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E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M.D., Sc.D., Editor Emeritus. 



J. A. G. RF.HX 




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JANUARY, 1920 


Vol X\X\. No. 1 

ASA Frn H 

PHILIP P. CALYERT, Ph. I)., Editor. 
K. T. CRKSSOX, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D. ( Editor Emeritus. 





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No. i. 


Weiss Notes on Thymalus fulgidus 
Er., and Its Fungus Hosts in New 
Jersey (Col.) I 

Alexander An Undescribed Species of 
Ptychoptera from the Western 
United States (Ptychopteridae, 
Dip.) 3 

Knull Notes on Buprestidae with De- 
scriptions of New Species (Colepp.) 4 

Crawford New or Interesting Psyllidae 
of the Pacific Coast (Homop.) .... 12 

Weld A New Parasitic Cynipid Reared 
from a Clover Aphid (Hym.) .... 

Viereck Labenidae, a New Family in 
the Ichneumonoidea (Hymen.) . . . 

Baker To Proposers of New Genera . . 

Baerg An Unusual Case of Parasitism 
on Clastoptera obtusa Say (Hemip., 
Cercopidae; Dip., Drosophilidae) . . 




Editorial Some New Year's Resolu- 
tions for the Entomologist 22 

Changes of Address 23 

A Biography of Miss A. M. Fielde. . . . 23 
Sentiment For and Against the Metric 

System 23 

Increase Asked to Fight Mosquitoes 

(Dip.. Culicidae) 23 

Entomological Literature 24 

Review Ris's Libellulinen Monograph- 

isch bearbeitet. 26 


George Bringhurst Cresson 29 

Hereward Clune Dollman 30 

Harold Swale 30 

Frederic Hova Wolley Dod . .,^~~r- 

Notes on Thymalus fulgidus Er., and Its 
Fungus Hosts in New Jersey (Col.). 

By HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

This species, described by Erichson in 1844 (Germar. 
Zeits., bd. 5, p. 458), has long been known to breed in Poly- 
porus betulinus (Bull.) Fr., a fungus which occurs only on 
species of birch and which attacks weakened trees with great 
rapidity. G. Dimmock (Direct. Collect. Coleop. 1872, pp. 19, 
20) writes: 'The larvae feed upon a fungus (Polyporus 
hcfn/ina) which is parasitic upon the trunks of white birch 
trees." According to Packard (Fifth Kept. U. S. Ent. Com., 
1890, p. 510) the beetle is common in New England and a 
large number of larvae taken in Belmont, Massachusetts, 
produced, beetles after a short period of pupation, on or 
about June 27, 1878. Smith (Ins. N. J. in State Mus. Rept., 
1909) states that it occurs throughout the state of New Jersey 


in May and June, being usually found on a white birch fungus 
and that Mr. Daecke bred it from such a fungus. 

During the winter of 1918-19, the larvae of this beetle 
were very abundant in Polyporus betulinus at Morristown, 
Oradell and Monmouth Junction and in Daedalea confragosa 
(Bol.) Fr., at Monmouth Junction and High Bridge, all 
localities in New Jersey. Both of these fungi are members 
of the family Polyporaceae and are common in New Jersey, 
the former occurring on birch and the latter on dead wood 
or on living trees, especially of willow. Polyporus betulinus 
on account of its white color is more conspicuous and not as 
likely to be overlooked as D. confragosa. 

Both the larvae and adults feed on the context and tubes 
and when numerous the fungus is completely riddled. Pupa- 
tion takes place in the context in a little chamber excavated 
by the larva and requires about ten days, usually occurring 
during the last of April or in May. On account of its hairi- 
ness, the larva is usually covered with particles of fungus as 
is also the beetle as it works in the context. Beutenmueller 
(Entomologica Americana VI, 1890, p. 57) states that eggs 
are deposited during the fall and that adults emerge the 
following spring, the larvae becoming full grown in May. 
Beutenmueller also describes the larva and pupa and his 
descriptions may be supplemented by the following addi- 

Larva. Cervical shield and anal process sometimes brownish. Head 
sparsely hairy. The fork-like process on the posterior extremity consists 
of a pair of prominent tubercles borne on a suboval, dorsal, chitinous 
plate on the ninth abdominal segment; each tubercle consists of a thick, 
central spine bearing five smaller ones; a long hair arises from the bases 
of the smaller ones. The chitinous plate is edged with minute tubercles 
each bearing a long hair and minute, similar tubercles occur on its sur- 

Thoracic legs sparsely hairy and armed with a sharp claw at tip. Ab- 
dominal segments somewhat produced laterally into tubercles. Kach 
thoracic and abdominal segment bears a thin, transverse, dorsal row of 
comparatively long hairs, with the lateral hairs longest; these rows of 
hairs are continued on the ventral abdominal surface. All hairs arise 
from somewhat tuberculate bases. Abdominal stigmata are located just 
above lateral tubercles. Length 6 to 9 mm. Width 2 to about 3 mm. 


Pupa with body tapering to a blunt point at the posterior extremity, 
which is provided with two short tubercles terminating in sharp spim -. 
The head bears several stiff hairs; anterior and lateral margins of thorax 
bear row of stiff hairs; dorsal surface of thoracic and abdominal segments 
bears transverse row of stiff hairs; all hairs arising from tuberculate bases. 

An Undescribed Species of Ptychoptera from 

the Western United States 

(Ptychopteridae, Diptera). 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Urbana, Illinois. 

The undescribed species of the genus Ptychoptera Meigen 
that is described herewith has been confused in collections 
with the much larger and darker P. lenis O. S. 

Ptychoptera minor n. sp. 

<f Length, 9 mm.; wing, 8.6 mm. Rostrum and mouth-parts yellow; 
palpi yellow, the last segment dark brown. Antennae with the basal 
segment yellow, the second segment brown, the flagellum dark brown. 
Head black, shiny. 

Pronotum yellow. Mesonotum black. Pleura black, gray pruinose, 
the dorso-pleural membranes bright yellow. Halteres yellow. Legs with 
the coxae yellow, marked on the outer face with purplish brown, the fore 
coxae with a basal band and an apical spot, the middle coxae with a basal 
and an apical band, the hind coxae with the outer face largely brown, 
only the apical margin yellowish; trochanters light yellow; femora yellow, 
the tips scarcely darkened; tibiae and metatarsi yellow, the tips darker; 
tarsi brown. Wings with a strong yellowish gray suffusion, the costal 
and subcostal cells and along vein Cu more yellowish; narrow, indistinct 
brown seams along the cord and at the fork of R^+5- Venation: Sc 
long, ending about opposite three-fourths the length of R4+S; Rx moder- 
ately long, in alignment with R4+S, sometimes spurred at origin. 

Abdominal tergites black, segments three to nine with the lateral mar- 
gins broadly reddish, this color increasing in amount on the terminal 
segments, the hypopygium entirely reddish; sternites black, broadly 
ringed caudally with yellowish. Male hypopygium with the ninth tergite 
massive, deeply notched medially as in P. lenis but the lateral lobes only 
moderately slender, their apices widely separated, quite far before tin- 
tip on the ventral face with a small, blunt reddish lobe. IViiis-guard not 
narrowed at the tip, the apex broadly rounded. 

In P. lenis the hypopygium is black, the lobes of the ninth tergite 
slender, very narrowly separated at their apices, close belon- i he tip 


with an appressed blackened spine; penis-guard conspicuously narrowed 

at the apex. 

Habitat: Western United States. 

Holotype, cf , Monterey County, California, July 22, 1896. 

Paratype, tf, Juliaetta, Idaho, May 3, 1904. Type in the 

collection of the author. 

This new species seems to be about as common as the only 

other western species of the genus, Ptychoptera lenis O. S. 

The two species are closely related but may be separated by 

the following key: 

Size larger (male, wing over n mm.); abdominal tergites black, including 
the hypopygium; lobes of the ninth tergite of the male hypopygium 
with a subapical black appressed spine on the ventral surface. 

P. lenis O. S. 

Size small (male, wing under 9 mm.); abdomen with the sides of the ter- 
gites and the hypopygium reddish; lobes of the ninth tergite of the 
male hypopygium with a blunt reddish ventral lobe some distance 
before the tip. P. minor n. sp. 

Notes on Buprestidae with Descriptions of New 

Species (Coleop.)- 

By JOSEF N. KNULL, Bureau of Plant Industry, Harrisburg, 


The following is a list of host-plants and emergence records 
of Buprestidae collected by the author and reared at Hum 
melstown, or Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. In all cases, the 
material was caged under out-of-door conditions. 

Chalcophorella campestris Say. At Harrisburg, Pa., ninety living 
adults were chopped from their pupal cells in a dead beech (Fagux inucri- 
cana) about 14 inches in diameter on March 13, by Mr. H. B. Kirk and 
the author. The adults, which appear in the spring, transform in ihc 
fall and pass the winter in the pupal cells. The species was also reared 
from dead willow (Salix nigra) and buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis) . 

Buprestis rufipes Fab. Pupae of this beetle were observed in the 
heart-wood of a dead American elm ( Uliinix <nncricana) at Hummelstown, 
Pa., June 28, and on July 10 the adults were mature. Adults \vcn- also 
reared July 5 from the wood of a dead sour gum (Nysxa xylniticn] col- 
lected at Hummelstown, Pa. Beetles were also reared from dead beirh 
(Fagus americand) and hickory. 


Buprestis lineata Fab. Adults were reared from dead Virginia pine 
(Pinus virginiana) collected at Rockville, Pa. 

Buprestis consularis Gory. Remains of adults were found in the 
wood of a dead pitch pine (Pinus rigida) at Charter Oak, Pa. 

Buprestis fasciata Fab. Adults were found in abundance on freshly 
cut pine log at Endeavor, Pa., July 30. 

Buprestis striata Fab. Breeds in dead soft and pitch pines. Adults 
which appear in the spring transform in the fall and pass the winter in 
the pupal cells. 

Dicerca prolongata Lee. Was found breeding in the wood of a dead 
large-toothed aspen (Populus grandidentata) at Charter Oak, Pa. 

Dicerca divaricata Say. This species does not seem to prefer any 
particular host-plant, and can be found breeding in a great variety of 
forest trees. Adults were reared from the dead wood of the following 
trees, collected at Hummelstown, Pa.: black birch (Betula lento), iron- 
wood (Ostrya virginiana), linden (Tilia americana), white ash (Fraxinns 
americana), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), redbud (Cercis canadensis), 
black ash (Fraxinus nigra) and American elm (Ulmus americana). 

Dicerca pugionata Germ. On July 19, adults of this species were 
reared from witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) collected at Manada Gap, 
Pa. Many of the witch-hazels in this section have been killed by this 

Dicerca obscura Fab. This species breeds in the dead wood of per- 
simmon (Diospyros virginiana), although adults were reared from the 
dead wood of staghorn sumach (Rhus typhina) collected at Hummels- 
town, Pa. 

Dicerca lurida Fab. The^ommon host-plant of this insect is hickory, 
although it will breed in a great variety of dead trees. Adults were reared 
from dead blue beech (Carpinus caroliniana) and alder (Alnus rugosa) 
collected at Hummelstown, Pa. 

Dicerca lepida Lee. This beetle breeds in dead ironwood (Ostrya vir- 
giniana). From material collected at Hummelstown, Pa., adults emerged 
from July n to July 29. 

Dicerca scobina Chev. Breeds in the dead wood of sour gum (Nyssa 
sylvatica). Adults were reared August 5 from material collected at State 
College, Pa. The adults emerge late in the season and hibernate through 
the winter. On March 24 a living adult was taken under the loose bark 
of a sour gum at Hummelstown, Pa. 

Dicerca americana Hbst. Two living adults were found on Decem- 
ber 13 and January 9 at State College, Pa., hibernating under the loose 
bark of a dead pine. 

Dicerca punctulata Sch. Found breeding in pitch pine (Pinus ri"i<lii ) 
at Hummelstown, Pa. 

Poecilonota cyanipes Say. An adult was reared June (>, from a Sa- 
I'fnln concolor Lee. gall on a branch of large-toothed aspen i/ 
collected at Milford, Pa., by Mr. H. H. Kirk. 


Cinyra gracilipes Melsh. Adults were reared from dead white oak 
(Quercus alba), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) and ironwood (Ostrya 
virginiana) collected at Hummelstown, Pa. Mr. A. B. Champlain in- 
forms me that he has reared this species from dead ash collected at Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Melanophila fulvoguttata Harr. At Hummelstown, Pa., this insect 
was found breeding in the bark of dead and dying hemlocks (Tsuga cana- 
densis). The work was confined entirely to the bark, and none of the 
larvae had entered the sapwood. 

Anthaxia viridifrons Lap. Was reared during June from the sapwood 
of dead American elm (Vim us americana) and hickory branches. 

Anthaxia quercata Fab. Anthaxia cyanella Gory can well be united 
with this species, as both forms are often reared from the same stick of 
wood. Adults were reared May 30, from the sapwood of dead redbud 
(Cercis canadensis) branches collected at Hummelstown, Pa.; also on 
May 29, from the sapwood of dead (Crataegus coccinea) branches collected 
at Harrisburg, Pa., and from the sapwood of a dead white pine (Finn* 
strobus) branch collected at Manada Gap, Pa. 

Anthaxia flavimana Gory. Breeds in white oak. 

Chrysobothris femorata Fab. Breeds in the bark and sapwood of a 
great variety of dead and dying fruit and forest trees. In Pennsylvania 
it seems to be largely secondary in its attack. 

Chrysobothris dentipes Germ. Was reared from the bark of a dead 
white pine (Pinus strobus) collected at Dauphin, Pa. 

Chrysobothris blanchardi Horn. A number of adults were reared 
June n, from the bark of a dead pitch pine (Pinus rigida) collected at 
Hogestown, Pa. 

Chrysobothris scabripennis Lap. & Gory. Adults chopped from the 
sapwood of dead white pine at Charter Oak, Pa., in June. 

Chrysobothris pusilla Lap. & Gory. Reared May 15 from the sap- 
wood of a dead pitch pine (Pinus rigida) branch collected at Hummels- 
town, Pa. 

Chrysobothris sexsignata Say. From material collected at Hum- 
melstown, Pa., adults were reared as follows: On May 29, from the sap- 
wood of dead hemlock (Tsuga canadensis); on July 12, from the bark of 
dead black ash (Fraxinus nigra); on June n, from the sapwood of dead 
white ash (Fraxinus americana); on July 3, from the sapwood of a dead 
red maple (Acer rubrum); on July 17, from the sapwood of a dead swamp 
white oak (Quercus bic.olor) branch. It also breeds in the sapwood of 
dead walnut (Juglans nigra) and in the injuries made by the larvae of 
Agrilus jnglandis in the bark of living butternut (Jnglaus cincrcd], the 
eggs being laid in the emergence holes of the Agrilus adults. 

Chrysobothris azurea Lee. Breeds in the sapwood of dead alder 
(A/iius rugosa) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) in the vicinity of 
I lummelstown, Pa. 


Chrysobothris harrisii Hentz. Adults were reared in June from 
small branches of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) collected at Hummels- 
town, Pa. 

Actenodes acornis Say. From material collected at Hummelstown, 
Pa., adults were reared as follows: On June 15, from the wood of dead 
red maple (Acer rubrum); on June 24, from dead beech (Fagus americava); 
on June 6, from dead black birch (Betula lento); on June 10, from dead 
hickory branch; on June 15, from dead black oak (Quercusvelutina). The 
larvae work through the heart-wood of the host-plants, often entirely 
riddling them. 

Acmaeodera culta Web. On September 7, a living adult was chopped 
from a dead hickory branch at Cresco, Pa. Adults were reared August 10 
from dead white oak (Quercus alba) branch collected at Hummelstown, Pa. 

Ptosima gibbicollis Say. In the vicinity of Hummelstown, Pa., this 
species breeds in redbud (Cercis canadensis), often attacking living trees, 
hastening their death and decay. The larvae work in the heart-wood 
of the tree and the adults which appear in the spring mature in the fall 
and pass the winter in the pupal cells. 

Eupristocerus cogitans Web. Forms galls on alder (Alnus rugosa 
and A . incana). The egg, which is covered with a chitinized protective 
covering, is deposited at a node, or at a point where the bark is rough. 
The egg hatches and the young larva goes beneath the bark after which 
it works down the stem for a short distance. It then encircles the stem, 
which injury later forms a gall on the plant. The life history extends 
over a period of two years, and the pupa cell is made at the top of the 

Agrilus juglandis n. sp. 

Form and color of A. masculinus. Antennae greenish, not quite reach- 
ing beyond the middle of the prothorax, serrate from the fourth joint ; 
head slightly convex, a feeble occipital impression, more distinct in the 
female; front densely punctate, becoming slightly strigose on occiput, 
middle of front to clypeus covered with long white pubescence. 

Prothorax wider than long, narrowed at base, sides in front arcuate, 
lateral margin sinuate, hind angles with a well denned carina in both 
sexes; disk convex, with an oblique lateral depression on each side, two 
depressions on median line as in A. otiosus; surface transversely st rigour. 
Scutellum transversely carinate, surface granulate. Elytra slightly sinu- 
ate behind the humeri, dilate behind the middle, apices separately rounded 
and serrulate; disk with a faint costa on each side, basal depressions 
shallow, sutural margin elevated behind the middle; surface closely im- 
bricate-granulate. Body beneath more shining than above, prosternal 
lobe broadly emarginate; prosternal process broad, slightly narrow in-, 
acute at tip. Pygidium without a projecting carina. First joint of 
hind lai'Mis as long as the following three joints: tarsal daw- 


cleft, the lower portion turned inward, nearly touching that of the opposite 
side, claws on all three pairs of feet in both sexes similar. Length 55 mm.; 
width I mm. 

cf. 'All three pairs of tibiae mucronate on the inner side. 

9 . Only anterior and middle tibiae mucronate on the inner side. 

Described from a large series of adults, most of which were 
beaten from the foliage of butternut (Juglans cinerea). Type 
collected by the authoi at Hummelstown, Pa., June 9, on 
butternut. Allotype reared from the outer bark of living 
butternut (Juglans cinerea) collected at Linglestown, Pa., 
by the author. Both types in the author's collection. 

The beetle breeds in the outer bark of living butternut 

(Juglans cinerea}. The injury made by the larva makes the 

tree susceptible to attack of other insects and Chrysobothris 

femorata Fab. and Chrysobothris sexsignata Say are often 

found working together with the above species. 

In the vicinity of Hummelstown, Pa., the pupal stage was 
observed on May 15, and the first adults appeared about 
May 25. Mr. Champlain states that the beetle causes con- 
siderable damage to the butternut in the vicinity of Lyme, 

In general appearance this species resembles A. masculimis, 
but according to Dr. Horn's key* it should be placed next 
to A. otiosus. It has been confused with A. otiosus in col- 
lections, but the males can easily be separated from the males 
of this species by the lack of the median line of pubescence 
on the ventral surface. 

Agrilus otiosus Say. Hickory seems to be the common host-plant 
of this species, although on June 5 adults were reared from a dead branch 
of persimmon (Diospyros mrginiana) collected at Rockville, Pennsylvania. 

Agrilus frosti n. sp. 

Form of A. otiosus. Antennae greenish; reaching beyond the middle 
of the prothorax, serrate from the fourth joint; head convex, densely 
punctate, becoming strigose on occiput. 

Prothorax wider than long, narrowed at the base, sides feebly arcuate, 
more strongly in the female, lateral margin sinuate, hind angles of male 
faintly carinate, carina sometimes nearly obliterated in the female; disk 

* G. H. Horn. The Species of Agrilus of Boreal America, Trans. AHHT. 
Knl. Soc., V. 1 8, p. 277-336, 1891. 


convex, two median depressions with an oblique lateral depression on 
each side, surface transversely strigose. Scutellum transversely carinate, 
surface granulate. Elytra sinuate behind the humeri, dilate behind the 
middle, apices separately rounded and serrulate; basal depressions slight, 
sutural margin elevated behind the middle, surface closely imbricate- 
granulatc. Body beneath more shining than above, prosternal lobe with 
slight emargination, prosternal process slightly narrowing, acute at tip, 
median line of pubescence lacking in both sexes, first two ventral segments 
of male flat, but not pubescent, Pygidium without a projecting carina. 
First joint of hind tarsus as long as the three following joints; tarsal claws 
deeply cle^t, the lower portion turned inward, nearly touching that of 
the opposite side, claws on all three pairs of feet in both sexes similar. 
Length 4 mm.; width .75 mm. 

c? 1 . Front bright green, tibiae on all three pairs of feet mucronate. 

9 . Front bronze, posterior tibiae not mucronate. 

Described from a series of three males and seven females. 
Type male and allotype collected at Framingham, Massa- 
chusetts, May 28, by Mr. C. A. Frost; two paratypes at 
Charter Oak, Pennsylvania, June 21, by Mr. H. B. Kirk 
and the author; one from Berks County, Pennsylvania, 
June i, without collector's label; one Harrisburg, May 24; 
one Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, June 6; and one Hum- 
melstown, June 2, by the author. Type material in the 
author's collection, two paratypes in the collection of the 
Bureau of Plant Industry. 

I take pleasure in naming this species after my friend, 
Mr. C. A. Frost, who has determined much material for me 
and given me many valuable suggestions. 

The species has been confused with A. otiosiis in collec- 
tions, but the lack of the ventral median pubescent stripe 
in the male will at once separate it from this species. The 
male genitalia are also different from those of A. oliosiis and 
A. juglandis, being flattened and flared at the apex. The 
sides are densely punctate above and below. In A. oliosiis 
and A. juglandis the sides of the male genitalia are nearly 
parallel near the apex. 

The male also lacks the ciliate antennae of A. criniconiis 
and the (imbriate and truncate last ventral segment of A. 
defectus. According to Dr. Horn's key, it would come after 
A. otiosus. 


The following table will serve to separate the males of the 
of the eastern species of the otiosus group. 

Tibiae of male on all three pairs of feet mucronate at the inner apical angle. 

Male pubescent on the median line of under side otiosus Say. 

Male not pubescent on the median line of under side. 

Male with the sides of the genitalia nearly parallel at apex, flared in 

middle, sides sparsely punctate juglandis n. sp. 

Male with sides of genitalia flared near apex, sides densely punctate. 

frosti n. sp. 

Male with the last ventral truncate and fimbriate: defectus Lee. 

Male with antennae long, slender and ciliate on the posterior side 
with relatively long hairs crinicornis Horn. 

Agrilus masculinus Horn. Adults were reared on April 14 from the 
sapwood of dead box elder (Actr negundo) branches collected at Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Agrilus defectus Lee. On May 29, adults of this species were reared 
from the dead branches of white oak (Quercus alba) collected at Hummels- 
town, Pa. 

Agrilus arcuatus Say. Adults were reared from girdled branches o f 
the following trees: On July 18, from black oak (Quercus veliilina) col- 
lected at Manada Gap, Pa.; on May 31, from beech (Fagus amencana) 
collected at Harrisburg, Pa.; on June 7, from hickory (Hicoria ovata) 
collected at Hummelstown, Pa. The egg seems to be laid on a small 
twig, where it hatches and the small larva enters the bark, working its 
way down the cambium to the branch. Later the branch is girdled and 
the larva, still in the girdled part, travels from one to six inches from point 
of girdling, where it enters the wood and forms a pupal cell. The girdled 
branch falls in the spring, after which the adult emerges. 

Agrilus vittaticollis Rand. Was found breeding in the living stems 
of shadbush (Amelanchier canadensis) at Dauphin, Pa. 

Agrilus bilineatus Web. Breeds in oak and chestnut, often causing 
the death of unhealthy trees. 

Agrilus anxius Gory. Breeds in various species of birch. At Speece- 
ville, Pa., it was found to be killing the poplars (Populus gran did enlata) 
which had been attacked by the poplar borer (Saperda calcarala Say). 

Agrilus cephalicus Lee. Was reared from the sapwood of dead dog- 
wood (Cornus flonda). This species is often confused with .1. otiosit*, 
but can easily be separated by the tarsal claws. 

Agrilus politus Say. Breeds in living willow and striped maple (Acer 
pennsylvanicum) . 

Agrilus fallax Say. Adults were reared by Mr. H. B. Kirk, from dead 
branches of honey locust (Gleditsia triacantlios) collected at New ("umber- 
land, Pa. 

Agrilus obsoletoguttatus Gory. Was reared from the dead brandies 
of the following species, collected at Ilnmmdstown Pa.: On June 15, 
from beech (Fagus americana); on June 2, from blue beech (Curpinits 


caroliniana); on June 12 from ironwood (Oslrya virginiana); on June 9, 
from red oak (Quercus rubra); on June 17, from hickory. 

Agrilus subcinctus Gory. Mr. H. A. Wenzel informs me that he 
takes this species on the foliage of poison ivy (Rhus toxicodcndron), and 
the numbers taken indicate that poison ivy is the host-plant. 

Agrilus lecontei Saund. Breeds in the wood of dead hackberry 
(Celtis occidentalis) in the vicinity of Harrisburg, Pa. 

Agrilus egenus Gory. Breeds in the wood of dead black locust 
(Robinia pseudacacia) in the vicinity of Harrisburg, Pa. 
Agrilus celti n. sp. 

Form and color of A. egenus, males often more greenish. Antennae 
greenish, reaching the middle of the prothorax, serrate from the fifth 
joint, serrate joints longer than wide; head convex, with faint median 
impression, front densely punctate, becoming strigose on occiput, middle 
of front to clypeus covered with long white pubescence. 

Prothorax wider than long, sides not strongly arcuate, hind angles 
rectangular, with a well-defined carina in both sexes; disk convex, median 
impressions light, lateral depressions well-marked, surface transversely 
strigose. Scutellum transversely carinate, surface granulate. Elytra 
sinuate behind the humeri, dilate behind the middle, apices separately 
round'ed and serrulate, basal depressions slight; disk depressed, surface 
imbricate-granulate. Body beneath more shining than above, prosternal 
lobe strongly emarginate. Pygidium without a projecting carina. First 
joint of hind tarsus as long as the following three joints; tarsal claws 
broadly toothed at base, claws similar on all three pairs of feet in both 
sexes. Length 4.5 mm.; width i mm. 

cf. Front more densely pubescent, greenish; prosternum densely 
pubescent, with pubescence extending on the second abdominal segment, 
first and second abdominal segments broadly but not deeply channelled ; 
sides of genitalia nearly parallel. 

9. Front less densely pubescent and less bright, without the stripe 
of dense white pubescence on under side, first and second abdominal 
segments without channel. 

Described from a large series of adults reared from dead 
branches of hackberry (Celtis occidental is), collected at Hum- 
melstoun, Pa., by Mr. H. B. Kirk and the author. 

Type male and allot ype in author's collection and reared 
June 3, from dead hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) branche> 
collected at Hummelstown, Pa., by the author. 

This species has been confused \\itl> .-1 . chains in collections, 
and although it is hard to separate the female's from tho>e 
of A . egenus, the males may be easily separated by an examina- 
tion of the genitalia. 


In A . celti, the sides of the male genitalia are nearly parallel, 
while in A. e genus there is a decided flare near the apex. 

According to Horn's key, this species would come after 
A. e genus. 

Pachyscelus laevigatus Say. At East Falls Church, Virginia, the lar- 
vae of this species were found mining in the leaves of Lespedeza virginica, 
Meibomia obtusa and M. viridiflora. The larva makes a small round cell 
between the layers of the leaf, where it passes the winter. In spring 
transformation occurs, and the adult emerges by the lifting of a small 
hinged lid. 

New or Interesting Psyllidae of the Pacific 

Coast (Honiop.). 

By D. L. CRAWFORD, College of Hawaii, Honolulu. 

Mr. W. M. Giffard, of Honolulu, has during the past few 
years collected a considerable number of Psyllidse in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon, representing some twenty-four species, 
one of which is new and another represents a new variety 
of a previously known species. Several others are more or 
less interesting because of the added distributional data 

The types of the new species and variety are deposited in 
the Museum of the California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco, by request of Mr. Giffard. 

Aphalara (Anomocera) anomala Crawford, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 
85, P- 37, 1914- 

This anomalous species of Aphalara with nine-segmented 
antennae and a supernumerary marginal cell in the fore- 
wings was described from three females from northern Cali- 
fornia. Mr. Giffard has collected three additional females 
from Niles Canyon, Alameda County, California. These are 
closely similar to the type. 

Euphyllura arctostaphyli Schwarz. Crawford, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 
85, p. 116, 1914. 

There is a good series of this species and its variety triveipeii- 
nis Schwarz in Mr. Giffard 's collection. Eight specimens 


from Placer and Sonoma Counties, California, typically rep- 
resent the species and seven from Placer and Lake Counties, 
California, represent the variety, while there are 36 others 
from Placer, Lake and Sonoma Counties which are more or 
less intermediate in the color of the fore wings and dorsum. 
As most of these latter approach the variety more closely 
than the species, I have grouped them with the former, 
but the standing of this variety appears now to be less certain. 
From the distributional data it appears that the variety 
niveipennis is not a regional one but rather a case of albinism 
occurring wherever the species is found. 
Euphyllura arctostaphyli bifasciata new variety. 

This variety resembles the species in size, structure of body and gen- 
eral appearance, but differs in wing colors. The forewings have a con- 
spicuous white or pale band transversely at base and another 'near apex 
which is more or less angled and does not extend entirely across wing. 
The color of_the remainder of the wing varies from dark as in the species 
to very light brown as in the darker representatives of the variety nivei- 
pen nis. 

In the series of specimens from which the writer prepared 
the description of this species in his monograph were a few 
specimens with this type of wing but it was deemed advisable 
not to separate these few into a variety. However, Mr. 
Giffard now presents seventeen specimens of both sexes and 
no truly intermediate forms to indicate that this is a variable 
characteristic. The statement, therefore, in the monograph 
(U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 85, p. 1 16), "forewings . . . often 
with a prominent white fascia at basal third and sometimes 
a whitish area or fascia subapically," should be omitted from 
the description of the species and applied to the variety 

Described from seventeen males and females collected by 
W. M. Giffard at Donner Lake, Placer County, California, 
August 24, 1917, and at Summit in the same county. 

Holotype, female (No. 463), in the collection of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences. 

Arytaina montana new species. 

Length of body 1.6 mm.; length of forewing 1.9 mm.; width of 
0.6 mm. (ieneral color brown to black; vertex, dor>.il Mirf.n < of 


cones and pronotum dirty white; dorsum of thorax with pale streaks and 
spots; in the lighter forms the dorsum is light with darker streaks and 
spots; antennae pale on basal portion, remainder dark; forewings whitish, 
with brown spots scattered over surface. 

Head not strongly deflexed; vertex with a foveal impression discally 
on each side o<" median line; genal cones nearly as long as vertex, rounded 
at apex, slightly divergent. Forewings rounded at apex, conspicuously 
spotted, pterostigma very small, short. 

cf . Anal valve longer than forceps, broad at base and tapering toward 
apex somewhat. Forceps broader and shorter than in A, ceanothcr taper- 
ing gradually to a blunt point at apex. 9 Genital segment not as 
long as rest of abdomen, thick at base and tapering to acute apex and 
slightly upcurved. 

Described from four males and four females all collected 
at Fallen Leaf Lake, El Dorado County, California, Aug- 
ust 21, 1916, by W. M. Giffarcl. 

Holotype, male (No. 464), in collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences. 

Of the species previously described, A. ceanothcr Crawford 
(U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 85, p. 130) appears to be most closely 
similar in structure and appearance, except that in the species 
referred to the wings are perfectly clear. 

A New Parasitic Cynipid Reared from a Clover 

Aphid (Hym.). 

By L. H. WELD, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of 


Through Mr. H. L. Viereck of the Biological Survey there 
came into my hands recently for examination a series of 
parasitic Cynipidae reared from a clover aphid at Twin 
Falls, Idaho, by Mr. Ralph H. Smith. The species runs 
to the genus Charips (formerly known as Allot ria or Xystns] 
and seems to be new. An examination of the literature shows 
that only eight American species of this genus have been 
described, one in the subgenus Bothrioxysta and the rest in 
the typical subgenus. From the published descriptions and 
from a study of the types of four of the species in the I'liilcd 
Slates National Museum, the following synopsis may imli- 


cate the relation of the species. The size and shape of the 
radial cell seem to give good specific characters and it is best 
studied of course in balsam mounts, but a two-thirds objective 
and ocular micrometer will serve the purpose on well mounted 
pinned specimens. As here used the "radial cell ratio" is 
the length of the radial cell divided by the width (inside 
measurements) and the "cell to wing ratio" is the maximum 
width of the front wing divided by the greatest width of the 
radial cell. 

Genus CHARIPS Haliday. 

Scutellum with 1-2 pits subgenus Bothrioxysta Kieffer. 

9 ; bred from Siphonophora ambrosiae on Ambrosia; Massachusetts 

ambrosiae Ashmead. 

Scutellum without pits subgenus Charips Haliday. 

"Head higher than broad." 

cf and 9 ; bred from an aphid on Tanacetum; Massachusetts 

areolata Kieffer. 
cf and 9 ; bred from Aphis atriplicis; Massachusetts 

hayhursti Kieffer. 

Head broader than high or not stated. 
9 antennae 14-segmented. 

d 71 and 9 ; bred from aphid on pine in Florida, .lachni Ashmead. 
9 antennae 13-segmented. 
"Radial cell almost twice as long as broad"; female; California 

bakeri Kieffer. 
Radial cell ratio i :2.i4; cell to wing I :,54; male; reared from orange 

aphis, Florida xanthopsis Ashmead. 

Radial cell ratio 1:2.3; ce ^ to wing 1.5.0; segm'ents 3, 4, 5 in male 

antenna all excised; male and female brassicae Ashmead. 

Radial cell ratio 1:2.3; cell to wing 1:8.6; female; reared from 

tomato aphis in Florida megourae Ashmead. 

Radial cell ratio 1:2.4; ce ^ to wing 1:7.0; segments 3, 4, 5 in male 
antenna not excised; male and female leguminosa Weld. 

Charips (Charips) leguminosa new species. 

9 . Polished black, legs and first five segments of antenna testaceous. 
Head broader than thorax with scattered white hairs; facial line .8 and 
axial .56 of transfacial ; lateral ocelli farther from each other than from 
eye; interocular area slightly broader than high; malar space equal to 
ocell-ocular; antennae 13-segmented, first and second stout and subequal, 
3-5 slender and becoming shorter, 6-13 incrassated and increasing in 
length to 1 2th with last one and one-half times preceding, all last eight 
showing in balsam about four longitudinal ridges in the middle of each 
of which is an elliptical clear spot. 

Pronotum with scattered white hairs. Mesoscutum broader than long, 
without trace of grooves but a few microscopic white hairs. Scutellum 
li.ill" as long as mesoscutum, conical in outline but rounded behind, no 
pits at base. 1'ropodeum with (wo outwardly bent cannae eiiclo^ini; a 


smooth area broader than high, lateral areas pubescent. Legs slender, 
femora 'infuscated, all tarsi longer than tibiae, claws simple. Wings 
longer than body, with distinct dark veins, radial cell closed, its 'ength 
divided by width (inside measurements) gives a quotient of 2.4, maximum 
width of wing divided by width of radial cell gives 7.0, second abscissa 
of radius one and one-half times first, from bottom of radial cell a spur 
sticks straight downward two-thirds as long as first abscissa of radius, 
a perpendicular line erected at middle of longitudinal axis of wing would 
just touch apex of radial cell, surface pubescent with dark hairs, margin 

Abdomen nearly as long as thorax, longer than high, with ring of hairs 
at base. Using width of head as a base the length of mesonotum ratio 
is i.o, antennae 2.6, wing 3.4. 

d 1 . Antenna 14-segmented, less abrupt change in size and color be- 
tween segments 3-5 (which are not excavated) and the last nine, length 
2.6 times width of head. 

Length of five males .55-. 9 mm., average .7 mm. Length of eight 
females -7--9 mm., average .8 mm. 

Type: Cat. No. 22589 U. S. Nat. Mus. Type female, allo- 
type and one male and four females paratypes. One pair 
paratypes with Acad. Natl. Sci. Phila., one pair in Coll. 
Biol. Survey, and two females (one in balsam) and one male 
with author. 

Type-locality: Twin Falls, Idaho. 

Biology: Reared from Aphis baker i Cowan, the clover 
aphis, June 15 and in July, 1919, by Mr. Ralph H. Smith, 
who says he has made repeated unsuccessful attempts to 
rear this Cvnipid as a parasite of the aphid but on two oc- 
casions reared them in cages along with Aphelimis lapsiligni 
Howard, the most important parasite of this aphid. He is 
therefore inclined to believe that the Charips is not a primary- 
parasite but is a parasite of Aphelimis !<ipsili>ii Howard 

Labenidae, a New Family in the Ichneumon- 

oidea (Hymen.)- 

By HENRY L. VIERECK, U. S. Bureau of Biological Survey, 

Washington, D. C. 

Labena Cresson, the following new genus and possibly 
Apechoneura Kriechbaumer differ from Grotea Cresson and 
most other, if not all other, Ichneumonidae in having the 


-abdomen inserted high up on the propodeum, like genera 
in the Evaniidae, and are for this reason referable to a sep- 
arate family. 

PSILOPARIA new genus. 

Presumably related to Apechoneura Kriechbaumer, of which 
it may prove to be a synonym but from which it appears to 
differ in its armed cheeks. Has also characters in common 
with Labena Cresson, Grotea Cresson, and Affyirliyssd Ash- 

Type: Psiloparia maculata new species. 

Psiloparia maculata new species. 

Type: No. 4119, The Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 

Type locality: Quebrada, Hacienda Guachipelin, Guana- 
caste, Costa Rica, Jan. 15, 1910 (Tristan and Calvert).* 

9. -Length 16 mm.; sheaths of the ovipositor 16 mm.; antennae 13 
mm.; body polished, head and thorax mostly yellow with reddish and 
black marks, abdomen mostly reddish with a blackish tinge. Facial 
line: transfacial line : : 44 : 55, eyes slightly emarginate on the inner mar- 
gin opposite the upper edge of the antennal fossa; antennocular line: 
facial line : : 3 : 44; front mostly reddish, with an impression on each side 
back of the antennal fossae, the impressions separated from each other by 
a median longitudinal crista that extends down between the antennal 
fossae where it is best developed a short distance below the upper edge 
of the face; front on each side elevated into a welt, along the eye maigin, 
that is higher than the adjoining edge of the eye and provided with a few 
coarse pits; face yellow except for a submarginal, longitudinal, dark 
stramineous stripe on each side, covered with large, shallow adjoining 
or nearly adjcining punctures the diameter of some of which : the an- 
tennocular line 1:2:3; fcit--e elevated above the edge of the adjoining eye 
margin along which it is transversely striate, and slightly convex, sepa- 
rated from the clypeus and the malar space by a furrow that is deepest 
between the malar space and the face; width of clypeus : length 
down the middle : : 15 :6; basal half of clypeus transversely oblong, trans- 
versely striate and separated from I he apical half by a transverse carina, 
the apical half smoother than I lie basal half but yellow like the basal 

[* For notes on this locality see Calvert, A. S. and I'. I'.: A Year of 
Costa Rican Natural History (New York, Macmillan, H)I7>, pp. 433 ft 
seq. The "Quebrada" referred to above is the "ablution brook" men- 
tioned on p. 435. P. P. CAI.VKKT.I 


half except for a median blackish spot; mandibles black and polished, 
heavier than in Labena grallator Say, their teeth poorly developed, rudi- 
mentary and rounded, greatest width of under side of mandibles : greatest 
length of mandibles : : 8 : 14; outer surface of mandibles triangular in 
outline, the height of the triangle : the length : : 6 : 14; labrum visible 
between the mandibles and the clypeus, cheeks yellow, rectangular be- 
neath and back of the eye, more highly developed than in Megarhyssa 
lunatrix Fabricius, occipital carina represented only by a band-like carina 
on the lower third of the cheeks and extending to the gular carina which 
it meets almost at the insertion of the mandibles; at the lower posterior 
angle of the cheek half way between these two carinae is a broad, flat- 
tened, rounded tooth; palpi similar to the palpi in Megarhyssa lunatrix 
Fabricius; occiput black and reddish; antennae much the same as in 
Megarhyssa lunatrix F., except in the terminal joint which in this species 
is shaped more like the end joint of the index finger than in M. lunatrix F.; 
antennae mostly dark reddish, the apical fourth mostly yellowish, con- 
trasting with the darker tip and darker basal three-fourths, third, fourth 
and fifth joints of the flagel blackish above. 

Pronotum mostly reddish, its sides partly yellow, partly black, its 
hind margin straight, a tooth near its lateral margin and half-way be- 
tween the anterior margin and the tegulae, directed outward and back- 
ward; dorsulum reddish except for a yellow anterior margin, a median, 
longitudinal yellow mark and a posterior black mark, uniformly, coarsely 
and transversely ribbed, notauli completely wanting, mesopleurae mostly 
yellow, anterior margin and prepectus black, a reddish and black mark 
on each posterior, upper fourth, scutel yellow with its posterior margin 
black, with three transverse carinae, the first and second arcuate, the 
third straight; metanotum yellow, with a reddish and black posterior 
margin and with an almost semilunar area bounded by an arcuate ridge 
anteriorly and a straight ridge posteriorly, tegulae oblong, yellowish and 
brownish stramineous. 

Wings almost colorless except as follows: apical eighth of wings mostly 
covered with an almost circular dark brownish macula; venation much as 
in Megarhyssa lunatrix F., notably differing in the absence of a ramellus, 
in the recurrent vein being received by the areolet before but near the 
middle and in the submedian vein joining the nervulus at the junction of 
its upper third with its middle third, nervellus not interstitial with the 
transverse cubitus, veins blackish, except for the costa which is dark 
stramineous and concolorous with the stigma. 

Legs short, mid and hind tarsi hardly longer than their tibiae, fore tarsi 
nearly twice as long as their tibiae, legs mostly yellowish, tarsi dark with 
yellowish tips except for the mid and hind onychii which are black or 
blackish like their claws, hind coxae, trochanters femora and tibiae red- 
dish, hind tarsi with the basal joint mostly blackish. 

Metapleurae almost square, yellow, reddish and black along the anterior 
; propodeum with its upper aspect mostly reddish on the basal half 


and mostly yellow on the apical half, posterior face yellowish except for 
a median blackish and reddish area, distance from metanotum to coxal 
line as viewed from behind: distance between coxal line and abdominal 
line : : 34 : 16; distance between coxal line and abdominal line : length of 
hind coxae : : 16 : 50. 

Abdomen petiolate, length of first tergite : its width at apex : : 70 : 19; 
length of first tergite : length of second : : 70 : 45; abdomen beyond fifth 
tergite almost bulbous, abdomen reddish stramineous throughout, more 
or less covered with blackish stains, first tergite with a yellow streak down 
the middle on its basal two-thirds, lateral margins of tergites, like the 
sternites more or less yellowish, sheaths with their apical fifth pale yellow, 
rest of sheaths black, ovipositor castaneous. 

To Proposers of New Genera. 

[The following has been received through Dr. L. O. Howard.] 

This ought to be quoted in every entomological journal on earth and 

special "marked copies" sent to men of Walkerian tendencies. C. F. 

BAKER, Los Baiios, Philippine Islands. 


"The remarks of M. (luerin Meneville on this genus are so apposite> 
and are so much more applicable at the present time, that we think we 
are doing some service in calling attention to them here. He says, 'The 
genus Remphan of Mr. Waterhouse, it seems to us, ought to be placed 
near Macrotoma. The author has forgotten to state its affinities, after 
having given its generic characters, commencing with the head and finish- 
ing with the abdomen, jHst as is the custom with many entomologists, 
and which is very convenient for celerity. In fact, in thus freeing one's 
self from the researches which ought to be really made in order to fix 
the place of a new genus, the task is reduced to almost mechanical work; 
for it is only to say all or almost all that can be seen of an insect to describe 
it, and leave to the poor reader the care and perplexity of picking whatever 
seems good to him.' Mr. \Yuterhouse is, however, one of the last that 
we can complain of in this respect; I nit the systematic determination ot 
some to content themselves with the barest descriptions, without giving 
the slightest clue to the position of their new genera, ought to disentitle 
them to the right of priority in the event of any of these genera being 
afterwards described in a conscientious and recognizable manner. < M 
course, it is a different matter when it is stated of any new genus that 
its affinities are doubtful or unknown to its author. As M. ( iuerin 
Meneville observes, these mechanical descriptions can be done by any 
one; the real test of competency will be found in the observation which 
every conscientious writer will feel it his duty to make in instituting, or 
proposing to institute, a new genus."- 1866, Pascoe, Pror. /<><>l. Sue., 5 .vs. 



[Jan., '20 

An Unusual case of Parasitism on Clastoptera 

obtusa Say (Hemip., Cercopidae; Dip., 


By W. J. BAERG, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 

In the summer of 1917, during the first two weeks in July, 
when I was collecting the nymphal stages of Clastoptera 
obtiisa on alder, Alnns americana, I found the spittle masses 
produced bv these nymphs inhabited by small dipterous 
larvae. Many of these larvae I found attached to the nymphs 
of the Clastoptera. Some of them I found lying around 
loose in the spittle masses. As a rule I found but one dip- 
terous maggot to one spittle mass. No maggots were found 
outside of the spittle. 

On taking one 
of the maggots 
and placing it 
near a Clas- 
toptera nymph, 
it would immedi- 
ately proceed to 
attach itself on 
the side of the 
abdomen and 
then bring up its 
caudal end and 
place it on the 
back of the 
nymph. See 
the accompany- 
ing text-figure. 

The maggots attach themselves by means of the mandibu- 
lar hooks. As a rule I found but one maggot attached to 
one host, in a few instances I found two maggots attached 
to one -nymph. The place of attachment on the spittle 

* From the Entomological Laboratory of Cornell University, Ithaca' 
New York. 



insect is usually on the side of the abdomen between the 
4th and 5th segments. After examining about a hundred 
specimens I failed to find that the maggots were causing 
any injury to the nymphs of the Clastoptera, with one excep- 
tion. This nymph appeared to be considerably bruised and 
irritated on the sides of the abdomen where the attachment 
is usually made. 

The maggots that I brought into the laboratory pupated 
in a day or so, and the adults emerged about a week later. 
These were identified by Dr. A. H. Sturtevant as Drosophila 
inversa Walker. The pupae of the Drosophila I found in 
both the spittle masses and in dry places on the twigs and 
leaves of the alder. 

Upon placing a number of the pupae of Drosophila hivcrsa 
in a \ial, I succeeded in rearing along with a number of the 
corresponding adults a few r Hymenopterous parasites. Mr. 
L. H. Weld identified the parasite as a "parasitic Cvnipid, 
one of the Eucoilinae." Lacking adequate material, Mr. 
Weld was unable to place it definitely. 

The Drosophila seems to specialize on Clastoptera obtiisa. 
There were numerous nymphs of Clastoptera proteus on Dog- 
wood and Viburnum bushes in the immediate vicinity of 
the alders on which I collected, but I failed to find any mag- 
gots in the spittle masses of Clastoptera proteus. 

According to all the observations that I was able to make, 
Drosophila inversa in its feeding habits marks no exception 
to the other members of the genus. It apparently feeds on 
plant sap in the form of spittle produced by the Clastoptera. 
It seems to be parasitic only in so far that it utilizes the CM < ss 
of the sap drawn from the plant tissues by the spittle insert, 
and in that it uses the spittle insect as a means <>l trans- 

Observations similar to the ones given in this paper are 
recorded by C. N. Ainslie, Canadian Entomologist, 3<">: 44. 

I wish to thank Dr. Sturtevant and Mr. Weld !<>r the 
identification of material. The drawing \va> made l>\ Mr. 
C. H. Kennedy, then of Cornell I 'niversity. 




1 . Label legibly all specimens as to locality and date of 
capture and collector's name; any other data that bear on 
the insect's relations to its environment are also desirable. 

2. When about to send insects by mail or express, first 
read the editorial in the NEWS for January, 1915, page 33. 

3. Check up identifications of material with the original 
descriptions as far as possible. 

4. When writing a paper for publication see that it is 
easily legible and leave a blank margin of half an inch or 
more on the left edge. 

5. Follow the Wistar Institute's or Muttkowski's (Annals 
Ent. Soc. America, iv, 194-217) suggestions for the prepar- 
ation of scientific papers. 

6. Add the names of the Order and the Family, to which 
the insects treated belong, to the title of your paper. 

7. Follow the International Rules of Zoological Nomen- 
clature in the forming of new generic and specific names. 

8. Specify the genotvpe of each new genus you propose. 

9. Specify the individual type or types (preferably a single 
type), the type locality and the museum or collection in 
which the type or types are located, whenever describing a 
new species. 

10. Label specimens which have served as types, or as 
originals of published figures or descriptions, with brief but 
sufficient references to the place of publication. 

11. When identifying a specimen, add your name, fol- 
lowed by the abbreviation "det." and the year to the laln-1 
bearing the generic and specific names. 



Notes and Ne\vs 

Changes of Address. 

Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson has removed to 36 Gramercy Park, New 
York City. 

The address of Mr. Edward A. Klages has been changed to 95 Belvi- 
dere Street, Crafton Station, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

A Biography of Miss A. M. Fielde. 

Helen Norton Stevens is the author of a Memorial Biography of Adele M . 
Fielde. Published by The Fielde Memorial Committee, New York, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, Seattle. Press of Pigott Printing Concern, Seattle, 
1918. 8vo, pp. 377, illustrated. Miss Fielde, it will be recalled, pub- 
lished a number of papers on the habits and faculties of ants, as men- 
tioned in an obituary notice in the NEWS for April, 1916, pages 191-2. 

Sentiment For and Against the Metric System. 

Apropos of our editorial in the NEWS for June, 1919, page 175, the 
World Trade Club of San Francisco states that, up to October, 1919: 
"Out of 58,226 petitions relating to exclusive use of metric weights and 
measures in U. S. America, now in the keeping of the Bureau of Standards. 
Department of Commerce, 57,800 petitions or 99.27% favor this progress, 
and only 426, or less than i%, oppose it. 

"New petitions are coming every day. The classification to date 
shows the following distribution of petitions: Manufacturing concerns, 
engineering concerns, engineers, architects, contractors were 9968 in 
favor and only 154 against meter-liter-gram. Chambers of commerce, 
trade organizations, exporters, importers were 9974 in favor and only 51 
against meter-liter-gram. Educational institutions, beneficent organi- 
zations, individuals in professions were 22,443 in favor and only 74 against 
meter-liter-gram. Similarly, in all other vocations, although petitioners 
were free to declare for or against meter-liter-gram, less than i' < objected; 
and over 99% favored metric standards exclusively." 

Increase Asked to Fight Mosquitoes (Dip. Culicidae). 

Under this heading the Philadelphia Public Ledger of December S. 
1919, says: "The Atlantic County [New Jersey] Mosquito Commission 
will ask the Board of Freeholders for an appropriation of $30,000 for tin- 
work mapped out for next year. The sum appropriated last year was 

24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NK\\ -> [Jan., *2O 

$26,000, and the increased cost of labor, material and appliances, it is 
said, necessitates a larger sum. 

"New drainage contemplated includes the meadows south of Middle 
River above Sedge Creek and between Middle River arid the Great Egg 
Harbor River, and also for the salt marsh on Brigantine Island. The 
new road across the meadows from Absecon will make it necessary to 
change the system of drainage in that vicinity. 

"Among the plans of the commission is the stocking of the meadow 
streams with fish that subsist on the larvae of the mosquito." 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South'), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the end of each Order 
of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cambridge, 
Mass. 9 The Entomologist, London. 10 Proceedings o f the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington, D. C. 12 Journal of Economic En- 
tomology, Concord, N. H. 15 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 17 Lepidoptera, Boston, Mass. 33 Annales de la 
Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Brussels. 53 Nature Study Review, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 69 Comptes Rendus, des Seances de 1'Academie des 
Sciences, Paris. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher Jena. 90 The American 
Naturalist, Lancaster, Pa. 91 The Scientific Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 
100 Biological Bulletin of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods 
Hole, Mass. 101 Journal of The Linnean Society of London. 

GENERAL. Diven, E. L. Obituary note. 10, xxi, 177-8. Er- 
hardt, E. Zur kenntnis der innervierung und der sinnesorgane der 
flugel von insecten. 89, xxxix, Abl. f. Anat., 293-34. Loeb, J. Natural 
death and the duration o f life. 91, ix, 578-85. McAtee, W. L. Pis- 
catorial entomology. 4, 1919, 257-8. Mottram, J. C. Some obser- 
vations on the feeding-habits of fish and birds, with special rrlrtenri 1 to 
warning coloration and mimicry. 101, xxixv, Zool., 47-60. Swynner- 
ton, C. F. M. Experiments and observations bearing on tin- explanation 
of form and coloring. 101, xxxiii, Zool., 203-385. 


GENETICS, ETC. Lancefield, D. E. Scarlet an autosomal eye 

color identical with sex-linked vermilion. 100, xxxv, 207-10. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Downing, E. R. The burrowing spider of 
the dunes and its chief enemy. 53, xv, 317-21. 

NEUROPTERA. Macnamara, C. Further remarks on Collembola. 
4, 1919 241-5 (cont.). 

ORTHOPTERA. Cuenot, L. La coaptation des femurs anterieurs 
et de la tete chez les Phasmes. 69, clxix, 835-8. Lucas, W. J. Orthop- 
tera in Captivity. Preserving Orthoptera. 9, 1919. 249-52. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. C. Wilsonia A correction. 4, 1919, 
253. Davis, J. J. Correction (Aphididae). 4, 1919, 263. Ferris, 
G. F. Notes on 'Coccidae IV. 4, 1919, 249-53. Riley, C. F. C. 
Some habitat responses of the large water-strider, Gerris remigis. 90, 
liii, 483-505. 

Davidson, W. M. New aphids from oaks. 4, 1919, 245-8. Pop- 
pius, B. Uebersight der Pilophorus arten nebst beschreibung verwandter 
gattungen. 33, Iviii, 237-54. Poppius, B. Einige neue Miriden gat- 
tungen und arten aus Nord-Amerika und Cuba. 33, Iviii, 255-61. Swain, 
A. F. -A synopsis of the Aphididae of California (Univ. California Pub., 
Ent., iii, 1-221). 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dean, F. R. A freak Catocala palaeogama var. 
phalanga. 17, iii, 84. Gunthrop, H. A butterfly new to Kansas. 
4, 1919, 257. Mosher, E. Notes on the pupae of the European corn 
borer, Pyrausta nubitalis, and the closely related species, P. penitalis. 
12, xii, 387-9. Strand, E. Lepidopterorum catalogus. Pars. 22. 
Arctiidae. Subf. Arctiinae. 416 pp. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. The crane-flies of New York. Pt. i. 
Distribution and taxonomy of the adult flies. (Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. 
Sla., Mem. 25, 767-993.) Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. Four new South 
American mosquitoes. 15, vii, 105-13. Description of the larvae of 
\\veomyia aphobema. 15, vii, 114. Brues, C. T. The occurrence of 
Anopheles punctipennis in Northern New England. 5, xxvi, 143. Goet- 
ghebuer, M. Note a prcpos de racrouplement de Johannseniella (Cera- 
topogon) nitida. 33, Iviii, 202-204. Grimshaw, P. H. The collection 
and preservation of diptera. (Scottish Nat., 1919, 151-6.) de Meijere, 
J. C. H. Bro m's klasscn und ordnungen des tier-reichs. Bel., v, Abt., 
III,i -64. Mosier & Snyder. Notes on the seasonal activity of Tabani- 
dac in the lower everglades of Florida. 10, xxi, 186-96. 

Alexander, C. P. New species of Eriopterine crane-flies from the 
I'nited States. 15, vii, 143-48. Dyar, H. G. A revision of the Amer- 
ican Sabethini of the Sabethes group by the male genilalia. 15, \ii. 
ii) 42. The larva of Xanthopastis timias again 15, vii, 14'). A nru 
subgemi> nl Culex. 15, vii, 150. Malloch, J. R. A new >pd'ir> <>\ 


the genus Tachydromia from Illinois (Emphididae). 4, 1919, 248. A 
new species of Phoridae from Illinois. 4, 1919, 256-7. 

COLEOPTERA. Blackman, M. W. Notes on several species of 
Pityophthorus breeding in the limbs and twigs of white pine. 5, xxvi, 
134-42. Fink, D. E. Hibernating habits of two species of lady birds. 
12, xii, 393-5. Portevin, M. G. Silphides et Liodides nouveaux. 33, 
Iviii, 190-198. Vandevelde, G. La construction de la coque ovigere 
de 1'Hydrophile. 33, Iviii, 205-8. Weiss, H. B. Notes on Eustrophus 
bicolor, bred from fungi. 5, xxvi, 132-33. Weiss, H. B. Cataroma 
nigritulum and its fungus host. 4, 1919, 255-6. 

Fall, H. C. The North American species of Coelambus. (J. D. 
Sherman, Jr., Mount Vernon, N. Y. 19 pp.) Fisher, W. S. Descrip- 
tions of new N. Am. Ptinidae, with notes on an introduced Japanese 
species. 10, xxi, 181-6. Wickham, H. F. Tw r o new sps. of Asaphidion 
from North Am. (Carabidae). 10, xxi, 178-81. 

HYMENOPTERA. Goodrich, E. S. Notes on the bionomics, em- 
bryology, and anatomy of certain H. Parasitica, especially of Microgaster 
connexus. 101, xxxiii, Zool., 387-416. Wheeler, W. M. A singular 
neotropical ant (Pseudomyrma filiformis). 5, xxvi, 124-31. 

Bequaert, J. The nearctic Psammocharids of the genus Aporinellus. 
5, xxvi, 116-23. Weld, L. H. -A new oak gall from Arizona. (Cyni- 
pidae.) 4, 1919, 254-5. 

LIBELLTILINEN MoNOGRAPHiscH bearbeitet von DR. F. Ris, of Rheinau, 
Switzerland. Being Fascicules IX-XVI (2e partie) of the Collections 
Zoologiques du Baron Edm. de Selys Longchamps, Catalogue System- 
atique et Descriptif. Bruxelles, Hayez, Impr. des Academies, 1909-1919. 
4to. 1278 pp., 692 text-figs., 8 colored plates. 

This is one of the most extensive taxonomic, entomological works of 
recent years. Its completion has been delayed by the war, for while 
fascicules IX-XVI (ire partie) were published in 1909-1913, the second 
part of fascicule XVI, comprising pages 1043-1278, although printed in 
1916, was not distributed, even in Belgium, until March i, 1919. The 
cause of this delay has been explained by a note by M. Severin, in the 
NEWS for October, 1919, pages 229-230. While part i of fascicule XVI 
terminated. the main text, this last installment ot 1919 forms a supplement 
(pp. 1043-1228) to all the preceding fascicules,* gives a Verzeichniss dcr 
Literatur of the subfamily (pp. 1229-1245), a systematic list, with 

* The laigest collections furnishing the supplementary material are 
those of Mr. E. B. Williamson, of Bluffton, Indiana, madi- in < '.uatrmulu 
in 1909 and (with his father, Mr. L. A. Williamson, and Mr. H. J. Kaim-y) 
iu British Guiana and Trinidad in 1912. 


references, of the 120 genera and 556 species recognized (pp. 1247-1258) 
and an alphabetical index of the taxonomic names (pp. 1259-1278). 

It is distinctly astonishing to find that as far back as 1893 the known 
genera and species of this subfamily were already reckoned at 104 and 
525, respectively.* Dr. Ris has admitted many species and genera de- 
scribed since that time, but he has also relegated many of the earlier names 
to the synonymy or to the rank of subspecies, for which latter he has 
employed trinomials. 

It is of interest to note the different bases upon which successive writers 
have founded their classifications of the subfamily Libellulinae, which, 
even in Burmeister's Handbuch of 1839, was represented by the single 
genus Libellula. Newman, indeed, in 1833, proposed a subdivision into 
genera differing in the shape of the abdomen. Rambur, in 1842, dis- 
regarding these, used a venational character for his first dichotomy of 
the Libellulides, followed in the next four by differentials drawn from the 
abdomen and the eyes; the four genera still remaining were then dis- 
tinguished by three venational, one vulvar and one thoracic character. 
The classification of the Libellulines of Europe into two genera by de 
Selys and Hagen, in 1850, is primarily venational, while the 12 genera 
employed by Hagen in his Synopsis of the Neuropiera of North A merica 
(1861) 9 of them new were largely founded on characters drawn from 
the eyes, the posterior lobe of the prothorax, the abdomen, the legs and 
the external genitalia and only to a slight degree from the wings. Brauer 
(1868), dealing with the world fauna, raised the number of genera to 40 
and, although making an increased use of the venation, relied to a greater 
extent on the other Hagenian differentials. The diagnoses of the 88 
genera recognized by Kirby (1889) are predominantly venational, much 
more so than his Table of Genera, and Karsch (1890) emphasized the 
same feature, while the reviewer, in the Biologia Centrali- Americana 
( I 95)> made the hind prothoracic lobe the primary character, closely 
followed by venation. 

Dr. Ris has placed the genera of the Libellulinae in ten groups,! desig- 
nated by numbers and based chiefly on the arrangement of the wing- 
veins, although other features are by no means disregarded. He expressly 
says: "Die folgende Gattungs-tabelle ist fast ausschlicsslich auf die 
Fliigeladerung aufgcbaut; von andern Merkmalen ist nur noch der Ban 
des Prothorax in grosserm Umfange herangezogen." It is in the resem- 
blances of the venation of such a Libelluline as Hypothemis to that of the 

* Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XX, p. 207. 

t To three of these groups Dr. Ris gives names: VIII. Die Tritlicmix- 
C.ruppe, IX. Die Macrothemis-Gruppe, X. Die Tninii-(',n\\>\H-. Dr. 
Tillynrd (Biology of Di'n^oi/Jlics, 1917, pp. 269-273) has a synopsis <>f 
ilicM' groups, which he calls tribes; he has, however, united Dr. Ki-'- 
;,;.ionps IV and Y into one tribe and YIN and IX into one tribe, thii- 
N t libes in all; to these tribes lie gives names. 


Gomphine Agriogomphus and to that of the Corduline Cordulephya that 
he finds preserved the remains of a common primitive form of the Anisop- 
terous wing and which, in addition to the similarity of front and hind 
wings, offers him a starting-point for a phylogenetic arrangement of the 
Libelluline genera. He has chosen to put the generic table in a form 
"more difficult to use, but giving a truer presentation of the natural sys- 
tem, rather than to construct a dichotomous table for mechanical identi- 
fication," as the realization of the former idea seemed to him to be more 
important than to help the beginner. It must be admitted that, in prac- 
tice, the reference of an unfamiliar form to its proper group by this table 
is not always easy. 

Very full bibliographical references for the genera and especially for 
the species are given up to 1915, so that for this subfamily the catalogues 
of Kirby and of Muttkowski are superseded by the present work. After 
each reference under a species the locality or country to which that cita- 
tion applies is given in parentheses, a very useful addition. The material 
studied for this monograph is listed under the museums or collections 
to which it belongs, so that the geographical distribution of any species 
can only be ascertained by collating and rearranging these data a feature 
which can not be praised. Special attention has been paid to pointing 
out any differences found between specimens of the same species from 
different localities, even where such are not given subspecific rank. 

Dr. Ris has rightly perceived that a most important task called for in 
the execution of this monograph, where so many forms had already been 
described, was that of critical comparison to determine the status of those 
previously named and he has exercised this function throughout, not 
hesitating to express in the supplement views different from those put 
forth in some earlier fascicules. 

The typography is very clear. Dr. Ris's photographs of wings and 
M. Menger's drawings of genitalia and other details are reproduced as 
excellent half-tones in the text. The colored plates show entire insects 
in most cases. The paper is of a finish correctly designated as elegant, 
but, alas, with a weight which is serious when the fascicules are handled 

The last words of the introduction to fascicule XVI, part 2, may be 
freely rendered thus: "As I now give out this great work from my hands, 
I am very conscious more so than at its beginning that it is not a 
conclusion but a commencement, a foundation on which more can be 
built, more easily and more safely than before the extensive material was 
collected and sifted." For that collecting and sifting we offer our thanks 
and our praise to the author, our hearty congratulations for his execution 
of the "legacy" received from the great Belgian master. Only after we 
have studied his work in detail, by comparisons with the insects of which 
it treats, can we presume to fully appreciate its value. 




Cresson and the late Mary A. (Ridings) Cresson, died at his 
home in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, on October 18, 1919. 
He was born in Philadelphia, November 15, 1859, and at- 
tended public and private schools in that city. It is natural 
to think that an inherited tendency from his father, the well- 
known pioneer in American hymenopterology, and from his 
maternal grandfather, James Ridings, collector of insects, 
as well as home environment, led him to become conservator 
of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia in 1 880-81 and 1886-89, an d Curator 
of the American Entomological Society in 1888-89. From 
1883 to 1886 he printed volumes XI-XIII of the Society's 
Transactions. It was during his custodianship that the 
writer of these lines, then a high school boy, first made ac- 
quaintance with the library and study collections of the 
Academy. I had gathered various insects, but was more 
particularly devoted to butterflies, of which, in 1886, I was 
making colored drawings. Mr. George Cresson found me 
delving into the entomological books and my diary for De- 
cember 18, 1886, records: "Mr. Cresson of the Academy of 
Nat. Sci. first began to aid me, about this time." I recall 
distinctly that he told me that so many were interested in 
Lepidoptera and Coleoptera that I could do more and find 
more new things if I studied some other group of insects. 
I had a few dragonflies and the effect of his advice is to be 
seen from another note in my diary: "Jan. 28, 1887. About 
this time I commenced the study of the Neuroptera." 

While he was interested in natural history in general, he 
\\.is especially concerned with ants and formed a represent, i- 
tive collection, secured through exchange with prominent 
Europeans, such as Professors Emery, Forel and others. Re- 
appears never to have published on entomology. 

After leaving the entomological custodianship in 1889, 
he engaged in the insurance business and was for main 
years with the Franklin Fire Insurance Company of Phila- 


delphia, of which his father was secretary, and later with 
the People's National Fire Insurance Company. He served 
on the School and Public Health Boards of Swarthmore. 
He was a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences and 
of the American Entomological Society from 1879 to 1883, 
when he resigned, but was subsequently reflected to both 
of them in 1887, retaining his membership until his death. 
He was librarian of the Society 1892-96. 


HEREWARD CLUNE DOLLMAN, who was Entomologist to the 
Sleeping Sickness Survey of the British South Africa Com- 
pany in 1913 and subsequently, died in London, January 3, 
1919, from that disease whose ravages he had sought tc 
combat. While in Africa he made excellent collections ol 
Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and other insects which, with his 
drawings of larvae, notes on life histories, etc., have been 
presented by his father to the Natural History Museum at 
South Kensington. He was born March 10, 1888, and was 
educated at St. Paul's School and St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. (Ent. Mo. Mag., London, June, 1919.) 

The same Museum has also received collections from New 
Zealand, Africa and Samoa, made by HAROLD SWALE, M.D., 
born at La Verie, near Dinant, Brittany, of English parents, 
died in England, May 3, 1919. He occupied various medical 
posts in the tropical regions named above. (Ent. Mo. Mag., 
June, 1919.) 

The death of FREDERIC HOVA WOLLEY DOD, of Midnapon-, 
Alberta, Canada, on July 24, 1919, in a hospital at Chanak. 
[Macedonia?], is announced in The Canadian Entomologist 
for October last. His articles on the Noctuidae in that 
journal and in the NEWS are well-known and well appreci- 
ated. At the time of his death he was Second Lieutenant in 
the Yorkshire Light Infantry, attached Macedonian Labor 

The NEWS for December, 1919, was mailed at the -Philadelphia, Pa 
Post Office on December 20, 1919. 


When we first used this word, it meant Elco Card Index Mounts only. The 
word Elco, as now used, applies to our entire line of Lepidoptera Specialties and 
Supplies, made and sold by us. It is our intention to increase this line as fast as 
it is practical to do so. 

The items ready for business are listed below. A number of others will be 
ready during the winter. 


Dept. i STOCK DEPARTMENT, LEPIDOPTERA Papered or pinned; mounted 

in Elco Art Mounts, Riker Mounts, Elco Wing Mounts. Prices on 


5x6 inches, $1.25; 8 x 12 inches, $2.50; 12 x 16 inches, $5.00 


Ruled, white, $4 x 1^2, 650. per 1000 
Plain, white, gummed, ^ X i%, SQC. per 1000 
Plain, bristol board, 65c. per 1000 

ELCO INDEX TABS Eight colors gummed, % X ^8, for color classification 
of records and specimens, 25c. per 1000 assorted. 

ELCO CELLULOID SPREADING STRIPS Transparent, assorted lengths, 
toe. per 1000 


3 x 5, lOc. each; 4x6, I5c. each; 5x8, 2oc. each. 

ELCO CARD INDEX WING MOUNTS Prices of sets on application. 
Dept. 4 COLLECTOR'S SERVICE DEPARTMENT Information in regard to this 
Department on request. 

S. C. CARPENTER, Lepidoptera, 62 So. Whitney Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Containing over 700 Different 

C A T 1? 
O \ JL/ Hy 

Spscies mounted on Cotton in 60 glass-covered drawers, in 
oak cabinet, with large bottom drawer. 


RFPFNT ARRIVAI *> PapHio horishanus (n. sp.), Formosa. 
r\E,^Ll\| 1 /AIXIM V /AL-, . Large _ p erfect Males only $ 8 oo 

Lot 50 Formosan Butterflies, includes many rarities, $10.00. Cheap lots from 
Africa, South America or India, 50 for $5.00. 500 each Morpho amazonicus 
and deidamia to be sold quick; first quality, 35c.; seconds, 25c. 15% discount 
for IOO lots. Thousands of butterflies always in stock. 

G. G. MACBEAN, LepidopUrlst, Assiniboia, Sask., Canada 

INSFfT I IFF HISTORIF^ of a11 deceptions prepared for Colleges, 
inOE.ll LIFE, maiUIUE.3 SchoolS) Departments of Health, etc. 

Insects for Dissections. Pressed Cork. Send for Lists. 

P. O. Box 432 Perth Amboy, New Jersey 


From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 


Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

< t 

From Venezuala: From New Guinea: 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 2000 Coleoptera 

200 Dynastes Hercules 200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 


Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) 

Armandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 404-410 W. 27th Street 



Vol XXXI. 

No. 2 


E. T. CRESSON, JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D., Editor Emeritus. 



J. A. G. REIIN. 


Entered at the Lancaster, Pa., Post-Office as Second Class Matter 

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VOL. XXXI. FEBRUARY, 1920. No. 2. 


Cole Notes on the Lunate Onion Fly, 
Eumerus strigatus (Dip., Syrph- 
idae) 31 

Stevens Notes on Species of Halictus 
Visiting Evening Flowers (Hym.) . 35 

Spooner Some Notes on the Occur- 
rence of Delphacinae (Hemip. 
Homop.) 44 

McAtee Specific, Subspecific and Vari- 
etal Categories of Insects and the 
Naming of them 46 

Braun Coleophora apicialbella nom. 
nov. (Microlepid.) 55 

Caudell A Correction in the Mecopo- 
dinae (Orthopt.) 55 

Editorial Entomology at the Convo- 
cation Week Meetings of 1919-20. 56 

Metcalf A Suggestion for a Better 
Popular Name for the Fulgoridae 
(Hemip.) 57 

Change of Name 58 

Entomological Literature 58 

Notes on the Lunate Onion Fly, Eumerus 
strigatus (Dip., Syrphidae) 

By F. R. COLE, Bureau of Entomology, Palo Alto, California. 

Several articles on the Lunate Onion Fly have appeared 
recently and Prof. Metcalf 's paper (Ent. News, XXX, p. 170- 
174) gives a good summary of our knowledge of this potential 
pest in this country. In view of the possible importance of 
this fly it may be worth \vhile to describe and figure the species 
and to give certain observations which have been made on 
its habits. 

It is an European species and the larva was recorded in 
England as early as 1842 by Curtis (Card. Chronicle, II, 1842). 
In 1845 Dufour described and figured the larva and two years 
later Bouche wrote a paper on the early stages, stating that 
the larvae often destroy whole crops of the common onion. 
Herold in 1915 (Zeitschr. fur wiss. Inseckten, XI, 345) re- 
cords great damage to potatoes by the larvae of E. strigatns. 


The history of Eumerus strigatus in this country is a brief 
one, the first written record being by C. W. Johnson in 1910, 
and the earliest known capture was at Ottawa, Canada, in 
1904 by Dr. Fletcher. In addition to the records given by 
Prof. Metcalf there are specimens in Dr. Chittenden's collec- 
tion at Washington, D. C., taken at Oyster Bay, New York, 
August 24, 1914, with a note "feeding on iris." There are 
several species common to Europe and the Pacific Coast, but 
it is very probable that E. strigatus is a recent arrival and was 
first introduced into the Atlantic states in shipments of iris 
and narcissus bulbs from Holland. 

The genus Eumerus is a large one and occurs in many parts 
of the world, sixty species being listed by Kertesz in his Kata- 
log, some of w^hich may be synonyms. There are about 
thirty species in Europe; five species are known only from 
Africa and eight species are common to Europe and Africa, 
strigatus being one of these. Species of Eumerus have been 
described from India, China, Hawaii, Asia Minor, Canary 
Islands, Sicily, Celebes, New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, 
Sardinia and St. Helena. 

The systematic position of the. genus is not very certain; 
it is nearXylota and Syritta, having the hind femora thickened, 
but is also near the Pipiza group, certain characters allying 
it to Paragus. The larval habits approximate those ot Mero- 
don. Verrall says that species seem to him to have some con- 
nection with small aculeate hymenoptera, with which they 
are often found, flying at the outskirts of woods over various 
flowers, usually in dry and sandy localities. 

While at Hood River, Oregon, in 1917, the writer collected 
a small syrphid flying over grass and flowers at the edge of 
an apple orchard and it was rather a surprise to recognize 
Eumerus strigatus when sorting over the odds and ends in 
the killing bottle. It was subsequently noted that there was 
an onion patch not far from the place of capture. Mr. L. 
Childs and myself then examined a small onion bed at the 
Hood River Experiment Station and found in addition to the 
common onion maggot large numbers of syrphid larvae work- 
ing in the bulbs. This was on July 2Oth and during the day 


several adults of E. strigatus were observed flying about in 
the sunshine and alighting on the plants; several pairs were 
taken in copulation at this time. The females were seen 
crawling into crevices in the ground at the bases of the onion 
plants and ovipositing in the leaf sheaths just above the bulb. 
Onions taken from the ground at this time contained several 
sizes of larvae of both E. strigatus and Hylemyia antiqua. 
This material was kept in the laboratory and the surphid lar- 
vae pupated in March and April, emerging in late April, and 
early May, a little later than specimens of the anthomyid 
maggot from the same bulbs. The small onion bed at Hood 
River was almost entirely destroyed, an interesting fact, as 
it is the first recorded instance of this fly attacking onions in 
the United States. It greatly outnumbered the other onion 
maggot associated with it. 

I have seen specimens of the adult of E. strigatus from 
Forest Grove and Corvallis, Oregon, and also in the collection 
at Vernon, British Columbia, the latter collected near the 
large onion farms at Kelowna, B. C., by R. C. Treherne. The 
species is very probably established as an onion pest in other 
sections along the Pacific Coast. There may be biological 
races of the species as in the case of the apple maggot; it has 
so far confined itself to iris and narcissus bulbs in this country. 
One of the specimens bred from iris at Oyster Bay, New York, 
mentioned above, is in the writer's collection; it is smaller 
than individuals bred from onions at Hood River, Oregon, 
and the colors are more blue and less green and coppery. The 
antennae In this specimen are lighter colored and the third 
joint is narrower. 

The larval and pupal stages will not be described at length 
in this paper. The larvae are quite different in appearance 
from the common onion maggot, being pale green in color, 
rather flat and with an ornamented surface having projections 
along the sides. The posterior re.spiratory process is bright 
red. The pupa is light brown when mature and resembles 
that of Pipiza. A description of the adult is given below: 

Eumerus strigatus Fallen. 

Pipiza strigata Fallen. Dipt. Suec. Syrphici, 618, 1817. 



[Feb., '20 

Eumerus grandicornis andfuneralis Meigen, Syst. Beschreib. Ill, 208, 

E. lunulatus and planifrons Meigen, 1. c. Ill, 209. 

E. aeneus Macquart, Soc. Sc. Lille, 269, 1827. 

E- selene Loew, Programm Posen, V, 28, and Isis, V, 561, 1840. 

Microxylota robii Jones, gen. et sp. nov., Annals Ent. Soc. of America, 
X, p. 230. 

cf 1 . Vertex rather long, aeneous, with black pile in front a little longer 
than the second joint of the antenna; the rest of the pile on the head is 
sparse and yellowish. Eyes with a few very fine white hairs behind and 
below. Frontal triangle and epistoma gray pruinose, the ground color 
of the frons obscured. Face dark green in color and white pilose. Eyes 
touching for a short distance above the antennse. Antennae blackish, 
the third joint more brown and distinctly longer than broad; thickly gray 
pruinose; the basal joints with bristles below (see figure). Occiput 
slightly swollen above. 


Eumerus strigutus Fallen, female, a, antenna of female; b, antenna of male. 

Thorax shining green, punctate, in some places more or less brassy. 
There are two narrow gray vittae on the dorsum abbreviated behind. The 
fine short pile of the thorax is yellowish in color. Scutellum colored as the 
thorax, punctate, the margin finely serrated and with longer pile. Pleura 
aeneous and white pilose. 

Abdomen aeneous, distinctly punctate, with three pairs of lunules or 
oblique grayish white bands; the gray spaces are a little impressed. Pile 
of abdomen yellowish or whitish, longest at the anterior corners and at 
the apex of the fourth segment. Venter with very little green color and 
with pale hairs. 


Legs blackish green, knees and bases of tibiae reddish yellow. Basal 
joints of middle tarsi with some reddish color. Hind femora much thick- 
ened and with two rows of short spines below near the apex; the hind tibiae 
and metatarsi noticeably thickened. Legs with fine pale hairs, longer on 
the upper and lower surfaces of the femora. Inner side of apex of hind 
tibiae with longer yellow bristly hairs. Wings grayish hyaline. Anterior 
cross-vein oblique and placed beyond the middle of the discal cell. Stigma 
pale brown. Halteres yellow. 

9 . Very similar to male (see figure). Vertex and frons broad, widen- 
ing a little below. Frons gray pruinose along the eye margins; hairs 
black across the ocelli and at base of antennae, but pale elsewhere. Third 
antennal joint much broader than in the male (see figures) and darker in 

Length 5.5 to 7.5 mm. 

Habitat. This species is distributed through Europe down 
into Spain and Italy and goes north to middle Sweden and 
Finland. It is reported from northern Africa and Syria. 
In North America there are records from Maine, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ottawa and Quebec, Canada in the east; further west it is 
reported from Ohio and Colorado and is now known to occur 
all along the Pacific Coast from California to British Columbia. 

Notes on Species of Halictus Visiting Evening 

Flowers (Hyni). 

By O. A. STEVENS, Agricultural College, North Dakota. 

Halictus (Megalopta?) texanus (Cresson). 

1872. Sphecodes texana Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc.,v. 4., p. 249. 
1887. Parasphecodes texanus Cresson, ibid., Supp. vol., p. 292. 

1898. Halictus texanus Cockerell, ibid., v. 25, p. 185. 

1899. Sphecodogastra texana Ashmead, ibid., v. 26, p. 92. 
1913. Megalopta - - Ducke, Zool. Jahr., v. 34, p. 85. 

9 Mesonotum rather shining, punctures of moderate size (about 20 
microns), separated by scarcely a puncture width laterally and from one 
and one-half to two times their width medially; basal area of propodeum 
with about 20 fine, irregular ridges, the angle and truncation smooth; 
inner spurs of hind tibiae with two to five (usually three, the upper at 
about the middle of the spur) slender teeth; scopa sparse, inner side of 
tibiae with rather sparse, long, nearly simple hairs, trochanter and lowrr 
edge of femur with only a row of simple bristles, the upper with rather 
shorter ones. 


Blue Rapids, Kansas, June 19, 1919; many females suck- 
ing nectar at flowers of Allionia nyctaginea and collecting pol- 
len of Megapterium missouriense; one female collecting pollen 
of Hartmannia speciosa. Oakes and LaMoure, North Dakota, 
July 17 to 26, 1919; occasional females sucking at Allionia 
hirsuta, collecting at Anogra pallida and Onagra strigosa. 
Sheldon, North Dakota, Aug. 10, 1919; one female at Allionia 
hirsuta. One male at Helianthus petiolaris (Sheldon) and one 
at Onagra strigosa (Oakes). 

Halictus (Evylaeus) aberrans Crawford. 

1901. Halictus amicus, var. a Cockerell, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 
v. 2. p. 126. 

1903. Halictus aberrans Crawford, Can. Ent., v. 35, p. 336. 

1903. Halictus galpinsiae Cockerell, ibid., p. 342. 

9 . Thorax with sparse pubescence which is griseous or somewhat 
ochraceous; sculptured as in H. texanus, the propodeum more finely 
wrinkled; mesonotum shining, the punctures of variable size (about 15 
to 25 microns) ; pubescence of the abdomen of both appressed and erect 
hairs in variable amounts; segments 2 to 4 usually with both basal and 
apical bands, the basal of appressed hairs, the apical of both appressed and 
upright; second segment with basal patches at the sides; sides of the first 
and more or less all of the other with scattered upright hairs; first segment 
smooth and shining, appearing impunctate in some lights and very min- 
utely punctate in others; posterior legs as in texanus, inner spurs of tibiae 
with about five teeth. 

o*. Puncturation similar to that of female, pubescence more sparse 
especially on the abdomen which is scarcely at all banded; face sometimes 
with appressed hairs and sometimes with erect hairs predominating; sev- 
enth segment of abdomen slightly indented at apex; tibiae and tarsi yellow, 
the median half of middle and posterior tibiae brownish black, the anter- 
ior more reddish brown. 

North Dakota, 28 females, 48 males at various places from 
Valley City westward to Williston and Marmarth, June 16 
to Sept. 20 (mostly in June and July) ; females collecting pol- 
len from flowers of Gaura coccinea, occasionally from Onagra 
strigosa, and sucking nectar at flowers of Gaura coccinea, Lac- 
tuca pulchella, Helianthus petiolaris, Grindelia squarrosa, Sider- 
anthus spinulosa, Solidago mollis and Symphoricarpos occideu- 
talis; males at flowers of Allionia hirsuta, Allionia lanceolata, 
Gaura coccinea, Brassica juncea, Symphoricarpos occidentalis, 
Chrysopsis villosa, Grindelia squarrosa, Helianthus petiolaris 
and Lactuca pulchella. 


My first specimens of this species were 2 females and 9 males 
taken at Dickinson, by Mr. C. H. Waldron, at flowers of 
Helianthus petiolaris on Aug. 13, 1912. These, together with 
a female from Valley City, Aug. 13, 1912, at Sideranthus spinu- 
losus were determined by Mr. Crawford as H. aberrans. La- 
ter when females were found collecting pollen at Gaura in the 
evening, I suspected the identity of aberrans and galpinsiae. 
Cockerell has stated (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., v. 9, p. 119) that 
"the stigma (of galpinsiae) is a lighter, brighter orange than 
in aberrans." Crawford in his table of species of Halictus 
(Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., v. 15, pp. 183-189), has separated 
the females on slight difference in puncturation of mesonotum 
and first segment of the abdomen, the males upon the nature 
of the hairs of the face ("appressed scale-like" in galpinsiae). 

The North Dakota specimens agree well with Cockerell's 
description of galpinsiae and I cannot separate the ones taken 
at other flowers in the daytime from those taken at Gaura in 
the evening. A paratype female of galpinsiae sent by Prof. 
Cockerell agrees with the North Dakota specimens. The 
Dickinson specimens are in rather poor condition, the hairs 
being more or less matted by moisture. A female taken at 
Sentinel Butte on Grindelia in mid-afternoon is indistinguish- 
able from the Gaura specimens. Mr. H. L. Viereck has 
kindly examined a cotype of aberrans in the U. S. National 
Museum and finds the scopa as here described. 
Halictus (Evylaeus) oenotherae new species. 

9. Length 9 to 10 mm., black with sparse, short, pale pubescence, 
which inclines to yellowish, especially on the legs. Face subquadrate, 
the front closely and finely punctured, clypeus smooth and shining with 
sparse shallow punctures; antennae reddish beneath. Mesonotum rather 
dull, the punctures of moderate size, separated by less than a puncture 
width laterally and scarcely more than_that medially; propodeum shining, 
with prominent, somewhat irregular, sharp ridges; laterally these continue 
over the rounded edge while medially they are interrupted by a ridge; 
the truncation rugulose and surrounded by a ridge. Posterior legs as in 
texanus, the hairs of the tibiae somewhat more numerous and a few longer 
ones on the femur; inner spur of tibiae with four slender teeth; wing ner- 
vures light brown, the stigma, subcosta and median dark; first recurrent 
received one-fifth basad of second cubital; second submarginal narrowed 
only slightly above. Abdomen smooth and shining the first segment very 


minutely punctured^ the sides of first and second, apex of second and all 
of the following with thin pubescence which forms faint apical bands. 

Blue Rapids, Kansas, June 20, 1919; 5 females at flowers 
of Megapterium missouriense, nearly an hour after sunset. 

Type No. 12033, w ^l De placed in the U. S. National Mus- 
eum. Paratypes in collections of Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, 
Prof. M. H. Swenk, and the writer. 

A species similar in appearance to H. aberrans Cwfd.; 
slightly larger, mesonotum a little more closely punctured, 
pubescence of abdomen more scanty, the appressed type 
nearly absent. Differing very much in the sculpture of the 
propodeum which is similar to that of H. pectoralis Smith, to 
which it would run in Crawford's table (Journ. N. Y. Ent. 
Soc. 1907). It is quite different from pectoralis in its larger 
size and characteristic scopa. 

The sparseness of the scopa, especially that of the femur, 
which is characteristic of these three species is evidently an 
adaptation to the collecting of onagraceous pollen. 
Halictus (Evylaeus) swenki Crawford. 

1906. Halictus swenki Crawford. Ent. News. v. 17, p. 275. 9 
Truncation of propodeum with rounded angles, basal area medially 
with a few irregular ridges which reach about half way to the angle, later- 
ally with faint striae which reach the angle. Second submarginal cell 
narrowed fully one-half above, first recurrent nervure interstitial, or very 
nearly, with second cubital. 

c?. Length about 7mm. Similar to the female, thorax more smooth 
and shining. Face subquadrate, little narrowed below; clypeus not pro- 
duced, only gently rounded; mandibles slender, their tips reaching nearly 
to the bases of the opposite ones; apical half of clypeus and basal middle, 
labrum and basal two-thirds of mandibles, pale yellow; antennae reddish 
yellow beneath for entire length, joint 4 as long as 2 + 3, the latter about 
equal. Legs reddish yellow, anterior and middle femora at base, most of 
posterior femora and tibiae, dark brown on outer side; tarsi pale. 

In the sand hills near Sheldon, North Dakota, Aug, 6 to 21, 
1916-19. Allotype No. 12317. About a dozen females and 
twenty males, chiefly at flowers of Allionia hirsuta and Petalo- 
stemon villosum, also at Linum rigidum and Hieracium scabrius- 

The male is noteworthy for the low, broad clypeus. Of 
the species which I have, only H. forbesi Rob. is similar in 
this respect. 



As shown by the synonymy, this bee has been referred to 
various genera by different writers. The manner of pollen 
collecting permits a reduction of scopa which may account 
for its being originally placed in Sphecodes. Ashmead created 
the new genus, Sphecodogastra, for it on account of the enlarged 
ocelli. Ducke has referred it to Megalopta Smith, together 
w r ith about a dozen little known South American species. 

If we reduce Evylaeus, Chloralictus, etc., to subgenera I 
think Sphecodogastra also should be reduced. Except for the 
large ocelli it would not be separated from Evylaeus. This 
character has been associated with its crepuscular habits and 
similar examples in other genera cited. The other species 
here discussed, however, do not show such a character altho 
they have similar habits; it may be noted also that the bum- 
blebees of the subgenus Bombias have larger ocelli than those 
of the subgenus Bombns. Ducke separated Megalopta from 
Halictus on the characters of enlarged ocelli and night flying 
habit, altho he does not separate Agapostemon, Augochlora and 
other groups. Such disposition seems scarcely tenable. 

The ocelli of texanus are about twice the diameter of those 
of other Halicti of similar size. Those of aberrans, oenotherae 
and swenki seem a trifle larger but not appreciably so. I have 
examined several species (females) with the following results. 

Approximate lateral diameter of anterior ocellus: 

H. texanus (Cress.) 400 microns H. forbesi Rob. 200 microns 
H. aberrans Cwfd. 200-220 microns H. swenki Cwfd. 180 microns 
H. oenotherae Stevens 200 microns H. ligatus Say. 150-200 microns 
H. lerouxii Lep. 180-200 microns H. provancheri DT. 150 microns 


I had been very much interested in Graenicher's account 
(Bui. Pub. Mus. of Milwaukee, v. I, pp. 222-225, 1911) of the 
unusual habits of Sphecodogastra, and an opportunity to verify 
them came on June 20, 1919, at Blue Rapids, Kansas. I 
found many females sucking nectar at flowers of Allionia 
nyctaginea. The time was not noted but must have been 
about an hour before sunset. The principal evening prim- 


rose flowering there at that time was Megapterium missouri- 
ense. The flowers of this are yellow, 10-15 cm - wide; anthers 
about 1.5 cm. long, the pollen grains large and so well joined 
by cobwebby threads that they may be brushed off easily in 
one mass. 

No exact time was obtained for either the first or last open- 
ing of the flowers or visits of the bees, but the flowers seemed 
to begin opening a little after sunset and many times bees 
were seen flying about the flowers not yet opened. Most of 
the flowers observed, opened in the earlier part of the evening. 
The stigma is exserted some minutes before the flower opens 
and the bees crawl about it searching for an opening in the 
bud, so that ample opportunity for cross pollination is pro- 
vided. In case of one flower, at least ten or twelve visits were 
made before the flower opened; at one time three females 
were on the bud, one attacking and driving away another. 
They attempted to force their way into the apex and sides of 
the bud, flying away after some seconds. In no case was 
there any evidence of biting into the flower. 

As soon as a small opening appeared at the tip of the flower, 
a bee would force her way in and begin collecting. Often 
they forced only a partial entrance and then withdrew. The 
flowers were quickly stripped of pollen so that after one or 
two bees had collected at a flower, later visitors flew away 
after a brief inspection. The pollen was gathered into a large 
mass which seemed to be carried chiefly between the poster- 
ior legs. On account of the darkness it was impossible to 
follow the flight of the bees. The last visits were about an 
hour after sunset (8:40 P. M. standard central time). 

The principal other evening primrose flowering at that 
time in that locality was Hartmannia speciosa. The flowers 
of this species are white, 5-10 cm. wide, otherwise similar to 
those just described. They are not so strictly evening flower- 
ing as they open earlier and remain open longer in the forenoon. 
One trip was made to a place where these grew half a mile 
from where the other notes were taken. At sundown many 
of the flowers were open and their pollen undisturbed. Dur- 
ing 15 or 20 minutes stay a single female was taken at the 
flowers collecting pollen. 


At Oakes and LaMoure, North Dakota, July 17-26, 1919, 
several females were sucking nectar at flowers of Allionia 
hirsuta, about an hour after sunset. Searching the evening 
primroses for them I found females collecting pollen at Anogra 
pallida. Careful watching of a single large plant each of Ano- 
gra pallida and Onagra strigosa showed the flowers of the for- 
mer beginning to open about 8:40 P. M. (sunset at 8:00), 
those of the latter about 9:00 P. M. A female flew about both 
plants 20 minutes before the flowers began to open. As soon 
as those of Anogra began to open the bees were at work quite 
as described at Megapterium. One female was taken collect- 
ing at Onagra, but this did not seem to be visited as much as 
Anogra. A brief visit at 9:30 showed no bees and the next 
morning I found that no flowers of Anogra had opened after 
that hour altho rather more of the Onagra flowers had opened 
later than before that hour. A male was found in an Onagra 
flower at sunrise on July 26th. Another had been taken in 
the early forenoon at Sheldon, N. D., Aug. 21, 1918, at Heli- 
anthns petiolaris. 

Cockerell (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. v. 25, p. 185, 1898) has re- 
corded this bee at flowers of Senecio douglassii and Pynis corn- 
munis in New Mexico, and Crawford (Can. Ent., v. 35, p. 336, 
1 93>) at Grindelia, but the time of day is not stated. At Man- 
hattan, Kansas, Aug. 28, 1907, I took two females at flowers 
of Mentzelia decapetala (an evening flowering plant) at 7:30 
P. M. This plant is not native there. At Williston, North 
Dakota, on Aug. 15, 1915, I visited this plant in the early 
evening but found none of these bees and scarcely any of 
other species. 


In North Dakota this bee is a regular visitor of Gaura coc- 
cinea from an hour or more before sundown until dark. Both 
sexes visit it for nectar altho the males visit chiefly the flowers 
of Allionia. A few females have been taken collecting pollen 
of Onagra strigosa in the forenoon and visiting several other 
flowers for nectar both evening and morning or even well to- 
ward mid-day. At Oakes on July 18, 2 females and 9 males 


were taken at Symphoricarpos an hour after sunrise; at the 
same place on July 24 one of each sex at the same flowers 
about half an hour before sunset. No females, however, were 
found at Allionia where most of the males were taken. 

The flowers of Allionia hirsuta seemed to open about an 
hour before sunset and were withered by sunrise next morning. 
Those of Gaura coccinea open some time before sunset. They 
are white, about 6-8 mm. wide, petals narrow, anthers only 
about 2 mm. long, the pollen scanty and not so well cohering 
as in the species previously described. Meriolix serrulata, a 
day-flowering species, has yellow flowers, the pollen scarcely 
at all cohering. A number of plants of it stood with open 
flowers and undisturbed pollen near the place where the bees 
were found at Symphoricarpos in the morning. In the case of 
aberrans the pollen is carried between the inner sides of the 
posterior tibiae and femora. 

No observations were made upon H. oenotherae farther than 
that the females were visiting Megapterium in the late evening 
with H. texanus. Two specimens have some pollen on their 


This species has been included chiefly because many of both 
sexes were found at Allionia hirsuta at Sheldon on Aug. 10, 
1919. This was during the hour before sunset. Shortly after 
sunset a number of plants were examined and only a single 
female found. The first specimens taken were several males 
at the same place, Aug. 13, 1916, on Petalostemon villosum: 
I had collected nearly all day at these and other plants, but 
took none of H. swenki until these in the late afternoon. At 
the same place, Aug. 21, 1918, two or three of each sex were 
taken in the early forenoon at Linum rigidum. 


Further data are needed to show to just what extent these 
bees are "night flying." Those so far available tend to show 
that texanus extends its work farthest into the night, at least 
until quite dark. This, according to my observations, was 
necessitated by the time of opening of the flowers visited for 


pollen. The bees were flying as much as an hour before sun- 
set, and quite likely may be found occasionally still earlier. 
For oenotherae only the one record is available, two of the 
specimens having been taken as late as any of texanus. 

The flowers of Gaura visited by aberrans open earlier, and 
the bees are able to complete their work earlier, their time of 
greatest activity seeming to be at about sunset. This species 
is found quite frequently at other times of day. Forswenki, 
the hour preceding sunset appears to be the time of greatest 
activity, altho it may also be found at other times of day. 
I do not know where the females collect pollen, but do not 
believe it is from the Onagraceae, as their scopa is of the ordi- 
nary type, the femora having long hairs with slender branches, 
arising from the two edges and meeting over the posterior 


At Blue Rapids, I took also at Allionia nyctaginea, females 
of Halictus forbesi and both sexes of a Chloralictus . At Shel- 
don at A. hirsuta, H. forbesi and male of Agapostemon texanus. 
At Lisbon, North Dakota, Aug. 8, 1919, a worker of Bombus 
separatus Rob. collecting pollen of Gaura coccinea just at sun- 
set; at Fargo, N. D., workers of B. ternarius Say. and B.fervi- 
dus Fab. sucking nectar at Onagra strigosa. Gaura coccinea 
is regularly visited at dusk by brown moths of medium size 
(Noctuidae?) and I have seen the ruby-throated humming 
bird at both Onagra strigosa and Anogra pallida in North Da- 

An interesting point bearing upon the controversy of at- 
traction by color or smell is brought to notice. The bees 
(H. texanus) were observed flying about the flower buds be- 
fore any sign of opening was visible. It scarcely seems pos- 
sible that they could then be attracted bv either color or odor. 
The odor of the freshly opened flowers of Anogra is strong and 
heavy, quite noticeable at a distance of a meter. The open- 
ing of the flower was sudden, a small cleft appearing at the 
apex, increasing to 6 or 8 mm. in a few minutes, then suddenly 
opening wide (in perhaps 15 or 20 seconds). 


A group of Onagra plants were examined at intervals at 
Fargo, North Dakota, on Aug. I, 1919, the number of open 
flowers removed each time were: 

8:30 P. M. 6 11:00 P. M. o (3 nearly open) 

9:00 P. M. 48 Aug. 2. 

9:30 P. M. 29 6:00 A. M. 28 

10:00 P. M. 16 9:00 A. M. o 

10:30 P. M. 12 12:00 M. o 

No bees were seen and none of the species described are 
known to occur in that locality. 

Some Notes on the Occurrence of Delphacinae 

(Hemip. Homop.) 

By C. S. SPOONER, Urbana, Illinois.* 

During several* years the writer has spent considerable 
time collecting Hemiptera, making a special effort to obtain 
specimens of Delphacinae. In the course of this collecting 
he has been impressed with the fact that the species of this 
sub-family usually occur in what might be termed "pockets"; 
small areas, differing but slightly from the surrounding en- 
vironment, very rich in genera and species. 

The following notes will serve to substantiate this. While 
collecting at Middletown, New York, in July, 1910, the writer 
took a number of species in a pasture east of the city. The 
pasture was bordered on the east and for a few yards on the 
south by woodland. In the southeast corner of the pasture 
the following species were taken: Liburnia canipestris VanD., 
L. hitulenta VanD., L. osborni VanD., Pissonotus bninneus 
VanD., P. marginatus VanD., and P. divaricatus Spooner. 

The species of Liburnia were found in fewer numbers over 
the rest of the pasture but the others were found nowhere 
else. Perhaps in this case, the increased shade afforded by 
the trees was responsible for the localized occurrence. 

*Contributions from^the Entomological Laboratories of the University 
of Illinois, No. 60. 


In July, 1911, while collecting in the valley of the St. Croix 
River in Chisago County, Minnesota, a small area embracing 
only a few square yards w r as encountered in which specimens 
of Otiocerus degeeri Kirby, 0. abbotti Kirby, 0. coquebertii 
Kirby and Amaloptera uhleri VanD. were taken. No derbids 
were taken at any other place during the trip and this parti- 
cular spot differed in no essential particular from much of the 
ground covered. 

The next and most striking example was seen at De Witt, 
Mitchell County, Georgia. The banks of the Flint River in 
this region are lined by timber for a distance varying from a 
hundred feet to several hundred yards from the margin. At 
one point a partial clearing had been made from the timber 
edge to about one-half way to the river, a distance of perhaps 
fifty feet. This clearing covered an area of from fifteen to 
twenty square yards. It had become overgrown with vari- 
ous weeds, shrubs and some rather young second growth tim- 

In this clearing, on two consecutive days, July 23-24, 1912, 
the following Delphacinae were taken : Phyllodinus flabellatus 
Ball, Liburniella ornata Stal, Amaloptera fitchii VanD., Cen- 
chrea uhleri Ball, Oecleus sp., Dictyophora florens Stal, Thionia 
bullata Say, Acanalonia conica Say, A. bivittata Say, Ormenis 
pruinosa Say, 0. septentrionalis Spin., Pissonotus brunneus 
Vand. var (?). 

A visit was paid to this same spot the following year when 
most of the species were again taken. The most conspicuous 
difference noted was the total lack of specimens of Phyllodi- 
nus flabellatus Ball which were very abundant the previous 

Other clearings, apparently similar to this one and only 

short distances from it, lacked all or most of these species. 

In my notes I designated this spot "Fulgorid Haven" and 

many subsequent trips were made to it. The majority of the 

pecies were again collected on these later trips. 

Again at Thomasville, Georgia, a small locality rich in 
species of Delphacinae was found. Here a small stream 
widened into a pond with swampy banks, the banks rising 


gradually through a narrow meadow to long-leaf pine timber 
land, some of which had been cleared. A small bridge crossed 
the stream at the east end of the pond. The eastern half of 
the meadow, north of the bridge proved a very fertile collect- 
ing ground. The collecting here extended over the whole sea- 
son of 1915. The following insects were taken here: Myndus 
sp., Oliarus sp., Bruchomorpha sp., Thionia bullata Say, Acan- 
alonia bivittata Say, Cenchrea uhleri Ball, Stenocranus sacchari- 
vorus Westw., 5". angustatus Crawf., Bostaera nasuta Ball, 
Pissonotus binotatus Spooner, Pissonotus sp.,Phyllodinus brun- 
neus VanD. var (?), Liburniella ornata Stal, Liburnia andro- 
meda VanD., Liburnia slossoni Ball, Liburnia puella VanD., 
Liburnia magnistyla Crawf., Liburnia sp., and Dicranotropis 

The insects in this unusual list were almost wholly confined 
to the north east side of the pond. A few species were found 
at other points around the pond but other ponds apparently 
similar' and in the same general locality lacked the greater 
number of the species. 

The explanation of these "pockets" is not at hand. The 
answer undoubtedly lies in the results of a very careful analy- 
sis of the environment. A plant census should be taken of 
one of these "pockets" and compared with similar areas which 
lack the insects; at the same time comparisons should be 
made of the humidity, rate of evaporation, light intensities 
and temperatures of the different localities. 

On the next occurence of this kind which comes to the writ- 
er's attention, he hopes to be able to make a study of this 
character. These notes are published with the hope of stimul- 
ating investigation along these lines, since they appear to be 
most important in the study of insect distribution. 

Specific, Subspecific and Varietal Categories of 
Insects and the Naming of them. 

By W. L. McATEE, U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Current practice appears to recognize as satisfactory bases 
for the recognition of groups of specific rank, non-intergrading 


differences in structure and in color pattern. Structural 
characters are preferred, those of the genitalia often being 
used; color is less reliable, for even strikingly different color 
patterns may prove to intergrade when an abundance of ma- 
terial is examined. 

Species though they may not intergrade with each other, each 
may include a smaller or larger number of intergrading forms. 
It is with reference to these that nomenclatorial practice var- 
ies most. Entomologists will do well to profit by the experi- 
ence of workers in ornithology and mammalogy, in which 
sciences the problems connected with taxonomic categories 
subordinate to the species have long received attention re- 
sulting in a generally accepted usage. The subspecies is 
freely used; it is a geographic race, a part of a species marked 
by average differences in characters which intergrade w r ith 
those of subspecies occupying different, though usually ad- 
jacent parts of the general range of the species, along the com- 
mon boundary of which intergradation is complete. 

It has sometimes been urged that the amount of difference 
decides whether a form should be called a species or a sub- 
species, but this is hardly true except in cases where the dif- 
ferences are small and intergradation while not actually ob- 
served is assumed to occur. In general practice, intergrada- 
tion clearly is the criterion. Even minute differences known 
to be non-intergrading are satisfactory for specific diagnosis, 
while characters apparently more important which vary so 
that intergradation is evident can be used only for the differ- 
entiation of categories of lower than specific rank. 

These statements while in the form of dogmatic assertions 
are not so intended; they merely epitomize the practice that 
has grown up under the guidance of the Code of Nomencla- 
ture of the American Ornithologists' Union, which may be 
looked upon as a parent to the International Code. As a 
matter of fact individual systematists differ widely in the im- 
portance they attach to the various crtieria for the diagnosis 
of species and subspecies, as intergradation or the contrary, 
amount of difference, and geographical isolation or the re- 
verse. Some discussion of these features may be profitable. 


Since submitting the present paper for publication, an ar- 
ticle on "Criteria for the Recognition of Species and Genera" 
by Dr. C. Hart Merriam* has appeared. In it the author 
says: "To my mind, the criterion of inter gradation -is one of 
the most pernicious that has ever been introduced into the 
systematic study of animals and plants" (p. 7) ; and he asks: 
"If species and genera *** are to be set aside because of the 
discovery of intermediate forms does it not follow that sooner 
or later our classification is doomed to destruction, chaos tak- 
ing the place of system?" (p. 9). If I have properly gath- 
ered the message of Dr. Merriam's paper as a whole, it is, 
that since classification is an essentially arbitrary thing, it 
may as well be arbitrary throughout, including its principles 
and practices. We may all agree, or it would appear that we 
should be able to agree, that scientific classification is arbi- 
trary, in that it consists of organized concepts, and that the 
concepts must have a certain definiteness. We may go fur- 
ther and say with respect to the systematist, that to avoid 
setting too high a value, upon the characters of taxonomic 
groups, and to escape mistaking conceptions for realities, he 
must ever keep in mind that systems are essentially arbitrary 
or artificial. At the same time, paradoxical though it may 
seem, he must shun artificiality. It hardly requires stating 
that the more highly artificial (arbitrary) is the classification 
of any group the less satisfactory. A system which merely 
pigeon-holes specimens without taking into account their 
fundamental relationships and probable lines of evolution, 
is not a worthy contribution to modern taxonomy. An at- 
tempt must be made to reflect nature and this can be done 
only by full recognition of the facts of organic evolution, 
among which, one almost omnipresent, is intergradation, or 
if that term seems to exclude hybridism from a possible share 
in the intricacies of relationships, we may use the phrase ap- 
proximating variations, of related groups. 

But it is certainly unreasonable to apprehend that such re- 
cognition involves the end of everything like our present sys- 

*Journ. of Mammalogy, Vol. i, No. I, Nov. 1919, pp. 6-9 


terns of classification. Have we not, for generations, and in 
the face of a growing recognition of the principle of intergrada- 
tion, retained as more or less definite conceptions, such bird 
families as the finches, and the tanagers,* and this despite 
the existence of forms so intermediate in their relationships 
that they have frequently been shifted from one group to the 
other? The intermediates may have been buffeted but the 
families have not been scrapped. Somewhat the same situa- 
tion holds for the plant families, Rubiaceae (cleavers, bluets, 
etc.) and Caprifoliaceae (viburnums, honey-suckles and the 
like), two large and important groups, for the separation of 
which no absolutely trenchant character has as yet been 
pointed out; nevertheless lumping has not ensued. Citing 
an example among genera, who can say definitely where the 
crane-fly genus Tipula leaves off and its ally Nephrotoma be- 
gins? Yet they are kept as separate concepts by specialists 
in those flies, if for no other reason, than the convenience of 
reducing, in some way, the enormous Tipula complex. 

The trend of modern taxonomy is so strongly toward sub- 
division that fears as to the linking up of numerous groups 
on account of the recognition of intermediates, are certainly 
premature. Indeed our present systems of classification 
have been built up with the principle of intergradation as one 
of the most important aids in the work. Both the original 
and the revised codes of Nomenclature of the American Or- 
nithologists' Union, affirm intergradation to be the touchstone 
of trinomialism , yet the number of recognized forms of North 
American birds has not decreased, but on the contrary, has 
constantly grown. There has been a net increase of 42 gen- 
era, 34 species and 211 subspecies in forms recognized in the 
first (1886) to the third (1910) editions of the American 
Ornithologists' Union's Checklist of Birds. Evidently they 
have not been lumped wholesale because of the principle of 
intergradation. And why? precisely because it has been used 

*For further data as to the intergradation of the families of oscine birds, 
which nevertheless retain their family rank, see Ridgway, R., Birds of 
North and Middle America, Part I, 1901, pp. 17-18, and 24-25. 


arbitrarily, or if you prefer, with discretion. It has been a 
guide not the commander of the advance. 

Carried out logically, recognition in taxonomy of the prin- 
ciple of intergradation decides another much debated point 
the status of island races, or even of those inhabiting separate 
continents. If individual variations are such that overlap- 
ping of all the differential characters occurs, the forms should 
be regarded as subspecies; if not, they are properly considered 
as species. These conclusions, also, are not universally ac- 
cepted. To some naturalists, obvious isolation as of island 
forms, and real or assumed isolation of continental races, 
apparently is taken as proof of specific distinctness. For the 
purpose of throwing light on this view we may consider the 
case of certain birds of the perennially interesting Galapagos 
Islands. Within the limits of a single and' evidently very 
plastic genus Geospiza there are species confined to a single 
island, or to two islands, and so on, up to II islands in the 
highest number recorded by Snodgrass and Heller.* What 
is a more cogent argument in the case, there are also subspecies 
that occur in just the same way, some of them upon only a 
single island, others upon two or more up to a maximum of 
eleven. Here is definite proof drawn from forms wholly of 
one highly plastic genus that a single subspecies actually 
ranges throughout a considerable number of well-separated 
islands, to certain of which at the same time, other subspecies 
and even species, among its congeners, are entirely restricted. 
In other words, the case proves, that isolation in itself is not 
admisssible as a decisive factor in giving specific rank to or- 

If such is the case when the isolation is that of islands 
separated by stretches of water in some instances of consider- 
able width; if such isolation is not accurately reflected in the 
relationships of the animal inhabitants, what weight can be 
given to alleged cases of isolation on continental areas, where 
knowledge that the isolation is real, is difficult if not impos- 
sible, to obtain? 

*Proc. Wash. Ac. Sci. Vol. 5, pp. 231-372, January, 1904. 


It would certainly seem that to use isolation as a reason for 
calling forms species, although they overlap through indivi- 
dual variations, is entirely out of harmony with taxonomic 
principles that must guide the student in cases where isolation 
does not enter into the equation. Rather the nature of the 
characters must be relied upon, and according to the general 
view, previously set forth, intergrading forms must be given 
no more than subspecific rank, even though they inhabit ap- 
parently isolated localities. 

Subspecies have not been very extensively used in ento- 
mology, for the sufficient reason that existing collections, in 
most cases, do not furnish enough material to enable the 
student to decide whether intergradation in characters of 
recognizable forms does occur, or if it does whether the forms 
have more or less separable ranges. However, work should 
be directed toward the recognition of subspecies, for the 
subspecific system of nomenclature is of too great value in 
expressing the facts of relationship and geographic distribu- 
tion to be ignored. 

The category of variety has been very extensively used in 
entomology, but in a number of distinct senses; for instance, 
it has been used to designate variants in size, structure and 
color and varying ranks of all of these. Often no doubt the 
form so designated is a subspecies or geographic race, but in- 
formation warranting a positive decision on this point is lack- 
ing. Care should be taken, however, to make sure whether 
the evidence will not permit a more definite disposition of the 

Color forms that occur more or less throughout the range 
of a species are frequent among insects, apparently more so 
than in any other group of animals. In mammals melanistic 
forms occur, in birds these dark forms also are found, as well 
as in certain cases reddish and grayish forms, but the practice 
has been not to recognize these in nomenclature. In the 
case of color forms, however, it seems necessary to go a step 
farther in entomology than has been done in the taxonomy 
of the warm-blooded vertebrates. 

A very cogent reason for believing certain types of color 
varieties of insects to be distinct in character from coloi phases 


in vertebrates, and therefore requiring different taxonomic 
treatment, is the fact that the insect body is composed of 
highly distinct (and so far as normally colored surface is con- 
cerned of entirely separated) parts which may vary inde- 
pendently in color, and to which certain colors may be sharply 
restricted, conditions vastlv different from what may be 
observed in connection with the continuous body covering 
of most vertebrates. Two individuals of the eastern ruffed 
grouse, for example, may agree in practically every detail of 
color pattern, yet one be distinctly gray, the other decidedly 
rufous in the general tone of its plumage. This type of color 
variation is represented among insects by the red and yellow 
color phases of various species of Erythroneura (Jassoidea; 
Eupterygidae). Nevertheless these very insects exhibit an- 
other type of color variation in which certain markings may 
occur on the pronotum, scutellum, or other division of the 
body, in a certain series of specimens of both sexes, and be 
entirely lacking in another series, all of which, however, be- 
long to what is considered a single species. 

It being true that very distinct color forms in a structurally 
homogeneous complex, the species, are not unusual in insects, 
sorting and naming them would seem to be demanded* by 
the practical considerations of making a collection appear to 
have really been classified, and to have names by which the 
forms can be referred to in exchanging and in recording notes 
upon them. If they are left unnamed no phase of studying 
them will advance so rapidly, nor will final understanding of 
them be reached so soon, as will be the case if they are des- 
cribed and named. 

Naming these color varieties of insects is further desirable 
because of the fact that due to lack of material there is no 
certainty in many cases that the form may not be a subspecies. 
A characterization and a name which will enable others to re- 
cord similar specimens will bring out facts necessary to decide 

*See also Parshley. H. M. Psyche, Vol. 25, No. 3, June, 1918, p. 65, and 
Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 
No. 71, August, 1919, pp. 5-6. 


upon the subspecific rank or otherwise of the form, informa- 
tion that for lack of a name, and of point in publishing the 
records might not become available for years, if ever. 

An apparent difficulty in naming color forms is that in a 
species having both subspecies and varieties, it is conceivable 
that the same color variety may occur in different parts of the 
range and therefore in more than one subspecies. This con- 
dition, if reflected in names, would require a quadrinomial 
nomenclature and it indicates that the color variety does not 
deserve taxonomic recognition similar to that accorded sub- 
species. However it seems more likely to the writer that 
this very difficulty points out the distinction between mere 
color phases and varieties as he has become acquainted with 
them among insects. If the color form does occur throughout 
the range of a species and is proved to exist in different sub- 
species, then it may be considered a color phase and left un- 
named. If, on the contrary, the color variety does not cross 
subspecies, it is not a color phase, and may be named. 

Summing up, a variety in entomology, actually of less than 
specific rank, may be one of three things: (i.) It may be a 
true subspecies or geographic race, present material being 
insufficient to decide the point; (2.) It may be a color phase, 
that is, albinistic, melanistic, erythroic or the like, an appear- 
ance it may assume anywhere in the range of the species that 
may affect all subspecies alike (proof of its nature) but which 
usually is recognizable as a phase of a simple color gradation, 
often as the alternative of two color states as albinism and 
melanism, and it should not have a name that will have to be 
reckoned with in scientific nomenclature; and (3) it may be 
a variety such as is known in many insects that cannot be 
subspecific in its nature, because unrelated to distribution, 
that does not answer to the definition of color phase, here 
given, but the real nature of which admittedly is not under- 
stood. It seems to the writer that these varieties have the 
importance, and in a way the attributes of subspecies except 
correlation with geographical distribution, and that they 
should be named. From a purely nomenclatorial point of 
view the fact that we do not know what color varieties really 


are is unimportant, and the writer's contention is, that we 
shall be much longer learning what they are, unnamed, than 
if named. 

Discovery of their real nature is work for an institution 
having extensive facilities for insect breeding, and is a project 
most systematists would like to see undertaken. 

Some insect varieties may have a genetic significance which 
when understood will indicate the proper taxonomic treat- 
ment. It is possible, even probable, that some varieties may 
be found, also, to be correlated with definite food plants or 
peculiar local habitats. Proof of such a relation would call for 
recognition of a new type of subspecies in which the geogra- 
phic element of subspecies, as at present recognized, would 
be replaced by an ecologic factor in other words it may be- 
come necessary to recognize two sorts of subspecies namely 
geographic and ecologic. 

Some discussion touching upon personal experiences in 
connection with insect varieties may perhaps be pardonable. 
The writer has freely named color varieties and. has had it 
called to his attention that others could not commend his 
activities in this direction. Regarding the varieties in ques- 
tion, the comment has several times been made: "But they 
all run together." Of course they do, otherwise they would 
have been ranked as species not as varieties. This remark 
illustrates the lack of definite conceptions on the part of 
some entomologists of the nature of the subordinate taxono- 
mic groups, and is one reason for the writing of this paper. 

When a large proportion often as high as 90% of the indivi- 
duals of a color variety can be sorted out without any hesi- 
tation as to their similarity to ach other and as to their dis- 
tinctness from coordinate groups of the species complex, in 
the writer's opinion, they should be named. Intergrading 
specimens may be placed with the variety to which they are 
most similar, not left standing about like wall-flowers. In- 
tergrades should bring consternation neither to the careful 
systematist nor to the neat curator. They are inevitable, 
should be taken frankly for what they are and treated accord- 
ingly. In all consideration of taxonomic categories, it should 


not be forgotten that no one is bound to accept and use them 
any further than he likes. If he prefers to stop at good old- 
fashioned species (in some cases this means groups of modern 
species) he may do so, or if his taste permits he may go on to 
true subspecies; if constituted like the writer he will pursue 
differentiation (of categories not of individuals) to the limit 
the available material will permit, but will expect no one to 
follow beyond a point in harmony with his individual point 
of view. 

So much off the text; returning to minor taxonomic groups, 
it is submitted that the following definitions appear to accord 
with the best modern usage. If a group of similar individuals, 
or an individual presumed to represent such an assemblage, 
is distinguished from another by one or more non-intergrad- 
ing characters of whatever kind, it is regarded as a species, 
and its range may be anything that climate, geography, geo- 
logical history, commerce or fate may have accorded it. If 
its essential characters intergrade with those of another 
form from which it has a more or less separate range, it is 
called a subspecies. If its characters intergrade and it occu- 
pies no definite area to the exclusion of related forms it is a 
variety. Simple melanistic and albinistic varieties or com- 
parable forms, are called color phases and usually have not 
been recognized in nomenclature. 

(To be Continued} 

Coleophora apicialbella nom. nov. (Microlepid.) 

The name Coleophora apicialbella is here proposed for the species of 
Coleophora described in this journal, Vol. XXX, p. 109, 1919, under the 
name Coleophora apicella preoccupied by Coleophora apicella Stainton of 
Europe. ANNETTE F. BRAUN, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A Correction in the Mecopodinae (Orthopt.) 

Figure 10, pi. ii and fig. i, pi. iii of Fascicule 171 of Wytsman's Genera 
Insectorum on the Mecopodinae are reversed. The first really represents 
the 9 of Mecopoda elongata Linn, while the latter represents the tf of 
Mossula basalis Caud. A. N. CAUDELL, Washington, D.C. 



OF 1919-20 

The programs of the meetings of scientific societies held be- 
tween December 29, 1919, and January 3, 1920, for which we 
have data, list 128 papers on entomology, or at least on insect 
material; 118 of these were to be given at St. Louis; 10 were 
read at Princeton, New Jersey. 

Of the societies meeting at St. Louis, Section F of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science and the 
American Society of Zoologists were jointly credited with 15, 
i of these (by invitation) being on polyembryony and sex, 2 
on cytology, 6 on genetics, 4 on ecology and general physiology 
and 2 on comparative anatomy. The cytological papers were 
based on Tettigidae, those on genetics on Drosophila. As 
1919 was a great event in the ly-year cicada calendar, this 
insect supplied material for one physiological and one anato- 
mical paper. 

The Entomological Society of America provided II titles 
on ecology and general physiology, 3 on comparative anatomy 
and 2 on taxonomic groups. Of special interest was the sym- 
posium: "The Life Cycle in Insects," treated by taxonomic 
groups, by nine speakers (Messrs. Folsom, E. M. Walker, 
Ball, Fracker, Chapman, C. L. Metcalf, Cockerell and Forbes 
and Dr. Edith M. Patch), and the annual address before the 
Society, this year by Dr. W. J. Holland, on "The Evolution 
of Entomological Science in North America." 

The American Association of Economic Entomologists 
furnished the great bulk of entomological papers 73 includ- 
ing President W. C. O'Kane's address, "The Day's Work. " 
Among these were 2 on mosquitoes, I on ticks and I on exter- 
nal parasites of stock and poultry, 2 on the pink bollworm, 3 
on corn borers, 9 on insecticides, 12 on various aspects of bee- 
keeping (in the Apicultural Section), 6 before the section of 



Horticultural Inspection, 3 on the codling moth, 4 on leaf- 
hoppers, i on the chinch bug and 2 on the Hessian fly. 

The Botanical Society of America listed two papers on ants 
(on their relations with fungi and on galls produced by them), 
The American Phytopathological Society one on leaf hoppers 
and hopperburn of potato leaves and the Ecological Society 
of America one on the ecological succession of insects in stored 
food products. 

At Princeton, the American Society of Naturalists heard 
2 papers on cytology (Orthoptera) and 7 on genetics (6 of 
them on Drosophila). The symposium was on "Some Rela- 
tions of Biology to Human Welfare," to which Dr. W. M. 
Wheeler contributed an informing and highly amusing paper 
on "Biology and Society" in the form of a supposed letter 
to the speaker from a king of the West African Termes belli- 
cosus, describing the social organization of his community 
and contrasting it with human society to the disadvantage 
of the latter. 

In the Convocation Week meetings of 1918-19 but 64 en- 
tomological papers were presented, as a result of war condi- 
tions. This year's total of 128 is well up toward the previous 
high record of 139 papers for the New York meeting of 1916- 

Notes and Nevv^s 


A Suggestion for a Better Popular Name for the Fulgoridae 


So far as I am aware the only common name that has ever been sug- 
gested for members of the Family Fulgoridae is "lantern Flies," based 
upon the supposition that a large South American species emits light. 
Regardless of the merits of the arguments which have been advanced 
pro and con in this case, the members of this family generally do not emit 
light; the term lantern flies is, therefore, an evident misnomer. There- 
fore, regardless of the fact that the name lantern flies is rather well estab- 
lished for this family it would seem advisable to replace it by some other 
name and I would suggest Plant Hoppers as being perhaps the most 
suggestive name available, thus bringing the common name of the 


family in line with the common names of other closely related families, 
e. g., Tree Hoppers (Membracidae), Frog Hoppers (Cercopidae), and Leaf 
Hoppers (Cicadellidae). The only other use of the name plant hoppers, 
so far as I am aware, is as a general name for these four families, but it 
seems to me that each family is of sufficient importance economically, 
and sufficiently distinct taxonomically to command a separate name. 
The Family Fulgoridae is coming into such prominence economically 
that it would seem advisable to have a common name for the family as 
a whole, and, so far as is consistent with good usage, use this name in con- 
nection with the various species. Thus: Sugar cane plant hopper, not 
sugar cane leaf hopper; corn plant hopper, not corn lantern fly. It is not 
intended to imply, however, that all common names for members of this 
family should end with the expression plant hopper, for such names as 
cranberry toad bug are distinctive and having the right of priority might 
be used, although the name toad bug is suggestive of species of the sub- 
family Gelastocorinae (Galgulidae), and the name cranberry plant hopper 
is equally distinctive, equally short and even more suggestive of the char- 
acter of the insect. Z. P. METCALF, State College, West Raleigh, North 

Change of Name 

We are requested to announce that Alex Kwiat, of Chicago, Illinois, 
has. changed his name to Alex K. Wyatt. Address: 2445 Eastwood Ave., 
Chicago. Correspondents please note. 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myrippoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the end of each Order 
of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology. Series B. 

1 Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
2 Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 
6 Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 10 Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Washington, D. C. 11 Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, London. 12 Journal of Economic Ento- 
mology, Concord, N. H. 13 Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Clare- 
mont, Cal. 19 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 22 


Bulletin of Entomological Research, London. 33 Annales de la Societe 
Entomologique de Belgique, Brussels 50 Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum, Washington. 62 Bulletin of 1,he American 
Museum of Natural History, New York. 85 The Journal of Experimen- 
tal Zoology, Philadelphia. 100 Biological Bulletin of the Marine Biolo- 
gical Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 102 Broteria. Revista Lusco 
Brazileira. Serie Zoologica, Braga. 

GENERAL. Cleare, L. D. A useful breeding cage. 22, x, 43-4. 
Harris, E. D. Obituary by C. W. Leng. 6, xxvii, 237-40. 

GENETICS, ETC. Seyster, E. W. Eye facet number as influenced 
by temperature in the bar-eyed mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. 100, 
xxxvii, 168-80. 

ARACHNIDA, &c. Brooks, F. E. A migrating army of millepeds. 
12, xii, 462-4. Ewing, H. E. Stable flies and chiggers. 12, xii, 466. 

NEUROPTERA. Calvert, P. P. Gundlach's work on the Odonata 
of Cuba; a critical study. 2, xlv, 335-96. Kollmann, J. Termiten- 
gange im schadeldach zweier amerikanischer Pygmaen. (Arch. Anat. u. 
Phys., 1915, Anat. Abtg. Suppl., 20-32). Lestage, J. A. Notes Trich- 
opterologiques. 33, lix, 130-5. Murphy, H. E. Observations on the 
egg-laying of the caddice-fly, Brachycentrus nigrisoma, and on the habits 
of the young larvae. 6, xxvii, 154-9. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. C. The houghton gooseberry aphis. 12, 
xii, 433-7. Barber, G. W. On the bite of Arilus cristatus. 12, xii, 466. 
Dickerson & Weiss. Notes on the early stages and life history of Idio- 
cerus cognatus, in New Jersey. 6, xxvii, 129-32. Haseman, L. Brood 
X of the periodical cicada in Missouri. 12, xii, 467. Knight, H. H. 
The genus Bolteria (Miridae). 19, xiv, 126-8. McAtee, W. L. Cor- 
rections and additions to an article on Leptoypha and Leptostyla. (Tingi- 
dae). 19, xiv, 142-4. Morrison, H. A new genus and species of coc- 
cid from Loranthus. 10, xxi, 197-203. Olsen, C. E. Idiocerus cogna- 
tus, established in North America. 6, xxvii, 126-8. Olsen, C. E. Kermes- 
kingii, parasitized by a micro-lepidopteron. 19, xiv, 141-2. de la Torre- 
Bueno, J. R. Virginia Heteroptera. 19, xiv, 124-5. Weiss & Dicker- 
son. The li f e history and early stages of Macropsis virescens var. grami- 
nea, a poplar leaf hopper in New Jersey. 12, xii, 437-40. Wellhouse, 
W. H. Lace bug hawthorn, Corythucha bellula. 12, xii, 441-6. 

Davis, W. T. Cicadas of the genera Okanagana, Tibicinoides and 
Okanagodes, with descriptions of several new species. 6, xxvii, 179-223. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Botke, J. Les motifs primitifs du dessin des ailes 
des lepidopteres et leur origine phyletique. (Tijds. Nederl. Dierk. \Yr- 
een., Leiden, xv, 117-260). Dognin, P. Heteroceres nouveaux de 1'A- 
merique de Sud. Fasc. xvii. Frost, S. W. The function of the anal 
comb of certain lepidopterous larvae. 12, xii, 446-7. Haseman, L. 


Swarms of cotton moths visit Missouri. 12, xii, 467. Schierbeek, A. 
On the setal pattern of caterpillars and pupae. (Tijds. Nederl. Dierk. 
Vereen., Leiden, xv, 261-412). Seitz, A. Die grossschmetterlinge der 
Erde. Fauna Americana. Leif. 75-101. Woodruff, L. B. Fall notes 
on some Alabama butterflies. 6, xxvii, 159-61. Zetek, J. The cocoa- 
nut butterfly, Brassolis isthmia, on banana. 12, xii, 465. 

Ottolengui, R. Notes on the Plusiinae, with descriptions of new spec- 
ies and races. 6, xxvii, 117-26. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. Records and descriptions of Neotro- 
pical crane-flies. I. 6, xxvii, 132-54. Alexander, C. P. The biology 
of the North American crane-flies. V. The genus Dicranoptycha. 13, 
xi, 67-74. Barber, G. W. A note on migration of larvae of the house- 
fly. 12, xii, 466. Franca, G. Notes de zoologie medicale. Observa- 
tions sur le genre Phlebotomus. 102, xvii, 102-60. 

Cresson, E. T. Dipterological notes and descriptions. 1, 1919, 171- 
94. Malloch, J. R. The generic status of Zodion palpis, with generic 
key to the family. (Conopidae). 10, xxi, 204-5. Townsend, C. H. T. 

New genera and species of Muscoid flies. 50, Ivi, 541-92. 

COLEOPTERA. Arrow, G. J. Notes on Ruteline C. and descrip- 
tions of a few new species in the British Museum. 11, iv, 379-85. Mal- 
loch, J. R. -Notes on some species of the chrysomelid genus Altica. 19, 
xiv, 123-4. Moznette, G. F. Notes on the bronze apple-tree weevil 
(Magdalis aenescens). 12, xii, 426-9. Timberlake, P. H. Notes on 
the North American species of Hippodamia. 6, xxvii, 162-74. Weiss, 
H. B. Notes on Ceracis sallei and Brachycis brevicollis, bred from fungi. 
19, xiv, 144-7. 

Blaisdell, F. E. Studies in Alaudes t (Tenebrionidae). Synopsis and 
review of the species of Coelus. (Tenebrionidae). 2, xiv, 307-313; 315- 
34. Dawson, R. W. New species of Serica (Scarabaeidae) II. 6, 
xxvii, 223-5. Notman, H. Records and new species of Carabidae. 6, 
xxvii, 225-37. Notman, -H. Coleoptera collected at Mooers, Clinton 
Co., N. Y., with descriptions of n. sps. 19, xiv, 129-41. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bouvier, E. L. Sur 1'origine et les modifica- 
tions de 1'instinct des hymenopteres paralyseurs. ("Scientia," Bologna, 
xxvi, 449-59.) Davis, W. T. A remarkable nest of Vespa maculata, 
with notes on some other wasps' nests. 19, xiv, 1 19-23. Prison, T. H. 
Report on the Bremidae collected by the Crocker Land Expedition, 1913- 
1917. 62, xii, 451-9. Gunthrop, H. Notes on the behavior of the 
social wasp Polistes. 13, xi, 63-6. Illingworth, J. F. A successful 
method of breeding parasites of white grubs. 12, xii, 455-7. Minnich, 
D. E. The photic reactions of the honey-bee, Apis mellifera. 85, xxix, 
343-426. Smith, M. R. Occurence of the Argentine ant at Raleigh, 
North Carolina. 12, xii, 465. 

3 \. JL/ ii/ Containing over 700 Different 

Species mounted on Cotton in 60 glass-covered drawers, in 

oak cabinet, with large bottom drawer. 


RRPFNT ARRIVAI S- Papilio horishanus (n. sp.), Formosa. 
IXE^LIM 1 /AlXfXl V A\LO . Large p erfect Males on , y $g OQ 

Lot 50 Formosan Butterflies, includes many rarities, $10.00. Cheap lots from 
Africa, South America of India, 50 for $5.00. 500 each Morpho amazonicus 
and deidamia to be sold quick; first quality, 35c.; seconds, 250. 15% discount 
for 100 lots. Thousands of butterflies always in stock. 

G. G. MACBEAN, Lepidopterist, Assiniboia, Sask., Canada 

INSFfT I IFF HKTORIFS of a11 decriptions prepared for Colleges, 
in3ClI LIFE, J L131UIUE.3 schools, Departments of Health, etc. 

Insects for Dissections. Pressed Cork. Send for Luts. 

P.O. Box 432 Perth Am boy, New Jersey 


From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 


Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

From Venezuala : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 

From New Guinea 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 


Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) 

Armandia lidderdalii Parnassius hanhvirki 



If interested kindly send your list of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 404-410 W. 27th Street 

MARCH, 1920 


Vol XXXI. 

No. 3 

ASA Fnvn 

PHILIP P. CALX KKT, Ph. D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON. JR., Associate Editor. 

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MARCH. 1920. 

No 3. 


McAtee Specific, Subspecific and Vari- 
etal Categories of Insects and the 
Naming of Them (concl.) 61 

Cresson Descriptions of New North 
American Acalyptrate Diptera II. 
(Trypetidae, Sapromyzidae) 65 

Weiss Mordella marginata Melsh., 

Bred from Fungus (Coleop.) 67 

Crawford Notes on Psyllidae (Homop- 
tera) 69 

Alexander Undescribed Tipulidae Col- 
lected by Mr. H. S. Parish in Brazil 
(Dipt.).. ... 70 

Braun New Species of Lyonetiidae 

(Microlepidoptera) 76 

Smith The Bembicine Wasps of North 

Carolina (Hym.) 80 

Editorial A Fifty Years' Editorship 

and Arthropods 83; 

Williams Pseudagenia capella nom. 

nov. (Hym., Psammocharidae) . . . . 84 

Entomological Literature 84 

Obituary George Macloskie 8f> 

Jordan Seitz: Palaearctic Geometri- 

dae 90 

Specific, Subspecific and Varietal Categories of 
Insects and the Naming of them. 

By W. L. McAxEE, U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(Continued from page 55). 

In naming taxonomic conceptions subordinate to the spec- 
ies it is important to bear in mind that they may not perma- 
nently be regarded of the same rank as that in which originally 
described. Thus a form first designated as a species may 
later be shown to be a subspecies ; a variety may be found to 
be a subspecies, or a form assigned to either of these cate- 
gories may later be given specific rank*. Precautions should 

*The frequency of this occurrence should help students to realize to 
what an extent taxonomy deals with concepts rather than entities, that 
while the things may not change in measurable time, concepts of them 
certainly do, and that the present phase of the concepts is no more to be 
seriously accepted as fixed than were the half-century or century oltl vicu s 
now discarded. Certainly a present change in an admittedly ever-chang- 
ing concept should not inspire deep umbrage, especially as in the last 



be taken, therefore, to avoid the use. of preoccupied names. 
Every name used for any form, variety, subspecies or species 
of the same genus in any part of the world, should be taken 
into consideration, and a safer rule is to avoid using a name 
that has ever been used in the same family. 

This requires many names, and the problem of finding 
them apparently has appalled various workers, as they have 
taken "the easiest way" and resorted to inordinate use* of 
names derived from those of the collector and place of collec- 
tion. The idea of dedicating a species to another person as a 
mark of affection or esteem is commendable, but overdone 
it ceases to be a distinction. If you have named a form for 
some one as an expression of genuine respect or other form of 
real appreciation, do not cheapen your homage by subse- 
quently naming numerous forms for mere collectors of mater- 
ial you chance to have in hand; it is entirely possible that 
the form may have been collected a century before by some- 
one else. Another type of scientific name derived from per- 
sonal names is that immortalizing an error or oversight on 
the part of the original author, resulting in use of a preoccu- 
pied name. This form of personal name is a doubtful en- 
comium and perhaps in many cases is not intended as a corn- 
analysis, it represents the views of another individual, between which 
and your views, posterity will be the final and no doubt just judge. In 
mathematics, the most exact of the so-called exact sciences, approxima- 
tions are freely used, and some of them are among the most valuable pos- 
sessions of the science. Surely taxonomists working in one of the most 
inexact of all fields of science should be satisfied with approximations, and 
what is more to the point, recognize that they are only approximations, 
and not to be taken as immutable entities, nor fit subjects for pedantic 
positiveness, when in both respects, they are the opposite. 

*To cite, but not to identify, an instance of such overuse of geographic 
and personal names, reference may be made to a series of papers on exotic 
plants, in which 350 new species are named. Seventy-one of these specific 
names are of geographical derivation and 59 of them are based on the name 
of the single collector. Unfortunately there is no canon of nomenclature 
designed to curb such work, but a priori, one would expect that the naming 
by one author of 59 new species for a single individual collector in a single 
series of papers on organisms of a restricted locality would be prevented 
by the dictates of reason and good taste. 


pliment. In case the author of the preoccupied name is liv- 
ing the ethical thing to do is to inform him of the preoccupa- 
tion and let him propose a new name. 

Names of geographic significance also should be used spar- 
ingly; their chief merit lies in carrying a reminder of the type- 
locality or even in some cases of the range of the form. Usu- 
ally however, at the time of original description of a form 
information on its geographic distribution is too scanty to 
permit selection of a name that will broadly indicate the 
range. When the type locality only is commemorated, sub- 
sequent advances in knowledge may reveal that the type was 
collected in the outskirts of the range and that it does not be- 
long to a really typical form of the species all forms of which 
nevertheless must thereafter appear with a misleading geo- 
graphical body name. The name of the Golden plover, 
Charadrius dominions, is an example of this, the type speci- 
men for the earliest name being obtained on the island of 
Santo Domingo, where the species is only a transient, the 
summer home being in the Arctic Regions and the winter 
home in the Southern Hemisphere. For insects, Professor 
H. F. Wickham has kindly cited several geographically de- 
rived names of beetles which give no adequate idea of the 
range, for example, Mantura floridana ranging to California 
and Fort Simpson, Aphodins aleutns which occurs in moun- 
tains to Colorado and California, the wide-ranging " pennsyl- 
vanicus" species as of Nyctobates, Chauliognathus, Chlaenius 
and Harpalus, the comparable carolinus, virginicus, and nove- 
boracensis species and so on. Dorcatoma dresdensis, named 
for the European city is an extreme example of this kind, the 
species occuring commonly over middle and northern Europe 
and from New England and Virginia to Missouri and Mon- 

*Assistance in gathering examples of misused geographic names has 
kindly been given by Messrs. H. L. Viereck, Alex. Wetmore and H. F. 


If the original locality datum is incorrect or is misinter- 
preted, of course worse consequences fallow.* A few of the 
misnomers resulting from using such place names as the basis 
of specific names may be cited: the millcweed called Asclepias 
syriaca is an exclusively American plant; the parrot, Coriphi- 
lus peruvianus is really from the South Sea Islands; the tody, 
Todus mexicanus is a Porto Rican bird; while Chrysobothris 
and Cicindela yield sufficient illustration of similar happen- 
ings in insect nomenclature, each genus having a purely 
American species named tranquebarica from the supposed type 
locality in India. 

Naming species after cities, as baltimorensis, franciscana, 
etc., is a particularly futile performance. It indicates noth- 
ing of permanent value in the nomenclatorial history of the 
species, and the city growing, as cities do, the collection of 
real topotypes, in time becomes an impossibility. Place 
names also are by no means permanent, and change in usage 
of them virtually robs of significance names of organisms 
based on the obsolete names. 

To sum up: names should have an application that the 
shifts of time and accidents of circumstance are least likely 
to render void. At their best, names are seldom commemora- 
tive and then of eminently deserving individuals, rarely of 
places. Most naturalists prefer that names have a descrip- 
tive application, but this is not absolutely essential, meaning- 

*With reference to a bird name of this category namely that o f the red- 
shafted flicker (Colaptes cafer), Elliot Coues, the noted ornithologist, voices 
the following protest; "With every disposition to follow the dogma and 
ritual of the A. O. U., I cannot bring myself to call this bird C. cafer, for 
no better reason than because Picus cafer Gm. 1788, was mistaken for a 
bird of the Cape of Good Hope! Say what we please in our canons, there 
is something in a name after all, and 'the letter of the law killeth' when 
wrenched from its spirit, in defiance of science and common sense. Indi- 
vidually I cannot incur the penalty of deliberately using for a North Ameri- 
can bird a name only applicable to one from South Africa. The fact that 
" Cafer" is a sort of Latin for Caffraria or Caffrarian makes its use in this 
connection as bad as "Hottentot Woodpecker" or "Zulu Flicker" would 
be; and how would such a combination sound in plain English?" (Key 
to North American Birds, Fifth Ed., Vol. 2, 1903, p. 601.) 


less coined names being entirely acceptable. All classes 
of names should be short and euphonious. Systematic work 
on insects in most cases is a labor of love and as much care 
and genuine interest should be devoted to the selection or 
invention of names for new forms as to any other part of the 

Descriptions of New North American Acalyp- 

trate Diptera. II.* (Trypetidae, 


By E. T. CRESSON Jr., The Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rhagoletis juglandis new species 

cf- General color, tawny; with the following parts paler to nearly- 
white; frontal orbits, face, occiput, mouth parts, broad stripe from humeri 
to base of wings, scutellum except base, squamae, apices of second to 
fourth abdominal segments, coxae, and tarsi except apices. Halteres lemon 
yellow. (Bases of second to fifth abdominal segments are dark. Probably 
due to decomposition of contents). Wings hyaline with black bands as 
follows: First band straight from costal cell over anterior cross-vein to 
beyond fifth vein; second band straight and parallel to first, from costa, 
midway between tips of first and second veins, to and including posterior 
cross vein and attaining inferior margin of wing; an apical marginal band 
from before tip of second to and beyond tip of fourth veins. Veins pale 
basally, becoming black apically. Generally subopaque species; facalia, 
mesonotum laterally, most of scutellum, abdomen and legs, shining. 
All bristles black except the post verticals and few others as in suavis Lw. 

Structurally similar to suavis Lw. with similar chaetotaxy. The pos- 
terior cross vein is straight and perpendicular to fourth vein, and the wing 
is less tapering apically. Length 4 mm. 

Type. cf ; Carr Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, 
July to August, 1919, (C. R. Bierclermann; mining the exo- 
carp of Juglans regia variety), [A. N. S. P. No. 6235]. Para- 
types. 12 cf; topotypical. 

This insect was sent to Dr. Skinner by Mr. C. R. Bieder- 
mann, who calls it the " Black Walnut-fly. " He says " . . 
it appears toward the end of June, deposits its eggs in the 

* Part I. Ent. News. \\\ , 457-460, 1914. 


green hull [of a variety of the English walnut] which is mined 
by the larvae, coloring the nut black. No injury seems to be 
done to the meat. The earlier larvae go to the ground by a 
silk thread, for pupation, but most of them stay in the hull 
till the nut falls, and pupate in it." 

The insect is a typical Rhagoletis except in color. However 
in this respect the color pattern is the same as that of R. cerasi 
Linne, except that the black is substituted by tawny. In 
general appearance similar to R. suavis Loew, but the two dis- 
cal wing bands are straight and parallel in the present species, 
not convergent, thus suggesting dubia Johnson which has the 
subapical band incomplete, and has an additional subbasal 
band. The present species has only the two bands besides 
the apical marginal band. 

Sapromyza blaisdelli new species. 

Similar to Minettia nigrans Mel. in general appearance, 
but evidently more typical of Sapromyza according to 
Melander's diagnosis.* Possibly near 5. hyalinata Meig. 
The face is noticeably short and concaved. 

c? 1 . Black; anterior margin of frons, articulations of antennae, troch- 
anters, knees, middle and hind tibiae, and their tarsi, brown. Halteres, 
squamae, wings and veins, yellow. Wings not blackened at bases. Shin- 
ing to polished with slight metallic tinge; face medianly above, orbits in- 
cluding some parts of cheeks, grayish. Mesonotum and scutellum dusted 
with brownish pollen. 

Head higher than long, broader than high. Frons more than one-third 
width of head, broader than long, convex, in profile, forming an obtuse 
angle with face. Face broad as frons, shorter, in profile concaved with 
slight carina; epistoma slightly projecting. Cheeks as broad as third 
antennal joint. Latter three times as long as the other short joints to- 
gether, twice as long as broad; arista micropubescent. Three postdorso- 
centrals; acrosticals sparse; one stout mesopleural; two sternopleurals. 
Scutellum convex, with the stout apical bristles diverging. Abdomen 
ovate; marginal bristles two-thirds length of segments; genital segment 
very large dorsoventrally. Legs normal, with preapicals on all tibiae. 
Wing veins parallel; ultimate section of fourth vein two to three times as 
long as preceding (sometimes hardly twice as long). 

9 . Similar but second and third veins somewhat diverging at apices. 

Length. 3-3.5 mm. 

*Psyche, xx, 61, 1913. 


Type. cf 1 ; San Francisco, California, August 7, 1908, 
(F. E. Blaisdell), [A. N. S. P. No. 6219]. Paratypes.2<?, 
29 ; topotypical. 2cf, 69 ; same data, but collected May 
27, 1908. 

Sapromyza vanduzeei new species. 

Very similar to blaisdelli, but upper part of face where it is dusted with 
gray, antennae except upper margin of third joint, legs including coxae 
but excepting fore tarsi are yellow. The ocellar bristles are stronger and 
divergent; third antennal joint more slender; apical scutellur bristles 
parallel. The second and third veins in the male are slightly diverging 

Type. cf ; McCloud, Siskyou County, California, July 
23, 1918, (E. P. Van Duzee), [Cal. Acad. Sci., Coll.]. Para- 
types. 4cf, i 9 ; topotypical. 

One male, Niles Canyon, California, July 10, 1916, (E. P. 
Van Duzee), [Cal. Acad. Sci.], is probably conspecific, buc 
the anterior part of frons is more conspicuously yellow. The 
legs are more strongly marked with yellow, and the basal seg- 
ments of the abdomen also are yellowish. There are no ap- 
parent structural differences except in the diverging apical 
scutellar bristles. 

Sapromyza discolor new species 

Similar in structure to the two preceding species but in color very dis- 
tinct. Entirely yellow excepting the occiput above, a broad median mes- 
onotal stripe attenuating anteriorly, and the entire abdomen, black. 
There are also suggestions, posteriorly, of two dark sublateral mesonotal 
stripes. x 

Type. c? ; San Francisco, California, July 7, 1908, (F. E. 
Blaisdell), [A. N. S. P. No. 6218]. 

Mordella marginata Melsh., Bred From Fungus 


By HARKY B. WKISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

This species, which is common throughout \C\v Jrrsry 
from June to August, was bred from the sporophore of Len- 
zites saepiaria Fries, collected on a piece of deciduous timber 


along the canal at Uhferstown, Pennsylvania, on June n. 
Several larvae and pupae and one adult were taken from the 
fungus at this time and several days later another adult em- 
erged. The feeding appeared to have taken place entirely in 
the contex of the fungus and it was here that the pupal cells 
were found. According to Overholts (Polyporaceae of Middle 
Western U. S., Wash, Univ. Studies, vol. Ill, Part I, No. i) 
Lenzites saepiaria occurs on the dead wood of coniferous 
(rarely deciduous) trees. 

Very little appears to be known concerning the larval habits 
of Mordellids. Some live in old wood and others have been 
found in the stems of plants. Coquillett found larvae of Mor- 
della pustulata in plant stems under circumstances that render 
it highly probable that they were feeding on a Lepidopterous 
larva contained in the stems. In view of the fact that num- 
erous species of fungi have been examined in the past and no 
Mordellids found it is extremely probable that the fungus 
habit in this instance was accidental. 

Full Grown Larva. Length 4 to 5 mm. Width 1.6 mm. Body white, 
mouth parts dark; somewhat grub-like, convex above, flattened beneath, 
skin wrinkled; sparsely hairy, hairs short; segmentation distinct; legs 
short, weak, subcylindrical, appearing as nipple-like protuberances on 
enlarged subglobular bases; last abdominal segment subconical, terminated 
by a short subcylindrical chitinous style with four somewhat weak points 
formed by the depressed end; anal segment supplied with minute chitinous 
spines which are more numerous and larger at its distal end close to the 
style; anal segment bears more hairs than other body segments. 

Pupa. Length 5 mm. Width 1.6 mm. White, sparsely hairy, rounded 
anteriorly, tapering slightly to penultimate abdominal segment; ultimate 
segment tapering abruptly to rounded end; posterior end of body termi- 
nated by two somewhat transverse leg-like appendages, each with a sharp 
chitinized tip; head, thorax, wing cases and sides of abdominal segments 
supplied with minute spines. 

Adult. Mordella marginata. This was described by Melsheimer in 
1845 (Proc. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci. II, 312). Blatchley, in his Coleoptera of 
Indiana, states that it occurs throughout Indiana especially on the flowers 
of dogwood, Jersey tea and wild hydrangea. 

Vol. XXXl] i:\TOMOLOGICALNK\\- 69 

Notes on Psyllidae (Homoptera). 

By D. L. CRAWFORD, College of Hawaii, Honolulu 

Two brief, pre-war papers on Psyllidae (Homoptera) con 
tributed by two Germans, require a few notes of elucidation 
and comment. 

One of these, contributed by Dr. G. Enderlein 1 describes 
several new genera and species from Formosa. One of these 
new genera, Agonoscena, appears to be identical with Pauroce- 
phala Crawford. Enderlein makes an old species of Rhinocola 
(R.targioni Licht.) the type of his new genus and includes, also, 
a new species from Formosa (A. Santeri). The latter species 
seems to be identical with Paurocephala psylloptera Crawford, 
which is widely distributed over tropical Asia and the out- 
lying archipelagoes, While I have seen no examples of En- 
derlein's Formosan species, his figures and description con- 
vince me of the identity of his and my species. 

As Paurocephala psylloptera"- antedates Enderlein 's A gonos- 
cena Sauteri, the latter should be sunk in synonymy. 

Enderlein's genus Agonoscena retains its validity, however, 
until some other disposition is made of its type species. Rhin- 
ocola has been made to embrace a large number of unrelated 
species, many of which must eventually be referred to other 
genera. The type of this old genus, R. aceris Linn., is inter- 
mediate between Lima and Aphalara 3 , but few of the other 
species can be retained properly in the genus. 

For another species of Rhinocola, (R. ericae Curtis) Ender- 
lein erects the new genus Strophingia. This seems scarcely 
justifiable since R. ericae and R. targioni are similar and not 
generically distinct. 

The second paper 4 supplements Aulmann's very incomplete 
catalog of the psyllid species of the world. A few items in 
this supplement suggest some comment. 

'H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute: Psyllidae, von Dr. Giinther Enderlein. 
Entomol. Mitteilungen III, N. 7-8, pp. 230-235, July, 1914. 

2 Crawford, Phillipine Journ. Science, VIII (Sec. D): 293, August, 1913. 

3 Crawford United States National Museum, Bui. 85: 24, 1914. 

4 Friedrich Zacher -Bemerkungen zur "Psyllidarum ("atalogus" von 
G. Aulmann. Entomol. Mitteilungen II, pp. 148-153, 1913. 


Phyllopecta, a nomen nudum of Riley's, is made by Zacher 
to replace Trioza tripunctata Fitch. This name can be given 
no consideration because the species is clearly a member of 

Psyllopa Crawford has been merged by its author with 
Arytainia. 5 Several species were described in Psyllopa but 
all are now referred to the European genus, Arytaina. 

Zacher has tangled himself in the translation of the English 
language when he catalogs Trioza tripunctata Low as a syno- 
nym of Psylla Kmvayamai Crawford. The synonymy of 
three specific names is correctly as follows: 6 

Psylla tripunctata Fitch (1851) referred to Trioza tripunc- 
tata (Fitch) by Riley in 1893. This is a valid species. 

Trioza tripunctata Low (1877), preoccupied. Sulc has 
declared this species to be identical with Trioza trisignata Low. 
Hence T. tripunctata Low (nee Fitch) is a synonym of T. 
trisignata Low. 

Psylla tripunctata Kuwayama (1908), preoccupied by 
Fitch's old name for the American species now known as 
Trioza tripunctata. Hence, the Psylla species name has been 
changed to Ps. kuwayamai Crawford. This is NOT a synonym 
of Trioza tripunctata, as Zacher states. 

Trioza sonchi is one of Riley's nomina nuda but resurrected 
by Zacher. The same insect (probably) was described in 1914 
as Hemitrioza sonchi Crawford. 

Undescribed Tipulidae Collected by Mr. H. S. 
Parish in Brazil (Dipt.). 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, LTrbana, Illinois. 

During the second half of the year 1919, Mr. Herbert S. 
Parish, the veteran collector of insects in tropical American 
countries, made a trip up the Amazon River. The crane-flies 
secured on this expedition to the present time were not num- 

5 Crawford United States National Museum Bui. 85: 122, 1914. 
6 Crawford Pomona Jr. Ent. 3: 430, 1911. 


erous but represented some interesting species. A few species 
have been recorded in another paper but the more interesting 
forms taken on the lower and middle Amazon are herein des- 
cribed. A number of species hitherto known only from Guiana 
have been secured by Mr. Parish on this trip. 

The types of the new species are preserved in the collection 
of the writer. 

Teucholabis decora sp. n. 

Rostrum longer than the head; head black; mesonotal praescutum 
reddish orange with three black spots; pleura orange with a large black 
area on the mesepisternum; fore and middle femora yellow basally, hind 
legs entirely black; wings subhyaline with cell Sc, a spot at the wing-base, 
narrow seams along the cord and outer end of cell ist Mi, and the wing- 
apex dark brown. 

cf. Wing about 6.8 mm. Rostrum long and slender, a little longer 
than the head, black; mouthparts black. Antennae with the scapal seg- 
ments dark brown; flagellum broken. Head shiny brownish black, the 
occiput a little paler. 

Mesonotal praescutum shiny reddish orange with three black spots re- 
presenting the anterior ends of the usual dark stripes; median spot cunei- 
form, the smaller lateral spots more oval; remainder of the dorsum reddish 
orange. Pleura orange with a large, shiny black area occupying about all 
of the mesepisternum and the sides of the mesosternum; metepisternum 
black. Median area of the sternum orange. 

Halteres brownish black. Legs with the fore and middle coxae and 
trochanters yellow, the hind coxae and trochanters black; femora black; 
the basal third (fore legs) to half (middle legs) obscure yellow; hind legs 
entirely black; tibiae and tarsi black. 

Wings subhyaline, cell Sc dark brown; base of the wing, surrounding 
the humeral crossvein and arculus, dark brown; a narrow dark brown 
seam along the cord and outer end of cell ist M; wing-apex with a mod- 
erately broad brown band, this including about the outer quarter of ce'l 
2nd RI, the outer third of R 3 and R- ; the outer half of 2nd Mi and M 3 ; 
veins dark brownish black. Venation: Sci ending before r; r in direct 
alignment with the inner ends of cells R 3 and R*,; cell ist M, 
the distal end strongly widened, m arcuated, a little longer than the deflec- 
tion of M 3 ; basal deflection of Cu\ about one-half its own length beyond 
the fork of M. 

Abdomen destroyed by ants, only the black hypopygium remaining. 
Male hypopygium with the pleurites short, stout , with three pleural appen- 
dages, two of which are setigerous and with the apices acutely pointed, the 
larger of these two with a powerful lateral spine and a fringe of lon.n ivddish 
hairs between this spine and the apical point; the third and largest a 


dage is a curved, heavily chitinized arm whose apex terminates in two 
powerful, slightly divergent points or teeth and which bears a cylindrical 
arm near midlength, this latter with several long setae. 

Holotype: cf, Igarape-Assu, June 25, 1919 (H. S. Parish). 

Gnophomyia bisecta sp. n. 

General coloration reddish brown, the mesonotal praescutum with a 
single median brown stripe; pleura with an interrupted dorsal band, most 
noticeable as a velvety black spot on the sides of the postnotum and another 
on the episternum; wings with a single dark brown band along the cord; 
vein Ri very short as in the liirsuta group; Sci ending nearly opposite r; 
r at midlength of -R 2 + 3 ; basal deflection of Ctii at midlength of cell ist Mi. 

9. Length 6 mm.; wing 5.4 mm. Rostrum obscure yellowish; palpi 
dark brown. Antennae with the scapal segments brownish yellow; the 
flagellar segments dark brown. Head brownish yellow; eyes large. 

Mesonotal praescutum reddish brown with a narrow, dark brown median 
stripe, indistinct anteriorly, this stripe very indistinctly split by a pale 
line; scutum similar, each lobe with a small dark brown spot; scutellum 
and postnotum pale brownish yellow, the latter with two rounded dark 
brown spots at the posterior margin. Pleura reddish brown with a broad 
interrupted dorsal stripe, appearing as a large deep black spot on the mes- 
episternum and another larger black area occupying the lateral sclerites 
of the postnotum dorsad of the base of the halteres; on the propleura and 
on the mesopleural epimera this band is paler, brown. 

Halteres obscure yellow, the knobs dark brown. Legs with the coxae, 
trochanters and femora yellow; tibiae brownish yellow with the tips a little 
darkened; tarsi brown, the distal segments black. Legs short and hairy 
as in this group of species. 

Wings subhyaline with a single, narrow, dark brown band along the 
cord, beginning at the costal margin, ending at the fork of M; wing-apex 
very slightly darker than the rest of the membrane; veins brownish b'ack, 
those at the wing-base and in the costal region paler. 

Venation: Sc rather long, Sd ending just beyond r; Sc far from the tip 
of Sci, the latter vein alone being about three-quarters the length of Rs; 
Rs long, gently arcuated; Ri+ 3 short, bisected by r which is nearly twice 
its length from the tip of RI; RI short and almost straight, as in the hirsnta 
group, shorter than cell ist Mi; vein R 3 very long, deflected toward the 
wing-tip so that cell RI is by far the broadest of all the cells at the margin; 
inner ends of cells RS and ist Mi far proximad of -R 5 ; cell ist Mi closed, the 
inner end somewhat narrowed; basal deflection of Cu\ at midlength of 
cell ist Mi. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown, the basal segments a little paler medially, 
ventral surface lighter brown; genital segment and ovipositor obscure yel- 
low, the valves of the latter horn-colored; tips broken in the unique type. 
The abdomen of the type is filled with large eggs. 


Holotype: 9 , Parintins, October 3, 1919 (H. S. Parish). 

Gnophomyia bisecta is closest to G. pervicax Alexander 
(Peru) from which it differs in the single praescutal stripe, the 
wing-pattern and the details of venation. 

Psaronius pallipes sp. n. 

Head light brown with a darker median line; mesonotal praescutum 
light brown with three dark brown stripes; metatarsi whitish; wings with 
a strong brown tinge, the veins conspicuously seamed with dark brown; 
cell 2nd Ri of nearly uniform width for its entire length. 

9. Length 20-20.5 mm.; wing 14.5-15 mm.; abdomen alone 16.5 mm. 
Rostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae with the scapal segments 
light brown; flagellum dark brown. Head light brown; a rounded, dark 
brown spot on the vertex b tween the eyes; a brown median stripe. 

Mesonotal praescutum light brown with three conspicuous darker brown 
stripes; median stripe split for about the anterior half by a still darker 
brown capillary line; pseudosutural foveae dark brown; scutum brown, 
the lobes darker brown; a small dark brown spot at the end of the trans- 
verse suture; scutellum and postnotum light grey with a capillary brown 
median vitta. Pleura light grey, indistinctly marked with brown. 

Halteres dark brown ; basal half of the stem pale. Legs with the coxae 
and trochanters pale brown; trochanters pale brown; femora and tibiae 
obscure yellow, the tips narrowly dark brown; metatarsi whitish, the tips 
and the remainder of the tarsi dark brown. 

Wings with a strong brown tinge, the costal cell darker, the subcostal 
cell more yellowish; small dark clouds at the origin of Rs, fork of Rs, 
fork of /?>+ 3 ; longitudinal veins with distinct, broad seams; wing-margin 
broadly infuscated; wing-base proximad of arculus darkened. Venation 
very similar to P. obscurus, differing as follows: R running almost parallel 
to Ri so cell 2nd RI is of almost uniform width to the margin; fusion of 
Cui and M 3 slightly more extensive, 

Abdomen dark brown, the tergites darker medially; sternal valves of 
the ovipositor almost black. 

Holotype: 9 , Prata, June 30, 1919 (H. S. Parish). 

Paratopotype: 9 , July 5, 1919. 

Psaronius pallipes is one of the medium-sized species of 
this interesting Neotropical genus. By means of the author'^ 
key to the species of Psaronius (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., vol. 40, 
p. 250; 1914) this fly would run to P. fuscipennis Alexander, 
a larger fly with the coloration and wing-pattern distinct. 
Attention should perhaps be called to the fact that the abdo- 
men is very long and contributes most to the length of the in- 
sect; lor this reason a better idea of size is conveyed by the 
length of the wing. 


Psaronius brevitibia sp. n. 

General coloration light brown; head and mesonotal praescutum un- 
marked with darker; metatarsi whitish; tibiae short; wings pale yellow, 
sparsely marked with darker; vein R^ entirely atrophied. 

9. Length 24 mm.; wing 14.4 mm.; abdomen alone 19.5 mm. Ros- 
trum and palpi dark brown. Antennae with the scapal segments light 
brownish yellow; flagellum broken. Head rufous brown, narrowly silvery 
adjoining the eyes; occiput and adjoining parts of the vertex dull brown. 

Mesonotal praescutum light brown without distinct stripes; scutum 
and postnotum with a very indistinct median line. Pleura pale without 
distinct markings. 

Legs with the femora and tibiae light brown, the tips of the latter nar- 
rowly dark brownish black; metatarsi whitish, the base and apex narrowly 
darkened; remainder of the tarsi dark brown; tibiae comparatively short 
(hind tibiae 11.5 mm.; in P. pygmaeus 14.2 mm.). 

Wings pale yellow, the costal and subcostal cells deeper yellow; small 
dark brown seams at the origin and fork of Rs, and as very narrow seams 
along the cord and outer end of cell ist Mi\ wing-apex in cells R 2 , Rs, R$ 
and Mi faintly darkened; veins dark brown, C, Sc, R, Rs and RS yellow. 
Venation: vein Rz entirely atrophied, quite as in P. abnormis Alexander; 
cell Mi about equal to or a little shorter than its petiole. 

Abdominal tergites brown, the sternites more yellowish. 

Holotype: 9 , Obidos, August 28, 1919 (H. S. Parish). 

By means of the author's key to Psaronius, cited under the 
preceding species, P. brevitibia would run to P. abnormis, of 
Paraguay, a greyish fly with the costal margin of the wings 
conspicuously infuscated. It much more resembles P. pyg- 
maeus Alexander (Guiana-Brazil) which has vein R2 imper- 
fectly preserved, being represented by a short spur that is 
fused with Ri at the tip; this species has the tibiae consider- 
ably longer as given above, and the details of venation and 
coloration are slightly different. 

Polymera conjunctoides sp. n. 

General coloration light brown; thoracic pleura with a narrow, black, 
longitudinal stripe; wings grey; cell Mi deep; ovipositor with the valves 
long and straight. 

9 .Length about 3.5 mm.; wing 3.8 mm. Rostrum and palpi dark 
brown; flagellar segments in the female long-oval. Head brown. 

Pronotum testaceous. Mesonotum light brown. Pleura pale brownish 
testaceous with a narrow black longitudinal stripe continued from the head 
to the base of the abdomen, passing just beneath the halteres. 


Halteres dark brown, the extreme base of the stem pale. Legs with the 
coxae testaceous; trochanters pale brown; remainder of the legs pale 
brown; no tibial spurs. 

Wings with 'a strong grey suffusion; veins brown. Venation; almost 
as in P. conjuncla but #2+3 a little longer; Ri before r a little longer; basal 
deflection of Cni some distance beyond the fork of M and cell M* much 
deeper, vein M 3 alone being longer than the fused portion of M 3 and CHI. 

Abdomen dark brown, the stermtes a little paler. Ovipositor with' the 
valves horn-colored, long, straight, the tips acute. 

Holotype: 9 . Itacontiara, October 16, 1919 (H. S. Parish). 

The lack, or apparent lack, of tibial spurs would refer this 
fly to the genus Erioptera rather than Polymera, yet the ap- 
pearance of the insect is so very similar to species of this latter 
genus that it is referred here, at least provisionally. Whether 
the tibial spurs are similarly lacking in P. conjuncta Alexander 
cannot be determined at this time as no specimens are at hand. 

Brachypremna uniformis sp. n. 

Close to B. dispellens; femora and tibiae uniformly dark brown, the 
tarsi fading into cream-colqr. 

9. Length 15 mm.; wing 14.2 mm. Generally similar to B. dispellens. 
(Walker), differing as follows: Palpi with the first segment dark brown, 
the apex narrowly pale; segment two entirely pale yellow; segment three 
black basally, about the outer third obscure yellow; last segment black 
with the extreme tip conspicuous yellow. Mesonotal praescutum with the 
intermediate pair of brown stripes broader. Legs with the femora and 
tibiae of all the legs uniform brown; tarsi pale brown, the distal segments 
passing into cream color. Abdominal sternites one to eight with an elon- 
gate-oval black dash near the center of each segment. 

Holotype: 9, Parintins, October 8, 1919 (H. S. Parish). 

Brachypremna uniformis differs conspicuously from all the 
known species of the genus with the exception of B. unicolor 
Osten Sacken (Antilles) in the uniformly dark femora and 
tibiae. By means of the author's key to the species of this 
genus (Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vol. 20, p. 228; 1912), B. inii 
formis would not run past the initial couplet because of the 
combination of venation and leg-coloration. The venation 
is quite as in B. dispellens and related species but the entire 
absence of white on the femora and tibiae precludes its re- 
ference to any of these species. B. unicolor differs from all 
other species of the genus as known, including this new form,, 
in the very curious wing- venation. 


New Species of Lyonetiidae (Microlepidoptera). 

By ANNETTE F. BRAUN, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The types of these new species are in the writer's collection. 
Paratypes of Bucculatrix errans and of Coptodisca negligens 
will be placed in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Bucculatrix fusicola n. sp. 

Head white, occasionally a few fuscous scales in the middle of the tuft ; 
antennae white, shading to pale fuscous toward the tips. 

Thorax and fore wings pure white, the wings marked with ocherous 
streaks, which are sometimes slightly dusted with brown. There is a 
median streak from base, often faint in the male; an oblique streak from 
middle of costa, soon bending to become parallel with the median streak 
(part near costa usually obsolete in fema'e) ; a second, straight and less 
oblique brownish costal streak passing across the wing and meeting on the 
termen the end of a line of black scales which extends along the termen to 
the apex; beyond the second costal streak a patch of slightly dusted ocher- 
ous scales whose inner edge is parallel with the second costal streak and 
nearer to it than the second is to the first costal streak; a faint ocherous 
streak along the dorsum is deflexed beyond the middle and passes oblique'y 
upward joining the second costal streak; a line of black scales in the cilia 
from apex to tornus diverges slightly from the line bordering termen. 
Hind wings pale grayish ocherous in male, fuscous in female. 

Legs whitish, tips of tarsal segments spotted with black in female. Ex- 
panse: 12 mm. 

Type (9), reared from a spindle-shaped gall on stem of 
Helianthus tracheliifoliiis at Cincinnati, Ohio; in addition to 
the type, a large series of captured specimens, taken in patches 
of this species of sunflower. 

The gall is usually situated toward the upper part of the 
stem and averages about 2 cm. in length, with a greatest 
diameter of .5 cm. The cavity in the gall within which the 
larva feeds, is of about the same proportions. The larva 
finishes eating in the latter part of September, but remains 
in the gall throughout the winter, escaping in the spring 
through a minute circular aperture. The cocoon is dark 
brownish fuscous, smooth and flattened, and closely appressed 
to the surface on which it is spun, resembling not at all the 
usual Bucculatrix cocoon. The imagoes appear from the end 


of May to early July. Apart from the anomalous habits of 
the larva and peculiar cocoon, this species shows no diver- 
gence from the usual Bucculatrix type. 

This species is closely related to Chamber's B. magnella 
and has been known as that species in some collections. There 
are several large species of this general appearance, of which 
the species described below is one. 

Bucculatrix montana n. sp. 

Head white, with a few fuscous hairs in the tuft; antennal stalk pale 

Thorax and fore wings shining white; three equally spaced oblique and 
parallel ocherous-dusted costal streaks, the first before the middle bending 
below costa to join the second, which runs into some pale dusting on the 
tennen, the third the broadest. From just before apex a brown streak 
runs to tip of apical cilia and is met at about half its length by a line of 
dusting extending through the middle of terminal cilia; a curved dorsal 
streak just beyond middle of wing bends backward along the fold. Hind 
wings pale grayish ocherous. 

Legs pale whitish ocherous, with the tips of tarsi darker. Abdomen 
ocherous, fuscous toward tip above. Expanse: u mm. 

Type (cf), Mountain Lake, Virginia, June 18. 
The specimen emerged from a rather large cocoon of the 
usual Bucculatrix type; food plant unknown. 

Bucculatrix errans n. sp. 

Face and head pure white, middle of tuft dark brown; antennal stalk 
brown, becoming paler toward tip. 

Thorax white. Fore wings dark brown; just within the costa, a broad 
white streak from base, broadening outwardly, shortest along the costa and 
prolonged on the disk nearly to the middle of the wing; base of wing below 
the fold white, this white sometimes increased in extent to occupy the en- 
tire base of dorsum when it is then connected at the base with the afore- 
said white streak; just below the middle a curved white costal streak, and 
a little nearer the base a large half-crescent-shaped dorsal streak; a nar- 
row costal streak at two-thirds and opposite it at the tornus a pair of white 
spots of which the posterior one points inwardly; a triangular white spot 
in costal cilia at apex, bordered outwardly by an oblique line running out 
into the cilia; a line of dark scales through middle of cilia to tornus. Oc- 
casionally the white marks are so increased in extent that the apices of the 
spots and streaks in the basal half of the wing coalesce. Hind wings and 
cilia dark brownish gray. 

Legs except tarsi dark brown outwardly; abdomen dark brown. K\- 
panse: 10-10.5 mm. 


The type series was reared from larvae feeding on Aster 
shortii at Cincinnati, Ohio. The larva makes a long, trans- 
parent, linear, contorted and sometimes spiral mine in the 
leaves in the autumn. In early November, in a slight en- 
largment at the end of the mine, the larva spins a flat, yellow, 
circular, wintering cocoon, similar in appearance to the moult- 
ing cocoon, but of denser texture, within which it lies curled 
during the winter. In March of the following year, it leaves 
this cocoon by a circular opening, and bores into a growing 
shoot just below the growing tip, hollowing out the stem, so 
that the tip of the shoot dies. It feeds downward, usually 
eating out the whole contents of the stem for about an inch; 
when full grown it escapes by a circular hole near the lowest 
part of the burrow. ' Larva yellowish white, with two black 
spots on dorsum of first thoracic segment; head yellowish. 
The white or pale yellowish cocoon, which is of the usual 
Buceulatrix type, with a series of slightly raised longitudinal 
ridges, is spun on dead stems or twigs lying near the food 
plant, but apparently never on the food plant. Imagoes in 
the latter part of May. 

Although the mines are present in immense numbers on the 
leaves in the fall, probably not more than one per cent of the 
larvae reach maturity. 

Tischeria nubila n. sp. 

Face and head whitish straw-colored with 'a few fuscous scales on the 
sides behind; antennae whitish, in male fuscous beneath. 

Thorax darker, on the sides more ocherous than the head; fore wings 
with the ground color sulphur yellow, the color deepening on the margins 
and in the apical fourth to reddish or brownish ocherous; on these dark- 
ened areas there is scattered dark dusting, which usually forms a distinct 
dark line at the base of the cilia around the apex and a rather large dark 
spot at the tornus, and follows the dorsal margin to the base; under side 
of base of costa of male fuscous. Hind wings pale ocherous, slightly 
deeper at apex. 

Legs ocherous dusted with fuscous outwardly. Expanse: 7.5 nun. 

Type (cf), and seven paratypes reared from larvae mining 
leaves of white oak, Quercus alba, at Winnfield, Louisiana, 
(collected by G. R. Pilate). The mine is variously placed on 
the leaf, always elongate, with epidermis wrinkled and torn 


ta pupation much as in Coptotriche. Mines received early in 
May produced imagoes during the latter half of that month. 
This species is similar to T. badiiella in distribution of dark 
dusting, but the ground color is deeper and the base of the 
costa of the hind wing of the male is not thickened with dark 
fuscous scales as in that species. 

Coptodisca negligens n. sp. 

Face and head pale leaden metallic; antennae blackish. 

Thorax and basal half of fore wings pale leaden metallic; apical half or 
more of wing bright orange yellow; the silvery costal and dorsal streaks 
at the apical third nearly opposite, of about equal size, their apices usually 
separated by the yellow ground color, rarely with their internal dark mar- 
gins confluent. The outer dark margin of the dorsal spot forms part of 
the dark patch of scales which extends from it to the dorsum and termen, 
but is separated from the costal streak and apical dark patch by the orange 
yellow color. A perpendicular dark streak in the costal cilia beyond the 
costal silvery streak. Apical dark patch preceded by a minute silvery 
spot and broadly bordered on either side with silvery scales; from it a 
black pencil extends into the apical pale gray cilia. Hind wings gray. 

Legs silvery gray, tarsi fuscous. Expanse: 4-4.5 mm. 

The type series, consisting of 55 specimens, was reared from 
mines on leaves of cranberry, Oxycoccos macrocarpon, from 
Cranberry Island, Buckeye Lake, Ohio. The species is pecu- 
liar in the genus in that it is single brooded: the cranberry 
plant from which the mines were obtained was brought from 
Cranberry Island about August 5, and there were at that 
time no mined leaves on the plant. Early the following 
spring the majority of the overwintering leaves were observed 
to be affected, a single leaf containing sometimes four or five 
mines. The mine is of the usual type; the pupal case is cut 
lengthwise in one-half the leaf and when completed measures 
i by 2.5 mm. The larvae were full grown early in May and 
produced moths during the first half of June. The moth 
apparently deposits its eggs on the leaves of the new growth, 
to remain without hatching until the following spring. Tin- 
mined leaves of the preceding year's growth are lost early in 
the season. 

This species is distinguished from others of the genus by 
the brighter orange color of the apical half of the wing. ( '. 


magnella lives on a closely allied food plant (Gaylussacia) but 
even in its darker forms, can be separated easily from this 
species by the pale golden face and head, a constant character. 

The Bembicine Wasps of North Carolina 


By M. R. SMITH, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

While examining and reclassifying the wasps of this tribe in 
the collection of the Division of Entomology of the North 
Carolina State Department of Agriculture, the writer found a 
large number of specimens present, representing all the various 
genera known, except one. Therefore it seemed worth while 
to publish a paper making known the various species found in 
the state and their distribution. 

In the preparation of this paper the writer has followed very 
closely, Parker's excellent work, "A Revision of the Bembi- 
cine Wasps of America North of Mexico."* The keys are, as 
a whole, adapted from his paper, as are also quite a few of the 

Collections were made in the state by the following men, 
their initials being given in the paper for the sake of brevity: 
Franklin Sherman, C. S. Brimley, A. H. Manee, R. S. Woglum, 
Z. P. Metcalf, C. L. Metcalf, R. W. Leiby, J. E. Eckert, Max 
Kisliuk and the writer. 

To Messrs C. S. Brimley and Franklin Sherman much 
credit is due for their kind assistance in the preparation of 
this paper. 

Key to Genera 

I Anterior ocellar cicatrix circular or elliptical in form, sometimes placed 
in a pit 2. 

I Anterior ocellar cicatrix linear, transverse, straight, or curved, in a 
few species the ocellus not completely obliterated 3. 

2 Anterior ocellar cicatrix not placed in a pit; seventh tergite of males 
with lateral spines, eighth sternite ending in a single spine and middle 
femora with a strong curved tooth below near distal end Stic tin. 

*Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. 52, pp. 1-55. 
No. 2173. 1917. 


2 Anterior ocellar cicatrix placed in a oit; seventh tergite of male without 
lateral spines; middle femora without curved tooth below near distal 
end; eighth sternite ending in three spines, and in many species bearing 
a fourth discal spine Sticheila. 

3 Posterior surface of thorax concave, its lateral angles prolonged, com- 
pressed and wedge-like Bicyrtes. 

3 Posterior surface of thorax flat or convex, its lateral angles rounded . .4. 

4 Mandibles toothed; apical end of radial cell of anterior wing on costal 
border Be m bix . 

4 Mandibles not toothed; apical end of radial cell of anterior wing not 
on costal border Microbembex. 



I Middle femora smooth beneath: wings clear pictifrons. 

I Middle femora not smooth beneath, toothed; wings cloudy. . . .serrata. 


I Pulvilli distinct; band on scutellum sometimes interrupted narrowly 

on the median line pictifrons. 

I Pulvilli indistinct; no band on scutellum serrata. 

Stictiella pictifrons Smith. 

The markings are lighter on the male than on the female and are not so 
well developed. Length 12-15 mm. 

Parker records this species from North Carolina in his paper, 
no specific locality being given. We have no specimens in 
our collection. 

S. serrata Handlirsch. 

As the specific name signifies, this species has prominent saw-like teeth 
beneath the middle femora of the male. Both sexes are generally smaller 
than are those of S. pictifrons. Length 11-13 mm. 

No specific locality record is given for this species; it is re- 
corded from North Carolina by Parker. We have no speci- 
mens in our collection. 


I Intermediate femora distinctly saw-toothed or toothed 2. 

I Intermediate femora smooth, not distinctly saw-toothed or toothed. .3. 

2 Process on under side of the sixth abdominal segment a transverse 
ridge, not sharply pointed but slight ly curved on cither side of the mid- 
line belrii" 


2 Process on under side of the sixth abdominal segment not as above, 
relatively small, sharply pointed or if flattened, the sixth sternite lacks 
the lateral processes or ridges spinolae. 

2 Under side of second and sixth abdominal segments with processes, 
that on second more or less well developed, in exceptional cases lacking, 
that on sixth simple, median, pointed texana. 

2 Under side of second and sixth abdominal segments without processes 


I Neither post-scutellum nor dorsum of median segment (excluding 
posterolateral angles) marked with yellow 2. 

I Post-scutellum or dorsum of median segment, or both, marked with 
yellow pruinosa. 

2 Last abdominal segment, strongly wrinkled dorsally belfragei. 

2 -Last abdominal segment not wrinkled, punctate 3. 

3 -Bands on dorsal abdominal segments sinuate but not greatly attenu- 
ated medially, body rather slender spinolae. 

3 Bands on dorsal abdominal segments wide laterally and much attenu- 
ated medially or reduced to widely separated lateral spots, body rela- 
tively robust texana. 

Bembix texana Cresson. 

This species in a general way, may be distinguished by the fasciae being 
so attenuated and sinuated medially as to enclose more or less well marked 
black spots on the dorsum of the abdomen. On the second segment of the 
abdomen this marking is particularly more striking than on the other seg- 
ments. The markings should not be relied upon too much, however, as 
specific characteristics, since they are variable. Length 15-18 mm. 

Specimens were collected at Raleigh M. July, 1912, C. L. 
M; M. July and E. August, 1902, F. S.; Overhills, L. Au- 
gust, 1919, J. E. E.; Princeton, L. July, 1902, F. S. 6 speci- 
mens: 4 females, 2 males.* 

B. pruinosa Fox. 

This rather large, handsome species may be easily distinguished by the 
dense pubescence on the head, thorax and base of the abdomen, particu- 
larly by the pubescence of the former two. The transverse bands are 
large and broad. Length 16-19 mm - 

The two specimens, a male and a female were collected at 
Beaufort, L. June, 1903, F. S. 

(To be Continued) 

*The letters E., M., and L., prefixed to dates, refer to early, mid, or 
late, for example, early August, mid August, late August. 




It is always a good thing for the entomologist to look out- 
side his own subject and its special literature if with no other 
hope than that of obtaining some new ideas with which to 
illuminate his own studies. The Quarterly Journal of Micros- 
copical Science (London) for October, 1919, contains an article 
by one of its cooperating editors on " Fifty Years of the 'Quar- 
terly Journal of Microscopical Science,' under the Editor- 
ship of Sir E. Ray Lankester. " In it a brief sketch of the 
foundation of the Journal in 1853, with Dr. Edwin Lankester 
as one of its editors, is given. "In 1869 E. Ray Lankester, 
then a newly graduated B. A. of Oxford, joined his father in 
the editorship" and became chief editor in 1872. The most 
important articles in various biological fields which have ap- 
peared in the Journal are enumerated, as, for example, "the 
extremely interesting memoirs on the natural history of Ter- 
mites by Grassi and Sandias in 1896 and 1897," translations, 
however, from publications in the Italian. It would appear 
from this list that contributions on the insects have not been 
so numerous or important to receive much attention. But 
there is this paragraph: 

The series of articles by Sir Ray Lankester, beginning in vol. 21 (1881) 
with the memoir, "Limulus an Arachnid" are now among the classics of 
zoological literature, and to this day stand as an example ot the way in 
which a morphological problem may be followed up in detail by critical 
analysis of every organ in the bodies of the animals brought into compari- 
son. The paper on the minute structure of the lateral and central eyes 
of Scorpio and Limulus was written in conjunction with A. G. Bourne, and 
marks a great advance in our knowledge of the structure and genesis of 
the Arthropod eye, In later years (vol. 48, 1904) these memoirs were 
summed up and extended in a masterly review of the structure and classi- 
fication of the Arachmda. As a parallel piece of research we may notice 
Lankester's illuminating memoir, "Observations and RHk'ctions on the 
Appendages of A pus cancriformis, vol. 21 ( 1 88 1), followed by 1*. Pelseneer's 
more detailed study of the same species (vol. 25, 1885), and tlu 1 \\holr .-ul>- 



ject of Arthropod structure and classification is summed up in Sir Ray's 
essay in vol. 47 (1904) to which G. H. Carpenter's notes on the segmenta- 
tion and phylogeny of the Arthropoda in vol. 49 (1905) is a fitting pendant. 

We may also include the series of memoirs on Peripatus, 
"no less famous in the annals of the Journal." 

A preceding number of the Journal (April, 1919) contained 
a brief article by Sir Ray on the "Terminology of Partheno- 
gensis" in which the case of the "greenflies or Aphides" is 
used as an illustration. 

It is not often that an editor is still active after fifty years' 
association with the same journal and we may fittingly join 
the British zoologists in offering Sir Ray our "cordial congratu- 
lations on the achievements of past years coupled with best 
wishes for those that are to come." 

Notes and 


Pseudagenia capella nom. nov. (Hym., Psammocharidae) 

In "Philippine Wasp Studies" (Bull. No. 14, Ent. Ser.; Report of the 
Work of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Associa- 
tion, Published in Honolulu, Hawaii, December 31, 1919), on pages 45 
and 46, I described a psammocharid wasp under the name of Pseudagenia 
caerulescens, and further referred to the species on page 100. As caerul- 
escens has long ago been used by Dahlbom for the specific name of an Ameri- 
can wasp belonging to the gemus Pseudagenia, my Philippine species is a 
homonym and its name must be changed. I therefore change the name of 
my Philippine species from Pseudagenia caerulescens Williams to Pseuda- 
genia capella Williams. FRANCIS X. WILLIAMS, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natura J 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered n the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new species are all grouped at the end of each Order 
of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 7 Annals of The En- 
tomological Society of America, Columbus, Ohio. 15 Insecutor In- 
scitiae Menstruus, Washington, D. C. 16 The Lepidopterist, Salem, 
Mass. 17 Lepidoptera, Boston, Mass. 39 The Florida Buggist, 


Gainesville. 42 Entomologiske Meddelelser udgivne af Entomologisk 
Forening, Kjobenhavn. 43 -Proceedings of the Entomological Society 
of British Columbia, Victoria, B. C. 50 Proceedings of the l.'nited 
States National Museum, Washington. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leip- 
sic. 54 Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, D. C. 
59 Journal of Agricultural Research, Washington, D. C. 61 Proceed- 
ings of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 67 Le 
Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 72 The Annals of Applied Biology, 
London. 76 Nature, London. 77 Comptes Rendus des Seances de la 
Societe de Biologie, Paris. 80 Revue Suisse de Zoologie, Geneve. 82 
The Ohio Journal of Science, Columbus. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher, 
Jena. 90 The American Naturalist, Lancaster, Pa. 91 The Scientific 
Monthly, Lancaster, Pa. 103 Biologisches Centralblatt, Leipzig. 104 
Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Leipzig. 105 Proceedings of 
the Iowa Academy of Sciences, Des Moines. 

GENERAL. Buddenbrock, W. Einige bemerkungen zu Demoll's 
buch: Die sinnesorgane der Arthropoden, ihr bau und ihre funktion. 
(Biol. Zentralb. xxxviii, 385-91.) Crampton & Hasey. The basal 
sclerites of the leg in insects. 89, xxxix, Abt. f. Anat., 1-26. Dewitz, J. 
Bedeutung der oxydierenden fermente (Tyrosinase) fur de die verwand- 
lung der insektenlarven. 52, xlvii, 123-4. Aussere merkmale der ge- 
schlechter bei insektenlarven. 52, xlvii, 124-26. Untersuchungen ueber 
geschlechtsunterschiede. 52, xlvii, I26-I32Z. Escherich, K. Zeit- 
schrift fur angewandte entomologie, III, Heft 1-3, 1916. Heikertinger, 
F. Nomenklatorische reformen. Das systemzeichen im gattungsnamen. 
52, xlvii, 198-208 (cont.). Houser, J. S. Destructive insects affecting 
Ohio shade and forest trees. (Bui. Ohio Agric. Exper. Station, No. 332, 
165-487.) Kahn, R. H. Zur physiologic der insektenmuskeln. (Pflu- 
ger's Archiv f. Phys., clxv, 285-336.) Phiar, A. W. A. Three years' 
collecting in the Lillooet district. 43, N. 12, 34-36. Stellwaag, F. 
Wie steuern die insekten wahrend des fluges? 103, xxxvi, 30-44. Stell- 
waag, F. Wie steuern die insekten im Hug? (Die Naturwissenschften, 
1916, 270-2.) Toldt, K. Insektenfahrten im ladenstaub naturwissen- 
schaftlicher sammlungen. 52, xlviii, 122-38. Tothill, J. D. Natural 
control investigations in British Columbia. 43, N. 12, 37-39- Was- 
mann, E. Nachtrag /um Mendelismus bei ameisen. 103, xxxv, 561-4. 
Wheeler, W. M. The Termitodoxa, or biology and society. 91, x, 
113-124. Willers, W. Cellulare vorgange bei der hauUmg der insekten. 
104, cxvi, 43-74- 

GENETICS, ETC. Ballowitz, E. Spermiozeugcmen bei libellen. 
103, xxxvi, 209-16. Goldschmidt, R. Xotiz ueber einige bcmerk< n- 
werte erschienungen in i;e\vel>ekult uren von insekten. 103, xxxvi, 160-7. 
Hajime, U. On the relations between blood color and cocoon color in 
silkworms, with special reference to Mendel's law of heredity. (Genetic- 
iv , 395-4 1 ft - > Morgan, Bridges & Sturtevant. Contributions to the 


genetics of Drosophila melanogaster. (Pub. No. 278, Carnegie Inst., 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Ewing, H. E. The life and behavior of the 
house spider. 105, xxv, 177-204. Hamrurger, C. K. Zur kenntnis des 
mitteldarmes der spinnen. 52, xlviii, 38-46. Hartzell, A. A pre- 
liminary list of the Acarina of Iowa. 105, xxv, 205-12. Ressler, I. L.- 
Spiders of the family Attidae collected in the vicinity of Ames, Iowa. 105, 
xxv, 221-34.. Verhoeff, K. W. Bronn, Klassen des Tier-Reichs. Bd., 
v, Abt. 2, Klasse Chilopoda, p. 313-393- Voges, E. Myriapodenstudien. 
104, cxvi, 75-135- 

Marshall, R. New species of water mites of the genus Arrhenurus. 
(Trans. Amer. Microscopical Soc., xxxviii, 275-282.) McGregor, E. A. 
The red spiders of America and a few European species likely to be intro- 
duced. 50, Ivi, 641-79. 

NEUROPTERA. Ferris, G. F. Contributions towards a monograph 
of the sucking lice, Pt. I. (Leland Standf. Univ. Pub. Univ. Ser., 41.) 
Moll, Dr. Der schutz des bauholzes in den Tropae gegen die zerstorung 
durch die Termiten. (Der Tropenpflanzer, xviii, 591-605, 1915.) Por- 
ter, C. E. Los Tisanopteros. (Act. Soc. Scient. du Chili, xxv, 64-83.) 
Priesner, H. Zur entwicklungsgeschichte der turbanaugen von Cloeon 
dipterum. 89, xxxix, Abt. f. Anat., 485-514- Schmidt, E. Ueber 
das schwimmen der Libellenlarven. 52, 1, 235-7. Schmidt, E. Ver- 
gleichende morphologic des 2 und 3 abdomenalsegments bei mannlichen 
Libellen. 89, xxxix, Abt. f. Anat., 87-200. Strindberg, H. Konnen 
die Mallophagen sich auch vom blut ihrer wirtstiere ernahren. 52, xlviii, 
228-31. Strindberg, H. Zur entwicklungegeschichte und anatomic 
der Mallophagen. 104, cxv, 383-459. Treherne, R. C. Notes on the 
Aeolothripidae. 43, N. 12, 27-33. 

Watson, J. R. The native host-plant of the camphor thrips. 39, 

iii, 25-7. A new Physothirps from Oregon. 39, iii, 32. 

ORTHOPTERA. Hebard, M. A plea for more accurate taxonomy 

in morphological and other studies. 4, 1919, 278-9. Walker, E. M.- 

The terminal abdominal structures of Orthopteroid insects: a phylo- 

genetic study. 7, xii, 267-326. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. C. Apple-grain aphis. 59, xviii, 331-24- 

Dickerson & Weiss. The life-history and early stages of Platymetopius 

hyalinus, a Japanese maple leaf-hopper in New Jersey. 7, xii, 369-372. 

Downes, W. Notes on a collection of Hemiptera. 43, N. 12, 13-16. 

Emeis, W. Ueber eientwicklung bei den Cocciden. 89, xxxix, Abt. f. 

Anat., 27-78. Peterson, A. Some studies on the eggs of important 

apple plant lice. (New Jersey Agric. Exper. Sta., Bui. 332.) Riley, 

C. F. Some habitat responses of the large water strider, Gerris remigis. 

90, liv, 68-83. Weiss, H. B. Notes on Corythuca bulbosa. 82, xx,. 



Drake, C. J. An undescribed Teleonemia from Florida and Jamaica. 
89, iii, 24-5. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Andrews, H. V. Migration. 17, iii, 89-90. 
Blackmore, E. H. A revision of the British Columbia species of the 
geometrid genus Hydriomena. 43, N. 12, 19-26. Bonniwell, J. G. 
Collecting in the Sacramento mountains. 16, iii, 118-20. Braun,A. F. 
Wing structure of L. and the phylogenetic and taxonomic value of certain 
persistent trichopterous characters. 7, xii, 349-368. Christeller, E. 
Die missbildungen der schmetterlinge und versuche zu ihrer kunstlichen 
erzeugung. (Naturwissenschaften, 1916, 696-700.) Day, G. O. Life- 
history of Perigrapha praeses. 43, N. 12, 17-19. Dodge, E. A. The 
early stages of Syneda dinergens. 16, iii, 117-8. Durken, B. Ueber 
die wirkung verschiedenfarbiger umgebung auf die variation von schmet- 
terlingspuppen. Versuche an Pieris brassicae. 104, cxvi, 587-626. 
Dyar, H. G. New moths from Mexico. 15, vii, 162-4. Harrison, 
J. W. H. Studies in the hybrid Bistoninae. V, IV. Concerning the sex 
and related problems. A preliminary study of the effects of administering 
ethyl alcohol to the lepidopterous insect Selenia, with particular reference 
to the offspring. (Jour., Genetics, Cambridge, ix, 1-52.) Ireland, 
W. H. Collecting in the Greenhorn [Mts., California.] 17, iv, 6-8, 
(cont.). McMurray, N. Field notes. 17, iv, 1-2. McMurray, N. 
Pyrameis huntera. 17, iii, 90-2. Onslow, H. Inheritance of wing 
colour in L. (Jour., Genetics, ix, 53-60.) Prell, H. Ueber die be- 
ziehungen zwischen primaren und sekundaren Sexualcharakteren bei 
schmetterlingen. 89, xxxv, Abt. f. allg. Zool. u. Physiol., 594-602. 
Schierbeek, A. On the setal pattern of caterpillars. (Konnin. Akad. 
Van Wetensch., Amsterdam, Proc. Sect. Sci., xix, 1156-1161.) Walle, 
K. J. Vergleichende untersuchungen ueber die segmentierung und aussere 
skulptur des thorax bei den lepidopteren (Acta Soc. pro Fauna et Flora 
Fennica, xliv, No. 6.) 

Braun, A. F. A new genus allied to Incurvaria. 82, xx, 24. Casino, 
S. E. A new Stamnodes and Marmopteryx. 16, iii, 115-7. Dyar, 
H. G. A new Noctuid from Arizona. 15, \ii, 188. Gibson, A. 
The L. collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-18. (Kept. 
Can. Arctic Exped., iii, Pt. I, 58 pp.) Heinrich, C. Note on the Euro- 
pean corn borer (Pyrausta nubililis) and its nearest American allies, with 
description of larvae, pupae, and one n. sp. 59, xviii, 171-8. Swett & 
Casino. Some new Geometrids. 16, iii, 113-4. 

DIPTERA. Annandale, N. Mortality among snails and the ap- 
pearance of blue bottle Hies. 76, civ, 412-3. Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. 
Diagnoses of new mosquitoes from Surinam, with a note- on synonymy. 
15, vii, 165-80. Cameron, A. E. Life-history of the leaf-eat inn cr; 
fly, Cylindrotoma splendcns. 43, N. 12, 9-12. Dyar, H. G. -Descrip- 
tions of hitherto unknown larvae of Culex. 15, vii, 161-2. Enriques,. 


P. Intorno alia deposizione e crescita delle uova nelle mosche (Cally- 
phora erythrocephala) (Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Istit. Bologna, Cl. Sci. Fis.. 
ii, 158-64). v. Frankenberg, G. Die schwimmblasen von Corethra. 
89, xxxv, Abt. f. allg. Zool. u. Physiol., 504-92. Hale, H. M. The 
mosquito. (Aquatic Life, 1920, 18-20.) Keuchenius, P. E. Anato- 
misch-histologische untersuchungen ueber dipteren. (Tijds. Nederl. 
Dierk. Vereen., xvi, 1-52.) Loftin, U. G. Mosquitoes found about 
Gainesville, Fla. 39, iii, 17-23 (cont.). Maxwell, H. The hibernation 
of the house-fly. 76, civ, 435-6. de Meijere, J. C. H. -Zur kenntnis 
des kopfbaues der dipterenlarven und -imagines. 52, xlvi, 241-51. de 
Meijere, J. C. H. Beitrage zur kenntnis der dipteren-larven und puppen. 
89, xl, Abt. f. Syst., 177-322. Mellor, J. E. M. Observations on the 
habits of certain flies especially of those breeding in manure. 72, vi, 
53-88. Plath, O. E. The prevalence of Phormia azurea, (larva para- 
sitic on nesting birds) in the Puget Sound region, and data on two unde- 
scribed flies of similar habit. 7, xii, 373-378. Smith, M. R. A list 
of Syrphidae of Northern Indiana. 4, 1919, 273. Springer, F. Ueber 
den polymorphisms bei den larven von Miastor metraloas. 89, xl, 
Abt. f. Syst., 56-118. van Bemmelen, J. F. The colourpattern on 
diptera wings. (Konnin. Akad. Van Wetensch., Amsterdam, Proc. Sect. 
Sci., xix, 1141-1156.) Wollman, T. Larves de inouche (Calliphora 
vomitoria) et vitamines. 77, Ixxxii, 1208. 

Aldrich, J. M. Description of a new species of Hylemyia. 7, xii, 
380-1. Malloch, J. R. Three new Canadian Anthomyiidae. 4, 1919, 
274-276. A new Anthomyiid from Labrador. 4, 1919, 277-8. Mal- 
loch, J. R. Some new Eastern Anthomyiidae. 54, xxxii, 207-10. 
Malloch, J. R. New species of flies from California. 61, ix, 297-312. 
Townsend, C. H. T. Description of a new species of Phormia. 7, xii, 

GOLEOPTERA. Blunck, H. Die metamorphose cles gelbrands 
(Dytiscus marginalis). 52, xlvii, 18-31 (cont.). Ghittenden, F. H. 
Notes on Sphenophorus. 54, xxxii, 296-70. Kerremans, Ch. Mono- 
graphie des Buprestides, vii, Liv. 9-10. King, J. L. Notes on the 
biology of the Carabid genera Brachynus, Galerita and Chlaenius. 7, 
xii, 382-87. Verhoeff, K. W. Zur vergleichenden morphologic des 
coleopteren abdomens und ueber den copulationsapparat des Lucanus 
cervus. 52, xlvii, 354-63 (cont.). Weber, L. Abnorme copula bei 
Melolontha vulgaris. 52, xlvi, 219-21. Weiss, H. B. Notes on Platy- 
dema ellipticum, and its fungus host. 4, 1919, 276-7. 

HYMENOPTERA. Armbruster, Nachtsheim, u. Roemer. Die 
hymenopteren als studienobject azygoter vererbungserscheinungen. Ex- 
perimentum crucis theoriae mendelianae. (Induk. Abstain, u. Vererbung., 
Leipzig, xvii, 273-355.) Brun, R. Weitere untersuchungen ueber die 
fernorientierung der ameisen. 103, xxxvi, 261-303. Ducke, A. Hy- 


menoptera, (Commis. Linhas Teleg. Estrag., Matto Grosso, Amazonas, 
Pub. 35, 175 pp. Rio de Janeiro). Emery, C. La fondazione delle 
societa di Myrmica. Considerazioni sull'alimentazione delle Formiche. 
Definizione del genere Aphaenogaster e partizione di esso in sottogeneri. 
Parapheidole e Novomessor. (Rend. R. Accad. d. Sci. Istit. Bologna, 
Cl. Sci. Fis., xix, 67-75;. xx, 43-66.) Gahan & Rohwer. Lectotypes 
of the species of H. (except Apoidea) described by Abbe Provancher. 67, 
xlvi, 152-160. Hess, C. Messende untersuchung des lichtsinnes der 
biene. (Pfluger's Archiv f. Phys., clxiii, 289-320.) Hollande, A. C. 
Action du venin hes hymenopteres predateurs. 77, Ixxxiii, 9-11. Strind- 
berg, H. Azteca sp. Eine ameise mit totaler eifurchung. 52, xlviii, 
!53~8. Strindberg, H. Noch eine ameise ohne Serosa (Tetramorium 
caespitum). 52, xlvi, 198-202. Stuurman, F. J. Der hypoglossuskern 
der ameisenfresser. (Anat. Anzeiger, xlvi, 342-8.) 

Cockerell, T. D. A. The bees of Gold Hill, Colorado. 4, 1919, 271-3. 


GEORGE MACLOSKIE, professor of biology at Princeton 
University from 1875 to 1906 and emeritus professor since 
1906, died at Princeton, New Jersey, January 4, 1920. To 
Professor Conklin of that University, we are indebted for 
copies of a notice of Prof. Macloskie's life, which appeared in 
The Princeton Alumni Weekly of January 14, and of the reso- 
lutions adopted by the University faculty, January 5, pub- 
lished in the Princeton Packet. From these the following 
abstract has been prepared. To Professor W. M. Rankin, of 
the same institution, we owe the list of Prof. Macloskie's 
entomological papers printed below. 

George Macloskie was born at Castletown, Ireland, Sept- 
ember 14, 1834, received the A. B. and A. M. degrees from 
Queen's University, Belfast, in 1857 and 1858, and LL. B. and 
LL. D. in course from London University in 1868 and 1871. 
Ordained a minister of the Presbyterian church in 1861, he 
was pastor at Ballygoney, Ireland, from 1861 to 1874. The 
interest he displayed in natural history caused President 
McCosh of Princeton, at one time his teacher, to call him to 
the chair of that subject, in the recently established John C. 
Green School of Science, in 1875. 


The resolutions of the faculty referred to above, prepared 
by Professors W. B. Scott and Rankin, state 

Through . . . [thirty one] . . . years he gave his energies 
with scarcely an intermission to the teaching of Botany and Zoology as 
long as they were required studies, and then to smaller and specialized 
classes in elective biological subjects. Not only was he an enthusiastic 
teacher of Natural History but he also taught the formerly required sub- 
ject of the English Bible, and was also the examiner of the Latin required 
of the entering School of Science students . . . Bred as a theologian 
he was nevertheless in sympathy with the then new doctrine of Evolution, 
and throughout his life was a firm upholder of the essential harmony of 
Science and Religion. 

He is described as an omnivorous reader, having a keen 
interest in mathematical, physical and linguistic studies, a 
promoter of Esperanto, author of an Elementary Botany and 
of a Flora of Patagonia in three volumes, based on material col- 
lected by Princeton expeditions. 

In entomology his interest was chiefly morphological and 
anatomical, as the following list shows. 


From The American Naturalist: The Proboscis of the House-fly, March 
1880. The Endocranium and Maxillary Suspensorium of the Bee, May, 
1 88 1. The Structure of the Tracheae of Insects, June, 1884. Kraepelin's 
Proboscis of Musca (An abstract & review), Dec., 1884. Embryology of 
Aphides by Witlaczil (a review and abstract), Feb., 1885. Witlaczil on 
Psyllidae (abstract and review) March, 1886. Grosse's Classification and 
Structure of the Bird-lice or Mallophaga (Abstract), April, 1886. The 
Poison-apparatus of the Mosquito, Oct., 1888. 

From Science: The Structure of Insect Tracheae (Abstract of a paper 
read before the American Society of Naturalists, Dec., 1891), Feb., 1892. 

From Psyche: Pneumatic Functions of Insects, Nov., 1882. Gills of 
Insect Larvae, Dec., 1883. Head of Larval Musca, Preliminary note, 
Dec. 1884. 

Seitz: Palaearctic Geometridae (Lepid.) 

sEoiTOR, ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS: The publishers of Seitz, Macrolepi- 
doptera, ask me to send you the enclosed note, which is of interest to the 
subscribers to the work. Perhaps you can find room for the note in your 
next issue. K. JORDAN, Tring, England< 

SEITZ, Macrolepidoptera of the World. Vol. IV. Palaearctic Geometridae. 
The English and French Editions of this volume are now complete and can 
be had of the publishers. 


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IWQPTT I IFF HIQTHRIFQ ol a " deceptions prepared for Colleges, 
111JE.V/I L.1J. J LiaiUIUEnJ Schools, Departments of Health, etc. 

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From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

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andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 
" devilliersi 

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From Assam, India: 


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philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan ) 

Armandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 




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APRIL, 1920 


Vol XXXI. 

No. 4 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 
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Plate I. 









APRIL, 1920. 

No. 4. 


Jones Another Pitcher-Plant Insect 

(Diptera, Sciarinae) 91 

Smith The Bembicine Wasps of 

North Carolina (Hym.) 94 

MacGillivray The Eyes of Insects. . 97 

Fisher & Nicolay A Mexican Species 
of Agrilus found in Arizona 
(Coleoptera) 100 

Leussler A. New Euphydryas from 

Nebraska (Lep.) 102 

Malloch A New Species of Coenosia 
from the Western United States 
(Diptera, Anthomyiidae) 103 

Editorial The Urgent Necessity of 

Higher Salaries for Entomologists 105 

Skinner Callosamia Carolina and 
Samia securifera (Lepid., Satur- 
nidae) 107 

Barber Notes on the Oviposition and 
Food of the Wheel-bug (Arilus 
cristatus Linn.) (Hemip. Heter.) 107 

Weiss Tinea acapnopennella Clem. 

(Lepid.) Bred from Fungus .... 108 

Mr. E. B. Williamson Collecting 

Odonata in Venezuela 108 

Ecology A New Journal of Ento- 
mological Interest 109 

French Grants for Entomolojo< .il 

Study 109 

Cockerell -Furcaspis biformis (Homop., 
Coccidae) 109 

Cockerell Mesocyphona rubia (Dipt., 

Tipulidae) 109 

Entomological Literature no 

Doings of Societies: 

Entom. Section, Acad. Nat. Sri. 

Phila ii' 

Entomological Workers in ( )hio 

Institutions i i.j 


Dr. H. C. Wood 115 

Oliver Spink Westcott ... i i-j 

Dr. C. G. Hewitt .120 

Another Pitcher-Plant Insect (Diptera, 


By FRANK MORTON JONES, Wilmington, Delaware. 

(Plate I.). 

The captures of Sarracenia, especially those of the larger 
southern species, offer many surprises: as we pass from one 
tall "pitcher" to another, lifting their lids and peering down 
the narrowing tubes, we find recent captures, moths, beetles, 
flies, wasps, grasshoppers, representatives of most of the prin- 
cipal orders of insects, attempting to scale the vertical walls 
which have already proved fatal to the earlier victims whose 
remains fill the lower tubes; we recognize the usual guest in- 
sects, Exyra, Sarcophaga, Isodoiitni, or the indications of 
their presence; and if the se.oon and locality be l.ixoruble, 
we may soon find a "pitcher" whose tube-, some inches belou 
the top, is closed by a mass of whitish froth-like filaments 



suggestive of a mold or fungus, but which closer examination 
shows to be the product of certain slender yellowish white or 
yellow larvae which are feeding upon the captured insects, 
the froth-like mass being spun by those about to pupate, 
usually on the upper surf ace of the accumulated insect remains. 
Attention to this insect was first called (in 1909) by Dr. John 
M. Macfarlane, who has so ably monographed the Sarra- 
ceniaceae; at that time, in the Sarracenia-house of the Bo- 
tanical Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania, the 
presence of these insects occasioned some alarm for the safety 
of the plants, until their feeding habits were determined; 
subsequent observations in the field have resulted in the 
discovery of this insect in the pitchers of 5. sledgei in southern 
Mississippi, in sledgei and drummondii in southern Alabama, 
in S. rubra and 6". flava in North Carolina, and in S. minor 
and S. flava in South Carolina. Thus widely distributed, 
and associated with every species of Sarracenia whose struc- 
ture is favorable to its presence, this insect is probably, like 
the associated Sarcophagid flies (Aldrich," Sarcophaga and 
Allies in North America, Thomas Say Foundation, 1916, 
'pages 88, 89), exclusively a pitcher-plant insect; Dr. Johann- 
sen has kindly determined that it belongs to an undescribed 
species, in Pettey's key (Annals Ent. Soc. Am., XL 319) 
going with Neosciara coprophila and N. caldaria, from which 
it is readily separable by the cf hypopygium, which in the 
new species resembles that of jncunda (Johannsen's figure 
123), though lacking the transverse row of setae, and in xving 
venation having the petiole of the cubitus longer and R 1 
shorter than in jitcunda? its description follows: 

Neosciara macfarlanei nov. sp. 

Egg. Pear-shaped, .38 mm. lung, .21 mm. greatest width; translucent, 
polished, pale yellow; deposited on inner leaf wall above the insert re 

Larva. Of the usual Sriara form, with brownish-black chilini/ed head; 
in color varying individually from yellowish white to rather bright yellow; 
the dark contents of the digestive tract, in which insect fragments are 
recognizable, showing through the translucent integument; segments 
6, 7, 8, and 9 of almost uniform diameter, from these tapering somewhat 
anteriorly and posteriorly; eight pairs of spiracles marked by minute pol- 


ished black rounded protuberances; length before pupation 10 mm.; usu- 
ally from three to a dozen or more larvae occupy an infested pitcher. 

Pupa,. Suspended among or imbedded in froth-like white filaments; 
often several pupae in close proximity in a common froth-mass which is 
denser about each pupa, thus approximating a frail cocoon-like structure, 
from which the pupa pushes its way before emergence of the fly; pupa 
yellowish white, soon darkening, especially the eyes, with the pigmenta- 
tion of the imago; base of antennae prominently arched over the eyes, but 
not in contact medially; abdominal spiracles marked by minute concol- 
orous pointed projections; length about 4 mm. 

Imago, c? and 9. Length 3 to ( 9 ) 3.8 mm., dry; live females often 
slightly exceed 4.5 mm.; fuscous black to black; head and thorax denser 
in color than the abdomen, somewhat polished, finely punctate, hairs 
black. Eyes black, finely pubescent, their finger-shaped frontal projec- 
tions failing of contact by less than width between antennae; lateral ocelli 
remote from eye-margins, inclined on a rather prominent ocellar protuber- 
ance. Palpi and antennae smoky; intermediate joints of the flagellum 
twice as long as wide, last flagellar joint elongated; antennae of 9 about 
one-sixth shorter than those of the cf- 

Halteres slender, finely pubescent, smoky, the stems pale; coxae and 
femora brownish-yellow, with dark hairs; tibae darker, more smoky, and 
tarsi almost black; trochanters dark beneath; length of hind tibia to 
tarsus, as 100 to 85. 

Wings brownish-hyaline; costa, radius, and R-M cv. setose; cubit us 
and media not setose, except that basal section of media of o" usually 
bears one or two setae; costa produced fully two-thirds of way from Rs to 
Mi; Rs and M2 end about equidistant from the base of the wing; the 
base of Rs is slightly disted of the mid-point between the humeral cross- 
vein and the tip of Ri; subcosta very faint, ends free, proximad of the 
origin of Rs; Ri ends slightly proximad base of fork of M (in measured 
wings, from one-twenty-sixth to one-tenth of the wing-length proximad); 
petiole of cubitus about same length as basal section of media. 

Abdomen black-haired; lateral band (in fresh examples) yellowish 
brown; the distended body of the 9 dries to an almost uniform smoky 
brown, paler than that of the <?; hypopygium dark, claspers subglobose, 
shortly stemmed to and more than half as long as the preceding joint and 
with no mesal processes or differentiated apical spines: lamellae of 9 ovi- 
positor about one and one-third times as long as broad. 

Localities: Summerville, South Carolina; Southern Pines, 
North Carolina; Theodore, Mobile County, Alabama; Biloxi 
and Wiggins, Mississippi; Philadelphia Pennsylvania (in- 

Described and illustrated from numerous examples Iroin 
all of the stated localities; a male and female, mounted in 


balsam, from Theodore, Mobile County, Alabama, are desig- 
nated as the types, and with other type material are deposited 
in the Cornell University collection. 

In 1910 at Biloxi, Mississippi, as early as March loth, the 
larvae of this insect were abundant, the pupae occasional, in 
those pitchers of Sarracenia sledgei which had remained 
green throughout the winter; the earliest observed emergence 
of the fly occurred March 27th; the eggs are deposited in the 
new pitchers of the season, soon after these have commenced 
to capture insect prey, and the insect in its various stages 
occurs in the pitchers through t the summer months, no regu- 
lar succession of broods being observed, though very irregular 
in its comparative abundance from year to year, and in its 
recorded localities. 

The Bembicine Wasps of North Carolina 


By M. R. SMITH, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

(Continued from page 82). 
B. spinolae Lepelletier. 

This is one of the most common species in North Carolina and may be 
generally recognized by the clear wings; short, fairly dense pubescence 
on the head, thorax and base of abdomen and by the white curved bands 
on the second, third and fourth abdominal segments. Length 14-17 mm. 

Specimens were collected at the following localities: Ra- 
leigh, L. July, 1906, and E. August, C. S. B.; Landis, E. Sept., 
1 9 1 9> J- E. E. ii specimens: 4 females, 7 males. 

B. belfragei Cresson. 

The specimen in our collection, a male, is rather robust, widest at the 
base of the abdomen and tapering apically. The bands on the first three 
abdominal segments are rather prominent, the first being the broadest. 
The bands on the second and third segments are widest laterally, arcuated 
and attennuated medially. All the bands are interrupted. The labium 
in both sexes, when viewed from the side, shows a distinct transverse im- 
pression. The last dorsal abdominal segment is wrinkled. Length 16- 
18 mm. 


One specimen collected at Southern Pines, June 6, 1906, 
R. S. W. 




I Middle femora with distinct tooth at base; last dorsal abdominal seg- 
ment black; bands on dorsum narrow venlralis. 

I Middle femora without tooth at base 2. 

2 Flagellum black guadnfasciuln. 

2 Flagellum not wholly black- legs black and ferrugineous, markings 
deep yellow, frequently with dashes of ferrugineous capnoptera. 


i -Mesopleurae black 2. 

I Mesopleurae not black, marked with yellow. Discal spots on scutum 

absent or present in the form of narrow yellow lines. . . .quadrifasciata. 
2 Sixth dorsal abdominal segment with a well defined pygidial area, set 

o by distinct lateral ridges capnopteni. 

2 Sixth dorsal abdominal segment without a pygidial area or well denned 

lateral ridges, underside of this segment without a median longitudinal 

ridge ventralis. 

Bicyrtes quadrifasciata Say. 

One of the largest species in the genus. The ground color of the body 
is black with a bluish iridescence. The bands are broad at the sides and 
narrowed medially; narrowly interrupted anteriorly, more widely pos- 
teriorly. Length 1214 mm. 

Collected at the following localities: Southern Pines, July, 

A. H. M; Swannanoa, M. July, 1919, R. W. L.; Wilson, E. 
July, 1906, R. S. W.; Statesville, M. July, 1919, F. S. 8 
specimens: 5 males, 3 females. 

B. ventralis Say. 

c? Black; Labrum, scape of antennae below, broad anterior and 
narrow posterior orbits, posterior margin of pronotum including lateral 
tubercles, rounded lateral spots on scutcllum, band on metanotum, lateral 
angles of median segment, narrow band on dorsal abdominal segments 
1-6 narrowly interrupted medially, yellow. The color markings<> 
the arrangement of the bands are variable and too much dependence 
should not be placed on them as specific characteristics. 

One specimen, collected at Raleigh, M. June, !<)<>(>, I\. S. \Y. 


B. capnoptera Handlirsch. 

The four specimens differ from Parker's description in that the labrum 
is black, the apical edge of the clypeus is fringed with black and there is 
no yellow spot between the antennae. In one specimen the antennae are 
more or less ferrugincous, and there are lateral lines on the scutum above 
the bases of the wings. Another specimen has black antennae and is 
devoid of the lateral lines on the scutum. The last dorsal abdominal seg- 
ment in the four specimens has distinct lateral ridges; the mesopleurae 
are black and the bands on the abdomen are narrowed laterally. Length 
10-15 mm - 

Specimens were collected at: Cranberry, M. Oct. 1907, F. 
S.; Raleigh, E. July, 1911, Z. P. M.; Wilmington, M. Oct., 
1919, M. R. S. 4 specimens, all females. 

Stictia Carolina Fabr. 

This large handsome species is commonly known as the 
"Horse Guard," from its habit of being predaceous on horse 
flies. It is no unusual sight to see this wasp darting around 
horses in search of the flies that are such a nuisance to'our 
faithful animals. 

The males have fewer markings on their abdomens than the females, and 
are also more robust in appearance. They may be recognized by the 
curved tooth on the distal end of the middle femora and by the pair of 
lateral spines on the last dorsal segment of the abdomen. 

The female has bands on the first five segments of the abdomen; the 
first two segments have the bands interrupted medially, the third segment 
has four yellow spots, while the fourth and fifth segments have a pair of 
lateral spots respectively. Length 24-28 mm. 

Specimens were collected at the following localities : Greens- 
boro, M. July, 1919, F. S.; Beaufort, E. August and L. June, 
1903, F. S.; Wilmington, L. Oct., 1919, M. K.; E. August, 
1919, R. W. L. 6 specimens: 4 females, 2 males. 

Microbembex monodonta Say. 

This is a very common species along the eastern coast of the State. In 
form the species is small, elongate, and has markings which are variable 
both in color and in their location on the body of the insect. The pubes- 
cence on the frons and clypeus of the male has a silvery reflection. On 
the under side of the second abdominal segment is a smooth median, longi- 
tudinal process that terminates posteriorly in a short curved point, which 
is not hairy. 

The females may be distinguished from related species by the pubes- 
cence of the head, thorax and abdomen not being unusually long and dense , 


and also by the scape of the antennae being black above. Rarely the 
scape is yellow below. 
Length 8-14 mm. 

Specimens collected at: Beaufort, E. Aup., 1902; June 15 
and 24, 1903, F. S.; Nags head, L. Aug., 1919, F. S. 9 speci- 
mens: 5 females, 4 males. 

The Eyes of Insects.* 


There is always difficulty in differentiating between the 
kinds of eyes of insects so far as their names are concerned. 
This becomes especially complicated when it is necessary to 
compare the eyes of adult insects as those of butterflies or 
moths with those of their larvae. 

All are agreed in designating the large organs of sight com- 
posed of several or numerous independent parts as the com- 
pound eyes or simply as the eyes. But there is a lack of uni- 
formity, when the names of the parts of a compound eye are 
considered. The early entomologist designated each of the 
component parts of a compound eye as an ocellus, plural 
ocelli. This led to confusion because the simple eyes of in- 
sects were also designated as ocelli. A compound eye is com- 
posed of a number of subdivisions, each considered as an in- 
dependent eye and known as an ommatidium, plural omma- 
tidia. Each ommatidium consists of an external usually 
more or less convex hexagonal area of cuticle, the cornea, the 
crystalline lens or cone, the rhabdome, the retinula cells, the 
pigment cells, and the nerve connections. Some writers 
apply the name of ommatidium to one of the entire subdivi- 
sions of a compound eye and also to the external area of the 
cuticle. Others have designated each of the hexagonal areas 
of the cuticle as a facet and applied the name of ommatidium 
io an entire subdivision of a compound eye only. It is de- 
sirable that these words should be restricted in their use and 

"Contributions from the Kniomolo;<ir;il Laboratories of the I'niversity 

ol Illinois, \O. 64. 


definite in their application; that facet be used for the 
external surface and that ommatidium be used for the en- 
tire element including the cornea and consequently the facet. 
This provides a taxonomic term, facet, and a morphological 
or histological term, ommatidium. It is not practical to ex- 
clude the facet from inclusion with the ommatidium since the 
facet is only the outer surface of the cornea which must be 
considered as a part of each ommatidium. Compound eyes 
are present in both nymphs and adults of ametabolous and 
exometabolous insects, but only in the adults of entometabo- 
lous insects. The developing compound eyes of the adult can 
frequently be seen in the pupa of entometabolous insects and 
rarely in their larvae, but these stages are never provided with 
functional compound eyes. 

Many adult insects have a group of simple eyes located on 
the dorsal or cephalic aspect of the head. While there are 
usually three of these simple eyes arranged in the form of a 
triangle with the apex of the triangle directed toward the 
mouth, there are never more than three of these simple eyes, 
sometimes there are only two, rarely only one, and frequently 
all are wanting. The pair of cephalic discs described by Kochi 
as probably representing a primitive divided ocellus appears 
to be only discs for the attachment of muscles. Each of 
these simple eyes is universally known as an ocellus, plural 
ocelli. The ocellus forming the apex of the triangle is known 
as the median ocellus and each of the others as a lateral ocel- 
lus. When only two ocelli are present, it is the median ocel- 
lus that is wanting and when only a single ocellus is present, 
it is the lateral ocelli that are wanting. The ocelli are also 
known as s lemmata, singular stemma. Ocelli are never pres- 
ent in ametabolous insects and only in the adults of exometa- 
bolous and entometabolous insects. They can sometimes be 
seen as black spots through the transparent cuticle of some 
nymphs and they have been described as ocelli, but functional 
ocelli are never present in nymphs, larvae, or pupae. 

Ametabolous insects and those with exometabolous meta- 
morphosis, as the nymphs and adults of Collembola, Mallo- 
phaga, etc., and the larvae of insects with an indirect meta- 


morphosis usually have one or more simple eyes. The>e 
simple eyes are located on that portion of the head where, if 
compound eyes were present in the adult, they would be lo- 
cated. This would seem to be an ontogenetic proof of the 
contention of Lang and others that the compound eyes of 
insects are formed from "an increase in the number of pri- 
mitive eyes, and their approximation, led to the formation of 
the compound facet eye." In the case of the adult male 
coccid, the eyes are compound in the four generalized sub- 
families and represented by groups of simple eyes in the 
specialized subfamilies The number of simple eyes in each 
group is gradually reduced with specialization until in certain 
highly specialized wingless males, there is only a single ocellus 
on each side of the head. This is the number found in all 
adult and nymphal female coccids where eyes are present and 
in the first and probably some of the later nymphal male 
stages. A similar series of reductions can be shown from an 
examination of different genera of Collembola. The latter 
show a condition which is characteristic not only of nymphs 
of all stages but of adults, while the male coccids show a con- 
dition peculiar to the adult male alone. In the larvae of in- 
sects the compound eyes may be represented by groups of 
simple eyes, a single group may contain as many as twenty 
or be limited to a single simple eye on each side of the head, 
but the usual number is about six. The representation of 
compound eyes by simple eyes is peculiar in this group to the 
larval stages. 

All these various types of simple eyes, those of the Collem- 
bola, of the coccids, and of larvae are also designated as ocelli. 
The use of the same name for two or more structures which 
are always different in position, whether they are different in 
structure or not, always leads to confusion. In order to dif- 
ferentiate between the simple eyes of the Apterygota and the 
ocelli and simple eyes of other insects it is suggested that 
each of the simple eyes of the Apterygota be known as an 
ocelltila, plural ocellulae. The simple eyes of those insects 
with an exometabolous metamorphosis, whether found in 
nvmphs or adults, to be known as ocellanac to distint;ui>li 


them from ocelli, ocellulae, and the simple eyes of larvae. 
The simple eyes of larvae, the immature feeding stages of 
entometabolous insects, are to be known as ocellarae. 

Ocellulae and ocellarae of each side of the head are usually 
closely associated and are generally placed upon an area that 
is very different in color or is more convex or elevated above 
the adjacent parts of the cuticle. Each of these areas has 
previously been designated as an ocularium. 

The pupae of insects with an entometabolous metamorpho 
sis are never provided with eyes. In many species, where the 
cuticle is thin and transparent, the developing compound 
eyes and sometimes the ocelli of the adult, as already noted 
in the nymphs of exometabolous insects, can be identified 
through the cuticle. Such eyes or ocelli are never functional 
in pupae and are incorrectly described or designated as the 
eyes or ocelli of pupae as is sometimes done. 

A Mexican Species of Agrilus found in 
Arizona (Coleoptera). 

By W. S. FISHER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, 
and ALAN S. NICOLAY, Brooklyn, New York. 

This species was described by Waterhouse (1889, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer. Coleopt., vol. Ill, p. 119, tab. VII, figs. 7, ya) 
from Pinos Altos, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, from a male 
specimen. This species is remarkable for its sexual color 
dimorphism, which as far as known, is not found in any of 
our other North American species. As the female has never 
been described and to assist those who have no access to the 
works in which the Mexican species, herein recorded, is de- 
scribed, we have given a description of the species, hoping it 
will prove more useful than simply recording its appearance 
in the United States. 

Agrilus restrictus Waterhouse. 

cf. Moderately elongate as in arcuatus, head, thorax and beneath 
brassy; elytra slate color, shining. Antennae brassy, reaching to middle 


of prothorax, serrate from the fourth joint. Head closely and coarsely 
punctured; front broadly and rather deeply longitudinally impressed. 

Prothorax one-fourth wider than long, not narrowed at base; sides 
slightly arcuate; surface rugous, with coarse distantly placed punctures 
in the depressions; discoidal impression deep, broadly ovate behind, nar- 
rowed in front; the lateral impressions deep, extending from the anterior 
third, obliquely backward to middle of the disc; there is a round swelling 
at the posterior angles, with a round fovea behind it close to the base; pos- 
terior angles without any trace of a carina. Scutellum deeply impressed 
in the middle and finely rugous. Elytra slightly sinuate behind the humeri 
and dilated behind the middle, nearly concealing the abdomen; apices 
separately rounded, finely serrulate; disc slightly flattened at middle, 
basal impressions moderately deep; sutural ridge elevated behind the 
middle; surface densely imbricate, shining. Prosternal lobe broadly 
emarginate. Prosternum coarsely punctured, the punctures becoming 
denser on the intercoxal process, not pubescent; intercoxal process with 
its margins slightly raised, the apex obliquely narrowed. 

Abdomen moderately strongly punctured, slightly rugous at the sides; 
lateral carina of the basal segment distinctly curved; first ventral segment 
roundly convex at middle, not pubescent; suture between the first two 
ventral segments entirely obliterated at the sides; vertical portions of all 
the segments, except the last, pubescent posteriorly; pygidium not cari- 

Anterior and middle tibiae arcuate, with a slight mucro at the inner apex; 
the posterior tibiae simple, flattened on the inner side, and with a row of 
stiff hairs on the posterior half of the outer edge. Claws broadly toothed, 
the lower portions not inverted, similar on all feet. Posterior tarsi not as 
long as the tibiae; the first joint one-fourth as long as the tibia. Length 
8.5 mm.; width 2.2 mm. 

9. Differs from the male as follows: More robust, head, thorax and 
beneath cyaneous; elytra cupreous, shining. Antennae shorter, only 
reaching a little beyond the anterior margin of the prothorax; vertical 
portions of the abdominal segments more distinctly visible frum above; 
tibiae not mucronate; fore tibiae slightly arcuate; middle and hind tibiae 
simple. Length 10 mm.; width 3 mm. 

One pair of adults taken in coitu in the Huachuca Moun- 
tains, Arizona, August 2, 1905, and donated to Mr. Nicolay 
by Mr. Chas. W. Leng. Specimens in Mr. Nicolay's collec- 

In Dr. Horn's table of Agrilus (1891, Trans. Amer. Ent. 
Soc., vol. XVIII, pp. 283-287) these specimens run to con- 
cinnus Horn, but differ from that species by the different 
coloration in the sexes; the last abdominal segment roundi-d 


at the tip, while in concinnns it is truncate, and in numerous 
other characters. 

This species has never been reported from the United 
States, but since the fauna and conditions of the country in 
the southern part of Arizona are very similar to those of Pinos 
Altos, Mexico, from where the species was originally des- 
cribed, it is not surprising that it should be found in our fauna. 
The specimens were sent to Mr. Gilbert Arrow, who has 
kindly compared them with the type in the collection of the 
British Museum, and has returned them with the following 
remarks : 

"The male is like A. restrictus, except that the median 
fovea of the thorax is less broad behind in the unique type. 
Without examining a series of specimens I cannot tell whether 
this is of importance." 

In- examining a series of specimens of some of our other 
species which have the thorax deeply impressed, this charac- 
ter was found to vary considerably in the different specimens, 
so it is possible that the same condition will be found in res- 

A new Euphydryas from Nebraska (Lep.)- 

By R. A. LEUSSLER, Omaha, Nebraska. 

Euphydryas bernadetta n. sp. 

o*. Expanse 38 mm. Upperside: Primaries black, an irregular key- 
stone-shaped white spot at base of cell, another large quadrate one in 
middle of cell, and three oblong conjoined ones at the distal end; between 
these several white spots in the cell are two red spots bordered with black; 
beyond the cell three irregularly curved rows of white spots, the inner row 
slightly tinged with red, and preceded on inner margin by a large white 
irregular spot, the outer row somewhat lunulate; all of the spots well 
separated from each other and from the other rows by the black ground 
color; a terminal row of small red spots; fringe black-and-white-checkered. 
Secondaries black, a median row of oblong white spots, beyond this a row 
of red spots, another row of white spots and a terminal row of red spots; 
an irregularly shaped white spot at end of cell; one near base of cell, an- 
other near base at costa, and a fourth above anal margin; beyond cell is 
a narrow red spot; all spots well separated by black ground color as on 
primaries; fringe black-and-white-checkered. 


Underside: Primaries red, with the white spots all repeated, the subter- 
minal ones enlarged, distinctly lunulate and separated by a heavy black 
line across apical half of wing; spots all well denned. Secondaries: red 
and white spots of upperside reproduced beneath greatly enlarged, the 
only black being the defining lines between spots; submarginal white 
spots lun-ilate. All the red on this insect is between Brazil red and scarlet 
(Ridgway Color Standards PI. i). 

9 . Expanse 47 mm. Upperside: Quite similar to tf in maculation 
but the white spots are larger, especially the outer row and these too are 
distinctly lunulate. Underside: Less red than tf with the white spots 

Described from 26 cf and 16 9 collected in Monroe Canyon 
near Harrison, Sioux County, Nebraska. Types in the col- 
lection of R. A. Leussler, Omaha. 

This species is nearest maria Skinner; in fact examination 
of the genitalia places it very close to this species and it may 
prove to be a race of the same. It is quite variable in size, 
wing shape, color of spots, etc., but can be separated from 
maria by one very constant character, namely, the distinct- 
ness of white spots on underside of primaries, the outer rows 
being clearly defined by black borders of varying width. 

A new Species of Goenosia from the Western 
United States (Diptera, Anthomyiidae). 

By J. R. MALLOCH, Urbana, Illinois. 

The species described herein has been in my hands for two 
years and the description is printed now to enable the subse- 
quent publication of a key to the species from the United 

There is no species with three bristles on the hind tibia 
which has the same color, and hypopygial and apical tergal 
characters as this. 

Coenosia cilicauda sp. n. 

cf and 9. Black, opaque because of a dense coaling of gray priiin. - 
ccnce; proboscis, femora and hypopygium shining. Antennae and palpi 
black. Thorax not vittate. Abdomen with two pairs of dorsal fusion-, 
spots, on third and fourth segments, and sometimes a very indistinct pair 


on second in male. Legs black, all tibiae yellowish testaceous. Wings 
and calyptrae whitish. Halteres yellow. 

Each orbit with 4 or 5 bristles and a few hairs; cheek distinctly higher 
than width of third antennal segment, the apex of latter about one-third 
of the length from lower margin of face; arista short-haired. Acrostichals 
irregularly two-rowed; lower stigmatal bristle long, directed downward. 

Abdomen of male longer than thorax, slender, cylindrical, basal hypopy- 
gial segment globose, subequal in length to preceding segment, forceps 
long, extending to base of fourth tergite, both forceps stout, slightly tapered 
apically, the superior pair fringed on sides with minute hairs; abdomen of 
female tapered apically, the fourth tergite with a rather dense fringe of 
stiff bristly hairs at apex. 

Femora stout, mid and hind pairs with two or three long bristles on 
basal half of antero- and postero-ventral surfaces and the hind pair with 
two or three similar bristles on apical half of antero- ventral surface; in 
addition to those bristles there are some shorter setulae between them 
which are most noticeable in the male; fore and mid tibiae with the usual 
bristles, hind tibia with three bristles, one antero-ventral, one antero-dor- 
sal, and one postero-dorsal; hind tarsus with the basal segment about one- 
third as long as tibia, a short setula near base on ventral surface. Lower 
calyptra much larger than upper. 

Length, 3.5-4 mm. 

Type, male, and allotype, Musselshell, Montana, August 
30 and 17, 1917. Paratypes, two males, Huntley, Montana, 
July 23, 1917; one female, Miles City, Montana, July 21, 
1915; one female, Bozeman, Montana, July 7, 1917; two 
males, Saguache, Colorado, September 3, 1917 (A. K. Fisher). 

The type and allotype will be deposited in the collection of 
the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. Paratypes 
will be deposited as follows: one male and one female, Illinois 
State Natural History Survey; two males, U. S. Bureau of 
Biological Survey; one male, Boston Society of Natural 
History; one female, Academy of Natural Sciences of 



The Urgent Necessity of Higher Salaries for Entomologists. 

We have received from "a group of younger Entomolo- 
gists" a letter and a printed statement entitled "American 
Entomology: Its Present and Future Status as a Profession. ' 
The justness of the claims urged therein is so apparent and the 
emergency is so pressing that we reproduce a large part of 
the statement herewith. 

That men of science, particularly those engaged in research and teaching, 
are greatly underpaid, is a fact so well known that it needs no setting out 
here. This applies, perhaps, more especially to Entomology than to any 
other one division of the basic Sciences. 

We have in mind a case that came under our observation a short time 
ago, the case of a young man, very greatly interested in his work, capable, 
ambitious and diligent. The only misfortune that apparently handicapped 
this gentleman was a wife and two children. This young man entered the 
employ of a certain Department of Entomology four years previous at a 
salary of $1000 per annum, giving up a position of some importance and 
much larger remuneration for his services in doing so. After one year of 
faithful service he was raised to $1200 and had remained at this salary for 
three years. Apparently every effort had been made by his immediate 
superiors, without avail, to have his salary increased. Twelve hundred 
dollars is decidedly not a living wage for a family of four. 

For several months the young man tried various enterprises outside of 
working hours to remedy the situation. These eventually encroached on 
official time as the situation became more and more acute. He gave less 
and less thought to his professional work and more and more to the question 
of making income and expenses meet. After a time the situation became 
so desperate that the young man resigned his position and entered busi- 
ness. At the present time he is enjoying considerable success in a com- 
mercial enterprise. Let us repeat that this young man was an excellent 
investigator and an Entomologist of great promise. 

It may be pointed out by some that the case herein mentioned is an ex- 
treme case but we now have under observation several instances whirh 
are nearly parallel. 

Now there are positions open for a certain number of Entomologists, 
positions which must be filled by someone, and which should be filled by 
those most fitted by training and experience. Yet many of these positions 
are filled by a shifting group of men, the cycle appearing to travel in some 



such manner as this. A young man fresh from college, fired with enthusi- 
asm and with ambition, enters one of these positions. He has no experi- 
ence and little training, yet is possessed of great energy and is very indus- 
trious. He accepts the low salary offered in expectation that increases 
will be given as he becomes of greater value to his employer. He labors 
for from three to five years, we will say, under these conditions. Increases 
are extremely slow, yet at first his enthusiasm overcomes this drawback. 
Gradually his enthusiasm and ambition dwindle as the question of food, 
clothing and shelter becomes more and more pressing, and as he observes 
his former associates advancing in other lines of work. Finally he resigns 
and goes to more profitable employment, perhaps retaining Entomology as 
a hobby, his place being filled by a victim fresh from school who will un- 
questionably follow in his footsteps. These years of training and experience 
are lost to him and to the science in which he would make large sacrifices 
if it could but supply him with a compensation sufficient to enjoy the 
necessities of life. 

A scientific field replete with a shifting group of workers reflects but little 
credit on any profession and we will emphatically say that teachers do 
wrong in urging students to take up the profession without presenting the, 
whole truth. 

A man who, in his heart, really wishes to be a Naturalist is willing to 
give up most of the best things that life has to offer, but by entering the 
field of Entomology one should by no means infer that he must become a 
vagabond. There are, to be sure, a few fairly well paid positions available, 
but these are filled by men who occupy, them for long terms of years and 
usually nothing less than death renders the positions available for the 
younger men. 

In the past Entomology has been as much a hobby for private workers 
as a profession wherein men might earn a living. A large proportion of 
the constructive workers in the subject have been dependent on other fields 
of endeavor for their financial support, and have turned to Entomology 
for their recreation. How much greater service they might have rendered 
to the science if it had been possible for them to devote all their energy to 
it. This condition still remains, perhaps to a less degree. As long as this 
continues it is doubtful whether Entomology will take its place among the 
greater sciences to which its importance entitles it. We are glad men have 
such attachments for a subject; we are glad ours is a study which can thus 
afford men a recreation and which is at the same time a distinct service. 
But we would lift it from the rank of a hobby into the status of a pleasant 
and fascinating profession. 

How then is this condition to be remedied, for it must be relieved short ly. 
The younger worker can help himself but little. It remains, therefore, for 
the men in the highest positions to awaken to the conditions and bend 
every effort to raise the standard of the profession thru fair salaries for 
their assistants. 


Notes and Ne\vs 


Callosamia Carolina and Samia securifera (Lepid., Saturnidae) 

Mr. W. C. Dukes of Mobile, Alabama, has sent me a cocoon of Callos- 
nmia Carolina, described by F. M. Jones in this journal (Vol. XIX, p. 231, 
1908). The type came from Berkeley County, South Carolina. In 
ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, XX, p. 49, 1909, Mr. Jones figured and fully de- 
scribed the species. It is probably quite distinct from C. angulifera. 

In Beitrage Zur Schmetterlingskunde, Mossen and Weymer, (Elber- 
feld, 1872), there is figured, in both sexes, what they call Samia securifera, 
(figs. 50, 51) from Central America. This is probably the same species as 
Carolina. Mr. Dukes has extended the range of Carolina and it will be 
interesting to compare Central American species or specimens with Carolina 
when they are found. -HENRY SKINNER. 

Notes on the Oviposition and Food of the Wheel-bug (Arilus 
cristatus Linn.) (Hemip. Heter). 

During the months of September and October, 1917, the wheel-bug' 
Arilus cristatus Linn, was very numerous on flowers, especially goldenrod' 
along the Potomac river near Williamsport, Mel. Fifty specimens could 
easily be taken in the space of an hour the females somewhat more numer- 
ous than the males. 

On September 30, it was noticed that the adults were especially active 
in copulation, although they were observed thus engaged several weeks 
previous and somewhat later than this date. 

Females oviposited readily and usually deposited all of their eggs at one 
laying and in one mass. For sixteen females that oviposited in captivity, 
the largest number of eggs was 182, the smallest 60 and the average was 
130.6. The exact number of individual eggs per female was 118, 60, 132, 
H4, 137, 152, 90, 126, 169, 97, 171, 182, 103, 148, 136 and 126. 

Eggs were deposited in rearing cages on the cover of salve boxes and on 
the sides or top of screen cages. Masses were found in the field only on 
the trunk and lower limbs of trees. 

Adults were found feeding on honey bees and grasshoppers in the field. 
In cages they readily attacked and devoured kaytdids, adult, 
adults of Cyllene robiniae, Arctiid larvae, Pentatomid adults, and sever. il 
unknown I.epidopterous larvae. In addition, females wen- found lo be 
very fond of devouring the males soon after copulation was complete. 
GEO. \V. BARHER, I'. S. Bureau of Entomology, Arlington, M.i>s.n -tinsel is. 


Tinea acapnopennella Clem.* (Lepid.) Bred from Fungus. 

This species was bred August 15, from the fungus Polyporus tulipiferus 
collected at Monmouth Junction, New Jersey, on an old stump. It is 
already recorded in Smith's " Insects of New Jersey" as occurring at Angle- 
sea, June to August, Essex County (Kf.) and Wenonah, August 20 (Haim.), 
but no mention is made of the host, Polyporus tulipiferus, which is found on 
the dead wood of deciduous trees. The larva feeds on the fungus and 
when full grown pupates in the decayed wood to which the fungus is 

Full grown larva. Length 5.5 mm., width 1.35 mm. Subcylindrical, 
whitish except for head which is dark and a dark, transverse, dorsal area 
on the first thoracic segment, this area being bisected by a light, median, 
longitudinal line. Antennae 3-jointed, third joint longest and bearing 
several fine hairs. Head bears several long, fine hairs. Dorsal surface of 
second and third thoracic segments transversely wrinkled. Dorsal sur- 
face of body bears four longitudinal rows of long, fine hairs, two rows on 
either side of middle with a few shorter, scattered hairs. Entire dorsal 
and ventral surface covered with a fine minute pile. True and prolegs 
well developed. 

Pupa. Length 6 mm., width 1.5 mm. Brownish, sparsely hairy. Dor- 
sal surfaces of abdominal segments 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 each bear two trans- 
verse rows of minute, posteriorly directed spines, these spines becoming 
larger posteriorly and largest on eighth segment. Last segment bears a 
minute pair of ventral recurved hooks. 

Adult. This was described by Clemens in 1859 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., p. 257). Dietz, in his revision of the Tineid subfamilies Amyclriinae 
and Tineinae (Tr. Am. Ent. Soc., vol. xxxi, No. i), gives a redescription 
which it is not necessary to repeat here. In this paper the distribution 
of the species is given as Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, Maryland 
and Louisiana. HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Mr. E. B. Williamson Collecting Odonata in Venezuela. 

Messrs. E. B. and J.H.Williamson left Bluffton, Indiana, on January 10, 
1920, for a collecting trip in Venezuela, expecting to return about May 15. 
Writing from that South American country on February 8, in regard to 
Odonata, Mr. E. B. Williamson says: "One week's collecting at San Este- 
ban, 50 species and about 1300 specimens. Heteragrion clirysops on every 
quebrada. Have a beautiful Gynacantha, a Progomphus and a Gomphoides. 
Pkilogenia very common, Palaemnema rare. Neoneura esthcra and Proto- 
neura amatoria here." 

* Kindly identified by Mr. August Busrk. 
tKindly identified by Mr. Erdman West . 


Ecology a New Journal of Entomological Interest. 

The Ecological Society of America, at its annual meeting in St. Louis, 
on December 31, 1919, decided, without a dissenting voice, to start its 
own serial publication. The Plant World has been generously offered to 
the Society free of liabilities and will be continued as the official organ of 
the Society, under the title of "Ecology." The new journal will begin as 
an illustrated quarterly of about 200 to 300 pages per annum, containing 
papers by workers in all branches of ecology. Dr. Harrington Moore, of 
the American Museum of Natural History, has been chosen editor-in- 
chief. In order to cover the cost of publication, it was voted that the dues 
of the Society be raised to $3.00 per annum; of this amount $2.00 will lie 
for subscription to the magazine and $1.00 for the running expenses of the 
Society. It is believed that the new journal will not only be of great value 
to the members of the Society, but will be necessary to all workers in botany 
zoology, forestry, agriculture and other biological sciences. 

French Grants for Entomological Study. 


The awards of the Bonaparte and Loutreuil foundations of the Academy 
of Sciences of Paris, as published in Science for February 27, 1920, include 
one thousand francs to Emile Brumpt for continuing his work on parasitic 
haemoglobinuria or piroplasmosis of cattle, two thousand francs to P. Lesne 
for his researches on the insects of peat bogs and two thousand francs to 
A. Paillot for his researches on the microbial diseases of insects. Ento- 
mology will go on in France in spite of the war. 

Furcaspis biformis (Homop., Coccidae.) 

On July 7, 1892, when judging at a flower show at Kingston, Jamaica, 
I found a peculiar scale on leaves of orchids. The female scales were 
dark and round, the male scales equally dark, but elongate. I named it 
Aspidiotus biformis, and in 1908 Lindinger made it the type of a genus 
Farcaspis. Many years have passed since I met with it, but the other 
day, in a greenhouse at Boulder, Colorado, I found it in abundance on 
leaves of Cattleya percivaliana (Reichb.) O'Brien. The new host plant 
and entirely new locality are worth recording.. T. D. A. COCKERELL 

Mesocyphona rubia (Dipt., Tipulidae). 

Last June two of my students, Miss N. Higgins and Miss K. Fitzgerald, 
captured specimens of an extraordinarily beautiful little Tipulid lly in 
Boulder. The wings are black, banded and spotted with pure white. 
I thought the species must be new, but Mr. C. P. Alexander, to whom 
I sent a sketch, at once suggested comparison with his l'.rii>(>tt-in i .!/<>- 


cy phono) rubia, described in 1914 from a unique taken in Arizona. Our 
insect is manifestly the same, and is a striking addition to the Colorado 
list. The original figure does not show clearly that the wings are broadly 
white at base. On the left side only, the specimen before me has an oval 
white spot at the origin of the sector; this is lacking in the type. It is 
a singular thing, that whi'e Erioptera and its various subgenera or closely 
related genera are today well represented in North America, no trace of 
them has been found in the rich Miocene deposits at Florissant, nor in 
the older Eocene rocks of Colorado and Wyoming. They are, however, 
found fossil in Europe, so it seems probable that the group originated in 
the Old World. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 

Kntomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natura 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record , Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 8 The Entomolo- 
gist's Monthly Magazine, London. 10 Proceedings of the Entomologi- 
cal Society of Washington, D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, London. 14 Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 
16 The Lepidopterist, Salem, Mass. 20 Bulletin de la Societe Ento- 
mologique de France, Paris. 21 The Entomologist's Record, London. 
22 Bulletin of Entomological Research, London. 23 Bollettino del 
Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria, Portici, Italy. 28 Ento- 
mologisk Tidskrift, Uppsala. 29 Annual Report of the Entomological 
Society of Ontario, Toronto, Canada. 44 Ectoparasites. Edited by 
Jordan & Rothschild, Tring, England. 59 Journal of Agricultural Re- 
search, Washington, D. C. 88 Occasional Papers of the Museum of 
Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 106 Anales de la Sociedad 
Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 

GENERAL. Anon Entomology in the United States National 
Museum. 68, li, 236-37. Mallock, H. R. A. Some points in insert 
mechanics. 14, 1919, 111-116. Silvestri, F. Contribuzioni alia cono- 
scenza degli insetti dannosi e dei loro simbionti. 23, xiii, 70-192. Till- 
yard, R. J. The panorpid complex. The wing-venation. 29, xliv, 533- 
718. Tragardh, I. On the use of experimental plots when studying 


forest insects. 22, x, 157-60. Walsingham, Lord. Obituary. 8,1920, 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Brade-Birks & Brade-Birks. Notes on 
Myriopoda. Luminous Chilopoda, with special reference to Geophilus 
carpophagus. 11, v, 1-30. Willey, A. The house centipede, Cermatia 
forceps, in Montreal. 4, 1920, 8. Wood, H. P. Tropical fowl mites in 
the United States. (U. S. D. A., Dept. Circ., 79). 

NEUROPTERA. Brocher, F. Le mechanisme physiologique de la 
derniere mue des larves des Agrionides (transformation en imago). (Ann. 
Biol. Lacustre, Bruxelles, ix, 183-99). 

Jordan & Rothschild. On the species and genera of Siphonaptera 
described by Kolenati. 44, i. 61-4. On American bird-Ceratophylli. 
44, i, 65-76. Snyder, T. E. Two new termites from Arizona, 10, xxii. 

ORTHOPTERA. Lizer, C. Informe sobre la expedicion al chaco 
Boliviano. (Bol. Minist. d. Agric. de la Nacion, Buenos Aires, 45 pp., 

HEMIPTERA. Hussey R. F. The waterbugs of the Douglas 
Lake region, Michigan. 88, No. 75, 23 pp. Newstead, R. Observa- 
tions on scale-insects (Coccida*e). 22, x, 175-208. Stoner, D. Notes 
on Scutelleroidea from Vancouver Island. 4, 1920, 12-13. 

Parshley, H. M. On some Hemiptera from Western Canada. 88, 
No. 71-35 PP- 

LEPIDOPTERA. Beutenmuller, W. The larva of Datana palmi. 
The larva of Schizura apicalis and Euparthenos nubilis. 16, iii, 127-8; 
133-4. Gibson, F. M. Note on the distribution of Atteva aurea. 4, 
1920, 15. Hampson, G. A classification of the Pyralidae, subfamily 
Hyposthropinae. 14, 1918, 55-132. Joicey & Talbot New South 
American Rhopalocera. 14, 1917, 259-64. New South American Arctii- 
dae. 14, 1917, 265-70. A gynandromorph of Papilio lucophron. Three 
aberrations of L. 14, 1917, 273-76. Keller, G. J. Notes on the ovum 
and larva of Catocala herodias. 16, iii, 121-3. Ljungdahl, D. Nagra 
puppbeskrivningar. 28, xl, 97-119. McDunnough, J. Remarks on 
Hubner's Tentamen. 21, 1920, 11-13. Mottram, J. C. Some ob- 
servations upon concealment by the apparent disruption of surface in a 
plane at right angles to the surface. 14, 1917,253-57. Turner, W. B. 
Lepidoptera at light traps. 59, xviii, 475-81. Wagner, H. Lepidop- 
terorum catalogus. Pars 23; Sphingidae, Subfam. Choerocampinae. 

Swett, L. W. Some new Geometrids. 16, iii, 123-5. Swett & Cas- 
sino Some new Geometrids. 16, iii, 128-33 (Cont.). Wright, W. S. 
Geometrid notes and descriptions. 16, iii, 125-7. 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. European fruit fly in North Amerii.i. 
59, xviii, 451-74. Bezzi, M. Una nuova specie Brnsiliuna del i;rnnr 
Anastrepha. 23, xiii, 1-14. Collins & Hood. Life history of Eubiom- 


yia calosomae, a tachinid parasite of Calosoma beetles. 59, xviii, 483-97. 
McAtee & Banks. District of Columbia D.: Asilidae. 10, xxii, 13-20. 
Macfie, J. W. S. -The chaetotaxy of the pupa of Stegomyia fasciata. 
22, x, 161-9. Saunders, W. H. Fly investigations Reports. 14, 1916, 
465-518. Smith & Maxwell Lefroy. A comparative study of certain 
sense-organs in the antennae and palpi of D. 14, 1919, 31-69. 

Dietz, W. G. Three new crane-flies from eastern Canada. 4, 1920, 
5-8. Malloch, J. R. Descriptions of new genera and species of Sca- 
tophagidae. 10, xxii, 34-38. 

GOLEOPTERA. Achard, J. Descriptions de Scaphidiidae inedits 
de la Republique Argentine. 20, 1919, 350-2. Blair, K. G. Further 
notes on the Fabrician types of Heteromera in the Banks Collection. 11, 
v, 153-63. Craighead, F. C. Biology of some C. of the families Coly- 
diidae and Bothrideridae. 10, xxii, 1-13. Garnett, R. T. Variations 
of Buprestis viridisuturalis. 4, 1920, 17-18. Jeannel, R. Sur 
quelques Trechinae (Carabidae) du British Museum. 11, v, 98-112. 
Maulik, S. On Cryptostoma beetles in the Cambridge University 
Museum of Zoology. 14, 1916,567-90. Strickland, E. H. The cotton- 
wood leaf-mining beetles in southern Alberta. 4, 1920, 15. Weiss, 
H. B. Notes on Ischyrus quadripunctatns, bred from fungus. 4, 1920, 
14-15. Notes on Mycotretus pulchra and its fungous host. 4, 1920, 

Swaine, Fall, Leng, & Sherman. The C. collected by the Canadian 
Arctic Expedition, 1913-18. (Rept., Canadian Arct. Exp., iii, Part E, 
24 pp.). 

HYMENOPTERA. Grandi, G. Contribute alia conoscenza degli 
Agaonini dell' America (Chalcicidae). 23, xiii, 15-56. Kieffer, J. J. 
Sur les hymenopteres parasites des ootheques de Mantides. 20, 1919, 
357~9- Santschi, F. Nouveaux formicides de la Republique Argen- 
tine. 106, Ixxxvii, 37-57. Schrottky, C. The bee genus Emphor in 
South America. 4, 1920, 9-11. Turner, R. E. Notes on the wasps of 
the genus Pison, and some allied genera. 14,1916, 591-629. 

Doings of Societies 

Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences of 


Meeting of May 22, 1919. Twelve persons present, including Dr. 
Chi Ping, of Kai Fung, China, and Lieut. W. J. Chamberlain, of Corvallis, 
Oregon, visitors. Director Laurent presiding. 

Hymenoptera. Dr. Bradley said while on a trip to Lang try, Texas, 
he had seen a large colony of Sphecius grandis going into their burrows but 
had seen none carrying Cicadas, though a boy he had questioned said that 
he had seen them with their prey. He had also seen Mutilla orcus Cress. 


going into these burrows and had reached the conclusion that they are 
parasitic on the Sphecius. 

Homoptera. Dr. Skinner exhibited a potted plant on which were 
many Aphids most of which he had killed by blowing tobacco smoke in a 
paper cone while covering the plant. 

Coleoptera. Mr. Chamberlain said that he had noticed in the eastern 
collections, specimens labelled Acmaeodera pulcherrima Du Val, distributed 
mostly by Mr. Beyer. This species is only found in Cuba and Florida 
and those examined were A. cubaecola Du Val.* Had seen a specimen of 
Buprestis adjecta LeC. in the Brooklyn Museum collected on Statcn Is- 
land about ten days ago, and which he thinks is the most northern record. 
He has completed an index of all our Buprestidae including synonyms 
and all available records and where possible the locations of the types. 

GEO. M. GREENE, Recorder. 

Meeting of September 25, 1919, Vice-Director R. C. Williams presiding, 
and eleven persons present. 

Mr. Rehn spoke about the impossibility of obtaining potassium cyanide 
for making killing bottles to be used on his western trip with Mr. Hebard, 
but found that sodium cyanide after severe trials proved to be as good, 
if not better, a killing medium. General discussion followed as to the 
merits of the various killing agents and of the methods of making killing 

Mr. Rehn gave a brief account of his summer trip, accompanying Mr. 
Hebard, in the western states, and illustrating his remarks with some photo- 
graphs projected on the screen. 

Lepidoptera. Dr. Skinner exhibited a gynandromorphic specimen of 
Papilio turnus with the right wings of a yellow male, and the left of a black 
female. This specimen was collected at Merion, Pa., July 5, 1919, by 
Geo. F. Pettinos, Jr. Mr. Baylis exhibited bred specimens of Catocala 
minerva, also beautifully executed colored drawings of its larvae showing 
various instars. Dr. Calvert exhibited pupal skin of Catocala amatnx 
Hub. with bits of a decaying wooden hand rail in which its cocoon had 
been found near Cheyney, Pennsylvania, August 8, 1919, as well as the 
imago which had issued therefrom on August 23 or 24. 

Odonata. Dr. Calvert exhibited the type of Erpetogomphus sclnnisi 
Calv., and the female of E. diadophis Calv. (?), both from Guatemala, 
collected by Messrs. W. Schaus and J. Barnes, described in Entomologii .il 
News for March, 1919; an immature male of Neoneura aaroni Calv., from 
the same country and collection, a species hitherto unknown from else- 
where than Texas (Ent. News, June, 1919); Gomphus furcifer Hagen, a 
female found floating, headless, in a pond, Stockbridge township, Berk- 
shire County, Massachusetts, July 28, 1917, by the speaker, the only speci- 
men of this species he had met and but rarely recorded from Nr\\ England. 

[*Cf. Van Dyke, Ent. News, xxx, 190. ED.] 


Coleoptera. Dr. Calvert also exhibited a female and two males of 
Calopteron reticulatiim Fab., which latter were apparently attempting to 
pair simultaneously with the former, all pinned in approximately the posi- 
tions in which they were found, the female with the four wings outspread, 
one male above, the other male on the right side of, her abdomen. The 
speaker had taken them near Cheyney, Pennsylvania, July 16, 1919. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder protem 

Meeting of November 20, 1919. Fourteen persons present, including 
Mr. Allie M. Ross, visitor. Mr. R. C.Williams, Jr., Vice-Director, 

Mr. Williams spoke of meeting C. J. Huguenin and C. L. Fox, while in 
California. The visitor, Mr. Ross, spoke about his intended work in Liberia, 
especially his desires of working up the fauna of that region in the Lepid- 
optera and Orthoptera. 

Orthoptera. A series of Mantidae from the Sundanand Papuan regions 
were exhibited by Mr. Hebard. It was pointed out that many of the 
genera were new to Philadelphia collections and that some of the species 
had remained unknown to subsequent authors since their original descrip- 
tion. Certain striking forms were discussed, and the difficulties experi- 
enced in studying the Orthoptera of the regions in question were pointed 
out. In determining large series from the regions under consideration, 
Mr. Hebard said that he had found such studies as Haan's "Bijdragen tot 
de Kennis der Orthoptera," published in 1842, of the utmost value, but 
that many contemporary authors were producing a far inferior literature, 
describing species with deplorable brevity and often giving no figures what- 

Mr. Rehn exhibited a box containing a series of the West Indian forms 
of the genus Eurycotis of the family Blattidae. The speaker discussed the 
genus, its distribution, general morphological tendencies in the way of 
specific differentiation, color types developed in the genus, and the groups 
into which he had arranged the West Indian forms. Of the West Indian 
forms exhibited the majority were either recently described or are as yet 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Reyher exhibited type specimens of Catocala sapho 
var. cleis. (Cassino) from Florida, and said that he could find no characters 
by which to separate this variety from the type form. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder pro tan. 

Entomological Workers in Ohio Institutions. 

The annual meeting of entomological workers in Ohio institutions was 
held at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, January 29,1920. 
Morning, afternoon and evening sessions were held and the following pro- 
gram rendered. 


Symposium: The functions and interrelation of the State Entomologi- 
cal Departments. H. A. Gossard, Entomologist, Experiment Station, 
Raymond C. Osburn Head, Department of Zoology and Entomology, 
Ohio State University and E. C. Cotton, Chief, Bureau of Horticulture. 

Herbert Osborn Notes on Leaf-hoppers. H. E. Evans The Effect 
of the Federal Plant Quarantine Act on the Nursery Business. W. M. 
Barrows The Changes Which Take Place in Insect and Arachnid Muscle 
During Metamorphosis. T. L. Guyton Results of the Use of Magnesium 
Arsenate as An Insecticide in 1919. W. H. Larrimer, LaFayette, Indiana 
Army Worm Control Through County Organization. L. L. Huber 
Two Parasites of the Resplendent Shield Bearer. Annette F. Braun 
The Study of Microlepidoptera. C. L. Metcalf The Use of Insect 
Genitalia in Classification. W. C. Kraatz Remarks on the Insect Fauna 
of Mirror Lake. C. H. Kennedy Life Histories of the Dragon Flies. 
H. A. Gossard The Relation of Bees to Fire Blight. E. L. W 7 ickliff- 
Insect Food of Young Bass. H. L. Dozier Observations on Some Florida 
Insects. R. S. McKay Observations on Orthoptera in Southern Ohio 
in 1919. E. W. Long Apiary Inspection in Relation to Entomology. 
W. V. Balduf Soy Bean Insect Investigations. 

Round Table. The Hessian Fly in Ohio in 1919. T. H. Parks, Leader. 

R. C. Osburn Some Remarks on the Genus Syrphns. F. H. Crecker 
Distribution of Fresh Water Sponges by Caddis Fly Larvae. J. S. Hine 
Blood-Sucking Insects Observed on the Katmai Expedition. E. A. Hart- 
ley Some Observations on Bark Beetle Depredations in Western Yellow 
Pine in Oregon. P. R. Lowry Remarks on the Dactylopiinae of Ohio. 
J. S. Houser The Onion Maggot. 

Exhibits: Microlepidoptera, with Examples of Larval Work Miss 
Brauh. Differentiating Muscle Cells and Developing Tendons in the 
Legs of Spiders Prof. Barrows, i. Lumbricus terrestris as an Onion 
Pest. 2. Sphaerostilbe cocophila destroying San Jose Scale Mr. Houser. 
Map of Periodical Cicada in Ohio in 1919 -Prof. Gossard. 

New officers elected were as follows: President J. S. Houser; Vice- 
President H. J. Speaker; Secretary T. H. Parks. 


Dr. H. C. WOOD. 

Horatio C. Wood, M. I)., LL. I)., emeritus professor of 
Materiel Meclica, Pharmacy and ( ieneral Therapeutics in 
the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, died Januar\ 
3, 1919. He was horn in Philadelphia, January i.v 1.^41, 
was educated at the \\V>II<>\\ n School and (he Fi icnds Select 


School and was graduated from the Medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1862. He was the author 
of a number of important medical works and papers and in 
the beginning of his career devoted much time to natural 
history and wrote a number of papers on botany. He re- 
ceived honorary degrees from several universities and was a 
member of many learned Societies, including the National 
Academy of Sciences. Apparently he did not write on in- 
sects proper but the following list* shows his activity in 
nearly, related fields of natural history before he became 
active as a practitioner of medicine. 

I n the Proceedings of the A cademy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: 

Descriptions of new species of Scolopendra, in the Collection of the 
Academy. 1861, 10. 

Description of a New Species of Thelyphonus. 1861, 312. 

Description of New Species of North American Pedipalpi. 1863, 107. 

Description of New Species of North American Polydesmidae. 1864, 6. 

Descriptions of New Species of North American Julidae. 1864, 10. 

Description of New Genera and Species of North American Myriopoda. 
1864, 186. 

New Polyzoniidae, Gervais. 1865, ,172. 

Descriptions of New Species of Myriapoda. 1867, 42. 

Notes on a collection of California Myriapoda with the Descriptions of 
New Eastern Species. 1867, 127. 

In the Journal of the same: 

On the Chilopoda of North America, With a Catalogue of all the Spe- 
cimens in the Collection of the Smithsonian Institution. V. 5. 
On the Pedipalpi of North America. V, 357. 

In the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society: 
North American Myriapoda. 1865, 112 pp., 61 figs, and 3 plates. 
On the Phalangia and Pedipalpi Collected by Prof. Orion in Western 
South America with Descriptions of New Species. 1869, pp. 7. 

Taken from a privately printed Bibliographical Record 
Horatio C. Wood, without date or place of publication, 24 and 2 pages, 8vo. ; 
copies in the libraries of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
and of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Obituary notices of Dr. Wood relating chiefly to his medical career, 
have appeared in The Pennsylvania Gazette, Jan. 16, 1920, (largely reprinted 
in Science, for Jan. 30) and The Alumni Register [Univ. of Pa.) for I '<!>.. 
1920, the last with a portrait. 


hi the Proceedings of the Essex Institute: 
Phalangideae of the United States. 1867, 30 pp. 

Dr. Wood was Recording Secretary of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, from October 31, 1865, to 
February 26, 1867. 


While, aside from his writings along pharmacological and 
medical lines, perhaps better known for his work on fresh- 
water algae, Dr. Wood was for a number of years in the 
earlier part of his scientific career an active and successful 
student of the Myriopoda and Arachnida. His work on the 
latter group was confined to the Pedipalpida, Phalangida, 
and Scorpionida. Beginning with the description of a new 
Japanese thelyphonid in 1861, he published in this field a 
number of papers of systematic character of which the most 
important are his "On the Pedipalpi of North America" (1863) 
and "On the Phalangeae of the United States" (1868), papers 
which, in presenting what had been learned of this part of 
our fauna up to his day together with his own material addi- 
tions in clear and useful revisional form, have served as a 
stimulus and starting point for later work. His final paper 
touching these groups appeared in 1869 and was an account 
of new South American and African forms. 

The period of Dr. W 7 ood's activity on the Myriopoda, as 
indicated by published papers, extended from 1861 to 1867, 
apparently terminating with his call to the professorship of 
botany in the University of Pennsylvania in 1866. His de- 
scriptive papers on the North American Myriopoda, published 
during this period, were the first of importance by an Ameri- 
can writer since Say's Myriapoda 1 of the United States (1821) 
and have formed the basis for subsequent work. The first 
paper (1861), an account of new, mostly exotic, species of 
Srolopendra in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, was followed two years later by an 
extensive paper on the (Miilopoda of North America in which 
were listed or described also all the exotic species then in the 


collection of the Smithsonian Institution. Four papers fol- 
lowing this were descriptive of new North American diplopods. 
Wood's work on this group culminated in "The Myriapoda of 
North America" (1865), in which most of his previous work 
was incorporated and which is still the only single paper dealing 
with the North American Chilopoda or Diplopoda as a whole. 
This for the time was an excellent memoir, exhibiting ac- 
curacy of observation and a balanced systematic judgment, 
and showing careful attention to variability and an apprecia- 
tion, e. g., of the prime importance of the copulatory organs 
of diplopods in the discrimination of species. Two brief 
supplementary papers descriptive of additional new North 
American species appearing in 1867 concluded Wood's work 
on the Myriopoda. 

R. V. CHAMBERLAIN, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

In the summer of 1883, Dr. Wood was a member of an 
expedition to Texas under Colonel, then Major W. R. Liver- 
more, his son, Dr. George B. Wood, writes us. 'This was one 
of a series of explorations for the purpose of finding water, 
recommending places for roads and new army posts and a 
correction of old state surveys, when Col. Livermore was 
triangling the State of Texas west of the Pecos River." On 
this expedition, either, near El Paso or in the valley of 
'Tornellias" [Tornillo] creek in the great bend of the Rio 
Grande, more likely the latter,* Dr. Wood collected two speci- 
mens of a "bright brilliant green [beetlej with a slight golden 
lustre from the surface, tarsi violaceous, legs bright green, 
tibiae distinctly golden externally," described by Dr. George 
H. Horn in the Transactions of the American Entomololgical 
Society, xii, page 124, as Plusiotis woodii, and dedicated to 
his friend. 

*See Ent. News, xvi, p. 290, xxii, p. 356. A brief account of lhi> ex- 
pedition, which starte:! July I and broke up at: the end of October, is 
contained in Major Livermore's report in the 'Report of the Chief of 
Engineers, U. S. Army for 1884, part II!, pp. 2394 2395, \Ya>hin^ton, |. 



OLIVER SPINK WESTCOTT was born at Wickford, Rhode 
Island, December 15, 1834 and died at Oak Park, Illinois, 
July 31, 1919. He graduated at Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. I., 1857, and was the last surviving graduate of that 
year. He also held the degree of Doctor of Science from 
Brown University. He was a lineal descendant of Stukeley 
Westcote, who went with Roger Williams from Massachusetts 
to Rhode Island in 1638. 

While he was an educator first, last and always, still he 
was a noted scientist, mathematician and student of foreign 
languages, ancient and modern. He was well known as an 
entomologist having collected for 51 years. It was his custom 
to spend his vacations from school in some corner of the coun- 
try collecting insects for future study. He boasted that he 
had visited and made a stay in every state of the Union, in 
Mexico, Cuba, Hawaii, Alaska and the several provinces of 
Canada before he felt called upon to visit Europe. In fact 
he went to Europe only once. His insect collection of some 
45,000 specimens has gone to the State College of Washington, 
Pullman, Wash. His Entomological Library was sold to 
John D. Sherman Jr., Mount Vernon, New York. 

A notice of Dr. Westcott, with special reference to his 
connection with the public schools of Chicago, accompanied 
by a portrait, was published in The Oak Parker for August 
9, 1919. From it we learn that that connection lasted for 
fifty-two years. 

"Thirty-one years as principal of the old North Division High School, 
now known as the Robert A. Waller. At the age of 75, Mr. \VeMcott sent 
in his resignation to the school board, but was prevailed upon to reconsider. 
Five years later, on his eightieth birthday, he withdrew from ac- 
tive service. At that time Superintendent Ella Flagg Young wrote: 'On 
your resignation from the principalship of the Waller High School I cannot 
refrain from writing you something ol my appreciation of the power for 
intelligence and excellence that you have been in Chicago . . .' 

We are indebted to Professor James (. Xeedham for tin- 
clipping from which we have quoted and through him to Mr. 
Charles \\Vslcott, Dr. Westcott 's son, for the biographical 


data given above. Through Prof. Needham also, years 
ago, Dr. Westcott placed the Odonata which he collected on 
a trip to Tabasco and Chiapas, Mexico, at the service of the 
Editor for incorporation of the data accompanying them in 
the Biologia Centrali- Americana. 

While Dr. Westcott apparently published no extensive 
papers on entomology, he contributed the following notes to 

Venturesome Insects [Butterflies], iv, 90-91, March, 1893. 

[Erebus odora at Racine, Wisconsin], v, 71. March, 1894. 

The Assembling of the Cecropia Moth, vi, 136-137, May, 1895. 

The Distribution of some N. American Syrphidae, viii, 190-191, Oct., 

Collecting Dragonflies by a Decoy, xvi, 209, Sept., 1905. 

Note on Anatis i$-piinctata and A. caseyi n. sp. [Coleop.], xxiii, 422, 
Nov. 1912. 

Scarcity of Early Insects, xxiii, 328-329, July, 1912. 

The 1912 swarming of Aletia argillacea, xxiv, 84-85, Feb., 1913. 

Rarities (Hym., Neur., Odon.), xxvii, 85-86, Feb., 1916. 

Misapplied Effort (Odonata), xxvii, 467, Dec., 1916. 

Sex Attraction Overcome by Light Stimulation (Lepid., Col.), xxviii, 
374-5, Oct., 1917. 

Dr. C. G. HEWITT. 

The daily papers announced the death of Dr. Charles 
Gordon Hewitt, dominion entomologist and consulting zoolo- 
gist, at Ottawa, on March I, 1920. He was born in Scotland 
thirty-five years ago and came to Canada in 1909. Previous 
to and after his settlement on this side of the Atlantic, he 
published several notable works on the house-fly. In 1913 
he was elected a fellow of. the Entomological Society of Amer- 
ica, in whose meetings he took an interested part. As ento- 
mologist and zoologist he was very active in Canada and he 
will be greatly missed there, as well as on this side of the inter- 
national line, where we deplore his early death. Detailed 
biographical notices will doubtless appear in the Canadian 


Insects, Mites, and Animal Parasites Mounted 

on Microscope Slides 

Sets for class use at the rate of 10 cts. per slide and up. 
Individual slides with authoritative determinations, 25 cts. 
per slide and up. Write for complete list and prices. 



Attacus orisaba cocoons, 20c each 

Cheaper by the 100 or 500. 

Hyperchiria budleya, 30c 

Large stock of showy Butterflies. 

O. FULDA, 63 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK 

I want moths of the genus Apantesis (Arctiidae), especially from South and 
West. Will pay cash, and offers of either one or many specimens will be greatly- 
appreciated. Send list, with price. Can often use imperfect material. Especi- 
ally want live females or eggs, and correspondence with parties who can obtain 
same for me. 

DR. E. T. LEARNED, 46 Franklin St., FALL RIVER, MASS. 

RFPFNT ARRIVAI S- Papilio horishanus (q. sp.), Formosa. 
IML^ILiM J /-VlXrU V /-\LO . j arge p erfect Males only 8 00 

Lot 50 Formosan Butterflies, includes many rarities, $10.00. Cheap lots from 
Africa, South America or India, 50 for $5.00. 500 each Morpho amazonicus 
and deidamia to be sold quick; first quality, 35c.; seconds, 250. 15% discount 
for 100 lots. Thousands of butterflies always in stock. 

G. G. MACBEAN, Lepidopterist, Assiniboia, Sask., Canada 

I IFF HISTORIF^ of a11 deceptions prepared for Colleges, 
LIFE, Hid! URIC. 3 Schools, Departments of Health, etc. 

Insects for Dissections. Pressed Cork. Send for Lists. 

P.O. Box 432 Perth Amboy, New Jersey 


From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba : 


Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

From Venezuala : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 

From New Guinea : 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 


Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) 

Armandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 404-410 W. 27th Street 

MAY, 1920 


Vol XXXI. 

No. 5 


PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON. JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D., Editor Emeritus. 



J. A. G. REHN, 


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and The American Entomological Society. 




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MAY, 1920. 

No 5. 


Smyth Cotton Insects in Porto Rico 121 
Hebard The Genus Timema Scudder, 
with the Description of a New 
Species (Orthoptera, Phasmidae, 

Timeminae) 126 

Skinner Descriptions of New Species 

of Hesperidae (Lepidoptera) .... 132 
Coding The known Membracidae of 

Ecuador (Homop.) 135 

Editorial Remember the Veterans!. . 137 

Change of Address 138 

Garnett Notes on the Habits of 
Promecognathus laevissimus De- 
jean (Col., Carabidae) 138 

Brimley Notes on North Carolina 

Dragonflies (Odonata) 138 

Crosby The Cornell University En- 
tomological Expedition to South 
America of 1919-20 139 

The Williamson Expedition in Vene- 
zuela 141 

Stoner Sciocoris microphthalmus 
Flor. in Northern Michigan 
(Heterop.) 141 

Entomological Literature 141 

Review Rohwer & Williams' Philip- 
pine Wasp Studies 145 

Review Curtis Riley's Some Habitat 
Responses of the Large Water 
Strider, Gerris remigis Say 147 

Obituary Lord Walsingham 148 

William E. Sharp, Thomas Broun, 

Bruce F. Cummings, Frederick . 
Herschell Waterhouse, Emily I . 
Morton /. . . . 1 4<> 


Cotton Insects in Porto Rico.* 

Entomologist, Insular Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, P. R. 

Very little having been published concerning the insect 
pests of cotton occurring in Porto Rico, it is the object of 
this paper to present a brief discussion of the species that 
feed upon this crop, whose growing importance on the Island 
is recognized. 

It should be said that no evidence has yet been found of 
presence of the dreaded pink boll worm, Pectinophora gos- 
sypiella Saun., though the pink scavenger worm, Pyroderces 
rileyi Wals., is frequent enough, and does no perceptible 
damage. The common boll-worm, Chloridea obsoleta Fab., 
while a not uncommon pest of corn on the Island, has not 

*Published by permission of the Director of the Station. 



been observed by the writer attacking cotton. A report of 
severe damage from its attack reached the Station from the 
Haltillo district during July, 1919, but specimens accompany- 
ing the letter proved to be those of the leaf caterpillar, Ala- 
bama argillacea Hiibn., the two species having been confused. 
Even as a pest of green ear-corn, the boll-worm is considerably 
less important on the Island than the southern grass-worm, 
Laphygma frugiperda S. & A., which in several islands of the 
West Indies is known locally as the corn ear-worm. 

The cotton leaf caterpillar often becomes locally a serious 
menace to cotton raising. To combat it by means of arseni- 
cals, by the dusting method, as is done in the Southern States, 
is too expensive for the average cotton grower of the Island, 
who is usually so lacking in funds as to be unable to buy even 
his seed, which must be furnished by contract. He is there- 
fore advised to use a much cheaper but equally effective me- 
thod of control, namely, the cutting down and destroying of 
the moth's wild food plants between cotton crops. Principal 
of these are two weeds, Urena lobata and Malachra rotundi- 
folia, both Malvaceous, the former much the more abundant, 
and the more noxious from its habit of attracting large num- 
bers of the fire-ant, Solenopsis geminata Fabr., because of the 
three small honey-ducts on the underside of each leaf. It is 
unfortunate that this plant is considered highly medicinal by 
the natives, and with difficulty are they persuaded to cut it 
down. The weed grows in considerable beds when permitted 
and the writer has collected as many as 52 larvae from four 
plants (on July 16, 1916), showing how the weed may facili- 
tate the moth's multiplication. In many cotton sections of 
the States this moth breeds continuously upon cotton, hiber- 
nating over winter at end of the cotton season, and flying 
forth in spring in time to invade the new crop. There it needs 
no alternate host plant. But in Porto Rico conditions are 
different, there being a long period between cotton crops dur- 
ing which the moth cannot hibernate, so must breed on other 
plants. Urena lobata not only tides over this gap, but allows 
the moths to greatly multiply in numbers between cotton 
crops, it being in many regards a more favorable food plant 
for the larvae than cotton. 


The common cotton stainer of the Island seems to be 
Dysdercus andreae L., which is much more frequently found 
in the drier northwest and south coast sections, than along 
the humid northeast and east coast. While the bug is some- 
times locally abundant, it may at other times be entirely miss- 
ing in a cotton field, so on the whole cannot be considered 
a serious pest of the crop. 

During the past winter (December and January) the writer 
has had opportunity to make a close study of the cotton in- 
sects in a field on the Insular Experiment Station grounds at 
Rio Piedras. Needless to say, the pink boll worm and boll 
weevil have been entirely absent; and we have yet to discover 
these two pests on the Island. It was a surprise, however, to 
have found only two leaf caterpillars (Alabama argillacea 
Hubn.) on the plants in the whole winter, in view of the fact 
that Urena lobata has grown abundantly in the neighborhood 
through the summer, and was subject to considerable attack. 
The reduction of the pest may be accounted for by the pre- 
vailing dampness of the weather in conjunction with some 
disease. The common boll-worm has been another pest miss- 
ing, although infected ears of corn have been found growing 
very near the cotton. An occasional larva of the tropical 
cutworm, Xylomiges sunia Guen., has been found attacking 
foliage, but this may be considered accidental, as the larva 
much prefers garden crops, amaranth and morning glory. 

The most injurious pest has been the greenhouse thrips, 
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Burm. Larvae and adults gather 
in some numbers on the outside of bolls, underneath the calyx, 
where they scarify the surface and cause white scars that 
later turn brown, and seem to be immediately concerned in 
the attack of a disease that somewhat discolors the bolls and 
causes the calyx to cement itself to the outside of the boll, 
preventing the latter from bursting properly. The preced- 
ing generation of this thrips was found in November attacking 
the undersides of grapefruit leaves, where it occurred in all 
stages and caused a considerable scarring, and some mal- 
formation, of the foliage. A careful search for them on citrus, 
in latter part of January, revealed only four adults and no 


young, and three of. the adults were dead, adhering to lower 
surface of leaf. These have been confined, with the hope of 
rearing internal parasites. The greenhouse thrips has been 
reported attacking citrus foliage in Florida, California (on 
plants from Massachusetts), Demerara, and Sicily, but has 
not been previously reported as a cotton pest to our know- 

Another insect very common on cotton bolls, and infesting 
probably thirty per cent, of them, is the destructive mealybug, 
Pseudococcus mrgatus (Ckll.), which during the summer very 
heavily infested lima beans on vine and leaves, and to some 
extent pepper foliage. It was at that time heavily parasitized 
by a small Cecidomyid, probably Karschomyia cocci Felt, the 
adults of which display the strange habit of hanging in rows 
festooned on strands of spider web, where they perform a 
rocking motion by means of the wings. On cotton the mealy- 
bug occurs in all stages, the egg masses and young being 
especially plentiful, protected beneath the base of calyx. 
One or two bolls were turned quite white beneath the calyx 
by their cottony secretions. A very few specimens of Ps. 
citri (Risso) were found on the bolls, and one specimen of Ps. 
longispinus (Targ.) . A number of adults of an undetermined 
scale, very close to Coccus mangiferae (Green), were found 
infesting the inside of the calyx on cotton bolls. 

The lace-bug, Corythuca gossypii Fab., has done injury to 
an occasional cotton leaf, but is very much more injurious to 
the foliage of adjoining castor-bean and lima bean plants. 
On the last two this insect is a pest of first importance, but 
on cotton it is of little consequence. More important than 
the Tingid has been the cotton aphis, Aphis gossypii Glov., 
though the attack is light and scattering, due to the activity 
of its natural enemies. ^ They include the following, named 
in about the order of their importance: Cycloneda sanguinea 
L.; Scymnus roseicollis Muls.; a white fungus, Agrostalagmits 
albus; a Braconid parasite, that turns the body of the aphis 
light brown; a Chalcidid parasite, that turns the body jet 
black; a Chrysopid, and a species of Hyperaspis. In very 
wet weather, the white fungus usually becomes the most 


efficient of the parasites, and preys upon all of the commoner 
aphides. The large lady-beetle, Cydoneda, is greatly ham- 
pered in its multiplication by the attack of an Encyrtid hyper- 
parasite, Homalotylus sp., and the black, mummied larvae 
containing these parasites, or their exit holes, may often be 
found under the calyx on the boll. 

The green flower beetle, Diabrotica graminea Balz., is 
often seen eating cotton blossoms or foliage, and the larvae 
doubtless attack the roots to some extent. This beetle is 
very fond of Malvaceous plants, and is a serious pest of okra 
blossoms and leaves in July. 

Occasional nymphs and adults of a species of Empoasca 
not yet determined, have been found on foliage and bolls. 
Two adults of the Membracid, Antianthe expanse, (Germ.), 
one adult of a species of Agallia, and occasional adults of 
OUaris sp., which is a very general feeder, have been found on 
terminal stems. 

Nymphs of the green bug, Nezara viridula (Linn.), in the 
early instars, were found under the calyx on many cotton 
bolls in early January, and the adults began to appear in 
latter part of the month. This bug was not noticed earlier in 
the year 1919. Although it is recorded as a pest of cowpeas 
and tobacco in Florida, and of tomato in Jamaica, it has not 
been observed in Porto Rico to attack any of these plants, 
which have been growing in immediate vicinity of the cotton. 
The presence of the green bug in a cotton plantation should be 
looked upon with apprehension, in view of the fact that it 
has been proven to be a purveyor of cotton anthracnose in 
Georgia, and of an internal disease of the cotton boll in Bar- 
bados and neighboring islands. 

Lepidopterous larvae of small size have been found feeding 
and webbing beneath the calyx on cotton bolls, and are being 
reared for the determinations. None of them, however, 
resemble the pink boll worm. 


The Genus Timema Scudder, with the Descrip- 
tion of a New Species, (Orthoptera, 
Phasmidae, Timeminae.) 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The genus Timema was described by Scudder in 1895,! 
based on a single species, californictim, from California. In 
1903, Caudell furnished the first detailed description of the 
species, which had been sent him by Scudder, and proposed 
the subfamily name Timeminae, the subfamily being res- 
tricted to this single genus. He also discussed and figured 
material from Los Angeles County, California, the differences 
found being noted as possibly showing the presence of a 
distinct species, but the material at hand was considered in 
too poor a state of preservation to warrant description. 

From the larger series now available, we find the southern 
Californian insect to be a distinct species, differing very 
strikingly in constant features of the genitalia. 

The genus Timema was said to be closely allied to Agath- 
emera by Scudder and characterized as "maxime affine" 
by Redtenbacher, 2 the latter ignoring Caudell's subfamily 

Considering the complete median segment, which is in 
no way more closely attached to the metanotum than to the 
succeeding tergite; the three jointed tarsi, and the limbs so 
attached ventrad that the coxae can not be seen from above, 
we believe that the subfamily Timeminae is valid. In fact 
it may be characterized as the most aberrant subfamily 
from the conventional Phasmid type. 

The genus does find nearest affinity with Agathemera, 
though the relationship is decidedly remote. 3 In addition 
to the features given above, Timema is distinguished by both 
sexes being completely apterous, the tarsal claws are slightly 

'Can. Ent., XXVII, p. 30. 
2 Insektenfam. Phasmiden, p. 88, (1908). 

'Comparison is made with more than one species of Agathemera in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 


asymmetrical and the large arolium is produced as far as the 
apex of the longer tarsal claw. The species of Timema are 
furthermore much smaller than those of Agathemera. 

Timema californicum Scudder 

1895. T(imema) californicum Scudder, Can, Ent., XXVII, p. 30. 
[Santa Cruz, California.] 

1903. Timema californicum Caudell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, 
p. 883, pi. LVII, fig. 5, pi. LVIII, fig. 7. (In part.) [0*. 9 ; Santa Cruz 
Mountains, California.] 

1903. Timema californica Caudell, Ent. News, XIV, p. 316. [[juv.] 
9 ; Humboldt County, California.] 

1908. Timema californicum Redtenbacher, Insektenfam. Phasmiden, 
p. 88. (No additional material.) 

1913. Timema californica Caudell, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIV, p. 
613. (No additional material.) 

The species is best discussed by Caudell in his first paper 
in 1903, the detail figures there given being, however, very 

Fig. i. Timema californicum Mount Tamalpais, California, Male. Dorsal 
view ot distal portion of abdomen. (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 2. T imema chumash new species. Los Angeles County, California. Male. Type. 
Dorsal view of distal portion of abdomen. (Much enlarged.) 

Later that year Caudell gives all the data yet recorded as 
to the habits of this singular insect. According to that 
author, on June 9th to i6th, 1903, Mr. H. S. Barber beat 
nineteen females from fir trees (at Bair's Ranch on Redwood 
Creek) in Humboldt County, California, at an elevation of 
about 1400 feet. The individuals were reported to be green 
like the fir needles, which they resembled so closely as to be 
scarcely discernable as long as they remained motionless, 
which they did for some time after having been beaten into 
the net. All were taken from the lower branches of a clump 


of large trees, which stood somewhat apart from the denser 


Length of Length of Width of Length of 
cf body pronotum pronotum caudal tibia 

Mount Tamalpais, Cal 12.5 1.9 2.7 3.4 

Fairfax, Cal 14.5 1.9 2.7 3.8 

Carmel, Cal 12.7 1.9 2.7 3.7 


Guerneville, Cal 20.8 3.1 4. 6. 

Fairfax, Cal 17.7 2.4 3.4 4.2 

Oakland, Cal 19.8 2.6 3.4 4.7 

The male genitalia and female penultimate tergite and 
cerci are distinctive for the species. The former are shown 
by text figure I, while under T. chumash, here described, 
other features characteristic of this species are discussed. 

In males some variation in the form of the genitalia is 
found, though the type is constant, showing no divergence 
toward that developed in chumash. Thus the disto-internal 
production of the cerci varies individually from the type 
figured to one in which these portions are broader, this por- 
tion of the sinistral cercus in a male from Monterey County 
being distinctly broader than long with margin convex to 
the rather broadly rounded apex. Furthermore the sinis- 
tral cercus is produced proximad near the base, so that the 
internal margin beyond the basal tooth is developed into a 
distinct flange, while the meso-dextral elongate plate is much 
constricted mesad. These differences we believe are of no 
further importance than indicating the degree of variation 
to be expected in the male genitalia of the species. 

In females the cerci are elongate, leaf-like, cochleate plates, 
obliquely truncate at their apices, with internal surfaces 
roughly denticulate toward the dorsal margin. The distal 
margin is smooth. 

We are consequently not fully satisfied that the female 
from Kings River, in Fresno County, represents this species. 
Though agreeing with the others here recorded in the form 
of the penultimate tergite, the cerci show a broader and less 


oblique distal truncation, as found in chumash, the margin 
being there moderately denticulate, about intermediate 
between the typical conditions found in calif orni cum and 
chumash. The presence of a -geographic race or distinct 
species in the southern Sierras is a possibility which addi- 
tional material, including adult males, alone can determine. 

Though we have consistently endeavored to secure material 
of this genus whenever working on the Pacific Coast, all 
efforts have been unsuccessful. 4 . 

The species is now known from Bair's Ranch on Redwood 
Creek in Humboldt County, California, southward along the 
coast as far as Carmel in Monterey County. It is also found 
in the Sierras, being here recorded from the vicinity of Lake 
Tahoe, in Eldorado County, and from Kings River, in Fresno 
County. As is true for many secretive species, the actual 
distribution of this insect is probably considerably more 
extensive than as at present defined. 

Specimens examined, in addition to 6 previously recorded: 28; 8 males, 
17 females, 3 immature individuals. 

CALIFORNIA. Corralitos, Redwood, Santa Cruz Mountains, May 13, 
1907, (J. C. Bradley), I juv. 9, [Cornell Univ.]. Guerneville, Sonoma 
County, May 31, 1910, (E. C. Van Dyke), I o, [Hebard Cln.]. southern 
Sonoma County, August 31, 1910, (J. A. Kusche), i 9, [Cal. Acad. Sci.]. 
Fairfax, Marin County, May 7, and II, 1911 and 1919, (E. C. Van Dyke; 
E. P. Van Duzee), 4^,49, [Cal. Acad. Sci., and Hebard Cln.]. Mount 
Tamalpais, June 20, 1909, (E. C. Van Dyke), icf, [Cal. Acad. Sci].. 
Niles Canyon, July 15, 1916, (E. P. Van Duzee), I 9, [Cal. Acad. Sci.]. 
Oakland, May 14, 1911, (E. C. Van Dyke; hills back of city) 39; (C. D. 
Haines) I 9, [Cal. Acad. Sci., and Hebard Cln.]. Corte Madero Creek, 
Palo Alto, April 4, 1915, (H. Morrison), I juv. 9 , [U. S. N. M.]. Carmel, 
Monterey County, May 19 and 21, 1911 and 1913, (E. C. Van Dyke), 
2cT. 3 9, [Cal. Acad. Sci., and Hebard Cln.]. Monterey County, (M. K. 
Curran), \tf, 29, [Hebard Cln.]. Fallen Leaf Lake, Lake Tahoe, El- 
dorado County, July i, 1915, (E. C. Van Dyke). I juv. 9 , [Cal. Acad. Sci.]. 
Paradise Valley, Kings River, Fresno County, 6500 feet, July 23, 1910, 
(E. C. Van Dyke), I 9, [Hebard Cln.]. 

4 From the data at hand the species of Timema appear to be spring 
forms, reaching their greatest numerical abundance in May or June. 
Our California!! work has all been accomplished much later in the season, 
this probably in large part accounting for our failure to find the insects. 


Timema chumash 5 new species 

1903. Timema calif arnica Caudell, (in part not of Scudder, 1895), 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, p. 883, pi. LVIII, fig. ya. [&, 9, Los 
Angeles County, California.] 

Males of the present species agree closely with those of 
T. californicum Scudder, except in the strikingly different 
genitalia. In the female sex the genitalia likewise show 
differences, which, however, are by no means as distinctive. 

The insect occurs in the mountains and adjacent regions 
of southern California, far south of the known limits of 
distribution of californicum. 

TYPE: of ; Los Angeles County, California. [Hebard Collec- 
tion, Type No. 533.] 

Agrees closely with males of californicum, differing only in the more 
robust structure and in the following genitalic features. 6 Penultimate 
tergite produced dextro-distad more than sinistro-distad, in such a way 
that the dextral margin is slightly more oblique to a medip-longitudinal 
line than the sinistral margin; distal margin broadly convex to a small 
but rather decided concave emargination, situated sinistro-mesad before 
the base of the sinistral cercus, the brief portion of this margin above the 
sinistral cersus straight, transverse, the surface of the plate toward the 
internal portion of this section supplied with denticulations in a small 
oval area. Sinistral cercus broad lanceolate with apex acute, lacking a 
basal tooth but flattened proximo-internally, this portion with lateral 
margin diverging and produced into a large acute-angulate projection 
mesad, about half as large as the remaining distal portion of the shaft. 
Dextral cercus a heavy, evenly in-bowed shaft of equal length, bifid distad 
with internal portion of this section and larger than the external portion; 
shaft bulbous proximo-externally. This cercus is much more like the 
dextral cercus of californicum, differing principally in the bulbous proximo- 
external section. Adjacent to and sinistrad of the dextral cercus is a 
large, lamellate plate, extending caudad almost an equal distance, irregular 
in contour and strongly constricted meso-distad, the dextral margin of 
this plate being armed with well spaced, sharp, recurved teeth. Above 
this plate is a very small irregularly rotundato-conical projection. 7 Me- 

5 The Chumash were an Indian tribe which, at the time of the Spanish 
conquest, inhabited the region in which this species is found. 

6 Reference to text figure 2 is advisable, due to the high specialization 
of these parts. 

7 In californicum the homologous projection is larger, more bulbous, 
with apex produced dorsad in a small conical process, as shown in text 
figure I. 


sad, from beneath the penultimate tergite, project two small, irregular, 
rotundato-trigonal plates. These are sometimes concealed and appar- 
ently represent the supra-anal plate (tenth tergite, not counting the median 
segment, which, in the species of Tim em a, is of the same form as the first 
tergite). Subgenital plate scoop-shaped, with apex weakly obtuse-angu- 
late emarginate. 8 Styles absent. 

ALLOTYPE: 9 ; Los Angeles County, California. June. 
(D. W. Coquillett.) [United States National Museum.] 

Very similar to females of californicum, apparently differing only in 
genitalic features. Size considerably larger than in male. Penultimate 
tergite roundly produced mesad, 9 so that only the distal portion of the 
very small trigonal supra-anal plate is exposed. Cercus elongate, coch- 
leate, very broadly truncate at apex, this truncation very weakly oblique 
and with margin strongly but irregularly dentate. 


Length of Length of Width of Length of 
body pronotum pronotum caudal tibia 


Los Angeles County, Cal. Type.. . 14. 2.3 3.3 4. 

Los Angeles County, Cal. Paratype 13.5 2.2 3. 4.2 

Mount Wilson, Cal. Paratype ..... 13.7 2.4 3.7 4.3 


Los Angeles County, Cal. Allotype. 21. 3. 4. 4.8 

Los Angeles County, Cal. Parade 20. 2.7 3.9 4.8 

From the available data the distribution of the present 
species would appear to cover the mountains in the Los 
Angeles region, extending down their eastern slopes into 
decided desert conditions, as is shown by material taken at 
Palm Springs, in the Mojave Desert at the foot of the San 
Jacinto Range. 

Specimens Examined: 9; 3 males, 2 females and 4 immature individuals. 

CALIFORNIA. Los Angeles County, icf, type, [Hebard Cln.]; June, 
(D. W. Coquillett), I cf , 2 9 , I juv. 9 allotype and paratypes, [U. S. N. M. 
and Hebard Cln.]. Mount Wilson, near summit, June 6, 1916, (H. 

s ln californicum the subgenital plate is weakly scoop-shaped, with apex 
broadly and weakly convex. 

9 In californicum the penultimate tergite is moderately angulate-emargi- 
nate, so that a larger portion of the very small trigonal supra-anal plate 
is exposed. 


Morrison; swept from Ceanothus) , itf, [U. S. N. M.]. Keen Camp, 
San Jacinto Mountains, June 6 to 12, 1917, (E. P. Van Duzee), I juv. cf , 
[Cal. Acad. Sci.]. Palm Springs, May 21, 1917, (E. P. Van Duzee), 2 juv. 
9 , [Cal. Acad. Sci., and Hebard Cln.]. 

Descriptions of New Species of Hesperidae 


By HENRY SKINNER, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The types of the following species are in the collection of 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Pyrrhopyge viriditas n. sp. 

Head, collar and palpi red. Thorax blue above, black below. Abdo- 
men and legs black. Anal tuft orange. Wings dark green above and 
below. Fringes yellow; very narrow on the primaries and a little more 
than 1.5 mm. wide on the secondaries. Expanse (one wing) 27 mm. 

One specimen from San Pedro, Sula, Honduras. This 
species belongs to the group containing telassa and hadassa 

Mimoniades aemulus n. sp. 

Head, palpi, thorax and abdomen black. Patagia slightly tipped with 
orange. Primaries marked as in pityusa Hew. except that the two vit- 
reous spots in the centre of the wing are differently shaped, the upper spot 
being elongate and the lower one has an indentation on the outer side. 
Inferiors as in pityusa. Underside as in pityusa except that the primaries 
have no markings other than the vitrous spots, and on the secondaries 
the narrow submarginal line is wanting. Expanse of one wing 31 mm. 

One male specimen from Ambato, Ecuador. This species 
differs from its allies in the black body and abdomen and 
also in the character of the central vitreous spots. 

Mimoniades amans n. sp. 

Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen and legs mostly black with a few whitish 
hairs interspersed here and there on the underside. A broad orange, 
vitreous band extending from the costa to the submedian nervure, which 
is 6 mm. in width; the remainder of the wing is immaculate and black. 
The secondaries are black with blue scales extending parallel to the margin 
and 4 mm. from it, and also a faint line of these blue scales running the 
same distance from the interior margin. In the medial part of the wing 


they extend about 13 mm. toward the base. The primaries below are 
dusted with blue scales and there are three white spots at the base of the 
wing. Secondaries covered with blue scales and with a white fascia near 
the base of the wing. Expanse of one wing 28 mm. 

One specimen from Neiva, United States of Colombia. 
The species is related to ocyalus Hubn. 

Proteides jamaicensis n. sp. 

Closely related to idas Cramer and on the upperside marked in the same 
way. The vitreous spots are variable, in some cases large and in one 
specimen the wings are almost immaculate, as in some specimens of 
sanantonio Lucas. The differences are on the underside of the secondaries 
where markings are in general as in idas but the white scales are almost 
entirely lacking and this gives the wings quite a different appearance. 
It is a large form and in some of the specimens one wing measures 35 mm. 

The type and four other specimens from Jamaica. 

Thymele angustus n. sp. 

Head green. Upperside of palpi brown, underside orange. Front 
femora orange. Thorax and abdomen green, below brown. The pri- 
maries have the usual diaphanous band of spots; two on the costa, a narrow 
hour-glass shaped one in the cell and a small triangular one below. Inner 
third of wings blue. Secondaries brown with inner third blue. Under- 
side of primaries as above with secondaries brown, immaculate. Expanse 
of one wing 26 mm. 

The type and two other specimens from San Domingo, 
West Indies. This striking species is related to fulgerator 
but may be readily distinguished by the very narrow dia- 
phanous band of spots ofrrly I mm. wide. 

Telegonus antiquus n. sp. 

Head, palpi and underside, of thorax brown. Upperside of thorax and 
abdomen green. Primaries brown with the basal third blue. Secondaries 
brown with the inner half blue. Underside brown with obscure darker 
markings and a few faint -pink scales on the outer margins of the wings. 
Expanse of one wing 26 mm. 

The type and one other specimen from San Domingo, 
West Indies. The species is related to T. habana Lucas but 
lacks the whitish border of the underside of the wings. 

Bungalotis immaculata n. sp. 

The whole insect is yellowish brown, nearly the color of B. midas Cramer 
and is without markings. The antennae, head, palpi, thorax, abdomen 


and legs concolorous. Inserted near the base of the secondaries is a tuft 
of brown hairs. Expanse, one wing, 23 mm. 

Type from Chanchamayo, Peru. 

Bungalotis canalis n. sp. 

A yellow-brown species the color of ramusis Cramer and the markings 
are of the same general color. The specimen is a male and has a costal fold. 
Antennae, head, palpi, thorax, abdomen and legs yellow-brown. Upper- 
side: Primaries with a small, round, sub-apical vitreous spot and several 
very faint brown spots between the veins; the secondaries have a gemi- 
nate brown spot at the end of the cell and five small brown spots half 
way between this and the border, and running parallel to the border. 
Underside of primaries much as above; secondaries have a medial row of 
three obscure, brown spots and a postmedial row of six brown spots. Ex- 
panse of one wing 28 mm. Costa of hind wing 21 mm. External margin 
22 mm. Internal margin 23 mm. These measurements show that the 
species is different in shape from some of the species in the genus. 

The type is from Gatun, Canal Zone, Panama. From 
D. E. Harrower. 

Eudamus parvus n. sp. 

Head, thorax and abdomen above, brown; below the palpi are covered 
with mixed brown and whitish hairs. Abdomen below brown. Upper- 
side: Primaries dark brown and immaculate; secondaries brown and 
immaculate, terminating in short tails. Underside: The primaries show 
very faint mottlings; the secondaries have a faint central band, darker 
than the background and also a submarginal one of the same character. 
Expanse of one wing of male, 13 mm., of female 20 mm. Tail 5 mm. in 

The type male has no vitreous spots and the type locality 
is St. Pierre, Martinque (J. M. Geddes, Dec. 8th, 1911.) 
Allot ype from the same locality and paratypes from Antiqua, 
Dec. 23rd, 1911, (Geddes). English Harbor, Antiqua (Ged- 
des) Dominica (Geddes). This little species has the same 
odd shape as E. galapagensis Williams, described in the 
Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1911, p. 303, pi. 20, f. 6. 

Callimormus dimidiatus n. sp. 

Head black; antenna annulated, black and white; palpi with black and 
white .hairs. Thorax and abdomen brown above, white below. Legs 
partly covered with white scales. Upperside: Primaries brown with 
three small orange lines near the apex and a subcostal one from the inner 
third to the base of the wing; secondaries brown, immaculate. Under- 


side: Primaries brown with a very narrow yellow line below the costa 
and extending from near the middle of the wing to the base; on the outer 
half of the costal margin and on the oliter margin are about ten yellow 
lines. Secondaries with a subcostal yellow line and below this is another 
one, bifid from the middle to the outer margin of the wing. The lower 
two-thirds of the wing is white with five or six narrow fuscus lines in it. 
Expanse of one wing 12 mm. 

Type, a male from Huigra, Ecuador, (S. N. Rhoads). 
This is a very pretty and graceful little species. Gracilis 
Felder appears to be its nearest ally. 

The known Membracidae of Ecuador 


By Dr. FREDERIC W. CODING, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 
During a residence of more than six years in Ecuador, col- 
lectors have been supplying material from which this list of 
forty-five species of Membracidae is based, while heretofore 
but eight had been recorded; those in my collection are indi- 
cated by an *. Representatives of the subfamily Centrotinae 
have not been identified from this Republic. Types of the 
new species here described are in my collection. 


*Horiola picta Fabr. Coq. 111. Ins. ii, p. 78, pi. 18, f. 10. Hab.: Ana 
Maria Farm, Province of Los Rios, (Rorer). 

*Horiola lineola Fabr. Syst. Ryn. p. 30. Hab.: Ana Maria Farm, 
Province of Los Rios, (Rorer). 

*Horiola arcuata Fabr. Syst. Ryn. p. 29. Hab.: Ana Maria Farm, 
Province of Los Rios, (Rorer). 


*Cyphonia clavata Fabr. Mant. Ins. ii, p. 264. Hab.: Machala, 
Province of El Oro, (Rorer). 

Antonae guttipes Walk. List Horn. Brit. Mus., Suppl. p. 157. Hab.: 
Xapo River, Province of El Oriente, (Walker). 

Gentrogonia centrotoides Walk. List Horn. Brit. Mus., Suppl. p. 138. 
Hab.: Napo River, Province of El Oriente, (Walker). 

*Centrogonia flavo-limbata n. sp. (See description on another page.) 
Hab.: Pifo, Province of Pichincha, (Campos). fr 

Acutalis (?) terminalis Walk. Ins. Saund. Horn. p. 76. Hab.: Pro- 
vince of Pichincha, (Distant). 


*Polyglypta dorsalis Burm. Silb. Rev. Ent. iv, p. 178. Hab.: Pro- 
vince of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

*Erosne bracteata Stal. Bid. Mem. K. p. 240. Hab.: Machala, Pro- 
vince of El Oro, (Rorer). 

*Heranice miltoglypta Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 306, pi. 5, f. 4 and 12. 
Hab.: Machachi, Corazon, Province of Pichincha, (Distant); Canar, 
Province of Canar, (Pachano). 

Hille equadorensis Fowl. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. (1894), p. 420. Hab.: 
Ecuador, (Fowler). 

*Hille sobria Walk. List. Horn. Brit. Mus. p. 523. Hab.: Quito. 
Province of Pichincha, (Walker); Province of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

Hille perfecta Walk. List Horn. Brit. Mus., Suppl. p. 139. Hab.: 
Napo River, Province of El Oriente, (Walker). 

*Ecuatoriana bactriana n. gen. et sp. (See description on another 
page.) Hab.: Zufias, Province of Chimborazo, (Feyer). 

*Oxygonia chrysura Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 302, pi. 5, f. 18. Hab.: 
Province of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

*Oxygonia erythropus Burm. Handb. Ent. ii, p. 139. Hab.: Pro- 
vince of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

Oxygonia rufo-maculata Fallou. Rev. d' Ent. ix, p. 353. Hab.: 
Ecuador, (Fallou). 

Oxygonia fasciata Fallou. Rev. d' Ent. ix, p. 353. Hab.: Ecuador, 

*Adippe histrio Walk. Ins. Saund. Horn. p. 71. Hab.: Province of 
El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

Lucilla intermedia Fowl. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. (1894)^.421. Hab.: 
Ecuador, (Fowler). 


*Aconophora pugionata Germ. Mag. Ent. iv, p. 20. Hab.: Ana 
Maria Farm, Province of Los Rios, (Rorer). 

*Hyphinoe morio Stal. Bid. Mem. K. p. 257. Hab.: Posorja, Pro- 
vince of Guayas, (Campos). 

*Tomogonia camposiana n. sp. (See description on another page.) 
Hab.: Posorja, (Campos). 

Heniconotus aethiops Butl. Cistula Ent. (1877), p. 361, pi. 7, f. 13. 
Hab.: Ecuador, (Butler). 


*Triquetra bos Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 282. Hab.: Province of El 
Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

*Triquetra nigro-carinata Fairm. Rev. Mem p. 280. Hab.: Nor- 
mandie, Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

(To be Continued) 



Remember the Veterans! 

A correspondent writes: 

It has occurred to me that the entomologists of this country should 
in some way show their appreciation of those men whose active work 
is ended, and not let them pass by, as is usually the case, until it is too 
late. Dr. Behr and Prof. Rivers both passed away apparently forgotten 
and (I cannot help feel) with just a little bitterness that their last days 
should be passed in utter oblivion. The ending of Rivers was especially 
sad for, after the death of his wife, to whom he was intensely devoted, he 
began drinking heavily, merely as a means to hasten the end. Perhaps 
just a bit of appreciation from those now active in the various fields of 
entomology would have brightened his days, lessened the great sorrow 
that came to him, and made him feel that his efforts had not been entirely 
in vain. 

It seems to me that a day could be appointed when, each year, those 
who have done their bit for the advancement of science could be remem- 
bered and congratulated. A mere pittance from a few of us would be 
sufficient to send to those who have retired a tribute in the way of flowers 
and a two cent stamp would carry a written message of congratulation 
and appreciation. I sincerely hope that my suggestion will lead to some- 
thing along this line. 

We heartily approve of these sentiments and hope that 
they may be carried into effect by individual action, even 
if concerted effort does not obtain. The veteran to be cheered 
would be most appropriately remembered on his own birth- 
day. If one day in the year were appointed for this tribute 
to -all the workers, the first suggestion which comes to us is 
that of the birthday of Thomas Say, the "father of American 
Entomology," July 27. That his natal day falls in a period 
when many entomologists are in the field, away from home 
and therefore not situated as to conveniently carry out this 
kindly idea, makes the wisdom of such a choice doubtful. 
We shall be glad to receive suggestions. 


Notes and Nexvs 


Change of Address 

Mr. Richard T. Garnett has removed to 6253 I4th Street, Oakland, 

Notes on the Habits of Promecognathus laevissimus Dejean. 

(Col., Carabidae.) 

After noting several crushed Scaphinotus on the paths in a damp ravine 
on the campus of the University at Berkeley, I sank a Mason jar into 
the ground in a little runway that led down to the stream. This run- 
way was surrounded on either side by a heavy carpet of English ivy. 
The trap was baited with scraps of meat, but in the three months that 
have elapsed not a single Scaphinotus has been taken; the only species 
that have fallen victims are Promecognathus laevissimus Dej., Pterostichus 
vicimis Mann., and Omus californicus Esch. The presence of Prome- 
cognathus in a trap in the open is surprising, insomuch as it is commonly 
supposed to lead a strictly subterranean life. Even when daily visits 
were made to the jar (whether it was baited or not) there were always 
at least a pair of them trapped, showing that this pugnacious Carabid 
is in the habit of taking nocturnal strolls. But one specimen of Omus 
was taken in this way. RICHARD T. GARNETT, Oakland, California. 

Notes on North Carolina Dragonflies (Odonata) 

1. Enallagma gemiaatum. About three dozen specimens were 
taken by Prof. C. H. Kennedy and myself on June 17, 1919, on some oKl 
brickyard ponds near Raleigh. Among these w r ere a number which had 
the sides of the second abdominal segment mainly black with an anterior 
wedge-shaped blue stripe and a posterior blue semicircle, which when en- 
larged and connected cut off the usual oblong black spot on the segment. 
Another specimen was taken on July 10 at same place. 

2. Gomphus parvidens B. M. Currie. A male Gomphus taken at 
Southern Pines, April 29, 1908, and recorded by me as G. brimleyi in Ent. 
News for June, 1918, proves to be this species. The female from Raleigh 
referred to brimleyi in the same article also seems to be this species as 
does also a female from Lurnberton, the only remaining one of the three 
Lumberton Gomphus referred to brimleyi in Ent. News, June, 1918, to 
abbreviatus in the News, March, 1906, and to parvulus in the News, March, 

3. Libelula incesta. For several years I have noticed that along 
with the usual clearwinged incesta, there occurred a form similar in every 
respect, but with the basal streaks present or the postcubitals infuscated 


or both, but I was not clear whether this was a mere variation of incesta, 
a dwarfed form of axillena, or something else, so having some spare time 
in the summer of 1919 I tried to settle the matter for myself. 

Upon overhauling what Raleigh material I had both pinned, papered 
and wet preserved, I found that the dubious specimens had nothing to 
do with axillena, but were apparently only a variation of incesta, and that 
basal streaks were seemingly a normal condition of the females but not 
of the males, and that infuscation of the postcubitals, while not the regular 
condition in either sex, was not unusual in either males or females in this 
locality as the following table will show: 
Wings wholly clear, males 16, females i. 
Wings with basal streaks only, males none, females 10. 
Wings without basal streaks but with infuscated postcubitals, males 
3, females i. 

Wings with both basal streaks and infuscated postcubitals, males I, 
females 4. 

Dividing the whole lot as to absence or presence of basal streaks, we 
find them present in 14 females and I male, and absent in 19 males and 2 
females, showing that this particular variation is mainly a sexual one in 
Raleigh incesta. 

The basal streaks varied a good deal in different specimens, extending 
as far as the yth antecubital in all four wings in one, and in another only 
as far as the first in the hind wings and the second in the front wings, 
while others showed every gradation between these. One in which the 
basal streaks only definitely reached the 6th and 4th antecubitals in the 
front and hind wings, yet had all the postcubitals and all the antecubitals 
infuscated, altho there were clear spaces between the veins, so that there 
was an almost continuous stripe from the base 'of the wing to the stigma. 

From axillena the infuscated incesta can be distinguished by smaller 
size, hind wing being about 40 mm. or less, while in axillena it seldom 
runs less than 43 mm., and by the thorax being dark blue pruinose on both 
sides and dorsum, while in axillena it is dark blue on dorsum bordered by 
black below on sides and below that by yellowish in younger, and by 
dark brown in older specimens. Also the infuscation is brown, not black 
as in axillena, and is usually more extensive. 

C. S. BRIMLEY, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The Cornell University Entomological Expedition to South America 

of 1919-20. 

Under the leadership of Professor J. Chester Bradley, the Cornell 
University Entomological Expedition to South America of 1919-20 is 
carrying on entomological investigation and making collections in various 
South American countries. 

Dr. Bradley sailed for Brazil early in September last on the steamship 
Vestris; owing to a fire developing in one of the holds of the steamer, a 


delay of thirteen days occurred at the Island of Santa Lucia, where interest- 
ing and unexpected collecting was done. At Rio de Janeiro he was joined 
by a volunteer assistant, Mr. R. Gordon Harris. 

After spending some time in Rio de Janeiro, a trip was made in company 
with Brazil's foremost entomologist, Dr. Adolph Lutz, to the State of 
Minas Geraes in the north, as far as to Pirapora, the head of navigation 
on the Sao Francisco River; some days were spent at Lassance on the 
Rio das Velhas as guests of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz. It was at this 
place that Dr. Chagas first worked out the details of the transmission by 
a Redwing bug (Conorhinus) of a trypanosome causing a very serious 
endemic disease of the region. Some days were also spent in the alpine 
meadows at Diamantina, Brazil's highest city, and also as guests of the 
State of Minas Geraes at the Capitol, Beldo Horizonte. 

Returning to Rio de Janeiro, the party proceeded to cross the States 
of Sao Paulo and Matto Grosso by rail to Corumba on the Paraguay 
River, and thence to Urucum. Interesting collecting was encountered 
at various points along this trip, but especially at Urucum, 20 kilometers 
from Corumba, on an isolated mountain range at an elevation of 2200 
feet, at the upper limit of a tropical forest. Here, despite continuous 
rainy weather, a very interesting and abundant fauna was encountered. 

From Corumba they proceeded by rail via Sao Paulo to Uruguayana on 
the Uruguay River, at the Argentinean frontier, a distance of 2500 miles; 
from there they were about to proceed, when last heard from, to the falls 
of the Iguazu on the Alta Parana River. 

The plans of the party contemplate spending a brief while in Argentina, 
at Buenos Aires, La Plata, Cordoba, Mendoza and possibly Tucuman, 
a visit to Montevideo, and then to spend from six weeks to two months 
in Chile, visiting several places, to as far south as Chiloe Island; thence 
to Oruro, Cochabamba and La Paz in Bolivia, and to Lima in Peru. 

At Lima, Dr. W. T. M. Forbes and Jesse Williamson will join the ex- 
pedition, which will, if conditions prove favorable, cross the Andes via 
the central route and down the Pichis, Pachitea, Ucayalli and Maranon 
Rivers to Iquitos; stopping at favorable points on the eastern side of the 
Andes. The party will return to New York in September next. 

The Expedition is entrusted with the delivery of extensive collections 
of North American insects and of vertebrates to four scientific institutions 
in South America. While not neglecting general collecting, Dr. Bradley 
is devoting especial attention to the collecting of Hymenoptera, especially 
of the aculeates, and is endeavoring to obtain series of nests of Vespidae 
with their inhabitants. Mr. Harris is doing general collecting of insects. 
Dr. Forbes will devote his attention primarily to Lepidoptera, and relieve 
the other members of the necessity of devoting attention to this time- 
exacting group after he joins the Expedition. Mr. Williamson will collect 

C. R. CROSBY, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 


The Williamson Expedition in Venezuela 

The following note from Mr. E. B. Williamson, dated Puerto Cabello, 
March 25, 1920, supplements that on page 108 of the April NEWS: "Ar- 
rived here this a. m. en route to Maracaibo. Have collected at San 
Esteban, La Mona, Bejuma, Nirgua, San Felipe and from Barquisimeto 
and Aroa to Tucacas, finding practically one fauna one Heteragrion 
and one Philogenia. Have 119 spp., 82OO+specimens. [Odonata.] " 

Sciocoris microphthalmus Flor. in Northern Michigan (Heterop.) 

This little pentatomid is one of the rarest and most interesting members 
of the North American heteropterous fauna but less than a half dozen 
definite locality records are known to me at the present time. Van Duzee 
(Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XXX, 1904, 32) records a single specimen from the 
White Mountains in New Hampshire and Parshley (Fauna of New Eng- 
land, 14, 1917, 17) records a specimen from Maine. To these localities 
I am glad to add another thus making known the further distribution of 
this insect within our borders. 

During the summer of 1919, I took four specimens of Sciocoris microph- 
thalmus in the Douglas Lake region of northern Michigan. One of these, 
a male was taken in the sweep net on July 9, and again on July 18, a male 
and a female were swept from roadside weeds growing in a wooded area 
along the edge of a small stream. One nymph, a male about one-third 
grown, was also taken on July 29, in a similar situation. 

Douglas Lake is located in the southern peninsula of Michigan about 
seventeen miles south of the Straits of Mackinac, the same distance from 
Lake Huron on the east and Lake Michigan on the west; it is about 200 
feet above sea level. DAYTON STONER, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myrippoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cambridge, 
Mass. 9 The Entomologist, London. 10 Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington, D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of 


Natural History, London. 12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Con- 
cord, N. H. 15 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, Washington, D. C. 
17 Lepidoptera, Boston, Mass. 19 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Ento- 
mological Society. 24 Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 
Paris. 39 The Florida Buggist, Gainesville. 45 Zeitschrift fur wissen- 
schaftliche Insektenbiologie, Berlin. 46 Contributions to the Natural 
History of the Lepidoptera of North America. Ed. by Wm. Barnes. 
47 Neue Beitrage zur systematischen Insektenkunde. Ed. by G. Paga- 
netti Hummler, Voslau. 51 Archiv fur Mikroskopische Anatomic, 
Bonn. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipsic. 59 Journal of Agricul- 
tural Research, Washington, D. C. 64 Parasitology, London. 68 
Science, Lancaster, Pa. 70 Journal of Morphology, Philadelphia. 
71 Novitates Zoologicae, Tring, England. 82 The Ohio Journal of 
Science, Columbus. 86 The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Sci- 
ence, London. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher, Jena. 103 Biologisches 
Centralblatt, Leipzig. 104 Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie. 

GENERAL. Anon The Cornell University entomological expedi- 
tion to South America of 1919-20. 68, 1920, 342. Bervoets, R. E. 
Contribution a 1'etude du vol des insectes (Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. et Malacol. 
Belg., xlviii, 91-126). Dewitz, J. Ueber kunstliche aufebung des 
spinnens der arthropoden. 52, 1, 27-30. Frost, C. A. Popular and 
practical entomology. A day's beating. 4, Hi, 25-9. Heikertinger, F. 
Exakte begriffsfassung und terminologie im problem der mimikry und 
verwandter erscheinungen. 45, xv, 57-65 (cont.). Die metoke myrme- 
koidie. Tatsachenmaterial zur losung des mimikryproblems. 103, 
xxxix, 65-IO2Z. Kathariner, L. Das sehen der insekten. 45, xiv, 
1919, 301-304. Moznette, G. F. Annotated list of the injurious and 
beneficial insects of the avocado in Florida. 39, iii, 45-48. O'Kane, 
W. G. The day's work. The opportunity of the daily contacts in the 
life of a scientific worker. 12, xiii, 44-59. Pellett, F. C. Adapting 
system to locality. (Beekeeping.) 12, xiii, 95-99. Pierce, W. D. 
Commercial and professional entomology the future of our profession. 
12, xiii, 117-23. Stechow, E. Supplement zu den indices generum 
von Scudder 1882 und Waterhouse 1902 und 1912. 89, Abt. f. Syst., 
xiii, 173-88. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. The growth of insect eggs 
after oviposition. 19, xv, 24. Walsingham, Lord Obituary notice- 

10, xxii, 41-3. 

GENETICS, ETC. Nachtsheim, H. Der mechanismus der verer- 
bung. (Naturwiss. Wochenschift, 1919, 105-14.) Schmidt, W. J. 
Ueber chromatophoren bei insekten. 51, xciii, 118-136. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Nut tall, G. H. F. On coloration in ticks. 

11. Regeneration of the mouthparts and legs in ticks. 64, xii, 1-26. 
Observations on the biology of the Ixodidae. 64, xi, 393-404. 


NEUROPTERA. Ballowitz, E. Ueber die samenkorper der libellen. 
Die spermien der Agrioniden. 51, xciii, Abt, 2, 1-14. Karny, H. 
Synopsis der Megathripidae (Thysanoptera). 47, i, 105-10, (cont.) 

ORTHOPTERA. Jeziorski, L. Der thorax von Dixippus morosus. 
Ueber das wachstum und wachstumskorrelationen bei Dixippus morosus. 
104, cxviii, 1-24. Verhoef u. Kleine Kann Forficula auricularia 
fliegen? Hat Periplaneta orientalis einen stridulationsapparat. 45, xiv, 
1918, 85-86. Yuasa, H. The anatomy of the head and mouth parts 
of Orthoptera and Euplexoptera. 70, xxxiii, 251-307. 

HEMIPTERA. Davis, W. T. The seventeen-year cicada on Long 
Island, N. Y., in 1919. 19, xv, 17-18. Grove, A. J. The anatomy 
of the head and mouth parts of Psylla mali, with some remarks on the 
function of the labium. 64, xi, 456-88. Keilin & Nuttall Herma- 
phroditism and other abnormalities in Pediculus humanus. 64, xi, 279- 
328. Malloch, J. R. -Notes on some species of the homopterous genus 
Gypona. 19, xv, 22-3. Nuttall, G. H. F. The systematic position, 
synonymy and iconography of Pediculus humanus and Phthirus pubis. 
64, xi, 329-46. Picaud, A. Le cycle biologique du phylloxera. (La 
Nature, 1920, 65-8.) Riley, C. F. C. Migratory responses of water 
striders during severe droughts. 19, xv, i-io. Schumacher, F. 
Ueber Psociden-feinde aus der ordnung der Hemipteren. 45, xiii, 1917, 
217-18. Strindberg, H. -Zur entwicklungsgeschichte der oviparen coc- 
ciden. 52, 1, 113-139. 

Drake, C. J. An undescribed water strider from the Adirondacks. 
19, xv, 19-21. Descriptions of new North American Tingidae. 82, 
xx, 49-54. Osborn, H. Notes on the generic affinities of certain Cica- 
dellidae. 82, xx, 153-66. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Busck, A. Descriptions of new Central American 
microlepidoptera. 15, viii, 83-95. Cockerell, T. D. A. The generic 
position of Sphinx separatus. 4, Hi, 33-4. Dyar, H. G. New moths 
from Mexico. A new noctuid from Colombia. 15, viii, 30-5; 82. Ehr- 
mann, G. A. A new tropical American Papilio. 17, iv, 13-14. Fro- 
hawk, F. W. Retarded development of Coenonympha tiphon. 9, 1920, 
66. Hampson, G. F. On new genera and species of L. Phalaenae, 
with the characters of two new families. 71, xxvi, 253-82. Kaye, 
W. J. A geographical table to show the distribution of the American 
Papilios. 71, xxvi, 320-57. McMurray, N. Calocampa nupera. 17, 
iv. 14-16. Moss, A. M. The Papilios of Para. 71, xxvi, 295-319. 
Mousley, H. The Rhopalocera or butterflies of Hatley, Stanstead 
County, Quebec, 1919. (Canadian Field Nat., xxxiv, 7-10.) Prout, 
L. B. New moths in the Joicey collection. 11, v, 286-93. Stichel, H. 
Nachtrag zu Genera Insectorum, Fasc. 63, Lepidoptera Rhopal. Fam. 
Nymphalidae, Subfam. Dioninae. 47, i, 80. Turner, W. B. Li-pi- 
doptera at light traps. 59, xviii, 475-81. 


Barnes & Busck Notes and new species. 46, iv, 211-78. Braun, 
A. F. New species of Scythris. 4, Hi, 40-1. Notes on Elachista with 
descriptions of new species. 82, xx, 167-72. Dyar, H. G. A new 
noctuid from Arizona. Two new North American moths. 15, viii, 100-2. 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. European frit fly in North America. 
59, xviii, 451-74. Collins & Hood Life history of Eubiomyia calo- 
somae, a tachinid parasite of Calosoma beetles. 59, xviii, 483-98. Dyar, 
H. G. A second Culex of the subgenus Transculicia. Note on the 
subgenus Neoculex of Culex. A new mosquito from Mexico. 15, viii, 
2 7~9! 36; 81-3. Graham-Smith, G. S. Further observations on the 
habits and parasites of common flies. 64, xi, 347-84. Keilin, D. 
On the life-history and larval anatomy of Melinda cognata, with an 
account of the other diptera living upon molluscs. 64, xi, 430-5.5. Koch, 
A. Studien an larven von Culex pipiens bei der submersion. 52, 1, 
105-111. Lindner, H. Ueber die mundwerkzeuge einiger dipteren und 
ihre beziehungen zur ernahrungsweise. 52, 1, 19-27. Loftin, U. G. 
Mosquitoes found about Gainesville, Fla. 39, iii, 37-43, 48-50. Miall & 
Hammond The structure and life history of the Harlequin fly (Chiro- 
nomus). (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1900, 196 pp.) 

Dyar, H. G. The mosquitoes of British Columbia and Yukon terri- 
tory, Canada. The species of Choeroporpa, a subgenus of Culex. 15, 
viii, 1-27; 54-81. Johnson, C. W. On the variation of Tabanus 
atratus. 5, xxvi, 163-65. A new species of the genus Ulidia. 5, xxvi, 
165-66. Sturtevant, A. H. A new species closely resembling Dro- 
sophila melanogaster. 5, xxvi, 153-55. 

COLEOPTERA. Bernhauer, M. Beitrag zur Staphylidinen-fauna 
Sudamerikas. 47, i, 35-8. Neue arten der gattungen Piestus, Lep- 
tochirus und Conosoma aus Sudamerika. 47, i, 45-53. Desbordes, H. 
Contribution a la connaissance des Histerides. V. Etude du genre 
Omalodes. 24, 1919, 41-64. Demoll, R. Die bedeutung der elytren 
der kaefer fur den flug. 52, xxxix, 474-478. Kremer Die flugel- 
decken der C. 89, xli, Abt. f. Anat., 175-272. Luderwaldt, H. Bio- 
logische notizen ueber brasilianische C. 45, xii, 1916, 293-98, (cont.). 
Obenberger, J. Analecta II. Buprestidae (Neotropical). 47, i, 33-5. 
d'Orchymont, A. Contribution a 1 'etude des sous-families des 
Sphaeridiinae et des Hydrophilinae. 24, 1919, 105-68. Rockwood, 
L. P. Hypera nigrirostris in the Pacific northwest. 4, Hi, 38-9. Speath, 
F. Drei neue Cassidinen aus dem tropischen Amerika. 47, i. 122-3. 
Verhoeff, K. W. Zur systematik der Carabus larven. 45, xiii, 1917, 
41-43. Studien ueber die organisation der Staphylinoidea. 45, xii, 
257-266, (cont.), 1916. Wheeler, W. M. The phoresy of Antherophagus. 
5, xxvi, 145-52- 

Beaulieu, G. Les melasides du Canada. (La Nat. Canadien, xlvi, 


186-91, cont.) Blatchley, W. S. Notes on the winter C. of western 
and southern Florida, with descriptions of new sps. 4, Hi, 42-6. Chapin, 
E. A. New American Cleridae, with note on the synonymy of Alicrop- 
terus. 10, xxii, 50-4. Cockerell, T. D. A. A parasitic of dermestid 
beetles in entomological collections. 4, Hi, 34. Obenberger, J. Neue 
exotische Acmaeoderen. 47, i, 53-56. 

HYMENOPTERA. Armbruster, L. Methodisches und kritisches 
zur geschlechtsbestimmungsfrage bei bienen. 45, xv, 73-9. Borner, C. 
Stammesgeschichte der hautflugler. 52, xxxix, 145-186. Emmelius, 
C. Beitrage zur biologic einiger ameisenarten. 52, 1, 303-311. Frisch, 
K. v. Ueber den geruchsinn der biene und seine blutenbiologische be- 
deutung. 89, xxxvii, Abt. f. allg. Zool. u. Phys., 1-236. Graham-Smith, 
G. S. (See under Diptera.) Heikertinger, F. Die bienenmimikry 
von Eristalis. Eine kritische untersuchung. 45, xiv, 1918, 1-5, (cont.). 
Natzmer, G. v. Beitrage zur instinctpsychologie der ameisen. 45, xii, 
1916, 288-92. Phillips, VV. J. Studies of the life history and habits 
of the jointworm flies of the genus Harmolita (Isosoma). (U. S. Dept. 
Agric., Bull. 808.) Pixell-Goodrich, H. L. M. Determination of age 
in honey-bees. 86, xliv, 191-206. Reichensperger, Dr. Beobach- 
tungen an ameisen. Ein beitrag zue Pseudogynen. 45, xiii, 1917, 145- 
152. Robertson, G. -About Bombus americanorum. 19, xv, 14-16. 
Rohwer, S. A. The generic name Ceropales Lat. (Jour. Wash. Ac. 
Sci., x, 171-4.) Wheeler, W. M. The phoresy of Antherophagus. 5, 
xxvi, 145-52. __ 

Hall, E. W. Descriptions of new Tryphoninae of the tribe Ctenopel- 
mini (Ichneumonidae). 5, xxvi, 155-59. Mann, W. M. A procto- 
trypid inquitine with Formica exsectoides. 10, xxii, 59-60. Rohwer, 
S. A. Descriptions of six new wasps. 10, xxii, 54-9. 

PHILIPPINE WASP STUDIES. Part I. Descriptions of New Species by 
S. A. ROHWER. Part II. Descriptions of New Species and Life History 
Studies by F. X. WILLIAMS. Report of Work of the Experiment Station 
of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Entomological Series, 
Bulletin No. 14. Honolulu, Hawaii. December, 1919, 186 pp., 106 
text figs. These studies were carried on while Dr. Williams was in the 
Philippine Islands, from June, 1916, to September, 1917, associated with 
the work of securing natural enemies of the beetle Anomala oricntalis 
and its white grub, a sugar-cane pest on Oahu. Mr. F. Muir discovered 
that Seal ia tnanilae of the Philippines was a desirable parasite of the grub 
and was able to establish it in the Hawaiian Islands. Dr. Williams adds: 
" Scolia manilae is now far more abundant in the cane fields near Honolulu 
than we ever found it at Los Banos, Philippines. Indeed, in view of 
the rapidly disappearing Anomala oriental is beetle from the cane fields 
here and the scattered distribution of the rose-beetle (Adoretus tcinu'nia- 


culatus Waterhouse), one wonders how the wasp manages to remain so 
plentiful. Mr. O. H. Swezey has found it in the immature stages on 
Anomala grubs in the field, and we have found it in one or two cases on 
Adoretus grubs in a cane field. On Oahu we have caught for distribution 
many thousands of females" (p. 59).* 

Approximately 182 species of Aculeate wasps (including a few Bethyl- 
idae), belonging to 18 families, are stated to have been collected in the 
Philippines; 52 are treated biologically in this paper by Dr. Williams, 
who describes 13 new species, while Mr. Rohwer describes 16; the new 
forms are Sphecidae, Psammocharidae (Pompilidae), Vespidae and Thyn- 
nidae. A general introduction to the life history and ecological relations 
of wasps is given by Dr. Williams (pp. 19-31), in which he also describes 
the locality, Los Banos, Luzon, as ideally situated for the study of insect 
life. The Philippine College of Agriculture is here and lies immediately 
at the base of Mt. Makiling, a well forested, ancient volcano, nearly 4000 
feet high, with thermal springs flowing from its sides, and offering "at 
once a study of the lowland and generally more widespread fauna of the 
cultivated and semi-cultivated areas as well as that of the forest itself." 
Those who have had the opportunity of studying tropical insect life will 
congratulate Dr. Williams on the good fortune, which he recognizes, in 
being able to spend more than a year at such a place, "to make a resident 
study of many wasp activities and thus observe them from day to day or 
week to week" and to publish his interesting results. Except to a slight 
degree, he has not recorded experiments to determine the behavior of the 
insects under varied conditions a single year would hardly suffice for this. 

As is always to be expected the number of details concerning the life 
history and habits of the wasps studied which he has been able to record 
varies greatly from species to species. The fullest data are to be found 
in his accounts of the Methocas which lay their eggs on tiger-beetle lar- 
vae (pp. 69-79) ! Macromeris, Paragenia and P seudagenia which pro- 
vision their nests with spiders (83-103); the Ampulicid DolicJutnis which 
gathers roaches (111-117); Ammobia and her locustid prey (128-131); 
the Larridae and crickets (132-139); the Eumenid, Zethus cyanoptenis, 
which brings caterpillars to her offspring living in an elaborate nest of 
leaf-pulp (157-163). Among the Vespinae a description is given of the 
fragile, pendent nests of Stenogaster, that of 5. depressigaster being of 
about the dimensions of an ordinary lead pencil, "made up of cells placed 
in irregular tiers, each consisting of four or five cells, arranged in more 
or less spiral fashion, the lowest and terminal open passageways or cells 
now being the only objects of the wasp's solicitude" (168). The nests of 
this species occur in the forest; " in one or two instances, so close were 
these frail non-waterproof nests to a waterfall, that the spray frequently 
struck them and forced the proprietors to edge around to the lee side Or 
their dwellings, to which they habitually cling and where no doubt the 
rest at night; and after a heavy downpour the swollen stream so aug' 

Cf. F. Muir, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. xii, 171, June, 1919. 


mented the cataract, that the nests soaked with water broke up and were 
abandoned. " 

A list of more than 120 titles of books and papers bearing on wasp 
activities closes the 'Studies.' P. P. CALVERT. 

remigis Say by C. F. CURTIS RILEY. American Naturalist, vol. LIII, 
No. 628, pp. 394-414, 1919; vol. LIII, No. 629, pp. 483-505, 1919; vol. 
LIV, No. 630, pp. 68-83, 1920. The late Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt in his 
presidential address before the members of the American Association of 
Economic Entomologists at their 29th annual meeting in 1916, called 
attention to insect behavior as a factor in applied entomology and to the 
need of further work along such a fundamental line. Papers on insect 
behavior are not common in entomological journals and for this reason, 
attention is hereby called to Prof. Riley's series of papers in The American 
Naturalist. These treat of certain habitat responses of apterous forms of 
the large water-strider, Gerris remigis Say, the observations and experi- 
ments having been made in Illinois and New York. Various observations 
are recorded on the responses of water-striders trapped in stream pools 
during a period of severe drought. It was found that during a severe 
drought, as food became scarce or when a scum formed on the surfaces of 
some pools, the gerrids migrated by way of the riffles to pools that were 
free of scum. As the drought progressed the striders congregated on the 
few pools that remained. After the pools dried up, the insects left them 
after a short length of time but not immediately and sought other pools. 
Frequently, shade and lower temperatures induced the gerrids to stay 
quietly but temporarily beneath clumps of dead leaves, stones, etc. They 
did not aestivate Riley states that the gerrids appeared to find other 
pools by a blundering method of trial and error. 

Fifty percent of a total number of gerrids entrapped on the surface of 
a certain stream pool were successful in reaching \vater elsewhere ten 
yards away. On other occasions much smaller percentages were able 
to find water after the pools on which they were confined had become 
dry. In some cases the water was less than ten yards away and in others 
it was eleven, twelve and fourteen yards distant. During periods of 
long and severe droughts it is believed that large numbers of apterous 
individuals die. Various experiments were performed for the purpose 
of finding out whether water-striders were able to reach their 
after having been removed from it and placed on the ground certain 
distances away. Individuals were headed away, toward and parallel 
to the water and in all cases up to certain distances, the majority <>t tin- 
insects reached the water. An experiment to discover whether moisture, 
vision, or both factors functioned as stimuli in influencing the water 
striders to find the brook was inconclusive, due to the failure ol tin- bar- 
rier to shut off the view of the stream and this is the only defect, it it < m 


be called such, in Prof. Riley's interesting paper. The author realizes 
this but is strongly of the opinion that vision is the important factor, 
altho moisture also may have exerted an influence on their responses. 

Prof. Riley's descriptions of the physical conditions surrounding the 
habitats of the insects and the photographs accompanying the papers 
help the reader to visualize the conditions under which the observations 
and experiments were made and are of considerable value for compara- 
tive purposes to other workers in animal behavior. In the entire paper 
the experiments are reported in some detail and the conclusions discussed 
at length, furthermore the observations are checked up and compared 
with those of other writers in the same field. The details are of consider- 
able interest and value as is the entire paper, moreover such details are 
essential to a complete presentation of behavior studies. A bibliography 
of 1 8 titles accompanies the paper. HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. 



Thomas de Grey, sixth Baron Walsingham, the great 
authority on the Microlepidoptera of the world, died on 
December 3, 1919, as the result of heart-failure, following 
pleurisy, due to a chill contracted in connection with going 
to Cambridge for the installation of Mr. Balfour as chancel- 
lor of the University. From obituary notices in The Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine for February (with portrait) 
and The Entomologist for January, we summarize as follows: 
He was born in Mayfair, London, July 29, 1843, went to Eton 
in 1856, and to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1860. The Uni- 
versity made him B. A. in 1865, M. A. in 1870 and High 
Steward and LL. D., in 1891. He was a member of the House 
of Commons for West Norfolk, 1865-1870, succeeding to 
the title and estates of his father in the latter year. He was 
appointed a Trustee of the British Museum in 1876 and to it 
he gave his entomological library and collections in 1910. 
These consisted very largely of Lepidoptera, both imagines 
and larvae, especially of the Microlepidoptera. 

He must have collected more than 50,000 specimens of Microlepidoptera 
in England, France, Monte Carlo, Italy, Spain, Sicily, Corfu, Germany, 
Austria, Algeria, Morocco, the Canaries, California and Oregon, Jamaica, 


etc., breeding thousands of specimens, the life-history of many of which 
he discovered, and describing numerous new species and purchasing at 
various dates the "micros" in the Zeller, Hofmann, Christoph and other 

Commencing as a British Lepidopterist, he was undoubtedly influenced 
in his early studies in the Tineina by Stainton, who induced him to ex- 
tend those studies beyond the British fauna. When preparing his North 
American Tortricidae (published 1879) Lord Walsmgham had much cor- 
respondence with Professor C. H. Fernald, and being dissatisfied with 
the Wilkinsonian system was easily persuaded by Fernald to adopt that 
of Heinemann and described many genera founded on secondary sexual 
characters. He was liberal minded enough in his 65th year, in association 
with Mr. August Busck and the writer to repudiate all such genera and 
they were freely sacrificed in the "Biologia!" Lord Walsingham readily 
accepted the more exact methods of study and classification which we 
owe to Mr. E. Meyrick, with a natural reservation as to matters of detail, 
such as sequence and nomenclature [J. H. Durrant in Ent. Mo. Mag.]. 

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1887, and 
President of the Entomological Society of London, 1889-90. 

As indicated abov-e, he collected in California and Oregon. 
This was in 1871 and 1872. As a result of this expedition, 
the largest species of dragonfly known in the United States 
bears the name Anax walsinghami, given to it, in honor of 
the collector, by Robert M'Lachlan in the Ent. Mo. Mag. 
for 1883. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine also records the 
deaths of WILLIAM E. SHARP (i8s6-May 20, 1919), "one of 
the best of our British Coleopterists;" Major THOMAS 
BROUN, Coleopterist and for some time Government Ento- 
mologist of New Zealand at Auckland, August 24, 1919; 
BRUCE F. CUMMINGS, on the entomological staff of the Bri- 
tish Museum, 1912-1917, and who wrote mainly on Ano- 
plura and Mallophaga, on October 22, 1919; and FREDERICK 
HERSCHEL WATERHOUSE, coleopterist (Oct. 4, i845-March 
12, 1919), last surviving son of G. R. Waterhouse, and librar- 
ian of the Zoological Society of London, 1872-1912. 


Emily L. Morton passed away at her home, New Windsor, 
New York, on the evening of January 8th, 1920, after an 


illness of nearly six months. There she was born on the 3rd 
of April, 1841, on the beautiful estate overlooking the Hud- 
son which had been owned by her family for four generations. 
Her whole life had been devoted to the study of Lepidoptera 
and, although she published nothing herself, her work lives 
after her in the writings of W. H. Edwards, Prof. A. S. Pack- 
ard and others,, particularly in illustrations of the larval 
stage of various butterflies and moths, for she was a very 
clever artist. 

It was she who worked out the curious life-history of 
Feniseca tarquinius Fabr., the larvae of which feed upon the 
mealy bugs that inhabit the alder. She also was among the 
first to hybridize the Saturniidae. 

Her sister, Miss Charlotte A. Morton, the sole surviving 
member of her immediate family, writes me as follows: "At 
your request I have written out briefly a short account of 
my sister's last days, but no one knows hoV patiently she 
bore the great suffering entailed by her illness. During the 
late summer of 1919, she began to suffer from the illness 
which afterward ended her life. Her ankles became swollen 
and gaVr; her much pain and she grew very weak and thin 
and seemed in many ways older than her years. About the 
middle of December, she became too ill to do anything, 
tho up to this time she had made hundreds of picture 
puzzles for sick soldiers. Almost the last thing she did was 
to pack one of these for a sick friend. Altho carefully 
attended by her nurses and myself she grew rapidly worse, 
suffering greatly until the end." 

An account of Miss Morton's early life and entomological 
studies will be found in the March, 1917, number of this 

She was almost the last of that brilliant group of Ento- 
mologists who did so much for this fascinating study in the 
latter half of the past century. 

H. H. NEWCOMB, Pasadena, California. 


Insects, Mites, and Animal Parasites Mounted 

on Microscope Slides 

Sets for class use at the rate of 10 cts. per slide and up. 
Individual slides with authoritative determinations, 25 cts. 
per slide and up. Write for complete list and prices. 



I want moths of the genus Apantesis (Arctiidae), especially from South and 
West. Will pay cash, and offers of either one or many specimens will be greatly 
appreciated. Send list, with price. Can often use imperfect material. Especi- 
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same for me. 

DR. E. T. LEARNED, 46 Franklin St., FALL DRIVER, MASS. 



Excellent Material. Great variety. Apply for particulars and 





About 4000 specimens 560 species, many rare and not in New Jersey list, 
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Have also volumes VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XXII and XXIII 
of the Entomological News and other literature. 

No reasonable offer refused. 

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Catches of all orders of insects from the eastern and western slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains. Argynnis, nokomis + nitocris + apacheana cf $1.00 9 $2.00 
(see Vol. xxx.. No. 6,. Entomological News). A. charlotti, carpenteri, edwardsi, 
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Write for price lists: Ernest J. Oslar, 4189 Julian Street, Denver, Colo. 


From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkowskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba : 


Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

From Venezuela: 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dvnastes hercules 

From New Guinea: 

2000 Coleoptera 
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From Assam, India: 


Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) 

Armandia liclderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

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JUNE, 1920 


Vol XXXI. No. 6 



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E. T. CRESSON. JR., Associate Editor. 

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JUNE, 1920. 

No. 6. 


Skinner The Genus Pyrrhocalles Ma- 
bille with the Description of a New 
Form (Lep., Hesperidae) 151 

Crampton Remarks on Dr. MacGilli- 
vray's Paper entitled "The Eyes of 
Insects " 153 

Coding The Known Membracidae of 

Ecuador (Homop.) 155 

Marchand Thermotropism in Insects 


Chamberlin The Spider of Saltair 

Beach (Arach., Aran.) 165 

Ainslee Notes orr Gonatopus om- 
brodes, a Parasite of Jassids (Hy- 
men,. Homop.) 169 

Editorial Entomology in the United 

States National Museum 174 

New Chief of Bureau in New Jersey.. . . 174 
The Louisiana Entomological Society. . 175 
Skinner A New Variety of Lemonias 

(Lepid.) 175 

Skinner Pamphila californica (Lepid.) 

Banks A Rare Pamphlet (Hym., Lep., 

Neur.) 176 

Schaus Synonymy of Some Species 

of Thecla (Lepid.) 176 

Entomological Literature 177 

Obituary Franklin Dye 180 

The Genus Pyrrhocalles Mabille with the 
Description of a New Form (Lepidoptera, 


By HENRY SKINNER, Philadelphia. 

The genus Pyrrhocalles was described in the Genera In- 
sectorum (Hesperidae) in 1904. The only species mentioned 
is Pamphila antiqua Herrich-SchafTer and the localities given 
are the islands of Cuba and Haiti in the West Indies. We 
have in the collection of The Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia three forms: one from Haiti and San Domingo, 
one from Cuba, and one from Jamaica. The insect from 
Jamaica was described by Mr. William Schaus as Phemiades 

This is a perfectly good species and shows no tendency to 
gradation. W 7 e have four specimens of a Pyrrhocalles from 
eastern Cuba which I have always taken to be antiqua Herr.- 

Proc. U. S. Natl. Museum, 1902, 24, 440. 




Schaff., but they do not agree with the description of antiqua. 
The description of antiqua agrees perfectly with the speci- 
mens from Haiti, and Mr. Schaus suggests that Herrich- 
Schaffer may have had a Haitian specimen before him when 
he described antiqua. Mr. Schaus also says that his Cuban 
specimens all lack the small spots on the primaries and I 
think all his specimens were probably collected by himself 
in the Santiago region (Oriente). I have never seen any spe- 
cies of Pyrrhocalles from Porto Rico and I do not know whether 
there are any on that Island. Dr. C. T. Ramsden has a 
fine collection of Cuban Lepidoptera, and I wrote to him for 
information in regard to antiqua. His reply follows: 

"My specimens certainly have not the spots you have drawn as on the 
San Domingo specimens, but mine are all from the environs of Guan- 
tanamo. Possibly those from western Cuba may have the spots. The 
question is to get some from western Cuba and I shall try to get them. 
The Herrich-Schaffer type may have come from around Havana as Gund- 
lach did his first collecting in and about Matan/as Province. It is strange 
that Gundlach (Cont. Entomologia Cubana) does mention these spots, 
and probably did have a Cuban specimen before him. I have always 
been in doubt whether Gundlach made his descriptions from specimens 
before him and taken by himself, or whether he copied the Herrich-Schaffer 
descriptions. I am inclined to think, however, that he made his own 
descriptions from material before him. His descriptions in some cases 
are not quite complete, or at least not as complete as one should desire. 
I have never detected a mistake, nor noticed any kind of nature-faking. 
I notice he says he found the species only in western Cuba." 

To try and clear up the matter for the present I propose 
the name orientis for the unspotted form found in eastern 
Cuba. The type is a male from Guantanamo (San Carlos ?), 
Cuba, taken June 25, 1910, for which I am indebted to Dr. 
Ramsden, in the collection of The Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia. 

It will probably be useful to have the original descriptions 
as the works in which they are contained are not commonly 
in libraries. 

" Pamphila antiqua HS. One of the largest species, though with nar- 
rower wings than statins. Black brown, all wings as far as about the middle 
beautiful cinnamon-red, which color is finely divided by black ribs, on the 
anterior wing as far as branch 3 and on the back wing everywhere reaching 


over the middle, in cell 3-7 of the primaries forms a bow-shaped row of 
little spots, on its costal half, however, reaches only to the middle of the 
wing. Underneath the ground-color lighter, and the wing strongly cov- 
ered with cinnamon-colored scales, a bow-shaped row of still lighter spots 
behind the middle, one such spot on the middle. The spots of the under 
side lighter and larger than above. "f [Translation.] 

Dr. Ramsden kindly sent me the description of antiqiia by 

"Up to the present this species is known only from the Island of Cuba, 
western part. I do not know the larva or the chrysalis. I do not see any 
marked difference in the coloring of each sex. The insect is rare and visits 
the flowers. On the upper side the four wings are brown (dark brown), 
with their basal half of a pretty reddish cinnamon and a transverse line of 
spots of the same color on the anterior wings. Under side of anterior 
wings are dark brown with a band of spots which correspond to those on 
the upper side, this band of spots begins at the base of the anterior border 
then separating from it in a circle till it nearly reaches the anterior border. 
The posterior wings below are of ferruginous brown color with an arc- 
shaped series of cinnamon colored spots, as also a single central spot of 
this same color, all of which are barely visible. Between the wings 50 
mm." [Translation.] 

The Jamaican species is readily separated by the difference 
in the markings on the upper side of the secondaries. In 
the Cuban and Haitian forms the black color does not extend 
into the cinnamon color of the central area of the wing. 

Remarks on Dr. MacGillivray's Paper entitled 
"The Eyes of Insects." 

By G. C. CRAMPTON, PH.D., Massachusetts Agricultural 

College, Amherst, Mass. 

In a class of animals like the Insecta, which includes such a 
diverse and multitudinous array of forms ranging from the 
extremely ancient and primitive types to the more recent and 
highly modified ones, it is extremely difficult to discover any 
features which are peculiar to one of the larger subdivisions 
of the class, and which are characteristic of all of its members 
without exception. Although it may be much simpler to 
ignore these exceptions when they occur only in a few scattered 

t Corresp. Blatt Regensb. 1863, 17, p. 142. 

Gundlach, Entomologia Cubana, 1881, p. 150. 


instances, on the other hand, when such exceptions occur 
quite constantly throughout the members of an entire order, 
or similar larger subdivision of a group of insects, these ex- 
ceptions become of sufficient importance to merit a reference 
to them, especially in an article intended for general reference, 
such as Dr. MacGillivray's paper on "The Eyes of Insects."* 
I would therefore call attention to one or two statements in 
Dr. MacGillivray's article which might be misleading to 
anyone not familiar with the subject, although the main points 
of the article are quite correct, and are well taken. 

Dr. MacGillivray's claim that "the developing compound 
eyes of the adult can frequently be seen in the pupa of ento- 
metabolous insects and rarely in their larvae, but these stages 
are never provided with functional compound eyes" would 
appear to be too sweeping a statement, since exceptions to 
this rule occur quite constantly throughout the members of 
an entire order of insects, and a few scattered instances are 
to be found in other orders. Thus, all known larvae of in- 
sects belonging to the order Mecoptera have functional com- 
pound eyes, and in full-grown larvae of certain corethrid 
Diptera the compound eyes are so large and well-developed 
that it is difficult to believe that they are not functional. 

It is evident that Dr. MacGillivray means functional ocelli 
when he states that ocelli are present "only in the adults of 
exometabolous and entometabolous insects," but when one 
examines the ocelli of a young grasshopper, for example, they 
appear to be quite as capable of functioning as those of the 
adult. While it is possible that the statement that "func- 
tional ocelli are never present in nymphs, larvae, or pupae" 
may be correct, it would have been much more convincing 
if some proof had been presented in support of this view. 
As was mentioned above, the ocelli of a grasshopper nymph 
have every appearance of being as capable of functioning as 
those of the adult, and it is difficult to believe that the ocelli 
of full-grown nymphs of our larger Plecoptera, certain may- 
flies, etc., are wholly functionless. The ocelli of the latter 
forms are quite large, and would appear to be capable of dis- 
tinguishing light from darkness which is the function as- 

* ENT. NEWS, xxi, 97-100, April, 1920. 


cribed to the ocelli of adult insects (in addition to the func- 
tion of distinguishing objects close at hand) and if the ocelli 
of these nymphs are wholly functionless, the fact should be 
brought out by experiment before it is stated as though it 
had been conclusively proven. 

Dr. MacGillivray's statement that "Ocelli are never pres- 
ent in ametabolous insects" appears to be entirely too sweep- 
ing. All of the insects belonging to the ametabolous group 
Machiloidea (which is considered as an order by many ento- 
mologists) appear to have exceptionally large and well devel- 
oped ocelli. In fact, the ocelli of these insects are propor- 
tionately much larger than those of any other insects I know 
of, so that Dr. MacGillivray's statement in this matter can be 
accepted only with reservations.* 

In calling attention to these exceptions to the general state- 
ments made in Dr. MacGillivray's paper, I would not min- 
imize the value of the principal points brought out in his 
article, since in the main these points are quite correct, and 
are well taken. On the other hand, the exceptions to his 
general statements are in some cases of sufficient importance 
to merit mention, and should therefore be called to the atten- 
tion of students who are referred to Dr. MacGillivray's paper 
in their general reading, or of anyone who contemplates mak- 
ing a much-needed study of the different types of eyes found 
among insects. 

The known Membracidae of Ecuador (Homop.) 

By DR. FREDERICK W. CODING, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

(Continued from page 136) 

*Triquetra inermis Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 280. Hab.: Province of El 
Oriente, (Goodfellow) ; Macas, Province of Chimborazo, (Feyer). 

Triquetra obtusa Fowl. Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. (1894), p. 417. Hab.: 
Province of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

* In many ametabolous insects, as Dr. MacGillivray points out, simple 
eyes occur in the position which compound eyes occupy when present in 
higher insects. In the ametabolous group Machiloidea, however, there are 
well-developed compound eyes of the normal type, and in addition to 
these, the Machiloidea have three ocelli located on the frontal region as in 
higher insects. 


*Triquetra grossa Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 280. Hab.: Province of El 
Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

*Triquetra virgata Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 282. Hab.: Normandie, 
Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Triquetra angustata Fairm Rev. Mem. p. 282. Hab.: Normandie, 
Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Triquetra ustulata Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 281. Hab.: Normandie, 
Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Umbonia erecta n. sp. (See description on another page.) Hab.: 
Mangorisa River, Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Umbonia ataliba Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 278. Hab.: Canelas, Puyo, 
Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Umbonia spinosa Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 675. Hab.: Machala, Pro- 
vince of El Oro, (Rorer); Normandie, Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Hoplophora gigantea Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 269. Hab.: Province 
of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 

*Hoplophora vicina Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 270. Hab.: Quito, Pro- 
vince of Pichincha, (Walker); Cuenca, Province of Azuay, (Pachano); 
Province of El Oriente, (Goodfellow). 


*Membracis Jessica n. sp. (See description on another page.) Hab.: 
Canelas, Province of El Oriente; Lliquino, Province of Tungurahua; Yaru- 
quies, Province of Chimborazo, (Feyer). 

*Membracis mexicana Guer. Icon. Reg. Anim. p. 364, pi. 59, f. i. 
Hab.: Machala, Province of El Oro., (Rorer). 

*Membracis tectigera Oliv. Enc. Meth. vii, p. 668. Hab.: Mangor- 
isa River, Canelas, Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 

*Enchenopa ignidorsum Walk. List Horn. Brit. Mus., Suppl. p. 
124. Hab.: Machala, Province of El Oro, (Rorer). 

*Sphongophorus ball 1st a Germ. Silb. Rev. Ent. iii, p. 231. Hab.: 
Quevedo, Province of Los Rios, (Campos). 

*Bolbonota pictipennis Fairm. Rev. Mem. p. 258. Hab.: Machala, 
Province of El Oro, (Rorer). 

*Guayaquila roreriana n. sp. and gen. (See description on another 
page.) Hab.: Machala, Province of El Oro, (Rorer). 


Centrogonia flavo-limbata n. sp. 

Black, roughly punctured, furnished with numerous strong black hairs. 
Head black, with two short vertical lines above middle, a longer line 
reaching apex, a small dot near each eye, lateral borders and a dot on each 
side of apex bright yellow; eyes prominent, pale yellow. Pronotum with 
dorsum convex in front and lightly sinuate posteriorly, apex deflexed; 
posterior process reaching tip of abdomen, lengthily deeply and broadly 


compressed on each side from humeral angles halfway to apex; furnished 
with a strong percurrent median carina; a small tubercle and spot behind 
each eye, anterior border and a dot on each side just above it, a spot above 
each humeral angle, anterior two-thirds of lateral borders, and apex, yellow; 
elsewhere obscurely yellow mottled. Below, the chest and abdomen, 
femora except apices, black; apices of femora, and tibiae except apices 
sordid yellow; apices of tibiae, and the tarsi brown. Long. 5 mm.; lat. 
2 mm. 

Habitat: Pifo, Province of Pichincha, 2,588 meters, (Cam- 
pos). Described from one female. 

Differs from its congeners by the black color, yellow lateral 
borders, and strong percurrent carina. The apical fourth of 
the tegmina is wanting. 


Ocelli equi-distant from the eyes and each other. Dorsum 
of pronotum moderately elevated, with numerous irregular 
longitudinal carinae, and bearing two large more or less quad- 
rangular elevations, the first just behind humeral angles, the 
second at middle; humeral angles developed into large flat au- 
ricular processes; posterior process covering clavus and a 
small part of corium. Tegmina with distinct veins; basal 
half of corium coriaceous and punctured, emitting three 
longitudinal veins equi-distant from each other and costa, 
space between interior ulnar vein and interior border occupy- 
ing half its area, third apical cell triangular, petiolate, one 
discoidal cell. Wings with four apical cells, second subtri- 
angular, petiolate, third long, broad, sessile. Tibiae not 
broadened; tarsi of equal length. 

The venation is nearly identical with that of Oxygonia 
chrysura Fairm., while the general facies is that of a Tele- 

Genotype: Ecuatoriana bactriana n. sp. 

Ecuatoriana bactriana n. sp. 

Black, mottled with yellow, pronotum with numerous irregular longi- 
tudinal carinae and others passing to the superior border of dorsal eleva- 
tions; median longitudinal carina strong, percurrent. Head triangular, 
apex lightly produced. Pronotum convex in front; dorsal elevations 
with superior borders lightly rounded, front and hind borders perpendi- 
cular the latter of the second elevation lightly sinuate; sinus between ele- 


vations about equal in size to the second; apex reaching tips of tegmina; 
anterior third of lateral borders, a broad band behind second dorsal ele- 
vation and other irregular marks, yellow. Tegmina with basal half of 
corium black mottled with yellow, extremities including first four apical 
cells smoky, fifth cell large, subtriangular; discoidal cells long, very nar- 
row, base formed by a transverse venule between ulnar veins before middle, 
apex suddenly enlarged and curved to reach fifth apical cell. Below black, 
tarsi pale. Long. 10 mm.; lat. inter hum. 6 mm.; altitude of elevations 5 mm. 

Habitat: Zunas, Province of Chimborazo, 2,000 meters, 
(Feyer). Described from one female. 

Tomogonia camposiana n. sp. 

Head entirely yellow, eyes prominent, pearly color. Front half of pro- 
notum bright yellow except as follows: two spots above each eye, humeral 
horns, a broad stripe passing from humeral angles above lateral borders 
for one-third their length, a broad longitudinal median stripe originating 
some distance from base of pronotum, and posterior half of posterior pro- 
notal process, shining black; lateral borders from humeral angles half way 
to apex broadly pale yellow; apex far surpassing tip of abdomen, but not 
quite reaching apices of tegmina. Tegmina transparent yellow, with a 
broad stripe extending from base to apex of corium, interior border of cla- 
vus.and nearly all of apical cells nearly black. Wings with four apical 
cells, second small, sessile, fourth very small. Body below yellow, sides 
of abdomen splashed with fuscous; ovipositor black; legs yellow, tips of 
posterior tibiae and of tarsi black. Long. iomm.; lat. inter hum. 5 mm. 

Habitat: Posorja, Province of Guayas, (Campos). Des- 
cribed from three females. This species is nearest to vittati- 
pennis Fairm., from Guatemala. 

Named in honor of Prof. Francisco Campos R. 

Umbonia erecta n. sp. 

Very similar to ataliba Fairm., from which it differs in the median and 
lateral lines being black none of which pass to apex of dorsal horn which is 
reddish testaceous; the dorsal horn is long, very slender and erect and 
placed behind humeral angles. Tegmina pitchy at base, with all longi- 
tudinal veins piceous, cells transparent yellow, apex of corium darker. 
Femora and tibiae testaceous, the latter with a fuscous stripe. Otherwise 
as in ataliba. Long. 15 mm.; lat. inter hum. 8 mm.; alt. cornu. 7 mm. 

Habitat: Rio Mangorisa, Province of El Oriente, (Feyer). 
Described from two slightly mutilated females. 

Membracis Jessica n. sp. 

Nearly identical in form and size with foliata, from which it differs in 
being yellow with a broad vertical band extending from lateral angles to 
middle of dorsum, and a large quadrangular spot before apex of posterior 
process, sooty black. Long. 15 mm.; alt. 8 mm. 


Habitat: Canelos, Lliquino, and Yaruquies, Province of 
El Oriente, (Feyer). Described from four females. 

Dedicated to the memory of my wife, one of the victims of 

yellow fever. 


Pronotum armed with a compressed porrect horn in front, 
destitute of lateral carinae but with a percurrent median 
carina; dorsum flat, broad at humeral angles, gradually at- 
tenuated to an obtuse apex which reaches tip of abdomen, 
but shorter than apices of tegmina. Generally golden silky 
pubescent. Tegmina similar in shape and venation to those 
seen in the genus Membracis. Wings with four apical cells, 
second broad and quadrangular, fourth minute. Front and 
middle tibiae broadly dilated, short; posterior legs three 
times the length of front legs, hind tibiae with strong sharp 
spines. Facies of Aconophora. 

Genotype: Guayaqnila roreriana n. sp. 

Guayaquila roreriana n. sp. 

Uniform cinnamon brown, silky pubescent. Front horn with a com- 
pressed broad edge, not pointed but rounded at apex, convex between 
superior and inferior borders longitudinally, with a median longitudinal 
carina, but destitute of lateral carinae. Tegmina semi-opaque uniform 
brown. Body below brown, posterior edges of abdominal segments and 
anal segment paler. Tibiae testaceous, spines of hind tibiae black. Long 
9 mm.; lat. 3 mm. 

Habitat: Machala, Province of El Oro, (Rorer). Described 
from one male of which the head is wanting. 

This species is named in honor of Prof. J. B. Rorer. 

I desire to express my gratitude to Professors Campos, 
Rorer and Pachano, and Messrs. Goodfellow and Feyer for 
a multitude of favors in my endeavor to make the entomology 
of Ecuador better known. 

Thermotropism in Insects. 


While the phenomena of helio- and phototropism have 
been extensively studied, concerning thermotropic reactions 
we have practically no data. The consequences of uneven 


heating on the plasmodia of Myxomycetes have been studied 
by Stahl (1884), who observed that the plasmodia will move 
when opportunity is offered, from water of 7C. to water of 
30. In accordance with this reaction, the plasmodia of 
Fuligo septica will migrate in the fall, in consequence of the 
cooling of the air, several feet deep into the warmer layers 
of the tan bark where it hibernates. In the spring the move- 
ment is in the opposite direction, towards the now more 
strongly heated superficial layers. 

For protoza, M. Mendelssohn (1895, 1902 a, 6) has des- 
cribed, under the name of Thermotropism, the observation 
that Paramecia gather at a definite end of a trough when 
these ends have different temperatures. In the words of 
J. Loeb (1918): "the organisms were put into a flat trough 
resting on tubes through which water was flowing. When 
the water in the tube had a temperature of 38 at one end of 
the trough, while the tube at the opposite end was perfused 
by water of 26 the organisms all gathered at the latter end. 
If then the temperature of the water in the two tubes was 
reversed the organisms went to the other end of the trough. 
If one end had the temperature of 10, the other of 25, all 
went to the latter end." Mendelssohn's observations form 
the only case of thermotropism mentioned by Jennings (1906) 
and by Loeb. The latter author is of the opinion that in 
this case we are in all probability not dealing with a tropistic 
reaction but with a collecting of organisms due to the me- 
chanism of motion described for Paramecium by Jennings. 
When these organisms come suddenly from a region of mod- 
erate temperature to one of lower temperature, the activity 
of their cilia is transitorily reversed, but owing to the asym- 
metrical arrangement of their cilia they do not go back in 
the old direction but deviate to one side. This can lead to 
a collecting of Paramecia such as Mendelssohn described. 

No cases of thermotropism in higher organisms are men- 
tioned by recent authors, and this should seem astonishing, 
since the effect of changing temperatures must be universal 
and ubiquitous. However, a tropistic action of heat upon 
the organism may be obscured by the direct action of tem- 
perature upon all life-processes. 


Among insects, cockroaches are known to prefer warm 
places, and so undoubtedly do numerous other insects. In 
fact, an attraction by heat must be quite general, and is 
probably found at the bottom of such instincts as that of 
ants to bring their offspring to the surface of the earth when 
the stone covering the colony is heated by the sun's rays. 
Subterranean larvae also probably move upward and down- 
ward with regard to temperature. While roaches and domes- 
tic crickets seek the heat of the stove, the field crickets, 
ground beetles, etc., are found in places exposed to the full 
sunlight. Hairy caterpillars, like those of Malacosoma, 
seek the sunshine and apparently derive advantages from 
being heated by the sun's rays, but whether they are attracted 
by a purely thermal stimulus is doubtful (Hewlett, 1910). 

Graber (1882), to whom we owe so many fundamental 
observations concerning the function of sense-organs in lower 
animals, seems also to be the first to have noticed tempera- 
ture reactions of insects. According to this author, who 
experimented with the cockroach Blatta germanica, the an- 
tennae of Blatta are more sensitive to certain extremes of 
temperature than are, for instance, the lips and finger-tips 
of man, which are the most sensitive parts of the human body 
as regards temperature. 

If a specimen of the Blatta is blinded previously to the 
experiment, and then its antenna approached with a red-hot 
needle or with the point of a very cold object, the stimuli 
thus afforded will produce an effect even at a distance from 
which the human skin does not perceive any sensation, the 
effect on the animal being that the affected antenna is with- 

Graber's observations show that there is in certain insects 
a highly developed sense of temperature, but the behavior 
of Blatta in his experiments cannot be called a tropism in 
the ordinary sense, which would involve oriented movements 
in which the orientation of the animal is affected by its 

Observations on what appeared to be a negative thermo- 
tropism, were made by the writer (Marchand, 1917) on the 


wingless Tipulid or snow-fly, Chionea alpina Bezzi, an insect 
which habitually lives on the snow, the species in question 
in the high mountains of Switzerland. If Chionea was kept 
in a glass tray, about one and one-half feet long, and covered 
with wire netting and with two glass-plates in such a way 
that the middle portion, at least one third of the whole length, 
was covered only by wire netting, the two ends in addition 
by the glass plates, and if the cage was oriented so that one 
end of the trough was directed towards the open air (of a 
porch) at about freezing temperature, the other end towards 
the heated room, the insect would come to rest at the under- 
side of the free portion of the wire netting and at the ex- 
treme border of this free portion in the direction of the open 
air. Inasfar as it refused to go under the glass plate, positive 
phototropism (heliotropism) seemed to be excluded. If 
the cage was turned 180 the insect assumed the correspond- 
ing position on the other side of the tray. In addition, it 
could be observed that Chionea avoided the approaching 
finger at some distance, and that this effect could be increased 
if the hand was heated by means of an electric light bulb. 
In this case, the insect could be driven, by merely approach- 
ing it with the hand, under the glass-plate-covered portion 
of the tray. The negative thermotropism seemed stronger 
in the light than in the shade. If the animal was running 
over the snow, approaching it with the finger was sufficient 
to cause it to change its course but in this case an optic re- 
action is not excluded. 

More characteristic cases of thermotropism are found among 
mosquitoes. Concerning mosquitoes, Hewlett (1910) was 
the first to observe a positive thermotropism as underlying 
the biting instinct. This observer carried out a series of pre- 
liminary experiments and found that shed blood or human 
sweat did not attract the females of Culex fatigans or Stegomyia 
scutellaris any more than water. On experimenting with the 
effects of heat, however, it was at once found that the fe- 
males of Stegomyia scutellaris were readily attracted by the 
hot air radiating from a test-tube containing hot water; the 
male mosquitoes, on the contrary, paid no attention to it. 


As a result of a number of similar experiments he concludes 
that (a) the bite of a mosquito is a reaction to the stimulus 
provided by a hot surface, (b) that the mosquito is attracted 
to the hot surface mainly by the warm air rising from it, 
and (c) that the strength of the reaction is, within certain 
limits, proportional to the differential temperature of the 
surface, i. e., the difference between its temperature and the 
general air temperature at the time, and that this difference 
must be positive. 

Hewlett's experiments were not known to the writer when 
in the fall of 1915 some observations were made on mosquitoes 
of the species Anopheles ptinctipennis Say, which confirm 
the results obtained by Hewlett in Stegomyia, and render it 
probable that the basic tropism underlying the bloodsucking 
instinct is a thermotropism (Marchand, 1918). If female 
adults of A. punctipennis were placed in a lamp-chimney 
which on one end was closed by a covering made of cheese- 
cloth, and at the other end was brought in contact with a 
heated glass-plate, with a sheet of filter paper between serv- 
ing as a foothold, the mosquitoes were seen immediately to 
go to that end of the lamp-chimney where the glass plate was 
and to alight on the filter paper. Here they began to attack 
the surface with their probosces, trying to bite through the 
glass plate. In fact they could be seen bending their pro- 
bosces as a result of their strong efforts to pierce the surface. 
They consequently reacted to the heated glass-plate in the 
same way as if it were the skin of a vertebrate host. This 
experiment was repeated with different sets of mosquitoes, 
usually five or six at a time, and always with the same result. 
The number of specimens refusing to attack the glass-plate 
v seemed not greater than that usually observed of specimens 
refusing to accept blood food when offered. Males showed 
the same reaction but much less strongly; in this respect 
my observation differs from Hewlett's. Male Anopheles 
are also slightly attracted by human skin but are not able 
to pierce it. On the other hand, hibernating females of 
Culex did not show even a trace of this thermotropic reaction. 
These mosquitoes, however, also persistently refused to take 


blood food. This fact is of some interest when compared 
with the behavior of Chionea. While Chionea as a winter 
insect is normally negatively thermotropic, in the mosquitoes 
the thermotropic reaction appears to be absent in the winter 
months, when the insects cannot fly about and therefore 
cannot obtain blood food. More observations, however, are 
necessary to gain a complete insight into these phenomena. 

Concerning other bloodsucking insects, so far no data are 
available. Hog lice, Haematopinus stiis, failed to give a 
thermotropic reaction but this appears not astonishing since 
these insects live permanently on their host, and being wingless, 
would hardly be able to find the host by means of a tropism. 

A distinction should be made between a mere aggregation 
of insects in a definite temperature-optimum and a true 
thermotropism in which there is an oriented movement in 
the direction of the source of heat, or away from it. Olive 
C. Lodge (1918), found that house flies will congregate around 
a Bunsen burner in a definite circle, the size of which varied 
according to the distribution of the heat. This was tested 
by placing larger or smaller pieces of asbestos over the flame, 
when the flies arranged themselves in larger or smaller circles 
respectively. The temperature of these circles was very 
constant, varying between 42 and 44C. If the gas was 
turned off the flies came nearer the burner and climbed up 
the stem of it, but when it was no longer warm they dispersed 
in all directions. Heated baits were visited most frequently 
when their temperature was at 38-48C. The impression 
is gained that the flies prefer a definite optimum of tempera- 
ture, but it remains to be seen whether there is any specific 
reaction to heat, as is apparently the case in the mosquitoes. 

The problem, what particular sense-organs of the thermo- 
tropic insects are affected by the radiation of heat from ob- 
jects producing the reaction, seems not yet entirely solved. 
According to Graber (1882), whose experiments were men- 
tioned, the sense of heat (Warmesinn) is developed, .at least 
in Blatta, chiefly in the antennae, and to a lesser degree in the 
cerci (Analborsten). The functional interpretation of the 
well-known specific nerve endings of the antennae has there- 


fore to reckon with the fact, that these appendages are not 
only organs of the tactile and olfactory sense but also of the 
sense of heat perception. It may be of interest in this con- 
nection that, at the moment of biting, the Anopheles mosquito 
will lift the two long palpi at right angles to the proboscis; 
these might be supposed to be the seat of heat-perception 
but according to Graber the function of the palpi is olfactory 
and this even to a higher degree than in the antennae. 


GRABER, V. 1882. Die chordotonalen Sinnesorgane und das Gehor 
der Insekten. Zeitschr. f. mikrosk. Anat. Vol. XXI, p. 132-133. 

HOWLETT, F. M. 1910. The Influence of Temperature upon the 
Biting of Mosquitoes. Parasitology, Vol. Ill, pp. 479-484. See also 
Patton, W. S. and Cragg, F. W., A Textbook of Medical Entomology, 
London, Madras and Calcutta, 1913. 

JENNINGS, H. S. 1906. Behavior of Lower Organisms, pp. 70-72. 

LODGE, OLIVE C. 1918. An Examination of the Sense Reactions of 
Flies. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. IX, Part 2, pp. 91-176. 

LOEB, J. 1918. Forced Movements, Tropisms and Animal Conduct. 
Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co., p. 155. 

MARCHAND, W. 1917. Notes on the Habits of the Snow-Fly (Chi- 
onea). Psyche, Vol. XXIV, No. 5, p. 142-153. 

ID. 1918. First Account of a Thermotropism in Anopheles punctipennis, 
with Bionomic Observations. Psyche, Vol. XXV, No. 6, p. 130-135. 

MENDELSSOHN, M. 1895. LTeber den Thermotropismus einzelliger 
Organismen. Arch. ges. Physiol. IX, 1-27. 

ID. 1902 a. Recherches sur 1'interference de la thermotaxie avec d' 
autres tactismes et sur le mecanisme du movement thermotactique. 
Jour. Physiol. et Pathol. generate, IV, 475-488. 

ID. 1902 b. Quelques considerations sur la nature et le role biologique 
de la thermotaxie. J Physiol. et Path generale, IV, 489-496. 

STAHL. 1884. Zur Biologic der Myxomyceten. Botan. Zeitg. See 
also O. Hertwig, Allgem. Biologic, 2. Auflage, p. 147. 

The Spider of Saltair Beach (Arach., Aran.) 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIX, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

About ten years ago the newspapers of Salt Lake City 
gave considerable space to accounts of what was characterized 
as "a plague of spiders" at the Saltair Beach resort, Great 
Salt Lake. At that time spiders were recorded as occurring 


in countless numbers in and over all the buildings at the resort, 
stretching their webs on every available support. Each 
morning the attendants, armed with brooms, would endeavor 
to clear the webs and spiders from the dressing-rooms and 
other more used parts of the buildings; and each succeeding 
morning webs and spiders had reappeared as if by magic. 
The pavilion at this resort stands over the water on piles a 
considerable distance from shore; and the extensive spaces 
beneath the floor of the pavilion and on the piling in general 
harbored a seemingly inexhaustible supply of spiders which 
each night swarmed over the buildings, seeking unoccupied 
sites for their webs. For a year or two the plan of gathering 
and destroying the cocoons late in the season was tried in an 
effort to rid the place of the pest. Cocoons by the bushel 
were gathered by the attendants working systematically 
in and about the building and from boats beneath the pavilion. 
This is said to have relieved the situation. Evidently, how- 
ever, the efforts were later abandoned; for, upon visiting 
the beach in 1918 and again in 1919, I found the spiders 
holding undisputed sway in their wonted places, they and 
their webs occurring everywhere. People have apparently 
become used to the sight and correspondingly tolerant of 
these feared but inoffensive creatures. 

It is popularly believed that several kinds of spiders occur 
at Saltair, but I observed only one. Of this I collected several 
hundred specimens. In this species the males, as often, are 
formed differently from the females, are of a much lighter 
color, and would, by the layman, naturally be regarded as a 
distinct kind. The light abdominal markings, normally 
yellowish in color, are not uncommonly bright red, partic- 
ularly in the males, giving thus the "red spider," commonly 
accounted as a third kind, which an employee at the beach 
assured me was especially dangerous! 

The spider is one of the orb-web weavers (Argiopidae), 
and belongs to the genus Neoscona, commonly included in 
Aranea. the Epeira of most earlier writers. In Neoscona it 
falls in the group in which the males have the coxae of the 
fourth legs armed beneath with a conical process. Hereto- 


fore this group was known to include but two, or perhaps 
three, American species, namely oaxacensis (Keyserling) of 
Mexico and Central America and vertebrate (McCook) of the 
southwestern United States. In the Biologia Centrali- 
Americana F. O. Picard-Cambridge describes a species coni- 
fera from Mexico and Central America, and places vertebrata 
in synonomy with oaxacensis; but a study of material from 
the type locality of vertebrata (San Diego, California) and 
elsewhere in the southwest shows that vertebrata agrees in 
all details except in size with conifera as described by the 
author mentioned, and differs correspondingly from oaxa- 
censis. Conifera is thus probably a synonym of vertebrata. 
The Saltair Beach spider is close in general structure to these 
forms; but it is an obviously distinct species, and one which 
seems never to have been named. It is a much more darkly 
colored species than vertebrata, with relatively longer legs, 
and differs in structural details as indicated in the description 
below. Thus far it has not been taken anywhere excepting 
at the Saltair Beach. The types of this species are in the 
collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Neoscona salaeria sp. nov. 

9 . Adult females in full color have the integument of carapace and 
legs from mahogany to black, without any distinct markings. Sternum 
black with a narrow median longitudinal stripe of yellow. Labium and 
endites black with anterior and mesal borders, respectively, pale. The 
carapace and sternum clothed with gray hair, the legs with gray and 
brown hairs. Abdomen in general blackish, showing above a narrow 
median longitudinal stripe, much as in oaxacensis, formed by numerous 
small yellow dots but with no spots or marks of yellow as large as those 
occurring in vertebrata or oaxacensis; on the lateral parts of the dorsum, 
especially anteriorly, similar small yellow dots may occur in varying 
numbers, the median stripe sometimes dissolving in a larger anterior area 
formed by such dots. Very often the dorsal yellow markings are almost 
wholly obliterated. Venter with four yellow spots, two just caudad of 
the epigastric furrow and two in front of the spinnerets. Abdomen 
clothed with shorter gray hairs and longer, more sparse setae of brownish 
color. Younger and freshly molted females are light colored, with dis- 
tinct markings like those of the males, a similar red color often showing 
on the abdomen. 

1 68 


[June, '20 

Abdomen elongate oval. Femora of legs armed beneath with two 
widely-separated series of spines, the spines of these series on the anterior 
legs shorter and more slender than those of the anterior and caudal sur- 
faces, and the spines of the anterior row more numerous than those of the 
caudal. Scape of epigynum geniculate at the beginning of the distal 
"spoon," the proximal division long, in profile a little curved, much as in 
vertebrata. In ventral view the scape is seen to be narrow, not at all or 
but weakly clavately expanding, not conspicuously so as it does in the 
other species, and it does not show the lateral lobes or tubercles at the 
sides of the main process. See figs. I and 2. 

Neoscona salaeria sp nov. 9 
Fig. i. Ventral view, and Fig. 2. Lateral view of epigynum. (Setae not represented.) 

o*. In general obviously lighter in color than the female. Carapace 
fulvous to brown, with a median longitudinal line and a broader band 
above the lateral border on each side from choclate-colored to black. 
Sternum as in the female. Legs fulvous or brown, each tibia with a broad 
black annulus at each end and the metatarsus with a narrow annulus at 
proximal end and a broader and more distinct one near middle and at 
distal end, of which commonly only the distal one is distinct. Tarsi 
darker distally. Legs darkening and the annulations becoming more 
obscure in older specimens, and brighter and more strongly marked in 
newly-molted ones. Abdomen with the same coloration as -in the female 
but the yellow pattern typically more strongly developed. Often the 
light markings of the dorsum of the abdomen are bright red in whole or 
in part instead of yellow. The yellow spots on the venter often connected 
along each side. 


Ventral spines of femora of legs more strongly developed than in the 
female. Tibia of second legs beneath with the usual two stout basal 
spines, with no group of smaller ones distad of them such as found in 
oaxacensis; on the anterior face a double and in part triple series of short 
stout spines which are typically from thirty to forty in number. Coxae 
of fourth legs each with a prominent conical apophysis beneath. Coxae 
of first legs with the usual chitinous hook. The median apophysis (clavis) 
of the bulb of the male palpus formed almost exactly as in vertebrata, the 
larger lobe not expanded at all distally. 

cf. Length to 14 mm. Length of cephalothorax 7 mm.; width 6 mm. 
Length of tib. + pat. I, II mm.; of tib. + pat. IV 9.2 mm. 

9. Length to 15 mm. Length of cephalothorax 7.4 mm.; width 6.2 
mm. Length of tib. + pat. I 10.5 mm.; of tib. + pat. IV 10 mm. 

Notes on Gonatopus ombrodes, a Parasite 
of Jassids (Hymen., Homop.)* 

By C. N. AINSLIE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

On July 10, 1910, in Fort Collins, Colorado, a jassid, a 
female Cicadula 6-notata, flew to a lamp by which the writer 
was seated and attracted attention by her peculiar behavior. 
She seemed deformed, walked jerkily and was continually 
flipping her wings. A lens disclosed a small striped sac pro- 
jecting from or attached to the abdomen between the fourth 
and fifth segments. This jassid was captured and mounted 
in balsam for future study. 

Since that date a number of leaf hoppers aflicted in a 
similar manner have been taken in various parts of the middle 
west and a few adult parasites have been reared from these. 
The object of the present paper is to offer some facts that 
have been gathered regarding the habits of these parasites. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. S. A. Rohwer, a systematist 
of the Bureau of Entomology, for a determination of the 
parasite and for helpful criticisms of this paper, and to Mr. 
D. M. DeLong of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, who kindly 
determined the jassid hosts concerned in this study. 

It may be said at the outset that while this parasite may 
possibly attack jassids more or less promiscuously, regard- 

*Published by permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 


less of species, no case has come under the observation of 
the writer in which any other species of jassid than this 
particular Cicadula has been taken with the sac of Gonatopus 
ombrodes attached. Perkins records G. ombrodes as reared 
from Deltocephalus sp. at Columbus, Ohio. Farther than 
this, no data are at present available to the writer regarding 
the range of victims attacked by this parasite. 

The sub-family Dryininae, or Anteoninae, to which the para- 
site under consideration belongs, is a most interesting Mutilloid 
group of the Proctotrypidae. This group, recently has been 
most admirably treated both from a taxonomic and biologic 
point of view by Mr. F. A. Fenton.* Its members confine 
their attacks to certain homopterous insects belonging to 
the Fulgoridae, Jassidae and Membracidae. In most cases 
the larvae of these parasites live partly within the body of 
the host and partly within felt-like sacs that project between 
the abdominal plates of their victims. One most peculiar 
feature of this group of parasites is the chelate anterior tarsi 
with which the females of nearly all the species are armed, 
a character which, according to Ashmead, is found nowhere 
else among the Hymenoptera. This bit of apparatus, which 
closely resembles the finger and thumb of man or the oppos- 
ing claws of raptorial birds, only much more viciously hooked 
and spined, proves a most successful and formidable weapon 
when employed in the capture of prey. And it must be borne 
in mind that this grasping appendage is supplemented by 
lightning-like activity on the part of its owner, making her 
more than a match for even the nimble jassids. 

Comparatively little attention seems to have been given 
to this group of insects until recently. In Europe certain 
species have been given detailed study. 

It is not an uncommon thing to find a Cicadula carrying 
two dryinid sacs, one on each side, attached to its abdomen. 
Usually these sacs are of equal size, indicating that the two 
eggs were deposited during the same attack. Occasionally 
one sac is noticeably larger than the other. More than two 

*The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol. XVIII, pp. 177, 243 and 285. Num- 
erous figures. 


have never been found by the writer on a single individual 
of this species. It is more than probable that in such cases 
of double infestation one or both of the guests must perish, 
since it would be manifestly impossible for one small jassid 
to afford nourishment sufficient to carry two equally rapacious 
larvae to maturity. The survival of one larva in such a 
case would perhaps account satisfactorily for the disappear- 
ance of the other. 

The dryinid sac referred to throughout this paper is rather 
short oval in form, is usually quite symmetrical and when 
mature measures about one millimeter, in its major axis, the 
minor axis a trifle less. It is light brown in color and is 
barred transversely by several, three to five, narrow bands of 
darker brown that give it the appearance of having true seg- 
ments. It has a dull surface, finely rugulose, projects from 
behind the second, third or fourth abdominal segment and is 
found most often on the left side of the abdomen although 
they occur on either side. 

Adult G. ombrodes have been both reared and taken with a net. 
Only a few have been captured in the open and these on lawns 
where parasitized jassids abounded. It is probable that 
their activity and watchfulness would ordinarily forbid cap- 
ture in the open, since they would naturally escape by falling 
to the ground on any sign of disturbance such as would be 
produced by the approach of a sweep net. Males are very 
uncommon and the females must outnumber them at least ten 
to one, judging from rearing results obtained by the writer. 

It has been learned during these studies that in every case 
it appears to be the female jassids that fall victims to the 
attacks of the ombrodes. This may be due in some measure 
to the superior agility of the male jassids in eluding the 
spring of the parasite or because the females, being generally 
larger, are preferred as hosts because more likely to success- 
fully nourish the young larvae. Nymphs so far as known 
are free from attack, since only adult females have been 
taken carrying the sacs. 

These parasites are rare during the early summer and only 
begin to multiply towards autumn. They are seldom seen 


before July. One parasitized jassid was taken by the writer 
June i, 1915, the earliest date recorded during these observa- 

Only the mature larval and the adult stages of the parasite 
are treated in this paper, since opportunities to acquire in- 
formation regarding the appearance of the egg, time of in- 
cubation and the various instars of the insect have been 
impossible during the progress of fragmentary studies. 


August 6, 1914, a series of infested Cicadula 6-notata, all 
females, was captured and placed in a large tube vial with a 
supply of fresh grass blades. Only those were chosen that 
bore well-matured sacs as very poor success had been pre- 
viously had in rearing parasitic larvae in captivity. Even 
when well supplied with abundant food the jassids would 
frequently die in the course of a few hours whea confined in 
a cage, and when taken with small sacs would never survive 
to their maturity. 

From this lot thus caged a number of dryinid larvae issued 
during the first day, wandered a while about the containing 
vial and finally established themselves on grass blades or in 
corners where they constructed cocoons. In order to secure 
more definite data, two jassids with single sacs in an advanced 
stage were then selected and placed in small shell vials with 
bits of fresh grass. These vials were kept under constant 
observation under a binocular with thirty diameter power. 

For an hour or more these jassids were very uneasy, con- 
stantly on the move, flipping their wings and continually 
trying to disengage the sacs by kicking at them with their 
spiny hind tibiae. This nervousness becomes more pro- 
nounced as the parasitic larva nears maturity as jassids with 
small sacs seldom manifest distress in any manner. 

At 10 a. m. a perpendicular rent or slit was noticed in the 
sac attached to one of these prisoners, and the white body 
of the larva in violent agitation was visible through this 
rupture. The opening was in the rear or pouch-like end of 
the sac, at right angles to the brown bands and was plainly 


the result of the muscular contortions of the larva within. 
The membrane composing the sac seemed very tough and 
leathery but gave way slowly to the compelling force inside. 
When the delivery first began the jassid seized a grass blade 
firmly with its feet but soon let go and raced down the tube. 
It then forced its beak into another blade and with its claws 
took a firm grip that was never relaxed until death came nearly 
three hours later. In every case where an emergence has 
been witnessed, the host has always died during the final 
act, when the larva leaves its victim. And in each instance 
life continues with strange persistence to the very farewell 
move of the destroyer. 

The struggles of the larva for freedom continued without 
cessation for an hour. At 12:15 it became quiet for thirty 
minutes, possibly for rest, withdrew into the host's body and 
the rent in the sac nearly closed. At intervals now the 
jassid moved its legs feebly. At 12:45 the larva again be- 
came active and for forty-five minutes labored most strenu- 
ously until it gained its entire freedom. Not all larvae are 
so fortunate for unless conditions are exactly right at this 
stage emergence is checked and death ensues. 

The last few minutes were marked with extraordinary 
exertion. Peristaltic waves ran cephalad in rapid succession 
and each one served to propel the body an infinitesimal dis- 
tance farther out. It will be understood that emergence 
was backward, for the tapering head was the last thing to 
appear. Even when finally free it seemed unwilling to leave 
its happy home for it remained for some little time thrusting 
its head again and again into the abdominal cavity of the 
jassid through the remains of the now much tattered sac. 
After about fifteen minutes of hesitation of this sort it moved 
away from the dead body of its host and began to travel. 

The progress of the larva is peculiar. Its caudal end is 
first slightly advanced cephalad, then a constriction pro- 
gresses anteriorly, this being followed in quick sequence by 
others, all this action tending to propulsion forward. Loco- 
motion is certainly energetic even if not at all rapid. 

(To be Continued) 



Entomology in the United States National Museum. 

The combined report of the Committee of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America on Entomology in the National 
Museum and of the Museum Committee of the American 
Association of Economic Entomologists, by its publication in 
Science for March 5, 1920, and elsewhere, has now been before 
the entomological public for three months. Doubtless, ento- 
mologists approve the report. The proceedings of the St. 
Louis meeting (December 29 and 30, 1919) of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America, at which the Committee made its 
report, have been published since the preceding number of 
the NEWS was closed for printing. Those proceedings state 
that the National Research Council was to "be informed 
of the [presumably entomological] needs of the National 
Museum and their consideration and support be urged." 
Although we have no hint as to the action that will be taken 
by the National Research Council, we look to it for a favor- 
able report. The Council's support alone will hardly accom- 
plish the desired results and we imagine that much individual 
work in gaining the attention and aid of Senators and Repre- 
sentatives will be necessary. To be most effective these ef- 
forts should be completely organized and systematized by 
the Society and the Association named above. 

Notes and News 


New Chief of Bureau in New Jersey. 

We offer our congratulations to a valued contributor to the NEWS, 
Mr. Harry B. Weiss, who, on May i, was appointed Chief of the Bureau 
of Statistics and Inspection in the New Jersey Department of Agriculture, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Franklin Dye. 



The Louisiana Entomological Society. 

A note announcing the formation on March 5, at New Orleans, of a 
society under this name appeared in Science for April 16, 1920. It has 
a membership of about twenty-five and is domiciled at the Natural History 
Building of the Louisiana State Museum. The President is Edward 
Foster, the Secretary-Treasurer E. T. Holloway. 

A New Variety of Lemonias (Lepidoptera). 
Lemonias palmeri marginalis n. var. 

The wings above have an orange marginal border about I mm. wide 
and the ground-color of the wings is lighter than in palmeri and the white 
spots contrast strongly with the background. This variety has quite a 
different facies from the species. 

Type male and paratypes male and female from Acme, California, Aug- 
ust 8, 1919 (Morgan Hebard). Types in the collection of The Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. HENRY SKINNER. 

Pamphila californica (Lepidoptera). 

Pamphila californica Wright was described and figured in Wright's 
Butterflies of the West Coast, 1905, p. 241, pi. 31, f. 423, b, c. This is 
one of the numerous varieties of Pamphila comma. 

Another Pamphila cahfornica was previously described and it is a diffi- 
cult one to make out from the description. The author of the species 
is P. Mabille, Bull. Comptes-Rendus, Soc. Ent. Belg. 1883, p. Ixviii. 
This translation of the description will probably be of interest to the 
students of the Rhopalocera in California: 
"Pamphila californica n sp. 

Wings brownish, mixed with fulvous near the costa, with a thick oblique 
fuscous streak; end of cellule fuscous; fringe grayish. Wings beneath 

"This species greatly resembles P. linea of Europe. Superiors brown, 
with bright fulvous spots on the costa and around a thick black streak 
running obliquely from the extremity of the cellule to the inner border. 

"The end of the cellule is somewhat darker brown. Beneath, superiors 
ochraceous. with the middle of the disk brighter and the streak faintly 
reproduced. Inferiors ochraceous, one or two pale yellow dots faintly 
seen between the nervules. Underside of body yellow like the wings. One 
male from California. " 

Two new names are proposed by Mabille and Boullet for North American 
Hesperidae in the Bull Ent. Soc. France, 1917, page 100: Pholisora pints 
semicaeca and Hesperopsis arizonensis. The former is described from 
one male from Utah, and the latter from one male from Arizona. 



A Rare Pamphlet (Hym., Lep., Neur.) 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology has a copy of a reprint of an 
article which was to have been published in the Transactions of the Chicago 
Academy in 1870. But the big fire came and destroyed the stock, and 
few, possibly only this one, copy of the reprint was sent out. It is en- 
titled "Notice of Hymenoptera and Nocturnal Lepidoptera collected in 
Alaska by W. H. Dall, Director Sci. Corps, W. U. T. Exp., by Dr. A. S. 
Packard, with a List of Neuroptera by P. R. Uhler and Dr. H. A. Hagen." 
Extract from Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., vol. II, pp. 25-32, pi. 2. 1870. 

In this article Packard describes Vespa tripunctata (p. 26), Vespa alas- 
censis (p. 27), Phragmatobia dallii (p. 29) and Gastropacha alascensis (p. 29). 
Uhler describes Perla (Nephelion) dallii (p. 30) and Hagen Cryptothrix 
insularis (p. 31). Various described species are recorded. The plate 
figures Bombus frig idus, B. occidentalis , B. flavifrons, B. lacustris, B. kirby- 
ellus, B. nivalis, Vespa norvegica, V. arenaria, V. tripunctata, V. alascensis, 
Platarctia borealis, Arctia caja, and Phragmatobia dallii. The new species 
have never been recorded in any catalogue, nor the paper referred to. 
Whether it can be considered as "published" depends, I suppose, on the 
existence of other copies. The "W. U. T. Exp." is the Western Union 
Telegraph Co. Expedition, and it was the expedition upon which Kenni- 
cott lost his life. Reports on the birds were published the preceding year, 
and Scudder noted the butterflies in Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., in 1869. 
NATHAN BANKS, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Synonymy of Some Species of Thecla (Lepid.)- 

The following synonymy will be of interest to Lepidopterists. The 
first name has priority. 

Thecla thordesca Hew. zenaida Dyar. 
" elsa Hew. primnoza Dyar. 
" cambes G. & S. syvix Dyar. 
philinna Hew. greppa Dyar. 
uterkudante Dr. elimes Dyar. 
bianca Moschl. ostrinus Druce. 
" proba G. & S. climicles Dyar. 
xeneta Hew. devia Moschl. 
atrox Butl. gentilla Schs. 
canus Druce. bunnirae Dyar. 
amphrade Schs. posetta Dyar. 
" autoclea Hew. callides Dyar. 
" serapio G. & S. mesca Dyar. 9 
" sabinus Fldr. promissa Moschl. 
" pan Drury. tirrhaea Moschl. 

tella Schs. castrena Jones. 9 
W. SCHAUS, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 


Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London- 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

2 Transactions of The American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 
4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cambridge, 
Mass. 6 Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 7 Annals 
of The Entomological Society of America, Columbus, Ohio. 9 The 
Entomologist, London. 10 Proceedings of The Entomological Society 
of Washington, D. C. 13 Journal of Entomology and Zoology, Clare- 
mont, Cal. 17 Lepidoptera, Boston, Mass. 20 Bulletin de la Societe 
Entomologique de France, Paris. 21 The Entomologist's Record, Lon- 
don. 60 Maine Agricultural Experiment Starion, Orono. 64 Para- 
sitology, London. 68 Science, Lancaster, Pa. 88 Occasional Papers 
of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 100 
Biological Bulletin of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 
Mass. 107 Rivista del Museo de la Plata, Buenos Aires. 108 Journal 
of Genetics, Cambridge, England. 

GENERAL. Hewitt, C. G. Obituary notice. 4, Hi, 96. Bureau 
imperial d'entomologie. (Le Natural. Canadien, xlvi, 221-6.) Holland, 
W. J. The development of entomology in North America. 7, xiii, 1-15. 
Holloway, T. E. The Louisiana Entomological Society. 68, li, 386-7. 
Johnson, H. L. Methods of mounting insects. 17, iv, 22-3 (cont.). 
La, P. Le temps et les insectes. (Rev. Scient., 1920, 24.) Maheux, 
G. Le Docteur Hewitt. (Le Nat. Canadien, xlvi, 195-199.) Metcalf & 
Osborn. Some observations on insects of the between tide zone of the 
North Carolina coast. 7, xiii, 108-20. Stone, W. The use and abuse 
of the genus. 68, li, 427-9. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Chamberlin, R. V. Some records of Cana- 
dian Myriopods. 4, Hi, 94-5. Nordenskiold, E. Spermatogenesis in 
Ixodes ricinus. 64, xii, 159-66. 

Chamberlin, R. V. New California spiders. Centipedes and mille- 
pedes from near Claremont. Spiders from the Claremont-laguna region. 
13, xii, 1-26. 

NEUROPTERA. Sack, P. Aus dem leben unserer einheimischen 
libellen. (Bericht Sencken. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt a. M., xlv, 110- 
25.) Smith, R. C. The process of hatching in Corydalis cornuta. 7, 


xiii, 70-4. Williamson, E. B. Notes on a few species of Progomphus. 
88, No. 77. 

Banks, N. A revision of the Nearctic Termites. (U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Bull. 108.) 

ORTHOPTERA. Caudell, A. N. An economic consideration of 
Orthoptera directly affecting man. (Smithsonian Rept., 1917, 507-14.) 
Davis, W. T. A dark form of Stagmomantis floridensis. 6, xxvii, 341. 
DuPorte, M. The muscular system of Gryllus assimilis. 7, xiii, 16-59. 
Schmidt, P. Catalepsy in Phasmidae. (Smithsonian Rept. 1917, 

Hebard, M. -A revision of the N. Am. species of the genus Myrme- 
cophila. 2, xlvi, 91-111. 

HEMIPTERA. Breddin, G. -Neue oder wenig gekannte neotropische 
Hemiptera. (Abh. Senckenb. Naturfors. Gesell., Frankfurt a. M., xxxvi, 
50-9.) Davis, W. T. A belated Tibicina cassinii. 6, xxvii, 341. Some 
records of Polyctenidae. 6, xxvii, 261-3. Ferris, G. F. Notes on Coc- 
cidae VI. 4, Hi, 61-5. Funkhouser, W. D. New Neotropical Mem- 
bracidae. 6, xxvii, 267-77. Nuttall, G. H. F. On Fahrenholz's pur- 
ported new species, subspecies and varieties of Pediculus. A criticism 
of methods employed in describing Anoplura. 64, xii, 136-53. 

Ball, E. D. -A review of the species of the genus Gypona occurring in 
N. Am., north of Mexico. 7, xiii, 83-100. Davis, W. T. A new cicada 
of the genus Melampsalta. 6, xxvii, 340-1. Foot, K. Preliminary 
note on the spermatogenesis of Pediculus vestimenti. Determination of 
the sex of the offspring from a single pair of Pediculus vestimenti. 100, 
xxxvii, 371-84; I 385-87. Malloch, J. R. A new species of Typhlo- 
cyba. 4, Hi, 95. Parshley, H. M. Hemiptera from Peaks Island, 
Maine, collected by G. A. Moore. 4, Hi, 80-7. Patch, E. M. Three 
pink and green aphids of the rose. 60, Bull. 282. Woodruff, L. B. A 
review of our local species of the membracid genus Ophiderma. 6, xxvii, 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dattin, E. Sur la classification de Tortricides. 
20, 1910, 78-80. Drz, 4. Les mechanismes qui provoquent 1'eclosion 
des papillons. Rev. Scient., 1920, 52-3. Ehrmann, G. A. Papilio 
pyrholochus n. sp. [S. Amer.] 17, iv, 20-1. Harrison, J. P. H. Gen- 
etical studies in the moths of the geometrid genus Oporabia, with a special 
consideration of melanism in the L. 108, ix, 195-280. Lloyd, J. T. 
(See under Diptera.) McDunnough, J. Notes on the life history of 
Phyciodes batesi. Notes on the larvae and pupae of certain pterophorid 
species. 4, Hi, 56-9; 87-95. McMurray, N. Papaipema impecuniosa. 
Collecting notes. 17, iv, 17-19; 26-7. Verity, R. On emergence of 
the Grypocera and Rhopalocera in relation to altitude and latitude. 21, 
xxxii, 65-70 (cont.). 

Rothke, M. Two new forms of Lumenaria. 17, iv, 29-31. 

DIPTERA. Carter, H. F. Descriptions of the male genital arma- 
tures of the British anopheline mosquitoes. (Ann. Trop. Medicine & 


Parasitology, xii, 453-7.) Curran, C. H. Observations on the more 
common aphidophagous syrphid flies. 4, Hi, 53~5- Ferris, G. F. The 
first stage larva of Cuterebra americana. 5, xxvii, 13-14. Lloyd, J. T. 
An aquatic dipterous parasite, Ginglymyia acrirostris, and additional 
notes on its lepidopterous host, Elophila fulicalis. 6, xxvii, 263-5. Mor- 
ley, C. Collecting fungus gnats. 9, liii, 83-9. 

Alexander, C. P. Two undescribed Pediciine crane flies from the 
United States. 4, Hi, 78-80. Banks, N. Descriptions of a few new Dip- 
tera. 4, Hi, 65-7. Bequaert, J. A new nemestrinid fly from central 
Texas. 6, xxvii, 301-7. Cresson, E. T., Jr. A revision of the Ne- 
arctic Sciomyzidae. 2, xlvi, 27-89. Felt, E. P. New gall midges or 
Itonididae from the Adirondacks. 6, xxvii, 277-92. Johnson, C. W. 
A revision of the species of the genus Loxocera, with a description of a 
new allied genus and a new sp. 5, xxvii, 15-19. Parker, R. R. Another 
new sp. of Sarcophaga from Niagara Falls. 6, xxvii, 265-7. 

GOLEOPTERA. Bruch, C. Descripcion de un Cerambicido extra- 
ordinario de la Rep. Argentina. Nuevas especies C. hidrofilidos. 107, 
xix, 340-5; 445-70. Catalogo sistematico C. de la Republica Argentina. 
107, xix, 235-339; 346-44 1 ; 471-526; 538-73- Burke, H. E. Collecting 
some little known Buprestidae. 10, xxii, 72-6. Csiki, E. Coleop- 
terorum catalogus Pars 70, Scydmaenidae. F. A. W. -The meaning of 
continuous variation in color. (Jour. Heredity, xi, 84-5.) Grouvelle, 
A. Description des Clavicornes nouveaux de la Rep. Argentine. 107, 
xxiii, 234-56. Hays & McColloch. Some observations on the genitalia 
of Lachnosterna. 7, xiii, 75-82. Herrick, G. W. The winter of 1918- 
19 and the activities of insects with special reference to the clover leaf 
weevil (Hypera punctata). 7, xiii, 101-7. Johnson, C. W. Variations 
of the palm weevil. (Jour. Heredity, xi, 84.) Pic, M. Sur Baeocera 
argentina. 20, 1910, 49-50. 

Blackman, M. W. -Two new species of Pityophthorus from Colorado 
5, xxvii, 1-5. Casey, T. L. A revisional study of the American Platy- 
ninae. Random studies among the American Caraboidea. Some de- 
scriptive studies among the American Barinae. (Mem. Coleoptera, ix, 
I ~5 2 9-) Notman, H. -Notes and new species of Bembidium. 6, xxvii, 
292-7. Schaffer, G. Synonymical and other notes on some species of 
the family Chrysomelidae and descriptions of n. sps. 6, xxvii, 307-40. 
Timberlake, P. H. Correction of two generic names in Coleoptera and 
Hymenoptera. 4, Hi, 96. 

HYMENOPTERA. Ainslie, C. N. A remarkable case of homing 
instinct. 4, Hi, 50-2. Bruch, C. Un nuevo gorgojo del Prosopanche. 
Contribucion al estudio de las hormigas de la provincia de San Luis. 107, 
xxiii, 231-3; 291-357. Catalogo sistematico de las formicidos Argen- 
tines. Contribucion al conocimiento de los Bethylidae Argentines y de- 
scripcion de una neuva especie. Suplemento al catalogo de los formicidos 
Argentines. 107, xix, 211-341; 442-6; 527-37. Cushman, R. A. 


Viereck's family Labenidae with the description of a new species of Apecho- 
neura. 10, xxii, 76-80. Jordan, H. E. Studies on striped muscle struc- 
ture VI. The comparative histology of the leg and wing muscle ot the 
wasp. (Amer. Jour. Anatomy, xxvii, 1-66.) Spooner, G. S. A note on 
the mouth parts of the Aradidae. 7, xiii, 121-2. 

Bequaert, J. Hymenoptera collected near Boston, Mass., with de- 
scription of a variety of Bombus affinis. 5, xxvii, 6-12. Cockerell, 
T. D. A. The bees of Peaceful Valley, Colorado. 6, xxvii, 298-300. 
Fouts, R. M. Some new parasites with remarks on the genus Platy- 
gaster. 10, xxii, 61-72. MacGillivray, A. D. Two new species of 
Platycampus (Tenthredinidae). 4, Hi, 59-61. Timberlake, P. H. 
(See under Coleoptera.) 


The State Gazette of Trenton, New Jersey, for April 19, 
1920, recorded the death of FRANKLIN *DYE on April 18, at 
Trenton, at the age of 84 years, after a brief illness. A very 
good account was given in this paper, of Mr. Dye's activities 
and public services white secretary of the New Jersey State 
Board of Agriculture from 1887 to 1916. From 1916 until 
his death he was Chief of the Bureau of Statistics and Inspec- 
tion in the New Jersey State Department of Agriculture. 
While secretary, Mr. Dye was responsible for the first official 
document on entomology published by the state of New 
Jersey. This appeared in the I5th Annual Report of the 
New Jersey State Board of Agriculture, 1887, pp. 485-535, 
and consisted of material taken from Riley's "General Truths 
in Applied Entomology," which Mr. Dye assembled as being 
of interest to New Jersey farmers and fruit growers. This 
account appeared under Prof. Riley's name. Late in 1887, 
the first state entomologist, Rev. George D. Hulst, was ap- 
pointed. He resigned the following year, 1888, and was 
succeeded by Dr. John B. Smith during the same year. While 
Mr. Dye apparently published no papers on entomology, he 
was interested in its economic side and recognized its impor- 
tance. During his long years of service he did all that he 
could to advance such work in New Jersey. 

HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 


Insects, Mites, and Animal Parasites Mounted 

on Microscope Slides 

Sets for class use at the rate of 10 cts. per slide and up. 
Individual slides with authoritative determinations, 25 cts. 
per slide and up. Write for complete list and prices. 



Fresh Uganda (Africa) specimens. Papilios, Charaxes, Junonia, Pierids, 
Nymphalids, etc., 1st quality papered. $15.00 for 100 specimens in about 
40 species. 

Also East Indies lot. From Borneo, Java, Celebes, Obi, etc. Papilios, 
Ornithoptera, Tenaris, Euploea, Ideopsis, Leptocircus, Delias, etc., etc. 
$15.00 per IQO. Papered. 1st quality. 40 species. 

G. G. MacBean, Lepidopterlst, Assiniboia, Sask., Canada. 



Excellent Material. Great variety. Apply for particulars and 





About 4000 specimens 560 species, many rare and not in New Jersey list, 
correctly named with date and locality, including jo double lined Insect boxes, 
air-tight. A lot of unnamed specimens noted with date and locality. 

Have also volumes VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XXII and XXIII 

of the Entomological News and other literature. 

No reasonable offer refused. 

WEIDT SCHOOL OF MUSIC, 87 Court St., Newark, N. J. 

Catches of all orders of insects from the eastern and western slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains. Argynnis, nokomis + nitocris + apacheana c? $1.00 9 $2.00 
(see Vol. xxx, No. 6, Entomological News). A. charlotti, carpenteri, edwardsi, 
halcyone, Cornelia, B. triclaris, freija, frigga, many other uniques. 
Write for price lists: Ernest J. Oslar, 4189 Julian Street, Denver, Colo. 


From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho cypris Morpho amathonte 

sulkotyskyi Caligo spp. 

From Cuba: 


Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

From Venezuela: 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 

From New Guinea : 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 


Papilio arcturus Kallima inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) 

Armandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science 
G. Lagai, Ph.D. 

New York 
404-410 W. 27th Street 

JULY, 1920 


Vol XXXI. 

No. 7 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON. JR., Associate Editor. 

HKNRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D., Editor Emeritus. 



J. A. G. REHN, 


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Plate II. 







JULY, 1920. 

No 7. 


Coolidge and Newcomb Richard H. 

Stretch An Appreciation 181 

Skinner The Genus Choranthus Scud- 

der, with a Description of a New 

Species (Lep.) 186 

Ainslie Notes on Gonatopus ombro- 

des, a Parasite of Jassids (Hym., 

Horn.) 187 

Haber Oviposition by a Cockroach, 

Periplaneta americana - Linn. 

(Orth.) 190 

Green Notes on American Rhynch- 

ophora (Col.) 19.? 

An Appreciation (Diptera) 201 

Sad but Familiar 201 

Editorial Labels on Specimens 202 

Prof. V. L. Kellogg to leave Stanford 

University 203 

Return of the Williamson-University 

of Michigan Expedition from 

Venezuela 203 

Entomological Literature 203 

Reviews Howe's Insect Behavior. . . . 206 

Howe's Manual of the Odonata 

of New England 206 

Comstock's, An Introduction to 

Entomology 208 

Patch's Hexapod Stories 209 

Obituary H. S. Gorham, E. Reitter, 

E. Boudier, J. Pantel 210 

Richard H. Stretch---An Appreciation. 

Los Angeles, California. 

(Plate II) 

There remain today but few of the pioneer lepidopterists 
who, mostly under great handicaps, laid the ground work 
for this study in America. Grote, Behr, Henry Edwards, 
Scudder, William H. Edwards and others have passed to the 
Great Beyond, leaving behind them writings and memories 
that will forever be monuments to their genius. An associate 
of these men, and himself the pioneer lepidopterist of tin- 
Pacific Coast, is Richard H. Stretch, who for some years has 
been living at 2657 37th Avenue, S. W., Seattle, Washington. 
As he has been wintering at Pasadena, California, we have 
been privileged to make his personal acquaintance, and from 



him we have gleaned the following facts of his life. And 
when but recently he remarked to us that he could hardly 
understand why any one should be interested in his life's 
work, that "I have done so little" we were amazed. But 
let us sketch briefly the busy career of this man, whose labors 
are still far from being ended. 

Richard H. Stretch was born November 25th, 1837, at 
Nantwich, England, five miles from the Crewe Station in 
Cheshire. His father died when he was eight years old, and 
two years later he was sent to a Quaker boarding school at 
Ackworth. At fourteen he attended the Friends' School at 
York. Even in these early years he had an intense interest 
in Natural History, but especially insects. 

In 1853 he went to Banbury as an apprentice in a draper's 
shop, remaining there until 1859. But this existence did 
not appeal to him (he states now that he had as much interest 
in dry goods as a fly) and the following year he held a position 
as cashier and book-keeper in a manufacturing company. 
In the winter of 1861 came an invitation to visit relatives in 
Illinois, and always eager to travel, and seeing an opportunity 
to study new forms of insect life, he quickly accepted this 
chance, soon leaving for Boston on the old Cunard side- 
wheeler "Canada," the passage consuming twenty-one days. 
Reaching Boston, he proceeded to New York, and from there 
by steamer to Panama. There he did considerable collect- 
ing in all lines, and became acquainted with Dr. White, of 
the Panama Railroad Company, the. pioneer coleopterist of 
Central America. Leaving Panama, he made New Orleans 
his next stop, remaining there several weeks sight-seeing and, 
as always, collecting. Thence to his uncle's home, near 
Adrian, Illinois, where he remained about a month. Deciding 
to return to England, he made hurried visits to Philadelphia 
and Washington and then voyaged to Europe. 

The following year he devoted himself to architecture and 
building, but w r as dissatisfied with conditions and again 
came to the United States. He visited once more his uncle 
in Illinois, making considerable collections in all lines of biol- 
ogy. In 1863 he joined an emigrant party bound for Cali- 
fornia, and it was during this that a curious incident occurred. 


Mr. Stretch's party consisted of but five, a very insufficient 
number in view of the numerous hostile Indian bands. But 
while other and larger emigrant groups were attacked, and 
in some cases, wiped out, this small party passed unmolested. 
At the outset of the journey one of Mr. Stretch's collecting 
bottles, containing a various assortment of insects in alcohol, 
had rolled from one of the wagons unobserved. A friendly 
Indian had found and returned it. Mr. Stretch displayed 
his entomological wares to this red skin, who viewed them with 
intense interest, but not in a scientific way. And all along 
the line of the emigrant trail word was passed among the 
Indians that a Big Medicine Chief was coming, and appar- 
ently orders were given that no harm should befall him. 

Arriving at Salt Lake City, Mr. Stretch altered his plans 
and proceeded to Virginia City, then a rip-roaring frontier 
mining camp. First employed as a cook, he later ran a saw 
mill, and after that became associated with a Mr. Chapman 
in a land office business. 

Here again his entomological knowledge served him well, 
for his eye, trained in the discrimination of minute differences, 
also permitted him with ease to grade the various types of 
ore. And then, to his astonishment, he was elected state 
mineralogist of Nevada. He says now that it was with many 
misgivings that he undertook the duties required of this 
office, for his knowledge of mining was very scanty. But 
close observation and study overcame that, and eventually 
he became known as the best maker of mining maps in 

In 1867 he journeyed on to California, being among the 
earliest of the emigrants to cross the fearful Death Valley, 
meeting with Indians who had never before encountered 
white men. It was in this year that he introduced the method 
of making squares on maps, marked A. B. C. and I, 2, 3, etc., 
now used the world over. He visited San Francisco, and 
also descended into Chihuahua, Mexico, to examine an old 
mine. Those were the days of hardships in travel, and Mr. 
Stretch recalls now, laughingly, one incident in particular 

when the food supply gave out, and he and the other members 



of his party were forced to subsist for two weeks on lizards 
and prickly pears. 

In the winter of 1868-69 ne returned to Virginia City for 
the U. S. Geological Survey to make a study of the famous 
Comstock lode. His celebrated maps of this lode are to be 
found in the Encyclopedia Brittanica. But, with all his 
pressure of business, his interest in entomology never flagged, 
and many new and interesting species resulted from his 
Nevada stay. 

Returning to San Francisco, he spent the next few years in 
surveying, in 1870 becoming City Surveyor of San Francisco, 
Near Fresno, he sank the first artesian well in California, 
reaching a depth of 500 feet. He also put in the headgate 
of the first irrigation ditch in the state, this near Kingsbury. 

In 1874, Mr. Stretch paid a visit to his old home in England 
but returned to California in the following year, spending 
the next two years at Havilah, in Kern County. Here the 
dainty Philotes speciosa was discovered and named by Henry 
Edwards, as were a number of other butterflies taken at 
Havilah. In 1888 he removed to Seattle, Washington, and 
from there mining engagements took him to nearly every 
state in the west, as well as to British Columbia. He laid 
out West Seattle, was chief engineer of the Seattle and South- 
ern Railroad, and also, in later years, spent some time at 
Skaguay, Alaska, as engineer for the White Pass and Yukon 

In 1885 his wife, whom he had married at Virginia City, 
passed away and shortly after Mr. Stretch donated his 
entomological library, rich in valuable works, to the Me- 
chanic's Institute in San Francisco. His magnificent col- 
lection, replete with many types and rarities, and numbering 
about thirteen thousand specimens, he gave to the Univer- 
sity of California, at Berkeley, California. 

Through all these busy years, Mr. Stretch kept up a world- 
wide correspondence with entomologists. He was elected 
a member of the California Academy of Sciences and the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. A constant 
contributor on entomological subjects, his many papers are 


to be found in Papilio, Canadian Entomologist, Entomolo- 
gica Americana and other journals. He was called, while 
at San Francisco, to investigate the Cottony Cushion Scale, 
then present in but one spot in California, at San Mateo, and 
his exhaustive report of this was published by the California 
Academy of Sciences. In a recent letter Mr. Stretch writes 
concerning the warning note he gave in this paper: "This 
warning was utterly disregarded, when if appreciated it would 
have saved millions, as I pointed out what might be the 
result of inaction to prevent spread." 

Though Mr. Stretch knew the butterflies and collected 
many new species, his greatest interest was in the moths, 
and his "Illustrations of the Zygaenidae and Bombycidae 
of North America," published in 1872 and 1873, will remain 
as a classic of those groups. 

He knew intimately not only the other early entomol- 
ogists of the west, but many other men of note. Edison he 
visited when that genius was at work on the first phono- 
graph. He was well acquainted with Mark Twain, and 
recalls with mirth the celebrated lecture by the famous 
humorist upon his return from the Hawaiian Islands in 
which not one word was uttered of the islands he had just 
visited, the announced subject of the lecture. But Henry 
Edwards was Mr. Stretch's closest friend and companion, 
and when, in the early nineties that perfect gentleman passed 
on, Mr. Stretch's active entomological studies practically 
came to an end. 

At the present time, at the age of eighty-two, he is engaged 
upon a mining hand book. A former treatise of the same 
subject is still the standard in many universities. 

And yet, with so much accomplished, Mr. Stretch con- 
fesses that his ONE GREAT AMBITION was never realized to 
collect tropical butterflies. "Ah, the dreams of youth de- 
parted" he said regretfully as he looked upon some gay 
exotics, but we are not so sure it would not surprise us ai 
all should we learn that Mr. Stretch had gone to the tropics 
to perch in tree tops, and as he had once hoped to do, lo shoot 
with a blow pipe (he gorgeous Morphos! 


The Genus Choranthus Scudder, with a Des- 
cription of a New Species (Lepidoptera.) 


This genus was proposed by Dr. Scudder in the Annual 
Reports of the Peabody Academy of Science, 1871, p. 79. 
The genus was not described. The type cited was Hesperia 
radians Lefebv. in Sagra Hist. L'lle de Cuba, 1857, p. 650. 
Watson in his "A Proposed Classification of the Hesperidae," 
Proc. Zoological Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 130, did not know the 
genus. Mabille in the Genera Insectorum (Hesperidae), 
1904, does not mention either the genus or species. The 
original description of radians is not very good but there is no 
doubt about the species intended. A description of the 
species will probably be useful as the genus and species have 
been confused with the genus A try tone Scudder and its 

Choranthus radians. 

cf . Expanse (one wing) 14 mm. General color of wings, body and 
legs, above and below, fulvous. Antennae fuscous above and on the under- 
side of the ends of the club; inner half of the club below, fulvous; under- 
side of the shaft annulated. Palpi above fulvous, mixed with black, 
below tawny. There is a patch of yellow hairs at the base of the antennae. 

Upperside. The primaries have a v-shaped black line at the end of 
the discoidal cell. The stigma is a narrow black line 4.5 mm. in length, 
the upper end pointing toward the apex of the wing and the lower end 
resting on the submedian nervure. A fuscous border 4 mm. wide on the 
costa and 2.5 mm. wide at the middle. The fulvous of the wing extends 
into the border finely dentate. The secondaries have the same fuscous 
border, 2.5 mm. wide on the costa and I mm. wide on the outer and inner 

Underside. Primaries: The base, except on the costa, fuscous. Mar- 
ginal band as above, but olive green, with the nervures extending into it 
as rays. Inner margin olive green. Secondaries olive green with the 
nervures fulvous, except the space between two of the median nervures, 
which is fulvous. 

The female is marked like the male but it lacks the sex brand and it 
is a little larger. 

The species is found in Cuba and I collected some speci- 
mens of it during the month of February near Guantanamo. 
I described the species as streckeri in Ent. News, 1893, IV, 


211, the specimen having been said to be from Florida. See 
Ent. News, 1917, XXVIII, 82. Dr. F. D. Godman, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 1907, XX, 144, cites magica Ploetz, as a 
synonym of radians. 

Choranthus haitensis n. sp. 

The description of radians will answer for this species. It differs as 
follows. Upperside: Primaries: Nervures black, the fulvous not den- 
tate into the fuscous border. Secondaries: Fuscous border entire. Under- 
side. Primaries entirely fulvous, excepting the base and the border of 
the inner margin. Secondaries entirely fulvous. 

Described from a number of specimens from Haiti and San 
Domingo. The only definite localities are Samana Bay, San 
Domingo, (Dr. W. L. Abbott) and the type male from Port 
de Paix, Haiti, VII, 27, 1917, (Dr. W. L. Abbott) and a fe- 
male with the same data. 

The sex mark distinguishes these two species from any 
Pamphilinae known to me. Type in the collection of The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Notes on Gonatopus ombrodes, a Parasite 
of Jassids (Hymen., Homop.) 

By C. N. AINSLIE, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

(Continued from page 173). 

It may be worth while to note here that the body of the 
larva after emergence is so much greater in bulk than the 
capacity of the sac that it is plainly evident it must occupy 
much of the abdominal chamber of the jassid, using the sac 
possibly as a spare room into which to expand as growth 
adds to the volume of the body. 


When ready to construct the cocoon, and this usually 
follows closely on emergence, the larva seems best satisfied 
to select the groove of a curled grass blade or even to locate 
on a flat blade, and there, with its body parallel to the axis 
of the leaf it makes its cocoon. The silk of which the cocoon 


is fashioned is of such very fine texture that a single thread 
is almost invisible except when placed in a strong light. 
When the larva leaves its host it sometimes spins a few 
threads as it moves away, but these are meaningless and are 
soon abandoned. After more or less travelling about, in 
captivitv, a location for the cocoon is decided upon and a 
first move made by fastening a few delicate threads in front 
of the head. The silk issues from a spinneret near the mouth. 
By swinging the head backwards and sideways, points of con- 
tact for more threads are secured and soon a filmv fabric or 
awning begins to envelop the larva. Hour after hour the 
spinning progresses on the inside of the chamber without 
a minute's delay as if the naked helpless larva were making 
frantic efforts to clothe itself as soon as possible. The 
spinner reverses ends within the cocoon whenever necessary 
to distribute the silk properly. When complete the cocoon 
is quite dense, nearly or quite opaque and is snow white. 
It measures, over all, about 6 millimeters long and I milli- 
meter broad at the widest part. The cell proper that con- 
tains the larva and afterwards the pupa is only 4 millimeters 
in length. On each end of this is a sloping addition more 
transparent than the main structure, -a tapering web, the 
entire affair somewhat resembling an inverted hammock in 

These cocoons are not difficult to find in the open since 
they are very white and are usually placed prominently near 
the tips of grass blades in plain sight, on the upper side of 
the leaf. Occasionally they are found attached to stems 
of grasses or among the vegetable rubbish near the ground. 
On one occasion an ombrodes larva emerged in captivity and 
locating on a grass blade spun for itself a very fine, nearly 
transparent screen of silk. Two very minute ants that 
happened to have been introduced into the cage with some 
earth were seen feeding upon this silk fabric and they nearly 
denuded the larva before they could be driven off. The 
larva did not mature but gradually dried up without moving. 

The adult emerges through an irregular opening that is 
chewed in one end of the cocoon. A period of ten to twelve 


days elapses from the emergence of the larva to the appear- 
ance of the adult. 


August 21, 1914 an adult emerged from a cocoon that 
was begun August loth. She was black, wingless, had en- 
larged anterior femora and the usual chelate tarsi. At first 
glance she exactly resembled a very active ant. When first 
seen she was racing wildly about the vial, pausing at times 
for a careful preening. To see what would happen I intro- 
duced three living and active Cicadula 6-notata into the tube 
with this adult. As the three moved down the cage toward 
the lighter end of the vial the dryinid sprang at them and cap- 
tured the least active individual. She caught it at right 
angles, bent her body around beneath the body of the jassid 
and apparently attempted oviposition. She soon left this 
one, approached one of the others with her antennae in rapid 
motion before her, touched it with the tips of the antennae 
and threw the antennae back against her thorax, stiffly for 
a second or two, repeating this operation several times. 
This backward antennal gesture gave her a startlingly fierce 
and tigerish expression. Presently she made a spring, 
grasped her victim with her jaws and chela and curved her 
abdomen under its body as if searching for a place to pene- 
trate with the ovipositor. Beginning at the neck she gradu- 
ally worked down across the thorax until she reached the 
opening bet\veen the second and third segments of the abdo- 
men when the tip of her abdomen was thrust in and held 
there for at least a minute. Meanwhile the jassid was lying 
limp and helpless, and without any effort to escape. While 
ovipositing the parasite appeared to be chewing on the jassid's 
thorax but seemingly did no harm. When released the jassid 
shook itself, seemed much disturbed by the attack, but in a 
few minutes was as lively as ever. Time did not permit of 
dissection to learn if an egg had actually been placed. 

Similar attacks have several times been observed. The 
parasite usually steals slowly up on her prey with quivering 
antennae, at times throwing these rigidly back against the 



thorax, giving her a most vicious expression. When near 
enough she makes a quick spring and seldom misses. All 
these observations were made on individuals in captivity. 
Without doubt the same method is used in the open, her 
resemblance to an ant perhaps making approach more easy. 
In a number of instances these adults have been seen to feed 
on jassids after capture, sinking their jaws into the thorax 
of the captive and devouring ravenously, killing it in the 

From an economic standpoint this species must be regarded 
as distinctly beneficial although as a control measure it can 
be of little real value since it normally occurs in very limited 

Oviposition by a Cockroach, Periplaneta 
americana Linn.* (Orth.)- 

By V. R. HABER, Research Assistant in Entomology, Univer- 
sity of Minnesota. 

Little detailed information concerning the egg placing 
habits of our common cockroaches is recorded. For this 
reason it seems desirable to record these observations made 
upon the oviposition habits of the American cockroach, 
Periplaneta americana Linn. 

As is characteristic of most of the species of cockroaches 
or Blattidae, Periplaneta americana Linn, is nocturnal. Thus 
it was necessary to continue observations during the entire 

A cage was provided in which to confine the roaches during 
observation. It consisted of a wide mouthed candy jar of 
about two gallons capacity. Inside upon its bottom rested 
small slabs of corrugated pasteboard, each leaned slantwise 
against the wall of the cage. During observation the cock- 
roaches were fed with freshly killed individuals of the same 
species, bread and water. 

*Published with the approval of- the Director as Paper No. 200. of the 
Journal series of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 


Into the cage thus provided were placed four females, 
each bearing an egg mass or ootheca protruding from the 
external genital orifice of the female reproductive tract. 
The mouth of the jar was completely covered with a slab of 
cardboard. Observations made during three successive 
nights failed to yield results, but on the fourth night the fol- 
lowing observations were made. 

At approximately 2:50 A. M. an individual with her man- 
dibles began to scar and roughen the surface of the paste- 
board slab which had been introduced into the cage to serve 
as material upon which to oviposit. She chewed and munched 
at the upper surface of the pasteboard until she had made 
quite an appreciable dent or groove there, not dropping the 
bits of pasteboard upon the bottom of the cage but mixing 
them by means of the mouth parts with a secretion from the 
mouth until they became a damp mass. This mass of finely 
chewed pasteboard stuck to the surface of the pasteboard 
from which it was chewed. 

At about 3:20 A. M. she crawled forward over the scar 
with her abdomen bent anteriorly and ventralward, probing 
about with the protruding ootheca until she located the scar 
which she had made. Then she dragged the ootheca into it, 
but the scar being too shallow the ootheca rolled out and fell 
to the floor of the cage. The female turned about and with 
her palpi sought for the ootheca. Finding it missing, im- 
mediately she ran down the pasteboard, seized the ootheca' 
by its flanged edge with her mandibles, straddled it with her 
front legs, and thus carrying it returned to the scar. Upon 
replacing it into the scar again she was unsuccessful at keep- 
ing it there, for the ootheca dropped to the bottom of the cage. 
A second time she ran down, seized the ootheca as she pre- 
viously had done and set out to locate the scar. She ran 
up almost to it, then becoming confused ran around to the 
opposite side of the pasteboard, ran confusedly about, stop- 
ping at intervals and holding the ootheca clasped between the 
femur and tibia of one front leg, seemingly to rest. Again the 
ootheca slipped from her grasp and fell. This time it bounced 
to the far side of the cage. She ran down and rather promptly 


located it. By this time she seemed to have decided that it 
was futile to attempt to place it in the originally selected 
location. She cleaned it (?) with her mouth parts, coated 
its exposed side and ends with a secretion from her mouth 
and from the bottom of the cage picked up loose bits of trash, 
attempting to conceal the ootheca by covering it over with 
them. Next she attempted to cover the ootheca with a 
piece of paper. It did not suit her so she discarded it. 
At about 3:45 A. M. she ran over to the opposite side of the 
cage and ate bread. After about forty-five seconds she ran 
up the pasteboard to the scar which she had made, chasing 
other females away if they ventured too near. In the mean- 
time one of the other females began to chew at the ootheca 
as it lay unprotected upon the floor of the cage. Being 
anxious to preserve it, I opened the cage, carefully lifted 
the ootheca out, immersed it into water and placed it into the 
scar, for the mother had left the scar when I opened the cage. 

At about 4:30 A. M. she returned to the ootheca in the 
scar, discovered its presence there by feeling about with her 
palpi, remained near it for several miutes, then left it and 
stood more or less at one place upon the floor of the cage, 
seemingly unconsciously gazing into space, occasionally 
rubbing the cerci and the valves of her external genitalia 
with the tibia of either hind leg. 

Often in the natural habitat I have observed the oothecae 
of this species pasted to rafters or sills and covered with bits 
of wood fibre which the mothers has chewed off with the 
mandibles. Of those species among which it is customary to 
deposit their oothecae, the oothecae are retained until places 
of favorable moisture and thermal conditions are found. 
Thus if a cage is too cold, too damp, too well lighted or too 
poorly provided with material suitable upon which to ovi- 
posit and for concealing of the ootheca, the mother bearing 
it may retain it for several days. The following observations 
upon retention of oothecae by Periplaneta americana Linn, 
were made by the author of this article. 

In cages in which very favorable environmental conditions 
prevailed ten oothecae were deposited each one day after 
external appearance. 


In another cage one was deposited two days after external 

In another cage one was retained for six days after exter- 
nal appearance. 

Egg masses unfavorably deposited usually are devoured 
by other cockroaches or even by the mother. 

Not one cockroach of this species deposited an ootheca 
upon thin paper. I have had some imbedded into the larger 
pores of sponges kept saturated with water as a source of 
moisture in the cages. Such oothecae were packed over 
with bits of sponge torn from the large piece precisely for the 
purpose of concealing the deposited oothecae. Often bits 
of rag or bread are utilized and in several instances I have 
seen oothecae of this species completely covered over and 
concealed by fine bits of dried cockroach dung. When no 
covering material is available the oothecae may be dropped 
at random or simply pasted to articles and not covered. 

Notes on American Rhynchophora (Col,), 
By J. WAGENER GREEN, Easton, Pennsylvania. 

The Texan material cited in the following pages was col- 
lected during an expedition to that State in 1911 by Mr. 
H. A. Wenzel, of Philadelphia, and myself. Several weevils 
taken at that time have remained unnamed in our cabinets. 
Descriptions of these are herein presented, together with 
notices of two other new species and some miscellaneous 

Rhynchites tricarinatus new species. 

Form of bicolor, bluish black, disk of thorax black with aeneous lustre, 
legs black. Body above with short erect pubescence as in bicolor. Head 
between the eyes coarsely densely punctured and longitudinally rugose; 
occiput smooth, with few coarse punctures; genae transversely wrinkled. 
Beak as long as head and thorax; coarsely, densely, rugosely punctured 
throughout; sulcate at the sides; tricarinate abo\e from base to aiilennal 
insertion. Antennae inserted before the middle of beak; as compared 
with those of bicolor, joints three, four and five are more slender and 

194. ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS fxxxi, '20 

ate, seven and eight are much wider, the club is shorter, its joints all 
strongly transverse, the terminal joint being small and triangular in profile. 

Prothorax slightly wider than long; shining; coarsely, irregularly and 
not very closely punctate; widest at basal third; apical constriction not 
evident; sides straight and oblique from apical angles to middle, then 
strongly arcuate to base. Proepimera separated by centro-sternal piece. 

Elytra with indistinct and confused rows of moderate punctures, the 
intervals flat and sparsely finely punctate. 

Tarsi slender; third joint small, its lobes very narrow, about half as 
wide as the terminal joint at apex; nodiform enlargement at the base of 
the terminal joint nearly attaining the apex of the third joint. Length 
. (excluding beak) 4 to 4.8 mm. 

Described from a series of nineteen specimens collected by 
Mr. John Woodgate in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, 
May 20 to June 10. Related to bicolor but very distinct in 
antennal and tarsal structure. 

Rhynchites bicolor Fab. 

It is my opinion that some of the forms listed as varieties 
of bicolor by Pierce are capable of specific definition by means 
of constant structural and sculptural differences. An exam- 
ination of wickhami and bicolor in my limited material shows 
the terminal joint of the antennal club to be consistently 
more elongate in the latter. Also the outer funicular joints 
exhibit considerable variation, some of which is probably 
sexual. This I have been unable to determine. In addition 
to the differences pointed out by Cockerell, wickhami has the 
sides of the thorax more strongly rounded and converging 
toward base and apex, and the femora smooth, shining and 
more sparsely punctate. There is room for further investi- 
gation in this group by those possessing sufficient material, 
and especial attention should be given the secondary sexual 
modifications of the antennae and rostrum. 

LeConte states that the beak of the female of bicolor is 
shorter than that of the male. I have noticed that specimens 
with the longer beaks always have a more convex abdomen, 
and if these are males it is certainly contrary to the usual rule 
in the Rhynchophorous series. 

Minyomerus conicollis new species. 

Elongate, convex, densely covered with gray and darker scales which 


completely conceal the surface sculpture, scales white on the declivous 
sides 'of the pronotum. Head and beak very broad, convex; surface ap- 
parently smooth; sparsely clothed with minute, suberect, squamiform 
setae; eyes small, rounded, rather prominent, coarsely granulated. Beak 
with an inverted V-shaped impression, the branches directed toward 
the apical angles; apex trisinuate; scrobes long and well-defined, somewhat 
S-shaped, becoming shallower posteriorly, terminating below the front 
margin of the eyes. Mentum large, transverse, completely filling the 
gular cavity, a small punctiform impression each side. Antennae dark, 
sparsely setose; scape abruptly clavate, reaching nearly to middle of eyes; 
funicle seven-jointed, first joint elongate, feebly clavate, equal in length 
to the two following joints, second joint longer than third, last four sub- 
equal, as wide as long; club elongate-oval, pubescent. 

Thorax slightly wider than long; without ocular lobes, vibrissae not 
prominent; sides feebly arcuate, widest just before middle, thence straight 
to base; apex arcuate-truncate, base squarely truncate, distinctly nar- 
rower than apex. Disk of thorax vaguely rugulose, a transverse impres- 
sion faintly indicated at apical fourth; suberect scales very small and 
inconspicuous except a basal and apical fringe. 

Elytra elongate, oval, as wide as the thorax at base; widest at middle 
where they are nearly one-half wider than the thorax; humeri broadly 
rounded, angles absent; sides regularly arcuate; striae indicated by a 
feeble convexity of the intervals, these each bearing a single row of dis- 
tant, semi-erect, setiform scales; strial punctures scarcely evident; elytral 
declivity oblique. There is a small shallow pit near the side margin of 
the elytra in front of the hind coxae which appears to be for the reception 
of the middle knees. 

Legs and abdomen with semi-erect scales similar to those of the upper 
surface. Legs short; basal joints of tarsi subequal, second shortest, third 
broader and bilobed, fourth nearly as long as the others together. Length 
2.9 to 3.2 mm. 

Described from three specimens taken in the arid region 
south of Alpine, Texas, toward the Chisos Mountains, July 15. 
This species has the appearance of a small Elissa. The 
shorter basal joint of the tarsi and less prominent vibrissae, 
however, indicate its position in Minyomerus. The two gen- 
era are very feebly differentiated by the published characters. 
Conicollis may be distinguished from our other two species of 
Minyomerus by the shape of the thorax. There are undoubt- 
edly a number of still undescribed species in this genus. 
Pandeleteius spatulatus new species. 

Form nearly as in robustus. Upper surface with pale gray and darker 
scales intermixed, the gray usually predominating, the elytra sometimes 


show a pale transverse fascia each side just before the middle; setae ex- 
ceedingly minute and inconspicuous. Beak triangularly emarginate at 
apex, with distinct nasal plate which is asymmetrically emarginate apic- 
ally; beak feebly concave above and with median impressed line; scrobes 
short, directed at lower edge of eyes but not attaining them. Funicle 
seven-jointed, first joint slightly longer than the two following joints. 

Thorax convex, as long as wide, with feeble basal and apical constric- 
tions; sides strongly arcuate. 

Elytra one-fifth wider than the thorax at base, gradually increasing in 
width to just beyond middle, thence narrowing to apex; humeri not at all 

Fore coxae separated by about twice the distance between the middle 
coxae, more distant in the female. Fore femora very stout, the tibiae 
bent inwardly at apex, their inner margins denticulate and not appreci- 
ably sinuate. Scales of under surface mostly gray. Length 4 to 5.3 mm. 

cf. Hind tibiae clavate, widest at apical third; lower surface of tibia 
convex and normally clothed with scales, basal half of upper surface squa- 
mose, the apical half with a large smooth concavity bearing a few scattered 
hairs. First ventral suture nearly straight, last segment normal. 

9 . Hind tibiae unmodified. First ventral suture angulate at middle, 
ast segment strongly convex in transverse section. 

Eleven specimens taken in the Chisos Mountains, Texas, 
July 19. There are two males in the collection of the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Natural Sciences donated by Mr. Wenzel. 
Very distinct by the secondary sexual characters from any- 
thing heretofore described. It belongs near robustus, which 
is a larger, more mottled species and has the pronotum bi- 
sinuate in longitudinal profile, while in spatulatus this is 
evenly arcuate. 

Pandeleteius defectus new species. 

Much like hilaris in size and general appearance, mottled with gray and 
brown scales, darker each side of the scutellum and on an indistinct fascia 
beyond middle of elytra. Upper surface with inconspicuous recumbent 
setae, more noticeable on elytral apex. Beak very feebly concave, with 
median impressed line; apex slightly emarginate, the nasal plate pro- 
longed forward between the mandibles as in hilaris, but larger and more 
obtuse; scrobes arcuate, passing beneath the eyes. Antennae with six- 
jointed funicle, the joints all elongate, first subequal to next two, last 
nearly as wide as long; club as long as five preceding joints. 

Thorax longer than wide, with distinct subapical and basal constric- 
tions; sides moderately rounded. 

Elytra much wider at base than the thorax, humeri prominent. Fore 
coxae separated by a distance which is somewhat less than twice the dis- 


tance between the middle coxae. Fore tibiae denticulate within, not 
sinuate, slightly bent at apex, the femora only moderately enlarged. 
Length 4.8 mm. 

One specimen, Chisos Mountains, Texas, July 22. Accord- 
ing to the latest synoptic table of Pandeleteius, defectus would 
be placed near rotundicollis Fall, on account of the six-jointed 
funicle. Otherwise the two species have nothing in common. 
In rotundicollis the anterior femora are much more strongly 
dilated, the corresponding tibiae longer and more slender, 
the head more concave, and the outer funicular joints trans- 
verse and moniliform. In habitus the two species are alto- 
gether dissimilar. It would seem a better plan to subdivide 
the genus primarily on the form of the nasal plate, thus estab- 
lishing a number of groups and giving a more natural arrange- 
ment of the species. By this method such aberrant forms 
as submetalliciis would be isolated and the species described 
above would be associated with hilaris, which it closely re- 

Isodrusus debilis Sharp. 

This species was described from San Geronimo, Guate- 
mala. I have eight specimens of an Isodrusus from the Davis 
Mountains, Texas, July 9, which agree in every particular 
with the description of debilis in the "Biologia." Debilis 
has the appearance of a small Pandeleteius with the body 
above and the legs sparsely clothed throughout with short 
recurved setae. The legs are short, the fore tibiae normal 
and not denticulate within, and the claws are connate at 

Otidocephalus ruficornis Casey. 

Three specimens apparently belonging here were taken in 
the Chisos Mountains, Brewster County, Texas, July 18. 
They fit Col. Casey's description completely as to size, vesti- 
ture and sculpture but are differently colored. The body is 
black; the head, beak, antennae and prothorax dark rutous; 
the legs very dark ferruginous with the femora, especially 
the first two pairs, paler on basal two-thirds. I can find no 
tangible difference between this series and authentic spivi- 


mens of ruficornis, so conclude that they are only entitled to 
varietal rank. I propose the name semirufus for this form. 


Tychius armatus new species. 

Elongate-oval, convex, robust, black, moderately densely clothed with 
narrow grayish scales not concealing the surface sculpture above, the scales 
of elytra being longer and more slender, those of the striae very fine and 
setiform; erect setae absent. Beak stout, one-fifth shorter than prothorax; 
feebly arcuate, slightly tapering and flattened towards apex; densely 
squamulose below antennal insertion, glabrous at tip; punctures con- 
fluent longitudinally; apex smooth at middle. Antennae inserted at 
apical two-fifths of beak; color dark, scape reddish, not attaining the 
eyes; funicle seven-jointed, second joint two-fifths shorter than first, 
longer than third, outer joints subequal, last two slightly transverse; club 
elongate-oval, scarcely pointed, nearly as long as five preceding joints. 

Prothorax slightly wider than long; sides nearly straight and subparallel 
from base to beyond middle, thence strongly converging to apex; apical 
constriction indicated by a feeble sinuation; base twice as wide as apex; 
disk with large, circular, moderately dense punctures. 

Elytra nearly one-half longer than wide, more than twice as long as 
the pronotum and one-third wider at the humeri; sides parallel, broadly 
rounded behind; tip of pygidium visible, the elytral apices being very 
feebly separately rounded; disk striate, the intervals finely irregularly 
punctured; vestiture nearly uniform in distribution, a little denser on the 
sutural interval. 

Femora strongly clavate, deeply notched within at apex, the middle 
and hind pairs distinctly toothed, the fore pair feebly so. Length 3.8 
mm., width 2 mm. 

Six specimens from Graybeard Mountain, North Carolina, 
June 19 to 25, in the cabinet of Mr. Wenzel, who has kindly 
permitted me to retain a pair in my own collection. They 
were collected by Mr. Wm. Beutenmuller. Armatus belongs 
to Casey's Group I and is easily distinguished from the other 
species assigned thereto by all the femora being toothed. It 
should follow sordidus in a cabinet arrangement. The type 
described above is a male. The rostrum of the female is as 
long as the prothorax, more slender, nearly cylindrical, very 
feebly tapering at apex, and the point of antennal insertion is 
a little less apical. 

Tychius suturalis Schaeffer. 

Specimens collected in the Davis Mountains, Texas, July 9, 
were identified as T. snturalis for Mr. Wenzel by Col. Casey. 


They correspond closely with Mr. SchaefTer's description with 
one exception: the antennal funicle has six instead of seven 
joints. A single example from the Huachucha Mountains, 
Arizona, shows the same structure. 

Aulobaris elongatus new species. 

Elongate-oval, shining, black throughout. Head finely punctulate. 
Beak a little shorter than head and thorax, regularly arcuate, finely punc- 
tured, coarsely at the sides below antennal insertion. Second joint of 
funicle one-half as long as the first, scarcely as long as the two following 
joints together; joints three and four, slightly longer than wide, five and 
six shorter and quadrate, seven transverse; club as long as four preceding 

Prothorax one-sixth wider than long, the apical constriction almost 
obsolete; apex one-half the basal width; sides nearly straight and feebly 
converging from basal angles to middle, thence strongly arcuate to apex. 
Disk of thorax with coarse, deep, rounded punctures separated by their 
own diameters or less and becoming obliquely confluent at the sides; 
median impunctate line not distinct; basal lobe very small. Scutellum 
coarsely punctured. Prosternal groove normal, the sides not produced 
inwardly before the coxae. 

Elytra three-fourths longer than thorax, widest at the humeri where 
they are slightly wider than the thorax; sides straight and feebly con- 
verging two-thirds to apex; disk moderately striate, intervals three to 
five times as wide as the grooves, each with a single fairly regular series 
of coarse rounded punctures but little smaller than those of the thorax. 
Length 3.5 to 4.1 mm. 

Three specimens, Macdona, Texas, July 29. Elongatus 
would be placed near ibis in a synoptic arrangement of our 
species. The latter is easily separated by the distinct sub- 
apical constriction and the much finer elytral punctures. 

Centrinus falsus Lee. 

I have taken two specimens of this species at Mauch Chunk, 
Pennsylvania, August 10, which agree in every respect with 
the form so named in the Horn collection. My specimens 
are both males and have the antennal formation of Odonto- 
corynus, namely the enlarged and concave apical funicular 
joints and the polished basal area of the club provided with 
a dentiform process. On each side of the prothorax im- 
mediately behind the apical margin there is a small polished 
tubercle. This character is unique among our species of 


Odontocorynus, although it occurs in the Mexican creperus 
Boh. and latiscapus Champ. Blatchley and Leng accord 
Odontocorynus generic rank and separate it from Centrinus 
by the exposed pygidium and the modified male antennae. 
The pygidium in C. falsus is as completely hidden as in any 
true Centrinus, hence Odontocorynus must be considered merely 
a subdivision of Centrinus, as treated by Casey in his revision 
of the Barini, unless a third genus be erected for C. falsus 
based on the tuberculate thorax. This, of course, is not 

Zygobaris centrinoides new species. 

Body entirely black, shining, subrhomboidal. Head finely, sparsely 
punctulate, beneath with a punctiform fovea near base. Beak long and 
slender, regularly arcuate, nearly cylindrical; very little enlarged at base 
and less so at apex; finely and sparsely punctured, more coarsely and 
densely behind antennal insertion, an impunctate median line on basal 
half, a small longitudinal impression above the base of each mandible. 
Beak equal in length to the head and prothorax, separated from the head 
by an abrupt bisinuate declivity. Mandibles stout, curved, notched 
within. Antennae inserted just behind middle of beak; scape almost 
attaining the eyes; first joint of funicle a little longer than the next two 
joints combined, second joint one-half longer than the third, three to seven 
subequal, the outer joints transverse; club elongate-oval, pubescent 
throughout, more sparsely so at base, as long as the preceding five joints, 
first joint comprising much less than half of mass. 

Pronotum wider than long, as wide as the elytra at base; sides regularly 
arcuate; subapical constriction feeble; apex much less than half as wide 
as base, the latter nearly straight and with a small ante-scutellar lobe; 
disk glabrous at middle, sparsely punctured, more densely toward base, 
median line smooth; pronotum at the sides coarsely closely punctate, 
each puncture bearing an elongate, white, decumbent, hair-like squamule 
arranged transversely; a few small scattered scales along the middle of the 
basal thoracic margin. Scutellum quadrate, glabrous. 

Elytra more than twice as long as the pronotum; widest at basal tenth, 
thence straight to beyond middle, then evenly rounded to apex; apices 
conjointly rounded, completely concealing the pygidium; striae regular, 
entire, moderately deeply impressed, very minutely and distantly punc- 
tulate; intervals flat, much wider than the striae, each with a single ir- 
regular series of shallow punctures, becoming confused and somewhat 
biseriate toward base; each puncture of the intervals bears an elong.i it- 
white scale similar to those at the sides of the prothorax. 

Body beneath sparsely squamose, scales smaller and more slender than 
those of the upper surface, condensed on the prosternum before and be- 


tween the coxae. Prosternum abruptly deeply sulcate on the apical con- 
striction, with distinct delimiting lateral ridges; convexly prominent each 
side before the coxae; the median sulcus becoming gradually evanescent 
posteriorly so that the prosternum is only very slightly concave between 
the coxae. Ventral segments 2, 3 and 4 abruptly declivous on hind mar- 
gin, the segment following each commencing on a lower plane. 

Fore coxae separated by about half their width, the others more widely 
distant. Tibiae carinate externally; middle and hind tibiae slightly ex- 
panded at tip, the latter pair with a small tooth on the inner side at apex, 
the others strongly mucronate. Tarsi long and slender, densely pubescent 
beneath; subequal to the tibiae; third joint bilobed; last joint elongate, 
nearly as long as the remainder, bearing two claws which are connate at 
basal third, the suture evident. Length 3 mm., width 1.8 mm. 

The specimen described above is a female taken at Marfa, 
Texas, July 12. Mr. Wenzel has a male from Davis Moun- 
tains, Texas, which differs in the shorter, stouter, more 
coarsely punctured beak, the antennae inserted at the middle, 
where there is a very slight lateral enlargement; the front 
coxae more widely separated; the first ventral segment some- 
what concave at middle; and the pronotum more coarsely 

Centrinoides is a more squamose species than any pre- 
viously described Zygobaris and may possibly not be congen- 
eric with nitens Lee. and xanthoxyli Pierce, which I have not 

The type of this species as well as the types of the other 
new species described in this paper are in my cabinet. 

An Appreciation (Diptera). 

The work of Dr. Alvah Peterson on The Headcapsule and Month-parts 
of Diptera, in the Illinois Biological Monographs, vol. Hi, No. 2, has re- 
ceived an appreciative notice from Or. A. I). Imms in the Entomolo- 
gist's Monthly Magazine (London) for May, 1920. 

Sad but Familiar. 

A recent number of the Bulletin of the Entomological Society <>l I ; ram<- 
(1920, No. 4) announces that, as a measure of economy, it has been de- 
cided to reduce the covers to four pages and to replace the table of con- 
tents with advertisements; that in the future the Society can only accept 
line drawings; photographs and drawings necessitating half-tones will be 
reproduced only at the expense of the authors. 




Insects at the present time have so many relationships to 
other objects that it is important to know the exact locality 
and date of capture of a given specimen. The altitude and 
any other available information is also important for proper 
study and the altitude should also be given, when not readily 
ascertainable from other sources. These days few of us are 
satisfied with a specimen without locality and "Africa" or the 
"East Indies" hardly suffices. The museum curator has 
many troubles in regard to data. Specimens come to us 
without data, with insufficient data and with inaccurate 
dates and localities. Often the writing on the labels or 
papers is only translatable by the person writing them and 
possibly not even by the one writing them. In papered 
specimens it is a great convenience to have the data on each 
paper so that they may be arranged in various boxes system- 
atically, to be spread at a later date. 

The rule should be to place on each specimen or each 
papered specimen, the exact locality, date of caoture, alti- 
tude and name of the collector, and any or all data should 
be legibly written and if you can't write legibly print them. 
The name of the month should be written in full or expressed in 
Roman numerals, otherwise there is uncertainty and trouble. 
When the collector is spending days or weeks in the field, 
time may be saved by dating specimens and keeping a com- 
bined itinerary and diary and adding full data when there is 
more leisure. It is by no means uncommon for authors and 
collectors to give the names of obscure places, omitting the 
country, and thus making it difficult and wasteful of time to 
find out whence came the specimens. There are few of us 
that know where all the towns, villages and hamlets of the 
world are located and it is a double disappointment not to 
find some of these names in the gazetteer or on the map. 



There is a large amount of carelessness in regard to data and 
much time is wasted owing to slipshod methods, not to speak 
of the possibility of introducing profanity into the vocabu- 
lary of your correspondents or among those who eventually 
must receive and care for the specimens. H. S. 

Prof. V. L. Kellogg to leave Stanford University 

It is announced that Prof. Vernon Kellogg will resign his professorship 
of entomology in Stanford University, July I, 1920, in order to undertake 
the permanent secretaryship of the National Research Council, to which 
latter organization he will thereby insure some degree of administrative 
continuity. It will be recalled that Prof. Kellogg took an active part in 
relief work in Europe preceding and during the recent war, to which 
Minister Brand Whitlock pays an appropriate tribute in his recent book 
on Belgium. It is to be hoped that this change will not withdraw Prof. 
Kellogg permanently from entomology. 

Return of the Williamson-University of Michigan Expedition 

from Venezuela. 

The Evening News of Bluffton, Indina, for May 17, 1920, announces 
the return to that city of Mr. E. B. Williamson, whose expedition to 
Venezuela has been mentioned in earlier numbers of the NEWS for the 
present year (pages 108,141). With E. B. and J. Williamson, were assoc- 
iated H. B. Baker, of the University of Michigan, who collected reptiles, 
snails, shells, ants and other insects, and Will Ditzler, of Bluffton. Mr. 
Williamson experienced several attacks of malaria and of fly larvae in the 
intestines. In addition to the localities already noted in the NEWS, 
collections were made at Boqueron, Maracaibo, Encontrados, Tachira 
at the foot of the Andes, La Fria and El Guayabo on the Rio Zulia. The 
Odonata brought back consist of 158 species and 12,411 specimens. 

Kntomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myrippoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy , physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

2 Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 
4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cambridge, 


Mass. 8 The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 9 The 
Entomologist, London. 17 Lepidoptera, Boston, Mass. 20 Bulletin 
de la Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 32 Insecta, Revue 111- 
ustree d'Entomologie. Rennes. 34 Bulletin de la Societe Entomol- 
ogique de Belgique, Brussels. 45 Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche 
Insektenbiologie, Berlin. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipsic. 67 -Le 
Naturaliste Canadien, Quebec. 69 Comptes Rendus des Seances de 
1'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 77 -Comptes Rendus des Seances de la 
Societe de Biologic Paris. 81 The Journal of Parasitology, Urbana 
Illinois. 86 The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, London. 
87 -Arkiv for Zoologi K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien Stockholm. 
89 Zoologische Jahrbucher, Jena. 100 Biological Bulletin of the Mar- 
ine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 108 Journal of Genetics, 
Cambridge, England. 109 Annales Historico-Naturales Musci Nation- 
alis Hungarici, Budapest. 110 Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift, 

GENERAL. Andrews, H. V. Amyl acetate [for mounting and 
sugaring]. 17, iv, 33-4. Chodat et Carisso. IJ^e nouvelle theorie de 
la myrmecophilie. (Com. Rendu, Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat., Geneve, xxxvii, 
9-12). Crampton, G. C. A comparison of the external anatomy of the 
lower Lepidoptera and Trichoptera from the standpoint of phylogeny. A 
comparison of the genitalia of male hymenoptera, Mecoptera, Neuroptera, 
Diptera . . with those of lower insects. 5, xxvii, 23-34; 34~45- 
Curran, G. H. A plea for definitiveness. 4 lii, 120. Heikertinger, F. 
Exakte begriffsfassung und terminologie im problem der mimikry und 
verwandter erscheinung. 45, xv, 162-74. Hewitt, C. G. Obituary and 
bibliography. 4, lii, 97-105. Krogh, A. Studien ueber tracheenres- 
piration. (Pfluger Arch. Ges. Physiol. Mens. u. d. Tiere, Berlin, clxxix, 
95-120.) Merle, R. Production de mouches a cornes. (La Nature, 
Paris, 1920, 143 -4). Step, E. Insect artizans and their work, (New 
York, Dodd, Mead & Company, n. d.) Warren, E. (see under Neurop- 

ARACHNIDA &c. Emerton, J. H. Catalogue of the spiders of 
Canada known to the year 1919. (Trans. Royal Canadian Inst., xii, 
309-338). Gunthrop, H. Summary of Wood's Myriapoda papers. 
4, lii, 112-14. Hirst, S. Studies on Acari. The genus Demodex. (Br. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., 44 pp.). 

NEUROPTERA. Ast, F. Ueber den feineren bau der facettenaugen 
bei neuropteren. 89, xli, Abt. f. Anat., 411-58. Enderlein, G. Ueber 
einige subantarktische Mallophagen. 52, xlix, 241-51. Howe, R. H. 
Odonata of Chatham, Mass. 5, xxvii, 55-8. Lacroix, J. L. Sur qiu-l- 
ques anomalies dans la nervulation chez les Chrysopides. 20, 1920, 85-7. 
Warren, E. Termites and termitophiles. (South African Jour. Sci., 
1919, xvi, 92-112). 

ORTHOPTERA. Beck, H. Die entwicklung des flugelgeaders bci 
Phyllodromia germanica. 89. xli, Abt. f. Anat., 376-410. 


Enderlein, G. Neue, neotropische Pseudophyllinen 52, xlix, 17-20. 

HEMIPTERA. Barber, G. W. Concerning the distribution of the 
North Am. Cicadellidae. 4, Hi, 116-18. de Bergevin, E. Note sur un 
Jasside, Eutettix osborni, de 1'Amerique du Nord. 20, 1920, 82-3. 
Distant, W.L. On a small collection of Homoptera from British Guiana. 
9, liii, 124-6. Doncaster & Cannon. On the spermatogenesis of the 
louse (Pediculus) with some observations on the maturation of the egg. 
86, Ixiv, 303-28. Enderlein, G. Psyllidologica. 52, xlix, 344-52. 
Horvath, G. Analecta ad cognitionem Cydnidarum. 109, xvii, 205- 
73. Leon, N. Quelques observations sur les Pediculides. 81, vi, 144- 


LEPIDOPTERA. Dognin, P. Heteroceres nouveaux de 1'Amerique 
du Sud. Fasc. 18. Eggers, F. Das thoracale bitympanale orgameiner 
gruppe der L. Heterocera. 89, xli, Abt. f. Anat., 273-376. Onslow, H. 

-The inheritance of wing colour in L. 108, ix, 339-46. Shufeldt, R. 
W. The fall web worm and the swallowtails. (Anier. Forestry, xxvi, 

DIPTERA. Chapais, J. C. Une courte etude concernant quelques 
cecidomyies. 67, xlvi, 247-53. Collin, J. E. Eumerus strigatus and 
tuberculatus. 8, 1920, 102-6. Edwards, F. W. "Collecting fungus- 
gnats": Remarks on C. Morley's paper. 9, liii, 126-7. Enderlein, G. 

Dipterologische notizen. 52, xlix, 57-72. Garrett, C. B. D. East 
Kootenay diptera. Tipulidae i. 4, Hi, 108. Hearle, E. Notes on 
some mosquitoes new to Canada. 4, Hi, 1 14-16. Imms, A. D. Recent , . 
research on the head and mouth parts of Diptera. 8, 1920, 106-9. Licht- 
wardt, B. Die Nemistriniden des Ungarischen "national museums in 
Budapest. 109, xvii, 274-8. Lutz & Lima, Contribuicao para estu- 
dodas Tripaneidas (moscas de frutas) Brazileiras. (Mem. Inst. Oswaldo 
Cruz, x, 5-15, 1918). Pantel, J. Precisions nouvelles sur la region 
posterieur du vaisseau dorsal des larves des muscides. (La Cellule, 
Lierre, xxix, 381-88). Thompson, W. R. Sur les dipteres parasites 
des Isopodes terrestris. 77, Ixxxiii, 450-1. 

Alexander, G. P. New Nearctic crane flies. 4, Hi, 109-12. Malloch, 
J- R. Descriptions of new North American Anthomyiidae. 2, xlvi, 133- 

COLEOPTERA. Aurivillius, G. Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse der 
schwedischen entomologischen reise des A. Roman in Amazonas. 87, xii. 
No. ii. Bertin, L. Remarques sur pieces buccales et 1'alimentation 
des Coleopteres Lamellicornes. 69, 1920, 1131-33. Bordas, L. Con- 
siderations generales sur la biologic du Rhynchites conicus et anatomic- de 
la larve. 32, 1919, 196 201. Hess, W. N. Notes on the- biology of 
some common Lampyridac. 100, xxxviii, 39-76. d'Orchymont, A. 
Remarques au sujYl des premiers el. Us du genre Brarhyniis. 34, ii, 59- 
61. Spaeth, F. Neuc < 'assidinen aus der sainmlung von K. Brancsik 
\-c. (Some Neotropical). 109, xvii, 1X4 204. 


Chittenden, F. H. Description of a new species of Sphenophorus 
from Florida. (Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., x, 313-14). 

HYMENOPTERA. Brues, G. T. The braconid genus Trachypetus. 
5, xxvii, 59-62. Brunnich, K. Zur frage der geschlechtsbestimmung 
bei den bienen. 45, xv, 188-9. Hase, A. Ueber den putzvorgang bei 
der schlupfwespe Lariophagus distinguendus. 110, xix, 81-7. Smith, 
E. J. Removing pollen from bees. 4, Hi, 116. Wheeler, W. M. 
The subfamilies of Formicidae, and other taxonomic notes. 5, xxvii, 

Bradley, J. C. Descriptions, records and notes on North American 
Nyssonidae. 2, xlvi, 113-32. 

from Photographs by the Author. Richard G. Badger. The Gorham 
Press. Boston. $6.00 net. This work is printed in large readable type 
and contains 172 pages and a large number of admirable halftone illustra- 
tions (114) which are original. The author mentions the work as being 
written in a light enough vein to be entertaining to the reader, however 
casually interested he may be in insect life, but at the same time, one 
that is in every way scientifically accurate. Chapters two to eight in- 
clusive treat exclusively of South American insects, studied in the jungles 
of British Guiana. This is the most valuable part of the book. The 
remainder of the work is nearly all devoted to the insects of the Eastern 
United States. There seems to be a tendecy in such books to become a 
bit poetical and overlook sometimes that which is in "every way scientifi- 
cally accurate," for instance "when the eggs have given birth to their 
curious children." "The chrysalis of a butterfly ... a species of 
Vanessa ... it cannot thrash around and make a demonstration." 
What the chrysalis of Vanessa antiopa really does when disturbed is thrash 
around and make a big demonstration. The lay reader might infer that 
the great cecropia moth feeds on the newly opened blossoms, but the 
ones we have seen had no mouth parts for such a purpose. We are quite 
sure that its eggs do not "split open in the center," at least ours never did. 
We have never seen "the convenient spot in the corner or the under side 
of the piece of old lumber where the cecropia makes its cocoon." In 
spite of some poetical (?) licenses the book is an excellent one in its field. 
H. S. 

Jr. Memoirs of the Thoreau Museum of Natural History: II. 1917^ 
1920. Concord, Massachusetts. $1.35. In this handy manual nature 
lovers in the northeastern states have now a brief introduction to the 
dragonflies of their region which makes a knowledge of the names of these 
interesting insects available to any who may wish to be properly intro- 
duced to them. 


In its first form Dr. Howe's " Manual of the Odonata of New England " 
appears in six parts totaling one hundred and two pages and having over 
three hundred illustrations. The outstanding excellencies are the follow- 

1. It is the first manual of the Odonata in the United States that covers 
more than a single state. 

2. It is the first manual of Odonata of any extensive region that seriously 
attempts to give adequate figures of all the species listed. 

3. It has an illustrated key, such as some popular ornithologies have 
found useful, which illustrates the characters that it uses, where they are 
used. This brings the key directly down to the reader as nothing else 
does and next to the figures of specific characters, this is the most valu- 
able feature of the work. 

Under each genus Dr. Howe gives a table showing the New England 
States from which each species has been recorded. The reviewer wishes 
to suggest that such a table can have little value as these are political 
regions while it is the physiographic and climatic areas that control dis- 
tribution. The same amount of space devoted to remarks on the faunas 
represented in New England and their distribution would at least have 
been more interesting reading. 

This distributional problem is one of peculiar interest in New England 
as it lies where four fairly definite faunas overlap. The one hundred and 
fifty-six species listed by Dr. Howe can be divided roughly among these 
faunas about as follows: 

1. Canadian fauna, forty-four species. These genera are holarctic 
in distribution and probably Eurasian in origin perhaps having spread 
into North America during recent interglacial epochs. This was prob- 
ably the first fauna to appear in New England after the retreat of the ice 
and is characterized by Lestes 4 spp., Aeschna 10 spp., Somatochlora 10 
spp., Leucorhinia 5 spp., and Sympetrum 5 spp. It occupies the hilly 
back bone of the region. 1 

2. Transition fauna, twenty-five species. These genera occupy rough 
country and rapid gravelly streams of boggy land. These are charac- 
teristic of the central Appalachian System and among them are many 
rare and odd species as this is the oldest North American fauna, possibly 
a relic of pre-Pliocene times, whose species manage to hang on by living 
in special habitats that as yet are not seriously invaded by more modern 
faunas. In it are Chromagrion, Tachopteryx, Cordulegaster, 2 spp., Ophio- 
gomphus, 5 spp., Lanthus, 2 spp., Gomphaeschna, Didymops, Wi/lianisonia, 
Helocordulia and Dorocordulia. 

'This and the following statements of distribution and habitat are ob- 
viously of necessity very broad. Any local fauna will give various ap- 
parent exceptions. 


3. Upper Austral, sixty-eight species. This is the great Mississippi 
Valley fauna of ponds and muddy streams, a very modern fauna of close 
species, which is at present overflowing into the warmer parts of New 
England. It is characterized by Argia 2 spp., Enallagma 12 spp., Gomphtis 
12 spp., Libellula 4 spp., and Tetragoneuria 3 spp., etc. 

4. Lower Austral, nineteen species. All are odds and ends, the pioneers 
of a very modern fauna such as Ischnura ramburi, Micrathyria, Libellula 
and Tramea, which have slipped up the narrow, warm coast from the semi- 
tropical gulf. In this group are a few species which are interesting because 
they are able to inhabit brackish water alongside a true marine fauna of 
crabs and other hideous creatures. Such are Enallagma durum, Ischnura 
ramburi, Micrathyria berenice, Anaxjunius, etc. This Lower Austral fauna 
scatters into southern New England and a few species manage to round 
the cape and get as far as the coast of southern Maine. This fauna must 
be increasing at present. 

Opportunities at such problems on faunas, which are undoubtably 
shifting, make all Odonate records in New England of great value, for 
which reason Dr. Howe's manual is especially opportune. 

The reviewer feels that in any manual of this type there should be 
added to the key and illustrations brief descriptions that contain the more 
conspicuous specific characters to satisfy that innate craving of the human 
mind for a check on the correctness of an identification. Such descrip- 
tions are lacking, probably through necessity. Further, in some of the 
genera, particularly Enallagma and Gam pirns, the figures are hardly 
sufficient to positively identify some of the difficult species, for in these 
genera species are difficult even when illustrated with the clearcut line 
drawings so well developed in the writings of Calvert and of Williamson. 

Altogether the Manual is a credit to the industry of Dr. Howe and un- 
doubtably pleasing to the spirit of the critical Thoreau. C. H. KENNEDY, 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

sor of Entomology and General Invertebrate Zoology, Emeritus, in Cor- 
nell University. Second Edition, entirely rewritten. Ithaca, N. Y. The 
Comstock Publishing Co. 1920. Part I, 8vo. Pp xix, 220. 220 text figs. 

Professor Comstock is, we believe, fully entitled to the first place in 
Entomology in America. He has signalized his Emeritusship and the 
years immediately preceding by the publication of a surprising number 
of important and comprehensive texts and handbooks. It is sufficient 
to mention The Spider Book (1912), The Wings of hi sects (igiSJand now 
the present volume. In the preface to the last, dated from Cornell, June, 
1919, he writes: 

"The following pages constitute the first part of a text book of entom- 
ology that the writer has in preparation. This first part is published in 
advance of the completion of the entire work in response to the request 


of some teachers who desire that it be available for the use of their classes. 
The early publication of this part of the book will not only render it im- 
mediately available but will also afford an opportunity for the suggestion 
of desirable changes to be made before it is incorporated in the complete 
work. Such suggestions are earnestly invited by the writer. In writing 
this text-book much use has been made of material published in my earlier 
works, notably in 'An Introduction to Entomology' published in 1888 
and long out of print, 'A Manual for the Study of Insects,' in the pre- 
paration of which I was aided by Mrs. Comstock, and in 'The Wings of 
Insects,' more recently published. The more important of the other 
sources from which material has been drawn are indicated in the text 
and in the bibliography at the end of the volume." 

A comparison of the scope of the present work with that of the Manual 
is at once suggested. In the fourth edition (1901) of the latter, chapters 
I, Zoological Classification and Zoological Nomenclature; II, Insects and 
their Near Relatives and as much of III, Class Hexapoda or Insects, as 
deals with the characteristics of the class and the external and internal 
anatomy of insects, occupy 76 pages, the following 600, as far as the index, 
treat successively of the different orders. If from those 76 pages we sub- 
tract 8, or chapter I, the remaining 68 will in subject matter correspond 
to the present work. Each topic, consequently is considered here in much 
greater detail and one is naturally led to another comparison with the 
late Professor Packard's Text Book of Entomology, which is very similar 
in its scope and still more detailed in virtue of its 729 pages and 654 text 

The special title of the present Part I is "The Structure and Meta- 
morphoses of Insects. " There are four chapters, each with many sub- 
divisions: I. The Characteristics of Insects and Their Near Relatives 
(28 pp.); II. The External Anatomy of Insects (66 pp.); III. The Inter- 
nal Anatomy of Insects (73 pp.); IV. The Metamorphosis of Insects 
(38 pp.). 

An excellent selection of topics treated and topics omitted has been made, 
the typography is pleasing and Professor Comstock has with good reason 
expressed his appreciation of his artists, Miss Stryke and Miss Edmonson. 
Some of the familiar figures of the Manual reappear, rather the worse for 
wear, but most of the illustrations have been newly drawn. P. P. CALVERT 

PATCH. With illustrations by Robert J. Sim. The Atlantic Monthly 
Press. Boston, 1920. Pp.. xvii, 179. 43 illustrations. School edition 
90 cents, library edition $1.25. The publishers state that this "little 
volume contains twelve stories about six-footed insects, told very simply 
for the very young, by a scientist who thinks that the child should In- 
approached with the same standards of honesty as the most learned 
society, and that natural history facts are themselves so full of dramatic 
interest that they need no garnish of fiction. 


The first story, "Van, the Sleepy Butterfly who was Wakened by a 
January Thaw, " tells of Van's January experiences, of her laying eggs 
in May from which hatched Sister Essa and Essa's brothers and sisters; 
how Essa in her turn laid eggs in June from which came Opie, and of many 
other happenings to the three generations. 

This may be taken as typical of the book which is neither technical nor 
sentimental and surely should appeal to the child as far as an Olympian 
(sensu Kennethi Grahami) can see. The author is the well known ento- 
mologist of the Maine State Agricultural Experiment Station so that 
the non-entomological public may be assured of the reliability of the 
book. P. P. CALVERT. (Advertisement). 


The Reverend HENRY STEPHEN GORHAM author of the 
sections on Malacodermata (1880-86) and Erotylidae, Endo- 
mychidae and Coccinellidae (1887-1889) in the Coleoptera 
volumes of the Biologia Centrali- Americana, died at Great 
Malvern, England, March 22, 1920. He was born in 1839, 
educated at Rugby under Arnold and was a civil engineer 
before he became a curate in the Church of England, in 1865. 
His entomological writings deal with British and exotic 
Coleoptera. His extensive collections of beetles have been 
widely dispersed in various public and private museums, 
some data on which are given in a notice in the Entomolo- 
gist's Monthly Magazine for May, 1920, from which the 
above details are taken. 

The same issue of the Magazine announces also the death of 
EDMUND REITTER. author of "innumerable papers" on Palae- 
arctic Coleoptera, at Paskau, Moravia, March 15, 1920, aged 
75. He was one of the original editors of the Wiener Ento- 
mologische Zeitung from its foundation in 1891 to his death. 

The deaths of two entomologists are announced in a recent 
number of the Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France: 
EMILE BOUDIER, member of the Institute of France and old- 
est member of the Entomological Society in point of election 
(1857), who studied European Coleoptera: and J. PANTEL 
known for his work on comparative anatomy and general 
biology, especially of Orthoptera, and for his monographic 
essay on the parasite Tachinid larva of Thrixion haliday- 
anum, (1898), at Toulouse, February 7, 1920, aged 67. 


Insects, Mites, and Animal Parasites Mounted 

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celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

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OCTOBER, 1920 


Vol XXXI. 

No. 8 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, Ph. D., Editor. 
E. T. CRESSON. JR., Associate Editor. 

HENRY SKINNER, M. D., Sc. D., Editor Emeritus. 



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No. 8. 


Cresson Description of a New Spe- 
cies of the Asilid genus Pogosoma 
(Diptera) 211 

Alexander Undescribed Crane-flies 
from Argentina (Tipulidae, Dip- 
tera) 215 

Mason Cicindela nevadica LeConte 

(Coleop.) 221 

Martin -Notes on the Genus Hetaer- 
ius and Descriptions of three 
New Species (Coleop.) 222 

Editorial Shall the Subscription Price 

of the News be Increased? 226 

Orthoptera : Tettigidae 226 

Some Collecting Activities during the 

Summer of 1920 227 

Williamson The Cornell University 
Entomological Expedition to 
South America of 1919-20 227 


Conference of Economic Entomolo- 
gists .......................... 

Reorganization of Division or Ento- 
mology at the University of Cali- 
fornia ......................... 227 

The Gypsy Moth in New Jersey and 

Entomological Literature 

Review of Blatchley's Orthoptera pi 
Northeastern America ......... \. 2 

Doings of Societies Entom. Secf, ^ 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila ............ 237 

Obituary W. R. McConnell, J. R. 
Sahlberjj, J. Pantel.L Doncaster, 
H. Loomis ..................... 239 

Malloch Additions to the Recorded 

Illinois Reduviidae (Hem.) ..... 240 

Description of a New Species of the Asilid genus 
Pogosoma (Diptera). 

BY E. T. CRESSON, JR., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The species of this genus are always interesting. They 
seem to be distributed in most of the world faunas. Kertesz, 
in his Catalogue Dipterorum, lists eleven species: Four from 
Europe, four from the East Indies, two from North America, 
and one from Mexico. In working over the collection here, 
in connection with some material collected by F. M. Jones 
in the western states, this genus was brought to my atten- 
tion by a female from California. On comparing this speci- 
men with another female without data, a male from Colo- 
rado, and another male from New Jersey, I found many dis- 
agreements in characters which seem worth while considt-r- 



ing. Through the kindness of Prof. J. G. Sanders and Mr. 
A. B. Champlain of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, I am enabled to examine their collection 
in this genus, consisting of two males and one female from 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, and two males from Colorado. 
Of the above material from the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
Mr. Champlain writes: "I wish to call your attention to the 
fact that all were collected from Pine. Knull took the Vir- 
ginia specimens from pine; I got the Colorado specimen fly- 
ing around cut and infested pine logs, and Sanders collected 
the Pennsylvania specimens flying around cut white pine, 
the latter being attacked by Monohammus, Ips, and other 
pine insects. It is probably a predator on pine insects in 
both adults and larval stages." 

Critical examination of the above material, supported my 
earlier supposition that there were two distinct species repre- 
sented respectively by the eastern and western specimens. 
They are all typically Pogosomae and possess the following 
characters in common which may be considered of generic 
or subgeneric importance: 

Shining, sparingly pilose species. Head twice as broad as 
high, deeply excavated between the eyes above; ocelli on a 
prominent, conical tubercle; antennae inserted near ocellar 
tubercle, far above center line of eyes. Facial profile pro- 
duced in form of an obtuse cone to opposite the end of first 
antennal joint, but leaving a space below antennae straight 
and nearly vertical. First antennal joint twice as long as 
second; third as long as first and second together. Proboscis 
straight, conical, pilose at apex above. Scutellum without 
true macrochaetae. Abdomen elongate; segments somewhat 
constricted at incisures. Femora thickened beyond middle; 
fore tibiae without spur. First submarginal cell divided by 
a cross vein from anterior branch of third vein; first posterior 
cell narrowed or closed at margin; posterior cross vein and 
apical cross vein of fourth posterior cell parallel but not con- 

Genotype. Asilus maroccana Fabricius, 1794, [Original 


The two species credited to North America are Laphriu 
dorsata Say (1824) and Laphria melanopterum Wiedemann 
(1828). The former is cited as "taken near Philadelphia"; 
the latter as "Vaterland?" but credited by all students to 
North America. Williston notes what he considers Wiede- 
niann's species from Florida, and states that it differs from 
dorsata in having the wings black and broader, the face being 
clothed with black, and the dorsum being shining. I cannot 
distinguish melanoptera from dorsata either by descriptions 
or notes relative to these supposed species. The former is 
probably a very dark form of the latter, and as the material 
before me shows much variation in the wing color, I do not 
think that Wiedemann's name can be retained for any North 
American species or variety. 

Pogosoma dorsata Say. 

1824. Laphria dorsata Say, Amer. Ent., i, pi. vi, page 5. 

9 1828. Laphria melanoptera Wiedemann, Ausser. Zweifl. Ins., i, 514. 

Sav's description agrees so well with my eastern material 
that I do not doubt the determination. As there is very 
much variation in the color of the wings, this character can- 
not be taken seriously. What I consider dorsata may be 
described as follows: 

cf. Black entirely, except more or less brown on post alar calli and on 
the pleural and ventral sutures. Shining to polished, with some bluish 
metallic or grayish reflections. Face especially below, occiput especially 
post orbits, one or two pairs of spots on mesonotum (one at each dorsal 
end of the two sutures, the anterior pair being most pronounced), suture 
above base of wings, pleura especially towards pectus, silvery according 
to the angle of vision. All true bristles black. Pile or bristle-like hairs 
black as follows: on first and second joints, face above and upper part of 
mystax, occiput above, palpi, apex of proboscis, prothoracic collar, hunieri, 
mesonotum posteriorly, sometimes a few on margin of scutellum, pleura, 
and abdomen. Pale (white) pile on frons, around base of antennae, lower 
part of mystax, lower occiput, proboscis below, mesonotum anteriorly, 
disc of scutellum and all coxae. Pile long and mixed on legs, but pain- 
on femora becoming black on tarsi. The pile is long and abundant on 
the lower surfaces of head and legs; long and woolly and rather sparse on 
scutellum. Wings very variable, from evenly subhyaline, grayish to 
densely fuscous with lighter areas in the cells especially along the inferior 


There are only two bristles in the supra-alar region, one each side of 
the sutural depression; two or three on the post-alar callus; one, strong, 
on post margin of mesopleura. Hypopygium complicated; claspers with 
numerous long bristles along the sublateral margin; between the bases of 
claspers is a broad appendage with a rounded, laterally directed, tooth- 
like projection. 

9. Similar. Wings generally darker, more blackish. Pile mostly 
black; that on cheeks, base of proboscis, and on scutellum generally, re- 
maining pale; it is also less abundant especially on the legs. Length 
1 8 mm. 

I have examined the following material: I cf, Browns 
Mills, New Jersey, June 15, (H. Skinner), [A.N.S.P.]. 2d", 
East Falls Church, Virginia, July 1-8, (J. N. Knull), [Penna. 
Dept. Agric.]. I 9 , Drumgold, Pennsylvania, July 16, (J. 
G. Sanders), [Penna. Dept. Agric.]. I 9 , without data, [A.N. 

Pogonosoma ridingsi new species. 

cf. Similar to dorsata but more robust. Mesonotum and scutellum 
not shining but subopaque. Color of bristles and pile similar except on 
the face where they are pale (yellowish not white) with several long black 
bristles on the prominence medianly; of the scutellum and postcoxae, 
black. The facial pile is more abundant than in dorsata, and along the 
alar margin of the mesonotum and on the postalar calli there are numer- 
ous black bristles, while the scutellum has some erect bristle-like hairs of 
the disc. The vestiture of the pleurae is more abundant than in dorsata 
and the pile on the fore legs is very dense, noticeably more so than on 
the middle and hind legs. The wings, although probably they will show 
much variation, seem to be fairly constant in having the fuscous clouding 
confined to the veins, even those near the costal margin (none of the speci- 
mens showing the density of dorsata). The hypopygium more robust, 
similar in general form; but the appendage between the bases of tin- 
claspers is tooth-like, not developed laterally into tooth-like lobes. The 
bristles of the claspers are stronger and fewer in number. 

9. Similar, but as in dorsata the pile is mostly black, being pale 
(brownish) on the cheeks only. The wings as in the male. Length 20 

Type. tf. Colorado, (J. H. Ridings?), [A.N.S.P. No. 
6343]. Paratypes. I cf ; Florissant, Colorado, June 24, 1914, 
82 (A. Champlain), [Pa. Dept. Agr.]. I cf ; El Paso County, 
Colorado, August 5, 1911, (A. Champlain), [Pa. Dept. Agr.]. 
I 9 ; Keddie, PI u mas County, California, July 4, 1918, (F 
M. Jones), [A. N. S. P.]. 


The subopacity of the mesonotum, abundance of bristles 
along the alar margin, the more abundant and pale facial 
pile, the more abundant pleural pile, the hypogygial tooth, 
as well as the more robust habitus and its western distribu- 
tion, are characters of seeming specific importance. 

Undescribed Crane-flies from Argentina 
(Tipulidae, Diptera) 

BY CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Urbana, Illinois. 

The species of crane-flies described below were sent to me 
for naming by Senor Charles Bruch and Sefior Pedro Jorgen- 
sen-Hansen. Some of the species were taken in the "Puna" 
or highlands of the Province of Jujuy by Vladimir Weiser, a 
civil engineer engaged in surveying this country, and kindly 
included in the material sent me by Sefior Bruch. The types 
of Tipula moniliferoides were taken at the Estancia of Mr. 
B. M. Barrett, at Monte Veloz, about 150 kilometers south 
of Buenos Aires, where most of them were found in the houses 
in the morning, presumably having been attracted to lights 
earlier in the evening. The types are preserved in the writer's 
collection, para types of some of the species in the La Plata 
Museum. I am greatly indebted to the gentlemen above 
mentioned for the interesting material described at this time 
and elsewhere. 

Gonomyia (Gonomyella) weiseri new species. 

General coloration gray; antennae black throughout; mesonotal prae- 
scutum with three brown stripes; pleura grayish with a conspicuous yellow 
ventral stripe; halteres elongate, pale, the knobs brown; wings subhyaline, 
the stigma brown; Sc elongate; male hypopygium with the largest pleural 
appendage bifid. 

cf Length about 5.5 mm.; wing 7.2-8 mm. 9 Length 6.8 mm.; wing 
8-8.2 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae black, the llagellar segments 
cylindrical. Head light gray. 

Pronotum dull gray, the lateral margins narrowly yellowish, broadest 
on the scutellum. Mesonotal praescutum light gray with three con- 
spicuous brown stripes; pseudosutural foveae conspicuous, oval, jet black; 
tuberenlate pits at the extreme cephalic margin of the scleiite, separated 


from one another by a distance a little greater than the diameter of one; 
scutum gray, each lobe with a brown mark continued backward from the 
lateral praescutal stripes; scutellum gray, broadly margined with pale; 
postnotum light gray. Pleura grayish, a conspicuous yellowish longi- 
tudinal stripe across the dorsal portion of the mesosternum and the ven- 
tral portions of the mesepimeron, beginning as a narrow point behind the 
fore coxa, broadest above and immediately behind the middle coxa. 
Halteres long and slender, pale, the knobs dark brown. 

Legs with the coxae dark grayish brown; trochanters brown; remainder 
of the legs brown, the tips of the femora, tibiae and tarsi darker. 

Wings comparatively long and narrow, subhyaline, the stigma con- 
spicuous, oval, brown; veins dark brown. Venation: Sc long, Sci ending 
just before midlength of the long Rs; Sc2 removed a short distance from 
the tip of Sci, Sci alone being about equal to the basal deflection of Cui; 
Rs very long, almost straight, longer than the combined R2-\-j and Rj 
beyond it; r on R2-\-j nearer the fork of Rs than to the fork of R2-\-j; 
R2 approximately equal to 7?2+j; cell isl M.2 open by the atrophy of 
the outer deflection of Mj; basal deflection of CUT a short distance be- 
fore the fork of M. 

Abdomen dark brown, sparsely pruinose, the caudal margins of the 
segments narrowly pale. Male hypopygium with the pleurites stout, 
the appendages inserted near midlength of the inner face; three pleural 
appendages, the largest heavily chitinized, bifid, the outer arm again 
slightly split at the tip so that the entire appendage appears indistinctly 
trifid; inner pleural appendage a flattened blade that is slightly dilated 
distally and provided with rather numerous sense setae; outer pleural 
appendage about as long as the second appendage, heavily chitinized, 
sinuous, narrowed to the blunt apex. Penis-guard long and narrow, the 
apex indistinctly trifid. Ovipositor with the valves slender, acute, strongly 

Habitat: Argentina. 

Holotype: d 71 ; Cueva Iturbe, Province of Jujuy, altitude 
3700 meters, November 10, 1919 (Vladimir Weiser). Allo- 
type: 9 , Hornadita, Province of Jujuy, altitude 3400 meters, 
November 30, 1919 (Weiser). Paratypes: I 9 , with the 
allotype; 7 c? 4 9 , Tilcara, March 20, 1920. 

This interesting fly is dedicated to its collector, Sefior 
Vladimir Weiser, to whom we are indebted for considerable 
assistance in determining the range of distribution of Tipu- 
lidae in Argentina. 

Gonomyia (Gonomyella) argentineiisis new species. 
General coloration light brownish gray; antennae dark brown, nirso- 
notal praescutum with three brown stripes; pleura dark brown with ;i 


conspicuous light yellow longitudinal stripe; wings with a faint brownish 
tinge, the stigma very faint; male hypopygium with the intermediate 
pleural appendage narrow basally, gradually widened, the acute outer 
angles subequal. 

o*. Length about 5 mm.; wing 5.5 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi dark brown. Antennae dark brown. Head light 
gray, with an indistinct, darker, median line. 

Pronotum dark brown, the lateral margins narrowly pale yellow. Meso- 
notal praescutum light brownish gray, with three dark brown stripes; 
scutum brownish gray, each lobe with two brown spots; scutellum and 
postnotum dusted with gray. Pleura dark brown; a conspicuous light 
yellow longitudinal stripe across the dorsal portions of the mesosternum, 
extending from behind the fore coxae to dorsad of the hind coxae; cephalic 
portion of the mesepimeron yellow; dorsal pleurites dusted with gray. 
Halteres light yellow, the knobs brown. 

Legs with the coxae reddish brown; trochanters dull yellow; remainder 
of the legs obscure yellow; the tarsi darker. 

Wings with a faint brown tinge; stigma very faint, slightly darker 
brown; veins dark brown. Venation: Sc2 some distance from the tip 
of Sci, immediately beyond the origin of Rs; Rs but slighly arcuated, 
about as long as Z?2+j and R2 taken together; r indistinct, inserted at 
about midlength of R2+3; cell ist Mz open; basal deflection of Citi 
before the fork of M, this distance being about one-half the deflection. 

Abdomen dark brown, the posterior margins of the segments indis- 
tinctly paler. Male hypopygium with the pleurites having three ap- 
pendages, the outermost flattened, the short apex produced into an acute 
point that is directed at a right angle to the remainder of the blade, some- 
what like the beak of a bird; the intermediate appendage is slender basally, 
gradually dilated into a fanlike structure, the outer margin concave, the 
lateral angles thus formed produced into acute or subacute, subequal 
points; inner pleural appendage a pale, flattened lobe that is gradually 
widened to just before the apex, the tip obtuse. Penis-guard distinctly 
trifid at apex. 

Habitat: Argentina. 

Holotype, cf, Rioja, February, 1915, (E. Giacomelli). 
Allotopotype, I 9 , in poor condition. 

This fly is allied to G. velutina Alexander, G. iveiseri new 
species, and other members of the subgenus in the Neo- 
tropical fauna but is readily told by the- structure of the 
male hypopygium. 

Gonomyia (Leiponeura) bruchi new species. 

Antennae black, the scapal segments largely yellow; head yellow, the 
vertex with a brown blotch; thorax yellow, marked witli brown; llioi.nie 


pleura yellow with two brown longitudinal stripes; halteres brown, the 
knobs yellow; legs brown; wings yellowish gray, the stigma indistinct; 
male hypopygium with the outer pleural appendage a chitinized hook 
with a short horn near its base. 

cf. Length about 4 mm.; wing 3.8 mm. 

Rostrum brown; palpi dark brown. Antennae of the male provided 
with very long verticils as usual in this group of species; first scapal seg- 
ment yellow; second scapal segment enlarged, dark brown, margined with 
yellow; remainder of the antenna dark brown. Head light yellow with 
a large brown blotch on the vertex. 

Pronotum whitish yellow. Mesonotal praescutum with three dark 
brown stripes that are sparsely purplish gray pruinose, entirely confluent 
in front, separated behind to show the yellow ground-color; lateral mar- 
gins of the praescutum broadly yellow; scutum yellow, the center of each 
lobe purplish brown, this color produced by the backward extension of 
the lateral praescutal stripes; scutellum yellow, with a conspicuous brown 
median blotch at the base; postnotum brownish. Pleura yellow with 
two conspicuous brown longitudinal stripes, the more ventral suffusing 
the sterno-pleurites; mid-line of the sternum yellow. Halteres pale 
brown, the base of the stem and the base of the knobs darker; remainder 
of the knobs conspicuously light yellow. 

Legs with the coxae and trochanters pale; remainder of the legs pale 
brown, the distal tarsal segments darker. 

Wings with a strong yellowish gray tinge; stigma barely indicated by 
a long, dusky suffusion in cell Ri; veins pale. Venation: Sc rather 
short, Sci ending a short distance before the origin of Rs; Sc2 removed 
from the tip of Sci to a distance that is but little shorter than r m; Rs 
rather short, almost square at origin; cell ist M.2 broad, the basal deflec- 
tion of Cui at or immediately before its fork. 

Abdominal tergites dull yellow, with a broad, brownish median stripe; 
sternites yellow. Male hypopygium with the pleurites moderately 
stout, the outer angle produced into a long, stout, fleshy lobe; outer 
pleural appendage a long, chitinized hook that is broad at the base, nar- 
rowed gradually to the sinuous, acute tip, beyond the base with a short, 
stout horn; inner pleural appendage very small, fleshy, provided with 
stout bristles and tipped with a powerful spine. Penis-guard formed as 
two parallel flattened blades, the tips blackened and produced into a 
short beak that is directed cephalad; gonapophyses black, bent slightly 
at their tips which are minutely and irregularly toothed. 

Habitat: Argentina. 

Holotype, cf, Province of Buenos Aires, October u, 1919, 
(('. Bruch). i cf, 2 9 , La Aranja, Alta Gracia, Prov. de 
(Yirdoba, April 1-8, 1920 (C. Bruch). 


This beautiful little fly is respectfully dedicated to its col- 
lector, Senor Charles Bruch, to whom I am greatly indebted 
for many Argentinian Tipulidae. 

Holorusia catamarcensis new species. 

Antennae naked, the basal half yellow, the distal half passing into 
brown; mesonotal praescutum brownish buff with three conspicuous 
gray stripes that are narrowly margined with dark brown, the median 
stripe bisected by a narrow line of this color; legs yellow, the tips of the 
femora and tibiae dark brown; wings brownish yellow, the stigma and a 
spot at the origin of Rs darker; abdominal tergites yellow, trivittate with 
dark brown. 

9. Length about 19 mm.; wing 20.5 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of head brownish yellow, narrowly dark brown 
laterally; nasus long and slender; palpi dark brown. Antennae with the 
basal seven segments light yellow, the flagellum thence passing into 
brown; flagellar segments cylindrical with microscopic verticils only, as 
in the genus; first flagellar segment very long and slender, nearly as long 
as the succeeding three taken together. Head pale brownish testaceous, 
sparsely gray pruinose. 

Mesonotal praescutum pale brownish buff with three conspicuous gray 
stripes that are narrowly margined with dark brown, the median stripe 
split by a conspicuous brown stripe; scutum pale grayish testaceous, the 
lobes largely gray; scutellum and postnotum testaceous, sparsely whitish 
pruinose, the postnotum with a capillary brown line. Pleura pale brown, 
sparsely pruinose, the dorso-pleural membranes dull yellow. Propleura 
dull yellow, with an indistinct brownish spot above the fore coxa. Hal- 
teres pale, the knobs slightly darker. 

Legs with the coxae yellow, sparsely pruinose; trochanters yellow; 
femora dull yellow, the tips conspicuously dark brown; tibiae similar, 
the tips narrowly darkened; tarsi pale brown, the distal segments darker. 

Wings with a strong brownish yellow tinge, the subcostal cell yellow; 
stigma oval, brown; a brown cloud at the origin of Rs, a brown seam below 
vein Cu; oblitcrative areas before the stigma in cell ist R2 and across 
cell ist M2, the basal deflection of Mi +2 and the outer deflection of 
Mj+4 being largely pale; cell C above the stigma pale; anal cells dark- 
ened distally, cell ist A with a pale triangle at the apex, slightly before 
vein 2nd A; veins dark brown. Venation: Rs rather long, exceeding 
Rj, slightly angulated at origin; vein 7?j not strongly arcuated; cell 
ist M.2 narrow; petiole of cell Mi about one-half as long as m. 

Abdomen yellowish, the tergites trivittate, a narrow brown median 
stripe, the apical segments with the caudal margins narrowly darkened; 
sublateral stripes broader; lateral margins pale gray; second sternite 
with a large brown blotch at the base. Ovipositor with the tergal valves 
long, straight, compressed. 


Habitat: Argentina. 

Holotype, 9 , Esquina Grande, Catamarca, April 7, 1915. 
(P. Jorgensen-Hansen). 

Holorusia jujuyensis new species. 

General coloration dark brownish black, pruinose; nasus bifid; antenna! 
segments with short bristles; legs dark brown; wings gray, the veins 
seamed with subhyaline; Rs short, petiole of cell Mi short; abdominal 
tergites reddish brown with sublateral brownish black stripes. 

Length 18 mm.; wing 16 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of the head comparatively short, dark reddish 
brown; nasus broad, distinctly bifid at apex, clothed with long yellow 
bristles; palpi brownish black. Antennae with the first segment dark 
brown, sparsely pruinose; second segment brownish yellow; flagellum 
uniformly brown, the outer segments darker; but ten evident flagellar 
segments, the first segment a little less than the succeeding two taken 
together; flagellar segments cylindrical with comparatively short verticils, 
the first and second flagellar segments with numerous such bristles. Head 
dark brown, narrowly gray along the inner margin of the eyes. 

Mesonotal praescutum grayish brown, with three dull gray stripes 
that are margined with dark brownish black, the median area of the 
sclerite discolored in the unique type; humeral regions and lateral mar- 
gins obscure yellow; scutum blackish with two large gray areas; scutellum 
and postnotum dull gray with a narrow blackish median line. Pleura 
dull gray, indistinctly marked with blackish; a conspicuous whitish area 
on the lateral sclerites of the postnotum, immediately cephalad of the 
base of the halteres. Halteres dark brown, paler basally. 

Legs with the coxae and trochanters dark brown, the former dull gray 
pruinose, remainder of the legs dark reddish brown, the tips of the fe- 
mora, tibiae and all the distal tarsal segments black. 

Wings broad, dull gray, the veins broadly seamed with subhyaline, 
isolating the ground-color to the centers of the cells; a nearly continuous 
subhyaline streak along vein M, passing into cell R near its end, crossing 
cell ist M.2 and into cell M4 where it forks before the wing- margin; 
similar forks are found in cells R$, Mi and 2nd M.2, leaving gray tri- 
angles in the apices of these cells; stigma large, dark brown; cell R2 pale, 
centered with gray; cell Rj gray, the outer end pale; vein ist A is bor- 
dered on either side by a broad subhyaline space; veins reddish horn- 
color. Venation: Rs short, a little longer than 7?2+j; Rj rather strongly 
arcuate; cell ist M.2 comparatively broad; petiole of cell Mi short, about 
one-half of m; fusion of Cui and ^3+4 punctiform. 

Abdominal tergites reddish brown, with conspicuous, sublateral brown- 
ish black stripes and narrow gray margins; segments narrowly ringed 
caudally with pale; sternites brown, the distal segments more blackish. 
Ovipositor with the tergal valves almost straight, long and slender. 


Habitat: Argentina. 

Holotype: cf, Province of Jujuy, January 12, 1920 (V. 
Weiser). Allotype: 9, Tilcara, Jujuy, January 12, 1920 
(Vladimir Weiser). Paratopotypes: I cf, i 9 ; paratypes, 
10 dV 2 9, La Granja, Alta Gracia, Prov. tie Cordoba, 
April 1-8, 1920 (C. Bruch). 

Tipula moniliferoides new species. 

c? Length 12-13 mm.; wing 13.6-14.3 mm.; antenna 10.2-11 mm. 9 
Length 18-19 mm.; wing 14.2-15 mm. 

Similar to T. monilifera Loew, differing as follows: 

Antennal flagellum beyond the first segment brownish black. The 
three thoracic stripes are present, the median stripe represented by broad 
margins that are a little narrower than the lateral stripes. Pleura uni- 
formly light yellow. 

Habitat: Argentina. 

Holotype: d\ Monte Veloz, Province of Buenos Aires, 
January 17, 1920 (C. Bruch). Allotopotype: 9. Parato- 
potypes: 2 cT's, 5 9 's, Estancia B. Barrett, Monte Veloz, 
January 14-17, 1920 (C. Bruch). Paratypes: 4 cf, 4 ? 
La Granja, Alta Gracia, Prov. de Cordoba, April 1-8, 1920 
(C. Bruch). 

Tipula mitua Alexander (Colombia) which has the antennal 
flagellum dark colored as in the present species, differs in the 
relative shortness of the antennae and the coloration of the 

Cicindela nevadica LeConte (Coleop), 

A series of ten specimens of this extremely rare Cicindela (six females, 
four males) was taken by Mr. Morgan Hebard, August 23, 1919, on alkaline 
flats near the Fairbanks Ranch, Ash Meadows, Nevada, at an elevation 
of 2300 feet. They were very wary and difficult to capture. There is 
only one specimen without even a State label in the Horn Collection; the 
species has evidently not been taken recently as no records are available 
other than Nevada from where the type was described. It is one of the 
few species not represented in the collection of Cicindelidae of the late 
Edward D. Harris. In company with nevadica LeC. was taken a series 
of Cicindela haemorrhagica LeC. (subsp.) var. pacifica Schaupp. FRANK R. 
MASON, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Notes on the Genus Hetaerius and Descriptions 
of three New Species (Coleop.) 

BY J. O. MARTIN, Berkeley, California 

During the past five years I have spent such time as I have 
been able to spare during the proper season in collecting the 
curious ant guests belonging to the genus Hetaerius. It is a 
rather laborious form of collecting as the ant nests in which 
these beetles are found generally occur under stones, many 
of which require considerable effort to overturn. Thus far 
in my experience, I have found them only during the winter 
months after the ground has been thoroughly wet by the 
rains. At such times the ants bring their eggs, larvae and 
pupae, as well as the Aphids they may possess, to the under 
side of the rocks to absorb the heat gathered by these stones 
on such days as the sun may be shining. Here too other 
guests may sometimes be seen and occasionally the desired 
Hetaerius. Once I found six specimens of Hetaerius zelus in 
a single day, often two and more often but one represented 
the spoils of a strenuous day's work. Far outnumbering 
these red letter days were those in which the only reward 
was an aching back and painfully worn finger tips. 

As to the habits of these beetles I have been able to learn 
little, for during the excitement, due to the sudden flood of 
sunlight the main reaction seems to be toward escape to the 
underground galleries. Sometimes the Hetaerius may be 
found clinging to the under side of the stone, though more 
frequently he is jarred off by the over-turning process. He 
then feigns death as so many of the Histeridae do, but in a 
short time comes to life and straddles rapidly away on his 
clumsy appearing legs toward the gallery entrance. Twice 
I have seen an ant pick up the beetle and start under ground 
with him, but as a rule the Hetaerius makes off under his 
own power. 

During a recent trip to Mill Valley, Marin County, Cal- 
ifornia, I had the good fortune to take two specimens of 
Hetaerius which on examination turned out to be uncle- 


scribed. Dr. E. C. Van Dyke very kindly turned over to 
me for study the specimens of this genus in his collection as 
did Dr. F. E. Blaisdell. Among Dr. Van Dyke's material I 
found one each of the two species taken by myself at Mill 
Valley, and three examples of still another species which 
appears to be undescribed. 

Up to the present there have been described thirteen 
species of the genus Hetaerius in the United States and of 
these seven are from the state of California.* The three in- 
cluded in the present paper make a total of ten for this state 
and sixteen for the United States. Beside these there are 
but five described from the rest of the World. 

* Hetaerius, Erichson, Klug. Jahrb. Ins. Vol. I. p. 156. (1834). 

blanchardi Le Conte, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., Vol. XVII, p. 609 (1878). 

Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. 
brunnipennis Rand, Bost. Jour., Vol. II, p. 40 (1838). Cambridge, 

Massachusetts; Pennsylvania; Ohio. 
carinistrius L'ewis, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 8, Vol. XII, p. 85 (1913), 

Hartford, Connecticut. 

minimus Fall, Psyche, Vol. XIV, p. 68 (1907). Colorado; New Mexico. 
hornii Wickham, Psyche, Vol. VI, p. 322 (1892). Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
exiguus Mann, Psyche, Vol. XVIII, p. 108 (1911). Pullman : Washing- 
ton; Kendrick, Idaho; New Mexico. 
californicus Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. Ill, p. 137 (1870). 

Sonoma and Pasadena, California. 
morsus LeConte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. (1859), p. 70. Fort 

Tcjon, California. 
tristriatus Horn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., Vol. V, p. 21 (1874). Calaveras 

County, California; Pullman, Washington. 
wheeleri Mann, Psyche, Vol. XVIII, p. 30 (1911). Palo Alto and 

Berkeley, California. 
zelus Fall, Can. Ent., Vol. XLIX, p. 165 (1917). Pasadena and San 

Francisco, California. 
strenuus Fall, Can. Ent., Vol. XLIX, p. 167 (1917). Santa Cruz Mts., 

Pasadena, California. 
loripes Casey, Memoirs on the Coleoptera, Vol. VII, p. 236 (1916). 

Tulare County, California. 

Terapus, Marseul, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 4th ser. Tome 2nd, p. (>*.? 

ninisechi, Marseul, ibid. Pasadena, California. 
Synonym: Melanetaerius inffnidlis Fall, I'syrhr, Vol. XVI, p. 69 (H)<>7)- 

224 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [xxxi, '20 

In the preparation of this paper I have examined speci- 
mens of the following species, brunnipennis, Rand; blanch- 
ardi Le Conte; californicus Horn; tristriatus Horn; zelus Fall; 
strenuus Fall; and wheeleri Mann. I have also gone over 
the original descriptions of the thirteen species, a bibliog- 
raphy of which will be found in the first footnote for the 
convenience of the future students of the genus. 

In studying the vestiture of these beetles it is evident that 
there are three different types of hairs: first, the ciliated or 
branched kind; second, flattened or squamose hairs with a 
border of cilia; and third, ordinary hairs. The California 
species may be grouped as follows on the basis of hairs found 
on the upper surface of the body. 

Without squamose or branched hairs on thoracic disc or elytral spaces: 
californicus, nitidus. 

With both squamose and branched hairs on thorax and elytra: tri- 
striatus, hirsutus, ivilliamsi, morsus?, loripes, zelus. 

With majority of the hairs squamose ciliate: strenuus. 

With a few minute fringed hairs on thorax and elytra: wheeleri. 

The presence or lack of hair and its arrangement on the 
body seems to possess significant specific value and also the 
pygidium and flattened surfaces of the legs. As so many of 
the descriptions are silent on these points, as well as on many 
others of importance, I shall not attempt to construct a 
table of species at this time. 

Hetaerius nitidus sp. nov. 

Form oblong, moderately convex above, rufo-castaneous, smooth, 

Head smooth, shining; vertex viewed from above not concave but 
slightly convex, with three triangularly-placed setigerous punctures near 
caudal end of the margined area and three seta-bearing punctures in a 
transverse line at cephalic margin; front slightly rugose and with a ver- 
tical row of four to six setigerous punctures on each side of the impunc- 
tate middle space; clypeus sparsely, coarsely, and irregularly punctate 
with six setae bordering the apical margin. 

Prothorax twice as broad as long, narrowed apically, lateral margin 
straight from apical angle to one-third the distance from base, where it 
becomes suddenly arcuate to basal angle; disc one-third wider than long, 
smooth, shining and bearing three or four setigerous punctures on apical 
portion which are not regular in position; the pentangular disc separated 


from the slightly rougher lateral areas by a margined sulcus which begins 
at the basal angle and follows the basal margin for about one-fifth the 
width of an elytron, then, turning at nearly a right angle crosses the 
prothorax diagonally with a slightly sinuate course to its indexed tip, 
where it dies out before reaching the apical margin; parallel to this sulcus 
and on the lateral margin of the disc is a broad shallow groove which at 
its basal end forms a broad foveate depression, is constricted at its middle, 
and broadens again at its shallow apical end; lateral area narrowest at 
base, widening to apex and divided at basal third by a broad foveate 
depression which is not a distinct groove as in other species of the genus 
examined by me; apical portion of lateral area has about eight setigerous 
punctures irregularly placed, the included setae reddish yellow and de- 
pressed; the basal portion of this lateral area is moderately tuberculate 
and has about six setigerous punctures; thoracic lateral margin bordered 
with six to eight black setae unequally spaced. 

Elytra smooth, shining, slightly wider than thorax, about as wide as 
long, sides slightly arcuate, distinctly rounded posteriorly; first stria 
from the elytral suture reaching three-fourths of length of elytra, with 
two setae at basal end, none at tip; second stria nearly reaching apex, 
two setae at base and five along apical end; third stria not quite reaching 
apex, with an increasing number of setae from base to tip; subhumeral 
stria not quite reaching apex, with fairly evenly spaced hairs throughout 
its length; interspaces and disc smooth, shining; a row of setae on apical 

Pygidium and propygidium smooth, shining, moderately, evenly punc- 
tured, each puncture bearing a subulate seta. 

Prosternum rugose, flattened, margined area on caudal end reaching to 
one-half its length, margin sinuate between the coxae, beyond arcuately 
convergent and meeting, completely enclosing the cephalic end of mar- 
gined area which is smooth and shining. 

Legs smooth, shining, sparsely punctured, punctures with setae, hind 
tibia not much wider than femur. 

Meso- and metathoracic segments and abdomen smooth, shining with- 
out punctures. Length 1.5 mm. 

Described from four examples; type in my own collection, 
from Mill Valley, Marin County, California; paratypes in 
the collection of Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, who kindly loaned 
them to me for comparison. 

My specimen was taken from the nest of a small grey ant 
while those of Dr. Van Dyke came from the nest of a much 
larger species. 

(To be Continued) 



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to indicate their willingness or unwillingness to subscribe to 
the News at the higher figure. 

At the back of this number there will be found a blank form 
to be torn out, filled in and mailed to us. We hope that all 
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time to make necessary arrangements for the News for 1921. 

Notes and 


Orthoptera: Tettigidae. 

Dr. Joseph L. Hancock has found it impracticable to continue his 
studies in the Tettigidae. His collections are now being added to the 
material deposited at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
by Mr. Morgan Hebard. 

Correspondents or students wishing to have Tettigidae determined or 
studied will receive as prompt attention as can reasonably be given by 
writing Mr. Morgan Hebard, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Some Collecting Activities During the Summer of 1920. 

Dr. Henry Skinner and Mr. R. A. Leussler, of Omaha, Nebraska, col- 
lected at Moab, Utah, and for shorter periods at Park City and Salt 
Lake City, Utah, and Evanston and Laramie, Wyoming, in July and 
early August. 

Messrs. Morgan Hebard, J. A. G. Rehn and Frank R. Mason collected 
in the Santa Marta region of Colombia, South America, in July and 

Mr. Charles Liebeck paid special attention to Donacia (Coleoptera) 
in New Jersey. 

The Cornell University Entomological Expedition to South Amer- 
ica of 1919-20, 

This expedition (on which a note appeared in the NEWS for May last, 
pages 139-140) had, on June 17, reached Campamiento Colonia del 
Pereni, Peru, and had been joined by Mr. Jesse Williamson. Mr. Harris 
was recovering nicely from paratyphoid fever and about ready to sail for 
New York. Drs. Bradley and Forbes and Mr. Williamson were actively 
collecting. (From letters from Mr. Williamson.) 

Jesse Williamson arrived home August 24. On June 22 he was taken 
ill with amoebic dysentery and was confined to his bed ten days. Drs. 
Bradley and Forbes left the Colony of the Perene on July 3 and he ex- 
pected to follow as soon as he was able to travel. But on July 5 he was 
arrested as a Chilean spy and taken back to San Ramon, where he was 
detained five days. Bradley and Forbes made a seven days' mule ride 
to Bermudez on the Ucayali River and were to leave there July 17 for 
Iquitos. After Jess was released, he was still so weak that he decided he 
could not. overtake them, so he returned home by the west coast and Pan- 
ama. Pe has entirely recovered. E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluff ton, Indiana. 

Conference of Economic Entomologists. 

An informal conference and field meeting of eastern entomologists was 
held in The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and at the Jap- 
anese beetle laboratory at Riverton, New Jersey, on July 29 and 30, 1920. 
Various introduced injurious insects were discussed, certain recommenda- 
tions made and the establishment of an Eastern Branch of the American 
Association of Economic Entomologists recommended. The proceedings 
of the meeting are given in some detail in the Journal of Economic Ento- 
mology for August, 1920. 

Reorganization of Division of Entomology at the University of 


A reorganization of the Division of Entomology at the University of 
California has been announced, taking effect July I of this year. The 
personnel of the Division consists of eight members and will hereafler he 


known as the Division of Entomology and Parasitology, with Professor 
W. B. Herms as newly appointed Head. Professor Herms will continue 
his activities in the field of Parasitology, particularly Medical Entomol- 
ogy and Ecology, while Professor C. W. Woodworth will devote his time 
largely, if not wholly, to research. The new organization of the Division 
embraces three groups with Assistant Professor E. C. Van Dyke as chair- 
man in supervision of activities in general Entomology and Taxonomy; 
Assistant Professor Essig, chairman in supervision of Agricultural Ento- 
mology, and Assistant Professor S. B. Freeborn supervising activities in 
Parasitology, particularly in relation to the animal industries. Dr. H. 
H. Severin will continue investigating Euteltix tenella in relation to sugar 
beet blight, while Messrs. E. R. de Ong and G. A. Coleman will continue 
their activities in their respective fields, namely University Farm School 
and Apiculture respectively. 

The Gypsy Moth in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

This European insect which has scourged much of New England for 
the past twenty years has now spread southward. The Newark (New 
Jersey) Evening News of July 27. 1920, published the following: "Staff 
Correspondence. Trenton, July 27. Investigation of the outbreak of 
the gipsy moth on the Duke estate at Somerville by the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has revealed the presence of the moth at various 
other points, including Somerville, Manville, Millstone and Bound Brook. 
Further scouting, it is believed, will reveal additional infections. 

Through the co-operation of A. F. Burgess, federal agent in charge of 
moth work, trained scouts were sent to the infested area. Thousands of 
caterpillars were found and complete defoliation had occurred over several 
acres on the Duke estate planted in blue spruces. It is feared that nur- 
sery stock shipped from the Duke estate to points both in and outside 
New Jersey may have carried the egg masses to various places. A small 
infection recently discovered at Deal was traced to blue spruce trees or- 
iginating at the Duke estate. Other shipments from that point are now 
being traced." 

The Philadelphia Public Ledger of August 7, 1920, contained a despatch 
from " Harrisburg Aug. 6 The gypsy moth one of the most destructive 
pests known in the Atlantic states, has been discovered upon spruce trees 
recently shipped to the Charles M. Schwab estate near Loretto from the 
Duke estate at Somerville N. J. 

"For some time the moth has been prevalent in parts of New Jersey and 
the state Department of Agriculture has been conducting a campaign to 
keep it out of Pennsylvania. Reports of an insect damaging trees at 
Loretto reached the Capitol a few days ago and Director J. G. Sanders 
detailed one of the department experts to make an investigation. Word 
was received by Doctor Sanders today that the moth had been identified." 

The same journal on August 27 1920, stated, "Harrisburg, Aug. 26. 


Agents of the Bureau of Plant Industry have found the gypsy moth in 
only two places in Pennsylvania as the result of an intensive inspection 
compaign. The moth was discovered first at Loretto and found later 
near Scranton. Both places were immediately isolated and precautions 

"Since then scores of shipments to this state have been traced, including 
many to the vicinity of Philadelphia, but no signs of the moth have been 

Kntomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

2 Transactions of The American Entomological Society, Philadelphia 
4 -Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 6 Journal of the New 
York Entomological Society. 8 The Entomologist's Monthly Maga- 
zine, London. 10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 11 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London. 
12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, N. H. 17 Lepidop- 
tera, Boston, Mass. 19 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological So- 
ciety. 20 Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 30 
Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, The Hague, Holland. 49 Entomologische 
Mitteilungen, Berlin-Dahlem. 50 Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, Washington. 54 Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, D. C. 57 Biologisches Zentralblatt, Leipzig. 68 
Science, Lancaster, Pa. 71 Novitates Zoologicae, Tring, England. 72 
-The Annals of Applied Biology, London. 75 The Anatomical Record, 
Philadelphia. 76 Nature, London. 82 The Ohio Journal of Science, 
Columbus. 88 Occasional Papers of The Museum of Zoology, I'ni- 
vcrsity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 90 The American Naturalist, Lan- 
caster, Pa. 93 Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey, Ur- 
bana, Illinois. 96 Physis. Rcvista de la Sock-dad Argentina de Cien- 
cias Naturales, Buenos Aires. 98 Annals of Tropical Medicine and 
Parasitology, Liverpool. 102 Broteria. Revista Lusco Brazilrira. Scrie 
Zoologica, Braga. 103 Biologisches Centralblatt, Leipzig. 106 Anales 
de la Sock-clad Cientifica Argentina, liuenos Aires. 


GENERAL. C. G. H. The imperial entomological conference. 76, 
cv, 502-4. Cockerell, T. D. A. Eocene insects from the Rock\ Moun- 
tains. 50. Ivii, 233-60. Craighead, F. C. Direct sunglight as a factor 
in forest insect control. 10, xxii, 106-8. Dickerson & Weiss. The 
insects of the evening primrose in New Jersey. 6, xxviii, 32-74. Esche- 
rich, K. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie, vi, Heft 2. Imms, A. 
D. The training of practical entomologists. 76, cv, 676-7. Imms & 
Husian, Field experiments on the chemotropic responses of insects. 72, 
51, 269-92. Meyer, P. Art oder varietat? Eine auffassungs-und zweck- 
massigkeitsfrage der systematik, betrachtet vom standpunkt der biologic. 
. 49, ix, 1-9. Oberholser, H. C. The nomenclature of families 
and subfamilies in zoology. 68, Hi, 142-7. Pierantoni, U. Nuove 
osservazioni sulla luminosita degli animali. (Rend. Acad. Sci. Fis. e 
Mathe. Soc. R. Napoli., Ivi, 24-7). Poche, F. Zur begrundung dreier 
antrage zwecks einschrankung der zahl der namensanderungen und absch- 
affung des liberum veto in der Internationalen Nomenklaturkommission. 
(Arch. f. Naturges., Ixxxiii, 75-155, 1917)- Weiss & West. Fungous 
insects and their hosts. 54, xxxiii, 1-20. 

ARACHNIDA C. Glendenning, R. Some notes on the Erio- 
phyidae in British Columbia. 4, Hi, 136-7. Petrunkevitch, A. De- 
scription of Orchestina saltitans. 6, xxviii, 157-60. 

Chamberlin, R. V. Canadian Myriopods collected in 1882-3 by J. 
B. Terrell, with additional records. 4, Hi, 166-8. A new diplopod from 
Texas and a new Chilopod from Alaska. 54, xxxiii, 41-4. 

NEUROPTERA. Campion, H. Some new or little known Gom- 
phine dragon flies from South American. 11, v, 130-41. Chaine, J. 
L'attaque des vegetaux par les termites. (Revue Gen. Sci. Pures et 
Appli, Paris, xxxi, 250-55; 281-85). Crampton, G. C. Some ana- 
tomical details of the remarkable winged zorapteron, Zorotypus hubbardis, 
with notes on its relationship. 10, xxii, 98-106. Needham, J. G. 
Burrowing mayflies of our larger lakes and streams. (Bull. Bur. Fisheries, 
xxxvi, 269-92). Reijne, A. A cocoonspinning thrips. 30, Ixiii, 40-5. 
Snyder, T. E. The colonizing reproductive adults of termites. 10, 
xxii, 109-50. Williamson, E. B. A new gomphine genus from British 
Guiana, with a note on the classification of the subfamily. 88, No. 80. 
Wilson, C. B. Dragonflies and damselflies in relation to pondfish cul- 
ture, with a list of those found near Fairport, Iowa. (Bui. Bur. Fisheries, 
Wash., xxxvi, 185-264). 

Caudell, A. N. Zoraptera not an apterous order. 10, xxii, 84-97. 

ORTHOPTERA. Blatchley, W. S. Orthoptera of northeastern 
America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida. 
(1920. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, 784 pp.). Borelli, A. 
Dermatteri nuovi o poco noti del Messico. (Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. 
Univ. Torino, xxx, No. 699). Borri, G. -Sopra il numero e la situazione 
degli stigmi toracici negli Acrididi. (Mon. Zool. Italiano, xxxi, 22-9). Cho- 


pard, L. Diagnose d'une cspece nouvcllc clu genre Hygronemobius. 20, 
1920, 120-2. Cravero, A. Contribute allo studio dell'armatura genitale 
di alcuni Dermatteri. (Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, 
xxxiii, No. 730). Davis, W. T. The true katydid nearly extinct in New 
York City. 6, xxviii, 78-80. Morse, A. P. Manual of the Orthopd r,i 
of New England, including the locusts, grasshoppers, crickets, and their 
allies. (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxxv, 197-556.) 

Hebard, M. Revisionary studies in the genus Arenivaga (Blattidae). 
2, xlvi, 197-217. 

HEMIPTERA. Deletang, L. F. Contribucion al estudio de los Cica- 
didos Argentines. 106, Ixxxviii, 25-94. Dozier, H. L. Notes on the 
genus Platycotis. 82, xx, 209-12. Lahille, F. Nota sobre un nuevo 
genero de "Diaspinae". 96, iv, 595-99. Parshley, H. M. Ethological 
remarks on some New England water striders. 19, xv, 67-70. Penning- 
ton, M. S. Nota sobre las especies argentinas del genero Phymata. 
Descripcion de un nuevo hemiptero. Notas sobre las especies argentinas 
del genero Nezara. 96, iv, 523-30. de la Torre Bueno, J. R. Notes on 
the Heidemann collection of Heteroptera now at Cornell University. 19, 
xv, 70. 

Baker & Moles, A n. sp. of Aleyrodidae found on Azalea. 
10, xxii, 81-3. Davis, W. T. North Amer. cicadas belonging to the 
genera Platypedia and Melampsalta. 6, xxviii, 95-135. Drake, C. J. 
\Vuter striders new to the fauna of Ohio, including the description of a 
new species. 82, xx, 205-8. Ferris, G. F. Scale insects of the Santa 
Cruz peninsula. (Stanford Univ. Pub., Univ. Ser., Biol. Sci., i, 1-57). 
Hussey, R. F. An American species of Cymatia (Corixidae). 19, xv, 
80-3. Knight, H. H. New and little known species of Phytocoris 
from the eastern U. S. 19, xv, 49-66. Malloch, J. R. A n. sp. of 
Typhlocyba from Illinois. 19, xv, 48. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Brues, C. T. The selection of food plants by- 
insects, with special reference to lepidopterous larvae. 90, liv, 313-32. 
Comstock, J. A. Butterflies of California (Bui. So. Cal. Acad. Sci. 
xix, 48.). Ehrmann, G. A. A n. sp. of Pierinac from Honduras, C. A. 
17, iv, 43. Lizer, G. Nota acerca de la presencia de la "Sitotroga 
cerealella" en la Republica Argentina. 96, iv, 530-1. Prout, L. B. 
New Geometridae. (Some Neotropical) 71, xxvii, 265-312. Raymundo, 
B. Noticia sobre algunos lepidopteros serigenos do Brasil. (Ann. Col- 
legio Pedro II, iii, 29-95.) Saunders, A. A. Notes on the life history 
of Eurema lisa. 54, xxxiii, 35-6. Schaus, W. New species of L. in 
the U. S. National Museum. (Neotropical.) 50, Ivii, 107-52. Seitz, A. 
Die grossschmetterlinge der erde. Fauna Amer. Li^f. 102-114. Simms, 
H. M. Butterflies observed in Dead Horse Canyon, Calif., during 1917 
season. (Southwest Sci. Bull., Los Angeles, i, 9-12.). Strickens, H. 
Collecting in February. 17, iv, 43-4. Wolff, G. Physikalisch-bio- 
logische beobachtungen an schmetterlingsflugeln. 103. xl, 248-59. 


Busck, A. A new tortricid moth from Nova Scotia. 4, 1920, 125. 
Comstock, J. A. A new sp. or race of Argynnis from California. Meli- 
taea sabina. (Southwest Sci. Bull., Los Angeles, i, 4-8; 30-2.). Flint 
& Malloch, The European corn-borer and some similar native insects. 
93, xiii, 287-305. Heinrich, C. On some forest L. with descriptions of 
new species, larvae and pupae. 50, Ivii, 53-96. McDunnough, J. 
New species of Lepidoptera. 4, Hi, 161-5. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. New or little known crane flies from 
tropical America. 4, Hi, 141-4. Records and descriptions of Neotropical 
crane-flies. 6, xxviii, 1-13. Chandler, S. C. A study of the malarial 
mosquitoes of southern Illinois. 93, xiii, 309-28. Duda, Dr. Revision 
der altweltlichen arten der gattung Sphaerocera. 30, Ixiii, 1-39. Ed- 
wards, F. W. Dimorphism in the antennae of a male midge. 8, Ivi, 
I 35~6. On the use of the generic name Ceratopogon (Chironomidae). 
11, v, 127-30. The nomenclature of the parts of the male hypopygium 
of Diptera Nematocera, with special reference to mosquitoes. 98, xiv, 23- 
40. Hine, J. S. Descriptions of horse-flies from middle America. I. 
82, xx, 185-92. Huxley, J. S. Intersexes in Drosophila and different 
types of intersexuality. 68, Hi, 59-60. Lischetti, A. B. Algunas 
observaciones sobre la morfologia de los huevos de "Culex." Un verme 
del genero" "Planaria" enemigo natural de las larvas del mosquito. 96, 
iv, 588-95. Macfie, J. W. S. Heat and Stegomyia fasciata: Short 
exposures to raised temperatures. 98, xiv, 73-82. Tavares, J. S. 
Cecidologia Brazileira. 102, xviii, 82-96. Zetek, J. Anopheles larvae 
in salt water. 68, lii, 15. 

Alexander, C. P. The crane flies [of the Katmai expedition of the 
National Geographic Society]. 82, xx, 193-203. Malloch, J. R. Some 
new N. Am. Sapromyzidae. Some n. sps. of Lonchaeidae from America. 
4, lii, 126-32. 

COLEOPTERA. Angell, J. W. Dorcus parallelus var. costatus. 
19, xv, 66. Brethes, J. Un nuevo genero "Philoscaptus" para "Pod- 
algus bonariensis". 96, iv, 602. Bruch, C. Metamorfosis de Cotinis 
semiopaca. Descripcion de un nuevo criptofagio. Un nuevo coleoptero 
ecitofio. 96, iv, 393-99; 522-3; 579-82. Chamberlin, W. J. Notes on 
two little known wood boring beetles. Chrysobothris sylvania and 
Melasis rufipennis. (Buprestidae). 6, xxviii, 151-7. Davis, J. J. 
The green Japanese beetle (Popilia japonica). (New Jersey Dept. Agric., 
Circ. 30). Doorman, G. Die mechanik des sprunges der schnellkafer. 
57, xl, 116-9. Frers, A. G. Metamorfosis de coleopteros argentinos. 
96, iv, 565-73. Hayes, W. P. The life histories of some Kansas Lach- 
nosterna. 12, xiii, 303-18. Lucas, R. Catalogus alphabeticus generum 
et subgenerum Coleopterorum orbis terrarum totius. (Archiv f. Naturges, 
Berlin, Ixxxiv, Abt. A, 1-696.) Nicolay & Weiss, The group Traches 
in North America. Part i. The genera Pachyscheltis and Taphrocerus. 
6, xxviii, 136-50. Poche, F. Ueber den wert von spccialzeitschriften. 


(Munchener Koleop. Zeit., iv, 344-48, 1914.) Satterthwait, A. F. 
Notes on the habits of Calendra pertinax. 12, xiii, 280-95. Sharp, D. 
Studies in Rhynchophora. IX. The sexes of Conotracheltis brevisctis. 
6, xxviii, 74-8. Wickham, H. F. An interesting Otiorhynchide weevil 
from Vancouver. 4, Hi, 134-5. 

Barber, H. S. A new tropical weevil from Florida and Cuba. 10, 
xxii, 150-2. Blatchley, W. S. Some new Rhynchophora from eastern 
North America with additions and corrections of the "Rhynchophora 
of Northeastern America." 6, xxviii, 161-78. Chittenden, F. H. A 
new species of Phyllotreta. (Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., x, 389-90.) 
Garnett, B. T. A new Aphodius from British Columbia. 4, Hi, 139- 
41. Hopping, R. A new sp. of the genus Pissodes. 4, Hi, 132-4. Not- 
man, H. Coleoptera collected at Schoharie, N. Y., with descriptions of 
n. sps. Legs in the Carabidae. Col. collected at Windsor, Broome Co., 
N. Y., with descriptions and notes. 6, xxviii, 14-31; 80-9; 178-94. 
Van Dyke, E. C. Description of n. sps. of Cerambycidae from the 
Pacific Coast of North Amer. with notes concerning others. New name 
for Nemosoma punctulata. 19, xv, 33-48; 85. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bequaert, J. A new host of Laboulbenia 
formicarum, with remarks on the fungous parasites of ants. 19, xv, 71- 
79. Bruch, C. Descripcion de una curiosa Ponerina de Cordoba. 
(Discsthyrea neotropica). Nidos y costumbres de hormigas. 96, iv, 
400-2; 539-41. Gockerell, T. D. A. Eye-colour in bees. 76, cv, 518. 
Hogben, L. T. Studies on synapsis. I. Oogenesis in the Hymen- 
optera. (Proc. Royal Soc. London, B, xci, 268-93). Johnson, W. F. 
Hibernating ichneumon flies. (Irish Nat., Dublin, xxix, 65-6.). Jordan, 
H. E. Studies on striped muscle structure. VII. The development of 
the sarcostyle of the wing muscle of the wasp. . . 75, xix, 97-123. 
Lowe, H. J. Bees and the scarlet runner bean. 76, cv, 742. Poche, 
F. Unberechtigte namensanderungen unter H. und prinzipielle bcmer- 
kungen uber einschlagage nomenklatorische fragen. (Entomol. Mitteil. 
Berlin, vi, 44-54. Wheeler & Bailey. The feeding habits of pseudo- 
inynnine and other ants. (Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., xxii, 235-79.). 

Cushman & Rohwer The North Amer. ichneumon flies of the tribe 
Ecoenitini. Holarctic tribes of the ichneumon flics of the subfamily 
Ichneumoninae (Pimplinae). 50, Ivii, 379-96; 503-23. Rohwer, S. A. 
Descriptions of 26 n. sps. of North Amer. H. The North Amer. ichneumon 
flies of the tribes Labenini, Rhyssini, Xoridini, Odontomerini, and Phyto- 
dietini. 50, Ivii, 209-31; 405-74. 

anapolis. The Nature Publishing Company. 784 pp. 246 text figs. 
The present work is the first effort which has been made to produce under 


one cover a "Manual" of the Orthoptera of any very considerable part 
of North America. The part of the title "Northeastern America" is 
unfortunate, as America is made up of several major divisions and South 
America has, as well, a northeastern section. The words "Eastern North 
America" certainly should have been used, as the first sentence of the 
Introduction would indicate. 

The manual is intended to treat of the order as found in "the United 
States east of the Mississippi River and Canada east of the goth Meri- 

The volume is divided into the following major sections: Introduction, 
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Orthoptera of the Eastern United States 
and Eastern Canada, Bibliography, Glossary of Terms used in Text, 
Index to Synonyms and New Generic Assignments as Recognized in This 
Work, and General Index. 

The Introduction states that the present work "is an outgrowth or 
expansion of my 'Orthoptera of Indiana' issued in 1903." The manual, 
as the author calls his study, is said to have been prepared to meet "the 
needs of the tyro and not those of the specialist in Orthoptera." The 
major sections of the Introduction discuss the classification followed, 
which we might add is not in toto that of any previous author, synonymy 
of species, explanations of the method of bibliographic quotation used 
in the body of the work, the habits and songs of Orthoptera, acknowledg- 
ments for aid received, relationship of the insects of the order to other 
animals, the general external anatomy of a locust, the enemies of Orthop- 
tera, preventive and remedial measures against destructive locusts, and 
the collecting and preservation of Orthoptera. 

Under "Classification " the author voices disagreement with the enforce- 
ment of strict priority and has little sympathy with the rigid interpre- 
tation of this fundamental of present day nomenclature. The author's 
belief in individual exceptions has led him into at least one blind alley, 
as he uses a family Acrididae, but does not like to use a restricted sub- 
family name Acridinae, derived from the generic Acrida, which must be 
the basis of the family name. Under "Synonymy of Species" (p. 6) we 
find a commendable analysis of the several variational factors which have 
been responsible for much of the synonymy in the order. The section 
criticizing the efforts of some present-day workers to locate certain of the 
older, briefly described species is quite out of place, and gives no considera- 
tion to earnest efforts which have been made in the way of studying 
itineraries of collectors, checking probable collecting dates and localities, 
etc., as well as in securing data from the original material when existent. 
These names were published, are generally recognizable when topotypic 
material is available and, under generally accepted codes of nomencla- 
ture, they cannot be cancelled until they are proven to be unrecognizable. 
Lack of the biographic, historical and other correlated information to 
make such locations excuses no one from making the proper effort when 


studying a group, and certainly honest painstaking effort should not be 
called "guessing," unless the critic has a better interpretation to offer. 

The author's attitude toward trinomials is not that taken in most 
present-day zoological works, and he has been led, by following a dog- 
matic conception of possible but unproven intergradation, into associat- 
ing as "varieties" a large number of forms which are considered as dis- 
tinct species by more than a few workers in the Orthoptera. This has 
been done, in a number of cases, without the study of sufficient material 
to gain a personal conception of the constancy or inconstancy of the fea- 
tures which are there denied specific weight. In many of his associations 
of forms as "varieties" or what not we cannot but feel Prof. Blatchley 
has acted without proper consideration of the facts known to exist, has 
permitted a mental bias to govern many of his decisions. His attitude 
toward geographic races (p. 7) shows a failure to grasp the true inward- 
ness of original constancy as an index to racial recognition. 

The section treating of the external anatomy of a locust is relatively 
full, but contains certain features worthy of note, one as an important 
correction, as on page 14 it is stated the labial palpi are attached to the 
"labrum." The slip for labium is, of course, evident to the initiated, 
but the text figure accompanying might readily convey to the tyro the 
same impression as the incorrect text. It is unfortunate that certain of 
the anatomical figures, taken from Lugger, contain reference symbols 
which are nowhere explained in the text before us, and it would have been 
more in keeping with the general plan of the anatomical section if tin- 
structure of the venation of the hind wings had been considered somewhat 
in detail, as the venation arrangement is known to be important in the 
classification of the Acrididae, to say nothing of certain of the other 

In the "Descriptive Catalogue" we find the arrangement is under the 
form of suborders, i. e., Dermaptoria, Cursoria, Gressoria and Saltatoria; 
the first of these equals the Dermaptera of most present authors, the Cur- 
soria comprise the Blattidae or cockroaches, the Gressoria are made up 
of the Mantidae and Phasmidae, while the Saltatoria are composed of 
the generally associated saltatorial families, the Acrididae, Tettigoniidae 
and Gryllidae. Under each family the general method is to give a sum- 
marized description of the physical form, special appendages, life history, 
approximate number of known species and number known from America 
north of Mexico, while the principal literature is cited and a key to the 
subfamilies given. Under the subfamilies the treatment consists of 
physical features, key to genera and other pertinent matter. The gen- 
eric treatment is similarly made up of a summary of the features and a 
key to the species where more than a single species is treated. The spe- 
cific treatment consists of a description, with measurements, a general 
statement of distribution within and outside of the territory covered, com- 
ments on habits, often accompanied by a word sketch of the insect and 


its habitat, and occasionally by critical taxonomic information or discus- 
sion. In many cases we find much to criticize in the latter, which is, in 
a number of instances, too controversial for introduction in a work of 
this character. A book for the tyro is no place for the airing of moot 
points of relationship and nomenclature, and the average zoologist con- 
siders the critical matter accumulated in the composition of such a man- 
ual best published in advance in another paper, which action would re- 
move the otherwise inevitable doubt and uncertainty from the mind of 
the "tyro" to whom the manual is addressed. 

The keys are relatively full and the illustrations numerous, although 
very few are original and many of those taken from other sources are 
poorly reproduced, in some cases on account of too great a reduction. 

In the Blattidae we find Compsodes cucullatus (Saussure and Zehntner) 
recorded from the United States for the first time. 

In the summary of the Saltatoria the author gives the impression that 
all sound made by the insects of the suborder is produced by or with the 
wings, overlooking the remarkable abdominal and limb sound-producing 
specialization found in the Old World Pneumorinae and in which the 
wings have no part. The grouse-locusts are considered a family equiva- 
lent in rank to the remainder of the locusts, which are termed the family 
Acrididae. The author shows a peculiar perversity in many of his con- 
clusions regarding the rank of forms treated, shutting his eyes to certain 
important structural features, often other than genitalic, which latter 
types of characters he frequently condemns although drawing upon them 
freely at other times. In more than one case he has fallen back upon a 
color feature to use in relegating a form to the limbo of a "variety, " and 
has ignored in his argument a structural feature mentioned in the descrip- 
tion preceding it, and which a previous author had utilized. The con- 
clusions reached in the critical discussions of a number of species and 
races, as Radinotatum brevipenne, Trimerotropis acta, Podisma glacialis 
variegata, the relationship of certain forms of Mermiria and of Chorto- 
phaga are not sound and not supported by the facts in the cases. The 
conception formed relative to the position of certain species described 
as belonging to the genus Eotettix and also the conclusions on the rela- 
tionship of many of the species of Melanoplns and certain of those of 
Hesperotettix are open to serious question. The naming of the form of 
Eritettix simplex which lacks supplementary carinae on the pronotum is 
unfortunate, as it opens to some workers the necessity for naming a num- 
ber of similar forms in the Amblytropidi as found elsewhere. The au- 
thor's desire to retain his "sylvestrus", one of these forms of Macneillia 
(there called Pedeticum), is possibly responsible for this attitude, which 
is quite out of keeping with his treatment of many other forms. 

Under the Tettigoniidae we find many sharply criticizablc points, the 
general conclusion reached in regard to the relationship of Amblycorypha 
oblongifolia, A. floridana and A. floridana carinata being entirely unsound 
;ind not supported by the known and published farts. The 


comments on the forms of Orchelimum are in some cases distorted by par- 
tial quotations from other authors and do not give a full consideration 
of all the points involved. Partial and incomplete quotation is a weak- 
ness of the author, a method unfair to all concerned. The study of the 
genus Ceuthophilus is one of the best pieces of work in the manual, par- 
ticularly with the original illustrations. Two new species are described 
in this genus, one with the specific name of rehebi, an atrocious effort 
to associate the names Rehn and Hebard in one specific name. In the 
new tettigoniids described we are sorry to see no single types indicated, 
as has been recommended more than once by congresses of zoologists 
and is now pretty general entomological practice. These new forms are 
Conocephalus viridifrons, Odontoxiphidium apterum affine and Diestram- 
mena japanica (error for japonica). In the case of the latter the recent 
Old World literature has been ignored. 

In his treatment of the Gryllidae the author leaves much to be desired, 
and shows a lack of appreciation of tarsal characters in his presentation 
of the genus Anaxipha. 

Vernacular names are given to most of the species, many newly coined 
and often mere translations or near translations of the technical specific 
names. Some new full synonymy has been established, and in some cases 
in a rather obscure way. 

The type work leaves much to be desired as errors are numerous, although 
the press work, except on certain cuts, is good. Cuts on pages 223, 253 
and 560 appear inverted through printer's slips. 

Professor Blatchley has given to us a work of considerable usefulness, 
and one which must be in the hands of any student of our eastern Orth- 
optera. It contains much original matter and represents a vast amount 
of labor, while our one regret is that it most signally fails to be the im- 
partial, evenly balanced and personally unbiased exposition of the sub- 
ject a manual for the "tyro" should be. The entire work was done too 
hastily, without the proper examination of the larger collections upon 
which such a work must be grounded, if it is to be more than a summary of 
the past literature. The author was handicapped by lack of constant 
access to the material absolutely necessary for the critical type of work 
into which he unconsciously turned his manual, originally intended for 
the beginner. Many of the seeming inconsistencies of some previous 
work would have been apparent to him if the material in the Philadelphia 
collections alone had been given more than a several days' examination. 

J. A. G. R. 

Doings of Societies 

Entomological Section, The Academy of Natural Sciences of 


The annual meeting was held I ><( -ember S, i<)i<), with Director Philip 
Laurent presiding and twelve persons present, including Mr. J. J. Davis 
and Mr. ('. II. Hadley, of Riverton, New Jersey. 


Lepidoptera. Mr. Williams exhibited some species of day-flying 

Diptera. Mr. E. T. Cresson, Jr., exhibited a small collection of Dip- 
tera presented to the Society by Mr. F. M. Jones, of Wilmington, Del., 
and collected by the donor in western United States and Alaska. Altho 
the collection contains only 95 specimens, it represents 49 determined, 
and about 17 undetermined species; ten of these are new to the collec- 
tion, four of which were described as new to science. Particular attention 
was called to the excellent condition of the material. Special attention 
was also called to two of the new species. One belonging to the Leptid 
genus Arfhropeas which contains only two other American species, differs 
from all known species by the entirely black legs and is further charac- 
terized by the globose facial swelling. The other species, belonging to 
the Tabanid genus Silvius, is especially interesting in that it differs so 
materially from the other representative of the genus, gigantulus, while 
having all the appearance of some of the species of Pangonia. However, 
in the structure of the antennae and in the absence of hind tibial spurs, 
supposedly generic characters, it is certainly typical of Silvius. The 
descriptions of the new species are published in the Proc. A. N. S. P. for 

Orthoptera. A series of Orthoptera and Dermaptera was exhibited 
by Mr. Hebard, showing the largest and smallest species of the various 
families. It was pointed out that the largest known species of Orthoptera 
is the walking-stick Phryganistria grandis Rehn, the smallest is the 
cricket Myrmecophila oregonensis Bruner. The distribution and habits 
of the various species exhibited were discussed. Further remarks on the 
subject were made by Dr. Skinner, Laurent and Rehn. 

Coleoptera. Mr. J. J. Davis exhibited, in Riker mounts, specimens 
showing the life history of the Japanese Scarabeid beetle, Popila japonica, 
and its ravages on plants (elm, willow, oak, 5-leaved ivy, fern, Norway 
maple, apple, grape, sweet cherry and smart-weed), and gave a short 
but interesting talk on its habits, distribution, destructiveness and the 
methods being pursued with a view to minimizing its ravages and prevent 
its spread. He stated that it seemed to be confined to Burlington County, 
New Jersey, appearing in June and continuing its activities into Septem- 
ber. It had first been noticed five years ago, multiplied rapidly and was 
hard to control; the insect in its adult state skeletonizes the leaves of the 
plant it attacks and seems to eat everything. He spoke of the efforts 
being made for its reduction, as plowing the ground at the proper season, 
hand collecting, insecticides and salting, cutting the roadside growths, a 
difficult task as there were about 200 miles of road in the infested area. 

There was discussion as to methods of capture by Messrs. Hebard, 
Skinner and Williams. 

Mr. C. H. Hadley spoke of the quarantine established against these 
beetles and stated that they were sun-loving, active insects and did not 
appear in woods. The infected area is now about 25 square miles. 

R. C. WILLIAMS, JR., Recorder, pro //;/. 


Meeting of January 22, 1920. Six members and contributors and one 
visitor present. Vice-director, R. C. Williams presiding. Mr. A. B. 
Hiedemann was elected a contributor. 

Lepidoptera. Mr. Williams exhibited a box of butterflies, being some 
curious aberrations of Catopsilia agaritlie, Zercne cacsonia, Argviinis 
hiilryone, Melitaea nubigena, quino, andfulvia, Plebeius saepiolus, Cyaniris 
nr plains echo, Everes corny ntas, II codes hello-ides, and hypophlaeas. He 
also spoke about collecting in Connecticut, especially of the irregular 
appearance of some species, stating that he considered it impossible to 
plot the distribution of species by collecting in a single season. 

Diptera. Mr. Cresson made some remarks on a new Trypetid in- 
jurious to the English walnut in Arizona. 

Orthoptera. Mr. Rehn exhibited and made some interesting remarks 
on some Orthoptera of the southwestern portions of the United States. 
He took some exceptions to Mr. Williams' remarks on collecting, stating 
that by expert and constant collecting in one season, a good representa- 
tive collection of the orthopterous species can be secured. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR., Recorder. 


An obituary notice of WILBUR Ross McCoNNELL, Assistant 
Professor of Zoology and Entomology at the Pennsylvania 
State College from 1907 to 1912, and subsequently connected 
with the Federal Bureau of Entomology, appears in the 
Journal of Economic Entomology for August, 1920. He was 
born at Whitesburg, Pennsylvania, in 1881, and died at Car- 
lisle in the same state, June 23, 1920, and had paid much at- 
tention to the parasites of the Hessian fly. 

The Bulletin of the Entomological Society of France (1920, 
No. 10) announces the death of J. R. SAHLBERG at Helsing- 
fors, Finland, on May 8, 1920, aged 80 years. He published 
on the Coleoptera and Hemiptera of Finland and on ento- 
mological collections, especially of Coleoptera, which he had 
made in conjunction with his son, U. Sallas, along the eastern 
and southern Mediterranean. His father and grandfather 
also w r ere well-known entomologists. Since this note was 
written, an obituary notice has appeared in Science for Sept. 
3, 1920, giving his age as 75. 

An obituary notice of JOSEPH PAVIKL, whose death was 
mentioned in the \K\YS for July last, page 210, is ;ic(vs>iMr 
in Science for Sept. 17, 1920. 


The death of LEONARD DONCASTER, Derby professor of 
Zoology in the University of Liverpool, on May 28, 1920, 
was reported in Science for July 2. Although chiefly a stu- 
dent of heredity and cytology, as evidenced in his two books 
Heredity in the Light of Recent Research (1910) and The De- 
termination of Sex (1914), his research work was largely 
based on insects. He published on Gameto genesis and Sex 
Determination in the Gail-Fly, Neuroterus lenticularis (3 
parts, Proc. Roy. Soc., 1910, 1911, 1916). On the Relation 
between Chromosomes, Sex-limited Transmission and Sex- 
determination in Abraxas grossulariata and On the Chromo- 
somes of Biston hirtaria, Nyssia zonaria and their hybrids 
(Journ. Genetics 1914), and On Some Gynandromorphic 
Specimens of Abraxas grossulariata (Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 
1916). He was born at Sheffield, Dec. 31, 1877, attended 
the Leighton Park School at Reading, went to Kings College, 
Cambridge (of which he became a Fellow in 1910), and was 
Lecturer on Zoology at Birmingham University, 1906-1910. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1915. 

The Philadelphia Public Ledger, of August 30, 1920, pub- 
lished a despatch from "Tokio, Aug. 29. The Rev. HENRY 
LOOMIS, a pioneer missionary, is dead here. He was born 
in Burlington, New York, in 1839." We suppose that it 
was he through whom a number of American entomologists 
obtained Japanese insects, especially in 1888 and 1889. 

Additions to the Recorded Illinois Reduviidae (Hem.) 

Van Duzee's recent Catalogue of Hemiptera contains all the published 
records of Reduviidae from -Illinois, but there are in the collection of the 
Illinois State Natural History Survey many species which are not in- 
cluded in that catalogue as occurring in the state. The following list 
supplies the omitted species. The nomenclature is according to Van 
Duzee's catalogue. 

Ploiariola errabunda Say, P. tuberculata Banks, Barce annulipes Stal, B. 
fraterna Say, Oncerolrachelus acuminatus Say, Pnirontis infirma Stal, 
Pygolampis sericea Stal, Stenopoda culiciformis Fabricius, Oncocephalus 
apiculatus Reuter, Narvesus carolinensis Stal, Reduvius personatus Linne, 
Melanolestes abdominalis H.-S., Sirthena carinata Fabricius, Rhiginia 
cruciata Say, Apiomerus crassipes Fabricius, Zelus exsanguis Stal, Pselli- 
opns barberi Davis, Repipta taurus Fabricius, Filch in spinulosa Stal, 
Aril-us cristatus Linnc, Ac holla diadema Fabricius, Sincu spinipes H.-S. 

This brings the state list to a total of 30 species, three more than re- 
corded from New Jersey in 1909. J. R. MALLOCH. 

Holland. The Butterfly Book. New edition, 48 colored 

Holland. The Moth Book. New edition, 48 colored plates. 

Humphrey and Westwood. British Moths. 1849. 124 
colored plate--. 

Kirby. Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera. Complete with 
supplement. 1871-77. 

Lang. Rhopalocera Europe. 1884. 82 colored plates. 

Leech. Butterflies from China, Japan, and Corea. 1892- 
94. 43. colored plates. 

Kershaw. Butterflies of Hong Kong and S. E. China. 
1907. 23 plates (22 colored). 

Lucas. Lepidopteres cle Cuba. 1857. 4 colored plates. 

Lyonet. Traite anatomique de la Chenille. 1762. 18 

Mabille. Hesperiidac. Genera Insectorum. 1903-04. 4 
colored plates. 

Morris. British Butterflies. 71 colored plates. 

Oberthur. Etudes d'Entomologie. Livraisons i-io, 1876- 
84. 58 colored plates. 

Packard. Monograph N. A. Phalaenida-. 1876. 13 plates. 

Packard. Monograph N. A. Bombycine Moths. Three 
parts, 1895-1914. 232 plates (85 colored). 

Rothschild and Jordan. Revision of the Sphingid;r. 
1903. 67 plates (7 colored). 

Stephens. Illustrations of British Entomology. Haustel- 
lata, Vols. 1-4 complete. 41 colored plates. Beautiful set. 

Wood and Westwood. Index Entomologicus. (Lepidop- 
tera of Great Britain.) 1854. 59 colored plates. 

Wright. Butterflies of West Coast of United States. 1906. 
32 colored plates, with complete text. 

Send for Catalogue No. 8 

This recent catalogue of IIO pages, issued May i. 1920, 
contains 30 pages of titles on Lepidoptera, and many oilier 
items have since been purchased. 




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Plate III. 







No 9. 


Chamberlin Description of One New 
Buprestid with Notes on Other 
Little Known Species (Coleop.) . . 241 

Martin Notes on the Genus Hetaer- 
ius and Descriptions of Three 
New Species (Coleop.) 245 

Osborn & Metcalf Notes on the Life- 
History of the Salt Marsh Cicada 
(Tibicen viridifascia Walker), 
(Hemip.) 248 

Mann The Occurrence of Mallophaga 

on a Dragonfly (Odon.) 252 

Calvert Studies on Costa Rican Odo- 
nata IX. Sympetrum with De- 
scription of a New Species 25,3 

Ramsden A New Kricogonia from 

Cuba (Lep., Rhop.) 250 

Davis Indiana Insects 260 

Brimley On Scolia bicincta Fab. and 
Scolia undata Klug (Hymcnop- 

tera, Scoliidae) 261 

Spillane House Flies in Court 262 

Editorial Mental Attitudes toward 
Insects; Aner-t an Increased Sub- 
scription Price 263 

Skinner Two Syntomidae New to 

Mississippi (Lep.) 263 

Entomological Literature 264 

Review of Morse's Manual of the 

Orthoptcra of New England 267 

Correction. 270 

Description of One New Buprestid with Notes 
on Other Little Known Species (Coleop.). 

BY W. J. CHAMBERLIN, Forest Entomologist, Oregon Agri- 
cultural College. 
Cinyra robusta n. sp. 

Form elongate, robust. Entire upper surface, head, thorax and elytra 
covered with scattered, short, fine, recumbent hairs, arising from the 

Head same color as elytra, not shining, \t-ry coarsely punctured, with 
a faint median line running one-third from the thorax. Front rough with 
irregular callosities extending across the middle. Clypeus shallow, 
broadly emarginate. Antennae with the third joint twice as long as the 
second; from the fourth joint on, all joints are broad and flattened, entire 
antennae black not testaceous. 

Thorax coarsely, moderately densely punctate with irregular smooth 
callosities, especially along the middle-, sides of thorax slightly arcuate, 
widest just behind the middle and narrowing sharply at the anterior 
fourth. Scutellum semi-circular, small. 

Prosternum dull black not shining, an irregular slight depression ex- 
tending around the sclerite just inside the border (Fit;, i). From this 




[xxxi, '20 

depression protrude many lines of long yellowish hairs. Metasternum 
with large shallow punctures and scattered pubescence. 

Length of elytra 10 mm., apex quadri-spinose, finely rather densely 
punctate, costa apparent on the posterior half; an irregular network of 
callosities over the whole elytra. Color dull purplish black, the punctures 
giving a faint bronze reflection in the light. Elytra narrowing rather 
sharply at the apical fifth. 

Abdomen dull black with a faint purplish tinge, sparsely punctate with 
intermediate, smooth elevations; last ventral truncate. 

Length 14.5 mm. 

Fig. i. 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3- 
Fig. 4. 
Fig. 5. 
Fig. 6. 

Prosternum of Cinyra robusta n. sp. 
Prosternum of Cinyra prosternalis Schaeffer. 
Last ventral segment of Cinyra robusta n. sp. 
Last ventral segment of Cinyra prosternalis Sch. 
Last ventral segment of Cinyra gracilipes Mels. 
Lest ventral segment of Cinyra purpurescens Sch. 

One specimen Texas. Exact locality unknown. Type in 
the author's collection. 

Abundantly distinct from its nearest ally, C. prosternalis 
Schaeffer, by its more robust form, darker and less shining 
color. In the specimen of C. prosternalis which I have, the 
antennae from the fourth joint on have testaceous lobes, 
(similar to Chrysobothris dentipes), a point not mentioned by 
Mr. Schaeffer. In C. robusta the joints are broad, flattened, 
uniform in texture and color. The border of hairs around 


the prosternum as well as the shape of that sclerite (Fig. i) 
is different. In prosternalis the depression near the border 
of the prosternum extends only down each side, the hairs 
are short and scattered, the surface is smooth and shining. 
In robusta the hairs are "thick, extend entirely around and 
the surface lacks any luster. 

The last ventral segment of prosternalis is stated to be 
truncate; in my specimen it is slightly sinuate, while in ro- 
busta it is squarely cut off, almost twice as broad as in pros- 
ternalis and lacks the definite spines of the latter. Our 
four* species are, I believe, very readily distinguished a< 
follows : 

1. Front coarsely, evenly punctate, metallic coppery color, with no prom- 
inent callosities. Clypeus broadly emarginate, rounded at each corner. 
Length 8 mm C. purpurescens Schaeffer 

2. Front with scattered, coarse punctures, dull blackish violet with faint 
greenish tinge. A depression at the vertex and an irregular callosity 
extending across the middle. Clypeus broadly, slightly emarginate, 
corners angulate. Length 14.5 mm C. robusta n. sp. 

3. Front coarsely punctate, shining green, with callosities more or less 
resembling an inverted W. Clypeus more deeply emarginate, angles 
sharper, edges thickened. Length: 13 mm. .C. prosternalis Schaeffer 

4. Front densely, moderately coarsely, punctate. Coppery bronze, 
metallic, with a shining green callosity in the shape of an inverted Y. 
Clypeus triangularly emarginate. Length: n mm. 

C. gracilipes Melsheimer 

There is, I believe, ample reason for separating the above 
species into different genera as suggested by Colonel Caseyf, 
but this could only be done by one thoroughly familiar with 
exotic genera. 

Ultimately the species mentioned above will probably 
fall into three separate genera. C. gracilipes Mels. in one, 
purpurescens Sch. in another and C. prosternalis Sch. and 
robusta n. sp. in the third. 

Agaeocera scintillaiis Waterhouse. 

This beautiful buprestid has not heretofore been reported 
as occurring in the United States. Dr. Frank Lutz kindly 

* I am unable to distinguish Col. Casey's C. inacilenta from C. gracil- 
ipes Mels. 

t Casey, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. XI, p. 176 (1909). 


presented me with a specimen of Agaeocera, which I took to 
be A. gentilis Horn, but upon comparing it with the type, at 
Philadelphia, I found it was an entirely different species 
and have placed it as A. scintillans Water., previously re- 
corded from Mexico. The specimen which I have, with 
another identical specimen in the American Museum, bears 
the following label: "Sabino Basin, Sta. Catalina Mts., 
Arizona. July 8-20, '16. 3222' N. noi6.5 / W. About 
3800 ft." Collected by Dr. Lutz. 

The species is easily distinguished from A. gentilis by its 
prominent shining costae, narrower thorax, on which is a 
median sulcus extending two-thirds from the base towards 
the head and the presence of an elongated fovea on each 
side of the thorax, which are lacking in gentilis. 

Dicerca pecterosa Lee. 

This rare buprestid has been bred from both peach and 
prune, where the larvae work low down in the trunk, most 
commonly in trees attacked by the peach root borer (San- 
ninoidea opalescens) . It has been submitted from Roseburg 
and The Dalles, Oregon, where it is causing considerable 
damage to orchard trees. Much of the damage in this state 
attributed to Chrysobothris femorata Fab. is in reality clue to 
C. mali Horn and D. pecterosa Lee. The native host tree of 
pecterosa is not known with certainty, although the author 
collected one specimen in Grant County, Oregon, on lodge- 
pole pine (Pinus contorta), where it was apparently oviposit- 

Melanophila pini-edulis Burke. 

This rare species has been recorded from Utah, Colorado, 
Arizona, New Mexico, and California and Mr. H. E. Burke 
gives Pinus edulis and Pinus sabiniana, as hosts. A speci- 
men was taken from its cell in Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) 
at Waldo, Oregon, in March, 1914, by Mr. J. M. Miller, 
thus giving a new host plant for the species and extending 
its range into another state. 


Notes on the Genus Hetaerius and Descriptions 
of three New Species (Coleop.) 

BY J. O. MARTIN, Berkeley, California 

(Continued from page 2.15.) 

Hetaerius nitidus very closely resembles brunnipennis Rand ; 
but in that species the lateral thoracic area is crossed at 
basal third by a distinct sulcus, represented in nitidus by a 
foveate depression. In brunnipennis the lateral thoracic 
area is coarsely punctate, in nitidus it is very finely so and 
the punctures are fewer in number. The interstrial spaces 
of the elytra in brunnipennis have coarse scattered punctures 
which are lacking in nitidus. The pygidium in brunnipennis 
is smooth, in nitidus punctate and hairy. They agree in 
having the margined area of the prosternum closed by the 
meeting of the marginal striae. 

Hetaerius hirsutus sp. nov. 

Body oblong, shining, castaneous, upper surface feebly convex. 

Head piceous, vertex concave, punctate, portion next to thorax moder- 
ately, coarsely punctured, each puncture with a coarse branched hair, 
cephalic portion more finely punctured without hair; front smooth, shin- 
ing, impunctate. 

Thorax two-fifths wider than long, slightly narrowed in front, divided 
longitudinally by two suture-like diagonal grooves into a discal and two 
lateral areas; lateral areas again divided by a deep transverse sulcus at 
basal third; discal area slightly longer than wide, a little less than one-half 
as wide in front as at base, bordered laterally by a shallow sulcus which 
is smooth, shining and impunctate; central portion of discal area smooth, 
shining, impunctate, between this rounded impunctate portion and the 
impunctate bordering sulcus is a roughly triangular area with base at 
upper edge of elytra and extending slightly less than two-thirds the length 
of disc which is coarsely and thickly punctured, each puncture bearing a 
long branched hair, depressed and directed caudad, forming a brush-like 
bunch at its outer basal portion ; along the apical border of discal area are 
ten to twelve punctures, each with a depressed, squamose, fringed hair; 
lateral area of prothorax widest at its cephalic end, thickly, coarsely 
punctured, apical punctures bearing depressed, squamose, fringed hairs; 
in the lateral and basal punctures the hairs are not squamose but are 
long, pointed and branched, forming at the edge of the transverse sulcus 
a brush-like tuft which nearly conceals the sulcus; posterior part of lateral 
area piceous, shining, tuberculate, lateral edge with numerous long, 


branched hairs which are combed inward, partly covering the tuberculate 

Elytra shining, hairy, slightly wider than adjacent base of thorax, 
sides sinuate at base, nearly straight at middle, gradually curving inward 
to the obtusely rounded, outer apical angle, the truncate tips slightly 
arcuate; first stria from the suture nearly reaching to apical margin, sinu- 
ate, outer edge raised and densely covered with inward pointing, squa- 
mose, fringed hairs which at basal third become long, branched hairs 
directed inward and form at base a brush-like tuft which meets a similar 
thoracic tuft at an acute angle, their tips intermingling; second stria about 
five-sixths the length of elytra, broad, shallow and rounded at base, 
smooth and impunctate; third stria not as broad as second, nearly meet- 
ing second at tip, subhumeral stria extending two-thirds the length of 
elytra; the outer edge of all striae being raised; interstrial spaces moder- 
ately punctured, punctures bearing depressed; squamose, fringed hairs 
and among them a few, long, simple hairs. 

Prosternum punctate rugose, ventral surface two-thirds its length; area 
within the margin shining, sparsely punctate with two slightly converg- 
ing ridges which are widest apart caudally and extend two-thirds the 
length of the margining striae; marginal striae bent inward at cephalic 
end but not meeting. 

Thoracic and abdominal segments smooth, shining, sparsely micro- 
scopically punctured. 

Legs smooth, shining, moderately punctured, punctures without hairs. 

Propygidium moderately, thickly punctured, punctures with squamose 
fringed hairs. Pygidium smooth, shining, with a few microscopic punc- 

All hairs of the various parts described are yellow. 

Length 2.5 mm. width 1.8 mm. 

Described from two examples; one, the type, taken by my- 
self at Mill Valley, Marin County, California, is in my own 
collection, the other, a paratype, is from San Francisco and 
is in the collection of Dr. E. C. Van Dyke. 

This species resembles loripes Casey, but differs from it in 
elytral striation and the brush-like tufts of hairs. I have com- 
pared it very carefully with tristriatus Horn, from which it is 
distinct in elytral striation, its hairy tufts and the absence of 
hairs on the sides of the legs which in tristriatus are present 
though very small. 

Hetaerius williamsi sp. nov. 

Body oblong, one-third longer than wide, shining, castaneous, hairy. 
Head shining; vertex concave, shining, evenly, moderately, coarsely 
punctured, each puncture with a stout fringed hair; front nearly smooth. 


clypeus moderately hairy; genae and upper part of mandibles with numer- 
ous fringed hairs. 

Thorax one-fifth wider than long, divided into a discal and two lateral 
areas by a suture-like groove which extends nearly to apical border and 
is paralleled by the shallow sulcus of the discal area, said sulcus being 
smooth, shining and impunctate; discal area twice as wide at base as at 
apex, moderately, thickly, coarsely punctured, each puncture with a 
slightly squamose, fringed hair which becomes longer and more pointed 
toward the base; lateral area widest in front, the apical angles obtusely 
rounded, divided at basal third by a deep, transverse sulcus; front por- 
tion moderately thickly punctured, punctures with fringed hairs which 
are longer at sides and edge of sulcus over which they project; basal por- 
tion of lateral area piceous, tuberculate with a few punctures on its sur- 
face, becoming more numerous on the outer side. 

Elytra shining, moderately thickly punctured, hairy, coarsely striate; 
first stria from elytra 1 suture nearly reaching apical margin, broad and 
shallow at base, becoming narrow at apex, outer edge raised and thickly 
covered with squamose fringed hairs; second stria almost as long as first 
and like it broad and shallow at base; outer edge raised and bordered with 
squamose fringed hairs which are not as dense as on first stria; third stria 
slightly shorter than second with raised edges, having fewer and shorter 
fringed hairs than second stria and likewise broadened at base; subhumeral 
stria extending two-thirds the length of elytra, also broadened at base; 
the broad basal part of all striae smooth, shining, impunctate; striae one 
and two with a few longer, branched hairs at base; interstrial spaces 
moderately, thickly, coarsely punctured, each puncture with a depressed, 
squamose, fringed hair and among them a few erect, long, simple hairs. 

Prosternum opaque, rugose-punctate; margined ventral surface moder- 
ately punctate and with fringed hairs, marginal striae extending one- 
half length of prosternum, very slightly inflexed at cephalic end, not 
enclosing area. 

Thoracic and abdominal segments shining, moderately punctate, 
punctures with fringed hairs. 

Pygidium and propygidium moderately evenly punctured, punctures 
with fringed hairs. 

Legs shining, moderately punctate, punctures with fringed hairs. 

Length 3 mm., width 2 mm. 

Described from three examples from the collection of Dr. 
E. C. Van Dyke, taken at Merced Lake, San Francisco, 
California, in the nests of a grey Formica by Mr. F. X. Wil- 
liams, for whom I have named it. Type in the collection of 
Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, paratype in my own collection. 

This species has the same form as that figured by Dr. 
Horn* as morsus, Lee. but the elytral striation is quite dif- 

* Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Vol. Ill (1870), PI. i. 


ferent and the size much smaller. It resembles loripes 
Casey, but differs from it in having the whole of the discal 
area of the prothorax, excepting the sulcate lateral border, 
punctate and hairy. The elytral striae also differ from his 
description, as does the margined portion of the prosternum 
and the vestiture of the pygidium. Casey did not describe 
the vestiture of the leg surface. 

Notes on the Life-History of the Salt Marsh 
-Cicada (Tibicen viridifascia Walker) (Hemip.) 

By H. OSBORN and Z. P. METCALF, North Carolina State 
College and Experiment Station. 

(Plate III) 

While collecting at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, 
on July 27, 1919, we had the fortune to collect a goodly num- 
ber of the adults of the Salt Marsh Cicada (Tibicen viridi- 
fascia Walk.). We also made some observations on the 
life-history of this species w r hich seem worth recording. 

The adults were common on the beach, frequenting the 
tall dense grasses that abound everywhere in that region. 
They were especially common on the so-called Sea Oats 
(Uniola paniculata) which grows luxuriantly on the higher 
sand dunes on the Wrightsville Banks. The males were 
busily singing and usually half a dozen or more could be heard 
at one time. The song is a high pitched zing-g-g-g which 
is much prolonged. One male observed singing was clinging 
to a stem of the sea oats about five feet from the ground, 
head up and abdomen well elevated. Several other males 
were flushed from a coarse, densely matted, short grass which 
grows near the edge of the water at low tide. These were 
not singing and were only flushed when they were in danger 
of being tramped upon. All the females collected were found 
in this latter locality but a numbr of adults were flushed from 
the sea oats which did not give the peculiar startled zing 
given by the disturbed males and were apparently females. 


A close examination of the stems of the sea oats revealed 
characteristic cicada egg punctures. These punctures were 
found principally on the old stems of last year's growth as 
well as on the growth of the current year. In one case old 
and new punctures were found in the same stem. These 
punctures were found at varying distances from the ground, 
some being about eighteen inches and others about four feet 
from the ground. The number of punctures found in any 
one group varied from one to at least ten. Examination 
showed that the punctures went right through the thick wall 
of the stem to the pith. The eggs are not placed in pairs as 
is the case with the periodical cicada, but several are placed 
in each puncture averaging 6-7 in the cases where the eggs 
were actually counted. What appeared to be fresh egg punc- 
tures were brought back to the laboratory and placed in 
cages on August I. Owing to the writer' absence from the 
laboratory these eggs could not be examined again until 
September 2, when several larvae were found dead in the 
bottoms of the cages, so that they had evidently hatched 
some time previously. 

The nymphal cast skins were found in various situations, 
clinging to the sea oats on the higher sand dunes, clinging to 
the short grass at water edge during low tide and in the drift 
cast up by the waves. Some, if not most, of the nymphs 
must pass their underground life in the between tide zones 
and be subject periodically to submersion during the in- 
coming tide. 

The following technical descriptions are appended. 

The egg is pearly white in color and measures from 2.1 mm. to 2.2 mm. 
in length and .5 mm. in greatest diameter. The egg is slightly curved and 
tapers to blunt points at either end. 

The first stage nymph. The recently hatched nymph is about 1.5 mm. 
long from tip of head to the end of the abdomen. The abdomen is slender 
and the head is somewhat flattened. The body is sparsely but rather 
uniformly clothed with long slender hairs. The hairs on the legs and an- 
tennae are somewhat shorter and much stouter. The general body color 
is chitin yellow with the eye spot dark red. The antennae are rather 
short, stout and seven-jointed. The first and second joints are subequal 
in length with the second much more slender. Joints three to six are 



[A xxi, '20 

subequal in length and diameter. The seventh joint is shorter and sub- 
globular in shape. The arrangement of the spines is shown in figure 40. 
The beak is stout and reaches beyond the middle of the abdomen. The 
fore legs are well developed, with the coxa long; the trochanter about 
half as long as the coxa; the femur about as long as coxa, broad and heavy 
with ventral tooth well developed and provided with a prominent lateral 
tooth; the tibia is slender, about half as long as the femur, and the single 
tarsal claw is very long, nearly equalling the tibia in length. The middle 
and hind legs are slender with long coxae and single-jointed tarsi which 
are without claws at the tip. 

Fig. 5. Mature nymph. X2. Fig. 53. Antenna of mature nymph. 

Fore leg of mature nymph. X4- 

Fig- 5 

Last nymphal stage. Length of body 18 mm; in general appearance 
like other cicadas in the last nymphal stage; head large and robust, eyes 
large; frons well inflated, crossed by eleven rows of long hairs; antennae 
3.1 mm long, eight-jointed, the first joint stouter than second about 
two-thirds as long, joints three to six gradually decreasing in length and 
diameter, the seventh and eighth abruptly so; beak stout reaching hind 


coxae, three-jointed; all the coxae are very much elongate, and the femur 
of the front legs is thick and heavy with a long ventral tooth provided with 
an anterior tooth, secondary ventral tooth present; the femoral comb 
with seven teeth decreasing in size apically; the fore tibia is about as 
long as the femur, bifid apically; the fore tarsus is long, three-jointed 
and provided with two sub-equal claws, the median one smaller. The 
middle and hind legs are nearly equal in size, with the tibia provided with 
five, stout, black spines at the apex, the tarsi are one-jointed with two 
very unequal claws at apex, the outer claw about one-half as long as the 

The adult is a medium small cicada with a bright green collar, the costal 
vein brownish and sub-costa and radius bright green to the bend of the 
wing and the other main veins of the fore wing green to the cross veins, 
black beyond. 

The head is black above, with fuscous spots at the inner angles of the 

-eyes and a greenish stripe from the antennal ledges to the eyes, the frontal 

arcs are fuscous with the interspaces heavily pruinose; the antennae 

are eight-jointed with the two basal joints heavy, the others flagellate. 

The pronotum is fuscous with narrow anterior border between the 
eyes and the collar green, two converging black spots continued poster- 
iorly in a broad triangular black spot bordering the collar. The mesono- 
tum is mostly black with fuscous markings. Legs yellowish fuscous with 
the spines and the tips of the tarsi black. 

The abdomen is black above. Beneath, the head, thorax and lateral 
parts of abdomen are heavily pruinose, the central part of the abdomen 
lightly so, showing the pale fuscous ground color. The drums are short, 
broadly, roundly divergent, the uncus is wish-bone shaped with the 
prongs long, curved and sharp-pointed. 

Length to end of abdomen, male 23 mm; female 24 mm; to tip of 
wings, male 38 mm; female 41 mm; width of collar 10 mm. 

Previous records indicate a distribution restricted to the 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts from North Carolina to Louisiana, 
but no suggestion of the adaptation to aquatic conditions 
appears in any record that has come to our notice. 

Tibicen viridifascia Walk. 

Fig. i. Dorsal view adult male. Xi>2, showing characteristic color 

pattern and venation of fore and hind wing. 
Fig. la. Adult antenna. Xi5- 
Fig. ib. Female genitalia ventral view. X2. 
Fig. ic. Ventral view of male abdomen, showing hind leg, opercula and 

male genitalia. 


Fig. id. Male genitalia extended lateral view. 

Fig. le. Male genitalia extended posterior view. 

Fig. if. Tip of ovipositor. X8. 

Fig. ig. Anterior leg. X2. 

Fig. 2. Egg. Xi5- 

Fig. 3. Stalk of sea oats showing characteristic egg punctures. XJ^. 

Fig. 33. Stalk of sea oats cut longitudinally to show arrangement of 

egg punctures. Xi>. 

Fig. 30. Single egg puncture. Xi5- 

Fig. 3c. Single egg puncture. Xi5- 

Fig. 4. Recently hatched nymph. X2O. 

Fig. 43. Antenna of recently hatched nymph. Xi2O. 

Fig. 4b. Anterior leg of recently hatched nymph. X35- 

The Occurence of Mallophaga on a Dragonfly (Odon.)- 

Mr. E. B. Williamson has recently sent me specimens of Mallophaga, 
several of a small species of Gyropus, and one Trichodectes, which he found 
at Quebrada La Camelia, Colombia (Feb. 18, 1917) attached to a dragonfly 
(Ischnogomphus jessei Williamson). The only recorded case of a Mallo- 
phagous insect found on another insect is that noted by Sharp (Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond. 1980, p. xxx) who found several attached, apparently by the 
mandibles, to a Hippoboscid fly, Ornithomyia avicularia. As this is also a 
bird parasite it is not surprising that the smaller Mallophaga should at 
times crawl upon it, but the occurrence of the Colombian specimens on 
the dragonfly seemed at first inexplicable, especially as the genus Gyropus 
lives exclusively on small terrestrial rodents. However Williamson, in his 
description of the dragonfly (Occ. Papers, Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. No. 
52, 1918, p. 44) shows that it is in the habit of alighting on the grounder 
on leaves near the ground, and one may reasonably suppose that the drag- 
onfly had recently perched upon some dead agouti or similiar rodent and 
that the insects had then attached themselves to it. So while this case 
is very interesting, it is not an example of phoresy, but more properly 
belongs with other cases of insects being found in unusual situations, 
best explained by our genial E. A. Schwarz in words which formulate a 
simple yet indubitable biological law: "They must sit somewhere." 
WM. M. MANN, U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C. 


Studies on Costa Rican Odonata, 

IX, Sympetrum, with Description of a New Species, 

By PHILIP P. CALVERT, University of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

The only Sympetrum recorded from Costa Rica in the 
Biologia Centrali- Americana is 5. illotum virgula, specimens 
of which were examined from San Jose, San Francisco and 
from an altitude of 6000-7000 feet on Irazu. Dr. Ris, in 
the Catalogue, Collections Zoologiques . . . Selys* and in 
his Libellen (Odonata) aus der Region der amerikanischen 
KordiUeren von Costarica bis Catamarca,\ has neither added 
any Costa Rican data for this form nor increased the number 
of species of Sympetrum from that country. 

In the course of the year May I, i9O9,-May 10, 1910, we 
observed Sympetrum illotum in Costa Rica at Cachi, Paraiso, 
Cartago and vicinity, Laguna Ochomogo, on the mountain 
Carpintera, near Tres Rios and at Alajuela. These seven 
localities represent a range in altitude from 985 to 1600 
meters (3230-5250 feet).J For the vicinity of Cartago, 
including San Isidro del Tejar, our notebooks record its 
appearance in every month except December and January 
(during the latter of which we were absent except for short 
visits by one of us), transformation to the imago on Septem- 
ber 20, October 30, 31, November 12, 21, 29, and oviposition 

*Fasc. XIII. Libellulinen, p. 677, Bruxelles, 1911. 

fArchiv f. Naturges. 82 Jahrg., Abt. A, 9 Heft., p. 180. Berlin, 1918. 

JDetails as to altitudes, localities, etc will be found in "A Year of Costa 
Rican Natural History" by A. S. and P. P. Calvert, New York, Mac- 
millan, 1917. 

I have also one male, intermediate between i. illotum and /. virgula, 
sent by Mr. C. H. Lankester with specimens taken near the Rio Jesus 
Maria, on the Pacific slope, April 2-4, 1918. The altitude of this locality, 
less than 100 meters, is much below that in which this species has been 
observed elsewhere in Central America or Mexico. The specimen has 
been submitted to Mr. Lankester, who writes that it "conveys no memory 
of capture." The envelope in which it was originally sent to me is part 
of a printed page, another piece of which contained an Erythrodiplax con- 
nata whose occurrence at Rio Jesus Maria there is no reason to doubt. 


on May 10, June 20, August 28, September 26, October 7, 
n, 31, November 12, 21, April 5, 20. Specimens are not 
at hand for all the dates on which the species was noted, so 
that it is impossible to specify which subspecies was the form 
seen at each observation. Those which are accessible, irre- 
spective of locality, are chiefly of the subspecies illotum vir- 
gula, or intermediates between i. virgula and i. gilvtim, as 
these are denned in the Biologia, volume Neuroptera. There 
are before the writer i a" i. virgula and 2 9 intermediate 
between i. virgula and i. gilvum, all three taken at Cartago, 
May 10, 1909, over the same swampy place. Two males 
taken just above Cartago, May 24, 1909, are respectively 
intermediate between i. illotum and i. virgula and between 
i. virgula and i. gilvum. It seems unlikely, therefore, that 
the exact form of the species has any strict correlation with 
the habitat. 

In Costa Rica we found this species in open swamps and 
open fields, at small pools (as in lanes at Cartago), on the 
banks of the Rio Reventazon (at Cachi), at a tank in a coffee 
plantation (Cachi). As in other species of this genus, the 
male and female fly around together while the latter is ovi- 
positing, the male holding the female's head with his abdom- 
inal appendages.* 

The occurrence of this species at a given station is erratic. 
Thus on the southern edge of the town of Cartago: 

"The day .... was May 10, 1909. The rains of the two 
preceding days had changed the dusty roads to damp and produced little 
swampy spots in the pastures. Over one of these swamps a species of 
dragonfly (Sympetrum illotum virguluni) was swarming .... 
There was an exceedingly handsome frog here (Agalychnis helenae) . . 
The morning of May n was not so bright as that of the preceding day, 

*Dr. C. H. Kennedy states that in California "Usually the female of 
this species oviposits unaccompanied by the male but here [Auburn in 
Placer County] I observed a pair working together." Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. vol. 52, p. 609, 1917. 

On all of the eleven dates mentioned above for oviposition in the vicin- 
ity of Cartago and also at Laguna Ochomogo on Sept. 25, our field note 
books expressly record that male and female were flying together, the male 
holding the female. We have no record of oviposition in any other way. 


although the sun was shining. We revisited these same swampy spots 
but not a single individual of the bright red species of dragonfly nor one 
of the peculiar frogs was to be seen there ... "t 

On March 4, 1910, this species was at a tank in a coffee 
plantation at Cachi and on March 5, by stagnant pools near 
the bank of the Rio Reventazon near Cachi; on March 9 
and 10 it was not found at these two places respectively 
although the days were sunny. 

The dates at which this species was observed at localities 
other than the vicinity of Cartago and Cachi were: Septem- 
ber 25, Laguna Ochomogo; December 4, La Carpintera; 
Decembe'r 9, Alajuela and vicinity; March 17, east of Tres 

On April 21, 1916, Professor Anastasio Alfaro, Director 
of the Museo Nacional de Costa at San Jose, who has done 
so much to advance scientific knowledge of that country, 
collected some Sympetra on the Volcano Poas. These at 
first sight appeared to be intermediate between 5. illotum 
virgula and 5. illotum gilvum, but a detailed study apparently 
justifies their recognition as a distinct species for which I pro- 
pose the name 

Sympetrum nigrocreatum n. sp. 

Similar to 5 1 . illotum virgula Selys but differing as follows: Size larger. 
Range of length of abdomen c", 26-28 mm. (22-25*), ?, 26-28 (21-23); 
average d" 27.045 (23.33), 9 27.14 (22.6) mm. Range of length of hind 
wing cf 30-33 (26-29), 9 31-34 (27-30); average c? 3i-?2 (27.41), 9 
32.35 (28) mm. 

No additional transverse carina on abdominal segment 4 in d", except 
in one <? in which it is low but distinct (present, distinct), but present 
in the 9 (present, distinct). 

fA Year of Costa Rican Nat. Hist., pp. 73,74. 

"The figures and other statements enclosed in parentheses in this de- 
scription are those obtained from 12 d 1 , 5 9 of S. illotum virgula and 
intermediates between it and 5. illotum illotum on one hand and 5. illotum 
gibrum on the other, from the seven Costa Rican localities mentioned on 
page 249. They are given immediately after the corresponding figures 
for S. nigrocreatum which latter are based on 1 1 o\ 7 ? Where percent- 
ages of variation are given, as for venational characters, each wing, fore 
or hind, = 2.777 % for nigrocreatum and 2.941 % for S. illotum virgula 
and intermediates. 


Apices of the femora and all of the tibiae and of the tarsi blackish brown 
(femora and tibiae luteous or reddish); some tendency toward paling of 
the legs is shown by one male which has all the tibiae with a superior 
luteous stripe, two males which have the third tibiae somewhat reddish 
superiorly and one female which has all the tibiae reddish. 

Venation, especially near the front margin of both front and hind wings 
blackish brown (luteous or reddish except in three 9 ) 

Yellow coloring at the base of the wings reaching on the front pair 
to the first antenodal, less frequently to the arculus (most frequently 
to the level of the triangle), on the hind pair to the second, rarely the 
third, antenodal (to the nodus, less frequently to the second antenodal 
or triangle and then a nodal yellow spot is present); no yellowish spot at 
nodus of front wings (present). Dark brown streak at base of wing in 
subcostal and partly in costal area reaching distad on the front wings 
to one-third or one-half way to the first antenodal (one-fourth way or 
less to the first antenodal), on the hind wings to the arculus or, less fre- 
quently stopping at a point half-way from first antenodal to arculus 
(first antenodal, less often to arculus). Dark brown basal streak in 
cubital area of hind wings varying from a mere trace to reaching almost 
to the cubito-anal cross-vein or anal crossing. 

Pterostigma uniformly luteous or even golden yellow, not paler at its 
distal end (luteous or ochre brown, paler at the distal end, but golden 
yellow in i 0% I 9 , and not paler at distal end in 3 <? , 3 9 ), longer, 2.66- 
3.26 cf (2.33-2.74), average 2.92 (2.51), 2.81-3.18 9 (2. 52-2.81), average 
2.97 (2.63) mm.* 

Antenodals, front wing, 8> 2.77%, <) 1 A 36.1%, 10 2.77%, 10^ 44-43%, 
TI >2 5-55%, the remaining 8.32% somewhat irregular (7^ 8.82%, %% 
79-38%, 9^ 5-88%, 8% 5-88%); hind wing 6 22.17%, 7 72-2%, 8 5.55% 
(5 + K 5-88%, 6 91.14%, 6 l /$ 2.94%). Two rows of cells between A/2 
and Rs on the front wings begin at the following distances from the mar- 
gin and extend thence distad: 2 cells 2.77%, 3 cells 8.33%, 4 cells 33.33%, 
5 cells 33.33%, 6 cells 16.67%, 7 and 9 cells each 2.77%! (2 cells 41.16%, 
3 cells 23.52%, 4 cells 5.88%, while 29.4% have but one row of cells here) ; 
marginal cells here 2 25%, 3 61.1%, 4 13.88% (i 5-88%, 2 82.4%, 3 11.76 
%). Two rows of cells between Mz and Rs on the hind wings begin at 
following distances from the margin and extend thence distad: 3 cells 
22.21%, 4 cells 41.66%, 5 cells 27.77%, 6 cells 2.77% (2 cells 58.8%, 
3 cells 8.82%, while 29.4% have but one row of cells here); marginal cells 
here 2 11.10%, 3 69.43%, 4 "-i%- 52-77% (2 88.2%, 3 11.76%). 

The measurements for the length of the pterostigma and for the super- 
ior and inferior appendages of the cf were made with an eye-piece mi- 
crometer in a Zeiss binocular microscope fitted with eyepieces 4, paired 
objectives F 55. 

fPortions of the hind margin of two wings have been injured, = 5.55 %. 

XXXI, '20] 



Double cells between Rs and Rspl, front wings, o u.n%, I 11.11%, 

2 22.22%, 3 22.22%, 430.54%, 5 2.77% (097.03%, I 2.94%); hind wings 
o 36.11%, i 19-44%, 2 16.66%, 3 13-88%, 4 13.88% (o 100%). Margi- 
nal cells between Rs and .3, front wings, 17 13.88%, 18 22.21%, 19 
30.54%, 20 16.66%, 21 2.77%, 22 8.33% (13 5-88%, 14 14-7%, 15 
5.88%, 16 47.05%, 17 20.58%, 18 5-88%). Marginal cells between 
M4 and Cm, front wings, 4 36.1%, 5 36.1%, 6 13.88%, 7 8.33%, (2 5-88%, 

3 52.94%, 4 38.23%, 5 2.94%)- 

Pip. i. Ventral view, apex of abdomen .V. nigrocreatum, cf . no. 5, Volcan Poas, alt. 2500 

m.. April 21, 1916, A. Alfaro. Camera lucida, card at stage level, Zeiss stand, comp. 

micros, oc. 2, obj. A, lower lens off. 
Fig. 2. Ventral view, apex of abdomen 5. illotum intermediate between subspp. virgula 

and gih'utn, cf, no. 53, Cartago, February 19, 1910, Calvert. Same lens and camera 

lucida outfit. 

0" . Inferior denticles of the superior appendages, viewed from below, 
tending to form a reversed curve as shown in text figure I (line of denti- 
cles almost straight, see fig. 2) and occupying .28-416, average .353 
(.4O9--532, average .461) of the total length of the appendage as meas- 
ured in profile. 

Inferior appendage .89-1.11 mm. (.89-1.04) wide at base, average I 
mm. (.96), .30-44 mm. (.22-. 30) wide at apex, average .37 (.28) mm. 
Ratio of apex width to base width -333-435 (-229-.337), average .368 

Locality. Poas Volcano, Costa Rica, 2600 metres [8530 
feet], April 21, 1916, by Professor A. Alfaro. 12 cf, 8 9 


sent for examination, I cf , I 9 returned to him. Type c? 
in the writer's collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. As to the type locality Professor Alfaro 
wrote, July 22, 1916: 

" Durante la semana santa estuve en el Volcan de Poas y colectado 
muchas libellulas en el Potrero del Alto, cerca del crater; alii hay un 
Hotel y junto a los desagiies de la casa me pareci6 distinguir tres especies, 
lo mismo que en la zanja del Potrero; la especie de mayor tamano no 
dejaba arrimarse y de la tercera solamente un ejemplar vi; creo pues que 
mis ejemplares colectados en numero de 40 son cf y 9 de una sola es- 
pecie ... las libellulas del Volcan de Poas, por ser esa la mayor 
altura en que he colectado Odonatos: 2600 metres." 

Mr. E. B. Williamson, at my request, has examined a pair 
of these specimens collected by Prof. Alfaro and independ- 
ent of any suggestion from me has also reached the conclu- 
sion that they represent a new species allied to Sympetrum 

Several features of 5. nigrocreatum described above are of 
special interest. According to Dr. Ris,* but three species of 
Sympetrum possess an additional, or supplementary, trans- 
verse carina on abdominal segment 4: dilatatum Calvert 
of St. Helena, illotum Hagen and corr upturn Hagen of (chiefly 
North) America. S. nigrocreatum is clearly closely related 
to illotum, yet the male, in the majority of specimens exam- 
ined, lacks this carina, although the female possesses -it 
distinctly developed. In the male, the appearance is as if 
the carina had been smoothed out, its site being indicated 
by a slight difference in the surface of the segment. Whether 
the presence or absence of such transverse carinae has any 
correlation with the internal anatomy has not been deter- 
mined, apparently. 

Assuming that S. illotum is the nearest ally of S. nigro- 
creatum, the latter is larger and has a greater number of 
cross-veins (e. g. antenodals) and of cells on its wings. As 
nigrocreatum inhabits a higher, and presumably cooler, sta- 
tion than does the Costa Rican illotum, a causal relation is 

*Libellulinen Monographisch bearbeitet. Cat. Coll. Zool. Selys, fasc. 
XIII, pp. 617-624, 1911. 


suggested when similar conditions existing in highland and 
lower land individuals of Ischnura ramburi and 1. denti- 
.wllis* are recalled. Similarly individuals of Erythrodiplax 
berenice from the northern Atlantic coast of the United States 
.are larger and more densely veined than those of the coasts 
of Florida, the West Indies and Central America. f The 
question needs much further investigation to determine 
whether a presumably lower temperature is a cause of larger 
size and denser venation. If this be so, one would expect 
individuals of S. illotum from British Columbia and the 
northwestern United States to exceed those of corresponding 
or lower altitudes in Mexico for example. It is to be hoped 
that some one with sufficient material will study it from 
this point of view. A number of the venational features of 
nigrocreatum given above are not in themselves sufficiently 
diagnostic to distinguish this form from illotum and its sub- 
species. They do, however, show the tendency to van' away 
from the conditions to be found in illotum. 

A New Kricogonia from Cuba (Lep., Rhop.) 

By CHAS. T. RAMSDEN, Guantanamo, Cuba. 

While on a recent visit to the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, Dr. Henry Skinner generously called my 
attention to specimens of Kricogonia from Guantanamo, 
Cuba, I had sent him some years before. These differ so 
much from individuals of other localities that they seem to 
belong to a new form and may be known as: 

Kricogonia cabrerai n. sp. 

d" Upperside. Primaries: Yellowish white; costa from insertion of 
wing to one-quarter of its length is lemon yellow, the remainder slightly 
tinged with yellowish. 

Secondaries: Same colour as primaries except for a black band 8 mm. 
long and 3 mm. wide which begins at the costa running toward end of 

*Biol. Centr.-Amer., Neur., pp. 387-389, 1907. 
tlbid., p. 268. 


discal cell. This band is unbroken by the nervures while in terissa it is 

Underside. Primaries: Pearly white, base of wing lemon yellow, 
apices straw color and marbled. 

Secondaries: Straw colour having a marbled appearance produced by 
short brown lines except where the black band shows through. 

9 Upper side. Primaries: Same as male, the lemon yellow parts being 
more intense. 

Secondaries: Also as in male but with the outer margins and base 
suffused with yellow. Black band lacking. 

Underside. Primaries: As in male, lemon yellow base more intense. 

Secondaries: Straw colour entirely marbled with short brown lines. 

Expanse one wing, tf 27 mm., $ 26.5 mm. 

Male and female, Guantanamo, Cuba, May 271)1, 1914. 
Collected by the author. 

Type and allotype in the collection of The Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Paratypes in collection 
of the same Academy and also in that of the author. 

This form is larger than any I have seen from any other 

It differs from terissa, on the upperside, in having the black 
band longer and wider, extending in this form to nearly the 
middle of the wing, while in terissa it hardly extends to more 
than one quarter. The base of the primaries is not orange 
as in terissa and differs on the underside, by the marbled 
appearance of the secondaries. 

I take pleasure in naming it after don Jose Cabrera of 
El Cotorro, Cuba, a tireless and unassuming student of 
Cuban Entomology. 

Indiana Insects 

It is the plan of the department of Entomology of Purdue University 
and the Agricultural Experiment Station to build up a collection of insects 
which will satisfactorily represent the insect fauna of the Central West, 
east of the Mississippi, and particularly that of Indiana. Records, pub- 
lications dealing with Indiana insects, and specimens themselves are 

Careful records of occurrence and economic importance will be kept 
with a view to publishing the " Insects of Indiana" at a future date. Rec- 
ords should, therefore, include name, authority for determination, exact 
locality, date of capture, stage, host if known, collector and other per- 
tinent data. 

Your cooperation is earnestly solicited.- JOHN J. DAVIS, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Lafayette, Indiana. 


On ScoliabicinctaFab. and Scolia undata Klug 
(Hymenoptera, Scoliidae). 

BY C. S. BRIMLEY, Division of Entomology, North Carolina 
Department of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

On looking over our specimens of S. bicincta and 5. undata 
I find that they grade into one another and that no definite 
line of demarcation can be drawn between them. 

In addition to the usual white cross bands on the second 
and third abdominal segments above, which may be without 
any interruption whatever, even in otherwise typical undata, 
there are present in two-thirds of the males examined and 
in one-third of the females, white markings of some sort on 
either the pronotum, post-scutellum, first abdominal segment 
above or second abdominal segment below, or on all of these 
or in any combination. 

The spots on the pronotum are usually a small round spot on each 
side in front; one specimen, however, has a spot on only one side and 
another has an enlarged transverse wedge-shaped spot on each side. 
Present in five males. 

The marking on the postscutellum is usually a small roundish dot, 
elongate in one specimen. Present in nine males and three females. 

The marking on the first abdominal segment is either a roundish dot 
or a transverse stripe; in the latter case it may be either short and narrow, 
extending on about the middle fourth of the segment, or it may be broader 
and extend right across the segment. In two cases there is a roundish 
dot on one side of the middle, instead of in the middle. Present in some 
form in twenty-seven males, and three females. 

On the underside of the second abdominal segment there is, in seven- 
teen males, a roundish or oval spot not far from the lateral margin of the 
segment. These spots vary a good deal in size and but little in shape. 

The following table shows the number of specimens showing the vari- 
ous combinations of the above markings: 

With usual white stripes on segments 2 and 3 only, males 16, females 1 1. 

With additional markings as below: males female^ 

1 A spot or stripe on seg. I above only 9 2 

2 A pair of white spots on seg. 2, below only i o 

3 A white dot on postscutellum only 2 2 

4 On seg. i above, and seg. 2 below only 10 o 

5 On seg. I above, seg. 2 below and postscutellum only. i o 

6 On seg. i above, seg. 2 below, postscutellum and pro- 

notum 3 o 


7 On seg. I above, seg. 2 below and pronotum only .... i o 

8 On seg. 2 below and postscutellum only I o 

9 On seg. I above and postscutellum only I i 

10 On seg. i above, and pronotum only I o 

11 On seg. i above, pronotum and postscutellum only. . i o 

Total.. 47 j6 

With white crossbands only on segs. 2 and 3 above .. 16 n 

With additional white markings 31 5 

Specimens examined, Raleigh: 33 males, 9 females; Elizabeth City: 6 
males, I female; Andrews: 4 males, I female; Jefferson: i male; Blowing 
Rock: i male; Bushnell: i male; Statesville: I male; Greensboro: 2 fe- 
males; Durham, Blantyre and Whittier: i female each. All localities in 
North Carolina and all specimens taken between mid-July and mid-Sep- 

House Flies in Court. 

One of the noblest decisions on record, so far as bald-headed men are 
concerned, has been handed down by the Supreme Court of Maine. It 
is notorious that a bald head has a peculiar attraction for the common 
house fly. He prefers to roost there or promenade there to any other 
place in the neighborhood. Now the high court has declared the bald- 
headed persons are entitled to protection. In the case of Williams vs: 
Sweet, a hotelkeeper sued because the defendant, who had contracted for 

.accommodations for a certain period, left the hotel before the time had 
elapsed. The defendant said he was pestered by flies, which were par- 
ticularly numerous in the dining room. 

The august court held that the fly is a nuisance and its disease-carry- 
ing characteristics are well known. A patron of a hotel was warranted in 
leaving the establishment, regardless of a contract for a longer stay, if the 
dining room was infested with the pests. An innkeeper, it declared, agreed 
by implication to furnish accommodations compatible with the prices 
paid, the standing of the hostelry and the class of persons invited to be- 

come patrons. "Accommodations," the judges asserted, included apart- 
ments, dining service and sanitary conditions, and if the hotelkeeper failed 
to maintain these in inviting and wholesome manner the patron was war- 
ranted in seeking quarters elsewhere, regardless of an engagement to 
remain for any specified time. 

Hotel men had better get busy with their fly swatters. Restaurant 
people also. RICHARD SPILLANE in the Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Aug. 
4, 1920. 



Mental Attitudes toward Insects. 

Among other occupations, the editor of the NEWS gives 
a course of lectures and readings to university students on the 
history of entomology. The other day they were reading 
Otto Keller's Die Antike Tierwelt, which called his attention 
again to the long period in the history of civilized peoples 
in which progress in zoology, and hence in entomology, was 
very slow. It may seem difficult for a zoologist to realize 
what must have been the mental attitude of many a cultured 
Egyptian, Greek or Roman toward insects. But while the 
editor was in this frame of mind (he is one unit of the fifty 
millions who make up the rural population of these United 
States), the butcher came. His business transacted, the 
butcher observed that the coming winter was likely to be 
cold only in its latter part because he had been feeling 
the caterpillars along the road and they were hard to the 
touch only at their hind ends! 

Anent an Increased Subscription Price. 

In the October NEWS (page 226) we asked all our readers 
to fill in and mail to us a card, from a page near the back 
cover, stating their willingness or unwillingness to subscribe 
for the NEWS for 1921 at $2.50. About eighty replies have 
been received, but we urge all others to whom the October 
number has gone to send us their message on this question 
at once, as we must hear from all our subscribers in order to 
make our plans for 1921. 

Two Syntomidae New to Mississippi (Lep.)- 

Mr. W. C. Dukes, of Mobile, Alabama, has recently sent me two spe- 
cies of Syntomidae (Lep.) from a new locality. They were taken on Cat 
Island, Mississippi, in the Gulf of Mexico. The species are Cosmosoma 
nuge Linn, and Didasys belae Grote. The former is found in Florida,. 
West Indies, Central America and South America, and the latter, so far 
as I am aware, has not been recorded outside of the State of Florida. 



Kntomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology. Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

2 Transactions of The American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 
4 Canadian Entomologist, London, Canada. 5 Psyche, Cambridge, 
Mass. 7 Annals of The Entomological Society of America, Columbus, 
Ohio. 9 The Entomologist, London. 11 Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History, London. 12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Con- 
cord, N. H. 17 Lepidoptera, Boston, Mass. 20 Bulletin de la Societe 
Entomologique de France, Paris. 31 Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Nova Scotia, Truro. 33 -Annales de la Societe Entomologique 
de Belgique, Brussels. 39 The Florida Buggist, Gainesville. 45 Zeit- 
schrift fur wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie, Berlin. 49 Entomolog- 
ische Mitteilungen Berlin-Dahlem. 50 Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, Washington. 53 Nature Study Review, Ithaca, 
N. Y. 62 Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. 68 Science, Lancaster, Pa. 76 Nature, London. 81 The 
Journal of Parasitology, Urbana, Illinois. 82 The Ohio Journal of 
Science, Columbus. 90 The American Naturalist, Lancaster, Pa. 103 
Biologisches Centralblatt, Leipzig. 110 Naturwissenschaftliche Woch- 
enschrift, Jena. Ill Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 112 Ento- 
mologische Berichten, The Hague, Holland. 

GENERAL. Blackmore, E. H. Rare and uncommon insects taken 
in Br. Columbia during 1919. (Rept. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. Br. Colum- 
bia, 1919, 17-23.) Bouvier, E. L. Revue d'entomologie pour les Annees 
1910-1914. Part i, Biologie; Part 2, Structure et physiologic, developpe- 
ment et adaptation. (Rev. Gen. d. Sci. Pures et Appl., xxxi, 410-18; 
155-62.) Bouvier, E. L. The psychic life of insects. (An. Rept., 
Smiths. Inst., 1918, 451-9.) Chetverikov, S. S. The fundamental 
factor of insect evolution. (An. Rept., Smiths. Inst., 1918, 441-9.) 
Crampton, G. C. Remarks on the basic plan of the terminal abdominal 
structures of the males of winged insects. 4, lii, 178-83. Dixey, F. A. 
The geographical factor in mimicry. (Rept. Br. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Bourne- 
mouth, 1919, 201-7.) van Eecke, R. Varia entomologica. 112, v, 
X 53~5- Folsom, J. W. et al. Symposium on "The life cycle in in- 
sects." 7, xiii, 133-201. Gibson, E. H. Professional entomology: 
the call and the answer. 12, xiii, 355-7. Lyon, M. W. Family and 


subfamily names in zoology. 68, Hi, 291-2. McConnell, W. R. 
Obituary. 12, xiii, 371-3. Onslow, H. The iridescent colours of 
insects. 76, cvi, 149-52 (Cont.). Parman, D. G. Observations on 
the effects of storm phenomena on insect activity. 12, xiii, 339-43. 
Raymond, P. E. Phylogeny of the Arthropoda with especial reference 
to the Trilobites. 90, liv, 398-413. Sahlberg, J. R. Obituary notice. 
68, Hi, 216-17. Smulyan, M. T. An insect and lack of entomological 
knowledge an immediate cause of the world war. 5, xxvii, 85-6. Tothill, 
J. D. The chloral hydrate method of preserving insects for dissection. 
31, 1919, 8-10. Weiss, H. B. The contents of our entomological jour- 
nals during 1919. 4, Hi, 169-73. The insect enemies of polyporoid 
fungi. 90, liv, 443-7. 

ARACHNIDA, ETC. Bilsing, S. W. Quantitative studies in the 
food of spiders. 82, xx, 215-60. Chamberlin, R. V. On chilopods 
of the family Mecistocephalidae. 4, Hi, 184-9. Corrections to Mr. 
Gunthrop's summary of Wood's Myriopoda papers. 4, Hi, 202-3. 

Chamberlin, R. V. New spiders from Utah. 4, Hi, 193-201. 

NEUROPTERA. Lacroix, J. L. Deux Odonates nouvelles. 20, 
1920, 175-9. Watson, J. R. An apparently new Haplothrips from 
Cuba. 39, iv, 7, 12. 

Macnamara, C. A new sp. of Pseudachorutes (Collembola). 4, Hi, 
173-6. Watson, J. R. New Thysanoptera from Florida. 39, iv, 13. 

ORTHOPTERA. Walker, E. M. Report, Canadian Arctic Expe- 
dition 1913-18. Vol. iii, Part J: Orthoptera, 4pp. White, F. The 

katydid. 53, xvi, 258-61. 

Rehn & Hebard Descriptions of new genera and species of North 
American Decticinae. 2, xlvi, 225-65. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. C. Generic classification of the hemip- 
terous family Aphididae. (U. S. D. A., Bull. 826.) Distant, W. L. 
Descriptions of a new species of neotropical Cicadidae. 9, liii, 169. 
Coding, F. W. Sinopsis de los membracidos del Ecuador. (Bol. Med. 
y Cirugia, Guayaquil, xviii, 31-37.) Hickernell, L. M. The digestive 
system of the periodical cicada, Tibicen septendecim. 7, xiii, 223-42. 

Davidson, W. M. A new Myzocallis (Aphididae). 4, Hi, 176-7. 
McAtee, W. L. Key to the Nearctic species and varieties of Erythro- 
neura. 2, xlvi, 267-322. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Randall, J. L. " Winter Hunting." 17, iv, 66-7. 
Schaus, W. Descriptions of two new species of butterflies from tropical 
America. (Jour. \Vash. Acad. Sci., x, 434-5.) Seitz, A. -Die gross- 
schmetterlinge der erde. Fauna Amer. 745-76. Strickland, E. H. 
The noctuid genus Copablepharon with notes on its taxonomic relation- 
ships. 5, xxvii, 5. 

DIPTERA. Bresslau, E. Eier und eizahn der einheimischen stech- 
mucken. 103, xlix, 337-55. Edwards, F. W. Scent-organs (?) in 


female midges of the Palpomyia group. 11, vi, 365-8. Engel, E. O. 
Dipteren, die nicht pupiparen sind, als vogel-parasiten. 45, xv, 249-58. 
Fritsche, E. Fliegenlarven als parasiten des menschen. 110, xix, 506-8. 
Hine, J. S. Description of horseflies from middle America. 82, xx r 
311-19. Osburn, R. C. The syrphid fly, Mesogramma marginata, 
and the flowers of Apocynum. 82, xx, 261-6. Seamans, H. L. The 
external anatomy of Anthomyia radicum. 7, xiii, 201-222. Seguy, E. 
Liste des moustiques de la collection Meigen conservee an Mus. Nat. 
d'Hist. Nat. 20, 1920, 226. Sturtevant, A. H. The dipterous genus 
Zygothrica of Wied. 50, Iviii, 155-8. Treherne, R. C. A note on the 
wingless tipulid Chionea valga. 4, Hi, 201-2. Villeneuve, J. A propos 
de la revision des Muscidae testaceae de J. Surcouf. 20, 1920, 223-5. 
Walker, E. M. Wohlfahrtia vigil as a human parasite. 81, vii, 1-7. 

Malloch, J. R. Descriptions of Diptera of the families Anthomyidae- 
and Scatophagidae of the Katmai expedition. 82, xx, 267-91. Schmitz, 
H. Eine neue nordamerikanische Phora-art. 112, v, 223-6. Stein, 
P. Nordamerikanische Anthomyiden. 2. Beitrag. Ill, 1918, A. 9,. 

COLEOPTERA. Boving & Champlain, Larvae of North Amer- 
ican beetles of the family Cleridae. 50, Ivii, 42-53. Desbordes, H. 
Description d'un genre nouveau et d'une espece nouvelle d'Histeride. 
20, 1920, 156-7. Fleutiaux, E. Etudes sur les Melasidae (Serricornia). 
33, Ix, 93-104. Frost & Weiss. A bibliography of the literature on 
the described transformations and food plants of North American species 
of Agrilus. 4, Hi, 204-10. Kleine, R. Ueber den stridulationsapparat 
der Brenthidae. Ill, 1918, A. 10, 1-84. Kolbe, H. Die Paussiden 
Sudainerikas. 49, ix, 131-41 (cont.). Obenberger, J. Remarques et 
rectifications systematiques concernant le famille des Buprestides. 20,. 
1920, 189-91. Richmond, E. A. Studies on the biology of the aquatic 
Hydrophilidae. 62, xlii, 1-94. Rosewall, O. W. Wood-boring beetles 
of black locust. 4, Hi, 203. 

Davis, J. J. New species and varieties of Phyllophaga. (Bui. Nat, 
Hist. Survey, Illinois, xiii, 329-338.) Fall, H. G. New Coleoptera, IX. 
4, Hi, 211-15. Jeannel, R. Notes sur les Trechini (Carabidae). 20, 
1920, 150-55. Martin, J. O. A new California Methia. 4, lii, 215-6. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bequaert, J. Bees and wasps. Katmai Expe- 
dition. 82, xx, 292-7. Boulange, H. Sur le retournement de 1'ap- 
pareil copulateur des Tenthredinidae. Sur les muscles qui actionnent 
1'ensemble de 1'appariel copulateur chez les Chalastogastres. 20, 1920,. 
216-8; 227-30. da Costa Lima, A. M. Contribuicao ao conhecimento 
dos microhymenopteros parasites de lagarta rosea ... no Brazil. 
(Arch, da Esc. Sup. de Agric. e Med. Vet., Nictheroy, Brazil, iii, 57-63.) 
Enderlein, G. Zur kenntnis aussereuropaischer Braconiden. Ill, 1918, 
A, Heft II, 51-224. MacGillivray, A. D. Urocerus flavicornis. 4, 
lii, 216. Santschi, F. Nouvelles fourmis du genre Cephalotes. 20, 


1920, 147-9. Shapley, H. Note on pterergatcs in the California!! 
harvester ant. 5, xxvii, 72-4. Viehmeyer, H. Anleitung zum sammeln 
von anieisen. Ill, 1918, A. 9, 160-70. Wheeler & Gaige, Euponera 
gilva, a rare North American ant. 5, xxvii, 69-72. 

MCushman, R. A. The North American ichneumon-flies of the tribes 
Lycorini, Polysphinctini, and Theroniini. 50, Iviii, 7-48. Girault, 
A. A. New Serphidoid, Cynipoid and Chalcidoid H. 50, Iviii, 177- 
216. Wilcox, A. M. Notes and descriptions of species of Telenomus 
having ten-jointed antennae. 5, xxvii, 78-81. 

MORSE. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. 35, 
no. 6, pp. 197-556, pis. 10-29, 99 text figs. April, 1920. It is a rare oc- 
casion in the experience of any student of a special field in zoology or 
botany when he is able to pick up a new comprehensive work, purporting 
to be both technical and popular, written by a brother specialist, with 
almost all of whose conclusions and methods the reader finds himself 
quite in accord. Usually there will be found a number of rocks upon 
which the conformity of opinion is shattered, some radical innovation 
which is untried and frequently unwarranted. Morse's "Manual" is 
clearly one of these rare studies, a painstakingly accurate and thorough 
piece of work, a model of its kind and fully in keeping with the high plane 
achieved by that author in his previous memoirs. 

The style is attractive, literary and where needed is scientifically con- 
cise, the illustrations are generally well selected and carefully executed. 

The first paragraph of the Introduction (p. 207) fully deserves quota- 
tion, as it epitomizes the order better than we have seen done by any 
previous author: 

"The Orthoptera form a group of insects whose members touch upon 
man's interests in a variety of ways. Some are among the scourges of 
the earth, devastating wide areas, reducing the inhabitants to penury 
and starvation" and leaving in their wake misery and pestilence. Others 
of obnoxious character enter dwellings in search of food and shelter, and 
though acting in part as scavengers destroy large quantities of food-stuffs 
and defile the premises. Wherever he wanders, whether on some name- 
less peak of the farthest ranges or in the less inviting vacant lot next 
door, by seabeach, grainfield, alkali desert, or mangrove swamp, on city 
pavements or yielding footpath to the spring, these little creatures are 
his companions; whether he sleep in hut or palace or beneath the stars 
their voices soothe his rest." 

The "Manual" is made up of five major divisions: Introduction, The 
Orthoptera of New England (treated in systematic fashion), Accented 
List of Scientific Names, Glossary and Index. The introductory division 


is made up of eighteen major sections, all of interest, very well presented 
and taken as a whole the best presentation of the subjects there treated 
we have ever seen in a work of this character. We feel called upon to 
comment upon certain of these sections, largely to direct the inquiring 
student to their contents. The "History of New England Orthopter- 
ology" is well and concisely presented, the author, however being too 
modest to give his own most valuable published work its proper empha- 
sis. Under "Classification" there is reviewed that published by 
Brues and Melander, and a modified form of the classic arrangement of 
the order, as influenced by the work of Brues and Melander, is followed 
in the Manual. Under "Anatomy," the external structure is clearly dis- 
cussed and explained, with the aid of numerous figures, and the basic 
internal structure is briefly summarized. Under "Habits" we find egg- 
laying, situations for egg placing, hatching, moults, maturity, food and 
migration discussed; while under "Songs" we find a careful exposition of 
the three methods of sound production in the Orthoptera. Under the 
third method it might have been well to have considered the possibility 
of the thickened radiate veins of the wings of certain Oedipodinae pro- 
ducing sound in display flight or direct flight by rubbing one over the 
other, as their surfaces possess accessory modifications in certain species. 

"Coloration of Orthoptera" is treated in a very careful summary, in 
which there are discussed the types of colors in insects, relative predom- 
inence of "sympathetic and protective" coloration in the Orthoptera, 
the principles of "counter-shading," display coloration, "contrast-mim- 
icry" or "signal coloration" as it has been variously called, the seasonal 
deepening of color in certain locusts, the rare albinistic and melanistic 
conditions, pink katydids, dichromatism, and the uncertainty and unre- 
liability of color shade and markings in general as diagnostic features in 
New England Orthoptera. The author's suggestion as to the signal value 
of the conspicuous wing colors in the Oedipodinae is clearly logical and 
fits in with our own field experience. Dr. Phineas Whiting has con- 
tributed a section giving a summary of his experimental work on color 
determination in the green-striped locust (Chortophaga viridifasciata), 
from which it appears that temperature rather than light or humidity 
is the important factor in color determination in that species, and that 
certain "so-called color varieties . . . are but color phases dependent 
to a large extent at least upon environmental conditions." This is an 
interesting piece of evidence, making less secure the position of those 
workers who would name all such probably purely physiological forms. 

Under "Geographical Distribution of New England Orthoptera" we 
find a discussion of the New England life zones, analyses of the more 
typical species of the three zones, i. e. Boreal, Transition and [Upper] 
Austral, with a classification of the remainder of the Orthopterous fauna 
into such .categories as "Domiciliary all introduced" and "Adventive 
or introduced." The Orthopterous "Colonization of New England" and 


"Dispersal Routes" are very well presented and the effect of the disap- 
pearance of the one-time extensive coastal sandy plain on the range of 
certain Orthoptera, which now have discontinuous or localized distribu- 
tions, is considered. The importance of the influx of campestrian sand- 
loving species from the southwest is emphasized, and a comprehensive 
summary of locust habitats or societies is given, the groups being those 
already used by the author. Morse's attitude toward certain of the 
present day ecological work is a just one and his footnote on page 260 is 
well worth reading by those interested. 

In the section on "Wingless and Vestigial-winged Orthoptera" the 
author reaffirms his previously expressed hypothesis on the correlation of 
long and short-winged locusts in general with definite types of habitat. 

In his table of the species recorded from New England the author gives 
132 species as recorded from New England, 104 of these native and 28 
introduced purposely or accidentally. 

In the discussions of locust injuries and other matter of economic im- 
portance the fact is emphasized that in New England severe outbreaks 
usually have been local in area and of comparatively limited extent, 
although, as the context shows, occasionally of great severity. Methods 
of control and natural enemies are discussed and it is shown that such 
enemies are numerous and varied, ranging from fungus to the lowly farm- 
yard cat. There is a most useful section on "Methods of Collecting and 
Preservation," which gives a summary of the procedure followed by the 
author, and also draws upon the experience and practice of other workers. 

The division of the work treating systematically of the New England 
Orthoptera follows in general the following method: discussion of each 
family, general character, summary of development, food, general dis- 
tribution, key to species; under species, leading references, brief descrip- 
tion, measurements, habits and life period, distributional notes and 
records in New England, and generally one or more figures. Under 
families such as the Blattidae and Gryllidae established exotic species 
and adventive species are each properly treated separately from native 
forms. English names are given in all cases for species, the majority 
newly coined; the results are not always happy, as for example the " Broad- 
shouldered Angulate Pygmy Locust," although as a whole the names 
have been more carefully selected than is usually the case. The author 
avoids initiating nomenclatoral novelties, which is greatly to be com- 
mended, as a work intended as a manual for the student is no place for 
the airing of innovations or controversial matter, but should, instead, be 
founded on previously published conclusions. 

We find the earwig Ruborellia annulipes reported as introduced in New 
England for the first time. Brief analyses of the variant color pattern-; 
of the species of Orphulella and of Chorthippus curtipeiniis an- givrn, 
and these are particularly timely and useful. The word pictures of habi- 
tats and actions of Arphiu xanthoptera, Psinidiu fcnestralis. Trimerotropis 


maritima, Circotettix rerruculatus and Melanoplus pnnctiilatus are par- 
ticularly fine, although all of such verbal sketches are good. The data 
presented (pp. 481 to 482) on the probable stridulation of species of spine- 
breasted locusts (Locustinae) is interesting and should stimulate further 
observation along these lines. 

The author's picture (p. 495) of the repopulation of glaciated land, in 
treating of Podisma variegata, well deserves quotation. "Not by ex- 
tended flights of many miles at a time was the land in the wake of the 
retreating ice-sheet repeopled by this species, but by hopping, hopping, 
hopping, a foot or a yard at a time, pressing northward as the vegetation 
and circumstances permitted, clambering up the mountains as fast as 
the forest line advanced, dying out in the southern areas and on dry 
,slopes as 'the fatal sea of warmth filled the valleys below' and swept on- 
ward far to the north, until now such colonies as that on the summit of 
Ascutney Mt. are forever cut off from their kind." 

Another species definitely and correctly recorded from New England 
for the first time is Melanoplus dawsoni, while some additional light is 
given upon the surprising occurrence of the western Phoetaliotes nebras- 
censis in New England. 

The Glossary is most useful and quite extensive, the "Accented List 
of Scientific Names" is welcome and the "Index" quite full. 

Of the twenty plates, three are originals in color, eight are black and 
white plates of details, in large part original, one plate of crickets is taken 
from a paper by E. M. Walker, three plates in colors of tree crickets are 
from Fulton's study, a set most desirable to have republished in a work 
of this character, and five plates are of habitat photographs. 

The author has labored for years in his all-too-few spare hours on this 
splendid paper and his fellow students have eagerly awaited its appear- 
ance. We need say in summarizing only this it has met every expecta- 
tion in scholarly, dignified fashion, it is more than a "Manual," it is 
instead a monograph. It will soon be one of the much thumbed works 
of constant reference in the library of the student of the order. 

J. A. G. R. 


On page 235 of the October, 1920, NEWS, in the review of Blatchley's 
"Orthoptera of Northeastern America," the words "original constancy" 
-are used in the fifteenth line. The words intended were "regional con- 
stancy," and the line as printed might convey a meaning quite the reverse 
of that intended by the reviewer. 




Catalogue No. 9 

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and Canada 

By Samuel H. Scudder 

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Leng's Catalogue of Coleoptera of 
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No. 10. 


Parshley Hemipterological Notices I. 

(Tingidae) 271 

Malloch The genus Aspistes Meigen 
in North America (Diptera, Sca- 
topsidae) 275 

Branch A Webspinning Sarcophagid 
Parasitic upon a Mantis (Dipt., 
Orth.) 276 

Pierce Studies in the Genus Myodites 
Latreille (Coleoptera, Rhipiphori- 
dae) 277 

Weiss & West The Eggs of Bole- 

totherus bifurcus Fab. (Col.) 280 

Hebard The Sarta Marta Region of 
Colombia from an Orthoptero- 
logical Viewpoint, with Deduc- 
tions relative to Tropical Ameri- 
can Collecting 281 

Ewing New Predsceous and Parasitic 
Mites of the Superfamily Gama- 
soidea (Acar.) 286 

Chamberlin A New American Amau- 

robius (Arach., Aran.) 293 

Changes of Address 293 

Alexander A New Species of Dixa 

from Argentina (Dixidae, Dipt.) . 294 

Editorial Program and Price of the 

NEWS for 1921 295 

Meetings of Societies in the Christmas 

Holidays at Chicago 295 

Weiss Coleoptera Associated \\ith 

Pleurotus ostreatus 296 

O'Kane The Crop Protection Insti- 
tute 297 

Entomological Literature 297 

Hemipterological Notices I. (Tingidae). 

By H. M. PARSHLEY, Smith College. 

There is no more splendid instance of the scientific value of 
careful collecting than that afforded by the work of Mrs. 
Annie Trumbull Slosson. For many years specialists in 
every order of insects have made free use of her materials, 
and still the riches of her collection are by no means exhausted. 
The following notes on groups which have recently received 
general treatment are based for the most part on material 
which Mrs. Slosson has been kind enough to send, in spite 
of difficulties due to ill health; and I would express my sense 
of obligation for these and many other favors. 

Gargaphia bimaculata sp. nov. 

Head, disc of pronotum with basal one-third of angulate process, and 
body black; antennae yellowish brown, the first segment except toward 



apex and the fourth darker brown; frontal spines yellow. Median line 
of hood, anterior two-thirds of median carina, and antero-lateral margins 
of paranota dark brown; reticulate portions of pronotum otherwise 
yellowish. Costal and most of sutural areas of hemielytra with hyaline, 
iridescent areoles, the veinlets largely yellow, a few brown; subcostal 
area, discoidal area, and two rows of sutural areoles next to discoidal 
area, opaque white; apical one-third of discoidal area largely occupied by a 
depressed, triangular, dark brown spot, on each hemielytron. Legs 

Frontal spines stout, crowded, about one-half as long as the first an- 
tennal segment; basal spines vestigial. Pronotum sparsely hairy; the 
carinae low, uniseriate; hood about one-half longer than broad (14-10), 
well inflated, almost as high as median carina; paranota moderately 
reflexed, acutely angulate, at most three areoles wide, anterior margins 
slightly concave, posterior margins convexly rounded and nearly vertical 
above bases of hemielytra; width across paranota almost equal to entire 
length of pronotum (48-50). Costal area of hemielytra triseriate for a 
short distance (about equal to three aeroles) at widest part, otherwise 
biseriate; subcostal area biseriate; discoidal area one-half as long as 
hemielytra, about four areoles wide at most. 

Length 2.7 mm.; width 1.2 mm. 

Holotype 9 , Biscayne Bay, Florida (A. T. Slosson) in Mrs. 
Slosson's collection. 

This species is especially distinguished by the hemielytral 
markings; it runs in Gibson's key 1 to iridescens Champion, 
from which it differs in the structure of the head spines, 
width of pronotum, and most other details, in addition to 
coloration. This is the first species of the genus to be re- 
corded from Florida. I am indebted to my friend Gibson's 
kindness for the opportunity of examining certain related 
species not represented in my own collection. 

Corythucha cyrta Parshley. 2 

Having had occasion recently to determine a good many 
specimens belonging to the genus Corythucha, I am more than 
ever impressed with the difficulties involved in the study of 
the group. Gibson's review r is a most creditable pioneer 
work, but there are certain aspects of the subject which re- 

genus Gargaphia, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XLV:i87-2Oi, 1919. 
2 /w Gibson, The Genus Corythucha Stal, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., XLIV: 
86, 1918. 


quire further investigation, especially the determination of 
the limits of variation within the species, and there are some 
synonymic adjustments to be expected, as in the case under 
consideration. Through the kindness of Professor Drake 
I have had for study a long series of C. betulae Drake, 3 and 
I find that it is identical with C. cyrta Parsh., as we have 
suspected for some time. The latter was described from a 
considerable number of specimens, collected in various parts 
of New England where birch is abundant, but none of them 
bore a food-plant label, and the former has been found in 
Maine as well as in New York. The lack of data in the case 
of one series, together with a moderate degree of variability 
characteristic of the species, should probably be held account- 
able for the original failure to appreciate the relationship 

Corythucha salicis Osborn & Drake. 4 

Through the kindness of Mr. W. Downes I have recently 
received a long series of this species collected on Salix, at 
Vernon, and at Mission, British Columbia. Comparison of 
this new material with specimens of salicis O. & D. from the 
type locality in Massachusetts and with the type specimens 
of canadensis Parsh. shows conclusively that the latter cannot 
be maintained as a distinct species and must stand as a syn- 
onym of salicis. In this species the hood is always at least 
twice as high as the median carina, according to my obser- 
vations, and hence the species is not correctly located in 
Gibson's key. The markings vary considerably in distinct- 
ness. Mr. R. F. Hussey has sent me specimens of salicis 
which he collected in Michigan and the species is now known 
to occur across the northern part of the continent from 
Maine to British Columbia. How far its range extends 
southward has not been determined, but there is a Florida 
record, which, I believe, requires confirmation. The dis- 

., pp. 86-87. 

4 C. salicis Osborn & Drake, Ohio Jour. Sci. XVII: 298, 1917. 
C. salicis Gibson, Trans, Am. Ent. Soc., XLIV: 85, 1918. 
C. canadensis Parshley, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., No. 
71: 18, 1919- 


tinctive characteristics and relationships of this species are 
discussed in connection with my proposal of the synonymous 
name, canadensis. 

Alveotingis grossocerata O. & D. 

Osborn and Drake described this remarkable species from 
a brachypterous example 5 and later 6 I published an account 
of the macropterous form, although the specimen lacked the 
characteristic antennae, except for the basal segments. It 
is, therefore, a pleasure to record another example of this 
long-winged phase, which still retains its antennae, shaped 
just as in the brachypterous form, and which agrees in every 
particular with the mutilated specimen formerly described. 
This individual, labeled probably by Uhler with the MS 
name "Rhombodia areolata Uhl.," was collected by Mrs. 
Slosson at Franconia, N. H., and is preserved in her collec- 

Melanorhopala clavata Stal. 

During the summer of 1919 I met with numerous specimens 
of this species, the sexes occurring together and in approxi- 
mately equal numbers. In every case the male individuals 
exhibited the characters on which I based M. obscura, and 
thus the synonymy proposed in a recent paper 7 of mine is 
corroborated. No material variation tending to obliterate 
this unusual sexual dimorphism has been observed. 

Melanorhopala infuscata Parshley. 

Gibson has recently sent me for determination an example 
of this species, which merits notice since it is the only known 
specimen beside the type series. It was taken by R. C. 
Shannon near Plummer's Island, Maryland, August 5, 1914, 
at "tulip poplar sap." The scant evidence at hand indi- 
cates that this species, unlike most Tingids, lives on the bark 
of Liriodendron, subsisting, perhaps, on sap from the trunk 
rather than from the leaves. 

6 The Tingitoidea of Ohio, Ohio Biol. Surv., II: 245, 1916. 
"Notes on North American Tingidae, Psyche, XXIV: 25, 1917. 
'Note on ... M. clavata, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., XIV: 102- 
103, 1919. 


The genus Aspistes Meigen in North America 
(Diptera, Scatopsidae). 


In his paper on the dipterous family Scatopsidae* Dr. A. 
L. Melander has recorded the European species Aspistes 
beroHnensis Meigen as occurring in North America on the 
strength of a specimen taken by Dr. Aldrich at Lafayette, 
Indiana. I had some doubt about the correctness of the 
identification as I had a number of specimens of an Aspistes 
from Illinois, some of which had been in the collection of 
the Natural History Survey for a number of years, which 
though appearing to agree with the description of berolinen- 
sis yet did not do so in every essential, while evidently the 
same as that recorded by Melander. I deferred publishing 
anything on the species until I could obtain authentic speci- 
mens of the European species for comparison. These I 
have now obtained through my colleague Dr. C. P. Alex- 
ander who received them from Mr. M. P. Riedel. After an 
examination of the two series I am of the opinion that the 
North American species is undoubtedly distinct from the 
European and describe it below. 

Aspistes harti sp. n. 

cf, 9 -Glossy black. Legs black, tibiae and tarsi yellowish testa- 
ceous, apices of hind tibiae and tarsi usually infuscated. Wings clear. 
Halteres black. 

Antennae in male lo-segmented, in female 8-segmented, the apical 
three segments fused; frons, face, and vertex less conspicuously punctate 
than in beroHnensis; sides of head behind eyes not striate. The elevation 
on anterior half of mesonotum less closely punctured than in that species 
and without the central longitudinal raised line which is always present 
in beroHnensis. Abdomen in male as in beroHnensis, the eighth sternite 
less distinctly punctate, and more pointed at apex. In other respects 
as in beroHnensis. 

Length, 1.5-2.5 mm. 

Type, male, and allotype, Havana, Illinois, data lost. 
Paratypes, Havana, 111., data lost, one male and one female; 

*Bull. 130, Div. Ent. Zool., State Coll. Wash., 1916, p. 5. 


Havana, 111., three males, June 3, 1918; Meredosia, Illinois, 
four males, May 28, 1917; Oregon, Illinois, two males, June 
19 and 21, 1917. 

The type and allotype were taken in copula, and the data 
were lost for them and the other two from Havana several 
years ago when the catalog containing them went amissing. 
These specimens were taken by Mr. C. A. Hart, the others 
were taken by the writer. 

Aspistes analis Kirby. 

This species differs from the foregoing in having the antennae y-seg- 
mented in both sexes, the media leaving radius very close to the cross- 
vein and in being larger, averaging 3.5 mm. in length. 

Localities, Iditarod, Alaska, two specimens, July 3, 1917; 
Beaver Mts., Alaska, five specimens, October 14, 1917 
(A. H. Twitchell). 

The difference in the antennal structure and in the form of 
the hypopygium, which is quite marked, \vould suggest the 
propriety of the retention of the genus Arthria for this species. 

A Webspinning Sarcophagid, Parasitic upon a Mantis (Dipt., 


At Wichita, Kansas, in the fall of 1919, a fly which was later identified 
by Dr. J. M. Aldrich as Sarcopliaga setigera Aldrich, was reared from the 
female of Stagmomantis Carolina Linn. The mantis was found upon a 
morning glory and clematis arbor on the afternoon of September 2,5th. 
The observer noticed a wound upon the abdomen of the mantis and' think- 
ing it the result of a bird peck, took the mantis into her hand to put it 
out of its misery. Just as the head was severed from the body, the mag- 
got crawled from the abdomen of the mantis onto the hand of the ob- 
server. The maggot was transferred to a covered glass dish with a morn- 
ing glory and a clematis leaf in it. Upon the morning glory leaf, the 
larva wove an irregularly shaped tubular web about 27 mm. long and 7 
mm. wide. This web was composed of broken strands of white silk 
making a dense mass, but one transparent enough for the larva to be 
seen within. After remaining quiescent for three days within this web, 
the larva pupated at one end of the tube and the adult emerged in four- 
teen days. 

How or where this form normally spins a web is a question which can- 
not be answered from this observation. HAZEL ELISABETH BRANCH, 

Ithaca, New York. 


Studies in the Genus Myodites Latreille 
(Coleoptera, Rhipiphoridae). 

By W. DWIGHT PIERCE, Denver, Colorado. 

The following studies are based upon a small series of speci- 
mens, loaned me by Mr. Warren Knaus. This series is 
especially interesting becauses it furnishes a new type of 
female. In all species hitherto examined by myself the 
female antenna is monopectinate, and the male antenna is 
biflabellate, with very long rami of which the tips are about 
even at apex. In the species Myodites knausi described 
below the female antenna is monoflabellate, with the rami 
longest at base, diminishing in length toward the apex. 

Table of American Species of Myodites. 
I First joint of hind tarsi elevated, obliquely truncate and emarginate 

at tip ; elytra yellow 2 

First joint of hind tarsi long, but slightly thicker, not obliquely 

truncate 10 

2 Female abdomen black, or partly black 3 

Female abdomen yellow or red, male abdomen?; or female abdomen? 

male abdomen dark brown or black 5 

3 First joint of hind tarsi stout, not more than one-half longer than 
second; prothorax sparsely punctulate, smooth on each side 

and front; length 6 mm.; New York luteipennis LeConte 

First joint of hind tarsi long 4 

4 First joint of hind tarsi as long as fourth, slightly thicker than the 
second; prothorax sparsely punctulate behind, nearly smooth 
in front; female antennae black, pectinate; length 5 mm. 

Nevada nevadicus LeConte 

First joint of hind tarsi longer than the fourth, twice as long and 
thicker than the second and third combined; prothorax densely 
punctulate behind, nearly smooth on scutal area; abdomen of 
both sexes with considerable yellow. Female pygidium black; 
female antennae yellowish, flabellate; length 9 mm.; Utah 

knausi n. sp. 

5 Prothorax sparsely punctulate or smooth on disc 6 

Prothorax densely punctulate 9 

6 Prothorax smooth on disc 7 

Prothorax partially smooth on disc vierecki Fall 

7 First joint of hind tarsi stout and thick, not more than one-half 
longer than the second; vertex sparsely punctulate. obtusely 
rounded. . 8 


First joint of hind tarsi long, thicker than second and more than 
twice as long; vertex sparsely punctulate, not carinate; female 
abdomen yellow; length 7.5 mm.; Maryland. semiflavus LeConte 
8 Color honey-yellow; prothorax with sides, median line and base 
black; prothorax smooth; male unknown; female abdomen yel- 
low; length 7.3 mm.; Colorado popenoi LeConte 

Color black; prothorax smooth on disc, coarsely punctulate at base 
on sides; male abdomen with dark brown luster; female un- 
known ; length 4 mm. ; Nebraska minimus Pierce 

9 Female abdomen red or yellowish-red; pygidium reddish; first joint 
of hind tarsi very long, very little thicker than the second; pro- 
thorax and vertex densely punctulate, the latter carinate; length 
8 mm.; Oklahoma and Kansas scaber LeConte 

Female abdomen red, pygidium black; male abdomen black; first 
joint of hind tarsi stout and very thick, and more than twice 
as long as the second and the third joints together; male an- 
tennae honey-yellow (a variety from western Nebraska has 
the antennae orange color); length 8 mm.; Nebraska; plant 
host Solidago spp; insect host Epinomia triangulifera Vachal, 

solidaginis Pierce 

10 Elytra shining yellow, or black only at base; head and prothorax 
densely punctulate 1 1 

Elytra alutaceous, more or less blackish or piceous 13 

II Elytra entirely yellow; female black; hind tarsi with first joint as 
long as the others united, scarcely thicker, not emarginate at 
tip; length 5 mm; California californicus LeConte 

Elytra black at base 12 

12 Body black; length 6 mm; Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Missouri; 
insect host Chloralictus pruinosus Robertson . . . .fasciatus Say. 

Female abdomen dark brown; hind tarsi with first joint as long as 
succeeding three joints; about one and one-half as thick, and 
slightly emarginate, and obliquely truncate; length 6 mm. 

Nebraska fasciatus Say, var. brunneus Pierce . 

13 Hind tibiae slightly compressed 14 

Hind tibiae strongly compressed; body black; elytra black with 
dark reddish-yellow spot; length 6 mm; Florida; insect host. 

Augochlora pur a Say ..... d 1 schwarzi LeConte 

14 Vertex .strongly elevated and compressed; length 6.5 mm.; New 
York (zeschii LeConte) 9 schwarzi LeConte 

Vertex feebly elevated 15 

15 Pectus and abdomen densely punctulate; color black; antennae 
fuscous; legs fusco-testaceous; length 5 mm.; Illinois, New 
York and Massachusetts walshii LeConte. 

Pectus and abdomen more strongly, less densely punctulate; body 
black; antennae fusco-testaceous; legs obscurely testaceous; 
length 2.5 to 3 mm; Canada, New York, and District of Col- 
umbia stylopides Newman. 


Myodites knausi n. sp. 

The specimens on which this description is based are from 
the collection of Mr. Warren Knaus, and include four females 
collected at St. George, Utah, June 10, 1919, at an altitude 
of 2800 feet; and two females and one male collected at Hurri- 
cane, Utah, June 14-18, 1919, at an altitude of 3200 feet. 
I have chosen as types the male and one female from Hurri- 

9 : Length 9 mm.; Head shining black, depressed, finely and evenly 
punctulate, clad with dense yellowish white perpendicular pubescence; 
vertex prominent, broadly rounded; eyes shining black, minutely facetted. 
Antennae ten-jointed, nine-flabellate, pubescent; joints honey-yellow, 
darkening toward apex, the last joints almost entirely brownish; the 
flabellae diminishing in length toward apex, but the flabella of the tenth 
joint equals the basis of the three preceding joints. Mandibles with the 
exterior side black, punctulate, densely pubescent, beyond which there 
is a slight reddish tinge; apices shining glabrous, acuminate. Palpi 
yellowish, tinged with brown, pubescent. 

Prothorax black, shining, more or less denuded in scutal zone, densely 
pubescent at base, sides and in scutellar sone; irregularly punctulate, 
not carinate. Elytra honey-yellow with brownish base. Metathorax 
shining glabrous. The thorax beneath and on sides is minutely punctu- 
late and densely pubescent. Wings hyaline, with large fuscous cloud on 
costal margin and on disc beyond middle. 

Legs honey-yellow, with joints darkened at base and apex, tarsal 
joints darker. Femora stout, densely pubescent, shining and minutely 
punctulate. Tibiae straight, slightly enlarged toward tip, bi-unguicu- 
late, densely pubescent, and rather c osely and minutely punctulate. 
Anterior tarsi with first joint slightly longer than following three, filth 
longer than first, claws almost as long as first joint, and strongly pecti- 
nate. Middle tarsi with first joint as long as fifth joint, claws strongly 
pectinate, but not as long as first joint. Hind tarsi with first joint elong- 
.ate, enlarged, and apically diagonally truncate, almost twice as long as 
the two following joints, and longer than the fourth joint; claws two- 
thirds as long as the fourth joint, and strongly pectinate. 

Abdomen with dorsum of first five segments black, but with interseg- 
mental skins yellow. The venters of these same segments are also black 
with yellow inter-segmental skins. The pygidial area is yellow with 
infuscation beyond the middle. The entire surface of the abdomen is 
sparsely punctulate pubescent. 

cJ" : Length 9 mm. Similar to the female, with the following exceptions: 
.antennae honey-yellow, bi-flabellate, with the tips of the rami about even. 
The abdomen is black with the base and apex of the first ventral segment 
yellow, and the prepygidial area yellow, but with the pygidium black. 


Myodites solidaginis Pierce. 

A female specimen from Tempe, Arizona, collected October 
22, 1919, measuring 6 mm. answers in all other respects 
to the description of this species, and cannot be separated 
with sufficient characters from a specimen of the paratype 

Myodites scaber LeConte. 

A normal specimen of the female of this species from Mc- 
Pherson, Kansas, collected by Mr. Warren Knaus, is at hand. 

A small specimen from Hurricane, Utah, collected by Mr. 
Knaus, June 14-18, 1919, at an altitude of 3200 feet, answers 
in general to the description and compares quite closely to 
the Kansas specimen, but measures only 7 mm. in length, 
and has the wings hyaline, with only a dark fuscous clouding 
in the form of fascia beyond the middle. It also differs by 
having the vertex not carinate. This may be a different 
species, but it is inadvisable to so describe it without the 
other sex. 

The Eggs of Boletotherus bifurcus Fab. (Col). 

While collecting fungi in a swamp at Union, New Jersey, on August 4,. 
our attention was attracted by numerous, small, oval, discolored blisters 
on the upper surface of a specimen of Fames applanatus. These blisters 
or egg capsules were composed of dark excrement-like material, each being 
oval or suboval in outline, about 3.5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide and -from 
I to 1.5 mm. high in the centre, sloping toward the edges. The average 
thickness of the wall of a capsule was about 0.5 mm. Each capsule con- 
tained either a recently hatched larva or a single egg resting on its side. 
The translucent eggs were cylindrical with broadly rounded ends and 
varied in length from 1.7 mm. to 2 mm. and in width from 0.8 mm. to I 
mm. Several eggs were found which were only three-fourths of the 
above measurements. The outer covering of each egg was whitish and 
marked with slightly raised dots. Upon hatching, the larva bores directly 
into the fungus and in time, the capsule weathers away. Many of the 
capsules were placed in crevices or irregularities on the upper surface of 
the fungus. 

HARRY B. WEISS and ERDMAN WEST, New Brunswick, N. J. 


The Santa Marta Region of Colombia from an 
Orthopterological Viewpoint, with Deduc- 
tions relative to Tropical American 

By MORGAN' HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pa. 

In mid-July, 1920, Mr. James A. G. Rehn and the author 
landed at Santa Marta, Colombia, for a month's intensive 
collecting of Orthoptera. The conditions occurring in that 
region were studied as far as was possible in the time avail- 
able, including intensive examination of the different types 
of environment found in each. The total number of speci- 
mens secured was over 3600, including 241 species. 

The conditions examined may be roughly characterized 
as follows: 

I. Vicinity of Santa Marta. Arid lowlands, generally 
covered with a low open forest, of which acacia and tree 
cactus are two conspicuous components. In this area 
irrigated meadowlands and cultivated shrubs and trees, 
many of which bear rich foliage, were also examined. 

II. Vicinity of Aracataca. Hot and humid lowlands. 
In this region uncleared forested areas occur, which due to 
the very porous soil, are semi-arid, while in other parts a 
similarly semi-arid but low and heavily matted scrub is 

In one extensive section of rich soil a magnificent and very 
high forest of huge macundo, ceiba and other trees is found, 
the undergrowth in some places high and thick, with scattered 
guarumo (Cecropia sp.), heavy stands of platanillo and a 
thorned palm. 

Far reaching irrigated meadowlands of rich rank grasses 
and banana plantations are on all sides, while about the town 
are many vine-covered fences, groves of palma de vino, 
balsa, almond and other trees. 

III. Vicinity of Hacienda Cincinnati, situated at an ele- 
vation of 4500 feet on the northeastern slopes of San Lorenzo, 
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Comparatively open but 
lofty mountain forests with a dense and tangled undergrowth. 


Here the well-kept coffee plantation and open areas of 
rank grasses and sugar cane were also explored, as well as 
the cut upper faces and surfaces of the trails through the 

IV. San Lorenzo, slopes above Cincinnati, from 5000 to 
7900 feet. In lower portion clothed with a denser and wetter 
forest than below. In some parts, however, composed of 
much lower and smaller trees. 

In upper portions still more water-soaked, with much vine 
bamboo and many tree ferns, the gnarled and lower trees 
heavily laden with bromeliads, the wax palm overtopping these 
and giving an added beauty to the upper slopes. 

Small areas, cleared at some time, were found on these 
slopes, overgrown with a dense mat of bushes and vines, in 
some of which dead saplings were numerous. 

The forest above and below differs greatly in appearance 
and species represented, but the transition is very gradual 
and we would consider that but a single life zone is represented 
between these elevations. 

V. San Lorenzo, summit bald, 7900 to 8500 feet. This is 
an area which is now practically destitute of trees. The 
ground is covered waist to shoulder high with a dense growth 
of raspberry vines, bracken and many low bushes and plants, 
among which a bromeliad, similar to those which flourish on 
the tree trunks in the forest below, is abundant and a most 
striking feature. 

The lower north slopes of San Lorenzo were also examined, 
conditions rather similar to those at Hacienda Cincinnati 
being found at Hacienda Victoria, 4100 feet, and down to 
Cinco Bocas, 3500. The heavily forested ravines at Minca, 
however, at an elevation of 2500 feet, showed a decided change, 
being in fact more like the high rich forest at Aracataca. 

For the region, the lowlands south and east of the moun- 
tains, and the Sierra Nevada from 8500 to 17500 feet remain 
to be studied, including the distinctive zones of the paramo 
and of the snows. 

It was noted that a move from one distinctive area to an- 
other was of primary importance in securing additional 


species. Of nearly equal value, however, was the careful 
examination of different local environmental conditions, such 
as wet forest, dry forest, grassy open, dry scrub and even 
the varied vegetation about habitations. 

In this way a fair representation could be secured, but it 
was the intensive examination of immediate environmental 
conditions which added the majority of the forms of highest 

Thus in the heavy forect at Aracataca the following in- 
vestigations proved of the utmost importance. 

1. Beating the low foliage. 

2. Beating the masses of vines occurring in small openings. 

3. Beating the rank grasses and plants growing in wet 
open spots. 

4. Close examination of tree trunks and peeling into beat- 
ing net all loose patches of bark. 

5. Shaking vigorously in the net the dead dry leaves of 
trees, found hung in the undergrowth, particularly those of 
the guarumo, and similar treatment of the dead leaves hang- 
ing on the platanillo. 

Dead leaves on the ground were similarly treated but 
usually with much less success. 

6. Close scrutiny and careful raking of the humus and 
leaf mould, particularly in the deepest recesses of the forest, 
in the twilight beneath the dense undergrowth. 

7. Peeling into the net the wet rotting stems of dead pla- 

An additional factor of importance was found to be the use 
of a bright light at night. To our light were attracted twenty- 
five species not found during our field work. A hand flash 
lamp was also of great value, many fine specimens being se- 
cured by its aid at night, located by their stridulation or 
revealed resting on the trail, on logs, tree trunks or more 
often on the upper side of leaves in the forest undergrowth. 


The species taken were found as follows. 

1. forest foliage 46 10. in bromeliads 9 

2. from dead leaves 29 n. domiciliary 7 

3. attracted to light 29 12! low herbage in open 6 

4. grassland 25 13. on tree trunks 4 

5. vine tangles 22 14. bushes in dry areas 4 

6. under bark 20 15. bare banks along trails 3 

7. in leaf'mould 18 16. tree foliage in open 3 

8. in debris in open 15 17. within decaying platanillo .... 2 

9. on bare ground 14 18. in aloes i 

It is to be noted that of the forms secured as listed under 
numbers 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17 and 18, the majority, re- 
presenting approximately one hundred distinct species, 
would not have been secured had not intensive work of par- 
ticular character been undertaken. When we add to this 
total the twenty-five species secured only at light, the vital 
necessity for doing specialized field work is readily seen. 
The collector in the tropics otherwise can not hope to secure 
anything approaching a representative series, except as a 
resident, whose efforts have extended over many years at 
all seasons in the same locality. 

From our observations we are convinced that, though it 
is of course a much longer process to secure a good represent- 
ation of the species occurring at one locality in the tropics 
than in temperate regions, intensive collecting will be found 
to shorten enormously the time required for this. At Ara- 
cataca, much the richest locality examined, the number of 
species added each day to those previously secured was as 
follows: 35 (first half day), 29, 16, 16, 14, 8, 2, 4, 2, 2, 3, 5, 5. 
We believe that after two weeks, even at this exceedingly 
rich locality, great difficulty would have been experienced 
in finding additional species. The majority of those taken 
during the last week of our stay were secured only through 
most difficult and laborious intensive search. 

As to seasonal diversity we have not had sufficient experi- 
ence to say much. The rainy seasons in the tropics must be 
an important factor. However, in Cuba, Jamaica and 
Panama, just sufficient work was done to indicate that, as 


in the Santa Marta region, Orthoptera would occur adult in 
the greatest diversity during the month of September. As a 
result we had difficulty up to mid-August securing any adults 
of a number of species of which immatures were numerous, 
while in the case of a half dozen rarer species immatures 
alone were found. 

As would be expected, some species are apparently present 
as adults throughout the year, while the occurrence of others 
in the adult stage is variable in duration and time of first 
appearance, September being the month of maximum abun- 
dance of adults of the greater number of forms. This was 
somewhat of a surprise, as general insect collecting was said 
to be best at the beginning of the rains, and at Santa Marta 
the major rainy season usually begins in early July. 

During our stay Lepidoptera were extremely abundant, 
but the butterflies were often rubbed or torn; light collect- 
ing at night brought in a great variety of small moths, though 
disappointing in that the larger moths were rarely attracted. 
Coleoptera were found in great numbers, but large and showy 
individuals were few and far between, while light collecting 
at night was as a rule poor. Hemiptera were likewise plenti- 
ful, but immatures of many species were more numerous 
than adults. Odonata were present in great diversity. 

One factor we would emphasize. Comparing tropical with 
temperate regions, though the number of species which can 
be found in the former is much the greater, the numerical 
abundance of the great majority of species is vastly less. 
Very many tropical species are rarely encountered and the 
work necessary to secure individuals of these is very hard 

Mosquitoes, ticks, plagas, leeches and other pests are ever 
present, while poisonous snakes, though in most regions sel- 
dom seen, must be considered, as well as the constant possi- 
bility of fever and other illnesses. Heat, reeking humidity 
and the constant attention necessary that the material 
secured be not destroyed, make the life of the collector in 
tropical lowlands a most arduous proposition. We fear 
that those who have spent the better part of their lives in 
such work are seldom fully appreciated by those at home. 


New Predaceous and Parasitic Mites of the 
Superfamily Gamasoidea (Acar.). 

By H. E. EWING, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

The gamasoid mites of America have received but little 
attention from mite specialists, although the group is re- 
presented by a fauna rich in species. Taxonomic difficulties, 
especially in regard to the genera have been largely respons- 
ible for this neglect. In the present paper eleven new species 
are described. The writer has followed largely Banks' 
interpretation of generic characters and his arrangement of 
the genera found in America. Some of the predaceous forms 
here described are of considerable benefit because of their 
attacks upon injurious insects. 

Machrocheles bihastatus new species. (Text fig. i). 

A medium-sized, yellowish-brown species. Epistoma broad, rounded 
and concealing the chelicerae when the latter are held in repose; on its 
anterior border provided with a very long, sharp, central cusp and two 
small, sharp, inconspicuous lateral teeth. Hypostome consisting of two 
large, sword-like cusps that considerably surpass the central cusp of the 
epistome. Chelicerae stout, heavily chitinized, ventral arm of chela 
surpassing the upper arm and hooked around its distal extremity; both 
arms provided with well-developed teeth. Body oval, evenly rounded 
behind, and with shoulders well marked; clothed above with moderate 
setae, a rather conspicuous pair being situated on the shoulders. An- 
terior legs long and antenna-like; second pair stoutest and each provided 
with a conspicuous spine which is situated on the outside of tarsus near 
its tip; third pair distinctly smaller than adjoining legs; last pair extend- 
ing slightly beyond the tip of body and with trochanters enlarged, being 
much stouter than the femora and almost as large as the same. Posterior 
coxae situated at the middle of the body. Length, 0.85 mm.; width, 
0.50 mm. 

From near Lake Keuka, New York; in leaf mold from 
gorge; by C. R. Crosby. 

Description based upon the type, a well-preserved female 
specimen in the writer's collection, This species is quite 
distinct from our other described American forms on account 
of the large two-cusped hypostome. 


Laelaps bermudaensis new species. (Text fig. 2.) 

An oval-shaped, smooth, straw-yellow species. Chelicerae stout, with 
with upper chela almost straight and lower chela strongly curved and 
considerably surpassing the upper chela. Palpi prominent and about 
one-half as long as first pair of legs. Body broadest at its middle, evenly 
rounded behind, and sparsely clothed with rather long setae, a conspicuous 
one being situated at the median line along the posterior border. Peri- 
treme extending slightly beyond the third pair of coxae, curved so as to 
follow the contour of the body margin and without sinuations. Anterior 
legs three-fourths as long as the body and antenna-like, tarsus scarcely 
equal to the tibia in length; second legs stoutest, trochanter stout, but 
not swollen; third legs the smallest, about four-fifths as long as the fourth 
pair; fourth pair reaching the tip of abdomen, trochanters swollen, much 
the stoutest of the segments and about two-thirds as long as the femur. 
Length, 0.54 mm.; width, 0.40 mm. 

From Pembroke, Bermuda; collected in a banana orch- 
ard and cedar grove; by A. O. Gross. 

Described from the type specimen, a female, in the writer's 
private collection. Of the species in the writer's collection 
this one is nearest Laelaps flavus Ewing. It differs from L. 
flavus in having a smaller and stouter body, in the possession 
of the large body setae and in several other details. 

Seius safroi new species. (Text fig. 3.) 

A small light yellowish mite. Chelicerae moderate, upper chela, which 
surpasses the lower, provided with two rows of teeth. The outer row is 
composed of fewer but slightly larger teeth than the inner row. Palpi 
about one-half as long as the first pair of legs, and each provided with a 
small spine on the inner side of the distal segment. Body with sides al- 
most parallel behind the shoulders which are not pronounced; lateral 
margin in front of shoulders concave. Body sparsely clothed with mod- 
erate, simple setae, the pair on the shoulders and one of the pairs near the 
posterior margin being larger than the rest. All the legs about subequal 
in length except the third pair which is slightly shorter and smaller than 
the rest. Tarsus of leg I longer than the tibia, with its inner margin 
straight and outer margin curved near the tip; claws of tarsus I weak and 
borne on a small pedicel situated on the inner lower aspect of the tip of 
the segment. Segments of leg II stout, the trochanter and genual being 
equal to or broader than the femur. Last pair of legs extending beyond 
the tip of abdomen by about half their length; tarsi very long and taper- 
ing. Length 0.52 mm.; width, 0.25 mm. 



[XXXI, *2O 


Fig. i. Macrocheles bihastatus new species; ventral view of hypostomp and visible 
part of epistome, x 125. 

Fig. 2. Laelaps bermudaensis new species; left second leg from above, x 125. 

Fig. 3. Seius safroi new species; last two segments of right front leg from the inside, 
x 125. 

Fig. 4- 

Fig. 5- 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7- 

Fig. 8. 
x 125. 

Fig. 9. Uropoda bermudaensis new species; genital plate of female showing its relation 
to the last three pairs of coxae, x 125. 

Fig. 10. Uropoda longisetosa new species; ventral view of tip of abdomen, x 125. 

Fig. ii. Cilliba robustiunguis new species; last two segments of left second leg from 
above, x 125. 

From Corvallis, Oregon; on bark of Pseudotsuga taxifolia; 
by V. I. Safro, in whose honor the species is named. 

Gflmasus inarmatits new species; left palpus of female from above, x 125. 
Hologamasus quinquedentatus new species; right chelicera from below, x 125. 
Liponyssus setiger new species; tip of tarsus I from above, x 500. 
Liponyssus setiger new species; right chelicera of female from above, x 125. 
Liponyssus bermudaensis new species; ventral view of anal plate of female. 


Described from several cotypes of the writer's private 
collection, all from Corvallis. This is the first species of the 
genus to be described from the North West. 

Gamasus inarmatus new species. (Text fig. 4.) 

9 : Medium sized, yellowish-brown species. Palpi fully one-half as 
long as the first pair of legs; next to last segment with a rather conspic- 
uous spine on its inner aspect near the tip; the two segments proximad to 
this one, each with two smaller and less conspicuous spines on their inner 
aspects. Chelicerae large and when extended reaching or even surpassing 
the tips of palpi. Body somewhat pointed behind; sparsely clothed with 
inconspicuous setae above. Genital plate fully as broad as long with its 
base at the posterior margins of coxae IV, and apex, which is sharp and 
spine-like, at the level of the front margins of coxae of third pair of legs. 
Front legs slightly longer than the body; hind legs reaching slightly be- 
yond the tip of abdomen, tarsi with prominent, long, spine-like setae. 
Length, 0.92 mm.; width, 0.50 mm. 

c? : Male considerably smaller than female. Second pair of legs greatly 
enlarged, but without the tooth-like spurs found in other species of the 
genus. The setae or spines on all the legs somewhat stronger than in 
female. Length, 0.82 mm.; width, (about) 0.40 mm. 

From Twin Falls, Idaho; on roots of red clover; by W. 
N. Birch, county agent. 

Described from two females and one male sent to me by 
A. C. Burrill who received them from Mr. Birch. The 
absence of the spurs or chitinous teeth on the second pair 
of legs distinguishes this species from all others in this coun- 
try. Cotypes at present in writer's collection. 

Hologamasus quinquedentatus new species. (Text fig. 5.) 

9 : A large chestnut brown gamasid. Epistome very broad, but 
rather short, thus the chelicerae are not covered when in repose. Along 
its front margin the epistome bears five, almost equal, sharp cusps or 
teeth spaced at about equal distances from each other. Chelicerae 
powerful, fixed chela surpassing the movable one and apparently tooth- 
less; movable digit provided with a few backwardly directed teeth. 
Abdomen broadest at the level of the coxae of legs IV 7 , evenly rounded 
behind, shoulders weak but provided with the usual pair of setae. Body 
clothed above with small, inconspicuous setae. Epigynum triangular, 
its base behind the coxae of legs IV. Anterior legs longer than the rest; 
tarsi with straight, parallel margins, and weak claws which are situated 
on long, slender and weak pedicels. Second pair of legs enlarged, the 
trochanter being the stoutest of the segments; tarsi each with a pair of 
spines situated near the tip but distinctly below the base of pedicel; d.i\\- 


only moderate. Last pair of legs extending for the full length of their 
tarsi beyond the tip of abdomen; trochanters swollen, much stouter than 
the longer femora; claws weak and situated at the tips of long pedicels 
Length, 1.70 mm.; width, 0.90 mm. 

From Ithaca, New York; under a stone; by the writer. 

Described from female type, in the writer's collection. 
Its large size and epistome with five subequal teeth are the 
most significant characters of this species. 

Liponyssus setiger new species. (Text figs. 6, 7.) 

d*. Species yellowish brown and strongly spined. Palpi rather small 
and not more than one-half as long as anterior legs. Chelicerae not very 
stout but long and with sharp chelae; upper chela about one and one- 
half times as long as lower and sword-shaped. Body broadest at its 
middle and pointed behind, shoulders prominent. Above the body is 
well clothed with prominent, long, straight, spine-like setae; a rather 
conspicuous recurved pair is situated at the apex of the cephalothorax, 
and a single straight seta is situated at tip of abdomen. Peritreme slight- 
ly sinuous and ending at a level between coxae III and IV. Legs stout; 
last pair longest. Second pair of legs larger than adjoining pairs. Last 
pair extending for fully half their length beyond the tip of abdomen; 
trochanter stoutest segment; femur equal to patella in width and but 
slightly longer. Length, 0,64 mm.; width, 0.38 mm. 

9 . Stouter than the male, with the setae of the body less conspicuous . 
Chelicerae of the generalized type; fixed arm with a rather conspicuous 
lateral seta. Posterior legs not enlarged as in male. Length, 0.68 mm.; 
width, 0.45 mm. 

From Madison, Wisconsin; on a short-tailed shrew; by 
A. C. Burrill. 

Described from several specimens all collected at Madison. 
The presence of the lateral seta on the fixed arm of chelicerae 
of female in this species is almost a unique character. In 
general appearance similar to L. spiniger Ewing, but without 
the enormous spines on the first and second pairs of legs. 
Cotypes in the writer's collection. 

Liponyssus bermudaensis new species. (Text fig. 8). 

9 . A medium-sized, light yellowish brown species. Palpi fully one- 
half as long as the anterior legs. Chelicerae moderate in size, not heavily 
chititinized. Body broadest behind the posterior coxae, almost evenly 
rounded behind, shoulders pronounced. Peritreme following the body 
wall for about one-half its length, then extending backward in a sinuous 
course to the stigma which is located at a level between the third and fourth 


coxae. Anal plate roughly triangular with a stout spine at the apex 
about as long as the plate itself and two smaller spines situated on either 
side and slightly behind the anal opening. Legs short and stout; first 
pair about as long as the body is broad; second pair not swollen; third 
pair the smallest; fourth pair extending to the tip of the abdomen, troch- 
anters equal to the femora in length and much stouter, each with a con- 
spicuous lateral spine and near it a smaller spine. Length, 0.51 mm.; 
width, 0.34 mm. 

From Bermuda; on a wood rat; by A. O. Gross. 

Described from three females; all from same host indivi- 
dual, and in the writer's collection. Similar to L. crosbyi 
Ewing but with body setae much more prominent, anal 
plate of a different shape and apical seta of same fully twice 
as long. 

Uropoda bermudaensis new species. (Text fig. 9.) 

A smooth yellowish brown species. Body broadest in the middle and 
somewhat pointed at each end. It is very sparsely clothed with ver> 
minute hairs. Peritreme forming a conspicuous transverse loop towards 
its anterior end, and behind this loop sinuous, and at one place thrown 
into a minor fold. Genital plate of female extending from the front mar- 
gins of the second coxae to the rear margins of the hind coxae evenly and 
broadly rounded in front and truncate behind. Legs short and stout; 
when flexed, neatly held in their excavations and concealed from above. 
Tarsus of leg I fully twice as long as tibia; inner margin straight, outer 
margin curved toward the tip where it is thickly beset with setae; claws 
and tarsal pedicel weak. Length, 0.57 mm.; width, 0.42 mm. 

From Pembroke, Bermuda; in a banana orchard; by A. 
O. Gross. 

Described from the female type, in the writer's collection. 
Related to U. illinoiensis Ewing but larger, less chitinized, 
with stouter legs and with body differently shaped; also 
differs in the shape of peritreme. 

Uropoda robusta new species. 

9 . A large, conspicuous, dark brown or black mite. Body almost 
twice as long as broad, evenly rounded behind and somewhat pointed in 
front; almost naked above but observed to be provided with a few very 
minute setae. Peritreme with prominent anterior loop and a short, 
slightly sinuous posterior part. Genital plate extending from the anterior 
margins of the second coxae to between the posterior coxae, about twice 
as long as broad. Legs moderate. Anterior pair when extended reach- 
ing for one-half their length beyond the front margin of body, tarsus 


about three times as long as tibia and provided at its anterior end with a 
tactile seta as long as the tarsus itself. Posterior legs when extended not 
reaching tip of body. Length, 0.92 mm.; width, 0.78 mm. 

cf. Very similar to female. Genital opening situated between third 
coxae. Length, 0.90 mm.; width, 0.75 mm. 

From Guayaquil, Ecuador; on palm seeds; collected upon 
entry into the United States by H. L. Sanford. 

Described from one female and two males. Similar in a 
general way to U. folsomi Ewing, but at once separated from 
this latter species by the absence of conspicuous body setae. 
Cotypes will be deposited in U. S. National Museum. 

Uropoda longisetosa new species. 

9 . Medium-sized, light chestnut brown species, with a pair of very 
long setae on the posterior margin of the body. Mouth parts rather 
weak. Body broadest at the middle, and broadly and evenly rounded 
in front and behind. Body with minute hairs above and a single large 
pair, equal to the width of the body in length, situated almost on the 
posterior margin ; genital plate very large, triangular, with the base at 
the posterior margin of the posterior coxae and the apex in front of the 
front margins of the second coxae. Legs stout and when flexed covered 
above by the body; tarsi of leg I about two and one-half times as long 
as broad; tarsi of last three pairs of legs each provided with one or more 
spines. Length 0.76 mm.; width, 0.48 mm. 

O 71 . Similar to female. Genital opening rounded in front and behind, 
but with straight sides; situated between the level of the third and fourth 
coxae. Length, 0.74 mm.; width, 0.48 mm. 

From Leland Stanford University, California; in galleries 
of Monarthrum scutellare in Quercus agrifolia;by O. J. Gilliland. 

Described from a single female and male; both taken in 
the same situation, and in the writer's collection. This 
species differs from most, if not at all, of the other species in 
the genus in the possession of the long pair of setae situated 
near the posterior margin of the abdomen. 

Cilliba robustiunguis new species. (Text fig. n.) 

Medium-sized, yellowish brown. Body over two-thirds as broad as 
long, evenly rounded behind and somewhat pointed in front; above a 
few minute hairs. Legs short and not very stout. Tarsus I much weaker 
than tarsus II; the latter broader at its base and about four times as 
long as the tibia. This tarsus bears a few short spines and a large, con- 
spicuous pair of claws that are rather strongly recurved and have between 
them the moderate empodium or pulvillus. Genital plate of female 
almost as broad as long. Length, 0.95 mm.; width, 0.65 mm. 


From Ithaca, New York; in dead grass collected in a 
Berlese trap; by the writer. 

Described from a single female, in the writer's collection. 
This species is the first of the genus that the writer has re- 
ported from America. 

A New American Amaurobius (Arachnida, 


BY RALPH V. CHAMBERLIX, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Amaurobius fractus sp. nov. 

9 . Carapace, sternum, and legs fulvous, without markings, Abdo- 
men above and at sides grey, a paler pointed mark at base and several 

indistinct chevrons behind, under the 
lens showing small pale dots and 
marks; venter dark in front of spin- 
nerets, the other part lightened with 
larger yellowish marks. Eyes of the 
usual general relation. Anterior me- 
dian eyes much smaller than the 
laterals. Posterior eyes subequal to 
each other and to anterior laterals; 

median eyes their diameter apart, 
.1 maiirobius fraclus n. sp. Epigynum. .. , 

two and two-thirds or more as tar 

from the laterals. Clypeus narrower than diameter of an anterior lateral 
eye. Characterized by the epigynum which is wide open and much 
suggests that of A. ferox Bl., a much larger species. See accompanying 

Length 5.5 mm. Lc-ngth of cephalothorax 2.8 mm.; width i.S mm. 
Length of lib. + pat. IV, 2.9 mm. 

Locality. California: Claremont. Type. M. C. Z. 501. 

Changes of Address. 

Mr. William Beutenmuller has removed to Highwood, Bergen County, 
New Jersey. His postoffice box there is Xo. 258. Will correspondents 
please notice. 

As from January I, 1921, the permanent address of the Publication 
Office of the Imperial Bureau of Entomology will be: 41, Queen's Gate, 
London, S. W. 7. All communications respecting subscriptions to or 
exchanges for the Review of Applied Entomology and Bulletin of Ento- 
mological Research, or to the Bureau Library, should be sent to the As- 
sistant Director at above address. 


A New Species of Dixa from Argentina 
(Dixidae, [Dipt.) 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Urbana, Illinois. 

Species of the family Dixidae from the South Temperate 
Zone are very uncommon. The only other species known is 
D. chilensis Alexander,* from Chile. The following species 
was taken in association with several interesting species of 
Tipulidae that are recorded elsewhere. 
Dixa argentina, sp. n. 

Rostrum obscure yellow; head black; mesonotum with three velvety 
black stripes, the anterior lateral margins yellow; pleura largely dark 
brown ; knobs of the halteres brown ; wings dusky, a conspicuous brown 
spot at r-m; abdomen brownish black. 

cf . Length about 2.3 mm.; wing, 3.2 mm. Rostrum obscure yellow; 
palpi dark brown. Antennae setaceous, black, the scapal segments 
slightly paler. Head black. 

Mesonotum yellow on the antero-lateral angles; disk with three velvety 
black stripes, the interspaces dark brown; median stripe not reaching 
beyond midlength of the sclerite; remainder of the mesonotum black. 
Pleura yellow with a very broad brownish suffusion that covers all the 
sclerites with the exception of the sternum and the dorso-pleural mem- 
branes. Halteres dark brown, the base of the stem yellowish. 

Legs with the coxae and trochanters light yellow; femora light brown, 
the tips narrowly blackened, most conspicuous on the posterior legs; 
tibiae and tarsi dark brown. 

Wings with a strong dusk} tinge, the costal and subcostal cells slightly 
more yellowish; a large brown cloud at r-m; veins dark brown. Vena- 
tion: Sc ending just beyond the origin of Rs; Rs straight, very slightly 
sinuate, in direct alignment with J? 4 + 5 ; R 2 + s only moderately arcuated, 
much shorter than either R 2 or R s ; r-m at the fork of Rs; m-cu opposite 
or slightly before r-m. 

Abdomen brownish black, the sternites a very little paler. 

Habitat: Argentina. Holotype, 6" , La Granja, Alta Gracia, 
Province de Cordoba, April 1-8, 1920 (Charles Bruch). 
Paratopotype, cf. Type in the collection of the author; 
paratype in the collection of the Museu La Plata. 

Dixa argentina bears a certain resemblance to D. centralis 
Loew of the United States but the details of coloration are 
very distinct. The types were collected by my friend, Dr. 
Charles Bruch, to whom I am indebted for manv favors. 

"Entomological News, vol. 24, pp. 176, 177; 1913. 



Program and Price of the News for 1921. 

In the October number we suggested raising the sub- 
scription price of the NEWS to enable us to increase the 
number of pages and possibly the illustrations. We have 
received a large number of replies from subscribers favorable 
to this suggestion. Unhappily, an increase in costs of print- 
ing for 1921 appears to be widespread and prevents us from 
enlarging the magazine to the extent to which we had hoped. 
We believe, however, that we are justified in promising 
thirty-two pages per month, instead of thirty, for the annual 
subscription of $2.50, and this is our program and our price 
for 1 92 1. We shall try also to give a few additional plates 
or illustrations. 

W' T e hope that all our subscribers will remain with us and 
help us as they have done in the past. All the income from 
the NEWS goes into its printing and illustration and the 
postage and stationery necessary for its maintenance. No 
one receives any salary or compensation for work done on 
the journal. Sooner or later and we hope sooner a de- 
crease in costs of printing is probable, and when this happens 
we shall enlarge the NEWS step by step with lowered expenses. 

Notes and 


Meetings of Societies in the Christmas Holidays at Chicago 

The seventy-third meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science and of the Associated Societies will be held at Chicago 
from December 27, 1920, to January i, 1921. Dr. I.. O. Howard, Chief 
of the Bureau of Entomology of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, is president-elect of the A. A. A. S. and will preside at the Chicago 
meeting. He has been permanent secretary for twenty-two years during 
which the membership of the organization has increased from 1,729 to 
over 12,000. 



The Entomological Society of America will hold its annual meeting 
December 27 and 28. 

The meetings of the American Association of Economic Entomologists 
will immediately follow those of the preceding society. 

The tnirty-eighth annual meeting of the American Society of Natural- 
ists will begin on December 30; a symposium on "General Physiology" 
will be offered that afternoon and the annual dinner that evening. 

The annual meeting of The Ecological Society of America will be held 
December 28 to 31, the annual dinner on the evening of the 28th. 

Coleoptera Associated with Pleurotus ostreatus. 

This fungus, commonly known as the oyster mushroom, appears to be 
more attractive to insects than any other member of the family Agarica- 
ceae and for that reason it is desirable to call attention to it. It is an 
edible species and occurs from spring until late fall, either singly or in 
clusters on the limbs or trunks of dead or living trees. Patterson and 
Charles (U. S. Dept. Agric. Bui. 175, p. 13) give the following brief de- 
scription by which it may be recognized, "cap either sessile or stipitate, 
shell-shaped or dimidiate, ascending, fleshy, soft, smooth, moist, in color 
white, cream, grayish to brownish ash; stem present or absent (if present, 
short, firm, elastic, ascending, base hairy); gills white, decurrent, some- 
what distant, anastomosing behind to form an irregular network. Cap 
3 to 5 inches broad; mostly cespitose, imbricated." 

A related species, Pleurotus sapitus, upon which were found only a few 
species of Coleoptera, resembles ostreatus closely but is distinguished by 
its lilac-tinged spores. 

As shown by the following table, 26 species are listed representing 10 
families. Those species marked with an asterisk were taken on a single 
specimen of Pleurotus ostreatus by Mr. K. F. Chamberlain at Cornwall, 
Connecticut, June 27. 

According to the table, the Tenebrionidae and Staphylinidae appear to 
be the best represented families. The Staphylinidae are commoner on 
gill fungi than on polypores but the Tenebrionidae are equally at home 
on either polypores or agarics. All of the species listed, except those 
belonging to predaceous groups such as the Carabidae and Histeridae,. 
are probably fungus eaters. 

CARABIDAE: Pterosticlius luciiblandus Say.* SILPHIDAE: Necrophonts 
pustulatus Hersch.* STAPHYLINIDAE: Staphylinus maculosus Grav.,* 
Oxyporus Grav., 0. lateralis Grav., 0. major Grav., 0. stygi'usSay. 
EROTYLIDAE: Tritoma thoracica Say,* T. flavicollis Lee.* MYCETOPHA- 
GIDAE: Mycetophagus flexuosus Say,* M. melsheimeri Lee.,* M.puncta- 
tus Say.* HISTERIDAE: Hister abbreviatus Fab.,*H. interniptus Beauv.* 
NITIDULIDAE: Nitidula bipunctata Linn.* Phenolia grossa Fab.* Ips. 
quadrigiMatus Oliv.* Cyllodes biplagiatus Lcc. CISIDAE: Rhipidtunlnis 


paradoxus Beauv. TEXEBRIONIDAE: Scolobates calcaratus Fab.,* Xylo- 
pinus Oliv.,* Diaperis maculata Oliv.,* Platydema sub;osta- 
tiiin Lap.* Boletotherus bifurcus Fab.* Helops micans Fab.* MOR- 
DELLIDAE: Tomoxia bidentata Say.* 

HARRY B. WEISS, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

The Crop Protection Institute. 

An organization has been effected under the auspices of the National 
Research Council, by which it is proposed to bring together manu- 
facturers of insecticides, fungicides and allied commodities with the sci- 
entific men in entomology, plant pathology and agricultural chemistry. 
The title of the organization is The Crop Protection Institute. 

The question of bringing about such an organization has been under 
advisement by a number of entomologists and has been studied at some 
length by the Committee on Policy of the Association of Economic Ento- 
mologists. It is explicitly not the intent to duplicate existing organi- 
zations or agencies. Rather, it is the thought that this Institute can 
serve as the vehicle for accomplishing some things for which there is not 
at present any machinery, and may supplement on occasion the work 
of existing departments or agencies. 

The greatest care has been taken to safeguard the activities of the 
Institute from suspicion of commercial influence. All of its affairs are 
entirely in the hands of the Board of Trustees of thirteen members, nine 
of whom must be scientific men without commercial affiliations. Definite 
provision is made for general publication of the results of research. Sci- 
entific members of the Association will receive publications of the In- 
stitute from time to time, in addition to sharing in other activities and 
helping to guide the Institute into useful endeavors. W. C. O'KANE, 
Durham, New Hampshire, Chairman Board of Trustees of The Crop 
Protection Institute. 

Entomological Literature. 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the Academy of Natura r 
Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Entomology of the Americas (North and 
South), including Arachnida and Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American ento- 
mology will not be noted; but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of 
insects, however, whether relating to American or exotic species, will be recorded. 

The numbers in HEAVY-FACED TYPE refer to the journals, as numbered in the following 
list, in which the papers are published. 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their first installments. 

The records of papers containing new genera or species occurring north of Mexico are 
all grouped at the end of each Order of which they treat. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Record, Office of Ex- 
periment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, London. 
For records of papers on Medical Entomology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

7 Annals of The Entomological Society of America, Columbus, Ohio. 
8 The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London. 9 The Entomolo- 
gist, London. 10 Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Wash- 


ington, D. C. 12 Journal of Economic Entomology, Concord, N. H. 
15 Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, Washington, D. C. 17 Lepidoptera, 
Boston, Mass. 19 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 
21 The Entomologist's Record, London. 25 Bullettino della Societa 
Entomologica Italiana, Firenze. 26 Boletin de la Sociedad Entomolo- 
gica de Espana, Zaragoza. 33 Annales de la Societe Entomologique de 
Belgique, Brussels. 52 Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipsic. 64 Parasi- 
tology, London. 68 Science, Lancaster, Pa. 76 Nature, London. 
79 Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass. 85 The Journal of Experimental Zoology, Philadel- 
phia. 89 Zoologische Jahrbucher, Jena. 103 Biologisches Central- 
blatt, Leipzig. 104 Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Leipzig. 
106 Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 113 
Transactions of the London Natural History Society. 114 Entomolo- 
gische Rundschau, Stuttgart. 115 Societas Entomologica, Stuttgart. 
116 Entomologische Zeitschrift, Frankfurt a. M. 

GENERAL. Aue, A. U. E. -Der entomologe als postscheckunde. 
116, xxxiv, 25-6. Brethes, J. Insectes du Perou. 106, Ixxxix, 27-54. 
Cornelsen, H. Konnen die raupen horen? 116, xxxiv, 36. Demoll, R. 
Die bannende wirkung kunstlicher lichtquellen auf insekten. 103. 
xxxvii, 503-6. Dewitz, J. Die fur die kunstliche parthenogenesis 
angewandten mittel als erreger fur andere biologische vorgange. 103, 
xxxvii, 498-503. Donisthorpe, H. "The phoresy of Antherophagus" 
21, xxxii, 181-87. Gotz, W. Zur bionomie der insekten. 115, xxxv, 
37-8. Johnson, G. W. Entomological field work [in New England]. 
(Bull. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiii, 9-10). Lloyd, J. T. Insects used 
in medicine. (Am. Jour. Pharm., xcii, 714-16). Lohe, E. Praktischer 
thermostat. 116, xxiv, 54-5. Muttkowski, R. A. The respiration of 
aquatic insects. 19, xv, 89-96. Onslow, H. The iridescent colours of 
insects. 76, cvi, 181-3; 215-18. Reil, Dr. Quelques mots sur la 
recolte et la preparation des microlepidopteres, microneuropteres et 
microhemipteres. (Ann. Soc. Linn, de Lyon, Ixvi, 41-43). Szymanski, 
J. S. Das prinzip der kurzesten bahn in der lehre von der handlung. 

103, xxxvii, 282-7. 

ARAGHNIDA &c. Robinson, L. E. Malformations in ticks. 64, 
xii. I75-9- Warburtoii, C. Sarcoptic scabies in man and animals. 
64, xii, 265-300. 

NEUROPTERA. Howe, R. H. Manual of the Odonata of New 
England. (Mem. Thoreau Mus. Nat. Hist., ii, 102 pp.). Longinos 
Navas, R. P. Insectosde America. 26, iii, 90-99. Stringberg, H.- 
Typstudien ueber die geschlechtsorgane einiger Mallophagengattungen. 

104, cxvii, 591-653- 

Banks, N. New neuropteroid insects. 79, Ixiv, 299-362. 
OTHOPTERA. Jesiorski, L. Der thorax von Dixippus morosus 
(Carausius). Part I. 104, cxvii, 727-815. 


HEMIPTERA. Fenton & Hartzell The life history of the po- 
tato leaf-hopper (Empoasca mali). 12, xiii, 400-8. Hungerford, H. B. 

The biology and ecology of aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera. The 
male genitalia as characters of specific value in certain Cryptocerata. 
(Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui., xi, 1-328; 329-36). Jones, T. H. A peculiarly 
marked adult of Nezara viridula. 10, xxii, 171-2. Lawson, P. B. 
The Cicadel.idae of Kansas. (Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui., xii, 1-376). 

Barber, H. E. A new member of the family Thaumastoceridae. 19, 
xv, 98-104. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Fassl, A. H. Meine Bolivia Reise. 114, xxxvii, 
25-7 (Cont.). Feuerborn, J. Duftorgane bei den schmetterlings- 
mucken. 52, li, 279-85. Hampson, G. F. Catalogue of the Litho- 
siadae (Arctianae) and Phalaenoididae in the British Museum. (Cat. 
Lep. Phal, Br. Mus., Suppl., ii, 619 pp.). Johnson, H. L. Experiences 
with Utetheisa bella. 17, iv, 77-8. Kaye, W. J. New species and 
subspecies of S. American L. 21, xxxii, 187-9. Krueger, E. I'eber 
sekundare sexuelle organe der morphiden und anderer tagfalter-familien 
nebst angaben ueber den geruch einiger Kolumbianischer tagfalter. 
114, xxxvii, 35-6 (Cont.). McMurray, N. Polyphemus notes. Catocala 
antinympha caterpillars. 17, iv, 73-4; 76-7. Mathew, G. F. On the 
abundance of the larvae of Pyrameis atalanta. 9, liii, 230-3. Robbins, 
R. W. Wing colour in butterflies and moths. 113,1919,32-6. Schaus, 
W. New species of neotropical Pyraustinae. 10, xxii, 172-90. New sps. 
of Notodontidae from Central and South America. 15, viii, 147-61. Wil- 
liams, H. B. Parallelism in variation in butterflies. 113, 1919, 13-17. 

Dyar, H. G. A new noctuid from Oregon. 15, viii, 146. Heinrich, 
C. Coleophora notes with description of two new species. 10, xxii, 

DIPTERA. Adolph, E. F. Egg-laying reactions in the pomace 
fly, Drosophila. 85, xxxi, 327-41. Arias, J. Notas dipterologicas, 
VI, Una nueva especie Americana del gen. Ogcodes (Bol. R. Soc. Es- 
panola Hist. Nat., xx, 191-3). Austen, E. E. The house-fly: its life- 
history and practical measures for its suppression. (Br. Mus. (N. H.), 
Econ, Ser. i a.). Duda, Dr. Vorlaufige mitteiling zur kenntnis der 
ausser-europaischen arten der gattungen Leptocera und Borborus. 89, 
Abt. f. Syst., xliii, 433-466. Enderlein, G. Zur kenntnis tropischer 
frucht-bohrfliegen. 89, Abt. f. Syst., xliii, 336-60. Engel, E. O. Stud- 
ien ueber neotropische Ilystriciidae sens B. et B. 89, Abt. f. Syst., 
xliii, 273-328. Hermann, F. Beitrag zur allgemeinen systematik der 
Asiliden. 89, xliii, Abt. f. Syst., 161-194. Howard, L. O. Swarming of 
Anopheles 68, lii, 468-9. Rennie & Sutherland. On the life history 
of Bucentes geniculata, parasite of Tipula paludosa and other species. 
64, xii, 199-211. Sack, P. Die gattungen Sappingogaster und Mero- 
macrus. 89, xliii, Abt. f. Syst., 234-72. Schmitz, H. Biologische 
veziehungen zwischen dipteren und schneckcn. 103, xxxvii, 24-43. 


Sherman, F. Notes on the mosquito fauna of North Carolina. (Jour. 
Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., xxxvi, 86-93). Surcouf, J. M. R. Revision 
des Muscidae Testaceae (N. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. VI, 27-124, 

Dyar, H. G. The classification of American Aedes. The American 
Aedes of the stimulans group. The larva of Aedes campestris. A note 
on Aedes niphadopsis. The Grabhamia group of Psorophora. 15, 
viii, 103-6; 106-20; 120; 138-9; 140-1. Melander, A. L. Review of 
the nearctic Tetanoceridae. 7, xiii, 305-32. Parker, R. R. North 
American Sarcophagidae: New sps. from British Columbia and Alaska. 
19, xv, 105-110. 

COLEOPTERA. Blunck, H. Die schreckdrusen des Dytiscus und 
ihr secret. Part 2. 104, cxvii, 1-129; 205-56. Bruch, C. Cerambi- 
cidos Argentines nuevos o poco conocidos. (Rev. Mus. de la Plata, 
xxiv, 1-27). Calabresi, E. Contribuzione alia conoscenza dei Belo- 
ferini (Brenthidae). 25, li, 57-72. Champion, G. C. Some new C. 
from Costa Rica. 8, Ivi, 220-4. Lameere, A. Prioninae nouveaux 
ou peu connus. 33, Ix, 137-45. Parshley, H. M. Distributional note 
on two species of C. 19, xv, 96-7. Schaeffer, C. Change of names in 
C. 19, xv, 117. Speyer, W. Die pharynxmuskulatur der larve von 
Dytiscus marginalis. 52, li, 243-50. Teodoro, G. Alcune note sulle 
cause di variabilita delle colorazioni. 25, li, 44-8. Verhoef, K. W. 
Zur vergleichenden morphologic des abdomens der coleopteren und uber 
die phylogenetische bedeutung desselben. 104, cxvii, 130-204. Weiss, 
H. B. Notes on the fungous beetle, Cis cylindricus. 19, xv, 110-11. 

Burke, H. E. Some notes on the genus Trachykele with a descrip- 
tion of a new species (Buprestidae). 10, xxii, 168-70. Fisher, W. S. 
A new genus and several new species of Cerambycidae. 10, xxii, 153-9. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bailey, I. W. Some relations between ants and 
fungi. (Ecology, i, 174-98). Brim, R. Die moderne ameisenpsy- 
chologie ein anthropomorphistischer irrtum? 103, xxxvii, 357~7 2 - 
Forsius, R. Kleinere beitrage zur kenntnis der Tenthredinoiden-eier. 
(Med. Soc. Faun, et Fl. Fennica, xlv, 169-84). Hayes, W. P. Solen- 
opsis molesta, a biological study. (Kans. Agric. Exper. Sta., Tech. Bull., 
v "i 55 PP-)- Jackson, L. O. Bumblebees of District of Columbia and 
vicinity. 10, xxii, 162-8. Keiffer, J. J. Das Tierreich. 44 Lief. Dia- 
priidae. 627 pp. Kutter, H. Myrmikologische beobachtungen. 103, 
xxxvii, 429-37. Rohwer, S. A. Notes on the Harris collection of saw- 
flies and the 'species described by Harris. (Jour. Wash. Ac. Sci., x, 508- 
18). Santschi, F. Quelques novelles fourmis de Bolivie. 106, Ixxxix, 
122-6. Strand, F. Eine Andrena mit monstrosem geader. 116, 
xxxiv, 11-12. 

MacGillivray, A, D. New sps of Tenthredinoidea 19, xv, 112-15. 


(* indicates neiv genera, species or varieties.) 

AINSLIE, C. N. Notes on Gonatopus ombrodes, a parasite 

of jassids 169, 187 

ALEXANDER, C. P. A new species of Dixa from Argen- 
tina 294 

Undescribed crane-flies from Argentina 215 

An undescribed species of Ptychoptera from the west- 
ern United States 3 

Undescribed Tipulidae collected by H. S. Parish in 

Brazil 70 

BAERG, W. J. An unusual case of parasitism on Clas- 

toptera obtusa 20 

BAKER, C. F. To proposers of new genera 19 

BANKS, N. A rare pamphlet 176 

BARBER, G. W. Notes on the oviposition and food of 

the wheel-bug (Arilus cristatus) 107 

BRANCH, H. E. A webspinning sarcophagid, parasitic 

upon a mantis 276 

BRAUN, A. F. Coleophora apicialbdla nom. nov 55 

New species of Lyonetiidae 7^ 

BRIMLEY, C. S. Notes on North Carolina dragonflies. . . 138 

On Scolia bicincta and Scolia undata 261 

CALVERT, P. P. Entomology at the convocation week 

meetings of 1919-20 56 

Entomology in the United States National Museum 

(editorial) 1 74 

A fifty years' editorship and arthropods (editorial) .... 83 

Mental attitudes towards insects (editorial) 263 

Obituary : George B. Cresson 29 

Program and price of the NEWS for 1921 (editorial). . . 295 

Remember the veterans (editorial) 137 

Review: An introduction to entomology 208 

Review: A little gateway to science -?o<> 


302 INDEX 

Review: Philippine wasp studies 145 

Shall the subscription price of the NEWS be increased? 
(editorial) 226, 263 

Some new year's resolutions for the entomologist 
(editorial) 22 

Studies on Costa Rican Odonata. IX. Sympetrum, 

with description of a new species (ill.) 253 

CAUDELL, A. N. A correction in the Mecopodinae 55 

CHAMBERLIN, R. V. A new American Amaurobius (ill.) 293 

[Note on the writings of H. C. Wood] 117 

The spider of Saltair beach (ill.) 165 

CHAMBERLIN, W. J. Description of one new buprestid 

with notes on other little known species (ill.) 241 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. Furcdspis biformis 109 

Mesocyphona rubia 109 

COLE, F. R. Notes on the lunate onion fly, Eumems 

strigatus 31 

COOLIDGE & NEWCOMB. Richard H. Stretch An ap- 
preciation (ill.) 181 

CRAMPTON, G. C. Remarks on Dr. MacGillivray's 

paper entitled "The eyes of insects" 153 

CRAWFORD, D. L. New or interesting Psyllidae of the 

Pacific coast 12 

Notes on Psyllidae 69 

CRESSON, E. T., JR. Descriptions of new North Amer- 
ican acalyptrate Diptera. II. (Trypetidae, Sapro- 
myzidae) 65 

Description of a new species of the asilid genus Pogo- 

soma 211 

CROSBY, C. R. The Cornell University entomological 

expedition to South America of 1919-20 139 

DAVIS, J. J. Indiana insects 260 

EWING, H. E. New predaceous and parasitic mites of 

the superfamily Gamasoidea (ill.) 286 

FISHER & NICOLAY. A Mexican species of Agrilus found 

in Arizona 100 

GARNETT, R. T. Notes on the habits of Promecognathus 

laevissimus 138 

INDEX 303 

CODING, F. \V. The known Membracidae of Ecuador 

: 55 
GREEN, J. W. Notes on American Rhynchophora ...... 193 

HABER, V. R. Ovi position by a cockroach, Periplaneta 
americana ........................................ 190 

HEBARD, M. The genus Timema, with the description 

of a new species ................................ 126 

The Santa Marta region of Colombia from an orthop- 
terological viewpoint, with deductions relative to 
tropical American collecting ...................... 281 

KENNEDY, C. H. Review: Manual of the Odonata of 
New England .................................... 206 

KNULL, J. N. Notes on Buprestidae with descriptions 
of new species ................................... 4 

JONES, F. M. Another pitcher-plant insect (ill.) ....... 91 

LEUSSLER, R. A. A new Euphydryas from Nebraska. . . 102 
McAxEE, W. L. Specific, subspecific, and varietal cate- 
gories of insects and the naming of them .......... 46, 61 

MACGILLIVRAY, A. D. The eyes of insects ............ 97 

MALLOCH, J. R. Additions to the recorded Illinois 

Reduviidae .................................... 240 

The genus Aspistes in North America ............... 275 

A new species of Coenosia from the western United 
States ......................................... 103 

MANN, W. M. The occurrence of Mallophaga on a 
dragonfly ........................................ 252 

MARCHAND, W. Thermotropism in insects ............ 159 

MARTIN, J. O. Notes on the genus Hetaerius and de- 

scriptions of three new species ................ 222, 245 

MASON, F. R. Cicindela nevadica .................... 221 

METCALF, Z. P. A suggestion for a better popular name 

for the Fulgoridae .............................. 57 

(See also Osborn & Metcalf.) 
NEWCOMB, H. H. Obituary: Emily L. Morton ........ 149 

(See also Coolidge & Newcomb.) 
NICOLAY, A. S. (See Fisher & Nicolay.) 
OSBORN & METCALF. Notes on the life-history of the 
saltmarsh cicada (Tibicen viriilifascia) (ill.) ......... 

3 04 INDEX 

PARSHLEY, H. M. Hemipterological notices. I. (Tingi- 

dae) 271 

PIERCE, W. D. Studies in the genus Myodites 277 

RAMSDEN, C. T. A new Kricogonia from Cuba 259 

REHN, J. A. G. Review: Orthoptera of northeastern 

America 2 33 

Review: Manual of the Orthoptera of New England. . 267 
SCHAUS, W. Synonymy of some species of Thecla. . . 176 
SKINNER, H. Callosamia Carolina and Samia securifera. 107 

Descriptions of new species of Hesperidae I3 2 

The genus Choranthus, with a description of a new 


The genus Pyrrhocalles, with the description of a new 


Labels on specimens 2 2 

A new variety of Lemonias !75 

Obituary: H. C. Wood H5 

Pampliila calif ornica J 75 

Review: Insect behavior 

Two Syntomidae new to Mississippi 

SMITH, M. R. The Bembicine wasps of North Carolina 

80, 94 
SMYTH, E. G. Cotton insects in Porto Rico .... 121 

SPILLANE, R. House flies in court ... 262 

SPOONER, C. S. Some notes on the occurrence of Del- 

phacinae 44 

STEVENS, O. A. Notes on species of Halictus visiting 

evening flowers 35 

STONER, D. Sciocoris microphthalmus in northern Michi- 
gan HI 

VIERECK, H. L. Labenidae, a new family in the Ich- 


WEISS, H. B. Coleoptera associated with Pleurotus 

ostreatus 2 9 6 

Mordella marginata, bred from fungus 67 

Notes on Thymalus fulgidus and its fungus hosts in 
New Jersey 



Obituary: Franklin Dye 180 

Review: Some habitat responses of the large water- 

strider 147 

Tinea acapnopennella, bred from fungus. 108 

WEISS & WEST. The eggs of Boletothenis bijurcus 280 

WELD, L. H. A new parasitic cynipid reared from a 

clover aphid 14 

WEST, E. (See Weiss & West.) 

WILLIAMSON, E. B. The Cornell University entomolog- 
ical expedition to South America of 1919-20 227 

WILLIAMS, F. X. Pseudagenia capella nom. nov 84 

GENERAL SUBJECTS. Fungus insects. 1,67,108,280,296 

Academy of Natural Sciences Indiana insects 260 

of Philadelphia. (See En- Insects attacked by insects.. .. 107 

tomological Section.) Insects, Parasites of, 

American Association for the 20, 169, 187, 252, 276, 286 

Advancement of Science, Labels on specimens 202 

Meetings 295 Louisiana entomological soci- 

Collecting 281 ety 175 

Convocation week meetings, Mental attitudes towards in- 

Entomology at 56 sects 263 

Cornell University entomolog- Metric system, Sentiment for 

ical expedition to South and against 23 

America 137, 227 Proposers of new genera 19 

Cotton insects in Porto Rico. . 121 New year's resolutions for the 

Crop Protection Institute 297 entomologist 22 

Ecology, A new journal 109 Ohio institutions, Entomolog- 

Economic entomologists, Con- ical workers in 114 

ference of 227 Pamphlet, Rare 176 

Editorship, Fifty years' 83 Pitcher-plant insects 91 

Eyes of insects 97, 153 Plants attacked by insects, 

Entomological literature, 4, 14, 31, 65, 76, 109, 121, 

24, 58, 84, 1 10, 141, 177, 203, 212, 244. 

229, 264, 297. Plants visited by insects 35, 91 

Entomological Section. ... 112,237 Program and price of the 

France, Entomological society NEWS for 1921 295 

of, Announcement 201 Salaries for entomologists, 

French grants for entomolog- Higher 105 

ical study 109 Societies, Meetings at Chicago 295 

Fungus attacking insects 124 Specific catagories of insects.. . 46 



Subscription price of NEWS, 

Increase in 226, 263, 295 

Subspecific categories of insects 46 

Thermotropism 159 

United States National Mu- 
seum, Entomology in 174 

University of California, Reor- 
ganization of division of en- 
tomology 227 

Varietal categories of insects . . 46 

Veterans, Remember the 137 

Williamson expedition in Vene- 
zuela 141, 203 

Skinner, H 227 

Slosson, A. T 23 

Stretch, R. H. (ill.) 181 

Weiss, H. B 174 

Williamson, E. B 108 

Wyatt, A. K 58 



Blatchley: Orthoptera of North- 
eastern America 233 

Comstock: An Introduction to 
Entomology 208 

Howe: Manual of the Odonata 
of New England 206 

Howes: Insect Behavior 206 

Cresson, G. B 29 Morse: Manual of the Orthop- 

Dollman, H. C 30 tera of New England 267 

Doncaster, L 240 Patch: A Little Gateway to 

Dye, F 180 Science 209 

Gorham, H. S 210 Riley: Some Habitat Re- 
Hewitt, C. G 120 sponses of the Large Water- 

Loomis, H 240 strider 147 

McConnell, W. R 239 Rohwer & Williams: Philip- 

Macloskie, G 89 pine Wasp Studies 145 

Morton, E. L 149 


Sahlberg, J. R 239 TION. 

Walsingham, Lord. . 148 Alabama: Dipt., 93. Lep-., 107. 

Westcott, O. S... 119 Alaska: Dipt., 276. 

Wolley Dod, F. H.. 30 Arizona: Col., 100, 244, 280. 

Wood, H. C. 1 1.5 Dipt., 65. 

PFRSONMS California: Arach., 292, 293. Col., 

138, 222, 246. Dipt., 4, 67, 214. 

Beutenmuller, W 294 Hem., 12. Lep., 175. Orth., 

Fielde, A. M 23 129. 

Garnett, G. T 138 Colorado: Dipt., 104, 109, 214. 

Hebard, M 227 Hem., 169. 

Kellogg, V. L 203 Connecticut: Col., 296. 

Klages, E. A 23 Florida: Hem., 272. 

Kwiat, A 58 Georgia: Hem., 45. 

Leussler, R. A 227 Idaho: Arach., 289. Dipt., 4. 

Liebeck, C 227 Hym., 14. 

Mason, F. R 227 Illinois: Dipt., 275. Hem., 240. 

Peterson, A 201 Kansas: Col., 280. Dipt., 276. 

Rehn, J. A. G 227 Hym., 36. Orth., 276. 



Louisiana: Lep., 78. fraclus*, Amaurobius (ill.) 293. 

Maryland: Hem., 107, 274. Gamasoidea, New 286- 

Massachusetts: Col., 9. Odon., Gamasus (see inarmatus). 

113. Ilologamasus (see quinquedenlatus).. 

Michigan: Hem., 141. inarmatus*, Gamasus (ill.).... 289; 

Mississippi: Dipt., 93. Lep., 263. Laelaps (see bermudaensis) . 

Montana: Dipt., 104. Liponyssus (see setiger, beriini- 

Nebraska: Lep., 102. daensis). 

Nevada: Col., 221. longisetosa*, Uropoda (ill.) 292 

New Jersey: Col., i, 67, 280. Machrocheles (see biha status). 

Dipt., 214. Lep., 108, 228. Mites, Predaceous and para- 
New Mexico: Col., 194. side 286 

New York: Arach., 286. Hem., 44. Neoscona (see salaeria). 

North Carolina: Col., 198. Dipt., quinquedentatus*, Ilologamasus 

93. Hem., 248. Hym., 80, 94, (ill.) 289 

261. Odon., 138. robusta*, Uropoda 291 

North Dakota: Hym., 36. robustiunguis*, Cilliba (ill.) 292 

Ohio: Lep., 76. safroi*, Seius (ill.) 287 

Oregon: Arach., 288. Col., 244. salaeria*, Neoscona (ill.) 167 

Pennsylvania: Col., 4, 117, 199. Seius (see safroi) . 

Dipt., 93, 214. Lep., 113, 228. setiger*, Liponyssus (ill.) 290 

South Carolina: Dipt., 93. Uropoda (see bermudaensis, ro- 

Texas: Col., 195, 242. Hym., 112. busta, longisetosa). 

Utah: Arach., 165. Col., 279. 

Virginia: Col, 12. Dipt, 214. COLEOPTERA. 

Lep, 77. A cmaeodera (see culta) . 

Wisconsin: Arach, 290. acornis, Actenodes 7 

Canada: Hem, 273. Actenodes (see acornis). 

Bermuda: Arach, 287. Agaeocera (see scintillans) . 

Central America: Hym, 16. Lep, Agrilus (see anixus, arena! us, 

132. Odon, 113, 253. bilineatus, celti, cephalicus, 

West Indies: Col, 125. Hem, crinicornis, defectus, egenus, 

109, 123. Lep, 121, 133, 151, fallax,frosti,juglandis,lecon- 

186, 259. Thys, 123. lei, masculinus, otiosus, oft- 
South America: Arach, 292. Dipt, soletoguttatus, politus, restric- 

70, 215, 2 94- Hem, 135, 155. tus, subcinctus, mttaticollis). 

Lep, 133. Odon, 108,253. Agrilus found in Arizona, Mrx- 

ican 100 

ARACHNIDA. americana, Dicerca 5 

.1 maurobius, New American. .. 293 Anthaxia (see cyanella, flm-i- 

bermudaensis* , Laelaps (ill.). . . 287 mana, quercata, viridifrons). 

bermudaensis*, Liponyssus (ill.) 290 anixus, Agrilus 10 

bermudaensis*, Uropoda (ill.) . . 291 arcuatus, Agrilus 10 

bihastatus*, Machrocheles (ill.) . 286 armatus*, Tychius 198 

Cilliba (see robustiunguis). Aulobaris (see elongatus). 



uzurea, Chrysoboihris 6 

bicolor, Rhynchites 194 

bifurcus, Boletotherus 280 

bilineatus, Agrilus 10 

blanchardi, Chrysobothris 6 

Boletotherus bifurcus, Eggs of. . 280 

brunneus, Myodites fasciatus ... 278 
-Buprestidae, New and notes on 

241, 4 

'Buprestis (see consularis, fas- 
data, lineata, rufipes, striata) . 

calif ornicus, Myodites 278 

campestris, Chalcophorella 4 

celti*, Agrilus 1 1 

centrinoides* , Zygobaris 200 

Centrinus (see falsus). 

cephalicus, Agrilus 10 

Chalcophorella (see campestris}. 
Chrysobothris (see azurea, blan- 
chardi, dentipes, femorata, 
harrisii, pusilla, scabripennis, 

Cicindela (see nevadica). . 
Cinyra (see gracilipes, proster- 
nalis, purpurescens, robusta). 

cogitans, Eupristocerus 7 

conicollis*, Minyomerus 194 

consularis, Buprestis 5 

crinicornis, Agrilus 10 

culta, Acmaeodera 7 

cyanella, A nthaxia 6 

cyanipes, Poecilonota 5 

debilis, Isodrusus 197 

defectus, Agrilus 10 

defectus*, Pandeleteius 196 

dentipes, Chrysobothris 6 

Diabrotica (see graminea). 
Dicerca (see americana, divari- 
cata, Jepida, lurida, obscura, 
pecterosa, prolongata, pugio- 
nata, punctulata, scobina). 

divaricata, Dicerca 5 

egenus, Agrilus 1 1 

elongatus*, Aulobaris 199 

Eupristocerus (see cogitans). 

fallax, Agrilus 10 

falsus, Centrinus 199 

fasciata, Buprestis 5 

fasciatus, Myodites 278 

femorata, Chrysobothris 6 

flavimana, Anthaxia 6 

fulgidus, Thymalus I 

fulvoguttata, Melanophila 6 

Fungus coleoptera 296 

gibbicollis, Ptosima 7 

gracilipes, Cinyra 6, 243 

graminea, Diabrotica 125 

harrisii, Chrysobothris 7 

Hetaerius (see hirsutus, nitidus, 
williamsi) . 

Notes on the genus. . . . 222, 245 

hirsutus*, Hetaerius 245 

Isodrusus (see debilis). 

juglandis*, Agrilus 7 

knausi*, Myodites 279 

laevigatus, Pachyscelus 12 

laevissimns, Promecognathus . . . 138 

lecontei, A grilus 1 1 

lepida, Dicerca 5 

lineala, Buprestis 5 

lurida, Dicerca 5 

luteipennis, Myodites 277 

marginata, Mordella 67 

masculinus, Agrilus 10 

Melanophila (see fulvoguttata, 

pini-edulis) . 

minimus, Myodites 278 

Minyomerus (see conicollis). 
Mordella marginata bred from 

fungus 67 

Myodites, Studies in 277 

nevadica, Cicindela 221 

nevadicus, Myodites 277 

nitidus*, Hetaerius 224 

obscura, Dicerca 5 

obsoletoguttatus, Agrilus 10 

Otidocephalus (see rttficornis). 
Pachyscelus (see laevigatus}. 
Pandeleteius (see defectus, spat- 




peeler osa, Dicerca 244 

pini-ednlis, Melanophila 244 

Poecilonota (see cyanipes). 

politus, Agrilus 10 

popenoi, Myodiles 287 

prolongata, Dicerca 5 

Promecognathus laevissimus, 

Notes on the habits of 138 

prosternalis, Cinyra (ill.) 243 

Ptosima (see gibbicollis') . 

pugionata, Dicerca 5 

punctulata, Dicerca 5 

purpurescens, Cinyra (ill.) 243 

pusilla, Chrysobothris 6 

quercata, Anthaxia 6 

restrictus, Agrilus 100 

Rhynchites (see bicolor, tricari- 

Rhynchophora, Notes on 193 

robusta*, Cinyra (ill.) 241 

ruficornis, Otidocephalus 197 

rufipes, Buprestis 4 

scaber, Myodites 280 

scabripennis, Chrysoboihris 6 

schwarzi, Myodites 278 

sciniillans, Agaeocera 243 

scobina, Dicerca 5 

semiflavus, Myodites 278 

sexsignata, Chrysobothris 6 

solidaginis, Myodites 280 

spatnlatus*, Pandeleteius 195 

striata, Buprestis 5 

stylopides, Myodites 279 

subcinctus, Agrilus II 

suturalis, Tychius 198 

Thymol us (see fulgidus) , 

itricarinatus* , Rhynchites 193 

Tychius (see armatus, sutur- 
alis) . 

vierecki, Myodites 277 

viridifrons, A nthaxia 6 

vittaticoUis, A grilus i o 

walshii, Myodites 279 

williamsi*, Hetaerius 346 

.Zygobaris (see centrinoides). 


analis, Aspistes 276 

argentina*, Dixa 294 

argentinensis*, Gonomyia 216 

Aspistes in North America. . . . 275 

bisecta*, Gnophomyia 72 

blaisdeUi*, Sapromyza 66 

Brachypremna (see uniformis). 

brevitibia*, Psaronius 74 

bruchi*, Gonomyia 217 

catamarcensis*, Holorusia 219 

cilicauda*, Coenosia 103 

Coenosia, from the western 

United States 103 

conjunctoides*, Polymera 74 

Crane-flies (see Tipulidae) 

decora*, Teucholabis 71 

discolor*, Sapromyza 67 

Dixa from Argentina, New .... 294 

dorsata, Pogosoma 213 

Drosophila (see inversa). 
Eumerus (see strigatus). 
Gnophomyia (see bisecta). 
Gonomyia (see bruchi, argen- 
tinensis, weiseri) . 

harti*, Aspistes 275 

Holorusia (see catamarcensis, 
jujuyensis) . 

House flies in court 262 

inversa, Drosophila 20 

jiiglandis*, Rhagoletis 65 

jujuyensis*, Holorusia 220 

Leiponeura (see Gonomyia). 

lenis, Plychoptera 4 

macfarlanea* , Neosciara (ill.). . 91 
Mesocyphona (see rubia). 

minor*, Ptychoptera 3 

moniliferoides* , Tipula 221 

Mosquitoes, Increase asked to 


Neosciara (see macfarlanei). 
Onion-fly (see Eumerus striga- 

pallipes*, Psaronius 73 



Pogosoma (see dorsata, ri- 
dingsi) . 

Polymer a (see conjunctoides). 

Psaronius (see brevitibia, palli- 

Ptychoptera (see lenis, minor). 

Rhagoletis (see juglandis) . 

ridingsi*, Pogosoma 214 

rubia, Mesocyphona 109 

Sapromyza (see blaisdelli, dis- 
color, vanduzeei). 

Saoromyzidae, New North 
American 65 

Sarcophaga (see setigera). 

Sarcophagid parasitic on man- 
tis 276 

Sciarinae living in pitcher 
plant 91 

setigera, Sarcophaga 276 

strigatus, Eumerus (ill.) 31 

Teucholabis (see decora). 

Tipula (see moniliferoides). 

Tipulidae collected in Brazil. . . 70 

uniformis*, Brachypremna 75 

vanduzeei*, Sapromyza 67 

weiseri*, Gonomyia 215 


aceris, Rhinocola 69 

Agonoscena (see sauteri). 
Alveotingis (see grossocerata). 

anomala, Aphalara 12 

Anomocera (see Aphalara). 
Aphalara (see anomala). 

arctostaphyli, Euphyllura 12 

Arilus cristatus, Oviposition 

and food of 107 

Arytaina (see montana). 

bactriana*, Ecuatoriana 157 

bifasciala*, Euphyllura arcto- 
staphyli 13 

biformis, Furcaspis 109 

bimaculata*, Gargaphia 271 

camposiana*, Tornogonia 158 

Centrogonia (see flavolimbata) . 

Cicada, Notes on the salt 

marsh 248"- 

Clastoptera (see obtusa). 

clavata, Melanorhopala 274 

Corythucha (see cyrta, salicis). 

cristatus, Arilus 107 

cyrta, Corythucha 272 

Delphacinae, Notes on occur- 
rence 44 

Ecualoriana* 157 

erecla*, Umbonia 158 

ericae, Rhinocola 69- 

Euphyllura (see arctostaphyli, 

flavo-limbata*, Centrogonia 156- 

Food of Arilus cristatus 107 

Fulgoridae, Popular name for. 57 
Furcaspis (see biformis). 
Gargaphia (see bimaculata). 

Gonatopus ombrodes, Notes on . 187 

grossocerata, Alveotingis 274 

Guayaquila* 159 

infuscala, Melanorhopala 274 

Jessica*, Membracis 158- 

Melanorhopala (see clavata, in- 

Membracidae of Ecuador 135 

Membracis (see Jessica). 

microphthalmus, Sciocoris 141 

montana*, Arytaina 13, 

Nezara (see viridula). 

obtusa, Clastoptera (ill.) 20- 

ombrodes, Gonatopus 187 

Oviposition of Arilus cristatus. 107 

Parasitism on Clastoptera obtusa 20 
Paurocephala (see psylloptera). 

Phyllopecta 70 

Plant hoppers 57 

Psylla (see tripunctata). 

Psyllidae of the Pacific coast. . 12 

Psyllidae, Notes on 69 

Psyllopa 70' 

psylloptera, Paurocephala 69 

Reduviidae, Additions to Illi- 
nois 240' 


Rhinocola (see aceris, ericae). 

roreriana*, Guayaquila 159 

salicis, Corythucha 273 

sauteri, Agonoscena 69 

Sciocoris microphthalmus in 

northern Michigan 141 

sonchi, Trioza 7 

Tibicen viridifascia, Notes on 

(ill.) 248 

Tomogonia (see camposiana). 
Trioza (see sonchi, tripunctata). 

tripunctata, Psylla 70 

tripunctata, Trioza ~o 

Umbonia (see erecta). 

viridifascia, Tibicen (ill.) 248 

viridula, Nezara 125 


aberrans, Halictus 36 

ambrosiae, Charips (Bothrw- 

xysta) 15 

areolata, Charips 15 

belfragei, Bembex 94 

Bembex (see belfragei, pruinosa, 

spinolae, texana). 
Bembicine wasps of North Car- 
olina 80, 94 

bicincta, Scotia 261 

Bicyrles (see capnoptera, quad- 

rifasciata, ventralis). 
Bothrioxysta (see ambrosiae). 

brassicae, Charips 15 

caerulescens, Pseudagenia 84 

capel'a*, Pseudagenia 84 

capnoptera, Bicyrtes 96 

Carolina, Slictia 96 

Charips (see ambrosiae, areo- 
lata, bakeri, brassicae, hay- 
hursti, lachni, legiiminosa, 
megourae, xanthopsis). 
Evylaens (see Halictus). 
Gonatopus ombrodes, a parasite 

of jassids 169 

Halictus (see aberrans, oeno- 

therae, swenki, texamis). 
hayhursti, Charips 15 

Labenidae, a new family 16 

lachni, Charips 15 

legiiminosa*, Charips 15 

maculata*, Psiloparia 17 

megourae, Charips 15 

Microbembex (see monodonta). 

monodonta, Microbembex 96 

oenotherae*, Halictus 37 

ombrodes, Gonatopus 169 

pictifrons, Stictiella 81 

pruinosa, Bembex 82 

Pseudoagenia (see caerulescens, 

Psiloparia* 17 

quadrifasciata, Bicyrtes 95 

Scolia (see bicincta, undata). 

serrata, Stictiella 81 

spinolae, Bembex 94 

Stictia (see Carolina). 
Stictiella, (see pictifrons, ser- 

swenki, Halictus 38 

texana, Bembex 82 

texanus, Halictus 35 

undata, Scolia 261 

ventralis, Bicyrles 95 

xanthopsis, Charips 15 


acapnopennella, Tinea 108 

aemulus*, Mimoniades 132 

Alabama (see argillacea). 

amans*, Mimoniades 132 

angustus*, Thymele 133 

antiqua, Pamphila 152 

antiqtius*, Telegonus 133 

apicella, Coleophora 55 

apicialbdla* , Coleophora 55 

argillacea, Alabama 122 

auge, Cosomosoma 263 

belae, Didasys 263 

bernadetta*, Euphydryas 102 

Bucculatrix (see errans, fusi- 

cola, montana). 

Bungalotis (see canal is, itn mac- 



cabrerai*, Kricogonia 259 

californica, Pamphila 175 

Callimormiis (see dimidiatus). 
Callosamia (see Carolina). 

canalis*, Bungalotis 134 

Carolina, Callosamia 107 

Choranthus, The genus 186 

Coleophora (see apicella, apici- 


Coptodisca (see negligens). 
Cosmosoma (see auge). 
Didasys (see belae). 

dimidiatus*, Callimormus 134 

errans*, Bucculatrix 77 

Eudamus (see parvus). 
Euphydryas from Nebraska. . . 102 

fusicola*, Bucculatrix 76 

Gypsy moth in New Jersey and 

Pennsylvania 228 

haitensis*, Choranthus 187 

immaculata* , Bungalotis 133 

jamaicensis*, Proteides 133 

Kricogonia (see cabrerai). 
Lemonias (see marginalis). 
marginalis*, Lemonias palmeri . 175 
Mimoniades (see aemulus, 

montana*, Bucculatrix 77 

negligens*, Coptodisca 79 

nubila*, Tischeria 78 

orientis*, Pyrrhocalles 152 

Pamphila (see antiqua, cali- 
fornica) . 

parvus*, Eudamus 134 

Proteides (see jamaicensis) . 

Pyrrhocalles, The genus 151 

Pyrrhopyge (see viriditas). 

radians, Choranthus 186 

Samia (see securifera). 

securifera, Samia 107 

Seitz: Palaearctic Geometridae 90 
Syntomidae new to Mississippi 263 
Telegonus (see antiquus). 

Thecla, Synonymy of some. ... 176 

Thymele (see angustus). 

Tinea acapnopennella bred from 

fungus 108 

Tischeria (see nubila). 

viriditas*, Pyrrhopyge 132 


Dragonflies, Notes on N. Caro- 
lina 138 

Enallagma (see geminatum). 

geminatum, Enallagma 138 

Gomphus (see parvidens). 

illotum, Sympetrum (ill.) 257 

incesta, Libellula 138 

Libellula (see incesta). 

Mallophaga on a dragon fly. . . 252 

nigrocreatum*, Sympetrum (ill.) 255 

parvidens, Gomphus 138 

Sympetrum (see illotum, nigro- 


americana, Periplaneta 190 

basalis, Mossula 55 

calif ornicum, Timema (ill.). . . . 127 

chumash*, Timema (ill.) 130 

Collecting in Colombia 281 

elongata, Mecopoda. 55 

Hancock collection of Tettigi- 

dae 226 

Mecopoda (see elongata). 

Mecopodinae, A Correction in.. 55 
Mossula (see basalis). 
Oviposition by Periplaneta 

americana 190 

Parasite of mantis 276 

Periplaneta americana, Ovipo- 
sition by 190 

Timema, The genus 126 


haemorrhoidalis, Heliothrips . . . 123 


This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 
advertisements of goods for sale. Notices not exceed- 
ing three lines free to subscribers. 

These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new ones 
are added at the end of the column, and only when necessary those at the top (being lonc- 
est in) are discontinued. 

Wanted For cash, or exchange, papers on insect biology, ecology or 
behavior (especially aculeate Hymenoptera). P. Rau, 2819 S. Kings high- 
way, St. Louis, Mo. 

Brachynus wanted for cash or exchange from any part of North 
America. J. W. Green, 520 McCartney St., Easton, Pa. 

Lepidoptera Hesperidae wanted. I will purchase or exchange and 
also name specimens. South American species particularly desired. 
Henry Skinner, Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

For Exchange Iowa Catocalae in A-i condition. Wanted, Cocoons 
of Actias luna also other lepidoptera. Mrs. O. F. Hiser, Arnolds Park, 

Lepidoptera Offer many Western species and will collect next month 
in Colorado desert, S. E. Cal.; will exchange or purchase. Desire rarer 
Noctuids, fresh, full data. Chas. A. Hill, 644 West 36th St., Los Angeles, 

Books Wanted Entomological News, Vol. n, Nos. i, 3, 5; Vol. 14, 
Nos. I, 7. Brooklyn Museum Library, Eastern Parkway and Washington 
Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wanted N. A. Coleopterists interested in European Coleoptera. 
Liberal exchanges and friendly correspondence. Mr. C. Crozet, 155, Via 
Cavour, Rome, 23, Italy. 

Japanese and Formosan Butterflies will be exchanged by S. Satake, 
48, Aoyama-minami-machi, 5-chome Tokyo, Japan. 

Wanted To purchase or exchange papers and books on insect Biology, 
Ecology, and Behavior, especially aquatic Hemiptera. C. F. Curtis Riley, 
Department of Forest Zoology, The New York State College of Forestry 
at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. 

Wanted -North American or European Coleoptera to determine in 
exchange for specimens. R. T. Garnett, 625a I4th St., Oakland, Cal. 

Wanted Species of Rhynchophora from Eastern North America 
not represented in my collection, in exchange for duplicates from Indi- 
ana and Florida. Lists of desiderata and duplicates on application. W. 
S. Blatchley, 1530 Park Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Omophron and Elaphrus desired, in numbers, including the common 
species. Good exchange given. H. F. Wickham, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Wanted To examine, determine and exchange Cicadellidae or "Jassi- 
dae" from all parts of North America. J. G. Sanders and D. M. DeLonv;, 
State Capitol, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Wanted To purchase Stretch, Illustrations of the Zygaenidae and 
Bombycidae of North America. Dr. E. T. Learned, Fall River,>. 






798. Alexander (C. P.). New or little known crane flies from 

Japan (Tipulidae). (Trans., 46, 1-26, 1920) 40 

799. Cresson (E. T., Jr.). A revision of the Nearctic Sciomyzidae 

(Acalyptratae). (Trans., 46, 27-89, 3 pis., 1920) i.oo 

802. Malloch (J. R.). Descriptions of new North American Antho- 

myiidae. (Trans., 46, 133-196, 3 pis., 1920) 

A-3. Cresson (E. T., Jr.). Dipterological notes and descriptions. 

(Proc. A. N. S. P., 1919, 171-194) 40 


806. McAtee (W. L.). Key to the Nearctic species and varieties 
of Erythroneura (Eupterygidae). (Trans., 46, 267-322, 
i pi., 1920) 90 


801. Bradley (J. C.). Descriptions, records, and notes on North 

American Nyssonidae. (Trans., 46, 113-132, 1920) 35 


800. Hebard (M.). A revision of the North American species of 
the genus Myrmecophila (Gryllidae). (Trans., 46, 91- 
iii, 1920) 35 

A-2. Rehn (J. A. G.). A study of theorthopterous genus Mermiria. 

(Proc. A. N. S. P., 1919, 55-120, 3 pis.) 

A-4. Hebard (M.). Studies in Malayan, Papuan, and Australian 

Mantidae. (Proc. A. N. S. P., 1920, 14-82,2 pis.) 

A Year of Costa Rican Natural History 

By AMELIA SMITH CALVERT, Sometime Fellow in Biology, Bryn Mawr 

College, and 

PHILIP POWELL CALVERT, Professor of Zoology, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Editor of Entomological News. 

Cloth, 8vo., pp. xix+577. Frontispiece (of 14 species of insects in colors), 
137 black and white illustrations, 5 m^ps. $3.00. 

Collection of Lepidoptera For Sale 

Specimens in perfect condition. Approximately 2900 in multiple and 
single tablets (glass tops and bottoms) and Denton plaster mounts. 86 
multiple tablets contain 1600 specimens illustrating variations of each 
species. For price and details address 


Yonkers, N. Y. 

Fresh Uganda (Africa) specimens. Papilios, Charaxes, Junonia, Pierids, 
Nymphalids, etc., ist quality papered. $15.00 for 100 specimens in about 
40 species. 

Also East Indies lot. From Borneo, Java, Celebes, Obi, etc. Papilios, 
Ornithoptera, Tenaris, Euploea, Ideopsis, Leptocircus, Delias, etc., etc. 
$15.00 per 100. Papered, ist quality. 40 species. 

G. G. MacBean, Lepidopterist, Assiniboia, Sask., Canada. 



Excellent Material. Great variety. Apply for particulars and 



Insect Life Histories of all descriptions prepared for Colleges, Schools, De 
partments of Health, etc. Insects for Dissection. Pressed Corks .List on 



I wish to buy original collections of exotic phytophaga, 
unmounted preferred. 

FRED C. BOWDITCH, 164 Rawson Rd., Brookline 46, Mass. 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine A journal devoted to general 
Entomology, started in 1864, and now edited by G. C. Champion, J. E. Collin. 
W. W. Fowler R. W. Lloyd G. T. Porritt and J. J. Walker. 

It contains descriptions of new genera and species in all orders (British and 
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numbers is 15 shillings per annum, post free, to be sent to R. W. I.I.OYD, I, 5, 
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Just appeared: 

CATALOGUS alphabeticus 

generum et subgenerum 


orbis terrarum totius 

(fam., trib., subtr., sect, incl.) 

Dr. Robert Lucas, BERLIN 

Pars I 

XXXI und 696 pages. With an appendix: Index of all catalogues ap- 
peared from 1900 

On finest woodless paper. Got up in a splendid style. 
Price 120 Mark. 

This gigantic work is of an eminent importance and will be a quite 
indispensible vademecum to every one who works on beetles, and as a 
most valuable compendium ought to find place in every entomological 

To all coleopterists, beginners as well as advanced scientific entomolo- 
gists, this catalogue will be ot the greatest use, saving them from the 
trouble and loss of time that until now were necessary when searching 
through the literature of the families, subfamilies, genera and subgenera 
of the Coleoptera of the world. We have in this catalogue the whole 
literature (including all synonyms, errata, etc.) on the subject, put to- 
gether in a marvellously clear and instructive manner. Notwithstanding 
the immense number of the citations, they can all be contained in two 
volumes, while, thanks to a system of abbreviations, that is most agree- 
able to the purpose, they occupy less space than in the other catalogues. 

Every Coleopterist, the advanced specialist too, will have to consult 
this work on all questions concerning the above-namedsy stematic groups 


und sein Formenkreis 

Unter Mitwirkung von Dr. E. Fischer, Zurich, Dr. A. Pagenstecher, 
Wiesbaden, und Embrik Strand verfasst von 

F. BRYK, Stockholm 

IO?4 sheet. On finest woodless paper. With many figures and 3.5 big 

plates, 13 of them colored. 
Price go Mark, 

The favorite of all collectors of European butterflies, Parnassius Apollo 
and its nearest allies, interesting to collectors by its beauty, variability 
and biology, is treated in this work by the best connoisseur of this genus 
and three other well-known entomologists. The plates are first rate by 
their natural reproduction and by their artistic execution. The text is 
printed on the best woodless paper and got lip in a splendid style with 
many figures. 

All these qualities will secure for the work a standard place in lepidop- 
terological literature. 

On both prices must be added the legal foreign procentual tax (at the 
moment 175%.) 


I wish to buy original collections of exotic phytophaga. 
unmounted preferred. 

FRED C. BOWDITCH, 164 Rawson Rd., Brookline 46, Mass. 

Fresh Uganda (Africa) specimens. Papilios, Charaxes, Junonia, Pierids, 
Nymphalids, etc., 1st quality papered. $15.00 for 100 specimens in about 
40 species. 

Also East Indies lot. From Borneo, Java, Celebes, Obi, etc. Papilios, 
Ornithoptera, Tenaris, Euploea, Ideopsis, Leptocircus, Delias, etc., etc. 
$15.00 per 100. Papered, ist quality. 40 species. 

G. G. MacBean, Lepidopterist, Assiniboia, Sask., Canada 



Excellent Material. Great variety. Apply for particulars and 






Alex. D. MacGillivray 

Professor of Systematic Entomology 
in the University of Illinois 

Published by 


603 Michigan Avenue 

Urbana, Illinois 



Morpho cypris 

" sulkowskvi 

From Colombia, So. America: 


Morpho amathonte 
Caligo spp. 

From Cuba : 


Papilio columbus Urania boisduvali 

andraemon Erinyis guttalaris 

celadon Protoparce brontes, etc. 

From Venezuela : 

Over 5000 Lepidoptera 

200 Dynastes hercules 

From New Guinea : 

2000 Coleoptera 
200 Orthoptera 

From Assam, India: 


Papilio arcturus Kallirna inachis 

philoxenus Brahmaea wallachi 

And Many Other Showy Species 

From Tibet (Bhutan) 

Armandia lidderdalii Parnassius hardwicki 



If interested kindly send your list of desiderata for further information to 


Department of Natural Science New York 

G. Lagai, Ph.D. 

404-410 W. 27th Street 



3 9088 00844 5330