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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOLUME XLII, 1931 










HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



29658J 

\* 

OM-.; ' 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, PH. D., EDITOR 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS : 
E. T. CRESSON, JR. R. G. SCHMIEDER, PH. D. 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE : 

PHILIP LAURENT J. A. G. REHN 

CHARLES LIEBECK JOHN C. LUTZ 

J. CHESTER BRADLEY, PH. D. MAX KISLIUK, JR. 

FRANK MORTON JONES \\".M. W. CHAPMAN 



PUBLISHED BY 
THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

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1931 



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No. 1 January January 13, 1931 

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Subscriptions for 1931 are now payable. 

JANUARY, 1931 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 1 





HKNRY SKINNEK 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Macy A New Oregon Butterfly (Lepid. Lycaenidae ).. . . 1 

Rodeck Unusual Numbers of Diapheromera veliei Walsh (Orthoptera: 

Phasmidae) 

Cresson Notes on the Abstersa-Group of the Genus Tephritis, and a 

Description of a New Species from California (Dipt. : Trypetiihc 

Barber Change of Address 

Cole Typha Insects and their Parasites 

Leussler A New Melitaea from Oregon (Lep. Nymphalidae) . 11' 

Payne Food Requirements for the Pupation of Two Coleopterous 

Larvae, Synchroa punctata Newm. and Dendroides canadensis 

Lee. (Melandryidae, Pvrocl> 13 

O'Byrne A Recent Occurrence of Catopsilia philea Joh. in Missouri 

(Lepid. Pieridae) 

Smith An Additional Annotated List of the Ants of Mississippi < Ilyni. : 

Formicoidea) 

Rau The Night Flight of Diurnal Butterflies (Lepid.).. 

Adams Collection of Diptera 

Reinhard A New- Species of Two-winged Fly belonging to tl' 

Acronarista (Diptera: Tachinidae) 

Marston Dynastes tityus Linn, in Delaware (Coleop.: 
Wiesmann The Composition of the Head of Insects. 
Additions to the Index to Vol. \L1, 1930.. . . 
Entomological Literature 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

published monthly, excepting August and September, by The American 

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ENT. NEWS, VOL XLII. 



Plate I. 






PLEBEJUS MARICOPA FENDERI.-MACY. 



^ENTOMOLOGICAL N E WS 

VOL. XLII. JANUARY, 1931 No. 1 

A New Oregon Butterfly (Lepid. Lycaenidae). 

RALPH W. MACY, University of .Minnesota, Minneapolis. 

(Plate I). 

For several seasons the writer has noted a small colony of 
large Blues flying about an isolated patch of Lnpiinis on a hill- 
side six miles south-west of McMinnville, Oregon. These but- 
terflies apparently are of a new race so I shall name it for 
my good friend, Mr. K. P. Fender, an enthusiastic collector. 
Plebejus maricopa fenderi, f. n. 

$. Under surface: Primaries. Uniform bluish-gray with a 
very slightly heavier powdering of blue in the basal area. A 
semi-lunate black spot occurs at the apex of the discal cell. In 
the limbal area other black spots form two crescent-shaped rows 
of which the outer is much the less distinct even nearly absent 
in one case. One each, of the spots of the inner row, occurs 
between the veins R 4+5 and MI, MI and M-. M- and M :: , Al- 
and Ctii, and Cui and Ciii>. Two smaller spots occur between 
Cuo and 2nd A. Of the spots of the outer row. one each 
occurs between the same veins except that there is only one 
between Cu^ and 2nd A, and none between R 4+ r, and MI. 

Secondaries. Ground color same as that of the primaries 
except that the basal area is much more heavily sprinkled with 
blue. There is a continuation of the two rows of spots of the 
primaries, with spots located as follows : Inner row : one each 
between veins Sc + RI and R, R* and M 1( MI and M-, M- 
and M :; , M :! and Ciii, Cu\ and Cu-, and two smaller ones be- 
tween Cu L . and 2nd A. ( hiter ro\v: OIK- each between Sc |- K i 
and Rs, R. and M,, M, and M L ., M^ and M :; . M : , and Cn,. 
Cui and Cu 2 , and Cu L . and 2nd A. In addition, there is an 
indistinct spot near the base of cell RI. The semi-Innate spot 
at the apex of the discal cell is much less distinct than it is in 
the front wing. 

1 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

Upper Surface. Blue, shading into a broad, dark -gray mar- 
ginal border. The blue scales tend to be scattering. 

$ . Under Surface : Primaries. The markings are the same 
as in the male except slightly heavier. 

Secondaries. Light creamy-tan. All of the spots are much 
heavier but are arranged as in the male, with these exceptions : 
the two spots of the inner row between Cu^ and 2nd A are 
fused, and there is a distinct dark spot in the basal area be- 
tween veins 2nd A and 3rd A. 

Upper Surface: Bronze, shading into a dark-gray border 
on the outer margin. A fairly distinct semi-lunate spot occurs 
at the apex of the discal cell of the fore wing. 

Both sexes have a fine black line extending along the edges 
of the outer margins of the hind wings, and there is a white 
fringe on both wings. 

Expanse: males, 31mm.; females, 31 to 33mm. 

Type : 9 , Plate I, fig. 2. Allotype : $ , fig. 3. Paratypcs : 
1 $ , 1 $ , fig. 1. All taken by the author at a location six miles 
S.E. of McMinnville, OREGON, May 25, 1929, and are now in 
his collection. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Plebejus maricopa fenderi, f. n. 

Fig. 1. Paratype. Female, upper surface. 
Fig. 2. Type. Female, under surface. 
Fig. 3. Allotype. Male, upper surface. 



Unusual Numbers of Diapheromera veliei Walsh (Orth. : 

Phasmidae). 

The prairie walking stick, Diapheromera vclici Walsh, was 
found in almost incredible numbers on July 25, 1930, in the 
sandhill region just north of Hardin, Colorado. The vege- 
tation was literally covered with them and they were also num- 
erous on the ground. From one clump of red top grass about 
twelve inches in diameter the writer picked nine individuals, 
five of which were females and four males. Over the entire 
area the males and females seemed to be in approximately 
equal numbers. Many were copulating. The insects were ob- 
served to cover an area of nearly a mile square and probably 
could have been found in these numbers over a much larger 
area. 

HUGO G. RODECK, University of Colorado, Boulder, Col. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Notes on the Abstersa-Group of the Genus Tephritis, 

and a Description of a New Species from 

California ( Diptera : Trypetidae). 

By EZRA T. CRESSDX, JR. 

In determining some material submitted by Mr. K. L. \Yolff 
of the California Horticultural Commission, collected by him 
and his associates in their work on the insects of the cocklelmrr. 
Xanthhun canadcnsis, two interesting species of this genus \\ 
encountered. One of these proved to be a specie described 
from California in 1868, but has since been considered a syno- 
nym of a well-known eastern species. The other is here- de- 
scribed as new. 

TEPHRITIS ABSTERSA (Loew) 
1862. Trypcta ctbstersa Loew, Berl. Ent. Zeit., vi, p. 

(Cent., II, 77.) 

1873. Trypcta abstcrsa Loew, Mon. Dipt. No, Am., iii. p. . 
pi. 11, fig. 7. (Urellia.) 

This species is typical of a group in the genus Tcplintis, 
particularly characteristic in having the radiation of the in- 
fuscated area of the wings producing two hyaline costal wedges 
in the marginal cell, two in the apex of submarginal cell. one 
in apex of first posterior and three in the second posterior cells ; 
a small drop in the apex of the marginal cell is also character- 
istic and appears to be constant, as I have no records of its 
absence. The ray to the almost hyaline stigma is narrow and 
extends from the anterior crossvein to the tip of the lir>t vein : 
the inferior basal portion'^of the wing> i> more or less distinctly 
maculated. 

This species was originally described from "Anier. boreal.". 
probably from Eastern United States. It is entirely yellow with 
some infuscation on the thorax and apical portions of ibe abdo- 
minal segments; the third antennal segment in both sexes i- 
yellow, scarcely longer than broad, rounded apicalK : tin- tat 
scarcely longer than broad, and the nie-onotum i> M-arcely darker 
than the humeri. The wing i> we'll figured by Loew. 

Ju his redcscription of this species in 1S~.\ Loew included 



4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

material from Cuba which he supposed to be the same species, 
but it is probable that this was not the case. He states that 
"they are somewhat smaller, have a more extended blackish 
coloring, and the incomplete gray reticulation of the proximal 
half of the wing is considerably darker towards the posterior 
margin." 

Of this species I have seen material from: Swarthmore, 
Pennsylvania, August 5, 1906 [!<?]; Manahawkin, New Jersey, 
September 5, [1 $ ] ; Riverton, New Jersey, July 18, [1 $ ]. 

TEPHRITIS ACUTANGULA (Thomson) 

1868. Trypcta acutangula Thomson, Eugenics Reise, Dipt., 

p. 583. 
1890. Euarcsta abstcrsa Coquillett, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., vii, 

p. 265 [not Loew]. 
1907. Euarcsta abstcrsa Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xxxiii, 

p. 106 [not. Loew]. 

Coquillett considered this species synonymous with abstcrsa, 
with which treatment I do not concur although it is not improb- 
able that it may prove to be a subspecies or a variety. It is a 
darker species with very little yellow on the body, and may be 
described as follows : 

Black ; head except occiput and sometimes third antennal seg- 
ment, humeri, scutellum apically, halteres, squamae, and legs, 
yellow. Basal portion of the arista also pale. In the darker 
forms the bristles of the head (except postorbital cilia), of 
mesonotum, humeri, notopleura, and scutellum, are black; all 
pile and other bristles are white, although some flexor bristles 
of the femora may be dark. Thorax and abdomen densely 
cinereous, almost obscuring the black ground color. Face gen- 
erally longer than broad, and third antennal segment somewhat 
longer than broad, generally with an acute superior apical angle. 

This form seems to have quite an extensive range west of 
the Mississippi River, from Dakota to Southern California. It 
is noticed that the California specimens have the third antennal 
segment generally dark, which is not the case with those from 
other localities I mention. Of this species I have seen mate- 
rial from : 

Dakota : no data, [ 1 ? | . 

Minnesota : no data, [ 1 $ , 1 $ J . 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Texas: El Paso, April 4-5, (Viereck & Rehn), [1 <J , 29 J. 

Ysleta, April 2, (Viereck & Rehn), [ 1 $ , 1 9 ]. 

New Mexico: Alamogordo, April 22 to June, (Yiereck & 
Rehn), [3 $ , 2 9 ]. Beulah, August 17. ( Skinner), [\ $ , 2$ ]. 
Cloudcroft, May 24, (Viereck & Rehn), [U |. 

California: Beverly Hills, September 13, (J. C. Men/.ies), 
[Cal. Hort. Comm., 19]. Claremont, (Baker), |19]. Pas- 
adena, April 6-11, (K. L. \YollT), |Cal. Hort. Comm.: 2$, 
2$]. 

Tephritis wolffi new species. 

Identical with Trypcta tcucra Loew of Europe in wing pat- 
tern, but differing mostly in having the third antennal segment 
of the male black. 

$ . Head quadrate in profile, with eyes slightly vertical. 
Cheeks narrow, scarcely as broad as third antennal segment. 
Frons slightly turgid, prominent at antennae ; parafrons broad 
with two frontorbital bristles. Eace falling vertically, with 
epistoma not prominent. Mesofrons yellow to orange; orbits, 
face, cheeks and occiput much paler, whitish. Second antennal 
segment brown; third black, elongate, tapering apically ; arista 
with basal third white and yellow. Thorax black, densely ciner- 
eous, with pale pubescence and hairs. Scutellum pale apically, 
with four bristles; apical pair short. Abdomen rather cylindri- 
cal, with pale hairs and pubescence; bases of the elongate sixth 
segment and lateral basal angles of the others, dark. Legs pale ; 
fore femora noticeably thickened. Length, 3 mm. 

9. Similar, with third antennal segment tawny; ba>es <>i 
fourth to sixth abdominal segments black; ovipositor segment 
conical, turgid and polished black. 

Type. Male: Pomona, California, (K. L. Wolff; September 
12, 1930), [A.N.S.P., no. 6390]. Paratypes.Z $ , 49 : topo- 
typical. \$, Visalia, California, (Culbertson) ; [A. N. S. \\\ 

Two males in poor condition from Lemon Cone, Tulare 
County, California, 500 ft. alt., (J. C. Bradley; July l '-ll, 
1907), [Cornell], are apparently conspi-cific with the above type 
series. 

Change of Address 

H. G. BARBER, Roselle, X. Y.. to 2222 Que St., N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

Typha Insects and their Parasites. 

By A. C. COLE, JR. 
Ohio State University, Columbus. 

Very little has been written concerning the insect fauna in- 
habiting Typha, or cat-tails. The most complete paper on the 
subject is that of Claassen ( 1921), in which he lists the species 
that he found under their respective orders and relates them, 
either directly or indirectly, to their environment. Several 
papers have been published on the taxonomy, morphology, and 
biology of the species considered individually. In order to con- 
duct an adequate survey of this group of insects many con- 
secutive years of study are required. Several of these species 
have secondary hosts and alternation of generations is not 
unlikely. 

This paper is merely a list of the insect fauna of Typha, 
together with habitat notes and a small amount of life-history 
data compiled after a four-year survey of the group. In view 
of the fact that Claassen discusses the biology of a great many 
of these insects, no attempt will be made here to consider this 
phase. 

Several areas were selected from each desirable locality in 
which to conduct the work. Such areas were, for the greater 
part, typical of that section of the country in which the insects 
lived. They were as follows : 

Monroe, Michigan The River Raisin, which flows through 
the town, is bordered on both of its banks by large areas of 
Typha latifolia. This proved to be an ideal collecting spot for 
the year of 1927. Due to a flood in the spring of 1928, which 
destroyed a large part of the plants and killed most of the in- 
sects, collecting in this region had to be almost entirely aban- 
doned. One mile east of Monroe one finds the shores of Lake 
Erie with its many acres of swampland. Such a location was 
especially well suited for this work inasmuch as most of the 
TypJiac were concentrated in large beds of pure stands of 
Typha latifolia. In the center of a wood within the town limits 
is a patch of Typha angustifolia which netted several additional 
insects. 



xlii, '31 j ENTOMOLOGICAL XKWS 

Bolle's Harbor, Michigan, located on the shore of Lake Eric 
and about five miles southeast of Monroe, made a compara- 
tively good collecting ground, although the proportion of Typha 
to other plants in the association was not large. < >nly Typha 
latifolia was to he found at this location. 

Columbus, Ohio, has a few small patches of cat-tail along 
one of its rivers, the ( Mentangy. These areas are small and 
somewhat isolated from other plants of the typical pond asso- 
ciation. 

St. Marys, Ohio Along the St. Marys River may be found 
several long areas of Typha latifolia in which one finds a num- 
ber of insects. The river is quite narrow throughout the 
length of its course and the collector may wade from one bank 
to the other. 

Roberts, Idaho Five miles north of this town the author 
collected a few cat-tail insects in a large swamp harboring 
Typha latifolia and Typha anyustifolia, in the summer of 1929. 

Bozeman, Montana --At approximately five miles north of 
the city of Bozeman is a patch of Typha latifolia from which 
a few insects were collected in the summer of 1929. 

Everglades, Florida Along the Tamiami Trail in southern 
Florida are huge areas of Typha latifolia and anyustifolia, in 
many cases intermingled. Insects were collected from this 
locality during the winter of 1930. 

Yankeetown, Florida, situated on the Gulf in Northwestern 
Florida has several cat-tail swamps nearby from which cat- 
tail insects were collected by the author during the winter of 
1930. The greater part of the Typha at that point belongs 
to latifolia. 

The only plants taken into consideration in this study were 
the two species of Typha, namely, latifolia and anyustifolia. 
By far the greater portion of the insect fauna was reared from 
the former, this being the commonest species and the most 
succulent. In most cases the two species were found independ- 
ent of one another, but in several instances were intermingled. 

Typha is widely distributed throughout the t'nited States 
and is found most abundantly in pond associations. If is often 
the most common vegetation bordering inland lakes, and its 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

tall, swaying leaf-blades are not easily confused with other 
plants. 

The author confirms the statement of Claassen that "where 
cat-tails are not so abundant, a higher percentage of infesta- 
tion usually occurs, which renders it much easier to obtain 
material". 

Inasmuch as Typha insects for the greater part require moist, 
warm conditions for development, a duplication of these factors 
is essential for rearing the insects. 

From this study of cat-tail insects many interesting points 
have developed. For instance, in an article published by the 
author in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS (1930) the stable fly has been 
reported parasitic on a large Lepidopterous borer in the stalks 
of Typha latifolia. This insect has rarely been recorded as a 
parasite. It has been reported by Breakey in the Annals of 
the Entomological Society of America for 1929 as parasitic on 
the iris borer, Macronoctua onusta Grote. 

Many Lepidopterous larvae found inhabiting TypJia have been 
confused with the European corn borer. Several of these 
larvae have been brought to Government laboratories, often by 
irate farmers who report cat-tail swamps as a source of all 
the corn borers infesting their nearby fields. The European 
corn borer has never been officially reported from Typha and 
the author has been unable to rear this species on any type of 
cat-tail. According to experiments and observations by the 
author the larvae will not feed on any part of the plant. 

With a very few exceptions cat-tail insects seem to be uni- 
versal in their distribution. According to the author's observa- 
tions the most common insect inhabiting Typha is Arsilonche 
albovenosa Goeze. This species has been recorded from a 
great many sections of the United States and from both species 
of Typha* 

* The author wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. D. M. DeLong, 
of the Ohio State University, for his advice and criticisms. Also to the 
following specialists of the U. S. National Museum, at Washington, D. C. : 
Dr. R. A. Cushman and Dr. A. B. Gahan, Hymenoptera ; Dr. J. M. 
Aldrich and Dr. C. T. Greene, Diptera; The late Dr. H. G. Dyar, Dr. 
Carl Heinrich and Dr. A. Busch, Lepidoptera ; Dr. E. A. Chapin, Cole- 
optera ; Dr. A. N. Caudell, Orthoptera ; Dr. P. W. Mason, Thysanoptera. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

LEPIDOPTERA & PARASITES. 

(1) ARSILONCHE ALBOVENOSA Goeze. Two larvae were 
collected at Monroe, Michigan, July 10, 1927. Both of them 
pupated on July 13 and both emerged on August 1 ; one male 
and one female. The larvae were found feeding on the Typha 
leaves leaving only the midrib intact. 

From this species were reared, at Monroe, Michigan : (2) 
Blacus sp. and (3) Microhntcoir sp., larval parasites, and (4) 
Macrocentrus ancylivora Roh. and (5) Pimpla inquisitoriclla 
D. T., pupal parasites, all determined by R. A. Cushman of the 
U. S. National Museum. 

Twenty parasites emerged from a larva of albovcnosa, col- 
lected from the leaf of Typha latifolia, five miles north of 
Bozeman, Montana, on August 14, 1929. These were identified 
by R. A. Cushman as (6) Rogas stigmator Say. The host 
larva was found in a large patch of Typha latifolia which 
showed very little leaf damage. The new stalks were headed 
and the old stalks fire-burned. 

(7) Exorista larvarum L., determined by Dr. J. M. Aldrich, 
was collected from a larva of A. albovcnosa, ten miles north of 
Roberts, Idaho, on August 15, 1929. The insect was taken in 
the larval stage and it pupated externally. Its host larva was 
found on Typha latifolia. 

Numerous larvae of A. albovcnosa were collected on Typha 
angustifolia in the Everglades of Florida, February 28, 1930. 
Most of them were on or near the tips of the leaves of the old 
stalks only. No larvae were present on the young, immature 
stalks and they showed no damage. A few pupae of this insect 
were also collected from the exterior of mature stalks. 

A few larvae of A. albovcnosa were collected from the leaves 
of Typlia latifolia at Yankeetown, Florida, on March 6, 1930. 
Most of them were ready to undergo pupation and none of 
those collected were parasitized. 

(8) Alciodcs intermedium Cress, is reported by Claassen as 
parasitic on albovcnosa. 

(9) APATELA OBLINITA Abbot & Smith. Two larvae, col- 
lected on Typha leaves at Monroe, Michigan, July 15, 1927, 
pupated on August 21, and emerged as males on August 29. 

Two parasitized larvae were also collected, from which 
emerged (10) Sccliphron caementarium Drury* and (11) Casi- 
naria gcnuina Nort., both specimens determined by R. A. Cush- 
man. 

* Although a parasitic habit of this species has heretofore been unknown, 
the author reared it under isolated laboratory conditions during which 
there was no opportunity for error. 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

(12) ENDOTHAENIA HEBESANA Wlk. At Monroe, Michi- 
gan (1927) larvae were found feeding on the seeds of Typha 
latifolia. From sixteen larvae only twelve pupated and ten 
/'emerged. (13) A Microbracon sp. determined by R. A. Cush- 
man was collected in the larval stage. 

(14) LYMNAECIA PHRAGMITELLA Staint. Twenty larvae 
were collected in heads of Typha on July 16, 1927, at Monroe, 
Michigan, from which nineteen pupated and seventeen emerged. 

(15) Elachterinac sp. is reported by Claassen as a parasite 
of phragmitella. 

Parasites. Parasites of the various Typha insects are listed 
under their hosts. 

(16) COLEOPHARA sp. A great number of these small larvae 
were found burrowing in dried stalks of Typha latifolia at 
Monroe, Michigan, in the early spring of 1927. Their life 
history seems to correspond to that of Lymnaecia phragmitella 
Staint. as related by Claassen (1921). 

(17) NONAGRIA OBLONGA Grote. Three larvae were col- 
lected from overwintering stalks of Typha latifolia in a pond 
near the Olentangy River at Columbus, Ohio, December 31, 
1929. They xvere all above the surface of the ice, varying in 
distance from one to six inches. They appeared to be quite 
dormant at the time of collecting. Eighteen stalks were Opened, 
only seven showing damage. Two more larvae were dissected 
out on January 19, 1930, from the same locality. Fifty stalks 
were opened, twelve showing damage. It seems that infesta- 
tion by this insect occurs among the smaller and younger plants 
and not in those which have headed. In only very few cases 
have full grown stalks been found attacked. The larvae col- 
lected were encased in ice and, inasmuch as the minimum tem- 
perature for the preceding night was 8 F. below zero, appear 
to be quite resistant to low temperatures providing they are 
within the stalks. If a larva be removed from the stalk and 
placed, exposed, on the surface of the ice, a quick drop from 
freezing to zero is sufficient to cause death. 

(18) A panicles eincitifonnis Yier. is reported by Claassen 
as a parasite of oblonga. 

(19) NONAGRIA SUBFLAVA Grote. Larvae of this insect 
were found feeding on leaves of Typha latifolia in the Florida 
Everglades on February 28, 1930. The leaves showed about 
100% infestation. Several pupae and pupal cases were also 
found but the majority of the insects were in the larval stage. 
Holland gives a very good description of this insect in his 
Moth Book (1913). ' 

(20) ARCHANARA SUBCARNEA Kell. At Toledo, Ohio, on 
July 27, 1928, the author collected two larvae and two pupae 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 11 

in stalks of Typha latifolia. An adult emerging from one of 
the pupae was determined by the late Dr. H. G. Dyar. From 
twenty larvae collected near Toledo, two species of parasites 
(21) Muscina stabulans Fall, and (22) Masiccnt scnilis Mg., 
were reared, both being determined by Dr. J. M. Aldrich. At 
Bolle's Harbor, Michigan, near Monroe, larvae and pupae of 
this insect were collected on August 16, 1928, from which also 
emerged specimens of Masiccra scnilis and Muscina stabulans. 

There seemed to be a heavy infestation of this insect near 
Toledo, Ohio, but near Monroe, Michigan, twenty miles north 
and on a mile stretch of Lake Erie only one individual was 
collected from approximately 1000 stalks. On December 27, 
1928, a larva of A. subcarnca was taken from a stalk of Typli.t 
latifolia in a pond along the Olentangy River at Columbus, 
Ohio. 

Typha latifolia was examined at Saint Marys, Ohio, on July 
29, 1928, and several pupae were found in the base of the 
stalks, some of them submerged in water. Adults reared from 
these specimens were determined as subcarnca by Dr. Dyar. 

Arzama obliqua Walk. This name is in all probability a 
synonym of Archanara subcarnca Kell. inasmuch as its descrip- 
tion and life-history as described by Claassen agree with the 
latter. 

(23) Stunnia nigrita Town. Reported by Claassen (1921). 
This insect is parasitic on the larvae of Arzama obliqua. One 
adult was reared at Roberts, Idaho, on August 16, 1929. 

(24) BACTRA MAIORINA Hein. An adult of this species 
emerged from the head of Typha latifolia at Monroe, Michigan, 
on June 21, 1928, and was determined by Dr. Carl Ileinrich. 
Nothing is known of its habits. 

(25) CACOECIA ROSACEANA Harr. One specimen emerged 
from a pupa in a stalk of Typha latifolia at Monroe, Michigan, 
and was determined by Dr. A. Busck. 

(26) UNIDENTIFIED LEPIDOPTERON. An undeterminable 
larva was found feeding on the leaves and tender stalks of 
Typha latifolia at Monroe, Michigan on August 12, 1928. A 
species of Hymenopterous parasite emerged from this larva 
on August 15 (two males and three females) which were deter- 
mined by A. B. Gahan as (27) Eulo pints sp. 

(28) ARCHIPS OBSOLETANA Walk. Larvae of this insect 
were found feeding in the head of Typha latifolia at Monroe, 
Michigan, at Bolle's Harbor, Michigan, and at Toledo, Ohio, 
in 1927 and 1928. 

(29) DICYMOLOMIA JULIANALIS Walk. This species is de- 
scribed by Claassen as feeding in the head of T\plia latifolia. 

(To be continued). 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

A New Melitaea from Oregon (Lep. : Nymphalidae). 

By R. A. LEUSSLER, Omaha, Nebraska. 
Melitaea hewesi n. sp. 

$ . Expanse 40 mm. (centre of thorax to^apex x 2) Upper- 
side: Primaries, marginal row of straight, narrow, fulvous spots 
edged with black ; submarginal row of creamy, fulvous-tinged 
spots, all more or less triangular with the base slightly convex, 
those between veins 1 & 2 and between 2 & 3 being largest; 
inside submarginal row there is a row of smaller irregular 
shaped spots somewhat more fulvous ; and inside this row an 
irregular row of lighter spots ; a light colored bar in the cell, 
a similar colored spot below it near costa,' and another in cell 
near base, a few darker fulvous spots separating the light spots 
from each other ; the space between all of the various spots on 
the entire wing filled in with black ; fringes pale cream, broadly 
cut by black at the veins, giving the appearance of a checkered 
fringe. 

Secondaries, marginal and submarginal row of spots same 
as on primaries, row inside submarginal row composed of dark 
fulvous spots, row in discal area composed of very pale elon- 
gated spots ; a minute pale spot, flanked outwardly by a curved 
fulvous spot, in cell near base ; basal area, inner margin and 
all the space between spots black ; fringes same as on primaries. 

Underside: Primaries, rather pale dull fulvous, with all of 
the spots of the upper side reproduced ; the submarginal spots 
on this side are larger than on upper side and very pale cream, 
almost white ; the marginal fulvous spots continuous, forming 
a narrow band, uncut by veins ; fringes same as on upper side. 
Secondaries, marginal fulvous band as on primaries ; all spots 
of upper side reproduced, but considerably enlarged and so pale 
as to be almost white ; the median band encloses a series of 
small, pale fulvous spots or, perhaps more properly, rings (some 
of them being hollow in the centre) ; spots in the basal area 
separated from each other by a narrow irregular fulvous band 
as is usual in the genus ; all the pale spots edged with black. 
Body, above black, beneath pale yellowish white, palpi fulvous. 
Antennae, black above, reddish beneath. 

9 . Expanse 48 mm. Uppersidc: Strikingly different from 
the male, the ground color of primaries and secondaries being 
black, and all the spots creamy white, excepting those forming 
the marginal band which are reddish fulvous ; median row of 
spots on secondaries are mere dots ; fringes same as male. 
Underside: Similar to male; body and palpi same as male. 

The above descriptions apply respectively to the male holo- 
type and female allotype taken at Tygh, OREGON, about 25 miles 
south of the Columbia River near the Dalles in Sherman County, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 13 

June 12, 1930, by Dr. L. I. Hewes of San Francisco, for whom 
I take pleasure in naming the species. Besides the holotype 
and allotype there are before me 9 other males and 11 other 
females, all collected by Dr. Hewes, and I deem it advisable 
to record here the variation within the series. Males Nos. 1, 
2, 3 & 4, Tygh, Oregon, June 12, 1930, agree with type and 
are designated as paratypes. Male No. 5 same date and locality 
shows less contrast between pale and fulvous spots on upper 
side of both wings, and the same is true of the under side of 
primaries. Male No. 6, same date and locality, is a lightly 
marked specimen still less contrasty. No. 7 same date and 
locality, although a male this specimen is in appearance the 
same as the female form crcinita of M. palla. Male No. 8, 
Goodnow Hills, WASHINGTON, June 26, 1927, same as No. 7. 
Male No. 9, Tygh, Oregon, June 12, 1930, is an albinic speci- 
men, all the light colored spots being white and the fulvous 
ones very pale. The variation in the 11 females is less note- 
worthy. They are all designated as paratypes. 6 were taken 
at Tygh, Oregon, June 30, 1929, and the remaining 5 in the 
same locality June 12, 1930. There is some variation in size ; 
in 3 of the specimens the median row of spots or dots is prac- 
tically obsolete ; in 2 others they are slightly tinged with red ; in 
still another all of the spots are conspicuously large and in some 
of the specimens all of the spots are chalk white rather than 
creamy white. 

What relationship this species bears to other Melitaeas I 
cannot say. It probably is nearest to palla and i^hitncyi, but 
in my opinion is quite distinct. 2 male and 2 female paratypes 
in collection of R. A. Leussler at Omaha ; the types and re- 
mainder of specimens returned to Dr. Hewes. 



Food Requirements for the Pupation of Two Coleop- 
terous Larvae, Synchroa punctata Newm. and 
Dendroides canadensis Lee. (Melandryidae, 
Pyrochroidae). 

I'.y XKI.LII-: M. I'AYNK. 

Fifty grown larvae of each of the species, Synchroa pnnctata 
and Dendroides ctiihiilensis were collected in April, 1924, near 
Saint Paul, Minnesota. These larvae were separated from the 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

oak bark and frass in which they occurred, washed in 70% 
alcohol, and fed on filter paper over night. Then the larvae 
were placed singly in small shell vials containing sterilized oak 
bark free from Armillaria nigra, a fungus which is often present 
in dead and dying trees. None of these larvae pupated the 
first year ending April, 1925, although controls collected at the 
same time and fed unsterilized oak bark or rhizomes of Armil- 
laria nigra, pupated and emerged as adults in the summer of 
1924. The larvae which were kept on the sterilized medium 
were transported to Philadelphia in September, 1925, and the 
experiment continued. 

Observations have been made on these larvae for six complete 
years. The experiment is now in its seventh year. Several 
larvae have died but the death rate has been very low after the 
first four years. Larvae have been removed annually or semi- 
annually and approximately half of them have been fed on 
rhizomes of A. nigra and half on unsterilized oak bark. After 
the first year larvae thus fed pupated within twenty-four hours 
after feeding and emerged within two weeks. Larvae removed 
in April, 1925, required five days in which to pupate. Tempera- 
ture at which pupae were kept varied between 20-22 degrees 
centigrade. The following table shows the death rate and the 
larvae pupating after each special feeding. None of the larvae 
died during pupation. 



SYNCHROA PUNCTATA 

Fed A. nigra or 


DENDROIDES CANADENSIS 

Fed A. nigra or 


Died unsterilized 


Died unsterilized 






in larval 


oak 


Number 


in larval 


oak 


Number 


Date 


stage 


bark 


remaining 


stage 


bark 


remaining 


April, 


1924 








50 








50 


April, 


1925 


4 


5 


41 


5 


5 


40 


April, 


1926 


1 


6 


34 


3 


7 


30 


April, 


1927 


2 


6 


26 


2 


8 


20 


Oct., 


1927 


7 


3 


16 





3 


17 


April, 


1928 





3 


13 


1 


3 


13 


Oct., 


1928 





2 


11 





3 


10 


April, 


1929 


1 


2 


8 





2 


8 


Oct., 


1929 





2 


6 





2 


6 


April, 


1930 





2 


4 


1 


2 


3 



Both Synchroa punctata and Dcndroidcs canadcnsis normally 
complete their life cycle within one year. Thus the diet of 
sterilized food prolonged their lives to over six times the nor- 
mal length. The larvae reared on the sterilized medium were 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 15 

healthy and vigorous, but merely unable to differentiate. The 
actual chemical compound producing pupation in these two 
species is unknown. The sudden transformation of the old 
larvae indicates that the pupation-causing substance is of a 
catalytic nature. This catalvst may or may not be specific, since 
pupation could occur either by addition of unsterilized oak 
bark or of Annillaria nii/ra rhizomes to the diet. However the 
great frequency with which A. nit/ra was present in trees in 
which S. punctata and D. canadcnsis normally fed, lead the 
writer to suppose that the effect of unsterilized oak bark on 
pupation may have been due to small bits of Annillaria or other 
fungi. 

Recently Uvarov [1928] has summarized the literature re- 
lating to insect nutrition. This admirable summary renders a 
bibliography to a brief note superfluous. 

LITERATURE CITATION. 

UVAROV, B. P. Insect Nutrition and Metabolism. A Summary 
of the Literature. Trans. Ent. Soc. London. Dec. 31, 
1928. pp. 255-343. 



A Recent Occurrence of Catopsilia philea Job. in Missouri. 

(Lepid. : Pieridae). 

An unusual capture for this part of the country was the 
taking of a male specimen of Catopsilia pliilca Job. in Webster 
Groves, Missouri, on July 11, 1930, by Jack Neavles, a young 
butterfly-hunter of my neighborhood. The range of this tropical 
butterfly is generally regarded as extending into Texas, but 
there are on record occurrences of stray individuals at localities 
considerably farther north. In the present instance, the flight 
of the butterfly for so great a distance from its normal territory 
may be definitely correlated with the protracted hot weather 
that preceded its appearance here. 

Cases like this, in which butterflies are observed hundreds 
of miles away from the localities where they are known to 
breed, demonstrate that butterflies are capable of flying enor- 
mous distances, and indicate a probability that such long flights 
may take place more frequently than has been noted by ob- 
servers. They therefore deserve careful study, being important 
aids to the solution of some of the problems that beset the 
investigator of insect migrations. 

HAROLD O'Bvkxt-:, \\Vbster Groves, Missouri. 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

An Additional Annotated List of the Ants of 
Mississippi* (Hym.: Formicoidea). 

M. R. SMITH, A. & M. College, Mississippi. 

In a previous article (Ent. News, Vol. 39, pp. 242-246 and 
275-279, 1928) 19 additional species of ants were recorded for 
Mississippi. The present paper lists 20 more species, thus mak- 
ing a grand total of 126 species which have been recorded for 
the state. Although a great deal of collecting for ants has 
been done in some parts of the state, there are other areas in 
which no collecting or only very little collecting has been done. 
When these areas are adequately scouted, it would not be sur- 
prising if the list of the ants of the state is extended to include 
150 species or more. 

Of the 126 species collected to date, 11 species or 8.7 percent 
are apparently new species. New species have been found 
within the following genera : Apliacnogaster, Stctminma, Phei- 
dole, Leptothorax, Mynnica, and Camponotus sub-genus Colo- 
bo psis. 

The most interesting of the new species is a Stcnamma, 
which is apparently distinct from anything that has yet been 
recorded for North America. This species is of even further 
interest in that the genus Stcnamma is very poorly represented 
in this section of the country. 

Another interesting new species is a Colobopsis, which is 
allied to C. impresses in the general shape of the head of the 
soldier (that is, with subparallel sides) yet is very distinct not 
only from this species but from all other Colobopsis that have 
yet been taken in North America. 

Subfamily DORYLINAE 

107. ECITON MEX.ICANUM (F. Smith). 

Wiggins. Male specimens of what is believed to be this 
species were taken by Mr. J. P. Kislanko at trap lights at 
Wiggins on the night of June 27, 1930. Our specimens agree 
very well with the figure of this species as given by Wheeler in 
fig. 11, plate 26 of the Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 24, 

(*A contribution from the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station) 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 17 

1908. Wheeler states, "the male of this species is easily 
tinguished from all the known males of the genus by the peculiar 
shape of the mandibles which are narrow, straight at the base 
and curved at the tips, with the middle of the external margin 
concave and a low but distinct projection on the inner margin." 
I am inclined to believe that this ant is the male phase of Eciton 
pilosns. E. mexicawwm is known only from the male. The male 
of E. pilosns on the other hand is not known. My reasons for 
believing that the males of E. iiic.ricanuui are very probably 
the males of E. pilosns will be given in a forthcoming article. 
108. APHAENOGASTER TEXANA var. CAROLINENSTS \Yheeler. 
Columbus, Starkville, Greenwood Springs. The slender, yel- 
lowish-brown workers of this "ant might easily be confused with 
the smaller workers of Aphaenogaster fitlra or some of its 
forms. The head of the worker of carolincnsis is much more 
slender than the head of the worker of A. fnlva, and the pos- 
terior corners are decidedly rounder. The eyes are proportion- 
ally larger and the antennae longer. 

This species was described from specimens nesting in the soil 
beneath stones in the open woods at Trvon, N. C. (Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 34, p. 414, 1915). In Mississippi I have 
taken the ants from the soil beneath logs and also from beneath 
the bark of stumps. At Columbus, Mississippi, a colony was 
found nesting in a pine log near a fine colony of Exponent 
(jilva. 

109. STENAMMA FOVEOLOCEPHALA M. R. Smith. 
Ackerman. Two workers of this species were collected from 
the sandy soil on the south slope of a thinly wooded hillside. 
2 miles from Ackerman, Mississippi. Although a careful 
search was made for further specimens none were found. These 
are the first workers of Stcnainiud that have been collected in 
the state. To date this is the fourth species of Stain in ma to 
be described for North America. The other three species 
as follows: brci'icornc and its various subspecies rind varieties 
ncarcticKin (which is known only from the male and female 
phases), and nidiini which was described by Dr. Wheeler from 
Mexican specimens. 

This species differs from brcviconic and its allied forms in 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

the following particulars: (1) the eyes are larger; (2) the 
sculpturing of the head is decidedly f oveolate-reticulate ; (3) 
the rugulae on the basal surface of the epinotum are trans- 
verse; (4) the postpetiole is longer and when viewed from 
above subcampanulate ; ( 5 ) the color is darker, almost black. 
The description of this species appeared in Annals Ent. Soc. 
of Amer. Vol. 23, No. 3, 1930. 

110. LEPTOTHORAX WHEELERI M. R. Smith. 

A. & M. College, Starkville, Sturgis, Adaton. This species 
was recently described and illustrated in Annals Ent. Soc. of 
America, Vol. 22, pp. 548, 1929. The worker of this species 
is very closely related to the worker of L. sclmumi and L. for- 
tinodis. From these species it differs, however, in the follow- 
ing particulars: (1) it has longer and larger epinotal spines; 
(2) the thorax is not so compressed laterally and dorsally as 
with the species mentioned ; (3) the sculpturing is much coarser. 

All of the nests which I have encountered were found in 
cavities in live, standing trees or in logs and stumps. 

111. LEPTOTHORAX (D.) PERGANDEI subsp. FLAVUS M. R. 
Smith. 

Adaton, Longview, Starkville. This interesting species be- 
longing to the subgenus Dichothora.v was also recently described 
in the Annals Ent. Soc. Amer. Vol. 22, pp. 549-550, 1929. 
Although closely allied to pcrgandci, the worker can be dis- 
tinguished from the worker of pcrgandci by the following dif- 
ferences : (1) its larger size; (2) different color (yellow) ; (3) 
less acute meso-epinotal constriction; (4) the longer, blunter, 
and stouter epinotal spines; (5) the much larger and more con- 
vex petiole, and the distinctly broader post petiole; (6) and by 
the longer, coarser, and more uneven pilosity. 

All the colonies which I have seen were nesting in crevices 
just beneath the bark of pine stumps, usually very near the 
soil level. 

112. LEPTOTHORAX PERGANDEI subsp. FLOKIDANUS Emery. 
Louisville, Blue Mountain, Ripley. According to Emery this 

subspecies differs from L. (D.) pcnjandci in the following 
particulars, namely: (1) the body is more shining; (2) the 
epinotum smooth and shining above; (3) the mesoepinotal con- 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 19 

striction is punctulate, subopaque ; (4) the petiolar node is nar- 
rower and not impressed above; (5) the postpetiole is hardly 
1/3 again as broad as the petiole and proportionally narrower 
than in pcrgandci. Wheeler in addition states that the color, 
pilosity, and sculpture are the same in both forms. 

Mr. S. W. Simmons, who collected the ants at two of the 
locations mentioned above, informs me that they were found 
nesting in the soil beneath logs and stones. 

113. LEPTOTHORAX (D.) PERGANDEI FLORIDANUS var. SIMN- 
osus M. R. Smith. 

Summit. This species was described in the same journal as 
the other species of LcptotJiora.r just mentioned (p. 551). It 
is also a member of the subgenus DichotJwra.v. The worker 
differs from that of floridanus as follows: (1) the epinotal 
spines are longer and are directed more upward and outward ; 
(2) the epinotal spines are not small or tuberculate as with 
pergandei and florid un us, but distinctly spinose, and longer than 
broad at base; (3) the pilosity is longer, coarser, and more un- 
even; (4) the color, although variable, is somewhat darker 
than that of floridanus. 

These ants were collected from a rotting pine stump at Sum- 
mit, Mississippi, the type-locality. 

114. STRUMIGENYS ORNATA Mayr. 

Louisville. One specimen of this ant was collected by Mr. 
G. W. Haug from amongst leaves and other debris on the 
ground in a dense growth of Oak trees about 8 miles northwest 
of Louisville. 

The worker of this species can be very easily distinguished 
by the exceedingly long clavate hairs which are directed upward 
from the surface of the clypeus. The ants appear to be rather 
rare in the state. 

115. STRUMIGENYS CLYPEATA var. PILINASIS Forel. 
Louisville. Three specimens of this species were taken by 

me from a small crevice in a well rotted log, lying at the font 
of a hill in the same patch of woodlands as the species men- 
tioned above. 

This species can be recognized by the peculiar shape of the 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

head of the worker, which tapers very strongly anteriorly, thus 
causing the clypeus to be considerably longer than broad. The 
clypeus is covered with numerous erect hairs, which are not at 
all clavate or scale-like as in the other species of Stminigcnys. 
Also the exposed sections of the mandibles are toothed in- 
ternally for their entire length. 

116. SOLENOPSIS PERGANDEI Foi'el. 

Greenwood Springs, Ouitman, Biloxi, Ackerman. The 
worker of 6". peryandci can be distinguished from the worker 
of S. nwlcsta as follows: (1) it is a larger species; (2) the 
the head is practically quadrate; (3) the node of the post- 
petiole is about as long as wide and more spherically shaped. 
The worker of S. niolcsta has a post-petiolar node, which when 
viewed from above appears to be wider than long. For the 
description of pcrgandei see Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. Vol. 45, p. 343, 
1901. The species was described from North Carolina speci- 
mens. 

I have seen nests of this ant in the soil and also in crevices 
in rotting pine stumps. At Ouitman, alate females were found 
in the nest on July 6th. This does not appear to be as com- 
mon a species in Mississippi as m-olcsta. 

117. Solenopsis glolndana subsp. inobilcnsis Creighton. 
Ocean Springs, Perkinston, Pascagoula. This species was 

first collected at Mobile, Alabama, by Mr. W. S. Creighton of 
Harvard University. At the time he wrote me in regard to it, 
he was of the opinion that it was possibly an imported species. 
This species, the only form of globularia that I know to occur 
in the United States, is very distinct from our other species of 
Solcnopsis. The worker can be readily recognized by its ab- 
normally large postpetiole, which when viewed from above 
and behind is transversely-elliptical. The epinotum when viewed 
from the side is decidedly angular. 

Mr. J. P. Kislanko, who collected the ants at two of the 
above named localities, found them nesting in wood in both 
instances, and seeds were observed in their nest on one of these 
occasions. Mr. R. P. Colmer sent in specimens from Pasca- 
goula, which were stealing canary bird seed from a house. 



xlii, '31] KXTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 21 

118. TETRAMORIUM (TRIGLYPHOTHRIX) STRIATIDENS Emery. 
West Point. A large number of workers of this imported 

Indian ant were collected from the brick wall of a store in the 
business section of West Point, by Mr. E. E. Byrcl. Mr. Bynl 
stated that he believed the ants to be nesting in the wall as he 
saw numerous workers enter and leave small holes in the wall. 
The ants are slow moving in gait and given to sulking when 
touched by an object. 

This is the second time that the species has ever been re- 
corded from the United States. It was first taken in 1913 at 
New Orleans by Mr. E. R. Barber (Wheeler, Jour. EC. Ent. 
Vol. 9, pp. 566-569, 1916). This ant, as Wheeler aptly re- 
marks, is tending to become world-wide in its distribution. 
Whether it will prove a pest in the state remains to be seen. 

119. MVRMICA SCHENCKI var. SPATULATA M. R. Smith. 
Starkville. This, the only species of Mynnica that has yet 

been taken in Mississippi, is apparently a new one. As its 
name indicates, both workers and females can be distinguished 
from allied forms of Mynnica by the exceedingly large spoon 
or spatulate-shaped lobes at the base of the antennae. Viewed 
from above the margins of the lobes are very thin and some- 
what reflexed. Viewed laterally the lobes form slightly more 
than a right angle with the base of the scapes of the antennae. 

This species was found nesting in the soil in a low, heavily 
wooded area 5 miles west of Starkville. The area is frequently 
subject to overflow. 

A description of the worker and female of this species ap- 
peared in Vol. 23, No. 3, of the Annals Ent. Soc. Amer. 1930. 

120. PHEIDOLE LAMIA Wheeler. 

Fayette. Two soldiers and a number of workers of this ex- 
tremely interesting ant were collected by Mr. G. W. Haug from 
the soil at the base of a maple tree in the old Argentine ant 
area at Fayette. The soldier of this ant can be easily recog- 
nized at a glance because of its peculiarly shaped head, which 
is long and subcylindrical with truncated anterior portion. The 
soldiers are supposed to use their heads in plugging the gal- 
leries to the nest. According to Wheeler the ants are decidedly 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

subterranean in nature. Mr. Havig informed me that although 
he made a very careful search for soldiers he only succeeded 
in taking two specimens. Apparently the soldiers are very 
scarce in the nest. They may function as queens as Wheeler 
suggests. Ph. lamia was described by Wheeler from specimens 
collected at Austin, Texas. So far as I am aware this is the 
first time that the ant has been taken outside of that state. 

121. DOLICHODERUS PLAGIATUS PUSTULATUS Var. BEUTEN- 

MUELLERI Wheeler. 

Smithville, Biloxi. The types of this species are from the 
Black Mountains of North Carolina. For description of the 
species see Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. 20, p. 304. 1904. 
The worker of this species has a black head and gaster and a 
reddish-brown thorax. The head and thorax which bear shal- 
low foveolae are glabrous. There are also erect hairs on the 
upper surface of the body. 

At Smithville workers were collected from oak, hickory, and 
sumac where they were seeking honey dew. At Biloxi on 
September 5, 1929, the ants were found attending aphids on a 
species of grass in a marshy area, not over 125 yards from 
the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Between the sheaths of 
the grass were found immature stages of the ants, which were 
covered over by fine down-like hairs that had been pulled from 
the grass by the worker ants. Both winged females and female 
pupae were found. 

Subfamily FORMICINAE. 

122. FORMICA TRUNCICOLA INTEGRA Nylander. 
Greenwood Springs. These beautiful, robust, red and black 

ants were found in large numbers amongst sand, leaves, and 
other debris along the edge of a small stream. In this vicinity 
there were many elder bushes on which were numerous black 
aphids that the workers were busily attending. When I at- 
tempted to capture the worker ants, they hid beneath leaves 
and would cautiously peep out as if they were endowed with 
intelligence. For a description of this species see Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. Harvard, Vol. LIII, pp. 444-445, 1913. 

123. CAMPONOTUS CARYAE subsp. DISCOLOR (Buckley). 



xlii, '31 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Corinth, A. & M. College. This beautiful red and black ant 
with emarginate clypeus is described in I 'roc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 
Vol. 6, p. 166, 1866. 

Judging from our records it does not appear to be as com- 
mon a species as rasilis, which it resembles in both appearance 
and habits. It can be easily distinguished from rasilis by the 
coarse, piligerous foveolae on the cheeks and clypeus of the 
worker and female. At Corinth a single worker was taken 
from the trunk of a tree in a low, heavily wooded area. At 
A. & M. College, Mr. J. M. Langston found one dealate female 
and 3 workers in a cavity in a pecan husk on the college farm. 

124. CAMPONOTUS (COLOBOPSIS) OBLIQUUS M. R. Smith. 
Starkville. This species is entirely distinct from any other 

species of North American Colobopsis that has yet been de- 
scribed. With respect to the shape of the head of the soldier 
(that is, its subparallel sides) it would appear to be closely 
allied to C. iin[>rcssns. From the latter species it differs in the 
following characters: (1) its smaller size (3.5-3.75 mm.) ; (2) 
the much coarser sculpturing of the head; (3) the less con- 
cave, truncate surface of the head; and (4) in the more rec- 
tangularly shaped clypeus. 

The workers of this ant were found nesting in a cavity in 
the husk of a hickory nut, Caryac sp., which was gathered in a 
low woodland pasture, 5 miles southwest of Starkville. To Mr. 
J. M. Langston credit is due for collecting this species. 

The description of this species appeared in Vol. 23, No. 3 
of the Annals Ent. Soc. of Amer. 1930. 

125. L.\sirs liKEYicoRNis Emery. 

Ripley. This species is apparently confined to the cooler, 
more northern sections of the state. Our specimens have been 
collected by Mr. S. W. Simmons, who informs me that this is 
not an uncommon ant in the area from which it is listed above. 
Mr. Simmons found the ants nesting in the soil in a hilly, 
wooded area. The worker of L. brcriconiis can easily be dis- 
tinguished by its short antennal scapes, which do not extend 
entirely to the posterior corners of the head. The maxillary 
palpi are 6-segmented. 

126. LASIUS (A.) CLAVIGER Roger. 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

Ripley. This species is represented in our collection by a 
single dealate female, which was captured at the above named 
locality by Mr. S. W. Simmons. Although L. inter jectus Mayr 
is a fairly common ant in this state, its cogener L. clavigcr for 
some unexplainable reason seems to be rare or absent in the 
areas where we have collected intensively. 

The worker of L. clavigcr can easily be distinguished by the 
following characters: (1) the 3-segmented maxillary palpi; (2) 
the antero-posteriorly compressed petiole, the superior border 
of which is sharp; (3) by the absence of teeth on the superior 
borders of the mandibles; (4) by the numerous erect hairs 
which are widely distributed over the dorsal surface of the 
gaster. 



The Night Flight of Diurnal Butterflies (Lepid.). 

By PHIL RAU, Kirkwood, Missouri. 

I was glad that Mr. Hayward was led to publish in the 
October NEWS the fine lot of records of the night flight of 
diurnal Lepidoptera, even though he thinks the data are of no 
scientific value. Notes of this type are valuable in the study 
of psychogenesis. I believe that changes in habits and eventu- 
ally in morphology of species have in many cases had their in- 
ception in just such cases of digression from instinct as Mr. 
O'Byrne's and Mr. Hayward's data represent. When an animal 
behaves in a way which differs from the established habit of 
the species, we know there must be some cause for this digres- 
sion. Such action is usually more difficult, requires more effort, 
than following customary routine ; hence the cause must be 
more impelling than is outwardly apparent. I believe that these 
causes for digression are usually psychic in nature. 

I fully agree with Mr. Hayward when he says that each 
record should be complete with full environmental data, but 
I do not agree with him when he says that the appearance of 
Lepidoptera on. the wing at unusual times is purely accidental, 
that they have merely been disturbed by night prowlers. A 
night in the field with sleeping insects will prove to anyone that 
insects, especially butterflies, sleep soundly at night, and if dis- 
turbed they drop to the ground. They can easily be picked up 



xlii, '31 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 25 

in the fingers, or a twig upon which they are asleep can be 
carried several miles without disturbing them.* 

When a day-flying male Promcthca mothf conies to the 
female in the cage on my roof at four a.m., (even though he 
is only one out of many), my interpretation is that its organ 
for odor perception is more highly developed than that of its 
companions, or its sex urge is greater than its impulse to sleep, 
or both. At least, its inner urge for action must be different 
from that of its companions. If it beats the other ardent swains 
in its quest for mating, or if perchance it meets a mate of like 
tendencies, there is ample probability that the psychic urge to 
this new departure will recur in the offspring. If the new habit 
gives the creature an advantage among its fellows, there is a 
chance that it may become permanent in the species. All this, 
of course, would be quite unthinkable if the first occurrence of 
the new act was purely accidental or caused by extraneous 
forces. 

We are in the habit of thinking that night-flying moths are 
active at any hour of the night, and likewise day-flying moths 
are active during any and all hours of the day. In the paper 
cited, we show that each species of moths with which we 
worked has a very definite period of flight, which recurs once 
in each cycle of twenty-four hours, and if a change of this 
"hour" occurs in a species, we would not expect it to occur en 
masse, but to have its inception in one or a few individuals of 
the race, just the erratic type of individuals that Mr. O'Byrnc 
and Mr. Havward mention. 



The C. F. Adams Collection of Diptera. 

A collection of Diptera, totalling approximately 12,000 speci- 
mens, has been presented to Purdue University by Dr. C. F. 
Adams, Director of the Bacteriological Laboratory of the 
Indiana State Board of Health and formerly Dean and Ento- 
mologist of the College of Agriculture of the University of 
Arkansas. Dr. Adams has retained the Mycetophilidae and a 
named set of the Culicidae, in which groups he will continue 
his studies. 

* See Rau and Rau, The Sleep of Insects ; An Ecological Study. Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 9 : 227-274. 1916. 

t Rau and Rau, The Sex Attraction and Rhythmic Periodicity in the 
Great Saturniid Moths. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 26: 82-221. 1929. 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | Jan., '31 

A New Species of Two-winged Fly belonging to the 
Genus Acronarista (Diptera: Tachinidae)' 

By H. J. REINIIARD, College Station, Texas. 

In 1908, Townsencl established the genus Acronarista with 
tnirabilis as the type and sole species. 1 The description was 
based upon a single specimen collected by the late Dr. H. G. 
Dyar at Palm Beach, Florida. 

I am indebted to Dr. J. M. Aldrich for the opportunity of 
examining the type specimen now in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum. The type is a male and not a female as stated in the 
original description. This correction has already been indicated 
by W. R. Thompson.- The species is rare among our native 
Tachinidae and for more than twenty years no additional speci- 
mens have been discovered. 

A second species from Louisiana, described as new in the 
present paper, seems congeneric. It differs in having the arista 
situated about midway between the base and apex of the an- 
terior ramus of the third antennal joint; in having one to three 
setules near the tip of the first vein ; and a number of other 
less essential details. 

Acronarista cornuta new species 

Male: Front at narrowest (vertex) 0.384 of the head width 
in the one specimen, widening but slightly to base of antennae ; 
parafrontals faintly pruinose subshining in certain angles, with 
only a few short inconspicuous hairs outside the frontal rows ; 
median stripe brownish-black, uniform in width to triangle and 
slightly broader than one paraf rontal ; frontal bristles descend- 
ing to apex of second antennal joint, the uppermost one or two 
pairs smaller than the preceding ones ; ocellars proclinate ; ver- 
ticals one pair (inner) rather stout, curving backward; orbitals 
present (three on one side and two on other), all proclinate; 
face gray pollinose, very deeply excavated, the sides linear, bare, 
and strongly divergent downward ; vibrissae large, inserted on 
oral margin, with only a few bristles on the ridges above ; 
antennae reaching oral margin, basal joints short, tinged with 
yellow; third wholly black, deeply and broadly incised to form 
an anterior and posterior ramus which in profile are distinctly 
bowed effecting a U-shaped appearance ; arista situated slightly 

1 Tax. Muse. Flies, Smith Misc. Colls., Vol. LI, p. 85. 
2 Canad. Ent., Vol. XLIII, p. 313. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

nearer base than apex of anterior ramus, thickened almost to 
tip, penultimate joint only slightly shorter than the third; cheeks 
about one-sixth the eye height ; proboscis short, fleshy ; palpi 
yellow ; eyes bare. 

Thorax and scutellum black, dusted lightly with bluish-gray 
pollen, humeri more densely pollinose ; mesonotum showing five 
indistinct dark stripes in front and none behind suture. Chae- 
totaxy : humeral 2 ; posthumeral 2 ; presutural 1 ; acrostichal 3, 
1 ; dorsocentral 3, 3 ; notopleural 2 ; intraalar 3 (anterior one 
minute) ; supraalar 3; postalar 2; pteropleural 1; sternopleural 
4 (intermediate ones small) ; scutellum with two lateral be- 
sides a weaker apical pair, no discals ; postscutellum normally 
developed ; calypters semitransparent, white. 

Abdomen rather short and flat, basal margins of segments 
two to four with narrow bands of bluish-gray pollen, the re- 
mainder of these segments, including the first, shining black ; 
first segment without median marginal bristles ; second with 
one pair, rather small ; third with a marginal row situated con- 
siderably before the hind margin ; fourth with a discal row but 
without a distinct row of marginals. 

Legs blackish, rather stout, pulvilli conspicuous but shorter 
than last tarsal joint; mid tibia with one bristle an outer front 
side ; hind tibia with a sparse row of short bristles on outer 
posterior edge with one or two longer near middle. 

Wings hyaline; the hind cross vein erect joining the fourth 
vein slightly before the middle between small cross vein and 
bend ; first vein with one to three setules near the apex ; third 
with one rather large bristle at base ; fourth vein with a broadly 
rounded bend, curving outward near the tip leaving the first 
posterior cell narrowly open almost in exact wing tip ; costal 
spine minute. 

Length, 4 mm. 

Female : Unknown. 

Described from a single male specimen from Opelousas, 
LOUISIANA, March, 1897, (collector unknown) received from 
David G. Hall. 

Type: Male, Cat. No. 43172 U.S.N.M. 

This species, like the genotype, is a minute fly with the third 
antennal joint cleft into two rami. In profile these are less 
strongly bowed than in mirabilis and the entire joint is black. 
The presence of a few setules on the first vein ; the elongated 
penultimate joint of the arista ; and the insertion of the latter 
nearer the base of the third antennal joint do not appear to be 
characters of generic importance in this case. 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

Dynastes tityus Linn, in Delaware (Coleop. : Scarabaeidae). 

From the paper by Dr. P. P. Calvert on the occurrence of 
this species in Pennsylvania, in the NEWS for June and July. 
1930, I was especially interested to learn of the occurrence of 
this beetle in that state, as I have collected one male in the 
vicinity of Newark, Delaware, in 1927, although I can give no 
further data concerning it. 

In the collection of the Delaware Agricultural Experiment 
Station, there is one specimen, also a male, dated August 7, 1929, 
locality Nassau, Delaware, with no collector's name attached. 
I think the collector was Dr. H. D. Dozier, as I remember 
pinning the specimen. Nassau is just this side of Rehoboth 
Beach, toward the southeastern end of Delaware. During col- 
lections made in Pennsylvania in 1927 and in the following year, 
I did not find another specimen. In the fall of 1928, I collected 
a number of immature and fully grown larvae of this species in 
the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, and I was again able to 
obtain some this past summer (1930). 

The reported occurrence of this species in Pennsylvania is of 
special interest ; I had thought Delaware to be its northern limit. 
L. CHESTER MARSTON, JR., Department of Biology, 

, University of Toronto. 

The Composition of the Head of Insects. 

In the embryo of Carausius (walking stick) seven pairs of 
coelom sacs are laid down in the head. Of these only the 
antennal, manclibular, first and second maxillary are preserved 
for any length of time. The others (labral, preantennal, inter- 
calary) remain rudimentary. The labral and preantennal belong 
to the primary head region. The preantennal pair is to be con- 
sidered as homologous with that so-named in Scolopendra. In 
Carausius the reduction of the coelom sacs proceeds from behind 
forward. The second maxillary coelom sacs are like those of 
the thorax, the mandibular are reduced to their ventral parts. 
The phylogenetically oldest secondary head segment is, there- 
fore, the mandibuiar, the phylogenetically youngest is the second 
maxillary. R. WIESMANN in Leuzinger, Wiesmann and Leh- 
mann : Zur Kenntniss der Anatomic u. Entwicklungsgeschichte 
cler Stabheuschrecke Carausius inorosits Br. }ena, Gustav 
Fischer, 1926, pages 317-318. 



Additions to the Index to Vol. XLI, 1930. 

Under Obituary Notices, insert Rathvon, S. S. 234. Under Per- 
sonals, insert Auxer, S. 236. Under Coleoptera, insert Auxer Collec- 
tion 236, quadristriatus, Trojiistcnnis 238, Rathvon Collection 199, Raub 
Collection 236. 



List of the Titles of Periodicals and Serials Referred to by 

Numbers in Entomological Literature 

in Entomological News. 



1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Pysche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschriit. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a. M., Germany. 

15. Natural History, American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

16. American Journal of Science. New Haven, Conn. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift. Guben, Germany. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

20. Societas entomologica. Stuttgart, Germany. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia generale e agraria della 

R. Scuola superiore d'Agricultura in Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

26. Entomologischer Anzeiger, hersg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien, Austria. 

27. Bolletino della Societa Entomologica. Geneva, Italy. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. The Maine Naturalist. Thornaston, Maine. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles. 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

35. The Annals of Applied Biology. Cambridge, England. 

36. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitales. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chilena de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

45. Zeitschrift fur \vissenschaftliche Tnsektenbiologie. Berlin. 

46. Zeitschrift fiir Morphologic und Okologie der Ticre. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, D. C. 

48. Wiener entomologische Zeitung. Wien, Austria. 

49. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C. 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. helsingfors. Helsingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, hrsg. v. K. Strand. Berlin. 



53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 

54. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee. Paris. 

55. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

56. "Konowia". Zeit. fur systematische Insektenkunde. Wien, Austria. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Entomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 

61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

63. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris". Berlin. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fiir angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

66. Report of the Proceedings of the Entomological Meeting. Pusa, India. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Comptes rendus hebdoma. des seances de 1'Academie des sciences. Paris. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Quarterly Review of Biology. Baltimore, Maryland. 

74. Sbornik entomolog. narodniho musea v Praze. Prague, Czechoslavokia. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

76. The Scientific Monthly. New York. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Parrs. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

80. Lepidopterologische Rundschau, hrsg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien. 

81. Folia myrmecol. et termitol. hrsg. Anton Krausse. Bernau bei Berlin. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

85. Genetics. Princeton, New Jersey. 

86. Zoologica, New York Zoological Society. New York. 

87. Archiv fiir Entwicklungs mechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaf ten, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

96. La Cellule. Lierre, Belgium. 

Q7. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

99. Melanges exotico-entomologiques. Par Maurice Pic. Moulins, France. 

100. Bulletin Intern., Academic Polonaise des Sci. et des Lett. Cra- 

covie, Poland. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie, Nederlandsche Entomol. Ver., 

Amsterdam. 

102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 29 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSOX, JU. 

Under the above head ii is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Anu-ri< -as (Xnrih and .South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers.- within brackets I 1 refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology- sg e Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

jj]f*Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Dimmock, G. Obituary. By J. H. Emer- 
ton. [5] 37: 299. ill. Enderlein, G. Parallelisms der erfah- 
rungen in der belebten Natur. [Ent. Jahrb., Krancher] 40: 
79-80, ill. Fulda, O. Eine plauderei. [18] 24: 321-326. 
Howard, L. O. A history of applied entomology. (Some- 
what Anecdotal). [Smiths'. Misc. Coll.] 84: 564 pp*. ill. Lay, 
G. W. The language of scientists. [68] 72: 567-569. Nom- 
enclator animalium generum et subgenerum. Hrsg. Schulze, 
Kukenthal, Heider & Hesse. Bd. 3. Hyetu-Lauxanacanthis. 
Berlin, pp. 1619-1778. Reed, A. C. Animal parasites of man 
and their control. [68] 72 : 611-620. Roy, E. L'etude des 
insectes. [98] 57: 209-220. Shaw, E. L. Insects from Lac- 
tuca stems. [n| 38: 463-468. Snodgrass, R. E. How insects 
fly. [Smiths. Report] 1929: 383-421, ill. Swett, L. W.- 
Obituary. By C. W. Johnson. [5] 37: 301, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. -- deLepiney, J. - 
Note preliminaire sur K- role de la vision ocellaire dans le 
comportement des chenilles de Lymantria dispar. | Bull. Soc. 
Zool., France] 53: 479-490. ill. Dieuzeide, R. Contribution 
a 1'etude des Xeoplasmes vegetaux le role des pucerons en 
phytopathologie. (Act. Soc. Linne., I'.ordeaux] 81: 160pp., 
ill. Eastham, L. E. S. The embryology of 1'irri- rapae- 
organogeny. [Philo. Trans. R. Soc. London] 219, < I 1 - ) : 50 
pp.. ill. Hovasse, R. - - Marchalina hellenica I < lennadius ) . 
Kss.-ii de monogra])hie d'une Corhenille. |78| (4: 389-449, 
ill. Lespes, Regnier & Rungs. Contribution ; \ IVtudr des 
phases chez le criquet pelerin, Schistocerca gregaria). [(> ( '| 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

191 : 874-878. Marcu, O. Beitrag zur kenntnis cler striclu- 
lations-organe von Prionus coriarius. [34] 92: 65-66, ill. 
Marcus, B. A. Untersuchungen ueber die Malpighischen 
gefasse bei kafern. [46] 19: 609-677, ill. Napier, L. E. The 
artificial feeding of Sandflies. [Indian Jour. Med. Res.] 18: 
699-706, ill. Rabaud, E. L'instinct maternel des araignees. 
[Bull. Soc. Zool., France] 53: 204-210. Rabaud, E. - - Le 
stationnemont de 1'argiope fasciee (Argiope bruennichi). 
[69] 191 : 878-880. Shull, F. Control of gamic and parthe- 
nogenetic reproduction in winged aphids by temperature 
and light. [Zeit. Induk. Abstam. u. Vererbung., Berlin] 55: 
108-126. Staercke, A. Ein neues formicarium. [34] 92: 
152-155, ill. Sweetman, H. L. The external morphology 
of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna corrupta (Coccinelli- 
dae). [6] 38: 423-452, ill. Tanner, M. L. Plant lice pump- 
ing in unison. [68] 72: 560. Timon-David, J. Recherches 
sur les matieres grasses des insectes. [Ann. Fac. Sci., Mar- 
seille] 4: 29-207, ill. Toumanoff, K. Notes sur le gynan- 
dromorphisme chez Carausius (Dixippus) morosus. [Bull. 
Soc. Zool. France] 528-544, ill. Toumanoff & Veretenni- 
koff. Resultats preliminaires d'experiences d'irradiation 
par les rayons x sur Carausius (Dixippus) morosus. [78] 64: 
495-510, ill. Trojan, E. Die dufoursche druse bei Apis 
mellifica. [46] 19: 678-685, ill. Tulloch, G. S Thoracic 
modifications accompanying the development of subaptery 
and aptery in the genus Monomorium. [5] 37: 202-206, ill. 
Weiss, G. Sur certaines conditions de mort et de chez les 
abeilles et chez d'autres insectes en captivite. Sur les 
echanges gazeux des abeilles. [77] 105: 571-573; 574-576. 
Welsh, J. H. Reversal of phototrotism in a parasitic water 
mite. [92] 59: 165-169. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Jacot, A. P.- 
Oribatid mites of the subfamily Phthiracarinae of the north- 
eastern United States. [Pro. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.] 39: 
209-261, ill. *Marshall, R. Hydracarina from Glacier 
National Park. [Trans. American Micro. Soc.] 49: 342-344, 
ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. *Banks, N. 
-New neuropteroid insects from the United States. [5] 
37: 223-233, ill. *Ewing, H. E. Six new species of Mallo- 
phaga. [10] 32: 117-123, ill. Light, S. F. The California 
species of the genus Amitermes silvestri. (Isoptera). [67] 
5: 173-214, ill. Light, S. F. The Mexican species of Ami- 
termes silvestri (Isoptera). [67] 5: 215-232, ill. Martynov, 
A. V. The interpretation of the wing venation and truchea- 
tion of the Odonata and Agnatha. [5] 37: 245-280. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 31 

ORTHOPTERA. Johnson, C. W. The walking-stick, 
Monomera blatchleyi race atlantica in eastern Massachu- 
setts. [5] 37: 285. 

HEMIPTERA. Pack & Knowlton. Notes on Utah 
Hemiptera. [4] 62: 248-250. *Pickles, A. Leocomia cin- 
chonae, sp. n., a new Ceropid from Jamaica. [75] 6: 586-589, 
ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Allen & Lott. Epiblema strenuana, 
the host of certain parasites of the oriental fruit moth, Las- 
peyresia molesta. [10] 32: 135-136. *Bell, E. L. Descrip- 
tions of new South American Hesperiidae. [6] 38: 455-4(>!>. 
ill. Cook, W. C. An ecologically annotated list of the 
Phalaenidae of Montana. [4] 62: 257-264, cont. Eidmann, 
H. Ueber den taxonomischen wert des weiblichen genital- 
apparates lepidopteren. [34] 92: 113-122, ill. Ford, L. T- 
Notes on some broods of polymorphic Lepidoptera. [9] 63 : 
258. Jordan, K.- 'Description of new Sphingidae and re- 
marks on some others. (S). [71] 36: 149, ill. Luck, R. Die 
variabilitat von Heliconius thelxiope in Franz. Guyana. [18| 
24 : 337-341 . Peter Wynne, A. S. B. F Moths destroyed by- 
bats. [9] 63: 256. Schmith, K. Die Brassoliden des muni- 
cips Joinville im staate Sta. Catharina, Stidbrasilien. [Ent. 
Jahrb.. Krancher] 40: 150-153. 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. Notes on the types of Amer- 
ican two-winged flies of the genus Sarcophaga and a few 
related forms described by the early authors. [50] 78, Art. 
12: 39pp., ill. (S). Barnes, H. F. On some factors gov- 
erning the emergence of gall midges (Cecidomyidae). [93] 
1930: 381-393, ill. *Bau, A. Die ausbeute der deutschen 
Chaco-Expedition 1925-26. Diptera. XX. Pupipara. (S). [5<>| 
9: 209-213, ill. Bequaert, J. Notes on American Nemestrini- 
dae. [5] 37: 286-297. *Curran, C. H. A new tachinid para- 
sitic on a sawfly. [4] 62: 246-247. Dolley, W. L. An ento- 
mological sheep in wolf's clothing. [Enax tenax] [76] 1930: 
508-516, ill. Duncan, F. N. Some observations on the 
biology of the male Drosphila melanogaster. [90] 64: 545- 
551, ill. Hoffman, C. C. La distribution geograiica de los 
mosquitos Anopheles en el estado de Veracruz. | Dept. Salu- 
brid Publica, Mexico] 1929: 76pp., ill. Hoffmann, C. C. 
Los mosquitos Anopheles transmisores del paludismo en el 
valle de Mexico. [Bol. Dept. Salubrid Publica, Mexico] 
1929: 16 pp. Johnson, C. W. A bot fly from the white- 
footed mouse. |5| 37: 283-284. *Lengersdorf, F.- XVue 
Sciara (Lycoria)-arten des ZoologiM'hen Museums in Ham- 
burg aus Horueo und Kostarika. [34] 92: 123-130, ill. Philip, 
C. B. Supplemental note regarding mosquito vectors of 
experimental yellow fever. [68] 72: 578. Tulloch, G. S. 
A key to the biting mosquitoes of New England. [5] 37: 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '31 

234-244, ill. Wentworth, C. K. Mosquitoes versus Culi- 
cidae. [68] 72: 579-580. 

COLEOPTERA. *Chapin, E. A. New Coccinellidae 
from the West Indies. [91] 20: 488-495. *Chittenden, F. H. 
-New species of North American weevils of the genus Lix- 
us. [50] 7, Art. 18: 26pp., ill. Chittenden, P."" H. New 
species of North American weevils of the genus Lixus. [50] 
77, Art. 18; 26pp.. ill. Collett, H. R. P. The burying of 
carrion by Coleoptera. [8] 66: 257-258. von Dalla Torre & 
Hustache. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 113. Curculioni- 
dae: Ceuthorrhynchinae. 150pp. Daviault, L. Sur les 
variations des coccinelles du genre Adalia. [98] 57: 221-224. 
*Fall, H. C. New Coleoptera XIV, with notes on known 
species. [4] 62: 251-257. *Fisher, W. S. New West Indian 
Buprestidae. [10] 32: 125-129. *Fleutiaux, M. E. Descrip- 
tion d'un Melaside nouveau de la collection du Museum 
National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. (S). [Bull. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris] 2: 410-411. *Funkhouser, W. D.- 
New genera and species of neotropical Membracidae. [6] 
38: 405-420, ill. *Pic, M. M. Dascillides et Helodides 
nouveaux. (S). [Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris] 2: 271- 
273. St. George, R. A. The discovery of what is possibly 
the larva of an introduced tenebrionid, Leichenum variega- 
tum. [10] 32: 122-123, ill. Williams, B. S. A new method 
of capturing Coleoptera in flight. [8] 66: 253-255. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Benson, R. B. Sawflies collected 
by the Oxford University Expedition to British Guiana, 
1929. [75] 6: 620-621. ' Claude-Joseph, F. Recherches 
biologiques sur les friedateurs du Chile. [Ann. Sci. Nat., 
Paris, Zool.] (10) 13: 235-354, ill. Constantineanu, M. J.- 
Quelques anomalies chez les Ichneunumides. [Bull. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris] 2: 557-563, ill. Hoffmann, F. Ueber 
bienenzucht im tieflande Brasiliens, bzw. in Jaragua. [Ent. 
Jahrb., Krancher] 40: 183. Johnson, C. W. On the varia- 
tion and abundance of Sirex nitidus. [5] 37: 281-282. *Mal- 
loch & Rohwer. New forms of sphecoid wasps of the genns 
Didineis. [50] 77, Art. 14:7 pp., ill. Schmiedeknecht,' O.- 
Opuscula Ichneumonologica. Suppl. Bd., Fasc. 9, Platyla- 
bus, Cryptinae, pp. 5-28. *Swenk, M. H. A new bee of the 
genus Colletes from Panama. [5j 37: 219-222. Vandel, A. 
La production d'intercastes chez la fourmi Pheidole pallid- 
ula sous 1'action de parasites du genre Mermis. [ "S | (>4: 
457-494, ill. *Whittaker, O. Eight new species of Ser- 
phoidea from British Columbia. [10] 32: 129-135. Willem, 
V. L'Architecture des abeilles. [Hull. Cl. Sci. Acacl. R. 
Belg.] (5) 16:893-906, ill. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for December, 1930, was mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office December 2<>, 1930. 



Subscriptions for 1931 are now payable. 

FEBRUARY. 1931 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 2 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Rehn On Melanoplus borealis in Northern Labrador (Orthoptera, 

Acrididae) 33 

Cole Typha Insects and their Parasites 35 

Knowlton Notes on Utah Heteroptera and Homoptera 40 

Brower Recapture of Marked Cutworm Moths in a Trap Lantern 

(Lep. : Noctuidae) 44 

Williamson Common Names for Dragonflies (Odonata) 46 

Carruth The Meloidae of South Dakota (Coleoptera) 50 

Ochs Relationships of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera) 55 

Editorial Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings 5<i 

Entomological Literature 59 

Williamson Archilestes grandis (Ramb.) in Ohio (Odonata: Agri- 

onidae) 63 

Cotterman Archilestes in Ohio (Odonata, Agrionidae) Ii4 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLII. FEBRUARY, 1931 No. 2 



On Melanoplus borealis in Northern Labrador 
(Orthop. : Acrididae). 

By JAMES A. G. RE LIN, Academy of Natural Sciences, 

Philadelphia. 

My friend Dr. Samuel C. Palmer, of Swarthmore College, 
while a member of the Bowdoin-Baffinland Expedition of 1929, 
made a special effort to secure specimens of any Orthoptera 
encountered in the course of the botanical work on which he 
was engaged in northern Labrador and southern Baffinland. 
On his return he placed a small but interesting series in my 
hands, and I am able to state it represents adults and imma- 
ture individuals of the boreal Melanoplus borealis (Fieber), 
which has been recorded from Greenland, Hudson Bay and 
various localities in Labrador, as well as from Alaska and 
many other localities more to the southward of these areas. 
Dr. Palmer, at my request, has kindly supplied the following 
information on the occurrence of the species in the areas 
studied : 

"The grasshoppers in this lot consist of a few specimens 
collected by myself on the Bowdoin-Baffinland Expedition of 
1929 under Captain D. B. MacMillan, with whom I went as 
botanist. The expedition occupied three months, much of which 
time was spent in getting to and back again from this northern 
region. Several efforts were made to secure grasshopper speci- 
mens but these were largely unsuccessful. On the north shore 
of Frobisher Bay in Baffinland there were many grass-covered, 
well- watered expanses, where grasshoppers could easily feed. 
I searched a number of these areas but did not see a single 
grasshopper. We were here from August 19th to August 24th. 
Flowers were in bloom in these meadows and the grass was 
fresh and green, indicating that the weather conditions were 
probably as good as they would probably be at any time. On 

33 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

August 22nd we moved to the south shore of Frobisher Bay, and 
came to anchor at the base of a glacier which we called MacMil- 
lan Glacier. On the next day we proceeded out the bay to a 
point where a stream drained a valley which divided the Grin- 
nell Ice Cap. At the outlet of this stream there was a great 
overwash plain of glacial material. The top of this plain was 
very level, several acres in extent and was quite grassy. Sev- 
eral species of arctic butterflies were abundant, but I could not 
find any grasshoppers. 

"On our return to Labrador we anchored in a narrow fiord 
on Cape Mugford. We came into this haven out of a fog- 
bound sea on August 27th. On both sides rose high hills to 
about 1,000 feet. There were extensive talus slopes around 
the bases of these mountains and they spread out into grassy 
meadows as they neared the sea. Here I found a very few 
nymphal specimens of Mclanoplus borcalis. They were very 
inactive and easily caught by hand. Other insects were quite 
abundant and I caught several. 

"Our next stop where an opportunity was offered to collect 
was at Nain on August 31st. There are numerous grassy places 
about this town, and two small streams poured their icy waters 
into the bay. Along the open slopes between these two streams 
I found a number of adult and nymph forms which at the time 
I thought were of two species, but which later proved to be 
but one. Along the grassy banks of the streams I had hoped 
to find more but was disappointed. The insects apparently 
preferred the warmer open gently sloping hillsides. 

"On our way north I did not see any grasshoppers. The 
hillsides still held large patches of snow and the nights were 
cool. On our return in late August the snow had all dis- 
appeared, and the warming sun had been strong enough to make 
existence possible for these few grasshoppers for a short time' 
in late summer." 

The Cape Mugford specimens number five, and consist of 
one immature male and four immature females representing 
the two instars preceding maturity. Those from Nain number 
twenty-four, and comprise six adult males, ten adult females, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

two immature males and six immature females. The Nain 
immature specimens are all in the instar preceding maturity 
except a single female in the next preceding one. 

All the adult individuals have well developed tegmina, and 
in size are similar to material of the species in hand from Prince 
Edward Island, the Province of Quebec (Bic), northern 
Indiana (Fulton and Marshall Counties), northern Michigan 
(Pequaming), and Field, British Columbia, but appreciably 
smaller than specimens from a number of the Magdalen Islands 
and Isle Royale in Lake Superior. The material collected was 
presented by Dr. Palmer to the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 

While the species has been reported from Xain, Rama and 
some other Labrador localities, it is desirable to place on record 
all possible habitat information bearing on the life of infre- 
quently studied arctic environments. 



Typha Insects and their Parasites. 

By A. C. COLE, JR. 

Ohio State University, Columbus. 

(Continued from page 11) 

DIPTERA & PARASITES. 

(30) PLATYCHIRUS QUADRATUS Say. Four larvae of this 
species were collected at Monroe, Michigan, on June 19, 1927. 
All of them pupated on June 27 and three emerged on July 3, 
1927. They were reared from overwintering heads of Typlia 
la ti folia. 

(31) CHAETOPSIS AENEA Will. Numerous individuals were 
collected in the larval stage in all localities previously men- 
tioned. The larvae were found in the moist portion of Typha 
latifoUa stalks, usually in the bilrrows of Lepidopterous feeders. 
The adults were determined by Dr. J. M. Aldrich. 

(32) MACROSARGUS CLAVIS W r ied. Three larvae were col- 
lected from leaves of 1'ypha lati folia at Monroe, Michigan, 
July 31, 1927. From additional larvae two species of parasites 

were reared: (33) Dianlinus pulchripcs Cwfd., determined by 
A. B. Gahan, and (34) Tiimidiscapus sp., determined by A. B, 
Cushman, 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

(35) DROSOPHILA sp. One female emerged from a stalk 
'of Typha latifolia- at Monroe, Michigan, on July 31, 1927. The 

specimen was determined by Dr. J. M. Aldrich. 

(36) ELACHIPTERA NIGRICEPS Loew. Two adults emerged 
from a stalk of Typha latifolia at Monroe, Michigan, on August 
6, 1927. These specimens were determined by Dr. C. T. Greene. 

(37) CORODONTA DORSALIS Lw. Seven adults were reared 
from larvae in Typha latifolia stalks at Monroe, Michigan. 
Three specimens were determined by Dr. C. T. Greene. One 
parasitized larva was collected on the same date from which 
emerged three undeterminable Chalcids on August 17, 1927. 

(38) APHIOCHAETA CHAETONEURA Mall. One specimen 
was reared from a larva collected from a tunnel of Archanara 
subcarnca Kell., at Monroe, Michigan, on August 16, 1928. 

COLEOPTERA. 

(39) CALENDRA PERTINAX Oliv. The larvae of this insect 
bore in the stalk on or near the surface of the ground. Three 
specimens were reared from TypJia latifolia at Monroe, Michi- 
gan on July 6, 1927. 

(40) MONONYCHUS VULPECULUS Fab. Larvae of this spe- 
cies were found feeding on the heads of Typha latifolia at 
Monroe, Michigan, on July 12, 1927. The adults were deter- 
mined by Dr. E. A. Chapin. 

(41) PARIA CANELLA var. ATERIMA Oliv. The larvae were 
found in the leaf-sheaths of Typha latifolia at Monroe, Michi- 
gan, on May 26, 1928. Three individuals, two males and one 
female, were determined by Dr. E. A. Chapin. 

(42) NOTARIS PUNCTICOLLIS Lee. This insect is reported 
by W. A. Hoffman (1915) as burrowing in the stems of Typha 
latifolia. "The burrow appears very much the same as that of 
Calcndra pcrtiua.r Oliv." (Claassen). One adult was reared 
at Monroe, Michigan, on September 2, 1928. 

HYMENOPTERA. 

(43) EURYTOMA BICOLOR Walsh. The larvae of this insect 
were found in galls in the stems of dry, overwintered Typha 
latifolia. The larvae were collected at Monroe, Michigan, on 
April 23, 1927, pupated by April 26, and emerged by August 7. 

Fresh stalks of Typha at various localities near Monroe were 
examined in June, July, August, and September of the same 
year and no trace of the insect was found in the new growth. 
It seems that they are either periodical or that they have an 
alternate host. 

Specimens of this insect were determined by Dr. A. B. 
Gahan. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL XEWS 

HEMIPTERA. 

(44) ISCHNORHYXCHUS RESEDAE Panz. Specimens of this 
insect were collected at Monroe, Michigan, (1927) in the 3rd, 
4th, and 5th nymphal stages, being more abundant however, in 
the third. They were taken from the moist petioles of TyfrJia 
hit i folia. 

(45) SIPHOCORYNE NYMPHACAE Linn. Reported by Claas- 
sen. These insects are found on the surface of the leaves 
from the sheath to the tip of the leaf. 

(46) APHIS AVENAE Fab. Reported by Claassen. This 
species is found "behind the sheaths of the leaves, in the 
gelatinous material below the surface of the water in which the 
plants are growing." 

(47) RHOPALOSIPHUM DIAXTHI Schrank. Reported on cat- 
tail by Sanborn (1906). 

(48) RHOPALOSIPHUM PERSICAE Sulz. Reported on T. 
latifolia and angustifolia by Wilson and Vickery (1918). 

(49) APHIS GOSSYPII Glov. Reported on T\pha latifolia 
by Davidson (1917) (8). 

(50) MACROSIPHUM GRANARIUM Kirby. Reported by 
Davidson (1917). 

(51) HYALOPTERUS ARUNDINIS Fab. Reported by David- 
son (1917). 

ORTHOPTERA AND PARASITES. 

(52) CONOCEPHALUS sp. Several specimens were collected 
in the egg stage at Monroe, Michigan (1927-1928) in over- 
wintering stalks of Typha latifolia. They were found imbedded 
between the pith and the epidermis of the stalk. Three adults 
were determined by A. N. Caudell. Two species of parasites 
emerged from eggs: (53) Macroteleia sp., and (54) Titinidis- 
capus sp., both determined by Dr. A. B. Gahan. 

(55) CONOCEPHALUS sp. Similar to the above but with egg 
deposition restricted to certain areas of the stalk. 

THYSANOPTERA. 

.(56) THRIPSAPHIS BALLII Gill. Adults were collected from 
moist petioles of Typha latifolia at Monroe, Michigan, on July 
24, 1927, and were determined by P. \Y. Mason. 

Insects infesting Typha may be classified according to their 
location in the various areas of the plant itself. Such a clas>i- 
fication follows. The number following each name is that 
under which it appears in the preceding list. 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

INSECTS INFESTING THE ROOTS. 
Calcndra pertinax Oliv. (39). Notaris puncticollis Lee. (42). 

INSECTS INFESTING THE STEMS. 

Coleophora sp. (16). Corodonta dorsalis Lw. (37). 

Nonagria oblonga Grote. (17). Aphiochacta chactoncura 
Caooecia rosaceana Harr. Mall. (38). 

Archanarasubcarnea~K.G\l.(2Q') Calcndra pertinax Oliv. (39). 

(25). Notaris puncticollis Lee. (42). 

Clmetopsis aenea Wied. (31). Eurytoma bicolor Walsh. 
Drosophila sp. (35). (43). 

Elachiptcra nigriceps Loew. Conocephalus sp. (52). 

(36). Conoccphalus sp. (55). 

INSECTS INFESTING THE LEAVES. 

Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze. Siphocoryne nymphaeac Linn. 

(1). (45)." 

Apatcla oblinta A. & S. (9). Aphis avcnac Fab. (46). 

Nonagria sub flava Grote. (19). Rhopaolasiphum diantJii 

Unidentified Lepidopteron Schrank (47). 

(26). Rhopalosiphum pcrsicae 

Macrosargus clams Wied. Sulz. (48). 

(32). Aphis gossypii Glov. (49). 

Paria canella var. atterhna Macrosiphum granarium 

Oliv. (41). Kirby (50). 

Ischnorhynchus resedac Panz. Hyalopterus arundinis Fab. 

(44). (51), 

Thripsaphis ballii Gill. (56). 

INSECTS INFESTING THE HEADS. 
Endothacnia hcbcsana Wlk. Dicymolomia julfanalis Walk. 

(12). (29). 

Lymnaccia phragmitdla Platychirus quadratus Say 

Staint. (14). " (30). 

Bactra maiorina Hein. (24). Mononychus vulpeculus Fab. 
Archips obsoletana Walk. (40). 

(28). 

INSECT PARASITES. 

o'Blacus sp. (2) ex Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze. 
'Microbracon sp. (3) ex Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze. 
Macrocentrus ancylivora Rob. (4) ex Arsilonche albovenosa 

Goeze. 
Pinipla inquisitorieUa D. T. (5) ex Arsilonche albovenosa 

Goeze. 

Rogas stigmator Say (6) ex Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze. 
Exorista larvarum L. (7) ex Arsilonche albovenosa Goeze. 
' Alciodes intennedjus Cress. (8) ex Arsilonche albovenosa 

Goeze. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

' Sceliphron cacrncntarium Drury (10) ex Apatela oblinita A. & 

S. 

' Casinaria ycnnina Nort. (11) ex Apatela oblinita A. & S. 
/ Microbrac on sp. (13) ex Endothacnia hcbcsana \\'lk. 
/ Apantclcs cinctiformis Vier. (18) ex Nonayria oblonga Grote. 

Muscina stabiilans Fall. (21) ex Archanara subcarnea Kell. 

Masiccra scnilis Rond. (22) ex Archanara subcarnea Kell. 

Stunnia niyrita Town. (23) ex Arazama obliqua Walk. 

Eulophus sp. (27) ex an unidentified Lepidopteron. 
/ Diaiilinus pulchripcs Cwfd. (33) ex Cryptochaetum sp. 

Tumidiscapus sp. (34) ex Cryptochaetum sp. 

Elachterinae sp. (45) ex Lymnaccia phragmitella Staint. 

Macrotcleia sp. (53) ex Conoccphahis sp. 

Tumidiscapus sp. (54) ex ConocepJmlus sp. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BEUTENMULLER, WILLIAM. 1901. Arsilonchc albovcnosa 
Goeze. In descriptive catalogue of the Noctuidae found 
within fifty miles of New York City. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. 14; article 20:261. 

BIRD, HENRY. 1902. Boring noctuid larvae. New York Ent. 
Soc. Jour. 10:214-216. 

CLAASSEN, P. W. 1919. A possible new source of food sup- 
ply. Sci. mo. 9:179:185. 

ID. 1921. Typha insects : Their ecological relationships. Cor- 
nell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Memoir 47:459-531. 

COLE, A. C, JR. 1929. Archanara subcarnea Kell. (Lepidop. : 
Noctuidae) a host of Masiccra scnilis Rond. (Dipt.: 
Tachinidae). Ent. News, Vol. 40, No. 7:225. 

ID. 1930a. The preservation of Lepidopterous larvae by in- 
jection. Ent. News, Vol. 41 : 106-108. 

ID. 1930/;. Muscina stabiilans Fall. (Diptera: Muscidae) 
parasitic on Archanara subcarnea Kell. (Lepidop.: Noc- 
tuidae). Ent. News, Vol. 41:112. 

DAVIDSON, W. M. 1917. The cat-tail rush, Typha hit i folia 
as a summer host of injurious insects. Calif. Com. Hort. 
Mo. Bui. 6:64-65. 

GROTE, AUGUSTUS R. 1882. The North American species of 
Nonagria. New York Ent. Club. Papilio 2:94-99. 

HOLLAND, W. J. 1913. The moth book. Doubleday, Page & 
Co., pp. 1-479. 

NEEDHAM, J. G., and LLOYD, J. T. 1916. The life of inland 
waters. Pp. 1-438. 

SATTERTIIWAIT, A. F. 1920. Notes on the habits of Calcudra 
pcrtina.v ( )liv. Jour. Econ. Ent. 13:280-295. 

WALTON, W. R. 1908. Notes on the life history of Xona<jria 
oblonga Gr. Ent. News l ( ):295-299. 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

Notes on Utah Heteroptera and Homoptera. 1 

By GEORGE F. KNOWLTON. 

Much insect material has reposed in the Utah Agricultural 
Experiment Station and Utah State Agricultural College col- 
lections, but only a small portion of this material has been 
classified and recorded. An effort is being made to gradually 
build up this collection and get as much of the material named 
as is possible, so that it will become of assistance in the recog- 
nition of local insects. This paper records some of the mate- 
rial that has been determined in the past few years. 

The writer is indebted to Messrs. Herbert Osborn, W. L. 
McAtee, H. H. Knight, H. B. Hungerford, William T. Davis, 
and R. H. Beamer, for naming much of the material herein 

recorded. 

Order HETEROPTERA Linn. 

Family SCUTELLERIDAE (Leach). 

1. HOMAEMUS AENEIFRONS (Say). Peterson, September 14, 
1925 (Knowlton). 

2. HOMAEMUS BIJUGIS Uhl. Providence, August 10, 1930 
(M. J. Janes). 

3. EURYGASTER ALTER NAxus (Say). Logan, May 17, 1923 
(Knowlton) ; Providence, June 8, 1930 (M. J. Janes). 

Family CYDNIDAE (Billberg). 

4. HOMALOPORUS CONGRUUS Uhl. Panguitch, July 29, 1928 
( Knowlton ) . 

Family PENTATOMIDAE (Leach). 

5. BRACHYMENA 4-pusTULATA (Fabr.). Evans, May 13, 
1930 (Knowlton) ; Farmington, July 16, 1930 (M. J. Janes) ; 
Hinckley, July 23, 1914 (Pack). 

6. PERIBALUS LIMBOLARIUS Stal. Draper, June 23, 1926 
(Knowlton) ; Farmington, July 16, 1930 (M. J. Janes) ; on 
beets at Hooper, August 24, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on ragweed at 
Logan, August 15, 1926 (Knowlton). 

7. TRICHOPEPLA ATRICORNIS Stal. Cedar, July 25, 1926 
(Knowlton). 

8. RHYTIDOLOMIA FACETA (Say). Richfield, August 7, 1924 
(Knowlton). 

1 Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Utah Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

Publication authorized by Director, October 24, 1930. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL \F.\YS 41 

9. CHLOROCHROA UHLERI Stal. Curlew, August 30, 1929 
(Knowlton) ; Elberta, August 7, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on clover, 
Garland, August 12, 1929 (Pack) ; on (inticn-czia, Logan, 
October 4, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Schowell. October 14, 1929 
(Knowlton). 

10. C. CONGRUA Uhl. On beets at Benjamin, August 26, 
1929 (Knowlton) ; Cache Junction, June 12, 1929 (Knowlton) ; 
Farmington, July 16, 1930 (Knowlton and M. J. Janes) ; on 
beets at Far West, August 17, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Nephi, July 
23, 1915 (Ball); on beets at Spanish Fork, July 9, 1930 
(Knowlton) ; Stansbury Island, June 13, 1913 (Pack, Hagan, 
Titus). 

11. C. LIGATA (Say). Logan, May 21, 1908 (J. B. Hor- 
ton). 

12. C. SAYI Stal. Farmington, July 23, 1930 (M. J. Janes) ; 
Layton, July 5, 1930 (Knowlton) ; on wheat at Promontory, 
September 10, 1929 (Knowlton) ; damaging wheat in Round 
Valley, near Salina, August, 1930 (Knowlton). 

13. CARPOCORIS REMOTUS Horv. On alfalfa, Lewiston, 
August 13, 1929 (Pack). 

14. EUSCHISTUS SERVUS (Say). Logan, September 2, 1903; 
Logan Canyon, August 15, 1912 (Hagan) ; on beets at North 
Ogden, June 7, 1929 (Knowlton). 

15. E. INFLATUS Van D. On potatoes at Farmington, July 
16, 1930 (M. J. Janes) and July 20, 1930 (Knowlton). 

16. E. VARIOLARIUS (P. B.). Farmington, June 11, 1930 
(Knowlton and Janes) ; Provo, August 10, 1930 (M. J. Janes) ; 
numerous on beets at Spanish Fork, August 20, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton). 

17. NEOTTIGLOSSA UNDATA (Say). Logan. 

18. COSMOPEPLA BIMACULATA (Thorn.). Logan, May 26, 
1909. 

19. THYANTA PERDITOR (Fabr.) Nephi, July 23, 1905 
(Ball). 

20. T. CUSTATOR (Fabr.). On sugar-beets at Farmington, 
October 9, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Grantsville. August 27, 1929; on 
Guticrrccia in Logan Canyon, October 4, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on 
beets at Penrose, September 28, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on alfalfa 
at Providence, June 8, 1930 (M. J. Janes) ; Mantua, [uly 27, 
1925 (Knowlton). 

21. T. RUGULOSA (Say). On Ainplcx at Locomotive Springs, 
June 9, 1930 (Knowlton). 

22. T. PUNCTIVENTRIS Van D. Logan, August 24, 1909 
(Hoff). 

23. BANASA SORDIDA (Uhl.). Brigham City, September 25, 
1916. 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

24. PERILLUS BIOCULATUS var. CLANDA (Say). Blue Creek, 
July 18, 1930 (Knowlton). 

25. PODISUS BRACTEATUS F. R. Logan, September 26, 1909. 

Family COREIDAE (Leach). 

26. A NASA TRISTIS (De Geer). The squash bug is com- 
monly destructive to squash in Davis and Weber Counties and 
parts of Utah and Cache Counties. During the winter of 1929- 
30 adult specimens kept in the Experiment Station insectary at 
Logan had a 45 per cent mortality. Damage during the sum- 
mer of 1930 was ordinarily severe, with numerous reports of 
damage being received at the Experiment Station. 

27. MEGALOTOMUS S-SPINOSUS (Say). Logan, May 21, 1908 
(Horton) and July 4, 1923 (Knowlton). 

28. HARMOSTES REFLEXULUS (Say). losepa, July 17, 1926 
(Knowlton). 

29. CORIZUS HYALINUS (Fabr.). Richmond, September 1, 
1926 (Knowlton). 

30. CORIZUS VIRIDICATUS Uhl. Corinne, June 22, 1929 
(Knowlton and Bo wen). 

31. CORIZUS CRASSICORNIS (Linn.). Logan Meadows, July, 

1928 (Knowlton). 

32. LEPTOCORIS TRIVITTATUS (Say). The boxelder bug is a 
common house pest in northern Utah and collects in large num- 
bers on the sunny south side of buildings during warm spring 
afternoons. Frequent inquiries are received at the Experiment 
Station regarding this pest. 

Family NEIDIDAE (Kirkaldy). 

33. NEIDES MUTICUS (Say). Point of the Mountain, South 
of Salt Lake City, July 20, 1909 (Titus). 

Family LYGAEIDAE (Schilling). 

34. LYGAEUS RECLIVATUS Say. Low, September 19, 1 ( >30 
(Knowlton). 

35. L. KALMII Stal. Dry Lake, July 31, 1926 (Knowlton) ; 
Logan, June 10, 1926 (Knowlton) ; Promontory, April 18, 

1929 (Knowlton) ; Salt Lake City, June 23, 1927 (Knowlton) ; 
Snowville, April 16, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Stansbury Island, June 
13, 1913 (Pack, Hagan, Titus). 

36. NYSIUS CALIFORNICUS Stal. Cisco, August 7, 1906; 
Joseph, August 6, 1907 (Titus). 

37. N. ERICAE (Schilling). The false chinch bug is abundant 
and widespread in Utah and at times causes damage to sugar- 
beets, grains, and alfalfa. The nymphs and adults appear early 
in the spring, as soon as the ground warms up. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 43 

38. GEOCORIS BULLATUS (Say). Logan, September 28, 1922 
(Knowlton) ; Milford, July 21, 1926 (Knowlton). 

39. G. FALLENS Stal." Magna, May, 1927 (Knowlton). 

40. G. FALLENS var. dccoratus Uhl. Timpie, July 17, 1927 
(Knowlton). Adults and nymphs of Geocoris sp. are com- 
monly found in the stomachs of lizards (Ufa stansburiana 
stansburiana B. and G.) collected in northern Utah on deserted 
dry-farms and Russian thistle patches. 

Family TINGIDIDAE (Laporte). 

41. PIESMA CINEREA (Say). On sugar-beets at Collinston. 
July 21, 1927 (Knowlton). 

42. CORYTHUCHA HiSPiDA Uhler. Stansbtiry Island, June 
13, 1913 (Pack, Hagan, Titus). 

Family PHYMATIDAE (Laporte). 

43. PHYMATA EROSA (Linn.). Logan, August, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton). 

44. P. EROSA subsp. FASCIATA (Gray). Brigham City, Sep- 
tember 10, 1925 (Knowlton) ; Logan, August, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Spring Canyon, August 28, 1925 (Knowlton). 

Family REDUVIIDAE (Latreille). 

45. APIOMERUS CRASSIPES (Fabr.). Cedar Spring, June, 
1930 (Knowlton); Logan. July 4, 1907 (Titus). 

46. TRIATOMA PROTRACT A (Uhler). Logan, September 14, 

1928 (Knowlton). 

47. ZELUS socius Uhl. Skull Valley, August, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Snowville, July, 1929 (Knowlton). 

48. SINEA DIADEMA (Fabr.). Draper, August, 1925 (Knowl- 
ton); Ogden, July, 1929 (Knowlton). 

49. S. CONFUSA Caucl. Spring Canyon, August 28, 1925 
(Knowlton). 

Family NARIDAE (Costa). 

50. NAIUS FERUS (Linn.). Delta, July 15, 1926 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Lewiston, July, 1926 (Knowlton) ; Promontory, October, 

1929 (Knowlton); Snowville, August, 1929 (Knowlton). 
Fairly common in northern Utah, in the breeding grounds of 
the beet leafhopper. 

Family CIMICIDAE (Latreille). 

51. CIMEX LECTULARIUS Linn. The bedbug was abundant 
in a chicken coop at Logan, July 28, 1 ( >24 (Hawley and Knowl- 
ton). Reports of infestations and requests for advice on con- 
trol in houses are frequently received. To keep free from 
pest many apartment houses fumigate frequently. 

(To be continued). 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

Recapture of Marked Cutworm Moths in a Trap 
Lantern (Lep. : Noctuidae). 

By A. E. BROWER, Ithaca, New York. 

During the summer of 1929 a study of the movement of 
moths, by marking individuals of species of the genus Catocala 
(Noctuidae) was carried out. The results were reported in 
Ent. News, Vol. 41:10-15, 44-46, 1930. In the summer of 
1930 a trial experiment was made at Cornell University, in con- 
nection with the operation of the trap lantern, to determine the 
feasibility of obtaining data upon the movements of Noctuidae 
attracted by light. Despite the preliminary nature of the work 
the unexpected results seem worthy of publication. 

The trap lantern is located in a secluded situation near the 
ground between a large outdoor rearing cage and a strip of 
timber. The light used was a 50 watt electric lamp. In mark- 
ing the moths each specimen was grasped firmly near the base 
of the wings on one side with a pair of curve-pointed forceps 
and a finger supplied for them to cling to. Lacquers were used 
for marking as they become very gummy and quick drying if 
left open to the air for a few hours. A different mark was 
used for each night's catch. Colors were changed as often as 
necessary to secure simple marks or combinations of marks. 
Each moth was placed in a container as soon as marked. 

The catch of four nights was taken about three-eighths of a 
mile southeast of the trap and released in a growth of weeds 
and grass beside an overgrown fence row. One night's catch, 
the second, was tossed out in the grass close to the trap lantern, 
marking being discontinued and the light turned off at 12:15. 
The catches of the eight subsequent nights w T ere carried about 
three-eighths of a mile west of the trap; if this was done about 
midnight the moths were released under an electric light, but 
if it was in the morning they were released in a strip of natural 
trees and bushes. In both cases the plan was to have a number 
of buildings of the College of Agriculture and several electric 
lights intervening between the point of release and the trap lan- 
tern. Marked moths which returned were again carried away 
with those caught the same night without remarking them. 

As may be seen in the list of recaptured moths, "recaptures" 
were secured as follows; after eight days, four moths; nine 
days, three ; ten days, two ; and twelve days, one. Besides, 



xlii, '31] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



45 



many other specimens were recaptured after shorter periods. 
Of these ten moths which were retaken after a period of eight 
or more days, three had been carried southeast of the trap, 
two had been released at the trap, and five had been carried west 
from the trap. It is significant that marked moths were retaken 
every night after the second night and marked moths from each 
night's catch except two were recaptured. The failure to re- 
capture any moths from these two nights was probably due to 
the small numbers marked on these nights with the premature 
closing of the experiment by cold nights. 

( )ne thousand moths were marked in this experiment. Ten 
moths, or 1% , were recaptured at the trap after a period of 
eight or more days, the longest period being twelve days. The 
percentage of recaptures was slightly higher from moths carried 
southeast of the trap compared with those carried west of the 
trap. Those released at the trap were recaptured in compara- 
tively large numbers. This experiment so far as it goes indi- 
cates that cutworm moths range about freely in an area within 
a radius of three-eighths mile ; only future experiments can 
show how much farther. The recapture of twenty moths from 
the catch released at the trap might be expected, but it seems 
extraordinary that so many of these, carried away to a consider- 
able distance beyond buildings and released where lights could lie 
seen in every direction, should return to a more or less secluded 
trap lantern. 

TABLE SHOWING THE NUMBER OF EACH SPECIES MARKED 

EACH NIGHT AND IN PARENTHESIS THE NUMBER 

RECOVERED ON SUBSEQUENT DATES. 



17 19 

19 21 22 



Time, p.m. - 
a.m. 17 

Fc-ltia du- 

cens & 33 46 24 61 30 25 
jaculifera (2) (15) (1) (4) 



Noctua 

c-nigrum 

N. nor- 
maniana 

N. liaja 
smithii 

Asjroperina 4 
cluliitans 

A. helva 3 



5 213 

(1) (1) 



5 
(2) 



AUGUST 


22 


23 24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 




23 


24 25 


26 


7 


28 





30 






















Total 


48 


Tc II ' 


71 


54 


44 


38 


46 


13 


S3 3 


(2) 


cold 


(2) 


(3) 


(1) 








(30) 




and 
















12 


stormy 


11 


13 


8 





2 


1 


81 






(1) 












(3) 


5 




4 


3 


3 


1 


2 




23 


26 




23 


17 


34 


19 


14 


3 


1-4 


(1i 








(2) 


(1) 


(1) 




(9) 


25 




20 


12 


15 


2 


9 


1 


137 








(1) 


(1) 




(1) 




(5) 


6 




3 


4 


9 




4 




52 


(2) 








(1) 










122 






103 


113 




77 


18 




(5) 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(1) 


(2) 


,1.1 


(51) 



5 10 14 
(2) 

3 11 11 13 11 
(2) 

38255 
(1) 

Total ... 40 *62 52 81 74 64 
(2) (20) (0) (2) (5) (2) 

Part of the moths were marked at midnight and part of them in the 
morning. Since a night includes portions of two days, each night's work 
is indicated by two dates. A dash indicates operation of trap but no moths 
marked at midnight. A zero shows that the trap was not operated after 
midnight. 

* This night's catch of moths was liberated near the trap. 



46 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LIST OF RECAPTURED MOTHS. 



[Feb., '30 



FELTIA DUCENS AND 


Date 


No. 


JACULIFERA 


Date of 


of re- 


recap- 






Date 


No. 


marking 


capture 


tured 


Date of 


of re- 


recap- 


N. BAJA SMITHII 


marking 
Aug. 17P.M. 
17 P.M. 
17P.M. 


capture 
19A.M. 
19P.M. 
21A.M. 


tured 
4 
5 
3 


Aug. 17 P.M. 
22 A.M. 
22 A.M. 


21A.M. 
2728 
31- 

C? 1 


2 
1 

1 




19 P.M. 
21A.M. 

17A.M. 


21A.M. 
22 A.M. 
2526 


1 

1 
2 


2223 


Sept. 1 
(10 
31- 

Sept 1 


1 
days ) 

1 




17P.M. 


(9 
2526 


days) 
2 


2728 


(9 

1-- 2 


days) 




21 A.M. 
2223 
21 A.M. 


(8 
2627 
2627 
28 P.M. 


days ) 
2 
1 
1 


28P.M. 
2930 


Sept. 
2 3 
Sept. 
2 3 


2 

1 




2627 


(8 
2930 


days) 
2 




Sept. 


1 




2526 


2930 


1 


AGROPERINA DUBITANS 




17P.M. 


2930 


1 


Aug. 17P.M. 


19A.M. 


2 






(12 


davs ) 


2627 


2728 


1 




2223 


3031 


1 


2728 


31- 






2728 


(8 
3031 


days ) 

1 


2930 


Sept. 1 
2 3 


1 




2526 


3031 


1 




Sept. 


1 




2627 


31- 














Sept. 1 


1 


A. 


HELVA 








(10 


days) 


Aug. 17 P.M. 


19P.M. 


1 




NOCTUA 


C-NIGRUM 


2223 


2526 


1 


Aug. 


21 A.M. 


2223 


1 


2223 


2627 


1 




2526 


2627 


1 


2728 


2930 


1 




19P.M. 


2930 


1 












(10 


days) 









Common Names for Dragonflies (Odonata). 

By E. B. WILLIAMSON, Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, 

Michigan. 

The usefulness of common names for insects depends on 
circumstances which are not the same in all orders or sub- 
groups. A decision in any specific case, therefore, rests largely 
with the specialists concerned. So in discussing the value of 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 47 

common names for dragonflies, I am not trying to define any 
general rules for the selection or use of common names for 
other insects but I shall undertake a discussion of some common 
names for dragonflies, attempting to determine how useful 
these names are, or may be, and whether or not they are appro- 
priate. Common names are essentially more or less local names 
which find the barriers of language insurmountable so I shall 
confine myself still farther to the common names of North 
American dragonflies. Such a discussion seems particularly 
needed at this time. Professor Needham in his recent Hand- 
book of North American Dragonflies has proposed some com- 
mon names and in the same volume has used names of earlier 
vintage. A second printing of the Handbook is promised and 
before that is done it seems desirable to frankly discuss this 
matter of common names for North American dragonflies. In 
most schools the Handbook will be the only book on dragonflies 
available to the general student body for an indefinite period, 
and in many general and private libraries the casual student will 
find it his only source of detailed information on the subject. 
It will profoundly influence dragonfly work in North America 
over a long period, so its methods and probable effects are of 
interest to every student. 

Let us now take up these common names in detail. Quota- 
tions are all from the Handbook. The insects of the order 
Odonata are now pretty generally known as Dragonflies. Mos- 
quito Hawks, Snakefeeders, and Snakedoctors are some of the 
other more local names which cause no confusion and are, 
I think, never misused or misunderstood. In the past the 
matter of common names stood thus for many years without 
confusion and without any inconvenience to anybody. I'ut 
into this peaceful scene- was injected the name "Damselfly" for 
the Zygoptera, one of the suborders of the ( Monata. This name 
was not a folk name anywhere for the Zygoptera. It was a 
suggested use of the name which was. 1 think, too readily ac- 
cepted and for about thirty years lias been used without a 
proper understanding in this connection of the use of the com- 
mon name "Dragonfly". For example, "the two principal 
groups of dragonflies that make up the order Odonata are 
Dragonflies proper and Damselflies". But nowhere in odonate 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

literature so far as I can recall is any reference in the text to 
"dragonflies proper", and later on in the Handbook the "Sub- 
order Anisoptera" equals "Dragonflies" without any qualifica- 
tion. Examples of resulting ambiguity are many. "There are 
more prosaic ways of getting dragonflies. . . . Small dragon- 
flies and damselflies that sit on the low grasses . . ." In the 
first line of the paragraph from which this is quoted dragon- 
flies equals Odonata, and in the fourth line equals Anisoptera. 
"They all eat other smaller dragonflies." "Dusk-flying and 
shade dwelling dragonflies run to somber browns." The "Skim- 
mers" "are the commonest and best known of dragonflies". 
And under Nannothemis, "These are the smallest of our dragon- 
flies". "Neoneura . . . are slender damselflies" ; "Hespera- 
grion . . . are small . . . damselflies" ; but "Zonagrion are 
slender dragonflies". For thirty years this is the ambiguity 
throughout odonate literature for which the word "damselflies" 
is responsible. It has been thus used only by those who have 
come directly or indirectly in contact with colleges, it was never 
a folk name, and it may well stand as a warning sign against 
the hasty coining or new application of common names. I 
know of students, in two institutions who, when told to collect 
dragonflies (Odonata), collected only "dragonflies proper" 
(Anisoptera) during an entire summer. As they were novices 
with an insect net the results were not happy. 

In the Handbook, four families are discussed. A common 
name for only one of these is suggested, Libellulidae, '"The 
Skimmers". But the Subfamily Libellulinae are called the 
"Common Skimmers", and the species of the genus Libellula 
are again, like the Libellulidae, only "The Skimmers", a situ- 
ation with endless possibilities for confusion. Of the nine suit- 
families, common names are proposed for four. Lestinae and 
Coenagrioninae are not named but the much less frequently ob- 
served Macrominae are called "The Belted Skimmers", though 
no genus or species in the subfamily is named. The larger 
subfamily in both genera and species, the Cordulinae, in which 
two genera have common names, is not named. Of the seventy- 
five genera, sixteen are named. Of these sixteen genera, eleven 
have no species with a common name, and five genera among 
them have nine named species. Certainly in the eleven, if not 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 49 

in all, the inevitable result will be that the generic name will 
be used specifically in different localities for different species, 
making chaos certain. The rarely observed Cordulegasters, the 
single genus in the unnamed Cordulegasterinae, are "The 
Biddies" from a habit of the nymphs when disturbed. Tetra- 
goneurias with no species named are "Dog-tails" or "Wags". 
\Yhy there should be two common names for insects so rarely 
observed and only rarely conspicuous is not clear. And the 
Enallagmas, also without a named species, are the "Bluets, 
etc.". But I cannot see just why. And the beautiful insects, 
beautifully named Tramea, become "The Raggedy Skimmers". 
Why certain genera such as Celithemis, Pantala, Lestes, Argia, 
and others, in the light of those named, remained unnamed is 
not clear. 

Of the three hundred and sixty species in the Handbook, 
twenty-two are named. Two of these are among the rarest of 
all North American dragonflies, certainly hardly fifty specimens 
of the two together having ever been taken. At least ten of 
them are either rare or local, or both. Two Aeshnas are named. 
Based on the material studied by Walker, there are four un- 
named species commoner than one of these, and nine of the 
other. Coryphaeschna ingcns is named but the much more 
widely known, or at least seen, Epiaeschna hcros is not. The 
rarely seen Nannothemis hella is named the "Blue Bell", and 
the very abundant Pachydipla.v longipennis is called the "Blue 
Pirate'.', though neither is blue as that term is used for Odonata. 
Since there is the single species in each genus it would seem 
the generic names would serve as splendid common names. Of 
the one hundred and four species of Coenagrionidae, includ- 
ing the most abundant species of dragonflies in North America, 
only two are named, while the very rare two species of Peta- 
lurinae are both named. And of the two Coenagrionidae 
named, one is one of the rarer Argias, and the other Tclcbasis 
sul-ra, "The Flapper." has the distribution given as California, 
truly not a menace to the country at large. The commonest 
and most widely distributed aeshnine in North America, /4m /.r 
jiuiius, is not named, but the rare and local Aini.v walsinghami 
is. In other words I am neither satisfied with the list of species 
selected for naming nor pleased with the common names used. 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

And I am fully persuaded that any list I might select and the 
names I might propose would meet with as little general 
approval. 

Over a long period of years I have enjoyed the companion- 
ship on collecting trips of many good and unselfish friends for 
whose enthusiastic help I have no words to express my appre- 
ciation. Most of these men have had no connection with col- 
leges, yet in the field and visiting together long winter evenings 
we have a common vocabulary for all the dragonflies we know. 
And this vocabulary is understandable in every continent. I 
think we shall make no change. But if there must be common 
names by edict, would it not be well to go slowly and after some 
discussion of each proposal so that the feeble-minded and 
tongue-tied student of the future, reared entirely on a diet of 
common names, may have bequeathed to him a nomenclator 
vulgaris as exact, appropriate and euphonious as possible? Of 
course there will always be students whose work will require 
some knowledge of a more universal nomenclature but that will 
just be their hard luck. 



The Meloidae of South Dakota (Coleoptera). 1 

By LAURENCE A. CARRUTH, South Dakota State College, 

Brookings. 

This paper is based on a collection of 963 labeled Meloids in 
the Entomology-Zoology department of the South Dakota State 
College. These insects include thirty species in ten genera and 
were taken at eighty-one places in forty-five of the sixty-three 
counties of the State. Every section of the State is well repre- 
sented. The insects were taken mainly by persons associated 
at one time or another with the Entomology-Zoology depart- 
ment of the College. 2 A number of specimens, including prac- 
tically all those in the following list that are without date or 
collector's data, were included in the collection of the late P. C. 
Truman of Volga, South Dakota, which was purchased by the 
State College in 1910 or thereabouts. A large number of 

1 Contribution from the Entomology-Zoology Department of the South 
Dakota State College, Brookings, So. Dak. 

The writer gratefully acknowledges the assistance given by Professors 
H. C. Severin and G. I. Gilbertson of the South Dakota State College, 
and by Mr. H. S. Barber of the United States National Museum, 



Xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 51 

Meloids, including several species not before reported in the 
State, have accumulate'* 1 during the past few years as a result 
of extensive collecting trips made by members of the college 
Entomology-Zoology department. These insects were not classi- 
fied or tabulated until recently when the work was undertaken 
by the writer. 

The collection at the South Dakota State College is the only 
one known to contain a representative group of South Dakota 
Meloidae. Since the data given in this paper greatly extend the 
ranges of some species over those previously published, and 
since practically no published reports are available on the 
Meloidae of adjoining states, it is believed that this report will 
be of interest. 

In the following notes the subfamilies and genera are ar- 
ranged in the order given by Van Dyke. 3 Each species is 

prefixed by the serial number given in Leng's "Catalog of the 
Coleoptera of North America North of Mexico." "Sp." below 
stands for specimen or specimens. 

Subfamily MELOINAE. 

1. (7973) PYROTA ENGELMANNI Lee. Chamberlain, 1 sp. 
June 15, 1928; Parmelee, 3 sp. June 18, 1927; Rosebud, 1 sp. 
June 23, 1924; all by (G.I.G.). Wevvela, 1 sp. June 19, 1930 

(L.A.C.). White River, 1 sp. June 18, 1927, 1 sp. June 15, 

1929, (H.C.S.). Chester, 2 sp. June 15, 1930, (G.B.S.). 

2. (7980) P. DAKOTAXA \Yick. Nowlin, 1 sp. June 25, 1928, 
(H.C.S.). Philip, 11 sp. June 23, 1923, (G.I.G.). Pierre, 4 
sp., no data. The Pierre specimens, acquired from the Truman 
collection, are probably cotypes. 

3. (7998) EPICAUTA TRICHRUS Pall. Chester, 3 sp. June 21, 

1930, on sweet william (Phlox filosa), (G.B.S.). Elk Point, 
2 sp. June 19, 1924; Florence (Medicine Lake), 1 sp. June 23, 
1927; all by (G.I.G.). Brookings, 5 sp. ; Hot Springs. 1 sp. ; 
Volga, 2 sp. ; all no data. 

4. (8004) E. FERRTGINEA Say. Brule Agency, 1 sp. Aug. 
23, 1929; Buffalo, 1 sp. Sep. 9, 1927; Chamberlain, 2 sp. June 
15, 1928; Eureka, 16 sp. Sept. 5, 1930; Forestburg, 1 sp. Aug. 

2 In the following re-port, the collectors, where known, are indicated by 
their initials. These persons are thus represented: L. A. C., Laurence A. 
Carruth ; M. F., Morton I'Yedricksen ; G. I. G., George I. Gilhcrtson; 
P. H. J., Paul H. Johnson; L. C. L., L. C. Lippcrt ; M. K. R., Merrill K. 
Riley; J. A. S., J. A. Salisbury; H. C. S., Harry C. Severin ; G. B. S., 
Gerald B. Spawn. 

3 Univ. of Cal. Publications in Entomology, Vol. 4, No. 12, pp. 404-405, 
1928. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

21, 1929; Grass Rope, 6 sp. Aug. 23, 1929; Howell, 14 sp. 
Sep. 5, 1930; Kadoka (Bad Lands), 3 sp. Aug. 25, 1929; 
McNeely, 1 sp. Sep. 17, 1930; Miranda, 9 sp. Sep. 5, 1930; 
Pierre, 1 sp. Aug. 22, 1927; Smithwick, 3 sp. Sep. 15, 1930; 
White Lake, 13 sp. Aug. 23, 1929; all by G.I.G. Capa, 6 sp. 
Aug. 12, 1919, 5 sp. Aug. 24, 1922; Orman Dam, 1 sp. Sep. 
10, 1929 ; all by H.C.S. Aurora Co., 4 sp., no data. 

5. (8005) E. SERICANS Lee. Buffalo, 4 sp. June 20, 1926; 
Chamberlain, 9 sp. June 15, 1928; Hot Springs, 4 sp. June 26, 
1924, 1 sp. Sep. 6, '1923 ; Newell, 3 sp. June 29, 1923 ; Philip, 
4 sp. June 23, 1923, Tulare, 1 sp. July 13, 1928; White Lake, 
2 sp. Aug. 23, 1923; Whitewood, 1 sp. June 21, 1926; all by 
G.I.G. Capa, 3 sp. Aug. 24, 1922 ; Nowlin, 1 sp. June 25, 1928 ; 
all by H.C.S. Pierre, 1 sp., no data. 

6. (8007) E. CALLOSA Lee. Chamberlain, 3 sp. June 15, 
1928; Newell, 1 sp. June 29, 1923, 8 sp. July 5, 1923, 11 sp. 
Aug. 19, 1924; all by G.I.G. Capa, 8 sp. Aug. 24, 1922 
(H.C.S.) ; Ipswich, 1 sp. July 29, 1929; Pierre, 5 sp. ; Nowlin 
Co., 4 5 sp. ; all no further data. 

7. (8017) E. MACULATA Say. Brule Agency, 1 sp. Aug 23, 
1927 ; Cheyenne Agency, 1 sp. July 14, 1928 ; Grass Rope, 5 
sp. June 19, 1929; Herried, 8 sp. June 15, 1929; Orman Dam, 
2 sp. July 17, 1928; Philip, 3 sp. June 23, 1923; Wall, 1 sp. 
June 24, 1921 ; all by G.I.G. Brookings, 9 sp. June 13, 1911. 
Capa, 5 sp. Aug. 24, 1922; Cave Hills, 1 sp. July 22, 1928; 
Lemmon, 1 sp. Aug. 24, 1924 ; all by H.C.S. Owanka, 11 sp. 
found on red root (Ccanothus ovatus} and on garden vege- 
tables, July 14, 1930; Parmelee, 1 sp. June 20, 1930; White 
River, 14 sp. found damaging garden vegetables, July 14, 1930; 
all by L.A.C. Nowlin Co., 4 14 sp. ; Slim Buttes, 2 sp. ; Volga, 
10 sp. ; all no further data. 

8. (8019) E. LEMNISCATA Fab. Canton, 6 sp. Aug. 3, 1922, 
(H.C.S.) Springfield, 1 sp. Aug. 27, 1926; Tyndall, \ sp. Aug. 
27. 1929; all by G.I.G. 

9. (8024) E. CINEREA Forst. Brown's Valley, 1 sp. June 
23, 1927; Elk Point, 1 sp. June 12, 1925; Meckling, 2 sp. June 
15, 1925; Springfield, 1 sp. June 16. 1926; White, 1 sp. Aug. 
10, 1927; all by G.I.G. 

10. (8032) E. CORVINA Lee. Grass Rope, 3 sp. Aug. 23, 
1929, (G.I.G.) ; Hot Springs, 2 sp. Aug. 9, 1917. 

11. (8033) E. PENNSYLVANICA DeG. Altamont, 9 sp. Sep. 
5, 1930; Buffalo, 2 sp. Sep. 9, 1927; Canton, 2 sp. Aug. 16, 
1<)27; Elk Point, 1 sp. Aug. 25, 1926; Englewood, 1 sp. Aug. 

1 The specimens labeled "Nowlin County" are from the Truman Collec- 
tion and were probably taken in the early nineties. Nowlin County no 
longer exists but has long since been enlarged to form the present Haakon 
County. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

30; 1924; Eureka, 9 sp. Sep. 5, 1930; Houghton. 2 sp. Sep. 
5, 1930; Howell, 14 sp. Sep. 14, 1930; Lake City, 7 sp. Sep. 
5, 1930; Lake Hendricks, 15 sp. Aug. 10, 1927; Lake I'oinsett. 
3 sp. Aug. 23, 1927; Letcher, 8 sp. Sep. 7, 1928; Lowry, 17 
sp. Sep. 5, 1930; Miranda, 17 sp. Sep. 5, 1930; Mound City, 
2 sp. Sep. 5, 1930; Smithwick, 1 sp. Sep. 15, 1930; Wewela, 
11 sp. Sep. 16, 1930; White, 1 sp. Aug. 10, 1927; White Lake, 

2 sp. Aug. 23, 1929; all by (G.I.G.). Brookings, 22 sp. Aug. 

20, 1929; Capa, 2 sp. Aug. 24, 1922; White, 1 sp. July 26, 1922; 
all by H.C.S. Brookings, 1 sp. Aug. 4, 1929, by P.H.J., 4 sp. 
Aug. 3, 6, 8 and 27, 1928, all from white sweet clover (Meli- 
lotiis alba) by M.K.R. and M.F., 5 sp. Aug. 3, 6, 8 and 21, 
1928, all from yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officiualis) by 
M.K.R. and M.F. Springfield, 7 sp. June 15, 1930, by L.A.C. 
Forestburg, 1 sp. Aug. 21, 1929; Newell, 1 sp. Aug. 20, 1924; 
Pierre, 3 sp. Aug. 5, 1919; Sisseton, 1 sp. July 31, 1919, 1 sp. 
Aug. 29, 1921 ; Slim Buttes, 6 sp. ; Yankton, 1 sp. Aug. 7, 1916; 
all no further data. 

12. (8042) MACROBASIS UNICOLOR Kirby. Britton, 4 sp. 
[uly 10, 1927 ; Brown's Valley, 4 sp. June 23, 1927 ; Buffalo, 

3 sp. June 20, 1925; Canton, 1 sp. June 12, 1926; Centerville, 

1 sp. June 14, 1928; Chester, 2 sp. June 17, 1930; Meckling, 

2 sp. June 13, 1925, 1 sp. June 16, 1926; Newell, 4 sp. July 
5, 1925 ; Rapid City, 1 sp. June 25, 1923 ; Redfield, 2 sp. June 

21, 1927; Tabor, 1 sp. June 20, 1924; Vermillion, 4 sp. June 
11, 1921; Waubay, 1 sp. Aug. 29, 1927; all by (G.I.G.). 
Brookings. 1 sp. Apr. 29, 1919, 9 sp. June 13, 1911, 3 sp. on 
Caragana (Siberian Pea) June 16, 1930, 3 sp. June 21, 1918, 
2 sp. July 17, 1924; Clover, 2 sp. June 18, 1929; Huron, 7 sp. 
June >, "1928; Ludlow, 1 sp. June 1, 1928; all by H.C.S. 
Brookings, 13 sp. from yellow sweet clover (Mclilotns offi- 
cinalis) fune 25 to July 23, 1928, 21 sp. from white sweet clover 
(Mclilotns alba) July 7 to Aug. 8, 1928; all by M.K.R. and 
M.F. Colton, 2 sp.' June 17, 1930; Eureka, 1 sp. June 25, 
1930; Irene, 1 sp. June 17, 1930; Parmelee, 2 sp. June 20, 1930; 
all by L.A.C. Chester, 1 sp. June 29, 1930, (G.B.S.). Garden 
City, 3 sp. June 26, 1919; Meadow, 4 sp. June 21, 1921 ; Nowlin 
Co., 4 1 sp. ; Pierre, 1 sp. June 21, 1928; all no further data. 

13. (19616) M. MURINA Lee. Brown's Valley. 10 sp. June 
23, 1927; Englewood, 1 sp. June 18, 1925; Florence, 1 sp. June 
23, 1927; Lead, 2 sp. July 12, 1923; all by G.I.G. Brookings, 
1 sp. June 12, 1923; White, 1 sp. July 1, 1925, all by M.C. 
Brookings, 6 sp. from yellow sweet clover ( Mclilolns officinal is) 
June 25 to Aug. 8, 1928, by M.K.R. and M.F. 

14. (8053) M. IM MACTI.ATA Say. Chamberlain. 2 sp. July 
10, 1930, by H.C.S.; White River, 'July 14, 1 ( )30, 29 sp. found 
causing injury to garden vegetables (L.A.C.). 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

15. (8054) M. SEGMENTATA Say. Chamberlain, 9 sp. June 
15, 1928; Grass Rope, 11 sp. June 19, 1929; Oglala (Bad 
Lands), 1 sp. June 20, 1928; Pierre, 1 sp. June 25, 1928, 6 sp. 
July 15, 1927; Wheeler Bridge, 1 sp. Aug. 20, 1927; White- 
wood, 4 sp. June 21, 1926; all by (G.I.G.). Brookings, 1 sp. 
June 15, 1924; Chamberlain, 1 sp. July 15, 1930; White River, 
2 sp. May 26, 1921 ; all by H.C.S. White River, 6 sp. found 
damaging garden vegetables June 14, 1930 (L.A.C.). Interior 
(Bad Lands), 4 sp. June 19, 1924; Slim Buttes, 6 sp. ; no fur- 
ther data. 

16. (8066) LYTTA NUTTALLI Say. Buffalo, 3 sp. June 20, 
1925 ; Newell, 5 sp. June 29 and July 5, 1923 ; Sisseton Ind. 
Res. 1 sp. June 23, 1927 ; all by G.I.G. Brookings, 4 sp. July 2, 
1924; Faulkton, 2 sp. July 10, 1922; all by H.C.S. Selby, 32 
sp. July 20 to 30, 1927, by G.I.G., L.C.L. and J.A.S. Brook- 
ings, 3 sp. June 19, 1891 ; Leola, 4 sp. July 17, 1908, no further 
data. 

17. (8075) L. BIGUTTATA Say. Nowlin Co., 4 3 sp., no data. 

18. (8102) L. SPHAERICOLLIS Say. Buffalo, 7 sp. June 20, 
1925, 2 sp. Aug. 26, 1924; Chamberlain, 2 sp. June 15, 1928; 
Grass Rope, 9 sp. June 15, 1929; Mobridge, 3 sp. Aug. 20, 
1924; Mossman, 3 sp. July 14, 1928; Philip, 3 sp. June 23, 
1923; Whitewood, 12 sp. July 18, 1923; all by G.I.G. Camp 
Crook, 1 sp. July 21, 1928 (H.C.S.). Hot Springs, 2 sp. June 
22, 1930 (L.A.C.). Brookings, 2 sp. ; Mobridge, 1 sp. July 20, 
1930; no further data: 

19. (8137) HENOUS CONFERTUS Say. Springfield, 1 sp. June 
13, 1925, 1 sp. Tune 15, 1928; Yankton, 2 sp. Aug. 30, 1930; 
all by G.I.G. Yankton, 1 sp. Aug. 6, 1923 (H.C.S.). 

20. (8148) MELOE AMERICANUS Leach. Canton, 1 sp. Aug. 
27, 1923; 1 sp. Sep. 16, 1925; Custer, 1 sp. Sep. 11, 1927; 
Englewood, 1 sp. Sep. 14, 1930; Springfield, 1 sp. Aug. 27, 
1926; all by G.I.G. Brookings, 2 sp. Oct. 15, 1924. 

Subfamily NEMOGNATHINAE. 

21. (8196) TRICRANIA STANSBURYI Haldeman. Two speci- 
mens labeled ''South Dakota" were found in the former Tru- 
man Collection. 

22. (8156) ZONITIS ATRIPENNIS Say. Hot Springs, 3 sp. ; 
Volga, 3 sp. ; no further data. 

23. (8158) ZONITIS BILINEATA Say. Yankton, 1 sp. Aug. 
6, 1923, (H.C.S.). Aurora Co., 3 sp., no further data. 

24. (8l68) GNATHIUM MINIMUM Say. Buffalo, 1 sp. Sep. 
9, 1927; Martin, 1 sp. Sep. 3, 1924; all by G.I.G. Hot Springs, 
1 sp. ; Pierre, 14 sp. ; Rapid City, 1 sp. ; Volga, 1 sp. ; no further 
data. 

25. (8172) NEMOGNATHA LURIDA Lee. Newell, 1 sp. July 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

5, 1923, (G.I.G.). Brookings, 3 sp. ; Xmvlin Co., 4 5 sp. ; Rapid 
City, 3 sp. ; Volga, 4 sp. ; no further data. 

26. (8174) N. LUTEA Lee. Hot Springs, 2 sp. June 26, 
1924; Newell, 1 sp. June 29, 1923; Rosebud, 2 sp. June 18, 
1927; all by G.I.G. VVewela, 1 sp. June 19, 1930 (L.A.C.). 
Nowlin Co., 4 1 sp., no data. 

27. (8175) N. BICOLOR Lee. Rapid City, 2 sp. no data. 

28. (8178) N. PALLIATA Lee. Lake Oakwood, 1 sp. July 
10, 1921 (H.C.S.). Brookings, 8 sp. ; Volga, 3 sp. ; no further 
data. 

29. (8181) N. NIGRIPENNIS Lee. 5 sp. labeled "Western 
South Dakota" from the Truman Collection. 

30. (8185) N. IMMACULATA Say. Aurora Co., 4 sp. ; Hot 
Springs, 1 sp. ; Nowlin Co., 4 4 sp. ; Rapid City, 2 sp. ; Volga, 
2 sp. ; no further data. 

Relationships of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera). 

Part 19 of the Catalogue of Indian Insects (Calcutta: Gov- 
ernment of India Central Publication Branch 1930, 37 pp.) 
is on the Gyrinoidea, by George Ochs of Frankfurt am Main. 
The following is taken from his Preface : 

"The Gyrinidae are generally considered as a family of the 
sub-order Adephaga. They are indeed adephagid in some gen- 
eral characters, in other characters, however, they are abnormal 
and approach other families, which are far from the adephagous 
series. From this I concluded, 1 concerning their phylogenetic 
origin, that the Gyrinidae must be older than the true Adephaga, 
which opinion was already expressed by Lameere, 2 Fowler 3 
and other authors. For this reason, it would perhaps be best, 
to consider the Gyrinidae as an isolated family, like for ex- 
ample the Palpicornia, with which they have probably some, 
tin nigh very distant, relations. Nevertheless, the nearest allies 
existing are the Adephaga, but if placed in this series, this 
requires a subdivision, and I feel inclined to follow the arrange- 
ment of Leng 4 and of Tillyard/' who unite the true Adephaga 
in a superfamily (Caraboidea) and consider the Gyrinoidea as 
a section of equivalent value. I cannot agree with Hatch, 1 ' 1 
who regards the Gyrinidea [Gyrinidae?] as simply derived from 
the Dytiscidae, and must therefore reject the arrangement of 
Handlirsch, 7 who unites the Gyrinidae with the aquatic families 
of the Adephaga in his Hydrocantharini." 

1 Ochs, Ent. Zeitschr. Frankf., XXXX: 122. 1926. 
" Lameere, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XLIV : 376. 1900. 

3 Fowler, Fauna Brit. Ind., Col. : 50. 1912. 

4 Leng, Cat. Col. N. Amer. : 26. 1920. 
"Tillyard, Ins. of Austral. & N. Zeal.: 187. 19_V 
"Hatch, Papers. Midi. Acad., V: 4.30. 1925. 

7 Handlirsch in Schrocdcr's Handb. tier Kntnm.. Ill: 550. 1925. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., FEBRUARY, 1931. 

Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, 
December 29, 1930, to January 3, 1931. 

Our annual summary of the entomological items of the 
programs of the eighty-seventh meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science and associated 
societies, held at Cleveland, Ohio, follows. 

The number of papers listed by the various societies were : 

Entomological Society of America 41 

American Association of Economic Entomologists 88 

American Society of Zoologists 20 

Same, Genetics Section 8 

Ecological Society of America 4 

American Phytopathological Society 1 

American Society of Parasitologists 5 

American Society of Tropical Medicine 1 

Phi Sigma Biological Research Society 10 

Invited Papers on Hydrobiology and Agriculture 

(pages xliv-xlv of the General Program) 2 

Total 180 

These papers were distributed in subject as follows: 

i Apiculture 3 

General Entomology 4 Insects Affecting Cereals, 

History of Entomology .. 1 Forage and Field Crops . 22 

Collecting, Mounting and Do. Truck Crops 5 

Rearing Methods 5 Do. Greenhouse Plants . . 2 

Cytology 9 Do. Fruits and Fruit Trees 17 

Anatomy 3 Do. Household and Stored 

Physiology 28 Products 5 

Ecology 18 Do. Forest & Shade Trees 7 

Geographical Distribution. 13 Do. Carrying Plant Disease 

Ontogeny 7 Germs 1 

Genetics 13 

Parasites of Insects 4 ii 

Insects, etc., Affecting Man Acarina 4 

and Other Animals .... 8 Pseudoscorpionida 1 

Taxonomy 7 Orthoptera 8 

General Economic Ento- Mallophaga 1 

mology 4 Isoptera 3 

Insecticides 10 Odonata 3 

56 



xlii, '31 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 57 

Ephemericla 1 Lepidoptera (excluding 

Homoptera 16 Codling Moth, Oriental 

Heteroptera 5 Peach Moth and Corn 

Coleoptera (excluding llorers) 18 

Japanese Beetle) 9 Codling Moth 3 

Japanese Beetle 2 Oriental Peach Moth . . 1 

Hymenoptera (excluding Corn Borers 9 

Honey Bee) 17 Diptera (excluding 

Honey Bee 5 Drosophila) 24 

Trichoptera 1 Drosophila 6 

Many of these figures are duplications, both between sec- 
tions i and ii and also within each section. 

In addition to the above papers there were exhibits of Pyre- 
thrum flowers by Alfred Weed and of Mounting Coleoptera, 
especially Micros, by Henry Dietrich, in connection with the 
Entomological Society of America, and of the luminosity of 
butterfly wings by Austin H. Clark. 

The Entomological Society of America, Dr. Edith M. Patch, 
president, Prof. J. J. Davis, secretary, met December 30 and 31. 
Thanks to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn, we present the following comment 
on the sessions. The attendance averaged from 80 to 100. Prof. 
C. T. Brues showed remarkable motion pictures of hot springs 
in action and several of masses of living brine fly larvae ( Ephy- 
dridae) ; he touched upon naucorids and small water beetles 
forming part of the insect life of hot springs. Prof. J. G. Need- 
ham did not give his account of his airplane trip to the West 
Indies for dragonflies. Mr. C. H. Curran suggested more broad- 
ly and truly comprehensive monographs, new catalogs and more 
complete taxonomic descriptions. Dr. E. P. Felt proposed a 
system of letter symbols for placing insects, based on the Dewey 
library type. Miss Grace H. Griswold gave the length of adult 
life in the Webbing Clothes Moth (Tincola hiselliclla Hum.) as 
6-40 days in the female, 6-70 days in the male, the bulk of the 
individuals of the two sexes respectively living 23 and 43-53 
days. Prof. H. B. Hungerford described his recent visit to the 
entomological museums of Upsala, Stockholm, Copenhagen, 
Kiel, Hamburg, Halle, Berlin, Berlin-Dahlem, Vienna, P>uda- 
Pest, Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Oxford and London. Prof. 
H. Osborn gave notes on the work of Jared Potter Kirtland in 
Ohio. Prof. B. B. Fulton gave an analysis of the species of the 
cricket genus Neinohins, spoke of the application of previous!} 
unused male genital characters, de-scribed the anatomv of the 
genitalia of both sexes, discussed the physiological and ecological 
forms in several subspecies of A", fascialiis and illustrated typical 
habitats of various forms. Mr. J. W. Wilson described injury 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

to vegetables in Florida by Tibiccn davisi. Mr. George S. Tul- 
loch described the ditching done in Nantucket in 1930 to control 
mosquitoes as the first general major state project ; the results 
were very satisfactory. Mr. F. H. Wilson gave the duration of 
the incubation period of the egg of Lipcums hctcrographus as 
6-7 days, 1st instar 6-12 days, 2nd instar 10-11 days, 3rd instar 
12-14 days, adult ( $ ) 37, ( 9 ) 38 days. Prof. R. H. Beamer 
stated that Brood IV of the Seventeen Year Cicada has been 
known in Kansas since 1825 ; it appeared in the eastern portion 
of the State in 1930, largely as the form cassini, probably local- 
ized to specific environments ; he held scptcndccim and cassini 
to be clearly distinct species (e.g., differences in number of eggs 
laid, in song) having in common only the periodic habit and 
occurrence in the same brood. Prof. C. L. Metcalf, by aid of 
very finely presented diagrams and charts, gave a summary of 
temperate and some tropical insects, ticks, mites and spiders 
that bite man; he omitted Dcnnatobia. Dr. N. E. Mclndoo de- 
scribed the geotropic and phototropic responses of the Mexican 
Bean Beetle as well as those to various types of sprayed foliage 
after determination of preference to sour, bitter and sweet sub- 
stances. Mr. C. E. Abbott spoke of the proboscis reflex of 
decapitated flies. 

The annual public address of the Society was given on the 
evening of December 30 by Prof. H. J. Ouayle, comprising an 
account of several trips to the Mediterranean area, southern 
Africa, Japan and Australia, studying the Mediterranean fruit 
fly problem. 

At the business meeting, twenty-five dollars was voted to the 
Zoological Record. The Committee on the United States 
National Museum reported the acquisition of the Barnes collec- 
tion of Lepidoptera by the museum. A committee on the Fifth 
International Congress of Entomology was authorized, the 
chairman to be appointed by the president. The new officers 
elected were president, J. W. Folsom; vice presidents, J. M. 
Swaine and Harold Morrison; J. J. Davis re-elected secretary- 
treasurer. 

The annual address by the president of the American Associa- 
tion of Economic Entomologists, this year Mr. Franklin Sher- 
man, was on Census Taking in Entomology, given on the morn- 
ing of December 31. 

The Entomologists' Dinner was on the evening of the same 
day. President Sherman presented Dr. W. E. Britton as toast- 
master. Dr. W. J. Holland was the guest of honor. Addresses 
were made by Doctors Holland, Patch, Felt, Needham, Herbert 
Osborn, O'Kane, Vernon Kellogg, Lutz, Burgess and Arthur 
Gibson ; about 300 attended. 



xlii, '31] EXTOMOLOGICAL \K\VS 59 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only, at their 
first installments. 

'Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Hf^Note the change in the method o/ citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Aurivillius, C. Obituary. By L. R. N. 
[Norsk Ent. Tidsskrift] 2: 307-308. Bibliographia Zoologi- 
ca. Volume 40. 472 pp. Cockerell, T. D. A. The description 
and figuring of imperfect fossils. [68] 72: 654. Gunn, N. 
R- The Norman R. Gunn collection of butterflies. By E. P. 
Van Duzee. [55] 7: 72. de Joannis, J. Quelques eclair- 
cissements a propos de la loi de priorite. [Lambillionea] 
1930: 180-181. Internationale Kongres for Entomologi. 
IV. [Norsk Ent. Tidsskrift] 2: 310-315. McDonald, F. W. 

-Memories of some Old London Entomologists. [Pro. So. 
Lond. Ent. & Nat. Hist. Soc.] 1929-30: 1-6. Tillyard, R. J. 

-A new theory of the evolution of the insects. 131 I 126: 
996-998. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Brindley, T. A.- 

The growth and development of Ephestin kuehniclla and 
Tribolium confusum under controlled conditions of tempera- 
ture and relative humidity. [7] 23: 741-757, ill. Bugnion, 
E. Les pieces buccales, le sac infrabuccal et le pharynx des 
lourmis. [Bull. Soc. R. Ent. Egypte] 1930: 85-204, ill. Chu- 
doba, S. Appareil centriolaire dans les cellules sexuelles 
males chez Dytiscus marginalis. |77] 105 : 617-619, ill. Dun- 
ham, W. E. -Temperature gradient in the egg-laying activ- 
ities of the queen bee. [43] 30: 403-410, ill. Flanders, S. E. 
-Wax secretion in the Rhizobiini. (Col.) |7] 23: 808-809, 
ill. Howland, L. J. The nutrition of mosquito larvae, with 
special reference to their algal 'food. [22| 21: 431-440, ill. 
Marcovitch & Stanley. The climatic limitations of the 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

Mexican bean beetle. [7] 23: 666-686, ill. Mehta, D. R.- 
Observations on the influence of temperature and humidity 
on the bionomics of Dysdercus cingulatus. [22] 21 : 547-562, 
ill. Misra, A. B. On the post-embryonic development of 
the female lac insect, Laccifer lacca (Coccidae). [22] 21 : 
455-467, ill. Oakland, F. Studien ueber die arbeitsteilung 
und die teilung des arbeitsgebietes bei der roten waldameise 
(Formica rufa). [46] 20: 63-131, ill. Paterson, N. F. The 
bionomics and morphology of the early stages of Paraphoe- 
don tumidulus. ( Phytophaga, Chrysomelidae). [93] 1930: 
627-676, ill. Pfeiffer & Stammer. Pathogenes leuchten bei 
insekten. |46] 20: 136-171, ill. Portier, P. Respiration pen- 
dant le vol chez les lepidopteres. [69] 105 : 760-764. Pou- 
tiers, R. Influence de certains facteurs sur la nymphose des 
larves de Ceratitis capitata. [77] 105: 709-710.' Regnier & 
Lespes Sur 1'existence d'une generation estivale chez le 
Criquet pelerin (Schistocera gregaria). [69] 191: 1082-1083. 
Reinig, W. F. Phaenoanalytische studien viber rassenbild- 
ung. Psithyrus rupestris. [89] Syst. 60: 257-280, ill. Zacher, 
F. Untersuchungen zur morphologic und biologic der sa- 
menkafer (Bruchidae-Lariidae). [Arb. Biol. Reichs. f. Land- 
u. Forstw.] 18:233-384, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Brumpt, M. E. 

Parasitisme latent de 1'lxodiphagus caucurtei chez les larves 
gorgees et les nymphes a jeun de divers ixodines (Ixodes 
ricinus et Rhipicephalus sanguineus). [69] 191: 1085-1087. 
*Ewing, H. E. A fossil arachnid from the lower carbonifer- 
ous shales (Pocono formation) of Virginia. [7] 23: 641-643, 
ill. *Jackson, A. R. Results of the Oxford University Ex- 
pedition to Greenland, 1928. Aranee and Opiliones collected 
by Major R. W. G. Kingston ; with some notes on Icelandic 
spiders. [75] 6:639-656, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Borror, D. 
J. Notes on the Odonata occurring in the vicinity of Silver 
Lake, Logan County, Ohio, from June 25 to September 1, 
1930. [43] 30: 411-415. *Hilton, W. A. Pauropoda from 
North America. [7] 23: 765-783, ill. Jaffuel, P. F. Contri- 
bucion al estudio de los Mecopteros. [44] 33: 537-549, ill. 
(S). *Navas, R. P. L. Insectos Neotropicos. Algunos in- 
sectos de Chile. [44] 33: 17-24, 326-334, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Allard, H. A. The occurrence of the 
crickets Anaxipha pulicaria and Cycloptilum trigonipalpum 
(Rehn and Hebard) in the vicinity of the District of Col- 
umbia, hitherto unreported here. [10] 32: 144-146. *Cho- 
pard, L. Descriptions de Gryllides americains nouveaux. 
[44] 33: 522-531, ill. (S). *Fuiton, B. B. Notes -on Oregon 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 61 



orthoptera with descriptions of new species and races. [7] 
23: 611-641. *Sjostedt, Y. Orthopterentypen im Natur- 
historischen Reichmuseum zu Stockholm. I Mantidae. (S). 
f83| 21 A, No. 32: 1-43. ill. 

HEMIPTERA. deLong, D. M. Yenational characters 
in Typhlocybinae Avin.q- s . [43] 30: 398-402. ill. *Knight, H. 
H. A new key to Paracalocoris with descriptions of eight 
new species (Miridae). [7] 23: 810-827. *Osborn, H.- 
N'orth American leafhoppers of the Athysanella group 
(Cicadellidae). [7] 23: 687-720. ill. Rivnay, E Host selec- 
tion and cannibalism in the bed bug Cimex lectularius. |7] 
23: 758-764. *Walley, G. S. Notes and descriptions of 
species of Arctocorixa from Ontario and Quebec (Corixi- 
dae). [4] 62: 280-286. ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *d'Almeida, R. F. Etude sur le 
genre Terias. [44] 33 : 421-427. ill. Felt, E. P. The Norway 
maple Nepticula. [10] 32: 146-149. *Gehlen, B Neue 
Sphingiden. (S). [14] 44: 258-259. ill. Hoffman, F. Beit- 
rage zur Naturgeschichte brasilianischer schmetterlinge. I. 
[45] 25: 93-112. Keifer, H. H. Argyresthias found in 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. [55] 7: 76. *Michael, O. 
-Neue Agrias-Ab. vom mittleren Amazonas. [14] 44:273- 
277, cont., ill. *Sternitsky, R. F. A new subspecies of Ple- 
bejus icariodes. [55] 7: 93-94. 

DIPTERA. ^Alexander, C. P. New species of crane 
flies from South America. Part. TV. (Tipulidae). [7] 23: 721- 
740. * Alexander, C. P. New or little-known species of the 
genus Gnophomyia Osten Saken from Ecuador and Peru 
(Tipulidae). [44]" 33: 164-168. ill. de Andrade, E. N. Sub- 
sidios para a entomologia agricola Brasiliera. VIII. Pes- 
quizas sobre a biologia da mosca da Madeira. Pantophthal- 
mus pictits. [Arch. Ins. Biol., Sao Paulo] 3: 249-286, ill. 
Andrews, H. W. The earlier stages of Diptera. [Pro. So. 
Lond. Ent. & Nat. Hist. Soc.] 1'L*)-30: 17-29. *da Costa 
Lima, A. Sobre especies do goncro Miamyia subgenero 
Miamyia (Culicidae ). [Mem. Inst. ()swaldo Cruz] 24: 187- 
194. ill. (S). Curran, C. H. A new Gymnopternus from 
Oregon (Dolichopidae). |4| 62: 287. Gibbins, E. G. A 
simple method of making permanent microscope mounts of 
mosquito larvae. [22] 21: 429-430. ill. Leeson, H. S.- 
Variations in the wing ornamentation of Anopheles funestus. 
|22| 21 : 421-428, ill. ' *Painter, R. H. Notes on some Bom- 
byliidae from the Rq>ul)lic of Honduras. [7| 23: 793-807, ill. 
Roberts, R. A. The wintering habits of muscoid flies in 
Iowa. |7| 23: 784-792. *Seguy, E. Note sur quatre Toxo- 
dc rAmeri(|ue centrale et meridionale. [44] 33: 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 



532-536, ill. Stuardo, C. Notas entomologicas un genero 
de Nemestrinidae no mencionado para la fauna chilena. [44] 
33: 161-163, ill. *Van Duzee, M. C. New Dolichopodidae 
from Connecticut. [40] 439: 5pp. *Webber, R. T. A re- 
vision of the N. A. Tachinid flies of the genus Achaetoneura. 
[50] 78 (10): 37 pp., ill. 

COLEOPTERA. *Arangua, E. V. Contribuciones al 
estudio de los Cicindeliclae. VI. Una nueva especie de Cicin- 
dela de Mexico. [44] 33: 504-506, ill. *Carr, F. S New 
Canadian Coleoptera. I. [4] 62: 278-279. *Dallas, E. D.- 
Ceroglossus Chilensis ab. Porteri, nov. ab. Sinopsis de la 
familia Karumiidae y nota sobre una especie sud-americana 
de la misma. [44] 33: 351-353, 386-394, ill. *Fall, H. C. A 
new Aphodius and a new genus and species of Buprestidae 
from California. [55] 7: 73-76. *Fisher, W. S. A new 
species of Chrysobothris infesting strawberry plants (Bu- 
prestidae). [10] 32: 149-152. *da Fonseca, J. P. Urna nova 
especie do genero Coccotrypes Ipidae Cryphalinae. (S). 
[Arch. Ins. Biol., Sao Paulo] 3: 87-92, ill." Hinton, H.- 
Observations on two California beetles [55] 7: 94-95. *Horn, 
W. Stir deux especes nouvelles d'Odontochila neotropiques 
et quelques autres especes rapprochees. [44] 33: 154-158, ill. 
Joseph, H. C. El Pinotus torulosus. [44] 33: 31-46, ill. 
Lever, R. J. A. W. Notes on nomenclature of some Neo- 
tropical Chrysomelidae with descriptions of two new species. 
[75] 6: 668-671, ill. *Linsley, E. G. New Pogonocherus 
and Ecyrus (Cerambycidae) with notes concerning others. 
[55] 7: 77-90, ill. *Martin, J. O. Two new coleopterous in- 
sects from Arizona. [55] 7: 70-72. Melzer, J. Longicorneos 
do Brasil, novos ou pouco conhecidos (Cerambycidae). 
[Arch. Ins. Biol., Sao Paulo] 3: 187-208, ill. d'Orchymont, 
A. Sur deux Palpicornia ( Hydrophiloidea) chiliens appar- 
tenant a la famille des Hydraenidae. [44] 33: 96-102, ill. 
*Pierce, W. D. Studies of the N. A. weevils belonging to 
the superfamily Platystomoidea. [50] 77 (17): 34pp., ill. 
*Ray, E. A study of South American Mordellidae. [Col- 
eop. Contri.] 1: 161-172, ill. Tragardh, I. Studies on the 
galleries of the bark-beetles. [22 J 21 : 469-480, ill. *Uhmann, 
E. Amerikanische Hispinen aus den museen ftir Tierkunde 
und Volkerkunde zu Dresden. [48] 47: 149-155, ill. (S). 

HYMENOPTERA. *Alfken, J. D. Wissenschaftliche 
ergebnisse der schwedischen entomologischen Reisen des 
Herrn. Dr. A. Roman 1914-15 und 1923-24 in Amazonas. 
Apidae. |83| 21 A, No. 28: !-!(>. Bequaert, J. Ashmead's 
genus Polistella ( Vespidae). [55] 7: 91-93. :i: Borgmeier, T. 
Duas rainhas de Eciton e algumas outras Formigas Brasi- 



xlii, '31] ' ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 63 

leiras. [Arch. Ins. Biol., Sao Paulo] 3: 21-40, ill. Prison, T. 
H. A contribution to the knowledge of the bionomics of 
Bremus americanorum. [7] 23: 644-665, ill. Herbst, P. 
Sobre Caupolicana hirsuta. [44] 33: 65-73, ill. (S). *Reed, 
E. P. Nuevo genero de avispas masaridas chilenas (Noticia 
preliminar). 1 44] 33: 507-510, ill. : ' : Santschi, F. Quelqnes 
fourmis de Cuba et du Bresil. [Bull. Soc. R. Ent. Egypte] 
1930: 75-83. Weld, L. H. Notes on types (Cynipidae). 
[10] 32: 137-144. "Wilkinson, D. S. New Species and host 
records of Braconidae. [22] 21: 481-487. ill. (S). 



Archilestes grandis (Ramb.) in Ohio (Odonata: 

Agrionidae). 

The following is extracted, at the Editor's request, from a 
letter from the undersigned to Dr. F. M. Gaige, dated October 
17, 1927. 

"I was down at Oxford, Ohio, September 25, 1927, and 
had a most remarkable experience. There is a little brook 
which runs through the west side of the campus at the Western 
College, and which at its head is merely a draw. One branch 
of this draw goes back of some houses on the campus, and is 
apparently little more than a sewer ; septic tanks are located on 
it. Another branch of the draw goes back into the Miami 
campus, and receives refuse liquids from the chemical laboratory 
and the power house. In fact, the crawfish farther down in 
the creek and still within the campus above the rustic bridge, 
were all dead so far as I could discover, though there were a 
few mayfly and stonefly larvae in the creek. Through the 
campus this little creek meanders among well-sodded knolls or 
rounded hills which are kept mowed with lawn mowers. At 
one place it is dammed to form a small pool, possibly an acre 
in extent. A driveway is built on the dam, forming this pool. 
Just above the pool is a little rustic foot-bridge over the creek. 
Here the creek is a foot or two wide and when I saw it two 
weeks ago and last Monday, there was a very small flow of 
water. The creek bed itself, just above the foot-bridge, is com- 
posed of broken up thin pieces of very fossiliferous limestone. 
There are a few small willows, mint, asters, and such vegeta- 
tion on the creek, but it is practically entirely open and virtually 
landscaped just a little artificial-looking dab of scenery. But 
when 1 walked down to it two weeks ago last Sundav, YOU 

o - j 

can imagine my surprise when, just above the foot-bridge, I 

found .-Irchilcstcs i/nnnlis living. Can you imagine such a 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '30 

thing? It is altogether the most surprising find I have ever 
made in collecting dragonflies. I collected four of them (3 $ , 
1 9 ) that day when I first found them and saw possibly a 
dozen more. Last Tuesday (October 11)1 collected five more 
(4 $ , 1 9 ) and saw several I did not disturb. Some were 
ovipositing, as far as I observed (and I made only three obser- 
vations) in living twigs of willow and elm, and in dead twigs 
of sycamore. The twigs selected were from one foot to ten 
feet elevation, and in every case, over the water. In ovipositing 
they flew in couple, often alighting on twigs a little distance 
from above the water or even in trees or shrubs back from the 
creek bank, but in no case was oviposition observed in a situ- 
ation from which the larvae would not fall directly into the 
water. 

"The creek flows through the dam, forming the pool, in an 
arched cement culvert, and passes at once into an uncared for 
brush woodlot, much more shaded than above the rustic bridge. 
Here, just below the culvert, several Arcliilcstes were seen on 
September 25, but, though I looked for them there on October 
11, none were seen though they were in undiminished numbers 
just above the bridge." 

At the time I visited Oxford I talked with a caretaker on 
the Western College campus who told me that in the sixteen 
years he had been there, he thought the creek had never been 
dry, and that in the winter it never froze but "steamed" all 
winter. He said the chemicals it carried killed all the gold fish, 
planted in the pool several times. On October llth I visited 
several other small streams emptying into the same stream into 
which the campus creek flowed but found no Archilcstcs on 
any of them. On the campus stream the Archilcstcs flew 
along the creek, and occasionally breezed out over the adjacent 
lawn to a distance of maybe 50-100 feet from the stream, flying 
2-3 feet high, and returning to the stream without alighting at 
any distance from it. Strange as it may seem, during such 
flights in the sun, out from the stream and back again, they 
somehow suggested a gomphine that is at a distance, of course. 

Arcliilcstes grandis was associated on the creek with Acshna 
miibrosa. At the pond on the same date (October 11) were 
Sympetntm vicinum, Ana.r jnnins, Ischnura vcrticalis and 
Enallagma civile. E. B. WILLIAMSON, Bluffton, Indiana. 



Archilestes in Ohio (Odonata, Agrionidae). 

Nymphs of the damselfly, Archilcstcs, (A. grandis?) have 
been found in pools about Dayton, Ohio. Heretofore the 
known range of this genus has been from Washington to 
California, except in one instance from Arkansas. 

The record was verified by Dr. J. G. Needham. 

CHARLES W. COTTERMAN, Dayton, Ohio. 



Subscriptions for 1931 are now payable. 

MARCH, 1931 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Vol. XLII No. 3 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 

CONTENTS 

Hebard The Races of Diapheromera veliei (Orthoptera, Phasmidae, 

Heteronemiinae) ... 65 

Laurent Notes on Tremex columba Linn. (Hymen. : Siricidae) ... 67 

Knowlton Notes on Utah Heteroptera and Homoptera 68 

, Frost New Species of West Indian Agromyzidae (Diptera) ... 72 

Hatch The Status of Leng's Classification of the Coleoptera 76 

Pate A New Belomicrus from the West (Hymen.: Sphecidae).. 77 
Chamberlin A New Milliped of the Genus Fontaria from Mississippi 

(Chilognatha: Xystodesmidae). 

Barber Change of address 79 

Talbot The Naming of Individual Variants in Lepidoptera 80 

Bequaert Midges on Wings of Odonata 82 

Barringer Bites by Aphis Lion (Neur. : Chrysopidae) 

Entomological Literature 84 

Review Bradley's Manual of the Genera of Beetles 88 

Review Thomas Say, Early American Naturalist 90 

Review The African Republic of Liberia and the Belgian Congo.. . . 93 

Obituary James H. Emerton 95 

Obituary Jurius Philiptschenko.. . . . . 95 

Obituary James S. Hine, Fritz Ris 96 



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JNTOMOLOGICAJ^NEWS^ 

VOL. XLII. MARCH, 1931 No. 3 



The Races of Diapheromera veliei (Orthoptera, 
Phasmidae, Heteronemiinae). 

By MORC.AN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Recently in our studies of the Orthoptera of Kansas we found 
that Diapheromera I'dici Walsh, occurred in its typical form 
over that entire State, its maximum abundance being reached in 
the central Great Plains. It is apparently less hardy than Dia- 
pheromera fcinontta (Say) as its known northern limits are Lake 
Hendricks, South Dakota, and Julesburg, Colorado, while toward 
the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado (except probably 
in its southern portion) it disappears, this probably due there to 
the greater elevation and consequently more boreal environment 
of the plains. 

To the south we have it typical as far as Stillwater, Oklahoma, 
Dalhart, Texas, and Vaughn, New Mexico, and it reaches west- 
ward over the lower divides of the Rockies as far as Albuquerque, 
in the latter State. Further south in Texas and New Mexico, 
however, we find it supplanted by a geographic race and study 
of the literature convinces us that that race must bear the name 
Diapheromera veliei mesilhina Scudder. The following data lead 
to this conclusion. 
DIAPHEROMERA VELIEI MESILLANA Scudder. 

1901. Diapheromera uicsillauu Scudder, Psyche, IX, p. 
189. [[Juv.] $ ; between Mesilla and Las Cruces, New 
Mexico.] 

1 ( )07. B\acnnculns\ te.vanus Brunner, Insektenfam. der 
Phasmiden, p. 333. [ 5 , $ ; Texas. 1 ] 

Scudder described mesillana from immature males and, though 
difficult to associate specifically, we have sufficient such material 
to be satisfied that the species represented is the same as that 

1 The specimen recorded from New York was either mislabeled or repre- 
sents a distinct species. 

65 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

here discussed from large series of adults. In the Rio Grande 
valley of New Mexico this is the only species of this type present. 
Brunner's description of Bacunculus tcxanus is very unsatis- 
factory. Probably immature material (at least in part), in which 
femoral spines are often lacking, led to the generic assignment, 
as there is no Heteronemiid found in the United States in which 
the adults have both median and caudal femora unarmed. Select- 
ing Texas as type locality of tc.ninus, we find that the description 
fits best the present insect of the forms which occur in that State 
and we therefore place that name as a synonym. With the wealth 
of material which was available in preparing "Die Insekten- 
familie der Phasmiden" it is very regrettable that the work 
throughout is so very superficial and inaccurate. 




Fig. 1. Diaphcromera vclici vcliei Walsh. Lateral view of male poculum. 

Syracuse, Kansas. (Much enlarged.) 
Fig. 2. Diaphcromera vcliei mesillana Scudder. Lateral view of male 

poculum. Foothills of Ord Mountains, Brewster County, Texas. 

(Much enlarged.) 

This race differs from typical vcliei in having the male poculum 
very broadly lipped, while in the female sex the femoral apices 
are usually strikingly suffused with black. The head averages 
broader, but this is apparently not constant, and the female cerci 
average considerably shorter. Though in all central Texan 
material the female femoral apices are conspicuously black, this 
marking is wholly absent in a female before us from Vaughn, 
New Mexico and in one from El Paso, Texas. It is, however, 
very decided in a female from Pecos, Texas and in one from 
Lake Valley, Sierra County, New Mexico. Absence of such 
marking, never found in typical vcliei, may indicate that such an 
individual has developed in different plants or bushes than are 
usually selected by the present insect. 



xlii, '31 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS (>7 

Intergraclation with relief relici is shown by the following 
material. A large series from Midland, Texas, has the male 
proculum as in typical vclici; the females have the femoral apices 
narrowly suffused with black and the cerci very elongate, even 
more elongate than the average for relief relief, in which mure- 
individual variation in this feature is shown than in relief 
uiesillana. A large series from Melena, Chaves County, New 
Mexico, is similar except that the female cerci are slightly 
shorter, though much longer than in relief inesilldnu. 

The range of the present race extends from Lake Valley and 
Deming, New Mexico, east to Robstown and Cisco, Texas. It 
was reported from San Diego, Alice and Victoria, Texas, as 
relici by Caudell in 1918. 2 It is one of the most abundant and 
generally distributed Phasmids in central Texas, where it is 
particularly encountered on the low mesquite trees which there 
are thickly scattered over the plains. Its area of intergradation 
with relici relief apparently extends from central-northern east 
New Mexico eastward. 



Notes on Tremex columba Linn. (Hymen.: Siricidae). 

In the latter part of May, near my home in the suburbs of 
Philadelphia, I noticed a maple tree that was dead or nearly 
so ; on examining the trunk of the tree I found numerous 
larvae of Trcmc.v columba. I cut out a section of the trunk 
about 20 inches long and 10 inches in diameter, taking it home 
and placing it in one of my breeding cages. The first Treine.v 
emerged on June 16. From June 16 to 26, 96 males and 10 
females emerged ; 7 males and 22 females were obtained from 
June 27 to July 6, from July 7 to 16, 5 males and 1 female, 
6 males and 5 females from. July 17 to 31, and 6 males and 
4 females during the month of August. In all 162 Trenie.r 
emerged from this small section cut from the trunk of the tree, 
-120 males and 42 females. I kept the log for some time but 
did not obtain any specimens after the month of August. Have 
wondered how many hundred Treiue.v coluniha there were in 
that tree, which was about 25 feet high and 12 inches in 
diameter. PHILIP LAURENT. 

" Ent. News, XXIX, p. 25. 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

Notes on Utah Heteroptera and Homoptera. 

By GEORGE F. KNOWLTON. 

(Continued from page 43). 
Family ANTHOCORIDAE (Am. and Serv.). 

52. ANTHOCORIS ANTEVOLENS White. In leaves curled by 
ProcijyJiilus fra.vinifolii (Riley), Hyrum, June, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton). 

Family MIRIDAE (Hahn). 

53. TRIGONOTYLUS RUFICORNIS (Geoff.). On barley in Cache 
Valley, 1929 (Pack); on beets at Logan, Aprif 20, 1929 
(Knowlton) ; on wheat and oats, Salt Lake City, 1929 (Pack) ; 
on Chcirinia rcpanda, Snowville, June, 1930 (Knowlton). 

54. ADELPTIOCORIS SUPERRUS (Uhl.). Brigham City, Sep- 
tember 12, 1925 (Knowlton) ; on beets at Fielding, August 28, 
1925 (Knowlton) ; on sugar-beets, Hooper, June 29, 1929 
(Knowlton) ; Logan, August 19, 1925 (Knowlton) ; Manti, 
July 26, 1927 (Knowlton) ; Provo, September 8. 1923 (Haw- 
ley) ; Trenton, September 7, 1923 (Knowlton). 

55. IRBISIA BRACHYCERUS var. SOLANI Heid. Amalga, June, 
1928 (Knowlton); Logan, July 5. 1929 (Knowlton). 

56. THYRILLUS PACIFICUS (Uhl.). Howell, July 3, 1928 
(Knowlton). 

57. LYGUS PRATENSIS (Linn.). The tarnished plant bug is 
present throughout Utah, commonly attacking sugar-beets, 
alfalfa, potatoes, and many other crops. It often becomes ex- 
tremely abundant and more or less damaging. 

58. L. PRATENSIS var. HESPERUS Kngt. Frequently taken on 
beets and alfalfa. 

59. L. PRATENSIS var. ELISUS Van D. This species is com- 
mon in Utah and has been collected at Arthur, Bear River City, 
Cornish, Cove, Delta, Farmington, Fairfield, Garland, Hyde 
Park, Logan, Lynndyl, Millville, Ogden, Riverside, Tremon- 
ton, Wanship, Willard, and many other places. 

60. MELANOTRICHUS BREVIROSTRIS Knight. Bear River City, 
September 9, 1925 (Knowlton). 

61. PLAGIOGNATHUS POLITUS Uhl. On beets at Willard, 
July 26, 1927 (Knowlton). 

62. ATOMOSCELIS MODESTUS (Van D.). On sugar-beets at 
Lewiston, June 5, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on mustard at Snowville, 
May 18, 1929 (Knowlton). 

63. CLAMYDATUS ASSOCIATUS (Uhl.). Bear River City, Sep- 
tember 9, 1925 (Knowlton) ; Brigham City, September 10, 1925 
(Knowlton) ; Garland, September 6, 1925 (Knowlton) ; Lewis- 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 69 

ton, August 8, 1929 ( Knowlton) ; Trenton, September 1, 1925 
(Knowlton). 

64. CAMPYLOMMA VERBASCI (Meyer). On sugar-beets at 
Ogden, June 23, 1927 (Knowlton). 

Family GERRIDAE (Am. and Serv.). 

65. GERRIS REMIGIS Say. Benson, April 8, 1930 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Grantsville, April 3, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Lehi, April 4, 
1930 (Knowlton) ; Logan Meadows, April 8, 1930 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Providence, June, 1930 (M. J. Janes). 

66. LIMNOPORUS RUFOSCUTELLATUS Latr. Benson, April 8, 
1930 (Knowlton) ; Logan, and Logan Meadows, April 8, 1930 
( Knowlton ) . 

Family NOTONECTIDAE (Leach). 

67. NOTONECTA IRRORATA Uhl. Logan, October 1, 1922 
(Knowlton). 

68. N. UNDULATA Say. Logan, October 7, 1922 (Knowlton). 

69. N. UNIFASCIATA Guer. Grantsville, April 12, 1930 
(Knowlton) ; Lehi, April 4, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Locomotive 
Springs, April 10, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Pleasant Grove, April 4, 
1930 (Knowlton). 

70. N. KIRBYI Hung. Grantsville, April 12, and May 26, 
1930 (Knowlton) ; Logan. October 1, 1922 (Knowlton) ; Skull 
Valley, April 12, 1930 (Knowlton and C. H. Smith). 

Family BELOSTOMIDAE (Leach). 

71. LETHOCERUS AMERICANUS (Leidy). Lehi, May 27, 1930 
(Knowlton, M. J. Janes) ; Logan, November, 1923 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Ogden, August, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Salt Lake City, July 
18, 1921 (Knowlton). 

Family CORIXIDAE (Leach). 

72. ARCTOCORIXA LAEVIGATA (Uhl.). American Fork, April 
4, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Lehi, April 4, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Loco- 
motive Springs, April 12, 1930 (Knowlton), Logan, April 12, 
1930 (Knowlton) ; Pleasant Grove, April 4, 1930 (Knowlton) ; 
Salt Lake City, May 27, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Skull Valley, April 
3, 1930 (Knowlton). 

Order HOMOPTERA Latreille. 

Family CICADIDAE (Latreille). 

73. DICEROPROCTA APACHE Davis. St. George. 1919 (R. A. 
Morris). 

74. CACAMA VALVATA (Uhl.). St. George, June 18, 1921 
(D. McFarland). 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

75. OKANAGANA UTAHENSIS Davis. Bountiful, July 12, 
1929 (Pack and M. J. Janes) ; Cooperton, July 3, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Corinne, June 22, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Fort Duchesne, 
June 25, 1926 (W. Sorenson) ; Logan, July 31, 1923 (Knowl- 
ton) ; Mill Creek Canyon, June 22, 1926 (Knowlton); Rattle 
Snake Pass, July 11, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Salt Lake City, July 3, 
1929 (Knowlton) ; Skull Valley, June 26, 1929 (Knowlton and 
W. Keller); Snowville, July 11, 1929 (Knowlton); Stansbury 
Island, June 13, 1913 (Pack, Hagan, Titus). 

76. O. SCHAEFFERI Davis. Beaver, July 6, 1927 (Knowlton) 
and June 25, 1927 (Pack). 

77. O. VANDUZEEI Distant. Bountiful, June 22, 1929 (Pack 
and M. J. Janes). 

78. O. GIBBERA Davis. Corinne, June 22, 1929 (Knowlton 
and M. F. Bo wen) ; Delle, July 24, 1929 (Knowlton) ; "The 
Delle", July 24, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Hardup, June 9, 1930 
(Knowlton) ; losepa, June 14, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Timpie, June 
15, 1929 (Knowlton and Keller) ; Skull Valley, June 12, 1929 
(Knowlton). 

79. O. BELLA Davis. Blue Creek, June 17, 1930 (Knowlton 
and M. J. Janes) ; Brigham Canyon, June 17, 1930 (Knowlton 
and Janes) ; Cache Junction, June 20, 1909 (C. P. Smith) and 
June 23, 1912 (Hagan) ; Garland, June 18, 1904; Logan, July 
14, 1906, July 2, 1909 (Stewart) ; Logan Canyon, June 26, 1920 
(G. E. King) ; Sardine Canyon, June 20, 1930 (Knowlton and 
M. J. Janes) ; Stansbury Island, June 13, 1913 (Pack, Hagan, 
Titus). 

80. O. STRIATIPES (Halcl.). Bonneville, July 16, 1909 
(Titus); Bountiful, July 12, 1929 (Pack); Fairview, July 10, 
1929 (Knowlton) ; Garland, July 13, 1929 (Knowlton and 
Bowen) ; Lehi, July 19, 1909 (Titus) ; Logan; Point of Moun- 
tain, south of Salt Lake City, July 2, 1909 (Titus) ; Woods 
Cross, July 17, 1909 (Titus). 

-- 81. O. FRATERCULA Davis. Snowville, June 20, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton and Bowen). 

82. PLATYPEDIA PUTNAMI (Uhl.). Cache Junction, June 3, 
1912 (Hagan) ; Logan Dry Canyon, June 29, 1912. 

83. P. LUTEA Davis. Logan Dry Canyon, June 6, 1924 
(Knowlton) ; Provo, June 1, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Salt Lake City, 
July 2, 1912. 

84. P. MOHAVENSIS Davis. Beaver, June 25, 1927 (Knowl- 
ton), June, 1928 (Pack). 

Family MEMBRACIDAE (Germar). 

85. CERESA BUBALUS (Fabr.). Garland, June, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 71 

86. C. BASALTS Walk. Fort Duchesne, August 11, 1927 (C. 
J. Sorenson). 

87. STICTOCEPHALA PACIFIC A Van D. On sugar-beets at 
Grantsville, August 13, 1927 (Knowlton). 

88. S. FESTINA (Say.). Hawbush, September 14, 1929 (C. 
J. Sorenson); Lake Point, September 11, 1929 (Knowlton); 
McCormick, September 11, 1929 (Sorenson); Richmond, Sep- 
tember 9, 1926 (Knowlton). 

89. HELIRIA RUBIDELLA Ball. On apple, Logan, July, 1924 
(Knowlton). 

90. TELAMONA PYRAMIDATA Uhler. Newton, July 8, 1929 
(Pack) ; Provo, August 7. 1929 (Pack). 

91. PUBLILIA MODESTA Uhl. Brigham City, August 10, 1927 
(Knowlton) ; La Point, September 25, 1929 (C. J. Sorenson) ; 
on sage at Logan, August 21, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on beets at 
Provo, July 5, 1927 (Knowlton) ; Tremonton, April 29, 1927 
(Knowlton). 

92. LEIOSCYTA FERRUGINIPENNIS var. TESTACEA Van Duzee. 
On Russian thistle, Center, August 17, 1929 (Knowlton) ; on 
Atriplcx, Clover, April 17, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Elberta, August 
7, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Goshen, July 27, 1929 (Knowlton) ; 
Lucin, August 12, 1929 (Knowlton and Bowen) ; Ophir, 
August 17, 1929 (Knowlton). 

Family CICADELLIDAE (Latreille). 

93. ONCOPSIS COGNATUS (Van D.). Salt Lake City, June 22, 
1926 (Knowlton). 

94. BYTHOSCOPUS FRANCISCANUS (Baker). Brigham City, 
September 2, 1927 (Knowlton). 

95. HELOCHARA COM MUNIS Fitch. Common on grass, 
Grantsville, April 27, 1930 (Knowlton) ; Hyde Park, April 27, 
1929 (Knowlton) ; Logan, June 3, 1922 (Knowlton) ; Magna, 
June 27, 1930 (Knowlton); Ogden, April 22, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton); Sandy, September 20, 1930 (Knowlton). 

96. XEROPHLOEA VIRIDIS (Fabr.). Amalga, August 31, 1927 
(Knowlton) ; mouth of Logan Canyon, October 4, 1929 
(Knowlton) ; on beets at Trenton, September 20, 1929 (Knowl- 
ton). 

97. EUTETTIX TENELLUS (Baker). Abundant in Utah dur- 
ing 1930, causing serious damage to sugar-beets and tomatoes 
in many parts of the state. 

98. PHLEPSIUS OVATUS Van D. Corinne, July 21, 1929 
(Knowlton) ; Garland, July 13, 1929 (Knowlton and Bowen) ; 
Willard, April 17, 1929 (Knowlton). 

99. P. IRRORATUS (Say). Mouth of Logan Canyon, October 
4, 1929 (Knowlton). 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

100 CICADUF A SEXNOTATA (Fall.). Mouth of Logan Can- 
yon October q> 1929 (Knowlton) ; Morgan, September 14, 

1925 (Knowlto 11 )- 

101. DIKRAN EURA CARNEOLA (Stal). Lewiston, July 2, 192/ 
(Knowlton) n umerous on Gutierrezia, mouth of Logan Can- 
yon, October 4, 1929 (Knowlton). 

102 EMPOAS CA ASPERSA G. and B. Austin, June 25, 1926 

(Knowlton). 

103 E FLA VESCENS (Fabr.). Hyrum, April 17, 1930 

(Knowlton); Lg an - A P ril 20 > 1929 (Knowlton). 

104 TYPHLO |CYBA POMARIA McAtee. On apple at Tremon- 
ton, September 7 ' 1923 (Hawley). 

105 ERYTHR ONEURA COMES (Say). On Virginia creeper at 
Bountiful, 192<? (Pack) ; Brigham, 1929 (Pack) ; on currant 
and grape Clea r ^ e ^' I 929 (Pack) ; damaging Virginia creeper 
at Salt Lake C^- J u l v > 193 (Knowlton). 

Family FULGORIDAE (Latreille). 
106. ORMEN {S SAUCIA Van D. Angus, July 9, 1927 (Knowl- 

107 LIBURN IA GILLETTE: Van D. Ogden, April 17, 1929 

(Knowlton). 

Family CHERMIDAE (Fallen). 

108 APHAL> RA CALTHAE (Linn.). Fairfield, June 19, 1913 
(Titus)- Mills- September 19, 1930 (Knowlton). 

109 PARATR IOZA GOCKERELLI (Sulc.). Damaging early 
potatoes in sevr ra ^ P arts f northern Utah, spring of 1930. 

110 EUPHA] JERUS VERMICULOSUS Crawf. Logan Canyon, 
August 21 19^5 (Knowlton) ; on Artemisia, Spring Canyon, 
August 28,' 192^ (Knowlton). 

111 ARYTAI NA RIBESIA E (Crawf.). Lehi, 1929 (Pack) ; 
Salt Lake City 1929 (Pack) 

New Stf ec i es ^ West Indian Agromyzidae 

(Diptera). 

c; ^y FROST, The Pennsylvania State College. 

Two new spe c ' es ^ Agromyza are described and notes given 
on other specie'' ^ Agromyza recently taken in the West Indies. 



Agromyza C o^ menae n - S P- 

'\ medium <^ ze< l species. 1 to 1.5 mm. Male: front, face, 
cheeks antenna 6 - P rODOS cis and palpi entirely yellow ; scutellum, 
pleurae and le^ 8 largely yellow ; mesonotum with yellow before 
the scutellum & ^ront including orbits slightly wider than either 
eye sides nearly P ara ^ e l J frontal stripe and orbits concolorous, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL \K\YS 73 

not separable; four pairs of fronto-orbitals equally spaced in 
rows, upper three pairs of equal size the lower pair smaller ; 
orbital hair sparse but conspicuous, upturned ; front slightly 
produced above antennae; cheeks nearly one-half eye height; 
one weak pair of oral vibrissae, distinctly stronger than accom- 
panying setae along lower margin of cheeks ; yellow of cheeks 
continuing back of eye and joining yellow of orbits; ocellar 
triangle reddish brown separated from brown of occiput by a 
broad yellow line, with several minute setae between the ocellar 
bristles ; antennae entirely yellow, bristle on second segment 
short, black, a fringe of minute black bristles along the distal 
outer edge of second antennal segment, third segment (male) 
greatly enlarged, rounded on outer edge, sparsely covered with 
short white pile ; arista scarcely one-and-one-fourth times the 
length of the third antennal segment, slender, brown in color 
and microscopically pubescent, basal fourth only moderately 
swollen and bare. 

Mesonotum marked in center with subshining brown, sides of 
mesonotum yellow, yellow continuing broadly across anterior 
margin leaving a brown area in the center about one-third the 
width of the mesonotum ; anterior callosities entirely yellow 
without dark spots ; yellow continuing entirely across posterior 
margin of mesonotum, the posterior edge of the discal brown 
color divided by short yellow points into five short lobes, the 
center the broadest and reaching nearly to the scutellum ; sides 
of pleurae almost entirely yellow, a subshining brown triangle 
on lower part of sterno-pleurae and a similar spot on hypo- 
pleurae ; scutellum pale yellow in the middle, darkened only on 
sides at the base ; four pairs of dorso-central bristles, the 
anterior two pairs smaller, less than one-half the length of the 
posterior pairs ; about six rows of small acrostichals scarcely 
reaching to the third pair of dorso-centrals ; three rows of small 
setae outside the dorso-centrals ; one presutural arising from 
yellow color of mesonotum, two weak pairs of intraalars, one 
mesopleural and one sternopleural. 

Legs entirely yellow, setae black, tibiae and tarsi only slightly 
darker. 

Abdomen largely yellow, first segment yellow on basal three- 
fourths, second and third segments subshining brown with yel- 
low incisures, fourth and fifth with central brown spots and 
yellow on the sides, male genitalia centrally yellow, laterally 
shining brown. 

Wings rather short, auxiliary vein indistinct but ending sepa- 
rately in costa close to vein one, costa reaching to vein four, 
anterior cross-vein distinctly before middle of discal cell and 
about one-third from base of discal cell, posterior cross vein 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

one-and-one-half times its length from the anterior cross-vein, 
veins two and three distinctly diverging, veins three and four 
subparallel, second, third and fourth sections of costa as 
2^2-1-1, last section of fifth vein one-and-three-quarters times 
the length of the penultimate section, vein five nearly straight 
or bending gently at the tip into the wing margin, sixth vein 
reaching three-quarters' way to the wing margin. Squamae 
gray, fringe dusky. Halteres yellow. 

Female similar in structure and color to male but third 
antennal segment in female normal in size and ovipositor shin- 
ing black. 

Holotype: $ February 10, 1915, St. Vincent, BRITISH WEST 
INDIES (F. Watts) reared as a leaf-miner on Commclina vir- 
(jinica. Five paratypcs all reared as leaf -miners on Commelina 
virginica by F. Watts as follows; 2 $ and 3 9 Feb. 10, 1915, 
St. Vincent, B. W. I. There are also two other paratypes 
1 $ from CUBA reared from Conimcliua mtdi flora and 1 9 
St. Vincent, B. W. I. (S. C. Harland). 

This species runs close to angulicornis Mall, but has more 
than two rows of acrostichals. It also runs close to mel&mpyga 
Loew, but the markings on the mesonotum are different, the 
anterior cross-vein is distinctly before the middle of the discal 
cell and the third antennal segment in the male is greatly 
enlarged. 

Agromyza ipomaeae n. sp. 

A medium sized species, 2 mm. 

$ : Front, face, cheeks and proboscis yellow ; antennae and 
palpi black ; cheeks one-quarter eye-height ; yellow of cheeks 
extending only slightly behind the eye ; a single pair of oral 
vibrissae, distinctly stronger than accompanying setae along the 
lower margin of the cheeks ; ocellar triangle shining black only 
between ocelli, sides yellow, black of ocellar triangle continuous 
with black of occiput, several minute hairs on ocellar triangle 
between ocelli ; orbits darkened only very narrowly on upper 
outer angles ; four fronto-orbital bristles ; orbital hairs small 
and sparse ; basal segments of antennae dark brown, bristle on 
second segment weak, smaller than lower fronto-orbital bristle, 
third segment black, medium sized, rounded at tip, sparsely 
covered with short white pile, arista three times the length of 
the third antennal segment, pubescence microscopic but dis- 
tinct. 

Mesonotum and scutellum shining black, pleurae largely 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

shining black, sutures narrowly yellow, base of wing yellow, 
yellow extending on anterior humeral callosities but not above 
wing base; humeral bristle arising from edge of yellow color, 
post-humeral bristle arising from a narrow black spot on 
pleurae, presutural bristles not strong, arising from edge of 
black on mesonotum, one propleural and one sternopleural 
bristle ; two strong pairs of dorso-central bristles of about equal 
length, a weaker pair preceding these ; seven or eight rows of 
acrostichals reaching to posterior pair of dorso-centrals ; three 
rows of small setae outside dorso-centrals. 

Legs subshining black, anterior knees yellow, mid tibiae with 
two distinct posterior mid-tibial bristles. 

Wings hyaline, auxiliary vein distinct from vein one, ending 
independently in the costa, costa reaching to the fourth vein, 
anterior cross-vein near the middle of the discal cell, posterior 
cross-vein its length from the anterior cross-vein, last section 
of fifth vein about two times the length of the penultimate sec- 
tion, sixth vein reaching almost to the wing margin, squamae 
gray, edge and fringe dark brown. Halteres yellow. 

Holotypc: $ June 20, 1930, Rio Piedras, PORTO Rico 
(M. D. Leonard) reared as a leaf-miner on Ipomaca batatas. 
8 paratypcs; 1 $ June 20, 1930, 3 $ and 4 5 June 22, 1930, 
also reared from Ipomaca batatis Rio Piedras, P. R. (M. D. 
Leonard). 

This species runs close to the European artcmisiac Kaltb., 
but artcm^siac Kaltb. has abundant oral hairs in addition to 
the orbital bristles. It also runs close to jucunda V.d.W. It 
differs chiefly in having the orbits entirely yellow and the 
squamae gray in color. In jncunda V.d.W. the anterior cross- 
vein is distinctly beyond the center of the discal cell. This is 
a variable character and cannot always be relied upon. The 
writer has jucunda V.d.W. reared as a miner from Verbena, 
Ambrosia and Hcliaiithus. Most of the specimens show the 
anterior cross-vein beyond the center of the discal cell but one 
shows it near the center of the cell and one specimen shows no 
posterior cross-vein on one side. 

The following species have been identified from material in 
the United States National Museum. 

AGROMYZA INAEQUALIS Mall., 9 $ and 4 $ Oct. 15 St. 
Vincent, BRITISH WEST INDIES (F. Watts) miner on Lima 
beans. 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

AGROMYZA PLUMISETA Mall., 1 Aug. 7 St. Domingo, 
WEST INDIES (A. Busck), 1*3 May 31, 1917, St. Thomas, 
W. I. (H. Morrison). 

AGROMYZA PARVICORNIS Locw, 1 $ and 1 injured speci- 
men Oct. 21, 1912, Rio Piedras, PORTO Rico ( T. H. Jones). 

AGROMYZA MACULOSA Mall. 2 $ and 1 ? July 16, 1922, 
Rio Piedras, PORTO Rico, bred from Asters (F. Stein). 



The Status of Leng's Classification of the Coleoptera. 

Dr. Clarence E. Mickel, in the September, 1930, issue of the 
Annals of the Entomological Society of America (XXIII, p. 
511), states that "the classification of this order [Coleoptera] 
used by the latter [Leng] in his catalogue of North American 
Coleoptera is the one now met with in current literature." This 
is cited as partial evidence for the assertion : "The systems of 
classification in use at the present time for at least three large 
orders of insects have originated in this country [North 
America]." As applied to the Coleoptera I do not believe that 
the literature substantiates such a conclusion. 

In the first place, Mr. Leng's system is largely based on that 
of Ganglbauer (1903) and Kolbe (1908). So far as it departs 
from these systems, it is characterized by the following among 
other peculiarities : recognition of Omophroniclae, Corynetidae, 
and Trogidae as distinct families ; division of the Adephaga 
into Caraboidea and Gyrinoidea ; removal of the Cupesidae, 
Rhysodidae, and Paussidae from the Adephaga ; division of the 
Staphyliniformia into Silphoidea and Staphylinoidea ; -the aboli- 
tion of the Heteromera (following Sharp and Muir) and its 
distribution among the Serricornia and Clavicornia as Mordel- 
loidea and Tenebrionoidea. 

Outside of North America I am unable to cite a single 
entomological work that has adopted the peculiarities of Mr. 
Leng's system. Works that have appeared since 1920 that do 
not follow him include: Zoological Record, Imm's General 
Textbook of Entomology, Tillyard's Insects of Australia and 
New Zealand, Handlirsch in Schroder's Handbuch der Ento- 
mologie, Scheerpeltz and Winkler in Brohmer's Tierwelt Mit- 
teleuropas, Porta's Fauna Coleopterorum Italica, and Winkler's 
Catalogus Coleopterorum regionis palaearcticae. So far as the 
classification of the Coleoptera now in use throughout the world 
is to be ascribed to any one man, that man would seem to be 
Ganglbauer. 
MELVILLE H. HATCH, University of Washington, Seattle, 

Washington. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A New Belomicrus from the West (Hymen. : 

Sphecidae). 

By V. S. L. PATE, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
In a collection of Oxybeline wasps that Dr. Francis X. 
\Yilliams of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association sent 
recently for determination there is a new species of Belomicrus, 
a description of which is appended below inasmuch as Dr. 
Williams desires to publish some notes on its life history. 
Hitherto nothing has been known concerning the biology of 
any ttcloinuriis save a few scattered flower records. It gives 
me great pleasure to dedicate this interesting little species to 
its prospective Boswell as well as its habitat. 

Belomicrus franciscus sp. nov. 

$ . 5 mm. long. Black. Mandibles light yellow, apices 
piceous. Margin of clypeal bevel above, scape except a brown 
spot behind, pedicel and fiagellum beneath, pronotum to and 
including the tubercles, axillary sclerite, a macula on each side 
of the scutellum, postscutellum, fore femora apically and be- 
neath, middle and hind femora apically, all tibiae externally 
and metatarsi, light yellow; remainder of tarsi fulvous. 
Tegulae fuliginous subhyaline ; squamae and mucro apically 
whitish subhyaline. Abdomen ferruginous, each tergite with a 
yellow fascia preapically, that of the first tergite widest ; first 
two sternites deeply infuscated, brownish black discally. Wings 
clear hyaline, veins light brown. Face with appressed short 
silky pubescence, remainder of body silvery puberulent. 

Head shining, finely but distinctly punctured : mandibles 
medially within with a distinct inwardly directed tooth ; clypeus 
discally tuberculate, widely emarginate and with a nitidous bevel 
apically, the apical margin parallel with a flat ridge which is 
obtusely angulate at the tubercle and which appears superficially 
to be the apical margin of the clypeus; front with two elongate, 
glabrous, nitidous impressions to accommodate the scapes when 
laid back and an impressed line from the anterior ocellus to the 
clypeal tubercle; postocellar line about three times the ocell- 
ocular ; vertex behind the compound eyes rounded; temporal 
carinae absent. 

Thora.v shining, with puncturation similar to head; pronotum 
not carinate, rounded anteriorly and laterally, declivitous an- 
teriorly; prepectus rounded anteriorly; squamae enclosing the 
postscutellum and almost contiguous behind, with the posterior 
emargination a shallow Y-shaped notch, posterior apices 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

rounded ; mucro short, straight, apex obtuse ; propodeum finely 
granulate throughout and obscurely and indistinctly striate 
dorsally and laterally, median fovea above and lateral carinae 
below erased. 

Abdomen shining, finely punctate, constricted somewhat be- 
tween the segments, second sternite with a suggestion of a 
raised arcuate ridge preapically on each side. 

$ . 4.75 mm. long. Similar to the male except that the 
clypeus is retuse apically and horizontally striate on the bevel 
below the tubercle. Psammophore with the mandibular, tem- 
poral, humeral and femoral ammochaetae present and well de- 
veloped. 

Holotype. $ , Lone Mountain, San Francisco, CALIFORNIA, 
1930 (F. X. Williams) [Cornell University, Type No. 924.1]. 
Allotypc. ? , same data as holotype. Paratypcs. 5 $ $ , 
same data as holotype. 

This species belongs to the forbcsi-group. Full details con- 
cerning its relationship to allied species, ultimate location of the 
types, as well as figures of the species will be published at a 
later date in a forthcoming monograph of the Oxybeline wasps 
of the New World. 



A New Milliped of the Genus Fontaria from 
Mississippi (Chilognatha : Xystodesmidae). 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN, University of Utah. 
Among material recently sent to me for identification from 
the U. S. Bureau of Entomology was a single adult male of 
the new species of Fontaria described below. It was collected 
by Mr. K. L. Cockerham at Biloxi, Miss. The type is in the 
author's collection. 

Fontaria lamellidens, sp. nov. 

The dorsum and head light horn brown, with the carinae 
paler. Antennae light brown. Venter and legs dilute yel- 
lowish. 

Body of the typical general shape, being parallel-sided over 
the middle portion and moderately narrowed at the ends. The 
lateral carinae are well developed ; posterior margins of first 
few running slightly forwards, while the succeeding few are 
transverse and the others directed in increasing degree caudad 
of transverse; the caudo-ectal angle is in all but the first three 



xlii, r 31] I.. \TOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

carinae produced caudad in suhdentiform manner, with apex 
rounded ; the last four pairs of carinae produced more strongly 
caudad as usual, their apices all rounded. Carinae all moder- 
ately depressed ; lateral borders elevated, moderately indented 
opposite pores on porigerous segments ; anterior margin more 
narrowly elevated. 

Head shining, smooth or nearly so. Vertigial sulcus dis- 
tinctly impressed, ending abruptly above the level of insertion 
of antennae, but followed by a short median longitudinal im- 
pressed line at level of antennae. Vertigial foveolae 2 2, 
each bearing a long seta. Labral border set off by a fine, 
broken, impressed line, paler in color than rest of head, con- 
spicuously setose, the setae at lateral ends of the area arranged 
in denser patches. In the male the coxae of the second legs 
bear the usual special processes which are short and cylindrical. 
The anterior sternites in the male are without obvious proc- 
esses. 

The gonopods of the male have the basal portion of the 
telopodite strongly pilose over the meso-ventral surface, the 
long hairs directed mesad, while the principal blade is more 
sparsely provided with much shorter hairs along mesal side, 
these present from base distad beyond the middle of blade. 
The principal blade is moderately curved, each crossing the 
other distally; at the distal end the blade is divided parallel 
to the flat surface into two lamellar processes ; the ventral one 
of these lamellae moderately curved mesad, the dorsal one with 
inner edge straight, the other curved, its distal end more acute 
than that of the ventral lamella : the lamellae of equal length, 
parallel with each other, and nearly contiguous. Inner prong 
of the telopodite glabrous, nearly straight, narrowing to a 
slenderly acute tip which is slightly curved outward, reaching 
to near the level of furcation of the principal blade. 

Length of holotype (a male), about 33 mm. ; maximum width 
across carinae, 8 mm. 

Locality. MISSISSIPPI: Biloxi. K. L. Cockerham, collec- 
tor. 

Distinguished from all other species of the genus in the 

lamellate form of the distal process of the gonopods as above 
described. 

Change of Address. 

I am now with the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and located 
at the U. S. National Museum. My home address is 2222 
One Street, N. YV., Washington, D*. C H. G. BARBER. 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

The Naming of Individual Variants in Lepidoptera. 

By G. TALBOT, The Hill Museum, Witley, Surrey, England. 

The article on this subject by Mr. A. B. Klots (Ent. News 
xli, pp. 298, 324) places before American Lepidopterists an 
opinion held by many European workers. The present writer 
has twice referred to this subject. Firstly re the question of 
naming teratological specimens (Ent. Zeit. 42, p. 201, 1929) ; 
secondly re the naming of variations in the markings of certain 
Coleoptera (Ent. Record 42, p. 70, 1930). 

The article by Klots appears to be prompted not only by 
the custom of giving names to insignificant variants, but also 
by the attempt made by Gunder to place this method on a 
scientific basis. We agree with Klots that Guilder has failed 
in his attempt to classify variants. 

Perhaps the reply of those who think to continue this custom 
of naming all variants, would be that it does not matter what 
kind of variation it is, but as a difference of a kind can be dis- 
cerned, it should be duly christened to distinguish it from a 
form which closely resembles it. Such a view could be held 
only by those who have either not seen a large collection of a 
variable species, or who have not seriously considered the ques- 
tion. Let us take, for example, a series of specimens showing 
the development of a band on the wing, from a wing without 
any trace of a band to one in which a well-defined band occurs. 
If we call the specimen with a half -developed band a "Transi- 
tion Form", this term must be used for all the other specimens 
in the series because we cannot define any line of demarcation. 
The use of the term "Transition Form" is superfluous ; it must 
necessarily include many pure aberrations which may never be 
repeated in the history of the species. 

Before giving a name to some variant, let us pause and ask 
whether it deserves a name. 

A definitely distinguishable variant can receive a name, but 
one may often be at a loss to know whether to call it a "Form" 
or an "Aberration". In the absence of breeding one has to 
judge by experience or by the kind of material. If more than 
one specimen of the variant is known from the same locality, 
it may be called a "Form" as presumably it is recurrent. Many 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 81 

such Forms (excluding dimorphs and seasonal) are called 
Races by some European authors, as distinguished from sub- 
species. They are not, however, true Races, because the typical 
form occurs with them, and predominates. 

Methods of classification adopted for one group of animals 
must hold good for all other groups. There cannot be one 
system for Lepidoptera and another for Mammals. 

Let us examine the Human Species from the Lepidopterist's 
point of view. Each individual is different inasmuch as the 
difference is apparent to every other individual, and each has 
a name. This is so far in accordance with the method of nam- 
ing all differences, but in Man it is done for his own conveni- 
ence, and represents personality. The homologue in Lepidop- 
tera would be those slight variations which may be detected 
only by means of a powerful microscope. 

A certain population of men differs from another population 
in several ways, especially in its language. Such is a tribe or 
nation, represented in Lepidoptera by "Forms". 

Several populations of Man agree in certain structural char- 
acters, and we have the Chinese and Polynesian Races for ex- 
ample. These are surely represented in Lepidoptera by sub- 
species or geographical races. 

Lastly we have human aberrations, some pathological, others 
characterised by definite personalities and proved genius. It 
has not been thought useful to give a varietal name to a con- 
genital idiot, nor to a mathematical genius. 

The growing lists of names for individual variants in Lepi- 
doptera is embarrassing and inconvenient. It is largely the 
work of amateur zoologists whose knowledge is frequently re- 
stricted to a section of Lepidoptera. 

If one has a good series of variants in a race of a variable 
species to which many names have been given, one cannot be 
certain, without comparison with the type specimen, if any <mr 
of these variants is to be called by a certain name already pub- 
lished. In many cases no specimen identical with a Type would 
be found, and every individual would require a name. As 
no-one could remember what the majority of such names repre- 
sented, and it would be found necessary to read carefully a key- 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

list of all the described variants in the species, the name loses 
its presumed value and becomes superfluous to any study. 

The question now arises as to whether we can accept the 
view expressed by Klots that "Scientific names should not be 
applied to any concept lower than subspecies". 

In the category below subspecies, we have, perhaps, four 
Forms (including specimens comprised under Guilder's "Tran- 
sition Form"). Sometimes a recognizable Form will be found 
to occur elsewhere as a subspecies. It should obviously bear 
a name. Other Forms are mimetic examples, and should bear 
a name to record their existence, and to enable the phenomena 
with which they are associated, to be dealt with easily. One 
never knows when any particular Form will bear a new signifi- 
cance in connection with the species-study, or with some prob- 
lem arising out of the study of other species. Furthermore, 
the rate of evolutionary change going on amongst insects and 
other of the lower groups of organisms, may be sufficiently 
great for some alteration in status to occur during the time 
which may be available to Man for his studies. 

For these reasons we believe that concepts below the rank 
of subspecies may bear scientific names. 

A name should be given to any specimen or specimens which 
show definite differentiating characters, providing these char- 
acters are not of a teratological or pathological type. 

If the requisite data be not available, the classification of 
the new Form must remain sub jndicc. It may prove to be a 
race, a local form, a seasonal or sexual form, and it may be one 
among others remaining to be discovered, belonging to any one 
of the forms mentioned. 



Ceratopogonine Midges on Wings of Odonata. 
(Dipt.: Chironomidae). 

Dr. J. Bequaert (The African Republic of Liberia and the 
Belgian Congo, Vol. II, p. 846, 1930) records the finding of 
female midges at Gbanga, Liberia, September, 1926, fixed by 
means of the proboscis to the underside of the wings of dragon- 
flies, Trithemis artcriosa (Burm.) and Orthctniiii inicrostiynia 
Ris. According to Mr. F. W. Edwards, of the British Museum, 
the midge is an undescribed species, probably of a new genus. 
The only similar record is by Jacobson and de Meijere (Tijdschr, 
v. Ent., Ixvi; 135. 137, 1923). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Bites by Aphis Lion (Neur. : Chrysopidae). 

Dr. L. O. Howard has called our attention to the following 
letter on this subject in the Journal of the American Medical 
Association for December 13, 1930, page 1X55, which we reprint 
here, as the original may not come to the attention of all ento- 
mologists. 

To the Editor.-- A prolonged drought, as a disturbance, 
digs deep into the daily web of life. The aphis lion (Chrysopi- 
dae) usually finds aphides enough and to spare ; but not this dry 
year. As a result, he turned to anything bearing blood and I 
have known of six or more bites this summer. About the first 
week in August, sitting under a large white oak tree in my yard, 
I felt a sharp bite on the wrist and looked to find, to me, a new 
form of insect sinking his "beak" into the flexor aspect of my 
wrist so vigorously and with such manifest enjoyment that I 
became more interested than angry. He was a yellowish, spotted, 
canoe-shaped larva of some kind about 5 or 6 mm. long, with a 
pair of long curved, almost parallel mandibles, now covered with 
blood, with which he was tearing the flesh. Some movement 
of mine made him move about an inch away, where he started 
again, nothing daunted. The pain was more like a bite than a 
sting, but the after results indicated some new and novel toxin. 
Interested, I let him suck his fill at the second bite, and then I 
bottled him for identification with the result mentioned. An 
hour later there was an intense burning pain, worse than any 
mosquito bite, with an areola an inch or more in diameter around 
the first bite and almost none around the second, showing seem- 
ingly a mosquito-like initial injection of some anti-clotting glob- 
ulin. The next day the two were equally inflamed and almost 
purpuric in tint. It was not until the fourth day that the inflam- 
mation began to decline. Two friends who saw the "bug" had 
experiences almost as bad, and one or two others who visited me 
had "strange bites" of untoward severity. Has this experience 
been found elsewhere? I am anxious to know. 

P. B. BARRINGER, M.D., University, Va. 

[Dr. Howard in the first edition of his Insect Book, page 223, 
and Dr. Werner Marchand (NT NEWS, XXXIII, p. 120, April, 
1922) have described similar cases, but in neither instance do the 
effects of the bites appear to have been as prolonged as in those 
narrated by Dr. Barringer. EDITOR, ENT. NEWS. | 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets [ ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

*Jt^JJ Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Anon. Entomology and the British Em- 
pire. [31] 127: 61-62. Bryson, H. R. The interchange of 
soil and subsoil by burrowing- insects. [103] 4: 17-24. 
Clark, A. H. Nature narratives. Vol. 1. 135 pp. Baltimore, 
1929. Cockayne, E. A. Insect teratology. [36] 78: 209- 
226, ill. David, K. Zum apterismus bei insekten. [45] 25: 
168. Eltringham & Britten. Histological and illustrative 
methods for entomologists. 139 pp., ill. Hayward, K. J. 
In far Argentina. [21] 43: 8-11. Lameere, A. [Sur la 
philosophic des societes d'Insectes]. [Mem. Soc. Ent. 
Belgique] 23: xvii-xxxiii. Pilsbry, H. A. The status of 
Bul'la. [The Nautilus] 44: 98. Poche, F. - - Dr. Stiles' 
"American referendum" on three propositions in nomen- 
clature. [Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesel. Wien] 79: 273-283. Poul- 
ton, E. B. An appeal for uniformity of usage in nomen- 
clature. [Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 5: 25-26. Ruediger, E. 
Insekten als symbole. [Ent. Nachrich.] 4-94-97. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Andre, M. L'ap- 
pareil respiratoire du Thrombicula autumnalis (Acarien : 
Earn. Thrombidiidae). [Assoc. Franc Avanc. Sci.] 1929: 
433-434, ill. Bodenheimer, F. S. Ueber thermotaktisches 
verhalten, ko'rpertemparatur und aktivitatsminimum bei 
insekten. [34] 93: 59-61. Brindley, M. D. H. On the 
metasternal scent-glands of certain heteroptera. [36] 78: 



xlii, '31 | K.XTo.Mol.oCIC.M. XK\VS 85 

199-207, ill. Crampton, G. C. A comparison of the more 
important structural details of the larva of the archaic tan- 
yderid dipteron Protoplasa fitchii with other holometabola 
from the standpoint of phylogeny. [19J 25: 239-258, ill. 
Gunn, D. L. The function of the air sacs of insects. [31] 
127: 58-59. Jancke, O. Zur kenntnis der mannlichen 
kaudalregion der Anopluren. [Zeit. Parasit., Berlin] 3: 1-7, 
ill. Lever, R. J. A, W. A new endoskeletal organ in the 
hind legs of the Halticinae. [34] 92: 287-288, ill. Marcu, O. 
-Beitrag zur kenntnis der stridulationsorgane bei Ipiden. 
[34] 92: 238-242, ill. Marcu, O. Beitrag zur kenntnis der 
tracheen der insekten. [34] 93: 61-63, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Beier, M. Zur 

kenntnis der Chthoniiden ( Pseudoskorpione). [34] 93: 49- 
56. (S). Cook, H. J. The finding of large centipedes in 
Wyoming and western Nebraska. [68] 73: 126. *McGregor, 
E. A. A new spinning mite attacking Asparagus plumosus 
in Florida. [10] 32: 161-163, ill. Petrunkevitch, A. The 
spiders of Porto Rico. Part III. [Trans. Connecticut Acad. 
Arts & Sci.] 31 : 188 pp., ill. *Viets, K. Ueber nordameri- 
kanische Koenikea-arten (Hydracarina). [34] 92: 266-272, 
ill. *Viets, K. Ueber einige Gattungen und arten der Ax- 
onopsae, Mideopsae und Arrhenurae (Hydracarina). [34] 
93: 33-48, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Carpen- 
ter, F. M. The lower permian insects of Kansas. Part 2. 
The orders Paleodictyoptera, Protodonata, and Odonata. 
|U,j 21 : 97-139, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Hebard, M. The orthoptera of Al- 
berta. [Pro. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.] 82: 377-403. 

HEMIPTERA. *Bueker, E. D. Two new mealy-bugs 
(Coccidae) in nests of ants (Lasius). |40| 453: 3 pp., ill. 
Drake, C. J. Notes on American Tingitidae. [ 19] 25 : 268- 
272. *Green, E. E. Notes on some Coccidae collected by 
Dr. Julius Melzer, at Sao Paulo, Brazil (Rhynch.). [60] 
91 : 214-219, ill. ^Johnston, H. G. Four new species of 
Miridae from Texas. |19| 25: 295-300. Klyver, F. D.- 
Euphyllura arctostaphyli and Euphyllura neveipennis 
(Chermidae). A difference in interpretation. [10] 32: 153- 
159, ill. *Laing, F. Description of a new species of Aley- 
rodidae. (Rhynch.). (S). [60] 91: 219-221, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bryk, F. Lepidopterorum Cata- 
logus. Par.-, 39. Papilioiiidae 111 (Papilio). 513-676. Bryk, 



86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

F. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars 42. Dioptidae. 3-65. 
Clark, A. H. Some observations on butterfly migrations. 
[76] 1931: 150-155. Cockerell, T. D. A. Notes on Eury- 
mus eurytheme autumnalis. [19] 25: 300. *Hering, M. 
Neue und alte Lepidopteren. (S). [Mitt. Zool. Mus., Berlin] 
16: 513-522, ill. Macrolepidoptera of the World. Fauna 
Americana Part 213. [This part completes the American 
Saturnidae by Drauclt and begins the Uraniidae by Gaede.] 
Martin & Ingham. Diurnal lepidoptera of Huntington 
Lake region, Fresno County, California. [Bull. So. Calif. 
Acad. Sci.] 29: 115-134. *Meyrick, E. Exotic Microlepi- 
doptera. (S). 4: 32 pp. Poulton, E. B. Insects collected 
by Dr. J. A. Douglas, in a hitherto unexplored area of 
E. Peru. Intense pain caused by the bite and sting of a 
winged female Ponerine ant. The snake-like appearance 
of the S. American sphingid larva of Pholus labrusca, en- 
hanced by the modified caudal horn. [Pro. Ent. Soc. Lon- 
don] 5: 19-20, 22-24. *R6ber, J. Neue exotische falter. 
[18] 24: 389-393, ill. Stichel, H. Lepidopterorum Cata- 
logus. Pars 41. Riodinidae III: Riodininae II. 545-720. 
*Wurster, C. W. A melanic form of Telea polyphemus. 
[19] 25: 273-274, ill. 

DIPTERA. ^Alexander, C. P. New or insufficiently- 
known crane-flies from the nearctic region (Tipulidae). 
Part III. [19] 25: 276-282. *Bau, A. Lipoptena surina- 
mensis und Melophagus ovinus bolivianus, zwei neue Hip- 
pobosciden. [60] 91: 175-177. *Collin, J. E. A revision 
of the Greenland species of the Anthomyid genus Limno- 
phora sens, lat., with figures of the male genitalia of these 
and many other palaearctic species. [36] 78: 255-281, ill. 
*Collin, J. E. The Oxford University Expedition to Green- 
land, 1928. Diptera (Orthorrhapha Brachycera and Cyclor- 
rhapha) from Greenland. [75] 7: 67-91, ill. Czerny, L. 
Die Musca annulata (Micropez.). (S). |Mitt. Deutschen 
Ent. Gesell.] 1: 117-121. *Hoffmann, C. C. Los simulidos 
de la region Onchocercosa de Chiapas (Con descripcion de 
nuevas especies). (S). [An. Inst. Biol., Mexico] 1: 293- 
306, ill. Jeffrey, E. C. Cytological evidence as to the 
status of Drosophila melanogaster. [90| 65: 19-30, ill. 
*Krober, O. Die siidamerikanischen arten der gattung 
Scione ( Rhinotriclista). |60] 91: 141-174, ill. *Lindner, E. 
-Revision der amerikanischen dipterenfamilie der Rhopa- 
lomeridae. (S). [11] 1930: 122-137, ill. *Malloch, J. R.- 
Notes on some Acalyptrate flies in the United States Na- 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL XKWS 87 

tional Museum. [50] 78, Art. 15: 32 pp.. ill. (S). Matheson, 
R. Distribution notes on Culicidae. 1 19] 25: 291-294. Rou- 
baud, M. E. Sur 1'existence cle races biologiques gene- 
tiquement distinctes chez le moustique commun Culex 
pipiens. [69] 191: 1386-1388. Schwardt, H. H. Notes on 
the immature stages of Arkansas Tabanidae. [103] 4: 1-4. 
Thorpe, W. H. The biology of the petroleum fly. [68] 73 : 
101-102. Thorpe, W. H. The biology of the petroleum fly 
(Psilopa petrolii). [36] 78: 331-343, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Arangua, E. V. Contribuciones al 
estudio de los Cicindelidae. V. La Cicindela oregona en los 
estados del sur oeste. [44] 33: 394-402. *Blaisdell, F. E.- 
Revision of the Endomychid tribe Liesthini with a descrip- 
tion of a new genus and a new species. [1] 56: 375-390, ill. 
*Borchmann, F. Die gattung Lystronychus (Allecul.). 
(S). [11] 1930: 81-121, ill. Bradley, J. C. The names of 
certain Rhynchophora. [19] 25: 259-262. Eggers, H.- 
Borkenkafer (Ipidae) aus Siidamerika. Ill [2] 26: 163-171, 
Cont. *Fall, H. C. An interesting new genus and species 
of Cistelidae. [103] 4: 15-16. *Fisher, W. S. A new long- 
horn beetle from Costa Rica (Cerambycidae). [91] 21: 23- 
24. Grosmann, H. Beitrage zur kenntnis der lebensgem- 
einschaft zwischen borkenkafern und pilzen. [Zeit. Parasit., 
Berlin] 3: 56-102, ill. *Hustache, A. Curculionides de la 
Guadeloupe. [Faune Col. Franc.] 4: 148 pp., ill. Jeannel, 
R. Monographic des Trechinae. Morphologic comparee et 
distribution geographique d'un groupe de coleopteres. (Liv. 
4). [L'Abeille] 34: 59-122, ill. Kleine, R. Bibliographic 
der brenthidenliteratur. [60] 91 : 195-213. *Ohaus, F.- 
Eine neue Plusiotis aus Guatemala. [60] 91 : 265-266. ill. 
*Ohaus, F. Neue brasilianische Dynastinen. [60] 91 : 261- 
265, ill. *Ohaus, F. XXVI. Beitrage zur kenntnis der 
Rutelinen. (S). [ 11 [ 1930: 138-158, ill. Park, O. Studies 
in the ecology of forest Coleoptera II. The relation of 
certain Coleoptera to plants for food and shelter, especially 
those species associated with fungi in the Chicago area. 
[84] 12: 188-206, ill. *Pic, M. Contribution a Tetude des 
coleopteres Malacodermes. II. Quelques donnees generales 
sur la systematique et cas particuliers. (S). [24| 99: 311- 
324. *Pic, M. Malacodermes exotiques. (S). [Issued with 
L'Exchange Rev. Linne paged separately.] *Pic, M. 
Coleopteres exotiques en partie nouveaux. (S). [L'Ex- 
change Rev. Linne] 45: 7-8, 11-12, 16. Schedl, K. E.- 
Morphology of the bark-beetles of the genus Gnathotrichus. 
[Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 82: 88 pp., ill. 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

HYMENOPTERA. Bruch, C. Nidificacion de "Sceli- 
phron figulus" y observaciones biologicas sobre esta 
especie. [An. Soc. Cien. Argentina] 110: 367-386, ill. 
*Creighton, W. S. The new world species of the genus 
Solenopsis (Formicidae). [Pro. American Acad. Arts & 
Sci.] 66: 39-151, ill. [New species from South America.] 
*DeGant, F. Two new species of parasitic hymenoptera 
(Braconidae) from Ohio. [10] 32: 163-165. *Gahan, A. B. 
-Two new hymenopterous parasites of Tachypterellus 
censors. [91] 21: 37-39. *Hoffmeyer, E. B. Notes on 
some North American Callimomidae (Chalc.). [102] 17: 
213-218, ill. Parks, H. B. Notes on Texas bees. [19] 25: 
263-267. 



SPECIAL NOTICES. Opinions 115-123 rendered by 
the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 
[Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 73: 1-36. [Nothing directly entomo- 
logical.] 

BRADLEY'S MANUAL OF THE GENERA OF BEETLES. 

Dr. J. Chester Bradley, Professor of Entomology in Cor- 
nell University, has compiled for the use of his students a 
Manual of the Genera of Beetles of America, north of Mexico. 
It makes a volume of 360 pages which is offered to students 
of Coleoptera, other than those in the University, through the 
publishers, Daw, Illston & Co., of Ithaca, N. Y. 

The work includes dichotomous keys for determining the 
families of Coleoptera known to occur in America, north of 
Mexico, pages 1 to 15, keys to the tribes and genera included 
in each family, pages 16 to 305, a taxonomic conspectus of 
the genera, pages 306 to 334, and an index. The keys are 
stated in the preface to have been selected, rearranged, abbre- 
viated, combined and translated from "all the most recent 
sources, scattered through the world's literature on insects." 
In some cases alternative keys are given, as on pages 16 to 22, 
where the tribes of the Carabidae are defined according to 
Sloane and again according to Horn; and in a few instances 
the keys are original. Apparently no effort has been spared 
to make the work a complete compilation of our present knowl- 
edge of the classification of Coleoptera ; it includes even Dr. 
Blatchley's discovery of the family Gnostidae (published in 
April, 1930), and presents a view of recently proposed changes 
in classification and nomenclature that will be useful to all. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 89 

In dealing with the changes proposed in the classification, 
Dr. Bradley has followed essentially that of the writer's cata- 
logue ; to provide ready^ reference thereto, the number of the 
catalogue page for each genus is entered in the List of Genera. 
Modifications in the sequence or rank adopted in the catalogue 
have been made only in cases where more recent work has 
made such a course necessary ; in a few instances, proposed 
changes, characterized as premature or revolutionary, have been 
disregarded. 

The matter thus prepared has been reproduced in pages 
resembling typewritten sheets, clearly and legibly printed, and 
reflecting credit upon the publisher as well as the author. In 
the difficulty now existing of procuring copies of the Leconte 
and Horn "Classification," or of Blatchley's "Beetles of 
Indiana," the need of such a manual is apparent ; and it is 
gratifying to record that it has been prepared in a competent 
and conservative manner. 

In the preparation of the keys, in which Dr. Bradley 
acknowledges the helpful criticism of Dr. W. T. M. Forbes, 
and in the correction of the manuscript, in which he was as- 
sisted by Mr. Kenneth Caster, errors, though not entirely 
absent, seem to have been practically eliminated. It should be 
noted, however, that on page 21, line 8, (35) is an error for 
(30). It is probable that in defining nearly 4000 categories, 
other errors may have escaped detection. 

It may be of interest to add a few words as to the changes 
in families which Dr. Bradley has adopted. Nine families are 
added, usually on excellent authority; these are Pseudorhor- 
phidae, Leiodidae, Laridae, Ptilodactylidae, Psoidae, Silvanidae, 
Languriidae, Trogidae, and Calendridae. The argument in 
favor of such changes is the striking differences between the 
genera included and those with which they have formerly been 
included. On the other hand seven families are reduced in 
rank ; these are Platypsyllidae, Leptinidae, Brathinidae, Coryne- 
tidae, Pedilidae, Plastoceridae and Elmidae. In consistency of 
treatment some of these reductions may not be ultimately 
adopted. The position assigned to Brathinus, as a genus of 
Omaliinae, seems to the writer especially inconsistent ; but in 
this, as in the other changes mentioned, Dr. Bradley has fol- 
lowed the most recent author on the subject. 

A few changes have been made in nomenclature, e.g., Elaca- 
tidae for Othniidae, Ciidae for Cisidae, Choragidae for Platy- 
stomidae ; the last-named, according to Pierce '30, seems to be 
unnecessary. 

The student of the Colcoptera will find in this Manual a 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

complete and comprehensive guide to the classification into 
families, trihes and genera, wisely planned and excellently exe- 
cuted. Dr. Bradley is to he congratulated on the highly suc- 
cessful completion of a monumental fcask, a volume in which, 
for the first time since 1883, every coleopterous genus of 
America, north of Mexico, is adequately defined. 

C. W. LENG. 

THOMAS SAY, EARLY AMERICAN NATURALIST. BY HARRY 
B. WEISS and GRACE M. ZIEGLER. A Foreword by L. O. HOW- 
ARD. MCMXXXI Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, 
Illinois ; Baltimore, Maryland. Pp. xiv, 260, 27 illustrations. 
$5.00 postpaid. For the past few years Mr. Weiss has been 
giving us vivacious sketches of entomological celebrities of main- 
lands. It is quite appropriate, therefore, that he should under- 
take this more pretentious life of one of the earliest and best 
known American workers in this field. He and Miss Ziegler 
have brought together all that was previously known of Say's 
life and added thereto much unpublished material from many 
sources. The publisher's jacket rightly describes the book as 
primarily concerned with Say's life rather than his scientific 
attainments, and Dr. Howard adds that, after reading the 
authors' account of a number of Say's contemporaries, "one 
feels almost as though he himself had lived at that time and 
knew these things as one knows contemporary things." 

Three generations of Says preceded Thomas Say, the ento- 
mologist, in Philadelphia. There was William Say, his great- 
grandfather, who is supposed to have come over with William 
Penn, who in 1699 married Mary Paschall, daughter of two 
others supposedly of Perm's company. William Say died in 
1714. His son Thomas (1709-1796), saddler and harness- 
maker, later apothecary and "physician", city commissioner and 
coroner, was famous for "the Uncommon Visions" which he 
had when a young man. Benjamin Say (1756-1813) is "sup- 
posed to have graduated as a physician from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1780, although present available alumni rec- 
ords do not substantiate this". Nevertheless he practised medi- 
cine, charged fees therefor, and signed the original Constitution 
of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia as a Junior Fellow, 
January 2, 1787 (the year of its foundation), and subsequently 
served as its treasurer for eighteen years. 

Benjamin Say married Ann Bonsall, granddaughter of John 
Bartram, the botanist, on October 1, 1776. Their oldest child, 
Mary (Polly), appeared November 17, 1778; the second, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 91 

Thomas, the subject of this hook, was not horn until June 27, 
1787. One naturally looks to his mother's ancestry as account- 
able for his interest in natural history and we are told that, as 
a boy, when he collected beetles and butterflies, "he was encour- 
aged by William Bartram, of Kingsessing, his great-uncle, who 
induced him and several of his young companions to contribute 
their findings to his collection of natural history specimens.' 

Thomas Say's brief partnership with John Speakman in the 
drug business, their financial failure, doubtless soon forgotten 
in his absorption in the newly founded' (1812) Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia are matters well-known. Less 
familiar, perhaps, is his service as a member of the Philadelphia 
First City Troop from September 5 to December 20, 1814, in 
the war with England, although his duties were, apparently, 
not outside the state of Pennsylvania. 

Say's knowledge of the world was chiefly obtained in the four 
expeditions to Florida (1817-1818), the Rocky Mountains 
(1819-1820), St. Peter's River and Lake Winnipeg (1823) and 
Mexico (1828), to accounts of which some forty-seven pages 
are devoted. The first and fourth were private journeys with 
William Maclure, President of the Philadelphia Academy 1817- 
1840, man of means and friend of Say. The second and third 
were performed under the orders of the Secretary of War, 
John C. Calhoun, and the command of Major Stephen H. Long, 
of the United States Topographical Engineers. Say was Zool- 
ogist on both expeditions, but gathered data not only on animals 
but also on the vocabularies of Indian tribes. 

It was between the third and fourth of these journeys, or in 
1825, that Say left Philadelphia with Maclure for New Har- 
mony, Indiana, to participate in Robert Owen's communistic 
experiment. At New Harmony, on January 4, 1827, he married 
Lucy Way Sistare, of New York City, who had come out with 
the same party ; there he became agent for Maclure after Owen's 
withdrawal and there he died October 10, 1834. 

Entomologists will be interested in Say's fourteen letters to 
John F. Melsheimer, from April 12, 1816, to December 1, 1824, 
many of them first published in the NEWS for 1901 and 1902. 
Say, indeed, has sometimes been called "The Father of Ameri- 
can Entomology", but he himself applied the term "parent of 
Entomology in this country" in his .-luicrican Entomology, to 
Frederick Valentine Melsheimer, author of the Catalogue of 
Insects of Pcnnsvk'ania of 1806,* and father of John F. Mel- 
sheimer. In a letter of November 6, 1817, he tells the latter: 

* Compare ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, xli, p. 196, June, 1930. 



92 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

"I assure you that Shells and Crustacea are but secondary things 
with me, INSECTS are the great objects of my attention. I hope 
to be able to renounce everything else & attend to them only." 
Either by choice or by necessity this hope itself was renounced, 
for it was in his closing years at New Harmony that his Ameri- 
can Conchology was written and published, although never com- 
pleted. Say had his troubles with Dermestids in his collection 
as appears from three different references in this book (pages 
54, 145, 154), with non-receipt of separata of his papers (page 
59), with the non-publication of another (page 148). 

Say was nominally "Professor of Natural History including 
Geology" at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, 
from 1822 to 1828. Our authors have not shed any further 
light on this part of his career than is already contained in Fran- 
cis Newton Thorpe's Benjamin Franklin and the University of 
Pennsylvania,^ for example. It is not known whether Say ever 
gave any instruction under this appointment or not, although 
he placed his professorial title under his name on the title pages 
of -his American Entomology. The last three years of his ten- 
ure were certainly spent away from Philadelphia. 

The biography of Say and of his ancestors occupies the first 
nine chapters, or 158 pages of the book. Then follow brief 
accounts of some of his friends: his brother Benjamin (1790- 
1836), William Maclure (1763-1840), Titian Ramsey Peale 
(1800-1885), }. F. Melsheimer, Thaddeus William" Harris 
(1795-1856), Nicholas Marcellus Hentz (1797-1856) and 
others whose interests lay along non-entomological lines. Some 
of his European correspondents are enumerated in chapter XII. 
A summary of his published writings forms chapter XIII. 
Chapter XIV-describes the period in which Say worked, Chap- 
ter XV the fate of his collections. Mrs. Say survived until 
November 15, 1886, dying in Lexington, Massachusetts, at the 
age of 86; chapter XVI bears her name. Chapter XVII de- 
scribes the Say Burial Grounds in Philadelphia and at New 
Harmony; it is in the latter that the remains of Thomas Say 
repose. The eighteenth chapter gives the location of Say's 
manuscripts and letters, which the authors have so diligently 
explored. Chapter XIX discusses the portraits of Thomas Say, 
three of which are reproduced here. The Post face mentions 
"the numerous persons whose combined help made this life of 
Thomas Say possible and whose unfailing courtesy was a con- 
stant source of pleasure." There are also nine pages of genea- 

f Bureau of Education Circular of Information No. 2, 1892. Washing- 
ton : Government Printing Office. 1893. Sec passes 330-331 in the article 
on "The Biological School," by Joseph T. Ruthrock. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL XEWS 93 

logical records of the Say family and a bibliography, occupying 
ten pages, of general works, articles on the Say family, on 
Thomas Say and on his contemporaries, but no list of Say's 
writings is included, probably for reasons which are hinted at in 
chapter XIII. The volume concludes with an index. The illus- 
trations, in addition to the three portraits mentioned above, com- 
prise portraits of Robert Owen, Maclure, Charles Alexander 
I.esueur, John Speakman, Jr., and Mrs. Say, views in old Phila- 
delphia and in Xew Harmony, and fac-similes of title-pages of 
books and of letters of Thomas Say. 

Weiss and Ziegler's Thomas Say thus gives us a fuller account 
of this early American naturalist than we have ever before 
possessed, told in a pleasing way, and enabling us to understand 
more clearly the beginnings of natural science in the United 
States. Like all of Mr. Thomas' publications-, the book is finely 
manufactured. P. P. CALVERT. 

THE AFRICAN REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA AND THE BELGIAN 
CONGO. Based on the Observations made and the Material 
collected during the Harvard African Expedition 1926-1927. 
Edited by RICHARD P. STRONG. Cambridge, Harvard Univer- 
sity Press 1930. 4 to., 2 vols., paged consecutively: Vol I, pp. 
xxvi, 1-568, 7 maps, 443 + 2 figs.; Vol. II, pp. ix", 569-1064, 2 
maps, 33 -|- 28 figs. $15.00. The contents of these finely 
printed and illustrated volumes are divided into three parts : 
1. A detailed and interesting account of the geography, climate, 
inhabitants and their peculiarities, sanitary and medical condi- 
tions, geology, flora, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and 
insects of Liberia, by Dr. Strong (209 pages). 2. Medical and 
pathological investigations in Liberia and the Belgian Congo by 
Drs. Strong and George B. Shattuck (252 pages). 3. Medical 
and Biological Investigations. Eighteen articles, by various 
authors, on helminths, protozoa, plants, mammals, birds, rep- 
tiles, amphibians, certain groups of insects and photography 
(591 pages). The attention now being directed to slavery and 
prevalence of human diseases in Liberia, instigated in part by 
this expedition, renders the presentation of these conditions very 
timely. 

Among the entomological contents of this report is the sum- 
mary on entomology (pp. 189-197) in Part 1 and an extensive 
article (205 pages) on Medical and Economic Entomology by 
Dr. Joseph Bcr|uacrt, entomologist of the expedition, treating 
of Arachnids, Isoptcra, I letcroptcra, Dermaptcra. Orthoptera, 
Diptera, Anoplura. Mallophaga. Siphonaptera and Coleoptera, 
which is supplemented by another on llemiptera, Mallophaga 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

and Anoplura, by G. F. Ferris. Of all the groups dealt with 
by Dr. Bequaert. the Tabanidae receive the greatest attention 
(113 pages), at least one new subgeneric name and a number 
of new species being proposed, while keys to the Ethiopian gen- 
era and to the species inhabiting the Belgian Congo of several 
genera are given as well as a tentative grouping of the 
family embodying his views of the natural relationships 
between the several genera. Three main divisions, or sub- 
families, are recognized under the names of Coenomyiinae, 
Pangoniinae and Tabaninae, the distinctions between them 
being chiefly in the presence or absence of ocelli and of 
spurs on the hind tibiae, and the straight or wavy course 
of the sixth longitudinal vein (An). Under the Mosquitoes it 
is remarked that : "In Liberia the mosquitoes most troublesome 
and dangerous to man are a few domestic or urban species, 
whose breeding places are almost entirely the result of human 
activities. In the primary rain forest, second-growth, swampy 
forest, or mangrove, away from the towns, one is but little 
annoyed by these insects. In the towns, however, one is bitten 
mostly by Acdcs cgypti, Culc.r qiunqitefasciatits. Anopheles 
(/ainbiae and A. funestus, all of which are important carriers of 
human diseases. At Monrovia, I found that even these mos- 
quitoes were not particularly numerous nor annoying during 
July and November ; at any rate they were much less abundant 
than in many other tropical places I have visited. Dr. A. W. 
Sellards had a similar experience in March, so that apparently 
much the same conditions prevail throughout the year. An 
investigation of the town and its immediate surroundings dis- 
closed relatively few breeding places, although no attempt had 
ever been made at controlling or eliminating them. Some of 
these breeding places, such as open ditches of stagnant water 
or empty cans nears houses, could easily be dealt with. The 
most difficult to control, however, will be the large open wells, 
surrounded by vertical stone walls, that are found in almost 
every yard throughout the town. At Monrovia both anophelines 
and Acdcs egypti were breeding in them. . . . Perhaps the 
proper solution of the problem might be to stock the wells with 
certain small fishes that feed upon mosquito larvae." 

Prof. Ferris describes and figures both new and previously 
known species of Trichodectes. Briefer articles are those by 
C. T. Brues on Aneurobracon, a remarkable new genus of 
Braconidae from Liberia, by C. P. Alexander on Tipulidae 
collected by the Expedition (some new species), and by P. P. 
Calvert on the Odonata, and N. Banks on Neuroptera, Meco- 
ptera and Trichoptera, from the same source. 

P. P. CALVERT. 



xlii, '31J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

OBITUARY. 

JAMES H. EMERTON died in Boston, Massachusetts, on De- 
cember 5, 1930. He was widely known as a student of spiders, 
an illustrator of scientific books and a constructor of zoological 
and anatomical models. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, 
in 1847. He published a series of papers on New England and 
Canadian spiders in the Transactions of the Connecticut Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences (New Haven), from 1882 to 1894. 
These led to frequent calls upon him "for a smaller and simpler 
book to meet the wants of readers who, without making a special 
study of the subject" wanted "to know a little about spiders in 
general and especially those species that they often met with.' 
The result was his book of 243 pages and 501 figures entitled 
The Common Spiders of the United States (Boston & London, 
Ginn & Co., 1902). He also wrote The Structure and Habits 
of Spiders (1878) and The New England Spiders. He made 
many illustrations for Packard's Guide to the Study of Insects, 
Scudder's Butterflies of New England, and non-entomological 
works of A. E. Verrill and C. S. Minot. We are informed that 
an extensive obituary notice with a list of his papers will appear 
in Psyche. P. P. CALVERT. 

The death of Professor JURIUS PHILIPTSCHENKO on May 19, 
1930, at Leningrad, of meningitis, is announced in a note, signed 
by M. Rimsky-Korsakow, Y. Dogiel, M. Rozanova. T. Lus and 
T. Liepin. published in Science for January 23, 1931. We 
quote from it as follows: "He was born on February 1, 1882, 
in the family of an agriculturist-scientist residing in the prov- 
ince of Orel. After graduating in the University of Petersburg, 
in 1906, he continued studying for his professorship at the Zoo- 
logical Cabinet at the University. In 1912 he presented his 
dissertation on the embryology of Apterygota, and the degree of 
Master of Zoology was conferred on him for it. In 1917 | he | 
obtained his doctorate on presenting another dissertation on 
the variability and heredity of the skull in mammals. In the 
meanwhile, he was elected first assistant professor, then reader 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '31 

in Zoology, and in 1919 professor of the University of Peters- 
burg, where he established the first chair of genetics in Russia 
and founded a new school of young geneticists. . . . Some 
months before his demise [he] was placed at the head of the 
department of genetics of the Institute of Animal Industry of 
the Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences in U. S. S. R. His 
works, nine of which represent large manuals of genetics and 
experimental zoology, amount to 1 14 in number . . . As to 
his personality, it should be mentioned that he was not only an 
eminent scientific investigator and a brilliant lecturer, but also 
an exceptional man, well known for his inexhaustible energy, 
kindness and responsiveness to the needs of all those who sur- 
rounded him. His death was a heavy blow to every one who 
knew him closely and a great loss for science." 

Philiptschenko's papers on the Apterygota, insofar as they 
were not published in Russian, appeared chiefly in the Zcit- 
schrift fiir u'issencJiaftliche Zoologic and comprise his Anato- 
mischc Studicn iibcr Collcmbola (vol. 85, 1906), Ubcr die 
cxcrctorisclicn und phagocytdrcn Oryanc von Ctenolepisma 
lincata (vol. 88, 1907), Uber die Kopfdriisen der Thysanurcn 
(vol 91, 1908) and Die Embryonalcntwicklung von Isotoma 
cinerea Nic. (vol. 103, 1912). A summary of the last named 
is given by its author in the ZoologiscJicr Anzcigcr (vol. 39) for 
the same year. 



Professor JAMES S. HINE, of the Ohio State University, 
known for his work on Tabanidae, Asilidae and on Odonata, 
died suddenly on December 22, 1930. 

The sudden and unexpected death, on January 30, 1931, of 
Dr. FRITZ Ris, at Rheinau, Switzerland, after a brief indisposi- 
tion, is announced. His publications on neuropteroid insects, 
especially in later years the Odonata, and including a great 
monograph of the Libellulinae of the world, have given him 
high rank as an entomologist. 

We hope to present longer notices of both these naturalists in 
later numbers of the NEWS. 



Subscriptions for 1931 are now payable. 

APRIL, 1931 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 4 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Chamberlin On a Collection of Chilopods and Diplopods from Okla- 
homa 97 

Cresson Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the Dipterous 

Family Ephydridae. Paper IX 104 

Montgomery Notes on Some Butterflies of Northeastern Georgia. . . 109 
Calkins Papilio daunus Boisd. in Scott County, Kansas (Lepid.; Pa- 

pilionidae) Ill 

Park Abnormal Antenna in Eleodes (Coleop. ; Tenebrionidae) . . . 112 

Byers Dixie Dragonflies Collected during Summer of 1930 (Odonata) 113 

Entomological Literature 119 

Review Wheeler's Demons of the Dust . 123 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

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ENT. NEWS, VOL. XL1I. 



Plate II. 




1. SPIROBOLUS OKLAHOMAE. 

2. ORTHOPORUS WICHITANUS. 
3-5. EURYMERODESMUS MUNDUS. 

6-8. E. BIRDI. CHAMBEHLIN. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. XLII. APRIL, 1931 No. 4 

On a Collection of Chilopods and Diplopods from 

Oklahoma. 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN, University of Utah. 

(Plate II) 

There have been few records of Chilopods and Diplopods 
from Oklahoma. It is a matter of considerable interest, there- 
fore, to be able to report upon an interesting collection of these 
arthropods made by Professor R. D. Bird of the University of 
Oklahoma and by him transmitted to me for identification. The 
types of the four new diplopods represented in the material are 
deposited in the author's collection. 

CHILOPODA. 

OTOCRYPTOPS SEXSPINOSUS (Say). 

Murray County, Oct. 26, 1929. One specimen. R. D. Bird, 
coll. 
SCOLOPENDRA HERDS Girard. 

Carter County, Ardmore, one specimen ; Mount Scott, 
Wichita National Forest, one specimen ; Taliga, South Can- 
adian River, one specimen taken in a seine ; south of Buffalo 
Lodge, Wichita National Forest, July 7, 1928 ; near Camp 
Boulder, Wichita National Forest. 28 June, 1928, one very 
young specimen. 
SCOLOPENDRA POLYMORPHA Wood. 

Norman. June 9, 1929; Woods County, April 29, 1930; one 
specimen from each locality. 
NEOLITHOBIUS SUPRENAXS Chamberlin. 

Norman, February 23, 1929. one male and one female col- 
lected by R. D. Bird; Cleveland County, Mar. 10, 1929, two 
males collected by R. D. Bird; Woods County, July 25, 1930, 
one specimen. 
ARENOPHILUS BIPUNCTICEPS (Wood). 

Norman, Nov. 19, 1930, one specimen collected by N. 
Wheat ; Woods County, July 23, 1930, one specimen collected 
by R. D. Bird. 

SCUTIGERA COLEOPTRATA LinnsetlS. 

Norman, Nov. 21, 1930; Oct. 20, 1929, and Jan., 1931, one 
specimen on each date. 

97 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

DIPLOPODA. 

LYSIOPETALUM LACTARIUM (Say). 

Wichita National Forest, near Buffalo Lodge, two specimens 
taken under cow dung. 
BLANIULUS GUTTULATUS (Bosc). 

Sussex County, June 15, 1930. Three specimens. 
ETHOIULUS DIVERSIFRONS (Wood). 

Cleveland County, April 5, 1929, several males and one 
female. R. D. Bird coll. 
PARATULUS sp. 

Murray County, Apr. 5, 1929. Several immature males and 
females. R. D. Bird coll. 

Spirobolus oklahomae sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 1.) 

General color dark brown or fuscous with a reddish or red- 
dish-brown band caudacl of the sulcus on each segment, this 
band lighter in color down the sides ; collum bordered both 
anteriorly and posteriorly with reddish ; head fuscous except- 
ing clypeal border, which is paler. Antennae and legs reddish. 

Vertex of head crossed by a fine striaform sulcus which ends 
anteriorly at level of upper border of eyes ; a similarly fine 
medium longitudinal sulcus from lowest level of antennal sock- 
ets to median labral emargination. Occipital region of head 
densely coarsely punctate, the frontal and clypeal regions more 
sparsely and more finely punctate, shining, in region between 
antennal sockets a few, fine transverse striae; below antennal 
sockets some fine vertical striae. Antenna of usual proportions, 
and lying in the usual excavation in head and stipes. Clypeal 
foveolae 5+5 or 6-f-6. 

Collum ending on each side above lower process of second 
segment in the typical manner, the lower end rounded ; mar- 
gined below and up anterior side to level of eye ; surface 
densely punctate and with fine coriarious markings. 

Second tergite produced forward below end of collum on 
each side, the anterior border of process conspicuously elevated. 

All segments densely punctate, the punctae coarser and 
deeper along depression of sulcus ; transverse sulcus caudad of 
middle, acutely angled at level of pore which lies cephalad of 
it. Metazonites below crossed by longitudinal striae ; striae at 
same level on prozonite curving forward and upward. 

Anal tergite depressed transversely across posterior portion 
but without sulcus ; caudal angle rounded, surpassed by the 
anal valves. 

Anal valves at mesal border moderately compressed and 
elevated. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 99 

Anterior legs of male with proximal joints compressed in the 
anterio-cauclal direction as usual, the third going ('specially con- 
spicuously flattened, broad in the dorso-ventral plane. Coxal 
processes of third legs short, columnar, being about as thick 
distally as proximally, the distal end bearing at middle only an 
obsolete conical point which is easily overlooked. Processes of 
fourth and fifth legs short, with conspicuous conical apices. 

In the gonopods of the male the anterior or median lamina 
extended forward at middle in a broad, subquadrate plate, the 
anterior corners of which are rounded, and the anterior margin 
scarcely convex. Posterior plate of telopodite of anterior gono- 
pod with outer border convex, the narrowed apical portion 
reflected caudad and a little ectad at tip. See further the ac- 
companying figures. 

Number of segments in male holotype, 52. 

Length, about 73 mm. ; diameter, 6 mm. 

Holot\pc, male, Murray County, Oct. 4, 1930. R. D. Bird 
coll. 

Also one male at Buffalo Lodge, Wichita National Forest 
taken June 15, 1928. Two females Pushmatoha County, June 
25, 1929. R. D. Bird coll. 

This species resembles S. unir/fiiniins : but it is a smaller 
form differing in having the median plate of the male gonopods 
distally truncate as well as in the form of posterior and of 
anterior gonopods as shown in the accompanying figure. 

Orthoporus wichitanus sp. nov. (Plate II, fig. 2.) 

General color of the body fuscous with a narrow annulus 
bordering caudal margin of each segment lighter, more reddish 
though the lighter annuli are not conspicuous ; covered portion 
of progonites paler. Head fuscous above, lighter in clypeal 
region excepting a dark band above the labral border, this band 
curving upward on each side. 

Head with a transverse sulcus across posterior portion of 
occiput running between posterior angles of eyes and angulate 
at middle; a finer median longitudinal sulcus running from 
angle of the transverse sulcus across vertex to join a line trans- 
verse impressed line between inner angles of eyes. No median 
sulcus below. On each side just in front of the occipital trans- 
verse sulcus a series of shorter, and overlapping, curved trans- 
verse lines; the vertical region otherwise smooth and shining. 
Lower frontal region somewhat roughened with impressed, 
mostly irregular furrows or sulci, the adjacent cylpeal region 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

similarly marked but also subdensely punctate. Labral border 
about 18 setigerous foveolae in depressions separated by short 
longitudinal ridges. 

Collum not inflexed below ; the anterior lateral corner in the 
male extended forward in a well rounded lobe which is mar- 
gined with a sulcus. A second sulcus subparallel to the mar- 
gining one extends farther dorsad ; a third sulcus is subparallel 
to the second one below but does not extend up dorsad beyond 
middle of the anterior lobe ; a fourth sulcus runs from the 
posterior-lateral or lower corner, curving forward and upward 
to the level of lower edge of eye; a fifth sulcus caudad of the 
fourth is short, like the third ; and a sixth sulcus, which curves 
still less than the fourth, extends dorsad a little beyond upper 
end of the latter. On each side caudad of these striae a number 
of irregular, short, more weakly impressed, longitudinal striae. 
Smooth and shining above. 

Tergites in general densely but very finely punctate. Seg- 
mental sulcus strongly impressed, cross-ribbed ; preceded over 
prozonite above by finer transverse striae. Longitudinal striae 
strongly impressed below, across metazonite. Segmental pore 
well removed from the sulcus which is not at all or but vaguely 
excurved opposite it. 

Anal tergite not covering the valves completely ; angle of 
caudal portion rounded, the caudal triangular portion set off 
by a strongly impressed transverse sulcus, the tergite in front 
of this sulcus densely punctate, and caudad of it strongly punc- 
torugose. Anal valves with margins strongly elevated ; surface 
punctate but not rugose. 

Anterior gonopods each with ventral end produced into a 
lobe which bends outward below base of cone and is rounded 
at the end ; the lateral cone extending directly laterad, acum- 
inate, terminating in a slenderly acute, sigmoidal tip. Coxa of 
posterior gonopod curving upward and ending about half-way 
to base of anterior gonopod, where it presents on the mesal side 
a short angular prominence or spur ; telopodite broadly laminate 
as usual, expanding and curving toward free end. 

Segments in male holotype, 64-66. 

Diameter of holotype 7 mm.; length, about 115 mm. 

A female allotype is about 120 mm. long ; diameter 10 mm. 

Holotypc, male, Elk Mountain, Wichita Forest Reserve, June 
22, 1928. Female allotype taken July 9th west of Elk Moun- 
tain, N. M. Newport coll. 

This species, the sole representative of the genus known from 
this part of the United States, may be recognized at once by 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 101 

the form of the conspicuous, acuminate lateral cones of the 
anterior gonopods and the form of the telopodite of the pos- 
terior gonopods as shown in the accompanying figure. 

POLYDESMUS PINETORUM Bollmail. 

Norman Black Jack Forest, Feb. 26, 1930, one male and one 
female, D. Zeigler coll. 

Eurymerodesmus* birdi sp. nov. (Plate II, figs. 6-8). 

Dorsum in general brown, with a wide median longitudinal 
strip lighter, sometimes yellowish, in some bisected by a darker 
arterial line ; the keels also yellowish ; sides and venter yellow, 
collum bordered with yellow all the way around. Head with 
a network of dark lines over vertex ; a dark spot under base 
of each antenna. Legs fine yellow to brown, antennae brown, 
typically darker than the legs, the sixth joint darker than the 
others. 

Head smooth. Vertigial sulcus sharply impressed, ending at 
level of antennal sockets. Antennae filiform, the ultimate 
article alone narrowed, having the usual four sensory cones. 

Collum narrower than second tergite in about same degree 
as latter is narrower than the third ; lateral ends narrowed and 
distally rounded as usual ; anterior margin straight over median 
region, the lateral portion slanting to ends and a little incurved 
at middle ; posterior margin straight or slightly incurved over 
middle region, the lateral portion convex, bending forward to 
ends ; keel narrowly margined on posterior side, the margina- 
tion broader about ends and the sulcus paralleling outer margin 
and gradually fading out on dorsal region. 

In the succeeding tergites the margins of the keels are 
thickened, the labial margin being swollen and set off by a 
distinct depression the other margins more narrowly elevated ; 
lateral margin in dorsal view evenly convex, smooth. Posterior 
angles of 16-19 keels produced caudad in incurving degree from 
first of these to the 19th. 

Anal tergite with the caudal processes narrowly truncate at 
the end. And valves with margins elevated and closely op- 
pressed. Each elevated border having a long seta towards its 
upper end. Anal scale with sides strongly convex, narrowed 
caudad, producing an angle on median caudal line, each side of 
which is a long seta. 

In the male there is a pair of short, rounded prominences 
between each pair of legs of the sixth segment, these processes 

* For characteristics of the genus see Chamberlin, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., 1920, vol. 33, p. 97. 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

strongly setose at distal ends. On the seventh segment there 
is on each side of the gonopods a triangular process or lamina 
which is setose. Each gonopod has a telopodite which runs 
transversely against the basal lobe to its mesal end, then runs 
sub-ventrally on a nearly straight blade to a transverse, sub- 
unciform terminal portion; the terminal transverse portion 
short with an acute and somewhat recurved point; blade 
strongly setose on mesal margin to apical portion which has 
setae on caudal side of base but is distally glabrous. See figures. 
Length, about 32 mm. ; width, 4.5 mm. 

Holotype, male, Murray County, Oct. 17, 1929, R. D. Bird 
coll. Also from the same locality one adult male and one 
female and two immature specimens. 

This species is readily distinguished from the genotype by 
the details of the gonopods and by the triangular form of the 
connected sternal processes of the seventh segment. These 
processes are conspicuously different in size and shape from 
those of the following species, E. mundns. The form of the 
gonopods is shown in the accompanying figures. 

Eurymerodesmus mundus sp. nov. (Plate II, figs. 3-5.) 

General color of the dorsum brown with the carinae and 
caudal borders of the tergites brick-red; the brown color ex- 
tending down the sides on the prozonites farther than on meta- 
zonites beneath the keels, the sides otherwise and the venter 
light yellow. Collum bordered anteriorly as well as posteriorly 
with red. Head brownish above, darker over area between 
antennae and over upper clypeal region, the labral and lateral 
borders yellow ; antennae yellowish tinged with brown. The 
brown denser on fifth and especially on the sixth segment, and 
on proximal portion of the seventh. Legs yellow. 

Head smooth. Vertigial sulcus sharply impressed, ending 
near upper level of antennal sockets, the terminal portion 
widened. Antennae filiform, the seventh article above nar- 
rowed. 

Lateral ends of collum narrowly rounded, the line connect- 
ing them running well caudad of middle ; median portion of 
anterior margin nearly straight, slightly convex, the lateral por- 
tion curving widely and evenly to lateral end ; caudal margin 
bending forward over lateral portion to the end. Margined 
about lateral ends, where the border is more thickened, and 
along anterior and posterior borders part way to the median 
line. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 103 

In the succeeding tergites the anterior corners of the keels 
are all well rounded. Anterior tergites in general with lateral 
portion of caudal margins running obliquely forward and be- 
coming more and more nearly transverse in middle and pos- 
terior regions; posterior angles of 18th and 19th tergites dis- 
tinctly produced, but distally well rounded ; the corners of a 
few preceding tergites slightly extended caudad. Lateral mar- 
gins of keels as seen from above smooth and convex ; the lateral 
margins of keels strongly thickened, the anterior and posterior 
borders more narrowly thickened or margined. 

Last tergite with narrower caudal portion the sides of which 
converge to a narrowly truncate apex ; the caudal portion yel- 
low except for reddish stripe at its base. Valves with mesal 
borders narrowly elevated or thickened. Anal scale semicircu- 
lar, the caudal margin convex and with a setigerous tubercle 
each side of middle region. 

Sternal process between legs of sixth segment obsolete ; and 
none present between posterior legs of seventh segment ; those 
on eighth segment very small. 

In the male the seventh segment presents behind the gonopods 
a pair of stout, columnar or somewhat clavate processes which 
are united at base by a low transverse lamina ; a low lamina 
ectad of each column extends laterad and a little cephalad, its 
free margin slanting from near middle of length of the column 
rapidly to surface of somite. Telopodites of gonopods rising 
from mesal side of basal segments, each telopodite a nearly 
straight blade which narrows gradually to level of free end of 
the column where it bends abruptly caudad and is apically 
acute ; the caudal surface of telopodite densely setose up to 
level of the apical portion as shown in the figures. 

Length of male holotype, about 27 mm., the width, 5 mm. 

Holotypc, male, Norman, Black Jack Forest at University, 
26 Feb.," 1930, I). Zeigler coll. 

Also from the same locality two males, 1 male 10 mm., 1929, 
R. D. Bird. Cleveland County, 1 male, April 5, 1929. A num- 
ber of immature specimens, apparently this species, taken near 
Camp Boulder, Wichita National Forest, 8th June, 1928. 

The species is conspicuously different from other known 
species of the genus in the form of the sternal processes of 
the seventh segment of the male. These are columnar in form, 
parallel in position and are connected at bases in the usual way. 
They are fully as long as the gonopods which they completely 
conceal in posterior view. See figures. 



104 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Spirobolus oklahomae n. sp., anterior view of gonopods 

of male. 

Fig. 2. Orthoporus wichitanus n. sp., gonopods of male. 
Fig. 3. Eurymcrodcsmus mundus, right gonopod of male, an- 
terior view. 
Fig. 4. Euryinerodcsmus mundus n. sp.. distal end of right 

gonopod of male, lateral view. 
Fig. 5. Eurymcrodcsjnus mundus n. sp., sternal processes of 

seventh segment of male, caudal view, less highly 

magnified than figs. 6 and 7. 
Fig. 6. Eurymcrodcsmus birdi n. sp., right gonopod of male, 

anterior view. 
Fig. 7. Euryinerodcsmus birdi n. sp., apical portion of left 

gonopod of male, sublateral view. 
Fig. 8. Eurymcrodcsmus birdi n. sp., sternal processes of 

seventh segment of male, anterior view. 



Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the 
Dipterous Family Ephydridae. Paper IX.* 

By EZRA T. CRESSON, JR. 

Hydrellia serena new species. 

Black, including tibiae and tarsi ; palpi fulvous, halteres 
lemon yellow. Nearly shining, sparingly dark brown pollinose, 
with frontalia broadly velvety-black from dorsal aspect. 
Lunule, face, cheeks, tormae, and undersurface of thorax, gray- 
ish ; humeri and mesopleura dark, concolorous with mesonotum. 
Face not prominent in profile, weakly convex, the bristles not 
much stronger than the aristal- hairs. Antesutural dorsocentral 
very weak, scarcely differentiated from surrounding setulae. 
Fifth abdominal segment of male acutely triangular, slightly 
longer than fourth. 

Length, 2 mm. 

Type. Male ; Ilwaco, WASHINGTON, July, 1917, (A. L. 
Melander), [A.N.S.P.. no. 6482 1. Paratypcs. 3 $ , 6?; 
topotypical. 

This species is similar to my conception of nigricans of 
Europe, with the dorsocentrals developed as in scalaris, but 

* Paper VII. See ENT. NEWS, XXXVI, p. 165, (1925). 
Paper VIII. See ENT. NEWS, XLI, p. 76, (1930). 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 105 

the fifth abdominal segment of male similar to that of crunttis. 
In our lineal arrangement we will place the species between 
tibialis and fonnosa. 

Hydrellia platygastra new species. 

Black including palpi and antennae ; halteres lemon yellow, 
extreme apices of femora, bases and apices of tibiae and most 
of tarsi, brown to tawny. Somewhat shining especially the 
abdomen, obscured by grayish brown pollen. Frons subopaque 
with velvety-black frontalia. Face entirely opaque, velvety- 
brown or black. Pleura below and posteriorly somewhat gray- 
ish ; humeri and mesopleura dark, concolorous with mesonotum. 
Frons broad, with reclinate frontal bristle very strong; face 
almost flat in profile. Antesutural dorsocentral strong and near 
sutural region. Abdomen of male with third and following 
segments strongly compressed laterally, dilated dorso-ventrally ; 
genital segment very large. Length, 2.5 to 3 mm. 

Type. Male ; Beaver Creek, Newport, OREGON, ( J. M. 
Aldrich), [A.X.S.P., no. 64X3 | . Paratypcs 1 $ , 59 ; topo- 
typical. 

A species very easily distinguished by the dark, velvety- 
black face, black antennae and palpi. The laterally compressed 
abdomen of the male is very characteristic and is shared by but 
very few other species in this genus. This and the next species 
we will place following nobilis, but they seem to constitute a 
small group of themselves. 

Hydrellia morrisoni new species. 

Very similar to platygastra but face is whitish, the ante- 
sutural dorsocentral is reduced, and the hind tarsi very notice- 
ably dilated medianly. 

Black including palpi, antennae and tibiae: halteres lemon- 
yellow, tarsi brownish. Opaque cinereous; abdomen more shin- 
ing. Frons and mesonotum dark gray ; frontalia not well 
marked; lunule gray; face white becoming gray along orbits. 
Reclinate frontal bristle present; face in profile weakly con- 
vex. Antesutural dorsocentral weak. Middle tibiae in male as 
thick as femora; hind tibiae dilated medianly with convex ex- 
tensor margin and flattened anterior surface. Length, 2.5 mm. 

Type. Male; \Yhite Mountains. Xi-.w H A.MPSII IRK (Morri- 
son), [U.S.N.M., no. 43453]. Paratypc. 1 <J ; topotypical. 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

Hydrellia americana new species. 

Very similar to albilabris Meigen of Europe, but the pleura 
are slightly grayish, not so intensely hlack as in that species. 
From tibialis it differs in having the frons more velvety-black, 
at most only the upper part of the medifrons not included; the 
proocellar bristles are also weaker in this species. 

Black including antennae and palpi ; halteres lemon-yellow. 
Subopaque, sparingly brownish pollinose. Frons velvety-black 
except sometimes at vertical margin ; proocellar bristles very 
weak, much weaker than the frontorbitals. Face and lunule 
silvery-white. Pleura slightly grayish not opaque. Length, 
1.5 to 1.8 mm. 

Type. Female ; Chesapeake Beach, MARYLAND, August 2, 
(J. "M. Aldrich), [U.S.N.M, no. 43454] Paratyfcs. 2 9 ; 
Machias, MAINE, July 17, and 19, (C. W. Johnson), [Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist.]. 1 9 ; Wilmington Notch. Adirondacks, NEW 
YORK, July 3, (Aldrich), [U.S.N.M.]. 

The male is unknown. 

Hydrellia subnitens new species. 

A western species suggesting our eastern cntralis Coquillett, 
but more shining, with dark tibiae, and very narrow cheeks. 

Black; third antennal segment except disk, mouthparts, face, 
extremities of tibiae, and all tarsi except apices, yellow. Hal- 
teres lemon-yellow. Frons rather opaque, brownish, with fron- 
talia scracely differentiated from the trapezoidal medifrons; 
lunule white as is also the face, but not sericeous. The latter 
twice as long as broad, weakly and evenly convex in profile, 
with long slender bristles and very narrow, linear parafacials. 
Cheeks very narrow. Arista with seven to eight well spaced 
hairs. 

Mesonotum including humeri, notopleura and scutellum, dark, 
subopaque, brown pollinose; mesopleura except extreme upper 
margin, gray. Antesutural dorsocentral strong, well removed 
from sutural region. Abdomen broad, almost shining, brown- 
ish pollinose ; fifth segment of male much longer than fourth, 
rather broadly truncate. Wings long; second costal section 
twice as long as third. Length, 2.4 mm. 

Type. Male ; Tacoma, WASHINGTON, August 27, 1911, 
(A. L. Melander), [A.N.S.P, no. 6484J. l\mit\t>cs.2s , 
1 9 ; topotypical. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 107 

Hydrellia crassipes new species. 

Apparently very similar to atroglauca Coquillett, but with 
dark tibiae. I have not seen a male of atror/lauca. 

Black; palpi and tarsi tawny. Halteres whitish. Opaque; 
mesonotum including humeri, scutellum and dorstim of abdo- 
men, dark, subopaque, dark ocherous pollinose ; lower occiput, 
pleura, venter of abdomen, femora and tibiae, gray to whitish. 
Frons opaque black, with frontalia scarcely differentiated ; 
lunule white. Face and cheeks plumbaceous to yellowish gray, 
not sericeous ; former nearly three times as long as broad, in 
profile convex, somewhat prominent below middle, with four 
to six rather stout bristles each side. Cheeks not as broad as 
third antennal segment. Arista with seven to nine hairs. 

Antesutural dorsocentral strong and well separated from 
postsutural pair, with intermediate setula. Abdomen ovate with 
third to fifth segments subequal in length; the fifth triangular, 
acute apically. Hind femora of male stout and slightly arcuate ; 
their tibiae with a conspicuous foliaceous flexor dilation. 
Length. 2.2 to 2.5 mm. 

T\pc. Male; Sandusky, Cedar Point, OHIO, August 4, 
1902, [Ohio State University]. Paralyses 19 $ , 289 ; topo- 
typical. 

Hydrellia decens new species. 

In lacking the reclinate frontal bristles, this species suggests 
prodinata, Cresson, but here we have a very shining, metallic 

colored form. 

Black including antennae and palpi ; halteres yellowish white. 
Shining to polished, metallic colored; mesonotum including 
humeri, and notopleura, dark ; upper part of pleura and metan- 
otum brownish. Frons and upper occiput subopaque, frontalia 
opaque black; reclinate frontal bristles not developed; lunule 
gray. Face rather narrow with parallel facialia, opaque brown- 
ish to black, grayish laterally; in profile, weakly convex; bristles 
hairlike. Arista with about ten hairs. Antesutural dorsocen- 
trals strong and well removed from the postsutural pair. 
Length, 2.3 mm. 

T\pc. Female; MARYLAND near Plummers Island, August 
12, "1914, (R. C. Shannon), [U.S.N.M., no. 4.U55J. I\mi- 
types. 1 9 ; topotypical. 1 9 ; Plummers Island. Maryland, 
July 13, (\V. L. McAtee), [Biol. Surv.J. 

The male sex is unknown. 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

Hydrellia pulla new species. 

A robust, strongly bristled species, with prominent subconi- 
cal face. Its systematic position is rather doubtful, but can be 
placed in the group with atroglaucu. 

Black ; palpi tawny, halteres lemon-yellow. Upper surfaces 
brown, nearly opaque ; face, occiput, pleura below, bluish gray ; 
humeri notopleura and upper part of mesopleura dark. Frons 
opaque black with scarcely differentiated black f rontalia ; re- 
clinate frontals strong ; lunule small, concolorous with face. 
Face in profile conically prominent medianly, with four to five 
stout bristles. Arista with seven hairs. Antesutural dorsocen- 
trals strong and well removed from sutural region. Length, 3 
mm. 

T\pe. Female ; Spencer lake, NEW YORK, June 30, 1907, 
[Cornell]. Paratypc. 19 ; Goshen. CONNECTICUT, July 6, 
1919, (M. P. Zappa), [Boston]. 

The male sex is unknown. 

Hydrellia notiphiloides new species. 

A species allied to cm rails Coq. but having the tibiae dark. 

Black ; palpi and hateres pale yellow. Opaque ; mesonotum, 
scutellum and abdomen somewhat shining, brown to grayish 
pruinose ; lunule, face, cheeks, white, sometimes yellowish ; oc- 
ciput, pleura, lateral margins of abdomen venter, and femora, 
cinereous ; humeri gray concolorous with pleura, contrasting 
with the dark notopleura and mesonotum. Frons brownish, 
with frontalia somewhat differentiated, blackish ; reclinate 
frontal bristle strong. Face broad, in profile, convex, with 
three to five stout bristles. Cheeks broad, about one-third eye- 
height in width. Antennal arista with six hairs. Mesonotal 
bristles and setulae strong; antesutural dorsocentrals strong and 
well removed from postsutural pair. Abdomen with segments 
broad, subsequal in length: fifth of male convex, acute. Length, 
2 to 2.5 mm. 

Type. Male; Cedar Point, Sandusky, OHIO, August 5, 1902, 
[Ohio State University]. Paralyses. \$, 59 ; topotypical 
\$ ; topotypical, June 30, \$ ; Xantucket, MASSACHUSETTS. 
July 20, 1910, I Moslem Soc. Nat. I list. J. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 109 

Notes on Some Butterflies of Northeastern Georgia. 

By ROBERT \Y. MONTGOMERY, Poseyville, Indiana. 

During the summer of 1930 collecting was done in Haber- 
sham and Banks counties. Georgia. These two counties are in 
the edge of Blue Ridge Mountains; collecting was done at 
elevations varying from 1400 to 1800 feet. 

Many types of localities, including peach and apple orchards, 
shrill) covered pastures, marshes, woodlands, roadsides and 
flower gardens were visited. But one species was found in 
woods and that near the edge. The absence of flowering vege- 
tation in the woods was no doubt the reason for this. 

The writer was accompanied on collecting trips by II. T. 
Vanderford and Erskine M. Livingstone. 

PAPILIONIDAE. 

1. PAPILIO PHILENOR L. Taken from all localities except 
woodlands, June 26-September 7. The emergence of a brood 
began about August 8. 

2. PAPILIO POLYXEXES Fab. A very few specimens from 
orchards and flower gardens, August 12-30. 

3. PAPILIO TURNUS L. A few specimens taken at intervals 
from June 30-September 1. Flower gardens and orchards. 
Form (jlanciis L. from flower gardens and marsh. June 25, 
September 1. 

4. PAPILIO TROILUS L. Marsh, orchards and flower gardens, 
July 13-September 7. 

PIERIDAE. 

5. PIERIS PROTODICE Bdv.-Lec. A few specimens from 
flowers, August 24-30. 

6. PIERIS RAPAE L. Flower and vegetable gardens, May 26- 
August 30. 

7. CATOPSILIA EUBULE L. One specimen from flower gar- 
den, August 25; one specimen from marsh, September 1. 

8. COLIAS EPRYTHEME Bdv. Two specimens from pasture, 
June 21, September 7. 

9. TERIAS NICIPPE Cram. A single specimen from pasture, 
August 24. 

10. TERIAS USA I'dv. Captured in all localities visited, July 
21 -September 7. 

DANAIDAE. 

11. DANAIS PLEXIIMTS Fab. Pastures, marshes and or- 
chards, August 24- September 7. 



110 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

SATYRIDAE. 

12. NEONYMPHA GEMMA Hbn. Five specimens from an or- 
chard, June 16. This was an old orchard and afforded a dense 
shade. One specimen from marsh at border of dense woods, 
August 28. 

13. CERCYONIS ALOPE Fab. A single specimen from an or- 
chard, August 25. When first observed it was resting on the 
top of an Oriental Fruit Moth bait trap. 

NYMPHALIDAE. 

14. DIONE VANILLAE L. Taken from all localities except 
woodlands. August 12-September 18. A newly emerged male 
taken September 16. 

15. EUPTOIETA CLAUDIA Cram. Pastures, orchards, flower 
gardens, and roadsides, July 12-September 7. 

16. ARGYNNIS DIANA Cram. A single specimen captured on 
street in Cornelia, July 10. 

17. ARGYNNIS CYBELE Fab. Two specimens from orchards, 
July 23, Aug. 10. 

18. PHYCIODES THAROS Drury. Pastures, orchards, flower 
gardens and roadsides, May 26-September 1. 

19. CYNTHIA IIUNTERA Fab. One specimen from an or- 
chard, August 12; one from a marsh, September 1. 

20. CYNTHIA CARDUI L. One specimen from roadside, Julv 
27. 

21. JUNONIA COENIA Hbn. Taken from all localities except 
woodlands, July 27-September 1. 

22. BASILARCHIA ASTYANAX Fab. Three specimens, all from 
orchards, July 27. August 24. 

LYCAENIDAE. 

23. STRYMON CECROPS Fab. One specimen from marsh at 
edge of woods, August 24. 

24. STRYMON MELINUS Hbn. One specimen from an or- 
chard, July 27. 

25. LYCAENA HYPOPHLEAS Bdv. A single specimen taken 
from a marsh, August 24. 

26. EVERES COMYNTAS Goclt. Pastures, marshes and road- 
sides, June 17- September 17. 

27. GLAUCOPSYCHE PSEUDARGIOLUS Bdv. -Lee. Marsh, road- 
side. August 24. 

HESPERIDAE. 

28. EPARGYREUS TITYRUS Fab. May 10-September 1. 

29. ACHLARUS LYCIADES Gey. July 10, September 7. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 111 

30. TIIORYBES PYLADES Scud. July 21-August 29. 

31. THORYBES BATHYLLUS S. & A. July 27-September 7. 

32. HESPERIA CENTAUREAE Kami). September 1. 

33. HESPERIA TESSELATA Scud. August 24. 

34. PHOLISORA CATULLUS Fab. August 26. 

35. ANCYLOXIPHA MCMITOR Fab. September 7. 

36. HYLEPHILA CAMPESTKIS 1'dv. August 24, September 7. 

37. AMBLYSCIRTES YIAUS Kdw. July 27. 



Papilio daunus Boisd. in Scott County, Kansas (Lepid.: 

Papilionidae). 

The occurrence of tbis magnificent species of the genus 
Papilio here on the western Kansas prairie is very interesting, 
geographically. From available data concerning the species 
daunus, it appears to be a typical mountain species, or at most, 
confined to the valleys and slopes of the Rocky Mountain 
ranges, extending from Idaho southward into Mexico. 

For the past few years, I have usually encountered d aim us 
on my collecting rounds, and have taken a few each year. It 
does not occur in sufficient numbers, however, to call it a com- 
mon insect in this locality. When on the wing, it is apt to be 
confused with specimens of (jlancns; as a rule, however, glaucus 
specimens are much smaller than daunus and the larger size 
of daunus may serve to distinguish between the two when fly- 
ing, as they often fly in company with each other. The insect, 
as encountered in this region, has a very wide wing expanse 
for summer examples, the females measuring four and a half 
to five inches, the males being a trifle smaller. 

A fact concerning Papilio daunus not usually known, and 
not mentioned in any reference books, is that it is double- 
brooded in its more southern limits, the first brood emerging 
from over-wintering chrysalids and appearing during the latter 
part of the month of April and the first of May; the second, 
or summer brood, produced from the eggs laid by the females 
of the first generation, and appearing in June and July, and 
even August. The specimens of the first brood are quite small 
and ordinary looking, measuring from three to three and a half 
inches as compared with the giants of June, and later, that 
measure four inches and more. 

It would seem that daitiius in its more northern ranges is 
single-brooded, and that it has been almost entirely the sum- 
mer examples, according to their size, that have found their 
way into collections and illustrations. 

VIRGIL F. CALKINS, Scott City, Kansas. 



112 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

Abnormal Antenna in Eleodes 
(Coleop.: Tenebrionidae). 

By ORLANDO PARK, Department of Zoology, University of 

Illinois. 

Among a number of tenebrionids received some months ago 
from New Mexico, a female of Elcodcs carbonaria (Say) was 
observed to have an abnormal right antenna. The distal border 
of the fifth segment was distorted. From this area of the 
segment arose an accessory structure one millimeter long, which 
bore several bristle-bearing punctures. This palp-like piece 
projected distally and ended in a thickened knob which was 
distinctly notched on its apex. Near the point where the piece 
turned distally, a small projection was given off which extended 
proximally, as can be noted in the accompanying figure. This 
accessory piece of the fifth segment did not show articulating 
surfaces under a magnification of forty diameters. 




An articulating surface could not be discerned between the 
malformed fifth and the sixth segments of the right antenna, 
the latter being firmly set into the fifth in such a way that 
antennal movement must have been peculiar in life. 

The left antenna of this individual was normal, normality 
being determined by comparison with antennae of other indi- 
viduals of the species (12$ ?, 9$ $ ) taken from the same 
area over a period of five years. 

Finally, the left mesothoracic femur of the specimen being 
described had been diagonally fractured at some time, and the 
fracture had subsequently healed over to form a femur con- 
spicuously bent and irregular. 

Bateson ('94) listed six cases of paired supernumerary an- 
tennae (pp. 522-523), and seven cases of supposedly double 
antennae (p. 551) in heteromerous beetles, these abnormalities 
being reported by a number of workers. The malformed 
Elcodcs described above, however, is not easily treated. In a 
previous note (Park, '28) literature was cited on the possible 
effect of injury and this abnormality might be the result of one 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 113 

of many feasible accidents. If so, the right antenna may or 
may not have been injured at the same time as the left middle 
leg. Again, the fifth segment might not have been injured, and 
the accessory structure noted may represent a duplicating right 
antenna in an undeveloped condition. Finally, the knob-like 
proximal projection may be significant, in that the litth segment 
may have shown an abortive tendency to form a pair of super- 
numerary antennae. However, this latter is hardly tenable in 
view of the unjointed and rudimentary condition of the mal- 
formation. 

T am indebted to Mr. William J. Gerhard and to MY. F.mil 
Liljeblad of the Field Museum of Natural History for the 
determination of this interesting specimen. The latter was 
taken beneath a loose board on the ground, at Las Cruces. New 
Mexico, by Mr. R. S. Campbell on July 21, 1929, and is now 
in the collection of the writer. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

BATESON, WILLIAM, 1894. Materials for the study of varia- 
tion. London : Macmillan and Co., xvi -(- 598 pp. 

PARK, ORLANDO. 1928. Bifurcation of antenna in Balaninus. 
Ent. News, 39: 219-220. 



Dixie Dragonflies Collected during the Summer of 

1930 (Odonata). 

By C. FRANCIS BYERS. Dept. of Biology, University of Florida. 

During the summer of 1930 the Museum of Zoology of the 
University of Michigan financed a collecting trip for insects 
into the southeastern portion of the United States. The author, 
from the University of Florida, and Mr. Herman Spieth. from 
the University of Indiana, plus a model-T Ford, plus the field 
man's usual outlay of paraphernalia, constituted the expedition. 

The start was made from Gainesville, Florida, at noon on 
June 19th. Camp was established that night at McClenny. 
Florida, near the banks of the St. Marys River. As the primary 
aim of the collectors was to secure specimens of the insect 
orders Odonata (dragon-flies) and I^hcuicnda ('may-flies), 
the selection of camp and collecting sights was restricted to 
regions near bodies of water, mostly on this trip, to rivers. 
The following table will give the reader an idea of the region 
covered with dates, localities visited, etc. 



114 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Apr., '31 



TABLE. 


Date 


State 


County 


Locality 


June 


19-20 


Florida 


Baker 


McClenny 


it 


22 


Georgia 


Glynn 


Everett City 


tt 


22-23 




Wayne 


Jesup 


it 


24-25 




Laurens 


Dublin 


tt 


25 




Wilkinson 


Irwinton 


11 


25 




ti 


Milledgeville 


it 


26 




Tefferson 


Louisville 


tt 


26-27 




Burke 


Keysville 


It 


28 




Johnson 


tt 


It 


29 


S. Carolina 


Greenwood 


Ware Shoals 


tt 


30 


it 


Newberry 


Chappells 


July 


1 


N. Carolina 


Mecklenburg 


Pineville 


it 


2-3 




Wilkes 


N. Wilkesboro 


it 


4 




Ashe 


W. Jefferson 


tt 


4 




Caldwell 


Lenoir 


tt 


5-6 




McDowell 


Marion 


it 


8-9 




Swain 


Bryson City 


t 


10-11 




Macon 


Highlands 


( 


13 


Georgia 


Floyd 


Rome 


4 


19-23 


Florida 


Alachua 


Gainesville 


t 


19 





Liberty 


Rock Bluff 


t 


23-24 


Georgia 


Dooly 


Vienna 


it 


24 


tt 


Spalding 


Griffin 


it 


25 


a 


Gwinnett 


Lawrenceville 


tt 


27-28 


N. Carolina 


Cherokee 


Murphy 


tt 


30-31 


it 


Swain 


Bryson City 


Aug. 


1-9 


tt 


tt 


region 


tt 


9 


Tennessee 


Sevier 


Sevierville 


tt 


10 


it 


tt 


Gatlingburg 


tt 


11 


a 


tt 


Elkmont 



River System or 
Lakes 

St. Marys 
Altaniaha 

tt 

Oconee 
tt 

Black Lake 

Ogechee 

Savannah 

ti 

Saluda 

it 

Catawba 
Yadkin 
New River 

Catawba R. 
L. Tahoma 
Tuskasegee 

Coosa 

Apalachicola 
Flint 

it 

Yellow 

L. Tennessee 

Tuskasegee 

Great Smoky 

drainage 



The following is the list of species of dragon-flies collected 
in the states of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina. North Car- 
olina and Tennessee during the summer of 1930 (June 19- 
August 11). The number in parenthesis indicates the numher 
of specimens taken of that species which it follows. Only the 
names of the counties and states are given. For additional 
information see the table of localities. The total list numbers 
about 500 specimens, 33 genera and 72 species. 

List of Species. 

SUBORDER ANISOPTERA. 

SUBFAMILY GOMPHINAE. 

1. PROGOMPHUS OBSCURUS (Rambur) (9) Johnson, Wayne 

Georgia. 

2. HAGENIUS BREVISTYLUS Selys (1) McDowell North 
Carolina. 

3. GOMPHUS SCUDDERI Selys (1) Swain North Carolina, 

4. G. SPINICEPS (Walsh) (3) Swain North Carolina. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 115 

5. G. PLAGIATUS Selys (1) Floyd Georgia. 

6. G. sp? (2) Floyd Georgia. 

---'7. DROMOGOMPHUS AKMATTS Selys (2) I.urkc < Inn-gin. 
8. D. SPINOSUS Selys (11) Floyd, Laurens. Wilkinson--- 

Georgia ; McDowell North Carolina. 

( >. ERPETOGOMPHUS DESIGNATUS Hagen (3) Sevier Ten- 
nessee. 

SUBFAMILY AESCHNINAE. 

10. BOYERTA VINOSA (Say) (5) Burke Georgia; Cherokiv. 

Swain North Carolina. 

"TT. CORYPHAESCHNA INGENS (Rambur) (2) Baker, Glynn 
Georgia. 

12. ANAX JUNIUS (Drury) (6) Macon, McDowell North 
Carolina. 

13. A. LONGIPES Hagen (1) Macon North Carolina. 

14. AESHNA UMBROSA Walker (1) Swain North Carolina. 

15. NASIAESCHNA PENTHACANTHA (Rambur) (2) Glynn, 
Wayne Georgia. 

16. EPIAESCHNA HEROS (Fabricius) (5) Burke, Glynn 
Georgia. 

SUBFAMILY CORDULIINAE. 

17. MACROMIA ALLEGHANIENSIS Williamson (2) Cherokee, 
Swain North Carolina. 

18. M. GEORGINA (Selys) (16) Alachua Florida; Green- 
wood South Carolina ; Laurens Georgia. 

19. M. ILLINOIENSIS Walsh (4) Cherokee, Swain N. Caro- 
lina ; Sevier Tennessee. 

20. M. TAENIOLATA Rainbur (8) Burke, Laurens, Wayne- 
Georgia. 

21. EPICORDULIA REGINA Selys (2) Laurens Georgia. 

22. TETRAGONEURIA STELLA Williamson (1) Wayne 
Georgia. 

23. SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA Scudder (1) Macon North 
Carolina. 

24. S. LINEARIS (Hagen) (8) Burke, Floyd Georgia. 

Sl'I'.KA M ILY LlBELLULINAE. 

25. CELITHEMIS AMANDA (Hagen) (2) Baker Florida. 

26. C. ELISA (Hagen) (1) McDowell North Carolina. 

27. PERITHEMIS SEMINOLE Calvert (2) Alachua Florida; 
Wayne Georgia. 

28. P. TENERA (Say) (10) Burke. Gwinnett Georgia: 
Greenwood S. Carolina. 

29. LIBELLULA ATRIPKNMS Burmcister (5) Baker Florida; 
Glynn. Jefferson Georgia. 

30. L. AXILLENA Westwood (7) Baker Florida; Glynn, 
Wayne Georgia. 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

31. L. CYANEA Fabricius (2) Mecklenburg. McDowell- 
North Carolina. 

32. L. FLAVIDA Rambur (7) Burke Georgia; Swain, Wilkes 

North Carolina. 

33. L. INCESTA Hagen (10) Baker Florida; Burke, Dooly, 
Glynn, Laurens, Wayne Georgia. 

4. L. LUCTUOSA Burmeister (3) Mecklenburg, McDowell- 
North Carolina. 

35. L. LYDIA Drury (6) Floyd, Gwinnett, Laurens Georgia; 
Macon, McDowell North Carolina. 

36. L. PULCHELLA Drury (2) Mecklenburg North Carolina. 

37. L. SEMTFASCIATA Burmeister (1) Glynn Georgia. 

38. L. VIBRANS Fabricius (9) Burke. Glynn, Laurens 
Georgia ; Liberty Florida. 

39. SYMPETRUM VICINUM (Hagen) (3) McDowell North 
Carolina. 

40. ERYTHRODIPLAX MINUSCULA (Rambur) (8) Baker- 
Florida ; Jefferson, Wayne Georgia ; Wilkinson, Mc- 
Dowell North Carolina. 

41. PACHYDIPLAX LONGIPENNIS (Burmeister) (33) Baker - 
Florida ; Burke, Dooly. Glynn, Gwinnett Georgia ; Meck- 
lenburg, McDowell, Wilkes. Wilkinson North Carolina. 

42. ERYTHEMIS SIMPLICICOLLIS (Say) (8) Baker Florida; 
Gwinnett, Laurens Georgia; McDowell, Wilkinson- 
North Carolina. 

43. TRAMEA CAROLINA (Linne) (3) Baker Florida; Glynn, 
Wayne Georgia. 

44. T. LACERATA Hagen (2) McDowell North Carolina. 

45. PANTALA FLAVESCENS (Fabricius) (1) Greenwood- 
South Carolina. 

46. P. HYMENAEA (Say) (1) Greenwood South Carolina. 

SUBORDER ZYGOPTERA. 
SUBFAMILY AGRIONINAE. 

47. AGRION APICALE (Burmeister) (8) Burke. Gwinnett 
Georgia; McDowell North Carolina. 

48. A. DIMIDIATUM (Burmeister) (9) Dooly, Wayne- 
Georgia ; Liberty Florida. 

49. A. MACULATUM Beauvais (33) Liberty Florida; Dooly. 
Jefferson, Wayne Georgia ; Greenwood South Carolina ; 
Ashe, Cherokee, Macon, Mecklenburg, McDowell, Swain, 
Wilkes. Wilkinson North Carolina. 

50. HETAERINA AMERICANA (Fabricius) (7) Sevier Ten- 
nessee ; Swain North Carolina. 

51. H. TITIA (Drury) (2) Floyd Georgia. 

SUBFAMILY LESTINAE. 

52. LESTES FORCIPATUS Rambur (1) Macon North Carolina. 

53. L. RECTANGULARIS Say --(3) Macon, McDowell -- North 
Carolina. 



xlH, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 117 

SUBFAMILY COENAGRIONINAE. 

54. ARGIA APICALIS (Say) (38) Burke, Dooly, Floyd, 
Laurens Georgia ; Greenwood, Newberry South Caro- 
lina ; Caldwell, Cherokee, McDowell. Swain, Wilkes 
North Carolina ; Sevier Tennessee. 

55. A. BIPUNCTULATA (Hagen ) - - ( 16) Baker -- Florida ; 
Greenwood South Carolina ; Jefferson Georgia. 

56. A. MOESTA PUTRIDA (Hagen) (10) Baker Florida; 
Dooly, Gwinnett Georgia ; Greenwood South Carolina ; 
Swain North Carolina. 

57. A. FUMIPENNIS (Burmeister) (12) Baker Florida: 
Dooly, Gwinnett Georgia ; Wilkeshoro North Carolina. 

58. A. SEDULA (Hagen) (4) Greenwood S. Carolina; 
Mecklenburg, McDowell North Carolina. 

,59. A. TIBIALIS (Rambur) (40) Baker, Liberty Florida; 
Burke, Dooly, Floyd, Jefferson, Laurens Georgia ; Green- 
wood South Carolina ; Cherokee, Mecklenburg. Wayne, 
Wilkinson North Carolina. 

60. A. TRANSLATA (Hagen) (10) Cherokee North Caro- 
lina; Sevier -Tennessee. 

61. A. VIOLACEA (Hagen) (19) McDowell, Swain North 
Carolina. 

^62. AMPHIAGRION SAUCIUM (Burmeister) (1) Ashe North 
Carolina. 

63. CHROMAGRION CONDITUM (Hagen) (2) Macon North 
Carolina. 

64. ISCHNURA POSITA (Hagen) (12) Dooly Georgia; 
Mecklenburg, McDowell, Swain. Wilkes, Wilkinson- 
North Carolina. 

65. I. VERTICALIS (Say) (7) Burke Georgia; Macon, Mc- 
Dowell North Carolina. 

66. ANOMALAGRION HASTATUM (Say) (5) Gwinnett 

Georgia ; Macon, McDowell, Wilkinson North Caro- 
lina. 

67. ENALLAGMA ASPERSUM (Hagen) (2) Macon North 
Carolina. 

68. E. DAECKII (Calvert) (9) Wilkinson North Carolina. 

69. E. DOUBLEDAYI Selys (3) Dooly Georgia; McDowell- 
North Carolina. 

70. E. DURUM (Hagen) (1) Baker Florida. 

71. E. HAGENI (Walsh) (15) Macon, Wilkinson North 
Carolina. 

72. E. SIGNATUM (Ilagen) (2) Laurens Georgia; Mc- 
Dowell North Carolina. 



118 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

Because of the great amount of territory covered and the 
comparatively short time devoted to collecting, the results of 
the trip are mainly of survey value. The collection is quali- 
tative rather than quantitative. The ratio of the number of 
species taken to the number of specimens is large. 

While the primary objective of the expedition was the secur- 
ing of specimens as indicated, much valuable information re- 
garding geographic distribution and habits of the insects under 
observation was amassed. 

The region collected over seems to have three more or less 
distinct geographic areas based upon the distribution of the 
dragonfly fauna. These are : ( 1 ) North Florida and southern 
Georgia, (Alachua, Baker, Glynn, Liberty and Wayne Coun- 
ties). Central Georgia and southern South Carolina, (Burke, 
Dooly, Greenwood, Gwinnett, Jefferson, Johnson, Laurens, 
Newberry, Spalding and Wilkinson Counties). (3) North 
Georgia, North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, (Ashe, Caldwell. 
Cherokee, Floyd, Macon, Mecklenburg, McDowell, Sevier, 
Swain, Wilkes Counties). 

The fauna of the North Carolina area was markedly different 
in many respects from that of the two regions further south. 
Also within this area there seems to be a secondary one which 
could be included in a circle drawn around Floyd Co., Ga., 
Sevier Co., Tenn., and Cherokee, Macon, and Swain Counties, 
N. C. 

Some interesting observations on the species collected may 
lie noted. Macromla georgina and M. taeniolata were flying 
together at Dublin (Laurens Co.) Ga. At Everett City (Glynn 
Co.) Ga., we found Coryphaesckna, Nasiaeschna and Epi- 
aeschna together, and in addition five species of Libcllitla. As 
the habitat here was a broad road-side drainage ditch, skirting 
a hammock, the prolific dragon-fly fauna was the more remark- 
able. Along the Saluda river below Ware Shoals (Greenwood 
Co.) S. C. both North American specie-* of Pantala were 
found. 

The specimen of Somatachlora clougata, a typically northern 
species, was collected at Highlands (Macon Co.), N. C.. at an 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 119 

altitude of 4300 ft. Its presence here was probably due to the 
elevation effect on temperature. 

The capture of two specimens of Dromogomphus armatus 
came as a surprise, as little has been heard from this species 
since it was described by Selys in 1854. 

The Gomphines of the North Carolina secondary area are of 
peculiar interest, several of them being undescribed species in 
all probability. 

As mentioned before the collection is essentially fluviatile. 
Consequently the best represented of the genera is the genus 
Argia. There were 149 specimens (roughly 30% of the collec- 
tion) and all of the eastern North American species (8) taken 
in this group. Contrariwise the genera Enallagma and Ischnura 
suffered from confining our attention to rivers. 



Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
Indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

U^? Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published In the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Cockerell, T. D. A. (Review of Howard's 
History of Applied Entomology]. |68| 73:186-188. Emer- 
ton, J. H Obituary. By N. Banks. |4| 63/ 23-24. Hart- 
zell, F. Z. Ecotopographic maps: their use in entomology 

and notes on making. | 12| 24: 151-157, ill. Hayward, K. j. 
Some further notes on insect migration in Argentina. | ( '| 
64: 40-41. Hoffman, A. Entomologen-Adressbuch. An- 
nnaire des entomologistes Kntomol< gist's directory. Auf. 
III. \Yien 1930, 357 pp. Omer-Cooper, J. Species-pairs 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

among insects. [31] 127: 237. Osborn, H. Bibliography 
of Ohio zoology. [Ohio Biol. Surv., Bull.] 23: 353-410. 
Zwolfer, W. Zur theorie der insektenepidemien. [97] 50: 
724-759. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Bonnet, P. La 
nine, 1'autotomie et la regeneration chez les Araignees, avec 
nne etude des Dolomedes d'Europe. [Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat., 
Toulouse] 59: 237-700, ill. Clark, L. B Some factors in- 
volved in the reaction of insects to changes in luminous in- 
tensity. [Jour. Exp. Zool.] 58: 31-42, ill. de Boissezon, P. 
Contribution a 1'etude de la biologic et de 1'histophysiologie 
de Culex pipiens. [Arch. Zool. Exp. et Gen., Paris] 70: 281- 
431, ill. Gorter, F. J. Kocherbauversuche an trichopter- 
enlarven. [46] 20: 443-532. Mukerji, D. On the respira- 
tory system of the Cybister larva. [Arch. Zool. Exp. et 
Gen., Paris] 70: 433-467, ill. Nowikoff, M. Untersuch- 
ungen iiber die komplexaugen von lepidopteren nebst 
einigen bemerkungen iiber die rhabdome der Arthropoden 
im allgemeinen. [94] 138: 1-67, ill. Prell, H. Anopheles 
und die Malaria. [Plugs. Deut. Ges. angew. Ent.] 9: 61 pp., 
ill. Valentine, J. M. The olfactory sense of the adult meal 
worm beetle Tenebrio molitor. [Jour. Exp. Zool.] 58: 165- 
228. ill. Zernoff, V. L'immunite et les anticorps non speci- 
fiques chez les insectes (Chenilles de Galleria mellionella). 
[77] 96: 151-153. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Bryant, E. B.- 

A revision of the American species of the genus Ozyptila. 
[5] 37: 375-391, ill. *Mello-Leitao. -- Aphantochilidas e 
Thomisidas do Brasil. [Arch. Alus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro] 
31: 9-13. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Brues, 

C. T. Jewelled caddis- worm cases. |5] 37: 392-394. 
*Longinos Navas, R. P. Insectos de la Argentina. [Rev. 
Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 125-132, ill. *Moulton & Stein- 
weden. A new Taeniothrips on gladiolus. 14] 63: 20-21, 
ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Rosas Costa, J. A. Notas sobre tres 
ortopteros anomalos. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 67-70 
ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. D. A study of the male gen- 
italia of Canadian species of Pentatomidae. [Canadian jour. 
Res. | 4: 148-179, ill., cont. :!: deLong, D. M. A revision 
of the AnuTican species of Empoasca known to occur 
north of Mexico. | U. S. Dept. Agric.] Tech. Bull. 231: 60 
pp., ill. Ekblom, T. Morphological and biological studies 
of the Swedish families of Hemiptera-Heteroptera. [Zool. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 121 

Bidr. Upsal.] 12: 113-150, ill. *Hungerford, H. E.A new 
Velia from Trinidad ( Veliidae). [75] 7: 172-175, ill. *Melin, 
D. Hemiptera from South and Central America. [Zool. 
Bidr. Upsal.] 12: 151-198, ill. *Metcalf & Bruner. Cuban 
Fulgorina. The families Tropiduchidae and Acanaloniidae. 
[5] 37: 395-424, ill. Zweigelt, F Blattlausgallen. Histo- 
genetische und biologische studien an Tetraneura-und Schi- 
zoneuragallen. [Monograph, angew. Ent.] 11: 684 pp., ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bourquin, F. Algunas observaci- 
ones sobre Castniidae. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 173- 
174, ill. (S). *Breyer, A. Lepidopteros nuevos para la 
Rep. Argentina. Lepidopteros de Yacanto especies nuevas, 
raras y comunes. (S). [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 151- 
152, ifl; 169-172, ill. *Brown, F. M. A revision of the 
genus Aphrissa. (S). [40] 454: 14 pp., ill. Cook, W. C.- 
An ecologically annotated list of the Phalaenidae of Mon- 
tana. [4] 63: 1-9. cont. *Draudt, M. Neue Amatiden cles 
amerikanischen faunengebietes. [17] 48: 33-36, cont. (S). 
*Jorgensen, P. Las especies de Castniidae de la Argentina 
y Paraguay. | Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 175-180, ill. 
*K6hler, P. Un nuevo Saturnido argentine, Mesoleuca 
hruchi sp. n. | Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 149-150, ill. 
Kohler, P. Los Dioptidae argentinos. Notas biologicas 
acerca de Ctenucha vittigera lativitta. [ Rev. Soc. Ent. Ar- 
gentina] 3: 153-162, ill; 167-168, ill. Martin & Ingham.- 
An annotated list of the diurnal lepidoptera of Huntington 
Lake Region, Fresno County, California. [38] 29: 115-134, 
ill. Nosswitz, F. Xota sobre Epistor lugubris. Un Mor- 
pho ginandromorfo. | Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 163; 
165-166. ill. *Riley, N. D. A new Ithomiine. [9] 64: 35 
(S). Schwanwitsch, B. N. Studies upon the wing-pattern 
of Prepona and Agrias two genera of South-American 
nymphalid butterflies. [Acta Zool., Stockholm] 11 : 289-424. 
ill. 

DIPTERA. *Bequaert, J. The genus Lasia (Cyrtidae) 
in Xorth America, with descriptions of two new species. 
[40] 455: 11 pp., ill. Bequaert, J. Notes on Hippobos- 
cidae. 2. The sub-family Hippoboscinae. |5| 37: 303-326. 
Curran, C. H. First supplement to the "Diptera of Porto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands." 1 40 1 456: 23 pp., ill. Dunn, 
L. H. Rearing the larvae of Dermatobia hominis in man. 
[5 | 37: 327-342, ill. *Gemignani, E. V. Las especies ar- 
gentinas del genero Mallophora y description de cuatro 
nuevas especies. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 133-144. 
Hegh, E. Les Tse-Tses. Tome I. Bruxelles 1929, 742 pp., 
ill. :i: Lindner, E. Die ausbeute der deutschcn Chaco-Ex- 
])edition 1925-26. Rhopalomeridae und Ortalididae. (S) 
[56] 9: 282-284. *Malloch, J. R. Exotic Muscaridae. [75] 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

7: 185-200. Shannon, R. C. The environment and be- 
havior of some Brazilian mosquitoes. [10] 33: 1-27. 

COLEOPTERA. *Borchmann, F. Alleculidae y Me- 
loiclae. (S). [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 85-100, ill. 
Brown, W. J. Revision of the North American Aegial- 
iinae. [4] 63: 9-19, ill., cont. *Bruch, C. Histeridos hues- 
pedes de Pheidole. Coleopteros nuevos y poco conociclos. 
(S). [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 1-12, ill., 31-42, ill. 
*Chapin, E. A. A new Serica from New Jersey. [95] 44: 
5-6. *de Carlo, J. A. Fatnilia Belostomidae. Generos y 
especies para la Argentina. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 
101-124, ill. *Ogloblin, A. A. Notes on Bethylidae with 
the description of two new species from Missiones. [Rev. 
Soc. Ent., Argentina] 3: 15-27, ill. Beitrag zur kenntnis der 
neotropischen Halticinen I. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 
47-53, ill. *Pic, M. Deux nouveaux Heteromeres de la 
Republique Argentine. Nouveaux Coleopteres de diverses 
families. (Coleopteres nouveaux de la Republique Argentine. 
[Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 29-30, 43-46, 55-56. *Pic, M. 
-Nouveautes diverses. (S). [Mel. Ex. Ent.] Ease. 55-56: 
36 pp., 36 pp. *Thery, A. Observations sur quelques 
Bnprestidae du genre Halecia. (S). [33] 70: 289-304. *Till- 
yard, R. J. Kansas permian insects, part 13. The new 
order Protelytroptera, with a discussion of its relationships. 
[16] 21: 232-266, ill. Tremoleras, J. La fecha de publi- 
cation de los Carabidos descriptos por Brulle en el 
"Voyage" de D'Orbugny. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 
147-148. Ware, R. E. Some notes on collecting Ceram- 
bycidae. [Proc. Iowa Ac. Aci.] 36: 367-369. Zotta, A. Un 
ejemplar topotipo de la especie argentina del genero Camp- 
todontus. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 3: 145-146. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bruch, C. Notas preliminares 
acerca de Labauchena daguerrei. | Rev. Soc. Ent. Argen- 
tina] 3: 73-80, ill. (S). *Carpenter, F. M. The lower 
permian insects of Kansas, Part 3. The protohymenoptera. 
[5] 37: 343-374, ill. *Cockerell, T. D. A. Some notes on 
bees of the genus Andrena. |4| 63: 22-23. *Dettmer, H. 
Beschreibung von ftinf neuen Cynipidenarten, worunter 
eine neue gattvmg. (S). [Broteriaj 26: 54-68, ill. Dozier, 
H. L. A new scelionid egg parasite of the black widow 
spider. |10| 33: 27-28. Haupt, H. Die einordnung der mir 
bekannten Psammocharidae mit 2 cubitalzellen in mein svs- 
tem. [Mitt. Zool. Mus., Berlin] 16: 673-797. ill. *Santschi, 
F. Un nouveau genre de fourmi parasite sans ouvrieres de 
I' Argentine. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina | 3: 81-82, ill. 
Vandel, A. fitude d'un gynandromorphe (dinergatandro- 
morphe) de Pheidole pallidula (Formicides). [78] 65: 114- 
129, ill. 



xlii, '31 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DEMONS OF THE DUST. By WILLIAM MORTON WHEELER 
Professor of Entomology in Harvard University. A study in 
Insect Behavior. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., Publishers. 
New York, 1930. Pp. xi, 378, frontispiece and 47 illustrations. 
$5.00. "The 'demons' of this volume are the inhabitants of 
extreme desertic environments, sand and dust, It is scarcely 
necessary to state that the word 'demon' is here used metaphor- 
ically and in the modern sense of 'a malevolent being.' The 
term has suffered many changes of meaning. To Homer and 
Hesiod it meant a benevolent supernatural being, or god, and 
when Socrates spoke of his daimon he obviously meant a benev- 
olent spirit like the guardian angel of the devout Catholic. 
This volume deals mainly with two unrelated groups of insect 
demons which have acquired a very similar type of behavior as 
the result of living in dry dust or sand, which as Buxton ( 1923) 
says 'is in many ways the most hostile of all environments,' for 
as he remarks later in his fine treatise [Animal Life in Deserts] 
'sand probably presents more difficulties to the flora and fauna 
which attempt to colonize it than does any other type of desert' 
. . . And more intimate acquaintance with the organisms most 
exquisitely adapted to live under such difficult conditions is 
sure to arouse a peculiar feeling of the sinister, malignant, 
weird or supernatural, or what Goethe called the 'demoniac.' 
These terms are all fine examples of the besetting sin of verbal- 
ism, of the tacit assumption that there must be an actual objec- 
tive existent corresponding to a mental process or state because 
we can coin a name for it. If this be borne in mind, there is no 
reason why we may not designate as demons animal organisms 
that exhibit disconcerting or even monstrous forms and behav- 
ior as a result of their structural and functional adaptation to 
extreme environmental conditions." (Pp. 40, 41.) 

After a chapter devoted to the eighteenth century naturalists, 
Pluche, Reaumur, Bonnet, Roesel, Queen Ulrica Louisa of 
Sweden and Degeer. to whom the foundations of our knowledge 
of these demons is due, and another on the fauna of the sands 
in general, the third chapter (62 pages) is a summary of post- 
eighteenth century observations on the Ant-lions, their taxo- 
nomy, larval structure and behavior. The fourth to eighth chap- 
ters present similar accounts of those curious Diptera, of the 
family Rhagionidae, or Leptidae. to whose larvae Reaumur 
applied the name of worm-lions in 1753. They are treated as 
of five specific groups: Mediterranean, I'cnuileo rcrmilco Lin- 
naeus; Sierra. / '. conisloc/ci Wheeler and / '. opm/ns Coquillett; 
the genus Lampromyia, of Africa, Spain and the Canary Is- 
lands: the little known \'cnniti<jris faircliilili Wheeler, of Su- 
matra and perhaps Borneo; and two almost equally little known 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Apr., '31 

species from Cuba, Jamaica and Guerrero, Mexico. To knowl- 
edge of all of these worm-lions, Prof. Wheeler adds much from 
his own investigations in field and laboratory. 

"It would be easy to make a long list of the detailed resem- 
blances between the ant-lion and worm-lion, including the vari- 
ous taxes and sensory reactions of the larva, its normally biennial 
life-span, the excavation of the pitfall ; lying in wait, the pois- 
oning, burial and extraintestinal digestion of the prey, the occlu- 
sion of the posterior end of the stomach, death-feigning, the 
ability to remain for long months in asitotic stupor, pupation in 
the sand, the wriggling of the pupa up to the surface to permit 
eclosion of the imago, etc. On the other hand certain striking 
differences are to be noticed between the two insects." (P. 280.) 

All these resemblances and differences are discussed in ap- 
propriate places throughout the text, with true Wheelerian 
breadth of view and humor, nor is a new term lacking to desig- 
nate these demons and many others "which ambush instead of 
actively seeking their prey. ... I shall . . . call them 
lochetic (from lochctikos, lying in wait, entrapping). In this 
category we may even include such insectivorous plants as the 
sundews (Drosera), pitcher-plants (Sarracenia, Nepenthes) 
and the Venus' fly-trap (Dionaea). Among animals we have an 
extraordinary diversity of forms, ranging from the sea-ane- 
mones, Hydroids, corals, tube-dwelling Annelids, Crinoids and 
Polyzoa to many reptiles, such as the Anniella described on p. 
70 and at least one group of mammals, the cats" (p. 284). Many 
of these lochctcs are considered and the reviewer, unable to con- 
ceal his own peculiar behavior pattern, hastens to add the un- 
mentioned Odonate larvae to the list. "The ambushing or loch- 
etic, animals are also important as excellent examples of con- 
vergent evolution, a principle which, to my knowledge, has not 
been treated monographically since the publication of Willey's 
work in 1911" (p. 295). 

In connection with the worm-lions the question is again raised 
as to "the relative value to be attached to larval and imaginal 
characters in the classification of insects" (p. 193). It is not 
directly answered, but the last complete sentence on page 190 
seems to indicate Prof. Wheeler's belief that the imaginal char- 
acters are to be assigned greater weight. 

Two appendices give translations of Degeer's (1752) and 
Reaumur's (1753) original memoirs on the worm-lion and its 
fly. There is the ever praiseworthy bibliography (pp. 337-362) 
and finally the index. Although heavier than is comfortable 
for the hand, the book is attractively made and printed in good 
legible type. P. P. CALVERT. 



MAY, 1031 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 5 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Dawson Report of Two Cases of Metathetely in Polyphemus Larvae 

(Telea polyphemus Cramer) (Lepid. : Saturniidae) 125 

A List of the Existing Entomological Societies in the United States 

and Canada 126 

Crampton A Claim for Priority in Dividing Pterygotan Insects into 
Two Sections on the Basis of the Position on the Wings in Re- 
pose, with Remarks on the Relationships of the Insect Orders... 130 
Thomas The Predatory Enemies of Elateridae (Coleoptera) .... 137 

Cole A Correction (Hemip.: Aphididae) 140 

Snyder A New Experience (Coleop. : Cicindelidae).. 141 

Entomological Literature 141 

Review Byers' Contribution to the Knowledge of Florida Odonata 145 

Obituary Prof. John Henry Comstock 152 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

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ENT. NEWS, VOL. XLII. 



Plate III. 




METATHETELOUS LARVA OF TELEA POLYPHEMUS. -DAWSON. 



_ENTOMOLQGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLII. MAY, 1931 No. 5 



Report of Two Cases of Metathetely in Polyphemus 

Larvae (Telea polyphemus Cramer) 

(Lepid. : Saturniidae). 

By R. W. DAWSON, Department of Zoology, University of 

Minnesota. 

(Plate III.) 

The following observations were made incidentally during 
the progress of an experimental study of the ecological re- 
sponses of the polyphemus moth to the climatic phase of its 
environment. 1 Fifty-five eggs from a mating of Nebraska 
stock were incubated at 25 C. and the emerging larvae reared 
on a progressively declining temperature scale, following the 
series of mean normal temperatures characteristic of the climate 
at Lincoln, Nebraska from late July to middle September. This 
temperature progression follows : 

25.0 C. for 11 days (incubation of eggs) 19.4 C. for 3 days 

23.3 C. for 4 days 18.8 C. for 3 days 

22.7 C. for S days 18.3 C. for 3 days 

22.2 C. for 4 days 17.7 C. for 3 days 

21.6 C. for 3 days 17.2 C. for 3 days 

21.1 C. for 3 days 16.6 C. for 3 days 

20.5 C. for 3 days 16.2 C. for 3 days 

20.0 C. for 3 days 

The object of the experiment was to induce dormancy in the 
first cycle, comparable to that occurring in the second at the 
close of the growing season. The treatment did not induce 
dormancy, but was possibly the cause for two cases of "meta- 
thetely", or partially arrested metamorphosis appearing among 
the larvae. At least one would suspect a causal connection 
with the descending temperature, since such cases are not com- 
mon among lepidopterous larvae, and were not otherwise noted 
among the hundreds of polyphemus larvae reared in the gen- 
eral experiments, nor among the 148 other larvae reared to 
maturity from the same mating. 

journal of Experimental Zoology, Feb., 1931. 

125 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

The two larvae under consideration attained full size, and 
instead of evacuating the digestive tract and then spinning, as 
is the normal procedure, "sat up" to molt, but without first spin- 
ning the necessary and characteristic silken carpet employed 
in detaching the skin. In both cases molting occurred on the 
fourth day, and was accomplished with difficulty, and only then 
through supplementary aid. The chief obstruction to casting 
the skin was the adhesion of the tracheal lining which in some 
tubes could not be dislodged. The head capsule and mouth 
parts assumed large dimensions appropriate for a sixth and 
monstrous instar. The antennae were greatly distended with 
fluid, and the thoracic legs somewhat so, which rendered them 
useless. The prolegs lost their microscopic, prehensile hooks, 
and also became useless. The larvae became very weak and 
flaccid, and lost all impulses either to feed or crawl, lying 
quietly on their sides like prepupae. Small amounts of fluid 
faeces were passed, and after four or five days of progressive 
decline death occurred. The accompanying life-sized photo- 
graph conveys a good impression of the strange condition of 
these unfortunate larvae. 

Comparable phenomena occurring in the confused flour 
beetle, Tribolinm confusum Duval, and a review of the liter- 
ature relating to the subject of metathetely are given by Royal 
N. Chapman in the Journal of Experimental Zoology, 45, pp. 
293-299, 1926. 



A List of the Existing Entomological Societies in 
the United States and Canada. 

In the NEWS for July, 1930, page 218, appeared a note from 
Dr. L. O. Howard suggesting our publishing a list of these 
societies with an indication of their membership. Endorsing 
this suggestion, we requested data from the secretaries of all 
such associations. Following is the result. Some responses 
have been so much delayed that the information here presented 
is not all of the same date. Errors may, however lead to cor- 
rections from the organizations listed and such will be pub- 
lished as promptly as possible after receipt. Use has also been 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 127 

made of the "Bulletin of the National Research Council, May 
1930, Number 76. Handbook of Scientific and Technical 
Societies and Institutions of the United States and Canada. 
Second edition." The societies are listed in chronological order 
according to date of foundation. 

Entomological Society of Philadelphia, founded February 22, 
1859, name changed to THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 
SOCIETY, February 23, 1867. Address 1900 Race Street. Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. President. Roswell C. Williams, Jr. ; 
Recording Secretary, Dr. R. G. Schmieder; Corresponding 
Secretary, [. A. G. Rehn. Resident members 61, Correspond- 
ing members 56, Honorary member 1. Current publications: 
Transactions since 1868, Entomological Ncu's since 1890. A 
history of the Society, by E. T. Cresson, was published separ- 
ately by the Society in 1909. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO, founded April 16, 
1863. Address Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph. Ontario, 
Canada. President, Dr. J. D. Detwiler ; Secretary, R. H. Oz- 
burn. Active members 145, Honorary members 5. Current 
publications: Annual Report since 1870, Canadian Entomol- 
ogist since 1868. 

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded 1872. Ad- 
dress c/o Brooklyn Museum. Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, 
New York. President, W. T. Davis ; Secretary, Ernest L. 
Bell. Active members 58, Life members 3, Honorary mem- 
bers 5. Current publications: Bulletin (new series) since 1912, 
Entomologica Americana (new series) since 1926. Mr. George 
P. Engelhardt published a paper "Brooklyn and New York En- 
tomological Societies, Past and Present" in Annals of The 
Entomological Society of America, volume xxii. number 3, 
pages 392-400. September 1929. 

MONTREAL BRANCH, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO, 
founded October 16, 1873. Address Lyman Room, Redpath 
Museum, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. President, 
George A. Moore: Secretary, John \Y. Buckle. Active mem- 
bers 18, Honorary members 0. 

CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, founded January 7. 1874. 
Address Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. President, C. A. Frost: Secretary, P. J. Darlington, 
Jr. Active or resident members 90, Corresponding members 0, 
Honorary life members 2. Current publications: I'svclic since 
1874. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF \Y.\sn i \GTON, founded Febru- 
ary 29, 1884. Address 1729 New York Avenue, Washington, 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

D. C. President, A. C. Baker; Recording Secretary, J. S. 
Wade; Corresponding Secretary. S. A. Rohwer. Active mem- 
bers 186, Honorary members 0. Current publication : Pro- 
ceedings since 1884. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS, or- 
ganized 1889 as the Association of Official Economic Entomol- 
ogists. Address Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts. Presi- 
dent, J. S. Houser; Secretary, A. F. Burgess. Active mem- 
bers 602, Associate members 550, Foreign members 52, Life 
members 6. Current publication: Journal of Economic En- 
tomology since 1908. 

THE NEW YORK ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded June 
29, 1892. Address c/o American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 77th Street and Central Park West, New York, N. Y. 
President, Andrew J. Mutchler ; Secretary Miss Elizabeth 
Sherman. Active members 130, Corresponding members 0, 
Honorary members 1. Current publication: Journal since 1893. 
A history of the Society from 1893 to 1918 by Charles W. 
Leng was published in the Journal, xxvi, pages 129-133. See 
also under Brooklyn Entomological Society above. 

JUGATAE, Graduate Students' Seminar in Entomology, 
founded February 26, 1897. Address Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. Chairman, Alexander B. Klots. Active 
members 65, Corresponding members 0, Honorary members 0. 

PACIFIC COAST ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded August 7, 
1901. as the California Entomological Club. President, E. C. 
Van Dyke ; Secretary. J. O. Martin, 2617 Derby St., Berkeley, 
California. Active members 80, Honorary members 5. Cur- 
rent publications: Proceedings since 1901, Pan-Pacific Entomol- 
ogist since 1924. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, founded 
1901, reorganized 1903. Address Agassiz, British Columbia. 
President, J. W. Winson ; Secretary, R. Glendenning. Active 
members 35, Corresponding members 0, Honorary members 0. 
Current publication: Proceedings since 1911, Quarterly Bul- 
letin since 1908. 

HAWAIIAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded December 15, 
1904. Address Experiment Station, Hawaiian Sugar Planters 
Association, Honolulu, Hawaii. Active members 20, Corre- 
sponding members 5, Honorary members 2. Current publica- 
tion : Proceedings since 1905. 

ST. Louis ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, founded April 16, 1904. 
Secretary, Hermann Schwarz, 720 Clark Ave., Webster Groves, 
Missouri. Active members 8, Corresponding members 0, Hon- 
orary members 0. 



xlii, '311 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 129 

THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, founded 1906. 
Address c/o Secretary, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 
President, Dr. Edith M. Patch; Secretary, J. J. Davis. Active 
members 814, Fellows 100, Honorary fellows 4. Current pub- 
lication : Annals since 1908. 

LORQUIN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded 1913, as the 
Lorquin Natural History Club. Address Los Angeles Mu- 
seum, Exposition Park, Los Angeles, California. President, 
Dr. John A. Comstock ; Secretary, John Garth. Active mem- 
bers 60, Corresponding members 0, Honorary members 12. 

FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded January 5, 
1916, Address Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Uni- 
versity of Florida Campus, Gainesville, Florida. President, 
C. F. Byers ; Secretary, W. L. Ziegler. Resident members 30, 
Non-resident members 75, Honorary members 5. Current pub- 
lication : The Florida Entomologist since 1917. 

POPENOE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, founded 1923. Address 
Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas. Presi- 
dent, P. G. Lamerson ; Secretary, H. L. Caler. Active mem- 
bers 25, Corresponding members 0. Honorary members 0. 

KANSAS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded April 9, 1925. 
Address Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan- 
sas. President, George A. Dean ; Secretary, Dr. R. L. Parker. 
Active members 51. Corresponding members 67, Honorary 
members 0. Current publication: Journal since 1928. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, founded 
September 17, 1926. President, R. S. Woglum ; Secretary, 
H. M. Armitage, 330 North Bi-oadway, Los Angeles, California. 
Active members 250, Corresponding members 0, Honorary 
members 0. 

CLEVELAND ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded 1927. Ad- 
dress Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio. 
President, Henry Wormsbacher; Secretary John C. Pallister. 
Active members 22, Corresponding members 6, Honorary mem- 
bers 0. 

TEXAS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, founded 1928. President, 
S. W. Bilsing; Secretary, Dr. M. A. Stewart. The Rice Insti- 
tute, Houston, Texas. Members 75 (from Science for March 
20, 1931, page 310). 

ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. 
Address Lawrence, Kansas. President, Lauren D. Anderson; 
Secretary, Bonnie LaMaster. Active- members 26. Correspond- 
ing members 0, Honorary members 0. 

The totals of this List are Societies, etc., 22, and of members : 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

active (resident) 2851, non-resident 75, corresponding 128, 
honorary 42, life 9, associate 550, foreign 52, fellows 100. The 
names applied to the classes of members have different mean- 
ings in different societies. There are many duplications in 
the totals of membership ; thus a large number of those per- 
sons enrolled in the two national societies (American Asso- 
ciation of Economic Entomologists, Entomological Society of 
America) are members of both of these societies and are also 
members of one or more of the local societies. 



A Claim for Priority in Dividing Pterygotan Insects 

into Two Sections on the Basis of the Position 

of the Wings in Repose, with Remarks on 

the Relationships of the Insect Orders. 

By G. C. CRAMPTON, Ph.D., Massachusetts State College, 

Amherst, Mass. 

Recently, entomologists such as Bradley, 1931 (Laboratory 
Guide to tlic Study of the U 7 higs of Insects*), Tillyard, and 
others, have begun to stress the importance of separating 
winged insects into two divisions on the basis of the method 
of holding their wings outstretched or folding them along the 
top of the abdomen in repose (i.e., the division into Archiptery- 
gota and Neopterygota). Most surprisingly, however, these 
entomologists, who are trained taxonomists meticulously care- 
ful to give exact chronological preference to the first descrip- 
tion of a species or similar taxonomic group (even going to 

[*Dr. Bradley has written to the Editor of the NEWS as follows: 
"In the wing venation guide which I have recently published, I in- 
advertently credited Martynov with division of the Pterygota into 
two groups on the basis of whether the wings were folded or not. 
Crampton subsequently called my attention in a letter to the fact 
that he had made that division before Martynov, and had used the 
terms Archipterygota and Neopterygota. I have therefore made this 
change in a correction sheet for my wing guide . . . and have also 
called attention to the fact that Crampton was the first to so divide 
the Pterygota. I would be very pleased if you would insert an 
editorial footnote to [that] effect ... as I should not like to have 
people feel that I had intentionally refused to recognize Crampton's 
work." The Editor is glad to add this to Dr. Crampton's paper.] 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 131 

such extremes as to give page preference, etc., where two 
descriptions occur in the same publication), nevertheless, in- 
sist upon accrediting the first division of insects on the basis 
of the position of the wings to Martynov, 1924, whose divisions 
"Palaeoptera" and "Neoptera" were not published until several 
months after the actual first publication of such a division, on 
exactly the same basis, made by me, and despite the fact that 
Martynov's terms, such as the designation "Palaeoptera", had 
already been used by me five years before (in 1915) to desig- 
nate a group of ordinal rank, including the Blattids, which do 
not hold the wings outstretched in repose, and therefore could 
not be placed in Martynov's group "Palaeoptera". 

In the June, 1924, issue of the Journal of Entomology and 
Zoology, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 33, the first published proposal to 
divide the Pterygota into two divisions (the Archipterygota 
and Neopterygota) on the basis of the position of the wings 
in repose, was made by me. and it was not until months later, 
in the fall of 1924 that Martynov's paper appeared in the Revue 
Russe d'Entomologie, Vol. IS. p. 145, in which he proposed to 
group winged insects into the "Palaeoptera" and "Neoptera" 
on exactly the same basis namely, the method of holding the 
wings in repose. The Journal of Entomology and Zoology is 
a publication of recognized standing and has a wide circula- 
tion, and since its June issue preceded the fall issue of the 
Revue Russe d'Entomologie by several months, there can be no 
question as to which article has priority of publication. Fur- 
thermore, Martynov's term "Palaeoptera" is preoccupied, hav- 
ing been applied by me to the order to which the Blattids be- 
long, in a paper published in Vol. 26 of the ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NEWS for October, 1915, p. 249, so that this name was used 
for a group of insects which could not possibly be included in 
Martynov's division "Palaeoptera", and was published nine 
years before the paper by Martynov, 1924. It may also be 
remarked in passing, that it is undesirable to apply designa- 
tions ending in "ptera" to groups other than those of ordinal 
and superordinal rank, so that the designations "Palaeoptera" 
and "Neoptera" for the two divisions of the Pterygota are not 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

so appropriate as the designations Archipterygota and Neop- 
terygota which Martynov has attempted to supplant with his 
own designations, but on the basis of priority, availability, and 
appropriateness the terms Archipterygota and Neopterygota 
clearly have precedence, and even if this were not so, Marty- 
nov's term "Palaeoptera" would have to fall as a synonym, hav- 
ing been preoccupied by me in 1915. 

While the first actual division of the Pterygota into two divi- 
sions (the Archipterygota and Neopterygota) on the basis of 
the position of the wings in repose was published in the June, 
1924, issue of the Journal of Entomology and Zoology, this was 
by no means the first mention of the fact that insects which 
hold the wings outstretched in repose form a group of closely 
related insects, as the following quotation from page 116, Vol. 
27, No. 5, of Psyche, for 1920, will show . . . "As was pointed 
out in the August, 1919, issue of the Transactions of the 
Entomological Society of London (p. 93), the Ephemerida, 
Odonata, and certain Palaeodictyoptera form a group charac- 
terized by their inability to fold their wings flat along the top 
of the abdomen, and in an article in the May, 1920, issue of 
the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 
(Vol. 22, p. 98) these insects, together with their immediate 
relatives (i.e., the Protephemerida, Ephemerida, Protodonata, 
Odonata, certain of the Palaeodictyoptera, etc.), were grouped 
in an ancestral superorder of insects . . ." The foregoing 
verbatim quotation from a publication appearing four years 
before Martynov's paper, will clearly prove that I had long 
considered that the insects which hold the wings outstretched 
in repose form a natural group (and likewise cited the chief 
representatives of this group), but it was not until the June, 
1924, issue of the Journal of Entomology and Zoology, that an 
actual division of the Pterygota into two clear cut divisions was 
made by me or by anyone else. 

Martynov, 1924, has inserted so many different dates at vari- 
ous points in his article (a translation of which is given by 
F. M. Carpenter, in the September, 1920, issue of Psyche, Vol. 
37, p. 245) that the reader may get the false impression that 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 133 

some of these various dates refer to installments of the 1924 
paper published at various times ; but, by referring to the 
original article, one may readily see that the first report (dated 
1922, although it was not published until the 1924 article) and 
the date of handing the manuscript to the press in 1923, to- 
gether with the postscript added before the whole was published 
in the fall of 1924, were all published at the same time, under 
a single title, in the fall of 1924 (I.e.) months after the pub- 
lication of the article by me in the June, 1924, issue of the 
Journal of Entomology and Zoology. 

Discrepancies between the dates inserted and the statements 
made in the text itself, make it impossible to determine what 
was in the original manuscript, and what was later inserted 
before the publication of the whole paper in 1924. Thus, Pro- 
fessor Martynov states on page 168 of his paper in the Revue 
Russe d'Entomologie for 1924 (or on page 275 of the 1930 
translation by Carpenter), that he was still collecting material 
in October, 1923, to be used in the preparation of his paper, 
while in a footnote on page 145 of the original article in Russian 
(or on page 245 of the 1930 translation by Carpenter) appears 
the statement that the completed manuscript was in press six 
months before this, in May, 1923, and to clinch the matter the 
date May, 1923, was again inserted at the end of the discus- 
sion as a "finis" on page 170 of the Russian paper (or on page 
278 of the 1930 translation), although it is difficult to under- 
stand how one could still be collecting material to work in 
October and include his findings in a manuscript already in the 
hands of the publisher six months before in May. Discre- 
pancies of this kind make the inserted dates absolutely mean- 
ingless for determining what was in the original manuscript 
and what was later added before the whole article, together 
with the postscript added in the fall of 1924, was published 
later in the fall of 1924. At any rate, the actual date of pub- 
lication, not the dates inserted by the writer, is what determines 
priority in such matters, and the fact remains that the state- 
ments published in this article, including its various inserted 
dates, were not made till later in the fall of 1924. while in the 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

previous June of that year, the same division of the Pterygota 
into two divisions based upon the method of holding the wings 
in repose, had already been published by me, thus clearly estab- 
lishing published priority, which is all that counts in such mat- 
ters, and Martynov's terms "Palaeoptera" and "Neoptera" can- 
not possibly have precedence over the earlier terms Archiptery- 
gota and Neopterygota, for exactly the same insects divided 
upon exactly the same basis. 

On page 224 of the Canadian Entomologist for October, 
1922, I had already pointed out that "... it would be impos-. 
sible to derive such a type as the Homopterous wing shown (in 
the figures) from that of Eugcrcon which is supposed to repre- 
sent the type ancestral to the Homoptera and Hemiptera, so 
that it is much more probable that the ancestors of the Homop- 
tera and Hemiptera were very like the common Protorthop- 
teron-Protoblattid stem. . . . Eugcrcon, how r ever, is more like 
the Palaeodictyoptera and it possibly may be regarded as a spe- 
cialized Palaeodictyopteron", and on page 222 of the same 
paper published in 1922, the Hemipteruus insects were cor- 
rectly placed in the group containing the Psocids, Mallophaga, 
Pediculids, Thysanoptera, Heteroptera and Homoptera. Fur- 
thermore, in the June, 1924, issue of the Journal of Entomology 
and Zoology, published five months before the paper by Marty- 
nov, 1924, I definitely separated Eugcrcon from the Hemiptera 
because Eugcrcon held its wings outstretched in repose, and 
placed the Hemiptera in the division Neopterygota, because 
they lay their wings along the abdomen in repose. Martynov, 
1924, is therefore mistaken in supposing that he was the first 
to call attention to the distinct grouping of Eugcrcon and the 
Hemiptera, and he did not even indicate the correct position 
of the Hemiptera within the group of insects including the 
Psocids, Mallophaga, Pediculids, Thysanoptera, etc. The con- 
clusive reasons for separating the Hemiptera from such forms 
as Eugcrcon, however, were not given in detail by anyone so 
far as I am aware, before the detailed comparison given in 
the February, 1927, issue of the Bulletin of the Brooklyn 
Entomological Society, Vol. 22, p. 1. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 135 

In a footnote on page 169, Martynov, 1924 (I.e.) accredits 
Lameere, 1917, with being the first to indicate that the Plecop- 
tera are Orthopteroids. Martynov does not include Lameere 
in his list of references, but he evidently refers to a casual 
statement by Lameere, 1917, on page 103 of the Bulletin de la 
Societe entomologique de France, Seance du 28 fevrier 1917, 
which may be translated as follows : "The Perlids are Orthop- 
tera with aquatic larvae very distinct from those of the Subuli- 
cornes ; (while) on the contrary, the larvae of the Ephemerids 
and Libellulids are not fundamentally different." Two years 
before this, however, on page 346 of the October issue of the 
ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for 1915, I had already pointed out 
that "The insects which group themselves about the Plecopteron 
center constitute a second supersection . . . and all are the 
descendants of very similar ancestors. Here belong the fol- 
lowing orders : Plecoptera, Embiid-like insects, Dermaptera, 
Grylloblattid-like forms, Zoraptera, Isoptera, Phasmid-like 
forms, Phyllium-like forms, grasshopper-like forms, Orthop- 
tera and others." The only evidence cited in this paper for 
assigning the Plecoptera to this Orthopteroid group, however, 
is the statement that immature Dermaptera such as Dyscritinn, 
Karschiclla, Bonnansia, etc., have cerci like those of the Ple- 
coptera, so that this reference to the position of the Plecoptera 
among the Orthopteroids is fully as casual as Lameere's brief 
statement published two years later. On page 408 of the 
November issue of the ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for 1917, how- 
ever, very definite reasons for grouping the Embiids, Forfi- 
culids and Plecoptera in a single superorder, the Panplecoptera, 
were given, including the nature of the lateral cervical sclerites 
which are figured in detail, the ring-like mesothoracic coxae, 
typically trimerous tarsi, absence of ovipositor and styli, etc.; 
and this is probably the first citation of definite features of 
value for determining that the Plecoptera are the closest to the 
Orthopteroid Embiids of all insects, although a further de- 
tailed comparison of the dorsal region of the meso-and meta- 
thorax (and the \ving bases) of the Embiids and Plecoptera 
is given in the February, 1918, issue of Psyche. Vol. 25, p. 5, 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

and the wings of the Embiids and Plecoptera are compared on 
page 214 of the September, 1922, issue of the Canadian 
Entomologist (Vol. 54), with a view to demonstrating that the 
closest relatives of the Plecoptera are the Orthopteroid Embiids, 
and all of these long precede the casual statement by Martynov, 
1924, that the Plecoptera should be included in an Orthopteroid 
superorder for which he proposes the designation "Orthop- 
teroidea". 

In closing, it may be mentioned that the comparison between 
the Hymenoptera and the rest of the Holometabola, on the one 
hand, and the Hemipteroid Psocids on the other, as given on 
page 226 of the October, 1922, issue of the Canadian Entomol- 
ogist, brings out many reasons for concluding that the Holo- 
metabola and the Psocids, etc., were descended from a com- 
mon Protorthopteroid ancestry; and the adumbrations of the 
Hymenopterous venation suggested by comparing Figs. 65 and 
66 (which was the first suggestion for a revision of the then 
prevalent interpretation of the homologies of the wing veins 
of the Hymenoptera) may possibly indicate a more correct in- 
terpretation of the Hymenopterous venation than some of those 
later proposed. In fact, Dr. F. M. Carpenter has recently 
pointed out that the so-called "Protohymenoptera," supposedly 
ancestral to the Hymenoptera, are, in reality, merely Megase- 
copterous insects having nothing to do with the ancestral 
Hymenoptera, and interpretations of the Hymenopterous vena- 
tions based upon a. comparison with the unrelated Megasecop- 
tera are founded upon too insecure a basis. What makes the 
matter still more complicated, is that Dr. Tillyard mistook the 
lower for the upper surface of these wings, and overlooked 
the subcostal vein which is the key vein for tracing the convex 
and concave veins in insects, so that his comparison of the 
venation of the Hymenoptera with that of the Megasecopterous 
"Protohymenoptera" is thrown completely off by this fact, and 
the true interpretation of the Hymenopterous venation may 
eventually turn out to be more nearly like that suggested by 
the comparison of Figs. 65 and 66 in the above-mentioned 
article, in the Canadian Entomologist for October, 1922 ! 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 137 

The Predatory Enemies of Elateridae (Coleoptera). 1 

By C. A. THOMAS, Pennsylvania State College. 

In a recent paper 2 the writer discussed the few recorded 
examples of the parasites of wireworms. The present paper 
records the predators known to feed upon the various stages 
of these insects. It is evident that predators are more impor- 
tant in the natural control of the Elateridae than either para- 
sites or diseases. 

ACARINA. 

Mites have been included among the predatory enemies of 
Elateridae, although in most instances it is probable that those 
found upon wireworms are not there primarily to feed upon 
them. Mite hypopi (Tyroglyphidae) are frequently found 
closely grouped upon the abdominal segments of wireworms, 
especially the ninth segment, often so tightly attached as to be 
unaffected by the larva's movements through the soil. In such 
instances the larva usually seemed to be entirely unaffected by 
the hypopi, and fed and molted as usual. In a few instances, 
however, when the mites become common upon the thorax and 
head, and cover the spiracles, the wireworm may be weakened 
by its load. Mites upon wireworms are not at all uncommon 
under artificial rearing conditions, but are less frequently 
found in the field. The records of mites found on wireworms 
are as follows : 

Family TROMBIDIIDAE : Lcptits [>hala>i</ii (.-Icarus phalanfjii 
of DcGccr) fed on juices of adult Illater ruficaudis, according 
to Curtis (1845). 

Family PAKASJTIDAF. : Fisher (18S9) noted a gamasid mite 
(Parasitus) attached to the bodv of an .Hans ocidahis adult. 

Family UROPODIDAE : Curtis (1845) stated that Uropoda 
itniJ'ilica attached itself to the elytra of Mater obsciints. 

Family TYROGLYPHIDAE: Tyroglyphid hypopi are sometimes 
found upon wireworms, and if these wireworms die from dis- 
ease or other causes, the hypopi may develop into the nytnphal 

1 Publication authorized by the Director of the Pennsylvania Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station as Technical Paper \o. 519. 
""Parasites of Wireworms," F.NT. NEWS, XL, 287-293, Nov., 1929 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

and adult mites and may then feed upon the dead larvae. Those 
who have noted the occurrence of Tyroglyphids upon wire- 
worms are: Hyslop (1915), on wireworms in his rearing cages; 
Conradi and Eagerton (1914), who found that Horistonotus 
uhlcri Horn larvae hecame infested with Rhizoglyphus phyl- 
lo.\-crae Rilcy, hut none of these wireworms matured ; Pergande 
(1882), who found Tyroglyphid hypopi on Mclanotus com- 
uiuiiis Gyll. larvae; Masaitas (1929), frequently found Sela- 
tosounis larvae parasitized by Tyroglyphids in Russia, as high 
as 33% in the field in 1926; he thought that these mites punc- 
tured the skin of the wire worm. 

PSEUDOSCORPIONIDA. 

Leidy (1877) recorded Cliclifcr alans as parasitizing adults 

of Alans ocithitits. 

ARANEAE. 

Many spiders depend largely on what comes to their webs, 
so that the occurrence of an occasional entangled click beetle 
is not important. However, Eagerton (1914) reported a small 
field spider. Pence tin t'iridans Htz. as quite an important enemy 
of the adults of Monocrepidius z'cspcrtinns (Fab.) and occa- 
sionally of Horistonotus uhlcri. This spider frequents the 
upper portion of tasseling corn. Hawkins 3 , of the Maine 
Experiment Station, found an unidentified small grayish spider 
consuming adults of Agriotes mane us Say. 

INSECTA: HEMIPTERA. 

Conradi and Eagerton (1914), and Eagerton (1914), found 
Apiomcrus crassipcs Fab. (Family Reduviidae) catching adults 
of Monocrepidius vcspcrtinus, and suspected this and several 
other hemipterous insects of preying on adults of Horistonotus 
uhlcri. 

COLEOPTERA. 

The members of this order rank second only to birds as 
predatory enemies of wireworms. Nearly all of the coleoptera 
feeding on Elateridae belong to the family Carabidae, as shown 
by the following records. Carabid larvae are subterranean and 

adapted for feeding on soil insects. 

Family CICINDELIDAE : Cincindcla rufivcnlris Fab. ate Hor- 
istonotus uhlcri adults Conradi and Eagerton (1914). 

3 Correspondence. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 139 

Family CARARIDAE: Steropus (Carabus) madidus Fab. ate 
wireworms Curtis (1845). 

Calosoma cane elicit nm Esch. adults ate Limonius calif or- 
nicus Mannh. adults Graf (1914). C. scmilacvc Lee. adults 
ate Limonius calif oniicits Mannh. adults Graf (1914). 

Nebria brevicollis ate wireworms Ford (1917). 

Sca-ritcs sp. introduced into Hawaii from Brazil Swezey 
(1924). S. siibtcrraneiis Fab. ate Phcletes ayonus Say larvae 
Writer. 

Ptcrostichns madidus ate wireworms Ford (1917). P. 
sp. ate wireworms Masaitas (1929). 

Poccilns lucnblandis Say ate wireworms Hawkins. Maine 
( 1929 correspondence ) . 

Oplioims (Pardileus) ealccatus Duft. ate wireworms 
Masaitas (1929). 

B rose us cephalotcs L. ate Limonius pilosus Lev. and Agn- 
ates lincatus L. Yassiliev (1913, 1914). 

In recent correspondence, Headlee stated that a heavy in- 
festation of wireworms occuring in the fall in New Jersey was 
apparently much reduced by Carabid larvae, so that by the next 
spring the wireworms had practically disappeared and a tre- 
mendous number of undetermined Carabid larvae was found 
in their place. Whether these Carabids actually killed off the 
wireworms is not definitely known, but Headlee believed that 
they had much to do with the disappearance of the latter. 
Strickland of Alberta, Canada, also said that adult Carabids 
were the most important insect enemies of wireworms. He 
believed, however, that the larvae of these Carabids are only 
of secondary importance, and that they frequently are devoured 
by wireworms with which they are confined. 

Family STAIMI VLIXIDAK. Hawkins, Maine, in 1929 corre- 
spondence, stated that he found Staphylinus badipcs Lee. eat- 
ing adults of Atjriotes mane its. 

Family ELATERIDAE. A number of elaterid larvae are pre- 
dacious and cannibalistic. Conradi and Eagerton ( 1914) noted 
that pupae and soft molting larvae of Horistonotits nhlcri 
were destroyed by larvae of Monocrepidius rcspcrtinus. They 
also destroy each oilier when crowded together. Umnov (1913) 
observed cannibalism among A(/riotcs larvae, while the writer 
has frequently found larvae of M miocrcpidiits In'idits DeG. and 
Alans oc'iilatus feeding on other wireworms, especially in ex- 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

perimental cages. Other elaterid genera which contain pre- 
dacious larva are Agryphus, Adcloccra, Chalcolcpidius, Hcmir- 
hipus, Mclanotus, Pyrophorus and probably some others. It 
is not known, however, how much good these wireworms actu- 
ally do in the field. 

DlPTERA. 

Only four records of diptera feeding on Elaterids have been 
found. The flies concerned are members of the families 
Asilidae and Therevidae. Kirby and Spence (1846) noted an 
Asilus adult caught with an elaterid beetle in its clutches, while 
Eagerton (1914) found a robber fly, Proctacanthus brcvipcnnis 
Wiecl. catching adults of Mono ere pidiiis vcspcrtinus. Conradi 
and Eagerton (1914) stated that the same species killed males 
of Horistonotus u-hlcri in South Carolina. 

Of the THEREVIDAE, Hyslop (1910) found Thcrcva cgrcssa 
Coq. larvae feeding on wireworms at Pullman, Washington. 
Larvae of Psiloccphala aldrichi Coq. and P. mnnda Coq. were 
also associated with these wireworms, although not actually 
seen feeding on them. Conradi and Eagerton (1914) noted a 
larva, probably P. pictipcnnis Wied. (- Epomyia pictipennis 
Wied.) eating a Horistonotus uhlcri larva in the field. 

HYMENOPTERA. 

Ants occasionally devour weak or dead click beetles found 
on the ground. Kirby and Spence (1846) told of several ants 
dragging an Elaterid. Horton (1918) stated that the adult of 
Limonius subauratus Lee., which feeds on citrus scale excre- 
tions, is fearless of the Argentine ant, which attacks other 

insects. 

(To be continued). 



A Correction (Hemip. : Aphididae). 

An error in my article on Typha Insects in the February 
NEWS has been called to my attention. Thripsaphis ballii Gill, 
recorded on page 37 of that issue is an Hemipteron and does 
not belong under Thysanoptera as listed. This species was 
arranged in the wrong group at Washington and came to me, 
as listed, in a letter. ARTHUR C. COLE, Jr., Department of 
Zoology and Entomology, the Ohio State University, Columbus. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 141 

A New Experience (Coleop. : Cicindelidae). 

On February 22, 1931, I took a stroll along the tracks of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railway, leading 
northwest out of this city. Turning over stones, bits of wood 
and other debris lying on the railway embankment. I was indeed 
surprised to find a specimen of Cicindela purfurca under a 
brick that lay on the surface of a sandy spot on otherwise' bare 
soil. I have collected insects here about Heaver Dam more or 
less regularly since 1888, my favorite collecting being under 
debris and bark in early spring, but never before have I found 
a hibernating tiger beetle. On being taken into a warm room 
the tiger immediately showed life. As a lad living in Fayette 
County, Illoinois, 1 often found Cicindelas hibernating in or 
under rotten logs and stumps, but this is my first experience 
in finding one in Wisconsin. 

W. E. SNYDER, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. 



Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OP 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I 1 refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for 10c), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, soe the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

^f~Note the change in the method of c-iting the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Bijok, J. AVinterarbeit einer entomolo- 
gischen schulergemeinschaft |14| 44: 326-329, ill. Break- 
ey, E. P. Additional notes on the natural enemies of the 
iris borer, Macronoctua onusta. [7] 24: 40-44. Emerton, 
J. H. Obituary. IJy N. Criddle. [Canadian Field Nat.] 45: 
90. Hopping, R. Two very common mistakes of entomol- 
ogical writers. [4] 63: 72-73. Lutz, F. E. In defense of 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

insects. [76] 1931 : 367-369. Rowell, L. S Preparation of 
bee slides. [68] 73 : 320. Stiles, C. W. Is an international 
zoological nomenclature practicable? [68] 73: 349-354. 
Wheeler, W. M. Award of the Leicly medal of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia to Dr. W. M. 
Wheeler. [68] 73: 308. Wucherpfennig, F. Amazonas- 
sammelreise 1930-31. [17] 48: 59-61, ill., cont. *Zerny, H. 
-Ergebnisse einer zoologischen sammelreise nach Bras- 
ilien, insbesondere in das Amazonasgebiet. [An. Nat. Mus. 
Wien] 44. III. Diptera : Dolichopoclidae. Par O. Parent. 
5-26. IV. Mantodea. Von M. Beier. 27-32, ill. V. Micro- 
Lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick. 223-268, ill. VI. Lepidoptera : 
Megalopygidae. Von W. Hopp. 269-277, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Allard, H. A.- 

The photoperiodism of the firefly Photinus pyralis ; its re- 
lation to the evening twilight and other conditions. [10] 33: 
49-58, ill. Andrews, E. A. Honeydew reflexes. [Physiol. 
Zool.] 3: 467-484. Gerould, J. H. Premature reversal of 
heart beat in Bombyx. [68] 73: 323-325. Gray, J. The 
post-embryological development of the digestive system in 
Homaledra sabalella. [7] 24: 45-107, ill. Gresson, R. A. R. 
-Yolk-formation in Periplaneta orientalis. [53] 74: 257- 
274, ill. Henson, H. The structure and post-embryonic 
development of Vanessa urticae (Lepidoptera). [53] 74: 
321-360, ill. Hickman, J. R. Respiration of the Haliplidae. 
[Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters] 13: 277-289, ill. 
Ripper, W. Versuch einer kritik der homologiefrage der 
arthropoden.tracheen. [94] 138: 303-369, ill. Robertson, W. 
R. B. Hybrid vigor a factor in tettigid parthenogenesis? 
[90] 65: 165-172. Sikes & Wigglesworth. The hatching of 
insects from the egg, and the appearance of air in the trach- 
eal system. [53] 74: 165-192, ill. Smith, F. F. A further 
comment on the "Pumping" habit of plant lice. [68] 73 : 364. 
Stanley, J. Studies on the musculatory system and mouth 
parts of Laelaps echidninus. [7] 24: 12pp., ill. Swingle, M. 
C. Notes on digestion in seven species of insects. [7J 24: 
177-180. Wigglesworth, V. B. Effect of desiccation on the 
bed bug (Cimex lectularius). [31] 127: 307-308, ill. Wig- 
glesworth, V. P. Digestion in Chrysops silacea (Tabani- 
dae). [Parasitology] 23: 73-76. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Beier, M. Die 

Pseudoskorpione des Wiener Naturhistorischen Museums. 
[An. Nat. Mus. Wien] 44: 199-222, ill. (S). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 143 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. *Calvert, 
P. P. The generic characters and the species of Palaem- 
nema (Agrionidae). [1] 57: 110pp., ill. (S). Lestage, J. A. 
Contribution a 1'etude des Ephemeropteres. VIII. Les 
Ephemeropteres du Chili. [33] 71 : 41-60, ill. *McDunnough, 
J. The bicolor group of the genus Ephemerella with par- 
ticular reference to the nymphal stages (Ephemeroptera). 
[4] 63: 30-42; 61-68, ill. Mills, H. B. New Nearctic Col- 
lembola. [40]' 464: llpp.. ill. Nichols, E. R. "An attempt 
to classify species of termites from mandibles of workers 
and nymphs". [13] 23: 18pp., ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Beier, M. (See Zerny, under Gen- 
eral). *Chopard, L. Sur une espece nouvelle du genre 
Eneoptera confondue avec 1'E. surinamensis [Gryllidae]. 
(S). [25] 1931 : 14-16, ill. Hebard, M. The Orthoptera of 
Alberta. [Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.] 82: 377-403, ill. Heb- 
ard, M. Studies in Lower California!! Orthoptera. (S). [1] 
57: 113-127, ill. *Karny, H. H. Revision der Gryllacriden 
des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien einschliesslich der 
collection Brunner v. Wattenwyl. [An. Nat. Mus. Wien] 
44: 45-198, ill. (S). 

HEMIPTERA. Jaczewski, T. The male of Mesove- 
loidea williamsi. Further notes on the American species 
of Mesovelia. (Heteroptera). [10] 33: 64-65; 65-66, ill. 
*Lallemand, V. Quelques especes et varietes nouvelles de 
Cercopides exotiques des collections du Musee Zoologique 
de Hamburg. (S). [Folia Zool. et Hydrobiol., Riga] 2: 164- 
169. *Melin, D. Hemiptera from South and Central 
America. II. (Contributions to a revision of the genus Phy- 
mata.) [83] 22, No. 2: 40pp., ill. Miller, N. C. E. Larval 
Heteroptera secreting an obnoxious fluid from the thorax. 
[8] 67: 54-55. Muir, F. A criticism of Dr. Hansen's theory 
of the maxillula in Hemiptera. [8] 67: 51-53. Readio, P. A. 
-Dormancy in Reduvius personatus. |7] 24: 19-39, ill. 
Schmidt, E. Gynopygoplax schultzei, eine neue Cercopidc 
von den Philippines' [17] 48: 64. Silvey, J. K. G. Observ- 
ations on the life-history of Rheumatobates rileyi (Gerri- 
dae). [Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters] 13: 433- 
446, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *Busck, A. Two m-\v Peruvian 
Microlepidoptera of economic importance [Gelechiidae and 
Oecophoridae]. [10] 33: 59-63, ill. Cook, W. C.--An 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

ecologically annotated list of the Phalaenidae of Montana. 
[4] 63: 25-30. *Gehlen, B. Neue Sphingiden. [14] 44: 
362-364, ill. (S). Harris, L. A list of the butterflies of 
Georgia,. [Trans. Georgia Nat. Club] 1 : 27pp., ill. Hoff- 
man, F. Beitrage zur naturgeschichte brasilianischer 
schmetterlinge. II. [45] 26: 1-8. Hoffman, F. Euselasia 
eucerus. (S). [17] 48: 55-56. *Hopp, W. (See Zerny un- 
der General). (S). McDunnough, J. Note on the larvae 
of Metrea ostreonalis ( Pyraustinae). [4] 63: 50. *Mc- 
Dunnough, J. A new race of Sphinx gordius. [4] 63: 73. 
*Meyrick, E. (See Zerny under General). (S). *Niepelt, 
W. Neue formen exotischer Lepidopteren. (S). [18] 24: 
485-486. Shepard, H. H. Additions and corrections to 
Lindsay's "Types of Hesperioid genera". [7] 24: 173-176. 
Walker, J. J. Notes on a satyrine butterfly (Satyrus azor- 
inus) from the Azores. [Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 5: 77-81. 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. Collecting flies in the west. 
[Smiths. Inst.] Publ. 3111: 107-112, ill. Bromley, S. W- 
New neotropical Andrenosoma (Asilidae) [1] 57: 129-134. 
*Curran, C. H. The nearctic species of the Nemestrinid 
genus Rhynchocephalus. [4] 63 : 68-72. Curran, C. H. 
New species of Chrysopilus from the Neotropical region 
(Rhagionidae). [40]' 462: 9pp. *Edwards, F. W. New 
neotropical nematocerous Diptera. (S). [75] 7: 255-261. 
*Hall, D. G. New North American Sarcophagidae. [7] 24: 
181-182, ill. Mukerji, S. Morphology of the pharynx of 
female Culicoides and its taxonomic importance. [31] 127: 
339-340, ill. *Parent, O. (See Zerny under General). 
Twinn, C. R. Observations on some aquatic animal and 
plant enemies of mosquitoes. [4] 63: 51-61. Van Duzee, 
M. C. New species of Dolichopodidae taken by Mr. and 
Mrs. F. W. Edwards in South America. [75] 7: 243-255, ill. 
Wu, Y. F. A contribution to the biology of Simulium. 
[Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters] 13: 543-599. 

COLEOPTERA. Bradley, J. C. A manual of the gen- 
era of beetles of America north of Mexico. Ithaca 1930. 
360pp. *Bridwell, J. C. Bruchidae infesting seeds of Com- 
positae, with descriptions of new genera and species. (S). 
[10] 33: 37-42. *Fisher, W. S. A new leaf mining Bu- 
prestid from the Canal Zone. [10] 33: 42-43. Hickman, 
J. R. Contribution to the biology of the Haliplidae. [7] 24: 
129-142. *Pic, M. Neue exotische Coleopteren (Malaco- 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 145 

dermata). (S). [26] 11 : 77-78. Satterthwait, A. F Key to 
known pupae of the genus Calendra. with host-plant and 
distribution notes. \7\ 24: 143-172, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Clausen, C. P. Biological ob- 
servations on Agriotypus. [10] 33: 29-37, ill. Cockerell, T. 
D. A. Rocky Mountain bees. II [40] 458: 20pp. Compere, 
H. A revision of the species of Coccophagus a genus of 
hymenopterous coccid-inhabiting parasites. [50] 78, Art. 7: 
132pp., ill. Parker, H. L. Macrocentrus gifuensis, a poly- 
embryonic braconid parasite in the European corn borer. 
[U. S. Dept. Agric.] Tech. Bull. 230: 62pp., ill. Ross, H. H. 
Saw r flies of the sub-family Dolerinae of America north of 
Mexico, fill. Biol. Monogr.] 12: 7-116, ill. *Ross, H. H.- 
Notes on the sawfly subfamily Tenthredininae, with de- 
scriptions of new forms. [7] 24: 108-128. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF FLORIDA ODONATA 
by C. FRANCIS BYERS, Ph.D.. Assistant Professor of Biology, 
University of Florida, University of Florida Publications, Bio- 
logical Science Series, Vol. I, No. 1, pages 1-327, frontispiece, 
eleven plates with 115 figures, and 19 text figures. May, 1930. 

The above publication is Dr. layers' thesis for his doctorate 
at the University of Michigan, and as the title states, is a 
contribution to a knowledge of Florida ( )donata, and it must 
be judged on that basis rather than as a handbook, though its 
subject matter includes all the essentials of a handbook except 
an index and glossary. 

"This, then, is the problem the author has set for himself- 
an investigation of the Odonata of the State of Florida: (1) 
to determine the species of dragonllies found therein, and to 
write keys and descriptions of them; (2) to determine the life 
histories and habits of as many of these species as it is pos- 
sible or feasible: (3) to analyze the state as an environmental 
area geologic, geographic, climatologic and biotic and to 
speculate upon the effect of these factors on the occurrence, 
distribution, and migration of Florida species of Odonata." 
Against this problem Dr. Byers marshalls his data with ini- 
tiative, skill, and logic in an altogether creditable and often 
original manner. Xo other state in the Union offers more 
definitely "an environmental area" favorably situated to give 
clean cut answers to his questions than the state he selected 
for his study. 

Part I is an annotated list of the Odonata of Florida; first, 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

those collected or identified by the author ; second, reliable 
records by others ; and third, questionable records. For gen- 
eral reasons and particularly since the book has no index, it 
might have been better to have included the subject matter of 
Part I, Part II, and 3 (Ecological observations on species of 
Florida Odonata) under Part III, in one part under each 
species. For example, to obtain the information Dr. Byers 
has brought together on Taclwptcryx thoreyi in Florida one 
must refer to pages 11, 43, and 242-244. 

In the light of our present knowledge, the sequence of 
families and subfamilies proposed by de Selys in 1895 and gen- 
erally used since then, sometimes with minor changes, seems 
preferable to that used by Dr. Byers in the present paper. 

The first two lists of the Annotated List gives a total for 
the state of 105 species but the three Trameas on page 17 prob- 
ably need verification. In a letter of October 21, 1930, Dr. 
Byers writes me that Erythrpdi.pl a. \' innbrata taken by himself 
in both Dade and Alachua Counties, should be transferred 
from List II to List I, and to the latter list he now adds 
Macroinia gcorgina, SomatocJilora lincaris, Lestcs rcctangularis, 
and Tclebasis sah>a. The last species was also taken in Florida 
by Jesse 11. Williamson in 1921, who in the same year took 
Orjhcinis fcrnigiuea at Miami, and MacrodiplasL balteata at 
Fort Myers and Enterprise. If Ischnitra crcdula is not a 
synonym of /. ratnburii, the Florida specimens listed under 
these two names almost certainly belong to one species. 

Dr. Byers lists a total of 1592 specimens studied, but the 
total of males, females, and nymphs is only 1527. This is 
probably to be explained by duplication in counting a reared 
nymph as two specimens. The ratio of males (697) to females 
(618) is remarkable and indicates that many specimens were 
taken at a distance from water. But still more remarkable is 
the ratio of species (91) to the number of adults collected 
(1315). At first I thought Dr. Byers might have identified in 
the field and collected or saved only those he found of interest 
but such is evidently not the case as the following facts will 
show. Agrion dimidiatum from four counties is represented 
by only 13 specimens, while A. ma-culatum from two counties 
is represented by 77 specimens. Both species are easily recog- 
nized in the field. Of fourteen species of Enallagma, two 
species account for fifty per cent of all the Enallagmas col- 
lected, and nine species are represented by 8 or fewer speci- 
mens each. Of the Gomphines, with ten species represented 
by a total of 65 specimens, two species account for 44 of these, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 147 

seven species have each 4 or fewer specimens, and four are 
represented each by a single specimen. The story is about the 
same in the Aeshnines with nine species and 70 specimens ; two 
species account for 42 of these and five species are represented 
each by 3 or fewer specimens. In the Libellulines with twenty- 
seven species and 461 specimens, four species account for over 
fifty-five percent of the specimens and for nearly twelve per- 
cent of all the material studied and representing ninety-one 
species. There are 35 more specimens of Pacliydipla.v lonyi- 
pcnnis and Erythcinis siinplii'icollis together than all the Gom- 
phines and Aeshnines: Ttndof these two common Libellulines, 
generally easily recognized in the field, there are more speci- 
mens than there are specimens of the fourteen species of 
Enalhujnia, which are not always determinable until collected 
and studied, especially when the fauna is new to the collector. 
All this suggests that there are in the state a few species of 
wide geographic and seasonal range, and many other species 
much more local and on the wing for briefer seasons. Because 
of this, Dr. Byers sampling here and there all over the state 
at different seasons, was able to record ninety-one species, 
represented by so relatively few specimens. I do not think his 
general results or conclusions are in any way invalidated by 
this limited material, but his "Florida Biotic Areas" and his 
"Ecological observations on species of Florida Odonata" must 
be read with this point in mind. 

During its ontogeny the imago dragonfly may undergo many 
color changes and at every point these colors may be varied 
or even changed by environmental factors. In a long series of 
dried specimens of one species everyone knows the different 
and unpredictable changes which take place. So I think Dr. 
Byers' attempt to describe the colors of dragonflies in terms 
of Ridgway (see page 20, second paragraph above the key) is 
likely to be confusing, if not misleading, in most cases. It 
certainly would be done, but in each species it would involve 
an amount of work and of material far beyond the scope of 
Dr. Byers' thesis. With this slight criticism the taxonomy of 
the Florida Odonata is very well done, with a commendable 
approach to uniformity of treatment and with a key which 
looks as if it would function. \Yhy the total length, as a 
cardinal measurement, should be generally, but not always, 
substituted for the old length of abdomen is not clear, as it 
involves more parts which may be lost, crushed or jammed out 
of position; and I see no advantage in dropping the seventy- 
five year old custom of measuring the hind wing to begin 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

measuring the front wing. In the same way the terminology 
for thoracic stripes, especially of Gomphines, introduced in 
Needham's Handbook, is, I think, not as good as the old 
terminology, and in using it Dr. Byers has introduced some 
confusion. For example, on page 22, the Roman numerals I 
and II designate dark stripes, while on pages 45 and 55 Roman 
numerals are used for pale stripes of the same species, though 
at least once, as, for example, in describing Gomphiis australis 
on page 56, Roman numerals in either sense are abandoned, 
and the older and preferable terminology is employed. 

In the second line from the bottom on page 20, following 
irings insert -usually. Rubric 2 on page 21 is not true through- 
out the family as some Aeshnines and Gomphines have no 
brace vein. On page 22, the first sentence of the second sec- 
tion of rubric 18 does not agree with the second section of 
rubric 24. In the second sentence of both sections of rubric 18, 
Dr. Byers uses upper and lower sectors of the arculus cor- 
rectly, but beginning on page 67 and continuing through the 
discussion of the Aeshnines the terms are not correctly used. 
The position of Nannathemis among the Cordulines in the key 
might have been advantageously avoided. On page 24, line 
fifteen from bottom, for 69 read 67. In the first section of 
rubric 49, change LibcUula to bold face to correspond with 
other genera in the key. The second section of the same rubric 
is incorrect or ambiguous. In rubric 52 "brown" is not in 
Ridgway and in any case is hardly applicable to auripennis, 
and the "purple" of Ridgway is too vivid to apply to jcsscana. 
The first section of rubric 60 is not diagnostic for the species 
placed under it ; there is obviously some confusion in the key 
in the second section of rubric 61 and rubrics 63 and 64; 
Erythrodiplax ininuscitlct and bcrcnicc have each less than 11- 
17 antenodals ; and the key does not run out to Erythrodiplax 
as it should. The handling of the sexes of Hctaerina in rubrics 
76 and 77 is not in conformity with and not as good as the 
handling of Lestcs and other genera. Apparently the first 
section of rubric 96 should be combined with the second sec- 
tion of 95 or omitted, and the second section of 96 should be 
omitted. In the second section of rubric 106, "color predomi- 
nantly light yellow" applies only to males and the same quali- 
fication should be made on pages 189 and 190 where the 
description of the adult female applies only to tenerals. In the 
second section of rubric 108, "the stigma uniform in color" 
does not apply to the stigma of the front wing of mnibnrii 
and crcdula. On page 38 there is some sort of evidence for 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 149 

taking dcplanata and lydia out of Libcllula, and had this been 
done the key might have been arranged to run out to Libcllula 
which could then have been treated as are Erythrodiplax , 
Trained, and Pantala. On page 39, second section of rubric 66, 
Ischnura should be in bold face. 

On page 41, third line, for psi read upsilon. On the same 
page it is hardly correct to say that the author has a list of 
119 species for Florida. Counting the four additions since 
the book was published, the list is about 106-109. And the 
statement in the last sentence on the same page is too broad. 
Dr. Calvert has called my attention to an assertion by Hagen, 
Stet. Ent. Zeit., XIV, page 100, 1853, that the first author to 
describe and figure nymphs was Rondelet in 1555 (see first 
paragraph, page 41). 

The arduous task of describing the Florida dragonflies in 
detail has been well, and. in general, uniformly done by Dr. 
Byers. If a general criticism may be permitted it seems to 
me that repetition in the text of characters well stated in the 
preceding key is hardly worth the effort. For example, page 
21, rubric 2. "Stigma with a brace vein at its proximal end" 
is repeated in substance on page 42 (Acshnidac} ; on page 45 
(Gomphinac} ; and again on the same page (Ncgomphoidcs}. 
And, as another example, on page 54, every character but one 
in the first paragraph is repeated in the last paragraph on the 
same page. In this connection the general question might be 
raised whether or not a description, based on a few specimens, 
of a well-known and widely distributed species, is worth the 
arduous labor involved. 

On page 42 the second paragraph might be questioned. In 
the first paragraph under Petalurinae, "Selys" should be en- 
closed in parentheses, if one is going to use them at all in this 
connection. On page 45, last line in the second paragraph, 
for arc two read is an undcscribcd. On page 51, second line, 
for short read long. On page 53, last line, Dr. Calvert has 
called my attention to the fact that Hagen (Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc. XI I, p. 255, 1885) described a reared nymph. On page 
56, under australis, for H. winy read F. winy. On page 70, 
lines 5 and 4 from bottom, the wings in females, in addition 
to color described by Dr. Byers, may be entirely clear or may 
have the basal area pale and the more distal part suffused. Dr. 
Byers' discussion on pages 82 and 83 has probably not taken 
the Oriental fauna enough into account, and his use of Cor- 
dulegasteridae differs materially from that of Fraser, 1929. 
On page 83, tenth line from bottom, for Cordnlcyastcr read 



150 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

Thecaphora, and omit the parentheses around Selys ; eighth line 
from bottom, for C. read Acshna; and in seventh line from 
top, on page 84, make same change for Cordulegastcr. On 
page 87, thirteenth line from bottom, for 1830 read 1839. Dr. 
Byers' undetermined Ncurocordulia, pages 98 and 99, may as 
well prove to be elara as any of the species he mentions. On 
pages 100 and 101, the lengths given for T. pctcchialis and 
T. stclla are surely those of abdomens and not of entire insects. 

On page 104, eleventh line from bottom, for seven read 
eight; on the same page, third line from bottom, for two read 
eleven; and in second line from bottom for New World read 
North America, since five genera of this tribe occur in the 
New World. Referring to the last line in the first paragraph, 
page 137, Dr. Calvert has called my attention to a description 
by himself in Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist. XII, No. 2, page 25. 
1928; and in the same paper, pages 30-35, nymphs of several 
species of Erythcmis are discussed (see 3rd paragraph, page 
141). The description of DytJiemis rnfinervis, pages 143 and 
144, may prove misleading and this is especially true of that 
of the female, which does not agree with any specimens I have 
seen. 

On page 152, the second sentence in the first paragraph, 
some Zygoptera rest with horizontal wings. In the second 
paragraph on page 154, the second sentence would probably 
be clearer as follows : Wings usually paler brown in color ; 
stigma white. On page 163 in the first line of the third para- 
graph "about six" would be nearer right than "two". In the 
sixth line of the same paragraph for Cocnagrionidac read 
Cocnagrioninae. On page 164, first paragraph, first line, for 
family read subfamily; and the largest species of the Lestinae 
do not belong to the genus Lcstcs. On page 175, last sen- 
tence in third paragraph is incorrect. On page 179 seventh 
line, for Phylo genetically read Morphologicall\. 

Dr. Byers gives an excellent account of the geology, physical 
geography, and climate of Florida, but I am unable to see that 
he shows any relation of the first of these to the present 
dragonfly fauna, which it seems, as far as definite conclusions 
are possible, is entirely dependent on the present geography 
and climate, the vital points of which are the proximity of the 
northern continental land mass, the narrowness and incom- 
pleteness of barriers separating it from tropical areas, the 
present climate, and the diverse aquatic habitats within the 
state. To be specific, what has geology to do with the dis- 



H, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 151 

tribution in North America of Tachoptcry.r thoreyi and Nan- 
nothemis bclla? 

Any attempt to associate certain dragonflies with "natural 
ecological areas based principally on the dominant type of vege- 
tation" is, I believe, futile in the case of Florida hammocks and 
coniferous forests (page 226). Prolonged collecting there 
would show, as casual visitors, all the Florida dragonflies which 
do not confine themselves as adults to the immediate vicinity 
of their nymphal homes, and this means many of the Anisop- 
tera and some of the Zygoptera. A discussion of major or 
typical habitats if it is to be exact in detail must be based 
probably entirely on nymphal life, and when adults are con- 
sidered their teneral life will probably be of the most signifi- 
cance. Take an extreme case in adult life to make this point 
clear : What can be said of the habitat of a dragonfly which 
circles a pool of waste oil at an oil pumping station, congre- 
gates in great numbers over rain-flooded cornfields, frequents 
dredged ditches and abandoned gravel pits, hovers over a farm 
yard watering trough and a fountain in the city park, and 
lays eggs in all of them ; and then leaves a village in the center 
of a continent, where it has been joyously patrolling an oiled 
street, to take its station on a ship five hundred miles from 
land? In any case a town can hardly be considered a "highly 
artificial habitat" (page 241, in last line of which for hifida 
read ncrvosa}. 

On page 242 Dr. Byers takes up a discussion of the ecology 
of Florida dragonflies and here he is at his best, telling his 
story clearly and vividly, and describing the previously un- 
known nymphs of seven species. In some cases observations 
are not numerous enough to warrant the drawing of general 
conclusions. My own experience has been that in many cases 
I find the greatest difficulty in arriving -at such conclusions in 
dealing with species which I observe oftenest, and this is espe- 
cially true of the Anisoptera. After over a quarter of a cen- 
tury I cannot tell a "good" Macromia day. So comments on 
and discussions of Dr. Byers' observations could be prolonged 
to great lengths. To mention one case, his first sentence under 
I'^idcsclina hcros, page 256, contains statements of habits which 
are entirely different from those which have come under my 
own limited observations of this species. 

Under the discussion of fossil ( )donata, page 270. Dr. Byers 
ha.-> apparently overlooked the latest work of Kennedy and 
Tillyard in which the conclusion reached as to the phylogeny 
of the Zygoptera is exactly the opposite of that stated on page 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '31 

271. On page 272, in the phylogehetic diagram, I do not know 
why Neotropic is placed in parentheses under Epallaginae as 
the subfamily occurs in every region but the Nearctic, and is 
best represented in the Oriental. 

The fossil record unfortunately is insufficient for any 
choi ological discussion, as denned by Dr. Byers, of the present 
dragonfly fauna of Florida. On the other hand, when discuss- 
ing the present Florida fauna and its relations to dragonfly 
faunas adjacent to it. Dr. Byers is again on solid ground, and 
he has accumulated and presented his extensive data in a mas- 
terly way. Certainly his classification of certain species as 
nearctic, neotropic, and endemic invites discussion which may 
result in some changes. His use of the word "endemic" is not 
in the generally accepted sense, and may be translated appar- 
ently as "originating in", as for example in Groups C and D 
at the bottom of page 276. The five species listed under C, 
page 275, should be checked by the reader against the Anno- 
tated List, pages 11-17. On page 274, at the right of the 
diagram, transpose ncotropica and ncarctica. 

The final pages (282-302) of the text discuss very completely 
and suggestively the "Factors of Distribution", with enough 
general and controversial matter included to arouse the interest 
of the general reader. There are two or three minor mistakes 
to which attention might be called : on page 285, second para- 
graph, male Zygoptera do not hold the female by the head ; 
on page 285 and 290, copulation in mid-air is rare or accidental 
and I am not sure it is universal for even a single specie's ; 
and on page 290, endophytic oviposition occurs in other loca- 
tions than living aquatic vegetation. 

The basis for the arrangement of titles in the bibliography 
and for the separation of titles into Parts I and II, is not 
clear. And the arrangement is not good, unless there is some 
reason for it which I have overlooked. The fourteen Florida 
habitat photographs, figures 102-115. illustrate beautifully 
many of the extremely diverse habitats in which it was Dr. 
Byers' good fortune and pleasure to collect, observe, and 
philosophize. E. B. WILLIAMSON. 



OBITUARY. 

Prof. JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, emeritus professor of entom- 
ology at Cornell University, died at Ithaca on March 20, alter 
a prolonged illness. He was born February 24, 1849. 



JUNE, 1931 

^^.>>- 

J - ; .-^ 





OLOGICAL NE-1& 



Vol. XLII 



No. 6 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Finch Professor John Henry Comstock 153 

Williams On Some Northern Lepidoptera Rhopalocera 157 

Thomas The Predatory Enemies of Elateridae (Coleoptera) . . . . 158 

Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell to go to Africa 167 

Cresson Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the Dipterous 

Family Ephydridae. Paper X 168 

Severin More about Bites by Aphis Lions (Neur. : Chrysopidae) . . . 171 

To Authors of Papers Published in the News 171 

Entomological Literature 172 

Review Vignon's Introduction a la Biologie Experimental 176 

Obituary Professor James Stewart Hine 177 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLII. JUNE, 1931 No. 6 

Professor John Henry Comstock. 

JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, 82, professor emeritus of entomol- 
ogy, Cornell University, died at 3:30 o'clock of the morning 
of March 20, 1931, at his home, 123 Roberts Place, Ithaca, 
New York, where he had been confined since 1927 by illness 
following a cerebral hemorrhage. 

John Henry Comstock was the son of Ebenezer and Susan 
Allen Comstock. Born in Janesville, Wis., one of the outposts 
of the march westward, on February 24, 1849, a year after 
Wisconsin had been admitted to the Union, John Henry 
Comstock w r as an infant when his father was lured to Cali- 
fornia by the story of the discovery of gold and died of 
cholera en route. The boy's mother, who belonged to the family 
of Ethan Allen, returned with him to her native state, New 
York, and made an heroic struggle to support him, but she 
was finally forced to place her son in a public home. He was 
later taken by a family which, though not affluent, could at least 
give him enough to eat, and, as the people about him were 
for the most part sailors, he, too. became at 16 a sailor on the 
Great Lakes. 

Although he received a certain amount of formal schooling, 
he was largely self-educated, and when he found in a book- 
store a copy of Harris' "Insects Injurious to Vegetation," he- 
added to his love of botany an interest in entomology, for he 
bought the book with money borrowed from his shipmates, and 
so inaugurated his library. 

At 20 he was ready to enter college, and decided on the new 
institution. Cornell I'niversitv, on the shores of Cayuga Lake, 
where he could work his way. 1 le also found inspiring teachers 
and kindred spirits among the students. 

John Henry Comstock was one of the creators of Cornell 
University, for in a very real sense his life has been built into 
that of the institution. At Cornell he was among the early 



153 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

students, entering in 1869, the year after the University opened, 
becoming an instructor while still an undergraduate, and gradu- 
ating with the degree of B.S. in 1874. At Cornell he taught 
for more than 40 years, and at Cornell he literally created the 
Department of Entomology which has grown to be one of the 
best in the country. 

A colleague, Prof. S. H. Gage, has stated in an historical 
sketch of Professor Comstock that he gave personal instruction 
to more than 5,000 students from the year 1872, when he began 
as an undergraduate to give lectures in entomology, to the time 
of his retirement in 1914. It is safe to add that practically 
every one of these found his or her way at some time to the 
Comstock home and enjoyed its hospitality. The total includes 
at least 50 of his advanced students who have become state or 
national entomologists or professors of entomology or zoology 
in various colleges and experiment stations. Among these is 
Dr. Leland O. Howard, chief of the Bureau of Entomology 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

When Professor Comstock began his work at Cornell he 
constituted the Department of Entomology. He was lec- 
turer, instructor in the field, and assistant in the laboratory. 
Room and facilities were also meager. When he retired 41 
years later the department had a magnificent material equip- 
ment and a staff of 31, including five professors. 

The Comstock Memorial Library was given to Cornell at 
the time of his retirement, by his former students, who pre- 
sented to him a fund of $2,500 which was in turn passed on by 
him to the University. On that occasion the chimes were 
played in his honor, for he was chime master in 1872-73 and 
had arranged several of the scores played, at the request of 
the donor of the bells, Jennie McGraw. This is only one in- 
dication of the multitude of small as well as great services 
which John Henry Comstock has performed for Cornell. It is 
also said that he helped to build with his own hands one of 
the original University buildings, that in which he later gave 
his first lectures. 

Professor Gage tells the story of how the Department of 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 155 

Entomology came into being. In tbe Spring of 1872, 13 of 
Professor Comstock's college mates petitioned the faculty to 
permit him to give them a course in entomology that term. 
The request was granted, and from that day on the work in 
entomology at Cornell has followed the plan which he insti- 
tuted. Graduated in 18/4 from Cornell University with the 
degree of Bachelor of Science, he studied as a graduate stu- 
dent in 1874-5 at Harvard and at the University of Leipzig 
in 1888-9. 

In 1878 he married Anna Botsford, then his fellow-student 
at Cornell, whom he outlived by but six months after more 
than 50 years of work in common. 

Professor Comstock taught at Cornell till 1879 when he be- 
came entomologist for the federal government at \Yashington. 
Returning in 1881 to Cornell, he served here as professor of 
entomology and invertebrate zoology until 1914 when he be- 
came professor emeritus. 

In 1877 he was lecturer on zoology at Vassar College and 
from 1891 to 1900 non-resident professor of entolomology at 
Leland Stanford University. 

In 1891 President David Starr Jordan of Leland Stanford 
University asked Professor Comstock to organize a Depart- 
ment of Entomology at Stanford, similar to that at Cornell and 
he undertook the work in his vacations from 1891 to 1900. 
President Jordan had been one of the students who petitioned 
the Cornell faculty in 1872 for that beginning course in 
entomology. 

Professor Comstock's books are all widely known and much 
used. Many of them are illustrated with beautiful wood cuts 
made by his wife, Anna Botsford Comstock, herself for many 
years a professor of nature study at Cornell. Their home in 
Ithaca and the enthusiastic devotion with which they worked 
and taught have proved an inspiration to many generations of 
Cornell students. CATHERINE FINCH in Ithaca Journal-Xc'^-s 
of March 20, 1931. 

Prof. Comstock, at the- time of his death, was OIK- of two 
Americans holding honorary fellowships in the Entomological 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

Society of London, was a member of the entomological soci- 
eties of France and of Belgium, honorary fellow of the En- 
tomological Societies of America and of Ontario, and of the 
Fourth International Entomological Congress, corresponding 
member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
and of the American Entomological Society, member of the 
American Societies of Naturalists and of Zoologists, of the 
American Philosophical Society, of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

Readers of the NEWS will find in its volumes notices of some 
of his more important writings as they appeared ; thus vol. iv, 
no. 10, Dec., 1893, pp. 334-5, contains a notice of his Evolution 
and Ta.ronomy; the first edition of his and Mrs. Comstock's 
Manual for the Study of Insects is reviewed in vol. vi, p. 163, 
May, 1895, the nineteenth edition in xli, p. 273, Oct., 1930; 
The Elements of Insect Anatomy, with V. L. Kellogg (vi, p. 
268, Oct., 1895), 3rd edition (xiii, p. 21, Jan., '02) ; Insect Life 
(viii, p. 226, Nov., 1897); The Wings of Insects, with J. G. 
Needham (ix, p. 75, etc., Mar. ct aL, 1898; The Skeleton of 
the Head of Insects, with C. Kochi (xiii, p. 55, Feb., '02) ; 
Spider Book (xxiv, p. 35, Jan., 1913) ; The U'ings of Insects 
(xxx, p. 148, May, 1919) ; An Introduction to Entomology, 
Part I (xxxi, p. 208, July, 1920) ; the same, first complete 
edition, Parts I & II (xxxvi, p. 94, Mar., 1925). Another 
of his books, written jointly with Mrs. Comstock, was How to 
Know the Butterflies (1904). 

Mr. Phil Ran writes to the Editor : "I am enclosing an edi- 
torial on Dr. Comstock, clipped from the St. Louis Post Dis- 
pa-tch of March 28. Since it is very seldom that a great daily 
gives editorial space to an entomologist, I thought perhaps you 
would like to reproduce the article in the NEWS." This edi- 
torial follows : 

THE AMERICAN FABRE. 

Not every American boy knew of John Henry Comstock, 
but he led thousands of them in one of the most fascinating 
branches of nature study. For where is there a boy who has 
not sat entranced watching a yellow-bodied spider build a web, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 157 

or darted in the sun from hollyhock to peony after spangled- 
winged butterflies, or chased lightning bugs across the lawn on 
summer evenings, or spread out under a tree to watch life at 
an ant hill, the goings out and the comings in and the polite 
to-do of social amenities in that absorbing world? Thus John 
Henry Comstock was related to all boydom. He spent most 
of his 82 years finding out about insects. Entomologists today 
look back on his pioneering work at Cornell University as the 
beginning of insect study, both scientific and popular, in this 
country. His wife was the late Anna Botsford Comstock, 
natural history artist and wood engraver, with whom he did 
much of his work. Together they led many an American of 
a machine age under the open sky and into a fuller appreciation 
of the world outside the door. 

(A biographical notice of Mrs. Comstock was published in the NEWS 
for October, 1930, pp. 277-279, and portraits of her and her husband in 
the issue for April, 1930, Plate X.). 



On Some Northern Lepidoptera Rhopalocera. 

Dr. Samuel C. Palmer, of Swarthmore College, has given us 
a small series of Lepidopterous insects for identification, which, 
he captured in Baffinland and Labrador while he was botanist 
on the Bowdoin-Baffinland Expedition of 1929. A short ac- 
count of the localities and conditions under which they were 
collected was published by Mr. James A. G. Rehn in the Febru- 
ary NEWS for 1931, page 33. 

The following were caught on the south shore of Frobisher 
Bay, Baffinland, from August 19th to August 24, 1930: 



Brenthis iinproba Butler.. lc? Brenthis tarquinius Curtis. 2 

Brcnthis bnllcri Edwards. . 2^ 1? Plcbcius aqitilo Boisduval. . 2c?c? 
Brenthis polaris Boisduval. 1? 

The following were caught August 27th at Cape Mugford, 
Labrador : 



Colias pclidne Boisduval ..... 2<$<$ Ocncis scinitlca var. arctica 

Colias nastcs Boisduval ..... 1? Gibson ................. lc? 

l:rcsi<i roxsi Curtis ......... 1$ Ocncis nnniii Tluinben>' ..... lc? 

Oencis tay</ctc Hubner 3c?c?, 1?, aberrant 

\<$ aberrant . hnirta richardsoni Curtis ... 1$ 

I believe the records from these unusual localities will be of 
interest to Lepidopterists. I wish to acknowledge the assist- 
ance of my good friend. Dr. \Y. J. Holland, in identifying the 
species. ROSWELL C. WILLIAMS, JR., Philadelphia, Penna. 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

The Predatory Enemies of Elateridae (Coleoptera). 

By C. A. THOMAS, Pennsylvania State College. 
(Continued from page 140.) 

DIPTERA ( Addition ) . 

Bromley (1914) listed adults of Era.v acstiians L. feeding 
on a Melaiwtus sp. adult, Proiiuu'lins Ixtstanli Macq., eating 
a Limonius sp. adult, and P. fitchii O. S. eating Elatcr and 
Mclanotus adults. 

VERTEBRATE PREDATORS. 

An examination of the food of various vertebrates indicates 
that they are more effective wireworm enemies than the inver- 
tebrates. 

BATRACHIA. 

Toads and frogs are practically omnivorous with regard to 
their animal food, but they are of some value in the natural 
control of elaterids, as is shown by the following data; accord- 
ing to Kirkland (1904), five percent of the food in one hun- 
dred and forty-nine toad stomachs examined between April 
and October, consisted of wireworm beetles and their allies ; 
the U. S. Biological Survey 4 furnished the following data with 
regard to the elaterid food of six species of North American 
toads : 

No. of 

Stomachs Elaterids Found Species of Elaterids 
Species Examined Adults Larvae Represented 

Bufo amcricanus LeC. 533 185 12 40 (Approx.) 5 

B. boreas B. & G. 370 115 16 31 

B. zi'oodhottsci Gir. 299 99 3 26 

B. fmvlcri Putnam 278 83 3 21 

B. warinns L. 218 46 2 11 

This table shows that toads do considerable feeding upon 
the adult Elaterids, but that the larvae are uncommon in their 
diet. This is to be expected, since the larvae seldom come 
above ground voluntarily, and those which were eaten were 
probably picked up in plow furrows by the toads. Of the 
species of adults eaten, those of the genera Melanotus and 

4 The writer is indebted to the U. S. Biological Survey for use of data 
on the elaterid food of toads and birds. 

r ' Approximate, because some fragments could not be identified to species. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 159 

Monocrepidius were most frequently represented. Local abun- 
dance of species doubtless influences the frequency of occur- 
rence in the stomachs. 

Frogs also feed upon click beetles to some extent. Hyslop 
(1916) examined the stomachs of a large series of field or 
leopard frogs, Rana pipicns Schr., collected on the shores of 
Lake Oneida in New York State. He concluded that they 
were of enormous value in destroying the adults of the wheat 
wireworm. Agriotes mancus Say, when these beetles were ovi- 
positing in the grasslands adjacent to the lake. Frost (1924) 
listed five elaterid species taken from stomachs of various frog 
species in New York and Pennsylvania. Of these, A. mancus 
was frequently eaten. Neither Hyslop nor Frost mention find- 
ing elaterid larvae in any of these stomachs. Haber (1926) 
did not note Elaterids or their larvae in the stomach contents 
of a series of the tree frog, Hyla cincra Schn. 

Surface (1913) noted Elaterids in the food of the follow- 
ing : Toads : Bufo ainericana LeC. Frogs : Hyla vcrsicolor 
LeC. ; Rana pipiens Schr.-; R. palnstris LeC. ; R. sylvatica Lee. ; 
and R. claniitans Latr. Salamanders: Plcthodon cinereus 
(Green) ; P. glutinosus (Green) ; Spelerpes rubcr (Daudin) ; 
Diemictyius inridesccns (Raf.). 

REPTILIA. 

Hyslop (1915) stated that a small lizard, Phrynosoma d. 
donglasii (Bell), eats large numbers of adult Elaterids in the 
desert regions of the Northwest. In Washington State, as high 
as ninety percent of the food has been found to be click beetles, 
so that they are probably a large part of the natural food of 
these lizards at certain seasons. Surface (1907) noted 
Elaterids as part of the food of the common swift, Sccloponis 
undulatus Latr. He does not mention them among the food 
items of snakes and turtles, although they doubtless would be 
eaten by snakes if available. 



BIRDS. 

Birds are, no doubt, of first importance among the natural 
enemies of wireworms. A large- number of species feed upon 
the various elaterid stages, the amount of feeding depending 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS f June, '31 

upon the season, the abundance of the wireworms and other 
factors. 

Birds feed on wireworms mostly in the spring and early 
summer, when the click beetles and wireworms are most active, 
when plowing is in progress, and when the young birds con- 
sume large quantities of insects. By late summer, when the 
young birds are able to forage for themselves, the wireworms 
are so deep in the soil that they are not available unless deep 
cultivation happens to turn them up to the soil surface. 

Among the many writers who have noted the value of birds 
as destroyers of wireworms and click beetles are Curtis (1845), 
Wilcox (1892), Forbes (1882, 1892, 1903), Juclcl (1901)', 
Beal (1907, 1912a, b, 1917), McAtee (1908), Newstead 
(1908), Collinge, Gabrielson (1912), French (1913), Hyslop 
(1915), Kalmbach (1914, 1928), Gibson (1916), Ford (1917), 
Orton and Chittenden (1917). Gray and Wheldon, Rymer- 
Roberts (1919), Baudys (1922), Hawkins, Vietinghoff-Riesch 
(1928). Hawkins stated that while birds do much good in 
controlling insects in general, and may be valuable in wireworm 
control, it is not likely that they would become numerous 
enough to clean up severe infestations of these pests. 

Hyslop (1915) listed ninety bird species, found to have fed 
upon wireworms and click beetles by the U. S. Biological Sur- 
vey. The 1927 records of the Survey show that the remains 
of these insects, chiefly of the beetles, have been found in the 
stomachs of approximately 224 species of birds in North 
America. Analysis of the data shows that these insects have 
been recovered most frequently from the stomachs of the fol- 
lowing birds : crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, which ate 
25 different species of Elaterids, representing a large number 
of individuals; starling, Sfiinnts ntlyaris L., 23 species; night- 
hawk, Chonlcilcs rir</inianns Gmel., 20 species; robin, Plancs- 
ticits migratorius L., 20 species; red-eyed vireo I'ircosylrii 
olimicea L., 18 species; meadowlark, Stnrnclla mayna L., 15 
species; magpie. Pica pica L., blue jay, Cyanocitta cristatu L., 
and upland plover, Bartramia longicauda Hechst., each 8 
species, and the kingbird, Tyrannns lyraninis L., 7 species. The 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 161 

catbird, bluebird, great-crested flycatcher, house wren, phoebe, 
killdeer, bobwhite. gulls, English pheasant and a number of 
other species have been found to contain numerous remains of 
these insects, while the great majority of the bird species had 
eaten only occasional specimens and are probably not of much 
value in the control of these insects. The occurrence of such 
remains in the stomachs of any species depends to a large ex- 
tent upon the abundance of the Elaterids as compared with 
other available bird food, and upon the occurrence or abun- 
dance of that bird species in that certain locality. 

A study of reports on the value of such birds as crows, 
rooks, gulls, pheasants, starlings, etc., as destroyers of all stages 
of Elaterids, provides much interesting information which 
should be of some value to those who attempt to balance the 
good with the supposedly bad food habits of these birds. The 
food of crows in the United States, and of the rook, Corvus 
frn(/ilc(/ns, in Europe, has been quite thoroughly investigated, 
and wireworms and click beetles have been found as common 
articles of the diet of these much maligned birds. 

According to Curtis (1845), rooks fearlessly follow the plow 
and consume immense quantities of these insects, and their 
crops have been found full of them. Leigh (1914) stated that 
wireworms form about nine percent of the food of the rook. 
Newstead (1908), Vostriknv (1916), Walton (1917), Ford 
(1917), Gray and Wheldon (1919), and Masaitas (1927) also 
noted the value of this bird. Eord said that the jackdaw also 
feeds on these insects. 

Concerning the American crow, Fitch (1866) said that their 
favorite food and principal sustenance consisted of wireworms 
and click beetles. \Yhile this is rather a strong statement, 
there is little doubt that these birds do cat a large number of 
such insects. Kalmbach (1920) recorded 72 wireworms in 
the stomach of a crow collected in April. ( Hhers who noted 
the value of crows against wireworms were Webster (1893), 
Wilcox (1892), Graf (1914), Hawkins (1928). 

The European starling, which is now so firmly established 
in the United States, also devours many wireworms and other 



162 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

soil larvae in addition to the adult beetles. It has often been 
observed following in the plow furrow, picking up wireworms, 
white grubs and other pests. Data from the Biological Sur- 
vey indicate that its greatest consumption of wireworms occurs 
during May, with much less feeding on them during the rest 
of the year. (See Forbush, 1916, and Kalmbach, 1928.) 

Although gulls are usually regarded as more or less marine 
birds, many of them also feed inland on cultivated areas. They 
frequently follow plows in the same manner as poultry and 
thus pick up many soil insects. Graf (1914) found many in- 
dividuals of a species of Lams feeding in new plow furrows 
in fields infested with Limonius californicus Mannh. Florence 
(1915) referred to the quantities of wireworms consumed by 
various species of gulls at Aberdeen, Scotland. Newstead 
( 1908) stated that in one instance forty-five Agriotcs larvae 
were found in the crop of a black-headed gull, Larus ridi- 
bundus, in England, while Berry (1917) counted thirty-one 
wireworms in the crops of twenty-two nestlings of the same 
species. Ford (1917) also commented on the beneficial effect 
of gulls against wireworms. 

English or ring-necked pheasants, Phasianits torquatus, 
have been accused of causing much damage to sprouting corn 
and some other crops, but there is little doubt that they also 
eat a large number of insects, 6 Curtis (1845) said that 
pheasants and partridges destroy many wireworms in turnip 
and other fields. Berry (1917) noted that the crop of one 
pheasant killed in marshy ground contained nearly two hun- 
dred wireworms, while according to Gunther (1917) there are 
excellent reasons for believing that pheasants are a valuable 
remedial measure on land infested with wireworms. Estates 
on which they are preserved are practically free from those 
insects because the young birds are entirely insectivorous. 
Evershed and Warburton (1918), however, appear to have 

6 Recent data received through the courtesy of Mr. L. A. Luttringer 
Jr., of the Pennsylvania State Game Commission show the presence of 
elaterid remains in the stomachs of English pheasants collected in Penn- 
sylvania. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 163 

found few wireworms in the crops of pheasants in England. 
Local conditions probably account for this difference. 

Domestic fowls can do considerable good in fields by eating 
insects. Allowed to follow the plow they pick up many wire- 
worms which are turned up in the furrows, and also eat elaterid 
adults in fields not too far removed from the poultry house, 
The use of poukry for this purpose was advocated by Curtis 
(1845), O'Kane (1913), Theobald, Watson (1917), Schaffnit 
(1919), Rymer-Roberts (1919), Allwood (1920), Roebuck 
(1925), and others. Roebuck stated, however, that fowls are 
of value against wireworms only on arable land while plowing, 
disking, or cultivating is in actual progress, as the wireworms 
are too deep in the soil at other times. He advised keeping 
fowls during May and June on grassland adjoining arable land, 
and to let them range over other fields, especially clover, dur- 
ing early May. 

MAMMALS. 

Mammals in general are not important enemies of Elateridae. 
but moles and domestic swine may, under certain conditions, 
have some value in this respect. Moles have long been known 
to feed on wireworms, white grubs and other soil insects, and 
many writers are of the opinion that they are very valuable 
in the natural control of wireworms. According to Curtis 
(1845), Le Keux believed that moles would probably prove 
the best protection against wireworms and that since moles 
have become scarce through killing off, wireworms have greatly 
increased. Kirby and Spence (1846) were also impressed by 
the large quantities of wireworms devoured by moles, while 
White (1914) stated that wireworms were found in forty- 
one of one hundred mole stomachs collected at Anglesey, Eng- 
land, in December and January. ( )ne hundred and thirty-four 
wireworms were eaten by these forty-one moles, and one 
stomach contained forty larvae. Ford (1917) asserted that 
moles prey on Ayriotcs ohscurus L. larvae in England, and 
that wireworms form a fairly constant constituent of the food 
of the common mole, Talpa citropaca. According to Sachtleben 
(1925), wireworms and cockchafer larvae comprised the 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [JuilC, '31 

greater part of the insect food of one hundred and forty moles 
that he examined in Russia. Sokanovskii ( 1926) listed the 
Elaterids found in mole stomachs in West Russian forests. 
However, Scheffer ( 1910) found wirewonns in only two mole 
stomachs of one hundred collected in Kansas, and Adams 
(1920) gave no reference to these larvae as part of the food 
of T. curopaca in England. As with the pheasants, this scarcity 
of wireworms in these stomachs is probably due to local con- 
ditions of wireworm scarcity in the field. 

Domestic swine eat wireworms along with white grubs and 
other soil insects when they root out grass roots in sod fields. 
Williamson (1916) stated that hogs in a field before plowing 
destroy many of these pests and will soon clear them from 
the soil. Their exact value against wireworms has apparently 
never been determined, although much has been written on 
the use of hogs against white grubs. 

SUMMARY. 

A review of the literature on the natural control of the 
Elateridae, or click beetles, and their larvae, the wireworms, 
indicates that the predatory enemies exert considerably more 
control than is caused by their parasitic enemies. 

Of the predators, birds, both wild and domesticated, are of 
the most value in this respect, with the predacious Carabidae, 
or ground beetles, probably second in importance. Toads and 
frogs, moles, and certain dipterous larvae also have consider- 
able value. 

In spite of the apparent efficiency of these predators, how- 
ever, they are never more than partly effective in controlling 
an outbreak of these pests, and the aid they render should 
always be supplemented by such artificial control measures as 
are known to have the most value under the conditions at hand. 
The ultimate effect of such artificial controls upon the parasites 
and predators as well as upon the wireworms should always 
be considered. 

REFERENCES. 

ADAMS, L. E. 1920 Jl. Ministry Agric., England, Vol. 27 p. 
659, Oct., 1920. 



xlli, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 165 

ALLWOOD, M. C. 1920 Jl. Roy. Hort. Soc., London, XLV, 

Nos. 2 and 3, p. 233, July. 1920. 
BAUDYS, E. 1922 Flugbl. tschech. Sektion mahr. Landeskultur- 

rates in Brunn. 
BEAL, F. E. L. 1907 Bui. 30, Biol. Survey, U. S. Dept. Agric. 

1912a Bui. 37, of the same. 

1912b Bui. 44, of the same. 

ID. 1915 Farmer's Bui. 630. Biol. Survey, U. S. D. A. 
BERRY, W. 1917 Scottish Naturalist, Edinburgh, No. 66, p. 

121, June, 1 ( >17. 

BROMLEY, S. W. 1914 Psyche, XXI, Dec., 1914. p. 192-198. 
CLELAND, J. B. 1918 Science Bull. 15, p. 17, Dept. Agric., 

New South Wales. 

COLLINGE, W. E. 1912 Jl. Bd. Agric., England, Sept., 1912. 
CONRADI, A. F., and EAGERTON, H. C. 1914 Bui. 180, S. Caro- 
lina Expt. Sta., Clemson. 
CURTIS, J. 1845 Jl. Roy. Agric. Soc., England, Vol. 5, 1845 

Art. XI. p. 180 
EAGERTON, H. C. 1914 Bui. 179, S. Carolina Expt. Sta., 

Clemson. 
EVERSHED, A. F. and WARBURTON, C. 1918 Jl. Agric. Sci., 

IX, p. 63. 
FISHER, E. R. 1889 Note 165R. July 21, 1889, Div. Ent., U. 

S. Dept. Agric. 
FITCH, A. 1866 llth Rpt. on Insects of N. Y. In Trans. N. 

Y. State Agr. Soc., p. 542. 
FLORENCE, L. 1915 Trans. Highl. and Agric. Soc., XXIV, 

1912: XXVI, 1914, XXVII, 1915. 

FORBES, S. A. 1882 Bui. 6, 111. State Lab. Nat. History, Nor- 
mal, 111. 

ID. 1892 18th Rpt. State Ent. of 111. ; 7th Rpt. S. A. Forbes, 

Reprint 1920. p. 41. 

ID. 1896 Bui. 44, U. of 111. Expt. Sta. 

ID. 1903 Article 4, Bui. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., Vol. I, 

No. 3, 2nd Edition, p. 86. 
FORBUSH, E. H. 1916 Circ. 45, Mass. State Board Agric., p. 

20, Feb., 1916. 
FORD, G. H. 1917 Annals Appl. Biology, III, Nos. 2 and 3 

p. 97. 
FROST, S. W. 1924 Jl. N. Y. Ent. Soc., XXXII, p. 173, Dec., 

1924. 
FRENCH, C., JR. 1913 Jl. Dept. Agric. of Victoria, XI, pt. 12, 

p. 729, Melbourne. 
GABRIELSON, I. N. 1912 Wilson Bulletin No. 79, Vol. XXIV, 

No. 2, pp. 85, 88. 



166 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

GIBSON, E. H. 191(WFarmer's Bui. 733, p. 5, U. S. Dept. Agric. 
GRAF, J. E. 1914 Bui. 123, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agric., p. 

46, 48. 
GRAY, R. A. H. and WHELDON, R. W. 1919 Jl. Newcastle 

(England) Farmers' Club. 
GUNTHER, R. T. 1917 Rpt. on Damage by Birds in Norfolk, 

etc., in 1916. Oxford Univ. Press. 
HABER, V. R. 1926 Journ. Comp. Psychology, VI, No. 2, p. 

189, Apr., 1926. 
HAWKINS, J. H. 1928 Bui. 343, p. 15, Maine Expt. Sta., 

Orono. 

HORTON, T- R. 1918 Bui. 647, p. 51, U. S. Dept. Agric. 
HYSLOP, J. A. 1910 Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, Vol. 12, No. 

2, p. 98. 

ID. 1915 Bui. 156, p. 25, U. S. Dept. Agric. 

ID. 1916 Farmers' Bui. 725. p. 10, U. S. D. A. 
JUDD, S. D. 1901 Bui. 15, Biol. Survey, U. S. D. A. 
KALMBACH, E. R. 1914 Bui. 107, U.' S. D. A. 1920 Far- 
mers' Bui. 1102, U. S. D. A. 1928 Farmers' Bui. 1571, 

U. S. D. A. 
KIRBY, W. and SPENCE, W. 1846 Introd. to Ent., 6th London 

Edit., pp. 191, 195, 258. 
KIRKLAND, A. H. 1904 Farmers' Bui. 196, pp. 8, 10, U. S. 

Dept. Agric. 

LEIDY, J. 1877 Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., Vol. 29, p. 260. 
LEIGH, H. S. 1914 Rpt. on Rook Feeding Habits, Econ. Or- 

nith. Comm., England. 
MASAITAS, A. I. 1929 Izv. sibirsk. Kraev. Stantz. Zashch. 

Rast. No. 3 (6), pp. 1-41, Tomsk. (Rev. Appl. Ent. XVIII, 

48.) 

McAxEE, W. L. 1908 Bui. 32, Biol. Survey, U. S. Dept. Agric. 
NEWSTEAD, R. 1908 Food of British Birds, Suppl. Jl. Bd. 

Agric., Dec., 1908. 
O'KANE, W. C. 1913 Extens. Circ. 8, N. Hampshire Expt. 

Sta. 
ORTON, W. A. and CHITTENDEN, F. H. 1917 Farmers' Bui. 

856, U. S. Dept. Agric. 
PERGANDE, T. 1882 Notes, Vol. 4, No. 2884, Oct. 9, 1882, 

Div. Ent., U. S. D. A. 
ROEBUCK, A. 1925 "Eggs", XI, Nos. 12, 13, 25, pp. 206, 210, 

418; XII, Nos. 1 and 3, pp. 4, 37. Rudgwick, Sussex, Mar.- 

July, 1925 (RAE, XIII, 590.) 
RYMER-ROBERTS, A. W. 1919 Ann. Applied Biology, Vol. 

VI, Nos. 2 and 3, p. 132. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 167 

SACHTLEBEN, H. 1925 Arb. Biol. Reichsanst. Land. u. Forstw., 

XIV, No. 1, p. 77. 
SCHAFFNIT, E. 1919 Bericht Auftreten v. Feind u. Krankh. 

d. Kulturpfl. in d. Rheinprov. 1918 u. 1919, p. 47. 
SCHEFFER, T. H. 1910 Farm. Bui. 168, Kansas Expt. Sta., 

Manhattan, Kans. 
SOKANOVSKII, B. V. 1926 Defense des Plantes, III, No. 4-5, 

p. 390. Leningrad. 
SURFACE, H. A. 1907 Zool. Bui., Div., Zool, Pa. Dept. Agric., 

Vol. V, No. 3, No. 8; Dec. 1, 1907, pp. 93, 246. 

ID. 1913 Bi-Monthly Bui., Div. Zool., Pa. Dept. Agric., 

Vol. Ill, Nos. 3 and 4, May-July, 1913. 
SWEZEY, O. H. 1924 Rpt. Comm. Expt. Sta., Hawaiian Sugar 

Planters' Assoc., 1923-24, p. 13. 
THEOBALD, F. V. 1917 Fruit Flower and Vegetable Trades' 

Journal, London, Oct. 13, 1917. 
UMNOV, A. 1913 Rept. on work of Ent. Bureau of Zemstvo 

of Kaluga for 1913. Kaluga, Russia. (RAE. II, 263.) 
VASSILIEV, E. M. 1913, 1914 Rpts. of the Ent. Expt. Sta. of 

All Russian Soc. of Sugar Refiners, in Smiela, Kiev. 
ViExiNGHOFF-RiESCH, A. VON 1928 Z. angew. Ent., XIII, 

No. 3, p. 483. 
VOSTRIKOV, P. 1916 Orchards, Market Garden and Bachza., 

Suppl., Astrachan (Russia), Nos. 2-3, Feb. -Mar., 1916. 
WALTON, C. L. 1917 Ann. Appl. Biol., Vol. IV, Nos. 1 and 

2, Sept., 1917, p. 7. 
WATSON, J. R. 1917-1919 Florida Expt. Sta. Buls. 134 and 

151. 

WEBSTER, F. M. 1893 Bui. 46, Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta., p. 228. 
WHITE, P. B. 1914 Jl. Bd. Agric., England, Vol. 21, No. 5, 

p. 401. 

WILCOX, E. V. 1892 Bui. 43, Ohio Expt. Sta., 1892, p. 127. 
WILLIAMSON, W. 1916 Spec. Bui. 8, p. 2, Univ. Minnesota 

Agric. Extension Div. 



Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell to go to Africa. 
In June my wife and I sail for England, and thence early 
in July, accompanied by Miss Alice Mackie, for Lobito Bay, 
West Coast of Africa; thence by rail to the Katanga country, 
then to Lake Tanganyika, then south via Rhodesia to the Cape; 
back to England by sea, and reach Colorado about Christmas. 
T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



168 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS |J une > '31 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the 
Dipterous Family Ephydridae. Paper X.* 

By EZRA T. CRESSON, JR. 

Ochthera canescens new species 

Black; palpi, halteres, bases of fore and middle tibiae, and 
tarsi, yellow. Wings immaculate, hyaline, with pale veins. 
Similar to m-antis but the frontal orbits opaque, ocherous. 
Mesonotum faintly bronzed, overcast with gray which becomes 
white laterally, on the pleura and metanotum. Abdomen over- 
cast with gray becoming more dense laterally. 

Structurally similar to mantis. Ocellar bristles distinct, much 
appressed. Mesonotum and scutellum subgranulose. Fore 
tibial spur as long as the basitarsus, the latter in the male with 
a well developed apical flexor, spine-like, conical spur, more or 
less obscured by long bristly hairs ; middle femora of male 
with two flexor series of short bristles, the hind basitarsus with 
curved flexor hairs. Length, 5 mm. 

Type. Male ; Polisha, FORMOSA, March, 1908, (Sauter), 
[A.N.S.P., No. 6485]. Paratypcs 1 $ , 1? ; Anping, For- 
mosa, April, 1912, (Sauter), [Hungary Nat. Mus.]. 

Ochthera loreta new species 

Black; palpi, base of fore and middle tarsi, second to fourth 
segments of hind tarsi, tawny. Halteres pale yellow. Wings 
hyaline with pale veins. Of general aeneous to metallic silvery 
color ; mesonotum with three cuperous stripes ; face granulose, 
brassy, densely silvery pubescent, leaving the usual sculptured 
quadrate spots or bars, bare. Abdomen cinereous with broad 
poorly defined median brown stripes, narrowly extending later- 
ally along the posterior margins of the segments. 

Structurally similar to c.vcidf'ta, but the anterior ocellus not 
noticeably large ; face roundly convex, not conical ; tormae 
broader than long; lateral margins of abdomen of male 
rounded, not angularly turned. 

Type. Male; Loreta, BAJA CALIFORNIA, May 1 ( ), 1921, 
(E. P. VanDuzee), [California Acad. Sci.]. Paratypc. 1 $ ; 
topotypical. 1 $ ; Tampico, MEXICO, December 22, 1908, 
[Illinois Natural History Survey]. 

* Paper VIII. See ENT. NEWS, XLI, p. 76, (1930). 
Paper IX. See ENT. NEWS, XLII, p. 104, (1931). 



xlli, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 169 

Ochthera baia new species 

Black ; fore tarsi exeept apicully, and base of middle tarsi, 
tawny; halteres pale yellow. Wings brownish with brown 
veins. Frontal plate shining, the broad orbits velvety-black ; 
face uniformally golden pubescent ; cheeks and lower occiput 
cinereous; mesonotum granulose, brassy, with three cupreous 
stripes; scutellum similar, with brassy tinge. Abdomen rather 
shining, sparingly brown pruinose ; the laterally turned down 
lateral lobes densely cinereous ; pleura and femora, cinereous. 

Structurally and in size similar to lor eta. 

Type. - - Male ; Mulege, I>AJA CALIFORNIA, May 14, 1921. 
(E. P. VanDuzee), [California Acad. Sci. Collection.]. Para- 

tvpcs. 1 <J , 2 9 ; topotypical. 

Ochthera wrighti new species 

Black ; antennae especially third segment, palpi and halteres, 
fore and middle tibiae and their tarsi except apex of latter, 
extremities of hind tibiae, more or less of intermediate seg- 
ment of their tarsi, pale yellow to tawny. Wings clear. 

Structurally similar to rcgalis. Width of frons about eight 
times the distance between anterior ocellus and anterior margin. 
Face at narrowest portion transversely subcarinate, lower por- 
tion not longer than the upper; the lower transverse carina 
distinctly above epistoma, below this the face is retreating. 
Fore basitarsus of male as well as the following segments are 
more dilated than in rcgalis ; the former with a similar strong 
flexor tooth, partially obscured by the surrounding pile and 
pubescence. Length, 3.5 mm. 

Very similar to rcgalis especially in color, but averages 
larger; frons shorter and broader as is also the lower portion 
of the face ; the latter with the transverse carina more promi- 
nent ; aristal hairs somewhat flattened on basal three-fourths, 
especially in the male. 

Type. Male; CUBA, (Ch. Wright), | Museum of Comp. 
Xool., Coll. | . Paralyses. 2 & , 79 ; topotypical. 

Ochthera painteri new species 

Very similar to i^righil, differing as follows: Frons longer, 
but not so noticeably as in rcgalis; more shining, with the 
lateral opaque orbital areas velvety-black above and sharply de- 
fined. Second antennal segment black; third, pale tawny with 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

the aristal hairs normal, long and curving. Face longer, more 
pruinose in the male, less concaved, with scarcely any transverse 
carina below, its position being very near the epistomal margin. 
Palpi black. 

Type, Male; Puerto Castilla, HONDURAS. (R. H. Painter; 
April 18, 1924), [A.N.S.P., No. 6486]. Paratypes 2 $ . 2 9 ; 
topotypical, April 4, 20, 23, 1924. 

STENOCHTHERA ANGUSTIFACIES Hendel 

1930. Stenochthera angustifacics Hendel, Konowia, ix, p. 132. 

This is the genotype of Stenochthera Hendel and was orig- 
inally described from Bolivia. I have seen specimens from San 
Bernardino, PARAGUAY, (Fiebrig), [Nat. Hist. Mus., Vienna; 
13] ; Trinidad Rio, PANAMA, (Busck; March 29), [U.S.N.M.; 
1]; Higuito, San Mateo, COSTA RICA, (Schild), [U.S.N.M.; 

I]- 

STENOCHTHERA REGALIS (Williston) n. comb. 
1897. Ochthcra rcgalis Williston, Kans. Univ. Quart., vi. p. 6. 
1930. StcnocJitlicra cacndcovittata Hendel, Konowia, ix, p. 133, 
n. syn. 

Although Hendel, in his reference above cited, states that 
Ochthcra rcgalis Williston belongs to his new genus Stenoch- 
thera ', he does not complete the new combination. 

My series of regalis, including a female from Dr. Williston's 
collection and agreeing with his description, are certainly con- 
specific with Handel's cacrulcovittata, at least they agree with 
Hendel's description. I do not know what Hendel considers 
regalis. 

STENOCHTHERA TRIORNATA (Cresson) n. comb. 

1926. Ochthcra triornata Cresson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., lii, 

p. 255. 

Hendel states that this is also a member of his new genus, 
but does not complete the new combination. 

This species was originally described from PARAGUAY. 1 
have also seen it from San Sebastiao, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL, (Bar- 
biellini), [1] ; and there is a specimen in the Natural History 
Museum of Vienna without data, bearing label "Coll. Winth". 



Xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 171 

More About Bites by Aphis Lions (Neur. : Chrysopidae). 

In the March, 1931, issue of the ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 
P. B. Barringer calls attention to the fact that larvae of 
Chrysopidae sometimes bite human beings. Dr. Barringer 
wishes to know whether or not this has been experienced 
elsewhere. 

The writer finds that in South Dakota it is a common experi- 
ence for individuals working out-of-doors to be bitten several 
times per year by Chrysopa larvae. While conducting his ex- 
perimental field work and while on collecting trips, the writer 
has frequently been bitten several times per day by aphis lions. 
This has taken place regardless of the amount of rainfall that 
occurred during the season. or year. The writer is certain that 
in South Dakota there is no direct correlation between lack of 
precipitation and the frequency of attacks upon human beings 
by Chrysopa larvae. Undoubtedly, these attacks occur more 
frequently when the larvae are abundant, but this, in the opinion 
of the writer, is because more Chrysopa larvae are dislodged 
from the aphid infested plants when the aphis lions are more 
abundant than when they are scarce. 

The matter of reaching a human body is entirely a matter 
of chance. In the spring and early summer of 1930, South 
Dakota experienced one of the worst aphid outbreaks that it 
ever had. The natural enemies of the aphicls, including aphis 
lions, gradually increased in abundance, and by the middle of 
summer had reduced the plant lice to a negligible quantity. 
But even at the time when the aphicls were most abundant, 
aphis lions attacked man when they happened to find them- 
selves upon his body. 

The after-effects upon man of the bites of an aphis lion 
have always been negligible in the experience of the writer, 
and have never been so severe as those described by Dr. Bar- 
ringer. H. C. SEVERIN, South Dakota State "College. 



To Authors of Papers Published in the News. 



Authors who desire the galley-proofs of their papers, which 
have been published in the XKWS in recent years, may obtain 
the same on application, within the next two months', to the 
Editor, Zoological Laby.. University of Penna., Philadelphia, 
Penna., and remitting postage for the same. Specify the num- 
ber, or numbers, in which the article! s) appeared. 



List of the Titles of Periodicals and Serials Referred to by 

Numbers in Entomological Literature 

in Entomological News. 



1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Pysche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a. M., Germany. 

15. Natural History, American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

16. American Journal of Science. New Haven, Conn. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift. Guben, Germany. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

20. Societas entomologica. Stuttgart, Germany. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia generale e agraria della 

R. Scuola superiore d'Agricultura in Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

26. Entomologischcr Anzeiger, hersg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien, Austria. 

27. Bolletino della Societa Entomologica. Geneva, Italy. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. The Maine Naturalist. Thornaston, Maine. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles. 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

35. The Annals of Applied Biology. Cambridge, England. 

36. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitates. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schafrhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chileiia de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

45. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie. Berlin. 

46. Zeitschrift fiir Morphologic und Okologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, D. C. 

48. Wiener entomologische Zeitung. Wien, Austria. 

49. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C. 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. helsingfors. Helsingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, hrsg. v. E. Strand. Berlin. 



53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 

54. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee. Paris. 

55. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

56. "Konowia". Zeit. fiir systematische Insektenkunde. Wien, Austria. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Entomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 

61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

63. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris". Berlin. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fiir angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

66. Report of the Proceedings of the Entomological Meeting. Pusa, India. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Comptes rendus hebdoma. des seances de 1'Academie des sciences. Paris. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Quarterly Review of Biology. Baltimore, Maryland. 

74. Sbornik entomolog. narodniho musea v Praze. Prague, Czechoslavokia. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

76. The Scientific Monthly. New York. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

80. Lepidopterologische Rundschau, hrsg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien. 

81. Folia myrmecol. et termitol. hrsg. Anton Krausse. Bernau bei Berlin. 

82. Bulletin," Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

85. Genetics. Princeton, New Jersey. 

86. Zoologica, New York Zoological- Society. New York. 

87. Archiv fiir Entwicklungs mechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaf ten, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

96. La Cellule. Lierre, Belgium. 

97. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

99. Melanges exotico-entomologiques. Par Maurice Pic. Moulins, France. 

100. Bulletin Intern., Academic Polonaise des Sci. et des Lett. Cra- 

covie, Poland. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie, Nederlandsche Entomol. Ver., 

Amsterdam. 

102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted: 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets [ 1 refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or a_nnual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not sn 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

KP 'Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Ainslie, G. G Obituary. By Larrimer & 
Wade. [12] 24: 567-569, ill. Comstock, J. H. Obituary. 
By J. G. Needham. [68] 73: 409-410. Comstock, J. H.- 
Obituary. By G. W. H. [12] 24: 564-566, ill. Cook, W. C. 

-Notes on predicting- the probable future distribution of 
introduced insects. [84] 12: 245-247. de Joannis, J. Les 
regies internationales de nomenclature zoologique. [L'Am- 
ateur Papillons] 5: 152-160, 193-201. Leech, H. B. Cole- 
optera by "smoking" stumps. [19] 26: 12. Mathews, F. S. 

-Field book of American wild flowers. Being a short 
description of their character and habits, a concise defini- 
tion of their colors, and incidental references to the insects 
which assist in their fertilization. New York. 558 pp., ill. 
Metcalf, C. L. Insects that bite man. [Trans. Illinois 
State Acad. Sci.] 23: 261-272. Patton, W. S. Insects, 
ticks, mites and venomous animals of medical and veterin- 
ary importance. II. Public Health. 740 pp., ill. Petersen, 
W. Nahrung und genitypus. [46] 20: 679-690. Stiles & 
Nolan. Key catalogue of parasites reported for Chiroptera 
(Bats) with their possible public health importance. [U. S. 
Nat. Health Bull.| 155: 603-742. Tillyard, R. J. The 
evolution of the class insecta. [Rep. 20th Meeting Aus- 
tralian & New Zealand Assoc. Adv. Sci.| 20: 193-241, ill. 
Wardle, R. A. The problems of applied entomology. 
|Publ. Univ. Manchester | Biol. SIT. 5: 587 pp., ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Bataillon & Su.- 
Etudes analytiques et experimentales sur les rythmes 
cinetiques dans 1'oeuf (Hyla arborea, Paracentrotus lividus, 
Bombyx mori). |Trav. fust. Zool. Univ. Montpellier] 54; 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 173 

439-540, ill. de Boissezon, P. Influence de la temperature 
sur la biologic des Culicides. [Bull. Soc. Zool. France] 55: 
255-261. Dautert-Willimzik, E. Einige beobachtungen 
iiber das geschlechtsleben der mannchen dcr schlupfwespe 
Nasonia brevicornis. [34] 93: 306-316, ill. Dawson, R. W. 

-The problem of voltinism and dormancy in the Poly- 
phemus moth (Telea polyphemus). [42] 59: 87-131. Ehr- 
hardt, S. Ueber arbeitsteilung bei Myrmica-und Messor- 
arten. [46] 20: 755-812, ill. Fischer, E. Ein elektrokardio- 
gramm von schmetterlingspuppen. [41] 15: 46-49, ill. Flan- 
ders, S. E. The life cycles of Trichogramma minutum in 
relation to temperature. [68] 73: 458. Friederichs, H. F. 
Beitrage zur morphologic und physiologic der sehorgane 
der Cicindelinen. [46] 21 : 1-172, ill. Frisch, K. Versuche 
iiber den geschmacksinn der bienen. [Sitzungsb. Ges. 
Morph. u. Phys. Miinchen] 39: 49-60. Heymons & Len- 
gerken. Studien iiber die lebenserscheinungen der Sil- 
phini. [46] 20: 691-706, ill. Hobson, R. P. Studies on the 
nutrition of blow-fly larvae. [42] 8: 109-123, ill. Lutz, F. E. 

-Light as a factor in controlling the start of daily activity 
of a wren and stingless bees. [40] 468: 9 pp. Marcu, O. 
Ein neuer beitrag zur kenntnis der stridulationsorgane bei 
Ipiden. [34] 94: 32-37, ill. Mclndoo, N. E. Tropisms and 
sense organs of Coleoptera. [Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 82: 70 pp., 
ill. Millot, J. Glandes venimeuses et glandes sericigenes 
chez les Sicariides. [Bull. Soc. Zool. France] 55: 150-175, 
ill. Pauliuk, I. Topographic und funktion des kopulation- 
sapparates von Lestes sponsa. [Verb. Mitt. Siebenbiirg. 
Ver. Naturwiss. Hermannstadt] 78: 41-62, ill. Salt, G.- 
A further study of the effects of stylopization on wasps. 
[42] 59: 133-166, ill. Stammer, H. j'. Eine bakteriensym- 
biosc bei den Donaciinen. (Coleoptera.) [88] 19: 270-271. 
Vandendries, R. La conduite sexuelle des Hymenomy- 
cetes interpretee par les theories de Hartmann concernant 
la bisexualite et la relativite sexuelle. [Bull. Classe Sci., 
Belgique] 16: 1213-1234, ill. Wigglesworth, V. B. The 
respiration of insects. [Biol. Rev. & Biol. Pro. Cambridge 
Philos. Soc.] 6: 181-220. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Gudger, E. W.- 

More spider hunters. Accounts of arachnids which attack 
and devour vertebrates other than fishes. [76] 1931 : 422- 
433, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Bartenef, 
A. Ueber die geographische verbreitung von I'anlala 
flavescens (Libellulinae). [89] 60: 471-488, ill. Heath, H. 
-Experiments in termite caste development. [68] 73: 431. 
*Hood, J. D. A new genus and species of Aeolothripidae 
(Thysanoptera) from Chile. [19] 26: 1-3, ill. Hungerford, 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

H. B. Concerning the egg of Polystoechotes punctatus. 
[19] 26: 22-23, ill. Morse, M. The external morphology 
of Chrysopa perla. (Chrysopidae). [6] 39: 1-42, ill. Traver, 
J. R. The ephemerid genus Baetisca. [6] 39: 45-66, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Hebard, M. The Mogoplistinae of 
United States ( Grylliclae). [1] 57: 135-160. ill. Hood & 
Hincher. The giant katydid (Stilpnochlora couloniana) in 
Monroe County, New York. [19] 26: 20, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Baker, A. D.--A study of the male 
genitalia of Canadian species of Pentatomidae. |Can. Jour. 
Res.] 4: 181-220, ill. Beamer, R. H. Note on the emer- 
gence of Tihicen pruinosa (Cicadidae). [103] 4: 51-52. 
Doering, K. C. Some biological notes on the Cercopidae 
north of Mexico. [103] 4: 48-51. *Dorst, H. N. Studies 
on the genus Cicadula ( Cicadellidae). [103| 4: 39-48, ill. 
*Harris, H. M. The genus Aphelonotus (Nabidae). [19] 
26: 13-20. Jaczewski, T. Notes on Corixidae. VIII-XI. 
[Ann. Mtis. Zool. Polonici] 9: 147-154, ill. *Knight, H. H. 
-Dacota hesperia referred to Atractotomus, also descrip- 
tions of three new species (Miridae). [19] 26: 36-38. *Muir, 
F. New and little-known Fulgoroidea in the British Mu- 
seum. (S.) [75] 7: 297-314, ill. *Petri, K. Bestimmung- 
stabelle der mir bekannt gewordenen sudamerikanischen 
arten der gattung Lixus nebst neubeschreibungen. [Verh. 
Mitt. Siebenburg. Ver. Naturwiss. Hermannstadt] 78: 63- 
132. Torre Bueno, J. R. What is the type of the genus 
Cimcx? [19] 26: 49. 

LEPIDOPTERA.Balduf, W. V. The oviposition 
habits of Feltia subgothica (Noctuidae). 1 10] 33: 81-88. 
*Bell, E. L. A list of Hesperiidae from Barro Colorado 
Island, Canal Zone, and adjacent Panama, with a descrip- 
tion of a new species. [6] 39: 81-108. Cockerell, T. D. A- 
A curious lepidopterous larva. 1 19] 26: 11. Eisenhardt, W. 

-Parnassius of the World. [19] 26: 39-44. Forbes, W. T. 
M. Notes on the Dioptidae. |6] 39: 69-76. *Meyrick, E. 

-Reports of an expedition to Brazil and Paraguay in 1926- 
7. Microlepidoptera. [Jour. Linn. Soc., London]" 37: 277- 
284. *Schultze, A. Eine neue Satyride aus der Sierra 
Nevada de Santa Mart a (Kolumbien). [63] 45: 27-30, ill. 
Schwanwitsch, B. N. Evolution of the wing-pattern in 
Palaearctic Satyridae. IT. Genus Melanargia. [46| 21: 316- 
408, ill. *Zerny, H. Beitrage zur kenntnis der Syntomi- 
clcn. [63] 45: 1-27. (S.) 

DIPTERA. *Aldrich, J. M. Notes on Hippelates 
(Chloropidae), with a new Bra/ilian species. [10| 33: 69-72. 
*Alexander, C. P. A new genus and species of bibionid 
Diptera. [19] 26: 7-11, ill. Collins, B. J. The confused 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 175 

nomenclature of Nycteribia latreille, 1796, and Spinturnix 
heyden, 1826. [U. S. Nat. Health Hull.] 155: 743-765, ill. 
*Curran, C. H. New species of Empididae from Panama. 
[40] 467: 12 pp. Edwards, F. W. Mosquitoes breeding- in 
plant pitchers. [Nat. Hist. Mag., Hrit. Mus.] 3: 25-28, ill. 
Gjullin, C. M. Probable distribution of the Mediterranean 
fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in the United States. [84] 12: 
248-258, ill. Johnson, C. W. Nestling birds destroyed by 
the larvae of Protocalliphora. [Hull. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist.] 
1931: 21-24. Mercier & Tolmer. Les Coelopa (Acalyp- 
terae; famille des Phycodromidae) d'Europe et de 1'Amer- 
ique (lu Norcl. [Hull Soc. Zool. France] 55: 238-242. 
Thomas, I. The structure and life-history of Sciara nitidi- 
collis. [93] 1930: 1009-1026, ill. Thorpe, W. H. The 
biology, post-embryonic development and economic impor- 
tance of Cryptochaetum iceryoe (Agromyzidae) parasitic 
on Icerya purchasi (Monophlebini). [93] 1930: 929-971. ill. 
*Van Duzee, M. C. Dolichopidae of the Canal Zone. [62] 
61: 161-205, ill. *Webber, R. T. A new parasitic fly of 
the genus Chaetophlepsis. [50] 78, Art. 20: 4 pp. 

COLEOPTERA. Csiki, E. Coleopterorum Catalogus. 
Pars 115. Carabidae: Harpalinae V. 739-1022. Frost, C. A. 
Mylabris (Hruchus) atomus [at Hyannis, Mass.]. Ab- 
strulia tessellata [at Shc-rborn, Mass.]. Tschalia costata [at 
Sherborn, Mass.]. Donacia liebecki [at Dennis, Mass.]. 
[19] 26: 3; 6; 35; 46. *Ochs, G. Ueber einige neue und 
bemerkenswerte Gyriniden im Zoologischen Museum der 
Akademie der Wissenschaften. (S). [Ann. Mus. Zool., Len- 
ingrad] 31 : 65-70. d'Olsoufieff, G. Les Phanaeides. (La- 
mellicornia) . Famille Scarabaeidae-Tr. Coprini. [Insecta] 
13: 5-172, ill. *Pic, M. Coleopteres nouveaux de la Repub- 
lique Argentine. [Hull. Soc. Zool. France] 55: 175-179. 
Robertson, C. Position of Strepsiptera on hosts. Ill [19] 
26: 45-46. Schenkling & Marshall. Coleopterorum Cata- 
logus. Pars 114. Curculionidae : Eremninae, Leptop- 
inae, Tanyrrhynchinae, Cylindrorrhinae, Thecesterninae 
(Suppl.), Rhytirrhininae (Suppl.). Rhyparosominae 
(Suppl.). 30 pp.. 83 p]i., 10 ])p., 23 ]>]).. 4 pp. Schenkling & 
Marshall. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 116. Curculion- 
idae: Dinomorphinae, Somatodinne, Amycterinae, Gonipter- 
inae. 39 pp., 11 pp. Schenkling, S. Coleopterorum Cata- 
logus. Pars 117. Niponiidae. Monommidae, Sphindidae, As- 
pidiphoridae, Sphaeritidae. 7 p])., 4 pp., 2 ]>]).. 2 pp. Siep- 
mann, C. G. On the validity of Glischrochilus quadri- 
signatus (Nitidulidae). [lo| _>h": 24-35, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Clausen, C. P. -- Biological notes 
on the Trigonalidae. [10] 33: 72-81, ill. *Cushman, R. A. 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

Notes on ichneumon-flies of the genus Polycyrtus with 
descriptions of new species. (S). [50] 78, Art. 14: 62 pp. 
Denton, S. B. Amblyteles semicaeruleus. [at Cheoah, N. 
C.] Sphecius speciosus. [at Robbinsville, N. C.] Vespula 
maculata and Apis mellifica. | at Robbinsville, N. C.] [19J 
26: 3; 35; 44. Kutter, H. Mit bananen eingeschleppte 
ameisen. [41] 15: 61-64. Rau, P. The cocooning habit of 
the wasp, Monobia quadridens. [19] 26: 4-6. Schwarz, 
H. F. The nest habits of the diplopterous wasp, Polybia 
occidentalis, variety scutellaris, as observed at Barro Colo- 
rado, Canal Zone. '[40] 471 : 27 pp., ill. Schwarz, H. F- 
A case of stylopization in a panurgid bee, Liopoeum sub- 
metallicum (Spinola). [6] 39: 77-79. 

VIGNON, P. INTRODUCTION A LA BIOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE. 
Les etres organises, activites, instincts, structures. 1930. 731 
p., 890 fig., 21 pis. en noir, 3 pis. en couleurs. Preface du Pro- 
fesseur E.-L. Bouvier, membre de 1'Institut. Paris, P. Leche- 
valier. Theories aside, the author brings us face to face with 
organisms as they are and as they behave. Beginning with ani- 
mals nearest man, descending the scale, he finds the germ of 
mind in the Infusoria, Heliozoa and the Amebas. Chap. II 
treats of some of the least well known instincts. Starting with 
the idea that instinct is hardly distinguishable from personal 
initiative, one soon arrives at instincts too wise to be com- 
passed by the inventive power of the creature itself, to say 
nothing of many instincts inseparably connected with appro- 
priate organs : thus one reaches a domain virginal and rich. 
Chap. Ill relates curious facts bearing upon the problem of 
organic construction. Chap. IV treats extensively of mimicry, 
seen from many points of view. The author describes in some 
detail the extraordinary leaf-grasshoppers of tropical America, 
which he alone has had opportunity to study in detail. 

The second part is concerned with Evolution : certain, but 
inexplicable, manifestly so in the case of the origin of the 
Tentaculifera, the multiplication of types of the Radiolaria 
and, above all, when one considers certain mutations which in- 
volve an enormous, sudden change, such as the origin of Sac- 
ciilina and development of the beak in various reptiles and birds 
of the Secondary Era. A study of development of the feather 
and a visit to the world of flowers bring to an end the second 
part. 

863 works are cited in the Bibliographic Index. 1004 species 
or varieties are mentioned in the Systematic Index. An impor- 
tant Biological Index is presented. A Philosophical Index is 
concerned with that philosophy of nature, the foundations of 
which it is the mission of science to establish. 

PAUL VIGNON, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 177 

OBITUARY. 

Professor JAMES STEWART HINE, Director of the Division 
of Natural History of the Ohio State Archaeological and His- 
torical Museum, died December 22, 1^30. His death was due 
to an acute heart attack and occurred in his home while he, 
his children and the neighhor children were making prepara- 
tions for Christmas. Professor Hine had always enjoyed rohust 
health. His taking away was without warning. 

Professor Hine was horn at Wauseon, Ohio, June 13, 1866, 
was raised on a farm and worked his way through Ohio State 
University, where he received the B. S. degree in 1893. From 
this time to his death his activities were centered on the Univer- 
sity Campus, first on the faculty of Ohio State University, and 
in his later years at the Archaeological Museum. From 1894 
to 1896 he was Instructor in Entomology, from 1896-1902, 
Assistant Professor of Zoology and Entomology, and from 
1902 to 1925, Associate Professor of Entomolgy. In 1925 
the Ohio State Archaeological Museum decided to develop a 
Division of Ohio Natural History which could cooperate with 
the state high schools and Professor Hine, because of his wide 
knowledge of the state fauna, was asked to organize the divi- 
sion. During 1925-1927 he devoted half his time to teaching 
and half to the organization of the Division of Natural His- 
tory. From 1927 till his death, 1930, he devoted full time to 
the latter position. 

In his earlier years of teaching Professor Hine handled at 
one time or another the various courses given in entomology, 
hut in later years came more into the teaching of apiculture. 
He had received his biological education under David Kellicott 
when the field was almost wholly morphological and systematic. 
With this start his interests in research through life were almost 
wholly systematic. 

His first extended collecting trip beyond the borders of Ohio 
was during June to September, 1903. when he worked at the 
Gulf Biologic Station of the University of Louisiana, at Cam- 
eron on the Gulf Coast. His study here, besides general col- 
lecting, was on horse (lies and at least six subsequent papers 
were written on this work, the main ones being A preliminary 



178 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

report on the horseflies of Louisiana, 1906, and A second re- 
port on the horseflies of Louisiana, 1907. 

His second extensive collecting trip was taken during Janu- 
ary to March, 1905, in Central America with E. B. Williamson, 
and C. C. Beam, where Hine collected Odonata and Diptera. 
The records of Odonata are given in the Supplement to the 
Neuroptera of the Biologia Ccutrali Americana, but his bibliog- 
raphy gives no papers on the Diptera of this trip. 

The third trip was during July and August. 1907, to 
Southern California, the Huachucha Mountains of Arizona and 
to Northern Mexico. The Odonata of this trip are in the Wil- 
liamson Collection. No special papers were written on the 
material. 

From about this time on Hine had built up by collecting and 
trading such a large collection of Diptera, particularly Tabani- 
dae and Asilidae that the majority of his subsequent papers 
were revisions of groups and papers on new species. 

During the ten years from 1907 to 1917 Hine spent his vaca- 
tions in the development of his apple farm at Ira, Ohio, a few 
miles from Akron. While regretting the loss of time for col- 
lecting trips he felt that getting his four children onto a farm 
each summer more than paid for his time lost from entomo- 
logical work. Eventually the orchard became very profitable 
and as the city of Akron grew it became very valuable. 

In 1917 Professor Hine went as entomologist and ornithol- 
ogist on the first National Geographic Society expedition under 
the direction of Robert Griggs to the Katmai volcanic region 
of Alaska. Hine arrived at Kodiak Island June 8, 1917, col- 
lected there until June 14, when the expedition crossed to 
Katmai Bay, June 15th. He spent the greater part of his 
time collecting birds, small mammals and insects in the region 
within 15-20 miles of the base cam]) on Katmai Bay, but made 
trips into Katmai Valley and into the Valley of 10,000 Smokes. 
August 30 to September 20 was spent on Kodiak Island, when 
the expedition returned to the States. 

In 1919 Professor Hine went as entomologist and ornithol- 
ogist on the second National Geographic Society expedition to 



xlii, '31 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 179 

the Katmai region. He arrived at the base camp at the head 
of Naknek Lake, June 21, and spent the most of the summer 
collecting in the vicinity of the hase camp. During June 26-30 
and July 6-10 trips were made by boat down Naknek Lake. 
Starting August 17, he made a trip over Katmai Range to 
Katmai Crater and back to Katmai Bay, Kocliak Island and 
Seattle, where he arrived September 26.* 

The only papers specifically on these trips appear to be The 
birds of the Katmai Region, 1919, Description of Alaskan 
Diptcra of the Family Syrphidae, 1922, and Alaskan species of 
Diptcra. of the genus Hclophilns, 1923. 

During the winter of 1922-23 Hine studied at the Zoological 
Museum of the University of Michigan with two or three 
weeks during this period at the U. S. National Museum. 

In 1925 he made a trip with the writer to England during 
August and September for the purpose of studying types of 
Tabanidae, particularly those of Walker, in the British Mu- 
seum. Except for a few short trips into the region about Lon- 
don his whole time was spent at the Museum studying tabanid 
types. 

In 1923 Professor Hine made a trip to southern Florida and 
Cuba lasting from March to May 15. He made extensive 
collections of Diptera and Odonata.t 

When Professor Hine shifted in 1925 from the Department 
of Zoology and Entomology of Ohio State University to the 
Directorship of the Division of Natural History in the Archae- 
ological Museum, he found the type of work and the oppor- 
tunity for which he proved to be especially fitted. His work 
here involved the building of collections of all types of animal 
life found in ( )hio. He was given a staff of three assistants 
and worked at every opportunity through a group of enthusi- 
astic amateur collectors, some of whom have already developed 
a broad knowledge of the Ohio fauna. Besides the extensive 
insect collections the Museum already has very complete col- 
lections of the birds, mammals, amphibians and fishes of Ohio. 

* I wish to thank Dr. J. O. Sayre for the data from his field notes 
on the Alaskan trips. 

f The latter have been found, while examining his collections since his 
death, to have been ruined by dermestids. 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '31 

An excellent ornithological library has been assembled by pur- 
chase. For the first time in his life Hine showed his great 
ability to interest others in natural history to the extent of giv- 
ing time and money to the building up of Ohio collections. 

All during his life Professor Mine's interest, second to that 
in insects, was in birds. He was a charter member of the first 
Wheaton Club organized in 1896 and its record book shows 
that he gave the first formal paper on its first program, "The 
Order Pygopodes". After a few years this club became a 
social thing and eventually died. In 1921 a second Wheaton 
Club was organized. Hine was its president from 1921 to 
1927. The latter took in permanent Columbus members as 
well as University students and has become a stable organi- 
zation. 

Through his teaching of apiculture he became interested 
in Ohio apicultural problems and was active for many years 
in the Ohio Beekeepers Association, being its president for 
several years. 

To Professor Hine the real joy of life came in collecting 
in the field and in systematic work in his laboratory. He was 
an inveterate collector and brought together by field work and 
trading very fine collections of Tabanidae and Asilidae with 
much material on other large Diptera. He was equally a col- 
lector of books and, having purchased the C. H. T. Townsend 
library, built on it an excellent library on the systematics of 
Diptera. 

His bibliography includes 92 titles which can be roughly 
divided as follows : Diptera, 52 titles, mostly descriptions and 
generic revision; Odonata 10; other groups of insects 23; mam- 
mals 2; birds 3; and on horticulture 2. At the time of his 
death he had completed all the basic work on a volume on the 
mammals of Ohio and on a monograph of the Tabanidae of 
North America. 

Professor Hine had the gift of patience and a very great 
gift in his ability to interest others in birds and insects. He 
has left a lasting impression on faunal work in Ohio and on 
systematic work in Tabanidae and Asilidae. 

CLARENCE HAMILTON KENNEDY. 



JULY, 



ENTOMOLOGICAL ITS 



Vol. XLII No. 7 






Ik 





HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Calvert Dr. Friedrich Ris 181 

A Scarcity of Specialists . 191 

Chamberlin Parachernes ronnaii, a New Genus and Species of False 

Scorpion from Brazil (Arachnida-Chelonethida) 192 

Peters A New Louse from Domestic Chickens (Malloph.: Philopteri- 

dae). ... 195 

Rau Notes on the Homing of Several Species of Wasps (Chrysididae, 

Sphegoidea. Vespoidea) 199 

Haskin Some Unusual Occurrences of Butterflies in Connecticut 

(Lepid.: Pieridae, Nymphalidae) 201 

Musgrave A Coleopterous Enemy of Corydalis cornuta L. (Anthi- 

cidae; Neur.: Sialididae) 202 

Congratulations to Dr, L. O. Howard 203 

Caudell Notes on Blattidae, Adventive to the United States (Orthop.) ^204 

Entomological Literature 205 

Review Imms' Recent Advances in Entomology 209 

Obituary Ferdinand F. Crevecoeur 212 



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ENT NEWS. VOL XLII. 



PLATE IV. 




THIS PORTRAIT IS REPRODUCED. BY PERMISSION. FROM THE MITTEILUNGEN " 
OF THE SWISS ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. VOL. XV. NO. 2: THE AUTOGRAPH IS 
FROM A LETTER OF SEPTEMBER 3. 1929. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLII. JULY, 1931 No. 7 

Dr. Friedrich Ris. 

(Portrait and autograph Plate IV) 

Dr. Friedrich Ris was born in Glarus, Switzerland, January 
8, 1867, as the second oldest of four children, three brothers 
and one sister. The family since the sixteenth century were 
citizens of Glarus, the little capital of the canton Glarus, one of 
the old mountain cantons. In 1873 he entered the school of the 
little town. It was a Volkschule and there was no other, but it 
was of good standing, so that when the family moved to Zurich 
in 1881 F. Ris could attend, without trouble, Class III B of the 
Lower Gymnasium, with the Zuricher boys of his own age. He 
attended the Zurich Gymnasium up to the Maturitatsprufung 
in 1885. He selected the study of medicine and completed all 
five semesters at the University of Zurich. In 1890 he passed 
the State Examination and acquired the doctor's diploma in 
the same year. His doctor's thesis concerned a surgical ques- 
tion and was approved by the then Professor of Surgery of 
the University, Dr. Kronlein. 

In order to see something of the world after his student 
years, passed entirely in Zurich, he entered the employ of the 
Norddeutscherlloyd at Bremen as a ship's doctor. He made 
four voyages, one to North America, two to South America 
and one to the East as far as Shanghai. His brief shore 
leaves he used preferably for entomological excursions. 

After his return he was in the surgical division of the can- 
tonal hospital at Zurich as assistant physician, 1892-93, under 
Prof. Kronlein. It was a time of extremely severe hospital 
work. Free days were used for high mountain tours and 
entomological excursions. In 1892 there was a short visit to 
the Eppendorf Hospital in Hamburg, where his student friend 
Dr. L. Manchot worked. A cholera epidemic prevailed at 
Hamburg and his friend had asked Dr. Ris to come and study 
the disease on the spot. Dr. Ris possessed an unusual gift for 

181 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J lu y-> '31 

surgical medicine, thanks to his sure and light touch. Indeed, 
as assistant physician in the Insane Hospital at Rheinau, and 
later as Director, he performed for years all major and minor 
operations both in the Institute and in the village of Rheinau. 
Later, as he himself said, the technique changed in many re- 
spects and since the Winterthur Hospital was near he had 
his surgical patients treated there. In serious cases, however, 
he would always take part. 

In 1895 he left the Cantonal Hospital at Zurich, as exclu- 
sively surgical activity had not pleased him. He entered the 
service of the Insane Hospital at Rheinau as Assistant Physi- 
cian under Bleuler, who was then Director. In 1897 the canton 
Tessin began the construction of its Insane Hospital and called 
Dr. Ris as Director thereof. He accepted the call and went 
to Mendrisio after some months of study with Prof. Forel in 

j 

Burgholzli. In Mendrisio, building came first, but as over- 
seeing the building did not fully occupy his time and mind, he 
obtained permission to dwell in Pavia and to work in Golgi's 
laboratory there. When in 1898 Prof. Forel retired from his 
office, Bleuler became his successor as Director of Burgholzli 
and professor of Psychiatry. Dr. Ris was chosen as Director 
of the Insane Hospital at Rheinau, where he remained to his 
death. 

This is an outline of the medical career of Dr. Ris. It is 
accompanied by another, that of the learned investigator of 
Nature. This begins in early youth and is really the main 
career and that of the physician is added to it. Dr. Ris began 
butterfly collecting as a boyish sport, which was soon cultivated 
with great earnestness and thoroughness, as I well remember. 
He was encouraged in this in early boyhood years, not by a 
teacher, but by a notable woman who practised the calling of 
taxidermist, that is, she stuffed animals of all kinds for collec- 
tions and museums. She had thereby acquired, self-taught, a 
well-founded knowledge in diverse fields of natural science, 
that is of zoology. She showed the boy the knack of spread- 
ing insects and preparing them, and lent him her books on 
Natural History. At the Zurich Gymnasium, Prof. Gustav 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 183 

Schoch, who taught Zoology, soon noticed his scholar Ris. He 
introduced him into the "Entomologische Kranzchen," a small 
society of Zurich entomologists from the most varied walks 
of life. In 1886 he made the acquaintance of Dr. Max Stand- 
fuss, who had hecome Conservator at the "Eidgenossische 
Technische Hochschule." This acquaintance became a life-long 
friendship. At the end of the eighties hegan the correspond- 
ence with Baron de Selys-Longchamps. 1 That with K. J. Mor- 
ton was "begun in 1893 on the introduction of the late Mr. 
McLachlan", that with the writer in 1896. Sixty-four of his 
letters and cards, from December 22, 1896, to September 23, 
1930, lie before me and I shall let them tell, as nearly as pos- 
sible, the story of his entomological work. Two of the earliest 
are in German, the remainder in English : "schreiben Sie mir 
Englisch", so runs the first letter, "ich verstehe es vollstandig, 
schreibe es auch, aber dies doch nicht so leicht, dass ich da, 
wo es moglich ist, nicht lieber meine Muttersprache anwendete." 
That same letter, of December 22, 1896, is prophetic of what 
was to be his greatest work : 

Einen Plan den ich einst hegte, namlich Material zu sammeln, 
um selbst die Synopsis der Libellulinen auszuarbeiten, habe ich 
so ziemlich wiecler ausgegeben. Meine Berufsarbeiten als Arzt 
und Direktor einer (allerdings sehr kleiner) Irrenanstalt ges- 
tatten mir kaum so weitreichende entomologische Arbeiten zu 
unternehmen. Ich bemiihe mich aber sehr meine Sammlung 
von Libellen der ganzen Welt zu vergrossern, oder eigentlich 
ist zu schaffen. denn zur Zeit ist sie noch sehr klein. 

In the same epistle too, he wrote : Beside the Odonata I 
concern myself also with other Neuroptera, particularly the 
Trichoptera in recent years have absorbed a large part of my 
time available for entomology. (Transl.) 

Many of his letters are, naturally, occupied with remarks on 
one or other of our entomological papers which we were con- 
stantlv exchanging, or on work in progress. 

In July I was with M. de Selys Longchamps at Liege and 
Longchamps and with M. Rene Martin at Le Blanc. The study 
nf the two great collections was extraordinarily interesting to 
me. (1. Aug. 1899.) 

1 Up to this point I am indebted to the kindness of Fraulein ELISABETH 
Ris for this account nf her brother. 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS utyv '31 



My own interest in Odonata is as active as is possible with 
regard to my time for entomology. I am engaged in rather 
heavy work, having agreed to the wishes of Baron de Selys 
Longchamps' son (and his own as deposited in his testament) 
and undertaken the collaboration in a Catalogue of the Selysian 
collection. Sometimes I am really afraid that I have under- 
taken too much and am not able to finish what I have begun 
not by want of zeal (and insight, as I might perhaps venture 
to add) but merely by lack of time. But I hope still and am 
busy in that time which I can dispose of. My part in the work 
is the Libellulinae and I earnestly try to make of it not a mere 
catalogue of the collection, but a review and synopsis of all 
that is described to date. More especially will I try to bring 
Brauer's system (which is still the best) up to date and to 
group the genera as well as may be done without knowledge 
of the early stages. Then a careful study and in many cases 
a new description of the Ramburian types is necessary. My 
idea of the work (more especially of my part, the Libellulinae) 
is to give : 

1. A critical catalogue of species (Kirby's work will be of 
great value as an almost complete bibliographical reference, 
much less so for systematics and for critical examination of 
species and descriptions). 

2. A system of Libellulinae up to date. 

3. Keys to the more numerous [in species] and more diffi- 
cult genera. 

4. Complete descriptions of such species as might prove new 
and of the Ramburian types as far as there is need of such. 

5. Special reference to where a complete description may be 
found. 

I do not care to have any great number of nov. spec, to 
present (I really think there are not so many as one might 
suppose) but will earnestly try to know not only what is really 
described but also distinct. Mr. Kirby has collected the names 

j 

with marvellous patience and learning, but I would try to get 
through the names on the matter itself, as M. de Selys has 
done on those groups that he has worked out. The task is, 
indeed, very heavy, but if I can get through, something good 
might be done. 

I repeat that priority questions to me are absolutely of no 
consequence in the present work and that my only ambition 
is to get up a tolerably reliable systematic and critical catalogue 
of Libellulinae with here and there a description where there 
is need for it and some good keys for the large and difficult 
genera. In not a few genera ( I may name Tramca, Orthetrum, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 185 

Old World 7^'ithcinis, etc.) great slaughter of old (and some- 
times new) names will be necessary to bring some order into 
the matter. (1 Dec. 1901.) 

Sometimes the work seems interminable and courage is nearly 
failing. (2 Feb. 1906.) I am much more inclined to reduc- 
tion than to multiplication of genera. (18 Feb. 1906.) 

I will not be long in telling you what I have done in London. - 
My time was too short for paving a visit to Mr. Champion 
without being in a hurry and so I did not use the letter of 
introduction that you had so kindly given me. So besides the 
Natural History Museum and a Sunday afternoon at Kew, I 
have seen nothing of the sights of London, the greatest sight 
being indeed always the Metropolis itself. My stay was of 
but one week. From the many notes that I have taken at the 
British Museum, I will take out such as might interest you 
for the B[iologia] C[entrali-] Afmericana], together with such 
observations in the same line from the de Selys collection where 
I have again worked for eight days before going to London, 
(5 Nov. 1906.) 

A serious injury to an eye (received, I believe, in the in- 
stitute at Rheinau) threatened the continuance of his work on 
the Catalogue ; it is referred to in two of his letters : 

I have to thank you heartily for two very kind letters. The 
first I received when in the hospital at Winterthiir for treat- 
ment after that bad accident, the second when I was just leav- 
ing home for Italy. I think the best I can do for myself, and 
to merit all those good wishes I received from many friends is 
to be courageous and try to get on again as if things were un- 
changed. That of course they are not; but the deep mental, 
and to some degree also physical, depression that immediately 
followed the accident, is now fairly over. I am here at Ischia 
with a good friend (Prof. Lang, zoologist of Zurich Univer- 
sity) where we both take long walks for health and distraction 
and do some little work. I have here my Libellulinae notes 
and am working at the printer's copy, getting on pretty well 
. . . The oculist told me that the right eye, although short- 
sighted, is good for any kind of work and' that I have not to 
take any special regards. ( Porto Is., Ischia. Italv, 24 March 
1W.) ' 

"This was in May, 1906, when he made his only visit to (iivat llritain 
and spent a few days at Edinburgh with Mr. Morton (K. J. M. in litt 
9. June, 1906, and Ent. Mo. Ma.u. Ixvii. j>. 66, March, 1931; tlie latter 
reference is to an appreciative obituary of Dr. Ris). 



186 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July.', '31 

You were so kind as to ask about my personal health, etc. 
Well, I think I overcame pretty well the great blow which the 
entire loss (such it was) of my left eye was at first and to a 
certain extent continues to be ... I dare say I am doing, since 
about the end of the year 1907, when the immediate effects of 
the disaster began slowly to vanish, my fair share of work. 
In professional duties, I have gradually taken up again all my 
work ... In entomology, I think I have done, since the end 
of 1907, more work than in any corresponding period of my 
life. The reason is simple, for I was soon aware that the best 
way to forget and not to haunt after regrets for the past and 
better days was to give way to a certain working fever that 
from time to time came over me. Formerly I had sometimes 
thought of giving up entomology, at least temporarily, as being 
in contrast [conflict] with my duties; but now I feel I owe too 
much to that science to give way at any time to such a thought. 
(27 Feb. 1909.) 

Printing of the Libelluline portion of the Selys Catalogue 
began at Brussels in the Spring of 1909 and continued until 
1913, forming fascicles 9-16 (Ire partie) of the whole series. 
In the meantime, as is usual in such cases, a large amount of 
additional material was placed at Ris's disposition for study, 
especially the extensive Guatemalan, Guianan and Trinidad col- 
lections of E. B. Williamson. Work on a supplement dealing 
with these was begun. The World War broke out, interfering 
with further publication at Brussels. 

The following is the situation of the last part of the Libel- 
lulinen of the Selysian Catalogue. It is very nearly finished; 
proofs are now being read of the alphabetical index ; besides the 
rest of this index and some title pages, everything is printed. 
But as far as I am aware, M. Severin had not the intention 
to send off the edition before the end of the war. (20 March 
1916.) 

Various plans were considered for the preliminary publica- 
tion of the new species in the United States or in Holland. 
Finally 

My friend Severin writes to me that the last installment of 
my Libellulinae monograph (with the indices and bibliography) 
has been deposited on March 1, 1919, at the National Library, 
Academy of Sciences, etc. It therefore may lie regarded as 
published at that date. (11 March, 1919.) 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 187 

This monograph of "Libellulinen" of 1248 quarto pages, 692 
text figures and 8 colored plates is undoubtedly Ris' great and 
lasting contribution to science. It has been reviewed in the 
NEWS 3 at some length and therefore will not be further dis- 
cussed here. 

Ris's general papers on the ( Klonata, seven in number, in- 
clude, in addition to the Libelluline monograph, UntersHch- 
unyen it. die (iestalt des Kuiiinagens bei den Libellen it. ihrcn 
Law en (1896) 4 , with phylogenetic conclusions, Oriposition in 
Cordulcyastcr (1905), Kopidationsmarken bei Libellen (1910), 
Die Atmungsorgane d. anisopleren Libellenlaruen (1913), 
Uebcr Ontogencse d. Fliiyeladeruny bei den Libellen (1916), 
and Gynandromorphismits bei Odonaten (1929). Seventeen 
papers refer to the palaearctic fauna (Switzerland 1886, 1890, 
1894, 1897, 1916, 1919; Spain 1927; central Europe 1900, 1909, 
1910, 1920; Europe in general 1906, 1927; Central Asia 1897, 
Persian Gulf 1928; China 1928, Northern Africa 1911, 1928), 
twelve to the Oriental (six to the Asiatic mainland or nearby 
islands, 1912, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1927, 1930, six to the Malay 
Archipelago 1911, 1912. 1915. 1916, 1927, 1930). Seven papers 
are concerned with the Australasian area (1898, 1900, 1910, 
l'H3 two, 1915, 1929), eleven with the Ethiopian region (1909, 
1911 two. 1912, 1913, 1915 two, 1917, 1<J21, 1924, 1931). Four 
relate to Nearctic species (1902, 1903, 1910, 1930) although the 
last of these, that on-Peritlteinis, is even more concerned with 
neotropical forms. Nine more papers are restricted to the neo- 
tropical fauna (1904, 1908, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1917, 1918, 1928 5 
two). 

Of these faunal papers, special importance is to be assigned 
to the larval studies on central European material (1909, 1910, 
1920), the extensive memoirs on ( hlonata of Formosa (1912, 
1916). on E. Jacobson's collections in Java (1912) and Sumatra 
(1927), the handbook, as it really is, for South African 

"Vol. XXXI, pp. 26-28, Jan. 19_>(>. The edit. .rial in our issue for 
November, 1918, entitled "Entomology in Central Europe," gives extracts 
from Ris's letters of 3 March and U> Sept., 1918, without mention of his 
name, and testify to the depression produced by the war. 

' See Ent. News, viii, pp. 39-40, 1897, for an abstract. 

'"' Reference to the Zoological Record for the years given for the papers 
will give the place of publication. 



188 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Dragonflies (1921) and Lib ell en aus dcr Region dcr ameri- 
kanischen Kordillercn von Costa Rica bis Catamarca (1918). 

At least five of the papers enumerated above as referring to 
the Swiss fauna contain data on other "Neuroptera" as well. 
There are besides at least five papers especially concerned with 
Perlidae (1896, 1902, 1903, 1905, 1913) four with Trichoptera 
(1893, 1895, 1903, 1904) one with Plecoptera, Neuroptera and 
Trichoptera (1923) all of the Swiss fauna. 

There are four general entomological papers : Ucbcr Rich- 
tungslinicn dcr Systcnwtik (1916), Dcr Artbcgriff, insbeson- 
dcre in dcr Entomologic (1918), Bcobachtungcn und Gcdankcn 
iibcr Zoogcographic aitf kleinsteni Return (1924) and Die 
gcographischc Vcrbrcitung dcr Inscktcn dcr Schwcis (1926), 
the last being one of the opening addresses at the Third En- 
tomological Congress at Zurich, in July, 1925. 

In later years his interest in collecting and rearing Lepidop- 
tera revived. His friendship with Dr. M. Standfuss, to which 
his sister has referred, had led to a detailed summary (1895) 
of Standfuss' experiments on the effect of extreme tempera- 
tures on Lepidopterous pupae and a review (1896) of the 
second edition of the latter's Handbuch dcr palaarctischen 
Grosschmettcrlinge. After the Libelluline monograph was well 
out of the way, the fruits of butterfly studies appeared in papers 
on sexual characters of pupae (1920), the sphragis of Par- 
nassius (1924), the generations of Picris napi (1928), and 
seasonal forms of Swiss butterflies (1930). 

Several fairly extensive pieces of taxonomic research were 
still on his hands when he passed away the African Pseuda- 
grions, Orthemis, Neotropical Trameas with new materials, 
Chinese and Philippine collections. 

And in the background of all stands preparatory work for 
a new Catalogue of Odonata. If I live (in good condition for 
work) to 1932, when I can retire, and if nobody else does the 
work in the meantime, I hope I shall do it. When a year ago 
I made a summary extract of the Calopterygidae for Sjostedt, 
I found that three-fifths of the species were represented in 
Kirby's work, two-fifths not yet catalogued. Similar propor- 
tions supposed to exist all over the order, it is evident that a 
new catalogue would be desirable (17 Nov. 1928). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 189 

Regarding catalogs: My idea is not to put Kirby's Cat. up 
to date, but to make an entirely new thing. It is very ques- 
tionable if I ever arrive to do that; the possibilities fully depend 
on the condition in which I may eventually retire from my 
office ; the date would be 1932 ; it is a long way to that and 
before I am retired I can only undertake minor work in en- 
tomology, since the forces are no more sufficient to do both 
things : professional duties and serious research work. But I 
am, as a means that eventually could also serve another person 
and successor, keeping up to date a manuscript catalog of all 
described living Odonata, into which every record of Odonata, 
that passes through my hands, is put down. Every name has 
a sheet ; in the newer parts cross references are regularly 
entered and such are also made as soon as they turn up for the 
older parts. The whole is divided into subfamilies for Ani- 
soptera, 'legions' for Zygoptera; within the subfamilies or 
'legions' genera are arranged alphabetically, so are species 
within genera. Geographical notes are always extracted, other 
remarks often added. The whole thing is very nearly com- 
plete. For a printed catalog, the great question would be to 
arrange systematically the alphabetical rough material. This 
latter task would, to my view, need a volume of comment. . . . 
If I live up to 1932 in good form for such work, it shall be 
the first thing that I undertake; if not, the MS. catalog may 
pass to somebody else for similar use. . . . The catalog is 
written on writing paper (octavo), not cards, and in a number 
of portfolios, measures 55 cm. over the back. Together with 
the set of books and the collection it makes my odonatological 
working outfit and makes me almost independent from the 
resources of a great city and enables me to do some work in 
this out of the way place. (25 Feb., 1929.) 

The technical solution of a general collection in the hands 
of a private man of very limited means was given, as soon as 
I made up my mind to renounce the setting of specimens alto- 
gether ; the whole collection is papered, and I find that for 
working purposes this condition is even preferable to a set col- 
lection. (9 Jan. 1913.) My collection (I say it again when 
examining some parts with Tillyard) must now be one of the 
largest in existence (the Museums included). It is in good 
working condition, but not lit for show. (7 Sept. 1926.) 

You may be right with your intentions to concentrate your 
activities on the t'ostarican and similar materials. Hut I freely 
admit that I must regret such a decision. I see the moment 
coming when I shall thus be alone to try for a comprehensive 
knowledge of the whole field. The Americans conspicuously 
limit their investigations to the inhabitants of their own two 



190 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

continents ; Laidlaw, Fraser, Lieftinck have never touched 
American materials ; Morton has his great love for the Palae- 
arctics ; Schmidt is hesitating, also with Palaearctic sympathies. 
So it may sometime appear that my own work, rambling over 
the five continents, must necessarily he somewhat superficial. 
Nevertheless I think I shall continue in the old way, partly from 
real interest in the whole series, which interest I can only tem- 
porarily concentrate on one geographic unit, partly from a feel- 
ing that there should be at least one representative of the older 
generation, who tries to lie able to give (with due allowance 
for time and otherwise limited possibilities) an answer to any 
single question that might be put to him on dragonflies of any 
part of the world thus continuing (perhaps as a kind of 
'glacial relic') the traditions of Selys and McLachlan. If my 
hope of realizing some day a new catalogue is not vain, the 
necessity of continuing the studies on the universal line is, of 
course, imperative. (23 Sept. 1930 the last letter I had from 
him!) 

The students of the Odonata found their way to Rheinau: 
Morton in 1904 (and in August, 1928, at Zurich), R. J. Till- 
ard and Mrs. Tillyard in 1926, E. M. Walker in the summer of 
1928. the writer and Mrs. Calvert in August, 1929. 

Indeed one of the great services that entomology has done 
me, and continues to do, has been the development of friend- 
ships that have given color and distinction to an existence which 
otherwise might have been a rather dull one in many respects. 
So nature pays to her lovers not only with her own admirable 
and sublime productions, but also with the friendships of fel- 
low admirers and followers of her beauty and profound secrets. 
Like to yourself, so to me, correspondence of days to come will 
be enlivened by the remembrance of a personal intercourse, 
which was delightful in every respect (3 Sept. 1929.) 

On Tuesday, January 27, 1931, his sister writes us. Dr. Ris 
attended the funeral of a long-time associate in Zurich. On 
Thursday evening, the 29th, he was arranging lantern slides for 
a lecture to the patients to be given in the first week of Febru- 
ary. On the following morning, when he did not appear long 
after his usual hour, he was found to have passed away- 
apparently peacefully and painlessly. 

From her letter and from one from Mr. K. J. Morton, we 
learn that, under Dr. Ris's will, his dragonfly collection with 

This, of course, was written before the appearance of Prof. Needham's 
extensive Handbook of the Dragonflies of China. 



xlii, '31 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 191 

that part of his library, printed and written, referring to the 
Odonata, and his entomological correspondence, goes to the 
Senckenherg Museum in Frankfurt am Main; the Trichoptera, 
and presumably the other "Neuroptera", and pertinent litera- 
ture, to the Entomologisches Institut der schweizerischen tech- 
nischen Hochschule in Zurich ; his Swiss butterflies to the 
Naturforschenden Verein in Schaffhausen. 

Ris was truly the successor of de Selys, Brauer and Mc- 
Lachlan. Morton, in his obituary notice, and Needham, in a 
private letter, both use the word "foremost" to designate his 
place as an authority, a student, of the Odonata of the world, 
and rightly so. When I read a sentence in his letter of 14 Jan., 
1930, to me : "do not forget to think about the possibilities of 
writing on history of entomology !", I hope that this present 
endeavor to record his life and work may be a fulfillment of 
his injunction. The loss of a sympathetic correspondent of 
more than thirty years' standing is no little thing, nor can we 
ever quite replace in our affections those of our own, or of an 
older, generation, 

"Treasuring the look we cannot find, 
The words that are not heard again." 

PHILIP P. CALVERT. 



A Scarcity of Specialists. 

From the Annual Report of the Institute for Medical Re- 
search of the Federated Malay States at Kuala Lumpur for 
1929, we take the following: Mites in oil palms : At the be- 
ginning of the year, monthly collections of mites from the 
decayed male flowers of oil palms were commenced. This 
material again yielded large numbers of mites, but in this coun- 
try, owing to the absence of literature and types for compari- 
son, there was no opportunity of identifying the great number 
of forms met with, a large percentage of which is probably 
undescribed. Dr. Guy A. K. Marshall, C. M. G., F. R. S., 
Director of the Imperial llureau of Entomology, very kindly 
endeavoured to find someone in Europe who would undertake 
the work of identifying the mites. Ilis efforts were unsuc- 
cessful, however, owing to the great shortage of competent 
acarologists, and these collections were therefore abandoned. 
Enough mounted material was retained to indicate whether or 
not a mite found on a coolie on the estate had its origin in 
the oil palm. (P. 14.) 



192 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[July., '31 



Parachernes ronnaii, a New Genus and Species 

of False Scorpion from Brazil 

(Arachnida-Chelonethida). 

By JOSEPH CONRAD CITAMBERLIN, 
Twin Falls, Idaho. 

I am indebted to Dr. Antonio Ronna of Caxias, Rio Grande 
do Sul, Brazil, for the specimen upon which this paper is based. 
I take pleasure in dedicating this interesting species to its dis- 
coverer. 

PARACHERNES gen. nov. 

Orthotype. Parachernes ronaii sp. nov. Brazil. 

Diagnosis. Typical cheliferoid genus belonging to the family 
Chernetidae, and related to Chcrncs, Hesperochcrncs, and Dino- 
cheirus. Eye spots present but inconspicuous ; carapace of usual 
form and provided with two procurved transverse furrows ; 





Parachernes ronnaii gen. and sp. nov. ?. 

A. Tip of fixed finger of chela showing type of dentition. Note acces- 
sory as well as marginal teeth. B. Exterior aspect of right chela showing 
chaetotaxy, dentition, and venom apparatus. C. Genital oper'culum. D. 
Ventral aspect of left pedipalpus or cheliped. E. Galea. F. Tarsus nt 
leg IV. G, H, I, J. Characteristic types of setae. G, from anterior face 
of tibia of pedipalp ; H, from fourth pedal tibia; I, from pedipalpal tro- 
chanter and J, from pedal femur. All same scale of magnification. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 193 

flagellum of 3 blades ; sexual development of galea unknown 
but probably dimorphic ; the normal 5 setae of palm of chelicera 
present, b and sb showing typical terminal denticles as in 
Hcspcrochcrncs; lamina interior with dentate terminal tooth 
and 3 dentate subterminal lobes; basal lamella of serrula ex- 
terior elongated to about twice normal length and acute; other 
lamellae of typical ligulate form. The chaetotaxy of the chela 
differs markedly from that occurring in C'ltcnics, Hc.spcro- 
clicrncs, or I)inoclicinis and is characterized principally by a 
marked basal concentration of the interior series of tactile setae 
(fig. B). Sense spots occur on both fixed and mobile fingers 
of the chela but are few (fig. B). t'hcla provided with acces- 
sory teeth both interiorly and exteriorly (fig. A and B). 
Venom duct of long type, the nodus ramosus lying barely 
proximad of the terminal seta of the movable finger (fig. B). 
Dorsal sclerites of body and most of pedipalps beset by 
thickened, scarcely clavate, terminally dentate setae (fig. G-J). 
Expanded abdomen normally ovate, extending well beyond the 
fourth legs when these are normally flexed. All tergites and 
sternites except the eleventh longitudinally divided into scutae 
by a relatively broad membranous strip ; each bearing the usual 
border series of 14 to 16 setae. Posterior tergites normal, defi- 
nitely transverse (not recurved). Eleventh tergite bearing a 
lateral pair of pseudotactile setae, the 1 1th sternite with a sub- 
median pair. Female genital area characterized by a loose clus- 
ter of about 20 short acute setae (fig. C) much as occurs in 
Hesperochernes. Legs typical, claws and subterminal setae 
simple ; fourth tibia without tactile seta ; tactile seta of tarsus 
IV half as long as tarsus and placed midway between the base 
and tip of the segment (fig. F). T radical trunks without in- 
ternal papillate projections. 

Remarks. From all previously named segregates of Chcrncs, 
Paracliicrnes differs markedly in the chaetotaxy of the chela; 
from Hcspcroclicrncs it differs in possessing a 3 instead of 4 
bladed flagellum; from Hesperochernes and Clicrncs sens. str. 
it differs in the possession of a tactile seta on the 4th tarsus; 
from Dinochcinis, Hcsperochcrncs, and Cliernes it differs in 
the non-clavate setae of the dorsal sclerites and pedipalps ; from 
Dinochcinis and Clicrncs it differs in having the sub-basal and 
basal setae of the chelicerae both terminally dentate. In the 
absence of a male example the presence or absence of sexual 
dimorphism in the chela can not be directly ascertained. The 



194 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS uty-, '31 



following considerations may, however, yield a clue as to the 
facts in the case. The orthotype of the genus seems to find 
its nearest described relative in "Chcmcs" michaelsoni Sim. as 
redescribed by With. 1 With's redescription was based upon a 
single male. According -to his figures the chaetotaxy, etc., of 
the chela is quite similar to that here figured for P. ronnaii, 
and it is likely that the two are congeneric. He represents the 
chela fingers as clearly gaping. From this we may tentatively 
infer that the chela is sexually dimorphic in Parachernes. Since 
With would rarely describe as new a species which by any pos- 
sibility could be assigned to one already named, it is impossible 
to be sure that michaelsoni Simon and michaelsoni (Sim.) With 
are really the same species because of the serious inadequacy 
of Simon's original description as seen in the light of present 
knowledge. 

Parachernes ronnaii sp. nov. (Figs. A-J ) 

Holotypc, 9, (JC-716. 01001) taken clinging to a fly at 
Caxias (Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil, by Dr. Antonio Ronna. 
Deposited in Stanford University Collections. 

Diagnosis. Anterior carapacal furrow most distinct of the 
two, median in position and laterally procurved ; posterior fur- 
row nearer posterior carapacal margin than anterior furrow 
and only slightly procurved laterally. Carapace longer than 
broad behind, bordered posteriorly by 12 short thickened setae. 
Scutae of third tergite narrower than either those preceding or 
succeeding; tergites bordered by about 14 to 16 thickened setae 
each, the median ones at least bearing in addition a single slender 
and slightly subclavate, terminally denticulate seta anterior to 
the marginal series on either side. Each tergal scutum with a 
weak central spot. Fingers of chela with about 32 or 33 well 
defined slightly retro-conical marginal teeth (fig. A and B) ; 
with an exterior series 3 and 4 evenly spaced, small and incon- 
spicuous accessory teeth exteriorly on the movable and fixed 
fingers of the chela respectively (fig. B) ; interiorly there is 
on either finger a single large accessory tooth about 1/3 re- 
moved from ringer tip (fig. B) ; sense spots sub-basal exteriorly 
on both fingers and interiorly on the fixed finger (fig. B). 
Palps as illustrated (fig. D) ; maxilla smooth except on post- 

1 With, Carl. 1908. Cheliferinae. Trans. Zool. Soc. London 18:282. 
Figs. 22 a-c. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 195 

clivus; remainder of palps, except posteriorly on tibia and chela 
and on fingers, evenly granulate and beset by thickened setae 
(fig. G and I). Trochanter with a distinctly conical protuber- 
ance or heel behind, 1.3 times as long as broad; femur typical, 
2.3 times as long as broad; tibia normal, subequal to femur in 
length, 2.1 times as long as broad and 1.2 times as long as hand; 
chela 2.7 times as long as broad and almost 1.3 times as long 
as breadth of trochanter ; fingers scarcely longer than hand but 
clearly longer than its breadth; hand very slightly broader than 
deep and 1.3 times as long as broad. Chelicerae typical, galea 
with (i branches (fig. E). Length of adult, 9 2.1 mm. 



A New Louse from Domestic Chickens (Mallophaga : 

Philopteridae). 

By HAROLD S. PETERS, 
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

During a collecting trip in the southern Bahama Islands in 
the summer of 1930 I found a new biting louse (order Mallo- 
phaga) on the heads of chickens in four localities. The com- 
mon chicken head louse (Lipeiints heterographus Nitzsch) was 
not found. Four other species of lice common on chickens 
throughout the world were found in connection with the new 
species; namely, the wing louse (Lipciinis caponis Linn.), the 
fluff louse (Goiiiocotcs Jwlogastcr Nitz.), the shaft louse 
(Mcnopon yaUinac Linn.), and the brown chicken louse 
(Goniodcs (fissiinilis Nitz.). According to the natives, the 
original stock of their poultry was obtained from Haiti or 
Santo Domingo, so this is evidently a tropical species. This is 
further evidenced by the fact that specimens from domestic 
chickens from Venezuela and Liberia were found in the col- 
lection of the National Museum. 
Lipeurus tropicalis n. sp. 

I >esrrihed from 42 individuals collected from chickens in the 
IJahama Islands, by myself, as follows: Four males, two 
females, and one immature form from Great Ragged Island, 
July 3, 1930 ( Bishopp Xo. 150'>3) ; eight males, nine females, 
and one immature form from Providenciales, C'aicos Islands, 
July 23, 1930 (I'ishopp Xo. 15144); one male, one female, 



196 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[July., '31 



and four immature forms from Grand Turks Island, July 31, 
1930 (Bishopp No. 15193) ; and three males, three females, 
and five immature forms from Great Inagua Island, August 
10, 1930 (Bishopp No. 15276). Also described from speci- 
mens in the National Museum as follows : One female collected 
from chicken at Cuidad Bolivar, Venezuela, July, 1925, by 
L. H. Dunn; and two males and two females collected from 
chicken at Reppo's Town, Liberia, August 31, 1926, by Prof. 
Jos. Bequaert. 

Description of MALE. Head one and one-half times as 
long as wide, obtusely angled in front ; forehead widest just 
before the large and movable trabeculae. Head little wider 
across temples than before trabeculae. Temples broadly 
rounded. Posterior edge of head slightly concave. Eyes clear 
and protruding, with a long dorsal ocular seta. Color light 
brown with dark brown lateral borders, antennal and occipital 
bands, esophageal sderite, mandibles, and a long narrow gular 
signature. Antennae almost as long as head, reaching, if ex- 
tended backwards, beyond the prothorax. First segment pale, 
greatly enlarged, and elongated, being as long as the remain- 
ing four segments combined and bearing a dorsal projection 
from the middle of the segment. Segment 2 half as long as 
segment one and longer than segments 3, 4, and 5 combined. 
Segment 3 dark brown and formed into a dorsal inward pro- 




Explanation of Figures. 

Fig. 1. Head of male, dorsal; female antenna at left. All x 44. a, 
Sternum, x 44. 

Fig. 2. Male gcnitalia. x44. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 197 

jecting hook slightly longer than either segments 4 or 5, which 
are about equal in length. (Fig. 1.) 

Thorax almost as long as head, pale brown in color with 
dark brown lateral margins and with a typical, somewhat pear- 
shaped sternum (Fig. 1, a). Prothorax about two-thirds as 
wide as head, and about one and one-third times as wide as 
long, roughly rectangular in shape, the sides almost parallel, 
the posterior edge slightly convex, and with a seta at each 
latero-posterior rounded angle. Pterothorax roughly trape- 
zoidal in shape and slightly broader than the head or the first 
abdominal segment, and twice as long as the prothorax. The 
sides are slightly diverging, with broadly rounded latero-pos- 
terior angles in which one seta is situated. Slightly nearer the 
middle, on the posterior border, there is a group of four very 
long pustulated setae situated in a small uncolored area. Pos- 
terior border slightly angulated on abdomen. Legs pale, with 
brown borders. Forelegs short, with the coxae narrowly sepa- 
rated, middle and hind legs long, hind legs longest, and with 
widely separated coxae. 

Abdomen of nine segments, elongate with sides somewhat 
parallel, and with a peculiar, somewhat spade-shaped ninth seg- 
ment. Segments 1 to 8 about equal in length except segments 
3 and 4, which are somewhat shorter than the rest ; widest at 
segment 3. Segment 9 slightly bilobed, elongated, slightly 
longer than wide, and about three-fifths as wide as segment 8. 
Light brown in color, with dark brown pleurites forming a 
lateral band interrupted at sutures, lighter brown median mark- 
ings, and with a clear space or band just inside the lateral band 
in which the small spiracles on segments 2 to 7 are situated. 
The general color of the ninth segment is very light brown, 
with medium dark brown anterior border and lateral borders, 
thus leaving a clear central portion. On the dorsal surface 
segment 1 lias two setae near middle of anterior border and a 
curved row of four setae behind these. Segments 2 to 6 have 
a curved row of six setae near the posterior border of each 
segment. Segment 7 has four setae, segment 8 has two setae 
near anterior border and a group of three setae in an elongated 
triangular uncolored area on each side near the posterior border, 
the outermost being much the longest. A few setae are present 
on the ventral surface. On the lateral margins of segments 
1 and 2 there are no setae; segments three and four have one 
seta in posterior angles, and segments five and six have two 
sc-tae, segment 7 has four setae, and segment 8 has two setae 
near the anterior border of the segment, one being very long. 
Segment 9 has three small setae near the anterior border of 



198 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J u ty-> '31 

the segment. Genitalia distinctive, having an elongated basal 
plate extending forward into the third abdominal segment 

(fig- 2). 

Description of FEMALE. Head as in the male except that 
the trabeculae and antennae are each about half as large, and 
the trabeculae are not movable. The antennae, if extended 
backwards, will not reach the posterior border of head. (See 
fig. 1.) 

Thorax and legs as in the male except that the thorax is 
somewhat shorter and broader. 

Abdomen slightly longer and somewhat broader than that of 
the male. Segments 1 to 8 about equal in length ; widest at 
fourth segment^ Eighth and ninth segments fused, somewhat 
trapezoidal in shape, about two-fifths as wide posteriorly as 
anteriorly, and slightly bilobed. The color is somewhat differ- 
ent from that of the male. The pleurites and the area between 
them and the spiracles are dark brown, forming a wide dark 
brown continuous lateral band as the pleurites extend into the 
preceding segment. The median markings are dark brown also, 
are separate on segments 1 to 7, and are shaped like an hour- 
glass, with a diamond-shaped median golden brown area. On 
segments 5, 6. 7, and 8 there is a longitudinal median brown 
rod lying in the clear lateral area. The posterior half of seg- 
ment 8 is dark brown, shading to light brown posteriorly, with 
a narrow median uncolored area. Setae about the same as on 
the male. 

Description of IMMATURE FORMS. The eleven immature speci- 
mens at hand, all over half grown, show the typical angulated 
front and have the same number of setae in about the same 
position as the adults. 

Average Measurements in mm. 

Male Female 

Length Width Length Width 

Head 0.721 0.483 0.742 0.516 

Thorax 612 .583 .606 .611 

Abdomen 1.863 .637 1.916 .837 



Total 3.196 3.264 

Type Host. 'Callus do-niesticus, chicken. 
Type Locality. Great Ragged Island, BAHAMA ISLANDS, 
BRITISH WEST INDIES. 

Type Slide. Cat. No. 43488 U. S. N. M. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 199 

The holotypc male and allotype female on the type slide 
were collected from chicken at the type locality on July 3, 
1930, by myself (Bishopp No. 15063). The para-types are in 
the collection of the Bureau of Entomology and in my personal 
collection. 

This species is most closely related to Li pc urns laivrensis 
Bedford (1920), described from a wild guinea fowl from 
Africa, hut is easily separated by the angulated front, posterior 
segment of male, differences in coloration and chaetotaxy, and 
by being about three-fourths mm. shorter in length. L. tropi- 
calis possibly originated from a wild guinea, as I find specimens 
in the National Museum, collected from five species of wild 
guineas from Africa, which may be referred to this species, 
all having the angulated front, although they may be separated 
as varieties at some future time. L. tropicalis is very easily 
differentiated from L. hctcrographus and L. caponis, commonly 
found on chickens, by its larger size, angulated front, and male 
srenitalia. 



Notes on the Homing of Several Species of Wasps 
(Hym. : Chrysididae, Sphegoidea, Vespoidea). 

By PHIL RAU, Kirkwood, Missouri. 

AYhile taking carpenter-bees and burrowing-bees afield* to 
test their ability to find their way back home, it was sometimes 
possible to pick up various species of wasps also, paint them 
with distinguishing marks and liberate them, along with the 
others, at fixed distances from their homes. The results of 
these experiments are noted below. 

Two cuckoo-bees, Chrysis (Tctrachrysis} la-mini f era Bis- 
choff [G. Sandhouse] and Chrysis (He.vachrysis) sp. [G. 
Sandhouse] were liberated on July 10, at 4:20 p.m., one mile 
from the place of their capture. Both returned the next morn- 
ing, at 9:10 and 9:50 o'clock. These are parasitic bees, and 
it is surprising that they should remember and manifest so 
much interest in the nest of the host and return to it in the 
same way as does a nesting bee. 

*Journ. Comp. Psychol. 9: 35-70, 1929. 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A mud-daubing wasp, Sccliphron cacmentarium female, was 
carried one-third mile east of the clay bank where it was found 
getting mud, and liberated at midday, September 1. She re- 
turned in 25 minutes. 

Three females of Trypo.vylon olavatum were liberated on 
July 10, at 4:20 p.m., one mile from the clay bank in which 
they were nesting in old bee burrows. One returned the next 
morning at 10:05. 

Four Trypo.vylon albopilosum (females) nesting in the clay 
bank, were taken away one mile and liberated at 4 :20 p.m. 
Three returned the same afternoon, in 15 minutes, 1 hour and 
\y^ hours, respectively. The fourth never arrived home. An- 
other one, liberated at a distance of two miles, did not return. 

Ancistrocerus fulvipcs was liberated on July 10, one mile 
from home at 2:15 p.m.; it returned at 4:30. 

Two males and four females of Monobia quadridcns were 
liberated at two miles distance at midday ; none returned. One 
female was captured as she brought in a caterpillar to her nest, 
and was carried away one mile at 1 :20 p.m. She reappeared 
the next morning at 10 o'clock, but her sister, liberated at the 
same time, did not return. 

A marked female of the grass-carrier. Chlorion auripes, was 
set free June 22 at 11 :45, at a point two miles from the build- 
ing where it nested. Up to noon the next day it did not re- 
turn. However, it later found its way home, because one week 
later it was taken, still wearing its dot of red paint, while 
bringing in a cricket to its nest. It was again carried to the 
two-mile point and liberated at 2:57 p.m. It found its way 
home more quickly this time, consuming only two hours and 
two minutes in the flight. 

One queen of Polistcs pallipcs was marked and liberated two 
miles from home at 10:30 a.m. Sunday, and it returned at 
8:50 a.m. Monday. It took her over 22 hours, but she even- 
tually reached home. It may actually have taken this length 
of time to find her way home from a distance of two miles, 
and again she may have indulged in a little loafing along the 
way, as we know Polistcs sometimes do. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 201 

Some Unusual Occurrences of Butterflies in Connec- 
ticut (Lepid. : Pieridae, Nymphalidae). 

By J. R. HASKIN, \Yaterford, Connecticut. 

From California the land of sunshine and hntterflies to 
Connecticut is a far cry but I find that even in Connecticut, 
my new home, many interesting field notes can be made if 
one is observant. 

In the January, 1931, NEWS, is reported the capture of 
Catopsilia philca in Missouri in June, 1930. This was of partic- 
ular interest to me because we took one in Connecticut also. On 
August 26, 1930, my daughter observed and netted a large 
showy butterfly hovering about the flowers on our lawn at 
Oswegatchie Point. From the fresh appearance of the butter- 
fly I doubt very much if it had flown a great distance. My 
theory is that it came up from the tropics in chrysalis form, 
presumably on a bunch of bananas or in a box of tropical fruits 
or vegetables. Such occurrences have been noted in connection 
with other species also. 

On September 25, I took a specimen of Euptoicta claudia 
Cramer. This specimen was so recently hatched from its 
chrysalis that it was hardly able to fly. The wings were still 
quite fragile. It certainly must have existed in chrysalis form 
here in Waterford, and one wonders how this could have 
happened. A very careful search of the locality during several 
days succeeding failed to discover any others of the species. 

The summer of 1930 was particularly dry and hot and re- 
minded me continually of the average Southern California 
weather. Throughout the entire season Colias philodice was 
one of the commonest butterflies in this vicinity. Its size and 
color varied as the spring, summer, and autumn seasons ad- 
vanced. On October 13. I had taken several in an open field, 
and much to my surprise I then captured a very fresh and 
weak-flving female butterfly that compared exactly with some 
of the richest colored Colitis eurytheme amphidusa that I look 
in California. The color of the black borders is very wide and 
dark and very heavily developed on the secondaries. The 
primaries are heavily suffused with orange, while the orange 
spot on the secondaries is very dark and large and the secon- 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

daries are heavily suffused with black overlaid with a tinge of 
orange. I took this specimen late in the afternoon and found 
only one or two more normal philodicc after a careful search 
of the field. The next day it turned cold and stormy and 
October 13 proved to be the last successful collecting day of 
the season. I intend to watch this field very carefully during 
the coming spring to see whether any more of this unusual type 
appear. Query : Did the unusually dry and hot summer of 
1930 result in this fall-hatched specimen from the normal 
philodice or is it only a freak specimen? 

I noticed throughout the latter part of the season that Terias 
lisa was unusually abundant. These are not uncommon in this 
vicinity but one generally takes only an occasional specimen. 



A Coleopterous Enemy of Corydalis cornuta L. 
(Anthicidae ; Neur. : Sialididae).* 

By PAUL N. MUSGRAVE, Fairmont, West Virginia. 

Last August while collecting aquatic insects in the South 
Branch of the Potomac River, Pendleton County, West Vir- 
ginia, practically all egg masses of Corydalis cornuta L. were 
found to be infested by an Anthicid beetle, AntJiicus lieroicus 
Casey. At least 95% of egg masses examined were found to 
have from one to four small holes cut through the outer coat- 
ing and into the center of the mass. The size, shape and loca- 
tion of the openings varied a great deal, some being only large 
enough to admit the adult beetle, 2-3 mm. in diameter, while 
others were much larger and irregular in shape. Some open- 
ings were cut in the center of the mass and others at the edge. 
The only variation in the percentage of infestation was found 
in masses placed on leaves of trees, or stones on the shore, 
where it was possible for ants to reach them. Whether or 
not the ants were the controlling factor, masses found on shore 
rocks and ledges were much more likely to be free from infes- 
tation than those laid on stones in the middle of the stream. 

Opening an infested mass usually meant the discovery of 
from one to eight adult beetles which immediately tried to 

* Contribution from Department of Entomology, West Virginia Uni- 
versity. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 203 

escape. Sometimes they flew directly from the mass, some- 
times dropped to the water and then flew from the surface 
of the water but usually they ran to a crevice in the stone or 
into another egg mass. Often a stone would have twenty to 
thirty masses on one surface with most of them infested and 
then the disturbed beetles resembled an opened ant hill as they 
ran here and there trying to find a hiding place. Besides the 
adults, larvae of different si/es and ages were found. As 
many as fourteen small larvae were found in one mass and 
eight or ten was a common number. Adults and larvae were 
regularly found in the same mass but usually adults would be 
in company with larger larvae only. 

When the larvae are ready to pupate they hollow out a small 
cell in the crevice-soil, or more rarely in the debris of the egg 
mass itself. In examining several hundreds of egg masses only 
three pupae were found in the masses, while they were com- 
mon in the sandy soil in which moss (Grinnnia apocarpa (L.) 
Hedw.) was growing. However many cells containing full- 
grown larvae were found in the egg masses and it may be that 
they commonly pupate there. Adults emerged August 30-Sep- 
tember 5 from pupae collected in August. 

The larvae were determined by Dr. Adam G. Boving and 
adults by Air. H. S. Barber, both of the United States Na- 
tional Museum and to whom thanks are due. Dr. L. O. 
Howard apparently first discovered an Anthicid (Ant hie us 
hahlcmanni Lee.) in the egg mass of the Dobson in 1895 on 
the rocky shores of the Potomac near Washington and since 
that time Schwartz, Knab, Barber and others have noticed the 
same occurrence but apparently nothing has appeared in print. 

Three other species of adult .-Inthicus were found in com- 
pany with hcroicHs: A. duel us Say, A. pithcscens Laf. and 
A. ccrt'inus Laf. No larvae of any of these were discovered 

however. 



Congratulations to Dr. L. O. Howard. 

The daily papers of June 13 reported that Dr. L. O. Howard 
was awarded for 1931 a gold medal and $5000 for distinguished 
service to agriculture, given annually by Senator Arthur Capper 
of Kansas. The hearty congratulations of the NEWS are ex- 
tended to Dr. Howard. 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July-, '31 

Notes on Blattidae, Adventive to the United 
States (Orthop.). 

By A. N. CAUDELL, 

United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Among miscellaneous material in the National Museum are 
the following species of cockroaches, the first four being ap- 
parently new to our fauna : 

HOLOCOMPSA AZTECA Saussure. One mature female taken 
at Nogales, Arizona, June 8, 1919, by F. J. Dyer. This is the 
second species of this genus found within our borders, Holo- 
compsa nitidula Fabricius having been taken by Rehn and 
Hebard. An adventive specimen of this latter species was also 
recorded from Washington, D. C., by the present writer in 
1907. 

HEMIBLABERA TENEBRICOSA Rehn and Hebard. An adult 
pair of this large West Indian roach was taken on Key Largo, 
Florida, in January, 1896, by E. A. Popenoe. 

CAPUCINELLA DELICATULA Hebard. One female specimen 
of this Panamanian roach was taken at Los Angeles, California, 
by H. M. Armitage in October, 1929, in a bunch of bananas. 
This specimen, unquestionably an adventive, is in the National 
Museum. 

EURYCOTJS CARAIBEA Bolivar. An adult male of this insect 
was taken at Brainerd, Minnesota, in July, 1921, by D. Sanders, 
who found it in a crate of peaches, presumably in a market. 
This is certainly adventive. 

EURYCOTIS DIMIDIATA Bolivar. Under the name Eurycotis 
caraibea, Mr. Hebard recorded a specimen of this roach as oc- 
curring adventive at Berwick, Pennsylvania ( 1 ) . This deter- 
mination was later corrected to dimidiata (2). On February 
13, 1924, another adventive of this species was taken on bananas 
in the public market in Washington, D. C. This was a nymph 
in the last instar when taken and the reared adult, a male, ex- 
hibits some characters not agreeing wholly with those of <//;/- 
diata. It seems nearer that species, however, than any other 
described form and Mr. Hebard, who examined the specimen, 
pronounced it dimidiata or a closely allied species. 

l Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc., No. 2, p. 266 (1917). 

2 Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. liv, p. 174, foot-note 1 (1927). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 205 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKBY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I 1 refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

ij^- Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Bather, F. A. Is an international zoolog- 
ical nomenclature practicable? [68] 73: 612-613. (S). Bed- 
ford, H. W. A description of the methods adopted in the 
Sudan in the organization of the insect collections and the 
systematic compilation of records. [AYellcome Trop. Res. 
Lab.] Ent. Bull. 32: 21 pp., ill. Carpenter, F. M., et al.- 
The evolution of the class Insecta. [16] 21: 531-539. Hay- 
ward, K. J. News from the Argentine. [21] 43: 77-81. 
Hendrickson, G. O. Subterranean insects of marsh grass 
(Spartina michauxiana) . [4] 63: 109-110. McGlashan, C. 
F. Obituary. By E. O. Essig. [55] 7: 97-99. Sherborn, 
C. D. Index animalium. Sec. 2. Pts. 23-24. Thorpe, W. 
H. Miscellaneous records of insects inhabiting the saline 
waters of the Californian desert regions. (55] 7: 145-153. 
Tillyard, R. J. The evolution of the class Insecta. [Pap. 
& Pro. K. Soc. Tasmania] 1930: 1-89, ill. Uvarov, B. P.- 
Insects and climate. [36] 79: 1-247, ill. Wimmers, C. Ed. 
Study, ein mathematiker und entomologe. [14] 44: 316-318. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Bertholf, L. M.- 

Reactions of the honeybee to light. |113| 42: 379-419, ill. 
Chow, C. H. Sur le developpement du carpophore chez 
Coprinus tomentosus. [69| 192: 1121-1123. Corset, J. Les 
coaptations chez les insectes. | Sup. Bull. Biol. Fr. et Belg.] 
13: 337 pp., ill. Goldschmidt, R. .Analysis of intersexual- 
ity in the gypsy-moth. [73] 6: 125-142. Metz, C. W.- 
Chromosomal differences between germ cells and soma in 
Sciara. [97] 51: 119-124, ill. Reith, F. Zur experimentellen 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

analyse der primitiventwicklung bei insekten. [88] 19: 398- 
399. Schmucker, T. Ueber asymmetriscb.es verhalten von 
Hymenopteren an bltiten. [97] 51: 15-18, ill. Schrader, F. 
-The chromosome cycle of Protortonia primitiva and a 
consideration of the meiotic division apparatus in the male. 
[94] 138: 386-408, ill. Smirnow, G. G Ueber die wirkmig 
der Anthelminthica auf die wanderung der Ascaridenlarven. 
Experimentelle untersuchungen. [Zeit. Parasit., Berlin] 3: 
173-184. Thompson, W. R. On the reproduction of organ- 
isms with overlapping generations. [4] 63: 147-172, ill. 
Walker, E. M. On the clypens and labium of primitive 
insects. |4] 63: 75-81, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Chamberlin, R. 
V. On three new new chilopocls. [55] 7: 189-191. Mathe- 
son, R. Note on the tick Ornithodorus talaje. [Parasit.] 
23 : 270. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Bailey, S. 

F. A thrips new to California. |55] 7: 175-178. Borror, 
D. J. The genus Oligoclada. [Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool.J 
Misc. Publ. 22: 42pp., ill. Hood, J. D. Synonyms in the 
North American Thysanoptera. [55J 7: 170-172. *Jordan, 
K. Flohe aus Venezuela. [Zeit. Parasit., Berlin] 3: 264- 
266, ill. *McDunnough, J. New species of North Amer- 
ican Ephemeroptera. [4] 63: 82-93. *Moulton, D. An 
interesting new California thrips. [55] 7: 173-174. *Moul- 
ton, D. A new Aeolothrips from Nevada with notes on 
three other species fouiul in California. [55] 7: 122-123. 
Sikes,. E. K. Notes on breeding fleas, with reference to 
humidity and feeding. [Parasit.] 23: 243-249, ill. *Traver, 
J. R. A new mayfly genus from North America. [4] 63: 
103-109, ill. [ 

ORTHOPTERA. Buckell, E. R. The Dermaptera and 
Orthoptera of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. [Pro. 
Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.J No. 27: 17-51. *Hebard, M.--The 
Orthoptera of Kansas. [Pro. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.] 83: 
119-227. Karny, H. H. Ueber das fltigelgeader der Gryl- 
lacriden. [Arch. Zool. Italiano] 15: 193-244, ill. *Vignon, 
M. P. Recherches stir les sauterelles-feuilles cle 1'Amerique 
tropicale. [Arch. Mus. Nat. Hist., Paris] (6) 5: 57-214, ill. 
: ' : Silvestri, F. Notes on Grylloblatta campodeiformis and 
a description of a new variety (Grylloblattidae). [1] 57: 
291-295, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Ball, E. D. Some new leafhoppers 
of the genus Aligia (Rhynchota). [55] 7: 119-121. Bare, 
C. O. A Buenoa of southwest United States and Mexico. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 207 

[55] 7: 115-118. ill. Bueker, E. D. Mealy-bugs fCoccidae) 
of nests of ants f Lasius). | Univ. Col. Studies | 18: 151-162, 
ill. Drake, C. J. Two new species of Tigara from South 
America, (Ting-itidae). [37] 7: 405-406. *Klyver, F. D.- 
Chermidae from Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, including 
three new species. |55] 7: 131-143, 157-158, ill. Klyver, F. 
D. Notes on the Chermidae. Part II. [4] 63: 111-115, ill. 
Lawson, P. B. The genus Nerophloea in North America. 
[55] 7: 159-169, ill. Mahdihassan, S. The males of lac and 
pseudo-lac insects. [94] 138: 371-385, ill.. Michalk,_ O.- 
Anomalie in der antennenbildung bei Lygaeiden. [45] 26: 
66-73, ill. Muir, F. New and little-known Fulgoroidea 
from South America. [37] 7: 469-480, ill. Scrivener, J. W. 
-Notes on Gypona octolineata. [91] 21: 222-223, ill. 
*Usinger, R. L. A new species of Platylygus (Miridae) 
[55] 7: 129-130, ill. *Van Duzee, E. P. A new Ischnorr- 
hynchus (Lygaeidae). [55] 7: 110. Woodbury, L. A. A 
list of the Pentatomidae of Zion National Park, Utah. [55] 
7: 124-125. 

LEPIDOPTERA. d'Almeida, R. F. Quelques notes 
pour servir a 1'histoire naturelle des lepidopteres americains. 
(S). [Lambillionea] 31:83-88. *d' Almeida, R. F. Beitrage 
zur schmetterlings-fauna Siid-Amerikas. [14] 45: 59-62, ill. 
Box, H. E. The Crambine genera Diatraea and Xanthop- 
herne (Pyral.). [22] 22: 1-50, ill. *Cassino, S. E. New 
Geometridae. [The Lepid.] 5: 8pp. *Draudt, M. Eine 
neue neotropische Eupterotide. [17] 48: 121-122, ill. Fen- 
der, K. Butterflies of Yamhill County, Oregon. [55] 7: 
179-187, ill. Gaede, M. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars 
43. Satyridae I. 320pp. *Kruck, A. Neue Agriasform 
von Zentralamerika. [17] 48: 123-124. Lindsey, Bell & 
Williams. The 1 lesperioidea of North America. [Denison 
LJniv, Hull. | 31: 1-142, ill. Stichel, H. Lepidopterorum 
Catalogus. Pars 44. Riodinidae IV: Kiodininae III. 721-795. 
Vogeler, B. Zucht von Rothschildia speculifer. | 14] 44: 
318-320. * Williams & Bell. Hesperidae of the Forbes Ex- 
pedition to Dutch and British Guiana. Two new hesperids 
from Ecuador. [1] 57: 249-290, ill. *Zikan, J. F. Etwas 
iiber die sekundaren geschlechtscharaktere bei der gattung 
Thyridia (Dan.). | l/'j 48: U)J. 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. Notes on DipU-ra. No. 5. 
[10] 33: 110-121. :|: Aubertin, D. Stratioinyiidae. [Dipt. 
Pat. ^ So. Chile] 5: 93-105, ill. Blagoweschtschensky & 
Pawlowsky. Zur biologic- und y.ur bekampfung der haut- 
bremse (Jlypoderma bovis). [Zeit. Parasit., Berlin] 3: 185- 
204, ill. *da Costa Lima, A. Sobre as especies dos gen- 



208 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

eros Sabethes e Sabethoicles. Nota sobre sabethineos do 
grupu joblotia (Culicidae). (S). [Mem. Inst. Oswaldo 
Cruz] 25: 51-64, 65-71, ill. *Curran, C. H. Four new Dip- 
tera in the Canadian National Collection. [4] 63 : 93-98. 
*Czerny, L. Einige neue Tyliden des deutschen entomolo- 
gischen museums in Berlin-Dahlem. (S). [56] 10: 21-26. 
Edwards, F. W, Bibionidae, Scatopsidae, Cecidomyiidae, 
Culicidae, Thaumaleidae (Orphnephilidae), Anisopodidae 
(Rhyphidae). [Dip. Pat. & So. Chile] 2: 77-119, ill. *Ed- 
wards, F. W. Bombyliidae, Nemestrinidae and Cyrtidae. 
[Dipt. Pat. & So. Chile] 5: 162-197, ill. *Falcoz, L.- 
Materiaux pour la connaissance des dipteres pupipares. I. 
(S). [Parasit.] 23 : 264-269, ill. Hase, A. Ueber die lebens- 
gewohnheiten einer fledermausfliege in Venezuela ; Basilia 
bellardii (Fam. Nycteribiidae-Diptera pupipara). [Zeit. 
Parasit., Berlin] 3: 220-257, ill. *Krober, O Tabanidae. 
[Dipt. Pat. & So. Chile] 5: 106-161, ill. *Krober, O. Die 
Tabanus-gruppen Straba und Poecilosoma (-Hybostraba 
und Hybopelma) der neotropischen region. [34] 94: 67-89, 
ill. Schuurmans Stekhoven, J. H. Eine seltene, ungenii- 
gend beschriebene Basilia-art (Diptera pupipara) aus Ven- 
ezuela. [Zeit. Parasit., Berlin] 3: 205-219, ill. Spencer, G. 
J. Notes on Phalacrocera species, an aquatic crane fly 
(Tipulidae). [Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] No. 27: 15-16. 
Stanford, J. S. Notes on Diptera attacking man in Sevier 
County, Utah. [55] 7: 99-100. Van Duzee, E. P. Swarm- 
ing of two species of Diptera. [55] 7: 104. 

COLEOPTERA. *Barrett, R. E. New species of 
Aphodius and Malachius from California. |55J 7: 101-102. 
*Barrett, R. E. A new Brachytarsus from California. 
(Platystomidae). [55 [ 7: 188. Benedict, W. Two addi- 
tions to our lists [of Kansas]. [55] 7: 156. *Blackman, M. 
W. A revisional study of the genus Pseudopityophthorus 
in North America. [91 j 21 : 223-236, ill. *Blaisdell, F. E.- 
A new species of Zopherodes from central California. (Tene- 
brionidae). [55] 7: 111-114. *Brown, W. J. New species 
of Coleoptera (II). [4] 63: 115-122. *Bruck, C. R. Two 
new species of bark beetles of the genus Phloeosinus. 
(Scolytidae). [55| 7: 126-128. *Dallas,' E. D. Melomelia 
tarsal en un Ceroglossus buqueti. Gymnetis pudibunda var. 
Porteri, (S). [Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat.] 34: 11-12,49-51. ill. 
*Fall, H. C. A new Gyrinus from Alaska, with references 
to other recently described species. [55] 7: 154-156. *Fall, 
H. C. The North American species of Hymenorus (Allec- 
ulidae). [1] 57: 161-247, ill. Ganglbauer, L. Revision der 
gattung Zabrus. [79] 17: 1-55. Griffin, F. J. The dates of 



xlii, '31 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 209 

publication of Latreille and Dejean, Hist. nat. Icon. Cole- 
opteres d'Europe'. [75] 7: 573. Guthrie, E. Notes on egg 
hatching larval, pupal, and adult development in Lina 
scripta. (Chrysomelidae). [55 1 7: 107-109. Hatch, M. H.- 
Notes on Phaedon. [55 J 7: 103-104. Hepp, A. Bibliogra- 
phische bemerkungen zuin Coleopterorum Catalogus Pars 
46. A. Boucomont Scarabaeidae : Taurocerastinae Geotru- 
pinae, W. Junk, Berlin 7. IX. 1912. [26] 11: 197-199. Hop- 
ping, R. Notes on Pogonocherus. |55| 7: 105-106. Leech, 
H. B. Notes on new methods of collecting beetles. | Pro. 
Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] No. 27: 11-12. Linsley, E. G. [Cor- 
rection regarding Pogonocherus and Ecyrusj. [55] 7: 106. 
*Reichensperger, A. Zwei neue Clavigerinen aus Costa 
Rica. (Pselaph.) [2] 27: 4-7. ill. St. George, R. A. The 
larva of Boros unicolor and systematic position of the 
family Boridae. [10] 33: 103-113, ill. *Uhmann, E. Sued- 
amerikanische Hispinen aus dem Deutschen Entomolo- 
gischen Institut Berlin-Dahlem. [27] 63: 58-64. Vacher 
de Lapouge, G. Genera Insectorum. Adephaga fam. Cara- 
bidae, subfam. Carabinae. Fasc. 192 a-b, 155-580. Walker, 
J. J. Dermestid beetles attacking wood : an Elizabethan 
record? [8] 67: 114-115. 

HYMENOPTERA. Anderson, W. B. Notes on a 
digger wasp. [Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] No. 27: 13-14. 
* Elliott, E. A. New Stephanidae from Peru. [9] 64: 97-98. 
Gahan, A. B. On certain hymenopterous parasites of 
stored-grain insects. [91] 21: 213-221, ill. *Gahan, A. B.- 
A new species of Encarsia from Cuba ( Aphelininae). [10] 
33: 121-122. Graham, A. R. The present status of the 
larch sawfly, ( Lygaeonematus erichsonii) in Canada, with 
special reference to its specific parasite, Mesoleius tenthred- 
inis. [4] 63: 99-102. Hicks, C. H. Notes on pollen-user 
wasp, Pseudomasaris edwardsii. [38] 30: 23-29, ill. Parker, 
H. L. Notes on Meteorus (Zemiotes) nigricollis, an occa- 
sional parasite of the European corn borer. [10] 33: 93- 
103, ill. *Rbss, H. H. Sawnies of the sub-family Dolerinae 
of America north of Mexico. [111. Biol. Monog.] 12: 116 
pp., ill. 

RECENT ADVANCES IN ENTOMOLOGY. By A. I). I M.MS. Phila- 
delphia, P. Blakiston's Son ,\- Company. 1931. 374 pp., 84 
illustrations. $3.50. It was a happy thought which led Dr. 
Imms to write this hook, and a fortunate thing for us that he 
was the man to whom this thought occurred. The fifteen chap- 
ters deal with many diverse aspects of modern Entomology, 
including aspects of Morphology, Metamorphosis, Palaeontol- 



210 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u-- '31 



ogy, Sense Organs and Behaviour, Coloration, Aspects and 
Practical Applications of Ecology, Parasitism and Biological 
Control. It is true that five other volumes of the same sort 
might be written, without exhausting the ramifications of 
Entomological Science ; but although they would be very inter- 
esting, they would not be so interesting as the menu which 
Imms has prepared for us. He has chosen the most significant 
lines of advance, and has recorded an astonishing number of 
observations and discoveries, often in fields which were hardly 
explored until very recently. If any critic wishes to complain 
of omissions, he may not only refer to many large topics 
ignored, but also to the lack of all reference to numerous papers 
on the topics included. I do not think these are valid criticisms, 
because from the standpoint of the reader a lucid, intelligible 
and thoroughly readable story is infinitely preferable to a cata- 
logue of miscellaneous contributions. If we ask ourselves what 
impressions may be derived from reading the book, perhaps the 
following will come uppermost. First, the extraordinary 
diversity of Entomological Science as now understood, its num- 
erous points of contact with fundamental biological problems, 
and no less with the practical affairs of life. Whereas for- 
merly the Entomologist was thought of as a rather isolated and 
erratic member of the biological fraternity, now he finds him- 
self in the front ranks of biological progress. Second, the 
novelty of much that is recorded, and the fact that we- stand 
on the edge of a vast territory to be explored. Not only this, 
but such exploration may be undertaken by any serious student 
of reasonable ability, with almost no expense. The field lies 
before us, and time and persistence are the prime necessities 
for success. Third, the interrelations between Entomology 
and the other natural sciences, Botany, Geology, Physics, Chem- 
istry. The Entomologist stands on his own particular hill, but 
he surveys the universe. The physicist and chemist may ignore 
Entomology, but the Entomologist cannot ignore Physics and 
Chemistry. Thus, in the long run, he may be the better trained 
man, with a larger outlook on the realities of existence. In- 
deed, he also has to concern himself with certain aspects of 
economics and sociology, and may make bold to have scientific 
opinions on political questions. 

But perhaps we have said too much. The aspiring student 
may retire in terror before such a program. How much 
simpler to become a teacher of College Algebra! Who can, 
being a mere mortal of limited powers, pretend in these days 
to be a competent Entomologist? I think that we of that pro- 
fession are doomed to go through life with a sense of our 



xlii, '31 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 211 

inadequacy, with the feeling that we are not equal to our task. 
But the same is true of life itself, which has always presented 
an insoluble enigma to many. This very sense of incomplete- 
ness, of things unfulfilled, is the greatest attraction. The road 
may be hard and difficult and we cannot sec where it ends, but 
it is a fine thing to be moving along, with a new vista around 
each bend. It is to such adventurers that linms appeals, with 
rare skill and judgment. 

How rapidly we are moving is shown by the criticism which 
is naturally suggested on reading the chapter on Fossil Insects. 
There is no evidence that the author has ever heard of F. M. 
Carpenter. But actually, Carpenter's most important papers, 
those which might well have affected the conclusions set forth 
in the chapter, are too recent to have been available when it 
was written. It does seem, that in the chapters on Morphology, 
some reference might have been made to the work of Petrunke- 
vitch on the organization of the Arthropoda. Referring to the 
distribution of the tsetse fly, the author remarks: "The tsetse 
fly, for example, is unable to survive the ecological conditions 
presented by the Sahara Desert, and consequently has not pene- 
trated north of that vast area. Similarly, it has not spread 
into Asia, where the Arabian Desert presents a more formidable 
barrier than the relatively narrow strip of water forming the 
Red Sea." If we write "does" for "has", this is sound enough; 
but probably Dr. Imms had forgotten that several species of 
tsetse flies are fossil in the Miocene of Colorado. The state- 
ment (p. 82) that there are no fossil Micropterygidae overlooks 
the existence of a species (to be seen in the British Museum) 
in Burmese amber. (Tillyard wrongly says in Baltic amber.) 
Some other details in the account of fossil insects need revision, 
and especially it is necessary to offer a. warning against the 
uncritical acceptance of "restorations", and the undue signifi- 
cance often attributed to names which appear in the literature, 
but actually have no very sound basis. Thus, reference is made 
to GeiwpJris ITandlirsch (the type of a family Genaphididae 
Handlirsch). from the Meso/oic of England. It is known by 
the figure in Brodie's work, and does appear to be an aphid, 
but we have little information concerning it. Is it not possible 
to take a small figure like this of a very minute object too 
seriously? Paleoentomology is full of pitfalls, and it is all 
too easy to make mistakes of interpretation. A curious recent 
example of this is afforded by the discussion of Odyncnts 
pdtaeopkilus in Psyche, December, 1929 (issued March, 1930) 
page 368. Two such competent experts as Bequaert and Brues 



212 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS |J"lV-' '3 1 

looked at the type with a lens, and decided that it was not 
one of the Diploptera. But later, Carpenter very kindly made 
for me a greatly enlarged photograph of the type, and a more 
typical Diplopteron, and Odynerid, it would he hard to find. 
As stated in my original description (1906), "it would be easy 
to misinterpret the venation of this insect." See Plate V in 
this issue of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 



OBITUARY. 

FERDINAND F. CREVECOEUR, an amateur entomologist and 
naturalist who has been the source of many insect records from 

j 

Onaga, Kansas, died suddenly on April 7, 1931. He was buried 
in the Onaga cemetery. Mr. Crevecoeur was born at Chicago, 
Illinois, June 23, 1862. Following the death of his father, he, 
in April, 1870, came with his mother to live on a farm near 
Onaga, Kansas, where he lived until his death. He remained 
a bachelor and lived alone after his mother's death in 1908. 
A United States Department of Agriculture Yearbook came 
into his possession, which opened up to him a field of biological 
science and geology. He had much correspondence with officials 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, who gave 
him much encouragement. The U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum 
sent him their publications in the biological and geological fields. 
To these services and the Kansas Academy of Science he gave 
the major credit for his technical knowledge and encourage- 
ment. 

In 1917, Mr. Crevecoeur gave practically all of his natural 
history collection to Ottawa University, at Ottawa, Kansas. 
As an amateur, he published quite extensively. There have 
been published several more or less popular articles in the 
Onaga Republican, one article in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903, 
and nine articles in the Transactions of the Kansas Academy 

, 

of Science (1903-1922). A biography and also a bibliography 
have been prepared by Dr. Roger C. Smith for publication in 
the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 

R. L. PARKER, 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. XLII. 



Plate V. 




ODYNERUS PALAEOPHILUS.-COCKERELL. 



OCTOBER, 1931 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 8 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Richards Sub-sub Specific Names in Lepidoptera 213 

Hall A New Sarcophaga from South Carolina (Dipt. ; Sarcophagidae 217 

Burke Another Entomological Society ... 219 

Dr. A. B. Klotz at Rochester, New York 219 

Bell A New Species of Resperiidae from Jamaica, British West Indies 220 
Williams Cerambycinae from Kartabo, Bartica District, British Guiana 

(Coleoptera) 

Robertson Oligolectic Andrenidae (Hymen.) 226 

Graenicher Some Observations on the Biology of the Sarcophaginae 

(Diptera : Sarcophagidae) . . 227 

Mr. F H. Benjamin at the U. S. National Museum 230 

Aldrich A New Entomological Journal in South America 230 

Neave A New Entomological Journal in England 231 

Entomological Literature 232 

Review Bradley's A Laboratory Guide to the Study of the Wings of 

Insects .... 238 

Review Bradley's The Teaching of the Principle of Homologies to 

Elementary Classes in Biology, and the Use of Phylogenetic 

Series in the Laboratory 238 

Obituary Father Erich Wasmann 240 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. XLIL OCTOBER, 1931 No. 8 



Sub-sub-Specific Names in Lepidoptera. 

A. GLENN RICHARDS, JR., 

Entomology Dept, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

In the NEWS for November and December, 1930, pages 298- 
302. 324-328, an article on the naming of individual variants 
in Lepidoptera by Mr. A. B. Klots appeared, which may be 
briefly summarized as showing the untenability of Gunder's 
system of classification within the species and giving a sub- 
stantiated argument as to why "Scientific names should not be 
applied to any concept lower than subspecies". More recently 
(ENT. NEWS, March, 1931, pages 80-82) Mr. Talbot has writ- 
ten on the same subject in these pages, and agrees whole- 
heartedly with the point as to the untenability of Gunder's sys- 
tem, but would not go so far as to second the latter statement. 
He adds more examples as to the inadvisability of aberrational 
or "transition form" names, but beyond this would not be in- 
clined to go. And then concludes, "A name should be given 
to any specimen or specimens which show definite differentiat- 
ing characters, provided these characters are not of a teratologi- 
cal or pathological type," but "If the requisite data be not 
available, the classification of the new form must remain sub 
judlcc." 

In other words, Mr. Talbot would put such work upon a 
breeding basis when possible, and then, if the character is not 
"teratological or pathological", would name it regardless of 
what its true nature is, so long as he thinks such a name might 
be of convenient use. 

Let us glance at this for a moment from a genetic point of 
view, as Mr. Klots has done, and see if that will help us any. 
There are the well-proven Mendelian characters (which seem 

213 

OCT 71931 



214 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

so repulsive to some who apparently know nothing about them). 
First there are the simple Mendelian characters or factors or 
combinations of them ; second there are lethals, linked lethals, 
sex-linked lethals and partial lethals or teratological factors 
all of which would certainly come within the scope of "path- 
ological types" ; third we may have sex-linked characters which 
travel criss-cross in heredity ; fourth sex-limited characters 
which are transmitted equally by both sexes but expressed in 
only one ; and other types which we need not consider here. 
These types all have the same biological basis, though in out- 
ward appearance they may seem quite different. 1 

How does this affect the question ? In the first place many 
of our "forms" are seasonal, which means only a certain type 
of environmental effect not heritable and no more deserving 
a "scientific name" on biological grounds than say chrysalis 
burns. Secondly many of our forms are merely sex-linked, 
sex-limited, or even simple Mendelian characters or combina- 
tions thereof, and as such should not be given scientific names. 

Seasonal forms have been dispensed with ; mimetics usually 
go in one of these at least those which have been investigated 
genetically (that is mimetic forms within a normally non-mime- 
tic or polymorphic species), and are frequently sex-limited; 
local forms however, present a somewhat different situation for 
there is every gradation from "field forms" (species which 
differ slightly and rather constantly from one field to the next) 
to local forms and to races of great distribution with or without 
sharp boundaries. The boundary must be arbitrary here re- 
gardless of the point. No one would want a name for every 
field and glen, yet I think everyone would agree that names for 
the great races are of use. It seems to me that the best place 
to draw a line here is between the great regional races. 

Thus we have disposed of most, at least, of the forms lower 
than subspecies on a biological basis, and leave their naming 
to the equally arbitrary and highly specialized genetical nomen- 

1 Sex-linked lethals would be quite a stumbling block here, because 
while technically "pathological" in Mr. Talbot's sense, they would not 
appear so, and would make themselves manifest only by the disturbed 
sex ratio. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 215 

clature which is much better fitted to handle them ; or for 
environmental forms to simple descriptive phrases which seem 
to me much more satisfactory. It is noteworthy that many of 
the forms which Mr. Talbot would retain have the same bio- 
logical basis as the aberrations, "teratological and pathological" 
forms which he would discard. 2 

But is this the standpoint from which he is viewing the sub- 
ject? There are some who would say that any form which is 
sufficiently different to cause any possible confusion should be 
named, and many of these referred to above would be such 
(including aberrations) ; or that any form which may need to 
be specially referred to from time to time should have a name. 
Such a nomenclature is not a scientific one; it is one of con- 
venience. And so to adopt either standard we must use either 
a biological or a convenience basis. On dead specimens a 
biological basis is impossible, except perhaps in some cases by 
analogy with well-known related forms. Shall we make of 
nomenclature purely a tool, and adopt the convenience basis? 
or shall we give our nomenclature a biological basis? 

Before finally committing myself, I would like to draw at- 
tention to Mr. Talbot's parting point, "If the requisite data 
be not available the classification of the new Form must remain 
sub j ltd ice". This is a definite commitment to the convenience 
form of nomenclature, and means, in short, that, whenever a 
specimen comes to hand which will not fit conveniently into 
the present set of names, it should be named, and left for 
future workers to retain or discard when the data are obtained. 
This is the usual procedure in description from single speci- 
mens, but for forms within the species would it not be better 
to let such specimens go nameless until something is known 
about them? For if, as is often the case, this "form" never 
reappears, then there is another name which will clutter lists 
forever, though it is useless and perhaps baseless. 

Let us glance for a moment at other fields to see how such 

~ It might be worth noting in passing that intermediates in and of 
themselves mean nothing. It is only when genetical data concerning the 
nature of this intermediacy are available that they become intelligible. 
(See Morgan, T. H. "A Critique of the Theory of !'. volution". Prince- 
ton Univ. Press, 1916, or any of the standard texts.) 



216 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

cases are treated. Mr. Talbot draws a comparison with mam- 
mals which I am inclined to think would discourage subspeci- 
fic names. But let us look still further afield into the other 
phase of biology, Botany, and see what is the general custom 
in such matters. From my acquaintance with the field, backed 
by some botanical friends, I would say that the practice today 
is not to name such forms, but to include them in the general 
discussion. Yet the analogues of all these we have been con- 
sidering exist among plants (except possibly mimicry), and 
botanists get along quite satisfactorily without scientific names 
for them. 

With these two bases before us, which shall we adopt? Some 
may be inclined to look for a compromise, but such a plan 
would be practically impossible to apply and, due to personal 
opinion, would leave things in about as bad a muddle as they 
are now. And so it seems to me that the best method would 
be to use the biological basis below subspecies, and to agree 
with Klots that "Scientific names should not be applied to any 
concept lower than subspecies". 

In discussions dealing with these forms, or for recording 
of data, they might then be referred to much as the geneticist 
refers to his characters today, or for environmental effects by a 
phrase designating the effect (spring form, wet form, etc.). 
The results of such a system would be a much simpler tool 
(nomenclature), and as good, or I think better, handling of 
these forms with a consequent better understanding of their 
real nature. We are all agreed, however, that Guilder's sys- 
tem in untenable, and that aberration or "transition form" 
names should be abolished as such. Therefore we hope that 
rulings made by made in the near future to cover this point. 3 

3 Attention might be called to the loose appellation of insects as among 
the "lower groups of organisms" from an evolutionary standpoint. One 
commonly thinks of them as lower than the Vertebrates, but in any dis- 
cussion involving evolution thus to place such a specialized group not at 
all ancestral to the "higher forms" is not good. Some of them are "low" 
without doubt, but many of them are quite as highly specialized as any 
mammal, and the particular order under consideration is among the 
higher ones. Even such a "low" insect as a cockroach is known far back 
into geologic times with little change. The difference in length of life 
cycle is important in this connection, but it is not because insects are 
"lower organisms". 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 217 

A New Sarcophaga from South Carolina 
(Diptera: Sarcophagidae). 

By DAVID G. HALL, Asst. Entomologist, U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology, Charleston, South Carolina. 

Among the species of Sarcopliaga which are rarely found 
in collections and uncommonly taken in the field are those hav- 
ing three posterior dorsocentral bristles, the genital segments 
black, and the hind tibia of the male without villosity. Of 
these, only ten species and one variety have been described from 
North America, two from Europe, and two from Asia. The 
following species herein described belongs to this group. 

Sarcophaga nox, n. sp. 

$ . Head ; front 0.227 of the head width (average of three 
specimens: 0.208, 0.208, 0.227); height,* 10, length at the 
antennae, 9, length at the vibrissae, 8; paraf rentals and 
parafacials silvery gray pollinose, slightly golden above, the 
former with a single row of rather long bristles below near 
eye ; frontal bristles about 8 in number, diverging rapidly below 
in the lower two or three ; outer verticals developed ; orbitals 
absent. Antennae black, third joint hardly twice second, reach- 
ing two-thirds the distance to the vibrissae which are normal 
and at the oral margin ; arista with short plumosity for about 
half its length ; palpi and proboscis black, ordinary. Bucca 
about one-fifth the eye height, with numerous black hairs, none 
pale before the metacephalic suture ; back of head with two 
distinct rows of post-ocular ciliae, a few pale hairs about the 
middle and below ; metacephalon a little elongated. 

Thorax : Only slightly grayish pollinose, with the usual three 
to five black stripes which are not apparent ; posterior dorso- 
central bristles three ; anterior dorsocentral bristles two ; an- 
terior acrostichal bristles only slightly larger than surrounding 
hairs ; prescutellar bristles one ; sternopleurals three ; propleura 
bare ; scutellum with two marginal and no preapical nor apical 
bristles. 

Abdomen: Very dark, slightly grayish pollinose with three 
faint stripes, tessellated, the third and fourth segments slightly 
golden pollinose; second and third segments with medium mar- 
ginal bristles, fourth with a row of about twelve: fifth sternite 

* The height of the head in comparison with the length of the head 
at both the antennae and vibrissae, in units of one. This, if given, will 
satisfactory yield an impression of the head shape, a point that separates 
such divergent genera as Amobia and Brachyconta. 



218 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Oct., '31 



divided, heavily chintinized, black, the inside edges with numer- 
ous long hair and abundant golden pile. Hypopygium black; 
first segment large, rounded, with a slight covering of golden 
pollen, a row of about 7 long bristles on the posterior edge; 
several scattered bristles and numerous hairs ; second segment 
small, short, with scattered hair and bristles ; forceps black with 
numerous hairs behind, blunt, tips truncated; accessory plate 
dull orange with numerous scattered hairs ; genital features as 
illustrated in Fig. 1. 





S.HOX M. 



Fig. \.-Sarcophaga nox Hall. Left lateral view of male hypopygium 
and rear view of forceps. 

Wings somewhat darkened ; first vein bare, third with several 
setulae ; costal spine developed ; third costal segment about 
three-fifths as long as fifth. 

Legs black ; hind tibia without villosity ; middle femur with- 
out comb ; middle tibia with two long and one short antero- 
dorsal bristles. 

9 . Head ; front, 0.308 of head width in the single specimen ; 
the parafacials and parafrontals slightly less pollinose than in 
the male ; the thorax and abdomen more grayish, the stripes 
on the thorax more apparent ; chaetotaxy as in the male except 
for the usual female characteristics. Genital segments black. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 219 

This species superficially resembles 6\ f>ulla Aid., which be- 
longs to the provisional "A" group, in nature, owing to the 
dark color and lack of pollinosity. It goes to Couplet 5, Group 
C, p. 95, in Aldrich. 1916, Sarcophaga and Allies, but is sepa- 
rated from S. flctchcri Aid., the first of the two species indi- 
cated in the couplet, by the general lack of pollinosity, and 
from the second, Xcnoppia hypopygialis Townsend, by the lack 
of a single bristle or macrochaeta on the lower parafacial. 

Male holotypc and female allot ype No. 43315, U. S. National 
Museum. 

Described from three males and one female collected No- 
vember 18 and 19. 1930, in the sand dunes about 200 feet 
from the shore line of the Atlantic, at Folly Beach, Charleston, 
SOUTH CAROLINA, by Mr. F. J. Krueger and the author, and 
one male collected at Mayport, FLORIDA, March 25, 1931, by 
the author. The males were collected upon foliage, and the 
female upon a wooden box which contained decaying meat. 



Another Entomological Society. 

I would like to add another entomological society to the 
list in the May number of the NEWS. 

THE CALIFORNIA ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB, composed of Gov- 
ernment, State, county, university, and commercial entomologists 
residing in northern California was organized April 25, 1930, 
at Sacramento, Calif. Stewart Lockwood of the State De- 
partment of Agriculture was elected president, Prof. E. O. 
Essig of the University of California vice-president, and Dr. 
H. E. Burke of the United States Bureau of Entomology sec- 
retary-treasurer. Sixty-one signed the roll as charter members. 

The officers for 1931 are Prof. E. O. Essig, president; A. J. 
Flebut of the California Spray-Chemical Co., vice-president ; 
Dr. H. E. Burke, secretary-treasurer. There are 136 active 
members, corresponding members and honorary members. 
H. E. BURKE, Secretary-Treasurer, Forest Insect Laboratory, 
Stanford University, California. 

Dr. A. B. Klots at Rochester, New York 

DR. ALEXANDER B. KLOTS, of Cornell University, has ac- 
cepted a position with Ward's Natural Science Establishment 
as head of the entomological department. He will also be an 
associate in entomology at the University of Rochester. 
Science, August 14, 1931. 



220 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

A New Species of Hesperiidae from Jamaica, 
British West Indies. 

By E. L. BELL, Flushing, New York. 

Choranthus lilliae new species. 

$ . Uppcrsidc. Primaries, costal margin from cell-end to 
base, cell, basal area and basal two-thirds of inner margin 
below vein I, deep fulvous ; an oblique band of three discal 
spots of the same color, a little paler, between veins 1-2, 2-3, 
3-4, the lowest spot the longest, and all slightly excavate on 
the outer edge ; three elongate subapical dashes, followed by 
two similar ones in interspaces 9 and 10, all of the same color ; 
apical area and outer margin broadly black ; a thin, black, 
longitudinal line through the center of the cell; veins black; 
an oblique, narrow, grayish-black stigma of two parts, below 
the cell, the first part from just below and outside the rise of 
vein 3 to vein 2, the second part continued obliquely inward 
from vein 2 to vein 1 ; the narrow space between the stigma 
and the cell is black. 

Secondaries, deep fulvous crossed by black veins, the costal 
and outer margins broadly black, the black outer border pro- 
jecting inwardly between veins 1 and 2 ; long fulvous hairs 
extend over the cell and basal three-quarters of the wing from 
vein 2 to the abdominal fold. 

Beneath. Primaries, base black below the costal vein, ex- 
tending outward to a point below the end of the cell ; costal 
margin as far as the end of the cell and the outer half of the 
cell, deep fulvous ; the three discal spots repeated, the two upper 
ones slightly paler than above and the lower one yellowish ; 
apical area red-brown ; lower half of the outer margin and the 
inner margin black. Secondaries, red brown, a large black 
spot at the anal angle ; a hazy, ill-defined accumulation of paler 
scales forming a short discal band of three spots, which may 
be absent ; a pale, ill-defined spot in the end of the cell. 

Fringes of primaries fulvous at the anal angle, black above, 
sometimes with a few fulvous hairs intermixed ; of the secon- 
daries fulvous, sometimes with a few black hairs at the end 
of the veins and at the outer angle. Thorax above, fulvous- 
brown with a greenish reflection ; beneath fulvous. Abdomen 
above, basally the same as the thorax, becoming deep fulvous 
toward the apex and on the sides ; beneath sordid whitish. 
Legs fulvous. Head and collar greenish with a small yellow 
spot at the base of the antennae and behind the eyes. Palpi 
yellowish intermixed with black, especially toward the tip ; the 






xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 221 

tip black. Pectus yellowish-fulvous. Antennae black above; 
beneath yellow with black joints; the club yellow; apiculus 
black. Eyes black. 

Expanse: 36 to 40 mm. (Center of thorax to apex of 
primary x 2.) 

Type material : nine males from the upper part of the gorge 
at Bath, St. Thomas Parish, Jamaica, B. W. I. Holotypc male, 
April 4th, 1931, deposited in the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City; one male para-type, April 6th, 1931, 
in collection of the British Museum, London, England ; one 
male paratypc April 6th, 1931, in collection of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penna. ; one male paratype, 
April 1st, 1931, in collection of the U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. ; five maic paratypes, April 1st, 4th, 5th, 
1931, in collection of the author. 

The figure of the genitalia 
is from one of the paratypes. 
This handsome species is 
named for Miss Lilly G. Per- 
kins, of Claremont, Jamaica, 
B. W. I., whose zeal in col- 
lecting has added much to the. 
knowledge of the insect fauna 
of that island. 

During a visit to Jamaica, 

Chorantkus IWia*. rf genitalia. ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

writer collected the specimens here described, in the gorge above 
the Baths of St. Thomas, at Bath. They were found in a very 
restricted area on the bank of the small stream that flows 
through the gorge. With one exception they were found only 
in the morning and but one or two at a time, four being the 
most for any one day. They did not visit any of the flowers, 
but rested on the leaves of low vegetation. Although the steep 
sides of the gorge were thoroughly searched in the vicinity of 
where they were found, not a single individual was seen any- 
where but in this one small place. No females were found. 

This species is larger than Choranthus liailcnsis Skinner and 
Choranthus radians Lucas, and has a much darker ground color 




222 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

and more prominent black veins than either of those species. 
On the under side it differs from haitensis in the broad black 
border of the primaries and the dark red-brown color of the 
secondaries with the prominent black anal spot ; from radians 
it differs on the under side in the ground color and the lack 

of the pale veins. 

-* 

Cerambycinae from Kartabo, Bartica District, British 

Guiana (Coleop.) 

By SAMUEL H. WILLIAMS, University of Pittsburgh. 

In the joint collections of the writer and the New York 
Zoological Society, the Cerambycinae are represented by 
twenty-five genera, and thirty-seven species. Additional species 
taken at other places in British Guiana are not included in this 
list, which is only a contribution to the Kartabo fauna, which 
has been so intensively studied by Dr. William Beebe and his 
associates. Material collected in the hinterland of British 
Guiana and in the other Guianas indicates a wide diversification 
and distribution of coleopterous insects in the region between 
the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, with a localization of certain 
species, and an extensive range characterizing others. Most of 
the work done in this region has been more or less scattered 
with the emphasis having been placed on Central American, 
Amazonian and Cayenne l faunae. British Guiana connects 

j 

these regions and offers untold possibilities in distributional 
studies. 

The writer has spent considerable time in an attempt to make 
an intensive, systematic survey of the Coleoptera of the lower 
jungle area in British Guiana and in an endeavor to obtain 
some information as to the effects of altitude on the general 
distribution of species. Specimens collected between the coast- 
land and Mt. Roraima, which is a considerable distance back 
of Kaieteur Falls, show that some of the species taken at 
Kartabo are quite generally distributed, while other species are 
confined to the narrow strip of dense jungle along the coastal 
lowlands. 

1 French Guiana. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 223 

Within certain species, having a wide range, there seems to 
be considerable variation and in one or two cases the identities 
listed here are not absolutely certain. There is some justifica- 
tion for creating varieties and subspecies but, inasmuch as the 
types were not available and because of the fact that the original 
descriptions are frequently so inadequate, the observed differ- 
ences do not appear to the writer as being of sufficient value 
for the creation of new species. To avoid additional synonyms, 
the writer has decided to allow the listed identities to stand until 
the opportunity is presented to compare the specimens with 
more examples, although the identified list has already been 
checked against collections in England, Germany, France, 
Austria, and Czechoslovakia. 

Studies in this section of South America reveal the need of 
monographic works on the numerous genera described from 
the region. Most of the generic descriptions are contained in 
very early works which are not accessible to the average stu- 
dent and the lack of generic keys makes it necessary to plough 
through endless volumes of descriptions in order to properly 
locate collected specimens. In the numerous museums visited 
by the writer, myriads of Coleoptera collected in South America 
are not identified. To assume that the majority of these are 
new species would be a serious mistake, because, while the 
fauna is large, much work on the beetles of the region has been 
done by Olivier, Fabricius, Thomson, Serville, Chevrolat, 
Gounelle, Bates and others. 

As indicated in previous papers on the Coleopterous fauna 
of British Guiana by the writer, 2 the present list is not presented 
as complete but is given only as a contribution to our knowledge 
of the Kartabo region. 

British Guiana is a fertile field for investigations. The 
pleasure of studies in the magnificent jungles is greatly en- 

2 Williams, Samuel H. A List of Prionid Beetles Taken at Kartabo, 
Bartica District, British Guiana with the Description of a New Species. 
Annals of the Carnegie Museum, Volume XIX, Number 2, 1929. 

The Cicindelidae at Kartabo, Bartica District, British Guiana. ENT. 
NEWS, Volume XL, Number 6, June 1929. 

Eine Neue Oreodera Art aus Sudamerika. Deutsch. Entom. Zeitsch. 
heft 3 1928. 



224 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

hanced by the cooperation of the public-spirited officials of the 
country and the Department of Science and Agriculture which 
incorporates a staff of well-trained and broadminded scientists 

of the highest character. 

The writer wishes to thank Professor Dr. Ferdinand Pax 

of The Zoologisches Institut uncl Museum der Universitat in 
Breslau; Professor Doctor H. Kuntzen of the Zoologisches 
Museum in Berlin and Doctor W. Arnclt of the Berlin Museum, 
for their assistance in securing necessary literature. He is 
also indebted to Mr. G. K. Arrow and Major Austen of the 
British Museum for courtesies extended. The New York 
Zoological Society collections were made available through the 
kindness of Dr. William Beebe, from whom the writer has 
been the recipient of many friendly favors. 

The nomenclature used in this list is according to the Junk- 
Schenkling Catalogus Coleopterorum, part 39, representing the 
list made by Aurivilius. 

Family CERAMBYCIDAE. 
Sub family CERAMBYCINAE. 

Group II. DISTENIINI. Group XIV. CERAMBYCINI. 

Genus Distenia Serv. Genus Hamaticherus Serv. 

D. bicolor Thomson. H. batus Linn. 

Group XL ACHRYSONINI. H. castaneus Bates. 

Genus Achryson Serv. H. lacordairei Gah. 

A. surinamum Linn. H. plicatus Oliv. 

Group XII. TORNEUTINI. H. rugosus Oliv. 

Genus Torneutes Reich. Genus Sphallenum Bates. 

T. lansbergei Thorns. S. robustum Bates. 

Group XV. HESPEROPHANINI. Genus Chlorida Serv. 

C. festiva Linn. An extremely abundant species attracted to 
lights at night. Of the hundreds of specimens of Chlorida 
taken, only one specimen of C. denticulata was found. 

C. denticulata Buquet. 

Group XVI. EBURIINI. E. 6-guttata Lameere. 

Genus Eburodacrys Thorns. E. sex maculata Oliv. 
Group XVIII. SPAHERIONINI. Genus Periboeum Thorns. 

P. pubescens Oliv. 

It is difficult to distinguish among several related genera 
here because of rather inadequate generic descriptions. Thom- 
son's description of the genus Periboeum says "Thorax strongly 



xlii, '31] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



225 



tubercled on the sides in both sexes, thinly clothed with long 
hairs. Antennae hairy, with distinct spines externally at the 
end of each segment and with two spines on the terminal seg- 
ment, the external spine being the smaller. Femur swollen 
and club like, spineless and with a short peduncle at the base. 
Middle coxal cavities open on the outside. Femur and tibia 
smooth, more or less clothed with bristle-like or silken hairs." 

Thomson states that the thorax carries a spine but in most 
species the structure is a conical tubercle, even in the types of 
this genus. Gounelle 3 insists that the above formula is too 
rigid for the members of the genus and indicates that certain 
species lack the two terminal spines on the antennae while 
others, although the elytra are smooth and shining, have the 
head, thorax and ventral side of the body covered with a thin 
pubescence. 

Pcribocum is apt to be confused with Stisocera, Sphacrion 
and Nepholius. It may be distinguished from these in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

(1) Middle coxal cavities closed on the outside, femur spiny 

Stizocera Serv. 

(2) Middle coxal cavities open on the outside, femur with- 
out spines 3. 

(3) Elytra smooth and shining; thorax furnished on each 
side with a prominent tubercle in both sexes, rarely spiny 

Peribocmn Thorns. 

(4) Sides of the thorax rounded and punctuated in the same 
manner at the sternum of the male, thin and tubercular in the 
male ; antennae without or with very small and inconspicuous 
spines in the male Sphaerion Serv. 

(5) Thorax bearing a series of small conical tubercles on 
each side in both sexes, frequently without sexual punctuation ; 
spines of the antennae longer and more numerous in the male 

Ncphalius Newman. 



Genus Pantonyssus Bates. 
P. nigriceps Bates. 

Genus Mallocera Serv. 
M. glauca Serv. 
Group XX. IBIDIONINI. 

Genus Ibidion Serv. 
I. maronicum Thorns. 
Group XXII. CALLIDIOPINI. 

Genus Cylindera Newman. 
C. flava Fab. 



Group LVI. RHINOTRAGINI. 

Genus Omata White. 
O. elegans White. 

Genus Acyphoderes Serv. 
A. abdominalis Oliv. 

Genus Odontocera Serv. 
O. fasciata Oliv. 
Group LXV. CALLICHROMINI. 

Genus Callichroma Lat. 
C. vittatum Fab. 



3 Gounelle Listes des Cerambycides de la region de Jatahy, etat de 
Goyaz Brazil. Ann. Ent. Soc. France LXXVII, 1909. 



226 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Oct., '31 



C. auronicum Linn. 

Group LXVI. CAMPSOCERINI. 

Genus Orthoschema Thorns. 
O. albicorne Fab. 
Group LXIX. CLYTINI. 

Genus Neoclytus Thorns. 
N. rufus Oliv. 

Genus Mecometopus Thorns. 
M. jansoni Bates. 
Group LXXV. 

RHOPALOPHORINI. 

Genus Cosmisoma Serv. 
C. ammiralis Linn. 
Group LXXVII. 

HETEROPSINI. 

Genus Chrysoprasis Serv. 
C. auricollis Dalm. 
C. festiva Serv. 



Group LXXXIV. 

STERNACANTHINI. 

Genus Sternacanthus Serv. 
S. undatus Oliv. 

Genus Batus Thunb. 
B. barbicornis Linn. 

B. hirticornis Gyllh. 
Genus Ceragenia Serv. 

C. bicornis Fab. 
Group LXXXV. 

PTEROPLATINI. 
Genus Pteroplatus Buquet. 
P. lycoides Guer. 
Group LXXXVII. 

TRACHYDERINI. 
Genus Trachyderes Dalm. 
T. melas Bates. 
T. succintus Linn. 
T. bicolor Voet. 



The collection will be placed at the disposition of the New 
York Zoological Society. 



Oligolectic Andrenidae (Hymen.). 

Lately Cockerell says: "Graenicher, in his Wisconsin list, 
catalogues five species of Andrena which gather pollen from 
Saliv, ten from the Compositae, four from Umbelliferae, and 
one each from Claytonia virginica, Hydrophyllum, Geranium 
maculatum, Fragaria, and Parnassia." 

Graenicher (1905) gave a list of 13 species which were the 
same as those recorded in my local list of 21 species (1899) 
and added 11 species (2 erroneous and 2 doubtful). What he 
contributed to my list was one species from Sali.r, five from 
Compositae, one from Umbelliferae, and one each from Fra- 
garia and Parnassia. And this list would not have been pub- 
lished if it had not been preceded by that of 1899. 

My local list of local oligolectic bees (Ecology 7:378-9, 
1926) shows 9 Andrenidae oligoleges of Salir, 8 of Compositae, 
and one each of Cruciferae, Umbelliferae, Aruncus sylvcstcr, 
Claytonia virginica, Geranium maculatum, Nothoscordum 
bivalve, Polcnwnium reptans and 1'iola. Andrena gcranii and 
nasonii, given in my first list, are not oligoleges of Hydrophyl- 
and Umbelliferae. CHARLES ROBERTSON, Carlinville, Illi- 



nois. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 227 

Some Observations on the Biology of the Sarco- 
phaginae (Diptera : Sarcophagidae). 

By S. GRAENICHER, South Miami, Florida. 

As stated by Dr. J. M. Aldrich l "the species of Sarcophaga 
range in larval habits from scavengers to parasites of warm- 
blooded animals". The species mentioned below - have been 
bred from dead animals and excrements exposed in the open 
in my immediate neighborhood, or from material picked up at 
random at various points in the Miami region. 

Along with this part of the work, some feeding experiments 
have been carried on with the larvae of three of the species 
for the purpose of testing the tolerance of the larvae to various 
food substances upon which, so far as we know, they do not 
occur under natural conditions. 

SPECIES BRED FROM DEAD ANIMALS AND EXCREMENTS. 

From 8 rats : Sarcophaga bullata Park, from all 8, -S\ stcrno- 
dontis Towns, from 3, S. plinthopyga Wied. from 1. 

From 2 birds (quail & chick) : bullata from both. 

From 5 snakes: bullata from all 5. stcrnodontis from 2. 

From 3 fish : bullata from all 3, stcrnodontis from 2. 

From 2 marine snails (Strom-bus gigas and Janthina fragilis} 
exposed at South Miami : bullata from both from a Janthina 
fmgilis found on the beach at Miami Beach : Sarothromyia 
fcmoralis Sch. var. simplex Aid. 

From 3 crustaceans (2 landcrabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, and 
1 bluecrab, Callincctcs sp.) : bullata from 2 (landcrabs), stcrno- 
dontis from 1 (bluecrab), S. impar Aid. from 1 (landcrab), 
S. uvlchi Hall from 3 (landcrabs and bluecrab). 

From insects (a quantity of dead cockroaches, Pcriplancta 
australasiuc Fabr.) : bullata. 

From 2 dead myriapods (Spirobolus sp.) : stcrnodontis from 
1, and S. singularis Aldr. from 1. 

From a dead whip scorpion (Mastigoproctus gigantcus} : 
stcrnodontis. 

From rotten beef : bullata, stcrnoduntis and Sarcophagula 
occidua Fabr. 

From human excrement : bullata 3 times and .S". floridcnsis 
Aldr. once. On three occasions human excrement deposited in 
privy vaults was found swarming with maggots from which 
bullata came forth. 

1 J. M. Aldrich, Sarcophaga and Allies in North America, p. 16. 

2 My thanks are due Mr. David G. Hall, who has given me some 
valuable help in the identification of the material. 



228 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

From dog excrement : occidna once. 

With exposed chicken manure and cow manure no results 
were obtained. 

From all of this material bullata was bred 27 times, sterno- 
dontis 1 1 times, plinthopyga once, itnpar once, welchi 3 times, 
floridensis once, singularis once, fcmoralis var. simplex once, 
occidiM twice. It will be noticed that hclicis Towns, (un- 
doubtedly rapax Walk., according to Aldrich 3 ) does not figure 
at all in these results. 

According to the information contained in Aldrich's "Sarco- 
phaga and Allies" bullata has been bred from carrion and dead 
fish, sternodontis from insects, hclicis from dead and live in- 
sects, plinthopyga from carcasses (Bishopp), impar from in- 
sects (live pupae) and beef refuse, singularis from Spirobolus 
myriapod) ; no records for floridensis, fcmoralis var. simplex 
and occidua. 

Plank 4 has found sternodontis to be the most important of 
the minor parasites of the sugar cane stalk borer, Diatraea 
saccharalis Fabr., in Cuba. It has been reared from pupae and 
injured larvae. Hclicis has also been obtained from the larvae 
of Diatraea. 

The evidence on hand points to bullata: as a most important 
scavenger with no parasitic leanings whatever, to sternodontis 
as a scavenger with pronounced parasitic tendencies, and to 
hclicis as a scavenger on dead insects and a true parasite on 
live ones (also reared from a myriapod, Spirobolus sp.). 

FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH THE LARVAE OF HELICIS, 
STERNODONTIS AND BULLATA. 

Since the Sarcophagidae deposit larvae instead of eggs, it is 
a comparatively simple procedure to press the larvae from the 
body of a female when the latter is ready to larviposit, as 
Allen 5 has done in his studies of the habits of Scnotainia 

3 J. M. Aldrich, Notes on the types of Am. two-winged flies of the 
genus Sarcophaga, etc. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 78, Art. 12, pp. 1-39, pis. 
1-3 (1930). 

4 H. K. Plank. Natural enemies of the sugar moth stalk borer in Cuba. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 22, 621-640 (1929). 

5 H. W. Allen. N. Am. species of two-winged flies belonging to the 
tribe Miltogrammini. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 68, Art. 9, pp. 1-106, pis. 
1-5 (1926). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

trilincata. The larvae from 10 females of hclicis, 11 of stcrno- 
dontis, and 11 of bullata were used in these experiments. Iden- 
tification of the species was based on the males of the offspring. 

Hclicis. From female No. 1 : Fed up on decaying rat meat 
exclusively. Full development after 5 days ; 2 male and 2 
female adults on 22nd day. 

From female No. 2 : Given at first rat meat, later beef. 
Ready to pupate on 5th day. Adults on 23rd day. 

From female No. 3 : Fed for the first 3 days on beef with 
good results, for the next 24 hours on chicken manure with 
very poor results. From then on reaching a rapid and full 
development on 2 dead large cockroaches. Adults on 21st day. 

From female No. 4: Fed like those from No. 3, with the 
same results. 

The larvae from the remaining 6 females were brought to 
maturity either on decayed or fresh cockroaches (disabled by 
crushing the head), and no differences noted in the outcome. 

In summing up the results with the larvae of hclicis, it may 
be stated that they fed and thrived on the meat of warm- 
blooded animals (rat and beef) just as well as on fresh or 
decaying insects (cockroaches). Chicken manure is evidently 
not a proper kind of diet. 

Stcrnodontis. Feeding experiments with the larvae were 
carried on in the same manner as with those of hclicis. No 
noteworthy differences were observed, whether they were fed 
on meat from various sources (beef, rat and fish) or on fresh 
or decaying insects (cockroaches). Chicken manure was found 
to be entirely unsuitable; the larvae made poor headway and 
finally succumbed, not a single one reaching maturity. Dura- 
tion of the larval and pupal stages from 15 to 18 days. 

Bullata. As was to be expected in view of the known habits 
of this species, the larvae thrived on various kinds of decom- 
posed meat, as also on fresh and putrid cockroaches. They de- 
veloped normally on human excrement ; my efforts, however, 
to bring them up on chicken excrement were entirely unsuc- 
cessful. Adults after 22 to 25 days. 

Under natural conditions the larva of a Sarcophaga is re- 
stricted to the particular kind or kinds of food upon which it 
is deposited by the female, while in the feeding experiments 



230 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

the larvae were given a wider range in their diet. The larvae 
of the three species under consideration showed a remarkable 
agreement in the acceptance and utilization of the various kinds 
of food substances offered them, irrespective of the differences 
displayed by the females in the selection of food for their off- 
spring. Hallock had a similar experience with 5\ latisterna 
Park., gravid females of which were confined in cages and 
offered larvae of the Japanese beetle ; they failed to larviposit 
on these larvae, while maggots dissected from the abdomen of 
the fly, and placed on freshly killed larvae of the same beetle 
"fed rapidly, and developed normally." 

Referring to the parasitism of Sarcophaga, Aldrich ("Sarco- 
phaga and Allies," p. 246) states that we are dealing with a 
group, the habits of which are still more plastic than in the 
Tachinidae. Plasticity is evidently more pronounced in the 
larvae than in the adults, as indicated by the manner in which 
the former accept food substances differing in kind from those 
selected for them by the mother flies. 



Mr. F. H. Benjamin at the U. S. National Museum. 

MR. FOSTER H. BENJAMIN, who was for some years assistant 
to Dr. Barnes at Decatur, Illinois, has been transferred to the 
U. S. Bureau of Entomology and assigned to a position in the 
National Museum where he will devote most of his time to 
identification work on North American Lepidoptera. Mr. Ben- 
jamin has been for the last three years engaged in work on the 
Mexican orange worms and the Mediterranean fruit fly for 
the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture at Orlando, Florida. Science, 
August 14, 1931. 

A New Entomological Journal in South America. 

Rcrc'ista dc Eniomoloyia is the name of a new journal of 
which the first fascicle is dated April 25, 1931. It is under the 
editorship of Thomas Borgmeier, O. F. M., Caixa Postal 1302, 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, and subscriptions are received by Mario 
Autuori, at the same address. It is a quarterly, and the first 
fascicle contains 128 pages. The price is three dollars a year 
postpaid. 

6 H. C. Hallock. Notes on methods of rearing Sarcophayinac (Diptera) 
and the biology of Sarcophaqa latistcrna Park. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 22, 
246-250 (1929). 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 231 

The fascicle is handsomely gotten up, comparing favorably 
with the best European and other journals. The contributions 
are by Melzer, Bruch, Horn, Fonseca, Spitz, Autuori, Leuder- 
waldt and Townsend, and are in Portugese, Spanish, German 
and English, with incidental Latin. A single plate and num- 
erous text figures are well printed. The article by Townsend 
is especially noteworthy, as it contains a resume in 40 pages of 
the results of his examination of muscoid types in the European 
museums in 1928, as far as the American genera and species 
are concerned. 

Father Borgmeier is to be congratulated on the fine appear- 
ance and excellent contents of this first number. The journal 
is worthy of the support of all entomologists who are not 
limited to "north of Mexico," a class which is happily in- 
creasing. J. M. ALDRICH. 



A New Entomological Journal in England. 

The Council of the Entomological Society of London has 
decided to issue a new entomological journal, beginning in 
January 1932, in 12 parts per annum, entitled Stylo ps, A Jour- 
nal of Ta.vonouiic Entomology, under the editorship of S. A. 
Neave, M.A., D.Sc., as Secretary of the Society, assisted by 
F. W. Edwards, M.A., Sc.D. ; A. D. Imms, M.A., Sc.D., 
F.R.S. ; Sir Guy A. K. Marshall, C.M.G. ; D.Sc., F.R.S., Mar- 
tin E. Mosely, Hugh Scott, M.A., Sc.D., and W. H. T. Tarns. 
The annual subscription to Stylops will be 24s., or $6.00, post 
free, single parts 3s. each, but Fellows of the Society will have 
the right to subscribe for one copy at the special rate of 16^ 
per volume. The journal is primarily designed to meet the 
demand for the prompt publication of short taxonomic papers. 
For this reason papers exceeding 10,000 words, or occupying 
more than 12 pages, cannot be accepted for it. and preference 
will be given to appreciably shorter ones. The Society is pre- 
pared to undertake the provision of a reasonable number of 
text-figures or plates when only line-blocks are required, though 
authors will be expected to supply the original drawings. In 
the case of half-tone or colour work, authors will also be re- 
quired to pay for, or supply, the necessary blocks. Authors, 
who need not be Fellows of the Society, will be entitled to 
receive 25 copies of their papers free of charge and will be 
permitted to purchase additional quantities at a fixed scale. 
Papers in English, French or German may be submitted, but 
must be typewritten on one side of the paper only. Those 1 de- 
siring to offer papers should send them to the EDITOR, at 41 
Queen's Gate, South Kensington, London, S.IV. 7. 



232 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I 1 refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Htir~Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Aaron, S. F. -The little wonder flies [Nat. 
Mag.] 18: 158-162, ill. Barber, H. S. Traps for cave- 
inhabiting- insects. [Jour. E. Mitchell Sc. Soc.,] 46: 259-266, 
ill. *Carpenter, F. M., et al. Insects from the Miocene 
(Latah) of Washington. [7] 24: 307-322, ill. *Carpenter, 
F. M. The lower permian insects of Kansas, Part 4. The 
order Hemiptera, and additions to the Paleodictyoptera and 
Protohymenoptera. [16] 22: 113-130, ill. *Cockerell and 
LeVeque. The antiquity of insect structures. [90] 65: 351- 
359, ill. Comstock, J. H. Obituary. By G. W. Herrick. 
[7] 24: 199-204. ill. Crevecoeur, F.' F. Obituary. By R. 
L. Parker. [103] 4: 76. ill. Ewing, H. E. Some factors 
affecting the distribution of and variation in North Ameri- 
can ectoparasites. [90] 65: 360-369. Fage, L. Les Araig- 
nees cavernicoles. [Arch. Zool. Exp., Paris] 71: 99-291, ill. 
Faulkner, P. Insects in English poetry. [76] 1931 : 53-73. 
Johnson, C. W. An interesting copy of Wiedemann's Dip- 
tera Exotica. [5] 38: 25-26. Puri^ D. R. Mimicry and 
protective colouration. [Bull. Dept. Zool. Panjab Univ.] 1: 
53-56. Robinson, W. The thermopile for temperature de- 
terminations in entomology. [7] 24: 417-423, ill. Waldron, 
L. R. Insects as pollen carriers. [68] 73: 703. Weiss, H. 
B. John Southall's "Treatise of Buggs". [6] 39: 253-258. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Baumgartner & 
Payne. "Intravitam" technic used in studies on the living 
cells of grasshoppers. [42] 59: 359-393, ill. Buxton, P. A.- 
The thermal death-point of Rhodnius (Heteroptera) under 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

controlled conditions of humidity. [Jour. Exp. Biol.] 8: 
275-278, ill. Chorine, V. Contribution a 1'ctude cle 1'im- 
munite chez les insectes. [78] 65: 291-387, ill. Eyer, J. R.- 
The relation of temperature and rainfall to outbreaks of the 
grape leafhopper, Erythroneura comes. [7] 24: 238-259, ill. 
Hadjinicolaou, J. Effect of certain radio waves on insects 
affecting certain stored products. [6] 39: 145-150. Heber- 
dey, R. F. Zur entwicklungsgeschichte, vergleichenden 
anatomic und physiologic der weiblichen geschlechtsaus- 
fiihrwege der insekten. [46] 22: 416-586, ill. Hilton, W. A. 
Nervous system and sense organs. [13] 23: 27-41, ill. 
Janisch, E. Experimentelle untersuchungen tiber die wirk- 
ung der umweltfaktoren auf insekten. [46] 22: 287-348, ill. 
Jodlowski, M. J. Ueber den histologischen Bau der spinn- 
drtisen bei ameisenlarven. [100] 1930: 745-761, ill. Kawa- 
guchi, E. - - Ueber den dimorphismus der epithelzellen im 
mitteldarm der seidenraupe (Bombyx mori). [Jour. Dept. 
Agric. Kyushu Imp. Univ.] 3: 47-64, ill. Klingstedt, H 
Digametie beim weibchen der trichoptere Limnophilus 
decipiens. [Acta Zool. Fennica, Helsingforsiae] 10-11: 66 
pp., ill. Kratky, E. Morphologic und physiologic der 
driisen in kopf und thorax der honigbiene (Apis mellifica 
[94] 139: 120-200, ill. Marcu, O. Die stridulationsorgane 
der gattungen Aparapion und Rhinastus unter den Curcul- 
ioniden. [34] 95: 331-333, ill. Maziarski, M. S. Sur le 
tissu musculaire des insectes. III. Les reseaux musculaires 
(myosyndesmium) des gaines ovariques des Coleopteres. 
[100] "1930: 657-690, ill. Maziarski, M. S. Sur le tissu 
musculaire des insectes. IV. Les elements contractiles dans 
les couches musculaires de 1'intestin moyen chez les Col- 
eopteres. [Comptes Renclus Men. Classe Sci. Math, et Nat., 
Cracovie] 1931 : 8. Meyer, E. Ueber den blutkreislauf der 
ephemeriden. [46] 22: 1-52, ill. Miczynski, M. K. Etudes 
genetiques clu genre Aegilops. II. Morphologic et cytologie 
des hybrides interspecifiques. [Comptes Rendus Men. 
Classe Sci. Math, et Nat., Cracovie] 1931 : 8-9. Millot, J.- 
Les glandes sericigenes des Dysderides. [Arch. Zool. Exp., 
Paris] 71 : 38-45, ill. Minnich/D. E. The sensitivity of the 
oral lobes of the proboscis of the blowfly, Calliphora vomi- 
toria, to various sugars. |42] 60: 129-131, ill. Regen, J. 
Ueber den aufbau der stridulationslaute der saltatoren Or- 
thopteren. [Sitzungber. Akad. Wissen., \\"ien| 139: 539- 
544. Richmond, E. A. The external morphology of Hv- 
drophilus obtusatus ( Hydrophilidae). [6] 39: 191-250, ill. 
Roubaud, M. E. Fatigue evolutive cyclique et lignecs in- 
fatigables chez la mouche verte commune Lucilia sericata. 



234 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

[69] 193: 204-205. Saint-Hilaire, K. Ueber vorderdar- 
manhange bei Lophyrus-larven und ihre bedeutung. [46] 
21 : 608-616, ill. Spett u. Schaposchnikow. Die variabilitat 
des mannlichen und weiblichen geschlechts bei kafern. [46] 
22: 121-162. Stehr, W. C. The activating influence of 
light upon certain aquatic arthropods. [42] 59: 297-335, ill. 
Verlaine, L. L'instinct et 1'intelligence chez les Hymen- 
opteres. [Mem. Soc. Ent. Belgique] 23: 191-222. Willrich, 
U. Beitrage zur kenntnis der lichtkompassbewegung und 
des farbensinnes der insekten. [89] 49: 157-204, ill. Zac- 
wilichowski, M. J. Sur 1'innervation et les organes sen- 
soriels des ailes chez les insectes. [Comptes Rendus Men. 
Classe Sci. Math, et Nat., Cracovie] 1931: 10. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Beier, M.- 

Neue pseudoscorpione der U. O. Neobisiinea. [Mitt. Zool. 
Mus., Berlin] 17: 299-318, ill. *Roewer, C. F. Drei neue 
Cosmetiden (Opilioniden) aus Mexiko. [34] 95: 247-250, 
ill. Thor, S. Das Tierreich . . . Lief. 56. Acarina. Bdel- 
lidae, Nicoletiellidae, Cryptognathidae. 87 pp., ill. Ver- 
hoeff, K. W. Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tier- 
reichs. Bd. 5. Myriapoda. Diplopoda. 1675-1834, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Ball, A.- 

Note descriptive concernant un Ectopsocus des etats-unis 
(Psocoptera-Peripsocidae). [Mem. Soc. Ent. Belgique] 
23: 188-190. *Bondar, G. Um novo genero e tres novas 
especies de Thysanopteros Heliothripineos, Encontrados 
na Bahia. [Arch. Inst. Biol., Sao Paulo] 4: 83-88, ill. 
Briand, L. J. Notes on Chrysopa oculata and its relation 
to the oriental peach moth ( Laspeyresia molesta) infesta- 
tion in 1930. [4] 63: 123-126. Carpenter, F. M. The 
biology of the Mecoptera. [5] 38: 41-55, ill. Crampton, 
G. C. The genitalia and terminal structures of the male 
of the archaic mecopteron, Notiothauma reedi, compared 
with related Holometabola from the standpoint of phy- 
logeny. [5] 38: 1-21, ill. Dow, R. Odonata from Santa 
Clara, Cuba. [95] 44: 55-60. Hottes, F. C. Notes con- 
cerning the first papers dealing with the aphid fauna of 
America. [95] 44: 61-69. Killington, F. J. Osmylus fulvi- 
cephalus : The fore coxae of the female, with remarks on 
a confusion of the sexes. [9] 64: 135-136, ill. Knowlton & 
Janes. Studies on the biology of Paratrioza cockerelli. 
1 7] 24: 283-290, ill. Pope, T. E. B. [See under Lepidop- 
tera.| Steger, A. L. Some preliminary notes on the genus 
Ephemerella. [5] 38: 27-35. *Watson," J. R. A new Hap- 
lothrips from Panama. [39 1 155: 11-12. Williamson, E. B. 
A new North American Somatochlora (Cordulinae). 
[Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich.] No. 225; 8 pp., ill. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 235 

ORTHOPTERA. *Fulton, B. B. A study of the genus 
Nemobius (Grylliclae). |7| 24: 205-237, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Ball, E. D. Some new genera and 
species of leafhoppers related to Eutettix. [39] 15: 1-6. 
*Ball, E. D. Some new genera and species of leaf-hoppers 
related to Mesamia. [19] 26: 91-95. Beamer, R. H- 
Notes on the 17-year cicada in Kansas. [103] 4: 53-58, 
ill. Beamer, R. H. Some Erythroneura (Grape leaf- 
hoppers) of the maculata group (Cicadellidae). [5] 
63: 127-135. Buys, J. L Leafhoppers of Mt. Marcy 
and Mt. Macintyre, Essex Co., New York (Cicadellidae). 
[6] 39: 139-143.' China, W. E. An interesting relation- 
ship between a crayfish and a water bug. [Nat. Hist. Mag. 
London] 3: 57-62, 'ill. *Drake & Harris. An undescribed 
water-strider from Brazil. [3] 20: 267-268. Herrick, G. W. 
The magnolia scale (Neolecanium cornuparvum). [7] 24: 
302-305, ill. *Jaczewski, T. Die Corixiden (Corixidae, 
Heteroptera) Zool. Staatsint. u. Zool. Mus. Hamburg. 
[Mitt. Zool. Staatsinst. u. Zool. Mus. Hamb.] 44: 140-148, 
ill. (S). Kemper, H. Beitrage biologic der bettwanze 
(Citnex lectularius). [46] 22: 53-120, ill. *Lawson, P. B.- 
Three new species of Acinopterus with notes on other 
species (Cicadellidae). [103] 4: 59-61. Martin, R. S.- 
Two new Euphyllura (Chermidae). [103] 4: 68-70. Mills, 
H. B. Notes on the oviposition of Metapterus annulipes. 
(Reduviidae). [19] 26: 84, ill. *Oman, P. W. Some new 
Neocoelidia with notes on other species. (Cicadellidae.) 
[103] 4: 62-68. Wadley, F. M. Ecology of Toxoptera 
graminum, especially as to factors affecting importance in 
the northern United States. [7] 24: 325-395, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bonniwell, J. C. Notes on Mega- 
thymus mariae. [3] 20: 264-265. Bratley, H. E. Euvanessa 
antiopa. The mourning cloak. [39] 15: 7. *Cassino, S. E. 
-New Geometridae. [The Lepid.] 5: 17-24. Clark, A. H. 
The extirpation of one butterfly by another. [Pop. Sci. 
Month.] Aug. 1931: 173-174. *Clark, B. P. Descriptions 
of seven new Sphingidae and a note on one other. [Pro. 
New England Zool.' Club] 12: 77-83. Clayhills, T. H.- 
Zur kenntnis der temperaturabhangigkeit der jahrlichen 
abundanzkurven von Calymnia trapezina. [Mem. Soc. Pro 
Fauna et Flora Fennica] 5: 91-95, ill. *Heinrich, C. Notes 
on and descriptions of some American moths. [50] 79, Art. 
13: 16 pp., ill. (S). ^Holland, W. J. Notes on some 



236 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

American butterflies mainly relating to classification and 
nomenclature. [3] 20: 255-264. Klots, A. B. Notes on 
lepidoptera collected in a Connecticut-Rhode Island wood- 
land. [19] 26: 57-70, ill. Klots, A. B. Notes on some 
moths collected at Silver Lake, Chesham, New Hampshire. 
[5] 38: 36-37. *Meyrick, E. Micro-lepidoptera from South 
Chile and Argentina. [An. Mus. Hist. Nat., Buenos Aires] 
36: 377-415. Pollard, C. L. Habits of South American 
equatorial butterflies. [6] 39: 167-170. Pope, T. E. B.- 
Collecting along the Yellowstone Trail. [Yr. Book Public 
Mus. Milwaukee] 1929: 36-68, ill. Risbec, M. J. Un pen- 
tatome parasite de la Chenille epineuse du Cotonnier 
(Earias huegeli). [69] 193: 247-250. Rockwood & Zimmer- 
man. A seed caterpillar, Grapholitha conversana, on a 
native clover in the North Pacific region. [47] 43 : 57-65, 
ill. * Williams, R. C. Cuban Hesperiidae. [1] 57: 305-318, 
ill. Wucherpfennig, F. Sammeltage im Urwalde am Rio 
Madeira. [18] 25: 100-105, ill. 

DIPTERA. ^-Alexander, C. P. Records and descrip- 
tions of neotropical crane-flies (Tipulidae). [6] 39: 109- 
122. * Alexander, C. P. A list of the crane-flies of Quebec. 
[4] 63: 135-147. Bishop & Hart.- Note on a migration of 
mosquito larvae. [19] 26: 88-90, ill. *Borgmeier, T. Sobre 
alguns Phorideos que parasitam a sauva e outras Formigas 
Cortadeiras (Phoridae). (S). [Arch. Inst. Biol., Sao Paulo] 
4: 209-228, ill. *Bromley, S. W. New Asilidae, with a 
revised key to the genus Stenopogon. [7] 24: 427-435. da 
Costa Lima, A. Notas sobre "Culicidae". (S). [An. Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Buenos Aires] 36: 359-368, ill. *Duda, O. Die 
neotropischen Chloropiden. [Folia Zool et Hydrobiol., 
Riga] 3: 159-172. *Fluke, C. L. Notes on certain Syrphus 
flies related to Xanthogramma with descriptions of two 
n. sps. [Tr. Wise. Ac. Sci.] 26: 289-309, ill. Johnson, C. W. 
-Two new species of fungus gnats of the genus Apemon. 
| 5] 38: 22-24, ill. *Krober, O. Neue arten aus clem genus 
Esenbeckia (Tabaniclae). (S). [34] 94: 245-257, ill. Krober, 
O. Neue arten der gattung Fidena (Tabaniclae). [34] 95: 
17-37. (S). *Kroeber, O. Die Pelecorhynchinae und Mel- 
piinae Sudamerikas. [Mitt. Zool. Staatsunst. u. Zool. Mus. 
Hamb.] 44: 149-196, ill. Lathrop & Nickels. The blue- 
berry maggot from an ecological viewpoint. |7] 24: 260- 
281, ill. *Lindner, E. Die ausbeute der deutschen Chaco- 
Expedition 1925-26. Rhopalomeridae und Ortalididae. |56| 
9: 282-284. (S). McNeel, T. E. A method for locating the 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 237 

larvae of the mosquito Mansonia. [68] 74: 155. Melvin, R. 
Notes on the biology of the stable-fly, Stomoxys calci- 
trans. [7] 24: 436-438.' *Nitzulescu, V. Sur un'Phlebo- 
tome nouveau du Venezuela P. gomezi. [54] 9: 247-255, 
ill. *Parent, O. Dipteres Dolichopodides de 1'Amerique 
du Slid. [Abh. Mtis. f. Tierk. & Volkerk. Dresden] 18: 21 
pp., ill. *Rohdendorf, B. Calliphorinen-studien. [34] 95: 
175-177. Schwardt, H. H. The biology of Tabanus lineola. 
[7] 24: 409-416. Shannon, R. C On the classification of 
Brazilian Culicidae with special reference to those capable 
of harboring the yellow fever virus. [10] 33: 125-164, ill. 
*Van Duzee, M. C. New South American species of Doli- 
chopodidae. [40] 483: 26 pp., ill. *Van Duzee, M. C. New 
South and Central American Dolichopodidae. [40] 484: 14 
pp., ill. 

COLEOPTERA. *Blackman, M. W. A revisional 
study of the genus Gnathotrichus in North America. [91] 
21 : 264-276, ill. *Blake, D. H. Notes on West Indian and 
Central American flea-beetles (Halticinae). [19] 26: 76-82, 
ill. Borgmeier, F. T. Uma curiosa familia de coleopteros 
1 32] 6: 257-258. *Cockerell, T. D. A. A supposed insect 
larva from the Jurassic. [19] 26: 96-97, ill. Darlington, 
P. J. A new name for Nebria vandykei. [5] 38: 24. Frost, 
C. A. Hyperaspis paludicola. Hyperaspis disconotata. 
[5] 38: 35. Frost, S. W. The habits of leaf-mining Cole- 
optera on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. [7] 24: 396-404, 
ill. *Hoscheck, A. B. Beitrage zur kenntnis der Bupres- 
tiden. [Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin) 17: 133-164, ill. (S). *John- 
son, P. H. A new species of Myochrous (Chrysomelidae). 
[4] 63: 148. *Lesne, M. P. Notes sur les Coleopteres 
Terediles. (S). [Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris] 3: 96-105, 
ill. *Luederwaldt, H. Novos Lucanideos brasileiros. [32] 
6: 123-127. *Melzer, J. Longicorneos americanos, princi- 
palmente do Brasil, novos ou pouco conhecidos (Ceramby- 
cidae). [Arch. Inst. Biol., Sao Paulo] 4: 51-82, ill. *Reich- 
ensperger, A. Die wirt der Mesynodites gruppe nebst 
beschreibung neuer ecitophiler und termitophiler Histeri- 
denarten. (S). [89] 61, Syst. : 263-284, ill. *Valentine, J. M. 
New cavernicole Carabidae of the subfamily Trechinae. 
[Jour. E. Mitchell Sc. Soc.] 46: 247-258, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Alfonsus, E. C. A one-eyed bee 
(Apis mellifica). |7| 24: 405-406, ill. *Bondar, G. Con- 
tribuiqao para o conhecimento dos Hymenopteros phyto- 
phagos Calcidoideos. (S). [32] 6: 111-117, ill. Bromley, S. 



238 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

W. Hornet habits. [6] 39: 123-129. Crevecoeur, A. Le 
maraudage occasionnel tendance au cleptoparasitisme 
chez divers Psammocharidae. [Mem. Soc. Ent. Belgique] 
23: 183-187. *Cushman, R. A. -- Three new Braconidae 
parasitic on bark beetles. [91] 21: 301-304. Driggers & 
Pepper. Macrocentrus ancylivora and M. delicatus dis- 
tinct species. [7] 24: 293-301", ill. Gallardo, A. Notas sobre 
las Dorilinas Argentinas. [An. Mus. Hist. Nat., Buenos 
Aires] 36: 43-48. Green, H. E. Preliminary study of the 
ants of Southern California. [13] 23: 25. Kitao, Z. Unter- 
suchungen ueber die larve der kiefernblattwespe, Nesodi- 
pron japonica. [Jour. Coll. Agric. Imp. Univ. Tokyo] 11: 
151-191, ill. Proper, A. B. Eupteromalus nidulans, a par- 
asite of the brown-tail and satin moths. [47] 43: 37-56, ill. 
Rau, P. An unusual nest of the yellow-jacket, Vespa ger- 
manica. [19] 26: 85-88. Satterthwait, A. F. Anaphoidea 
calendrae, a mymarid parasite of eggs of weevils of the 
genus Calendra. [6] 39: 171-190. Verlaine, L. [See under 
Anatomy & Physiology.] *Wheeler, W. M. New and 
little known ants of the genera Macromischa, Croesomyr- 
mex and Antillaemyrmex. [Bui. Mus. Comp. Z.] 72: 1-34. 
Zimmermann, K. Studien ueber individuelle und geograp- 
hische variabilitat palaearktischer Polistes und verwandter 
vespiden. [46] 22: 173-230, ill. 

A LABORATORY GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF THE WINGS OF 
INSECTS, (iv+) 41 pp., 67 accompanying unbound plates. 
$1.25. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE INSTRUCTOR in Connection with 
the use of the Laboratory Guide to the Study of the Wings of 
Insects. 17 pp. (lithoprinted.) 75c. THE VENATION OF IN- 
SECTS' WINGS, a brief laboratory guide and exercises in the 
study of phylogenetic series and the principle of homology for 
elementary students of biology. 9 pp., 13 accompanying un- 
bound plates. 50c. All by JAMES CHESTER BRADLEY, M. S., 
Ph.D., Professor of Entomology and Curator of Invertebrate 
Zoology in Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. Daw, 111- 
ston & Co., 1931. 

THE TEACHING OF THE PRINCIPLE OF HOMOLOGIES TO ELE- 
MENTARY CLASSES IN BIOLOGY, AND THE USE OF PHYLOGEN- 
ETIC SERIES IN THE LABORATORY. By J. CHESTER BRADLEY. 
School Science and Mathematics, Vol. XXXI, No. 5, pp. 525- 
532, 14 figs. May. 1931. 

Those eminent expositors of the wing venation of insects, 
the late Professor Comstock and the living Professor Needham, 



Xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 239 

have found a successor in their pupil and associate in the Cor- 
nell faculty. Professor J. C. Bradley. Dr. Bradley helieves 
that the wings of insects and their venation furnish "the most 
readily available and altogether satisfactory phylogenetic series 
that can be placed before all elementary students" of biology, 
"even in large laboratory sections." Needless to say he also 
regards their study as very essential to the future entomologist, 
and for both classes of students he has provided the laboratory 
manuals above cited. The plates show the actual venation of 
different insects printed in pale ink. The student, comparing 
these unlabeled plates with each other and using two or more 
colored inks or pencils, endeavors to mark the homologous veins 
with the same color or/and label them to show their homologies. 
Dr. Bradley rightly says: "If the student is obliged to work 
out the successive steps of modification with a minimum of 
guidance from the teacher and with no guidance from literature, 
except the directions in this guide, the whole course becomes 
analogous to a simplified research problem. . . . Experience 
shows that the student, led to work out the problems of the 
course in the way indicated, finds a compelling interest in their 
solution. Studied in this way, the work has a distinct value as 
training in clear and independent thinking." "The instructor 
should refuse to point out errors which the student is capable 
of discerning for himself. Compel the student to criticize his 
own work and discover all errors which are derived from care- 
lessness or failure to apply logical deduction or critical analy- 
sis." While the two guides naturally contain directions to the 
student, the "Suggestions for the Instructor" give Dr. Brad- 
ley's own views on various disputed points in venational hom- 
ologies and, consequently, nomenclature. Of the 67 loose 
plates (8x4^4 inches) accompanying the larger guide, 1 is a 
simplified neopterygote wing, 17 are Dipterous, 1 is Trichop- 
terous, 7 Lepidopterous, 1 Mecopterous. 1 Plecopterous, 7 
Neuropterous, 2 Corrodentine, 24 Hymenopterous, 1 of Palaeo- 
dictyoptera and Protephemeroidea, 2 Ephemerida, 3 Proto- 
donata and Odonata. In a circular the publishers state that 
"Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Hemiptera are omitted, owing to 
the difficulties of their study and to the little practical use made 
of the venation in those orders." Nothing is said as to the 
possibility of purchasing this set of plates separately from the 
guide; we think this might often be desirable. This series of 
texts and figures seems to be well designed for the purposes 
for which it has been drawn up and we wish author and pub- 
lishers all success. P. P. CALVERT. 



240 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '31 

OBITUARY. 

Father ERICH WASMANN, S. J., widely known for his writ- 
ings on instinct and intelligence, psychology of ants and the 
relations of these insects to other animals, died on February 27, 
1931, at St. Ignatius College, Valkenburg, in Southern Hol- 
land. He was born at Meran (Merano) in the southern Tyrol, 
May 29, 1859. An interesting account of his life, accompanied 
by a portrait of his later years, is given by Franz Heikertinger 
(Koleopterologische Rundschau, xvii, 89-96, July 31, 1931), 
from which we take these notes. After study in Benedictine 
and Franciscan schools, he entered the Jesuit order, September 
28, 1875, at Exaten, near Roermond, Holland. It was at this 
time that the first symptoms of an affection of the lungs ap- 
peared, a disease which followed him throughout life and 
which, by his physician's prescription, that he spend much time 
out of doors, eventually led to his intensive study of ants. 
From 1890 to 1892 he studied zoology at the University of 
Prague under Hatschek and Cori. In 1893, again at Exaten, 
he became a co-editor of a journal of his order, Stimmen aus 
Maria-Laach (later Stiinineii dcr Zcit), a position which gave 
him much time for scientific work. His publications include 
about 280 contributions to knowledge of myrmecophiles and 
termitophiles, one of the most valuable of which is his Krit- 
isches Verzeichniss dcr myrmeko'philen und tcnnitophilcn Ar- 
thropodcn (Berlin, 1894). Among his more general works are 
Instinkt und Intelligent im Tierreich (1897), Vcrgleichcndc 
Studicn ilbcr das Scelenlcbcn dcr Amcisen und hohcrcn Tierc 
(1897), English translation, St. Louis, 1905, Die psychischcn 
Fdhigkcitcn dcr Amciscn (1899, 2nd edit. 1909), Das Gcscll- 
schaftslcbcn dcr Amciscn (1915), Die nwdcrnc Biologic und 
die Entzvicklungsthcoric (English transl., London, 1910), The 
Berlin Discussion of the Problem of Evolution (London, 1909). 

A Festschrift in honor of his 70th birthday was published as 
Volume 82 of the Zoologischcr Anzcigcr, 1929. It is accom- 
panied by four portraits of Wasmann at different ages. 



Subscriptions for 1932 now Payable. 

NOVEMBER. 1931 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 9 



i^OfVAL MUSfc^ 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Ritcher An Undescribed Species of Simuliid Larva and the Corres- 
ponding Pupa (Diptera: Simuliidae) 241 

Bibliographia Odonatologica ... 246 

Richards Noctuidae of Northern Georgia and Tennessee (Lepid.).. . 247 
Klots The Generic Synonymy of the North American Pieridae (Lepid.) 253 
Roberts An Improvised Spreading Board for Small Moths. . . 256 

Krauth Parnassius in the Black Hills, South Dakota (Lepidoptera: 

Papilionidae) ... 

Gunder Bookseller's Separates. ... 

Entomological Literature 258 

Review Staig's Fabrician Types of Insects in the Hunterian Collection 

at Glasgow University (Coleoptera) 263 

Doings of Societies Rocky Mountain Conference of Entomologists . . 267 
Obituary Henry Lorenz Viereck 268 



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ENT. NEWS, VOL. XLII. 



Plate VI. 




SIMULIID LARVA (FIGS. 1-3, 5, 6> AND PUPA (FIG. 4L-RITCHER. 



JNTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLII. NOVEMBER, 1931 No. 9 

An Undescribed Species of Simuliid Larva and the 
Corresponding Pupa (Diptera: Simuliidae).* 

By PAUL OSBORX RITCHER. 
(Plate VI). 

In the fall of 192<> the author undertook the study of the 
Simuliidae as a special problem. To aid in this project. Dr. 
C. L. Metcalf, head of the Department of Entomology, of the 
University of Illinois, kindly placed at my disposal some 1000 
or 1100 vials of black flies, principally larvae and pupae, which 
he had collected the previous summer in a survey of the resort 
region in the Adirondack mountains of Xe\v York State. 

The fall of 1929 was spent in identifying as many of the 
larvae and pupae as possible. In most cases it was possible to 
make fairly accurate determinations. The characters furnished 
by the rectal gills, labia, histoblasts of the respiratory filaments, 
and head markings were used in all of the determinations. 

The majority of the specimens were common, known species, 
as was to be expected. A few kinds of larvae and pupae were 
present which, so far as I am able to find, have not been 
described. It is probable that they may either be larval and 
pupal stages of species of which only the adults have been 
described and named or that they may represent new species. 
Descriptions of at least one of these will be published in the 
near future. Sufficient material is lacking of the others. 

In the routine work of obtaining a general understanding of 
the Simuliidae and their taxonomy, collections were made of 
local material. For the most part, Siiiiitliitin rittaliun made up 
the bulk of the collections. However, on March 22, 1930, Mr. 
Fred Dodd and Mr. J. H. Evans, assistants in the University 
of Illinois Department of Entomology, brought in a number of 
Simuliid larvae as the result of an aquatic collecting trip in 
Brownfield's woods, a piece of virgin timber lying three miles 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratories of the University 
of Illinois, No. 154. 



241 



NOV 3 I 



242 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

northeast of the town of Urbana, Illinois. They attempted to 
keep the black fly larvae alive in a shallow glass dish of water 
through which air was bubbled. Most of them had died the 
following day. A few larvae remained alive until March 24. 

Upon examination, the larvae proved to be different from 
any described species. The labium had a peculiar kind of tri- 
lobed teeth and each histoblast contained 12 respiratory fila- 
ments. 

On April 6, I collected a few full grown larvae and one pupa 
of what I shall call Undcscribcd Species No. 2. They were 
found clinging to the leaves among logs which caused a number 
of miniature falls in the stream. I also put out a trap similar 
to that described by W. T. Emery. Inside the box I placed a 
number of leaves with larvae on them. 

When I revisited the spot April 12, I found that the trap 
had been molested and taken out of the stream. I collected a 
number of larvae and one pupa in the same series of miniature 
falls in which the previous collection was made. 

On May 11 I collected a number of full grown larvae and 
a number of very small larvae from the same stream in Brown- 
field's woods. Some of the full grown larvae were Simulium 
vittatum, 

In order to secure adults of Undcscribcd Species No. 2, I 
put out a new trap made of crossed wires, covered with a 
number of layers of cheesecloth. Inside I placed about 25 large 
larvae. To get a swift current, I made a narrow place in the 
stream with an old log. This same day I found a number of 
larvae and empty pupal cases on the under side of an old piece 
of tin. One pupal case which I examined contained a pupal 
skin with 12 respiratory filaments on each side so it was of 
Und escribed Species No. 2. 

On June 1 I returned to the trap. It had not been disturbed 
but most of the small stream had dried up. There was no cur- 
rent of course and no larvae, pupae, or adults were to be found 
in the trap or any place else. 

HABITAT SUMMARY Larvae and pupae of Undcscribcd 
Species No. 2 were taken from several spots in a small wood- 
land stream about three miles northeast of Urbana, Illinois. 
They were found on leaves and debris in the current where logs 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 243 

and brush made small falls and eddies. The altitude was ap- 
proximately 720 feet. The width of the stream was about one 
yard. The bottom is of mud and the stream is partially choked 
with leaves and brush. It empties into the Salt Fork. 

LARVA. 

The larva of Uiidcscnbed Species No. 2 measures from 6 
to 8 mm. in length. The general body color is grayish white. 
The head is not strongly pigmented but the pattern is similar 
to that of Sinnilimn rittatnni. 

The antennae (plate VI, fig. 6) are light yellow in color and 
are five segmented. The first segment is short. The second 
segment is approximately 1 }/2 times the length of the first. The 
third segment is \ l / 2 times as large as the second and bears two 
conical processes at its apical end. The diameter of the first 
three segments diminishes slightly from the first to the third. 
The fourth antennal segment is slender and long. It is approxi- 
mately as long as the first three segments combined. At the 
apical end of the fourth segment is found the fifth segment 
which is a small, pointed, conical, process. 

The labial plate of Undescribed Species No. 2 (plate VI, 
fig. 5) is about the same width as that of Siinuliinn I'ittatuui 
but it is shorter. The cephalic teeth, as a group, stand out from 
the margin of the mentum. The outer margins of the group 
of teeth are not parallel. 

The entire cephalic margin at each side of the group of teeth 
is fairly smooth as compared to the serrate condition found in 
the mentum of Siinuliinn I'ittatitiu. On either side of the labial 
plate is found a row of three bristles. The cephalic bristle is 
large and prominent. The two succeeding are smaller. The 
third bristle is much smaller than the other two. 

The three large teeth in the mentum are prominent and trifid. 
One small simple tooth is found between each of the large 
lateral trifid teeth and the middle trifid tooth. Two smaller 
single teeth are found on the outer margin of each lateral trifid 
tooth. The central trifid tooth is quite dissimilar in shape and 
appearance from the two lateral teeth. It is shorter and less 
prominent than the lateral teeth. 

The mandibles (plate VI, fig. 1) are chitinous and elongate. 
The lateral margins are convex. Each mandible has four large 
black apical teeth. Close to the large dorsal tooth is a row of 
approximately 13 small teeth which extends basad. The first 
or apical tooth in this row is longer than the second but both 
first and second are much smaller than the third. The rest of 
the teeth are small. A second row, of teeth is found dorsad 
and basad of the first row. It contains approximately 17 to 19 



244 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

teeth. The teeth in this row are more scattered than those of 
the first row. 

Arising from the outer apical margin is a fringe of brown 
hairs, which partially covers the mandibles. Among these hairs 
is a row of 10 to 11 large, stout bristles, extending laterad 
from the base of the black apical teeth. Two large bristles 
arise near the apex of the mandible, on the ventral surface, a 
short distance from the outer lateral margin. A series of evenly 
spaced hairs, arranged in comblike fashion, extends along the 
distal third of the mesal portion of the mandible, on the dorsal 
surface. Two clumps of hairs are also found on the basal half 
of the inner surface of the mandible. The proximal of these 
clumps of hairs contains a number of large hairs which branch 
at the apex similar to those of Siumliuni simile Mall., (Cam- 
eron, 1912). 

The brown maxillae (plate VI, fig. 2) are similar to those 
of Simiilium vittatitm. The basal portion of the maxillary 
palpus is brown and bears a few sparse hairs. The distal end 
is transparent and bears a few small toothlike processes. The 
lacinia is densely covered with hairs and bears a single spurlike 
appendage distad. 

Each of the fans of the head bears approximately 38 rays. 

The three rectal gills are simple in structure and unbranched 
(plate VI, fig. 3). 

The caudal disc bears approximately 64 rows of small brown 
hooks. 

Twelve-branched respiratory filaments are found in the dis- 
sected histoblasts. 

PUPA. 

The large-sized, robust pupa of Undescribcd Species No. 2 
is golden brown in color. It measures 5 to 6 mm. in length. 

There are 12 respiratory filaments in this species (plate VI, 
fig. 4). Five of the filaments are much longer than the other 
seven. The method of branching involves two unpaired fila- 
ments. 

The respiratory filaments are each composed of a single main 
trunk which divides close from the base into two main branches. 
The first main branch branches to form two secondary branches. 
Of these, one secondary branch branches dichotomously to form 
two filaments. The other secondary branch, not far from its 
base, gives rise to a single, unpaired filament. Distad from 
this point the other secondary branch branches dichotomously 
to form two filaments. Five filaments in all are formed from 
this first main branch. 

The second main branch forks in about the same relative 
position as the first to form two branches. One of these gives 
rise to a single unpaired filament and then later divides di- 
chotomously to form two additional filaments. The other 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 245 

branch of the second main branch, distad of the parts just 
described, soon divides dichotomously to form two tertiary 
branches each of which in turn divides to form 2 filaments. 
Thus 7 filaments are eventually formed from the second main 

* 

branch. This number, plus the 5 filaments formed from the 
first main branch, makes a total of 12 respiratory filaments for 
each respiratory tree of Und escribed Species No. 2. 

The pupa case is made up of a mass of loosely woven threads. 
It is open at one end for the protrusion of the respiratory fila- 
ments. 

SUMMARY. 

One species of larva and its corresponding pupa is described 
for the first time. 

Un-dcscnbcd Species No. 2 is found in a small stream flow- 
ing through Brownfield's woods, three miles northeast of 
Urbana, Illinois. There are twelve respiratory filaments in 
each respiratory trunk of the pupa. 

From the characters found in this species, it is probable that 
it belongs to the genus Prosiinulinui. It will be necessary to 
rear adults before any attempt can be made to assign a specific 
or generic name to it. The drying up of the stream has made 
this impossible for the present. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BISHOPP, F. C. 1912. Some important insect enemies of live 

stock in the United States. U. S. Dept. of Agric., Yearbook 

of 1912: 383-386. 
CAMERON, A. E. 1912. The morphology and biology of a 

Canadian cattle-infesting Black Fly, Simulium simile Mall. 

(Diptera, Simuliidae) Dom. of Canada, Dept. of Agric., 

Bull. No. 5, New Series. 
COMSTOCK, J. H. 1925. Introduction to Entomology. 1044 

pp., 1228 figs. Ithaca, N. Y. 
EMERY, W. T. 1913. Morphology and biology of Simulium 

vittatum and its distribution is Kansas. Kan. Univ. Sci. Bull., 

8:321-362. 
CARMAN, H. 1912. A Preliminary study of Kentucky localities 

in which pellagra is prevalent. Kv. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 

159. 
HUNGERFORD, H. S. 1913. Anatomy of Simulium vittatum. 

Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 8, No. 10: 365-382. 
HUNTER, S. T. 1914. University experiments with Sandllies 
' and pellagra. Kan. Univ. Sci. Bull., 8: 311-320. 
JOHANNSEN, O. A. 1903. Aquatic Nematocerous Diptera. 

New York State Mus. Hull.. 68: 328-441. 
MALLOCII, J. R. 1914. American Hlack Flies or Buffalo 



246 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

Gnats. U. S. Dept. Agric., Bureau of Ent., Technical Series, 

No. 26. 
METCALF, C. L., and SANDERSON, W. E. 1931. Black Flies, 

Mosquitos and Punkies of the Adirondacks, New York State 

Museum, Circular 5. 
NEEDHAM, J. O. 1901. Aquatic insects of the Adirondacks. 

New York State Mus. Bull., 47: 407-408. 
O'KANE, W. C. 1926. Black Flies in New Hampshire. New 

Hampshire Agric. Exp. Sta., Technical Bull. 32. 
POMEROY, A. W. P. 1916. Notes on five North American 

Buffalo Gnats of the genus Simulium. U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Bull. 329. 

RILEY, C. V. 1886. Buffalo Gnats. U. S. Dept. Agric., Re- 
port for 1885: 492-517. 
Wu, Yi F. 1930. A contribution to the biology of Simulium 

(Diptera). Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, 

Arts, and Letters. 13: 543-599. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Siuiuli inn Undescribed Species No. 2. 1. Right mandible of 
larva, ventral view. 2. Right maxilla of larva, ventral view. 
3. Rectal gills and caudal disc of larva. 4. Respiratory fila- 
ments of pupa. 5. Labium of larva, ventral view. 6. Antenna 
of larva. (Original.) 

Bibliographia Odonatologica. 

Fritz Wagner, Vienna XVIII, Haizingergasse 4, has an- 
nounced the intention to publish a "Bibliographia Odonato- 
logica", a list of titles of papers upon dragonflies of the world, 
with a subject index compiled by Dr. Erich Schmidt, Berlin. 
The latter began this work eighteen years ago and has en- 
deavored to make his list as complete as possible. He had the 
assistance of the late Dr. Ris, of Rheinau, Dr. Zerny, of Vienna, 
and of several other authors. As far as possible, he has com- 
pared each reference with the original paper itself to insure the 
highest accuracy. 

The work will consist of a list of the papers arranged under 
authors alphabetically and chronologically under each author. 
This list will be followed by a subject index nearly after the 
prototype of Hagen in his famous "Bibliotheca Entomologica". 
It is intended to give short biographical notices for most 
authors. Photographs of some of them will be reproduced. 
The price will be 30 cents for each 16 pages in 8vo. The work 
will be printed only if a sufficient number of subscribers be 
secured. It will appear as a serial in 3-4 numbers, a total of 
about 250-400 pages in 8vo. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 247 

Noctuidae of Northern Georgia and Tennessee 

(Lepidoptera). 

By A. GLENN RICHARDS, JR. 

Entomology Dept., Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

Since so little work on moths has been done in this region 
it seems worth while to publish the following list of species 
largely collected by myself in northern Georgia and Tennessee. 
The most notable features are the total, or almost total, absence 
of many of the common northern pests belonging to this group, 
and the more or less expected inroads of southern forms. 

A paper on the butterflies of this region is now in press 
(Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc.), but unfortunately it is impossible 
to treat the moths in a similar manner at the present. And so 
I have given here only a brief account of my favorite group, 
the Noctuidae, plus about a dozen other scattered records of 
more than usual interest. The Geometers, Pyralids, and Micros 
have been placed in the Cornell collection, and these records 
will not be published now, but anyone especially interested in 
data on these groups may obtain them from the author. 

The two localities where most of the collecting was done are 
Athens, Georgia and Monteagle, Tennessee. The former is in 
the center of the Piedmont area of the northeastern part of 
the state at an elevation of 800 ft. ; the latter is about half 
way between Chattanooga and Nashville on the Cumberland 
Plateau at an elevation of 2000 ft. For detailed descriptions 
of both of these the reader is referred to the paper on butterfly 
distribution. 

To save space thruout the body of the article, no locality 
is mentioned when the records are from Athens (where the 
collecting has been carried on longer). When records are from 
both Athens and Monteagle, the former are placed first fol- 
lowed by a semicolon, and then the Monteagle records follow 
after "Monteagle". 

A f preceding a name indicates that the dates noted represent 
all the specimens taken. As a glance at the first one will show, 
this does not necessarily mean that only a single specimen was 
taken, although this is usually the case. A * preceding a name 



248 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

indicates that these records are thought to extend more or less 
the known distribution of the species. However,, the region 
has been so little written about that in some instances this may 
very well not be so, but in the absence of state lists, etc., per- 
haps the author may be pardoned if he has erred in some cases. 

The determinations have been made by comparison with the 
Cornell Collection supplemented by the literature. The author 
is greatly indebted to Dr. W. T. M. Forbes for help throughout, 
especially on the doubtful species. 

All the doubtfully determined specimens have been placed in 
the U. S. National Museum, as also have all possible new species 
and certain others. The author's thanks are due to Mr. Carl 
Heinrich also for checking the specimens sent to the U. S. N. M. 
& Barnes Collections, and sending notes thereon. 

NOCTUIDAE. 
SUBFAMILY AGROTINAE. 

fHELioxHis PARADOXA Grt. $ Aug. "27 2 5-X-28; $ 

Monteagle 25-VI-30. 

H. OBSOLETA Fabr. Everywhere June-late Sept. 
H. VIRESCENS Fabr. April-July. 
*fRHODOPHORA FLORIDA Gn. Monteagle 12-VII-30. 

LYGRANTHOECIA THOREAUI G. & R. 9-IX-27 ; Monteagle 

20-VIII-30. 

L. MARGINATA Haw. Aug. Sept., common. 
SCHINIA TRIFASCIA Hbn. 18-VI 11-29 (2) ; Catoosa Co., Ga. 

common in Aug. '28; Monteagle Aug. -Sept. 
S. NUNDINA Dm. 10-VIII-29, only specimen; Monteagle 

not uncommon in Aug. 

S. LYNX Gn. July-Sept. ; Monteagle in June. 
S. SORDIDA Sm. Common Aug. -Sept. ; quite variable. 
S. ARCIGERA Gn. Aug. -Oct. ; Monteagle Aug. & Sept. 
fEuxoA VELLERIPENNIS Grt. Monteagle 26-X-30. 

E. MESSORIA Harris. 7-X-26; Monteagle in Sept. 

*fE. REDIMICULA Morr. ? (det. : W. T. M. F.). 9 Monteagle 

12-VIII-30 (now in U. S. N. M.). 
fFELTiA GLADIARIA Morr. Monteagle 26-X-30. 

F. DUCENS Wlk. 6-X-26. 

F. SUBGOTHICA Haw. Sept. -Oct., not common. 
F. HERILIS Grt. Common Sept. -Oct. 

F. ANNEXA Treit. Common April-Sept.; Monteagle common 
June-Sept. 



xlH, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 249 

fF. MALEFIDA Gil. 29-IX-27. 

f AGROTIS BADINODIS Grt. 5-XI-29. 

A. YPSILON Rott. Athens & Monteagle common. 

A. C-NIGRUM L. 26-1 V-29, only record ; Monteagle common. 

A. PLECTA L. April-Sept. 

EPIPSILIA FUNGORUM G. & R. Uncommon in Oct. 

LYCOPHOTIA MARGARITOSA Haw. & forms. Common. 

L. INFECTA Ochs. (=INCIVIS Gn.). Aug.-Sept. ; Monteagle 

same. 
fL. LUBRICANS Gn. Monteagle 20-1 V-30 & l-IX-29 (2). 

SUBFAMILY HADENINAE. 

POLIA LEGITIMA Grt. Sept. ; Monteagle Aug. 
*POLIA near LEGITIMA Grt. $ Monteagle 31-VIII-29. It is 
larger and darker and more uniformly colored than typical 
LEGITIMA, with little or no difference in the $ genitalia. 
Mr. Heinrich thinks it is a new species, but Dr. Forbes 
and I are of the opinion that it is only an extreme variant 
of Icgitima (now in U. S. N. M.). 

P. RENIGERA Steph. May-June. 

P. LAUDABILIS Gn. Sept.-Oct. very common ; a semimelanic 

specimen 1 l-IX-29. 

*fTRiCHOCLEA RUISA Forbes (det. W. T. M. F.) Greenville, 
S. C. 13-IX-30 (H. K. Townes Jr.). This $ is the only 
specimen other than the type known, and was taken only 
about 30 miles from the type locality (Tryon, N. C. 
10-VIII-04) (now in Cornell Coll.). 

CHABUATA SIGNATA Wlk. Monteagle Aug.-Sept. 
*fHYSsiA MODESTA Morr. 9 18-IV-27. 

ERIOPYGA CRENUATA Butl. April-Aug., rather common. 

*fNEPHELODES EMMEDONIA Cram. ( = MINIANS Gn.). 9 

5-V-29. 

fMoRRisoNiA CONFUSA Hbn. Large 9 3-IV-29. 
CIRPHIS PSEUDARGYRIA Gn. 12-VIII-28; Monteagle May & 

Aug. 

C. MULTILINEA Wlk. 23-VI-29, 4-VIII-28. 
fC. PHRAGMATIDICOLA Gn. Monteagle 6-VI-30. 
C. UNIPUNCTA Haw. Universally common. 

*fNELEUCANIA RUBRIPENNIS G. & R. Monteagle l-IX-30, 

2-IX-29. 

N. ALBILINEA DIFFUSA Wlk. 30- VI 1 1-28. 

SUBFAMILY CUCULLIINAE. 

CUCULLIA ASTEROIDES Gn. 7-IV-29, July rare. 
*fC. CONVEXIPENNIS G. & R. Monteagle' 3-IX-30. 



250 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

fHoMOHADENA INFIXA Wlk. Queer specimen Monteagle 

25-VI-30. 
*PARASTICHTIS BICOLORAGO Gn. 23-X-26. 

P. B. VAR. FERRUGINEOIDES Gil. 18-X-28. 
fAxETHMIA PA M PIN A Gil. $ 20-X-2S. 

SUBFAMILY ACRONYCTINAE. 

*AMPHIPYRA PYRAMIDOIDES Gn. 9-VIII-28; Monteagle July. 
fMAGUSA ORBIFERA Wlk. Monteagle 27-VII-30. 

*fDlPTERYGIA SCABRIUSCULA L. 28-VIII-26. 

fSEPTis NIGRIOR Sm. Clarke Co., no date. 
TRACHEA MISELIOIDES Gn. Athens & Monteagle April, July 

& Sept., rather common. 

PERIGEA APAMEOIDES Gn. Common Aug. -Oct. 
P. XANTHIOIDES Gn. 25-VIII-26. 
P. CUPENTIA Cram. Aug. -Oct., not common ; Monteagle 

26-X-30. 

P. VECORS Gn. April-May. 
P. SUTOR Gn. May-Oct. ; Monteagle 4-IX-29. 
*fOLiGiA MISERA CRT.? (W. T. M. F.). $ Monteagle 6-VII- 
30. Mr. Heinrich says this specimen is "a darker form 
of zntlgivaga Morr." (now in U. S. N. M.). 
*fO. DIVERSICOLOR Morr. 22-IX-28. 

*fO. SEMICANA Wlk. (= hausta Grt.) (det.: W. T. M. F.) 
Monteagle 14-VI-30 (now in U. S: N. M.). 

O. FRACTILINEA f. VULGIVAGA MoiT. Monteagle 1-2-IX-29. 

*fOLiciA n. sp. ? $ l-VI-29. Nothing like this in the Cornell, 
U. S. N. M. nor Barnes collections (now in U. S. N. M.). 
upERiNA PASSER Gn. Monteagle 2S-VIII-30. 

fCHYTONIX PALLIATRICULA IASPIS Gil. 12-VIII-28. 
J-HARRISIMEMNA TRISIGNATA W'lk. Monteagle 20-VIII-30. 

POLYGRAMMATE HEBRAEicuM Hhn. July-Aug., rare; Mon- 
teagle June-July, not uncommon. 

LEUCONYCTA DIPHTEROIDES f. OBLITERATA Grt. Monteagle 
uncommon in July. 

AGRIOPODES TERATOPHORA H. S. Monteagle June-Sept., un- 
common. 

ACRONYCTA CONNECTA Grt. July-Sept. 

A. HAESITATA Grt. 5-1 V-29 ; Monteagle 13-VII-30. 

A. PRLINI Harr. 9-VII-26. 

A. INCRETA Morr. Athens & Monteagle rather common 
April-Sept. 

A. RETARDATA Wlk. 9- VI 11-29. 

A. LAETIFICA Sm. 4- VI 1 1-28 (now in U. S. N. M.). 
fA. HASTA Gn. ?. $ 24-VII-28. Called "furcifera Gn." by 

Mr. Heinrich (now in U. S. N. M.). 
fA. BETULAE Riley. 23- VI 1-28. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 251 

A. AMERICANA Harris. l-YIII-29. 
fA. LONGA Gn. 15-V-29. 
fA. LITHOSPILA Grt. 31-V-29. 
fA. OBLINITA A. & S. Monteagle 29-VI-30. 

DELTA RAMOSULA Gn. Monteagle 4-IX-29 (several). 

CATABENA LINEOLATA Wlk. Monteagle June & Aug. 

PRODENIA DOLICHOS Fabr. ( : - COMMELINAE A. & S.) Aug. 
Oct., uncommon. 

P. ORNITHOGALLI Gn. Common Aug.-Sept.; Monteagle 
June-Sept. 

P. ERIDANIA Cram. June-Oct., rare. 

LAPHYGMA FRUGIPERDA A. S. Athens & Monteagle Aug.- 
Oct., common. 

CARADRINA TARDA Gn. Monteagle April, July-Sept., com- 
mon. 

GALGULA PARTITA Gn. Common May-Oct. ; Monteagle June- 
Sept. 

CRAMBODES TALIDIFORMIS Gn. Monteagle June-Sept., not 
common. 

PLATYSENTA VIDENS Gn. June-Sept. 

BALSA MALANA Fitch. April-Sept.; Monteagle April-June. 
*MONODES NUCTCOLORA Gn. Sept. -Oct., not common. 

M. VERSICOLOR Grt. April-Aug., not common. 

M. CHALCEDONIA Hbn. July-Aug., rather common. 

M. FESTIVOIDES Gn. Aug.-Sept., not uncommon ; Monteagle 
common April-Sept. 

M. GRATA Hbn. July-Sept., common; Monteagle June-Aug., 
not uncommon. 

APAMEA NICTITANS AMERICANA Speyer. Monteagle 16-VI- 
30; on Andrew's Bald in the Smoky Mts. at 5/50 ft., com- 
mon in late Aug. 

ACHATODES ZEAE Harris. 31-V-29; Monteagle common in 

June. 
*fPYRRHiA UMBRA Hufn. 27-V-29 ; Monteagle 24-VIII-30. 

PAPAIPEMA NEBRIS Gn. Uncommon in Sept. 

P. N. f. NITELA Gn. Sept.; Monteagle in Aug. 

OGDOCONTA CINEREOLA Gn. Common June & July; Mon- 
teagle 4- VI -30. 

*EMARGINEA PERCARA Morr. 8-IX-29; Monteagle uncommon 
mid-Aug.-Sept. 

COSMIA ORINA Gn. Athens, one no date; Monteagle very 
common in June and early July. 

ES PEPITA Gn. 2-IX-27 ; Monteagle 4-IX-29. 

OBTUSA H. S. 30-VI-28 and one other no date; 
Monteagle ll-VI-30. 

fEuTHiSANOTiA GRATA Fabr. 31-VII-28. 

fE. UNIO Hbn. Monteagle ll-VI-30. 



252 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

SUBFAMILY ERASTRIINAE. 

fCvDosiA MAJUSCULA Hy. Edw. Monteagle 20-VII-30. 
*fEuBLEMMA OBLIQUALIS Fabr. 10-IX-29. 
*E. MINIMA Gn. Greenville, S. C., a number breed from 
GnaphaMum by Air. H. K. Townes, Jr., emerging in Sept. 
fORUZA ALBOCOSTALIATA Pack. (In B. & McD. list as a 
"Pleonectyptera"} 9 & ll-VIII-29. 

*fQ)BUBATHA QUADRIFERA Zcll. Montcagle 21-VI-30. 

AMYNA BULLULA Grt. Sept. -Oct., not common. 

A. OCTO Gn. Aug.-Sept., common ; Monteagle one $ 26- 

VIII-30. 
CHAMYRIS CERINTHA Treit. July & Aug., rare; Monteagle 

27-V-30. 

fLlTHACODIA SYNOCHITIS G. & R. 6-VI-26. 

L. MUSTA G. & R. July-Sept., uncommon ; Monteagle com- 
mon in June. 

L. CARNEOLA Gn. Sept. -Oct., common. 

L. APICOSA Haw. July & Sept., uncommon; Monteagle 
April-Sept., not uncommon. 

L. MUSCOSULA Gn. 8-VI-28. 

PROTOCRYPHIA SECTA Grt. 24-VI-29, rare; Monteagle com- 
mon in June. 

CRYPHIA PERVERTENS B. & McD. 1 & 6-VIII-29; Monteagle 
common May-July. 

XANTHOPTERA NIGROFIMBRIA Gn. Common May-Sept. ; 
Monteagle 14- VI 1 1 -30. 

HELIOCONTIA APICELLA Grt. Common June & July. 

SPRAGUEIA LEO Gn. (given as "ouagrns Gn." in Holland's 
Moth Book). Common in Aug. & Sept.; Monteagle 
14-VIII-30. 

S. DAMA Gn. Common June-Sept. ; Monteagle July-Sept. 

TARACHIDIA ERASTRIOIDES Gn. [une, uncommon; Mont- 
eagle 9-VI-30. 

T. CANDEFACTA Hbn. Common in June ; Monteagle same. 

T. SEMIFLAVA Gn. Monteagle June & Aug., uncommon. 

TARACHE APRICA Hbn. July-Sept.; Monteagle 27-VIII-30. 

SUBFAMILY EUTELIINAE. 

MARATHYSSA INFICITA Wlk. 27-VII-28 & 10-IX-28; Mont- 
eagle June-Aug. 

PAECTES OCULATRIX Gn. Rare in June & Aug. 

P. FLABELLA Grt. (= : PYGMAEA Hbn. ?). Monteagle June 
& Aug., rather common. 

P. ABROSTOLOIDES Gn. Mid-May-Sept., rather common. 

(To be continued) 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 253 

The Generic Synonymy of the North American 
Pieridae (Lepidoptera). 

By ALEXANDER B. KLOTS, University of Rochester, 
Rochester, New York. 

The writer has recently completed a study of the genera of 
Pieridae of the world which, it is hoped, will eventually find 
its way into print. In the meantime it has seemed advisahle to 
publish the present notes on the North American Pierid genera 
in a periodical in which they will lie available to a greater num- 
ber of North American Lepidopterists than will be the above- 
mentioned work. 

A number of changes have been made from both Barnes and 
McDunnough's Check List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal Amer- 
ica and Barnes and Benjamin's List of the Diurnal Lepidoptera 
of Boreal America north of Mexico. Some of these are due 
to a more intensive study of the taxonomic characters of the 
insects themselves ; others have been made because of a some- 
what wider acquaintance with the Pieridae of the world. At 
least an outline of the present writer's reasons for such changes 
has been given here. The order of the genera has been shifted 
considrably, those which are considered more primitive having 
been placed first. The Rhodocerini as a group average slightly 
more primitive than the Pierini, although many of the Rhodo- 
cerine genera are far more highly specialized than many of 
those of the Pierini. 

Free use has been made of subgenera, as an excellent means 
of showing relationships. For those who object to the sub- 
genus it may be pointed out that this category can always easily 
be dropped out of an individual's pet system. 

In stating the genotypes, the method and date of fixation of 
the type has been stated. In this "sole sp." means that the 
type was the sole species included by the author of the genus 
in his original proposal (type of monotypical genus) ; "des. in 
O. I)." means that the type was designated by the author in his 
original description of tin- genus (type by original designa- 
tion) ; "des. Butler 1870" would mean that the type \vas 
designated by Butler in 1870 (type by subsequent designation). 



254 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

PlERIDAE. 

There is nothing in the Code governing the method of desig- 
nating family names. In the present case the application of a 
strict rule of priority to enforce the use of the term "Asciidac" 
merely sinks an ancient and familiar name to one that nobody 
has ever heard of, and that most people do not wish to hear of 
again. 

Subfamily DISMORPHIINAE. 

Genus DISMORPHIA Huebner, type laia Huebner, des. Butler 

1870 

Subgenus ENANTIA Huebner, type licinia Huebner, des. 
Scudder 1875. M elite L., the sole North American Dis- 
morphiine, is without doubt congeneric with licinia 

Subfamily FIERI NAE. 

Tribe EUCHLOINI. 
Genus EUCHLOE Huebner, type belia Esper, des. Butler 1870 

All of the North American species belong in the nymotypical 
subgenus, Euchloc (Elphinstonia) Klots, type charlonia Donzel 
having been erected for some Palearctic species. Olympia Edw. 
belongs in Euchloc. It bears a merely superficial resemblance 
to the species of Zcgris Rambur, type citphcnie Esper. 

Genus ANTHOCHARIS Boisduval, type cardatnincs L. des Scud- 
der 1875 

Subgenus FALCAPICA Klots, type gcnutia Fabricius, des. in 
O. D. 

Gcnutia cannot serve as type of Anthocharis, inasmuch as it 
was not included in the original list of species. 

According to the Code the above use of Anthocharis is wrong. 
With the formal invalidation of Huebner's Tantamen, M.anci- 
pium Huebner becomes invalid, and Mancipium Stephens ceases 
to be a homonym. This would result in the necessity of having 
to place Anthocharis Boisduval (1832) as a synonym of Man- 
cipium Stephens (1828). While the present author does not 
believe very strongly in the sanctity of usage he does feel that 
too much confusion would be caused by this change, and there- 
for retains Anthocharis. Of the North American species lan- 
ccolata and genutia go in Falcapiai, while cctJiura, pinia and 
sara belong in Anthocharis proper. 



xlii, '31 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 255 

Tribe RHODOCERINI. 
Genus COLIAS Fabricius, type h\alc L., des. Leach 1815 

Subgenus ZERENE Huebner, type caesonia Stoll, des. Scudder 
1872 

Again the writer transgresses the Code for the sake of sim- 
plicity. The type of Colias was designated by Latreille in 1810 
as rhamni L., and this designation has been validated by Opinion 
1 1 of the International Commission of Zoological Nomencla- 
ture. If this designation were followed we should have to use 
Colias instead of Goucptery.r /or a genus of Palearctic butter- 
flies, and Zcrcnc (Scalidoncnra) Butler 1871, (type hcrmima 
Butler des. in O. D.) for Colias Leach ct auct. Eurymus Swain- 
son is, as has been pointed out by Holland, a homonym of 
Eurymus Rafinesque 1815. 

Most of the North American species belong in C. (Colias) ; 
caesonia and curydicc only go in C. (Zcrcnc). The most strik- 
ing difference between the two subgenera is the wing-form, 
which is hardly a generic character. 

Genus ANTEOS Huebner, type inacrula Fabricius, des. Godman 
& Salvin 1889 

Clorinde Godart, the sole North American species, belongs 
in the nymotypical subgenus. 

Genus PHOEBIS Huebner, type organic Fabricius, des. Butler 
1870 
Subgenus APIIRISSA Butler, type statira Cramer, des. in O. D. 

All of the North American species except statira belong in 
the nymotypical subgenus. 

Genus KRICOGONIA Reakirt, type lysidc Godart, sole sp. 
Genus EUREMA Huebner, type daira Godart, des. Butler 1870 
Subgenus ABAEIS Huebner, type nicippc Cramer, des. Butler 

1870 

Subgenus PYRISITIA Butler, type protcrpia Fabricius, des. 
and sole sp. in O. D. 

Nicippe is the sole species in E. (.Unicis}. Protcrpia, tjund- 
lachia Poey and probably Undo Fdw. (a subsp. of nisc Cramer) 
belong in E. (Pyrisitia). The rest of the species go in E. 
(Eitrcmo). The subgeneric separations are based largely on 
the sex-scaling and male genitalia. 



256 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

Genus NATHALIS Boiscluval, type iole Boisduval sole sp. 

Possessing but three radials in the primary, and weird geni- 
talia, Nathalie is the most highly specialized Rhodocerine genus. 

Genus NEOPHASIA Behr, type menapia Felder sole sp. 
Genus APPIAS Huebner, type zehnira Cramer, des. Butler 1870 
Subgenus GLUTOPHRISSA Butler, type ilairc Godart, des. in 
O. D. (as poeyi Butler). 

Ilairc, the sole North American species, is at least sub-generi- 
cally distinct from zchnira. 

Genus PIERIS Schrank, type brassicac L. des. Latreille 1810 
Subgenus SYNCHLOE Huebner, type callidice Esper, des. But- 
ler 1870 

The North American species beckerii Edwards, sisymbrii 
Boisduval, occidcntalis Reakirt, protodicc Boisduval & Leconte, 
tiapi L., virginiensis Edwards, ochscnhchn-cri Staudinger (is 
this a valid species?) and rapac L. all belong in P. (Synchloc). 
P. (Pontia) is restricted to the Palearctic daplidice and its 
related species chloridicc with only three radials in the primary. 
Brassicac is the sole species in P. (Picris}. 

Genus ASCIA Scopoli, type monustc L., des. Scudder 1872. 
Subgenus GANYRA Dalman, type amaryllis Fabricius. des. 
Scudder 1875. 

Monuste is the sole species in A. (Ascia). Amaryllis is the 
only North American representative of A. (Ganyra), of which 
other species are found further south. The subgeneric char- 
acters are mainly differences in size, sex-scaling and genitalia. 



An Improvised Spreading Board for Small Moths. 

The following suggestion for a spreading board for small 
moths, or other small insects which one wishes to spread, may 
not be a new thing to some entomologists, but when the writer 
recently conceived the idea for spreading a few Microlepi- 
doptera he felt that it might be worth passing on to others. 
It may be especially valuable in cases where large numbers of 
moths are to be pinned, or where one does not have the mate- 
rial and equipment to make the usual spreading boards. The 
spreading board used was made from a piece of fairly soft 
corrugated cardboard covered on one side only. A piece of 
common corrugated boxing would undoubtedly serve the pur- 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 257 

pose but might be rather tough to pin through readily, thus 
making the spreading of the wings more difficult. A strip of 
the covering cardboard sheet is cut out between two corruga- 
tions, forming a trough in which to place the body of the 
insect. This leaves a good smooth surface on which to spread 
the wings and also holds the two portions together. This piece 
of cardboard may then be made into a spreading board by 
placing it on any kind of material that is easily pinned through, 
to allow for running the insect pin down to the desired depth. 
Some ordinary pinning pith which happened to be available 
was used in the case just mentioned. 

Such a spreading board will accommodate insects with a 
body as large or slightly larger than ordinary cutworm moths 
and might prove satisfactory for many of the smaller butterflies. 
RAYMOND ROBERTS, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 



Parnassius in the Black Hills, South Dakota (Lepid. : 

Papilionidae). 

Prospecting over the Black Hills, South Dakota in July, 
1928, I found to my great surprise Parnassius flying there on 
some isolated fields. The first specimens I found at an altitude 
of about only four thousand feet, near Spearfish, which greatly 
aroused my interest. Going up on the higher altitude, I ex- 
pected to find these Alpine butterflies in greater numbers so 
going up to Harney Peak, which rises to about seven thousand 
feet, and covering as much territory as possible, I did not find 
a single specimen flying and I did not either find the food plant 
of the larvae, Scdutn-. Going down to the altitude of about 
five thousand feet, where the Scditui was growing profusely, 
I again found Paniassius flying sometimes in great numbers. 

Up to that date I did not know that east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains these Parnassii appeared and even in "Seitz" of the 
Macro-lepidoptera world, it is stated that while Parnassius ap- 
pears from Alaska down to Mexico, they are not found east of 
the Rocky Mountains. The specimens found in the Black Hills 
have been determined by Professor John A. Comstock of the 
Los Angeles Museum as being Paniassius sinintliciis niac/ints 
Wright and Paniassius sinintlicus iiaiius, varying greatly in 
size and colors. EMIL KRAUTII, Hebron, North Dakota. 



Bookseller's Separates. 

When an author writes an article for an entomological jour- 
nal, he usually receives free, upon request, from that journal 
a quantity of author's separates, or what are variously termed, 
excerpts, extras, reprints, etc. These separates are generally 
sent out bv the author to friends and fellow workers who mav 



258 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

or may not have seen the article, but who like to have inscribed 
copies for personal use. Such separates generally carry an 
extra line or two of printing by the publication stating that 
they are separates and also give date of number, volume, page, 
etc. By this means of the special printing and other charac- 
teristics, one is reasonably certain of recognizing a genuine 
author's separate. 

Of late years there has been an increasing tendency on the 
part of some booksellers to take any entomological journal and 
cut it up into as many unit articles as possible, selling these 
individually to interested parties. Such cut-out articles are not 
genuine separates. They may serve a restricted clientele, but 
they are not author's copies and to sell them with an inference 
as such is misleading. Of course booksellers make a greater 
profit by disposing of odd back numbers in this way. I don't 
know that any special harm is done, but perhaps this is one 
of the reasons why it is so hard to complete sets of certain 
journals. The above is written simply to call attention to the 
difference between "author's separates" and "bookseller's sep- 
arates". J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 



Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets f ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord. Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

']}Jf Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Balfour-Browne, F. A plea for uniform- 
ity in the method of recording insect captures. [8] 67: 183- 
192. Crampton, G. C. A criticism of the current theories 
concerning the origin of metamorphosis in insects with 
suggestions for a theory based on mutation. [9] 64: 154-158. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 259 

Fulda, O. Sammeln in Haiti. [17] 48: 169-170, 176-179. 
Fulton & Chamberlin. A new automatic insect trap for 
the study of insect dispersion and flight associations. [ 12] 
24: 757-761, ill. Melnikov, P. Wie soli der falter in der 
Tiite liegen? [18] 25: 137-140, ill. Muir, F. A. G. Obitu- 
aries. By J. J. Walker and W. K. China. [8] 67: 160-162. 
[9] 64: 166-168. Nicholson, A. J. Methods of photograph- 
ing living insects. [22] 22: 307-320, ill. Poulton, E. B.- 
A hundred years of evolution. [68J 74: 345-360. Poulton, 
E. B. Two specially significant examples of insect mimic- 
ry. [36] 79: 395-398, ill. Smith, F. F. A new type of 
insect cage. [12] 24: 914-916, ill. Wasmann, P. E. Obitu- 
ary. By F. Heikertinger. [79] 17: 89-96. ill. Wucherpfen- 
nig, F. Entomologische Amazonas-fahrt. [17] 48: 153-156, 
ill., cont. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Beer, S. Ri- 

cerche sull' applicazione dei raggi X alia ginecrinatura dei 
Bombyx mori. [Bol. Zool. Agr. e Bach., Milano] 
2: 207-241, ill. Bugini, F. La partenogenesi naturale di- 
mostrata nel filugello. [Bol. Zool. Agr. e Bach., Milano] 
2: 116-149, ill. Buxton, P. A. The law governing the loss 
of water from an insect. [Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 6: 27-31. 
Cockayne, E. A. Three rare abnormalities in lepidopterous 
larvae homoeosis, somatic mutation, spiral segmentation. 
[36] 79: 305-309. ill. Dover, C Effects of inadequate feed- 
ing on insect metamorphosis. [31] 128: 303-304. Gargiulo, 
F. Studi e ricerche sul giallume del Baco da seta. [Bol. 
Zool. Agr. e Bach., Milano] 2: 72-115, ill. Grandori, R.- 
Studi sulla nascita della larve del Bombyx mori. [Bol. Zool. 
Ag. e Bach., Milano] 2: 22-45, ill. Hawkins, C. N. Nu- 
merical variation in the ecdyses of lepidopterous larvae. 
[Pro. So. Lond. Ent. & Nat. Hist. Soc.] 1931-32: 21-29. 
Hsu, Y. Morphology, anatomy and ethology of Gryllus 
mitratus. [ Lingnar Sci. Jour.] 10: 187-216, ill. Huges, 
A. W. McK. Inheritance of melanism in moths. [31] 128: 
496. Imms, A. D. Recent research on the wing-venation 
of insects. |8] 67: 145-148, ill. Misra, A. B. On the in- 
ternal anatomy of the female lac insect, Laccifer lacca ( Coc- 
cidae). [93 1 1931 : 297-323. ill. Muir, F. The critical point 
of parasitism and the law of Malthus. |22| 22: 249-251. 
Pickles, A. On the metamorphosis of the alimentary canal 
in certain Ephemeroptera. |36| 79: 263-274. ill. Ruble, H. 
-Die riechporen der Lepidopteren. | 18] 25: 182-187, ill. 
Sicard, H. Note preliminaire Mir la biologic et la morphol- 
ogic larvaires de Degecria luctuosa ifunebris) Tachinairr 



260 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

parasite de 1'altise de la vigne. [25] 1931: 158-162, ill. Sulc, 
K. Die wachsdriisen und ihre produkte bei den imagen 
der sf. Cixiinae. Die wachsdriisen und ihre produkte bei 
den larven von Flata (Phromnia) marginalia d'Olivier. 
[Biol. Spisy Acad. Vet., Brno] 8: 1-53, 1-23, ill. Timo- 
feeff-Ressovsky, H. Ueber phanotypische manifestierung 
der polytopen (pleiotropen) genovariation polyphaen von 
Drosophila funebris. [88] 19: 765-768, ill. Warren, E.- 
The spermatogenesis of ticks. [31] 128: 454-455. Wiggles- 
worth. How are the tracheae of insects kept full of air? 
[Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 6: 11-12. Zimmermann, K. 
Wirkung von selektion und temperatur auf die pigmentier- 
ung von Epilachna chrysomelina. [88] 19: 768-771, ill. 

^ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Chamberlin, J. 

C. The arachnid order Chelonethida. [Stanford Univ. 
Pub., Biol. Sci.] 7: 284pp., ill. *Jacot, A. P. A common 
arboreal moss mite Humerobates humeralis. [Occas. Pap. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.] 5: 369-381, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Boelsche, 

W. Der Termitenstaat schilderung eines geheimnisvollen 
volkes. Stuttgart 1931. 79 pp., ill. *Geijskes, D. C. Anew 
species of Oligoclada from Trinidad, B. W. I. [58] 8: 213- 
214. *Jordan, K. Three new South American fleas. [71] 
36: 311-316, ill. *Longinos Navas, R. P. Veinticinco 
formas nuevas de insectos. [Bol. Soc. Iberica Cien. Nat.] 
26: 48-75, ill. (S). *McDunnough, J. The genus Isonychia 
(Ephemeroptera). [4] 63: 157-163, ill. Mosely, M/E.- 
Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera of British Guiana, with 
special reference to the Oxford University Expedition to 
British Guiana, 1929. [9] 64: 169-170. Moulton, D. Den- 
drothrips ornatus, 1894. [19] 26: 75. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Moreira, C. Ueber einige Dermap- 
tera von Sudamerika aus der sammlung des Deutschen 
Entomologischen Instituts Dahlem. [56] 10: 167-170, ill. 
*Willemse, C. A new species of Aucacris from Chile. 
(Cyrtacanthacr.). [Mitt. Deut. Ent. Gesell.] 2: 22-24, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. del Guercio, G. La Vespina che libera 
il pomario dalla Schizoneora del Melo e del Pero e salva 
diecine di millioni all'economia nazionale. (Aphelinus mali). 
[Redia] 19: 253-513, ill. *Dozier, H. L. A new giant wax 
scale from Haiti. [40] 495: 2pp., ill. *Hottes & Frison.- 
The plant lice, or Aphiidae, of Illinois. [Bull. Illinois Div. 
Nat. Hist. Surv.] 19: 121-447, ill. *Jensen-Haarup, A. C.- 



xlii, '31 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 2')1 

New or little known Hemiptera Heteroptera I. (S). [11] 
1930: 215-222, ill. Lundblad, O. Ueber die Corixiden des 
zoologischen Museums in Halle, nebst einer uebersicht der 
gattung Trichocorixa. [34] 96: 85-95, ill. *Schmidt, E.- 
Zur kenntnis der familie Pyrrhocoridae (Heteroptera). (S). 
[60] 92: 1-51. Wigglesworth. A curious effect of desic- 
cation on the bed-bug (Cimex lectularius). [Pro. Ent. Soc. 
London] 6: 25-26. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bryk, F. Lepidopterorum Catalog- 
us. Pars 45. Pericopinae. 57 pp. *Cadbury, J. W. A new 
form of Sphinx gordius (Sphingidae). [1| 57: 319-320, ill. 
Culot & F. D. Fixation des papillons sur papier. [Lam- 
billionea] 31: 119-123. Dixey, F. A. Development of 
wings in lepidoptera. [36] 79: 365-393, ill. Gaede, M.- 
Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars '46. Satyridae. 321-544. 
*Gehlen, B. Neues iiber Sphingiden.. (S). [14] 45: 119- 
121. Hay ward, K. J. Contributions to the lepidopterology 
of the Argentine. 8pp. [21] 43, No. 7, Suppl. Jones, F. M. 
-The gregarious sleeping habits of Heliconius charithonia. 
[Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 6: 4-10. *McDunnough, J. A 
new Argyroploce species (Eucosmidae). [4] 63: 150-152, ill. 
Manson, G. F. Aphid galls as a noctuid feeding ground. 
|4j 63: 171-172. *Michael, O. Ueber einige neue tagfal- 
teraberrationen vom Amazonasgebiet. [14] 45: 152-155, ill., 
cont. *Neustetter,- H. Neue Heliconius. (S). [18] 25: 165- 
174, ill. Salt, G. The "False Head" of many Colombian 
lycaenid butterflies observed by G. Salt, also mimicry of 
Aculeate models by Colombian moths. [Pro. Ent. Soc. Lon- 
don] 6: 19-22. Wood, A. A. A new bait trap for noctuid 
moths. [4] 63: 149-150. 

DIPTERA. *Aldrich, J. M. Notes on the Tachinid 
genus Chaetonodexodes, with one new species. [75] 8: 
205-207. (S). *Alexander, C. P. New or little-known 
Tipulidae in the American Museum of Natural History. 
(S). [40] 491 : 16 pp., ill. *Bau, A. Ueber das genus Cute- 
rebra (Oestridae) ; Einteilung desselben in sechs untergal- 
tungen ; Beschreibung neuer species und aufstellung einer 
bestimmungstabelle der mittel- und siidamerikanischen 
arten. [56] 10: 197-240, ill. *Bau, A. Cuterebra ( Atrypos- 
oma) enderleini spec. nov. [Mitt. Deut. Ent. Gesell.] 2: 
20-21, ill. Collin, J. E.- -Die ausbeute der deutschen Chaco- 
Expedition 1925-26. Pipunculiclae. [56] 10: 171-176, ill. 
*Curran, C. H. Twelve new Diptera. [40] 492: 13pp., ill. 



262 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

*Curran, C. H. New American Asiliclae. [40] 487: 25pp. 
Edwards, F. W. Some suggestions on the classification of 
the genus Tipula (Tipulidae). [75] 8: 73-82. *Engel, O.- 
Die ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expedition Anthomy- 
idae, Muscidae und Sarcophagidae. [56] 10: 133-153. 
Greene & Urich. The immature stages of Pantophthalmus 
tabaninus. [36] 79: 277-282, ill. Hoffmann, C. H. Chir- 
onomid larvae associated with watersnails. [19] 26: 71-74, 
ill. Karandikar, K. R. The early stages and bionomics of 
Trichocera maculipennis (Tipulidae). [36] 79: 249-260, ill. 
Knowlton, G. F. Notes on Utah Diptera. [4] 63: 152-157. 
*Krober, O. Die Tabanus-untergattung Gymnochela. [34] 
96: 49-61, ill. (S). *Krober, O. Neue Tabaniden aus Sud- 
amerika im Stettiner Museum. [60] 92: 90-93. *Leonard, 
M. D. Two new species of Symphoromyia (Rhagionidae) 
from the eastern United States. [40] 497: 2pp. *Martini, 
E. Die ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expedition 1925-26. 
Diptera. Culicidae. [56] 10: 116-120. Puri, I. M. Larvae 
of anopheline mosquitoes, with full description of those 
of the Indian species. [Ind. Med. Res. Mem.] 21 : 227 
pp., ill. *Reinhard, H. J. The two-winged flies belonging 
to Siphosturmia and allied genera, with descriptions of two 
new species. [50] 79, Art. 11: llpp. Seguy, E. Sur les 
affinites des genres Stenoxenus et Macroptilum et descrip- 
tion d'une espece nouvelle. [Ceratopogonidae]. [25] 1931: 
208-211, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Bernhauer. Eine neue subtribus der 
Quediini. (Staphylinidae). [79] 17: 84. Bertrand, H.- 

Notice sur les larves de Dytiscides cle la collection Mein- 
ert. [102] 17: 286-305. ill. *Blake, D. H. Revision of the 
species of beetles of the genus Trirhabda north of Mexico. 
[50] 79, Art. 2: 36pp., ill. *Cameron, M. Description of 
a new species of Oligota (Staphylinidae) from Trinidad. 
[75] 8: 82. de Basilewsky, P. Additions et rectifications 
aux Carabidae du "Coleppterorum Catalogus". [33] 71 : 95- 
97. *Buchanan, L. L. Synopsis of Perigaster (Curculi- 
onidae). [91] 21 : 320-325, ill. Dietrich, H. Mounting Col- 
eoptera. [12] 24: 874-877. *Eggers, H. Borkenkafer 
(Ipidae) aus Sudamerika. [48] 48: 29-42. Jordan, K.- 
Anthribidae versus Platystomidae. [71] 36: 281-287. 
Kleine, R. Die biologic der Brenthidae. Eine uebersicht 
iiber die bisherigen forschungsergebnisse. [17] 48: 149-153, 
cont. Korschefsky, R. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 263 

118. Coccinellidae I. 224pp. Levtshuk, J. Contributions 
to the comparative anatomy of the g'enitalia of Elateridae. 
[Rev. Russe Ent.] 24: 135-147, ill. *Nevermann, F.-- Bei- 
trag zur kenntnis der Telephanus. (Cucujidae). [60] 92: 
102-160, ill. (S). *Pic, M. Nouveaux Coleopteres de la 
Colombie. [25] 1931: 192-194. Roubal, J. Quelques addi- 
tions a Schenkling-Junk, Coleopterorum Catalogus. [Cas- 
opis] 27: 5-6. *Schedl, K. Notes on the Pityophthorinae 
(Ipidae). Three new species. [4] 63: 163-168, ill. Stehr, 
W. C. - - The Coccinellidae of Minnesota. [Univ. Minn. 
Ag. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bui.] 75: 54 pp., ill. *Uhmann, 
E. Hispinen des Zoologischen Staarsinstitutes und Zool- 
ogischen Museums zu Hamburg^* (S). [11] 1930: 161-175, 
ill. *van Emden, F. Zur kemitnis der Sandalidae XI-XVI. 
[2] 27: 49-59, ill., cont. (S). "Zimmerman, A. Monographic 
der palaarktischen Dytisciden. II. Hydroporinae : Hydro- 
porus. [79] 17: 97-159. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Cockerell & Sumner. Rocky 
Mountain bees. III. [40] 490: 15pp., ill. *Cushman, R. A. 

Descriptions of thirteen new American and Asiatic Ich- 
neumon-flies, with taxonomic notes. [50] 79, Art. 14: 16pp. 
Grempe, M. Ameisen als feuerwehr. [17] 48: 156-159. 
Harttig, G. Beitrag zur kenntnis der gattungen Pemphre- 
don und Cemonus. [56] 10: 81-84. *Lieberman, J. Esfegi- 
dos Argentines del genero Sphex. [An. Soc. Cien. Argen- 
tina] 112: 5-26, 79-101, ill. *Myers, J. G. Descriptions and 
records of parasitic Hymenoptera from British Guiana and 
the West Indies. [22] 22: 267-277. *Muesebeck, C. F. W. 

Descriptions of a new genus and eight new species of 
Ichneumon-flies with taxonomic notes. [50] 79, Art. 16: 
16 pp. Myers, J. G. Cuban and Trinidad Eupelmidae 
(Chalcididae) observed associating with ants. | Pro. Ent. 
Soc. London] 6: 31-32. *Rodeck, H. G. Rocky Mountain 
bees. IV. [40] 496: 11 pp. *Walley, G. S. New Canadian 
species of Arenetra (Ichneumonidae). |4] 63: 168-171. 



THE FABRICIAN TYPES OF INSECTS IN THE HUNTERIAX 
COLLECTION AT GLASGOW UNIVERSITY. Coleoptera, I 'art I, by 
ROBERT A. STAIG, M.A., F.R.S.E., Lecturer in Zoology ( En- 
tomology) University of Glasgow. Cambridge: at the Uni- 
versity Press. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1931. 

This is a small volume of 107 pp. of text, an introduction 
(7 pp.) and index, and is illustrated bv twenty-eight plates. 



264 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

each showing a single enlarged colored drawing of a Fabrician 
or Olivierian type. 

The introduction contains some account of the Hunter Col- 
lection, together with a short biographical sketch of Fabricius, 
more especially of his connection with English collectors and 
collections, and is interesting reading throughout. It seems 
that Fabricius made a lengthy visit to England 1772-75, where, 
as he says in his autobiography, "I now lived very pleasantly. 
With Banks, Hunter and Drury I found plenty of objects to 
engage my time and everything which could possibly be of 
service to me. My situation was not only very delightful but 
it afforded the means of gaining much instruction." It was at 
this time, as the author of the present volume says, that "Fabri- 
cius worked through Dr. Hunter's Cabinets of Insects, he iden- 
tified and labelled the various specimens and a large number 
of them were named and described by him (in his Systema 
Entomologiae and his later works) as species new to science". 
The author goes on to say- "It has long been desired that the 
Fabrician types in the Hunterian Collection should be made 
accessible for purposes of systematic entomology, by the pub- 
lication of accurate up-to-date descriptions together with accu- 
rate figures." 

That a most capable beginning of this work has been made 
by Mr. Staig will be obvious to anyone who will examine this 
little volume attentively. The task has been complicated from 
the fact that the labels were pinned or gummed to the bottom 
of the box instead of being attached to the specimens, many 
of which through careless or irresponsible handling had become 
separated, therefrom. The author states, however, that the 
specimens in the Hunterian cabinets, although more than one 
hundred and fifty years old, are for the most part in a re- 
markably good state of preservation and that by careful com- 
parison with the descriptions and with representative modern 
examples of the species he has been able to locate with cer- 
tainty most of the misplaced types though with "considerable 
trouble and deplorable loss of time". 

In pursuance of the project as outlined we find in the body 
of the work "up-to-date" descriptions of forty-three types, 
thirty-five of which are of Fabricius' species, six of Oliver's 
and two of Drury's. The descriptions are very carefully drawn, 
designedly of course with sufficient detail to permit identifica- 
tion by systematists in the absence of the types. The actual 
accomplishment of this theoretical result is a very difficult mat- 
ter and its complete realization is all but impossible. I believe, 
however, that the author has attained an unusually high level of 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 265 

success in his characterizations. The figures have evidently 
heen made with painstaking effort to faithfully reproduce the 
form, outline, relative dimensions and broader features of sculp- 
ture. The coloring has not in all cases been so successfully 
accomplished. While it may add to the artistic effect, it some- 
times prevents or obscures details of sculpture, and in certain 
instances it is at variance with the descriptions e.g., in Scaph- 
inotus unicolor and PasinMchus depressus, which are respec- 
tively described as "concolorous, dull glossy black" and "glossy 
black," whereas the figures indicate the presence of a distinct 
violaceous lustre. 

To students of Coleoptera in general the gain from Mr. 
Staig's volume is, of course, in great part formal rather than 
actual, inasmuch as the vast majority of Fabricius' species are 
already so well known. Here in America, where there are no 
types to be consulted, our conceptions of the Fabrician species 
are traditional ; they are the crystallized and generally accepted 
results of the combined efforts of many subsequent writers, 
some of whom at least have seen and studied the original types 
or other authentic material and have written fuller descriptions 
and drawn better figures. In the main we feel that we know 
the American species of Fabricius, but there are still a few 
concerning which some doubt exists and our coleopterists will 
therefore be especially interested in the discussion of the Hun- 
terian types belonging to our fauna. Of these there are twelve, 
as follows : 

4. Cicindchi unipwnctata Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 225, No. 8 
(1775). 

6. Scaphmotns (Carabus) clcvatus Fab., Mant. Ins. I. p. 
198, No. 37 (1787). 

7. Scaphinotiis (Carabus) unicolor Fab., Mant. Ins. I, p. 
198, No. 38 (1787). 

9. PasinMchus (Scaritcs) depressus Fab., Mant. Ins. I, p. 

206, No. 1 (1787).* 
10. Pasimachus (Scaritcs) marginatus Fab., Mant. Ins. I, 

p. 206, No. 2 (1787). 
16. Agonoderus (Carabus) pallipes Fab., Mant. Ins. I, p. 

202, No. 86 (1787). 
21. Deltochilmn (Scat-abacus) yibbosnm Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 

28, No. 112 (1775). 
23. Copris (Scarabacus) lar Fab., Mant. Ins. I, p. 13, No. 

124 (1787). 

* The author points out that the references to original descriptions of 
Nos. 9, 10 and 16 above, and also of Scaritcs subterranetts Fab. are 
incorrectly given in the Leng List. 



266 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

This is the same as the previously described Copris 
(Scarabacus) ininutus of Drury (1770). 
32. Anomala (Melolontha) crrans Oliv., Ent. I, 5, p. 45, 
pi. 8, fig. 92 (1789). 

According to Mr. Arrow this is the same as the Anomala 
lucicola Fab. and antedates the latter by nine years. See 
p. 67 of text. 
34. Anomala (MelolontJia) innuba Fab., Mant. Ins. I, p. 22, 

No. 45 (1787). 

48. Trichiotinus (Cetonia) bidcus Oliv., Ent. I, 6, p. 62, pi. 
10, fig. 87 (1789). 

The same as Trickius bibcns Fab. (1775), the type of 
which is not in the Hunter Coll. "The word 'bibens' is 
a printer's error as pointed out by F. W. Hope." 
51. Silpha .surinamensis Fab., Syst. Ent., p. 72, No. 1 (1775). 
Of nine of the above species nothing need be said, our in- 
terpretations being apparently in harmony with the descriptions 
of the types or, in the case of Copris minutus and Anomala 
lucicola, of their equivalents. 

Scaphinotus unicolor Fab. There are still some unsettled 
doubts as to the precise relationship between unicolor, heros 
Harris and shocmakcri Leng, and neither the description nor 
the figure of the Fabrician type enables us to resolve the doubts. 
In the text unicolor and hcros are assumed to be synonymous 
but just why the species is recorded under the latter and much 
later name is not clear. 

Pasimachus depressus Fab. According to Staig's descrip- 
tion the type is entirely black without trace of bluish or violace- 
ous border. It is apparently the form to which Le Conte gave 
the name ni-orio in his earliest paper on the genus, but which 
he later united with depressus. If the South American locality 
(Cayenne) given by Fabricius for his type is correct, it may 
introduce complications, otherwise it would appear that inorio 
is a straight synonym of depressus, while limbatus Zimm, may 
be used if desired for the form with bluish margins. 

Agonoderus pallipcs Fab. The name label covers two speci- 
mens in the Hunter collection, the larger of which is said by 
the author to answer best the descriptions of Fabricius and 
Olivier. Both specimens are described but no figure is given. 
Judging from the descriptions the two examples are of different 
species and I cannot satisfy myself that either of them is the 
same as the pallipcs of our American authorities ; in fact cer- 
tain characters ascribed to the larger specimen would exclude 
it from the genus Agonoderus altogether. I shall endeavor to 
get further information on this matter. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 267 

Thus far only the types in the families Cicindelidae, Cara- 
biclae, Dytiscidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae. Histeridae, and 
Erotylidae have been treated. We shall look forward with in- 
terest to the appearance of further installments of the work 
and trust it may ultimately be brought to completion as planned. 
H. C. FALL. 



Doings of Societies. 

The eighth annual meeting of the ROCKY MOUNTAIN CON- 
FERENCE OF ENTOMOLOGISTS was held in Pingree Park, Colo- 
rado, August 17 to 22, 1931, inclusive. The Colorado State 
Agricultural College Forestry Lodge, which is located in Pin- 
gree Park at an altitude of about 9000 feet, was made the 
headquarters. The entomologists brought members of their 
families that enjoyed the outing. A total of 82 registered 
during the week, 44 of these being directly interested in ento- 
mology. The following is a list of these: 

E. G. Kelly, Geo. A. Dean, R. L. Parker, Roger C. Smith, 
Donald A. Wilbur, Manhattan, Kansas; Paul B. Lawson, R. H. 
Beamer, J. O. Nottingham, H. T. Peters, M. W. Anderson, 
Lawrence, Kansas ; Edwin W. Howe, Wichita, Kansas ; L. D. 
Anderson, Morganville, Kansas; E. W. Davis, H. E. Dorst, 
Leland Jones, Richard C. Newton, Geo. I. Reeves, John C. 
Hamlin, Ralph Bunn, Salt Lake City, Utah ; K. D. Arbethnot, 
Monroe, Michigan; F. E. Whitehead, Stillwater, Okla., M. C. 
Parker, Madison, Wisconsin ; Lester Hanna, Del Norte, Colo- 
rado; Jean Sutherland, J. W. Horn, Carl Hopkins, Boulder, 
Colorado; Harry Newton, Paonia, Colorado; Chas. M. Drage, 
Loveland, Colorado ; Louis G. Davis, Grand Junction, Colorado ; 
John L. Hoerner, R. G. Richmond, Miriam A. Palmer, Geo. 
M. List, F. T. Cowan, C. P. Gillette, Rellie G. Mack, Sam C. 
McCampbell, John Weaver, Leslie B. Daniels, C. W. Kearns, 
Harold Willis, Carl A. Bjurman, C. R. Jones, Albert White, 
Fort Collins, Colorado. 

Ten sessions were held during the week for discussion and 
presentation of papers. The remainder of the time was given 
to collecting by those that were interested in this, and to 
recreation. 

The following is a list of the more formal subjects discussed: 

ORTHOPTERA. -- Grasshopper Control Work in Colorado 
during 1931, F. T. Cowan; Grasshopper Control in Kansas and 
Results of Correlated Program of Work in Extension, E. G. 



268 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '31 

Kelly; Areview of the Grasshopper Situation with a Summary 
of Our Present Control Information, Geo. A. Dean. 

COLEOPTERA. --Alfalfa Weevil Studies, Geo. I. Reeves and 
J. C. Hamlin. 

HYMENOPTERA. -- Status of Experiments with Trichogram- 
ma minutum (Riley), Geo. M. List; Liberation of Tricho- 
gramma minutum (Riley) in Mesa and Delta counties, Colo- 
rado, with Other Notes on Codling Moth, L. G: Davis and 
J. H. Newton. 

HOMOPTERA. - - Taxonomy of Corn Root Louse, Aphis maidi- 
radicis, and Some Allied Species of Aphidiae, Miriam A. 
Palmer; Beet Leaf -hopper Studies in Utah, E. W. Davis. 

LEPIDOPTERA. -- Temperature and Its Relation to Rate, of 
Hatch of Codling Moth Eggs, Edwin W. Howe ; Codling Moth 
Work at Manhattan, Kansas, R. L. Parker. 

GENERAL. - - Illustrated Lecture on the Phillipines with 
Reference to Entomological Problems, C. R. Jones ; The Effect 
of Arsenic as Used in the Control of Grasshoppers Upon Birds, 
F. E. Whitehead ; European Corn Borer Parasites in Middle 
Western Area, K. D. Arbethnot ; Some Phases of Work on 
Pasture Insects, Donald A. Wilbur ; Some Insects that Attack 
Honey Locust in Colorado, S. C. McCampbell ; Elm Tree 
Borers, R. L. Parker ; The Summer's Collecting Trip Under 
the Auspices of the University of Kansas ; R. H. Beamer ; A 
Recent Insect Survey of Kansas by Questionnaire. R. C. Smith ; 
Mill Fumigation, Geo. A. Dean ; An Illustrated Lecture on 
Haiti, R. C. Smith. 

SYMPOSIUM.- -The use of Mathematics in Analizing Ento- 
mological Data. The Use of Mathematics in Alfalfa Weevil 
Investigation, Geo. I. Reeves and J. C. Hamlin; Curve Fitting, 
Ralph Bunn ; Probable Error, Richard Newton ; Chi-square, 
Leland Jones. 

The officers elected for 1932 were C. P. Gillette, Chairman : 
P. B. Lawson, Vice-chairman ; Geo. M. List, Secretary, and 
C. R. Jones, Treasurer. 

GEORGE M. LIST, Secretary. 



OBITUARY. 

HENRY LORENZ VIERECK, known for his work on the Hymen- 
optera, died at Loudonville, Ohio, October 8, 1931, as the 
result of an accident. A biographical notice will appear in a 
later issue of the NEWS. 



Subscriptions for 1932 now Payable. 

DECEMBER, 1931 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLII 



No. 10 




HENRY SKINNER 
1861-1926 



CONTENTS 

Cartwright Digger Wasps and Buprestidae (Hym. : Cerceridae, 

Coleop. : Buprestidae) 269 

Vansell Flight of Corixids (Hemip.; Corixidae) 270 

Richards Noctuidae of Northern Georgia and Tennessee (Lepid.).. . 271 
Bird The Nymph of Enallagma basidens Calvert (Odonata: Agri- 

onidae) 276 

Bequaert Note on Odynerus bermudensis, with a Description of the 

Male ( Hymenoptera : Vespidae) 277 

Tietz Catopsilia philea in Pennsylvania (Lepid. : Pieridae) 279 

Hall New Texas Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) . . 280 

Horst Rex Research Foundation 286 

Dornfeld A Night-Flying Butterrlyand Some Unusual Locality Records 

(Lepidoptera) 

Entomological Literature 288 

Review Dr. Holland's New Butterfly Book 291 

Review Imm's Social Behavior in Insects. 292 

Obituary and Published Writings on Insects Charles Dury 293 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLII. DECEMBER, 1931 No. 10 

Digger Wasps and Buprestidae (Hym.: Cerceridae, 
Coleop.: Buprestidae). 

By O. L. CARTWRIGHT, South Carolina Experiment Station, 

Clemson College, S. C. 

On July 4, 1931, several members of the Entomology Divi- 
sion of the South Carolina Experiment Station, enjoyed a 
holiday collecting trip to Jocassee, South Carolina. Near this 
delightful little mountain community they were attracted to a 
sandy knoll-like elevation in the narrow road by many wasps 
flying a few inches above the ground. The particular area 
apparently most attractive to the wasps was somewhat wider 
than most of the road and used by motorists in turning their 
cars, in all a space covering not more than one hundred square 
yards. A number of the wasps were caught and found to be 
of several species, Sticlia Carolina (Fab.) being most numer- 
ous, followed in order by Bicyrtcs quadrifasciata (Say), Cer- 
ceris futnipennis Say, Elis Carolina (Panz.) and Ccrccris inandi- 
bularis Patton. C. fitinif>cnnis were observed bringing Bupres- 
tidae to their numerous burrows in the roadway. C. mandibn- 
laris brought in a grasshopper nymph. The other species 
seemed to be flying about rather aimlessly over the area. 

The most interesting and perhaps unusual find, however, was 
the discovery of a surprising number of Buprestidae scattered 
about on the ground. The infrequent cars passing, backing 
and turning at the point doubtless caused the abandonment of 
some of the beetles by the wasps, since at the party's approach 
wasps were observed to drop larger specimens of their prey 
and fly away. Other agencies probably also caused abandon- 
ment, however, for a few beetles were found near another 
colony of wasps in a field not far away. Whether or not other 
species of wasps present were interfering with the activity of 
Ccrccris futnipennis was not determined. Many of the beetles 
were alive but paralized. C. fitinipciinis was the only species 



269 



DEC 10 1S31 



270 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

observed with the Buprestidae and perhaps had brought in all 
of the beetles found. 

The number of specimens of the twenty species of Bupres- 
tidae picked up from the surface of the roadway the wasps 
burrows were not disturbed on this and two later visits to 
the spot were as follows : 

51 Buprcstis rufipcs (Oliv.) 2 Chrysobothris verdigripennis 

26 Dicer ra lurida (Fab.) Frost 

12 Dicerca americana (Hbst.) 2 Agrilus bilineatns (Web.) 

8 Buprcstis fasciata Fab. 1 Dicerca tttbercitlata (Cast.) 

6 Dicerca punctulata (Schon) 1 Chrysobothris blanchardi Horn 

5 Buprestis striata Fab. 1 Chrysobothris dcntipcs 
5 Chrysobothris femorata (Oliv.) (Germar) 

3 Dicerca nuttalli var. 1 Chrysobothris floricola Gory 

considaris Gory 1 Chrysobothris lesueuri Cast. 

3 Buprcstis lineata Fab. 1 Agrilus arcuatits (Say) 
3 Actcnodes acornis (Say) 

2 Buprcstis maculipcnnis Gory 136 specimens of Buprestidae (20 
2 Chrysobothris scxsigiiata (Say) species). 

This list of Buprestidae includes several which according to 
our records had not previously been taken in South Carolina 
and while of biological interest it is also of considerable eco- 
nomic significance to those interested in forests and forest 
entomology. 

The writer gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Miss 
Grace Sandhouse of the United States National Museum for 
determinations of the Hymenoptera and to Mr. J. N. Knull of 
the Pennsylvania Forest Research Laboratories for determina- 
tions of the Buprestidae. 

> 

Flight of Corixids (Hernip.: Corixidae). 

An immense number of Corisclla dispersa (Uhler) came 
into the city of Davis, California, during the evening and night 
of June 23, 1931. After arrival, they were attracted to the 
street lights until the air looked as during a heavy fog. Many 
of the insects died at each light, piling up to a depth of 2-3 
inches. The temperature was high (90 F), with no wind 
movement. The breeding place of these migrating individuals 
is unknown to me. 

Flights of Corixids have been recorded before but the inter- 
esting thing concerning this flight is the distance apparently 
traveled. At this season no lakes or streams containing water 
are close. The Sacramento River with its sloughs is over ten 
miles away in an air line. No other such flight has been 
observed during my nine years of residence here. GEORGE H. 
VANSELL. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 271 

Noctuidae of Northern Georgia and Tennessee 

(Lepidoptera). 

By A. GLENN RICHARDS, JR. 

(Continued from page 252.) 
SUBFAMILY SARROTHRIPINAE. 

CHARACOMA NILOTICA Rogenh. Common July-Aug. ; Mon- 
teagle rather common June-Sept., one 26-X-30. Two 
specimens of a variant of this protean species were taken 
at Monteagle (16-VII-30 & l-IX-29) which is not men- 
tioned by Hampson among his f 'abs.". They each have 
rather uniform gray wings with two longitudinal black 
streaks extending the length of the wing (now in Cornell 
Coll. & U. S. N. M.). 

SARROTHRIPS REVAYANA LINTNERANA Speyer. 29-V-28; 
Monteagle in June. 

BAILEYA OPHTHALMICA Gn. (dornitans Gn. & levitans Sm. 
seem best placed as synonyms of this since the superficial 
characters intergrade hopelessly and the genitalia offer no 
characters; I am not familiar with oust rails Grt., but the 
figures indicate that it belongs in this species also.) Mon- 
teagle, common in June, uncommon in July. 

SUBFAMILY CATOCALINAE. 

*EUPARTHENOS NUBiLis Hbn. Aug. '28 (only specimen) ; 
Monteagle June-Aug. One variant from Monteagle 
(13-VI-30) has only half the usual amount of yellow on 
the hind wing (now in U. S. N. M.). 

ALLOTRIA ELONYMPHA Hbn. 14-VI-26, rare ; Monteagle 
rather common in Sept. 

PARALLELIA BISTRIARIS Hbn. Common June-Aug. 

CAENURGIA CONVALESCENS Gn. Common March, June & 
Aug. ; Monteagle rather common in late Aug. 

C. CRASSIUSCULA Haw. Common at Athens & Monteagle 
May-Sept. 

PELAMIA LATTPES Gn. Rather common Aug. -Oct. ; Mont- 
eagle 11-V-30&9-IX-29. 

PHURYS LIMA Gn. Early April-June, rare. 

P. BISTRIGATA Hbn. June & Aug., rare. 

CELIPTERA FRUSTULUM Gn. July-Aug., common; Mont- 
eagle April & Aug. 

ARGYROSTROTIS ANILIS Dru. May-June; Monteagle Aug.- 
Sept. ; rare. 

ZALE LUNATA Dru. June-July; Monteagle May & Sept., 
rather common. 



272 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

Z. UNDULARIS Dru. June '29; Lake Rabun, Ga., ll-VII-26. 

Z. LUNIFERA Hbn. April-Sept. 

fZ. BETHUNEI Sm. Monteagle $ 23-VI-30 (now in U. S. 
N. M.). 

Z. OBLIQUA Gn. 5 & 6-V-27; Monteagle 29-YI-30. 
fZ. CINGULIFERA Wlk. 8-IV-29. 
fZ. HORRIDA Hbn. Monteagle 12-VII-30. 

SUBFAMILY PANTHEINAE. 
fCoLOCAsiA PROPINQUILIXEA Grt. Monteagle 20-IV-30. 

SUBFAMILY PLUSIINAE. 

AUTOGRAPHA FALCiFERA Kirby. ]une-Aug. 
*fA. EGENA Gn. 17-VI-28 & 6-VIII-28. 
A. VERRUCA Fabr. July-Aug., common. 
A. BRASSICAE Riley. June-Sept, very common ; Monteagle 

same. 
A. BASIGERA Wlk. Aug. -Sept., rather common ; Monteagle 

4-IX-29. 
A. OXYGRAMMA Geyer. Common July-Aug.; Monteagle 

31-VIII-29. 
A. BILOBA Steph. May & June, rather common ; Monteagle 

20- VI 1-30. 
A. oo Cram. (= : ROGATIOXIS Gn.). Rather common July- 

Oct. 
A. PRECATIONIS Gn. Odd specimens in March, Aug. & Oct. ; 

Monteagle July-Oct., not common. 

A. ou Gn. Common April-Sept. ; Monteagle June-July, rare. 
AEREA Hbn. One specimen at Athens without date. 



SUBFAMILY EREBINAE. 

RAPHIS ABRUPTA Grt. April & Aug., very uncommon; 

Monteagle rare in June & July. 
MELIPOTIS JUCUNDA Hbn. July-Aug., rare. 
fSYNEDA LIMOLARIS Geyer. Monteagle 9-X-30. 
PHOBERIA ATOMARIS Hbn. 26-IV-27 ; Monteagle 17-1 Y-30. 
PANAPODA RUFIMARGO Hbn. Uncommon in April. 
P. R. f. CARNEICOSTA Gn. April & July, this is the common 

form here ; Monteagle June-July. Many intermediates, and 

several in which the discal spot on the fore wing is some- 

what suffused. 
ANTICARSIA GEMMATILIS Hbn. Sept. -Oct., common in some 

seasons. 

fANTIBLEMMA INEXACTA Wlk. 9 18-V-29. 

STRENOLOMA LUNILINEA Grt. May & June, rare; one near 
Monteagle ll-V-30. 



xlii, '31 | KNTOMOLOGICAI. .\K\VS 

BENDIS (- TRAM A) DETRAHEXS \\'lk. April-May, not com- 
mon. 

fEREBUs ODORA L. One in May '27. 
*CALPE CANADENSIS Beth. Smithsburg, Md. 7 & 8-VT-21 

(F. M. Brown). 
fScoLioPTERvx ui'.ATRix L. ( )ne specimen at Athens, no 

date. 
PLUSIODONTA COMPRESSIPALPJS Gn. June-July, common in 

some seasons. 
*fHYPSOROpHA MONILIS Fabr. 9 18-TV-27; Monteagle $ 

17-1 V-30 (fresh). 
H. IIORMOS Hbn. April-Aug. ; Monteagle June & July, not 

uncommon. 

ALABAMA ARGILLACEA Hbn. Very abundant. 
ANOMIS EROSA Hbn. June-Oct., rather common. 

SUBFAMILY HYPENINAE. 

SCOLECOCAMPA LiBURXA Gever. July-Aug.. uncommon. 

GABARA (- EUCALYPTRA) sps. Monteagle in June & July, 
and Catoosa Co., Ga., in late Aug. Several species in- 
cluding bipuncta Morr. 

ISOGONA NATATRIX Gn. Rare in April & May. 

PHIPROSOPUS CALLITRICHOIDES Grt. Uncommon in April & 
May ; one very dark, grey-l)rown specimen with the mark- 
ing indistinct 6-V-29 (now in U. S. N. M.). 
*fPARAHYPENODES QUADRALis B. & McD. Lake Rabun, Ga. 
(in the mountains) 13-VII-27. Described recently from 
Canada, and 1 have seen specimens from New York and 
New Hampshire, but never further south. It is a rare in- 
sect, easily overlooked, but seemingly should be found all 
along the Alleghany chain. 

*fDlALLAGMA LATIORELLA Wlk. (= : LUTEA Sm.) 9-VIII-29 & 

3-IX-29. "Known only from Florida" ( Grossbeck's state 

list). 

PLEONECTYPTERA PVRALIS Hbn. June-Aug., uncommon. 
P. P. f. GEOMETRALIS Grt. March & April, uncommon. ( )ne 

specimen intermediate to these types 2-VII-29. 
fP. HISTORIALIS Grt. 22 & 24-IV-29. 
PHYTOMETRA SEMIPURPUREA Wlk. May, rare; Monteagle 

April, June & Sept., rare. 

fHoRMOSCHISTA LATJPALP1S \\'lk. (= PAGENSTECHERI 

Moesch. ) . 3-IX-28 ; Monteagle 2-1 X-29. 
fOxYCiLLA MALAGA Grt. Monteagle 21-VII-30. 
*fO. MITOGRAPHA Grt. ll-VI-29. The types were taken in 
Central Alabama in August, and described in 1873. I 



274 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

know of no others having been taken since (this specimen 
has been deposited in the U. S. N. M.). 

PHALAENOSTOLA LARENTIOIDES Grt. Rare in Sept. ; Mont- 
eagle 15-VI-30 (2). 

PANGRAPTA DECORALIS Hbn. Uncommon May & June; 
Monteagle very common in woods June-Aug. 

fSPARGALOMA PERDITALIS Wlk. Monteagle 15-VI-30. 

J-DYSPYRALIS NIGELLUS Stkr. 9-VIII-29. 
METALECTRA DISCALIS Grt. Rather common in July ; Mont- 
eagle in June. 

M. QUADRISIGNATA Wlk. (= CONTRACTA Wlk.). April & 

June ; Monteagle June & Aug., not common. 

M. TANTILLUS Grt. May-Aug., uncommon. 

M. MONODIA Dyar (synonym of TANTILLUS ??) May-July, 
uncommon. 

EPIZEUXIS AMERICALIS Gn. April, July & Aug. (only three 
specimens). 

E. AEMULA Hbn. 21-VI-28; Monteagle common June-Aug. 

E. ROTUNDALIS Wlk. 29-V-29 ; Monteagle common June- 
Sept. 

E. LUBRICALIS Geyer. Athens & Monteagle June-Sept. 
fE. MAJORALIS Sm. Monteagle 10-VI-30. 

ZANCLOGNATHA LITURALIS Hbn. Lake Rabun, Ga. 10-VII- 
28; Monteagle 14-VI-30. 

Z. CRURALIS Gn. 27-V-28. 

Z. JACCHUSALIS Wlk. ( MARCIDILINEA Grt.). Monteagle 

rare in July & Sept. 

*fCHYTOLiTA MORBIDALIS Gn. Monteagle 6-VI-30. 
*fC. PETREALIS Grt. Monteagle 28-VI-30, and the spotted 
form 25 & 28-VI-30. 

RENIA SALUSALIS Wlk. May-Aug. ; Monteagle common 
June-Sept. 

R. DISCOLORALIS Gn. May-June ; Monteagle common June- 
Aug. 

R. FLAVIPUNCTALIS Geyer. Lake Rabun, Ga. 12-VII-27; 
Monteagle June-Aug. 

R. SOBRIALIS Wlk. Monteagle 6 & 8-VI-30. 

BLEPTINA CARADRINALIS Gn. May-July; Monteagle April- 
Aug., common. 

B. INFERIOR Grt. Rare in Sept. 

*B. SANGAMONIA B. & McD. Known only from the holotype 
$ taken at Decatur, Illinois (May 8-15) and one other 
specimen also in the Barnes collection. Monteagle 
24-VI-30 and a series of nearly 40 specimens late July- 
middle Aug., 1931. Entire series compared with type by 
author. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 275 

TETANOLITA MYNKSALIS Wlk. July-Sept. ; Lake Rabun, Ga., 

24-VI-28; Monteagle June-Aug. common. 
T. FLORIDANA Sm. 18-VIII-29 & 8-IX-29. 
PHALAENOPHANA PYRAMUSALIS Wlk. Uncommon April & 

May; Lake Rabun, Ga., 24-VII-28; Monteagle April-July. 
LASCORIA AMBIGUALIS Wlk. 5-IV-29, 18-VII-28, common 

Aug. -Sept. 
PALTHIS ANGULALIS Hbn. Rather common April-Sept. ; 

Monteagle June-Sept. 
P. ASOPIALIS Gn. 12-VIII-28 & 8-X-29; Lake Rabun, Ga., 

4-VII-28. 
fDERCETis VITREA Grt. One at Athens, no date. 

fSALIA INTERPUNCTA Grt. 24-VI-29. 

BOMOLOCHA BALTIMORALIS Gn. Common in April. 
fB. PALPARIA W r lk. (= SCUTELLARIS Grt.) 6-IV-29 & 27- 

VII-29. 

B. ABALINEALIS Wlk. April-Sept., rather common. 
B. DECEPTALIS Wlk. 6-VIII-29 ; Monteagle 24-VI-30. 
B. MADEFACTALIS Gn. Common April-Aug. ; Monteagle 

31-VII-30. 
tB. SORDIDULA Grt. Monteagle 5-VIII-30. 

fANEPISCHETOS MINUALIS Gn. ("BOMOLOCHA CITATA Grt." 

of B. & McD. list) 22-VII-29 & 9-IX-28. 
PLATHYPENA SCABER Fabr. Athens & Monteagle, common 

April-Sept. 

*f An unknown Hypenid apparently representing a new species 
and new genus taken at Athens. It looks like a small 
EPIZEUXIS species, but has no areole. (This specimen 
also has been deposited in the U. S. N. M.). 

ARCTIIDAE. 

SUBFAMILY NOLINAE. 
CELAMA TRIQUETRANA Fitch. Monteagle common in April. 

SUBFAMILY ARCTIINAE. 
*fHALisiDOTA LONGA Grt. 3-IX-28 (now in Cornell Coll.). 

"Known only from Florida" (Grossbeck's state list). 
fEuBAPHE LAETA Guer. 14-VI-26. 
j-E. OPELLA Grt. 3-VIII-26. 

NOTODONTIDAE. 

HETEROCAMPA SUBROTATA Harv. Rare in Sept. 
H. BILINEATA EXSANGuis Dyar. Aug.-Sept., Monteagle in 
July. 



276 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

LASIOCAMPIDAE. 

ARTACE PUNCTISTRIGA Wlk. Several at Athens and Mont- 
eagle in June, rare. 

MALACOSOMA AMERICANA Fabr. Rare at Athens. 
J-HETEROPACHA RILEYANA Harv. 7-IV-29, 9- VI 1-28 & 1- 
VIII-29. 

DREPANIDAE. 

*fORETA ROSEA Wlk. Monteagle 4-IX-29 (now in U. S. N. 

M.). 

LACOSOMIDAE. 

fLACosoMA CHIRIDOTA Grt. 1 $ & 10 9 9 at Monteagle 
in June '30. 

GEOMETRIDAE. 

fExELis PYROLARIA Gn. Monteagle 9, 25, 28-VIII-30. 

PYRALIDAE. 

DIAPHANIA SIBILLALIS Wlk. Quite common late July-Aug. 

in some seasons. 

*fCRAMBus BIDENS Zeller. Monteagle 15-VI-30 (2) (now in 
Cornell Coll. & U. S. N. M.). 



The Nymph of Enallagma basidens Calvert 
(Odonata : Agrionidae). 

R. D. BIRD, Dept. of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, 
Norman, Oklahoma. 

Enallagma basidens Calvert occurs commonly in Oklahoma. 
As its nymph appears to be undescribed (Byers '28)* the fol- 
lowing description has been drawn up from a number of reared 
specimens. 

Color: buff or greenish. 

Head: caudo-lateral angles hemispherical as in figure, with 
small inconspicuous setae. Antennae 6-segmented, the first two 
segments dark except distal third of the second, second slightly 
shorter, third the longest, fourth shorter, fifth and sixth still 
shorter and equal. Labium extending caudad of procoxae, with 
two mental setae and five laterals as is shown in the figure. 

Thorax: legs lighter in color except dark ring on each femur 
and tibia a short distance from their articulation which is also 
dark. A few short black dashes along the outer side of each 

* BYERS, C. FRANCIS The unknown nymphs of N. A. Odonata. Can. 
Ent. 60 :4-6, 1928. 



xlii. 'ol | KNTOMOl.OliU AL NKWS 277 

tibia. Metathoracic wing ruses reach to end of third abdominal 
segment. 

Abdomen: gradually tapering, nonsetaceous, covered with 
numerous black spots giving a freckled appearance. Gills as in 
figure with five transverse black bands on the apical half. 
Sometimes a slight development of a sixth band. 




Measurements of nuiturc nymphs: length, 18 mm.; length of 
abdomen, 11 mm.; length of gills, 5.75 mm.; width of gills, 
1.05 mm.; length of metathoracic wing-cases, 3.5 mm.; length 
of mentum, 4 mm. 

Habitat: the nymphs have been found in clear, small, spring- 
fed streams with rocky or sandy bottoms. They crawl about 
watercress or other plants where there is a gentle current of 
water. 

Note on Odynerus bermudensis, with a Description 
of the Male (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). 

By J. BEQUAERT, Harvard Medical School, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

Odynerus (Stenodynerus) bermudensis J. Bequaert was 
described in the Annals of the Entomological Society of Amer- 
ica for 1929 (vol. XXII, p. 578). It is thus far the only truly 
indigenous diplopterous wasp known from the Bermudas. A 



278 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

pair of this species has recently been found in the collections 
of the United States National Museum. 

Male (undescribed). Length (h.+th.+t. 1+2): 5.5 mm. 

Agrees structurally with the female, except as follows : Head, 
seen in front, subcircular, not higher than wide. Cheeks nar- 
rower in their upper half, where they are much narrower than 
the upper part of the eye in profile. Inner orbits nearly twice 
as far apart on the vertex as at the clypeus. Interocellar de- 
pression not more pronounced than in the female. Clypeus 
wider than long, in outline irregularly pentagonal, the base 
being twice as long as each of the upper sides, the upper and 
lower sides nearly equal ; its anterior, free portion about as 
long as the upper, interocular part ; its truncate apex about one- 
fifth of the maximum width of the clypeus, with a deep, even 
inward curve, preceded by a slightly depressed area ; its apical 
angles well marked, but bluntly rounded off and not raised. 
Antenna elongate ; flagellum over three times the length of the 
scape; third antennal segment one and one-third times the length 
of the fourth ; fourth to ninth subequal and distinctly longer 
than wide ; tenth about as wide as long ; eleventh longer than 
wide, slightly excavated on the under side ; twelfth small, longer 
than wide, less than half the length of the eleventh; thirteenth 
(hook) moderately thick, about the length of the eleventh, 
scarcely curved, slightly and very gradually narrowed to the 
blunt and somewhat flattened apex, which reaches the tip of 
the tenth segment. Abdomen more slender than in the female. 

Sculpture as in the female ; but the clypeus with the punc- 
tures larger and more evenly distributed and with the irregular 
striation barely indicated. 

Black. Most of the upper side of scape, tip of mandibles, 
most of the legs (except the tibiae), most of the propodeum, 
and nearly the entire first abdominal segment, ferruginous to 
red. Clypeus, most of the mandibles, broad under side of scape, 
interantennal ridge, most of the ocular sinuses (extending 
downward along the inner orbits), an elongate spot on the 
upper half of the outer orbit, a transverse spot on each side of 
the anterior margin of the pronotum (more or less divided by a 
ferruginous blotch), postscutellum, most of the upper plate of 
the mesepisternum, tegulae (except the ferruginous center), 
post-tegulae, tibiae (somewhat ferruginous on the underside), 
hind margins of first and second segments as in the female, 
small lateral free spots on the second tergite (sufifused with 
ferruginous along the edges), narrow hind margin of fourth 
tergite, and traces of a margin on fifth tergite, pale sulphur 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 279 

yellow. Wings as in the female, slightly and fairly uniformly 
smoky throughout, with a faint purplish tinge. 

Allotypc. Bermuda, May 13, 1909 (F. M. Jones. U. S. 
N. M.)'. 

Since the female holotype was stylopized, it is interesting to 
compare it with a second female, not parasitized, obtained by 
Mr. F. M. Jones on May 10, 1909. After a careful compari- 
son I am unable to find any differences in structure or sculpture 
between these two specimens. There are, however, a few differ- 
ences in color. Mr. Jones' insect is in some respects more like 
the male described above, since it has a distinct yellow apical 
margin on the fourth tergite (traces of this may be seen on 
the holotype). The lateral yellow spots on the second tergite 
are large and only slightly bordered with ferruginous. The 
clypeus is black, with two rather indistinct ferruginous blotches 
on the basal third. The propodeum is blotched with ferruginous 
on the sides. This second female measures 6 mm. only, from 
the frons to the apex of the second tergite. 

It seems improbable that the slight differences in color ex- 
hibited by the holotype were due to stylopization, unless perhaps 
the extension of the yellow over the basal third of the clypeus 
might be attributed to the action of the parasite. 



Catopsilia philea in Pennsylvania. (Lepid.: Pieridae). 

In the July 1931 number of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, Mr. 
Haskin, of Waterford, Connecticut, states that he captured a 
specimen of Catopsilia pliilca in that State on August 26, 1930. 
Evidently philea wandered out of bounds that year for the 
writer took one specimen in front of the zoology building of 
the Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pennsylvania, 
on August 8, 1930. The specimen flew around the gladiolus 
flowers avoiding the red and darkly-colored blossoms but alight- 
ing on all the yellow and orange ones. The writer watched the 
specimen for over an hour before capturing it. Some other 
species of this group when they are seen far from their natural 
habitat are most elusive, stopping only a short time, and then 
flying on. This specimen, however, was in no hurry and 
seemed more like a resident than a migrant. It would be in- 
teresting to know just what factors were instrumental in the 
dispersion of this species during 1930. HARRISON M. TIETZ, 
Dept. Zoology and Entomology, Pennsylvania State College. 



280 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

New Texas Sarcophaginae (Diptera: Calliphoridae). 

By DAVID G. HALL/ Bureau of Entomology,- Charleston, S. C. 

Among a large number of Sarcophaginae from Texas sent 
to the author for determination during the past few years were 
the four species described below. 

Most of these flies were collected in ecological traps set for 
the screw-worm fly CochHoinyia inaccllaria Fab. Specimens 
obtained in such traps are usually rubbed and in general poor 
condition. Numerous specimens of the species herein described 
were not saved, and the actual abundance of the species is not 
shown in the type series. 

Comasarcophaga 3 n. gen. 

Black medium sized species with the usual Sarcophagid ap- 
pearance. 

Male. Head length at antennae and vibrissae about equal ; 
vibrissae above the oral margin and slightly approximated ; para- 
f rentals with numerous small irregular scattered hairs ; antennae 
and palpi red ; second antennal joint bright red, third joint 
darkened above ; arista with very short pubsecence at base only, 
not longer than diameter of arista. Chaetotaxy as in following 
description. 

This genus shows closest affinities to the Agria-H'ypopelta 
group, but can be instantly separated from these by the nearly 
bare arista, which appears in Brachycoma, Ncopliyto and 
Ainobia. The head shape of these is entirely different from 
that of the genus herein described. 

Genotype and sole species, tc.nina, new. 

Comasarcophaga texana, n. sp. 

Male. (Fig. 1) Front 0.376 of head width (average of 
four specimens which measured respectively 0.412, 0.366, 0.333, 
and 0.396; paraf rentals and parafacials silvery gray pollinose, 

1 Thanks are due and herewith gratefully given to Mr. E. W. Laake, 
Mr. E. C. Gushing, Mr. A. E. Parish, and Mr. E. F. Knipling, who 
have made the trap collections at Menard, Texas; to Mr. H. J. Reinhard, 
who sent me his series of Comasarcophaga texana, new genus and species, 
for study and description; and to Mr. R. A. Roberts, who sent a collec- 
tion of reared Sarcophaga from Mexico and southern Texas for deter- 
mination. 

2 Contribution from the Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals. 

3 KG/A?;, hair; oapKO <ayos ; flesh devouring. 



xlii, '31] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



281 



the former with the usual row of slight hairs below near eye ; 
the parafacials with numerous slight hairs over the entire sur- 
face ; frontal bristles about eight, diverging sharply below to 
about the middle of the second antennal joint; antennae red; 
third segment darkened apicnlly and above; arista with ex- 




Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 





S-Scele 



Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



tremely short hairs, almost microscopic; third segment about 
two and one-half times second, reaching almost to the vibrissae 
which are approximated and above the oral margin; palpi yel- 
low, proboscis black, both normal; bucca about one-third the 
eye height; postocular bristles in three rows; around the middle 



282 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

and below with numerous pale yellow hairs ; outer verticals not 
differentiated. 

Thorax with the usual three to five black stripes ; anterior 
dorsocentrals two, postsutural dorsocentrals four, prescutellars 
slight, sternopleurals two, scutellum with two marginals, one 
subapical and one apical. 

Abdomen with the usual grey tessellation ; median marginal 
and lateral bristles on the second and third segments, fourth 
with a marginal row of about 18; fifth sternite composed of 
two slightly divering yellow arms, the anterior and inside edges 
covered with a brush thickly set with small black setae which 
grow longer posteriorly. 

Hypopygium small, first segment red, slightly gray pollinose 
with a marginal row of about eight long bristles ; second seg- 
ment shining red ; forceps reddish at base, black at tips, gradu- 
ally curving anteriorly into sharp points, divergent in rear 
view ; accessory plate small, yellow ; posterior clasper short, 
black, hooked at tip with a short seta on anterior edge just 
before hook; anterior clasper black, strongly hooked anteriorly; 
penis evidently composed of two segments, the first joint hidden 
and short, the second yellow, ending in several black processes. 

Wings hyaline ; costal spine rather large ; third costal seg- 
ment about equal to fifth and sixth; first vein bare, third with 
setulae almost to cross vein ; legs black, middle tibia with two 
anterodorsal bristles, middle femur with comb, both middle and 
hind tibiae with long villosity. 

Female. Front 0.475 of head width in single specimen ; like 
male in chaetotaxy, except a small third sternopleural, fairly 
large prescutellars, no apicals on scutellum, no median marginals 
on second abdominal segment, a small third anterodorsal bristle 
on the middle tibia, and usual female differences ; genital seg- 
ments reddish ; two main lateral plates, cleft dorsocentrally. 
pointed posteriorly, the ventral edge with a row of bristles, the 
spiracle located one-third closer to the ventral than to the 
dorsal edge; fifth and sixth sternites elongated with numerous 
black hairs. 

Types. Fifteen male and one female specimens collected as 
follows: one male, October 1, 1921 ; four males, April 27, 1929, 
two males, April 26, 1929, one male and one female April 30, 
1929, College Station, TEXAS (H. J. Reinhard) ; one male, June 
13, 1908, Cotulla, TEXAS (in cotton fields) (E. S. Tucker) ; 
one male, June 11, 1904, Victoria, Texas (Pratt); one male, 
June 19, 1905 (A. C. Morgan) ; one male, June 1, 1917, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 283 

Helotes, Bexas County, TEXAS; one male, June 25, 1929, 
Coachella, CALIFORNIA (in trap baited with decaying liver) 
(Hall) ; two males, June. 1929. Menard, TEXAS (from traps 
baited with decaying meat) ( E. C. dishing). 

Holotypc and Allotype from College Station, TEXAS, in U. S. 
National Museum. Two paralyses in U. S. National Museum, 
and four each in the American Museum of Xatural History, in 
collections of H. J. Reinhard and the author. 

Sarcophaga semimarginalis, n. sp. 

Male. (Fig. 2) Front, 0.215 of head width; parafrontals 
and parafacials silvery gray pollinose, the latter with the usual 
row of minute hairs below near eye ; frontal bristles about 1 1 
in number, reaching to about the middle of the second antennal 
joint and widely diverging in the lower two or three; orbitals 
and outer verticals absent; antennae black, third joint hardly 
twice the length of the second, and reaching four-fifths the 
distance to the vibrissae, which are approximated and above 
the oral margin somewhat less than the length of the second 
antennal joint; arista with rather short plumosity for three- 
fifths its length; palpi and proboscis black, ordinary; bucca one- 
fourth the eye height, black, thinly whitish pollinose, with only 
black hair before the metacephalic suture ; back of head with 
three rows of postocular cilia, and with pale hair around the 
middle and below. 

Thorax with the usual three to five black stripes ; anterior 
acrostichals absent, prescutellars one, anterior dorsocentrals 
three, postsutural dorsocentrals four, sternopleurals three, 
scutellum with two marginals, one subapical and one apical. 

Abdomen tessellated, three shifting black stripes, somewhat 
golden pollinose in certain lights ; first and second segments 
with lateral bristles only; third with a median marginal pair; 
fourth segment red and with a submarginal row of approxi- 
mately 16 bristles, the two median ones being about one- fourth 
the total length of the visible segment in front of the margin, 
the others gradually becoming marginal laterally and below. 
Fifth sternite reddish, divided, the two arms diverging "\""-like, 
the inside margins covered with numerous hairs. 

Terminalia quite small, red ; first segment dark basally, with 
numerous black hairs, none bristly ; .second segment with numer- 
ous long hairs, globose, forceps black, with long sinuating teeth 
at tips, posteriorly covered with long curling hair; genital parts 
as figured. 

Wings hyaline; costal spine small; third costal segment about 



284 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

as long as fifth ; first vein bare, third with setulae about half- 
way to the cross vein ; bend in fourth vein more acute than 
usual. 

Legs black ; middle femur with comb ; middle tibia with one 
antero-dorsal bristle ; hind tibia with long sparse villosity. 

Female. Unknown. 

Related to the species Sarcophaga subdiscalis Aldrich, Sar- 
cophaga and Allies, 1916, p. 219, fig. 104, from which it differs 
in the extension of red on the fourth abdominal segment, the 
much shorter bucca, the lack of red or brown in the forceps 
and in the shape and character of the genital parts. 

Described from two male specimens trapped at Menard, 
TEXAS, July 15-24, 1929 (Gushing), and July 11-21, 1930 
(Parish). 

Types: Holotypc in the U. S. National Museum. Paratype 
in the author's collection. 

Sarcophaga pedunculata, n. sp. 

Male. (Fig. 3) Front, 0.271 of head width (average of 
three specimens 0.272; 0.250; 0.292) ; paraf rentals and para- 
facials yellowish pollinose ; the former with a row of minute 
hairs below near the eye, several rather coarse ; frontals about 
10, slightly diverging below to about the middle of the second 
antennal joint; antennae black, third joint two and one-half 
times the length of the second, and reaching three-fourths the 
distance to the vibrissae, which are normal and at the oral 
margin; arista with long plumosity for three-fifths its length; 
facial ridges with short strong setae one-third the distance 
from the vibrissae to the base of the antennae ; outer verticals 
absent ; bucca one-third the eye height and with abundant black 
and pale hairs before the metacephalic suture ; back of head 
with two rows of postocular ciliae and with numerous pale hairs 
around the middle and below. 

Thorax with the usual three-to-five black stripes ; the pleurae 
with yellowish cast ; anterior acrostichals absent ; anterior dorso- 
centrals two; prescutellars one, posterior dorsocentrals four, 
sternopleurals three. Scutellum with two marginals, one sub- 
apical and a very pronounced patch of long whitish yellow hair 
on each side between the marginals. 

Abdomen silvery gray pollinose, tessellated, with three shift- 
ing black stripes ; first and second segments with lateral bristles 
only ; third with a median marginal pair ; fourth reddish, with 
a marginal row of about twelve bristles ; the second, third, and 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 285 

fourth segments with long hair below, increasing in abundance 
posteriorly. Fifth sternite divided, elongate, reddish brown, 
with numerous short hairs. 

Hypopygium red. somewhat pollinose ; first segment red, 
short, with scattered hairs ; second segment red, curiously elon- 
gate, with numerous scattered hairs ; and several long bristles 
above on the hump; genital characteristics as figured. 

Legs black, middle femur with comb ; middle tibia with one 
long antero-dorsal bristle ; hind tibia without villosity. 

Wings hyaline; no costal spine; third costal segment about 
as long as the fifth and sixth together; first vein bare; third 
with a number of setulae. 

Female. Chaetotaxy as in male, except the usual female 
differences. 

This species is unlike any previously described. It belongs 
to the provisional "H" Group and the genitalia are very dis- 
tinctive. The scutellar patches of light colored hair should 
make it readily determinable in both sexes. 

Described from 100 males and females reared by Mr. R. A. 
Roberts at Victoria, TEXAS, March, 1931 ; three males, Browns- 
ville, Texas, April 14. 1927 (T. C. Barber) ; one male, Reagan 
Wells, Texas. June 27, 1924 (E. W. Laake) ; and one male, 
Las Parras, BAJA CALIFORNIA, (W. M. Mann). 

Types; Holotypc and allot ype, Victoria, TEXAS, in the U. S. 
National Museum. Paratypes in the U. S. National Museum 
and in the collections of Mr. R. A. Roberts, Mr. E. W. Laake, 
and the author. 

Sarcophaga scelesta, n. sp. 

Male: (Fig. 4) Front very narrow, 0.237 of headwidth 
(average of five specimens 0.224; 0.200; 0.261 ; 0.250; 0.251) ; 
parafrontals and parafacials coarsely dusted with whitish yel- 
low pollen, the former with the usual row of minute hairs 
below near eye; frontal bristles about 11, slightly diverging 
below r to about the middle of the second antenna! joint ; orbitals 
absent; outer verticals distinct; antennae black, third joint 
twice second, reaching three-fourths the distance to the vibris- 
sae, which are normal and at the oral margin ; palpi and pro- 
boscis black, ordinary; arista with long plumosity for over 
three-fifths of its length; bucca about one-fourth the eye height, 
with black hair; back of head with one distinct row of post- 
ocular cilia and numerous dark hairs around the middle and 
below. 



286 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

Thorax with the usual three to five black stripes ; anterior 
acrostichals not larger than surrounding hairs ; prescutellars 
rather long ; anterior dorsocentrals three, postsutural dorsocen- 
trals four, sternopleurals three ; scutellum with two marginals, 
one subapical and one apical. 

Abdomen with three changeable black stripes, tessellated ; 
first and second segments with lateral bristles only ; third with 
median marginals; fourth with a marginal row of about 18. 

Hypopygium black, very small, thinly grayish pollinose, with 
scattered hairs ; first segment with a posterior row of about six 
bristles ; genital characteristics as figured. 

Legs black ; middle femur with a short comb ; middle tibia 
with one antero-dorsal bristle ; hind tibia without villosity. 

Wings hyaline ; costal spine absent ; third costal segment 
about as long as fifth; first vein without setae; third vein hairy 
almost to the cross-vein. 

Female : No apicals on scutellum, otherwise as in male ex- 
cept for usual female differences. 

This species belongs to the provisional "G" Group, having 
the genitalia of the male black, four posterior dorsocentrals, 
and the hind tibia without villosity. It differs from any 
described species known to the author in the genital features. 

Described from a male selected from a long series of males 
trapped during the fall of 1929, at Menard, TEXAS, by Mr. 
Laake and Mr. Gushing ; one male, Itaquaquecetuba, Sao Paulo, 
BRAZIL, January 1929 (Townsend) ; one male and one female, 
Brownsville, Texas (Townsend) ; and two males from Sao 
Paulo, Brazil, sent to the author by Dr. R. R. Parker. 

Types: Holotvpe (Menard, Tex.) and allotypc (Browns- 
ville, Tex.) in the U. S. National Museum. Paratypes in the 
collections of Mr. E. W. Laake, Dr. R. R. Parker, and the 
author. 



Rex Research Foundation. 

Intensification of man's perpetual warfare on his insect 
enemies is forseen as the result of the establishment in Chi- 
cago of the Rex Research Foundation, Chicago Bank of Com- 
merce Building. 

The Foundation is an expansion of the Rex Research Fel- 
lowship created sixteen years ago at Mellon Institute of In- 
dustrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa., by F. O. Moburg, of Toledo, 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 287 

Ohio. Dr. O. F. Hedenburg, who has headed the work of the 
Fellowship from the beginning, now becomes director of the 
Foundation. 

One of the principal objectives of the Foundation, outside of 
research, will be a program of public education intended to 
show the necessity of continued warfare against flies and other 
insect pests that yearly claim thousands of lives in the United 
States by spreading communicable diseases. In many sections, 
largely due to the warm, moist weather, and the fact that the 
public has become indifferent in its fight on the fly, the numbers 
have increased. With the cooperation of health authorities, the 
Foundation proposes to teach the public the perils that lurk in 
the visits of insect pests to the household, and to show the steps 
to be taken to prevent the spread of disease through these 
carriers. 

"Swat the fly" campaigns kill the fly but leave the germs it 
carries to spread disease. In their place the Foundation seeks 
to launch a "chemical warfare" that will effectively rid the 
household of the fly and also the germs. 

E. G. HORST, Secretary. 

A Night-Flying Butterfly and Some Unusual Locality 

Records (Lepid.). 

The renewed attention recently given to the night flight of 
diurnal butterflies leads me to record a capture of J \inessa 
I'iri/iiiiciisis Drury ( Pynnn-eis liuntcra) ( Nymphalidae). The 
specimen, which from its perfect condition appeared to have 
emerged not long before capture, was attracted to a light from 
a second story window at 9:30 P. M. on June 3. 1931. The 
window faces the garden of my home in a residential section 
of Milwaukee. 

In the January issue of the NEWS Mr. Harold O'Byrne 
noted the occurrence of Catopsilnt pliilca Job. (Pieridae) in 
Missouri. A far more northern record of this species w r as ob- 
tained by a friend of mine, Mr. \Ym. K. Sicker, who took this 
species at Baileys Harbor, Dour County, Wisconsin on July 19, 
1930. 

Other unusual locality records worth noting include a speci- 
men of Acllopos titan Cramer ( Sphingidae ), which I caught in 
Milwaukee, June 24, 1930; a specimen of rtcthcixa onidtri.r 
Lin. (Arctiidae), also caught in Milwaukee, October 4, 19_'4 : 
and a specimen of AI\f>ia lain/ton! Couper (. \garistidae ). taken 
at Embarrass, Waupaca County, XVi.scnnsin. July 12, 19J<>. 
ERNST J. DORNFELD, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



288 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for lOc. The number of, 1 or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

'Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
molog'y, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

tttirNote the change in the method of citing the bibliographical references, as 
explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Bailey, S. F. Invaluable words. [4] 63: 
197-198. Bishopp, F. C. How insects affect our health and 
comfort. [76] 1931: 443-445. Dury, C. Obituary. Anon. 
[Hobbies] 36: 92, ill. Griffin, F. J. The dates of publica- 
tion of Wood (W) : "Index Entomologicus", 1833-1838. 
[75] 8: 178. Sclater, W. L. Names of new genera and 
subgenera. [Zool. Record] 67: 20pp. Walker, J. J. In- 
sects at sea. [8] 67: 211-232, cont. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Alfonsus & Braun. 

Preliminary studies of the internal structures of Braula 
coeca. [7] 24: 561-582. ill. Bigham, J. T. The alimentary 
canal of Asaphes memnonius. [43] 31 : 386-395, ill. Buxton, 
P. A. The measurement and control of atmospheric hu- 
midity in relation to entomological problems. [22] 22: 431- 
447, ill. Cappe de Baillon, P. La descendance des mon- 
stres de Phasmides. [59] 15: 316pp.. ill. Davidson, R. H. 
The alimentary canal of Criocerus asparagi. [43] 31 : 396- 
405, ill. Ludwig, D. Studies on the metamorphosis of the 
Japanese beetle. (Popillia japonica). |42] 60: 309-323, ill. 
Lutz, F. E. Notes on the animal life of thermal waters in 
the Yellowstone National Park. [40] 498: 10pp. Melvin, 
R. A quantitative study of copper in insects. [7] 24: 485- 
488. Miles, H. W. Growth in the larvae of Tenthredini- 
dae. [J. Exp. Biol.] 8: 355-364. Richardson, Burdette & 
Eagleson. The determination of the blood volume of in- 
sect larvae. [7] 24: 503-507. Sato, H. Untersuchungen 
iiber die kiinstliche parthenogenese des seidenspinners 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 289 

Bombyx mori. [97] 51 : 382-394, ill. Schaefer, P. E. The 
alimentary canal of Sphaeroderus niticlicollis var. schaumi. 
[43] 31 : 406-415, ill. Steel, A. On the structure of the im- 
mature stages of the frit fly (Oscinella frit). [35] 18: 352- 
369, ill. Swingle, M. C. Hydrogen ion concentration with- 
in the digestive tract of certain insects. [7] 24: 489-495. 
Swingle, M. C. The influence of soil acidity on the pH 
value of the contents of the digestive tract of Japanese bee- 
tle larvae. [7] 24: 496-502, ill'. Verlaine, L. L'instinct et 
1'intelligence chez les Hymenopteres. [33] 71 : 123-130. 
Walker, E. M. On the anatomv of Grylloblatta campodei- 
formis. [7] 24: 519-536, ill. Wigglesworth, V. B. The 
physiology of excretions in a blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius 
prolixus. (Hem.). [J. Exp. Biol.] 8: 411-451. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Hilton, W. A.- 

Symphyla from North America. [7] 24: 537-553, ill. *Pele- 
grin Franganillo, R. P. Aracnidos de Cuba. [Mem. Mus. 
Hist. Nat., Habana] 1 : 47-97, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. McDun- 

nough, J. The eastern North American species of the 
genus Ephemerella and their nymphs (Ephemeroptera). 
[4] 63: 187-197, 201-216, ill. Setty, L. R. The biology of 
Bittacus stigmaterus (Mecoptera, Bittacusidae). [7] 24: 
467-484, ill. *Traver, J. R. Seven new southern species of 
the mayfly genus Hexagenia, with notes on the genus. [7] 
24: 591-621, ill. Weyer, F. Das problem der kastendiffer- 
enzierung bei den Termiten. [97] 51 : 353-373, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Chopard, L. - - Biospeologica. In- 
sectes Orthopteres. [Arch. Zool. Exp. et Gen., Paris] 71 : 
389-401, ill. .*Moreira, C. Contribuigao para o conheci- 
mento dos insectos Dermapteros do Brasil. [Rev. Ent., Sao 
Paulo] 1 : 257-265, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Ball, E. D. Some new North Ameri- 
can genera and species in the group formerly called Platy- 
metopius ( Khynchota). [4] 63: 216-222, cont. *China, W. 
E. A remarkable mind larva from Cuba, apparently be- 
longing to a new species of the genus I'aracarnus (Aliri- 
dae). [75] 8: 283-288, ill. DeLong'& Davidson. The genus 
Agallia External characters used to distinguish the species 
injuring economic crops. [43] 31 : 377-385. ill. *Drake, C. 
J. Neotropical Tingitidae. [75] 8: 225-227. *Drake, C. J. 
-The Cornell University Entomological Expedition to 
South America, 1919 and 1920, scientific results. Number 5, 
Hemiptera-Tingitidae. |7| 24: 510-514. *Lawson P. B. 
The genus Drylix in North America, (Cicadellidae). [7] 24: 



290 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

587-590, ill. Norland, C. List of California Pentatomidae, 
especially from the South. [13] 23: 45-46. *Oman, P. W.- 
New Jassinae, with notes on other species. [91] 21: 430- 
436, ill. *Peters, H. S. Two new Mallophaga from two 
closely related shorebirds. [7] 24: 583-586, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *Bell, E. L. New species of Yan- 
guna: Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera. [9] 64: 233-236. Bird, H. 
-The Papaipema species of the Pacific coast. [4] 63: 183- 
187, ill. Comstock & Dammers. Notes on the early stages 
of four California argynnids. [38] 30: 40-44, ill. 'Griffin, 
F. J. On the dates of publication and contents of the parts 
of Strecker (H), "Lepidoptera, etc," 1872-1900. [75] 8: 257- 
258. *Gunder, J. D. Some new butterflies. [38] 30: 45-48. 
Miller, E. R. Athena peleus (Timetes petreus). [39] 15: 
34-36, ill. Rothke, M. Einige notizen ttber vorkommen 
und lebensgewohnheit von Pieris napi in Nordamerika. 
[18] 25: 262-263. Spencer, G. J. An important breeding 
place of clothes moths in homes. [4] 63: 199-200. Talbot, 
G. On the status of some generic names in the family 
Pieridae. [9] 64: 227-232. Wucherpfennig, F. Sao Paulo 
de Olivenqa-Borba. [18] 25: 255-258, ill. 

DIPTERA. :;: Alexander, C. P. New species of crane 
flies from South America. (Tipulidae). [7] 24: 622-642. 
*Lindner, E. Beitrag zur kenntnis der siidamerikanischen 
Stratiomyidenfauna. [Rev. Pint., Sao Paulo] 1: 304-312. ill. 
*Malloch, J. R. Flies of the genus Pseudotephritis (Ortali- 
dae). [50] 79, (34) : 6 pp. *Rowe, J. A. A revision of the 
males of the nearctic species in the genus Fabriciella 
(Tachinidae). [7] 24: 642-678, ill. Taylor, R. L. On 
"Dyar's Rule" and its application to sawfly larvae. [7] 24: 
451-466, ill. *Townsend, C. H. T. New genera and species 
of American Oestromuscoid flies. (S). [Rev. Ent., Sao 
Paulo] 1: 313-354, ill. *Van Duzee, M. C. Dolichopidae 
of the Canal Zone. (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 61: 161- 
205, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. de Basilewsky, P. Additions et recti- 
fications aux Carabidae du "Coleopterorum Catalogus" de 
M. E. Csiki. [33] 71 : 145-149. :i; Blaisdell, F. E. Studies in 
the Melyridae, No. 9 [4] o3 : 178-183. *Borgmeier, T.- 
Sobre alguns coleopteros ecitophilos do Brasil (Staphylini- 
dae). [Rev. Ent., Sao Paulo] 1 : 355-367, ill. Jaynes, H. A. 
Acrotomopus atropunctellus in Argentina sugarcane. |7| 
24: 554-560, ill. *Jeannel, R. Biospeologica. Insectes 
Coleopteres et revision des Trechinae de 1'Amerique dti 
nord. [Arch. Zool. Exp. et Gen., Paris] 71: 403-499, ill. 
*Luederwaldt, H. Novos subsidies para o conhecimento 
do genero Pinotus (Lamell. Copridae). [Rev. Ent., Sao 
Paulo] 1 : 298-304, ill. 



xlii, '31 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 291 

HYMENOPTERA. *Cockerell, T. D. A. A new bee 

of the genus Andrena from Canada. |4j 63: 200-201. 
*Cockerell, T. D. A. Descriptions and records of bees. 
(S). |75| 8:411-418. Fernald, H. T, Notes on some 
American Sphecinae. |7| 24: 439-450. Hicks, C. H. Notes 
on certain bees, with a consideration of the use of the abdo- 
men in nest construction. |4| o3 : 4: 173-178. *Mann. W. 
M. A new ant from Porto Rico. |91J 21: 440-441. ill. 
*Santschi, F. Fourmis de Cuba et de Panama. | Rev. Ent., 
Sao Paulo] 1 : 265-282, ill. Rau, P. An additional note on 
the behavior of hibernating Polistes wasps. [7] 24: 515- 
518. Smith & Haug. An ergatandrous form in I'onera 
opaciceps. [7] 24: 507-509, ill. 

Dr. Holland's New Butterfly Book. 

THE BUTTERFLY BOOK, new and revised edition by \Y. J. 
HOLLAND, Sc.D., etc., Doubleday, Doran and Co., New York, 
1931. 436 pp. and 77 plates and numerous text figures with 
over 2000 figures of North American Butterflies. $10. net. 

The first edition published in 1898 described and figured 
about 450 of the then known 650 species of butterflies flying 
north of the Mexican line. The present volume has been 
brought up to date and all of the known species are included, 
involving 25 additional color plates and 4 uncolored. 

Dr. Holland has had unusual access to the principal collec- 
tions in America and through the cooperation of the leading 
lepidopterists of the country has been able to figure, in addi- 
tion to the types contained in his own Edwards Collection, 
practically all of the types or typical butterflies of the North 
.America Fauna. Dr. Holland is to be congratulated on com- 
pleting this tremendous work and launching it on his 82nd 
birthday. ( )nly the students will know the amount of pains- 
taking labor involved, a labor of love, however, as all will recog- 
nize who have met this learned, kindly gentleman. This book, 
while offered as a popular work, containing information on the 
life history, collecting, classification and literature of the sub- 
ject with lucid descriptions of the species, but free from un- 
necessary discussion, is, however, a remarkably scientific work, 
indispensable to the student and specialist, and this volume of 
the Dean of American lepidopterists will be consulted as long 
as men and women are interested in nature. 

The book is clearly and carefully printed and the colored 
plates are the best that have been produced so far. 

As to the nomenclature, Dr. Holland is conservative and has 
not accepted all of the findings of what he calls the vonnger 
school of entomologists (some of whom are grandfathers) but 
these things are frequently a matter of individual opinion and 



292 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

only time and the International Entomological Congress will 
tell. In the mean time no possible harm can come from label- 
ing a collection with the names used in the Butterfly book ; in 
fact, they are (in my opinion) far more accurate than those 
used in any recent list before me. 

The book should be in the library of every entomologist, will 
give thousands of others a knowledge of the most beautiful 
flying things in nature, and will be a great stimulus to the study 
of the most fascinating things among the insects, the Butterflies. 

ROSWELL C. WILLIAMS, JR. 



SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN INSECTS. By A. D. IMMS, M.A., 
D. Sc., F.R.S. The Dial Press Monographs on Biological Sub- 
jects. Lincoln MacVeagh, The Dial Press, Publishers. New 
York. MCMXXXI. Pp. ix, 117, 20 illustrations. $1.50 
This little volume contains a very condensed account of the 
main features of the nervous structures and of the habits of 
the wasps, bees, ants and termites, including a brief presenta- 
tion of current theories of the evolution of the social habit 
and of the origin of the castes and forms occurring in the social 
species. It will be of use to those wishing to obtain some 
acquaintance with the subject without expending the time re- 
quired to read the more extensive accounts available. In dis- 
cussing "organic memory", the author has chosen rather poorly 
in citing as an example (on p. 103) the observation of 
von Biittel-Reepen that honey-bees will be seen in buckwheat 
fields only during those hours of the day when nectar secretion 
is occurring ; the assumption being that the bees remember these 
hours from one day to the next. This phenomenon, as von 
Frisch has so carefully demonstrated, is better explained on 
the basis of known instinctive behavior reactions. Bees will 
cease visiting a source of nectar whenever it becomes difficult 
or impossible to secure a load. Occasional bees, however, will 
continue to visit at intervals even an exhausted source, and 
whenever one or more bees return from such an "inspection", 
filled with nectar, their appearance in the hive "informs" (in 
a manner described by von Frisch) the other habitues of that 
particular source that nectar is again flowing. Thereupon the 
latter resume their foraging activities which had ceased with 
the temporary exhaustion of the nectar supply. The absence 
of some account of the work of von Frisch, which has been 
so enlightening as regards the mechanism of social behavior as 
to be beyond comparison with much of the arbitrary theorizing 
of other recent authors, seems to the reviewer to be a serious 
omission. Such an account could profitably have displaced other 
topics less germane to the general subject. The volume con- 
tains no bibliography but mention is made of the principal books 
and memoirs pertaining to social insects. R. G. SCHMIEDER. 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 293 

OBITUARY. 

The death of CHARLES DURY on July 20, 1931, in his eighty- 
fourth year, after a few days' illness, has removed from the 
ranks of American entomology one of its oldest workers. His 
interests were, however, broader than the branch in which he 
specialized and by which he is best known among entomologists. 
He belonged to that old-time group of naturalists so few in 
these days of specialization whose studies embraced the whole 
field of natural history. In this broader field, his chief interest 
lay in ornithology ; many published papers attest to his careful 
observations of birds. 

Charles Dury was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, November 14, 
1847, the son of Francis W. Dury and Louisa M. Gibson. In 
1862, Francis Dury settled in the suburb of Avondale (now a 
part of Cincinnati) and in the immediate vicinity of the original 
Dury homestead, Charles Dury passed the remainder of his 
long and active life. 

Mr. Dury early acquired a taste for natural history, and in 
those days, his immediate surroundings offered ample oppor- 
tunity for the development of his studies. His first active work 
was in ornithology. To his field observations he added a study 
of taxidermy, and about 1867, opened a shop for that work, 
which he carried on some forty years. Many beautifully 
mounted birds and mammals show his skill in taxidermy, for 
which he received a number of competitive awards. Early in 
life he attended the Miami Medical College, but did not carry 
his studies to completion. 

Entomology later increasingly claimed his time and atten- 
tion, and his collection of insects, particularly of Coleoptera, 
brought together from all part of the world, is for North Amer- 
ican forms, one of the finest and most complete in this country. 
This collection is left to his son, Ralph Dury, now Director of 
the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Although he published a number of papers on North Ameri- 
can Coleoptera and described many new species, these but poorly 
represent the extent of his knowledge and the wealth of his 
observations in his chosen field. An authority on the Coleop- 



294 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

tera, it is the regret of his friends and fellow students that he 
could not be induced to publish his observations more freely. 

An indefatigable collector and observer of nature, Mr. Dury 
acquired a fund of first-hand knowledge. The benefit of his 
experience he was always ready to give to others, and through 
advice and encouragement started many young students along 
the path to success. The writer of this article will never forget 
the sympathetic aid given her at the beginning of her entomo- 
logical studies by this veteran entomologist, nor the opportunity 
for the exchange of ideas throughout many years. 

Among the intimate friends of a long lifetime were such 
scientists as Alfred Russell Wallace, E. D. Cope, Spencer F. 
Baird, George Horn, John L. LeConte, Robert Ridgway, Elliot 
Coues, and a host of others. Entomologists throughout the 
country will mourn his passing. 

Mr. Dury held membership in many scientific societies. He 
was a charter and life member of the Cincinnati Society of 
Natural History, its curator of ornithology and entomology, its 
secretary in 1912 and its president from 1914 until his death. 
The oldest member and a life member of the Cuvier Press 
Club, he was the custodian of their collection, a generous donor 
to the collection, and the preparator of nearly all of the speci- 
mens. He had served as president and as secretary of the 
Ohio Academy of Science ; and on the advisory board of the 
Audubon Society. He was' a former member of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and at the time of 
his death, a member of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 

His straightforwardness and integrity of character won for 
him the respect of all ; he was a gracious teacher and a faithful 
friend. 

Surviving him are his widow, Mrs. Pearl Welch Dury ; two 
sons, Ralph and Arthur ; a daughter, Mrs. Louise Hippert, and 
two grandsons. To these, his friends and fellow scientists offer 
their sympathy in the loss they have sustained. 

ANNETTE F. BRAUN. 

(In Proc. Junior Soc. Nat. Sciences 2 (3) : 53-55, Cincinnati, 
' Ohio, July-Sept., 1931.) 



xlii, '31] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 295 

Published Writings on Insects by Charles Dury. 

(From the list of his writings in the same Proceedings, pp. 
60-63, and the Bibliographies in C. W. Leng's Catalogue of the 
Coleoptera of America, North of Mexico, 1920, and Supplement 
of 1927. Except where otherwise stated, they were published in 
the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History.) 
Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Observed in the vcinity of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Vol. I, No. 1, pp. 12-23, 1878. 
List of Coleoptera Observed in the Vicinity of Cincinnati. 

Vol. II, No. 4, pp. 162-178, 1879. 
Coleoptera of the Vicinity of Cincinnati. Vol. V, No. 3, pp. 

218-220, 1882. 
Notes on Coleoptera, with additions to the List of the Coleoptera 

of Cincinnati. Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 91-92, 1884. 
Mordellidae in the Vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio. Vol. XV, 

No. 3 and 4, pp. 123-126,' 1892. 

What I found in nest of Field Mouse. Vol. XV, p. 183, 1892. 
The Preparation and Care of Insect Collections. Vol. XVII, 

No. 3, pp. 173-180, 1894. 
Coleopterological Notes, Faunal Changes in the Vicinity of 

Cincinnati, Ohio. Vol. XIX, No. 4, pp. 139-141, 1898. 
A Butterfly, New to Cincinnati (Callidryas cubule Linn.). 

"Tomato Worm" Parasites (Apantclcs congregates.} Botys 

pcnitalis Grote. "Squirrel Bot Fly" (Cutcrcbra emasculator.} 

Parasites on the Common Rabbits (Lcpus syfaaticus Bach.). 

Vol. XIX, No. 4, pp. 142-146, 1898. 

Beetles and Random Notes. Vol. XIX, pp. 167-172, 1900. 
A new Calandrid from Cincinnati, Ohio. Vol. XIX, No. 8, pp. 

243-244, 1901. 
A Revised List of the Coleoptera Observed near Cincinnati, 

Ohio, with Notes on Localities, Bibliographical references and 

Description of Six New Species. Vol. XX, No. 3, pp. 107- 

196, 1902. 
Ecological Notes on some Coleoptera of the Cincinnati Region. 

Including, Six New Species. Vol. XX, No. 7, pp. 251-256. 

1906. 
Additions to the List of Cincinnati Coleoptera. Vol. XX, No. 7, 

pp. 257-260, 1906. 

Ecological Notes on Insects. Vol. XXI, No. 2, pp. 61-63, 1910. 
New Species and Additions to the List of Cincinnati Coleoptera. 

Vol. XXI, No. 2, pp. 64-67, 1910. 
New Coleoptera from Cincinnati, Ohio. (Family Endomv- 

chidae). Vol. XXI, No. 3, pp. 102-103, 1912. 



296 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '31 

A New Cychrus from New Mexico. Vol. XXI, No. 3, p. 104, 

1912. 
A New Rhipidandrus (Coleoptera) from Florida. Vol. XXI, 

No. 4, p. 168, 1914. 
Natural History Notes of Southern Arizona. Vol. XXII, No. 1, 

pp. 4-13, 1916. 
Two New Beetles from Cincinnati, Ohio. Vol. XXII, No. 1, 

pp. 14-15, 1916. 
Synopsis of the Coleopterous Family Cisidae (Cioidae) North 

of Mexico. Vol. XXIII, No. 2, pp. 1-27, 1917. 
Note on Anophthahnus. ENT. NEWS, IX, p. 202, 1898. 
Note on Galeruca. ENT. NEWS, XIV, p. 146, May, 1903. 
Notes on Coleoptera (On Melasini). ENT. NEWS, XV, pp. 52- 

53, Feb., 1904. 
An Interesting New Agrilus from Cincinnati, Ohio. ENT. 

NEWS, XIX, p. 368, Oct., 1908. 
Marching Through Georgia. ENT. NEWS, XX, pp. 392-394, 

1909. 
Some New Beetles from North Carolina with Ecological Notes. 

ENT. NEWS, XXII, pp. 273-275, 1911. 
Notes on Several Species of Coleoptera with some account of 

habits. Canad. Ent, X, pp. 210-211, 1878,. 
A new Ciside Genus with New Species from Manitoba. Can. 

Ent., LI, p. 158, 1919. 
On the Occurrence of Omophron robustum, Dacne ulkei and 

Coptodera acrata near Cincinnati. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., 

I, p. 56, 1878. 
What I Found Under a Pile of Grass. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., 

IX, No. 5, pp. 101-103, Dec., 1914. 
Lepidocricus herricki Pierce. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., XVIII, 

p. 27, 1923. 
Note on Anamorphus. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc., XIX, p. 25, 

1924. 
Blaps mucronata Latr. in Cincinnati, Ohio. Bull. Brookl. Ent. 

Soc., XXIII, p. 180, 1928. 
Elateridae in the Vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio. Entom. Amer., 

IV, pp. 163-164, 1888. 
Natural History Rambles in the Cumberland Mountains. Nature 

and Culture, V, 1912. 

Insects That Carry Disease. Lancet-Clinic, 1913, pp. 1-8. 
On Cioidae. Journ. N. York Ent. Soc., XXII, pp. 172-173, 

1914. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LXII. 



( * indicates new genera, species, names, etc. ) 
AI.DKICII, J. M. A new Entomological Journal in South 

America 230 

ANONYMOUS. A new Entomological Journal in England. . 231 

A scarcity of specialists 191 

Additions to the Index to Vol. XLI. 1930 28 

Bibliographia Odonatologica 246 

Congratulations to Dr. L. O. Howard 203 

Dr. A. B. Klots at Rochester, New York 219 

Mr. F. H. Benjamin at the U. S. National Museum. . . 230 

Ohituaries : Comstock, John Henry 152 

Hine, James S 96 

Philiptschenko, Jurius 95 

Ris, Dr. Fritz 96 

Viereck, Henry Lorenx 268 

Wasmann, Father Eric. S. J 240 

Published Writings on Insects by Charles Dury 295 

The C. F. Adams Collection of Diptera 25 

BARBER, H. G. Change of address 5, 79 

BARRINCF.K, P. B. Bites, by Aphis Lion 83 

BELL, E. L. A new species of Hesperiidae from Jamaica, 

British West Indies (111.) 220 

BKOCAERT, J. Ceratopogonine Midges on wings of Odonata 82 
Xote on Odvncnis bcnniidcnsis, with a description of 

the male 277 

IliRD, l\. I). The- nymph of Enallagma basidens, Calvert 

(Ills.) ' 276 

BRADLEY, J. C. A correction 130 

P>u.\r\. A. F. ( tbituary : Dury. Charles 293 

297 



298 INDEX 

BROWER, A. E. Recapture of marked Cutworm Moths 
in a trap lantern (with tables) 44 

BURKE, H. E. Another Entomological Society 219 

BYERS, C. F. Dixie Dragonflies collected during the sum- 
mer of 1930 (table and list) 113 

CALKINS, V. F. Papilio delimits Boisd. in Scott County, 
Kansas Ill 

CALVERT, P. P. A list of the existing Entomological Soci- 
eties in the United States and Canada 126 

Bites by Aphis Lion 83 

Editorial: To authors of papers published in the NEWS 171 
Editorial : Entomology at the Convocation Week Meet- 
ings 56 

Obituaries : Emerton, James H 95 

Ris, Dr. Friedrich (portrait) 181 

Reviews : A Laboratory Guide to the study of the wings 
of Insects; 2 Suggestions for the Instructor; 3 The 

venation of Insect wings 238 

Reviews : Demons of the dust 123 

The African Republic of Liberia and the Belgian Congo 93 
The teaching of the Principle of Homologies to Elemen- 
tary Classes in Biology, and the use of Phylogenetic 

series in the Laboratory 238 

Thomas Say, early American Naturalist 90 

CARRUTH, L. A. The Meloidae of South Dakota 50 

CARTWRIGHT, O. L. Digger Wasps and Buprestidae .... 269 
CAUDELL, A. N. Notes on Blattidae, adventive to the 

United States 204 

CHAMBERLIN, J. C. Parachernes ronnaii, a new genus and 

species of False Scorpion from Brazil (Ills.) 192 

CHAMBERLIN, R. V. A new Milliped of the genus Fon- 

taria from Mississippi 78 

On a collection of Chilopods and Diplopods from Okla- 
homa (Ills.) 97 

COCKERELL, T. D. A. Contemplated trip to Africa 167 

Review: Recent advances in Entomology (plate) 209 

COLE, A. C., JR. Typha Insects and their parasites (with 
tables) 6, 35 



INDEX 299 

A correction 140 

COTTERMAN, C. W. Archilcstcs iii Ohio 64 

CRAMPTON, G. C. A claim for priority in dividing Ptery- 
gotan Insects into two sections on the basis of the posi- 
tion of the wings in repose, with remarks on the rela- 
tionship of the Insect Orders 130 

CRESSON, E. T., JR. Descriptions of new genera and 
species of the Dipterous family Ephydridae. Paper IX. 104 

Paper X 168 

Notes on the Abstersa-Group of the genus Tephritis, and 

a description of a new species from California 3 

(see also Mackey, L. S., and Cresson, E. T., Jr.) 
DAWSON, R. W. Report of .two cases of Metathetely in 

Polyphemus larvae, T elect pfflyphemus Cramer. (Ill-) 125 
DORNFELD, E. J. A night-flying Butterfly and some un- 
usual locality records 287 

FALL, H. C. Review: The Fabrician types of Insects in 
the Hunterian Collection at Glasgow University (Coleop- 

tera, part 1 ) 263 

FINCH, C. Obituary: Comstock, John Henry 153 

FROST, S. W. New species of West Indian Agromyzidae 72 
GRAENICHER, S. Some observations on the biology of the 

Sarcophaginae 227 

GUNDER, J. D. Bookseller's separates 257 

HALL, D. G. A new Sarcophaya from South Carolina 

(111.) 217 

New Texas Sarcophaginae (111.) 280 

HASKIN, J. R. Some unusual occurrences of Butterflies 

in Connecticut 201 

HATCH, M. H. The status of Leng's Classification of the 

Coleoptera 76 

HEBARD, M. The races of Diapheromera z'dici (111.) . . . . 65 

HORST, E. G. Rex Research Foundation 286 

KENNEDY, C. H. Obituary: Hine, James Stewart 177 

KLOTS, A. B. The generic synonymy of the North Ameri- 
can Pieridae 

KNOWLTON, G. F. Notes on Utah Heteroptera and Hom- 
optera 40, 68 



300 INDEX 

KRAUTH, E. Parnassins in the Black Hills, South Dakota 257 

LAURENT, P. Notes on Trcnicx columba Linn 67 

LENG, C. Review : Bradley 's Manual of the genera of 

Beetles 88 

LEUSSLER, R. A. A new Mclitaca from Oregon 12 

LIST, G. M. Rocky Mountain Conference of Entomol- 
ogists 267 

MACKEY, L. S., and CRESSON, E. T., JR. Entomological 

Literature 29, 59, 84, 119, 141, 172, 205, 232, 258, 288 

MACY, R. W. A new Oregon Butterfly (111.) 1 

MARSTON, L. C., JR. Dynast cs tityus Linn, in Delaware 28 
MONTGOMERY, R. W. Notes on some Butterflies of North- 
eastern Georgia 109 

MUSGRAVE, P. N. A Coleopterous enemy of Corydalis 

cornuta L 202 

O'BYRNE, H. A recent occurrence of Catopsilia pJiilea 

Joh. in Missouri 15 

OCHS, G. Relationships of the Gyrinidae 55 

PARK, O. Abnormal antenna in Elcodcs (111.) 112 

PARKER, R. L. Obituary: Crevecoeur, Ferdinand F 212 

PATE, V. S. L. A new Belomicrus from the West 77 

PAYNE, N. M. Food requirements for the pupation of 
two Coleopterous larvae, Synchroa punctata Newm. and 

Dendroides cauadeiisis Lee. (with tables) 13 

PETERS, H. S. A new Louse from domestic Chickens (111.) 195 
RAU, P. Notes on the homing of several species of Wasps 199 

The night flight of Diurnal Butterflies 24 

REHN, J. A. G. Entomology of the Convocation Week 

Meetings, Dec. 29, 1930, to Jan. 3, 1931 57 

On Mela-no plus borealis in Northern Labrador 33 

REINHARD, H. J. A new species of two-winged Kly be- 
longing to the genus Acronarista 26 

RICHARDS, A. G., JK. Noctuidae of northern Georgia and 

Tennessee (with list of species) 247, 271 

Sub-sub-specific names in Lepidoptera 213 

RITCHER, P. O. An undescribed species of Simuliid larva 
and the corresponding pupa (111.) 241 



INDEX 301 

ROBERTS, R. An improvised spreading board for small 

Moths 25f> 

ROBERTSON, C. Oligolectic Andrenidae 226 

RODECK, H. G. Unusual numbers o t f Diapheromera vclici 

Walsh ' 2 

SCHMIEDER, R. G. Review: Social behavior in Insects. . . 292 
SMITH, M. R. An additional Annotated List of the Ants 

of Mississippi 16 

SNYDER, W. E. A new experience 141 

TALBOT, G. The naming of individual variants in Lepid- 

optera 80 

THOMAS, C. A. The predatory enemies of Elateridae. 137, 158 

TIETZ, H. M. Caiopsilia pliilcu in Pennsylvania 279 

VANSELL, G. H. Flight of Corixids 270 

VIGNON, P. Review: Introduction a la Biologic Experi- 

mentale 176 

WIESMANN, R. The Composition of the head of Insects. . 28 
WILLIAMS, R. C., JR. On some Northern Lepidoptera 

Rhopalocera 157 

Review: Dr. Holland's new Butterfly book 291 

WILLIAMS, S. H. Cerambycinae from Kartabo, Bartica 
District, British Guiana (list of species and synopsis of 

four related genera) 222 

WILLIAMSON, E. B. Archilcstcs ynuulis Ramb. in Ohio 63 

Common names for Dragonflies 46 

Review: A contribution to the knowledge of Florida 
Odonata 145 



302 



INDEX 



GENERAL SUBJECTS 

Abnormal antenna 112 

Additions to Index, Vol. xli, 

1930 .28 

Animals, Predatory 163 

Author's Proofs 171 

Biologic Experimental 176 

Birds, Predatory 159 

Bookseller's Separates 257 

Bowdoin-Baffinland Expedi- 
tion 33, 157 

California Entomological Club 219 
"Convocation Week" meet- 

56 



ings 



Demons of the dust 123 

Entomological Journal, New, 

in England 231 

Entomological Journal, New 

South American 230 

Entomological Literature 29, 

59, 84, 119, 141, 172, 205, 

232, 258, 288. 
Entomological Societies, List 

of U. S. and Can 126, 219 

Entomology, Recent advances 

in 209 

Hosts, Plant 226 

Infestation, Plant... 6, 35, 50, 67 
Indian Insects, Catalogue ...... 55 

Insects, Composition of the 

head of 28 

Insects, Fossil 212 

Insects, Published writings by 

Chas. Dury 295 

Insects, Social behavior of... 292 

Insects, Typha 6, 34 

Liberia and the Belgian Congo 93 

Metathetely 125 

Naming of Variants 80, 213 

Parasites, Insect, 

6, 35, 82, 137, 158, 195, 202 

Plants, Insectivorous 124 

Principle of homologies and 

phylogenetic series 238 

Pterygotan Insects, Priority 



claim in dividing 130 

Pupation, Food requirements 

for 13 

Reptiles, Predatory 158 

Rex Research Foundation .... 286 
Rocky Mountain Conference.. 267 

Say, Thomas, Naturalist 90 

Specialists, Scarcity of 191 

Wings of Insects, Guide to 

study of 238 

Wings of Insects, Venation of 238 

OBITUARY NOTICES 

Comstock, J. H 152, 153, 156 

Crevecoeur, F. F 212 

Dury, C 293 

Emerton, J. H 95 

Mine, J. S 96, 177 

Philiptschenko, J 95 

Ris, F 96, 181 

Viereck, H. L 268 

PERSONALS 

Abbott, C. E 58 

Adams, C. F 25 

Arbethnot, K. D 268 

Beamer, R. H 58, 268 

Benjamin, F. H 230 

Britton, W. E 58 

Brues, C. T 57 

Bunn, R 268 

Clark, A. H 57 

Cockerell, T. D. A 167 

Cowan, F. T 267 

Curran, C. H 57 

Davis, E. W 268 

Davis, J. J 57 

Davis, L. G 268 

Dean, G. A 268 

Dietrich, H 57 

Felt, E. P 57 

Fulton, B. B 57 

Gaige, F. M 63 

Griswold, G. H 57 

Hamlin, J. C 268 



INDEX 



303 



Holland, W. J 58, 157 

Howard, L. 203 

Howe, E. W 268 

Hungerford, H. B 57 

Jones, C. R 268 

Jones, L 268 

Kelly, E. G 268 

Kirtland, J. P 57 

Klots, A. B 219 

List, G. M 268 

Mackie, A 167 

Marshall, G. A. K 191 

McCampbell, S. C 268 

Mclndoo, N. E 58 

McMillan, G. B 33 

Metcalf, C. L 58 

Needham, J. G 57 

Newton, R 268 

Osborn, H 57 

Palmer, M. A 268 

Palmer, S. C 33, 157 

Parker, R. L 268 

Patch, E. M 57 

Quayle, H. J 58 

Reeves, G. 1 268 

Rehn, J. A. G 57 

Sherman, F 58 

Smith, R. C 268 

Tulloch, G. S 58 

Weed, A 57 

Whitehead, F. E 268 

Wilbur, D. A 268 

Wilson, F. H 58 

Wilson, J. W 57 

REVIEWS 

Bradley : A Laboratory guide 
to the study of the wings 
of Insects 238 

Manual of the genera of 
Beetles 88 

Suggestions for the Instruc- 
tor 238 



The teaching of the prin- 
ciple of Homologies to 
elementary classes in Biol- 
ogy, and the use of Phylo- 
genetic series in the Labor- 
atory 238 

The venation of Insects' 

wings 238 

Byers : A contribution to the 
knowledge of Florida Odon- 

ata 145 

Holland: The Butterfly Book 291 
I nuns: Recent advances in 

Entomology 209 

Social behavior in Insects.. 292 
Ochs : Relationships of the 

Gyrinidae 55 

Staig : The Fabrician types of 
Insects in the Hunterian 
Collection at Glasgow Uni- 
versity (Coleoptera, Part 1) 263 
Strong : The African Repub- 
lic of Liberia and the Bel- 
gian Congo 93 

Vignon : Introduction a la 

Biologic Experimentale .... 176 
Weiss and Ziegler : Thomas 
Say, early American Natur- 
alist 90 

Weismann : The composition 

of the head of Insects 28 

Wheeler : Demons of the 
dust 123 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

DISTRIBUTION 

Arizona: Odon. 178. Orth. 204. 
California : Dip. 3, 5, 283. Hem. 

270. Hym. 77. Lep. 201. Odon. 

49, 178. Orth. 204. 
Colorado: Orth. 2, 65. 
Connecticut: Dip. 108. Lep. 201. 
District of Columbia : Col. 203. 

Neur. 203. Orth. 204. 
Delaware : Col. 28. 



304 



INDEX 



Florida : Dip. 26, 219, 227. Hem. 

58. Hym. 9. Lep. 9. Odon. 

114, 145, fossil 151. Orth. 204. 

Georgia: Lep. 109, 247, 271. Odon. 

114. 

Idaho: Lep. 9. Hym. 9. 
Illinois : Dip. 242. 
Kansas: Lep. 111. Orth. 65. 
Louisiana : Dip. 27, 178. 
Massachusetts: Dip. 108. 
Maryland: Dip. 106, 107. 
Maine: Arach. 138. Col. 139. 

Dip. 106. 
Michigan : Col. 36. Dip. 35. Hem. 

37. Hym. 9, 36. Lep. 9. Orth. 

37. 
Minnesota: Col. 13. Dip. 4. 

Orth. 204. 

Mississippi : Hym. 16. Myr. 78. 
Missouri: Lep. 15, 24. Hym. 199. 
Montana : Lep. 9. Hym. 9. 
North Carolina: Odon. 114. 
Nebraska: Lep. 125. 
New Hampshire : Dip. 105. 
New Jersey: Col. 139. Dip. 4. 
New Mexico: Col. 112. Dip. 5. 

Orth. 65. 
New York: Dip. 106, 108, 241. 

Lep. 44. 
Ohio: Dip. 107, 108. Hym. 10. 

Lep. 10. Odon. 63. 
Oklahoma: Odon. 276. Orth. 65. 
Oregon: Dip. 105. Lep. 1, 12. 
Pennsylvania : Dip. 4. Hym. 67. 

Orth. 204. 
South Carolina: Col. 140, 269.' 

Dip. 140, 219. Hym. 269. Odon. 

114. 
South Dakota: Col. 50. Dip. 4. 

Lep. 257. Neur. 171. Orth. 65. 
Tennessee: Col. 28. Lep. 247, 271. 

Odon. 114. 

Texas: Dip. 5, 280. Orth. 65. 
Utah: Hem. 40, 68. 
Virginia : Neur. 83. 



Washington: Col. 140. Dip. 104, 

106, 140. Lep. 13. 
Wisconsin : Lep. 287. 
West Virginia: Col. 202. Neur. 

202. 

Africa: Dip. 82, 123. Odon. 82. 
Alaska: Dip. 179. 
Asia: Acar. 191. Col. 55. Dip. 

123, 168. 
Canada: Col. 139. Lep. 157. 

Orth. 33. 
Central America: Dip. 170, 178. 

Odon. 178, 186. 
Europe: Acar. 138. Dip. 123. 

Lep. 188. 

Hawaii: Col. 139. 
Mexico: Dip. 124, 168, 285. 

Odon. 178. 
South America : Arach. 192. Col. 

139, 222. Dip. 170, 286. 
West Indies: Dip. 72, 124, 169. 

Hym. 277. Lep. 220. 

ACARINA 

Lcptns (phalangii) 

Mites, Oil Palm 191 

Parasitidae 137 

phalan-ci'n, Leptns 137 

fihyllo.rcrac, Rhisogly'phus . . . 138 
Rhisoglyphus ( phylloxeras) 

Trombidiidae 137 

Tyroglyphidae 137 

umbilica, Uropoda 137 

Uropoda (mnl'ilica) 

Uropodidae 137 

ARACHNIDA 

alaus, Chclifcr 138 

Chelifcr (alaus) 
Chcrncs (inichaclsoiii ) 

michaclsonl, Chcrncs 194 

Paracherncs* (ronnaii) 
Pencetia (viridans) 

ronnaii*, Paracherncs 192 

viridans, Pencetia 138 



INDEX 



305 



COLEOPTERA 

Agonoderus (pallipcs) 
Agriotes (lincatus, manciis, ob- 

scurns) 
Alans (oculatns) 

amcricanns, Mcloc 54 

Anthicidae 202 

Anthicus (ccri'inns, cinctus, 

haldcmanni, hcroicns, pnbcs- 

ccns) 

ati'ipcnnis. Zonitis 54 

atcrima, Paria canclla 36 

hadipcs, Staphylinus 139 

Beetle, Mexican Bean 58 

Beetles, Manual of genera of 88 

bicolor, Ncmognatha 55 

bignttata, Lytta 54 

bilincata, Zonitis 54 

brcvicollis, Ncbria 139 

Broscus (ccphalotcs) 

Buprestidae (list of species) . . 270 

calceatus, Ophonns 139 

Calcndra (pcrtina.r) 

californicus, Linwnius ....139, 162 

callosa, Epicanta 52 

Calosoina (cancellatnin) 

canadensis, Dendr aides 13 

cancellation, Calosoina 139 

Carabidae 139 

carbonaria, Elcodcs 112 

ccphalotcs, Broscus 139 

cen'inus, Anthicus 203 

Chrysomelidae 36 

Cicindela (purpitrca, ritfivcn- 

tris) 

Cicindelidae 138, 141 

cine tits, Anthicus 203 

cincrea, Epicanta 52 

Classification, Status of Leng's 76 

confcrtns, Henous 54 

conjnsnm, Tribal in in 126 

coiniiutnis, Mclanotus 138 

corvina,, Epicanta 52 

Curculionidae 36 

dakotana, Pyrota 51 



Dcndroidcs ( canadensis) 

depressus, Pasimachns 265 

Dynastcs (tityns) 

Elater (obscnrns, ruficandis) 

Elateridae 137 

Elcodcs (carbonaria) 

engelmanni, Pyrota 51 

Epicanta (callosa, cincrea, fcr- 
riKjinca, Icmniscata, macu- 
lata, pennsylvanica, scricans, 
trichrus) 

Fabrician types 263 

fcrrnginca, Epicanta 51 

Food requirements for pupa- 
tion 13 

Gnathiitni ( minimum ) 

Gyrinidae 55 

haldcmanni, Anthicus 203 

Henons (confertus) 

heroicus, Anthicns 202 

Horistonotus (nlilcri) 

immacnlata, Macrobasis 53 

innnacnlata, Ne-mognatha .... 55 

lemniscata, Epicanta 52 

Limonius (californicns, pilosns, 
snbanratns) 

lineatus, Agriotes 139 

lividus, Moiwcrcpidins 139 

Incitblandns, Poccilus 139 

Inrida, Ncmognatha 54 

hitca, Ncmognatha 55 

Lytta (bignttata, niittalli, 

sphaericollis) 

Macrobasis (iininacnlata, inn- 
rina, scymcntata, nnicolor) 

inacnlata, Epicauta 52 

mad i Jus, Stcropns 139 

mancus, Agriotes 13<S 

Melandryidae 13 

Melanotns (communis) 
Mcloc (a'incricanns) 

Meloidae 50 

minimum, Cnathiitin 54 

Monocrepidius (Ih'idns, rcs- 
pertinus) 



306 



INDEX 



Mononychus (vitlpcculus) 

murina, Macrobasis 53 

Ncbria (brevicollis) 
Nemognatha (bicolor, immacu- 

lata, lurida, lutea, nigripcn- 

nis, palliata) 

nigripcnnis, Nemognatha 55 

Notaris (puncticollis) 

nuttalli, Lytta 54 

obscunis, Agriotcs 163 

obscurus, Elatcr 137 

oculatus, Alans 137 

Ophonns (calccatns) 

palliata, Nemognatha 55 

pallipes, Agonodcrus 266 

Paria (aterinia) 
Pasimachus (depresses) 

Pennsylvania, Epicauta 52 

pertinax, Calcndra 36 

pilosus, Liinonius 139 

Poecilus (lucublandus) 

pubcsccns, Anthicus 203 

punctata, Synchroa 13 

puncticollis, Notaris 36 

pur pur ea, Cicindcla 141 

Pyrochroidae 13 

Pyrota (dakotana, cngclinauiii) 

riificaudis, Elatcr 137 

rufiventris, Cicindcla 138 

Scaphinotus (unicolor) 

Scarabaeidae 28 

Scarites (subtcrrancus) 

scgnicntata, Macrobasis 54 

scricans, Epicauta 52 

spliacricollis, Lytta 54 

stansburyi, Tricrania 54 

Staphylinidae 139 

StaphyUiuts ( bad i PCS) 
Stcropus (inadidus) 

sitbanratits, Liinonius 140 

subterrancus, Scarites 139 

Synchroa (punctata) 

Tenebrionidae 112 

tityus, Dynastcs 28 

Tribolium ( confusinn ) 



trichrus, Epicauta 51 

Tricrania (stansburyi) 

uhlcri, Horistonotus 138 

unicolor, Macrobasis 53 

unicolor, Scaphinotus 265 

vespertinus, Monocrcpidins. . . . 138 

vulpeculus, Mononychus 36 

Zonitis (atripcnnis, bilincata) 

DIPTERA 

abstcrsa, Tcphritis 3 

Acronarista (connttti, mirabi- 

lis) 

acutangula, Tcphritis 4 

Acdcs (cgypti) 

acnca, Chactopsis 35 

acstuans, Era.v 158 

Agromysa (conunclinac, in- 

acqualis, ipomacae, maculosa, 

parvicornis, plumiscta ) 

Agromyzidae 72 

aldrichi, Psiloccphala 140 

aincricana*, Hydrcllia 106 

angiistifacics, Stcnochthcra . . . 170 
Anopheles (jiincstus, ganibiac) 
Aphiochacta (chactonciira) 

Asilidae 140 

baia* } Ochthcra 169 

bastardi, Promachus 158 

brevipcnnis, Proctacanthus . . . . 140 

bitllata, Sarcophaga 227 

cancsccns*, Ochthcra 168 

chuctoncura, Aphiochacta 36 

Chactopsis (acnca) 

Chironomidae 82 

clavis, Macrosargus 35 

Collection of C. F. Adams... 25 
Comasarcophaga* ( tc.rana ) 

conunclinac*, Agromyza 72 

comstocki, Vermileo 123 

cornuta*, Acronarista 26 

Corodonta (dorsalis) 

crassipcs*, Hydrcllia 107 

Cule.r (quinqitcfasciatus) 
Culicidae . .25, 94 



INDEX 



307 



dcccns, Hydrcllia 107 

dorsalis, Corodonta 36 

Drosophila sp 36 

egressa, Thcrcva 140 

egypti, Aedes 94 

Ela cli iptcra ( n igriceps ) 

Ephydridae . . ." 57, 104, 168 

Erax (aestuans) 
Exorista (larvarnm) 

fairchildi, Vcrmitigris 123 

fitchii, Promachits 158 

Fossil Diptera 211 

floridcnsis, Sarcophaga 227 

Fruit Fly, Mediterranean.... 58 

fitncstns. Anopheles 96 

gambiac. Anopheles 96 

hclicus, Sarcophaga 228 

Horseflies of Louisiana 178 

Hydrcllia (aincricana, crassi- 
pes. dcccns, inorrisoni, noti- 
philoidcs, platygastra, pitl/a. 
serena, subnitcns) 

impar, Sarcophaga 227 

inacqualis, Agromyza 75 

ipoinaeac*, Agromyza 74 

Lamproinyia spp 123 

laruarum, Exorista 9 

loreta*, Ochthcra 168 

Macrosargus (clavis) 

inacitlosa, Agromyza 76 

Masiccra (scnilis) 

tnirabilis, Acronarista 26 

morrisoni*, Hydrcllia 105 

imnida. Psiloccpliala 140 

Miiscina (stabulans) 

Mycetophilidae 25 

nig rice ps, Elachiptcra 36 

nii/rita, Stunnia 11 

notiphiloidcs*. Hydrcllia 108 

nox*, Sarcophaga 217 

occidna, Sarcophagula 227 

Ochthcra (baia, canescens, lor- 
eta, paintcri, wrighti) 

opacus, Vermilco 123 

paintcri*, Ochthcra 169 



Parasites 39 

parvicornis, Agromyza 76 

pedunculata* , Sarcophaga .... 284 

pictipennis, Psiloccphala 140 

Platychirus (quadratus) 

platygastra^, Hydrcllia 105 

plinthopyga, Sarcophaga 227 

plitiniscta, Agromyza 76 

Proctacanthus (brcvipcnnis) 
Promachits (bastard i, fitchii) 
Psiloccphala (aldriclii, innnda, 
pictipennis) 

/>////*, Hydrcllia 108 

qnadratits, Platychirus 35 

quinqucjasciatns, Cnlcx 94 

rcgalis, Stenochthcra 170 

Sarcophaga (bitllata, floridcn- 
sis, helicns, impar, nox, pc- 
dnncnlata, plinthopyga, sccl- 
esta, semimarginalis, sinyn- 
laris, sternodontis, u'elchi) 

Sarcophagidae 217, 227, 280 

Sarcophagidae, larval food. . . . 227 
Sarcophaginae, Biological ob- 
servations 227 

Sarcophagula (occidna) 
Sarothromyia (simplex) 

scclcsta*, Sarcophaga 285 

seiniinarginalis*, Sarcophaga.. 283 

scnilis, Masiccra 11 

serena*, Hydrellia 104 

simplex, Sarothromyia je-mor- 

alis 227 

Simuliidae 241 

Siinnlinin (i-ittatnin ) 

singnlaris, Sarcophaga 227 

stabulans, Muscina 11 

Stenochthcra (angnstifacics, 
regalis, triornata) 

sternodontis, Sarcophaga 227 

Sturmia (nigrita) 

subnitcns*, Hydrcllia 106 

Syrphidae 179 

Tabanidae 94 

Tachinidae .... 26 



308 



INDEX 



Tcphritis (abstcrsa, acutan- 

gula, ivolffi) 

texana*, Comasarcophaga 280 

Thcrcva (egressa) 

Therevidae 140 

Tipulidae 94 

triornata, Stenochthera 170 

Trypetidae 3 

vermileo, Vermileo 123 

Vcrmilco (comstocki, of>aqits, 

vermileo) 
Vermitigris ( fa irch ildi ) 

vittatnm, Simuliiim 241 

u'olffi*, Tcphritis 5 

Worm-lions 123 

ivrighti*, Ochthcra 169 

HEMIPTERA 

Adelphocoris (supcrbus) 
Anasa (tristis) 

antevolcns, Anthocoris 68 

Anthocoridae 68 

Anthocoris (antevolcns) 

Aphididae 140 

Aphis (avenae, gossypii) 

arundinis, Hyaloptcrus 37 

Atomoscelis (modcstus) 

avenae. Aphis 37 

ballii, Thripsapliis 37 

Belostomidae 69 

Campylomma (vcrbasci) 

carneola, Dikraneura 72 

Carpocoris ( rcmotus ) 

cassini, Tibicen 58 

Chermidae 72 

Chlorochroa (congrua, sayi, 
uhleri) 

Cicadellidae 71 

Cicadidae 69 

Cimex (lectnlariits) 

Citnicidae 43 

cincrea, Picsma 43 

cockerelli, Paratrioza 72 

comes, Erythroncura 72 

communis, Helochara 71 



congrua, Chlorochroa 41 

Coreidae 42 

Corisclla ( dispcrsa ) 

Corixidae 69, 270 

cnstator, Thyanta 41 

Cydnidae 40 

dai'isi, Tibicen 58 

dccoratus, Gcocoris pollens . . . 43 

dianthi, Rhopalosiphnm 37 

Dikraneura (carneola) 

dispcrsa, Corisclla 270 

elisus, Lygns pratensis 68 

cricae, Nysius 42 

Erythroncura (comes) 
Eitphalcnis (rcrinicitlosits) 
Enschistus ( inflates, servns, 

variolarius) 
Eutetti.i- (tcncllus) 

ferns, Nabis 43 

fra.Yinifolii, Prociphilns 68 

Fulgoridae 72 

Geocoris (decoratits) 

Gerridae 69 

gossypii, Aphis 37 

granarium, Macrosiplunn .... 37 
Hcliria (rnbidella) 
Helochara (communis) 

lies perns, Lygns pratensis 68 

Heteroptera, Utah (list of 

species ) 40, 68 

Homoptera, Utah (list of 

species) 69 

Hyaloptcnts (arundinis) 

inflatits, Euschistus 41 

Ischnorhynchits (reseda c) 

lectularins, Cimcx 43 

Lcioscyta ( tcstacca ) 
Lcptocoris (trivittatus) 

limbolarius, Pcribalns 40 

Lygaeidae 42 

Lygns (elisus, liespcrus, pra- 
tensis) 
Macrosiplnim (granarium) 

Membracidae 70 

Miridae 68 



INDEX 



309 



inodesta, Publilia 

inodestus, Atomoscclis 

Nabidae 

Nabis (ferns) 

Neididae 

Notonectidae 

nymphacae, Siphocorync 

Nysius (cricac) 

pacified, Stictoccphala 

Paratrioza (cockerel I i) 

Pentatomidae 

Pcribalns ( liinbolarius) 

pcrsicae, Rhopalosiphum 

Phymatidae 

Picsina (cincrca) 
Plagiognathus (politus) 

politus, Plagiognathus 

pirmaria, Typhlocyba 

pratcnsis, Lygits 

Prociphilus (fra.rinifolii) 
Publilia (inodcsta) 

Reduviidae 

reinotns, Carpocoris 

resedae, Ischnorhynchus 

Rhopalosiphum (dianthi, pcr- 

sicae ) 

rubidclla, Hcliria 

mficomis, Trigonotylus 

rngulosa, Thyanta 

sayi, Chlorochroa 

Scutelleridae 

septemdecim, Tibicen 

scrims, Eitschistus 

Siphocoryne (nymphacae) 
Stictocephala ( pacifica) 

sitpcrbits, Adclphocoris 

tettclliis, Eutctti.r 

tcstaccu, Lcioscyta ferrugini- 

pcnnis 

T/iripsapliis (hallii) 
Thyanta (custator, ritf/ulosa) 
Tilnccn (cassini, davisi, scp- 

tondecini) 

Tingididae 

Trigonotylus (ntficornis) 



71 tristis, Anasa 42 

gg trivittatus, Leptocoris 42 

43 Typhlocyba (ponwria) 

uhleri, Chlorochroa 41 

42 variolarius, Euscliistits 41 

59 I'crbasci, Campylomma 69 

37 rennicitlosits, Euphalerus .... 72 

viridis, Xerophloca 71 

71 Xerophloca (viridis) 



40 



HYMENOPTERA 



albopilosuin, Trypoxylon 200 

37 Alciodcs (intcnncdius) 
43 Ancistrocerus (fulvipcs) 

ancylivora, Macroccntrus 9 

Andrenidae, Oligolectic 226 

68 Ant, Argentine 140 

72 Ants 240 

68 Apantclcs (ciiictifonnis) 

Aphaenogaster (carolincusis) 

a it ri pcs, C Morion 200 

43 Beekeepers Association, Ohio. 180 
41 Bclomicnts (franciscus) 

37 beniiitdensis, Odyncnts 277 

beittcninueneri, Dolichoderus 

plagiatus pustitlatus 22 

71 bicolor, Eurytoma 36 

68 Bicyrtes (qitadrifasciata) 

41 Braconidae 94 

41 brevicornis, Lasius 23 

40 caementarium, Sceliphron ...9, 200 
58 Camponotus (discolor, obli- 

41 <iuits) 

Carolina, Stictia 269 

carolincnsis, Aphaenogaster tc.r- 

68 ana 17 

71 Casi>iaria (genuina) 

Cerceridae 2o9 

71 Ccrccris (fiiniipoinis, inandi- 
bitlaris) 

Clilorimi (aitripcs) 

Chrysididae 199 

Chrysis (liniinifera, sp. ) 
43 cinctiformis. Apantclcs 10 

clavatum, Trypoxylon 200 



310 



INDEX 



claviger, Lasius 23 

columba, Trcmc.v 67 

Diauliiuis (pulchripcs) 

discolor, Camponotus caryac.. 22 

Dolichodems (bcutcnmuclleri) 

Dorylinae 16 

Eciton (me.ricanum ) 

El is (Carolina) 

Eurytoma (bicolor) 

flavits, Leptothora.v pcrgandei . 18 

floridensis, Leptothprax pcr- 

gandci 18 

Formicinae 22 

Formica (intcgra ) 

foveoloccphala, Stcnaiinna .... 17 

francisciis*, Belomicrus 77 

fith'ipes, Ancistrocerus 200 

fitmipcnnis, Ccrccris 269 

genuina, Casiiiaria 9 

inqiiisitoriella, Pimpla 9 

Integra, Formica tnincicola . . . 22 

intcnnediiis, Alciodcs 9 

lamia, Phcidolc 21 

laininifcra, Chrysis 199 

Larval wasp food 269 

Lasius (brevicornis, clavigcr) 
Leptothora.Y (flaz>iis, floridan- 

us, spinosus, wheeleri") 
Macrocentrus (ancylivora) 

mandibtilaris, Ccrccris 269 

mexicannm, Eciton 16 

mobilcnsis, Solenopsis globit- 

laria 20 

Monobia (quadridcns) 
Myrmica (spatiilata) 

obliqiius, Camponotus 23 

Odyncrus (bcrnntdcnsis, palac- 

ophilus) 

ornata, Strumigcnys 19 

palacophilus, Odyncrus (fossil) 212 

pallipcs, Polistcs 200 

Parasites 38 

pergandci, Solcnopsis 20 

Pheidolc (lamia) 

pilinasis, Strnm'ujcnys clypcata 19 



Piinpla (inqiiisitoriella) 
Polistcs (pallipcs) 

pitlchripcs, Dianlimts 39 

quadridcns, Monobia 200 

qitadrifasciata, Bicyrtcs 269 

Rogas (stigmator) 
Sccliphron (cacmcntariitin) 

Siricidae 67 

Solenopsis (mobilcnsis, pcr- 

(/andei) 
spatnlata, Myrmica schcncki . . 21 

Sphecidae 77 

Sphegoidea 199 

spinosus, Leptothora.v pcnjan- 

dci-floridanus 19 

stcnainma (jovcoloccphala) 
Stictia (Carolina) 

stigmator, Rogas 9 

striatidcns, Tctranioriiim 21 

Strumigcnys (ornata, pilinasis) 
Tctramoriuni (striatidcns ) 
Trcmc.v (colnmba) 
Trypo.vylon (albopilosuin, clav- 

atit'in ) 

Vespidae 277 

Vespoidea 199 

zvhcelcri, Leptothora.v 18 

LEPIDOPTERA 

Acronyctinae 250 

Acllopos (titan) 

Agaristidae 287 

Agrotinae 248 

albovcnosa, Arsilonclic 9 

alopc, Cercyonis 110 

Alypia (langtoni) 

amphidusa, Colias ciirytheine . . 201 

Anarta (richardsoni) 

Apatela (oblinita) 

aquilo, Plcbius 157 

Archanara (subcarnca) 
Archips (obsolctana) 

Arctiidae 275, 287 

Arctiinae 275 

Argynnis (cybele, diana) 



INDEX 



311 



Arsilonchc (albovcnosa) 

arctica, Oeneis scmidca 157 

Arzama (obi i qua) 

astyana.r, Basilarchia 110 

Bactra (inaiorina) 

Baileya (ophthalmica ) 

Barnes Collection 58 

Basilarchia ( astyana.r ) 

biselliella, Tincola 57 

Blcptina (sangamonia) 

Brenthis (butlcri, improba, 
polaris, tarqiiinius) 

butlcri, Brenthis 157 

Butterflies of Northeastern 
Georgia 109 

Butterflies, Unusual occur- 
rences of 201, 287 

Cacoecia (rosaccana) 

carditi, Cynthia 110 

carncicosta, Panapoda rufi- 
maruo 272 

Catocalinae 271 

Catopsilia (ciibnlc, philea) 

ce crops, Strymon 110 

Cercyonis (o/o/v ) 

Characoma (nilotica) 

Choranthus (lilliae) 

claitdia. Euptoicta 110 

cocnia, Jnnonia 110 

Coleophara sp 10 

Colias (amphidnsa, eurytlicmc, 
nastes, pel id nc, philodicc) 

eoinyntas, Ereres 110 

Cuculliinae 249 

cybclc. Art/ynnis 110 

Cynthia, (canliti, In/nlem) 

Danaidae 109 

Dtinais (plexippus) 

daitntts. Papilio Ill 

diana, Argynnis 110 

Dicymolomia (jiiliaiiulis) ..24, 287 

Diane (vanillac) 

Diurnal Butterflies, night 
flight 24, 2S7 

Drepanidae 276 



Endothaenia (hcbcsana} 

Erastriinae 252 

Erebinae 272 

Ercsia (rossi) 
Eublamma ('inininiti ) 

eitbitle, CatopsUia 109 

Euparthenos (nubilus) 
Euptoicta (claudia) 

eurythcine, Culitis 109 

Euteliinae 252 

Evcrcs (cotnyntas) 

fcinlcri*, Plebcjns maricopa... 1 

f/cinina, Neonympha 110 

Geometridae 276 

Glaucopsychc (pseudargiolus ) 

Hadeninae 249 

hcl'csana, Endothaenia 10 

Hesperidae 110, 220 

heu'esi*, Melitaea 12 

huntcra, Cynthia 110 

Hypeninae 273 

liypophlcas, Lycacna 110 

iniproba, Brenthis 157 

jnlianalis, Dicymolomia 11 

Jitnonia (cocnia) 

Lacosomidae 276 

langtoni, Alypia 287 

Lacosomidae 276 

landabilis, Polia 249 

Icciitima, Polia 249 

len, Spratjncia 252 

lilliae*, Choranthus 220 

lisa, Tcrias 109, 202 

Lycacna (hypophlcas) 

Lycaenidae 110 

f.yiniKiccia (phragmitella ) 

Macronoctua (onnsta) 

inaf/nits, Parnassiits s-niinthciis 257 

maiorina, Bactra 11 

Marked Cutworm Moths 

(tables) 45, 46 

inclinns, Strymon 110 

Melitaea (hncesi) 

ATicropterygidae (fossil) 211 

minima. Eitl'laniina 252 



312 



INDEX 



miscra, Oligia 250 

mitographa, Oxycilla 273 

nanus, Parnassius sminthcus.. 257 

nastcs, Colias 157 

Neonympha (gemma) 

New Butterfly Book... 291 

nicippc, Tcrias 109 

nilotica, Characoma 271 

Noctuidae 44, 247 

Nolinae 275 

Nonagria (oblonga, subflava) 

norna, Oeneis 157 

Notodontidae 275 

mtbilis, Euparthcnos 271 

Nymphalidae 12, 201, 287 

oblinita, A pat da 9 

obliqua, Arzama 11 

oblonga, Nonagria 10 

obsolctana, Ar chips 11 

Oligia (miscra) 

Oeneis (arctica, norna, tay- 

</ctc) 

onnsta, Macronoctua 8 

ophthalmica, Bailcya 271 

ornatrix, Utcthcisa 287 

Oxy cilia (mitographa} 
Panapoda (carncicosta) 

Pantheinae 272 

Papilio (daitnus, philenor, pol- 

y.renes, troilits, turnus) 

Papilionidae 109, 111 

Parahypcnodcs (quadralis) 
Parnassius (magints, nanus) 

pclidne, Colias 157 

philea, Catopsilia. .15, 201, 279, 287 

philenor, Papilio 109 

philodice, Colias 201 

phragmitella, Lymnaccia 10 

Phyciodes (tharos) 

Pieridae 15, 109, 201, 279 

Pieridae, generic synonymy... 253 

Picris (protodicc, rapac) 

Plebeius (aquilo) 

Plebejits (fcnderi) 

plexippus, Dana-is 109 



Plusiinae 272 

polaris, Brcnthis 157 

Polia (landabilis, Icgitima} 
Polyphemus larvae, Metathe- 

tely 

polyphcmus, Tdca 125 

polyxcncs, Papilio 109 

protodicc, Picris 109 

pseudargiolus, Glanco psyche ... 110 

Pyralidae 276 

quad rails, Parahypcnodcs 273 

rapac, Picris 109 

richardsqni, Anarta 157 

rosaccana, Cacoccia 11 

rossi, Ercsia 157 

ritisa, Trichoclea 249 

sangamonia, Blcptina 274 

Sarrothripinae 271 

Saturniidae 125 

Satyridae HO 

Sphingidae 287 

Spragncia (leo) 

Spreading board 256 

5 'try man (cccrops, inclinns) 

Sub-sub-specific names 213 

subcarnea, Archanara 10 

subflava, Nonagria 10 

tarqitiniiis, Brcnthis 157 

taygetc, Oeneis 157 

Telea (polyphcmus) 
Tcrias (lisa, nicippc) 
Tincola (bisclliclla) 

titan, Adlopos 287 

tliaros, Phyciodes 110 

Trichoclea (ruisa) 

troilus, Papilio 109 

tnrnns, Papilio 109 

Utcthcisa (ornatri.v ) 
Fancssa (virginicnsis) 

vanillac, Dionc 110 

Variants, Naming individual . . 80 

virginicnsis, Vanessa 287 

MALLOPHAGA 

caponis, Lipeurits 195 



INDEX 



313 



dissimilis, Goniodcs . . . 195 

gallinac, Menopon 195 

(joniocotcs (holngastcr) 
Goniodcs ( dissiin His ) 
heterographus, Lipeurus. . . .58, 195 

liolni/astcr, (joniocotcs 195 

lawrcnsis, Lipeurus 199 

Lipeurus (caponis, hclcrn- 
graphus) lawrettsis, tropi- 
cal is} 
Mcnopon (gallinac} 

Philopteridae 195 

tropicalis*, Lipeurus 195 

MYRIOPODA 

birdi*, Eurymerodesmus 101 

Chilopoda, list of Oklahoma 

species 97 

Diplopoda, list of Oklahoma 

species 98 

Eurymerodesmus (birdi, miin- 

dus) 
F ontaria (lanicllidcns ) 

lamellidens*, Fontaria 78 

mundus*, Eurymerodesmus . . . KIJ 

oklahoniac*, Spirobolits 98 

Orthoporus (wichitanus) 
Spirobolits (oklahomae) 

ivichitanus* , Ortlwporus 99 

Xystodesmidae 98 

NEUROPTERA 

Aphis Lion 83, 171 

Chrysopidae 83, 171 

cornnta, Corydalis 202 

Corydalis (cornuta) 

Sialididae 202 

ODONATA 

Aeshna (uinbrosa] 

Aeschninae 115 

Agrion (diniidiatuni, macula- 
turn) 

Agrioninae 116 

Agrionidae 63, 64, 276 



.lua.r (junius, zvalsinghami) 

Archilcstcs (grandis) 

(iniuitus. Dromogomphus .... 119 

arteriosa, Trithemis 82 

aiisfralis. Gomphus 148 

halteaht, Macrodiplax 146 

basidcns, Enallagnia 276 

bclla, Nannothemis 49, 151 

be re nice, lirythrodipla.r 148 

Bibliographia Odonatologica 246 
Ceratopogonine midges on wings 82 

civile, Enallagina 64 

Coenagrioninae 117 

Corduliinae 115 

Coryphacschna ( iiu/cns) 

credula, Ischnura 146 

Dragonflies, common names... 46 

Dragonflies, Dixie (list of 
species) 112 

diinidialuiii, Agrion 146 

Dromogomphus (annatns ) 
Dytheiuis ( rufiucrvis} 

clongata, Soinatochlora 118 

Eiiallafjina (basidens, civile) 
Epiaeschna (hcros) 
Erythrodipla.r (berenice, iniu- 

uscula, uuibrata) 
Erythcinis (siuiplicieollis) 

jcrntginca, Orthcinis 146 

Florida Odonata 145 

tieoriiina, Macrninia 118, 146 

Gomphinae 114 

Gomphus (australis) 

i/niudis, Archilcstcs 63, 64 

hcros, Epiaeschna 49 

ingens, Coryphacschna 49 

I . icli n lira (credula, ramburii. 

I'crticalis) 

1 11 n ins. .hia.r 49, 64 

Lcstcs ( rcctangularis ) 

I.estinae 116 

Libellulinae 115, 184 

linearis, Soinatoclilora 146 

longipennis, Pachydiplax . . .49, 147 
Macrodipla.v 



314 



INDEX 



Macromia (gcorgina, taenio- 
lata) 

maculatum, Ayrion 146 

microstigma, Orthctntm 82 

iniiutscnla, Erytkrodiplax 148 

Nannothemis ( bclla ) 
Orthemis (ferrugined ) 
Orihctrum (microstigma ) 
Pachydiplax (loin/ipcnnis ) 

ramburii. Ischmtra 146 

rcctangularis, Lcstcs 146 

Ris Collection 190 

rufinervis, Dythcmis 150 

salva, Telcbasis 49, 146 

simflicic oil-is, Erythcmis 147 

Somatochlora (cloiigata, line- 
ar is} 

Sympetrnm (vicinum ) 
Tachoptery.v (thorcyi) 

tacniolata, Macromia 118 

Telcbasis (salra) 

thoreyi, Tachoptery.v 146, 151 

Trithcmis (arteriosa) 

nmbrata, Erythrodiplax 146 

umbrosa, Aeshna 64 

verticalis, Ischnura 64 



vicinum, Sympctrum 64 

ivalsinyhami , Anax 49 

ORTHOPTERA 

aztcca, Holocompsa 204 

Blattidae 204 

borcalis, Melanoplus 33 

Capucinclla (delicatula) 

caraibea, Eurycotis 204 

Composition of the head 28 

Conoccphalus spp 37 

delicatula, Capncinella 204 

Diaphcromcra (fcmorata, me- 
sillana, veliei) 

dimidiata, Eurycotis 204 

Eurycotis (caraibea, dimidiata) 

jasciatus, Nctnobius 57 

fcmorata, Diaphcromcra 65 

Hcmiblabcra (tenebricosa) 
Holocompsa (aztcca, nitidula) 
Melanoplns (borcalis) 
mcsillana, Diaphcromcra reliei 65 
Nemobius (jasciatus) 

nitidula, Holoco-.npsa 204 

Phasmidae 2 

tenebricosa, Hemiblabcra 204 

reliei, Diaphcromcra 2, 65 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOLUME XL1II, 1932 




JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, 1849-1931. 
Portrait of 1884. 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, PH. D., EDITOR 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS : 
E. T. CRESSON, JR. R. G. SCHMIEDER, PH. D. 



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PUBLISHED BY 
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1932 



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Subscriptions for 1932 now Payable. 

JANUARY, 1932 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLIII 



No. 1 




JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, 1849-1931, 
Portrait of 1884. 



CONTENTS 

Parker Notes on a Collecting Spot in France and a Chalcid Larva 

(Stilbula cynipiformis Rossi). (Hymenop. ; Eucharidae). . . . 
Payne Duration of the Pupal Stage of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus at 

Constant and at Alternating Temperatures (Coleop. : Tenebri- 

onidae) ....... ............ 

Klyver Biological Notes and New Records of North American Cher- 

midae (Homoptera) ....... .... 

Rodeck Nomada amorphae Swenk in Colorado fHym. : Nomadidae) 
Rolfs Some Malformations Noted in Genitalia of Phyllophaga (Cole- 

optera : Scarabaeidae) . . . ......... 

O'Byrne A Melanic Female of Colias eurytheme (Lepid.: Pieridae) . 
Wickwire Notes on the Larval Stages of Melanchroia cephise (Lepid. : 

Geometridae) .......... ....... ... 

Park Abnormal Antennae in Tragidion (Coleop.: Cerambycidae). . 
Sherman Booksellers' Reprints ................ 

U. S. Department of Agriculture " Termite Treatment " Frauds . . 
Elson Some Observations on the Predatory Habits of Vespula diabo- 

lica (Hymen.: Vespidae) ................... 

Entomological Literature .................... 

Obituary Andrew Gray Weeks, Jr ................. 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLIII. JANUARY, 1932 No. 1 

Notes on a Collecting Spot in France and a Chalcid 
Larva (Stilbula cynipiformis Rossi). 

(Hymenop. : Eucharidae). 

By H. L. PARKER, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. 

High in the Gapeau Valley near the old convent of Mon- 
trieux before the clear waters of this 'stream come out on to 
the plains below Solies Ville where they are sopped up by 
the thirsty irrigation ditches they jump along through shady 
lanes for several miles. Here and there cold springs rush out 
from the moss and ivy-covered banks to join the passing waters 
on their downward journey. 

At a certain point which I well know, having visited it many 
times, there is a small plain where the narrow valley tries to 
widen out but is prevented by the tree-covered hills. It lies 
snug at the foot of the steep hills on one side and close against 
the river on the other, and the river lies close to the opposite 
hill. 

Along the banks of the stream, even in August, all things are 
fresh and cool. The moss is soft, the ferns are rank, and the 
ivy twists around every trunk. Ten yards farther out there 
are dogwood bushes, wild plums, roses and brambles, clematis 
and small oaks with a carpet of grass tufts thrown in carelessly 
among them. Farther away from the stream by twenty yards 
the carpet changes to a thick layer of spiny genet in order to 
hide the ragged edges of the limestones which have lain in their 
beds for a thousand years. Here the Spanish broom and the 
spiny calycotome hold their usual lordly place among the mac- 
quis and over the whole is the vague dryish provenqale en- 
chantment of mid-summer. Moving from the banks of the 
stream to the foot of the hill is like passing from one clime to 
another. Here the dragonflies play and coveys of small moths 
rise from the ferns, there the cigales sing praises to the heat 
and the great "eyed" lizard* suns itself on the Spanish broom. 

l 

JAN 15 13:2 



2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

To say that this spot is a collector's paradise would be some- 
what of an exaggeration. It is a good collecting place for a 
student in any order. Beetles and bugs abound, moths and 
caterpillars are everywhere. The big tents of the pine pro- 
cessionary dot the plain and their nests are full of parasites, 
the dogwood leaves hide Iponomeuta and she in turn is host 
to thousands of chalcids. The dead limbs are full of Xylocopa 
nests abounding in cocoons of the rare Polochrum parasite. 
Two species of bumble bees have their nests in spots which I 
well know, the undersides of the limestone rocks are thick with 
wasp nests, and their holes and crevices bear colonies of sympa- 
thetic little Lcptothorax. Formica 1 nests are as high as my 
knee and large areas are roped off for use by the ferocious 
Camponotus " while their cousins, the dark-loving aethiops, 
have built themselves mud nests in the midst of every grass 
tuft or beside every stone. The closer I look the smaller they 
become. Here is the little Phcidolc pallidiila, its tiny neighbors 
Plagiolcpis pygmaca, Tctramorium caespitutn, and minute Sol- 
enopsis fuga.v and their nests abound in inquilines 3 and strange- 
built proctotrypids. 

Here then is a fine spot, and it is good to work here and to 
browse here and to sit here and think, but it is better still to 
sit here and do nothing. Here at dusk of a summer's evening 
I can hear the distant axes of the charcoal burners and bark 
takers, I can hear the twelve Chartreux monks, first to come 
from their long exile home to their monastery high on the 
hillside, chant with lusty lungs their praises to the friendly 
forests of pine and cork oak. 

But back to the plain; if I have wandered away from the 
subject I have not wandered from the plain and for the balance 
of this harangue we must keep in the second zone about fifteen 
yards from the stream until we finish our work there, when 
we adjourn to the microscope. 

Here, if I go under the bushes and brambles, and open one 

* L. ocellata sometimes attains the length of 2^4 feet. 

1 F. rnfa. 

z cruentatus. 

3 Solcnopsis imitatrix Wasm. (et al). 



xliii, '32] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



of the mud nests of C. acthiops at this time of year, I will most 
certainly find cocoons in abundance in the burrows and cham- 
bers near the top of the nest. I must be quick to gather them, 
however, else the population will seize upon them and disappear 
into the darkness below. 

Upon examining the cocoons I find that they are of several 
sizes. There is, rarely, a huge one probably bearing a queen, 
there is a somewhat smaller one bearing wingless workers with 
big heads, another of about the same size bearing winged forms, 
probably the males, and still smaller ones bearing the smaller 
and more abundant workers. In some nests one variety of 
cocoon will be present almost to the exclusion of others such 
for example as small workers while in another nest most of 
the cocoons will be winged forms. 

The rare parasite Stilbula cynipifonni*; lives as a larva in 
the cocoons of this ant, where it sucks the contents from the 





bodies of the large-headed worker and the winged form. How 
the small larva of the Stllutla gets into the nest is a mystery, 
but it does get there, for I have found it upon a larva of the 
ant within the cocoon. The illustration (fig. 1) shows a young 
larva (first stage) near the end of its feeding period, located 



4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

on the side of an ant larva. The next illustration (fig. 2) 
shows a larger (last stage) Stilbula attached in its character- 
istic manner to the abdomen of an ant pupa. Sometimes they 
are attached to the right side and sometimes to the left, but all 
that I have seen on pupae are attached somewhat ventrally. In 
this position the Stilbula larva completely empties the ant pupa, 
leaving the skin a white and useless shell. 

I have given elsewhere * a description of the young Stilbula 
larva but I shall say here that it is an extremely small animal 
whose body is composed of a dark head with two hooked man- 
dibles and seven brownish ringlike segments with an eighth or 
terminal spinous segment. So far as I can see it has no spir- 
acles or tracheae. When this larva has stuffed itself with the 
juices of the ant its body becomes a thousand times more vol- 
uminous than when it hatched, and it is so bloated that the 
dark rings composing the segments are widely separated, owing 
to the stretching of the skin. 

When the skin is finally shed the next-stage larva, which I 
have not observed except from the remains, is apparently a 
rather oval whitish blotch without visible segmentation. It 
appears to have weak mandibles (fig. 2a), some tracheae, and 
two pairs of spiracles as well as several transverse rows of tiny 
spines on the skin. 

The last-stage larva (fig. 3) is a large whitish oval affair 
with its rather globular head bent somewhat ventrally. It is 
absolutely without segmentation except for the head and ter- 
minal segment, which latter is a small spherical tubercle (fig. 
3 as). The body is soft and flabl>y and at no time have I ever 
seen a larva contract or contort its body as hymenopterous 
larvae often do. I have been unable even with the aid of a 
powerful microscope to observe the slightest sign of tegument- 
ary muscles ; and while I am not willing to affirm that there are 
not any, for fear there be some, I will say that if they are 
present they are reduced to the stage of tiny almost invisible 
fibres or else they have never developed beyond this stage. 
Whatever be the case, I can say that the larva of this animal 

* Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., Vol. XVIII, No. 3, p. 394. 



xliii, '32] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



is more nearly deprived of body muscles than any other Chalcid 
larva I have ever seen. 

The head of this parasite larva is prominent enough, and is 
set off from the body by a slight constriction. Usually a larva 
of this order of insects will have certain distinguishing marks 
on its head such as a hard rim above the mouth, stiff cheek- 
plates, and maxillae or else labium and sometimes antennae, 



hlo 



w 



\n 



It 




and sutures. This one has nothing except a slight depression 
which is the mouth and two weak mandibles (fig. 3/? ) but of 
the other organs there is no sign. 

The back and sides for a way down are covered with small 
tubercles, and along each side is a row of eight open spiracles 
(fig. 3 JT/>) by which air is obtained, or else let out. or both; I 
have also observed a tracheal trunk (//) on each side of i he- 
body and branches of various sizes but 1 can not place the 
bifurcations of these branches where they quit the main trunks. 
Inside the body 1 can also see the nervous system, or a part 
of it consisting of the brain (/>;) and a short ventral nerve 
chain (nc). There is a large stomach or mid intestine (mil) 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

filled with material, and fat lobes are present. In the head 
various structures can be seen as a whole but they can not 
very clearly be discerned separately and the same is true of 
the hind intestinal region. I have therefore put nothing in 
these areas in the drawing. In the one whole and stained speci- 
men of Stilbula which I have I can not discern separately the 
salivary glands and malpighian tubes. The pads which will 
later form the legs and wings can be seen easily (hbl, hbw). 

Thus it would appear that this insect has three larval stages. 
I have not observed a single individual grow from the first 
stage to the adult but the cast skins left by a larva during its 
development are invariably plastered into the skin of the ant 
pupa, one above the other, the smallest being near the spot where 
the feeding hole (and there is only one feeding hole) is lo- 
cated. If they are boiled and spread out in liquid gum arabic 
they can be pulled apart to a considerable extent and this is 
how I came by my present opinion. 

The ants apparently do not harm the parasite but care as 
tenderly for the parasitized cocoon as for the other ones. The 
female is allowed to issue and go her way unmolested to the 
outer world where in late July and early August she can be 
found sitting on grass blades and bushes in the plain beside the 
upper Gapeau and often at dusk the writer also can be found 
sitting close by. 

1 ^ 

Duration of the Pupal Stage of Tenebrio molitor 
Linnaeus at Constant and at Alternating Tem- 
peratures (Coleop.: Tenebrionidae). 

By NELLIE M. PAYNE. 

According to Uvarov (1931), few data exist on the effect 
of alternating temperatures on insect development. Therefore 
these results which were obtained with mealworm pupae will 
probably be of some interest. Temperature was controlled to 
within 1 degree Centigrade. Relative humidity was con- 
trolled by drawing air through an atmosphere of definite 
moisture content. In the temperature chambers there was free 
circulation of air. Freshly formed pupae which were never 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 7 

more than four hours old and generally two were used. Results 
obtained were as follows : The figures indicate the number of 

days required for pupation. 

Alternating Temperature 

Constant Temperature ( Alternated every 24 hours ) 

Temper- Relative Humidity Temper- Relative Humidity 

atures 60% 40% atures 60% 40%" 

15 30 33 20, 30 10 

20 14-16 25, 35 7 8 

25 9 13 15, 25 13 20 

30 6-7 15, 30 11 

35 6 7 

Pupae exposed to alternating temperatures generally devel- 
oped somewhat faster than would be predicted from their de- 
velopment rate at constant temperatures. 

LITERATURE CITED. 
UVAROV, B. P. (1931) Insects and Climate Trans. Ent. Soc. 

London 79: 1-247. 



Biological Notes and New Records of North 
American Chermidae (Homoptera). 

By F. D. KLYVER, San Mateo Junior College, San Mateo, 

California. 

The writer is indebted mainly to the following individuals, 
to each one of whom he here wishes to express his thanks, for 
the material on which the following new North American Cher- 
midae (Psyllidae) records are based: Professor G. F. Ferris, 
Stanford University; Dr. P. N. Annand, Sugar Beet Insect 
Investigations, United States Bureau of Entomology ; Mr. G. 
F. Knowlton, Agricultural Experiment Station, Logan, Utah; 
Mr. V. E. Romney, United States Bureau of Entomology, 
Mesilla Park, X. M.; Mr. H. Jl. Keifer, Curator Entomology 
Laboratory, California State Department of Agriculture; Mr. 
L. E. Myers, State Plant Board, A. & M. College, Mississippi; 
and Dr. Carl D. Duncan, Stanford University. 1 The biological 

1 Additional new records are to be found in the following papers by 
the writer: Chermidae From Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, Including 
Three New Species: Pan-Pacific Entomologist 7:131-143, 157-158; Jan- 
uary, 1931. New records and T\v> New Species of Chermidae from 
British Columbia and YYaslinmton, With r.iolci-jiral .Votes: Pan-Pacific 
Entomologist 8:11-17, July 1931. 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

notes here included are, with very few exceptions, based upon 
field observations made by the writer in California and Nevada 
during the past two years. 

HOST PLANT RELATIONSHIPS OF THE CHERMIDAE 
Since there apparently exists at the present time no definite 
statement of chermid host plant relationships it seems desirable 
to. suggest the following criteria. 

With very few exceptions the individual species of Cher- 
midae have not been demonstrated to have as hosts any but 
closely related plant species, in the sense that a host is defined 
as a plant upon which the insect feeds at some stage of its 
existence. In the majority of cases definite proof of such 
feeding exists only for the nymphs, in fact, it apparently re- 
mains to be definitely proven that the adults feed at all. Para- 
triosa cookerelli is known to feed in its nymphal stages on a 
number of widely separated host plants. 

Many chermid species have been taken as adults from an 
almost infinite variety of plants and these plants have been 
recorded as hosts, although there exists no evidence that the 
insects actually feed upon them, the plants perhaps serving 
more or less accidentally merely as shelters. For the purpose 
of emphasizing the biological connections, the term host is here 
restricted to plants upon which the insect is actually known to 
feed, as proved by the presence of the nymphs, while the ex- 
pression nominal host is used to designate a plant from which 
a chermid has been taken without proof of its feeding upon 
that plant. Field observations indicate that the adults of cer- 
tain species of chermids are found predominatingly on different 
plants at different times of the year. When proof is available 
that these adults actually feed upon different plant species, the 
plant upon which a chermid feeds as an adult but does not 
produce its young may be called an alternate host. 

RECORDS AND BIOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Sixty species, approximately one-third of the total number 
considered by Crawford in his monograph of the Chermidae of 
North America, are here included. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 9 

LIVIA CARICIS Crawford. IDAHO. Adults only : from un- 
known host, wet meadow, near Craters of the Moon, June 29, 

1930 (Annand) ; from unknown host, Craters of the Moon, 
same date (Annand). UTAH. Adults only: from unknown 
host, Logan, April 20, 1927 (Knowlton) ; from unknown host, 
Richmond, April 29, 1927 (Knowlton). Host: Unknown. 1 
Nominal Hosts : Carex spp. 

APHALARA CALTHAE (L.) CALIFORNIA. Adults and nymphs: 
from Polygoiiiiini aricularc, Winters, October 22, 1929 (An- 
nand). Nymphs only: from herbarium specimen of P. muhlan- 
hczci, 8 miles from Dos Palos, May 15, 1931 (Duncan and 
Merson). Adults only: from Baccharis viminea, Corral Hol- 
low, 10 miles southwest of Tracy, November 4, 1929 (An- 
nand) ; from Atriplc.r, north of Tracy, October 12, 1929 (An- 
nand) ; from pear trees, Hood, Sacramento County, April 15, 

1931 (Keifer) ; from Satix, Corral Hollow, November 30, 

1929 2 ; from Salix, south of Tehachapi, Kern County, April 13, 
1930. IDAHO. Adults only: from unknown host, Ketchum, 
July 20, 1930 (Annand) ; from unknown host, Alturas Lake, 
Stanley Basin, July 19, 1930 (Annand). 

NEW MEXICO. Adults only: from Salsola pcstifcr, 3.1 miles 
southeast of Mora, July 16, 1929 (Romney). UTAH. Adults 
only: from weed, Hooper, October 14, 1927 (Pack: Knowlton). 
Host: Polyyonmn. Nominal Hosts: C alt ha palustris, Arte- 
misia tridcntata, Salsola pcstifcr, cultivated tomatoes, weeds. 

The nymphs occur singly on the younger growth, partic- 
ularly the ventral side of the leaves, unaccompanied by con- 
spicuous wax secretion. 

APHALARA RUMICIS Mally. NOVA SCOTIA. Adults and 

nymphs: from Rum-ex., no locality data, no date (W. H. Brit- 
tain). 

Host: Rumcx. Nominal Hosts: Rnincx altissimus, Sophia 
pinnata. 

Biological data lacking. 

APHALARA SUAEDAE Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs : from Snacda, Altamont Pass, east of Livermore, Oc- 
tober 12, 1929 (Annand) ; from same host, south of South Dos 
Palos, December 6, 1929; from same host, Altamont Pass, 
November 30, 1929; from unrecorded host, Visalia, October 20, 

1930 (Keifer: F. T. Scott) ; from Simcda, Salt Wells Canyon, 

1 No biological data are given for species the nymphs of which are 
unknown. 

" Specimens recorded without the collector's name were collected by 
the writer. 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS (Jan., '32 

Inyo County, April, 1924 (Ferris). NEVADA. Adults and 
nymphs: from Dondia intermedia (?), Moapa Valley, 4 miles 
east of Glendale, April 18, 1930 (Annand). NEW MEXICO. 
Adults only : from Lepidium alvssoidcs, 16.5 miles southwest 
of Alamogordo, July 3, 1929 (Romney) ; from Artemisia 
wrightii, 6 miles west of Mule Creek, August 8, 1929 (Rom- 
ney). TEXAS. Adults only: from L. alvssoidcs, 1 mile north 
of Almo Alto, December 13, 1930 (Romney). UTAH. Adults 
only: from beets, Delta, June 24, 1927 (Knowlton). 
Hosts: Suacda spp. (- - Dondia.) Nominal Hosts: Lcpidinm, 
Artemisia., beets. 

The nymphs produce an abundance of white, cottony wax 
secretion, within which they become covered, among the 
younger branches. During the colder part of the year the 
adults may be found in this same material in a quiescent stage. 
A witches' broom effect in the younger growth is associated 
with severe attacks. 

APHALARA VEAZIEI Pach. NOVA SCOTIA. Adult only : from 
Solidago, King's County, no date (W. H. Brittain). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Host : Solidago. 

According to Crawford, this is an exceedingly variable and 
widely distributed species. 

APHALARA PULCIIELLA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults only: 
from Carc.v, 3 miles west of Corral Hollow, southwest of 
Tracy, November 30, 1929 ; from Frankcnia grandifolia, Tulare 
Lake Basin, 10 miles south of Corcoran, December 7, 1929; 
from Prosopis juliflora var. glandnlosa, Corral Hollow, May 
16, 1930; from Ccanothus cuncafus. Table Mountain, Fresno 
County, April 16, 1930. 

Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Carex, Frankcnia, Pro- 
sopis, C ca not Jiu s. 

APHALARA GUTIERREZIAE Klyver. CALIFORNIA. Adults only: 
from Gutierrczia, on desert foothills 10 miles from Coalingo, 
March 24, 1930 (Annand) ; from Chrysothamrius, Mountain 
Springs Canyon, Coso Mountains, April 12, 1930; same host, 
Red Rock Canyon, April 13, 1930. NEW MEXICO. Adults 
only : from Lepidium alyssoidcs, 3 miles east of Oro Grande, 
August 8, 1930 (Romney) ; from Salsola pest if cr, Nara Visa, 
July 28, 1929 (Romney). 

Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Gitticrrczia, Salsola, 
Lepidium., ChrysotJiamnus. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 11 

APHALARA MARTINI Van Duzee. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs : from Frankenia grandifolia, Tracy, November 4, 1929 
(Annand) ; from same host, Little Panoche Creek, west of 
Firebaugh, November 5, 1929 (Annand) ; from same host, Cor- 
coran, November 20, 1929 (Annand); from same host, salt 
marsh, San Mateo Point, San Mateo, May 5, 1929; same data. 
May 10, 1929; same data, May 19, 1929; same data, July 2, 
1929 ; from same host, Livermore Valley, northeast of Liver- 
more, November 30, 1929; same host, fulare Lake Basin, 10 
miles south of Corcoran, December 7, 1929. Adults only: 
from Atriplcx polycarpa, 1 mile west of Coalinga, December 7, 
1929; from Frankenia, same locality, December 8, 1929; from 
Saliv, south of Hanford, December 7, 1929. 
Host: Frankenia. Nominal Hosts: Atriplex, Sali.r. 

The nymphs are usually abundant on the ventral side of the 
younger leaves in which they intensify the natural revolute ten- 
dency. They are accompanied by a sticky, slightly amber- 
colored honey-dew. The chermid has the effect of dwarfing 
the younger growth. 

APHALARA (ANOMOCERA) MINUTISSIMA Crawford. CALI- 
FORNIA. Adults only: from Artemisia calif arnica, Montana, 
San Mateo County, April 3, 1931 ; from A. tridentata, Volcanic 

Tableland, north of Bishop, June 19, 1931. IDAHO Adults 

only: from unknown host, Wapi, June 24, 1930 (Annand). 
UTAH. Adults only: "feeding on sugar beet", Ogden, June 9, 
1927 (Knowlton). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Artemisia, sugar beets. 

APHALARA (ANOMOCERA) ANOMALA Crawford. NEW MEXICO. 
Adults only: from Artemisia wrightii, 6 miles west of Mule 
Creek, August 8, 1929 (Romney). 
Host : Unknown. Nominal Host : Artemisia. 
APHALAROIDA PITHECOLOBIA Crawford. NEW MEXICO. 
Adults only: from Lcpidium alyssoides, Playas, August 15, 
1929 (Romney). TEXAS. Adults only: from same host, 9 
miles from Fabens, June 18, 1930 (Romney). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts : Lcpidiitin, Pithecolobiuni. 
PAUROCEPHALA FREMONTIAE Klyver. CALIFORNIA. Adults 
and nymphs: from Frcmontia calif ornica, 2 miles west <>t 
Tehachapi, Kern County, April 13, 1930; from same host, 3 
miles east of Onyx, South Fork of Kern River, and lower Kern 
River Canyon west of Bodfish, both June 19, 1931. 
Host : Fremontia cwlif arnica. 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

This species apparently does not become abundant. The 
nymphs are found on the ventral side of the leaves. The small 
amount of wax produced is given off in the form of long, 
straight, transparent, and somewhat glistening brownish threads. 
These threads do not intermingle to form a cottony mass. 

HETEROPSYLLA TEXANA Crawford. NEW MEXICO. Adults 
only : from Lcpidium alyssoidcs, 10 miles south of State Col- 
lege, Mesilla, April 8, 1930 (Romney) ; from the same host, 
Playas, August 15, 1930; from "P-65", 10 miles north of 
Columbus, same date ; from Salsola pestifcr, 5.7 miles north of 
Gallegos, July 12, 1929 ; from same host, 26.6 miles northwest 
of Logan, same date; from same host, 1.5 miles south of 
Ranches cle Taos, July 16, 1929; from same host, 4.2 miles 
northwest of Roy, July 13, 1929; from same host, 12.7 miles 
west of Clayton, June 29, 1929 ; from same host .5 mile south 
of Almo, August 3, 1929; from same host, .5 mile south of 
Animas, August 15, 1929. TEXAS. Adults only: from L. 
alyssoidcs, 9 miles south of Fabens, April 30, 1930; from same 
host. Sierra Blanca, June 15, 1930. All the foregoing collec- 
tions by Romney. 

Host: Prosopis glandulosa. Nominal Hosts : Pithccolobiniu, 
Shpacralcca augustifolia, Monarda citriodora, Chrysopsis, 
Taniara.v gallica, Ccltis pallida. Acacia, Prosopis juliflor. 

An abundant species in its range. The nymphs are very 
imperfectly known. 

CALOPHYA TRIOZOMIMA Schwarz. IDAHO. Adults only: from 
unknown host, Shoeshone Falls, July 31, 1930 (Annand). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Host: Rhus. 

The species of this genus have been taken predominantly 
from sumac. 

KUWAYAMA MEDICAC.INIS Crawford. NEW MEXICO. Adults 
only: from Chrysothamnus, 13 miles northwest of Bernalillo, 
July 20, 1929; from Paroscla, 5 miles northwest of Bernalillo, 
same date; from Trimithciua portidacastrum, 2.5 miles east of 
Steins, August 15, 1929; from Chrysothamnus scrrnlata, 5 
miles south of Datil, August 7, 1929 ; from Lcpidium alyssoidcs, 
3 miles west of Las Cruces, November 7, 1930 ; from same 
host, 1 mile east of Mesquite, May 19, 1931; from same host, 
Mesilla Valley, June 9, 1930. All the foregoing collections by 
Romney. 

Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Medicago scttk'a, C/irvso- 
thauinus, Paroscla, Trianf/icina. 

(To be continued) 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 13 

Nomada amorphae Swenk in Colorado 
(Hym. : Nomadidae). 

H. G. RODECK, University of Colorado. 

Nomada (Microiioiuada) amorphuc Swenk was described ] 
from specimens taken at Halsey, Xebraska, July 11, 1909. and 
apparently has not been recorded since then. On July 17, 1930, 
three specimens were taken in the sand hills north of Roggen, 
Colorado. Two of them (one male and one female) seem to 
be the same as the insect described by Swenk, differing in being 
slightly smaller (6 mm. as compared with 7 mm. in the type), 
the female having no yellow spot on the supraclypeal area and 
having the mesopleural and axillary spots red, and the yellow 
of the face-marks diluted with reddish. The male has no yel- 
low line over the top of the eyes connecting the lateral face- 
marks with the oval yellow spot behind the eye, the mesopleural 
spot is divided, and the axillary spots are red as in the female. 

The third specimen (male) is like the type in having the 
axillary spots yellow, but in addition to differing in the char- 
acters mentioned above has the thorax, with the exception of 
the mesonotum, clear red like the legs. The mesonotum is 
black but is marked with indistinct reddish stains. The third 
ventral abdominal segment has irregular yellow markings. 

The original description of A T . amorphae did not include the 
wing venation which, in the above specimens, is as follows : 

Basal nervure interstitial with the nervulus. Second submar- 
ginal cell nearly as broad above as at its base, receiving the first 
recurrent nervure at about the mid-point, or slightly basad of 
it. Third submarginal cell narrowed above to about one-third 
its basal breadth, its outer margin not very strongly curved. 
The second recurrent nervure joins the base of the third sub- 
marginal cell far beyond the mid-point of the latter. 



Some Malformations Noted in Genitalia of 
Phyllophaga (Coleop.: Scarabaeidae). 

By A. R. ROLFS, 

U. S. Bureau of Entomology, Vakima, \\ash. 
In determining a collection of Phyllopluti/a taken at Ames, 
Iowa in the spring of 1929, the writer noted two very interest- 

1 Swenk, M. H., University Studies, Lincoln, Xeliraska, Vol. XII, No. 
1, January, 1912 (Issued Jan. 20, 1913). 



14 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Jan., '32 



ing "sports". These specimens, both of them males, have mal- 
formed genital organs. In one specimen the whole organ is 
double while in the other only the telnm is double. So far as 
I have been able to ascertain, this is the first record of such 
peculiarities occurring in Phyllophaga. The two species which 
these specimens represent are common around Ames and a 
number of others have been taken. I have examined many 
specimens including most of these species but have never found 
another with such peculiarity. 







Fig?, 1 and 2. Genitalia of Phyllophaga fusca Froel. 
Figs. 3 and 4. Genitalia of Phyllophaga futilis Lee. 

The first specimen, determined as Phyllophaga fusca Froel. 
(figs. 1, 2), compares with other males of this species as fol- 
lows : The tela are fused on the dorsum, a slight depression 
and a well defined suture marking the line of fusion. The 
double telum is normal in length but is wider than normal by a 
fourth. The claspers are somewhat smaller than normal. Each 
pair is compressed laterally and is fastened to the telum at an 
angle so that the whole structure has somewhat the appearance 
of a Y. In the normal male of this species the claspers, desig- 
nated as right and left claspers, differ somewhat in character. 
In this specimen the claspers resembling the right clasper of 
the normal male are both on the inside and those resembling 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 15 

the left are both on the outside. Thus the claspers of the left 
side are normal as to position while those on the right are re- 
versed in position. The posterior borders of the inside or right 
claspers are more sharply rounded and more slender than nor- 
mally. 

The second specimen, determined as Phyllophacia futilis Lee. 
(figs. 3, 4), has only the telum double with the claspers ab- 
normal as to position and shape. The tela are only partially 
fused on the dorsum, a well defined depression and suture mark- 
ing the line of fusion. The width of the combined tela is 
somewhat greater than the normal but their length is slightly 
less. The claspers, which in the normal male are narrowly 
united on the dorsum to form one solid piece, are separate. The 
cephalo-lateral portions, which are normally parallel to the body 
axis, are tipped out toward the sides and caudad so that they 
are at right angles to the body axis. The caudo-lateral portion 
of the left clasper is folded over that of the right clasper. 

Both specimens are now in the writer's collection. The 
drawings were made by Mrs. Eleanor A. Carlin of the Bureau 

of Entomology. 



A Melanic Female of Colias eurytheme 
(Lepid.: Pieridae). 

By HAROLD O'BYRXE, Webster Groves. Missouri. 

The yellow color prevalent in Colias and allied genera is an 
extremely unstable and variable character. Many shades of 
yellow and orange occur in some species, and there is in addi- 
tion a special tendency toward albinism in the females. The 
opposite condition, melanism, is much less common, and it is 
almost completely restricted to the males. However, Scudder* 
mentions two examples of females of Colias philodicc Godart 
whose wings have part of their normally yellow area obscured 
by black. He mentions none that are entirely black. 

( )n August 1, 1 ( 'JS, a melanic female of Coluis cur\tht'inc 
I'>oisduval was taken by the writer in Webster Groves, Missouri. 
This specimen has no trace of yellow, the entire upper surface 

* Scudder, S. H. The Butterflies of the Eastern United States. 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

being nearly black, and the outline of the black border and the 
pale spots within it that mark the female sex can be discerned 
only upon minute examination. The black spot on the fore 
wing can be seen, but the orange spot on the hind wing is 
obscured with black ; it is a trifle darker than the surrounding 
area. The color underneath is a little paler and the hind wings 
and apices of the fore wings are greenish. The markings on 
the lower surface are normal. The pink edge, above and below, 
is conspicuous. 

When captured, the butterfly had evidently just emerged, as 
its wings were still a little flabby ; the appearance of the abdo- 
men indicated that some time must elapse before oviposition 
could begin. For this reason no attempt was made to secure 
eggs. Therefore we are obliged, for the present, to remain 
ignorant of the genetic status of this butterfly. There is good 
ground for believing that the white females in this genus are 
Mendelian forms, but whether this is true of melanic specimens 
also must be left for future determination. 



Notes on the Larval Stages of Melanchroia cephise 
(Lepid. : Geometridae). 

By HARRIET A. WICKWIRE, Cortland, New York. 

The Winter of 1930-1931 was an unusually cold one in 
Southern Florida, and our sojourn there was disappointing so 
far as collecting was concerned ; however, we managed to obtain 
the following notes. On December 14, 1930, moths of Melan- 
chroia ccphisc were collected, as they swarmed around a hedge 
of Phyllanthus nivosus, var. rosco-pictns, at Jupiter Island, 
Hobe Sound, Florida, thus giving us our ovipositing female, 
and our only cue to the food plant. By the 15th of December 
one of their number had oviposited 55 ova. and all the moths 
were dead. 

Eygs. Date of laying, December 15; of hatching, December 
23. Shape. Obovate with lengthwise ribs, laid on one side, 
with the micropyle on top and slightly depressed. Color. Light 
olive green at first, changing to deep rose color in 4 days. Ovi- 
posited. Singly or in loose clusters. Length. 1 mm. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 17 

Larvae 1st instar. Length \ l / 2 mm. Color. Light horn 
color with black heads and black rings between the segments. 
They had horn colored tubercles \vith black setae radiating from 
their tops. The middle props were absent. Habits. The egg 
shells were left colorless and uneaten. During this instar the 
larvae ate only the parenchima of the leaves. Length of instar. 
7 clays. Date of 1st molt. Dec. 30, 1930. 

Lan<ac 2nd instar. Length 5 mm. Color. Light horn with 
b 1 ack rings between the segments, and black dorsal, lateral and 
substigmatal lines which form checkers with the rings. The 
heads were black. The tubercles and setae disappeared. Habits. 
At this instar they ate holes in the leaves without leaving either 
the veins or the fiber. Length of instar. 4 days. Date of 2nd 
molt. Jan. 3, 1931. 

Larvae 3rd instar. Length 8 mm. Color. Yellowish white 
with black markings as before. The heads became reddish 
chestnut brown in this stage. Length of instar. 5 days. Date 
of 3rd molt. Jan. 8, 1931. 

Larvae 4t!i instar. Length 12 mm. Color. The same. 
Habits. They ate their skins as soon as they cast them, and 
began eating from the edges of the leaves at this stage. They 
were never very active, but had the geometer trick of dropping 
from the leaves when disturbed. This was clone by means of 
silken threads. Length of instar. 16 days. Date of 4th molt. 
Jan.- 24, 1931. 

Larvae 5th instar. Length 16 mm. Color. The same. 
Habits. One larva was much smaller than the others up to 
this stage but caught up with them before the next molt. This 
might have been caused by a lethargy, which overtook the 
smaller larva in an earlier stage and came upon the others 
later. No signs of lethargy were noticed, however, as all the 
larvae seemed to feed about the same and while they were 
never verv active they were always equally so. Length of 
instar. 9 days. Date of 5th molt. Feb. 2, 1931. 

Larvae 6th instar. Length 20 mm. Color. The same. 
Length of instar. 16 days. Mature larva. 35 mm. long. 

First attempt to pupate occurred Feb. 18, 1931, but larva died 
in the attempt. Xo cocoon was made and apparently under 
natural conditions the larvae burrow and transform under- 
ground. A backward larva pupated success fuMy on March 22, 
1931, and this was the only pupa we raised. 

Pupa. 10 mm. long, rather slender, shiny dark brown. The 
moth never emerged. 



18 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Jan., '32 



Abnormal Antennae in Tragidion (Coleoptera: 

Cerambycidae). 

By ORLANDO PARK, Department of Zoology, University of 

Illinois. 

On examining a series of the cerambycid, Tragidion annatum 
Lee., a male was noted with both antennae distorted as follows : 

Left antenna (Fig. la) : First and second segments normal; 
third normal as to size and form but bent sharply in the distal 
third; fourth normal; fifth short, swollen distally and with a 
distinct hook-like process on the distal border. What is appar- 
ently the sixth segment is fused with the peculiar fifth, the 
probable line of fusion being indicated by a dotted line in the 
figure. This probable sixth segment is broad distally and 
ridged on the dorsal surface; seventh irregularly shaped with 
a slight swelling on the basal, mesial third and the median 

lateral third ; probable eighth 
normal within the limit of 
specific variation ; probable 
ninth distorted by a large 
irregular swelling on the 
basal lateral area ; the prob- 
able tenth and eleventh are 
both normal. 

Right antenna (Fig. Ib) : 
First and second segments 
normal ; third normal as to 
size and form but bent 
broadly in the middle third ; 
fourth as in third, but more 
sharplv bent and slightly 

1 o .- 

twisted; fifth, sixth and 
seventh segments normal : 
eighth normal save for an 
irregular, small swelling on 
the distal, mesial border ; 
ninth highly distorted, with 
a large swelling on the basal 
third, ending in a hook-like process. Beyond this basal thicken- 
ing the segment extends at right angles to articulate with the 
tenth. The tenth and eleventh segments are normal. 




Fig. 1. Abnormality in Tragidion arma- 
1 1< in Lee. : a, left antenna ; f>, right antenna ; 
c, left elytron and meta-thoracic femur. 



In the case treated here, we find but six segments of the left, 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 19 

and seven segments of the right antenna normal, normality be- 
ing determined by comparison with eighteen other individuals 
of the species taken at the same time. Variously distorted 
antennae are common in cerambycoid species (Bateson, 1894), 
and the formation of irregular processes from antennal seg- 
ments has been touched upon by Park (1931 ). The abnormal- 
ity of the antennae in the aruiatnin under discussion is very 
probably a consequence of faulty pupation, or injury to the 
adult insect shortly after emergence from the pupal state and 
prior to hardening of the integument. This is strengthened 
by the fact that the left meta-thoracic femur was abnormally 
formed (Fig. Ic). 

I am indebted to Mr. \Yilliam J. Gerhard and to Mr. Emil 
Liljeblad of the Field Museum for aid in the identification of 
this individual. The latter was taken at Las Cruces, New 
Mexico, on May 20, 1931, while resting twenty feet above the 
ground on Yucca blooms by Mr. J. G. Keller, of the U. S. 
Forest Service, and is now in the collection of the writer. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

BATESON, WILLIAM, 1894. Materials for the study of varia- 
tion. London : Macmillan and Co., xvi -|- 598pp. 

PARK, ORLANDO, 1931. Abnormal antenna in Eleodes. ENT. 
NEWS, 42: 112-113. 



Booksellers' Reprints. 

Mr. Guilder's article in the November NEWS amuses me. 
He evidently does not appreciate the time and trouble taken 
by us GRASPING bookdealers to preserve for students the var- 
ious pamphlets which come to us in hordes and are a source 
of endless trouble and expense both of time and money (with 
catalogue costs at about $10.00 per page). Perhaps he thinks 
we sit up nights cutting up RARE VOLUMES of serials which are 
easily worth infinitely more as serials than they could possibly 
bring even at impossibly exorbitant prices, after dissection, for 
the various papers! Since the death of dear old Felix Dames 
(I visited him just two days before he died) I fear I am about 
the only book dealer who spends much time on entomological 
pamphlets, probably because I have entomological instincts and 



'20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

"hang-overs" from my younger days, and an unlimited interest 
in entomological literature. Junk tries to get rid of his 15,000 
papers. I have myself nearer 150,000 of them and still buy 
them and then pay out more money to catalogue them. Fried- 
lander has even given up publishing catalogues. Try to find 
pamphlets at Quaritch's ! My good friend Fiedler now places 
a $1.50 minimum price limit for items he catalogues! 

"REPRINTS" is the book trade term for papers originally 
published in serials. I do not think that any book dealer has 
ever offered for sale as "authors' separates," anything except 
genuine ones, or ever led his customers to believe that mere 
REPRINTS were "authors' separates." I know of mighty few 
entomologists who collect "authors' separates" : my own cus- 
tomers, I am sure, buy pamphlets to use, and are quite uncon- 
cerned about sentimentalities. No doubt they are glad to receive 
them free of charge --even though they afterwards sell them- 
and possibly have no objection to inscribed copies, of which, 
by the way, there are few in circulation in comparison with the 
vast number distributed by modest authors who perhaps believe 
that the contents of their papers are sufficiently interesting 
without a written signature. 

There seem to be no entomologists collecting items of the 
Poe's "Tamerlane" class, merely as units of a book collection. 
If there were, they would not bind such pamphlets Heavens, 
no ! but instead have fine morocco slip cases made in which 
to preserve them in exactly their original published form, un- 
bound, not for use but for exhibition, or occasional examina- 
tion and worship! JOHN D. SHERMAN, JR., Mount Yernon, 
New York. 

"Termite Treatment" Frauds. 

Home owners should beware of overdrawn and alarming 
reports of injury to building by termites or white ants. In 
particular they should be wary when exaggerated statements 
of this kind form a part of the "sales talk" for a "termite tmt- 
ment." Many of these treatments are expensive and are not 
correspondingly effective. Reports to the Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy indicate that sharpers, overemphasizing the real injury that 
termites are likely to do, are filching from home owners hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars and rendering little or no effec- 
tive service in return. 

State officials and others reporting to the Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy reveal that the termite treatment sharpers are paricularly 
active in the South and in some of the Far Western States. 



xliii, '32] EXTOMOLOC.K AI. .\K\vs 21 

In these areas many cities 'have in recent years amended their 
building codes as advocated by the Bureau of Entomology and 
now require adequate safeguards against termites in new con- 
struction. 

Salesmen, however, have been exaggerating the danger from 
termites in an effort to sell treatments, many of which have 
little or no merit, but which they picture as absolutely neces- 
sary to prevent the collapse within a short time of buildings 
invaded or under alleged danger of being invaded by the 
termites. 

The Bureau of Entomology says that there has been no 
change in the situation in the South and West as to termite- 
damage ; that conditions are substantially the same now as they 
have been for the last 50 or 100 years. The records indicate 
that the collapse of a building on account of termite damage 
is so rare as to be for practical purposes a negligible risk. It is 
true that where termites have been in buildings for many years 
as indicated by emerging swarms of the winged forms the 
foundation timbers, and even the floors and adjacent woodwork, 
may have become so weakened as to make necessary some re- 
placement. 

The entomologists point out that an experience of 35 years in 
termite control indicates that radical reconstruction of the foun- 
dations is the only permanent and effective remedy for build- 
ings which, because of original faulty construction, have be- 
come heavily infested. Such remedial measures as spraying or 
fumigation, or even removal of the worst infested timbers, 
without other protection, are at best temporary. Spraying and 
fumigation are practically useless. 

One of the popular remedies being exploited is the spray- 
ing of woodwork with poisons. Spraying of construction tim- 
bers or other woodwork, even under a forced stream, is of no 
real value. The poison has little if any penetration unless the 
timbers are so badly eaten and rotted that they soak up the 
mixture like a sponge in which case they are useless and should 
l)e replaced. 

Another exploited remedy is the poisoning of soil near the 
foundation walls or supporting pillars underneath the buildings. 
All that can be said now of such treatment is that it is si ill 
very much in the experimental stage. ( )n present information 
the Federal entomologists can not recommend it as a perma- 
nent remedy. 

The only effective remedy for termite damage is to provide 
termite-proof materials for foundations. This can be done in 
two wavs : 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

(1) Reconstruct the foundation walls, including cellar 
and cellar floors, of concrete and stone, using standard 
mortar ; thoroughly fill all openings in masonry or tile con- 
struction ; and use, where necessary, mechanical barriers, 
such as metal termite shields. With this protection against 
entry, movable woodwork placed in such basements and 
the woodwork of the main and upper floors can be fully 
and adequately protected from termite damage. 

(2) Where in the construction of buildings it is desir- 
able or necessary to use wood touching the ground or near 
it, this wood and all foundation timbers should be im- 
pregnated in an approved manner by one of the standard 
chemical wood preservatives. 

These are the essentials of termite proofing in new con- 
struction. In their own interest, house owners are cautioned 
not to accept any new or easy methods, such as fumigation or 
spraying of woodwork in place, or soil poisoning, for the con- 
trol or elimination of termites, until they have assured them- 
selves of the effectiveness of the method by asking advice either 
from their own State Departments of Agriculture or other 
competent State authorities, or from the Bureau of Entomol- 
ogy in Washington. 

U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE, OFFICE OF INFORMATION. 



Some Observations on the Predatory Habits of Vespula 
diabolica (Hymen.: Vespidae). 

The benefits derived from the presence of yellow jackets, or 
hornets, are often overshadowed by the ill reputation and the 
general fear which prevails with reference to these animals. 
Their usefulness and importance were emphasized to the writer 
as he observed them capture numerous flies, Musca domestica 
being their chief victim. These flies were infesting a some- 
what anemic cow who, on account of her illness, was unable 
to wage an effective battle against the impostors. The yellow 
jackets came to her rescue. One by one these wasps would 
swoop down on the unwary, unsuspecting fly and carry it off, 
presumably to the nest. The details of the performance were 
as follows : The wasp would overpower and with a few jabs 
from its sting completely paralyze its victim. A near-by wooden 
fence was the first stop on its journey towards its nest. Here 
the wasp proceeded to claim and enjoy the spoils that belong 
to the conqueror. The fly was firmly held between the forelegs 
and by means of rapid movements of the mandibles the less 
delectable parts, such as the wings, legs and head, were snipped 
off, producing a crushing, crunching sound, distinctly audible 



List of the Titles of Periodicals and Serials Referred to by 

Numbers in Entomological Literature 

in Entomological News. 



1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Pysche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a. M., Germany. 

15. Natural History, American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

16. American Journal of Science. New Haven, Conn. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift. Guben, Germany. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

20. Societas entomologica. Stuttgart, Germany. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia generale e agraria della 

R. Scuola superiore d'Agricultura in Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

26. Entomologischcr Anzeiger, hersg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien, Austria. 

27. Bolletino della Societa Entomologica. Geneva, Italy. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. The Maine Naturalist. Thornaston, Maine. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles. 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

35. The Annals of Applied Biology. Cambridge, England. 

36. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitales. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chilena de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

45. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie. Berlin. 

46. 'Zeitschrift fiir Morphologic und Okologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, D. C. 

48. Wiener entomologische Zeitung. Wien, Austria. 

49. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C. 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. helsingfors. Helsingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, hrsg. v. E. Strand. Berlin. 



53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 

54. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee. Paris. 

55. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

56. "Konowia". Zeit. fur systematische Insektenkunde. Wien, Austria. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Entomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 

61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

63. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris". Berlin. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

66. Report of the Proceedings of the Entomological Meeting. Pusa, India. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Comptes rendus hebdoma. des seances de I'Academie des sciences. Paris. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe -d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Quarterly Review of Biology. Baltimore, Maryland. 

74. Sbornik entomolog. narodniho musea v Praze. Prague, Czechoslavokia. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

76. The Scientific Monthly. New York. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

80. Lepidopterologische Rundschau, hrsg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien. 

81. Folia myrmecol. et termitol. hrsg. Anton Krausse. Bernau bei Berlin. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

85. Genetics. Princeton, New Jersey. 

86. Zoologica, New York Zoological Society. New York. 

87. Archiv fur Entwicklungs mechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaften, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

96. La Cellule. Lierre, Belgium. 

Q7. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

99. Melanges exotico-entomolo^iques. Par Maurice Pic. Moulins, France. 

100. Bulletin Intern., Academic Polonaise des Sci. et des Lett. Cra- 

covie, Poland. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie, Nederlandsche Entomol. Ver., 

Amsterdam. 

102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 



xliii, '32] I:\TO.MOLOGICAL NEWS 23 

for a distance of four or five feet ; the audibility of the sound 
perhaps being augmented by the vibrations set up in the wooden 
fence board. The entrails and the body fluids of the abdomen 
were eagerly consumed, leaving only the chitinous shell which 
was quickly rejected. The wasp then would fly off taking with 
it only the remaining thorax. Whether appetite or instinct was 
the controlling power in this act is problematical. Perhaps the 
rejection of the non-digestible materials reduced the weight of 
the body sufficiently to enable the wasp to carry its booty for 
a considerable distance to its nest ; or perhaps the muscles of 
the thorax constitute the "choice cut" of the "tenderloin" of the 
insect carcass and as such were reserved for the precious nurs- 
lings in the nest. 

A few yellow jackets, altho not the most desirable company, 
would do much to rid the house or premises of flies, and if left 
alone will do n,o harm. Their economic value and importance 
are apparent. 

J. A. ELSON, Coll. of Agriculture, University of Calif. 



Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining- to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The figures'within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also. Review of Applied 
Kntninology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

;(" \oti- the change in the method of citing the bibliographical references, as 
explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News arc not listed. 

GENERAL Allard, H. A. The reactions of some in- 
sects to rain. [4] 63: 223-224. Austen, E. E. The present 
state of the National Collection of insects. [9] 64: 241-242. 
Davis, J. J. Insects of Indiana for 1930. [Pro. Indiana 
Acacl. Sci.] 40: 307-320, ill. Hering, M. Minierer an \Yas- 
serpflanzen. [Ent. Jahrbuch] 1932: 69-76, ill. Hoffmann, F. 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

Ueber das leuchten von insekten in Brasilien. [Ent. Jahr- 
buch] 1932: 82-83. Howard, L. O. Man and insects. [An. 
Rep. Smiths. lust.] 1930: 395-399. Lindroth, C. H. Die 
insektenfauna islands und ihre probleme. [Zool. Bidrag, 
Upsal] 13: 105-599, ill. Meissner, O Ueber das ausster- 
ben der insekten. | Ent. Jahrbuch | 1932: 77-80. Warnecke, 
G. Einige kritische bemerkungen iiber die frage der ver- 
wendbarkeit meteorologischer klimamessungen fiir zoogeo- 
graphische untersuchungen. [18] 25: 302-306. Weiss & 
Ziegler. Another miniature portrait of Thomas Say and 
other Say notes. [6] 39: 287-289, ill. Wolff, M. Eine 
reiseapparatur fiir mikrophotographische arbeiten. [Ent. 
Jahrbuch] 1932: 63-68, ill. Wolff, M. Mikrotechnische 
notizen fiir Entomologen. [Ent. Jahrbuch] 1932 : 81. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Bodenheimer & 

Schmidt. The Robinson method for determination of 
bound and free water in the insect body [12] 24: 1090-1093. 
Combes, M. Sur les larves de fourmis promenees pendant 
la unit par des Formica fusca et des F. pratensis dans six 
boites a observations. [An. Sci. Nat. Zool., Paris] 14: 275- 
280. Crampton, G. C. --A phylogenetic study of the pos- 
terior metathoracic and basil abdominal structures of in- 
sects, with particular reference to the holometabola. [6] 
39: 323-356, ill. van Emden, F. Zur kenntnis der mor- 
phologic und okologie des brotkiifer-parasiten Cephalon- 
omia quadridentata. [46] 23: 425-574, ill. Hering, M. 
Eine zwillingsfliigelbildung bei Oxyplax ochracea (Lep.). 
[46] 23: 369-372, ill. Hertweck, H. Anatomic und varia- 
bilitat des nerven systems und der sinnesorgane von Dros- 
ophila melanogaster. [94] 139: 559-663, ill. Hiestand, W. 
A. The relation of oxygen tension to oxygen consumption 
in the insects and the crayfish. [Pro. Indiana Acad. Sci.| 
40: 345-346. Koch, A. Die symbiose von Oryzaephilus 
surnamensis (Col.). |46] 23: 389-424. ill. Malhotra, R. C. 
-Is a bee attracted to clover blossoms by odor? [6] 39: 
273-277. Newton, H. C. F. On the so-called 'Olfactory 
Pores' in the honeybee. [53] 74: 647-668, ill. Noll, J.- 
Untersuchungen uber die zeugung und staatenbildung des 
Halictus malachurus. [46] 23: 285-368. ill. *Orska, J- 
Sur un developpement atypique du corps mitochondrial 
chez le male (Faux-Bourdon) de 1'abeille domes.tique (Apis 
mellifica). [77] 108: 680-682. ill. Portier, P. Les chenilles 
mineuses et la bacteriologie. [L'Amateur Papillons] 5: 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL XKWS 25 

265-270. Reith, F. Versuche iiber die determination der 
keimesanlage bei Camponotus ligniperda. [94] 139: 664-734 
ill. Scott, H. Note on the use of the hind legs as weapons 
by the males of Deporaus betulae. [8| 67: 241-243. Snod- 
grass, R. E. Morphology of the insect abdomen. Part 1. 
General structure of the abdomen and its appendages. 
[Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 85: 128 pp., ill. Teissier, G. Rech- 
erches morphologiques et physiologiques sur la croissance 
des insectes. [Trav. Sta. Biol. Roscoff] Fasc. 9: 29-238. 
Weber, H. - - Lebensweise und umweltbeziehungen von 
Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Aleurodina). [46] 23: 575-753, 
ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Bryant, E. B.- 

Notes on North American Anyphaeninae in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. [5] 38: 102-126, ill. *Crosby & 
Bishop. -- Studies in American spiders: Genera, Cornicu- 
laria, Paracornicularia, Tigellinus, Walckenaera, Epicerati- 
celus and Pelecopsis, with descriptions of new genera and 
species. [6] 39: 359-402, ill. *Ewing, H. E. A catalogue of 
the Trombiculinae or chigger mites, of the New World with 
new genera and species and a key to the genera. [50] 80, 
Art 8: 19 pp., ill. *Lundblad, O. Sudamerikanische Hyd- 
racarinen. [Zool. Bidrag, Upsal] 13: 1-86, ill. *Mello- 
Leitao. -- Contribute ao estudo da tribu Mastophoreas. 
Notas sobre Arachnideos Argentines. [An. Acad. Brasileira 
Sci.] 3: 65-74, 83-97, ill. Rau, P. The mouse-eating Taran- 
tula. [76] 1931: 563-564, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. *Carpen- 
ter, F. M. Revision of the Nearctic Mecoptera [Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll.] 72: 205-277, ill. *Carpenter, 
F. M. The affinities of Holcorpa maculosa and other ter- 
tiary Mecoptera, with descriptions of- new genera. [6] 39: 
405-414, ill. *Milne, L. J. Three new Canadian Prophry- 
ganea. (Phryganeidae, Trichoptera). [4] 63: 228-232, ill. 
Montgomery, B. E. Records of Indiana dragonflies. 5. 
[Pro. Indiana Acad. Sci.] 40: 347-349. *Navas, R. P. L.- 
Insectos del Brasil. [Rev. Mus. Paulista] 17: 455-458, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Rehn, J. A. G. On the Blattid genera 
Abrodiaeta (=Allacata) and Margattea. [1] 57: 297-304, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Beamer, R. H.--Some Erythroneura 
(Grape leaf hoppers) of the Maculata group. (Cicadellidae). 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL x i:\vs [Jan., '32 

[4] 63 : 240-244, cont. *Bruner, S. C. Two new species of 
Heza from Cuba (Reduviidae). [19] 26: 124-130, ill. 
*Drake, C. J. Concerning the genus "Leptodictya" (Tin- 
gitidea). [Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro] 7: 119-122. (S). 
*Hottes & Prison. The plant lice, or Aphidae, of Illinois. 
[Bull. Div. Nat. Hist. Surv.] 19: 121-447, ill. *Schmidt, E. 
-Homopterologisches aus dem Stettiner Museum fiir natur- 
kunde. [48] 48: 65-77. Smith & Poos. The feeding habits 
of some leaf hoppers of the genus Empoasca. [113] 43: 267- 
285, ill. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. Alveotingis grossocerata. 
[19] 26: 149. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. Heteroptera col- 
lected by G. P. Englehardt in the South and West. [19] 26: 
135-139. *Walley, G. S. Corixidae from the environs of 
Hudson Bay (Corixidae). [4] 63: 238-239, ill. *Werneck, 
F. L. Nota previa sobre uma nova especie de Mallophaga 
(Gyropidae). (S). [Bol. Biol., Rio cle Janeiro] 1931: 21-22, 
ill.' 

LEPIDOPTERA *Bell, E. L. Studies in the Pyrrho- 
pyginae, with descriptions of several new species (Hesperii- 
dae). (S). [6] 39: 417-490, ill. Bry.k & Eisner. Variabilitat 
der antennen bet der gattung Parnassius. [Parnassiana] 
1 : 5-6. *Clark, A. H. A new subspecies of Poanes massa- 
soit. [3] 21 : 7-9. *da Costa Lima, A. Amorbia catenana, 
microlepidoptero que se desenvolve na banana (Tortricoi- 
dea: Sparganothidae). (S). [Bol. Biol., Rio cle Janeiro] 
1931 : 39-43, ill. Davis, W. T. The elliptical goldenrod gall, 
its maker and destroyer. [19] 26: 120-122, ill. Ficht, G. A. 

Some observation on the seasonal history of the European 
corn borer. Pyrausta nubilalis in Indiana. [Pro. Indiana 
Acad. Sci] 40:"335-338, ill. *Gehlen, B. Neue Sphingiden. 
(S). [14] 45: 201-204. Griffin & Griffin-Gillen. A hitherto 
unrecorded "Anzeige" by J. Hiibner. [9] 64: 251-252. 
Hoffman, F. Beitrage zur naturgeschichte brasilianischer 
schmetterlinge. [45] 26: 109-124, cont. Klots, A. B. New 
records of Microlepicloptera from New York. [6] 39: 2 ( H- 
293. *Kruck, A. Neue falterformen von Zentralamerika. 

[17] 48: 234-236, ill. *de Miranda Ribeiro, V. - - Lepidop- 
teros de Matto Grosso. [Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro) 
7: 31-52. Montgomery, R. W. -- Preliminary list of the 
butterflies of Indiana. [Pro. Indiana Acad. Sci.] 40: 351- 
355. *von Rosen & Prout. Die Lepidopteren der Deitts- 
chen Gran-Chaco-Expedition 1925-26 mit bervicksichtigung 
der sammelergebnisse von Professer Hosseus in der Sierra 
de Cordoba. [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Gesell.] 21: 14-36. Spitz, 
R. Especies novas de Macrolepidopteros Brasileiros e suas 
biologias. [Rev. Mus. Paulista] 17: 459-471. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. Notes on Francis Walker's 
types of North American flies of the family Tachinidae. 
[50] 80, Art. 10: 16 pp. Burrell, R. W. Dexia ventralis, 
an imported parasite of the Japanese beetle. [113] 43: 323- 
336, ill. *Krober, O. Die kleinen gattungen der Dichelacer- 
inae End. ans der siidamerikanischen Region (Tabanidae). 
[Rev. Ent. Sao Paulo]. 1: 282-298, ill. *Lengersdorf, F.- 
Neue Sciara ( Lycoria) arten avis der sammlung des Zoo- 
logischen Instituts cler Universitat Halle. [34] 96: 251-255, 
ill. Pinto, C. -- Caracteristicas morfologicas da larva de 
Ctenocephalides felis ( Siphonaptera. Pulicidae). [Bol. Biol., 
Rio de Janeiro] 1931: 28-34,' ill. Travassos, L. Algumas 
ol>servac,6es sobre a Dermatobia hominis. [Bol. Biol., Rio 
de Janeiro] 1931 : 35-37, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Boving & Craighead. An illustrated 
synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleop- 
tera. [70] 11 : 256, pp. ill., cont. Cros, A. Biologic des Me- 
loes. [An. Sci. Nat. Zool., Paris] 14: 189-227. Dobzhansky, 
T. The North American beetles of the genus Coccinella. 
[50] 80, Art. 4: 32pp. *van Emden, F. Zur kenntnis der 
Sandalidae. (S). [2] 27: 107-116, cont. Fall, H. C. Notes 
on certain species of Attelabus. with a table of the North 
American species. | 19] 26: 107-110. *Fisher, W. S. A 
new ant-like cerambycid beetle from Honduras. [5] 38: 
99-101. Hood, J. D. Cicindela unipunctata in New York 
State. [19] 26: 139. -Hopping, P. New Coleoptera from 
western Canada. [4] 63: 233-238. Kleine, R. Der stridula- 
tionsapparat der Rhynchophoren. [17] 48: 229-231, cont. 
*Luederwaldt, H. Monographia dos Passalideos do Brasil. 
O genero Ontherus com uma chave, para a determinacao 
dos pinothides Americanos. Duas especics novas Brasil- 
eiras. Da familia dos Lucanideos (Lamell.). As especies 
Sul-Americanas de Bolboceras salvo quanto as do Chile 
(Lamellic. Geotrup.). [Rev. Mns. Paulista] 17: 1-262, ill., 
363-422, ill., 423-420. 427-454. ill. Montgomery & Mont- 
gomery. Records of Indiana Coleoptera. I. Cicindelidae. 
[Pro. Indiana Acacl. Sci.] 40: 357-359. Mutchler, A. J.- 
llenotype designations of the genera llydrophilus and Hy- 
drochara. [40] 507: 5pp. *Pic, M. Neue exotische Coleop- 
teren ( Malacodermata). (S). |2C| 11: 377-379. *Pic, M.- 
\oiiveaux Coleopteres. (S). | liull. Alu>. Nat. Hist. Nat., 
Paris] (2) 3: 444-449. *Schaeffer, C.- Mew species of Di- 
sonycha and notes (Chrysomelidae). [6] 39: 279-285. *Wen- 
deler, H. Eine reihe neuer Paederus-arten aus verschiede- 
n en exotischen faunengebieten (Staph.). (S). [11] 1931: 
37-48. 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '32 

HYMENOPTERA. *Banks, N. Psammocharidae from 
Yucatan. [19] 26: 131-134. *Dow, R. Two new Mutillidae 
from the West Indies. [Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.] 
8: 4pp. Hill & Smith. Seasonal history and morpholog- 
ical notes on Polyscelis modestus. [10] 33: 182-184, ill. 
Jacob, H.- Beobachtungen iiber das "Herbststerben" der 
bienen im alto (obern) Paranagebiet Paraguays. [Ent. 
Jahrbuch] 1932: 152-155. McAtee, W. L. Paper wasps 
(Polistes) in bird houses. [10] 33: 186. Malyshev, S. J.- 
Lebensgeschichte der holzbienen, Xylocopa (A'poidea). [46] 
23: 754-809, ill. *Middleton, W. Two new species of saw- 
flies of the sub-genus Meodiprion. [10] 33: 171-176. *Mid- 
dleton, W. A new species of sawfly of the sub-genus Zadi- 
prion with a description of the male of N. (Z.) vallicola 
and a key to the species of the sub-genus. [10] 33: 165-170. 
Rau, P. The nests and nesting sites of four species of 
Polistes wasps. [19] 26: 111-118. ill. Rau, P. Polistes 
wasps and their use of water. [84] 690-693. *Schwarz, H. 
F. Anthidium polingae, new species, from Texas. [6] 39: 
315-320, ill. Smith, M. R. Ts Eciton mexicanum really 
Eciton pilosus. [6] 39: 295-298. Sturtevant, A. H. Ants 
collected on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. [5] 38: 73-79. 
*Wheeler, W. M. The ant Camponotus (Myrmepomis) 
sericeiventris and its mimic. [5] 38: 86-98, ill. Wheeler, W. 
M. Concerning some ant gynandromorphs. [5] 38: 80-85. 
*Whittaker, O. New and little-known Diapriidae from 
British Columbia. [10] 33: 176-182. 



OBITUARY. 

The death of ANDREW GRAY WEEKS, JR., student of the 
Lepidoptera, on December 7, 1931, at Marion, Massachusetts, 
was announced in the newspapers of the following day. He 
was born in Boston, October 2, 1861, and received the A. B. 
degree from Harvard in 1883. For twenty years he was 
engaged in business. In 1903 he became an Honorary Associate 
in Entomology in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. He 
specialized on the diurnal Lepidoptera and among his publica- 
tions was a volume entitled Illustrations of Diurnal Lepidoptera 
zvith Descriptions, with fine colored plates (Boston, Printed by 
the University Press, Cambridge, U. S. A., 1905). It contains 
also the itinerary of Wm. J. Gerhard (now curator of insects 
in the Field Museum, Chicago) in Peru and Bolivia in 1898 
and 1899, who collected for Mr. Weeks in those countries. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for December, 1931, was mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office on Dec. 18, 1931. 



Subscriptions for 1932 now Payable. 

FEBRUARY, 1932 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLIII 



No. 2 








V 

L5 \i-i2 ; 



JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, 1849-1931. 
Portrait of 1884. 



CONTENTS 

Drake and Decker A Scavenger Fly, Chrysomyza demandata Fabr., 

Breeding in Corn Silage (Dipt.: Ortalidae) 29 

Hebard A New Hawaiian Species of Labia (Dermaptera: Labiinae). 31 
Coxey Description of a New Race of Eurema gundlachia Poey from 

Ecuador (Lepid: Pieridae) 33 

Klyver Biological Notes and New Records of North American Cher- 

midae (Homoptera) 

Benesri Notes on Some Stag-Beetles (Coleop.: Lucanidae) 40 

Knull Notes on Coleoptera. No. 3 42 

Wade. Honor to Dr. L. O. Howard Abroad 45 

Editorial Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, December 

28, 1931, to January 2, 1932 46 

The Weeks Collection of Butterflies (Lepid., Rhopalocera) 48 

Cockerell An Additional Note on Andrena hitei and A. ribifloris (Hy- 

menoptera ; Andrenidae) 48 

Johannseu European Excursions for Entomologists in 1932 49 

Entomological Literature 1 

Review Rennie W. Doane's Common Pests 

Obituary Frederick Arthur Godfrey Muir 56 



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ENT. NEWS, VOL XL1II. 



Plate 1. 




LARVAE OF CHRYSOMYZA DEMANDATA IN CORN SILAGE 

DRAKE AND DECKER. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLIII. FEBRUARY, 1932 No. 2 

A Scavenger Fly, Chrysomyza demandata Fabr., 
Breeding in Corn Silage (Dipt. : Ortalidae).* 

By C. J. DRAKE and G. C. DECKER, Ames, Iowa. 

Plate I. 

A European scavenger fly Chrysomyza dcuiandata Fabr.,* : 
first recorded in the United States in 1900, was found in large 
numbers breeding in silage during the month of April, 1931, 
near Valley Junction, Iowa. According to published records 
this species is a scavenger of very general breeding habits in 
decaying plant materials. It has been reared from manure, 
decaying fruits and vegetables, insect excrement and from 
situations where decaying and fermenting organic matter was 
available. In Europe the maggots have been found in fer- 
menting clover which had been subjected to a crude process 
of ensilage. This seems to be the only record of its breeding 
in silage or other stock feeds. 

On April 6, 1931, Mr. Hoyt Elbert, a farmer and stock- 
feeder living two and one-half miles southwest of Valley Junc- 
tion, Iowa, observed a large number of living maggots in his 
silage as it was being transferred from the silo to the feeding 
bunks for his cattle. At first he was under the impression 
that the maggots were generally distributed throughout the silo, 
but a closer examination revealed that they were restricted 
largely to small pockets of decaying silage. 

The silo in question was of wooden interlocking stave con- 
struction, 16x36 feet, and in fairly good condition. It had 
been filled on September 2 and 3, 1930, with corn which had 
been injured by the drought and, as a result, was a little too dry 
to make the best grade of corn silage. In addition, the surface 
was not tramped thoroughly and no water had been added dur- 
ing the siloing process. As a result there were numerous pock- 

* Journal Paper No. B8 of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station. 
** Determined by Dr. J. M. Aldrich, U. S. N. M., Washington, D. C. 

29 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb.. '32 

ets of loose dry fodder which did not undergo the normal 
heating and fermenting process which is essential to the preser- 
vation of the silage. In these small pockets of decaying and 
rotten silage the maggots occurred in great numbers. 

When first observed the maggots were nearly full grown 
and the silage was about 10 or 12 feet above the concrete foun- 
dation. As the farmer was feeding over 100 steers a horizontal 
layer of from 4 to 6 inches of silage was removed daily, the 
top surface being kept level so as to expose as little as possible 
of the silage to the air. These small pockets, each containing 
about one cubic foot of decaying and rotten silage, occurred in 
different layers here and there throughout the silo. From the 
time the maggots were first noted. April 6, until the silo was 
empty, April 30, the maggots were found each day in these 
pockets in large numbers. It was impossible to determine when 
the eggs had been deposited or how long the maggots had re- 
mained in the larval stage. Samples of infested silage were 
placed in tight tin cans and transported to the Insectary at 
Ames. The material was then divided into two lots, one lot 
being placed in tight tin cans containing about two inches of 
moist sand, and the other in a similar container without any 
sand. In the former cages a considerable number of the mag- 
gots immediately entered the sand for pupation, whereas the 
maggots in the container without sand remained quite active and 
only now and then one transformed into the resting stage. After 
a few days a little moist sand was added to the second lot of 
containers and the maggots immediately entered the sand for 
pupation. From these observations it seems quite evident that 
the larvae had remained active for several days after reaching 
maturity because of the unfavorable conditions for pupation. 

The farmer and the county agent both considered the silage 
of a fairly good grade. In removing the silage from the silo 
no attempt was made to discard the rotten maggoty silage, it 
being mixed with the good silage as it was loaded on the wagon 
and placed in the feeding bunks. The cattle relished the silage 
and did very well on it, consuming thousands of maggots dur- 
ing the month of April without any apparent injury or ill 
effects. 

PLATE I. Larvae oi Clirysoinyzu demandata Fabr. in corn silage. 



xliii, '32] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



31 



A New Hawaiian Species of Labia (Dermaptera : 
Forfieulidae, Labiinae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD. 

Specimens of an earwig related to Labia dubronyi Hebard l 
have been submitted to us by Mr. O. H. Swezey. 

Though we realize that decided individual variation occurs in 

o 

many species of earwigs, these individuals differ from those of 
dubronvi in the features given below, and as no convergence is 
shown by any specimen of either series, we believe that a distinct 
species and not a race or mere variation is indicated. This 
species we take pleasure in naming Labia szvezcyi. 

It averages larger and is distinctly more robust than dubronyi, 
the pronotum broader in proportion to the width across the 
tegmina and the male forceps are toothed just beyond a median 
point, instead of having a ventro-internal flange which, gradually 
widening, terminates in a tooth at the end 
of the proximal three-fifths. 

Labia swezeyi new species. Figure 1. 

Type : $ ; Mount Kaala, Oahu, Ha- 
waiian Islands. Elevation 2000 feet. 
November 11, 1926. (O. H. Swezey; 
from beneath bark of tree.) [Hebard 
Collection, Type No. 1205.] 

Size medium small, form medium. 
Head as in dubronyi; hirsute, angularly 
cordiform, the medio-longitudinal suture 
weakly indicated in occipital portion. Eye 
small, slightly over half length of cheek. 
Antennae as in dubronyi; with thirteen 
joints ; first large, narrow in proximal 
third, with parallel sides in distal two- 
thirds, as long as third and fourth com- 
bined; second very small; distal joints 
elongate spindle-shaped. Pronotum ap- 
preciably broader than in dubronyi but 

otherwise similar, very minutely im- Fij? x Labia swezeyi n . 
presso-punctulate and hirsute. Tegmina S P- * aiiotype x e. 
and wings as in that species; hirsute, the former with 
apices transversely truncate. Abdomen similar but broader, 
glands sububsoleu-, dorsal surface shining and supplied with 

1 Described in Occas. Papers B. P. Bishop Mus., VII, p. 318, pi. XXVI, 
figs. 5 to 7, (1922). 




32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb.. '32 

even finer hairs but ultimate tergite with large smooth areas. 
Pygidium as in dubronyl; strongly declivent, then flattened in 
a large horizontal plate which is triangularly produced meso- 
laterad and with apex formed by two smaller triangular pro- 
ductions (thus resembling a four-pointed star). Forceps mod- 
erately elongate, hirsute, almost straight but with inner margins 
concave-convergent proximad and apices moderately incurved, 
armed slightly beyond the middle on the internal margin with 
a single small but stout tooth, situated mesad (vertically) and 
not ventrad as is the apical tooth of the flange in dubronyi. 
Caudal metatarsus similarly with length slightly greater than 
combined length of succeeding joints and with a row of hairs 
ventro-internally arranged in a series of lamellae. 

Allotypc: 9 ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection.] 

Differs from male as follows, agreeing with this sex of dub- 
ronyi except in averaging larger and more robust and in show- 
ing a minor pygidial difference. The node we described for 
that species, situated meso-distad on the ultimate tergite, could 
well be termed a small tooth. The pygidium in both species is 
also slightly narrower than an arm of the forceps at its base ; 
convex-declivent to a very narrowly transverse distal horizontal 
flange, the disto-lateral angles of this flange sharp in sivczcyi 
and its apex slightly broader than in dubronyi as in this species 
the straight lateral margins are appreciably divergent caudad 
which is not the case in dubronyi. Forceps well separated, 
showing weak curvature as in the male, dorsal and ventral 
internal margins coarsely and irregularly denticulate and feebly 
concave in proximal three-fifths, thence unarmed and showing 
slightly greater concavity to the apex with ventral margin 
developed into a very feeble flange. 

Head, disk of pronotum (in intensive examples), exposed 
portions of wings and bases of median and caudal femora deep 
chestnut-brown. Abdomen, base of pygidium in male and all 
of it in female and apices of forceps russet, horizontal portion 
of pygidium in male and other portions of forceps in both 
sexes ochraceous tawny. All but disk of pronotum (in intensive 
examples), tegmina and limbs (except bases of median and 
caudal femora) buckthorn brown. Antennae dark prouts 
brown, becoming paler proximad. 

Length of body 7.4, 9 7.8 L> ; length of pronotum 1.24, 
9 1.27; width of pronotum <$ 1.21, 9 1.22; length of tegmen 
$ 1.75, $ 1.77; exposed length of wing $ .43, 9 .57; length 
of forceps $ 3.8, 9 3 mm. 

A male and two females bear the same data and are paratypes. 

2 The body length of the paratypic female of Labia dubronyi from 
Opeaeula, Oahu. is 7.7 mm., as originally given hut the abdomen is g 
pressed out; this dimension in life was probably not over 7 mm. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 33 

Description of a New Race of Eurema gundlachia 
Poey from Ecuador (Lepid. : Pieridae). 

By W. JUDSON COXEY. 

EUREMA GUNDLACHIA race morleyi new race. 

This race differs from the typical gundlachia from Southern 
United States, Mexico and Cuba in that the head and scapula 
have a strong admixture of black. The veins of the wing- 
especially at the base are more or less defined by black scales. 

9 paler than the male with basal portion of the wings strong- 
ly suffused with black, however leaving the basal costal area 
wholly yellowish orange. 

This race is readily distinguished from Eurema prater pia 
watsoni Klots, also described from Ecuador, by having the 
tails of the secondaries more acutely produced in both sexes. 

Type Male ; Huigra, 4000 feet elevation, Ecuador, Decem- 
ber, 1928. Allotype Female ; collected with type. Paratypes 
1 $, collected with type; 2$ Xaranjapata, 1850 feet eleva- 
tion, Ecuador, November, 1926. Collected by \Y. Judson Coxey 
and named for Edward Morley of Huigra, Ecuador, whose 
hospitality and assistance to the writer are greatly appreciated. 

Types in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 



Biological Notes and New Records of North 
American Chermidae (Homoptera). 

By F. D. KLYVER, San Mateo Junior College, San Mateo, 

California. 
(Continued from page 12.) 

KUWAYAMA LAVATERAE Van Duzee. CALIFORNIA. Adults 
and nymphs : from Lavatcra assurgenti flora, Roosevelt High 
School, Daly City, May 4, 1929; from same host, North Grant 
Avenue, San Mateo, May 5, 1929; same data, July 2, 1929; 
from same host, Olympic Golf Course, San Francisco, July 6, 
1929 ; from same host, King City, December 8, 1929 ; from 
same host, Spreckels, same date ; from same host, Belmont, San 
Mateo County, November 15, 1 ( >30; from "Malva", San Fran- 
cisco, Novembr 1, 1930 (J. B. Steinweden). 
Host : Lavatera. 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

This species becomes exceedingly abundant and apparently is 
sometimes the primary cause of death of its host. Adults, 
nymphs of all stages, and numerous eggs are to be found simul- 
taneously on the ventral side of the leaves and on the younger 
growth including the buds and flowers. In moderate infesta- 
tion the nymphs occur is blister-like depressions. In more 
severe cases there may be as many as three hundred or more 
nymphs on a single leaf. The fact that successive generations 
over-lap in time in this species suggests that something has 
disturbed its synchronization. Possibly the influence of climate 
is responsible, since this species was supposedly introduced with 
its host from the islands off the coast of southern California. 

LEURONO'TA MACULATA Crawford. NEW MEXICO. Adults 
only: from Lcpidhnn alyssosidcs, 1 mile east of Mesquite, May 
6, 1931 (Romney) ; same data, June 4, 1931. 
Host : Unknown. Nominal Hosts : Lcpidium, Condalia obo- 
vata, Columbrina texana. 

PARATRIOZA COCKERELLI Sulc. ARIZONA. Adults only: from 
Salsola pcstifcr, 2 miles south of Springerville, August 4, 1929 
(Romney) ; same data, 13 miles east of Springerville. CALI- 
FORNIA. --Adults and nymphs: from Solatium innbeUifcrum, 
Stanford University, April 24, 1929 (Duncan) ; from same 
host, Hillsborough, May 12, 1929. Nymphs only: from same 
host, Tesla, southeast of Livermore, May 11, 1929; from same 
host, Clark's Canyon, San Mateo, May 20, 1929; from Con- 
volvulus, Stanford University, October 17, 1922 (Ferris) ; 
from pepper leaves, Santa Ana, August 31, 1930 (Keifer). 
Adults only: from .S. unibcllifcriiui. San Mateo, June 15, 1929; 
from Finns monophylla, Marangue Peak, Argus Mountains, 
April 12, 1929; from Chrysothainnus, Rock Creek, north of 
Bishop, June 19, 1931 ; from Atnplex, 3 miles south of Lone 
Pine, June 19, 1931. NEW MEXICO. Adults only: from Sal- 
sola pcstifcr, 3.5 miles west of Datil, August 6, 1929 (Rom- 
ney) ; from same host, .5 mile south of Alma, August 3, 1929 
(Romney) ; from Scnecio filifoUns, 21.5 miles north of Lords- 
burg, August 10, 1929 (Romney) ; from unknown host, Mesilla 
Valley, June 9, 1929 (Romney). UTAH. Adults only: from 
beets, Delta, July 27, 1927 (Knowlton) ; from tomatoes, 
Hooper, October 14, 1927 (Pack: Knowlton) ; same data, from 
willow, same date; from unknown host, June 13, 1930 (Knowl- 
ton: Melvin Jones). 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NKXVS 

Hosts: Solatium umbellifcrum, S. nujrum, S. tuberosum, Cap- 
sicum annuum, Convolvulus. Nominal Hosts: Alfalfa, arbor- 
vitae, spruce, tobacco, petunia, pine, beets, willow, Datura, 
lochroma, Covillca, Erigonuin, Sophia, Norta, Chrysothamnus, 
Lcpidiwn, Hymcnodea, Salsola. 

The nymphs of this species are found on the ventral side of 
the leaves, on the caylx, and the fruit, the eggs being most com- 
mon on the younger growth as far as available records show. 
The nymphs are oval in outline, and closely appressed to the 
leaf in shallow depressions. The younger nymphs are orange 
in color, the older nymphs have pale green bodies with the 
wing pads orange, and the eggs are yellow. This species is evi- 
dently of considerable, but imperfectly known, economic im- 
portance. There is evidence that it may be of some importance 
as a carrier of pathogenic organisms infesting economic plants. 

PARATRIOZA MACULIPENNIS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults 
only: from Atriplc.r, north of Tracy, October 12, 1929 (An- 
nand) ; from Lyciuni, Darwin Wash, near Marangue Peak, 
Argus Mountains, April 12, 1930; from grass, Carmichael, 
Sacramento County, June 25, 1931 (Keifer). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Atriplex, Lyciuni, Con- 
volvulus occidentalis, Sali.v. Convolvulus arvcnsis. Ccanotluts 
cordulatus, grass. 

TKIOZA BAKERI Crawford. CALIFORNIA. -- Adults only: from 
Arctostaphylos, 17.2 miles west of Coalinga, December 8, \ ( )2 ( ); 
from pear trees, Kelseyville, April 8, 1931 (Keifer). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Pinus pondcrosa. Abies. 
Arctostaphylos, spruce, pear. 

TRIOZA BREVIANTENNATA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adult 
only: from Atriplcx, north of Tracy, October 12, 1929 (An- 
nand). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Host: Atrlplcx. 

TRIOZA COLLARIS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults only : from 
Baccharis viminca. Corral Hollow, 10 miles southwest of Tracy. 
November 4, 1929 (Annand) ; same data, November ( Annand 
and Klyver) ; from same host, 5 miles west of Coalinga, (adults 
mating), December 8, 1929; from same host, Keene, Tehachapi 
Creek, Kern County, April 13, 1930; from B. pilnhiris, sand 
dunes, San Francisco, April 3, 1931; from S\t!i.v, 4.7 miles 
southeast of Byron on Vasco Road, November 30, 1929; from 
Ephcdra, Marangue Peak, Argus Mountains, April 12, 1930. 
NEW MEXICO. Adults only: from Lcpidium alyssoidcs. 1 mile 
east of Mesquite, May 26, 1931 (Rnmney). 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

Host: (Baccharisf) Nominal Hosts: Baccharis, Sali.r, 
Ephedra, Lepidium. 

The skins of a number of last stage nymphs were taken 
from Baccharis pilularis on the sand dunes, San Francisco. 
While this is not positive proof that these are the skins of T. 
collaris nymphs, it is regarded as very strong circumstantial 
evidence to this effect, especially in view of the frequency with 
which this chermid has been taken from Baccharis. 

The nymphal skins were unaccompanied by conspicuous wax 
secretion. 

TRIOZA ALBIFRONS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. - - Adults and 
nymphs ; from Urtica gracilis var. holosericca, San Mateo 
Creek, San Mateo, October 25, 1929; from same host, Mallard 
Lake, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, November 1, 1929; 
from same host, south of Tehachapi, Kern County, April 13, 
1930; from same host, San Remo, south of Carmel, March 30, 
1931 ; from same host. Smith Creek, Mount Hamilton Road, 
Santa Clara County, April 18, 1931. Nymph only: taken by 
sweeping weeds, 3 miles west of Corral Hollow, southwest of 
Tracy, November 30, 1929. Adults only : from Urtica, Three 
Rivers, Tulare County, April 18, 1930. NEW MEXICO. Adults 
only : from Am-aranthus retro flexus, Brazos, July 18, 1929 
(Romney) ; same data, Chama, same date. 
Host: Urtica. Nominal Hosts: Amaranthus, weeds. 

The nymphs occur without waxy secretion on the ventral 
side of the leaves and on the younger growth. This species is 
especially interesting because of its close relationship to T. 
urticac (L.), the European species infesting nettle. 

TRIOZA FRONTALIS Crawford. NEVADA. -Adults and nymphs : 
from Ainclanchicr alnifolia, Zephyr Point, Lake Tahoe, July 
16, 1929. 
Host : Amclanchicr. 

The nymphs are found on the ventral side of the leaves, un- 
accompanied by wax. They are not known to occur in abun- 
dance. 

TRIOZA OBTUSA Patch. NOVA SCOTIA. Adults 'only: from 

Finns, Smith's Cove, no date (\Y. H. Brittain). 

Host: Amelanchicr canadensis. Nominal Host : Pnins. 

The nymphs are found on the ventral side. of the leaves. Un- 



xliii. '32] KXTOMOLOCFCAL XK\\ s 37 

like the closely related western species, T. frontalis, they pro- 
duce an abundance of white, floss-like wax. 

TRIOZA MAURA Forster. CALIFORNIA. Adults and nymphs: 
from Sali.v lasiandra, Santa Rosa, July 24, 1922 (Duncan) ; 
from Sali.v, Rock Creek, northwest of Bishop, June 19, 1931; 
from same host, Salinis River bridge, King City, December 8, 
1929 ; from same host, south of Tehachapi, Kern County, April 
13, 1930; from same host,- Crystal Springs Lake, San Mateo 
County, May 1, 1930. Nymphs only: from same host, south 
end of Lake Tahoe, July 15, 1929. Adults only: from Bac- 
charis viminea, Corral Hollow, 10 miles southwest of Tracy, 
November 4, 1929 (Annand) ; from pear trees, Andrus Island, 
Sacramento County, April, 1931 (Keifer) ; from same host, 
Hood, April 16, 1931 (Keifer) ; from Sali.v, Corral Hollow, 
November 4, 1929 (Annand) ; from Carex and weeds, 3 miles 
west of Corral Hollow, November 30, 1929; from ^. lasiandra, 
lower Kern River Canyon, west of Bodfish, June 19, 1931 ; 
from Sali.v, 4.7 miles southwest of Byron on Vasco Road, 
November 30, 1929; from same host, Mountain Springs Can- 
yon, Coso Mountains, April 12, 1930; from same host, near 
Shepherds Canyon, Argus Mountains, same date ; from same 
host, Savory's Tule Pond, south of Fresno, April 15, 1930; 
from same host, Old Fort Miller, Fresno County, April 16, 
1930. NEW MEXICO. Adults only : from Salsola pcstifer, 5 
miles north of Salt Lake, June 5, 1929 (Romney). 
Hosts : Sali.v spp. Nominal Hosts : Baccharis, Salsola. 

The nymphs resemble a scale insect. They are oval in out- 
line and occur very closely appressed to the ventral side of the 
leaves, forming shallow, blister-like depressions. They do not 
produce any conspicuous waxy secretion. Rarely have the 
nymphs been found in great abundance. 

TRIOZA SALICIS Mally. IDAHO. Adults only : from grass and 
shrubs, head of Salmon River, July 19, 1930' (Annand). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts : Sali.v spp., grass, shrubs. 
TRIOZA ALACRIS Flor. CALIFORNIA. Adults and nymphs: 
from bay tree, Ontario, August 10, 1914 (Clausen: J. C. Cham- 
berlin) ; from bay, Domoto Nursery, Oakland, no date (Fer- 
ris) ; from Laiints iwbilis, Pasadena, January 24, 1929 (Keifer: 
E. L. Smith). Adults and eggs; from same host, nursery Ells- 
worth and Poplar avenues, San Mateo, May 17, 1929. Nymphs 
only: from same plants, June 17, 1929. 
Host: Lanrus nobilis. 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

The nymphs cause the leaves to curl ventrally and longitudi- 
nally, thicken, redden, and finally to drop. In severe infesta- 
tion the hosts may be seriously defoliated. 

NEOTRIOZELLA LATICEPS Crawford. NEW MEXICO. Adults 
only: from unknown host, no data (Romney). 
Host : Unknown. 

PACHYPSYLLA VENUSTA Osten Sacken. MISSISSIPPI. Adults 
and nymphs : from Celtis occidcntalis, A. & M. College, Janu- 
ary 26, 1931 (Myers). 
Host : Celtis occidentalis. 

This species forms numerous woody, polythalamous galls on 
the smaller branches and petioles of hackberry. 

PACHYPSYLLA c. -MAMMA Riley. UTAH. Adults only: from 
Celtis, Hooper, May 29. 1928 (Pack: Knowlton). Host: 
Celtis sp. 

PACHYPSYLLA DUBIA Patch. UTAH. Adults only: from Celtis, 
Hooper, May 29, 1928 (Pack: Knowlton). Host: Celtis sp. 

EUPHYLLURA ARCTOSTAPHYLI ScllWarz. CALIFORNIA. AdttltS 

and nymphs : from Arctostaphylos, Tesla, Alameda County, 
May 11, 1929; from same host, Pine Ridge, east of Auberry, 
Fresno County, August 3, 1929 ; from same host, Pinnacles Na- 
tional Monument, April 1 and 2, 1931 (Hedgpeth and Smith) ; 
from same host, General Grant National Park, July 12, 1930. 
Nymphs only : from same host, near Deer Creek Inn, Placer- 
ville, July 15, 1929; from A. mansanita. Julian, August, 1916 
(J. C. Chamberlin) ; from Arctostaphylos, Mount Hamilton, 
October 7, 1922 (Ferris) ; from same host, Stanford Univer- 
sity, June 2, 1923 (Ferris) ; from same host, Clark's Canyon, 
San Mateo, March 10, 1930 (Hedgpeth). Adults only: from 
same host, 17.2 miles west of Coalinga, December 8, 1929. 
NEVADA. Adults only : from same host. Zephyr Point, Lake 
Tahoe, September 1, 1930 (Keifer). 
Host : Arctostaphylos spp. 

The nymphs produce an abundance of white flaky or cottony 
wax and usually are found in individual cells constructed of 
this material. 'They are most prevalent on the ventral side of 
the leaves, but in severe infestations are found on both sides, 
as well as on the younger growth including the branches and 
buds. The leaves may be literally covered with wax cells. 

EUPHYLLURA NEVEIPENNIS (Schwarz). CALIFORNIA. Adults 
only: from Arctostaphylos, west of Placerville. July 15, 1929; 



xliii,'32| ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

from same host, near Deer Creek Inn, Placerville, same date; 

from same host, Westpoint, Amador County, August 31, 1930 

(Hedgpeth). 

Host: Unknown. (Probably Arctostaphylos spp.) Nominal 

Hosts : Arctostaphylos spp. 

EUPHYLLURA ARBUTi Schwarz. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 

nymphs : from Arbutus mcn-ziczil, Crystal Springs Road, San 

Mateo, April 10, 1929. 

Host : Arbutus menziczii. Nominal Host : Honeysuckle. 

The nymphs occur under the bark scales in cells constructed 
of their white cottony wax secretion, which frequently becomes 
heavily infested with jet black "sooty mold". In severe infes- 
tations the nymphs are also found on the leaves and younger 
growth. 

EUPHYLLERUS vERMicuLOSUS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults 
only: from Ccanothus, Green Valley, El Dorado County, May 
30, 1931 (Keifer). UTAH. Adults only: from unknown host, 
Logan Canyon, August 21, 1925 ( Knowlton) ; from sage, 
Spring Canyon, altitude 6800 feet, August 28, 1925 (Knowl- 
ton). 

Host: Unknown. Nominal Host: Ccanothus. 
ARYTAINA ROBUSTA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs : from Ccanothus, Black Mountain Road, Hillsborough, 
May 12, 1929. UTAH. Adults only: from unknown host, 
Logan Canyon, Logan, July 24, 1930 (Annand). 
Host: Ceanothus. 

The nymphs occur on the ventral side of the leaves in indi- 
vidual cells constructed of white wax secretion, in which all 
the nymphal stages occur. The last stage nymph leaves its cell 
a short time before the last molt. 

ARYTAINA FUSCIPENNIS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs: from Ccanothus papittosus, Cone Peak, Santa Lucia 
Mountains, April 15, 1923 (Ferris). Nymphs only: from same 
host, Sierra Morena, October 15, 1922 (Ferris). 
Host: Ccanothus papillosus. Nominal Hosts : .Ccanothus spy. 

Biological data lacking. 

ARYTAINA RIBESIAE Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs: from Ccanothus thyrsiflorus, San Francisquito Creek, 
north of Felt Lake, Stanford University, June 20, 1929. 
Nymphs only: from same host, May 3, 1929. UTAH. Adults 
only: from wild current, Hooper, October 14, 1927 (Pack: 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

Knowlton) ; from unknown host, Logan Canyon, Logan, July 
24, 1930 (Annand). 

Host : Ceanothus thyrslflorns. Nominal Hosts : Wild cur- 
rent, Ribcs aurcurn, Rhus trilobata, Ceanothus spp. 

The nymphs are found in great abundance in white, wax 
cells on the ventral side of the leaves, and in severe infestations 
on the petioles and branches. By actual count, as many as 
fifty-six nymphs have been taken from individual cells on a 

single leaf. 

(To be continued). 



Notes on Some Stag-Beetles (Coleop. : Lucanidae). 

By BERNARD BENESH, North Chicago, Illinois. 

In plotting the distribution of the Boreal American Lucanids, 
I had the pleasure of examining the principal collections in 
the United States, recording as far as possible the localities, 
date of capture, etc., for a list to be published in the near 
future. 

Some time ago, in the material sent to me for examination, 
through the courtesy of Mr. Paul H. Johnson, College of Agri- 
culture, University of Missouri, a very interesting form has 
come under my notice. 

The specimen that I am now describing was collected by 
some unknown student, who unfortunately forgot to record 
the locality, but Mr. Johnson assured me that the specimen in 
question is from the neighborhood of Columbia, Missouri. 

PSEUDOLUCANUS PLAC1DUS (Say). 

$ Mandibles elongate, 4 m/m long, porrect, curved slightly 
from the center towards the apex, terminating in an acute point. 
On the inner edge, one-third from the apex, armed with a 
single bifid tooth. Length, mandibles inclusive, 27 mm. 

Differs radically from the typical form of P. placidus (Say), 
only in the mandibular dentition. Mandibles are not so robust, 
as in the typical form, are more elongate, showing no indication 
of the other teeth, as in the regular dentition of P. placidus. 
A male in my collection, number 1042. 

An additional shipment of specimens from the same locality 
arrived in such condition that only the heads of the specimens 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 41 

were saved. In this shipment two more examples of the above 
described variant were found, and the heads placed in my col- 
lections, numbers 1702-1703. 

Not confining myself to the study of Lucanidae, North of 
Mexico, as have most of our students, I have by correspond- 
ence with South American entomologists gotten all the available 
data on their Lucanid fauna. 

In a letter from Mr. Juan Tremoleras, of Montevideo, 
Uruguay, I was informed that he had a specimen of a Lucanid 
that he could not determine. Upon my request, he very kindly 
sent the specimen to me, which proved to be Mctadorcus ro- 
tiindatus (Parry).* 

This extends the habitat of this species from Brazil to 
Uruguay. Mr. Tremoleras informs me that the specimen was 
presented to him by Mr. F. O. Lucas, who collected it in the 
Province Cerro Canada de los Burros, in 1908, and that it is 
unique in his collection, since that date. From this I judge 
that the insect must be rather rare in that locality, probably 
showing the extreme southern limit of its distribution. Parry 
originally described the species from Brazil (?), (Proc. Ent. 
Soc. London, 1862, p. 112) and figured it in the Transactions 
of the Ent. Soc. London, 1864, pi. 7, fig. 8. Inasmuch as the 
figure given by Parry does not fully agree with this fine beetle, 
a photograph of the insect was made for record. 

Dr. Didier (in fitudes sur les Coleopteres Lucanides du 
Globe, fascicule 2, III, Notes synonymiques, p. 53) places Neo- 
hiconus Icincci Houlbert, as a synonym of A", robustns Boileau. 
In the reference given (Insecta 1914, p. 276), an error was 
noted. It should be Insecta 1914, p. 260. 

Attention is called to the omission of KHto[>h\Uns cnrvidcns 
Broun (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1904, vol. 14, p. 50) by G. van 
Roon (in Junk's Catalogus Coleopteronim, 1910, Pars. 8, 
Lucanidae). Although this species has been described for 
many years, no mention was made of it even in the previous 
van Roon's "Naamlijst der Lucanidcn, wdke tot heden be- 
schreven zijn" (Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, Deel NLVIII). 

* The writer wishes to acknowledge gratefully the hearty co-operation 
of Mr. Paul Nagel, Hannover, Germany, who kindly determined the 
specimen, and has shown him many favors in his study of the Lucanidae. 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

Notes on Coleoptera. No. 3.* 

By J. N. KNULL, Pennsylvania Forest Research Institute. 

The following are a number of miscellaneous rearing records 
and observations which have been made in the last few years. 
Since most of the rearing was done indoors, the dates of emerg- 
ence are omitted unless the material was reared under natural 
conditions. Clark's Valley is located in the Blue Mountains 
north of Harrisburg. All of the records are from Pennsylvania 

unless otherwise stated. 

LYCIDAE 

EROS HUMERALIS Fab. Larvae of this insect were found 
hibernating in partly decayed pitch pine (Finns rigida Miller) 

logs at Mont Alto. 

CLERIDAE 

CYMATODERA BICOLOR Say. Pupae of this insect were found 
at Dauphin, January 18, in pupal cells in dead yellow birch 
(Bctula lutca Mich.) infested with Trichodcsma larvae and 
adults. The Clerid larvae had been feeding on the Anobiidae. 

LECONTELLA CANCELLATA Lee. An adult was reared by the 
writer from a larva collected in the nest of a bee under the 
loose bark of a log, March 27, at Mont Alto, by A. B. Cham- 
plain. The insect emerged July 1. 

THANASIMUS TRIFASCIATUS Say. Since the previous notes 
on this insect were published, t the following observations were 
made in Clark's Valley. August 11, several unhardened adults, 
many pupae and three larvae were found in their pupal cells 
in the thick bark of a dead white pine (Finns strobns Linn.). 
In December, mature adults were taken from their pupal cells, 
thereby proving that the species passes the winter as either 
adults, or larvae in their transformation cells. 

PLOEOPTERUS THORACICUS Oliv. March 6, a larva of this 
species was found in Clark's Valley, in a small dead branch 
of witch hazel (Hainamclis virginiana Linn.) infested with bark 
beetles determined by Dr. M. W. Blackmail as Lymantor dc- 

* For Nos. 1 and 2 see Can. Ent, Vol. 57, p. 112-115, 1925. ENT. NEWS, 
Vol. 41, p. 82-86, 101-102, 1930. 
t ENT. NEWS, Vol. 41, p. 82, 1930. 



xliii. '32] KNTOMOLUCICAL NK\VS 43 

cipicns Lee. Adults were reared from dead willow branches 
collected in the same locality and infested with Micracis swainei 
Black., Anthaxia viridiconris Say and Pogonocherus pan-nlns 
Lee. 

HYDNOCERA UNIFASCIATA Say. Reared from dead branches 
of white oak (Qucrcus alba Linn.) collected in Clark's Valley 
and infested with Agrilns defect us Lee. 

H.VERTICALIS Say. Adults were reared from river birch 
(Bctitla nigra Linn.) infested with Ayrilns bctulac Fisher col- 
lected in Clark's Valley. 

CORYNETIDAE 

CREGYA OCULATUS Say. Reared from dead branches of 
chestnut (Castanca dcntata Marsh.) collected in Clark's Valley 
and infested with Endcrccs picipcs Fab. and Ecyrus dasycerus 
Say. 

ORTHOPLEURA DAMICORNIS Fab. Reared from dead chestnut 
(Castanca' dcntata Marsh.) collected in Clark's Valley and in- 
fested with Eudcrccs picipcs Fab. and Ecyrus dasycerus Say. 

ELATERIDAE 

ALAUS MYOPS Fab. A larva of this species was found in a 
partly decayed pine log at Promised Land Lake, Pike County, 
feeding on adult carpenter ants (Cainponotiis hcrculcamts pcnu- 
syh'anicus DeG.), which were working in the same stick of 
wood. 

LEPTOSCHEMA DISCALCEATUM Say. An adult was found in 
its pupal cell in a decayed pitch pine (Finns rigidct Miller) snag 
at Cold Springs, Adams County, July 26. 

LUDIUS SULCICOLLIS Say. An adult was found in its pupal 
cell in a decayed pitch pine (Finns rigida Miller) snag at Cold 
Springs, Adams County, August 1(>. 

L. ROTUNDICOLLIS Say. The adults of this insect seem to be 
rather rare, probably due to their habits. The larvae on the 
other hand are fairly abundant, and can be found in the bur- 
rows of Encyclops cocntlca Say and Microclvlns yazcllula 
Hald. in the outer bark of numerous living deciduous trees. 
The larvae are predaceous on the larvae of the Cerambycids and 
work through the galleries of the longhorns. 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

ELATER LINTEUS Say. April 21, a living adult was found 
under the tight bark of a dead pitch pine (Pinus riglda Miller) 
at Mont Alto. 

E. SELLATUS Dej. An adult was found August 16, in its 
pupal cell in a decayed pitch pine (Pinus riglda Miller) snag 
at Cold Springs, Adams County. 

E. VITIOSUS Lee. Numerous adults were collected in their 
pupal cells in the decayed wood of dead beech (Fagus grandi- 
folia Ehr.) trees at Sweden Valley, September 23. 

E. VERTICINUS Beduv. During the winter months numerous 
specimens of this species with thoraces ranging from red to 
black in color, were found in their pupal cells under the loose 
bark of partly decayed pitch pine (Pinus riglda Miller) at 
Mont Alto. 

E. SEMICINCTUS Rand. Adults of this species were found 
in their pupal cells in a decayed hemlock (Tsuga canadcnsls 
Linn.) stump at Cold Springs, Adams County, on August 30; 
also in a decayed sycamore (Plat amis occidental-is Linn.) log 
at Caledonia, on March 27. 

E. XANTHOMUS Germ. Many adults were found during the 
winter months in their pupal cells under the loose bark of partly 
decayed pitch pine (Pinus riglda Miller) logs on the Mont 
Alto State Forest, Franklin County. The larvae work through 
the partly decayed inner bark and make pupal cells between the 
loose bark and the wood where they transform to adults in the 
fall. 

MELANOTUS COM MUNIS Gyll. Adults of this species are 
found through the winter months in their pupal cells under 
the loose bark of partly decayed pitch pine (Pinus rlgida Mil- 
ler) and white pine (Pinus strobus Linn.) logs at Mont Alto. 

M. FISSILIS Say. Adults were found in their pupal cells in 
decayed pitch pine (Pinus riglda Miller) logs at Mont Alto, 
during the winter months. 

MELASIDAE 

MELASIS PECTINICORNIS Melsh. On January 16, many liv- 
ing adults were chopped from a dead standing black gum 
(Nyssa sylvatlca Marhs.) at Dauphin. The tree .was about 
three inches in diameter and contained larvae also. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 45 

FORNAX ORCHESIDES Newti. Pupae of this insect were found 
in cells in the moist decayed wood in a living beech (Fagns 
grandi folia Ehr.) at Laporte, on September 7. 

BUPRESTIDAE 

DICERCA DIVARICATA Say. Adults reared from the dead 
wood of white oak (Q Kerens alba Linn.) and striped maple 
(Acer pennsylvanicum Linn.) collected in Clark's Valley. Also 
reared from red oak (Quercus r libra Linn.) collected at To- 
wanda. 

POECILONOTA CYANiPEs Say. The larvae of this beetle work 
in the sapwood of living poplars (Populus granidcntata Mich, 
and P. trcniuloidcs Mich.) throughout Pennsylvania. The eggs 
are laid around wounds or roughened areas on trees often four 
inches in diameter and the irregular burrows frequently extend 
up the stems five inches. 

CINYRA GRACILIPES Melsh. Adults were reared from dead 
branches of post oak (Quercus stcllata Wang.) collected in 
Clark's Valley. 

BUPRESTIS LINEATA Fab. Adults reared June 7, from the 
thick bark of white pine (Finns strobns Linn.) collected at 
Black Gap. None of the larvae had entered the wood but con- 
fined their burrows and pupal cells to the bark. 

AGRILUS SUBCINCTUS Gory. This insect was found breeding 
in the small dead branches of green ash (Fraxinns pcimsyl- 
ranica var. lanceolata Sarg. ) at Pond Bank. The dead branches 
had been killed by the oyster shell scale and the adults were 
numerous on the foliage of the living trees. 

MELANDRYIDAE 

MELAXDRYA STRIATA Say. Reared from the wood of dead 
sassafras (Sassafras variifolmm Salisby.) collected in Clark's 
Valley. 

(To be continued). 



Honor to Dr. L. O. Howard Abroad. 

Dr. L. O. HOWARD, whose present address is 12 Quai d'Or- 
leans, Paris, France, has recently been elected to honorary mem- 
bership in la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux. JOE S. WADE. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., FEBRUARY, 1932. 

Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, December 
28, 1931, to January 2, 1932. 

Our annual summary of the entomological items of the pro- 
grams of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science and associated societies, held at New Orleans, Louis- 
iana, follows : 

The numbers of papers bearing on insects, including those 
in symposia and non-duplicating demonstrations were : 

Entomological Society of America 36 

American Association of Economic Entomologists 104 

American Society of Zoologists 10 

Same, Genetics Section 22 

Ecological Society of America 3 

American Society of Parasitologists 9 

American Nature Study Society 1 



Total 185 

These papers were distributed in subject as follows : 

i Taxonomy 4 

General Entomology .... 5 General Economic Ento- 

Collecting Methods 2 mology 13 

Cytology 3 Insecticides 24 

Anatomy 7 Apiculture 13 

Physiology 21 Insects Affecting Cereals, 

Ecology 14 Forage and Field Crops 18 

Behavior 1 Do. Truck Crops 2 

Geographical Distribution. 4 Do. Greenhouse Plants.. 1 

Ontogeny 7 Do. Fruits and Fruit 

Phytogeny 1 Trees 16 

Variation 4 Do. Forest and Shade 

Genetics 21 Trees 2 

Parasites of Insects 5 Insects Carrying Plant 

Insects, etc., Affecting Disease Germs 1 

Man and Other Animals 16 

46 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 47 

ii Hymenoptera (excluding 

Acarina 1 Honey Bee) 14 

Araneina 1 Honey Bee 15 

Orthoptera 17 Lepidoptera (e x c 1 u ding 

Isoptera 2 Codling Moth, Oriental 

Embiidina 1 Peach Moth and Corn 

Ephemerida 1 Borers) 18 

Homoptera 11 Codling Moth 6 

Heteroptera 3 Oriental Peach Moth ... 1 

Thysanoptera 1 Corn Borer 1 

Neuroptera 1 Diptera (excluding Droso- 

Coleoptera (excluding Jap- />////) 20 

anese Beetle) 23 Drosophila 8 

Japanese Beetle 2 Siphonaptera 1 

Many of these figures are duplications, both between sections 
i and ii and also within each section. 

The total number of papers was 5 more than those listed 
for the Cleveland meeting in the preceding year, the Economic 
Entomologists and the Genetics Section showing marked in- 
creases. There were decidedly more papers this year on 
Genetics, Insects Affecting Man and Other Animals, General 
Economic Entomology, Insecticides, Apiculture, Orthoptera, 
Coleoptera and the Honey Bee. There was a noticeable falling 
off in the number of papers on Cytology, Physiology, Geograph- 
ical Distribution and Corn Borers. 

The Entomological Society of America met on December 
29 and 30, under the presidency of Dr. J. W. Folsom, Prof. 
J. J. Davis, secretary. The symposium was on Blood-sucking 
and Non-blood-sucking Flies in relation to Human Welfare, 
the announced participants being F. C. Bishopp, H. H. 
Schwardt, K. IF. J Unman, W. B. Herms and Dr. Ernest C. 
Faust. The annual public address. Waging War on Insect 
Enemies of Man and Animals, was given by F. C. Bishopp, 
illustrated by slides and moving pictures. 

The American Association of Economic Entomologists, J. 
W. Houser, president, A. F. Burgess, secretary, met on De- 
cember 20, 30 and 31, in sections. The Entomologists' Dinner 
was held on December 30, at 6 P. M. 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

The Weeks Collection of Butterflies (Lepid., Rhopalocera). 

By the will of the late Mr. A. G. Weeks, of Marion, Massa- 
chusetts, his immense collection of butterflies of the world is 
given to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 
University. With this is also bequeathed his entomological 
library and the sum of $100,000. This collection, long known 
as the finest butterfly collection in this country, was begun by 
Mr. Weeks when a young man by the purchaseof the butterflies 
of Otto Poling. Later Mr. Weeks employed collectors to 
gather butterflies in South America, and published two volumes, 
beautifully illustrated, describing the new species, "Illustrations 
of Diurnal Lepicloptera Unknown to Science." In recent years 
he has added a large amount of valuable material both from 
collectors and from dealers. The collection is contained in 
forty-five fine cabinets. Science, Jan. 8, 1932. 



An Additional Note on Andrena hitei and A. ribifloris 
(Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). 

In the effort to increase our knowledge of Andrena, Messrs. 
Elven Nelson and Cecil Williams, at the University of Colorado, 
made some careful studies of the morphology. Mr. Nelson 
paid particular attention to the genitalia, Mr. Williams to the 
mouth parts. The work of these men cannot be fully utilized 
until further taxonomic studies have been made, but the follow- 
ing explanation appears necessary. Mr. Nelson has already 
published (Entomological News, 1930, p. 322) a discussion of 
the sexes of Andrena hitei Cockerell. Through careful com- 
parison with the male of the related (European) A. fitlra 
Schrank, he concluded that the true male of A. hitei is the 
insect which has been known as A. ribifloris Viereck and Cock- 
erell. It is now proper for me to explain, that when I edited 
Viereck's work on Rocky Mountain Andrena, and described the 
various species, (Proc. U. S. National Museum, 48, pp. 1-58 
1914), I suppressed a number of Viereck's names, believing 
them not to represent valid species. Subsequent studies have 
indicated that I should have suppressed a few more, or reduced 
them to varietal rank, but in the case- of A. ribifloris I appear 
to have confused two or more distinct things. The females 
(none of them A. hitei) which I (pp. 40-41) ascribed to /. 
ribifloris, Viereck originally had under no less than three speci- 
fic names. The males of this series Were set forth as A. ribi- 
floris (P. 32) and A. licntileuca Viereck, the latter having been 
referred by Viereck to a species based on females from Wash- 
ington and Oregon. The type of A. ribifloris was a male with 
the cheeks not angled-tubercnlate behind, whereas the supposed 



xliii, '32 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 49 

male A. hemilcuca had them very broad, shining, angled be- 
hind. I thought at the time that this might well be a matter 
of individual variation. Returning to the subject, I now dis- 
cover that the male called A. hemilcuca has the stipes of the 
genitalia with the expanded portion elongate, approximately 
parellel-sided in the middle, like a knife-blade. On the other 
hand A. ribifloris (using Nelson's specimen) has the stipes 
with a broad subtriangular expansion and a relatively long nar- 
row neck. Thus they are certainly quite different species. If, 
as now appears, the A. ribifloris examined by Nelson is the 
true male of A. hit el, what about the females formerly ascribed 
to A. ribifloris? It is very likely that the supposed A. hemilcuca 
is not actually the species described from the Northwest, and 
it is a candidate for association with the females described as 
A. ribifloris. If we need another specific name, it will be pos- 
sible to resurrect one of those first proposed by Viereck, and 
suppressed by me. But I hope to return to the subject later, 
and deal with it more adequately. 

T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 



European Excursions for Entomologists in 1932. 

American Entomologists who attend the Fifth International 
Entomological Congress and the Centenary of the French 
Entomological Society, in Paris, July 16-23, 1932, will doubt- 
less take advantage of the occasion to visit other parts of 
Europe. 

A joint committee was appointed in December, 1930, by the 
Entomological S9ciety of America and by the Association of 
Economic Entomologists to arrange for transportation. In 
addition to providing for those going directly to the Congress, 
the arrangements of the Committee include two co-operative 
excursions through Europe at very moderate costs. While in- 
tended primarily for entomologists and their families and 
friends, others, up to certain limits, will be welcome. 

Agreements between north Atlantic steamship companies 
prevent any actual reduction of the rates for ocean transport, 
but those going in the groups will IDC given superior accom- 
modations. Furthermore, the Committee will be glad to accord 
to any one, whether going as a member of one of the groups or 
independently, the privilege of sharing in very favorable ar- 
rangements that have been made covering transportation in 
Europe and which will amount to a substantial saving of ex- 
pense. In order to secure such benefit, reservations for ocean 
transportation should be made through the committee. 

The first group will sail from New York on the Leviathan 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

June 11, visiting (among other places) Copenhagen, the Gota 
Canal in Sweden, which will be partly traversed on midsummer 
night when all the village folk hold festival and dance all night 
in the open air, Stockholm, Upsala, the summer home of Lin- 
naeus at Hammarby, and thence by rail northward to the 
Swedish National Park in Lappland where a stay of some days 
will be made on the arctic tundra at Abisko with views of the 
midnight sun. Those who wish will have time to continue by 
excursion steamer to the North Cape and back. Returning to 
the Continent, some days will be spent in Holland and Belgium 
before going to Paris for the Congress. After that event there 
will be a week's excursion in the Pyrenees, arranged by the 
French local committee of the Congress. Then Avignon will 
be visited, with an excursion to Orange and the home of Fabre 
at Serignan. Continuing to Grenoble, the party will traverse 
the Savoyan Alps by motor coach to Argentieres at the foot 
of Mount Blanc, and after some days continue by motor coach 
to St. Jeanne de Maurienne, and thence into Italy, where Turin, 
Genoa, Pisa, Naples, Rome, Assisi, Perugia, Florence, Bo- 
logna, and Venice will each be visited. Continuing over the 
Brenner Pass, a short stay will be made on the Eibsee in the 
Bavarian Alps, with opportunity to ascend the Zugspitze, Ger- 
many's highest peak. Munich, and the three beautifully pre- 
served medieval cities Dinkelsbiihl, Rothenburg, and Nurem- 
berg will be visited, Leipzig during the autumn fair, Dresden, 
the Spreewald, and Berlin. After a final few days in England 
the party will sail for home September 17 from Southampton. 
Expenses estimated at about $800. 

The second group will sail from New York on the Olympic 
July 1, joining the first group in Holland and remaining with 
them until the Alps. Thereafter they will omit Italy, and 
make a somewhat swifter tour of Germany, with also a few 
days in England before sailing, August 27, on the luxurious 
new liner Manhattan. Expenses about $550. 

Those wishing to go directly to the Congress at the last 
moment will sail on the Majestic July 8. Estimated expenses 
including twelve days in Paris about $325. Combinations of 
portions of the tours can also be arranged. 

These are not conducted tours in the usual sense, but are 
organized for pecuniary benefit to the individuals comprising 
a group. The members will be free to follow their own in- 
clinations at the stopping places, and in the larger cities in most 
cases may take their meals at restaurants of their own choosing. 
While many of the points to be visited have been selected be- 



Xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 51 

cause of their importance as entomological centers, all are full 
of interest from other points of view for the general traveller. 

Estimates are based upon tourist class (former second class) 
at sea, second class railway, unpretentious but thoroughly com- 
fortable and clean hotels, and inexpensive restaurants, with an 
allowance for side-trips, incidental and personal expenses. They 
have been kept as low as possible, consistent with comfort, in 
order to make the trips available for students of limited means, 
who may look upon them as part of their educational equipment. 

Reservations should be made at the earliest date possible. 
For circulars and information address : 

O. A. JOHANNSEN, Chairman, Joint Committee of the Ento- 
mological Society of America and Association of Economic 
Entomologists on Transportation to Europe. Roberts Hall, 
Ithaca, New York. 



Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION nK 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the pap.-r 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) follows: then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

fcfNote the change in the method of citinii the bibliographical references, as 
explained above. 

Pafcrs published in the Entomological .\'e-.i's are not listed. 

GENERAL. Aravena, R. O. Los insectos de la region 
Sud-Oeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. 1 104] 3: 243- 
244. Crevecoeur, F. F. A versatile Kansas Naturalist, 1862- 
1931. Obituary by R. C. Smith. [Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.] 
34: 138-144, ill. Dury, C. -- Obituary. By A. E. Braun. 
[43] 31 : 512-514, ill. Enderlein, G. Die insektenfauna Sud- 
Georgiens. [Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin] 1930: 235- 
251. Essig, E. O. A History of Entomology. 1029 pp., ill. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

Hayward, K. J. Cuatro insectos anormales. [104] 3: 245- 
246, ill. Hine, J. S. Obituary. By C. H. Kennedy. [43] 
31: 510-511, ill. Imms, A. D. Social behaviour in insects. 
117 pp., ill. Mousley, H. Further notes on the birds, or- 
chids, ferns and butterflies of the Province of Quebec, 1929- 
1930. [Can. Field Nat.] 46: 1-6. Scott, J. D. A practical 
method of marking insects in quantitative samples taken at 
regular intervals. [So. Africa Jour. Sci.] 38: 372-375, ill. 
Williams, S. H. Preliminary report on the animal ecology 
of Presque Isle, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania. [Pro. Penna. 
Acad. Sci.] 5: 88-97, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Brown, F. M. - 
The utilization of Hexose Carbohydrates by lepidopterous 
larvae. [An. N. Y. Acad. Sci.] 32: 221-234, ill. Bryk, F. - 
Die abhangigkeit der augenflecke vom flugelgeader in der 
gattung Parnassius. [89] 62: 149-174, ill. Friese, H. Wie 
konnen schmarotzerbienen aus sammelbienen entstehen? 
[89] 62: 1-14, ill. Goldschmidt, R. --Die entwicklungs- 
physiologische erklarung des falls der sogenannten trep- 
penallelomorphe des gens scute von Drosophila. [97] 51 : 
507-526, ill. *Hemming, A. F. --On the types of certain 
genera of the family Pieridae. [9] 64: 272-273. Kriiger, E. 

Ueber die farbenvariationen der hummelart Bombus agro- 
rum. [46] 24: 148-237, ill. Leech, H. Drosophila funebris 
as a host of the fungus Stigmatomyces. [Pro. Ent. Soc. 
Brit. Columbia] 1931: 19-20. MacGill, E. I. The biology 
of Thysanoptera with reference to the cotton plant. [35] 
18: 574-583, ill. Marcu, O. Zur kenntnis der geschlecht- 
sunterschielde der stridulationsorgane bei Curculioniden. 
[Bull. Sect. Sci. Acad., Roumaine] 14: 124-131, ill. Miller, 
F. W. Study of the reproductive system of the male and 
female (oviparous) cocklebur aphid. [Pro. Penna. Acad. 
Sci.] 5: 75-79, ill. Mukerji, S. On the morphology of the 
terminal segments of Psychodidae larvae and their taxono- 
mic importance. ( With a short comparative account of the 
microscopic structure of the pseudo-leg of Phlebotomus 
argentipes.) [Indian Jour. Med. Res.] 19: 433-466, ill. 
Paterson, N. F. A contribution to the embryological de- 
velopment of Euryope terminalis (Phytophaga, Chrysomeli- 
clae). [So. African jour. Sci.] 38: 344-371, ill. Perkins, M. 

-Light of glow-worms. |31| 128: 905. Schmuck & Metz. 

A method for the study of chromosomes in entire insect 
eggs. [68] 74: 600-601.' Speicher, B. R. The effects of 



xliii, '32J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 53 

desiccation upon the growth and development of the Medi- 
terranean flourmoth. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 5: 79-82, ill. 
Uvarov, E. B. The ash content of insects. [22] 22: 453- 
457. Wigglesworth, V. B. The extent of air in the trach- 
eoles of some terrestrial insects. [Pro. R. Soc., Lond.] 109, 
(B). 354-359, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Handbuch der 
zoologie. Kukenthal u. Krumbach. Bd. 3, heft 2. Lief. 1. 
Th. 3. 160 pp. Arachnida. Pinkus, L. F. How a spider 
caught and dined upon a six-inch snake. [76] 1932 : 80-83, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Beall, G.- 

Notes on the termites of British Columbia. [Pro. Ent. Soc. 
Brit. Columbia] 1931: 33-35. Geist, R. M. --Additional 
Mallophaga from Ohio birds. [43] 31: 505-509. *Gemig- 
nany, E. V. El alotipo de Mallophora vegeta y descripcion 
de una nueva especie. [104] 3: 265-266. (S). *Goellner, 
E. J. A new species of termite, Reticulitermes arenicola, 
from the sand dunes of Indiana and Michigan, along the 
shores of Lake Michigan. [10] 33: 227-234, ill. *Lieber- 
mann, J. Un nuevo genero y dos nuevas especies de Thy- 
sanopteros argentinos. [104] 3: 211-216, ill. *Tillyard, 
R. J. Kansas Permian insects. Part 14. The order Neu- 
roptera. [16] 23: 1-30, ill. *Watson, J. R. Two new Thy- 
sanoptera from Colorado. [39] 15: 51-54. 

HEMIPTERA. *Ball, E. D. New genera and species 
of leafhoppers related to Scaphoideus. [91] 22: 9-19. 
Breyer, A. --Notas sobre cuatro Heterocera argentinos. 
[104] 3: 207-209, ill. *de Carlo, J. A. Una nueva especie 
del genero Lethocerus v el alotipo de Lethocerus (Belosto- 
midae). [104] 3: 217-218, ill. (S). *Dozier, H. L. New 
and interesting West Indian Homoptera. [40] 510: 24 pp., 
ill. *Haviland, M. D. The Reduviidae of Kartabo, Bartica 
District, British Guiana. [86] 7: 129-154, ill. Orfila, R. N. 
-El genotipo de Lachnus (Aphid). [104] 3: 249-250. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Ancona, L. Los chilocuiles o gusa- 
nitos de la sal de Oaxaca. [An. Inst. Biol., Mexico] 2: 265- 
277, ill. Anon. Scarcity of the Zebra butterfly. [39] 15: 
50. Breyer, A. - - Los Castniidae argentinos. [104] 3: 233- 
238, ill. Gaede, M. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars 48. 
Satyridae III. 545-759. Pars 49. Drepanidae . 60 pp. Pars 
50. Mimallonidae. 21 pp. *Gemignani, E. V. Un nuevo 
Saturniidae. [104] 3: 251-252, ill. (S). Hayward, K. J. 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '32 

Notas sobre una migration de Pieris phileta automate. 
Normas para describir biologias de, lepidopteros. [104] 3: 
225-232, 257-264, ill. *Meyrick, E. Exotic Microlepido- 
ptera. 4: 129-192. (S). Miller, E. R. Pholus fasciatus. 
[39] 15: 49-50. Orfila, R. N. Adicion al catalogo de los 
Lepidopteros argentinos. [104] 3: 267-268. *Orfila, R. N. 
Estudios de Lepidopterologia Argentina. [104] 3: 185-202, 
ill. *Prout, L. B. Three new Cuban Larentiinae (Geo- 
metridae). [71] 37: 133-134. * Rothschild, L. Notes on 
Syntomidae (Amatidae) with descriptions of new species. 
(S). [71] 37: 149-158. Shepard, H. H. Lepidopterorum 
Catalogus. Pars 47. Hesperidae: Subfam. Pyrginae I. 
144 pp. 

DIPTERA. Coatney, G. R. On the biology of the 
pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia maura (Hippoboscidae). [Para- 
sitology] 23: 525-532. *da Costa Lima, A. --Sobre as 
especies de Megarhinus do Brasil (Culicadae). [Mem. Inst. 
Oswaldo Cruz] 25: 307-315, ill. *Duda, O. Die neotropis- 
chen Chloropiden. [Folia Zool. & Hydrobiol., Riga] 2: 46- 
128. Edwards, F. W. Oxford University Greenland Expedi- 
tion, 1928. Diptera Nematocera. [75] 8: 617-618. *Ender- 
lein, G. Klassifikation der Pantophthalmiden. [Sitz. Ges. 
Naturf. Freunde Berlin] 1930: 361-376, ill. England, H. W. 
A bibliographical note on a copy of Wiedemann's "Dip- 
tera Exotica," 1820-1821. [75] 8: 613-615. Hoffman, C. C. 
Los simulidos de la region Onchocercosa de Chiapas. [An. 
Inst. Biol., Mexico] 2: 207-218, ill. * Jordan, K. Further 
records and descriptions of fleas from Ecuador. Three new 
Old World fleas. [71] 37: 135-143, 144-147. ill. *Malloch, 
J. R. Exotic Muscaridae. [75] 8: 425-446, ill. *Malloch, 
Greene & McAtee. District of Columbia Diptera : Rhagio- 
nidae. [10] 33: 213-220. Marshall, J. F. Artificial breed- 
ing-places for arboreal mosquitoes. [9] 64: 283. *Reinhard, 
H. J. Revision of the American parasitic flies belonging to 
the genus Winthemia. [50] 79, Art. 20: 54 pp., ill. Spencer, 
G. J. The oviposition habits of Rhyncocephalus sackeni. 
(Nemestrinidae). [Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia] 1931: 21- 
24, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. * Arrow, G. J. The coleopterous genus 
Trichillum (Copridae) with a key to the species. (S). [75] 
8: 609-611. Daguerre, J. B. -- Costumbres nupciales del 
Diloboderus abderus. [104| 3: 253-256, ill. Dallas, E. D. 



xliii. '32 | i-.XTdMoi.oc.iCAi. \K\VS 



Copula entre Calosomas de diferentes especies. [104] 3: 
219-224, ill. Dallas, E. D. Euchroma gigantea anormal. 
f 104] 3: 269-270, ill. Gamble, J. T. Studies on the ecology 
and distribution of Aquatic beetles of Presque Isle, Lake 
Erie, Penn. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 5: 97-100. *Hustache, 
A. Six nouveaux Coleopteres (Curculionidae, Zygopini) 
de 1'Amerique meridionale. [75] 8: 522-528. *Pic. M. - 
Notes diverses, nouveautes. (S). [ L'Ech. Rev. Linne., 
Moulins] 47: 103-108. Roberts, A. W. R. A note on the 
hatching of some weevils (Curculionidae) from the egg. 
[75] 8: 593-596. Stichter, G. B. Is the flight of the Japan- 
ese beetle necessarily restricted to a few months of the year? 
'[Pro. Penn. Acad. Sci.] 5: 40-42. Tremoleras, J. - Xotas 
sobre Carabidos platenes. [104] 3: 239-242. ^Tremoleras, 
J. Deux Carabiques nouveaux de 1'Uruguay. [104] 3:247- 
248. *Uhmanr, E. Neue Hispinen von Costa Rica. [Eolia 
Zool. & Hydrobiol., Riga] 2: 135-144. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bischoff, H. Zur kenntnis der gat- 
tung Pseudovespa. [Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Fretmde Berlin | 
1930: 329-346, ill. Bischoff & Hedicke. Ueber einige von 
Illiger beschriebene Apiden. (S). [Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Fre- 
unde Berlin] 1930: 385-392. *Cockerell, T. D. A. Descrip- 
tions and records of bees. (S). |75] 8: 537-553. Hinman, 
E. H. Pediculus (Parapediculus) atelophilus 1926 from the 
red spider monkey, Ateles geoffroyi. (S). [Parasitology] 
23: 488-491, ill. Lahille, F. Un hormiguero en una espma. 
[104] 3: 203-205, ill. *Santschi, F. Contribution a 1'etude 
des fourmis de 1'Argentine. [An. Soc. Cien. Argentina] 
112: 273-282, ill. *Weld, L. H. Additional notes on types 
with description of a new genus (Cynipidae). [10] 33: 220- 
227, ill. 

COMMON PESTS. How to Control Some of the Pests That 
Affect Man's Health, Happiness and Welfare. By RKNNIE 
W. DOANE. 384 pp., ill.. Springfield, Illinois, Charles C. Thomas, 
Publishers. 1931. $4.00. This handy-sized book should find 
a welcome place in the reference library of the farmer, the 
stockman, the gardener and the householder. Herein the 
author has given, in such sequence and groupings as to be 
most readily referred to, the essential facts, gleaned from the 
many larger and more expensive books and the many govern- 
ment and state bulletins, about the more common pests that 



56 'ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | Feb., '32 

directly affect man, his domestic animals, his plants, his crops, 
his storehouse, and his home and health, with practical sugges- 
tions as to their control. Insects, on account of their numbers, 
being man's greatest enemies, comprise the bulk of the items ; 
but other animal pests such as spiders, mites, ticks, parasitic 
worms, mammals and birds are included. The book is divided 
into two sections : Pests of man and domestic animals, and 
insect control and some important pests of the orchard, garden, 
field and household. Unfortunately no bibliography is given, 
but this was probably omitted in order to keep the book within 
reasonable bounds and price. 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 



OBITUARY. 

Although late in publishing this record, the NEWS should not 
allow the passing of FREDERICK ARTHUR GODFREY MUIR to go 
unnoticed. He was born at Clapham, England, April 24, 1872, 
and died near Horsham, Sussex, May 13, 1931. Obituaries by 
W. E. China and J. J. Walker appeared in the July, 1931, 
numbers of The Entomologist and The Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine respectively. Muir was in the employ of the Eastern 
Telegraph Company at various African stations from 1886 to 
1905, but was always intensely interested in insects, encouraged 
by Dr. David Sharp, who induced him to turn to the career of 
a practical entomologist. From 1905 to 1927 he was one of 
the entomologists of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association 
and, as such, the successful introducer of insect enemies of the 
cane-borer beetle, the sugar-cane leaf hopper and injurious 
lamellicorns. Dr. Howard also, in his recent book, The Insect 
Menace, has given an interesting account of Muir's labors, 
difficulties and final triumph in bringing the first of these para- 
sites, the Tachinid, Ceromasia sphenophori, into Hawaii. Muir 
did excellent work on the anatomy of the male genital tube of 
Coleoptera, the head and mouth parts of Homoptera and, above 
all, on the structure and classification of the Fulgoroidea. He 
attended the International Congress of Entomology at Ithaca, 
in August, 1928, where many Americans had the pleasure of 
making his acquaintance. 



MARCH, 1932 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. XLIII 



No. 3 




JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, 1849-1931. 
Portrait of 1884. 



CONTENTS 

Crampton The Probable Occurence in the Thysanuroid Insect Machilis 
heteropus Silv. of a Structure Homologous with the Second 
Antenna , 57 

Hebard A New Species of Loboptera Brunner (Orthoptera : Blattidae) , 

Pseudomopinae 60 

Knull Notes on Coleoptera, 3 62 

Bell New Species of Pyrrhopyge (Lepid.: Hesperiidae) 68 

Klyver Biological Notes and New Records of North American Chermi- 

dae (Homoptera) 70 

Frost Cordylura tricincta Loew, a Leaf-miner on Smilacina racemosa 

(L) Desf.: (Dipt.: Scatophagidae) 75 

Henshaw An Additional Record for Dynastes tityus in Pennsylvania 

(Coleop.: Scarabaeidae) 77 

Entomological Literature 78 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. XLIII. MARCH, 1932 No. 3 

The Probable Occurrence in the Thysanuroid Insect 
Machilis heteropus Silv. of a Structure Homo- 
logous with the Second Antenna. 

By G. C.' CRAMPTOK, Ph.D., Massachusetts State College, 

Amherst, Mass. 

Several years ago, the late Mr. F. Muir sent to me a pencil 
sketch of a peculiar structure which he had found in a Machi- 
loid insect, presumably Machilis hctcropns Silv., which was 
probably captured in Hawaii, where Mr. Muir was living at 
that time. I no longer have the letter which accompanied the 
sketch, so that I am unable to say whether the structure in 
question occurs in only one, or both sexes of M. heteropus, but 
as I recall his description of it, the structure is a lobe-like pro- 
jection occurring between the base of the antenna and the 
mandible, as is shown in the accompanying drawing, which I 
have made from the rough pencil sketch sent by Mr. Muir. 

Mr. Muir suggested that, from its location, and the fact that 
it serves to connect the base of the antenna with the mandible, 
this structure might represent the lobe of a basal segment of 
the antenna ("ischiopodite") while the mandible might repre- 
sent another lobe of a basal segment of the antenna. T pointed 
out to him that embryology would permit no such interpreta- 
tion of these parts, and made the suggestion that this structure 
might represent the second antenna, which, accord : ng to I" 
1897 (Beitr. zur Entwicklungsgeschichte von Camnodea sta] h_ 
linus Westw., Zool. Anzeiger, 20, p. 125) is also preserved in 
the head of adults of Campodca, as a small lobe situated be- 
tween the labrum and the maxilla, in the space left free by the 
retracted mandible (tcstc Snodgrass, 1928, Smith 
lections, Vol. 81, No. 3, p. 59- who likewise finds a papilla in 
this region in the grasshopper Dissosteira) . 

I urged Mr. Muir to publish an account of this stru lure in 
Maclnlis^but other matters intervened, and this was m-ver done. 
The matter should not be allowed to lapse, however, since I 

57 



58 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Mar., '32 



think that this discovery is of the greatest importance. Machilis 
is one of the most "crustaceoid" of the Insecta and if it can be 
proved that a structure homologous with the second antennae 
of Crustacea actually occurs in any species of Machilis, this 
would be proof positive that the Insecta are descended from 
Crustacea, since the Crustacea are the only forms typically 
exhibiting two pairs of antennae. The other structures of Ma- 
chilis are so "crustaceoid" that the occurrence of a second pair 
of antennae in Machilis is all that is needed to prove beyond 
all doubt that it is a more or less direct descendant of the Crus- 
tacean stock ! I have therefore reproduced Mr. Muir's figure 
in the hopes that anyone having specimens of Machilis heter- 
opus Silv., will examine both sexesl of this insect and publish 
a detailed account of the structures in question --and if the 
embryology of Machilis can be studied with a view to tracing 



1 ant 




2 ant 



m 



The figure shows the sinietral mandible and the base of the sinistral antenna of 
Machilis heterot>us Silv., in which there apparently occurs a pair of vestigial second 
antennae located between the bases of the antennae and the mandibles. 1, ant is the 
base of the antenna ; 2, ant is the supposed second antenna ; tmt is the mandible ; / is 
the mola : w is the incisor region ; and -s is the suture dividing the mandible into a basal 
and distal region. 

the development of the tritocerebral appendages in its embryo 
(and also the development of its paragnatha to prove that these 
are homologous with the paragnatha of Crustacea) such a study 
would be invaluable for deciding the moot question of the 
origin of the class Insecta. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

In the meantime, I would surest that the structure labelled 
2 ant in the accompanying figure of Machilis hctcropns Silv., is 
actually the homologue of the second antennae of Crustacea, 
since it occupies exactly the correct position for such a structure 
(/'. c. between the base of the first antenna and the mandible). 
Some species of Machilis is exactly the type of crustaceoid in- 
sect in which one would expect to find vestigial second antennae 
located in their normal position between the bases of the first 
antennae and the mandibles, instead of being in the unnatural 
position between the labrum and maxilla characteristic of the 
supposed vestiges of the second antennae in the adult of Cain- 
podca, or the small papilla supposedly representing the second 
antennae in Dlssostelra (which is a rather specialized insect to 
have preserved vestiges of the second antennae which are lost 
even in the embryonic stages of most insects above the Aptery- 
gota). I have no reason to doubt that Mr. Muir's figure was 
correct in all essential details, and I am convinced that Machilis 
hctcropus Silv., has actually preserved a pair of vestigial second 
antennae, if Mr. Muir's identification of the insect sketched by 
him is correct. 

That the accompanying figure is of a Machiloid insect is 
proven by the fact that it has a typical Machiloid mandible with 
a set-off incisor region labelled in in the accompanying figure, 
and with a prolonged molar region, or mola, labelled m in the 
figure. There is also a typical suture labelled s, dividing the 
mandible md into a basal and distal region characteristic of 
Machilis, so that there can be no doubt that the figure was 
sketched from a Machilid originally, the only question in my 
mind being whether the identification of the Machiloid was 
correct or not, and on this account T would again urge those 
possessing specimens of Machilis Jictcropus to examine these 
insects and either publish on their findings, or allow me to 
study them with this in view, since the finding of such compara- 
tively well developed relics of the second antennae in the crus- 
taceoid insect Machilis is of intense interest to every student of 
the phylogeny of insects, and the importance of such a find can- 
not be overemphasized ! 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

A New Species of Loboptera Brunner (Orthoptera : 
Blattidae, Pseudomopinae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Roland Thaxter last year sent us a series of a small sub- 
apterous cockroach, which he had found common in rubbish 
and leaf litter in a small wood-lot, planted on the grounds of 
the Normal School of Agriculture at Llavallol, near Buenos 
Aires, Argentina. 

This insect proves to represent a new species of the Old 
World genus Loboptera, which we take pleasure in naming in 
honor of its captor. We are convinced that it is an introduction 
in South America from southern Europe or northern Africa, 
where closely related species are native. Furthermore, it may 
be parthenogenetic in the Argentine, as all of the fifteen speci- 
mens secured are females. 1 
Loboptera thaxteri new species. Figures 1 and 2. 

This insect is closely related to the south European Loboptera 
decipiens (Germar), differing in the structure of the female 
subgenital plate and in features of coloration. Some resem- 
blance to Loboptera maroccana Bolivar is also shown, but that 
larger species is quickly distinguished by the solidly dark 
abdomen. 

Type: ? ; Llavallol, Buenos Aires, Argentina. April, 1916. 
(R. Thaxter.) [Museum of Comparative Zoology.] 

Agrees with decipiens in all structural features except the 
subgenital plate. Surface glabrous, microscopic hairs scarcely 
perceptible except caudad. Head slightly broader than deep, 
vertex rounding evenly into face, interocular width distinctly 
greater than that between the antennal sockets, minute ocellar 
spots indicated. 2 Palpi very short, 2 fourth joint about three 
quarters as long as fifth. Pronotum evenly weakly convex; 2 
caudal margin almost transverse, weakly convex. Tegmina 
represented by pads 2 which faintly surpass the mesonotum, 
less than twice as long as greatest width ; sutural margin 
briefly weakly divergent from costal margin, then evenly con- 

1 We know Pycnoscclus surinamcnsis to be almost always parthenogen- 
etic in America, whereas in the Asiatic portions of its distribution males 
are often if not always as frequently found as females. 

2 These features are probably of generic rather than specific importance. 



xliii, '32] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



61 



verging toward that margin to the rather broadly rounded apex. 
Supra-anal plate strongly transverse, triangular, with sides very 
broadly concave and apex broadly rounded (sometimes show- 
ing a trace of incision). Subgenital plate ample, with a medio- 
longitudinal distal cleft, thus forming two rounded triangular, 
slightly produced apical flaps, the area which they occupy con- 
cave (in this material, dried after immersion in a liquid pre- 
servative, these flaps are sometimes curled inward very strong- 
ly). Ventro-cephalic margin of cephalic femora armed with 
a. series of heavy elongate spines which distad gradually de- 





1 



Fig. 1. Loboptera thaxteri new species. Dorsal view of type. (x6 ). 
Fig. 2. Same. Dorso-caudal view of subgenital plate, of female type. 
(Much enlarged.) 

crease to a series of minute piliform spines, terminating in 
three heavy spines, elongate in strongly increasing ratio distad. 2 
Caudal metatarsus slightly longer than combined length of the 
succeeding joints, with two rows of minute spines vrntrad and 
a distal pulvillus; ventral surface of succeeding joints fully 
occupied by pulvilli. A moderately large arolium present be- 
tween the simple, symmetrical tarsal claws. 1 ' 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

Surface shining blackish brown. Margined dorsad by a 
moderately broad buffy band which, unlike in decipiens, is con- 
tinued around the cephalic margin of the pronotum and also 
covers all (instead of only slightly over half) but the sutural 
margin of the tegminal pads. Caudad the fifth and sixth ab- 
dominal tergites have their free margins narrowly paler, the 
succeeding tergites (two of these very narrow and often hid- 
den) wholly dark, but the supra-anal plate buffy disto-mesad. 
Cerci dorsad solidly dark proximad but with distal half buffy, 
ventrad buffy with extensive proximal portions of proximal 
segments alone dark. Ocellar spots and limbs brownish buff. 
Abdomen ventrad, unlike in decipiens, with lateral margins 
(but not distal margin of subgenital plate) narrowly buffy. 

The color differences from decipiens are more significant 
since the described series of tha.vteri is very dark in general 
coloration but the pale markings are both more numerous and 
more extensive. 

The fourteen paratypic females are divided between the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology and the author's collection. 

Length of body 7.7 to 9.6, length of pronotum 2.13 to 2.84, 
width of pronotum 3.12 to 4.26, exposed length of tegmen 1.06 
to 1.49, greatest width of tegmen .62 to .80 mm. (by microm- 
eter). 



Notes on Coleoptera. No. 3. 

By J. N. KNULL, Pennsylvania Forest Research Institute. 

(Continued from page 45.) 

BOSTRICHIDAE 

XYLOBIOPS BASILLARE Say. Reared in numbers from dead 
wild grape vine collected at Mont Alto. 

CERAMBYCIDAE 

TESSAROPA TENUIPES Hald. Adults were reared from dead 
chestnut (Castanca dcntata Marsh.) branches about 3/16 of 
an inch in thickness collected at Mont Alto. The insect was 
found to pass the winter in both the larval and pupal stages. 

HYPERMALLUS INCERTUS Newn. This insect was found 
working in the thick outer bark of dead rock oak (Quercus 
prinus Linn.) in Clark's Valley. The larvae had made irreg- 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 63 

ular galleries through the bark and were passing the winter 
in their pupal cells. 

CENTRODERA PICTA Hald. A living unhardened adult was 
chopped from its pupal cell in the decayed part of a living 
yellow birch (Be tula lutca Mich.) at Laporte, September 7. 

ANOPLODERA RUBRICA Sav. Reared from the dead decayed 

** / 

wood of hickory collected in Clark's Valley. 

A. MINNESOTANA Csy. Reared from the dead decayed wood 
of hickory and black gum (Nyssa syfaatica Marsh.) collected 
in Clark's Valley. 

A. BIFORIS Newn. This insect was found breeding in de- 
cayed hemlock (Tsuga canadrnsis Linn.) stumps at Cold 
Springs, Adams County. 

A. MUTABILIS Newn. Reared from the dead decayed wood 
of willow and black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), wild black 
cherry (Pnmus serotina Ehr.) and black birch (Bctula nigra 
Linn.) collected in Clark's Valley. 

TYPOCERUS VELUTINUS Oliv. Reared from the dead de- 
cayed wood of hickory collected in Clark's Valley. 

ENCYCLOPS COERULEA Say. Found breeding in the outer 
bark of living black ash (Fra.vinns nigra Marsh.) on the Mont 
Alto State Forest. 

NEOCLYTUS KIRBYI Auriv. Reared from the dead branches 
of post oak (Qucrcus stdlata Wang.) collected in Clark's 
Valley. 

ANTHOBOSCUS RURICOLA Oliv. Reared from the wood of 
dead red maple (Acer rubrum Linn.), linden (Tilia amcricana 
Linn.) and striped maple (Acer pcnnsyh'anicuui Linn.) col- 
lected in Clark's Valley. 

CLYTUS MARGINICOLLIS Cast. Reared from the dead 
branches of long-leaved pine (Finns palnstris Mill.) collected 
at Cape Henry, Va. 

PURPURICENUS HUMERALIS Fab. Reared from dead black 
locust (Robinia pseudo-acacia Linn.) seedling about y\ of an 
inch in diameter collected in Clark's Valley. 

P. AXILLARIS Hald. Reared from pruned branches of rock 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

oak (Oncrcus prinus Linn.) and post oak (Q. stcllata Wang.) 
collected in Clark's Valley. 

AEGOMORPHUS DECIPIENS Hald. Reared from dead blue 
beech (Ostrya virginiana Miller) collected at Bald Eagle and 
from dead willow collected in Clark's Valley. 

LEPTURGES SIGNATUS Lee. Reared from dead branches of 
basswood (Tilia americana Linn.), black oak (Quercus velu- 
tina Lamb.) and chestnut (Castanea dentata Marsh.) collected 
in Clark's Valley. 

HYPERPLATYS MACULATA Hald. Reared from a dead branch 
of willow collected in Clark's Valley 

H. ASPERSA Say. Reared from dead shadbush (Amelanchier 
canadcnsis Linn.) branches collected in Clark's Valley. 

ACANTHOCINUS NODOSUS Fab. Reared from the bark of 
dead pitch pine (Finns rigid a Miller) collected at Mont Alto. 
The larvae work through the bark and form pupal cells within 
it the latter part of July. 

ECYRUS DASYCERUS Say. Adults reared from dead basswood 
(Tilia americana Linn.) branches collected in Clark's Valley. 

EUPOGONIUS TOMENTOSUS Hald. Reared from dead long- 
leaved pine (Finns palustris Miller) branches collected at Cape 
Henry, Va. 

OBEREA SCHAUMI Lee. Adults reared from living large- 
toothed aspen (Populus grandidcntata Mich.) and American 
aspen (Populus trcmuloidcs Mich.) collected at various points 
on the Allegheny Plateau. Trees up to 3 inches in diameter 
are some times infested and the larvae do not work down into 
the roots as some of the other members of the genus do. The 
work is usually up the stem including side branches, with holes 
to the exterior at different points for exuding frass. 

O. TRIPUNCTATA Swed. Reared from branches of living 
mocker nut hickory (Cory alba Linn.) collected in Huntingdon 
County; also from a living branch of witch-hazel (Hamamclis 
I'injiiiiaua Linn.) collected in Clark's Valley. 

O. TRIPUNCTATA var. mandarina Fab. Reared from a living 
branch of sweet viburnum (Viburnum Icntago Linn.) collected 
at Pond Bank. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 65 

CURCULIONIDAE 

EUSPHYRUS WALSH i Lee. Reared from dead bittersweet 
(Celastrus scandcns Linn.) vine collected in Clark's Valley. 

BRACHYRHINUS SULCATUS Fab. Numerous plants of Eng- 
lish ivy (Hcdcra helix Linn.) were practically defoliated by 
the adults of this species which appeared in numbers the latter 
part of June. The adults are nocturnal and could not be 
found in the day time. 

THYSANOCNEMUS BISCHOFFI Blatch. White ash (Fraxinus 
americana Linn.) seeds infested with the larvae of this insect 
were found at Good Siding, Franklin County, by Prof. G. S. 
Perry and Chester A. Coover. The larvae crawl from the seeds 
in the spring after they have fallen to the ground and enter 
the soil for pupation. Not more than one larva was found to 
a seed and dark spots on the outside of the infested seeds indi- 
cated the points where the eggs had been laid. Mr. Coover 
figured that 7.3% of the seeds on the trees were infested. The 
seeds from the tops showed 3.65% weeviling; the middle por- 
tions 6.85% and seeds from the bases of the trees showed 
11.3% infestation. (Species determined by L. L. Buchanan.) 

CEUTORHYNCHUS RAPAE Gyll. Adults were destructive to 
nasturtium foliage during June and the fore-part of July, at 
Mont Alto. The feeding was usually at the edges of the leaves. 
(Species determined by L. I. Buchanan.) 

CRYPTORHYNCHUS FALLAX Lee. Reared from dead bass- 
wood (Tilia americana Linn.) branches collected in Clark's 
Valley. (Determined by Chas. Liebeck.) 

SCOLYTIDAE 

SCOLYTUS PICEA Sw. Near Bernice, small black spruce 
(Picea mariana Miller) affected by the 1930-31 drought were 
infested with this insect. The adults emerged from caged 
sticks in September. 

CNESINUS STRIGICOLLIS Lee. This insect was found over- 
wintering in the adult stage in small twigs of dead chestnut 
(Castanca dcntata Marsh.) at Mont Alto. The adults had 
burrowed out the central portions of the stems and usually 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

two beetles were found in one gallery. (Determined by 
Dr. M. W. Blackman.) 

MICRACIS OPACIOLLIS Lee. Adults found through the win- 
ter months in small dead chestnut (Castanea dentata Marsh.) 
twigs at Mont Alto. 

CORTHYLUS PUNCTATISSIMUS Zimm. August 1, F. M. Trim- 
ble called the writer's attention to this species working in the 
stems of fetter bush (Leucothoe catesbaei Walt.) at Frazer. 

CONOPHTHORUS CONIPERDA Sz. Dead adults of this species 
were found in small immature cones of pitch pine (Pinus rigid a 
Miller) at Mont Alto. 

PITYOPTHORUS PULCARius Zimm. This insect was found 
working in the immature cones of pitch Pine (Pinus rig id a 
Miller) at Mont Alto, and in the small stems of Austrian pine 
(Pinus laricio var. austriaca Endl.) affected by the 1930-31 
drought at Philadelphia. (Determined by Dr. M. W. Black- 
mail. ) 

P. NUDUS Sw. Found breeding in the small dead branchlets 
of Scotch pine (Pinus syli'cstris Linn.) at Pond Bank. 

P. BELLUS Blackm. Adults were taken under the bark of 
dead Scotch pine (Pinus sylvcstris Linn.) collected at Pond 
Bank on July 24. (Determined by Dr. M. W. Blackman.) 

P. MUDUS Blackm. July 31, adults were found under the 
bark of black spruce (Picca mariana Miller) trees killed by 
drought near Bernice. (Determined by Dr. M. W. Blackman.) 

P. PULCHELLUS Eich. Adults were found under the bark 
of pruned Austrian pine (Pinus laricid var. austriaca Endl.) 
branches at Mt. Carmel, August 1. 

PITYOGENES LECONTEi Sw. Adults of this species were found 
under the bark of dead Scotch pine (Pinus sylrcstris Linn.) at 
Pond Bank, on March 8 ; working under Virginia scrub pine 
(Pinus virginiana Miller) bark in Kansas Valley, Perry County, 
on May 11 and under the bark of red pine (Pinus rcsinosa 
Aiton) at York, on May 20. 

Dr. M. W. Blackman kindly determined the specimens and 
compared the material with the type in the Leconte collection. 

Since this species was described * from a unique female in 

*J. M. Swaine Tech. Publication No. 2, N. Y. State Col. Forestry, 
v. 16, No. 1, 1915. 



xliii, '32] KNTOMOLOr.K AI. XFAVS 67 

the Leconte collection, a brief description of the male is as 
follows : 

Robust, reddish brown in color. Head with front broad, 
slightly convex, punctate toward vertex, granulate punctate be- 
low, a shining flat impunctate median area ; clothed with fine 
pubescence. Eyes oval, coarsely granulate, inner margin sin- 
uate. Antennae lighter in color than the rest of the insect, club 
flattened, circular in outline, first and second sutures nearly 
straight. 

Pronotum longer than wide, slightly wider than elytra, widest 
back of middle, constricted at base, sides subparallel, broadly 
arcuate anteriorly, anterior margin elevated, serrulate, surface 
covered with blunt asperities toward front, posteriorly coarsely 
but not closely punctate, a medium longitudinal raised smooth 
impunctate area and an oval lateral areas on each side, pubes- 
cence of disk sparse, longer and denser laterally. 

Elytra with sides subparallel, accurate anteriorly, surface shin- 
ing, coarsely punctured toward base, puntures diminishing in 
size and surface becoming somewhat rugose near declivity, 
punctures irregularly placed, those of interspaces nearly equal 
in size, pubescence long, sparse. A long slender tooth curved 
downward at tip, arising from opposite the end of the second 
atria, 'elevated margin of declevity with several blunt tubercles, 
a prominent tooth on each side near apex. 

Size of males ranging from 2 mm. long, .8 mm. wide, to 2.8 
mm. long and 1 mm. wide. 

ANISANDRUS OBESUS Lee. Adults were chopped from their 
burrows in dying large-toothed aspen (Populits grandidentata 
Mich.) on July 3, at Promised Land Lake, Pike County. (De- 
termined by Dr. M. W. Blackmail.) 

A. SAYI Hopk. Adults were found working in dying fire 
cherry (Primus pennsylvanica Linn.) at Laporte, July 24, and 
dead chestnut (Castanca dcntata Marsh.) branch in Clark's 
Valley, February 14. (Determination by Dr. M. \V. Blackman.) 

DRYOCOETES BETULAE Hopk. Adults, larvae and pupae of 
this insect were found under the bark of a dying mountain ash 
(Pyrus ainericana Marsh.) at Ricketts, on September 7. 

LYMANTOR DECIPIENS Lee. Adults were found in a small 
branch of dead witch-hazel (Hamamelis 1'injhiiana Linn.) in 
Clark's Valley. (Determined by Dr. M. \\ . I'-lackman.) 



68 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Mar., '32 



New Species of Pyrrhopyge (Lepid.: Hesperiidae). 

By E. L. BELL, Flushing, New York. 
Pyrrhopyge guianae new species. (Fig. I). 

Male. Upperside. Primaries and secondaries greenish- 
black. Beneath. Both wings greenish-black, primaries paler at 
the base and inner marginal area. Fringes of both wings white, 
darkened at the apex of the primaries. Thorax and abdomen 
on both surfaces greenish-black. Shoulder-covers, tegulae and 
pectus greenish-black. Head, collar, palpi and anal tuft red. 
Antennae black, the club brown beneath. 

Expanse : 58 mm. 




Holotypc male, French Guiana, in collection of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

This species belongs in the division of the typical group of 
the genus Pyrrhopyge containing zenodorus Godman and Sal- 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 69 

vin, to which it bears a superficial resemblance, the color of the 
head, collar, palpi and anal tuft being a little darker red. It 
also bears more or less superficial resemblance to the other 
members of this division, but may be distinguished from them 
all by the peculiar form of the male genitalia. 

The flanges at the base of the uncus are rather narrow and 
serrate on the dorsal edge and apex. The claspers terminate in 
a broad, irregularly rounded arm with a few small serrations 
at the base of the dorsal edge, back of which rises a short pro- 
jection, serrate on the rounded apex. The inner plate of the 
disc carries a considerable number of short teeth. 

Pyrrhopyge cressoni new species. (Fig. 2). 

Male. Upperside. Primaries and secondaries greenish-black. 
Beneath. Same color as above, the primaries at the base and 
below vein 2 paler ; the secondaries with a rather irregular white 
basal area, poorly defined on the outer edge, and sometimes 
sprinkled with black scales. In the paratype from Ecuador 
there is also a small white dot on the underside of the primaries 
below the costal vein toward the base. 

Fringes white on both wings, darkened at the apex of the 
primaries. Thorax and abdomen greenish-black on both sur- 
faces. Shoulder-covers and tegulae greenish-black. Collar 
black. Head, palpi, pectus and anal tuft red. Antennae black, 
the club brown beneath. 

Expanse : 54 mm. 

Holotypc male, Buena Vista, 75 km. n. w. of Santa Cruz, 
Bolivia, 450 m. alt. (Steinbach), and one male parat\pc, Ecua- 
dor, in collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; one male paratype, same data as the holotype, in 
the collection of the author. 

Named for Mr. E. T. Cresson, Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa. 

This species is a member of the typical group of the genus 
Pyrrhopyge and belongs in the division containing pliid'ms 
Linnaeus and the other species associated with it in having a 
white basal area of the secondaries beneath, from all of which 
cressoni may be superficially distinguished by the red pectus. 

The termination of the claspers is somewhat like that of 
draudti Bell, but the projection arising from the dorsal edge 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

of the terminal arm at the base is quite different in shape. The 
flanges arising from the base of the uncus are very large and 
deeply serrate on the dorsal edge and apex, in draiidti they are 
narrower and more elongate. 

The measurement of expanse is twice the distance from the 
center of the thorax to the apex of one primary. 



Biological Notes and New Records of North 
American Chermidae (Homoptera). 

By F. D. KLYVER, San Mateo Junior College, San Mateo, 

California. 
(Continued from page 40.) 

ARYTAINA ASSIMILIS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults only: 
from Ceanothus, Black Mountain Road, Hillsborough, May 5, 
1929; from C. cuncatus, Clark's Canyon, San Mateo, May 21, 
1929; from same host, Tehachapi Pass, Kern County, April 13, 
1930; from same host, Table Mountain, Fresno County, April 
16, 1930. 

Host: Not definitely known. (Probably C. cuneatus.} Nomi- 
nal Hosts : Ceanothus spp. 

ARYTAINA MINUTA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs : from Ceanothus cuncatus, Clark's Canyon, San Mateo, 
May 20, 1929; same data, June 24, 1929. Adults only: from 
Ceanothus, summit of Peachtree Grade, west of Coalinga, 
December 8, 1929; from C. cuncatus, lower Kern River Can- 
yon, west of Bodfish, June 19, 1931. 
Host : Ceanothus. 

Biological data incomplete. 

ARYTAINA CEANOTHAE Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs : from Ceanothus, Black Mountain Road, Hillsborough, 
May 12, 1929; from C. cuncatus, Table Mountain, Auberry, 
Fresno County, April 16, 1930; from C. thyrsiflorus, San Remo, 
south of Carmel, March 30, 1931. 
Host : Ceanothus. 

Biological data incomplete. 

ARYTAINA ACULEATA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults only: 
from Ccrcocarpus bctuloidcs, Soda Creek, Napa County, May 
3, 1931 (Keifer). 
Host : Unknown. Nominal Host : Cercocarpus. 

ARYTAINA PUBESCENS Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults only : 
from Purshia tridcntata, Rock Creek, northwest of Bishop, 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 71 

June 19, 1931. IDAHO. Adults only: from Antelope Bush, 
Craters of the Moon, June 29, 1930 (Annand). 
Host: Purshia. tridcntata. 

This species becomes very abundant. The nymphs are found 
among the younger branches and leaves, where they produce 
large amounts of wax secretion. Severe infestations are asso- 
ciated with the dwarfing of the host and the formation of a 
witches' broom effect in the parts most subject to attack. 

PSYLLIA FIBULATA Crawford. IDAHO. Adults only : from un- 
known host, wet meadow, near Craters of the Moon, June 29, 
1930 (Annand) ; same data, Alturas Lake, August 2, 1930. 
Host : Unknown. Nominal Hosts : None recorded. 

PSYLLIA SINUATA Crawford. IDAHO. Adults only: from 
grass and shrubs, head of Salmon River, July 19, 1930 (An- 
nand). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Grass and shrubs. 

PSYLLIA MINUTA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs: from Purshia, Marangue Peak, Argus Mountains, 
April 12, 1930. IDAHO. Adults only: from unknown host, 
wet meadow, near Craters of the Moon, June 29, 1930 (An- 
nand). 
Host: Purshia. (Probably P. tridcntata.} 

This species and AryUiina pnbcsccns Crawford, a distinct 
species, both have Purshia tridcntata for a host. Although our 
biological data is incomplete, it appears that this species does 
not produce wax to the same extent as does A. pub esc ens. 

PSYLLIA ALBA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and nymphs: 
from Salix, Isabella Creek, Mountain Hamilton Range, Oc- 
tober, 1922 (Ferris). 
Host: Sali.v. Norminal Host: 5". longifolia. 

The available data are incomplete. 

PSYLLIA HARTKII i Ror. NF.W YORK. Adults only: from pine, 
Cranberry Lake, July 26, 1920 (McLellan). NOVA SCOTIA. 
Adults only: from unknown host. King's County, no date (Brit- 
tain). 

Host: Unknown. Nominal Hosts: Pine, Bctitla popnlifolia. 
PSYLLIA AMERICANA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs: from Salix, Sacramento, March 30, 1929 (Keifer) ; 
from same host, south of Tehachapi, Kern County, April 13, 
1930; from same host, Savory's Tule Pond, south of Fresno, 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

April 15, 1930; from same host, Old Fort Miller, Friant, 
Fresno County, April 16, 1930; from same host, Crystal 
Springs Lake, San Mateo County, May 1, 1930; from same 
host, San Remo, south of Carmel, March 30, 1931 ; from same 
host, sand dunes, San Francisco, April 3, 1931 ; from same host, 
Rock Creek, northwest of Bishop, June 19, 1931. Adults only: 
from SalLr and Artemisia hctcrophylla, Sacramento, March 30, 
1929 (Keifer) ; from pear trees, Andrus Island, Sacramento 
County, April, 1931 (Keifer) ; from same host, Hood, Sacra- 
mento County, April 16, 1931 (Keifer) ; from same host, Kel- 
seyville, April 8, 1931 (Keifer) ; from Sali.r, Mountain Springs 
Canyon, Coso Mountains, April 12, 1930; from same host, 
Smith Creek, Mount Hamilton Road, April 18, 1931 ; from 
Finns monophylla, south of Tehachapi, Kern County, April 13, 
1930. IDAHO. Adults only: from grass and shrubs, head of 
Salmon River, July 19, 1930 (Annand). NOVA SCOTIA. 
Adults only: from Sali.r, 1924 _(Brittain). 
Hosts : Soliv spp. Nominal Hosts : Finns pondcrosa, P. mon- 
ophylla, Artemisia heterophylla, pear, grass, shrubs. 

The nymphs are found, unaccompanied by conspicuous wax 
secretion, on the leaves, petioles, smaller branches, and buds. 
Early in the season they, are found most abundantly on the 
axillary buds. 

PSYLLIA AMERICANA MINOR Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults 

and nymphs : from Sali.r, Crystal Springs Lake, San Mateo 
County, May 1, 1930; from same host, San Remo, south of 
Carmel, March 30, 1931 ; from same host, sand dunes San 
Francisco, April 3, 1931 ; from same host. Rock Creek, north- 
west of Bishop, June 19, 1931. Adults only: from Sali.r, Don- 
ner Pass, Placer County. July 16, 1929; from same host, Cor- 
ral Hollow, southwest of Tracy, November 30, 1929; from 
same host, lower Kern River Canyon, west of Bodfish, June 19, 
19 U ; from Baccharis I'iniinca, Corral Hollow, November 4, 
1929 (Annand) ; from pear trees, Andrus Island, Sacramento 
County, April, 1931 (Keifer) ; from same host, Kelseyville, 
April 8, 1931 (Keifer). UTAH. Adults only: from willow, 
Hooper, October 14, 1927 (Pack: Knowlton). 
Hosts : Sali.r spp. Nominal Hosts : Baccharis vinunca, pear. 
Biology similar to that of species. 

PSYLLIA MAGNICAUDA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs ( ?) : from Primus sp., Rock Creek Gorge, northwest- 
of Bishop, June 19, 1931. 
Host : Prunus sp. ( ?) 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A number of nymphs were taken with the adults from the 
same plants. These nymphs may not be those of this particular 
species, inasmuch as they are very distinctly tn'ocinc in form, 
superficially resembling those of Triosa inanra in structure and 
habit. This situation is especially interesting because of the 
great number of adults of P. inac/nicaiida found on several 
plants from which only this species was taken with the nymphs. 

PSYLLIA STRIATA Patch. CALIFORNIA. Adults only, from 
Bctula fontanalis. Rock Creek, northwest of Bishop, June 19, 
1931. NOVA SCOTIA. Adults only: from unknown host, 
King's County, June, 1924 (McLellan). 
Host: Bctula. Nominal Host : Corylus rostrata? 

According to Miss Patch, the nymphs are found on the leaves 
and terminal leaves and shoots of Bctula. The nymphs cover 
themselves with inconspicuous wax. The adults emerge late in 
June in Maine. 

PSYLLIA BREVISTIGMATA Patch. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs: from Ccrcocarfms, Santa Lucia Mountains, April 15, 
1923 (Ferris) ; from same host, Rock Creek, northwest of 
Bishop, June 19, 1931 ; from C. bctitloidcs, Stanford Univer- 
sity, April 10, 1930 (Duncan), Nymphs only: from same host, 
south of Tehachapi, Kern County, April 13, 1930. 

NEVADA. Adults and nymphs : from C. Icdifolius, Zephyr 
Point, Lake Tahoe, July 16, 1929. Adults only: from Jnncns, 
Spooner, Tahoe-Carson City Road, July 16, 1929. 
Hosts : Ccrcocarpus bctuloidcs and C. Icdifolius. Nominal 
Host : C. parvifloms. 

This species has been found wherever an effort has been made 
to find it on Cercocurpus, but it is not known to ever occur in 
abundance. The nymphs occur on the ventral side of the leave-. 
The wax secretion produced is given off in the form of long, 
straight, transparent, and somewhat glistening brownish threads. 
These threads do not intermingle to form a cottony wax. 

PSYLLIA FLOCCOSA Patch. NOVA SCOTIA. Adults only: from 
.Units, no date (W. H. Brittain). 
Host: Ahms. 

According to Miss Patch, the nymphs appear early in the 
spring, when they are found on the ventral side of the leaves. 
They produce an abundance of white, flocculent wax. 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

PSYLLIA ASTIGMATA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults and 
nymphs : from Prunus emarginata, Rock Creek, northwest of 
Bishop, June 19, 1931. Nymphs only: from same host, Cha- 
goopa Creek, southern Sierra Nevada, 7000 feet, June 21, 1923 
(Ferris) ; from Prunus, Donner Pass, Placer County, July 16, 
1929; from P. emarginata, General Grant National Park, July 
12, 1930. NOVA SCOTIA. Adults and nymphs: from unknown 
host, no date (W. H. Brittain). 
Host : Prunus emarginata. Nominal Host : P. demissa. 

This species frequently becomes excessively abundant. The 
nymphs produce large amounts of floss-like, cottony wax. They 
usually occur on the ventral side of the leaves but in severe 
attacks they are found on the petioles, smaller branches, flowers 
and fruit, moving about freely and carrying their wax secre- 
tion, plume-like, about with them. Even in cases of very abun- 
dant attack the host does not seem to suffer any serious loss of 
vitality. The nymphs of this species superficially resemble 
those of Psyllia mail. 

PSYLLIA TRIMACULATA Crawford. NEW YORK. Adults only: 
from Prunus, Cranberry Lake, 1925 (W. H. Brittain). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Host: Prunus. 
PSYLLIA ALNI AMERICANA Crawford. CALIFORNIA. Adults 
and nymphs : from Alnus rhombifolia, San Francisquito Creek, 
Stanford University, May 3 and June 20, 1929; from same 
host, southern end of Lake Tahoe, July 15, 1929; from same 
host, Smith Creek, Mount Hamilton Road, April 18, 1931 ; 
from same host, Placerville, July 15, 1929. Adults only: from 
unknown host, Placerville, no date (E. O. Essig: Keifer). 
IDAHO. Adults only : from unknown host, Alturas Lake, Stan- 
ley Basin, July 19, 1930 (Annand). WASHINGTON. Adults 
and nymphs: from Alnus, Cathlamet, August 7, 1923 (Dun- 
can). 
Host: Alnus rhombifolia. 

The nymphs occur, sometimes in exceedingly great abun- 
dance, on the younger leaves and smaller branches early in 
spring. They are usually conspicuous because of the vast 
amounts of white wax secretion, which may sometimes com- 
pletely cover the leaves. Alder trees at the south end of Lake 
Tahoe and at Bass Lake, Madera County, California, were 
defoliated to a considerable degree, apparently by the chermid. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 75 

PSYLLIA BUXI (L.) CALIFORNIA. Adults and nymphs: from 
Buxus, San Jose, June 12, 1920 (R. D. Hartman) ; from B. 
scnif>cK'ircns, North Clarmont Street, San Mateo, May 5, 1929; 
same host, North Eldorado Street, San Mateo, May 10, 1929; 
from same host, Ellsworth Avenue, San Mateo, June 30, 1931. 
Nymphs only : from same host, North Clarmont Street, San 
Mateo, April 15, 1929; from same host, Parrott Estate, San 
Mateo, May 18, 1929. 
Host : Bu.i'us scmpcruircns. 

The nymphs attack the young terminal leaves causing them 
to curl into a loosely cabbage-like growth. In severe infesta- 
tions, which apparently are not uncommon, these growths con- 
siderably impair the beauty of the plants. 

PSYLLIA CAUDATA Crawford. IDAHO. Adults only : from un- 
known host, Alturas Lake, Stanley Basin, July 19, 1930 (An- 
nand). 
Host: Unknown. Nominal Host: Alnits tcnuifolia. 



Cordylura tricincta Loew, a Leaf-miner on Smilacina 
racemosa (L) Desf. (Dipt. : Scatophagidae). 

By S. W. FROST, The Pennsylvania State College. 

For a number of years the writer has noticed mines on the 
leaves of Smilacina racemosa. In 1924, 1 he recorded the leaf- 
miner as an undetermined species of Diptera. In 1928, 2 the 
same miner was noted, its habits briefly summarized and the 
mine figured. At this time, adults had not been reared and it 
was thought to be a species of Parallelomma. Later an adult 
emerged and Mr. E. T. Cresson determined it as Hc.vamitoccra 
flarida Coq. Mr. C. H. Curran has recently studied the types 
of this subfamily and states that H. flavida Coq., is a synonym 
of Cordylura tricincta. Loew. 

Cordylura tricincta Loew, appears to be somewhat rare in 
collections. It was originally described by Loew 3 as Cocnosia 
tricincta from the White Mountains, New Hampshire. As 
Hcxamitoccra flavida, Coquillett 5 recorded it from Franconia, 
N. H. Mr. E. T. Cresson took one specimen at Caroline, New 
York, from which the record in the "List of Insects of New 
York" 4 was obtained. In the National Museum, there is one 
specimen, besides the type, collected by Dr. J. M. Aldrich 
from Moscow, Idaho. Mr. C. W. Johnson G took it at East- 
port, Maine, and he has a specimen taken by Dr. C. P. Alex- 
ander at Orono, Maine. The writer has found the mines of 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

this species fairly common at Ithaca and Florida, N. Y., and 
Arendtsville, Pa. 

Egg. The egg is pure white and always laid at the base and 
on the under surface of the leaf. It is about 1 mm. long and 
.5 mm. in diameter, somewhat larger than most leaf -mining 
eggs with the exception of the Anthomyiidae, and strikingly 
conspicuous against the green color of the leaf. It is distinctly 
different from the eggs of any of the other North American 
leaf-mining insects. In cross section, an egg shows a central 
rounded portion with two lateral wing-like expansions which, 
in the plump newly laid egg, are folded over the egg and nearly 
meet down the center. After the egg hatches, the egg shell 
shrivels and the lateral expansions spread so that the egg has 
three longitudinal ribs. 

Larva. There is nothing paricularly striking about the larva. 
It is elongate and resembles, superficially, an Anthomyid larva, 
especially Hylcmyia. The anterior spiracles are fan-shaped 
with twelve lobes, (Frost 1 Plate XII, fig. 13). The interseg- 
mental areas are thickly beset with six or eight rows of ambu- 
latory setae. The posterior spiracles each have three openings, 
(Frost 1 Plate XI, fig. 17). Surrounding the posterior spir- 
acles is a circle of eight rather prominent fleshy tubercles. 
Puparium. The puparium is elongate, chestnut brown in color 
with distinctly protruding spiracles and with a circle of prom- 
inent tubercles as in the larva. The anterior end of the larva 
is somewhat truncate on the dorsal and ventral sides. 

Mine. The larva, on hatching, enters directly into the leaf and 
starts mining. The mine is confined, more or less, between 
the parallel veins of the leaf which are broadly spaced. An 
elongate blotch mine is produced from the base towards the tip 
of the leaf. Usually but one mine occurs on a leaf although 
sometimes two eggs are laid side by side and the larvae from 
these eggs produce a common mine. In mining, the parenchyma 
and palisade cells are entirely removed leaving only the upper 
and lower epidermis. The fresh mine is pale green or white 
in color. Later the mine turns brown or red along the edges. 

Host plant. Cordylura tricincta has been reared only from 
false Solomon's seal, Smilacina raccmosa. Similar eggs and 
mines have been found on Polvgonatmn comnmtatum. As the 
eggs on the latter plant are invariably laid upon the upper sur- 
face of the leaves, there is no doubt that a closely related 
species is envolved. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 77 

Adult. Some difficulty was experienced in rearing adults of 
Cordylnra iricincta. Tenanted mines were fairly common in 
New York and Pennsylvania where Smilacina racemosa grew, 
larvae matured freely in the mines and puparia were obtined in 
considerable numbers, but it was found difficult to secure adults 
from these puparia. The pupal period is long and it is not 
easy to maintain satisfactory temperature and humidity during 
this long period to assure a fair emergence of adults. Larvae 
that transformed June 30, 1927, did not emerge until May 1, 
1928. There is obviously only one generation a year. The 
adults are most active during May and June. 

REFERENCES CITED. 

1. FROST, S. W, Cornell Memoir 78: 128, 1924. 

2. NEEDHAM, J. G., & FROST, S. W. Leaf-mining insects : 

269-270, 1928. 

3. LOEW, H. Cent. IX. Berlin, ent. Zeit. 9: 83, 1865. 

4. LEONARD, M. D. Cornell Memoir 101 : 841, 1926 

5. COQUILLETT, D. W. Proc. U. S. N. Mus. 23: 612, 1900. 

6. JOHNSON, C. W. Dip. New Eng. : 240, 1925. 

An Additional Record for Dynastes tityus in 
Pennsylvania (Coleop. : Scarabaeidae). 

[Mr. Samuel Henshaw has kindly sent me the following 
information concerning this species from Asa Fitch's manu- 
script notes. See the NEWS, xli, pp. 195, 305, 1930. P. P. 
CALVERT. ] 

Fitch's manuscript notes were acquired by Mr. Scudder, who 
later gave them to me when I was connected with the Boston 
Society of Natural History. I planned having them bound 
and giving them to the Society, as Mr. Scudder left his library 
to the Society. They are on loose sheets and not easily or 
inexpensively bound and save for two or three small volumes 
given to the Society in his name many years ago, I have them 
still. 

Fitch's records are : 

"Date and Situation 

$ 3360 July 1847 from Thaddeus A. Culbertson, Chambers- 
burgh, Pa. 

9 6077 July 1852 from Wm. S. Robertson, Tallahassie, Ark. 
$ 1123 July 1855 from Wm. S. Robertson. Tallahassie, Ark 
9 1201 July 1852 from Sara S. | ?| Fitch. Jackson, Mi. 

SAMUEL HENSHAW. 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY LAURA S. MACKEY UNDER THE SUPERVISION OP 

E. T. CRESSON, JR. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also. Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

StSTNote the change in the method of citing the bibliographical references, as 
explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Arnhart, L. Ein einfachster mikrophoto- 
graphischer Reiseapparat. [56] 10: 286-289, ill. Common 
names of insects approved for general use by The Ameri- 
can Association of Economic Entomologists. [12] 24: 1273- 
1310. Davis, A. C. California collecting notes II. [19] 
26: 187-188. Dustan, G. G. A handy type of oviposition 
cage. [4] 63: 273-275, ill. Emery, C. Obituary. [5] 33: 
171. Ewing, H. E. The relative importance of Amphi- 
bians, reptiles, birds and mammals as hosts for chiggers 
and other ectoparasites. [7] 24: 746-750, ill. Forel, A.- 
Obituary. By R. Brun. [Mitt. Deutschen Ent. Gesell.] 2: 
129-136, ill. " Forel, A. Obituary. By H. Donisthorpe. 
[21] 43: 176. Hentz, N. M. Obituary. By C. Cobb. 
[Jour. E. Mitchell Sc. Soc.] 47: 47-51, ill. Mann, B. P.- 
Obituary. [5] 33: .172, ill. Palmer, E. L. Fall insects. 
[Cornell Rural' School Leaflet] 25: 43 pp., ill. Prout, L. B. 
Generic names and genera. [9] 65: 8-9. Waterhouse, 
G. A. Butterflies and ants. [Australian Mus. Mag.] 4: 219- 
226, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Abbott, C. E.- 

Methods of orientation in dragonfly larvae. [5] 33: 124-126 
Barnes, T. C. Kinesthetic sense of insects. [7] 24: 824- 
826. Bito, S. The influence of food upon the nutrition of 
insects. (Japanese, resume in English.) [Bui. Sci. Kjusu 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Imp. Univ., Japanujo] 4: 489-498, ill. Braun, F. Beitrage 
zur biologic und atmungsphysiologie der Argyroneta aqua- 
tica. [89] 62: 175-262, ill' Eltringham, H. On some 
peculiarities of the abdominal structure in certain male 
Trichoptera. [36] 69: 539-544, ill. Eltringham, H. On the 
structure of the compound eye of Aleurodes brassicae. 
[36] 69: 431-435, ill. Friederichs, H. F. Die funktionen 
der Ocellen bei den Lepidopteren. [18] 25: 326-332, ill. 
Green, T. L. The anatomy and histology of the alimentary 
canal in the common wasp (Yespa vulgaris). [93] 1931: 
1041-1066, ill. Griswold, G. H. On the length of the adult 
life in the webbing clothes moth, Tineola biselliella. [7] 
24: 761-764, ill. Hamilton, M. A. The morphology of the 
water-scorpion. [93] 1931: 1067-1136, ill. Hilton, W. A.- 
Nervous system and sense organs. Pseudoscorpionida. 
[13] 23: 67-75, ill. Holloway, J. K. Temperature as a 
factor in the activity and development of the Chinese 
strain of Tiphia popilliavora in New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania. [6] 39: 555-564, ill. Klyver/F. D. Preliminary 
note on paedogenesis in a cecidomyiid. [55] 8: 9-10. 
Mangelsdorf, A. J. Color and sex in the Indian walking 
stick, Dixippus morosus. [5] 33: 151-155. Maulik, S. On 
the structure of larvae of Hispine beetles. [93] 1931: 1137- 
1162, ill. McGovran, E. R. A method of measuring 
tracheal ventilation in insects and some results obtained 
with grasshoppers. [7] 24: 751-761. Paterson, N. F. The 
bionomics and comparative morphology of the early stages 
of certain Chrysomelidae (Phytophaga). [93] 1931: 879- 
949, ill. Salem, H. H. Some observations on the structure 
of the mouth parts and fore-intestine of the fourth stage 
larva of Aedes (Stegomyia) fasciata. [An. Trop. Med. 
Parasit., Liverpool] 25: 393-419, ill. Semichon, L. Modi- 
fications precoces des reserves, avant la metamorphose 
chez un Hymenoptere : Dasypoda plumipes. [77| 108: 
1140-1141. Tanaka & Hino. Variations of tactile papillae 
and sensory hairs of the larval antennae of Bombyx mori. 
(Japanese, resume in English.) [Bui. Sci. Kjusu Imp. 
Univ., Japanujo] 4: 570-580, ill. Thorpe, W. ^--Experi- 
ments upon respiration in the larvae of certain parasitic 
hymenoptera. [Pro. R. Soc., London] 109: 450-471, ill 
Yeager, J. F. Observations on crop and giz/ard move- 
ments in the cockroach, Periplaneta fulginosa. [7] 24: 
739-745. 

..ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. *Chamberlin, J. 
C. A synoptic revision of the generic classification of the 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

Chelonethid family Cheliferidae. [4] 63: 289-294. Hoff- 
mann, C. C. Los Scorpiones de Mexico. Part 1. [An. 
Inst. Biol., Mexico] 2: 291-409, ill. *McGregor, E. A. A 
new spinning mite attacking raspberry in Michigan. [10] 
33: 193-194, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. *Hilton, 
W. A. Pauropoda from Alaska and the Yukon. [4] 63: 
280-284. *Hood, J. D. Notes on New York Thysanop- 
tera, with descriptions of new genera and species. (S). 
[19] 26: 151-168, ill. *Klyver, F. D. New records and 
two new species of Chermidae from British Columbia and 
Washington, with biological notes. [55] 8: 11-17, ill. Light, 
S. F. The termites of Nevada. [55] 8: 5-9. *McDun- 
nough, J. New North American Caeninae with notes 
(Ephemeroptera). [4] 63: 254-268, ill. *Mosely, M. E.- 
Some new Trichoptera from Africa and British Guiana. 
[36] 69: 545-551, ill. *Navas, R. P. L Decadas de in- 
sectos nuevos. (S). [Rev. Acad. Cien., Madrid] 26: 60-118, 
ill. *Smith, R. C. The Neuroptera of Haiti, West Indies. 
[7] 24: 798-823, ill. Tillyard, R. J. Kansas permian in- 
sects. Part 15. The order Plectoptera. [16] 23: 97-134, ill., 
cont. Traver, J. R. Mayflies of North Carolina. [Jour. E. 
Mitchell Sc. Soc.] 47: 85-161, ill. Watson, J. R. A col- 
lection of Thysanoptera from western Oklahoma. [Biol. 
Surv. Univ. Oklahoma] 3: 339-345, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Beamer, R. H. The giant walking- 
stick (Megaphasma dentricus) found in Kansas. [103] 5: 
28. Fulton, B. B. North Carolina's singing Orthoptera. 
[Jour. E. Mitchell Sc. Soc.] 47: 55-69. *Hebard, M. Die 
ausbeute der dentschen Chaco Expedition 1925-26. Orth- 
optera. [56] 10: 257-285, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Barber, H. G. A new Oncerotrach- 
elus from Cuba (Reduviidae). [19] 26: 185-186. *Beamer, 
R. H. Some Erythroneura (grape leaf hoppers) of the 
Maculata group (Cicadellidae). [4] 63: 268-270, cont. 
Bibby, F. F. Coccoids collected on wild plants in semi- 
arid regions of Texas and Mexico. |6] 39: 587-591, ill. 
Bibby, F. F. Coccoids collected on wild plants in semi- 
arid regions of Texas and Mexico. [19] 26: 189-194. 
*Drake & Harris. Further notes on the genus Rhago- 
velia. Veliidae. [55] 6-: 33-35. Essig, E. 6. The negro 
scale in California. [55] 6: 36. Essig, E. O. Note on the 
redwood scale. [55] 6: 48. *Evans, J. H. A preliminary 
revision of the Ambush bugs of North America (Phyma- 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 81 

tidae). [7] 24: 711-738, ill. Evans, J. W. Notes on the 
biology and morphology of the Eurymelinae (Cicadel- 
loidea). [Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W.] 56:' 210-226, ill. *Gil- 
lette & Palmer. The aphidae of Colorado. [7] 24: 827- 
934, ill. Coding, F. W. Synonymical notes on Membra- 
cidae. II. [7] 24: 935-936, "ill. '"Harris, H. M. Nabidae 
from the state of Parana. [An. Mus. Zool. Polonici] 9: 
179-185. *Knight, H. H. Three new species of Cyrtor- 
hinus from North America (Miridae). [19] 26: 1/1-173. 
*Knight, H. H. Descriptions of four new species of Eus- 
tictus (Miridae). [5] 33: 121-123. *Lawson, P. B. The 
genus Alapus (Cicadellidae). [103] 5: 29-31. *Mendes, 
L. O. T. Uma nova especie do genero Eucalymnatus (Coc- 
cidae). (S). [Revista Ent.] 1: 395-400. Myers, J. G.- 
Heteroptera in ocean drift. [5] 33: 110-115. Osborn, H. 
Early work and workers in American Hemipterology. [7] 
24 :_ 679-685. Pickles, A. A description of Tomaspis bod- 
kini, (Cercopidae) from British Guiana. [Stylops] 1: 14- 
15, ill. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. Biting bugs. [19] 26: 
176. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *Bell, E. L. Descriptions of new 
Hesperidae from Trinidad, B. W. I., and South America. 
[6] 39: 523-529, ill. Cockayne, E. A. A structural char- 
acter of the larval cuticle and its possible bearing on the 
classification of the Noctuidae. [21] 43: 182-184. Cockerell, 
T. D. A. Melemaea magdalena. [5] 33: 170. Cottle, J. E. 

-Where some rare butterflies fly. [55] 8: 1-4. *Draudt, M. 

-Ein neuer schmetterling aus Peru. [17] 49: 1-3, ill. 
*Ferreira d'Almeida, R. Bemerkungen iiber einige schmet- 
terlinge aus Brasilien. [14] 45: 232-235, ill. Fryer, J. C. F. 

-Lepidoptera at sea. [8] 67: 279-280. *Heinrich, C. A 
new pine moth from Connecticut. [10] 33: 196-197. Hem- 
ming, A. F. New material regarding the dates of the 
plates of the Papiliones in Jacob Hiibner's "Sammlung 
Europaischer Schmetterlinge", with notes on the syno- 
nymy and type localities of certain species described there- 
in. [36] 69: 493-504. Hemming, A. F. Notes on the date 
of issue of the parts of Volume I of W. H. Edwards' Butter- 
flies of North America and on the plates by Wiest in that 
work subsequently rejected by the author. [Pro. Ent. Soc. 
London] 6: 42-44. Issiki, S. T. On the morphology and 
systematics of Micropterygidae (Homoneura) of Japan and 
Formosa, with some considerations on the Australian, 
European, and North American forms. [93] 1931: 999- 
1039, ill. Janse, A. J. T. A contribution towards the study 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

of the genera of the Epipaschiinae (Pyralidae). [36] 69: 
439-492, ill. Jordan, K. Botl. sexes of Papilio aristor from 
San Domingo. [Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 6: 62. Kaye, W. J. 

Additions and corrections to the author's "Butterflies of 
Jamaica (1926)". [36] 69: 531-537, ill. Knobel, L. Argyn- 
nis diana as observed about Hope, Arkansas. [19] 26: 184. 
Kremky, J. Neotropische lepidopteren aus der unter- 
familie Pericopsinae (Arctiidae) in der sammlung des Pol- 
nischen Zoologischen Staatsmuseums. [An. Mus. Zool. 
Polonici] 9: 167-178, ill. *Michael, O. Neue oder wenig 
bekannte Agriasaberrationen vom Amazonas. [14] 45: 
262-263, cont. *Rawson, G. W. The addition of a new 
skipper, Adopaea lineola to the list of U. S. Lepidoptera. 

[6] 39: 503-506. *R6ber, J. Ueber einige falter. (S). [18] 
25 : 337-338, ill. Rogers, W. P. Notes on Eurymus eury- 
theme. [19] 26: 188. 

DIPTERA.- *Aldrich, J. M. North American two- 
winged flies of the genus Spathimeigenia, with descriptions 
of five new species. [50] 80, Art. 11: 10 pp. *Alexander, 
C. P. New or insufficiently-known crane-flies from the 
Nearctic region (Tipulidae). Part III. [19] 26: 177-184. 
*Bequaert, J. Tabanidae of the peninsula of Yucatan, 
Mexico, with descriptions of new species. [6] 39: 533-553, 
ill. Cockerell, T. D. A. The type locality of Diastata albi- 
basis. [10] 33: 202. *Curran, C. H. Some new North 
American Diptera. (S). [4] 63: 249-254. Edwards, F. W- 
Meigen's "Nouvelle Classification". [8] 68: 1-3; [9] 65: 
13-14. *Frost, S. W. New North American Agromyzidae. 
[4] 63: 275-277. Hobby, B. M. The prey of dung-flies 
(Cordyluridae). [Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 6: 47-49. *John- 
son, C. W. A note on Beris annulifera. [5] 33: 108-109. 
*Krober, O. Neue neotropische Tabaniden aus den unter- 
familien Bellardiinae und Tabaninae. [Revista Ent.] 1: 
400-417, ill. *Krober, O. Dreizehn neue neotropische 
Tabanusarten. [56] 10: 291-300. *Rogers, J. S. Notes on 
a small collection of crane-flies from Oklahoma, with 
descriptions of new species: Tipulidae. [Biol. Surv. Univ. 
Oklahoma] 3: 331-338, ill. Townsend, C. H. T. On 
Neivamyia and its allies. [Revista Ent.] 1 : 479-482. Twinn, 
C. R. Note on the biting midge, Culicoides obsoletus in 
Eastern Canada. [4] 63: 248. *Van Duzee, M. C. A 
new species of Dolichopodidae from Java, in the collec- 
tion of the California Academy of Sciences. [55] 6: 17-18. 
*Van Duzee, M. C. A new species of Physocephala from 
Ontario, Canada. (Conopidae). [4] 63: 284. 



xliii, '32] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 83 

COLEOPTERA. *Bierig, A. Neue Staphyliniden aus 
Cuba and Panama nebst erganzenden beschreibungen und 
systematischer berichtigung. [Revista Ent.] 1: 423-428, 
ill. Blackwelder, R. E. The Sphaeridiinae of the Pacific 
Coast. (Hydrophilidae). [55] 6: 19-32. *Blaisdell, F. E. 

Studies in the Tenebrionidae. Number three [55] 
6: 41-46. Bondar, G. --Notas biologicas sobre alguns 
Bruchideos brasileiros do genero Pseudopachymerus. 
[Revista Ent.] 1: 417-422, ill. *Borgmeier, T. Uma nova 
especie de Cenocoelius (Braconidae) parasita de Oncideres 
dejeani (Cerambycidae). (S). [Revista Ent.] 431-436, ill. 
*Bruch, C. Algunos mirmecofilos y termitofilos nuevos y 
poco conocidos de la Argentina. [Revista Ent.] 1: 387-395. 
ill. *Chamberlin, W. J. A new species of Buprestidae 
from California. [55] 6: 47-48. da Costa Lima, A. Coc- 
cinellideos mycophagos (Coccinellinae : Psylloborini). [Re- 
vista Ent.] 1: 428-430, ill. *Fisher, W. S. New cactus 
beetles, III. (S). [10] 33: 197-201. Gebhardt, A. V. Zur 
eidonomie der Buprestiden. [79] 17: 161-172, ill. Heuer, A. 

-Einige winke fiir die aufzucht von kafern. [18] 25: 394- 
396. Knaus, W. Some notes on Coleoptera. [103] 5: 32. 
*Linsley, E. G. A new species of Molorchus from Cali- 
fornia. (Cerambycidae.) [55] 6: 37-38. Mader, L. Zur 
kenntnis einiger Coccinelliden. [26] 11: 476-479, ill., cont. 
Mathers, W. G. The biology of Canadian barkbeetles. 
The seasonal history of Dryocoetes confusus. [4] 63 : 247- 
248. *Nevermann, F. Beitrag zur kenntnis der Tele- 
phanus (Cucujidae). (S). [60] 92: 161-187, ill. *Ohaus, E. 

-Neue Geniatinen IV. (S). [60] 92: 227-258, ill. Plavil- 
stshikov, N. N. Synonymische bemerkungen iiber Ceram- 
byciden. [79] 17: 195-203. *Schaeffer, C. On a few new 
and known Coleoptera. [19] 26: 174-176. Simonds, W. E. 

-Preliminary list of Curculionidae of Southern California 
with ecological notes. [13] 23: 61-63. Smith, H. B. Notes 
on the behavior of Dineutes americanus. [5] 33: 156-161. 
Staig, R. A. The Fabrician types of insects in the Hun- 
terian Collection at Glasgow University. Coleoptera Pt. I. 
Cambridge 1931. 110 pp., col. pis. *Thery, A. Description 
d'un Conognatha nouveau [Buprestidae]. (S). [25] 1931: 
255-256, ill. Uhmann, E. Hispinen aus den Museen fiir 
tierkunde und volkerkunde zu Dresden. |60] 92: 219-226. 
(S). 

HYMENOPTERA. Alfken, J. D. Kin weiterer bei- 
trag zur kenntnis chilenischen arten der bienengattung 
Corynura. [60] 92: 211-218. Andrews, E. A. An ant hill. 
[76 J' 1932: 97-114, ill. Andrews, E. A. Sequential dis- 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '32 

tribution of Formica exsectoides. [5] 33: 127-150, ill. *Be- 
quaert & Salt. New West Indian Diploptera. [7] 24: 765- 
797. *Cockerell, T. D. A. A peculiar pangurgine bee from 
Arizona. [10] 33: 201-202. Cockerell, T. D. A. Scrapter, 
A misunderstood genus of bees. [9] 65: 10-12. *Cockerell, 
T. D. A. Two genera of bees new to the recorded fauna 
of Nova Scotia. [4] 63: 279. Cole, A. C The ant, Pogo- 
nomyrmex occidentalis, associated with plant communities. 
[43] 32: 10-20, ill. Fernald, H. T. On color dimorphism 
in Podalonia violaceipennis (Sphecini). [4] 63: 278-279. 
*Ferriere, C. Un curieux Chalcidien myrmecophile de 
Cuba. [25] 1931: 215-219, ill. *Friese, H. Ueber Bombus 
und Psithyrus. [56] 10: 300-304. (S). Raskins, C. P.- 
Notes on the biology and social life of Euponera gilva var. 
harnecli. [6] 39: 507-521. Haupt, H. Ableitung und