Skip to main content

Full text of "Entomological news"

See other formats







'*,? 
^ \. 





\ Pj? 



<S X * 9 <' '< o 

"rfW'tf'W 

^V^ -/I, vl *,.'-"^.-'* lr v\ A iV-K-*,-! J. 'SjeS 



r+_ ^ 









= ^ 












'A 






.V 



^. 



V 



jf\ 

^^sms^s 






o> ^ 



























\ 












Jcr , 













ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOLUME LXXII, 1961 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, EDITOR EMERITUS 
R. G. SCHMIEDER, EDITOR 

EDITORIAL STAFF 
J. A. G. REHN M. E. PHILLIPS 

E. F. J. MARX H. J. GRANT, JR. 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, U. S. A. 

1961 



The numbers of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for 1961 were mailed at the Post 
Office at Lancaster, Pa., as follows : 

No. 1 January January 12, 1961 

No. 2 February February 9, 1961 

No. 3 March March 7, 1961 

No. 4 April April 7, 1961 

No. 5 May April 27, 1961 

No. 6 June June 7, 1961 

No. 7 July July 8, 1961 

No. 8 October September 25, 1961 

No. 9 November November 1, 1961 

The date of mailing the December, 1961, number will be announced 
on the last page of the issue for January, 1962. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

JANUARY IflGl 

Vol. LXXII No. 1 



CONTENTS 

Krombein V. S. L. Pate, 1903-1958 1 

i I \ land and Ford Nasal mite in the bat 6 

Schlinger New Acrocera and Ocnaea 7 

M^ade and Cook Biology of Scatopse fuscipes 13 

Sabrosky New Stenoscinis, with key to species 19 

Kurczewski Records of Pepsinae and Ceropalinae 24 

Hubbard Specificity of kangaroo rat fleas 25 

Xotes and News in Entomology 

Fourth International Congress on social insects 27 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 



Jlf .' 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use : in the United States, $5.00 ; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Cnvors 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 

Transportation charges will be extra. 




V. S. L. PATE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII JANUARY, 1961 No. 1 



V. S. L. Pate, 1903-1958 * 

The recent death of Vernon Pate at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, October 30, 1958, leaves the scientific world poorer by an 
extremely talented taxonomist. In a short period, 1929 to 1948, 
he published 92 papers. Many of these were revisions and gen- 
eric reclassifications which establish him firmly as one of the 
world's foremost hymenopterists. 

His primary interest was in the sphecoid wasps, principally 
in the subfamilies Nyssoninae, Pemphredoninae and Crabro- 
ninae. After obtaining his A.B. degree from Cornell University 
in 1928 he began an intensive study of the Oxybelini, and pro- 
duced several short papers describing one new genus and several 
new species ; two short regional papers on the oxybeline fauna 
of Algeria and the Philippines ; and two outstanding, large 
papers on the Nearctic species of Belomicrus and Encheniicrmn 
(1940). He never completed a revision of the Nearctic species 
of Oxybelus, assigned originally by J. C. Bradley as the thesis 
problem for his doctoral degree. 

In the mid-30's Pate began publishing papers on the nys- 
sonine-gorytine complex in the Nyssoninae and on the ammo- 
planoid complex in the Pemphredoninae. The most important 
contribution in the former series was a redefinition of the genera 
of Nyssonini (1938). The series on the tiny ammoplanoid 
wasps contained several valuable papers in which he described 
some new genera and a number of new species from the United 
States. The extent of his achievement on the ammoplanoids 
may be recognized when one realizes that of the currently valid 
taxa occurring in the United States 6 of the 9 genera and sub- 

* The accompanying portrait of V". S. I.. 1'atc was taken by R. E. 
Crabill in 1951. 

(1) 



2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

genera and 27 of the 32 species and subspecies were described 
by Pate. 

In the late 30's Pate developed a great and lasting interest in 
the extremely difficult group, Crabroninae. He published a 
number of valuable papers on these wasps between 1941 and 
1948. His crowning achievement and most important single 
contribution to taxonomy was his masterful reclassification of 
the genera of crabronine wasps (1943). He submitted this 
work to satisfy the thesis requirements for his doctoral degree 
at Cornell. It displays the keen analytical powers and erudition 
that mark all of his major taxonomic efforts. It is certain that 
the basic concepts of classification established in this study will 
endure, even though subsequent workers may describe a few 
genera not known to Pate. 

Although the majority of his papers were on the sphecoid 
wasps, he published worthy generic ^classifications of the Tiphi- 
idae and Sapygidae in 1947. In addition, there were two basic 
nomenclatural studies that arose from his interests in wasp 
taxonomy. The earlier of these was a listing of the type species 
of genera and subgenera of the Sphecoidea, published as Memoir 
No. 9 of the American Entomological Society in 1937. The 
other was a similar listing of names applied in the Pompilidae, 
published in the Transactions of the same society in 1946. 

Vernon had a very thorough and extensive knowledge of 
zoogeography and paleontology. In his more comprehensive 
papers he endeavored to apply knowledge from these fields in 
order to explain the probable evolution and distribution of a 
particular group of wasps. He was also a firm believer in the 
importance of biological characters in higher taxonomy, and 
many of his later papers utilize biological criteria to substan- 
tiate groupings based primarily on morphological grounds. 
Curiously enough, although he obviously realized the value of 
behavioral characters in elucidating taxonomy and gave fascinat- 
ing lectures on the habits of wasps, he never published a single 
personal observation on wasp biology. 

During the 30's he was interested in field collecting, and col- 
lected to some extent in the vicinity of Ithaca, New York, and 



Ixxii | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 3 

at Medford Lakes, New Jersey, where his family maintained a 
summer home. He participated with J. A. G. Rehn and J. W. 
H. Rehn in the Southwest Orthoptera Survey of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in 1937. In his early days 
at Cornell he was interested in limnology, and he worked for 7 
summers, 1927 to 1933, for the New York State Conservation 
Commission on biological surveys of several of the streams and 
rivers in that state. In the summer of 1933 he collected insects 
and fossils in Kansas, Illinois, and Colorado with A. B. Klots 
and W. D. Sargent. 

Each of us, in looking back over his own scientific career, 
probably can single out one teacher or colleague whose inspira- 
tion, advice and encouragement resulted in his selecting a par- 
ticular field of specialization. In my own case he was Yernon 
Pate. His lectures in the advanced taxonomy course on the 
biology and taxonomy of the Hymenoptera, especially of the 
solitary wasps, were so stimulating and fascinating, that early 
in my entomological studies I decided to specialize on the same 
groups that engaged Pate's attention. His advice and encour- 
agement during my undergraduate and graduate years were con- 
stant and inspiring. Other taxonomists who benefited from 
Pate's interest and encouragement were J. W. H. Rehn in 
Orthoptera, H. E. Evans in Hymenoptera, R. H. Arnett in 
Coleoptera, and R. E. Crabill in Myriapoda. 

A generation of students will remember Pate's combined office 
and laboratory. One had to thread his way to the inner sanctum 
through a maze of insect storage cabinets and bookcases ar- 
ranged as baffles. The air was blue from his chain-smoking, and 
cigarette ashes were dribbled liberally over the floor, tables and 
shirtfront of the occupant. These students also will remember 
the stimulating classroom and laboratory lectures that were 
made so vivid and meaningful by Pate's broad knowledge of 
biological fundamentals and his ability to relate these to the 
particular subject of discussion. 

The honor that touched Pate most deeply was the recognition 
of the worth of his studies implicit in his election as a Life 
Member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jail., 1961 

and a Research Associate in Entomology. Writing to me from 
Cornell on May 4, 1938, he said: "Saturday [I] receive[d] two 
letters from Cadwalader the president notifying me that the 
Board of Trustees had a few days previously met and elected 
me a Life Member of the Academy and also Research Associate 
in Entomology. Rather took the wind out of my sails ; they 
seem to go out of their way to be nice to me down there of late." 

In his relaxed moments Pate was a delightful companion for 
the few who knew him well, and I recall with great nostalgia 
those happy golden years in the mid-30's. Pate and I would 
work all evening on our wasps, he in his long narrow office 
crammed with bookshelves and insect cabinets, I in one of the 
smaller labs across the hall where I shared working space with 
Jack Franclemont, Jack Cadbury, Derek Cross (now a physi- 
cian), Verne Pechuman, Chakratong Tongyai from Siam, and, 
several years later, John Rehn. A frequent routine in spring 
and fall, after Franclemont returned from sugaring for moths 
and Cross came back from courting his future wife, would be 
a midnight visit by our quartet to the Lehigh Valley House for 
several rounds of beer or to Van Natta's dam for a highly re- 
freshing swim. 

Pate had a droll sense of humor that is preserved for entomo- 
logical posterity in such names as Lalapa lusa, Zyzzyx, Tea, and 
Java. In response to my teasing him about some of the names 
proposed in his paper on the type species of pompilid wasps, 
he wrote June 7, 1947, as follows : "Furthermore I am deeply 
shocked that you would even consider I treat the sacred subject 
of nomenclature with levity. Java was proposed as a new name 
for Dichelony.v Haupt nee Harris, with the type Java concolor 
(Tasch.) which comes from Java. Hence the name, which is 
short and sweet, that is if you have any sugar these days for 
your coffee. Tea is probably an old Norse goddess or some- 
thing. Lalapa lusa (named after the Palouse Indians of Idaho 
if you insist upon an etymology) is just out. And I have a 
n. gen. n. sp. from China which I have been wondering what to 
call (in the Gory tines). Will probably dedicate it to a 5 grad 
student of Forbes, Da-si Pen, who has taken the Christian name 



Ixxiij ENTOMOLOGICAL XK\VS 5 

of Daisy. Upsa da si would be a very nice euphonious name, 
don't you think." 

It is most unfortunate that progressively poorer health, pos- 
sibly occasioned by the declining health and death of his parents 
and an increasing teaching load, resulted in his virtual retire- 
ment from active taxonomy in 1948, and his untimely death 10 
years later. He left uncompleted large revisionary treatments 
of the Oxybelus of North America and of the Crabronini of 
North and Middle America, and several shorter manuscripts. 

Vernon Sennock Lyonesse-Liancour Pate was born in Phila- 
delphia, August 31, 1903. He received his A.B. degree from 
Cornell University in 1928, and his Ph.D. degree in 1946. He 
was a summer assistant with the New York State Conservation 
Commission, 1927-1933, where he worked on stream surveys 
particularly of aquatic insects. He was a laboratory assistant 
at Cornell from 1927 to 1931, and instructor in taxonomy from 
1932 to 1947. He held a 6-months temporary appointment in 
1945 as Associate Entomologist in the Division of Insect Identi- 
fication, U. S. Department of Agriculture ; during this appoint- 
ment he was stationed at the U. S. National Museum where he 
rearranged certain sections of the wasp collection. He was 
appointed Assistant Professor of Entomology at Cornell in 
1948, where he taught General Entomology and acted as faculty 
advisor for students in entomology. He was also an Associate 
Editor or a member of the Editorial Staff of "Entomological 
News" from 1936 until 1953. He resigned from Cornell in 
1952, and returned to Philadelphia. He worked at the Academy 
as a volunteer for some months before increasingly poor health 
caused the abandonment of these activities. 

KARL V. KROMBEIN 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

The Occurrence of the Nasal Mite Speleognathopsis 

bastini Fain (Speleognathidae) from the Big 

Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois) 1 

By KERWIN E. HYLAND - and HEDWIG GEIGER FORD " 

Fain (1958) reported on the occurrence of speleognathid 
mites in the nasal cavities of the bat, Myotis myotis (Borkh), 
in Belgium, and described the species as Speleognathopsis bas- 
tini. Earlier Fain (1955J had described Speleognathopsis 
chiroptcri from the nasal cavities of several African mega- 
chiropterans (Eidolon Jiclrnin Kerr, Eponwplwnts minor Dob- 
son) and Boydaia duboisi from a species of Nyctcris. 

A series of twenty-eight big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus 
(Beauvois), collected on 2 August 1959, near Glen Rock, Penn- 
sylvania, was examined for nasal mites and six bats were found 
to harbor a total of twelve female specimens. 

These mites were compared with a paratype of S. bastini 
supplied by Alex Fain, Institut cle Medecine Tropicale, Ant- 
werp, Belgium, and are considered to represent this species in 
North America. Furthermore, this represents the first record 
of speleognathids occurring in the nasal cavities of bats on 
this continent. 

Determined specimens have been deposited in the following 
collections : United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. ; 
the Institute of Acarology, University of Maryland, College 
Park; and Institut de Medecine Tropicale, Antwerp, Belgium. 

LITERATURE CITED 

FAIN, ALEX. 1955. Sur le parasitisme des fosses nasales chez les mam- 
miferes et les oiseaux par les acariens de la famille Speleognathidae 
(Acarina). Description d'une espece nouvelle chez la chauve-souris. 
Ann. Soc. Beige Med. Trop. 35(6) : 692-694. 

. 1958. Un nouveau speleognathe (Acarina Ereynetidae) parasi- 
tant les fosses nasales du murin (Myotis myotis (Borkh)) on Bel- 
gique : Speleognathopsis bastini n. sp. Bull. Ann. Soc. Roy. Ent. 
Beige 94 : 342-345. 

1 Contribution No. 106 from the Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, 
Hickory Corners, Michigan, U. S. A. 

2 Department of Zoology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston. 

3 Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory corners. Michigan. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 7 

New Species of Acrocera from Arizona and Ocnaea 

from California, with Synonymical Notes on 

the Genus Ocnaea (Diptera: Acroceridae) 

By EVERT I. SCHLINGER/ University of California Citrus 
Experiment Station, Riverside 

This is one of a series of articles dealing with revisions, re- 
views or new species of acrocerid flies which have been prepared 
as a prerequisite to a generic revision of the family Acroceridae. 
A recent article of the series (Schlinger, 1960) cited references 
to most of the previous papers. Two new species of Acroceridae 
are described separately at this time in order to make their 
names available for inclusion in another concurrent work. 

SUBFAMILY PANOPINAE 

Genus OCNAEA Erichson 

Ocnaea Erichson, 1840, Entomographien, 1 : 155. 

Pialeoidea Westwood, 1876, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 514 
(type species, Cyrtus ma gnus Walker). NEW SYNON- 
YMY. 

The genus Pialeoidea was described by Westwood as a close 
relative of Pialea Erichson, but such is not the case (Schlinger, 
1956). In fact, Pialeoidea species have been distinguished from 
Ocnaea species only on the basis of a female sex character, i.e., 
a group of apical setae on the terminal antennal segment. An 
examination of several female specimens of Ocnaea helluo Osten 
Sacken and O. loczvi Cole has shown these specimens to contain 
the apical setae that characterize Pialeoidea species. Males of 
species in both genera are described as lacking the apical setae. 
Being unable to find other differentiating features between the 
two genera, I place Pialeoidea in synonymy with Ocnaea. 

Ocnaea is a New World genus which comprises 20 species. 
To this number are now added the following five species : 
Pialeoidea brasiliensis Carrera, P. gloriosa Sabrosky, P. uietal- 

1 The author would like to thank Dr. A. L. Melander of Riverside, 
California, for the loan of the type series of Acrocera melanogaster, new 
species. 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

lica Osten Sacken, Cyrtus magnus Walker, and Ocnaea xutho- 
gaster, new species. 

Ocnaea xuthogaster new species (figs. 1-3). 

Male. Length of entire specimen 7 mm., wing length 5 mm. 

Color black, yellow, and brown with some metallic blue reflec- 
tions ; black are eyes, occiput, ocellar tubercle, mesonotum, 
scutellum, most of pleura and tarsal claws ; dark brown are 
antennae, antennal tubercle, ocelli, humerus and postalar callus 
(almost black), coxae, basal one-half of femur I, most of femora 
II and III, basal one-half of tibia III, apices of distitarsi, halter 
knob, costa, subcosta and R x wing veins, tergite I, large median 
spot on each of tergites II to VI, and most of genitalia; light 
brown are remainder of legs, remainder of wing veins, squamal 
rim, and small lateral spot on each of sternites III to V ; yellow 
are remainder of abdomen and halter stem; metallic blue reflec- 
tions are present in certain views of light on mesonotum, scu- 
tellum, upper pleura, and on all dark brown median tergal spots. 

Pile light brown and dense on eyes and occiput, reaching out 
a little beyond tip of antennal segment I ; that on thorax, coxae, 
squama, and abdomen yellowish white and dense, about as long 
as length of distitarsus III except more sparse and much shorter 
on abdominal sternites ; that on legs yellowish white, short, 
dense, and appressed except longer and erect on base of femora 
and on trochanters ; that on apices of distitarsi dark brown, 
about as long as a pulvillus ; short light brown hairs are present 
on basal one-third of costal vein. 

Head (fig. 1) nearly one and one-half times higher than 
long; antenna about one and one-fourth times longer than head 
height, segment III laterally compressed; antennae asetate ex- 
cept for short group of setae on dorsum of segment II ; ocellar 
tubercle with slightly raised lateral ocellus; antennal tubercle 
small, barely produced above antennae ; proboscis not evident, 
but minute proboscial covering present ; eyes narrowly separated 
from antennae to frons. 

Thorax shiny, but difficult to detect under its dense pile ; each 
leg with distinct tibial spur, that on hind tibia about as long as 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 9 

the length of antennal segment I ; coxae subequal in length, but 
femur and tibia of leg III longer than those of leg II, and those 
of leg II longer than those of leg I ; femur III nearly one and 
one-half times longer than femur I ; squama nearly opaque ; 
wing venation as in fig. 2 ; wing membrane transparent but dis- 
tinctly creased and appearing somewhat smoky ; scutellum al- 
most twice as wide as long. 

Abdomen shiny, quite narrow, widest at segment III ; median 
spots on each of tergites II to Y half-moon-shaped, those on II 
to IV broadly attached anteriorly, not quite reaching posterior 
margin of each segment and each spot separated from latero- 
anterior margin by distance equal to about one-fourth the width 
of each tergite ; spot on tergite V similar in shape to that on 
IY except it is more broadly attached anteriorly and spot 
reaches out mediolaterally to touch lateral margin ; spiracle I 
is in tergite I while other spiracles appear to be placed in inter- 
segmental membrane; genitalia strong, aedeagus formed as in 
fig. 3. 

Female unknown. 

Holotype male. Benton Station, Mono County, CALIFORNIA, 
July 20, 1950 (H. A. Hunt), collected on window inside of 
house. The type locality is very close to Nevada at an elevation 
of about 6,500 feet. The riolotype will be deposited in the 
California Academy of Sciences Collection in San Francisco, 
California. 

This species is closely related to 0. sequoia Sabrosky and 
somewhat less related to O. helluo Osten Sacken. It can be 
separated from both species by the male genitalia and wing 
venation. O. .vuthogaster is also distinguished from 0. hclhio 
by its dark brown humeri, metallic blue reflections and yellow 
abdominal sternites, and from O. sequoia by its dark brown 
humeri and yellow sternites. 

The specific name vuthogaster refers to the yellow abdomen. 

SUBFAMILY ACROCERINAE 
Genus ACROCERA Meigen 
Acrocera Meigen, 1803, Illigers Mag. Ins., 2: 266. 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

This genus is cosmopolitan in distribution except for Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, and contains about 45 valid species. 
The addition of the new species described below brings the 
total number of North American species to 17. 

Acrocera melanogaster new species (figs. 4-7). 

This species is a member of species group I as outlined by 
Sabrosky (1944). Species of this group are characterized by 
having vein R 2 + 3 complete. 

Male. Length of entire specimen 3.5 mm., wing length 
3.5 mm. 

Color black, brown, and pale yellow ; black are eyes, occiput, 
ocellar tubercle, antennal segment I, frons, mesonotum, scu- 
tellum, metanotum, most of postalar callus, tarsal claws, and 
all abdominal tergites ; dark brown are remainder of antennae, 
minute proboscis, ocelli, pleura, outer upper edge of postalar 
callus, coxae, apical half of distitarsi, wing veins, most ab- 
dominal sternites, and genitalia ; pale yellowish brown are 
humerus, spiracular area immediately below humerus, small area 
below wing base, remainder of legs, faint posterior fascia on 
sternites II and III, halter knob and stem. 

Pile white, very short over entire body. 

Wing hyaline, venation strong, vein R 2 + 3 complete (fig. 6) ; 
squama hyaline, densely covered with minute hairs ; squamal 
rim narrow ; abdominal tergite II flared out posterolaterally, 
somewhat inflexed anterolaterally ; abdomen widest at segment 
III; tergite V somewhat emarginate medially; male genitalia 
as in figs. 4 and 5. 

Abdomen and tJwra.v are quite shiny. 

Female. Same as male except pale yellowish brown areas 
are more yellowish white ; area around prothoracic spiracle and 
intersclerotic area extending from spiracle to wing base is bone 
white; female genitalia (fig. 7) have extremely long cerci. 

Paratypc variation. Lengths of entire specimens range from 
2.5 to 4 mm., wing lengths range from 2.25 to 3.75 mm. Some 
of the males have tergites IV and V very dark brown instead 
of black, have narrow whitish yellow posterior fascia on ster- 



Ixxii ] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



11 










EXI'LAXATION OK FlGUKES 



Figs. 1 to 3, Ocnaca .vuthoyastcr new species; figs. 4 to 7, Acroccra 
mclanoyaster new species. Fig. 1, head in lateral view; figs. 2 and 6, 
wings; fig. 3, aedeagus in lateral view; fig. 4, aedeagus in ventral view; 
fig. 5, aedeagus in lateral view; fig. 7, female caudal abdominal segments 
and cerci in lateral view. 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

nites II and III, and have their genitalia lighter brown. No 
differences were seen between the two female specimens. 

Holotype male. Globe, ARIZONA, October 9, 1935 (F. H. 
Parker). 

Paratopotypes. 10 <$<$, all collected on October 9, 1935, 
except 1 J 1 , May 25, 1936, and 2$?, June 9, 1935 (all F. H. 
Parker). 

The holotype will be deposited in the California Academy of 
Sciences Collection in San Francisco, California, and the para- 
topotypes will be placed in the collections of Axel L. Melander, 
United States National Museum, and the author. 

According to Dr. Melander, the collector gathered all the 
male specimens on October 9, 1935, from a water pipe under 
the collector's house. It is also of interest to note that males 
were collected from May to October at the type locality, show- 
ing quite a range of occurrence in time. 

This species is related to both Acrocera arizonensis Cole and 
A. bakcri Coquillett. It is most similar to A. arizonensis and 
will key out with A. arizonensis at couplet 5 of Sabrosky's key 
to the North American species of Acrocera (1948). It is sepa- 
rated from A. arizonensis by having all its abdominal tergites 
black instead of with only black spots, and in having most of 
the abdominal sternum dark brown instead of yellow. 

The specific name melanogaster refers to the shiny black 
abdomen. 

REFERENCES CITED 

SABROSKY, C. W. 1944. A revision of the American spider parasites 
of the genera Ogcodcs and Acrocera (Diptera, Acroceridae). Amer. 
Mid. Nat. 31 : 385-413, figs. 1-8. 

. 1948. A further contribution to the classification of the North 
American spider parasites of the family Acroceratidae (Diptera). 
Amer. Mid. Nat. 39 : 382-420, figs. 1-22. 

SCHLINGER, E. I. 1956. A revision of the acrocerid flies of the genus 
Pialca Erichson with a discussion of their sexual dimorphism (Dip- 
tera). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 106: 359-375, figs. 1-4. 
. 1960. A review of the South African Acroceridae (Diptera). 
Ann. Natal Museum 14 : 459-504, figs. 1-29. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 13 

Notes on the Biology of Scatopse fuscipes (Meigen) 
(Diptera: Scatopsidae) 

By ALSTON B. MEADE and EDWIN F. COOK * 

INTRODUCTION 

The scatopsids are a small, economically unimportant family 
of Diptera. One species (Scatopse justifies} is occasionally a 
nuisance around canneries and wineries since it can develop 
large populations in very small amounts of decaying organic 
matter. This insect is easily reared under laboratory condi- 
tions. This quality, in addition to its relatively short life cycle, 
makes it ideal as a potential subject for ecological studies. An 
exhaustive search of the literature revealed that very little in- 
formation is available on the biology of any of the scatopsids. 
This work is undertaken with the hope of supplying some of 
this basic knowledge, which will facilitate more extensive inves- 
tigations. 

MATERIALS 

The flies used in these experiments were from a culture 
reared in the laboratory for 3 years. They were fed on CSMA 
fly medium,- saturated with water, and allowed to ferment for 
12 hours. The medium is placed in petri dishes or in 1 pint 
wide-mouthed jars in the fly cage, and kept quite moist. New 
medium is introduced as needed. Except when otherwise speci- 
fied, the flies were reared at room temperatures and not under 
any precisely controlled conditions. Room temperatures in the 
laboratory varied from 75 to 80 F. with little or no variation 
between night and clay temperatures. The cages used were 
18" : 12" : 10", of wood construction with a glass top, and 
witli two small, sleeved openings for ready access. 

1 Paper Xo. 4406 Scientific Journal Series, Minnesota Agricultural 
Experiment Station, St. Paul 1, Minnesota. 

-' The medium used here is the dry mixture prepared by the Ralston- 
Purina Company, St. Louis, Missouri and consists of 2 parts of soft 
wheat bran (coarse) and one part of alfalfa meal. 



14 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Jan., 1961 



ADULTS 

Mating behavior. The flies appear to be sexually mature on 
emergence, since copulation sometimes occurs when the adults 
are only 30 minutes old. Large numbers of mating pairs may 
be seen concentrated under petri dishes and in the corners of 
the cages. This concentration may be due to a negative re- 
sponse to light or to positive thigmotropism. Adults copulate 
for considerable periods and separate for varying periods, some- 
times changing mates. An adult, presumably male, may try to 
separate a copulating pair presumably with a view to finding 
a mate. The adult stage seems to be devoted exclusively to 
reproduction and food is not consumed. If provided with a 
moist substrate, most females will oviposit. 

Oviposition. Female 5". fucipes oviposit 24 to 30 hours after 
emergence, and die shortly after oviposition. Most males live 
30 to 45 hours. 

Oviposition site. The following tests were made to deter- 
mine the suitability of various sites for oviposition. A number 
of copulating pairs of flies were placed in two sets of three petri 
dishes each, one containing food resting on moist filter paper, 
another with moist filter paper and no food, and the third with 
only dry filter paper. After a few days, the dishes were care- 
fully examined. The results (Table 1) show that the flies do 
not oviposit on dry surfaces. Eggs were found in all dishes 
except those containing dry filter paper. Some females from 
the latter group had strands of up to 30 eggs protruding from 
the genitalia. This suggests that, in the absence of moisture, 
oviposition may be initiated but cannot be completed. Dark 
areas, e.g., spots, or bits of food on filter paper, were always 
preferred sites for egg-laying. 

TABLE 1. Comparison of Several Sites for Oviposition 





Egg 


Females having 


Females still 




Masses 


Oviposited 


Gravid 


Food 


11* 


12 


1 


Dry paper 








12 


Moist paper 


8* 


9 


3 



* Eggs laid by 1 female were apparently concealed and could not be 
found. 



IxxiiJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 15 

The egg mass. The eggs are released from the female in a 
long strand, each egg being attached at the ends to the preced- 
ing and succeeding ones, and this strand is folded lengthwise 
into a mass. The mass does not lie flat on the substrate, but 
is somewhat crescent shaped, so that the eggs appear to be 
pointed upwards. The eggs are arranged in rows, about six 
rows constituting the length of the mass. Ten egg masses were 
measured and the lengths ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 mm. and aver- 
aged 1.3 mm. The widest part of an egg mass occurs in the 
middle, while the ends taper gently. The width consists of 
about six eggs lying side by side. Shortly after oviposition the 
apical attachments of the eggs are broken. Occasionally an 
incomplete egg mass is seen, in which the eggs spread over a 
wider area, and are irregularly arranged. 

The oviposition process. A gravid fly was placed on its back 
on moist filter paper and its abdomen pressed gently for a few 
seconds. Observation under a binocular microscope showed 
peristaltic movements in the segments close to the genitalia, and 
at each contraction an egg was released. The eggs came out in 
a long strand which soon formed a cluster. After about fifty 
eggs had been released, the rate of contraction was timed. For 
the next four minutes, the rate of contraction was 29, 28, 27, 
and 26 per minute, respectively. During the fifth minute the 
release of eggs ceased, but peristalsis continued for two minutes 
longer, the rate decreasing rapidly. The fly remained inactive 
and died after 90 minutes. On dissection, seven eggs were 
found in the ovary. Subsequent attempts to induce oviposition 
in other females were not successful. 

EGGS 

The eggs in the mass may be separated by placing them in 
\% sodium hypochlorite. In a few minutes, complete separa- 
tion is achieved and they may be easily counted. On January 
10, five egg masses were counted. The number of eggs per mass 
ranged from 135 to 215, with an average of 189. On March 28, 
ten egg masses produced an average of 257 eggs per mass and 
ranged from 174 to 320. The difference in the egg production 



16 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Jan., 1961 



of the two groups may have resulted from differences in food 
consumption during the larval stages. 

Effect of temperature on incubation of eggs. The effect of 
temperature on incubation was studied by placing egg masses 
in hanging drops and exposing them to different temperatures 
until hatching. The results (Table 2) show that the lower 
threshold for hatching lies between 5 and 10 C. At the former 
temperature, no hatching occurred, while at the latter, hatching 
occurred in 16 days. Between 10 and 30 C., there was an 
inverse relationship between temperature and incubation period. 
At the temperatures: 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 C. eggs 
hatched in 16 days, 189-206 hours, 120 hours, 72 hours, 47 
hours, and 45-49 hours, respectively. The test failed to show 
any appreciable difference in hatching time at 30 and 35 C. 
We may reasonably assume that the upper threshold for hatch- 
ing is a little above 35 C. 

TABLE 2. Effect of Temperature on Incubation of Eggs 



Temperature 


Rep. 1 


Rep. 2 


Rep. 3 


5C. 


* 


* 




10 C. 


16 days 






15 C. 


189-206 hrs. 


189-206 hrs. 




20 C. 


120 hrs. 


126 hrs. 




25 C. 


72 hrs. 


76-79 hrs. 


72 hrs. 


30 C. 


47 hrs. 


42-54 hrs. 




35 C. 


41-49 hrs. 


45|-49f hrs. 





No hatching occurred. 



LARVAE 



Duration of larval stage. One egg mass was placed in each 
of four dishes supplied with large amounts of CSMA fly me- 
dium. The duration from the hatching of eggs to pupation was 
noted. The data (Table 3) show that in the first dish the larval 
stage lasted from 12 to 15 days, in the second dish from 11 to 
15 days, in the third dish, from 12 to 14 days, and in the fourth 
dish from 13 to 18 days. 

Effect of inadequate food supply on larval growth. Egg 
masses were placed in four dishes which contained very limited 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



17 



amounts of food. The eggs hatched on schedule, but during the 
next 49 days no pupae appeared in any of the dishes. Three 
dishes were then discarded and the fourth observed closely for 
an additional four months. Still no pupae had appeared, al- 
though the larvae remained active. Thus the larval period was 
extended to nearly seven months. 

To determine whether food shortage accounted for the failure 
of the insects to pupate, the larvae from one of the discarded 
dishes were transferred to a chamber with adequate food. Four 
days later the first pupa was formed. Within 17 days, 49 insects 
had completed the larval stage. These findings indicate that 
the scatopsid larvae had a tremendous ability to withstand ad- 
verse conditions. Poor food supply can seriously retard larval 
growth, but can also prolong larval life. 

Number of larval instars. The number of larval instars may 
be determined by counting the number of larval skins shed by 
an insect. In this experiment, the food medium was allowed to 
ferment, then it was filtered. Newly emerged larvae were 
reared on the filtrate and the number of molts recorded. Of the 
23 insects which completed the larval stages, 1 7 underwent three 
molts each, while each of the remaining six were observed to 
molt twice. It is believed that on each of these six occasions, 
one molt was overlooked. Hence, we may conclude that the 
Scatopsid has four larval instars. 

TABLE 3. Duration of Larval Stage 





Number of Pupae Appearing 


Days after 




Hatching 












Rep. 1 


Rep. 2 


Rep. 3 


Rep. 4 


11 




6 






12 


13 


15 


3 




13 


8 


11 


2 


7 


14 


3 


5 


1 


6 


15 


1 


2 




12 


16 








28 


17 








7 


18 








5 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

PUPA 

Duration of pupal stage. Pupae were placed on moist filter 
paper in vials, as soon as they were formed. Notes were made 
of the time required to complete the pupal stage. Three tests 
were conducted on different dates. In each test, the adult 
females emerged earlier than the males. However, the results 
for any given sex varied from one test to another. This is 
probably due to differences in room temperature at the time 
when the different experiments were performed. The duration 
of the pupal stage in 14 males ranged from 96 to 139 hours with 
a mean of 109.4 hours, while that of 11 females ranged from 
86 to 126 hours with a mean of 97.6 hours. 

ABSTRACT 

The life cycle of Scatopse fuscipes is completed in about 2(H- 
days at room temperature. The approximate duration of the 
egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages are 3, 12, 4. and 1^ days, 
respectively. The females have shorter adult and pupal stages 
than the males. Within certain limits there is an inverse rela- 
tionship between temperature and the incubation period of eggs. 
The larval stage may be prolonged if food supply is inadequate. 
Larvae have been known to survive for nearly 7 months under 
these adverse conditions. There are probably 4 instars. 

Adults copulate as early as ^ hour after emergence from the 
pupae, and oviposit in 24 to 30 hours. Death occurs shortly 
after eggs are laid. Oviposition may be initiated in the absence 
of moisture, but cannot be completed under those conditions. 
Eggs are released by the female in a long strand which is folded 
into a cluster. The number of eggs laid by individual females 
ranges from 172 to 320. 

Adults react negatively to light. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 19 

A New Nearctic Species of Stenoscinis, with Key 
to the Species of the Western Hemisphere 
(Diptera, Chloropidae) 

By CURTIS W. SABROSKY, Entomology Research Division, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture 

The genus Stenoscinis was erected by Malloch in 1918 for 
the single species Oscinis longipes Loew, and Oscinis atriccps 
Loew was added later. A third and very distinctive species has 
recently been discovered in southern Arizona. I take pleasure 
in naming it for the collector and enthusiastic student of Diptera, 
Marian Adachi Kohn, who has furnished a drawing of the spe- 
cies (fig. 1). 

Species of Stenoscinis are known in the Nearctic, Neotropical, 
and Ethiopian regions, those in the Nearctic apparently being 
Neotropical derivatives. The species from Arizona here de- 
scribed is most closely related to S. major (Duda), known from 
Costa Rica and Guatemala. Because of the new species and the 
reassignment of others, discussed below, I present a key to seven 
species, including the five that I recognize in Stenoscinis in the 
western hemisphere, and two in the related genus Rhopalop- 
tcrnni. 

In 1929 (Konowia 8: 165-169), Duda published a short 
paper on the Chloropidae of the German Chaco-Expedition in 
which there appeared a new generic name Rhopalopterum (p. 
167) associated with a known species, Oscinella Ihnitata Becker 
and a new variety of it. The following year, in his revision of 
the Neotropical Chloropidae (1930, Folia Zool. Hydrobiol. 2: 
107) that was probably expected to appear before the Chaco 
report, Duda proposed a new genus Rhopalopternum for Ihni- 
tatitui (Becker) and infumatum (Becker). The difference in 
spelling is slight, and the two generic names certainly refer to 
the same genus. In 1931 (Folia Zool. Hydrobiol. 3 : 166), Duda 
designated limitatum as the type-species of Rhopalopternum. 
In 1934, he added three new species, and gave a key to the 
known species (Konowia 13: 58-69, 101-110). 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

For some time I considered Rhopalopterum as a synonym of 
Stenoscinis. However, it may be that the former can be main- 
tained for limitatum and flavicorne Duda (1934). These spe- 
cies are characterized by a more developed anal region of the 
wing ; short, Oscinella-like discal cell ; 1 + 1 strong notopleural 
bristles ; and short, apically subtruncate scutellum with widely 
separated apical scutellar bristles set on small tubercles. Of the 
four remaining species included by Duda, R. inajus Duda and 
R. antiguense Duda are here referred to Stenoscinis (new com- 
binations), and R. infumatum (Becker) is actually a Lasiopleura. 
I have not seen the type of R. liinitatum var. glabrum Duda, but 
it may not belong. A specimen from Alhajuelo, Panama, March 
4, 1912 (A. Busck) [U. S. National Museum], determined by 
Duda as glabrum, is Monochaetoscinella anonyina (Williston). 

In 1936, in reviewing the Nearctic species of Oscinella and 
Ma-diza (Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 29: 707-728), I synonymized 
Stenoscinis with Oscinoides Malloch, an entirely erroneous asso- 
ciation as I soon realized and later noted in print (1951, Ruwen- 
zori Expedition, 1934-5, British Museum (Natural History), 
vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 808-809). 

KEY TO SPECIES OF STENOSCINIS OF WESTERN HEMISHERE 

1. Frontal triangle large, broad to apex, projecting shelf like 

above bases of antennae ; occiput strongly developed, 
viewed from above ^ length of eye, subtruncate ; ocellar 
bristles proclinate and divergent; large species, 3-4 mm. .2 

Frontal triangle not so, ending at or near anterior margin of 
front, the apex acute or only slightly broadened ; occiput 
not strongly developed ; smaller species, 1.5-2 mm 3 

2. Cheek linear; front only slightly projecting; fore coxae and 

all femora except apex of third, yellow ; one row of hairs 
along each side of frontal triangle (Costa Rica, Guate- 
mala) S. major (Duda), n. comb. 

Cheek broader, one fourth height of eye ; front strongly pro- 
jecting, over half length of eye in front of eye; fore coxae 
and all femora except knees narrowly, black ; two rows of 

hairs along each side of triangle (Arizona) 

S. adachiae, new species 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 21 

3. Second costal sector obviously shorter than third sector 

(0.75) ; ocellar bristles erect and cruciate (Neotropical) . . 

Rhopalopterum limitatum (Becker), R. flavicorne Duda 

Second costal sector equal to or obviously longer than third 

sector 4 

4. Ocellar bristles erect and convergent to tips or cruciate ; 

second costal sector obviously longer than third sector; 

mesonotum shining 5 

Ocellar bristles proclinate and divergent ; second and third 
costal sectors equal ; mesonotum usually with broad median 

stripes of fine gray tomentum (United States) 

S. longipes (Loew) 

5. Legs entirely yellow; frontal triangle ending acutely well 

short of anterior margin of front (e. United States, se. 

Canada) S. atriceps (Loew) 

Legs black except for trochanters and knees ; frontal triangle 
extends to anterior margin of front, ending bluntly (Guate- 
mala ) S. antiguensis (Duda), n. comb. 

STENOSCINIS Malloch 

Stcnoscinis Malloch, 1918, Brooklyn Ent. Soc. Bui. 13: 21. 
Type species, Oscinis longipes Loew, by original designation 
and monotypy. 

The slender, elongate form of body, legs, and wings, with the 
reduced anal area of the wing, distinguishes this group from 
Oscinella and related genera of the Oscinellinae. Typically, the 
eye is large and the cheek linear and inconspicuous. The type- 
species has the ocellar bristles proclinate and divergent, a char- 
acter not common in the Oscinellinae, and this character is indeed 
found in a number of species referred to the genus. However, 
in a few species that represent a transition from Oscinella and 
related genera, the ocellars are convergent to tips or cruciate. 
Otherwise they have the typical structure of Stenoscinis, and I 
have referred them to the genus (see discussion by Sabrosky 
1951, op. cit. pp. 808-809). 

Typically, Stenoscinis longipes has a broad median stripe of 
pollinosity or fine tomentum on the mesonotum. In a few 
specimens, this is reduced to a prescutellar band, leaving the 
mesonotum more highly shining. The male genitalia of the 
shining and pollinose forms are the same, however, and for the 
present at least I consider the shining form only a variant. 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [ Tail., 1961 

Stenoscinis adachiae, new species (Fig. 1) 

Head elongate ; frontal triangle broad throughout and occupy- 
ing most of front ; cheek distinct. 

Male, female. Black, only the halteres, trochanters, knees, 
fore and mid tibiae, basal two-fifths of hind tibiae, most of fore 
basitarsi, and the two proximal segments of mid and hind tarsi, 
yellow ; veins and wing membrane brown, both yellowish on 
basal fourth of wing ; hairs chiefly whitish yellow ; bristles chiefly 
yellow, the apical scutellars black. 

Head (fig. 1) broader than thorax, and almost as broad as 
long, but appearing elongate, front projecting over half the 
length of an eye in front of the eyes, occiput extending one-third 
the length of an eye behind them and subtruncate in dorsal as- 
pect, hind margin of head nearly straight ; eyes with sparse, 
microscopic pubescence ; front broad, nearly three times the 
width of an eye ; frontal triangle large, occupying most of front, 
narrowly separated from eyes and of nearly equal width through- 
out, only slightly tapered and ending broadly anteriorly, ex- 
tending shelflike over the antennal bases ; surface of triangle 
smooth and polished, with two rows of piliferous punctures along 
each side, one on the very edge ; head in profile almost 1.5 times 
as long as high, face extremely oblique because of projecting 
front, and the vibrissal angle obtuse ; long axis of eye diagonal ; 
cheek narrow, one-fourth the height of an eye and one-fifth the 
height of head ; face narrow, polished, with sharp facial carina 
and deep antennal grooves ; median clypeal plate large, polished, 
appearing continuous with face ; oral opening small, mouthparts 
likewise. Antennae with third segment as long as broad, but 
not completely orbicular ; arista pubescent. Chaetotaxy of head 
weakly developed, only the outer vertical bristles strong, the 
proclinate and divergent ocellars and the postverticals but little 
stronger and longer than frontal hairs. 

Mesonotum narrow, 1 .24 times as long as broad, with numer- 
ous strong piliferous punctures ; thorax shining, with gray to- 
mentum only on notopleuron, narrowly above base of wing, post- 
erodorsal corner of mesopleuron and anterodorsal corner of 
pteropleuron, squamopleuron, narrow prescutellar area, and scu- 



Ixxiij ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 23 

tellum; latter relatively large, broadly rounded apically, evenly 
convex without distinct margins, the median area slightly rugose 
and with numerous hairs. Chaetotaxy : 1 + 2 notopleural, 1 
postalar, 1 subapical and 1 apical scutellar pairs of bristles, only 
the lower posterior notopleural, postalar and apical scutellars 
strong; apical scutellars well separated, the subapicals close to 
apicals but weak and scarcely distinguishable from hairs. 




FIG. 1. Stenoscinis adachiae, n. sp. Side vie\v, the head turned slightly 
to show the large frontal triangle. 

Abdomen slender and elongate, narrower than thorax and 
nearly twice as long. 

Legs relatively slender and elongate, the hind legs especially 
so ; "sensory area" on hind tibia narrow, barely over one-fourth 
the length of tibia. 

Wing as figured (fig. 1'), the second costal sector only slightly 
longer than third sector, first posterior cell broadening distally, 
fore crossvein beyond middle of discal cell, and anal region of 
wing narrow. 

Length of body and wing, 3.5 nun. (male), 4 mm. (female). 

Holotype, male, allotype, and one paratypc (male), Catalina 
Mts., ARIZONA (Milepost 10, Hitchcock Highway), Aug. 13, 
1958 (M. Adachi). Type Xo. 65458 in the U. S. National 
Museum. 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | fail., 1961 

New North American Records of Pepsinae and 

Ceropalinae (Hymenoptera: 

Pompilidae) 

By FRANK E. KURCZEWSKI, Allegheny College, 
Meadville, Pennsylvania * 

The records presented below are based upon two summers' 
collecting in Erie and Crawford Counties, Pennsylvania. The 
majority of specimens were captured on flowers while a few 
were taken nesting. 

This list is presented with hopes of rilling in existing gaps in 
the western Pennsylvania collecting records. The record for 
Ageniella julgijrons is believed to be the most northern in 
northeastern United States while that for Chirodainus fort is is 
believed to be the most northern, definite record of its range 
in North America. There has been one collection of C. fortis 
labelled vaguely "NY" (Leonard, M. D. 1926. A List of the 
Insects of New York, Ithaca, N. Y.). 

Subfamily Pepsinae 

Chlrodamus fortis (Cresson). Crawford Co., Cambridge 
Springs, June 29, 1 male on Pastinaca sativa. Frenchtown, 
July 3, 1 male on Salicaceae. 

Priocnemioides unifasciatits nnifasciotus (Say). Erie Co., Erie, 
July 22-August 8, 3 males and 2 females on Daucus carota. 

Priocnemis minorata Banks. Crawford Co., Blooming Valley, 
May 3, 1 female under dead leaves on forest floor, 1 male as 
it alighted on violet leaf. Frenchtown, May 4 May 8, 1 
female under dead leaves on forest floor, 1 female from moist 
mud near water puddle, 1 male on dead leaves near stream, 
1 male in flight. 

Priocnemis cornica (Say). Crawford Co., Meadville, Septem- 
ber 30, 2 females on gravelly, sunny bank dragging small 
Lycosidae, probably Pardosa sp., backwards. 

1 Present address : Department of Entomology, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. 

I should like to express my appreciation to Dr. R. E. Bugbee, Alle- 
gheny College, for his encouragement and for reading the manuscript 
and to Dr. Howard E. Evans, Cornell University, for checking the identi- 
ties of the species involved and for advice regarding the latest taxonomic 
reviews on the subject. 



IxxiiJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Calicurgus hyalinatus alienatus (Smith). Crawford Co., Mead- 
ville, June 23, 1 female on outside of window. Cambridge 
Springs, June 29, 1 female on Pastinaca saliva. 

Dipogon sayi sa\i Banks. Erie Co., Presque Isle State Park, 
June 8, 1 female running over trunks of freshly-cut trees. 

Phanagenia bombycina (Cresson). Crawford Co., Meadville, 
October 30?, 1 female, no other data (L. M. Byers, col- 
lector) . 

Auplopus architectus architectus (Say). Crawford Co., Mead- 
ville, May 19, 1 female as it alighted on ivy leaf. 

Auplopus nigrellus? (Banks). Crawford Co., Meadville, Oc- 
tober 6, 1 female, no other data (L. W. Byers, collector). 

Ageniella fulgifrons (Cresson). Erie Co., Erie, July 25, 1 fe- 
male on Daucus carota. 

Subfamily Ceropalinae 

Ccropales maculata fraterna Smith. Erie Co., Erie, August 16, 
1 male on Daucus carota. Crawford Co., Cambridge Springs, 
June 29, 1 female on Pastinaca sativa. 

Ccropales bipunctata bipunctata Say. Crawford Co., Meadville, 
August 20, 1 male on Solidago sp. 



Host Specificity of Fleas from Kangaroo Rats 

By C. ANDRESEN HUBBARD, Tigard 23, Oregon 

With the exception of the siphonapterist few naturalists rec- 
ognize the specificity of a flea to its natural host. While work- 
ing the fleas of the kangaroo rats of northern California these 
last few months the writer made his way into Surprise Valley 
in extreme northeastern Modoc county. The Valley, a few 
miles more than 60 long and at no point more than a stone's 
throw west of Nevada, has on its floor three dry lakes (alkali 
flats most of the year) named, of course, Upper, Middle, and 
Lower Lake. To the west are the high Warner Mountains, 
to the east what natives call the Nevada Hills. Cedarville, the 
chief town in the valley, is at the north end of Middle Lake and 
farther north by 25 miles is Fort Bidwell at the north end of 
Upper Lake. There is no natural barrier of any type between 
the towns. 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., 1961 

During mid October 1960 the writer trapped 9 kangaroo rats 
east of Cedarville in the sand beyond the bed of Middle Lake, 
and a like number of them 4 miles east and north of Fort Bid- 
well. About 2 dozen fleas were removed from each batch. 

Several days later in his laboratory, with the kangaroo rats 
still quite alive and comfortable, the writer processed the fleas 
and found that the Cedarville specimens were carrying only 
Meringis dipodomys, and that the Fort Bidwell specimens car- 
ried only Meringis cummingi, the former the flea of the kangaroo 
rat Dipodomys microps, the latter the flea of the kangaroo rat 
Dipodomys hcnnanni. But all mammalian records said Surprise 
Valley housed only Dipodomys microps. Had the fleas made a 
mistake? The writer hardly thought so, and therefore, even 
though the 18 kangaroo rats from Surprise Valley all looked 
alike, they were destined to be shipped alive to Dr. Murray 
Johnson, surgeon of Tacoma, Washington, working at the Uni- 
versity of Puget Sound on National Science Foundation Project 
10831 "serum proteins and hemoglobin electrophoresis of mam- 
mals." Dr. Johnson after processing the kangaroo rats re- 
ported to the writer that the fleas had not made a mistake, that 
the specimens from Cedarville were Dipodomys microps aqni- 
lonius and that the specimens from Fort Bidwell were Dipo- 
domvs hcnnanni (Northern California kangaroo rat). 

This short paper is the second of a series to be published by 
the writer under National Science Foundation Grant B 8645 on 
American fleas ; it shows the specificity of these fleas to their 
host, and expands without doubt the range of the kangaroo rat 
Dipodomys hcnnanni southeast from Swan Lake Valley, Ore- 
gon, where Applegate collected it in 1898 and where the writer 
has collected it year after year, by 100 miles or so to the south 
and east, probably out of Oregon through the northern draw 
into Surprise Valley, California, and with the kangaroo rat its 
flea Meringis cummingi. Since there is no break in the terrain 
this kangaroo rat and its flea probably range east into Nevada 
where the host and its hitch-hiker have not yet been recorded. 
The records : 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 27 

Meringis dipodomys Kohls 1938 

From 9 Dipodomys microps aquilonius (Chisel tooth kan- 
garoo rat), Cedarville, Modoc county, California, October 16, 
1960, 20 males, 18 females, as follows, 1-2-4-6-1-0-16-4-4. 

Meringis cummingi (C. Fox) 1926 

From 9 Dipodomys hermanni calif ornicus (Northern Cali- 
fornia kangaroo rat), Fort Bidwell, Modoc county, California, 
October 17, 1960, 12 males, 11 females, as follows, 6-2-0-12-2- 
0-0-1-0. 

The skins of the above hosts are in the collection of the 
museum of University of Puget Sound, the fleas are divided 
evenly between the United States National Museum and the 
British Museum. 



Notes and News in Entomology 

Under this heading we present from time to time, notes, news, and 
comments. Contributions from readers are earnestly solicited and will 
be acknowledged when used. 

IVth International Congress U. I, E. I. S. 

The International Union for the Study of Social Insects asks 
that applications for the reading of papers at the Fourth Inter- 
national Congress be sent in as soon as possible, and not later 
than March 31st. The Congress will be held in Pavia, Sep- 
tember 9th to 14th, 1961. It is planned to present symposia on 
endocrinology, caste differentiation, symbiosis, and on gregari- 
ousness and sub-social states. Sections will be held on termites, 
ants, bees and wasps, and on applied research. Publication of 
the Proceedings is assured. Applications for membership in 
the Congress (full members, $8.00, Associate, $4.00) should be 
made before April 30th. Membership cards will be mailed, 
and applications for accommodations in hotels and University 
Colleges. Address: Segreteria del IV Congresso Internazionale 
U. I. E. I. S., Institute Spallanzani, Universita, Pavia, Italy. 



This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 

not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 

These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow ; 
the new ones are added at the end of the column, and, only when neces- 
sary those at the top (being longest in) are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept. 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 



Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette. Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 



Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology ; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3. PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

FEBRUARY 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 2 



CONTENTS 

Crabill Catalogue of the Schendylinae, etc 29 

Nomenclature Notice 36 

Tilclen Studies in the genus Ochlodes, II 37 

Bradley The Vienna Congress 46 

Musser Dragonfly records from Utah 53 

Review Forest and shade tree entomology 55 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 






ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use : in the United States, $5.00 ; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 
Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII FEBRUARY, 1961 No. 2 



A Catalogue of the Schendylinae of North America 

including Mexico, with a Generic Key and 

Proposal of a New Simoporus * 

(Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha : 

Schendylinae) 

By R. E. CRABILL, JR., Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 

As I have suggested in a previous paper, the chilopod fauna 
of the montane southeastern United States appears, on the one 
hand, to be linked with the faunas of northwestern America and 
eastern Asia, and, on the other hand, with those of the south- 
western United States and lands to the south (1958, p. 153). 
It also has its own apparently distinctive faunal elements. 

The idea was advanced with particular reference to the centi- 
pedes of the middle and southern Appalachian Mountains, but 
evidently it may also be true at least of some part of the chilo- 
pod fauna inhabiting the Ozark Plateau, a sizeable and very 
ancient highland just west of the great Mississippi Embayment 
that may have served as an elevated route of dispersal into the 
Midwest from the southwestern part of the continent and, in 
some instances, even from the Mexican Plateau. 2 

1 This study was undertaken with the aid of a grant from the National 
Science Foundation. 

2 Since we are dealing with animals of low vagility and, like plants, 
restricted in distribution by often highly specialized edaphic and environ- 
mental moisture requirements, it is of particular interest to note that there 
is a number of flowering plants whose ranges extend to or toward Texas, 
or through Texas into Mexico. For particular information on Ozark 
Plateau plant names, distributions, and possible origins, see Palmer and 
Steyermark, 1935, especially pp. 414-417. 

(29) 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

Through the continuing kindness of Dr. Nell B. Causey, a 
prominent authority on diplopods and an energetic collector, I 
have been able recently to study several small but valuable col- 
lections of Arkansas chilopods. This material has facilitated the 
accumulation of a significant body of heretofore unknown infor- 
mation about this poorly-known but geographically meaningful 
fauna. Range extensions with the discovery of many new locali- 
ties, clarification of old and often questionable species identities, 
the discovery of new forms, important new synonymizations and 
combinations, new variational data -all have resulted from the 
study of the Causey specimens ; much of this information is 
scheduled to appear in several papers which are in preparation 
at the time of this writing. 

From the standpoint of distribution and faunal affinity, sev- 
eral of the Causey centipedes are of particular interest : a himan- 
tariid, Stenophilus grenadae (Chamberlin), 3 previously known 
from one Mississippi specimen whose original description for 
many years precluded its disposition within the generic system; 
a rare sogonid, Sogona poretha (Chamberlin), 4 otherwise rep- 
resented only by the typical series from Louisiana ; a chilenophi- 
line, Watophilus (Paraivatophilus) dolichocephalus (Gunthorp), 
known only from the Kansan types ; a dignathodontid, Toino- 
taenia (Korynia) uranla Crabill, known only from Missouri. 
Each is a member either of a higher category or of a genus that 
is especially characteristic of the West and Southwest, or of 
the Southwest and Mexico. To this growing list may now be 
added an additional striking example, a new schendyline, the 
third-known member of its genus, Siinoporus arcanus. 

The schendyline 5 genus Simorporus belongs to that ensemble 

3 New combination. The species was originally referred to Haplo- 
plillus (Chamb., 1912b, p. 435). 

4 New combination. Originally placed in a new monotypic geophilid 
genus, Nannocriv (Chamberlin, 1912b, p. 432), poretha here is considered 
congeneric with the type-species of Sogona, S. minima Chamberlin ; hence 
Nannocri.r is a junior subjective synonym of Sogona. 

5 The present higher categorical interpretation follows that of Attems 
who considered Schendylidae to be divisible into two subfamilies, Schen- 
dylinae and Ballophilinae. Chamberlin, on the contrary, accords to each 
of these subfamilies full family rank. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 31 

of predominantly tropical and subtropical genera 6 characterized 
by possession of the following features in combination : each 
coxopleuron has 1, 2, or no gland openings; the second maxil- 
lary claws are pectinate ; the ultimate leg pretarsi are present and 
unguiform. In America south through Mexico these genera are 
Mexiconyx, Morunguis, Nesonyx, Parungiiis, Nyctunguis, and 
Simoporus. (See appended catalogue and notes on Holitys.) 

Originally described from Texas, Simorporus was next re- 
corded from northeastern Mexico : now, for the first time, its 
range may be extended farther eastward and well northward to 
the general area of the Boston Mountains in northwestern Ar- 
kansas. The evidence seems to indicate a fairly extensive pat- 
tern of dispersal, one rather reminescent of that of the Sogonidae 
whose more northerly American distribution, broadly speaking, 
ranges from Mexico through the Gulf States with incursions into 
the midwestern and southeastern United States. 

The new species, arcanus, is apparently most like the Mexican 
koestneri Chamberlin, from which it may be distinguished by 
the criteria presented in the underlying key to the known species. 

Key to the Species of Simoporus 

la. Pedal segments numbering 55-61. Mandibular teeth not 

fused into distinct dentate lamellae (Texas) 

texanus Chamberlin 

Ib. Pedal segments numbering 39 or 41. Some mandibular 
teeth (at least in arcanus) fused into distinct and typical 
dentate lamellae 2 

2a. Prosternal margin antero-centrally with a pair of flat and 
small but distinct denticles. 1st maxillae with a pair of 
distinct telopodite lappets. Male types with 39 pairs of 
legs (Arkansas) arcanus, new species 

2b. Prosternal margin antero-centrally without denticles. 1st 
maxillary telopodites reportedly without lappets (i.e., like 
those of Verhoeff's figure of dampfi, q.v. in catalogue of 

species). Male types with 41 pairs of legs (Mexico) 

koestneri Chamberlin 

6 They are tropical or subtropical from the standpoint of their lati- 
tudinal distribution. Many are known from high elevations and are 
probably cold-adapted. 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

Simoporus arcanus, new species 

Holotype : J 1 . ARKANSAS : Washington Co., 4 miles west of 
Farmington. June 16, 1950. Nell B. Causey, leg. U. S. Na- 
tional Museum Myriapod collection 2598. 

INTRODUCTORY. Length, 10 mm. Pedal segments, 39. Body 
shape : Very slightly attenuate anteriorly, more strongly so 
posteriorly; widest at f the antero-posterior length. Color, 
light brownish-yellow throughout. 

ANTENNAE. Length (expanded in Hoyer's mountant), 1.34 
mm. Shape : Each article except the first longer than wide ; as 
a whole, filiform ; ultimate article equal in length to the pre- 
ceding two taken together. Vestiture : Sparser on the first 4 
or 5, thereafter denser and individually shorter. Ultimate arti- 
cle sensilla : On outer surface only ; about a dozen robust, flat 
and hyaline modified setae arising from a slight ovate depres- 
sion. CEPHALIC PLATE. Length, 0.38 mm, greatest width, 0.34 
mm. Shape : Sides strongly curved ; rear margin slightly con- 
cave to reveal full width of prebasal plate; dorsally somewhat 
domed. Coarsely areolate ; setae very spare and short. Frontal 
suture absent ; posterior divergent sulci very shallow and weak, 
each is broad. CLYPEUS (fig. 4). Paraclypeal sutures distinct 
and complete. Clypeal surface coarsely areolate ; without smooth 
areas (plagulae), without clypeal areas anterocentrally. Setae: 
postantennals in one series, 1 + 1 ; posterior geminates (pre- 
labrals), 1 + 1 ; midclypeals, in two series, 2+ 2, 3 + 3. Buc- 
cae : Each coarsely areolate ; transbuccal sutures absent ; setae 
absent. LABRUM (fig. 4). Intimately fused with clypeus, not 
separated from it by sutures. Central embay ment broad, even, 
deep, the teeth numbering about 18, lateral teeth longer and 
thinner, the more central teeth shorter and more robust, the 
latter distinctly separated from each other, not fused or forming 
a crenulate margin. MANDIBLES. Each with two weak but dis- 
tinct dentate lamellae plus a row of simple hyaline individually 
discrete teeth. Lamellar teeth of right mandible, 3,3 ; of the 
left, 3,4. FIRST MAXILLAE (fig. 1). Coxosternum broad, me- 
dially undivided, not suturate ; without coxosternal lappets ; me- 
dial lobes discrete. Each telopodite distinctly biarticulate, with 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



33 



a prominent but concealed lappet. SECOND MAXILLAE (fig. 1). 
Isthmus very broad, not suturate, coarsely and strongly areolate. 
Postmaxillary sclerites attached weakly, terminal in position. 
Telopodite basally bicondylic; terminal claw broadly spoon- 
shaped, excavate, each edge with a row of long, delicate pectinae. 




y/-U-/ 






Simoporus arcanns new species 

1. First and second maxillae. (Ventral aspect; left halves.) Setae 
deleted, a = metameric pore opening, b = postmaxillary sclerite. 

2. Ultimate pedal and postpedal segments. (Ventral aspect.) Setae of 
right side shown, a = ultimate pedal presternite. b = ultimate pedal 
sternite covering concealed coxopleural pore (in dashed line), c = geni- 
tal sternite. d=(in stipple) male intromittent apparatus, e = left gono- 
pod. 

3. Prosternum and right prehensor. (Ventral aspect; right side.) 
Setae deleted. Poison gland in dashed lines, poison calyx and its efferent 
canal shown in stipple. 

4. Clypeus, labrum, buccae. (Ventral aspect.) Setae shown, a = left 
paraclypeal suture, b = left labral sidepiece. c = left labral f ultura, 
posterior arm. d =epipharynx. 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

PROSTERNUM (fig. 3). Anterior margin centrally with a pair 
of very low, rather broad, but distinct and pigmented denticles. 
Subcondylic sclerotic lines absent. Pleuroprosternal sutures 
prominent, complete to antero-lateral margin. PREHENSORS 
(fig. 3). When flexed, not surpassing anterior margin of head. 
No article with denticles. Tarsungular dorsal and ventral edges 
not serrulate; division between ungular and tarsal portion indi- 
cated by a weak but nearly complete vestigial suture. Poison 
calyx ovoid in outline, with relatively long, blunt digitiform ap- 
pendices; situated in tibioid. Poison gland long and narrow, 
extending out of the trochanteroprefemur and well into the 
adjacent somite. 

TERGITES. Basal plate anteriorly concave, revealing prebasal 
plate. Each tergite except basal plate and last pedal tergite with 
a pair of deep, complete sulci. Coarsely areolate and very 
sparsely setose. SPIRACLES. Those of first 3-5 segments sub- 
circular; remaining spiracles essentially circular. STERNITES. 
Each but the first and last much longer than wide ; coarsely areo- 
late and very sparsely setose ; without apparent sulci ; without 
typical carpophagus-structnres. Intercalary sternites undivided 
midlongitudinally ; those on rear 's of body very long front-to- 
back, bandlike. Porefields : Beginning on pedal sternite 2 and 
extending through 15; each is undivided and subcircular to 
slightly antero-posteriorly oval in shape; each field is slightly 
post-central in position and is very slightly raised. 

ULTIMATE PEDAL SEGMENT (fig. 2). Pretergite separated 
from its pleurites by a distinct suture on each side. Tergite 
much broader than long ; sides straight and convergent ; rear mar- 
gin essentially truncate. Presternite antero-posteriorly very long ; 
bandlike, centrally undivided, not suturate. Sternite much wider 
than long ; sides straight and convergent ; rear margin essen- 
tially straight. Coxopleuron : With one circular, porelike open- 
ing concealed completely beneath the sternite ; this pore com- 
municating with a tubular chamber which is part of a large 
glandular structure of the homogenous type. Ultimate leg: 
About 25% longer than the penult; moderately inflated; tarsus 
consisting of two articles ; pretarsus is large and distinctly ungui- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 35 

form ; the two tarsal articles abruptly thinner than the more 
proximal articles; trochanter through tibia clothed subdensely 
with short, bristlelike setae, the tarsus with longer and fewer 
setae ; dorsally all articles sparsely clothed with long stiff setae. 

POSTPEDAL SEGMENTS (fig. 2). Gonopod biarticulate but 
very indistinctly so; long and narrow. Terminal pores absent. 

Paratype : J 1 . See collection data for holotype. The only 
other specimen is virtually identical with the holotype. It 
differs only in being somewhat lighter in color. 

KEY TO THE SCHENDYLINE GENERA OF NORTH AMERICA 

INCLUDING MEXICO 

la. Each coxopleuron with more than 2 gland openings ; the 
openings are true pores and are normally numerous. Ulti- 
mate pretarsus is unguiform (Escaryus, Apunguis} 2 

Ib. Each coxopleuron with 1 or 2, or with no gland openings; 
the openings are either typical pores, being small and essen- 
tially round, or they are larger and cleft- or slit-like aper- 
tures. Ultimate pretarsus, when present, is either ungui- 
form or tuberculate 3 

2a. Second maxillary claw is pectinate 

Escaryus Cook and Collins 

2b. Second maxillary claw is smooth. . . . Apunguis Chamberlin 

3a. Each coxopleuron without a gland opening. Second max- 
illary claw is pectinate. Ultimate pretarsus is present and 
unguiform Nesonyx Chamberlin 

3b. Each coxopleuron has 1 gland opening; this is often con- 
cealed and usually pore-like. Second maxillary claw is pec- 
tinate. Ultimate pretarsus is present and unguiform (Sinio- 
porus, Me.vicony.v, Montnguis) 4 

3c. Each coxopleuron has 2 gland openings. Second maxillary 
claw is pectinate or smooth. Ultimate pretarsus, when pres- 
ent, is unguiform or tuberculate (Pantngitis, Semtnguis, 
Nyctungitis, Schendyla, Pectiniunguis] 6 

4a. Ventral porefields are absent on all pedal sternites 

Morunguis Chamberlin 

4b. Ventral porefields are present on at least the more anterior 
pedal sternites (but they may occur on most or all ster- 
nites ) 5 

5a. Prehensors when flexed extend far beyond the anterior head 
margin Mexiconyx Chamberlin 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

5b. Prehensors when flexed do not extend beyond the anterior 

head margin and may fall short of it 

Simoporus Chamberlin 

6a. Ventral porefields absent on all pedal sternites (Serrun- 
guis, Parunguis} 7 

6b. Ventral porefieTds present on most or all, or at least on the 
more anterior pedal sternites (Nyctimgiiis, Schcndyla, Pec- 
tiniungitis) 8 

7a. Second maxillary claws are pectinate. Ultimate pretarsus 
is small, weak, and unguiform. Prehensorial blade edges 
apparently not serrulate Parunguis Chamberlin 

7b. Second maxillary claws are smooth. Ultimate pretarsus is 
slender and tuberculate. Prehensorial blade edges are 
serrulate Serrunguis Chamberlin 

Sa. Second maxillary claws are smooth. Ultimate pretarsus is 
absent Schendyla Bergsoe and Meinert 

Sb. Second maxillary claws are pectinate. Ultimate pretarsus 
is absent, or minute and vestigial, or present and ungui- 
form 9 

9a. Ultimate pretarsus is present and unguiform. Coxopleural 
gland pits are homogenous, i.e., lack constituent gland 
canals Nyctunguis Chamberlin 

9b. Ultimate pretarsus is absent or present ; if present, then it 
is vestigial and essentially tuberculate. Coxopleural gland 
pits are heterogenous, i.e., are composed of constituent 
glands and large gland canals Pectiniunguis Bollman 

(To be continued) 



Nomenclature Notice 

All comments should be marked with the Commission's num- 
ber and sent in duplicate to W. E. CHINA, British Museum 
(Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W.7, England, 
before June 5, 1961. Comments received early enough will be 
published in the Bulletin. For details see Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 
18 (1-3). 

Suppression of 56 generic names published by Meigen, 1800 
(Diptera) (Z.N.(S.) 191). Validation of the generic name 
Myelophilus EichofT, 1878 (Coleoptera) (Z.N.(S.) 467). 
Designation of a type-species for Euceraphis Walker, 1870 
(Hemiptera) (Z.N.(S.) 1363). Validation of the generic name 
Perla Geoffroy, 1762 (Plecoptera) (Z.N.(S.) 1451). 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 37 

Studies in the Genus Ochlodes Scudder. II. The 

Type Material of the North American 

Species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) 

By J. W. TILDEN, San Jose State College, 
San Jose, California 

The first paper of this series dealt with the distribution of 
Ochlodes yuma (Edw.). This paper deals with the location of 
type specimens of the North American species of the genus. 

The names proposed by W. H. Edwards do not have desig- 
nated holotypes, since the practice of designating individual 
specimens as holotypes was not general at that time. Rather, 
whatever specimens were before Edwards at the time he penned 
his descriptions, were all considered equal, that is, cotypes or 
syntypes. If there existed but a single unique specimen it is 
automatically the holotype under existing rules. Where two or 
more specimens are known to exist, it seems desirable to desig- 
nate one of these as the lectotype of the name. 

It has been called to my attention by F. M. Brown, that 
C. L. Remington (1947) published an excerpt from the minutes 
of the Cambridge Entomological Club, as follows : a "collection 
of butterflies, containing the types of seventy rare species of 
Hesperia" had been on board the ship Pomerania when she was 
lost. One may postulate that this unfortunate event is responsi- 
ble at least in part for the difficulty encountered in tracing and 
recognizing some of the specimens upon which W. H. Edwards 
based his names. 

The names that in the Checklist of Lepidoptera of Canada and 
the United States of America (McDunnough, 1938) are con- 
sidered as belonging to the genus Ochlodes Scudder follow : 

morrisoni Edw. verus Edw. 

sylvanoides Bdv. milo Edw. 

pratinicola Bdv. snowi Edw. 

nemorum Bdv. yuma Edw. 

agricola Bdv. scuddcri Skin. 

napa Edw. francisca Ploetz 
yreka Edw. 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

To these, Evans (1955) has added another: 

amanda Ploetz 

An attempt has been made to locate the type material of each 
name and to discuss its status, but this paper is not concerned 
with the ascertaining of the number of valid species or subspe- 
cies represented by these names. This must wait on further 
study. 

Pamphila morrisoni Edw. 1878 was described "from several 
examples taken by Mr. Morrison in Southern Colorado." Mor- 
risoni was included in Pamphila (Hesperia in the current sense), 
by Lindsey (1921). In 1931, Lindsey, Bell and Williams re- 
moved it to Ochlodes. Evans (torn, cit., p. 317) erected for 
its reception the monobasic genus Stinga. Since morrisoni has 
been somewhat anomalous in the genera in which it has pre- 
viously been included, perhaps the solution offered by Evans 
is as good as any. 

The types of the Boisduval names, sylvanoides, agricola, ne- 
tnontm and pratincola, are deposited in the British Museum 
(Natural History) in London, England, whence they came 
through the purchase in 1931 of portions of the Oberthur col- 
lection. Information on this point, and citation of the type 
specimens under each name, are presented by Evans (toni cit.*). 

Boisduval's description of Hesperia sylvanoides, 1852, in- 
cludes the description of both sexes. No definite locality nor 
number of specimens appears in the description. But his com- 
ment, "Assez commune en Mai," is puzzling, in view of the gen- 
erally accepted use of this name for a late-flying insect. 

Hesperia agricola Bdv. 1852 was described from the male 
only. Boisduval writes "Je ne connais pas la femelle." The 
description gives no clue as to the exact locality nor to the num- 
ber of males at hand. The above remarks apply equally well to 
the description of Hesperia nemorum Bdv. 1852, of which he 
says "Nous n'avons pas vu la Femelle." Hesperia pratincola 
Bdv. 1852 was described from both sexes, but again without 
exact locality nor number of specimens. However, in view of 
Boisduval's practice of designating holotypes, there seems to be 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 39 

no reason to doubt the authenticity or proper designation of 
any of his types of American Modes. 

Concerning the names proposed by W. H. Edwards, more 
confusion exists. Specimens that may be regarded as most 
likely to include type material of these names, exist among the 
collections of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
Correspondence with curators of other museums has failed to 
reveal specimens equally deserving of consideration in this re- 
spect, for the names napa, yreka, inilo and verus. Each will be 
dealt with below. 

Hesperia napa Edw. 1864 was described from specimens 
"Taken by Mr. Ridings at Empire City, Colorado Territory." 
Since both sexes are described, Edwards had before him at least 
a pair, but the number of specimens is not stated. Corre- 
spondence has failed to reveal specimens known definitely to 
have been collected by Ridings. Dr. Clench informs me that 
there are in the Carnegie Museum, four specimens representing 
the name napa Edw., two males and two females. The Ridings 
collection supposedly came in its entirety to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, but Mr. James A. G. Rehn 
states (in lift.) that "what is certain is that in our series [of 
napa Edw.] there is no material which we can definitely say 
came as part of the Ridings collection." Mr. Rehn considers it 
probable that this material was not returned to Ridings by 
Edwards. Since a great part of the Edwards collection went 
to the Carnegie Museum, it is suggested that the specimens of 
napa housed there represent at least a part of the Ridings mate- 
rial as described by Edwards. From the previously mentioned 
four specimens, the first specimen is hereby selected as the lecto- 
type of napa Edw. It is a male bearing the following labels : 
(1) "Napa, Colo," penned in W. H. Edwards' handwriting (2) 
"Collection of W. H. Edwards," letterpress in box (3) "Prob- 
able type of Napa, M. W. D., 1955," written in pencil by B. W. 
Dixon. 

Hesperia yreka Edw. 1866 was described from "San Fran- 
cisco" without reference to the number of specimens at hand. 
This name is represented in the Carnegie Museum by an unique 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

male, with one antenna, and with mesothoracic and metathoracic 
legs missing on one side, but with abdomen present, and other- 
wise in good condition. It bears the labels (1) "nemorum 
yreka ES. Cal a " and (2) "Collection W. H. Edwards." Since 
it is an unique, it may very well be the original type, but to 
prevent future misunderstandings it is hereby designated as the 
lectotype of yreka Edwards. The collector is not stated, but 
both Kennicott and Bischoff are known to have supplied Ed- 
wards with material from the San Francisco area. 

Pamphila verus Edw. 1881 was described "From 1 male, 1 
female, taken at Havilah, California ; and in the collection of 
Mr. Henry Edwards." In the Carnegie Museum are two speci- 
mens, one male, one female. The female has antennae and 
abdomen but is missing four legs. The male has one antenna, 
the other being replaced by a bristle (!). All the legs are 
present. The abdomen is missing but I am informed by Clench 
that no genitalic preparation of this specimen is known to exist. 
This male bear the labels: (1) "6668," (2) "Havilah, Calif.," 
(3) "Verus So. Cal a ," (4) "Collection of W. H. Edwards," 
and (5) "Butterfly Book PI. 52, fig. 42." It is regrettable that 
this male is missing the abdomen, but since it is highly probable 
that this is the actual male upon which the description of verus 
is based, and considering that it is the specimen figured by 
Holland (1930), this male is hereby designated as the lectotype 
of verus Edwards. 

Pamphila milo Edw. 1883 was described "From 1 male, from 
Mt. Hood, Oregon." In the Carnegie Museum there is an 
unique male bearing the labels: (1) "Milo W. T. Mor.," (2) 
"Collection W. H. Edwards," and (3) "Butterfly Book PI. 52, 
Fig. 44." It is to be noted that Edwards did not mention in 
his description that the specimen was collected by Morrison. 
Except for this, it seems probable that the specimen under con- 
sideration is the original type of milo Edwards. For uniform- 
ity, this male is hereby designated as the lectotype of milo 
Edwards. 

Specimens of Pamphila snowi Edw. 1877 exist in the col- 
lections of several institutions, but those in the collection of the 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 41 

University of Kansas seem most plausibly to contain a specimen 
which may be one of those before Edwards when he penned his 
description. Edwards described snowi "From 2 males sent me 
by Prf. F. H. Snow, and taken by him in Colorado, at Ute Pass, 
while in charge of the Kansas University Expedition, 1876. 
No others were taken, as I am informed." Three specimens 
are in the collections of the University of Kansas. One is 
labelled "So. Arizona, Poling." A second is labelled: (1) 
"Near Hot Springs, N. M., 7.000 ft., July '82. F. H. Snow," 
(2) "15," and (3) Ochlodes snowi Scudd. det. A. W. Lindsey 
1938." These two specimens are excluded from consideration 
since the type material came from Colorado. Moreover the 
first specimen is collected by Poling and the second is a female 
taken six years later than the types were cited as being collected. 
The third specimen is a male, bearing the labels: (1) "Col. 
Snow," (2) Pamphila snowi Edw. 523," and (3) "Ochlodes 
snozvi Scudd. det. A. W. Lindsey 1938." Dr. George W. Byers 
of the University of Kansas tells me (in lift.) that none of these 
three specimens bears type labels nor is catalogued in the type 
file. Edwards mentions specifically, two type specimens. The 
location of the second specimen has not to date been found ; it 
may be lost. Was it on the ill-fated Pomerania? Since this 
third specimen was collected by Snow, and is not definitely 
stated to be of another time and place than those mentioned 
by Edwards in his description, it is hereby designated as the 
lectotype of snowi Edwards. 

It is interesting to note the determination labels "Ochlodes 
snowi Scudd. (sic!) det. A. W. Lindsey 1938." Byers had no 
information on this point. Dr. Lindsey himself informs me 
(in lift.) that he did not know he had inadvertently made this 
slip, until it was called to his attention. 

Edwards described Hesperia yuma Edw. 1873 "From a sin- 
gle male received from Arizona by Lieut. Wheeler's expedition 
of 1871." This unique type no longer exists. Holland (1930, 
p. 379) states that the type is "mysteriously missing." This 
statement is most interesting in view of a part of a letter to 
Holland from Edwards, the substance of which has kindly been 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

made available to me by F. M. Brown. This letter, dated "11 
Dec. '85," reads in part : "Hesp. Yuma one $, Lost by fire 
which destroyed the Express car, about 1873 or 74, & burned 
a lot of Arizona things I had just reed. These were in transit 
to Scudder. Have never seen the species since." It would 
appear that the elderly Holland by 1930 had forgotten this 
earlier note from Edwards. Ochlodcs yuma is not mentioned 
in the first edition of the Butterfly Book. 

Tilden (1958, pp. 151-152) has assembled a list of known 
specimens of yuma Edw., both in museums and in a number of 
private collections. Brown (1958, pp. 153-154) has traced the 
route of the Wheeler expedition and the dates at which it visited 
the areas of southwestern United States where the type of yuina 
Edw. might have been taken. These authors agree that the 
stated type locality, Arizona, seems unlikely. It is much more 
plausible to consider that the type specimen may have been 
taken in Inyo County, California. The Wheeler expedition 
ended in Arizona. This appears to be the most likely reason 
for labelling the collections of this expedition as having been 
taken in Arizona. As has been suggested for other names than 
ymna Edw. (e.g., the nymphalid name apacJicana Skinner) it 
would seem that this procedure is at least partly in error. 

Therefore it is suggested, that until further information is 
obtained, Inyo County, California, be regarded as the type local- 
ity of yuina Edw. The reasons for this suggestion are cogent 
(see Brown, op. ciL). Only if incontrovertible evidence, favor- 
ing Arizona as the type locality, should be brought forward, 
would it seem desirable to set aside this change in type locality. 

A specimen of the fall brood of OcJilodes yuma, taken in the 
general vicinity of where the Wheeler Expedition crossed the 
area, has been selected. It is a male, and differs from the de- 
scription of ymna Edw. only in having dark wing borders. The 
lost type was evidently a worn specimen. Fresh specimens of 
yuma nearly always have narrow dark borders. This specimen 
bears the labels "Darwin Falls, Inyo Co., Calif., IX. 10.60," 
"J. W. Tilden Collector" and "Neotype of yuma Edw, desig. 
J. W. Tilden 1960." This specimen is hereby designated as the 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 43 

neotype of yuma Edw. to replace the original type believed to 
have been destroyed by fire in 1873 or 1874. This specimen 
will be deposited in the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Penna. 

The types of Pamphila scudderi Skinner 1899 are in the 
collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Rehn has informed me that the labels are 
in longhand without indication of collector and that the speci- 
mens are in perfect condition. Gillham and Ehrlich (1954) 
state that the male holotype is #7097. The labels bear the data : 
"White R, Col., July 24- Aug. 13." The original description 
says : "Described from a pair sent to me by Dr. S. H. Scudder 
who has a good series in his collection. They were taken on 
the White River. . . ." 

It is not certain by whom these specimens were marked as 
types. Nothing in Skinner's description states that he did so. 
It is possible that it was done by R. C. Williams, Jr., who 
worked at that institution. Search of the literature does not 
clear up this point, and Mr. Rehn states that he does not know. 
It is possible that the citation has never formally been published, 
or that I have failed to find it. However, there seems to be no 
reason to doubt the authenticity of the male holotype of scudderi, 
and the present author agrees that these specimens are the 
types of scudderi Skin. 

The names proposed by Ploetz present a very difficult prob- 
lem. Correspondence with Dr. W. Forster, of the Zoologische 
Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, and with Dr. H. J. Hanne- 
mann, of the Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, have confirmed 
the generally suspected conditions surrounding the published 
names of Ploetz. In many cases no type specimens were desig- 
nated. In other cases, the "types" were divided and sent to 
different institutions. Many times water-color plates (Aquarel- 
len) were made of the type specimens. These plates were in 
some cases used in Seitz' Macrolepidoptera of the World. These 
plates now exist in several museums of the world, not only in 
Germany, but also in the British Museum (Natural History), 
London, England, and in the Museum of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 
So far as can be ascertained, the type specimens of the two 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

Ploetz names with which this article is concerned, are not to 
be found. 

Francisca Ploetz 1883, by the nature of the description and 
by the type locality (" Calif ornien, Mexico"), indicates a syno- 
nym of sylvanoides Boisduval 1852. Since the type material of 
francisca Ploetz has so far remained unlocated (if indeed it 
exists), it seems necessary on the basis of the description to 
retain the name francisca for consideration among those of North 
American insects. The case for the name amanda Ploetz 1883 
is less clear. This name was added to those of the North 
American members of the genus Ochhdes by Evans (torn, cit., 
p. 343, 1955). Bell (1938) considers amanda Ploetz a ques- 
tionable synonym of Hcspcria pazvnee (Dodge). Most other 
American authors seem to have ignored the name. Evans' basis 
is a copy of Ploetz' MS. figure in the British Museum (Natural 
History). On the basis of the general lack of agreement as to 
what Ploetz really had before him when he proposed the name 
amanda, perhaps as good a disposition of the name as any is to 
consider it a nonien dubium. This course is here adopted. 

Except for the names proposed by Ploetz and concerning 
which there is some doubt as to their disposition, there has been 
no attempt in this paper to decide on the taxonomic validity of 
any of the North American names in the genus Ochlodes. This 
phase of the study is now under consideration but so far the 
results are inconclusive. 

The author gratefully acknowledges the help of the following 
individuals and the institutions they represent : Dr. F. Martin 
Brown, Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo. ; Dr. 
George F. Byers, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. ; Dr. 
Harry K. Clench, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Penna. ; Dr. 
J. P. Darlington, Jr., Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; B. W. Dixon, Pittsburgh, Penna. ; the late Briga- 
dier W. H. Evans, British Museum (Natural History), Lon- 
don, England ; Mr. W. D. Field, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. ; Dr. W. Forster, Zoologische Sammlung 
des Bayerischen Staates, Munchen, Germany ; Dr. H. J. Hanne- 
mann, Humboldt-Universitat, Berlin, Germany ; Dr. Frederick 



Ixxiij ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 45 

H. Rindge, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
N. Y. ; Mr. James A. G. Rehn, Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Penna. Each has contributed information that has 
proven valuable. Special thanks are due to Dr. A. W. Lindsey, 
Emeritus, Denison University, Granville, Ohio, for his many 
kindnesses over the years. 

LITERATURE CITED 

BELL, E. L. 1938. The Hesperioidea. Bull. Cheyenne Mt. Mus. 1(1) : 

23-24. 

BOISDUVAL, COMTE BE. 1852. Ann. Ent. Soc. France (2)10, pp. 313-315. 
BROWN, F. M. 1958. The type locality of Ochlodes yiima. Lep. News 

11: 153-154. 

EDWARDS, W. H. 1877. Can. Ent. 9 : 29. 
1883. Can. Ent. 15: 34. 
1878. Field and Forest 3: 116. 
1864. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. 4: 202. 
1866. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. 6: 207. 
1873. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 4 : 346. 
1881. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 9 : 4 
EVANS, W. H. 1955. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae, Part 

IV, p. 317, 341-343. 

GILLHAM, N. W. and P. R. EHRLICH. 1954. The butterfly types of 
Henry Skinner and co-authors in the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 80: 91-117. 
HOLLAND, W. J. 1930. The Butterfly Book, rev. ed. Pp. 377-380, & 

plates. 
LINDSEY, A. W. 1921. The Hesperioidea of America north of Mexico. 

Univ. Iowa Studies in Nat. Hist. 9(4) : 75-77. 

LINDSEY, A. W., E. L. BELL and R. C. WILLIAMS, JR. 1931. The Hes- 
perioidea of North America. Denison Univ. Bull. Journ. Sci. Labs. 
26 : 94-96. 

PLOETZ, C. 1883. In Stett. Ent. Zcit. 44 : 220. 
REMINGTON, C. L. 1947. (Quotation from minutes of the Cambridge Ent. 

Club Proc. of 13 Dec. 1878.) In Lcp. News 1: 83. 
SKINNER, H. 1899. Ent. News 10: 111. 
1900. Ent. News 11, pi. II, figs. 9, 10. 

TILDEN, J. W. 1958. Taxonomic history and distribution of Ochlodes 
yuina. Lep. News 11: 151-152. 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

The Vienna Congress 

For the eleventh time within this century the entomologists 
of the world have assembled in conference to discuss their re- 
search and problems, and to meet their world-wide colleagues. 
This time the meeting was in Vienna, a city classical to adherents 
of our science, because of the illustrious entomologists of the 
past century who worked and published there. The growing 
importance of these congresses is shown by the large attendance, 
which this time almost reached the two thousand mark. The 
unusually large number of North Americans in attendance was 
certainly due to the liberality of our National Science Founda- 
tion and National Institute of Health in awarding forty-one 
travel grants. 

This Congress was held under the presidency of Prof. Karl E. 
Schedle, noted forest-entomologist, while Dr. Max Beier of the 
Natural History Museum was Secretary General. 

The scientific meetings were divided between the Natural 
History Museum the famed Naturhistorisches Hofmuseum of 
former years and the mid-Victorian building of the University, 
which, with its high ceilings and great marble staircases, was 
quite formidable to those who had to climb to lecture rooms 
located up under the roof. Two other buildings were also used 
to some extent. 

The most unusual feature of this congress was the great num- 
ber of symposia, seventeen in all. While these symposia dealt 
with restricted topics, they did not, in general, deal with selected 
aspects of a particular topic, so could possibly better have been 
distributed under section headings. As there were only six 
days of scientific sessions, the symposia had to be held concur- 
rently, not only with the section meetings, but with each other. 
Under the arrangement followed, identical subject matter was 
sometimes simultaneously dealt with in both symposium and 
section, as for example, all day Monday, the symposium on 
chemistry of insects was running concurrently with the section 
on physiology (morning, nourishment, and afternoon, histo- 
chemistry). 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 47 

In addition to the symposia, there were twenty-five sections 
and subsections running more or less simultaneously with each 
other and, as already noted, with the symposia. As these were 
held in four buildings somewhat remote from one another, the 
members who wished to pick and choose particular papers to 
hear, were decidedly frustrated. Matters were made worse by 
the fact that some members did not respond when their papers 
were called. 

I. THE SUBJECT MATTER 

The scope of topics dealt with, both in symposia and sections, 
will be apparent from what follows : 

A. Systematic and General Entomology 

Fundamental problems of systematics and nomenclature, Sym- 
posium No. 17, was under the leadership of Professor E. Mar- 
tini of Hamburg, who was the president of the Berlin Congress 
in 1938. There were thirteen papers that, as could have been 
anticipated, elicited long and vigorous discussion. 

General systematic entomology Section 1. Mr. H. J. Stam- 
mer gave a paper on "New paths in insects systematics," Dr. 
R. R. Sokol of the University of Kansas on, "Fundamentals of 
quantitative systematics," Dr. A. Nielsen of Copenhagen gave 
"Some thoughts on arthropod phylogeny," Mr. J. P. Cancelo 
da Fonseca of England gave a critical essay on "The evolution 
of insects," and Prof. R. M. Bohart, of the University of Cali- 
fornia, gave a paper on "The art and practice of key-making." 

Taxonomy of entomophagous insects, a symposium under the 
leadership of Prof. Charles Ferriere, of Geneva, included six 
papers. A notable one by Dr. Henry Townes, of Michigan, 
outlined the results of many years research toward a more nat- 
ural classification of the Ichneumonidae. 

Paleontology, was under Prof. F. E. Zeuner of London, who 
reported on Triassic insects from the Molteno beds of southern 
Africa. Among other papers was one by Prof. Rohdendorf of 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

Moscow, on paleontological research in Russia, which, as every- 
one knows, has been of great significance. 

Hemimetdbola Dr. V. M. Dirsch of London and Dr. A. G. 
Sharov of Moscow, both presented papers on the classification 
of orthopterous insects, while Mr. D. Lester of London spoke 
on the higher taxonomy of Heteroptera. There were twenty- 
three papers. 

Three of the most primitive orders of winged insects were 
each the subject of a special symposium, they could as well have 
been made subsections of Section I. Ephemeroptera; there were 
seven papers on taxonomy, biology and distribution; Plecoptera; 
there were six papers on taxonomy, anatomy, and behavior, in- 
cluding an important one by Dr. lilies of Plon in Germany on 
the suborders and families ; Odonata; this consisted of eight 
papers. One, on family classification, was by Prof. B. E. Mont- 
gomery of Lafayette, Indiana. 

Coleoptera. Among the eighteen papers was one of "Prog- 
ress toward a classification of Rhynchophora" by Dr. W. H. 
Anderson of Washington. 

Diptera. Among nineteen papers two of the more general 
ones on classification were by Prof. Rohdendorf of Moscow, 
and by Dr. Curtis W. Sabrosky of Washington. A phylogenetic 
system of syrphoids based on genitalia and larvae was offered 
by Mr. S. Glumac. 

Lepidoptera. Included among nine papers, was one on the 
classification of Tortricidae by A. Diakanoff of Leiden, and one 
on a generic classification of the Papilionidae by K. H. Wilson 
of the University of Kansas. 

Hymenoptera. There were eleven papers. Dr. J. R. T. 
Short, of Aberdeen, presented "The taxonomy of Ichneumoni- 
dae from the standpoint of larval characters." (Cj. Dr. Townes' 
paper on the classification of that family in one of the symposia.) 

Arachnida, had twelve papers. 

B. Geographical Distribution 
Section 4 had fifty-five papers, a very interesting program. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 49 

C. Behavior and Social Insects 

Section 5, had twenty-two papers. 

Migration, a symposium, was under the leadership of Dr. B. P. 
Uvarov of the British Museum, authority on migrating locusts. 
There were twenty-three papers on this popular topic, and they 
dealt with aerial dispersal and many other phases of the subject 
in a wide variety of insects, from plant-lice to butterflies. 

Host-seeking habits of mosquitoes, had seven papers. 

D. Ecology 

Soil insects, a symposium that was led by Professor Kiihnelt 
of Vienna; eleven papers. 

Insects of great cities. This symposium had twelve papers 
several of which dealt with applied entomology. 

E. Anatomy, Embryology, Cytology, and Genetics 

Anatomy and embryology. This section had thirty-nine 
papers ; Genetics and Cytology, had fifteen papers. 

F. Physiology 

Section 6, which also included experimental ecology, was led 
by Dr. Kiihnelt and listed sixty-six papers ; one of these on a 
somewhat unusual topic, by Dr. T. R. E. Southwood of Eng- 
land, was entitled "The evolution of the insect host-tree rela- 
tionship a new approach." 

Acoustics, a symposium. The ten papers included a review 
of progress and problems by the leader, Dr. P. T. Haskell of 
London. 

Chemistry, a symposium, comprised forty-nine ten minute 
papers on a wide range of subjects. 

Chemical defensive methods. A symposium led by Prof. 
Thomas Eisner of Cornell University, with eight papers, some 
on resistance to insecticides. 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

G. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 

Section 10 had seventy-two papers, more than in any other 
group. I will mention two papers : "The use of external char- 
acters to age-grade adult mosquitoes" by Dr. Philip S. Corbett 
of Entebbe, Uganda (a field of entomology that I have not pre- 
viously seen touched upon) and "The ecological classification of 
synanthropic flies of the families Muscidae and Calliphoridae" 
by V. P. Darbeneva-Ukhova. There was also a film showing 
association of a mosquito with oriental ants (Crematogaster) . 

Acarina. A symposium with eleven papers. 

Arthropods in relation to blood-parasites, especially those of 
^vild animals. A symposium with twelve papers led by Prof. 
A. Murray Fallis of Toronto. 

H. Applied Entomology (non medical) 

Agricultural entomology. Two of the fifty-six papers were 
"Status of the idea that weather can control insect populations," 
by M. E. Solomon of England, and "Recent advances in the 
study of insect resistance in crop-plants of North America" by 
Prof. R. J. Painter of Kansas State Agricultural College. 

Thirteen other sections, subsections and symposia were de- 
voted to various phases of agricultural and forest entomology. 
There were in all 212 papers on their programs. 

I. Conservation 

Section 14 had the least number of papers, just two; one was 
of local significance, the other, by Dr. H. W. Miles of Wye, 
England, was entitled "Some entomological aspects of nature 
conservation." 

J. Films 

On four afternoons and one morning, programs of excellent 
films (eleven on behavior, nine on control, eight on expeditions, 
and eight on miscellaneous topics) afforded both pleasant and 
instructive relief from the monotony of listening to too many 
papers. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 51 

II. EXCURSIONS 

By invitation of the Burgomeister, daily opportunity was 
afforded to see the "New Vienna" by autobus. Afternoon ex- 
cursions to points of interest were made available to all ladies 
of the Congress. There was one all-day excursion to points of 
technical interest for each of four Sections : Agriculture, Stored 
Products, Control Methods, and Forest-Entomology. 

On Saturday and Sunday a choice of delightful all-day excur- 
sions was offered to such famed points of interest as the Wachau 
and the Monastery at Melk, the Rax, Petronell and the Carun- 
tium Museum, and the Neusiedler See. 

Those who wished to prolong their stay for post-congress 
field work had the choice of three additional excursions by auto- 
bus ; one of three days for agriculturalists and two longer ones 
(nine and twelve days) for alpine collectors. I took no part in 
these excursions, therefore can give no report on how the par- 
ticipants fared, or even that there were enough registrants to 
ensure that they were all given. 

III. SOCIAL EVENTS 

As always at these congresses, the most pleasant feature was 
the evening social gatherings, when one has opportunity to meet 
old friends, leisure for conversation with them, and perhaps 
chance to meet, in the flesh, celebrities who have hitherto been 
known only from their published articles. There were two such 
evenings at the Congress, to which everyone was invited, each 
truly memorable ; the first was a general reception given by the 
Burgomeister in the great Festhall of the Rathaus, the second 
was the closing reception given by the Organization Committee 
in the Museum. 

Also, there was an affair for members of the Lepidopterist's 
Society, one for invited Coleopterists by the Museum "Dr. 
George Frey" in Munich, and two others for delegates invited, 
respectively, by the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, and 
by the Minister of Education. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

On the evening of the closing day, opportunity was given to 
visit a "Heurige" in Grinzing. These are held in local estab- 
lishments, famous to the Viennese ; they celebrate the coming 
of the season's new wine, and when it is ready a pine branch, 
known irreverently as "The finger of God" is hung before the 
door. 

IV. THE CLOSE 

At the closing session, it was announced that the next Con- 
gress will be held in London in 1964, that Dr. Curtis W. Sa- 
brosky had been elected to the Permanent Committee of the 
Congresses (in the place of this writer, resigned) and that 
Dr. E. M. Hering of Berlin had been an Honorary Member 
(there are now two honorary members from the United States * 
and one each from Brazil, France, Germany, Austria, and 
Japan). 

As we scattered far and wide, I think all congressionists must 
have left with the feeling, not only of having had a most enjoy- 
able and professionally profitable week, but that here had been 
a congress that fully measured up to the standards of congresses 
in the past, as would have been expected from our hosts, the 
Austrians ; perhaps it has set new standards ! Surely each and 
every one of us felt profound gratitude for what had been done 
both for us and as a stimulus to our science. 

J. CHESTER BRADLEY 
* Dr. O. A. Johannsen, and Dr. J. Chester Bradley. EDITOR. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 53 

Some Noteworthy Dragonfly Records from Utah 
(Odonata: Anisoptera) 

By R. JEAN MUSSER/ University of Utah, Salt Lake City 

The only published records of the Odonata fauna of Utah are 
found in the broad, general works of Needham and Heywood 
(1929), Needham and Westfall (1955), and in a few checklists 
and general reports. The only other published Odonata records 
of Utah are by Brown (1934), G. G. Musser (1959) and R. J. 
Musser (1960). 

Two southern species, Oplonaeschna armata Hagen and 
Brechmorhoga mendax Hagen, which extend into Utah from 
Mexico and Central America, are herewith reported as new 
distributional records for the state. 

One nymphal exuvia and one male adult Oplonaeschna ar- 
mata Hagen were taken at Weeping Rock in Zion Canyon (ele- 
vation 5,000 ft.), Washington Co., Utah near a small stream 
formed by water seeping between bedding planes of a Navajo 
Sandstone cliff. Here the water falls from a sandstone arch, 
causing a fine spray which continually moistens the immediate 
vicinity. The small stream is subject to flash flooding when 
rain from thunderstorms runs off the surrounding sandstone 
cliffs. This distinctive habitat appears to be very similar to that 
from which Tinkham (1949) collected this species in Arizona. 
Until the exuvia and adult were taken in Utah, Tinkham's speci- 
mens were the only representatives of this species to be re- 
ported in the United States. The site of collection in Zion 
Canyon represents a 400 mile northward range extension of 
0. armata. 

The other southern species for which Utah now represents 
the northernmost limit is Brechmorhoga menda.v Hagen. Three 
last instar nymphs were collected with a hand screen in the 
Santa Clara River (elevation 5,500 ft.) at Veyo, Washington 
Co., Utah. The stream here is approximately 4 feet wide and 
1^ feet deep. Warm springs feed its moderately fast current. 

1 Summer Graduate Teaching Fellow, N.S.F., Graduate Research 
Fellow, Department of Zoology and Entomology. 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., 1961 

At intervals the stream drops from a gravel and rock bottom 
overlaid with algae into pools with a sand and silt base. 

Brechmorhoga mendax was found in close association with 
Progomphus borealis McLachlan and Erpetogomphus composi- 
tus Hagen in the shallow and riffled edges of the Santa Clara 
River. The three specimens of B. mendax were found in a 
two foot square area although a much larger section of the 
stream was exhaustively collected. The stream bottom along 
the course appears identical to the collecting site of B. mendax, 
and since no water temperatures were taken, there is no avail- 
able data which will explain failure to find it elsewhere. 

The dragonfly fauna of southwestern Utah would seem to 
support the hypothesis that this area marks the route for the 
northern dispersal of some southern species of aquatic insects, 
as well as more southerly distributed plants and animals. 

SELECTED REFERENCES 

BROWN, C. J. 1934. A preliminary list of Utah Odonata. Occasional 
Papers of the Museum of Zoology, Univ. of Mich. Press, No. 291, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

GREGORY, H. E. 1950. Geology and geography of the Zion Park Region, 
Utah and Arizona. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 
220, Wash., D. C., pp. 1-200. 

LARSEN, W. P. 1952. The Dragonflies (Anisoptera) of Utah. Unpub. 
Master's thesis, Univ. of Utah, pp. 1-95. 

MUSSER, G. G. 1959. Annotated checklist of aquatic insects of Glen 
Canyon, in "Ecological studies of the flora and fauna in Glen Can- 
yon," Angus Woodbury ct al. Univ. of Utah Anthro. Papers, No. 
40, Glen Canyon Series, no. 7, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

MUSSER, R. J. 1960. Dragonflies from Green River, in "Ecological study 
of the flora and fauna of Flaming Gorge Reservoir Basin, Utah and 
Wyoming," Angus Woodbury et al. Univ. of Utah Anthro. Papers, 
No. 48, Upper Colorado River Series, no. 3, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
in press. 

NEEDHAM, C. J. and H. B. HEYWOOD. 1929. A Handbook of the 
Dragonflies of North America. Springfield, 111., pp. 1-378. 

NEEDHAM, C. J. and M. J. WESTFALL, JR. 1955. A Manual of the 
Dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). Univ. of Calif. Press, 
Berkeley, pp. 1-615. 

TINKHAM, E. R. 1949. Haunts and habits of the Dragonfly Oplo- 
nacschna aninita. Ent. News 60: 15-17. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 55 

Review 

FOREST AND SHADE TREE ENTOMOLOGY. By Roger F. Ander- 
son. Pp. vii + 428, ill. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 
1960. Price, $8.50. 

This is intended as a text for students of forestry, and as a 
manual for identification of species by keys, pictures, and de- 
scriptions of insects and their work. Section I (92 pages) has 
three brief chapters on anatomy, physiology, and development, 
on classification, and on ecology ; also chapters on the principles 
and methods of control. In Section II the individual species 
are treated, in seven chapters, depending on whether they eat 
the leaves, the inner bark, wood, etc. Species are described in 
detail and literature references are given. There are over 300 
fine photographs, virtually all original ; and numerous practical 
keys throughout. 

This reviewer would prefer an approach that places the in- 
sects first (not the tree), and studies them order by order. This, 
he believes, will arouse more interest in the student so that he 
will enjoy his entomology and come really to understand insect 
life. He will then not only recognize the common pests, but 
will be entomologically educated and professionally equipped to 
act with good entomological sense, and also to recognize new 
situations that may arise. The usual college student takes 
rather well to entomology, and could be told, frankly, that forest 
entomology deals with the insects of importance in forestry. 
But here, the very first words state (p. 3, in caps) that it "deals 
with the protection of trees . . ." and then, a little farther along, 
the news is broken gently that it will be necessary to learn some- 
thing of insects almost as if this were an unfortunate circum- 
stance, as if the entomologist were somehow apologizing. Is this 
approach, common to economic texts of past decades, really still 
necessary ? 

As to the book, the first three chapters especially suffer from 
lack of critical reading, and lack of ordinary care in editing and 
proof reading for which the publisher is largely responsible. 
R. G. SCHMIEDER. 



This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 

not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 

These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; 
the new ones are added at the end of the column, and, only when neces- 
sary those at the top (being longest in) are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept. 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 



Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With_ notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3, PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

MARCH 1901 

Vol. LXXII No. 3 



CONTENTS 

Scott Collembola of New Mexico. III. Onychiurinae 57 

Svihla The larva of Epiophlebia laidlawi 66 

Crabill Catalogue of the Schendylinae (continued) 67 

Krombein Insect visitors of mat euphorbia 80 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 
THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 



ML. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use : in the United States, $5.00 ; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 
Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII MARCH, 1961 No. 3 

The Collembola of New Mexico. III. 
Onychiurinae 1? 2 

By HAROLD GEORGE SCOTT 3 

Eleven species of springtail insects are recorded in this part. 
None has been reported previously from New Mexico. The 
taxonomy of this subfamily has been badly confused. However, 
under the impetus of the controversial work of Bagnall (1949), 
remarkable clarification has been achieved in recent years 
(Stach, 1954; Salmon, 1959). Specimens will be deposited with 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Subfamily ONYCHIURINAE Borner, 1901 

Pseudocelli present ; scales absent ; mouthparts chewing ; head 
prognathous ; distal antennal segments not annulate ; eyes ab- 
sent ; body segments not ankylosed ; furcula present or absent, 
when present not reaching collophore. 

KEY TO WORLD GENERA OF ONYCHIURINAE 

1 . Furcula and body pigment well developed 2 

Furcula absent or reduced; body generally unpigmented. . .4 

2. Median shaft of maxilla well developed, toothed; Ant III 

sense organ with more than 5 papillae arranged in 23 
transverse rows ; adults 5-7 mm. long 3 

1 A portion of a dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the 
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

2 Part II, Ent. News, 71(7) : 183-191. 

3 Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Bureau of State 
Services, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia. 

(57) 



, 1S , MAP 1 4 1961 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

Median shaft of maxilla absent ; Ant III sense organ with 4 
papillae in 1 transverse row; adults 0.6-1.5 mm. long 
(Japan) Lophognathella Bonier, 1909 

3. Abd V and VI ankylosed dorsally; antennal bases with 

3 + 3 pseudocelli; Ant IV tip with O small papillae 

(Japan) Tetrodontophora Reuter, 1882 

Abd V and VI not ankylosed dorsally; antennal bases with 
1 + 1 pseudocelli; Ant IV tip with 6 small papillae 
(Japan) Homaloproctus Bonier, 1909 

4. Clubs of Ant III sense organ bent toward each other (or, if 

straight, not concealed behind an integumentary fold) ; 

unguiculus absent or greatly reduced 5 

Clubs of Ant III sense organ straight or curved but not bent 
toward each other; unguiculus present (Cosmopolitan) . . . 
Onychiurus Gervais, 1944 (sensu lato) 

5. Body slender; postantennal organ present (Cosmopolitan) . . 

Tullbergia Lubbock, 1876 (scnsu lato) 

Body stout ; postantennal organ absent Hoffia gen. nov. 

GENUS ONYCHIURUS GERVAIS, 1844 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS. Body stout ; head broad ; 
clubs of Ant III sense organ not bent toward each other; un- 
guiculus present. Salmon (1959) considers this group to repre- 
sent 12 separate genera. In the present paper Salmon's genera 
are considered subgenera of Onychiurus (see fig. 1). 

KEY TO NEARCTIC SPECIES OF ONYCHIURUS 

1 . Postantennal organ present 2 

Postantennal organ absent 

(Metonychiurus) michelbacheri (Bagnall, 1947) 

2. Postantennal organ of simple vesicles 3 

Postantennal organ of compound vesicles 15 

3. Postantennal organ with 3-5 vesicles arranged in rosette. . . 

(Arcaphorura) groendlandicus (Tullberg, 1876) 

Postantennal organ elongate with more than 5 vesicles ar- 
ranged in rows 4 

4. Vesicles of postantennal organ sub-parallel to long axis of 

organ (Hyinenaphorura) 5 

Vesicles of postantennal organ at right angles to long axis 
of organ 9 

5. One pseudocellus on antennal base 6 

Two or more pseudocelli on antennal base 8 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 59 

6. Clubs of Ant III sense organ mushroom-like, coarsely gran- 

ulated cocklei (Folsom, 1908) 

Clubs of Ant III sense organ globular, mulberry or cone- 
like 7 

7. Vesicles of postantennal organ mostly simple 

similis Folsom, 1917 

Vesicles of postantennal organ mostly bilobed or kidney- 
like irregularis Chamberlain, 1943 

8. Antennal base with 2-3 pseudocelli . .subtenuis Folsom, 1917 
Antennal base with 4 pseudocelli. . .magninus Wray, 1950a 

9. Clubs of Ant III sense organ smooth (Handchiniella) ... 10 
Clubs of Ant III sense organ granulated (Protaphorura) . .13 

10. Unguiculus about one-half unguis in length 

parvicornis Mills, 1934 

Unguiculus subequal to or longer than unguis in length ..11 

1 1 . Unguiculus subequal to unguis in length 

encarpatus Denis, 1931 

Unguiculus longer than unguis 12 

12. Antennal base with 4 pseudocelli 

octopunctatus (Tullberg, 1876) 

Antennal base with 6 (rarely 5) pseudocelli 

duodecimpunctatus Folsom, 1919 

13. Antennal base with 2 pseudocelli 

litoreus Folsom, 1917 

Antennal base with 3 pseudocelli 14 

14. Unguiculus subequal to unguis in length 

armatus (Tullberg, 1869) 

Unguiculus about one-half unguis in length 

pseudarmatus Folsom, 1917 

15. Vesicles of postantennal organ, though tuberculated, clearly 

visible as separate structures 16 

Vesicles of postantennal organ not visible as separate struc- 
tures, postantennal organ a mass of small tubercles .... 22 

16. Clubs of Ant III sense organ undifferentiated, smooth 

( Onychinrus} 17 

Clubs of Ant III sense organ differentiated, usually granu- 
lated (Paronychiurits) 20 

17. Anal spines present wilchi Wray, 1950b 

Anal spines absent 18 

18. Clubs of Ant III sense organ straight, ovoid, usually slightly 

bifurcated at tip justi Denis, 1938 

Clubs of Ant III sense organ curved, cylindrical, rounded 
at tip ' 19 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

19. Unguiculus with basal lamella 

pseudofimetarius Folsom, 1917 

Unguiculus without basal lamella 

fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1767) 

20. Hind margin of head without pseudocelli 21 

Hind margin of head with 4-6 pseudocelli 

oreadis Mills, 1935 

21. Anal spines to unguis as 1:2, papillae contiguous 

ramosus Folsom, 1917 

Anal spines to unguis as 3:4, papillae separated 

mills! Chamberlain, 1943 

22. Clubs of Ant III sense organ smooth 

(Psyllaphorura) obesus Mills, 1934 

Clubs of Ant III sense organ granulated or papillated 

(Pseud onychiurus} dentatus (Folsom, 1902) 

I have been unable to determine the status of two other spe- 
cies recorded from North America ; Onychiurus ambulaninermis 
Denis, 1929, and Onychiurus calif ornicus Coleman, 1941. The 
following species are recorded from New Mexico : 

Onychiurus (Onychiurus) fiemetarius (Linnaeus, 1767) 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Berlese, rotten fir log, 8,300 ft., 
Tejano Canyon, Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., 3-xi-1950. 

DISTRIBUTION. N. M., Europe. As discussed in Stach 
(1954, pp. 173-179), this species has been regarded as cosmo- 
politan, but probably most determinations are in error. There- 
fore, re-evaluation of all prior records is required to establish 
distribution. 

Onychiurus (Psyllaphorura) obesus Mills, 1934. 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. Berlese, fir-aspen litter, 8,600 ft., NE 
of Valdez on Twining Road, Taos Co., 15-vii-1953. 
DISTRIBUTION. Iowa, N. M. 

Onychiurus (Onychiurus) justi Denis, 1938. 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. Berlese, oak litter, 7,400 ft., Doc. 
Long's, Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., 29-V-1951. 

DISTRIBUTION. Cal., Fla., Mass., N. M., Penna., Australasia. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



61 




ANT III SENSE ORGAN 
POSTANTENNAL ORGAN 

UNGUS 
-,UNGUICULUS 

PSEUDOCELLUS 




Hoffia robusta gen. et sp. nov. 



ANAL SPINE 




Onychiurus armanis (Tullberg) 



Tullbergin neomexicana sp nov 



FIG. 1. Onychiurus armatus (Tullberg, 1869) with key structures 
labelled. FIG. 2. Hoffia robusta gen. et sp. nov., lateral view of holo- 
type. FIG. 3. Tullbcrgia neomexicana sp. nov., lateral view of holotype. 

Onychiurus (Paronychiurus) oreadis Mills, 1935. 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. Berlese, fir-aspen litter, 9,200 ft., 
Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., 14-vii-1951. 
DISTRIBUTION. N. M., Utah, Wash. 

Onychiurus (Handschiniella) parvicornis Mills, 1934. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Berlese, rotten fir stump, 8,900 ft., 
Bear Trap Canyon, SW of Magdalena, Socorro Co., 12-ix-1954. 
DISTRIBUTION. Iowa, N. M. 

Onychiurus (Onychiurus) pseudofimetarius Folsom, 1917. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Berleses of (1) juniper litter, 7,600 
ft., N. of pumice mine near Grants, Valencia Co., 22-vii-1953; 
(2) aspen litter, 8,700 ft., Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., no date 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

recorded; (3) aspen-fir litter, 9,700 ft., W of Vallecitos on 
Canjilon Road, Rio Arriba Co., 13-viii-1953. 

Onychiurus (Hymenaphorura) similis Folsom, 1917. 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. Berlese, rich aspen litter, 10,800 ft., 
Aspen Hill, near Santa Fe Ski Run, Santa Fe Co., ll-viii-1953. 
DISTRIBUTION. 111., N. M. 

Onychiurus (Hymenaphorura) subtenuis Folsom, 1917. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Berleses of (1) juniper litter, 7,500 
ft., S of Santa Fe, Santa Fe Co., 5-ix-1952 ; (2) rotten fir log, 
8,300 ft., Tejano Canyon, Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., 3-xi- 
1950; (3) aspen litter, 8,700 ft., Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., 
no date recorded; (4) aspen litter, 10,000 ft., Santa Fe Ski Run, 
Santa Fe Co., 12-X-1952; and (5) fir litter, 10,000 ft, along 
Crest Drive, Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co, S-vii-1950. 

DISTRIBUTION. Ill, Iowa, Mo, N. M, N. Y, N. C, Pa, 
Utah, Ontario. 

Onychiurus (Onychiurus) wilchi Wray, 1950b. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Berleses of (1) aspen-spruce-fir 
litter, 9,250 ft, Holman Pass, NW of Holman, Mora Co, 9-vii- 
1953 ; and (2) aspen-fir litter, 10,600 ft, near crest, Sandia Mts, 
Bernalillo Co, 22-ix-1951. 

GENUS HOFFIA gen. nov. 

TYPE SPECIES. Hoffia robusta gen. et sp. nov. Figure 2. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, not subglobose, generally un- 
pigmented ; prothorax setaceous, well developed ; pseudocelli 
present ; head prognathous ; furcula absent ; mouthparts chew- 
ing ; eyes absent ; unguiculus and postantennal organ absent ; 
clubs of Ant III sense organ bent toward each other ; anal spines 
2; body very stout, head narrow. 

DISCUSSION. This genus is close to Tullbergia, but species 
of Tullbergia are slender with the body tapering gradually at 
each end, and always have postantennal organs. It is with 
pleasure that I name the genus for Dr. C. Clayton Hoff, Pro- 



Lxxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 63 

fessor of Biology, University of New Mexico, whose diligent 
collecting made this study possible. 

Hoffia robusta gen. et sp. nov. Figure 2 

TYPE LOCALITY : Holotype and 3 paratypes from 1 mi. N of 
pumice mine, N of Grants, Valencia Co., N. M. ; field Berlese, 
Pinyon litter, 7,500 ft., 20-X-1951. Type specimens will be 
deposited with the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, not subglobose, generally un- 
pigmented ; body stout ; head narrow ; segmentation distinct, with- 
out ankylosis ; integument minutely tuberculate ; white ; clothed 
by moderately long setae; pseudocelli present, difficult to per- 
ceive; head prognathous; antenna to head at 3:4; ratio of 
antennal segments approximately 7:5:6:14; clubs of Ant III 
sense organ bent toward each other; postantennal organ and 
eyes absent; mouthparts chewing; prothorax setaceous, well 
developed ; unguiculus absent ; unguis long, with one tooth ; 
tenent hairs and furcula absent ; anus terminal ; anal spines 2, 
strongly curved, H times as long as unguis III ; adult length 
about 0.9 mm. 

GENUS TULLBERGIA LUBBOCK, 1876 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS. Body slender, unpigmented; 
head narrow ; postantennal organ with many tubercles ; clubs of 
Ant III sense organ bent toward each other; unguiculus usually 
absent or greatly reduced; anal spines 0-4; furcula absent. 

KEY TO NEARCTIC SPECIES OF TULLBERGIA 

1 . Anal spines present 2 

Anal spines absent neomexicana sp. nov. 

2. Abd VI with medio-ventral process 3 

Abd VI without medio-ventral process 4 

3. Vesicles of postantennal organ simple 

knowltoni Wray, 1950 

Vesicles of postantennal organ horse-shoe shaped 

incisa Bonet, 1944 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

4. Abd VI tergite with pits, ridges, or warts 5 

Abd VI tergite without pits, ridges, or warts 7 

5. Pair of tubercles or tuberculated areas anterior to anal 

spines on Abd VI tuberosa Bonet, 1944 

Semicircular ridged pits anterior to anal spines on Abd 
VI 6 

6. Postantennal vesicles in 2 transverse rows 

krausbaueri Bonier, 1901 

Postantennal vesicles in 4 irregular transverse rows 

foveata Bonet, 1944 

7. Postantennal vesicles in 2 transverse rows 8 

Postantennal vesicles in 4 transverse rows 9 

8. Unguiculus bristle-like granulata Mills, 1934 

Unguiculus absent clavata Mills, 1934 

9. Unguiculus bristle-like 10 

Unguiculus absent mexicana Handschin, 1928 

10. Ant III sense organ with club-like accessory hair 

collis Bacon, 1914 

Ant III sense organ without club-like accessory hair 

baconae (Bagnall, 1947) 

Only one species of Tullbergia is recorded from New Mexico. 

Tullbergia neomexicana sp. nov. Figure 3 

TYPE LOCALITY. Holotype and 4 paratypes from foothills, 
Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., N. M. ; Berlese of oak litter, 6,400 
ft., 5-ix-1951. Type specimens will be deposited with the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, slender; segmentation distinct, 
without ankylosis ; integument smooth, white ; clothed with mod- 
erately long setae ; scales absent ; pseudocelli present ; head nar- 
row, prognathous ; antenna shorter than head ; clubs of Ant III 
sense organ bent toward each other; postantennal organ with 
numerous simple tubercles ; eyes absent ; mouthparts chewing ; 
pronotum setaceous; tibiotarsus without distal subsegment; 
claws tunicate; Unguiculus to unguis as 3:8; tenet hairs absent; 
unguis and unguiculus without teeth; furcula absent; anus ter- 
minal ; anal spines absent ; adult length about 0.6 mm. 

DISCUSSION. This species is distinguished from other mem- 
bers of the genus by the well-developed unguiculus and absence 
of anal spines. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 65 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Type collection plus Berleses of ( 1 ) 
oak litter, and (2) aspen litter, 8,700 ft., no date recorded, 
Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co. 

SUMMARY 

Record is made of 9 species of Onychiurus, Hoffia robusta 
gen. et sp. nov., and Tullbergia neotnexicana sp. nov., from 
New Mexico. Ecological data are presented for all 11 species. 
Keys to world genera of Onychivirinae and to Nearctic species 
of Onychiurus and Tullbergia are included. 

REFERENCES CITED 

BACON, G. 1914. Jour. Ent. Zool. 6: 84-85. 
BAGNALL, R. S. 1947. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. II, 14. 
BONET, F. 1944. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 5 : 51-72. 
BORNER, C. 1901. Zool. Anz., 24 : 332-345. 

. 1909. Sitz. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin 2 : 99-135. 

CHAMBERLAIN, R. 1943. Great Basin Nat. 4: 39-^8. 

COLEMAN, T. 1941. Jour. Ent. Zool. 33: 1-11. 

DENIS, J. 1929. Boll. Inst. Agr. Portici 22 : 160-180, 305-320. 

-. 1931. Boll. Lab. Inst. Gen. Agr. Portici 25 : 69-170. 

-. 1938. Boll. Adriatica Sci. Nat. Trieste 36 : 95-165. 
FOLSOM, J. W. 1902. Proc. Washington Acad. Sci. 4: 87-116. 
. 1917. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 53: 637-659. 

-. 1919. Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. 41 : 271-303. 
GERVAIS, P. 1844. In: Walckenaer's Hist. Nat. Insectes apteres 3: 

377-456. 

HANDSCHIN, E. 1928. Jour. Linnaean Soc. London, Zool. 36: 533-552. 
LINNAEUS, C. 1767. Systema naturae. Ed. 12 (revised), Holmiae, 3 

vol., 1327 + 36 pp. 

LUBBOCK, J. 1876. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 18: 324. 
MILLS, H. B. 1934. A monograph of the Collembola of Iowa. Ames: 
Collegiate Press, xii + 143 pp. 

. 1935. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 30 : 133-139. 
REUTER, O. M. 1882. Sitz. Akad. Wess. Wein 86(1) : 184. 
SALMON, J. T. 1959. Trans. Royal Ent. Soc. London 111(6) : 119-156. 
STACH, J. 1954. The apterygotan fauna of Poland. V. Onychiuridae. 

Polish Acad. Sci., Cracow, ii + 277 pp. 
TULLBERG, T. 1869. Akad. Afhandl. Upsala, vol. of 1869 : 1-20. 

-. 1876. Ofv. K. Vet.-Akad. Forhandl. 33(5) : 23-42. 
WRAY, D. L. 1950a. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 45(3) : 91-95. 
. 1950b. Psyche, 57(3) : 95-101. 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

Another Record of the Larva of Epiophlebia laid- 
lawi Tillyard, (Odonata: Anisozygoptera). 

By ARTHUR SVIHLA, Ford Foundation University of Florida- 
University of Mandalay Program, Mandalay, Burma 

At the present time only two species of Epiophlebia of the 
sub-order Anisozygoptera are known, Epiophlebia superstes 
Selys which occurs in Japan and Epiophlebia laidlazvi Tillyard 
from the Himalayas. 

In 1921 Tillyard (Rec. Ind. Mus. 22: 93-107) described the 
Himalayan form as laidlatvi from a single nymph which had 
been collected in the Darjeeling district at an elevation of 7000 
feet by Dr. S. Kemp from a rapidly flowing stream between 
Ghoom * and Sonada. Later searches by specialists for both 
adults and larvae were unsuccessful until Asahina in March 
1958 (Tombo 1(1): 1-2) first rediscovered the nymph. He 
collected a series from a stream between Ghum and Rangbhul. 
His collections consisted of one ultimate male instar (the first 
for this species) ; one penultimate female (the type of E. laid- 
lawi was a penultimate male); four tertiultimate larvae; and 
one quartultimate larva. 

Dr. Asahina very kindly told me where he had collected these 
specimens, and, on October 9, 1960, I visited what I believed 
to be the same site and collected three ultimate female larvae 
(the first for this species) and two larvae much younger than 
the youngest in Dr. Asahina's collection. 

For the benefit of future collectors the site of my collection 
may be described as the rocky stream which passes under the 
Siliguri-Darjeeling railroad track near Rangbhul at marker 
number 469. Above the bridge there is a short stretch of 
rapidly flowing water about 100 feet long where the larvae were 
found. This is blocked up-stream by a waterfall. Below the 
bridge and highway is another waterfall (artificially made) but 
the stream persists and continues to lower levels. There is 
every reason to believe that larvae occur above and below the 
two waterfalls mentioned. Lack of time prevented my further 
search. 

* Ghoom is variously spelled as Ghum and Ghun. At present the pre- 
ferred spelling is Ghum. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 67 

No adults of this species were seen on this date. In fact no 
dragon-flies of any sort were seen in flight in this area on this 
visit. The imago still remains unknown. 

I agree with Dr. Asahina that the habitats of the nymphs of 
the two species of Epiophlebia are quite similar. 



A Catalogue of the Schendylinae of North America 

including Mexico, with a Generic Key and 

Proposal of a New Simoporus 

(Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha : 

Schendylinae) 

By R. E. CRABILL, JR., Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 

(Continued from p. 36) 

CATALOGUE OF THE SCHENDYLINES PRESENTLY KNOWN FROM 
MEXICO, THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES, AND CANADA 

The following catalogue of genera and species is believed to 
include reference to all schendylines now known to occur in, or 
to have been reported from, the American continent from Alaska 
south through Mexico. The forms of continental islands and 
archipelagos are included, but those of the Caribbean islands 
proper, of most of Central America, and of all of South America 
are not, unless, of course, they also occur within the area under 
consideration. 

For each genus and species a summary synonymy is presented 
together with literary citations. The type-species of each genus 
is identified, and the method of fixation is parenthesized there- 
after. Ranges are summarized, and in some instances notes on 
identity or generic assignment are appended. In the cases of 
non-monotypic genera, and whenever possible, selected, useful 
keys to species are recommended through reference to their 
literary source and author. 

The reader's attention is directed to the following keys to 
schendylid (or schendyline ) genera. (1) Cook, l c '04, p. 76: 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

key to known schendyline genera including Holitys, q.v. (2) 
Broelemann and Ribaut, 1912, p. 97: key to known schendyline 
genera; especially recommended for its exhaustively detailed 
figures and verbal descriptions ; but see note under Pectiniunguis 
below. (3) Attems, 1929, p. 58: key to known genera; remains 
the most useful of keys for world fauna but somewhat outdated. 
(4) Chamberlin, 1943, p. 12 : key to most genera represented in 
Mexico and Central America. (5) Chamberlin, 1947b, p. 147: 
key to most genera represented in all of the Americas, with 
some omissions, e.g., Brachyschendyla and Hydroschendyla. 
(6) Crabill, 1953, p. 94 : key to northeastern North American 
genera and species. 

APUNGUIS Chamberlin 

Apungnis Chamberlin, 1947c, p. 260. 

Type-species: Apunguis prosoicus Chamberlin, 1947. (Origi- 
nal designation and monotypic). 
Range : Known only from the locality of the type-species. 

Apunguis prosoicus Chamberlin 

Apunguis prosoicus, Chamberlin, 1947c, p. 2660. 
Type-locality : Texas : Eagle Pass ; intercepted on fruit from 

Mexico. 
Range : Known only from type- locality. 

ESCARYUS Cook and Collins 

Escaryus Cook and Collins, 1891, p. 391. 

Type-species : Escaryus phyllophilus Cook and Collins, 1891 
[ Escaryus urbicus (Meinert), 1886]. (Subsequent desig- 
nation of Cook, 1895, p. 71). 

Range : Temperate to arctic North America, eastern and cen- 
tral Asia. 

Selected keys : Cook, 1904, p. 76 : to known species. 7 Attems, 
1929, p. 95: to known species. Chamberlin, 1946a, p. 178: to 

7 The original publication of Cook's well-known species Escaryus albus 
appeared in this publication and is included in the key. E. albus, a stub- 
born Poltergeist, has been metioned faithfully by all persons who have 
treated the Alaskan fauna, even though no one has succeeded in uncover- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 69 

species of Alaska and adjacent Siberia. Chamberlin, 1947a, p. 
37 : presumably to known species, but some are omitted. Crabill, 
1953, p. 96 : to species of northeastern North America. 

Escaryus delus Chamberlin 

f Escaryus ethopus (Chamberlin), 1920, p. 43. 
Escaryus delus Chamberlin, 1946a, p. 178. 

Type-locality : Alaska : Circle City, Fairbanks. 
Range : Known only from the two type-localities. 

Escaryus ethopus (Chamberlin) 

Geophilus ethopus Chamberlin, 1920, p. 43. 
Escaryus ethopus (Chamberlin), [New combination]. 

Type-locality : Alaska : Iditarod Island. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Notes : This species, originally placed in the wrong genus and 
family, is clearly both a schendylid and a member of Escaryus; 
this is proved unquestionably by its distinctive mouthparts 
which had never been dissected before my recent study of the 
holotype at Harvard. Its characteristics do not seem imme- 
diately suggestive of any described Escaryus, although in some 
features one could perhaps find grounds for suspecting an 
affinity with E. delus Chamberlin, q.v. 

The following diagnostic characteristics, drawn from a recent 
study of the ethopus holotype, were not mentioned in Professor 
Chamberlin's original description of the species. In a report 
now in progress, wherein the whole Alaskan chilopod fauna will 
be treated, a full and detailed description of ethopus will be pre- 
sented. Paraclypeal sutures of the clypeus present only ante- 
riorly as fragments, totally absent over two-thirds of their hypo- 
thetical posterior course ; distinct plagulae absent ; clypeal areas 

ing additional specimens. The explanation for this is simple and almost 
incredible. Having discovered the two Cook cotypes of albus, after they 
had been lost for many years, I found them to be juvenile specimens of 
some species of Strigamia, hence not even members of Schendylidae! 
Their poor state of preservation and immaturity, however, preclude a 
specific assignment within Striyamia at this time. At the same time, 
there can be no doubt whatever about the genus to which they are prop- 
erly assignible. 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

absent. Labrum with about 25 teeth, these occupying the full 
width of the midlabral arch. First maxillae : with robust, 
coarsely squamulate telopodite lappets, these reach about f { the 
length of the telopodites : coxosternal lappets essentially absent, 
being extremely low and broad. Second maxillae : telopodite 
claw very robust, apically somewhat bent, with coarsely, strongly 
pectinate edges. Prehensors : femuroid and tibioid as well as 
tarsungula (unlike eastern North American species) totally 
without denticles; trochanteroprefemur with a low, very small 
denticle. Ultimate pedal segment : pretergite laterally not sutu- 
rate ; tergite much wider than long ; sternite very long and 
nearly perfectly rectangular, midlongitudinally shallowly sul- 
cate ; coxopleura antero-posteriorly very long, moderately in- 
flated, pierced by numerous small to large pores, many of these 
irregularly shaped; legs (of J*) greatly swollen, somewhat flat- 
tened dorso-ventrally, the unguiform pretarsi missing. Anal 
pores present, large. 

Escaryus liber Cook and Collins 

Escaryus liber Cook and Collins, 1891, p. 394. 

Type-locality : New York : Kirkville. 

Range : New York, Maryland, District of Columbia, Ohio. 

Probably distributed throughout much of northeastern North 

America. 

Escaryus missouriensis Chamberlin 

Escaryus missouriensis Chamberlin, 1942, p. 185. 

Type-locality: Missouri: St. Louis Co., 4.3 miles northwest of 

Glencoe. 
Range : Missouri, Indiana, Illinois. Probably is widespread in 

the midwestern United States. 

Escaryus monticolens Chamberlin 

Escaryus monticolens Chamberlin, 1947a, p. 37. 

Type-locality : Utah, Mill Creek Canyon. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Escaryus paucipes Chamberlin 

Escaryus paucipes Chamberlin, 1946a, p. 179. 

Type-locality : Alaska : Haines. 

Range : Known only from the type-locality. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 71 

Escaryus urbicus (Meinert) 

Geophilus urbicus Meinert, 1886, p. 218. 

Escaryus phyllophilus Cook and Collins, 1891, p. 392. 

Escaryus urbicus (Meinert), -Bailey, 1928, p. 44. 
Type-locality : Massachusetts : Cambridge. 
Range: Northeastern North America. Probably extends far 

southward at higher elevations in the Appalachians. 

HOLITYS Cook 

Holitys Cook, 1899, p. 304. 

tMexiconyx Chamberlin, 1922, p. 9. 

tSimoporus Chamberlin, 1940a, p. 109. 

Type-species: Holitys neomexicana Cook. 1899. (Monotypic.) 

Range : Known only from the locality of the type-species. 

Key: Cook, 1904, p. 76: the only known key including Holitys. 
Notes: Unfortunately, the information that Cook gave is most 
fragmentary. Piecing together the information given in the 
original description with that in his 1904 key, we learn the 
following about the form. Ultimate pretarsus is present and 
unguiform; ultimate legs, reportedly of a $, are inflated, sub- 
densely setose, have two tarsal articles. The coxopleural gland 
openings, if present, are concealed. The ultimate pedal sternite 
is much wider than long. Ventral porefields are present and in 
shape are circular, in position, median. The genus is claimed 
to be like Pectiniunguis in some respects (in which?). The 
holotype is a $ 15 mm long and has 45 pedal segments. 

Thus, we know nothing definite about the species' mouth- 
parts, and all we can say about the coxopleural glandular con- 
dition is that if a pore is or if pores are present, then they are 
concealed. Clearly it is impossible on the basis of such evidence 
alone to come to any even reasonably confident decision anent 
the disposition of the Cook name. At the same time, I believe 
it is possible to suggest from this evidence, poor and indirect as 
it is, that it would be very difficult to preclude the possibility 
that Holitys is identical with, or very closely related to, Simo- 
porus or Mexiconyx, or both. This is admittedly a reasonable 
guess ; it cannot at the present time be substantiated, the type 
being unavailable. 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

Holitys neomexicana Cook 

Holitys neomexicana Cook, 1899, p. 304. 

Holitys neomexicana Cook. -Attems, 1929, p. 99. ["Ganz 

ungeniigende Diagnose"]. 
Type-locality : New Mexico : Organ Mountains, Dropping 

Spring. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

MEXICONYX Chamberlin 

tHolitys Cook, 1899, p. 304 
Mexiconyx Chamberlin, 1922, p. 9. 

Type-species : Mexiconyx hidalgoensis Chamberlin, 1922. 

(Original designation and monotypic.) 
Range : Known only from the locality of the type-species. 

Notes : See notes under Holitys. 

Mexiconyx hidalgoensis Chamberlin 

Mexiconyx hidalgoensis Chamberlin, 1922, p. 9. 

Type-locality : Mexico : Hidalgo, Guerrere Mill. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

MORUNGUIS Chamberlin 

Morungitis Chamberlin, 1943, p. 15. 

Type-species : Morunguis morelus Chamberlin, 1943. (Original 

designation and monotypic). 

Range : Known only from locality of the type-species. 

Morunguis morelus Chamberlin 

Morunguis morelus Chamberlin, 1943, p. 15. 
Type-locality : Mexico : Morelos, Parque Nacional de Zempoala. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

NESONYX Chamberlin 

Nesonyx Chamberlin, 1923, p. 397. 

Type-species: Nesonyx flagellans Chamberlin, 1923. (Original 

designation and monotypic.) 
Range : Known only from the locality of the type-species. 

Nesonyx flagellans Chamberlin 

Nesonyx flagellans Chamberlin, 1923, p. 397. 
Type-locality : Mexico : Gulf of California, Georges Island. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 73 

PARUNGUIS Chamberlin 

Parunguis Chamberlin, 1941, p. 788. 

Type-species: Parunguis kernensis Chamberlin, 1941. (Origi- 
nal designation and monotypic.) 
Range : Southern and central Mexico, and Texas. 

Parunguis boneti Chamberlin 

Parunguis boneti Chamberlin, 1943, p. 13. 

Type-locality : Mexico : D.F., Desierto de los Leones, San 

Rafael. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Parunguis cardenasi Chamberlin 

Parunguis cardenasi Chamberlin, 1943, p. 13. 

Type-locality : Mexico : D.F., Rio Frio. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Parunguis kernensis Chamberlin 

Parunguis kernensis Chamberlin, 1941, p. 788. 

Type-locality : California : Kern Co., 4 miles east of Glenville. 
Range : Known only from type-locality. 

Parunguis paucipes Chamberlin 

Parunguis paucipes Chamberlin, 1943, p. 14. 
Type-locality : Mexico : Vera Cruz, Orizaba, Cuesta de Acult- 

zingo, "Monte Bajo." 
Range : Known only from type-localities. 

PECTINIUNGUIS Bollman 

Pectiniunguis Bollman, 1889, p. 212. 

Adenoschendyla Broelemann, 1911, p. 192. 

Litoschendyla Chamberlin, 1923, p. 391. [New synonymy.] 

Type-species: Pectiniunguis americanus Bollman, 1889, p. 212. 
(Original designation.) 

Range : Coastal southern California and Mexican Lower Cali- 
fornia; Antilles and South America. Probably widespread 
on the coasts of tropical and subtropical America. 

Selected Keys: Broelemann and Ribaut, 1912, pp. 100, 106: 
keys to the known species of Pectiniunguis and Adenoschendyla 
(= Pectiniunguis). Chamberlin, 1914, p. 201: key to species 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

of Adenoschendyla. Attems, 1929, pp. 81, 84: keys to known 
species. 

Notes : For a discussion of my grounds for provisionally unit- 
ing Litoschendyla and Pectiniunguis, the reader is referred to 
Crabill, 1959, p. 324. 

Pectiniunguis americanus Bollman 

Pectiniunguis americanus Bollman, 1889, p. 212. 

Type-locality : Mexico : "Gulf of California, Pichiliungue Bay." 
The original locality citation of Bollman is in error. The 
correct rendition is : Mexico, Lower California, Pichilinque 
Bay. 

Range : Strictly speaking, the species is known only from the 
type-locality; Cook's 1899 report of it from Florida was based 
upon a misidentification. 

Notes : See discussion in Crabill, 1959, p. 324. 

Pectiniunguis amphibius Chamberlin 

Pectiniunguis amphibius Chamberlin, 1923, p. 392. 

Type-locality : Mexico : Gulf of California, Danzante Island. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Pectiniunguis catalinensis Chamberlin 

Pectiniunguis catalinensis Chamberlin, 1941, p. 787. 

Type-locality : California : Catalina Island, "near Black Jack." 
Range : Known from type-locality only. 

Pectiniunguis halirrhytus Crabill 

Pectiniunguis halirrhytus Crabill, 1959, p. *. 

Type-locality: Florida: Monroe Co., Big Pine Key. 
Range : Florida Keys. Probably ranges widely from southern 
coastal Florida throughout much or all of the West Indies. 

Notes : When Cook reported americanus from the Florida Keys 
in 1899 (p. 305), his records were actually based upon a differ- 
ent species, halirrhytus, which he did not identify as such. See 
discussion in Crabill, 1959, p. 324. 

Pectiniunguis nesiotes Chamberlin 

Pectiniunguis nesiotes Chamberlin, 1923, p. 391. 
Type-locality : Mexico : Gulf of California, San Esteban Island. 
Range : Type-locality only. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 75 

SCHENDYLA Bergsoe and Meinert 

Schendyla Borgsoe and Meinert, 1866, p. 103. 

Type-species: Geophilus nemorensis C. L. Koch, 1836 [ = 

Schendyla (Schendyla) nemorensis (C. L. Koch)]. (Mono- 

typic.) 
Range : Europe, Asia, North and South America, North Africa. 

Selected key : Attems, 1929, p. 59. 

Schendyla nemorensis (C. L. Koch) 

Geophilus nemorensis C. L. Koch, 1836, p. . 
Poabius bistriatus C. L. Koch, 1847, p. 183. 
Linotaenia nemorensis (C. L. Koch), -Koch, 1863, p. 26. 
Schendyla nemorensis (C. L. Koch), -Bergsoe and Meinert, 
^ 1866, p. 105. 

Geophilus tyrolensis Meinert, 1870, p. 73. 
Geophilus gracilis Harger, 1872, p. 18. 

Range : Europe, North Africa, North America. Evidently read- 
ily transported and easily established ; probably occurs widely 
throughout the temperate Holarctic region through repeated 
introductions. In the United States nemorensis is known to 
occur in many of the states east of the Mississippi and north 
of Virginia; elsewhere reports of it have been sporadic. 
Eventually it will very likely be known to inhabit many, or 
most, of our states. 

SERRUNGUIS Chamberlin 

Serrunguis Chamberlin, 1941, p. 789. 

Type-species: Serrunguis paroicus Chamberlin, 1941. (Origi- 
nal designation and monotypic.) 
Range : Known only from the locality of the type-species. 

Serrunguis paroicus Chamberlin 

Serrunguis paroicus Chamberlin, 1941, p. 789. 
Type-locality : California : Mountain Springs. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

NYCTUNGUIS Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis Chamberlin, 1914, p. 201. 

Type-species: Pectiniunguis montcrcus Chamberlin, 1904 [ = 
Nyctunguis nwntereus (Chamberlin)]. (Original designa- 
tion.) 

Range : Mexico, California, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Arizona. 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

Notes : Despite the assignment of many species to this genus, 
no key to the species has ever been published. These species, as 
described, are clearly all quite similar, and, on the basis of their 
printed descriptions, it is extremely difficult or impossible to 
identify the majority of them with confidence. This problem is 
further complicated by the rarity of specimens assignable to 
Nyctunguis in collections. It is probably not too extreme to 
suggest that nearly all such identified specimens are members 
of typical series or are holotypes. 

Nyctunguis apachus Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis apachus Chamberlin, 1941, p. 786. 

Type-locality: Arizona: 38 miles south of Ajo ($ holotype) ; 
20 miles south of Ajo (5 paratype). 

Range : Known only from the two type-localities and from 
North Sasaba, Arizona. 

Nyctunguis arcochilus Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis arcochilus Chamberlin, 1941, p. 785. 

Type-locality : Texas : Laredo. 

Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis auxus Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis auxus Chamberlin, 1941, p. 787. 

Type-locality : California : Coyote Wells. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis catalinae (Chamberlin) 

Pectiniunguis heathii catalinae Chamberlin, 1912a, p. 669. 

Nyctunguis catalinae (Chamberlin), -Chamberlin, 1923, p. 

396. " 

Type-locality : California : Catalina Island, Claremont. 
Range : Known only from the type-localities. 

Nyctunguis dampfi (Verhoeff) 

Schendylunguis dampfi Verhoeff, 1926, p. 103. 
Nyctunguis dampfi (Verhoeff), -Attems, 1929, p. 88. 

Type-locality : Mexico : Desierto de los Leones. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Notes : In describing Simoporus koestneri, q.v., Professor Cham- 
berlin alerted the reader to the similarity between his new spe- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 77 

cies and dampfi as described by Verhoeff (Chamberlin, 1940b, 
p. 65). The apparent similarity in many characters is indeed 
impressive, but its interpretation must wait until we know much 
more than we do now about the whole ensemble of microschendy- 
lines of which these species are members. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Wilhelm Engelhardt of the 
Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates at Munich I 
have been privileged to examine Verhoeff's original type speci- 
mens. They differ most notably (and, under the present system, 
generically) from koestneri and its congeners in their possession 
of two distinct pores on each coxopleuron. In koestneri there 
is reportedly just one. It is also important to report that Ver- 
hoeff's figure of the first maxillae is in error, for careful study 
reveals that the first maxillae of the dampfi holotype have dis- 
tinct, though concealed, telopodite lappets as well as frail, small 
coxosternal lappets. Attems and others, on Verhoeff's evidence, 
have assumed them to be absent. 

Nyctunguis danzantinus Chamberlin 
Nyctunguis danzantinus Chamberlin, 1923, p. 395. 

Type-locality : Mexico, Gulf of California, Danzante Island. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis glendorus Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis glendorus Chamberlin, 1946b, p. 69. 

Type-locality: California: Glendora, Los Angeles National 
Forest. 

Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis heathii (Chamberlin) 

Pectiniunguis heathii Chamberlin, 1909, p. 176. 

Nyctunguis heathii (Chamberlin), -Chamberlin, 1914, p. 201. 

Type-locality: California: Monterey Co., near Cypress Point. 
Range : Known only from type-locality. 

Nyctunguis libercolens Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis libercolens Chamberlin, 1923, p. 395. 

Type-locality : California : Stanford and environs. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

Nyctunguis minis Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis mirus Chamberlin, 1923, p. 393. 

Type-locality : Mexico : Lower California, Ensenada de Todos 

Santos. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis molinor Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis molinor Chamberlin, 1925, p. 58. 
Type-locality : Utah : Mill Creek Canyon. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis montereus (Chamberlin) 

Pectiniunguis montereus Chamberlin, 1904, p. 653. 
Nyctunguis montereus (Chamberlin), -Chamberlin, 1914, p. 
201. 

Type-locality : California : Pacific Grove, Bay of Monterey. 
Range : California. 

Nyctunguis pholeter Crabill 

Nyctunguis pholeter Crabill, 1958, p. 154. 

Type-locality : Tennessee : DeKalb Co., Cripps' Mill, Cripps' 

Mill Cave. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

Nyctunguis vallis Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis vallis Chamberlin, 1941, p. 786. 
Type-locality : California : Carmel Valley, Hastings Reservation. 

SlMOPORUS Chamberlin 

?Holitys Cook, 1899, p. 304. 
Simoporus Chamberlin, 1940a, p. 109. 

Type-species: Simoporus te.vanus Chamberlin, 1940a. (Origi- 
nal designation and monotypic.) 

Range : Northeastern Mexico, Texas, Arkansas. Should prob- 
ably be expected throughout the Gulf States. 

Notes : See notes under Holitys and Nyctunguis dampfi. 

Simoporus arcanus Crabill 

Simoporus arcanus Crabill, new species. 

Type-locality : Arkansas : Washington Co., 4 miles west of 

Farmington. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 79 

Simoporus koestneri Chamberlin 

Simoporus koestneri Chamberlin, 1940b, p. 65. 
Type-locality : Mexico : Nuevo Leon, Cerro Potosi. 
Range : Known only from type-locality. 

Notes : See discussion under Nyctunguis dampfi. 

Simoporus texanus Chamberlin 

Simoporus texanus Chamberlin, 1940a, p. 109. 
Type-locality : Texas : Bandera Co., 2 miles north of Medina. 
Range : Known only from the type-locality. 

REFERENCES 

ATTEMS, C. GRAF. 1929. Das Tierreich, Lief. 52: 1-388. 
BAILEY, J. W. 1928. Bull. New York State Museum No. 276: 5-50. 
BERGSOE, J., and MEINERT, FR. 1866. Naturh. Tidsskr. (3)4: 81-108. 
BOLLMAN, C. H. 1889. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 12: 211-212. 
BROELEMANN, H. W. 1911. Bull. Soc. Ent. France 80(8) : 191-193. 
BROELEMANN, H. W., and RIBAUT, H. 1912. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. 

Nat. Paris (5)4: 53-183. 
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1904. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 56(3) : 651-657. 

1909. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 2: 175-195. 

1912a. Pomona Journ. Ent. 4: 651-672. 

1912b. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 54(13) : 407^136. 

1914. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 58(3) : 151-221. 

1920. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 33 : 41-44. 

1922. Psyche 29(1) : 9-10. 

1923. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4)12(18) : 389-407. 
1925. Pan. Pac. Ent. 2: 55-63. 

1940a. Ent. News 51: 107-110, 125-158. 

1940h. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 53 : 65-66. 

1941. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 34(4) : 773-790. 

1942. Ent. News 53: 184-188. 

1943. Univ. Utah Biol. Ser. 7(3) : 1-55. 
1946a. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 39(2) : 177-189. 
1946b. Pan. Pac. Ent. 22(2) : 64-70. 

1947a. Pan. Pac. Ent. 23(1) : 37-39. 
1947b. Ent. News 58(6) : 146-149. 
1947c. Ent. News 58(10) : 260. 
COOK, O. F. 1896.8 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 18: 63-75. 

8 Since many new forms and categories are presented in this publica- 
tion, it is important to note here that although it is imprinted "1895," and 
although all authors to date have cited it under that year, National Mu- 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

1899. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 4 : 303-312. 

1904. Harriman Alaska Expedition 8 : 47-82. 
COOK, O. F., and COLLINS, G. N. 1891. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 13: 

383-396. 
CRABILL, R. E., JR. 1953. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 61 : pp. 93-98. 

1958. Ent. News 69(6) : 153-160. 

1959. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 49(9) : 324-330. 
HARGER, P. 1872. Amer. Journ. Sci. Arts (3)4: 117-121. 

KOCH, C. L. 1835-44. Herrich-Schaffer, Deutschlands Insecten, Hfte. 
136, 137, 142, 162, 190. 

1847. Krit. Revis. Insecktenfauna Deutschlands. Herrich-Panzer, 
pp. 1-272. 

1863. Die Myriapoden 2: 1-112. 
MEINERT, FR. 1870. Naturh. Tidsskr. (3)7: 1-128. 

1886. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 23 : 161-233. 
PALMER, E. J., and STEYERMARK, J. A. 1935. Ann. Missouri Bot. 

Gardens 22 : 375-758. 
VERHOEFF, K. W. 1926. Zool. Anz. 69(3/4) : 97-105. 



Some Insect Visitors of Mat Euphorbia in South- 
eastern Arizona * (Hymenoptera, Diptera) 

By KARL V. KROMBEIN, Entomology Research Division, 
Agricultural Research Service, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Hymenopterists collecting in the southwestern United States 
have known for many years of the attractiveness of the tiny 
flowers of Euphorbia albotnarginata Torrey and Gray to certain 
small wasps and bees. The plant has a prostrate growth habit 
and occurs in scattered mats up to about 45 cm. in diameter. 
The mats are most common along roadsides where the plants 
receive the extra moisture from runoff. Flowers are produced 

seum records show that this publication was actually first issued to the 
public on April 23, 1896. 

1 This contribution was made possible by a grant from the American 
Philosophical Society for a study of the solitary wasps and bees nesting 
in borings in wooden traps, and was incidental to that project; the results 
of the trap nest investigations will appear in a separate contribution. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 81 

over a long period of time, which makes the plant very attractive 
to smaller aculeates during periods when few other deserf 
plants are in bloom. 

To date no list of the particular groups of wasps and bees 
attracted to these flowers and their relative abundance has been 
published. I take this opportunity to publish some data ob- 
tained during my residence at the Southwestern Research Sta- 
tion of the American Museum of Natural History, July 17 to 
31, 1959. - Included in an appendix is a list of the other Hy- 
menoptera and certain Diptera obtained on the plants also. Con- 
current observations were being made on several ground-nesting 
wasps, so I devoted only several hours on July 23, 26, 27, and 
28, and most of July 24 to collecting on the Euphorbia. Col- 
lections were made along the desert roadside from 3 to 8 miles 
east of Portal, Ariz., at about 4,000 ft. elevation. 

Identifications in the following list are by myself except as 
acknowledged. 

Family Chrysididae 
Hedychridium sp. 3 



Family Tiphiidae 

Quemaya perpunctata (Ckll.). 1 J*; taken at 2 p.m. in bright 
sun ; this is one of the few diurnal species of Brachycistidinae. 

Family Pompilidae 

Ageniella (Ageniella} partita Bks. 1 J*. 
Anoplius (Arachnophroctonus} xerophilus Evans (det. H. E. 
Evans). 1 J\ 

Family Sphecidae 

Astata ncvadica Cr. 1 $. 

Plcnoculus cockerellii Fox (det. F. X. Williams). 3 $$, 1 J 1 . 

Solicrclla clypeata Wms. (det. F. X. Williams). 2$$. 

Solicrella vierecki (Roh.). 5 $$, 1 <$. 

Nitelopterus calif ornicus (Ashm.). 3 

Tachysphe.v coqiiilletti Roh. 1 $, 3 



2 1 am indebted to Director Mont Cazier for making available the 
facilities of the Station in support of these several projects. 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, 1961 

Tachysphex propinquus Vier. 1 <$. 

Tachysphex sp. #1. 8 <$<$ ; this and the following are small 
species, male with black abdomen. 

Tachysphex sp. #2. 2 $?, 1 J*. 

Tachysphex sp. #3. 2 55, 3 J^ ; this and the following two 
are small species, females with abdomen all red, males with 
abdomen red and black. 

Tachysphex sp. #4. 28 $$, 23 

Tachysphex sp. #5. 17 $?, 

Xylocelia sp. 2 55, 2 <$<$. Apparently females of this spe- 
cies prefer to start their burrows in a vertical surface when 
one is available ; on July 28 I collected 5 additional females that 
were attracted to the vertical walls of an excavation I had made 
to uncover a nest of Eucerceris triciliata Scullen. 

Nysson (E piny s son) sp. 1 $. 
Foxia navajo Pate. 1 $. 
Hapalomellinus sp. 1 . 

Moniaecera (Moniaecera) evansi Pate. 1 $, 4 $<$. 
Oxybelus abdominale Baker. 1 $. 

Family Andrenidae 

Perdita (Perditella) minima Ckll. (det. P. H. Timberlake). 
5 5$, 6 <$<$ ; some of the females were gathering pollen. 

Perdita (Hexaperdita) callicerata Ckll. (det. P. H. Timber- 
lake). 1J\ 

Pseudopanurgus sp. (det. P. H. Timberlake). 1 J 1 . 

Calliopsis (Perissander) sp. (det. P. H. Timberlake). 1 J. 

Calliopsis (Per is sand er) anomoptera Mich. 15$$, 35 J\^. 

Only males were taken on July 23 and 24 ; most of them were 
newly emerged, but a few showed denuded areas on the scutum 
indicating that they had been on the wing for several days. 
Freshly emerged females were present on the flowers on the 
26th. Only two of these females bore pollen masses on the 
hind tibiae; these masses were identified by Paul S. Martin as 
being composed entirely of Euphorbia pollen, so undoubtedly 
the anomoptera females were visiting the flowers for both pollen 
and nectar. One male attempted to mate by flying down and 
alighting on a female on the Euphorbia, but aside from this 
there was no evidence of mating activity. I looked for the bur- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 83 

rows in the immediate area without finding the nesting site. I 
did not collect all the females that were present. P. D. Kurd 
collected 31 $$ an d 22^,^ on Euphorbia albomarginata in this 
same area from August 9 to 15, 1958. A. F. Shinn reports 
(in Hit.} that this species has been taken elsewhere in Arizona 
from July 7 to September 15, so apparently it is double-brooded. 

Family Halictidae (all det. P. H. Timberlake) 

Chloralictns clematis ellus (Ckll.). 3 5$, 1J 1 ; the females 
were gathering pollen. 

Chloralictus sp. 15 5$, IG?! several of the females were 
gathering pollen. 

Dialictus sp. 1 $, 1 J 1 ; the female was collecting pollen. 

Sphecodcs sophiae Ckll. 1 $ 

APPENDIX 

The following parasitic Hymenoptera were collected on these 
flowers. 

BRACONIDAE (det. C. F. W. Muesebeck) : 1 5 Apanteles scu- 
tellaris Mues. ; 1 $, 1 J 1 Chelonus phthorimaeae Gah. 

PTEROMALIDAE (det. B. D. Burks) : 1 $ Catolaccus aeneo- 
Z'iridis (Grit.). 

CHALCIDIDAE (det. B. D. Burks) : 1 $, 1 J 1 Hockeria sp. ; 
2 5$ Euchalcidia sp. #1 ; 2 5$ Euchalcidia sp. #2. 

The following Diptera also were collected on flowers. Milto- 
grammini were very abundant and no attempt was made to col- 
lect all specimens seen. 

BOMBYLIIDAE (det. W. W. Wirth) : 1 Astrophanes adonis 
O. S.; 1 Villa lepidota (O. S.) ; 1 Villa sp. #1 ; 1 Villa sp. #2. 

CHLOROPIDAE (det. C. W. Sabrosky) : 1 Siphonella projccta 
Mall. 

TACHINIDAE (det. C. W. Sabrosky) : 1 Hyalomya aldrichii 
Tns. ; 5 Microchaetina valida Tns. 

SARCOPHAGIDAE (all Miltogrammini, det. W. L. Downes, 
Jr.): 25$ Opsidiopsis oblata Tns.; 1$ Senotainia rufivetitris 
(Coq.) (?); 1^ S. nana Coq. ( ?) ; 2$$, 3^ 5. sp. near 
vigilans Allen ; 11 5?, 10 J^J 1 Gymnoprosopa sp. near polita Tns. ; 
1 $, 1 J 1 Eumacronychia sp. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 

Used genuine Schmidt boxes, excellent condition, at less than half 
price. H. W. Allen, Box 150, Moorestown, N. J. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3. PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF 
NORTH AMERICA (NORTH OF MEXICO). 

Volume I. Acridoidea in part, covering the 
Tetrigidae, Eumastacidae, Tanaoceridae, and Ro- 
maleinae of the Acrididae. 

By James A. G. Rehn and Harold J. Grant, Jr. 

282 pages of text, with 401 text-figures (including distributional maps) 

and 8 half-tone plates. 

This monograph brings into concise form ovir knowledge of the 
genera and species of the groups covered as present in the United 
States and Canada. In this work the authors have had access to all 
the important series contained in institutions in North America. This 
monograph summarizes the detailed conclusions set forth in various 
collateral publications, as well as other pertinent matter of broader 
coverage. Almost all existing type material was examined in the 
course of the work, and, in addition to the published literature, field 
observations, covering over fifty years of study over a large part of 
the area treated, were drawn upon in forming the conclusions. Keys 
to all of the taxonomic entities discussed are presented, and nearly 
all of the illustrations used are new. 



Monograph No. 12 of the 

Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia 

Price $10.00 postpaid 
(add 10% to cover handling of foreign orders) 



Publications Department 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 

19th and The Parkway 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U.S.A. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

APRIL 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 4 



CONTENTS 

Gertsch Herbert Ferlando Schwarz, 1883-1960 85 

Cooper European pselaphid beetle in New York 90 

Scott Collembola of New Mexico, IV 93 

Chamberlin Geophilid chilopods of Utah 96 

Book Notices 100 

Hull The genus Psilocurus Loew 101 

Spilman Immature stages of Ptilodactylidae 105 

Alexander Type locality of Gomphocerus clavatus 107 

Book Notice . Ill 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff: 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use : in the United States, $5.00 ; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 

Transportation charges will be extra. 




HERBERT FERLANDO SCHWARZ 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII APRIL, 1961 No. 4 



Herbert Ferlando Schwarz 
1883-1960 

After a full life of service and devotion to family, friends and 
country, Herbert Schwarz died on October 2, 1960. He was 
one of those rare individuals whose high code of honor and 
genuine sincerity charmed all who met him. He left behind 
friends in numbers in all parts of the world who will long re- 
member him for his kindness, generosity and graciousness. A 
man of exceeding modesty, he took pleasure in praising the 
deeds and works of others but never mentioned his own. A 
man of great patriotism and love of country, he served in the 
Field Artillery during the First World War. A dedicated 
scholar all his life, he applied his broad knowledge to several 
fields with outstanding success. He stood high in the esteem 
of scientific colleagues throughout the world and left as his 
monument papers on bees that will long remain definitive works 
on the group. To his closest friends Herbert Schwarz personi- 
fied all that was fine and noble in man. 

Herbert Schwarz was born on Fire Island, near Long Island, 
New York, on September 7, 1883, the son of Frederick A. O. 
Schwarz and Caroline Clausen Schwarz. His preparatory 
schooling was acquired at the Phillips Exeter Academy, from 
which he graduated in 1900. After four years of work at 
Harvard University, he received the Bachelor of Arts degree 
in 1904. His liberal education emphasized literature, writing 
and languages, and in 1905, after a year of graduate study he 
was awarded the Master of Arts degree in philosophy. Con- 
tinuation of his schooling at Columbia University brought him 
another Master of Arts degree in Elizabethan literature in 

(85) 



86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

1907. Among his later honors was election to Sigma Xi. As 
an undergraduate he developed a keen interest in natural his- 
tory and anthropology, especially Indian lore, which was re- 
sponsible for taking him into the Southwest in 1904 and 1905 
for study of the aboriginal cultures of that area. Fascinated by 
the lives and myths of the Navajos and the Pueblo tribes, he 
brought together a large body of notes on these peoples. One 
of his first published papers was concerned with the "Spider 
Myths of the American Indians" and brought to light many 
of the charming details of this Indian mythology. 

Herbert Schwarz always identified himself with the metro- 
politan area and spoke in the manner of the cultured New 
Yorker. His father had come to this country from Herford in 
Germany and had established the F. A. O. Schwarz toy com- 
pany on Fifth Avenue, which in its specialty has become one of 
the landmarks of the city. Herbert was associated with the 
business for over fifty-five years, as an officer of the corpora- 
tion in its early days and as a director during the last twenty- 
seven years of his life. His proficiency in modern languages 
was undoubtedly aided by numerous travels to all parts of the 
world. He spoke and read German fluently and had an excel- 
lent knowledge of Spanish, French and other Romance lan- 
guages which he continued to study most of his life. 

Schwarz in 1910 married Dorothy Constable, who was his 
frequent companion on subsequent trips and maintained a close 
interest in all his activities. Their four daughters are : Mrs. 
Barbara French, Mrs. Eleanor Stock, Mrs. Dorothy Hines and 
Miss Marjorie Schwarz. 

During the period from 1909 to 1919 Herbert Schwarz acted 
as head of the editorial department and member of the board 
of G. P. Putnam's Sons in New York City. With a command 
of word and phrase reserved only to the gifted, it was inevitable 
that Schwarz would shine in the editorial and publishing field. 
He wrote fluently with a bold, handsome script and was a vora- 
cious reader of good books. A grievous fault, or so he told me, 
was his addiction to polysyllabic words and a ready acceptance 
of repetition with eddying currents of thought to bring out finer 



Ixxii | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 87 

flavors and more exact meanings in writings. His leanings 
toward anthropology and natural history qualified him for edi- 
torial participation in the Putnam Field Book series. 

To Schwarz, as editorial and lay adviser, came a book which 
was to have strong influence in shaping his future life. This 
was the "Field Book of Insects" by Dr. Frank E. Lutz, then 
curator of insects of the American Museum of Natural History. 
This work was published in 1918 and still remains, after forty 
years, the outstanding field guide on insects for the amateur and 
general student. Lutz and the gentle, reserved Schwarz were 
about the same age and they quickly became close personal 
friends. They were opposites in many ways, with Lutz a man 
of penetrating mind who loved nothing more than to shock 
friend and foe with piercing barbs. Lutz kindled in Schwarz 
his first interests in insects and, because of his own liking for 
the biology and physiology of the bees, directed Schwarz's atten- 
tion to the study of these captivating social insects. On many 
occasions Herbert Schwarz expressed his great admiration for 
Frank E. Lutz and regarded him as his teacher and mentor. 

Herbert Schwarz's career at the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History began in a modest way in 1919 when he spent 
three months in Colorado as a volunteer assistant with Dr. Lutz 
on a field expedition from the Department of Entomology. It 
was on this or a similar trip that he first met T. D. A. Cockerell 
who further encouraged his interest in bees and with whom he 
shared a close friendship and engaged in voluminous corre- 
spondence until Cockerell's death. In 1921, Schwarz was ap- 
pointed as Research Associate of the Department of Entomology 
and he retained this post until his death, on a nearly full time 
basis. His interest in the American Museum and its manifold 
activities was very great and he participated in many ways. 
Thus, from 1921 to 1925 he was editor of Natural History 
magazine, and, following the death of Dr. Lutz in l c '4>\ Scluvar/. 
was appointed acting chairman of the Entomology Department 
of the Museum, and he gave unreservedly of his time during 
the war period. 

Once he had succumbed to the lure of insects, Herbert 



t 3 1961 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

Schwarz swiftly became a full-fledged entomologist and par- 
ticipated in many Museum field trips to far places. On most 
of these he was accompanied by one or both of his closest per- 
sonal friends, Frank E. Lutz and Irving Huntington, but other 
trips were taken alone. Some of the areas visited were : Colo- 
rado, 1919 ; southern Florida in 1923 ; the Brownsville region of 
Texas in 1925 ; Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone, in 1930 and 
1933 ; the Cauca Valley of Colombia, in 1935 ; central Mexico 
and Yucatan in 1946; and southern Mexico in 1947. In addi- 
tion to these collecting and field study expeditions Schwarz 
visited museums and scientific institutions all over the world, 
often with his wife and members of the family. 

During his life Schwarz was active in many organizations to 
which he gave generously of time and money. As a Harvard 
graduate with fondest memories of early school years, he main- 
tained close ties with his university and its Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology and served on many committees. He often 
entertained friends and visitors at the Harvard Club on West 
Forty-fourth Street in New York, where his geniality as host 
will always remain a bright spot in the memories of his guests. 
As a Corresponding Member of the American Entomological 
Society, Schwarz was personally well-known to the older group 
of its membership. To Mr. J. A. G. Rehn, he was a good 
friend and "one of nature's noblemen, beloved by all who knew 
him for his many kindnesses, his courtesy things increasingly 
rare in this matter-of-fact world." 

Local organizations claimed a large share of Schwarz's inter- 
est. In 1919 he joined the New York Entomological Society 
and maintained a constant interest until his death. Here he 
fraternized with such now departed or inactive entomological 
stalwarts as William T. Davis, John D. Sherman, Ernest Bell, 
Andrew Mutchler, Charles Leng, and Frank Watson. He 
served on many committees, on the Board, and as President 
of the New York Entomological Society in 1935. He was also 
active in the National Audubon Society and the New York 
Academy of Sciences. Of the latter he was a Fellow and Coun- 
cil member for many years and Editor of Publications from 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 89 

1925 to 1936. Another of his great interests was the Explorers' 
Club which he joined in 1921 and to which he gave sterling 
service as a Director and on various committees for many 
years. He was also for many years a member of Squadron A, 
a local cavalry group, which had its headquarters in the Old 
Armory. 

Many of Schwarz's early papers were published in Natural 
History magazine during his tenure as editor. The broad scope 
of his writing is reflected in such titles as "Floral Designs in 
Textiles," "Eclipses, as Interpreted by the American Abo- 
rigines," "Swinging a Net in Southern Florida" and what may 
well have been his first published writing, "Tobacco as a Cure 
for Ailments." Thereafter, most of his publications, totalling at 
least sixty, were scientific contributions dealing rather exclu- 
sively with the bees of two groups. Much of what is known on 
the megachilid bees of the subfamily Anthidiinae we owe to 
Schwarz whose series of basic papers is still the standard ref- 
erence for the group. The stingless honeybees of the family 
Meliponidae (or Apidae) became Schwarz's special province and 
made him known to entomologists throughout the world. His 
greatest work is a voluminous tome exceeding five hundred 
printed pages, profusely illustrated, and entitled "Stingless Bees 
(Meliponidae) of the Western Hemisphere," which was pub- 
lished as a Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory. Almost one third of these pages are devoted to the biology 
and natural history of stingless bees of the entire world and 
the remainder assigned to the systematics of the principal genera 
of the New World. This work will long remain a personal 
monument to the untiring devotion of a fine man. In its size 
and scope we see so much of what we admired in the man; 
it is the fruit of a keen, inquiring mind delineated in a bound- 
less wealth of expression, an enduring work on a group of 
insects which he grew to love. 

WILLIS J. GERTSCH 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

Occurrence of the European Pselaphid Beetle 

Trichonyx sulcicollis (Reichenbach) 

in New York State 

By KENNETH W. COOPER, Hanover, N. H. 

Nearly 30 years ago (June 13, 1931), at Kissena Lake Park, 
Flushing, L. I., I collected a large female pselaphid beetle (ca. 
2.5 mm. long) from under bark and in company with the ant 
Lasius umbratus (Nyl.). In 1947 the specimen came into Prof. 
Orlando Park's possession when he purchased the Pselaphidae 
in the collection of my boyhood friend and teacher, the late 
Charles A. Schaeffer of the Brooklyn Museum. Park identified 
the beetle as Trichonyx sulcicollis (Reichenbach), a fairly un- 
common euplectine pselaphid found throughout much of Europe. 

"Since no species of pselaphid has been known to inhabit both 
Europe and the United States," Park (1953a) says, "the reader 
may well imagine with what care this New York insect was 
identified, and the determination checked and rechecked over 
the past several years." Though Flushing, locale of the well- 
known and extensive nineteenth century Prince ( = "Linnaean 
Botanic Gardens," founded ra. 1737) and Bloodgood (founded 
ca. 1797) nurseries, the early histories of which have been com- 
mented upon by Mandeville (1860), had in fact been the site 
of discovery of two other introduced beetles (Asaphidion flavi- 
pes L., and Bitoma crenata Fabr., v. Cooper 1930), Park was 
extremely cautious in concluding that the specimen of Trichonyx 
sulcicollis (Reich.) before him represented a genuine introduc- 
tion. Indeed his comments impelled me, during brief visits to 
Flushing in late springtime (1956-60), to search in the region 
of the original capture even though it has long been destroyed as 
a natural area. Bitoina crenata Fabr. is still frequent in the 
area, especially under the bark of cherry, but neither Asaphidion 
nor Trichonyx were found there again. Unexpectedly, how- 
ever, Trichonyx sulcicollis (Reich.) has recently been found at 
Rochester, N. Y., and there can no longer be question that this 
pselaphid is present in our fauna and should be included in our 
catalogs and keys. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 91 

The second specimen, also a female, was found in a Berlese 
funnel sample made by Prof. William B. Muchmore, expert on 
isopods and pseudoscorpions, at Rochester, N. Y. (sample 124; 
May 25, 1957 ; old mouse nest occupied by bumblebees, from 
under old railroad tie, River Boulevard near Mt. Hope Ceme- 
tery), within the city limits. The pselaphid, awakening dormant 
memory the moment I viewed the sample, ran directly to Tri- 
chon\.\- in Park's (1953) key to the genera of pselaphids of the 
U. S., and checked well with Trichony.r snlcicollis (Reichen- 
bach) in the only European keys and descriptions available to 
me (namely Seidlitz, 1891; Ganglbauer, 1895). Park has con- 
firmed my identification (letter of May 17, 1960), and the 
specimen remains in his collection along with that originally 
caught in Flushing. 

As in the first case, The Rochester specimen of Trichonyx 
snlcicollis (Reich.) was also taken in association with ants, and 
most remarkably with Ponera coarctata pennsylvanica Buckley 
(det. by Dr. M. R. Smith, U.S.N.M.). Correspondingly the 
Rochester locality at which the pselaphid was taken is not far 
from the site of an old Rochester nursery which, until the first 
World War, imported stock from Europe, and the area now 
harbors enduring populations of the European isopods Hylo- 
niscus ripariits (Koch) and Platyarthrus hoffuianseggi Brandt 
(Muchmore, 1957), as well as the European geophilomorphous 
centipede Chaetechelyne vesuviana (Newport) (Crabill, 1955), 
and a blind hypogaeic colydiid beetle that is also most probably 
an importation from Europe (unpublished). 

The two records of Trichonyx snlcicollis (Reich.) from New 
York State, no less the details of each capture, indicate that this 
beetle is established in the United States, and probably has 
been so established for well over 30 years. Donisthorpe (1927) 
and Ganglbauer (1895) give Lasiits hninncits (Latr.) and 
Ponera coarctata (Latr.) [but as P. contracta (Latr.)] as ant 
associates in Europe, and it is a striking fact that the two New 
York Trichonyx were found in the company of the related Las ins 
umbratus (Nyl.), also occurring in Europe, and the closely simi- 
lar Ponera coarctata pennsylranica Buckley. Association here 



92 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

with appropriate ants, one of which is regarded as endemic, 
bespeaks successful immigration. It is, of course, most likely 
that the Rochester and Flushing areas were independently col- 
onized, and it would not be surprising were Trichonyx to remain 
unfound or rare in intervening localities. 

It is pleasant to thank Dr. Muchmore for his kindness in 
permitting me to sort through his extensive Berlese funnel sam- 
ples, the unmounted remainder of which are now deposited in 
the U. S. National Museum. 

CITATIONS 

COOPER, K. W. 1930. Bull. Bklyn. Ent. Soc. 25 : 21-24. 

CRABILL, R. E. 1955. Ent. News 66: 248-249. 

DONISTHORPE, H. ST. J. K. 1927. The guests of British ants, xxiii 

+ 244 pp., ill. Routledge and Sons, London. 
GANGLBAUER, L. 1895. Die Kafer von Mitteleuropa. 2 Bd., 1 Theil, 

880 s. Wien. 
MANDEVILLE, G. H. 1860. Flushing, past and present : a historical 

sketch. 180 pp., ill. Publ. by Home Lecture Committee of 1857-8, 

Flushing. 

MUCHMORE, W. B. 1957. Jour. Washington Acad. Sci. 47: 78-83. 
PARK, O. 1953a. Nat. Hist. Miscell. Chicago Acad. Sci. No. 117 (3 

pp.). 

. 1953b. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 9: 299-331. 

SEIDLITZ, G. 1891. Fauna Baltica. Die Kaefer. 2 Aufl., 10 + Ivi + 818 

s. Konigsberg. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 93 

The Collembola of New Mexico. IV. 

A New Genus of Isotominae IF 2 

(Entomobryidae) 

By HAROLD GEORGE SCOTT 3 

Prior to the species recorded in this part, only 2 species of 
Isotominae were recorded from New Mexico : Isotoinurus re- 
tardates (by Folsom, 1937), and Proisotoma frisoni (by Scott, 
1958). Specimens will be deposited with the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

GENUS BIACANTHELLA gen. nov. 

TYPE SPECIES. Biacanthella neomexicana gen. et sp. nov. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, not subglobose; integument 
smooth, non-tuberculate ; clothing of simple setae ; bothriotricha 
absent; antenna 4-segmented, thick, heavy; postantennal organ 
elliptical, simple; eyes 8 and 8; mouthparts mandibulate; pro- 
thorax much shortened, membranous, with 1 or no setae dor- 
sally; tenent hairs absent; unguiculus present; furcula present, 
short, not attaining collophore ; mucro not ankylosed with dens ; 
genital segment enlarged, anal segment reduced ; anal spines 2, 
anus ventro-terminal. 

DISCUSSION. Biacanthella shows both hypogastrurine and 
isotomine characteristics, but is placed in the subfamily Isoto- 
minae because of its reduced, membranous pronotum. It dif- 
fers from other known genera of Isotominae in the following 
combination of characters : Anal spines 2, furcula and unguiculus 
present, anus ventro-terminal. 

1 A portion of a dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the 
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

2 Part III appeared in Ent. News, 71(3) : 57-65. 

3 Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Serv- 
ice, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, 
Georgia. 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

Biacanthella neomexicana gen. et sp. nov. Figures 1-8 

TYPE LOCALITY. Holotype and 31 paratypes, Doc. Long's 
Picnic Area, Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., New Mexico ; Berlese 
of Gambel oak litter, 7,400 ft., 29-V-1951, by C. Clayton Hoff. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, clearly segmented ; integument 
smooth, appearing minutely tuberculate under high magnifica- 
tions ; white, speckled dorsally with blue-gray on the tergites 
and head ; antenna light blue-gray ; legs and furcula white ; body 
sparingly clothed with moderately long curving simple setae 
with a few peculiar bifurcate setae scattered laterally on the 
thorax ; setae few anteriorly, becoming more-and-more numer- 
ous posteriorly until they are profuse on Abd VI ; bothriotricha 
absent ; head prognathous ; ratio of antenna to head approxi- 
mately 23 : 26 ; Ant IV with terminal tubercle, subapical papilla 
and slender curving olfactory setae; Ant III sense organ with 
2 oblique basally bent sense rods and a protective integumentary 
fold ; postantennal organ elliptical, simple, consisting of a single 
tubercle ; eyes 8 and 8, subequal in size ; pigmented eyepatches 
absent during life, but some ocular pigment may become visible 
in specimens after mounting ; mouthparts mandibulate ; ratio of 
prothorax to mesothorax to metathorax as 7:19:16; prothorax 
reduced, membranous with 1 seta located in the mid-dorsum of 
the pronotum ; mesonotum not covering prothorax dorsally ; 
trochanteral organ absent ; tibiotarsus without distal subseg- 
ment ; inner edge of unguis simple, curved strongly ; ratio of 
unguiculus to unguis as 7:16; unguiculus not toothed; tenent 
hairs represented by a single unknobbed seta on each foot ; seg- 
ments of abdomen not overlapping but with well-developed in- 
tersegmental membranes ; Abd III urotergite not ventro-laterally 
prolonged backward ; sacs of ventral tube small ; furcula reaching 
to caudal edge of Abd I and apparently attached to Abd IV ; 

Biacanthella neomexicana gen. et sp. nov. 

1. Lateral view, 2. dorsal view, 3. lateral view of mucro, 4. lateral view 
of pronotum, 5. lateral view of left anal horn, 6. lateral view of left front 
foot, 7. left eyes and postantennal organ, 8. bifurcate seta on right side of 
mesothorax in dorsal view. Figures 2 and 8 of paratype, all others of 
holotype. Arrow indicates anterior for all figures. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



95 





\ 













96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

ratio of manubrium to dens to mucro as 9:7:2; manubrium with 
ventral setae ; mucro unidentate ; genital segment enlarged, anal 
segment reduced; anal appendages absent; length 1.0 mm. 

REFERENCES 

FOLSOM, J. W. 1937. Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus. 168 : 71-72. 

SCHAFFER, C. 1896. Mitt. Naturh. Mus. Hamburg 13: 147-216. 

SCOTT, H. G. 1958. Ent. News 69(8) : 202. 

TOMOSVARY, O. 1882. Math. Term. Kozlem. Magyar Akad. 18: 119-130. 



Notes on the Geophilid Chilopods of Utah 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN 

This list of members of the Geophilida known to me per- 
sonally as occurring in Utah has been drawn up primarily to 
assign to more recently recognized genera some of the species 
that were described many years ago. 

Chilenophilidae 

Arctogeophilus atopus (Chamberlin) 

Geophilus atopus Chamberlin, 1902, Amer. Nat. 36: 476. 

This species is readily distinguishable superficially from re- 
lated congeners in that the claw of the anal legs is represented 
by a small process or cuticular point only or, sometimes, is 
entirely absent. A very characteristic feature is the small 
median sharply defined circular clypeal area which is preceded 
by a pair of setae and followed by another pair. The labrum 
conforms rather closely to that of the generotype, A. glacialis 
Attems. The pairs of legs number prevailingly 67 or 69 but 
may be as few as 63. 

This species is at present known from northern Arizona, from 
various points in Utah, and from Wyoming (e.g., at Devil's 
Tower). 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 97 

Arctogeophilus umbraticus (McNeill) 

Mecistocephalus umbraticus McNeill, 1887, Proc. U. S. Nat 

Mus. 10: 322. 

Geophilus xenoporus Chamberlin, 1902, Amer. Nat. 36: 475. 
Gnathomerium americanum Ribaut, 1912, Bull. Soc. Toulouse 

43: 120, figs. 12-17. 

This widespread species seems to be the most abundant geo- 
philid in Utah where it is common under decaying leaves and 
in leaf mold along the canyon streams of the Wahsatch, Uintah 
and Oquirrh Mts., etc. 

Watophilus utus Chamberlin 

Watophilus utus Chamberlin, 1928, Ent. News 39 : 95. 

This small geophilid, distinguishable from other known spe- 
cies by its larger number of legs, 65 pairs, is to date recorded 
or known only from San Juan Co., where it has been taken at 
Verdure, Bluff, and between LeSal and Moab. 

Pachymerinidae 

Zygomerium rotarium Chamberlin 

Zygomcrium rotariurn Chamberlin, 1943, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington 56: 100. 

Known only from the holotype which was taken in City Creek 
Canyon, near Salt Lake City. 

Geophilidae 

Brachygeophilus glyptus (Chamberlin) 

Geophilus glyptus Chamberlin, 1902, Amer. Nat. 36 : 477. 

This species occurs in the canyons of the Wahsatch, Oquirrh, 
and Stansbury Mts. While it appears to range into Idaho, 
Oregon specimens earlier referred to it belong to B. oregonus. 
A readily recognized difference is that while in glyptus the 
labrum is fimbriate throughout with about 12 processes on the 
median piece, in oregonus the median piece is not fimbriate but 
bears 5 or 6 stout teeth. Although glyptus sometimes bears a 
small tooth at the base of the claws of the prehensors, this is 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

often obsolete or absent. These claws when closed extend to 
or a little beyond the distal end of the first antennal article. The 
last ventral plate is very wide with its sides strongly converging 
caudad. The coxal pores number about 12 on each side, these 
partly covered by the sternite. The anal legs are clothed with 
abundant very short hairs and fewer long setae. Most com- 
monly there are 67 or 69 pairs of legs but there may be as few 
as 63 pairs. The body length in grown specimens is commonly 
about 45 mm. 

Geophilus fruitanus Chamberlin 

Geophilus jruitanus Chamberlin, 1928, Ent. News 39: 310, 
1930, Pan-Pacific Ent. 6: 114. 

This species is as yet known only from Wayne Co. where it 
has been taken at Fruita and in Horse Valley. 

Geophilus piedus Chamberlin 

Geophilus piedus Chamberlin, 1930, Pan-Pacific Ent. 6: 114. 

Known only from the male holotype which was taken at St. 
George, Washington Co. 

Geophilus shoshoneus Chamberlin 

Geophilus shoshoneus Chamberlin, 1925, Pan-Pacific Ent. 2: 
59. 

Recorded from Cache Co., where taken in Logan Canyon 
and on the divide between this canyon and the Bear Lake valley. 

Geophilus vittatus (Rafinesque) 

Mycotheres (Nemopleura) vittata Rafinesque, 1820, Annals 

of Nat. 1 : 8. 
Geophilus rubens Say, 1821, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 2: 

113. 
Geophilus vittatus (Rafinesque), Crabill, 1954, Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Washington 56: 177. 

This widespread species, which is rather common in Arizona 
and Idaho, is recorded from Washington Co., Utah, and will 
probably be found elsewhere throughout the state. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 99 

Dignathodontidae 
Damothus mentis Chamberlin 

The type of this new form, a description of which is in course 
of publication elsewhere, was taken in Dry Canyon near Salt 
Lake City. 

Linotaenia chionophila (Wood) 

Strigainia chionophila Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 

ser. 2, 5 : 50. 

Linotaenia mhtropus Chamberlin, 1902, Amer. Nat. 36: 475 
Linotaenia chionophila Chamberlin, 1911, Canadian Ent. 43: 

260, 1923, N. A. Fauna 46: 212, 1925, Pan-Pac. Ent. 2: 

59, 1928, Ent. News 39, 310, 1930, Pan-Pac. Ent. vol. 6, 

p. 114. 

This species, abundant throughout Alaska and adjacent parts, 
has been found in the mountains throughout Utah. 

Linotaenia fulva (Sager) 

Strigamla julva Sager, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 8: 

109. 
Linotaenia micropits Chamberlin (part, max.), 1902, Amer. 

Nat. 36 : 479. 
Striyamia julva Sager, Crabill, 1954, Ent. News 65: 41. 

Occurring in canyons of the Wasatch Mts., especially at 
higher levels, from Cache to Sevier Co. 

Himantariidae 

Stenophilus hesperus (Chamberlin) 

Haplophihts hesperus Chamberlin, 1928, Ent. News 39: 309. 

Known thus far only from the holotype, a specimen 35 mm. 
long and possessing 71 pairs of legs, with claws of prehensors 
very slender. The mouthparts, which were not mentioned in 
the original account, conform in general to those of other known 
species of the genus but differ in details. The diastema in the 
coxosternum of the second maxillae is deeper and wider than 
in the other forms and the pectinae or processes of the labrum 
are more numerous. 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

Schendylidae 

Escaryus monticolens Chamberlin 

Escaryus monticolens Chamberlin, 1947, Pan-Pac. Ent. 23 : 
37. 

Known only from Mill Creek Canyon, Salt Lake Co. 

Gosendyla socarnia Chamberlin 

A newly discovered form a description of which is appearing 
elsewhere. 

Nyctunguis molinor Chamberlin 

Nyctunguis molinor Chamberlin, 1925, Pan-Pac. Ent. 2 : 58. 

Known only from the mouth of Mill Creek Canyon, Salt 
Lake Co. 

Schendyla nemorensis (C. L. Koch) 

Geophilus nemorensis (C. L. Koch), 1836, Crust., Myr., u. 

Arachnida vol. 4, fasc. 9. 
Schendyla nemorensis Bergsoe and Meinert, 1866, Naturhist. 

Tidsskr. ser. 3, 4: 105. 
Schendyla nemorensis Bergsoe and Meinert, Chamberlin, 

1909, Ann. Ent. Amer. 2: 175. 

Not uncommon in Salt Lake and Utah counties. 



Book Notices 

QUATE, L. W. Psychodidae. Guide to the Insects of Con- 
necticut, Part VI, Diptera, Fasc. 7. State Geol. and Nat. Hist. 
Survey, Bull. 92. Pp. 1-54, 7 pis. Distributed by Robert C. 
Sale, Librarian, State Library, Hartford, Conn. Has keys to 
genera of N. America and to species of northeastern region. 

SELANDER, R. B. Bionomics, Systematics and Phylogeny of 
Lytta, a Genus of Blister Beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae). Illi- 
nois Biological Monographs, No. 28, Pp. 1-295. University 
of Illinois Press, Urbana, 111., 1960. Price: paper, $4.50; 
cloth, $5.50. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 101 

The Genus Psilocurus Loew 

By FRANK MONTGOMERY HULL, University of Mississippi 

This small and interesting genus is predominantly Nearctic. 
Recently a species has been described by Oldroyd from the near 
East, making a total of seven known species, one of them Mexi- 
can. The author has collected six species in recent years, two 
of which are new and here described. 

Psilocurus pygmaeus, new species 

This species differs from Psilocurus puellus Bromley in that 
the under surface of the femora are black, except quite near the 
apex where they are a little reddish. Also the last 3 or 4 seg- 
ments of the abdomen are light red in color. Length 7-8 mm. 

Male. Head: The head is black, everywhere dusted with 
dense, greyish white pollen or fine micropubescence. Pile of 
the lower occiput white. Weak bristles start on the occiput 
below the middle of the head and are yellowish white in color, 
and become a little longer or more stout behind the vertex. 
Ocellarium with 1 or 2 minute hairs and wholly pollinose. 
Face with a few fine, short, yellowish white hairs distributed 
over the middle, each of them curled downward. Lower margin 
of the face with about 5 pairs of slender, rather tectiformed, pale 
yellow bristles. Palpus and proboscis shining black. Antenna 
black, first segment with a rather long, slender, white, bristly 
hair below, the second segment with comparatively long, black 
setae at the apex above and below. Third segment rather short 
oval, but pointed at the apex, widest across the middle, rela- 
tively broad and equally tapered from the middle in each 
direction. 

Thorax: The thorax is shining black but rather obscured by 
completely appressed, short, coarse, brassy yellow pile. In 
addition the humerus and lateral margin of the postalar callosity 
are greyish to silvery white pollinose. The whole of the meta- 
notum and all of the pleuron, except 2 abbreviated, vertical bare 
stripes, are densely silvery white pollinose. Scutellum black 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

with the same appressed yellowish pile as the mesonotum. 
Halteres pale yellow. Scutellum with 1 pair of black bristles, 
postalar callosity, supraalar region and notopleuron each with 
a black bristle. 

Legs: The legs are black. The extreme apex of the front 
and middle femora dorsally, the ventral surface on the apical 
half only of these femora, the extreme base of the hind femur 
and the apical fifth of the hind femur ventrally reddish in color ; 
also the extreme apex only of all the tibiae brownish yellow or 
orange. Legs covered with completely appressed, fine, pale 
yellow pile and with a few short, pale yellow bristles, which 
are comparatively long on the first 3 tarsal segments. 

Wings: The wings are hyaline, except for very fine, brown 
villi. Venation typical. 

Abdomen: The abdomen is slender, black on one to three 
basal segments, becoming reddish on the remainder of the ab- 
domen and light orange brown on at least the last tergite and 
terminalia. Apex of prongs of surstylus black. Terminalia 
inverted. Sides of the tergites with 2 weak yellow bristles on 
each of the first three, 1 or 2 on the remaining tergites. Poste- 
rior triangles along the lateral margin of the tergites with thin, 
silvery white pollen which is easily obscured in individuals 
with bad preservation. 

Holotype: Male, 20 miles west of Toyah, TEXAS, August 4, 
1954, collected by F. M. Hull. Two paratype males with 
the same data. 

Psilocurus tibialis, new species 

A large black species. Femora of the male black, of the 
female light red. Tibiae black in both sexes. Length 10 mm. 

Male. Head: The head is black, densely greyish white polli- 
nose except on the upper occiput and posterior part of vertex 
where the pollen is brownish yellow, and on the face where the 
pollen and micropubescence is silvery. Middle of face with a 
few short, silvery hairs. Bristles of occiput, face and middle 
bristle from the middle of ventral surface of first antennal seg- 
ment light yellow. Lower face quite rounded, the whole lower 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 103 

third or more with moderately long, slender, yellowish bristles. 
Proboscis and antenna black. 

Thorax: The thorax is dull black with fiat appressed, brassy 
pile laterally. The middle of the mesonotum with much shorter 
appressed black hairs and a few brassy hairs intermixed. Pleu- 
ron yellowish to whitish pollinose, except for a bare, black stripe 
above the middle coxa and a similar spot above the hind coxa. 
Halteres yellowish, scutellum with yellowish pile, in both sexes 
with 1 pair of long, stout, black bristles. Mesonotal bristles 
black. 

Legs: The femora are quite stout, in the male the legs are 
entirely black except for the extreme apex of all the femora and 
the extreme base of their tibia, which are yellowish to brownish. 
Pile appressed, brownish to yellowish white on the femora, rather 
silvery on the front and middle tibia and tarsi, black on the hind 
tibia and tarsi. Femora in the female entirely light red, their 
tibia are black except narrowly at the base which is yellowish. 
Pile as in the male, except that on hind tibia and tarsus the pile 
is light brassy to brownish yellow. 

W ings: The wings are very pale brown, much of the color 
due to villi. 

Abdomen: The abdomen is robust, quite black with a slight 
opalescent blue color but without any metallic or steel blue re- 
flections. First 3 tergites laterally with large, greyish white, 
pollinose triangles. Fourth and fifth tergites with shorter tri- 
angles, which, however, are extended much farther inward along 
the posterior margin. Pile of the abdomen appressed and black 
in the middle of the tergites, becoming brassy laterally in the 
female and on the whole of the last tergite. Lateral bristles all 
pale yellow. 

Holotype: Male, Uvalcle, TEXAS, August 15, 1959. Allot ype 
female with the same data, collected in the same field with 
Psilocurus reinhcirdi, by F. M. Hull. 

Psilocurus birdi Curran 

Five females, Oxford, Mississippi, July 5-14, 1934; 1 female, 
July 23, 1949. 



104 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

Psilocurus birdi Curran, subspecies pallustris, new subspecies 

Female. A large, robust species from 10 to 11 mm. in length. 
It differs from Psilocurus birdi Curran in the female by the 
abdominal color being quite black with whitish pollinose, lateral 
triangles. Bristles of the first tergite are black and the hind 
femur widely encircled by black ventrally leaving only base and 
apex yellowish. 

Holotype: Female, Tobitubbe Flood Plain, Lafayette County, 
MISSISSIPPI, August 6, 1960 ; 10 paratype females, August 6-12, 
1960 ; all collected on leaves of low growing plants ; 1 paratype 
female on window of Post Office, University, Mississippi, July 
6, 1959. 

Psilocurus nudiusculus Loew 

One female, July 13, 1956, on gravel on back driveway my 
home, University, Mississippi. 

Psilocurus reinhardi Bromley 

Two males and a female collected in a weedy meadow in the 
city limits of Uvalde, Texas, in deep shade, August 15, 1959. 
The metallic bluish or purplish color of abdomen of this species 
is characteristic. Legs of sexes alike or nearly so. 

Psilocurus modestus Williston 

One male, highway 18, near Damar, Kansas, July 18, 1959. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 105 

On the Immature Stages of the Ptilodactylidae 

(Coleoptera) 

By T. J. SPILMAN, Entomology Research Division, Agriculture 

Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C. 

The biology and immature stages of the Ptilodactylidae are 
seldom mentioned in the literature. The larval stage is described 
and figured by Boving and Craighead (1930, Ent. Americana 
11 : 45, pis. 67-69) and by Peterson (1951, Larvae of insects, 
part 2: 66, fig. C30B). Horion, in volume 4 of his Faunistik 
der mitteleuropaischen Kafer (Ent. Arb. Mus. Frey, 1955, 
Sonderband, p. 138), gives a few references. Most of them 
concern captures in greenhouses containing palms, but one tells 
of Ptilodactyla luteipes Pic, an Indonesian species, being taken 
from the stem sheath of a banana plant in a European green- 
house. Chapin (1927, Trans. American Ent. Soc. 53: 247) 
states that Ptilodactyla exotica Chapin came ". . . from rose 
houses. The insect is reported as injurious in both larval and 
adult stages." 

Now more specimens and information have come to light. 
Adults, a pupa, and larvae of Ptilodactyla serricollis (Say) 
were found in July, 1960, in the soil of a potted India rubber- 
plant, Ficus elastica Roxburgh, which was purchased from a 
store in Norfolk, Virginia, but which originated in Florida. 
There was some yellowing of leaves, and later the leaves began 
to drop off. This continued until the original soil was removed 
and the roots washed. The plant was then repotted in new 
soil and kept out of doors. Since that time the plant has made 
new growth and no further trouble has been evident. The 
adults were easily determined to species using Chapin's descrip- 
tion (op. cit., p. 242), and the larva agreed with the descriptions 
and pictures given by Peterson (loc. cit.). 

The pupa of P. serricollis, unlike the pupae of many beetles, 
does not greatly resemble the adult stage, so it might be helpful 
to describe and illustrate it. Hinton in his fine study on gin- 



106 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[April, 1961 



traps (1946, Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 97: 485, fig. 20) 
gives a sketch of a pupa labeled Ptilodactyla sp., from Brazil. 
The following is a description of the known pupae of the Ptilo- 
dactylidae. Head not visible in dorsal view. Pronotum trape- 
zoidal in outline, with an elongate tubercle on each of four 
angles. Abdomen with a single gin-trap formed by posterior 
margin of first tergite and anterior margin of second tergite, 
this gin-trap without serrations and occupying median two- 
thirds of the width ; tergites 2-6 each with a very short tubercle 
on lateral areas ; tergites 3-7 each with a transverse row of very 
fine asperities near anterior margin or all without asperities; 
tergites 2-8 with long setae on posterior margin and shorter 
setae on disc ; segment 9 having two attenuated, posteriorly 
directed urogomphi which are whitish except at their apices 
where they seem to be more heavily sclerotized. 




FIG. 1. Dorsal view of pupa of Ptilodactyla serricollis. 

The asperities mentioned above may be used to separate the 
pupae of two species of Ptilodactyla: serricollis has an anterior 
transverse row of asperities on the median third of abdominal 
tergites 3-7, whereas exotica lacks asperities. The larvae are 
just as easily separated. The larva of serricollis has numerous 
setae between the anterior and posterior transverse rows of 
setae on abdominal tergites 1-8, as illustrated by Peterson (op. 
cit., fig. C30B), and the inner spinose diverticle of segment 10 
bears 5 spinose setae. The larva of exotica does not have setae 
between the anterior and posterior transverse rows of setae on 
abdominal tergites 1-8, as illustrated in Boving and Craighead 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 107 

(op. clt., pi. 67, fig. I) even though that drawing is labeled as 
a different species, and the inner spinose diverticle of segment 
10 bears 7 or 8 setae. 

The larvae and pupae of exotica used in this study were sub- 
mitted with the type series of adults from Melrose, Illinois. 
Those and the specimens of serricollis from Norfolk, Virginia, 
are in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. I wish to 
thank Mr. W. F. Walsh, of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, in Roanoke, Virginia, for his help in obtaining the speci- 
mens of and data on serricollis. 



The Type Locality of Gomphocerus clavatus 
Thomas (Orthoptera: Acrididae) 1 

By GORDON ALEXANDER, University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Colorado 

In his description of Gomphocerus clavatus (in recent litera- 
ture Aeropedellus clavatus), Cyrus Thomas (1873) gave "Kan- 
sas" as the locality from which the type specimen came. This 
locality was apparently not questioned until 1925, Kansas being 
repeatedly mentioned in the range of the species prior to that 
time. In 1925, Hebard stated that the type specimen "was ap- 
parently mislabelled, as the species may not occur in Kansas and 
that specimen, showing slight thickening of the cephalic tibiae, 
very probably came from a high elevation in the Rocky Moun- 
tains." The species has apparently never been taken in Kansas, 
so Hebard's 1925 opinion was reiterated in his later papers. 

Caudell, in 1903, placed Gomphocerus carpenterii Thomas and 
G. clepsydra Scudder in synonymy with Gomphocerus clavatus. 
Hebard, in several papers (including his review of the Gompho- 
ceri, 1935, in which he erected the genus Aeropedellus that now 

1 This study is part of a project made possible by National Science 
Foundation grant G-5007, here gratefully acknowledged. The author 
wishes also to thank Ashley B. Gurncy and Harold J. Grant, Jr., for 
critically reading the manuscript. 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, 1961 

includes the species in question), concurred in this view. Heb- 
ard, did, however, in 1928, suggest the possibility that the high 
and low altitude forms might be taxonomically distinct, in which 
case the name clepsydra would be available for the low altitude 
form. Recent studies by the writer demonstrate consistent dif- 
ferences between several populations of Aeropedellus clavatus, 
not merely those from high and low altitudes. It seems de- 
sirable, therefore, to designate the type locality with as much 
restriction as is consistent with the evidence. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Ashley B. Gurney, I had the 
opportunity a few months ago of examining in the United States 
National Museum the type specimen of Gomphocerus clavatus. 
The specimen, a male, formerly pinned, is now in a Riker mount. 
The four separate labels, apparently those that were attached to 
the pin, are as follows : Type/ Collection C. V. Riley/ Type 
No. 1036, U.S.N.M./ Stenobothrus clavatus Thos. Kansas/ 
This is the specimen recognized by Hebard (1927) as Thomas's 
type. The specimen was damaged considerably before being 
transferred to the present mount. It lacks both antennae, the 
structures on which the trivial name was based. Both meta- 
thoracic legs are missing; and, although the prothoracic legs 
are present, they are separated from the rest of the specimen. 

In the original description, Thomas inserted the name 
"Dodge" in parenthesis after the locality. This referred to the 
collector, undoubtedly Charles R. Dodge, from whom Thomas 
received specimens collected by Dodge on a trip to the Rocky 
Mountains in the summer of 1871. The type specimen of Calop- 
tenus Dodgei of Thomas ( Melanoplns dodgei) was collected 
on that trip. Its type locality was given in the description 
(Thomas, 1871) as "Pike's Peak, Colorado Territory," and in 
the final paragraph of the original description the altitude was 
stated as "about 10,000 feet above the level of the sea." The 
type specimen (U.S.N.M. No. 727) bears the data "Pike's Peak 
Col. Ter. 1871." It seems more than probable that the type of 
Gomphocerus clavatus was collected at about the same locality 
on the same trip (or probably at a little higher elevation, for 
both species occur commonly above timber line on Pikes Peak) . 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 109 

We know that Dodge collected on Pikes Peak; we have no 
evidence that he collected elsewhere in the Rocky Mountains. 
The locality label "Kansas," which is an error, may have been 
the result of a mistake in labelling or it may have been the 
careless use of a name that would have been valid a few years 
earlier. (Kansas Territory, a few years prior to Dodge's trip, 
did include Pikes Peak.) The likely explanation is that the 
label was added from memory, some time after Dodge left Colo- 
rado on his way east. 

In recent comparisons of large series of specimens from scat- 
tered populations of Aeropedellus davatus throughout the west 
my early impression that various populations are distinct was 
confirmed. It is apparent, for example, that one can distinguish 
between specimens from Pikes Peak and those from other alpine 
areas in Colorado. (It is noteworthy, of course, that the alpine 
areas of Pikes Peak are isolated from other similar areas in 
the Rockies.) With this in mind it occurred to me that a 
comparison of significant dimensions of the type specimen with 
corresponding ones from specimens of various populations, in- 
cluding the population on Pikes Peak, would give us further 
evidence for the locality from which the type came. In these 
comparisons, I have found two morphological ratios of more 
value in characterizing populations than absolute dimensions, 
although absolute size is quite significant in distinguishing low 
altitude (larger) specimens from those at high altitudes. The 
ratios used are: (a), length of the anterior tibia divided by its 
maximum width; and (b), length of the terminal seven an- 
tennal segments divided by the maximum width. (Although 
the antennae of the type are missing, we have Thomas's state- 
ment that the knob involved the last seven segments.) Both 
tibia and antenna, or either, or neither may be noticeably swol- 
len in the individuals of certain high altitude populations. 

In the accompanying table, dimensions (in millimeters) and 
ratios of dimensions from the type are compared with series of 
the same sex from various Colorado populations. The length 
of the type is my measurement. Thomas gave .56 in. for this 
figure, definitely an error, as was pointed out by Caudell 
(1903). I have used the dimension Thomas gave for the length 



110 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[April, 1961 



of the hind femur because that structure is missing and his 
measurement is a probable one. The figures given for the 
populations are the means and extremes of the numbers ex- 
amined from each population. Examination of the table shows 
that the type could have come from the Pikes Peak population. 
All its dimensions are within the range for that population. It 
is extremely unlikely, however, that the type came from an 
alpine population further north (Mount Evans), an alpine popu- 
lation further south (Trinchera Peak), or a foothills population 
(Boulder). In each case, overall size, combined with the ratio 
of width to length of the anterior tibia, characterizes a distinct 
population. 

I therefore propose that Pikes Peak, Colorado, at an elevation 
of 10,000 feet and above, be recognized as the type locality for 
Gomphocerus clavatus Thomas. The grounds for this proposal 

TABLE 1. Means (and Extremes) of Measurements and Ratios from 

Males of Various Colorado Populations of Aeropedellus clavatus 

(Thomas) Compared with the Same Data from the Type 

of Gomphocerus clavatus. Measurements are in 

Millimeters. Ratios are L, Length, 

Divided by W, Width 





Total 
Length 


Pronotum 
Length 


Hind Femur 
Length 


Anterior 
Tibia 
L/W 


Antennal 
Knob 
L/W 


Type of Gompho- 
cerus clavatus 


17.6 


3.3 


10 


6.1 


lost 


Pikes Peak 


17.1 


3.7 


10 


5.8 


2.2 


12,900' 
20 males 


(15.5-18.5) 


(3.2-4.0) 


(9.5-10.5) 


(5.3-6.2) 


(1.8-2.8) 


Mount Evans 


17.7 


3.8 


10.4 


4.2 


1.9 


13,100' 
26 males 


(16.7-18.5) 


(3.4-4.1) 


(9.6-11.0) 


(3.7-4.8) 


(1.6-2.4) 


Trinchera Peak 


15.8 


3.5 


9.8 


4.7 


2.4 


12,000' 
15 males 


(14.8-16.7) 


(3.3-3.8) 


(9.3-10.4) 


(4.4-5.0) 


(2.2-2.6) 


Boulder, Colo. 


19.1 


3.7 


11.5 


6.9 


3.0 


foothills 
5,800' 


(18.2-20.7) 


(3.5-4.0) 


(10.9-11.9) 


(5.9-7.9) 


(2.3-3.8) 


20 males 













Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 111 

are three : 1. The validity of Hebard's statement that the locality 
label was incorrect because the species is unknown in Kansas 
and because the morphology of the type specimen suggests that 
it came from high up in the Rocky Mountains. 2. The collector 
of the type, Charles R. Dodge, collected on Pikes Peak in 1871, 
and his specimens were available to Thomas. 3. The morpho- 
logical pattern of the type specimen corresponds with the pattern 
of specimens from the Pikes Peak population but not with the 
pattern of specimens from other Colorado populations. 

LITERATURE CITED 

CAUDELL, A. N. 1903. Notes on Orthoptera from Colorado, New Mex- 
ico, Arizona, and Texas, with descriptions of new species. Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 26 : 775-809. 

HEBARD, M. 1925. The Orthoptera of South Dakota. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. 77: 33-155. 

. 1927. Fixation of the single types of species of Orthoptera de- 
scribed by Cyrus Thomas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 79: 1-11. 

. 1928. Orthoptera of Montana. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 80: 
211-306. 

. 1935. Notes on the group Gomphoceri and a key to its genera, 
including one new genus (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Acridiinae). 
Entom. News 46: 184-188, 204-208. 

THOMAS, C. 1871. On a new grasshopper from Colorado. Canad. 
Entom. 3 : 168. 

. 1873. Synopsis of the Acrididae of North America. Rept. U. S. 
Geol. Surv. of the Territories, Vol. V, Pt. 1. 262 pp. 



Book Notice 

STYLE MANUAL FOR BIOLOGICAL JOURNALS. Prepared by the 
Committee on Form and Style of the Conference of Biological 
Editors. American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2000 P 
Street, NW, Washington 6, D. C. $3.00. Provides necessary 
technical information and also suggestions that may help im- 
prove the style and effectiveness of articles written for biological 
journals by inexperienced authors, and some others. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 

of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology ; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 

Used genuine Schmidt boxes, excellent condition, at less than half 
price. H. W. Allen, Box 150, Moorestown, N. J. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3. PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF 
NORTH AMERICA (NORTH OF MEXICO). 

Volume I. Acridoidea in part, covering the 
Tetrigidae, Eumastacidae, Tanaoceridae, and Ro- 
maleinae of the Acrididae. 

By James A. G. Rehn and Harold J. Grant, Jr. 

282 pages of text, with 401 text-figures (including distributional maps) 

and 8 half-tone plates. 

This monograph brings into concise form our knowledge of the 
genera and species of the groups covered as present in the United 
States and Canada. In this work the authors have had access to all 
the important series contained in institutions in North America. This 
monograph summarizes the detailed conclusions set forth in various 
collateral publications, as well as other pertinent matter of broader 
coverage. Almost all existing type material was examined in the 
course of the work, and, in addition to the published literature, field 
observations, covering over fifty years of study over a large part of 
the area treated, were drawn upon in forming the conclusions. Keys 
to all of the taxonomic entities discussed are presented, and nearly 
all of the illustrations used are new. 



Monograph No. 12 of the 

Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia 

Price $10.00 postpaid 
(add 10% to cover handling of foreign orders) 



Publications Department 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 

19th and The Parkway 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U.S.A. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

MAY 19G1 

Vol. LXXH No. 5 



CONTENTS 

Alexander New exotic crane-flies. Part III 113 

Scott Collembola from Japan. Part III 121 

Hays Tabanus aranti sp. nov. from Alabama 127 

Emerson and Elbel A new species of Rallicola 130 

Hubbard Fleas from kangaroo rats of N. California 133 

Obituaries 132, 139 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 







t IMS* 
* *. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use : in the United States, $5.00 ; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc.: in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 

Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII MAY, 1961 No. 5 



New Exotic Crane-Flies (Tipulidae: Diptera). 

Part III 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Amherst, Massachusetts x 

The preceding part under this general title was published in 
ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 71 : 237-243, 1960. At this time I 
am describing species from various parts of India, all belonging 
to the extensive genus Hexatoma. The specimens were col- 
lected by Dr. Fernand Schmid, to whom I am greatly indebted 
for many crane-flies from various parts of southern Asia. 

Hexatoma (Hexatoma) madrasensis new species 

Size small (wing of female 5.5 mm.) ; general coloration of 
mesonotum medium brown, praescutum glabrous ; wings weakly 
tinged with brown, without stigma ; veins unusually glabrous ; 
Sc l ending some distance before fork of Rs, R 2 close to fork 
of R 2+3 + 4 , W-CM at fork of M. 

5. Length about 5 mm. ; wing 5.5 mm. ; antenna about 
0.8 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi light brown, much reduced. Antennae of 
female 6-segmented, light brown ; first flagellar segment stout 
basally, gradually tapering to outer end, subequal in length to 
the succeeding two segments, with delicate pale setae additional 
to the scattered bristles, the latter longer and more evident on 
the outer segments. Head dark brown ; vertical tubercle large, 
entire. 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, University of 
Massachusetts. 



(113) 



,M 



114 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [ ^lay, 1961 

Mesonotal praescutum and scutum uniformly medium brown, 
the surface subnitidous, glabrous ; posterior sclerites of notum 
a trifle paler. Pleura light brown, vaguely darker on the anepi- 
sternum and ventral sternopleurite. Halteres infuscated, knob 
large. Legs with coxae and trochanters testaceous brown ; re- 
mainder of legs yellowish brown, with relatively short setae. 
Wings weakly tinged with brown, the prearcular and costal 
fields a trifle more yellowed ; stigma lacking ; veins pale brown. 
Veins unusually glabrous, beyond the cord with about five 
macrotrichia on distal section of R 5 , distributed over the entire 
length. Venation : Sc relatively short, Sc^ ending some dis- 
tance before fork of Rs; -^ 2 + 3 + 4 long, with R 2 at or close to 
fork ; veins R., and R divergent, cell R 3 at margin only a little 
less extensive than R 2 ; outer medial veins weak; m-cu at fork 
of M, a little shorter than distal section of Cu^. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown, sternites somewhat more 
brightened on central part. Ovipositor with valves only mod- 
erately developed, with setae virtually to their tips. 

Habitat. SOUTH INDIA. Holotype: $, Veraiyattu Tittu, 
Madras, 1,500 feet, December 21, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 

This is the first record of occurrence of the typical subgenus 
in south India. The species is quite distinct from the species 
known from the western Himalayas, being somewhat more like 
Hexatoma (Hexatoma} brevistigma Alexander, of Thailand. 
This differs especially in the venation and pattern of the wings, 
including the evident stigmal area, longer Sc, and position of 
vein R. 2 well beyond the fork. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) perlongata new species 

Size medium (wing 11 mm.) ; antennae short; vertical tuber- 
cle orange, very large, bilobed ; thorax brownish black, scutellum 
obscure yellow ; halteres and legs black, femoral bases broadly 
yellowed ; wings infuscated, base conspicuously yellow ; Rs very 
long, R 2 before the fork, cell M.-, open by atrophy of m ; abdomen 
yellowed, hypopygium black. 

J 1 . Length about 10 mm. ; wing 1 1 mm. ; antenna about 1.7 mm. 

Rostrum obscure yellow, palpi black. Antennae of male 7- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 115 

segmented; scape obscure yellow, remainder dark brown; first 
flagellar segment longer than the succeeding two combined, with 
subappressed black setae ; penultimate segment a trifle exceeding 
the antepenultimate and about twice the terminal one. Vertex 
brown posteriorly, summit with a very large orange enlarge- 
ment, depressed medially in front, forming two conspicuous 
lobes that are directed cephalad. 

Prothorax, mesonotum and scutal lobes brownish black, 
surface subnitidous, praescutum with sparse delicate setae ; scu- 
tellum obscure yellow, parascutella and postnotum brownish 
black. Pleura blackened. Halteres black. Legs with coxae 
testaceous brown ; trochanters yellow ; femora black, their bases 
broadly yellow, including about the basal half on fore and 
middle legs, approximately two-thirds to three-fourths on pos- 
terior pair; tibiae and tarsi black, proximal tarsal segments a 
little paler. Wings strongly infuscated, wing base and most of 
cell Sc yellowed; pale streaks in centers of certain cells, espe- 
cially, R! and R ; a narrow more whitened line in cell 1st A 
immediately behind the posterior half of vein. Veins beyond 
cord with abundant strong macrotrichia, basad of cord on outer 
half of Rs, outer third of M and a few near outer end of 1st A. 
Venation : Sc relatively short, Sc l ending before fork of Rs, Sc., 
near its tip ; Rs very long, at least one-half longer than R ; R 2 
before the radial fork, leaving a short element ^ 3 + 4 ; R 1 + . 2 sub- 
equal to R 2 ; cell M., open by atrophy of m, cell M. A longer than 
its petiole; m-cu just beyond the fork of M. 

Abdomen partly destroyed by insect pests ; first segment dark 
brown, intermediate ones obscure yellow ; hypopygium and pos- 
sibly some adjacent segments black. 

Habitat. SIKKIM. Holotype: J\ Bop, 5,950 feet, July 15, 
1959 (Fernand Schmid). 

He.vatoma (Eriocera) perlongata is a very distinct fly, espe- 
cially in the venation, as the elongate Rs, position of R 2 and 
open cell M 2 . H. (E.) dharma Alexander, of South India, has 
cell Mo open by atrophy of basal section of M a , differing further 
in all details of coloration and in other venational features, as 
the short Rs and position of vein R 2 beyond the radial fork. 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) vamana new species 

Belongs to the longicornis group ; size unusually small (wing 
of male less than 7 mm.) ; antennae of male about three times 
the body; general coloration of thorax dark brown, abdomen 
black ; wings suffused with brown, macrotrichia of veins very 
sparse; R. 2 longer than R 1 + 2 , before the radial fork, leaving an 
element ^ 3 + 4 ; veins R 3 and R 4 divergent, cell R 3 wide at mar- 
gin; m-cu at near one-third the length of M 3 + 4 . 

J 1 . Length about 5.5 mm. ; wing 6.8 mm. ; antenna about 
18 mm. 

Rostrum and mouthparts very reduced, brown; palpi short, 
black. Antennae of male 6-segmented, very long, approximately 
three times the body; scape large, brownish yellow; remainder 
of organ brown, passing into black outwardly ; flagellar segments 
very long, progressively lengthened outwardly ; emergence bris- 
tles small and scattered, on the outer segments more delicate 
and hairlike. Head medium brown; vertical tubercle glabrous, 
large and bulbous, entire. 

Pronotum brown. Mesonotum almost uniformly dark brown ; 
praescutal setae long but very sparse. Pleura dark brown. 
Halteres infuscated, paler at base, knob dark brown. Legs with 
coxae dark brown ; trochanters brownish yellow ; remainder of 
legs dark brown ; setae of legs long but sparse (posterior legs 
broken). Wings suffused with brown, stigmal region vaguely 
darker ; veins brown, outer medial veins pale and delicate. 
Macrotrichia of veins beyond cord very sparse, with few on R^ 
and only two or three at outer end of Rr, ; costal fringe short. 
Venation: R 2 nearly twice R l + 2 and slightly longer than ^ 3 + 4 ; 
veins R 3 and R 4 divergent, cell R : < at margin slightly more ex- 
tensive than cell R 2 ; cell 1st M 2 subequal in length to distal 
section of vein M 1 + 2 ; m-cu at near one-third the length of 
M 3 + 4 , longer than distal section of Cu l ; cell 2nd A relatively 
narrow. 

Abdomen, including hypopygium, black. 

Habitat. SOUTH INDIA. Holotype: J\ Sathupara, Madras, 
1,500 feet, December 1, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 117 

Hexatoma (Eriocera} vamana is readily told from other re- 
gional members of the longicornis group by the small size and 
venation of the radial field. The specific name, vamana, is that 
of the dwarf incarnation of Vishnu in Hindu mythology. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) gnava new species 

Belongs to the longicornis group ; general coloration of thorax 
brownish gray, praescutum with four brown stripes ; antennae 
of male very long, 6-segmented ; legs obscure yellow, posterior 
tibiae with long pale setae ; wings weakly darkened, stigma pale 
brown, veins glabrous; R l+ , 2 and R., subequal, R., , about three 
times R. 2 ; valves of ovipositor short and fleshy. 

J 1 . Length about 8-9 mm.; wing 10-11 mm.; antenna about 

32-36 mm. 
5. Length about 8-8.5 mm. ; wing 10-10.5 mm. ; antenna 

about 1.7 mm. 

Rostrum reduced, light brown ; palpi very small, black. An- 
tennae of male greatly lengthened, approximately three times the 
wing; proximal three or four segments yellowish brown, outer 
segments passing into black ; organ apparently 6-segmented, with 
the terminal segment very long, only a little shorter than the 
remainder of organ ; basal three flagellar segments with small 
scattered emergence bristles, these becoming more scattered on 
outer segments, with still fewer and smaller setae on the ter- 
minal segment ; scape very large, pedicel correspondingly re- 
duced ; in female, antennae short, if bent backward not reaching 
the wing root, apparently 6-segmented. Head chestnut bro\vn, 
more pruinose behind; vertical tubercle of male very large and 
tumid, entire, provided with long pale setae on posterior aspect ; a 
blackened area on anterior face behind the scape ; tubercle of 
female much smaller. 

Pronotum brownish gray. Mesonotal praescutum brownish 
gray with four brown stripes, the intermediate pair well sepa- 
rated ; posterior sclerites of notum brownish gray, scutal lobes 
patterned with darker; notal vestiture very abundant, white, 
erect. Pleura chiefly dark brown, sparsely pruinose, pleuro- 



118 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | May, 1961 

tergite with white setae ; dorsopleural membrane darker. Hal- 
teres with stem faintly darkened, knob dark brown. Legs with 
coxae light brown ; trochanters brownish yellow ; femora ob- 
scure yellow, tibiae and tarsi slightly darker ; posterior tibiae 
with abundant long pale setae. Wings weakly darkened, stigma 
pale brown, ill-delimited ; veins dark brown, those of the costal 
and prearcular fields yellowed. Veins glabrous, beyond cord 
with a complete but scattered series of small macrotrichia on 
distal section of R% ; no trichia on R, R l or Sc except a very 
few on R l in the stigmal area ; costal fringe of male short but 
dense. Venation: ^ 1 + 2 subequal to or a little longer than R, 
the latter about one-third -R 2 + 3 ; in-cu shortly beyond fork of M. 

Abdomen, including hypopygium, dark brown, basal tergites 
a trifle paler. Ovipositor with valves short and fleshy, as in 
typical Hexatoma. 

Habitat. WEST INDIA. Holotypc: <$, Sykes, Bombay, 2,000 
feet, February 5, 1959 (Fernand Schmid). Allotopotype: $, 
pinned with the type. Paratopotypes: 1 J\ 3 5$. 

The closest regional ally of the present fly is the Javanese 
Hexatoma (Eriocera} verticalis (Wiedemann) which differs 
in coloration of the body and wings and in the venation, espe- 
cially of the radial field. The present fly presumably is the 
same species that was recorded from Pusa, Bihar, India by 
Brunetti (Rec. Indian Mus., 15: 333, 1918). 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) artifex new species 

Size medium (wing of male 10 mm.) ; mesothorax black, the 
notum more opaque, with a large fulvous area on the dorso- 
pleural membrane ; legs black, femoral bases narrowly yellowed ; 
wings yellowed, the costal border and seams over virtually all 
veins brown; cell M\ lacking; abdomen dull black, vaguely 
pruinose, second segment chiefly yellow. 

<$. Length about 10 mm. ; wing 10 mm. ; antenna about 2 mm. 

Rostrum black, gray pruinose ; palpi black. Antennae of 
male 6-segmented, black, the scape pruinose ; first flagellar seg- 
ment about one-sixth longer than the second, with strong setae, 
especially beneath ; bristles of succeeding segments few and 



Ixxiif ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 119 

scattered. Head black, gray pruinose, opaque; vertical tubercle 
low and rounded. 

Entire thorax black, surface of notum nearly opaque, of pleura 
more polished and clearer black; a large fulvous area on the 
clorsopleural region above the anepisternum ; praescutal vesti- 
ture very small and sparse. Halteres black. Legs black, coxae 
polished; femoral bases narrowly but conspicuously yellow (fore 
legs broken). Wings with the ground yellowed, much restricted 
by infuscations in the costal region and as seams over all the 
veins, the latter more extensive in the outer radial field, least so 
on basal half of vein M ; wing base more yellowed, including the 
veins, remaining veins dark brown. Veins beyond cord with 
strong macrotrichia, fewer on R 2 + 3 + i and basal section of R 5 , 
lacking on the two proximal sections of M 1 + 2 , M 3 + 4 and Cn l ; 
strong trichia on Sc for most of its extent. Venation : Sc rela- 
tively long, 5V, ending about opposite r-m ; R 2 + s + 4: about twice 
the basal section of R- or more than twice R 1 + 2 ', R 2 beyond the 
fork, R.. + , short; cell .I/, lacking but this probably a variable 
character since the left wing of the unique type shows a mar- 
ginal remnant in cell R. that seems undoubtedly to represent a 
fragment of M } ; tn-cn at or beyond midlength of M 3 + 4 . 

Abdomen dull black, vaguely pruinose ; much of second seg- 
ment yellowed, on the sternites this vaguely involving the cen- 
ters of segments three and four ; hypopygium black. 

Habitat. SOUTH INDIA. Holotype: g, Swamp Hill, Madras, 
7,500 feet, December 13, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 

The nearest relative of the present fly is Hexatoma (Eriocera} 
atrodorsalis (Alexander), likewise from South India, which 
differs especially in the coloration of the body and the presence 
of cell iU,. It should be emphasized that this latter character 
may prove to be variable in l>oth of these species. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) vulpes new species 

Belongs to the dichroa group; size large (wing of male over 
15 mm.); general coloration fulvous or yellow; head with a 
conspicuous vertical tubercle ; mesonotal praescutum with four 
fulvous stripes ; legs obscure yellow ; wings strongly tinged with 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

fulvous yellow, veins yellow, cell M l present ; abdomen yellow, 
the hypopygium darker. 

cf. Length about 20 mm. ; wing 16.5 mm. ; antenna about 

3.4 mm. 
5. Length about 20 mm. ; wing 14 mm. ; antenna about 3 mm. 

Rostrum obscure yellow; palpi brownish black. Antennae 
short in both sexes, 8-segmented ; scape and pedicel brown, the 
former more yellowed beneath, flagellum brownish black ; flagel- 
lar segments with long coarse setae ; first flagellar segment 
shorter than the succeeding two segments combined. Head dark 
gray, the conspicuous slender porrect vertical tubercle more 
blackened, with a second smaller knob immediately cephalad ; 
vestiture of head black, abundant. 

Pronotum brownish yellow. Mesonotal praescutum with the 
restricted ground light brownish gray, with four fulvous stripes 
that are narrowly bordered by reddish brown, the intermediate 
pair separated by a capillary line, black in front, paling to brown 
behind ; praescutal vestiture erect, delicate ; scutal lobes similarly 
fulvous, its central area and the scutellum more testaceous ; post- 
notum, including the mediotergite and posterior half of pleuro- 
tergite, more yellowed ; remainder of the latter, with the pleura, 
slightly darker, especially above, ventral sternopleurite yellowed. 
Halteres brownish black, base of stem restrictedly brightened. 
Legs with coxae reddish, sparsely gray pruinose; trochanters 
brownish yellow ; femora obscure yellow, the tips very narrowly 
more darkened above ; tibiae and tarsi obscure yellow, the last 
tarsal segment darkened ; claws of male with a strong basal 
spine, in female this smaller and more obtuse. Wings long and 
narrow, with a strong fulvous brown tinge, more saturated along 
costal border ; stigma lacking ; veins yellow, involving the re- 
stricted adjoining membrane, more conspicuous on anterior half 
of wing. Veins of outer radial field, together with M l and M 2 , 
with abundant short macrotrichia, sparse or lacking elsewhere. 
Venation: Sc long, Sc l ending just beyond R?, Sc z a short dis- 
tance from its tip; R 2+s + 4 slightly longer than basal section of 
RZ or R 2 + 3 ; -^1 + 2 subequal to R. 2 + s<4 ; cell M l subequal to its 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 121 

petiole ; cell 1st M 2 small, subrectangular, with m-cu at or beyond 
midlength; vein 2nd A long, sinuous. 

Abdomen yellow, narrowly darkened laterally ; hypopygium 
more infuscated ; segments without differentiated shiny basal 
rings. Ovipositor with cerci long and very slender. 

Habitat. SOUTH INDIA. Holotype: <$, Kuttalam, Madras, 
500-2,000 feet, November 23, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). Allo- 
type: $, Krishnappanayakkan, Madras, 1,200 feet, November 
30, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 

By Edwards's key to the Old World species of the subgenus 
Eriocera (1921), the present fly runs to couplet 42 where it 
disagrees with all succeeding species in its coloration, being 
most similar to Hcxatoma (Eriocera} ferruginosa (van der 
Wulp) of Java. This latter fly is quite distinct in all details 
of coloration and venation. 



Collembola from Japan. III. Hypogastrurinae 

and Neanurinae 1 

By HAROLD GEORGE SCOTT - 

This paper records six species of springtail insects collected 
by Captain John E. Scanlon 3 while with the 406th Medical Gen- 
eral Laboratory (U. S. Army) in Japan. Specimens will be 
deposited with the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

Subfamily HYPOGASTRURINAE Borner, 1906 
Hypogastrura armata (Nicolet, 1841). 

The Scanlon specimens show the traits which caused Oriental 
individuals of the species to be designated H. communis (Fol- 

iPart II appeared in Ent. News, 70(9) : 241-243. 

2 Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Serv- 
ice, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, 
Georgia. 

3 Medical Service Corps, U. S. Army. Present address : Entomology 
Department, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D. C. 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

som, 1897). However, I follow Stach (1949, p. 131) in con- 
sidering H. communis a variant of H. annata. 

ADDITIONAL JAPANESE RECORD. Seven specimens, soil from 
rodent burrow, 23-X-1952, Shizuoka, Subashiri, Honshu, 
JAPAN, by J. E. Scanlon. This species was first recorded from 
Japan by Folsom (1897). 

DISTRIBUTION. Holarctic, Neotropical, Australasian. 

Hypogastrura ununguiculata (Tullberg, 1869). 

JAPANESE RECORD. Five specimens, rodent nest, 7-iii-1952, 
Tokyo, Honshu, JAPAN, by J. E. Scanlon. This species has not 
been recorded previously from Japan. 

DISTRIBUTION. Holarctic. 

Hypogastrura japonica sp. nov. Figure 1. 

TYPE COLLECTION. Three specimens, soil from rodent bur- 
row, 23-X-1952, Shizuoka, Subashiri, Honshu, JAPAN, by 
J. E. Scanlon. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, not subglobose, segmentation 
distinct ; setae present, scales and pseudocelli absent ; integument 
minutely granular ; color light brown mottled with blue, legs pale 
brown, fore part of head and antennae heavily mottled with 
blue ; head prognathous ; mouthparts chewing, mandible with 
molar surface ; ant III and IV semiconfluent, without eversible 
sac between them ; ant IV tip with sensory seta ; ant III sense 
organ with rods, no cones ; postantennal organ with 4 peripheral 
tubercles, 1 much smaller than other 3 ; eyes 8 and 8 on dark 
eyepatches ; pronotum not reducedj setaceous, of same texture 
as other body segments ; unguiculus present, about f unguis ; 
unguis and unguiculus without teeth ; tenent hairs absent ; collo- 
phore sacs smooth, small ; furcula not ankylosed, reaching almost 
to collophore ; dental thorns absent ; mucro spoon-shaped, with- 
out teeth ; anus terminal ; anal spines 2, strongly curved, each 
about length of hind unguis; body length about 1.2 mm. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS. This species is clearly a 
member of the subgenus Neogastrura (scnsu Stach, 1949, p. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



123 



19). It may be distinguished from all other members of that 
group by the absence of dental thorns and of tenent hairs. 

NOTE. Although data are identical, specimens of H. japonica 
sp. nov. did not come from the same collection as those of 
H. annata. 



vt-ntral body pattern 



mand ib le 




sensory seta' 




third 
antennal 
organ 







N . - 

-- :\ *-. 

-: - - 



dorsal body pattern 



A. LATERAL ASPECT 



anal spine 

B. DORSAL ASPECT 



FIG. 1. Ilypogastrura japonica sp. nov. 

Subfamily NEANURINAE Bonier, 1901 

Protanura aphoruroides Yosii, 1953. 

ADDITIONAL JAPANESE RECORD. One s|Kvimen, soil from 
rodent burrow, 23-X-1952, Shix.uoka, Subashiri. Honshu. 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

JAPAN, by J. E. Scanlon. This species was first recorded from 
Japan by Yosii (1953). 

DISTRIBUTION. Japan. 

Neanura ornata Folsom, 1902. 

JAPANESE RECORD. Three specimens, rodent nest, 19-iii- 
1952, Akabane, Honshu, JAPAN, by J. E. Scanlon. This species 
has not been recorded previously from Japan. 

DISTRIBUTION. Japan, Alaska, Siberia. 

Neanura pseudornata sp. nov. Figure 2. 

TYPE COLLECTION. Three specimens, Berlese funnel sample 
of soil, bamboo grove in woods, 677 meters altitude, 20-vi-1952, 
Beppu, Oita Ken, Kyushu, JAPAN, by J. E. Scanlon. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, not subglobose, segmentation 
distinct ; setae present, scales and pseudocelli absent ; integument 
minutely granular with large reticulated segmental tubercles 
(head, 11 ; thorax, 6-8-8; abdomen, 6-8-8-6-4-2) ; color yellow 
speckled with brownish-purple, legs darker than rest of body; 
head prognathous, wider than long, rounded triangular; head 
tubercles not coalesced; mouthparts suctorial, projecting in a 
cone ; mandible without molar surface ; head of maxilla needle- 
like, without lamellae or teeth ; antenna longer than head, seg- 
ments distinct; ant IV conical; ant III sense organ with sense- 
rods, without cones or papillae ; postantennal organ absent ; eyes 
pigmented, 3 and 3, not on dark eyepatches ; pronotum not re- 
duced, setaceous, of same texture as other body segments ; 
unguiculus absent ; unguis without teeth ; tenent hairs absent ; 
collophore sacs smooth ; furcula absent ; anal segment large ; 
supra-anal valve bilobed ; anal spines absent ; body length about 
1.1 mm. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS. This species is close to Ne- 
anura ornata Folsom, 1902. It may be distinguished from N. 
ornata and other known Neanura by the following combination 
of characters: (1) head wider than long; (2) eyes 3 and 3, 
pigmented; (3) head tubercles not coalesced. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

third antennal organ mandible 



125 



naxil la 




DORSAL ASPECT 

FIG. 2. Neanura pseudornata sp. nov. 

SUMMARY 

Hypogastrura armata, H. umingiiiciilata, II. japonica sp. nov., 
Protanura aphoruroides, Neanura ornata, and A 7 ", pseudornata 
sp. nov., are reported from Japan. Of these, only H. armata 
and P. aphoruroides have been recorded previously from the 
country. 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

JAPANESE SUMMARY 

(Prepared by Dr. Nobuo Sakurai, Department of Bacteriol- 
ogy, School of Medicine, University of Chiba, Chiba, Japan.) 



Hypogastrura armata 



H. ununguiculata (^ ^ ^<0 ^ ^ lj> , ,f*jfj ^-j)) H. laponica sp. nov 



ornata 



5, H. armata (: H^. communis) * 
. aphoruroides <f) 3j- /))' i/fl 3L~C*' tJy^v ^ V^^yL^ nL~^ \^ ~b 

<J 

REFERENCES CITED 

BORNER, C. 1906. Mitth. naturh. Mus. Hamburg 23: 147-188. 
FOLSOM, J. W. 1897. Bull. Essex Inst., Vol. of 1897, 51-57. 

-. 1902. Proc. Washington Acad. Sci. 4: 87-116. 
NICOLET, H. 1841. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Helvetia Sci. 6 : 1-88. 
STACK, J. 1949. Acta Monog. Mus. Hist. Nat., Polska Akad. Sci. Lett., 

Krakow, ii + 412 pp. 

TULLBERG, T. 1869. Akad. Afhandl. Upsala, vol. of 1869: 1-20. 
Yosn, R. 1953. Tenthredo Acta Ent. 2 : 348-392. 



Ixxiij ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 127 

Tabanus aranti sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae) 

from Alabama 

By KIRBY L. HAYS, Department of Zoology-Entomology, 
Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 

The attacks of Tabanidae (horseflies and deerflies) upon cat- 
tle present a serious problem in certain sections of Alabama. 
In 1960, the Auburn Agricultural Experiment Station began a 
project concerning the ecology and control of these insects. 
During the spring of 1960, tabanid larvae were collected and 
14 species were reared to adulthood. One of these species ap- 
pears to be undescribed. It is here proposed that this species 
be called Tabanus aranti. The writer wishes to thank C. B. 
Philip of Hamilton, Montana, for consultation relative to the 
identity of this species. 

Tabanus aranti sp. nov. (Fig. 1) 

Large; black, with bluish pruinosity; wing darkened, darker 
along veins ; basal callus higher than wide, median callus nar- 
rowly joined to basal callus ; subcallus pollinose. 

Holotype Female. Length 22 mm. Nine paratype females 
vary in length from 15 to 22 mm. Eye bare. Frons 4-4^ times 
as high as wide, slightly widened above, grayish, darkened at 
vertex and laterad from median callus. Basal callus higher than 
wide, black, shiny, and not touching the eyes. Median callus 
a narrow concolorous line, not widened at juncture with basal 
callus. Subcallus wrinkled, flatter in profile than T. -a'icde- 
manni, dark brown pollinose. Clypeus and genae dark brown 
pollinose with blackish brown hair. Antennae black, first two 
segments with black hair, third segment black (sometimes red- 
dish tinged basally) with a prominent dorsal angle and deep 
dorsal excision; annulate portion shorter than basal width. 
Second palpal segment black with black hair, sharper than palpi 
of T. wiedemanni, moderate in width. 

Dorsum and venter of thorax blackish sometimes tinged with 
red, thin bluish pruinosity anteriorly; hair black. Legs black 
with concolorous hair. Wings darkened, darker along veins; 
venation normal. Halteres black, light distally. 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

Dorsum and venter of abdomen black with bluish pruinosity. 

Allotype Male. Length 17 mm. Paratype males vary from 
16 to 20 mm. Like the female except the bluish pruinosity is 
almost absent and the usual sexual differences. Head as wide 
or wider than thorax. Enlarged facets of eyes less extensive 
than in T. wiedemanni. Tubercle at vertex distinct, ovoid and 
slightly raised above the level of the eyes, reddish brown in 
color. Frontal triangle brownish pollinose, darker brown at the 
apex. Antennae brownish with black hairs, all portions more 
slender than in the female ; annulate portion of third segment 
longer than basal width. Terminal palpal segment over 2 times 
as long as wide, blunt apically. Internal claw of fore tarsus 
shorter than external. Bluish pruinosity of abdomen much 
more sparse than in the female. 

Type Material: Holotype female collected by the author at 
Auburn, Alabama, June 23, 1958. The allotype, nine paratype 
females, and eight paratype males were reared from larvae col- 
lected from the edge of a small pond on the North Auburn Dairy 
Research Unit at Auburn, Alabama. All reared material 
emerged between May 20 and 30, 1960, and are pinned with 
the pupal case. The holotype was collected on the wing and 
is believed by the author to best represent the natural charac- 
teristics of the species. 

The holotype and allotype are deposited in the University of 
Michigan Museum of Zoology. Male and female paratypes are 
deposited in the collections of the U. S. National Museum, C. B. 
Philip, and L. L. Pechuman. The remainder of the material is 
in the collections of the author. Named for F. S. Arant, a 
colleague and 1961 President of the Entomological Society of 
America. 

The species appears close to T. vviedemanni O. S., but is dis- 
tinctly larger; median callus, narrow, not widened at juncture 
with basal callus and with a bluish pruinosity on the body in 
the female. The male has less extensive areas of large facets 
of the eye and averages larger in size. The species is also close 
to T. nigrescens atripennis and may be separated from it by the 
bluish pruinosity of the abdomen, a slightly narrower median 
callus and less red on the base of the third antennal segment in 
the female. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



129 





B 



A 




Tabanus aranti n. sp., holotype 
A. Front, B. Palpus, C. Antenna. 

A atural History: The large larvae of this species were col- 
lected in the organic ooze common along the shallow edges of 
southern farm ponds. Cattails and sedges grew in clumps in 
the vicinity. The edge of the pond was shaded by loblolly pine 
and sweet gum trees in the late morning and afternoon. No 
larvae were found in similar unshaded areas around the edges 
of the same pond. The larvae moved into drier, litter-covered 
soil and formed a cell somewhat larger than the larva and 
pupated. The period of pupation was 9 to 12 days. 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

A New Species of Rallicola (Mallophaga) from 

Southeast Asia. 

By K. C. EMERSON, Stillwater, Oklahoma, and 
ROBERT E. ELBEL, Lawrence, Kansas 

A new species of the genus Rallicola is herewith described 
from specimens in the United States National Museum and the 
British Museum (Natural History), and the probable host for 
another species is indicated. 

Rallicola indicus n. sp. 

Male. Head as in figure 1. Posterior margin of pterothorax 
with 3-2-2-3 long setae. Second (first apparent) abdominal 
tergite interrupted medianly, the remainder transversely con- 
tinuous. Tergites II-VIII, each with a pair of setae located 
medianly on the posterior margin. Terminal tergite with 3 
long setae on each side. Chaetotaxy of paratergites : II-l, 
III-IV-2, and V-VIII-3. Abdominal sternites II, VII and 
VIII, each with 2 long setae ; and III, IV, V, and VI, each with 
6 long setae. Terminal abdominal segment bilobed with 8 short 
setae ventrally on each lobe. Genitalia as shown in figure 2. 

Female. Head, except for filiform antennae, as in the male. 
Pterothorax as in the male. Abdominal tergites II-VIII in- 
terrupted medianly, chaetotaxy as in the male. Chaetotaxy of 
paratergites as in the male. Chaetotaxy of abdominal ster- 
nites : II-III-2, and IV-VI-8. Genital plate with 3 long setae 
on each side. Posterior margin of vulva with 24 short spines 
and 28 short setae. Terminal sternite with 16 long lateral setae 
and 3 genital setae on the tubercle on each side. 

Measurements Male Female 

Length of head 0.55 mm. 0.55 mm. 

Width of head 0.41 0.44 

Width of prothorax 0.27 0.27 

Width of pterothorax 0.37 0.41 

Width of abdomen 0.55 0.63 

Total length 1.81 2.10 

Diagnosis. This form is closest to R. sulcatus (Piaget, 1880) 
found on Hydrophasianus chirurgus (Scopoli). In the male, 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



131 



the heavily sclerotized abdominal tergal and sternal plates are 
not as wide in R. indicus as in R. snlcatus. The mesosome of 
the male in R. sulcatus is much narrower than in R. indicus. 
In the female, the posterior margin of the vulva in R. indicus 
is normal, or without appendages found in R. sulcatus. In both 
sexes, the ventral chaetotaxy of the genital region is more dense 
in R. indicus than in R. sulcatus. 





3 

FIG. 1. Rallicola indicus n. sp., dorsal view of head, male. 

FIG. 2. Rallicola indicus n. sp., male genitalia. 

FIG. 3. Rallicola unguicitlatus (Piaget, 1800), male genitalia. 



Type host: Metopidius indicus (Latham). 

Type material: Holotype male, allotype female and 30 para- 
types in the U. S. National Museum collected on 15 December 
1952 by Robert E. Elbel at Chaiyaphum, Pint Khieo, Ban Lat, 
THAILAND. The British Museum (Natural History) has 40 
paratypes collected in March 1937 at Lucknow, India, and 21 
paratypes collected on 1 January 1952 at Moraing, Manipur, 
India. 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

Rallicola unguiculatus (Piaget, 1880) 

This species was described from specimens supposedly taken 
off "Eurylaimus cucullatus" from Sumatra. Clay noted "it is 
possible that Eurylaimus is not the true host." Large collec- 
tions in Thailand from Centropus sinensis intermedius (Hume) 
have yielded specimens which appear to be this species. The 
male genitalia, of a specimen from this host, is shown in figure 3. 
Specimens from Centropus bengalensis bengalensis (Gmelin), 
also from Thailand, appear to be the same species. Therefore, 
it appears that the true host is a species of Centropus. Five 
species of Centropus are found on Sumatra. Since material 
from all of these hosts is not available for study, it is impossible 
to determine if only one species of Rallicola is found on all 
species of Centropus. In the meantime, it can be safely stated 
that the type host originally given is in error ; and it should be 
Centropus sp. 

LITERATURE CITED 

CLAY, T. 1953. Revisions of the genera of Mallophaga. I. The Ralli- 
co/o-complex. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 123 : 563-587. 



Obituary 

Professor Dr. HANS BISCHOFF, formerly curator of Hymen- 
optera in the Zoological Museum of the Humboldt University in 
Berlin, and one of the world's foremost hymenopterists, died on 
March 18, 1960, in the seventy-first year of his age, following 
a brief illness. Professor Bischoff was best known for his out- 
standing volume on the biology of the Hymenoptera. His most 
comprehensive taxonomic contribution was the voluminous mon- 
ograph of the Mutillidae of Africa. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 133 

Fleas from the Kangaroo Rats of Northern 

California 

By C. ANDRESEN HUBBARD, Tigard 23, Oregon 

Just where is Northern California? Usually it is considered 
to be that part of the state in which the Cascade Mountains are 
found and one supposes the draws through which highways 299 
and 36 extend, via the cities of Eureka, Douglas, Redding, Red 
Bluff, Chester, Susanville, Lichfield and Wendel and thence 
out through Flanigan, Nevada, mark the southern limits of 
northern California. This paper, then, concerns the fleas of 
the kangaroo rats north of these two highways. 

It has been 20 years now since the writer published his first 
paper on western fleas. During these years he has studied most 
areas west of the Rocky Mountains with the exception of cen- 
tral and southern California where Gus Augustson, protege of 
the writer, has been doing a good job in this field. 

But in 1953, while the writer was in Iraq on a Fulbright 
assignment, Augustson wrote in a paper entitled "The flea genus 
Meringis in California" (Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci., Vol. 52, 
part 3, page 111), "Hubbard reports (1947) this species (Merin- 
gis parkeri} from Modoc County (California) but in view of 
the specimens reported on below (Meringis calif ornicus) , his 
record of a single male may be questionable." 

Had Augustson spent even a moment with the range maps on 
kangaroo rats in Hall's Mammals of Nevada (1946), and Mam- 
mals of Oregon by Bailey (1936) he would have realized that 
the Merriam and the giant desert kangaroo rats, D. m. merriami 
and D. d. deserti travel between Flanigan, Nevada, and Wendel, 
California, carrying with them always the fleas Meringis parkeri, 
Meringis dipodomys and Trassis (Thrassoides)hoffmani; that 
the Surprise Valley kangaroo rat, D. m. aquilonins, travels 
between Cedarville and Eagleville. California, and Sand Creek, 
Nevada, always carrying with it the flea Meringis dipodomys 
and possibly on occasion the fleas Meringis parkeri and Thrassis 
(Thrassoides) hoffmani; that the Northern California kangaroo 
rat D. li. californicus travels back and forth between Dorris, 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

California, and Worden and Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Tule 
Lake, California, and Swan Lake, Oregon, and Adel, Oregon, 
and Fort Bidwell, California, carrying with it always the flea 
Meringis cummingi. In none of these ways or routes is there 
the slightest terrain difficulty for the ingress or egress of kan- 
garoo rats between northern California and Nevada or Oregon. 

The kangaroo rat of northern California which has the great- 
est range is Dipodomys merriami merriami, the Merriam kan- 
garoo rat. Described by Mearns in 1890 from central Arizona, 
this small dark colored kangaroo rat is found all over western 
Nevada and at the south tip of Pyramid Lake has its range de- 
flected west to extend through Flanigan, Nevada, into California 
to be very plentiful about the city dump of Wendel. How far 
beyond the animal is found the writer does not know, but it is 
probably confined to Honey Lake Valley. 

By working along the well graveled road extending between 
Wendel and Flanigan (25 miles) the following records were 
secured : 

From Dipodomys merriami merriami Mearns (Merriam kan- 
garoo rat), Off 7 hosts as follows: 0-5-0-15-8-1-35 = 63 at 
city dump, Wendel, Lassen Co., California, November 11, 
1960, 

Meringis parkeri Jordan 1937, 19 males, 25 females, 
Thrassis (Thrassoides) hoffmani Hubbard 1949, 8 males, 

11 females. 

Off 4 hosts as follows : 0-6-0-2 == 8 from roadside ditch, 10 
miles east of Wendel, California, at large ranch house, No- 
vember 11, 1960, 

Meringis dipodomys Kohls 1937, 4 males, 4 females. 
Off 16 hosts as follows : 0-5-7-10-12-11-0-25-5-5-5-7-5-5- 
6-19 = 127 at 16 miles east of Wendel, California, November 
11, 1960, 

Meringis parkeri Jordan 1937, 38 males, 47 females, 
Thrassis (Thrassoides) hoffmani Hubbard 1949, 21 pairs. 

This section of the data brings up three interesting points. 
First Augustson should not have questioned the writer's earlier 
records since Meringis parkeri is here proved to be well estab- 
lished in northern California. Second, an academic point, how 
did Dipodomys in. merriami get across the Colorado River to 



Ixxii) ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 135 

make its way eventually into California? The writer has no 
idea. Third, where does Dipodomys in. merriami pick up its 
heavy loads of Meringis parkeri, which is of course, the true 
flea of Dipodomys ordii columbianus, the Columbian kangaroo 
rat? Coming in from the south it should carry only Meringis 
dipodomys. The writer believes Meringis parkeri is picked up 
by Merriam's kangaroo rat from the Columbian kangaroo rat 
where they mix west of Pyramid Lake, Black Rock Desert and 
Smoke Creek Desert as the Columbian kangaroo rat has come 
down from Oregon, the state in which much of its range is 
found. 

Largest of all of the western kangaroo rats, Dipodomys de- 
serti deserti, the giant desert kangaroo rat, was described by 
Stephens in 1887 from the Mohave Desert in San Bernardino 
County, California. It ranges east into southern Nevada, then 
a good 700 miles to the north in western Nevada to the south 
end of Pyramid Lake where its range was thought to be deflected 
to the east but the records here offered show that the range is 
also deflected to the west, out through Flanigan, Nevada, and 
through the draw which goes to Wendel, California. These 
kangaroo rats are lovely, huge, silky, and a beautiful buff. 

From work along the Wendel-Flanigan road the following 
records were secured : 

From Dipodomys deserti deserti Stephens (giant desert kan- 
garoo rat), Off 2 hosts as follows: 2-2 = : 4 at 16 miles east 
of Wendel, California, November 11, 1960, 
Meringis parkeri Jordan 1937, 3 males, 
Thrassis (Thrassoides} hoffniani Hubbard 1949, 1 male. 

This section of the data brings to the attention of mammolo- 
gists that the range of the giant desert kangaroo rat is extended 
out of northern Nevada into California in the vicinity of Wendel. 

The kangaroo rat of northern California with the smallest 
range is Dipodomys microps aquilonins. the Surprise Valley 
kangaroo rat described by Willets in 1 ( >3 ( > from Cedarville, 
Modoc county, California. This dark colored fairly large kan- 
garoo rat is plentiful about Cedarville, Kagleville, Bare Ranch, 
and is said to range as far south as Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

This range is about 200 miles long. The writer has taken this 
kangaroo rat in Surprise Valley for some, years and found it 
always carrying the flea Meringis dipodomys with an occasional 
specimen of Meringis parkeri. 

At the type locality for the kangaroo rat during October 
of 1960 the following records were secured: 

From Dipodomys microps aquilonius Willets (Surprise Valley 
kangaroo rat), Off 9 hosts as follows: 1-2-4-6-1-0-14-4-4 
= 36 at the sand dunes east of dry lake, 6 miles east of Cedar- 
ville, Modoc Co., California, October 16, 1960, 

Meringis dipodomys Kohls 1937, 20 males, 16 females. 

The fourth kangaroo rat found in northern California is Dipo- 
domys hermanni calif ornicus, the Northern California kangaroo 
rat described by Merriam in 1890 from Ukiah, Mendocino 
county, California. It is a fairly large kangaroo rat, and dark 
colored. It is the only one of the series, here offered, which has 
no contact with the southern forms so carries only its own flea, 
Meringis cummingi. In the some twenty or more years that 
the writer has been taking this fine animal in the Modoc Lava 
Beds of California and Swan Lake Valley of Oregon never has 
he taken strays or other kangaroo rat fleas off it. 

From the type locality at Ukiah it ranges into northern Cali- 
fornia and is found in all kangaroo rat country in the north of 
the state to penetrate into Oregon at Klamath Falls, spread to 
the east finally to enter California again to be found in Surprise 
Valley at Fort Bidwell. 

Working along the north boundary of the state, the writer 
secured these records: 

From Dipodomys hermanni calif ornicus Merriam (Northern 
California kangaroo rat), Off 1 host as follows: 2 at Petro- 
glyph Point, Tule Lake, Modoc County, California, Novem- 
ber 10, 1960, 

Meringis cummingi C. Fox 1926, 1 male, 1 female. 
Off 3 hosts as follows : 5-3-16 = 24 at 4 miles east of Modoc 
Lava Beds Headquarters from rock outcrops along road, 
Tule Lake, California, October 10, 1960, 

M. cummingi C. Fox 1926, 12 males, 12 females. 
Off 7 hosts as follows : 6-2-0-12-2-0-0 =22 at 3 miles north- 
east, Fort Bidwell, California, October 17, 1960, 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 137 

M. cummingi C. Fox 1926, 1 1 pairs. 

Off 2 hosts as follows 2-2 -= 4 at 8 miles northeast of Fort 
Bidwell, California, rock outcrop on Fort Bidwell-Adel road, 
October 17, 1960, 

M. cummingi C. Fox 1926, 4 males. 

This section of the data brings to the attention of mammolo- 
gists the extension of the range of this kangaroo rat by some 
100 miles to the east to be recorded from Surprise Valley, Modoc 
county an area east of Warner Mountains from which it had not 
before been reported. 

In a letter dated December 8, 1960, Dr. Seth Benson, mam- 
mologist at the University of California informs the writer that 
he and a field crew sampled this same Flanigan-Wendel area 
for kangaroo rats during the summer of 1960 and that during 
their work in this draw took the following five species; D. 
deserti deserti, D. merriami merriami, D. microps aquihnius, 
D. panamintinus leucogenys and D. ordii columbianus. 

So one can say at this time, then, that the fifth kangaroo rat 
of northern California is Dipodomys panamintinus leucogenys, 
the Panamint kangaroo rat described by Grinnell during 1919 
from materials taken in Mono county, California. Its range 
may be 200 miles long extending along the Nevada-California 
boundary 100 miles south and north of Lake Tahoe to enter 
northern California through the Flanigan-Wendel draw. In 
size this kangaroo rat is large, next to D. deserti, and is dark 
in color. In northern California it probably does not range out 
of Honey Lake Valley. 

Coming in from the south as this animal does, it probably 
usually carries the fleas Meringis dipodomys and Thrassis 
(Thrassoides) hoffmani and because it associates in its northern 
range with D. ordii it would also carry an occasional Mcrimiis 
parkcri. 

The sixth of the kangaroo rats of northern California is 
Dipodomys ordii columbianus, the Columbian five-toed kan- 
garoo rat described by Merriam during 1894 from specimens 
collected in Umatilla county, Oregon. This, the most northern 
of the kangaroo rats, is beautiful, medium sized, soft buff col- 
ored. It ranges in all kangaroo rat country of Oregon and to 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, 1961 

the east, all over northern Nevada and from northwest Nevada 
into California to be found in many parts of Modoc county. 
This kangaroo rat always carries the flea Meringis parkeri. 

The kangaroo rat fleas of northern California are then the 
following four. 

Meringis parkeri was described by Dr. Karl Jordan of the 
British Museum, late dean of the world flea students, during 
1937 from materials taken at Powderville, Montana. The writer 
has collected this flea in all the kangaroo rat country of Wash- 
ington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, and as far south as Carson City, 
Nevada, and again from northeast California. The flea's major 
host is the Columbian kangaroo rat. This is a flea of northern 
kangaroo rats. 

Meringis dipodomys was described by Glenn Kohls of the 
Rocky Mountain Laboratory in 1938 from materials collected 
in Imperial and Inyo counties, California, off kangaroo rats. 
The writer has records for this flea from all over Nevada as far 
north now as Flanigan and Wendel and Cedarville, California. 
This is a flea of kangaroo rats of the southwest. 

Meringis cummingi was described by Carol Fox in 1926 from 
a single male taken off a giant desert kangaroo rat taken in the 
vicinity of Los Angeles. The writer described the female dur- 
ing 1940 from materials taken off kangaroo rats captured in the 
Modoc Lava Beds of northern California. The writer has taken 
this flea throughout the entire portion of its northern range, its 
entire range seemingly to be central and northern California. 
The Northern California kangaroo rat seems to be its chief host. 

Thrassis (Throssoidcs] hoffmani was described by the writer 
during 1949 from materials taken off a giant desert kangaroo 
rat captured at Beatty, Nevada. This is a common winter flea 
of southwest kangaroo rats but the new data offered herewith 
extends the range northwards to Flanigan, Nevada, and north- 
east California. 

It should be remembered by investigators in the field that 
during hot, dry late June, July, August, and early September 
few fleas are to be found on kangaroo rats but frequently during 
other seasons manv can be collected from them. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 139 

Since Augustson in his paper of 1953 suggested that the 
writer's records of Meringis parkeri from northern California 
might be instead Meringis californicus the specimens of the 
November, 1960, catches were sent to Frans Smit of the British 
Museum who determined them as true Meringis parkeri. 

The flea specimens involved in this paper are being sent for 
the most part to the United States National Museum and the 
British Museum with samples going to Public Health Service 
Laboratories in the west, museums of California, and of course 
to Mr. Augustson. 

The host specimens here involved were shipped alive to Dr. 
Murray Johnson, surgeon of Tacoma, Washington, who acts by 
avocation as Curator of Mammals, University of Puget Sound, 
where he is working under a National Science Foundation grant 
on "serum protein and hemoglobin electrophoresis of mammals." 
Upon completion of these tests the host specimens are made into 
skins and added to the Museum collection where they can be 
viewed and studied. 

This is the third of a series of papers on western fleas to be 
published by the writer under National Science Foundation 
Grant B8645. 



Obituary 

Dr. BENTLEY BALL FULTON, Professor Emeritus in Entomol- 
ogy at North Carolina State College, died December 8, 1960. 
Born in 1889 he attended Ohio State University, received his 
Master's degree from Chicago, and his Doctorate from Iowa 
State University. He served as entomologist at the State ex- 
periment stations in New York, Oregon and Iowa, after which, 
in 1928 he accepted a professorship at North Carolina. Dr. 
Fulton was known among other things for his original work in 
distinguishing species of crickets by their songs as well as by 
morphological characters. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia, 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology ; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 

Used genuine Schmidt boxes, excellent condition, at less than half 
price. H. W. Allen, Box 150, Moorestown, N. J. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3. PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 



A MONOGRAPH OF THE ORTHOPTERA OF 
NORTH AMERICA (NORTH OF MEXICO). 

Volume I. Acridoidea in part, covering the 
Tetrigidae, Eumastacidae, Tanaoceridae, and Ro- 
maleinae of the Acrididae. 

By James A. G. Rehn and Harold J. Grant, Jr. 

282 pages of text, with 401 text-figures (including distributional maps) 

and 8 half-tone plates. 

This monograph brings into concise form our knowledge of the 
genera and species of the groups covered as present in the United 
States and Canada. In this work the authors have had access to all 
the important series contained in institutions in North America. This 
monograph summarizes the detailed conclusions set forth in various 
collateral publications, as well as other pertinent matter of broader 
coverage. Almost all existing type material was examined in the 
course of the work, and, in addition to the published literature, field 
observations, covering over fifty years of study over a large part of 
the area treated, were drawn upon in forming the conclusions. Keys 
to all of the taxonomic entities discussed are presented, and nearly 
all of the illustrations used are new. 



Monograph No. 12 of the 

Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia 

Price $10.00 postpaid 
(add 10% to cover handling of foreign orders) 



Publications Department 
ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 

19th and The Parkway 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U.S.A. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

JUNE 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 6 



CONTENTS 

Eads Phallic structures in Cyrtacanthracidinae 141 

McFadden Improved Berlese technique 150 

Dennis Telamonas oviposition behavior 152 

Crabill Concerning Neogeophilidae 155 

Philip Change of name in Chrysops 160 

Linsley New cerabycids from California 163 

Kramer Herpetomonas muscarum in the haemocoele 165 

Symposium 166 

New subscription rates announced 167 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 



f in* MS. 
I 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff: 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use: in the United States, $5.00; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 
Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII JUNE, 1961 No. 6 



The Terminology of Phallic Structures in the 

Cyrtacanthacridinae (Orthoptera, 

Acrididae) 

DAVID C. EADES/ Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia 

There have been three major studies of the phallic structures 
of grasshoppers, the first by Snodgrass in 1935, the second by 
Roberts in 1941, and the third by Dirsh in 1956. In his paper 
Roberts presented a terminology which unified, so far as prac- 
tical, the terminology of Snodgrass and the isolated earlier 
works. This terminology was almost universally accepted until 
1956 when Dirsh made several basic changes. In papers ap- 
pearing since 1956 the terminology has been confused ; some 
authors followed Roberts, others followed Dirsh, and Hubbell 
(I960)- modified Dirsh's terms. However, none of the authors 
since 1956 discussed reasons for his choice of terms. This 
confusion makes it obvious that more work is needed. A thor- 

1 The author wishes to express his appreciation to James A. G. Rehn 
and H. Radclyffe Roberts for their generous help and encouragement in 
the preparation of this paper. Also, V. M. Dirsh, T. H. Hubbell, and 
Ashley B. Gurney have read the manuscript and offered many valuable 
comments. 

- In fairness to Hubbell it should be stated that the study of the ter- 
minology of phallic structures was entirely incidental to the purpose of his 
paper and that a critical analysis of terms was not intended. Neverthe- 
less, his paper is discussed here because he originated terms and, in the 
case of the arch and the zygoma, it helps to demonstrate that when pre- 
vious definitions are not sufficiently precise, terms can gradually change 
meanings without authors being aware of it. 

(141) 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

ough analysis of homologies among the various groups of grass- 
hoppers would be highly desirable, but to prepare such an analy- 
sis would be an undertaking of major proportions. Rather than 
abide with the present confused situation until homologies have 
been established, the present paper undertakes the more modest 
task of trying to stabilize terminology in a single subfamily, the 
subfamily Cyrtacanthacridinae (= Catantopinae). The phallic 
structures of the Acridinae are sufficiently similar that homolo- 
gies are apparent, but this latter subfamily is not specifically 
included because the author has done very little work in it. 
These two subfamilies comprise the dominant groups of grass- 
hoppers of the world and, with respect to the phallic structures, 
the best known. As homologies of structures of other groups 
become better understood, this terminology can be applied to 
them or modified as necessary. In most cases the terms of 
Roberts are selected as more appropriate than those of Dirsh 
and better known and less cumbersome than those of Snodgrass. 
In several cases, however, it is necessary to incorporate modi- 
fications of Snodgrass' terms to allow distinctions not provided 
for by more recent authors. For specific examples of the new 
terminology, see papers by Rehn and Eades (Notulae Naturae 
No. 345 and Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phlla.} and Gurney and 
Eades (Trans. Ainer. Ent. Soc.) now in press. 

It is sometimes useful to visualize the phallus in terms of 
concentric rings of indentation and lobes of ectoderm. All 
sclerotized structures must develop in ectoderm, and the homolo- 
gies of sclerites may best be understood by determining what 
portion of the ectoderm is involved. All the major authors 
understood these principles and made use of them in a number 
of places. Nevertheless, more rigorous use of them would have 
saved a number of errors. To facilitate discussion, let us begin 
in the center and proceed outward using the analogy of concen- 
tric folds. This is done for convenience in presentation and is 
not intended to imply any basic radial symmetry. "Indentation" 
and "lobe" refer to the final result without implying develop- 
mental processes. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 143 

CENTRAL INVAGINATION THE ENDOPHALLIC MEMBRANE 

Snodgrass made a useful distinction which has been lost by 
all subsequent authors. His apical processes of aedeagus were 
structures which projected around the posterior opening of the 
phallotreme. On the other hand, he used lateral sclerites of phallo- 
treme cleft for the solidly sclerotized structures in the phallotreme 
membrane. I will use dorsal and ventral acdcagal sclerites for 
these solidly sclerotized structures, which are totally derived 
from endophallic membrane but commonly extend into the pro- 
jecting lobes (see Fig. 1). For the lobes I will use the terms 
dorsal and ventral aedeagal valves. The aedeagal valves may 
be membranous, sclerotized, or partly sclerotized and are derived 
from both ectophallic and endophallic membrane. Dorsal and 
ventral are used in relation to "normal" positions. In forms 
w^hich are strongly modified, the dorsal aedeagal sclerites may 
be recognized by their being continuous with the arch. The 
dorsal and ventral aedeagal valves may be recognized by the 
fact that they contain the distal portions of, respectively, the 
dorsal and ventral aedeagal sclerites. As Dirsh points out 
(in Hit.), aedeagus is a general term for the distal part of the 
whole phallic complex and would therefor include any distal 
projection. However, for the sake of conforming as nearly as 
possible to past. usage, I prefer to restrict aedeagal valves to 
structures at the distal end of the phallotreme. If there should 
be any need for the broader sense, something such as "aedeagal 
lobes" may be denned and used. 

In view of the considerable confusion regarding these struc- 
tures, a list of terms of various authors seems useful. Dorsal 
aedeagal sclerites: anterior (dorsal) lateral sclerites of phallo- 
treme cleft of Snodgrass ; dorsal aedeagal valves in part of 
Roberts ; valves of cingulum in part of Dirsh as used in his 
Pauliniidae and Acrididae; dorsal penial valves in part of 
Hubbell. Dorsal aedeagal valves: anterior (dorsal) apical 
processes of aedeagus of Snodgrass; for remaining authors the 
same terms as listed above for dorsal aedeagal sclerites. I'cn- 
tral aedeagal sclerites: posterior (ventral) lateral sclerites of 
phallotreme cleft of Snodgrass ; ventral aedeagal valves in part 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

of Roberts ; apical valves of penis in part of Dirsh and of Hub- 
bell. Ventral aedeagal valves: posterior (ventral) apical proc- 
ess of aedeagus of Snodgrass ; ventral aedeagal valves in part 
of Roberts ; apical valves of penis in part of Dirsh and of 
Hubbell. 

With these terms denned, it is now possible to discuss Dirsh's 
objections to Roberts' terms, primarily to Roberts' use of dorsal 
aedeagal valves. Dirsh stated (p. 231) : "From the zygoma 
region of the cingulum (PI. 2, fig. 5) or from the arch (PI. 2, 
fig. 9) there often arises a pair of valves, situated above the 
penis valves and parallel to them. Snodgrass (1935) and 
Radclyffe-Roberts (1941) called them the dorsal valves of the 
aedeagus, but they actually belong to the cingulum." In the 
case of the Romaleinae, however, Dirsh substituted appendices 
of aedeagus for dorsal aedeagal valves. In his definition Dirsh 
stated (p. 226) that the valves of cingulum are "morphologically 
derived from the ectophallus." The basic points of disagree- 
ment are whether the dorsal aedeagal sclerites are derived from 
endophallic or ectophallic membrane and whether or not the 
arch is part of the cingulum. Dirsh stated (p. 227, definition 
of penis, which in the sense of Dirsh includes the ventral 
aedeagal sclerites as here understood) that the ventral aedeagal 
sclerites are derived from endophallic membrane. Neverthe- 
less, he maintained that the dorsal aedeagal sclerites (included 
in his concept of valves of cingulum} are ectophallic. This 
would require that the ventral portion of the phallotreme is endo- 
phallic and the dorsal portion ectophallic or else that a diverticu- 
lum develops from the ectophallic membrane, grows down what 
is to be the arch, and expands to form the dorsal aedeagal 
sclerites, which fuse with the phallotreme membrane. Both of 
these interpretations are strongly contradictory to the apparent 
situation and to the concepts of previous authors. In many 
cases the arch and dorsal aedeagal sclerites form a continuous 
sclerite which is not continuous with the cingulum (except by 
membrane). (See the description of a new species of Leptysma 
in Rehn and Eades, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., in press.) 
The only evidence which tends to support Dirsh is the possible 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



145 



EC 




DAY 



VAV 



FIG. 1. Diagram of the distal portion of the phallus of a typical grass- 
hopper of the subfamily Crytacanthacridinae (dorsal and ventral phallo- 
treme clefts not shown). A, arch. B, bridge. DAS, dorsal aedeagal 
sclerite. DAV, dorsal aedeagal valve. EC, ectophallic membrane. En, 
endophallic membrane. S, sheath. VAS, ventral aedeagal sclerite. 
VAV, ventral aedeagal valve. 

homology of the dorsal aedeagal sclerites to the valves of c in- 
guinal in his Charilaidae, Proscopiidae, and Pyrgomorphidae. 
Such a homology would be dubious on anatomical grounds alone, 
but the phylogeny of Dirsh (or anyone else) shows his valves 
of cingulum to be of clearly polyphyletic origin (unless they 
were retained from the common ancestor of the entire super- 
family, which is most unlikely). Therefore Dirsh's interpreta- 
tion with respect to the dorsal aedeagal sclerites in his Acrididae 
and Pauliniidae should be rejected. 

Another term with a confused history is arch, although in this 
case there is no indication that any author was aware of any 
change in the use of the term. Snodgrass stated (p. 64) that 
the dorsal aedeagal sclerites "are connected with each other by 
a strong transverse arch (t) in the dorsal wall of the passage," 
i.e., the phallotreme. This description applied to his bridge of 
anterior phallotreine sclerites as indicated by the fact that he 
gave this term in his explanation of "t" in the set of drawings 
to which he referred in the above quotation. Roberts ddim-d 
his arch of dorsal valves (p, 241) as a connection betwivu the 
dorsal aedeagal sclerites and the zygoma of the cingulum and 
considered the bridge of anterior pliallolrcine sclerites of Snod- 
grass as a synonym. The bridge of Snodgrass connects right 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

and left dorsal aedeagal sclerites and develops in the dorsal por- 
tion of the phallotreme membrane and spermatophore sac. The 
arch of Roberts connects ventrally with the dorsal aedeagal 
sclerites and the bridge and extends dorsad, usually fusing to 
the mid-dorsal region of the cingulum. In the forms for which 
I have made detailed dissections, it is derived from the anterior 
end of the dorsal phallotreme cleft (the cleft between the dorsal 
aedeagal valves). The bridge and the arch are often fused so 
closly that the distinction is rather trifling. Nevertheless, the 
distinction is useful for descriptive purposes, and the ontogenetic 
origin is different. The bridge, arch, and dorsal aedeagal 
sclerites are continuous portions of a single sclerite which has 
not been named. 

Dirsh defined his arch of cingulum (p. 225) in the same 
sense as the arch of dorsal valves of Roberts ; however, most of 
his figures were labelled in such a way as to suggest the bridge 
rather than the arch. Hubbell, apparently working from Dirsh's 
figures, labelled what is clearly the bridge (fig. Ib, p. 30) as 
the arch. The true arch was labelled as the attachment to syga- 
pophysis. I am unable to find any definition of z\gapophysis, 
but I would presume it referred to a ventral diverticulum from 
the zygoma. The existence of such a diverticulum is implied 
by the terminology of Dirsh, but I know of no evidence to indi- 
cate that it actually does exist. 

The spermatophore sac possesses a single pair of sclerites, the 
endophallic plates. Dirsh and Hubbell referred to these as basal 
valves of penis, but this term should also be rejected for the sake 
of consistent terminology. The term endophallic plate refers to 
the entire sclerite but has often been used for certain portions of 
it in spite of the fact that Snodgrass provided the necessary 
terms. He referred to the flared anterior portion as the anterior 
apodeinc of endophallic plate, but endophallic apodenie is ade- 
quate. The central portion lying against the spermatophore sac 
is the lateral plate. 

FIRST RING OF LOBES 

This ring includes the aedeagal valves as redefined above. 
The inner sides are part of the phallotreme membrane and may 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 147 

or may not be sclerotized. The outer sides are part of the ecto- 
phallic membrane and are often coriaceous but normally not 
sclerotized unless fused to the aedeagal sclerites. 

FIRST RING OF INDENTATION 

This ring is included here because it is usually present dor- 
sally and laterally in the Cyrtacanthacridinae. Its presence in 
other groups is open to question. It does not contain any im- 
portant structures. 

SECOND RING OF LOBES 

This ring contains the slieath. As understood by Roberts 
and Dirsh, the sheath extends from the rami of the cingulum to 
the point where the ectophallic membrane of the aedeagal valves 
is sclerotized, or if it is not sclerotized, to the junction with the 
endophallic membrane. By this definition the extent of the 
sheath varies greatly according to whether or not the ectophallic 
membrane of the aedeagal valves is fused to the aedeagal scle- 
rites. I would prefer to think of the sheath as extending from 
the rami only to the aedeagal valves. When the first ring of 
indentation is present, it serves as the dividing line. When the 
first ring of indentation is absent, a more or less arbitrary divi- 
sion must be made; the aedeagal valves are the projecting, 
intromittent part. 

SECOND RING OF INDENTATION 

This ring contains a well developed sclerite, the chii/nliini, 
which typically includes the zygoma and paired a pod cm cs and 
rami. 

The term zygoma has developed a double meaning. In the 
sense of Snodgrass (p. 64) it was "a strong transverse sclerotic 
bridge." Roberts and Dirsh labelled their drawings in con- 
formity with this except for Dirsh's Plate 32, figure F, where 
the zygoma was indicated posterior to a membranous area. 
However, this was probably just a slip because I 'late 32, figure 
D showed the zygoma anterior to this membranous area. On 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

the other hand, the zygoma has also been thought of as the 
general mid-dorsal region between the bases of the apodemes 
and rami regardless of whether it is sclerotized or not. It was 
this latter sense which Roberts and Dirsh were apparently using 
in their definitions of zygoma and when they stated in their 
definitions of arch that the arch connects with the zygoma. It 
is definitely this latter sense which Hubbell used when he stated 
(explanation of Plate XVII) that his "basal eminence" is the 
summit of the zygoma. (Hubbell stated on page 29 that his 
"basal eminence" has a membranous surface.) It seems wisest 
to return to the more precise concept of Snodgrass, who first 
used the term, and exclude membranous areas from the zygoma. 
However, a membranous area is sometimes so nearly enclosed 
by the zygoma and rami that it can hardly be excluded from the 
cingulum. The term central membrane of cingulum seems ap- 
propriate to solve this difficulty. If there should be any need 
to refer to the broader concept of zygoma, a description such as 
"mid-dorsal region of cingulum" should be sufficient. 

Roberts stated (p. 245) that the ventral infold "is comparable 
to the invagination on the dorsum of the pallus which gives rise 
to the rami and zygoma of the cingulum." This is in conflict 
with his usage in his Cryptosacci where he shows it ventral to 
the ventral lobe and therefore part of the third ring of indenta- 
tion. Roberts informs me (in conversation) that his concept 
of ventral infold agreed with his usage and not with the above 
quotation. In some cases there are two ventral invaginations, 
one in the second ring of indentation and one in the third ring. 
The definition of Dirsh (p. 228) is of no help as it is vague 
enough to include both of the ventral invaginations and the 
ventral lobe. The logical solution is to restrict the term ventral 
infold to the concept of Roberts in his Cryptosacci, i.e., the 
invagination ventral to the ventral lobe and to whatever invagi- 
nation may prove homologous to this. The invagination in the 
second ring of indentation may prove to be present only in occa- 
sional genera and may be referred to as a supplementary ventral 
infold unless future work shows it to be of wide occurrence. I 
am not prepared to state which invagination in Roberts' Crypto- 
sacci is homologous to the "ventral infold" in his Chasmosacci. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 149 

THIRD RING OF LOBES 

The dorsal lobe of this ring is called the basal fold and is 
normally not sclerotized. The lobes on the sides (when present ) 
are called the lateral lobes and commonly bear sclerites. When 
the lateral lobes are joined ventrally, they may be called the 
ventral lobe. When the second ring of indentation is sufficiently 
weakened, the lateral lobes or ventral lobe may fuse with the 
cingulum. The ventral fold of Dirsh is the ventral lobe as here 
understood. The ventral lobe of Dirsh is confusing. In most 
cases it seems synonymous with his ventral fold, but in the case 
of Paulinia (PI. 29) a portion of the sheath is labelled as the 
ventral lobe. 

THIRD RING OF INDENTATION 

The ventral invagination of this ring is the ventral infold and 
has already been discussed. The epiphallus and associated scle- 
rites are found on the ventral side of the dorsal portion of this 
ring of indentation. For these structures the terminology of 
Dirsh is fully adequate and acceptable in so far as I have investi- 
gated them. An invagination is often present immediately an- 
terior to the epiphallus and may be called the epiphallic infold. 
This term refers to the position of the invagination ; the invagi- 
nation does not contain the epiphallus. 

LITERATURE CITED 

DIRSH, V. M. 1956. The phallic complex in Acridoidea (Orthoptera) 
in relation to taxonomy, Trans. Royal Ent. Soc. London 108(7) : 
223-356, 66 pi. 

HUBBELL, T. H. 1960. The sibling species of the Alutacea Group of 
the Bird-Locust genus Schistoccrca, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. 
Michigan No. 116: 1-91, 23 pi. 

ROBERTS, H. R. 1941. A comparative study of the subfamilies of the 
Acrididae (Orthoptera) primarily on the basis of their phallic struc- 
tures, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 93 : 201-246. 

SNODGRASS, R. E. 1935. The abdominal mechanisms of a grasshopper, 
Smith, Miscl. Coll. 94(6) : 1-89. 



150 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

An Improved Technique for Using the Berlese 

Funnel 

By M. W. McFADDEN, University of Alberta, 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 

The Berlese funnel is probably familiar to every entomologist. 
It is a useful tool but unfortunately has two serious limitations : 
it is not portable and too much time is required (often four 
days) to drive all specimens from a substrate sample. How- 
ever, by making use of certain chemicals and a different type 
of construction these limitations have been eliminated. 

In the past, without portable Berlese funnels, specimens had 
to be either collected directly or the duration of the field trip 
had to be limited if habitat samples were taken. This latter 
choice was necessary since temperature, moisture and oxygen 
requirements of the insects restricted the length of time a sample 
could be retained before being run through the Berlese funnel. 

The slowness of the Berlese funnel technique as applied in 
the past can be attributed to the fact that heat, light, or gravity 
is required to drive the insects from the sample. However, Dr. 
Brian Hocking of this university has recently pointed out to 
me, that by using a mixture of three parts naphthalene and one 
part paradichlorobenzene, it is possible to drive out the insects 
in a relatively short period of time. 

The modified apparatus consists of a wooden frame with 
interchangeable screen filters. The lower portion of the frame 
is covered with plastic sheeting in the form of a cone. Two of 
these funnels are bolted to a stake or shaft as shown in fig. 1. 
The shaft is either driven or dug into the ground and the sam- 
ples placed on the screen filters in the funnels. Five tablespoons 
of the chemical mixture are then sprinkled over each sample, 
the top swung into position and collecting jars set underneath 
the cones. All specimens are driven from the sample in approxi- 
mately twelve hours, depending, of course, on the nature of 
the sample. 

As many as five sets of these funnels can be carried in the 
trunk of a car so that collecting can be carried on during the 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



151 




FIG. 1. The top or wood portion of the funnel is nine inches square 
and three inches deep; the entire apparatus is three feet high (from top 
of box to base of stake). 



day and habitat samples brought back to the camp in p 
bags to be run through that evening. In this way specimen- 
can be removed in the morning and the rest of the day can he 
used for collecting. 

The above mentioned technique has been used to collect 
dipterous larvae, especially Stratiomyidae, but in the COUIVM- 
of this work adults and/or larvae of Coleoptera, Odouata, Ile- 
miptera, and Collembola also have been obtained. This tech- 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

nique was successful with such diverse samples as heavy muck, 
various manures, decaying wood, moss, forest duff, and shore 
debris. The fumes from the naphthalene and paradichloro- 
benzene seem to have little or no effect, at least upon Stratio- 
myid larvae, as far as rearing is concerned. 



An Observation of the Behavior of Telamona 

compacta Ball Preceding and During 

Oviposition. (Homoptera, 

Membracidae) 

By CLIFFORD J. DENNIS, East Central State College, 

Ada, Oklahoma 

These observations were made at Itasca State Park, Minne- 
sota, on July 27, 1960, at the campground of the University of 
Minnesota Biological Station during work which was supported 
in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. 

Weather conditions during the time of observation were as 
follows : temperature 82 degrees, wind northwest 3-4 mph, 
sky clear. 

A female Telamona compacta Ball was discovered at 1 :37 
p.m. CST on a bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa Michx., six feet 
above the ground, three inches from the tip of the branch. She 
was on the top of the branch, nearly parallel with it and facing 
toward its base. Her position was on the sunnny, south side 
of the tree, but she was shaded except for the time from 2 :38 
until 3 :35 when she was in intermittent sunlight. The abdomen 
of this insect was noticeably distended and somewhat pendulous 
posteriorly. 

At 1 :55 she raised the posterior part of the body about one- 
fourth inch and then lowered it. This action was repeated at 
2 :05, 2:11,2 :23, 2 :42, 2 :44, 2 :50, and 2 :57. At 2 :44 she also 
flicked her wings slightly as a breeze shook the branch. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 153 

At 3 :04 she abruptly extended her legs and elevated her 
entire body straight upward in a horizontal position. While 
in this posture she jerkily raised the knee of the left hind leg 
several times. The original position was resumed at 3 :06. 

The rear of the body was again raised and lowered at 3 :10. 

At 3:11 she very slowly raised her entire body to the hori- 
zontal position ; this required three minutes. This posture was 
maintained until 3 :18 when she dropped to her original position. 

She raised her entire body halfway to the full height at 3 :21. 
At 3 :22 she started gradually to resume the original position 
and attained it at 3 :24. 

The posterior end of the body was again raised and lowered 
at 3 :28. 

This behavior seemed to be a kind of a warm-up for the 
task that lay ahead. She started to move toward the base of 
the branch at 3 :35. Her progress was not direct. There were 
several stops and starts and some wandering around on the 
branch. By 4 :35 she had progressed about two feet toward the 
base of the branch and had reached an area of corky protuber- 
ances at which point the branch was about one inch in diameter. 

At 4 :35 she was on top of this branch facing its base and 
made what appeared to be a tentative effort to oviposit. She 
unsheathed her ovipositor, raised her posterior end and posi- 
tioned the ovipositor at right angles to her body. The ovipositor 
was then stabbed directly downward to pierce the bark tissue 
between corky ridges. She appeared to bounce up and down 
while inserting it to its full length. Withdrawal of the ovi- 
positor occurred almost immediately ; it was not sheathed com- 
pletely until about thirty seconds had elapsed. 

She then walked to the corky region on the top of a similar 
adjacent branch, taking a position facing its base. Here, at 
4 :45, she began striking oviposition activity. In a smoothly 
coordinated fashion she raised her entire body (especially the 
posterior end), flexed her abdomen slightly, extended the ovi- 
positor perpendicularly to her body and quickly stabbed this 
structure its full length into the stem between two corky ridges. 
Almost immediately she withdrew the ovipositor slightly and 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

then fully inserted it again as she began a pumping action of 
the abdomen. The pumping action was continued until the 
ovipositor was finally withdrawn. During the time the ovi- 
positor was inserted, the venter of the abdomen anterior to the 
base of the ovipositor was inclined abruptly away from the 
branch ; the venter of the abdomen posterior to the base of the 
ovipositor was closely appressed to the bark. This gave the 
impression that she was sitting down on the bark. At 4 :50 she 
slightly withdrew the ovipositor; at 4:51 it was again fully 
inserted. Similar withdrawal and insertion were repeated at 
4 :52 and 4 :53, respectively. At 4 :53 :30 the ovipositor was 
fully withdrawn and sheathed in a smooth action which was 
the reverse of the insertion behavior. The insertion and with- 
drawal actions gave the impression of flowing, graceful motion. 

The third valvulae were not inserted. These could be seen 
flicking as the abdomen was pumping. 

The insect remained motionless eight minutes and then moved 
one inch to its left to the side of the branch, still facing its base, 
and began to oviposit at 5 :04. Her behavior resembled that of 
the preceding instance except that she partially withdrew the 
ovipositor only once. This activity was completed at 5 :07. 

Similar behavior was observed twice more. One instance 
occurred from 5 :21 to 5 :25 on the underside of a somewhat 
smoother, slender part of the stem. The other took place in a 
corky region on the top of a slender branch, starting at 5 :45. 
This one was not completed because I disturbed the insect while 
trying to obtain a closer look. My inquisitiveness caused her 
to fly off and become lost. 

The time, place, and mechanics of the oviposition proper agree 
generally with those briefly reported for Telamona by Funk- 
houser (1917). However, this insect was more easily dis- 
turbed than he indicated. 

LITERATURE CITED 

FUNKHOUSER, W. D. 1917. Mem. Cornell University Agr. Exp. Sta. 
2: 177-445. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 155 

Concerning the Neogeophilidae, with Proposal of 

a New Genus. 1 (Chilopoda : Geophilomorpha : 

Neogeophilidae) 

By R. E. CRABILL, JR., U. S. National Museum, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

In 1918 Filippo Silvestri proposed as new two remarkable 
genera, Ncogcophilns and Evallogcophihts, and assigned them 
to a new geophilid subfamily, Neogeophilinae. He observed 
that the Neogeophilinae were to be distinguished from all other 
geophilids by their second maxillary coxosterna which are com- 
pletely divided midlongitudinally, each bearing anteriorly a pair 
of peculiar uniarticular, lobate structures in place of the usual 
telopodites, associated medial projections, and lappets. The 
distinctiveness of his new forms, he explained, was further en- 
hanced by their bizarre pretarsal modifications : each of the more 
anterior pretarsi bears a sizeable tooth projecting from the ven- 
tral arch of the pretarsal claw proper. Each of these three 
characteristics was unknown to occur within the Geophilidae, 
and their combination was, and remains, common only to the 
Neogeophilidae. 

In 1926 Attems elevated the Silvestri subfamily to full family 
rank but cautioned that family status must remain provisional 
prior to a more detailed presentation of distinctive features. In 
his ordinal monograph of 1929 Attems summarized what was 
known of the neogeophilids somewhat inaccurately, as we shall 
see but continued to accord to them full family status. Since 
1929 no new species have been referred to the family, and no 
new evaluation of the Silvestri specimens has been issued. The 
matter rests as Dr. Attems left it : the rank of the suprageneric, 
collective category to which the Silvestri genera and the present 
new genus are referable remains provisional. 

Neogcophilus and Evallogcophilns were founded upon two 
species, which in turn were based upon three specimens. To 
these may now be added a fourth specimen, representing a nr\v 

1 This study was undertaken with the aid of a grant from the National 
Science Foundation (G9805). 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

species and, evidently, genus. This newst neogeophilid was 
discovered among some undetermined, miscellaneous material 
that was collected more than fifty years ago in Guatemala and 
sent to O. F. Cook, whose interests by that time had shifted 
nearly completely from Chilopoda to Diplopoda and botany. 
Dr. Cook labelled the specimen as a "Geophilus," then put it 
aside, apparently without further attention. This specimen 
manifests the same distinctive higher categorical characteristics 
that Silvestri recognized in his two species. In addition to these 
diagnostic family characters that Silvestri specified, there is 
another of considerable significance that he failed to cite. The 
basal article of the second maxillary telopodite is entirely with- 
out dorsal and ventral condyles. They are absent in the present, 
new form, and, according to his figures, they are absent in his 
two species. 

CRYPTOSTRIGLA, new genus 

Differential Diagnosis. The new genus, while sharing some 
significant characters with each of the other genera, seems more 
reminescent of Evallogeophilus than of Ncogeophilus. At the 
same time it manifests certain features seen in neither of the 
Silvestri genera. The presence in Cryptostrigla of the following 
features will readily distinguish it from Neogeophilus: ultimate 
pedal pretergite and pregenital sternite are indistinctly sepa- 
rated from their respective, adjacent plates; the subcondylic 
sclerotic lines of the prosternum are abortive and incomplete, 
hence do not pass across the prosternal corner to or toward the 
telopodite condyles; the female gonopod consists of one article, 
the two constituent articles having fused without discernible 
trace of an intervening suture. 

The following generic characters are common both to Evallo- 
geophilus and Cryptostrigla: prosternal denticles are present; 
the ultimate pedal pretergite is completely or almost completely 
amalgated with its tergite; the ultimate pedal sternite is com- 
pletely or almost completely amalgamated with the pregenital 
sternite ; the paraclypeal sutures do not diverge outward poste- 
riorly (see discussion under Notes). These two genera differ, 
at least, as follows. Evallogeophilus: (1) prosternal subcon- 



Lxxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 157 

dylic sclerotic lines pass toward and meet or nearly meet the 
basal prehensorial condyles; (2) each female gonopod is dis- 
tinctly biarticulate, the interarticular suture being persistent; 
(3) ultimate pedal pretergite is apparently wholly fused with 
its tergite (see Silvestri's Figs. 6, 9, p. 357 : see discussion under 
Notes below) ; (4) ultimate pedal sternite apparently wholly 
fused with the pregenital sternite (see Silvestri's Figs. 7, 10, 
p. 357). Cryptostrigla: (1) prosternal subcondylic sclerotic 
lines are abortive and coincident with part of the pleuropro- 
sternal sutures, the former neither meeting nor passing toward 
the prehensorial condyles; (2) each female gonopod manifests 
no discernible interarticular suture, the two constituent articles 
having fused without trace of division; (3) the ultimate pedal 
pretergite is intimately fused with its tergite, but the intervening 
transverse suture, although obscure and vestigial, is persistent 
and readily discernible under optimum conditions of observa- 
tion; (4) the ultimate pedal sternite is intimately fused with 
the adajacent pregenital sternite, but the intervening suture, 
although extremely obscure and vestigial, is still discernible but 
with difficulty. 

See also the family resume at the end of the article, where 
the generic diagnostic features are presented comparatively in 
tabular outline. 

Type-species: Cryptostrigla silvestri, new species. (Present 
designation and monotypic). 

Notes. In his original description of Evallogeophilus, Sil- 
vestri characterized its ultimate pedal dorsal sclerite as follows, 
relying heavily upon this particular generic criterion for distin- 
guishing between it and Neogeophilns (p. 357) : "Genus hoc a 
genere Neogeophilus tergito segmenti ultimi pediferi praetergito 
destitute, . . . ." He reported that the pretergite was absent, 
as indeed his figures 6 and 9 show it to be. Yet, comparing 
these figures with their counterparts for N. primus (p. 353, 
Fig. 13), the reader will see that the ultimate pedal tergite of 
uic.ricanus, which appears abnormally long, actually represents 
that tergite plus its associated pretergite. In other words, in 
mexicanus the pretergite and tergite are entirely amalgamated 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

without discernible intervening suture, or, if there is a suture, 
it is so vague that it escaped Silvestri's notice. Clearly, this 
degree of amalgamation does not typify primus, whose inter- 
tergital suture he recognized and figured in Fig. 13. 

In Cryptostrigla silvestri the pretergite and tergite are inti- 
mately fused, but the intervening transverse suture is both per- 
sistent and, though obscure, easily visible after mounting in 
Hoyer's fluid and under optimum conditions of observation. 

A similar explanation is almost certainly pertinent to the 
absence of certain ventral ultimate plates and sutures in mexi- 
canus. On page 356 Silvestri wrote: ". . . sterno subaeque 
longo atque ad basim lato, lateribus paullum convergentibus, 
postice aliquantum sinuato, tergito praetergito nullo, . . . ." 
If the reader will compare Fig. 16 on p. 353 (of primus) with 
its counterpart, Fig. 10, p. 357 (of mexicanus) , he cannot but 
be struck by the facts, first, that the ultimate pedal sternite of 
primus is notably shorter and wider than that of me.vicanus; 
secondly, that the pregenital sternite of primus (Fig. 16) is 
entirely absent in mexicanus (Fig .10). Without much doubt, 
what Silvestri took to be the ultimate pedal sternite of me.vicanus 
was, in fact, that sternite plus the following pregenital sternite 
with which it is intimately fused. The same is true in the case 
of the female (Fig. 7, p. 357), whose pregenital sternite is ap- 
parently absent and whose ultimate pedal sternite is abnormally 
long. In summary, one of two explanations must be true in 
the case of me.vicanus, either: (1) the two plates are completely 
amalgamated without trace of an intervening suture, or; (2) 
the two plates are intimately fused but still separated by an 
intervening, vestigial suture that escaped Silvestri's notice. As 
has already been noted, in C. silvestri there is intimate fusion 
of the dorsal and of the ventral plates, but in each case there is 
a visible, vestigial suture testifying to what has happened. 

Silvestri's original figures necessitate raising two additional 
queries. In each of these two instances we are confronted with 
the same question : Does the figure of the character appear extra- 
ordinary because it actually is, or rather because it was mis- 
represented by the artist? 

In two figures (Fig. 13, p. 353, Fig. 13, p. 355) Silvestri has 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 159 

shown the anterior surfaces of two representative pretarsi that 
are typical of his two new species. In each figure the anterior 
accessory spine is depicted as being very long, rather sinuous, 
apically abruptly pointed, or even notched apico-ventrally, and 
apparently hyaline or semi-translucent. In short, as he has 
figured them, these spines seem somewhat like long, fleshy lap- 
pets. One cannot help but wonder whether the anterior acces- 
sory spines have been misrepresented. In Cryptostrigla sil- 
vestri this accessory spine on all legs is perfectly straight and 
never sinuous ; it is never notched apically or abruptly attenuate, 
and, what is most important, it is typically spinelike and quite 
opaque. 

Secondly, note that in primus (Fig. 2, p. 353) the artis has 
shown the paraclypeal sutures to diverge outward posteriorly far 
beyond the rear clypeal margin. If this representation is accu- 
rate, then we are confronted with a remarkable departure from 
the usual case, wherein the two paraclypeal sutures, when com- 
plete, terminate at or near the posterolateral clypeal corner. If 
these sutures are as Silvestri has shown them, then they must 
be accorded preeminent significance as a generic criterion. 

Finally, mention should be made of several important errors 
which Attems seems to have injected into his summary of the 
family (1929, p. 346). In his family diagnosis Attems reported 
that the ultimate pretarsus consists of one article. Insofar as 
the reader might therefore attribute this condition to all neo- 
geophilids, his statement is misleading. In all known neogeo- 
philids this character seems to be subject to intersexual dimor- 
phism : the ultimate tarsus is uniarticulate in the known males 
of N. primus (Fig. 16, p. 353) and E. mc.ricanus (Fig. 10, p. 
357), but it is biarticulate in the known females of E. mc.vi- 
canus (Fig. 6, p. 357) and of C. silvcstri, 

Attems also characterized E. mexicanus (key, p. 346) as 
lacking a pretergite, whereas, as I have suggested above, it has 
a pretergite which is either wholly fused with the tergite, or else 
incompletely fused with it, in which latter case Silvestri's origi- 
nal description is in error. 

(To be continued) 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

New North American Tabanidae XIII. Change 

of Name for a Well-Known Species of 

Chrysops x 

By CORNELIUS B. PHILIP - 

Since the time of Osten Sacken (1875), Chrysops uniuittatus 
Macquart is a name assigned to a species common east of the 
Mississippi River and extending west to Kansas and Nebraska 
and north to Quebec. He states : "The identity of this species 
with Macquart's C. univittatus can hardly be called in doubt." 
Subsequent workers, including the writer, have followed him in 
this assignment. Osten Sacken also questioned the possible 
synonymy of C. fascipennis Macquart from Philadelphia, but 
further states : ". . . the shortness of the description renders 
the identification impossible." 

Macquart (1855) gives the locality of C. univittatus as Balti- 
more but he did not indicate whether he had more than one 
specimen. A type, previously overlooked in the British Museum 
(Natural History) on visits by Hine, Krober, and the author, 
labelled "Baltimore" and "univittatus n.sp." in Macquart's hand- 
writing, was discovered by me on a visit in 1960. No other 
types were found in Macquart cabinets at the Paris and Lille 
Museums and it may be presumed the BMNH specimen is a 
holotype. No type for C. fascipennis has been located in any 
of these collections so that the relationship suggested by Osten 
Sacken has not been possible to verify or negate. 

The univittatus type now lacks abdomen and antennal flagel- 
lums, but characters of the wing picture, face widely black on 
both sides of lateral sutures, dark scutellum, basal one-third of 
mid-femora and one-half of hind pair darkened, agree closely 
with a compared female from New York of C. wiedenianni 
Krober. The abdominal pattern and legs, as originally de- 

1 These studies were supported by a travel grant from the March Fund 
of the National Academy of Sciences. 

2 U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health 
Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and 
Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 161 

scribed, also agree best with C. wiedemanni. This unfortunate 
misidentification and preoccupation change the concepts of t\vo 
important and common species of Nearctic Chrysops. There 
is not time, before appearance of a Nearctic catalog of Diptera, 
to request plenary action of the International Commission to 
conserve present assignments of C. univittatus and C. wiede- 
manni. Recourse to substitution of C. fascipennis for C. uni- 
vittatus of authors, not Macquart, is not justified on present 
information. 

Under these circumstances, C. wiedemanni Krober becomes a 
synonym of C. univittatus Macquart, not of authors. For C. 
univittatus of authors, not Macquart, the new name C. mac- 
qnarti n.sp. is proposed. 

Holotype $, 7.0 mm. Differs from the adequate description 
of C. univittatus given by Osten Sacken (1875) in the following 
minor respects : Face largely yellowish, the apodemal pits and 
sutures narrowly brown ; callosity brown ; scutellum largely yel- 
low with a small mid-basal spot. These characters are within 
the usually observed variation. Fig. 56 of Brennan (1935) is 
a good depiction of the wing pattern of this type. 

Catonsville, Baltimore, Md., June 30, 1922. F. M. Root. In 
the collection of the author. 

Allotype J 1 , 6 mm. Resembles the female except the black on 
the parafacials larger, and infuscation of second basal cell about 
two thirds its length. 

Riverdale, Maryland, 6-9-11. No collector. In collection 
of the author. 

Paratype males. New York: 2 (reared), Oswego, June, 
Logothetis; 1, Ithaca, July, Evans. Pennsylvania: 1, Swarth- 
niore, July, Cresson, Jr. Wash., D. C.: Rock Creek Park, 
July, Arnaud, Jr. 

Paratype females. Maryland: 1, Hillsdale, Baltimore, July 5, 
1922, F. M. Root (nearly topotypic). Massachusetts: 2, Lev- 
erett and Amherst, July, Coher. New York: 3, Wading River 
and Tuxedo, July and August, no collector; 6, Genesee Co., 
July and August, Pechuman. Neiv Jersey: 4, Atsion, Francis 
Mills and Burlington Co., June and July, Hansens, Belkin, and 
Conant and Thomas. Pennsylvania: 4, Green Valley and Clarke 
Valley, June and July, Kirk and Champlain. Virginia: 1, Giles 



162 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

Co., August, Nuttycombe. North Carolina: 1, Highlands, July, 
Byers. Georgia: 13, Athens, Stone Mt., Grassy Mt., Murray 
Co., Attapulgus, Rabun Co., and Yonah Mt., May, June and 
July, Loizeaux, Fattig and Sudia. Ohio: 11, Lancaster, Bain- 
bridge, Vinton Co., Athens Co., Summit Co., Lucas Co., and 
Amherst, June and July, Goshin, Orago, Thomas and Thomas, 
Stehr, Campbell and Campbell, Lipovsky. Indiana: 2, Cass Co., 
June, Williamson. Michigan: 2, Gull Lake Biol. Sta., Kalama- 
zoo, July, Fischer. Florida: Alachua Co., April and May, 
Dean and Stephens. Ontario: Puslinch, June, Pechuman. 

In the U. S. National Museum, British Museum (Natural 
History), and collections of L. L. Pechuman and the author. 

Variation occurs in which the abdominal pattern fades to 
obscure brown shadows in a few specimens from New Jersey, 
Ohio and Georgia, but these are recognizable by the wing pat- 
terns and entirely yellow femora. Varietal names do not appear 
to be warranted analogous to those in the flavida complex. 

The type localities of both C. univittata and C. macqnarti thus 
are Baltimore and indeed they fly together over a considerable 
proportion of their respective ranges, but are quickly separated 
by several characters including the more extensive apical spots 
and infuscated first basal cells in the latter. 

Though Stone (1930) has described the immature stages of 
C. wiedeinanni (= true univittatus} , those of C. macqnarti ap- 
pear not to have been reported. 

REFERENCES 

BRENNAN, J. M. 1935. Bull. Univ. Kans. 36: 249-401. 

MACQUART, P. J. M. 1855. 5 e Suppl. Soc. des Sci. Lille, Mem., 1854: 

25-156. 

OSTEN SACKEN, C. R. 1875. Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 2: 365-397. 
STONE, ALAN. 1930. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 23 : 261-304. 



Ixxiij ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 163 

A New Rhinotragine Cerambycid from Arizona 
and Sonora (Coleoptera) 

By E. GORTON LINSLEY, University of California, Berkeley 

The Rhinotraginae comprise a group of Neotropical Ceramby- 
cidae of which more than 200 species have been described. 
They are of special interest to students of natural selection be- 
cause of the remarkable mimetic form, coloration, and behavior 
exhibited by species in the various genera. These suggest an 
unusually wide range of models, including bees, wasps, and 
beetles of several families. Perhaps no comparable group of 
animals has developed diversified mimicry to such a degree. 

Until now, no species of Rhinotragini has been known to occur 
within the boundaries of the United States. The species here 
recorded belongs to the genus Odontocera, as currently denned, 
and appears to be 0. aurocincta Bates. However, the population 
occurring in Southern Arizona and Sonora appears to be sub- 
specifically different from those in Yucatan and Yera Cruz. 

Odontocera aurocincta arizonensis Linsley, new subspecies 

Male : Integument piceous black, mouthparts somewhat rufo- 
testaceous, anterior tibiae, especially beneath, and intermediate 
and posterior tibiae at base and apex and most of antenna! fla- 
gellum rufo-testaceous, first two abdominal segments testaceous, 
elytra with base and humeral region black, basal one-third of 
lateral margin black, becoming rufo-testaceous except as it ap- 
proaches base, disk transparent, whitish, becoming yellowish or 
rufo-testaceous at apex ; pubescent patches silvery white, includ- 
ing margins of pronotum, scutellum, median area of prosternum, 
and margins of meso- and metasterna. Length 17 mm. 

Holotypc male (Calif. Acad. Sci.), from Box Canyon, Santa 
Rita Mountains, ARIZONA, August 1, 1959, at flowers of a mimo- 
saceous shrub (D. S. Verity). Paratypes, a male from Sabino 
Canyon, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, September 5, 
1957 (R. L. Westcott), a male from Mocuzari, Sonora, 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

tember 25 (R. L. Westcott), and a male from Santa Ana, 
Sonora, July 22, 1940 (R. P. Allen). 

What I assume to be females of this subspecies were taken in 
the vicinity of Alamos, Sonora, by R. L. Westcott as follows: 
two examples, Alamos, Sonora, July 30-August 9, 1957, one 
example 8 miles west of Alamos, August 9, 1957, and one ex- 
ample 18 miles west of Alamos, July 30, 1957. In addition to 
the usual sexual differences in the structure of the abdomen, 
development of the eyes, etc., these differ from the male by 
having the head, pronotum, and sides of mesosternum red, the 
basal antennal segments yellowish rather than black, the legs 
yellow with the claviform portion of the intermediate and poste- 
rior femora piceous brown, that of the anterior femora clouded 
with piceous, the first two abdominal segments piceous brown 
basally, last three segments brown, the elytra without a black 
basal and humeral area and the pubescent patches of the pro- 
notal and meso- and metasternal margins golden instead of 
white. In this last respect they resemble the female of typical 
0. aurocincta Bates (1873) from Yucatan more closely than 
that of the "variety" nigroapicalis Fisher (1947) from Vera 
Cruz. From both, however, they differ in the red head and 
pronotum. 

The species of Odontocera exhibit great diversity of form, 
some species resembling meliponid bees, others vespid wasps. 
This resemblance carries over to the flight habits of the beetles 
(Bates, 1873), and Wheeler and Darlington (1930) have not 
only recorded vespid-like flight for 0. triplaris Fisher, 1 but the 
occurrence of a similarly colored vespid - with them. The pres- 
ent species is much more wasp-like than bee-like. If both sexes 
are mimetic they presumably have quite different models, in 
view of the dichromatism which they exhibit. 

1 The species of Odontocera referred to by Wheeler and Darlington 
were subsequently described by Fisher as follows: no. 7 (p. 110) as 
O. triplaris and no. 9 (p. Ill) as O. darlingtoni. 

2 The vespid has been tentatively identified as Polybia cmaciata Luc., 
a species widely distributed in Tropical America. It shares similar col- 
oration not only with vespids of similar genera, but also, as pointed out 
to me by H. E. Evans, with a trigonalid and a pompilid. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 165 

LITERATURE CITED 

BATES, H. W. 1873. Notes on the Longicorn Coleoptera of Tropical 
America. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)11: 21-45, 117-132. 

FISHER, W. S. 1947. New cerambycid beetles belonging to the tribe 
Rhinotragini. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 97: 47-57. 

WHEELER, W. M. and P. J. DARLINGTON, JR. 1930. Ant-tree notes 
from Rio Frio, Colombia. Psyche 37: 107-117. 



Herpetomonas muscarum (Leidy) in the Haemo- 
coele of Larval Musca domestica L. 1 

By JOHN PAUL KRAMER, Illinois Natural History Survey, 

Urbana, Illinois 

In late September, 1959, the author collected 61 sluggish and 
immobile larvae of Musca domestica L. from mounds of insecti- 
cide-free chicken feces at a farm near Tolono, Illinois. These 
larvae, which were well-developed third instars, were brought 
back to the laboratory for study. Fifty-seven of them responded 
vigorously to light raps with a blunt probe, and, in addition, 
exhibited pulsation of the dorsal vessel. A single larva did not 
respond to the aforementioned tactile stimulus although a faint 
pulsation of the dorsal vessel was visible. The three remaining 
larvae were considered dead since they neither responded to the 
probe nor was pulsation of the dorsal vessel observable. As a 
matter of routine each whole larva was examined microscopically 
in order to detect gross changes, if any, in its organs. 

No abnormalities were noticed among the 57 active larvae. 
On the other hand, the haemolymph of the single moribund larva 
and of the three dead larvae was teeming with the long slender 
protozoan, Herpetomonas muscarum (Leidy) (Flagellata: Try- 
pansomatidae). The microparasites could be observed through 
the integument of the larvae without dissection. No evidence of 
decay or mechanical injury was present in these four larvae. 

1 This investigation was supported in part by Research Grant K-1231 
from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the 
National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service. 



166 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, 1961 

Thus it is evident that M. muscarum does gain entry to the 
haemocoele of the host in some instances. Further it seems 
possible that H. muscarum may be a facultative pathogen under 
these circumstances. This is noteworthy since H. muscarum 
is generally considered a benign parasite which is restricted to 
the alimentary tract of adult muscoid flies in nature (Steinhaus 
1949, and West 1951). 

REFERENCES 

STEINHAUS, E. A. 1949. Entomogenous Trypanosomidae, p. 116-117. 

In E. A. Steinhaus, Principles of insect pathology, McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., New York. 
WEST, L. S. 1951. Protozoa, p. 240-243. In L. S. West, The housefly, 

Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca. 



Symposium 

A Symposium on Insect Metamorphosis has been an- 
nounced by the Royal Entomological Society of London, at 
the Society's Rooms, 41 Queen's Gate, London, S.W.7, on 
September 21st and 22nd, 1961, to bring together leading repre- 
sentatives of different approaches to polymorphism and to put 
the subject into better perspective to entomologists in general. 

The participants from Britain include J. S. Kennedy, A. D. 
Lees, and V. B. Wigglesworth (all of Cambridge), E. B. Ford 
(Oxford), O. W. Richards (London), P. M. Sheppard (Liver- 
pool), J. H. Sang (Edinburgh), M. Liischer (Bern), Th. Dob- 
zhansky (Columbia Univ.), and C. D. Michener (Kansas). 

The meeting is open, by ticket, to all scientists who have 
registered (^1) by May 5th. The Symposium volume will be 
available later, priced at 1 Os. Ocl. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 167 

New Subscription Rates for 1962 

The cost of printing and distributing ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 
has been increasing greatly in recent years. The present low 
rates have been possible only as a result of the steady growth 
of our subscription list together with the fact that all editorial 
work is volunteer ; also there has been income from the sale 
of back volumes, and advertising support from the Society. 
Now, however, recent sharp increases in costs make it necessary 
to secure additional income from subscriptions. 

Beginning January, 1962 (Vol. 73), the subscription rate to 
libraries, laboratories, and institutions of every sort, both do- 
mestic and foreign, will be $9.00, postpaid, per annual volume 
of 10 issues. 

Subscriptions for personal, individual use will also be in- 
creased somewhat to $6.00, postpaid, domestic and foreign. 

To members of the American Entomological Society the 
rate is $3.00. 

This modest advance in rate for personal subscriptions is the 
first since 1952, and, it is felt, will occasion no decrease in the 
number of such subscriptions from the many amateur and pro- 
fessional entomologists who now read the NEWS; in fact it is 
hoped that many younger enthusiasts, especially students, will 
be encouraged to subscribe. By thus maintaining a large circu- 
lation, even if in part at a reduced rate, the costs will be more 
broadly spread to the ultimate benefit of institutional as well as 
individual subscribers. 

As an additional economy, the NEWS will discontinue the offer 
of free separates of their articles to members of the Society. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept. 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 

Used genuine Schmidt boxes, excellent condition, at less than half 
price. H. W. Allen, Box 150, Moorestown, N. J. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, importam 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 

SpZ.lU. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3. PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



"ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

JULY 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 7 



CONTENTS 

Gillaspy A new Stictiella from Mexico 169 

McDermott A new genus of firefly 174 

Crabill Concerning Neogeophilidae (cont.) 177 

Selander Meloid beetles from the West Indies 190 

Judd Melanagromyza from linden galls 192 

Throne Psectra diptera in Wisconsin 193 

Review A manual of common beetles 194 

Rapp Corrodentia in cliff swallow nests 195 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 




ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use: in the United States, $5.00; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00 ; Canada, $6.15 ; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 
Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII JULY, 1961 No. 7 

A New Species of Stictiella from Mexico 
(Sphecidae: Bembicini) 

JAMES E. GILLASPY, Sul Ross State College, Alpine, Texas 

This description is presented to make the name available for 
publication of behavioral data by the collector, Dr. Howard E. 
Evans, for whom the species is named. 

Stictiella evansi, n. sp. 

Holotype Female. Length 15 mm. Color pattern triphasal 
black, yellow, and clear (or hyaline), the latter limited prin- 
cipally to margins of metasomal sclerites. Black areas repre- 
sent melanic infusion of the integument, which is otherwise clear. 
Yellow is developed beneath and is seen through the transparent 
integument. Yellow areas are as follows : pedicel and scape 
below ; clypeus except pair of "nasal" spots ; intersocketal area, 
not attenuated above or enclosing sockets ; broad anterior orbits 
narrowing abruptly above ; complete V above frontal pit receiv- 
ing anterior ocellus ; posterior orbits exceeding inner angles of 
compound eyes, continuous across vertex except for narrmv 
median and lateral interruptions, not attaining the occipital su- 
ture posteriorly, and no yellow being found posterior to the 
occipital suture ; pronotum except transverse band extending to 
base of each lateral lobe ; mesonotum in form of nested U's, 
outer U based on scutellum, extending anteriorly almost to 
anterior margin of scutum and bordering scutum except ante- 
rior to tegulae, inner U lyre-shaped, interrupted medially ; 
tegulae anteriorly ; postscutellum except narrow anterior cres- 
cent ; propodeal triangle except basal crescent and apex ; postero- 



(169) 



nil ~t 

INSTIIUTION JUL 1 3 1901 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u, 1961 



lateral angles and anterior border of propodeum including spira- 
cles ; mesepisterna and metepisterna broadly above, except black 
along sulci ; discal spot of hypoepimeral areas ; coxae and tro- 
chanters apically to some extent; femora except above; tibiae 
except spot below on middle tibiae and except hind tibiae above ; 
anterior tarsi ; middle tarsi except distitarsi above ; hind tarsi 
except nebulous areas above; first tergite except anterior face, 
invading subsutural areas basally and extending posteriorly as 
a broad median tongue, triradiate, narrowly connected to apical 
black at midline, leaving elliptic-ovate postgradular spots joined 
to lateral maculation ; remaining tergites with elements of this 
pattern, but antero-median black tongue broadening on tergites 
24 (proportionately broader on 5-6) and not connected to apical 
black except on tergite 5 ; tergite 6 without apical black ; sternite 
1 medially and apically ; sternites 2-6 with progressively smaller 
lateral spots, separated by progressively broader, apically nar- 
rowing, medial black. 

Vestiture inconspicuous, not concealing integumental surface, 
that of clypeus and anterior orbits fine, appressed, giving silvery 
sheen. 

Head wider than thorax at posterior lobes of pronotum 
(1.06:1). Scape moderately stout, length about three times 
greatest width. Maxillae apicad of palpal base in length more 
than half of head width (1:1.77) ; maxillary palpi with six seg- 
ments, labial palpi with four. Labrum longer than basal width 
(1.2:1). Clypeus width less than half of head width (1:2.27), 
narrower than distance between compound eyes at vertex ( 1 : 
1.04), distinctly less than interocular distance at vertex (1: 
1.10) ; surface of clypeus slightly protuberant in lateral view, 
exceeding intersocketal carina ; basal part of clypeus without a 
distinctly planate area ; epistomal suture at closest point distant 
from antennal sockets by about one-fifth intersocketal distance 
(1:4.8), this at subantennal angles, between which it is slightly 
bowed downward; outwardly from subantennal angles sloping 
distinctly to tentorial angles, thence almost rectilinearly to com- 
pound eyes, where it is angulated and again almost rectilinear to 
lateral angles. Intersocketal carina obsolete above clypeus, 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 171 

highest at midpoint of sockets, not exceeding sockets above 
except as weakly raised frontal line to frontal fovea, above 
which it is weakly impressed to anterior ocellar basin. Anterior 
ocellar mound circular in form, both a crest and peripherally, 
shallowly interrupted on midline below, deeply interrupted to 
lens level on midline above. Anterior ocellus a glabrous, light- 
pervious surface occupying the floor of the basin formed by the 
anterior ocellar mounds, surface delimited above by an arch- 
shaped sulcus, thence sloping, crescentwise, to deepest point 
immediately outside (below) arms of arch; arch slightly wider 
than long (1.14:1). 

Mesosoma with punctation of mesoscutum and scutellum uni- 
formly fine and dense. Propodeal triangle formed of rectilinear 
sutures, converging on posterior face of propodeum at about a 
90 angle. Legs of medium build ; distitarsi with scattered 
bristles ventrally ; arolium and other median pretarsal structures 
not at all bulbous but padlike and scarcely evident, the claws 
capable of close apposition ; claws all similar, uniform in curva- 
ture, outer claw of each pair very little longer. \Yings beyond 
humeral plate two and one-half times thorax width, measured 
at posterior lobes (2.51:1); second cubital cell slightly nar- 
rowed above, slightly wider than high. 

Metasoma with tergite 2 having smallest lateral punctures, 
exclusive of those in unpigmented marginal area, similar to sub- 
sutural punctation of tergite 1, tergites 3-6 with punctures pro- 
gressively coarser and more sparse. 

Allotype Male. Length 16 mm. General appearance and 
pattern of markings fairly similar to female except more slender 
and maculation less extensive. 

Antennae with tyloides evident on segments 4-13 (apicad 
only on 4) as longitudinal, broadly raised or subcarinate glabrous 
areas; segments 2-12 distinctly excised distally on side inward 
to curvature of antennae ; penultimate segment without inner 
apical process. 

Legs slender; distitarsi slender, widening apically, length 
more than three times greatest width, all approximately similar 
in form and size ; anterior femora slender, only moderately thin 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u* 1961 



dorso-ventrally ; anterior tarsal segments 2-4 not distinctly 
lobed or flattened ; middle femora slender, anterior and posterior 
surfaces longitudinally rectilinear, parallel, posterior surface 
carinate-serrate, teeth relatively weak, unevenly spaced, increas- 
ing in size apically, from posterior aspect the carina and serra- 
tions rectilinear and uniformly medial with respect to dorsal 
and ventral surfaces except two apical teeth widely spaced, 
deeply divided, and diverging from line in an anterior direction ; 
middle tibiae moderately slender, slightly exceeding femora in 
length when apposed ; calcar of middle tibiae apically curved 
inward, blunt, thumblike, slender, brownish ; middle basitarsi 
straight, slightly thickened apically, ventral surface beset with 
several (about 6) bristles along its length, without apical proc- 
ess; second and third mesotarsal segments not apically pro- 
duced ; posterior basitarsi unmodified. 

Metasoma with seventh tergite narrowed at apex, indistinctly 
bilobed, dorsomedian preapical surface with well-defined, almost 
completely impunctate glabrous area; lateral margins above 
spiracular lobes inflected, groovelike, receiving dorsal margin of 
spiracular lobes, grooved surface bare but adjacent dorsal sur- 
face weakly produced at apex of spiracular lobes and densely 
set with stout, spinelike bristles ; spiracular lobes moderately 
inflected, broadly bladelike, length only twice width, separated 
across venter by about one-half width of either, and with 7th 
sternite forming a downward arching floor to the 7th segment, 
opaque except very narrow membranous inner margin, at apex 
with broad dorsal point ; surface of spiracular lobes finely lined, 
meshlike, glabrous except group of punctures (abovit 5) each 
with a single long hair, ventrad to spiracle ; latter at upper third, 
slightly apicad of middle, on edge of strongly developed post- 
spiracular pit. Sternite 2 with paired processes, sternite 6 
bowed downward in apical half, somewhat keel-like anteriorly, 
apical margin produced to median point ; eighth sternite with 
three terminal processes, median process turned angulately 
downward, thus comprising slightly less than half the measured 
total length of sternite, angulately margined at middle on each 
side ; discal process not present. 



IxxiiJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 173 

Genitalia with parameres slender, ventral surface uniformly 
sclerotized, outwardly set with long hairs ; volsellae with cuspis 
slender, distinctly shorter than digitus ; digitus stoutly bird- 
head-shaped ; aedeagus head slender, elongate. 

This species displays various 5". pulchclla (Cresson) Group 
(Gillaspy, 1959) characteristics. It stands close to 5. tubcrcn- 
lata (Fox) in the nature of the middle femora of the male, but 
has paired processes of the second sternite. The males key 
according to Parker (1929) to pulchclla with only some diffi- 
culty occasioned by the weakly developed characters of the 
basitarsi, which are straight and only weakly emarginated 
throughout their length on the inner surface. In pulchclla the 
basitarsi are strongly curved as well as inwardly emarginated 
lengthwise, and the posterior serrate carina of the mesofemora 
deviates dorsad almost from its origin, rather than traversing 
the postero-medial aspect of the femora. The female runs to 
Parker's couplet 37, differing from both options in having the 
discal marks of the scutum well developed, the mesopleura 
with yellow almost coextensive with black, and the sternites 
likewise all with both yellow and black. 

Holotypc female from Mazatlan, Sinaloa, MEXICO, July 18, 
1959; allotype male from San Bias, Nayarit, Mexico, July 20, 
1951, collected on sand; two paratype males with same data as 
allotype except one does not bear a "collected on sand" label; 
all collected by H. E. Evans. The holotype and allotype are 
deposited in the United States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. The paratypes are in the collections of Cornell Univer- 
sity and the author. 

REFERENCES CITED 

GILLASPY, J. E. 1959. A new bembicine wasp related to Sticticlla tcinii- 
cornis (Fox), with certain phylogenetic considerations. Pan-Pac. 
Ent. 35 : 187-194. 

PARKER, J. B. 1929. A generic revision of the fossorial wasps of the 
tribes Stizini and Bembicini with notes and descriptions of new spe- 
cies. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 75(5) : 1-203, 15 pis. 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u* 1961 



A New Genus and Species of Firefly: Photoctus 
boliviae (Coleoptera; Lampyridae) 

FRANK A. MCDERMOTT, Wilmington, Delaware 

Occasionally one encounters a specimen which just does not 
fit in with accepted character combinations for classification. 
Such is the case with three male specimens of a lampyrid sent 
me from Bolivia by Sr. Luis E. Pena, of Santiago, Chile. The 
remarkable characters of this insect are the much reduced epi- 
pleura and an enlarged and quite certainly luminous 8th ventral 
segment. For this species I propose the new generic name 
Photoctus, a condensation implying the luminous 8th ventral, 
and the specific name boliviae, indicating the country of origin. 

PHOTOCTUS gen. nov. 

This genus is differentiated from previously described lam- 
pyrid genera by the following combination of characters : 

Antennae uniramose, the rami long, flattened, contorted, 
hairy; antennal sockets prominent, projecting beyond the eyes. 

Mandibles apically slender. 

Gula membranous in forward portion. 

Epipleura reduced to basal traces; no explanate, elytral mar- 
gins ; forward edges deflexed vertically at the humeral angles, 
becoming level with the disk at about midlength. 

Tergites with acute lobes, directed posteriorly. 

Eighth ventral segment long and broadly expanded, slightly 
emarginate at apex ; apparently luminous. 

Photoctus boliviae sp. nov. 

Description of holotype: 

Type locality El Palmar, Chopare, Bolivia. Collector Luis E. 
Pena, September 8, 1956. 

Dimensions ca. 5.8 mm long by 2.05 mm broad; outline 
parallel. 

Pronotum ca. 0.9 mm long by 1 .6 mm broad at angles ; nearly 
evenly semicircular; posterior angles acute and projecting be- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 175 

hind the middle of the sinuate base. Anterior half of margin 
internally deflexed, deeply so at sides of eyes; posterior half 
nearly flat ; coarsely and densely punctate ; pubescence short 
and scanty, principally on edges ; color transparent brown. Disk 
convex, smooth, and shining, with scattered hairs ; basal half of 
convex area consists of a trapezoidal brown spot not quite reach- 
ing base, with a median longitudinal channel ; convexity extends 
forward over eyes, with a short median carina. 

Scutellum dark brown, coarsely punctate, apex broadly 
rounded. Mesonotal plates dull dark yellow. 

Elytra 4.85 mm long by 1.02 mm broad; parallel (actually 
somewhat spread in holotype), brown, densely rugose-punctate 
and markedly tricostate, the costae almost reaching the apices; 
no explanate margins and only basal traces of epipleura; the 
outer edges deflected vertically at the humeral angles and gradu- 
ally becoming level with the disk at about midlength. Fairly 
dense, short, oblique pubescence; no secondary pubescence 
observable. 

Tergites all very dark brown, 4th to 7th with posteriorly 
directed acute lobes. Pygidium black, trilobed, wider and longer 
than the 8th ventral. 

Prosternum dull yellow, mesosternum yellowish brown, meta- 
sternum cloudy reddish brown. 

Ventral segments 2 to 5 dark brown, 6th with posterior edge 
pale, and 7th almost entirely so, both broadly emarginate ; pubes- 
cence short and appressed. 8th ventral as long as 6th and 7th 
combined, broadly expanded, nearly as wide as 7th and narrowly 
emarginate in middle of posterior edge; median longitudinal 
sulcus ; pale salmon color. 

Legs short; fore and intermediate light brown, posterior 
darker; tibial spurs absent. First posterior tarsal article as 
long as the next three combined ; 4th with very small pulvilli ; 
5th nearly as long as first. Claws small, sharp, simple. 

Head deeply set in "collar" of the prothorax; frons concave, 
very dark brown, rugose; interocular margins not divergent; 
0.9 mm across eyes and 0.5 mm between them above antenna! 
sockets; eyes large and contiguous below. 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July, 1961 

Mandibles very small, pale; distal portion slender and very 
sharp, approaching Green's modified type. Terminal article of 
maxillary palpi conical and but little thicker than the first three 
articles ; labial palpi very small, terminal crescentic. 

Gula membranous in the small forward portion which is 
visible. 

Antennae 2.3 mm long, articles 3 to 10 dark brown, subequal 
in length, and each bearing a single pale, flattened, hairy ramus 
3 to 5 times as long as the article from which it arises, narrowly 
reniform; rami contorted, not folded fanwise. llth article 
similar to the ramus on the 10th. Antennal sockets and mouth 
parts project forward beyond the eyes. 

Abdominal spiracles not discernible ; presumably in the 
pleural fold. 

Aedeagus not extracted, but protruded in one paratype, show- 
ing a compact conical form with the median lobe visible between 
the lateral lobes and curved upwards, the tips of all three ap- 
proximate ; two small lateral knobs. 

Female unknown. 

Holotype is being deposited in the U. S. National Museum 
as No. 65674; one paratype in the California Academy of Sci- 
ences, and one in my collection. The paratypes are slightly 
smaller than the holotype, and one is somewhat less strongly 
pigmented; the 6th ventral may be entirely brown. 

It would be very interesting to find the female of this species ; 
probably larviform and brightly luminous. The luminous con- 
duct of the male was not reported. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 177 

Concerning the Neogeophilidae, with Proposal of 
a New Genus. 1 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha : 

Neogeophilidae) 

By R. E. CRABILL, JR., U. S. National Museum, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

(Continued from p. 159) 
Cryptostrigla silvestri, new species 

Holotype : $. GUATEMALA : Department of Alta Verapaz, 
Semococh (according to O. F. Cook's note, about 48 km. south- 
east of Coban). G. P. Goll, leg. U. S. National Museum cata- 
logue of myriapod types: 2606; chilopod type C-147; see slides 
StC : 76 and 77. 

INTRODUCTORY. Length, about 32 mm. Pedal segments, 69. 
Body shape : Essentially of uniform width, the final 45 seg- 
ments slightly attenuate. Color: Considerably discolored from 
long immersion in alcohol, hence uniformly sordid light brown. 

ANTENNAE. Each is broken; left with 5 articles, right with 
4 articles. Each basal article much wider than long, the remain- 
ing articles approximately as long as greatest width. Vesti- 
ture evidently becoming suddenly denser on the fifth article. 
CEPHALIC PLATE. Greatest length, 0.544 mm; greatest width, 
0.579 mm, thus somewhat wider than long. Shape: Anteriorly 
broadly pointed, the two sides meeting to form an obtuse angle ; 
laterally strongly, evenly excurved ; posterior margin essentially 
straight. Areolation coarse. Without frontal or other sutures 
or sulci. Setae short and sparsely disposed. A narrow, central 
portion of the prebasal plate is exposed. CLYPEUS (Fig. 6). 
Paraclypeal sutures nearly straight; complete (not curving 
postero-laterally as in Silvestri's figure of primus). Setae, few. 
as shown; prelabral setal pair absent. Clypeal areas and plagu- 
lae absent ; areolation coarse and essentially uniform. Each 
bucca well-defined by strong sutures; each with a weak trans- 
buccal suture ; anteriorly with a few small setae. LABRUM ( Fig. 
6). Consisting of one obscure, weak, hyaline, undivided piece 



178 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July, 1961 

that projects posteriorly in a gentle convex arc ; labral teeth very 
short and delicate, hyaline. Labrum continuous on each side 
with a delicately sclerotized bar (part of the clypeus) that meets 
each labral fultura. MANDIBLE (Fig. 1). Shaft relatively short ; 
body of the mandible relatively long and massive ; distally with 
a row of simple hyaline teeth, these very long and flat, rather 
blunt. FIRST MAXILLAE (Fig. 2). Coxosternum completely 
divided medially into right and left halves ; lappets absent. Each 
coxosternal half surmounted by a broad, lobelike structure 
(which may represent a highly modified telopodite) ; each lobe- 
like structure apically with an indistinct membranous area but 
otherwise without sutures, divisions, etc. ; lappets absent. SEC- 
OND MAXILLAE (Fig. 2). Coxosternum medially rather narrow, 
neither divided nor suturate midlongitudinally ; postero-laterally 
somewhat extended ; entire posterior margin weakly areolate 
and regionally membranous; metameric pore openings con- 
spicuous. Telopodite consisting of three distinct articles ; basal 
article entirely without dorsal and ventral condyles ; third article 
rather ovate in outline ; apical claw short and broad, pointed, not 
excavate, anterior edge smooth but posterior edge with about 
3 sharp teeth, thus giving claw superficially a bifid appearance 
(Fig. 8). 

PROSTERNUM (Fig. 3). Very broad. Pleuroprosternal su- 
tures complete, terminating dorsolaterally. Abortive subcon- 
dylic sclerotic lines present, these continuous with the pleuro- 
prosternal sutures posteriorly but not passing to or toward their 
respective prehensorial condyles. Anterocentrally with a pair 
of obscure but well-sclerotized and rounded denticles. PRE- 
HENSORS (Fig. 3). When flexed, falling far short of anterior 
cephalic margin. Denticles absent on all articles. Ungula long 
and extraordinarily straight, falciform ; dorso-ventrally very flat, 
bladelike; posterior edge finely dissected to form about 6 tiny, 
irregular serrations. Poison calyx located at upper end of 
trochanteroprefemur, cordiform in shape ; its duct passing along 
anterior edge of ungula to open far short of apex. Poison gland 
very long, passing out of trochanteroprefemur, apparently ex- 
tending posteriorly nearly as far as 1st pedal segment. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 179 

TERGITES. Basal plate anteriorly weakly concave to reveal a 
small portion of prebasal plate centrally. Remaining tergites 
coarsely areolate, very sparsely setose; without sulci. PLEU- 
RITES. Agreeing closely with those of E. mexicanus (Silvestri's 
Figs. 1-5, p. 357). Paratergites absent. Spiracles on anterior 
third of body weakly horizontally elliptical, thereafter becoming 
rounder. LEGS (except ultimates). First legs only slightly 
shorter and thinner than those following. All legs short and 
notably robust, not becoming longer or less robust posteriorly 
on body. Setae short and sparse but more numerous than on 
tergites and sternites. Pretarsi (Fig. 4) : Each fundamentally 
consisting of a rather bulbous base and a prominent claw proper ; 




Cryptostrigla silvcstri, new species, holotype. 
1. Left mandible (inner surface). 

claws proper from the 1st through the 33rd each with a con- 
spicuous antero-ventral, ventrally directed tooth, tooth of 1st 
pretarsus small, thereafter ventral teeth increasing in size, be- 
coming smaller again on the 31st and 32nd pretarsi ; each tooth- 
bearing pretarsus with minute serrations on the ventral edge of 
claw proper; each pretarsus (1-68) with two basal accessory 
spines, the posterior always minute, the anterior very robust 
and long on those pretarsi with ventral teeth (on 1 through 33 i. 
thereafter becoming smaller and thinner. STKRXITES. Sulci, 
sutures, carpophagus-structures, porefields, depressions, nu-ta- 
sternite projections all absent. Setae short and sparse. Areola- 
tion weak. On anterior third of body the intersternites are 
weakly divided midlongitudinally ; on posterior two-thirds ol 



180 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[July, 1961 




8 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURES 
Cryptostrigla silvestri, new species, holotype. 

2. First and second maxillae (ventral aspect, setae deleted). 

3. Prosternum and right prehensor (ventral aspect). 

4. Pretarsus and tarsus of 14th left leg (posterior surface, all setae 
shown), a, minute serrulations on plantar edge of claw proper, b, ven- 
tral tooth of claw proper, c, hypertrophic anterior accessory spine, d, 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 181 

body intersternites become wider anteroposteriorly, more band- 
like ; undivided centrally. 

ULTIMAE PEDAL SEGMENT (Figs. 5, 7). Pretergite inti- 
mately fused with tergite proper; the suture separating them 
is persistent but vestigial and weak; pretergite evidently with- 
out pleurites. Tergite : Greatest length exceeds greatest width ; 
sides nearly parallel, weakly convergent; posterior margin me- 
dially extended to form a blunt point, the two sides (of the rear 
margin) thus forming an obtuse angle. Presternite intimately 
fused with sternite, the vestigial suture separating them is 
present but discernible with difficulty. Sternite: Sides weakly 
convergent ; the true posterior margin medially very deeply ex- 
cavate, the two corners extended posteriorly in long sharp 
points ; the sternite intimately fused with the pregenital sternite, 
the intervening suture barely discernible but persistent. Coxo- 
pleuron : Moderately inflated ; dorsally, laterally and ventrally 
with small, irregularly disposed freely-opening pores ; without 
porepits of parasternital fossae ; setae short and very sparse. 
Leg : Notably longer and thinner than penult leg ; with 6 articles 
distal to coxopleuron ; setae short and somewhat more numerous 
than on other legs ; tarsus consisting of two articles, the disto- 
tarsus slightly longer than the proximotarsus ; pretarsus repre- 
sented by a minute sclerotic point (seen only at 645 X), hence 
an unguiform or tuberculate pretarsus is absent. 

(in dashes) depressor tendon of the pretarsus. e, claw proper of the 
pretarsus. f, minute, atrophied posterior accessory spine, g, (in dashes) 
condyle of pretarsus. 

5. Ultimate pedal segment and postpedal segments (ventral, setae de- 
leted), a, penultimate pedal sternite. b, presternite of ultimate pedal 
segment, c, ultimate pedal sternite. d, vestigial, extremely obscure but 
persistent suture separating the true ultimate pedal sternite (c) and the 
pregenital sternite (e). e, pregenital sternite. f, genital sternite. g, (in 
dashes) concealed terminal pore, h, gonopod. 

6. Clypeus, labrum, and right and left buccae (ventral aspect, all setae 
shown ) . 

7. Rear body segments (dorsal aspect, setae deleted), a, pretergite of 
penultimate pedal segment, b, tergite of penultimate pedal segment, c, 
last spiracle of left side, d, pretergite of ultimate pedal sc.miu-nt. f, 
obscure transverse suture separating pretergite (d) and tergite (i). i. 
tergite of ultimate pedal segment. 

8. Third article and claw of 2nd maxillary right telopodite (ventral 
aspect, all setae shown). 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u, 1961 



POSTPEDAL SEGMENTS (Fig. 5). Pregenital sternite antero- 
posteriorly very long, passing forward to and fusing intimately 
with the ultimate pedal sternite from which it is separated by 
a vestigial, obscure suture, thereby causing the last pedal ster- 
nite to appear much longer than it actually is. Each gonopod 
is conical, long; entirely without a discernible interarticular 
suture or other indication of division, hence is secondarily uni- 
articulate. Terminal pores present, small, concealed. 

On the Rank and Possible Affinities of the Neogeophilidae. 
The real importance of the discovery of this specimen derives 
from the unusual opportunity it affords for the direct examina- 
tion of a member of this peculiar and systematically unsettled 
group. Careful examination of the animal testifies to the thor- 
oughness of Silvestri's morphological diagnosis ; as we have 
seen, the accuracy of his report is questioned pertinent only to 
four points, none of which would alter Silvestri's original con- 
tention that the group is suprageneric in rank. However, my 
examination of the single specimen, together with a careful 
reconsideration of Silvestri's published data, at this time do 
not permit any other confident conclusion than his own, that the 
rank of the group is probably suprageneric. For reasons ex- 
plained below it seems preferable for the time-being to regard 
the neogeophilids as members of a distinct, aberrant family 
within what I shall call the geophilid-sogonid-gonibregmatid 
complex of families. 

It seems clear that, while belonging to this family complex, the 
neogeophilids appear to be referable to no one of these families, 
at least as they are currently denned. At the same time, many 
of the neogeophilid structures individually are reminiscent often 
of closely similar counterparts that are discernible within this 
great suprafamilial section of the Geophilomorpha. 

The problem of determining the rank and affinities of the 
Neogeophilidae is by no means reducible merely to one of 
deciding which is the best and most reasonable of several alter- 
natives in the light body of well-understood and digested mor- 
phological information whose details are familiar to everyone. 
On the contrary, the interpretive problem is necessarily super- 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 183 

imposed and dependent upon a much more formidable one in 
this case : many of the most critical facts upon which our induc- 
tions must depend are actually representative of a persistent 
legacy of deficient information which is further complicated by 
frequent breakdowns in interpersonal understanding. First, 
there are huge gaps in our knowledge of the full spectrum of 
the Geophilomorpha : certainly, many groups and species still 
await discovery. Secondly, in the case of the majority of 
recognized groups and species we must remain ignorant of the 
nature, or even of the existence, of many critical diagnostic 
features if, as is often unavoidable, we must depend for full, 
precise information upon published descriptions. Finally, it is 
not infrequently true that even when critical features are treated, 
their explication is so loose and imprecise, so subjective and 
cryptic, or even so faulty as to preclude the reader's gaining an 
accurate or sufficiently detailed understanding of them. 

These several difficulties create a particular problem for the 
categorical assessment and group assignment of the neogeophi- 
lids whose conceivable closest relatives as groups are themselves 
often systematically unsettled, descriptively obscure, and evi- 
dently poorly known in terms of the species and supraspecific 
groups that exist but are undiscovered. The particular problem 
that is posed is how to interpret the structures about which we 
believe we have reasonably accurate, meaningful information 
under these circumstances. Specifically, are these presumably 
homeomorphic structures evolutionarily conservative, being de- 
rivative from a single and immediate preexisting source, or are 
some or all of them convergent and polyphyletic, having been 
derived independently, compelled alike by adaptive pressures in 
separately evolving, remotely- related lines? 

Under the circumstances, and with reference to the Neogeo- 
philidae, it seems impossible to settle this question now. We 
do not know enough about a sufficient number of structures and 
structural complexes. We do not know enough about the geo- 
philidiform centipedes to be able to distinguish between conver- 
gencies and immediately derived structures and forms. At the 
same time, it is desirable to make mention of some homeo- 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July, 1961 

morphic characters that eventually may or may not prove to 
signify close phylogenetic linkages between the neogeophilids 
and certain other geophilidiform groups. 

In general body habitus the Neogeophilidae bear an undenia- 
ble resemblance to the Sogonidae and some resemblance to the 
Dignathodontidae, although their overall similarity, e.g., in head 
and body shape, to the latter may well be only superficial and 
adaptively convergent. 

A rather homogeneous, poorly-known assemblage of geophilid- 
like centipedes, the sogonids, apparently are restricted to the 
more northern New World tropics and to adjacent parts of 
North America where they are evidently incursive from the 
south. Established as a family and almost entirely described 
by Professor Chamberlin, the Sogonidae are clearly abundant 
in the neotropics where many new groups and species probably 
await discovery. Like the neogeophilids, they are all small, 
delicate creatures. Tiny short heads, delicate prehensors, sim- 
ple and apparently vestigial labra, 2 simple mandibles and, re- 
portedly in some sogonids, aberrant maxillary configurations 
suggest a general similarity whose explanation on the grounds 
of immediate evolutionary derivation, however, can hardly be 
very convincing in our present state of knowledge. Nonetheless, 
while differing in several critical features, the two groups, as 

- The sogonid labrum has been inaccurately described repeatedly. 
Originally Chamberlin described it as being ". . . of a single piece appar- 
ently free laterally but fused in the middle; . . ." (1912, p. 432). Com- 
pletely misinterpreting Professor Chamberlin's statement, Attems wrote 
the following in his key to families (1929, p. 27) : "Oberlippe aus einem 
ungeteilten Stuck bestehend." The first description is cryptic, the second 
erroneous. On the one hand, they are suggestive of the single, or unipar- 
tite, type of labrum, such as that labral type that is characteristic of the 
schendylids or himantariids. On the other hand, they fail to stress what 
is really significant, that the sogonid labrum is fundamentally of the tri- 
partite geophilid type, departing from it in the apparent direction of de- 
generacy. In Sogona -minima there are two prominent sidepieces which 
are relatively well-developed, discrete, and widely-separated. Most im- 
portantly, the midpiece has either atrophied entirely, or else it has fused 
imperceptibly with the broadly intruded midclypeal extension. In sum- 
mary : We can only describe the sogonid labrum as being fundamentally 
tripartite and lacking a distinguishable midpiece. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 185 

we know them of course, do appear superficially to be rather 
similar. It is difficult to ignore the possibility, however remote, 
that the neogeophilids and sogonids may represent closely- 
related, aberrant evolutionary experiments that were frag- 
mented together from some ancient geophilid stock. Similarly, 
the dignathodontids and aphilodontine geophilids perhaps rep- 
resent separate and now nominate variations upon an original, 
basic geophilid theme. 

The first maxillary coxosternum of the neogeophilids, being 
totally divided into right and left halves, is curiously suggestive 
of its homologue in Hunantosonia, a genus that Attems placed 
in Gonibregmatidae but which Verhoeff regarded as the basis 
of a separate family. Again, whether these divided coxosterna 
are merely convergent or are evolutionarily derivative from a 
common precursor is impossible to determine now. It may, 
however, be significant that Himantosoma lacks the bizarre 
anterior maxillary lobes that signalize all known neogeophilids. 

As I have noted above, the neogeophilid labrum appears by 
direct inspection to be simple and degenerate and reminiscent of 
that of the sogonids, inasmuch as that is also evidently hyper- 
trophied. This is not to imply that they resemble each other 
very closely ; they do not. At the same time, essentially the 
neogeophilid type of labrum may be seen in certain Gonibreg- 
matidae. For that matter, the same labral type is found in 
certain ballophiline Schendylidae, which do not seem very 
closely related to the whole section of the Geophilomorpha here 
under discussion. Without much doubt, quite similar, if not 
occasionally identical, labra have arisen independently at least 
in some unrelated geophilomorphs. 

The neogeophilid mandible, equipped only with a simple' 
row of delicate hyaline and homogeneous teeth, apparently 
can tell us little, except that the neogeophilids may be more 
closely related to the geophilid-dignathodontid-gonibregmatid- 
sogonid complex than to any other. But even in this regard 
we are hardly entitled to conclude with an emphatic finality 
that this simple type of mandible in every instance can only be 
indicative of monophyletic origins. It is by no means impo 



186 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u? 1961 



ble that, let us say, through convergency, or by whatever mecha- 
nism, the simple geophilidiform mandibles was developed inde- 
pendently in remotely related geophilomorphs. If we ignore 
the venerable mandibular criterion momentarily, then several 
rather striking structural similarities existing between the neo- 
geophilids and oryids could possibly take on new significance. 3 

The neogeophilid pretarsi are evidently unique. The extra- 
ordinary ventral teeth, hypertrophic anterior accessory spines, 
and serrulate plantar edges must function as a unit to facilitate 
traction upon or adherence to the surfaces over which their 
possessors move. Analogous, though evidently not wholly ho- 
mologous, adaptive devices are known to occur in some other 
geophilomorphs. For instance, the gonibregmatid genus Eucra- 
tonyx, while lacking a ventral prejarsal tooth, has a conspicu- 
ously introrse claw proper which, in conjuction with a hyper- 
trophic anterior accessory spine, probably affords a firmer foot- 
hold for locomotion over rough surfaces or for stationary cling- 
ing. Again, massive development of the claw proper and of 
one or both of its accessory spines has been noted in certain 
schendylids (e.g., Pectiniunguis). It seems quite likely that 
cryptophiles such as these geophilomorphs would be inclined to 
evolve efficient hold-fast devices independently : their existence 
depends upon adaptation to a variety of crevice-cranny habitats 
wherein, one would think, adaptive pressures would place a 
premium upon the ability to squeeze through tight, narrow con- 
fines and to anchor firmly against forceful removal by predators. 

Summing up : The structures that signalize the known Neo- 
geophilidae tell us little conclusively about their interfamilial 
affinities. Many of these structures could very well represent 
adaptive convergencies that obscure rather than illuminate the 
ranks and affinities of groups. While most individual neogeophi- 
lid features have often quite similar counterparts in various other 
geophilomorph groups, in no case is there a concordance of 
structural identities that could justify an unequivocal statement 

3 By the same token, if we ignore the mandibular criterion, a number 
of features in certain oryids suggest possibilities that have not received 
serious consideration. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 187 

of close phylogenetic affinity at this time. It is conceivable that 
the neogeophilids and sogonids could reflect a community of 
descent, although, admittedly, this is a highly speculative sug- 
gestion for which present evidence is limited and frankly un- 
convincing. 

A REVIEW OF THE NEOGEOPHILIDAE 
Neogeophilidae 

Neogeophilinae, Silvestri, 1918, p. 352. 
Neogeophilidae, Attems, 1926, p. 365. 

Distinguishing Criteria. 1st maxillary coxosternum com- 
pletely divided into right and left halves, each half surmounted 
by a large, uniarticulate lobe. Pretarsi of the more anterior 
legs each ventrally with a prominent tooth that is continuous 
with the claw proper. First article of second maxillary telopo- 
dite basally without condyles. 

Extended Characterization. Antennae slightly attenuate dis- 
tally. Cephalic plate very slightly wider than long to slightly 
longer than wide ; frontal suture absent. Prebasal plate at least 
slightly exposed. Clypeus with complete paraclypeal sutures; 
without clypeal areas or plagulae. Labrum comprising a deli- 
cate undivided bar, wholly amalgamated with postero-central 
clypeus, with delicate hyaline teeth, these long, flat, rather blunt ; 
proximal shaft relatively short when compared with the longer, 
heavier distal dentigerous portion. First maxillae : Coxosternum 
medially completely divided, the right and left sides thus entirely 
discrete; each coxosternal half with a large lobate structure in 
place of the usual structures ; lappets absent. Second maxillae : 
Coxosternum medially undivided, not suturate ; teleopodite basal 
articles without discernible condyles ; apical claw with a few 
delicate spiniform projections arising from posterior edge. Pro- 
sternum with complete pleuroprosternal sutures ; with or without 
complete subcondylic sclerotic lines. Prehensors: When closed 
falling far short of anterior cephalic margin; articles without 
denticles; ungulae long and falcate, flattened dorso-ventrulK . 
posterior edge finely, irregularly serrulate. 



188 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July, 1961 

Tergites not sulcate. Paratergites absent. Legs robust and 
short. Pretarsi of the more anterior legs each with a conspicu- 
ous ventral tooth and equally conspicuous hypertrophic anterior 
accessory spine. Sternites not sulcate ; without porefields or 
carpophagus-structures ; the more posterior intersternites broadly 
bandlike and not suturate midlongitudinally. Ultimate pedal 
segment: Pretergite either separated from its tergite by a dis- 
tinct transverse suture, or, if fused intimately with tergite, sep- 
arated from it by an obscure suture or else apparently without 
an intervening suture. Coxopleuron with freely opening pores, 
without dorsal or ventral porepits or porigerous fossae; mod- 
erately inflated. Sternite either distinguishable from or inti- 
mately fused with the pregenital sternite; ultimate tarsus uni- 
articulate in the males, biarticulate in the females ; pretarsus 
essentially absent. Terminal pores present but concealed. Each 
gonopod biarticulate (with persistent intervening suture), or 
uniarticulate (without intervening suture). 

Range : Known only from Mexico and Guatemala. 

Known from three monotypic genera, as follows. 

NEOGEOPHILUS Silvestri 

Neogeophilus Silvestri, 1917, p. 352. 

Type-species: Neogeophilus primus Silvestri, 1917. (Origi- 
nal designation and monotypic.) 

Diagnosis. With the characters of the family, of which the 
following signal characters are distinctive. (1) Head slightly 
longer than wide. (2) Paraclypeal sutures apparently arching 
outward, apparently not terminating on the rear clypeal margin 
(see discussion under foregoing Notes). (3) Prosternal denti- 
cles absent. (4) Prosternal subcondylic sclerotic lines passing 
to and esesntially meeting their respective condyles. (5) Ulti- 
mate pedal pretergite and tergite, and sternite and pregenital 
sternite separated by distinct sutures. (6) Female gonopods 
biarticulate. 

Inclusive species : Known only from N. primus Silvestri : 
with the characters of the genus, in addition <$ with 81 pedal 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 189 

segments, 34 mm. long ; only known and type locality, Cuernava, 
State of Morelos, Mexico. 



EVALLOGEOPHILUS Silvestri 
Evallogeophilns Silvestri, 1917, p. 355. 

Type-species: Evallogcopliilus mcxicanus Silvestri, 1917. 
(Original designation and monotypic.) 

Diagnosis. With the characters of the family, of which the 
following signal characters are distinctive. (1) Head consid- 
erably longer than wide. (2) Paraclypeal sutures terminating 
posteriorly on the rear clypeal margin. (3) Prosternal denti- 
cles present. (4) Prosternal subcondylic sclerotic lines passing 
to and essentially meeting their respective condyles. (5) Ulti- 
mate pretergite and tergite, and sternite and pregenital sternite 
intimately fused, apparently without intervening sutures. (6) 
Female gonopods biarticulate. 

Inclusive species : Known only from E. mexicanus Silvestri : 
with the characters of the genus, in addition <$ with 63, $ with 
67 pedal segments ; to 30 mm. long ; only known and type local- 
ity, "Jalapa" (in full, Jalapa Enriquez), State of Veracruz, 
Mexico. 

CRYPTOSTRIGLA, new genus 

Type-species: Cryptostrigla sih'estri, new species. (Present 
designation and monotypic.) 

Diagnosis. With the characters of the family, of which the 
following signal characters are distinctive. ( 1 ) Head somewhat 
wider than long. (2) Paraclypeal sutures terminating on clyp- 
eal margin. (3) Prosternal denticles present. (4) Prosternal 
subcondylic sclerotic lines abortive, not passing across pro- 
sternal corner to or toward their respective condyles. (5) Ulti- 
mate pretergite and tergite, and sternite and pregenital sternite 
intimately fused, the intervening sutures still discernible. (6) 
Each female gonopod single, the two articles having fused with- 
out trace of intervening suture. 

Inclusive species : Known only from C. sihcstri. m-\v species : 



190 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u' 1961 



with the characters of the genus; in addition $ with 69 pedal 
segments, 32 mm. long. ; only known and type locality, Semo- 
coch, Department of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. 

REFERENCES 

ATTEMS, C. GRAF VON. 1926. Kiikenthal-Krumbachs Handbuch der 

Zoologie 4 (3 + 4) : 241-402. 1929. Geophilomorpha, in Das Tier- 

reich, Lief. 52: 1-388. 
CHAMBERLIN, R. V. 1912. The Geophiloidea of the South-eastern 

States. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 54: 405-436. 
SILVESTRI, F. 1918. Descrizione di due nuovi generi di Geophilidae 

(Chilopoda) del Messico. Boll. Laborat. Zool. Gener. Agrar. Portici 

12: 352-360. 



Supplementary Records of Meloid Beetles (Cole- 
optera) of the West Indies 

By RICHARD B. SELANDER and JOHN K. BOUSEMAN, 

Department of Entomology, University of 

Illinois, Urbana 

Since the completion of our report on the Meloidae of the 
West Indies (Selander and Bouseman, 1960, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. Ill, pp. 197-226), we have received from Patricia 
and Charles Vaurie, American Museum of Natural History 
(AMNH), a series of specimens collected by them in 1960 on 
the islands of Guadeloupe, Jamaica, and Martinique and from 
M. W. Sanderson, Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), 
a series of specimens collected by him in 1959 on Cuba. A 
few other specimens of West Indian meloids have also come 
to our attention. In publishing the records of this supplemen- 
tary material, we again take pleasure in acknowledging the co- 
operation of our colleagues. 

In order to avoid repetition, we will list here the localities and 
dates for the Vaurie material. Guadeloupe : Domaine Duclos, 
600 ft., June 24-28 and July 7; Les Saintes, Terre de Haut, 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 191 

July 2-5 ; and Matouba, 1900 ft., June 29. Jamaica: Hardware 
Gap, 4800 ft., July 13-15. Martinique: Absalon, rain forest, 
June 16; Diamant, June 17; and Morne Rouge, June 13. 

Cissites maculata (Swederus). GUADELOUPE : Domaine Du- 
clos, AMNH, 2; Les Saintes, Terre de Haut, AMNH, 1. 
HISPANIOLA : Sanchez, Dominican Republic, June 3-12, 1915 
and February 1916, AMNH, 3. 

Pseudozonitis marginata (Fabricius). GUADELOUPE: Do- 
maine Duclos, AMNH, 64; Matouba, AMNH, 3. JAMAICA: 
Hardware Gap, AMNH, 1. MARTINIQUE: Absalon, AMNH, 
5; Diamant, AMNH, 3; Morne Rouge, AMNH, 3. PUERTO 
Rico: Mayagiiez, May 1924, Cornell University, 1. 

Tbe specimens from Guadeloupe are assignable to our color 
class and those from Jamaica and Puerto Rico to class 2. 
In the series from Martinique, two specimens are representative 
of class 0, one of class 2, two of class 3, and six of class 4. One 
of the specimens of the last class has the pale elytral vitta re- 
duced to half its usual width. In a few of the specimens from 
Guadeloupe and in one from Martinique the head is fuscous. 
Females outnumber males in the new material four to one. 

Pseudozonitis obscuricornis (Chevrolat). GUADELOUPE: 
Domaine Duclos, AMNH, 12 ; Matouba, AMNH, 1. JAMAICA : 
Kingston, 1958, M. Locke, Selander collection, 1. 

The specimen from Jamaica is heavily marked. Those from 
Guadeloupe have the elytral vitta either poorly developed or 
absent. 

Nemognatha punctulata LeConte. CUBA: Lower slopes of 
Loma (Pico) del Gato, Sierra Maestra, Oriente Province, May 
26, 1959, on Compositae, M. W. Sanderson, INHS, 9; betwe_en 
Santa Lucia and Nuevitas, Camaguey Province. June 8, 1959. 
M. W. Sanderson, INHS, 1. 

An annotation should be made to couplet 6 of our key indi- 
cating that the color of antennal segment I is variable in this 
species. In all the specimens that we studied earlier this seg- 
ment is yellow. However, in three of the specimens recorded 
above it is piceous and in four it is completely black. 



192 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS u , 1961 



Melanagromyza tiliae (Coud.) (Diptera: Agro- 

myzidae) Reared from Linden Bark Galls 

at London, Ontario 

By W. W. JUDD, Department of Zoology, University of Western 

Ontario, London, Ontario 

On March 18, 1957, six twig galls were collected from bass- 
wood trees, Tilia aniericana, on the campus of the University of 
Western Ontario at London, Ontario. They were identified as 
Linden Bark Galls by using keys and descriptions in Felt 
(1940). Each gall was a smooth swelling along the side of the 
twig and was one-half an inch long, three-sixteenths of an inch 
wide and bulged one-eighth of an inch above the surface of the 
twig. The bark covering a gall was as smooth as the bark on 
the surrounding twig and was of the same color. One gall was 
dissected and was found to be composed internally of soft wood. 
The remaining galls were kept in the laboratory in a corked 
vial. On April 9 a fly emerged from one of the galls through 
a circular hole 1.5 mm. in diameter. On April 10 the other four 
galls were dissected and yielded one brown puparium each. The 
fly was identified as Melanagromyza tiliae (Coud.) by Mr. G. E. 
Shewell, Entomology Research Institute, Department of Agri- 
culture, Ottawa. This species was described by Couden (1908) 
from specimens reared from twigs of basswood and its taxo- 
nomic relationships have . recently been discussed by Shewell 
(1953) and Frick (1957). 

On September 7, 1957, seven more galls were collected from 
basswood on the university campus and a few days later three 
more adult M. tiliae emerged from them. The four specimens 
reared at London are deposited in the collection of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, University of Western Ontario. Felt (1940) 
records that this fly produces its gall in summer. The specimens 
from which the species was described by Couden were reared 
from galls in Missouri in April (Couden, 1908; Frick, 1957), 
and the first fly reared at London emerged in the laboratory in 
this month. It is thus evident that this insect habitually over- 
winters in the gall on the twig. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 193 

REFERENCES 

COUDEN, F. D. 1908. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Washington 9 : 34-36. 
FELT, E. P. 1940. Plant galls and gall makers. Comstock Publ. Co. 

Ithaca. 

FRICK, K. E. 1957. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 50: 198-205. 
SHEWELL, G. E. 1953. Can. Entomol. 85 : 462-470. 



Psectra diptera (Burmeister) in Wisconsin 
(Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) 

By ALVIN L. THRONE, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 

Psectra diptera (Burmeister) has been recorded from Austria, 
Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Holland, Ireland, Italy, 
Scotland, Siberia, Sweden, Switzerland and the Ukraine (Kill- 
ington, 1936). It has been recorded from the northeastern 
United States, as far west as Michigan and as far south as 
Virginia and West Virginia, and from Ontario (Carpenter, 
1940). It has also been recorded, as Hcnierobius dcllcatiihis 
Fitch, from Illinois (Hagen, 1861). Banks, 1905, refers to 
specimens from Ithaca, New York, the Agricultural College, 
Michigan, and Franconia, New Hampshire. He also mentions 
Fitch's specimens collected in northern Illinois in October. 
Recently new records have been reported from Connecticut, 
Maryland and Virginia (Mac Leod, 1960). 

In my extensive collecting of Neuroptera in Wisconsin, sup- 
ported by the Research Committee of the University of Wis- 
consin on funds from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Founda- 
tion, I have obtained four specimens of Psectra diptera. 
of the specimens I collected are macropterous. They were all 
taken in my backyard in Shorewood, a residential suburb of 
Milwaukee. 

It is interesting to note that all four of my specimens were 
taken in a light trap. The trap was hung from a clothes line 
with the top of the funnel approximately three and a halt" feet 
from the ground. Killington suggests that both micropterous 



194 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[July, 1961 



and macropterous forms are most likely unable to fly. Mac 
Leod gives evidence that perhaps some individuals are able to 
fly. The position of my trap with reference to the ground, 
building and taller plants and the nature of the trap itself 
strongly suggest that macropterous individuals can fly. 

Carpenter (op. cit.) gives the average wing length as 6 milli- 
meters. Killington (op. cit.) gives total wing expanse as about 
7 mm. and reports Banks as giving a wing expanse of 5-6 mm. 
Mac Leod (op. cit.} in measuring ten Nearctic specimens found 
the average length of forewing as 3.82 0.25 mm. and total 
wing expanse as 8.57 0.54 mm. 

The following wing measurements of the specimens I col- 
lected were made with an ocular micrometer. 



Date Collected 


9-VIII-1957 


9-VIII-1957 


27-VIII-1958 


2-VIII-1959 


Length of forewing 


5.08 mm. 


3.85 mm. 


4.00 mm. 


4.61 mm. 


Body width at 
mesothorax 


1.08 


'0.77 


0.77 


0.92 


Total wing expanse 


11.24 


8.47 


8.77 


10.14 



LITERATURE CITED 

BANKS, N. 1905. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 32: 21-51. 
CARPENTER, F. M. 1940. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 74: 193-280. 
HAGEN, H. 1861. Smithsonian Inst. Miscell. Coll. : Washington, D. C. 
KILLINGTON, F. J. 1936. A monograph of the British Neuroptera. 

Volume I. Ray Soc. : London. 
MAC LEOD, E. G. 1960. Entom. News 71 : 231-236. 



Review 

A MANUAL OF COMMON BEETLES OF EASTERN NORTH 
AMERICA. By Dillon, E. S., and L. S. Dillon. Pp. viii + 884; 
554 text figures and 85 plates (4 colored). Row, Peterson and 
Co., Evanston, Illinois, 1961. Price, $9.25. 

Here, at long last, is a really workable manual of beetles, and 
one that seems to have just about every imaginable virtue. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 195 

Heretofore Blatchley's was the standby, but, using it, the in- 
experienced often ended with more incorrect than correct deter- 
minations. In this book, the Dillons have selected the 1200 
commonest beetles in 64 families, and keyed them carefully to 
families, genera, and species. The diagnostic features are illus- 
trated by 554 text figures, and there is a habitus picture and 
a description of each species. The species selected, it is believed, 
include about 90% of all beetles commonly taken in the region ; 
for most of the remainder the bibliography, arranged by families, 
will lead one to recent revisions and synopses. 

The very form and appearance of this manual add to the 
pleasure of using it. It is not too bulky (page size, 5V' X 84/') 
and is neatly bound in semi-flexible cloth with rounded corners. 
It should make many new friends for the Coleoptera, including 
also hobbyists who will find delight in collecting beetles and 
seeking out their names. R. G. SCHMIEDER. 



Corrodentia in Cliff Swallow Nests 

By WILLIAM F. RAPP, JR., Nebraska State Department of 
Health, Lincoln, Nebraska 

A number of Corrodentia were obtained recently from cliff 
swallow nests (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pyrrhonota} by means 
of a Berlese funnel. These nests had been collected from the 
Nebraska end of the Yankton bridge (South Yankton, Cedar 
County, Nebraska) on August 11, 1955. 

The specimens were submitted to Dr. Kathryn B. Sommer- 
man who determined them as belonging to the Liposcelis 
bostrychophilus complex, family Liposcelidae. 

It is interesting to note that Hicks (1959) 1 does not list 
L. bostrychophilus as occurring in the nests of the cliff swallow. 
However, L. divinatorhts has been reported as occurring in the 
nests of other swallows of the Family Hirundinidae. 

1 HICKS, E. A. 1959. Occurrence of insects in birds' nests. I\\a 
State College Press. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept. 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 

Used genuine Schmidt boxes, excellent condition, at less than half 
price. H. W. Allen, Box 150, Moorestown, N. J. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3, PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

OCTOBER 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 8 



CONTENTS 

Froeschner Revision of Dearcla Signoret 197 

Stahnke A new species of scorpion 206 

Arnett Onychophora of Jamaica 213 

Nomenclature Notice 220 

Book Reviews : 221 

Facts and theories concerning the insect head 
Cicindelidae of Canada 
Western Butterflies 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER. BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS.,' LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



\ 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 




O.IJ 



v ** 






ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff: 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use: in the United States, $5.00; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc. : in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost oi 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 

Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Oct., 1961 




Fig. 1. Dearcla opercularis Signoret 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LXXII OCTOBER, 1961 No. 8 

Revision of the South African Genus Dearcla 

Signoret with Descriptions of Three New 

Species (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) 1 

RICHARD C. FROESCHNER 2 

Signoret erected Dearcla for his new species opercularis from 
"Simon's Bay" south of Cape Town in Cape Province, Union 
of South Africa. No additional specimen records of the genus 
have appeared. This is not too surprising as Signoret's illus- 
tration is quite misleading in conveying a picture of the type 
specimen. When comparison with the type was made the sketch 
was found to be erroneous in the following particulars which are 
shown correctly on the plates in the present paper : shape of the 
meso- and metaevaporatoria ; the apical peritreme ; the extent of 
the pronotal calli ; the shape of the costa and the outline of the 
narrowed scutellar apex. 

The present paper is offered to correct these errors with a 
series of carefully executed drawings by my wife, Elsie Froesch- 
ner ; to bring the literature status of this genus in line with the 
modern approach to the Cydnidae (as established in my mono- 
graph of the Cydnidae of the Western Hemisphere Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ill : 337-680) ; and to describe three more species 

1 National Science Foundation Grant (NSF G7118) made possible per- 
sonal examination of type specimens of Cydnidae in European museums 
and in other ways aided in preparation of this paper. 

2 Dept. Zoology and Entomology, Montana State College, Bozeman, 
Montana. Contribution from Montana State College Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, M. S. 38, paper No. 528 Journal Series. 

PRESENT ADDRESS: Entomology Research Division, Agr. Res. Serv., 
U.S.D.A., Washington, D. C. 



(197) 



110N 



198 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

kindly made available to me by Dr. W. E. China of the British 
Museum of Natural History. 

The sublateral setigerotis punctures, shape of tarsal segments 
and trichobothrial arrangements clearly assign this genus to the 
subfamily Cydninae in the restricted sense as established in the 
above-mentioned monograph. 

DEARCLA Signoret 
1883 Dearcla Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6) 3 : 363. 

DIAGNOSIS: Among those Cydninae with the shining, elon- 
gate, apical peritreme and no impressed subapical pronotal line, 
this one may be recognized by the long, pointed scutellum whose 
length is greater than the median length of the pronotum. 

DESCRIPTION : Broadly oval. HEAD : Anterior outline a 
slightly to distinctly flattened semicircle; clypeus and juga equal 
in length; jugal margins weakly to distinctly but narrowly cari- 
nate dorsally; three primary setigerous punctures present; an- 
tennae five-segmented ; labium reaching between middle coxae, 
segment II very weakly compressed, not foliaceous. PRONOTUM : 
Median length about half of basal width ; anterior margin broadly 
and rather shallowly emarginate ; transverse impression obso- 
lete ; laterally with a single, submarginal row of a variable num- 
ber (seven to thirty) setigerous punctures. SCUTELLUM : Width 
slightly or distinctly greater than length, apex acutely prolonged. 
HEMELYTRON : Areas distinctly defined ; membrane occupying 
about one-third hemelytral length, its length greater than its 
basal width, reaching to apex of abdomen ; costa and exocorium 
flattened, latter weakly reflexed in basal half; subcostal setig- 
erous punctures two to thirteen ; membranal suture weakly bi- 
sinuate, lateral angle broadly acute. PROPLEURON : Shining, 
strongly punctured in depression and on anterior half of front 
convexity ; prosternal carinae virtually absent, the space between 
them weakly depressed. MESOPLEURON : As in Fig. 7, evapora- 
torium extends to lateral margin of sclerite along posterior 
margin. METAPLEURON : As in Fig. 7, evaporatorium reaching 
more than three-fourths across sclerite, lateral margin nearly 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 199 

straight ; lateral polished area impunctate ; osteole opening ven- 
trally at the base of an elongate, polished, apical peritreme. 
LEGS: Anterior tibia (Fig. 5) moderately flattened, with seven 
or eight coarse spines dorsally, with tarsus arising at its apex; 
not generically modified. STERNITES: Not generically modi- 
fied. TERMINALIA : Male genital capsule opening dorsally, gono- 
stylus quite similar in the males of the three species for which 
that sex is known (Fig. 2) ; female plates of the usual penta- 
tomoid type. 

TYPE OF GENUS : Dearcla opercularis Signoret, monobasic. 

DISTRIBUTION : The four species now known occur near the 
southern tip of Africa : Signoret's species and one new one from 
the vicinity of Cape Town ; the other two from Natal. 

DISCUSSION : Each of the four species is known only from one 
sex. Collections of pairs are needed, especially to determine the 
relation of the two new species capensis and natalensis. 

Grouping of the species within the genus may be made in 
two ways with separate characters. Probably the strongest sep- 
aration of groups is made by the almost complete absence of 
submarginal setigerous punctures on the head (only the pre- 
ocular primary one being present submarginally) on paucivil- 
losa new species ; this is in contrast to the other three species 
which have such punctures on both juga and subapically on the 
clypeus. Evaluation of the other feature worthy of note must 
await further study in certain genera, but it can be pointed out 
here : in all but opercularis there is a weak but evident branch 
which arises near the middle of vein M and reaches to the apex 
of the corium. 

Key to the Known Species of Dearcla 

1. Juga with submarginal row of setigerous punctures; clypeus 

with two subapical setigerous punctures 2 

Juga without a row of setigerous punctures ; clypeus without 
subapical setigerous punctures . .paucivillosa NEW SPECIES 

2. Posterior pronotal lobe much duller than polished calli and 

with fine but distinct punctures all the way to the hind 
margin ; mesocorium with no evidence of a branch of 
vein M opercularis Signoret 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

Posterior pronotal lobe nearly as shining as polished calli 
and with widely spaced punctures almost obsolete toward 
hind margin of pronotum ; mesocorium with a weak but 

evident branch arising near middle of vein M 3 

3. Pronotum with twenty-five to thirty setigerous punctures in 
lateral, submarginal row ; costa with about fourteen setig- 
erous punctures capensis NEW SPECIES 

Pronotum with twelve to fifteen setigerous punctures in lat- 
eral, submarginal row ; costa with seven to nine setigerous 
punctures natalensis NEW SPECIES 

Dearcla capensis new species 

DIAGNOSIS : The more than twenty-five submarginal setigerous 
punctures laterally on the pronotum will separate this species 
from all others in the genus none of which have more than 
fifteen. 

DESCRIPTION (based on two females). FEMALE. HEAD: 
Length about two thirds width, 1.00 (0.98-1.03) : 1.40 (1.40- 
1.41) ; interocular width 0.85 (0.85-0.86) ; surface with numer- 
ous crowded, moderately coarse punctures on juga and ante- 
riorly on vertex; jugum with eight or nine submarginal setig- 
erous punctures ; clypeus flattened, with few fine punctures and 
two subapical setigerous punctures ; bucculae punctate, about as 
high as labial II ; antennals, I, 0.26 (0.26-0.26) : II, 0.34 (0.33- 
0.36) : III, 0.34 (0.33-0.36) : IV, 0.37 (0.36-0.39) : V, 0.40 
(0.40-xx) ; labials, I, 0.46 (0.46-0.46) : II, 0.57 (0.55-0.60) : 
III, 0.54 (0.54-0.55) : IV, 0.39 (0.38-0.40). PRONOTUM: 
Length: width ::1.71 (1.70-1.72) : 4.46 (4.45^.47); surface, 
especially L-shaped calli, shining; site of transverse impression 
and anterior half of posterior lobe with numerous, moderately 
coarse and fine punctures intermixed, these becoming obsolete 
toward posterior margin ; anterior lobe with a subapical, trans- 
verse patch of crowded fine and a few coarse punctures, laterally 
with many crowded fine punctures ; lateral submarginal setig- 
erous punctures twenty-eight to thirty in number, their row very 
irregular anteriorly. SCUTELLUM : Length : width : : 2.13 (2.11- 
2.16) : 2.01 (2.01-2.02) ; surface shining, punctures coarser, 
deeper and slightly more dense than on mesocorium ; apex acute 
with fine punctures. HEMELYTRON : Exclusive of membrane, 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 201 

finely but distinctly alutaceous ; costa with twelve or thirteen 
setigerous punctures ; exocorium with numerous, very crowded, 
moderately coarse punctures ; mesocorium more sparsely and 
irregularly punctate than exocorium, with two complete rows 
paralleling claval suture ; with a faint but evident branching near 
middle of vein M ; clavus with two complete and one interrupted 
row of punctures ; membrane dirty milky white, extensively mot- 
tled with fuscous. MESO- and METAPLEURA : Quite similar to 
Figure 7. STERNITES : Weakly alutaceous, with numerous ir- 
regularly spaced aciculate punctures except along broad midline. 
LENGTH of body 6.11 (6.00-6.23). 

TYPE DATA : The holotype female and a paratype of the same 
sex are in the British Museum and bear the label "C. T., 1.87, 
Distant Coll., 1911-383." The initials quite probably stand for 
Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA, which is in the general region of 
occurrence of the other species of the genus. 

DISCUSSION : The subapical pair of setigerous punctures on 
the clypeus coupled with the obsoletely punctate posterior half of 
hind pronotal lobe definitely allies this form to natalensis n. sp., 
of which this may be the female ; however, since such strong 
divergence in vestiture of the two sexes of one species is not 
known in this part of the family, they are here considered to 
represent separate species. 

The species name is given in reference to the type locality. 

Dearcla natalensis new species 

DIAGNOSIS : The presence of a submarginal row of setigerous 
punctures on each jugum coupled with the punctation of the 
scutellum being less dense than that of the mesocorium will sepa- 
rate the present species from the other two in the genus. 

DESCRIPTION (based on lone male type). MALE. HEAD: 
Length: width: : 1.14: 1.60; interocular width 0.94; surface 
with numerous moderately coarse, crowded punctures on juga, 
with finer more scattered punctures on vertex and clypeus ; 
jugum with six submarginal setigerous punctures; bucculae 
punctate, higher than labial II; antennals, I, 0.36, II, 0.45; III, 
0.50; IV, 0.61; V, 0.66; labials, I, 0.56; II, 0.83; III, 0.70; 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

IV, 0.56. PRONOTUM : Length : width : : 2.00 : 4.43 ; surface, es- 
pecially L-shaped calli, shining, both lobes with numerous mod- 
erately coarse, crowded punctures ; anterior lobe with subapical 
transverse patch of coarse and fine punctures intermixed and a 
few fine ones on midline between calli ; site of transverse im- 
pression and anterior half of posterior lobe with numerous mod- 
erately coarse and fine punctures intermixed, these becoming 
much sparser posteriorly; lateral submarginal row of ten or 
eleven setigerous punctures. SCUTELLUM : Length : width : : 
2.47 :2.15; surface shining, punctures coarser, deeper and dis- 
tinctly sparser than those of mesocorium : acute apex with 
crowded fine punctures. HEMELYTRON : Except for membrane, 
finely but distinctly alutaceous ; with seven subcostal setigerous 
punctures ; exocorium uniformly covered with moderately coarse, 
very crowded punctures; mesocorium more sparsely and ir- 
regularly punctate than exocorium, with two complete rows of 
punctures paralleling claval suture, with a faint but evident 
branch arising near middle of vein M ; clavus with two distinct 
rows and an irregular third row of punctures ; membrane golden 
brown, extensively mottled with large fuscous blotches. MESO- 
and METAPLEURA : Quite similar to Fig. 7. STERNITES : Weakly 
alutaceous, with abundant aciculate punctures except along mid- 
ventral line. TERMINALIA: Male genital capsule with crowded 
fine, aciculate punctures ; apical margin nearly straight ; gono- 
stylus very similar to that of opercularis. LENGTH of body : 
7.12. 

TYPE DATA : The holotype male in the British Museum of 
Natural History bears the label "NATAL, Weenen, X-XI, 1924, 
H. P. Thomasset." 

DISCUSSION : See comments under preceding species. 

Dearcla opercularis Signoret (Figs. 1-7) 

1883 Dearcla opercularis Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 
(6)3: 364, pi. 9, fig. 190. 

DIAGNOSIS : This species is recognizable within the genus by 
having the scutellar punctures distinctly denser than those of 
the mesocorium. 

DESCRIPTION (based on male type) . MALE. HEAD : Length : 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 203 

width: : 0.86: 1.36; interocular width, 0.90; surface with nu- 
merous, moderately coarse, crowded punctures on juga, with 
finer, more scattered punctures on clypeus and vertex; jugum 
with six or seven submarginal setigerous punctures ; bucculae 
punctured, higher than labial II; antennals, I, 0.26; II, 0.40; 
III, 0.36; IV, 0.43; V, missing; labials, I, 0.46; II, 0.73; III, 
0.60; IV, 0.46. PRONOTUM : Length: width :: 1.75 : 3.42; sur- 
face alutaceous, with numerous punctures crowded laterally; 
anterior lobe with subapical transverse patch of coarse and fine 
punctures intermixed and a few finer ones on midline between 
calli ; hind lobe with numerous moderately coarse punctures and 
fine ones intermixed, these extending to the hind margin. Scu- 
TELLUM : Length : width : : 2.00 : 1.95 ; surface weakly alutaceous, 
with numerous crowded punctures becoming finer apically. 
HEMELYTRON : Strongly alutaceous with not more than ten sub- 
costal setigerous punctures (setae all missing and punctures 
confused) ; exocorium with densely crowded punctures becoming 
coarser basally ; mesocorium less densely punctured than exo- 
corium, with two complete rows of punctures paralleling the 
claval suture but no evidence of branching of vein M ; clavus 
with three more or less complete rows of punctures ; membranal 
suture weakly bisinuate, weakly produced laterally; membrane 
strongly embrowned. MESOPLEURON : (Fig. 7) evaporatorium 
extending to lateral margin along posterior edge ; polished ante- 
rior part with several coarse punctures. METAPLEURON : Illus- 
trated, Fig. 7. STERNITES : Strongly alutaceous, with coarsely 
aciculate punctures except along broad midventral line. TER- 
MINALIA : Genital capsule alutaceous, its aciculate punctures not 
as dense as those towards sides of sternites, apical margin 
broadly and shallowly but distinctly concave ; gonostylus as 
illustrated (Fig. 2). LENGTH of body 6.28. 

TYPE DATA : Signoret's type male from "Simons Bay" in the 
west shore of False Bay south of Cape Town, Cape Province, 
Union of South Africa, is in the Naturhistorisches Museum, 
Vienna, Austria. 

DISCUSSION : Study of the male type at the Naturhistorische 
Museum was made possible through the kindness of Dr. Max 
Beier to whom I am sincerely grateful. 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

Dearcla paucivillosa new species 

DIAGNOSIS : The lack of submarginal setigerous punctures on 
the head will separate paucivillosa from the other three species 
in the genus. 

DESCRIPTION (based on single male type). MALE. HEAD: 
Length: width: : 1.46: 2.07; interocular width, 1.25; surface 
shining, juga and vertex with numerous subcontiguous, mod- 
erately coarse punctures ; jugum with but one submarginal setig- 
erous puncture (the preocular) ; clypeus with scattered fine 
punctures and a few transverse rugae ; bucculae punctate, about 
as high as labial II; antennals, I, 0.46; II, 0.63; III, 0.63; IV, 
0.76; V, 0.86; labials, I, 0.91; II, 1.33; III, 1.26; IV, 0.78. 
PRONOTUM : Length : width : : 2.63 : 4.62 ; surface, especially large 
L-shaped calli, shining ; anterior lobe subapically with numerous 
moderately coarse and fine punctures intermixed; both lobes 
laterad of lateral limits of calli with numerous closely crowded 
moderate punctures ; transverse impression and posterior lobe 
discally with numerous scattered, moderately coarse punctures 
interspersed with many minute punctures; lateral submarginal 
row of seven setigerous punctures (setae missing). SCUTEL- 
LUM (deformed by a transverse wrinkling which reduces its 
length, however, the longitudinal measurement is estimated on 
the base of where the tip might have been in relation to certain 
hemelytral developments) : Length : width : : 3.27( ?) : 2.60 ; dis- 
cally with numerous scattered, moderately coarse punctures 
interspersed with abundant minute punctures which are finer 
toward impunctate tip. HEMELYTRON : Corium alutaceous ; 
costa straight and subparallel on basal half, with two or three 
submarginal setigerous punctures (setae mostly missing) ; exo- 
corium from base to apex with closely crowded punctures; 
mesocorium discally with numerous punctures, these more widely 
spaced than those of exocorium, and with two complete rows 
of punctures paralleling claval suture, with a weak but evident 
branch arising near middle of vein M ; clavus with three nearly 
complete rows of punctures ; membranal suture bisinuate, lateral 
angle broadly prolonged ; membrane longer than basal width, 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



205 







5 





FIGS. 2-9. Dearcla opercularis Signoret. 



golden tan with two fuscous blotches at base (outer one pro- 
longed obliquely meso-posteriorly) . MESO- and METAPLEURA : 
Similar to Figure 7. STERNITES : Strongly alutaceous, with 
closely aciculate punctures occupying all but broad midventral 
line. TERMINALIA : Genital capsule alutaceous, with numerous 
crowded punctures ; midline transversely impressed at basal 
third ; apical margin with shallow, broadly U-shaped median 
emargination and somewhat concave laterally ; gonostylus quite 
similar to that of opercularis. LENGTH of body, 9.00. 

TYPE DATA : The holotype male labelled "NATAL, Weenen, 
Mkolombe[?], N. C, 22.iii.1926, 5000 ft. H. P. Thomasset" is 
in the British Museum of Natural History, London. 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

A New Species of Scorpion of the Vejovidae : 
Paruroctonus vachoni x 

HERBERT L. STAHNKE, 2 Poisonous Animals Laboratory, 
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 

In its natural habitat, Paruroctonus vachoni, at first glance, 
may be mistaken for Hadrurus arizonensis (Ewing). This is 
largely due to the rather dark brown appearance of the meso- 
soma (preabdomen) and a carapace that has a somewhat light 
yellow interocular triangle followed by a darker posterior por- 
tion. Closer examination reveals a scorpion not nearly as hir- 
sute, much more slender and with more prominently keeled 
pedipalp chela. 

HOLOTYPE. An adult female, A.S. No. 61-1, taken December 
4, 1960, by R. L. Swett, under a box in a tool shed at Sheep 
Creek Springs, elevation 1,800 ft, 37 miles north of Baker, 
California. 

ALLOTYPE: An adult male, A.S. No. 60-488, collected No- 
vember 21, 1960, in a kitchen sink at the same locality. 

PARATYPE: A female, slightly shorter than holotype, A.S. 
No. 1663, collected by O. L. Wallace, September 9, 1955, in 
residence at Boulder City, Nevada. A large female, A.S. No. 
1468.3, collected September 16, 1954, Trona, California, by 
Warren C. Vogt. Two large females, A.S. Nos. 894.3 and 
1107.0, collected by Ann Pipkin, October 1948, in Wildrose 
Canyon, elevation 3,500 ft, Death Valley National Monument, 
California. 

DIAGNOSIS : P. vachoni and P. gracilior are similar in colora- 
tion but the former shows more redness on pedipalp fingers. 
Since P. mesaensis lacks the brown coloration, the difference 
in this respect is quite distinctive. The telson vesicle of P. 
vachoni is more globular than that of either of the other two. 

1 Dr. Max Vachon, Director Laboratoire de Zoologie, Museum Na- 
tional d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, has made very extensive con- 
tributions to the fields of scorpiology. 

2 Partially supported by the National Science Foundation. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



207 



The entire margin of the carapace of P. vachoni and P. mesaen- 
sis is straight while that of P. gracilior protrudes farthest at the 
mid-point. The following table will show other distinctive simi- 
larities and differences. Unfortunately, females of P. gracilior 
were not available; the data for the males are taken directly 
from the types of Hoffman. 

TABLE 1. Comparison of ratios in P. vachoni, P. gracilior, 
and P. mesaensis 





Pectinal Teeth 


VEW/IW 


HdW/HdTh 


IL/IVV 


Males: 










P. vachoni 


35/35 


1.03 


1.37 


1.64 


P. gracilior 


26/26, 28/28 


0.63-0.66 


1.26-1.32 


1.04-1.14 


P. mesaensis 


32/32, 38/39 


0.69-0.74 


1.24-1.32 


1.37-1.42 


Females : 










P. vachoni 


24/24-27/27 


0.76-0.96 


1.25-1.47 


1.29-1.41 


P. gracilior 


(not available) 








P. mesaensis 


23/23-24/25 


0.71-0.73 


1.27-1.33 


1.21-1.27 



Abbreviations : 

VEW, Telson vesicle width 
IW, Width caudal segment I 
HdW, Chela hand width 
HdTh, Chela hand thickness 
IL, Length caudal segment I 



DESCRIPTION OF THE HOLOTYPE: 

Carapace: Background color light yellow with diffuse, brown 
pigment throughout. Anterior two-thirds of interocular tri- 
angle only lightly diffuse with dark pigment. Irregularly mar- 
gined patches of brown lateral to the rather prominent blackish 
ocular tubercle. Sub-triangular brown spots posterior-median 
and posterior-lateral corners. Anterior margin straight, bearing 
about 6 bristles and forming pocket with anterior portion of the 
distinct median furrow which continues over the median ocular 
tubercle to form definite superciliary ridges. Very shallow 
immediately posterior to the tubercle but rapidly increases in 
depth until, half the distance to the well developed posterior 
furrow, it forms a deep, narrow furrow. Posterior lateral fur- 
rows very broad and shallow. Entire carapace with fine gran- 



208 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

TABLE 2. Dimensions in millimeters 

9 Holotype cf Allotype 

Pectinal teeth 24/24 35/35 
Lengths: 

Total 71.1 85.5 

Trunk 28.5 28.1 

Cauda 42.6 57.4 



Carapace 8.6 9.4 

Preabdomen 20.3 18.7 

Pedipalp* 29.2 35.7 

Tibia 14.4 17.7 

Patella 7.5 8.8 

Femur 7.3 9.2 



Leg IV 

Femur 9.5 11.4 

Patella 6.8 7.4 
Tarsomere I 

plus tibia 7.9 10.0 



Widths: 

Cauda I 4.9 3.9 

Cauda V 2.8 3.1 

Telson vesicle 2.9 4.0 



Carapace-posterior 8.0 8.3 

Preabdomen IV 9.0 9.0 



* Minus coxa and trochanter. 

ules interspaced freely with much larger granules. Three lateral 
eyes decreasing in size posteriorly ; the smallest out of line with 
the other two. Frontal lobes moderately prominent. 

MESOSOMA (Preabdomen). First six tergites entirely brown 
except for somewhat reticulated light areas laterad and two 
median ovoid light spots on each tergite. VII light yellow except 
for anterior median deposit of tan. All tergites densely covered 
with very fine granules and some larger ones, which increase 
progressively somewhat in size and number posteriad. Median 
keels vestigial on all segments but more so on anterior ones. 
VITalso with two pair of lateral keels bearing large cone-shaped 
granules with similar granules in intercarinal spaces. Sternites 
I-VI agranular, sparsely hirsute, bearing elongate stigmata. 
VII with one pair lateral, granular keels and small granules in 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 209 

intercarinal spaces. Pectines long and exceptionally slender; 
first teeth located one-third pectinal length ; basal piece some- 
what butterfly-shaped ; anterior median notch extends approxi- 
mately one-half-length. Genital plate not divided ; broader than 
long; no genital papillae. 

METASOMA (Cauda) : Very slender. All segments longer than 
wide. Vesicle not as wide as segments I III. 

1. Postabdomen : Uniform color, moderately hirsute. 
Dorsal keels on I-IV well developed and bearing coarse, 

more or less uniform granules ; on V weakly developed but bear- 
ing irregularly aligned granules that get increasingly smaller 
distad. 

Superior lateral keels. Like dorsal keels but incomplete on 
V. Present on only 0.4 of proximal portion of segment bearing 
granules of moderate size. 

Median lateral keels. Well developed and coarsely granular 
on I ; vestiges on distal end of II and III ; lacking on IV and V. 

Inferior lateral keels. Well developed on all segments. Gran- 
ules indistinct on II-V, getting progressively larger distad so 
that on V they are quite large and irregularly serrate. 

Inferior median keels. Not prominent and with a few mod- 
erately large granules on I ; greater keel development and larger 
granules progressively distad on remaining segments. V with 
one median keel bearing large cone-shaped granules. 

Anal arch. Proximal ridge with irregularly placed large 
granules. Distal ridge agranular except for one large granule 
on extreme lateral end. A row of widely spaced long, coarse 
bristles in intermediate area. 

Intercarinal spaces. All covered with very fine granules ; on 
dorsal and dorso-lateral of segments I-III interspersed with 
few large granules which are lacking on IV and only sparsely 
found on V. Large granules almost entirely absent on ventral 
surface ; a few large, distinct granules on V. 

2. Telson. Elongate, smooth, bearing some inconspicuous 
broad granules and slightly hirsute. Two large bristles ven- 
trally and medially at base of aculeus which bears its curvature 
in distal one-half. Lighter in color than rest of cauda. 



210 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

Appendages. Of lighter color generally than rest of scorpion. 

1. Chelicerae. Inferior border of movable finger with three 
or more truncated teeth of variable size and shape. Inferior 
border of fixed finger with three reddish tubercle-like protuber- 
ances. Movable finger bifurcate. Superior margins with four 
teeth ; most distal two uniform size, about one-third length of 
third, fourth about same size as distal two. 

2. Pedipalps. Uniform yellow color, fingers slightly reddish. 
Sparcely hirsute. 

Chelae. Small granules on cutting edge of movable fingers 
non-serrate, arranged in longtudinal row and divided into six 
groups by six large denticulate granules ; flanked internally by 
five large denticulate granules plus two terminal ones. Fixed 
finger with a total of six internal flanking granules. On both 
fingers, but more noticeable on movable fingers, a large bristle 
immediately posterior to each flanking granules except the two 
most distal ones. Cutting edges not noticeably scalloped. 
Hand keels well developed and granular. Lateral keels with 
larger, reddish granules. Inferior and superior intercarinal 
spaces largely agranular. 

PATELLA (Brachintn) : All keels distinct and granular. 
Twenty trichobothria arranged as follows on posterior surface : 

Most distal group 2 

Diagonal distal group 4 

Irregular medial group 8 

Sub proximal group 4 

Proximal group 2 

A few large granules on proximal margin of anterior surface 
otherwise intercarinal spaces bear only minute granules. 

FEMUR (Hwnerus) : Superior keels well developed and bear- 
ing large granules. Intercarinal surface well covered with small 
granules. Inferio-anterior keels well developed and bearing 
large granules. Inferio-posterior keels vestigial and partially 
represented by moderately large granules. 

3. Walking legs. Tarsal claws long; well developed median 
claw (unguicular spine) ; exterior and interior pedal spurs. 
Tibia and tarsomeres bear long, heavy bristles ; longest and 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 211 

greatest concentration on legs I to III and on tarsomeres I of 
these legs. Other leg joints sparsely hirsute. Median tarsal 
lobe triangular with one large bristle on apex and one on each 
corner of the base. Two bristles on distal edge of lateral lobes. 
Single row of short, thick spines on sole of tarsomere with two 
large bristles forming V distad and a cluster of small bristles 
proximad. 

DESCRIPTION OF ALLOTYPE. Relatively shorter trunk; more 
coarsely granular and more elongate. 

Carapace. Differs from female in that granules are larger 
and denser ; not as much dark pigment which is confined largely 
to immediate lateral areas of ocular tubercle. Anterior margin, 
furrows and lateral eyes like female. Frontal lobes not as 
prominent but bear definitely larger granules. 

MESOSOMA (Preabdomen} : Reticulated light spots on first 
six tergites much larger than in female; the two median light 
ovoid spots lacking. Granulation similar to female but larger 
granules considerably more numerous on posterior portion of 
tergites. Median keels more developed than on female. Second 
pair of lateral keels on VII represented poorly. Sternites mod- 
erately hirsute bearing coarse bristles and densely covered with 
minute granules. VII with larger keels and granules than 
female. Pectines large, strongly hirsute with free margin of 
proximal middle lamella making a 45 angle with fulcral mar- 
gin. Basal piece similar to female. Genital operculum divided ; 
two conspicuous genital papillae. 

METASOMA (Can da} : All segments more elongate than on 
female with vesicle noticeably broader and much lighter in color 
than segments. 

1. Postabdomen. More hirsute than female, bearing coarse 
bristles. 

Dorsal keels. Same as female. 

Superior lateral keels. Like female except that on V it is 
present on proximal half of segment. 

Median lateral keels. Same as female. 

Inferior lateral keels. Prominent and definitely granular on 
all segments. 



212 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

Inferior median keels. Bear small granules on I, agranular 
on II, somewhat granular on III ; IV bearing irregularly aligned 
large granules and V with one well developed keel bearing 
serrate granules. 

Anal arch. Same as female. 

Intercarinal spaces. Same as female. 

2. Telson. More globular and proportionately larger than on 
female. Otherwise similar. 

Appendages. Light yellow except reddish tinge to fingers 
of chelicerae and pedipalps, and on the latter, the large granules 
of keels. 

1. Chelicerae. Same as on female but tubercle-like protuber- 
ances on ventral surface of fixed finger may consist of one tooth- 
like protuberance flanked by clusters of smaller ones. 

2. Pedipalps. Finger, redder and more hirsute than on 
female. 

Chelae. Small and large granules of cutting edges like female 
but both fingers bear large lobes that fit into receiving depres- 
sions of opposing finger. The remaining distal portion of each 
finger mildly scalloped. Hand configuration like female except 
more strongly developed. 

Patella (brachium}, femur (humerus) and walking legs simi- 
lar to female. 

VARIATIONS. From the table of ratios it is obvious that 
females vary in pectinal tooth count from 24 to 27 ; that some 
females have pedipalp chelae as stout as those of the male is 
obvious. Also some females have a proportionately broader 
telson but none approach that of the male. Some females are 
more coarsely granular, have scalloped pedipalp finger cutting 
edges, have a varying amount of dark pigment from that of the 
holotype ; but again, for these qualities they differ from the male. 
Unfortunately, no other males were available. 

LITERATURE 

HOFFMAN, C. 1931. The Scorpiones de Mexico. Anales del Inst. de 

Bio I. 2 : 406-408. 
STAHNKE, H. L. 1957. A New Species of Scorpion of the Vejovidae: 

Paruroctonus mesaenis. Ent. News 68 : 253-259. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 213 

The Onychophora of Jamaica 

Ross H. ARNETT, JR., Department of Biology, The Catholic 
University of America, Washington, D. C. 

The author has been privileged to study a fine lot of Onycho- 
phora from the island of Jamaica, representing several years of 
concentrated collecting by biologists associated with the Insti- 
tute of Jamaica in Kingston. The results of this study are 
incorporated below. I wish to express my sincere appreciation 
to C. Bernard Lewis, Director of the Institute of Jamaica and 
Curator of the Science Museum, for giving me the opportunity 
to study this material. Mr. Lewis has collected much of this 
material himself, including the first specimens of the new spe- 
cies described below and which is dedicated to him. Grateful 
acknowledgment is also made of the notes and specimens fur- 
nished by Mr. R. P. Bengry, Assistant Curator at the Science 
Museum, and for his kind assistance in checking the manuscript 
and other details. 

This group of animals, variously designated as a class of 
arthropods or lately, by an increasing number of zoologists, as 
a separate phylum, is of particular interest because of the zoo- 
geographical implications it presents. The island of Jamaica 
now has four representatives, three species and one subspecies, 
as described below. Interestingly enough, each of these forms 
represents a different genus, of which one, Plicatoperipatus, is 
unique to the island. The other three genera are widely dis- 
tributed throughout the West Indies, Central America, and 
northern South America. However, all of the forms herein 
reported are known only from Jamaica. The zoogeography of 
Onychophora has been discussed in numerous papers. These 
notes serve only as a supplement to those studies. 

The colour of alcoholic specimens usually is destroyed or 
changed in such a way that it is difficult to use colour for iden- 
tification. From notes furnished by Mr. Lewis and Mr. R. P. 
Bengry, it appears that in life the colour is relatively constant 
and is a help in recognizing species. These notes have been 
appended to the species descriptions that follow. 



214 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

The key, illustrations, and descriptions will serve to identify 
the species known from Jamaica. The work of Bouvier 
(1905-7) and of Clark (1913) should be consulted for the 
definition of genera. 

Key to the Genera and Species of Onychophora of Jamaica 

1. 24 transverse dorsal folds to each segment, somewhat indis- 

tinct because of numerous anastomosings and irregularities 
in the grooves which separate them ; 37-41 pairs of legs ; 
papillae with acute apices and sub-apices, appearing ser- 
rate (Fig. 1 ) ; adults 40-55 mm long 

Plicatoperipatus jamaicensis Grabh. & Ckll. 

12 transverse dorsal folds to each segment, usually distinct; 
papillae various, but without the serrate appearance 2 

2. Primary papillae on the dorsal surface of the body each with 

a quadrangular base separated by straight grooves parallel 
with the axis of the body ; accessory papillae ordinarily 
small and few in number ; apices of primary papillae sur- 
mounted by a high and prominent truncated cone or 
slightly tapering cylinder (Fig. 2); 34-36 pairs of legs; 

adults 63-66 mm long 

Macroperipatus insularis clarki subsp. nov. 

Primary papillae of dorsal surface each with a more or less 
rounded base ; accessory papillae exhibiting diverse stages 
of development 3 

3. Primary papillae of dorsal surface exhibiting great difference 

of size at all ages, generally arranged with three accessory 
papillae between two primary papillae ; 29-33 pairs of legs ; 

adults 43 mm long Peripatus swainsonae Ckll. 

Primary papillae of dorsal surface all of one type but of 
various sizes, with rounded or oval bases ; primary papillae 
tall, with long, narrow, slightly tapering, cylindrical cones 
(Fig. 5) ; 34-36 pairs of legs; adults 71-79 mm (rarely 
127 mm) long Epiperipatus lewisi sp. nov. 

Genus PLICATOPERIPATUS Clark, 1913 

Plicatoperipatus jamaicensis (Grabham and Cockrell, 1892). 
Peripatus jamaicensis Grabham and Cockerell, 1892, Nature 46: 
514. 

Type locality. Jamaica, Beacon Hill, near Bath, 3 specimens. 

This well-known species can be readily separated from all 

others by the unique arrangement of the dorsal folds of each 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 215 

segment, there being 24 per segment instead of the usual 12. 
The papillae in lateral view are much more serrate than in other 
species and the apex lacks a noticeable cone (Fig. 1). This 
species is reported to be reddish brown in life, varying from 
maroon to vinous red. Most specimens have white-tipped an- 
tennae, but some are reported to be without this marking. 

Material studied. Portland, 5 miles southwest of Priestman's 
River (ca. 1,500 ft), Feb. 6, 1953, W. G. Lynn, collector, 3 
specimens as follows : 37 pairs of legs, 55 mm long, 3 mm wide, 
2.5 mm high; 38 pairs of legs, 18 mm long (young) ; 39 pairs 
of legs, 37 mm long, 4 mm wide, 2.5 cm high. About 1 mile 
W.S.W. of Ecclesdown (ca. 1,200 ft), March 30, 1958, R. P. 
Bengry, collector; 31 pairs of legs, 25 mm long, 3 mm wide, 2 
mm high. Manchester. Summit of Heron's Hill (3,100 ft), 
March 3-8, 1952, from rotten log, G. R. Proctor, collector; 40 
pairs of legs, 42 mm long. St. Thomas, 20 yards north of 6th 
milepost between Barrett's Gap and Corn Puss Gap (ca. 800 
ft), July 25, 1952, under completely decayed tree-fern trunk, 
R. P. Bengry, collector; 40 pairs of legs, 40 mm long, 5 mm 
wide, 4 mm high. Morce's Gap (5,000 ft), July 21, 1936, W. G. 
Lynn, collector; 38 pairs of legs, 46 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, 2 
mm high (deposited in the United States National Museum col- 
lection by the collector). Trelawny. Windsor (400 ft), Aug. 
20, 1956, under stone, R. P. Bengry, collector; 38 pairs of legs, 
60 mm long, 6 mm wide, 4 mm high. St. Ann. 2\ miles north- 
west of Hollymount (2,200 ft), May 24, 1957, under stone, 
R. P. Bengry, collector; 40 pairs of legs, 50 mm long, 5 mm 
wide, 4 mm high: 4.8 miles south of Moneague (2,750 ft), 
July 5, 1957, P. Drummond, collector; 36 pairs of legs, 35 mm 
long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm high. Mosely Hall Cave, near Black- 
stonedge (ca. 2,000 ft), Dec. 14, 1952, J. M. Valentine, col- 
lector ; 37 pairs of legs, 28 mm long. 

Genus MACROPERIPATUS Clark, 1913 
Macroperipatus insularis clarki, subsp. nov. 

Type locality. Jamaica, Portland, 5 miles southwest of 
Priestman's River (ca. 1,500 ft). 



216 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

The characteristics of M. i. clarki agree with Clark's descrip- 
tion of the genus and of the typical insularis except that the cone 
of the primary papillae is narrower and more nearly cylindrical 
(Figs. 2 & 3) than in the type of the species (Fig. 3). In 
addition, M. i. clarki is larger (63-66 mm) and has more pairs 
of legs (3436). M. i. insularis Clark is approximately 55 mm 
long with 30 pairs of legs. The colour of M. i. clarki is grey 
in life. 

Four specimens are known, all from the same locality in 
Portland, 5 miles southwest of Priestman's River, ca, 1,500 ft. 
Holotypc: Feb. 6, 1953, C. B. Lewis, collector; 36 pairs of 
legs, 65 mm long, 4.5 mm wide, 3 mm high. Paratype: Feb. 6, 
1953, C. B. Lewis, collector; 34 pairs of legs, 63 mm long, 5 mm 
wide, 3.5 mm high. Paratype: March 11, 1953, W. G. Lynn, 
collector; 35 pairs of legs, 66 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm high. 
Paratype: March 11, 1953, W. G. Lynn, collector; 36 pairs of 
legs, 63 mm long, 4 mm wide, 2.5 mm high. 

It is interesting to note that the nearest relative of this species 
is from Veracruz, Mexico (Macroperipatus parrieri Bouvier) ; 
no Onychophora are yet known from Cuba. M. i. insularis 
Clark, the type of the species, was collected between Jacmel 
and Tronim, Haiti. 

Genus PERIPATUS Guilding, 1826 

Peripatus swainsonae Cockerell, 1893. 

Peripatus julifonnis var. swainsonae Cockerell, 1893, Zoolo- 
gische Anzeiger, 16: 341. 

Type locality. "Jamaica." 

This species may be recognized on the basis of its generic 
characteristics alone, principally by the arrangement of the pri- 
mary and accessory papillae as given in the key. It is the 
smallest of the four species and has the least number of legs. 
The shape of the papillae distinguishes it from all other species 
on the island : It has a broad base which tapers gradually to 
a broad summit; the cone is short and broad (Fig. 4). This 
species is reported to be olive-green in life. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



217 




Lateral view of the primary papillae of adults. 

FIG. 1. Plicatoperipatus jamaicensis Grabham and Cockerell. 

FIG. 2. Macroperipatus insularis subspecies clarki, new subsp. 

FIG. 3. Macroperipatus insularis subspecies insularis Clark. 

FIG. 4. Peripatns swainsoni Cockerell. 

FIG. 5. Epipcripatus lewisi, new species. 



Material studied. Hanover. Lances Bay, September 13, 
1952, collected under stone, on limestone, 2\ inches of rain on 
previous day, W. G. Lynn, collector; 30 pairs of legs, 43 mm 
long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm high. Portland. 5 miles southwest of 
Priestman's River, ca. 1,500 ft, March 11, 1953, W. G. Lynn, 
collector; 31 pairs of legs, 22 mm long. Trelawny. Windsor 
(400 ft), Aug. 20, 1956, under stone, R. P. Bengry, collector; 
28 pairs of legs, 22 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm high. 

There are also five young specimens, born in the laboratory, 
which appear to belong to this species. However, it is not 
apparent to the author which specimens were the parents of 
these immatures. The plication and papillae are not sufficiently 
developed at birth to make certain of the identification. The 



218 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

number of legs on these young specimens seems to indicate that 
they belong to this species. 

Genus EPIPERIPATUS Clark, 1913 
Epiperipatus lewisi sp. nov. 

Type locality. Jamaica, Portland, John Crow Mountains, 
ca. 10 miles southwest Priestman's River. 

This is the largest species known on the island, the average 
length being about 75 mm. In addition to the characteristics 
for the genus, the following features are noted. The primary 
papillae are irregular in size with numerous accessory papillae. 
The cone of the papilla is long, narrow, slightly tapering, cylin- 
drical (Fig. 5). The urinary papillae are located on the fourth 
and fifth pair of legs. The fourth arc is arched beneath the 
urinary papilla, but not divided into segments ; the urinary 
papilla is attached to the third arc by a broad band. The legs 
vary from 34 to 36 pairs. In life, this species is grey to rich 
dark reddish-brown. 

Three specimens of this new species were recently collected 
by Mr. R. P. Bengry, who supplies the following interesting 
notes : The specimens were collected in a rotten log on a rocky 
slope. The largest specimen (which is probably the largest 
Peripatus known, measuring 127 mm in life) was collected first. 
"Careful examination of the well-decayed log debris, torn apart 
largely by hand, revealed another two of the same kind (E. 
lewisi} and a small different one, (P. jamaicensis) . I am of the 
distinct opinion that the first found specimen was very light red- 
dish (almost pink flesh coloured) but I did not see it change 
colour (if it did) and the other two were not so light coloured 
when found. . . . The colour as we observed them is in our 
opinion: rich, dark reddish-brown with a soft (not shiny) 
velvety appearance. We noted that they walk in reverse with 
just as much ease as forwards and also that when poked with 
a finger wriggle 3 or 4 times in the manner of an earthworm. 
We searched in logs, under stones and leaf mould for more but 
found none. It is interesting to note that there were few, if 
any, tree-ferns where we were working." 



IxxiiJ ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 219 

The closest relative of this species is E. edwardsii (Blanchard) 
from Panama. It may be readily separated from that species 
by the large size, the broad connection of the urinary papillae 
with the third arc, and the long, narrow cones of the papillae, 
as contrasted to the short, broad cones of E. edwardsii. 

The following six specimens are designated as holotype and 
paratypes. Holotype: Portland, John Crow Mountains, ca. 10 
miles southwest of Priestman's River, Jan. 9, 1951, C. B. Lewis, 
collector ; 35 pairs of legs, 75 mm long, 6 mm wide, 4 mm high, 
deposited in the United States National Museum collection. 
Paratypes: same locality and date as holotype, C. B. Lewis, 
collector ; two paratypes as follows : 34 pairs of legs, 75 mm 
long, 6 mm wide, 3.5 mm high; 36 pairs of legs, 71 mm long, 6 
mm wide, 3.5 mm high. Portland. 5 miles southwest of Priest- 
man's River (ca. 1,500 ft), Feb. 6, 1953, W. G. Lynn and C. B. 
Lewis, collectors, three paratypes as follows : 35 pairs of legs, 
55 mm long, 5 mm wide, 3 mm high (killed March 4, 1953, 
and oviducts removed for sectioning) ; 35 pairs of legs, 72 mm 
long, 6 mm wide, 5 mm high; 35 pairs of legs, 79 mm long, 
6 mm wide, 5 mm high. 

Additional material examined. Portland, ca. 1 mile W.S.W. 
of Ecclesdown, March 30, 1958, R. P. Bengry, collector, three 
specimens as follows: 36 pairs of legs, 127 (living specimens), 
112 (preserved specimens) mm long, 10 mm wide, 7 mm high; 
35 pairs of legs, 78 mm long, 7 mm wide, 5 mm high; 36 pairs 
of legs, 76 mm long, 7 mm wide, 5 mm high. 

No other species of Epiperipatus is known from the West 
Indies proper, except for E. barbouri Brues from Grenada. 
E. trinidadensis (Stuhlmann) is known from Trinidad and 
E. t. var. broadwayi Clark is described from Tobago. I have 
recently identified E. edwardsii from Trinidad. 

BlBLIOGAPHY 

ANDREWS, E. A. 1911. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., Feb. 1911, pp. 1-4. 

-. 1933. Quart. Rev. Biol. 8: 155-163. 
BARBOUR, T. 1910. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 52: 271-301. 
BENGRY, R. P. 1953. Nat. Hist. Notes, Nat. Hist. Soc. Jamaica 5(58) : 
167. 



220 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

BOUVIER, M. E. L. 1905. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. sen 9, 2: 1-383. 

-. 1907. Loc. cit. 5: 61-318. 

BRUES, C. T. 1911. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 54(8) : 305-318. 
CLARK, A. H. 1913. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 26: 15-20. 
COCKERELL, T. D. A. 1893. Zool. Anz. 16: 341-343. 

-. 1901. Nature 63 : 325-326. 
DUERDEN, J. E. 1901. Nature 63: 440-441. 

GOSSE, P. H. 1851. A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica. London. 
GRABHAM, M. and T. D. A. COCKERELL. 1892. Nature 46: 514. 
GRABHAM, M. 1893. Journ. Inst. Jamaica 1 : 217-220. 
GUILDING, L. 1826. Zoological Journal 2 : 443. 

LYNN, W. G. 1944. Nat. Hist. Notes, Nat. Hist. Soc. Jamaica 2(19) : 
113-114. 

. 1946. Glimpses of Jamaican Natural History 2 : 21-23. 
SEDWICK, A. 1888. Quart. Journ. Micro. Soc. 28: 431-493. 
WALTER, M. 1943. Nat. Hist. Notes, Nat. Hist. Soc. Jamaica 1(9): 
10-11. 



Nomenclature Notice 

All comments relating to the following should be marked with 
the Commission's File Number and sent in duplicate, before 
December 16th, to the Secretary, International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature, c/o British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 7, England. 

Validation of the generic name Cicadella Latreille, 1817 
(Order Hemiptera). Z.N. (S.) 457. 

Designation of a type-species for Conomelus Fieber, 1866 
(Order Hemiptera). Z.N. (S.) 468. 

Designation of a type-species for Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Or- 
der Hemiptera). Z.N. (S.) 881. 

Designation of a type-species for Dasiops Rodani, 1856 
(Order Diptera). Z.N. (S.) 1240. 

Designation of a type-species for Harrisoniella Bedford, 
1928 (Order Mallophaga). Z.N. (S.) 1282. 

Designation of a type-species for Lestis Lepeletier & Ser- 
ville, 1828 (Order Hymenoptera). Z.N. (S.) 1383. 

For details see Bull. Zool. Nomencl. Vol. 18, Part 3. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 221 

Reviews 

FACTS AND THEORIES CONCERNING THE INSECT HEAD. By 
R. E. Snodgrass. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 
142, No. 1. Pp. 1-56. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D. C, 1961. 

This compendious little booklet, like all of Dr. Snodgrass's 
work, is characterized by its succinct yet smooth and lucid lan- 
guage ; each idea is approached most directly and set forth 
clearly without an excess word or phrase. The discussions of 
complex anatomical details are easily followed, and as for the 
theoretical part, this is even delectable, for theories are often 
more fun than facts. 

Dr. Snodgrass likes to relate his thinking to the broadest 
fundamental concepts, and so, on page one along with a state- 
ment of the scope of the book there is this precis on morphology 
and its relation to anatomy and ontogeny : 

"Morphology is an attempt to understand the sig- 
nificance of anatomical facts in relation to one another, 
and to reconstruct from the known facts the evolutionary 
development by which the animal has come to be what 
it is today. Consequently as new facts come to light 
our morphology has to be revised to fit them, though it 
sometimes seems as if some morphologists find it easier 
to make the facts fit their theories. Ontogeny and anat- 
omy are visible facts not always correctly observed ; 
morphology and phylogeny are mental concepts that 
cannot be demonstrated." 

Chapter I (8 pages) treats of the development and evolution 
of the head capsule and its appendages. The chief conclusion 
is that the head is constituted of a preoral region (head lobes 
or blastocephalon of the embryo) that bears the eyes and an- 
tennae, and of a postoral region of four undoubted segments, 



222 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1961 

the premandibular (tritocerebral) and the three appendage- 
bearing segments. This idea is already set forth in Snod- 
grass's Principles of Morphology (1935) but is here more 
perfectly developed. 

Chapters II-VI (28 pages) deal with the morphology of the 
head capsule and its appendages. The emphasis is on under- 
standing its component structures in arthropods and their 
evolution in the Insecta. Almost 100 drawings illustrate this 
section. 

Chapter VII, entitled "Theoretical Considerations," takes up 
the various theories of the segmental origin of the insect head, 
the old ones that are still actively supported as well as some 
novel ones of recent origin. Curiously, the same "facts" are 
often used to support very different ideas, and as Snodgrass 
remarks : ". . . the facts often seem less important than the 
theoretical discussions about them." Mostly it is claimed that 
the preoral part of the head is made up of three segments, or 
even four, but not necessarily in the same order. Thus, one 
theory states that the labrum represents Segment I, another that 
it is really what is usually numbered Segment III (tritocere- 
bral), and both base their conclusions on the same "facts" of 
innervation ! Dr. Snodgrass gives an amazingly compact yet 
perspicuous account of the crucial observational data and the 
reasoning upon which the alternative theories are based. Many 
misinterpretations of facts are exposed and fallacious reasoning 
is confuted from his own more thorough knowledge of arthro- 
pod morphology. Always concerned primarily with investigat- 
ing anatomical facts and developing a sound morphology, he 
now also brings in the theory that he himself has favored, albeit 
with a characteristic fine restraint. He suggests that as long as 
there is no real evidence that the preoral head region was ever 
segmented we 

"may as well in the meantime be content with the facts 
as they are known. If we must have a theory, that of 
the prostomial nature of the embryonic blastocephalon 
is the simplest and easiest to visualize. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 223 

And he goes on to remark : 

"And really, it would be too bad if the question of head 
segmentation ever should be finally settled; it has been 
for so long such fertile ground for theorizing that ar- 
thropodists would miss it as a field for mental exercise. 

R. G. SCHMIEDER 

CICINDELIDAE OF CANADA by J. B. Wallis. Pp. xiv + 74, 
5 plates (4 colored), 16 maps. University of Toronto Press, 
1961. Price, bd., $5.00. 

This study includes two species of Omus and 26 of Cicindela, 
and a total, if subspecies are counted, of 49 named forms. A 
brief account of the life history and habits of tiger-beetles is 
followed by keys and the data on individual species and sub- 
species. The color plates show 106 beetles, including all the 
named forms and many of the color variants. R. G. SCHMIEDER. 

WESTERN BUTTERFLIES by Arthur C. Smith. Illustrated by 
Gene M. Christman. A Sunset Junior Book. Pp. 65, 8" X 9". 
Lane Book Co., Menlo Park, California, 1961. Price, bd., $2.95. 

This is a bright and handsome book with about three-quarters 
of the 127 species illustrated, mostly by paintings in color on 
habitat backgrounds. Often both sexes are shown and both wing 
surfaces. Interestingly written in simple language not too diffi- 
cult for a ten year old, it tells about butterflies their lives, 
habits, kinds and gives suggestions on butterfly hobbies (col- 
lecting and rearing). The species are described under eleven 
different habitats from city yards to mountain tops. There is 
also a list which, under family headings, gives the common and 
scientific names, ranges, food plants, and page references. R. G. 
SCHMIEDER. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 

Used genuine Schmidt boxes, excellent condition, at less than half 
price. H. W. Allen, Box 150, Moorestown, N. J. 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

New Classified Price Lists 

Available separates from the TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY and ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, and all 
titles of the Society's MEMOIRS have been catalogued by author 
in twelve special price lists in the following categories: 

Coleoptera Neuroptera and Smaller Orders 

Diptera Odonata 

Hemiptera Orthoptera-Dermaptera 

Hymenoptera Arachnida and Other Classes 

Lepidoptera Bibliography-Biography 

Memoirs General 

Lists will be mailed free upon request. Please state specifically 
which list or lists you require. 

The American Entomological Society 

1900 RACE STREET 
PHILADELPHIA 3. PENNSYLVANIA 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



4s. 



Subscriptions for 1962 Are Now Due 
Subscription Blank Enclosed 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NOVEMBER 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 9 



CONTENTS 

Evans Nesting behavior of Plenoculus davisi 225 

Sabrosky Three new nearctic acalyptrate Diptera 229 

Alexander New exotic crane-flies. Part IV 235 

Scott Genitalic key to U. S. genera of mosquitoes 243 

Coppel Unusual habitat for Ancistrocerus tigris 246 

Wray and Knowlton Collembola from rodent nests 248 

Obituary 251 



PDBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 
THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5 30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa. 



3W. 




ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use: in the United States, $5.00; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc.: in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost oi 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side : First 50, $3.47 ; Additional 100's, $2.61. 

Transportation charges will be extra. 



N.B. Subscriptions are due in advance. The January 1962 and following num- 
jers will not be mailed to you unless your 1962 subscription has been paid. 

SUBSCRIPTION BLANK 
1962 

Enclosed please find a remittance of $ for the ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SEWS for one year, beginning with the issue of January 1962. 

flame ._ _ _ 

\ddress _ 

PRIVATE SUBSCRIPTIONS, FOR PERSONAL USE 

subscription price per year of 10 numbers postpaid throughout the World $6.00 

Po paid up resident members of The American Entomological Society $3.00 

INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTIONS, FOR LIBRARIES, 
LABORATORIES, ETC. 

Subscription price per year of 10 numbers postpaid throughout the World $9.00 

Subscriptions begin with January issue 

Please make all remittances payable to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS in 
J. S. Dollars, by Currency (at sender's risk), checks on domestic (U. S.) banks, 
Irafts on New York or Philadelphia, U. S. Postal, American Express or Inter- 
tational Postal Money-orders. 

Address: 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
1900 RACE ST., PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 






ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII NOVEMBER, 1961 No. 9 

Notes on the Nesting Behavior of Plenoculus davisi 
Fox (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) 

HOWARD E. EVANS, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

The genus Plenoculus includes some of our smallest digger 
wasps, females usually measuring about five or six millimeters 
in length. In a recent revision of the genus, Williams (1960) 
has reviewed what is known of the biology of members of the 
genus. Of the fifteen North American species, two are known 
to prey upon Hemiptera {davisi, stygius), while a third (cocker- 
ellii) apparently preys upon pyralid caterpillars. Nothing is 
known regarding the other twelve species. Williams' (1914) 
report on apicalis (= d. davisi} contains the only available in- 
formation on nest structure and provisioning behavior, but this 
report leaves several questions unanswered. 

My acquaintance with this genus is limited to the most 
common and widely distributed form, d. davisi Fox. A few 
years ago I attempted to collect larvae of this form for inclusion 
in a survey of the structure of sphecid larvae. After several 
failures, I finally obtained one full-grown larva which has since 
been described (Evans 1959). The notes gathered in the course 
of these studies appear to add several details to what is known 
of the behavior of the species and are therefore summarized 
here. One field note was made in Grant Co., Kansas, in August 
1952, two at Ithaca, N. Y., July and August 1953 and 1957, 
and six others at Granby Center, Oswego Co., N. Y., June- 
August 1955-58. I am indebted to F. X. Williams for identi- 
fying the Plenoculus and to D. M. Weisman for determining 
the hemipterous prey. 

(225) 



226 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

Plenoculus d. davisi nests in small sand pits, blow-outs, 
washes, and other places where there is flat or slightly sloping 
open sand or sandy gravel. Usually I have found only one or 
two at a time, but at Granby Center there were many females 
nesting, though the nests were widely scattered over the avail- 
able sand. Nests are ordinarily dug in the morning, provisioned 
throughout the day, then closed in the late afternoon. About 
two hours of intermittent digging are required to complete a 
nest. The female kicks sand vigorously with the front legs 
while the abdomen moves up and down rapidly in synchrony 
with the front legs. Once finished, the nest is left open at all 
times until provisioning is complete. The small mound of sand 
that accumulates at the entrance remains intact until time of the 
final closure. 

Several nests dug out at Granby Center, N. Y., entered the 
ground at about a 30-45 degree angle with the surface, then 
after 1-2 cm became vertical or nearly so, terminating in a cell 
at a depth of 4-7 cm. In the one nest dug out at Ithaca, the 
burrow was straight, forming about a 60 degree angle with the 
surface; the burrow was 7 cm long and terminated in a cell at 
a vertical depth of 5.5 cm. All of these nests had but a single 
cell. However, my studies were not sufficiently detailed so that 
I could be sure that unicellular nests are always the rule in these 
areas. All successful excavations were made before the nests 
had received the final closure, as it proved very difficult to dig 
out these very small nests once the burrow had been filled with 
sand. The diameter of the burrow was only about 1.5 mm, the 
cells only abovit 4 mm in diameter. 

The one nest dug out in Grant Co., Kansas, had an oblique 
burrow which formed about a 45 degree angle with the surface ; 
it was about 5 cm long, at a depth of 3.5 cm terminating in a 
cell. Beyond this cell I found three additional cells in more 
or less a straight line, all about 5 cm below the surface and 
from 1 to 2.5 cm apart. The burrow connecting these cells 
had been filled, but the burrow leading from the surface to the 
newest cell was still open. The female had been seen digging 
this nest in the morning ; when it was dug out at 5 PM the three 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



227 



completed cells each contained an egg. Williams (1914) found 
several cells per nest in Phillips Co., Kansas. In this case some 
of the cells contained partially grown larvae, indicating that the 
wasp had remained with the same nest over a period of several 
days. 

TABLE 1. Contents of nests of Plenoculus d. davisi 



Nest no. 


Locality 


Lygus 

lineolaris 
nymphs 


Lygus 
lineolaris 
adults 


Chlamy- 
datus 
associatus 
adults 


Trigono- 
tylus 
ruficornis 
adults 


107, cell 1 


Grant Co., Kansas 


3 








107, cell 2 




5 








107, cell 3 




3 








107, cell 4 




4 








592 


Ithaca, N. Y. 


2 


1 






1552 


Oswego Co., X. Y. 


1 


2 






15 80 A 


Oswego Co., N. Y. 


5 




2 




1580B 


Oswego Co., N. Y. 


3 


2 






1580C 


Oswego Co., N. Y. 








8 



Williams found the nests to be provisioned with a single spe- 
cies of Miridae (probably Psallns seriatus Reuter), both adults 
and immatures. However, he cites one record of a burrow pro- 
visioned with immature aphids (Williams 1960). In the three 
localities in which I studied this wasp, Miridae were used exclu- 
sively, both adults and immatures. Any one nest tended to be 
provisioned with only one species, but there were some excep- 
tions. In all, four quite different-looking mirids were employed. 
These were: Lygus lineolaris (P. de B.), Phytocoris quercicola 
Knight, Trigonotylus ruficornis (Goeffroy), and Chlamydatns 
associatus (Uhler). From three to eight bugs were used per 
cell (see accompanying table). In addition to those bugs taken 
from cells and recorded in the table, several more specimens of 
Lygus lineolaris and one specimen of Phytocoris quercicola 
were taken from wasps captured on the wing. 

The bugs are carried to the nest in flight, the wasp grasping 
the beak of the bug very firmly in the mandibles (the wasps 
often retain their grasp on the bug even after being killed in 
cyanide). In flight, the bug is also embraced by the legs of 
the wasp ; the bug is always venter-up. The wasp may land one 



228 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

or more times on the sand with the prey before arriving at the 
open nest entrance and plunging quickly in. Bugs may be 
brought in rather rapidly, one every few minutes, or at much 
more widely spaced intervals ; in any case the wasp usually 
remains inside the nest only a few seconds. 

In the cell, the bugs are placed venter-tip, head-in. Oviposi- 
tion does not occur until the last bug is in place. The egg is 
whitish, about 1.5 mm long, curved only slightly. It is laid on 
the venter of the top bug, one end glued to the body just in 
front of one of the middle coxae, the rest of the egg extending 
free, off to one side at a right angle to the long axis of the bug. 
The egg hatches in two days and the larva begins feeding 
through the coxal cavity, its body at first remaining more or 
less perpendicular to that of the bug. Williams (1914, fig. 120) 
figures the small larva feeding, and my observations confirm his 
on this point. The one larva that was brought to maturity in 
a rearing tin required seven days from the time of hatching. 

Collecting and nesting records from both New York and 
Kansas indicate that this wasp has at least two generations a 
year in both areas. There remain several unsatisfactorily re- 
solved problems regarding this species. In particular, more in- 
formation is needed on the number of cells per nest and whether 
or not the female makes a new nest every day or may add cells 
to an old one. Since Williams experienced some difficulty in 
excavating his nests, it is not absolutely certain that the cell 
which he found containing a feeding larva actually belonged to 
the nest he was digging. Plenoculus davlsi is a difficult wasp 
to work with, chiefly because of its small size and the ease with 
which the inconspicuous nests can be accidentally destroyed. 

REFERENCES CITED 

EVANS, H. E. 1959. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 85: 166-167, pi. XXIII. 
WILLIAMS, F. X. 1914. Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 8: 207-208. 
. 1960. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 31 : 1-49. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 229 

Three New Nearctic Acalypterate Diptera 

CURTIS W. SABROSKY, Entomology Research Division, Agricul- 
tural Research Service, United States Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Frequently, a revision of a genus of insects is hardly published 
before undescribed species are discovered. Three such species 
are described here, with notes placing them in the recently pub- 
lished keys. Two are in the family Milichiidae, and one in 
Trixoscelidae. 

MILICHIIDAE 

Meoneura californica, new species 

Highly polished black, with yellow halter knob, lightly 
browned wing, and two pairs of dorsocentral bristles. 

Male. Predominantly black; anterior half of front reddish 
yellow, parafacial and cheek anteriorly reddish brown ; knob of 
halter lemon-yellow, the stalk brown ; veins brown, the wing 
membrane lightly brown tinted. 

Front shining, the frontal triangle poorly distinguished, espe- 
cially toward apex, not smooth and polished as in M. polita 
Sabrosky, half as long as the front and with similar minute 
wrinkling ; ocellar tubercle obscurely gray pollinose, subshining ; 
eye large, rounded; cheek shining but not smooth, minutely 
wrinkled both above and below the diagonal ridge, rather broad, 
height at the middle 0.44 times that of an eye; middle bristle 
of the three on the vibrissal angle slightly shorter than the 
others ; chaetotaxy of head as usual in the genus, the bristles 
moderately strong; postvertical bristles slightly divergent; one 
pair of anterior interfrontal bristles fairly strong and distinct, 
directed forward above the lunule. 

Mesonotum, scutellum, and part of pleuron (pro-, meso-, and 
sternopleuron) polished ; notal hairs sparse, as in polita, but not 
as long and conspicuous as in that species ; two pairs of dorso- 
central bristles, the posterior pair long and well developed, the 
presutural pair only about half as long, but clearly standing out 



230 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [ Nov., 1961 

from the mesonotal hairs, especially as seen in profile; ptero- 
pleuron without bristles. 

Abdomen shining, the dorsum finely shagreened, terga with 
minute hairs, appearing bare except under high magnification; 
terminalia (Fig. 1) with both forceps and lamella well developed, 
the latter with numerous long bristles. 




FIG. 1. Male terminalia of Meoneura califortiira. 

Legs short, the basitarsi moderately short ; fore femur with a 
strong preapical posteroventral bristle on distal fourth, followed 
by short hairs. 

Venation as usual for the genus ; costa beyond first vein with 
the usual short, regular setae ; costa, third, and fifth veins strong, 
second vein slender but distinct, the fourth pale and weak; 
second vein bisinuate, shorter than in polita, the second costal 
sector (between apices of veins 1 and 2) 3.7 times the length 
of third sector, the third subequal to or barely longer than (1.05) 
the fourth sector ; fourth vein weakly sinuate. 

Female. As described for male, except for terminalia. 

Length of body, 1.5 mm; of wing, 1.25 mm. 

Holotype male, allotype, and one male, five female paratypes, 
Borrego Valley, San Diego Co., CALIF., June 20, 1960, and one 
female paratype, Borrego Springs, Calif., January, 1961 (Bryan 
T. Whitworth), taken in Tinkham trap with rotten egg bait. 
Type No. 65670 in the U. S. National Museum, paratypes re- 
turned to the Bureau of Vector Control, California Department 
of Public Health. Also two female paratypes, Coachella Valley, 
Calif., Dec. 18, 1929 and Dec. 9, 1930 (R. W. Burgess), pre- 
viously included as paratypes of M. polita Sabrosky fU. S. 
Nat. Mus.]. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 231 

The genus Meoneura was revised by Sabrosky (1959, Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 52: 17-26), with a key to 12 species. The 
present new species closely resembles M. polita Sabrosky and 
will key to that species, but differs as shown in the following 
couplet : 

Frontal triangle distinct, smooth and polished, - or more 
the length of front; second costal sector 2.4-2.7 times the 
length of third sector, the latter longer than fourth (1.1- 
1.27 times) ; veins yellowish and wing membrane whitish; 
male terminalia simple, the lamella undeveloped (Sabrosky, 
1959, Fig. 3) M. polita Sabr. 

Frontal triangle poorly distinguished, subshining, minutely 
wrinkled, half as long as front; second costal sector dis- 
tinctly longer than in polita, 3.7 times the length of third 
sector, the third and fourth subequal ; veins brown and wing 
membrane brown tinted ; male terminalia with lamella well 
developed (Fig. 1, herewith) M. calif arnica, n. sp. 

Pholeomyia vockerothi, new species 

Large species with four pairs of dorsocentral bristles, no 
outer verticals, a row of 3 mesopleural bristles, and silvery dor- 
sum of abdomen. 

Male. Black to black-brown, dull, brownish-gray pollinose 
except for the brilliant silvery dorsum of abdominal segments 2 
through 5 ; wing hyaline, veins pale brown and membrane light 
brown tinted ; calypteres brown with brown fringe. 

Front slightly wider that that of indecora (Loew), at the 
vertex subequal to eye width and 0.38 times the width of head, 
sides slightly converging anteriorly, at the lunule the front 0.26 
times the head width; postvertical bristles almost parallel, 
weakly divergent ; outer vertical bristles absent ; lunular bristles 
weak; face weakly concave, gray pollinose but subshining; para- 
facial linear; cheek very narrow, sublinear directly below eye, 
slightly widening anteriorly to vibrissa ; proboscis short. 

Mesonotum with four pairs of dorsocentral bristles, the ante- 
rior bristle in each row, close to the mesonotal suture, only half 
the length of the following bristle; two pairs of well-developed 
postsutural acrosticals, on posterior slope of mesonotum, the 



232 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [NOV., 1961 

presuturals especially well developed; mesopleuron with three 
strong bristles in a single row. Abdomen broad and flat, twice 
the width of thorax, abdominal terga 2 through 4 each with one 
row of short, fine, black hairs near posterior margin ; abdominal 
sterna narrow, the fourth and fifth sparsely beset with hairs; 
sternum 4 narrow as in expansa Aldrich ; sternum 5 subtri- 
angular, broadened distally. 

Wing venation approximately as in indecora; costal excision 
only moderately deep, intermediate between indecora and ex- 
pansa, 1.7 times the length of small crossvein. 

Length of body, 5 mm ; of wing, 4 mm. 

Holotype male, Highlands, N. C, 3,800 ft, June 24, 1957 
(J. R. Vockeroth), "at light during heavy rain." Type in the 
Canadian National Collection, Ottawa. 

Pholeomyia vockerothi is characterized by an interesting com- 
bination of characters. As may be seen in my recent revision of 
the genus (Sabrosky, 1959, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 52: 316- 
331), the new species belongs with the few species (longiseta 
Becker, latifrons Sabrosky, indecora (Loew), and expansa 
Aldrich) in which there are three to four pairs of dorsocentral 
bristles and parallel or subparallel postverticals. Three of the 
four species have the thorax and abdomen concolorous in both 
sexes, gray to brown-gray pollinose. The striking silvery abdo- 
men of vockerothi obviously resembles that of the fourth species, 
P. expansa, known only from California. However, several 
characters of the new species correspond to those of the common 
and widespread P. indecora, notably the presence of only three 
mesopleural bristles, absence of outer verticals, and brown wing. 
In the depth of the costal excision, vockerothi is intermediate 
between indecora and expansa, and in width of cheek it is nar- 
rower than either. 

The range of vockerothi may be extremely limited. It was 
collected in the area in western North Carolina that has a 
localized fauna with striking relationships to the distant fauna 
of the far western states (e.g., the acrocerid genus Eulonchus), 
and its apparent relationship to the Californian species expansa 
suggests that it may be one of these localized species. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 233 

The new species will pass to couplet 4 in the key by Sabrosky 
(1959), which can be modified as follows, using first those char- 
acters that are known to apply to both sexes in this genus, 
although females of both cxpansa and vockerothi are still un- 
known : 

4. Mesopleuron with three bristles in a single row along poste- 
rior margin ; wing brown tinted ; male lacking outer verti- 
cals 4a. 

Mesopleuron more heavily bristled, typically with seven 

bristles in two rows ; wing whitish ; male with long, strong 

outer verticals (Calif.) P. expansa Aid. 

4a. Cheek narrow, sublinear below eye ; clorsum of male ab- 
domen silvery except for narrow first tergum (N.C.) . . . . 
P. vockerothi, n. sp. 

Cheek broad for the genus, slightly less than breadth of third 

antennal segment; thorax and abdomen concolorous in 
both sexes, gray to brown-gray pollinose (widespread, 
U. S. and Canada) P. indecora (Loew). 

TRIXOSCELIDAE 
Spilochroa geminata, new species 

Wing with numerous hyaline spots, and abdomen polished 
black. 

Male, female. Color, pollinosity, and habitus as in the com- 
mon ornata (Johnson). Dull, gray to grayish brown; front 
yellow, especially anteriorly, the parafrontal, face, and cheek 
whitish and frontal triangle gray-brown ; antenna yellow above, 
third segment black to brown below, especially on outer surface. 
Thorax gray with some inconspicuous brown markings ; small 
brown spots about the bases of bristles and hairs. Abdomen 
polished black except for dull, brownish basal segment, and, in 
the male, the large, dull, finely brown pollinose terminalia. Legs 
yellow, fore femur slightly infuscated on outer side. Wing, 
except at base, brown with numerous hyaline spots ; subcostal 
cell hyaline with central brown spot. Hairs and bristles black. 

Anatomy and chaetotaxy as in 6". ornata, the type-species. 
Wing venation as figured for ornata (Williston, 1908, Manual 
N. Amer. Diptera, ed. 3, p. 297) ; wing with pattern of hyaline 



234 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [NOV., 1961 

spots similar to ornata, but marginal cell with three large, evenly 
distributed, subquadrate spots, the median larger than either of 
others ; submarginal and first posterior cells each with two spots 
close together, directly behind the large median spot in marginal 
cell, and discal cell with two large spots beyond level of small 
crossvein; spotting in other areas much like that of ornata. 

Length of body and of wing, 2.5-3 mm. 

Holotype male, and allotype, Buckeye, Maricopa Co., ARIZ., 
Jan. 18, 1961 (A. N. Villa). Type No. 65671 in the U. S. 
National Museum. Paratypes : 2 males, 6 females, same data as 
holotype; 2 females, same locality, Dec. 9, 1960 and Jan. 11, 
1961 ; male, 3 miles s. of Cave Creek Postoffice, Maricopa Co., 
Ariz., June 1952, at light (H. K. Gloyd) ; male, 2 females, 
Avondale, Ariz., Dec. 6, 1960; 2 males, Tucson, Ariz., June 
17, 1917 (J. M. Aldrich) ; male, Imuris, Sonora, Mexico, Apr. 
16, 1952 (R. E. Ryckman). The 1960-61 specimens were col- 
lected in Steiner fruit fly traps. 

A key to the four Nearctic species of Spilochroa was published 
by Wheeler (1955, Wasmann Jour. Biol. 13: 111-112). The 
new species will key to S. polita Malloch, both having a subcostal 
cell with dark spot centrally, and abdomen polished black. The 
new species has a more thickly spotted wing, with pairs of sub- 
quadrate spots as noted, in the submarginal, first posterior, and 
discal cells, whereas in polita there is only a single, small, 
rounded hyaline spot at each of the points mentioned and the 
wing thus appears predominantly brown. No males of polita 
are available for comparisons of the male terminalia. 

A geographical separation from polita is possible, but present 
material is too limited to be sure. All known specimens of 
polita were collected in New Mexico and Texas, and those of 
the new species in Arizona and Sonora. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 235 

New Exotic Crane-Flies (Tipulidae: Diptera). 

Part IV 

CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Amherst, Massachusetts * 

The preceding part under this general title was published in 
ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, 72: 113-121 ; 1961. At this time I am 
considering species of the genus Hexatoma, chiefly from various 
parts of India where they were taken by Dr. Fernand Schmid, 
and including two from the Philippines, where they were taken 
by Mr. Charles F. Clagg and Dr. Edward S. Ross. Except 
where indicated to the contrary, the types of the novelties are 
preserved in my personal collection of these flies. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) prolixa new species 

Belongs to the longicornis group; size medium (wing under 
10 mm) ; antennae of male elongate, approximately twice the 
length of the wing; general coloration gray, praescutum with 
three darker stripes; wings with R 1 + 2 slightly longer than either 
R 2 or -/? 2 + 3 . 

J 1 . Length about 6-6.5 mm; wing 7.5-8 mm; antenna about 

12-16 mm. 
5- Length about 7-8 mm ; wing 7.5-9 mm ; antenna about 

1.3-1.5 mm. 

Rostrum short, light brown, sparsely pruinose; palpi with 
proximal segments brown, terminal segment black. Antennae 
of male 6-segmented, elongate, approximately twice the length 
of the wing, dark brown ; flagellar segments greatly lengthened, 
especially the terminal one ; segments with a dense erect white 
pubescence, with very sparse larger emergence bristles that are 
very small on the basal segment, becoming longer and more deli- 
cate on the terminal one; antennae of female short, apparently 
9-segmented, the segments gradually decreasing in length out- 
wardly. Head gray, clearer laterally behind; vertical tubercle 

1 Contribution from the Entomological Laboratory, University of Massa- 
chusetts. 



236 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

of male large, rounded, with an impressed line on either side; 
tubercle in female very reduced. 

Pronotum dark brown. Mesonotum gray, praescutum with 
three brown stripes, the median one narrowed behind, in front 
vaguely divided by a darker capillary vitta ; vestiture sparse, pale. 
Halteres with stem brownish yellow, knob dark brown. Legs 
with coxae dark brown; trochanters more yellowed, especially 
beneath; remainder of legs brownish black, femoral bases ob- 
scure yellow, more extensively so on the posterior legs. Wings 
weakly darkened; stigma oval, very slightly indicated; veins 
brown, the outer medial branches paler. Veins chiefly glabrous, 
beyond cord with abundant trichia on R, R, R 3 , R and a com- 
plete series on distal section of R 5 ; a few trichia on distal sec- 
tion of M l + 2 in some cases; basal veins glabrous, including Sc. 
Venation : Sc long, Sc^^ ending opposite fork of Rs to shortly 
before level of r-m; R 2 subequal to R 2 + 3 , both shorter than 
R 1+2 ; m-cu shortly beyond fork of M. 

Abdomen chiefly blackened, sparsely pruinose to appear plum- 
beous. Ovipositor with fleshy valves, as in the group. 

Habitat. INDIA (Kumaon). Holotype: <$, Koti, Pauri Garh- 
wal, 4,200 feet, August 30, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). Allotopo- 
type: 5, pinned with type. Paratypes: 1 J\ Lingari, Pauri 
Garhwal, 4,400 feet, September 1, 1958; 1$, Lohajang, Pauri 
Garhwal, 6,070 feet, August 21, 1958; 3^$, Maupata, Pauri 
Garhwal, 4,500 feet, September 2, 1958 ; 1 J 1 , Wan, Pauri Garh- 
wal, 7,880 feet, August 20, 1958 ; 1 < Bilap, Almora, 5,500 feet, 
September 6, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 

Hexatoma (Eriocera} prolixa is distinguished from other 
regional members of the longicornis group by its small size and 
comparative shortness of the male antennae, which are only about 
twice the wing length. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) serena new species 

Size medium (wing of female 10 mm) ; general coloration 
black, surface subnitidous; legs black, femoral bases broadly 
yellow ; wings strongly darkened, base conspicuously light yel- 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 237 

low; veins with abundant macrotrichia ; R 2+3 + 4 and R^ 2 sub- 
equal, R 2 and R 2 + 3 short, nearly equal, m-cu at or beyond mid- 
length of M" 3 + 4 ; abdomen black, genital segment orange, ovi- 
positor with cerci very long and slender. 

. Length about 12 mm; wing 10 mm; antenna about 1.2 



mm. 



Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae of female short, 7- 
segmented ; first segment of flagellum enlarged at base, nar- 
rowed outwardly, with a few long setae, the longest exceeding 
one-half the length of segment ; succeeding three segments pro- 
gressively shorter, terminal segment long, more than twice the 
length of the penultimate. Head black. 

Thorax uniformly black, surface subnitidous; praescutal and 
scutal setae long, black. Halteres blackish, base of stem orange. 
Legs with coxae black, trochanters brown, remainder of legs 
black, the femoral bases broadly yellow, slightly more exten- 
sively so on posterior legs where nearly the proximal half is 
included. Wings strongly darkened, especially along the veins, 
centers of the cells slightly paler ; prearcular field conspicuously 
light yellow, proximal ends of cells C and Sc less evidently 
brightened ; veins brown, paler in the yellow areas. Veins of 
outer two-thirds of wing with abundant macrotrichia, including 
also all of veins Sc, R and M and outer half of Cu l and 1st A; 
a few trichia at extreme outer end of vein 2nd A. Venation: 
Sc^ nearly opposite fork of the long Rs; R. 2 + 3 + 4 and ^ 1 + ., sub- 
equal or the former a trifle longer; R. 2 and R. 2 + 3 short, nearly 
equal; basal section of R :> about one-half -/? 2 + s + 4/ ce ^ -^ M-~ a 
little shorter than M t ; m-cu at or just beyond midlength of 
^3 + 4,' distal section of Cn t in longitudinal alignment with the 
basal section. Surface of wing of type showing loose hairs 
lying on but detached from the membrane. 

Abdomen brownish black, without differentiated basal rings ; 
genital shield orange. Ovipositor with long, very slender cerci. 

Habitat. INDIA (Kerala). Holotype: $, Periyakanal, 5,000- 
5,500 feet, December 17, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 



238 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

From other generally similar medium-sized regional species 
of the subgenus the present fly is readily told by the body colora- 
tion, and by the pattern, venation and trichiation of the wings. 
Such species include Hexatoma (Erioccra} anainalaiana Alex- 
ander, H. (.) tacita Alexander, and H. (E.) politovertex 
Alexander. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) phaeton new species 

Size medium (wing of male 9.5 mm) ; general coloration of 
thorax polished black; legs black, femoral bases narrowly yel- 
lowed ; wings strongly darkened, unpatterned ; Sc ending oppo- 
site fork of Rs, R 2+3 about twice R 2 , cell 1st M 2 long- rectangular, 
cell 2nd A narrow ; abdomen black, the basal segments obscure 
yellow. 

J 1 . Length about 9 mm; wing 9.5 mm; antenna about 1.7 
mm. 

Rostrum very short, brownish black; palpi black. Antennae 
of male 7-segmented, black throughout ; first flagellar segment 
nearly as long as the succeeding two combined, stouter, with 
relatively sparse coarse setae ; antepenultimate segment subequal 
to the terminal one, both shorter than the penultimate. Head 
black, more or less pruinose above. 

Pronotum brownish black. Mesonotum shiny black; prae- 
scutal setae small and very sparse. Pleura black, posterior 
sclerites and pleurotergite a trifle paler. Halteres light brown, 
apex of knob darker brown. Legs with coxae black ; tro- 
chanters brownish yellow beneath, darker above; remainder of 
legs black, femoral bases narrowly yellowed. Wings strongly 
darkened, unpatterned, with no trace of stigmal darkening ; a 
whitish streak in basal half of cell 1st A adjoining the vein ; 
veins brown, Sc and R more yellowed. Strong macrotrichia 
on most veins beyond cord, sparse on M 3 , lacking on M,, Cn l 
and both Anals ; on Sc well distributed over the entire length ; 
R with numerous microscopic setigerous punctures before the 
arculus, very small but more abundant near extreme base. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 239 

Venation : Sc moderately long, Sc l ending opposite fork of Rs; 
7?., + 3 + 4 and R l + 2 subequal or the latter slightly longer, shorter 
than R 2+3 , the latter about twice R.,; cell 1st M 2 long- rectangular, 
slightly shorter than the distal section of M 1 + 2 ; m-cu about one- 
third its length beyond the fork of M, longer than the distal 
section of Cu 1 which is not bent markedly basad; cell 2nd A 
narrow. 

Abdomen black, sides of basal tergite and proximal third of 
the second obscure yellow, posterior borders of segments very 
narrowly pale; no differentiated basal rings; outer segments 
with conspicuous setae, long and yellow on the sternites, black 
and much shorter on the tergites. 

Habitat. INDIA (Madras). Holotype: J 1 , Kumili, 2,000- 
2,500 feet, November 28, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 

The most similar regional members of the subgenus include 
Hexatoma (Eriocera} serena new species and H. (.) rama 
Alexander, all readily told among themselves by the body and 
wing coloration and by the venation and trichiation of the 
wings. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) furtiva new species 

Size medium (wing of male about 12 mm) ; head and thorax 
black, pruinose; praescutum dark gray with four opaque black 
stripes that are narrowly bordered by more intense black; legs 
black ; wings strongly tinged with brown, the prearcular and 
costal fields strongly so ; outer radial veins with abundant macro- 
trichia; R 1 + 2 long, cell M^ present; abdomen black, segments 
two to four orange yellow. 

J 1 . Length about 15 mm; wing 12.3 mm; antenna about 3 
mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae of male 8-segmented, 
black; first flagellar segment shorter than the succeeding two 
combined ; all flagellar segments with long setae, stouter on the 
more proximal segments. Head black, gray pruinose, with long 
coarse proclinate bristles ; vertical tubercle porrect. 



240 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

Pronotum black, sparsely pruinose. Mesonotal praescutum 
dark gray, with four opaque black stripes that are narrowly 
bordered by more intense black, including a central vitta ; pos- 
terior sclerites black, subopaque ; praescutum with abundant 
short black setae. Pleura dull black, pruinose. Halteres short, 
black. Legs with coxae and trochanters black, the former 
opaque, fore pair with abundant long setae ; remainder of legs 
black ; segments without scales. Wings strongly tinged with 
brown, the prearcular and costal fields strongly so, stigma not 
further differentiated ; veins brown, outer veins behind the 
radial field paler and more delicate. Outer radial veins with 
abundant trichia, sparse or lacking on ^ 2 + 3 + 4 and R 2 + s present 
on both sections of R T< ; scattered trichia on M lt very sparse on 
M 2 and M 3 . Venation : Sc long, Sc l ending opposite R 2 , Sc^ 
long, exceeding R 2 + 3 ; Ri + 2 very long, about four times R 2 ; cell 
M l present, subequal in length to its petiole ; m-cu at near mid- 
length of M 3 + 4 ; vein 2nd A long and sinuous. 

First abdominal segment dull black, segments two to four, 
inclusive, orange yellow, unpatterned except for vague lateral 
darkenings on segments three and four; basal rings not differ- 
entiated ; segments five to nine, including hypopygium, intensely 
black, subnitidous. 

Habitat. INDIA (Kumaon). Holotype: J 1 , Rishikesh, Dehra 
Dun, 1,200 feet, March 25, 1958 (Fernand Schmid). 

The most similar regional species is Hexatoma (Eriocera) 
seniilimpida (Brunetti) which differs conspicuously in the pat- 
tern of the body and wings. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) apoensis new species 

Belongs to the rubrescens group ; mesonotum obscure orange, 
with two small brown lateral spots, pleura more yellowed with 
two further darkened areas ; legs obscure yellow ; wings brown- 
ish yellow, unpatterned except for the very small brown stigma ; 
basal section of R r> very reduced, cell M 1 present, subequal in 
length to its petiole, cell 1st M 2 rectangular, with m-cu at near 
midlength ; basal abdominal segments orange, the outer ones 
orange, hypopygium brownish yellow. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 241 

J 1 . Length about 8 mm ; wing 1 1 mm ; antenna about 1.8 mm. 

Rostrum and palpi black. Antennae of male S-segmented ; 
scape and pedicel brownish yellow, flagellum light brown ; first 
flagellar segment stout basally, narrowed on outer half, a little 
shorter than the succeeding two combined ; segments two and 
three subequal, the former with very long verticils, the longest 
only a little shorter than the segments ; outer three segments 
gradually decreasing in length. Head light gray, center of disk 
extensively infuscated ; vertical tubercle low. 

Pronotum orange, pretergites yellow. Mesonotal praescutum 
chiefly obscure orange, produced by four confluent stripes, hu- 
meral and lateral regions paler; a distinct brown spot on side 
of praescutum behind the pseudosutural foveae ; posterior inter- 
spaces vaguely darkened ; scutum obscure orange, with a dark- 
ened median area just behind the suture and a pair at ends of 
the latter ; scutellum and postnotum paler brownish yellow ; vesti- 
ture of notum exceedingly reduced. Pleura obscure yellow, with 
small darkened areas on anepisternum and before the wing root. 
Halteres infuscated. Legs with coxae and trochanters testaceous 
yellow ; remainder of legs obscure yellow, outer tarsal segments 
weakly more darkened; legs with abundant linear scales, paler 
in color than the larger setae. Wings brownish yellow, unpat- 
terned except for the very small darker brown stigma; veins 
brown. Veins delicate, with macrotrichia beyond cord and on 
outer two-thirds of Rs. Venation : Rs long, in longitudinal align- 
ment with R-, basal section of the latter very reduced; ^ 2( . 3 + 4 
a trifle longer than R l + 2 or R 2 ; cell M 1 present, subequal in 
length to its petiole ; cell 1st M 2 rectangular, with m-cn at near 
midlength ; cell 2nd A relatively narrow. 

Abdomen with basal three or four segments orange, outer 
segments brown, darker before the brownish hypopygium. 

Habitat. PHILIPPINES (Mindanao). Holotype: rf, Mount 
Apo, 6,000 feet, September 10, 1930 (C. F. Clagg). 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) apoensis is most nearly related to 
H. (.) angustipennis (Enderlein), of Sumatra, and H. (E.) 
rubrescens (Walker), of Borneo, differing in the coloration, 



242 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

especially of the thorax. The elongate scales on the legs are 
found in all members of the rubrescens group that are known 
to me. 

Hexatoma (Eriocera) rossiana new species 

Size small (length, wing and antennae all about 8 mm) ; 
general coloration black, outer two abdominal segments orange ; 
antennae of male 5-segmented, flagellar segments progressively 
shorter outwardly, provided with an abundant pale pubescence 
but without bristles ; knobs of halteres whitened ; wings strongly 
infuscated, veins beyond cord with abundant trichia; cell M 
present, very deep; m-cu at near four-fifths the length of cell 
1st M 2 . 

J 1 . Length about 8 mm ; wing 8 mm ; antennae about 8.2 mm. 

Rostrum relatively small, light brown; palpi brownish black. 
Antennae of male elongate, subequal to body or wing; scape 
ferruginous, remainder dark brown to brownish black ; 5-seg- 
mented, there being only three very long flagellar segments that 
decrease gradually in length and diameter from the basal one 
outwardly ; segments with a very abundant erect pale pubescence 
but without emergence bristles, as are common in most species 
of the genus having elongate antennae in the male sex. Head 
dull black, slightly patterned with paler on the inconspicuous 
slightly bifid vertical tubercle: sides of vertex and genae adjoin- 
ing the eyes slightly pruinose. 

Pronotal scutum dark brown, obscure yellow medially, scu- 
tellum similarly brightened. Mesonotal praescutum with the 
ground dull black, with four poorly indicated plumbeous stripes, 
the intermediate pair narrowly separated by a distance nearly 
equal to their own width ; remainder of notum dull black, poste- 
rior border of mediotergite more pruinose ; mesonotum unusu- 
ally glabrous, the vestiture reduced to sparse erect scattered 
setae on the scutellum and praescutal interspaces. Pleura dull 
plumbeous black ; membrane darkened. Halteres with stem 
dusky, base restrictedly obscure yellow, knob whitened. Legs 
black throughout, vestiture short and appressed. Wings very 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 243 

strongly infuscated, somewhat more so on anterior half, stigma 
not differentiated; a whitened streak behind basal third of vein 
1st A; veins brown. Veins beyond cord with numerous macro- 
trichia, on M continued basad to about opposite origin of Rs. 
Venation: Sc long, Sc i ending beyond fork of R 2 + 3 + 4> Sc 2 far 
retracted; Rs long, slightly exceeding R 4 ; R. 2 + 3 a little shorter 
than R 1 + .,; cell M t present, about three times its petiole; cell 
1st M 2 elongate, with m-cu at near four-fifths its length. 

Abdomen black, eighth and ninth segments orange; hypo- 
pygium very small and inconspicuous, provided with long pale 
setae. 

Habitat. PHILIPPINES (Mindoro). Holotype: San Jose, 
April 5, 1945 (E. S. Ross) ; California Academy of Sciences. 

This very distinct fly is named for its collector, Dr. Edward 
S. Ross, authority on the Embioptera and other groups of in- 
sects. In the very long Rs, which is about twice as long as R, 
the fly differs from all other described regional species. The 
reduction in number of antennal segments to five likewise is 
noteworthy. By Edwards's key to the Old World species of 
Eriocera (1921) the fly runs to couplet 35, disagreeing with all 
species beyond this point. 



Mosquitoes : Key to United States Genera Based on 
Male Genitalia (Diptera, Culicidae) 

HAROLD GEORGE SCOTT 1 

With the sustained interest in identification of Diptera via 
characteristics of the male genitalia (Fig. 1), simple keys to the 
various groups have become essential to efficient entomological 
instruction. The following key, devised for CDC training 
courses, has proven valuable in introducing this taxonomic 
method. 

1 Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Serv- 
ice, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia. 



244 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

The failure of Aedes aegypti to key out with other members 
of the genus (steps 2 and 12 of key), lends credence to the 
concept that this is an African species, only distantly related 
to Nearctic aedines. 

1. Basistyle with 1-2 stout spines near base; phallosome 4 or 

more times as long as wide, often with leaflets at tip 

Anopheles 

Basistyle without basal spines ; phallosome less than 4 times 
as long as wide, without leaflets at tip 2 

2. Claspettes present (absent in Aedes aegypti} 3 

Claspettes absent 5 

3. Dististyle strongly swollen (rarely lobate) ; or dististyle 

bowed inward ; or both Psorophora 

Dististyle not strongly swollen ; straight, or bowed out- 
ward 4 

4. Large leaf-like scales on distal lobe of basistyle 

Haemogogus 

Without large leaf-like scales on distal lobe of basistyle .... 
Aedes 

5. Tenth sternite with comb of teeth or crowned with tuft of 

spines 6 

Tenth sternite simple or with a few apical teeth 7 

6. Lobe of ninth tergite less than one-half as long as basi- 

style Culex 

Lobe of ninth tergite at least one-half as long as basi- 
style Deinocerites 

7. Dististyle with 3 or more branches Wyeomyia 

Dististyle simple or with a single lobe near base 8 

8. Phallosome plate-like, with 1 or more large teeth on each 

side Uranotaenia 

Phallosome sub-conical, often with small teeth near tip. . . .9 

9. Basal lobe of basistyle with 1-2 rods at apex, few or no 

setae Mansonia 

Basal lobe of basistyle with spines, numerous small setae. . 10 

10. Claw of dististyle comb-like Orthopodomyia 

Claw of dististyle spine-like 11 

11. Outer edge of basistyle with large scales 12 

Outer edge of basistyle without large scales Culiseta 

12. Dististyle cylindrical, with subapical spine. .Toxorhynchites 
Dististyle tapering, with apical spine Aedes aegypti 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



245 



dististyle._ 




j phallosome--'' 

lobe of ninth tergite.'" 



Aedes donalis 



Anopheles puncttpennis 




vcxans 



C.ulex cfuinqutfasciatus 



Fig. 1. MALE GENITALIA OF MOSQUITOES 



246 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

An Unusual Habitat Niche for Ancistrocerus tigris 
tigris (Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) * 

HARRY C. COPPEL - 

Field investigations on the introduced pine sawfly, Diprion 
similis (Htg.), in 1959 showed that approximately 10% of 
the cocoons from which adult sawflies had emerged were in- 
habited by various arthropods (Coppel, 1960). First genera- 
tion cocoons are usually spun on the needles and branches of 
white pine trees. Though most of the inhabited cocoons were 
used by spiders, approximately 8% were observed with mud 
plugs covering the sawfly emergence holes (Fig. 1). These 
were placed singly in vials and incubated until emergence was 
complete. The adult wasps, all males, were determined as 
Ancistrocerus tigris tigris (Saussure) by K. V. Krombein of 
the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. This species 
is indigenous to North America and is widespread in the United 
States and Southern Canada where it has been bred from twigs, 
oak galls, goldenrod galls, old wasp nests etc. Apparently, 
empty sawfly cocoons have not been observed as habitat niches 
previously, and females of the genus Ancistrocerus, in general, 
construct and provision a linear series of cells. 

In 1960, a simple sandwich-type artificial nest was constructed 
(Fig. 2) to see whether females of A. t. tigris could be attracted 
to single cocoons in parallel. It consisted of two rows of 
cocoons, the upper one containing empty cocoons from which 
female sawflies had emerged and the lower one empty cocoons 
from which males had emerged. These were backed with 
cocoons in similar rows but in reverse placement (male cocoons 
above female cocoons), and were suspended approximately 6 
feet above the ground, from branches of white pine trees. 
Though most of the nests were destroyed by vandals one re- 
mained which had been utilized by the wasp. Of its eleven 

1 Approved for publication by the Director of the Wisconsin Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. This work was supported in part by the 
Wisconsin Conservation Department. 

2 Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison 6, Wisconsin. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



247 




FIG. 1. Cocoons of Diprion siinilis (Htg.) on white pine twig, showing 
emergence holes of Ancistrocerus tigris tigris (Saussure) through mud 
plugs. 

FIG. 2. Artificial nest used to attract Ancistrocerus tigris tigris (Saus- 
sure), showing preference for upper row of larger female sawfly cocoons. 



248 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

mud-plugged cocoons ten produced adult wasps, of which four 
were males, four females, and two escaped. The only cocoons 
utilized were those from which female sawflies had emerged and 
whose emergence holes ranged from 3.2 to 3.6 mm in diameter. 
Some wasp larvae in the cocoons were parasitized by insects 
in 1959. Monodontomerus dentipes (Dalm.) (Hymenoptera: 
Torymidae), an European parasite of D. similis larvae in 
cocoons was obtained as were two native ichneumonid parasites 
determined by Miss L. Walkley, U. S. National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D. C., as Agrothereutes lophyri subsp. n., and Ephialtes 
sp. Apparently, the sawfly parasites M. dentipes and A. lophyri, 
which normally parasitize D. similis larvae in cocoons, also 
parasitize later occupants of the Diprion cocoons without dis- 
crimination. 

REFERENCE 

COPPEL, H. C. 1960. Ann. Ent. Soc. America 53: 847-849. 



Collembola from Rodent Nests 

D. L. WRAY 1 and G. F. KNOWLTON ~ 

Springtail insects or Collembola are found in a large number 
of diverse habitats and probably in more unique places than any 
other animal group. The objective of this paper is to report on 
those species found in the course of studying several kinds of 
rodent nests. Materials from these nests were collected and 
run through Berlese funnels by G. F. Knowlton and his asso- 
ciates. The determinations and systematic arrangement were 
made by D. L. Wray. 

1. POCKET GOPHER NESTS (Thomomys talpoides}. 

These were collected at Monte Cristo, Utah on July 18, 1951 
by G. F. Knowlton and T. T. Tibbetts. The following five spe- 
cies were found in the nests : 

1 Entomologist, Div. of Entomology, Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 

2 Utah State University, Logan, Utah. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 249 

Hypogastrura nivicola Fitch, 1 specimen ; Isotoma olivacea 
Tullberg, numbering in the thousands ; Isotoma brucealla Wray, 
24; Isotoma nigrijrons Folsom, 20; and Entomobrya purpuras- 
cens Packard, 1. 

2. ABANDONED MOUSE NEST. 

Materials from this nest were collected at American Falls, 
Idaho, April 9, 1952 by G. F. Knowlton and J. V. Bruce. 

The following seven species were found : 

Hypogastrura annata Nicolet, in considerable numbers; Hy- 
pogastrura promatro Wray, few ; Folsomia guthriei Linna- 
niemi, few ; Isotoma eunotabilis Folsom, few ; Entomobrya ni- 
valis Linnaeus, few; Lcpidocyrtns cyaneus Tullberg, f.p., few; 
Pseudosinella octopunctata Boerner, few. 

3. MOUSE NEST (Microtus sp.). 

This nest was obtained at Hyde Park, Utah, June 29, 1950 
by G. F. Knowlton and J. V. Bruce. 

The following eight species were found, most in small num- 
bers unless otherwise indicated : 

Hypogastrura matura Folsom, considerable numbers ; Proiso- 
toma aquae Bacon, large numbers; Isotoma minor Schaeffer; 
Isotoma eunotabilis Folsom; Lcpidocyrtus cyaneus Tullberg; 
Pseudosinella sexoculata Schott ; Pseudosinella alba Packard ; 
Pseudosinella Candida Folsom. 

4. PACK RAT NESTS (Neotoma cinerea}. 

(A). Nests collected at Logan Cave, Logan Canyon, Utah 
on October 19, 1951 by G. F. Knowlton and W. H. Wilde 
yielded the following two species : 

Agrenia bidenticulata Tullberg, fifteen specimens; and Ento- 
mobrya marginata Tullberg, two specimens with blunt ending 
mucro. Also found were a few mites, small beetles, dipterous 
larvae, and a small adult diptera. 



250 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., 1961 

(B). Nests collected at Logan Cave, Logan Canyon, Utah 
on November 18, 1951 by G. F. Knowlton yielded the follow- 
ing three species : 

Folsomia fimetaria Linn., few; Entomobrya nivalis Linn., 
small numbers ; and Lepidocyrtus pusillus Linn., small number. 

(C). Nests collected at Logan Cave, Logan Canyon, Utah 
on November 17, 1951 by G. F. Knowlton and B. K. Collmar 
produced the following six species : 

Tullbergia granulata Mills, 1 specimen ; Folsomia fimetaria 
Linn., few ; Isotoma eunotabilis Folsom, few ; Entomobrya mar- 
ginata Tullberg, few ; Entomobrya nivalis Linn., few ; and Lepi- 
docyrtus pusillus Linn., few. 

SUMMARY 

A summary of the number of species in each family that were 
found in rodent nests would be as follows : 

Poduridae 

Hypogastrura armata Nicolet, H. nivicola Fitch, H. matura 
Folsom, H. promatro Wray, Tullbergia granulata Mills. 

Isotomidae 

Poisotoma aquae Bacon, Agrenia bidenticulata Tullberg, Fol- 
somia guthriei Linnaniemi, F. fimetaria Linnaeus, Isotoma bru- 
cealla Wray, I. nigrifrons Folsom, /. eunotabilis Folsom, I. 
minor Schaeffer, I. olivacea Tullberg. 

Entomobryidae 

Entomobrya purpurascens Packard, E. nivalis Linnaeus, E. 
marginata Tullberg, Lepidocyrtus cyaneus Tullberg, f.p., L. 
pusillus Linnaeus, Pseudosinella sexoculata Schott, P. alba 
Packard, P. octopunctata Boerner, P. Candida Folsom. 

Species belonging to the family Isotomidae were found more 
numerous than any in the other families. A total of 23 species 
belonging to 9 genera were found in the rodent nests examined. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 251 

Evidently the moisture condition was such as to be conducive 
for this wide range of species to live. 

LITERATURE CITED 

WRAY, D. L. 1953. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 48: 54-56. 

WRAY, D. L. and G. F. KNOWLTON. 1950. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 

45 : 60-64. 
. 1956. The Great Basin Naturalist 16: 1-6. 



Obituary 

It is with deep regret that we here record the death, on 
August 23rd, of Dr. Philip P. Calvert, Professor Emeri- 
tus of the University of Pennsylvania and Editor Emeri- 
tus of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. At the time the NEWS 
was founded he was on its advisory committee, then be- 
came Associate Editor in 1893, and was Editor from 1911 
until 1944. It is hardly conceivable that the NEWS could 
have survived the vicissitudes of its 72 years without the 
steadfast guidance and devoted service of Dr. Calvert. A 
biographical memorial will appear in a later issue of this 
publication. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia, 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished 50 to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology. Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 



Pacific Insects 

A quarterly journal on the systematic entomology and zoogeog- 
raphy of the Pacific, East Asia, Australia and Antarctica. 

Vols. 1-3 (over 500 pages per volume) each $5.00 

Vol. 4 (1962) (over 700 pages) $7.00 

Pacific Insects Monographs 

Adjunct series appearing irregularly and not included in sub- 
scription. To be ordered separately or standing order 
placed. 

1A. The Chrysomelidae (Coleop.) of China and Korea. Part I. By 
Gressitt and Kimoto. 299 pp., 75 figs. $4.00 

2. Problems in the Zoogeography of Pacific and Antarctic Insects. 
By Gressitt, with appendices by Maa, Mackerras, Nakata, and 
Quate. 128 pp., 40 figs. (incl. 2 color pis.). Bound, $2.50. 
Paper, $2.00 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



Have you paid your subscription? 

January and subsequent issues for 1962 positively 
not mailed unless subscription has been paid. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DECEMBER 1961 

Vol. LXXII No. 10 



CONTENTS 

Burks The species of Pseudometagea Ashmead 253 

Krombein Passaloecus turionum in the U. S 258 

Balduf A large population of Polistes 259 

Scott Collembola of New Mexico, V 261 

Porter Coccygomimus maurus (Cresson) in X. J 267 

Notes and News in Entomology 

Revised International Code now ready 268 

Nomenclature Notice 269 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY, EXCEPT AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, BY 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
PRINCE AND LEMON STS., LANCASTER, PA. 

AND 

1900 RACE STREET, PHILADELPHIA 3, PA. 



Subscription, per yearly volume of ten numbers: $5.00 domestic; $5.30 foreign; $5.15 Canada. 

Second-class postage paid at Lancaster. Pa. 




ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS is published monthly, excepting August 
and September, by The American Entomological Society at Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa., and the Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 

PHILIP P. CALVERT, Editor Emeritus. R. G. SCHMIEDER, Editor. Editorial Staff : 
H. J. GRANT, JR., E. J. F. MARX, M. E. PHILLIPS, and J. A. G. REHN. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS: Communications and remittances to be addressed to 
Entomological News, 1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Prices per yearly volume of 10 numbers. 

Private subscriptions, for personal use: in the United States, $5.00; 
Canada, $5.15; other countries, $5.30. 

Institutional subscriptions, for libraries, laboratories, etc.: in the United 
States, $6.00; Canada, $6.15; other countries, $6.30. 

ADVERTISEMENTS: Rate schedules available from the editor. 

MANUSCRIPTS and all communications concerning same should be addressed 
to R. G. Schmieder, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia 4, Pa. 

The receipt of all papers will be acknowledged and, if accepted, they will 
be published as soon as possible. Articles longer than eight printed pages may 
be published in two or more installments, unless the author is willing to pay the 
cost of a sufficient number of additional pages in any one issue to enable such an 
article to appear without division. 

ILLUSTRATIONS: Authors will be charged as follows: For text- 
figures, the cost of engraving; for insert plates (on glossy stock), the cost of 
engraving plus printing. Size limit, when printed, 4X6 inches. All blocks 
will be sent to authors after printing. 

TABLES: The cost of setting tables will be charged to authors. 

SEPARATA: Members of the American Entomological Society may elect 
to receive, gratis, 25 offprints of their contributions. These will be "run-of- 
form," without removal of extraneous matter. 

Those members desiring more than 25 separates, and all non-members, will 
receive no gratis copies. They must obtain all their separates (as reprints, 
with extraneous matter removed) from the printer at the prices quoted below. 
Authors must place their order for such separates with the editor at the time 
of submitting manuscripts, or when returning proof. 

Copies 1-4 pp. 5-8 pp. 9-12 pp. Covers 

50 $4.35 $6.96 $10.88 $4.74 

100 5.21 8.26 13.05 6.48 

Add'l 100 1.74 2.60 4.33 3.48 

Plates printed one side: First 50, $3.47; Additional 100's, $2.61. 
Transportation charges will be extra. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LXXII DECEMBER, 1961 No. 10 



The Species of Pseudometagea Ashmead (Hymen- 
optera, Eucharitidae) 

B. D. BURKS, Entomology Research Division, United States 
Department of Agriculture 

Pseudometagea Ashmead is a small genus of minute eucharitid 
chalcids occurring only in North America. Specimens of Pseu- 
dometagea look very much like ants, and they often are collected 
in sweeping vegetation. No specimens have yet been reared, but 
Ashmead once stated that his specimens of P. schwarsii (Ash- 
mead) had come from ant nests. 1 It is likely that, in agreement 
with other members of the Eucharitidae for which the habits are 
known, the species of Pseudometagea parasitize ants, and their 
eggs are imbedded in the tissues of vegetation growing near the 
nests of their hosts. The planidiform larvae, when found, cer- 
tainly will be extremely minute. 

P. sclnvarzii has long been known from the eastern and mid- 
western states, but I recently received for identification a speci- 
men of Pseudometagea from Wyoming that was clearly different 
from sclwarzii. This prompted a search through the U. S. 
National Museum collection for other specimens of the western 
form. A long series of it that had been collected 66 years ago 
in Colorado was found. In this paper I describe the western 
species, redescribe schwarsii, and give one new synonym of 
sclnvarzii. 

Genus PSEUDOMETAGEA Ashmead 

Pseudometagea Ashmead, 1897, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 4 : 239 
[no species included] ; Ashmead, 1904, Mem. Carnegie Mus., 

1 Wheeler, 1907, Bui. Amcr. Mus. Nat. Hist. v. 23, p. 17. 

(253) 



( 



254 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

1 : 267, 386 [Metagea schzvarzii Ashmead designated type] ; 
Peck in Muesebeck et al, 1951, U. S. Dept. Agr. Monog. 2, 
p. 515; Burks in Krombein et al., 1958, U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Monog. 2, Suppl., p. 72. 

Generic diagnosis. Mandibles sickle-shaped, left mandible 
with 2 teeth, right with 3. Antennae inserted at level of ventral 
margins of compound eyes ; scape short, shorter than pedicel, 
much shorter than first funicle segment, the latter always the 
longest segment in antenna ; no ring segments present ; flagellum 
filiform in both sexes ; funiculus with 6 or 7 segments in female, 
7 segments in male ; club unsegmented, not broader than funicu- 
lus, H times as long in male as in female; apical 2 funicle seg- 
ments and club in female may be partly fused, and the variation 
in number of funicle segments in the female may occur in the 
same individual. Vertex depressed between posterior ocelli. 

Parapsidal furrows varying from complete and deep to almost 
or quite wanting. Fore wing with submarginal vein well devel- 
oped, but marginal, stigmal, and postmarginal veins vague, 
hardly discernible. Mid and hind tibia each with one slender, 
apical spur; each basal tarsal segment twice as long as second 
segment. 

Petiole enlarged and nodose in the middle, anterior two-thirds 
of petiole sculptured, posterior third smooth ; gaster compressed, 
first gastral tergum occupying most or all of the dorsal extent 
of the gaster. 

Ashmead originally described schwarzii in the Australian 
genus Metagea Kirby, but subsequently he decided that it was 
sufficiently distinct to require a different generic name. As a 
matter of fact, Metagea and Pseudoinetagea are not closely 
related. Metagea is a genus of moderate to large-sized species 
having the scape longer than the first funicle segment, the first 
tarsal segment as long as the following 4 segments combined, 
and the petiole not enlarged and nodose in the middle. 

KEY TO SPECIES 

Scutellum with a longitudinal, median furrow 

schwarzii (Ashmead) 

Scutellum with several longitudinal carinae . . bakeri, new species 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 255 

Pseudometagea schwarzii (Ashmead) 

Metagea sckwarsii Ashmead, 1892, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 2: 
356. 

Pseudometagia schwarsi (!) (Ashmead), Wheeler, 1907, Bui. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 23 : 17. 
Pseudometagea schwarzii (Ashmead), Peck in Muesebeck et al., 

1951, U. S. Dept. Agr. Monog. 2, p. 515 ; Burks in Krombein 

et al., 1958, U. S. Dept. Agr. Monog. 2, Suppl. p. 72. 
Pseudometagea hillmeadia Girault, 1916, Bui. Brooklyn Ent. 

Soc. 11: 113; Peck in Muesebeck et al. 1951, U. S. Dept. 

Agr. Monog. 2, p. 515. New synonymy. 

Female. Length 1.8-2.2 mm. Dark chestnut-brown to black, 
with faint metallic blue or green sheen sometimes visible on 
head and thorax; antennae, apices of femora, tibiae, and tarsi 
tan to light-brown; fore wing with faint brown shading along 
paths of obsolete veins Cu and M, this shading also extending 
as a vague cloud across wing from stigmal vein. 

Clypeus, para- and supraclypeal areas, and space adjacent to 
anterior margin of compound eye smooth and shining; genae, 
parascrobal spaces, and vertex with irregular, rugose sculpture ; 
length of malar space and height of compound eye equal ; width 
of ocellocular space twice as great as diameter of lateral ocellus. 
Antennal scape f as long as pedicel, first funicle segment 1^ 
times as long as pedicel. 

Mesoscutum with alveolate sculpture anteriorly, smooth and 
shining posteriorly; parapsidal furrows usually complete, occa- 
sionally wanting ; axillae smooth ; scutellum smooth, with a me- 
dian, longitudinal groove, this sometimes obscure near posterior 
margin; apex of scutellum produced as a minute, flat shelf; 
meso- and metapleura with closely set, parallel, longitudinal 
rugae ; hind coxa shagreened, hind femur shining except at 
base, where it is shagreened. Hind wing with venation distinct, 
usually 4 hamuli present, sometimes with only 3. 

Propodeum with large-alveolate sculpture ; petiole slightly 
shorter than hind coxa, enlarged in middle to I-. 1 , times width 
of hind coxa. Caster smooth ; first tergum usually occupying 
entire dorsal length of gaster, following terga vertical; each 
cercus bearing 5 bristles ; apex of first gastral sternum a slightly 



256 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

upturned point that bear 6-8 long bristles; apex of ovipositor 
normally not quite reaching apex of abdomen, but specimens 
collected apparently in the act of ovipositing have the ovipositor 
exserted a distance ^ the length of the gaster. 

Male. Length 1.8-2.0 mm. Height of compound eye 3% as 
great as length of malar space. Petiole twice as long as hind 
coxa, slender basal portion with a dorsal, longitudinal groove, 
enlarged portion twice as wide as hind coxa. First gastral ter- 
gum occupying entire dorsal extent of gaster, following terga 
normally telescoped beneath it, so that genitalia usually are 
extruded at about the middle of gaster ; posterior margin of 
apical gastral sternum D-shaped, finely and minutely hirsute. 

Types. U. S. N. M. No. 2140. Described originally from 
4 5, 2 g cotypes from Washington, D. C., Oakland, Md., and 
Frederickstown, Md. Lectotype ^, Washington, D. C., speci- 
men labeled "5 Type" by Ashmead. 

Distribution. Quebec, south to Maryland and District of 
Columbia, west to Wisconsin, Iowa, and Nebraska. Often 
collected in cultivated fields of forage crops. 

Pseudometagea bakeri, new species 

Female. Length 2.0-2.2 mm. Dark brown to black, head 
and thorax often with faint metallic blue or green sheen; an- 
tennae, apices of femora, tibiae, and tarsi tan to brown ; fore 
wing usually with faint brown shading along paths of obsolete 
veins Cu and M, this shading also extending as a vague cloud 
across wing from stigmal vein, but occasional specimens with 
wings entirely hyaline. 

Clypeus smooth, shining, para- and supraclypeal areas smooth ; 
genae, postocular area, and vertex with irregular, alveolate 
sculpture; length of malar space 1? T times as great as height of 
compound eye; width of ocellocular space H times as great as 
diameter of lateral ocellus. Antennal scape 3% as long as pedicel, 
first funicle segment 1^ times as long as scape. 

Mesoscutum strongly sculptured anteriorly, weakly so poste- 
riorly ; parapsidal furrows usually vaguely impressed anteriorly 
and wanting posteriorly, sometimes complete ; axillae faintly 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 257 

sculptured, almost smooth ; scutellum with strong, parallel, longi- 
tudinal ridges, apex of scutellum produced as a minute shelf with 
its posterior edge slightly upturned ; meso- and metapleura with 
closely set, parallel, longitudinal rugae ; hind coxa with minute, 
alveolate sculpture, all femora minutely shagreened and dull. 
Hind wing virtually without venation, but vestigial submarginal 
vein faintly visible ; 3 hamuli present. 

Propodeum with irregular, large-alveolate sculpture. Petiole 
as long as hind coxa, enlarged in middle to twice width of hind 
coxa. Caster smooth, first tergum normally occupying J of 
dorsal length of gaster, terga 2-6 almost vertical, projecting 
slightly farther posteriorly than seventh tergum; each cercus 
bearing 5 bristles; apex of first gastral sternum produced on 
meson as a small, hirsute point; apex of ovipositor normally 
projecting slightly beyond level of sixth tergum. 

Male. Length 1.9-2.1 mm. Length of malar space and 
height of compound eye equal. Petiole twice as long as hind 
coxa. First gastral tergum occupying entire dorsal length of 
gaster, second and third terga normally hidden beneath first, 
terga 4-7 not projecting so far posteriorly as apex of first ter- 
gum ; posterior margin of apical gastral sternum forming a blunt, 
glabrous point that closes the genital aperture when the geni- 
talia are retracted. 

Type locality. Ft. Collins, Colo. 

Types. U. S. N. M. No. 65750. 

Described from 12$ and 37 J 1 specimens, as follows: Type, <j>, 
allotype, J, Ft. Collins, Colo., sweeping, June 13, 1895, C. F. 
Baker. Paratypes: 7 5, 15 J 1 , same data as the type ; 4 <$, same 
data, but sweeping Carex, June 20, 1895; 4^, June 28, 1895; 
2?, 4<?, July 3, 1895; 1 J\ Aug. 1, 1895; 5 J\ Aug. 4, 1895; 
1 ?, Campton's, Colo., July 21, 1895, C. F. Baker; 1 J 1 , Cen- 
tennial, Wyo., July 12, 1960, R. J. Lavigne. A single male 
labeled Iowa, July 1895, and another from Chamber's Lake, 
Colo., sweeping, July 18, 1895, C. F. Baker, are in poor condi- 
tion and are not included in the type series. 



258 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

Passaloecus turionum Dahlbom, an Adventive 

European Wasp in the United States 

(Hymenoptera, Sphecidae) 

KARL V. KROMBEIN, Entomology Research Division, 
Agr. Res. Serv., U. S. D. A. 

Earlier this year I received for identification two Passaloecus 
males reared from a twig in Macotnb Co., Michigan, by S. J. 
Thomas on March 19, 1961. I was unable to identify these 
positively, though they appeared to be very close to European 
specimens standing under the name brevicornis Morawitz in the 
U. S. National Museum collection. I sent one specimen to 
Dr. J. de Beaumont, Musee Zoologique, Lausanne, Switzerland, 
who reported that it was turionum Dahlbom, of which he con- 
siders brevicornis a synonym. The U. S. specimen differed from 
Swiss material only in having the tibiae entirely infuscated in- 
stead of pale basally. The species seems variable in this regard 
in the U. S., because some specimens discovered subsequently 
among unidentified material in the U. S. N. M. do have the 
tibiae pale at the base. 

So far the species is known here from only a few specimens 
as follows : 2 gg, Macomb Co., Mich., emerged March 19, 1961 
(S. J. Thomas) ; 1 <?, Rutland, Ohio, July 1953 (W. E. Miller) ; 
1 $, near Rockville, Md., October 4, 1947 (H. and M. Townes) ; 
lc? (teneral), Vienna, Va., July 19, 1941 (J. C. Bridwell) ; 
and I?, 1 J, Durham, N. C., emerged March 23, 1942, from 
Pinus taeda* (W. Haliburton, #1837). A native chrysidid, 
Omalus iridescens (Norton) bears the same label data as the 
last specimen except that it emerged April 1, 1942, and is num- 
bered 1837a; presumably it was reared from a cell of the 
Passaloecus. It is noteworthy that all U. S. specimens of turio- 
num were captured during the last 20 years. I was unable to 
find the species in the extensive older collections of Hymenoptera 
in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

P. turionum runs to relativus Fox in my key to eastern 
Passaloecus (Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 33: 122-123, 1938). It 

* Presumably reared from borings in the bark. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 259 

is distinguished from relativus by having the mesopleural disk 
margined anteriorly by a sharp carina and series of foveolae, and 
by having the male flagellar segments strongly rounded out 
below except the last two, rather than being weakly rounded out 
below except for the last three. 



A Large Population of Polistes annularis (Linn.) 
(Vespidae, Hymenoptera) 

W. V. BALDUF, University of Illinois, Urbana 

On October 17, 1950, my attention was attracted by an un- 
usual number of Polistes annularis (Linneus) near Oakwood, 
Champaign County, Illinois. This occurred in the valley of the 
Salt Fork river in an area that was stripped of its coal about 
40 years ago. Separating the river bottom, with its character- 
istic spoil banks and narrow artificial lakes, from the upland, 
with its remnant of oak-hickory forest, is an almost sheer cliff 
approximately 50 feet high, that marks the limit of the stripping 
operation. In the subsequent years, soil eroding from the cliff 
wall has accumulated at its base, forming a considerable shoulder 
on which now grow willow and a few other woody plants typical 
of shady wet habitats. 

On the warm, quiet afternoon of October 17, the sun shone 
directly upon the face of the sector of the cliff concerned here, and 
many P. annularis flew lazily along the sheer upper three- 
fourths of the precipice. A smaller number performed likewise 
along the eastward extension and also to the north of this sector. 
From my position at the top of the bank, I was able to net a 
sample consisting of 65 females and 8 males as an occasional 
one leisurely rose to the rim of the cliff. Thus, the cliff wall 
was continuously alive with circling, rising, and descending 
wasps. 

The probable source of this local flight was reported to me 
later by reliable acquaintances, who rowed along the lake at the 
foot of the cliff. In a distance of about one-half mile, they 
counted 50 nests of Polistes suspended from the then bare small 



260 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

trees growing on the shoulder of soil a few feet above the water 
surface. Few nests hung from the oaks and hickories standing 
on the upland near the rim of the stripped area. 

It may be conjectured that the unhurried mass movements of 
wasps on that sunny afternoon may have been activated by up- 
drafts of air from the lake to the upland. The destiny of the 
numerically predominant females was not determined. A sug- 
gestion as to the significance of this flight may be taken from 
the observations of Ran (1941), who identified two types of 
swarming of Polistes wasps in temperate regions (1) the 
movements in spring of sometimes large numbers of queens 
from hibernation to their nesting sites, and (2) flights at the 
end of summer, when the young queens, recently emerged from 
the brood nests, swarm into hibernation by slow stages rather 
than go into it directly. By analogy the flights of P. annularis 
at Oakwood may have represented an early stage of movement 
toward hibernation. 

Since P. annularis appears to be selective in its choice of 
winter sites, a second article from Ran (1930) affords a clue 
as to the possible destination of the Oakwood wasps. At Cliff 
Cave, along the Mississippi river, 20 miles south of St. Louis, 
Rau found this species year after year, hibernating among crev- 
ices of the rocky bluffs west of the river, whereas it appeared to 
nest only among the vegetation in the lowlands east of the river. 
Again by analogy, the flying young queens of annularis observed 
at Oakwood were possibly on the way to hibernate either in the 
vegetated spoil banks in the river bottom, or, more likely, in 
the crevices of the shady cliff walls up and down the river itself. 

SUMMARY 

A large flight of P. annularis occurred near Oakwood, Illinois. 
The wasps originated in nests on trees at the base of a cliff at 
the edge of a stripmine, and may have been on the way to 
hibernating sites. 

REFERENCES CITED 

RAU, PHIL. 1930. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 23 : 461-466. 
. 1941. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 34 : 580-584. 



bcxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 261 

The Collembola of New Mexico. V. Isotominae: 
Anurophorus, Isotomodes, Folsomia lf 2 

HAROLD GEORGE SCOTT 3 

Ten species of springtail insects are recorded in this part. 
All are new records for the state. Specimens will be deposited 
with the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Family ENTOMOBRYIDAE Tomosvary, 1882 

Body elongate, segmented; pronotum reduced, usually mem- 
branous and devoid of setae. 

Subfamily ISOTOMINAE Schaffer, 1896 

Distal antennal segments never annulate ; Abd III and IV 
subequal or terminal abdominal segments ankylosed. 

KEY TO GENERA OF NEARCTIC ISOTOMINAE 

1 . Anal spines present 2 

Anal spines absent 6 

2. Anal spines 8 Weberacantha Christiansen, 1951 

Anal spines 2 or 4 3 

3. Anal spines 2 4 

Anal spines 4 5 

4. Unguiculus present Biacanthella Scott, 1961 

Unguiculus absent Uzelia Absolon, 1901 

5. Furcula short, reaching Abd III 

Tetracanthella Schott, 1891 

Furcula long, reaching Abd I .... Spinisotoma Stach, 1926 

6. Furcula absent Anurophorus Nicolet, 1841 

Furcula present 7 

7. Bothriotricha present 8 

Bothriotricha absent 10 

1 A portion of a dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the 
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

2 Part IV appeared in ENT. NEWS 72 : 93-96. 

3 Training Branch, Communicable Disease Center, Public Health Serv- 
ice, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, 
Georgia. 



262 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

8. Abd V and VI ankylosed. . .Archistoma Linnaniemi, 1912 
Abd V and VI not ankylosed 9 

9. Mucro with 3-4 teeth Isotomurus Borner, 1903 

Mucro with 5 teeth Axelsonia Borner, 1907 

10. Postantennal organ absent Folsomina Denis, 1931 

Postantennal organ present 11 

11. Anus ventro-terminal 12 

Anus terminal 13 

12. Manubrium with medial hooks 

Isotomodes Linnaniemi, 1907 

Manubrium without medial hooks. .Folsomia Willem, 1902 

13. Abd IV longer than III 14 

Abd IV subequal to or shorter than III 15 

14. Mucro with 0-3 teeth Proisotoma Borner, 1901 

Mucro with 4 teeth Metisotoma Maynard, 1951 

15. Mucro with 2 teeth 16 

Mucro with 3-4 teeth 19 

16. Eyes absent Micrisotoma Bellinger, 1952 

Eyes present 17 

17. Eyes 2 and 2 to 4 and 4 Folsomides Stach, 1922 

Eyes 8 and 8 18 

18. Body segments bulging with deep intersegmental constric- 

tions Guthriella Borner, 1906 

Body segments not bulging; without deep intersegmental 
constrictions Isotomina Bonier, 1902 

19. Unguis tunicate Agrenia Borner, 1906 

Unguis not tunicate 20 

20. Dens without spines Isotoma Bourlet, 1839 

Dens with spines 21 

21. Mucro with 3 teeth Semicerura Maynard, 1951 

Mucro with 4 teeth Tomocerura Wahlgren, 1900 

Genus ANUROPHORUS Nicolet, 1841 
Anurophorus laricis Nicolet, 1841. 

This is the only species of Anurophorus recorded from North 
America. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Ten collections, 1 under rocks and 
9 Berlese samples (from rotten coniferous logs; spruce, fir, 
yellow pine, and Gambel oak litter, and grass clumps) ; 7,500 to 
13,100 ft, Santa Fe, Mora, San Miguel, Valencia, Torrance, and 
Lincoln Co.; Jun.-Sept, 1951-1954. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 263 

DISTRIBUTION. Colo., Iowa, Minn., N. M., N. Y., Ontario 
(Canada), Europe, Asia. 

Genus Isotomodes Linnaniemi, 1907 

Isotomodes tenuis Folsom, 1937. 

This is the only Isotomodes recorded from North America. 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. From flower pot, apartment, 5,100 ft, 
Albuquerque, Bernalillo Co., 25-iii-1955. 

DISTRIBUTION. Iowa, Mass., N. M. 

Genus FOLSOMIA Willem, 1902 
KEY TO SPECIES OF NEARCTIC FOLSOMIA 

NOTE. Undue emphasis should not be placed upon the taxo- 
nomic significance of eye number. However, this characteristic 
is used for convenience in the following key, and has been found 
to be reliable. 

1. Mucro 2-toothed guthriei (Linnaniemi, 1912) 

Mucro 1-toothed 2 

2. Eyes absent Candida Willem, 1902 

Eyes present 3 

3. Eyes 8 and 8 4 

Eyes fewer than 8 and 8 6 

4. Unguis without teeth elongata ( MacGillivray, 1896) 

Unguis with teeth 5 

5. Manubrium with 1 pair of ventral setae. . .prima Mills, 1931 
Manubrium with many ventral setae, .silvestri Folsom, 1937 

6. Eyes 6 and 6 alpina Kseneman, 1936 

Eyes 5 and 5 hoffi sp. nov. 

Eyes 3 and 3 sexoculata (Tullberg, 1871) 

Eyes 2 and 2 quadrioculata (Tullberg, 1871) 

Eyes 1 and 1 diplophthalma (Axelson, 1902) 

Folsomia alpina Kseneman, 1936. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Three Berlese samples of aspen and 
fir litter, 8,300 to 10,600 ft, Sept., 1951, Sandia Mts., Berna- 
lillo Co. 

DISTRIBUTION : N. M., Europe. 



264 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

Folsomia hoffi, sp. nov. Fig. 1. 

TYPE LOCALITY. Holotype and 4 paratypes from Alpine 
Zone, Santa Fe Baldy, Santa Fe Co., NEW MEXICO. The type 
specimens were taken from a Berlese sample of clumps of vege- 
tation, 12,400 ft., 14 vii 1954. Specimens will be deposited 
with the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

DESCRIPTION. Body elongate, not subglobose; segmentation 
distinct ; last 3 abdominal segments ankylosed ; integument 
smooth ; light yellow with brown markings ; intersegmental areas 
pale; clothed by short setae, with a few longer setae on the 
abdomen; head prognathous; ratio of antenna to head 11:13; 
ratio of antennal segments 4:7:6:12; postantennal organ pres- 
ent, of the simple isotomine types ; eyes 5 and 5, each eye on 
its own dark spot ; mouthparts chewing ; ratio of body segments 
4:16:15/11:12:12:24; distal segment on tibiotarsus present; 
claws not tunicate ; ratio of unguiculus to unguis 1:5; tenent 
hairs absent ; unguis and unguiculus without teeth ; furcula with- 
out ankylosis ; furcula extending to Abd II ; ratio of manubrium 
to dens to mucro as 13:12:2; dental spines absent; dentes dor- 
sally crenulate ; mucro with 1 tooth ; mucro not lamellate ; anus 
ventro-terminal ; anal spines absent; length 1.1 mm. 

NOTE: This species is named for Dr. C. Clayton Hoff, Pro- 
fessor of Biology, University of New Mexico, whose diligent 
collecting made this study possible. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Type collection plus Berlese sample 
of sod, Alpine Zone, 12,000 ft, Lake Peak, Santa Fe Co., 26-vi- 
1954; and Berlese sample of aspen litter, 8,200 ft, Hyde Park, 
northeast of Santa Fe, Santa Fe Co., 28-viii-1952. 

DISTRIBUTION: N. M. 

Folsomia elongata (MacGillivray, 1896). 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Eleven Berlese samples of Alpine 
vegetation, litter (aspen, aspen-fir, oak, oak-pinon, pinon- juni- 
per, juniper), and rotten conifer logs; 6,400 to 12,000 ft, Santa 
Fe, Bernalillo, Rio Arriba, and Sandoval Co. ; Jan.-Nov., 1950- 
1953. 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



265 



DISTRIBUTION. Colo., 111., Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Minn., 

N. M. 

Folsomia guthriei (Linnaniemi, 1912). 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Two Berlese samples of yellow pine 
and aspen-fir litter, 7,600 to 9,700 ft, Lincoln and Rio Arriba, 
Co., Jul.-Aug., 1951-1953. 

DISTRIBUTION. Minn., N. M., Europe. 




FIG. 1. Folsomia hoffi sp. nov., holotype. 



Folsomia nivalis (Packard, 1873). 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Four samples (with ants beneath 
rocks, from rotten log near stream, Berlese samples of aspen- 
spruce-fir-litter, and of rotten coniferous log) , 8,300 to 9,300 ft, 
Taos, Mora, San Miguel and Bernalillo Co., Jul.-Nov., 1950- 
1954. 

DISTRIBUTION. Maine, N. M., N. Y. 



266 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

Folsomia quadrioculata (Tullberg, 1871). 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. Berlese sample of aspen soil and 
litter, 9,500 ft, Sandia Mts., Bernalillo Co., 16-vi-1951. 

DISTRIBUTION. 111., Minn., N. M., N. Y., Canada, Greenland, 
Europe, Asia. 

Folsomia sexoculata (Tullberg, 1871). 

NEW MEXICO RECORD. From Berlese sample of aspen soil 
and litter, 10,000 ft, near Santa Fe Swi Area, northeast of 
Santa Fe, Santa Fe Co., 12-X-1952. 

DISTRIBUTION. N. M., Europe. 

Folsomia silvestri Folsom, 1937. 

NEW MEXICO RECORDS. Two Berlese samples of fir and 
aspen-fir litter, 9,200 and 10,000 ft, Sandia Mts. Bernalillo Co., 
July, 1950-1951. 

DISTRIBUTION. N. M., N. Y. 

SUMMARY 

Record is made of 10 species of isotomine Collembola from 
New Mexico : Anurophorus laricis, Isotomodes tennis, and eight 
species of Folsomia including F. hoffi sp. nov. Keys are pre- 
sented to genera of Nearctic Isotominae and to species of 
Nearctic Folsomia. 

REFERENCES CITED 

ABSOLON, K. 1901. Zool. Anz. 24 : 209-216. 

AXELSON, W. M. 1902. Med. Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica 28: 101-111. 

BELLINGER, P. F. 1952. Psyche 59(1) : 20-23. 

BORNER, C. 1901. Abh. naturw. Ver. Bremen 17: 1-141. 

-. 1902. Zool. Anz. 25 : 605-607. 

-. 1903. Sitz. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin, Vol. of 1903 : 129-182. 

-. 1906. Mitt, naturh. Mus. Hamburg 23 : 147-188. 
BOURLET, A. 1839. Mem. Soc. Sci. Agr. Lille, Part 1 : 377-417. 
CHRISTIANSEN, K. A. 1951. Psyche, 58: 24-31. 
DENIS, J. R. 1931. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. Portici 25 : 69-170. 
FOLSOM, J. W. 1937. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 168, iii + 144 pp. 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 267 

KSENEMAN, N. 1936. Ann. Tschechoslowak Akad., Landvv. 11 : 210. 
LINNANIEMI, W. M. 1907. Akad. Abhandlung, Helsingfors, 146 pp. 

. 1912. Acta Soc. Sci. Fennicae 40 : 1-361. 
MAcGiLLiVRAY, A. D. 1896. Can. Ent. 28: 47-58. 

MAYNARD, E. A. 1951. The Collembola of New York. Ithaca: Corn- 
stock Publ. Co., xxiv + 339 pp. 

MILLS, H. B. 1931. American Mus. Novitates No. 464: 1-11. 
NICOLET, H. 1841. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Helv. Sci. Nat. 6: 1-88. 
PACKARD, A. S. 1873. 5th Ann. Kept. Trust., Peabody Acad. Sci. pp. 

23-51. 

SCHAFFER, C. 1896. Mitt, naturh. Mus. Hamburg 13: 147-216. 
SCHOTT, H. 1891. Bih. K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. 17 : 1-25. 
SCOTT, H. G. 1961. Ent. News 72 : 93-96. 
STACK, J. 1922. Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungarici 19: 1-75. 

-. 1926. Bull. Acad. Polonaise Sci. Lett. (B) : 579-588. 
TOMOSVARY, O. 1882. Math. Term. Kozlem. Magyar Akad. 18: 119-130. 
WAHLGREN, E. 1900. Ent. Tidskrift 21 : 265-270. 
WILLEM, V. 1902. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique 46 : 275-283. 



Coccygomimus maurus (Cresson) in New Jersey 
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) 

CHARLES C. PORTER, Metuchen, New Jersey 

On July 15, 1961, I collected at the Glassworks in Lebanon 
State Forest, New Jersey, a large and perfect female of C. 
inanrus, which was investigating a sapling of Pinus rigida. As 
Townes in his recent monograph of the Ephialtinae (Bulletin 
of the United States National Museum No. 216, Part 2, pp. 
321-322) records the species only from Florida, Texas, south- 
eastern North Carolina, and Fairfield County, Ohio, the present 
capture represents a large, if not entirely unexpected, addition 
to the species' range, adding another to the list of primarily 
Lower Austral insects which reach the Pine Barrens of southern 
New Jersey. 



268 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

Notes and News in Entomology 

Under this heading we present, from time to time, notes, news, and 
comments. Contributions from readers are earnestly solicited and will 
be acknowledged when used. 

Revised International Code Now Ready 

It will interest your readers to know that the long-awaited 
newly revised International Code of Zoological Nomenclature 
is scheduled for publication the first week of November, 1961, 
and may be obtained, post free, for one pound sterling upon 
application to the Publication Office, The International Trust 
for Zoological Nomenclature, 19 Belgrave Square, London, 

S.W. 1. 

This new revision was commenced at the Paris Congress in 
1948, and has since then had incorporated in it the principles 
laid down in the Opinions of the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature during the preceding half century, 
which had come to comprise a formidable body of case-law. 
It was the subject of close scrutiny by the First International 
Colloquium on Zoological Nomenclature in Copenhagen, which 
sat continuously from the 29th of July to the 4th of August, 
1953, and was attended by 51 zoologists from some twelve 
countries. Based on the old code and all the revisionary de- 
cisions reached up to that period a new tentative draft code 
was then prepared and published, as was also an extended bulk 
of subsequent comment emanating from world-wide sources. 
All this material came before the Second International Col- 
loquium on Zoological Nomenclature which was held at London 
in July, 1958, with a membership of approximately 200 zoolo- 
gists. The ensuing Fifteenth International Congress of Zool- 
ogy empowered its Commission on Nomenclature to adopt and 
publish the final wording of a fully revised code, based entirely 
on the decisions reached by the Colloquium and Congress, 
except that it was given power to decide a few details which 
time had prevented from being considered at London. The 
final wording with editing of the new code was placed in the 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 269 

hands of a committee of two French, two British and two Amer- 
ican zoologists. Their work, the results of which have been 
adopted by the Commission, has proven most arduous, and 
has taken many months and even years to accomplish. It 
included a week's session in London in the spring of 1959. 

The Code, in its new guise, forms a volume of almost exactly 
200 pages and consists of equivalent English and French texts 
on facing pages, English and French glossaries, Index, In- 
troduction by Dr. Norman R. Stoll, and a Preface. 

J. CHESTER BRADLEY, 
President of the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 

Nomenclature Notice 

All comments relating to the following should be marked with 
the Commission's File Number and sent in duplicate, before 
February llth, to the Secretary, International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature, c/o British Museum (Natural His- 
tory, Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 7, England. 

Designation of a type-species for Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Order 

Hemiptera). Z.N.(S.) 1062. 
Designation of a type-species for Myodocha Latreille, 1807 

(Order Hemiptera). Z.N.(S.) 1431. 

For details see Bull. Zool. Nomencl. Vol. 18, Part 4. 



Entomologist's Market Place 

ADVERTISEMENTS AND EXCHANGES 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at $1.00 per 
line, payable in advance to the editor. 

Notices of wants and exchanges not exceeding three lines are free 

to subscribers. 

All insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are 
added at the end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at 
the top are discontinued. 



Butterflies. Wish to exchange specimens for Japanese species. Please 
write to Ichiro Nakamura (Boy, age 16), 26 Aza-Nichiyama Obayashi 
Takarazuka-shi, Hyogo-Ken, Japan. 

Phasmidae of nearctic area desired alive. Purchase or trade, drawing 
on large stock of major orders, worldwide. Domminck J. Pirone, Dept 
Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Nitidulidae and Rhizophagidae wanted in exchange for European bee- 
tles of all families. O. Marek, Zamberk 797, Czechoslovakia. 

Wanted and Needed. We are compiling a history of entomology, and 
particularly, at present, of the amateur insect clubs that flourished SO to 
75 years ago. Will you who have knowledge of such early clubs or 
societies advise me, giving facts on the time of existence, members, etc., 
which you may have. J. J. Davis, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, Lafayette, Indiana. 

Cockroaches (Blattoidea) of Japan, Okinawa, Formosa (Taiwan), 
and the Philippines are being studied in cooperation with Dr. K. Princis. 
Loans of specimens from that area are desired. A. B. Gurney, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington 25, D. C. 

Orthoptera. Gryllinae (except domestic sp.) and Pyrgomorphinae 
of the world wanted in any quantity for work in morphology, taxonomy, 
cytology, and experimental biology; dry, or in fluid, or living. Write 
D. K. Kevan and R. S. Bigelow, Dept. of Entomology, McGill University, 
Macdonald College, Quebec, Canada. 

Beetles of the world wanted, all species in exchange for American 
beetles, moths and butterflies. James K. Lawton (age 18), 7118 Grand 
Parkway, Wauwatosa 13, Wisconsin. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LXXII 

(* Indicates new genera, names, etc.) 

ALEXANDER, C. P. New exotic crane-flies (Diptera: 

Tipulidae) Part III 113 

Part IV 235 

ALEXANDER, G. The type locality of Gomphocerus 
Thomas (Orthoptera : Acrididae) 107 

ARNETT, R. H. The Onychophora of Jamaica 213 

BALDUF, W. V. A large population of Polistes annularis 
(Linn.) (Vespidae : Hymenoptera) 259 

BRADLEY, J. C. The revised International Code of Zoo- 
logical Nomenclature 268 

The Vienna Congress 46 

BURKS, B. D. The species of Pseudometaga Ashmead 
(Hymenoptera, Eucharitidae) 253 

CHAMBERLIN, R. V. Notes on the geophilid chilopods of 
Utah 96 

COOK, E. F. (See under Meade, A. B.) 

COOPER, K. W. Occurrence of the European pselaphid 
beetle Trichonyx sulcicollis ( Reichenbach ) in New York 
State 90 

COPPEL, H. C. An unusual habitat niche for Ancistro- 
cerus tigris tigris (Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Vespi- 
dae) 246 

CRABILL, R. E., JR. A catalogue of the Schendylinae of 
North America including Mexico, with a generic key 
and proposal of a new Simoporus (Chilopoda: Geo- 

philomorpha : Schendylinae) 29, 67 

Concerning the Neogeophilidae, with proposal of a new 
genus. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha : Neogeophili- 
dae) 155, 177 

DENNIS, C. J. An observation of the behavior of Tela- 
mona compacta Ball preceding and during oviposition, 
(Homoptera, Membracidae) 152 

(271) 



272 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

EADS, D. C. The terminology of phallic structures in the 
Cyrtacanthacridinae (Orthoptera, Acrididae) 141 

ELBEL, R. E. (See under Emerson, R. E.) 

EMERSON, K. C. and R. E. ELBEL. A new species of Ralli- 
cola (Mallophaga) from southeast Asia 130 

EVANS, H. E. Notes on the nesting behavior of Plenoculus 
davisi Fox (Hymenoptera : Sphecidae) 225 

FORD, H. G. (See under Hyland, K. E.) 

FROESCHNER, R. C. Revision of the south African genus 
Dearcla Signoret with descriptions of three new species 
(Hemiptera : Cydnidae) 197 

GERTSCH, W. J. Herbert Ferlando Schwarz, 1883-1960 85 

GILLASPY, J. E. A new species of Stictiella from Mexico 
(Sphecidae : Bembicini) 169 

HAYS, K. L. Tabanus aranti sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabani- 
dae) from Alabama 127 

HUBBARD, C. A. Fleas from the kangaroo rats of northern 

California 133 

Host specificity of fleas from kangaroo rats 25 

HULL, F. M. The genus Psilocurus Loew 101 

HYLAND, K. E. and H. G. FORD The occurrence of the 
nasal mite Speleognathopsis bastini Fain (Speleognathi- 
dae) from the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus (Beau- 
vois) 6 

JUDD, W. W. Melanagromyza tiliae (Coud.) (Diptera: 
Agromyzidae) reared from linden bark galls at London, 
Ontario 192 

KNOWLTON, G. F. (See under Wray, D. L.) 

KRAMER, J. P. Herpetomonas muscarum (Leidy) in the 
haemocoel of larval Musca domestica L 165 

KROMBEIN, K. V. Passaloecus turionum Dahlbom, an 
adventive European wasp in the United States (Hymen- 
optera : Sphecidae) 258 

Some insect visitors of mat Euphorbia in southeastern 

Arizona 80 

V. S. L. Pate, 1903-1958 , 1 



Ixxii] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 273 

KURCZEWSKI, F. E. New North American records of 
Pepsinae and Ceropalinae ( Hymenoptera : Pompilidae) 24 

LINSLEY, E. G. A new rhinotragine cerambycid from 
Arizona and Sonora (Coleoptera) 163 

McDERMOTT, F. A. A new genus and species of firefly : 
Photoctus boliviae (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) 174 

McFADDEN, M. W. An improved technique for using the 
Berlese funnel 150 

MEADE, A. B. and E. F. COOK Notes on the biology of 
Scatopse fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) .. 13 

MUSSER, R. J. Some noteworthy dragonfly records from 
Utah (Odonata : Anisoptera) 53 

PHILIP, C. B. New North American Tabanidae XIII. 
Change of name for a well-known species of Chrysops . . 160 

RAPP, W. F. Corrodentia in cliff swallow nests 195 

PORTER, C. C. Coccygomimus maurus (Cresson) in New 
Jersey (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae) 267 

SABROSKY, C. W. A new Nearctic species of Stenoscinis, 
with key to the species of the Western Hemisphere (Dip- 
tera : Chloropidae) 19 

Three new nearctic acalyptrate Diptera 229 

SCHLINGER, E. I. New species of Acrocera from Arizona 
and Ocnaea from California, with synonymical notes on 
the genus Ocnaea (Diptera : Acroceridae) 7 

SCHMIEDER, R. G. Review: A manual of common beetles 

of North America 194 

Review : Cicindelidae of Canada 223 

Review : Facts and theories concerning the insect head . . 221 

Review : Forest and shade tree entomology 55 

Review : Western butterflies 223 

SCOTT, H. G. Collembola from Japan. Hypogastrurinae 

and Neanurinae 121 

The Collembola of New Mexico. III. Onychiurinae . . 57 

IV. A new genus of Isotominae (Entomobryidae) .... 93 

V. Isotominae : Anurophorus, Isotomodes, Folsomia . . 261 
Mosquitoes : Key to United States genera based on male 
genitalia (Diptera : Culicidae ) 243 



274 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., 1961 

SELANDER, R. B. Supplementary records of meloid beetles 
(Coleoptera) of the West Indies 190 

SPILMAN, J. T. On the immature stages of the Ptilodac- 
tylidae (Coleoptera) 105 

STAHNKE, H. L. A new species of scorpion of the Vejovi- 
dae : Paruroctonus vachoni 206 

SVIHLA, A. Another record of the larva of Epiophlebia 
laidlawi Tillyard, (Odonata: Anisozygoptera) 66 

THRONE, A. L. Psectra diptera (Burmeister) in Wiscon- 
sin (Neuroptera : Hermerobiidae) 193 

TILDEN, J. W. Studies in the genus Ochlodes Scudder. 
II. The type material of the North American species 
(Lepidoptera : Hesperiidae) 37 

WRAY, D. L. and G. F. KNOWLTON Collembola from 
rodent nests 248 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



275 



GENERAL SUBJECTS 

Behavior of Telamona 152 

Berlese funnel method 150 

Biology of Scatopse fuscipes . 13 
Host specificity in fleas .... 25 
Insect visitors on mat Eu- 
phorbia 80 

International Code 268 

International Congress 46 

International Congress U.I.E.- 

I.S 27 

Mosquito, key to U. S. males . 243 
Nesting behavior of Plenocu- 

Ins 225 

Nomenclature notices 36, 220, 269 
Onychophora of Jamaica .... 213 
Phallic structures, terminology 

of 141 

Polistes, large population of . . 259 

Subscription rates, new 166 

Symposium announced 166 

OBITUARIES 

Bischoff, H 132 

Calvert, P. P 251 

Fulton, B. B 139 

Pate, V. S. L 1 

Schwarz, H. F 85 

REVIEWS 

Books received (Col., Dipt.) 100 

Cicindelidae of Canada 223 

Manual of common beetles . . 194 
Snodgrass : Facts and theories 

of insect head 221 

Western butterflies 223 

GEOGRAPHICAL 
DISTRIBUTION 

Africa : Hemip 197 

Alabama : Dipt 127 



Arizona : Col. 163 ; Dipt. 7, 

234, Hym 23 

Arkansas : Chilop 32 

Bolivia: Col 174 

California: Dipt 10, 230 

Colorado : Hym 257 

Guatemala : Chilop 177 

India: Dipt 113-121, 235-240 

Jamaica: (Onyccoph.) 213 

Japan : Collembola 121 

Mexico : Hymn 169 

Mississippi : Dipt 104 

New Mexico : Collembola 

62, 64, 264 

North Carolina : Dipt 232 

Philippines: Dipt 241^t3 

Texas: Dipt 102, 103 

Thailand : Malloph 131 

COLEOPTERA 

aurocincta arizonensis f * Odon- 

tocera 163 

boliviae* Photoctus 174 

Cicindelidae, of Canada (book) 223 

Lytta, monograph 100 

maculata, Cissites 190 

Manual of Col. (review) . . 194 
marginata, Pscudosonitis .... 191 

Meloidae of W. Indies 190 

Myelophilus 36 

obscuricornis, Pscudosonitis . . 191 

Photoctus* 174 

Ptilodactylidae, immature 

stages 105 

punctulata, Ncmognatha .... 191 

scrrlcollis, Pterodactyla 105 

sulcicollis, Trichonyx 90 

vcxans, Aedes, illns 245 

DIPTERA 

adachiae* Stcnoscinis 22 

opoensisj* Hexatoma, 240 

umitti* Tabanus 127 



276 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Dec., 1961 



artifcx* Hexatoma 118 

Biology of Scatopse 13 

birdi pallustris* Psilocurus . . 104 

birdi, Psilocurus 103 

calijornica* Meoneura 229 

Culicidae, key to U. S. males 243 

Dasiops 220 

Diptera on mat Euphorbia in 

Arizona 83 

domestica, Musca, Herpeto- 

monas in 165 

dorsalis, Aedes, illus 245 

fascipennis, Chrysops 160 

furtiva,* Hexatoma 239 

Justifies, Scatopse, biology . . 13 

geminata* Spilochroa 233 

gnava,* Hexatoma 117 

macquarti* Chrysops 161 

madrasensis,* Hexatoma 113 

Meigen names, suppression of 36 

melanogaster,* Acrocera 10 

modcstus, Psilocurus 104 

nudiusculus, Psilocurus 104 

Ocnaea, notes 7 

perlongata* Hexatoma 114 

phaeton* Hexatoma 238 

prolixa* Hexatoma 235 

Psychodidae 100 

Psychodidae of Connecticut . . 100 
punctipennis, Anopheles, illus. 245 

pygmaeus,* Psilocurus 101 

qiiinquefasciatus, Culex 245 

reinhardi, Psilocurus 104 

rossiana* Hexatoma 242 

serena* Hexatoma 236 

Stenoscinis, key to 21 

tibialis* Psilocurus 102 

tiliae, Melanagromyza 192 

univittatus, Chrysops 160 

vamana,* Hexatoma 116 

vockerothi* Pholeomyia 231 

t'ulpcs* Hexatoma 119 

wiedemanm, Chrysops 161 

xuthogaster* Ocnaea 8 



HEMIPTERA 

associatus Chlamydatus 227 

capensis* Dcarcla 200 

Dearcla, revision of 197 

Euceraphis 36 

lineolaris, Lygus 227 

Lygus 269 

Myodocha 269 

natalensis* Dearcla 201 

opercularis, Dearcla 202 

paucivillosa, Dearcla 204 

quercicola, Phytocoris 227 

ruficornis, Trigonotylus 227 

HOMOPTERA 

Aphis 220 

Behavior of Tclamona 152 

Cicadella 220 

compacta, Telamona 152 

HYMENOPTERA 

annularis, Polistes 259 

bakeri* Pseudometaga 256 

coarctata, Poncra 91 

davisi, Plcnoculus, nesting be- 
havior 225 

dentipes, Monodontomerus . . 248 

evansi,* Sticticlla 169 

Lestis 220 

List of visitors on mat Eu- 
phorbia in Arizona 80 

lophyri, Agrothereutes 248 

mounts, Coccygomimus 267 

Pompilidae, new records 24 

Pseudometaga, rev. of 253 

schwarsii, Pseudometaga 255 

similis, Diprion, cocoon use by 

Ancistrocerus 246 

tigris, Ancistrocerus, habitat 

niche 246 

turionum, Passaloecus 258 



Ixxii] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



277 



LEPIDOPTERA 

Ochlodes, type material of N. 

Amer. species 37 

Western butterflies (book) . . 223 

ORTHOPTERA 

clavatus, Aeropedellus 107 

clavatus, Gomphocerus, type 

locality of 107 

Terminology of phallic struc- 
tures 141 

ODONATA 

armata, Oploaeschna 53 

laidlawi, Epiophlebia 5, 66 

Larva of Epiophlebia 66 

mendax, Brechmorhoga 53 

Records from Utah 53 

SMALLER ORDERS 

armata, Hypogastrura (Col- 

lem.) 121 

atopus, Arctogeophilus (Col- 

lem.) 96 

bostrychophilus, Liposcelis 

(Corrod.) 195 

Collembola from Japan 121 

Collembola of New Mexico 

57, 93, 261 
Collembola from rodent nests 248 

Corrodentia 195 

cummingi, Meringis (Siph.) 

27, 133 

dipodomys, Meringis ( Si- 
phon.) 27 

dipodomys, Meringis (Siph.) 134 
diptera, Psectra. (Neurop.) .. 193 

Folsomia (Collem.) key 263 

glyptus, Brachygcophilus (Col- 

"lem.) 97 

Harrisoniella (Malloph.) 220 

hcspcrus, Stcnophilus (Col- 
lem.) 99 



hoffi* Folsomia (Collem.) .. 264 
hoffmani, Thrassis (Siph.) .. 133 
indicus* Rallicola (Malloph.) 130 
Isotominae (Collem.) key . . 261 
japonica* Hypogastrura (Col- 
lem.) 122 

microps, Dipodomys (Siph.) . 133 
neomcxicana* BiacantheUa* 

(Collem.) 94 

neornexicana* Tullbergia 

(Collem.) 64 

Onychiurinae (Collem.), key ...57 
Onychiurus (Collem.) keys, 

records 58, 60 

ornata, Ncanura (Collem.) . . 124 
parkeri, Meringis (Siph.) .. 133 

Perla (Plecop.) 36 

pseudornata* Ncanura (Col- 
lem.) 124 

robusta* Hoffia* (Collem.) .. 62 
Siphonaptera host specificity . 25 
Tullbergia (Collem.), key .. 63 
nnguicitlatus, Rallicola 132 

NON-HEXAPODA 
ACARINA 

bastini, Speleognathopsis .... 6 

SCORPIONIDA 

vachoni,* Paruroctonus 206 

CHILOPODA 

arcaniis* Simoporus 32 

Cryptostrigla 156, 189 

dauipfi, Nyctunijitis, notes on 76 

I'tliopus, Escaryits 69 

l^illoucophihts 189 

Geophilids from Utah 96 

Holitys, notes on 71 

Neogeophilidae 155 

Neogeophilidae, review of ... 187 
Neogcophihis 189 



278 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Dec., 1961 



Schendylinae, catalogue and 

key to genera 29, 67 

silvestrl* Cryptostrigla* 157, 177 
Simoporus, key to 31 

ONYCOPHORA 

Onycophora of Jamaica 213 

insularis clarki* Epiperipatus 215 

lezvisi* Epiperipatus 218 

Onychophora, keys to 214 



NON-ARTHROPODA 

Birds (Petrochelidon) 195 

Plants (Euphorbia) , insects on 80 
Protoza (Herpetomonas mus- 

caruni) 165 

Rodents (Microtus, Neotoma, 
Thomomys), Collembola 

from nests 249 

(Dipodomys), fleas from 25, 133 
(Eptesicus), mite from .... 6 



Pacific Insects 

A quarterly journal on the systematic entomology and zoogeog- 
raphy of the Pacific, East Asia, Australia and Antarctica. 

Vols. 1-3 (over 500 pages per volume) each $5.00 

Vol. 4 (1962) (over 700 pages) $7.00 

Pacific Insects Monographs 

Adjunct series appearing irregularly and not included in sub- 
scription. To be ordered separately or standing order 
placed. 

1A. The Chrysomelidae (Coleop.) of China and Korea. Part I. By 
Gressitt and Kimoto. 299 pp., 75 figs. $4.00 

2. Problems in the Zoogeography of Pacific and Antarctic Insects. 
By Gressitt, with appendices by Maa, Mackerras, Nakata, and 
Quate. 128 pp., 40 figs. (incl. 2 color pis.). Bound, $2.50. 
Paper, $2.00 



Important Mosquito Works 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part I. The Nearctic Anopheles, important 
malarial vectors of the Americas, and Aedes aegypti 

and Culex quinquefasciata 

MOSQUITO ATLAS. Part II. The more important malaria vec- 
tors of the Old World: Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South Pacific region 

By Edward S. Ross and H. Radclyffe Roberts 

Price, 60 cents each (U. S. Currency) with order, postpaid within the 
United States ; 65 cents, foreign. 



KEYS TO THE ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOES 
OF THE WORLD 

With notes on their Identification, Distribution, Biology and Rela- 
tion to Malaria. By Paul F. Russell, Lloyd E. Rozeboom 

and Alan Stone 

Mailed on receipt of price, $2.00 U. S. Currency. Foreign Delivery 
$2.10. 



For sale by the American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa., U. S. A. 



Just Published 

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Number 17 

A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE 

MILLIPED FAMILY SPIROBOLIDAE 

(DIPLOPODA: SPIROBOLIDA) 

By William T. Keeton 

147 pages of text, 37 tables, 2 maps, 18 plates, 
table of contents and index 

Spirobolid millipeds are probably the most widely known 
Diplopoda in the United States, being used in many college 
courses ; yet the family has been little studied. This monograph 
brings together existing knowledge of the group for the first 
time, and adds much new information gained from critical study 
of series. The taxonomic history of the family is outlined. 
External morphology is briefly treated, with emphasis on char- 
acters utilized in classification. A summary of current knowl- 
edge of life histories is included. The family is redefined, and 
each genus and species is treated in detail. Particular attention 
is given to variation and distribution, both of which become 
more meaningful biologically as a result of synonymizing many 
species names. Possible phylogenetic relationships of the gen- 
era are discussed, and keys to all taxa are provided, with most 
diagnostic characters illustrated in 18 plates or summarized in 
37 tables. 

Price $5.50 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Penna., U.S.A. 



^ *. x^ 



V X, P 




^ 4, 

O CX W"""s >J- ^v ***&?'' 

^ <o ^^S^' ? \ <$> 

^ v /, v^ Qi ^ 

/ s \^a*- \/ 



\ ^ 

'. ^ 

?iii; na 

^ --o, 

^V-^V 

xX s + 

^ & XX <P 

V N5^ 



'W 

^ y ^S7-" 

'" <S*. ^*=gss** *.\ 



mpf u, ,-, 

Wf 381 
fef 



ss^x < 



- 






^H? 



/> -^^^ o 



'* 



P/%! 

* \ 



/ -O- '^^"''J^x O 

^, v^ //'fefX <5 






^ 

j^S 



i!,!!,.^ 




c / 



ffffi 

Sp^SjStJfl 

l/>v 

^ \. ^^> 









1 ^^ 

*M 








\ < 

! ?f ^ 
/ \ ^ 

*- \ 

1* 








^ <^ 

^ V 



^ -v 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



3 9088 00844 5587