Cartagena, Colombia, December 8, at Porto 
Colombia December 9, and made Santa Marta on December 12. In 
this region they collected December 13-January 13. Leaving Baranquilla 
December 18, they proceeded up the Magdalena River 600 miles as 
far as the lower Magdalena is navigable. They then went by train 
to Mariquita, only 100 miles from Bogota, their nearest approach to 
that city. Collecting was done near the river on the up voyage, and 


on the descent at Cisneros and Cristalina, the latter being an especially 
favorable locality. Leaving Santa Marta February 28, they returned 
to Bluffton via Cristobal (C. Z.), Bocas del Toro, Havana and New 
Orleans. They brought back 8560 specimens of dragonflies and about 
500 miscellaneous insects. 

The Destruction of the House Fly. 

The Merchants' Association of New York, through its Committee 
on Pollution and Sewerage, has issued a circular in regard to the 
common house fly, in the belief that the health and welfare of the 
community is of vital interest to all, and that any suggestion for the 
eradication of this dangerous and annoying household pest will be ap- 
preciated by every one. It also suggests that the attention of the pas- 
tors of churches be called to the desirability of teaching their people 
the iniquities of the house fly. "Furthermore, school trustees and 
teachers would find it instructive and interesting to emphasize the im- 
portance of this matter in talks to the pupils on the subject. There 
are a number of authorities who believe that the germ or virus of 
infantile paralysis is disseminated by the fly and all efforts should be 
directed to prevent a recurrence of last year's dread experience by 
this agency." The association has its offices at 233 Broadway, New 

Notice to the Zoological Profession of a Possible Suspension of 

the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature in the 

Cases of Musca Linnaeus, 1758, and Calliphora Desvoidy, 

1830. (Dipt.). 

In accordance with the Rules of the International Zoological Con- 
gress, the attention of the zoological profession is invited to the 
fact that Dr. L. O. Howard, W. Dwight Pierce, and 21 other profes- 
sional zoologists have requested the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature to exercise its Plenary Power in the case 
of the Linnaean genus Musca 1758, and, under suspension of the 
Rules, to declare M. domestica as type of this genus, also, under sus- 
pension of the Rules, to validate Calliphora Desvoidy, 1830, with C. 
vomitoria as type. 

The request is based on the grounds of practical utility, and an 
almost unbroken history of consistent usage since 1758 in the case of 
Musca, and since 1830 in the case of Calliphora. It is claimed that a 
strict application of the Rules will produce greater confusion than uni- 

According to the premises at present before the Commission, if 
the Rules are strictly applied, the generic name of Musca would take 
either M. caesar or M. vomitoria as type, and the species M. domestica 
would be cited either in Conostoma 1801 [?] (type Ascuris conostotna 

- larva of M. domestica) or in Promusca 1915 (type 717. domestica}, 
thus resulting in a very regrettable change in the nomenclature of the 
species in question as almost universally used in entomological, zoo- 
logical, medical, epidemiological and veterinary literature. 

The Secretary of the Commission invites any person interested in 
these cases of nomenclature to communicate his opinion on the sub- 
ject as soon as possible, anq* not later than May I, 1918, when the sub- 
ject will be submitted to the Commission for vote. C. W. STILES. Sec- 
retary to Commission, 25th & E. Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C. 


Pupal Differences in Megathymus (Lep.). 

Mr. J. G. Bonniwell, who has collected the pupae of Megathymus 
yucca? and cofaqui, has recently sent me specimens of the pupal 
tubes of both species and also the empty pupal shells. There is a 
marked difference in the silk tubes from which the imagos emerged, 
both in size and in color. When cut open and measured across, that 
of yuccae is 45 mm., and that of cofaqui 34 mm. The outer sides of 
these pouches, tubes or nests are covered by what appears to be the 
plant fibre chewed up by the larvae and is rather fine and disintegrated. 

In the case of M. yuccae it is of dark gray color and in M. 
cofaqui it is yellowish brown. In these two specimens the difference 
in color is marked. The two pupae he sent me also differ in size, 
that of yuccae being 45 mm. long, that of cofaqui 40 mm. long, and 
the former is more robust. 

Dr. C. V. Riley in his account of the pupa of yuccae describes it 
as ending in a slightly decurving flap. In the two specimens ex- 
amined this is approximately twice as wide in yuccae as in cofaqui. 
There are probably differential pupal characters in addition, but from 
only one specimen of each I could not be sure whether they were dif- 
ferential or only individual, or possibly sexual. 

Some time ago Dr. D. M. Castle gave me a yucca plant that had 
a borer in it and I was able to rear it to the adult stage and it 
proved to be Megathymus yuccae. The silken pupal tube extended five 
and one half inches above the ground and the upper end was covered 
with a certain amount of what appeared to be frass. The whole plant, 
including the leaves, was fourteen inches high. The type of cofaqui 
is a female and the male was recently described in the Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., 1917, XXXVII, 36. We have had both sexes for many 
years. I described Megathymus stephensi, a Californian species, as a 
variety of neumocgcni but I now consider it a distinct species, and I 
think an examination of the genitalia would prove this to be correct. 

The genus is an interesting one and the insects far more plentiful in 
nature than one would think from finding the imagos, which have 
always been rare in collections. HENRY SKINNER. 

Synonymic Notes on North American Lepidoptera. 
Thanaos callidus Grinnell. 

In our Contributions (Vol. Ill, No. 2, pp. 122-3), we suggested that 
the male and female types of this species were not conspecific, that the 
female type, after which seemingly most of the identifications had 
been made, was probably the same species as lacustra Wright, but that 
the male type, which automatically would hold the name, was probably 
a form close to persius. Since then, through the kindness of Mr. 
Fordyce Grinnell, we have examined the types of callidus as well as 
the single male type of pernigra and find that our surmise was correct; 


the male types are a form close to persins and probably the California 
representative in the Higher Sierras of the Eastern species; the so- 
called female type was really a male and belonged to the brizo group, 
being the same as that later described by Wright as lacustra. Pcrnigra 
is a very dark form apparently worthy of a name, and quite possibly 
restricted to Mt. Tamalpais and the San Francisco Bay region ; a study 
of the genitalia will be necessary to show whether it is distinct from 
callidus as a species. 

Cerapoda oblita Grt. (syn. dcscrta Grinnell). 

The species described as Autographa dcserta by Grinnell in 1912, 
(Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., p. 79) proves to be synonymous with Cera- 
poda oblita Grt.; through the kindness of Dr. R. Ottolengui, of New 
York, and Mr. F. Grinnell, one of the types has been placed in the 
Barnes Collection. 

Genus Animomyia Dyar (syn. Gracfia Pears.) 

This genus was described and doubtfully placed in the Liparidae in 
1908, (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. X, 53), based on the species morta Dyar 
from San Diego, Calif. In 1910, (Can. Ent. XL.II, 330), Pearsall erect- 
ed the genus Gracfia in the Gcomctridac for the species smithi Pears, 
from Walters Station, Calif. We have before us one of the co-types 
of smithi Pears., received through the kindness of the authorities of 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and have re- 
cently received a specimen of morta Dyar from Laguna Beach, Calif. 
The two genera are synonyms without a doubt, in fact the specimens 
from San Diego, mentioned by Pearsall at the close of his article as 
being almost worthy of a varietal name, is really morta Dyar, which 
seems to us specifically distinct from smithi; the points mentioned by 
Pearsall, vis. smaller size, more hyaline wings and closeness of t. p. 
line to discal dot easily separate morta from smithi. The reference to 
the Geometridac near Coniodcs seems to us to be correct. The synony- 
my will, therefore, stand: 

Animomyia Dyar. 
Gracfia Pears. 

(1) morta Dyar. 

(2) smithi Pears. 

J. McDuNNOUGH, Decatur, Illinois. 

The Collector's Exchange. 

Under this title, Air. Sidney C. Carpenter, of Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, proposes a weekly publication of "Wanted," "For Sale" and "Ex- 
change" notices, "For Sale" and "Exchange" lists, and a classified di- 
rectory of collectors, specialists and dealers. Those interested may 
apply to him for a circular giving detailed information. 


A Correction. (Col.). 

Owing to a mistake in copying the manuscript of the description of 
Omus cupreonitens Blais. & Reyn., the elytra were stated to be one-third 
longer than wide, which is not the truth. The statement should be cor- 
rected to read, (elytra) about one-half longer than wide. (Ent. News, 
Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, p. 50). FRANK E. BLAISDELL, SR., San Francisco, 

A Correction (Col.). 

I note an error in spelling in the manuscript of the first part of my 
article, appearing in the March number of the NEWS. On page 131, 
species No. 8. Trachykclc nebulosa Fall should read "Trachykclc 
nimbosa Fall." There is no such species as T. nebulosa. W. J. CHAM- 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following- list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico is given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record. 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 5 Psyche. 8 The Entomolo- 
gist's Monthly Magazine, London. 18 Ottawa Naturalist. 50 
Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. 68 Science, New 
York. 86 Annales, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 87 
Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 143 Ohio 
Journal of Science, Columbus, Ohio. 153 -Bulletin, American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. 161 Proceedings, 
Biological Society of Washington. 179 Journal of Economic 
Entomology. 180 Annals, Entomological Society of Amer- 
ica. 184 Journal of Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 272 
Memorias, Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona. 304 
Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 313 Bulletin of Entomological 
Research, London. 322 Journal of Morphology, Philadelphia. 
355 Smithsonian Institution Report, Washington, D. C. 373 
Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North 
America, by Wm. Barnes & J. H. McDunnough, Decatur, 111. 
394 Parasitology, Cambridge, England. 438 Bulletin, Illinois 
State Laboratory of Natural History, Urbana. 447 Journal of 
Agricultural Research, Washington. 531 Boletin, Direccion de 


Estudios Biologicos, Mexico. 540 The Lepidopterist. Official 
Bulletin, Boston Entomological Club. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Calvert & Calvert A year of Costa 
Rican natural history (New York, The Macmillan Co., 1917), 577 
pp. Cockerell, T. D. A. New tertiary insects, 50, lii, 373-84. Fossil 
insects, 180, x, 1-22. Criddle, N. Precipitation in relation to insect 
prevalence and distribution, 4, 1917, 77-80. Glaser, R. W. The 
growth of insect blood cells in vitro, 5, xxiv, 1-7. Goldschmidt, 
R. A further contribution to the theory of sex, 184, xx, 593-611. 
Headlee, T. J. Some facts relative to the influence of atmospheric 
humidity on insect metabolism, 179, x, 31-38. Hewitt, C. G. Insect 
behaviour as a factor in applied entomology, 179, x, 81-94. McCol- 
loch, J. W. A method for the study of underground insects, 179, 
x, 183-88. Sjostedt, Y. Construction of insect nests, 355, 1915, 
341-7. Walden, B. H. Simple apparatus for insect photography, 

179, x, 25-30. Walsh, G. B. On the rarity and restricted distribu- 
tion of animal especially insect species, 8, 1917, 57-61 (cont.). 
Wilcox, A. M. Notes on rearing insects for experimental pur- 
poses and life-history work, 5, xxiv, 7-12. Winn, A. F. The insect 
collections of Canada, 4, 1917, 111-12. 

segregation and recombination of homologous chromosomes as 
found in two genera of Acrididae (Orthoptera), 322, xxviii, 445-522. 
Casteel, D. B. Cytoplasmic inclusions in male germ cells of the 

fowl tick , 322, xxviii, 643-84. Hance, R. T. The somatic 

mitoses of the mosquito, Culex pipiens, 322, xxviii, 579-92. Whit- 
ing, P. W. The chromosomes of the common house mosquito, 
Culex pipiens, 322, xxviii, 523-78. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Bacot & Hindle. A contribution to 
the bionomics of Pediculus humanus (vestimenti) and P. capitis, 
394, ix, 228-65. Nuttall, G. H. F. Studies on Pediculus. 1. The 

copulatory apparatus and , 394, ix, 293-324. Whitehouse, F. 

C. The Odonata of the Red Deer district, Alberta, 4, 1917, 96-103. 

Navas, R. P. L. Neuropteros nuevos o poco conocidos [1 n. sp.], 
272, xiii, 155-178. 

ORTHOPTERA. DuPonte & Vanderleck. Studies on Cocco- 
bacillus acridiorum, and on certain intestinal organisms of locusts, 

180, x, 47-62. 

HEMIPTERA. Glaser, R. W. Anthocyanin in Pterocomma 
smithiae, 5, xxiv, 30. Hungerford, H. B. Notes concerning the 
food supply of some water bugs, 68, xlv, 336-7. Maulik, S. Solu- 
bility of the scale of Lepidosaphes ulmi, 313, vii, 267-70. Metcalf, 
Z. P. The wing venation of the Cercopidae, 180, x, 27-34. 


Parshley, H. M. Notes on No. American Tingidae [4 new], 5, 
xxiv, 13-25. Sanders & DeLong. The Cicadellidae of Wisconsin, 
with descriptions of new species [13 new], 180, x, 79-97. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Ainslie, C. N. A few notes on the life history 
of Phalonia spartinana, 4, 1917, 93-6. Ainslie, G. G. -Crambid 
moths and light, 179, x, 114-23. Collins, C. W. Methods used in 
determining wind dispersion of the gipsy moth and some other 
insects, 179, x, 170-77. Dyar, H. G. Nomenclature of Catocala 
varieties, 540, i, 31-2. Mabille, P. Description d'Hesperides nou- 
veaux, 87, 1917, 54-60. Murillo, L. Mariposa de Guinea [Eumaeus 
debra], 531, i, 637-40. Saunders, W. E. European butterfly found 
at London, Ont. (Adopea lineola), 18, xxx, 116. 

Barnes & McDunnough. Further notes on Philotes battoides 
and its allies. Remarks on Grossbeck's list of Florida L. New sps. 
and vars. of Geometridae [many new], 373, iii, 213-96. 

DIPTERA. McColloch, J. W. Wind as a factor in the disper- 
sion of the hessian fly, 179, x, 162-70. Macdonald, A. Notes on 
blood-sucking flies of Grenada, 313, vii, 259-64. Macfie, J. W. S. 
Morphological changes observed during the development of the 
larva of Stegomyia fasciata, 313, vii, 297-307. Mote, D. C. Ob- 
servations on the distribution of warble flies in Ohio, 143, xvii, 
169-176. Richardson, C. H. The response of the house-fly to cer- 
tain foods and their fermentation products, 179, x, 102-9. Town- 
send, C. H. T. Second paper on Brazilian Muscoidea collected by 
H. H. Smith, 153, xxxvii, 221-33. Welch, P. S. Further study on 
Hydromyza confluens, 180, x, 35-46. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. (See under General). Edwards, F. W. 
Notes on Culicidae, with descriptions of n. sps., 313, vii, 201-30. 
Malloch, J. R. A preliminary classification of D., exclusive of 
Pupipara, based upon larval and pupal characters, with keys to 
imagines in certain families. Pt. I. [Many new], 438, xii, 161-407. 
Townsend, C. H. T. New genera and sps. of American muscoid D. 
[13 n. g.; 4 n. sps.], 161, xxx, 43-50. Williston, S. W. Camptopelta, 
a new genus of Stratiomyidae [1 n. sp.], 180, x, 23-6. 

COLEOPTERA. Bugnion, E. Les parties buccales de Nacerda 
melanura, 86, 1916, 326-35. Desbordes, H. Synopsis de divers 
groupes d'Histeridae, 86, 1916, 297-326. Hess, W. N. The chor- 
dotonal organs and pleural discs of cerambycid larvae, 180, x, 
63-78. Lesne, P. Notes sur les Philorea, coleopteres Tenebrion- 
ides de la fauna des Andes, 87, 1917, 71-2. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. (See under General). Wickham, H. F. 
New sps. of fossil beetles from Florissant, Colorado, 50, Hi, 463-72. 

HYMENOPTERA. Holland, W. J. List of the H. collected on 


the Isle of Pines by G. A. Link, 1912-13, and contained in the Car- 
negie Museum, 304, xi, 291-96. Urbahns, T. D. Tetrastichus bruch- 
ophagi, a recently described parasite of Bruchophagus funebris, 
447, viii, 277-82. Wheeler, W. M. The No. American ants describ- 
ed by Asa Fitch, 5, xxiv, 26-9. Zappe, M. P. Egg-laying habits of 
Diprion simile, 179, x, 188-90. 

Cockerell, T. D. A. (See under General). Girault, A. A. Two 
n. gen. of No. American Entedoninae (Chalcid-flies), 4 ? 1917, 110-11. 
Howard, L. O. A new aphis-feeding Aphelinus, 161, xxx, 77-8. 
Morrison, H. Monograph of the nearctic H. of the genus Bracon 
[many new], 50, Hi, 305-43. Viereck, H. L. Contributions to our 
knowledge of the bee genus Perdita [1 n. sp.], 153, xxxvii, 241-42. 
Viereck, H. L., et al. The H., or wasp-like insects of Connecticut. 
(Guide to the insects of Connecticut, Part III). (Conn. Geol. & 
Nat. Hist. Survey, Bui. 22). [many new]. 

Doings of Societies. 

The American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of December n, 1916, in the hall of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia; Dr. Henry Skinner, President, in the chair. 
Nine members and two associates of the Entomological Section of the 
Academy present. The annual reports were read; 577 additions to the 
library by gift, exchange, etc., were recorded; new By-Laws had 
been adopted and copies printed and distributed, and a new agree- 
ment with The Academy adopted. The report of the Publication 
Committee mentioned the completion of Volume XLII of the Trans- 
actions and the issue of Number I of the Memoirs of the Society. 
On motion it was voted that the Society's meetings during 1917 be 
held on the fourth Thursday of February, April and October, and 
the second Monday of June and December. The following were elected 
to serve for the year 1917: President, Henry Skinner; Vice President, 
James A. G. Rehn; Corresponding Secretary, Morgan Hebard ; Re- 
cording Secretary, R. C. Williams, Jr.; Treasurer, E. T. Cresson ; Pub- 
lication Committee, J. A. G. Rehn, E. T. Cresson, P. P. Calvert; 
Finance Committee, J. A. G. Rehn, D. M. Castle, Morgan Hebard ; 
Property Committee, E. T. Cresson, Jr., Morgan Hebard, Philip Lau- 

Meeting of February 15, 1917, in the same hall. Dr. Henry Skinner, 
President, in the Chair; five members and four associates of the En- 
tomological section of the Academy present. 

A communication from the North Carolina College of Agriculture 
was read, requesting the appointment of a delegate from the Society 


at the inauguration of Wallace Carl Riddick as President. President 
Skinner reported that he had appointed Prof. Franklin Sherman, Jr., 
of the Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C., to represent the society. 

Dr. Skinner called attention to the requirement of the Society that 
duplicate material be sent in with papers offered for publication de- 
scribing new species, and stated that Miss Annette F. Braun had sent 
in 65 species of Nepticulidae, including cotypes and paratypes, with 
her paper. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn exhibited a specimen of Circotcttiv splcndi- 
dus from Mount Lowe. 

The meeting was followed by an interesting informal talk by Dr. 
Skinner, illustrated by lantern slides using the newly acquired lantern, 
and describing and illustrating his collecting experiences in Carolina, 
Cuba, and the Rocky Mountains of Canada and Arizona. This was 
followed by a talk by Mr. Rehn, who showed slides of the localities 
visited by him and Mr. Hebard, in Arizona and elsewhere on their re- 
cent trips, and related interesting collecting experiences. R. C. WIL- 
LIAMS, JR., Recording Secretary. 

Newark Entomological Society. 

Meetings of February n and March n, 1917, held in the Newark 
(New Jersey) Public Library, President Buchholz in the chair: average 
attendance, nine members. 

Lepidoptera. At the February meeting Mr. Rummel exhibited a Cyn- 
thia cocoon containing two pupae, one of which had hatched, also a 
series of Catocala ilia and the variety u.vor, which he had collected at 
Hagerstown, Maryland, July 6, 1916, and Haploa Iccontci var. dyari and 
var. militaris from the same locality. He also exhibited all of the species 
of Scopclosoma recorded in Smith's 1909 list as being present in New 
Jersey which he had collected during the latter part of October in the 
Orange Mountains (New Jersey), this being an additional locality. At 
the March meeting he exhibited a box of inflated larvae of Sphingidae 
and Noctuidae and commented on the abundance of some species the 
past summer. 

Homoptera. Mr. Lemmer, at the March meeting, exhibited a small 
form of the Periodical Cicada which he had collected at Lyons Farms 
(New Jersey), July 14, 1916. Brood VTTI is recorded from New Jersey 
only in Essex County and is due in 1917. His capture might have been 
an early individual of this brood. Mr. Weiss recorded Aclcrda tokionis 
Ckll., from Riverton, New Jersey, on bamboo, May 15, 1916 (identified 
by Mr. H. Morrison), this being a Japanese scale insect recorded here- 
tofore in the United States only from California. 

Hemiptera. Mr. Weiss mentioned at the March meeting his capture 
of two tropical bugs, Cardiastethits tropicalis Champ., and Solcnonotus 


nigromargiiiatiis Champ, (identified by E. H. Gibson), both of the fam- 
ily Anthocoridac, at Summit, New Jersey, on orchids from the United 
States of Colombia. HARRY B. WEISS, Secretary. 

Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of January 17, 1917, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart Street, Philadelphia; nine members present. President H. A. 
Wenzel in the chair. 

The President read his annual address which was ordered to be in- 
corporated in the minutes. 

The following officers were re-elected to serve for 1917: President, 
H. A. Wenzel; Vice President, Wm. S. Huntington ; Treasurer, H. W. 
Wenzel; Secretary, Geo. M. Greene, and Assistant Secretary, J. W. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Haimbach exhibited a pair of a new form of 
Automcris io Fabr., from Jemez Springs, New Mexico, June 21, 1916, 
collected by Jno. Woodgate, which he will describe and name later. 
Mr. Laurent stated that Saniia cccropia. Linn, was more plentiful in 
Brooklyn, New York, than in Philadelphia, and that they have a dif- 
ferent habit. Both this and last winter, while walking around the 
Flatbush district of Brooklyn, he found that nearly every maple (?) 
tree had from ten to thirty cocoons attached to the limbs. The strange 
part was that there were as many cocoons on the branches of the up- 
per half of the tree as on the lower half. Tn Philadelphia it is sel- 
dom that more than three cocoons are found on a tree and these are 
generally on the lower limbs. Mr. Daecke exhibited a specimen of 
Scopelosoma moffatiana Grt., which he took on the wing, November 
n, 1916, at Rockville, Pennsylvania. He said that this species most 
likely hibernates in the adult state since there are also records of it 
from very early spring. He also exhibited specimens of Scoliopteryx 
libatri.r Linn, collected by Mr. Knull in a limestone cave near Hum- 
melstown, Pennsylvania, January 7, 1917. This beautiful species, which 
is closely allied to the one mentioned before, is known to hibernate 
in the adult state. It is very common in Europe, where it is often 
injurious to willow and poplar. 

General. Mr. Haimbach read his translation of a review by Prof. 
Dr. Karl Eckstein (Eberswalde), in IHustrierte Zcitschrift filr Ento- 
mologie, IV, p. 381, 1899, on the abnormal mating of insects by G. 
Jakobson, Arbeiten der russischen Ent. Ges. (Laboratory work of the 
Russian Entomological Society), Vol. 31, 1898 (Russian). 

In the above article Jakobson treats of three possibilities of ab- 
normal mating: 

I. The mating between males and females of different genera and 
even families: Buprestis x Elatcr; Elatcr x Telephorus; Tclcphorus 


melanurus F. x Synaptus filifortnis L. ; Strophosomus coryli F. x 
Chrysomela (Orina) cacalinc Schr. ; Hypera pollgoni L. x Coccinclla 
bipunctata L. ; Telcphorus melanurus F. x Athous niger L. ; Donacia 
simplex F. x Opoderus coryli L. ; Coccinclla x Chrysomela; Ocncria 
dispar L. x Picris brassicae L. ; Hibernia marginaria Bkh. x Orrhodla 
raccinii L. 

II. The mating of two males with one another: Alclolontha rul- 
garis x M. vulgaris; Melolontha vulgaris x 7l/\ hippocastani. Tele- 
phones melanurus x Lampyris noctiluca. Sadeau differentiates the two 
cases as follows : pcderastic par ncccssitc and pcderastic par gout. 

III. The mating of several males with one female: Dyctyoptera 
sanguined 5 males x one female ; Tortrix viridana male and at the 
same time Tortrix hcpara male x Tortrix viridan-a female; Cerocoma 
sp. 4 males x i female. 

In conclusion Jakobson brings out the following two points : 

I. It is taking a risk to describe a new species from two specimens 
taken in copulation as male and female of one species. They may be 
two males of different species. 

II. You cannot unite male and female of a pair taken in copulation 
as belonging to one species as the male may be one and the female an- 
other species. 

Adjourned to the annex. 

Meeting of February 21, 1917, at the home of Wrn. S. Huntington, 
1910 North 2ist Street, Philadelphia; twelve members and four visi- 
tors present. President H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Daecke exhibited Pamphila huron Edw. which 
he collected at Rockville, Pennsylvania, September 30, 1916. Said that 
while at Progress, Pennsylvania, on June 9, 1916, he had noticed some 
dried currants which were infested. He took these home and on 
June 30 Eulia trifcrana Wlk. emerged. He cannot find record that 
they attack currants, but they are known to feed on various things, 
mainly huckleberries. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Geo. M. Greene exhibited a specimen of Gcotrupes 
(Cncmotrupcs) ulkei Blanchard found dead in woods by Mr. Morgan 
Hebard at Bald Knob, Bath County, Virginia, August 14, 1916. The 
specimen is minus the head and of three specimens in the Horn Col- 
lection, labelled "N. C. Merkel," two are in the same condition and 
the third perfect. This species was described in Psyche V, pp. 106-110, 
1888. Type locality Virginia in fungi. Called attention to an article 
in Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. IV, p. 497, July, 1901, "The Ant-decapitating 
Fly," by Theodore Pergande, in which is described Apoccphalns pcr- 
gandei Coquillett, a fly which decapitated Camt>onotus pennsylvanicus 
De Geer and afterwards bred from the bead. 

Adjourned to the annex. GEO. M. GREENE, Secretary. 

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From Columbia, So. America : 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

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From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

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Urania boisduvali 
Erinyis guttalaris 
Protoparce brontes, etc. 

From New Guinea : 

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philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

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JUNE, 1917. 


Vol. XXVIII. No. 6 

Henry Shinier 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 






Enter <=u ^t the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 


published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
logical Section of The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
and The American Entomological Society. 



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Plate XVII. 


1, 2. L. MACRURUM. 

5, 6. AE. DORSALE. 

9, 10. L ELONGATUM. 

13, 14. AE. FLAMMEUM 


7, 8. L. PORRECTUM. 
11, 12. L. DISPAR. 
15, 16. L? CROCEUM. 





VOL. XXVIII. JUNE, 1917. No. 6. 


Williamson Some Species of Leptag- 
rion with Descriptions of a new 
Genus and a new Species (Odon.) 241 

Girault New Chalcid Flies from Mary- 
land, II ( Hym.) 255 

Summer Work on Insects 266 

Calvert Calopteryx dimidiata apicalis 

(Odon.) 266 

Hungerford The Life History of the 

Backswimmer, Notonecta undulata 

Gibson A new Species of Corythuca Say (Hem., Het. ) 267 

from the Northwest (Heterop., Tin- [ Parker Seasonal Abundance of Flies 
gitidae) 258 j in Montana (Dipt ) 278 

Calvert Studies on Costa Rican Odo- 

nata VIII 259 

Dean The Knaus Collection of Cole- 

Change of Address 282 

Editorial The National Defense 
Against and By Insects 283 

optera 263 Dunlap A New Biological Journal ... 284 

Rohvver Two new Species of Macro- Robertson The Generic Bugbear 285 

phya(Hym.) 264 Entomological Literature 286 

Some Species of Leptagrion with Descriptions of a 
new Genus and a new Species (Odonata). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 

(Plates XVII, XVIII.) 

Foerster, in Ncotropischc Lib ell en III (Insekten Borse, 
XXIII, 1906), describes two new Neotropical Agrionine 
genera. One of these, Skiallagma, type baitcri n. sp., known 
only from the male, is stated to be closely related to Enallagma, 
a view with which I can hardly agree, since against the Enal- 
hi(/nia-\\ke character of the quadrangle (which is not at -ill 
characteristic, by the way, being a common form of quad- 
rangle) one can set at once the absence of postocular spots 
and the origin of A at the cubito-anal crossvein. Calvert 
(Ann. Cam. Mus. VI, p. 176) describes a second species, bas- 
ing his generic determination, so he writes me, on the fact that 
his species seems to be close to baitcri. 

The second new genus proposed by Foerster is Hylaeagrion. 
of which Leptagrion croceum, of his determination must be 
the type, congeneric with which, according to Foerster, is his 
new H. argcntcolhicatiiin, known from the male only. The 



new genus is separated, by Foerster, from Leptagrion by the 
presence of a vulvar spine in the female, by the unequal teeth 
of the tarsal claws, and by the form of the superior append- 
ages of the male. But it seems impossible, after comparing 
Foerster's description of the male appendages of crocewn 
with figures 15 and 16 of this paper, that his determination of 
croceum is correct. In fact I am convinced he had a Lepto- 
basis, probably vacillans before him. As to his new species, 
H. argcnteoUncatum, I have no doubt this is really Leptagrion 
d'orsalc, a species in which the vulvar spine is wanting in the 
female. In Lcptobasis the vulvar spine is normally present. 
It is true Calvert (Ann. Cam. Mus., VI, p. 201) describes a 
new Leptobasis, mammilaris, in which the single female lacks 
this spine. But Calvert's specimen was associated with the 
males only on supposition, and a female in my collection, which 
I think is a true Lcptobasis mammilaris, is different and has 
the spine well developed. 

The type of Leptagrion is macrurum Burmeister. Among 
the species associated under Leptagrion by de Selys it is pro- 
posed to recognize and describe a second genus Aeolagrion, 
type Agrion dorsalc Burmeister. These two genera may be 
separated by the following key : 

a 1 . Descending crossvein from the subnodus not continued directly to 
the wing margin, the marginal cell, against which it ends, high and 
pentagonal, the adjoining marginal cells high and the hind margin of 
the wing full and rounded, nearly paralleling the front margin ; M 2 in 
front wing arising at the sixth postnodal or more clistad, in the hind 
wing at the fifth or more distad ; Rs and M 3 widely separated at the 
proximal crossvein between them; tooth on tarsal claw large, almost 
equalling the claw; male inferior appendages rudimentary. 


a 2 . Descending crossvein from the subnodus continuous to the wing 
margin, the marginal cells on either side of it low and quadrangular, 
the wing spatulate, the hind margin not paralleling the front mar- 
gin : Rj and Ma narrowly separated at the proximal crossvein be- 
tween them; tooth on tarsal claw well developed but distinctly 
shorter than claw; male inferior appendages well developed. 

Aeolagrion. n. gen. 
b 1 . M 2 in front wing arising at the seventh postnodal, in the hind 


wing at the sixth ; A in front wing arising proximal to the cu- 
bito-anal crossvein*; cubito-anal crossvein in front wing distal 
to first antenodal nearly or slightly more than one-half the sec- 
ond antenodal costal spacef, in hind wing more than one-half to 

nearly two-thirds A. ftammcum. 

b 2 . M 2 in front wing arising at the fifth postnodal, in the hind 
wing at the fourth ; A in front wing arising at or distal to the 
cubito-anal crossvein; cubito-anal crossvein in front wing distal 
to first antenodal from one-fourth to one-third the second ante- 
nodal costal space, in hind wing less than one-half. 

Other species of Aeolagrion. 

Of Lcptagrion I have 2 males each of macrurum and 
andromachc. On the basis of description and figures only, 
clongatum, porrectum and dispar are also referred to the same 
genus. I know both sexes of flammcum and both sexes of 
dorsalc and dcmararnm n. sp. On the basis of descriptions 
only, it is probable inca and obsoletum belong here. I have no 
idea in what genus or genera the following species should be 
placed : croceum, inornatum and rufum. 

An examination of the venational characters tabulated 
later in this paper will show a great deal of variation in 
relative lengths of the sides of the quadrangle. For example, 
in the front wing the anterior side may vary in the same species 
from about one-half the length of the proximal side to longer 
than the proximal side. Hence characters of the quadrangle 
based on single specimens are valueless. 

The teeth on the tarsal claws seem to offer characters of 
value but are difficult of clear definition. Several species 
were studied in a comparative way and the following brief 
notes made: macnimm, tooth large, almost equalling clawi* 

*The editor calls my attention to the fact that fig. 20, pi. xviii, shows 
A at the crossvein. A reexamination of the wings themselves shows 
that A is really proximal to the crossvein. 

fThe space between the antenodals. 

; f the two males studied, 3 of the 4 hind tarsi are malformed (?); 
these 3 tarsi are shortened, apparently 2-jointed, and terminated by a 
single greatly enlarged claw, with a nearly equal inferior tooth. Since 
this footnote was written Doctor Calvert has called my attention to 
Child and Young's Regeneration of the Appendages in Xymphs of the 
Agrionidae (Archiv f. Entwickelungsmechanik d. Organismen xv, 
103, pp. 543-602, pis. xx-xxn), and he adds: "The cases to which your 
footnote refers are probably regenerated tarsi." Child and Young's 
paper is not in my library and I am unable to obtain a copy at this 


andromache, similar to incicrurmn; flammeum, tooth well de- 
veloped but distinctly shorter than claw, both tooth and tip of 
claw slenderer than in the preceding two species, the tooth 
not so divergent, the included angle more acute ; dorsale, simi- 
lar to flammeum : demaranim, short as in flammeum, other- 
wise more like macrurum ; Leptobasis mammilaris has the 
tooth still shorter, that is more basal, and weaker; in Lepto- 
basis vacillans it is smaller than in mammilaris. 

A study of the spines on the legs of various species shows 
a surprising variation in the number of spines and their dis- 
tribution or spacing in each species, and no characters of speci- 
fic or generic value have been detected. The closer spines 
are set together the longer they appear, other things being 
equal, since one estimates their length largely in terms of the 

Aeolagrion demararum n. sp. (PI. XVIII, fig. 22, text tigs. 17, 18). 
Abdomen $ 27-28, 9 27-30; hind wing, $ 16-17, 5 17.5-18.5. 

$ . Labrum to median ocellus, including genae, light dull brown 
to bright blue green, with all intermediate stages, in specimens other- 
wise apparently of the same age, the green in transitional specimens 
appears first on labrum, rhinarium and nasus, and last on the frons 
above. Head above dark green to black, marked with dull orange in 
a varying degree; area enclosed by ocelli dark; from this dark area, 
posterior to the lateral ocelli, on either side a dark bar runs outward 
and forward, ending behind the antenna and reaching neither the an- 
tenna nor the eye ; anterior to this bar the head is pale except that 
usually there is a short bar on either side of the median ocellus, reach- 
ing about half-way to the antenna; at its outer posterior portion the 
dark bar from each lateral ocellus joins with a large dark area which 
occupies the entire posterior dorsal surface of the head except a pale 
occipital crest with a dilatation of varying size at either end; in some 
specimens this pale occipital area is blue or green instead of dull 
orange. Usually the large posterior dark area rests against the eye, 
but it may be separated by the merest line of pale blue or green. In a 
few very mature specimens, as shown by the pruinescent under parts 
of the thorax, the occipital pale area is scarcely or not discernible, and 
the pale areas on either side and in front of the ocelli are very dark 
and obscure, so that, at first glance, the entire dorsal surface of the 
head, excepting the frons, appears black. Rear of head pale, white or 

Prothorax with front lobe pale blue, the lateral margins light brown, 
to entirely bright blue; in paler individuals the middle and hind lobes 

Vol. xxviii] 



light brown with obscure darker shadings ; in brighter individuals 
these lobes are rich reddish brown above, with a median longitudinal 
pale blue shading, and the sides blue ; hind border wide, with round 
lateral wings and a rounded median border of the same height. Pro- 
pleuron pale, almost white to bright blue. 

Thorax above very variable; in all a dark metallic green middorsal 
stripe, on either side about one-fifth as wide as the mesepisternum, 
with the sides parallel, except at the extreme upper and lower ends; 
remainder of mesepisternum rust red and very variable; in some the 
color seems fairly uniform over the entire surface, but in most speci- 
mens there is a faint hint to a rather definite pale stripe on either side 
of the median dark green, and of about the same width; this stripe 
may show as a lighter rust red or parts of it may be greenish or 
bluish; in life in bright-colored individuals I recall it as an evanescent 
bright light blue stripe. Sides from the humeral suture light to 
bright blue ; the mesepimeron usually slightly paler than the mete- 
pisternum and metepimeron, with a narrow posthumeral darker blue 
stripe; a small brown dot slightly above the middle of the first 
lateral suture and another near the upper end of the second lateral 
suture. In the case of a few very mature specimens the rust red of the 
mesepisternum has become almost or quite as dark as the middorsal 
stripe, in which case the pale stripe on either side of the dark middor- 
sal stripe is distinct and well defined, rusty silvery white in color, the 
mesepimeron largely overlaid with silvery white, and the under parts 
and coxae with scattered powdery pruinescence. Coxae and beneath 
pale, cream or bluish. 

Abdomen seen from above, i blue with a median brown spot which 
is usually pale centered; 2 blue with a wide longitudinal median brown, 
more or less black stripe, which is slightly widened basally and 
apically, not reaching the base which is pale, and usually slightly 
separated from the narrowly brown apex ; 3 to 6 brown, shading 

Aeolagrion demeraritiii n. sp. Left lateral and dorsal views of apex of male abdomen. 

Drawings by C. H. Kennedy. 

246 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [June, 'l 1 / 

apically on each segment into black which occupies one-fifth to one- 
sixth of each segment, narrow, medianly interrupted basal blue rings; 
7 black, narrow, medianly interrupted basal and subapical pale rings ; 8 
and 9 bright sky blue; 10 black, more or less pale yellow or bluish near 
the middle on either side of the median line. In a few very adult 
specimens 6 is like 7 and the dorsal brown of the preceding segments 
is much darker than in the larger number of specimens. Seen from 
the side, i and 2 blue with a narrow brown posterior border; 3 to 6 
greenish, extreme lower border and over a wider area subapically, 
bright yellow, more or less obscured and indefinite in most of the 
dried material; 7 indistinct, apparently blue below the black dorsum; 8 
and 9 blue; 10 with lower half blue, in some with the inferior apex yel- 
low. Superior appendages black; inferiors yellow to black. Ventral 
suture black, paler and duller on the last three or four segments. 

Legs light yellow, femora bluish or greenish tinged in some speci- 
mens; femora, especially the last 2 pairs, with a more or less distinct 
narrow dark line on the external angle. 

Wings clear; stigma light brown to brown, encircled inside the en- 
closing veins with a narrow pale margin, covering one cell or slightly 
less, the inner side slightly more oblique than the outer, with a brace 
vein, the anterior and posterior sides longer than the other two sides. 

? . Labrum light yellowish brown ; rhinarium similar or darker or 
with greenish traces; nasus, frons and genae bright yellowish brown to 
obscure green. Head above as in the male, averaging paler, no trace 
of the dark bar on either side of the median ocellus, the pale dilata- 
tions on either end of the pale occipital crest larger and always dull 
orange. Rear of head cream-colored. 

Prothorax variable as in the male, but the middle and hind lobes al- 
ways brown, unmarked. Posterior border of hind lobe winged as in 
the male, but the middle lobe of the border is lower, apex truncated 
and sometimes slightly concave. Propleuron cream to light blue. 

Dorsum of thorax similar to the male; sides similar but paler, some- 
times almost white, in others cream or cream tinged with bluish, and 
so through intermediate stages to entirely pale blue ; the brown spot 
on the second lateral suture scarcely evident in some specimens. 

Abdominal segments i to 6 similar to the male, but the apical black 
is confined to a narrow apical ring; 7 and 8 orange brown, slightly 
darker along the median line, the darker color obscure, indefinite and 
narrow; 7 with a narrow interrupted bluish basal ring and a trace of 
an apical black ring; 9 and 10 light yellow brown, 10 sometimes with 
bluish traces. Pattern of abdomen often obscure; 7 to 10 often a uni- 
form dull yellowish brown; in one specimen the dorsum of 6 is light 
metallic green instead of the usual brown. Seen from the side similar 
to the male, usually obscure especially the last four or five segments ; 
in several cases 9 has a large distinct dark area; in other cases 9 and 


10 are distinctly paler, light yellow, in the lower half; usually 7 to 10 
are obscure brown or dull orange. Ventral suture as in the male. No 
trace of a vulvar spine. 

Legs cream colored or very light brown, similar to the male, but the 
femoral stripes wanting or faintly represented on the last femora only. 

Wings similar to the male. 

British Guiana: Georgetown, January 25 and 26, and Feb- 
ruary 18, 1912, 19 $, and 79 ; Wismar, January 30, 1912, i 
$ ; types, a $ and 9 , January 26, in my collection. 

In the Botanic Gardens at Georgetown in January, 1912, 
many of the pools were dried up and all canals and pools were 
at a very low water stage. Just a short distance from one of 
the main drives was a pool grown up with Nelumbo, into which 
pool a very small stream of water trickled. Detnararum was 
along this thread of water for a short distance back from the 
pool, and about the pool near the mouth of the stream. Their 
flight was rather slow and heavy. 

Specimens of this species were sent to Dr. Calvert and Dr. 
Ris for examination. Both regard it as undescribed. The 
following species, other than those here figured have been re- 
ferred to Leptagrion : inca Selys, inornatum Selys, obsoletum 
Selys, pcrloncjum Calvert, rufum Selys. Inca is known from 
an imperfect $ and 2 9 ; demararum is distinct from it, among 
other characters, by the rear of the head entirely pale and by 
the absence of a post-humeral black band. Inornatum is known 
from a single 9 ; demararum is distinct from it, among other 
characters, by the very different stigma, by having the labrum 
and rhinarium not shining black, and by the thorax having a 
middorsal dark stripe. Obsoletum is known from a single $ 
and 9 ; demararum is distinct from it, among other characters, 
by the color of the vertex, and of segments 7-10 of the $ , 
and by the form of the $ appendages. Pcrlongum is known 
from a single $ , supposedly close to porrectum, and having 
the abdomen 64 mm. in length, more than twice the length of 
demaranim. Rufum is known from a single $ lacking the 
last 4 abdominal segments; demararum is distinct from it, 
among other characters, by the almost totally red coloration of 
head, thorax and abdomen of rnfum. 


Aeolagrion dorsale Burmeister. (Type of the genus). (Plate 

XVII, figs. 5 and 0; Plate XVIII, fig. 21). 

Abdomen $ 27-30, average 28.3, 9- 27-28; hind wing $ 17-19, aver- 
age 17.7, 9 18-19. 

$ Genae light bluish green, very pale, to bright bluish green; 
labrum brown to shining black ; rhinarium and nasus bluish green, 
light and bright in older specimens, the nasus with a little dark or 
black at base; frons in front bluish green below on the lateral margins, 
remainder orange or rust brown to dark reddish brown and, in ex- 
treme cases, black. Head above metallic green to black, a short orange 
line from the lateral ocellus outward and forward toward the antenna, 
reaching a little more than half the distance. Rear of head upper half 
black, lower half very pale bluish to pale greenish. 

Prothorax with the front lobe blue, broadly black posteriorly but not 
reaching the lateral margins; middle lobe blue, black above, narrow 
anteriorly, widening rapidly posteriorly where it occupies the full 
width of the lobe; hind lobe black dorsally with a continuation of the 
middorsal thoracic stripe, sides blue. Hind lobe laterally winged, the 
median portion greatly developed in a dorsally directed triangular 
plate, more than twice as high as the wings, the apex acute, the sides 
convex. Propleuron pale, bluish above to entirely blue. In very ma- 
ture specimens the blue of the prothorax is more or less overlaid with 
silvery white. 

Dorsum of thorax its entire length broadly metallic green to black, 
the stripe gradually narrowed at either end, bordered on either side by 
a blue stripe, scarcely half as wide, which reaches the humeral suture; 
a narrow brown or black posthumeral stripe which is continued across 
the mesinfraepisternum and which shades out into the rust red which 
occupies practically all of the mesepimeron; with age the mesepimeron 
darkens till, in extreme cases, it is entirely black except an anterior 
superior blue spot and a small posterior inferior area which remains 
rust red ; metepisternum and metepimeron very light blue to bright 
blue, sometimes an indistinct dark area on the metepisternum along 
the second lateral suture. Beneath and coxae white to pale bluish; 
coxae externally in older specimens bright to dark blue. The antehu- 
meral blue stripe is sometimes more or less overlaid with silvery white 
and the same is true to a lesser extent of the blue of the sides of the 

Abdomen from above black, slightly paler on 3 and 4 in younger in- 
dividuals; a narrow apical blue ring on I, and narrow interrupted 
basal blue rings on 3 to 7, yellowish on 7, and on all segments in 
younger individuals ; 8 and 9 bright blue, 10 black. Seen from the side, 
i and 2 blue with a narrow dark apical border; 3 to 6, or 3 to 7 in 
younger specimens, with sides below yellowish or greenish, connected 
with the basal rings, and slightly widening subapically, the black of the 


dorsum completely encircling the apex of each segment; in older speci- 
mens 7 seems entirely black; 8 to 9 blue; 10 black, slightly or distinctly 
paler below: Appendages black, in younger specimens the inferior di- 
latation of the superiors and the base of the inferiors brown ; the inner 
surface of the superiors with a large shallow excavation which is densely 
clothed with long, soft, very light dull yellow hair. Ventral suture 
yellowish or brown, darker on 6 and 7. 

Legs dull pale yellow or light brown; posterior external face and 
apex of femora black; tibiae with a very narrow dark line on the an- 
terior external face, sometimes wanting. 

Wings rarely clear, usually slightly tinged with brown; stigma dark 
brown to black, encircled or not within the enclosing veins with pale, 
rarely covering one cell, usually slightly less, shaped as in dcmararum. 
In a male from Cumuto, in both front wings, the anterior side of the 
quadrangle is distinctly longer than the proximal side. 

9 Genae pale, yellowish or bluish; labrum brown, sometimes 
somewhat darkened over much of its area ; rhinarium and nasus dull 
bluish; frons in front as in the paler males. Head above as in the 
male, except that the frons anteriorly is edged with reddish brown, or, 
in a teneral specimen, is largely this color. Rear of head as in the 

Prothorax in pattern similar to the male; front lobe slightly duller, 
rust red replacing black on the middle lobe, and brown replacing black 
on the hind lobe. Hind border with the lateral wings of the male 
greatly reduced, scarcely evident, passing directly into the high, almost 
semicircular middle part. Propleuron cream to light bluish. 

Thorax similar to the male ; the narrow posthumeral brown stripe 
wanting or indistinct; the mesepimeron not becoming black; the dark 
area on the metepisternum along the second lateral suture usually dis- 
tinct and rust red in color, sometimes very distinct and occupying 
nearly one-half the sclerite. Beneath and coxae as in the male, but the 
coxae never showing more than a trace of bluish. Silvery white over 
blue areas never as conspicuous as in the male. 

Abdomen seen from above similar to the male, except that 8 to 10 
are black, very narrowly pale at apex. Seen from the side similar to 
the male, but the lower pale areas on 3 to 7 wider, of uniform width, not 
dilated subapically ; 8 to 10 similar to the preceding segments, the 
lower pale area becoming progressively narrower posteriorly, and being 
continuous along the sides, reaching the apex of each segment. Ven- 
tral suture darker than in the male, largely dark brown to black on 3 
to 6. Vulvar spine wanting. 

Legs light yellow, a narrow line on the external angle and the apex 
of the femora, black. 

Wings very slightly tinged with brownish ; stigma light brown, pale- 
encircled within the enclosing veins, covering rarely one cell, usually 
very slightly less, shaped as in the male. 


Dutch Guiana: Paramaribo, February 23, 1912, 49 $ , 4 9 
Trinidad : Cumuto, March 8 and 10, 1912, 4 $ , i 9 . 

Back of the rifle range at Paramaribo is a shallow ditch or 
mud-bedded stream which, on February 23, 1912, seemed en- 
tirely dry. However, I followed it for some distance and 
eventually discovered a few shallow pools of stagnant water. 
Near one of these pools and in the bed of the ditch lay a large 
log which for a short distance was a foot or more off the 
ground ; dense grass grew about the log and thus a little room 
or cave was formed under the log, the log itself being the roof, 
the nearly dry mud the floor and the rank grass the sides. At 
one corner of this little room the grass was wanting, thus af- 
fording an open doorway. About this doorway and just with- 
in the little room no less than 50 Aeolagrion dor sale were taken. 
When I first discovered them possibly a dozen or twenty were 
in view, practically all of them well back under the log. At 
each stroke of the net, those not captured disappeared but in 
a moment they would be detected again, one here, one there, 
resting in the grass about the log. Dor sale is an inconspicu- 
ous species and is easily overlooked in grass. In adjoining 
woodland I caught two or three about the top of a large fallen 
tree. I have no notes and recall nothing of the Cumuto speci- 
mens which were taken at the little swamp where we took 
the large number of Metaleptobasis (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Vol. 48, May, 1915, p. 601). 

Aeolagrion flammeum Selys. (Plate XVII, figs. 13, 14; PI. XVIII, 


Abdomen $ 32-35, average 33.2, 9 32; hind wing $ 21-22, 9 22-22.5. 

$. Genae pale yellowish to pale bluish; labrum slaty blue to bright 
greenish blue; rhinarium slaty blue to light brown; nasus to ocelli dull 
orange or rust red. Head above black and dull orange; ocelli sur- 
rounded with black, except the median in front; on either side of the 
median is a short lateral black spur, not always distinct ; from each 
lateral ocellus a black stripe runs forward and outward to meet a 
wide black area lying against the eye, and reaching inward to the 
level of the inner side of the second joint of the antenna; anteriorly 
it extends to in front of the antenna and posteriorly it is carried back 
over the rear of the head ; it is often dark green in color and is al- 
ways less intense black than the stripe from the lateral ocellus to the 


eye. Occipital crest and adjoining area pale, this pale area running 
forward in a sharp point between the lateral ocelli. The pale area 
just in front of the stripe from the lateral ocellus to the eye, ad- 
joining the lateral ocellus, is usually bright yellow, paler than the dull 
orange of other parts. Rear of head largely black, pale below and 
adjoining the foramen. 

Prothorax orange red; the anterior border narrowly indistinctly 
brown, elsewhere slight, scarcely discernible traces of darker. Posterior 
border of hind lobe broad and high, rounded, medianly broadly emar- 
ginate. Propleuron similar in color to the pronotum, darker below. 

Thorax above vivid rust red; mesepisternum with a longitudinal 
median stripe about one-third the width of the sclerite, which in dried 
material is scarcely evident or is indicated by a dull greenish or brown- 
ish stripe, which in life is a vivid light greenish blue, in striking con- 
trast to the surrounding red. Sides paler rust red, especially below 
and behind; starting just behind the humeral suture and near its upper 
end, a broad stripe runs directly down across sclerites to end on the third 
coxae ; this stripe is like the .stripe on the mesepisternum, evanescent, 
and in dried material is variously indicated; in life it is a vivid green- 
ish blue area, becoming yellowish on the metinfraepisternum, which 
appears to have been haphazardly placed on the insect by an artist 
who carelessly disregarded the boundaries of the sclerites ; behind this 
stripe and parallel to it is a large pale yellowish area of indefinite ex- 
tent which occupies the metepimeron, except its upper and lower ends, 
and extends above onto the metepisternum. Beneath and coxae cream- 

Abdomen light brown above becoming progressively darker from 
1-6; 3-7 more or less distinctly narrowly pale at base; 3-5 black at 
apex; 3-6 with a trace of a longitudinal middorsal line, scarcely or not 
discernible on 3 and 4, plainer on 5 and 6; 6 black except at base as 
noted ; 7 subbasally black for one-fifth to one-half its length, the black 
shading out posteriorly to yellow or orange; 8-10 yellow or orange 
with much scattered bright red pigment in dried material. Seen from 
the side I and 2 largely yellowish with some basal and apical blue or 
green traces, the posterior border of each narrowly brown ; sides below 
of 3-6 pale yellow, narrowest and not always evident on 6; on each seg- 
ment this pale color connected with the pale basal rings, but not reach- 
ing the apex, being terminated posteriorly by the apical black which 
encircles each segment ; 7 broadly pale below the dorsal basal black, 
this pale shading out posteriorly into the pale area which occupies the 
entire apical portion of the segment; 8-10 entirely yellow or bright red. 
Superior appendages brown, inner and ventral surfaces more or less 
red; inferiors yellowish red at base, shading out into bright red, the 
extreme apex brown tipped. Ventral suture pale, about color of ad- 
joining parts, in some cases darker on 6 and 7. 


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anterior side sliehtlv lone-er do . . 

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nroximal side.. 

about one and one-half do.. . . 
about one and three-fourths-do ... 
about twice do 

Cubito-anal cross-vein in front wing distal to first antenodal about one-fourth the second rr 
antenodal costal soace . 

about one-third do 
nearly or about one-halfdo . . . 

slightly more than one-half. ... 
Cubito-anal cross-vein in hind wing distal to first antenodal about one-fourth the second 
antenodal costal soace. . 

about one-third do rr 
about one-halfdo 
more than one-half do 

about two-thirds do 
A in front wing proximal to cubito-anal crossvein about one-half the length of the latter 

sliehtlv oroxiinal to cubito-anal cross-vein . . 


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Vol. xxviii] 



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Legs light yellow or light yellowish brown; external posterior sur- 
face of femora black, apex black or brown. 

Wings clear to slightly brownish-tinged ; stigma brown to reddish 
brown, encircled with pale within the enclosing veins, covering one 
cell or very slightly less, very slightly oblique, a brace vein present, 
the costal and posterior sides distinctly longer than the proximal and 
distal sides. 

9 . Similar to the male throughout except as noted, as brightly 
colored, at least in dried material; abdominal segments 7-10, seen 
from above, black, 10 with apex more or less red ; seen from the sides 
7-9 are pale below like the preceding segments, and 10 is largely pale 
with traces of red apically. Vulvar spine wanting. 

British Guiana: Rockstone, February 12 and 14, 1912, 5 $ , 
2 $ ; Tumatumari. February 29, 1912, A. F. Porter, i $ . 

Three of the males taken at Rockstone were collected by my 
father and I know nothing of the circumstances as I was at 
Tumatumari at the time. But on February 14 we went to- 
gether in the afternoon to the large island in the Essequibo op- 
posite Rockstone. At this time the country was experiencing 
an unusual drought, the river was at a lower stage than many 
persons had ever before seen it, and we found the pools on 
the island dried up and dragonflies scarce. The four speci- 
mens of flaunticiini taken were found singly in the woods, in 
bushes or small trees, resting on the leaves at a height of 6 
to 8 feet. . 

\Yhen the above description was prepared and when the 
manuscript of this paper was sent to Doctor Calvert, I re- 
garded flammcnin as not congeneric with the species grouped 
under Aeolagrion. Doctor Calvert wrote me that he regarded 
my distinctions as very fine splitting; and later, in answer to 
my enquiry, Mr. Kennedy wrote me: "The penes of flammcum 
and dor sale are more alike than any other two species in the 
genus. There are slight differences but these are not generic 
unless there are good parallel characters in venation or else- 
where." I therefore follow the judgment of these two students 
in this paper. The key in this paper indicates the characters 
upon which I was basing my opinion on the generic distinct- 
ness of flammeum. 


Plate XVIII. 





PLATE XVII. Appendages of males. 

Figs. 1-14 by M. Menger from specimens in de Selys collection; figs. 
15-16 from Mr. Samuel Henshaw, specimen in Hagen collection. Figs. 
5 and 6 have been compared by Mr. Emerton with the type of dorsale 
in the Hagen collection and he reports them identical. 
I, 2. Leptagrion macrurum. 9, 10. Leptagrion elongatum. 

3, 4. Leptagrion andromache. n, 12. Leptagrion dispar. 

5, 6. Acolagrion dorsale. 13, 14. Acolagrion flammeuin. 

7, 8. Leptagrion porrcctum. 15, 16. Leptagrion (/) croccum. 

PLATE XVIII. Wing photos. 

Fig 19. Leptagrion macrurum. Photo, by C. H. Kennedy of a speci- 
men in Dr. Calvert's collection. 

Fig. 20. Aeolagrion nammcum, $, Tumatumari, British Guiana, 
February 29, 1912. Photo, by Mr. Munz. 

Fig. 21. Aeolagrion dorsale, $, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, Febru- 
ary 23, 1912. Photo, by Mr. Munz. 

Fig. 22. Aeolagrion dcmararum, $, Georgetown, British Guiana, 
January 25, 1912. Photo, by Mr. Munz. 

New Chalcid Flies from Maryland, II (Hym.).* 

By A. A. GIRAULT, Glenndale, Maryland. 

Neomphaloidella mediogutta n. sp. 

9. Length, 1.45 mm. Like Aprostocetus whitmani Girault, in gen- 

Dark metallic purple, the wings hyaline, the following parts golden 
yellow (legs darker yellow) : Scape except the bulla and above nar- 
rowly, ring-joints, legs except the cephalic coxa laterad at base, the 
cephalic and middle femora dorsad for proximal two-thirds, proximal 
half of abdomen laterad and ventrad and the proximal third of same 
dorsad except for a narrow line across base, an abbreviated marginal 
stripe (which extends from near the apex of the yellow proximad to a 
little proximad of the middle) and a round median spot (opposite and 
between the marginal stripes, its diameter not as long as this stripe 
and which is not quite at the apex of the dorsal yellow when the ab- 
domen is retracted against the purple as is the marginal stripe). 

Pedicel nearly twice longer than wide, a little shorter than club i ; 
funicles I to 3 subequal or a little shorter in succession, nearly four 
times longer than wide (joint i), the club joints about twice longer 
than wide (but 3 shorter and conical, its terminal spine distinct). Man- 
dibles tridentate. Sculpture usual, the propodeum scaly, with a median 

*See Ent. News, xxviii, p. 20. Jan., 1917. 


carina, no true lateral but a nearly straight, narrow carina just laterad 
of the elliptical spiracle. A single seta on scutum disto-laterad ; a line 
of weak setae across pronotum caudad. 

From two females, Glenndale, Maryland. From the woods 
by sweeping, margin of streamlet, July 12, 1916. 

Types: Catalogue No. 20372, United States National Mus- 
eum, two females on a tag, the head on a slide. 

Eupelmus 2-guttus n. sp. 

9. Length 1.65 mm., excluding the ovipositor which is extruded 
for nearly half the length of the abdomen. 

Dark metallic green, the wings hyaline, the proximal third of the 
abdomen laterad and ventrad, the scape except its dorsal edge, the 
tarsi, the trochanters, knees, apex of cephalic tibiae, middle legs except 
a dot dorsad on tibia a short distance ventrad of knee, and a cinctus 
on the femur just proximad of the knee, caudal leg except the proxi- 
mal half of the coxa and the tibiae at proximal fourth dorsad, brown- 
ish yellow. 

Body finely scaly, the face in front of the cephalic ocellus opaque 
but smooth. Segment 2 of abdomen slightly incised caudad at meson, 
the others not so. Antenna inserted at the clypeus, the scape a little 
compressed ; funicle I ring-like, a little wider than long, 2 and 3 sub- 
equal, about twice longer than wide, 4 slightly longer than either, a 
little longer than the pedicel, 7 and 8 quadrate; club 3-jointed. Fore 
wings rather slender, the postmarginal vein distinctly longer than the 

Glenndale, Maryland. One female by sweeping waste places 
in a garden, July 2, 1916. 

Type : Catalogue No. 20365, U. S. N. M., the female on a 
tag, an antenna on a slide. 

Sceptrophorus marilandicus n. sp. 

9. Of the same stature and so forth as solus (Howard), but some- 
what smaller and less robust, the basal fourth of the abdomen above 
(somewhat more below) is pale yellowish except a dot at each margin 
at base, the scape is wholly pale yellow, the hind tibia bears a metallic 
spot, a short distance below the knee, and the fore wings have the apex 
widely infuscated, the infuscation extending conically proximad to op- 
posite the apex of the stigmal vein. Also the tegulae are half pale 
(basal half), the frons is slightly narrower and lacks the four 
rows of minute pin-punctures present on the other (or they are very 
obscure), the mandibles are smrller, their third tooth not so obtuse at 
apex, subacute, (truncate in the other but not very broad), the funicle 
joints are all shorter, the first subequal to the pedicel (6 quadrate), 


there is a large, yellow stain under distal submarginal and all of the 
marginal veins, the postmarginal vein is slightly longer than the stig- 
mal instead of being shorter; it is subequal to the marginal which is 
somewhat over thrice longer than wide. Types compared. 

Head and thorax finely scaly, the scutum noticeably hairy ; the axillae 
joined or nearly so. Head a little longer than wide, subtruncate at the 
mouth, the scrobes short, forming a triangle, the frons not prominent, 
the face inflexed but not greatly. Mandibular teeth subequal, acute. 
Ovipositor free, very slightly extruded. Eyes somewhat longer than 
the cheeks. Flagellum long, filiform-clavate, about twice the length of 
the club which is but slightly enlarged, its third joint longest, sub- 
equal to funicle 2. Propodeum glabrous, plane, transverse, shorter at 
the meson, the spiracle small, oval. 

One female, Glenndale, Maryland. Open woods, by sweep- 
ing, September, 1916. 

Type: Catalogue No. 20637, U. S. National Museum, a fe- 
male on a tag, the head, a hind tibia and a fore wing on a slide. 


Based on Entcdon hagawwi Ratzeburg (equals Tctrasti- 
chodes floridanus Ashmead) and differs from Ccratotetrasti- 
chodcs in bearing but three ring-joints and' the antennae are 
inserted below the middle of the face while the male antennae 
bear four funicle, three club and two ring-joints. The metal- 
lic coloration, white legs (except the first pair of coxae), pale 
yellow scape, pedicel, ring-joints and abdominal petiole and the 
fact that the scutum bears scattered, setigerous punctures and 
the pedicel and funicle i are elongate, are characters which 
make the species easy to be known. The specimens of it seen 
by me were from the eggs of domestic cockroaches from 
Louisiana and agree with Ratzeburg's short description: "Die 
Vorderhiiften grossentheils dunkel ;" otherwise as in Eulo pints 
.ranthopns Nees (as to coloration). 

Genotype : B. hagcnozvi Ratz., a cosmopolitan species. 

The following new species was labelled as the above species, 
in the collections of the U. S. National Museum: 

Epomphaloides ischnopterae new species. 

?. A little less stout than hagcnoivi and black, the legs white, the 
funicle joints somewhat shorter; scutum with sparse punctures along 
its lateral margin only; mandibles with but two teeth, 2 broad and 
truncate at apex; male scape much shorter, much dilated, funicle I 
shorter than the other funicle joints. Otherwise the same. 


From a large number of females and several males reared 
from the eggs of Ischnoptcra, Plummer's Island, Maryland 
(E. A. Schwarz). 

Types: Catalogue No. 20932, U. S. National Museum, one 
male, three females on tags, the antennae of each sex on a 


i < ' 

A new Species of Corythuca from the Northwest 
(Heterop., Tingitidae). 

By EDMUND H. GIBSON, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

During the past January the writer received from Mr. E. J. 
Newcomer, of the Bureau of Entomology, stationed at Wenat- 
chee, Washington, specimens of what proves to be a new 
species of Corythuca. They were collected by Mr. Newcomer 
from prarie sunflower, Balsamorhiza sagittata Pursh, the type 
locality of which is known to be dry barren hills in the Rocky 
Mountains and its range from British Columbia and Montana 
to California and Colorado. 

Corythuca pura n. sp. 

Antennae with few long hairs, first segment about twice the length 
of second, fourth incrassated at the middle. Rostral groove prominent 
and rounded at the apex; rostrum reaching to middle coxae. Hood 
considerably raised, about one half as high as long, evenly reticulated 
and spined, median reticulation subprominent; rear of hood more or less 
concave, but distinctly globose. Membranous pronotal margins evenly 
reticulated and closely spined. Pronotum and base of triangular pro- 
cess punctate with apex reticulate. Triangular process bordered entire 
length with prominent membrane disappearing near apex. Median ca- 
rina high and prominent with two rows of areolae, the top row not 
greatly reduced in size. Length 3.8 mm., width 2.5 mm. 

Color, antennae ochraceous with apex slightly darker. Eyes black. 
Above entirely white, no spots of fuscous or color markings. Elytra 
subhyaline to opaque. Beneath entirely black, but with light brown 
legs. Beak same color as legs becoming darker towards apex. 

This species is near C. Jiispida Uhl., but from which it may 
be separated by its larger size and by having the median carina 
of the pronotum higher and with two rows of large areolae 
and the margin of which is not so concave or curving. 

Described from three females and one male which are de- 
posited in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. 


Studies on Costa Rican Odonata. 

VIII. A New Genus Allied to Cora. 
By PHILIP P. CALVERT, University of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

In our recent book on Costa Rica* we have referred (page 
255) to the capture, at Peralta, August 8, 1909, of "a medium- 
sized dragonfly, of an apparently new genus allied to Cora." 
Only a single male was obtained in spite of search in the same 
locality on following days in August and in March, 1910. The 
insect is evidently distinct from Cora, although the latter is its 
closest known ally. Mr. E. B. Williamson has very recently 
obtained a long series of the same genus, and possibly the same 
species, in Colombia, some specimens of which he has kindly 
sent me for examination, so that the recognition of this form 
as generically distinct seems thoroughly justified. The fol- 
lowing account is based on the Costa Rican specimen, leaving 
to Mr. Williamson the future description of his Colombian 

MIOCORAf new genus. 

Possessing these characters of the legion Thore of Selys, 
viz. : Upper and lower sectors of the arculus (Mi-3 and M4) 
separating from the upper (anterior) end of the arculus ; 
proximal side of the quadrilateral much longer than the distal, 
its anterior (upper) side concave, costal and subcostal series 
of antenodals subequal in number but not coinciding in position 
in most cases; quadrilateral and median cell (M) cross-veined, 
the former shorter than the latter ; and the following charac- 
ters of the genus Cora Selys, viz. : M3 unbranched, no sup- 
plementary sectors between M4 and Cui, and only one ante- 
nodal cross-vein (here the 8th or 9th, front wings, 9th or 
loth, hind wings, of the costal series) thicker than the others. t 

*A Year of Costa Rican Natural History by Amelia Smith Calvert 
and Philip Powell Calvert, New York. The Macmillan Company, 1917. 

fGreek p-uw, less, and Cora, in allusion to the reduced venation 
in comparison with that genus. 

tin the Colombian specimens the thickened antenodal varies from 
the gth to the I4th, front wings, 8th to I3th, hind wings. 



[June, '17 

Its distinctive differences from Cora, and indeed from the 
whole legion Thore of de Selys (1869), are the unbranched 
condition of Cu2, the presence of only a single row of cells 
between Cm and Cu2, and of only a single row between Cu2 
and the hind margin of the wing. 

Fig. i. Venation of Miocora peraltica c?, Peralta, Costa Rica. August 8, 1909 From 
photograph by Mr. H. A. Walters. See text for an explanation concerning the 
front wing. 

The venation is displayed in the accompanying figure where, 
owing to the longitudinal folding of the front wing. Mi -3 and 
Mi-2 for a short distance distal to the separation of M3 is 
not shown as distinct from R, as it actually is in both front 
and hind wings, and as shown in our figure of the hind wing. 

Genotype : Miocora peraltica n. sp. 

Miocora peraltica n. sp. (Text figs. 1-4). 

$. Colors (as noted from the freshly caught specimens, some addi- 
tional details not mentioned in the field notes but visible in the dried 
specimen being added in brackets [ ] ) : Eyes dark brown, below 
somewhat bluish. [Remainder of the head black, a short orange streak 
between each antenna and the median ocellus but nearer to the an- 
tenna], labrum, genae and external surfaces of the mandibles light blue, 
[cardines, stipites, submentum, mentum and basal two-thirds of median 
labial lobe pale luteous, probably also light blue in life.]. 

Vol. xxviii] 



[Prothorax black, a pale blue? spot on each side of the middle lobe.] 

Thoracic dorsum blackish ; humeral suture, most of metepisternum 
and much of metepimeron pale bluish-green, but metepisternum and 
metepimeron each with an [oblique] blackish stripe, less than one-half 
as wide as the metepisternum but more than, one-half as wide as the 
metepimeron. [Pectus pale bluish-green.] 

Abdomen black, a spot on each side of segment i, a longitudinal 
stripe on each side of 2 and a small basal spot on each side of 3, pale 

Ventral surface of thorax pruinose and traces of pruinosity on ven- 
tral surfaces of abdominal segments. 

[Legs: femora superiorly, tibiae inferiorly and tarsi blackish brown, 
femora inferiorly and tibiae superiorly pale, perhaps bluish in life.] 

Superior appendages twice as long as abdominal segment 10, hardly 
as long as segment 9, black, in dorsal view forcipate, each becoming 
more slender to the apex which is acute and bent mesad at the extreme 
tip. Each appendage has a straight inferior process, projecting mesad, 
ventrad and caudad, best seen in oblique dorso-lateral view, and whose 

Fig. 2. Left profile, Fig. 3. Dorsal 

Views of apex of abdomen of Miocora pcraltica n. sp., type c? 

proximal and distal edges separate from the inferior margin of the 
appendage at 5/14 and 8/14 of the latter's length respectively; distal 
edge of this process 3/14 of the length of the appendage; process be- 
coming more slender toward its roundly acute apex. In profile view 
each appendage is directed caudad and ventrad as far as the last tenth 
of its length where its acute apex is curved dorsad; the appendage 
gradually decreases in thickness from base to . apex, shows on its in- 
ferior margin a slight post basal convexity and the process described 
above, foreshortened at about mid-length. Inferior appendages not de- 



[June, '17 

Front wings : 26 to 28 antenodals, 24 to 25 postnodals, 10 cross- 
veins in the median space, 3 cross-veins in the quadrilateral, pterostig- 
ma surmounting five cells and parts of one or two others, its proximal 
edge twice as long as its distal edge. 

Hind wings : 25 to 22 antenodals, 24 to 26 postnodals, 8 to 9 cross- 
veins in the median space, 4 cross-veins in the quadrilateral, pterostig- 
ma surmounting four cells and parts of two others, its proximal edge 
1.6 as long as its distal edge.* 

All wings faintly smoky, costal and subcostal areas faintly yellowish 
from the base distad to beyond the nodus. Hind wings with an apical 
brown spot extending from about two cells proximal to the proximal 
end of the stigma to the wing-apex and from the costal margin to M=, 
some cells between M 2 and Rs, also being faintly brown, many of the 
cells within the area of the spot paler in their centers. Pterostigmata 
dark reddish brown. 

Total length 42, abdomen 34. superior appendage 1.16, hind wing 24.5, 

la it 

Fig. 4. Genitalia of the basal abdominal segments, Miocora peraltica, n. sp. , 
type cf . The abdomen is viewed from the right side, ventral surface uppermost, 
i, 2, 3, abdominal segments i, 2 and 3 ; ha, h/>, anterior and posterior hamules; la, 
anterior lamina ; Ib, lamina batilliformis of Rathke ( 1832) and Schmidt ( 1915), sheath 
of the penis of Rambur (1842) and of American authors; pr,p2,pj, first, second and 
third segments of the penis of Kennedy (1916) ; pj', third segment in dorsal view; 
vp, vesicle of the penis (" Samenkapsel "). 

*As might be expected, the Colombian specimens show some varia- 
tions in the numbers of these veins and surmounted cells in both front 
and hind wings. 


costal edge of stigma of front wing 2, of hind wing 1.8, maximum 
width of front wing (mid-way between nodus and stigma) 5.5, same 
of hind wing, 5.5, width of head 4.8 mm. 

Type a male from Peralta, Costa Rica, August 8, 1909, by 
P. P. Calvert, in the writer's collection at the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In August, 1909, a short distance back of Peralta Station 
of the Costa Rica Railway, altitude 322 meters, 1055 feet, 
there extended a Y-shaped track to enable locomotives to 
reverse their heading. At the end of the stem of the Y was a 
narrow, slow-moving stream called simply "laguna." Just 
beyond the laguna was a low woods consisting of small trees, 
arums, ferns, heliconias and numerous vines or creepers. Here 
the type of Miocora peraltica was taken about noon. 

The generic name Thore Selys, 1853, from which his legion 
Thore takes its appellation, was preoccupied by the name 
Thore applied to a subgenus of Attid spiders by C. L. Koch 
(Ubersicht des Arachnidensystems, 5tes Heft, p. 66, Niirn- 
berg, 1850). I therefore propose the name Polythore for 
the Odonate genus in allusion to the denser venation of its 
members in comparison with other genera of the Selysian 
legion. The type of Thore was fixed by Kirby (Cat. Odon. 
1890, p. 116) as T. glgantca Selys, so this species becomes 
the genotype of Polythore. The oldest generic name thus 
left in the legion is Chalcoptcryx Selys, 1853. 

The Knaus Collection of Coleoptera. 

Mr. Warren Knaus (class of 1882, Kansas State Agricultural Col- 
lege) has donated to the Entomological Museum of the College, his 
valuable collection of Coleoptera. Ever since he was a student in the 
College, Mr. Knaus has spent practically all of his spare time and vaca- 
tions in collecting and studying the Coleoptera. He has made many 
trips into the arid regions of Mexico, Arizona, Texas and New Mexico 
to collect insects. These trips have been productive of a great many 
new species. His collection contains a number of species that are only 
found in one or two museums in the world, and these were furnished 
by Mr. Knaus. His collection will be kept separate and will be known 
as the "Warren Knaus Collection." GEORGE A. DEAN, Manhattan, Kan- 


Two new Species of Macrophya (Hym.).* 

By S. A. ROHWER, Specialist in Forest Hymenoptera, Bureau 
of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

In a recent number of Entomological News (1916, vol. 27, 
pp. 274-77) Phil Ran has described, in some detail, the dance 
of a species of Macrophya. Inasmuch as the species was un- 
described it is desirable that it should be named so that the 
observation may be catalogued and made available. The spe- 
cies described as rani is the one referred to in the beginning of 
Mr. Rau's paper, and the species described as simillima is 
probably the species recorded as being captured later in the 
week. From the material at hand it is impossible to make this 
assertion positive as the individuals are not dated. Both of 
these species belong to Macrophya in the restricted sense. 

Macrophya raui new species. 

Macrophya sp. Rau. Ent. News, 1916, vol. 27, p. 274. 

This species is closely allied to punctata MacGillivray and 
propinqua Harrington. From propinqua it may be separated 
by the spot on the hind tibiae, the mostly black clypeus and 
labrum, and poorly defined middle f ovea ; from punctata the 
shape and size of the postocellar area will serve to distinguish 

Female : Length 8.5 mm. Anterior margin of the labrum truncate ; 
the clypeus deeply, arcuately emarginate, lobes broadly rounded apical- 
ly ; middle and frontal foveae not well denned ; antennal furrows com- 
plete; front punctured; postocellar area more than twice as wide as 
long, the sides curved, the surface with rather close, large punctures ; 
postocellar line one-third shorter than the ocellocular line; vertex, 
except the posterior part, shining, impunctate ; third antennal joint but 
little shorter than the fourth and fifth joints; scutum and prescutum 
shining with separate distinct punctures; scutellum closely punctured; 
scutellar appendage completely roughened ; mesepisternum striato- 
punctate; metepimeron normal; third cubital cell subequal in length 
with the second ; sheath narrow, rounded apically, convex below. 

Black; labrum in the middle, two small spots on the clypeus, an in- 
conspicuous spot on the mandible, two very small spots on the vertex, 
the posterior margin of the pronotum narrowly, the anterior margin of 

*Contribution from the Branch of Forest Insects, Bureau of Ento- 


the tegulae, two small spots on the propodeum medianly, a line on the 
anterior and intermediate coxae, a spot on the posterior coxae, all the 
trochanters, the apices of the anterior femora beneath, the four anterior 
tibiae beneath, the four anterior tarsi except apices, a spot at the base 
of the hind tibiae and a curved mark near the middle, the dorsal sur- 
face, the dorsal basal part of the second and third joints of the hind 
tarsi, and the base of the fourth hind tarsus white or yellowish 
white; wings subhyaline, venation dark brown, stigma slightly paler. 

Male. Length 7 mm. Except for the usual sexual characters the 
male agrees in structure with the female. The anterior half of the 
clypeus is white and the posterior portion of the pronotum shows only 
a faint indication of the white band. In some of the male paratypes 
the white band of the pronotum is as distinct as in the female. 

St. Louis, Missouri. Described from three females and 
seven males collected in April, 1915, by Phil Rau and given 
his number 1518. 

Type. Cat. No. 20907, U. S. N. M. 

Macrophya simillima new species. 

This species is related to alba MacGillivray, but the short 
antennae and long postocellar line easily separate it from Mac- 
Gillivray's species. In habitus it resembles more closely 
xanthonota Rohwer, but the black hind coxae of that species 
readily separate the two. 

Female. 'Length 7.5 mm. Anterior margin of the labrum truncate; 
anterior margin of the clypeus broadly, deeply, arcuately emarginate ; 
the lobes narrow and rounded apically; middle and frontal foveae 
represented by glabrous spots ; antennal furrows obsolete ; front 
closely punctured; postocellar line subequal in length with the ocelloc- 
cipital line and one-fifth shorter than the ocellocular line ; postocellar 
area with its anterior width but little greater than its length, much 
wider posteriorly, the surface with a few large, well defined punctures; 
the sides of the vertex shining, almost impunctate ; antennae shorter 
than the head and thorax, the third joint subequal with the fourth and 
fifth; scutum and prescutum opaque, and with a number of irregular 
poorly defined punctures ; scutellum shining, the sides with large, well 
defined punctures, the appendage opaque and with two or three large 
punctures; mesepisternum reticulate on a finely granular surface; 
mesepimeron slightly produced posteriorly, shining, impunctate except 
the dorsal posterior angle where it is finely granular; second cubital 
longer than the third on the radius, subequal on the cubitus. 

Black ; base of the labrum. clypeus except the anterior margin, line 
on the mesepisternum, posterior margins of the pronotum broadly, 


tegulae, large spot on the scutellum, propodeum except the sides 
white or yellowish white; legs yellow; the apices of the four anterior 
tibiae above, the anterior tarsi above, the apices of the middle tarsi, 
the apical half of the posterior femora, extreme base of the posterior 
tibise, the apex of the posterior tibiae, extreme base and apex of the 
first joint of the hind tarsi and the apices of the second and following 
joints of the hind tarsi, black; calcaria of the hind tibiae black and the 
other tibiae pale ; wings slightly yellowish hyaline, venation including 
the stigma dark brown. 

Male. Length 7 mm. In color the male differs from the female in 
the white labrum and in the entirely black hind tarsi; in structure it 
agrees except for the usual antigeny. 

St. Louis, Missouri. Described from one female (Ran No. 
1531) and one male (Rau No. 1533), collected in April, 1915, 
by Phil Rau. A male and female paratype also come from 
Lincoln, Nebraska, collected in May, 1902, by W. D. Pierce. 
A female paratype from Michigan and a female paratype from 
Ithaca, New York, have a brownish spot on the basal dorsal 
part of the four anterior femora. 

Type. Cat. No. 20908, U. S. N. M. 

Summer Work on Insects 

Professor M. M. Ellis, of the University of Colorado, will conduct 
a course on the Natural History of Insects (elementary collegiate 
zoology being a prerequisite thereto) and will direct special or research 
work on insects at the Summer Session of the Biological Station of the 
University of Michigan, at Douglas Lake, Michigan, from July 2 to 
August 24, 1917. 

CaJopteryx dimidiata apicalis (Odon.). 

In recently looking over some Odonata I found a damaged male of 
this species with the following data : "Dragonfly taken from canoe on 
Rancocas Creek three-quarters mile below New Lisbon, N[ew] 
[Jersey] Aug. 17, 1911, by S. N. Rhoads. About five males like this 
and as many females with less black were seen. Nowhere else seen. 
Always over water in shady places. A rare species there." Brown's 
Mills (also on the Rancocas) and Raccoon Creek are the only other 
records for the Delaware valley in the 1910 list of the Insects of New 
Jersey, so the recording of the present specimen is justifiable. The 
specimen has gone to Dr. R. Heber Howe, Jr., of Concord, Massachu- 


Plate XIX. 

W. B.K u r>c 



The Life History of the Backswimmer, Notonecta 
undulata Say (Hern., Het.). 

By H. B. HUNGERFORD, Cornell University. 

(Plates XIX, XX.) 

Of all our American water bugs none are more generally 
known in their native haunts than the Backswimmers. They 
are to be found in nearly every pool and pond and afford most 
interesting objects for aquarium study. The fact that they 
swim on their backs readily distinguishes them from all other 
water bugs. 

The family Notonectidae, to which these bugs belong, is a 
small one, there being but three genera and a total of eighteen 
species reported for America north of Mexico. All but four 
species are assigned to the genus Notonecta, to which our com- 
monest forms belong. These bugs are all of fair size (8-17 mm. ) 
and for the most part marked with black and white or with 
black and various shades of red or brown. The various 
species of this genus may be distinguished by the table pre- 
pared for their identification by Mr. J. R. de la Torre Bueno 


In New York State we find several interesting species in the 

same pool while in the ponds of Kansas the black and white 
TV. undulata is the common and almost the only form taken in 
collecting. It is the life history of this species that this paper 


So far as the writer has been able to find there is no account 
in the literature concerning the complete life history of any of 
the species of the genus Notonecta which are often dominant 
forms in our pools and ponds in America. Mr. J. R. de la 
Torre Bueno (1905) in his Notonecta of North America de- 
scribes the egg of Notonecta undulata and records having 
reared them to the second or third instar when they died for 
want of proper food he also presents some notes on the egg 
stage and number of nymphal instars of N. variabilis. Chris- 
tine Essenberg (1915) describes the egg of N. undulata and 
gives a general account of the Notonecta egg, its incubation 


and hatching, the behavior of the young nymph and the dura- 
tion of the first nymphal instar. She did not carry them 
farther because of the difficulties involved. 

In the literature dealing with the species in other lands, Kir- 
kaldy (1897) in a footnote to his "Revision of the Notonecti- 
dae," stated his success in rearing to the third instar and re- 
gretted his inability to record the complete cycle, though he 
correctly surmised that there are five nymphal instars. 

Delcourt (1907) gives brief reference to the number of in- 
stars and states that he reared N. glauca on mosquito wrigglers. 
This author was chiefly concerned with taxonomic problems 
as is shown by the title of his paper, "De la Necessite d'une 
Revision des Notonectes de France." 

In 1911 D. Nowrojee gave the most complete account of thr. 
life history of any member of the subfamily Notonectinae. 
His paper deals with Enithares indie a Fab. and is a two page 
account accompanied by four figures (egg, nymph, and adult) 
in color. A description of the egg, the length of incubation 
and the duration of the various instars are given. 

Hoppe (1912) in his paper on "Die Atmung von Notonecta 
glauca" makes a few remarks on the life history, noting five 
nymphal instars. 

On the other hand the behavior of these insects has been 
the subject of careful study on the part of a number of work- 
ers especially in relation to respiration. 

Brocher (1909, 1913) and Hoppe in Europe have made ex- 
tended studies on the respiration of Notonecta glanca and 
Christine Essenberg (1915), of Berkeley, California, has writ- 
ten upon the behavior of four California species. 

In addition to the above more important references, dealing 
with species of Notonecta, there are many interesting notes to 
be found in the text-books and scattered through the literature 
from an early date to the present time. Some of these will be 
noted in the body of this paper or listed in the Bibliography. 


Notonecta undidata, besides being the most widely distri- 
buted form, seems to be able to adapt itself to a wider range 


of circumstances than most of the others. The writer has 
taken it in clear spring-fed pools in New York and in 'the 
stagnant scum-covered waters of muddy ponds in Kansas. 
Uhler (1876) says "it inhabits the foulest pools, in dirty slush 
and slimy ponds it revels in full enjoyment of the filth." 

Barber (1913), in a popular paper on Aquatic Hemiptera, 
makes a similar reference to its habitat. Thus it may be noted 
to be less sensitive than many others of its genus to its en- 
vironment. When the small bodies of water recede during the 
prolonged period of dry weather, which we sometimes have in 
late summer in Kansas, it is among the last to take wing to 
more favorable situations, a fact which is not to be accounted 
for on the basis of weak powers of flight, for it does on occa- 
sion fly very well, as appears to have been noted for the Eur- 
opean forms at an early date. Aldrovandus spoke of them 
as amphibious bees and Swammerdam, at the close of his dis- 
cussion of the Notonectac, a name applied to them by Mouffet, 
1634, makes the following interesting remark in regard to 
the migration of water bugs : "As all the insects hitherto 
enumerated have wings, some of them flying in the daytime 
and others at night, it is easy to conceive that they may be 
very speedily generated in all standing waters." 

In the first warm days of spring, the writer has observed 
them coming by the dozens and alighting in a small road-side 
pool. Thus their range, which was restricted by the drouth 
of the previous fall, was again extended to the many favor- 
able pools of spring and early summer. There are several rec- 
ords of Corixid migrations in this country but only one, so far 
as the writer knows, for Notonccta. In September, 1846. 
near the head waters of the Mississippi, S. G. Simpson report- 
ed a swarm of "N. yla-nca" which extended over 25 or 35 
miles. This species, if a Notonectid at all, was doubtless the 
common N. undulata. 


The predatory tendencies, and the daring attacks of these 
insects upon other animals of formidable size have been known 
from the first biological notes concerning them. Nearly every 


writer has enlarged upon this point, but they also feed quite 
largely upon ostracods and similar organisms, especially in 
their younger stages as has been previously pointed out by 
the writer.* He began his attempts at rearing by using mos- 
quito wrigglers as recommended by Delcourt, but met with 
indifferent success, perhaps because he did not secure them in 
proper sizes. It was soon discovered that ostracods made an 
excellent fare and afforded a constant supply. A large aquar- 
ium was teeming with them, from which they were transferred 
by means of a pipette to the small petri dishes in which the 
notonectid nymphs were isolated. It is interesting to watch the 
nymphs feed upon these little bivalves. The capture and 
consumption may be watched under the binocular with ease 
for the prey is held against the venter, which is upper-most 
as shown by the drawing, PI. XIX, fig. 8. 

The little notonectid is not prone to carry on an extended 
chase, doubtless aware that success is more surely attained by 
waiting until the prey comes within striking distance, than by 
sustained effort. 

Thus it rests suspended from the surface film with the row- 
ing legs poised well forward of right angles to the body, ready 
for a sudden attack. At last an unsuspecting ostracod comes 
gliding over the bottom of the petri below, a sudden dart, dodge 
and a turn and notonecta returns to its former position on its 
back, tip of the abdomen at the surface film and the body 
sloping head downward at its customary angle, but now em- 
bracing the luckless bivalve with both fore legs. With the 
armored prey, held prisoner upon the coxae of the fore legs, it 
turns it about to find a vulnerable point in which to jab its 
stylets at last success is attained, the valves open and do not 
close again for the nymphal backswimmer feeds. Though 
partaking of the contents of this ostracod and both fore legs 
busy retaining perhaps as many as two others, gathered since 
the feeding began and which are striving to escape, this greedy 
fellow dives again and again at other ostracods that pass near 
by. Finally, having exhausted the supply of nutriment con- 

*Science N. S. Vol. XLV, No. 1162, Page 336, April 6, 1917. 


tained in the captured victims, their shells are cast aside and 
the process repeated as opportunity affords. A careful exami- 
nation of the field notes brings to light the fact that at the time 
when Notonecta nymphs in their first and second instars were 
in their greatest numbers, both in their spring and summer 
generations, the waters were teeming with ostracods. In the 
laboratory nymphs have been carried through the first four 
stages on ostracods alone, but as a rule they were supplied 
nymphal corixids in the later instars. The corixids have been 
found very satisfactory for Bclostonta nymphs also. 


Much has been written upon the adaptation of Notonecta to 
an aquatic life. Brocher (1909) places them with the Nau- 
corids, midway between the less modified Corixids and the 
more greatly modified Nepids. He was considering the mat- 
ter from the standpoint of respiration. Following some clever 
experiments, in which he removed certain air retaining devices 
of the body and closed, in turn, various spiracles, he concludes 
that they inspire through the last abdominal pair of spiracles 
and that the air retained about the body is for the most part ex- 
pired air, liberated by the thoracic spiracles. Perhaps the first 
note in this country representing a close observation of the res- 
piration appeared in the American Naturalist for 1887 and 
was written by Professor Comstock. 


A somewhat detailed account of the literature on the ovipo- 
sition of these insects was given in the discussion and in an 
annotated bibliography accompanying the paper "The Egg 
Laying Habits of a Back Swimmer, Bncnoa uiarfjaritacca" 
etc., by the writer (1917). In this paper it was noted that 
Buenoa niargaritacca places its eggs in the stems of plants. It 
may be stated that though N. itnditlata may sometimes abrade 
the surface, as noted by Bueno, the chitinous processes of the 
ovipositor are ill adapted to making any such deep incision as 
are made by B. margaritacca.* Christine Essenberg (1915), 

*On the other hand N. irrorata has a long- ovipositor and inserts its 
eggs wholly or in part in the stems of submerged plants. The writer 
has had the opportunity just recently to study this species and finds 
the eggs laid in the aquaria placed in incisions of the stems of money- 
wort, etc. 


in California, states that the four species with which she work- 
ed place their eggs on the stems. It is certainly the case with 
Notonccta imdulata whose elongate white eggs may be found, 
in large numbers, on the dead stems of weeds lodged in the 
water or on any other support. Photographs of the eggs are 
shown in Plate XX, figs. 6. 3 and 4. 


The adults may be taken in Kansas any time during the win- 
ter when the waters are open enough to permit collecting. 
They pass the coldest portions of the year in the mud or among 
the rubbish and dead leaves in the pool. They can even spend 
as long a time as six weeks in damp piles of dead sticks, so 
it does not necessarily follow that they perish because the pools 
diminish during weather when they are but sluggishly active. 
During the season of 1916 egg laying began about the middle of 
March and continued till the end of April. The largest num- 
bers were noted on April nth. By the 4th of May, the first and 
second instar nymphs were in greatest abundance in all the 
pools under observation which were teeming at this time with 
ostracods. The 25th of May found many of the nymphs in 
the fifth instar and the adults were appearing in numbers June 
ist. A few nymphs in the earlier instars were still to be noted, 
but no eggs had been found for some time. 

On June 7th freshly laid eggs were again taken and they- 
continued to be noted up to the first week in August. Many 
nymphs in their first stages were noted on July I3th and many 
of these reached the adult stage about August 2oth. By this 
time the pools that had been chosen for the daily field obser- 
vations were either completely gone or so greatly restricted 
that observations were transferred to the larger bodies of 

In the laboratory rearings were made in stender and petri 
dishes one bug to a dish. From these rearings it may be said 
that the eggs laid on March i8th hatched March 3Oth. Eggs 
laid April I2th showed the pink eye spots April i6th, and be- 
gan hatching April 22nd. 

The average time for each of the first four instars was 7 


days, for the fifth instar 12 days. Eggs laid July I2th hatched 
July 1 7th, averaged 6 days for each of the first four instars 
and n days for the fifth a total of 40 days from the deposi- 
tion of the egg to the adult stage, a period somewhat shorter 
than for the spring generation. 


The egg. A description of the egg of this species was given 
by Bueno (1905) as 1.9-2 mm. in length, clear glistening pearly 
white when recently deposited. Chorion sculptured in irregu- 
lar hexagons. Shape elongate oval. A large series of freshly 
laid eggs averaged 1.75 mm. in length, varying from 1.625 mm. 
to 1.813 mm. The diameter ranged from .5 mm. to .6 mm. 
The shape of the egg is modified as the embryo develops. The 
embryo lies with its back to the attached side of the egg as a 
rule. After a few days incubation the eye spots begin to ap- 
pear as faint pink blotches darkening as development takes 
place till shortly before hatching the black hairs bordering the 
various portions of the body of the nymphs are visible through 
the chorion. 

Hatching takes place upon bursting the cephalic end of the 
egg as shown in the photograph. The nymph comes forth 
swathed in a clear membrane, gradually working its way, by 
backward and forward movements, till it is nearly clear of the 
egg shell, whereupon the embryonic sheath splits and slowly 
the new bug frees itself, the swimming legs being the last to 
leave the shell. As the legs are freed they spring out into 
position. When at last the little bug is clear, it rests as though 
exhausted, then it makes, during the next fifteen or twenty 
minutes, intermittent endeavors to attain the surface. Tn 
these efforts it approaches the surface head uppermost and is 
heavier than the water dropping to the bottom as soon as its 
struggles cease. Finally it may succeed in hooking a front 
claw into the surface film where it will hang suspended for 
some minutes. Finally it turns on its side, pierces the sur- 
face film, then darts below, the guard hairs closed over a bub- 
ble of air up to this time the guard hairs of the abdomen 
have rested limp against the body. 



[June, '17 

In the light of Tillyard's work with hatching dragonfly 
nymphs and the work of Hoppe and Brocher on the respira- 
tion of older notonecta nymphs, careful and extended obser- 
vations on the respiratory activity of the newly hatched water 
bugs are to be desired. 


First Instar. Size : see table below. Color : General body white, 
eyes red, hairs and spines black, antennae smoky black. When first 
hatched the abdomen especially transparent and the movements of the 
organs plainly visible within. Tarsal claws all conspicuously black. 

Structural peculiarities. The most characteristic feature of the first 
instar is the absence of the tuft of hairs which in all succeeding instars 
is found on a median ventral carina of the abdomen. The eyes are 
relatively far apart. The antennae are apparently two-segmented and 
directed downward (really three segments). The tarsi are all one- 
segmented and end in two claws. The tarsi of the hind legs are fringed 
with hairs. The middle femora are furnished on their caudo-ventral 
margins with two strong bristles set upon elevations. 

Second instar. The presence of the tuft and fringe of hairs on the 
ventral abdominal carina is the chief addition over that of the previous 
stage. The rear margin of the middle femora are now equipped with 
three strong bristles and there is a suggestion of the tooth or spine 
that becomes prominent in the succeeding instar. Antennae 3-seg- 
mented. First segment short, disc-like, second somewhat globose and 
third elongate. 

Third instar. The caudal margin of the mesothoracic femur now 
carries a well developed tooth as well as the three stout spines noted 
















^ 11 

J= t! 

t; u 

W 2 













1st instar 















2d instar 















3d instar 















4th instar 















5th instar 















6th c? 















6th ? 
















in the second instar. Tibia and tarsus of hind leg now fringed with 
hairs wing pads as in Fig. 4,c, Plate XIX. 

Fourth instar. The middle femora now bear very stout processes in 
the line of the caudal row of spines. A series of short processes on 
the ventral side of this segment take the place of minute rugosities of 
the previous instar. 

Fifth instar. The tooth or strong spine on the mesothoracic tibia is 
now extremely wide at its base. The limbs are stouter than previously 
and the wing pads now have the position shown in figure 4e of Plate 

In the above table the measurements are in millimeters and based on 
reared material. The adults are certainly smaller than those taken in 
Ithaca, New York, though practically the same as specimens from na- 
ture in Kansas. These figures are intended to help in determining an 
instar. The series measured is not large enough for purposes of gener- 

General notes on development. There are certain constants of struc- 
ture that are carried through all the nymphal instars. The mesotho- 
racic legs may serve as an illustration of this point. In all the instars 
the tarsi end in unequal claws as in the adult, and the tibiae possess a 
row of five bristles on their caudo-ventral margin and the tarsi three 
such bristles. 

The metathoracic tarsi end in an unequal pair of claws which are 
prominent in the first instar (PI. XIX, fig. 10) and which become less 
and less conspicuous as development proceeds till in the adult stage 
their similarity to the other structures of the swimming leg has led to 
the common statement that the tarsal claws of hind legs are absent in 
the adult. Upon transforming to the adult stage the one-segmented 
condition of the tarsi is replaced by a two-segmented tarsus and the 
three-segmented antennae becomes four-segmented. (See PI. XIX, figs. 
6 and 7.) 

The eyes occupy an increasingly large proportion of the head in suc- 
cessive instars, a point not properly indicated in the drawings which 
were made from living bugs in the water. 


Notonccta undulata is the most widely distributed of all our 
backswimmers. It lives well in the aquarium and may be 
reared from deposition of the egg to the adult stage in some 
forty days if placed in isolated jars and given proper attention. 
The young stages thrive on a diet of ostracods and the ad- 
vanced nymphs do very well on immature and small corixids 
for a food supply. In Kansas there are two main broods in 


a season, one reaching the adult stage in June, the other in 
August. Since these insects draw quite largely in their young 
stages upon the ostracods and similar organisms, which repre- 
sent a chief food supply for young fish, as well as preying 
upon small fish directly, as has been noted several times, they 
deserve more careful study. This task is greatly facilitated 
by a workable key to the species and by some knowledge of 
their feeding habits. 

AMYOT, C. J. B., et AUDINET SERVILLE, 1843. Histoire naturelle des 

Insectes Hemipteres. Paris. 
BARBER, H. G., 1913. Aquatic Hemiptera. Jr. N. Y. Ento. Soc. XXI, 

pp. 29-32. 
BROCHER, FRANK, 1909. Recherches sur la Respiration des insectes 

aquatiques adultes. La Notonecte in : Annales de Biologic lacus- 

tre, Tome IV. 
IBID, 1909. Recherches sur la Respiration des Insectes Aquatiques 

(images). Nepe, Hydrophile, Notonecte, Dyticidae, Haemonia, 

Elmides. (Resume of previous paper.) 
IBID, 1913. Recherches sur la respiration des insectes aquatiques adultes 

in: Zoolog. Jahrb., 33 Band, 2 Heft. 1913. (A response to Hoppe's 

BUENO, J. R. DE LA TORRE, 1905. The Genus Notonecta, in America 

North of Mexico: Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XIII, p. 144. 
IBID, 1906. Ways of progression in water bugs. Ent. News 17: pp. 1-4. 
IBID, 1908. Concerning the Notonectidae and some recent writings on 

Hemipterology. Can. Ent. 40, p. 211. 
COMSTOCK, J. H., 1887. Note on Respiration of Aquatic Bugs. Am. 

Nat. Vol. XVI, p. 577. 
DELCOURT, A., 1907. De la Necessite d'une Revision des Notonectes 

de France in: La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes (Rennes) No. 

442, Aug. ist, pp. 198-207. 

DE GEER, 1778. Memoires pour servir a 1'histoire des insectes. 
ESSENBERG, CHRISTINE, 1915. Habits and Natural History of the Back- 
swimmers in : Jr. Animal Behavior, Cambridge. Vol. 5, No. 5, 

pp. 381-390. 

GARMAN, H., 1888. Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory of Natural His- 
tory, Vol. Ill, p. 174. 

HOPPE, JULIAN, 1912. Die Atmung von Notonecta glauca. Zoologische 
Jahrbiicher, Jena. 

HUNGERFORD, H. B., 1917. The Egg Laying Habits of a Back-swim- 
mer, Buenoa margaritacea Bueno, and other biological notes con- 
cerning it. Ent. News, xxviii, pp. 174-183, pi. XIII. 


KIRKALDY, G. W., 1897. Revision of the Notonectidae, Pt. I, in : 
Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1897, pp. 393-436. 

IBID, 1896. Notonecta glauca its oviposition. Proc. Ent. Soc. Lon- 
don, 1896, p. xxvii. 

MOUFFET, THOMAS, 1634. Insectorum sive Minimorum Animalium 

NOWROJEE, D., 1911. Life Histories of Indian Insects, II. Some aqua- 
tic rhynchota and coleoptera in: Memoirs of the Dept. of Agri. 
in India. Vol. II, No. 9. Ento. series. Pub. by W. Thacker & 
Co., 2, Creed Lane, London. May. 

SAY, THOMAS, 1859. American Entomology, Vol. I, 1859, p. 368. 

SEVERIN and SEVERIN, 1910. Notonecta undulata Say preying upon 
eggs of Belostoma flumineum Say. Can. Ento., 42, p. 340. 

SIMPSON, S. G., 1848. Quoted by Dr. Spence in: Trans. Ent. Soc. 
London, Vol. 5 : Proceedings, p. 36. 

SWAMMERDAM, JOHN, 1758. The Book of Nature or the History of 

Insects Translation from the Dutch and Latin Original 

Edition by Thomas Floyd. Revised and improved by notes from 
Reaumur and others by John Hill, London. 

UHLER, P. R., 1884. In : Kingsley, J. S. Standard Natural History, 
Vol. II. Crustacea and Insects. 

IBID, 1876. List of the Hemiptera of the Region West of the Miss. 
River, including those collected during the Hayden explorations 
of 1873. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey, Vol. I. 

WALCKENAER, C. A., 1802. Faune parisienne, Insectes, ou histoire 
abrigee des Insectes des environs de Paris, p. 331. 


Fig. i. Ventral view of terminal abdominal segments of male Noto- 
necta undulata Say. 

Fig. 2. Fifth in star nymph. 

Fig. 3. Ventral view of terminal abdominal segments of female. 

Figs. 4a to 4e. Diagrams of dorsal view of meso- and metathorax 
of nymphs, first to fifth instars respectively, showing the de- 
veloping wing pads. 

Fig. 5. 3rd instar nymph. Both rows of swimming hairs shown. 

Fig. 6. Antennae of 5th instar nymph. 

Fig. 7. Antennae of adult male. 

Fig. 8. 2nd instar feeding upon an ostracod. 

Fig. 9. 1st instar nymph drawn by Miss Ellen Edmonson. 

Fig. 10. Tarsus of hind leg of first instar nymph showing the tarsal 
claws which become less conspicuous as development ad- 

Fig. 11. Egg of Notonecta undulata, showing details of structure, 
drawn by Miss Ellen Edmonson. 



Fig. i. Two eggs of Notonecta undulata after hatching, showing the 
characteristic slit in the shell and the clear embryonic mem- 
brane shed by the nymph upon emerging. 

Fig. 2. Adult Notonecta undulata in the water. 

Fig. 3. Egg nearly ready to hatch note the red eye spot and the dark 
line at margin of the gelatinous substance which glues the 
egg to its support. 

Fig. 4. A freshly laid egg viewed from above. 

Fig. 5. A roadside pool in early spring. The backswimmers were 
arriving in numbers flying from some unknown quarters 
where they had passed the winter. 

Fig. 6. Eggs of Notonecta undulata freshly laid upon old weed stems 
lodged in the waters of the pool. Gyrinid beetles lay some- 
what similar eggs which may be distinguished by their ar- 
rangement upon their support and by the fact that the eye 
spots in advanced eggs are black instead of red and farther 
from the end of the egg than in those of the backswimmers. 

Seasonal Abundance of Flies in Montana (Dipt.). 1 
By R. R. PARKER, Bozeman, Montana. 

During the season of 1914 the Montana State Board of 
Entomology started investigations to determine the life history 
and habits of the house fly (Musca domcstica Linnaeus) and 
flies of similar habits common in Montana cities and towns 
and their relation to insanitary conditions. Investigations dur- 
ing 1914 were conducted mainly at Laurel and incidental ob- 
servations were made at other points in the Yellowstone Val- 
ley during the same season. In 1915 the work was carried on 
at Miles City and the more important results have been pre- 
sented in the Journal of Economic Entomology for June, 1916 
(pp. 326-354). Observations incidental to other work have 
been made in various other localities. 

The present paper concerns the seasonal abundance of flies, 
particularly the house fly, and the most important portion is 
based on work done at Laurel during July and August of 1914. 
This town had a population of about 1200, the houses were 

Contribution from the Laboratory of the Montana State Board 
of Entomology, State College, Bozeman, Montana. 


widely separated, the general conditions semi-rural and health 
conditions very poor. Several previous investigations have 
concerned the comparative abundance of flies indoors, but the 
work herein discussed dealt with out-of-doors conditions. Its 
principal object was to determine approximately the height 
of the house fly season in Montana. Five places were selected 
representing a variety of conditions and at each a single Hodge 
trap was placed out-of-doors. Two traps were placed at resi- 
dences, at one of which there was a privy, at the other a 
stable ; the third was placed in the rear of a meat and fish 
market ; the fourth, in the rear of a general provision store, 
and the fifth near an old garbage hole in the rear of the labora- 
tory. The traps were placed in exactly the same spot each 
day. Collections were made on five days of each week (ex- 
cept Saturday and Sunday) at eight o'clock in the morning. 
New traps were immediately substituted and the pans rebaited 
(with fresh beer). At the laboratory the flies were killed with 
ether and the number of each species recorded for each place 
of setting. A record was also kept of the noon temperature* 
and daily weather conditions. The weather records were 
found to be of no apparent significance. 

The results of the experiment are given in the accompany- 
ing table, which shows that the house fly reached its greatest 
abundance (height of fly season) during the first three weeks 
in August and was present in abundance during the whole 
month.! It is interesting to note that the height of the house 

*During the first week temperature records were taken at three in 
the afternoon which doubtless accounts for the fact that the average 
period temperature was higher for the first week than for the second 
as shown in the table. 

fThe decrease in the record for the second week in August was due 
to the fact that during the collecting period of that week, a pile of lum- 
ber was placed where the trap was usually set in the rear of the meat 
market. The results were materially affected because this was the 
point where most of the flies were captured. The record for this week 
(2266) shows a decrease of 8265 Musca domcstica from the number 
captured at this place during the first week in August and a decrease of 
9680 from the number captured the third week. A record correspond- 
ing to those of the first and third weeks would have brought the total 
for the second week well above 20.000. 



[June, '17 

fly season followed the period of highest average temperature 
the last week of July and was initiated by an abrupt increase 
in house flies the first week of August and ended with an 
abrupt decrease during the fourth week. In September tem- 
perature naturally decreases and is attended by a correspond- 
ing decrease in the numbers of adult flies. It is a common idea 











tes of Collecting Perio 

erage Period Tempera 

isca domestica 

'na stabulans 

'na assimilis 

'a sericata 

'a caesar 

'a sylvarum 

ormia terraenovae 

ormia regina 

lliphora erythrocepha 

nnia scalaris 
" canicularis 
" J/. 

Ayra leucostoma 

thomyidae undetermir 

vinia communis 

w/Ma peniculata 

cophaga haemorrhoi 




".ttcheria cimbicis 

acampta latiuscula 

te;r tarsalis* 
































































































































































Totals 88245 ! 3473 34 

1456 103 















in Montana that flies are most abundant in houses during Sep- 
tember, though their number out-of-doors is materially less. 
Observations have also indicated that other species besides 
the house fly are more numerous in houses at this time. This 
is probably because a greater proportion of flies are impelled 

* Determined by J. R. Parker. 


to seek the warmth inside houses and to remain there for com- 
paratively longer periods than earlier in the season. From 
this time on flies become fewer and fewer, though they are 
frequently seen in houses during warm spells as late as De- 
cember. Observations made in a greenhouse at Bozeman dur- 
ing the winter of 1916 and 1917 indicate that the winter is 
sometimes passed by continuous breeding in warm places af- 
fording suitable conditions. It is probable that the flies also 
winter over in the pupal state. At Miles City (altitude 2200 
ft.) house flies begin to be numerous early in May, later in 
cities in higher altitudes. 

The house fly constituted 91.80 per cent, of the total catch 
(96,122). The numbers of each of the other species captured 
and the percentage of the total catch were as follows : Mus- 
cina stabtdans (Fallen), 3473 (3.61); M. assimilis (Fallen), 
34 (.03) ; Lit cilia sericata (Meigen), 1456 (1.51) ; L. cacsar 
Linnaeus, 103 (.09) ; L. sylvarum (Meigen), 15 (.025) ; Phor- 
mia terracnovae (Desvoidy), 25 (.03) ; P. rcgina (Meigen), 244 
(.25) ; Calliphora, including erythrocephala (Meigen), color- 
adensis Hough and latifrons Hough, 123 (.13) ; Fannia, in- 
cluding scalaris (Fabricius), canicularis (Linnaeus) and an 
undetermined species, 2294 (2.38) ; Ophyra leucostoma Wied- 
emann, 18 (.02) ; undetermined Anthomyidae, 5 (.005) ; 
Raz'inia c omniums R. Parker, 36 (.04) ; R. peniculata R. Par- 
ker, 14 (.015) ; Sarcophaga hactnorrhoidalis (Fallen), 5 
(.005) ; 5. coulcyi R. Parker, 7 (.008) ; Bocttchcria chubicis 
(Townsend), i (.001). Anacauipta latinsciila, 5 (.005) ; Cule.v 
tarsalis Coquillett, 9 (.01). Species of Borboridae and of 
Scatopse were very numerous, but of course no record of them 
could be secured by means of Hodge traps. 

The above data indicated the great predominance of house 
flies during the summer months, even under out-door condi- 
tions. Their comparative abundance may be expected to be 
even greater under less rural conditions. The abundance of 
species of Fannia, particularly scalaris, and of the blow flics 
would likely be less in towns having adequate systems for the 


care and disposal of garbage. Insanitary privies also permitted 
the breeding of Fannia scalaris and other coprophagous flies in 
much greater number than would have been the case if privies 
had been fly-proof. The species of Sarcophagidac, which 
were more numerous than the data indicate, are also far more 
numerous under rural and semi-rural conditions. It will be 
seen from the table that Muscina stabitlans was second in 
abundance and showed a continual decrease during the sum- 
mer months. In the spring it is frequently more commonly 
seen in houses than Musca domestica. The species of Liicilia, 
Calliphora and Fannia also show a decrease in numbers during 
the period of the experiment, though all show some increase 
early in August. Phormia regina remained about constant. 
It is uncertain just how accurate an index of the comparative 
abundance of the various species is afforded by the data pre- 
sented. The beer used for bait was doubtless more attrac- 
tive to some species than to others. 

As noted at Powderville, Montana, during the season of 
1916, blow flies were most abundant during the spring. Phor- 
mia tcrraenovac and a species of Cynomyia, probably elongata 
Hough, were predominant during the spring months and were 
followed by species of Calliphora. Phormia regina and Cal- 
liphora coloradcnsis were the more common species in July 
and August. A knowledge of the seasonal occurrence of the 
blow flies is likely to be of some value in connection with the 
blowing of wool at lambing time though at present the species 
of these flies responsible for this trouble in Montana are not 

Change of Address. 

Dr. Edwin C. Van Dyke, of the Entomological Department of the 
College of Agriculture of the University of California, will exchange 
positions temporarily with Dr. J. C. Bradley, of Cornell University. 
Dr. Van Dyke will leave Berkeley on June i, 1917, and his address 
from June 18, 1917, to February i, 1918, will be Department of En- 
tomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 


Plate XX. 




The National Defense Against and By Insects. 
Following out the plan of co-operation proposed by the Na- 
tional Bureau of Entomology to State, Station and other Ento- 
mologists, as outlined in Dr. L. O. Howard's letter published 
in the NEWS for May, (page 229), the Federal Bureau has is- 
sued Number i of its reports of the "Emergency Entomologi- 
cal Service," dated May I, 1917, in mimeographed form. It 
states that 

Very gratifying replies have been received to the various letters 
which recently have been addressed to entomologists throughout the 
country regarding the great importance of reducing as far as possible, 
to meet the present emergency, the losses which are caused by insect 
attack on the staple crops of the country. Sympathetic and hearty 
co-operation has been promised by all entomologists of the country. 
. . . . It is especially important that during May and June any 
indications of insect outbreaks be reported promptly by entomologists 
on account of their bearing on subsequent injury. 

Suggestions and reports from twenty State and Station En- 
tomologists from New York to Florida and west to Montana 
and California are included in this report, along with those 
emanating from the Federal Bureau, from which we make 
some quotations : 

The Hessian Fly situation throughout the main wheat belt at the 

present time appears to be reassuring Considerable infestation 

still exists throughout the southern part of Illinois and Indiana, in 
Missouri, northern Oklahoma and eastern Kansas, but the situation 
can not be considered acute .... in some of the central counties 
of Kansas the loss from the Hessian fly this year will be very heavy. 

An extensive flight of May beetles .... is expected to occur 
during the month of May throughout the northern portions of the 
United States. The focus of this flight appears to be the State of 

Michigan This means a great infestation of grubs during the 

summer and early fall of 1918. 

It is very probable that heavy losses from [the chinch lmg"| may 
occur during the coming season in the middle west. 

The corn leaf aphis is more than usually abundant in the South- 
western States at present. 

Mr. R. S. Woglum reports that there is prospect of greater damage 
than usual from the principal citrus scale insects in Southern Cali- 
fornia. Many scale infested orchards were not fumigated last season, 
owing to the lack of cyanide, which continues. 

Mealy bug damage in California is apparently on the increase. 

The high cost of materials entering into the composition of insecti- 



cides has caused a marked increase in price of certain largely used 
articles, such as Paris green, arsenate of lead, etc., and may operate 
against the desired more general utilization of these materials in the 
protection of crops from insects. An important saving can usually be 
effected in the consolidation of orders for insecticides for a given 
neighborhood, or their purchase through fruit-growers' associations, 
or other co-operative buying organizations. The importance of this 
saving is realized when it is remembered that the difference in cost 
of certain insecticides, as arsenate of lead, in small packages at retail 
stores over its cost in larger quantities from manufacturers or jobbers, 
is often ioo per cent. [Suggestions for cheaper arsenicals are given.] 

We may logically fear that we shall have considerable trouble with 
grasshoppers, blister beetles and crickets during the coming year [in 
South Dakota.] 

The codling moth and the peach curculio show indications of ex- 
tensive injury [in Texas]. 

Circulars are being sent direct to bee-keepers in the chief producing 
regions urging them to increase production by increasing the number 
of colonies in so far as it can be done without decreasing the crop, 

but especially by manipulating their bees in the best manner 

In parts of the Northwest, winter losses were excessive and arrange- 
ments are being made to have bees sent from the south to replace the 
loss, since prospects for a crop are poor in parts of the southwest. 
Crop prospects are good in most of the northern states. 

Dr. Felt writes us that Dr. Vaughan, Chairman of the Medi- 
cal Committee of the National Research Council, has reported 
in favor of an expert entomologist being attached to every 
army camp and the above quoted report states that the Federal 
Bureau has 

prepared the manuscript of a brief popular bulletin on insects which 
are of importance in military operations which will be printed in a 
short time. The Chief of the Bureau has been conferring with the 
General Medical Board of the Council of National Defense concern- 
ing the organization and utilization of the medical entomologists of 
the country. 

The Bureau hopes to send out this series of reports at 
least monthly through the summer and autumn. 

Notes and Ne\vs. 


A New Biological Journal. 

Beginning May 15th, Psychobiology will appear every second month 
and will include in the yearly volume approximately 600 pages. 
Its pages will be devoted primarily to research which lies in the field 
common to psychology and the several biological sciences, or which 
has a distinct bearing on the biological foundations of psychology. No 


formal limit of length has been imposed on contributors, but short ar- 
ticles will be preferred, and unnecessary length will be considered a 
bar to publication. 

While the function of the journal will be primarily to promote the 
speedy publication of research, discussions of important points may be 
admitted at the discretion of the editors, such discussions being limited 
in any case to two pages. 

Books will not be reviewed but brief notices may be given of books 
which are deemed sufficiently important. Each book sent for notice 
should be accompanied by a concise statement of its purposes and con- 

Manuscript submitted for publication should be addressed to Pro- 
fessor Knight Dunlap, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood, 
Baltimore, Md., or may be submitted through one of the Associate 
Editors : John J. Abel, Johns Hopkins Medical School ; Walter B. Can- 
non, Harvard Medical School; Raymond Dodge, Wesleyan University; 
Shepherd I. Franz, Government Hospital for the Insane; Herbert S- 
Jennings, Johns Hopkins University, and George H. Parker, Harvard 
University. KNIGHT DUNLAP. 

The Generic Bugbear. 

Those who refrain from subdividing large genera, on the ground that 
they are facilitating the remembrance of names, are likely to exaggerate 
the importance of their services. Such persons do not convince me of 
anything, except that they have never really learned enough names to 
be able to tell whether many generic names hinder or help. A man can 
write a monograph containing one hundred species to the genus with- 
out being able to name all of the species offhand and without being a 
judge as regards the easy remembrance of names. 

The idea that few generic names facilitate remembering is not a 
fact, and, even if it were true, would be worthless in practical applica- 
tion. You can remember one generic name better than a dozen, but 
you can not remember one hundred names in one genus as easily as 
you can one hundred names in a dozen genera. A biologist who is 
working with a number of species where he has to identify and write 
the names frequently can remember them more easily than the names 
of persons. The generic name does not increase the difficulty of re- 
membering the name of a species any more than the surname increases 
the difficulty in remembering the name of a man. If every one hun- 
dred of your acquaintances had the same surname, do you think you 
could remember their names more easily? 

Suppose you start out to familiarize yourself with the flowers of 
your neighborhood and their insect visitors. If it is like the neighbor- 
hood of Carlinville, you will have to learn a generic name for every 1.7 
species. Or suppose you undertake to write offhand the names of the 


insects of New Jersey. You will have to learn a generic name for 
every 2.6 species. The lumpers will have to strain themselves to make 
the average 2 at Carlinville and 3 in New Jersey. The trouble with 
the taxonomists who object to genera is that they have adopted the 
wrong study. They ought to take up some subject where many names 
are not required. If they distinguish groups which they will not desig- 
nate with single words, their generic determinations are probably 
erroneous, and some one else ought to follow them up and name their 
groups for them, just as Latreille did for Kirby. -CHARLES ROBERT- 
SON, Carlinville, Illinois. 

ED rito mo logical Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy -Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico is given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 The Canadian Entomologist. 6 Journal, New York Ento- 
mological Society. 13 Comptes Rendus, Societe de Biologic, 
Paris. 50 Proceedings, U. S. National Museum. 79 La Nature, 
Paris. 87 Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 177 
Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, London. 179 Jour- 
nal of Economic Entomology. 189 Journal of Entomology and 
Zoology, Claremont, Calif. 195 Bulletin, Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge. 304 Annals, Carnegie Museum. 324 
Journal of Animal Behavior, Cambridge. 410 Journal, Washing- 
ton Academy of Sciences. 411 Bulletin, The Brooklyn Entomo- 
logical Society. 420 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstrutis: A monthly 
journal of entomology, Washington. 529 Journal of Zoological 
Research, London. 538 Lorquinia, Los Angeles. 540 The Lepi- 
dopterist, Official Bulletin, Boston Entomological Club. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Needham, J. G. The insect drift of 
lake shores, 4, 1917, 129-37. 

MEDICAL. Howard, L. O. The carriage of disease by insects, 
410, vii, 217-22. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Moles, M. L. Another record of a small 


whip scorpion in California, 189, ix, 1-7. Nisbet, J. Solpugids 
from the Claremont-Laguna region, 189, ix, 22-29. 

Chamberlin, R. V. New spiders of the family Aviculariidae 
[many new], 195, Ixi, 25-75. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Bagnall, R. S. On a collection of 
Thysanoptera from St. Vincent, with descriptions of 4 n. sps., 529, 
ii, 21-27. Walker, E. M. Some dragonflies from Prince Edward 
Island, 4, 1917, 117-19. 

ORTHOPTERA. Bugnion, E. L'accroissement des antennes 
et des cerques de la blatte (Blatta americana), 13, Ixxx, 317-24. 
Caudell, A. N. Some interesting O. from Mexico, 420, v, 28-9. 
Fox, H. Field notes on Virginia O., 50, lii, 199-234. Merle, R. 
Le cyphocrane geant, Etudes biologiques de M. Foucher, 79, 1917, 

HEMIPTERA. Davis, W. T. Two new Cicadas from Lower 
California, Mexico, 6, xxv, G-10. Hempel, A. Catalogos da fauna 
Brazileira III. As coccidas do Brazil, 75 pp. (Ed. Museu Pau- 
lista, Brazil). Hungerford, H. B. Food habits of corixids, 6, xxv, 
1-5. Oslen, C. E. Concerning Gerris remigis, 411, xii, 21. Smith, 
H. S. On the life history and successful introduction into the 
U. S. of the Sicilian mealy-bug parasite, 179, x, 262-68. Weiss, 
H. B. The status of Lecanium corni in New Jersey, 4, 1917, 

Davidson, W. M. Little known western plant lice, II. [2 new], 
179, x, 290-97. de la Torre Bueno, J. R. A n. sp. of tingid from 
New York, 411, xii, 19-20. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dyar, H. G. A note on Cisthene; The 
Barnes & McDunnough "List," 420, v, 8-10; 41-4. Eastman, W. F. 
What is Al quality? 540, i, .><. Forbes, W. T. M. The genera of 
Hydriomeninae of the U. S., 6, xxv, 44-67. Heinrich, C. Generic 
description of larva of Anegcephalesis, 420, v, 4S-50. Knetzger, A. 
Entomological notes: a strange case of pupation; a peculiar case 
of oviposition, 540, i, 38. Mabille & Boullet Description d'hespe- 
rides nouveaux, 87, 1917, 97-101. Malcolm, G. Variation in lepi- 
doptera, 538, i, 70. Rau, P. The courtship of Pieris protodice, 
324, vii, 143-4. 

Bird, H. New sps. and histories in Papaipema, No. 19 \2 new], 
4, 1917, 121-28. Dyar, H. G. Three new No. American Phycitinae; 
A new Phycitid from the Bahamas; A new Noctuid from Brazil, 
420, v, 45-6; 46-7; 50-1. 

DIPTERA. Dyar & Knab Bromelicolous Anopheles, 420, v, 


38-40. Malloch, J. R. Predaceous habit in Madeterus and Psilopa, 
411, xii, 13-14. 

Cole, F. R. Notes on Osten Sacken's group "Poecilanthrax" 
with descriptions of n. sps. [5 new], 6, xxv, 67-80. Dyar, H. G. 
The mosquitoes of the mountains of California [l new], 420, v, 
11-21. Howard, Dyar & Knab The mosquitoes of North and 
Central America and the West Indies. IV. Systematic description, 
Pt. II. (Carnegie Institution of Washington. Pub. No. 159, Vol. 
IV, 525-1064.) Johnson, C. W. A new maritime anthomyid, 4, 
1917, 148. Townsend, C. H. T. A synoptic revision of the Cutere- 
bridae, with synonymic notes and the description of one n. sp., 
420, v, 23-28. 

COLEOPTERA. Angell, J. W. Notes on Lucanidae, 411, xii, 
22. Chittenden, F. H. The two-banded fungus beetle, 179, x, 
282-87. Hayes, W. P. Studies on the life-history of Ligyrus gib- 
bosus, 179, x, 253-61. Hyslop, J. A. Notes on an introduced wee- 
vil (Ceutorhynchus marginatus), 179, x, 278-82. Leng, C. W. 
Cardiola obscura on Staten Island, 6, xxv, 80-1. Nicolay, A. S. 
Synopsis of the Anthophilax of No. America, 6, xxv, 38-44. Wil- 
liams, F. X. Notes on the life-history of some No. American 
Lampyridae, 6, xxv, 11-33. 

Blatchley, W. S. On some new of noteworthy C. from the west 
coast of Florida [6 new], 4, 1917, 137-43. Fall, H. C. The eleventh 
Pleocoma, 41, xii, 15-16. Leng, C. W. A new variety of Scaphi- 
notus, 6, xxv, 34-6. Synops'S of the species of Arthromacra [2 
new], 411, xii, 16-19. Van Dyke, E. C. A new sp. of the genus 
Anthophilax, 6, xxv, 36-7. 

HYMENOPTERA. Busck, A. Notes on Perisierola emigrata, 
a parasite of the pink boll worm, 420, v, 3-5. Cockerell, T. D. A. 
Some euglossine bees, 4, 1917, 144-6. Ducke, A. As Chrysididas 
do Brazil (C'atalogos da fauna Brazileira), iv, 31 pp. Gatenby, 
J. B. The embryonic development of Trichogramma evanescens, 
monembryonic egg parasite of Donacia simplex, 177, Ixii, 149-188. 
Holland & Rohmer List of the H. collected on the Isle of Pines 
by G. A. Link, 1912-13, and contained in the Carnegie Museum, 
304, xi, 291-96. Muir, F. On the synonymy of Delphax maidis, 4, 
1917, 147. Sladen, F. W. L. Collecting wasps and bees, 4, 1917, 

Girault, A. A. The occurrence of the genus Parachrysocharis 
in the U. S. fl new], 4, 1917, 129. Notes on chalcid flies, chiefly 
from California [7 new], 189, ix, 8-12. The No. American species 
of Euchrysia females [l new], 411, xii, 14-15. A chalcid parasite of 
the pink boll worm [l new], 420, v, 5-6. Rohwer, S. A. Two 
bethylid parasites 1 of the pink boll worm [l new], 420, v, 1-3. 

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METAL INSECT BOX has all the essential merits of the cabinet, having a 
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From Columbia, So. America : 


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" andraemon 
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From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

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Urania boisduvali 
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Protoparce brontes, etc. 

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JULY, 1917. 



No. 7 

Henry Shimer 

PHILIP H. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 




J. A. G. REHN. 



Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 


published monthly, excepting August and September, in charge of the Entomo- 
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Plate XXI 







VOL. XXVIII. JULY, 1917. No. 7. 


Kennedy Notes on the Penes of Zy- 
goptera ( Odonata ) No. 3 289 

de la Torre Bueno Life History and 
Habits of the Margined Water Stri- 
der, Gerris marginatus Say (Hem., 
Het.) 295 

Robertson Feeding Habits of Adult 
Chrysopidae ( Neur. ) 301 

Cockerell Some Bees of the Genus 
Psaenythia ( Hym. ) 302 

Physiographic Divisions of the United 
States 303 

Photogenic Organs of Photuris 

pennsylvanica DeGeer ( Col. ) 304 

Howard An active Ant-Killer( Arach., 

Solpugid.) 310 

Hebard Notes on the Earwigs (Der- 
maptera) of North America north 

of the Mexican Boundary 311 

Johannsen Some North American An- 

thomyiidae ( Dipt. ) 323 

Skinner New Species of Lepidoptera 328 

Editorial Insects and War 330 

Entomological Literature 332 

Hess Origin and Development of the I Obituary Notes 335 

Notes on the Penes of Zygoptera (Odonata). 

No. 3. The Penes in Neoneura and Related Genera. 

Ithaca, New York. 

(Plates XXI-XXIII.) 

In the first* of this series of articles was shown a series ot 
penes in the genus Acanthagrion, whose divergent characters 
showed but little generic cohesion, a series with such abrupt 
changes in form from species to species that their characters 
could not be used in denning generic limits though they were 
exceptionally valuable in differentiating species. 

In the second paperf was shown a series of penes in the 
Hawaiian genus Mcgalagrion, in which, though the genus in- 
cluded forms of diverse venation, size and body structure, 
the penes ran so close to each other in structure that the en- 
tire series of over twenty could not be divided into groups and 

* Ent. News, xxvii, pp. 325-330, pi. XVIII, July, 1916. 
t Ibid, xxviii, pp. 9-14, pis. II, III, Jan., 1917. 



the penis could not be used as a specific character because of 
the lack of sufficient specific differences. 

The present paper deals with a third condition, one that 
can be said to be intermediate between the preceding. It 
deals with a group in which the penis is a good generic as 
well as a good specific differential. As in the second paper, 
this group was chosen because of its immediate availability 
through Mr. Williamson's review of the genus Neoneura ana 
his recent work on related genera.* It is offered as a sup- 
plement to his delimitation of genera and species in this 

As in venation, the penis in the Legion Protoneura is re- 
duced to a comparatively simple form, though it is not as re- 
duced as in the Legion Lestes. Notwithstanding this reduc- 
tion, ample variety of form yet occurs for the distinction of 
genera and species. By referring to the description and text- 
figure in my first article (loc. cit.) it will be seen that the penis 
in this group approaches nearly to this simple, generalized 
form. In most genera of the Legion Protoneura the terminal 
fold is lacking, though even this occurs in the genera Palaem- 
nema and Platysticta, while it appears in a less degree in Dis- 
paroneura, Caconcura and Isosticta. 

In the first series of figures accompanying this article are 
shown the penes (as far as I have been able to obtain them) 
of the type species in the greater number of the genera now 
accredited to this Legion.t With each, where possible, is 
shown the penis of a second species in the same genus to 
show at a glance those characters common to the two (generic 
characters) and those characters peculiar to the individual 
(specific characters). In the second series of figures are 
shown the penes of the species of the genus Neoneura. 

*Notes on Neotropical Dragonflies or Odonata, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol. 48. May 12, 1915, pp. 616-636. A new Dragonfly genus of 
the Legion Protoneura. Ent. News, Vol. xxvii, pp. 30-33, Jan., 1916. 
The genus Neoneura. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xliii, pp. 2ii-J4<>. i>K. 
ix-xix, 1917. 

fl am indebted to Mr. Philip Munz, who is working out the vena- 
tional problems in the Zygoptera, for his list of these genera. 


In a review of the penes in the first series one can readily 
see that good generic as well as specific characters exist, a 
condition different from that which was found in Acanthagrion 
on the one hand and equally different from the opposite con- 
dition found in the penes of the Hawaiian Zygoptera. Also 
the penes in this group show certain characters in common 
which might induce one, not familiar with the penes of the 
other Zygoptera, to attempt a definition for the group. Un- 
fortunately many parallelisms occur in the form of this organ 
in the various genera, so that in using the characters of the 
penis to untangle classification the form of the penis has 
always to be considered in conjunction with any and all 
other available characters. 

Among the startling parallelisms is the resemblance be- 
tween the penes of Palaemnema and Bayadera the latter of 
which is in the Agrionidae, [Calopterygidae] another family 
of the Zygoptera. Certain species in Disparoneura (not figur- 
ed in this series) have penes almost identical with that ot 
Amphipteryx and nearly every one of the other generic forms 
can be paralleled in the Legion Coenagrion. The forms il- 
lustrated here are given merely to show a series in which 
the penis can be used to aid in the definition of genera. In 
this series, however, the penes show two or possibly three 
lines of evolution, which on a more complete study of the 
genera involved may show groupings within the Legion. Mr. 
Williamson has even suggested that this Legion may be an 
unnatural group, being merely the association of those forms 
of reduced venation, which have developed independently in 
various other Legions. The evidence for and against this will 
be given in a later paper after a more thorough study of 
this group has been made. 

The following notes point out what may be considered 
generic characters in the genera illustrated.* 

Palaemnema paulina Drury, figs. 1-2, genotype. Both soft folds 
present. Segment 3 two-lobed, the tips flattened into incurved hooks. 

* The arrangement of genera used by Kirby, Cat. Odonata, London, 
1890, has been followed. 


Platysticta maculata Selys, figs. 5-6, genotype. Similar to Palaem- 
nema, but the tips of the lobes of segment 3 not widened and flattened. 

Disparoncura glanca Burm., figs. 9-10, genotype. Both soft folds 
present, the terminal fold short. Segment 3 four-lobed, the basal 
lobes spine-like. 

Caconeura dorsalis Selys, figs. 13-14, genotype. Both soft folds 
present, the terminal fold short. Segment 3 four-lobed, the basal 
lobes long and flat. 

Nososticta solida Selys, fig. 17, genotype. No terminal fold. Seg- 
ment 3 four-lobed, the basal lobes narrow, perpendicular to the seg- 

Isosticta simplex Martin, figs. 18-19. Both folds present, the ter- 
minal fold short. Segment 3 with two terminal lobes whose apices 
are chitinized and turned dorsad. 

Neosticta cancsccns Tillyard, figs. 20-21, genotype. Segment 2 
broader than segment 3, otherwise as in Isosticta. 

Idioneura ancilla Selys, figs. 22-23, genotype. No terminal fold. 
Third segment simple, tips rounded. The internal fold reduced to a 
soft spine. 

Microncura caligata Selys, figs. 24-25, genotype. No terminal fold. 
Segment 3 entire, in cross section deeply V-shaped. 

Protoncura capillaris Ramb., fig. 26, genotype. Similar to penis in 
Microneura, but segment 3 with lateral apical lobes projecting caudad. 

Epipleoneura lamina Williamson, fig. 29, genotype. Terminal fold 
bilobed, segment 3 with an apical notch. 

Phasmoncura olmyra Williamson, figs. 32-33, genotype. Similar to the 
penis in Microneura, but segment 3 with an apical notch. 

Psaironeura remissa Calvert, figs. 34-35, genotype. No terminal fold. 
Segment 3 divided apically into two attenuate lobes. 

Epipotoneura nehalennia Williamson, fig. 38, genotype. No terminal 
lobe. Segment 3 with a square tip apparently folded back. (This was 
so minute I was not certain of the exact form of segment 3.) 

Sclysioncura cervicornu Forster, figs. 39-40, genotype. Terminal fold 
very short or wanting. Segment 3 trilobed. 

Neoneura bilincaris Selys, figs. 43-44, genotype. Similar to Proto- 
neura, but the lateral apical lobes pointing cephalad. 

The second series of illustrations deals with the species in the genus 
Neoneura. In this genus the inner edges of the anterior lobes turn in. 
In Neoneura rubriventris, figs. 69-71, the apical lobes are reduced to 
mere rudiments. In Neoneura mariana, figs. 63-64, the terminal lobes 
are best developed. Usually they are pointed, but in sylvatica they 
have rounded tips. It is not necessary to go info detail concerning 
these as the illustrations show how a single type can appear variously 
modified in a series of congeneric species. 


Plate XXIII. 







In conclusion, while the penis in certain groups of Zygop- 
tera has little value as a generic character, and in other groups 
has little value as a specific character, in this particular group 
of the Legion Protoneura it is of considerable assistance in 
defining both genera and species. As was stated at the be- 
ginning of this article, only a monographic study of the penis 
throughout the entire sub-order of Zygoptera can show what 
value to place on the penis in any group as a systematic help. 
In all the work this character appears to be suggestive rather 
than positive and final. 


Drawings of penes in the Legion Protoneura, being lateral and ven- 
tral views of the last two segments. 

Figs. 1-2, Palacmncma pa it Una Drury, genotype. El Fiscal, Guat., 
June 6, 1909, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 3-4, Palaemnema angclina Selys; Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex. 
May, H. H. S., in coll. Calvert. 

Figs. 5-6, Platysticta maculata Selys, genotype; Ceylon, in coll. 
Hagen, M. C. Z. 

Figs. 7-8, Platysticta tropica Selys; Ceylon, in coll. Hagen, M. C. Z. 

Figs. 9-10, Disparoneura glauca Burm., genotype; Cap[e] in coll. 
Hagen, M. C. Z. 

Figs. 11-12, Disparoneura westermanni Selys; Nilgiris, in M. C. Z. 

Figs. 13-14, Caconeura dorsalis Selys, genotype; Lohabu, N. Borneo, 
in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 15-16, Caconeura insignis Selys; Java, Tilg., in coll. Williamson. 

Fig. 17, Nososticta solida Selys, genotype; Queensland, in coll. Wil- 

Figs. 18-19, Isosticta simplex Martin; Sydney, N. S. W., coll. by 
Tillyard, in coll. Kahl. 

Figs. 20-21, Neosticta canesccns Tillyd., genotype. Tabalam, N. S. 
W., cotype, in coll. Kahl. 

Figs. 22-23, Idioneum ancilla Selys, genotype; Brazil, Winthem, in 
coll. Hagen, M. C. Z. 

Figs. 24-25, Microneura caligata Selys, genotype; Cuba, 1864, i n C H- 
Hagen, M. C. Z. 

Fig. 26, Protoneura capillaris Ramb., genotype; Portland, Jamaica, in 
coll. Calvert. 

Figs. 27-28, Protoneura cak'crti Williamson; Tumatumari, Brit. Gui- 
ana, in coll. Calvert. 

Fig. 29, Epipleoncura lamina Williamson, genotype; Wismar, Brit. 
Guiana, in coll. Williamson. 


Figs. 30-31, Epipleoneura fuscaenea Williamson; Wismar, Brit. Gui- 
ana, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 32-33, Phasmoneura olniyra Williamson, genotype; Rockstone, 
Brit. Guiana, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 34-35, Psaironcura rcmissa (Calvert), genotype; Puerto Bar- 
rios (?), Guat., in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 36-37, Psaironcura cerasina Williamson; Wismar, Brit. Guiana, 
in coll. Williamson. Type. 

Fig. 38, Epipotoncura nchalennia Williamson, genotype; Potaro 
Landing, Brit. Guiana, in coll. Williamson. Type. 

Figs. 39-40, Selysioneura cervicornu Forster, genotype; Gegagalu on 
Sattelberg, New Guinea, Carl Wahnes, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 41-42, Selysioneura ccnicornu Forster; Sattelberg, Carl W., 
in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 43-44, Neoneura bilincaris Selys, genotype; Wismar, Brit. Gui- 
ana, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 45-46, Neoneura carnatica Selys; Cuba, Poey, 1864, in coll. 
Hagen, M. C. Z. 

Figs. 47-48, Neoneura aaroni Calvert; Texas, in coll. Williamson. 
Figs. 48-49, Neoneura amelia Calvert ; Rio Liberia, Liberia, Costa 
Rica, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 51-52, Neoneura denticulata Williamson, Iquitos, Peru, in coll. 
M. C. Z. 

Figs. 53-54, Neoneura esthera Williamson; Diego-Martin Riv., Trin- 
idad, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 55-56, Neoneura cthela Williamson; Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
in coll. Calvert (det. P. P. C. Ann. Car. Mus. VI, p. 212 as rubri- 

Figs. 57-58, Neoneura fulvicollis Selys; Rio Cuyaba, Brazil (det. 
Calvert, Ann. Car. Mus. VI, p. 212), in coll. Carnegie Mus., Pittsburgh. 
Figs. 59-60, Neoneura joana Williamson, Rockstone, Brit. Guiana, in 
coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 61-62, Neoneura maria Scudd.; Cuba. Ch. Wright in coll. 
M. C. Z. 

Figs. 63-64, Neoneura mariana Williamson ; Tumatumari, Brit. Gui- 
ana, in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 65-66, Neoneura myrthca Williamson; Wismar, Brit. Guiana, 
in coll, Williamson. 

Figs. 67-68, Neoneura paya Calvert; del Norte, Guat., in coll. Wil- 

Figs. 69-71, Neoneura rubrivcnlris Selys; Tumatumari, Brit. Guiana. 
in coll. Williamson. 

Figs. 72-73, Neoneura sylratica Selys; Cachoeira, Brazil, in coll. 
Carnegie Mus. 


Plate XXII. 




Life History and Habits of the Margined Water 
Strider, Gerris marginatus Say (Hem., Het.). 

By J. R. DE LA TORRE BUENO, White Plains, New York. 

This species, Gerris marginatus, Say 1832, lacustris Kirby 
1837 (sec. Van Duzee, Ch. L.), is the common smaller Gerris 
spread over all the United States, a familiar form on ponds 
and in the bays of lakes. It has been recorded in Canada from 
British Columbia to Quebec, and in the United States from 
Oregon and California to Georgia and Texas, but twenty- 
three States are still to be heard from, including the greater 
part of the Mississippi Basin. 

Gerris marginatus belongs in the subgenus Gerris sensu 
strict n (Linmotrcchus) which contains the smaller members. 
This subgenus, however, presents intergrading forms with 
subgenus Aquarius among the exotic species, Gerris chilensis 
Berg forming the passage. The character of the first joint 
of the antenna shorter than the second and third taken to- 
gether, in connection with the smaller size, serves to separate 
Gerris from Aquarius. Two species of the subgenus in the 
Eastern States may be confused with it, namely, Gerris buenoi 
Kirkaldy and Gerris canaliculatus Say. The former is small- 
er in size and has more pronounced abdominal sutures to- 
gether with a flavescent marginal line on the anterior prothor- 
acic lobe. The second species, while it may be larger or small- 
er, has a distinctly more slender form and noticeably long and 
slender legs and antennae. The genital character controls ; 
it is well-figured by Parshley 1 . Weiss 2 experimented with G. 
marginatus, apterous, as to orientation to water, or, using the 
more technical expression, positive hydrotropism. He found 
that up to 9 yards distant from a pond they immediately made 
their way back : at 10 yards they began to experience difficulty ; 
at 15, it increased, while at 30 or 40 yards they seemed to lose 
their bearings, moved aimlessly about and after a time seemed 
unable to find their way back to the water. The species is a 

Ent. News xxvii: 103, fig. b. 2 igi4- Can. Ent. : 33. 


strong flier, and I have found it in ocean beach drift in July, 
on the shores of Long Island 3 . Gerris lacustris, so Griffini 
says 4 , touches the water at times with the abdomen, which it 
rests on the surface. I have not seen marginatus do this. He 
also states that it has been observed to be attracted bv mirrors. 

Gerris marginatus begins to oviposit early in the spring; 
the eggs hatch out in ten days to two weeks, depending on the 
temperature. After five molts it reaches the adult in from 5 
to 6 weeks. Unlike its larger congener rcmigis, it is a dweller 
in still waters by preference. Here at times it gathers in 
large numbers. In strong winds it hugs the shore, particularly 
if it blows that way. From early March to late November it 
may be found busy about its domestic affairs. The height of 
its abundance is between April and September. In early April 
they have been noticed mating; by May 20 to 26 adults and 
nymphs in one or two stages are seen together, and so through 
June and July, when they are found in several stages together. 
Its food is the same as that of rcmigis, except that being small- 
er it is not able to overcome quite such large insects. I have 
seen marginatus trying to capture Notonecta undulata which 
had flown to a pond and was on the surface struggling to 
submerge. The Gerris avoided reprisals by jumping up from 
the surface. On the other hand, it is one of the few water- 
bugs that fall a prey to frogs, and is, in fact, the only one I 
have seen recorded. 

Its structure is characteristic of the genus ; in fact, belong- 
ing in the typical subgenus, it closely approaches the generic 
and subgeneric type, Gerris lacustris Linne. In common with 
this species, marginatus rejoices in the phenomenon of ptery- 
gopolymorphism. Kirkaldy says 5 : "lacustris has provided 
me with more variations at least six than any other species. 
It is noteworthy that in the brachypterous forms, the two ab- 
breviated elytra are not always equal in length and develop- 

3 igi5. Ent. News xxvi: 277. 
4 i8g4. Gli Insetti Acquaioli p. 39, 

Entomologist, xxxii : No. 432: p. 109. 


ment in the same specimen." Gerris niarginatus exhibits the 
same gradation from apterous to macropterous, going from 
one to the other by imperceptible degrees. Yet it is essentially 
an alate species, since the bulk are fully winged and only a 
small number totally apterous, with an indefinite proportion 
of varying degrees of brachypterousness. In this it differs 
from rcmigis and other species of the subgenus Aquarius, 
which are in general totally apterous with a very small number 
an occasional specimen here and there fully winged (ex- 
cept conformis, always found fully winged, and alastor Bueno 
MS., nearly always with rudimentary wings only). The most 
complete study of pterygopolymorphism is Reuter's "Poly- 
morphisme des Hemipteres 6 ." Here he covers the entire sub- 
ject and hazards explanation based on selection. In Gerris 
marginatus and in general in the family, I see a gradual trans- 
formation to apterousness, through disuse, as exemplified by 
our rcmigis and the European najas_, the fully winged being 
the primitive form, adapted to an existence on the water from 
an antecedent Reduvioid land bug, whose mobility depended 
on these members. The stream species, being in general safe 
from the consequences of droughts, are so independent of 
wings for transportation that these organs are nearlv o-one in 
most of them. The species inhabiting land-locked bodies of 
water must, however, always have some means of travelling 
if the water on which they live dries up, as so frequently hap- 
pens with small ponds or water-holes. Hence wings still nor- 
mally persist in these forms. 

Structure, progression, respiration, reproduction arc as 
in G. rcmigis. Dufour (op. c., p. 199), states that in palmium 
the digestive system is as in caiialimn, excepting the salivary 

Gerris marginatus, so far as known, has no egg parasites. 
Adults and nymphs are sometimes found with larval mites at- 
tached as in re 111! i/is, particularly about the head and thorax. 

Egg. The egg is cylindrical, truncate at one end and round- 

61875. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., pp. 225/36. 

298 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [July, 'l 7 

ed at the other. The chorion is roughly shagreened, and 
under magnification x 975, shows very shallow pits. It has 
no indications of a lid or line of weakness along which to split. 
Length, 3 mm. ; diameter, i mm. 

The ova are clear white when first deposited, but change 
to brown as development of the embryo progresses. In hatch- 
ing, the nymph emerges through a longitudinal split beginning 
at the truncate end and running about one-half to two-fifths 
the length of the egg. Three females gave 30 ova in four days. 
They were fastened a few on top of a piece of cork in the 
aquarium, and most in a clear colorless glue or jelly, along the 
edges of the cork and under the surface of the water. Gar- 
man 7 says the eggs are attached to aquatic plants. Dufour re- 
marks (op. c.. p. 347) "I have kept in vessels of water with 
water plants pregnant females of Gerris paludnni, and I have 
assured myself they deposit their eggs one after the other, 
but not in contact, in a kind of mucilaginous jelly." 

After eight or nine days the little bugs emerge. On June 
9, one year, I secured thirty nymphs. Some seemed to molt 
right away, which I assume to be casting the amnion. In this 
connection, Dufour also says (1. c.) "I have seen the larvae 
born and I have sometimes found caught in the opening of 
the egg a fine membrane which was doubtless the immediate 
envelope of the larva, or which covered the interior of the 

This pellicle cast by Gerris marginatiis immediately on emerg- 
ing covers the body legs and antennae, and is extremely hairy. 
It is so soft it loses its shape completely, although all the joints 
of antennae and legs are apparent and the tibial combs are all 
visible. All the tarsi, on emerging, are I -jointed; all claws 
subapical ; the antennae are very stout, the last joint as long 
as the others put together, and so far as could be seen in bal- 
sam mounts, apparently 3-jointed only. The lancets are also 
cast with this skin. 

It is an open question in my mind whether or not this may 

Bull. Ills. St. Laby, N. H., iii : 172. 


be considered a true molt. There are no perceptible differ- 
ences between this nymph and the next, either as to size or 
structure, except the possible 3-jointed antennae noted. I am 
inclined to consider it akin to the subimago molt of the may- 
flies, rather than as a true ecdysis. This amnion, for want of 
a better term, resembles that covering certain Orthoptera, ex- 
cept that it is a complete pellicle. If it is a true molt margina- 
tus has six. It may well be that this initial molt has gone 
unnoticed in the other Heteroptera, owing to the very diaph- 
anous skin being blown away as soon as cast, and, in water, be- 
ing unseen through its transparency and quickly destroyed by 
the mechanical action of the element. 

First Instar. On emerging the nymph is about i mm. long, pointed 
oval in shape. The cylindrical antennae are 2/3 the length of the body, 
the first joint as long as 2 and 3 together, and 4 as long as the other 
three. The head is translucent honey-yellow, quite wide between the 
eyes, which are small, prominent, round and black. The rest of the in- 
sect, including the legs, which are rather thick in proportion to the 
size, is translucent white. There is a broad black stripe down the 
middle which crosses a similar stripe on the thorax and ends in a point 
at its cephalic margin. The abdominal segments are variously marked 
by the same black bands around the abdomen at the connexivum. The 
dorsum only is described, as it was taken from a living specimen. 

The tibia of the anterior pair of legs is longer than the femur and of 
the second pair as well, but in the third pair, the femur is longer. The 
anterior tarsus is short and stout and the two other slender and long; 
all are single-jointed, with subapical claws. All the tibiae have combs. 
The rostrum is 4-jointed, stout, joints I and 2 subequal, shortest, 3 
longest, 4 longer than either i or 2, tapering; no tactile hairs were 
noted at the tip. The legs are set very far back, which means that the 
abdomen is very short, the abdominal segments being narrow. The 
thorax is about 4 to 5 times as long. 

In molting the vertex and front lift off like a lid hinged at the cly- 
peus, and the thorax splits straight down the middle. The lancets are 
cast with rostrum, and there are no signs of tracheae in the cast skins. 

The second true molt takes place in 3 to 5 days. 

Second Instar. The antennae in this instar have joint 4 shorter than 
the other three together, 2 and 3 being subequal, and i twice as Ion'* 
as either. The first pair of legs continues the shortest, the second is 
the longest; the middle femur and tibia are subequal, in the other two, 
the tibia is longer than the femur. The thorax is two and a half times 


as long as the abdomen, which has 7 and one genital segments. The 
prothorax is distinct. 

Varying from 3 to 5 days, the bug molts for the second time. 

Third Instar. The antennae continue to change. The 4th joint is 
still the longest, 3 the shortest, followed by 2 and I in the order given. 
The eyes are reniform. In the legs, the femora are longer than tht 
tibiae in the ist and 3rd pairs, and subequal in the second. The abdo- 
men is longer and the legs appear set less far back. In other respects 
there are no perceptible changes. 

The third molt follows the second in 3 to 6 days. 

Fourth Instar. In this instar the antennae continue to change, and 
the differences in length are not so great; joint 4 is still the longest, 
but 2 and 3 are subequal and the shortest, I being not greatly shorter 
than 4. The femur and tibia of the anterior legs are subequal; and 
the femur is longer in the 2d and 3d pairs. The hind femora have dark 
spots from which arise long setae. The abdomen has further increased 
in length, the segments being wider and more distinct. Joint 3 of the 
rostrum is the longest, 2 is the shortest and 4 is as before, and nearly 
equal to i. All tibiae have combs and all claws are simple. 

The fifth instar is reached in 3 to 5 days. 

Fifth Instar. In this instar the form and general appearance of the 
nymph begin to approach more closely to the adult. The head is rounded 
and set with long setae, the eyes are reniform. In the antennae joints 
I and 4 are subequal, and longer than 2 and 3, which are also subequal. 
The chief antennal difference is at the base of the third antennal joint 
which has a pedicellate appearance. The rostrum is the same as before, 
except that the 3d joint is much longer in proportion. The prothorax 
is differentiated and the mesothorax distinct, with a minute scutellum. 
The wing-pads are notable and reach half-way to the 4th abdominal 
segment. The legs are as before, with thicker femora than tibiae. The 
second and third femora have the dark setigerous spots, and the third 
in addition is set with spines. The middle tarsi are much elongate, and 
all the tarsi continue single-jointed. Abdominal segments are very dis- 
tinct and the two genital segments very prominent. In the cast skin 
two long slit-like spiracles are seen in the mesothorax in front of the 
intermediate coxae. 

In five to seven days the little bug molts for the fifth and last time, 
and reaches the adult. The chief changes in structure in the external 
skeleton are the two-jointed tarsi, the node at the base of the third 
joint of the antennae, the much larger eyes in comparison to the head 
and the prothorax and mesothorax fused together. 

The entire internal anatomy of Gerris marginatus is still to be 
worked out, and the external organs of respiration as well. 

Vol. xxviii] 


3 OI 

These are the detailed instars and molts of the specimens it 
was possible to breed to maturity. It is to be noted that these 
transformations represent an extreme as all conditions were 
favorable. There was the warmth of summer and an abun- 
dance of food, even though it changed not at all from day to 





en *-" 

c ,_ , 

o 1 " 1 








No. 1 



June 29-07 

8 days 

July 7 

3 days 

July 10 

4 days 

July 11 

3 days 

July 17 

f> days 


X'.. 2 

71 ( 

1 1 O 

No. 3 

S " 

3 " 

" 10 

G " 


" 20 

i June 1-08 

8 days 

June 9 


" 16 

4 " 

" 20 

3 " 

" 23 

1 it 

" 27 



No. 4 

'June 1-08 

8 " 


7 " 


5 " 

" 21 

3 " 

" 24 

4 " 

" 28 



No. 5 

V June 1-OG 

8 " 

t 1 

7 " 


4 " 

" 22 

4 " 

" 21 


" 29 

5 " 


No. 6 



June 25-07 

8 " 

" 3 

4 " 


VI tt 


7 " 

" 16 

6 " 


No. 1 Emergence to adult, 24 days 


3 Oviposition 
4 Oviposition 
5 Oviposition 



One of 45 ova deposited by one female. 

These life histories give a period of between 33 and 34 days 
for the full transformations from the egg to the adult, and of 
between 24 and 28 days for the five nymphal instars. 

Briefly, then, Gerris marginatus has one embryonic, 5 
nymphal (or if the first tenuous molt be considered a true- 
ecdysis, 6), and one adult, a total of seven instars, which take 
about a month. This would allow for three broods a summer. 

Feeding Habits of Adult Chrysopidae (Neur.). 
I have taken adult Chrysopidae (Chrysopa sp.) on flowers with ex- 
posed nectar: Pastinace satii-a, June 15 and 24, 1886; Ticdcuuinnin 
ritiidti (O.vypclis rii/idior), Aug. 15, 1888. These visits were men- 
tioned under Neuroptera in Trans. St. Louis Acad. Science 5 : 459. 
They are not cited by Knuth, Handbiicli dcr Bliitenbiologie, III. 2: 469, 
but visits of a Chrysopa sp. to Yucca it-hip plci are there recorded. 
CHARLES ROBERTSON, Carlinville, 111. 


Some Bees of the Genus Psaenythia (Hym.). 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 
Many years ago Professor L. Bruner collected three species 
of the wasp-like Panurgid genus Psaenythia at Carcarana, Ar- 
gentina. They were sent to the National Museum, and are 
now in my hands for determination. One proves to be a fe- 
male of P. picta Gerst, but the others are considered new. 

Psaenythia thoracica crawfordi n. subsp. 

Larger than true P. thoracica from Parana, about 8.5 long in both 
sexes ; female with lower border of clypeus black, and the black on 
disc extending upward as two large wedge-shaped marks; supra- 
clypeal area black; mesothorax, scutellum, postscutellum and two trans- 
verse marks on basal part of metathorax red ; pale yellow abdominal 
bands narrowly interrupted on first two segments, constricted but not 
interrupted on third and fourth, very narrowly interrupted on fifth. 
Male with face cream-colored below antennae, the supraclypeal mark 
notched above; anterior margin of mesothorax broadly black; no red 
on metathorax; all the abdominal bands interrupted. 

The female, in my collection, was reqeived from the National 
Museum, labelled P. thoracica Gerst. by Mr. Crawford. The 
male (Bruner 33) evidently belongs with it. In spite of the 
greater size, I should not separate this from P. thoracica (de- 
scribed from the male), but for the fact that Friese has the 
female of that insect (from Villa Rica, Paraguay), and states 
that the abdomen has on each side of segments 1-5 a small yel- 
low three-cornered spot. Since Friese's insect is from a region 
comparatively near the type locality, there is no reason to doubt 
that it represents the species correctly ; P. thoracica crawfordi 
is evidently a well-marked subspecies from the desert regions 
of the interior. 

Psaenythia pachycephala n. sp. 

$. Length about 10 mm., robust; head very broad; eyes rather 
small, green, strongly diverging below. Black, with clear ferruginous 
legs, the markings cream-color, those on face and mandibles lemon - 
yellow. Mandibles long, yellow on outer face except at apex ; clypeus 
(which is extremely broad and low), labrtim, large dog-ear marks, 
and space between clypeus and dog-ear marks and orbits yellow, the 
lateral yellow ending above horizontally, not quite reaching level of 
top of dog-ear marks; a cream-colored mark on upper part of each 


cheek behind; facial foveae oblique; vertex shining but well punctured; 
rlagellum clear ferruginous beneath except at base, antennae otherwise 
nearly black. Mesothorax and scutellum shining and sparsely punc- 
tured, metathorax dull; cream-colored markings consisting of inter- 
rupted line on collar, ends of tubercles, spot behind tubercles, spot at 
each anterior corner of scutellum, band on postscutellum, spots on 
knees (extending to stripes on anterior femora), and bands on abdom- 
inal segments 1-6, on first segment reduced to a pyriform mark on eacli 
side, on second and third broadly interrupted, on fourth narrowly in- 
terrupted, on fifth and sixth hardly more than constricted; tegulae 
clear fulvous; wings yellowish, dusky apically, stigma amber-color; 
apical plate of abdomen broadly truncate, the truncation slightly ex- 
cavated. (Bruner 59.) 

$. Length about 10 mm.; differing from the male thus: Head or- 
dinary, though broader than long; mandibles black, with a ferruginous 
patch; face black, except for a pair of large quadrate patches, broader 
than long, taking in the dog-ear marks and the space between these 
and the orbits; mesothorax and scutellum rather densely punctured; 
bands on first two abdominal segments rather broadly interrupted, on 
third narrowly, on fourth very narrowly, on fifth entire; fringe at 
end of abdomen black; spur of middle tibia as long as basitarsus, re- 
motely short-pectinate. (Bruner 60.) 

The sexual difference in the sculpture of the thorax is paral- 
lel with that observed in P. pliilanthoidcs Gerst. 

Related to P. rubripcs Friese, from which it is known by the 
much darker antennae, spotted scutellum, and the large light 
patches on face of female. According to the description, P. 
rufipcs Holmbg. appears to be very similiar, differing by the 
color of the flagellum and the form of the face-markings. 
Schrottky states that rufipcs is a variety of P. picta, which P. 
pachycephala certainly is not. 

Physiographic Divisions of the United States. 

Entomologists studying geographical distribution will find useful a 
monograph by Nevin M. Fenneman, under the above title, forming 
pages 19-98 of volume VI of the Annals of the Association of Ameri- 
,1111 Ccof/niphers. It attempts "to divide the United States into na- 
tural or physical units which should be as nearly as possible homo- 
geneous with respect to certain criteria All orders of divisions 

rest ultimately on existing differences in topography and elevation. 
15ut the differences considered are those which pertain to physiographic 
types and not merely superficial appearance." It is accompanied by a 
preliminary map of the United States 42.5 x 17 inches. Copies may be 
purchased for 26 cents from the Secretary and Editor of the Associa- 
tion, Prof. Richard E. Dodge, Washington, Connecticut. 


Origin and Development of the Photogenic Organs 
of Photuris pennsylvanica DeGeer (Col.).* 


In spite of the fact that the light organs of fire flies have 
been the object of much study during the past century, com- 
paratively little has been done on their development. How- 
ever, during the past few years this phase of the subject has 
received more attention, though as yet, no one has definitely 
demonstrated their embryonic origin. 

There are at present three conflicting views regarding the 
origin of the photogenic organs. One view is that they are 
modified hypodermal cells, another that they are formed from 
both ectoderm and mesoderm, and lastly, that they are derived 
from fat cells. Of these three views, that of the fat cell 
origin has been the most generally accepted. 

Among the earlier workers who favored the idea of ecto- 
dermal origin was Owsjannikow (1868), but his observations 
are of little value since he studied only the adult organ. 

The question of origin can be settled only by a study of 
the development of the photogenic tissues. With the excep- 
tion of two recent papers, Yogel (1912), and Williams (1916), 
this has not been done by any one except Dubois. Dubois 
(1898) studied the development of both Lampyris noctiluca 
and Pyrophorus noctiluca. He believed that he was able to 
follow the development of the photogenic organs through the 
different stages, from the beginning of segmentation, to the 
adult insect. He discovered a close histological resemblance 
between the blastoderm cells and the photogenic cells of the 
larva, pupa and adult. Furthermore, he concluded that the 
cells of the hypodermis multiply, and by proliferation form 
directly the photogenic organ of the larva. 

For some reason Dubois' work has attracted little attention 
and is practically ignored in general discussions of the sub- 
ject. Moreover he misinterpreted the normal structure of 
the body wall in Lampyris, and for this reason his conclu- 

* Contribution from the Entomological Department of Cornell Uni- 



sions have been severely criticised by the few who have dis- 
cussed them. 

Wielowiejski (1890), in opposition to Dubois, states that 
the so-called reflective or nrate layer of the photogenic organ 
is derived from fat cells ; the light giving or luminous layer, 
on the contrary, is composed of cells derived from oenocytes, 
hence ectodermal. Here again the statements are based on a 
study of mature organs, and hence are not conclusive. 

With the exception of the two previously mentioned papers 
by Vogel and Williams, all authors who favor the theory of 
fat cell origin have based their conclusions only on a study of 
the adult organs. Many of these, including Leydig (1857), 
Schultze (1865), Wheeler (1892) and Berlese (1909) seem 
to be of this opinion, largely because the structure of the 
mature organ resembles somewhat that of fat cells, and also 
because certain cells of the photogenic organs secrete urates 
and other products, comparable with fat cells. 

Recently two important papers have appeared which ap- 
parently definitely settle the question in favor of the fat cell 
origin, one by Vogel (1912), the other by Williams (1916). 

Vogel studied the embryonic development in Lampyris noc- 
tiluca, beginning with a stage in which the organ was already 
clearly differentiated. He made a comparative histological 
study of its cells and those of the neighboring tissues, from 
which he concluded that the cells of the photogenic organ, in 
this stage, agree with the neighboring fat cells in shape, size 
and relations of their nuclei. On this he based his conclusions 
that the light organ arises from fat cells. 

It should be noted that Vogel found the organ in its early 
development closely applied to the hypodermis, while at a 
later stage it was definitely separated from it. 

Williams (1916) worked upon our native species, Photuris 
pennsylvanica, and apparently confirmed completely the work 
of Vogel. He maintains that the cells of the photogenic organ 
form a gradual gradation from the rather dark pigmented 
cells lying against the hypodermis, through those on the side 
towards the fat cells and continuous with them. 


Unaware of Williams' work, which did not appear until 
late December, the writer had undertaken a study of the 
embryonic development of the photogenic organs of Photuris 
pennsylvanica. This work was at the suggestion of Dr. W. 
A. Riley, to whom the writer is indebted for helpful advice 
and criticism in the completion of this paper. On the basis 
of this work he is forced to conclude that neither Vogel not 
Williams studied the organ in its earliest development, and 
that they drew mistaken conclusions from observations of 
organs already developed beyond the critical stage. 

Material for study was obtained by confining the adult in- 
sects in small jars that were partly filled with earth and moss. 
Since oviposition occurred very readily in captivity, it was 
easy to obtain a complete series of eggs by removing the in- 
sects to different jars each day. During the summer of 1916 
the eggs of this species hatched in from 25 to 27 days, depend- 
ing on temperature, with an average of 26 days. Eggs were 
killed in hot water, dehydrated and imbedded in paraffin. 
Sections were cut three and four microns thick. As it was 
often difficult to find the eighth abdominal segment, sagittal 
sections were by far the most satisfactory. Heidenhain's 
iron haematoxylin was very satisfactory for staining. Various 
other stains were tried with less success. Eosin was some- 
times used as a counter stain. 

It was found in the 14-day embryos, that the hypodermis 
on the ventro-lateral portion of each side of the eighth ab- 
dominal segment, in its anterior region, showed a definite 
thickening, due to proliferation and enlargement of the cells, 
as shown in Fig. I, (H). The nuclei of the cells were also 
larger than those of other hypodermal regions. 

In the 15-day embryos the organ appeared as a distinct 
nodule which projected from the inner surface of the hypo- 
dermis (Fig. 2, P). At this stage there was no evidence of 
any separation from the hypodermis. In fact the hypoder- 
mal cells extended up slightly between the cells of the nodule 

By studying a large number of embryos it was definitely 

Vol. xxviii] 



determined that there was no evidence of any relation between 
the fat cells and those of the nodule, in this, or the 14-day 
embryos. At this age the cells and nuclei of the nodule are 
much larger than those of the hypodermis. In fact they 
somewhat resemble the fat cells, though the nuclei are larger. 
Moreover, the chromatin in the nuclei of the photogenic organ 
is of a coarse irregular nature resembling closely that of the 

Fig. i. Sagittal section of the ventro-lateral eighth abdominal segment of a 14-day 
embryo through the middle of the photogenic organ. F, fat cell ; //, hypoder- 
mis thickening to form the photogenic organ. 

Fig. 2. Sagittal section of the ventro-lateral eighth abdominal segment of a 15-day 
embryo through the middle of the photogenic organ. F, fat cell ; H, hypoder- 
mis ; P. photogenic organ or nodule. 

Fig. 3. Sagittal section of the ventro-lateral eighth abdominal segment of a 17-day 
embryo through the middle of the photogenic organ. F, fat cell ; H, hypoder- 
mis ; M, muscle ; P, photogenic organ ; T, trachea. 

Fig. 4. Sagittal section of the ventro-lateral eighth abdominal segment of a 26-day 
embryo through the middle of the photogenic organ. C, cuticula ; H, hypo- 
dermis; /-.luminous layer of photogenic organ; A", reflective or urate layer; 
T, trachea. 


hypodermal cells, rather than that of the fat, which is of 
a finer nature. The cells of the light organ at this stage 
appear somewhat vacuolated, especially those farthest away 
from the hypodermis. This fact is not surprising since this 
portion soon forms the less dense or reflective layer. The 
hypodermis itself often shows a vacuolated condition. 

In the 1 6- to 1 7-day embryos the organ is completely sepa- 
rated from the hypodermis, except at its two ends where it 
remains attached, the organ being elongated in the direction 
of the two attachments. The appearance of the photogenic 
cells at this stage is very similar to that of the 1 5-day em- 
bryos, except that their cell boundaries seem more distinct. 
However the cells farthest away from the hypodermis appear 
more vacuolated. Until now, cell division has been but 
slight, however at this time these large active nuclei are di- 
viding considerably. 

From Vogel's and Williams' descriptions of the earliest 
condition of the light organs that they observed, one would 
be led to believe that it was the study of this stage of de- 
velopment on which they based their conclusions regarding 
its origin. At this time the fat cells lie in rather close prox- 
imity to the light organ, and somewhat resemble it. 

In embryos 19 to 20 days old, there occurs a differentiation 
of the cells of the photogenic organ, by which the two layers 
are formed. The tracheal and nerve connections become fully 
established about this time^ for in the 22-day embryos light 
was being emitted from the photogenic organ. 

In the 26-day embryos (Fig. 4,) the two layers are very 
distinct. Cell boundaries were definitely observed in the 
luminous layer, though no cell walls were distinguished in 
the reflective area. At this period there is considerable dif- 
ference in the nuclei of the two regions. Those of the re- 
flective layer appear smaller and more elongate than those ot 
the luminous area. The cytoplasm of the luminous portion 
is very granular and appears slightly alveolar, while that of the 
reflective layer, though somewhat alveolar-like, contains com- 
paratively few granules. 


The narrow hypodermal ligaments which are continuous 
with the hypodermis and the photogenic organ, often appear 
longitudinally striated, due probably to a slight modification of 
the hypodermis in those regions. In a sagittal section these 
attachments are continuous longitudinally with the reflective 
layer, the region between these attachments next to the hypo- 
dermis being occupied entirely by the luminous cells. Since 
the reflective layer lies like a cap over the inner portion of 
the photogenic organ, its cells cover all of the organ except 
that portion next to the hypodermis. 

At the meeting of the American Society of Zoologists, at 
New York, in December, 1916, Dahlgren reported observa- 
tions which he had made on the development of the adult or- 
gans in the pupa of Photicris pennsylvanica. He found that 
the larval organs degenerated, and that new ones were formed, 
in different body segments, by the proliferation of hypodermal 
cells. Williams in his work on the development of the light 
organs in the pupa concludes that they are derived from 
fat cells. However he states : "The photogenic organ, when 
in the process of formation, frequently suggests a hypodermal 
origin, for it is then rather structureless and closely applied 
to the body wall. Indeed some sections show the hypodermis 
sending up extensions between the cells of the organ." My 
observations on the pupal development of the photogenic 
organ, though essentially the same as quoted from Williams' 
paper, have led me to conclude, as Dahlgren, that the adult 
organs in the pupa arise from hypodermis. 

Wheeler and Williams (1915) in their study of a my- 
cetophilid fly of the New Zealand caves, find that the light 
organs are a modified portion of the Malpighian tubules. 
These structures, as is well known, are of ectodermal origin, 
and this furnishes a clear instance of light organs from the 
ectoderm in insects. 

All the evidence which I have obtained from the studies 
above outlined, strengthen my belief that Vogel and Will- 
iams were mistaken in their interpretations of the early light 
organ, and that, instead of arising from fat cells, the em- 


bryonic organ is formed by a proliferation of hypodermal cells, 
which are ectodermal in origin. 

BERLESE, A. 1909. Gli insetti : loro organizzazione, sviluppo, abitudini 

e rapporti coll'uomo. Milano. p. 709. 
BONGARDT, J. 1903. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Leuchtorgane ein- 

heimischer Lampyriden. Zeit. fur wiss Zool. LXXV : 1-45. 3 Taf. 
DUBOIS, R. 1898. Lecons de physiologic generale et comparee. Paris. 

pp. 301-317- 
LEYDIG, F. 1857. Lehrbuch der Histologie des Menschen und der 

Thiere pp. 342-344. 
OWSJANNIKOW, P. 1868. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Leuchtorgane 

von Lampyris noctiluca. Mem. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. XL No. 

17, p. 12. pi. i. 
SCHULTZE, M. 1865. Zur Kenntniss der Leuchtorgane von Lampyris 

splendidula. Archiv. fiir mikr. Anat. 1 : 124-137, 2 Taf. 
VOGEL, R. 1912. Zur Topographic und Entwicklungsgeschichte der 

Leuchtorgane von Lampyris noctiluca. Zool. Anz. XLI : 325-332. 
WHEELER, W. M. 1892. Concerning the "blood tissue" of the Insecta. 

Psyche VI. p. 255. 
WHEELER, W. M. and WILLIAMS, F. X. 1915. The luminous organ of 

the New Zealand glow-worm. Psyche XXII: 36-43 pi. i. 
VON WIELOWIEJSKI, H. 1889. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Leuchtorgane 

der Insecten. Zool. Anz. XII : 594-600. 
IBID. 1890. Contributions a 1' histoire des Organes Lumineux chez 

les Insectes. Bull. Sci. Fr. Belg. XXII: 166-172. 
WILLIAMS, F. X. 1916. The photogenic organs and embryology of 

Lampyrids. Jour. Morph. XXVIII : 145-207. pi. 10. 

An Active Ant-killer (Arach., Solpugid.). 

April 25th of this year, Mr. Frank B. Richardson, of San Diego, 
Texas, sent me a specimen of an interesting Solpugid, Ercmobatcs 
magnus (Hancock), which was determined by Mr. Clarence R. Shoe- 
maker, of the National Museum. Mr. Richardson found the specimen 
destroying large sized ants. He took it to an ant hill, and in a few 
minutes it killed "hundreds of ants." Mr. Richardson pointed out 
that these ants are a great pest at San Diego and especially to freshly 
planted seeds. He stated that they had carried away about 20 pounds 
of grass seed which he recently sowed. He further stated that he 
would very much like to "promote the multiplication" of this import- 
ant ant enemy. L. O. HOWARD, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


Notes on the Earwigs (Dermaptera) of North 
America, north of the Mexican Boundary. 

By MORGAN HEBAKD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Philadelphia collections contain material of all the 
species of Dermaptera native to, or adventive in, these regions. 
It is the purpose of the present paper to list th'e native species, 
giving their synonymy and in each case the first incorrect 
use of a name for the species based on material from the re- 
gions here considered; to record hitherto unreported material 
before us, and to give briefly the local habitat and known dis- 
tribution of each species. One new species is described. The 
nomenclature shows but little recent change ; annulipcs hav- 
ing been transferred by Burr from Anisolabis to Euborellia. 
while the series now at hand prove beyond question the dis- 
tinctness of the species of the Unidentata Group of the genus 
Prolabia found in Hayti and in the southeastern United 
States, the correct name for the latter insect being pulchclla 
of Serville. 

Though the different North American species have been 
frequently mentioned in the literature, few studies in any 
way comprehensive have appeared. 1 

The order is but weakly represented in the regions here 
treated, except in the subtropical and tropical areas of the 
southern United States, and constant field work has been nec- 
essary to assemble even the small total here recorded. 

Fifteen species are represented, of which four may be said 
to be confined in distribution to the restricted tropical areas 

l Oi these the most important are: 

1876. Brief Synopsis of North American Earwigs, with an Appen- 
dix on the Fossil Species, by Scudder. Bull. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 
II, pp. 249-260. 

1911. The Earwigs of the United States National Museum, by Burr. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, pp. 443-467. 

1913. Notes on Nearctic Orthopterous Insects. I. Nonsaltatorial 
Forms, by Caudell. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XLIV, pp. 595-599. 

1914. United States and Mexican Records of Species of the Genus 
Doru (Dermaptera; Forficulidac), by Rehn and llebard. Jour. N. 
Y. Ent. Soc., XXII, pp. 89 to 96. 


of the southern United States, while two are found only in 
the subtropical desert of the southwest. A total of 432 speci- 
mens is recorded, of which 309 belong to the Philadelphia 

Our thanks are due to those who have assisted in permit- 
ting the examination of material, either their own property or 
in their care. 



1. Anisolabis maritima (Gene). 

1832. Forficula maritima Gene, Sagg. Monogr. Forfic. Indig., p. 9. 
[Nice, France; Genoa and Tuscany, Italy; along Mediterranean.] 

1853. Anisolabis maritima Fieber, Lotos, III, p. 257. [Exotic 
records; South Carolina.] (Generic assignment and first United 
States record.) 

New York: Larchmont, XI, 27, 1902, (T. D. O'Connor), i $, [Hebard 

New Jersey: Palisades, 1901, (E. Daecke), 2$, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Florida: Long Boat Key, i$, [Hebard Cln.]; Key West, (Agassiz; 
Morrison), 6$, 89, [M. C. Z.] ; Warrington, VIII, 4, 1903, (A. P. 
Morse), i juv., [Morse Cln.]; Fort Barrancas, VIII, 3, 1903, (A. P. 
Morse), 2 juv., [Morse Cln.]. 

Texas: Virginia Point, VII, 21, 1912, (M. Hebard; common under 
boards among low grasses on raised beach), 4$ , 3$, I juv., [Hebard 

This insect is found under litter on the ground. It is usually 
met with in the largest numbers under drift on sea beaches. 
The species does not appear to exist far from salt water. It 
is generally distributed along the Gulf coast and the Atlantic 
coast as far north as Maine. 

2. Euborellia annulipes (Lucas). 

1847. Forficelisa annulipes Lucas, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, (2), V, p. 
LXXXIV. [Jardin des Plantes, Paris; probably introduced from 
North America.] 

1905. Anisolabis annulipes Rehn and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1904, p. 778. [Thomasville, Georgia.] (First United States 

1905. Anisolabis aztcca Caudell, Ent. News, XVI, p. 216. [Jackson- 
ville, Florida.] 

1915. Euborellia annulipes Burr, Jour. R. Microsc. Soc., 1915, p. 545. 
(Generic assignment.) 


Georgia: Tybee Island, VI, 20, (D. M. Castle), i$, i9, [A. N. S. 

Florida: Lake Worth, (Mrs. A. T. Slosson), i$, i9, [M. C. Z.] ; 
Miami, III, 4, 1916, (M. Hebard ; Musa Isle, orange grove, occasional 
under debris on sandy soil), I $ , 3$, 2 juv., [Hebard Cln.]. 

Alabama: Springhill, Mobile County, VIII, 25, 1915, (Rehn & 
Hebard; under signs on oaks), i$, 3$, 3 juv., [Hebard Cln. and 
A. N. S. P.]. 

Mississippi: Agricultural College, (H. E. Weed), 2$, 29, 3 juv., 
[A. N. S. P.]; Ocean Springs, I, 1905, (J. H. Comstock) 6$, 69, 16 
juv., [Cornell Univ. Cln.]. 

Louisiana: Nairn, XI, 1892, (H. E. Weed), i9, [A. N. S. P.]. 

Texas: Alvin, XI, 8, 1904. (Miss M. Hillje), i$, i9, [A. M. N. H.] ; 
Laredo, VIII, 12, 1912, (M. Hebard; in drug store), i9, i juv., 
[Hebard Cln.]. 

Arizona: Phoenix, i$, [Hebard Cln.]. 

California: Folsom, VII, 19, 1885, i9, [M. C. Z.] ; Mesa Grande, 
Sonoma County, IX, 30, 1906, (J. C. Bradley), i9, [Cornell Univ. 
Cln.]; Redlands, XII, 25, 1912, i$, 2$, [Hebard Cln.]; Los Angeles, 
1887, (D. W. Coquillett), i9, [Hebard Cln.]; Coronado, (F. E. Blais- 
dell), 2$, 39, i juv., [Hebard Cln.]. 

This earwig is found under litter of every sort, sometimes 
under signs on trees and rarely in houses. It is more often 
found inland than under drift on sea beaches. 

The species has been recorded from Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the District of Columbia ; it should be considered 
adventive at these places. The species is now known from 
along the southern border of the United States, except in 
trans-Pecos Texas, New Mexico and eastern Arizona. The 
northernmost records, in addition to those given above, are : 
Raleigh, North Carolina ; Camden and Columbia, South Caro- 
lina ; Augusta and Macon, Georgia, and Montgomery, Ala- 
bama. It is generally distributed and numerous in southern 
Florida, the Florida Keys and southern coastal California. 

:*. Labidura bidens (Olivier). 

1791. Forficula bidens Olivier, Encycl. Method., Ins., VI, p. 466. 

1876. Labidura rifaria Scudder (probably not Forficula riparia 
Pallas, 1773), Bull. U. S. Oeol. Surv. Terr., II, p. 250. [Exotic records; 
Texas; Florida.] (First United States records.) 


1905. Labidura bidens Rehn and Hebard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1904, p. 777. [Thomasville, Georgia.] (Following Kirby's 
generic assignment, first United States record as bidens.) 

1908. Labidura erythroccphala Burr, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 
1907, p. 512. [Savannah, Georgia.] 

The description of riparia, from Siberia, is not sufficient to locate 
that species. It seems best to use the name bidens for the insect 
here considered until Siberian material can be obtained and the prob- 
lem definitely solved. 

Mississippi: Ocean Springs, I, 1905, (J. H. Comstock), i $ , [Cornell 
Univ. Cln.]. 

Louisiana: Spanish Fort, New Orleans, VI, 29, 1916, (Lutz & Rehn; 
in pavilion), 2$, i juv., [A. M. N. H. and A. N. S. P.]. 

Texas: Galveston, VII, 19, 1912, (M. Hebard; under board on sand 
near beach), 1$, [Hebard Cln.]; Alvin, VII, 27, 1007 and XI, 8, 1904, 
(Miss M. Hillje), i $ , i $ , [A. M. N. H.], 

This, insect is visually found under litter on the ground. It 
frequently comes to light at night. It is often encountered 
under drift on sea beaches. 

The species is widely distributed in Florida and southern 
Georgia, extending north along the Atlantic coast to Savan- 
nah. North of that point it is known only from a "South 
Carolina" record and one from Raleigh, North Carolina. West- 
ward it is known only from the localities given above. 


4. Vostox brunneipennis (Serville). 

1839. Psalidophora brunneipennis Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., 
p. 30. [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.] 

1876. Spongophora brunneipennis Scudder, (in part), Bull. U. S. 
Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., II, p. 252.. [Exotic record; Pennsylvania; 
Kentucky to Florida; Texas 2 .] (Generic assignment.) 

1911. Vostox brunneipennis Burr, Deutsch. Ent. Nat.-Biblioth., II, 
p. 59. (New genus described with brunneipennis as genotype.) 

North Carolina: Southern Pines, IV, 17, 1915, (A. H. Manee), i9, 
2 juv., [Hebard Cln.]. 

Kentucky: Cumberland Gap, VII, 1876, (G. Dimmock), i$, i9, 
7 juv., [M. C. Z.]. 

2 Arizona is also given, this taken, however, from material of 
Spongovostox apicedcntatus. 


Louisiana: Arcadia, VIII, 20, 1915, (Rehn & Hebard; in great num- 
bers under bark of dead birch, many immature individuals not taken ; 
Prolabia pidchclla also present, but much less numerous"), 23 <$ , 339, 
39 juv., [Hebard Cln. and A. N. S. P.]. 

This species is usually found under the bark of dead trees. 
We have found it only on magnolia and birch. 

The insect has a very wide distribution over the southern 
and eastern portions of the United States, but is so rarely en- 
countered that the records give little definite information as 
to the limits of its distribution. In Florida it has not been 
taken south of Enterprise. The most western records are 
Clifton and Columbia, Texas. The most northern are Dallas, 
Texas 3 ; Arcadia, Louisiana ; Cumberland Gap, Kentucky, and 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The insect has once been found 
locally in very large numbers and has been reported common 
in Texas by Belfrage. Over the greater portion of its dis- 
tribution in the United States it may, however, rightly be 
termed a rare species. The distribution in the Americas of this 
species and Darn linear c, are the widest known for any non- 
domiciliary earwigs of the New World. 

5. Spongovostox apicedentatus (Caudell). 

1876. Spongophora brunneipennis Scudder, (in part, not Fsalidophora 
brunncipennis Serville, 1839), Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 
II, p. 252. [Arizona.] 

1902. Spongophora brunneipennis Scudder and Cockerell, (not 
Fsalidnphora brunncipennis Serville, 1839), Proc. Davenport Acad. 
Sci., IX, p. 18. [La Cueva, Organ Mountains, New Mexico.] 

1904. Labia melancholica Rehn, (not of Scudder, 1876), Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1904, p. 562. [Florence, Arizona.] 

1905. Spongophora apicedentata Caudell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
XXVIII, p. 461, fig. la. [Columbia, Texas: Catalina Springs, Tucson 
(type locality) and Fort Yuma, Arizona; Los Angeles and San Diego 
Counties, California.] 

1911. S[pongoT'osto.v] apicedentatus Burr, Deutsch. Ent. Nat.- 
Biblioth., IT, p. 59. (Generic assignment.) 

Arizona: Sabino Basin, Santa Catalina Mountains, 3800 feet, VII, 
8 to 20, 1916, (Lutz & Rehn), i?, [A. M. N. H.]; Sabino Canon, 

3 Bruner's southeastern Nebraska record of the species may be 
valid, but seems decidedly doubtful. No material from that region 
is to be found in the Bruner Collection. 

316 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Juty* ' : 7 

Santa Catalina Mountains, III, 10 to V, 2, 1916, (J. F. Tucker; 36 
from dead Sahuaro), 13 $ , 31$, 4 juv., [Hebard Cln.] ; Tucson, 
VII, 3 to 5, 1916, (Lutz & Rehn), i9, [A. M. N. H.] ; Santa Cruz 
Village, Comobabi Mountains, VIII, 10 to 12, 1916, (Lutz & Rehn; 
from dead and sour Sahuaro), 2 juv., [A. M. N. H. and A. N. S. P.]. 

This species is apparently the only indigenous earwig of 
the southwestern desert regions and is a difficult insect to lo- 
cate. It has usually been found in dead Sahuaro or Giant 
Cactus, Cercus giganteus, but extends its range far beyond 
that of the plant. In addition to the records given above and 
those of the references, the species has only been recorded 
from Isabel, Texas. 

6. Labia minor (Linnaeus). 

1758. Forficula minor Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., (10), i, p. 423. [Europe.] 
1838. Labia minor Doubleday, Ent. Mag., V, p. 279. [Wanborough, 

New York.] 

1862. Labia minuta Scudder, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., VII, p. 415. 

[Massachusetts; Virginia.] 

Ontario: Ottawa, IX, 8, 1912, (J. I. Beaulne), 4$, 2$, [A. N. S. P. 
and Hebard Cln.]. 

Maine: Norway, (S. J. Smith), 5$, i9, [M. C. Z.]. 

Massachusetts: Beverley, VI, I, 1866, (E. Burgess), i9, [M. C. Z.]; 
Medford, VI, 1907, i9, [M. C. Z.] ; Cambridge, XI, i, 1881, I $, i9, 
[M. C. Z.]; Wollaston, 1883, (F. H. Sprague), i$, [M. C. 
Z.]; Chicopee, X, 15, 1897, 2$, 4$, [A. N. S. P. and Hebard 

Rhode Island: Providence, V, 25, 1871, (outside stable), 6$, 27?, 
[M. C. Z.]. 

New York: Ithaca, VIII, i and 9, 1901 and 1904, [Cornell LTniv. 
Cln.]; Albany, (Peck), i $, [M. C. Z.] ; Tuxedo, V, 23, 1900, (T. D. 
O'Connor), i?, [Hebard Cln.]. 

New Jersey: Boonton, VII, 23, 1901, (G. M. Greene), i $ , [A. N. 
S. P.l. 

Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, IV, 26, 1915, (J. A. G. Rehn), i $ , [A. 
N. S. P.]; Frankfort, i9, [A. N. S. P.]; Chestnut Hill, VII, 1003, 
('M. Hebard; flying at dusk), i9, [Hebard Cln.]; St. Martins, VII, 
5, 1916, (M. Hebard; flying before dusk), i9, [Hebard Cln.]; Olney, 
VII, 3, 1915, (M. Hebard; flying at dusk), i9, [Hebard Cln]; Wyom- 
ing, VII, 21, 1903 and IX, 1904, (G. M. Greene), i $, i9, [A. N. S. 
P.] (these five localities in Phila.) ; Bryn Mawr, VI, 27, 1908, (M. 
Hebard; under board on manure pile), 2$, 49, [Hebard Cln.]; 

Swarthmore, IX, 19, 1916, (E. T. Cresson, Jr.), i$, [A. N. S. P.]. 


Delaware: Delaware City, VII, 25, 1899, i $ , [M. C. Z.L 

Virginia: Hot Springs, VII, 29, 1916, (M. Hebard; flying before 
dusk), i $, \ Hebard On.]. 

Wisconsin: Sparta, VIII, 7, 1896, (J. E. McDade), i$, i$, [M. 
C. Z.L 

Manitoba: Aweme, IX, n, 1909, (N. Criddle), 4$, [Hebard Cln. 
and A. N. S. P.]. 

Nebraska: Lincoln, VIII and IX, 7 $ , 8$, [Hebard Cln. and A. N. 
S. P.] 

California: Sonoma County, IV, 16, i9, [Hebard Cln.]; Claremont, 
(C. F. Baker), 2$, [A. N. S. P.] 

The species is frequently encountered in flight at, or just 
before, dusk. It is often numerous under debris about man- 

This minute insect, an adventive from Europe, has become 
widely distributed in the United States. It is the only earwig 
known from Canada, where it has been taken as far north as 
Quebec, Quebec. There are no records of its occurrence 

-W -W 

south of the Fall Line in the southeastern United States, 
except at Unadilla, Georgia, 4 or from the Great Plains west to 
the Californian Sierras. 

7. Labia rehni new species. 

1914. Labia minor Rehn and Hebard, (not Forficula minor Lin- 
naeus, 1758), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1914, p. 377. [Key West, 

Though very similar to Labia minor in general appearance, 
the unique female of this interesting species before us, is 
found to differ widely from females of that species, in the 
much smaller eyes, more ample pronotum, much shorter teg- 
mina and wings, distinctive pygidium and forceps with ven- 
tro-internal margins not attingent, not perfectly straight and 
armed with microscopic, blunt serrulations. 

Type: 9 ; Key West, Florida. July 7, 1912. (Rehn 
Hebard; under boards in store-house.) [Hebard Collec- 
tion Type No. 439.] 

Size very small ; form moderately slender, very slightly more robust 
than in L. minor. Head, pronotum, tegmina, wings, abdomen and 

4 The record by Rehn and Hebard from Key West, Florida, ap- 
plies to Labia rchni. 


[July, '17 

forceps thickly clothed with short microscopic hairs. Head as in 
minor, but with eye only about three-fifths length of cheek 5 . Pronotum 
ample; lateral margins straight, parallel; caudal margin convex. Teg- 
mina short, only a little longer than pronotum 6 ; truncate caudad. Win-js 
projecting beyond tegmina less than half the pronotal length 7 . Scent 
glands subobsolete. Untimate dorsal abdominal segment simple, as in 
minor; fully three times as wide as long, caudal margin transverse. 
Pygidium declivent; lateral margins feebly concave, subparallel; dis- 
tal margin strongly concave, so that the latero-caudal portions of the 
pygidium project caudad as slender, acute, conical projections. For- 
ceps moderately heavy, triquetrous in proximal portion; dorsal sur- 

Fig. i. Labia rchni n. sp. Dorsal outline of type. (X5- ) 

Fig. 2. Labia rehni n. sp. Dorsal outline of head. Type, 9- (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 3. Labia re/inin. sp. Dorso-caudal outline of pygidium. Type, $. (Greatly 

Fig. i,.Prolabia pulchella (Serville). Dorso-caudal outline of male pygidium. 

Thomasville, Georgia. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 5. Prolabia unidentata (Beauvois). Dorso-caudal outline of male pygidium. 

San Francisco Mountains, San Domingo. (Greatly enlarged.) 

face deplanate in proximal half, thence feebly convex; ventral sur- 
face deplanate; proximad the shaft is excavate to accommodate the 
pygidium, thence the internal face is deplanate for two-fifths the dis- 
tance to apex, with ventral margin cingulate, feebly concave and mi- 
croscopically closely and bluntly serrulate; beyond this point this mar- 
gin is feebly lamellate from the juncture of the dorsal and ventral 
surfaces and is supplied with well-spaced, microscopic serrulations. 
Caudal margin of penultimate ventral abdominal segment transverse, 
very feebly convex. Limbs as in minor: short; thickly supplied with 
minute hairs; femora stout; metatarsus with ventral surface hairy, 
with two rows of chaetiform spines. 

5 In minor the eye is only very slightly shorter than the cheek. 
" Tn minor nearly twice as long as pronotum. 

7 In minor the wings project beyond the tegmina fully the pronotal 


Length of body, 4.5; of pronotum, .86; of tegmen, 1.16; of exposed 
portion of wing, .41; of forceps, 1.36; width of pronotum, .88; of ab- 
domen, 1.6 mm. 

Head and pronotum bister. Tegmina and wings snuff brown. Dor- 
sal surface of abdomen auburn, shading to blackish brown latero- 
cephalad. Forceps auburn. Antennae, limbs and underparts buck- 
thorn brown. 

The type is unique. 

8. Labia curvicauda (Motschulsky). 

1863. Forficelisa curvicauda Motschulsky, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou, 
XXXVI, p. 2, pi. II, fig. i. [Nura-Ellia Mountains, Ceylon.] 

1912. Labia curvicauda Rehn and Hebard, Proc, Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1912, p. 237. [Long Key, Florida.] (First United States 

The species is known from the United States only from 
the large series taken at Long Key, Florida, in the dying 
tops of cocoanut palms, at the white bases of the petioles 
where these were moist. 

3. Prolabia pulchella (Serville). 

1839. Forficula pulchella Serville, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 42. [Nia- 
gara, New York 8 .] 

1876. Labia guttata Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 
p. 265. [Texas.] 

1876. Labia burgessi Scudder, ibid., p. 266. [Palatka, Florida.] 
1876. Labia melancholica Scudder, ibid., p. 267. [Waco, Texas.] 
1900. Labia pulchella Bormans, Das Tierreich, p. 65. [Texas.] 
1911. Labia unidentata Burr, (in part, not of Beauvois, 1917), Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, p. 451. [Florida; Thomasville, Georgia; 

1911. Prolabia unidentata Burr, (in part, not of Beauvois, 1917), 
Gen. Ins., Fasc. 122, Dermapt, p. 57. [United States.] (Generic as- 

Careful comparison of all the material before us of the Unidentata 
Group, proves conclusively the above synonymy, as has been indicated 
by Burr. Contrary to that author's opinion, however, the species 
found in the United States is distinct from the West Indian Prolabia 
unidentata (Beauvois). 

In pulchella, the male pygidium is distinctive in being roughly sub- 
quadrate, with broad distal margin subtruncate. 

8 One specimen, collected by Schaum, bore no data : the other was 
labelled "Niagara"; clearly mislabelled or an advcntive specimen. 


Alabama: Greenville, VIII, 3, 1915, (M. Hebard; under bark of dead 
sweet gum), i9, [Hebard Cln.]; Evergreen, VIII, 3, 1915, (M. 
Hebard; under bark), 2$, 4?, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Louisiana: Nairn, XI, 1892, (H. E. Weed), i9 9 , [A. N. S. P.] ; 
Arcadia, VIII, 20, 1915, (Rehn & Hebard; few under bark of dead 
birch, where Vostox brnnneipennis was abundant), 2$, 5 9 10 . [Hebard 
Cln. and A. N. S. P.]. 

This insect is common under the dead bark of trees in the 
southeastern United States, but particularly of dead pines of 
various species. Among deciduous trees it has been found 
under the bark of Sweet Gum, Oak, Magnolia and Birch. 
The winged condition has been much more frequently found 
under bark of deciduous trees, but this is not a rule. 

The species is widely distributed over the southeastern 
United States, but has not as yet been secured on the Florida 
Keys. Its northern boundary on the Atlantic coast is the 
Fall line. The most northern records are Raleigh, North 
Carolina ; Vienna, Georgia ; Montgomery, Alabama, and Ar- 
cadia, Louisiana. The northwestern limits are Waco and 
Bosque County, Texas. 

10. Prolabia arachidis Yersin. 

1860. Forficula arachidis Yersin, Ann. Soc. Ent. France. (3), VIII, 
p. 509, pi. X, figs. 33 to 35. [[Adventive at] Marseilles, France.] 

1900. Labia burgessi Henshaw, (not of Scudder, 1876), Psyche, IX, 
p. 119. [[Adventive at] Boston, Massachusetts.] (First United 
States adventive material.) 

1911. Labia arachidis Burr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, p. 
453. [From ship at San Francisco from India.] 

1913. Prolabia arachidis Caudell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XLJV, p. 
598. [Adventive at San Francisco, California, and Brighton, Massa- 
chusetts; Aiken, Florida.] (First United States established record.) 

Texas: Brownsville, VI, (H. F. Wickham), 1$, [Hebard Cln.]. 
The present domiciliary insect is known from the United 
States only from the above record and references, excepting 
the series taken by Rehn and Hebard, at Homestead, Florida. 

9 This specimen is very pale in general coloration. 

10 All these, and the Greenville specimen, have fully developed 
wings. In the series from Georgia and Florida, this condition is very 
rare; represented in but 6, of 271 specimens examined. 



11. .Chelisoches mono (Fabricius). 

1775. F[orficula] morio Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 270. [Tahiti.] 
1907. Chelisoches morio Caudell, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XV, p. 169. 
[Menlo Park, California.] (First United States record.) 

California: Alameda County, (R. Hunt; on bananas from Hawaii), 
i <5, [Hebard Cln.]. 

Though the specimen here recorded is adventive, the spe- 
cies has become established at Menlo Park, California. It is 
widely distributed through the Papuan and Indo-Malaysian 



12. Doru lineare (Eschscholtz). 

1827. Forficula linearis Eschscholtz, Entomogr., p. Si. [Santa Cath- 
arina, Brazil.] 

1865. F[orficnla\ calif ornica Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeit., XXVI, p. 85. 
[California.] (First United States record.) 

1876. Forficula taeniata Scudder, Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr., 
II, p. 255. [Exotic localities; Arizona; Texas.] 

1876. Forficula exilis Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 
p. 262. [Texas.] 

1900. All these specific names referred to Apterygida by Bormans. 
Das Tierreich, II, pp. no and in. 

1911. Doru exile Burr, Gen. Ins., Fasc. 122, Dermapt, p. 79. [Ex- 
otic; southern United States.] 

191 1. Doru lineare Burr, (in part), ibid., p. 79. [Exotic; Southern 
United States.] 

1914. Doru lineare Rehn and Hebard, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.. XXII, 
p. 90, figs, i to 4. (Synonymy; general diagnosis; records.) 

Arizona: San Xavier, Pima County, VII, 24, 1916. (Lutz & Rehn; 
attracted to light), i <$ , [A. M. N. H.] ; Palo Alto Rancho, Altar 
Valley, about 3000 feet, X, 10, 1910, (M. Hebard; moderate numbers 
in bunches of coarse green grass, in meadow near wash), 8$, 3?, 
[Hebard Cln. and A. N. S. P.] ; Sycamore Canon, Baboquivari Moun- 
tains, about 3700 feet, X, 6, 1910, (Rehn and Hebard; attracted to 
light), i 9, [Hebard Cln. and A. N. S. P.]. 

The insect is usually found in rank grasses. It frequently 
appears at night at light. 

In the United States, the species is known only from about 
Brownsville, Texas, generally over the Tucson region in 


Arizona and from southern California. It is widely distri- 
buted southward over the American continent as far as the 
Misiones, Argentina. In the West Indies it is known only 
from Cuba. 

13. Doru aculeatum (Scudder). 

1862. Forficitla aculeata Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XVIII, 
p. 262. (In part.) [New York; northern Illinois; southern Michi- 
gan. 11 ] 

1900. Apterygida luteipennis Bormans, (in part not Forficula lutci- 
pennis Serville, 1839), Das Tierreich, II, p. 118. [New York.] 

1910. Doru linear -e Burr, (in part not Forficula linearis Eschscholtz, 
1827), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVIII, p. 464. (Name assignment 
without material at hand.) 

1914. Doru aculeatum Rehn and Hebard, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 
XXII, p. 93, figs. 5 and 7. (General diagnosis, measurements, records.) 

Alabama: Mobile, VIII, 27, 1915, (Rehn & Hebard; moderately 
common in cane, high weeds and cat-tails in swamp on edge of 
Mobile Bay), 2 $ , 12$, 8 juv., [Hebard Cln. and A. N. S. P.]. 

Louisiana: Harahan, Jefferson Parish, VIII, 7, 1915, (Rehn & 
Hebard; beaten from high grasses beside road), i$, [Hebard Cln.]; 
Morgan City, La., VIII, 8, 1915, (Rehn and Hebard; beaten from 
grasses and plants in swamp), 3$, (wings fully developed) [Hebard 
Cln. and A. N. S. P.] 

The specimens from Morgan City are the first of a macropterous 
condition to be found in the present species. 

This insect is usually found in high grasses. It is difficult 
to locate. 

The distribution of this species covers the Mississippi Val- 
ley, not extending west of the line of semi-aridity. It is 
known northwestward to eastern Nebraska, northward to 
southern Michigan, New York and Snake Hill, New Jersey. 
Though apparently common in the southern Appalachians, it 
apparently does not occur southeastward of that region. 
We believe the species will be found on the Gulf coast from 
western Florida to eastern Texas. 

14. Doru davisi Rehn and Hebard. 

1914. Doru davisi Rehn and Hebard, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XXII, p. 
95, figs. 6 and 8. [South Bay, Lake Okeechobee, Florida.] 

11 The specimen recorded from Cuba, with a query, represents Doru 


This striking species is still known only from the series 
originally studied, taken on the lake shore on low tangled 
vegetation between the water and a thick growth of Cus- 
tard-apple trees. 

15. Forficula auricularia Linnaeus. 

1758. F[orficiila]anricularia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., Ed. X, I, p. 423 

1853. Forficula auricularia Fieber, Lotos, III, p. 254. [Exotic record; 
America.] (First American record.) 

Rhode Island: Kingston, XII, 6, 1912, (A. E. Steene), i$, i?, [U. 
S. N. M.]; Newport, late VI, 1914, (R. W. Glaser), 5 juv., [A. N. S. 
P. and Hebard CIn.]. 

This insect has been previously reported from the United 
States from adventive material. It has recently become 
permanently established in New England, the species appear- 
ing in great numbers out of doors at Newport, Rhode Island. 

In addition to the species considered above, a specimen of 
Spandc.v pcrcheron (Guerin and Percheron), adventive in 
Massachusetts, was first described as Spongophom bipunctata 
by Scudder, then recorded as Forficula pcrcheroni by Scud- 
der and later as Psalis pcrcheroni by Caudell. 

Some North American Anthomyiidae (Dipt.). 

By O. A. JOHANNSEN, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 
Since the appearance of my paper on New Eastern An- 
thomyiidae* I have noted several novelties, among them the 
male of Dialyta flavitibia which was kindly sent to me by Mr. 
C. W. Johnson. The discovery of the male of this species con- 
firms my generic determination. I have also found the male of 
the Hylephila^ mentioned in my previous paper, which enables 
me to give a description of the species. 

Hammomyia paludis n. sp. 

$ . Length 5-6 mm. Head black, silvery gray pruinose with black- 
reflections ; in profile the genae are about 0.4, the buccae about 0.6, the 

*Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XLII : 385. 

^Hylcphila appears to be preoccupied in Lepidoptera. The genus 
may be merged with Hammomyia as has already been done by Stein. 


width of one eye; about 8 setae on each side of the front; four or five 
incurved setae below vibrissae, setae on the lower part of the buccae 
long and fine, though sparse. Face concave in profile, oral margin 
distinct; antennae black, third segment nearly twice as long as the 
second, not reaching the oral margin by a distance of over half the 
length of this segment; arista noticeably thickened at the base, short 
pubescent to the tip. Frontal stripe dull black, at the narrowest point 
but little broader than the diameter of the anterior ocellus; orbits gray 
pruinose, each at the narrowest point over half as wide as the frontal 
stripe in the same section ; proboscis and palpi fuscous. 

Thorax black, brownish gray pruinose, with three black vittae, the 
laterals on line with the dorso-central setae. Inner d. c. (acrostichals) 
small, in two rows; d. c. 2+3; st. 1+2, long; "pra" fine, about a 
third as long as the following seta. Scutellum with a pair of strong 
basals, strong subapicals, small apicals, slender discals, besides some 
finer discal hairs; pubescence of the lower surface restricted to a few 
fine pale hairs. 

Abdomen gray pruinose, each segment more fuscous at the base and 
with a median fuscous line narrowing at the posterior margin. The 
abdomen is more or less cylindrical, wedge-shaped posteriorly, each 
segment with long slender setulae both dorsally and ventrally, dorsal 
marginal setae distinctly stronger than the discal setulae; fifth sternite 
with a wide and deep triangular notch similar to that figured by 
Schnabl and Dziedzicki for H. janozvskii (PI. 26, fig. 691). The hypo- 
pygium closely resembles that of H. uniliiieata as figured by these 
authors on plate 5, figs. 79, 80. 

Legs black, gray pruinose; femora with long fine setae, strongest 
on the lateral surfaces of the hind pair; fore tibiae each with two 
outer lateral extensor setae ; middle tibiae each with five, one of which 
is on the basal third on the posterior extensor side, the others, nearly 
on a level beyond the middle, one anterior, one posterior, one outer, 
and one inner seta; hind tibiae each with two or more outer lateral 
flexor, four large outer extensor, three large posterior extensor, and 
five or more fine inner flexor, setae. Tarsal claws long, setulose at the 
base, about as long as the pulvilli. 

Wings brownish gray hyaline, veins brown; costal spines small but 
distinct; veins R 4+5 and M 1+2 parallel or very slightly converging 
at the tip; extreme tip of R 4+5 slightly reflexed ; R I ends opposite 
the r-m crossvein; m-cu crossvein slightly sinuous, perpendicular to 
Cui; penultimate section of M 1+2 is about two-thirds as long as 
the ultimate section. Squamae yellow-tinged, upper one covers the 
lower; halteres dark yellowish. 

9 . Like the male, except that the antennae are a little shorter ; 
the lower posterior sterno-pleural seta is much shorter than the upper; 
"pra" about half as long as the following seta. Setulae of the abdomen 


stout, but not as long as in the male. Apex of the ovipositor with the 
upcurved spines characteristic of the females of this genus. Hind 
tibiae lack the fine setae of the inner flexor surface. Last section of 
M 1+2 only about a fifth or a fourth shorter than the penultimate. 
The size is quite variable, ranging from 4 to 7 mm. in length. 

Type (male) from Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts, in 
my collection. Paratypes from Melrose Highlands, Massachu- 
setts, and Ithaca, New York, Melrose Highlands Laboratory 
and Cornell University collections. April and May. 

Some specimens in Dr. J. M. Aldrich's collection from La- 
fayette, Indiana, differ only in having a much larger "pra," 
in having numerous setulae among the acrostichals, and more 
abundant and larger setulae upon thorax and abdomen. 
This species differs from H. maculata St., in the chaetotaxy 
tif the legs and in the structure of the hypopygium of the 
male; from H. anilincata it differs in having narrower genae, 
in the form of the fifth sternite and in size. H. maculata has 
not yet been taken in New York ; my previous reference to 
it should be applied to H . palndis. 


This genus resembles Hammomyia and Hylephila in hav- 
ing an elongate anal vein, a pilose lower surface of the scutel- 
lum, and narrow front in both sexes, but differs from the 
former in having a bare or pubescent arista and from both 
in not having the head inflated. The two species recorded 
from North America in Aldrich's catalogue may be distin- 
guished as follows. 

a. Thorax and abdomen shining black, without pruinosity. Female. 

at- date Walker. 
aa. Thorax brownish gray with darker vittae; opaque. 

sih'cstris Fall. 

There is a female specimen in the Cornell University col- 
lection from Truro, Nova Scotia, of the second species which 
I cannot distinguish from my European specimen. Walker 
(List, IV) described three species from Canada, which Stein, 
with a slight doubt in each case, considers syimnvmous with 
syh'cstris. A study of the descriptions reveals but trifling 



The species of this anomalous genus were formerly group- 
ed with Cocnosia to which they bear a striking resemblance 
in the arrangement of the sterno-pleural setae, setae of the 
posterior tibiae, wing venation, and in the spotted abdomen. 
The genus is now placed among the Limnophorinae. The 
front is broad in both sexes as in Lispa, and the fulcrum ot 
the hypopygium of the male is directed forward. The spe- 
cies thus far known to occur in the United States may be 
separated as follows. 

a. Crossvein not clouded. 

b. Middle tibia with a bristle on the anterior side; costal spine pres- 
ent; wing with a brownish tinge. Ohio, New Hampshire, 

verna Fabr. 

bb. Middle tibia with no seta on the anterior side ; costal spine not 

c. Wing of the male milky white. Many localities in the United 
States. .. .erythrocera R. D. (= lactcipennis Zett. IV, 1722). 
cc. Wing of the male grayish hyaline. Massachusetts, 

var. of erythrocera .' 

aa. Crossveins clouded; middle tibia with no seta on the anterior side. 
Orono, Maine alma Meigen, var. pallipalpis Zett. (b). 

There is another lactcipennis Zett. (IV. 1586), a species 
not yet recorded from the United States, which should not b'j 
confused with L. erythrocera ( == lactcipennis Zett., IV. 1722). 
The former species is now. placed in Dc.viopsis, a Coenosine 
genus. Specimens of L. alma were taken at Orono, Maine, in 
October. I have referred these specimens to var. pallipalpis 
Zett. (b) because the abdomen is but faintly translucent at 
the base and at the apical margins of the first and second 

Limnophora torreyae Joh. 

In the original description of this species a misprint occurs. 
The post sutural d.c. setae are four and not three in number. 
In some specimens the orbits are not quite contiguous, being 
separated by a slender frontal line. 
Mydaea pectinata Joh. 

Tn the original description of this species, fourth line from 
the top. page 393, substitute for the words "tibia with a row'' 
lhc words "tibia with an irregular double row." 


Phaonia nigricans Joh. 

The genus Phaonia, as at present defined by recent European 
workers, is distinguished from Mydaca by the presence of a 
seta on the posterior median extensor surface. If this inter- 
pretation be adopted the specific name noted above which I 
assigned to one of our New York species need cause no con- 
fusion. If, however, the emphasis be placed upon the presence 
or absence of the pilosity of the eyes, redistributing the 
species into the two groups corresponding to the genera 
Hyetodesia and Spilogaster, then the name nigricans becomes 
a homonym, having been assigned to another species by Stein 
in 1897. For the benefit of those who prefer the latter group- 
ing of species I suggest that the name cayugae be adopted 
to replace my nigricans. 

An additional locality record for this species is McLean, 
Tompkins County, New York. 

Dialyta flavitibia Joh. 

$ . Like the female except that it is a trifle smaller (6 mm.); the 
front is about as wide as one eye, somewhat narrowing at the base of 
the antennae; buccae narrower and antennae longer and broader than 
in the female; orbits about half as wide as the frontal stripe at the 
lower ocellus. Abdominal setae longer and stouter than in the female ; 
five pairs of marginal setae on each of segments two and three and 
six pairs on the fourth, five pairs of discals on the third and fourth 
segments; all sternites visible. Femoral setae stronger and more nu- 
merous; tibial setae as in the female except that those of the hind legs 
on the outer lateral flexor side are more uniform in size. Crossveins 
only faintly tinged; one large costal spine; R 4+5 more arched up- 
ward. The hypopygium somewhat resembles that of D. atriccps as 
figured by Schnabl and Dziedzicki (PI. 21, figs. 555, 556). In our 
species, however, the fulcrum has, in addition to the laterals, a small 
median tubercle on the ventral side; the inferior forceps are stouter, 
and the superior forceps are quite different, being deeply cleft, re- 
sembling those shown in fig. 493 (PI. 19), but with the median angles 
rounded, not produced. The fifth sternite differs but little from that 
figured for D. atriccps. 

This specimen was taken at Danbury, Connecticut, in Tune, 
and sent to me by Mr. C. W. Johnson. There is a female 
specimen in the Cornell Collection from Ohio, and Mr. John- 
son writes me that the species also occurs in Pennsylvania 
and Ontario. 


New Species of Lepidoptera. 


Argynnis californica n. sp. 

$ . This species is paler in color than its related forms and has a 
faded or washed out appearance in comparison with its relatives. 
In size it is smaller than snydcri which it resembles in markings. It is 
about the same size as calippe Bd. and juba Bd. but is larger than 
coronis Behr. It can be at once separated from calippe by its much 
lighter color and from juba by the much duller color of the buff band 
on the underside of the secondaries. Both sexes are heavily silvered 

9 Quite similar to the male in color and markings. 

The male expands 56 mm. and the female 58 mm. 

Described from fifteen specimens from California, the type 
and paratypes were taken by Mr. J. G. Grundel at Alma, 
Santa Clara County. 

I would not have ventured describing this species without 
a good figure if it had not been already well figured by Mr. 
W. H. Edwards under the name coronis, in his Butterflies of 
North America, vol. 3, pi. 4 of Argynnis. A number of years 
ago I compared specimens of my own with the type of coronis 
Behr in the Strecker collection. Due to Mr. Edwards' figurt 
of this species it has been accepted as coronis and snyderi, a 
related species, has been considered by some persons a variety 
of coronis. The true coronis is very close to jnba and calippe. 

Melitaea arida n. sp. 

Upperside. Primaries dull fulvous marked with a series of small 
spots crossing the wing from the costa to the interior margin. The 
submarginal row is almost obsolete, the central spot being a crescent; 
the next row consists of three larger spots beyond the cell and two 
below, the last one small and hour-glass in shape ; the last row con- 
sists of one spot near the end of the discal cell and one spot directly 
below it. 

Secondaries same color as primaries with three rows of spots 
crossing the wing from the costa to the interior margin. The sub- 
marginal row consists of seven, narrow, minute yellowish crescents; 
the next row is composed of six minute black spots edged on the 
inner side by dull yellow; the next row is a curved line of minute 
yellowish spots; there is a yellow linear spot in the cell. 

Underside. The primaries have a marginal border composed of 
brown and yellowish spots; the limbal area is marked by spots of two 
shades of fulvous. 

The secondaries have a submarginal row of crescents, two near the 
costa and one at the lower third; the next row consists of five small 
black dots, the lower one very minute; the basal area is made up of 
several rows of spots semi-silvered. 

Expanse 26-30 mm. 

Type and paratype. Two specimens marked Cochise Co., 


Arizona, May. Received from Mr. F. Haimbach without 
more definite locality. 

This species is close to vesta Edw. but the markings are 
much fainter and different in color, those of vesta being 
orange-fulvous. The characteristic row of orange fulvous 
spots so conspicuous in vesta is replaced in arida by a faint line 
of spots. The silvered spots on the underside of the second- 
aries are also characteristic. 

Erythroecia hebardi n. sp. 

In volume nine of Sir George Hampson's Catalogue of the 
Lepidoptera Phalaenae, p. 57, there is erected the new genus 
Erythroecia with the type species siiav-is H. Edwards. He de- 
scribes a new species under the name rhodophora which is 
figured on plate 138, no. 4. The type locality given is Capitillo, 

Last summer Mr. Morgan Hebard captured a species of 
Erythroecia at Hot Springs, Virginia, August I5th, at light, 
two perfect male specimens. 

This appears to be a much more robust species than 
rhodophora and the primaries are much more obscured by red 
(crimson) and the ground color of the wings is yellow, almost 
orange. The orbicular and reniform do not show as in 
Hampson's figure. The Virginia species expands 34 mm. 

It is possible that this may be a very good species, a topo- 
morph or only a variety of rhodophora but additional material 
ir. needed to establish their true relationship. If they are 
the same species the distribution as at present known appears 
very strange. 

Autographa olivacea n. sp. 

$ . Head and thorax gray mixed with white hairs; tegulae gray; 
thoracic crest gray-white at tips; abdomen and legs gray; crests 
brown tipped with gray. Fore wing grey tinged with whitish olive, 
the medial area below the cell shining dark olive, extending from 
the apex and covering the outer third of the wing and extending 
two-thirds the distance to the inner margin ; orbicular faintly indicated 
and not silvered; a very small silver stigma, linear and having a faint 
incurved point at the outer end; hind wing with a greenish tinge. 
Expanse 39 mm. 

Type one specimen sent to me by Mr. Eugene O. Mur- 
mann, taken at Los Angeles, California, August, 1916. 

This species resembles anipla Walk, but may be readily 
differentiated by the olive shade of the outer half of the 
primary wing. 

The types of these species are in the collection of The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



Insects and War. 

Unfortunately the lessons of the past have not been sufficient- 
ly taken to heart and at the present time we are confronted with 
the grim destroyer in many forms. Every soldier thinks he 
will be one of the fortunate individuals and escape some death- 
dealing missile, but he is much more likely to be the victim of 
some low and minute form of either animal or vegetable or- 

In spite of the great advance of modern science and knowl- 
edge gained, its practical application is relatively very defec- 
tive and inefficient. The mind of the medical profession runs 
largely to therapeutics the application of drugs to the cure 
of disease, but unfortunately remedial measures can't compare 
in value with preventive medicine. The sick soldier is a 
distinct loss as a fighting unit and is a menace and expense to 
the Government as he needs hospitals, doctors, nurses and 

A few references to the past may enlighten the thoughtful. 
During the Civil War, on the Union side, 93,369 soldiers were 
killed and 186,216 died from disease. In the Crimean War 
4,602 were killed and 17,580 died victims of disease. A re- 
markable example of mortality from disease and low death 
rate from wounds is shown by the figures from the French 
Expedition to Madagascar in 1894, 29 being killed and 7,000 
dying from disease. In the Spanish-American War only 454 
Americans were killed and 5,277 died from disease, mostly 
typhoid fever carried by house-flies. A more specific instance 
of disease morbidity and mortality is shown by what happened 
to the First Pennsylvania Infantry in 1898. There were 792 
men in the regiment and 169 cases of typhoid fever and twelve 
deaths. In many of the camps in this country and Cuba men 
were compelled to walk through, human excrement to get to the 
latrines, and the food in the mess tents was black with flies. 
The mouths of the sick soldiers in the hospitals and hospital 


tents could not be seen for house-flies, and these insects were 
sucking the juices from the lips of unconscious soldiers and 
many of these sick men were brought to Philadelphia by the 

Insects are responsible entirely or in large part for the trans- 
mission of typhoid fever, typhus fever, malaria, yellow fever 
and tuberculosis and many lesser forms of disease. 

Strange to say, the persons most keenly alive to these condi- 
tions and the persons who are meeting and trying to prevent 
these things are the mothers of the young men being trained for 

So far as we are aware the Government has done very 
little to prevent a recurrence of this dreadful sacrifice of life. 
There will be plenty of medical men to look after the small 
ills incident to camp life, but will the expert and capable men be 
there to guard against disease? It has been suggested that a 
medical entomologist should be stationed at each concentration 
camp, a most important matter, as sanitation and preventive 
measures greatly exceed drug therapeutics in importance. \Ye 
sincerely hope that the present war will not show the dread- 
ful mortality from disease exhibited in the wars of the past. 

The second report of the Emergency Entomological Service of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, to which we called atten- 
tion in the NEWS for June, page 283, has appeared, dated June i, 1917. 
in 19 mimeographed pages. It announces the establishment, as an emer- 
gency measure, of a distinct section or branch of the Bureau of En- 
tomology, that of "Stored Product Insect Investigations," of which 
Dr. E. A. Back has been put in charge. Plans for the use of the Boy 
Scout organization to report insect injuries and to spray infested small 
gardens are being developed. There are reports of insect injuries as 
in the first report; 3^2 pages arc devoted to a consideration of the 
"acute situation [which] appears to exist as to the supply of arsenical 
insecticides in this country." It is stated that "The Council of Na- 
tional Defense is still considering the plans for the utilization of 
entomologists in the war. The present plan of the Council provides 
for a corps of entomologists to be coordinate with the corps of sani- 
tarians. This subject is also being considered by the Chief of Bureau 
and the Surgeon General of the Army Medical Corps." 


Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico is given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied En- 
tomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

3 The American Naturalist. 4 The Canadian Entomologist. 
5 Psyche. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 
37 Le Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 50 Proceedings, U. S. 
National Museum. 102 Proceedings, Entomological Society of 
Washington. 141 Proceedings, Indiana Academy of Sciences, In- 
dianapolis. 143 Ohio Journal of Science, Columbus, Ohio. 153 
Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, New York. 161 
Proceedings, Biological Society of Washington. 184 Journal of 
Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 195 Bulletin, Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Cambridge. 198 Biological Bulletin, Ma- 
rine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 238 Annales, 
Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 263 Proceedings of 
the Hawaiian Entomological Society, Honolulu. 335 Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections. 373 Contributions to the Natural His- 
tory of the Lepidoptera of North America, by Wm. Barnes and 
J. H. McDunnough, Decatur, 111. 392 The Irish Naturalist, Dub- 
lin. 411 Bulletin, The Brooklyn Entomological Society. 420 
Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus: A monthly journal of entomology, 
Washington. 537 Proceedings, Entomological Society of Nova 
Scotia, Truro. 538 Lorquinia, Los Angeles. 540 The Lepidop- 
terist. Official Bulletin, Boston Entomological Club. 547 Journal, 
The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Banks, N. Index to the literature of 
American economic entomology, Jan. 1, 1905, to Dec. 31, 1914 (323 
pp.). [Pub. Am. Assoc. EC. Ent., Melrose Highlands, Mass.]. 
Berlese, A. Gli insetti loro organizzazione, sviluppo, abitudini e 
rapporti coll'uomo (II, fasc. 13-16). Bethune, C. J. S. The insect 
collections of Canada. I. The collections of the entomological so- 
ciety of Ontario, 4, 1917, 153-7. Cockerell, T. D. A. Sunflower 
insects in Virginia and Connecticut, 4, 1917, 212. Descriptions of 
fossil insects [2 new], 161, xxx, 79-82. Dahlgren, U. The pro- 


duction of light by animals. III. Worms, crustaceans and lower 
insects (99 pp. reprint), 547, May-Jan., 1916-17. DeWolfe, L. A. 
How to collect and preserve insects, 537, 1916, 12-15. Howard, 
Schwarz & Busck A biographical and bibliographical sketch of 
Otto Heidemann, 102, xviii, 203-5. Mclndoo, N. E. Recognition 
among insects, 335, Ixviii, No. 2, 78 pp. Pierce, W. D. Notes on a 
southern trip, 102, xviii, 206-7. Provancher Biographical note by 
C. V. A. Huard, 37, xliii, 145-52. Slosson, A. T. Experiences of a 
collector, 411, xii, 25-9. 

sults of crossing Euschistus variolaris and E. ictericus with refer- 
ence to the inheritance of two exclusively male characters, 198, 
xxxii, 322-42. Hyde, R. R. On the change that takes place in the 
chromosomes in mutating stocks, 141, 1915, 339-44. Jennings, H. S. 
Modifying factors and multiple alleomorphs in relation to the 
results of selection, 3, li, 301-6. Macdowell, E. C. Bristle inheri- 
tance in Drosophila, 184, xxiii, 109-146. Painter, T. S. A wing 
mutation in Piophila casei, 3, li, 306-8. Patterson, J. T. Studies 
on the biology of Paracopidosomopsis, 198, xxxii, 291-305. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Hood, J. D. An annotated list of the 
Thysanoptera of Plummer's Island, Md., 420, v, 53-65. Howe, R. 
H. Distributional notes on New England Odonata, 5, xxiv, 45-53. 
Walker, E. M. Seasonal irregularities in the occurrence of dra- 
gonflies, 4, 1917, 171-8. 

Kennedy, C. H. Notes on the life history and ecology of the 
dragonflies of central California and Nevada [several n. gen. and 
sps.], 50, Hi, 483-635. 

ORTHOPTERA. Caudell, A. N. Color dimorphism in Schisto- 
cerca damnifica; The habitat of Doru aculeatum, 102, xviii, 216-17. 
Crampton, G. C. A comparison of the antennae of the Grylloblat- 
tidae and Embiidae to demonstrate the relationship of these two 
groups of insects, 4, 1917, 213-17. Gooderham, C. B. The Acrididae 
of Nova Scotia, 537, 1916, 21-30. Illingworth, J. F. Regeneration 
in cockroaches, 263, iii, 266. 

HEMIPTERA. Drake, C. J. New and noteworthy Tingidae 
from the United States [3 new], 143, xvii, 213-16. Gibson, E. H. 
Three n. sps. of Jassoidea from Missouri; Two n. sps. of Dicyphus 
from Porto Rico, 4, 1917, 183-4; 218-19. Gillette, C. P. Two new 
aphid genera and some new species, 4, 1917, T.t:i-'.)s. Heidemann, O. 
-Two n. sps. of lace-bugs, 102, xviii, 217-9. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Brethes, J. Estudio tito-zoologico sobre al- 
gunos lepidopteros argentinos productores de agallas, 238, l.xxxii, 
113-40. Dyar, H. G. Seven new Pyralids from British Guiana. 


420, v, 88-92. Forbes, W. T. M. Notes on West Indian Syntomi- 
dae and Arctiidae, 153, xxxvii, 339-45. Hampton, G. F. Descrip- 
tions of new Pyralidae of the subfamilies Hydrocampinae, Scopari- 
anae, etc., 11, xix, 361-76 (cont.). Marchand, W. The specific differ- 
ences between Apantesis nais, A. vittata and A. phalerata, 5, xxiv, 
59-60. May, R. M. The life history of a swallowtail butterfly 
(Papilio zolicaon), 538, i, 77-9. 

Barnes & McDunnough A revision of the genus Hydriomena 
[8 new], 373, iv, 1-59. Dyar, H. G. Miscellaneous new American 
L. [8 new]; Notes on No.^Am. Pyraustinae [6 new]; Notes on No. 
Am. Nymphulinae [7 new]; Notes on No. Am. Schoenobiinae [10 
new]; Seven new Crambicls from the United States, 420, v, 65-87. 
Pearsall, R. F. Synchlora avidaria n. sp., 411, xii, 34-5. Swett, L. 
W. New Geometrids [2 new], 540, i, 45-8. 

DIPTERA. Elwyn, A. Effect of humidity on pupal duration 
and on pupal mortality of Drosophila ampelophila, 153, xxxvii, .347- 
53. Gibson, A. The occurrence of Eumerus strigatus in Canada, 

4, 1917, 190-1. Ludlow, C. S. Cycloleppteron [new localities for], 

5, xxiv, 53. Snyder, T. E. Notes on horseflies as a pest in southern 
Florida, 102, xviii, 208-10. 

Alexander, C. P. New nearctic crane flies, III. [11 new], 4, 1917, 
199-211. Hine, J. S. Descriptions of North American Tabanidae 
[5 new], 143, xvii, 269-71. Malloch, J. R. A key to the No. Amer- 
ican genera of Coenosiinae [1 new g., 1 n. sp.] ; A new gen. and 
sp. of Anthomyiidae, 411, xii, 35-7; 37-8. Parker, R. R. A new 
Sarcophaga from New York, 4, 1917, 157-61. Smith, H. E. Notes 
on New England Tachinidae, with the description of one n. gen. 
and two n. sps., 5, xxiv, 54-8. Van Duzee, M. C. Descriptions of 
a few new Diaphorus from the western states [7 new], 5, xxiv, 33. 

COLEOPTERA. Chapin, E. A. Miscellaneous notes on C, 411, 
xii, 29-31. Schaeffer, C. Notes on a few Eucnemidae and descrip- 
tions of new Elateridae [5 new], 411, xii, 39-44. Schwarz, E. A. 
Rhizobius not Rhyzobius, 102, xviii, 214. 

Fall, H. C. New Coleoptera. VI. [9 new]. 4, 1917, 163-71. 
Fisher, W. S. A new sp. of Xylotrechus, 102, xviii, 214-16. 

HYMENOPTERA. Chapais, J. C. Quelques notes sur le "ver 
limace du poirier," 37, xliii, 153-6. Scharff, R. F. Should wasps be 
killed? 392, 1917, 88. Schwarz, E. A. Ants protecting acacia trees 
in Central America, 102, xviii, 211-12. Stohr, L. M. An interesting 
case of instinct, 4, 1917, 161-3. Turner, R. E. Notes on fossorial 
H. On new species in the British Museum, 11, xix, 317-26. 

Banks, N. New fossorial H. [28 new], 195, Ixi, 97-115. Felt, E. 
P. Two new sawflies. 4, 1917, 191-2. Gahan, A. B. Descriptions of 
some new parasitic H. [2 n. g.; 26 n. sps.], 50, liii, 195-217. Girault, 
A. A. The North American species of Habrocytus [6 new], 4, 1917, 
178-82. Myers, P. R. An American species of the hymenopterous 
genus Wesmaelia, 50, liii, 293-94. Rohwer, S. A. A report on a 
collection of H. (mostly from California) made by W. M. Giffard 
[15 new], 50, liii, 233-49. A nearctic species of Dolichurus; Diprion 
simile in No. America, 102, xviii, 212-14. 



[We have brought together, from various sources, published during 
the last year, the following data on entomologists who have recently 
passed away.] 

A brief note in Science for February 2, 1911 (page 112) 
announced the death of JUAN J. RODRIGUEZ, of Guatemala 
City, on December 22, 1916. Thanks to Mr. William Schaus, 
we have received a typewritten copy of an obituary notice in 
El Diario dc Centra- America (Guatemala), for December 22, 
1916, from which we translate the following: 

Don Juan J. Rodriguez Luna, who was born in 1840 and 
who consequently died at the advanced age of 76 years, had 
shown already in his early youth his love for this class of 
studies [zoology] and his competence in dealing with them. 
As was the custom in that period, he began his education in 
the College of the Seminary and has left us interesting notes 
of the awakening of his scientific inclinations. In the Semi- 
nary there existed no provision for the natural sciences, but 
he already observed with attention the life of insects, their 
metamorphoses and habits, and toward the end of his stay in 
the college, Father Farias, to stimulate his inclinations, lent 
him a very elementary book from the library. Another 
Father, notwithstanding, counselled him not to devote much 
time to this occupation because "he who looks much at the 
earth does not look to heaven." This did not hinder the 
young lover of nature from continuing his studies, which 
must have been well advanced in 1864, when the Sociedad 
Kconomica de Amigos de Guatemala, founding the National 
Museum in that year, confided to him the zoological section. 

In 1867 he was admitted as an advocate, a profession which 
he never practiced, and his father, don Jose Mariano Rod- 
riguez, arranged that he should undertake a voyage to Eu- 
rope. So the son made his first visit to the Old World in 
1868. In Paris and especially in Belgium he cultivated the 
friendship of men of science working in zoology and chiefly 
in entomology and, with a great fund of new information, 
returned to Guatemala in 1869. The museum of the Economic 


Society gained much by this voyage and in 1874 already 
possessed 786 specimens of birds alone, of 455 different 
species, all from Guatemala, exactly classified by Sefior 

In 1878 and 1887 Sefior Rodriguez Luna made two more 
voyages to Europe and in both obtained many things useful 
for his country and for the sciences of his specialty. 

One of the benefits which Guatemala owes to him is the 
introduction of species new to the country. He introduced 
tubers and seeds of plants which today are abundant in our 
gardens; in 1865 he propagated Eucalyptus globulus, the first 
seeds of \vhich were sent him by the distinguished Belgian 
naturalist, Dr. Candeze ; in 1878 he sent home from Belgium 
various plants of Liberian coffee, subsequently acclimated, 
and propagated here the two existing species of Bougainvillca 
and various fruits and flowers. A distinguished agriculturist, 
he cultivated sugar-cane and coffee, improving both by care- 
ful and intelligent selection. He exported quinine on a large 
scale and many other native products. For this reason, at 
the International Exposition at Paris in 1900, he obtained the 
greatest number of prizes awarded to any single agriculturist 
and received the cross of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

A great quantity and variety of scientific, historical and 
literary work flowed from his pen, which were published 
in the periodicals and reviews of Central America and of 
Europe during fifty years, so that he became a member of the 
Zoological and Acclimatization Societies of France, the En- 
tomological and Malacological Societies of Belgium, the So- 
ciety of Sciences of Liege, the Aragonese Society of Natural 
Sciences, etc. 

He was Minister of Fomento [Promotion of Industry, etc.] 
and an important member of the commissions of all of our 
national expositions. 

It is due to his country, and at the same time to honor its 
distinguished son, to preserve and employ usefully the re- 
sults of his long and laborious life. To no one more than to 
the Nation belongs the right of acquiring the zoological mus- 


eum and library of the learned naturalist, the best of its 
kind which exists in Guatemala. 

An obituary notice of Senor Rodriguez is also to be found 
in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (London) for 
March, 1917, written by Mr. G. C. Champion, who contri- 
butes some additional items based on personal acquaintance. 
The indebtedness of the Biologia Centrali- Americana to Rod- 
riguez for Coleoptera and incidentally other insects is ac- 
knowledged in the Introductory Volume of that work (page 
44). De Selys received from him the types of Anisagrion 
allopterum (Odonata) and Candeze many Elateridae. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for March, 1917, con- 
tains also obituary notices of CHARLES OWEN WATERHOUSE, 
born at Bloomsbury, London, June 19, 1843, died at Acton, 
February 4, 1917, and of J. PLATT BARRETT, born near Mars- 
den, Huddersfield, England, June 29, 1838, died December 
27, 1916. 

Waterhouse's father, G. R. Waterhouse, once keeper of 
Geology in the British Museum, and his brothers, E. A. and 
F. Waterhouse, all had entomological interests. C. O. Water- 
house was an Assistant and Keeper in the Entomological De- 
partment of the British Museum from 1866 to 1910, and was 
chiefly interested in the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, his 
main work being on the Buprestidae in the Biologia Centrali- 
Americana. His Aid to the Identification of Insects, two 
volumes of colored plates, is well known. He was President 
of the Entomological Society of London, 1907-08. 

J. P. Barrett was for fifty-three years an instructor in 
institutions for the deaf and dumb. His interests were mainly 
in the Macrolepidoptera of Britain and of Sicily and he was 
one of the founders of the South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society. 

CHARLES ADOLPHUS BRIGGS, known for his work on 
British Lepidoptera, Neuroptera (sensu Linnaei) and 
Orthoptera, born May 26, 1849, died October 17, 1916. (En- 
tom., January, 1917). 


ARTHUR E. GIBBS, who had in recent years "made a con- 
siderable collection of American Rhopalocera and for some 
time past mainly occupied himself with the study of these in- 
sects," died March 3, 1917, aged 58. He was a proprietor^-of 
the Herts Advertiser and the St. Albans Times (England). 
(Ent. Mo. Mag., April, 1917). 

Dr. E. Bergroth contributes a brief note on DR. BERTIL 
ROBERT POPPIUS, the Finnish entomologist, who died at 
Copenhagen, November 27, 1916, aged 40 years. His most 
important works are Monograph of the holarctic subgenm, 
Cryobius (Carabidae) and Monograph of the Ethiopian Cap- 
sidae (2 vols., 1912-1914). (Ent. Mo. Mag., Jan., 1917). 

ROLAND TRIMEN, the distinguished author of South Afri- 
can Butterflies, died as long ago as July 25, 1916, and his 
decease should have received mention in an earlier number of 
the News. He was born at Paddington, London, October 29, 
1840. He spent the years 1860-1895 in South Africa, first 
in the civil "service, then from 1873 as curator of the South 
African Museum at Cape Town. His most important scientific 
work was On some remarkable Mimetic Analogies among 
African Butterflies (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xxvi, 1869), 
dealing with the females of Papilio mcrope (dardamis). He 
was President of the Entomological Society of London in 
1897 and 1898, his addresses on Mimicry and on Seasonal 
Variation "being of special interest and value. In 1883 he 
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and received in 
1910 the high distinction of the Darwin medal." (Ent. Mo. 
Mag., Sept., 1916, Entom., Oct., 1916). 

ORSON BENNETT JOHNSON, professor emeritus of Zoology 
in the University of Washington, died March 9, 1917, aged 
69, according to a note in Science for April 13 last. We have 
previously mentioned (this volume, page 41) his gift of his 
entomological collection to his University. A quarter of a 
century ago we received Odonata from Seattle from him and 
others also are indebted to him for material. 

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From Columbia, So. America : 


Morplio cypris Morpho amathonte 

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" andraeraon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 



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200 Orthoptera 

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OCTOBER, 1917. 


Vol. XXVIII. No. 8 

Henry Shimer 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 






Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 


Plate XXIV 

i I 1 ' 







OCTOBER, 1917. 

No. 8. 


Berrheirn Swarms of Butterflies 
(Lep.) 339 

Cresson Descriptions of new Genera 
and Species of the Dipterous Fam- 
ily Ephydridae IV 340 

Seamans A new Species of Tropidia 
(Syrphidae) from Montana (Dipt.) 342 

Haseman Sarcophaga haemorrhoida- 
lis Larvae as Parasites of the Hu- 
man Intestine ( Dipt.) 343 

Lindsay A List of Butterflies of Iowa 347 

Medal Awarded for Entomological 
Research 353 

de la Torre Bueno Life History of the 
Northern Microvelia Microvelia 
borealis Bueno (Hem., Het.) 354 

Hebard A new Species of Myrmeco- 
philous Blattid. (Orth. ; Blattidae ; 
Corydiinae) 360 

Cockerell A Second Colletes with 
Spotted Wings ( Hym. ) 363 

Ainslie Notes on the Construction of 
the Cocoon of Praon (Hym., Bra- 
conidae) 364 

Green A new Trichodes (Cleridae, 
Coleop. ) 367 

Crosby and Leonard An Egg Para- 
site of the Sumac Flea Beetle 
(Hymen., Chalcid.) 368 

Felt Indian Gall Midges (Cecidomy- 
iidae, Dipt. ) 369 

Editorial The Lack of Entomologists 373 

Westcott Stx Attraction Overcome by 
Light Stimulation (Lep.. Col.) 374 

Emergency Entomological Service 375 

Entomological Literature 377 

Doings of Societies Ent. Sec., Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila. (Lep., Orth.) 382 

Feldman Collecting Social (Lep., 

Col.) 383 

Amer. Ent. Soc. (Odonata) 383 

Butterfly Club Organized in Los An- 
geles 383 

Obituary Notes Rev. Octavius Pick- 

ard-Cambridge 384 

Mrs. Helen Grier LeConte 384 

Corrections 384 

Swarms of Butterflies (Lep.). 
By JAMES L. BERNHEIM, Corporal, Band, Third U. S. Infantry. 

(Plate XXIV.) 

On September 4, 1916, and for several days following, near 
Eagle Pass, Texas, the air was fairly alive with swarms of 
Libythca bachmani (Snout butterfly), which were flying to- 
ward the north. They occupied a strip about a mile wide east- 
ward from the Rio Grande, in which region the vegetation is 
most abundant. 

They extended upward as far as the eye could reach, and, 
borne by a mild breeze from the south, were moving quite 
swiftly. During this time I made several collecting trips south 
of Eagle Pass and at each step stirred up veritable clouds of 
this interesting butterfly which immediately rose in the air and 
started north. There were literally millions of them and many 



of them had evidently completed their allotted span of life as 
they were dropping from the air in large numbers. 

One particular specimen flew past, almost brushing my face, 

and, as I thought, alighted upon the ground. As I stooped to 
examine it the wings suddenly folded down tightly in front of 
the body and I picked the insect up quite dead. 

Late in October, while collecting east of Eagle Pass, I came 
upon a small pond upon the banks of which grew several quite 
large mesquite trees. These trees were almost covered by 
swarms of Monarchs (Anosia plexippus). They remained un- 
til the following day, when nearly all of them left within an 
hour or so. 

Two days later the willows growing upon the bank of the 
Rio Grande were the resting place for a still larger swarm, 
some of which remained several days. I enclose a picture 
showing one of the trees. 

Descriptions of new Genera and Species of the Dip- 
terous Family Ephydridae IV. 

By E. T. CRESSON, JR., Academy of Natural Sciences of 



A fairly well marked genus closely allied to Psilopa but evi- 
dently distinct ; apparently belonging to a group containing the 
oriental Rhynchopsilopa Hendel. The sub-pendent nature of 
the antennae, with the second and third joints apparently sus- 
pended from the exserted first, is very characteristic, as is also 
the hair-like apical spine of the second joint. Psilopa loiuji- 
cornis Meijere and several undescribed species from the Orient 
also belong here or to allied genera. 

Description. Head broad and high. Eyes bare. Frons 
broad with ocellar tubercle situated at the sharp vertex ; ocellar 
bristles situated between the post-ocelli ; the proclinate orbitals 
and generally the reclinate frontals present. Face narrowed 
at middle, convex to nearly carinate, not excavated at anten- 
nae ; epistoma retreating. Antennae decumbent; second joint 
without apical production, but with or without the hair-like 


spine ; third long- and slender ; arista with long hairs above. 
Mouth small ; clypeus exserted. Cheeks with distinct bristle. 
Mesonotum strongly convex ; setulae distinctly seriated. Scu- 
telluin normal. Wings with costa attaining fourth vein. 
Genotype. Ceropsilopa nasiita n. sp. 

Ceropsilopa nasuta n. sp. 

Black; second antennal joint, apical half of fore femora, entire fore 
and middle tibiae, apical three-fourths of hind tibiae and all tarsi, 
tawny. Haltercs white. Wings and veins yellow. Shining to polished, 
with violet reflections on face and abdomen. No sculpturing on face. 
Face strongly keeled on lower part, in profile most prominent at 
middle. Antennae as long as face, first joint nearly as long as second, 
second with very short spine, third four times as long as second with 
very long arista. Length. 3.75 mm. 

Type. 9 : Port of Spain, Trinidad (Ujhelyi). [Hungarian 
Nat. Museum.] Paratypc. i 9 ; topotypical. 

Hydrellia tibialis n. sp. 

Black; halteres white. Wings hyaline. Shining; frons opaque; face 
and lunule white; mesonotum subopaque with brownish dust; pleura 
and pectus opaque. Mesonotum with one pair of dorso-centrals situ- 
ated near suture. Middle tibiae of male enlarged and thickened, as 
broad as femora. Length. 1.9 mm. 

Type. $ ; Moscow, Idaho, October 9, 1907 (J. M. Aldrich). 
[A. N. S. P., No. 6141.] Paratypc. i 9 ; topotypical. 

Scatophila variabilis n. sp. 

Black; halteres white. Wings faintly brownish becoming diluted in- 
feriorly, with clear spots as follows : a large one in submarginal above 
post. c. v. and one at apex of the cell, two in first posterior beyond post, 
c. v., a large one each side of post. c. v., and one below apex of fifth 
vein. Opaque, at most slightly shining, generally brownish- or grayish- 
dusted. Frons greenish anteriorly. Face and cheeks densely white. Me- 
sonotum with gray or greenish stripes as follows : two medianly, abbre- 
viated posteriorly, one laterad of dorso-centrals, abbreviated anterior- 
ly, and one on each lateral margin. Scutellum grayish with white api- 
cal spot. Face with two or three bristles each side which are curved 
dorso-laterally. Length. 2 mm. 

T\pe. $ ; Berkeley Hills, Alameda County, California, 
April n, Kjcx) ( K. T. Cresson, Jr.). | A. N. S. P., No. 6140.] 
Paratypes. 27 $ , 30 9 ; topotypical. 

There is a possibility of this being conspecific with the Euro- 
pean despecta Haliday, but I am unable to compare specimens. 


A new Species of Tropidia (Syrphidae) from 
Montana (Dipt.). 

By H. L. SEAMANS, Bozeman, Montana. 

In the Syrphid collection of the Montana Experiment Sta- 
tion there were several specimens of this insect all collected in 
Bozeman, on June 20, 1906. There are no notes concerning 
this particular collection, nor have any specimens been located 
in all the material collected since that time in the vicinity of 
Bozeman. In 1916, specimens of this fly were sent to Chas. 
W. Johnson, at Boston, who determined it as a new species of 
Tropidia and returned the specimens to this office. Since that 
time no species of Tropidia has been described, so far as is 
known, which corresponds to this one. Though it runs near 
quadrata in the key to the species of Tropidia published by 
Hunter, in Entomological News (Vol. 7, p. 215), it is entirely 
different and can be readily separated from that species. 

The following description was made from two type speci- 
mens, one of each sex, and 18 paratypes, nine of each sex, all 
perfect specimens. In honor of Prof. R. A. Cooley, of the 
Montana Experiment Station and State College, the name of 
cooleyi is suggested for this species. 

Tropidia cooleyi sp. nov. 

Front in both sexes golden sericeous except for keel of carina, and 
oral margin, .which are shiny black; vertex darker than front, covered 
with a long, dark pile ; cheeks and occiput with covering of yellow 
pile; antennae black, or brown sericeous, first and second segments 
each with one or more small spines, third segment rounded. Carina 
of male more acute than that of female, which appears as a rounded, 
almost globular protuberance below the antennae. 

Dorsum of thorax for the most part black, with a narrow median 
stripe of gray flanked by two broader bands of gray extending almost 
or quite to the scutellum, and with gray bands bordering the pleura; 
entire thorax covered with golden yellow pubescence. Scutellum 
shining black, or with tip ochraceous. 

Abdomen black, sparsely covered with yellow pile ; sometimes in 
females with two more or less distinct grayish spots on second 

Legs black; all knees yellow or ochraceous; hind tibia, and some- 
times middle tibia with distinct ochraceous hand about the middle ; 
hind femur with distinct depression on anterior face near distal end; 
and equipped at lower distal portion of this depression with a distinct 
row of short, black spines in the female, and from one to five spines 
in the male ; all legs covered with yellow pile. 

Wings hyaline, projecting a short distance beyond the tip of abdomen. 

Length from 6 to 7.5 mm. 

Vol. xxviiij ENTOMOLOGICAL XK\\ s. 343 

Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis Larvae as Parasites of 
the Human Intestine (Dipt.).* 

By L. HASEMAN, Columbia, Missouri. 

Dipterous larvae play a much more important role as para- 
sites of man than is generally supposed. Numerous records 
are available showing some of the most important types of 
myiasis, but many cases are never brought to the attention of 
the medical profession at all. Leuckart in his "Parasites of 
Man" refers to cases of intestinal myiasis caused by the larvae 
of Anthomyia and to the parasitic work of Musca vomitoria 
and Sarcophaga carnaria in neglected wounds. Riley and 
Johannsen in their "Medical Entomology" review briefly a 
number of cases of myiasis in man. Intestinal myiasis seems 
to be due in most cases to the so called rat-tailed maggots 
(Eristalis), the larvae of Anthyomyiidae, Muscinae and Sar- 
cophagidae. Myiasis of the urinary tract is apparently due in 
most cases to larvae of Fannia. In recent years the writer's 
attention has been called to three cases of intestinal myiasis 
due to rat-tailed maggots, one due to the larvae of Sarcophaga 
haemorrhoidalis, and one case of myiasis of the urinary tract 
in which two Fannia larvae were passed by a small boy, one 
of which pupated and later emerged as the adult. The case 
of intestinal myiasis due to the larvae of Sarcophaga haemor- 
rhoidalis has proven to be a most unusual one. 

In the summer of 1915. the writer received through Dr. 
Jones, State Bacteriologist, a vial of preserved dipterous lar- 
vae from Dr. A. L. Lewis, of Sumner, Missouri, who reported 
that they had been passed by a patient. The writer asked Dr. 
Lewis to send living material for breeding if he succeeded in 
securing additional specimens and to make sure about the orig- 
inal source of the larvae. This request was later complied 
with, but the larvae were dead, having been sent in a stoppered 
bottle. In July, 1916, Dr. Lewis secured another supply of the 
larvae, which he kept in a breeding cage until they pupated 
and later emerged as adult flies. These were received in July 

*Read at the New York meeting of the Entomological Society of 
America, I >ec., iy.K>. 


and samples were forwarded to the Bureau of Entomology 
and Dr. Aldrich identified them as Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis. 

In order to learn more about the case, the writer went to 
Sumner to consult further with Dr. Lewis and to interview 
the patients. The family, consisting of husband, wife, daugh- 
ter and son, moved to Sumner in 1914 and since that time Dr. 
Lewis attended them. The husband was a strong, active man ; 
the wife was slight but active and somewhat nervous ; the 
daughter of nine and son of six were strong, healthy children 
inclined to outdoor life. The husband had never been affected 
to his knowledge, but the wife had had attacks each summer 
for the past six years excepting 1916. The daughter had had 
a number of attacks, including one in 1916, at which time she 
passed the larvae which were bred for determination. The 
son had had one attack when about three years old. The 
husband's work called him from home most of the time during 
the summer and the wife was inclined to leave food on the 
table from meal to meal and to serve cold meals. 

The home surroundings were found to be similar to those 
of the average home in a small country town. The house was 
a small cottage, screened and in average condition as regards 
repairs. The front yard was small and densely shaded by soft 
maple trees. The lot extended back some two hundred feet 
to a railroad. The family drank well water and in the garden 
was an open closet. The wife seemed to be a neat housekeep- 
er, but had the reputation of being negligent about the cook- 
ing and handling of foods. 

So far as it was possible to determine, the diet of the family 
was well balanced. Considerable meat was used, but not to 
excess. Cooked vegetables were commonly used cold for sup- 
per and cold prepared meats were also extensively used. 
Cheese was also used in considerable quantities. There seems 
to have been nothing unusual as regards the type of food or its 
preparation which would explain the reason for the repeated 
ingestion of the maggots, unless it be the fact that cold" vege- 
tables and cold prepared meats were more or less regularly 
used during the summer. The fact that during the spring, 
summer and fall of 1916 the advice of Dr. Lewis to warm 

Vol. XXviii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEtt'S. 345 

up all meats and vegetables immediately before eating them, 
was strictly followed, with the result that the mother escaped 
the pests and the daughter had only one light attack, would 
seem to show that the use of exposed cold foods was respon- 
sible for the trouble. 

The larvae are undoubtedly ingested, though it is difficult 
to explain why this one family should continue to have trouble 
when many other families in the same community handle food 
in the same way without having trouble with the pest. 

The possibility of the maggots entering the stomach by be- 
ing deposited by the fly about the mouth or nostrils seems re- 
mote. The members of the family had not had catarrh 
troubles or faulty teeth, which might serve to attract the parent 
fly, and they had not practiced sleeping out of doors or other- 
wise exposed to the fly. 

The trouble has been worse during the heat of the summer, 
though it has, in cases, occurred early in June and as late in 
the fall as October. The greatest trouble comes when the 
flies would be expected to be most abundant. 

The first signs of trouble are noted a day or more previous 
to the real attacks or the time at which medical aid is required. 
In the base of the stomach or in the region of the transverse 
colon a sensation similar to a rolling mass is felt. Later this 
changes to griping which is accompanied by some fever and 
in some cases by nausea. In case of the mother this is fol- 
lowed by much nervousness and at times by spasms. After 
medical assistance is given and the maggots are passed, the 
temperature falls, though in case of severe attacks pain in the 
bowels continues for some time and may not entirely disappear 
until another attack comes on. The maggots may not all be 
passed at one time and usually mature as well as immature 
larvae are passed at the same time. 

In one case, before the family moved to Suniner, the mother 
was placed on a grape-nuts diet for a month and throughout 
that period trouble continued and larvae were passed. Grape- 
nuts without milk or sugar and only boiled water were used 
Sugar or other sweets had the effect of bringing on cramps 
and a regular attack. This experience led the patient to the 


erroneous assumption that the larvae were reproduced in the 
stomach or intestines and not ingested from tirrie to time. 
From the fact that larvae were passed for a month when 
there was no chance of ingesting new supplies, would lead one 
to conclude that the larvae may remain in the alimentary canal 
for a considerable length of time. 

The peculiar rolling motion is undoubtedly the crawling of 
the mass of mature larvae seeking to escape. The eating of 
sugar or other sweets probably aggravates the larvae and 
causes them to move about in an attempt to escape. The se- 
vere attacks are usually followed by the passing of large num- 
bers of maggots. The patient estimated the quantity of mag- 
gots at fully a cup-full in severe cases. 

Since the trouble is undoubtedly due to repeated ingestion 
of living larvae the fly deposits larvae rather than eggs the 
protection of food or the heating of meats and vegetables 
immediately before eating them should give complete relief. 
Once the larvae are present in the alimentary canal, the tak- 
ing of salts, oil, or other laxatives results in the discharge of 
the larvae. The calling of a physician was usually delayed 
until the last moment and in some cases the injection of an 
opiate was necessary. 

A laxative taken as soon as the presence of the maggots in 
the stomach is noted would probably relieve much of the later 
trouble. The larvae are not affected either by salts or oil, but 
both the mature and immature larvae are alive when passed. 
The necessary oxygen is undoubtedly secured from the food 
or the air taken in with the food. 

While it has not been possible to determine definitely just 
how the larvae enter the alimentary tract of the patient, it 
seems that they are undoubtedly ingested from time to time on 
exposed cold and perhaps partly spoiled meats or vegetables. 
They may remain in the alimentary tract several days and 
when they are mature or approach maturity they bring on se- 
vere cramping and in some cases spasms. Relief comes after 
they have been discharged. The family will be kept under ob- 
servation in order to determine more definitely how the larvae 
are taken in and how long they feed in the alimentary tract. 

Vol. xxviii I ENTO.MCI.OCICAL M'.\vs. 347 

A List of the Butterflies of Iowa. 

By A. W. LINDSAY, Iowa City, Iowa. 

In preparing a review of the butterflies of Iowa the writer 
has had occasion during the past few months to examine most 
of the collections now in existence in the State and the local 
lists heretofore published. After examining the collection on 
which the most extensive of the latter was based it was very 
evident that records could not be taken from these lists with- 
out verification and that the literature previously sent out from 
the State was deplorably inaccurate. The work of compiling 
this list has therefore been carried on with two things in mind ; 
first, the examination of all material obtainable in the State 
and second, the correction of such errors as have been pub- 
lished in the several local lists used. 

The collections examined represent the work of from one to 
thirty years, and in most cases are fairly complete for the lo- 
calities which they represent. They are in the possession of 
the following persons and institutions and were made in the 
neighborhood of the towns where they now repose. 

(1) Mr. A. F. Porter, Decorah, la. 

(2) Mrs. J. E. Hoopes, Muscatine. 

(3) Prof. H. F. Wickham, Iowa City. 

(4) Dr. G. L. Stempel. Macedonia. 

(5) Coe College, Cedar Rapids. 

(6) Grinnell College, Grinnell. 

(7) The writer's collection made in Woodbury and Dickin- 
son Counties. 

In addition to these, lists have been furnished by Mrs. O. F. 
Hiser, Nevada, la., and Mr. F. M. Holmes, Prescott, la., and 
Mr. R. L. Mayhew, of Decatur, Illinois, has contributed the 
records which he made at Mount Pleasant, la. Assistance has 
been given by Dr. Henry Skinner, Dr. J. McDunnough, Dr. H. 
G. Dyar, Mr. Nathan Banks and Mr. R. A. Leussler in deter- 
mining specimens and clearing up some obscure points of classi- 
fication. As the list is presented here it follows the nomenclature 
given in Dyar's "List of North American Lepidoptera." 


1. Iphiclides ajax Hub. Bred in eastern and southern Iowa, very 

rare in the northwest. April to July, 
la. I. ajax, var. marcellus. Boisd.-LeC. 

2. Papilio glaucus Linn. Rather rare in the northern parts, more 

common southward. May and August. 

2a. P. glaucus, var. turnus Linn. April to September. Common 

3. Papilio troilus Linn. Rare in eastern and southern Iowa. 

4. Papilio thoas Linn. Fairly common, June to September. Dis- 

tribution general. 

5. Papilio polyxenes Fab. Fairly common, May to September. 

Distribution general. 

6. Laertias philenor Linn. Rare. Occasionally breeds in east- 

ern and southern Iowa. April to July, October. 

7. Pontia protodice Boisd.-LeC. Common throughout the warm 

months. Distribution general. 
7a. P. protodice, var. vernalis Edw. Rare. 

8. Pontia rapae Linn. Very abundant everywhere during all the 

warm months. 
Sa. P. rapae, var. immaculata Skinner and Aaron. Rare. 

9. Nathalis iole Boisd. Fairly common everywhere. July to 


10. Callidryas eubule Linn. Occasionally common. August and 

September. Distribution general. 

11. Zerene caesonia Stoll. May to October, common after July. 

Distribution general, 
lla. Z. caesonia, var. rosa McNeill. Rare during September. 

12. Eurymus eurytheme Boisd. Common in all parts of the State 

from May to October. Albino females fairly common. 
12a. E. eurytheme, form eriphyle Edw. Fairly common during the 

late summer. 
12b. E. eurytheme, form keewaydin Edw. Fairly common during 

the early summer. 

13. Eurymus philodice Godart. Very common, May to Oct. Dis- 

tribution general. 

14. Pyrisita mexicana Boisd. Found in all parts of the State 

but the northeast Very rare. July to Oct. 

15. Eurema nicippe Cramer. Rare in southern Iowa and along the 

Mississippi. June. 

16. Eurema euterpe Menetries. Fairly common throughout the 

State. July to Oct. 

17. Agraulis vanillae Linn. Two specimens in Mr. Porter's col- 

lection are the only ones located, though the species is un- 
doubtedly to be found in the southern part of the State. The 
two were taken late in June. 


18. Euptoieta claudia Cramer. Common everywhere from May to 


19. Speyeria idalia Drury. Fairly common from the middle of June 

to Oct. Distribution general. 

20. Argynnis cybele Fab. Abundant. Flies from June to Oct. 

Distribution general. 

21. Argynnis aphrodite Fab. A few specimens have been seen in 

eastern Iowa. The only dates available are from July 10-25. 
21a. A. aphrodite, var. alcestis Edw. Fairly common throughout 
the State, apparently displacing aphrodite in the western 
half. June to Oct. 

22. Brenthis myrina Cramer. May to Sept. Distribution general. 

Rare in northwestern Iowa, but fairly common in other 

2::. Brenthis bellona Fab. Fairly common in the northern half of 
the State only. May to Aug. 

24. Euphydryas phaeton Drury. Accepted on the authority of 

Prof. Herbert Osborn ("A Partial Catalogue of the Ani- 
mals of Iowa," Ames, 1892) and Dr. Stempel. Said to occur 
in southeastern Iowa. Rare. No dates recorded. 

25. Charidryas nycteis Doub.-Hew. Common in all parts of the 

State. May to Aug. 

26. Charidryas ismeria Boisd.-LeC. May to Sept. Distribution 

general. Fairly common. 

27. Phyciodes tharos Drury. Fairly common in May. Taken in 

all parts of the State. 

27a. P. tharos, var. morpheus Fab. Same distribution. Very com- 
mon from June to Oct. 

28. Phyciodes batesii Reakirt. Rare. Two specimens which are 

undoubtedly batesii were taken at Sioux City in June, 1909 
and 1915. The species must be present in the eastern part 
of the State. 

2'.). Mestra amymone Menetries. A single stray, not dated, taken 
by Dr. Stempel near Macedonia, is the only record of this 

;). Polygonia interrogationis Fab. Fairly common. June and 

July. Distribution general. 

JiOa. P. interrogationis, var. umbrosa Lintner. Common. 
31. Polygonia comma Harris. Very common during the warm 

months. Found throughout the State. 

P. comma, var. dryas Edw. This variety makes up a part of 
the summer brood of comma and is found from June to 

Polygonia progne Cramer. Rare. Distribution general. Aug. 
Eugonia j-album Po:sd.-LeC. Southeastern Iowa. Rare. The 


only dates available are July 10-25, 186 ( J. (Scudder, Trans. 
Chicago Acad. of Sciences, 1869). 

34. Euvanessa antiopa Linn. Early spring, June and July, and 

from late August until cold weather. Fairly common. Dis- 
tribution general. 

35. Aglais milbertii Godart. One specimen was seen in Plymouth 

County in July, 1909. 

36. Vanessa atalanta Linn. Very common everywhere throughout 

the warm months. 

37. Vanessa huntera Fab. Fairly common in all parts of the State. 

May to Oct. 

38. Vanessa cardui Linn. Usually very common. Found in all 

parts of the State during the warm months. 

39. Junonia coenia Hiib. Rare. June to Sept. Distribution gen- 


40. Basilarchia astyanax Fab. Common in all parts of the State 

from June to Sept. 

41. Basilarchia archippus Cramer. The same things may be said 

of this species, though it is somewhat less common. 

42. Chlorippe celtis Boisd.-LeC. Very common from June to 

Sept. Distribution general. 

43. Chlorippe clyton Boisd.-LeC. June to Sept. This species is 

less common than celtis, but is found wherever its food 
plant grows. 

43a. C. clyton, var. proserpina Scud. Fairly common among the 
adults emerging late in the season. Most of the specimens 
from the northern part of the State are dark inter-grades 
rather than typical clyton or proserpina. 

44. Anaea andria Scud. Two undated specimens at Macedonia are 

the only ones seen in the State. 

45. Cercyonis alope Fab. Rare in southeastern Iowa. July and 


45a. C. alope, var. nephele Kirby. Common everywhere during July 
and August. 

46. Enodia portlandia Fab. Sometimes very common. June to 

Sept. Distribution general. 

17. Satyrodes canthus Linn. Rare. Taken throughout the State. 
June and July. 

48. Cissia eurytus Fab. Common everywhere from June to Aug. 

49. Anosia plexippus Linn. Common throughout the warm sea- 

son in all parts of the State, and sometimes extremely 

50. Anosia berenice, var. strigosa Bates. A single female has been 

reported from C'ass County, taken on Aug. 31. (Mr. F. C. 
Pellett. Proc. la. Acad. Science, XXI, 347, pi. xxxvi). 


51. Hypatus bachmanni Kirtland. ' Found during July in the south- 

ern part of the State, but rather uncommon. 

52. Hypatus carinenta Cramer. Strays of this species reach even 

the northern and eastern parts of Iowa occasionally, ap- 
pearing in Aug. and Sept. 

53. Uranotes melinus Hub. Rare. Aug. to Oct. Distribution gen- 


54. Thecla acadica Edw. Fairly common in the southern half of 

the State and occasionally found in the northeast. June. 

55. Thecla edwardsii Saunders. Recorded at Sioux City in July. 


Thecla calanus Hiib. Common all over the State in July. 

Thecla liparops Boisd.-LeC. Very rare. A few specimens re- 
ported from Story, Pottawattamie and Franklin Counties. 

58. Incisalia henrici G. & R. Five specimens in the collection of 

Dr. Stempe!. May. 

59. Strymon titus Fab. Rare. Distribution general. July. 

GO. Feniseca tarquinius Fab. Recorded at Decorah alone. Rare. 
Gl. Gaeides dione Scud. Rather uncommon. July. Distribution 

02. Chrysophanus thoe Boisd. Fairly common. July and Aug. 

Distribution general. 

03. Epidemia helloides Boisd. Taken in the northern part of the 

State in June and July. Uncommon. 

64. Heodes hypophleas Boisd. Common in southeastern Iowa. 
July to Oct. 

65 Rusticus melissa Edw. Very common in Dickinson County 

and ranging east in small numbers to the Mississippi. June 
to Sept. 

66 Cyaniris ladon Cramer. Fairly common from June to Sept. 

Distribution general. 

GGa. C. ladon, var. violacea Edw. Spring form, appearing in Apr. 
and May. 

0Gb. C. ladon, var. neglecta Edw. Summer form. Aug. and Sept. 

67. Everes comyntas Godart. Common throughout the State. May 
to Oct. 

G8. Hemiargus isola Reakirt. Fairly common in western Iowa, ex- 
tending east to Linn County. July to Sept. 

69. Amblyscirtes vialis Edw. Distribution general. May to July. 

Fairly common. 

70. Amblyscirtes samoset Scud. Eastern Iowa in June and July. 


71. Ancyloxypha numitor Fab. June to Sept. Distribution general. 



72. Oarisma poweshiek Parker. Recorded in Story, Dickinson and 

Poweshiek Counties in July. Rare. 

73. Poanes massasoit Scud. Taken in Poweshiek and Story Coun- 

ties. Rare. No dates. 

74. Atrytone hobomok Harris. Fairly common in all parts of the 

State during late May and early June. 

75. Erynnis comma, var. Colorado Scud. Very rare. Mr. Porter 

has taken three specimens at Decorah. 

76. Erynnis pawnee Dodge. Rare. Taken in Poweshiek and Wood- 

bury Counties in Aug. and Sept. 

77. Erynnis sassacus Harris. Crawford County, mid-July, one 

male. (Scudder, Trans. Chicago Acad. of Sciences, 1869). 

78. Anthomaster leonardus Harris. Audubon County in Sept., 

Scott and Winneshiek Counties. Very rare. 

79. Hylephila campestris Boisd. Rare. June to Sept. Distribu- 

tion general. 

M). Thymelicus mystic Scud. Taken in June. Rare. Distribution 

81. Thymelicus cernes Boisd. -LeC. Common in all parts of the 

State. May to Aug. 

82. Thymelicus otho, var. egeremet Scud. Fairly common during 

July. Distribution general. 

83. Polites peckius Kirby. Common everywhere. Flies from May 

to Sept. 

84. Euphyes verna Edw. Occurs in small numbers in most of the 

collections seen. June and July. 

85. Euphyes vestris, var. metacomet Harris. Fairly common every- 

where. July and Aug. 

86. Lerema hianna Scud. Very rare. A few Iowa specimens are 

in the collection at Grinnell. No dates. 

87. Limochroes bimaculata G. & R. There are two females labelled 

"July 4, 1890. Poweshiek Co." in the Grinnell collection. 

88. Limochroes pontiac Edw. Southeastern Iowa in July. Rare. 

89. Limochroes manataaqua Scud. Two males and one female 

taken at Sioux City in early July are the only specimens 
seen by the writer. 

90. Phycanassa vitellius Fab. Rather rare throughout the State. 


91. Phycanassa arogos Boisd. -LeC. Throughout the State in July. 

Fairly common. 

92. Epargyreus tityrus Fab. Common. June to Sept. Distribu- 

tion general. 

93. Thorybes bathyllus S. & A. Rare in the Mississippi valley. 

No dates. 


94. Thorybes pylades Scud. Common everywhere in June and 


95. Pholisora catullus Fab. Common everywhere. June to Sept. 
9(5. Pholisora hayhurstii Edw. Very common in the northwest. 

Collections in the southern half of the State show a sur- 
prising absence of this species. June to Sept. 

97. Thanaos brizo Boisd.-LeC. One specimen at Muscatine. It 

is reported from Omaha, Nebraska, as occurring rarely in 
April and May (Mr. R. A. Leussler, Ent. News XXIV, 
352, 1913) and so may be expected in southwestern Iowa. 

98. Thanaos persius Scud. Rare. Distribution general. May to 


99. Thanaos martialis Scud. Fairly common. Distribution general. 

Occurs in July. 

100. Thanaos juvenalis Fab. Common. May to Sept. Found 

throughout the State. 

101. Thanaos horatius Scudder and Burgess. Rare. There are a 

few specimens at Grinnell and two taken at Sioux City in 
the writer's collection. The latter were taken on June 23 
and July 24. 

102. Hesperia montivaga Reakirt. Very common in all parts of the 

State from May until late fall. 

In presenting this list the writer wishes again to emphasize 
the fact that no records are used without adequate proof of 
their accuracy. The two exceptions are, it seems, amply ex- 
plained. Where doubtful specimens have come to hand they 
have been referred to authorities. Thus the list has been made 
as complete and as accurate as possible and it is now offered to 
the world as a contribution from the Lepidopterists of the 
State of Iowa. 

Medal Awarded for Entomological Research. 

The Crisp Medal and an award of 30 by the Council of the Lin- 
nean Society of London have been bestowed upon Mr. R. J. Tillyanl 
(not Hilliard as incorrectly announced in Science for July 14. 1917). 
Linnean (New South Wales) Macleay Fellow in Zoolorry. acting lec- 
turer and senior demonstrator in zoology at the University of Sydney, 
New South Wales. The award is given once every five years to a fel- 
low of the Linnean Society for the best piece of microscopic research 
published bv the Societv. in this case a paper entitled "A Study of the 
Rectal Breathing Apparatus in the Larvae of Anisopterid Dragonflies 
(Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. xxxiii, 127-106, pis. 18-22. 21 text figs. Nov., 
TOTH). Mr. Tillvard is the author of manv other papers, chiefly deal- 
ing with Australian Odonata. and of a book just Published at the Uni- 
ver^ity Press, Cambridge, F.neland : "The Biology of Dragonflies 
(Odonata or Paraneuroptera)," 1917, which we hope to review in a 
later number of the NEWS. 


Life History of the Northern Microvelia Microvelia 

borealis Bueno (Hem., Het,). 
By J. R. DE LA TORRE BUENO, New York City. 

(Plate XXV.) 

Every miniature Sargasso sea of matted algae floating their 
green meshes on still pools, every field of duck- weed in mill 
ponds, affords shelter to a myriad forms, to a teeming busy 
population, some preyed upon, others predators. Swarming 
over these moist fields one finds a series of water-bugs Acan- 
thias, Mesovelias, Naeogeids, Veliids. One species of the last- 
named family is perhaps the most abundant of all. 

For many years this little Microvelia masqueraded in our 
catalogues and lists as Microvelia pulchella of Westwood, 
which was described originally from St. Vincent's. At last it 
became possible to fix its status definitely and it was described 
as new in 1916 under the name borealis. 1 The paper in which 
it was described cleared up the synonymy and distribution of 
this group of atoms and fixed the name of the present species 

thus : 

Microvelia borealis Bueno 

=pulchclla Uhl.?, Bueno, Heid., Van D., nee 


= boreale Bueno, in various lists. 
=marginata Kirk. & Bueno, nee Uhl. 

Probably owing to not having seen the paper in question, 
the synonymy of our Eastern species in Van Duzee's new 
Check List leaves much to be desired. 

Microvelia borealis has a limited range, so far as known 
to me, doubtless because little collected. I have taken it in this 
State and New Jersey, and Parshley has got it from Maine. 
It must be very widely distributed, but being so small it is un- 
noticed, or else taken for an immature bug on account of its 
generally apterous condition and small size. 

Microvelia borealis awakes from its winter sleep some time 
in the spring, how early I am unable to say, as T have never 
taken it before May, when it begins to populate the watery 

1 Bueno, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. XI : 57. 


Plate XXV. 



wastes of the ponds. Nymphs appear early, and have only 
four molts, a fact repeatedly tested under varying conditions. 
This is specially noteworthy, as the general rule in the Heterop- 
tera thus far observed is five molts, exceeded when there is 
variation and equaled in the single instance known to me, of 
Rlptortus linearis, one of the Alydids of India, as recorded by 
Kirkaldy and Kershaw. 2 

When the species was first bred in 1904 I thought there 
was some error in counting the molts. It was again raised in 
1905, with the same result. Finally, in 1908, it was once more 
bred under carefully controlled conditions ; a batch of ova was 
separated in a small aquarium, and as each nymph emerged 
it was separated in a small Stender dish. A careful record of 
the dates of molting was kept on its ground glass cover as well 
as in my note book. My previous results were fully confirmed. 

The complete transformations in my aquaria took place in 
varying periods of from 2.2. to 59 days for the full cycle from 
oviposition to adult, or from 14 to 49 days for the nymphal 
instars. However, the majority run between 14 and 18 days 
for the nymphal instars, or somewhere between 2.2, and 25 days 
for the period from oviposition to maturity. Neither the sex 
nor the period of the summer seems to make any difference 
in the developmental period. In midsummer the molts are 
between 3 and 5 days apart, the maximum for any one molt 
being 1 1 days and minimum 2, but no one instar seems to take 
longer than any of the others per se. During the summer, 
broods overlap, as oviposition is continuous, and taking four 
weeks as an average, it makes possible say five to six genera- 
tions in a season, from early May to late September. 

As the days grow colder in late summer and early fall they 
begin to grow less in number, and finally they disappear for 
the winter. However, under favorable climatic conditions, this 
species may breed throughout the year. A few were kept in 
an aquarium through one winter. It was near a window, and 
the room being in a steam-heated apartment was warm. They 

- 1908 J. C. Kershaw and G. W. Kirkaldy, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., pp. 
59-62 "On the Metamorphosis of Two Heteropterous Hemiptera from 
Southern China," pis. iv and v. 


bred and the young emerged in due course. The aquarium 
swarmed with waterfleas ; as there was no other food the 
Microvelias doubtless fed on the many Daphnias entrapped in 
the surface film. By the end of the following April there were 
nine adults in the aquarium and a very few nymphs. 

This little species feeds on dead or waterlogged insects in 
the water, which it attacks in numbers, as observed in these 
experiments. Its small size prevents it from successfully cop- 
ing with living insects larger than itself. 

The chief structural peculiarities that distinguish it from 
the other species, aside from its small size and antennal char- 
acters, are the nearly orbiculate shape of the apterous female 
and the curved posterior tibiae of the male. It is most fre- 
quently found apterous, but the winged form is not rare. It 
walks ordinarily in little staccato steps, although at times it 
runs, especially when pursued off the duckweed into the open 
pond, when it races out and curves rapidly back. Its habits 
in general are like those of Microvelia americana, elsewhere 3 
described, as well as the details of breeding, preparing for the 
microscope, etc. 

No parasites of Microvelia appear to be known. Its internal 
anatomy is also to be studied. 

The epg is clear pearly glistening white when just deposited; ellip- 
tical; about one and one-half times as long as broad. The chorion is 
apparently smooth seen under a low power (x6o), but under a higher 
(x32o) appears rather sparsely punctulated in lines. Size (from 
freshly deposited eggs) long., .45mm.; lat., .3 mm. This is an average 
dimension, as it sometimes varies quite markedly. 

As development progresses, the egg grows darker and shortly before 
emergence the folded up embryo is visible through the translucent 
chorion. As already noted, the ec:gs are deposited on the under sur- 
face of duckweed, the head end generally pointing to the edge, al- 
though if this plant be not available they will deposit them anywhere, 
embedded in a clear waterproof jelly or glue secreted by the female 
for this purpose. The females carry two mature ova at a time, which 
seem to practically fill up the entire body cavity. In hatching, the 
egg splits along a straight line 4-7 of its, length and through this the 
nymph escapes. Although looked for, no casting of the amnion or 

3 1910, Bueno, Can. Ent. vol. xlii, 176-186, "Life Histories of Ameri- 
can Water Bugs, iii, Microvelia americana." 


molt on emerging has been observed. The embryonic period has been 
noted as lasting from 7 to 23 days, but the controlled lot took only the 
former time, and the majority took only 8 days for development. 

Nymph, First Instar. Antennae rather stout but long, joint 4 long- 
est, 2 and 3 shortest and equal, i slightly longer; 2 and 4 stoutest, 4 
fusiform, 3 pedicellate at base expanding to tip, club-shaped. Eyes 
small, round, set very far apart owing to broad head. Rostrum stout, 
joint 2 shortest, 3 longest, then 4, then i, which is stoutest, 2 is ring- 
like, 3 is more or less long ovoid. 4 slenderest, pointed tapering. All 
legs are equally stout and comparatively long; all tarsi are i-jointed, 
all tibiae have combs at the distal end. Fore tibiae shorter and 
stouter than femora; tibia and femur of intermediates subequal; hind 
tibiae longer than femora, which have slender long spines or stiff 
hairs. Tarsal claws long, slender, simple. 

The little bugs have a family resemblance to the adult they are 
rounded posteriorly and the legs and antennae are much thicker in 
proportion than in the adult. The abdomen is comparatively short and 
the legs in consequence appear set very far back. When fully set, the 
nymph is very dark, a deep slate grey. In molting, the entire top of 
the head lifts off like a lid hinged at the clypeus, and the skin splits 
from the thorax through the abdomen. 

In this and the succeding instars, much of the descriptions has been 
taken from balsam mounts and from cast or molted skins. 

The first instar lasted from 2 to 11 days, the controlled brood took 

Nymph, Second Instar. In this instar the second antennal joint is 
the shortest, 4th longest and stoutest, nearly as long as the other 
three taken together, and 1st and 3d equal. The rostrum is as before, 
except that joint 2 is narrower and more ring-like, joint 3 longest, but 
little longer than 4 and twice as long as i. The abdominal segments 
are ring-like, telescoped; the abdomen is very short and truncate, but 
comparatively longer than in the preceding instar, so the legs do not 
appear set so far back. The legs are as before, except that the femora 
of the second pair are longer than the tibiae. The molt is as in the 
preceding instar. 

The second instar lasts between two and six days, the majority 
taking 3 or 4 days. 

Nymph, Third Instar. The antennae continue as before proportion- 
ally, but the second joint is but slightly shorter than the ist and 3d and 
the 4th is one-fifth shorter than the other three taken together: joint 
3 is slenderest, but all arc nearly of equal thickness. Rostrum as before. 
The legs are slenderer but otherwise as before; the second and third 
tibiae are slenderer than the femora. The chief visible changes are in 
the proportions of thorax and abdomen, which is much longer ac- 
tually and comparatively, and the segments are more distinct. 



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This instar is between three and six days long, hut most took three 

The male nymph was distinguishable in this instar by the more point- 
ed abdomen. 

Fourth (and Last) Nymphal Instar. Antennae noticeably more 
slender but not so long in proportion; proportional length of joints 
as before; joints nearly of equal thickness except I and 2 a little 
stouter, 4 fusiform, pointed, all set with pile and long hairs. Rostrum 
as before, except that it is more slender and longer, reaching first 
coxae. The legs are also longer and more slender ; first femora longer 
and thinner than tibiae, intermediates subequal and hind tibiae slender 
and longer than femora. In the cast skins the curvature of the hind 
tibiae of the male begins to be noted. All tarsi are still i-jointed with- 
out any sign of a suture, although 2-jointed in the adult. Pro- and 
mesothorax are distinct. Abdomen is much longer, nearly equal in 
length to the thorax, pointed, male genital segment prominent; general 
form is oval. 

This instar lasted between four and ten days, the majority molt- 
ing in 4. This brings the insect to the adult, as noted. 

While emerging from the cast skin in this last molt and directly 
after, M. borealis is very white with brown markings. The head is 
tinged with brownish with a white median line; the thorax is whitish; 
the first and second abdominal segments are brown to within a 
quarter of their width of the connexivum; the third, fourth and fifth 
are more narrowly marked, and the 6th and 7th are brown to the 
connexivum. The connexivum has a brown edge at the inner margin 
narrowing cephalad and caudad. The black and dark bluish grey 
mature coloration is attained fully in not over ten hours. The eyes 
at moulting, however, are nearly black and very conspicuous by con- 

This little insect is comparatively simple to rear and its 
smallness makes it an excellent object to examine living under 
the microscope. Much remains to be found out about it. 
What is its respiratory system? Where are its spiracles, un- 
revealed even in the cast skins ? How many eggs does each 
female lay? Many other questions will occur to the experi- 
enced biologist, unanswered in what precedes. 


Life History of Microvelia borealis Rueno. 
Ova Nymph Third Instar 

Nymph First Instar Fourth 

Second Adult Male 

all X 20. Microphotographs by Mr. Chris. E. Olscn. 



[Oct.. '17 

A new Species of Myrmecophilous Blattid. (Orthop- 

tera; Blattidae ; Corydiinae). 
By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Recently specimens of a species of roach were sent us by 
Professor W. M. Wheeler, which are found to represent a new 
species of the genus Myrmecoblatta Mann. This genus was 
placed in the Blattinae, the valvular type of female subgenital 
plate, in part, being responsible for this assignment. The un- 
armed ventral femoral margins and other features prevent this 
association. The genus is clearly nearest Compsodes Hebard, 1 
and likewise referable to the Corydiinae. 


1914. Myrmecoblatta Mann, Psyche, XXI, p. 172. 

GENOTYPE, by monotypy, Myrmecoblatta rchni Mann, de- 

scribed from Guerrero Mill, Hidalgo, 

The following generic features 
should, in our opinion, be emphasized : 
Surface of insect supplied with mod- 
erately numerous, short, minute hairs. 
Ocelli absent. Antennae with first 
joint large, about twice as long as 
broad ; second joint not as wide, sub- 
quadrate ; third joint slightly longer 
than wide ; succeeding ten joints not 
as long as wide. 2 Maxillary palpi with 
distal joint nearly twice as long as 
penultimate joint, distal truncation 
weakly oblique. Clypeus produced, 
with apex bluntly rounded, concealing 
the mandibles. Pronotum with disk 

pQrtions wea kly COnCEVC J 

" cw 
' 3-Vem^ vi vw ( oVs ul evenly convex, lateral (and cephalic in 

genital plate (greatly mag- 

1 1917. Mem. Am. Ent. Soc., 2, p. 208. 

2 One specimen before us, with a complete antenna, shows twenty- 
five joints in all. 


notum extending considerably beyond the head in male, 
leaving the vertex briefly exposed in female. Tegmina 
present, reduced, with venation subobsolete, in male ; absent 
in female. Wings greatly reduced in male, absent in female. 
Cerci tapering to acute apex. Subgenital plate of male sym- 
metrical, with similar, simple, straight, elongate, cylindrical 
styles, situated in sockets latero-distad, with distal margin of 
plate between these somewhat produced, convex. 3 Subgenital 
plate of female valvular, with basal margins of valves straight, 
convergent, to the rather broadly rounded apex. 4 Ventral fem- 
oral margins unarmed, supplied with a few scattered hairs ; 
median and caudal femora supplied with a rather delicate disto- 
dorsal genicular spine. 5 Tibiae with external faces supplied 
with numerous short bristles, median and caudal tibiae there 
furnished with a few spines ; all of the tibiae armed with distal 
spines. Tarsal joints elongate and slender, those of the caudal 
limbs nearly equaling the caudal tibiae in length. Caudal meta- 
tarsus fully as long as the remaining joints. Pulvilli and arolia 

Myrmecoblatta wheeleri new species. 

Compared with M. rchni, the male of the present species is 
found to differ in the pronotum, with latero-caudal angles more 
sharply rounded ; shorter and truncate tegmina ; more reduced 
wings ; much shorter supra-anal plate and much shorter cerci, 
with articulations subobsolete. From the single immature fe- 
male of the present species before us we can only determine 
that females of wlicclcri are separable from those of manni, 
as are males, by the much reduced cerci, with articulations sub- 

TYPE: $ ; San Lucas Toliman, Solola, Guatemala. January 
3, 1912. (W. M. Wheeler.) [Hebard Collection, Type No. 


3 In these features showing considerable resemblance to the Cory- 
cliine genera, Compsodcs and Latindia. These genera, in these respects, 
showing a similarity to the normal Blattinid type. 

1 In this respect much closer to the normal V acute-angulate type 
found in the Corydiinc genera, Holocompsa and Compxodcs. but show- 
ing siime divergence toward the type normal in the Blattinae. 

1 Mann failed to note the absence of the genicular spine on the ce- 
phalic femora, a condition found throughout the Blattidae. 


Description of Type. Size minute, form broad elliptical. Head hid- 
den under pronotum, evenly and very weakly convex from occiput to 
clypeus; interocular space decidedly broader than that between anten- 
nal sockets. Pronotum with latero-caudal angles acute-angulate, 
bluntly rounded; caudal margin rather strongly concave, except mesad 
where a brief and feeble convexity is indicated. Tegmina subquadrate, 
distal margin truncate, weakly concave; venation obsolete, except hu- 
meral trunk, which is weakly indicated. Wings minute, vestigial, with 
venation obsolete; anterior field oval, posterior field indicated by ves- 
tigial tissue. Dorsal surface of abdomen unspecialized ; median seg- 
ment extremely narrow (longitudinally); first to sixth segments with 
caudal margins transverse but latero-caudal angles very feebly pro- 
duced, almost rectangulate, with acute apices each supplied with a 
bristle; seventh and eighth segments transversely narrower, the eighth 
with caudal margin broadly convex between the cerci. Supra-anal plate 
delicate in .structure, bilobate, about three times as wide as its greatest 
length; lateral margins weakly convex convergent, armed with bristles; 
distal margin briefly acute-angulate emarginate mesad, with lateral por- 
tions weakly convex, curling dorsad and supplied with numerous hairs; 
latero-caudal angles broadly rounded. 6 Cerci conical, extending as far 
as distal margin of supra-anal plate, apex acute, articulations subobso- 
lete. Concealed genital hook situated sinistrad, elongate and slender, 
distal portion curved sharply dextrad, forming nearly a semicircle, 
with apex acute. Subgenital plate broader than long; lateral margins 
straight, parallel to style sockets, distal portion of plate between these 
moderately produced with distal margin broadly convex. Styles and 
limb armament as given in generic diagnosis. Pulvilli and arolia ab- 

A single immature female before us shows the ocular, pronotal and 
cereal development similar to a male in the same instar. The subgeni- 
tal plate 7 shows indications of a distal medio-longitudinal sulcation, 
while from within the succeeding segment projects, showing styles 
similar to those of the male sex. 8 

Measurements (tit millimeters). 3 

Length Length Width Total Exposed 
d 1 of of of length of length of 
body pronotum pronotum legmen legmen 

Width Length 
of of 
legmen cercus 

Paratype 4.08 1.63 2.85 1.85 1.36 

156 -34 

t; In texture and many features of contour, similarity with Compsodcs 
schwarzi Caudell is found. 

7 See generic diagnosis. In adult females of this species there is 
little doubt but that this plate is much as in rchni. 

* This condition in immature females has been observed in other 
forms of the Blattidae. 

11 Taken under the microscope. 

Vol. xxviii | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 363 

Coloration. General coloration cinnamon brown, shading to ochra- 
ceous-buff rather broadly along the lateral margins of the pronotum. 
Umlerparts and limbs ochraceous-buff, strongly tinged with buckthorn 

In addition to the type, one male paratype and a pair of im- 
mature examples are before us. These specimens were all 
taken at the same time, by Professor W. M. Wheeler, from a 
colony of the ant, Solenopsis gcmmata (Fabricius), 10 found 
under a stone on the shores of Lake Atitlan. 

A Second Collates with Spotted Wings (Hym.). 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 
In 1868 Cresson described a remarkable Colletid bee from 
Orizaba, Mexico, having black spots' on the wings. He called it 
Collacs punctipennis. Cresson had only the female, but a 
male was found in F. Smith's collection in the British Mu- 
seum, collected in Guatemala. This I described in Annals and 
Mag. of Nat. Hist., July, 1914, p. n. On April 20, 1912, Mr. 
Aug. Busck collected at Porto Bello, Panama, two males of a 
species very close to C. pnnctipcnnis. but with the thoracic hair 
very differently colored. It may possibly prove to be only a 
subspecies, but as no intermediates are known it is given the 
specific rank which it probably deserves. 

Collates spiloptera n. sp. 

$ . Length about n mm.; wings as in C. punctipennis, but the rather 
short hair of thorax above, and of tubercles, bright fox-red (in 
punctipennis the thorax is clothed with short, dense white or hoary 
pubescence, that on mesothorax shortest and mixed with sparse black 
hairs, giving the surface a maculate appearance; scutellum with short 
black pubescence, margined entirely with whitish). Only middle of 
flagellum (joints 5-9) red beneath ; mesothorax very densely punctured; 
second abdorrinal segment with punctures conspicuously smaller and 
denser than on first ; genitalia with sagittal wings very large and 
rounded, stipites covered on apical part with short yellowish hair, 
but without any long spreading bristles. The malar space is much 
broader than long. 

Type in the U. S. National Museum. 

10 Determined by Professor \\ . M. \\luvlcr, to whom we take pleas- 
ure in dedicating the interesting myrmecophilous roach here described. 


Notes on the Construction of the Cocoon of Praon 

(Hym., Braconidae). 

By C. N. AINSLIE, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Bureau of Ento- 
mology, Cereal and Forage Insects.* 

The parasites of various aphids have been receiving much 
attention during recent years and their widely differing habits 
have proved most interesting to the students of their life his- 

In a short sketch in Entomological Nezi's of March, 1909, 
pp. 110-112, the writer described briefly a discovery he had 
recently made of the process by which the bodies of aphids, 
killed by the attack of their Aphidiine enemies, are fastened by 
the larvae of the parasite to a firm base, thus affording the 
larvae a reasonably secure shelter during the period of pupa- 
tion. This discovery was made by using the exceedingly simple 
device of inverting upon the stage of a microscope a slide on 
which the aphid was being glued after the larva had split ven- 
trally the abdomen of its dead host. Through the slide thus 
placed the movements of- the larva could be readily watched 
as it smeared the torn edges of the aphid's body-wall to the 
glass with a generous supply of a viscous fluid. Previous to 
ihis observation, made nearly nine years ago, no one seems to 
have been able to solve the mystery of this attachment of the 
dead body, although the entire operation had frequently been 
carefully watched, from above. The process as then detailed 
has been since confirmed by Mr. E. O. G. Kelly, of the Bureau 
of Entomology, and by other observers as well. It appears 
to be a well established fact that nearly all the braconid para- 
sites of aphids fasten their former hosts to a base in much the 
same manner. 

On the other hand the Aphelinu ^-parasitized bodies of aphids 
are anchored without the abdominal rent. Just how this is ac- 
complished is not yet definitely known since it can be learned 
only by means of circumstantial evidence. It seems likely that 
a certain amount of an adhesive fluid is in some manner forced 
through the stomata or other pores in the body-wall and thus 

* Published with the permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 


the ventral surface is glued fast to its support. Inasmuch as 
the Aphelininae attack only the short-legged and smaller-bodied 
species of aphids, it must be much easier for their larvae to 
anchor the bodies of their hosts than for those parasites that 
prey on the longer-legged forms like Macrosiphum and Rhopa- 
losiphum. But even these larger forms are often fastened to 
leaves and grain blades by their internal parasites. As the 
process has never been watched, so far as I know, the exact 
means used to bring the abdomen to a junction with the leaf 
on which the aphid stands is unknown, but is probably simple 
enough when once understood. 

An exception to this common practice among braconid para- 
sites is that of the genus Praon which attacks the larger aphids. 
In Insect Life, Vol. IV, p. 196, 1891, Dr. Howard calls atten- 
tion to the fact, often since observed, that the larva of Praon 
constructs a tent-like cocoon beneath the body of its host for 
a pupation chamber. An opportunity was afforded the writer 
during the summer of 1916 to watch the entire process of con- 
structing this cocoon, and the details are presented herewith. 

July 15, 1916, a parasitized apterous Macrosiphum pisi was 
taken on a leaflet of white clover just as the larval guest within 
its body had deprived it of the power of motion. The dying 
aphid, still standing on the leaflet, was placed within a small 
vial where it would be undisturbed and could be easily ob- 
served without interruption. 

Scarcely had it been secured in this way when the abdomen 
of the aphid was rent ventrally by the activity of the imprisoned 
larva. But the long sprawling legs of the aphid made it clearly 
impossible to cement the body to the leaf and the problem be- 
fore the larva was to somehow bridge this gap. It thrust its 
head at once through the opening and appeared to be care- 
fully investigating the situation. Without entirely leaving the 
cavity of the aphid's body it swung its flexible head about, not 
aimlessly as it very soon proved, for in less than five minutes 
it was busily at work to form its cocoon. Touching the sur- 
face of the leaf with the tip of its pointed head, it spun a fine 
silk thread, attached to the leaf at its lower end, and attempted 


to make the upper end fast to the under side of the aphid's 
body, but failed to make it adhere. Again and again it made 
the same effort, but for some reason, perhaps because the sup- 
ply of silk was insufficient, not a single strand spanned the gap. 
It labored vigorously, rotating an entire circle in its anxiety to 
succeed. All the while the cauda, and at times half of its body, 
was hidden from view within the aphid's body, to which it yet 
clung. For nearly fifteen minutes it twisted and turned, then 
seemed to grow weary of its fruitless efforts and withdrew 
entirely inside the body of the aphid. 

After a rest of about ten minutes it once more showed its 
head outside, followed again by nearly the entire body, retain- 
ing as before a slight hold by means of the tip of the cauda. 
This time the spinning was successfully inaugurated and the 
head went ceaselessly from the leaf to the body above, leaving 
a ragged and irregular barricade of uneven and perpendicular 
silk threads arranged in a rude circle. By its serpent-like 
movements in confined quarters, the larva partly lifted and 
supported the empty skin of its host on a bend of its writhing 
body, and as it shifted its position during its slow rotation, 
the body above rocked like a boat in a gale. Gradually the 
row of simple upright strands began insensibly to grow more 
complex, braces stiffened them at the lower end, diagonal 
threads were occasionally thrown against them and the struc- 
ture assumed more and more the appearance of a real fabric. 
The larva worked cleverly, straining the threads at times al- 
most to the breaking point, but never doing any actual dam- 
age to its previous work. Never for a moment did it pause in 
its labor during all the hours it was under observation. It 
seemed to realize to some extent the meagerness of its re- 
sources and^he necessity of haste in creating a shelter. 

After about two hours of unremitting efforts the structure 
was near enough completed to justify it in abandoning its for- 
mer home, so it withdrew its mucilaginous bulk from its birth- 
place and coiled itself within the mesh of fibers that had been 
spun. It seemed hardly possible that it could move about in so 
small a space, but it showed wonderful elasticity and went to 
work more feverishly than ever, turning slowly around to dis- 


tribute the silk evenly on all the uprights. It was impossible 
not to admire the clumsy skill with which this uncouth creature, 
for the first and only time in its life, wove its protective screen 
and overcame the difficulties that hindered the operation. 

As more threads were added the fabric became finally so 
opaque that it was no longer possible to see what was taking 
place within. 

Just at this time another larva began operations beneath its 
host and the previous observations were easily duplicated. 

The adults from both these larvae emerged July 22d, just 
seven days from the time the larvae began to spin themselves in. 

A New Trichodes (Cleridae, Coleop.). 
By J. WAGENER GREEN, Easton, Pa. 

Trichodes bicinctus n. sp. 

Moderately robust, elytra slightly broader behind middle. Color 
black with greenish lustre, base of antennae, palpi, labrum, legs partly, 
and sides of abdominal segments, pale. Antennal club reddish varying 
to dark brown. Elytra reddish or fulvous, with antemedian fascia 
interrupted at suture, a second and slightly wider fascia at apical 
third, and apex narrowly, black. The apical black spot is concave 
anteriorly and produced forward on suture and side margin, some- 
times uniting with post-median fascia and completely enclosing a 
rounded pale spot. 

Labrum entire or very slightly emarginate. Antennal club broadly 
triangular. Front concave. Head and thorax finely, rather closely 
punctured, the latter with slight median smooth space at base. Pubes- 
cence fulvous, moderately long on thorax, short on elytra, longer near 
scutellum. Elytra coarsely punctate, more finely toward base. Apices 
rounded in both sexes. Body beneath and legs densely clothed with 
long white pubescence. Penultimate ventral segment of male broadly 
emarginate, as usual. 

Length 11-12 mm. 

Brewster County, Texas, about twenty miles south of Marfa, 
July 14 to 25. Two males, a female in the collection of Mr. 
Wenzel, of Philadelphia. Type in my collection. 

Resembles simulator, apirorns and hiholteatns in style of 
maculation. Readily distinguished from the last by the apical 
elytral spot, and from the first two by the pale antennal club. 
Differs from all in the bicolored legs. The femora are more 
or less pale beneath at base, the anterior and median tibiae 
slightly paler at apex in the males, almost entirely reddish in 
the female. 



[Oct., '17 

An Egg Parasite of the Sumac Flea-Beetle 
(Hym., Chalcid.). 

By C. R. CROSBY and M. D. LEONARD, Cornell University, 

Ithaca, New York. 

Mr. Loren B. Smith, of Norfolk, Virginia, has sent us speci- 
mens of a hymenopterous parasite reared by him from the eggs 
of the sumac flea-beetle (Blcpharida rhois Forster). The spe- 
cies is apparently undescribed. 

Tetrastichus ovipransus n. sp. 

9 Length, 1.2 mm. General color bluish black. Head bluish black, 
brownish in front of ocelli in alcoholic specimens. Thorax bluish 
black, very finely longitudinally striolate. Antennae yellowish brown, 
scape noticeably paler. The relative length of the antennal segments 
may be expressed by the following ratio : scape 6, pedicel 3, funicle 
segments 4, 4.5, 4.5, club 10. Ring segment small but distinct. The 
three-segmented club is of the same width as the funicle segments and 
pointed at the tip. Coxae and femora, except tip, black, remainder of 
legs pale straw colored. Abdomen dark brownish with a metallic 
tinge, especially above. 

Described from 14 female specimens reared July 20, 1916, 
and 3 female specimens reared June 24, 1916, from eggs of 
Blcpharida rhois, Norfolk, Virginia. 

Types in the Cornell University collection. Type No. 76. 


Indian Gall Midges (Cecidomyiidae, Dipt.). 

By E. P. FELT, Albany, New York. 

The writer has been privileged, through the courtesy of Prof. 
Ramakrishna, of South India, to study two small collections 
of gall midges reared or obtained from the vicinity of various 
grasses. In addition to data given in a preceding paper,* we 
would record the rearing of the rice or paddy gall midge, 
Pachydiplosis oryzac \Yood-Mason, from Panicnm stacminnm, 
and the capture of adults referable with very little question to 
this species, in light traps. The specimens taken in early Octo- 
ber, 1916, were heavy with eggs. Pseudhormomyia fluvialis 
Felt was reared, in addition to food plants previously recorded, 
from Panicnm piinctatum, and both this species and the closely 
related P. cornea are here referred to Dyodiplosis Rubs. Be- 
low we describe one new species and all the stages of a very 
interesting midge, the adults previously being unknown and ten- 
tatively referred to Oligotrophus Latr. 

Hormomyia ischaemi Kieff. 

1910 Kieffer, J. J. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Bull., No. 3, p. 71. 

Adults and specimens of the gall of this insect, provisionally 
referred to Hormomyia, were received from Prof. T. V. Rama- 
krishna, Coimbatore, S. India, under date of November Q. 
1916, accompanied by the statement that the insects were reared 
from a gall on Ischacmum pilosnm and were very likely iden- 
tical with the species described from the larva and gall by Dr. 
Kieffer as Oligotrophus ischaemi, which latter is probable 
though not certain. The larva described by Dr. Kieffer, if this 
species, is evidently a young stage, since the large size of the 
midges preclude their developing from such a small full-grown 

Gall. Length II to 18 cm., diameter 3 to 4 mm. This is a reddish, 
cylindrical tube pointed at the apex and sheathed at the hase by scale- 
like leaves. The interior is hollow for practically its whole length 
and emergence is through a small hole near the tip (characters in 
part from L. A. Boodle, p. 70, /. r.). 

Egg. Length .2 mm., ovate, cylindrical, whitish and apparently pro- 

* Ent. News 28 73-76. 


duced in great numbers, since several hundred were found in a vial 
containing a portion of a gall and one dilapidated female. 

Larva. It is probable, as stated above, that the whitish larva de- 
scribed by Dr. Kieffer, /. c., p. 71, is a very young stage or does not be- 
long to this species. A free translation of Dr. Kieffer's description 
follows : 

Larva white, length 2 mm., smooth, the spiny warts very fine and 
situated on the ventral part of the last two thoracic segments and all 
of the abdominal segments. The papillae are all simple, save the eight 
terminal ones, which are provided with very short, scarcely distinct 
hairs; the pleural and sternal papillae are equally large; the mesial 
pleural papillae arranged in groups of three ; the anterior ventral and 
posterior papillae small and hardly apparent. Antennal segment round- 
ed, deeply emarginate in the middle, dorsally with sparse granulations 
on the anterior portion, the posterior part nearly smooth; breastbone 
yellow, large, sessile, as long as large and with two triangular teeth 
which have a length twice the width of the base and are separated by 
a broadly 'rounded emargination. 

Exuvium. $ . Length 5 mm., moderately stout, yellowish transparent, 
the thoracic horns slender, slightly curved, nearly cylindrical and with 
a length about five times the diameter. Antennal cases probably ex- 
tending to the base of the abdomen and with triangular basal processes 
with a length about three times the diameter of the base and thickened 
apically; the wing cases reaching to the tip of the second abdominal 
segment, and the leg cases to the fifth or sixth abdominal segments; 
the dorsum of the latter slightly chitinized and with an irregular 
series of three or four transverse rows of chitinous spines. 

$ Length 3.5 mm. Antennae about as long as the body, thickly 
haired, yellowish brown; 14 segments, the fifth almost trinodose, the 
stems with a length i% and \y 2 times their diameters, respectively; 
basal enlargement subglobose, with a sparse subbasal whorl of stout 
setae and a subapical circumfilum, the loops numerous, with a length 
about half the diameter of the enlargement and forming an almost 
double row, the latter being true of the middle and distal fili ; terminal 
segment somewhat produced, the basal portion of the stem with a 
length about twice its diameter, the distal enlargement subcylindric and 
with a length nearly three times its diameter, and apically a large, 
fusiform appendage, a rudimentary segment. 

Palpi; first segment irregularly ovoid, the second a little longer and 
stouter, the third more than twice the length of the second and 
tapering uniformly from a somewhat swollen base. Eyes holoptic. 

Mesonotum dark reddish brown. Scutellum concolorous, postsctitel- 
lum dark reddish brown. Abdomen dark yellowish brown, somewhat 
variable, the genitalia yellowish ; the terminal clasp segment fuscous 


Wings suhhyaline, brownish, shorter than the body, the third vein, 
uniting with the margin well beyond the apex, the fifth vein joining 
the posterior margin at the distal fourth, its branch beyond the 
basal half; halteres yellowish basally, brownish yellow apically. 

Coxae reddish brown ; legs mostly yellowish brown, the tarsi some- 
what darker. 

Genitalia; basal clasp segment short, broad, swollen basally; terminal 
clasp segment moderately long, nearly straight ; dorsal plate short, 
broad, deeply and narrowly emarginate, the lobes narrowly rounded; 
ventral plate a little longer, broad, broadly rounded apically. 

9 Length 5 mm. Antennae probably three-fourths the length of 
the body, sparsely haired, dark brown ; 14 segments, the fifth with a 
stem one-fourth the length of the subcylindric basal enlargement, which 
latter has a length about four times its diameter and low, looped cir- 
cumfili near the basal third and subapically. 

Palpi; first segment irregular, the second a little longer, subquadrate, 
the third more than twice the length of the second, slender and nearly 
uniform in diameter. 

Mesonotum dark brownish black, the submedian lines sparsely haired. 
Scutellum and postscutellum concolorous, the former with a few 
golden hairs apically. Abdomen shining dark brownish black, sparsely 
clothed with short hairs. 

Wings slightly fuscous and only about two-thirds the length of the 
abdomen, the third vein uniting with the margin just beyond the apex 
of the wing, the fifth with the indistinct anterior branch joining the 
posterior margin at the distal fourth and the posterior branch beyond 
the basal half; halteres yellowish orange basally, fuscous subapically. 

Coxae and legs a nearly uniform dark brown; claws moderately stout, 
strongly curved subapically, simple; pulvilli nearly as long as the claws. 

Ovipositor short, the lobes irregularly oval, with a length about one- 
half greater than the width and rather thickly setose. 

Type Cecid. a 2781. 

Dyodiplosis andropogonis n. sp. 

The species described below was received from Prof. T. V. 
Ramakrishna, Government Entomologist, Agricultural College 
and Research Institute, Coimbatore, South India, under date of 
November 9, 1916. accompanied by a statement to the effect 
that the midges were reared from galls in a common perennial 
grass, Andropogon annulatus, at Adoni, Bellary District, Sep- 
tember 23, 1916, and labeled Y. R. Rao Coll. These insects 
are similar to though quite distinct from Pseudhormomyia flu- 


vialis Felt and P. cornea Felt, both received earlier from the 
same correspondent. These last two species are congeneric with 
the one to be characterized and now referred to the genus Dy- 

$ Length 2 mm. Antennae one-half longer than the body, thickly 
haired, yellowish brown; 14 segments, the stems with a length one 
and one-fourth and two and one-half times their diameters, respectively, 
the distal enlargement with a length one and three-fourths greater 
than its diameter and only slightly constricted near the basal third as 
compared with D. fluz'ialis. The circumfili are fine and moderately 
long; terminal segment produced, the basal portion of the stem with 
a length three times its diameter, the distal enlargement cylindric, with 
a length fully three times its diameter and apically a moderately stout, 
rather long, conical process. 

Palpi; first segment short, irregular, with a length about one-half 
greater than its diameter, the second a little longer and broader, the 
third about as long as the two preceding, more slender. 

Mesonotum purplish brown, the submedian lines and posterior me- 
dian areas yellowish. Scutellum and postscutellum mostly pale yellow- 
ish. Abdomen sparsely haired, a variable dark brown basally, yellow- 
ish brown apically. 

Wings hyaline ; halteres yellowish basally, light brown apically. 

Legs mostly a pale straw. 

Genitalia; basal clasp segment moderately long, stout; terminal clasp 
segment distinctly swollen basally, tapering; dorsal plate deeply and 
triangularly emarginate, the divergent lobes narrowly rounded; ventral 
plate long, broad, subtruncate apically, the posterior border slightly 
and roundly emarginate ; style a little longer than the ventral plate. 

9 Length 3 mm. Antennae nearly as long as the body, sparsely 
haired, dark reddish brown; 14 segments, the fifth with a stem one- 
third the length of the cylindric basal enlargement, which latter has 
a length about four times its diameter and sparse whorls of stout 
setae subbasally and apically ; terminal segment hardly produced, the 
enlargement with a length three and one-half times its diameter and 
apically a rather broad subconical process. 

Abdomen sparsely haired, mostly dark reddish brown, the seventh 
segment and the lobes of the ovipositor yellowish brown; halteres yel- 
lowish basally, reddish brown apically ; claws long, rather slender 
strongly curved apically, the pulvilli a little shorter than the claws. 

Ovipositor short, tapering, the lobes with a length over twice the 
width and tapering irregularly to a narrowly rounded, setose apex 
Otherwise as in the male. 

Type Cecid. a 2782. 



The Lack of Entomologists. 

The war has resulted in a great demand for men and women 
trained in many lines of work. Many activities which the 
times have brought into being will doubtless meet with such 
approval as to insure their continuance after the fighting has 
ceased. As in other fields of science, the present supply of 
entomologists does not meet the demand. 

Mr. V. I. Safro, of Louisville, Kentucky, as quoted in Report 
No. 3 of the Emergency Entomological Service (U, S. Dept. 
Agric.), calls attention 

to the difficulty of obtaining adequately trained men for emergency 
entomological work and suggests the advisability of giving them spe- 
cial training. . . . Many of the standard recommendations apply to 
conditions in gardens or in small cultures and do not necessarily apply 
to the conditions in various regions where very extensive cultures of 
onions and similar crops are undertaken. . . . Growers want to know 
not only how to combat certain insect pests but [also] how certain 
operations can be economically combined with other operations. To 
meet this important situation, extension entomologists should be 
thoroughly acquainted with the control of plant diseases as well as 
insect pests and the mechanical equipment necessary for effective work. 
Too often our economic entomologists ignore the fact that their recom- 
mendations cannot possibly be conducive to the best _ results ^unless 
they know and explain how growers can combine fungicides with in- 
secticides, thereby reducing one of the main items of expense, the 
labor. Many growers will not spray at all for certain insects unless 
they know that the insect spray can be combined with Bordeaux or 
some other fungicide. 

Again Dr. T. J- Headlee. State Entomologist of New Terse- v. 
says (in Report No. 4 of the same series) of the farm dem- 
onstration service in that State : 

The greatest weakness of the whole service is the lack of trained 
men to do sufficiently thorough entomological scouting. This lack is 
a real handicap because outbreaks of considerable proportions are 
si mil-times not thoroughly appreciated until they are about ready to 
occur and this means that a good many growers will be unable to -el 
malt-rials and machinery in time to do effective work. 

There would therefore seem to be great opportunities for 
useful service to the nation in applied entomology and encour- 
agement to those who may be thinking of an entomological 



Notes and Nevsrs. 


Sex Attraction Overcome by Light Stimulation (Lepid., Col.). 

Those who are familiar with Fabre's delightful stories in "The Life 
of the Caterpillar" will remember that he was greatly exercised in en- 
deavoring to account for the facility with which the male moth will 
recognize from a great distance the existence of his mate. The usual 
theory of the operation of the sense of smell was to him utterly un- 

Many years ago I was astonished at the great number of male Ce- 
cropia that came to a cage in which I had females confined. By re- 
ferring to my statement in the ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS of May, 1895, 
I find that in addition to the number destroyed by robins and cats, the 
wings being the principal part of the debris left, I counted three hun- 
dred and forty-two specimens taken in four nights. I am reminded of 
this old story by a recent experience. 

For many years Tclca polyphemus has been in this immediate neigh- 
borhood an exceedingly rare insect. Last autumn I had given me a 
few Polyphemus cocoons gathered from trees some ten or fifteen miles 
distant. When recently the moths began to emerge, I left two females 
in a cage on my back porch for several nights, and while the number 
of arriving and inquisitive males (eighteen in all) was not large, as 
compared with my previous Cecropia experience, there was one curious 
feature in connection with their advent, on which I should be glad to 
hear Fabre philosophize if he were still with us. I have every reason 
to believe that the male moths came to my lure from a considerable 
distance. When they arrived, or possibly soon afterward, they dis- 
covered, only five or six feet from the cage in which were confined 
the females they were doubtless seeking, an electric light illuminating 
my insect trap which, except on brilliant moonlight nights, attracts all 
sorts of nocturnal hexapods. Their attention seems to have been thus 
distracted from their previous quest and instead of going to the cage, 
or remaining there, if possibly they reached it, they all without excep- 
tion made their way into the trap from which they could not escape. 
The brilliant light seems to have had so strong an influence upon them 
as to have counteracted their previous inclination rendering it power- 
less. It was also very noticeable that the wild moths, with but a single 
exception, were smaller than those hatched in captivity, a circumstance 
possibly indicating a less abundant or a less invigorating food-plant on 
which the larvae had been feeding. 

My insect trap disposes of a great many Lachno sterna. Within the 

Vol. xxviiil ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 375 

last few nights (mid-June, 1917) it has taken one hundred and eighty- 
one JntiliSj but there have been caught only three ru<j<>xa, while fusca, 
usually most abundant, has not been represented at all. O. S. WEST- 
COTT, Oak Park, Illinois. 

Emergency Entomological Service. 

Numbers 3, 4 and 5 of the reports of the Emergency Entomological 
Service, United States Dept. of Agriculture, "Reporting cooperation 
between Federal, State and Station Entomologists and other Agencies," 
have appeared since the preceding issue of the NEWS. They are 
dated July I, August I, and September i, and consist of 21, 28 and 
25 mimeographed pages, respectively. 

Among their more important contents are notes of new legislation in 
Illinois whereby the State Dept. of Agriculture has authority to 
compel owners, or other occupiers, of property infested by insect 
pests or plant diseases to take measures to arrest or prevent the same 
under penalties (upon conviction) of fines of $10 to $100 for each 
and every offense; the establishment of an Insect Pest Survey and 
Information Service by Dr. E. P. Felt, under the New York Food Sup- 
ply Commission (a description of the workings of this Survey by 
Prof. C. R. Crosby is given in No. 4) ; a similar survey in Ohio under 
Prof. H. A. Gossard; the use of farm demonstrators in practically 
every county in New Jersey, reported by Dr. T. J. Headlee, and in 
Tennessee under Mr. G. M. Bentley; a systematic educational campaign 
in Mississippi leading up to "Spray Your Orchard Week," December 
9-15, 1917, to be so designed by proclamation of the Governor. 

The Food Production Act, approved by President Wilson August 10, 
1917, appropriates $441,000 "for the prevention, control and eradication 
of insects and plant diseases injurious to agriculture, and the conser- 
vation and utilization of plant products." Of this sum $145,775 nas 
been allotted to the Bureau of Entomology. A statement is given in 
No. 5 of the way in which it is proposed to expend this sum. "It is 
contemplated to inaugurate the present fall an extensive campaign 
against the Hessian fly and to undertake work on a large scale in the 
control of insects injurious to stored grains, peas, beans and stored 
products generally. During the winter, work in dormant tree spraying 
for scale insects, fumigation of citrus trees and similar activities will 
be actively pushed. . . . Never before in the history of economic 
entomology in this country have there been funds to carry, on so large 
a scale directly to the farmer, fruit grower, stock man and others, 
practical instruction in the treatment of insect pests." 

Reports on insect injuries in 15 States are given in No. 3, in 25 
States in No. 4, and in 21 States in No. 5. Among the insects whose 
depredations have been more serious are : 


Grasshoppers in California, western Montana (the Rocky Mountain 
migratory locust), Nebraska, North and South Dakota, Iowa, southern 
Indiana, Michigan, the District of Columbia, New York, Vermont and 
C. (niiiccticut; , 

Hessian fly in eastern Kansas; 

chinch bug in Oklahoma and southwestern Illinois; 

wircworms (Melanotus larvae) in Montana, Idaho and eastern Ne- 

aphids on barley in southern Arizona, on melons in Nebraska and 
the Gulf region from Florida to Texas, on conifers in Colorado, on 
potatoes and tomatoes in Kentucky, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Massachusetts, on cabbage in Nebraska, Missouri, New 
Jersey and Iowa and aphids generally in gardens in cities of Indiana 
planted on ground which has not been in cultivation for a number of 
years ; 

plum curculio in northeastern Ohio and New Jersey (but not in 
West Virginia or Georgia) ; 

the sheep bot in Mississippi; 

the mole-cricket in coastal South Carolina; 

red spider in North Carolina on cotton, in Texas on beans and 

cut worms in Indiana; 

southern corn root-worm beetle (Diabrotica 12-punctata) in western 

lesser corn stalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus) in the Gulf 
States, particularly Mississippi; 

boll weevil in Florida, southern and central Texas and Arkansas; 

sod web-worms (Crambus species) in northern Illinois; 

fall web worms (Hyphantria spp.) in Louisiana, Mississippi and 
New York; 

white-marked tussock moth in eastern Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, 
Indiana, Connecticut and many other States; other foliage insects are 
also noted; 

seed corn maggot (Phorbia fusciccps) in New York: 

Colorado potato beetle in Virginia, Wisconsin, Arizona and Mis- 
souri, although reported as not very destructive elsewhere. 

"The area infested by the alfalfa weevil is producing the only good 
first crop of alfalfa seen there in five years." 

The "surplus of arsenate of lead and Paris green in the country 
is very low;" arsenate of lime is being substituted for arsenate of lead 
in Nova Scotia, arsenite of zinc for Paris green in Montana, at a 
large saving. 

Decrease in the natural insect enemies of coniferous bark beetles 

\ol.XXviii] ENTOMOLOi.U'AL MOWS. 377 

(Dendroctonus) in the Pike's Peak region of Colorado is especially 
noticeable. On the other hand, parasitic flies (Sarcophaga) attacking 
grasshoppers are increasing in Montana. 

"The destructive result of the hot weather in Southern California 
[June 14-17: 115-120 deg. F.] against citrus pests has been about 
equivalent to a season's insecticide treatment." "The unusual amount 
of rain in the spring" in northeastern Louisiana "gave rise to an un- 
usually high density of malaria mosquitoes early in the season with a 
consequent early appearance of active cases of malaria." This was 
followed by "lack of rain and high temperatures operating on both 
the larvae in the breeding places of these mosquitoes and the activity 
of the adults. The reduction in the active cases of malaria is already 
apparent." An "unprecedented number of fleas" (4 species) reported 
from the vicinity of Dallas, Texas, is believed to have been "correlated 
with the rather uniform distribution of rainfall during the spring 
months and probably a high humidity." 

One of the largest flights of may-beetles (Lachnostcrna} experi- 
enced in several years covered the entire State of New Jersey. 

Copies of all entomological literature, as letters, special bulletins, 
circulars, press-notices, posters, etc., issued by State and Station ento- 
mologists, State Councils of Defense, Boards of Health and other 
bodies in connection with the present war emergency, are requested 
by the Bureau of Entomology at Washington, in order that as complete 
a file as possible may be preserved for reference use in its library. 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted, 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, how- 
ever, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in Heavy- Faced Type refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the following list, in which the papers are published 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the 
end of each Order of which they treat. Unless mentioned in the title, 
the number of the new species occurring north of Mexico is given at 
end of title, within brackets. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, 
Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied Kn- 
tomology, Scries A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

3 The American Naturalist. 4 The Canadian Entomologist. 
5 Psyche. 8 T! . omoloi/i' f's Monthly Magazine, London. 

11 Annals and IviaKaznu 1 of Natural History, London. 


Comptes Rendus, L'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 50 Proceed- 
ings, U. S. National Museum. 51 -Novitates Zoologicae, Tring, 
England. 87 Bulletin, Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 
121 Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturclles, Geneva. 143 
Ohio Journal of Science, Columbus, Ohio. 161 Proceedings, 
Biological Society of Washington. 163 American Journal of 
Science, New Haven, Conn. 179 Journal of Economic Entomol- 
ogy. 180 Annals, Entomological Society of America. 184 Jour- 
nal of Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia. 198 Biological Bul- 
letin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 200 
Bulletin Scientifique de la France et de la Belgique, Paris 220 
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, New Brunswick. 
242 Transactions, Royal Society of Canada (Hd Scries), Ottawa. 
257 Bulletin, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee. 313 . 
Bulletin of Entomological Research, London. 335 Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections. 350 Bulletin from the Laboratory of 
Natural History of the State University of Iowa, Iowa City. 394 
Parasitology, Cambridge, England. 408 Dominion of Canada 
Department of Agriculture Experimental Farms, Division of Ento- 
mology, Ottawa. 411 Bulletin, The Brooklyn Entomological So- 
ciety. 417 University Studies, Lincoln, Nebraska. 447 Journal 
of Agricultural Research, Washington. 454 North Carolina De- 
partment of Agriculture, Raleigh. 478 Miscellaneous Publica- 
tions, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 503 Ver- 
handlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel. 507 
Occasional Papers, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 
513 South African Journal of Sciences, Cape Town. 515 Pro- 
ceedings, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 524 . 
Technical Bulletins, Entomology, University of California. Berke- 
ley. 533 Memoirs, American Entomological Society. 538 Lor- 
quinia, Los Angeles. 549 Revue Zoologique Russe, Moscow. 

GENERAL SUBJECT. Allard, H. A. Synchronism and syn- 
chronic rhythm in the behavior of certain creatures, 3, li, 438-46. 
Baumberger, J. P. Hibernation: a periodical phenomenon, 180, 
x, 179-86. Bethune, C. J. S. Bibliography of Canadian entomology 
for the year 1915, 242, x, Sec. 4, 169-87. Carson, H. L. The trial of 
animals and insects. A little known chapter of mediaeval juris- 
prudence, 515, Ivi, 410-15. Cockerell, T. D. A. Some fossil insects 
from Florissant, Colorado, 50, liii, 389-392. Coleman, Geo. A. > 
The development of the motion picture and its place in educational 
work, 179, x, 371-3. Crampton, G. C. The nature of the vera> 
cervix or neck region in insects, 180, x, 187-97. Mclndoo, N. E. 
Recognition among insects, 335, Ixviii, No. 2, 78 pp. Mally, C. ~W. 
On the selection and breeding of desirable strains of beneficial 


insects, 513, xiii, 191-5. Moore, W. Toxicity of various benzine 
derivatives to insects, 447, ix, :i71-81. Vorhies, C. T. Notes on 
the fauna of Great Salt Lake, 3, li, 495-9. Wilson, T. Obituary 
note by C. G. Hewitt, 4, 1917, 289-90. Zavarzin, A. Quelquea 
donnees sur la structure du systeme ncrveux intestinal dcs insectes, 
549, i, 176-80. 

Studies on the biology of Paracopidosomopsis. II. Spermatoge- 
nesis of males reared from unfertilized eggs, 198, xxxiii, 38-4S. 
Shaffer, E. L. Mitochondria and other Cytoplasmic structures in 
the spermatogenesis of Passalus cornutus, 198, xxxii, 407-34. 

MEDICAL. Herms, W. B. A state wide malaria-mosquito 
survey of California, 179, x, 359-70. Zetek, J. The ecology of 
bubonic plague, 180, x, 198-206. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Hirst, S. On the occurrence of a pseudo- 
parasitic mite (Cheletiella parasitivorax) on the domestic cat, 11, 
xx, 132-3. Patten, B. M. Reactions of the whip-tail scorpion to 
light, 184, xxiii, 251-75. 

Emerton, J. H. New spiders from Canada and the adjoining 
States [17 new], 4, 1917, 261-72. Ewing, H. E. A synopsis of the 
genera of beetle mites with special reference to the North Ameri- 
can fauna [12 n. gen.], 180, x. 117-132. 

NEUROPTERA, ETC. Campion, H. On Fabricius's types of 
Odonata in the British Museum (N. H.), 11, xix, 441-50. Combs, 
A. F. Notes on a collection of Odonata from Schoolcraft County, 
Michigan, 507, No. 41, 8 pp. Williamson, E. B. An annotated list 
of the Odonata of Indiana, 478, No. 2, 12 pp. 

Currie, B. P. Gomphus parvidens, a n. species of dragonfly from 
Maryland, 50, liii, 223-6. Kennedy, C. H. A new sp. of Sotnato- 
chlora (Odonata), with notes on the Cingulata-group, 4, 1917, 
229-36. McGregor, E. A. Six new sps. of Mallophaga from North 
American mammals, 180, x, 167-78. 

ORTHOPTERA. Hebard, M. The Blattidae of North Amer- 
ica, north of Mexico, 533, 2, 284 pp. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker & Davidson A further contribution to 
the study of Erisoma pyricola, the woolly pear aphis, 447, x, 65-74. 
Davidson, W. M. The reddish-brown plum aphis (Rhopalosiphtmi 
nympheae), 179, x, 350-3. Distant, W. L. On ?ome Rhynchota of 
economic importance from Colombia, 313, vii, :;si-2. Ferris, G. F. 

Methods for the study of mealy-bugs, 179, x. 321-5. Gibson, E. H. 

Key to the species of Leptoglossus occurring north of Mexico, 


5, xxiv, 69-73. A key to the species of Dictyophora. 411, xii, 69-71. 
Gillette & Bragg The migratory habits of Myzus rihis, 179, x. 
338-40. Hollinger, A. H. A new sp. of Phenacoccns. :, 1917, 281-4. 
Hungerford, H. B. The life history of Mesovelia mulsanti, 5, 
xxiv, 73-84. Knight, H. H. Records of European Miridae occur- 
ring in No. America, 4, 1917, 248-52. Newstead, R. Observations 
on scale-insects (Coccidae), III, 313, vii, 343-80. Quayle, H. J. 
Some comparisons of Coccus citricola and C. hesperidum. 179, x, 
373-6. Stoner, D. The Pentatomoidea of the Lake Okoboji region 
(Iowa), 350, vii, 39-47. 

Drake, C. J. The No. American species of Monanthia [2 new] 

411, xii, 49-52. Essig, E. O. Aphididae of California chiefh 

from the campus of the University [4 new], 524, Ent. i, 301-346. 
Florence, L. The pacific coast species of Xylococcus [1 new], 
180, x, 147-66. Gillette, C. P. Some Colorado species of the genus 
Lachnus [3 new], 180, x, 133-46. McAtee, W. L. Key to the 
nearctic species of Leptoypha and Leptost3'la [:> new], 411, xii. 
55-64. Osborn & Drake Notes on American Tingidae with de- 
scriptions of [10] new species, 143, xvii, 295-307. Shinji, G. O. 
Notes on aphids [1 new], 5, xxiv, 84-6. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Busck, A. The pink boll worm. Pectino- 
phora gossypiella, 447, ix, 343-70. Cholodkovsky, N. Sur les 
glandes odoriferes de 1'appareil genital feminin des L., 549, i, 215-16. 
Colthrup, C. W. Resting attitudes of moths and some notes on 
their habits (cont.). (Wild Life, London, ix, 179.). Courvoisier, 
L. G. Ueber mannchenschuppen bei Lycaeniden, 503, xxvii, 11-48. 
Hampson, G. F. A classification of the Pyralidae, subfamily Gal- 
lerianae, 51, xxiv, 17-58. Joicey & Kaye New races and aberra- 
tions of Heliconius, 11, xx, 87-94. Jordan, K. Two new American 
moths, 51, xxiv, 56-60. Marsh, H. O. Life history of Plutella 
maculipennis, the diamond-back moth, 447, x, 1-9. Pictet, A. Sur 
1'origine de quelques races geographiques de L., 121, xliii, r>04-(>. 
Prout, L. B. New Geometridae in the Joicey collection, 11, xx 
10S-28. Rothschild, L. On some apparently new Notodontidae, 
51, xxiv, 231-64. Tarns, W. H. T. Euplexia lucipara, as repre- 
sented in the British Isles and No. America, 8, 1917, 157-9. Tucker, 
E. S. Louisiana records of the bind-weed prominent (Schizura 
ipomeae), 4, 1917, 280-1. Wolley-Dod, F. H. Collection of Macro- 
Lepidoptera, owned by F. H. Wolley-Dod, Midnapore, Alta, Can- 
ada, 4, 1917, 240-8. 

DIPTERA. Atkin & Bacot The relation between the hatching 
of the eggs and the development of the larvae of Stegomyia fasci- 
ata, and the presence of bacteria and yeasts, 394, ix, ix:.;-;>;',r>. Baum- 


berger, J. P. Solid media for rearing Drosophila. 3, li. 447-8. 
Ejikoff, I. Influence de 1'inanition sur la metamorphose des 
mouches a ver, 549, ii, 119-21. Keilin, D. Sur quelques cas d'ano- 
malie chez les D., 87, 1917, 193-0. Recherches sur les Anthomyides 
a larves carnivores, 394, ix, 326-450. Kirk, H. B. Notes on fly- 
control in military camps, 16 pp. (New Zealand Defence Dept., 
Wellington.). Kislink, M. Some winter observations of muscid 
flies, 143, xvii, 284-94. Richardson, C. H. The domestic flies of 
New Jersey, 220, Bui. No. 307. Scott, H. Notes on Nycteribiidae, 
with descriptions of two new genera, 394, ix, 593-610. Stiles, C. W. 
Notice to the zoological profession of a possible suspension of 
the international rules of zoological nomenclature in case of 
Musca and Calliphora, 11, xix, 484. 

Banks, N. Synopsis of the genus Dasyllis [6 n. sps.], 411, xii. 
52-5. Jones, C. R. New sps. of Colorado Syrphidae [18 new], 180, 
x, 219-31. Knab, F. On some No. American species of Microdon, 
161, xxx, 133-144. Malloch, J. R. A new No. American sp. of the 
genus Tetramerinx; The anthomyiid genus Phyllogaster [l new], 
4, 1917, 225-26; 227-8. 

COLEOPTERA. Bordas, L. Ponte du Rhynchite coupe-bour- 
gon (Rhynchites conicus) et anatomic, 12, 1917, 70-3. Burke, H. E. 
Notes on some western Buprestidae, 179, x, 325-32. Champion, 
G. C. Notes on Tropical American Lagriidae, with descriptions of 
new species (cont.), 8, 1917, 132. Howard, L. O. An interesting 
manuscript, 5, xxiv, 87-8. Metcalf, Z. P. Biological investigations 
of Sphenophorus callosus, 454, Exp. Sta. Tech. Bui., 13, 123 pp. 
Weise, J. Coleopterorum catalogus, Pars 68: Chrysomelidae; 12. 
Chrysomelinae, 253 pp. 

Blatchley, W. S. On some new or noteworthy C. from the west 
coast of Florida, II. [4 new], 4, 1917, 236-40 (cont.). Fisher, W. S. 
A new sp. of Agrilus from California, 4, 1917, 287-9. Swaine, J. 
M. Canadian bark-beetles. Pt. 1. Descriptions of new species [2 
n. g., 39 n. sps.], 408, Bui. 14, 32 pp. Wickham, H. F. Some fossil 
beetles from the Sangamon peat [9 new], 163, xliv, 137-i:>. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bordas, L. Anatomic des glandcs veni- 
meuses des Pimplinae, 87, 1917, 197-8. Cholodkovsky, N. Sur les 
papilles eversibles des larves tentredinides du genre Xematus, 549, 
i, 216-19. Cockerell, TJ D. A. Some neotropical Megachilid bees, 4, 
1917, 252-4. Descriptions and records of bees LXXV, 11, xix, 
473-81. Grinnell, F., Jr. A rare and interesting wasp, 538, xi, 86. 
Mickel, C. E. Notes on Nebraska Bembicinae, 4, 1917, 285-7. 
Patterson, J. T. Studies on the biology of Paracopidosomopsis. 
III. Maturation and fertilization, 198, xxxiii, 57-(ii;. Rabaud, E. 


Sur les hymenopteres parasites des ootheques d'Orthopteres, 87, 
1917, 178. Rohwer & Pagan The type-species of the genera of 
the Cynipoidea, or the gall wasps and parasitic cynipids, 50, liii, 
357-80. Roubaud, E. Observations biologiques sur Nasonia brevi- 
cornis, chalcidide parasite des pupes de muscides, 200 (7), 1, 425-39. 
Smith, E. J. Cleaning bumble-bees, 4, 1917, 291. Smith, H. S. 
The habit of leaf-oviposition among the parasitic H., 5, xxiv, 63-8. 

Girault, A. A. The No. Am. species of Pachyneuron with three 
n. sps.; New miscellaneous chalcid-flies from No. Am. [15 new]; 
A new sp. of the gen. Mymar from the woods of Maryland, with 
an important descriptive note. A metallic sp. of Cirrospilopsis 
from Maryland. A new sp. of Closterocerus from California. A 
new gen. or subgen. of Pachyneurine chalcid-flies, 5, xxiv, 88-90; 
99-102. Graenicher, S. Bees of northwestern Wisconsin [7 new], 
257, 1, 221-49. Rohwer, S. A. Descriptions of 31 n. species of H., 
50, liii, 151-76. Swenk, M. H. Studies of No. American bees. III. 
Families Nomadidae and Stelididae [13 new], 417, xv, 155-93. 

Doings of Societies. 

Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 

Meeting of March 22, 1917. Twelve persons present. Vice-director 
R. C. Williams, Jr., presiding. 

Lepidoptera. Dr. Skinner reported on. and exhibited a collec- 
tion of moths collected and presented by Mr. Morgan Hebard, which 
contained over 1800 specimens. Especial attention was called to the 
excellent condition of the material. The collection was made in the 
summer of 1916, by the aid of a 30O-watt electric light, on the porch 
of a cottage at Hot Springs, Virginia. A vote of thanks was given 
Mr. Hebard for his generous donation, and Dr. Skinner was com- 
plimented on the perfect preparation of the specimens. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn exhibited a series of ParatcttLv pre- 
sented to the Academy by Dr. Nabours, illustrating his studies on 
inheritance of color patterns in the genus. The true breeding forms 
and simple and multiple hybrids were represented in the splendidly 
preserved material. Mr. Hebard made some remarks on his col- 
lecting experiences in Royal Palm Key, Florida. He exhibited 
some Orthoptera collected and showed some photographs of the habitat 
of some of the species. He called attention to the difficulty in col- 
lecting the walking stick Aplopus mayeri on account of its close re- 
semblance to the branches and twigs of the bush on which it feeds. 
It was only by looking for them at night, by flash light, that the adults 
could be located. E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 


Feldman Collecting Social. 

Meeting of March 21, 1917, at the home of H. W. Wenzel, 5614 
Stewart St., Philadelphia. Seven members were present; President 
H. A. Wenzel in the chair. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Daecke exhibited Scopclosoma sidits Gn. col- 
lected by Prof. Sanders in a railroad train at Philadelphia 11-26-17. 

Coleoptera. Mr. H. W. Wenzel exhibited the form of Cicindcla 
hirticollis Say so common on the New Jersey shore and the extremely 
large form from Narragansett Pier, June to Sept., 1916. Also the 
immaculate form nigrita Davis, now known as rhodensis Calder, from 
same place Aug. 21, 1916; Euphoria subtomentosa Mann, from Nogales, 
Sta. Cruz County, Arizona, VIII-i2-i6, F. W. Nunenmacher collector; 
Gymnopyge hopliaformis Linell, Palm Springs, California, III-29-i6, 
C. L. Fox collector, and Oncerus floralis LeC, Palm Springs IV-i-i6. 

Adjourned to the annex. GEO. M. GREENE, Secretary. 

American Entomological Society. 

Meeting of April 26, 1917, in the hall of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, Dr. Henry Skinner, President, in the chair. 
Eleven members and associates of the Entomological section of the 
Academy present. 

The Secretary read a letter from Dr. L. O. Howard, of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., requesting entomolo- 
gists to report the discovery or presence of insect pests. 

Odonata. Mr. Laurent exhibited specimens of Trained Carolina 
and Bpiaeschna hcros, collected in Gulf Hammock, Florida, during 
last March. The speaker stated that Carolina was exceedingly abundant 
on bright, sunny days, but disappeared towards twilight, when the 
species would be replaced by large numbers of heros. On cloudy days 
hardly a specimen of Carolina was to be seen, but hcros would be fly- 
ing everywhere. 

The meeting then adjourned to listen to an interesting talk by Dr. 
Skinner on the early entomologists illustrated by portraits thrown on 
the screen. R. C. WILLIAMS, JR., Recording Secretary. 

Butterfly Club Organized in Los Angeles. 

On the evening of May 30th, Dr. John Comstock, Curator of the 
Division of Entomology, Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, California. 
addressed an audience on the subject of "P>utterfly Collecting. " 

The talk was illustrated by Paget & Autochrome slides from the col- 
lection of Dr. Dain L. Tasker. It was in the nature of a popular ad- 
dress, and was given as a part of the extension program of the mu- 


Following the lecture, an association was formed as a department of 
the museum, for the furtherance of entomological interests in the 
southwest. The purpose of this organization is to popularize the study 
of the Lepidoptera, and to make the work of the specialists in this 
line more accessible to the laity. It is felt that in this manner con- 
verts may be made to the ranks of the scientific Lepidopterists, such 
as could not be brought about by an organization of technically trained 


A notice of the life of the Rev. OCTAVIUS PICKARD-CAM- 
ERIDGE, who died at Bloxworth, Dorset, England, March 9, 
1917, is given in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (Lon- 
don) for May, 1917. He was born in the same locality No- 
vember 3, 1828, and was Rector of Bloxworth from 1868 to his 
death. He gradviated from the University of Durham in 1858 
and had studied law in London previous to entering the min- 
istry. His publications dealt mainly with the Arachnida : on 
the Spiders of the Second Yarkand Mission, of the Chal- 
lenger expedition, of Dorset (but including those of all Brit- 
ain), of a large part of those described in the Biologia Centrali- 
Amcricana ; monographs of the British Phalangida and Cher- 
netidae, etc. He possessed an extensive collection of British 
Lepidoptera, especially the micros, largely gathered by him- 
self. He must not be confused with his nephew, Frederick 
Octavius Pickard-Cambridge (1861-1905), who also wrote ex- 
tensively on Arachnida and was a collaborator on the Biologia. 

Mrs. HELEN GRIER LECONTE, widow of Dr. John L. LeConte 
(1825-1883), the noted entomologist, died in Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 3, 1917, in her seventy-fifth year, at the home of her 
son. Dr. Robert G. LeConte, a trustee of the University of 
Pennsylvania and a member of the Council of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. 


Page 335, this volume, line 5, for "1911" read "1917." 
The numbers of Plates XXII and XXIII should be transposed. 

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NOVEMBER, 1917. 


Vol. XXVI 1 I. No. 9 

Henry Shinier 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph.D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

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Plate XXVI. 









No. 9. 


Baker On the Chinese Gall (Aphidi- 

dae Horn.) 385 

Cureau Clouds of Butterflies (Lep. ).. 393 

Tucker Outbreaks of the Elegant 
Looper (Philtraea elegantaria Hy. 
Edw. )on Privet in Louisiana( Lep.) 394 

Girault The North American Species 
of Trigonoderus Westwood, Fe- 
males (Hymen.) 396 

Crampton A Phylogenetic Study of 
the Lateral Head, Neck and Pro- 
thoracic Regions in Some Aptery- 
gota and Lower Pterygota 398 

Warren Habits of Some Burrowing 
Scarabaeidae (Col.) 412 

Davidson Early Spring Syrphidae in 
California and a new Pipiza (Dip.) 414 

Stevens Preliminary List of North 
Dakota Wasps exclusive of Eu- 
menidae (Hym.) 419 

Editorial The News for 1918 424 

Holloway Abundance of the Fall 

Web Worm (Lep.) 425 

The Entomological Collections of the 

University of Michigan 425 

Entomological Literature 426 

Review of Hebard : The Blattidae of 
North America north of the Mexi- 
can Boundary 430 

Doings of Societies Entom. Section 
of the Academy of Natural Scien- 
ces of Phila. ( Hymen., Orth., Lep.) 431 
The Entomological Society of Nova 

Scotia 431 

Entomological Section of the Lor- 

quin Natural History Club 432 

The Florida Entomological Society 
and its New Organ 432 

On the Chinese Gall (Aphididae Horn.). 
By A. C. BAKER, Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 

(Plate XXVI.) 

The galls produced by an aphid on Rhus scmialata have for 
many centuries been an important article of commerce in 
China. They are employed in dyeing and tanning, as well as 
in native medicines, and the export of these galls in recent 
years has been valued at about one million d Dllars per annum. 
The use of these and similar galls would seem of special inter- 
est at the present time to workers in this country, since gall- 
nuts are one of the principal ingredients of the so-called secret 
method of the London seal dyers. Although the galls are well 
known in commerce, publications on the inse^ : producing them 
are widely scattered and difficult of access. It seems wise, 
therefore, to bring the literature together and to compare the 
insect with its well known relatives in this country. 



The first publication on the species seen by the writer is that 
of Li-Shih-chen (1590?). The Pen tsao by this author was 
completed in 1578, after about twenty-five years of labor. A 
copy said to be dated 1590 is in Berlin and only later copies 
are available in this country. The materials referred to by 
Li Shih-chen were usually very well known at his time and his 
work was compiled, with additions, from some thirty-nine earl- 
ier publications, some of them very ancient works, so it is quite 
likely that these aphid galls were known long before his time. 
There are very many references in Chinese literature, par- 
ticularly medical, which are not in the bibliography given with 
this article. These will be found recorded in the Tu Shu Chi 
Ch'eng (1728) where a rather extended article on the species 
is given. 

The Pen tsao mentioned previously gives a figure of the 
galls (reproduced on Plate XXVI, Fig. i), and after describ- 
ing the plant speaks of the nut and says : "On the leaf is an 
insect which produces the Wu-p'ei-tzee which is collected in 
the eighth moon." 

It is perhaps worthy of note that in the Pen tsao the ]Vu- 
p'ei-tzee is included under the insects produced from eggs. The 
insects form the first division of animals and there appear to 
be of these insects four groups, the frog being included in the 
last one with aquatic insects. The general life history of these 
gall aphids seems to have been fairly known, but this can hardly 
be said of all forms of life, for the insects are followed by a 
group composed of dragons. 

It is indicated by Pereira (1844) that the gallnut is used 
in making soup and as a protection against the peculiar vapor^ 
of the hill country. "Gallnut" is the term by which these galls 
are known commercially, but it does not seem from their com- 
position that they would make good soup. In speaking of the 
nut of the tree Li-Shih-chen says : "On the skin there is a 
fine coating of salt" and no doubt this refers to the pollen 
which may have been used as a soup flavoring. That the fruit 
may have been used is quite possible, since the fruit of the 
same tree is eaten by the Nepaulese and Lepchas. 


The first European reference appears to be that of Cleyer 
(1682), who describes the material from the medical point of 
view under the name U pol qu. 

Another early and more complete European account is that 
given by Geoff roy (1724). He refers to the galls under the 
Chinese name Oupeytze and says that commercially they are 
known as "Indian ears." He had a notion that the galls formed 
by aphids on elms might be the same as the Chinese galls. 

A rather extended account is given by Du Halde (1735). 
which is referred to by Brande (1817). He says that the na- 
tives of China pick the galls before frost and expose them to 
hot water or steam in order to kill the insects. A 1770 English 
translation of this work is referred to by Pereira (1844). The 
Paris edition (1735) is not available to the writer, but he has 
seen a Hague edition (1736) and the name is here spelled in 
the French Ou-pocy-tsc. 

In Japan Ono ( 1802) described these galls under the name of 
Mimibushi or Fushi. He says they are hollow and contain 
large numbers of minute insects. The powder of the dried 
galls he states is used by Japanese women to blacken their 
teeth. There may be earlier Japanese references, perhaps in 
Japanese editions of Chinese Pen tsaos, but it has seemed a 
needless task to search the literature for these. 

The first examination into the composition of the gall seems 
to have been made by Brande (1817). The material he used 
was marked Oong pocy and was used in dyeing black. He 
made extracts of the galls and obtained twenty-five parts of in- 
soluble woody matter. He suggests they could be used for 
making writing- ink. 

In 1844 Guibourt brought these galls again to the attention 
of Europe, but considering them unknown, described them un- 
der the name of the cauliflower //<;//. He had a dried specimen 
in his own shop and fragments from a Mr. Ledanois. Ledanois 
analyzed the material and obtained 60 per cent, of tannic 
acid. This appears to be the first real analysis. At the same 
time Pereira (1844) gave an excellent account under the nanir 
of Woo-pei-tsse with quotations from the Pen tsao and a 


reference to a translation of Du Halde. He was the first to 
have a good supply of the galls and his came from Canton. 

A few years later an article appeared (Bell, 1848), describ- 
ing the insect found within the galls as a new species under the 
name of Aphis chinensis. This name has by some writers been 
credited to Doubleday, but since the article was unsigned Jacob 
Bell must be considered the author. 

Stein (1849) gave a rather complete analysis and obtained 
69 per cent, of tannic acid and 4 per cent, of other tannins. 

Pereira (1850) again mentions the gall and figures it, stating 
that it is produced by an aphid. 

Buchner (1851) considered the tannin present in these as 
the same as that of oakbark and he gave analyses of other 
galls for comparison. 

The first account to appear in an American journal was pub- 
lished by Archer (1865). After mentioning the Chinese and 
Japanese galls he says : ''There is a gall called Kakarasinghee 
or Kakrasingee produced on 'Rhus Kakrasinglicc (Royal) 
used by the tanners of India." He also mentions a gall he has 
from Shanghi, which he states is intermediate between the 
Kakarasinghee and the Woo-pei-tsze. 

In India karkata sringi is sometimes applied to a gall on 
Rhus. This name, however, should seemingly be used for the 
gall mentioned above by Archer. The tree he speaks of is the 
northwest form of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks and the galls on 
this are the karkata sringi of the Sanscrit. Various names are 
used ill the different languages as kak rasing/ (Hind.), kakra- 
sringi (Beng.), kakara-shingi (Tel.) and dushtapuchattu 
(Kan.). In Tamil, however, kadn kazipit is used for these 
galls and kakkata shingi often applied to the galls on the Rhus 
succedania. The former tree can hardly be confused as it has 
been well known many years, the wood being sold as lumber 
up in the hills at Simla and elsewhere. Rhus scmialata, which 
is the host of the Chinese galls in Japan and China, occurs in 
the outer Himalayas, according to Watt (1892), but, so far 
as the writer can learn, is not galled there. It would seem then 
that none of the various forms of the karkata sringi are the 


galls formed by chinensis. Smith (1871), however, in speaking 
of these galls under the title "nutgalls," says : "This excres- 
cence, called in India Kakrasingie, is produced by a Coccus, 
and is said to sometimes attain the size of a man's fist." Further 
study on the inmates of the galls from different parts of India 
would seem desirable. 

Viedt (1875) made a chemical study of the Chinese galls 
and found 72 per cent, of tannin. 

Hanbury (1876) says that he has satisfied himself by an 
examination of the galls and tree that these galls do not occur 
on Distylium racemosum, as stated by some pharmacologists, 
but on Rhtts semialata Mur. The date here given for Han- 
bury 's paper is. that of his collected papers. The original 
papers were printed much earlier. 

Courchet (1879) gives a rather extended discussion of these 
galls and refers to them under the name Poey-tse. He says 
they occur on Rims semialata and according to Fluckiger on 
Rhus japonica. He made a study of the structure of the gall 
and credited the name of the insect, chinensis, to Doubleday. 

Ishikawa (1880) made a study of the galls in Japan and 
obtained tannin ranging from 58.82 per cent, to 67.7 per cent. 
This would seem to be the first chemical study of the Japanese 

Lichtenstein (1883), after studying the insect which pro- 
duces the Chinese gall, described a new genus, Schlectcndalia, 
for the species. This generic name is the one which has gen- 
erally been applied to the insect by subsequent writers who 
were acquainted with it. 

Hartwich (1884) made a study of the Japanese gall and 
after comparing it concluded that it was the same as the Chinese 
one produced by chinensis Bell. 

Uyeno (1886) gave an article on the Japanese gall, showing 
its distribution in that country. 

Trimble (1892) gave a short account of the Chinese gall and 
considered the Japanese one distinct. He gave an excellent 
bibliography from the point of view of the tannins. 

Shirai (1895) studied the galls on Rhus sonialata and de- 

39 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l 1 / 

scribed as well the insects producing them. Both alate and 
apterous forms were described. He secured galls of two dif- 
ferent types. The first is undoubtedly the true Chinese gall 
formed by chinensis. These galls develop on the winged 
petioles. His other gall is an entirely different thing very ir- 
regular in shape and somewhat suggesting the gall of vagabun- 
dus Walsh. The insect producing it has a short stigma and 
one oblique vein in the hind wing. 

Sasaki (1910) studied the life history of the species as oc- 
curring in Japan. He secured the stem mother, forming a 
small gall on the under surface of the leaf petiole in May. 
These stem mothers produce from 17 to 18 young. By the 
end of June the galls are divided into chambers, while toward 
the end of July the finger-like projections of the galls are pres- 
ent with usually two young of a stem mother in each projec- 
tion. Toward the last of August the galls contain numerous 
females of the second generation and many young of the third. 
In October, young of the fourth generation are present and in 
this month also pupae appear. During October and Novem- 
ber the galls open and alate forms are freed. 

The young of these alate forms Sasaki was unable to keep 
alive on Rhus, but he concludes that this was due to unnatural 
conditions and that these young should remain over and "wake 
up" in May and commence to form new galls. No males were 

Butler (1911), after a brief general account, says: "The 
escape of the insect takes place on the spontaneous bursting 
of the walls of the vesicle, probably when, after viviparous re- 
production for .several generations, male winged insects are de- 

Thorp (1912) makes reference to the Chinese galls and 
states that commercially they are more used than those from 
other trees, as the results obtained are much better. 

Fitch (1866) described a species of aphid forming galls on 
Rhus in this country under the name of Byrsocrypia rhois, 
and this is the species now generally known as Pemphigus rliois 


(Fitch). This species forms a bladder-like gall on the under 
side of the leaves of Rhns glabra and these galls seem not to 
develop until late summer. 

Galls collected on July ist in Virginia are still very small and 
not yet well developed. In galls at this time can be found 
the stem mother of the gall and from two to a dozen or more 
>oung. By the first week in August the galls are considerably 
larger and contain several hundred insects, many of them in 
the earlier pupal instars. By the end of August the galls 
often reach one inch in diameter and if they are opened will be 
found to contain large numbers of alate insects, and it is not 
until the early fall that these alate forms usually leave the 
galls. The may be found flying at the last of October. The 
galls contain from 60 to 70 per cent, of tannin, an amount 
nearly equal to that of the Chinese galls. 

Walsh (1866), in studying this species, erected the genus 
Melaphis with rhois as type and in this description refers to 
the Chinese galls, stating that "It would be very interesting to 
know whether the plant lice found in them are generically 
related to ours." 

In the collections of the Bureau of Entomology there are 
numerous specimens of the Chinese galls and an examination 
of them has shown that many still contain their inmates. On 
mounting, these alate forms are found to agree in general 
characters with rhois Fitch. and quite easily fall in the genus 
Melaphis on the distinct shape of the stigma, etc. 

It will be seen also that the methods of life of the two 
species, chinensis and rhois, are very similar, the alate forms 
leaving the galls in the fall. What becomes of these forms 
seems to be unknown and the writer has been unable to 
determine this for rhois. 

Considering the similarity in structure, the similarity in life 
history and the fact that both species occur upon plants of 
the same genus, as well as the fact that these two species are 
quite different from other species in the tribe, it would seem 
that there is no good reason for keeping them in different 
genera. In such case Melaphis is the generic name that must 

39 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. [Nov., 'l/ 

be used and the species forming the Chinese gall will become 
Melaphis chinensis (Bell). The more important publications 
on the species follow. Mr. S. A. Rohwer supplied me with the 
references to Smith (1871) and Trimble (1892). 


1590? Li SHIH-CHN. Pen tsao kang mu Bk 39, folio 21 r & v 

1682. CLEVER, ANDREW. Specimen Medicinae Sinicae Med. Simp. (p. 
47), No 225. 

1724. GEOFFROY, M. Observations sur les vessies qui viennent aux 
Ormes, et sur un sorte d'excroissance a peu-pres pareille 
qui nous est apportee de la Chine Memoirs of the Royal 
Acad. of Sciences, Paris, 320. 

1728. T'u SHU CHI CH'ENG. (Chinese Encyclopedia.) 

1736. Du HALDE, J. B. Description Geographique, Historique. Chro- 
nologique, Politique, et Physique de 1'Empire de la Chine 
et de la Tartarie Chinoise, -The Hague. 

1802. ONO, RANZAN. Honzo Komoku Keimo, Vol. 35 (Japanese). 

1817. BRANDE, WM. THOS. Observations on an Astringent Vegetable 
Substance from China. Philosophical Transactions, 39. 

1844. GUIBOURT, M. On the galls of Terebinthus and Pistacia. Phar- 
maceutical Journal, 3, 377. 

1844. PEREIRA, JONATHAN. Observations on the Chinese gall, called 
"Woo-pei-tsze." Pharmaceutical Journal, 3, 384. 

1848. BELL, JACOB. The insect forming the Chinese Gall. Pharm. 

Journal, 7, 310. 

1849. STEIN, VON W. Ueber chinesischen Gallus. Dingier, 114, 433, 

aus Polytech. Centralblatt Liefer. 22. 

1850. PEREIRA, JONATHAN. The Elements of Materia Medica and 

Therapeutics. Third Edition, 2, pt. i, 1224. 

1850. SCHENK, VON. Nachtragliche Notiz iiber die chinesischen Gall- 

apfel. Buch. Rep. Pharm., 105, 346. 

1851. BUCHNER, L. A. Ueber den Wferth der Chinesischen Gallapfel. 

Buch. Rep. Pharm., 107, 313. 

1853. WITTSTEIN, G. C. On the Preparation of Gallic Acid from 
Chinese Gall-nuts. Pharm. Jour. Trans., 12, 444. 

1855. HEINECKE, VON H. Ueber Darstellung des Tannins aus chinesi- 
schen Gallapfeln. Archiv der Pharm. (2), 83, 4. 

1855. REELING, VON. Aphis chinensis. Archiv der Pharm. (2), 81, 

1865. ARCHER, PROF. Notes on a new species of Gall from China 
with references to other unusual commercial galls. Am. 
Jour. Pharm. 37, 186. 


1866. FITCH, ASA. Month, Journ., N. Y. State Agr. Soc., Aug., p. 73. 
1866. WALSH, BENJ. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., 4, 281. 
1871. SMITH, FREDFRICK PORTER. Contributions towards the Materia 
Medica and Natural History of China. Shanghai, 156. 

1875. VIEDT, C. H. Uber Schwarz Schreibtinten. Dingler's Polytech- 

nisches Journal, 216, 453. 

1876. HANBURY, DANIEL. Science Papers, Notes on Chinese Materia 

Medica, 266, London, MacMillan Co. 

1879. COURCHET, LUCIEN. Etude sur Les Galles Produites par les 

Aphidiens, 43, Montpellier. 

1880. ISHIKAWA, IWAWO. Materials containing Tannin used in Ja- 

pan. Chem. News, 42, 277. 
1883. LICHTENSTEIN. J. Ein neues Aphidien-Genus. Stettiner Ent. 

Zeit, Jahrg. 44, No. 4-6, 240. 
1884. HARTWICH, C. Ueber die Japanischen Gallen. Arch. d. Phar- 

macie, Jahrg. 63, 212, 904. 

1886. UYENO, S. Sina Boyeki Bussan Jiten, 1886, 91 (Japanese). 
1892. WATT, GEORGE. Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. 

London and Calcutta. 

1892. TRIMBLE, HENRY. The Tannins, i, 58. 
1895. SHIRAI, MITSUTARO. Galls of Rhus semi-alata var. obbeckii. The 

Botanical Magazine, 9, 95, i (Japanese). 
1908. OKAJIMA, G. Contribution to the Study of Japanese Aphididae, 

I. Bui. Col. Agr. Tokyo, 8, No. i. 

1910. SASAKI, C. Life History of Schlcctendalia chincnsis, Jacob 

Bell. (A gall-producing Insect.) Festschrift zum Sechzig- 
sten Geburtstag Richard Hertwigs, 2, 239. 

1911. BUTLER, F. H. Article on Galls. Ency. Brit., n, 424. 

1912. THORPE. Dictionary of Applied Chemistry. 


Fig. i. Illustration of the Wu-p'ei-tsee from the Pen tsao Kang mu. 
Fig. 2. Galls produced by Mclaphis chincnsis. 
Fig. 3. Wing of M. chincnsis. 

Clouds of Butterflies (Lep.). 

I have seen clouds of butterflies, all of the same species, passing over 
a district [in the Congo] for three months at a time, like flakes of red 
snow, and in such close array that one could destroy dozens of them 
by throwing one's hat on the ground. The real savage beast of Equa- 
torial Africa, and the most formidable, is the insect. CUREAU, Savage 
Man in Central Africa, London [n. d. 1915], pp. 217-218. 


Outbreaks of the Elegant Looper (Philtraea elegan- 

taria Hy. Edw.) on Privet in Louisiana (Lep.) 
By E. S. TUCKER, State Agric. Exper. Sta., Baton Rouge, La. 

The occurrence of numbers of a looper caterpillar, each 
dangling at the end of a thread of web suspended from 
branches of Amoor privet (Ligustrum amurense}, first drew 
the writer's attention to the insect in May, 1913, at Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana. C