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VOL 92 



Ent 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
JANUARY & FEBRUARY 1981 No 1 



AL NEWS 



Notes on Atylotus & description of a new species from 
eastern No. Amer. (Diptera: Tabanidae) 

L. L. Pechuman \ 

Species composition & seasonal abundance of carrion 
beetles (Coleoptera) in an oak-beech forest in Great 
Swamp N.W.R., N.J. 

P.P. Shubeck, N.M. Downie, R.L. Wenzel, S.B. Peck 1 

New species of Rhogosana & Ponana (Homoptera: 
Cicadellidae) from Central & South America 

Dwight M. DeLong 1 7 

Notes on yellowjacket parasite Bareogonalis 
canadensis (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) 
D. Carmean, R.D. Akre, R.S. Zack, H.C. Reed 23 

Polygynous colony of Vespula pennsylvanica 

(Hymenoptera: Vespidae) R.D. Akre, H.C. Reed 27 

Larvae of alderfly (Megaloptera: Sialidae) from 

pitcher plant Thomas N. Mather 32 

Annotated list of treehoppers (Homoptera: 
Membracidae) of Delaware 

C.E. Mason, J.E. Love 33 

Two rare species of Ephemeroptera in lower 

Mississippi River L. G. Sanders, C.R. Bingham 38 

New species of Janetschekbrya (Collembola: 
Entomobryidae) from Costa Rica 

Richard J. Snider 39 

Notes on Collembola of Pedregal de San Angel, 

Mexico Jose G. Palacios-Vargas 42 

New geographical records for some fleas ( Siphonaptera) 
from the Black Hills of So. Dakota 

Emmett R. Easton 45 

New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from 

New Hampshire John F. Burger 49 

Amnestus radialis Froeschner, 1960, senior synonym 
of ,4. sexdentatus Froeschner, 1960 (Hemiptera: 
Cydnidae) R.C. Froeschner 51 

NOTICES 22,50 

BOOK REVIEW 48 



BOOKS RECEIVED & BRIEFLY NOTED 



37,47,52 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 92. No. 1. January & February 1981 



NOTES ON ATYLOTUS AND DESCRIPTION OF 

A NEW SPECIES FROM EASTERN NORTH 

AMERICA (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) 1 

L.L. Pechumam 

ABSTRACT: Tabanus incisuralis Macquart and Tabanus intermedius Walker belong in 
the genus Atylotus. a. incisuralis is not Nearctic and the first available name for the North 
America! species currently called incisuralis is insuetus Osten Sacken. A. intermedius is 
regarded as a distinct species. Atylotus woodi from eastern North America is described as 
new. 

Through the kindness of John E. Chainey of the British Museum 
(Natural History), I have been able to examine the type material of 
Tabanus incisuralis Macquart (1847) and of Tabanus intermedius 
Walker (1848). Both are species of the genus Atylotus Osten Sacken 
(1876) as has been recognized by previous workers. 

Atylotus incisuralis (Macquart) 

The type locality is given as "America" but the type shows no close 
relationship to any North American species. Its affinities seem to be with a 
group of Palaearctic species that includes fulvus (Meigen). loewianus 
(Villeneuve) and quadrifarius (Loew). It is quite different from the 
Nearctic species now called incisuralis (Philip, 1965). The first available 
name for the latter is insuetus (Osten Sacken, 1877) according to Philip 
(1965). 

Atylotus intermedius (Walker) 

This species has been placed as a synonym of incisuralis but is quite 
different from the type of incisuralis which, as noted above, is not Nearctic 
and also is distinct from insuetus. A. intermedius has a small rounded basal 
callus and a linear median callus (Fig. 1 ) whereas insuetus has two roundish 
callli (Fig. 2). The western A. tingaureus (Philip) (Fig. 3) and the eastern 
species described below (Fig. 4) have calli similar to insuetus. All other 
Nearctic Atylotus lack frontal calli. 

In addition to the syntype female of intermedius, which I hereby 
designate as lectotype and have so labeled, and the male syntype. both from 
St. Martin's Falls, Albany River, Ontario, I have seen a female from Isle 



'Received October 18, 1980. 

"Department of Entomology, Cornell University. Ithaca, New York 14853. 



ENT. NEWS 92(1): 1 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Royale, Michigan, and a female and male from Chippewa County, 
Michigan. The male agrees well with the syntype male of intermedius. Both 
have long hairs on the upper occipital border that recurve over the eye (Fig. 
5) as is the case in most eastern species and the western A ty lotus tingaureus 
(Fig. 7), but is not the case with imuetus (Fig. 6) or the species described 
below (Fig. 8). I regard intermedius as a distinct species. 

Atylotus woodi n. sp. 

Holotype 9. Length, 10.5 mm. 

Head. Frons 3 times as high as width at base, grayish yellow pollinose with recumbent 
yellow hairs and more erect black hairs near vertex; frons with two black roundish callosities 
well separated from each other and the eye margins (Fig. 4). Eye yellow brown (greenish 
brown in life) with (in life) a purple diagonal band extending from edge of frons 3 '4 across eye; 
eye with many fine, pale, short hairs. Subcallus pollinose, concolorous with frons. Upper 
portion of cheeks concolorous with subcallus, with many yellow hairs; lower portion of cheeks 
more gray thafi yellow; beard pale yellowish gray. Antenna wholly yellow, scape and pedicel 
paler than flagellum; scape and pedicel with stiff black hairs plus fine pale hairs below on 
scape; basal plate of flagellum with tooth barely indicated; length of basal plate 1.3 times 
greatest width and 1 .3 times length of annulate portion. Palpus very pale yellow; first segment 
with long, fine, pale hairs; second segment rather stout at base, gradually tapering to a point, 
with stiff black hairs and fine pale hairs below near base. Proboscis brown. 

Thorax. Dorsum, including scutellum, very dark gray, somewhat paler gray anteriorly, 
with a single narrow middorsal dark line reaching nearly to scutellum, and with recumbent 
yellow hairs with a few black hairs intermixed; prescutal lobe (postpronotal lobe) grayish 
yellow with stiff black and fine yellow hairs. Pleura gray with pale yellow hairs above and gray 
hairs below. Legs yellow, fore tarsus brown and middle and hind tarsi darker yellow; fore 
femur and fore and middle tibiae mostly black haired; middle and hind femora mostly yellow 
haired: hind tibia with black and yellow hairs and tibial fringe black. Wing membrane clear 
including costal cell; veins brown; venation normal with all posterior cells wide open at margin 
and no spur at bifurcation of third longitudinal vein (R 4 + 5 ). Halteres yellow. 

Abdomen. First tergite dark gray with posterior sublateral margins yellow and yellow 
haired; tergites 2, 3, and 4 with a median rectangular fuscous spot completely crossing tergite 
(except for barely indicated pale posterior border of tergites 2 and 3) forming a broad median 
stripe; laterally these tergites yellow with concolorous hairs and at edge of each tergite a vague 
dark spot with dark hairs; tergite 5 with yellow area greatly reduced and following tergites all 
dark except for narrow yellow stripe at extreme edge; the integument shows no pale median 
markings but patches of yellow hairs present in center of tergites 2, 3, and 4. The venter of 
abdomen completely yellow and yellow haired. 

Allotype cr. Length 10.25 mm. 

Head. Frontal triangle and upper cheeks yellowish gray, the latter with pale yellow hairs; 
lower cheeks gray; beard white. Eye brownish green with traces of a short diagonal purple 
stripe; line of demarcation between large upper eye facets and smaller lower facets quite 
distinct below, but smaller facets extend laterally around larger facets and above them where 
the sizes blend with no line of separation; upper occipital fringe of pale, short hairs not recurved 
over upper eye margin (Fig. 8); eye heavily haired with hairs pale and much longer than in 
female. Antenna as in female but basal plate relatively more slender with length 1.54 times 
greatest width; basal plate 1.18 times length of annulate portion. Second palpal segment 1 .6 
times as long as thick, pale yellow, almost white, with long black and fine white hairs. 

Thorax. Similar to female but dark median line and two pale stripes flanking it are nearly 
obsolete; hairs of dorsum much longer than in female, pale grayish yellow. Legs as in female 



Vol. 92, No. 1. January & February 1981 






\^M(, , (|l) ,^ t . Y^ 1 




Figs. 1-4. Atylotus females, frons. 1. intermedius, 2. insuetus, 3. lingaureus, 4. woodi. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



but apex of fore tibia grades to a darker yellow. Wing as in female. 

Abdomen. Dorsum much like female but black median band narrower so that yellow 
lateral margins more extensive and dark lateral spots obsolete although dark hairs in this area 
remain. Sternites 1 and 2 with small gray median spot and sternites 6 and 7 mostly gray; 
remainder of venter yellow with yellow hairs except sternite 7, which has black hairs. 

Holotype and Allotype. S. of Lot 31, Cone. Gore, Puslinch Twp., Wellington Co., 
Ontario, 15 August 1963 (L. L. Pechuman). Canadian National Collection No. 16288. 

Paratypes. ONTARIO: Same data as holotype and allotype, 1 2 99, 8 cf d"; Same locality 
as types, 24, 28,29 August 1962,5 99, 8 cfcf(D.M. Wood), 1,2,7, 12 August 1963, 25 99, 
22 cftf (H.J. Teskey) plus 12 99, 7 cftf reared by H.J. Teskey in 1963, 1964, and 1965; 
Spencer Ck. Cons. Auth., Beverley Swamp, 1 mi. N. of Valens, 30 August 1962, 1 9 (R.M. 
Idema); Moosonee, 1 c? reared by H.J. Teskey in 1961. ILLINOIS: Cedar Lake, 4 August 
1906 "bog", 1 9. WISCONSIN: Kegonsa State Park, 1 1 August 1970 "marsh area, trap- 
COi", 1 9 (Eugene Devenport). 

Paratypes will be deposited in the collections of the British Museum (Natural History), 
California Academy of Sciences, Canadian National Collection, Cornell University, Illinois 
Natural History Survey, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ohio State University, U.S. 
Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin, J.F. Burger and G.B. Fairchild. 

Variations. The series is quite uniform. Length of females ranges from 9.25 to 10.5 mm 
with a median and mean of 10.25 mm; the males range from 10 to 1 1.5 tnm with a median of 
10.5 and a mean of 10.75 mm. The ratio of width of frons at base to height varies from 2.9 to 
3.4 with a median and mean of 3. 1 . The ratio of length of basal plate to its greatest width varies 
from 1.2 10 1.4 (median 1.29, mean 1.28) in the females and in the males from 1.18 to 1 .5 
(median 1.31, mean 1 .35). The ratio of the length of the basal plate to the annulate portion of 
the third antennal segment varies from 1.27 to 1 .4 (median 1 .3 3, mean 1 .3 2) in the females and 
in the males from 1.11 to 1.24 (median 1.18, mean 1.17). A few males have the extreme base 
of the hind femur vaguely darkened. In the reared Moosonee male, the hairs on the dorsum and 
pleura of the thorax and on the abdomen are bright yellow and the median dark markings on the 
abdomen are reduced on tergites 3, 4, and 5. 

Atylotus woodiis the only species found in eastern North America that 
has frontal callosities, except for intermedius, which has a linear median 
callus, not rounded as in woodi. The males lack the long recurved hairs on 
the upper occipital margin that are present in all other eastern species, 
including intermedius. 

The affinities of n-ood/lie with the western A ty lotus insuetits and related 
forms although it seems to be well separated geographically from these. A. 
insuetiis and A. tingaureus usually have the hind femur partly or wholly 
darkened, the prescutal lobe often is concolorous with the rest of the 
mesothorax, the venter of the abdomen is extensively darkened and the 
bifurcation of the third longitudinal vein frequently has an appendix. A. 
insuetiis is very variable in abdominal color, varying from all dark to mostly 
yellow; when the abdomen is yellow laterally as in woodi, the median dark 
marking is usually divided into two stripes by a pale line or series of 
triangles; in the few exceptions to this, the middle and hind tibiae were 
partly black, the prescutal lobe dark and the venter had extensive black 
markings. A tylotus utahensis (Rowe and Knowlton), considered by Philip 
(1965) to be a variety of insuetiis, has all yellow legs but the abdominal 
pattern is obsolete and the frontal callosities are usually greatly reduced. 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 







8 



Figs. 5-8. Atylotus males, lateral view of head. 5. intcrmcdius. 6. inxucius. 1. 
8. wootii. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Unlike A. insuetus, which attacks man and animals, A. woodi did not 
attack collectors in the Puslinch area. Both sexes were swept from 
vegetation. The capture of the Wisconsin specimen in a CO 2 -baited trap 
may indicate that it occasionally seeks a blood meal. Its habits may be 
similar to A. ohioensis (Hine), which only occasionally attacks man or 
enters CO 2 -baited traps even in areas where it is known to be fairly 
abundant. 

It is a pleasure to name this species for D. M. Wood, Biosystematics 
Research Institute, Ottawa, who first called my attention to an eastern 
Atylotus with frontal calli./l. woodi is the species reared by H.J. Teskey as 
"Atylotus species C" ( 1969). He describes the immature stages and gives a 
detailed description of the habitat. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank Dr. Teskey for the loan of specimens. I also wish to thank Dr. Teskey and 
Dr. John J.S. Burton, who read the first draft of this paper, and offered valuable suggestions. 
The figures were drawn by Catherine Komar Outlaw. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Macquart, J. 1 847. Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. 2nd supplement. Soc. Roy. 

des Sci. de FAgr. et des Arts, Lille, Mem. 1846: 21-120. 
Osten Sacken, C.R. 1 876. Prodrome of a monograph of the Tabanidae of the United States. 

Part II. The genus Tabanus. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Mem. 2: 421-479. 
Osten Sacken, C.R. 1877. Western Diptera: Descriptions of new genera and species of 

Diptera from the region west of the Mississippi and especially from California. (U.S. Dept. 

Int.) U.S. Geol. and Geog. Survey of the Terr., Bui. 3: 189-354. 
Philip, C.B. 1965. Family Tabanidae. In A catalog of the Diptera of America north of 

Mexico, pp. 319-342 by Alan Stone et al. U.S.D.A.. A.R.S., Washington. 
Teskey, H.J. 1 969. Larvae and pupae of some eastern North American Tabanidae ( Diptera). 

Ent. Soc. Canada Mem. 63: 1-147. 
Walker, F. 1848. List of the specimens of dipterous insects in the collection of the British 

Museum. Vol. 1, pp. 1-299. London. 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February' 1981 



SPECIES COMPOSITION AND SEASONAL 

ABUNDANCE OF CARRION BEETLES IN AN 

OAK-BEECH FOREST IN THE GREAT SWAMP 

NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE (N.J.) 1 

Paul P. Shubeck 2 , N.M. Downie 3 , Rupert L. Wenzel 4 , Stewart B. Peck 5 

ABSTRACT: A total of 6066 beetles was collected on carrion in the Great Swamp National 
Wildlife Refuge from early April to late November, 1 979. Represented were 62 taxa. which 
included 58 species, plus three genera and one subfamily which could not be identified to the 
species level. Over 99% of the individuals belong to seven families: Silphidae. Nitidulidac. 
Staphylinidae. Histeridae, Dermestidae. Scarabaeidae. and Leiodidae. With the exception of 
one scarabaeid, Serica sp.. all individuals in these seven families were identified to the species 
level. Omosita colon was the most abundant species, making up 35.00% of all beetles, and 
Silpha noveboracensisthe second most abundant, accounting for 29. 1 2% of all Coleoptera. A 
species list by rank order for the top 1 1 species indicates that these 1 1 species accounted for 
more than 92% of all beetles collected on carrion during the eight-month long study. 

Species lists of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of the 
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR), Basking Ridge. N.J.. 
have been prepared by the biologists at the refuge and are available at the 
refuge office. With the exception of butterflies, however, nothing has been 
done about insect species lists for the swamp. Our project was initiated by 
the senior author for the purpose of ( 1 ) determining the species composition 
and seasonal abundance of carrion beetles in an oak-beech forest in the 
swamp, and (2) comparing the results with findings in Hutcheson Memorial 
Forest (HMF), a dry mixed-oak forest near East Millstone, N.J., where a 
similar study was conducted in 1975 (Shubeck et al., 1977). 

The most abundant and conspicuous beetles found on carrion are 
Silphidae and they are not difficult to identify. Many of the species from 
other families usually require the assistance of specialists for identification 
and the senior author was very fortunate to have the services of his co- 
authors to assist. Dr. N.M. Downie of Purdue University identified all 
Staphylinidae, Carabidae, and several other difficult taxa. Dr. Rupert L. 



'Received July 25. 1980 
Montclair State College, Upper Montclair. N.J. 07043 

" Purdue University, Lafayette. Indiana: Present Address: 505 Lingle Terrace. Lafayette. 
Indiana 47901. 

4 
Field Museum of Natural History. Chicago. Illinois 

Carleton University. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 716 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Wenzel of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, identified all 
Histeridae, and Dr. Stewart B. Peck of Carleton University, Canada, 
identified all Leiodidae. Several other specialists were helpful in identifying 
or confirming other taxa, and their names are given in the acknowledge- 
ments. 

The primary purpose of this study was to determine all species of 
Coleoptera that were attracted to carrion in a moist oak-beech forest in the 
GSNWR from the first week of April to the last week of November in 1 979. 

Methods 

Our collecting station was located in an oak-beech forest about 1 km 
northeast of refuge headquarters. This forest is situated in the management 
area which is off-limits to visitors. The beetles were trapped in four No. 10 
food cans (3.78 liter), each of which was concealed in a wooden box having 
1 .27 cm wire mesh at the top and a rain cover above that. These traps have 
been described elsewhere (Shubeck, 1976). They were placed on the forest 
floor along a north to south line at intervals of 5 meters. The first and third 
traps were baited with fish (smelt), and the second and fourth traps were 
baited with chicken legs (drumsticks). Carrion bait in each trap consisted of 
three "fresh" fish (about 90 gms total weight) or one "fresh" chicken leg 
(about 90 gms) in a styrofoam cup (.258 1), and three "stale" fish or one 
"stale" chicken leg in a styrofoam cup (.258 1). 

These traps were initially baited with "fresh" carrion on the first 
Saturday of April, 1979 and on the second Saturday (when the first 
collection was made) "fresh" carrion was added to the "stale" carrion. 
Each trap was serviced once each week, throughout the study, at which time 
the oldest carrion (and cup) was replaced with fresh carrion (and cup), and 
all beetles were collected and preserved in jars containing 70% alcohol. At 
all times, therefore, there were two traps baited with fish, each having fish 1 - 
7 days old (fresh) and fish 8-14 days old (stale), and two traps baited with 
chicken legs, each having a leg 1-7 days old and one 8-14 days old. This 
technique (Pirone, 1974) resulted in the presence of fairly uniformly 
"attractive" carrion on a continual basis. 

Results and Discussion 

A total of 6066 beetles was collected in the four carrion-baited traps 
during the months of April through November in 1979 (Table 1). These 
beetles represent 62 taxa, which include 58 species, plus three genera and 
one subfamily which could not be identified to the species level. More than 
99% of the individuals belong to seven families which are designated the 
major families of carrion beetles in the Great Swamp National Wildlife 



Vol. 92. No. 1. January & February 1981 



Refuge. Of the remaining families, two are considered to be minor families 
and six are considered to be accidental families. Individual numbers of 
species are given in Table 2. This table shows also the numbers collected 
during each of the eight months the study was in progress. 

Silphidae: The most important major family of beetles in the carrion 
microsere studied was Silphidae, the carrion beetles (Table 2). The 2423 
individuals accounted for nearly 40% of all the beetles taken. Of the seven 
species in the family, Silpha noveboracensis was the most numerous, 
making up almost 73% of the family and over 29% of the order. This 
species was the second most abundant beetle collected (Table 3 ). It appears 
to be bivoltine in the Great Swamp, with a major peak in early May and a 
second, smaller peak, in early July. The second most abundant silphid, 
Silpha americana, ranked fifth in overall abundance, making up 4.60% of 
all beetles (Table 3). Well over half of these individuals were taken in July 
and a quarter in early August. The third, fourth and fifth most abundant 
silphids were Silpha inaequalis (5. 14%), Nicrophorusorbicollis (5. \6%), 
and Necordes surinamensis (2.52%). These species ranked eighth, ninth. 
and eleventh, respectively, in overall abundance (Table 3). Silpha inaequalis 
was present from the second week of April through the second week of July 
(during the same period that S. noveboracensis was most abundant). The 
former population, however, peaked in April and declined rapidly there- 
after. Silpha inaequalis actually ranked second among all beetles in the 
HMF study where it accounted for virtually 1 1 % of the order. This species 
may be near its northernmost boundary in N.J. since Pirone did not collect 
any of these individuals at Armonk, N.Y. which is about 63 km northeast of 
the Great Swamp. Nicrophonis orbicollis was the only silphid species that 
was present each month of the study and it peaked in August when the three 
Silpha species had declined or disappeared (Table 2). Necwdes surinamen- 
sis also peaked in August. 

Nitidulidae: The second largest family of beetles was Nitidulidae, the 
sap-feeding beetles (Table 2). The 2131 specimens accounted for 35.10% 
of all beetles collected, whereas, in the HMF study they made up but 9.99% 
of the order. Most significant is the fact that Omosita colon actually 
accounted for all but six of the family members. This amounted to 35% of 
all beetles, ranking this species in the number one position for Coleoptera 
(Table 3). In the HMF study O. Colon accounted for almost 10% of all 
beetles with an overall rank of three. It was taken, in Great Swamp, each 
week from the second week in April to the first week in November ( Table 3 ) 
and the species peaked in September when the silphids all but disappeared. 

Four individuals of the species Omosita discoidea were also taken 
(Table 2). This is probably an introduced species which is occasionally 
found on carrion with O. colon (Parsons. 1943). The former was also 
collected in very low numbers in HMF. as was the case with Glischrochilus 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



quadrisignatus (2 specimens in HMF and 1 in GSNWR). Only one 
specimen of Nitidula bipunctata was taken in this study but according to 
Connell (personal communication), both Omositaand Nitidula are the true 
carrion-feeding genera of the family. They apparently feed on the fluids 
exuding from the decomposing carrion. 

Staphylinidae: The third largest family of beetles collected was 
Staphylinidae, the rove beetles, and the staphylinids accounted for just 
under 10% of all individuals. This family, however, did exhibit the greatest 
diversity of species (Table 1 ). It is interesting to note that in the HMF study 
this family comprised over 22% of all beetles and more than 36% of all 
species. It is possible that the very moist soil conditions in the refuge are a 
limiting factor to the ground-loving staphylinids and, as a result, fewer 
species and fewer individuals are present. The three most abundant species 
were Creophilus maxillosus; Aleochara lustrica, and Ontholestes cingulatus 
and together they accounted for 76.65% of the family, but only 7.62% of 
the order (Table 2). These three species, none-the-less, were numerous 
enough to be included in the 1 1 most abundant carrion beetles in the Great 
Swamp and they ranked sixth, seventh, and tenth, respectively (Table 3). 
Creophilus maxillosus was present each month of the study but was most 
abundant in July, August (when it peaked), and September. Aleochara 
lustrica was most abundant from August into October and manifested a 
pronounced peak in September. Ontholestes cingulatus was present from 
May to November but most abundant from July to September. Staphylinids 
are active predators on arthropods that are found in the carrion community 
(Arnett, 1963). 

Histeridae: Histeridae, the clown beetles, made up the fourth largest 
family of beetles collected (the position they also held in HMF). In spite of 
this position, the 398 individuals accounted for less than 7% of all beetles 
taken. Although 6 species were taken, almost 93% of the individuals 
consisted of the species Euspilotus assimilis (which was also the most 
abundant species in HMF). The number of these individuals collected 
ranked the species in the number three position (Table 3). This species 
appeared in May, increased steadily into July, peaked sharply in August, 
then all but disappeared during September and October. Histerid beetles, 
found on carrion are predators on other arthropods present in this 
microhabitat (Arnett, 1963). 

Dermestidae: The fifth major family, Dermestidae, the skin beetles, 
was represented by but one species, Dermestes caninus. The 294 in- 
dividuals accounted for almost 5% of all beetles and in regard to overall 
species abundance D. caninus ranked in fourth place. It was most abundant 
during the last week of April and the first two weeks of May. During the 
latter half of May and through June it was present in moderate numbers. 
Only seven individuals were taken in July, three in August, one in 



Vol. 92. No. 1. January & February 1981 



September, and none thereafter. This well known scavenger usually feeds 
on animal remains and has been used by zoologists to deflesh skeletons for 
study (Borror et a!.. 1975). 

Scarabaeidae: The sixth major family in this study was Scarabaeidae. 
the lamillicorn beetles. Although nine species were included in this family, 
the 90 individuals accounted for less than 1.5% of all beetles (Table 2). 
Trox unistriatus and Onthop/iagus Hecate were the more common species 
collected, together making up more than 76% of all scarabs but little more 
than 1 % of the order. Neither one ranked in the top 1 1 species of the order. 
This family accounted for the second greatest diversity of species, exceeded 
only by the rove beetles. It is a large family of beetles whose many species 
have adapted to a wide variety of niches. TVo.vspp., for example, are found 
on dry carrion while Onlhophagus hecate is a dung feeder and Onlhophagus 
striatiilus is a fungus feeder (Arnett. 1 963 ). Geotmpes splendidus. a large 
and beautiful (metalic bronze) beetle, is normally found beneath dung and 
carrion, Onthophagus orpheus is found on fungi and carrion, and Copris 
spp. are found on and under dung (Dillon and Dillon. 1961 ). Dialytesspp.. 
according to Arnett ( 1963), feed by preference on deer droppings. The only 
scarab species collected that seemed to be completely out of place (on 
carrion or decomposing animal matter) was Serica sp. According to Dr. 
Brett C. Ratcliffe (personal communication), the latter taxon is made up of 
foliage feeders and the three individuals were probably trapped accidentally. 

Leiodidae, Catopinae (= Leptodiridae): The seventh, and last, major 
family of carrion beetles collected during this study was Leiodidae, 
subfamily Catopinae (= Leptodiridae. the small carrion beetles). The total 
number of these individuals taken was only one-fourth of the number of 
leptodirids taken during the HMF study conducted in 1975. As was the 
case in that study, Sciodrepoides fumatus terminans accounted for better 
than half of all the family members collected. The 39 individuals, however, 
accounted for much less than 1% of all beetles and it did not rank in the top 
1 1 species of the order. Cat ops simplex and Prionochaeta opaca together 
made up the bulk of the remaining individuals. The three species mentioned 
thus far were also the three most abundant leptodirids in HMF. The senior 
author has often taken these species at carrion; Peck has taken them on 
human dung (personal communication): and Smith published records ot the 
latter two collected on old store cheese (1910). 

The preceding seven families of carrion beetles have been referred to as 
"major families" for several reasons. ( 1 ) Twenty years of field work by the 
senior author indicated that members of these seven families were 
consistantly associated with carrion. (2) Each of these families, during tlm 
study, contributed a minimum of 1% of all beetles taken. (3) Together, 
these families accounted for 99.05% of all beetles taken. 



1 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Minor Families: Two families have been designated "minor fami- 
lies." The primary reason for assigning this appelation was the fact that the 
total number of individuals in each family amounted to less than 1 .0% but at 
least 0. 1 % of all Coleoptera collected. The secondary reason for the use of 
this category was the realization that, although the number of individuals 
collected may have been quite small, the presence of the given individuals 
might normally be expected on carrion. 

Family Carabidae, the ground beetles, are predaceous as larvae and as 
adults so they very well might be expected to prey upon arthropods found on 
carrion. The 40 individuals taken in this study represented eight species and 
.66% of all Coleoptera (Table 2). Although not really abundant, they were 
much more plentiful when compared with the two carabids taken in HMF. 
According to Arnett (1963), carabids "are found in large quantities under 
stones along streams and in moist areas." The oak-beech woodland, where 
collecting was done, in Great Swamp is much more moist than the mixed- 
oak woodland in HMF. Platynus decentis and Pterostichus tristis together 
accounted for 80% of the 40 carabids taken at Great Swamp. 

Family Cleridae, the checkered beetles, are small to medium in size. 
Most of the species in this family are predaceous on other insects and they 
are usually found under bark and around flowers (Arnett et al., 1980). 
There are three species of Necrobia that have been introduced into the U.S. 
(Arnett, 1963), and they are commonly called "ham beetles" but they do 
not hesitate to feed on carrion "when ham is scarce" (Arnett et al., 1980). 
All six individuals collected in this study were members of the taxon 
Necrobia violacea (Table 2). 

Accidental Families: Of the 6066 specimens collected during this 
eight-month study, 6056 are included in the seven major and two minor 
families that have been presented thus far. The remaining ten specimens 
represent eight different species within six additional families. In view of 
these very small numbers it seems highly likely that most of these ten 
specimens either accidentally flew, or crawled into the traps. For this 
reason, the following families are considered "accidental families" in terms 
of this study. 

Family Mycetophagidae, the hairy fungus beetles, was represented by 
two specimens of Mvcetophagus pluripunctatus and one of Typhaea 
stercorea L. (Table 2). According to Arnett (1963), "These beetles 
probably feed exclusively on fungi." The three individuals were taken 
during the last week of April and the first week of May. 

Family Lathridiidae, the minute brown scavenger beetles, was repre- 
sented by two individuals of one species, Melanophthalma cavicollis 
(Table 2). They were collected in April. Most lathridiids are found in moldy 
and decomposing plant material (Arnett, 1963). 

Family Elateridae, the click beetles, was represented by a specimen of 



Vol. 92. No. 1. January & February 1981 



13 



Hemicrepidius decloratus and one of Ctenicera hieroglyphica (Table 2). 
According to Dillon and Dillon (1961) the adults of the latter are 
predaceous and are found on shrubs and trees. 

Family Hydrophilidae, the water scavenger beetles, was represented by 
one individual of the species Cryptopleurum minutum (Table 2). This 
species is a member of subfamily Sphaeridiinae. whose members are not 
adapted for swimming but are reported as being associated with carrion or 
dung (Connell, personal communication). 

Family Anobiidae, the drug store and death-watch beetles, was 
represented by one individual of the species Lasioderma serricorne(Tab^c 
2). This species is commonly called the cigarette beetle and it usually 
breeds in stored products such as tobacco and spices (Arnett. 1963). 

Family Cryptophagidae, the silken fungus beetles, was represented by 
one specimen of Anichicera sp. (Table 2). Most members of this family 
"feed on mold, fleshy fungi, decayed leaves and similar materials" (Arnett. 
1963). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The senior author would like to thank Mr. John L. Fillio, Refuge Manager of the GSN WR. 
for permission to work in the Swamp. Mr. Theodore W. Gutzke, Assistant Refuge Manager, 
provided encouragement, and general information when called on for assistance. Montclair 
State College provided a substantial contribution for publication charges and the Alumni 
Association of Montclair State College provided a small grant to partially defray the cost of 
supplies for the project. We are indebted to the following specialists for assistance in 
identifying and/or confirming the taxa mentioned: Dr. Walter A. Connell of the University of 
Delaware - Nitidulidae: Dr. Terry L. Erwin of the Smithsonian Institution - Carabidae: and 
Dr. Brett C. Ratcliffe of the University of Nebraska - Scarabaeidae. 



Table 1. List of families of Coleoptera collected, showing for each the number of 
individuals trapped and the percentage of the order this represents, also the number of species 
and the percentage of all Coleoptera species this represents. 



Family 

Silphidae 
Nitidulidae 
Staphylinidac 
Histeridae 
Dermestidae 
Scarabaeidae 
Leiodidae 
Carabidae 
Cleridae 
Mycetophagidae 
Lathridiidae 
Elateridae 
Hydrophilidae 
Anobiidae 
Cryptophagidae 
Totals 



Individuals 

Number 

2423 

2131 

605 

398 

294 

90 

69 

40 

6 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

6066 



Percent of 
all beetles 

39.92 

35.10 

9.98 

6.57 

4.85 

1.49 

1.14 

.66 

.10 

.05 

.04 

.04 

.02 

.02 

.02 

100.00 



Species 

Number 

7 

4 
14 

6 

1 

9 

4 

8 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

I 

I 
62 



Percent of 
all beetles 

1 1.26 
6.43 

22.56 
9.68 
1.62 

14.52 
6.46 

12.91 
1.62 
3.23 
1.62 
3.23 
1.62 
1.62 
1.62 

100.00 



14 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Table 2. List of all species (or nearest taxon) trapped on carrion in GSNWR during 1979. 
Total number of each captured with percentage this is of family and of all beetles is also given. 



Percent ot Percent of 
APRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVTotal Family Order 



SILPHIDAE 

Silplia noveboracensis Forst. 
S. americana L. 
S. inaequalis Fab. 
Nicrophorus orbicollis Say 
Necrodcs surinamensis Fab. 
Nicrophorus pustulatus Hersch. 
Nicrophorus tomentosus Web. 



NITIDULIDAE 

Omosila colon (L.) 
O. discoidea (Fab.) 
Glischrochilus quadrisignatus 

(Say) 
Nilidula bipunctata (L.) 



STAPHYLINIDAE 

Creophilus maxillosus (L.) 
Aleochara lustrica Say 
Ontholestes cingulatus (Grav.) 
Aleochara spp. 
Aleochara lata Grav. 
Philonthus politus (L.) 
Aleocharinae 
Omalium rivulare (Payk.) 
Stuphyliiuis viridunus Horn 
Philonlhus lomatus Er. 
P. cyanipcnnis (Fab.) 
Quedius capucinus (Grav.) 
P. cruentatus Grav. 
Carpelimus sp. 



HISTERIDAE 

Euspilotus assimilis (Payk.) 
Mister depurator Say 
Margarinotus hudsonicus Csy. 
M. cadaverinus (Hoffm.) 
H. abbrcvialus Fab. 
E. conform is (LeC.) 



404 


714 


254 


373 


22 





1 1768 


72.95 


29.12 


3 


21 


15 


166 


71 2 


2 


280 


11.56 


4.60 


71 


39 


26 


3 








139 


5.74 


2.30 


1 


20 


3 


18 


59 18 


4 


2 125 


5.16 


2.06 








7 


9 


43 2 





61 


2.52 


1.01 





2 


15 


3 


5 1 





26 


1.08 


.43 








1 


5 


11 3 


4 


24 


.99 


.40 














2423 


100.00 


39.92 


108 


294 


281 


170 


384 763 


123 


2 2125 


99.71 


35.00 


2 





2 











4 


.19 


.06 


1 

















1 


.05 


.02 





1 














1 


.05 


.02 














2131 


100.00 


35.10 


5 


5 


19 


36 


74 32 


6 


1 178 


29.40 


2.92 





3 


7 





21 127 


8 


166 


27.41 


2.72 





6 


12 


23 


34 30 


11 


4 120 


19.84 


1.98 


4 


11 


2 


4 


23 10 





54 


8.93 


.89 


10 


8 





2 


3 1 


4 


28 


4.63 


.47 


1 











14 5 


4 


24 


3.97 


.40 


4 


6 


1 


2 


1 2 


2 


2 20 


3.31 


.33 





1 











1 


2 4 


.67 


.07 








1 


1 


1 

1 





3 


.50 


.05 


2 

















1 3 


.50 


.05 

















2 


2 


.33 


.04 

















1 


1 


.17 


.02 











1 








1 


.17 


.02 





1 














1 


.17 


.02 














605 


100.00 


9.98 




22 


44 


83 


214 3 


3 


369 


92.69 


6.07 














3 17 


1 


21 


5.27 


.35 


1 


1 


2 


1 








5 


1.26 


.09 








1 











1 


.26 


.02 





1 














1 


.26 


.02 














1 





1 


.26 


.02 














398 


100.00 


6.57 



DERMESTIDAE 

Dertnestes caninus Germ. 



68 154 61 



1 294 100.00 



4.85 



Vol. 92, No. 1. January & February 19X1 



15 



Percent of Percent of 
APRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVTotal Family Order 



SCARABAEIDAE 

Trox unislriatus Beauv. 
Onthophagus hecale Panz. 
Geotrupes splendid us miampha- 

gus Say 

Dialytes striatulus (Say) 
S erica sp. 

Trox hamatus Robinson 
O. orpheus canadensis (Fab.) 
Copris minutis (Drury) 
O. striatulus striatulus (Beauv.) 



LEIODIDAE 

Sciodrepoides fumatus termi- 

nans LeC. 
Catops simplex Say 
Prionochaeta opaca (Say) 
Dissochaetus oblitits Lee. 



CARABIDAE 

Platynus decentis (Say) 
Pterostichus t rist is DeJ. 
Pinacndera platicollis (Say) 
Pinacodera timbata Dej. 
Pterostichus pensylvanicus LeC. 
Pterostichus inutus (Say) 
Chlaenius impunctifrons Say 
Platynus cincticolle Say 





36 30 8 





47 


52.20 


1 


64114 


4 1 


22 


24.43 




1 121 


2 


7 


7.78 




2 2 





4 


4.45 




3 





3 


3.33 




1 1 





2 


2.23 




2 





2 


2.23 




1 


1 


2 


2.23 







1 


1 


1.12 








90 


100.00 


16 


81126 


5 - 


39 


56.51 


9 


1 1 


1 1 


19 


27.54 


4 


1 1 1 


2 


9 


13.05 




1 


1 


2 


2.90 








69 


100.00 




1 1 


14 1 


17 


42.50 




1 1 2 


1 1 


15 


37.50 







2 


2 


5.00 







2 


2 


5.00 




j 





1 


2.50 







1 


1 


2.50 




1 





1 


2.50 







1 


1 


2.50 








40 


100.00 



.75 
.36 

.12 
.07 
.05 
.04 
.04 
.04 
.02 
1.49 



.63 

.32 

.15 

.04 

1.14 



.26 

.24 
.04 
.04 
.02 
.02 
.02 
.02 
.66 



CLERIDAE 

Necrobia violacea (L. ) 

MYCETOPHAGIDAE 

Mycetophagus pluripunctatus 

Lee. 
Typhaea stercorea L. 

LATHRIDIIDAE 

Melanophthalma cavicollis 
Mann. 

ELATE RIDAE 

Hemicrepidius decloratus (Say) 
Cten icera h ierog l\ -p h ica (Say) 



3 6 100.00 .10 



1 1 2 

1 1 



2 ----- - 2 



1 1 

1 1 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Percent of Percent of 
APRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVTotal Family Order 

HYDROPHILIDAE 

Cryptopleurum minntiim (Fab.) 1 1 

ANOBIIDAE 

Lasioderma serricorne (F^b.) 1 1 

CRYPTOPHAGIDAE 

Anchicera sp. 

Table 3. The 1 1 most abundant beetles trapped on carrion in the Great Swamp National 
Wildlife Refuge during 1 979, together with the percentage of Coleoptera each represents, and 
the family of each. Only those species that contributed a minimum of 1% of all beetles are 
included. These 1 1 species actually accounted for 92.63% of all individuals collected. 

Percent of 
Species Coleoptera Family 

Omositu colon 35.00 Nitidulidae 

Silpha noveboracensis 29.12 Silphidae 

Euspilottis ussimilis 6.07 Histeridae 

Dermesies caninus 4.85 Dermestidae 

Silpha americana 4.60 Silphidae 

Cri'opliilus maxillosiis 2.92 Staphylinidae 

Aleochara lustrica 2.72 Staphylinidae 

Silpha inacqualis 2.30 Silphidae 

Nicrophoms orbicollis 2.06 Silphidae 

Ontholestes cingitlatus 1.98 Staphylinidae 

Necrodes surinamensis 1.01 Silphidae 

LITERATURE CITED 

Arnett, R.H., Jr. 1 963. The beetles of the United States. The Catholic University of America 

Press. Washington. D.C. 1112 pp. 
Arnett, R.H., Jr., N.M. Downie, and H.E. Jaques. 1980. How to know the beetles. 2nd 

edition. Wm. C. Brown Co., Publishers. Dubuque, Iowa. 416 pp. 
Borror D.J., D.M. DeLong, and C.A. Triplehorn. 1976. An introduction to the study of 

insects, 4th edition. Holt. Rinehart & Winston. New York. N.Y. 852 pp. 
Dillon, E.S., and L.S. Dillon. 1961. A manual of common beetles of Eastern North 

America. Row, Peterson, and Co. Evanston, Illinois. 884 pp. 
Parsons, C.T. 1 943. A revision of Neartic Nitidulidae (Coleoptera). Bulletin of the Museum 

of Comparative Zoology 92, No. 3: 121-278. 
Pirone, D. 1974. Ecology of necrophilous and carpophilous Coleoptera in a southern New 

York woodland (phenology, aspection. trophic and habitat preferences). Ph.D. Thesis, 

Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 769 pp. 
Shubeck, P.P. 1976. An alternative to pitfall traps in carrion beetle studies (Coleoptera). Ent. 

News 87: 176-178. 
Shubeck, P.P., N.M. Downie, R.L Wenzel, and S.B. Peck. 1977. Species composition of 

carrion beetles in a Mixed-Oak forest. The William L. Hutcheson Memorial Forest 

Bulletin 4(1): 12-17. 
Smith, J.B. 1910. The insects of New Jersey. New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J. 888 

PP- 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 17 

NEW SPECIES OF RHOGOSANA AND PONANA, 

(HOMOPTERA:CICADELLIDAE) FROM 

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 1 

Dwight M. DcLong" 

ABSTRACT: Two new species of Rhogosana, R. fasten 'n.sp. (Bolivia) and R. amazona 
n.sp. (Brazil), and three new species of Ponana, P. bailout, n.sp. (Venezuela). P. ornaiella 
n.sp. (Brazil) and P. areya n.sp. (Mexico) are described. 

The genus Rhogosana was described by Osborn (1938). DeLong and 
Freytag treated the genus (1971). Three species have since been described 
by DeLong (1975). The genus Ponana was described by Ball (1920). 
DeLong and Freytag reviewed the genus ( 1967). New species have been 
added since by DeLong and Martinson (1973) and DeLong and Kolbe 
(1974). Two closely rehted species of Rhogosana and three species of 
Ponana are described in this paper. All type specimens are in the DeLong 
Collection, the Ohio State University. 



Rhogosana fosteri n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-6) 

Length of male 1 3 mm, female unknown. Crown broad, thin, short, more than twice as wide 
between eyes, at base, as length at middle .Color, crown pale brownish with a few darker areas, 
especially along margin. Pronotum with median third, anterior to caudal margin darker 
brownish, widened caudally to width of scutellum. Laterial third, each side, yellowish. 
Scutellum mostly dark brown with a little yellow coloring in basal angles and along anterior 
margin. Forewings dull yellowish with small irregular dark brown markings mostly between 
veins. Veins mostly pale brownish. 

Male genital plates almost four times as long as wide at middle, apices narrowed caudally 
and rounded. Style long and narrow, curved dorsally at apex which is slightly enlarged, blunt, 
bearing spines on ventral margin near apex. Aedeagal shaft bearing two apical processes 
which are slightly more than half length of shaft and extend basad. Paraphyses extending two- 
thirds distance to apex of shaft. Pygofer with a produced, rounded protrusion near dorsal 
margin. 

Holotype male, Sta, Cruz Exper. Sta. Saavedra. Bolivia 2-IV-1979 at trap light. D 
Foster, V. Gonzales. I. Caballero colls. 



'Received September 24, 1980 

^ 

''Department of Entomology, the Ohio State University 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 17-22 



1 8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



I take pleasure in naming this species for Dr. Donald R. Foster. 

R.fosteriis related to R. aldeia DeL. and can be separated by the much 
shorter aedeagal apical processes, which extend laterally, and the more 
produced apex of the aedeagal shaft. 

Rhogosana amazona n. sp. 

(Figs. 7-11) 

Length of male 12.5 mm., female 13 mm. Crown broadly rounded, more than twice as 
broad at base, between eyes, as median length. Color, crown yellow with three broad, 
longitudinal black stripes, one at middle and one each side between ocellus and eye. Pronotum 
yellow with a broad longitudinal brown stripe on median third. Scutellum yellow with brown 
basal angles and a medial brown longitudinal stripe. Forewings dull yellowish, claval and 
apical portions with brown areas. 

Female seventh sternum roundly, concavely excavated one-third distance to base each 
side of a broad, median lobe, half the width of segment. 

Male genital plates four times as long as width at middle, apex rounded. Style with apical 
third of blade narrowed, apex curved dorsally, slightly enlarged. Aedeagal shaft bearing a pair 
of short apical processes, one-fourth length of shaft, which extend basally. A pair of short 
slender paraphy ses extend to two-thirds length of shaft. Py gofer with a basal process extending 
caudally. 

Holotype male Igarape, Acu. Faz B. Susesso, Brazil, Sept. 12. 1964. Apol. Sousa. 
Paratype female Belem. MPEC. Brazil. July 16. 1973; 1 female Ammanaus Res. Ducke, 
Brazil, W.L. Overal coll. 

R. amazona is related to R. aldeia DeL. and can be separated by the 
blunter apices of the style and by the broader basal portion of the 
paraphyses. 

Ponana bailout n. sp. 

(Figs. 12-15) 

Length of male 7.5 mm., female 8.5 mm. Crown broadly rounded more than half as long at 
middle as wide at base between eyes. Ocelli equidistant between eyes and median line. Color, 
dull yellow tinged with brown. Crown with 4 black spots, onejust in front of each ocellus near 
apex and one behind each ocellus near base. Pronotum with numerous reddish brown flecks on 
disc. Scutellum with anterior portion a little darker brownish than apical half. Forewings dull 
yellowish with a pair of small dark brown spots on terminus of first pair of claval veins at 
commissure and a pair of larger spots at apex of second pair of claval veins. Numerous dark 
brown spots along costa, longer spots at apex of apical veins, cross veins of first anteapical cell 
and fourth apical cell. Numerous irregular small brown spots scattered over wing. 

Female with posterior margin of seventh sternum broadly angularly excavated ' ' distance 
to base with a slight notch at middle. 



Vol. 92. No. 1. Januarv & February 1981 




Figs. 1-6 Rhogosanafosterin. sp. 1. aedeagus ventrally. 2. aedeagus laterally. 3. pygofer 
laterally, apical portion, 4. style laterally, 5. style laterally, apical portion enlarged. 6. plate 
ventrally. Figs. 7-11 R. umazonu n. sp. 7. aedeagus ventrally, 8. aedeagus laterally, 9. pygoter 
laterally, apical portion, 10. style laterally, 1 1. plate ventrally. 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Male genital plates narrow, broadened dorsoventrally at -i their length then narrowed to 
form slender apices which curve dorsally. Aedeagal shaft slender, bearing a pair of subapical 
processes which extend apically along each side of apex and curve slightly inwardly and 
apically. Paraphyses slender, arising near base and extending to apex of shaft. Apical fifth 
enlarged bearing a pointed tooth at base of enlarged portion, which is concavely rounded on 
inner margin and is curved inwardly and pointed apically. 

Holotype male. Caracas Venezuela XIM-'39 C.H. Ballou coll.. from Avacado flowers. 



P. bailout is related to P. panaDeL. and Frey., and can be separated by 
the 4 black spots on the crown and by the more prominent apical processes 
at the apex of the aedeagal shaft. 

Ponana ornatella n. sp. 

(Figs. 16-17) 

Length of female 7 mm., male unknown. Crown broadly rounded, two-thirds as long at 
middle as width at base between eyes. Ocelli as close to eyes as to median line and on anterior 
portion of crown. Color, crown yellow tinged with brown, with a large round black spot behind 
each ocellus, near base. Pronotum without spots, with pale brownish areas along anterior 
margin and behind eyes. Scutellum dull yellowish with dark brown basal angles. Forewings 
with a pale yellowish margin, bordered by dark brown spots and lines, on anterior margin along 
scutellum and for a short distance along commissure. A series of dark brown short lines, 
mostly portions of black veins, form a diagonal, broken line, extending from apex of claval 
suture to median portion of costa. The portion of the wing cephalad to this line is dull yellow 
opaque, the caudal portion of the forewing is pale yellow subhyaline. Veins and cross veins of 
apical cells, dark brown. 

Female seventh sternum with posterior margin slightly roundly produced, almost truncate. 
Holotype female, Serra Lombard. Limoa, Brazil VIII-24- 1 961 , J. & B. Bechync colls. 

The color pattern of this species is distinct and will separate it from all 
described species in Ponana. 

Ponana areya n. sp. 

(Figs. 18-20) 

Length of male 7 mm., female 8 mm. Crown 3/5 as long at middle as basal width between 
eyes. Ocelli closer to anterior than to posterior margin and equidistant between eyes and 
median line. Color, pale grayish yellow, pronotum with four round black spots near posterior 
margin. One behind each ocellus and one posterior to each eye. A black spot on base of each 
forewing at humeral angle of pronotum. 

Female seventh sternum with posterior margin shallowly concavely rounded each side of 
slightly produced median third, which is slightly notched at middle. 



Vol. 92. No. 1, January- & February- 1981 




Figs. 12-15 Ponana halloui n. sp. 12. head and pronotum dorsally. 13. aedeagus ven- 
trally. 14. aedeagus laterally. 15. style laterally. Figs. 16 I 7 P ornatella n. sp. 16. fore- 
wing. 17. head and pronotum dorsally. Figs. 18-22 P. a rev a n. sp. 18. aedeagus ventrally. 
19. aedeagus laterally. 20. style laterally. 21. plate ventrally. 22. pygofer laterally, apical 
portion. 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Male genital plates almost four times as long as width at middle, apex narrowed, bluntly 
pointed. Style broadened on median portion, apical fifth narrowed and bent laterally. 
Aedeagus with shaft broadly U-shaped, notched at apex. Paraphyses broad, blunt at apex, 
extending to apex of shaft. Pygofer narrowed at apex and rounded. 

Holotype male. 2 mi. E. Le Huerta. Baja Calif.. Mexico. Sur. X-9-68. at black light. E.L. 
Sleeper and F.J. Moore coll. Paratypes: 1 male. 2 females same data as holotype.; 1 1 males 
and 1 female, 2 ml. N.W. El Triunfo, 1900 ft. el., Baha Calif.. Mex. X-10-68: 1 male and 1 
female same except 7.5 mi. W. 1 600 ft. el. X-l 1-68; 1 male& 1 female LaBurrera. 1800 ft. el. 
X- 1 8-68: 1 female 2.5 mi. S.E. Valle Perido. 2000ft. el.. X- 1 5- 1 968; 5 females & 2 males mi. 
E. Casas Viejas, 800 ft., X-27-68: 2 males & 1 female 7 mi. W. of Santiago 1 600 ft. el. X-30- 
68. All paratypes were collected in Baja California. Mexico. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ball, E.D., 1920. A review of the species of the genus Gypona occurring in North America 

north of Mexico, (Homoptera). 
DeLong, D.M., 1 975. The genus Rhogosana (Homoptera:Cicadellidae ) with descriptions of 

three new species. Ohio Jour. Sci. 75(3): 126-129. 
, 1977. Five new species and two new subgenera of Ponana (Homo- 

ptera:Cicadellidae) from South America. Brenesia 10/11: 65-68. 

., and P.H. Freytag, 1967. Studies of the world Gyponinae (Homo- 



ptera:Cicadellidae) A synopsis of the genus Ponana. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 1:(7) 1-36. 
_, 1971. Studies of the Gyponinae: Rhogosana and four new genera. 



Clinonella, Tubcrana, Flexana and Declivara. Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 44:313-324. 
., and A.B. Kolbe, 1974. A colorful new species of Ponana. (Homoptera: 



Cicadellidae) from Mexico. Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 47: 377-379. 

_, and C. Martinson, 1973. Six new species of Ponana (Homoptera: 



Cicadellidae) from Central and South America. Ohio Jour. Sci. 73: 176-180. 
Osborn, H., 1 938. Art. II Neotropical Homoptera of the Carnegie Museum Part 7. Report on 
the species of the subfamily Gyponinae. Carnegie Mus. Ann. 27: 1 1-62. Pis. 1-5. 



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Vol. 92, No. 1. January & February 1981 

NOTES ON THE YELLOWJACKET PARASITE 
BAREOGONALIS CANADENSIS (HYMENOPTERA: 

TRIGONALIDAE) 12 

David Carmean, Roger D. Akre, Richard S. Zack, Hal C. Reed 3 

ABSTRACT: Bareogonalis canadensis (Harrington) is recorded for the first time from 
colonies of Vespula \-ulgaris(L.) and V. acadica (Sladen). Emerging parasites are chased or 
forcibly removed from the nest by workers, but are apparently unharmed. Trigonalids reared in 
reproductive cells are larger and have one more antennal segment than those reared in worker 
cells. 

The family Trigonalidae is represented by 4 species in America north of 
Mexico (Carlson, 1 979). All are parasitic. In most cases eggs are laid along 
the periphery of the undersides of leaves where they are ingested by a foliage 
feeding intermediate host, usually a larval lepidopteran. Although the eggs 
hatch inside these caterpillars, the first instars do not develop until the 
intermediate host is further parasitized by another hymenopteran or 
dipteran, or predated upon by a social hymenopteran. In the latter case, 
trigonalid development begins when the caterpillar is fed to the wasp larvae 
by workers. Further information on the biology of this group is available in 
Clausen (1929, 1931, 1940), Cooper (1954), Malyshev (1968), and 
Carlson (1979). 

Bareogonalis canadensis (Harrington) was recorded by Harrington 
(1896) as parasitizing the social vespid Vespa occidentalis Cresson 
[ = Vespula pensylranica(Saussure)] in southwestern British Columbia. In 
all probability, though, because of the aerial location of the nest from which 
B. canadensis was collected, and the presence of a second smaller species 
of parasitic hymenopteran [probably Sphecophaga vesparum burra (Cresson) 
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)] we believe that Harrington actually 
collected B. canadensisfromanesto{Dolichorespulaarenaria(Fab.).\.he 
aerial yellowjacket. S. vesparum burra is the only common yellowjacket 
parasite in the Pacific Northwest and is occasionally found in the nests of D. 
arenaria (MacDonald et al.. 1975; Greene et al., 1976). It is rare in 



'Received September 11. 1980. 

Scientific paper number 5737, Washington State University. College of Agriculture 
Research Center. Department of Entomology, Pullman 99164. Work conducted under 
projects 4037 and 0037. Financed in part by National Science Foundation Grant BNS 76- 
8 1 400. 

3 Undergraduate research assistant. Entomologist. Museum Curator, and Research Assistant, 
respectively. Department of Entomology. Washington State University. Pullman. WA 
99164. 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 23-26 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



colonies of the subterranean nesting V. pensylvanica. B. canadensis has 
also been collected from northwestern California by Stage and Slobodchikoff 
(1962) from a D. arenaria nest and from 2 colonies of Vespula pensylvanica 
from Gabriola Island, British Columbia (Taylor, 1 898). 

Collections 

From 1974-1980, 170 colonies of D. arenaria, 197 of V. pensylvanica, 
43 of Vespula vulgaris (L.) and 10 of Vespula acadica (Sladen) were 
collected from various locations in Idaho and Washington without en- 
countering this parasite. However, on 3 August 1979, colonies of V. 
vulgaris and V. acadica with nests containing the parasite were collected 
from an east-facing slope of a grand fir [A biesgrandis (Douglas) Lindl.] and 
western red cedar ( Thuja plicta Donn) forest in Latah County, Idaho. Both 
colonies were located in the same decayed log with nest entrances 92 cm 
apart. The V. acadica combs were brought into the laboratory and placed 
into containers to collect emerging individuals. The V. vulgaris nest was 
placed into an observation box and screenhouse as described in Akre et al. 
(1973). 

From the V. acadica nest 3 pupae of B. canadensis were obtained: 2 
males and one pupa unidentifiable as to sex. Specimens of B. canadensis 
were first collected from the combs of V. vulgaris on 8 August. As of 21 
August, 4 male and 1 female specimens had emerged. Final examination of 
the combs shortly thereafter revealed 8 additional trigonalid pupae (6 males 
and 2 females) and one prepupa. 

On 1 3 September, a second V. vulgaris colony was collected from a log 
within 3 m of where the other parasitized colonies had been collected. 
Again, combs from the nest were placed into a container to collect emerging 
wasps. Seventeen male and 24 female B. canadensis were obtained from 
this nest. In all 3 cases, the colonies were also parasitized by the 
ichneumonid Sphecophaga vesparum hurra. 

Behavioral Interactions 

Mature trigonalid larvae constructed thick (.4 mm) white styrofoam- 
like pupal caps just underneath the thin (.08 mm) pupal caps of V. vulgaris. 
Emerging trigonalids cut round holes approximately half the diameter of 
these caps. Normally, the cap remnants of V. vulgaris are removed by the 
workers immediately after emergence. New eggs are laid in these cells by 
the queen in 20 minutes or less. However, cells from which B. canadensis 
emerged had no significant cap remnants removed by workers until 5-6 days 
later, when with just the edge of the caps remaining, the queen again laid 
eggs into the cells. 



Vol. 92, No. 1. January & February 1981 25 



Observations showed that although newly emerged B. canadensis 
adults were either chased out or forcibly removed by workers from the 
vulgan's colony, they usually escaped unharmed. In one case, a B. 
canadensis chewed out of its pupal cell but was relatively unnoticed by a 
worker which was inspecting adjacent cells. Once out of the cell the parasite 
was antennated by a worker and then ignored. Eventually the parasite was 
attacked by a worker which flipped it over using her mandibles and then left 
it. Within the next few minutes workers attacked the parasite twice in a 
similar fashion. Approximately 12 minutes after emergence, the parasite 
was carried outside the nest by a worker. Workers were never seen 
attempting to sting the newly emerged B. canadensis. This behavioral 
sequence contrasts with that observed with the parasite S. v. hurra. 
Workers immediately killed and ate the parasites as they emerged from the 
cells in the same K vulgan's nest. 

Our results agree with Yamane and Yamane ( 1 975 ) that body size was 
dependent on the type of cell from which the parasite emerged. Those from 
reproductive cells were larger than individuals from worker cells. In- 
dividuals developed in reproductive cells were 10.4-1 1 .4 mm long with an 
intertegula distance of 3.0 to 3.4 mm while those from worker cells were 8.5 
to 9.5 mm long with an intertegula distance of 2.4 to 2.6 mm. In addition, 
specimens reared from the small worker cells had 18 antennal segments 
(with the exception of one which had 1 8 segments on the left side and 1 9 on 
the right side ). while those reared from the larger reproductive cells had 1 9 
segments. 

Discussion 

The rearing of B. canadensis from 2 species of Vespula combined with 
reports of its occurring in V. pensylvanica(and possible D. arenan'a) nests 
shows that this parasite is not host specific. Although a number of 
yellowjacket species are parasitized. B. canadensis is also not very 
successful as determined by abundance. Sixteen yellowjacket colonies 
were collected within a 10 mile radius of the infested colonies, but no 
parasitism was found except in this limited area. This is probably due. at 
least in part, to the complex life cycle of the parasite, and to its observed 
performance as a relatively poor flyer. The ability of B. canadensis adults 
to disperse after emergence from a vespine nest is probably quite limited. 

Since adult trigonalids emerge late in the year (August-September), it is 
likely that inseminated females overwinter and deposit their eggs on foliage 
the following spring. If so. the seasonal cycle of the parasite probably 
coincides with that of the yellowjacket hosts which initiate colonies in the 
late spring (April-June). 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank E.C. Klostermcyer. K. RatTa and L. Corpus for critically reading the 
manuscript. Steve Woods made many technical assistances during this study. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Akre, R.D., W.B. Hill and J.F. MacDonald. 1973. Artificial housing for yellowjacket 

colonies. J. Econ. Ent. 66:803-05. 
Carlson, R.W. 1979. Superfamily Trigonaloidea family Trigonalidae. pp. 1197-8. //; 

Krombein, K.V.. P.D. Hurd. Jr.. D.R. Smith, and B.D. Bucks (eds.). Catalog of 

Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Vol. I-III. Smithsonian. Washington, D.C. 

2735 pp. 
Clausen, C.P. 1929. Literature on the biology of the Trigonalidae. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 

31:77-79. 
Clausen, C.P. 1931. Biological notes on the Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 33:72-81. 

Clausen, C.P. 1940. Entomophagous insects. McGraw-Hill, New York. 688 pp. 
Cooper, K.W. 1954. Biology of the eumenine wasps, IV. A trigonalid wasp parasitic on 

Rygchium ntgosum (Saussure). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 56:280-88. 
Greene, A., R.D. Akre, and P. Landolt. 1976. The aerial yellowjacket, Dolichorespula 

arenaria (Fab.): Nesting biology, reproductive production, and behavior (Hymenoptera: 

Vespidae). Melanderia 26:1-34. 

Harrington, W.H. 1896. A Canadian Trigonalys. Can. Ent. 28:108. 
MacDonald, J.F. , R.D. Akre, and W.B. Hill. 1975. Nest associates of Vespula atropilosa 

and V. pensylvanica in southeastern Washington State (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). J. 

Kansas Ent.' Soc. 48:53-63. 
Malyshev, S.I. 1968. Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the phases of their evolution. 

Methuen, London. 319 pp. 
Stage, G.I. and C.N. Slobodchikoff. 1962. New distribution and host record of Bareogonalis 

canadensis (Harrington) (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae and Vespidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. 

38:97-98. 
Taylor, G.W. 1898. Note on Trigonalys canadensis, Hargtn. Can. Ent. 30:14-15. with 

addendum by W.H. Harrington, pp. 15-16. 
Yamane, Sk. and S. Yamane. 1975. A new trigonalid parasite (Hymenoptera. Trigonalidae) 

obtained from Vespula nests in Taiwan. Kontyu, Tokyo 43:456-62. 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 27 

A POLYGYNOUS COLONY OF VESPULA 
PENSYLVANICA (SAUSSURE) (HYMENOPTERA: 

VESPIDAE) 12 

Roger D. Akre, Hal C. Reed 3 

ABSTRACT: In 1979 a colony of Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) with three functional 
queens was collected at Prosser, Washington. This is the first polygynous colony of 
yellowjackets recorded from a cool temperate area. 

All yellowjacket colonies are initiated by a single inseminated queen, 
the only member of the colony to survive the winter. During the first warm 
days of spring (April June) the queens emerge from hibernation 
(reproductive diapause) and search for nest sites. Once the site has been 
selected, the queen initiates the construction of a small nest of up to 45 cells 
in which she lays her eggs. At this time, the queen forages for construction 
materials and for arthropod prey to feed the larvae. However, once the first 
five to seven workers emerge, they assume all the duties of the colony, and 
the queen rarely leaves the nest again. Her primary responsibility from this 
point onward is the laying of eggs. The nest is constantly expanded and 
successive broods of workers are reared. Later in the season (August - 
September) the workers build larger reproductive cells in which both males 
and queens are produced. The colony enters a declining phase shortly 
thereafter, when workers pull larvae from the comb and feed them to other 
larvae or discard them. After emergence the new queens and males leave 
the nest and mate. The males eventually die while the inseminated queens 
hibernate. The next spring the cycle is repeated. Thus, typical yellowjacket 
colonies are monogynous and annual . Attempts by other queens to enter the 
nest usually result in fierce fighting between the intruder and the resident 
queen and/or the workers (Matthews and Matthews 1979). 

However, there are reports of atypical, perennial colonies of yellow- 
jackets containing numerous queens. While vespines (hornets and yellow- 
jackets) are essentially north temperate in distribution, two species, 
Vespu la germanica( Fab.) (Edwards 1976) and V. rulgan's(L.) (Spradbery 
1973a, Richards 1978) have been introduced into south temperate regions. 



'Received May 15. 1980. 

"Scientific paper number 5641, Washington State University, College of Agriculture 
Research Center, Pullman 99164. Work conducted under projects 4037 and 0037. Financed 
in part by National Science Foundation Grant BNS 76-81400. 

" Entomologist and Research Assistant, respectively. Department of Entomology, Washington 
State University. Pullman, WA 99164. 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 27-31 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Wherever V. gennanica occurs, colonies seem to have a propensity for 
becoming perennial in the warmer temperate or subtropical regions. For 
example, perennial colonies of this species occur in New Zealand (Thomas 
1960), Tasmania (Spradbery 1973b), Algeria and Morocco (Viullaume el 
al. 1969) and Chile (Jeanne 1980). Perennial colonies are usually large, 
and one nest was estimated to weigh 1,000 pounds (Spradbery 1973a). 
There are also reports of several other species of yellowjackets (primarily in 
the V. vulgaris (L.) species group) establishing perennial colonies in the 
warmer areas of their temperate distribution. Huge perennial colonies of V. 
squamosa (Drury) have been recorded from Florida (Tissot and Robinson 
1 954, Akre el al. 1981), and a single perennial colony of V. vulgaris, having 
21 comb levels and 22 functional queens, was discovered in California 
(Duncan 1939). A perennial colony of V. pensylvanica (Saussure) has 
been reported from Hawaii (Nakahara 1980) and in addition, there is a 
report of a possible perennial colony of V. pensylvanica in Vancouver, 
British Columbia (Spencer 1960). However, no perennial colonies have 
been reported in those species which have relatively small colonies 
(Dolichovespula spp.) and nests with only one worker comb ( V. ruj'a (L.) 
species group). 

Since 1971 more than 450 colonies of Vespula species have been 
collected from northern Idaho and Washington. Slightly more than half 
these colonies were V. pensylvanica and 10% were V. vulgaris. With one 
exception, these colonies contained only one functional queen. However, a 
large colony of V. pensylvanica with multiple queens was collected 23 
October 1979 and is the basis of this report. 

Collection Data 

The colony was located in Benton County, Washington 4 miles NE of 
Prosser. On 22 October when the colony was discovered, workers were still 
actively foraging. The colony was killed with carbon disulfide after dark. 
The nest and its contents were excavated the next day and immediately 
frozen for later analysis. 

The subterranean nest was located on a south facing slope protected 
from winds by a large bank. This area is favored as an overwintering site for 
honey bee colonies since it is one of the lowest (590 ft. elevation) areas in 
the vicinity and is situated so the area is basked in sunlight early in the 
spring. 

The bank where the nest was located is extremely rocky, and the nest 
was irregularly constructed in spaces where the yellowjackets had been able 
to excavate soil from among the rocks. Although external dimensions do not 
give a reliable indication of nest size, the nest was approximately 42 cm long 
x 22 cm wide x 15 cm deep. 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 



29 



Nest and Colony Analysis 

The nest consisted of 7 comb levels with 8 combs. The first (uppermost) 
two combs consisted entirely of worker cells, the next two a combination of 
worker cells and queen cells, and the final four were entirely queen cells. 
Thus, this colony had a normal transition from worker to reproductive cells 
with no reversal to worker cell production. Thirty-six percent of the cells 
were queen cells and the worker/queen cell ratio was 1.77. This is well 
within the normal range of these parameters for V. pensvlvanica colonies 
(Roush and Akre 1978). There was a total of 14,300 cells. 

The colony was obviously declining as 5,39 1 cells were empty and more 
than 200 had multiple eggs (2-4). In addition, there were 1 ,08 1 new queens, 
1084 males, but only 510 workers. 

Besides the 1 ,08 1 new queens there were three queens that appeared old 
as evidenced by "age spots" (brownish discoloration of gastral terga II and 
III) and the frayed condition of the wings. The wings of one of these queens 
were extremely frayed, the other two to a lesser extent. Dissections snowed 
that all had fully developed ovaries packing the entire gaster (Fig. 1 ), and 




Fig. 1. Ovaries of the three functional queens. The ovary of the probable foundress queen, 
as indicated by her extremely frayed wings, is on the left. 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

spermathecae filled with sperm. All three were functional (egg laying) 
queens. 

Discussion 

Although it is not known if the colony had been there the previous year, 
this is considered unlikely based on size. Most perennial colonies have 
more individuals and much larger nests (e.g. a perennial V. squamosa nest 
of 1 20,000 cells; Akre et al 1 98 1 ). However, 1 979 had a warm, dry spring 
( Akre and Reed, 1981), and the colony could have been initiated very early, 
perhaps in March. In addition, the area where the colony was located is 
probably one of the warmest in the Columbia Basin, an area with one of the 
longest growing seasons in Washington. During 1979 hot, dry weather 
continued through October and this gave the colony an extremely long 
season. 

This is the largest nest of V. pensylvanica recorded from Washington. 
The largest nest collected previously contained 12,316 cells, but most 
analyzed colonies had nests of 4,000 to 10,000 cells (Akre et al., 1981). 
However, at slightly more than 1 4,000 cells, this nest was still considerably 
smaller than nests from a few nonperennial colonies of V. vulgairs reported 
from Europe. The largest nest collected in Germany had 21,692 cells 
(Kemper 1961). 

Since all three functional queens had age spots and frayed wings, it is 
highly unlikely that any were new queens from this or a nearby colony that 
had subsequently developed ovaries. V. pensylvanica queens usually 
develop these spots only after they are several months old and have been 
actively laying eggs, typically by late August or early September. Non- 
functional queens never develop these discolorations no matter how old 
they become. 

Many new queens do not initiate a nest of their own in the spring and, in 
Washington, are still flying as late as August. Perhaps two of these queens 
joined the colony. V. pensylvanica queens frequently attempt to usurp 
control of colonies of conspecifics and those of V. vulgaris (Akre et al. 
1 977, unpublished data). If they attempted to join the colony late in the year 
when queen control was low and workers had begun to develop their 
ovaries, resistance to their entry may have been minimal. Or perhaps a 
situation developed similar to that which frequently exists between the 
social parasite Dolichovespula arctica (Rohwer), and its host, D. arenaria 
(Fab.), in which a period of coexistence occurs between the host queen and 
the parasite female (Greene et al. 1978). During seasons with intense 
intraspecific queen competition an intruding queen may coexist with the 
foundress queen. An example of coexistence early in the nesting season was 
a V. vulgaris colony which was collected and killed on 22 July 1980. It 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 31 

contained two queens but only 1 worker comb of ca. 100 cells. 

The development of a large, polygynous colony of V. pensylvanica in 
the Columbia Basin of Washington, with at least a potential for becoming 
perennial, indicates that areas such as the Columbia Basin, an island of 
warmth in the northern tier, could provide a suitable habitat for increasing 
colony longevity and thus enhancing the possibility of perennial colonies. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Sincere appreciation is extended to Dr. Wyatt W. Cone and L.C. Wright (Irrigated 
Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Prosser] for col lecting information on the colony, 
excavating it. and sending it to us in Pullman. David Bleicher is thanked for colony analysis. 
W.W. Cone, R. Zack, L.C. Wright and A. Greene critically reviewed the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Akre, R.D., A. Greene, J.F. MacDonald, P.J. Landolt, and H.G. Davis. 1981. 

Yellowjackets of America North of Mexico. USDA Agric. Handbook 552 [in press|. 
Akre, R.D. and H.C. Reed. 1981. Population cycles of yellowjackets in the Pacific 

Northwest (Hymenoptera:Vespinae), Environ. Ent. [in press). 
Akre, R.D., C.F. Roush and P.J. Landolt. 1977. A Vespula pensylvanica/Vespula 

vulgaris nest (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Environ. Ent. 6:525-526. 
Duncan, C.D. 1939. A contribution to the biology of North American vespine wasps. 

Stanford Univ. Publ. Biol. Sci. 8:1-271. 
Edwards, R. 1976. The world distribution pattern of the German wasp, Paravespula 

germanica (Hymenoptera:Vespidae). Ent. Germanica 3:269-271. 
Greene, A., R.D. Akre and P.J. Landolt. 1 978. Behavior of the yellowjacket social parasite. 

Dolichovespula arctica (Rohwer) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Melandaria 29:1-28. 
Jeanne, R.L. 1 980. Evolution of social behavior in the Vespidae. Ann. Rev. Ent. 23:37 1-396. 
Kemper, H. 1961. Nestunterschiede bei den sozialen Faltenwespen Deutschlands. Zeit. 

Angew. Zool. 48:31-85. 
Matthews, R.W. and J.R. Matthews. 1979. War of the yellowjacket queens. Nat. Hist. 

88:56-67. 
Nakahara, L.M. 1980. Western yellowjacket ( Vespula pensvlvanica)- first record of aerial 

nest in state. Coop. PI. Pest Rept. USDA. APHIS 5(14):270. 
Richards, O.W. 1 978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Aust. J. Zool. 

Suppl. Series 61:1-1 32. 
Roush, C.F. and R.D. Akre. 1978. Nesting biologies and seasonal occurrence of 

yellowjackets in northeastern Oregon forests (Hymenoptera:Vespidae). Melanderia 

30:57-94. 
Spencer, G.J. 1960. On the nests and populations of some vespid wasps. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

British Columbia 57:13-15. 
Spradbery, J.P. 1973a. Wasps an account of the biology and natural history of solitary and 

social wasps. Univ. Washington Press. Seattle. 408p. 
Spradbery, J.P. 1 973b. The European social wasp. Paravespula germanica ( F. ) ( Hymenoptera: 

Vespidae) in Tasmania. Australia. IUSSI Proc. VII Intcrnat. Congr. pp. 375-380. 
Thomas, C.R. 1960. The European wasp ( Vespitla germanica) in New Zealand. Inf. Ser. 

Dept. Sci. Ind. Res. NZ 27:1-74. 

Tissot, A.N. and F.A. Robinson. 1 954. Some unusual insect nests. Florida Ent. 37: 
Vuillaume, M., J. Schwander, and C. Roland. 1 969. Note preliminaire sur I'cxistance de 

colonies perennes et polygnes de Paravespula germanica. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris. Ser. D, 

269:2371-2372. 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

LARVAE OF ALDERFLY (MEGALOPTERA: 
SIALIDAE) FROM PITCHER PLANT 1 

Thomas N. Mather^ 

Leaves of the eastern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpiirea] create a 
suitable habitat for a few species of dipteran larvae, including Wyeomyia 
smithii (Coquillett) (Culicidae), Metriocnemus knabi Coquillet (Chironomidae), 
and Blaesoxiphajletcheri(A]drich) (Sarcophagidae). The digestive fluids 
of these insectivorous plants restrict this habitat, for the most part, to these 
specially adapted insects. However, a few other insect species have 
occasionally been found alive in this leaf-contained aquatic habitat (Jones, 
1920; D. Fish, Fordham Univ., person, commun.). During a 2-year survey 
of the arthropod fauna of S. purpurea in a southern New Jersey bog ( Salem 
Co.), 2 sialid (Megaloptera: Sialidae) larvae were discovered. The first 
was found in a large, water-filled leaf (pH=6.8) on April 25, 1980. The 
second was collected May 30, 1980 from a smaller leaf (pH=7.1) 
approximately 40 m from the first. Both leaves were from plants situated on 
moss-covered tussocks approximately 20 cm above the surface water of the 
bog. These leaves had been produced during the previous growing season 
( 1979) and contained larvae of both W. smithii and M. knabi. 

The first sialid larva was preserved in 70% EtOH and sent to Dr. 
Lawrence Canterbury (U. of Cincinnati) who identified it as Sialisjoppa. 
By comparison the second larva was determined to be the same species. 
Both specimens were in the pre -pupal stage and may have entered the 
pitcher plant in search of a pupation site. Normal pupation occurs in soil a 
short distance from the water. The preferred larval habitat of S. joppa are 
small, shallow streams (Canterbury, person, commun.), yet no larvae were 
ever recovered from the small stream ( X pH=6. 1 ) flowing through the bog. 

Sialis joppa has not been recorded from New Jersey, although it has 
been collected nearby in Delaware and Pennsylvania (Tarter, et al., 1 978). 
Therefore this report not only records another insect using the pitcher plant 
habitat, but serves as a new state record for S. joppa. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am grateful toDrs. William L. Hilsenhoff and G.R. DeFoliart for their suggestions on an 
earlier version of the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Jones, F. M. 1 920. Another pitcher-plant insect ( Diptera, Sciarinae ). Entomol. News, 31:91- 

94. 
Tarter, D.C., W.D. Watkins, D.L. Ashley and J.T. Goodwin. 1 978. New state records and 

seasonal emergence patterns of alderflies east of the Rocky Mountains (Megaloptera: 

Sialidae). Entomol. News. 89: 231-234. 



'Received September 22. 1980. 

''Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin. Madison, WI 53706. 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 32 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 33 

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF TREEHOPPERS 
(HOMOPTERA: MEMBRACIDAE) OF DELAWARE 1 

Charles E. Mason, Jenella E. Loye 

ABSTRACT: Sixty-one membracid species are reported for Delaware of which 48 are new 
state records. The species list includes information on their locality, seasonal occurrence and 
biology, including plant species association. 

Thirteen species of membracids have been previously reported from 
Delaware (Bray and Triplehorn 1953, Metcalf and Wade 1965. Kopp and 
Yonke 1973b, c). Nine of these were reported by Bray and Triplehorn in 
association with red and pin oaks. 

The present list includes 61 species, 48 of which are new state records. 
Records on all but one species ( Ophiderma salamandra Fairmaire) in the 
list are based upon recent field collections (Mason and Loye 1981) and 
examination of specimens in museum collections. Determinations of 
species were verified by Duane Flynn of Michigan State University. 

The arrangement of taxa in the list follows that of Kopp and Yonke 
(1973a, b, c, 1974). Species within each genus are listed alphabetically. 
Information listed for species collected in this study includes: locality and 
(or) county, range of seasonal occurrence, host data and biological notes 
where available. Gleason and Cronquist ( 1 963) was used as a source for the 
host identifications. For museum specimens, information is given on 
locality and months when they were collected. This information was 
obtained from specimens in the University of Delaware Entomological 
Collection. 

More extensive collecting is needed to determine the extent of the 
membracid fauna in the state. Our list represents a compilation of known 
Delaware species. However, about 40 other species not listed here have 
been reported from adjacent states and should be present in Delaware. We 
hope this publication will stimulate additional investigations on the 
Membracidae in Delaware. 



'Received August 28. 1980. 

Respective addresses: Dept. of Entomology and Applied Ecology. Univ. of Delaware. 
Newark. DE 19711 and Dept. of Zoology. Univ. of Oklahoma. Norman. OK 73019. 
Published with the approval of the Director of the Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station 
as Miscellaneous Paper No. 916, Contribution No. 500 of the Department of Entomology 
and Applied Ecology. University of Delaware. Newark. Delaware. 



HNT. NEWS 92(1): 33-37 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Family Membracidae 

Subfamily Centrotinae 

* Microcentrus perditus (Amyot and Serville). Newark, New Castle Co. Aug. 8. 

Subfamily Hoplophorioninae 

* P/atycotis vittata ( F. ). Newark, New Castle Co.; Georgetown, Sussex Co. June 1 9 - July 4. 

Qitercus alba. 

Subfamily Membracinae 

Campylenchia talipes (Say). Newark, New Castle Co. June 12 -Oct. 3 1 . Erigeron animus, 
Solidago sp. Nymphs collected from Solidago sp. root feeding at the surface of the ground 
4th week of May and 1st week of June. Aggregation and ant attendance seen for nymphs, 
but not adults. Museum specimens: Newark, New Castle Co., July; Dover, Kent Co., July 
and Aug.; Glasgow, New Castle Co., Aug. 

* Enchenopa binotata (Say). Newark and Wilmington, New Castle Co.; Dover. Kent Co. 

June 5 - Sep. 22. Carya glabra, Juglans nigra. Nymphs collected from J. nigra and C. 
glabra June 3-26 were attended by ants. 

Subfamily Smiliinae 

Tribe Acutalini 

* Acutalis tartarea(Say). Newark, New Castle Co. June 5 -Oct. 1 . Ambrosia artemisiifolia, 

Arctium minus, Erigeron animus, Eupatorium sp., Solidago sp. Nymphs collected from 
Solidago sp. June 10-26. Museum specimens: Odessa, New Castle Co.. June, July. 

* Micrutalis calva (Say). Newark, New Castle Co.; Dover and Woodland Beach, Kent Co. 

June 26 - Sep. 5. Solidago sp., Spartina sp. 

Tribe Ceresini 

Hadrophallus boreulis (Fairmaire). Newark, New Castle Co. May 24 - Aug. 3. Ambrosia 
artemisiifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua. Mains sp.. Moms sp., Solidago sp. Museum 
specimens: Newark, New Castle Co., Aug. 

* Stictocephala bisonia Kopp and Yonke. Newark, New Castle Co. July 21 - Aug. 29. 

Arctium minus, Asclepius syriaca, Glycine max, Solidago sp. Museum specimens: 
Camden, Sep., Nov., and Dover, Aug., both Kent Co.; Newark, July and October. 
S. brevitylus (Van Duzee). Newark, New Castle Co. Apr. 29 - June 20. Liriodendron 
tulipifera, Quercus bicolor, Q. borealis, Sambucus canadensis, Smilacina racemosa, 
Solidago sp. 

* S. diceros (Say). Newark, New Castle Co. July 23 - Aug. 1 2. Arctium minus, Sambucus 

canadensis. Museum specimens: Odessa, New Castle Co., July. 

* S. lutea (Walker). Newark. June 4-18. Museum specimens: Newark, New Castle Co., July 

and Nov. 

* S. taurina( Fitch). Newark and Claymont, New Castle Co. July 27 -Oct. 12. Liquidambar 

styraciflua. 

* Tortistilus inermis (Fitch). Museum specimen: "Dunraven", DE, July, 1961. 

* state records 



Vol. 92. No. 1. January & February 1981 35 



Tribe Polyglyptini 

Enlylia bactriana Germar. Museum specimens: Wilmington, New Castle Co.. Aug. and 
Sep. 

* E. carinata (Forster). Newark and Wilmington, New Castle Co. May 26 - Oct. 23. 

Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Arciium minus. Cirsium pitmiliiin, Prunus serotina. Nymphs 
collected June 19 July 19 from C. pnmilum. Eggs present in ventral midrib of leaves of C. 
pnmititm were collected June 2 - July 14. Females seen "brooding" eggs and nymphs on 
C. pnmilum. Two egg masses had 101 and 76 eggs, respectively. Ant attendance seen for 
nymphs and adults. Museum specimens: Dover. Kent Co.. Aug.; Yorklyn. New Castle 
Co.. May and Sep.; Bridgeville. Sussex Co.. Aug. 
E. sinitata (F.). Museum specimen: Newport. New Castle Co. July 24. 1951. 

* Publilia reticulata Van Duzee. Newark and Hockessin. New Castle Co. June 5-29. 

* Vanduzeea arquala (Say). Newark. New Castle Co. June 10 - Nov. 12. Robinia 
pseudoacacia. Nymphs collected May 26 - Aug. 8. Ant attendance seen for nymphs and 
adults. Museum specimens: New Castle Co.. Sep. 

Tribe Smiliini 

* Aiymna castaneae (Fitch). Newark. New Castle Co. June 26 - July 27. 

* A. querci( Fitch). Newark. May 29 -July 4. Quercits borealis. Q. velutina. R/ius radicans. 

R. lyphina. Museum specimens: Dover, Kent Co.. July. 

* Cyrtolobus arcuatus (Emmons). Newark, New Castle Co. June 19. 

* C. auroreus Woodruff. Newark. New Castle Co.: Redden State Forest and Georgetown. 

Sussex Co. May 28 - July 6. Quercus alba. Q. borealis. Q nigra. Q. phellos. 

* C. discoidalis (Emmons). Newark. New Castle, and Blackbird State Forest, New Castle 

Co.; Millsboro, Sussex Co. June 1-19. Quercus alba, Q. .Vigra, Q. Palustris, Q. Prinus, 
Q. velutina. Museum specimen: "Gatesburg", DE. June. 1893. 

* C. dixianus Woodruff. Newark, New Castle Co.: Georgetown. Sussex Co. May 7 -July 5. 

Liquidambar styracijlua, Quercus bicolor, Q. borealis. Q. priinis. Q. velutina. Mating 
pairs observed on Q. bicolor June 1 and 1 0: copulation lasted more than 1 h for one pair. 
C.fulginosus( Emmons). Newark, New Castle Co.: Georgetown, Sussex Co. May 29- Sep. 
22. Quercus borealis. 

* C.funkhouseri'Woodruff. Newark, New Castle Co.: Redden State Forest. Sussex Co. June 

12-15. Quercus phellos. 

* C. fuscipennis Van Duzee. Newark. New Castle Co. June 1 - July 13. Quercus alba. Q. 

borealis. 

* C. inennis ( Emmons ). Newark, New Castle Co.: Redden State Forest. Sussex Co. June 1 5 

Carya glabra. 

* C. maculifronlis (Emmons). Newark. New Castle Co. June 4-22. Quercus nigra. 

* C. ova/us Van Duzee. Newark. New Castle Co.; Georgetown, Sussex Co. May 29 -July I 2. 

Quercus borealis, Q. nigra. Q. velutina. 

* C. pallidifrontis (Emmons). Newark. New Castle Co.; Georgetown, Sussex Co. May 29 - 

July 13. Quercus alba, Q. bicolor, Q. borealis, Q. velutina, Q. lyraia. 

* C. pulchellus Woodruff. Newark. New Castle Co. June 1-10. Quercus alba. 
C. puriianus Woodruff. Newark. New Castle Co. June 15. Quercus alba. 

* C. iiiberosus (Fairmaire). Newark and New Castle. New Castle Co. May 16 - July 19. 

Liriodendron tulipifera. Quercus alba. Q. bicolor, Q. borealis, Q. velutina. Mating pair 
collected from Q. bicolor May 28. 

* C. van (Say). Newark and Blackbird State Forest, New Castle Co.: Dover. Kent Co.: 

Georgetown and Redden State Forest, Sussex Co. May 25 - July 28. Quercus alba. Q. 
borealis, Q. marilandica. Q. phellos. 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Ophiderma definita Woodruff. Newark, New Castle Co. June 1 4 - July 1 9. Quercus alba. 
Q. borealis. 

* O. evelyna Woodruff. Newark, New Castle Co.; Bridgeville, Millsboro and Rehoboth 

Beach, Sussex Co. June 5-6. Quercus borealis, Q. marilandica. On June 6, 1979, 101 
males and no females were taken in a black-light trap at Rehoboth Beach. 

* O. Flava Coding. Newark, New Castle Co. May 28 - Aug. 28. Quercus alba, Q. velutina, 

Rhus radicans. 

* O. flavicephala Coding. Newark, New Castle Co.; Redden State Forest, Sussex Co. May 

25 - June 24. Quercus alba, Q. borealis, Q. nigra, Q. phellos. Museum specimens: 

Newark, New Castle Co., June. 
O. pubescens(Emmons). Newark, New Castle Co.; Georgetown, Sussex Co. June 1 -July 

10. Quercus borealis, Q. velutina. 
O. salamandra Fairmaire. Kopp and Yonke ( 1973c). 

* Smilia camelus (F.). Newark, New Castle Co.; Redden State Forest, Sussex Co. May 25 - 

July 10. Quercus alba, Q. borealis, Q. marilandica, Q. phellos, Q. velutina. 
Xantholobus intermedius (Emmons). Newark, New Castle Co. July 5. 

* X. lateralis Van Duzee. Newark, New Castle Co. May 25 - June 4. Quercus bicolor, Q. 

borealis. Q. velutina. 

* X. muticus(.). Newark, New Castle Co. May 22 -July 4. Quercus borealis. Q. velutina. A 

female was observed ovipositing June 19 at 1645 hr. on Q. borealis. 

Tribe Telamonini 

* Archasia belfragei Stal. Newark. New Castle Co. June 10 - July 13. Quercus alba, Q. 

borealis, Q. phellos. 

* Carynota mera (Say). Newark, New Castle Co. Aug 2-29. 

* Glossonotus acuminatus(F .). Newark, New Castle Co.; Georgetown, Sussex Co. June 5 - 

Sep. 14. Quercus alba, Q. bicolor, Q. palustris. 

* G. crataegi (Filch). Newark and Hockessin, New Castle Co. July 5-19. Fagus grand ifolia. 

* Heliria cristata (Fairmaire). Newark, New Castle Co. June 20. 

* H. molaris( Butler). Newark, New Castle Co. June 12 -Oct. 1. Quercus alba, Q. bicolor. Q. 

velutina. Fifth instar molting nymph was collected from Q. bicolor June 1. 

* Helonica excelsa (Fairmaire). Newark, New Castle Co. June 12 -Aug. 17. Quercus alba, 

Q. palustris. 

* Telamona ampelopsidis (Harris). Newark, New Castle Co. June 26 - Aug. 17. 

* T. collina (Walker). Newark, New Castle Co. Sept. 21. 

* T. decorata Ball. Newark, New Castle Co.; Georgetown, Sussex Co. June 12 - Sep. 24. 

Quercus bicolor, Q. phellos. Fifth instar nymph observed molting on Q. bicolor2nd week 
of June. 

* 71 extrema Ball. Newark, New Castle Co.; Atlanta and Georgetown. Sussex Co. June 15 - 

Aug. 25. Quercus phellos. 

T. monticola (F.). Newark, New Castle Co. June 4 - Sep. 15. Quercus bicolor, Q. borealis, 
Q. phellos, Q. velutina. Nymphs collected from Q. bicolor and Q. borealis Apr. 30 - June 
7. 

* 71 tiliaeEa\\. Newark, NewCastle Co. June 1 3 -Aug. 2. Liquidambar stymciflua, Quercus 

borealis. Nymphs collected from Q. borealis June 13. 

* T. unicolor Fitch. Newark, New Castle Co. June 6 - Aug. 17. Carver glabra. Two ant 

attended fifth instar nymphs were collected the 3rd week of May. 

* T. westcotti Goding. Newark, New Castle Co. July 27. 

Thelia bimaculata (F.). Newark and Hockessin, New Castle Co. July 7 - Aug. 6. Robinia 
pseudoacacia, Fagus grandifolia. Museum specimens: New Castle Co., June, Aug., 
Oct. 



Vol. 92, No. 1. January & February 1981 37 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We express appreciation to Dr. J.P. Kramer, Systematic Entomology Laboratory. 
USDA, c/o U.S. National Museum and Dr. D. Otte, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, for making specimens available for examination. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bray, D.F. and C.A. Triplehorn. 1953. Survey of the insect fauna of red and pin oaks in 
Delaware. Univ. Delaware. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 297. 28 p. 

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United 
States and Adjacent Canada. Van Nostrand. Princeton, NJ. 

Kopp, D.D. and T.R. Yonke. 1973a. The treehoppers of Missouri: Part I. Subfamilies 
Centrotinae, Hoplophorioninae, and Membracinae (Homoptera: Membracidae). J. Kan- 
sas Entomol. Soc. 46:42-64. 

1973b. The treehoppers of Missouri: Part 2. Subfamilies 

Smiliinae: tribes Acutalini, Ceresini, and Polyglyptini (Homoptera: Membracidae). J. 
Kansas Entomol. Soc. 46:233-276. 

1973c. The treehoppers of Missouri: Part 3. Subfamily 



Smiliinae: tribe Smiliini. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 46:375-421. 

1974. The treehoppers of Missouri: Part 4. Subfamily 



Smiliinae: tribe Telamonini (Homoptera: Membracidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 47:80- 

130. 
Mason, C.E. and J.E. Loye. 1981. Treehoppers (Homoptera: Membracidae) collected at 

multiple levels in a deciduous woodlot in Delaware. Ent. News 92:2:64-68. 
Metcalf, Z.P. and V. Wade. 1965. General catalogue of Homoptera: Membracidae - A 

supplement to Fascicle I: Membracidae of the general catalogue of the Hemiptera. Univ. 

N. Carolina Press. 2 vols. 1552 pp. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 



The following are Univ. of California Publications in Entomology, Univ. of Calif. Press, 
Berkeley: 

SUPPLEMENTARY STUDIES ON THE SYSTEMATICS OF THE GENUS PF.RDITA 
(HYMENOPTERA: ANDRENIDAE). Part II. P.H. Timberlakc. 1980. Vol. 85. 65 pp. 62 
figs. S8.00. 

REVIEW OF NORTH AMERICAN EXOMALOPSIS (HYMENOPTERA: ANTHO 
PHORIDAE) Parts I - IV (subgenera Anttiop/iomla. Ant/iophorisca, Phanomalopsis, 
Mf^omalopsis. Punomalopsis & Exomulopsis). P.H. Timberlakc. 1980. Vol. 86. 158 pp. 
257 figs. $17.00. 

(Continued on page 47) 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

TWO RARE SPECIES OF EPHEMEROPTERA 
IN THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER 1 2 

Larry G. Sandersr C. Rex Bingharrr 

During a research effort on the lower Mississippi River from Lake 
Providence, Louisiana (river mile 480) upstream to Greenville, 
Mississippi, river mile 530, the following records of rare mayflies were 
obtained. Specimens have been deposited in the collection of Dr. G. F. 
Edmunds, Jr., University of Utah. 

Spinadis Edmunds and Jensen 

In June 1978, a single Spinadis nymph was collected in a 500-micron 
mesh plankton net drifting at 2400 hrs during a diel sampling effort on the 
lower Mississippi River at river mile 529. Previous distributional records 
were from Georgia, Indiana, and Wisconsin. It is not certain whether the 
known records represent more than one species. The type locality is 
Georgia and based on distribution patterns of other mayfly species, it is 
likely that the specimen represents S. \\-allacei (Edmunds, personal 
communication). Stage of maturity of the specimen agrees with predicted 
emergence in late June or early July (Edmunds et al, 1976). 

Pseudiron McDunnough 

On 17 May 1978 two Pseudiron sp. nymphs poss. centralis were 
collected in a shipek grab sample at a depth of 9 meters in a dike field at river 
mile 515. Pseudiron sp. was previously recorded from Central Mississippi 
(LeFlore County) by Berner in 1977. (Berner, 1977). Concomitant water 
chemistry data were as follows: temperature 18.0 C, dissolved oxygen 8.1 
mg/1, specific conductivity 395 mhos, and pH 7.6. Sediment type was 
coarse sand. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are grateful to Dr. Bill Stark, Mississippi College, and Dr. G. F. Edmunds. Jr.. 
University of Utah, for confirming the identifications of these specimens. 

REFERENCES 

Edmunds, G. F., Jr., S.L.Jensen, and L. Berner. 1976. The maytlies of North and Central 
America. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. X +330 P., 432 Figs. 

Berner, L. Distributional Patterns of Southeastern Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) Bull. FLA. 
State Mus. Biol. Sci. 22(1): 1-55. 



'Received May 30, 1980. 

This project was funded by the Office, Chief of Engineers (OCE) and is being conducted by 
the Waterway Habitat and Monitoring Group, EWQOS, Project VI IB. 

Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39 1 80. 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 38 



Vol. 92, No. 1. January & February 1981 39 

A NEW SPECIES OF JA NETSCHEKBR YA FROM 
COSTA RICA (COLLEMBOLA:ENTOMOBRYIDAE)' 

Richard J. Snider 2 - 3 

ABSTRACT: A new species, Janetschekbrya matthewsi Snider, is described from Costa 
Rica. This is the first record of the genus for Central America. The species may be allied with J. 
arida Christiansen and Bellinger, but can be separated on the basis of color pattern, labral 
papillae, claw and dorsal chaetotaxy. The type locality is Llorona. Parque Nacionale 
Corcovado, collected from the nests of Microstigmus sp. (Sphecidae). 

Recently, a colleague. Dr. Robert W. Matthews, collected the nests of 
sphecid wasps in Costa Rica. Among the prey stored in them, as larval food, 
were six species of Collembola. Included in the samples was a new species 
of Janetschekbtya. This constitutes a new record for the genus in Central 
America. The type and paratype series will be deposited in the Entomology 
Museum. Michigan State University. 

Janetschekbrya matthewsi, n. sp. 

Color and pattern. Background pale yellow to cream. Purple pigment as follows: first 
antennal segment without purple pigment, segments two to four with light dusting, distally each 
segment darker: posterio-lateral edge of abdominal segment III sometimes with a small, single 
macula of pigment on each side: abdominal segment V with a single macule of pigment on 
anterio-lateral margin; legs and furcula light yellow, without purple markings (Figs. 1 and 2). 

Antennae. Longer than head; ratio of segments as 1 : 2 : 2 : 3 (Fig. 3): apical bulb of 
segment IV in a distinct pit, completely apical (Fig. 4), protective papillae absent: segment III 
with an apical pair of curved sensory papillae contained in shallow folds (Fig. 5); segment II 
with two to three outstanding setae located at midpoint of segment (Fig. 6). all other setae 
normal. 

Head. Eyes 8 + 8 with dark pigment, ocellus H half the diameter of C (Fig. 7); mandible 
with molar plate and apical teeth; four spheroid labral papillae (Fig. 8); labial appendages 
normal (Fig. 9). 

Body. Unguis curving, lanceolate, with a pair of lateral teeth, two small distal inner teeth, 
and basal outer tooth (Figs. 10 and 1 1 );unguiculus obliquely turncate.untoothed, inner corner 
strongly pointed (Fig. 12); tenent hair longer than inner edge of unguis: prctarsi lack setulae. 
Trochanteral organ variable, usually with five apical setae, posterior external and internal 
setae variable (Fig. 1 3). Corpus of retinaculum with a single heavy seta, rami quadridentate 
(Fig. 14). Furcula reaching the ventral tube, manubrium to dens ratio 1:1.5: manubrium 
without ventral scales; dens normal, with ventral scales, with dorsal crenulations: mucro with 



'Received September 22. 1980. 

The Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens. Georgia 30602. 
' Mailing address: The Museum, Michigan State University. East Lansing. Michigan 48824. 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 39-41 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



anteapical tooth erect, basal spine strong, not reaching apex of anteapical tooth; distal ventral 
seta of dens reaching apex of mucro (Fig. 15). 

Clothing. Head and trunk with hyaline, serrated scales three times as long as wide (Fig. 
16). Body setae of type I, II, III, IV and V (Christiansen, 1958) (Fig. 17). Macrosetal pattern 
of abdominal segments III and IV as illustrated (Fig. 18). The specimens examined from the 
samples were in poor condition. They had been tightly packed into the burrows by the wasps, 
and lost much of their setae and scales when placed in collection fluid. At this time it is 
impractical to figure the entire setal configuration. 

Remarks 

According to Christiansen and Bellinger (in press), Janetschekbrya was 
erected by Yosii ( 1 97 1 ) to include two species from the Himalayas. While 
the single Nearctic species, /. arida Christiansen and Bellinger (in press) 
shares similar morphological characters to Yosifs species, it differs by 
having scales ciliated for 1/5 to 1/3 their lengths. The Himalayan species 
on the other hand, are ciliated for most of their lengths. Further, arida 
exhibits a chaetotaxy very different from Yosii's description. 

Here, matthewsi differs from arida in the following respects: labral 
papillae spheriod, not rectangular; external differentiated seta of the labial 
appendage normally tapered and curved instead of thicker than normal; 
unguis lacks lateral tooth; unguiculus without external ciliations, and is 
obliquely truncate, not lanceolate; chaetotaxy of third abdominal segment 
appears very different between the two species; and finally the restricted 
pigmentation of matthewsi. 

While matthewsi does not exactly fit the genus as described by Yosii, I 
agree with Christiansen and Bellinger that the species can be placed in 
Janetschekbrya on the basis of scale form. Until additional species are 
discovered, it is desirable not to erect a new genus. 

The specimens were taken as prey from the nests of Microstigmus sp. 
(Sphecidae) located in an uncut lowland forest. Collection record: Costa 
Rica, Puntaremas Province, Parque Nacional Corcovado, Peninsula de 
Osa, Llorona, January 4-13,1 980, R. W. and J. R. Matthews, collectors. 
One type on slide, five paratypes on slides, and 86 paratypes in alcohol. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Christiansen, K. 1958. The Nearactic Members of the Genus Entomobrva (Collembola). 

Bull. M. C. Z., 18: 7. 440-545. 
Christiansen, K. and P. F. Bel linger (in press). The Collembola of North America North of 

the Rio Grande. Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa. 
Yosii, R. 1971. Collembola of Khumbu Himal. In: Khumbu Himal, Innsbruck-Munchen, 

4(1): 80-130. 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 



41 




Figs. 1 - IS.Janetschekbrya matthewsisp. Fig. 1 Dorsal view, 2. Lateral view(holotypc), 
3. Antennal segments, 4. Apical bulb of Ant. IV, 5. Sensory papillae of Ant. III. 6. Segment II 
of antenna, 7. Ocelli of right side, 8. Labral papillae (holotype), 9. Right labial appendage 
(holotype), 10. Claw of third leg (holotype), 1 '. Claw of first leg, 12. Unguiculus of second leg. 
13. Trochanter of third leg (holotype), 14. Retinaculum, 15. Mucro, 16. Scales. 17. Body 
setae. !8. Macrochaetotaxy of Abd. Ill and IV. 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NOTE ON COLLEMBOLA OF PEDREGAL DE SAN 
ANGEL, MEXICO, D.F. 1 

Jose G. Palacios-Vargas 

ABSTRACT: Seventeen taxa of Collembola, representing fourteen genera, are cited for the 
first time from the Pedregal de San Angel. Thirteen of these species are new for Mexico, D.F. 
and twelve are recorded as new for the country. 

RESUMEN: 17 taxade Collembola, representando 14ge'neros,son citados por vezprimera 
del Pedregal de San Angel. 13 de estas especies son nuevas para Mexico, D.F. y 12 son 
registradas como nuevas para el pais. 

Pedregal de San Angel is located in the Southwest region of the narrow 
Valley of Mexico and is part of the Xochimilco and Chalco region. 
(Between 1 9 14' and 1 9 25' North latitude and 9908' and 99 1 5' West). 

The soil is mainly basaltic rock with an age of about 2500 years. The 
altitude in the northern part, where most of the samples were taken, is 
between 2250 and 2400 m. The climate (Garcia, 1964) is Cw 2 (w) b (f), 
and is the most humid of the temperate subhumid climates, with its rainy 
season during the summer but less than 5% of the annual precipitation 
during the winter. 

The summer is long and fresh with a monthly temperature average 
between 11.9 C in January and 17.5C in June; rainfall ranges from 3.4 
mm during February to 221 .2 mm in July. The vegetation is a Fniticetum 
(Rzedowsky, 1954) with the dominant species, Senecio praecox (Com- 
positae), flowering in September and October. 

Some interesting papers have been written about the Pedregal de San 
Angel, such as that of Rzedowski ( op. cit. ) and Diego ( 1 970) concerning the 
vegetation, and the works of Bravo (1975), Carbajal (1975), Lechuga 
( 1 97 1 ) and Serrano ( 1 970), dealing with insects. There is one paper about 
the spiders (Ibarra, 1979) but none about the springtails. 

Some articles concerning the Collembola from Distrito Federal, 
Mexico, have been written (Bonet, 1942, 1944, 1945, 1947, Folsom, 
1898; Handschin, 1928; Yosii, 1962) in which a total of 34 species have 
been cited. These are mainly from forests. Nothing has been said about 
those species occurring in the lava flows or on rocky ground. 

During the past five years, some samples of litter and soil have been 
taken, along the basaltic zone, close to the university campus. The 
Collembola were identified by the author and determinations were checked 

Deceived June 23, 1980. 

Laboratorio de Acarologia, Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad 
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 20, D.F. 

ENT. NEWS 92(1): 42-44 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 43 



by Dr. Peter F. Bellinger. 

The following list is the result of our study. Most of the specimens are 
from the northern region of Pedregal de San Angel, except as otherwise 
noted. 

Onychiuridae 

Mesaphoruru krausbaueri Corner, 1901. e.vlitter of Eucalytussp., 10-VII-77. J.G. Palacios 

col. 
OnychiurusarmatusCTu\\berg)\ 869. e.\ soil and litter. 15-VII-75, J. Llorentecol. 12-XI-77. 

J.G. Palacios col. 
Onvchiurus cf. folsomi Schaeffer, 1900. e.\ pots from the greenhouse. 6-II-78. L.A. 

Hernandez col. 

Hypogastruridae 

Xenyllacf. humicola(Fabricms) 1780. e.v litter of Eucalyptus sp., 10-VII-76, J.G. Palacios 
col. 

Tomoceridae 

Tomocerus flavescens (Tullberg) 1871 ex litter, 15-VII-75, J. Llorente col. 

Isotomidae 

Folsomides americanus Denis, 1931 ex litter of Eucalyptus sp., 10-VII-76, J.G. Palacios 
col. 

Folsomides angularis (Axelson) 1905. ex litter, 21-VI-79, J.G. Palacios col. 
fsotomurus sp. ex litter of Eucalyptus, 10-VII-76 and 14-XI-77 J.G. Palacios col. 

Entomobryidae 

Orchesella sp. nov. near zebra ex litter from the Arboretum and Fruticetum, 2 l-IV-79, J.G. 

Palacios col. 

Entomobiya sp, ex bark of Pinus sp. from the Arboretum, 3-VII-76, P. Rojas col. 
Entomobrya cf. sinelloides Christiansen, 1958. ex litter of Eucalyptus, 10-VII-76. J.G. 

Palacios col. 
Pseudosinella sp. nov. near sexoculata ex litter of Eucalyptus sp., 10-VII-76, J.G. Palacios 

col. 

Seira sp. ex soil, 21-VIII-76, G. Ibarra col 
Janetschekbrya sp. Collected only in the Arboretum region. Contreras, D.F. ex decomposing 

trunks, decomposing Yuccasp., and bark of Pinus sp. 28-XI-76, J.G. Palacios col. 3 100 

m msn. 

Katiannidae 

Arrhopalites sp. near diversus, from Arboretum region, Contreras, D.F. ex decomposing 
Yucca sp., 28-XI-76, J.G. Palacios col. 3 100 m snm. 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Sminthuridae 

Smint hurinus elegans( Fitch) 1863. t'.v litter of Eucalyptus sp., 10-VII-76, J.G. Palacioscol. 
Sphyrotheca sp. near confusa. ex litter of Eucalyptus sp., 10-VII-76, J.G. Palacios col. 

The following species are new records for Distrito Federal: Mesaphorura krausbaueri, 
Onychiiints armatus, O. cf. folsomi, Xenylla cf. humicola, Folsomides americanus, F. 
angularis, Entomobn'acf. sinelloides, Orchesellasp. nov. near zebra, Pseudosinel/asp. nov. 
near sexoculata, Janetschekbiya sp., Airhopalites sp. near diversus, Smintluirinus elegans 
and Sphvrotheca sp. near confusa. Of them, only M. krausbaueri and Janetschekbiya sp., 
were previously cited for Mexico. The description of the new species will be published in the 
future. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. Peter F. Bellinger, California State 
University, Northridge, California for his help and advice. 

REFERENCES 

Bonet, F. 1 942. Notas sinonimicas sobre el orden colembolos Ciencia (Mex. Citv), 3: 56-59. 

1 944. Tullberginos de Mexico (Collembola) Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat'., 5( 1-2): 51- 

72. 

1945. Nuevos generos y especiesde Hipogastruridosde Mexico. (Collembola ) Rev. 



Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 6(1-2): 13-45. 
1947. Monografia de la familia neelidae. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 8: 133-192. 



Bravo, T.J. 1975. Variacion numerica y estacional de algunos Cicadellidae de la zona del 

Senecionetum praecoxisde\ Pedregal de San Angel. Tesis Profesional. Fac. Ciencias, 

UNAM. Mexico. 65 pp. 
Carbajal, T. 1975. Estudio ecologico de los insectos que viven en Wigandia carcasana 

H.B.K. deuna zone del Pedregal de San Angel. Tesis Profesional. Fac. Ciencias. UNAM. 

Mexico. 125 pp. 
Diego, N. 1970. Contribucion a la flora silvestre de los alrededores del jardin botanico de la 

UNAM. Tesis Profesional. Fac. Ciencias. UNAM. Mexico 185 pp. 
Folsom, J.M. 1898. Description of species of Machilis and Seira from Mexico. Psvche. 

(Camb. Mass.), 8: 183-184. 
Garcia, E. 1964. Modificaciones al sistemadeclasificacionclimaticadeK'dppen. Institutode 

Geologia. UNAM. Mexico. 246 pp. 

Handschin, E. 1928. Collembola from Mexico J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zoo/., 30: 533-552. 
Ibarra, G. 1 979. Las aranas Labidognatha de la parte norte del Pedregal de San Angel. Tesis 

Profesional. Fac. Ciencias. UNAM. Mexico. 134 pp. 
Lechuga, N.R. 1971. Estudio ecologico de los insectos de Senecio praecox D.C. en el 

Pedregal de San Angel. Tesis Profesional. Fac. Ciencias. UNAM. Mexico. 94 pp. 
Rzedowski, J. 1954. Vegetacion del Pedregal de San Angel. An. Esc. Nac. Cienc. Biol. Mex. 

5(1-2): 59-129. 
Serrano, L.G. 1970. Biologla de Marathonia nigrifascia (Walker) (Homop.: Cicadellid.) 

Tesis Profesional. Fac. Ciencias. UNAM. Mexico. 62 pp. 
Yosii, R. 1962. Studies on the Collembolan genus Hypogastntra II. Nearctic Forms 

collected by Prof. F. Bonet. Biol. Lab. Contr. Kyoto Univ.. 13: 1-25. 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 45 

NEW GEOGRAPHICAL RECORDS FOR SOME 

FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA) FROM THE BLACK 

HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA 1 - 

Emmett R. Eastorr 

ABSTRACT: New state records for South Dakota and ecological data are presented for the 
flea species Megabothris quirini (Roth) and Peromyscopsylla catatina( Jordan). New county 
records are included for Hystrichopsylla dippiei (Roth) and Thrassis stanfordi Wagner. 

Our knowledge of ectoparasites in the Black Hills of South Dakota and 
Wyoming consists of fragmented records in the literature. Turner (1974) 
listed 1 1 species of fleas occurring there in his study of the mammals. The 
new records supplied here constitute a portion of a more comprehensive 
study (to be published) of fleas collected from live trapped small mammals 
during the years 1977, 1978, and 1979. All specimens are in the author's 
personal collection. 

Megabothris quirini (Rothschild) 

23cr, 17 June 1977, EE20a; Icf, 18 June 1977, EE21; 599, 17 July 
1977, EE35a; 299, 17 Sept. 1977, EE68; 19, 27 May 1978, EE87: 5cTcf, 
399, 29 May 1978, EE95. Ex. Zapus hitdsonicus, Spreafish Canyon, 9 
miles south of Spearfish along Spearfish Creek. Lawrence County, South 
Dakota. 

M. Quirini was only found on Zapus jumping mice in this area even 
though 1 2 species of small mammals were examined. According to Holland 
(1958) this is the only flea species found to regularly occur on Zapus and 
Napaeozapus mice, but Whitaker (1979) failed to mention M. quirini in 
his study of Zapus ectoparasites in North America. Holland ( 1 949) listed 
other rodents as hosts such as Clethrionomys, Microtus and Peromyscus 
as well as the sciurids Eittamius and Tamiasciums. The occurrence of M 
quirini in Bottineau and Grand Forks Counties of central and eastern 
North Dakota (Woods & Larson, 1969) suggests that with further 
collecting it will probably be found more widespread in South Dakota. 



'Received October 6. 1980. 

technical paper no. 1725 of the South Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

'Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University. Brookings, SD 57007. 



ENT. NEWS 92(1): 45-47 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Peromyscopsylla catatina (Jordan) 

19, 18 July 1977, EE40; Id 1 , 19, 30 July 1978, EE119; 19, 18 Sept. 

1978, EE78. ex. Microtus pennsylvanicus, Spearfish Canyon, 9 miles 
south of Spearfish, Lawrence County, South Dakota. 

A species believed to be confined to the eastern United States and 
Canada from Microtus, Clethrionomys and Napaeozapus mice (Holland, 
1949). The occurrence of this species in the Black Hills of southeastern 
South Dakota is a definite western extension of its known range. The Black 
Hills, considered an isolated portion of the Rocky Mountains, contains 
fauna characteristic of the western United States, even though eastern 
forms regularly occur. 

Thrassis stanfordi Wagner 

6c?cf, 599, 5 May 1979, EE148. Ex. Marmota flaviventris 1 mile 
north of Deadwood; 19, 5 May 1979, EE 147, Ex. Tamiasciurus 
hudsonicus, 10 miles southeast of Pluma, Lawrence County, South 
Dakota. 

In the western United States T. stanfordi is continuously distributed 
from Montana through eastern Wyoming and Utah and the western half of 
Colorado. According to Stark (1970) isolated pockets of this species are 
found in northern New Mexico and western South Dakota where M. 
flaviventris, its principle host also occurs in disjunct populations. The 
record of 1 1 fleas from Lawrence County in the northern Black Hills (this 
study) along with records from Custer County in the southern Black Hills 
(Stark op cit) provides evidence that T. stanfordi occurs throughout the 
range (even though isolated) of the yellow bellied marmot in South Dakota. 

Hystrichopsylla dippiei spp. (Rothschild) 

19, 18 Sept. 1977, EE734; 19, 5 May 1979, EE779; Spearfish 
Canyon, 9 miles south of Spearfish, Lawrence County. Id", 599, 13 Oct. 

1979, EE228, Ex. Peromyscus maniculatus, Spearfish Canyon, 5 miles 
south of Spearfish, Lawrence County. 

Id 1 , 17 June 1979, EE179, 19, 3 May 1980, EE244, Ex. Microtus 
pennsylvanicus, Spearfish Canyon, 5 miles south Spearfish; 19, 5 May 
1979, EE 147 Ex. Tamiasciurus hudsonicus 10 miles south of Pluma, 
Lawrence County, South Dakota. 

H. d. dippiei was earlier reported (19) from Custer County in the 
southern Black Hills by Holland (1957) even though female fleas in the 
genus Hystrichopsylla are difficult to specifically determine. The males of 
H. dippiei collected in this study are more closely related to H. d. truncata 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February 1981 47 



as small tubercles are present on the inner angle of sternum IX, a character 
lacking in H. d. dippiei according to Holland. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The author wishes to thank Dr. William L.Jellison(USPHS, retired, Hamilton. Montana) 
for the identification of M. quirini and to Dr. Omer R. Larson ( Univ. of N. Dakota, Grand 
Forks) for the identity of the other species. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Holland, G.P. 1949. The Siphonaptera of Canada. Dominion of Canada, Dept. Agr. Tech. 

Bull. 70. 306 pp. 
Holland, G.P. 1 957. Notes on the genus Hystrichopsylla Rothschild in the New World, with 

descriptions of one new species and two new subspecies (SiphonaptercxHystrichopsyllidae) 

Canada Ent. 89: 309-324. 
Holland, G.P. 1958. Distribution patterns of Northern fleas (Siphonaptera) Proc. 10th Intl. 

Cong. Ent. 1: 645-58. 
Stark, H.E. 1970. A Revision of the Flea Genus Thrassis Jordan 1933 (Siphonaptera: 

Ceratophyllidae) with observations on ecology and relationship to plague. Univ. Calif. 

Publ. Entomol. No. 53, Univ. Calif. Berkeley. 
Turner, R.W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. U. of 

Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 60. 178 pp. 
Whitaker, J.O. 1979. Origin and evaluation of the external parasite fauna of western jumping 

mice. Genus Zapus. Amer. Midi. Nat. 101: 49-60. 
Woods, C.E. and O.R. Larson. 1969. North Dakota fleas. II. Records from man and other 

mammals. Proc. N.D. Acad. Science 23: 31-40. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

(Continued from page 37) 

DISCRIMINATION OF GENERA OF EUPLECTINI OF NORTH & CENTRAL 
AMERICA (COLEOPTERA: PSELAPHIDAE). A.A. Grigarick & R.O. Schuster. 1980. 
Vol. 87. 56 pp. 79 pi. $14.00. 

BE H A VIOR& TAXONOMY OF THE EPICAUTA MACUL4 TA GROUP (COLEOPTERA: 
MELOIDAE). J.D. Pinto. 1980. Vol. 89. 1 1 1 pp. 141 figs. $12.00. 

NESTING BIOLOGY & ASSOCIATES OF MELITOMA (HYMENOPTERA: AN- 
THOPHORIDAE). E.G. Linsley. J.W. MacSwain, C.D. Michener. 1980. Vol. 90. 45 pp. 8 
figs. $6.00. 

ADULT & IMMATURE TABANIDAE(DIPTERA)OF CALIFORNIA. W.W.MiddlekaufT. 
R.S. Lane. 1 980. Bull, of the Calif. Insect Survey, Vol. 22. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley. 99 
pp. 133 figs. $10.50. 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BOOK REVIEW 

CALIFORNIA INSECTS: Jerry A. Powell and Charles L. Hogue, pages 1-388, 458 
line drawings, 16 color plates. California Natural History Guides: 44. University of 
California Press, Berkeley. $15.95. 

The purpose of this book is to serve as a compact introduction to the identification and 
biology of the California insects. It is a small-sized book (20 cm x 12 cm) in soft-back, well 
bound and easily held in the hand. Its design is suitable for carrying in large pocket or rucksack. 
With more than 28,000 insect species estimated to be in California in a variety of habitats 
more diverse than encountered in many countries twice its size, the authors had a formidable 
task to accomplish. 

The book begins with a very brief introduction concerning the physiology of insects and 
abruptly moves to a lengthy chapter on diversity and topography. A discussion of life zones is 
included with reasoning given why the authors prefer the scheme proposed by Alden Miller for 
birds. A map of California with the life zones outlined should prove interesting to most 
naturalists. There is a brief section listing 20 common microhabitats of insects. The next 
chapter is entitled "Structure and Classification" and contains a concise but better-than- 
average explanation of the binomial system of nomenclature. An innovative approach to 
structure follows with the orders listed phylogenetically with a small marginal drawing 
accompanying a synoptic description. At least 2 orders are covered in a single page. The 
audience to which the book is directed will not be overwhelmed by detailed morphology and 
terms but will learn enough to be able to identify insects in the following pages. The systematic 
treatment then follows. This consumes the bulk of the 388 pages of the book. Insects are 
treated order by order. Within each order there is a brief resume of the bionomics of the group 
and the major families with important species highlighted and illustrated and synoptically 
described. Each species is numbered and its number corresponds with that of its illustration. 
Some 600 species are treated in this way. Those selected were based on the kinds of insects 
most often brought in by the public to the Los Angeles County Museum (C.D. Hogue) or the 
species most often collected by students in field course of the Entomology Department, 
University of California, Berkeley (J. A. Powell). I can find no glaring omissions of common 
California insects. I think naturalists should be able to identify, at least to family, most of the 
common insects seen on the average outing. 

My biggest criticism of the book concerns the line drawings of which over 450 are 
provided. As an example I cite those dealing with the Orthoptera. Figures 5 2, 58, 59 are drawn 
considerably out of proportion, the others less so. The head, pronotum and tip of abdomen of 
the creosote bush katydid, figure 39, are not accurately depicted. This may be the result of 
studying distorted pinned specimens. The ant cricket in figure 6 3 has the hind femur appearing 
to be attached to the tip of the abdomen. In contrast are the color photographs both on the front 
cover, and those bound together in the centre of the book. They are superb, those of the cover 
have exceptionally good color rendition. 

The book concludes with a chapter "Learning more about insects", which contains useful 
lists of reference books and periodicals for those who want to extend their experiences with 
insects. There is a brief account concerning collecting and preserving insects. The book 
contains a glossary of terms and an index. 

The authors have successfully accomplished their goal. Not only will the book appeal to 
naturalists but old-hand Californian entomologists will find it difficult to put the book down 
because of the interesting ecological and factual statements made about so many species 
familiar to them. It will serve as a handy reference in office or field. The human population of 
California being what it is and the great interest in the out-of-doors held by most of its residents 
guarantee good sales for this book. Fortunately, it is one worthy of such acclaim. 

D.C.F. Rentz, CSIRO, Division of Entomology, 
P.O. Box 1700, CANBERRA CITY, A.C.T. 2601. 



Vol. 92. No. 1. January- & February' 1981 49 

NEW RECORDS OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: 
CULICIDAE) FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE 1 

John F. Burger 

ABSTRACT: Four species of mosquitoes, Aedes dorsalis, Ae. taeniorhvnchus. Culiseta 
minnesotae and Onhopodomyia signifera are reported from New Hampshire for the first 
time. 

Until 1975, mosquitoes in New Hampshire were relatively little- 
studied. Lowry (1929) reviewed the habits, distribution and general 
economic importance of mosquitoes in the state. Blickle (1952) reviewed 
the distribution of all species then known to occur in New Hampshire, 
stating that 37 species were known to be present. 

Extensive mosquito surveys since 1975 in southeastern New Hampshire 
by Jonathan Tucker. Betsy Whalen and the author resulted in the discovery 
of 4 species not previously recorded from the state: Aedes dorsalis 
(Meigen). Ae. taeniorhvnchus (Wiedemann). Culiseta minnesotae^ Barr 
and Onhopodomyia signifera (Coquillett). Determinations were con- 
firmed by the author. 

Five females of Aedes dorsalis were collected from Rockingham 
County in 1977 from CO2-baited CDC light traps. Two females were 
collected in North Hampton on 1 9 May. 1 female from Hampton Falls on 6 
October and 2 females were collected from Seabrook on 19 July. 

Six females of Aedes taeniorhvnchus were collected from Rockingham 
County in 1 977 in CO2-baited CDC light traps, 2 from North Hampton on 
14 July. 2 from Seabrook on 1 9 July, 1 from Rye on 1 1 August and 1 from 
Greenland on 1 8 August. One female voucher specimen has been deposited 
in the University of New Hampshire collection. 

Three females and 18 larvae of Culiseta minnesotae were collected 
from Rockingham County in 1977. One female each was collected from a 
CO2-baited light trap in Londonderry on 22 July. Hampton on 28 July and 



'Received September 22, 1980. 

Scientific Contribution Number 1053 from the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

Department of Entomology. University of New Hampshire. Durham. NH 03* 

^Cs. minnesotae is listed as a subspecies of Cs. silveslris (Shingarev) by Knight and Stone 
(1977). but Wood et al. (1979), following recent Russian workers, stated that the name 
silvestris was unrecognizable. Until the status of the name is clarified, minnesotae'^ retained 
as a distinct species. 



ENT. NEWS 92:(1): 49-50 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Newton on 4 August. Larvae were collected from Kingston ( 1 ) on 6 June, 
Chester (1) on 22 June, Fremont (2) on 29 June, Epping (5) on 26 July, 
Deerfield on 18 August (7), 1 September (1) and 16 September (1). All 
larvae were collected along the margins of freshwater cattail swamps 
created by beavers. 

Fourteen females of the tree hole-breeding species, Orthopodomvia 
signifera were collected in Rockingham County in 1976 and 1977. All were 
collected in CO2-baited CDC light traps. Seven females were collected in 
Epping, on 7 July 1976 (I) and 6 September 1977 (6), 1 female from 
Stratham on 4 August 1977, 1 female from Hampton Falls and 5 females 
from East Kingston on 1 September 1977. One female voucher specimen 
has been deposited in the University of New Hampshire collection. 

The above new state records increases the number of mosquito species 
known to occur in New Hampshire to 43 in 8 genera. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blickle, R.L. 1952. Notes on the mosquitoes (Culicinae) of New Hampshire. Proc. N.J. 

Mosq. Exterm. Assoc. 1952:198-202. 
Knight, K.L. and A. Stone. 1977. A catalog of the mosquitoes of the world (Diptera: 

Culicidae). Entomol. Soc. Am. (Thomas Say Found.), 6 (2nd ed.): 1-611. 
Lowry, P.R. 1929. Mosquitoes of New Hampshire. A preliminary report. N.H. Agr. Exp. 

Sta. Bull. 243, 23 pp. 
Wood, D.M., P.T. Dang and R.A. Ellis. 1979. The insects and arachnids of Canada. Pt. 6. 

The Mosquitoes of Canada (Diptera: Culicidae). Agr Canada Publ. 1686, 390 pp. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, 

SW7 5BD 

15 December, 1980 
ITZN 59 

The following Opinions have been published recently by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, Volume 37, part 4, 1 5 
December, 1980. 

Opinion No. 

1160 (p. 216) Tipula oleracea Linnaeus, 1758 and related species (Insecta, Diptera): 

stabilisation by the use of the plenary powers. 

1161 (p. 221) ChaitophorusC.L. Koch, 1854 (Insecta, Hemiptera): designation of a type 

species by use of the plenary powers. 

The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 

R.V. Melville. Secretary 



Vol. 92, No. 1, January & February' 1981 



51 



The Entomologist's Record 

To encourage the publication of concise and useful new distribution 
records, corrections of previously published erroneous records, misidenti- 
fications, short field notes, and current news items about Entomologists, 
amateur and professional. Entomology Departments and Museums, 
prompt publication is offered in this Department. 



AMNESTUS RADIALIS FROESCHNER, 1960, 

SENIOR SYNONYM OF A. SEXDENTATUS 

FROESCHNER, 1960 (HEMIPTERA: CYDNIDAE) 1 

Richard C. Froeschner^ 

In 1960 I described [Proc. U.S. National Museum. 1 1 1(3430)] two 
species of Amnestus separated by a character whose validity I questioned. 
Each was described from a single specimen: Amnestus radialis (ibid, p. 
656) from a male from Martinique, W.I., and A. sexdentatus (ibid p. 657) 
from a female from Puerto Rico. The questionable character was the 
presence of six pegs (instead of the four regularly found in the genus) on the 
apex of the clypeus of the female. Now available is a series of 10 specimens 
from Puerto Rico associating females and males of one species. The males 
clearly represent A. radialis and the females have the usual four apical pegs 
on the clypeus. The facts that these females are definitely associated with 
males of A. radialis, are from the type island of Puerto Rico, have the 
normal number of four apical pegs on the clypeus, and are in no other way 
separable from A. sexdentatus convince me that my earlier suspicion of a 
developmental anomaly producing the two extra apical clypeal pegs was 
correct and that A. sexdentatus must be reduced to a junior synonym of A. 
radialis, new synonymy. 



Received October 2. 1980. 
"Department of Entomology. Stop 1 27. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.. 20560. 



ENT. NEWS 92(1): 51 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

THE BUTTERFLIES OF OREGON. Ernest J. Dornfeld. 1980. Timber Press. P.O. Box 
92. Forest Grove, Oregon 971 16. 276 pp. 4 color pi. 48 bl. & wh. pi. 192 distrib. maps. 8': x 
1 1 format. 

A comprehensive presentation and systematic account of all the known butterflies in 
Oregon, together with important introductory material on Oregon type local iiies, Oregon's 
physiography and butterfly distribution, and biology of butterflies. 

THE WORLD OF THE TENT-MAKERS: A NATURAL HISTORY OF THE EASTERN 
TENT CATERPILLAR. V.G. Dethier. 1980. Univ. of Massachusetts Press, Amherst. 148 
pp. $12.50 cloth. $5.95 paper. 

Written in narrative style, this book explores the life cycle of a colony of eastern tent 
caterpillars and traces this insect's special life history within the total context of nature. The 
author follows the tent-makers through the seasons, looking at the problems of surviving 
temperature fluctuations, growth & development, synchronizing biological clocks, measuring 
time, navigating, following trails, and air conditioning, among other aspects of the tent 
caterpillar's life. 

INSECT WORLDS. L.J. & M. Milne. 1980. Chas. Scribner's Sons. N.Y. 274 pp. $12.95. 

Beginning with a general description of insects, the authors cover such subjects as how 
insects make the most of their environment, information on their hunting habits, how they have 
managed to survive, their messages to find mates, and how their heritage is extended by 
parental care and social interaction. As the subtitle, A Guide for Man on Making the Most of 
the Environment implies, the authors also try to show that lessons can be learned by man from 
the ecological story of insects. 

ARANEISM, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO EUROPE. Z. Maratic & D. Lebez. 
1979. Nolit Publ. House, Yugoslavia. Available through National Technical Information 
Service, PB 80-141 104. 255 pp. $15.00 U.S.A.: $30.00 outside U.S. 

A review of the natural history of spiders, especially of Europe, the anatomy of their venom 
apparatus, the nature of their venom, the clinical problem of spider venom poisoning, and the 
uses of spider venoms in medicine and biology. 

INSECT PHOTOPERIODISM. 2nd ed. Stanley D. Beck. 1 980. Academic Press, N.Y. 387 
PP- 

This text presents technical reviews of major aspects of the responses of insects to natural 
and experimental cycles of light and dark. Also discussed are daily rhythmic behaviors such as 
locomotion, feeding, mating and reproduction: circadian functions seen in the timing of 
developmental events and physiological circadian rhythms in metabolism, detoxification, 
neural and sensory functions, and hormonal functions. 

ANIMAL IDENTIFICATION, A REFERENCE GUIDE. Vol. 3: INSECTS. D. Hollis. 
ed. 1980. British Museum (Natural History), London, & John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 160 pp. 
$36.50. 

The main objective of this volume is to provide a list of primary references which will 
enable non-specialists to set about identifying insects from any part of the world. 

ENTOMOLOGY. Cedric Gillott. 1980. Plenum Press, N.Y. 729 pp. $49.50. 

An entirely new textbook intended for senior undergraduates with an elementary 
knowledge of insects from general zoology but taking theirfirstcourse in entomology. This text 
represents a departure from the traditional taxonomic approach to what the author believes is a 
more balanced treatment of the subject. Thus, although some time is devoted to taxonomy and 
identification, appropriate time is also given to discussions on evolution, development, 
physiology, and ecology of insects. Included in the latter category are the interactions between 
insects and man, stressing that these interactions follow normal ecological principles. 



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Wanted. Adult specimens of worldwide, including U.S., Lucanidae, Carabidae, Cicindelidae, 
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20017. 



US ISSN 0013-872X 



MARCH ft APRIL 1981 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Commentaries in Cultural Entomology 
2. The Myth of the Louse Line 

Charles L. Hague 53 

Records of Kentucky Tabanidae (Diptera) including 
species new to state fauna 

A.M. Burnett, C.V. Covell, Jr., L.L. Pechuman 56 

Taxonomic & distributional notes on some fungus 
feeding North American Drosophila (Diptera: 
Drosophilidae) Robert C. Lacy 59 

Treehoppers (Homoptera: Membracidae) collected 
at multiple levels in a deciduous woodlot in 
Delaware 

C.E. Mason, J.E. Loye 64 

Diptera larvae (Empididae & Chironomidae) in 
Trichoptera pupal cases (Glossosomatidae & 
Limnephilidae) 

W.S. Vinikour, R.V. Anderson 69 

Identity & status of Cambala washingtonensis 
(Diplopoda: Cambalidae) 

Rowland M. Shelley 75 

Myiasis in an Amazonian porcupine 

L.A. Lacey, T.K. George 79 



The genus Microphadnus in Australia 
(Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) 



Howard E. Evans 8 1 



BOOKS RECEIVED and BRIEFLY NOTED 



63, 84 



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Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 53 

COMMENTARIES IN CULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY 
2. THE MYTH OF THE LOUSE LINE 

Charles L. Hogue 

ABSTRACT: The 16th Century Spanish colonial chroniclers las Casas and Oviedo relate 
the curious departure and return of lice from voyagers to and from the New World. A supposed 
line of longitude, approximately 100 leagues west of the Azores, marked the place of 
occurrence of the phenomenon. The idea shortly became obscure and is apparently only a 
myth. 

Afflictions and discomforts universally met European travelers and 
mariners bound for the New World in the 16th century. With all the 
tribulations of the journey to bear, it may have been a consolation for some 
to believe that, during the voyage, they would escape their usual body lice 
and be freed from the bites of fleas. That this could happen was assured 
them by two of the earliest chroniclers of natural history in the West Indies, 
who vouched that these insects miraculously and mercifully disappeared 
from westbound ships reaching a hundred leagues beyond the Azores. 
Conversely, these same parasites emerged from hiding in great numbers on 
the eastbound passage at precisely the same meridian. 

Writing from the West Indies where he served as missionary and apostle 
to the Indians from 1 500 to 1 547. Fr. Bartolome de las Casas described the 
phenomenon in these words: 

... for the trip to these Indies we see a singular and notable thing: that up to the 
Canaries and a hundred leagues this side, or in the vicinity of the Azores, many lice 
breed, but from there to here they all begin to die and upon arriving at the first islands, 
there is no man breeding a single one: on the return to Castile all the ships and the 
people proceed clean of these creatures until arriving at said limit: from there onward. 
as if lying in wait, they return in great and bothersome numbers. ( 1 ) 

Gonsalo Fernandez de Oviedo. contemporary and adversary of las 
Casas and official historian of the period in the Spanish colonies, related the 
same story, and more sharply delineated the zone of decontamination: 

... for after passing by the meridian where the compass needle indicates the change of 
the southwesterlies to the northeasterlies. which is in the vicinity of the A/ores, and 
travelling on a short distance in the course of our voyage on the westwind. all the lice 
borne by Christians and breeding on their heads and bodies die and disappear . and it 



Received November 6, 1980. 

Curator of Entomology. Natural History' Museum of Los Angeles County. 900 Exposition 
Blvd.. Los Angeles. California 90007. 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 53-55 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



is notable also how Christian men, clean in head and body from this filthiness in the 
Indies, when returning to Europe and again arriving at the same place in the ocean 
where the plague ceased before, suddenly, as if the lice were lying in wait for them, are 
reafflicted and not able to be free of them even though they change their shirts two or 
three times a day . . . This I have well verified, having made the trip four times myself. 
(2) 

That these anecdotes were more than sea stories and with whom they 
actually originated is not known. The idea seems to have lost credence 
following its first accounting, since there appear to be almost no published 
verifications from the hundreds of subsequent sailing voyages made by 
other writers, historians and naturalists. Only a passage in a footnote in Sir 
Francis Drake's narrative of his circumnavigation of the world (1577-9), 
raises the issue again and provides us a clue as to how the myth of the "louse 
line" may have started: 

Where unto allso let me putt the third, a thing worthy the noting, that in our passing from 
our country, being winter, lice increased infinitely on the cloathes of our men, and were 
a great plague to many; but no sooner were wee com within the burning zone, but they 
all dyed and consumed away of themselves, so that till wee came beyond the southerly 
tropic to Braesilia, there was not to be found one among us. (3) 

The louse (Pediculus humanus] is extremely susceptible to increases in 
temperature over the optimum provided by the normal heat of the human 
body. It is conceivable that the clothing and supradermal temperatures of 
voyagers to the tropics might easily rise above normal body temperature a 
critical 4 degrees F (2.2 degrees C) (4) and cause the demise of these 
ectoparasites. Clothing may have been shed also, reducing suitable habitat, 
the overall result being decrease in the louse population. That this would 
take place at a precise longitude, however, is fantasy. 

Since the time of Drake, the myth seems to have eluded almost all 
further attention except for brief, relatively modern references in en- 
tomological works, all traceable to Oviedo's account (5, 6, 7). The treatment 
by las Casas appears to have escaped notice by entomologists, although it is 
well known to historians (8). We do not know if the original "observations" 
by las Casas and Oviedo were, in fact, independent and original. Both may 
have been repeating a sailor's tale, although both claim to be relating 
personal experience. 

Another delightful, though oblique, literary allusion to the "louse line" 
occurs in Cervantes' famous novel, Don Quixote. During their ill-fated 
adventure on the "enchanted bark," when Sancho Panza asks how close 
they had come to the Equator, the errant knight replies: 

The Spaniards, said he, and all those that Embark at Cadiz for the East-Indies, to know 
whether they have pass'd the Equinoctial- Line, according to an Observation that has 
been often expericnc'd, need do no more than look whether there be any Lice left alive 



Vol. 92, No. 2. March & April 1981 55 



among the Ship's Crew, for if they have pass'd it, not a Louse is to be found in the Ship, 
though they would give his weight in Gold for him.(9) 

A final irresistable reflection on the myth derives from the fact that the 
place of parting between louse and man corresponded approximately to the 
first line of demarcation drawn through the Atlantic Ocean to separate the 
territorial claims of Spain (to the west) and Portugal (to the east). The 
particular meridian was suggested by Columbus and granted to the kings of 
the two countries in a Papal Bull dated 4 May 1493. Was the famous 
navigator really the first to discover the "louse line" and. owing his 
allegiance to Ferdinand and Isabella, to make sure that competing Portugal 
got the lousy side of the world? 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I wish to acknowledge the assistance with historical sources kindly extended to me by Drs. 
Harry Kelsey and Janet Fireman of the Anthropology and History Division. Natural History 
Museum, Los Angeles County. 

LITERATURE CITED* 

( 1 ) Fr. Bartolome de las Casas, Historia de las Indias (Composed between 1 527 and 
1563 but not published until 1 875-6, Madrid) Original source. D. Serrano y Sanz 
Historiadores de Indias ( Madrid, 1 909) Tomo I, Apologetica Historia de las Indias 
de Fr. Bartolome de las Casas. p. 44- From which author's English translation from 
Castillian made. 

(2) Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes, Sumario de la natural historia de las 
Indias (Toledo, 1526) Original source. Author's English translation from 1950 
edition, Biblioteca Americana. Fondo de Cultura Economica. Mexico, Jose Miranda 
ed., pp. 243-4. 

(3) John Drake. The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake. Being his next voyage 
to that to Nombre de Dios. Etc. (Nicholas Bourne. London. 1628). Hakluyt Society 
Works No. 16 (London. 1854). p. 34. 

(4) M.T. James & R.F. Harwood, Herms's Medical Entomologv (6 ed.. New York. 
1969), p. 138. 

(5) Frank Cowan, Curious Facts in the History oflnsects etc. (Philadelphia. 1865). p. 
317. 

(6) Hans Zinsser, Rats, Lice and History (Boston, 1935), p. 262. 

(7) Bar. G.L.C.D. Cuvier, The Animal Kingdom (London edition with supplementary 
additions to each order by Edward Griffith, 1832), vol. 14. p. 150 (reprinting of 
original wording from Regne. 4 nimal written by P. Latreille) and p. 163 (supplement to 
the orders by Griffith). 

(8) Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America, The Southern Vovages 
A.D. 1492-1616 (New York, 1974). pp. 97-98. 

(9) Miguel de Cervantes Saavadra, El ingenioso hildago don Quijote de la Mancha, 
Part 2 ( Madrid. 1615) Original source in Castillian. Author's quote from Random 
House Modern Library College English edition (New York, 1950). pp. 633-634. 

The format use in the literature citations above is consistent with the historical nature of this 
paper Ed. 



56 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



RECORDS OF KENTUCKY TABANIDAE 
(DIPTERA) INCLUDING SPECIES NEW TO THE 

STATE FAUNA 1 

Alta M. Burnett, Charles V. Covell, Jr., L.L. Pechuman 2 

ABSTRACT: Collecting data are reported for 28 species of Tabanidae from Kentucky, 
including 6 new state records which increase the known state tabanid fauna to 60 species. 

A revised annotated checklist of 54 species of Tabanidae from 
Kentucky, including 1 3 new state records, was published recently (Burnett 
el al. 1978). The following information is an addendum to that list and 
includes six new state records. With one exception which is noted, all of the 
county records reported here are new. New seasonal records for those 
previously reported species which are listed here are italicized. The name of 
the collector when known concludes each entry. 

The records presented here are based upon specimens in the University 
of Louisville, the Illinois Natural History Survey and the University of 
Kentucky collections. 

Again the arrangement of genera and species follows that of Philip in 
Stone et al. (1965). Thus species are listed alphabetically within each 
genus, not in any presumed phylogenetic order. 

SUBFAMILY CHRYSOPINAE 
Genus Chrysops Meigen 

Chrysops callidus Osten Sacken. Ballard Co.. 3 km NW of Barlow, 27 July 1978. D.W. 
Webb; Edmonson Co., Bylew Creek, 5 mi NE of Brownsville, 28-30 May 1978, E.A. 
Lisowski; Hart Co., Munfordville. 14 May 1979, E.A. Lisowski; Warren Co.. 1 mi SE of 
Anna, 27 May 1979, E.A. Lisowski. The county listed for the Lake Sympson entry in our 
initial paper was in error. The entry stands corrected as follows: Nelson Co., vie. Lake 
Sympson, 7 July 1972, C.V. Covell, Jr. 

Chrysops calvus Pechuman and Teskey. NEW STATE RECORD. Edmonson Co., Bylew 
Creek, 5 mi NE of Brownsville, 28-30 May 1978, E.A. Lisowski. 

Chrysops cincticornis Walker. NEW STATE RECORD. Hart Co., Munfordville, 14 May 
1979, E.A. Lisowski. 



1 Received October 11, 1980. 

Respective addresses: Dept. of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292: 
Dept. of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292; and Dept. of Entomology. 
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. University of Louisville Contribution in Biology No. 
198 (New Series). 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 56-58 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 57 



Chrysops flavidus Wiedemann. Christian Co.. Pennyrile Forest State Resort Park. 18 June 
1979. C.C. Cornett. 

Chrysops impiiin-iiis Krober. Menifee Co.. Red Riser Gorge. 20 July 1979. T. Johnson. 

Chrvsops nni a/ u urn Philip. Bullitt Co.. Bernheim Forest. 2 June 1977. S. Reigler: Warren 
Co.. 1 mi SE of Anna. 27 May 1979. E.A. Lisowski. 

Chrvsops nigcr Macquart. Mercer Co.. 4 May 1951. 

Chrvsops pikci Whitney. Ballard Co.. 3 km NW of Barlow. 27 July 1978. D.W. Webb: 
Warren Co.. 1 mi SE of Anna. 27 May 1979, E.A. Lisowski. 

Chrvsops rcichcrn Fairchild. NEW STATE RECORD. Ballard Co.. 3 km NW of Barlow. 27 
July 1978. D.W. Webb. 

Chrysops sei/iiax tun Philip. NEW STATE RECORD. Shelby Co.. 9 Sept. 1977. L.E. 
McCoy. 

Chrysops npsilon Philip. Fulton Co.. Reel foot National Wildlife Refuge. 16 Sept. 1979. C.V. 
Covell, Jr. 

Chrysops vinuius Wiedemann. Bullitt Co.. Bernheim Forest. 27-31 July 1977. Malaise trap. 

SUBFAMILY TABANINAE 
Genus Chlorolabanus Lutz 

Chlorotabainis crcpnscnluris (Bequaert). NEW STATE RECORD. Trigg Co.. Land 
Between the Lakes, 24 June 1971, P.M. Freytag and G. Leppert. 

Genus Tabanus Linnaeus 

Ta ha mis atruins Fabricius. Casey Co.. Liberty. 1 May 1957; Taylor Co., Campbellsville. 7 
Oct. 1953. 

Fahanns calens Linnaeus. Rockcastle Co.. Rockcastle River. 1 mi E ol'Bilows, 15 Aug. 1978. 
L.M. Page. 

Tahanns cxilipalpis Stone. NEW STATE RECORD. Edmonson Co.. Bylew Creek. 5 mi 
NE of Brownsville. 28-30 May 1978. E.A. Lisowski. 

Tahanns fulvu Ins Wiedemann. Edmonson Co.. Mammoth Cave National Park. 8 mi E of 
Brownsville. 8 June 1978. E.A. Lisowski; Menifee Co.. Red River Gorge. 21 July 1979. T. 
Johnson; Nelson Co.. Gethsemane, 9 July 1966. 

Tahanns molcstns molestus Say. Edmonson Co.. Mammoth Cave National Park. 8 mi E of 
Brownsville. 8 June 1978. E.A. Lisowski: Henry Co.. 25 Sept. 1977. P.D Barker. 

Tahanns pallidcsccns Philip. Edmonson Co.. Mammoth Cave National Park. 8 mi E of 
Brownsville. 8 June 1978. E.A. Lisowski: Fayettc Co.. Lexington. II Oct. 1965. L.M. 
Townsend. 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Ta ha mis c/uinqiieriitatits Wiedemann. Bullitt Co.. Bernheim Forest. 27-31 July 1977. 
Malaise trap. 

Tabanus sackeni Fairchild. Hardin Co., Vertrees, Route 920, 5 Aug. 1974, M.E. Krai; 
Jefferson Co., Louisville, 8 Sept. 1 976 and 1 1 Sept. 1 977, J.A. Long and C.F. Yates; Meade 
Co.. Otter Creek Park. 27 July and 10 and 17 Aug. 1979, T. Johnson and C.V. Covell, Jr.; 
MenifeeCo., Red River Gorge, 21 July 1979,7. Johnson; RockcastleCo., Rockcastle River, 
1 mi E of Bilows, 1 5 Aug. 1978, L.M. Page; Russell Co.. Lake Cumberland State Resort Park. 
14 Aug. 1979. C.C. Cornett. 

Tahanits spams Whitney. Bullitt Co., Bernheim Forest, 2 June 1977, S. Rcigler. 

Tahanus siihlongus Stone. Bullitt Co., Bernheim Forest, 27-31 July and 1-14 Aug. 1977. 
Malaise trap; Jefferson Co., Louisville. 8 Sept. 1976, J.A. Long. 

Tahanus suhsiuiilis Bellardi. Clark Co., Winchester. 20 May 195 1; Meade Co.. Otter Creek 
Park. 10, 17 Aug. 1979. 7. Johnson; Nelson Co.. Gethsemane. 9 July 1966; Shelby Co.. 
Shelbyville. 2 June 1966. 

Tahanus sp., nr. sulcifrons Macquart. Hopkins Co.. Madisonville, 7 Oct. 1977, E. DiBlasi. 

Tahanus lurhidus Wiedemann. Edmonson Co.. Mammoth Cave National Park. 8 mi E of 
Brownsville, 8 June 1978, E.A. Lisowski (not new county record); Hart Co., E of Mammoth 
Cave National Park. 2 mi SW of Northtown, 4 Aug. 1979, E.A. Lisowski. 

Genus Hybomitra Enderlein 

Hvhomitra difficilis (Wiedemann). Edmonson Co.. Mammoth Cave National Park, 27 May 
1979, E.A. Lisowski; Warren Co., 1 mi SE of Anna, 27 May 1979, E.A. Lisowski. 

Hvhomitra lasiophtluilma (Macquart). Edmonson Co.. Bylew Creek, 5 mi NE of Brownsville, 
28-30 May 1978, E.A. Lisowski; Hart Co., 1 mi SSE of Rowletts, 11-14 May 1979. E.A. 
Lisowski; Russell Co., Fonthill, 12 May 1957. 

ACKNOWLEDGMEN7S 

We thank RozennaCarr for curatorial assistance, Donald W. Webb for the loan of Illinois 
Natural History Survey specimens and Paul H. Frcytag for providing data from the University 
of Kentucky tabanid collection. 

LI7ERA7URE CI7ED 

Burnett, Alta M., Charles V. Covell, Jr., and L.L. Pechuman. 1978. 7he horse flies and 

deer flies of Kentucky: new state records and a revised annotated checklist (Diptera: 

7abanidae). Ent. News 89(7&8): 197-200. 
Philip, C.B. 1965. Family 7abanidae, in Stone, A.. C.W. Sabrosky, W.W. Wirth, R.H. 

Foote and J.R. Coulson. A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. Agr. 

Handbook No. 276, USDA, 1696 pp. 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 59 

TAXONOMIC AND DISTRIBUTIONAL NOTES ON 

SOME FUNGUS-FEEDING NORTH AMERICAN 

DROSOPHILA (DIPTERA, DROSOPHILIDAE)' 

Robert C. Lacy 2 

ABSTRACT: Comparison of type specimens and examination of variation in natural 
populations indicates Drosophila ordinaria Coquillett. D. melanderi Sturtevant. and D. 
magnafumosa Stalker and Spencer to be synonomous species designations. Drosophila 
reccns, previously known only from northern states, is reported to be present in the Great 
Smoky Mts., Tennessee. The known distribution of D. cliagrinensis is also extended, with the 
report of a specimen collected in Ithaca. New York. 

During recent studies of fungus-feeding Drosophilidae in eastern North 
America, it became apparent that three species names, Drosophila 
ordinaria, D. melanderi and D. magnafumosa, might be synonomous. 
Below are the formal synonomy, a discussion of the evidence which led to 
this taxonomic revision, and a more complete description of the species. 
Also given are notes extending the known distributions of Drosophila 
recens, and D. chagrincnsis. Extensive lists of the host fungi of the 
mycophagous drosophilid fauna of eastern North America will be pub- 
lished later in papers dealing with the ecology of these flies. 

Drosophila ordinaria 

Drosophila ordinaria Coquillett 1904. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 6:190. female. Type locality: 

White Mountains, New Hampshire. Type in USNM. 
Drosophila melanderi Sturtevant. 1916. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 9:337, female type and 

paratype. Type locality: Tacoma. Washington State. Type in USNM. Syn. nov. 
Drosophila magnafumosa Stalker and Spencer, 1939, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 32:1 12. male. 

Type locality: Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Tennessee. Type in USNM. Syn. 



BASIS FOR THE SYNONOMY. The lack of characteristics for 
clearly distinguishing among flies of the melanderi group and the possible 
synonomy of the American species has been noted in the past by Marshall 
R. Wheeler (personal communication to Peter F. Brussard). The published 
differences are slight, and are fully encompassed by the range of variability 
within populations that I have sampled in Tompkins County, New York and 
the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. A study was therefore undertaken 
to compare specimens of ordinaria, melanderi, and magnafumosa for all 
morphological characters commonly used in Drosophila taxonomy. The 



1 Received July 1 1, 1980. 

^Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, Ithaca. New York 14850. 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 59-63 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

type specimen of magnafumosa was kindly loaned by Harrison Stalker; 
specimens of larval, pupal and adult melanderi from Trinidad, California 
were supplied by Herman Spieth; the type and other specimens of 
melanderi and the type of ordinaria were made available by Don Davis of 
the USNM. No consistent differences were noted among these flies or the 
collections I made in New York and Tennessee. Some eggs, larvae and 
pupae were obtained during attempts to establish stocks of New York and 
Tennessee flies. Comparison with the melanderi larvae and pupae from 
California revealed no differences in mouth hook structure, puparium color 
or size, or spiracle morphology. Egg filaments appeared identical in the 
Tennessee and New York populations. 

Drosophila ordinaria was known previously only from female spec- 
imens, while magnafumosa was described from a male specimen. Perhaps 
this hindered earlier attempts to verify the synonomy. Ordin aria-like 
females and magnajumosa-like males have been reared in my lab from 
single wild-caught females. Breeding tests comparing melanderi with the 
other forms have not been possible due to a lack of success in maintaining, 
for more than one generation, cultures from flies collected in New York and 
Tennessee. Spieth (pers. comm. to Peter F. Brussard) was similarly 
unsuccessful in retaining a culture of melanderi from California. 

Preparations of the external male genitalia have been made from 
specimens collected in Tennessee, from specimens collected in New York, 
and from Spieth's specimens from California. The male genital region is 
found no differences in the genital morphology of flies from the different 
populations. Hsu (1949), however, illustrated differences in the male 
genitalia of melanderi and magnafumosa. Melanderi was shown as having 
two large teeth at the corner of the anal plate, while magnafumosa was 
stated as lacking these teeth. All specimens that I have examined, whether 
from Tennessee, New York or California, have the two larger bristles as 
shown in Hsu's figure of melanderi and in Fig. 1 of this paper. Hsu also 
stated that melanderi has 10 teeth on the secondary clasper (the stalked 
structure with a row of short, closely spaced teeth in Fig. 1), while 
magnafumosa has only seven. Each specimen I examined clearly has 8 
teeth in the row. 

Drosophila ordinaria 

Female. Arista with about 5 branches above and one below, in addition to the terminal 
fork. Head and antennae brownish yellow. Front over one-third width of head. Only one 
prominent oral bristle (the vibrissa). Cheeks brownish yellow, their greatest width one-fourth 
the greatest diameter of the eyes. Eyes with sparse blond pile. Second orbital one-third size of 
the other two. 

Acrostichal hairs in six rows. Anterior dorsocentrals close to posterior dorsocentrals. 
Mesonotum, scutellum, pleurae and legs brownish yellow. Mesonotum with a median darker 
stripe. Anterior scutellars parallel to divergent. Apical and preapical bristles on first and 
second tibia, preapicals on third. 



Vol. 92. No. 2, March & April 1981 



61 





2 




3 



Figures 1-3. Male genitalia of Drosophila ordinaria Coquillett. Specimen from Ithaca. 
N.Y. 1. The entire copulatory apparatus in semivcntrnl view. 2. The penis apparatus in 
ventral view. 3. The penis apparatus in lateral view. 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Abdomen brownish yellow. Each segment with a dark brown posterior band, widely 
interrupted medially. Banding widens to fill out lateral areas. 

Wings clear. Only one large bristle at distal costal break. Costal index about 2.9; fourth 
vein index about 1 .4; 5x index about 1 .4; 4c index about 0.8. Heavy bristles on basal two-fifths 
of third costal section. 

Length body 2.8 mm; wing 3.0 mm. 

Male. Genital region dark brown and conspicuous. Thorax somewhat darker than in 
females. Abdominal banding darker and reaching closer to anterior edge of segments. 

Egg. 0.6 mm long. Four filaments, each about 1/2 the length of the egg. 

Puparium. Each anterior spiracle with about six branches, without definite stalk. 

Distribution. Tacoma, Washington (A.L. Melander); Mt. Constitution, Washington 
( A.L. Melander); Trinidad, California (H.T. Spieth); Montana, Minnesota (these two states 
listed by Strickberger, 1962, as being in the known geographic range of melanderi); St. John's 
Co., Quebec (C.W. Johnson); White Mountains, New Hampshire (H.K. Morrison, type 
material); Chester, Massachusetts (C.W. Johnson); Ithaca, New York, elevation 1050 ft. 
(R.C. Lacy); Six-Mile Creek, Dryden-Caroline, New York, elev. 1 370 ft. (R.C. Lacy); Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, elev. 4000 ft. (W.P. Spencer); Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park, Tennessee: elev. 4500 ft., Cosby Creek; Clingman's Dome Road, 
elev. 6000 ft., Walker Prong, elev. 3 1 50 ft., Husky Brook, elev. 2550 ft., Elkmont area, elev. 
2 100 ft., LeConte Creek, 1600 ft.. Little Pigeon River, elev. 1 550 ft. (R.C. Lacy). Specimens 
from New York and Tennessee have been deposited in the USNM and the Cornell University 
collections. 

The species seems to be distributed across the northern United States, 
into southeastern Canada, and down the Appalachian Mountains. In the 
Smoky Mts. ordinaria is quite rare below 3000 feet, but common at the 
higher elevations where the climate and vegetation resemble that found in 
the more northerly part of its range. Other primarily northern Drosophila, 
D. athabasca Sturtevant and Dobzhansky, D. algonquin Sturtevant and 
Dobzhansky (both in the ajfinis species group), and D. recens (see below) 
show similar patterns of distribution in the eastern United States. 

The melanderi species group, which also contains several Palearctic 
species, D. makinoiOkada in Japan, and D. camemria Haliday in Europe, 
Iran, Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands, should perhaps now be labelled 
as the ordinaria species group. 

Drosophila ordinaria have been raised from 16 genera of Basidio- 
mycete fungi collected in New York and Tennessee, including all species of 
fleshy fungi that were reasonably well sampled. 

EXTENSION OF THE KNOWN RANGES OF DROSOPHILA 
RECENS AND D. CHAGRINENSIS 

Drosophila recens Wheeler has been reported to be a rare species of the 
quinaria species group, distributed from New England, across the northern 
United States and southern Canada, as far west as North Dakota. I here 
report that recens is a fairly common mycophagous fly in the Great Smoky 
Mountains, Tennessee. I collected many specimens in July and August of 
1979 and 1980, at the sites listed above for ordinaria. Like ordinaria, 
recens is found primarily at the higher elevations, above 3000 feet. 



Vol. 92, No. 2. March & April 1981 63 



Drosophila chagrinensis Stalker and Spencer is a quite rare species of 
the subgenus Hirtodrosophila, only a few specimens of which have been 
reported from Ohio, Wisconsin and Iowa (Strickberger, 1962). In 
September 1980 I reared a single female chagrinensis from a jelly fungus 
(Tremella sp.) that was collected along Six-Mile Creek, Dryden-Caroline. 
New York, elev. 1370 ft. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank the National Park Service and especially Dr. Gary Larson of the Uplands Field 
Research Lab. Great Smoky Mountains National Park, for the opportunity to conduct field 
research in the park. Dr. William L. Brown. Jr. offered valuable advice on the preparation of 
the manuscript. An anonymous reviewer pointed out the discrepancy with Hsu ( 1949). and 
suggested the discussion of the distribution of the ordinaria species group. I thank Steven 
Sierigk for preparing initial illustrations, which I modified slightly to produce Figs. 1-3. This 
research was conducted while I was an NSF Predoctoral Fellow, and was supported in part by 
NSF Grant DEB-7922141 to Dr. Peter F. Brussard. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hsu, T.C. 1949. The external genital apparatus of male Drosophilidae in relation to 
systematics. Studies in the Genetics of Drosophila VI. Univ. of Texas Publ. 4920: 80- 
142. 

Strickberger, M.W. 1962. Experiments in genetics with Drosophila. John Wiley and Sons. 
New York 144 p. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

FLIES OF THE NEARCTIC REGION. Graham C.D. Griffiths, ed. 1 980. E. Schweizerbart'sche 
Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nagele u. Obermiller). Stuttgart. Available in USA from Lubreclu & 
Cramer. RFD 1. Box 227. Monticello. N.Y. 12701. 

A new series of definitive reference works intended to be a counterpart to the Palaearctic 
series. This new series is planned to consolidate the achievements of No. American 
dipterology during the present century and provide a sound basis for continuing progress 
during the next. It is hoped the work can be completed by the year 2000. 

FLIES OF THE NEARCTIC REGION. Vol. I. Part 1. HISTORY OF NEARCTIC 
DIPTEROLOGY. Alan Stone. 1980. 62 pp. $38.80. 

A very appropriate and interesting handbook to introduce the new series. Section headings 
include: 1. Introduction. 2. Major Entomological Publications (a review). 3. History of the 
Families of Diptera. (with references cited), 4. The Generic Names of Meigen. and 5. Some 
Leading Specialists, containing brief biographical sketches of 56 authors who have proposed 
more than 100 names for Nearctic Diptera. (with references cited). 

FLIES OF THE NEARCTIC REGION. Vol. V. Part 1 3. BOMBYLIIDAF. No. 1 Jack C. 
Hall & Neil L. Evenhuis. 1980. 96 pp. $44.40 

This No. 1 volume deals entirely with a systematic review of the genus Bombylius, with a 
key to nearctic species. 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

TREEHOPPERS (HOMOPTERAiMEMBRACIDAE) 
COLLECTED AT MULTIPLE LEVELS IN A 
DECIDUOUS WOODLOT IN DELAWARE 1 2 

Charles E. Mason , Jenella E. Loye 

ABSTRACT: Fifty-five species of Membracidae were collected by handpicking, sweeping 
and sticky-cylinder trapping. The latter occurred at levels ranging from 1-27 m above ground 
level and produced 82% of the species collected. Most species (53) were taken at levels of 3 m 
or less by the combination of methods. Some species were collected most abundantly at levels 
of 6-27 m. 

Other than Bray and Triplehorn (1953), little attention has been given to 
the treehopper fauna of Delaware until recently. Bray and Triplehorn 
(1953) found 9 species of treehoppers in their survey of red and pin oak. 
Mason and Loye (1981) listed 61 species in the state and reported on a 
number of plant associations. 

This study was initiated to survey the membracid species in a deciduous 
woodlot located at the University of Delaware. It was decided that some 
trapping should be done at a range of levels extending from the ground to the 
forest canopy. This was to ensure that tree dwelling species would be 
represented in the survey. 

We are not aware of any publications on the systematic collection of 
treehoppers at various heights in wooded habitats. Kopp and Yonke ( 1970) 
reported on treehopper species collected by various methods, including 
sticky-boards placed in trees at unspecified heights as well as near ground 
level, but no separation was made between species taken near ground level 
and in trees. 

METHODS AND MATERIALS 

The study was conducted from May to October, 1978, and May to 
August, 1979, at the Department of Entomology and Applied Ecology 
woodlot located on the University of Delaware Agricultural Research 



'Received October 14, 1980. 

"Published with the approval of the Director of the Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station 
as Miscellaneous Paper No. 92 1; contribution No. 501 of the Department of Entomology 
and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 

" Department of Entomology and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware. Newark, 
Delaware 1971 1. 

Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman 73019. 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 64-68 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 65 



Farm in Newark, DE. The woodlot is a 40 acre densely wooded area with 
Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer nibnim, Liquidambar styraciflua, and 
Quercus sp. as the predominant species. 

Sticky-cylinder traps were maintained at several locations representing 
as many different plant associations as practical. The traps were placed at 
various heights and kept at these levels throughout the study, except when 
being serviced. The number of traps at each height was as follows: 9 traps at 
1 m; 5 traps at each level of 3 m, 6 m, and 9 m: and 2 traps at each level of 1 2 
m. 15m, 1 8 m, 2 1 m, 24 m. and 27m. The traps at 2 1 m. 24 m, and 27m 
were added in 1979. 

Cylindrical sticky traps were selected since Adlerz ( 1 976 ) found no 
difference between this type and vertical sticky boards for numbers of aphid 
species captured. Each cylinder consisted of a 30 cm length of 10 cm 
diameter Crestline plastic drain pipe. The outer surface of each drain pipe 
was painted with X r y'on flourescent yellow spray paint. A piece of 
transparent Tefla/ plastic, cut to fit the outer surface of the cylinder, was 
attached to the cylinder with paper clips and then coated with Tanglefoot 
adhesive. Sticky-cylinder traps were secured to wooden stakes at the 1 m 
level. At levels from 3-27 m, the traps were attached to ropes which were 
suspended from pulleys afixed to tree branches. The ropes were maintained 
from the pulleys so that the traps could be raised to the desired height for the 
trapping period and lowered for servicing. The end of the portion of rope 
attached to the trap was tied so that the trap was maintained in a vertical 
position. The free portion of the rope was tied at an angle to keep it from 
contacting the sticky surface of the trap. 

The sticky-cylinder traps were serviced by removing treehoppers and 
recoating with adhesive. Adhesive was removed from specimens by 
washing them in xylene. Servicing was conducted each week during 1978. 
Because specimens and adhesive were retained in excellent condition for a 
longer period, servicing was performed at two week intervals in 1979. 

Additional collections were made from low level vegetation by sweeping 
with a standard 30 cm insect net and by handpicking specimens directly 
from the plant. 

Membracid specimens were preserved in alcohol or pinned, identified 
and placed in the Entomological Collection at the University of Delaware. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

A total of 5 5 membracid species was collected in this study . The species 
are listed in Table 1 along with the total number of adults taken at each level 
of sticky-cylinder traps and those captured by handpicking and sweeping 
from vegetation near ground level. The number of species taken in our study 
is analogous with that of Dennis and Dicke (1953) where 50 species were 
collected in a 150-200 acre arboretum in Wisconsin. 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Of the total species collected, 82% were taken by sticky-cylinder traps. 
Of this category, 64% of the species were trapped within the levels of 6-27 
m. Also, 82% of the trapped species were taken at the single level of 1 m. 

More species (85%) were collected by handpicking and sweeping than 
all sticky traps combined. Similarly, Kopp and Yonke (1970) found 
sweeping and handpicking to be the most productive collecting method. 

Only two species, Glossonotus crataegi (Fitch) and Telamona \\~estcotti 
Coding, involving three specimens, were taken solely within the levels of 6- 
27 m. Given sufficient numbers of each species, it may be concluded that 
nearly all treehopper species can be collected in the 0-3 m space of a 
wooded area. 

When considering the species collected most abundantly on sticky- 
cylinder traps (Table 2), three distinct patterns of height can be seen. 
Entylia carinata (Forster), Acutalis tartarea (Say) and Micrutalis calva 
(Say) were most abundant at the 1 m level. Telamona decorata Ball and T. 
monticola (F.) were most frequently taken from traps at high levels of 6-27 
m. Cyrtolobus tuberosus (Fairmaire) and C. dixianus Woodruff were 
spread across levels of 1-15 m. 

This study has shown that, when surveying for treehopper species in a 
wooded area by handpicking, sweeping and sticky-cylinder trapping, few 
additional species may be gained by placing sticky-cylinder traps 6 m or 
higher above the ground. However, some tree dwelling species can be more 
abundantly collected at the higher levels, which gives an indication of 
population stratification in a deciduous forest. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We wish to acknowledge Duane Flynn of Michigan State University and James P. Kramer 
of the U.S. National Museum for their assistance in making species determinations and for 
their helpful suggestions. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Adlerz, W.C. 1976. Comparison of aphids trapped on vertical sticky board and cylindrical 

aphid traps and correlation with watermelon mosaic virus 2 incidence. J. Econ. Entomol. 

69:495-498. 
Bray, D.F. and C.A. Triplehorn. 1953. Survey of the insect fauna of red and pin oaks in 

Delaware. Univ. Delaware Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 297. 28p. 
Dennis, C.J., and R.J. Dicke. 1953. The Membracidae of the University of Wisconsin 

Arboretum. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters 42:131-141. 
Kopp, D.D., and T.R. Yonke. 1970. Annotated List of treehopper species (Homoptera: 

Membracidae) of Missouri and evaluation of collection methods. Trans. Missouri Acad. 

Sci. 4:76-83. 
Mason, C.E. and J.E. Loye. 1981. An Annotated List of Treehoppers (Homoptera: 

Membracidae) of Delaware. Entomol. News. 92:1:33-37. 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 



67 



Table 1. Total number of adult treehoppers collected in the University of Delaware 

Woodlot during 1978 and 1979. 



Species 



Acutalis tanarea (Say) 

A rchasia belfragei Stal 

Atymna castaneae (Fitch) 

A. querei (Fitch) 

Campylenchia talipes (Say) 

Carynuta mcra (Say) 

Cyrtolobus arcuatus (Emmons) 

C. auroreus Woodruff 

C. discoidalis (Emmons) 

C. dixianus Woodruff 

C. fulginosus (Emmons) 

C. funkhoiiseri Woodruff 

C. fuscipennis VanDuzee 

C. inermis (Emmons) 

C. maculifrontis (Emmons) 

C. ova t us VanDuzee 

C. pallidifrontis (Emmons) 

C. pulchellus Woodruff 

C. tuberosus (Fairmaire) 

C. van (Say) 

Enchenopa binoiaia (Say) 

Entylia carinaia (Forster) 

Glossonoius acuminatus (F.) 

G. craiaegi (Fitch) 

Hadrophallus boreal is 

(Fairmaire) 

Heli riu cristata (Fairmaire) 
H. molaris (Butler) 
Helonica excelsa (Fairmaire) 
Micrutalis calva (Say) 
Ophiderma definite] Woodruff 
O. evelyna Woodruff 
O. Jlava Coding 
O. flavicephala Coding 
O. pubescens (Emmons) 
Plaiycotis vilta ta (F.) 
Publilia reticulata VanDuzee 
Smilia camelus (F.) 
Slictocepfiala bisonia Kopp & 

Yonke 

S. brevity Ins (VanDuzee) 
S. diceros (Say) 
S. litteu (Walker) 
5. taurina (Fitch) 



Hand- 
Picking/ 



Sticky-cylinder traps 



eepin 


g 1m 


3m 6m 9m 12m 15m 18m 21m 24m 27m 


64 


132 




8 


1 


2311 




3 




29 


11 


5113 1 1 


47 


3 








2 1 3 




1 




19 


1 


1 7 


7 


3 




19 


12 


13 20 3 6 2 


6 


13 


5 5 1 


2 




1 1 


3 


2 


1 


3 






2 


4 


3 


9 


12 


2 


29 


2 


9 10 5 3 






1 


30 


1 1 


32 19 8 1 


22 


8 


1 7 1 


12 


5 


4 


24 


190 


1 3 


5 


1 


1 1 11 






1 


11 


5 








1 


4 






2 




1 1 1 


7 


89 




6 


2 




6 


1 




3 


2 


2 


27 


2 


1 1 2 


9 


5 


3 2 


21 




1 




1 




14 


13 


3 


9 


1 




9 


1 1 




5 






1 






2 


4 





68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Hand- Sticky-cylinder traps 
Species Picking/ 



Sweeping 1m 3m 6m 9m 12m I5m 18m 21m 24m 27m 

Telamona ampelopsidis (Harris) 2 2 1 

/: cullina (Walker) 1 

T. decora ta Ball 3 4 1 21 24 17 23 I 2 7 2 

T. extrema Ball 3 1 1 

r. monticolu (F.) 19 3 29 8 5 13 5 1 1 1 

T. liliac Ball 5 

T. unico/or Fitch 3 2 3171 1 

T. \\'cstcotii Coding 1 1 

T/ielia bimaculuta (F.) 2 

Vanduzeea arquata (Say) 28 

Xantholobiis intermedius 

(Emmons) 1 

X. la tern Us VanDuzee 1 241 

X. nuiliciis (F.) 14 1 8 15 1 



Table 2. Most abundantly captured treehopper species on sticky-cylinder traps 
for the duration of the study in the University of Delaware Woodlot during 1978-79. 



Total Mean number of treehoppers per trap 
Species of all 



Traps 1m 3m 6m 9m 12m 15m 18m 21m 24m 27m 

Hntylia carinaia 194 21.1 0.20.6 

Acutalis tartarea 132 14.7 

Telamona dccorala 102 0.40.24.24.8 8.5 11.5 0.5 1.0 3.5 1.0 

Micruialis calm 89 9.9 

Cvrtolobus ntberosns 71 1.26.43.81.6 0.5 

Telamona monticola 66 0.3 5.8 1.6 2.5 6.5 2.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 

Cvnolobus dixianns 56 1.32.64.00.6 3.0 1.0 



Vol. 92, No. 2. March & April 1981 69 

DIPTERA LARVAE (EMPIDIDAE AND 

CHIRONOMIDAE) IN TRICHOPTERA PUPAL 

CASES (GLOSSOSOMATIDAE AND 

LIMNEPHILIDAE)' 

William S. Vinikour~, Richard V. Anderson' 

ABSTRACT: Larvae of Empididae and Chironomidae ( Diptera) were collected from pupal 
cases of the Trichoptera species Glossosoma intermedium, Hesperophylax designatus. and 
Neophvlax concinnus. Partially consumed caddisflies within several cases containing 
empidids verifies implications in the literature that dance flies feed upon immature caddisflies 
(ectoparasitism). Eukiefferiella was the most frequently encountered midge within trichopteran 
pupal cases, with Curvnoncura. Cricolopus, and Polypedilum also observed. It was 
concluded that the midges occupied the cases to obtain detrital food and to escape current 
and/or predators, rather than to prey upon the caddisflies (inquilinism). These interactions, 
particularly when parasitic, may contribute to the regulation of caddisfly populations. 

Direct relationships between Diptera and Trichoptera are poorly 
known. Published reports suggest inquilinism, sometimes accompanied by 
ectoparasitism, with either Chironomidae (Gallepp, 1974; Parker and 
Voshell, 1979) or Empididae (Knutson and Flint, 1971; 1979) occurring 
within Trichoptera pupal cases. Our studies support these findings and add 
to the list of chironomid inhabitants and infested trichopteran species. 

STUDY SITE AND METHODS 

Trichoptera were collected from two spring and seepage-fed brooks at 
Trout Park Nature Preserve (Elgin Botanical Garden). Elgin. Illinois, 
USA, which is a 10.5-hectare tract along the east bluff of the Fox River. 
Brook widths ranged from <0.3 to 2 m with depths from <5.0 cm to - 1 .0 
m. Water temperatures at the springs were ~- 1 1 .0 C. Sampling dates were 
April 7. April 25, and May 6, 1980. Trichoptera were collected by hand 
and stored individually in vials with 70% ethyl alcohol. The pupal cases 
were opened under a dissecting microscope. The caddisflies were classified 
as prepupae (here including true prepupae and pupal stages prior to larval- 
pupal ecdysis) or pupae (period beginning with larval-pupal ecdysis) (see 
Wiggins, 1977). Occurrence of dipterans in the cases were noted, and 
midges mounted for identifications. Identification followed Hilsenhoff 
(1975) (Diptera) and Ross (1944) (Trichoptera). 



'Received October 30. 1980. 



"Argonne National Laboratory, Division of Environmental Impact Studies. Argonne, Illinois 
60439. 



2 / 
( 

^Western Illinois University, Department of Biological Sciences. Macomb. Illinois 61455. 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 69-74 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

On April 7, 1 980, two of 24 pupal cases of Hesperophylax designatus 
(Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) and two of 32 cases of Glossosoma inter- 
medium (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) contained an Empididae larva. 
The empidid larvae were within decomposed remains of//, designatus but 
outside of the intact pupal cocoons in G. intermedium. Two sediment- 
ladened Glossosoma pupal cases (without the caddisfly) contained a larva 
of Cricotopus (Chironomidae) in one case and Eukiefferiella (Chironomidae) 
in the other. Flint (1980, personal communication) stated that it is not 
uncommon to observe Chironomidae inhabiting sediment-filled trichopteran 
cases that have been abandoned by the caddisfly. Our findings prompted a 
more intensive search for dipterans inhabiting pupal cases of these two 
trichopteran species. A total of 42 prepupae and 66 pupae of G. 
intermedium and 25 prepupae and 38 pupae of H. designatus were 
collected from the brooks, April 25, 1980. 

Occurrence of Diptera within the caddisfly pupal cases are summarized 
in Tables 1 (for Glossosoma) and 2 (for Hesperophylax). Chironomids 
were encountered more frequently than empidids, with Glossosoma 

Table 1. Occurrence of Diptera within pupal cases of Glossosoma intermedium. 

Cases Containing Cases Containing Total Cases 

Stream Chironomidae Empididae Examined % Infestation 

Prepupae 

1 12 2 32 43.8 

2 1 11 9.1 

Pupae 

18 7* 20 70.0 

2 15 46 32.6 

*One case with an empidid and a chironomid. 

Table 2. Occurrence of Diptera within pupal cases of Hesperophylax designatus. 

Cases Containing Cases Containing Total Cases 

Stream Chironomidae Empididae Examined % Infestation 

Prepupae 

10 8 0.0 

2 17 0.0 

Pupae 

18 1 24 37.5 

2 7 14 50.0 



Vol. 92, No.2, March & April 1981 71 



generally having a higher rate of infestation than Hesperophylax. The latter 
observation is due in part to the greater ease of penetration between stones 
(or under the sides) of Glossosoma cases compared to those of Hesperophylax. 
Additionally, Glossosoma were collected on the tops or sides of cobble in 
the main stream where Diptera would more likely seek trichopteran cases to 
escape the current. In contrast, Hesperophylax was collected from crevices 
on the undersides of wood debris (areas already protected from main 
current velocities). Complete closure of the Hesperophylax case in 
preparation for pupation would also increase the difficulty of case entry by 
dipterans. 

Glossosoma prepupae and pupae from Stream 1 had a higher per- 
centage of infestation than did those from Stream 2 (Table 1 ). The major 
environmental difference between the two streams was that Stream 1 had a 
large quantity of watercress and fallen logs which allowed pools containing 
finely deposited sediments to develop. Larger populations of dipterans 
could inhabit these pooled areas in comparison to the normally en- 
countered, fast-flowing riffle areas. From each respective stream. Glossosoma 
cases containing pupae had a higher percentage of infestation than did those 
containing prepupae. Time lapsed between development from prepupae to 
pupae (age-factor) would allow for an increased potential for case invasion 
by the dipterans. Similarly, no Hesperophylax prepupae were infested, 
while 37.5 and 50.0% of the pupae from Stream 1 and Stream 2 
respectively, contained dipterans (Table 2). 

Empidids were only encountered in pupal cases collected from Stream 
1. Historically, this stream has received the greatest disturbance due to 
storm sewer runoff (Unzicker and Sanderson. 1974). Impacts have 
included erosion and subsequent tree fall which have created pooled areas, 
decreased sediment size, and increased amounts of filamentous algae and 
wood debris in the stream. These conditions provide preferred habitats for 
larval empidids (see Merritt and Cummins, 1978). During drift or random 
movement, the empidids can encounter and infest trichopteran cases. 
Empidids may also enter glossosomatid cases in search of midges as a food 
source. The high infestation rates of Glossosoma cases by midges, 
accompanied by high densities of Glossosoma, could provide an abundant 
food resource for the empidids. The midges are easier to prey upon than the 
glossosomatids. as the empidid would have to penetrate the sheath of the 
pupal cocoon to feed on the caddisfly. In most instances when empidids 
were found, the sheath of the glossosomatid cocoon was intact. Only once 
were two empidids found in a Glossosoma case. In one instance an empidid 
was associated with a larval Glossosoma within a case from which the 
ventral strap had been removed in preparation for pupation. Therefore, the 
potential exists for empidid predation upon larval cnddisflies in the field, a 
fact that has been observed in the laboratory bv Sommerman ( 1962). 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

The observation of several partially consumed caddisfly specimens in 
Hesperophylax pupal cases containing empidids confirms Knutson and 
Flints' findings (1971, 1979) that empidids do feed upon Trichoptera. 
Their observations of pupal empidids within the cocoons of glossosomatid 
and rhyacophilid pupal cases leads to speculation as to whether the 
Trichoptera died from crowding or from predation. The small size of the 
empidid larva relative to both the pupal and case size of H. designatus (e.g. 
empidid larval length <3.0 mm and Hesperophylax larval and pupal 
lengths > 15.0 mm) would preclude the crowding option in favor of 
predation (ectoparasitism), at least for this species of Trichoptera. 

Of midges collected from pupal caddisfly cases, Eukiefferiella was 
most prevalent, with Corynoneura encountered in two cases from each 
trichopteran species (Table 3). A Polypedilum and a Cricotopus were each 
collected from separate Glossosoma cases. In most instances only one 
midge was found in a case. However, on April 25 over 10% of the cases 
contained more than one midge (five glossosomatid cases contained two to 
three midges and two Hesperophylax cases contained two midges). The 
caddisflies in cases occupied by midges were seldom injured or dead. This 
may be due to the smaller instar or species sizes of the midges usually 
encountered. Gallepp (1974) found Brachycentrus occidentalis pupae to 
be seldom damaged when cases contained early instar Eukiefferiella. 
Given adequate development time the Eukiefferiella could result in the 
death of the host trichopteran (particularly Glossosoma) by crowding in the 
manner reported by Gallepp ( 1974). Considering the algal and detrital food 
preferences for the collected midges (Roback, 1953; Darby, 1962; Oliver, 
1971), it would appear that the midges entered the trichopteran cases to 
escape the current or predators and/or to obtain non-trichopteran food 
resources rather than to prey upon the caddisfly. This is supported by our 
observations of diatoms in the gut contents of some of the midges and by the 
apparent lack of damage to most of the caddisfly specimens. 

Further support of the inquilmous nature of midge larvae was obtained 
on May 6, 1980. Glossosoma pupal cases were again found to contain 

Table 3. Chironomidae within Pupal Cases of G. intermedium and H. designatus. 

Chironomidae (Percentage) 
Trichoptera Stream 1 Stream 2 

Glossosoma intermedium Eukiefferiellu (95.0) Eukiefferiella (81.3) 

Cricotopus ( 5.0) Corynoneura (12.5) 

Polypedilum ( b.2) 

Hesperophylax designatus Eukiefferiella (87.5) Eukiefferiella (85.7) 

Corynoneura (12.5) Corynoneura (14.3) 



Vol. 92, No. 2. March & April 1981 73 



Eukiefferiella. However, an empty, sediment-ladened case collected from 
a different area contained three Cricotopus larvae. In this are Cricotopus 
was the dominant midge found in the substrate. In all other areas, especially 
where the April collections were made, Eukiefferiella dominated. In 
addition, on May 6, two prepupal Neophylax concinnus were found, each 
containing a Eukiefferiella. These were the only N. concinnus cases out of 
61 prepupae that contained midges. The compact nature of Neophylax 
within its case, as well as the tightly bound structure of the case, would make 
this case more difficult to enter and inhabit. However, once entered it would 
appear that a midge could more readily crowd the caddisfly, and this could 
lead to its death. Considering that mode Neophylax final instar larvae 
diapause for up to several months (Wiggins, 1977), adequate time could 
pass for midge growth to occur allowing for crowding by the midge larvae. 
This could ultimately interfere with or inhibit the respiration of the 
caddisfly. 

Thus, the symbiotic midge-caddisfiy interrelationship is a case of 
inquilinism without accompanying ectoparasitism, being similar to that 
observed by Gallepp (1974). The interaction between Cardiocladius and 
Hydropsychidae reported by Parker and Voshell (1979) was both in- 
quilinism and ectoparasitism, as are the interactions of empidids and 
trichopterans observed by Knutson and Flint (1971, 1979) and us. We also 
observed apparent inquilinism involving unidentifiable, immature tubificid 
worms and Glossosoma, these worms being found in several cases also 
containing midges. 

To date the occurrence of Diptera within Trichoptera pupal cases has 
been seldom reported. However, considering the geographical range of the 
reports, i.e. South America (Knutson and Flint, 1971; 1979), Wisconsin 
(Gallepp, 1974), Virginia (Parker and Voshell, 1979), and Illinois (present 
study), it would appear that symbiotic relationships between these two 
orders commonly occur but are often overlooked in collections. Con- 
sidering the percentage of pupal caddisflies infested, i.e. 32% (Gallepp. 
1974), as much as 61% (Parker and Voshell, 1979). and up to 75% in our 
study, these interactions may significantly affect the numbers of caddisflies 
reaching maturity. Therefore, dipterans may play an important role in 
regulation of trichopteran population sizes, especially in a situation such as 
that present at Trout Park where populations of large predatory insects and 
fish are low (Vinikour and Anderson, 1980). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We would like to thank the Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, the Illinois Department 
of Conservation, and the City of Elgin for permission to collect at Trout Park. The Institute ot 
Environmental Management, Western Illinois University provided partial financial support. 
We also appreciate the reviews and comments of Drs. John E. Zapotosky and Lawrence A. 
Jahn. 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Darby, R.E. 1962. Midges associated with California rice fields, with special reference to 

their ecology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hilgardia 32: 1-206. 
Gallepp, G.W. 1974. Behavioral ecology of Brachycentrus occidentalis Banks during the 

pupation period. Ecol. 55: 1283-1294. 
Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1975. Aquatic insects of Wisconsin with generic keys and notes on biology. 

ecology, and distribution. Wisconsin Dept. Nat. Res., Tech. Bull. No. 89, 53 pp. 
Knutson, L.V. and O.S. Flint, Jr. 1971. Pupae of Empididae in pupal cocoons of 

Rhyacophilidae and Glossosomatidae ( Diptera-Trichoptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 

73(3): 314-320. 
. 1979. Do dance flies feed on caddisflies'.' -- Further 

evidence (Diptera: Empididae: Trichoptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 81(1): 32- 

33. 
Merritt, R.W. and K.W. Cummins (eds.). 1978. An introduction to the aquatic insects of 

North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque. 441 pp. 
Oliver, D.R. 1971. Life history of the Chironomidae. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 16: 21 1-230. 
Parker, C.R. and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1979 Cardiocladius (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae 

ectoparasitic on pupae of Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera). Environm. Entomol. 8: 808- 

809. 
Roback, S.S. 1953. Savannah River tendipedid larvae (Diptera: Tendipedidae (=Chironomidae)|. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 115: 91-132. 
Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddis flies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv.. 

23(1): 1-326. 
Sommerman, K.M. 1962 Notes on two species ofOreogeton predaceous on black fly larvae 

(Diptera: Empididae and Siinuliidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 54: 123-129. 
Unzicker, J.D. and M.W. Sanderson. 1974. Untitled report to Illinois Nature Preserves 

Commission from the Illinois State Natural History Survey on their examination of Elgin 

Botanical Gardens (Trout Park). Dated July 10, 1974. 2 pp. typed. 
Vinikour, W.S. and R.V. Anderson. 1980. First confirmed records offish (Cotlns bairdi) 

from Trout Park Nature Preserve ( Elgin Botanical Gardens) since park perturbation by I- 

90 construction, 1957. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 72(2): 97-99. 
Wiggins, G.B. 1977. Larvae of the North American caddisfly genera (Trichoptera). 

University of Toronto Press. Toronto, 401 pp. 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 75 

THE IDENTITY AND STATUS OF CAMBALA 

WASHINGTONENSIS CAUSEY (DIPLOPODA: 

SPIROSTREPTIDA: CAMBALIDAE) 1 

Rowland M. Shelley 2 

ABSTRACT: The recent examination of a mature male, near topotype of Cambala 
washingtonensis Causey from Whitman County, Washington, resolves the long standing 
problems of the status and identity of this nominal species. It is definitely referable to Cambala 
and is sufficiently distinct from the six known species in the eastern and central United States 
to be accorded full specific rank. The posterior gonopod of washingtonensis is closest in form 
to that of C. speobia (Chamberlin), of Texas and adjacent states. However, the two species are 
distinguished by size of telopodite, apical configuration of the anterior coxal lobe, and relative 
lengths of the anterior and posterior coxal lobes. Forms of speobia in southern Colorado differ 
from those in Texas in having a reduced telopodite and more nearly equal anterior and 
posterior coxal lobes, suggesting a geographical trend toward washingtonensis character 
states in a northwesterly direction. A third locality for washingtonensis is confirmed in 
southwestern Oregon. 

The identity of Cambala washingtonensis has been unknown since 
1954, when Causey described the milliped from a female specimen. The 
type locality is Wilma. Whitman County, Washington (erroneously 
reported by Causey as being in Garfield County). Although the holotype is 
a female and the male gonopods have never been illustrated or described, 
puzzling statements about the identity of washingtonensis have appeared in 
the literature. For example. Causey (1964) diagnosed C. reddelli, now 
considered a synonym of C. speobia (Chamberlin), as being "a polytypic 
species near C. washingtonensis in the form of the gonopods," and later in 
this paper reiterated that there was very little difference between the 
gonopods of the two species. Since the configuration of the posterior 
gonopods of males is the only reliable character for specific identifications 
(Shelley 1979), the basis for these early statements is obscure. In the same 
paper. Causey reported the genus from western Washington and northern 
Idaho. Since no Idaho localities have ever been recorded for any species of 
Cambala, however, one must assume that this citation was based on the 
presence of washingtonensis in a neighboring part of Washington. 

In 1979 I summarized the confusion surrounding washingtonensis and 
decided that, although its identity was unknown, it was probably referrable 
to Cambala. Chamberlin and Hoffman (1958) had earlier suggested that 
washingtonensis might not be congeneric with the eastern species of 



'Received November 5. 1980. 

2 North Carolina State Museum of Natural History. P.O. Box 27647. Raleigh. North 
Carolina 276 1 1 . 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 75-78 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Cambala, but gave no reason for this supposition. My conclusion was 
based on a small sample of crested male cambaloids from Drain, Douglas 
County, Oregon, whose external ornamentation was very similar to that of 
such eastern species as C. minor Bollman and C. ochra Chamberlin, and 
whose posterior gonopods were similar in configuration to those of speobia. 
This material, from southwestern Oregon, suggested that washingtonensis, 
in southeastern Washington, might be a species of Cambala and that it 
might even be a synonym of speobia. However, since no specimens were 
available from southeastern Washington, the only recourse was to retain 
washingtonensis as a valid species of Cambala until topotypical or near 
topotypical males could be collected. At that time the type of washing- 
tonensis was absent from its published repository, the American Museum 
of Natural History (AMNH), and no material identified as washingtonensis 
was available in the Causey material donated in 1976 to the Florida State 
Collection of Arthropods (FSCA). 

Dr. Causey died in October 1979, and the remainder of her collection, 
which she had retained, has been transferred to the FSCA. I recently sorted 
this additional material and discovered both the holotype of washington- 
ensis and a male specimen from Albion, Whitman County, Washington, 
labeled "Male Homeotype, fide Causey 1964." The latter milliped was 
undissected, and the gonopods were recessed within the 7th segment, their 
normal position. Hence, this male could not have supported her published 
comments of 1964 about the similarities between the gonopods of 
washingtonensis and reddelli, and the basis for these remarks remains a 
mystery. Since it was identified by Causey, the author of the species, this 
individual is a metatype rather than a homeotype. Its collection from 
Albion, 46 km (37 mi) N Wilma, is close enough to the type locality to 
satisfy the near topotypical requirement, considering how little sampling 
has been done in this region. Consequently, the identity and status of 
washingtonensis can now be resolved, some 26 years after the species' 
description. 

Figures 1 and 2 illustrate lateral views of the left posterior gonopods of a 
male of speobia from Texas, and the metatype of washingtonensis, 
respectively. As can be seen, the telopodite (t) of washingtonensis is much 
smaller than that of speobia and the length of the anterior coxal lobe ( acl ) of 
washingtonensis is subequal to that of the posterior coxal lobe (pel), 
whereas in speobia the acl is shorter. Furthermore, the acl of washing- 
tonensis is apically curved and directed submediad, whereas that of speobia 
is straight and points more anteriorly. These illustrations leave no doubt 
that washingtonensis is indeed referable to Cambala, and it also is 
sufficiently different from speobia to warrant full specific rank. The males 
from Drain, Oregon, agree closely with the metatype, and this site can now 
be confirmed as the third known locality for the species. The range of 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 



77 



washingtonensis therefore extends from southwestern Oregon to south- 
eastern Washington; its occurrence in Idaho awaits verification. 

Despite the aforementioned differences between washingtonensis and 
speobia, they could be geographic races of a single species with a wide 
distribution in the central and western United States. A sample of speobia 
from Huerfano County, Colorado, differs from that illustrated in figure 1 in 
having a reduced telopodite and more nearly equivalent coxal lobes, 
suggesting a geographical trend toward washingtonensis character states in 
a northwesterly direction. More material must be collected from inter- 
vening locations between Washington and Texas, however, before such a 
determination can be made. The central Rocky Mountains in particular 
should be thoroughly investigated to ascertain the distribution and identity 
of its cambaloid forms. A sample containing only females in the North 
Carolina State Museum (NCSM) collection from Custer County, Colorado, 
adjacent to Huerfano County, suggests that Cambala may be common in 
the southern mountains of that state. Complete data citations for known 
localities of washingtonensis and the new Colorado ones for speobia are 
listed below. 





Figs. 1-2. 1. left posterior gonopod of Cambala speobia from Sonora. Sutton Co.. TX. 
lateral view. 2, left posterior gonopod of metatype male of C. washingtonensis, lateral view. 
Setation omitted from both figures, acl, anterior coxal lobe: pel, posterior coxal lobe: t. 
telopodite. Scale line = 0.1 mm. 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Cambala washingtonensis Causey 

WASHINGTON: Whitman Co.. Wiltna. F, 22 April 1935, M. H. Hatch (AMNH) 3 
TYPE LOCALITY: and Albion, M. 1 1 October 1950, D. Johnson (FSCA). 
OREGON: Douglas Co., Drain, 2M, 4 March 1967. V. Roth (AMNH). 

Cambala speobia (Chamberlin) 

COLORADO: Huerfano Co., 38.4 km (24 mi) W Walsenburg. several MM and FF, 22 
August 1959. C.C.Hofff AMNH). CusterCo.. South Hardscrabble Creek, 6.2 km (3.9 mi) E 
CO hwy. 165, 2F. 24 May 1979, S.K, Wu (NCSM A3069). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am grateful to Howard V. Weems, Jr., Curator of the FSCA, for the opportunity to peruse 
the Causey collection now under his care and for the loan of the metatype specimen. Thanks 
are also extended to Norma I. Platnick, AMNH, for loan of the material from Oregon and 
Huerfano County, Colorado; and to Shi Kuei Wu, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, 
who kindly sent me the sample from Custer County, Colorado. John E. Cooper, N.C. State 
Museum, critically reviewed a preliminary draft of the manuscript. This research was 
supported in part by NSF Grant No. DEB 7702596. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Causey, Nell B. 1954. The millipeds collected in the Pacific northwest by Dr. M.H. Hatch. 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 47:81-86. 
. 1964. New cavernicolous millipeds of the family Cambalidae from Texas 

and New Mexico. Int. J. Speleol. 7:237-248. 
Chamberlin, Ralph V. and Richard L. Hoffman. 1 958. Checklist of the millipeds of North 

America. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 212. 236 pp. 
Shelley, Rowland M. 1979. A synopsis of the milliped genus Cambala. with a description of 

C. minor Bollman (Spirostreptida: Cambalidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92:551-571. 



The holotype of washingtonensis and those of other species in the Causey collection whose 
published repository is the AMNH will be transferred there from the FSCA as soon as 
feasible. 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 79 

MYIASIS IN AN AMAZONIAN PORCUPINE 1 

Lawrence A. Lacey,^ Timothy K. George- 

ABSTRACT: Myiasis in an Amazonian porcupine, Coendou prehensilis prehensilis 
( Linnaeus), is reported for the first time. The authors found a mature female procupine in the 
Amazon National Park near Urua. Para", Brazil. The subject was heavily infested with the 
primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Sarcophaga sp. Although 
the nose and nasal cavities were the most affected tissues, there was also infestation below the 
scalp as well as occular involvement. 

While participating in the faunistic survey of the Amazon National 
Park, Tapajos, Brazil on December 15. 1978, the authors encountered an 
adult female porcupine, Coendou prehensilis prehensilis (Linnaeus) 
(Rodentia:Erethizontidae) in secondary growth at the edge of primary 
forest just south of Urua, Para (Km 65 Trans- Amazon Highway). The 
animal was aware of our presence but made no attempt to escape. Upon 
closer examination, the subject was apparently partially blind and suffering 
from an advanced case of nasal myiasis and maggots were observed exiting 
from the nose and scalp. The porcupine was then killed and the affected 
areas were examined at close range and dissected. Externally, most of the 
tissue of the rostrum had been eaten away, one eye was destroyed and the 
cornea of the other eye was opaque. There were four openings in the scalp 
and the skull was clearly visible. The affected areas had a strong smell of 
rotten meat. The entire nasal cavity was infested with muscoid maggots of 
various sizes. These were collected from the tissues and as they exited the 
nares and placed in 70% alcohol for future determination. Additionally, the 
scalp was undermined by maggots almost as far as the occiput. 

Two species of flies were removed from the porcupine: third instars of 
the primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Calli- 
phoridae) and variously aged instars of Sarcophaga sp. (Sarcophagidae). 
The screwworm was probably the first of the two species to infest the 
porcupine. C. hominivorax requires a surface wound in order to gain access 
(Hall, 1974) or in the case of nasal myiasis, a pre-existing pathological 
condition of the nose (Taylor, 1950). The secondary invader, Sarcophaga 
sp., may have been attracted due to the fetid nature of the wound. The 
various sizes of Sarcophaga sp. in the tissues indicated that larviposition 
was by more than one female and over a few days. 



'Received June 14. 1980. 

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil. Current address: Insects 
affecting Man and Animals Research Lab., U.S.D.A.-SEA-AR, P.O. Box 14565, Gainesville. 
Fl. 32604. 

3 Peace Corps, Recife. Brazil. Current address: 102 N. Home Ave.. Park Ridge. Illinois 
60068. 

ENT. NEWS 92(2): 79-80 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Several families of Calyptrate muscoid flies cause myiasis in a variety of 
vertebrate hosts. The Cuterebridae, Gastereophilidae and Oestridae are 
obligatory larval parasites of mammals and the majority of the species are 
host specific (Zumpt, 1973). Although C. hominivorax and Wohlfahnia 
spp. (Sarcophagidae) are obligate parasites, most cases of myiasis caused 
by other calliphorids and sarcophagids are facultative or accidental. 
Sarcophaga spp. are found in a multitude of niches ranging from scavenging 
to parasitism of warm-blooded animals (Aldrich, 1916) including faculta- 
tive parasitism of man (James, 1947). C. hominivorax attacks a wide range 
of mammalian hosts including domestic and sylvatic animals (Lindquist, 
1937; McLean, 1941; Murray and Thompson, 1976; cited by Snow, 1980) 
as well as man ( Aubertin and Buxton, 1 934; James, 1 947; Scott, 1 964) and 
death due to untreated advanced cases is common. A significant portion of 
the cases recorded in man involve invasion of the nasal cavities (Brown, 
1945). 

Although several sylvatic hosts are recorded for the primary screw- 
worm, this is the first report of C. hominivorax and Sarcophaga in 
Coendou. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

We are grateful to Dr. R.J. Gagne, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, U.S. 
National Museum, for determining the fly larvae. We also thank Dr. H. de Souza Lopes, 
Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro for useful information and comments, and 
Ms. Barbara Gibbs for typing the manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Aldrich, J.M. 1916. Sarcophaga and Allies. Thomas Say Found. 301 pp., 16 plates. 
Aubertin, D. and P.A. Buxton. 1934. Cochliomyia and myiasis in tropical America. Ann. 

Trop. Med. Parasitol. 28:245-255. 
Brown, E.H. 1945. Screwworm infestation in the nasal passages and pararasal sinuses. 

Laryngoscope 55:371-374. 

Hall, D.G. 1947. The Blowflies of North America. Thomas Say Found. 477 pp. 
James, M.T. 1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U.S. Dept. Agric., ARS, misc. pub. 

631:175 pp. 
Lindquist, A.W. 1937. Myiasis in wild animals in southwestern Texas. J. Econ. Entomol. 

30:735-740. 

McLean, D.D. 1941. The screw-worm fly. Calif. Conservationist 6:11, 20-21. 
Murray, V.I.E. and K. Thompson. 1 976. Myiasis in man and other animals in Trinidad and 

Tobago (1972-73). Trop. Ag. 53:263-266. 
Scott, H.G. 1964. Human myiasis in North America ( 1952-1962 inclusive). Fla. Entomol. 

47:255-261. 
Snow, J.W. 1 980. An annotated bibliography on the screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax. 

USDA, SEA-AR, South. Reg. Res. Report. 
Taylor, H.M. 1950. Screwworm (Cochliomvia americana) infestation in man. Ann. Otol. 

Rhinol. Laryngol. 59:531-540. 
Zumpt., F. 1973. Diptera parasitic on vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara and in South 

America, and their medical significance. In "Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and 

South America: A Comparative Review." B.J. Meggers, E.S. Ayensu and W.D. 

Duckworth, eds. Smithsonian Institution Press. 350 pp. 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 81 

THE GENUS MICROPHADNUS CAMERON IN 
AUSTRALIA (HYMENOPTERA: POMPILIDAE) 1 

Howard E. Evans^ 

ABSTRACT: Microphadnus Cameron is recorded for the first time from Australia, where it 
is represented by a single known species, antipodes n. sp. (Queensland and New South 
Wales). 

Microphadnus Cameron (1905) is a poorly known genus containing 
several species of very small wasps having narrow wings with slightly 
reduced venation as well as fine striae on the posterior part of the 
propodeum. M. pumilus Costa is widely distributed in southern parts of the 
Palaearctic region, while M. bico lor Cameron occurs in South Africa. For 
several years I have been aware that the genus is represented in Australia, 
and it is the purpose of this paper to record its occurrence on that continent 
and to describe the single known species. Microphadnus belongs in the 
tribe Pompilini, not far, I believe, from Pompilus. Plagioceps Haupt ( 1 930) 
is a synonym. 

M. antipodes n. sp. is very similar to both pit milits and bicolot\ differing 
from the former in having the sides of the propodeal slope much more 
prominent and ridge-like and the third discoidal cell of the fore wing 
somewhat wider. In these respects it is more like bicolor, but that species 
has the legs partly rufous and the distance between the eyes considerably 
greater than in antipodes. I am not aware that the male terminalia of any 
species of Microphadnus have previously been described, so those of 
antipodes are described and figured here. 

Microphadnus antipodes n.sp. 

(Figs. 1-3) 

Female. Length 5 mm; fore wing 4.5 mm. Black, body covered in considerable part with 
silvery pubescence; head and thorax silvery except pubescence brownish on upper front, 
vertex, and much of dorsum of thorax and propodeum; legs silvery basally; gaster with 
prominent silvery bands at apices of tergites 1-3. sternites 1 and 2 mostly silvery. Body devoid 
of erect setae except for a few bristles on clypeus and mandibles as well as several strong setae 
on apical segments of gaster. Wings subhy aline, fore wing with a broad dark band over apical 
third, extending as far as tip of marginal cell. 

Head 1 .25 X as wide as high; front narrow, its greatest width 0.5 1 X that of head; clypeus 
2.2 X as wide as high, truncate apically; postocellar line 1.3 X ocello-ocular line; vertex 
passing straight across between tops of eyes. First four antennal segments in a ratio of 4:2:5:5. 



Received November 4, 1980. 

"Department of Zoology and Entomology. Colorado State University. Fort Collins. 
Colorado 80523. This research was conducted while the author held a research fellowship at 
the University of Queensland, St. Lucia. Queensland. Australia. 

FNT. NEWS 92(2): 81-83 



82 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 






Figs. 1-3. Microphadnus antipodes n.sp. 1 , wings of 9; 2, d 1 genitalia, ventral aspect: 3. cf 
subgenital plate, ventral aspect. 



Vol. 92, No. 2, March & April 1981 83 



segment 3 equal to 0.8 X distance between eyes at top. Pronotum elongate, its slope low and 
even, posterior margin broadly arcuate, weakly angulate at midline; postnotum narrowly 
exposed medially, otherwise essentially absent; propodeum elongate, with a shallow median 
sulcus on basal two-thirds, its posterior angles prominent, ridge like: posterior slope of 
propodeum with delicate, rather widely spaced striae. Tibiae and tarsi spinose, but fore tarsus 
without a pecten; ultimate tarsal segments each with some weak spines latero-ventrally. Wing 
venation as figured. 

Male. Length 4.8 mm: fore wing 3.4 mm. Coloration as well as distribution of silvery 
pubescence much as in female; as in that sex. tergites 1 -3 have apical silvery bands, but tergites 
5 and 6 also have weaker bands, and ventrally sternite 1 is mostly silvery, sternite 2 has an 
apical silvery band, and sternite 3 has an incomplete band. Aside from a few bristles on the 
mandibles, the body has no erect setae whatever. Wing color and venation as in female. Head 
1 . 1 2 X as wide as high: greatest width of front 0.59 X head width; clypeus 2.2 X as wide as 
high, not quite as wide as closest approximation of eyes near bottom, apical clypeal margin 
truncate; postocellar line slightly exceeding ocello-ocular line. Features of thorax and 
propodeum essentially as in female. Gaster very slender; subgenital plate slender, especially 
basally; genitalia without basal hooklets, parameres much exceeding volsellae and aedeagus, 
as figured. 

Holotype 9. allotype cf, 3 paratype 99 and 2 paratype cftf; Eungella National Park. 80 km 
NW Mackay, Queensland. 16-19 October 1979 (H.E. and M.A. Evans and A. Hook). 
Paratype cf; Isaacs River, 100 km NE Clermont. Queensland, 20 October 1979 (H.E. and 
M.A. Evans and A. Hook). Paratype 9: 1 7 km SW Bourke. New South Wales. 1 4 December 
1976 (E.M. Exley and T. Low, on weeds). Holotype and allotype in Queensland Museum. 
Brisbane; paratypes at University of Queensland. St. Lucia: Australian National Insect 
Collections, Canberra: and British Museum (Natural History). London. 

Remarks 

The type, allotype, and five paratypes were taken in a field adjacent to 
montane rain forest. The remaining two specimens were taken at lower 
elevations and in areas of much lower rainfall. In spite of this, little variation 
is evident, although the male from Isaacs River is quite small (fore wing 2.8 
mm). The occurrence of the species in semidesert areas of New South 
Wales suggests that it is widely distributed and broadly adapted ecolog- 
ically. That this is not a ground-nester is suggested by the absence of a 
pecten on the fore tarsi of the female. Ferton (1897) found that the 
Palaearctic species pumilus (=Evageles laboriosus Ferton, according to 
Haupt, 1930) nests in hollow twigs lying on the ground or in empty snail 
shells, closing off its cells with small stones and bits of debris. The prey of 
pumilus consists of immature Lycosidae and Salticidae. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cameron, P. 1904. On the Hymenoptcra of the Albany Museum. Grahamstown (Second 

paper). Rec. Albany Mus. 1:212. 
Ferton, C. 1 897. Nouvelles observations sur I'instinct des Pompilides ( Hymenopteres). Act. 

Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 52: 20. 
Haupt, H. 1930. Die Einordnungder mil bekannten Psammocharidac mit 2 Cubitalzellen in 

mein System. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 16: 777 780. 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 



BEEKEEPING IN THE UNITED STATES. E.G. Martin. E. Oertel, N.P. Nye, & others. 
1980. U.S. Dep't Agric., Agric. Hnbk. No. 335 (Rev.). 193 pp. Illus. 

Some topics included are life history of honey bee, bee behavior, breeding & genetics, 
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TAXONOMISTS' GLOSSARY OF MOSQUITO ANATOMY. Ralph E. Harbach & 
Kenneth L. Knight. 1980. Plexus Publ., Box 550, Marlton. N.J. 08053. 415 pp. 83 pi.. 365 
figs. $24.95 plus $2.00 p. & h. in U.S. 

A comprehensive treatment, including complete descriptive terminology, of the nomen- 
clature of the sclerotized anatomy of mosquitoes. Terminology is treated under 5 headings: 
adult, egg, larva, pupa, and vestiture. 

INSECT BIOLOGY IN THE FUTURE. Michael Locke & David S. Smith, eds. 1980. 
Academic Press. 977 pp. $50.00 

A compilation of 43 papers or "essays" on various aspects of insect biology by 53 authors, 
"presented to Sir Vincent" Wigglesworth. 

INSECT THERMOREGULATION. Bernd Heinrich, ed. 1981. John Wiley & Sons. N.Y. 
328 pp. $35.00 

Seven papers originally presented as a symposium, Amer. Soc. of Zoologists, Annual 
Meeting, Dec. 27-30, 1 978. This volume is intended to be an up to date summary and review 
of the field of insect thermoregulation from a diversity of perspectives. 

FLEAS. R. Traub & H. Starcke, eds. 1980. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 420 pp. $48.00 

Proceedings of 1 st International Conference on Fleas held in Peterborough. England. June 
21-25. 1977. Contains 37 papers under headings: Taxonomy, Evolution & Zoogeography, 
Medical & Veterinary, Physiology & Morphology, and Ecology and Faunistics. 

SYSTEMATICS OF THE COLLETIDAE BASED ON MATURE LARVAE WITH 
PHENETIC ANALYSIS OF APOID LARVAE (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Ronald J. 
McGinley. 1981. Univ. of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 307 pp. $14.50 

The mature larvae of 30 colletid species are described, with a generic key and diagnoses 
provided for identification. 

REVIEW OF THE NO. AMERICAN and CENTRAL AMERICAN SPECIES OF 
PARA VILLA (Diptera: Bombyliidae). Jack C. Hall. 1981. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley. 
CA. 200pp. $10.00 

This study treats the 5 3 species that occur north of Columbia. Of these. 27 are described as 
new. Most are found in southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. 



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MAY & JUNE 1981 




ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Larval and pupal descriptions of Dolophilodes major 
(Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) 

J.S. Weaver ,111, J.S. Wojtomcz, D.A. Etnier 85 

Leuctra szczytkoi,ne\v stonefly from Louisiana 
(Plecoptera: Leuctridae) 

W.P. Stark, K.W. Stewart 91 

Bourletiella gibbonsi, new species from So. Carolina 

(Collembola: Sminthuridae) Richard J. Snider 93 



Northern range extension ofAcanalonia conica 
(Homoptera: Acanaloniidae) 

L.L. Pechuman, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 



98 



Two new parasite records & notes on Petrova albacapitana 
(Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) on jack pine in Maine 

R.A. Tracy, E.A. Osgood 101 

Insect colonization of drilled tree holes Jerry W. Heaps 1 06 



The frenulum of moths 
(Lepidoptera) 



A. Glenn Richards 1 1 1 



Records of Pyrgotidae from Mississippi, with additional 
notes on distribution of Sphecomyiella valida & 
Pyrgota undata (Diptera) Paul K. Logo 115 

A quick & inexpensive method for making temporary 
slides of larval Chironomidae (Diptera) 

C.L. Russell, A.R. Soponis 119 

A collector-mailing container for shipment of 

live insects James L. Krysan 1 2 1 



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114, 118, 123, 124 



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Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 85 

LARVAL AND PUPAL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

DOLOPHILODES (FUMONTA) MAJOR (BANKS) 

(TRICHOPTERA: PHILOPOTAMIDAE) 1 2 

John S. Weaver, III 3 , John A. Wojtowicz , David A. Etnier 

ABSTRACT: The larva and pupa of Dolophilodes(Fumonta) major ( Banks) are described 
and figured. The immatures are indigenous to seepage springs. Records show that this species 
occurs throughout the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of Georgia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. 

Dolophilodes Ulmer 

The genus Dolophilodes is composed of seven subgenera (Ross 1956). 
The larvae of four of these are described. Cowley (1978) described the 
larvae of D. (Hydrobiosella) stenocerus Tillyard and D. (Hydeobiosella) 
mixtus Cowley. Barnard (1934) made known the larva of D. (Thylakion) 
urceolus (Barnard). For a description of D. (Dolophilodes) distinctus 
(Walker) see Wiggins (1977). The larval description of D. (Fumonta) 
major (Banks) is given herein. All of these larvae share the character state 
of having an extended fingerlike foreleg trochantin. Among other philopotamid 
genera for which larvae are known, only Philopotamus shares this 
characteristic (c.f. Hickin [1967], for the larval description of P. montanus 
[Donovan]). In other genera, the foreleg trochantin is reduced as in larvae of 
Wormaldia and Chimarra (Wieeins 1977V 

Because the larva of D. major has a notch in the anterior margin of the 
frontoclypeus, which is also typical of many Chimarra species, existing 
larval keys for the Philopotamidae of North America cannot rely solely on 
characters pertaining to the anterior margin of the frontoclypeus. Thus, for 
identification purposes, emphasis also should be placed on the charac- 
teristic of the foreleg trochantin, since all known Nearctic larvae which have 
the foreleg trochantin greatly extended as a fingerlike process are Dolophilodes. 
This genus is represented by nine species in North America. 



Deceived November 26. 1980. 

2 Technical Contribution No. 1 847 of the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Clemson University. 

Department of Entomology, Fisheries & Wildlife. Clemson University. Clemson. South 
Carolina 29631. 

Department of Zoology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Tenn. 37916. 

ENT. NEWS 92(3): 85-90 



AUG 71981 

/BRARIES 




86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Dolophilodes (Fumonta) major (Banks) 

The larva of this species may be distinguished from that of D. distinctus 
by the shape of the anterior margin of the frontoclypeus. InD. major it has a 
deep right notch, as in many species ofChimarra, whereas in D. distinctus 
it is only slighty asymmetrical. It can be distinguished from Chirnarra 
larvae on the basis of having an extended fingerlike foreleg trochantin and 
lacking a seta-bearing process on the foreleg coxa. The ventral head seta 
#18 (sensu Wiggins, 1 977 ) in Chimarra is adjacent to the posterior edge of 
the ventral apotome; in D. major this seta is near the midlength position of 
the ventral ecdysial line. This seta is more stout in D. major than in D. 
distinctus. 

The pupa of D. major has mandibles similar to those of D. distinctus, 
but differs by having a small pair of dorsal hook plates on abdominal 
segment VIII. Also the labrum of D. distinctus is rounded distally, whereas 
that of D. major is truncated The male genitalia of D. major are illustrated 
by Ross (1956: fig. 29 A, B, C). 

LARVA (Figures 1 A, B, C, D; 2). Overall length of final instar approximately 15.0 
mm. Head: head capsule chestnut brown; some individuals immaculate, others with a few 
faint muscle scars mesally and posteriorly; lateral margins slightly curved; length 2.0, width 
1.3 mm; maximum length of frontoclypeal sclerite subequal to the width of head; anterior 
margin of frontoclypeus asymmetrical with a deep right notch; antenna bifercate, resembling 
two separate fingerlike projections which are separate basally and evidently converge 
internally from the surface of the cuticle. This type of larval antenna is unique among 
Trichoptera larvae of the Philopotomidae and Stenopsychidae. (Hickin, 1967: fig. 258). 
(Nielsen. 1942: fig. 36 A, B). (Ulmer. 1957: fig. 299. 326). and (Wiggins. 1977: fig. 13.3 
B). The ventral head seta # 1 8 is located near the middle of the ventral ecdysal line. A sensory 
pit is located anterior to seta # 1 8. Thorax: foreleg trochantin robust and freely extended as a 
fingerlike process; trochanter, femur, and tibia each bearing a pair of ventral spines; femur 
longer than tibia; tibia longer than tarsus. 

PUPA (Figure 3 A, B, C). Overall length approximately 12 mm. color light orange- 
brown. Head: labrum is truncated distally; mandibles each with four evenly spaced apical 
teeth. Abdomen: anterior dorsal hook plates on segment III- VI II; posterior dorsal hook plates 
on segment V; terminal processes membranous. The claspers occupy a pair of large 
membranous lobes extending well beyond the tip of the abdomen (fig. 3A). Such lobes would 
not by found in the female pupa. 

Distribution and Habitat 

The range of this species includes the Appalachian Mountains of 
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virgina. The 
habitat of D. major is shallow seeps which trickle over steep areas along the 
banks of streams. This unusual aquatic habitat explains why the immatures 
of this relatively common species are rarely collected. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 



87 




Figure 1. Dolophilodes major (Banks). Larva: A) labrum; B) head and pronotum. dorsal 
view; C) head, ventral view: D) foreleg and prothorax, lateral view. 



88 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 2. Dolophilodes major ( Banks), Larval antenna, SEM micrograph, right lateral view 
of head at 1000 X. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 



89 





III 



IV 







VI 



VII 



VIII 



Figure 3. Do/ophitodes major (Banks), Pupa: A) abdomen, dorsal view; B) head; C) 
abdomen, dorsal hook plates. 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Material Examined 

GA: Union Co.: Vogel State Park, WolfCreek, 30-31 May 1980, 6d\19, light trap, coll. 
J.C. Morse el al, NC: Swain Co.: Great Smokey Mountain National Park, Deep Creek 
Campground, 1.5 mi. N Bryson City, 21 May 1970, 4cf, coll. O.S. Flint, SC: Pickins 
Co.: Wildcat Creek, 5 mi NW Clemson, 5-6 May 1979, 2cf, 29, light trap, coll. T.R. White 
and J.S. Weaver III: Rocky Bottom, Reedy Cove Creek, 6 September 1979, 1 larva, coll. J.C. 
Morse; Table Rock State Park, Carrick Creek, 21 May 1969, Icf, coll J.C. Morse. Oconee 
Co.: Small springbrook above Wash Branch of Towns Creek, 5 mi., NW Tamassee, elev.2200 
ft., 2-3 June 1980, Icf, coll. E.M. McEwan and J.S. Weaver III. TENN: Carter 
Co.: Roan Mountain State Park, Small tributary of Dave Miller Hollow Branch, 7 May 1977, 
1 larva, coll. J.A. Wojtowicz, R.L. Jones, and W.H. Redmond; Twin Springs on Roan 
Mountain, 5.8 mi. S. Roan Mountain (town), elev. 4200 ft., 6 May 1977, 1 larva, coll. J.A. 
Wojtowicz, R.L. Jones, and W.H. Redmond. Monroe Co.: seep at wooden Sow water bridge. 
South Fork Citico Creek, 5 April 1 970, 1 larva, coll. J.A. Wojtowicz and R.L. Jones; 1 1 May 
1979 Icf. 29 pupae, coll. J.A. Wojtowicz, D.A. Etnier et al. Sevier Co.: Great Smokey 
Mountain National Park, Walker Prong, elev. 4500 ft. small seep near West Prong Little 
Pigeon River, 4 July 1 979, 1 cT pupa, 1 9 pupa, coll. J.S. Weaver III; LeConte Creek 4 mi. SE 
Gatlinburg, 5 June 1973, Id 1 , coll. D.A. Etnier, VA: Shenandoah National Park, Lewis 
Falls, 29 June 1 958, 1 cr, coll. G.W. Byers; Grayson Co., Fox Creek, 1 .7 mi. W Trout Dale, 
12 June 1979, 1 cT, 1 9, coll. C.M. and O.S. Flint; Rapahannock Co., Washington, 24 July, 
1 (?, 1 9, coll. J.H. Roberts. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We wish to thank Mrs. JoAn Hudson and Mr. Clyde B. Moore, Clemson University, who 
provided help with the scanning electron microscopy. We express our sincere gratitude to Dr. 
O.S. Flint, U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C, who provided additional records. We 
are also grateful to Drs. E.W. King and J.C. Morse, Clemson University, whose en- 
couragement and advice were most helpful during this study. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barnard, K.H. 1934, South African caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Trans, r. Soc. S. Afr., 

21:291-294. 
Cowley, D.R. 1978. Studies on the larvae of New Zealand Tricophtera, New Zealand J. 

Zool., 5:639-750. 
Hickin, N.E. 1967, Caddis larvae, larvae of the British Trichoptera, London: Hutchinson, 

480 pp. 
Ross, H.H. 1956. Evolution and classification of the mountain caddis-flies. Univ. of Illinois 

Press, Urbana, 213 pp. 
Nielsen, A. 1942. Uber die Entwicklung and Biologie der Trichopteren mit besonderer 

Berucksichtigung der Quelltrichopteren Himmerlands. Arch. Hydrobiol., suppl. 17:255- 

631. 
Ulmer, F. 1957, Kocherfliegen (Trichopteren) von den Sunda-Insein, Teil III. Arch. 

Hydrobiol., suppl. 23 (2/4): 109-470. 
Wiggins, G.B. 1977. Larvae of the North American-caddisfly genera (Trichoptera). Univ. of 

Toronto Press, Toronto, 401 pp. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 91 

LEUCTRA SZCZYTKOI, A NEW STONEFLY FROM 
LOUISIANA (PLECOPTERA:LEUCTRIDAE) 12 

Bill P. Stark 3 , Kenneth W. Stewart 4 

ABSTRACT: Leuctra szczykoi, n. sp. is described from Louisiana and a holotype male is 
designated. The male is distinguished from some others in iheferruginea (Walker) complex. 

We have recently acquired a male Leuctra, collected at an isolated 
spring in Jackson Parish, Louisiana, which is an undescribed member of the 
ferruginea complex. Since that complex was recently reviewed by James 
(1976), we are herein providing a comparative description of this species. 

Leuctra szczykoi, n. sp. 

Male Forewing length 7 mm; body length 5 mm. Head dark brown with indistinct 
rugosities. Pronotum with faint dark mid-dorsal line separating broad light areas; areas of dark 
rugosities laterad to light strip. Tergum 7 with small oval thickening on mid-anterodorsal line; 
tergum 8 with basal sclerotized band expanded into pointed triangular area on mid-dorsal line; 
mesal field unsclerotized (Fig. 2). Specillium with apical spine twice as long as wide. 
Paraprocts subequal to specillium in length, slender, sinuate and apically acute (Fig. 1). 

Type Holotype <3 (# 76749) from Louisiana, Jackson Par., Schoolhouse Springs, nr. 
Indian Village, 30-111-73, J. Morse & J. Louton. Holotype deposited in United States 
National Museum. 

Diagnosis This species can be separated from others in the complex by the prominent 
specillium spine, the long paraprocts and by the acute process of tergum 8. Both rickeri James 
andferruginea (Walker) typically have a rounded process on tergum 8, and in both species the 
specillium is longer than the paraprocts. 

Etymology. This species is named in honor of Dr. Stanley W. Szczytko. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We thank Dr. W.E. Ricker for providing the holotype specimen for our study, and Dr. K. 
Manuel for loan of L. rickeri and L. alabama paratypes. Dr. O.S. Flint, Jr., and Dr. R.W. 
Baumann provided helpful comments during review of the manuscript. 



'Received November 28, 1980. 

Study supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant #DEB-79-20445 and the 
Faculty Research Fund of NTSU. 

"Department of Biology, Mississippi College. Clinton, MS 39058. 

4 
Department of Biological Sciences. North Texas State University, Denton, TX 76203. 



ENT. NEWS 92(3): 91-92 



92 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

James, A. 1976. Two new species of Leuctra, with notes on the ferruginea group 
(Plecoptera:Leuctridae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 69:882-884. 





Figs. 1-2. Leuctra szczykoi. . Male terminalia, lateral. 2. Male tergum 8. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 93 

BOURLETIELLA (BOURLETIELLA) GIBBONSI, 

A NEW SPECIES FROM SOUTH CAROLINA 
(COLLEMBOLA: SMINTHURIDAE) 1 2 

Richard J. Snider 3 ' 4 



ABSTRACT: A new species, Bourletiella (Bourletiella) gibbons i Snider, is described from 
South Carolina. This species is closely allied to Bourletiella (Bourletiella) rustica Maynard, 
but can be separated on the basis of color pattern, presence of an outer tooth on the unguis and 
subapical needle on the unguiculus. The type locality is the Savannah River Plant, U.S. 
Department of Energy, Aiken, South Carolina. The collection was made in short grass on a 
bright, hot day. 



During a visit to the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology 
Laboratory, near Aiken, South Carolina, I had the opportunity to make 
collections of Collembola. In particular, several species of sminthurids 
were taken by using a white enamel pan for sweeping grass and an aspirator 
for collecting. In a later paper the new additions to the faunal list for South 
Carolina will be presented. The purpose of the present report is to describe a 
previously unnamed species. 

Bourletiella (Bourletiella) gibbonsi n. sp. 
Color Description 

Antenna purple, first segment uniformly dark, segments II and III darker distally, segment 
IV dark throughout. Head with light and dark purple mosaics forming two bands originating 
behind head, extending through eyepatches and converging between antennae forming a "V", 
a yellow-orange mosaic pattern above the intersection of the "V"; another band formed 
midway between eyepatches and mouthparts, with three dark mosaics creating a broken line of 
dots on frons; the three mosaics and base of " V" pattern above, constitute a triangular pattern; 
lower frons with light purple dusting. Thorax with paramedial lines broken. Abdomen with 
paramedial and lateral lines converging on dorsum of segment V; segment VI with dorsal 
maculae; bothriotrichium D surrounded with purple; parafurcular lobe with inverted crescent- 
shaped macula. Leg beyond trochanter with light dusting of purple, darkest distally on each 
segment. Bases of denies purple. Body cream colored, becoming light yellow dorsally. Male 
color pattern same as female, except ground color more intense yellow (fig. 1 and 2). 



Deceived February 9, 1981. 

Publication support was provided by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory of the 
University of Georgia at Aiken, South Carolina. 

Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. 

Mailing address: Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 
Michigan 48824. 

ENT. NEWS 92(3): 93-97 



94 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





Bourletiella (Bourletiella) gibbonsin.sp. Fig. I . Dorsal view, habitus.Fig. 2. Lateral view, 
habitus. 



Morphological Description 

Eyes 8+8 on dark patches; ocellus C two thirds diameter of H,D smaller than H(fig. 3). 
Antennal segment ration 1 :2:3:6;ANT IV with five intermediates, apical bulb present (fig. 4); 
ANT III without spine-like setae, sense organ with two blunt setae lying in shallow 
depressions (fig. 5). Thoracic segmentation indistinct. Metatrochanter with oval organs; setal 
pattern typical, five anterior and one posterior (fig. 6). Metafemur with posterior setula. Distal 
half of tibia with strong inner setae (fig. 7); tibiotarsus of pro- and mesolegs with three heavy, 
appressed, clavate tenent hairs (fig. 8); metatibiotarsus with two tenent hairs. Pretarsus with 
anterior setula; unguis curving sublanceolate with basal outer tooth and weak inner tooth one- 
half to three-quarters distant from base; unguiculus tapering, without corner tooth, with short 
subapical needle less than one quarter of its length (fig 9). Sacs of ventral tube warty. Ramiof 
tenaculum tridentate; anterior corpus with two setae (fig. 10). Manubrium with 1 6 dorsal setae 
(fig. 1 1 ). Dental setae Ve^ longer than interval between Ve^ and V&2 (fig. 13), seven internal 
lateral setae (fig. 12). Mucro spoon-shaped, with rachis fused to lateral lamellae (fig. 14). 
Female anal papilla with a tew heavy circumanal setae (fig. 15), subanal appendage setiform in 
lateral and truncate in ventral view (fig. 16). Male anal papilla with dorsal crest; anterior 
spines setiform, slightly curving, anterior lateral spine curved forward and posterior spine 
curved backward; tendril present (fig. 17). Body setae of female short, curving, longer on 
posterior; male with short heavy, curving setae (fig. 18) on posterior half, a patch of longer, 
normal setae anterior of ABD V (fig. 19). Bothriotrichia in a oblique straight line, typical for 
genus. Length: males 0.5 0.6 mm and females 0.8 0.9 mm. 



Bourletiella (Bourletiella) gibbonsi n. sp. Fig. 3 Ocellar pattern, holotype, Fig. 4. Antenna, 
Fig. 5. Antennal segment III, sense organ. Fig. 6. Anterior view of metatrochanter. Fig. 7. 
Anterior view of metatibia, Fig. 8. Claw of proleg, posterior surface. Fig. 9. Claw of metaleg, 
anterior surface. Fig. 10. Retinaculum, allotype. Fig. 1 1. Dorsal surface of manubrium. Fig. 
12. Dens, ventral view, Fig. 13, Dens, dorsal view. Fig. 14. Lateral view of mucro, allotype 
Fig. 15. Female and papilla, allotype. Fig. 16. Female subanal appendage, ventral view. Fig. 
17. Male dorsal crest, holotype. Fig. 18. Dorsal abdominal setae of male, Fig. 19. Abdomen of 
male. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 



95 




96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Diagnosis 

Bourletiellagibbonsikeys out toBourletiella rustica Maynard in Stach 
(1956); his description is based upon the original by Maynard (1951). In 
Christiansen and Bellinger (1980-81), it also keys to rustica. When a 
comparison is made of the original description and illustrations (1951, figs. 
373, 568-574), separation of the species is as follows: 

rustica gibbonsi 

Pigment brown and tan Pigment dark purple, 

lateral lines broad, lateral lines narrow, regular 

irregular 

unguis without outer tooth unguis with outer tooth 

unguiculus without unguiculus with needle 

subapical needle 

tendril of male subequal tendril almost twice 

to anterior spines length of anterior spines 

female subanal appendage subanal appendage thick, 

blade-like (ventral view) blunt (ventral view) 

The two species are similar in pigment pattern of head and anal papilla. 
Both have antennal segmentation in ratio of 1 : 2: 3:6 and ANT IV with five 
intermediates. The general shape of the female subanal appendage is the 
same, gibbonsi is slightly thicker. The female circumanal setae form a 
similar pattern in both species. The male dorsal crest of gibbonsi more 
closely resembles that of Bourletiella hortensis (Fitch). However, the 
number of tenacular setae is two for hortensis and three for gibbonsi. In 
addition, color pattern should separate the two species. 

Types 

Holotype (male), allotype (female), two male and one female paratype on slides; 94 
paratypes in alcohol. Holotype, allotype and 84 paratypes deposited in the Entomology 
Museum, Michigan State University; 10 paratypes deposited in the Entomology Museum, the 
University of Georgia at Athens. All specimens were collected in South Carolina, Barnwell 
County, Savannah River Plant, U.S. Department of Energy, near Aiken, on roadside grass, 
August 25, 1980, R.J. Snider, collector. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 198 1 97 



Remarks 

This species was collected on a bright, hot (3 1 C) day. The habitat was 
mowed grass growing on the side of paved road within the Savannah River 
Plant boundaries. The grass was approximately 150 centimeters high and 
grown in full sunlight. The number of males and females was about equal. It 
is my pleasure to name this colorful species for my long-time friend. Dr. J. 
Whitfield Gibbons. Associate Director of the Savannah River Ecology 
Laboratory of the University of Georgia. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Special thanks are offered to the Department of Entomology, Univer- 
sity of Georgia and Dr. D.A. Crossley, Jr. for the use of facilities and aid 
in manuscript preparation. Field collecting was carried out under the 
auspices of Contract DE-AC09-76SR00819 between the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Energy and the University of Georgia. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chrisitansen, K. and P.P. Bellinger, 1980-81. The Collembola of North America North of 

the Rio grande, Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa, 1322 p. 
Maynard, E.A. 1951. A Monograph of the Collembola or Springtail Insects of New York 

State. Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, N.Y. 339. p. 
Stach, J. 1956. The Apterygoten Fauna of Poland in Relation to the World-Fauna of this 

Group of Insects. Family: Sminthuridae. Pol. Akad. Nauk, Krakow, 289 p. 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NORTHERN RANGE EXTENSION 

OFACANALONIA CONIC A 
(HOMOPTERA: ACANALONIIDAE) 1 

L.L. Pechuman, 2 A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 3 

ABSTRACT: The acanaloniid planthopperAcanalonia conica (Say) is newly recorded from 
Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania. This northern extension of the known distribution 
is attributed to natural dispersal of more southern populations. 

Acanalonia conica (Say), a common fulgoroid in much of the eastern 
United States, ranges south into Central America. The northernmost 
records, as cited in the catalogue of Homoptera (Metcalf 1954), are from 
Delaware, Maryland, and Ohio. In this paper we are giving new records 
from Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania and suggesting that 
populations of A. conica have moved northward in recent years. 

The following distribution records are based on personal collecting and 
specimens in the insect collections of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York (AMNH); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (CU); 
Pennsylvania State University, University Park (PSU); Pennsylvania 
Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg (PDA); State Univ. New York, 
College Environ. Sci. & For., Syracuse (SUNY-ESF); and U.S. National 
Museum, Washington, DC (USNM). Complete data are cited for all 
specimens except the large numbers collected by students at Ithaca and 
Syracuse, NY, and State College, PA; for those localities only the earliest 
date of collection is listed, plus the range of collection dates for additional 
specimens. We also checked the collections of the Carnegie Museum of 
Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station, New Haven, and the New York State Museum, Albany, for 
possible northern records of A. conica, but no specimens pertinent to this 
study were found. 

CONNECTICUT. Fairfield Co.,Westport, 6 Sept. 1967, M.A. Deyrup. 

NEW YORK. Madison Co., Cazenovia, 27 Aug. 1975. Monroe Co., Rochester, 3 Sept. 
1972, B. Hughes. Nassau Co., Hicksville, 14 Aug. 1974, M. O'Brien. Onondaga Co., 
Collamer, 8 Oct. 1972; Jamesville, 8 Oct. 1972, J. Blake; Syracuse, 17 Sept. 1968, D. 
Hoover; same date, G. Kelly, and 49 collections, from 28 July-20 Oct. 1968-79; Tully, 13 
Oct. 1971, S. Bosch. Ontario Co., Geneva, 4 Sept. 1973, H. Tashiro. St. Lawrence Co., 
Cranberry Lake, 1 Sept. 1955. Suffolk Co., 1 Aug. 1972, G. Licata; Caumsett State Park, 2 1 



Deceived December 13, 1980. 
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 

Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, PA 17110. 

ENT. NEWS 92(3): 98-100 



Vol. 92, No. 3, Mav & June 1981 99 



Aug. 1977, G.C. Eickwort. Tompkins Co., Ithaca, 6 Sept. 1956, H.E. Evans, and numerous 
student collections, from 5 Aug.-24 Sept. 1966-79; Ludlowville, 5-6 Sept., 1971, L.L. 
Pechuman, and several collections 1974-80. Ulster Co., Walker Valley, Aug. 1955. Wayne 
Co., Sodus, 18 Aug. 1974. 

PENNSYLVANIA. Bucks Co., Feasterville, 10 Sept. 1956 and 24 July 1967, E.E. 
Simons. Butler Co., Butler, 18 Aug. 197 1, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. Centre Co., Benner Springs, 4 
Sept. 1 978, J.O. Pepper; State College, 28 July 1 949, S. W. Frost, and 6 collections, from 2 1 
July-6 Oct. 1977-79. Chester Co, Seven Stars, 20 Aug. 1 974, T.J. Henry and A.G. Wheeler. 
Jr. Dauphin Co., Harrisburg, 25 July 1958, E.U. Balsbaugh.Jr. Delaware Co.,Oakmont, 14 
Oct. 1932, G.B. Sleesman; Swarthmore, 31 July, 6 Aug. 1960 and 12 Aug. 1961, R.G. 
Beard. Franklin Co., Blue Ridge Summit, Aug. 1915. J. A. Hyslop. Lancaster Co., Ephrata, 
3 Sept. 1971, A.G. Wheeler, Jr.: Manheim, 17 July 1979. A.G. Wheeler, Jr. Lebanon 
Co., Lebanon, 18 July 1979, S. Koyer.Lehigh Co.,Allentown,22 Aug. 1973, L. Signorovitz; 
Orefield, 19 July 1972, J. Spirk, Montgomery Co., Conshohocken, 20 July 1939, L. 
Stannard. Northampton Co., Easton, 13, 15 Aug. 1973, J. Spirk, Philadelphia Co., Morris 
Arboretum, 1 1 July 1 979, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. Washington Co., McMurray, 6 Aug. 1973, D. 
Trelka. York Co., Manchester 16 Aug. 1973, W.E. Blosser. 

The first known Pennsylvania record -- 1915 from Blue Ridge Summit 
on the Maryland state line - - hardly represents a range extension; a 
northward shift in populations of A. conica, as reflected by museum 
specimens, is not apparent until the 1930's. Records from various 
collections show a progressive movement: southeastern Pennsylvania 
(1930's), central portions of the state (194CTs and 50's), and New York at 
Ithaca (1956) and Syracuse (1968). An earlier, more northern record 
(Cranberry Lake, NY, 1955) may represent merely a fortuitous collection. 
Only in the last 10-12 years have students in introductory entomology 
courses at Cornell and SUNY-Syracuse collected large numbers of 
specimens. In 1974 this fulgoroid was represented in about 50 to 100 
collections made by Cornell students. 

Available evidence suggests that A. conica has moved northward in 
recent years. This species was not recorded in the lists of western 
Pennsylvania Hemiptera (Wirtner 1904), Homoptera of New York's 
Cranberry Lake region (Osborn 1922), New York insects (Leonard 1928), 
or Connecticut Homoptera (Van Duzee 1923); nor was it among the 
fulgoroids found associated with ornamental plants in Connecticut (Walden 
1922, 1927). We also feel that Roy Latham, a well-known naturalist who 
by the 1960's had assembled an extensive collection of Long Island insects 
(Pechuman 1969), would not have overlooked this distinctive, gregarious 
species that often congregates on stems of woody plants. 

The known distribution of A. conica now has been brought nearly to 
Lake Ontario in western New York (Sodus) and to the Adirondacks in 
northeastern New York (Cranberry Lake). Changing faunal ranges often 
involve artificial spread with man's commerce or long-distance movement 
with convective air currents. Although we cannot dismiss these factors, we 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



feel that the influx of this fulgoroid into Pennsylvania, New York, and 
Connecticut represents a relatively recent natural and progressive dispersal 
of more southern populations. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are grateful to M.F. O'Brien for summarizing the numerous records from the SUNY- 
ESF collection, Syracuse, NY. T.J. Henry, Systematic Entomology Lab., USDA, SEA, 
Washington, DC, kindly checked the U.S. National Museum collection; T.L. McCabe, New 
York State Museum, the collection at Albany; R.T. Schuh, the American Museum of Natural 
History collection at New York; J.A. Slater, Univ. of Connecticut, the collection at New 
Haven; and J.F. Stimmel, Bureau of Plant Industry, Pa. Dept. Agric., Harrisburg, the 
Carnegie Museum collection at Pittsburgh, PA. For critically reading the manuscript we thank 
E.R. Hoebeke, Dept. of Entomology, Cornell Univ. and K. Valley, Bur. Plant Ind., Pa. Dept. 
Agric., Harrisburg. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Leonard, M.D. 1928. A list of the insects of New York. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp.Stn. Mem. 

101:1-1121. 
Metcalf,A.P. 1954, Fasc.IV Fulgoroidea, Pt. 14 Acanaloniidae. Pages 1-55 In W.E. China, 

ed. General catalog of the Homoptera. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. 
Osborn, H. 1922. Homoptera in the vicinity of Cranberry Lake, Pages 24-54 /// Osborn, H. 

and C.J. Drake. An ecological study of the Hemiptera of the Cranberry Lake region. New 

York, N.Y. State Coll. For., Syracuse Univ. Tech. Publ. 16 Vol. 22, No. 5. 
Pechuman, L.L. 1969. Recent gifts to the Cornell University Insect Collections. Entomol. 

News 80:43. 
Van Duzee, E.P. 1923. Family Fulgoridae, Pages 24-55 In Britton, W.E., ed. The 

Hemiptera or sucking insects of Connecticut. Conn. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 34. 
Walden, B.H. 1922. The mealy flatas. Ormenis pruinosa Say, and O. septentrionalis Spin. 

Pages 189-190 In 21st Rep. State Entomol. Conn., 1921. 
Walden, B.H. 1927. Abundance of Ormenis pruinosa Say on Ibota privet. Pages 267-2687/7 

26th Rep. Stae Entomol. Conn., 1926. 
Wirtner, P.M. 1904. A preliminary list of the Hemiptera of western Pennsylvania. Ann. 

Carnegie Mus. 3:183-232. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 101 

TWO NEW PARASITE RECORDS AND NOTES ON 

PETROVA ALBICAPITANA (BUSCK) 

(LEPIDOPTERA: OLETHREUTIDAE) ON JACK 

PINE, PINUS BANKSIANA LAMB. IN MAINE 1 

Robert A. Tracy, Eben A. Osgood 

ABSTRACT: The distribution and some aspects of the natural control of Petrova albicapi- 
tana (Busck) were determined. Two parasites, Hyssopus thymus(Gir.) and Phrynofrontina 
prob. n. sp. were reared for the first time from this host. 

The pitch nodule maker, Petrova albicapitana (Busck) bores into pine 
shoots and causes pitch blisters on twigs of jack pine, Pinus banksiana 
Lamb., Scots pine, P. sylvestris L. and lodgepole pine, P. contorta Dougl. 
Severe deformation may result when branches and terminal shoots are 
girdled and killed. This insect attacks trees of varying ages, and populations 
may be heavy on trees from 0.3 to 1 .5 meters in height and in mature (50 to 
60 year) stands (Turnock 1953, McLeod and Tostowaryk 1971). 

The life history and ecology of P. albicapitana in Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan was studied by Turnock ( 1 953). P. albicapitana has a two- 
year life cycle. Eggs are laid from early June to mid- July on tips of the new 
growth. During the remainder of the summer, larvae feed at this site, making 
small blisters of pitch and silk on the stems. Larvae overwinter within these 
pitch blisters and feed in them for a short time the following spring. They 
then migrate down the branch to a crotch and construct a large nodule of 
pitch, frass and silk, where they feed throughout the second year. Larvae 
spend the second winter in this nodule which becomes hard and darkened in 
winter. Larvae continue feeding the second spring and fresh pitch appears 
adjacent to the old pitch nodule. In May, larvae pupate in a chamber 
constructed within the nodule. One end of this chamber is covered by a very 
thin layer of pitch and silk and adults emerge through this exit in June. This 
species has two broods which emerge in alternate years. One brood is 
usually much smaller than the other. Turnock (1953) reported that 12 
species of parasites attack this host. 

There have been no previous studies of P. albicapitana in the eastern 
United States. The present study was undertaken to determine the distribu- 



1 Received February 6, 1981. 

Department of Entomology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469. Graduate Student 
and Professor of Entomology respectively. 

ENT. NEWS 92(3): 101-105 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



tion of P. albicapitana in Maine and the parasites and other mortality 
factors affecting it. 

Methods 

In 1979, all areas known to contain jack pine were checked to determine 
the distribution of P. albicapitana in the state. At this time a visual 
estimation of population density was made. 

The area selected for study was located in Deblois. On June 2, 1978, 
branches from several large (25 year old) trees, which contained 1 17 pitch 
masses of the 1977-79 brood, were collected for parasite rearing and 
mortality studies. An additional 157 masses were collected from both large 
and small trees on June 2 and 4 to obtain additional parasites. P. 
albicapitana was in the pupal stage at this time. In July 1979, the number of 
pitch masses of P. albicapitana were counted on 100 small trees (0.6 3 
meters in height) to determine the relative abundance of each brood. 

Twigs with pitch masses were kept at room temperature on 0.5 liter, 
airtight plastic containers. Needles were removed to prevent excess 
moisture and fungal growth. Containers were checked twice daily and 
emerging insects were killed by freezing. Since P. majica Miller (Miller 
1978) has previously been reared with P. albicapitana from blister-bearing 
twigs on jack pine (McLeod and Tostoworyk 1971), all emerging moths 
were examined to confirm their identity. Pitch masses, from which no 
insects emerged, were dissected to determine the number of dead hosts and 
parasites. 

The amount of new pitch produced on the pitch mass in the spring of 
pupation was thought to be an indicator of larval health. Therefore, the 
diameter of new pitch produced in the spring was measured. If masses were 
not spherical, diameters were calculated from the average of several 
measurements. 

Results and Discussion 

Distribution and Abundance 

P. albicapitana was found in five localities in central Maine (Fig. 1). 
Many trees from .3-8 meters in height contained a pitch mass at nearly 
every crotch on the main stems and branches at the study area in Deblois. 
Much lighter infestations were found in a 44 year old plantation on the 
University Forest in Orono, in natural jack pine up to 5 meters in height 
near Debsconeag Deadwater (Twp. 2, Range 9), in a 25 year old Twp. 30 
plantation, and on a second 25 year old plantation in Deblois. None were 
found in an 80 year old stand of jack pine in Lake Parlin ( Somerset County). 



Vol. 92, No. 3. May & June 1981 



103 




. .Study lift 

. ..Areis of infestation 



Fig. 1. Distribution of P. albicapitana in Maine. 



In the Deblois study area the 1977-79 brood was much larger than the 
1979-80 brood. All of the 146 pitch masses found on the 100 small sample 
trees belonged to the 1977-79 brood. Only one 1978-80 brood pitch mass 
was found after examination of several hundred trees. 

All specimens of Petrova reared in this study were those of P. 
albicapitana. 

Natural Control 

Mortality encountered in the sample of 1 17 pitch masses from known 
and unknown causes was as follows. Sixteen pitch masses (13.7%) were 
destroyed by breakage of twigs by wind or other causes. Twenty-four 
masses (20.5%) contained dead larvae; 19 having died before the resump- 
tion of feeding in the spring. The remaining five contained mature larvae in 
the feeding chamber, which was filled with pitch. Twenty-one ( 1 7.9%) died 
in the pupal state, and 8 (6.8%) as moths during emergence. Parasitism 
accounted for the remaining mortality of 10.3%. Thirty-six moths (30.8%) 
emerged successfully. 



104 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The amount of new pitch was found to an indicator of larval health. 
Seventy-nine percent of the 24 pitch masses with dead larvae had no new 
pitch, and 100% mortality occurred in masses which contained less than 5 
mm of new pitch. Moths emerged from pitch masses with a mean diameter of 
12 mm of new pitch. 

Table 1 shows the relative abundance of four species of parasites reared 
from a total of 274 pitch masses of P. albicapitana. Turnock (1953) 
reported that parasitism rates were generally low. He theorized that since 
parasites had a one-year life cycle and attacked only year old migrating host 
larvae, the smallest of the two broods limited the parasite population and 
protected the larger brood from heavy parasitism. The low parasitism rate 
of 6.9% in the present study was expected since one brood was much larger 
than the other. 

Table 1 . Parasites reared in the laboratory from 274 pitch masses of P. albicapitana in Maine. 

Number of 

Species: P. albicapitana 

parasitized 

Phtynofrontina prob. n. sp. (Tachinidae) 5 

Apanteles petrovae (Braconidae) 1 

Exeristes comstockii (Ichneumonidae) 1 

Hyssopus thymus (Eulophidae) 12 

Phrynofrontina prob. n. sp. emerged from pitch masses which were of 
normal size and contained normal amounts of new pitch. These solitary 
larval parasites left the host and pupated near the exit. Phrynofrontina sp. 
was reared from larvae of Petrova metallica (Busck) in the Canadian 
Rockies (Stark 1957), but the genus had not been previously reported from 
P. albicapitana. 

One specimen of Apanteles petrovae Walley emerged from a pitch 
mass which had no fresh pitch present, and a single specimen of Exeristes 
comstockii(Cr.) emerged from a mass with little new pitch. Turnock ( 1 953) 
reported these species emerging from pupae of P. albicapitana in Canada. 

Hyssopus thymus Girault emerged during June 10-13. From one to 12 
individuals emerged from each of the four pitch masses containing normal 
amounts of new pitch. Remains of dead and emerged H. thymus were found 
in eight additional masses containing no new pitch. Miller (1955) reared 
this parasite from P. comstockiana (Fernald) and reported than an 
overwintering generation emerges in April and a summer generation from 
late May to early June. Thus, it seems that masses containing no new pitch 
were parasitized by the overwintering generation, and parasites emerging in 
June might have been second generation parasites. It should be noted that 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 198 1 105 



high populations of P. comstockiana exist in coastal areas approximately 
10 miles from the study area. H. thymus has not been previously reported 
from P. albicapitana. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The authors wish to thank Drs. C.W. Carlson, E.E. Grissell.P.M. Marsh, and C.W. 
Sabrosky for their kind assistance in determining the taxonomic status of various specimens of 
Diptera and Hymenoptera; and Drs. D.G. Boucias, H.Y Forsythe, Jr., and R.H. Storch, 
Department of Entomology, University of Maine, Orono, for helpfully reviewing the 
manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

McLeod, J. M. and W. Tostowaryk. 1971. Outbreaks of pitch nodule makers (Petrova ssp). in 

Quebec jack pine forests. Can.For.Serv.Laurential For. Res. Centr. Inf. Rept. Q-X-24,5 

pp. 
Miller. W.E. 1955. Notes on the life cycles of three parasites of the pitch twig moth. Ohio J. 

Sci. 55: 317-319. 
Miller, W.E. 1978. Petrova pitch-blister moths of North America and Europe: Two new 

species and synopsis (Olethreutidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am 71(3): 329-340. 
Stark, R.W. 1957. Parasites of Petrova metallica (Busck). Can. Dep. Agri. Bi-Mo. Prog. 

Rep. 13(4): 2-3. 
Turnock, W.J. 1953. Some aspects of the life history and ecology of the pitch nodule maker, 

Petrova albicapitana (Busck) (Lepidoptera Olethreutidae). Can. Ent. 85: 233-243. 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



INSECT COLONIZATION OF DRILLED 
TREE HOLES' 2 

Jerry W. Heaps 

ABSTRACT: Beginning in 1978 January, and continuing over a 1 8 month period, 30 drilled 
holes in the West Virginia University Forest, Coopers Rock State Park, Morgantown, West 
Virginia were sampled to determine species of colonizing insects. Insect colonizers included 
four species of Culicidae, one species of Syrphidae, and undetermined species of Trichoceridae, 
Ceratopogonidae, and Helodidae. Numbers of individuals flucuated widely both with time of 
year and from site to site. Colonization was typically initiated with retention of water or damp 
detritus material in a previously dry hole. Following moisture loss, insect habitation was very 
limited. 

Tree holes provide a unique and specialized abode for breeding by many 
insects, other invertebrates and vertebrates. Competition for existing sites 
is intensive and environmental conditions may make some tree holes 
unavailable for use. Increasing the number of tree holes in an area could 
relieve some of this intra- and interspecific competition for existing 
breeding sites. The United States Forest Service is studying the effective- 
ness of drilled holes in three tree species to accelerate den formation for 
various squirrel species (Sanderson & Michael, 1975) . While some 
drilled holes were utilized by squirrels, a large number were retaining a high 
level of moisture making squirrel habitation impossible, but increasing 
probability of insect habitation. Tree holes vary from dry, to damp, to wet 
(standing water). Each habitat supports different, and sometimes pre- 
dictable, insect colonizers which require specific habitats. Wood-boring 
insects are found in dry holes; fungus-feeding insects in damp, fungus- 
containing holes; and mosquito, syrphid and ceratopogonid larvae in wet 
tree holes. The insect families Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae include 



'Received January 8, 1981. 

Published with approval of the Director of W. Va. Univ. Agric. and For. Exp. Sta. as Scientific 
Paper No. 1671. Portions of this paper were taken from a thesis submitted to the Graduate School 
of West Virginia Univ. in partial fulfillment of the Master of Science Degree. 

Present address: Dept of Entomology, Fisheries and Wildlife, Univ. of Minnesota. Hodson 
Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 

4 
Sanderson, H.R. and E.D. Michael, 1975. Informal publication. Study Abstract Sheet, 

Study No. FS-NE-1702-12. Northeastern Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia. 



ENT. NEWS 92(3): 106-110 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 198 1 107 

many species that are annoying to man and livestock because of their 
bloodsucking habits. Some species of tree hole breeding mosquitoes are 
important disease vectors. 

Among those who have studied the ecology and biology of tree holes are 
Kitching (1971) and Smith and Trimble (1973). Numerous reports are 
available on specific tree hole inhabitants, especially mosquitoes. Fairly 
complete information about the occurrence of mosquitoes in tree holes 
exists for many parts of the world and faunal lists have been produced. 

Methods and Materials 

The study area was a mixed stand of hardwoods, primarily oaks and 
maples, on a sloping ridge at an elevation of 788 meters. The site is located 
in the West Virginia University Forest at Coopers Rock, Monongalia 
County, West Virginia. 

From 1975 September to 1976 December the U.S. Forest Service 
(USFS) drilled 192 (numbers 001-192) tree holes equally divided among 
Acer rubrum L. (red maple), Quercus alba L. (white oak) and Q. rubra L. 
(red oak). An electric drill powered by a portable generator was used to 
form a triangular cavity about 8 cm on a side and approximately 15 cm 
deep. Elevation of holes averages 7.7 meters above the forest floor. 

Every fourth tree was selected to divide each tree species into four 
groups with relatively equal diameter at breast height distributions. Each 
group was randomly selected for treatment [drill only, drill plus glycerol 
(100 cc), drill plus fungus, and drill plus glycerol (50 cc) and fungus). 
Glycerol was added as a substrate for fungal growth to determine if the tree 
hole decay could be accelerated. 

Fungal cultures, obtained from Dr. F. Berry, Northeastern Forest 
Experiment Station, Delaware, OH. were tree species - - specific as 
follows: 

red maple inoculations Inonotus (=Polyporus) glomeratus (Pk.) Murr. 
northern red oak inoculations Phlebia chyrsocrea 
white oak inoculations Polyporus compactus Overh. 

From the 1 92 trees drilled and otherwise treated by USFS personnel, 30 
trees were randomly selected for insect sampling without regard to tree 
species or to the four treatments mentioned above. 192 paper slips, 
numbered 00 1 - 1 92, were placed in a circular bin, mixed, and 30 slips were 
chosen. The results produced 1 1 white oak, 4 red oak and 1 5 red maple tree 
holes to be monitored for insect activity. At the location of the drilled holes 
the tree trunks were approximately perpendicular to the ground. Tree holes 
were examined on each of the following dates: 12 May 1978, 24 August 
1978, 14 November 1978 and 10-12 April 1979. The author attempted to 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

obtain a sample on a date that corresponded to each of the four seasons of a 
year. 

Access to tree holes for sampling was obtained by use of two 3.4 meter 
sections of Swiss ladders secured to the tree. A harness was used which 
provided safety and allowed freedom of movement during the sampling 
process. Collection equipment included suction pipettes, forceps, teaspoon, 
flashlight and several two dram vials placed in a shotgun shell belt secured 
around the waist. On each sampling date any liquid samples which 
contained insect larvae or any adult insects collected were returned to the 
laboratory for further examination. 

Insect larvae removed from water-filled tree holes were returned to the 
laboratory intact in their aquatic media for rearing. Because of the 
fluctuating water levels in a tree hole during the year, only 1 0- 1 5 ml of liquid 
was removed, so as not to hasten water loss within that hole. The sample 
liquid was mixed with 10-15 ml of distilled water and placed in a 50 ml 
beaker with finely ground Purina Lab-Chow added as larval food. Plastic 
wrap secured over the beaker has a three-fold function: ( 1 ) prevented 
formation of a surface film that would hinder the respiration of surface- 
breathing larvae, (2) prevented evaporation and (3) maintains a constant 
internal temperature. Beakers were placed in an environmental chamber 
with a 12-12 hour photoperiod and at 28C temperature. 

Results and Discussion 

Sampling results for each of the 30 tree holes utilized in this study are 
presented below. Trees of each of the three species are listed according to 
tree number (001-192) as designated by USFS researchers. Following the 
general results and discussion, each tree species will be discussed as to its 
suitability for insect habitation. 

White Oak - Quercus alba 

#029 cavity exposure (cav. exp.) WSW. No insect observed (NIAO) dry hole (DH). 

#035 cav. exp. WSW. NIAO. DH. 

#131 cav. exp. E. NIAO. DH. 

#173 cav. exp. ESE. NIAO. DH. 

#41 - cav. exp. ESE NIAO. DH. 

#42 - cav. exp. ESE. NIAO. DH. 

#180 cav. exp. ESE. 12 May: water in hole and Aedes triseriatus (Say) 
(Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were collected and reared. At other sampling periods the hole was 
dry and no additional insect species were present. 

#183 cav. exp. ESE. NIAO. DH. 

#186 cav. exp. SSE. NIAO. DH. 

#190 cav. exp. NNW. NIAO. DH. 

#191 cav. exp. W. NIAO. DH. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 109 



Red Oak - Quercus rubra 

#10 - cav. exp. SSE. No insect activity observed; dry hole. 

#124 cav. exp. NNW. No insect activity observed; dry hole. 

#163 cav. exp. SSW. 12 May: water was in the hole and several larvae of Eristalis 
spp. ( Diptera: Syrphidae ) were collected. Attempts to rear to adults failed. Further collection 
results were negative; the hole had dried up. 

#34 - cav. exp. SSE. 12 May: Eristalis spp. were collected. On 10 April the hole was 
damp and larvae of Ceratopogonidae and Trichoceridae (Diptera) were collected. 

Red Maple - Acer rubrum 

# 14 cav. exp. N.NIAO.DH. 

#27 -- cav. exp. SSW. 12 May: larvae of Erisalis spp. and Ae. triseriatus were 
collected. Further collection results were negative, the hole had dried out. 

#107 cav. exp. N.I 4 Nov: the hole was filled with water and larvae of Orthopodomyia 
alba Baker (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected. This is the first time this mosquito species 
had been collected in the state of West Virginia (Heaps, 1980). On 12 April, the hole 
contained only damp detritus; a teaspoon of this was collected and re-hydrated with 30 ml of 
distilled water back in the laboratory. This detritus contained diapausing eggs of Ae. 
hendersoni Cockerell (Diptera: Culicidae). The dozen larvae that hatched from these eggs 
were reared. Ae. hendersoni is a rare species in West Virginia, only once previously collected 
Amrine & Butler, 1978). 

#113 cav. exp. SSE. 24 August; larvae of Ae. triseriatus and Ceratopogonidae were 
collected. 14 November: larvae of Eristalis spp., Ceratopogonidae and 3 adult helodid 
beetles (Coleoptera: Helodidae) were collected. 10 April: the hole was dry. 

#125 cav. exp. S. NIAO.DH. 

#16 - cav. exp. SSW. NIAO.DH. 

#148 -- cav. exp. S. 24 August: larvae of Eristalis spp. and Ae. triseriatus were 
collected. On 10 April, the hole was inhabited by a flying squirrel thus preventing any further 
sampling. 

# 150 cav. exp. SSW. 14 November: larvae of Eristalis ssp. Ceratopotonidae and 2 
adult helodid beetles were collected. Further collection results were negative. 

#6 - cav. exp. W. 24 August: one adult female Ae. triseriatus was collected. 
#112 cav. exp. WSW. 24 August: larvae of Anopheles barberi Coquillet (Diptera: 
Culicidae) and Ceratopogonidae were collected. 
#134 cav. exp. WSW. NIAO.DH. 
#135 cav. exp. SSW. NIAO.DH. 
#138 cav. exp. S.NIAO.DH. 

# 139 cav. exp. SSW. 24 August: 2 larvae of An. barberi were collected and reared. 

# 145 cav. exp. S. 24 August: 4 larvae of Ae. triseriatus were collected and reared. 

Kitching (1971) defines a tree hole as any cavity or depression existing 
in or on a tree and divides them into two distinct categories. First, there are 
those tree holes which continually maintain an unbroken tree lining and 
secondly, those which lack this lining and penetrate through to the sapwood 
and, ultimately, to the heartwood of the tree. The first of these categories 
may be referred to as "pans" and the second as "rot holes". 

Rot holes require some external agent for their initiation. For this 
reason, the tree holes used in this study fall into this category. Initial damage 
to the bark was made by drilling of the holes. If environmental conditions 
allow fungal growth, a subsequent enlargement of the hole by rotting occurs. 



1 10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Within the current study area three distinct types of tree hole habitats 
were found, they are: (1) dry holes and dry detritus, (2) holes containing 
damp detritus but no standing water and, ( 3 ) holes with standing water plus 
detritus. Insect activity was most evident in water-filled tree holes as they 
served as insect larval habitats; activity is much more limited in drier holes. 

Of the tree species studied, red maple is most suitable for insect 
habitation. The following species of mosquito larvae were found in red 

maple tree holes during the study: Aedes triseriatus,(Say)Ae. hendersoni 
Cockere\\^4nopheles barberi Coquillet and Orthopodomyia alba Baker. 
No tree hole was found to contain more than one mosquito species at any 
one time or more than three species of colonizers. Also collected from red 
maple tree holes were larvae of Eristalis spp. and Ceratopogonidae, and 
adults from the coleopteran family Helodidae. 

In this study red maples held water more efficiently than either white or 
red oaks. However, any one of the three species could provide the necessary 
requirements for insect habitation if the moisture level remained sufficient 
for the time needed for the insect to complete its life cycle. Some factors 
which limit this moisture level in a tree hole are: cavity exposure, 
inclination of the tree from vertical, rainfall, temperature and the ability of 
the tree to resist internal and external cracking. The height of the tree hole 
above the forest floor may influence the composition of the insect fauna 
present. Common forest floor insects with limited locomotion would have 
difficulty gaining access to higher tree holes. 

The results indicate that holes should not be drilled in red maple in an 
attempt to increase and accelerate den formation for various squirrel 

species. Red maple tree holes accumulate water for extended periods of 
time making vertebrate habitation impossible. Oak trees, especially white, 
vould be an acceptable alternative as a solution to this problem. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank Dr. Linda Butler, Department of Entomology, West Virginia University, 
Morgantown, for her technical and editorial assistance. Thanks also go to Franz Pogge and 
Gary Henry of the U.S. Forest Service and Joseph Begley and Marlin Remick, Department of 
Entomology, West Virginia University for their field assistance. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Amrine, J.W. and Linda Butler. 1978. Annotated list of the mosquito species of West 

Virginia. Mosquito News 38: 101-104. 
Heaps, Jerry W. 1980. Occurrence of Orthopodomyia alba Baker in West Virginia. 

Mosquito news 40: 452. 
Kitching, R.L. 1971. An ecological study of water-filled tree holes and their position in the 

woodland ecosystem. J. Animal Ecol. 40: 281-302. 
Smith, S.M. and Trimble, R.M. 1973. The biology of tree-holes of Point Pelee National 

Park, Ontario, Can. Entomol. 105: 1585-1586. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 111 

THE FRENULUM OF MOTHS 1 2 

A. Glenn Richards^ 

ABSTRACT: The frenulum of most female moths is a cluster of very large acanthae, 
commonly 3 in number. The frenulum of the male is a multicellular bristle formed by the 
adhesion or partial fusion of a group of several dozen acanthae. New is the finding that 
acanthae can combine into a multicellular bristle of unique structure. 

Recently, in sorting my large reprint collection, I came upon an old 
report that appears to have been missed by Zoological Record and other 
bibliographic sources. In this, Marshall (1922) described the development 
of the frenulum, a large bristle or hook at the base of the anterior margin of 
the metathoracic wings of most moths. It serves to hold the wings together to 
act in unison in flight. First described by DeGeer in 1752, it has been 
mentioned by numerous entomologists but Marshall's study is the only 
significant one. 

On the basis of stained serial sections of pupal wings of Galleria 
mellonella L. examined by light microscopy, Marshall ( 1 922) reported that 
the frenulum of males is formed from protuberances of a group of a dozen or 
somewhat more cells which become joined together into a single large 
bristle, but that the frenulum of the female is formed from 2 or 3 larger cells 
which are spaced a little apart from one another. The result is that the male 
has a single compound bristle whereas the female has several simple bristles 
of the sort we have recently termed acanthae (Richards and Richards 1 969, 
1979). Why this sexual difference exists is not known but it is widely 
recognized by moth taxonomists that one can readily determine the sex of 
any individual of most moth families by examination of the frenulum. 
Additionally, Marshall noticed that the number of units in the frenulum of 
females was not constant in G. mellonella. He examined 897 females. Of 
these, 456 (51 96) had 3 bristles on each wing, 319 (36 %) had 2 on one 
wing and 3 on the other, 121 (13 %) had 2 on each wing, and a single female 
had only 1 bristle on each wing. 

I have reexamined the situation with ordinary light microscopy, 
polarized light microscopy and electron microscopy. There is no trace of a 
socket or of innervation. Therefore these are acanthae with the frenulum of 



1 Received November 13, 1980. 

2 
Paper No. 1 1,467, Scientific Journal Series, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, 

St. Paul, MN 55108. 

Department of Entomology, Fisheries & Wildlife, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 
55108. 



ENT. NEWS 92(3): 111-114 



1 1 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

males being unusual in that a dozen or several dozen cells combine to 
produce a single bristle which reveals its multicellular origin by incom- 
pleteness of the fusion (Figs. 1, 4, 5). The difference between males and 
females, then, is in the number of cells involved, the size of the trichogen 
cells, and the crowding together of these trichogens. The eventual formation 
of 1 vs several bristles is secondary to the development differences. 

The size of the frenulum is fairly well correlated to wing size within a 
family but not so well between families (relatively small, for instance, in 
sphingids). In Galleria mellonella the frenulum is about 2 mm long in both 
sexes but is 0. 1 2 mm in basal diameter in the male in contrast to 0.05 mm in 
the female. In various microlepidoptera the frenulum can be less than 1 mm 
long. In large noctuid moths such as Erebus odora L. and Thysania 
zenobia Cramer I have measured lengths of 6-8 mm (0.25 mm diameter at 
base). In the occasional oversized specimens of T. zenobia (wing expanse 
about 30 cm) I would expect a length of 1 cm or slightly more. This is longer 
than any ordinary seta I have seen in insects but is approached by some hair 
pencils (which are modified setae). It is about the same length as some of the 
setae of giant tarantulas. 

Cross sections of male frenula cut on an ultratome with a diamond knife 
show that there may be several dozen units in the noctuid moth Cirphis 
unipuncta Haw. (Fig. 4) but about double this number in the larger 
Catocala amatrix Hbn. (Fig. 5). Also the units in C. unipuncta fit snugly 
together and the cuticles seem to have fused whereas in C. amatrix 
intecellular or interacanthal spaces are common and the cuticles of 
individual acanthae commonly seem distinct though adherent. 

In the females of various moths the details vary. I have seen examples 
ranging from 1 to 6 bristles. Single bristles are recorded for many 
Aegeriidae, some Pyralidae, some Pterophoridae and a few others. The 
ones I have examined microscopically (Podosesia syringae Harris, Melittia 
cucurbitae Harris, and Cissuvora ampelopsis Engle., all aegeriids) clearly 
showed the single bristles as multiple acanthae. That means it is identical to 
that of the male. There is no sexual differentiation in these cases. Three 
bristles seems to be the commonest number for female moths. I have seen 
only one case with 6 bristles; this was in the aegeriid moth Aegeria 
apiformis Clerck. 

The separate bristles in the female are usually similar but not 
necessarily so. In the noctuid moth Cirphis unipuncta there are 2 large 
bristles and a third (basal) one that is shorter and much more slender. 

After treatment with hot alkali frenula of both sexes give positive 
chitosan tests. They may or may not collapse depending on how sturdy the 
procuticular component is. Rather surprisingly, male frenula treated with 
alkali do not separate into the several dozen units from which they originate. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 



113 







Fig. 1 . Whole mount of the basal half of a fremulum from a male ofGalleria mellonella. The 
linear striations are due to the walls of acanthal units. Fig. 2. Part of the tangle of threads 
resulting from teasing with fine needles a frenulum from a male of G. mellonella. Fig. 3. Whole 
mount of a frenulum of a female of G. mellonella after teasing with needles. Fig. 4. Cross 
section of a frenulum from a male of cirphis unipunta (cleaned with hot 4% NaOH, then 
stained with aqueous OsO^ before embedding in Durcupan). Fig. 5. Cross section of about 
half of the frenulum from a male ofCalocale amatrix [converted to chitosan with cone. K.OH 
at 160 , then stained with aqueous OsO^ before embedding.). Fig. 6.Lighter print from same 
negative as preceding; to show distinctness of acantal cuticles at some places. 



114 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Since the trichogen cells do not fuse, each secretes a cuticle (Figs. 4-5) 
which one would expect to have an alkali-soluble epicuticle on its outer 
surface. Treatment with hot alkali (KOH or NaOH) should remove an 
epicuticle. Either the epicuticle is not the cement holding these units 
together or a secondary adhesion develops as an artifact of the treatment 
The cross sections suggest that the procuticular walls of the units are fused. 
If one teases a male frenulum with sharp needles (with or without 
pretreatment with alkali) it is easy to fray it into a mass of threads some of 
which may be acantal units but some of which are so slender they must be 
from a wall of an individual acantha (Fig. 2V This indicates a linear 
arrangement of chain molecules within the acanathal wall. A linear 
arrangement is also implied by the appearance in polarized light. The 
acanthae of the female frenulum may also be split but not into such a mass of 
fine threads (Fig. 3). 

REFERENCES 

Marshall, W. S. 1922. The development of the frenulum of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella 

Linn. Trans, Wisconsin Acad, Sci. Arts & Letters 20:199-205. 
Richards, A.G. and P.A. Richards, 1979. The cuticular protuberances of insects. Int. J. 

Insect Morphol. & Embryol. 8:143-157. 
Richards, P.A. and A.G. Richards, 1 969. Acanthae: A new type of cuticular process in the 

proventribulus of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Anat. 86:158-176. 



AWARDS FOR STUDY at 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

The Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, through its Jessup and McHenry funds, 
makes available each year a limited number of awards to support students pursuing natural 
history studies at the Academy. These awards are primarily intended to assist predoctoral and 
immediate postdoctoral students. Awards usually include a stipend to help defray living 
expenses, and support for travel to and from the Academy. Application deadlines are 1 April 
and 1 October each year. Further information may be obtained by writing to: Chairman, 
Jessup-McHenry Award Committee, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1 9th and 
the Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 115 

RECORDS OF PYRGOTIDAE FROM MISSISSIPPI, 

WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE 

DISTRIBUTION OF SPHECOMYIELLA VALIDA 

(HARRIS) AND PYRGOTA UNDATA WIEDEMANN 

(DIPTERA) 1 

Paul K. Lago 2 

ABSTRACT: Boreothrinax maculipennis (Macquart), Pyrgota undata Wiedemann and 
Sphecomyiella valida (Harris) are reported from Mississippi for the first time, and the flight 
period of each is noted. The known distributin of S. valida is extended to Arizona and North 
Dakota. Pyrgota undata is also recorded from North Dakota. 

Pyrgotid flies, like their hosts the adult June beetles (Scarabaeidae), are 
generally nocturnal and, because of their parasitic activity, may reduce 
white grub population levels. Steyskal (1978) presented a key for the 
separation of the eight North American species and outlined the known 
distribution of each. 

The nocturnal habit of the flies makes them somewhat difficult to 
collect, however they are attracted to light and may occasionally by 
collected in moderate numbers in light traps. Most of the specimens herein 
reported were taken at blacklight. 

No species of pyrgotis have been previously recorded from Mississippi; 
however, extensive light trapping throughout the state during the last four 
years has revealed the presence of the following three species. Several 
records were obtained from the Mississippi Entomological Museum 
(MEM) at Mississippi State University and the personal collection of A.E. 
Zuccaro ( AEZ). All other specimens are in the collections of the University 
of Mississippi (UM) or the author (PKL). 

Mississippi Records 

Boreothrinax maculipennis (Macquart). 

Adams Co. Natchez, 17 Apr. 1978, 3 May 1979, A.E. Zuccaro( AEZ); 5 mi. S. Natchez, 

15 Apr. 1979, A.E. Zuccaro and P.K. Lago (UM). 

Lee Co. Tupelo, 1 1 May 1970, J. Bryson (MEM). Okibbeha Co. Starkville, 6 records - 

16 Apr. through 26 Apr. 1975 and 1976, W.H. Cross (MEM). 

Union Co. No locality, 1 Apr. 1973. B.R. Jennings (UM). Specimens examined 24. 



1 Received February 3. 1981. 
Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 



ENT. NEWS 92(3): 115-118 



1 1 6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



I have collected specimens of this species only once in Mississippi 
(Adams Co., 5 mi. S. Natchez). On that occasion a blacklight was set at 
dusk in an area of mixed hardwoods and pines near a recently cut-over site. 
Eight specimens of B. maculipennis were taken along with one specimen of 
Pyrgota undata Wiedemann and several Serica, Diplotaxis and Phyllophaga 
(Scarabaeidae). All were collected before midnight (CDT). The records 
indicate this species is active primarily in early spring. 

Pyrgota undata Wiedemann. 

Adams Co. Natchez, 15 Apr. 1979, A.E. Zuccaro (AEZ); 5 mi. S. Natchez, 3, 5 July 
1978, A.E. Zuccaro (AEZ), 15 Apr. 1979, A.E. Zuccaro and P.K. Lago (UM), 
Lafavette Co., Oxford, 8 July 1976, G. Lee (UM); 20, 21 June 1977, A.E. Zuccaro 
(UM); 24 June 1977, P.K. Lago (PKL); 15 June 1980, P.K. Lago (PKL). Lamar Co. 
Lumberton, 25 Apr. 19 1 9, G.F. Arnold (MEM). Marion Co. No locality, 16 Apr. 1970, 
W.H. Cross, on saffron yellow stickem-coated trap (MEM). Okibbeha Co. Agricultural 
College (Mississippi St. Univ.), 1 May 1916, J.C. McKee (MEM), 1 May 1923, R.A. 
McKnight (MEM), 25 June 1 924, no collector ( MEM), Stone Co. No locality, 20 Apr. 
1974, P.H. Darst(UM); Univ. of Mississippi forest lands (headquarters), 19 May 1978, 
10 Apr. 1980, 22 May 1980, P.K. Lago (UM); 4 mi. S.E. Perkinston, P.K. Lago (UM). 
Specimens examined 19. 

This large, strikingly marked species is active for a longer period than is 
B. maculipennis. Specimens have been collected in the state from April 
through early July. One male, collected 4 miles southeast of Perkinston 
(Stone County), was taken mid-afternoon on a sunny day and was flying 
along the margin of a pasture bordered by pine forest. This is the only 
pyrgotid I have seen in flight during daylight hours. 

Sphecmyiella valida (Harris). 

Adams Co. 5 mi. S. Natchez, 5 July 1978, A.E. Zuccaro (AEZ).Lafavette Co. Oxford, 5 
May 1977, A.E. Zuccaro (UM), 26 June 1977,4 July 1978, 27, 29 June 1980, 2 July 
1980,P.K. Lago (UM). Lamar Co. 4 mi. N. Baxterville, 19 Apr. 1979, P.K. Lago (UM). 
Oktibbeha Co. Agricultural College (Mississippi St. Univ.) 28 Aug. 1905, G.W. Herrick; 
7May 1914, G.F. Arnold; 13 Apr. 1917, N.D. Peets; 7 Apr. 1 9 22, E.W. Stafford; 3 May 
1922,J.M. Wallace (MEM). Stone Co. Univ. of Mississippi forest lands (headquarters), 
18 May 1978, P.K. Lago (UM). Tale Co. Senatobia, 6 Aug. 1921, F. East (MEM), 
Winston Co. Fearns Springs, May 1917, no collector (MEM). Specimens examined - 
21. 

Sphecomyiella valida has the widest temporal distribution of the three 
Mississippi species. Collection records are scattered from early April 
through August. 

All three species herein reported are widely distributed in Mississippi 
(Figure 1) and in eastern North Ameria. Steyskal (1978) defined the 
distribution of B. maculipennis as Maryland, Iowa, Arizona and south- 
ward, and that of both P. undata and S. valida as the eastern United States 
west to Minnesota and Texas. Although not recorded from west of Texas by 



Vol. 92. No. 3, May & June 1981 



117 



Steyskal (1978), Cole (1969) stated that S. valida "may come west to 
Arizona" and listed two records from that state. Coles' statement seems 
somewhat skeptical; however, the following records indicate that the range 
of S. valida does extend into Arizona. Also included are records for P. 
undata and S. valida from North Dakota which seem to represent the 
northwestern limit of both species. No pyrogotids were previously known 
from North Dakota. 




Figure 1. Distribution of pyrgotids in Mississippi. 
ir Boreothrinax maculipennis 

Pyrgota undata 

Sphecomyiella valida 



1 1 8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Additional Records 

Pyrgota undata, 

NORTH DAKOTA, Pembian Co., Goschke Dam, Tongue River Game Mang. Area, 

27 June 1974, P.K. Lago (PKL). Specimens examined 1. 
Sphecomyiells valida. 

ARIZONA, Santa Cruz Co. Madera Canyon lodge, 17 July 1980, P.K. Lago and A.E. 

Zuccaro, Pena Blanca Lake, 18 July 1980, P.K. Lago and A.E. Zuccaro, (PKL). 

Specimens examined 21, NORTH DAKOTA, Rich/and Co. Walcott Dunes, 2 1 May 

1974, 19 May 1975. P.K. Lago, (PKL). McLeod Prairie, 28 May 1975, P.K. Lago, 

(PKL). Specimens examined 6. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank Dr. W.B. Cross, Mississippi Entomological Museum, and A.E. Zuccaro 
for the loan of specimens; and S.C. Harris and B.P. Stark for their comments concerning this 
manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cole, F.R. 1969. The flies of western North America. Univ. of California Pr., Berkeley. 693 

pp. 
Steyskal.G.C. 1978. Synopsis of the North American Pyrgotidae (Diptera). Proc. Entomol. 

Soc. Wash. 80:149-155. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
FOREIGN CURRENCY GRANTS PROGRAM 

The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program, a national research grants program, offers 
opportunities for support of research in Burma, Guinea, India, and Pakistan in the following 
disciplines: 



Anthropology, Archeology and related disciplines 
Systematic and Environmental Biology 
Astrophysics and Earth Sciences, and Museum 
Programs. 



Grants in the local currencies of the above countries are awarded to American institutions 
for the research of senior scientists. Collaborative programs involving host country institutions 
are welcome. Awards are determined on the basis of competitive scholarly review. The 
deadline for submission is November 1 annually. For further information write the Foreign 
Currency Program, Office of Fellowships and Grants, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
DC 20560, or call (202) 287-3321. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 119 

A QUICK AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR 

MAKING TEMPORARY SLIDES OF LARVAL 

CHIRONOMIDAE (DIPTERA) 1 

Constance L. Russell, Annelle R. Soponis 

ABSTRACT: Glycerine is used to mount chironomid larvae on slides, under separate cover 
slips, for rapid and accurate identification. Glycerine is an inexpensive substitute for water- 
based media such as CMC- 10. 

It is not unusual to collect hundreds or thousands of chironomid larvae 
during a study of rivers, lakes, or streams. Mounting great numbers of larvae 
on slides soon becomes expensive because of the time involved and the 
supplies needed: slides, cover slips, mounting media, and solvents. Here 
we describe a technique that is both fast and inexpensive, the glycerine 
method. This method is most suitable for tabulating species and instar data 
on known species, as in life history studies where larvae are routinely 
collected from the same habitats. 

Many workers use resinous media, such as Canada balsam and 
Euparal, to mount chironomid larvae on slides. However, some workers are 
switching to water-based media because of the time involved in preparation 
of slides. Using water-based media also reduces the cost of supplies; no 
special solvents are needed, larvae can be mounted directly from water or 
alcohol, and slides and cover slips can be reused after washing. Glycerine 
(glycerol) is an inexpensive, easily obtainable substitute for commercial 
water-based media such as the popular CMC-10 (Klemm 1980). For an 
equivalent amount, lab grade glycerine costs less than half as much as 
CMC-10 and is available from several supply houses such as Carolina 
Biological Supply. 

Although glycerine has been used for making temporary slides for 
many years (Peterson 1964), we are not aware that it has been used for 
slide-mounting chironomid larvae. Glycerine has the advantage of yielding 
clearly observable slide-mounts which are ready for immediate examina- 
tion under the dry field microscope. It can easily be removed from slides, 
and glycerine goes a long way. If a single larva (1-4 mm in body length) can 
be mounted in one spot of glycerine, then at least 300 larvae can be mounted 
in 1 ml of glycerine. Disadvantages of glycerine are that slides must be 
examined within a couple of days after mounting and glycerine does not 
clear specimens. Heavily sclerotized, dark, or large larvae can be cleared by 
digesting them in hot or cold 10% KOH before mounting. 



'Received November 28, 1980. 

Department of Entomology, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee. Florida 32307. 

ENT. NEWS 92(3): 119-120 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Glycerine Method 

We store larvae in vials containing 80% ethanol. Before we remove 
larvae from the vials, we draw off the ethanol with an eyedropper and fill the 
vial with distilled water. We then pour the larvae into a dish that contains 
distilled water. Next we put 6 to 8 spots of glycerine on a clean 3 x 1 in slide, 
pick up each larva with a dissecting pin, and place it in one spot. When the 
larva comes into contact with the glycerine, slight shriveling of the body 
occurs. Next we place a 10 or 12 mm circular cover slip (\ 1 A thickness) on 
each larva, and apply slight pressure. Larvae are rotated into proper 
position by moving the cover slips. 

Specimens can be examined immediately under the dry field micro- 
scope. Glycerine remains slippery unless dry, and before immersion oil can 
be used slides must be dried. Otherwise the larva will move under the 
pressure of the objective lens on the cover slip. Air drying slides takes about 
48 hrs; oven drying at 45 C takes about 30-45 min. Specimens should be 
examined before the glycerine crystallizes, about 48 hrs. after drying. 

Using this procedure we can slide-mount about 200 larvae in one hour. 
It's possible to slide-mount more larvae by placing several larvae under 
larger cover slips. However, this alteration may interfere with the identi- 
fication of the larvae since it is difficult to properly orient more than one 
larva under a single cover slip. 

Soaking slides in tap water for 24 hrs will clean the slides unless 
immersion oil has been used. Then, detergent should be added to the water. 
Slides are removed one by one, wiped with a soft cloth or brush, rinsed, and 
placed flat in paper towels to dry. We transfer cover slips to a small dish of 
clean water, then place them separately on paper towels to dry. Larvae are 
discarded with the wash water. 

If we select larvae mounted in glycerine for inclusion in the reference 
slide collection, we mount them in Euparal according to the following 
procedure. Place a few drops of distilled water around the edge of the cover 
slip until the glycerine becomes slippery and the cover slip becomes loose. 
Lift off the cover slip; place the larva in distilled water for about 5 min; 
transfer the larva to 95% ethanol for about 5 min; mount the larva directly 
into a spot of Euparal on a slide. In the distilled water the body contents 
empty out of the larval body and the head capsule. Although this makes the 
specimen delicate, there is no need to clear the larva in KOH and an 
excellent slide is produced. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We thank J.H. Epler and M.D. Hubbard for helpful comments on the typescript. This 
research was supported by NSF (RIM78-17403) and SEA/CR. USDA (FLAX 79009). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Klemm, D.J. 1980. Macroinvetebrate mounting media. EPA Newsletter 3: 1. 
Peterson, A. 1964. Entomological Techniques. How To Work With Insects, 10th ed. 
Edwards Bros., Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan 435 pp. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 121 

A COLLECTOR/MAILING CONTAINER FOR 
SHIPMENT OF LIVE INSECTS 1 

James L. Krysan 

ABSTRACT: This paper describes a functionally complete dual purpose container for the 
collection and shipment of live insects. The container permits insertion of food through a large 
opening at one end and insertion of insects through a trap-like funnel opening at the other end. 

For a project on population genetics, we needed to obtain live adult 
Diabrotica from many geographic localities. A simple, inexpensive con- 
tainer was devised so volunteers could readily collect the beetles and send them 
to our lab via U.S. mail. Convenience of handling by cooperators was a major 
concern in the design. Given the increase in studies involving live insects from 
diverse geographic areas, I thought that others might profit from the design. It 
should be readily adapted to use with other insects and foods. 

The device (Fig. 1) serves both as a collecting container and mailer. 
Materials required are: ( 1 ) a mailing tube 3 (we used a 2-inch by 1 2-inch size 
from the Chicago Paper Tube and Can Company, Inc., 925 West Jackson 
Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60607) with telescoping end caps, special ordered 
so neither end cap is glued in place; (2) a 4-oz plastic household funnel with the 
tip cut off and the flared part trimmed to fit snugly into the mailing tube (Fig. Ib); 
( 3) a piece of hardware cloth, V4-inch mesh; (4) nylon fiber tape, 1 inch wide; (5) 
silicone plastic bathtub sealer, and (6) optionally. Teflon TFE fluorocarbon 
resin dispersion, type 30, (El Dupont De Nemours and Company, Plastic 
Products and Resins Department, Wilmington, Delaware 19898). 

The funnel is glued in place with bathtub sealer as shown in Fig. 1 . The 
hardware cloth insert (outline in Fig. Ic) is folded to the shape shown in Fig. Id 
and positioned in the tube as outlined in Fig. 1 e to hold the food source firmly in 
place so the insects are not crushed during rough handling. The flexible 
hardware cloth allows the food to be secured firmly in place. The metal ends of 
each cap are perforated for ventilation. Both inner and outer funnel surfaces can 
be painted with the Teflon dispersion to reduce escape of insects during 
collection. 



1 Received January 16. 1981. 
Northern Grain Insects Research Laboratory. AR, SEA. USDA. Brookings SD 57006. 

" Mention of a proprietary product in this paper does not constitute an endorsement of this product 
by the USDA. 



ENT. NEWS 92(3):121-123 



122 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A length of nylon fiber tape is wrapped completely around the end caps 
in position 1, Fig. Id. A second tape is wrapped over the first. In use, the 
cooperator removes the cap from the food end and, in the case of 
Diabrotica,'mserts an immature ear of corn so it fits snugly in the food 
chamber. The cap is replaced and the second piece of tape moved from 
position 1 to position 2. Beetles are inserted in to the mailer through the 
funnel. Once filled, the cap is placed on the funnel end and fixed in place 
with tape as previously described. 

The mailing tube should be porous, i.e., not waxed or otherwise treated 
to be impermeable to water. This prevents excess condensation. 

A self-addressed stamped mailing label and appropriate shipping 
permits were affixed to the center of the tube along with the statement 
"perishable-live insects.". 

Use of a tube with both ends open is an important feature; it provides a 
large opening for the insertion of food at one end and a small funnel opening 
for the convenient insertion and temporary holding of insects at the other 
end. Insects can be placed in the container by knocking them into the funnel, 



a 



e 






Fig. 1. A collector-mailing container for live insects. 



Vol. 92, No. 3, May & June 1981 123 



or those collected with an aspirator can be blown into the container through 
the funnel. The complete unit with brief instructions on its use is mailed to 
the cooperator in an envelope. Cooperators should be urged to deposit the 
tube inside a post office rather than in an outdoor mail drop; the latter can 
get extremely hot. We made several hundred shipments via U.S. mail 
(special delivery) during the summer of 1980 and, although an occasional 
beetle died, most beetles in every shipment survived. 

Editor's note: Because of the potential danger to agriculture of introducing new insect species 
or genotypes, there are federal and state regulations which cover interstate shipments of live 
insects. These usually require that live insect shipments be cleared in advance, and furnish 
permit labels for attachment to packages. Details can be obtained by contacting the state 
Department of Agriculture, or the nearest USDA-APHIS office. 



PIFON, A NEW PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL FILE OF 

NATURALISTS 

In 1980 a new institution, the Oxycopis Pond Research Station was established in a 
wooded area in upstate New York. Among other projects the institute compiles and maintains 
a coded information file of naturalists of the world, PIFON. This international register 
includes well over 10,000 contemporary naturalists, and in addition a file of all persons listed in 
the Naturalists' Directory (International) since the first edition in 1 877. Thus the PIFON file 
is the world's most complete listing of naturalists, past and present. This wealth of data is 
available for the use of any person registered in PIFON. 

The 44th edition of the Naturalists' Directory (International) will be compiled from 
PIFON. The first is entitled The Naturalists' Directory of Insect Collectors and Identifiers 
(Internalional).To be registered in PIFON send the following iformation. Please use block 
letters or type: 1 ) name (last or family name underlined; include Dr.. Prof., Mr., Mrs., etc); 2) 
mailing address; 3) phone number; 4) group of insects of main interest, and area of 
specialization (e.g.Jamily) and kind of interest(e.g., systematic, ecology, biology, collecting, 
etc.); 5) geographical area of greatest interest; 6 (short statement giving interest details (not 
over 25 words); 7) if ataxonomist. list group of insects you will identify for others; 8 (signature 
and date. These data will be coded and entered into the file. No person is listed unless these 
data are supplied by that person. The right to edit all listings published in the Directory is 
reserved. The deadline for submitting entries in this edition is October 1. 1981. The 
Directories are sold by the publisher by subscription only. Send registration and/or requests 
for further information to the editor: Dr. Ross H. Arnett. Jr.. 90 Wallace Road. Kinderhook, 
NY 12106. 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, 

SW7 5BD 

4 March 1981 
A.N.(S.) 117 

The Commission hereby gives six months' notice of the possible use of its plenary powers in 
the following case, published in Bull. Zoo/. Nom., Volume 38, part 1,26 February 1981, and 
would welcome comments and advice on it from interested zoologists. Correspondence should 
be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible within six months of the date of 
publication of this notice. 

1437 Xenocrepis Foerster, 1856, (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): proposed designation 
of a type species. 



ITZN 59 

The following Opinions have been published recently by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, Volume 38, part 1 , 26 
February 1981. 

Opinion No. 

1 162 (p. 49) Schizoneura meunieri Heie, 1969 (Insecta: Hemiptera): conserved under 
the plenary powers. 

1164 (p. 57) Refusal of request to suppress Ca/omicrus taeniatus Wollaston, 1867 
Insecta: Coleoptera). 

1166 (p. 64) Liparthrum Wollaston, 1854 (Coleoptera, Scolytidae): conserved. 

1167 (p. 67) Phloeosinus Chapuis, 1869 (Coleoptera, Scolytidae): conserved. 
The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 

R.V. Melville, Secretary. 



When submitting papers, all authors are requested to ( 1 ) provide the names of two qualified 
individuals who have critically reviewed the manuscript before it is submitted and (2) submit 
the names and addresses of two qualified authorities in the subject field to whom the 
manuscript can be referred by the editor for final review. All papers are submitted to 
recognized authorities for final review before acceptance. 

Titles should be carefully composed to reflect the true contents of the article, and be kept as 
brief as possible. Classification as to order and family should be included in the title, except 
where not pertinent. Following the title there should be a short informative abstract (not a 
descriptive abstract) of not over 150 words. The abstract is the key to how an article is cited in 
abstracting journals and should be carefully written. The author's complete mailing address, 
including zip code number, should be given as a footnote to the article. All papers describing 
new taxa should include enough information to make them useful to the nonspecialist. 
Generally this requires a key and a short review or discussion of the group, plus references to 
existing revisions or monographs. Illustrations nearly always are needed. All measurements 
shall be given using the metric system or, if in the standard system, comparable equivalent 
metric values shall be included. Authors can be very helpful by indicating, in pencil in the 
margin of the manuscript, approximate desired locations within the text of accompanying 
figures, tables and other illustrations. 

Illustrations: For maximum size and definition, full page figures, including legends, should 
be submitted as nearly as possible in a proportion of 4/6. Maximum size of printed illustration, 
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tones at the rate of $6.00 each, regardless of size. 

Books for review and book publication announcements should be sent to the editor, Howard 
P. Boyd. For address, see under"manuscripts" above. Literature notices, books received and 
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Short notes will be published promptly in The Entomologist's Record. 

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Place. 

Page charges: A charge of $25. 00 is made for each published page of an article, plus costs of 
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Reprints: (without covers) may be ordered when corrected page proofs are returned to the 
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The Entomologist's Market Place 

Advertisements of goods or services for sale are accepted at SI .00 per line, 
payable in advance to the editor. Notices of wants and exchanges not 
exceeding three lines are free to subscribers. Positions open, and position 
wanted notices are included here and may be referred to by box numbers. All 
insertions are continued from month to month, the new ones are added at the 
end of the column, and, when necessary, the older ones at the top are 
discontinued. 



Wanted: Adult specimens of worldwide, including U.S., Lucanidae, Carabidae, Cicindelidae, 
Coccinellidae, Scarabaeidae, Cerambycidae, Burprestidae, and Elateridae. State condition, 
variety, and price A.I.B., Spencer, 20 W. Virginia Ave., West Chester, PA. 19380. 

For Sale: Lepidoptera livestock for private rearers and scientific study. Species for this fall 
include Citheronia regalis and Antheraea pernvi and many more. Write for prices. Brett 
Barrett, P.O. Box 107, Alvaton, KY. 42122 

Butterflies for sale or exchange. Over 1200 species from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Loas, 
Indonesia, Sumatra and Borneo. Write to Sim Yam Seng, 21 Joon Hiang Road, 
Singapore 19. 

Wanted: Entomological News, Vol. 45, No. 7 and Vol. 47, Nos. 1-8, or all of each volume. 
J.F. Schesser, Jr., RR 1, Box 15, Horton, Kansas 66439. 

Books for Sale: ROMANOFF, NM. Memories sur les Lepidopteres, vol. 1 -7 and 9, with 6 1 
plain and 69 colored plates and 3 maps. Recent H. calf. The rarest work in modern literature of 
Lepidoptera, including contributions on Asian Lepidoptera by Romanoff, Grum-Grzhimailo, 
Staudinger, Christoph, Snellen, Heylarts, and others. Robert Fagen, R.D. #1 Box 24, Glen 
Mills, PA. 19342 USA. 

NEWSLETTER: Women in entomology/ideas, concerns, activities/send notes for in- 
clusion, name and address for mailing list/$l to defray production June' 81 (1) and Jan. '82(2) 
issues welcome/Dr. Diane M. Calabrese, Dep't. Biol. Trinity College, Washington, DC. 
20017. 

Wanted: To purchase collections of identified leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) from Europe and 
the tropical Americas, or exchange North American leaf beetles for leaf beetles from the above 
regions. Dr. Richard E. White, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, c/o U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560. 

Wanted: External camera lucida. State model, condition, and price. J.C. Cokendolpher, 
4111 16th St., Apt. A, Lubbock, TX 79409. 

TIME-LAPSE MACRO STUDIES by award winning cinematographer. Motion pictures 
or still photography for scientific research & development. Any subject. Impeccable 
references. Outstanding professional background. Mirabello Enterprises, Inc., Box 294, 
Feasterville, PA 19047. 215-357-0873. 

Wanted: Old and New World specimens of Schecidae, Pompilidae, Vespidae, Mutillidae, 
Scoliidae. Prefer exchanging, but will consider purchasing. Sal Noltb, 1419 Valley Rd., 
Garner, NC 27529. 



VOL. 92 



US ISSN 0013 872X 
SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER 1981 No. 4 



K> 

3 



fci 



EN r 



NEWS 



urtnopteroids of Sand Mt. & Blow Sand Mts., Nevada 

R.C. Bechtel, L.M. Hanks, R.W. Rust 1 25 

Two new species of Alienates (Hemiptera: Enicocephalidae) 

Gene Kritsky \ 30 

Emendation of Eumensosoma Cokendolpher 

(Arachnida: Opiliones) James C. Cokendolpher 132 

Annotated checklist of treehoppers of Kentucky 

(Homoptera: Membracidae) P.H. Frevtag,. 

C.y. Covell, Jr., D.D. Kopp 133 



Distinguishing larvae of No. American Baetidae 
from Siphlonuridae (Ephemeroptera) 



W.P. McCafferty 138 



Six new species of Bolivian Gypona (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

D.M. DeLong, D.R. Foster 141 



Larva of Baetis dardanus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) 



D.A. Soluk 147 



Stenonema mexicana (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) 
in southern Central America 

R.W. Flowers, W.L. Peters 152 

New distributional record for Taeniopteryx from 
Colorado (Plecoptera: Taeniopterygidae) 

5. Canton, J. Chadwick, L. Britton 155 

New records of Ohio caddisflies (Trichoptera) 

A.D. Huryn, B.A. Foote 158 

New species of Lepidophora (Diptera: Bombyliidae) from Costa Rica, 
reared from Trypoxvlon (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) 

Jack C. Hall \ 6 1 



Note about Florissant fossil insects 



F. Martin Brown 165 



Proceedings of Henry S. Dybas symposium at Tri-State University 

Gene Kritskv 167 



Stuart W. Frost: List of publications, new names 
proposed, & species named in his honor 



NOTICES 



A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 171 
129, 140, 146, 157, 164 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 125 



ORTHOPTEROIDS OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND 
BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADAl 

R.C. Bechtel 2 , L.M. Hanks 3 , R.W. Rust 3 



ABSTRACT: Twenty-three species of orthopteroids were collected from Sand Mountain 
and Blow Sand Mountains, Nevada. One species, A mmobaenetes lariversi Strohecker. was 
the only sand obligate species obtained. 

Sand Mountain and Blow Sand Mountains were visited 1 9 times in a 1 3 
month period for the purpose of surveying selected groups of arthropods. 
Here we report on the orthopteroids collected during the study. Over 700 
specimens were obtained. They represent 23 species in three orders and 
seven families. Only one, Ammobaenetes lariversi Strohecker, is a sand 
obligate species. No new species were obtained. 

Study Areas 

Sand Mountain dunes and Blow Sand Mountain dunes were sampled 
from June 1979 through July 1980. Sand Mountain is approximately 
46Km ESE of Fallen, Churchill County, Nevada (3920 r N-l 18 20'W) 
and is about 1 ,250m in elevation. Blow Sand Mountains are approximately 
52Km SE of Fallen, Nevada (3910'N-1 18 : 35'W) and are about 1,400m 
in elevation. The dunes are separated by 25Km air distance. Sand 
Mountain is a star dune of approximately 3.2Km2 while Blow Sand 
Mountains are complex star and linear dunes of approximately 9.2Km2. 
however, both dunes result from the same eolian sand deposited during the 
Turupah and Fallen formations of about 4,000 years B.P. (Morrison and 
Frye 1965). 

The floras of the two dunes were similar. The dominant vegetation was 
Atriplex confertifolia (Terr. & Frem.), Tetradymia tetrameres (Blake), 
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hookl), Astragalus lentiginosus Dougl.. 
and Psoralea lanceolata Pursh. and at Sand Mountain only Eriogonum 
kearnevi Tidestr. and Psorothamnus polyadenius (Torr.). The common 
grass was Oryzopsis hymenoides (R. & S.). 



I Received March 13, 1981 

2 Authorship determined alphabetically. Nevada State Department of Agriculture, 550 
Capitol Hill Ave., Reno. NV 89502 

3 Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 8955^ 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 125-129 




126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Methods and Materials 

Several collecting techniques were used to obtain arthropod specimens. 
Permanent pitfall traps were 0.951 (11.5cm diameter) plastic cartons 
buried level with the sand surface and one-third to one-half filled with 
ethylene glycol (antifreeze). Traps were covered with a 13X1 3cm Masonite 
lid held 2cm above the surface. Six traps were placed 10 meters apart in a 
transect. Six transects were used at Sand Mountain and four at Blow Sand 
Mountains. Permanent pitfall traps were operative for 30 days between 
collecting periods. Temporary pitfall traps were 15cm diameter cereal 
bowls placed level with the sand surface. Twelve traps placed 10 meters 
apart represented a transect. Six transects were used at Sand Mountain and 
four at Blow Sand Mountains. Temporary pitfall traps were used for 12- 
18hr during a survey period. Trapping duration was determined by the 
length of the night. Two UV light traps were operated from dusk to dawn 
during the survey periods. November's light trap collections were so limited 
that UV light trapping was discontinued from December to March. Hand 
held U V lamps were used in searching the dunes for fluorescing arthorpods 
ie. scorpions, and visible light was used for other nocturnal species. Sand 
was sifted through two screens of 12X1 2mm and 1.5X1. 5mm mesh to 
recover subsurface arthropods. Surface sand to a depth of 0.4-0. 5m both 
from beneath vegetation and open sand (non-vegetated areas) was sifted. 
General collecting involved the use of aerial nets, plant inspection and 
walking the dunes at night to obtain nocturnal specimens. During a survey 
period, four or five different sites on the dune were visited and sampled and 
the sites were varied each survey. 

Data are presented in the following manner: For each species of 
orthopteroid its status, location, numbers obtained, dates of occurrence, 
plant host association and method of collection are given. Status is given as 
endemic (E), sand obligate (SO), widespread desert (WD), common (C), 
accidental (A) and questionable (?). Endemic means that the species is 
known only from Sand Mountain or Blow Sand Mountains. Sand obligate 
means that the species is restricted to sand habitats and may be found in 
other dunes in Western North American. Widespread desert indicates the 
species is found throughout the Great Basin deserts and other western 
deserts. A common species will be found over much of North America. 
Accidental means the species collected at the dunes is ecologically not a 
sand or desert species. Questionable means that not enough information is 
known about the species to place it in one of the other categories. Only 
representative specimens of common species were collected and only 
curated specimens were tabulated. All species were identified by R.C. 
Bechtel and all tabulated specimens are either in the insect collection of the 
Biology Department, University of Nevada, Reno or the Nevada State 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 127 



Department of Agriculture. 

Results 

The rhapidophorid, Ammobaenetes lariversi, was the only sand 
obligate species collected from both dunes. This distinctive species is 
known only from sand dune habitats in Nevada and has been recorded from 
only two other locations in Nevada (La Rivers 1948). It is a nocturnal 
species that lives in burrows in the harder sand and it is reported to feed on 
dune vegetation and dried bodies of other dune insects (La Rivers 1948). 
We have seen it attack and consume antlion (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) 
adults attracted to UV lights. A. lariversi was collected in every month at 
Sand Mountain and all but February and March at Blow Sand Mountains. 
Most individuals were obtained in July, August, September and October 
with over 1 2% being taken in each of these months. Nymphs were found in 
all months at Sand Mountain and all but February and March at Blow Sand 
Mountains. La Rivers ( 1 948) reported A. lariversi as a common prey item 
of scorpions and we also found many individuals captured by the scorpions 
Paruroctonus auratus (Gertsch and Soleglad) and Hadmrus spadix 
Stahnke. 

Two species of acridids, Hesperotettix viridis (Thomas) and Melanoplus 
cinereus Scudder, were extremely abundant at Blow Sand Mountains in the 
summer of 1 979 with thousands of individuals being present in June, July, 
August and September. Three of the dune plants, including two shrubs were 
completely defoliated. H. viridis denuded Chrysothamnus viscidijloms 
and M. cinereus defoliated and chewed the bark from Tetradymia 
tetrameres bushes. The latter species then consumed the entire above 
ground parts of Psoralea lanceolata before feeding sporadically on certain 
other plants in the area. Both species were present in 1 980 but not in the 
numbers seen in 1979. 

Two species, Anconia caeruleipennis Bruner, an acridid, and 
Conocephalusfasciatus vicinus (Morse), a tettigoniid, were represented by 
only one specimen each. Perhaps the other rarest orthopteroid was the 
cockroach Arenivaga erratica (Rehn). 

Orthoptera 

Acrididae 

Anconia caernleipennis Bruner (WD) 

BSM - 1 specimen, Aug., general collecting 
Coniana snowi Caudell ( WD) 

SM - 27 specimens. July. Aug., general collecting 

BSM - 7 specimens, July, Aug., general collecting 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Conozoa wallula (Scudder) (WD) 

SM - 7 specimens, Aug., general collecting 
Cordillacris occipitalis cinerea (Bruner) (WD) 

SM - 14 specimens. May, June, July, general collecting 
BSM - 4 specimens, June, July. Aug., general collecting 
Hesperotettix viridis (Thomas) (WD) 

BSM -101 specimens June. July, Aug.. Sept., general collecting, pitfall, on Chrysothamnus 
viscidiflorus, defoliated in 1979 
Ligurotettix coquilletli cantator Rehn (WD) 

SM - 7 specimens, Aug., Sept. .general collecting 
Melanoplus cinereus Scudder (WD) 

SM - 12 specimens, June, July, Aug., Sept., general collecting 

BSM -1 10 specimens, June, July, Aug., Sept., general collecting, pitfall, on Psoralea 
lanceolata, Tetradymia tetrarneres, both defoliated in 1979. 
Paropomala pallida Bruner ( WD) 

BSM - 9 specimens, July, Aug., Sept., general collecting 
Poecilotettix sanguineus Scudder (WD) 

SM - 10 specimens, June, July, Aug., Sept.. general collecting 
BMS - 10 specimens, June, July, Aug., Sept.. general collecting 
Trimerotropis bilobata Rehn and Hebard (WD) 

SM - 9 specimens. June, July. Aug., general collecting 
BSM - 7 specimens, June, July, Aug., general collecting 
Trimerotropis pallidipennis (Burmeister) (WD) 

BSM - 7 specimens, July, general collecting 
Trimerotropis pseudofasciata Scudder (WD) 

SM - 5 specimens, June, July, Aug., general collecting 
BSM - 1 specimen, July, general collecting 
Trimerotropis strenua McNeill (WD) 

SM - 2 specimens. July. Aug.. general collecting 
BSM - 10 specimens, July, Aug., general collecting 

Tettigoniidae 

Capnobotes fuliginous (Thomas) (WD) 

BSM - 15 specimens, Aug., general collecting 
Conocephalus fasciatus vicinus (Morse) (WD) 

SM - 1 specimen. Aug., general collecting 
Plagiostira gillettei Caudell (WD) 

SM - 27 specimens, June, July, Aug., general collecting 
BSM - 35 specimens. June, July, Aug., general collecting 

Rhaphidophoridae 

Ammobaenetes lariversi Strohecker (SO) 

SM - 237 specimens, all months, sifting sand, pitfall, UV light 
BSM - 87 specimens, all months except Feb., Mar., sifting sand, pitfall, UV light 

Stenopelmatidae 

Stenopelmatus fuscus Haldeman (WD) 

SM - 14 specimens, June, July, Aug., Sept., pitfall, general collecting 
BSM - 9 specimens, June, July, Aug., pitfall, general collecting 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 129 



Gryllidae 

Allonemobius species (?) 

SM - 3 specimens, July, Aug., general collecting 
Oecanthus argent inns Saussure (WD) 

SM - 5 specimens, Aug., general collecting 
BMS - 7 specimens, Aug., general collecting 

Mantodea 

Mantidae 

Litaneutria minor (Scudder) (WD) 

BSM - 2 specimens, Aug., general collecting 
Stagmomantis californica Rehn and Hebard (C) 
SM - 2 specimens, Aug., general collecting 

Blattodea 

Polyphagidae 

Arenivaga erratica (Rehn) (WD) 

BSM - 5 specimens, May, June, July, Aug., pitfall. UV light 



LITERATURE CITED 

La Rivers, Ira. 1948. A synopsis of Nevada Orthoptera. Amer. Midi. Nat. 39: 652-720. 

Morrison, R.B., and J.C. Frye. 965. Correlation of the middle and late quaternary 
successions of the Lake Lahontan, Lake Bonneville, Rocky Mountains ( Wasatch Range), 
southern Great Plains, and eastern midwest areas. Nevada Bureau Mines 9: 1-45. 



DR. HARRY W. ALLEN 

Dr. H. W. Allen, a long-term supporter of this Society, died on August 20. 1 98 1 . at the age of 
89. He earned his B.S. at the University of Massachusetts, the M.S. at Mississippi State 
College, and his Ph.D. at Ohio State University. Dr. Allen was on the staff of the Mississippi 
Agricultural and Mechanical College from 1922-26, before joining the USDA in 1926. where 
he served in various capacities until his retirement in 1958. He was in charge of the Oriental 
Fruit Moth Unit at the USDA Moorestown laboratory from ca. 1928 to 1957. 

After retirement. Dr. Allen continued to work actively in entomology, publishing 
important contributions such as "Parasites of the Oriental Fruit Moth in the Eastern United 
States" (USDA Tech. Bui. 1265) in 1962. and "The Genus Tiphia of the Indian 
Subcontinent" (USDA Tech. Bui. 1509) in 1975. 

Dr. Allen served on the governing Council of the American Entomological Society for 
many years, and was President during 1958, when he presided over the celebration of the 
Society's one hundredth anniversary. In addition, he authored a history of the American 
Entomological Society in 1960 (Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 85: 335-372). 

Dr. Allen is survived by his wife Margaret W.. his son Richard W.. eight grandchildren, 
and two great-grandchildren. His daughter. Dorothy L.. preceded him in death. 

W.H. Day 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

TWO NEW SPECIES OF ALIENATES 
(HEMIPTERA: ENICOCEPHALIDAE)! 

Gene Kritsky^ 



ABSTRACT: Two new species of Alienates, one from Cuba and one from Arizona, are 
described. A key to the males is also provided. 

Barber (1953) erected the enicocephalid subfamily Alienatinae to 
accommodate the new genus Alienates and its only included species, A. 
insularis, described from the South Bimini Island, Bahamas. The Alienatinae 
can be separated from the other two enicocephalid subfamilies by a two- 
lobed pronotum and greatly reduced wing venation. Herein I describe the 
second and third known species of Alienates, which extend the distribution 
and illustrate some of the morphological adaptations of very small 
enicocephalids. 

Genus Alienates Barber 

Alienates Barber, 1953: Am. Mus. Novitates 1614:1 - 4. Type species Alienates insularis 
Barber, by original designation. 

Male: length 1.25-1.50 mm. Head separated into three lobes by two transverse 
impressions, posterior lobe oblong, pressed against anterior lobe (Fig. 1). Eyes and ocelli 
large. Antenna incrassate, long. Pronotum smooth, divided into two lobes. Scutellum with 
three lobes. Foreleg stout, tibia with three long spines at apex and cleaning comb on side 
nearest body. Tarsus with two short claws without spines. Middle and hind tarsi each one 
segmented. Forewings with 2-4 veins. Genitalia with posterior apophysis arising below anus. 
Anus surrounded by the lateral and median sclerites. 

Alienates millsi, new species 

Length 1.49 mm. Body light brown, covered with short setae. Head 0.36 mm long with 
anterior lobe as wide or wider than posterior lobe. Eyes large, slightly longer than posterior 
lobe of head. Ocelli large, placed far apart. Antennae: I, length 0.06 mm; 11,0.15 mm; 111,0.12 
mm; IV, 0. 1 9 mm. Anterior margin of pronotum twice as long as anterior lobe. Forelegs stout; 
temur length to width ratio 2.60, tibia length to width ratio 2.J8. horewing costa (C) shorter 
than cubital (Cu) vein (Fig. 2). 

Holotype: male; Cuba, Soledad, near Cienfuegos; June 2, 1950, Berlese sample, H.B. 
Mills. The type is deposited at the Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, IL. 

Alienates barberi, new species 

Length 1.25-1.46 mm. Body light brown, covered with short setae. Head 0.30 mm long 
with anterior lobe slightly narrower than posterior lobe ( Fig. 1 ). Eyes large slightly longer than 



Deceived March 18, 1981 

^Department of Biology, Tri-State University, Angola, IN 46703 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 130-132 



Vol. 92, No. 4. September & October 1981 



131 



posterior lobe or the head. Ocelli large, placed farther apart than in A. millsi. Antennae, I, 
length 0.05 mm; II, 0.12 mm; III, 0.1 1 mm; IV, 0.18 mm. Anterior margin of pronotum as 
wide as posterior lobe of head. Posterior lobe of pronotum 24 times as long as anterior lobe. 
Foreleg more slender than A. millsi, femur length to width ratio 3.37, tibia length to width ratio 
3.55. Forewing venation with C, Cu, r-m, and partial Cuj (Fig. 3). 

Holotype: male, four male paratypes, U.S.A., Arizona, Boyce Thompson Arboretum, 
near Superior; October 3, 1 949, at light, B. W. Benson. The holotype is deposited in the Illinois 
Natural History Survey, Urbana, IL. 

Discussion 

The presence of Alienates barberi in Arizona extends the range of the 
genus well beyond the Caribbean. Whether this indicates a disjunct 
distribution will depend on the results of future collecting in intervening 
areas. 

The females of Alienates insularis are apterous. Unfortunately, no 
females of the two new species have been found. 







Fig. 1. Alienates barberi head and pronotum. Fig. 2. A. millsi forewing. Fig. 3. A. barberi 
forewing. Fig. 4. A. insularis forewing (drawn from paratype). 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

The following key will aid in separating the three species of Alienates. 

Key to the males of Alienates 

1. Forewing with only 2 longitudinal veins (Fig. 2), forelegs stout with length to width ratio of 
tibia and femur less than 3.0, posterior lobe of pronotum twice as long as anterior lobe 

millsi, new species 

Forewing with 3 or 4 longitudinal veins, forelegs more slender with femur and tibia length to 
width ratio greater than 3.0, posterior lobe of pronotum more than twice as long as anterior 
lobe 2 

2. Forewing with four veins (Fig. 3), posterior lobe of pronotum less than three times as long 

as anterior lobe barberi, new species 

Forewing with three veins (Fig. 4), posterior lobe of pronotum three times as long as 
anterior lobe insularis Barber 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank Lewis J. Stannard, Jose A. Mari Mutt, Richard C. Froeschner, and Pedro 
Wygodzinsky for their comments and encouragement. Part of this work was completed during 
my stay at the Department of Entomology, University of Illinois and the Illinois Natural 
History Survey. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barber, H.G. 1953. A new subfamily, genus, and species belonging to the family 
Enicocephalidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Am. Mus. Novitates 1614: 1-4. 



EMENDATION OF EUMESOSOMA 
COKENDOLPHER1 

James C. Cokendolpher^ 

Dr. Jiirgen Gruber, of the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, recently 
brought to my attention that Eumesosoma Cokendolpher 1980 (Arachnida: 
Opiliones) is not feminine in gender as I stated. The Greek stem "soma" 
(atOjua) is neuter. Accordingly, Eumesosoma ocalensis should be emended 
to Eumesosoma ocalense Cokendolpher 1980. 



REFERENCE 

Cokendolpher, J.C. 1980. Replacement name for Mesosoma Weed, 1892, with a revision of 
the genus (Opiliones, Phalangiidae, Leiobuninae). Occas. Papers Mus., Texas Tech 
Univ., 66:1-19. 



1 Received March 26, 1981 

^Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409. 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 132 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 133 

AN ANNOTATED CHECK LIST OF THE 
TREEHOPPERS (HOMOPTERA: MEMBRACIDAE) 

OF KENTUCKY^ 

Paul H. Freytag, Charles V. Covell, Jr., Dennis D Kopp 3 

ABSTRACT: County records are reported for 53 species of Membracidae from Kentucky. 
This list includes 23 new state records. 

This paper is the first listing of the treehopper fauna of Kentucky. 
Funkhouser (1927) listed 25 species for the state of Kentucky, and Kopp 
and Yonke (1973 a,b,c and 1974) recorded 5 additional species. We have 
added 23 state records to make a total of 53 species listed in this paper and 
expect further collecting will undoubtedly reveal more new records. 

County records are given for each species, plus the earliest and latest 
collection dates, and all months that adults have been taken in Kentucky. 
Determinations were made by the third author. Records presented here are 
based primarily on specimens in the University of Kentucky and University 
of Louisville collections, unless otherwise noted. 

The arrangement of this family follows Kopp and Yonke (1973 a,b,c 
and 1974). 

SUBFAMILY CENTROTINAE 
Genus MICROCENTRUS Stal 

Nicrocentrus caryae (Fitch) NEW STATE RECORD. Fayette Co. Aug. 4-6. 
SUBFAMILY HOPLOPHORIONINAE 
Genus PLATCOTIS Stal 

Playcotis vittata (Fabricius). Counties: Boyle, Breathitt, Bullitt, Fayette, Hardin, Harlan, 
Jefferson, Kenton, Knox, Pendleton, Powell, Rockcastle. April 28, June, Aug., Sept., 
Oct. 30. 



1 Received March 6, 1981 



investigation reported in this paper (No. 81-7-2) is in connection with a project of the 
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with approval of the Director. 
University of Louisville Contributions in Biology No. 199 (New Series). 

^Respective addresses: Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 
Kentucky, 40546; Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, 
40292; and Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North 
Dakota, 58105. 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 133-137 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

SUBFAMILY MEMBRACINAE 
Genus CAMPYLENCHIA Stal 

Campylenchia latipes (Say). Counties: Boone, Breathitt, Bullitt, Butler, Caldwall, Fayette, 
Fulton, Graves, Hickman, Jefferson, Knott, Larue, Meade, Nelson, Nicholas, Oldham, 
Pendleton, Pulaski, Trigg. June 11, July, Aug., Sept., Nov. 18. 

Genus ENCHENOPA Amyot & Serville 

Enchenopa binotata (Say). Counties: Allen, Bell, Boyd, Boyle, Galloway, Fayette, Jefferson, 
Jessamine, Lyon, Mercer, Pendleton, Scott, Trigg. June 10, July, Aug., Sept., Oct. 15. 

Genus TYLOPELTA Fowler 

Tylopelta americana (Goding). Nelson Co. May 1 1-June 10. 

SUBFAMILY SMILIINAE 

Tribe Acutalini 
Genus ACUTALIS Fairmaire 

Acutalis tartarea (Say). Counties: Barren, Boone, Bourbon, Breathitt, Bullitt, Galloway, 
Fayette, Grant, Hardin, Henderson, Hickman, Hopkins, Jefferson, Jessamine, Kenton, 
Mercer, Morgan, Muhlenberg, Pike, Powell, Wayne, Wolfe. June 1 1, July, Aug., Sept., 
Oct., Nov. 15. 

Genus MICRUTALIS Fowler 

Micrutalis calva (Say). Counties: Breathitt, Butler, Caldwell, Fayette, Franklin, Fulton, 
Grant, Hickman, Jefferson, Lyon, Marshall, Mercer, Nelson, Perry, Simpson, Spencer. 
May 25, June, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. 3. 

Tribe Ceresini 
Genus HADROPHALLUS Kopp & Yonke 

Hadrophallus borealis (Fairmaire). Counties: Bell, Hart and Woodford. Aug.-Sept. All 
records of this species are from the U.S. National Museum. 

Genus SPISSISTILUS Caldwell 

Spissistilusfestinus (Say). NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Barren, Breathitt, Bullitt, 
Butler, Jefferson, Owsley, Perry, Powell, Taylor, Trigg. July 7, Aug., Sept., Oct. 9. 

Genus STICTOCEPHALA Stal 

Stictocephala albescens (Van Duzee). Jefferson Co. Sept. 23. 

Stictocephala basalis (Walker). Reported from Kentucky by Kopp & Yonke (1973b). First 
recorded from Kentucky by Funkhouser (1927). 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 135 



Stictocephala bisonia Kopp & Yonke. Counties: Ballard, Bath, Boone. Breckinridge, Bullitt, 

Crittenden, Fayette, Hancock, Henderson, Jefferson, Jessamine, Kenton. Nelson, 

Oldham, Owen, Pendleton, Powell, Scott, Wolfe. June 24, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. 9. 
Stictocephala brevicornis (Fitch). Counties: Anderson, Barren, Boone. Bourbon, Fayette, 

Fleming, Grant. June 20, July, Aug.. Sept.. Oct. 20. 
Stictocephala brevis (Walker). Reported from Kentucky by Kopp & Yonke (1973b). First 

recorded from Kentucky by Funkhouser (1923). 
Stictocephala brevitylus (Van Duzee). Counties: Breathitt, Fleming. Fulton, Hardin. 

Henderson, Jefferson, Jessamine, Nelson, Oldham. April 24, May. June, July, Aug. 29. 
Stictocephala constans (Walker). Reported from Kentucky by Kopp & Yonke ( 1973b). First 

recorded from Kentucky by Funkhouser (1927). 
Stictocephala diceros(Say). Counties: Anderson, Fayette, Jefferson, Lyon. Owen. July 12, 

Aug., Sept., Oct. 18. 
Stictocephala lutea (Walker). Counties: Breathitt, Boone. Bullitt, Christian, Hardin, Harlan, 

Henderson, Jefferson, Larue, Morgan, Nelson, Trigg, Wayne. May 22, June, July 26. 
Stictocephala palmeri (Van Duzee). Counties: Bullitt, Hardin, Jefferson, Oldham. June 20. 

July, Aug., Sept., Oct. 18. 
Stictocephala taurina (Fitch). Counties: Anderson, Bourbon, Fayette, Jefferson. Jessamine, 

Meade. June 10, July, Sept.. Oct. 17. 

Genus TORTISTILUS Caldwell 

Tortistilus inermis (Fabricius). Counties: Boone, Bullitt, Fayette, Jefferson, Mercer, 
Oldham, Pendleton. Scott. April, May, June, July, Aug. 13. 

Tribe Polyglyptini 
Genus ENTYLIA German 

Enn-lia bactriana Germar. Counties: Anderson. Bourbon. Bullitt. Fayette, Fleming. Glendale. 
Hickman, Jefferson, Jessamine, Lincoln. McLean, Meade, Morgan, Nelson, Scott, 
Wolfe. May 5, June, July, Aug., Sept. 6. 

Genus PUBLILIA Stal 

Publilia concava (Say). Counties: Adair, Boone, Breathitt, Carter, Fayette. Fleming. 

Jefferson, Lincoln, Morgan, Nelson, Oldham. May 8, June, July, Aug. 12. 
Publilia reticulata Van Duzee. Counties: Breathitt, Carter, Fleming, Jefferson, Nelson. 

Oldham, Perry, Wayne, Wolfe. April 12, May, June. July. Sept. 7. 

Genus VANDUZEEA Coding 

Vanduzeea arquata (Say). Counties: Bourbon, Breckinridge. Bullitt, Fayette, Jefferson, 
Jessamine, Mercer, Perry. June 4, July, Aug., Sept., Oct.. Nov. 1 1. 

Vanduzeea triguttata (Burmeister). NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Bullitt. Jefferson. 
July 16, Sept. 25. 

Tribe Smiliini 
Genus/lTTA/M Stal 

Atymna querci (Fitch). NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Jackson, Jefferson. Madison. 
May 19, June, July, Aug. 4. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Genus CYRTOLOBUS Coding 

Cyrtolobus fenestratus (Fitch). NEW STATE RECORD. Caldwell Co. June 8. 
Cyrtolobus maculifrontis (Emmons). NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Christian, 

Fayette, Jefferson. May 16, June, Aug. 7. 
Cyrtolobus van (Say). NEW STATE RECORD. Caldwell Co. June 7. 

Genus OPHIDERMA Fairmaire 

Ophiderma definite Woodruff. NEW STATE RECORD. Jefferson Co. May 21-22. 
Ophiderma evelyna Woodruff. NEW STATE RECORD. Fayette Co. May 26-28. 
Ophiderma pubescens (Emmons). NEW STATE RECORD. Nelson Co. June 6-10. 
Ophiderma salamandra Fairmaire. NEW STATE RECORD. Jefferson Co. May 10-June 

17. 

Genus SMILIA Germar 

Smilia camelus (Fabricius). NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Breathitt, Jefferson. May 
17-June 8. 

Genus XANTHOLOBUS Van Duzee 

Xantholobus lateralis Van Duzee. NEW STATE RECORD. Caldwell Co. June 18. 
Xantholobus muticus (Fabricius). Counties: Fayette, Larue. May 5-June 6. 



Tribe felamonini 
Genus ARCHASIA Stal 

Archasia belfragei Stal. NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Breathitt, Trigg. June 14, 
Aug. 14. 

Genus CARYNOTA Fitch 

Carynota marmorata (Say). NEW STATE RECORD. Powell Co. June 22. 

Carynota mera( Say). Counties: Jessamine, Madison, Trigg, Wayne. May 14, June, July 15. 

Genus GLOSSONOTUS Butler 

Glossonotus univittatus (Harris). NEW STATE RECORD. Oldham Co. June 14-19. 

Genus HELIRIA Stal 

Heliria molaris (Butler). NEW STATE RECORD. Jefferson Co. June 19. 
Heliria strombergi Coding. NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Jessamine, Scott. July 1 3, 
Sept. 

Genus PALONICA Ball 

Palonica pyramidata (Uhler). Fayette Co. June 5, Aug., Sept. 25. 

Palonica viridia (Ball). NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Jefferson, Robertson. June 27, 
Sept. 20. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 137 



Genus TELAMONA Fitch 

Telamona ampelopsidis (Harris). Jefferson Co. May 16. 

Telamona collina (Walker). Counties: Breathitt, Fayette, Jefferson. May 10, June, Aug. 15. 

Telamona decorata Ball. NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Meade, Russell. Wayne. 

July 10-14. 
Telamona maculata Van Duzee. NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Caldwell. McCracken. 

June 18, Aug. 8. 

Telamona monticola (Fabricius). Counties: Fayette, Jefferson. May 10, Aug. 9. 
Telamona reclivata Fitch. NEW STATE RECORD. Pulaski Co. July 9. 
Telamona unicolor Fitch. NEW STATE RECORD. Counties: Caldwell, Jefferson, 

Oldham. June 13-14, Sept. 21. 

Genus THELIA Amyot & Serville 

Thelia bimaculata (Fabricius). Counties: Boyle, Crittenden, Fayette, Jefferson, Jessamine. 
Mercer, Oldham, Owen, Pendleton. June 25, July, Aug., Sept., Oct.. Dec. 1. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Funkhouser, W.D. 1923. Walker's species of Membracidae from United States and Canada. 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 16:97-112. 
Funkhouser, W.D. 1927. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle I. Membracidae. 

Smith College Publ., Northampton, Mass., 581 pp. 
Kopp, Dennis D. and Thomas R. Yonke. 1973a. The Treehoppers of Missouri: Part 1. 

Subfamilies Centrotinae, Hoplophorioninae, and Membracinae (Homoptera: Membracidae). 

J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 46(1) :42-64. 
Kopp, Dennis D. and Thomas R. Yonke. 1973b. The Treehoppers of Missouri: Part 2. 

Subfamily Smiliinae; Tribes Acutalini, Ceresini, and Polyglyptini (Homoptera: Membracidae). 

J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 46(2) :233-276. 
Kopp, Dennis D. and Thomas R. Yonke. 1973c. The Treehoppers of Missouri: Part 3. 

Subfamily Smiliinae; Tribe Smiliini. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 46(3) :375-421. 
Kopp, Dennis D. and Thomas R. Yonke. 1974. The Treehppers of Missouri: Part 4. 

Subfamily Smiliinae; Tribe Telamonini (Homoptera: Membracidae). J. Kansas Entomol. 

Soc. 47(1) :80-130. 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DISTINGUISHING LARVAE OF NORTH AMERICAN 

BAETIDAE FROM SIPHLONURIDAE 

(EPHEMEROPTERA)1,2 

W.P. McCafferty 3 

ABSTRACT: Previously published keys to North American families of Ephemeroptera do 
not adequately distinguish all larvae of Baetidae from those of Siphlonuridae. A more efficient 
means of identifying larvae to one of these families by using caudal filaments and antennae is 
suggested. 

Students of my Aquatic Entomology course historically have had some 
difficulties in separating mayfly larvae into either the family Baetidae or the 
closely related Siphlonuridae when using available taxonomic keys. This, 
coupled with several recent inquiries from freshwater biologists in the 
eastern and midwestern United States concerning this dilemma, has 
prompted my writing this short paper. 

For specialists who are acquainted with genera of these groups it is 
relatively easy to recognize larval baetids from siphlonurids without the use 
of family keys; however, for nonspecialists who rely on family keys as a first 
step in identification, problems can arise. Morphlogical characters used to 
key larvae to. one of these two families, such as those in the popular keys of 
Edmunds et al. (1976), Merritt and Cummins (1978), Hilsenhoff (1975), 
Pennak (1978), and Lehmkuhl (1979), do not always hold for certain 
species and regions of North America, and they can be especially difficult to 
apply to immature larvae. 

The characters in the final key couplet leading to these families (which 
is the problematic couplet) have involved the length of the antennae relative 
to head width and the relative development of projections at the posterolateral 
corners of the distal abdominal segments. Most North American baetid 
larvae have antennae that are longer than twice the width of the head, but 
some (e.g., some Pseudocloeon] have much shorter antennae. The develop- 
ment of distal abdominal projections also varies among baetids most lack 
projections, some have moderately developed projections, and a few have 
well-developed projections (some Pseudocloeon larvae have both short 
antennae and well-developed projections). All North American siphlonurid 
larvae (the genus Isonychia now is excluded) possess short antennae. 



'Received March 5, 1981 

^Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station Journal No. 8427 

^Dept. of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 138-140 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 139 



shorter than twice the width of the head, and although most have well- 
developed posterolateral projections on abdominal segments 8 and 9, such 
projections are very poorly developed in the genus Ameletus. 

From the above it is clear that the antennal and abdominal characters, 
used either singly or in some combination, will not always work to 
distinguish the families. Supplementary characters appearing in some keys 
and involving mouthpart structures (Edmunds el al., 1976; Usinger, 1956) 
will not resolve the identification of larvae in all cases. 

The larvae of Baetidae in North America that present problems in 
family identification because of their antennal and/or abdominal characters 
happen to all have a highly reduced median terminal filament. Therefore an 
easier and more effective means to distinguish the families would be to first 
consider whether larvae possess a developed median terminal filament: those 
that are "two-tailed" could immediately be placed in Baetidae (there are no 
"two-tailed" siphlonurids); those with a developed median terminal 
filament ("three-tailed") could then be further examined for antennal 
length. All siphlonurid larvae will have short antennae as described above, 
and all "three-tailed" baetid larvae will have long antennae as described 
above. The genus Isonychia, which until recently was classified in the 
Siphlonuridae and was considered as such when all the previously 
mentioned keys were published, does contain larvae with long antennae. 
This does not present a problem, however, if it is remembered that 
Isonychia, although minnowlike and superficially similar as larvae to 
baetids and siphlonurids, is presently classified in the family Oligoneuriidae 
(McCafferty and Edmunds, 1979) and can be distinguished from both 
baetids and siphlonourids by the presence of a double row of long filtering 
setae of the inner surface of the fore legs. 

Body size may be helpful when working with mature specimens, since 
baetid larvae in North America north of Mexico seldom exceed 10 mm 
(some Callibaetis being the major exception), and mature siphlonurid 
larvae are commonly over 10 mm in length. Also, those baetid larvae that 
tend to be problematic have very small hind wing pads or lack hind wing 
pads entirely. 

In conclusion, I would recommend using the following key couplet to 
separate baetid and siphlonurid larvae (a simplified larval key to the 
families of Ephemeroptera appears in McCafferty, 1981). 

Median terminal filament highly reduced, or if developed then antennae long, more than 

twice (and usally more than three times) the width of the head Baetidae 

Median terminal filament well developed, and antennae shorter than twice the width of the 
head Siphlonuridae 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



REFERENCES 

Edmunds, G.F., Jr., S.L. Jensen and L. Berner 1976. The mayflies of North and Central 

America. Univ. Minn. Press, Minneapolis. 330 p. 
Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1975. Aquatic insects of Wisconsin. Wise. Dept. Nat. Res. Tech. Bull. 

89:52 p. 
Lehmkuhl, D.M. 1979. How to know the aquatic insects. Wm. C. Brown Co. Publ., 

Dubuque. 168 D. 

McCafferty, W.P. 1981. Aquatic entomology. Science Books International, Boston. 448 p. 
McCafferty, W.P. and G.F. Edmunds, Jr. 1979. The higher classification of the 

Ephemeroptera and its evolutionary basis. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72:5-12. 
Merritt, R.W. and K..W. Cummins (eds.). 1978. An introduction to the aquatic insects of 

North America. Kendall/Hunt Publ. Co., Dubuque. 441 p. 
Pennak, R.W. 1 978. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States (2nd ed.). John Wiley & 

Sons. New York 803 p. 
Usinger, R.L. (ed.). 1956. Aquatic insects of California. Univ. Calif. Press. Berkeley. 508 p. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, 

SW7 5BD 

A.N.(S.) 118 

12 May, 1981 

The Commission hereby gives six months' notice of the possible use of its plenary powers in 
the following cases, published in Bull. zool. Norn., Volume 38, part 2, 30 April 1981, and 
would welcome comments and advice on them from interested zoologists. Correspondence 
should be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible within six months of date 
of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

1450 TyrophagusOudemans. 1924(Acarina): proposals to clarify name of the type 

of species and to conserve name of an important pest species. 
2144 Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 (Insecta, Heteroptera, Nepidae): proposed 

conservation. 
2125 Coccus Linnaeus, \158andParthenolecaniumSu\c, 1908 (Insects, Homoptera, 

Coccioae): proposed designation of type species. 
2290 Eutermes exitiosus Hill, 1925 (Insecta, Isoptera): proposed conservation. 



I.T.Z.N. 59 

The following Opinions have been published recently by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclatue in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclaure, Volume 38, part 2, 30 
April, 1981. 

Continued on Page 146 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 141 

SIX NEW SPECIES OF BOLIVIAN GYPONA 
(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)! 

Dwight M. DeLong 2 , Donald R. Foster^ 

ABSTRACT: Six new species of Bolivian Gypona: G. wakanka n.sp., G. colophaga n.sp., 
G. rusticana n.sp., G. clausula n.sp., G. trepida n.sp., and G. unduavia n.sp. are described 
and illustrated. 

The genus Gypona was described by Germar ( 1 82 1 ). A synopsis of the 
genus by DeLong and Freytag (1964) treated 44 species. Additional 
species were described by DeLong & Martinson ( 1 972), DeLong & Kolbe 
(1974) (1975), DeLong & Freytag (1975) and DeLong & Linnavuori 
(1977). Six new species are described in this paper. All types are in the 
DeLong collection, Ohio State University. 

Gypona wakanka n.sp. 

(Figs. 1-5) 

Length of male 8.5 mm, female unknown. Crown more than twice as wide between eyes at 
base as long at middle. Ocelli on disc equidistant from each other and eyes. Crown black with a 
few dark brownish areas. Pronotum brownish anteriorly with black areas behind eyes, disc and 
posterior portion, black. Scutellum brownish with black basal angles. Forewings whitish, veins 
pale with brown margins. 

Male genital plates more than 3 times as long as wide at middle, apex slightly narrowed, 
rounded. Style rather broad on basal two-thirds, then bent dorsally and narrowed, apex bluntly 
pointed. Aedeagal shaft with apical half gradually enlarged, broadly rounded apically, with 4 
apical processes, 2 longer processes more than one-third length of shaft, 2 smaller processes 
one-half length of longer processes. Pyrofer narrowed, blunt apically. 

Holotype male: Bolivia, Wakanki, Chepare Mts. 31 -III- 1978, C.R. Ward coll. 

G. wakanka is placed in the subgenus Marganalana and is related to G. 
nacula DeLong and Freytag from which it can be separated by the four 
apical processes of the aedeagus and the broader more angled style. 



Gvpona colaphaga n.sp. 
(Figs. 6-10) 

Length of male 8.5 mm, female unknown. Crown more than twice as wide between eyes at 
base as long at middle. Ocelli closer to each other than to eyes. Crown yellowish brown. 
Pronotum yellowish brown, darker brown spots on disc and humeral angles. A row of small 



'Received February 21, 1981. 

^Department of Entomology. Ohio State University. 
'Consortium for International Development, Cochabamba. Bolivia. 

ENT. NEWS. 92 (4): 141-146 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



black spots just behind anterior margin of pronotum. Two black spots behind each eye next to 
lateral margin at half length of pronotum. Forewings pale brownish, claval area darker brown, 
dark brown spots at ends of claval veins on commissure and on cross veins of second sector. 
Veins pale or dark brown. 

Male genital plates more than 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices bluntly pointed. 
Aedeagal shaft slender near base, gradually enlarged on apical half. Apex of aedeagus broadly 
rounded, (lateral view) with 4 processes arising ventrally on curved surface near apex, the 2 
longer processes extend basad, the 2 shorter processes one-third length of shaft. Pygofer 
narrowed and rounded apically. 

Holotype male: Bolivia, La Paz 7 mi. S.E. Unduavi 7-IV-1978, C.W. & L.B. O'Brien 
colls. 

G. colophaga is placed in the subgenus Marganalana and is related to 
G. wakanka n.sp. from which it can be distinguished by the elongate, more 
slender style and by the longer, stouter apical processes of the aedeagus. 

Gypona rusticana n.sp. 

(Figs. 11-16) 

Length of male 7.5, female 10.5 mm. Crown three-fourths as long at middle as wide at 
base between eyes. Crown orange yellow, ocelli red. Pronotum greenish yellow with remnants 
of four longitudinal red stripes. Scutellum dull yellowish. Forewings yellowish green, veins 
indistinct. 

Last ventral segment of female with posterior margin shallowly, concavely excavated each 
side of a median lobe, produced to length of lateral angles and slightly notched at middle. 

Male genital plates 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices bluntly pointed. Style sickle- 
shaped, apex pointed. Aedeagus short and thick, apical portion curved dorsally, apex bluntly 
pointed, composed of a ventral flat and a dorsal thicker portion. Pygofer bearing an apical 
process which arises on the dorsocaudal portion and is broadened and blunt apically. 

Holotype male, Mexico, Camp. 19 mi. S.W. Escarcego, 4 Aug., 1974, C.W. and L.B. 
O'Brien & Marshall colls. Paratype: 1 female same data as holotype. 

G. rusticana is placed in the subgenus Marganalana and is related to 
G. palens DeLong from which it can be separated by the single, thicker, 
dorsally curved, apical portion of the aedeagus and the sickle-shaped style. 

Gypona clausula n.sp. 

(Figs. 17-21) 

Length of male 7.5 mm, female unknown. Crown broadly rounded, more than twice as 
wide between eyes at base as long at middle. Ocelli closer to each other than to eyes. Color, 
Crown dark brown. Pronotum dark brown, with 4 large black spots or areas behind each eye, 
the largest behind inner margin of eye. Scutellum paler brownish with 4 black spots along basal 
margin. Forewings pale brown, veins pale brown, partially margined with dark brown, first 
sector area with dark brown cross veins or cross bands. 

Male genital plates 2 1/2 times as long as wide at middle, apices pointed. Style with median 
third slightly broadened and pectinate on dorsal margin. Apical third narrow, apex rounded. 
Aedeagal shaft enlarged apically, bulbous, bearing four subapical processes, the 2 nearest 
apex short, the more basal pair about one-third length of shaft and extend laterobasally. The 
apex of shaft bears 4 short spines. Pygofer narrowed apically and rounded. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 



143 




Plate I. Figs. 1-5 Gypona wakanka n.sp. 1 . aedeagus ventrally, 2. aedeagus laterally, 3. style 
laterally, 4. plate ventrally, 5. pygofer laterally. Figs. 6-10 G. colophaga n.sp. 6. plate 
ventrally, 7. style laterally, 8. pyrofer laterally, apical portion. 9. aedeagus ventrally. 10. 
aedeagus laterally. Figs. 11-16 G. rusticana n.sp. 1 1. aedeagus ventrally. 12. same, apical 
portion enlarged. 13. aedeagus laterally, 14. plate ventrally. 15. pygofer laterally, apical 
portion 16. style laterally. 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Holotype male, Bolivia, La Paz, 7 mi. S.E. Unduavi, 7-IV-1978 C.W. and L.B. O'Brien 
colls. 

G. clausula is placed in the subgenus Marganalana and is related to G. 
rahra DeLong, a close relative, from which it can be separated by the sharp 
pointed apex of the style and the four longer processes of the aedeagal shaft. 



Gypona trepida n.sp. 

(Figs. 22-26) 

Length of male 8 mm, female unknown. Crown half as long at middle as width between 
eyes at base. Ocelli eqidistant between each other and eyes. Crown pale brownish. Pronotum 
pale brown with a dark brownish circular band, a black spot at center near anterior margin each 
side, reaching to inner margins of eyes, two black spots near lateral margins each side at half 
length of pronotum. Scutellum pale brown with darker brown basal angles. Forewings pale 
brownish subhyaline, veins darker brown, claval area appearing dark brown at base. 

Male genital plates 3 times as long as wide at middle, apex broadly rounded. Style roundedly 
broadened on ventral margin at middle, narrow to apical third which is curved dorsally with a 
spine-like pointed apex. Aedeagal shaft long, slender bearing 4 apical processes about one- 
fourth length of shaft, two of which, slightly shorter, extend laterobasad. Pygofer narrowed 
apically, bluntly angled, bearing a sclerotized plate on ventrocaudal margin. 

Holotype male Bolivia, Santa Cruz, 10 km. N. Comarapa 30-IIM978, C.W. and L.B. 
O'Brien coll. 

G. trepida is placed in the subgenus Marganalana and is related to G. 
nigrena DeLong from which it can be distinguished by the sharper pointed 
apex of the style and the broader apical portion of the aedeagal shaft. 

Gypona unduavia n.sp. 

(Figs. 27-32) 

Length of male 9 mm, female unknown. Crown thin, foliaceous, broadly rounded, half as 
long at middle as wide between eyes at base, anterior margin curved upward above disc. Ocelli 
equidistant between each other and eyes. Crown black, ocelli red, upturned anterior margin 
brown, a small pale brown spot, each side at base behind ocelli. Pronotum black, median line 
brown, with brown curved line each side extending from spot at base of crown to lateral margin. 
Scutellum brownish yellow with a median black rectangular area from which a black band 
extends to middle, each side. Dorsum black. Forewings yellowish subhyaline. 

Male genital plates 4 times as long as wide at middle, apex broad, blunt. Style rather broad, 
slightly narrowed before foot-shaped apex, with toe pointed dorsally. Aegeagal shaft straight, 
bearing a flattened, triangular, leaf-like process on ventral apical margin, bearing 4 spine-like 
apical processes not extending beyond ventral leaf-like portion. Pyrofer narrowed, rounded 
apically, with a scerotized process on caudoventral half. 

Holotype, Bolivia, La Paz, 4 mi. N.E. Unduavi, 9-IV-1978, C.W. and L.B. O'Brien coll. 

G. undavia is placed in the subgenus Marganalana and can be 
separated from G. gelbana DeLong, a related species, by the absence of a 
heel on the apical "foot" of the style, serrations on ventral margin of the 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 



145 




Plate II. Figs. 17-21. Gypona clausula n.sp . 17 aedcagus \entrally, 18. aedeagus laterally. 
19. style laterally, 20. plate ventrally, 21. pygofer laterally. Figs. 22-26 G. irepida n.sp.. 22. 
aedeagus ventrally, 23. aedeagus laterally, 24. style laterally, 25. plate ventrally, 26. pygofer 
laterally, apical portion. Figs. 27-31 G. unduavia n.sp. 27. aedeagus ventrally. 28. aedeagus 
laterally, 29. style laterally, 30. plate ventrally, 31. pygofer laterally, apical portion. 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



style, and different length and arrangement of apical processes on the 
aedeagal shaft. 



LITERATURE CITED 

DeLong, Dwight M. and Paul H. Freytag. 1964. Four Genera of World Gyponinae. A 

Synopsis of the Genera Gvpona, Gvponana, Rugosana and Recticana. Ohio Biol. Survey 

Bull. 11(3): 227 p. 
1976. Studies of the Gyponinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) Fourteen New 

Species of Central and South American Gypona. Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48: 308- 

318. 

and Alice B. Kolbe. 1974. Studies of the Gyponinae (Homoptera: 



Ciacellidae) Four New Species of Gvpona from Panama. Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 
48: 201-205. 

.1975. Studies of the Gyponinae: Six New Species of South American 



Gypona (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48(2): 201-205. 

and Candace Martinson. 1972. Studies of the Gyponinae (Homoptera: 



Cicadellidae) Fourteen New Species of Gvpona from Central and South American. Ohio 
Jour. Sci. 72: 161-170. 

_, and Rauno E. Linnavuori. 1977. Studies of the Gyponinae (Homoptera: 



Cicadellidae) Seven New Species of Grpona from Central and South American. Jour. 
Kans. Entomol. Soc. 50: 335.341. 

Germar, E.F. 1821. Bemerkungen uber einige Gattung der Cicadarien. Mag. Entomol. 4: 1 - 
106. 



Continued from Page 140 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, 

SW7 5BD 



Opinion No. 

1 170 (p. 95) SATURNIIDAE Boisduval, 1837 (Lepidoptera): placed on official list. 

1 174 (p. 105) The type species of A tractocera Meigen, 1803 (Diptera) is Tipitls regelationis 

Linnaeus, 1758. 
1178 (p. 114) Megasternum Mulsant, 1844, and Cryptopleurum Mulsant, 1844 (Insecta, 

Coleoptera): type species determined. 
1 1 79 (p. 1 1 7) Polydiiisus Germar, 1817 and Phyllobius Germar, 1 824 (Insecta, Coleoptera): 

conserved in accordance with current usage. 



The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 



R.V. Melville, 
Secretary 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 147 

THE LARVA OF BAETIS DARDANUS 
McDUNNOUGH (EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE)! 

D.A. Soluk 2 

ABSTRACT: Larvae of Baetis dardanus McDunnough are described from specimens 
collected in Alberta, Canada. This species is most closely related to B. epphipiatus Traver. 
Characters used to separate these two species are given. 

Baetis dardanus was originally described by McDunnough (1923) 
from male imagoes collected in Manitoba. The name was subsequently 
synonymized with B. propinquus (Walsh) by Burks (1953). Morihara and 
McCafferty (1979a) examined the lectotype (McDunnough, 1925) of B. 
propinquus and found the forceps to be of a type previously considered 
characteristic of males of B. spinosus McDunnough and distinctly different 
from those described for B. dardanus. Thus, they placed B. spinosus as a 
junior synonym of B. propinquus and resurrected B. dardanus as a valid 
species. It is therefore apparent that the specific name B. propinquus 
(Walsh) has been largely misapplied, and that many of the records of this 
species are probably applicable to B. dardanus. 

Baetis dardanus appears to be widely distributed across central and 
western North American and has been reported from the following 
localities: Manitoba (McDunnough, 1923), Utah and Idaho (Edmunds, 
1952), and Illinois (as B. elachistus and B. propinquus; Burks, 1953). 

The larva of B. dardanus has been described by Edmunds (1952) but 
many of the character states now used for accurate species determination 
had not been developed at that time. Bergman and Hilsenhoff (1978) 
redescribed the larva of B. dardanus (as B. propinquus} but Morihara and 
McCafferty (1979a) declared that their description was of a species 
subsequently named B. longipalpus Morihara and McCafferty. When 
Morihara and McCafferty (1979a) reviewed the systematics of the B. 
propinquus group, they had not seen larvae of B. dardanus and could not 
accurately place this species in their phylogeny of the group. The larvae of 
the other species in the B. propinquus group are described and keyed in 
Morihara and McCafferty (1979b). 

The inital association of larvae and male imagoes of B. dardanus was 
made from reared material and field collections obtained over 3 years from 
the Sand River. The following redescription of the larva of B. dardanus 
incorporates the variability existing in five populations occurring in 
different parts of Alberta. Most of the terms and abbreviations used in this 



Deceived December 19, 1980 

^Department of Zoology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. T6G 2E9 

ENT. NEWS, 92(4): 147-151 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

description are defined by Morihara and McCafferty (1979b). 

Baetis dardanus McDunnough, 1923 

Mature larva: 

Body length. - 6-8mm excluding caudal filaments. 

Head. Scape of antenna with scattered fine setae, scale bases, scales, and distinct distal 
lobe externally. Pedicel of antenna with scattered fine setae, scale bases, scales, and with tiny 
spinules apically . Labrum ( Figure 1 ) with branched setae 1 +6-9 submariginally on disc. Right 
mandible (Figure 2) with 3(1 )+4 denticles, a row of fine setae along base of incisors, and with 
margin between incisor and molar areas smoothly sinuate, roughened only by minute 
tubercles. Left mandible (Figure 3) with 3( l)+3 denticles and slight excavation along base of 
incisor row posteriorly. Maxillary palpus extended beyond galea-lacinia and with inner apical 
excavation. Labial palpus (Figure 4) with internal median lobe of second segment greatly 
enlarged, almost as large as third segment and w'th 4-6 dorsal setae. Paraglossa (Figure 5) 
large, with 9-11 pectinate setae in innermost row. Glossa (Figure 5) with ventral setae 
arranged in irregular row in apical half. 

Thorax. Color pattern varied, mesonotum and pronotum (Figure 8) with narrow pale 
middorsal stripe, mesonotum with irregularly shaped pale areas anterior to bases of wing buds. 
Femur with long sharp setae dorsally and short ones ventrally; with or without dark mark 
ventro-medially on anterior side. Tibia and tarsus with long sharp setae ventrally and shorl 
setae dorsally. Tarsal claws with 12-16 denticles. 

Abdomen. Color pattern varied: two principal types of dorsal patterns, either terga 1 -6 
and 8-9 dark and tergum 7 with pale median area (Figure 8), or terga 1-9 dark with narrow pale 
middorsal stripe: most specimens with narrow pale areas along lateral margins and often along 
anterior and posterior margins of most terga: tergum 1 pale, darkened anterio-medially or not: 
intersegmental membranes pale; at least the posterior sterna darkened medially, all darkened 
to some extent in most mature specimens. Tergal surfaces with scale bases, scales, and fine 
setae. Posterior margins of terga with short sharp teeth. Paraprocts with scale bases, scales, 
fine setae, and approximately 25 well developed sharp spines. Gill margins serrate with long 
fine setae. Caudal filaments of most specimens pale with broad submedian dark stripe, or 
wholly dark except for pale tips. 

Material examined. - - Specimens were examined from five locations in Alberta, 
Canada: 

Sand River, 5423'N 1 1 l2"W; 12 larvae in alcohol, 7 on slides; 16 cr imagoes and 1 cf 
subimago all in alcohol. 

Chinchaga River, 5830'N 11820'W; 7 larvae in alcohol, 1 on slide. 

Vicinity of Fincastle Lake, 4949'N 112 2'W; (R.G. Burland and D.J. Pledger 
collectors) 1 1 larvae in alcohol, 3 on slides. 

Milk River, 49 6TM 1 142'W; 2 larvae in alcohol, 1 on slide. 

Seven Persons Creek, SO^TvI 1 1037'W; 5 larvae in alcohol, 2 on slides. 

Specimens are deposited in the Canadian National Collection Ottawa, Ontario and the 
author's private collection. 

Discussion 

Baetis dardanus larvae can be separated from all known Baetis larvae, 
except those of B. epphipiatus Traver, by the following combination of 
character states: scape of antenna with distinct outer distal lobe, 3 labial 
palpus with medial projection of second segment as large as third segment, 
maxillary palpus with subapical excavation, and labrum with branched 

^Morihara and McCafferty (1979b) erroneously state (p. 146) that this structure occurs on 
the pedicel. 



Vol. 92 No. 4. September & October 1981 



149 



submarginal setae. Branched submarginal setae on the labrum is a derived 
character state common to both B. dardanus and B. epphipiatus and 
indicates a close relationship between these two species. In the phylogeny 
of the B. propinquus group proposed by Morihara and McCafferty 
(1979a), B. dardanus and B. epphipiatus should probably be considered 
sibling species (sensu Ross, 1974). 



37(11 








3*1 




Fig. 1-5. mouthparts of Baetis dardanus: 1. Labrum, showing submarginal setae (others 
not illustrated). 2. Right mandible, posterior view. 3. Left mandible, posterior view. 4. Labial 
palpus. 5. Glossa and paraglossa. 



Fig. 6-7. mouthparts of B. epphipiatus'. 6. Right mandible, posterior view. 7. Glossa. 



150 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fig. 8. Dorsal view of B. dardanus. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 151 

Male imagoes of B. dardanus and B. epphipiatus can be distinguished by 
the structure of the posterior-median projection between the forcep bases 
(Morihara and McCafferty, 1979a). Separation of larvae of these two 
species requires dissection and examination of the mouthparts. Larvae of B. 
dardanus key out to B. epphipiatus in Morihara and McCafferty ( 1 979b). I 
examined a series of B. epphipiatus from Mississippi and have prepared 
the following couplet to distinguish between larvae of these two species. 

Right mandible with margin between incisor and molar 

areas smoothly sinuate, at most roughened by small 

sharpened tubercles (Figure 2); ventral setae of 

glossa in one irregular row in anterior half (Figure 5) 

B. dardanus McDunnough 

Right mandible with margin between incisor and molar 

areas interrupted by a prominent toothlike tubercle 

(Figure 6); ventral setae of glossa scattered or 

arranged in two or more irregular rows (Figure 7) 

B. epphipiatus Traver 

This description in accompaniment with Morihara and McCafferty 
(1979b) should allow easy separation of the mature larvae of the North 
American species in the B. propinquus group. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank Dr. Lewis Berner for providing specimens of B. epphipiatus. Mr. Robert 
Burland of Alberta Environment for the Fincastle material, and Drs. H.F. Clifford, G.F. 
Edmunds Jr., and G.E. Ball for suggestions in the preparation of this manuscript. This 
research was supported in part by a NSERC grant to Dr. H.F. Clifford and a Boreal Institute 
for Northern Studies grant to the author. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bergman, E.A. and W.H. Hilsenhoff. 1 978. Baetis (Ephemoroptera: Baetidae) of Wisconsin. 

Gr. Lakes Entomol. 11: 125-135. 
Burks, B.D. 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 26 

(1): 216 p. 
Edmunds, G.F. Jr. 1952. Studies on the Ephemeroptera. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. 

of Massachusetts, Amherst, 399 p. 
McDunnough, J. 1923. New Canadian Ephemeridae with notes. Canad. Entomol. 55: 39- 

50. 

1925. New Canadian Ephemeridae with notes. III. Canad. Entomol. 

57: 168-176; 185-192. 
Morihara, D.K. and W.P. McCafferty. 1979a. Systematics of the propinquus group of Baetis 

species (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72: 130-135. 
and 1979b. The Baetis larvae of North America 

(Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 105: 139-221. 
Ross, H.H. 1974. Biological systematics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 345 p. 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

STENONEMA MEXICANA (HEPTAGENIIDAE: 
EPHEMEROPTERA) IN SOUTHERN CENTRAL 

AMERICAl 

R.W. Flowers, William L. Peters 2 

ABSTRACT: Stenonema mexicana (Ulmer) is reported from the Canal Zone in Panama 
and its taxonomic status is clarified. 

A single mature nymph of Stenonema mexicana (Ulmer) was collected 
in the Canal Zone of Panama by one of us (WLP) and C.M. Keenan and 
this nymph was reported by Edmunds, Jensen and Berner (1976) in their 
stated distribution of Stenonema as "... as far south as Panama." The 
specimen was found in the Rib Sardinillo on the Gamboa Road, 10-IX- 
1963 and is deposited in the collections of Florida A&M University. Allen 
and Cohen (1977) described a Stenonema nymph from Guatemala which 
they assigned to Heptagenia mexicana Ulmer (1920) and tentatively 
transferred mexicana to Stenomena. Bednarik and McCafferty (1979) 
assigned the same nymph to S. integrum McD and stated that there were 
not sufficient grounds for linking the nymph in question to H. mexicana. 

We have examined type material of Ulmer's Heptagenia mexicana 
consisting of 2 cf and 1 9 syntypes. Although somewhat distorted in drying, 
the male penes are those of a Stenonema. Subimagos of the same species in the 
University of Utah collection collected in Costa Rica clearly show 
Stenonema-type penes (Fig. 1). Ulmer's syntypes somewhat resemble 
specimens of Stenonema integrum, particularly in regard to the mid-dorsal 
black streak on the abdomen, but differ in the following characters: (1) 
black diagonal lines are present on the thoracic pleura beneath the wing 
bases; and (2) spiracular marks on the abdomen are large round dots (not 
diagonal streaks, as in S. integrum) and are distinct on terga 8 and 9. We 
therefore conclude that Allen and Cohen's transfer of H. mexicana to 
Stenomena was correct and that S. mexicana and S. integrum are distinct 
species. 

The Panamanian nymph agrees closely with Allen and Cohen's 
nymphal description. In addition, dark color markings of the subimago are 
visible through the abdominal cuticle of the Panama nymph and these are 
consistent with the pattern on the syntypes of S. mexicana. 



1 Received October 10, 1980 

^Department of Entomology, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307 

ENT. NEWS. 92 (4): 152-154 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 



153 




Fig. 1. Stenonema mexicana, outline of penes of male subimago. 

The Panamanian nymph differs from nymphs of S. integnim in having 
the lateral spine on abdominal segment 8 subequal to that of segment 9 (in 
S. integrurn, the spine on segment 8 is distinctly larger than that on 9). The 
color patterns of the two species are very similar, although the Panamanian 
nymph has more extensive pale markings than most nymphs of S. integrum. 

The existence of the Heptageniidae in continental South America is 
indicated only by two questionable records: an unidentified wing from 
Brazil (Demoulin 1955) and Eaton's (1871) assignment of Baetis guttata 
(Pictet 1843) from Chile to Ecdyonurus guttatus. We have examined a 
color reproduction of Pictet's figure and are unable to determine the identity 
of this species, although Eaton's description of the body markings suggests 
that Baetis guttata may be a Siphlonella (Siphlonuridae). The occurrence 
of Stenonema mexicana in the Canal Zone of Panama represents a 
southward range extension of over 1500 km and verifies the distributions 
given by Edmunds, Jensen and Berner ( 1 976). It also represents the closest 
proximity known to continental South American of an identifiable member 
of the Heptageniidae. 

Stenonema mexicana will key to S. integrum in Bednarik and 
McCafferty (1979). The two species may be separated using the following 
key. 

Adults 

Thoracic pleura with black diagonal streaks; spiracular marks on abdomen round .... 

S. mexicana 

Thoracic pleura without black diagonal streaks; spiracular marks diagonal 

S. iniegrum 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Mature Nymphs 

Lateral projections on segment 8 subequal to those on segment 9 S. mexicana 

Lateral projections on segment 8 distinctly longer than those on segment 9 



S. integrum 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 



We wish to thank Dr. Kurt K. Gunther, Humbolt-Universitat /u Berlin, for the loan of 
Ulmer's type material. We also thank Dr. George F. Edmunds, Jr., University of Utah, for loan 
of additional Central American specimens. This research was supported by a research 
program (FLAX 79009) from SEA/CR, USDA. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, R.K. and S.D. Cohen. 1977. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Mexico and Central 

America: new species, descriptions, and records. Can. Entomol. 109:399-414. 
Bednarik, A.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1979. Biosystematic revision of the genus Stenonema 

(Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae). Can. Bull. Fish. Aquatic Sci. no. 201. 
Demoulin, G. 1955. Une mission biologique beige au Bresil. Ephemeropteres. Bull. Inst. R. 

Sci. Nat. Belg. 31:1-32. 
Eaton, A.E. 1 87 1 . A monograph on the Ephemeridae. Trans. Entomol. Soc. London. 1-164, 

6 pis. 
Edmunds, G.F. Jr., S.L.Jensen and L. Berner. 1976. The mayflies of North and Central 

America. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 330+xp. 
Pictet, FJ. ( 1843-1 845 ). Historic naturelle generate et particuliere des insectes nevropteres. 

Famille des Epheme'rines. Chez J. Keesmann et Ab. Cherbuliez. Geneva. 300pp. 
Ulmer, G. 1920. Neue Ephemeropteren. Arch. Naturgesch. 85A:1-80. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 155 

A NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORD FOR 

TAENIOPTERYX (PLECOPTERA: 
TAENIOPTERYGIDAE) FROM COLORADO' 

Steven Canton^, James Chadwick^, Linda Britton^ 



ABSTRACT: Nymphs of Taeniopten'xwere collected from two stream locations in Jackson 
County, Colorado. The collection represents a new record for the State and an extension of the 
range for the genus. 

Collection of benthic organisms from selected streams in Jackson 
County, Colorado (Fig. 1) during mid-September 1980, yielded many 
specimens of the stonefly Taeniopteryx. This is a new state and distributional 
record for the genus. Previous to this collection, published reports of 
Taeniopteryx in the western United States have been restricted to records 
of Taeniopteryx nivalis (Fitch) from California, Oregon and Idaho and a 
single Taeniopteryx nymph from New Mexico (Ricker and Ross 1968, 
Stewart el. al 1974, Baumann et al. 1977, Fullington and Stewart 1980). 
Recently, T. nivalis has also been found in Washington (Baumann pers. 
comm.) 

Benthic organisms were collected from the Canadian River and Little 
Grizzly Creek (Fig. 1) with a Surber sampler. Only one specimen of 
Taeniopten'xwas collected in Little Grizzly Creek at site JC-2. However, 
density of Taeniopteryx in the Canadian River at JC-5 was over 400 
organisms per square meter. The Canadian River at site JC-5 has a gradient 
of 0.3% and meanders through a grassland-sagebrush valley at an elevation 
of 2438m. The river at this site has a shifting sand and gravel substrate. 
Nymphs of Taenioptetyxwere not found at either of the upstream sites ( JC- 
1 or JC-4), which have a coarser substrate of gravel and rubble. 

Sampling for benthic organisms at these sites began during May 1 980 
and continued on a bimonthly basis through November 1 980. However, 
only the 17 September 1980 sampling yielded collection of Taeniopteryx. 
The early fall occurrence of this population is interesting since it has 
previously been reported to occur later in the year during winter and early- 
spring (Knight et al. 1976). Further sampling at other streams in the area 
may yield more specimens. 



1 Received March 16, 1981 

^Harner-White Ecological Consultants, Inc., 4901 East Dry Creek Road. Littleton. 
Colorado 80122. 

->Hydrologist, U.S. Geological Survey. Denver Federal Center. Lakewood. Colorado 80225. 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 155-157 



156 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



EXPLANATION 

JC-1 
T SAMPLINCi SITES- Circled 

sites represent areas where 
Taeniopleryx was collected 



I Jackson Co.} 
j 



Grand 
Junction 



Denver 



Pueblo 



COLORADO 



WYOMING 




5 10 15 MILES 

I i-h H ' 

5 10 15 KILOMETERS 



Fig. 1. Sampling locations for benthic invertebrates in Jackson County. Colorado. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 157 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The authors would like to thank Kate E. Fullington, Southern Methodist University, for 
verifying identificaiton of Taeniopteryx and reviewing the manuscript. Robert A. Short, 
Southwest Texas State University, reviewed the manuscript and provided valuable comments 
as did two anonymous reviewers. This work was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, as 
part of a Federal program designed to assess the effects of energy development on water 
quality. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Baumann, R.W., A.R. Gaufin and R.F. Surdick. 1977. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the 

Rocky Mountains. Mem. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 31: 1-208. 
Fullington, K.E. and K.W. Stewart. 1980. Nymphs of the stonefly genus Taeniopten'x 

(Plecoptera: Taeniopterygidae) of North America. J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 53: 237-259. 
Knight, A. W., M.A. Simmons and C.S. Simmons. 1976. Aphenomenological approach to 

the growth of the winter stonefly Taeniopten'x nivalis (Fitch) (Plecoptera: 

Taeniopterygidae). Growth 40: 343-367. 
Ricker, W.E. and H.H. Ross. 1968. North American species of Taeniopten'x (Plecoptera. 

Insecta). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 25: 1423-1439. 
Stewart, K.W., R.W. Baumann and B.P. Stark. 1974. The distribution and past dispersal of 

southwestern United States Plecoptera. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 99: 507-546. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON. 

SW7 5BD 

A.N.(S.)119 

5 August 1981 

The Commission hereby gives six months' notice of the possible use of its plenary' powers 
in the following cases, published in Bull. zoo/. Norn., Volume 38, part 3, 30 July 1981, and 
will welcome comments and advice on them from interested zoologists. Correspondence 
should be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible within six months of the 
date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

2299 Ahautlea de la Llave, 1832 (Insecta, Heteroptera, Conxidae): proposed 

suppression under plenary powers. 
2334 To grant precedence to the family-group name EPHYDRIDAE over 

HYDRELLIIDAE (Insecta, Diptera). 
2147 Nabis capsiformis Germar, [ 1838] (Insecta, Heteroptera, Nabidae): 

proposed conservation. 
1799 Semblis marginata Panzer, 1799 (Insecta, Plecoptera): additional 

steps needed to conserve this name. 

Continued on Page 164 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NEW RECORDS OF OHIO CADDISFLIES 
(TRICHOPTERA) !< 2 

A.D. Huryn, B.A. Foote 3 

ABSTRACT: Twenty-five species of caddisflies are newly recorded for Ohio, bringing the 
total number of species reported for the state to 192. 

Until recently, there have been few studies devoted exclusively to the 
faunal composition and distribution of Ohio caddisflies. Prior to 1977, 
Marshall's work (1939) on the occurrence of caddisflies in western Lake 
Erie was the only published study of this nature. However, numerous 
records for Ohio Trichoptera were contained in Ross (1944). Since 1977, 
seven studies concentrating on the caddisfly fauna of various localities in 
eastern Ohio have resulted in five publications (McElravy et al., 1977; 
McElravy and Foote, 1978; Masteller and Flint, 1979; MacLean and 
MacLean, 1 980; Petersen and Foote, 1 980). In this paper, we are recording 
an additional 25 species, bringing the total state list to 192 species. 

Adults were collected by hand picking, sweeping with an insect net, use 
of U.V. and fluorescent tube light traps, and emergence traps. Immature 
stages were obtained by hand picking or with an aquatic dip net. 

The records presented below were obtained through the collecting 
efforts of the following individuals: T.L. Arsuffi, R. Beals, B.A. Foote, 
M.B. Griffith, T. Hausenstaub, R. Hunt, A.D. Huryn, W. Ladanyi, E.P. 
McElravy, J. O'Malley, C. Petersen, M.A. Tkac, R. Walker, and G. 
Wireman. For each species included in the list, the county, initials of the 
collector, collecting sites, date, and, when possible, the number of 
specimens obtained are given. Unless otherwise indicated (P=pupa, 
L=larva), all records are based on adult specimens. Taxa above the species 
are arranged as given in Wiggins (1977, p. 9-14). Species within each genus 
are listed alphabetically. 

Polycentropodidae 

Polycentropus carolinensis Banks: Portage, (RH. Porter Rd. spring in West Branch State 
Park, VI-2-79, IX-12-79). Previously reported only from the Black Mountains of North 
Carolina and southern Quebec (Roy and Harper, 1979), our records represent only the 
third locality record for this widespread but rare species. 

Polycentropus elanis Ross: Monroe (ADH, tributary of Dog Skin Run, IX-3-80, Icf, 1 9). 



'Received March 11, 1981. 

^Research supported, in part, by a grant from the Ohio Biological Survey. 

^Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242. 

ENT. NEWS, 92(4): 158-160 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 159 



Hydropsychidae 

Parapsvche apicalis (Banks): Geauga (JO, V- 13-78, L), Portage (RW, Mantua Springs, X- 

1 1-78, 1L); Summit (BAF, Furnace Run at rt. 303, V-10-78, 2L) 
Diplectrona metaquiRoss: Knox (MBG, spring, 2 mi. se of Millwood along state rt. 715, V- 

25-80, 1L). 
Cheumatopsyche wabasha Denning: Ashland (MBG, Clear Fork of Mohican R, V-24-80, 

Icf). Previously recorded from Oregon and Minnesota (Gordon, 1974), the Ohio record 

represents a significant range extension eastward. 

Rhyacophilidae 

Rhvacophila minora Banks:5Columbiana (MAT, Sheepskin Hollow, VI-7-76), Geauga 

' (MAT, Stebbins Gulch, V-25-75). 
Rhyacophila parantra Ross: Ashland (MAT, VI-18-76). 

Glossosomatidae 

Protoptila maculata Hagen: Ashtabula (TLA, Grand R. at Harpersfield, VIII-26-76). 

Hydroptilidae 

Hydroptila amoena Ross: Monroe (ADH, Wildcat Run, VIII-20-80, 2cfcf, 399, IX- 15-80, 
Icf; Witten Run at Rt. 800, VIII-20-80, Scfcf. 299; Little Muskingum R.,1 mi. n. of Rt. 
800 bridge, VIII-20-80, 2cfcf). 

Ochrotrichia tarsalis (Hagen): Monroe (ADH, Clear Fork of Little Muskingum R. at State 
Rt. 26, VIII-6-80, 299; Little Muskingum R.. 2 mi. s. Bloomfield, VIII-6-80, 3cf cf, 999; 
covered bridge, 1 mi. n. of Rinard Mills, IX- 15-80, 19). 

Stactobiella delira (Ross): Ashtabula (TH, Grand R. at Geneva, V-l 1, 24-73, 2cTcr, 19). 

Neotrichia fa lea Ross: Monroe (ADH, Witten Run at Rt. 800, IX- 15-80, Icf). Previously 
known from Wisconsin and Illinois. 

Neotrichia vibrans Ross: Monroe (ADH, Little Muskingum R., 2 mi. S. of Bloomfield, VIII- 
6-80, Icf). 

Brachycentridae 

Micrasema rusticum Hagen: Portage (EPM, Cuyahoga R. at Coit Rd., VI- 1-76, Icf). 

Limnephilidae 

Pseudostenophvlax uniformis (Betten): Ashtabula (TH, Grand R., V 30-73). 
FrenesiamissaQAtine): Ashtabula (RB.X-28-76, Icf, 19), Portage (EPM, Kent, X-25-75: 

GW, spring, 0.75 mi. sw of Garretsville, XI-10-78). 

Neophvlax fuscus Banks: Ashtabula (EPM, Grand R. at Harpersfield, X-13-75). 
Neophylax wigginsi Sykora and Weaver: Monroe (ADH, Wildcat Run, IX- 1 5-80, 1 cf, 299, 

X-l-80, Icf, 399). Originally described from material collected at Westmoreland City, 

PA (Sykora and Weaver, 1978), our records represent a slight extension westward of the 

known range. 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Lepidostomatidae 

Lepidostomagriseum (Banks): Geauga (TH, Grand R. near Camp Chickagami, VIII-27-73, 

Icf). Lake (TH, Grand R., IX-1 1-73, 399), Portage (RH, Porter Rd. spring in West 

Branch State Park, X-5-79, Icf). 
Lepidostoma sackeni (Banks): Geauga (TH, Grand R. near Camp Chickagami, VIII-8-73, 

Icf), Lake (TH, Grand R., VIII-8-73, Icf). 
Lepidostoma sommermannae Ross: Lake (TH. Grand R., VI-5-73, Icf. VII-31-73. 299). 

Portage (BAF, Porter Rd. Spring and Triple Springs in West Branch State Park, VI- 1-78), 
Lepidostoma vernalis (Banks): Portage (BAF, Porter Rd. spring and Triple Springs in West 

Branch State Park, VI-10-78, 4cfcf). 

Molannidae 

Molanna ulmerina Navas ( Molanna musetta Betten): Ashtabula (TH, Grand R., VI-25-73, 
IX-1 1-73, 6cfcf). 

Leptoceridae 

Ceraclea nejji Resh: Trumbull (TH, tributary of Grand R. near Farmington, V-22-73, IL). 
Triaenodes melacus Ross: Monroe (ADH, Little Muskingum R. near Antioch, VIII-20-80, 

1 9). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are indebted to G.B. Wiggins, Royal Ontario Museum of Toronto, Canada, for 
determining N. wigginsi. O.S. Flint, Jr., Smithsonian Institution, and K.L. Manuel, Duke 
Power Co. at Huntersville, NC, aided in the determination of certain difficult or confusing 
specimens. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Gordon, A.E. 1974. A synopsis and phylogenetic outline of the nearctic members of 

Cheumatopsyche. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 126:117-160. 
Marshall, A.C. 1939. A qualitative and quantitative study of the Trichoptera of western Lake 

Erie (as indicated by light trap material). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 32: 655-687. 
Masteller, E.C., and O.S. Flint, Jr. 1979. Light trap and emergence trap records of 

caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Lake Erie Region of Pennsylvania and adjacent Ohio. 

Great Lakes Ent. 12: 165-177. 
MacLean, D.B., and B.K. MacLean. 1980. Report of new Trichoptera records from Ohio. 

Great Lakes Ent. 13:37-39. 
McElravy, E.P., T.L. Arsuffi, and B.A. Foote. 1977. New records of caddisflies 

(Trichoptera) for Ohio. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 79: 599-604. 
McElravy, E.P., and B.A. Foote. 1 978. Annotated list of caddisflies (Trichoptera) occurring 

along the upper portion of the West Branch of the Mahoning River in northeastern Ohio. 

Great Lakes Ent. 11: 143-154. 
Petersen, C., and B.A. Foote. 1980. Annotated list of Trichoptera collected along Furnace 

Run of the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area in northeastern Ohio. Great Lakes 

Ent. 13: 201-205. 
Ross, H.H. 1 944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23: 1- 

326. 
Roy, D., and P.P. Harper. 1979. Liste preliminaire des trichopteres (insectes) de Quebec. 

Ann. Soc. Entolmol. Que. 24: 148-171. 
Sykora, J.L., and J.S. Weaver III. 1978. Three new species of Trichoptera from western 

Pennsylvania. Ann. Carnegie Mus., 47: 1-12. 
Wiggins, G.B. 1977. Larvae of the North American caddis-fly genera. Univ. Toronto Press, 

Toronto, xi + 401 p. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 161 

A NEW SPECIES OF LEPIDOPHORA WESTWOOD 

(DIPTERA: BOMBYLIIDAE) FROM COSTA RICA 

REARED FROM TRYPOXYLON LATREILLE 

(HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE)! 

Jack C. Hall 2 

ABSTRACT: The adult of Lepidophora trypoxylona new species and its pupal exuvium are 
described and figured. Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) tenoctitlan Richards (Sphecidae) is 
recorded as host of this bee fly. 

Lepidophora Westwood is restricted to the New World with most 
species being described from Central and South America. The present 
description of the new species, Lepidophora trypoxylona, brings the total 
known species to eight. 

Specimens of L. trypoxylona n.sp. were reared from nests of Trypoxylon 
(Trypargilum) tenoctitlan Richards in Costa Rica by R.E. Coville. 
Specimens submitted by Coville to me for identification were identified as 
Lepidophora vetusta Walker. Coville and Coville (1980) gave a brief 
account of the life history of the bee fly, as L. vetusta. Further examination 
of additional material sent for identification showed this species to be 
undescribed. 

Coville 's host record makes L. trypoxylona the second species within 
the genus for which host information is known. DuMerle (1975) lists hosts 
for Lepidophora lepidocera (Wiedemann) as Trypoxylon politum (Say) 
(Sphecidae), Podium rufipes Fab. (Sphecidae) and Stenodynerus saecularis 
rufulus Bohart (Eumenidae), plus one questionable host, Euodynerus 
foraminatus apopkinsis (Robertson) (Eumenidae). 

L. trypoxylona runs to vetusta in Paramonov's ( 1 949) key to species of 
Lepidophora. Trypoxylona differs from vetusta in the darker scutellum and 
legs and by the less extensive white tomentose abdominal markings. In 
vetusta the wing infuscations are a little darker and more extensive, the anal 
cell being nearly entirely colored. 

Lepidophora trypoxylona n.sp. 

Male. Body black, front, face, humerus, and side of mesonotum to transverse suture, 
pleura, coxae, scutellum slightly brownish. Eyes separated by width of ocellar tubercle; small 
area in front of ocellar tubercle bare, rest of front of black hair and mixed black and white 
scales; first antennal segment at least 3 times longer than second segment, with black scales 



1 Received March 6, 1981 

2 Division of Biological Control, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 

ENT. NEWS, 92(4): 161-164 



162 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



(some of the scales are brownish and translucent and appear white or whitish in reflected light); 
second antennal segment covered with scales and about equal in length to third segment; third 
segment broadly rounded apically, with long black scales covering basal 2/3 or more on outer 
surface, scales do not exceed 2/3 length of third segment; arista minute, subapical, in a small 
circular depression. Face with long black scales on upper half, lower half with black hair. 
Proboscis short, not reaching second antennal segment. Underside of head and lower occiput 
with biack hair; rest of occiput with short, scattered, strong black bristles and white scales, a 
few black scales next to eye margin and behind ocellar tubercle. 

Pronotum white pilose, a few shorter black hairs present near base laterally, black bristles 
laterally; mesonotum with short black hair, tomentum white, dorsum of notum with three 
vague stripes of black tomentum, median stripe divided by white scales, lateral stripes reach 
from midpoint of notum to posterior margin; prealar and postalar bristles strong, black; 
scutellum with black hair, tomentum, and bristles, patch of white scales in middle of posterior 
margin; pleura mixed white and black pilose, white hairs dominate on upper half; coxae with 
mixed white and black hair; legs black with black tomentum and bristles, white tomentum on 
posterior surfaces of femora and tibiae; pulvilli nearly as long as claws; halter stem black with 
short appressed white hair, knob creamy yellow. 

Basicosta of wing with black scales, extreme base with a patch of white hair; wing 
infuscated with blackish brown, apex and posterior margin of wing hyaline, color not filling 
apex of marginal cell and not extending much beyond apex ofdiscal cell in first posterior cell; 
anal and axillary cells hyaline except for extreme base; wing membrane with scattered black 
scales covering most of the infuscated area; vein R2+3 convoluted apically, with a short spur 
at bottom loop; vein R4 convolutes "S" shaped ending in wing margin parallel to vein R2+3; 
r-m crossvein slightly beyond middle of discal cell; anal cell closed at wing margin; costa 
tuberculate from near midlength to just beyond apex of vein R2+3- 

Abdominal dorsum with black hair laterally, a few scattered white hairs at sides of tergites 
two and three; dorsum densely covered with black scales which are much longer on sides of 
tergites six and seven; white scales across posterior margin of first tergite; spot of white scales 
laterally on tergites two, three, four, and at base of five, the spots forming a vague line along 
side of tergum; spot of white scales in middle of tergite six; venter of abdomen with short, 
scattered black hair and black scales; genitalia enclosed in terminal segments and hidden by 
apical abdominal tuft of long black scales. 

Female. Eyes separated by 3 times width of ocellar tubercle; front with strong, black, 
bristle-like hairs; side and apical margin of scutellum with white hair; costa of wing not 
tuberculate; vein R2+3 infuscated its entire length; vein R4 with small area of infuscation 
near apex; areas of diffused color around crossveins at bases of all posterior cells; white hair 
and scales on head and body more abundant. Female otherwise as described for male. 

Variations. In some males the spot of white scales in the middle of tergite six is wanting 
as well as the lateral abdominal spots on tergites two to four. The amount and extent of white 
scales in both sexes is subject to considerable variation. The stripes of black scales on the 
mesonotum may not be present. The wing coloring in the female is often like that in the male. 
The black scales on the abdominal dorsum of some species are iridescent, reflecting a lavender 
color. 

Pupal exuvium (Figs. 1-2). -- Pale testaceous, cephalic thorns and abdominal setae 
black, apical half of wing pads darkened. Thoracic and abdominal spiracles raised, each 
appearing as a corneous circle marked with radiating lines. Head with six pairs of thorns or 
tubercles, one small pair on dorsum, one large pair on upper part of front, one medium sized 
pair in middle of front, three small pairs on lower part of front, these latter tubercles all have a 
common base; surface sculpture of the thorns is striate-rugose; base of proboscis with a pair of 
small tubercles; cheek with a small tubercle; a thin seta present between the tubercles on the 
proboscis and cheek; lower posterior corner of head with two small tubercles, a thin seta 
between them; two long, thin setae at bases of upper cephalic tubercles. Thorax twice as long 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 



163 




FIG. I 



Fig. 1. Lateral view of pupal case of Lepidophora trypoxylona n.sp. 
Fig. 2. Ventral view of head capsule of Lepidophora trypoxylona n.sp. 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



as wide, equal in width to head, with three fine, short hairs each side medially, wing pads 
extend to posterior margin of second abdominal sternite; leg sheaths extend to slightly beyond 
middle of third stemite. Abdomen with eight segments, first five tergites with a row of 8 to 11 
stout setae, those on tergite one with only their apices turned up; tergite six with six small setae; 
tergite seven with a single median seta, and one pair of small setae on basal half; tergites one to 
seven each with six long, curved and apically hooked hairs, those on first tergite arise cephalad 
to the setae; those on rest of tergites arise between the setae; sternites, except last, each with 
five long, thin apically hooked hairs, three laterally and two just lateral of midline; apex of 
abdomen with one pair of straight, strong tubercles. 

Holotype male from Cost Rica, Guanacasta Province, 15 km SW Baqaces, Comelco 25- 
11-75 (R. Coville); allotype from Costa Rica, Guancasta Province, 4 km NW Canas, La 
Pacifica 14-11-75 (R. Coville). Both reared from nest of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) 
tenoctitlan Richards. 

Paratypes. All reared from trap-nests of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) tenoctitlan by 
R.E . Coville, in Costa Rica. 1 9, topotypic, collected with holotype; 2 9, 1 cf, same locality data 
as allotype, 30-111-80, 7-II-75; 49, 3<J, Heredia Province, La Salva, 4 km SE Puerto Viejo, 
16-VII-80, l-VIII-80, 16-VIII-80, 24-VIII-80. 

Holotype and allotype in California Academy of Sciences. Paratypes in collections at 
University of California at Berkeley and Riverside. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Coville, R.F. and P.L. Coville. 1980. Nesting biology and male behavior of Trypoxylon 

(Trypargilum) tenoctitlan in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. 

Amer. 73 (2): 110-11^9. 
DuMerle, P. 1975. Les holes et les stades pre-imaginaux des Dipteres Bombyliidae. Revue 

bibliographique annotee. 10BC, West Palearctic Reg. Sect. Bull. Pp. 1-289. 
Paramonov, S.J. 1949. Revision of the species of Lepidophora Westwood (Bomblyiidae, 

Diptera). Rev. de Ent. 20: 631-643. 



Continued from Page 157 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, 

SW7 5BD 



2178 Nomioides Schenck, 1866, (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Halictidae): 

proposed designation of type species. 
2187 Corrections to data of three family-group names of butterflies on the 

official list (Insecta, Lepidoptera). 

R.V. MELVILLE, 

Secretary 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 165 

A NOTE ABOUT FLORISSANT FOSSIL INSECTS* 

F. Martin Brown^ 

ABSTRACT: The discoverer of the famous Oligocene fossil insect beds at Florissant, 
Colorado, has been moot. It now appears that Theodore Lutrell Mead first brought the fossil 
insects to scientific notice in 1871. 

In 1909T.D.A. Cockerell (p. 55) wrote at the end of his description of 
Alepidophora pealei (Diptera: Bombyliidae) "While I was preparing the 
above description, Dr. A.C. Peale, the discoverer of the Florissant shales, 
visited my laboratory...." Doubtlessly Cockerell was mislead by Hayden's^ 
statements about the fossil beds. What few fossil specimens Peale collected 
constituted the third batch brought to the attention of scientists. 

The earliest mention of fossil insects from the site is in the 5th Annual 
Report of the Geological Survey of the Territories, for 1872 p. 371, 
published in 1873. There it is noted that S.A. Allen collected some fossil 
plants and a few such insects at "South Park, near Costello's ranch". In the 
next Annual Report, the 6th, on p. 210 are the first descriptions of fossil 
plants from the shales, some of which Peale collected in 1873 along with a 
few insects. 

The person who collected insect fossils in the Florissant area before any 
of Hayden's men were there was Theodore Lutrell Mead, a quasi-member 
of the Wheeler Surveys. It is understandable that Hayden made no mention 
of Mead. Hayden was feuding in Washington to remove the Army's 
Topographic Engineers from field surveying in the west. Mead was 
in between high school and college when he went to Colorado for his future 
father-in-law, William Henry Edwards, the man who contributed more to 
knowledge of the butterflies of North America than any other person. 

Mead visited the Florissant fossil beds in September, 1871. The 
specimens he collected he sent to Edwards who in turn sent them to Samuel 
Hubbard Scudder in Cambridge, Mass. Scudder published on these in 
1876, noting Mead as the collector but not giving any date of collection. 
Mead's only trip to Colorado was in 1871. Here is Meads's first-hand 
statement about collecting fossils, taken from a letter in the library of 
Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. 



Deceived March 26, 1981 

^Wright-Ingraham Institute, Colorado Springs, Colorado 

^Ferdinand V. Hayden was Chief of the United States Geological and Geographical Surveys 
of the Territories. This superceded the Wheeler Survey West of the 100th meridian and 
preceded the U.S. Geological Survey, of which Hayden was the second director. 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 165-166 



166 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The letter was started on September 13, 1 87 1 , at Mead's Station 39 on 
the road from Fairplay to Canyon City. It is addressed to his aunt in New 
York City, Mrs. S.B. Strang. The pertinent paragraph reads "T started this 
letter at Station 39. Before I had time to finish it I heard wonderful tales of 
petrified stumps and fossil insects, thirty miles away. So, I hired a horse and 
went there finding all as represented. I found nearly 20 insects and brought 
back about 25 Ibs. of petrified wood. Some of the stumps are 20 ft. across. 
They are in all respects similar to ordinary stumps but converted to stone." 

The next letter in Mead's copybook clinches the locality. It is to Mr. 
James Costello who operated the post-office and hostelry at Florrissant in 
the late 1860s and early 1870s. In it Mead asks for the forwarding of some 
personal effects he had left behind. "Judge" Costello (spelled Castello by 
Scudder) owned a considerable ranch adjacent to a ranch owned by Adam 
Hill. Mead's reference to "20 ft. stumps" places the site on Hill's property. 
The large stump alluded to and Scudder's (1881: 283-284) trench are 
about a quarter mile north of the visitor's center of the Florissant Fossil 
Beds National Monument. It is not at all improbable that Mead dug his 
fossils from the same spot where Scudder later took thousands, a hundred 
yards or so southwest of the big stump. 

The discoverer of the Florissant beds in Teller County, Colorado, is 
completely unknown. I suspect that it may have been Adam Hill on whose 
ranch Scudder developed his principle trench in 1877. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brown, F. Martin, 1971. Hayden's 1854-55 Missouri River Expedition. The Denver 

Westerners Roundup, 28, No. 3 pp. 3-66. 
Cockerell, Theodore Dru Alison, 1909. Descriptions of Tertiary Insects V. Some New 

Diptera. American J. Sci., (4) 27:53-58. 
Mead, Theodore Lutrell, ms. letters numbered 203 and 204, in copybook. The Library, 

Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. 
Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. 1876. Fossil Coleoptera from the Rock Mountain Tertiaries. 

U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, Bulletin 2: 77-78, 2 1 March 

1876. 

1881. The Tertiary Lake Basin of Florissant, Colorado, between South and Hayden 

Parks. U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Bulletin 6: 279-300. 

1 pi. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 167 

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE HENRY S. DYBAS 
SYMPOSIUM AT TRI-STATE UNIVERSITY1 

Gene Kritsky 2 

On November 22, 1980, Henry S. Dybas of the Field Museum of 
Natural History was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Science from Tri- 
State University. Henry S. Dybas joined the Field Museum in 1943 and 
was appointed Curator Emeritus upon his retirement in 1980. Dybas' 
major research interests are the ecology and evolution of periodical cicadas 
and the classification and biology of the beetle family Ptiliidae. To 
commemorate the awarding of the degree, a symposium was held, bringing 
together several entomologists to discuss research that related to Henry S. 
Dybas' own work. The moderator was Gene Kritsky of Tri-State University. 
Abstracts of the papers are presented herein. 

An exciting decade with the aquatic Coleoptera. 

Frank N. Young, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. 

New discoveries such as the smallest predaceous water beetle and the 
first blind, depigmented, aquifer - adapted Dytiscidae can be used to study 
the tempo of evolution. These water beetles illustrate convergence, 
and parallel evolution with other beetles. Analogies such as adaptive peaks 
can be used to symbolize evolution and understand the origin and extinction 
of species. 

The evolution of complex acoustical behavior in cicadas. 

Thomas E. Moore, Museum of Zoology & Division of Biological Sciences, The 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. 

Cicadas and spittlebugs are close relatives that share many characteris- 
tics as juveniles and adults. Cicada songs probably evolved from common 
beginnings with spittlebug courtship sounds, hardly modified in modern 
Australian Tettigarctine cicadas. Cicadas are the only loud insects singing 
by timballing (which apparently evolved only once), by crepitating (wing- 
banging, which evolved more than once) and by stridulating (which evolved 
more than once). These loud species-specific songs are their primary 
isolating and initial aggregating mechanisms. Male cicadas are the timballing 
singers only females of the two species of the Australian Tettigarcta have 
timbals females of several species also crepitate and stridulate with their 

Deceived March 18, 1981 

^Department of Biology, Tri-State Univeristy, Angola, IN 46703 

ENT. NEWS, 92 (4): 167-170 



168 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

wings as do their males. Timballing produces the most complex songs; most 
timbals have either 3 or 4 sound-producing ribs, and many songs show both 
amplitude- and frequency-modulation. Most cicadas sing only while sitting 
on vegetation, and only as isolated males. Visual as well as acoustical cues 
are important in singing, and acoustic directional response has been 
demonstrated only in females of one species. Some species, however, have 
evolved group singing by strongly clumped males in "chorus trees" or 
"chorus bushes," some even synchronizing or alternating individual songs, 
but a few in Argentina sing only in flight from chorus vegetation with 
strongly clumped males. Females among many males in these chorusing 
groups probably measure individual male quality before accepting a mate, 
but the mechanisms and specific effects of this sexual selection have yet to 
be identified. 

Evidence for a 13-year & 17-year hybridization. 

Monte Lloyd, Department of Biology, University of Chicago, ChicagoJL 60637. 

There are cases where two broods of 17 year cicadas 4 years apart 
coexist in the same woods. These can be interpreted as being in the process 
of forming a new 1 7-year brood that is 4 years accelerated over the previous 
one. There is some indication that crowding among 17-year nymphs can 
cause them to delete the 4 year inhibition that normally seems to be 
programmed as part of their life cycle. If this were to happen repeatedly and 
be genetically assimilated, it could lead to the evolution of 1 3-year cicadas 
from 17-year ones without ever having passed through a life cycle of 
intermediate length, which would inevitably destroy the periodicity. 

There are also cases of two broods of 1 3-year cicadas coexisting in the 
same woods. These can not possibly be interpreted in the same way since 
1 3-year cicadas have no 4-year inhibition in growth, and presumably could 
not grow up in 9 years. An alternative interpretation is that one of the 13- 
year broods (Brood XXIII) has resulted from hybridization between 13- 
year Brood XIX and one or another of the 1 7-year broods . Evidence for this 
interpretation comes from historical records of a hybridization in 1868 
between Brood XIX and Brood X, which resulted in 1898 in the 
appearance of a new population of Brood XXIII in Dewitt County, Illinois, 
and the concurrent disappearance of Brood X from that area. A new 
population of Brood XXIII has also been discovered in Knox County, 
Illinois, where it appears to have resulted from a hybridization between 
Brood XIX and Brood III in 1946 and first appeared in 1976. 

Theoretically if a 1 3- and a 1 7-year brood occur in the same woods, the 
13-year brood should readily outcompete the 17-year one. Theoretical 
reasons are given as to why this should be true. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 169 



Competition among cicada species: ecological situations and 

biological evidence. 

JoAnn White, Department of Zoology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. N.C. 
27514. 

In mature forests the three periodical cicada species show distinct 
habitat preferences, which serve to keep them separated in space and 
minimize interspecific competition among them. However, all three species 
are attracted to the young vigorously growing trees of second growth 
habitats, where they find themselves stimulated to oviposit in a much wider 
variety of host species than occur together in mature forests. In second 
growth, then, interspecies competition does appear to be important, 
especially since the fungus disease (Masospora cicadina) tends to be 
absent or poorly developed in second growth habitats, and cicadas 
correspondingly high. 

The evidence that competition is important in the population dynamics 
of a particular cicada species and in the structuring of periodical cicada 
communities comes from four sources: ( 1 ) oviposition preferences of the 
three cicada species, (2) variable growth rates among nymphs of the same 
age, (3) mortality of nymphs in crowded populations, and (4) the spatial 
patterns of nymphs below ground. 

A common response of both nymphs and adults to severe competition is 
to space themselves in ways that reduce its effects. In addition to this the 
ovipositing adults of each species, when placed in competitive situations, 
specialize on and increase the use of different diameter categories of twigs 
for oviposition sites. 

The limited mobility of nymphs decreases the probability that they can 
move away from a severely crowded situation. In those instances, nymphs 
of 1 7-year periodical cicadas have three options: ( 1 ) abort the usual 4-year 
inhibition in development, feed faster, and emerge 4 years ahead of 
schedule, (2) prolong development, feeding longer and emerging in the next 
year, (3) die in situ. By contrast, 13-year cicada nymphs may utilize the 
latter two options. 

Evolutionary relationships among broods of 13-year and 17-year 

periodical cicadas. 

Chris Simon, Dept. Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822. 

This continuing study of the evolution of 13- and 17-year periodical 
cicadas has used numerical phylogenetic analysis of allozymic and wing- 
morphometric data to examine the evolutionary relationships of eight 
broods to date. Initial allozymic studies of three broods of 13-year cicadas 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



(XIX, XXII, and XXIII) and two broods of 17-year cicadas (XIII and 
XIV) produced a phylogenetic tree which supported the hypothesis of 
Lloyd and Dybas; brood formation in the 17-year cicadas preceded brood 
formation in the 13-year cicadas. Morphometric studies of 48 wing vein 
characters in these same five broods demonstrated that they could be 
distinguished from each other via discriminant function analysis. In both 
allozymic and morphometric analyses broods were well differentiated while 
populations within broods showed little or no differentiation suggesting that 
broods are definable evolutionary units. 

From considerations of present day biogeography and Pleistocene 
forest movements, predictions were made as to the relationships of broods 
appearing in 1978 (Brood I), 1979 (Brood II) and 1980 (Brood III). Both 
allozymic and morphometric analyses of these broods produced phylogenies 
in which the 1 3-year cicadas were monophyletic and most recently derived 
but the placement of Broods I and II on the allozymic tree supported a 
"separate Pleistocene refuge" theory of origin while the placement of 
Broods I and II on the morphometric tree supported the hypothesis of Lloyd 
and Dybas. 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 171 

STUART W. FROST: LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 

(1957-80), NEW NAMES PROPOSED, AND 
SPECIES NAMED IN HIS HONORU 

A.G. Wheeler, Jr.3 

ABSTRACT: Stuart W. Frost, a well-known student of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) and of 
insect biology, died in January 1980. Lists of Dr. Frost's publications during 1957-80, new 
names he proposed, and species named in his honor are provided. 

With the death of Stuart W. Frost on January 21,1 980, Pennsylvania 
lost a well-known and respected entomologist - - a student of agromyzid 
leafminers and apple pests, an author of several books and more than 240 
papers on diverse subjects and entomology lost one of its few remaining 
ties to John Henry Comstock's legendary department at Cornell. Shortly 
before his death, at the urging of colleagues, Dr. Frost published an 
informal, engaging account of his life's work (Frost 1979). His career, 
beginning with the pursuit of insects as a young naturalist in Tarrytown, 
New York, and undergraduate and graduate training at Cornell University, 
took him to the Arendtsville research station of the Pennsylvania State 
College (now University). There he began studies on fruit tree pests and 
eventually went to the College's main campus where he organized an insect 
collection and introduced the value of insect study to hundreds of students. 
His own text General Entomology, published in 1942 and retitled Insect 
Life and Natural History in a 1959 revision, aided his teaching. In later 
years he collected some 400,000 insect specimens during 13 winters of 
blacklight trapping at Florida's Archbold Biological Station (Highlands 
Co.). After retiring in 1957, he took obvious delight in identifying 
specimens and adding new material to the Penn State insect collection, 
aptly named the Frost Entomological Museum in 1969. 

Dr. Frost's autobiographical sketch and the eloquent tribute prepared 
after his death by K.C. Kim (1980), present curator of the Museum, have 
provided insight into his personality and a good summary of his accomplish- 
ments; more of course could and, I hope, will be said about his work in 
entomology. In my own tribute to Dr. Frost, I am bringing up to date the list 
of his writings and listing both the new names he proposed during his studies 
in insect systematics and the species named in his honor. 

1 Received March 19, 1981 

^ Authorized on March 3, 1981 for publication as Paper No. 6201 in the Journal Series of the 
Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. A contribution from The Frost Entomological 
Museum, Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 
PA 16802(AESProj. 2070). 

^Mailing address: Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, 
Harrisburg, PA 17110 

ENT. NEWS, 92(4): 171-176 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The Writings of S.W. Frost, 1957-80 

In 1958, S.W. Frost listed in this journal 191 of his papers published 
from 1916 to 1957 (Frost 1958). The following represents a nearly 
complete list of his scientific and popular articles published since late 1957 
and includes a 1939 taxonomic paper omitted from his original list. To 
compile this list, I have used the record of writings that Dr. Frost 
maintained through 1 972, a bound set of his reprints, and my own review of 
literature. I have omitted intentionally only his replies to questions sent in to 
Adventure Magazine, even though he had included most of these "Ask 
Adventure" responses in his 1 958 list. Dr. Frost, an entomologist of diverse 
interests, was fascinated with postage stamps featuring birds, frogs, insects, 
and other animals, and I may well have overlooked a few of his 
contributions to philatelic magazines. 

1939 

123a. Two new species of Agromyza from South America (Dipt.: Agromyzidae). 
Entomol. News 50:97-100.' 

1957 

192. Aphids attracted to light traps. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 50:581-583 (S.W.F. 
and J.O. Pepper). 

1958 

193. Papers by S.W. Frost. Entomol. News 69:67-78. 

194. Halysidota tessellaris S & A and pollenia. Entomol. News 69:137-138. 

195. The Ecological Insect Survey of Pennsylvania. Entomol. News 69:222-223. 

196. The Tabanidae of Pennsylvania. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 84:169-215 (S.W.F. 
and L.L. Pechuman). 

197. Insects attracted to light traps placed at different heights. J. Econ. Entomol. 
51:550-551. 

198. Traps and lights to catch night-flying insects. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Entomol. 
2:583-587. 

199. Insects captured in light traps with and without baffles. Can. Entomol. 90:566-567. 

200. Insects on postage stamps. Topical Time 9(4): 156- 160. 

201. Stamps featuring or suggesting fish. Weekly Philatelic Gossip 67(5 ):1 12-114. 

202. Art on postage stamps. Everyday Art 37:19-21. 

1959 

203. Insects captured in black-painted and unpainted light traps. Entomol. News 70:54-55. 

204. Insects caught in light traps with new baffle designs. J. Econ. Entomol. 52:167-168. 

205. Insects exalted. Everyday Art 37:4-21. 

206. The firefly, a truly photogenic species. Turtox News 37(8):212-213. 

207. Insect life and insect natural history. 2nd edition, revised. Dover Publications, New 
York, N.Y. 526 pp. 

208. Birds on United States stamps. Stamps 106(1): 14. 

1960 

209. Review of "Synopsis of the species of agromyzid leaf miners described from North 
America (Diptera)" by K.E. Frick. Quart. Rev. Biol. 35:154. 

210. A solution for the O.G. problem. Linn's Weekly Stamp News 33(43):4. 



Vol. 92. No. 4. September & October 1 98 1 1 73 

1961 

211. Key to common groups of spiders. Pages xix-xx in Emerton. J.H. The common spiders 
of the United States. Dover Publications. New York, N.Y. 

1962 

212. Obituary. Norris Dwight Blackburn, 1902-1962. J. Econ. Entomol. 55:1024. 

213. Liriomyza archboldi, a new species (Dipt., Agromyzidae). Entomol. News 73:5 1-53. 

214. Winter insect light-trapping at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida [Part 1 1. Fla. 
Entomol. 45:175-190. 

1963 

215. Winter insect light trapping at the Archbold Biological Station, Fla. (Part 2]. Fla. 
Entomol. 46:23-43. 

1964 

216. Insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, 
Florida. Fla. Entomol. 47:129-161. 

217. Killing agents and containers for use with insect light traps. Entomol. News 75:163- 
166. 

1965 

218. Insects and pollinia. Ecology 46:556-558. 

1966 

219. Notes on common Scarabaeidae taken in light traps at Archbold Biological Station, 
Florida. Fla. Entomol. 49:189-194. 

220. Additions to Florida insects taken in light traps. Fla. Entomol. 49:243-251. 

221 . Stamps featuring or suggesting insects. Topical Time (Nov. -Dec.), pp. 40-41 (S.W.F. 
and J. Chauvin). 

1967 

222. Mayflies taken at the Archbold Biological Station. Highlands County, Florida. Fla. 
Entomol. 50:281-284. 

1968 

223. Notes on Meloidae taken at the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, 
Florida. Fla. Entomol. 51:51-53. 

1969 

224. Improvement of the efficiency and selectivity of the insect light trap. Year Book Am. 
Philosophical Soc., 1968:299-300. 

225. Supplement to Florida insects taken in light traps. Fla. Entomol. 52:91-101. 

1970 

226. Light trap collecting compared with general collecting at the Archbold Biological 
Station. Fla. Entomol. 53:173-177. 

227. A tr~p to test the response of insects to various light intensities. J. Econ. Entomol. 
63:1344-1346. 

1971 

228. Pachvdiplax longipennis (Odonata:Anisoptera): records of night activity. Fla. 
Entomol. 54:205. 

1972 

229. Notes on Blepharida dorothca Mignot (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae). Entomol. News 
83:45-47. 

230. Notes on Urodus pan-ula (Henry Edwards) (Yponomeutidae). J. Lepid. Soc. 26: 1 73- 

177. 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



1973 

231. Hosts and eggs of Blepharida dorothea (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae). Fla. Entomol. 
56:120-122. 

232. A summary of the Sphingidae taken at the Archbold Biological Station, Highlands 
County, Florida. Entomol. News 84:157-160. 

233. Honeybees and bumblebees taken in light traps. Entomol. News 84:235-236. 

1975 

234. Third supplement to insects taken in light traps at the Archbold Biological Station, 
Highlands County, Florida. Fla. Entomol. 58:35-42. 

235. An index to the insects and spiders featured on Audubon's bird plates. Entomol. News 
86:217-226. 

1977 

236. Insects associated with the extrafloral nectaries of elderberry. Fla. Entomol. 60:186. 

237. Damsel-flies and dragon-flies on stamps. Zoology 26(1): 16- 18. 

1979 

238. A preliminary study of North American insects associated with elderberry flowers. Fla. 
Entomol. 62:341-355. 

239. Autobiography of an entomologist. Melsheimer Entomol. Ser. 26:33-38. 

1980 

240. Inside the stamp. Scott's Mon. Stamp J. 6 1(3): 10- 17. 

New Names Proposed by S.W. Frost 

Diptera 

Agromyzidae 

Agromyza allia Frost 1943, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 51:257 (now placed in the genus 

Liriomyza Mik) 
Agromyza angelicae Frost 1 934, Entomol. News 45:40 (now placed in Melanagromyza 

Hendel) 
Agromyza appro.ximata Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:316 (now placed in 

Melanagromyza) 

Agromyza baptisiae Frost 1931, Can. Entomol. 63:275 (now placed in Liriomyza) 
Agromyza barrocoloradensis Frost 1936,Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:300 (now placed in 

Liriomyza) 

Agromyza brazi/iet.sis Frost 1939, Entomol. News 50:97 (now placed in Liriomyza) 
Agromyza busckei Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:315 (now placed in 

Ophiomyia Braschnikov; inadvertently spelled "buskei" in original description) 
Agromyza cassiae Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:306 (now placed in 

Calycomyza Hendel) 
Agromyza centrosemae Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:301 (now placed in 

Japanagromyza Sasakawa) 
Agromyza cinereifrons Frost 1931, Can. Entomol. 63:276 (a synonym of Phytobia 

angulata (Loew)) 

Agromyza commelinae Frost 1931, Entomol. News 42:72 (now placed in Liriomyza) 
Agromyza crotonis Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:313 (now placed in 

Melanagromyza ) 
Agromyza currant Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:305 (now placed in 

Japanagromyza) 



Vol. 92, No. 4, September & October 1981 175 



Agromyza cun'ibrissata Frost 1936, Ann Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:309 (now placed in 

Ophiomyia) 
Agromyza dorsocentralis Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:307 (now placed in 

Phytobia Lioy) 
Agromyza ecuadorensis Frost 1939, Entomol. News 50:99 (a synonym of Liriomvza 

braziliensis (Frost)) 

Agromyza ipomaeae Frost 1931, Entomol. News 42:74 (now placed in Calycomyza) 
Agromyza iridescens Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:303 (now placed in 

Japanagromyza) 
Agromyza kallima Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:299 (now placed in 

Phytobia) 
Agromyza oralis Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:309 (now placed in 

Ophiomyia) 
Agromyza orbitalis Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:314 (now placed in 

Japanagromyza 
Agromyza phaseolunata Frost 1943, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 51:256 (now placed in 

Liriomvza; a synonym? of L. sativae Blanchard) 
Agromyza (Liriomvza) propepusilla Frost 1954, Entomol. News 65:73 (new name for 

Liriomyza subpusilla (Frost), nee Malloch 1914, Ann. Mus. Hung. Budapest 

12:314; a synonym of L. sativae) 
Agromyza punctohalterata Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:31 1 (now placed in 

Ophiomyia) 
Agromyza schmidti Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:302, nee Aldrich 1929, 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 31:89 ( renamed Japanagrom yza frosti Frick) 
Agromyza subpusilla Frost 1943, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 51:255, nee Malloch 1914, 

Ann. Mus. Hung. Budapest 12:314 (renamed Liriomyza propepusilla Frost: a 

synonym of L. sativae) 
Agromyza tibia/is Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:312, nee Fallen 1823, 

Agromyzides Sueciae. Diptera sueciae 2(37): 1-10 (renamed Melanagromyza 

aldrichi Frick; now placed in Japanagromyza) 
Agromyza ulmi Frost 1 924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:54 (a synonym of A. 

aristata Malloch) 

Agromyza viridis Frost 1931, Can. Entomol. 63:277 (now placed in Melanagromyza) 
Liriomyza archboldi Frost 1962, Entomol. News 73:51 
Phytomyza affinalis Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:84 
Phytomyza angelicella Frost 1927, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 20:218 
Phytomyza aquilegiana Frost 1930, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 23:459 
Phytomyza auricornis Frost 1927, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 20:217 
Phytomyza centralis Frost 1936, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 29:317 
Phytomyza delphiniae Frost 1928, Can. Entomol. 60:77 (a synonym of P. aconiti 

Hendel) 

Phytomyza flavinervis Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:85 
Phytomyza jucunda Frost and Sasakawa 1954, Mushi 27:49 
Phytomyza lactuca Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:85 
Phytomyza marginalis Frost 1927, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 20:219 
Phytomyza melanella Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:86 
Phytomyza minuta Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:86 (now placed 

in Haplomyza Hendel) 

Phytomyza nigrinen'is Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:87 
Phytomyza plumiseta Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:87 
Phytomyza subtenella Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:89 
Phytomyza trivittata Frost 1924, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Mem. 78:89 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Species Named in Honor of S.W. Frost 

Taxonomists have proposed the following patronyms to commemorate 
the entomological work of Stuart Frost. I may have overlooked some 
species named in his honor, but all other species named "frosti" that I was 
able to find were dedicated to the Massachusetts coleopterist C.A. Frost. 

Hemiptera-Heteroptera 

Miridae 

Hyaliodocoris frosti Knight 1943, Entomol. News 54:120 

Hemiptera-Homoptera 

Aphididae 

Gn'lloprocipfiilus frosti Smith & Pepper 1968, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 70:57 

Coleoptera 

Scarabaeidae 

Serica frosti Dawson 1967, J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 75:166 
Buprestidae 

Pachyschelus frosti Fisher 1930, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 31:177 

Diptera 

Tipulidae 

Limnophila (Phylidorea) frosti Alexander 1961, Great Basin Nat. 21:84 
Stratiomyidae 

Chrysochlorina frosti James 1939, J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 12:35 

Merosargus frosti James 1941, Lloydia 4:307 
Tabanidae 

Hybomitra frosti Pechuman 1960, Can. Entomol. 92:794 
Asilidae 

Senobasis frosti Bromley 1951, Am. Mus. Novitates 1532:12 
Tephritidae 

Eutreta frosti Hering 1938, Deutsche Entomol. Z. 2:415 
Agromyzidae 

Cerodontha (Dizygomyza) frosti Spencer 1973, Arthropods of Fla. 7:65 

Japanagromyza frosti Frick 1952, Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 8:373 (new name for 
Agromyza schmidti Frost 1936, nee Aldrich 1929, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 31:89) 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank K.C. Kim (Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University) for 
his support of this paper and Verda Haas for her encouragement of the project. K.C. Kim, K. 
Valley (Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture) and E.R. 
Hoebeke (Department of Entomology. Cornell University) kindly read the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Frost, S.W. 1958. Papers by S.W. Frost. Entomol. News 69:67-78. 

Frost, S.W. 1979. Autobioeraphv of an entomologist. Melsheimer Entomol. Ser. 26:33-38. 

Kim, K.C. 1980. A tribute to Dr. Stuart W. Frost. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 26:138. 



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VOL. 92 



NOVEMBER & DECEMBER. 1981 



No. 5 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



New species of Cryptoxilos (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) 
attacking adult Lymantor decipens (Coleoptera: 
Scolytidae) Mark Deyrup 111 

Distribution and biology of flightless carrion beetle 
Necrophilus pettitii in eastern North America 
(Coleoptera: Silphidae) Stewart B. Peck 181 

Distribution of Harpalus rufipes in Canada and 
United States (Coleoptera: Carabidae) 

Gary A. Dunn 186 

Seasonal distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) in two 
Piedmont rivers in Virginia 

B.C. Kondratieff, J.R. Voshell, Jr. 189 

Annotated checklist of scorpionflies (Mecoptera) of 

Kentucky G. W. Byers, C.V. Cove//, Jr. 196 

New model of flight-interception trap for some 

hymenopterous insects L. Masner, H. Goulet 199 

Compact sampling device for ecological studies of 
cryptozoan communities 

G. Summers, H. Badortes 203 

New genus & species of gyponine leafhopper related to 
Gypona (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

Dwight M. DeLong 207 

Collembola described by H.G. Scott in collections of 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Selwyn S. Roback 209 

BOOKS RECEIVED & BRIEFLY NOTED 198, 206, 211 
MAILING DATES Vol. 92 and ownership statement 212 
INDEX Vol. 92, 1981 213 - 216 



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Vol. 92, No. 5. November & December 1981 177 

A NEW SPECIES OF CRYPTOXILOS 

(HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) ATTACKING 

ADULT LYMANTOR DECIPENS LECONTE 

(COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE)U 

Mark Deyrup^ 

ABSTRACT: Cryptoxilos lymantori is described from specimens reared from the galleries 
ofLymantordecipens LeConte. Lack of conspicuous hairs on the eyes distinguish this species 
from the other Nearctic Cryptoxilos, C. convergens Muesebeck. The cocoon (illustrated) is 
spun in the scolytid gallery, and the adult parasitoid escapes through the scolytid entrance 
hole. 

The genus Cryptoxilos includes only one described Nearctic species, 
C. convergens Muesebeck, reared by A.D. Hopkins from the scolytid 
Phloetribus frontalis (Olivier) in Moms sp. and Celtis sp. (Muesebeck, 
1936). A second species, described below, was recently reared from 
another scolytid, Lymantor decipens LeConte in Acer sacchamm Marsh. 

The genus Cryptoxilos is characterized by small size (2 mm or less), the 
combination of the absence of a recurrent vein and the presence of an 
exserted ovipositor, and the eyes of the female strongly convergent below, 
sparsely to densely hairy (Meusebeck, 1936). 

Cryptoxilos lymantori, new species 

Holotype Female. Length (from frons to apex of gaster): 1.40 mm (paratypes 1.45 
1 .35). Color: dark brown, clypeus, mandible except for apex, yellow, apex of mandible dark 
brown; front legs yellow except for brown apical tarsomere; middle coxa, trochanters, apex of 
femur, basal tarsomere yellow, otherwise brown; antenna yellow basally, after first flagellomere 
gradually becoming dark brown apically; stigma of front wing dark brown. Head: about as 
wide as thorax; vertex smooth, shining, a few pale hairs laterally; occipital carina complete; 
frons above antennae smooth, shining, below antennae sparsely finely punctuate: eye in dorsal 
view protruding laterally beyond temples, strongly converging below, width of face about 
three-fourths length from clypeus to antennal bases, eye with fine, short, sparse hairs; antennae 
13-segmented, first flagellomere not strongly swollen, more slender than scape and pedicel, 
slightly shorter than third flagellomere, fiagellomeres 3-12 three to four times as long as wide. 
Thorax: mesonotum smooth, shining, except for a roughly triangular patch of coarse 
continguous punctures, mesonotum declivous posteriorly with a series of longitudinal ridges: 
scutellum smooth, convex medially, declivitous with coarse continguous punctures laterally 
and posteriorly; metanotum concave with a series of longitudinal ridges, hind margin elevated 
with an anteriorly directed triangular point; propodeum lightly rugose anteriorly, heavily 
rugose posteriorly; propleuron rugulose; pronotum smooth except for fine punctures around 



[Received March 26, 1981 

^Purdue University Experiment Station No. 8490 

^Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette. IN 47907 

ENT. NEWS, 92(5): 177-180 November & December. 1981 



178 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



margins; mesopleuron with coarse contiguous punctures below wing base and in a median 
band across mesopleuron curving down to the anteroventral and posteroventral corners of the 
mesopleuron, mesopleuron with a smooth, shining, convex mediodorsal area and medioventral 
area; dorsal metapleural area smooth, ventral metapleural area rugose. Wing venation: Simi- 
lar to C. convergens except that first intercubitus disappears posteriorly (totally lacking in 
some paratypes, complete in others). Gaster: first gastral segment with a median, paired 
submedian and lateral, longitudinal carinae, first gastral segment slender, gradually expanded 
from base to apical fifth, then more abruptly expanded, twice as wide at apex as at spiracles, 
spiracles distinctly anterior to middle, remaining gastral segments smooth, shining; ovipositor 
sheaths .3 mm, three-fourths as long as hind tibia. 

Male. Similar to female except only a few hairs on eyes, invisible except under ideal 
lighting conditions, eyes only slightly protruding beyond temples, not strongly convergent 
below. Width of face below antennae 1.2 length from clypeus to antennal bases. 




Fig. 1. Dorsal view of Cn'ptoxilos lymantori n. sp; actual length head and body 1.4 mm; 
frontal view of head of female (left) and male (right). 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 179 

Holotype female. West Lafayette, Tippecanoe County, Indiana, U.S.A., emerged 2 
April 1980 from galleries of Lymantor decipens in Acer saccharum twigs collected 4 March 
1980. The type is depositied in the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 

Paratypes. 2 female, 6 male, same data as for holotype. 

Discussion. This species is easily distinguished from C. convergens by 
short, sparse, inconspicuous hairs on the eyes; even male C. convergens 
have readily visible long hairs on the eyes. It would be premature to 
speculate on the relationship between the two species, but C. lymantori is 
in general less "atypical" and "extreme" for a euphorine than C. 
convergens; the eyes are less convergent and much less hairy, the antennal 
segments are longer and more slender, and the vestiture less coarse and less 
bristling. 

Biology 

Considering the host beetle, it is possible that C. lymantori is mono- 
phagous. Lymantor decipens is a common scolytid occurring in dead 
branches and small boles of deciduous trees, especially Acer saccharum. 
The galleries always occur in the surface of wood that contains fruiting 
bodies of an identified ascomycete. Branches are usually attacked when 
they are attached to a tree, or detached but held above the ground by 
understory trees and shrubs. This type of host plant material does not 
harbor other scolytids except for species of Hypothenemus and Trishidias 
less than 1 mm in length. Lymantor decipens has no congeners in the 
eastern or midwestern U.S., although there is a second species of Lymantor 
in Alaska. 

The seasonal history of C. lymantori is not known beyond the fact that 
adults emerge in spring. The adults obtained in this study emerged on, or 
during a few days preceding, 2 April 1980, from material that had been 
brought back into the laboratory on 4 March 1980. The culture of beetles 
died out during the summer, and there was no second generation of 




Fig. 2. Cocoon of C. lymantori \nga\\ery of its host; bark, including entrance hole, removed to 
expose gallory. Circle marks former location of entrance hole. 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



parasitoids from the second generation of beetles. No occupied cocoons 
were found in galleries in fresh material collected in late summer, though 
empty cocoons and dead hosts were found in some old abandoned galleries. 

Twelve cocoons were found in the maple twigs from which the type 
series emerged. In all cases but one, in which the adult wasp had become 
trapped and died in the beetle gallery, the adults had emerged through the 
entrance hole of its host. All host scolytids were facing away from the 
gallery entrance, leaving a clear path for the emergence of the wasp. 
Between the dead host and the wasp cocoon there was in all cases a vertical 
partition of silk strands, usually numerous enough to form an opaque white 
barrier. A second thick partition of silk was located between the gallery 
entrance and the cocoon. Where there was extra room between the dead 
host and the gallery entrance, this space contained one or two thin partitions 
of silk strands, and single strands fastened to the gallery to make a loose 
webbing. The orientation of the dead host, the partitions, the loose webbing, 
the transparent shining cocoon itself, are all strikingly similar to those of 
Cosmophorus capeki Loan and Matthews that I have observed in galleries 
of Pityophthonis lautus Eichhoff m. Acer saccharinim L. As a rule, the C. 
ly man tori cocoons were closer to the entrance then those of C. capeki, and 
in four instances C. lymantori had actually spun a cover across the entrance 
hole. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Meusebeck, C.F.W. 1936. The genera of parasitic wasps of the braconid subfamily 
Euphorinae, with a review of the Nearctic species. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). 
USDA Misc. Publ. 241: 1-38. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 181 

DISTRIBUTION AND BIOLOGY OF FLIGHTLESS 

CARRION BEETLE NECROPHILUS PETTITII IN 

EASTERN NORTH AMERICA (COLEOPTERA; 

SILPHIDAE)! 

Stewart B. Peck 2 

ABSTRACT: Data are given on the life cycle, seasonality, habitats, and distribution of 
Necrophilus pettitii Horn, and a lectotype is designated. 

The preparation of reviews of North American silphid carrion beetles 
(Miller and Peck, 1979; Peck 1982, Peck and Miller, 1982) has shown the 
need for the presentation of data on poorly known species. One of these is 
Necrophilus pettitii Horn, 1880, a flightless species and the only eastern 
North American representative of the tribe Agyrtini. The few scattered 
literature records show a wide but incompletely known distribution and 
poorly known biology. The following is offered to help correct this. 

The species may be characterized as folllows: size about one cm in 
length; body broadly oval and flattened; color shining brown or reddish 
brown; pronotum broad, marginally flattened and punctured; elytra non- 
truncate, covering abdomen, with nine deeply punctate striae; abdomen 
with five visible sternites; tarsal formula 5-5-5; antennae eleven segmented, 
club gradually clavate, last five segments covered with microsetae. 

Detailed studies by A.F. Newton (in manuscript) show that the tribe, 
combined with Lyrosomini, should be elevated to family status, based on 
adult and larval characters. Data on larval characterisitics will be given by 
Newton. 

A type specimen has never been published, and the following is 
designated in the interest of stability of nomenclature. 

Necrophilus pettitii Horn (1880: 243). LECTOTYPE (here designated), a female with 
white label "Can" and white label "646" and red ANSP label "lectotype 3006" and white 
label "N. Petitii Horn" and my designation label. Also one female paralectotype with 
white label "Ky" and green label "paratype 3006"). Both in Horn collection, MCZ, 
Harvard Univ. The localities published with the description were Canada and Kentucky. 
The larger series of 3 (two additional paralectotypes in LeConte collection, MCZ) were 
from Grimsby. Ontario, Canada, which is here designated the type locality (see Horn, 
1868: 125. and Pettit, 1869). 

Life cycle characteristics have been determined by Dr. J.A. Payne, 
who has generously provided the following data: Five adults (2 pairs in 



Deceived April 7, 1981 

^Department of Biology. Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6, Canada. 

ENT. NEWS, 92(5): 181-185 November & December. 1981 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

copulo), were collected from deermouse (Peromyscus leucopus) feces at 
Perry, Georgia, on 7 December 1969. The adults were kept in a cool 
basement in a large screen-covered container.They were offered decaying 
squirrel meat and mouse feces, but no evidence of feeding was observed. 
Approximately 20 small larvae were noticed on 14 December, giving a 
maximum of 7 days for the eggs to be laid, mature, and hatch. Larvae fed 
primarily on the mouse feces, but also on the squirrel meat. Some larvae 
were preserved. New adults appeared on 1 February, 1970, indicating a 
maximum egg to adult development time of 8 weeks, at temperatures from 
13 to 19C. The original adults lived about 6 weeks in culture. 

The records show that the species is collected in forested habitats, 
most frequently in the higher elevations of the southern Appalachians in the 
summer months. At lower elevations the records more frequently show 
activity in the cooler spring and fall months. The species is most often taken 
on decomposing material, usually on or in dung and carrion baits or pit traps. 
It is probably nocturnal, hiding in deep litter or in the soil (juding from the 
lack of records from general hand collecting, and from the number of 
records in cave entrances where the soil fauna can often be sampled with 
comparative ease). 

The general distribution is from New York, Ontario, and Michigan, 
southwards to Alabama, Georgia, and northern Florida. 

The following distribution records are based on material in the author's 
collections or in museums, abbreviated with standard usage following 
Arnett and Samuelson ( 1 969). The data of Davis ( 1 980) are not repeated 
here. 

Canada. Ontario. Grimsby (type locality) Sept. and Oct., on decaying fungi on logs, J. 
Pettit (Horn and LeConte collections, MCZ) (Horn, 1868, 1880; Pettit, 1869). 

United States. Alabama. Jackson County. Russell Cave National Monument, Pig 
Entrance of Russell Cave, 17. VIII. 1967, S. Peck and A. Fiske, 1 on carrion bait. Jefferson 
County. Birmingham, 8. IV. 1953, 2; 11. IV. 1955, 1 on rotten fish; 12.IV.1955, 1; 14JV.1955, 
1; all by H.R. Steeves (FMNH). Tallapoosa County. Cheaha Mountain (State Park), 
7. VI. 1040, W.B. Jones, Museum Expedition, 4 (UANH). Tuscaloosa County, 1935, A.F. 
Archer, 1 (UMMZ). 

Georgia. Dade County. Cloudland Canyon State Park, 15-23.V.1972, S. Peck, 1 in 
forest carrion trap. Fulton County. Atlanta, 15. III. 1938, P.W. Fattig, 1 (MCZ). Houston 
County. Perry, 7. XII. 1 969. J. A. Payne, 5 on mouse feces; 4. II. 1 970. J . A. Payne, 5 lab reared 
on mouse feces. 

Illinois. Jackson County. Carbondale, 19.V.1971 (Baldwin, 1971: 19). 

Indiana. Posey County. Grand Chain, 10. IV. 1901, W.S. Blatchley, 2 on ill-smelling 
decaying fungi beneath log (PURC; Blatchley, 1910). 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 183 



Kentucky. Edmonson County. Mammoth Cave National Park. Running Branch Cave, 5- 
26.V.1972, S. Peck, 4 on .carrion baits; 7-26. V. 1972, S. Peck, 2 in forest dung traps at 
maintenance area; Wilson Cave, 17. VI. 1973, S. Peck, 1 on animal dung. Powell County, 
5.IX.1958, 1 (FSCA). 

Michigan. Oakland County, 1.V.1924.A.W. Andrews. 1 female missing head and 
prothorax (MSUC). 

New York. Cattaraugus County. Allegheny State Park, July (Leonard, 1926); 15. VII. 
1938, 1 (USNM);7.X. 1936, M.J.Ramsey, 1 (USNM). Sullivan County. Cooks Falls, Sept.. 
(Leonard, 1926). Westchester County. Armonk, Calder Conservation and Ecology Center of 
Fordham Univ., April, 1; May, 3; June, 3; October, 2; November, 1 (Pirone, 1974: 290). 

North Carolina. Buncombe County. Asheville, April, May, June, 1928, 6 (MCZ). 
Haywood County. Cataloochee Divide, 9.VI. 1940, 5000', C.A. Frost, 2 (MCZ). Mt. Pisgah, 
12.IX.1934, Quirsfeld, 1 (MCZ). Mt. Sterling. Oct. 1938. W.B. Jones, 19 (CUIC). Sunburst. 
25.X. 1934, D. Dunavan, 1 (AMNH). Richland Balsam, 7-26.VIII. 1965,6000', S. Peck, 2. 
Henderson County. Hendersonville, 12. VI. 1951, H. and A. Howden, 1, traps. Jackson 
County. Balsam, 7. VI. 1962 (1), 2.XI.1958 (1), W. Rosenberg (CAS). Macon County. 
Aquone (Brimley, 1938). Highlands, no data, 2 (MCZ) McDowell County, Linville Falls. 
May, June (Brimley, 1938). Mitchell County. Spruce (Brimley, 1938). Swaim County. 
Cherokee Orchard, 7.X. 1 960, 1 , T.C. Barr. NE slope Mt. Collins, 1 7-22. V. 1 972, 5900'. A. 
Newton. 17 in carrion trap 452. Smokemont, 1939, W.B. Jones, 21 (CUIC). Wake County. 
Raleigh. March, November (Brimley, 1938); 2 I.X.I 950, H. and A. Howden, 2 on chicken 
feathers. Yancey County. Mt. Mitchell (Black Mts.), 4.IX.1930, 5000-671 1 ft., C. Banks. 1 
(MCZ). 

Ohio. Ashtabula County. Jefferson, no data. 3 (FMNH, ICCM). Hamilton County. 
Cincinnati, 20.X.1903, 1 (USNM): 25.X.1903, 1 (SEMC); I.X.I 926. 3 (USNM); 
4.X. 1920. 4 (CMNH): no data. 5 (CAS, USNM). 

South Carolina. Newberry County. Newberry, Oct. (Kirk, 1970). Oconee County. 
Clemson College, 10.IV.1933, 1 (CAS); Clemson, Apr., May (Kirk, 1970); Feb., ( 1 ), Mar. 
(2), May, Sept. (1), Nov. (4), Dec. (3), J.A. Payne, on carrion (pig, 5; chicken. 1; frog, 2; 
squirrel, 3) in advanced decay state (Payne and King, 1970). Spartanburg County. 
Spartanburg, 10.111.1961, A.C. Bass, 1, (USNM). 

Tennessee. Anderson County. Oak Ridge, 20.11 and 1 4. III. 1 965, J.A. Payne, 7 on mouse 
feces and bodies. Oak Ridge, cave 4 mi. S, Sept. 1972, J.A. Payne, 2 on dead mouse 100' 
inside cave. Cumberland County. 3 mi. W. Ozone, 1700', 17.VI-14.VII. 1972. A. Newton. 1 
in hardwood forest dung and 1 in carrion trap. Knox County. Univ. Tennessee Farm, Feb. 
and March, 1972, H.B. Reed, 7 (USNM) with carcasses in late dry state (Reed, 1958). 
Putnam County. Quinland Lake. 17.1.1960, T.C. Barr, 1. Sevier County. Gatlinburg 
(Rainbow Motel), 17-23. V.I 972, 1400', A. Newton, 2 in carrion trap 456; 5 mi. S. 
Gatlinburg, 17-22. V.I 972, 2300', A. Newton. 6 in carrion and 1 in dung traps 455; 8 mi. S. 
Gatlinburg, 1 7-22. V. 1972, 3100', A. Newton, 19 in squid carrion traps and 10 in human dung 
traps; 13 mi. S. Gatlinburg, 17-22.V.1972, 4500'. A. Newton, 2 in carrion trap 453. Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park: Mollies Gap, 6-26. VIII. 1 965, S. and J. Peck, 2 in carrion 
trap; 18. VI. 1955. 6000', H. Howden, 1 in malt trap; Cherokee Orchard. 2500'. 20- 
27. V.I 977, A. Newton and M. Thayer, 14 on squid bait. Greenbriar Cove, 20.IV. 1954, 
2000', 1, H. Howden: 1700', 19-23. V. 1972. A. Newton, 1 in human dung trap: Ramsey 
Cascade Trail, 18-23. V.I 972, 27-2900', A. Newton, 10 in human dung and 4 in carrion traps 
457-8; 2.VII. 1 955, 5500', H. Howden, 2 in malt trap: Porters Creek Trail, 2600', 22.V. 1 977. 



184 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A. Newton, M. Thayer, 4 on carnivore scats. Clingmans Dome, 1947, Dietrich, 2(CUIC); 6- 
26.VIII.1965, summit, S. Peck, 9 in carrion trap; 3-9.IV. 1967, 6000', S. Peck, 1 in carrion 
trap. Swain County. Mt. Collins (GSMNP), 5900', 17-22. V.I 972, A. Newton, 13 in squid 
bait and 5 in human dung bait traps. Warren County. McMinnville, Cumberland Caverns, 1 5- 
24.V.1972, S. Peck, 2 in forest dung trap. 

Virginia. Giles County. Mountain Lake, 24-30. VI. 1968, 3500', S. Peck, 3 in forest 
carrion trap. 




Map of part of eastern North American showing known localities (solid, black dots) for 
Necrophilus pettitii. The localities listed by Davis (1980) are included. (Small, open circles 
indicate locations of major cities.) Dark line indicates maximum extent of the Wisconsinan 
glacial ice sheet. The species has made modest northward range movements since deglaciation. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 185 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am thankful for the cooperation of the curators of the various collections holding the 
material examined, and to individual collectors. J.A. Payne and A.F. Newton were especially 
helpful. A.F. Newton and R.S. Anderson reviewed the manuscript. My field work has been 
supported by operating grants from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research 
Council. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Arnett, R.H., Jr., and G.A. Samuelson. 1969. Directory of Coleoptera collections of North 

America (Canada through Panama). Dept. Entomology, Purdue University, Lafayette. 

Indiana. 123 pp. 
Baldwin, B. 1975. A faunal study of Illinois Silphidae (Coleoptera). Unpublished M.S. 

Thesis, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois. 45 pp. 
Blatchley, W.S. 1910. An illustrated descriptive catalogue of the Coleoptera or Beetles 

(exclusive of the Rhyncophora) known to occur in Indiana. Nature Publishing, Indianapolis. 

1386 pp. 
Brimley, C.S. 1938. Insects of North Carolina. North Carolina Dept. Agric., Division of 

Entomology, Raleigh. 560 pp. 
Davis, L.R., Jr. 1980. Notes on beetle distributions, with a discussion of Nicrophorns 

americanus Olivier and its abundance in collections (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae. 

Lampyridae. and Silphidae). Coleop. Bull., 34: 245-251. 
Horn, G.H. 1 868. Catalogue of Coleoptera from south western Virginia. Trans. Amer. Ent. 

Soc., 2: 123-128. 
Horn, G.H. 1880. Synopsis of the Silphidae of the United States. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 

8: 219-322. 
Kirk, V.M. 1970. A list of the beetles of South Carolina. Part 2, Mountain, piedmont, and 

southern coastal plain. Tech. Bull. 1038, Agric. Exp. Sta.,Clemson Univ., Clemson. 1 17 

pp. 
Leonard, M.D. 1926. A list of the insects of New York, with a list of spiders and certain other 

allied groups. Cornell Univ., Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 101. 1121 pp. 
Miller, S.E. and S.B. Peck. 1979. Fossil carrion beetles of Pleistocene California asphalt 

deposits, with a synopsis of Holocene California Silphidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Silphidae). 

Trans. San Diego Soc. Natur. Hist.. 19: 85-106. 
Payne, J.A. and E.W. King. 1 970. Coleoptera associated with pig carrion. Ent. Mon. Mag., 

105: 224-232. 
Peck, S.B. 1982. Silphidae and the associated families Agyrtidae and Leiodidae. in D. 

Dindal. ed.. Soil Biology Guide. Wiley and Sons, in press. 
Peck, S.B. and S.E. Miller. 1982. Family: Silphidae. in: J. Kingsolver.ed.. A catalogue of 

the Coleoptera of American north of Mexico. U.S. Dept. Agric., handbook no. 529-28. in 

press. 

Pettit, J. 1869. Notes on a few beetles. Can. Ent., 2: 20. 
Pirone, D. 1974. Ecology of necrophilous and carpophilous Coleoptera in a southern New 

York woodland (phenology, aspection, trophic and habitat preferences). Unpublished 

Ph.D. Thesis. Fordham University. N.Y., N.Y. 769 pp. 
Reed, H.B., Jr. 1958. A study of dog carcass communities in Tennessee, with special 

reference to the insects. Amer. Midi. Natur., 59: 213-245. 



186 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DISTRIBUTION OF HARPALUS RUFIPES 

DE GEER IN CANADA AND UNITED STATES 

(COLEOPTERA; CARABIDAE)i 

Gary A. Dunn^ 

ABSTRACT: The European ground beetle tfarpa/wsn</7/7&sDeGeer(Coleoptera;Carabidae) 
was introduced into maritime Canada prior to 1937. Adults were first collected in the United 
States at Orono, Maine in 1970. Four specimens were collected in New Hampshire in 1974, a 
southward range extension of 130 miles. Additional records for 395 specimens of Harpalus 
nifipes collected during 1977 and 1978 in southern New Hampshire show this species is well 
established in the state. 

Harpalus rufipes DeGeer was introduced into the Canadian maritime 
provinces sometime during the 1930's. Brown (1950) presents evidence 
demonstrating how this carabid, and other ground-inhabiting Coleptera, 
probably were transported by man and subsequently introduced into North 
America. It occurs in the palearctic region, as far east as eastern Siberia and 
Japan. (Lindroth, 1968) 

Adults of this species average 12 mm in length, and are easily 
distinguished by the dense, semi-erect, golden haris on the bases of both the 
pronotum and the elytra. 

The earliest known North American specimens were taken in Canada 
at Charlottestown and Summerside, Prince Edward Island in 1937 
(Morrison, 1941). Additional Canadian records of significance include: 
Kings County and Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 1938 (Morrison, 
1941; Lindroth, 1 954); Tabusintac, New Brunswick, 1939 (Brown, 1940); 
Quebec, 1939 (Lindroth, 1968); southwest Newfoundland, 1949-1951 
(Brown, 1950; Lindroth, 1955 and 1963); and Port-au-Saumon, Quebec, 
1976 (Larochelle, 1976). The known distribution of Harpalus rufipes in 
North American is given in Fig. 1 . 

The first specimens to be taken in the United States were collected at 
Orono, Penobscot Co., Maine in 1 970 (Larochelle, 1 976). The species was 
first taken in southern New Hampshire in 1 974. New Hampshire records of 
significance include: STRAFFORD CO.: Dover, 3-vii-1974, 17-vii- 
1978 (2), 21-vii-1978 (2) blacklight trap; Lee, 25-vii-1974 and 13-vii- 
1974 pitfall traps in cornfield; Durham, 1974 blacklight trap, 30-vi-1978 
pitfall trap; Somersworth, 20-vii-1977 barrier pitfall trap; Statham, 13-vi- 
1978, 25-vi-1978, 28-vi-1978 (250), 29-vi-1978 (66), 10-vii-1978 (35), 
13-vii-1978 (21) and4-viii-1978 (4) blacklight trap; Madbury, 27-vi-1978 
(8) blacklight trap; ROCKINGHAM CO.: Kensington, 2-vii-1978, 6-vii- 



1 Received April 8, 1981 

^Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing. MI 48824 

ENT. NEWS, 92(5): 186-188 November & December, 1981 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 



187 



1978, and 7-vii-1978 barrier pitfall trap. The New Hampshire distribution 
is given in Fig. 2. 

Based on the large number of specimens collected in southern New 
Hampshire there is little doubt that Harpalus rufipes is well established in 
the area. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brown, W.J. 1940 Notes on the American distribution of some species of Coleoptera 
common to the European and North American continents. Can. Ent. 72(4):65-78 
1950 The extralimital distribution of some species of Coleoptera. Can. Ent. 82(10): 197- 
205 

Larochelle, A. 1 976. Premiere mention de V Harpalus rufipes DeGeer (Coleoptera) pour les 
Etats-Unis D'Amerique. Cordulia 2(4):121-122 

Lindroth, C.H. 1954 Carabit beetles from Nova Scotia. Can. Ent. 86(7):299-310 
1955 The carabid beetle of Newfoundland. Opusc. Ent., Suppl. 21:1-160 
1963 The fauna history of Newfoundland illustrated by carabid beetles. Opusc. Ent., 
Suppl. 23:1-112 
1968 The ground beetles of Canada and Alaska. Opusc. Ent., Suppl. 32:649-944 

Morrison, P.O. 1941 Imported carabid beetle may be a potential pest. Can. Ent. 73( 12):217- 
218 




Fig. 1 . The distribution of Harpalus rufipes DeGeer in North America. 



188 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



I L FO R \ 



V /' 

N / \ l ' 

/ \ ~\ -1 

t v^ *\ / ? 

\ i ^ V i 

\ KfV \ }> C 

n u ' ^ ' ^ 



N 



1 I NEW \ 

^ * LTON IOURHAM\* -, 

I C/n \ /MILTON 

GILMANTON / , 

\ 
' ' ^ I 

,\/0 ^A 

>. X V FARMINGTON 

>y/ BARNSTEAD J\ 

7 >. / ^ 

/ \ ' 




I2KILES 



V 



**X* N ' 

<* / /f( y STRAF 
iS" / / X 



RAYMOND 

c ,, 

-^ FREMONT I 




^ PELHAM 






MASSACHUSETTS 




Fig. 2. The distribution of Harpalus rufipes DeGeer in southern New Hampshire. The inset 
map shows the location of the enlarged section of the state. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 189 

SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAYFLIES 
(EPHEMEROPTERA) IN TWO PIEDMONT RIVERS 

IN VIRGINIAi 

Boris C. Kondratieff, J. Reese Voshell, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: The seasonal distribution of the mayflies in two piedmont rivers was studied 
from 1977 to 1978. Adult and nymphal data were integrated to elucidate seasonal trends. 
Fourteen species were encountered in sufficient numbers to determine their seasonal 
periodicity; 12 other species that occurred infrequently are listed. The fauna could be divided 
into three temporal components based on the time of their emergence: winter/early spring, 
spring, and summer/fall. 

The distribution and seasonal pattern of mayflies of the eastern United 
States are not well known. Berner (1977) gave distributional records for 
many of the southeastern species of mayflies; however, he did not include 
the state of Virginia. To date the only study on distribution and seasonal 
occurrence of mayflies of Virginia has been Pugh (1956). 

From 1977 to 1978 we conducted a detailed investigation of the 
downstream effects of impoundment on the life histories of two species of 
mayflies in Virginia (Kondatieff and Voshell 1980, 1981). This report 
presents notes on the distribution and seasonal patterns of other species of 
mayflies that we encountered during our studies. 

Study Area 

The North and South Anna Rivers (NAR and SAR, respectively) are 
tributaries of the York River Basin located in eastern Virginia (Fig. 1 ). Both 
rivers begin in the Piedmont Plateau Province and flow southeastwards 
over the Fall Line before joining to form the Pamunkey River in the Coastal 
Plain Province. The Fall Line is the boundary between the Piedmont 
Plateau and Coastal Plain Physiographic Provinces. Usually a succession 
of ledges result at this narrow zone because the granitic rocks pass below 
tide level. Most of the basin is forested (70%) or in cropland or pasture 
(22%), and only 2% is classified as urban (Virginia Division of Water 
Resources 1970). The NAR was impounded in 1972 to provide cooling 
water for a nuclear-powered electricity generating facility. Lake Anna is a 
mainstream impoundment with an area of 5261 ha; release is from the 



1 Received June 17, 1981 

^Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 
VA 2406 1 



ENT. NEWS. 92(5): 189-195 November & December. 1981 



190 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



surface of the reservoir. 

Two stations were established on each river at the Fall Line (Fig. 1 ). 
The study site on the NAR is approximately 32 km below Lake Anna. The 
elevation at the site is 20 m, with a gradient of 2 1 .8 m/km, and the width is 
73 m. At this point the river is a 5th order stream that drains approximately 
1.14 x 1()5 ha. The substrate consists primarily of coarse pebble (32-64 
mm), cobble (64-256 mm), and boulder ( >256 mm). This site is character- 
ized by several cascading falls and small islands producing auxiliary side 
channels. The islands and shallow areas with slow current are covered with 
dense growths of Justicia arnericana (Linnaeus) (water-willow). Mine 
drainage previously affected the overall ecology of the river, but the 
impoundment of the NAR has alleviated the perturbation (Simmons and 
Voshell 1978). 

The study site on the SAR was also established at the Fall Line. The 
elevation is 38 m, the gradient is 3.4 m/km, and the width is 100 m. At this 
point the SAR is also a 5th order stream, and its watershed is approximately 
1.02 x 1Q5 ha. The physical composition of the substrate is similar to the 
NAR, but the aquatic macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum (Michaux) 



Lake Anna 



North Anna River 




South Anna River 



Fig. 1. Map of North and South Anna Rivers in Virginia. USA, indicating locations of 
sampling stations. ( ^ ). 



Vol. 92, No. 5. November & December 1981 191 



(river weed) forms thick carpets on large rocks in fast water during summer 
months. Both rivers exhibit soft to medium hardness (12-35 ppm CaCO3) 
and circum-neutral pH (5.90-8.05). Water temperatures range from 2-29 
C. A complete description of the study area can be found in Flint et al. 
(1979) and Kondratieff and Voshell (1981). 

Methods 

Field studies were conducted from June 1977 to June 1978. Nymphs 
were collected in riffles with a Portable Invertebrate Box Sampler (PIBS) 
(Ellis Rutter Assoc., Douglassville, PA), D-frame dip net, and by hand. 
Samples were taken monthly in the winter (November to March) and every 
two weeks for the remainder of the year. Imagoes and subimagoes were 
collected from spring to autumn with portable black light traps and with 
lights (either black light or Coleman lantern) at white sheets of cloth. The 
collecting traps or lights were usually set up before dusk and operated for 1 to 
2 hrs. Subimagoes were allowed to transform in ventilated plastic jars lined 
with wire screen. Mature nymphs of all species were collected, returned to 
the laboratory, and reared for positive association. Reliable specific 
identification is presently not possible for eastern Pseudocloeon and 
Tricorythodes species. For this reason, the nearest specific names are 
given. 

Results and Discussion 
South Anna River 

Many of the species in the SAR were closely associated with the 
Podostemum ceratophyllum. The thick mats provide food and shelter for a 
mayfly community dominated by Ephemerellidae and Baetidae. The 
mayflies inhabiting Podostemum could be divided into three temporal 
components based on the time of their emergence: winter/early spring, 
spring, and summer/fall (Fig. 2). Baetis amplus was the sole example of the 
winter/early spring element, emerging as early as late February during 
warm periods. Apparently it had a univoltine life cycle in the SAR. Nymphs 
were absent in bottom samples from middle June to late November. Rapid 
growth occurred during the winter months. 

Spring emerging species included Drunella tuberculata, Ephemerella 
invaria, E. needhami, and Eurylophella versimilis. All of these species 
were univoltine and exhibited short seasonal emergence periods. Sub- 
imagoes of/), tuberculata and". invaria emerged in late morning (ca. 8:30 
A.M. to 1 1:00 A.M.). Mating flights of both species occurred near dusk (ca. 
7:00 P.M. - 9:30 P.M.). Isonychia pictipes was bivoltine at this site with 
one brood hatching from late March to middle May and the second from 
July to early October. Subimagoes emerged in late afternoon to early 
evening (ca. 6:00 P.M. - 7:30 P.M.). Nuptial flights were observed near 



192 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



dusk (ca. 8:00 P.M. - 9:30 P.M.). 

The summer/fall emerging component included the most abundant 
species and those with the longest seasonal emergence periods: Baetis 
intercalaris, B. ephippiatus, Serratella deficiens, S. serratoides, 
Pseudocloeon nr. dubium, and Tricorytodes nr. allectus. The two species 
of Baetis emerged from late morning to late afternoon (ca. 1 1 :00 A.M. - 4:00 
P.M.) throughout the summer months. The life cycles of both species were 
difficult to interpret from nymphal or emergence data. Nymphs were 
present in all stages throughout the warm months (Fig. 3). The life cycle of 
Heterocloeon curiosum was bivoltine (Figs. 2 and 4) and has been 
described in detail by Kondratieff and Voshell (1981). Other than H. 
curiosum and B. intercalaris, E. serratoides was the most abundant mayfly 
in the mats of river weed. Large hatches of this species were observed, with 
a peak in early July. Nymphs were present in bottom samples from October 
to middle August (Fig. 5). Nymphs of S. deficiens were present from 
February to November. Peak nympal density was observed in early 
October (Fig. 6). T. nr. allectus did not exhibit definite emergence modes. 
Small sporadic emergences occurred in early afternoon throughout the 



Species 



J 


F 


M A 


M J 


J , A 


S 





N 


1 1 
234 1 23- 


123412 


S 4 1 2 


! ' 


1 2 J 


I I 
11234 125' 


1 2 


5 


1 1 

1 I 2 3 ' 


1254 



Boelis omplus I Tf over) 

8 o e 1 1 s intercoians Me Dunnough 






Heii 
Pst 



lionychio pic tipes Trover 

Ephemerello needhomi Me Dunnough 

Drunello tuberculo'o {Morgan) 
r- p deficient (Morgan) 
- *f, serratoides (Me Dunnough) 

Tncorythodei nr ollectus Nednom 



Sle 



Fig. 2. Seasonal occurrence of imagoes from June 1977 to June 1978. Open bars North 
Anna River; solid bars = South Anna River. Baetidae: B. amplus, B. intercalaris, H. 
curiosum, H.petersi, P. nr.</w6/w/?7;Oligoneuriidae: /. />/rf//7es;Ephemerellidae: E. 
invan'a, E. needhami, E. versimilis, D. tuberculata, S. deficiens, S. serratoides; 
Tricorythidae: T. nr. allectus; Heptageniidae: S. modestum. 



Vol. 92. No. 5, November & December 1981 193 



summer similar to what Macan (1958) called "driblets". Heterocloeon 
petersi emerged for a short period in late afternoon in the later summer and 
early fall. Nymphs of//, petersi were present in bottom samples from early 
summer (middle June) to late fall (October). 

Other mayflies encountered at this site but collected too infrequently to 
ascertain emergence periodicity were Stenacron interpunctatum (Say), 
Stenonema modestum (Banks). S. integmm (McDunnough), S. termination 
(Walsh), Heptagenia flavescens (Walsh), Leucrocuta aphrodite 
(McDunnough), Drnnella lata (Morgan), Neoephemera voungi Berner, 
Caenis arnica Hagen, and Hexagenia munda Eaton. Leptophlebia bradleyi 
(Needham) also inhabited nearby marshes from which it emerged in early 
March. 

North Anna River 

The mayfly community in the NAR was dominated by members of the 
families Heptageniidae and Baetidae (Fig. 2). The Ephemerellidae were 
conspicuously absent, apparently because Podosternum ceratophyllum 
was not present to provide a suitable habitat. Podosternum probably once 
occurred in the NAR but was eliminated many years ago by acid and metal 
mine drainage. Lake Anna has significantly improved the quality of 
downstream water by acting as a sink for sediment and metals (Simmons 
and Voshell 1978), but Podosternum has not yet recolonized the NAR. 

All mayflies occurring at this site were spring and summer/fall 
emerging species. The life history and ecology of S. modestum and //. 
curiosum have been reported by Kondratieff and Voshell (1980, 1981). 
The life cycle of S. modestum was probably bivoltine with "driblets" 
emerging throughout June and July. Peak nymphal densities in July, 
September, and October corresponded with emergence modes (Fig. 7). //. 
curiosum was bivoltine with the second brood emerging approximately 1 
mo. later in the SAR (Fig. 8). The life cycles of B. intercalaris, P. nr. 
dubium, and T. nr. allectus were difficult to interpret. Possibly, B. 
intercalaris and P. nr. dubium were trivoltine and T. nr. allectus bivoltine 
at this site. Both B. intercalaris and P. nr. dubium emerged in late morning 
to early afternoon (ca. 1 1 :00 A.M. - 4:00 P.M.) during the entire summer. 
Nuptial flights of both species occurred in late afternoon to early evening 
(ca. 2:00 P.M. - 7:00 P.M.). No emergence of T. nr. allectus was observed; 
however, a nuptial flight was observed in early morning (ca. 7:00 A.M. - 
8:00 A.M. ) in early August. /. pictipes had two emergence peaks at this site: 
one in late May/early June and the other in middle August. Nymphal 
densities are shown in Fig. 9. 

Other mayflies occurring in the NAR but very rarely collected were 
Neoephemera youngi Berner, Hexagenia munda Eaton, Ephemerella 



194 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



B InUrcolorn 





JJASONOJFMAMJJ 
1977 1978 





JJAS ONOJFMA M J j' 
1977 1979 



V 



'J 'J ' A ' s ' O'N'D'J ' F 'M'A'M'J ' 

1977 1978 



JJAS ONDJFMAMJJ 
1977 1978 



Figs. 3-9. Seasonal densities of nymphs from June 1977 to June 1978 in the North Anna 
River (NAR) and South Anna River (SAR). 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 195 



dorothea Needham, Dmnella tuberculata Morgan, and Heptagenia 
marginalis Banks. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We thank Dr. Charles R. Parker, Royal Ontario Museum, for his assistance in the field and 
laboratory. We also thank Dr. George M. Simmons, Jr., Department of Biology, VPI & SU, 
for loan of equipment. Dr. Dennis K. Morihara identified the Baetis, and Dr. Andrew F. 
Bednarik identified the Stenonema. We would also like to thank Dr. Lewis Berner, University 
of Florida and Ralph F. Kirchner. Huntington, WV for reviewing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Berner, L. 1 977. Distributional patterns of southeastern mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Bull. Fla. 

State Mus., Biol. Sci. 22:1-55. 
Flint, O.S., Jr., J.R. Voshell, Jr., and C.R. Parker. 1 979. The Hydropsyche scalaris group 

in Virginia, with the description of two new species (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92: 837-862. 
Kondratieff, B.C. and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1980. Life history and ecology of Stenonema 

modestum (Banks) (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) in Virginia, USA. Aquatic Insects 

2: 177-189. 
Kondratieff, B.C. and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1 98 1 . Influence of a reservoir with surface-release on 

the life history of the mayfly Heterocloeon curiosum (McDunnough) (Ephemeroptera: 

Baetidae) Can. J. Zool. 59: 305-314. 
Macan, T.T. 1958. Causes and effects of short emergence periods in insects. Verh. Inernat. 

Verein. Limnol. 13: 845-849. 
Pugh, J.E. 1956. Observations of the mayfly fauna of a stream in central Virginia. Va. J. Sci. 

7:22-28. 
Simmons, G.M., Jr., and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1978. Pre- and post-impoundment benthic 

macroinvertebrate communities of the North Anna River. Pp. 45-61 in: J. Cairns. Jr.. E.F 

Benfield, and J.R. Webster, eds. Current Perspectives on River-Reservoir Ecosystems. 

North American Benthological Society. 
Virginia Division of Water Resources. 1970. York River Basin: Comprehensive Water 

Resources Plan. Volume I - Introduction. Planning Bulletin 225. 1 12 pp. 



196 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE 
SCORPIONFLIES (MECOPTERA) OF KENTUCKY^ 

George W. Byers 3 , Charles V. Covell, Jr. 4 

ABSTRACT: Collection data are reported for 17 species representing 3 families of 
scorpionflies (Mecoptera) from Kentucky. The published record of one further species is 
discussed. 

A number of years ago the authors agreed to collect data on Mecoptera 
from Kentucky in order to publish a base-line list of the state scorpionfly 
fauna. Specimens and records from various sources were collected by the 
first coauthor, and specimens taken in various localities in Kentucky 
(particularly the Louisville vicinity) by the second coauthor and his 
students were sent to the first coauthor who determined them. Specimens 
were also borrowed from the University of Kentucky collection, and the 
resulting data are included here. 

Collection localities and dates of capture are reported here for 17 
species in 3 families. Year designations are given when known, except in 
cases in which many dates are listed for the locality. 

Family Meropeidae 

Merope tuber Newman. Bernheim Forest, Bullitt Co., in Malaise trap, 22-29 June, 30 June-2 
July, and 3-8 July, 1976; Otter Creek Park, Meade Co., at UV light, 10 Aug. 1979; Land 
Between the Lakes, Trigg Co., 4 June 1965 (see Byers 1973a, 1973b). 

Family Panorpidae 

Panorpa acuta Carpenter. Paintsville, Johnson Co., 21 June 1966 (see Byers, 1973a). 
Panorpa banksi Hine. Bernheim Forest, Bullitt Co., in Malaise trap, 20-23 May 1976; 
Golden Pond, Trigg Co., June 1964; Land Between the Lakes, Lyon Co., 23 June 1971 (see 
Byers. 1 97 3a); London, Laurel Co., 17 June 1946; Morehead, Rowan Co. (as Fleming Co. in 
Byers, 1973a). 3 June 1971. 

Panorpa Helena Byers. Bell Co., 19 June; Big Black Mountain, Harlan Co., 6 June 1951, 19 
June, 9 July 1977, and 12 July 1972; Goldbug, Whitley Co., 10 June 1980; Golden Pond, 
Trigg Co., in Malaise trap, 25 May- 10 June 1964; Jellico, Magoffin Co., 15 Aug.; London, 
Laurel Co., 17 June 1946; Morgan Co., in UV trap, 23 May 1975; Robertson Co., 23 Aug. 
1974; Wolf Creek Lake. Wayne Co., 5 June 1952. 

Panorpa hungerfordi Byers. Carter Caves State Park, Carter Co., 30 July 1977. 
Panorpa insolens Carpenter. Bernheim Forest, Bullitt Co., in Malaise trap, 20-26 May and 
21-23 Aug. 1976; Boone Co., 24 June 1978, 29 June 1980, 19 July 1979, 29 July 1977; 



1 Received July 7, 1981. 

^Contribution No. 200 (New Series) of the Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, 

KY 40292, and Contribution No. 1764 of the Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Kansas, 

Lawrence, KS 66045. 

^Professor of Entomology and Curator, Snow Entomological Museum, Univ. of Kansas. 
^Professor of Biology and Curator of Insects, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292. 

ENT. NEWS, 92(5): 196-198 November & December. 1981 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 197 



Brownsboro, Oldham Co., 1 July 1975; Caperton Swamp, Louisville, Jefferson Co., 17 May 
1969; Covered Bridge Boy Scout Reservation, Oldham Co., 30 April, 8 May. 1 7-22 June, 1 1 
and27 Aug., 15 Sept.; Goshen, Oldham Co., 21 Sept. 1971; Harrod's Creek, lOmilesNEof 
Louisville, Oldham Co., 2 1 June 1 968; Horner Wildlife Sanctuary, Oldham Co., 1 July, 4-5 
Sept.; Jessamine Creek, Jessamine Co., 26 May 1971; Jessamine Co., in Malaise trap, 7-14 
Sept. 1974; Louisville vie. .Jefferson Co., 18 and 28 April, 1-31 May, 1 1-27 June. 5 July, 30 
Aug.. and 16 Sept.; Oldham Co., 8-17 May. 30 July, and 6-12 Aug. This species has been 
discussed by Byers (1973a: 372). 

Panorpa isolata Carpenter. Goldbug, Whitley Co., 28 Aug. 1976; Hazel Patch, Laurel Co., 
5 June 1981. 

Panorpa longicornis Carpenter. Big Black Mountain, Harlan Co., 9 July 1977. 
Panorpa nebulosa Westwood. Bernheim Forest, Bullitt Co., in Malaise trap, 23-26 May 
1976 (also netted 21 May 1966); Carter Caves State Park, Carter Co., 30 July 1977; 
Cumberland Falls State Park, Whitley Co., 6 June 1960 and 24 June 1952; Golden Pond, 
Trigg Co., in Malaise trap, 25 May-5 June 1964; Harlan Co., 19 June; Laurel Co., 29 June 
1980; Levi Jackson State Park. 4 miles SE of London, Laurel Co., 8 June 1969; Louisville, 
Jefferson Co., 22 April 1966; Natural Bridge State Park, Powell Co, 26 May 1974. 
Panorpa speciosa Carpenter. Boone Co., 19 July 1979; Covered Bridge Boy Scout 
Reservation, Oldham Co., 17 June 1976, 30 July 1974, 11 and 13 Aug. 1974, and 15 Sept. 
1976; Louisvile, Jefferson Co., 25 May 1968, 12 Aug. 1974, 7 Oct. 1976, St. Matthews, 
Jefferson Co., 8 Aug. 1974 and 4 Sept. 1976. 

Panorpa submaculosa Carpenter. Bell Co., 2 July; Big Black Mountain, Harlan Co., 14 July 
1979; Kingdom Come State Park, Harlan Co., 1 3 July 1979; Levi Jackson State Park, 4 miles 
SE of London, Laurel Co., 8 June 1969; Pine Mountain State Park, Bell Co., 18 June 1968. 
Panorpa new sp. (undescribed) near virginica Banks. Barren River State Park, Barren Co., 2 
Oct. 1 979; Kenlake State Park, Galloway Co., 17 Sept. 1 979; Slade. Powell Co.. 3 Oct. 1976. 

Family Bittacidae 

Bittacus occidentis Walker. Laurel Co., 27 May; Lexington, Fayette Co., 5 Sept. 1976; 

Louisville, Jefferson Co., 9 Sept. 1953 (see Byers, 1973a); Perry Co., 7 June. 

Bittacus pilicornis Westwood. Brownsboro, Oldham Co., 1 July 1975; Covered Bridge Boy 

Scout Reservation, Oldham Co., 31 June 1968. 

Bittacus stigmaterus Say. Anchorage, Jefferson Co., 27 July 1952; Jessamine Co., 1 mile W of 

Spears, 27 Aug. 1 97 1 ; Oldham Co., 30 July 1 974 and 8 Sept.; Sleepy Hollow, Oldham Co.. 9 

Aug. 1951. 

Bittacus strigosus Hagen. Big Bone Lick State Park, Boone Co., 17 June 1970; Caperton 

Swamp, Louisville, Jefferson Co., 8 July 1965; Covered Bridge Boy Scout Reservation, 
Oldham Co., 21 June 1968 and 26 July 1966; Frankfort, Franklin Co., 23 June; Harrod's 
Creek, 10 miles NE of Louisville, Oldham Co., 2 1 June 1 968; Anchorage. Jefferson Co., 27 
June and 1 July 1959; Jefferson Co., 30 June 1960; Louisville, Jefferson Co., 19 June 1975. 
Hylobittacus apicalis (Hagen). Covered Bridge Boy Scout Reservation, Oldham Co., 21 June 
1968; Doe Run area near Muldraugh, Meade Co., 3 July 1971; Frankfort, Franklin Co., 23 
June; Horner Wildlife Sanctuary, Oldham Co., 24 June 1965 and 1 July 1975; Louisville, 
Jefferson Co., 30 May 1955and 1965, 1 June 1955, and 23 June 1971; Jefferson Co., 4 Aug. 
1974. 

In addition to the species listed above, Panorpa americana Swederus 
was reported by Hagen from Kentucky (Carpenter, 1931). However, we 
consider that record to be questionable, the range of that species being well 
to the south and east of Kentucky on the basis of specimens seen. Other 



198 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

species certainly occur in Kentucky, but definite records are not known to 
us. These include species reported from adjacent states, such as Panorpa 
anomala Carpenter, P. debilis Westwood, P. latipennis Hine, P. maculosa 
Hagen, and Bittacus punctiger Westwood. The authors will continue the 
search for these and other species, and welcome the opportunity to examine 
material that readers may have taken in Kentucky. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are grateful to the following for the loan of specimens for study: Mr. Wes Bicha, 
Logansport, Ind.; Mr. W. Blaine Early III, Dept. of Biology, Cumberland College, 
Williamsburg, Ky.; and Dr. Paul H. Freytag, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kentucky, 
Lexington, Ky. We also thank Ms. Rozenna B. Carr for clerical assistance, and the Isaac 
Bernheim Foundation, Louisville, Ky., for funds and the opportunity to survey Bernheim 
Forest. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Byers, G.W. 1973a. Descriptions and distributional records of American Mecoptera. III. J. 

Kansas Entomol. Soc. 46: 362-375. 
Byers, G.W. 1 973b. Zoogeography of the Meropeidae (Mecoptera). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 

46: 511-516. 
Carpenter, F.M. 1931. Revision of the Nearctic Mecoptera. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Harvard Coll. 72: 205-277. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 



INSECT ENDOCRINOLOGY & NUTRITION. G. Bhaskaran, S. Friedman, J.G. 
Rodrigues, eds. 1981. An E.S. A symposium on insect endocrinology. Plenum Press. 362 pp. 
$39.50. 

Nine papers in part one are on neuroendocrine regulation of endocrine glands; ecdysis, 
pupariation, & diapause; developmental response to juvenile hormone; and biochemical 
changes in cuticular proteins. Part two contains seven papers on digestive enzymes, lipid & 
carbonhydrate requirements and dietetic complexities of plant-insect interactions. 

FROM ARSENIC TO DDT: A HISTORY OF ENTOMOLOGY IN WESTERN 
CANADA. Paul W. Riegert. 1980. Univ. of Toronto Press. 353 pp. $30.00. 

The story of entomology and the struggles of man vs. insects on the prairies of the four western 
provinces of Canada from the earliest explorers to the Second World War. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 199 



A NEW MODEL OF FLIGHT-INTERCEPTION TRAP 
FOR SOME HYMENOPTEROUS INSECTS' 

Lubomir Masner, Henri Goulet^ 

ABSTRACT: A new model of insecticide-treated flight-interception insect trap has been 
designed for sampling of minute and slow-flying hymenopterous insects (microhymenoptera 
and Symphyta). Technical data for the new trap as well as comparisons with other types of 
insect flight traps are given. 

Airborne insects can be intercepted by a simple barrier. The most 
efficient barrier consists of a net-like material, which blends with the 
background and allows free flow of air. Numerous models of insect flight 
traps have been designed (Leech, 1955,GressittandGressitt, 1962, Butler, 
1965, Townes, 1972, Steyskal, 1981) following publication of the classical 
prototype by Rene Malaise (1937). Among hymenopterists the most 
popular recent modification of the Malaise trap has been designed by 
Townes (1972). The latter trap is superior for its simplicity, light weight, 
and greater efficiency. However, its usefulness is limited primarily to large 
and swift-flying Hymenoptera such as ichneumonoid flies and miscellaneous 
Aculeata which readily climb up the walls and eventually enter the head of 
the trap. However, the vast majority of parasitic microhymenoptera as well 
as the slow-flying sawflies appear to be relatively poorly represented in 
these catches. This may be partly explained by the rather coarse mesh 
openings of the fabric used in Townes' model, and by the low phototrophic 
reaction of many insects. Consequently a new trap has been designed to 
expedite collection of sawflies and microhymenoptera. 

Operating principles and efficiency of the new trap 

The structure of the new trap is indicated in Fig. la. The target 
specimens of Hymenoptera (microhymenoptera and sawflies) alight on or 
are blown into the interceptor. The strongly phototropic specimens start 
climbing up, the less phototropic ones rest or move randomly. Specimens of 
both groups are soon overcome by a fast-acting insecticide, and fall into the 
trough. 

Our trap is comparable to that designed for flying beetles by Peck and 
Davies (1980). Both traps are simple flight interceptors with plastic roofs and 
bottom troughs. However, the two traps take advantage of the different 
flight techniques of Coleoptera and Hymenoptera respectively. Whereas 
the Peck-Davies trap operates on the simple principle of "bounce and fall" 
displayed by most Coleoptera, our trap relies primarily on the principle of 
rapid poisoning of Hymenoptera. 



'Received April 10, 1981 

^Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, K1A OC6 
ENT. NEWS, 92(5): 199-202 November & December. 1981 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Laboratory tests were designed to determine the effect of a pyrethroid 
insecticide on various Hymenoptera. Newly emerged adults of Idris sp. 
(Proctotrupoidea, Scelionidae) as well as those of Pontania sp. 
(Tenthredinidae) were allowed to climb on Ambush (2% solution )-treated 
polyester fabric. The tiny (1.5 mm) Idris wasps did not progress more than 
10 cm on the fabric before showing symptoms of poisoning (e.g. loss of 
positive phototropism) after 30 seconds and fell, on average within 60 
seconds of alighting. The larger (7 mm) Pontania sawflies managed to 
climb up the whole of the fabric ( 1 32 cm), but fell on average in 4 minutes. 

Field tests were carried out from May to the end of September 1980 
near Carleton Place, Ontario, adjacent to a mixed forest. Two Ambus 
treated traps (3 m and 5 m length, see below) were operated along with an 
untreated control trap (3 m length). The catches of both microhymenoptera 
and sawflies were about 6 times greater in the treated traps than those in the 
control trap. 

Technical data 

The new trap consists of three parts (the trough, the interceptor, and the 
roof), and two chemicals (the insecticide and the trough preservative). 

The trough. The trough is made of metal or pliable plastic (assembled as 
illustrated in Figs. 2 - 4). Plastic troughs may require wooden supports 
(mouldings, sticks) to keep edges upright, especially with a long trough. The 
trough should be about 50 cm wide and any length judged practical. As the 
soil surface is often irregular and sloping, shorter lengths (50 to 75 cm) are 
easier to install. The total length of the trough(s) should slightly exceed that 
of the interceptor. 

The interceptor. A rectangle (height 1 32 cm, length 300 cm) of dense (about 
0.5 mm between strands), black polyester fabric (such as Dacron or 
Terylene) is suspended between two ropes sewn into both the upper and 
lower edges. As black polyester fabric is difficult to find on the market, a 
white or light colored fabric may be sprayed black (Magix Shoe Spray No. 
35 Black, by Magid Corp., N.Y., available at shoemakers' supplies). The 
vertical edges of the interceptor are reinforced with black polvester tape. 

The roof. The function of the roof is twofold: ( 1 ) as a rain cap, and (2) as a 
barrier for keeping positively phototrophic insects on the interceptor. A 
clear polyethylene sheet (6 mil.) rests on the rope sewn into the upper edge 
of the interceptor. The width of the roof is about 60 cm and its length slightly 
longer than that of the interceptor. Strings tied in each eyelet(reinforced 
with vinyl tape) keep the roof suspended(Fig. Ic). The side flaps of the roof 
are taped medially by vinyl tape after the roof is mounted on the rope (Fig. 
Ib). There should be no gap between the tape and the rope (use odd pieces 
of tape). 

The insecticide. Ambush (synthetic pyrethroid with permethrin base) is 
satisfactory for killing insects that alight on the interceptor. The milky water 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 



201 



solution dries rapidly and remains aciive for 7-10 days. For our protection 
we used plastic gloves and eye protectors while applying the insecticide. 
Use flat brush to apply the insecticide. 

The trough preservative. A supersaturated salt solution (NaC 1 ) is used in the 
trough, with a squirt of surfactant (e.g. Extran 300, Triton X-100, 
Fotoflow) as a surface tension breaker. Salt is an inexpensive preservative, 
readily available to most collectors. The contents of the trough are collected 
with a small dip net, then carefully rinsed in fresh water to prevent a buildup 
of protein coagulant after transfer into 70% ethyl alcohol. The traps should 
be emptied at least once a week, or more often in hot and rainy weather. 

Choice of the site and setting of the trap 
Choose a flat open site, preferably with predominant winds perpendic- 



ib 




Fig. I . The trap ( 1 a) as it appears in the field with the roof, the interceptor (stippled), and the 
trough. Details of vinyl reinforcement of side flaps of the roof ( Ib) and eyelets along 
roof lateral edges ( Ic). 

Figs. 2 to 4. Steps in folding and taping corners of plastic troughs. 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

ular to the interceptor. Windswept edges of forests and natural pathways 
with a funnel effect (along a trail, stream, etc.), are the best choices. The 
trap should be exposed to direct sunshine. 

The trough should be positioned first (by digging a trench), then the 
central interceptor installed by suspending the upper rope between two trees 
or poles, then the roof mounted, the roof flaps taped, the roof strings tied and 
the trough filled with the salt solution. 

Common hazards and failures 

The quality and quantity of material collected depends on careful 
observance of the above instructions, and points listed below. 

1 . Never rush the selection of a collecting site. Consider all potential 
hazards to the trap (e.g. vandalism, grazing cattle, game trails). 

2. Maintain a high salt content in the solution (allow a thin layer of salt 
to develop on the bottom of the trough); use inexpensive rock salt. 

3. Rinsing of the collected material must be thorough but gentle; use a 
shower attachment to avoid pounding of specimens. Rinsing may be 
done in the field by using natural sources of water. 

4. If specimens are left in the trough for a prolonged period of time, use 
maximum care while rinsing the contents. Generally, material from 
this type of trap should not be treated in ultrasonic cleaners. 

5. Whenever possible keep contents refrigerated in alcohol. 

6. Since 70% ethanol is not a good long-term preservative, specimens 
should be critical point dried as soon as convenient (Gordh and Hall 
1979). 

7. Do not discard residues; colleagues, including the authors, may 
want to study your unused catches. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Messrs. B.E. Bowen and S.J. Miller (Biosystematics Research Institute. Agriculture 
Canada) helped us with the field tests. Mr. F. Bruce Jones (Chipman Inc., Toronto) kindly 
donated samples of the insecticide for testing. Ms. Susan Rigby (Biosystematics Research 
Institute, Agriculture Canada) prepared the illustrations. Dr. C.D. Dondale and A.E. Davies 
(Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada) kindly checked the manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Butler, G.D. 1965. A modified Malaise insect traps. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 41:51-53. 

Gordh, G. and J.C. Hall. 1979. A critical point drier used as a method of mounting insects 

from alcohol. Ent. News 90:57-59. 

Gressitt, J.L. and M.K. Gressitt. 1962. An improved Malaise trap. Pacif. Ins. 4:87-90. 

Leech, H.B. 1955. Cheesecloth flight traps for insects. Can. Ent. 87:200. 

Malaise, R. 1937. A new insect trap. Ent. Tidskr. 58:148-160. 

Peck, S.B. and A.E. Davies. 1980. Collecting small beetle with large-area "window" trap. 

Coleopt. Bull. 34:237-239. 

Steyskal, G.C. 1 98 1 . A bibliography of the Malaise trap. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 83:225-229. 
Townes, H.K. 1972. A light-weight Malaise trap. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Animal 

Control by Habitat Management. No. 3:239-247. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 203 

A COMPACT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR 
ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CRYPTOZOAN 

COMMUNITIESi 

Gerald Summers, H. Badortes^ 

ABSTRACT: A compact sampling device constructed from discarded beverage containers is 
described for use in ecological studies at remote field sites. Environmental conditions within 
sampling units do not differ from leaf-litter microhabitats. Individuals of various cryptozoan 
groups are generally distributed at random in both time and space in sampling units. The 
procedure is as effective as quadrat sampling in determining relative abundances for centipede 
communities. 

Ecological studies of soil and litter arthropods ("cryptozoa", cf. Cole, 
1946) are generally based on absolute density measures obtained from 
quadrat sampling techniques (reviewed by Wallwork, 1970), or from data 
obtained by relative methods such as pitfall trap collections (Uetz and 
Unzicker, 1975). These methods involve numerous, bulky sample units 
that present logistical difficulties for studies in remote areas. More 
convenient sampling methods would be useful for analyses of community 
structure. 

A primary objective of community studies of cryptozoa is to determine 
the relative abundance of species within the leaf-litter microhabitat. Any 
alternative collection method must sample this microhabitat with the same 
efficiency as conventional procedures. In addition, the sampling units must 
( 1 ) all have an equal chance of collection, (2) have stability throughout the 
sampling period, and (3) sample a constant proportion of the target 
populations (Morris, 1955). The following material describes a compact 
unit for sampling cryptozoan communities. We report the collections for 
various taxa and compare the efficiency of the proposed method with 
quadrat sampling of centipede communities. 

Sampling units were made from 355 ml ( 1 2 oz) tin beverage containers 
with the ends removed. All containers were thoroughly scrubbed to remove 
residue and allowed to air-dry before placement in the field. Preliminary 
studies of the sampling unit were conducted in a dry uplands forest at Robert 
Allerton Park, Piatt Co., Illinois. Units were placed in six blocks of a 
randomized-blocks design. Each block consisted of a 6x6-m plot subdivided 
into 36 compartments. Sampling units were packed loosely with leaf litter 
and placed on the ground in each compartment of every block. Units in three 
blocks were collected after 4 weeks, but only ten centipedes were collected. 



'Received June 15, 1981 

^Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri. Columbia, MO 6521 1 

ENT. NEWS, 92(5): 203-206 November & December. 1981 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The remaining three units were left for 10 weeks. 

After 10 weeks in the field, six sampling units in each block were 
randomly selected for collection at each of six times during a 24-hr period 
(0200, 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, and 2200 hrs). At the time of collection, 
each unit was placed in a plastic bag, labelled, and taken to the laboratory 
for Berlese funnel extraction of all arthropods. Ten O.lm^ litter samples 
were also collected in each block for Berlese funnel extraction. 

Sampling units were covered with leaf litter in order to prevent 
disturbance and to reflect the environmental conditions of the leaf-litter 
microhabitat as closely as possible. Temperature readings during a 24-hr 
period were taken on three separate occasions. Temperatures in the 
sampling units never differed from adjacent leaf-litter temperatures by more 
than 1.5 C and the two temperatures were highly correlated (r=.991, 
p<.001 ). This suggests that the artificial nature of the environment within 
sampling units is not greatly different from environmental conditions in 
undisturbed litter. 

The number of individuals of various cryptozoa collected by these 
sampling units is presented in Table 1. These data are used to analyze 
spatial and temporal components of the collection process. It is possible 
that individuals of a taxon might have been attracted to some sampling units 
or that some of the units might have been placed in areas where individuals 
aggregated for other reasons. Either of these conditions would be indicated 
if the variance: mean ratio for the number of individuals per unit was 
significantly greater than one. The significance of variance: mean ratios 
can be tested aeainst chi-square with one degree of freedom (third column of 
Table 1 ). Significant clumping of individuals in units occurred in collembola 
and ants, but not in roaches, millipedes, centipedes, or spiders. 

Field studies of cryptozoan populations generally show contagious 

TABLE 1 . Number of individuals of several cryptozoan groups collected by a compact litter- 
sampling device (n = 108). 

Number of Mean no. of P for random P for uniform 

Group individuals individuals distribution distribution 

collected per unit among units in time 

Collembola 2,530 23.65 <.0005* .10>p>.05 

Roaches 52 0.49 .90 > p > .80 .20 > p > .10 

Millipedes 55 0.51 .20 > p > .10 .60 > p > .50 

Ants 6,331 59.17 <.0005** .80 > p > .70 

Centipedes 77 0.72 .25 > p > .20 .60 > p > .50 

Spiders 266 2.49 .20 > p > .10 .50 > p > .40 

* Xl for the distribution of individuals among sample units for this group is 136.93 
** Xl for the distribution of individuals among sample units for this group is 542.72 



Vol. 92. No. 5. November & December 1981 205 



distributions in association with environmental features. However, the 
degree of aggregation appears to be strongly correlated with population 
density (Usher, 1976). Collembola and ants were collected in much greater 
numbers than any other group and have variances that are considerably 
greater than their means. Ant aggregation is a social phenomenon. 
Aggregations of collembola appear to be influenced by water and food 
sources (Verhoef and Nagelkerke, 1977). Furthermore, collembola secrete 
aggregation pheromones (Mertens and Bourgoignie, 1977; Mertens el al., 
1979). Aggregations of the other taxa probably occur in association with 
features not detected by the sampling device. In any event, these taxa do not 
appear to be attracted to the sampling unit and are sampled at a constant 
level. 

An analysis of matched sets of sampling units at each of the six 
sampling times indicates no significant difference in the number of 
individuals collected at various times of day (Friedman's one-way analysis 
of variance by ranks, significance noted in Column 4 of Table 1). Thus, 
sampling units do not vary in efficiency with time of collection. 

The efficiency of this sampling unit in studies of centipede community 
structure is compared to quadrat sampling in Table 2. These data indicate 
that centipedes collected by compact sampling units occur in the same 
relative frequencies as those obtained by Berlese funnel extraction from 
quadrat samples. This impression is confirmed by a contingency table 
analysis of species abundances (Lithobiusforficatus, Strigamia branneri, 
Schendvla nemorensis, and Geophilus vitattus abundances are combined 
to conform to Cochran's rule [Zar, 1 974:50]: X3 2 ;= 2.685; .50 > p > .40). 

The results of this preliminary study indicate that the compact sampling 
unit described here is as effective as conventional procedures in assessing 
species richness and relative abundances in leaf-litter microhabitats. If units 
are covered with leaf litter and left in place for at least 10 weeks, the 

TABLE 2. Centipedes collected at various times of day by a modified litter-sampling device 
in a dry. uplands forest. Specimens collected by Berlese funnel extraction of 
0.1 m^ litter samples (n=30) are noted in the right column. 

Time of Day 

Species 02000600 1000 1400 1800 2 200 Total Quadrat 

Nadabius ameles Chamber\in 1944 6 6 8 7 41 10 

N. iowensis (Me'mert 1886) 464 17 

Neolithobius i'orac/or( Chamber! in 1912) 3112119 4 

Strigamia branneri (Bo\\man 1888) 123 64 

Lithobiusforficatus Linnaeus 1758 2 20 

Schendvla nemorensis (C.L. Koch 1836) 1 1 

Geophilus ritattus ( Say 1 82 1 ) 

TOTALS 15 15 16 15 8 8 77 29 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



sampling device meets the criteria of stability and equiprobable colonization 
by target populations. This unit would be useful for ecological studies of 
cursorial litter-inhabitants in sites with features that make conventional 
methods unsuitable. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Jeanine Kasprowicz and Gloria Myers assisted in field collections during the long nights at 
Allerton Park. This work supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid from Sigma Xi. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Cole, L.C. 1946. A study ofthecryptozoaof an Illinois woodland. Ecol. Monogr. 16:49-86. 
Mertens J., J.-P. Blancquaert, and R. Bourgoignie. 1979. Aggregation pheromone in 

Orchesella cincta (Collembola). Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 16:441-447. 
Mertens, J. and R. Bourgoignie. 1977. Aggregation pheromone in Hypogastrura viatica 

(Collembola). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 2:41-48. 
Morris, R.F. 1955. The development of sampling techniques for forest insect defoliators, with 

particular reference to the spruce budworm. Can. J. Zool. 33:225-294. 
Uetz, G.W. and J.D. Unzicker. 1975. Pitfall trapping in ecological studies of wandering 

spiders. J. Arachnol. 3:101-1 1 1. 
Usher, M.B. 1976. Aggregation responses of soil arthropods in relation to the soil 

environment, pp. 61-94. In J.M. Anderson and A. Macfadyen (eds.). The role of 

terrestrial and aquatic organisms in decomposition processes. Blackwell Scientific 

Publications, Oxford. 
Verhoef, H.A and C.J. Nagelkerke. 1977. Formation and ecological significance of 

aggregations in Collembola. Oecologia 31:215-226. 

Wallwork, J.A. 1970. Ecology of soil animals. McGraw-Hill, London, 283 p. 
Zar, J.H. 1974. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 620 p. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

INSECT PHYSIOLOGY. W. Mordue, G.J. Goldsworthy, J. Brady, W.M. Blaney. 1980. 
Halsted Press, John Wiley & Sons. 108 pp. $16.95 

A concise and well illustrated study covering essential elements of insect physiology, including 
basic knowledge of membrane biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology and behavior. Chapter 
headings cover energy metabolism, transporting tissues, growth & development, nervous & 
sensory systems, muscles & movement, behavior, and interactions with the environment. 

INSECT CYTOGENETICS. R.L. Blackman, G.M. Hewitt, M. Ashburner, eds. 1980. A 
symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London: #10. Blackwell Sc. Pub., 
Halsted Press, John Wiley & Sons. 278 pp. $69.95. 

Fifteen papers discuss advances in cytogenetics at the molecular level and studies on the 
evolution and maintenance of genetic systems. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 207 

A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF GYPONINE 

LEAFHOPPER RELATED TO GYPONA 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)i 

Dwight M. DeLong^ 

ABSTRACT: A new genus, Woldana, and a new species, W. campana of leafhopper 
(Gyponinae, Homoptera: Cicadellidae) from Panama are described. 

The genus Gypona (subgenus Paragypona) and 3 closely related 
genera were treated by DeLong and Freytag (1964). A new genus* and 
species from Panama, with a produced, more triangular head is described in 
this paper. 

Genus Woldana, New Genus 

Crown triangular, roundly pointed apically. length at middle equaling width between eyes 
at base. Crown with a longitudinal median groove, a slight longitudinal carina on each side, 
extending from near apex to 2/3 length of crown. Ocelli proximal on each side of median 
groove at 2/3 length of crown. 

Type-species Woldana campana n.sp. 

Woldana is most closely related to Gypona (Paragypona) DeLong & 
Freytag (1964) but is smaller and much narrower, body with the widest 
portion at humeral angles of pronotum. Forewings covering abdomen, 
sloping to a pointed caudal apex. In general form, superfically resembling 
Coelogypona. 

This genus can be separated from all other described genera of 
Gyponinae by the roundly pointed crown containing a median longitudinal 
groove 2/3 its length, with proximal ocelli at the same length of the crown, 
and by the slender, wedge-shaped, pointed abdomen and forewings. 

I take pleasure in naming the genus for Dr. Henk Wolda, the collector, 
population biologist with the Smithsonian Tropical Institute in Panama. 

Woldana campana n.sp. 

(Figs. 1-5) 

Length of male 13 mm, female unknown. Crown triangular, rounded apically, length at 
middle equaling width at base between eyes. Crown with conspicuous groove, a slight carina 
on each side, extending from near apex to 2/3 length of crown. Ocelli on each side of groove at 
2/3 length of crown. Crown narrower than pronotum. Forewing venation normal. Color, 
crown dull yellow with a black margin each side and at apex. Pronotum and scutellum brighter 
pale yellow. Pronotum with black lateral margins. Forewings dark brown, appearing black, 
costal margin broadly yellow to near apex. 



Deceived April 17, 1981 

^Department of Entomology, the Ohio State University 

ENT. NEWS. 92(5): 207-208 November & December. 1981 



208 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Male genital plates more than 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices narrowed, rounded 
at tips. Style with apical portion foot-like, bearing a long slender tapered "toe" and a narrow 
rounded "heel". Aedeagus broadened in ventral aspect, roundly broadened subapically, then 
narrowed to form a blunt apex bearing a pair of apical processes which extend basad 1/3 length 
of shaft. Pygofer rounded apically. 

Holotype male, Panama, Cerro Campana, 350 m, 12-VI-1975, H.Wolda coll. in the 
DeLong collection, the Ohio State University. 

The head is more produced and angled than any known species of 
Gyponinae but the genital structures resemble those of the Gypona trista 
group. 






Figs. 1-5. Woldana campana n.sp. 1. head, pronotum and scutellum, 2. plate ventrally, 
3. aedeagus ventrally, 4. aedeagus laterally, 5. style laterally. 



LITERATURE CITED 

DeLong, D.M. & P. H. Freytag. 1964. Four genera of world Gyponinae: A synopsis of the 
genera Gvpona, Gvponana, Rugosana and Reticana. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin 
(N.S.) 11(3), Hi, 227p, 43 pi. 373 figs. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 



209 



COLLEMBOLA DESCRIBED BY DR. H.G. SCOTT 

IN THE COLLECTIONS OF THE ACADEMY OF 

NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA" 

Selwyn S. Roback 2 



From 1958-1965 Dr. H.G. Scott published a series of papers on 
Collembola from the U.S. (esp. New Mexico) and Japan in Entomological 
News [EN]. Specimens and types were to be deposited in the collections of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. This collection has now 
been received from Dr. Scott and contains, in addition to the synoptic 
material, the holotypes (H) and/or paratypes (P) of the following new 
species described in the aforementioned papers. The neotype of 
Hypogastrura punctata Coleman 1941 was also deposited here. A list of 
the papers is appended. 



Species List 



albamaculata, Hvpogastrura 1960 

EN 71 (3):55 H, P 
alpinus, Xenvllodes 1960 

EN 71 (6):184, 185 2P 
annulicornuta, Drepanura 1963 

EN 74(1): 11. H 
binoculata, Sphvrotheca 1964 

EN 75 (10):263. 264 H. 3P 
ceruleacauda, Bourletiella 1965 

EN 76 (2):50-52 H.P 
hoffi, Bourletiella 1965 

EN 76 (2):52 H 
hoffi, Folsomia 1961 

EN 72 (10):264 H, 3P 

IP labelled Proisotoma 

corrected in pencil to Folsomia 

hoffi, Proisotoma 1962 

EN 73 (1):20,21 H 
hoffi, Xenvllodes 1960 

EN 7J (6):185 2P 
japonica, Hvpogastura 1961 

EN 72 (5):122,123 H.P 
krafti, Spinachorutes 1962 

EN 73 (9):238, 239 H.P 



louisiana, Isotoma 1962 

EN 73 (3):68 H 
multimaculata, Bourletiella 1965 

EN 76 (2):53-55 H 
neomexicana, Biacanthella 1961 

EN 72 (4):94-96 H. 27P 
neomexicana, Drepanura 1963 

EN 74(1):12 H, 2P 
neomexicana, Tullbergia 1961 

EN 72 (3):64, 65 H. 8P 
neomexicana, Xenvlla 1960 

EN 71 (3):60, 61 H 
neomexicanus, Pararrhopalites 1964 

EN 75 (10):264. 265 H, 3P 
orogonensis, Spinifacies 1963 

EN 74(4):108. 109 H, P 
pa lie see ns, Xenvllodes 1960 

EN 71 (6):186 2P 
pseudornata, Neanura 1961 

EN 72(5):124. 125 H 
pseudoviolaceus, Sminthurides 1964 

EN 75 (2):50 H 
punctata, Hypogastrura, [Coleman 

1941| 1960 

EN 71 (3):58 Neotype 



1 Received July 25, 1981. 

2 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 



ENT. NEWS. 92(5): 209-210 November & December. 1981 



210 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



purpureus, Neosminthums 1964 
EN 75 (10):260 H, P 

robusta, Hoffia 1961 
EN 72 (3):63 H,P 

rubra, Orchesella 1963 
EN 74 (9):250 H.3P 



socorrensis, Drepanura 1963 

EN 74 (1):12-14 H 
subsegmenta. Proisotoma 1959 

EN 70(1):13, 14 H 
violacea, Anurida 1960 

EN 71 (6):186, 187 H 



LITERATURE 

__ 1958. New locality record for Proisotoma frisoni (Collembola, Isotominae). 69 
(8):202. 

. 1959. Collembola from Colorado. 70 (1): 13- 16. 
. 1959. Collembola from Pennsylvania. 70 (3):81-83. 
. 1959. Collembola from Japan I. Onychiurinae. 70 (6): 16 1-163. 
_. 1959. Collembola from Japan II. Isotominae. 70 (9):24 1:243. 

. 1960. The Collembola of New Mexico. I. Podurinae and Hypogastrurinae. 71 
(30):53-62. 

. 1960. The Collembola of New Mexico. II. Neanurinae. 71 (6):183-191. 
. 1961. The Collembola of New Mexico. III. Onychiurinae. 72 (3):57-65. 
__. 1961. The Collembola of New Mexico. IV. A new genus of Isotominae 
(Entomobryidae). 72 (4):93-96. 

__ 196 1 . Collembola from Japan III. Hypogastrurinae and Neanurinae. 72 (5 ): 1 2 1-1 25. 
_.. 1961. The Collembola of New Mexico. V. Isotominae: Anurophorus, Istomodes, 
Folsomia. 72 (10):26 1-267. 

. 1962. The Collembola of New Mexico. VI. Isotominae: Guthriella, Proisotoma, 
Isotomurus. 73 (1): 17-23. 

. 1962. The Collembola of New Mexico. VII. Isotominae: Metisotoma, Isotoma. 73 
(2):45-51. 

. 1962. Collembola from Louisiana. 73 (3):67-68. 

. 1962. The Collembola of New Mexico. VIII. Tomocerinae (Entomobryidae). 73 



. 1962. Collembola from Oregon. 73 (9):237-241. 

. 1963. The Collembola of New Mexico. IX. Entomobryinae: Drepanura, 
Entomobryoides, Isotobryoides, Sinella. 74 (1):9-18. 

. 1963.' Collembola from Oregon II. 74(4): 107-111. 

. 1963. The Collembola of New Mexico. X. Entomobryinae: Drepanocyrtus, 
Willowsia, Lepidocyrtus, Pseudosinella. 74 (8):255-231. 

. 1 963. The Collembola of New Mexico. XI. Entomobrya, Orchesella, Lepidocvrtinus. 
74 (9):243-251. 

. 1964. The Collembola of New Mexico. XII. Neelinae and Smithuridinae. 75 (2):47- 
53. 

__ 1964. The Collembola of New Mexico. XIII. Sminthurinae: Sminthurini. 75 
(10):259-266. 

. 1965. The Collembola of New Mexico. XIV. Smithurinae: Bourletiellini. 76 (2):49- 
55. 

. 1965. The Collembola of New Mexico. XV. Dicyrtominae. 76 (5 ):1 29-131. 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 211 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

INSECT PHYLOGENY. Willi Hennig. 1981. Wiley-Interscience Pub. John Wiley & Sons. 
514pp. $78.75. 

This english edition contains Hennig's exposition of his theory, reference to fossil faunas, a 
review of major sites for Palaeozoic and Mesozoic insects and a phylogenetic classification of 
the Insecta. 



INSECTS AND ALLERGY AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT THEM. C.A. Frazier, F.K. 
Brown. 1980. Univ. Oklahoma Press. 171 pp. $8.95 pbk. 

Illustrations enable identification of all significant venomous and disease bearing insects in 
America. Text describes proper up to date methods to prevent and treat insect caused 
illnesses. 



CARABID BEETLES: THEIR EVOLUTION, NATURAL HISTORY, AND CLASSI- 
FICATION. T.L. Erwin, G.E. Ball, D.R. Whitehead, eds. 1979. Proceedings 1st Internal. 
Symposium of Carabidology. Dr. W. Junk bv. 635 pp. $115. 

The 31 papers in this volume provide a comprehensive study of the historical perspectives, 
systematics, zoogeography, paleontology and natural history of this great family of coleopterous 
insects. 



BUTTERFLIES OF THE ROCKY MT. STATES. Clifford D. Ferris, F Martin Brown. 
1981. Univ. Oklahoma Press. 442 pp. 4 color plates. $15.95 pbk. 

This comprehensive field guide covers all Rocky Mt. species and most subspecies, each 
species illustrated by more than one black & white photograph. Species descriptions include 
life histories, flight periods, habitats, distinguishing characteristics and distribution maps. 
Successor to Colorado Butterflies, now out of print. 



ENERGY METABOLISM IN INSECTS. Roger G.H. Downer, ed. 1981 Plenum Press. 
244 pp. $32.50. 

Eight papers presented at a symposium on Energy Metabolism and its Regulation in Insects at 
the XVI Intern'l. Congress of Entomology. This volume explores environmental and 
physiological factors affecting basic patterns of energy flow and examines specific aspects of 
carbohydrate, lipid, and proline metabolism. 



2 1 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

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1981 


3 


May 


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85 


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STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION 

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Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 



213 



INDEX: VOLUME 92 



Acanalonia conica. no. range ext. of. 98 
Akre, R.D., 23 

Akre, R.D., H.C. Reed. 27 

Polygynous colony of Vespula 
pensylvanica 

Alderfly larvae from pitcher plant, 32 
Alienates, two n. sp. of. 130 

Amnestus radialis, sr. synonym of A. 
sexdentatus, 5 1 

Anderson. R.V., 69 
Arachnida. 132 

Atylotus, notes on & descrip. of n. sp. from 
east No. Amer., 1 

Badortes. H., 203 

Baetidae, 138, 147 

Baetis dardanus, larva of, 147 

Bareogonalis canadensis, notes on this 
yellow jacket parasite, 23 

Bechtel, R.D.. L.M. Hanks, R.W. Rust, 125 
Orthopteroids of Sand Mt. & Blow 
Sand Mt., Nevada 

Bingham. C.R.. 38 
Bombyliidae. 161 
Book review, 48 

Books received & briefly noted. 37, 47, 52, 
63, 198, 206. 211 ' 

Bourletiella gibbonsi, n. sp. from So. 
Carolina, 93 

Braconidae. 1 77 
Britton.L.. 155 

Brown. P.M.. 165 

Note on Florissant fossil insects 

Burger. J.F.. 49 

New records of mosquitoes from New 
Hampshire 

Burnett. A.M.. C.V. Covell. Jr.. L.L. 
Pechuman, 56 

Records of Kentucky Tabanidae, incl. 
sp. new to state fauna 



Byers, G.W., C.V. Covell, Jr.. 196 

Annotated checklist of scorpionflies in 
Kentucky 

Chadwick. J.. 155 

Cambala \\~ashingtonensis, identity & status 

of, 75 

Canton, S., J. Chadwick. L. Britton, 155 
New distrib. record for Taeniopteryx 
from Colorado 

Carabidae, 186 

Carmean. D.. R.D. Akre. R.S. Zack. H.C. 
Reed, 23 

Notes on yellowjack parasite Bareogonalis 
canadensis 

Carrion beetles, species composition & 
seasonal abundance in oak-beech forest 
in Great Swamp, N.J.. 7 

Chironomidae, 69, 119 
Cicadellidae. 17, 141, 207 

Cokendolpher. J.C.. 132 

Emendation of Eumesosoma 

Coleoptera. 7. 177. 181. 186 

Collector-mailing container for shipment of 
live insects. 121 

Collembola, 39, 42. 93. 209 
Colonization of drilled tree holes, 106 
Covell. C.V.. Jr.. 56. 133. 196 

Cryptoxilos, n. sp. attacking adult Lymantor 
decipens, 177 

Culicidae, 49 
Cydnidae, 5 1 

Delong. D.M., 17 

N. sp. Rhogosana & Ponana from 
Cent. & So. Amer. 

New genus & sp. of gyponine leafhopper 
related to Gypona, 207 

DeLong. D.M.. D.R. Foster. 141 
Six n. sp. Bolivian Gypona 

Deyrup. M. 177 

N. sp. Cryptoxilos attacking adult 
Lymantor decipens 



214 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Diplopoda, 75 

Diptera, 1, 49, 56, 59,69, 115, 119, 161 

Dolophilodes major, larval & pupal 
descriptions of, 85 

Downie. N.M., 7 

Drosophila, tax. & distrib. notes on some 
fungus-feeding No. Amer., 59 

Dunn, G.A., 186 

Distrib. ofHarpalus rufipes in Canada 
&U.S. 

Dybas, H.S. symposium proceedings at 
Tri-State Univ., 167 

Easton, E.R., 45 

New geographical records for some 
fleas from Black Hills, So. Dakota 

Empididae, 69 

Encicocephalidae, 130 

Entomobryidae, 39 

Ephemeroptera, 38, 138, 147, 152, 189 

Etnier, D.A., 85 

Eumesosoma, emendation of, 132 

Evans, H.E., 81 

Genus Microphadnus in Australia 

Fleas from Black Hills, So. Dakota, new 
geographical records for some, 45 

Flight-interception trap for some 
hymenopterous insects, 199 

Florissant fossil insects, 165 

Flowers, R.W., W.L. Peters, 152 

Stenonema tnexicana in so. Cent. Amer. 

Foote, B.A., 158 
Foster, D.R., 141 
Frenulum of moths, 1 1 1 

Freytag, P.H., C.V. Covell, Jr.. D.D. Kopp, 
133 

Annotated checklist of treehoppers of 
Kentucky 

Froeschner, R.C., 51 

Amnestus radio Us, sr. synonym of A 
sexdentatus 



Frost, S.W., list of publications, new names 
proposed & sp. named in his honor, 
171 

George, T.K., 79 
Glossosomatidae, 69 
Goulet, H., 199 

Gypona, new genus & sp. of leafhopper 
related thereto, 207 

Gypona, six n. sp. of Bolivian, 141 

Hall, J.C., 161 

New sp. Lepidophora from Costa Rica 
reared from Trypoxylon 

Hanks, L.M., 125 

Harpalus rufipes. distrib. in Canada & 
U.S., 186 

Heaps. J.W., 106 

Insect colonization of drilled tree holes 

Hemiptera. 51, 1 30 
Heptageniidae, 152 

Hogue, C.L., 53 

Myth of the louse line 

Homoptera. 17.33,64,98, 133, 141,207 

Huryn. A.D., B.A. Foote. 158 

New records of Ohio caddisflies 

Hymenoptera, 23, 27, 81, 161. 177 

Intern'l. Commiss. Zool. Nomenclature, 
50, 124, 140, 146, 157, 164 

Janetschekbrya, n. sp. from Costa Rica. 39 

Kondratieff, B.C., J.R. Voshell, Jr., 189 
Seasonal distrib. of mayflies in Piedmont 
rivers in Virginia 

Kopp, D.D., 133 

Kritsky, G. 

Proceedings H.S. Dybas symposium at 
Tri-State Univ., 167 

Two n. sp. Alienates, 130 

Krysan, J.L., 121 

Collector-mailing container for shipment 
of live insects 

Lacey. L.A., T.K. George. 79 

Myiasis in an Amazonian porcupine 



Vol. 92, No. 5, November & December 1981 



215 



Lacy, R.C., 59 

Tax. & distrib. notes on some fungus- 
feeding Drosophila 

Lago, P.K., 115 

Records of Pyrgotidae from Miss. & 
add'l. notes on distrib. of 2 sp. 

Lepidohora, n. sp. from Costa Rica, reared 
from Tn-posylon, 161 

Lepidoptera, 101, 111 

Leuctra szczytkoi, new stonefly from 
Louisiana, 91 

Limnephilidae, 69 
Louseline, myth of, 53 
Loye, J.E., 33,64 

Lymantor decipens attacked by n. sp. of 
Cn'ptoxilos, 111 

Masnet, L., H. Goulet, 199 

New model flight-interception trap for 
hymenopterous insects 

Mason, C.E., J.E. Loye 

Annotated list of treehoppers of 
Delaware, 33 

Treehoppers collected at multiple levels 
in deciduous Del. woodlot, 64 

McCafferty, W.P., 138 

Distinguishing larvae of No. Amer. 
Baetidae from Siphlonuridae 

Mather, T.N., 32 

Larvae of alderfly from pitcher plant 

Mayflies, seasonal distrib. in two Piedmont 
rivers in Virginia, 189 

Mecoptera, 196 
Megaloptera, 32 
Membracidae, 33, 64, 133 
Microphadnus in Australia, 81 

Mosquitoes from New Hampshire, new 
records of, 49 

Myiasis in an Amazonian porcupine. 79 



Necrophilus pettitii, distrib. & biology in 
east. No. Amer., 181 

Notices, 22, 114, 118, 123 
Olethreutidae, 101 
Opiliones, 132 

Orthopteroids of Sand Mt. & Blow Sand 
Mts., Nevada, 125 

Osgood, E.A., 101 

Palacious-Vargas, J.G., 42 

Note on Collembola of Pedregal de 
San Angel, Mexico, D.F. 

Pechuman, L.L., 56 

Notes on A ty lotus & descrip. of n. sp. 
from east No. Amer. 

Pechuman, L.L., A.G. Wheeler, Jr., 98 
No. range extension of Acanalonia 
conica 

Peck, S.B., 7, 181 

Distrib. & biol. flightless carrion beetle 
Necrophilus pettitii in e.N.A. 

Peters, W.L., 152 

Petrova albicapitana, two new parasite 
records, on j. pine in Me., 101 

Philopotamidae, 85 

Pifon, new permanent intern'l. file of natur- 
alists, 123 

Plecoptera, 91, 155 

Pompilidae, 81 

Ponana, n. sp. from Cent. & So. Amer., 1 7 

Pyrgota undata, notes on distrib., 1 15 

Reed, H.C., 23, 27 

Rhogosana, n. sp. from Cent. & So. Amer., 
17 

Richards, A.G., 1 1 1 
Frenulum of moths 

Roback, S.S.. 209 

Collembola described by H.G. Scott in 
collections of A.N.S.P. 



216 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Russell, C.L., A.R. Soponis, 119 

Quick inexp. method of making slides 
of larval Chironomidae 

Rust, R.W., 125 

Sampling device for ecological studies of 
cryptozoan communities, 203 

Sanders, L.G., C.R. Bingham, 38 

Two rare sp. Ephemeroptera in lower 
Miss. River 

Scolytidae, 177 

Scorpionflies, annotated checklist in Kentucky, 
196 

Scott, H.G., Collembola described by, in 
collections of A.N.S.P., 209 

Shelley, R.M., 75 

Identity & status ofCambala washington- 
ensis 

Shubeck, P.P., N.M. Downie. R.L. Wenzel, 
S.B. Peck, 7 

Species composition & seasonal abun- 
dance of carrion beetles in oak -beech 
forest in N.J. 

Sialidae, 32 
Silphidae, 181 
Siphlonuridae, 138 
Siphonaptera, 45 

Slides, quick inexp. method of making 
temp., of larval Chironomidae, 1 19 

Sminthuridae, 93 

Snider, R.J. 

Bourletiella gibbonsi, n. sp. from So. 
Carolina, 93 

New sp. ofJanetschekbr\>a from Costa 
Rica, 39 

Soluk, D.A., 147 

Larva of Baetis dardanus 
Soponis, A.R., 1 19 
Sphecidae, 161 
Sphecmyiella valida, notes on distrib., 1 15 



Stark, B.P., K.W. Stewart, 91 

Leuctra szcztkoi, new stonefly from 
Louisiana 

Stenonema mexicana in so. Cent. Amer., 
152 

Stewart, K.W., 91 

Summers, G., H. Badortes, 203 

Compact sampling device for ecological 
studies of cryptozoan communities 

Tabanidae, 1, 56 

Taeniopleryx, new distrib. record from 
Colorado, 155 

Tracy, R.A., E.A. Osgood, 101 

Two new parasite records & notes on 
Petrova albicapitana on pine in Me. 

Treehoppers collected at multiple levels in 
deciduous Del. woodlot, 64 

Treehoppers of Del., ann. list of, 33 
Treehoppers of Ky., checklist of, 133 
Trichoptera, 69, 85, 158 
Trigonalidae, 23 

Trypoxvlon, host of n. sp. of Lepidohora, 
' 161" 

Vespula pensvlvanica, polygynous colony 
of, 27 

Vinikour, W.S., R.V. Anderson, 69 

Diptera larvae in Trichoptera pupal 
cases 

Voshell, J.R., Jr., 189 

Weaver, J.S.III, J.A. Wojtowicz. D.A. 
Etnier, 85 

Larval & pupal descrip. of Dolophilodes 
major 

Wenzel, R.L., 7 

Wheeler, A.G., Jr., 98, 171 

S.W. Frost: Publications, new names 
proposed & sp. named in his honor 

Wojtowicz, J.A. ,85 
Zack, R.S., 23 



When submitting papers, all authors are requested to ( 1 ) provide the names of two qualified 
individuals who have critically reviewed the manuscript before it is submitted and ( 2 ) submit 
the names and addresses of two qualified authorities in the subject field to whom the 
manuscript can be referred by the editor for final review. All papers are submitted to 
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VOL.93 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
JANUARY & FEBRUARY 1982 NO. 1 



HW 



GICAL NEWS 



Deltostethus scitulus, new hydrophilid beetle from 
Mexico (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) 

P.J. Spongier, A.H. Huacuja 

Barriers increase efficiency of pitfall traps 

T.J. Durkis, R.M. Reeves 



Concentrations of mutillid wasps 
(Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) 



8 



Identity of Ablabesmyia sp., Roback, Bereza & Vidrine 

(Diptera: Chironomidae) Selwyn S. Roback 13 

New species of Gyponana from Panama & Mexico 
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

D.M. DeLong, H. Wolda 16 

Biology & life history of rice field predator Andrallus 
spinidens (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) 

Gary V. Man ley 19 

Air sacs in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

G.C. &J. Wheeler 25 



William L. Jettison 27 



Catorhintha mendica, a great plains coreid now established 
on Atlantic coast (Hemiptera: Coreidae) 

E.R. Hoebeke, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 29 

Supplement to annotated checklist of Missouri leaf 
beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): new state 
records & host plant associations 

E.G. Riley, W.R. Enns 32 



NOTICE 



28 



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Vol. 93, No. 1. January & February 1982 



DELTOSTETHUS SCITULUS, A NEW 

HYDROPHILID BEETLE FROM MEXICO 

(COLEOPTERA: HYDROPHILIDAE)' 

Paul J. Spangled, Aurea H. Huacuja^ 

ABSTRACT: A new species of sphaeridiine hydrqphilid beetle, Deltostethus scitulus is 
described, illustrated, and compared to the other two species in the genus, D. palpalis. Sharp 
and D. sulcatus Sharp. The type-material was collected in pitfall traps in the state of Hidalgo, 
Mexico, during a study of staphylinid beetles attracted to various baits. The new species was 
attracted to pitfall traps baited with chicken viscera, fish, cow and human feces. and bananas. 

During a study by A.H. Huacuja of staphylinid beetles attracted to 
baited pitfall traps, several species of sphaeridiine hydrophilid beetles also 
were attracted to the baits. Among these sphaeridiines were several species 
of Cercyon and a species of Deltostethus, a genus described by Sharp 
( 1 882). This species proved to be distinct from the other known species in 
that genus, D. palpalis Sharp and D. sulcatus Sharp. The new taxon is 
described below. 

Deltostethus scitulus, new species 
Figures 1 - 6 

Holotype male. Body form and size: Ovoid (Fig. 1). Length 2.5 mm; greatest width 
1.6 mm, slightly before midlength of elytra. 

Coloration: Head piceous except small indistinct spot above base of each antenna and 
anterior margin of clypeus dark reddish brown. Pronotum piceous except sides with broad 
yellowish-brown margins, marginal color band as wide as width of eye on anterior two-thirds, 
then narrowing abruptly to posterolateral angle. Elytra black except yellowish-brown 
markings as follows: intervals 1-4 vittiform, intervals 5 and 6 with a basal (humeral) and 
medial elongate macula, intervals 7 and 8 each with a medial elongate macula, interval 10 
yellowish brown on basal half: intervals 3-6 with short, elongate, yellow maculae subapically: 
yellow markings terminate a short distance before piceous apex. Ventral surface as follows. 
Antennae, maxillae, and palpi light reddish brown. Labium and genae very dark reddish 
brown. Prosternum very dark reddish brown to piceous. Hypomera yellowish brown. 
Mesostemum with elevated middle portion light reddish yellow and sides piceous. Metasternum 
piceous laterally; elevated middle pentagonal area piceous medially, with narrow reddish- 
brown border. Epipleura yellowish brown. Legs reddish brown except basal four-fifths of 
profemora piceous. Abdomen reddish brown. 



Received August 24, 1981 

^Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 

-'Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco, Div. C.B.S.. Insectario, Apdo. Postal 
23-181. Mexico 23. D.F.. Mexico 

ENT. NEWS. 93 (1 ) 1-7, January & Februa/, 1982 

APR 1 3 1982 
i/BRARII. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Head: Moderately coarsely, moderately densely punctate; punctures on frons sep- 
arated by one-half to 1 times their diameter; surface between punctures smooth. Clypeus 
rounded and strongly margined anteriorly (Fig. 2). Mentum with coarse punctures; punctures 
separated by about 4 to 6 times their diameter (Fig. 2). 

Thorax: Pronotum strongly convex; sides and anterolateral angles broadly rounded, 
posterolateral angles obtusely angulate; narrowly margined laterally; punctate as on head 
except punctures separated by 1 to 3 times their diameter. Elytron strongly convex; widest 
slightly before midlength; finely but distinctly margined along entire length; surface with a 
sutural stria and 9 rows of coarse punctures, lateral rows (5-7) effaced by humeral area; 
intervals between rows finely and sparsely punctate, punctures separated by 2 to 5 times their 
diameters; surface between punctures smooth on basal half and becoming strongly micro- 
reticulate on apical half; epipleuron extending from base to midlength, moderately declivous. 
Metathoracic flight wings present. Scutellum narrow and triangular. Elevated middle portion 
of prosternum pubescent, sides not pubescent (Fig. 3). Prosternum and sides of mesosternum 
and metasternum microreticulate. Elevated middle portion of mesosternum elongate, penta- 
gonal (Figs. 3 & 4) margined, shiny, finely and sparsely punctate and smooth between 
punctures. Metasternum (Fig. 4) with elevated middle portion shiny, moderately coarsely and 
sparsely punctate, punctures on discal area separated by 1 to 4 times their diameters; 
punctures on microreticulate sides about equal to those on elevated part but sparser. Profemur 
pubescent on basal two-thirds of ventral (posterior) surface. Mesofemora and metafemora not 
pubescent but coarsely and sparsely punctate, punctures separated by 1 to 5 times their 
diameters. 

Abdomen: Sterna microreticulate; with sparse, short, fine, golden setae. First sternum 
with distinct median longitudinal carina as long as sternum. Male genitalia as illustrated (Fig. 
6). 

Female. Similar to male externally but lacks the adherence disc present on the maxilla 
of the male (Fig. 5). 

Variations. -- Specimens vary slightly in color pattern, e.g., in most specimens, the 
yellowish-brown humeral macula is about half as large as it is in others. In 16 specimens the 
humeral macula is distinctly separated from the basolateral yellowish-brown elytral margin by 
a narrow, black, lineate band; in 7 specimens the black color of the elytra is reduced and the 
macula is confluent or very nearly confluent with the basolateral yellowish-brown elytral 
margin. Also, in a few of the specimens with reduced black on the elytra, the yellowish-brown 
subapical maculae on intervals 3-6 are absent or indistinct. Females are larger (3.0 mm to3. 1 
mm) than the males (2.5 mm to 2.7 mm). 

Type-data. Holotype male: MEXICO: Hidalgo, Zacualtipan, Cam. aFerreria, 11-12 
July 1980, A.H. Huacuja; USNM type-number 100112, deposited in the U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Allotype, same data as holotype, 
deposited in the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Paratypes: Same locality and 
collector as holotype, collected on the following dates: 27 May 1979, 1 male, 1 female; 12-14 
Oct. 1979, 2 males, 4 females; 14 Oct. 1979, 2 males, 3 females; 8-10 Mar. 1980, 1 female; 
20-22 June 1980, 1 male, 1 female; 11 & 12 July 1980, 1 male, 1 female; 1 1-13 July 1980, 1 
female; 12 July 1980, 1 male, 1 female. Paratypes will be deposited in the entomology 
collections of the Smithsonian Institution (9), the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, 
Xochimilco (4), the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (4), and in the Museo de Historia 
Natural de la Ciudad de Mexico, Chapultepec (4). 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 



Etymology. From scitulus (L.) =pretty, in reference to the attractive color pattern of 
this species. 




.Omm 



Fig. 1. Deltostethus scitulus, n. sp., habitus view. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 2 & 3. Deltostethus scitulus, n. sp.: 2, Clypeus & mentum, 225 times; 3, Prosternum 
and mesosternum, 85 times. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 






4 







Figs. 4 & 5. Deltostethus scitulus, n. sp.: 4, Mesosternum & metasternum, 85 times; 5, 
Adherence disc on male maxilla, 550 times. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




5mm 



'/ L 



Fig. 6. Deltostethus scitulus, n. sp., male genitalia. 



Habitat. All of the specimens were collected in baited pitfall traps in 
a montane rain forest in the Sierra Madre Oriental at an altitude of 1 860 m. 
The vegetation in the area is composed principally of Pinus patula 
Schlecht. & Cham., Quercus spp., Liquidambar styraciflua L., andAlnus 
jorullensis HBK with a groundcover of pteridophytes and bryophytes. The 
baits that attracted the specimens were decomposing chicken viscera, fish, 
cow and human feces, and banana. The beetles were attracted to the baits 
during both day and night. Five specimens were collected directly from cow 
manure deposited 48 hours earlier; these were found under the encrusted 
surface in the moist manure. 

Comparative notes. This new species of Deltostetus may be 
distinguished easily from D. palpalis Sharp and D. sulcatus Sharp, the only 
other species described for the genus, by the following character states: ( 1 ) 
Mesosternum elongate, pentagonal, half as wide as long: (2) metasternal 
disc sparsely and moderately coarsely punctate; (3) color black with 
yellow-brown markings and intervals 1-4 vittiform. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 



The following key will separate the three known species of Deltostethus. 

1 . Elevated part of mesosternum elongate, pentagonal, twice as long as wide; metasternal disc 
with moderately coarse, sparse punctures; elytral intervals 1-4 vittiform; Mexico 
scitulus, n. sp. 

Elevated part of mesostemal disc as long as wide, pentagonal or practically round; 
metasternal disc with coarse, dense punctures; elytra uniformly reddish-yellow, uniformly 
black, or black with transverse fascia of minute yellow marks behind the middle 2 

2. Elevated part of mesostemal disc pentagonal, laterally angulate; dorsum uniformly 
reddish-yellow to black with transverse fascia of minute yellow marks behind the middle; 
Guatemala & Panama sulcatus Sharp 

Elevated part of mesostemal disc practically round; laterally not distinctly angulate; 
dorsum uniformly black; Panama palpalis Sharp 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are indebted to Mr. Young Sohn, Smithsonian Institution biological illustrator, for 
preparing the pen and ink line drawings of this new species, to Ms. Mary-Jacque Mann, 
Smithsonian Institution scanning electron microscopist, for the micrographs, and Mrs. Phyllis 
Spangler for typing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Sharp, D. 1882. Biologia Centrali- Americana. Insecta, Coleoptera, Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, 
Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae, Heteroceridae, Parnidae, Georissidae, Cyathoceridae 1(2): 1- 
144. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BARRIERS INCREASE EFFICIENCY 
OF PITFALL TRAPS2,3 

Thomas J. Durkis^, R. Marcel Reeves^ 

ABSTRACT: The efficiency of a newly designed barrier-pitfall trap was investigated. The 
trap is inexpensive and easily constructed and consists of two plastic collecting containers 
buried at ground level and connected by a clear plastic barrier. Addition of a barrier increased 
numbers of surface dwelling arthopods caught compared to traps without barriers. Nearly two 
times as many ground beetles and other insects were caught with each two foot increment in 
barrier length. The trap is suitable for collecting live specimens or may be used with killing - 
preserving agents. 

Ground beetles (Family Carabidae) are primarily nocturnal, carnivorous 
insects that live on or near the ground. Their secretive habits make daytime 
searching and collecting activities tedious and inefficient. Of the various 
trapping devices available, pitfall traps are most commonly used and are 
superior to all other methods (Thiele 1977). 

The effectiveness of pitfall traps as qualitative sampling tools have 
been shown by Orbtel (1971) who found that increased numbers of pitfall 
traps resulted in an increased number of species caught. Pitfall traps have 
also been useful for gathering life history and distributional information 
(Mitchell 1963, Rivard 1964, Leech 1966, Barlow 1970, Goulet 1974 and 
Larochelle 1975). Thiele (1977) summarized pitfall trap investigations in 
central Europe and concluded that only active carabids are likely to be 
caught; Thomas and Sleeper (1977) came to the same conclusion for the 
family Tenebrionidae. 

Both Mitchell ( 1 963) and Greenslade ( 1 964) found pitfall traps of little 
value as quantitative sampling devices for either estimating populations or 
making community comparisons. Greenslade (1964) even concluded that 
pitfall trapping could not be used for quantitatively assessing the carabid 
beetle fauna of any habitat. Southwood (1966) expanded on Greenslade's 
criticisms of pitfall trapping of carabid beetles by including all other animals 
as well. However, Banerjee ( 1 970), working with millipedes, found that the 
number trapped could be used to estimate population densities. Uetz and 
Unzicker ( 1 976) working with wandering spiders compared pitfall traps to 



Deceived November 8, 1980 



a thesis submitted by the first author as partial fulfillment for the requirements of the 
Master of Science Degree, 1975. 

^Scientific Contribution Number 1063 from the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

^New Hampshire Department of Agriculture, Nesmith Hall, Durham, New Hampshire 
03824. 

5 Department of Entomology, Univesity of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 
03824. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (1) 25-28, January & February, 1982 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 



quadrat sampling and found pitfall traps more useful in species diversity 
studies. They proposed several conditions for limiting the use of pitfall 
trapping in ecological research. 

Various investigators have designed or modified pitfall traps for their 
own specific needs. Fichter (1941) designed an elaborate pitfall trap to help 
eliminate rain water. Williams ( 1 958), Houston (1971), and Holthaus and 
Riechert (1973) all experimented with various timing and mechanical 
sorting devices. Wojcik et al. ( 1 972) and Morrill (1975) concentrated their 
efforts on developing quick and inexpensive plastic pitfall traps. Cutler, et al. 
(1975) and Uetz and Unzicker ( 1976) found aprons increased the catch of 
spiders in pitfalls and Housewart, et al. (1979) adapted the apron to a large 
capacity pitfall trap. Thiele (1977) discussed several preservatives and 
attractants that can be used with pitfall traps, while Thomas and Sleeper 
(1977) note several precautions which may help to avoid non-random 
effects. Trap modifications which attempt to direct or guide organisms to 
the pitfall trap were studied by Smith ( 1976) who used several "drift fence" 
designs around single gallon sized cans. He increased beetle catches up to 
3.2 times for certain designs. The "barrier-pitfall'" trap (Reeves 1 980) used 
in this study is similar to Smith's but has pitfalls at each end of a "barrier" 
rather than a single pitfall at the center of a "drift fence". 

Traps used in this study were developed after several years of 
experimentation and improvement (Reeves 1980). The barrier-pitfall traps 
consisted of 2 pitfalls connected by varying lengths of 6 inch (15 cm) high 
plexiglass. Tested lengths were 1 foot (30.5cm), 3 feet (9 1 .5cm) and 5 feet 
(152.5cm). Each pitfall consisted of 3 plastic cups (Reeves 1980). The 
larger outer cup had small holes in the bottom for rainwater drainage. 

This experiment was conducted in a mixed hardwood stand located in 
Stafford County, Lee, New Hampshire. Northern red oak, Quercus rubra 
L., red maple, Acer rubrum L., sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh, and 
shagbark hickory, Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch comprised most hardwood 
species present. Small amounts of eastern white pine, Finns strobus L. and 
eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. were scattered through the 
hardwood mixture. The area was bordered on three sides by fields, one 
planted to corn. 

Ten rows with 6 barrier-pitfall traps each were established in the spring 
of 1974; five rows on April 30 and the remainder in early June. Rows were 
approximately 50 feet (15m) apart with traps in each row spaced about 25 
feet (7.5 m) apart. Local ground conditions (roots, rocks, etc.) did not 
permit precise distances between all trap units or the alignment of all barriers 
in the same direction. Each row contained 6 different trap designs; 2 traps 
with the cups 1 foot apart; 2 traps with the cups 3 feet apart; and 2 traps with 
the cups 5 feet apart. One trap of each spacing was supplied with a barrier, 
while the other was without a barrier. Locations within a row were chosen 
randomly. 

Traps were emptied twice a week on Tuesday and Thursday from 2 



10 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



May through 13 August 1974. Contents of the traps were recorded in the 
field and their live animals released within 10 feet (3.3 m) of the trap in 
which they were caught. To minimize bias due to trap location, traps with 
and without barriers were rotated within the same spacing length in each 
row following the July 9 collections. A total of 30 collections were made, 20 
in period one (2 May through 9 July) and 10 in period two ( 1 1 July through 
1 3 August) (Fig. 1 ). Increased trap disturbance by raccoons in early August 
caused discontinuation of the study after 1 3 August. Where one or more 
traps were disturbed in a row the data from that row were discarded. 

Traps with and without barriers caught about the same number (201 
viz. 193) of ground beetles during the first period at the 1 foot spacing. 
However, during period two, traps with barriers caught 1 .8 times as many 
beetles as traps without barriers (Fig. 1 ). Traps with a 3 foot spacing caught 
2.0 and 2.5 times as many beetles during periods one and two respectively 



600 - 



500 - 



in 

a 

e-i 
w 



uoo 



8 



ft-, 

o 300 


1 



?00 



100 



6^6 



PERIOD 1 



1*38 



193 



201 



215 



181 



without 
barrier 



with 
barrier 



PERIOD 2 



231 



253 



128 



71 



91 



91 



Cm- 
Ft. 



30.5 

1 



91-5 
3 



152.5 

5 



30-5 

1 



91-5 
3 



152.5 
5 



LENGTH OF BARRIER 



Figure 1 . Number of adult carabid beetles caught in traps with and without barriers for period 1 
(2 May through 9 July) and period 2(11 July throrugh 13 August). 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 1 1 

as traps without barriers. At the 5 foot spacings, these ratios increased to 
3.6 for period one and 2.8 for period two. 

Comparison of catches within each period shows that traps without 
barriers caught nearly the same number of beetles regardless of the distance 
between the pitfalls. As barrier length increased, traps with barriers caught 
more beetles. Thus, 3 foot barrier traps caught 2.2 times as many carabids 
as 1 foot long barrier traps. Five foot barrier traps caught 1 .5 times as many 
beetles as 3 foot barrier traps and 3.2 times as many as traps with 1 foot 
barriers. These same comparisons for period 2 are 1.8, 1.1 and 2.0 
respectively. 

The strength of association determined by Chi-Square ( X^ ) was 9 1 .97 
for period one (P < 0.001) and 8.85 for period two (P < 0.100). The 
reduced significance for period two is probably the result of only half as 
many observations due to predator disturbance. Rotation of the barriers is 
not considered a factor. Although reduced observations may have affected 
statistical significance, percentages of total beetles caught in traps with 
barriers remained nearly the same: 69% for period one and 7 1 % for period 
two. 

Our results compare favorably with those of Smith (1976), although 
features differed, such as duration of the trapping period, number of 
pitfalls/trap, length and numbers of barriers and trap orientation. Smith's 
cross trap caught 11.3 times as many insects as an unfenced trap and 
approximately 4 times as much as a single V-shaped trap. We conclude that 
the addition of a fence or barrier significantly increases the catch of ground- 
dwelling insects. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Banerjee, B. 1970. A mathematical model on sampling diplopods using pitfall traps. 

Oecologia. 4: 102-105. 
Barlow, C.A. 1 970. Phenology and distribution of some Pterostichus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) 

of Eastern Canada. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 78: 215-237. 
Cutler, B., L.H. Grim and H.M. Kulman. 1975. A study in the summer phenology of 

dionychious spiders from northern Minnesota forests. Gr. Lakes Entomol. 8: 99-104. 
Fichter, E. 1941. Apparatus for the comparison of soil surface arthopod populations. 

Ecology 22: 338-9. 
Goulet, H. 1974. Biology and relationships of Pterostichus adstrictus Eschscholtz and 

Pterostichus pensvlvanicus Leconte (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae. 

10: 3-33. 
Greenslade, P.J.M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying populations of Carabidae 

(Coleoptera). J. Anim. Ecology. 33: 301-310. 
Holthaus, W.A. and S.E. Riecheart. 1973. A new time-sort pitfall trap. Ann. Ent. Soc. 

Amer.66: 1362-1364. 
Houseweart, M.W., D.T. Jennings and J.C. Rea. 1979. Large capacity pitfall trap. Ent. 

News. 90: 51-54. 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Houston, K. 1971. A mechanical time sorting pitfall trap. Ent. Mon. Mag. 106: 214-216. 
Larochelle, A. 1975. Les Carabidae du Quebec et du Labrador. Dept. Biol. Col. Bourget, 

Riguad, Quebec, Bull. 1: 1-255. 
Leech, R.E. 1966. The spiders (ARANEIDA) of Hazen Camp 81 49' 71 81' W. 

Quaestiones Entomologicae. 2: 153-212. 
Mtichell, B. 1963. Ecology of two carabid beetles, Bembidion lampros(Herbst) and Trechus 

quadristriatus (Schrank). II Studies on populations of adults in the field, with special 

reference to the technique of pitfall trapping. J. Anim. Ecol. 32: 377-392. 
Morrill, W.L. 1975. Plastic pitfall trap. Environmental Ent. 4: 596. 
Orbtel, R. 1971. Number of pitfall traps in relation to the structure of the catch of soil surface 

Coleoptera. Acta Ent. Bohemoslave. 68: 300-309. 

Reeves, R. Marcel. 1980. The use of barriers with pitfalls traps. Ent. News. 91: 10-12. 
Rivard, I. 1964. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Agricultural lands near 

Belleville, Ontario. Can. Ent. 96: 517-520. 
Smith, Burton, J. 1976. A new application in the pitfall trapping of insects. Trans. Ky. Acad. 

Sci. 37: 94-97. 

Southwood, T.R.E. 1966. Ecological Methods. Metheun and Co., London. 391 pp. 
Thiele, Hana-Ulrich. 1977. Carabid Beetles in Their Environments. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 

369 pp. 
Thomas, Donald B.. Jr., and Elbert L. Sleeper. 1977. The use of pitfall traps for estimating 

the abundance of arthropods \\ith special reference to the Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 70: 242-248. 
Uetz, G.W., and J.D. Unzicker. 1976. Pitfall trapping in ecological studies of wandering 

spiders. J. Arachnol. 3:101-111. 

Williams. G. 1958. Mechanical time-sorting of pitfall captures. J. Anim. Ecol. 27: 27-35. 
Wojcik, D.P., W.A. Banks, D.M. Hicks and J.K. Plumley. 1972. A simple inexpensive 

pitfali trap for collecting arthropods. Florida Ent. 55: 115-116. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 13 

IDENTITY OF ABLABESM Y1A SP., ROBACK, 
BEREZA AND VIDRINE (1980) 
(DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE)' 

Selwyn S. Roback 2 



ABSTRACT: Ablabesmyia sp., Roback, Bereza and Vidrine (1980), has been reared and 
has proven to be Ablabesmyia janta (Roback). Additional measurements and descriptive 
notes on the pupa, the adult c? and 9 are given. 

Through the efforts of Mr. M. LaSalle, D. Clark and M. Vidrine, the 
species described as Ablabesmyia sp. in Roback, Bereza and Vidrine 
(1980) was successfully reared from the mollusc Quadrula pustulosa gr. sp., 
collected in Village Creek, TX. One cf and one 9 complete larval-pupal- 
adult (LPA) association were made and one cf was recovered from the 
rearing tank but the immature stages could not be found. The cfcf when 
determined proved to be Ablabesmyia (A.) janta Roback. 

Two additional cfcf were taken by sweeping the vegetation along Village 
Creek (Vidrine and LaSalle); one cf was reared by the author from a pupa 
collected in Hollow Creek, SC and two cfcf were collected from Keowee 
Reservoir, SC by Mr. Patrick Hudson (SE Reservoir Inv., Dept. of Int.). 

I am additionally indebted to Dr. W. W. Wirth [USNM] for the loan of 
the holotype cf of A. janta and Dr. R. Wenzel [CHN] for the loan of the 
Georgia cf. These were compared with the Texas and South Carolina 
specimens. This work was supported, in part by research funds of the 
Division of Limnology and Ecology of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

These additional specimens make possible the amplification of the 
adult cf description in Roback (1971), the pupal description in Roback, 
Bereza and Vidrine ( 1 980) and to give some notes on the 9. For the x of the 
cf genital measurements n=9 and for the x of the pupal measurements n=6, 
unless otherwise indicated. 

The adult terminology follows Roback (1971) and that for the pupa, 
Fittkau (1962) and Roback (1981). Unless otherwise indicated all 
specimens are in the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 



1 Received for publication October 21, 1981. 

^Division of Limnology and Ecology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1 9th and 
the Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103. 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (1)9-11, January & February, 1982 



14 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Ablabesmyia (Ablabesmyia) janta Roback) 

Pentaneura (A.)janta Roback 1959:120 

Ablabesvmia sp. Roback, Bereza and Vidrine 1980:580-583 

ADULTS-Male. Antennal ratio 1.90-2.20; LR I 0.80-0.82; LR II 0.86-0.89; LR III 0.90- 
0.96; MB, Ti I 0.50-0.053 sub-basal to apical bands; L /W 2.50-3.33; 0.30-0.36 length of 
basal clear band; MB, Ti II 0.50 sub-basal to apical; L /W 3.23-3.97; 0.40-0.50 length of basal 
clear band; MB, Ti III 0.50 sub-basal to apical; L /W 4.19-5.16; 0.46-0.64 length of basal 
clear band. 

Basistyleas in Fig. 9, 1 63-204/1 long (xl 86.2); dististyle 174-222/x(xl97.8); B/D 0.91 
9.99 (xO.943); aedeagal complex variations as in Figs. 1-4; elements of complex, fully 
flattened, Figs. 5, 6; blade (Fig. 5) 44-66/t(x 52.1); dorsal lobe (Fig. 5) 25-37/i(x 34.0); 
lateral lobe (Fig. 6) 67-101/x (x 79.7): blade/lateral lobe 0.59-0.70 (x 0.656). 

Female. Antenna with 1 1 flagellomeres; last four in ratio 44:44:44; 130; wing 1.74 mm; 
dark pattern broad and spots confluent; LR I 0.84; LR III 0.90; MB, Ti I 0.49 sub-basal to 
apical; L /W 3.33; 0.50 length of basal clear band; MB, Ti II 0.48 sub-basal to apical; L /W 
3.87; 0.67 length of basal clear band; MB, Ti III 0.49 sub-basal to apical; L /W 3.87; 0.63 
length of basal clear band; spermathecae (3) almost globular (Fig. 13) 85 /x diameter; apex 
clear. 

PUPA-the following additional measurements include those given in Roback, Bereza and 
Vidrine ( 1980). Respiratory organ (Fig. 7) length 420-500/1 (x 44 1.7); medium to dark brown 
in color; reticulate pattern ( Fig. 8 ) visible but not strong: variation in apical tubercle and apex 
of aeropyle tube as in Figs. 10-12; LSj A VII 0.40-0.50 from base (x 0.455); LSj VIII 0.27- 
0.38 from base (x 0.320); anal fins 45 l-528ju long (x 473.5); LS filaments of anal fins (mid- 
point of pair) 0.49-0.57 from base (x 0.545 ); c? genital sacs 0.74-0.8 1 anal fin length ( x 0.775, 
n=4); 90.41-0.45 (2). 



i 





Figures 1-6. Aedeagal complex. Fig. 1-holotype, MD; Fig. 2- Albany, GA: Fig. 3-Keowee 
Reservoir, SC; Fig. 4-Village Creek, TX; Fig. 5-dorsal lobe and blade (fully 
flattened), Village Creek, TX; Fig. 6-lateral lobe (fully flattened). Village 
Creek, TX. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 



15 



Specimens examined- 

Maryland- Plummers Island, c? A, 23-V-14 (Shannon) |USMM|, Holotype 

South Carolina- Hollow Creek nr. Jackson, 3-VI-68, cf PA 

- Keowee Reservoir, Seneca, Oconee Co. 7-V-75 (Hudson) cf PA; June 18- 

22 (Hudson) cf A 

Georgia- Chechaw St. Park 2 mi E. Albany cfA, 29-30- VIII-49 |CHN) 
Texas- Village Creek at Rt. 96, S. of Silsbee, Hardin Co. 2 cTA 13-IV-79 (Vidrine and 

LaSalle) sweeping vegatation; 1 tf 1 9 LPA, reared from Quadrula pustulosa gr. var. 

em. 15-VIII-80 Clark, LaSalle, Vidrine); 1 cf emerged from tank containing Q. 

pustulosa gr. var. 22-VIII-80, larva and pupa not recovered. 




Figures 7-13. Fig. 7 pupal respiratory organ; Fig. 8-reticulate pattern of respiratory organ; 
Fig. 9-basistyle; Figs. 10-12-detail of apical tubercle of pupal respiratory 
organ. Fig. 10- Village Creek, TX; Fig. 1 1 -Keowee Reservoir, SC; Fig. 12- 
Hollow Creek.SC; Fig. 13-female spermatheca. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Fittkau, E.J. 1962. Die Tanypodinae (Diptera:Chironomidae). Abh. z. Larvalsyst. Ins. No. 

6: 453 pp. 
Roback, S.S. 1959. The Subgenus Ablabesmyia of Pentaneura (Diptera:Tendipedidae: 

Pelopiinae). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 85: 1 13-135. 

. 1971. The subfamily Tanypodinae of North America. Monogr. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phla. 17: 1-410. 
1981 . The immature Chironomids of the Eastern United States V. Pentaneurini- 



Thienemannimvia group. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 133: 73-128. 

Roback. S.S., D.j. Bereza and M.F. Vidrine. 1980. Description of an Ablabesmyia 
[Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae] symbiont of unionid fresh-water mussels 
[Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionacea] with notes on its biology and zoogeography. Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc. 105: 577-619. 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NEW SPECIES OF GYPONANA 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 

FROM PANAMA AND MEXICO^ 

Dwight M. DeLong 2 , Henk Wolda 3 

ABSTRACT: Four species of Gypnana: G. fortuna n. sp., G. boquetea n. sp., and G. 
chiriquea n. sp., all from Panama and G. impeta n. sp. from Mexico, are described and 
illustrated. All species are placed in the subgenus Gyponana. 

The genus Gyponana was described by Ball (1920) as a subgenus of 
Gypona. The genus Gyponana was treated by DeLong (1942) and 
reviewed by DeLong and Freytag (1964). A corrective note on Gyponana 
decorata Fowler was published by Freytay and DeLong (1968). Four new 
species are described at this time. All types are in the DeLong collection, 
the Ohio State University. All species are placed in the subgenus 
Gyponana. 

Gyponana fortuna n. sp. 

(Figs. 1-5) 

Length of male 12 mm, female 15 mm. Crown broadly rounded, almost half as long at 
middle as wide at base between eyes. Ocelli much closer to median line than to eyes. Color, 
very pale green, almost white, ocelli red. 

Female 7th sternum with posterior margin broadly rounded, each side, to form a median 
notch about half length of segment. 

Male genital plates almost 5 times as long as wide at middle, apices narrowed, rounded. 
Style broadened apically, apex triangular, with angled portion extending dorsally. Aedeagal 
shaft thin laterally, apex in lateral view broadened. Pygofer angled apically. 

Holotype male, Panama, Chiriqui Fortuna, 1050 m, 11-30-1976, H. Wolda coll. 

G. fortuna is closely related to G. germari Stal and can be separated by 
the absence of apical aedeagal spines. 

Gyponana boquetea n. sp. 

(Figs. 6-10) 

Length of male 12 mm, female 13 mm. Crown broadly, bluntled angled, 2/3 as long at 
middle as wide at base between eyes. Margin slightly angled halfway between each eye and 
apex. Ocelli nearer to median line than to eyes. Color green, basal angles of scutellum and 
veins of forewing darker green. 

Female 7th sternum with posterior margin convexly rounded, each side of middle, to form 
a broad V-shaped notch almost 1/2 distance to base. 

Male genital plates almost 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices rounded. Style with 



1 Received August 17, 1981 

^Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University 

^Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (1) 12-14, January & February, 1982 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 



17 



7 











12 






15 








Figures 1-5 Gyponana fortuna n. sp. 1. aedeagus ventrally, 2. aedeagus laterally, 3. style 
laterally, 4. plate ventrally, 5. pygofer laterally, apical portion. Figs. 6-10 C. hoquetean.sp. 
6. aedeagus ventrally, 7. style laterally, 8. aedeagus laterally, 9. plate ventrally, 10. pygofer 
laterally, apical portion. Figs. 11-15 G. chiriquean. sp. 1. aedeagus ventrally, 12. aedeagus 
laterally. 13. style laterally, 14. plate ventrally, 15. pygofer laterally, apical portion. Figs. 
16-20 G. impeta n. sp. 16. aedeagus laterally, 17. plate ventrally, 18. pygofer laterally, 
apical portion. 19. style laterally, 20. aedeagus ventrally. 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



apex truncate, broadened, triangular in shape, with apex extending dorsally. Aedeagal shaft 
thin laterally, broad dorsoventrally, bearing 2 apical processes which extend basad more than 
1/3 distance to base. Pygofer bluntly angled apically. 

Holotype male, Paname, Chiriqui Boquete IX-21-1967. Paratype female same data 
except IX-20-1967. 

G. boquetea is related to G. germari Stal but the aedeagai shaft is 
broadened laterally and the aedeagai apical processes are shorter. 



Gyponana chiriquea n. sp. 

(Figs. 11-15) 

Length of male 9 mm, female unknown. Crown produced and rounded, 3/5 as long at 
middle as wide at base between eyes. Ocelli nearer to median line than to eyes. Color greenish 
yellow. Forewings whitish subhyaline, veins greenish yellow. 

Male genital plates 3 times as long as wide at middle, apex narrow, rounded. Style 
broadened apically, forming an angle, with the apex extending dorsally and bluntly pointed. 
Aedeagai shaft elongate, slender, bearing 2 apical processes which extend laterobasally about 
1/4 length of shaft. Pygofer bluntly pointed apically. 

Holotype male. Panama. Chiriqui Boquete 1250 m. XII-5-1975. H. Wolda coll. 

G. chiriquea is related to G. fnicta DeLong & Freytag and can be 
separated from it by the more narrowed and elongate apical portion of the 
style. 

Gvponana impela n. sp. 

(Figs. 16-20) 

Length of male 9.5 mm, female unknown. Crown angularly produced, apex rounded. 4/5 
as long at middle as basal width between eyes. Color yellowish green. Forewings pale green 
subhyaline, veins greenish yellow. 

Male genital plates 3 & 1/2 times as long as wide at middle, apices narrowed, rounded. 
Style with apex of blade foot-like with angled ventral "heel", and rounded "toe" extending 
dorsally. Aedeagai shaft slender with apex slightly enlarged, and with a pair of minute 
subapical spines extending basally. Pygofer narrow and pointed at apex. 

Holotype male, Mexico City, Mexico, C.C. Plummer coll. Paratype male same data as 
holotype. 

G. impeta is related to G. sincera DeLong and Freytag and can be 
separated from it by the longer more slender aedeagai shaft and the shorter, 
very tiny, aedeagai apical processes. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ball, E.D. 1920. A review of the species of the genus Gypona occurring in North America, 
North of Mexico (Homoptera). Anns. Eni. Soc. Amer. 13(1): 83-100. 

DeLong, D.M. 1942. A monographic study of the North American species of the subfamily 
Gyponinae (Homoptera: Cicadeilidae) exclusive of Xerophloea Ohio State University 
Graduate School Studies, Contrib. Zool. Entomol. No. 5, Biol. Series XIV - 187, 35 pi. 

& P.H. Freytag 1964. Four genera of World Gyponinae. A synopsis of the 

genera Gypona, Gyponana, Rugosana and Reticana. Bull. Ohio Biol Survey II new 
series (3) 227 p; 372 Figs. 

Freytag, P.H. and D.M. DeLong 1968. Corrective note on Gvpona decorata Fowler. Ohio 
Jour. Sci. 68(5): 333. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 19 

BIOLOGY AND LIFE HISTORY OF THE RICE 

FIELD PREDATOR ANDRALLUS SPINIDENS F. 

(HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)i 

Gary V. Manley^ 

ABSTRACT: The pentatomid bug, Andrallus spinidens (F.), is a non-specific predator on 
Lepidoptera larvae in rice fields of West Malaysia. Large populations of A. spinidens were 
observed associated with outbreaks of Melanitis leda (Satyridae). Field and laboratory 
studies on the biology and behavior of A. spinidens were conducted to clarify its role in 
suppressing lepidopteran populations. Development from egg to adult averaged 26 days. 

During investigations of arthropod predators in rice fields of West 
Malaysia, the asopine pentatomid A ndrallus spinidens (F.) was observed 
to be a non-specific predator on lepidopteran larvae. Further studies 
indicated that Andrallus was a potentially useful biological control agent in 
rice fields. Laboratory studies were conducted for the purpose of gaining 
information on life history, behavior, and ecology of the species. Specimens 
were collected from rice fields in Province Wellesley and Kedah, West 
Malaysia. 

A review of the literature, distribution, and recorded hosts of Andrallus 
spinidens can be found in a paper by Kajendra (1971). 

Methods and Materials 

Studies were conducted on both field-collected and laboratory-reared 
specimens. For instar development studies, female pentatomids were 
placed in individual petri dishes for egg collection. After eggs were laid the 
females were separated from the eggs. 

Adults and nymphs were fed grain moth larvae and larvae of various 
lepidopteran species collected from the rice fields. Living larvae were given 
to each pentatomid daily. 

First instar nymphs were given damp cotton and left in the container 
with the eggs until they molted. After molting they were moved to individual 
dishes and reared to adults. Stock cultures were maintained in cages 3x3 
feet in the laboratory in order to have specimens at various developmental 
stages for behavioral and ecological studies. 

Lepidoptera larval weights were determined by weighing the live larvae 



1 Received April 4, 1981 

^MARDI, Bumbong Lima, Province Wellesley, Malaysia. U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer. 
Standard Fruit Company, Tropical Research Department- South America, P.O. Box 1747, 
Gulfport, MS 39501 



ENT. NEWS, 93 (1) 15-20, January & February. 1982 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

immediately before introducing them to the pentatomid predator. Larvae 
were weighed again immediately after feeding stopped. The difference 
between the first weight before feeding and the second weight after feeding 
was assumed to be what the pentatomid removed during its feeding. 

Biology 

In rearing cages, eggs were laid randomly both on dead and living 
leaves, as well as on the sides of the cages. There appeared to be no 
preference for oviposition sites, but the shape of the mass varied, depending 
upon the substrate. Egg masses attached to the sides of the cages or laid in 
petri dishes were normally irregular or elongate. Eggs laid on the leaves of 
rice plants were laid in two rows ranging from 2 to 5 cms. long. Regardless of 
the shape of the mass, eggs were glued at the base to the substrate and to 
each other along the sides. On living plants the upper surface of the leaf 
more frequently contained eggs than other parts of the plant. 

The number of eggs per mass ranged from 7 to 96 with an average of 50 
for 20 masses. Rajendra ( 197 1 ) in India found an average of 54.47 eggs per 
mass. 

Females were observed to mate repeatedly, but this does not appear to 
be necessary since females kept in isolation after a single mating laid more 
than one batch of eggs which hatched normally. Duration of the egg stage 
was 7 days (Table 1). When laid, the eggs are creamy white. After being 
exposed to the air they become dark silver gray. It was noted that eggs laid 
directly on wet filter paper remained white and did not turn dark if the filter 
paper was kept wet. As the eggs were nearly ready to hatch they became 
increasingly reddish. 

Nymphal development averaged 1 9.0 days. The last instar required the 
longest development period (5.4 days); the first instar was the shortest, 
lasting 2.6 days. The middle instars were about equal in length (Table 1). 

The first instar nymphs were gregarious, tending to congregate on the 
eggs. Getting (1971) indicates the young numphs of Podisus placidus 
Uhler feed on the unhatched eggs. In the case of observed egg masses of 
Andrallus spinidens nearly all the eggs hatched. Other than perhaps 
feeding on the eggs, no feeding was observed during the first instar, but 
water was taken readily from damp cotton. 

Second to fifth instar nymphs were fed on a variety of lepidopteran 
larvae collected from the rice fields. After molting, second to fifth instar 
nymphs fed almost continually until a few hours before the next molt, when 
they would not feed again until the new cuticle had hardened. As soon as the 
new cuticle had hardened, nymphs became agressive predators, attacking 
almost any size larvae. 

In a population of mixed ages, younger nymphs often would scavenge 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 21 



on large larvae killed by older nymphs. Sometimes all stages of nymphs 
were found feeding together. Frequently the younger nymphs were observed 
feeding on larvae abandoned by older nymphs or adults. Both hunting and 
feeding may take place as a group. 

The gregarious behavior of the younger instars appeared to play an 
important part in feeding. On several occasions I observed that 1 or 2 
younger instar pentatomid nymphs were unable to subdue a larvae, but 
with the help of the entire group they were able to attack and kill even the 
very large larvae. The capture of larger larvae by young nymphs was 
accomplished by repeated attacks of many bugs. This gregarious behavior 
is most strongly expressed in the first 2 instars and to a lesser degree in instar 
3. Instars 4 and 5 are mostly solitary, with the solitary behavior most 
strongly expressed in 5th. instar nymphs which were observed to be slightly 
cannibalistic if starved and confined to containers. The cannibalistic 
behavior was not observed in the larger cages. 

Andrallus spinidens was a persistent predator. When a pentatomid 
nymph came in contact with a larva too big to subdue immediately, it would 
repeatedly follow and attack. Frequency of repeated attacks depended on 
the demeanor of the predator and aggressiveness of the larvae in repelling 
the attack. On some occasions nymphs followed a large larva for nearly a 
day. 

Getting (1971) suggests that pentatomids use a poison to kill their prey. 
My observations indicate that such a substance may be utilized. The time 
required for a pentatomid to kill a larva varied greatly; normally 1 -4 minutes 
were required once a successful attack had been made. Larvae which were 
successful in escaping early attacks from predators were, however, greatly 
weakened and usually were unable to resist later attacks. Larvae which 
were able to escape the first few attacks would show a general weakening 
over time, loss of coordination, and shaking. 

The observed method of attack is similar to that described by Getting 
(1971) for Podisus placidus. The prey was approached with the labium 
extended and the antennae vibrating rapidly. The only contact made with 
the prey was with the labium and stylets. Upon insertion of the stylets the 
prey would start to thrash about and frequently try to bite the pentatomid. 
Frequently the pentatomid would use the pronotum to avoid being bitten. 
Orienting the pronotum toward the head of the larva proved to be a 
successful method of defense. This method was often successfully used to 
protect the forelegs. 

Observations of behavior indicate that the pentatomid uses some kind 
of mechanism of communication. The finding of a caterpillar attracted 
nearby pentatomid nymphs. In rearing cages many nymphs and adults 
repeatedly fed on a single prey and within a few minutes of an attack all 
pentatomids in the cage were seen feeding or rapidly moving about looking 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



for food. 

When a normally solitary fifth instar pentatomid began to feed, it 
rapidly attracted other nymphs. When one fifth instar nymph was placed on 
each of five rice plants, arranged in such a way that only one or two leaves 
were touching and providing a bridge for the nymphs to cross from one plant 
to the next, it was found that during hunting only occasional contact was 
made between bugs. Only one or two of the insects would be hunting at any 
given time while the others were inactive. The introduction of a lepidopteran 
larva made little difference except when it came close enough to disturb a 
nymph, then that predator would pursue it. Once a larva was attacked, 
however, all other pentatomids were affected. The other four nymphs would 
become active and start to hunt for the point of attack. Hunting did not 
appear random but directed at trying to reach the area of predation. As the 
hunting nymphs moved from plant to plant and got closer, their intensity of 
search appeared to increase. The distance the nymph was away from the 
killed larva appeared to have an effect on both the required time for it to 
respond to the kill and its persistence in reaching the prey. 

When the maximum number of prey which could be consumed by fifth 
instar nymphs during a twelve hour day was figured based on feeding time 
per gram wet weight in the laboratory, it was found that many more small 
larvae could be consumed during the day than larger ones. Eighteen larvae 
weighing 0.01 grams could be consumed but only eight larvae weighing 
0.05 grams. As larvae became larger than 0.09 - 1 .0 grams the increase in 
larval weight made little difference in the number eaten per day. 

Number of larvae eaten per day for each predator was unaffected by the 
feeding capacity of the pentatomid. Eighteen larvae with a wet weight of 
0.01 grams per individual would total 0.18 grams, far below the feeding 
capacity of the fifth instar nymphs, some of which killed larvae weighing a 
total 0.40 grams wet weight and consumed 0.18 grams of body fluids in 
eight hours. Sixty to eighty percent of the wet weight was usually consumed. 

Fifth instar nymphs were able to feed continually for several hours. The 
average weight for 18 fifth instar nymphs was 0.06 grams. They were 
observed to eat as much as 0.18 grams during eight hours of continual 
feeding, equal to 3.1 times their average body weight. They killed as much 
as 7 times their own body weight during the same time. Many were still 
feeding at the end of eight hours. 

Role as Predator 

Andrallus spinidens was abundant in rice fields only when associated 
with out breaks of lepidopteran larvae such as Melanitis leda. During 
periods when non-stem borer lepidopteran larvae were scarce, few specimens 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 23 



of A spinidens were observed. 

There are 3 factors which should favor Andrallus spinidens as a 
predator of rice pests: 1) relatively short life cycle, 2) aggressive feeding 
behavior, and 3) ability to feed continually for several hours. There are also 
3 behavioral characteristics which contribute to survival of the younger 
instars: 1) gregarious hunting and feeding, 2) mixed-aged groups feeding 
together, allowing the young instars to feed on the prey of larger nymphs, 
and 3) the apparent attraction of nymphs to a fresh kill by other nymphs. 
The attraction phenomenon would be a particular advantage in low-density 
situations, clumped populations of prey, and localized prey increases. 

The number of larvae eaten per day for an individual predator is 
determined by larval size and hunting time required by the predator. As the 
size of the larvae increases, hunting time is less important since the actual 
time spent feeding is so large, but with smaller larvae the number of larvae 
eaten will depend on the amount of time taken to find the various prey. 

With second and, to some degree, third instar nymphs the number of 
larvae eaten will also depend on capture ability. When larvae are maximum 
size that can be overpowered, significant time may be spent in killing the 
larva. Laboratory observations indicated that under some circumstances 
capture time could amount to hours. 

It is possible that the attraction phenomenon may also have some 
limiting effects in terms of number of larvae eaten. Under conditions where 
the nymphs are widely dispersed, the movement of the nymphs to one spot 
would reduce total hunting time and area searched. It was observed, 
however, that if a pentatomid nymph is moving to a prey and comes across 
an undetected larva in the process, it will attack the living larva and not go to 
the killed larva. 

Observations of field populations along with laboratory studies indicate 
that Andrallus spinidens may be of limited importance under low host 
density. Its major usefulness is likely in connection with outbreak or 
moderate to high density conditions, where its short life cycle time and 
continuous feeding ability should operate to make it a useful control agent. 

Table 1. Development (days) of eggs and nymphs of Andrallus spinidens. 

Cumulative 
Stage Number Range Mean Mean age 

Eggs 20 77 7.0 

Nymphal 

First 20 2-3 2.6 9.6 

Second 20 44 13.6 

Third 20 3-4 3.4 17.0 

Fourth 19 3-5 3.6 20.6 

Fifth 17 4-8 5.4 26.0 



24 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 






<?V--'- 








Figs. A-G. Andrallus spindens. A, Lateral view of egg; B. first instar; C, second instar; D, 
third instar; E, fourth instar; F, fifth instar; G, adult. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express thanks to Shamsulmajidi bin Abdul majid for the drawings. 
Thanks are also expressed to Elinar Manley and Julia Kintzley for help in rearing specimens 
and data collection. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Getting, R.K. and Thomas R. Yonke. 1971. Immature stages and Biology of Podisus 
placidus and Stiretrus fimbriatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Can. Ent. 103: 1505- 
1516. 

Rajondra, M.K. and R.C. Patel. 1971. Studies on the Life History of a Predatory 
Pentatomid Bug, Andrallus spinidens (Fabr.) J. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol-68, No. 2. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February' 1982 25 

AIR SACS IN ANTS (HYMENOPTERA: 
FORMICIDAE)i 

George C. Wheeler, Jeanette Wheeler^ 

ABSTRACT: The air sacs in the gasterof Veromessorlariversiarz described and illustrated. 
They appear as white spots in the living ant. 

During our recent study of the ants of Nevada we brought some living 
workers of Veromessor lariversi MR. Smith into the laboratory for 
observation. There we were greatly surprised to see 2 large white spots on 
the gaster. See Figure 1 . We had not noticed spots on workers of this species 
in the field and there were no spots on any of our preserved workers. The 
mystery was not solved until we preserved some of the spotted workers in a 
vial of alcohol. When the stopper was inserted the spots shrank. When 
the stopper was removed, i.e., pressure released, the spots returned to 
their original diameter. A trachea could be seen attached to the 





Figure 1 . Left: dorsal view of a living worker showing the two air-sacs through the 
transparent gastric integument. X10: spots retouched slightly to show true color. 
Right: Anterodorsolateral view of air-sacs in place. XI 00. 



'Received July 13, 1981. 

2 Adjunct Research Associates, Desert Research Institute, Reno. Nevada. Present address: 
326 Laurel Ridge Road. San Antonio. Texas 78253. 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (1) 21-22, January & February. 1982 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



posterodorsal surface of each sac. So we concluded that they must be 
air sacs. 

Having spent most of our academic lives studying the outsides of ants, 
we had almost forgotten that ants also have insides. So we began checking 
the literature for clues to possible trachael sacs. In books on myrmecology, 
air sacs are not mentioned. Textbooks on entomology describe and figure 
air sacs of flying insects. Finally we consulted the publications of that old 
master of ant anatomy, Charles Janet. It did not take long to find a reference 
on the gaster of Myrmica rubra. 

"Just as the esophagus, which, upon reaching the gaster, swells into a 
spacious crop, so do the two trachael trunks, at the same level, swell into 
two spacious respiratory sacs, with very flexible walls, plainly visible 
because of the transparency in those ants which have a light-colored 
integument. Under the influence of dilatation and constriction of the 
chitinous integument of the gaster . . . these sacs swell and then empty, 
just as our lungs fill under the influence of the movement of our thoracic 
cage." (Janet 1902: 30, translated from the French.) 

Janet shows these sacs in PI. II, but they are much smaller and more 
irregularly shaped than the huge smoothly oval sacs of V. lariversi. See 
Figure 1 (right). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Janet, C. 1902. Anatomic du gaster de la Mvrmica rubra. Georges Carre' et C. Naud, Paris. 
68 p., 8 pi. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 

CONCENTRATIONS OF MUTILLID WASPS 
(HYMENOPTERA: MUTILLIDAE)' 

William L. Jellison 2 



About 1936 a considerable number of mutillid wasps were found in a 
strip in Rocky Mountain bee plant, Cleome serrulata, growing along an 
abandoned irrigation ditch south of Dillon, Beaverland County, Montana. 
Males were feeding on the flowers and females were active on the ground. 
About 50 specimens, representing several species, were collected and sent 
to Dr. Clarence E. Mickel at the University of Minnesota. This apparently 
represented the largest single collection from Montana up to that time. 

In the spring of 1 97 1 the County Agent, Mr. Rob Johnson, at Hamilton, 
Montana, asked me to examine some insects which had been brought in for 
identification. The jar contained 10 to 15 live mutillids from a local garden. 
Inspection of the garden revealed dozens of female wasps on young 
sunflower plants and on the ground. Many of the wasps were feeding on the 
sunflower leaves near the petiole. Apparently they were obtaining plant sap 
or secretions as no damage to the leaves was visible. Many specimens were 
collected but the infestation continued for days. Only females were present. 
Inspection of the garden, its grassy border and adjoining lawn did not 
disclose the source of the insects. 

A few weeks later an unusual amount of bee activity was noticed on a 
vacant lot across the alley from the garden. This lot had been sprayed with 
herbicide sometime previously and was practically free of vegetation. The 
surface was clean and packed. The entire lot was swarming with bees and 
many were excavating nest tunnels. Female mutillids were scurrying over 
the area and exploring nest tunnels of the bees. Male mutillids were flying 
over the lot and running on the ground. Mating was frequent but brief. Four 
to 10 males clustered around a single female. This activity continued for 
weeks. This high concentration persisted for several summers. We estimated 
that there were 4,000 to 10,000 mutillids in sight at one time. Many 
specimens were preserved and series of both bees and wasps were sent to 
Dr. Mickel; U.S. National Museum; University of Kansas, and California 
Academy of Sciences. 

The bees were identified at the U.S. National Museum as Melissodes 
pallidisignata Cockerell and the mutillids as Pseudomethoca propinqua 
(Cresson). Another bee, Triepeolus \\-yomingensis Cockerell, was fairly 
abundant in the area and it may be a parasitic species. These identifications 

'Received April 10. 1981 

2 504 S. Third St.. Hamilton, Montana 59840 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (1) 23-24, January & February, 1982 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



were made by Dr. Karl V. Krombein of the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. 
Mickel concurred in the mutillid identification. 

Other records of mutillid abundance are not readily available but 
Mickel (1928, p. 17) states "During the summer of 1922 nearly 1,200 
specimens of mutillids were collected. . .". This was in Minnesota. He also 
states (p. 39) "Approximately 10,000 specimens have been examined 
individually during the course of this work . . .". 

REFERENCE 

Mickel, C.E. 1928. Biological and Taxonomic Investigations on the Mutillid Wasps. United 
States National Museum Bulletom 143: 351 pages. 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLIGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

8 December, 1981 
A.N.(S.) 120 

The Commission hereby gives six months' notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in Bull. zoo/. Norn, volume 38, part 4, 8 December 1981, and 
would welcome comments and advice on them from interested zoologists. Correspondence 
should be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible within six months of the 
date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

2359 Typus Sellards, 1909 (Insects, Protodonata), proposed conservation 

under plenary powers. 

2148 Capsus ater Jakovlev, 1889 and Lygaeus quadripunctatus Fabricius, 

1794 (Insecta, Hempitera, Heteroptera), proposed nomenclatural valid- 
ation. 

23 1 7 Byrrhus semistriatus Fabricius, 1 794 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Byrrhidae), 

proposed conservation. 

ITZN 59 

The following Opinions and Directions have been published recently by the International 

Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 

volume 38, part 4, 8 December 1981. 

Opinion No. 

1 188 (p. 239) /lp/z/.s/>vrzBoyerdeFonscolombe, 1841 (Insecta, Hemiptera), conserved. 

1191 (p. 249) Berytus consimilis Horvath, 1855 (Hemiptera, Berytinidae), lectotype 

designation confirmed. 

1192 (p. 252) LecaniumacurninatumSignoret, 1873, (Insecta, Homoptera, Coccidae), 

neotype designated. 

1193 (p. 254) Ceratophysella Bb'rner, 1932 (Insecta, Collembola), conserved. 

Direction No. 

109 (p. 276) Seven family-group names in Insecta, Heteroptera, placed on Official 

List 

110 (p. 280) Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Arachnida, Acarina), entry in Official List of 

generic names confirmed. 

The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions or Directions. 

R.V. MELVILLE 
Secretary 



^H Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 29 

CATORHINTHA MENDICA, A GREAT PLAINS 

COREID NOW ESTABLISHED ON THE ATLANTIC 

COAST (HEMIPTERA: COREIDAE)i 

E. Richard Hoebeke 2 , A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 3 

ABSTRACT: Catorhintha mendica Stal, a coreid native to the Great Plains, is closely 
associated with the wild four o'clock, Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill., a prairie plant 
established in the eastern U.S. via seed carried in railroad cars. C. mendica has invaded the 
East, following its host plant along railroad right-of-ways. Additional records for Michigan, 
Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, and the first record for New York are given; 
the record for New York (Long Island) documents the spread of C. mendica to the Atlantic 
Coast. 

The coreid, Catorhintha mendica Stal, is associated with the wild four 
o'clock, Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill. (Nyctaginaceae) (Balduf 
1942, 1957, 1962). In addition, populations of the coreid have also been 
found developing on Mirabilis hirsuta (Pursh) MacMill. at the Cayler 
Prairie Preserve in Dickinson County, Iowa, in 1977 (S. Kinsman, pers. 
comm.); this is a new host plant record for C. mendica. Both insect and M. 
nyctaginea are indigenous to the Great Plains, neither occurring originally 
east of western Illinois. In a carefully documented study, Balduf ( 1957) has 
shown that the plant moved eastward with rail traffic, its seed transported 
on freight cars loaded with surplus agricultural products originating in the 
plant's native range. From his own collecting and from examining museum 
specimens, Balduf was able to show that C. mendica invaded the eastern 
United States as its food plant became established along railroad right-of- 
ways. Presumably on its own powers of dispersal, the coreid bug had 
become established in eastern Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin by the 1940's 
(more recent Wisconsin records are given by Yonke and Medler, 1969). 
The easternmost locality available to Balduf was Lickdale (Lebanon 
County), Pennsylvania (about 77 30' W longitude). Balduf did not give 
dates, but the Pennsylvania material was collected on 8 July 1942 (8 
specimens) and 16 September 1951 (2 specimens) (deposited in the 
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture collection, Harrisburg). The most 
recent eastern record is based on a specimen taken in 1970 near Luray 
(Page County), Virginia (Hoffman 1975). 

An examination of specimens in the U.S. National Museum collection 
(USNM) shows that C. mendica actually had reached Ohio, Wisconsin 
and Minnesota as early as 1 9 1 0, much earlier than stated by Balduf. Recent 



'Received September 14, 1981. 

^Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 
-^Bureau of Plant Industry, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, PA 171 10. 
ENT. NEWS, 93 (1) 29-31, January & February, 1982 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

collecting shows that C. mendica is established along the railroad in 
different areas of Pennsylvania and that this coreid now has extended its 
range to the Atlantic coast. The records that follow are based on specimens 
from the collections of the USNM and the Pennsylvania Department of 
Agriculture (PDA) and on personal collecting; voucher specimens from our 
collecting have been deposited in the collections of Cornell University 
(Ithaca, NY) and the PDA. All known distribution records in the eastern 
U.S., including those listed below, are mapped in Figure 1. 

MICHIGAN: Ingham County, East Lansing, Michigan State University campus. 21 
July 1981, nymphs and one adult on M. nyctaginea in gardens, Daniel K. Young. Wayne 
County, 1 October 1939, Beebe. (USNM). 

MINNESOTA: Big Stone County, 20 July 1910, H.G. Barber colln. (USNM). 

NEW YORK: Suffolk County, Rt. 21 south of Yaphank, Long Island, 30 May 1981, 
nymphs and adults on M. nyctaginea, E.R. Hoebeke and A.G. Wheeler, Jr.; same locality, 29 
August 1981, nymph and adult on M. nyctaginea, T.J. Henry and A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 

OHIO: Mercer County, Durbin, 24 May 1915, H.G. Barber colln. (USNM). 

PENNSYLVANIA: Erie County, Erie, 1 August 1969, Clifford Barry coll., ex: light 
trap (PDA). Franklin County, NE Chambersburg, 16 July 1974, B.R. Stinner and A.G. 
Wheeler, Jr. Dauphin County, Hershey, 18 June 1979, nymphs and adults on Mirabilis 
nyctaginea, T.J. Henry and A.G. Wheeler, Jr. Union County, nearLewisburg, 10 June 1980, 
nymphs and adults on M. nyctaginea, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. Cumberland County, Enola Railroad 
Yards, 13 August 1980, on M. nyctaginea, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. Wyoming County, Tunk- 
hannock, 30 July 1981, on M. nyctaginea, A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 

WISCONSIN: Crawford County, Prairie du Chien, 29 August 1927, P.M. Uhler 
(USNM). Dane County, Madison, 18 July 1916, J.C. Hambleton (USNM). 

The spread of Mirabilis resulted from the development of agricultural 
areas in the prairie states which began shipping produce to the eastern 
population centers over newly completed railways during the 1850's. This 
traffic was an available means of dispersal for Mirabilis which began 
appearing along the railroads in the east between 1880 and 1900 (Balduf, 
1957). By the early 1940's the specialist coreid C. mendica had become 
established along the railroad as far east as eastern Pennsylvania. The bug 
now has followed its host plant along railroad right-of-ways to the shore of 
Lake Erie and to the Atlantic coast (Long Island). 

Faunal changes occur continually but rarely can be traced accurately; 
too often the intensive collecting and survey work necessary to delineate 
changes in range simply are not done. Balduf s study is unique for 
documenting the railroad as the dispersal agent for Mirabilis nyctaginea, 
whose establishment provided a pathway of invasion for its intimate 
associate Catorhintha mendica. 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 



31 



1 1 







Figure 1. Distribution of Catorhintha mendica in the eastern United States. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to thank Daniel K. Young (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI) for new 
collection data for C. mendica and for checking records in the MSU collection. We are 
also grateful to the following institutions and the individuals in charge for checking their 
collections for current records for C. mendica: Pennsylvania State University, State College, 
PA - K.C. Kim and Verda Haas; U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. - T.J. Henry; 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY - R.T. Schuh; and New York State 
Museum, Albany, NY - T.L. McCabe. We thank Sharon Kinsman (Cornell University) for 
allowing us to cite her unpublished observations, and John E. Rawlins and L.L. Pechuman 
(Cornell University) for their critical review of the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Balduf, W.V. 1942. Bionomics of Catorhintha mendica Stal (Coreidae, Hemiptera). Bull. 
Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 37: 158-166. 

_ 1957. The spread of Catorhintha mendica Stal (Coreidae, Hemiptera). Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Wash. 59: 176-185. 

_ . 1962. The Mirabilis-insect community in Illinois. Trans. 111. Acad. Sci. 



55: 42-47. 
Hoffman, R.L. 1975. The insects of Virginia: No. 9. Squash, broad-headed, and scentless 

plant bugs of Virginia (Hemiptera:Coreoidea: Coreidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae). Va. 

Polytech. State Univ. Res. Div. Bull. 105: 1-52. 
Yonke, T.R. and J.T. Medler. 1969. Biology of the Coreidae in Wisconsin. Proc. Wise. 

Acad. Sci. 57: 163-188. 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

SUPPLEMENT TO AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST 

OF MISSOURI LEAF BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: 

CHRYSOMELIDAE): NEW STATE RECORDS AND 

HOST PLANT ASSOCIATIONS^ 

Edward G. Riley, Wilbur R. Enns 3 

ABSTRACT: Fifteen species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are reported 
from Missouri for the first time. Significant host data are reported for these and other species. 

Since the completion of our earlier list (Riley and Enns 1979) three 
additional collecting seasons have passed. Collecting efforts during this 
time have been oriented toward specialized plant communities in the more 
outlying areas of the state, particularly glade and prairie habitats of 
southwestern Missouri. The additional field work resulted in the discovery 
of 15 leaf beetle species previously unknown from Missouri. Also reported 
here is one species which was unintentionally omitted from our earlier list. 
These additions bring the total number of chrysomelid species and 
subspecies known from Missouri to 351. Host plant information which is 
new or thought otherwise useful to subsequent investigators is also 
reported. The specimens discussed in this paper are deposited in the 
collection of the first author and the Wilbur R. Enns Entomology Museum, 
University of Missouri-Columbia. 

Cryptocephalinae 

Cryptocephalus calidus Suffrian. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 1 1 specimens (males) from Boone, Crawford, Livingston, 
Pettis and Phelps Counties, taken in June and July. Due to the difficulty 
in recognizing this species, as mentioned in our earlier paper, we are 
reporting here only records from male specimens. This species is very 
similar in appearance to, and often collected with, Cryptocephalus 
venustus (Fab.). Dr. Richard E. White (USNM) has confirmed this 
determination. 

Cryptocephalus tinctus LeConte. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 13 specimens from Boone, Crawford, and Stone Counties, 



1 Received August 24, 1981. 

^Contribution from the Missouri Agriculture Experiment Station, Wilbur R. Enns Ento- 
mology Museum, Journal Series No. 8942. 

3 Research Associate, Department of Entomology, 402 Life Sciences Bldg., Louisiana State 
University, Baton Rouge LA 70803 and Professor Emeritus, Department of Entomology, 1 - 
87 Agric. Bldg., University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (1) 32-36, January & February, 1982 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 33 



taken during August and September. The 12 Boone and Crawford 
County specimens were taken at black lights. 

Cn'ptocephalus trivittatus Olivier. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 2 specimens from Stoddard County, taken during June by 
sweeping. 

Chlamisinae 

Neochlamisus tuberculatus (Klug). NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 3 specimens from Barry County, taken during early June. 
These specimens were collected by sweeping an unidentified Vaccinium 
species growing in a powerline clearcut at Roaring River State Park. 

Eumolpinae 

Colaspis suggona Blake. Adults of this species are very common on prairie 
habitat of southwestern Missouri during early June. Large numbers 
have been encountered defoliating Tephrosia virginiana and Ceanothus 
ovatus. 

Paria sexnotata(Say). In our earlier paper, we reported having seen only a 
single specimen of this species from Missouri, It has since been 
collected by beal'mgJuniperus virginiana, and is especially common in 
May on junipers growing in glade communities (Benton County, near 
Warsaw). The series of specimens available show great variation in the 
pronotal punctation, ranging from deeply impressed, oval punctures to 
semi-strigose or strigose punctures which are often confluent at sides. 
This variability suggests that Paria juniperi Blatchley may not be 
distinct from P. sexnotata. Paria juniperi was described as having the 
pronotal punctures very coarse, confluent and strigose. It is also known 
to occur on Juniperus. 

Chrysomelinae 

Calligmpha(Acalligrapha)praecelsis (Rogers). NEW STATE RECORD. 
Missouri records: Three specimens were discovered in the Wilbur R. 
Enns Entomology Museum, UMC, from St. Louis, Missouri (ex G.W. 
Bock collection). One specimen is dated 5-7-94. 

Calligrapha (Calligrapha) philadelphica (Linnaeus). NEW STATE 
RECORD. Missouri records: 24 specimens from Taberville Prairie, 
St. Clair County. These specimens were collected during early May 
from Cornus drummondi. 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Calligrapha (Calligrapha) rhoda Knab. Missouri records: 10 specimens 
of this species were collected at Roaring River State Park (Barry Co.) 
during early May from Corylus americana. Blatchley (1910) gave the 
distribution for Calligrapha rhoda var. walshiana Blatchley as Indiana 
and Missouri. Wilcox (1972) also cited this record. These literature 
records were inadvertently omitted from our earlier list. 

Chrysomela lineatopunctata (Forster). NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 100+ specimens from Morgan and St. Clair Counties, taken 
during May and June. All specimens, except one, are from Taberville 
Prairie (St. Clair Co.) where they were found breeding on prairie 
willow, Salix humilus, during early May. 

Galerucinae 

Luperosoma parallelum (Horn). This species has been found in large 
numbers on two separate occasions near Warsaw, Missouri (Benton 
Co.) during July. The beetles were feeding on Psoralea tenuiflora. 

Scelolyperus liriophilus Wilcox. This species is more common in Missouri 
than indicated on our earlier list. Records exist (series including males) 
for Barry, Benton, Marion and Taney Counties. The beetles have been 
commonly taken in the Ozark region of the state by sweeping forest 
understory vegetation. They have been repeatedly found on the flowers 
and leaves of smoke tree, Cotinus obovatus, and blatternut, Staphylea 
trifolia, during early May. 

Alticinae 

Kuschelina fimbriata (Forster). NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: One specimen from St. Clair County, taken during May. This 
specimen was collected while sweeping vegetation of a sandstone glade 
habitat near Collins, Missouri (E.G. Riley colln.). 

Disonycha admirabilis Blatchley. In our earlier paper we reported on 3 
specimens which carried labels reading "on Schrankia". Recent 
collecting has confirmed the beetles' association with this plant. The 
adults of D. admirabilis are often common in May on Schrankia 
uncinata, especially where it grows on prairie habitat of southwestern 
Missouri. On one occasion larvae were observed in association with 
adults on this plant. 

Chaetocnema alutacea Crotch. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 



Vol. 93, No. 1, January & February 1982 35 



records: 100+ specimens from Vernon County, taken during June. 
These beetles were taken on two separate occasions by sweeping prairie 
habitat near Gay Feather Prairie, 4 miles west of Montevallo, 
Missouri. 

Chaetocnema cribrifrons LeConte. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 60 specimens from Barton, Benton, Callaway, Lawrence, 
Pettis, St. Louis, Taney and Vernon Counties, taken during May and 
June, primarily by sweeping prairie habitat. 

Chaetocnema subviridis LeConte. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 76 specimens from Holt County, taken during June. These 
specimens were collected on two occasions by sweeping grasses 
growing in a cemetery, 1.2 miles south of Mound City, Missouri. This 
area is comprised of loess mound habitat. 

Systena corni Schaeffer. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri records: 70 
specimens from Crawford County, taken during August. These speci- 
mens represent a single series which was taken by sweeping dogwood, 
Cornusflorida, over a two-day period. The beetles were not abundant. 
Dr. Eric H. Smith (Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago) has confirmed this 
determination. 

Gyptina brunnea Horn. This species has been found feeding on the terminal 
growth of Euphorbia maculata. 

Glvptina cyanipennis Crotch. We recorded this species as feeding on 
Euphorbia dentata in our earlier paper. Since then it has also been 
discovered feeding on Euphorbia heterophylla. 

Glvptina ferruginea Blatchley. A series of 100+ specimens was collected 
in June from Euphorbia obtusata in Randolph County. Damage was 
evident on the plants and the beetles were observed feeding. This is the 
fourth Glvptina species known to feed on Euphorbia. 

Aphthona texana Crotch. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri records: 6 
specimens from Holt, Lawrence, Pettis and Texas Counties, taken from 
May to July. One specimen is labeled "on red clover". 

Hispinae 

Anisostena kansana Schaeffer. NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri 
records: 96 specimens from Bates, Dade, Pettis and Vernon Counties, 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

taken during June and July. These beetles feed on the prairie grass, 
Tripsacum dactyloides. During July, adults, larvae and pupae were 
taken from blotch mines in the leaves of this grass. 

Anisostena nigrita (Olivier). NEW STATE RECORD. Missouri records: 
13 specimens from Barry, Stone and Taney Counties, taken during 
May and June by sweeping grasses of glade communities. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank the Missouri Department of Natural Resources and the Missouri 
Department of Conservation for permitting collecting in Missouri state parks and prairie 
preserves, respectively. Thanks also to Doug LeDoux, UMC, for numerous host plant 
determinations and to Drs. E.U. Balsbaugh and Eric Smith for comments on and corrections 
of this manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blatchley, W.S. 1910. The Coleoptera or Beetles of Indiana. Bull. Indiana Dept. Geol. Nat. 

Res. 1:1-1386. 
Riley, E.G. and W.R. Enns. 1979. An annotated checklist of Missouri leaf beetles 

(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Trans. Missouri Acad. Sci. 13:53-83. 
Wilcox, J.A. 1972. A review of the North American Chrysomeline leaf beetles. New York 

State Sci. Ser. Bull. no. 421:1-37. 



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individuals who have critically reviewed the manuscript before it is submitted and (2) submit 
the names and addresses of two qualified authorities in the subject field to whom the 
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Titles should be carefully composed to reflect the true contents of the article, and be kept as 
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new taxa should include enough information to make them useful to the nonspecialist. 
Generally this requires a key and a short review or discussion of the group, plus references to 
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shall be given using the metric system or, if in the standard system, comparable equivalent 
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Illustrations: For maximum size and definition, full page figures, including legends, should 
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Books for review and book publication announcements should be sent to the editor, Howard 
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VOL.93 



MARCH & APRIL 1982 



NO. 2 



Ent. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



First record of Hydrovatus horni from Antilles, with 
notes on known distribution and status 
(Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) P.J. Spongier, A. Vega 37 



Compsocryptus jamiesoni, new ichneumonid from 
California (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) 

Sal Nolfo 42 



Studies of neotropical caddisflies XXXI: Five new 

species from Argentina (Trichoptera) 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 43 



First host record for Paroxyna dupla (Diptera: 

Tephritidae) Robert Lavigne 49 



Collection of Euklast us hard in Wisconsin 

(Homoptera: Derbidae) Harold L. Willis 51 



Creating and maintaining cultures of Chironomus 
tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae) 

Z.B. -Catalan, D.S. White 54 



BOOK REVIEWS 



48, 59 



MAY 1 2 1982 



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Vol. 93, No. 2. March & April 1982 37 

FIRST RECORD OF HYDROVATUS HORNI 

CROTCH FROM THE ANTILLES WITH NOTES ON 

ITS KNOWN DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS 

(COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE)i 

Paul J. Spangler, 2 Alberto Vega-* 



ABSTRACT: Hydrovatus horni Crotch is reported for the first time from Cuba, distinguish- 
ing characters and a typical biotope are illustrated, the habitat is discussed, and its known 
distribution in Texas, Mexico, Guatemala, and Cuba is summarized. Also a lectotype is 
designated for Hydrovatus major Sharp which is shown to be a synonym of H. horni. 

Through a cooperative program between the Institute of Zoology, 
Systematics Section, of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba and the 
Smithsonian Institution, we collected aquatic Coleoptera and other aquatic 
insects from 4- 1 4 May 1981 in Cuba. Among the specimens collected was 
an attractive species of the dytiscid genus Hydrovatus. This distinctive 
beetle was much larger than the common species of Hydrovatus known 
from the New World. A review of the genus revealed that this was 
Hydrovatus horni described by Crotch in 1873 from specimens from Texas 
and described later as Hydrovatus majorby Sharp in 1 882 from specimens 
from Guatemala. We wish to report, for the first time, Hydrovatus horni in 
the Antilles, to illustrate the distinctive characteristics of the species, to 
describe its habitat, to summarize its known distribution, to designate a 
lectotype for H. major, and to report that the latter is a synonym of H. 
horni. 

Hvdrovatus horni Crotch 

Figs. 1-6 

Hydrovatus horni Crotch, 1873:378. 

Hydrovums major Sharp. 1882:335 |NEW SYNONYMY] 

Diagnosis. - Form (Fig. 1) broadly oval: strong convex dorsally. moderately so 
ventrally. Length 3.7 mm; greatest width 2.7 mm. Head reddish-brown. Thorax reddish - 
brown except a piceous transverse macula along posterior margin on middle third ol pronotum. 
Elytra reddish-brown with discal area of each elytron black; with a large reddish-brown 
macula basally in humeral area and another reddish-brown macula near base and close to 
elytral suture; with a reddish-brown C-shaped mark on apex of left elytron and a reversed C on 
right elytron; these C-shapcd maculae merge laterally with the reddish brown elytral margins. 
Head, thorax, and elytra microreticulate; venter mostly without microreticulation between 



'Received October 10. 1981 

^Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution. Washington. DC 20560 

-^Department of Fresh Water Ecology. Institute of Zoology, Habana. Cuba 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (2) 37-41. March & April 1982 



38 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



punctures. Head with a few small punctures in a broadly U-shaped pattern between the eyes; 
pronotum coarsely sparsely punctate; elytra coarsely and very densely punctate; mesosternum 
and metasternum coarsely, densely punctate. Elytron each with a short, distinctive, deep, 
submarginal groove near base (Fig. 2). Malegenitalia as illustrated (Figs. 3-5). The large size, 
color pattern, and submarginal elytral groove will readily distinguish H. hornifrom all other 
species of Hydrovatus presently known from the Western Hemisphere. 




1.0mm 



Fig. 1. Hydruvatus horni Crotch: habitus view. 



Vol. 93, No. 2. March & April 1982 



39 



Discussion. - - Sharp ( 1 882 ) in his magnum opus on the Dytiscidae of 
the world did not redescribe H. horni as he did other species in the genus, 
but in his description of Hydrovatus major he stated "It is closely allied to 
Hydrovatus horni, Crotch." Sharp, evidently, did not have access to 
Crotch's type-material nor other specimens off/, horni, but compared his 
Guatemalan specimens to Crotch's published description; otherwise he 
undoubtedly would have recognized that his specimens were the same 
species described previously by Crotch. 

Habitat. - - Our specimens of Hydrovatus horni were collected from 
the weedy margins of a pasture pond (Fig. 6) which also contained mats of 
the water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes (Mart.); the substrate of the pond 
was mud. 

Known distribution of Hydrovatus horn:. - Published type-locality given as "Texas". 
Additional records: UNITED STATES: Texas: |No additional locality data|. Belfrage 
Colin.. 1 female (USNM): Kingsville.C.T. Reed, 1 female(USNM): McAllen. 7-2-38. D.W. 
Craik. 1 male (USNM); Jim Wells Co.. 7-24-38. J.G. Shaw, 1 male (USNM). MEXICO: 
Campeche: Campeche (21 mi. E.), 27 July 1964, Paul J. Spanglcr. 2 females (USNM): 
Jalisco: Magdalena (7 mi. N). 28 July 1963. Paul J. Spangler. 3 males. 3 females (USNM): 
Tamaulipas: San Jose. April 1910, J.D. Sherman Coll'n., 1 male. 1 female (USNM). 
GUATEMALA: Published type-locality of H. major, Duenas, 1879, G.C. Champion. 23 




Fig. 2. Hvdrovaiu\ hunu Crotch: submarginal groove in elytron, lateral view. 24X. 



40 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




j 




F ; uis 3 6 II- ilrn\-uiu\ hur/n ("nitch. male genitalia: 3. median lohe. lateral \ie\\; 4. right 
paramere. medial view. 5. lelt paramere. lateral vieu 6. hiotope. pasture pond 
near Motel Los Ja/rnmes. Vinalcs. Cuba. 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 41 



syitypes(BMNH): Izabal: Morales ( 1 mi N). 16-18 Aug. 1965. Paul J. Spangler. 1 male. 8 
females (L'SNM). CUBA: Pmar del Rio Vmales. near Motel Los Jazmines. 7 Feb. 1981. 
P.J. Spangler and A. Vega. 6 males. 6 females (ASC & USNM). ASC = Academy of 
Sciences of Cuba; BMNH British Museum (Natural History): USNM = U.S National 
Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution. 

Type-data (H. major). - The Sharp collection in the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.). London, contains 23 syntypic specimens under the name of//. 
major. Six of these were examined. These are glued onto three cards with 
two specimens on each card and each card attached to a pin. At the lower 
left corner of each card is the number 1 122. Beneath each card are three 
labels which state as follows: Label 1 "Duenas Guatemala G.C. Champion". 
Label 2 "B.C. A. Col. I. 2. Hydrovatus major Sharp". Label 3- 
"Syntype" [a round label). One pin bearing a pair of specimens also bears a 
label "TYPE". The male on the left side of the card with a male sex symbol 
beneath it was dissected for comparison of its genitalia with that of the 
Cuban specimen illustrated (Figs. 1 -5) and was found to be the same. The 
genitalia from this male has been placed in glycerine in a microvial pinned 
beneath the "TYPE" label. Because Sharp did not designate type- 
specimens in his Biologia Centrali-Americana treatise, the type-label 
obviously was added later, but it has not been validated through publication. 
Therefore, this male is here designated as the lectotype. A label stating 
"Lectotype male. Hydrovutus major Sharp, Spangler des. 1981" was 
attached to the pin bearing the male. An additional label was attached as 
follows: "H. major" Shp. ( r H. horni Cr.) tide P.J. Spangler." 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

For financial and logistical support for our lieldwork. we extend our thanks to Dr. 
Fernando Gon/ale/ Bermude/. Director. Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of 
Cuba. We also express our gratitude to Dr. Ralael Alayo. Marbelia Rosabel, and Dr Donald 
Davis lor their assistance and companionship in the Held For a Fluid Research Fund Award 
for airfare to and from Cuba for P.J. Spangler we are also \ cry grateful to Mr S. Dillon Ripley. 
Secretary. Smithsonian Institution. 

The s\ntypic specimens were made available by Mr. Mick Bacchus. British Museum. 
(Natural Histor> I. London, and his kind assistance is gratefully acknowledged. 

F ; or the pen and ink drawings, we thank Mr. Young Sohn. Smithsonian Institution 
biologi.-al illustrator ( Fig 1 ) and Miss Anne Lacy, biological illustrator (Figs. 3-5). We also 
thank Mrs Susann Braden. Smithsonian Institution scanning electron inicroscopist. lor the 
micrograph, and Mrs. Phyllis Spangler for typing the manuscript 

RFF1 RF.NCES CITFD 

Crotch, G.R. IS73. Revision ot the Dytiscidae of the United States Transactions American 

hntoitiolotical Societ\ 4:383424. 
Sharp. D. 1SS2. On aquatic carnivorous C'oleoptera or Dytiscidae. Scientific Transactions 

Dublin Society 2(2): I "N 1003. pis. \ ii-xviii. 
Young. F.N. 1 V56. A preliminary key to the species of Hydr<i\-ntn\ of the I. astern United 

States (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Coleoptcnsts" Bulletin 1053 54. 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

COMPSOCRYPTUS JAMIESONI, A NEW 

ICHNEUMONID FROM CALIFORNIA 

(HYMENOPTERA)' 

Sal Nolfo 2 

ABSTRACT: Compsocryptus jamiesoni, n. sp. is described from Alviso (Santa Clara 
County), California. 

Compsocryptus jamiesoni, n. sp. 

Male Fore wing 1 1 mm. long: mesoscutum with punctures moderately coarse and strong. 

separated by an average of 0.5 their diameter. 

Ferruginous. Area on the middle of frons and vertex, occiput, apical 0.4 of flagellum. sutural 

markings of thorax, black: hind tibia infuscate apically: base of third tergite fuscous: wings 

yellowish with thee transverse dark brown bands. 

Female Fore wing 9. 5 mm. to 10 mm. long: temple at midheight about 0.82 as long as eye, 

moderately convex: ovipositor about 6. 1 as long from nodus to apex as it is deep at nodus. 

Ferruginous. Base of third tergite and narrow areas along some of thoracic sutures black: 

apical 0.45 of flagellum fuscous: wings brownish yellow with thee transverse dark brown 

bands: hind tibia infuscate apically. 

Holotype 9. Alviso ( Santa Clara County). California. June 23. 1 98 1 . Dean Jamieson. in 
Salt Marsh. (This holotype is on indefinite loan from the Entomology Museum. North 
Carolina State University. Raleigh, to the United States National Museum. Wash.. D.C.). 
Paratypes 29. 2cf. Alviso, California, from June 23-29. 1981. Dean Jamieson. 

This species closely resembles both Compsocryptus aridus and 
Compsocryptus caliptems. Because the female has sparse hairs on the 
second tergite, it keys to Compsocryptus aridus in Townes ( 1962) keys. 
The female is similar to Compsocryptus aridus but differs in having the 
body color ferruginous rather than fulvous, dark markings on the wings 
broader, and a slightly larger average size. Except for the sparse hairs on the 
abdominal tergite. the male is similar to Compsocryptus caliptems but 
lacks the dark area at the apex of the hind femur. Compsocryptus aridus are 
found in deserts. Compsocryptus jamiesoni inhabit salt marsh areas. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank Dean Jamieson for providing the 5 specimens examined. I am also grateful 
to Dr. Henry Townes. of the American Entomological Institute, whose advice was most 
helpful. 

REFERENCE 
Townes, Henry, 1962. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 216. pt. 3. pages 278-306. 



'Received September 22. 1981 

2 1419 Valley Rd.. Garner, North Carolina 27529 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (2) 42, March & April 1982 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 43 

STUDIES OF NEOTROPICAL CADDISFLIES, 
XXXI: FIVE NEW SPECIES FROM ARGENTINA 

(TRICHOPTERA)i 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: Four new species of Hydroptilidae are described and figured: Neotrichia 
salada (Argentina and Paraguay), N. palma (Argentina and Paraguay), Oxyethira argentinensis 
(Argentina), and O. santiagensis (Argentina). Oecetis paranensis (Argentina, Brazil and 
Paraguay), family Leptoceridae, is also described and figured. All species are newly 
discovered to occur in the northern third of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and some 
are recorded from as far north as central Brazil. 



In December of 1 979, my wife and I travelled to the Province of Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, to gather material for the proposed "Fauna y Flora 
Acuaticas del Area Platense". Thanks to the extensive help of Drs. R.A. 
Ringuelet and J.A. Schnack of the Institute de Limnologia and R.A. 
Ronderos of the Departmento de Zoologia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales 
y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, we were able to travel 
extensively throughout this area for a month. Unfortunately the month was 
unseasonably cold, which, coupled with several severe thunderstorms, 
reduced the number of nights that good collections were made. Nevertheless, 
1 7 species were taken in the area for the first time, of which, five species are 
undescribed. To make the names available for the Fauna Platense, they are 
described here. 

Family Hydroptilidae 

Neotrichia salada, new species 

Figures 5-8 

This species is closely related to the recently described N. tubulifera 
Flint (1980), with which it may occur. The clearest difference between the 
two is in the shape of the clasper. In salada the clasper is nearly truncate in 
both lateral and dorsal aspects and apex dorsally bears a distinct dark point. 
In tubulifera the clasper tapers to an acute angle in both lateral and ventral 
aspects and there is no dark point. There are other less well marked 
differences in other parts of the genitalia, most especially the aedeagus. 

Adult. Length of forewing, 1.5-2mm. Color grayish brown, legs and body stramineous; 
forewing with alternating streaks of gray and stramineous hair. Male genitalia: Ninth segment 
anteriorly with long lateroventral lobes; with a pair of dark, ventral, bracing rods between 

'Received November 6, 1981. 

^Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (2) 43-47, March & April 1982 



44 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



anterior and posterior margins. Bracteole membranous, indistinct; elongate. Subgenital plate 
with an elongate apex directed ventrad between claspers; apex bilobed in ventral aspect with 2 
short setae. Clasper elongate, more or less rectangular in outline; with a darkened apicodorsal 
point. Aedeagus with a conical base, with a spiral process at midlength; apical half with a 
mesal ejaculatory duct and a lateral, swordlike process. Female genitalia: Eighth sternum 
elongate, membranous, without surface features, posterior margin with setae, 2 lateralmost 
pairs very large, darkened and conspicuous. 

Material. Holotype, male: Argentina, Pcia. Buenos Aires, Rio Salado, Rt. 3, south 
San Miguel del Monte, 7 Dec. 1979, C.M. & O.S. Flint, Jr. USNM Type 100227. Paratypes: 
same data, 22 cf, 64 9; Arroyo Pescado, Rt. 1 1, 15 km. east La Plata, 20 Dec. 1979, C.M. & 
O.S.Flint, Jr., 1 cf, 4 9; Rio Parana de las Palmas, Lima, 16 Dec. 1979, C.M. & O.S. Flint, 
Jr., 1 cf. Pcia. Entre RJOS, Rio Parana Ibicuy, Puerto Ibicuy, 10 Dec. 1979, C.M. & O.S. 
Flint, Jr. 1 cf. Pcia. Chaco, Riacho Barranqueras, Puerto Vilelas, 5 Dec. 1973, O.S. Flint, Jr., 
4 cf, 30 9. Paraguay, Asuncion, 30 Dec. 1972, L. Lautenschlager, 3cf. 




Figs. 1-8. Neotrichia palma, n.sp.: 1, male genitalia, lateral; 2, male genitalia, ventral; 3, 
aedeagus, lateral; 4, female genitalia, ventral. N. salada, n.sp.: 5, male genitalia, 
lateral; 6, male genitalia, ventral; 7, aedeagus, lateral; 8, female genitalia, ventral. 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 45 

Neotrichia palma, new species 
Figures 1-4 

This, another species of the noteuna group, is clearly related to salada 
n. sp. It is readily differentiated from this species by longer claspers whose 
tips are very slender. In addition there are differences in the shape of the 
subgenital plate and bracteole. 

Adult. Length of forewing, 2mm. Material completely decolored, in alcohol. Male 
genitalia: Ninth segment with anterior margin produced into long, lateroventral lobes ending 
in a pointed process; with a pair of dark, ventral, bracing rods between anterior and posterior 
margins, posterior margin produced into a small lobe between clasper bases. Bracteole 
elongate, enlarged apically. Subgential plate with an elongate apex directed ventrad between 
claspers; apex slightly produced in ventral aspect. Clasper elongate, apical half slender and 
elongate in both lateral and ventral aspects. Aedeagus with a conical base, narrowed before 
midlength; with a spiral process at midlength; apical half with a darkened linear structure (the 
ejaculatory duct?) and a lateral, swordlike process. Female genitalia: Eighth sternum about 
as long as broad, lightly sclerotized with a distinct basomesal bulge; posterior margin with a 
row of indistinct pale setae. 

Material. Holotype, male: Argentina, Pcia. Buenos Aires, Rio Parana de las Palmas, 
18 Dec. 1979, C.M. & O.S. Flint, Jr. USNM Type 100228. Paratypes: same data, 2 9. 
Paraguay, Asuncion, 30 Dec 1972, L. Lautenschlager, 3 cf, 20 9. 



Oxyethira argentinensis, new species 
Figures 13-14 

This is another member of the primarily Neotropical zeronia group, 
perhaps most similar to O. macrosterna Flint ( 1 974). It may be recognized 
by the small dorsolateral point on the eighth segment, the shapes of the 
subgenital plate and claspers, and especially by the distinctive subapical 
twisted plates of the aedeagus. 

Adult. Length of the forewing, 2mm. Color pale brown; forewing with a few darker 
brown maculae. Seventh sternum with a distinct posteromesal point. Male genitalia: Eighth 
segment deeply cleft both midventrally and midorsally; dorsolateral margin bearing a small 
point, apex slightly produced. Ninth sternum produced anteromesally, without processes. 
Subgenital plate elongate, slightly curved in lateral aspect; in ventral aspect sclerotized 
laterally, apex acute; with a pair of small membranous processes laterally. Claspers sharply 
pointed in lateral aspect; in ventral aspect emarginate mesally. Aedeagus tubular, slightly 
inflated basally; apex divided into twisted plates, tip a membranous lobe, with a pointed, 
spinelike dorsal sclerite. 

Material. Argentina, Pcia. Buenos Aires, Arroyo Pescado, Rt. 11, 15km. east La 
Plata, 20 Dec. 1979,C.M. &O.S. Flintjr. USNM Type 100229. Paratypes: Samedata,28 
cT. Pcia. Rio Negro, Lago Pellegrini, northeast Cipolletti, 17 Feb. 1978, C.M. &O.S. Flint, 
Jr., 1 cf. 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Oxyethira santiagensis, new species 
Figures 11-12 

This is another species of the zeronia group (Marshall, 1979), related 
to O. lagunita Flint (1980). It is easily recognized by the strong, rodlike 
processes from the ventral margin of the ninth sternum, as well as major 
differences in all other parts of the genitalia, especially the aedeagus with its 
apical filament. 

Adult. Length of forewing, 2mm. Color brown; forewing irregularly mottled with lighter 
and darker brown maculae. Seventh sternum with a small apicomesal point hidden in a brush 
of setae. Male genitalia: Eighth segment forming a tube enclosing genital capsule, venter 
deeply excised posteromesally, posterior margin entire dorsally. Ninth sternum prolonged 
anteroventrally, distinctly asymmetrical; posteroventral margins bearing a pair of stout, long 
and slightly curved processes. Subgenital plate and claspers in lateral aspect basically C- 
shaped, with dorsal and ventral arms close together; in ventral aspect the subgenital plate has a 
V-shaped posteromesal excision, and the claspers have their posterior margin almost truncate . 
Aedeagus tubular, enlarged basally; apex asymmetrically produced to one side, bearing a 
membranous lobe and slender, twisted filament. 

Material. Holotype, male: Argentina, Pcia. Buenos Aires, Rio Santiago, Palo Blanco, 
Berisso, 23 Nov. 1979, C.M. & O.S. Flint, Jr. USNM Tvoe 100230. 

Family Leptoceridae 

Oecetis paranensis, new species 
Figures 9-10 

This species would appear to be related to O. inflata Flint (1974), 
known from Surinam. It is however, easily recognized by the form of the 
male genitalia, especially the claspers which bear an apicoventral process 
and the aedeagus with its well developed internal spine. 

Adult. Length of forewing, 6-9mm. Color brown; forewing covered with golden-brown 
hairs, veins with white hair interrupted by fuscous spots at furcations, margin with fuscous 
spots at ends of veins with white hair between spots. Forewing with R2+3 forked at s; 
hindwing with R2+3 forked well before margin, M forked basad oH-m, Cuj deeply forked. 
Male genitalia: Ninth segment annular. Tenth tergum membranous, deeply divided mesally, 
lateral lobes divergent and constricted apicad. Cercus an elongate lobe. Clasper with a broad 
rounded dorsal lobe and a narrow, terete apicoventral lobe. Aedeagus terete, with apicoventral 
margin produced; internally with a strong dark spine, a U-shaped sclerite, and a small 
membranous lobe capped by a cluster of spicules. 

Material. Holotype, male: Argentina, Pcia. Chaco, Riacho Barranqueras, Puerto 
Vilelas, 5 Dec. 1973, O.S. Flint, Jr. USNM Type 100231. Paratypes: Same data, 2 cf, 2 9; 
Pcia. Misiones, Arroyo Coati, 1 5 km. east of San Jose, 18-19 Nov. 1 973, O.S. Flint, Jr., 8 d\ 
10 9; Arroyo Saura, 9 km. north of L.N. Alem, 20 Nov. 1973, O.S. Flint, Jr., 1 cf, 1 9; Arroyo 
Liso, 8km. west of Genera! Guemes, 19 Nov. 1973, O.S. Flint, Jr., 19. Pcia. Buenos Aires, 
Rio Parana de las Palmas, Lima, 16 Dec 1979, C.M. & O.S. Flint, Jr., Itf. Pcia. Entre Rios, 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 



47 



Rio Parana Ibicuy, Puerto Ibicuy, 10 Dec. 1979, C.M. & O.S. Flint, Jr., 2 cf. Paraguay, 3.9 
km. south of Villarrica, 2 Dec. 1973, O.S. Flint, Jr., 1 cf, 8 9; Arroyo Tapiracuay, San 
Estanislao, 27 Nov. 1973, O.S. Flint, Jr., 55 cf, 519; Ri'o Aquidaban, Cerro Cora, 29 Nov. 
1973. O.S. Flint, Jr., 2 cf, 8 9. Brazil, Edo. Amazonas, BR3 19, 102 km. southwest of Manaus, 
30 July 1979, J. Arias, et. al., 1 cf. 





I 




12 





J 
14 



Figs 9-14. Oecetis paranensis, n.sp.: 9, male genitalia, lateral; 10, clasper, ventral. 
Oxvethira santiagensis, n.sp.: 11, male genitalia, lateral; 12, male genitalia, 
ventral. O. argentinensis, n.sp.: 13, male genitalia, lateral; 14, male genitalia, 
ventral. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. 1974. Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XV; The Trichoptera of 
Surinam. Studies on Fauna of Suriname and other Guianas, 14(55): 1-151. 

. 1 980. Studies on Neotropical Caddisflies, XXVI: New Species from Argentina 
(Trichoptera). Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina 39: 137-142. 

Marshall, J.E. 1 979. A review of the genera of the Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Bull. Brit. 
Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entomol. Ser. 39(3): 135-239. 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BOOK REVIEW 

A Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico. Lee 
D. Miller and F. Martin Brown, Memoir #2, Lepidopterists' Society, 
1981. Available from Ron Leuschner, 1900 John Street, Manhattan 
Beach, CA 90266. Paperbound $5 members, $8.50 non-members; hard 
cover $10 and $17. Make checks payable to the Lepidopterists' Society. 

I remember when I began working in the Andes five years ago. I approached with dread the 
need to learn an entire new fauna with strange, unfamiliar names like Yramea cytheris or 
Lymanopoda nivea, but I bit the proverbial bullet. I have been working on the North 
American butterfly fauna for twenty-five years and I thought I knew it pretty well until I 
opened this book and found once again that I was confronted by a set of strange, unfamiliar 
names. Lycaena thoe, the Bronze Copper I so prized in my youth, was now Hyllolycaena 
hyllus; the Falcate Orange tip which I learned as A nthocharis genutia had become Falcapica 
midea; and even the Tiger Swallowtail was now Pterourus glaucus, not Papilio glaucus. 

The Miller and Brown Memoir is a prodigious piece of scholarship which will be 
indispensable to all students of the North American butterflies because it pulls together type- 
locality and location-of-type data never before available in one place and because it is so 
monumental a bibliographic treasure-house. But it will get just about everyone angry. There is 
scarcely a subgenus in the diurnal Lepidoptera that the authors do not elevate to generic rank. 
On the other hand (and blessedly), they keep Vanessa together, dispensing with the 
"resurrected genera" of Field's revision. A great many of S.H. Scudder's long submerged 
generic names, like Basilarchia and Satyrodes, are back. One can praise the splitting for its 
temperance when one compares this to the new Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States, by 
Clifford Ferris and the same F. Martin Brown. In the Memoir the glaucus and troilus groups 
are "lumped" in Pterourus, but in the Rocky Mountain book the troilus group is Pterourus and 
the glaucus group is Euphoeades\ 

I have not tried to do a frequency distribution of the numbers of species per genus in this 
work vs. its predecessor, the dos Passes checklist, but the direction of movement seems clear. Is 
the tendency toward generic fragmentation a result of increases in our knowledge, or of global 
revisions of the affected groups? Generally not; it is a result of an attitude. Butterfly taxonomy 
is converging in attitude on the bird taxonomy of the past couple of generations, and anyone 
unfamiliar with that can see for him/herself by opening any of the Peterson Field Guides to 
birds. The butterflies have not yet been fragmented at the family level like the birds, but it's 
probably coming. Needless to say, there is no "right" or "wrong" in all of this. The concept of 
the genus is as fuzzy as it could possibly be, and if some authorities think subgenera are 
intolerable they will raise them all to genera, just as some of the foremost cladists have decided 
that parallel evolution is not a useful concept and sunk it as a synonym of convergence. All of 
these changes act to the discomfiture of those of us who are getting old enough to think that the 
way we learned it must be better. But Pterourus . . . ? 

The splitting of Papilio has been attempted many times and never holds up. It will 
probably not hold up this time either. Some of the generic reassignments may indeed hold up in 
the context of global revision; we shall see. Personally, I jumped for joy when the old "catch- 
all" genus Thecla was sundered by Clench, but I am not convinced Lycaena deserves the same 
treatment. The uncritical inclusion of K. Johnson's mysterious new Mitouras from the Pacific 
Northwest, which may or may not be specifically distinct, seems inconsistent with the 
decidedly carping tone of many of the footnotes, a tone seemingly calculated to irritate various 
people. 

Continued on page 53 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 49 

FIRST HOST RECORD FOR PAROXYNA DUPLA 
(CRESSON) (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)' 2 

Robert Lavigne^ 

ABSTRACT: The fruit fly, Paroxyna dupla (Cresson) was reared from blossoms of 
Erigeron peregrinus collected in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming. A second species, 
Tephritis signatipennis Foote, was reared from the same plant species. Both host records are 
new. 

Paroxyna dupla (Cresson) was described in 1 907 from two specimens 
collected in Buelah, New Mexico and is now known to be widely distributed 
throughout the western United States and Canada (Novak 1974). It has 
been recorded at altitudes up to 3657 m on Medicine Bow Peak in Carbon 
County, Wyoming. Until now, its host plant has remained unknown 
(Wasbauer 1972, Novak 1974). 

While investigating the behavior of robber flies, the author observed 
blossoms of Erigeron peregrinus (Compositae) with discolored disc 
flowers in a clearing 3 miles NW of Centennial, Wyoming in the Snowy 
Range Mountains, elevation 2613m. Since this apparent injury resembled 
that previously observed in Erigeron pu mill's blossoms which contained the 
puparia of Tephritis araneosa (Coquillett) (Lavigne 1965), several dis- 
colored blossoms were examined. Each was found to contain brown 
puparia. I speculated that these puparia might be those of a species of 
tephritid since members of the genus Erigeron are known to be hosts of this 
family of tlies (Stegmaier 1968). 

Subsequently 4 1 discolored blossoms were transported to the laboratory 
and placed in individual numbered vials stoppered with foam tube plugs 
(Gaymar identi-plugs R ) manufactured by Gaymar Industries, Inc., One 
Bank Street, Orchard Park, New York 14127. 

The blossoms were collected on July 27, 1980 and during the period 
Aug. 1-6, 108 adults of Pa roxyn a dupla emerged in the vials, 56 males and 
52 females. The number emerging from individual blossoms varied from 1 
to 1 2 with a mean of 2.6. The close correlation of male and female numbers 
are further support for the concept promoted by Hamilton ( 1 967) that "the 
two sexes are usually produced in approximately equal numbers". 

Additionally, 1 3 parasites (Habrocytus sp.) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) 
and 1 unidentified braconid emerged from the blossoms. The parasitism rate 
was 10.7%. An examination of numbers of puparia, adult tephritids and 



'Received October 19, 1981. 

2 Published with the approval of the Director. Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station, as 

Journal Article No. JA-1 167. 
^Entomology Section, University of Wyoming, Box 3354, University Station, Laramie. WY 

82071. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (2) 49-50, March & April 1982 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



parasites leads to the inescapable conclusion that each host was attacked by 
one parasite. Parasites apparently emerged through the apex of the puparia 
in the same manner as did the adult tephritids, i.e., by breeching the lines of 
cleavage around the anterior extremity of the puparium. 

Blossoms were dissected to determine the actual number of puparia in 
order to ascertain emergence success. Out of 1 28 puparia only 9 contained 
dead pupae and, assuming one parasite per puparium for a total of 23, the 
data indicate an emergence success of 82 percent. 

Based on an examination of discolored tissues and tunnels containing 
frass, it is apparent that larvae fed on developing seeds. 

Three female specimens of a second species, Tephritis signatipennis 
Foote, were reared from the same series of blossoms of E. peregrinus. Only 
one fly was reared from each blossom, which contained a single puparium. 
This tephritid previously has been associated only with Machaer anther a 
canescens (Pursh) Gray according to Wasbauer (1972). 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express appreciation to Dr. Ronald Hartman, Rocky Mountain 
Herbarium, University of Wyoming, Laramie for identifying Erigeron peregrinus, to Dr. R.H. 
Foote, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, SEA, Beltsville, MD for tephritid 
identifications, and to Dr. C.M. Yoshimoto, Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario for parasite identifications. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hamilton, W.D. 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156: 477-483. 

Lavigne, R.J. 1965. New host plant for Tephritis araneosa (Diptera: Tephritidae). Pan- 
Pacific Entomol. 41: 100. 

Novak: J.A. 1 974. A taxonomic revision of Dioxyna and Paroxyna (Diptera: Tephritidae) 
for America north of Mexico. Melanderia 16: 1-53. 

Stegmaier, C.E., Jr. 1968. Erigeron, a host plant genus of tephritids (Diptera). Florida 
Entomol. 51(1): 45-50. 

Wasbauer, M.S. 1972. An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies of America north of Mexico 
(Diptera: Tephritidae). California Dept. Agr. Lab. Serv. /Entomol. Occas. Pap. No. 19, 
172pp. 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 51 

COLLECTION OF EUKLASTUS HARTI METCALF 
IN WISCONSIN (HOMOPTERA: DERBIDAE)i 

Harold L. Willis 2 

ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine adult Euklastus harti Metcalf were collected from a rotten elm 
log in southwestern Wisconsin during summer 1980. Observations on ecology and behavior 
are provided. 



During the summer of 1980, I collected 29 adult Euklastus harti 
Metcalf from a decaying American elm (Ulmus americana L. ) log in 
southwestern Wisconsin. The collection data are: Iowa Co., 10.6 km 
north,5.5kmwestofDodgeville(SWl/4NWl/4Sec25,T7N,R2E);10 
Aug. 7cf; 17Aug.,6cf,29;23Aug.,3cf, 19; 31 Aug., 5 cf, 39; 7 Sept.. 19; 
21 Sept., 1 9. Specimens are housed at the U.S. National Museum. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D.C. ( 12 cf, 79), the Snow Entomo- 
logical Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence (4 cf , 1 9); the University 
of Wisconsin, Madison (3 cf); and the author's collection (2 cf). 

The ecology of the collecting locale, a dry southern hardwood forest, 
has been described by Curtis, 1959. The moist, rotted wood in which the 
specimens were collected contained a variety of fungi and a growth of moss 
on the remaining bark of the log. Search after 21 September failed to 
produce more specimens. One female was collected on a fallen box elder 
(A cer ncgundo L. ) about 210m from the rotten elm log. Since the box elder 
was neither moist nor rotten, it is assumed that the Euklastus did not 
emerge from it. 

Males and females are sluggish and sit or walk with their large spotted 
wings held nearly vertically, with the flat surfaces facing forward (Fig. 1 ). 
Occasionally they were observed with their wings folded roof-like over the 
abdomen. If disturbed, they jump-fly. They are weak fliers. 

Euklastus belongs to the tribe Sikaianini of the Derbidae, a mostly 
tropical group of fulgorids of about 25 species in 5 or 6 genera, ranging from 
the Philippines and northern Australia to Fiji to the Seychelles Is. and West 
Africa to the Caribbean and eastern North America (Fennah, 1952; 
Metcalf, 1945). E. harti has been collected in southern Illinois, North 
Carolina, and Maryland (Wilson & McPherson, 1980; Kramer, personal 
communication). Previous collections have totaled only 1 - 6 specimens 
(Kramer, personal communication). 

My series of E. /z# r//differs somewhat from the original description and 
figures in Metcalf 1923. The species was described from a single male 



'Received August 27, 1981 

2 623 Vine St.. Wisconsin Dells, WI 53965 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (2) 51-53, March & April 1982 



52 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



specimen, which is now in very poor condition, with abdomen, legs, and 
wings missing (Kramer, personal communication). My relatively uniform 
series differs from Metcalfs description by having (1) scattered vague 
brownish spots on a whitish body rather than a general tawny color; (2)10- 
13 rosy red spots along the costal wing margin rather than a few; and (3) 
white wing veins rather than yellow, and dark brown wing spots, not tawny 
(although Metcalf correctly calls them fuscous at the beginning of the 
description). Also, the wing venation (Fig. 2) differs greatly from Metcalfs 





2 



I mm 



1 



Imm 




3 



I mm 



Fig. 1. Male E. harti, lateral aspect, showing "wings up" posture. 

Fig. 2. Venation of front and hind wings of a female E. harti. Note the row of waxy scales 
along the costal margin and the fringe of wax along the posterior margin, present in 
fresh specimens only. 



Fig. 3. Fully developed spotting pattern of E. harti. The dark areas along the costal and 
posterior margins and along the radius are rosy red; other spots are fuscous. 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 53 

Fig. 520 (his Fig. 23 agrees closely). Ball ( 1 928) called this discrepancy to 
Metcalf s attention, with Metcalf ( 1928) replying that the two figures were 
drawn from the type specimen, which he no longer had. The wing spotting 
pattern is variable, with smaller spots sometimes absent; Fig. 3 shows a 
fully developed pattern. Fennah (1952) characterized Sikaiana (which he 
synonomized with Euklastus) as having hind wings 1/3 the length of the 
front wings. In my series they are nearly 1/2 as long. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Dr. James P. Kramer, SEL-USDA, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 
determined the specimens and provided other assistance. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ball, E.D. 1928. Some new genera and species of N.A. Derbidae with notes on others 
(Fulgoridae). Can. Entomol. 60: 196-201. 

Curtis, J.T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. U. of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 657 p. 

Fennah, R.G. 1952. On the generic classification of Derbidae (Fulgoroidea), with descrip- 
tions of new neotropical species. Trans. Royal Entomol. Soc. London. 103: 109-170. 

Metcalf, Z.P. 1 923. A key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North American with descriptions of 
new species. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 38: 139-230. 

. 1938. The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama. Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., Harvard. 82: 277-423. 

1945. General catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV Fulgoroidea, parts 4 - 7. 



Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 

Wilson, S.W. &J.E. McPherson. 1980. A list of the Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) of southern 
Illinois. Great Lakes Entomol. 13: 25-30. 



Continued from page 48 

The acid test will be whether journal editors require authors to conform to the new 
authority. If so, there will be massive complaint; if not, massive confusion. Opposition to name 
changes should be based on something besides nostalgia, but there is no denying they hurt, 
especially in such large doses. They have been so frequent in the birds that any sane 
ornithologist has long preferred the common names, which are much more durable. (Even 
there, the American Ornithological Union changes them too to bring them into conformity 
with new splits and lumps, but rarely are entirely new coinages sprung.) Alexander B. Klots 
summed it up wryly in the Field Guide to the Butterflies when he noted that the male Monarch 
must smell just as sweet to his lady, whether we call him Anosia or Danaus. For the record, 
he's still Danaus in this volume. 

Arthur M. Shapiro, Department of Zoology, University of California, Davis, California 
95616. 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

CREATING AND MAINTAINING CULTURES 

OF CHIRONOMUS TENT AN S 
(DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE)i 

Zenaida Batac-Catalan, David S. White 2 

ABSTRACT: A modified procedure for continuous culture of Chironomus teutons Fabricius, 
which requires equipment generally available in biological laboratories, is presented. The 
substrate on which the larvae are reared consists of acetone-treated and boiled paper towels. 
Liquified vegetable diet is used for more uniform distribution of food in the culture. 

Methods exist in the literature for rearing and maintaining cultures of 
several genera and species of Chironomidae (Biever 1965, Yount 1966; 
Credland 1973;DowneandCaspary 1973;Gallepp 1979; also see reviews 
by Fittkau el al. 1976; Merritt et al. 1978) including Chironomus tentans 
(Sadler 1935; Hall et al. 1970). Major difficulties in methodology have 
been both biological (usually low survivorship) and physical. Even the best 
methods require construction of special tanks and cages and then may take a 
considerable period of trial and error through a lack of specific detail in 
published methods. It is not unusual that a year or more may elapse before 
some methods produce enough individuals for experimental needs. 

Chironomus tentans, a hardy species, has proven ideal in ecological 
and physiological studies, as a toxicological test organism in the laboratory, 
and may be used as a food source for other aquatic organisms. In designing 
the methods used, we have relied on basic principles, hints from the 
literature and three years of our own trial and error. Equipment needed is 
minimal and generally available in most types of biological laboratories. 
The methods should be applicable to any of the tube-dwelling, filter feeding 
or grazing Chironomidae (Leathers 1923). 

The quantities given below will create one ""continuous" culture in a 
standard 38 1 ( 10 gal.) aquarium. We do not recommend larger aquariums 
as they prove to be much less productive per unit area. Aquariums as small 
as 4 1 (1 gal. glass jars) can be used effectively. One culture should yield up 
to 20 larvae per day. This is equivalent to 180mgof3rdinstaror 300mgof 
4th larval instar. 

Substrate: C. tentans prefers a soft, flocculent substrate (Sadler 1935) 
which can be artificially duplicated by ground and shredded paper toweling. 
To achieve suitable texture and to remove impurities, the paper is soaked in 
acetone and then boiled. If the chironomid larvae are to be used in tests with 



1 Received October 15, 1981 

^Great Lakes Research Division and School of Natural Resources, 1081 NU, University of 

Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Contribution No. 327 from the Great Lakes Research 

Division. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (2) 54-58, March & April, 1982 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 55 

toxic organic compounds, any residual acetone left in the toweling will 
affect the results even if present only in trace amounts. In this case all the 
acetone must be removed by keeping the paper in boiling water for at least 
48 hours with four or five complete changes of water. It may be desirable to 
process large batches of paper at one time which then can be kept frozen 
until needed (R. Mazzone, pers. comm.). 

Soak 12 sections (approx. 50 gms) of Scott - . Nibroc" or an equivalent 
type of brown paper hand towel (26x10 cm folded two-ply) in enough 
acetone to keep them wet in a closed glass container for at least 30 minutes. 
Squeeze out the acetone and replace it with a fresh amount for a second and 
third 30 minute period. If a Soxhlet acetone extractor is available, the 
acetone may be reused. Rinse the towels in distilled water or carbon-filtered 
water four or five times until the strong odor of acetone is removed. Reboil 
the paper in distilled or carbon filtered water for 1 hour or until most of the 
color is removed brown towels will remain a light tan. Finally, cut or tear 
the towels into smaller pieces and shred to a coarse pulp using a blender. 

Aquarium assembly: A simple aquarium and adult capture system is 
given in Fig. Ib. The aquarium is of a standard 38 1 ( 10 gal.) size measuring 
approximately 26x41x21 cm. The bag (1-2 mm coarse mesh cloth) will 
effectively contain emerging adults even when loosely fitted to the 
aquarium. Access to the inside of the bag is through two overlapping flaps 
that may be closed and fastened by a few pins. Strings attached to the four 
corners are tied to any fixed structure above the aquarium to hold the bag in 
place. 

Starting cultures: In a 38 1 aquarium, place 10 1 of carbon-filtered or 
conditioned tap-water (water exposed to the atmosphere and aerated for 3- 
4 hours.) Add the shredded towel, 1 ml of prepared food (see below), and 
mix thoroughly. Allow 1 hour of settling time which should produce a 
substrate layer 2.5-4.0 cm thick. Carefully add enough additional water to 
create a 3 cm clear layer over the substrate. If any substrate is resuspended 
during one of the steps, allow time for it to resettle. The air supply to the tank 
should be at a rate that does not resuspend the substrate. This may be done 
by suspending an airstone at a level just below the surface of the water. ( Fig. 
Ib). Two or three egg masses obtained by the method below may now be 
placed very gently on the surface of the substrate. 

Food and feeding: Several types of food have been used in maintaining 
larval Chironomidae with varying degrees of success (Biever 1965). We 
have chosen the following composition because it can be liquified and thus 
more uniformly distributed in the culture. Food is prepared by blending 20 
gm 'Tetra" Conditioning Food, Vegetable Diet for Tropical Fish" with 
200 ml distilled or carbon-filtered water. Prepared food should be kept 



56 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



(ASPIRATOR 



1/4 in 
GLASS TUBING 




A 



RUBBER TUBING 



(EGG COLLECTOR) 



COTTON STOPPER 



250 ml ERLENMEYER 
FLASK 



WATER 




COARSE MESH 
CLOTH BAG 




WATER LEVEL 

SUBSTRATE 

LEVEL 






21 



38 I AQUARIUM 

41 



Fig. 1. Equipment employed for forced matings and egg collection of Chironomus tentans 
(A), and oblique view of established culture aquarium with adult capture bag (B), 
measurements for aquarium and bag are in centimeters. 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 57 

refrigerated Shake the mixture well and add about 1 ml at the start of each 
culture and after every change of water. The amount of food added depends 
on the density and age of the larvae. If too much food has been added, the 
water will appear cloudy the next day. If the water remains cloudy, it should 
be replaced. 

Maintaining cultures: Because nutrients and byproducts build up quickly, 
at least part of the water should be changed every 4-7 days. Surface water is 
siphoned off down to a level just above the substrate. Freshly prepared 
water plus 1 ml of food is added slowly until the original depth is reached. 

Continuing and starting new cultures: At 21 C, egg masses hatch 2-3 
days after deposition, 1st instars appear in 3-4 days. 2nd instars in 6-8 
days, 3rd instars are present after 12-14 days. 4th instars appear around the 
third week, and adults begin to emerge after 4-5 weeks. The generation of 
larvae will be continuous to some degree if left undisturbed because a small 
percentage of the adults will mate and some egg masses will be deposited in 
the culture. To maintain healthy cultures, a more forced type of mating is 
recommended. Adults are aspirated into a dry 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask 
(Fig. la) which is then loosely stoppered with cotton (Fig. la). Three or 
four pairs of males and females should produce enough eggs to begin a new- 
culture. Adults are left to mate in the dry flask for several hours, then a 
volume of 50 ml of conditioned water is gradually added. The flask is set at a 
slight angle so that most of the water is at one side. Eggs are deposited 
before dawn, so the age of the mass can be determined. Eggs may be used to 
restock old cultures, stail new ones, or used in experiments that require this 
life stage. A new egg mass should be added to ongoing cultures every 2-3 
days for maximum harvest and emergence rates. 

If maintained as above, a culture should be productive for about 6 
months. After that time the old culture should be discarded. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish u< thank J Kawatski of LaCrosse. Wisconsin tor suppl>ing the original stock ot 
Cliin>n<'nn<\ icniuin. Jarl Miltunen ot the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Ann Arbor, and 
Clifford RKV and Michael Wmnell of the Great Lakes Research Di\ ision cnt.cally reviewed 
the manuscript and their comments are greatly appreciated. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bievcr. K.D. l'>65. A rearing technique for the coloni/ation of chironomid midges. Ann. 

Hitomol Soc. Am 64: I 1 66- 1 169. 
Credland. P.E. 1973. A new method for establishing a permanent laboratory culture of 

Ctiininimi<! ripuriu* Meigen (Diptera: Chironomidae). Freshwat. Biol. 3: 45-51. 
Downe. A.E.R., and V.G. Caspary. 1973. The swarming behavior of CA/ro/io/MMJ 

(Oiptera: Chironomidae) in the laboratory. Can. Entomol, 105: 165-171 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Fittkau, E J., F. Reiss, and O. Hoffrichter. 1976. A bibliography of the Chironomidae. Det. 

KGL. Norske Videnskabers Selskab Museet, Gunneria 26. 177 pp. 
Gallepp, G.W. 1979. Chironomid influence on phosphorus release in sediment-water 

microcosms. Ecology 60: 547-556. 
Hall, D.J., W.E. Cooper, and E.E. Werner. 1970. An experimental approach to the 

production dynamics and structure of freshwater animal communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 

15: 839-928. 
Leathers, A. 1923. Ecological study of aquatic midges and some related insects with special 

reference to feeding habits. Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish. 37: 1-62. 
Merritt, R.W., K.W. Cummins, and V.H. Resh. 1978. Collecting, sampling, and rearing 

methods for aquatic insects, pp. 13-28. In: R.W. Merritt, and K.W. Cummins. An 

introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publ. Co., Dubuque, 

Iowa. 441 pp. 
Sadler, W.0. 1935. Biology of the midge Chironomous tentans Fabricius and methods for its 

propagation. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mem. 173: 1-25. 
Yount, J. 1966. A method for rearing large numbers of pond midge larvae, with estimates of 

productivity and standing crop. Am. Midi. Nat. 76: 230-238. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

C/O BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 11/4 

(A.N.(S.) 121) 12 March, 1982 

The Commission hereby gives six months' notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 39, part 
1, on 11 March, 1982, and would welcome comments and advice on them from interested 
zoologists. Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if 
possible within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

2067 ThripsrufaHa\iday, 1836(Insecta, Thysanoptera,Thripidae): proposed ruling 

that this is a nomenclaturally valid name for the type species of Aptinothrips 
Haliday, 1836. 

2169 Phrynus Lamarck, 1801 (Arachnida, Amblypygi): proposed conservation. 

2305 Agrotis redimicula Morrison, 1875 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed conserva- 

tion from 1874. 

2346 Buprestis nana Paykull, 1799, non Gmelin, 1790 (Insecta, Coleoptera): 

proposed conservation. 

2351 PapiliofatimaFabricms, 1793 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): request for conservation 

under the plenary powers. 

2355 AttusotiosusHentz, 1846(Araneae,Salticidae): proposed conservation under 

the plenary powers. 

Continued on page 60 



Vol. 93, No. 2, March & April 1982 59 



BOOK REVIEW 

Otte, D., 1981 The North American Grasshoppers. Vol. I Acrididae 
Gomphocerinae and Acridinae. Harvard University Press. 275 pp., 76 
figs., 16 pis., maps. Price $45.00. 

The historically long overdue and eagerly awaited first volume of this three volume work 
has now appeared. Volume I covers forty-four genera in the subfamilies Gomphocerinae and 
Acridinae, a total of 1 27 species. Volume II will deal with a special favourite of Dr. Otte's, the 
Oedipodinae, while volume III will cover the Melanoplinae, Romaleinae and other similar 
groups. To produce a popular but accurate work for identifying a group of organisms inhabiting 
an area as great as Canada, the United States and Central America as far east as the Gulf of 
Panama is a daunting task. To the field naturalist the book must offer a means of quick 
identification with keys and clear illustrations. Equally, professional biologists studying 
ecology or physiology may criticize oversimplistic approaches and may demand details such 
as synonymic lists. To include these, however, may clutter the text making the book as 
unaesthetic and difficult to read as are most taxonomic papers. Dan Otte threads his way 
neatly through these difficulties and emerges with a beautifully produced book, profusely 
illustrated with a wealth of line drawings in the text and colour plates which are made by his 
skillful use of watercolour wash, ink and pencil. The colour plates are a particular triumph in 
this volume, since they present a soft natural look while subtley caricaturing the insects to 
highlight the diagnostic features in a way which a photograph seems unable to do. 

Before the advent of this volume nothing of real worth had been produced for North 
America as a whole. The grasshopper faunas of the U.S.S.R., Europe including the 
Mediterranean, Africa, Madagascar, India, southeast Asia and Australia were however 
already covered by faunal works, but their quality is very variable. The only modern works are 
those on Europe (Harz, 1975) and Madagascar (Dirsh, 1962a, 1962b, 1963; Dirsh and 
Descamps, 1968). If they were works intended for widespread use they all suffer from being 
over technical. Only in the treatises on the fauna of Madagascar and Africa (Dirsh, 1 965 ) are 
the illustrations of acceptable standard. Several of these books are hopelessly out of date, this 
being especially the case in the Kirby (1914) volume on the fauna of India. Dr. Otte sets new 
and very high standards which it is to be hoped will be emulated by future authors. For South 
America a growing body of work by Roberts, Descamps and Amedegnato will eventually 
provide the means by which a synthetic work can be compiled. At the revisionary stage, 
however, taxonomic treatment does not lend itself readily to popularization, since many of the 
procedures agreed to be necessary internationally, hinder the straight forward assembling of a 
recognition handbook. The new volume is a skillful compromise between a sufficiency of 
technical background and the clarity and brevity necessary to make a book which will appeal to 
a wide public, naturalists, laymen and professionals alike. 

"The North American Grasshoppers" is revolutionary in having an author with the wits to 
take the study to a biogeographically realistic limit, the Gulf of Panama and West Indies, 
rather than the totally parochial and biologically meaningless political boundary between 
Mexico and the United States, which had been the cut-offline used by earlier authors. The 
introduction is an excellent pithy mix of information and warning. Where keys are not 
essential, here as elsewhere in the book, easily comparable, standardized, lists of characters are 
given. Text figures are inserted into the keys at the point they are needed. The colour plates are 
so outstanding that with some familiarity with the subfamily position, most species can be 
identified from the illustrations alone. Gone too are key couplets spread over acres of text. 
Technical matters such as type designation, synonymy and new taxonomy, are listed in 
appendices at the end of the book, leaving the text clear and uncomplicated. The treatment of 
each species includes sections on distribution (with map), recognition, habitat, behavior and 
life cycle. A list of the main references follows. 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Among some of the major points of interest accented by the author is the loss in six species 
of Orphulella of their stridulatory pegs, a feature which in the past would have placed them in 
the Acridinae. Stethophyma is put in the Gomphocerinae and he draws attention to the special 
position of the Hyalopteryx genus group within the Acridinae. Dirsh (1975) has already 
drawn attention to the heterogeneous nature of many subfamilies such as the Acridinae. No 
doubt further regrouping of genera will be needed in the near future in other sections of the 
Acridinae. 

Future volumes, will undoubtedly be as desirable as this one. The band-wing grasshoppers 
of the Oedipodinae are as colourful as butterflies and will present the author with a golden 
opportunity to indulge his artisitc talents. The final volume will be the greatest challenge, since 
the many Melanoplus species of North American are at present most readily identified using 
the male genitalia and no one has yet analyzed their external characteristics in order to provide 
reliable key characters. Since the Romaleinae of Central American include some of the largest 
and most colourful grasshoppers in the world and will be illustrated in volume III, this will 
make the complete publication a real collectors item. The entire book will undoubtedly act as 
spur to advance in the study of physiology, ecology and genetics within groups of related 
genera. This gives North American biologists a chance to advance acridological science in a 
way which is otherwise only available to entomologists in the tropics, where working 
conditions and access to species are much more difficult. 

N.D. Jago, 
Acridid Taxonomy Section, C.O.P.R., London 



LITERATURE CITED 

Dirsh, V.M. 1962a. The Acridoidea (Orthoptera) of Madagascar. I Acrididae (except 
Acridinae) Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. Hist.) Ent., 12: 273 - 350, 40 figs. 

., \962bjbid. II Acrididae, Acridinae. Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. Hist.) Ent., 13: 243- 
286,21 figs. 

, 1963, Ibid. II Pyrogomorphidae. Bull. Brit. Mus. (nat. Hist.) Ent., 14:49 - 103, 



29 figs. 

, 1965. The African Genera of Acridoidea. 579 pp., 452 figs. Cambridge 



University Press, England 

_ ., 1975, Classification of the Acridomorphoid Insects, vii + 171 pp., 74 figs. 

Classey, Oxford, England 
Dirsh, V.M. and Descamp, M., 1968 Faune de Madagascar 26. Insectes Orthopteres 

Acridoidae. Pyrgomorphidae et Acrididae. 3 1 2 pp., 1 32 figs. ORSTOM & CNRS, Paris 

publ. ausp. Gouvernement de la Republique Malgache. 
Harz, K., 1975. The Orthoptera of Europe II. 939 pp., 3482 figs. The Hague, (Junk). 

Schimitschek & Spencer eds. 
Kirby, W.F. 1914. The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. 276 pp., 140 

figs. Taylor and Francis, London 

Continued from page 58 

2364 Simulium amazonicum Goeldi, 1905 (Diptera, Simuliidae): proposed sup- 

pression of syntypes and designation of neotype. 

2369 Damalis Fabricius, 1805 (Insecta, Diptera): request for designation of type 

species. 

2320 Aphelinus mytilaspidis Le Baron, 1 870 ( Insecta, Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae): 

proposed conservation. 

R.V. MELVILLE 
Secretary 



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MAY & JUNE 1982 



ENTO 






Egg of the cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus 
(Coleoptera: Trogositidae: Fine structure 
of the chorion R.T. Arbogast, R.V. Byrd 61 



Notes on biology of Hybomitra daeckei 

(Diptera: Tabanidae) R.K. Sojield, E.J. Hansens 67 



Population model for fleas of gray-tailed vole, 
Microtus canicaudus (Siphonaptera) 

R. G. Robbins, G.D. Faulkenberry 72 



Notes on nesting behavior of Ectemnius centralis 

(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) A. Hook 75 



New record of Tanytarsus (Subletted) coffmani 
(Diptera: Chironomidae) from North Carolina 

Thomas J. Wilda 77 



Annotated list of Trichoptera of several streams 
on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida 

S.C. Harris, P.K. Lago, J.F. Scheiring 79 



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Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 61 



THE EGG OF THE CADELLE, TENEBROIDES 

MAURITANICUS (L.) (COLEOPTERA: 
TROGOSITIDAE): FINE STRUCTURE OF THE 

CHORION 1 

Richard T. Arbogast 2 , Richard V. Byrd 2 

ABSTRACT: The chorion of the cadelle, Tenebroides mauritanicus(L.), egg was studied by 
scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The egg is elongate fusiform (1.18 x 0.30 
mm), often slightly curved. The surface is covered by closely-spaced excrescences that 
constitute an interrupted outer layer of the chorion about 0.64 /im thick. Each excrescence 
consists of a globular electron-dense mass supported on electron-lucent trabeculae. The 
excrescences arise from a fibrous or crystalline layer of chorion about 0.19 jum thick. The 
chorion is devoid of aerophyles and lacks an air-filled intrachorionic network. There is 
normally a single micropylar opening on the anterior end of the egg, and this opening is usally 
surrounded by a reticulate pattern of petal-shaped or polygonal cells. 

The cadelle, Tenebroides mautitanicus (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of 
stored-grain and grain products. Its egg has been described briefly and 
figured by Back and Cotton (1926) and by LeCato and Flaherty ( 1 974), but 
there have been no detailed studies of its chorionic structure, nor have there 
been any such studies of other trogositid eggs. The electron microscope 
study reported here was conducted as part of a project undertaken to 
characterize the eggs of stored-product insects and facilitate their identifica- 
tion. 

Materials and Methods 

Eggs were collected by confining adult beetles in petri dishes with rolled 
oats to which a small quantity of agar had been added to maintain moisture. 
Female cadelles will deposit their eggs loosely in food material, but they 
show a preference for inserting them in cracks and crevices and will oviposit 
more readily if such oviposition sites are available. Accordingly, each petri 
dish was provided with an oviposition block consisting of a small piece of 
file card sandwiched between two pieces of rigid plastic (2 to 3 cm square) 
held together with a rubber band. The card served to hold the edges of the 
plastic squares apart, and females oviposited readily in the crevice between 
them. 

Eggs were removed from the blocks, washed by gentle agitation in a 1 % 
solution of Triton X-100, rinsed in distilled water, and fixed overnight in 



'Received December 17, 1981 

2 Stored-Product Insects Research and Development Laboratory, Agr. Res. Serv., USDA, 
P.O. Box 22909, Savannah, GA 31403. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (3) 61-66, May & June 1982 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



1% osmium tetroxide in Millonig's buffer. For examination in the scanning 
electron microscope (SEM), the eggs were then rinsed in distilled water, air 
dried, mounted with double-sided tape on SEM stubs, and sputter coated 
with gold. They were examined in an ISI, M-7 SEM at 15 kV. 
Approximately 100 eggs were examined. Length and width were determined 
from a sample of 20 eggs. Measurements were made on the display screen 
of the microscope at X 50. Measurements are given as means standard 
deviation. 

For examination by transmission electron microscope, the eggs were 
rinsed in Millonig's buffer after fixation and dehydrated in a graded series of 
water-ethanol solutions followed by ethanol and propylene oxide. Initial 
infiltration in a 1:1 mixture of propylene oxide and embedding resin 
(Araldite 6005) overnight was followed by two infiltration steps in pure 
resin, the first for 5 hrs. and the second overnight. After infiltration, the eggs 
were transferred to resin which was then cured at 48 C overnight. Sections 
were cut using a glass knife on a Porter Blum MT-2B ultramicrotome and 
stained by flotation of grids on a 1% solution of uranyl acetate in water for 
10 min. followed by flotation on Reynold's lead citrate for 3 minutes. The 
sections were examined in a Phillips EM-200. 

Results and Discussion 

The egg of the cadelle is slender (1.18 0.05 x 0.30 + 0.01 mm), 
elongate fusiform, often slightly curved, opaque, and milky white in color 
(Fig. 1 ). When the egg is viewed by reflected light with a light microscope, it 
appears smooth and shining with a faint iridescence when illuminated from 
certain angles. 

Examination of the egg at X 1 ,000 to 2,000 by SEM revealed a rough, 
granular surface textue (Fig. 2, 3). Higher magnification (Fig. 4, 5) showed 
that this texture is produced by closely-spaced excrescences of the surface 
which constitute an interrupted external layer of chorion about 0.64 jam 
thick (Fig. 6). Each excrescence consists of a globular, electron-dense mass 
supported on electron-lucent trabeculae (Fig. 5, 6). The surface of the 
chorion between excrescences is marked by tubercles similar in size to the 
globules that make up the electron-dense masses (Fig. 5 ). The excrescences 
and tubercles arise from a fibrous layer of chorion about 0. 1 9 jum thick (Fig. 
6). In thin sections, the fibers of this layer appear as bands with a periodicity 
of about 1 14 A oriented parallel, perpendicular, or at various angles to the 
surface of the chorion (Fig. 6, 7). In a survey of 45 species, Furneaux and 
MacKay ( 1 972) found banding of this sort in the chorion of insects from six 
orders (Orthoptera, Odonata, Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, and 
Coleoptera). They pointed out that these patterns suggest a crystalline 
arrangement of units which are about the same size as protein molecules 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 



63 



and showed by chemical analysis that the crytalline material is indeed 
protein. In the cadelle egg, there is a homogeneous layer about 0.06 jum 
thick beneath the fibrous chorion (Fig. 6,7). The appearance of this layer in 








Figs. \-3.EggofTenebroidesmauritanicus. a. Lateral view(X 55). 2. Anterior pole showing 
pattern of cells in the micropylar area (X 870). 3. Detail of the micropylar area showing the 
single micropylar opening (arrow) (X 1,755). 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



electron micrographs suggests that it consists of wax or other lipid. The 
vitelline membrane (Fig. 7) and serosal cuticle lie beneath this layer but 
usually become widely separated from it during fixation and dehydration. 

The chorion of the cadelle egg is devoid of aeropyles and lacks an air- 
filled intrachorionic meshwork. Apparently gases are exchanged directly 
through the thin shell and through the micropyle. 

There is normally a single micropylar opening about 2 jum in diameter 
near the anterior pole (Fig. 3), but a few eggs were observed in which there 
were two. The anterior end of the egg is marked by a reticulate pattern of 
petal-shaped or polygonal cells which fades out rapidly toward the equator 
and disappears a short distance from the pole. This pattern may be well- 
defined and more or less symmetrical about the micropylar opening (Fig. 2) 
or it may be faint and asymmetrical (Fig. 3). In a few eggs, it was barely 
perceptible or absent. 

There is a considerable variation among beetles, even within families, 
in the complexity of chorionic structure. Some beetle eggs, such as those of 
certain staphylinids, have a thick chorion (10 to >50 jum thick) with 
elaborate respiratory systems of aeropyles and intrachorionic air spaces 
(Hinton, 1981). At the other extreme, the eggs of Dermestes maculatus 
DeGeer and Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae) lack a chorion and are 
enclosed only by the vitelline membrane (Furneaux and MacKay, 1972). 
The egg of the cadelle is of a relatively simple type. In several respects it 
resembles the egg of the meloid beetle Lytta viridana LeConte described by 
Sweeney et al. (1968). Like the cadelle, the chorion of L. viridana is thin 
(0.2 to 0.3 /xm thick) and lacks aeropyles and a intrachorionic meshwork. 
Also, as in the cadelle, there is a homogenous layer, possible wax or other 
lipid, beneath the chorion, although this layer is thinner ( 1 00 to 1 50 A) than 
in the cadelle. The shell of L. viridana, however, consists only of a 
crystalline layer: there is no outer layer of excrescences as in the cadelle. In 
this respect the cadelle egg is more elaborate, but is is simpler with respect to 
micropylar structure. The micropylar apparatus of the cadelle normally 
consists of a single unguarded opening near the anterior pole. That of L. 
viridana consists of a ring of openings around the anterior pole, each of 
which is covered by a U-, V-, or Y-shaped hood opening toward the pole 
(Sweeney et al., 1968; Church et al., 1970). 

The chorion of the cadelle egg bears a striking resemblence to that of the 
psychid moths, Luffia ferchaultella Steph. and Fumea casta Pallas, as 
described by Chauvin and Barbier (1974). The eggs of these moths are 
unusual among Lepidoptera in the morphology and thinness of the chorion. 
The surface is covered by closely-spaced, nearly spherical papillae ranging 
from 0.2 to 0.5 jurn in diameter. These rest upon trabecula-like supports 
arising from a thin (0.08 jum thick) homogeneous layer. Thus, the outer 
layer of chorion is discontinuous as it is in the cadelle. Also as in the cadelle, 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 



65 



there is a homogenous layer, possible lipid, as much as 0.2 jum thick beneath 
the chorion. Chauvin and Barbier pointed out the similarity between the 
chorion of these moths and that of the mosquito, Culex pipiens L., 
described by Hinton ( 1 968) and interpreted as a respiratory plastron. They 







H 




Figs. 4-6. Egg of Tenebroides mauritanicus. 4. Portion of chorion near equator showing 
microtexture of the surface (X 4,870). 5. Detail of microtexture in the same region (X 14, 
415). 6. Thin section of chorion (X 40, 420) showing globular masses (M) and trabeculae (T) 
of excrescences, the fibrous or crystalline layer of the chorion (C), and the homogeneous layer 
(H) beneath the chorion. 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



noted that although psychid eggs are not covered by water under natural 
conditions, the morphology of their chorion might be an adaptation to the 
high humidity which must exist within the pupal exuviae in which the eggs 
are deposited. Similarly, the chorion of the cadelle egg may be an 
adaptation to an existence in cracks and crevices where the egg could 
become covered with a film of water. 




t '*:* 




H 



Fig. 7. Egg of Tenebroides mauritanicus: thin section of chorion (X 125,400) showing a 
portion of the globular mass (M) and trabeculae (T) of an excrescence, the fibrous or 
crystalline layer of the chorion (C) with banding perpendicular to the surface, and the 
homogeneous layer (H) and vitelline membrane (V) beneath the chorion. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Back, E.A. and R.T. Cotton. 1926. The cadelle. U.S. Dep. Agric. Bull. No. 1428: 41 pp. 
Chauvin, G. and R. Barbier. 1974. Ultrastructure des oefs parthenogenetique de Luffia 

ferchaultella Steph. et de Futnea casta Pallas (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Bull. Biol. Fr. 

Belg. 108:245-52. 
Church, N.S., E.H. Salkeld and J.G. Rempel. 1970. The structure of the micropyles of 

Lvtta nuttalli Say and L. viridana LeConte (Coleoptera: Meloidae). Can. J. Zool. 

48:894-95. 
Furneaux, P.J.S. and A.L. Mackay. 1972. Crystlline protein in the chorion of insect egg 

shells. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 38:343-59. 
Hinton, H.E. 1 968. Structure and protective devices of the egg of the mosquito Culexpipiens. 

J. Insect Physiol. 14:145-61. 

Hinton, H.E. 1981. Biology of Insect Eggs. Pergamom Press, Oxford. 3 Vols., 1 125 p. 
LeCato, G.L. and B.R. Flaherty. 1974. Description of eggs of selected species of stored- 

product insects (Coleoptera and Lepidoptera). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 47:308-17. 
Sweeney, P.R., N.S. Church, J.G. Rempel, and R.G. Gerrity. The embryology of Lytta 

viridana LeConte (Coleoptera: Meloidae). III. The structure of the chorion and 

micropyles. Can. J. Zool. 46:213-17. 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 67 

NOTES ON BIOLOGY OF HYBOMITRA DAECKEI 
(HINE) (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) 12 

Roy K. Sofield, Elton J. Hansens 3 



ABSTRACT: Hybomitra daeckei (Hine) was observed ovipositing on ScirpusmariiimusL. 
and Spartina alterniflora Loisel. on a New Jersey salt marsh. Egg masses were also found on 
Phragmites and Distichlis. Larvae from these eggs were maintained as long as one year but did 
not pupate. Males hovered over the salt marsh in the morning and prior to hovering of Tabanus 
nigrovittatus Macquart. 

Hybomitra daeckei (Mine) is a coastal species of horse fly which is 
found from Maine to Georgia (Thompson 1967). This is an early season 
species and has been observed during May and June in New Jersey. H. 
daeckei seldom bites humans but can be a significant pest on livestock 
(Pechuman 1972). 

Hansens (1952) reported that adult H. daeckei emerge 7 to 10 days 
before Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, and may be useful in forecasting 
the emergence of T. nigrovittatus. The larval and pupal stages of//, daeckei 
were described by Tesky and Burger (1976) from a single specimen 
collected "on a small island in a large, shallow body of impounded slightly 
brackish water" at the Chinocoteague National Wildlife Refuge. Additional 
references to the immature stages of this species have not been found. 

In June 1979, approximately 10//. daeckei were observed ovipositing 
on Scirpus maritimus L. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel. in a salt marsh 
near Cedarville, NJ. Most of the females were in a head down posture while 
ovipositing. The ovipositing females were usually very tolerant of an 
observer approaching and handling the plant on which the fly was 
ovipositing. Ovipositing flies were easily captured, and in some cases, 
continued ovipositing on the plant after being placed in a container. We also 
found 23 other egg masses of this species, mostly on Scirpus martimus but 
also on Phragmites communisTr'm., Spartina alterniflora, and Distichlis 
spicata (L.). The Scirpus was in an area dominated by Spartina patens 
(Ait.). 

The egg masses were usually one tiered with the eggs at an angle of 
about 60 degrees from horizontal. We found five egg masses in 1980, four 



Deceived December 15, 1981 

2 New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Publication No. D-08409- 15-82, supported 
by State funds. 

Department of Entomology and Economic Zoology, Cook College, New Jersey Agriculture 
Experiment Station. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (3) 67-69, May & June 1982 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

on Scirpus and one on Phragmites. Those on Scirpus were 43-58 cm from 
the marsh surface (mean of 50 cm) and the egg mass on Phragmites was at a 
height of 73 cm. All egg masses were 4.5-13 cm from the end of the blade 
(mean of 7.3 cm). The number of eggs in three masses ranged from 240 to 
500 with a mean of 418 eggs. The eggs were white when laid but turned 
brown after several hours. 

The eggs hatched 5 to 7 days after being laid. During the incubation 
period, the eggs were kept in snap cap vials or petri dishes with wet filter 
paper. Petri dishes were unsatisfactory because many of the larvae crawled 
out soon after the eggs hatched. Of the 278 neonate larvae maintained in the 
laboratory, only 1 2 survived for a year before being advertently destroyed. 
Larvae reached the 7th to 1 1th instars in 5 months. The larvae were then 
incubated at 4C for two months to simulate overwintering. The temperature 
was returned to 27 C and one larva reached the 1 3th instar but none of the 
larvae pupated. 

While it is possible that the larvae require 2 years to mature, they 
appeared to be fully grown after only 5 months in the laboratory. The 
requirements for pupation of//, daeckei are not known but must be different 
from those of T. nigrovittatus which pupates readily in the laboratory. 
Possibly for this early season species, increasing photoperiod triggers 
pupation. 

We observed male H. daeckei hovering on 6 separate days from 28 
May to 18 June (Table 1). Most of the observations were made on a 
Spartina patens marsh close to the ecotone, but one male was observed 
hovering in a stand of Phragmites. The duration of hovering was 5 to 65 
minutes with an average of 37 minutes each day. Hovering began when the 
ambient temperature was as low as 17.8C. Each day, the//, daeckei males 
began to hover about one hour before T. nigrovittatus males. Both species 
were observed hovering simultaneously only once, for a period of about 4 
minutes. The males hovered at about the same height as the top of the marsh 
vegetation. During total calm the males faced in any direction while 
hovering, but in a breeze they faced into the wind. Copulation was observed 
once. The flies coupled in midair and then landed on a blade of grass, end to 
end. The pair was collected for oviposition. 

Additional investigations are needed to define the larval habitat of //. 
daeckei. Larvae of this species have not been reported from salt marshes 
despite extensive larval surveys on the marshes in Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
Long Island, New Jersey, North Carolina and other areas along the eastern 
coast (Meany et al. 1976, Magnarelli and Anderson 1978, Freeman and 
Hansens 1972, Dukes et al. 1974). Emergence traps have been used on 
New Jersey salt marshes, but have been unsuccessful in collecting //. 
daeckei (Rockel and Hansens 1970). This species seems to have a 
restricted larval habitat. Our information on oviposition sites may assist 
future investigators in defining the larval habitat of //. daeckei. 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 69 

Table 1. Time (EDT) of male H. daeckei hovering on a salt marsh near Cedarville, NJ. 

Date Hovering Observed 

start finish 

28 May 80 0935 0940 

4 June 80 0820 0925 

5 June 80 0815 0900 
1 1 June 80 0850 0905 
13 June 80 0725 0825 
18 June 81 0725 0745 

LITERATURE CITED 

Dukes, J.C., T.D. Edwards and R.C. Axtell. 1974. Distribution of larval Tabanidae 

(Diptera) in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. J. Med. Entomol. 1 1:79-83. 
Freeman, J.V. and E.J. Hansens. 1972. Collecting larvae of the salt marsh greenhead 

Tabanus nigrovittatus and related species in New Jersey: Comparison of methods. 

Environ. Entomol. 1:653-658. 
Hansens, E.J. 1952. Some observations on the abundance of salt marsh greenheads. Proc. 

N.J. Mosq. Exterm. Assoc. 39:93-98. 
Magnarelli, L.A. and J.F. Anderson. 1978. Distribution and development of immature salt 

marsh Tabanidae (Diptera). J. Med. Entomol. 14:573-578. 
Meany, R.A., I. Valiela and J.M. Teal. 1976. Growth, abundance, and distribution of larval 

tabanids in experimentally fertilized plots on a Massachusetts salt marsh. J. Appl. Ecol. 

13:323-332. 
Pechuman, L.L. 1972. The horse flies and deer flies of New York (Diptera, Tabanidae). 

Search 2, No. 5:1-72. 
Rockel, E.G. and E.J. Hansens. 1 970. Emergence and flight activity of the salt marsh horse 

flies and deer flies. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63:27-31. 
Teskey, H.J. and J.F. Burger. 1976. Further larvae and pupae of eastern North American 

Tabanidae (Diptera). Can. Entomol. 108:1085-1096. 
Thompson, P.H. 1967. Tabanidae of Maryland. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 93:463-519. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to thank M.J. Angelo for her valuable assistance during this research. We also 
wish to thank Dr. J.V. Freeman and Dr. L.L. Pechuman for their suggestions on an earlier 
version of this manuscript. This work was performed as a part of NJAES Project No. 08409. 
supported by the New Jersey Agr. Exp. Sta., and by the Cedarville Cooperative, Cedarville. 
NJ. 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A POPULATION MODEL FOR FLEAS OF THE 
GRAY-TAILED VOLE, MICROTUS CANICAUDUS 

MILLERi 

Richard G. Robbins^, G. David Faulkenberry^ 

ABSTRACT: Negative binomial probability distributions are successfully fit to observed 
frequency distributions of fleas on the gray-tailed vole, Microtus canicaudus Miller, in 
western Oregon. The host flea population is thus shown to be contagiously dispersed. 

This is the second in a projected series of papers on the population 
dynamics of the fleas that parasitize the gray-tailed vole, Microtus 
canicaudus Miller, a field mouse that occurs in grassy, uncultivated areas 
between the Cascade and Coast Ranges of western Oregon and Washington. 
Earlier (Faulkenberry and Robbins, 1980), the odds ratio was used to 
measure the degree of association between different flea species on this 
vole. However, ecologists also recognize the predictive value intrinsic to a 
mathematical description or model of the dispersion of organisms in space, 
and in medical entomology such spatial relationships between hosts and 
their parasites are often expressed by the negative binomial (or Pascal) 
distribution (Bliss, 1953; Crofton, 197 la, b). The negative binomial is a 
theoretical frequency distribution or probability distribution that may be fit 
to frequency distributions observed in nature. Thus, Fisher ( 1 941 ) success- 
fully fit the negative binomial to Milne's ( 1 943) frequency distributions for 
the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) on sheep in England, thereby mathe- 
matically describing the dispersion of the parasite population on a 
particular host. More recently, Easton (1973) and Easton and Goulding 
( 1 974) fit the negative binomial to data for Ixodes angustus Neumann and 
larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) on various hosts in western Oregon. Yet, 
with the possible exception of Williams' (1964) work on J.L. Harrison's 
data for Xenopsylla astia Rothschild and X. cheopis (Rothschild) on the 
murine rat Bandicota bengalensis (Gray) in Rangoon, Burma, the present 
paper is the first published record wherein the negative binomial is 
successfully fit to data for fleas. 



Deceived August 26, 1981 

^Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution. 
Washington, D.C. 20560 

^Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 
ENT. NEWS, 93 (3) 70-74, May & June 1 982 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 



71 



Application of the Negative Binomial Distribution 

Specifically, the negative binomial can arise ( 1 ) as a result of a series of 
exposures to parasites in which each exposure is random and the chances of 
acquiring parasites differ at each exposure, (2) as a result of nonrandom 
dispersion of parasites, (3) as a result of differences between individual 
hosts that affect the chances of acquiring parasites, and (4) as a result of a 
change with time in the chances of being parasitized (Crofton, 1 97 1 a). The 
negative binomial is described by two parameters, the mean and the 
exponent k, and is fit to contagious (over-dispersed or clumped) populations 
in which the variance always exceeds the mean. With combinatorial 
notation, the distribution takes the form: 



P(x) = 



k + x - l 
k- l 



x =0, 1,2, 



where the mean is k#/(l-0) and the variance is k0/( 1-0)2. When the 
dispersion parameter k is small, the degree of clumping is great and the 
variance is much larger than the mean, but as k increases the distribution 
approaches a Poisson series in which the variance equals the mean. 

Among the many methods of estimating k from sample data are the 
following three given by Southwood (1978): 



(l) 



k = 



(2) 



(3) 



where 



N 

n o 
In 



log 



N In 



= klog 



X 

1 +- 

k 



k + x 



mean number of parasites per sample (host) 

variance 

total number of samples 

number of samples bearing no parasites 

Napierian logs 

the sum of all frequencies of sampling units bearing more than x 

parasites 



Unless the mean is quite low, formula ( 1 ) is not reliable when k < 3, that is, 
when populations show a moderate degree of clumping. For this reason, 
formula (1) is usually used only to describe low density populations. 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Formula (2) is applicable to most populations with very small means but to 
large ones only when there is extensive clumping. Generally, about one- 
third of the hosts must be free of parasites if the mean is below ten, and as the 
mean increases greater numbers of hosts must fall into the zero class. 
Formula (3) is considered a better estimator than either ( 1 ) or (2) but is also 
subject to bias when the mean is very small and k very large. 

Once values of k have been obtained, the negative binomial population 
model can be fit in three ways to the observed frequency distribution. First 6 
is estimated by k/(k + x), then expected frequencies are calculated by: 

y (k + x) 




x! y(k) 

where P x is the probability of a host bearing x parasites and the values x! 
and y(k) are obtained from tables of factorials and of log gamma functions 
respectively (Southwood, 1978). Expected and observed frequency distri- 
butions are compared by a chi-square which has three fewer degrees of 
freedom than the number of comparisons that are made. Chi-square 
comparisons are considered strongest when expected frequencies are at 
least 1. 

Results and Discussion 

Table 1 compares the k, chi-square, and degree of freedom values for 
negative binomial distributions fit to observed frequency distributions of 
Atyphloceras multidentatus (C. Fox), Catallagia charlottensis (Baker), 
and fleas collectively on 377 comparable voles taken from ecologically 
similar sites to the north, south, and west of Corvallis, Oregon (for an 
account of sampling techniques and a list of all flea species obtained during 
this study, see Faulkenberry and Robbins, 1980, or Robbins, 1976). 
Because formulas (2) and (3) for the calculation of k must be made to 
balance by the method of iteration, all models were generated by computer. 
In order to obtain the best possible fit, each of the three observed frequency 
distributions was assigned two values of G, the expected frequency below 
which all classes were pooled. Of course, in the case at hand, pooling was 
only possible when G was set at 1 because all classes had expected 
frequencies greater than 0. In addition, each distribution was subjected 
once to truncation by removal of the zero class, which is by far the largest 
class in every case. In Table 1 the best chi-square value in each category is 
underscored. 

It is clear that the fleas of the gray-tailed vole are very contagiously 
dispersed. All three formulas for k led to the best fit an equal number of 
times and only once was the difference between expected and observed 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 



73 



frequencies significant at P < 0.05 . On the other hand, the fit of the negative 
binomial to the frequencies for zero and one flea per host was seldom close 
- an indication of top-heaviness in these classes. Consequently, the best 
distributions were almost always truncated. 



Table 1. Comparison of k, chi-square, and degree of freedom values for all negative binomial 
distributions. 



G = 1; 

not truncated 



G =0; 

truncated 



G =0; 

not truncated 



Atyphloceras kl 
multidentatus X2 
df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 



Cat all agio 
charlottensis 



All species 



kl 

X2 

df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 

kl 

X2 

df 

k2 

X2 

df 

k3 

X2 

df 



0.41384 
2.1868355 

3 



0.35500 
1.8917037 



= 3 



0.36202 

1.9010235 

3 

0.36196 
12.3286353 
6 

0.45250 
12.3763963 
6 

0.42405 
11.8824064 



= 6 



0.50407 
14.7781608 
10 

0.67375 
12.0033085 
9 

0.62230 
11.6262368 



= 9 



kl 

X2 

df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 



X2 
df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 

kl 
X2 

df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 



1.50700 
1.5863500 



= 7 



2.08000 
1.9245513 

7 

1.74250 
1.6964298 

7 

0.46719 

6.4885838 

7 



0.40000 
6.0815673 



= 7 



0.40788 
6.0885154 

7 



0.52748 
15.6730234 



= 17 



0.70375 
21.4046443 
17 

0.62526 
17.2498995 

17 



kl 

X2 

df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 

kl 

X2 

df 

k2 

X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 

kl 
X2 

df 

k2 
X2 

df 

k3 
X2 

df 



0.41384 

2.8879404 

8 

0.35500 
2.5099838 



0.36202 
2.5288784 



0.36196 
12.5538454 



0.45250 
12.7556870 



0.42405 
12.1912021 



= 8 



0.50407 
20.7273663 



= 18 



0.67375 
32.1796904* 
18 

0.62230 
25.7152032 
18 



*Significant at P < 0.05. 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This paper, like its predecessor, can truly be called a team endeavor, for its completion 
would not have been possible without the assistance of workers from several disciplines. We 
are especially grateful to Professor Gerald W. Krantz, Department of Entomology, Oregon 
State University, Corvallis, for providing the facilities to conduct this research. Sincere thanks 
are also due Dr. Emmett R. Easton, Plant Science Department, Agricultural Experiment 
Station, South Dakota State University, Brookings, and Dr. Wayne N. Mathis, Chairman, 
Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., for their constructive 
reviews of the manuscript. Special appreciation is extended to Mr. Richard F. Hoyer, of 
Corvallis, who collected the voles used in this study. Dick is a first-class field naturalist with 
whom it was an honor to cooperate. Our thanks also to Dr. Edward J. Grafius, Department of 
Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, for his patient instruction in the use of 
the OS-3 computer. Dr. Vernon J. Tipton and his colleagues at the Center for Health and 
Environmental Studies, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, kindly determined a 
synoptic series of the flea species discussed herein. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bliss, C.I. 1953. Fitting the negative binomial distribution to biological data. Biometrics 

9:176-196. 
Crofton, H.D. 197 la. A quantitative approach to parasitism. Parasitology 62:179-193. 

1971b. A model of host-parasite relationships. Parasitology 63:343-364. 

Easton, E.R. 1973. A study of ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) andchiggers (Trombiculidae) from 

two areas in western Oregon. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. 77 numbered 

pp. 

. and R.L. Goulding. 1974. Ectoparasites in two diverse habitats in western 

Oregon. I. Ixodes( Acarina: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 1 1(4):41 3-418. 
Faulkenberry, G.D., and R.G. Robbins. 1980. Statistical measures of interspecific 

association between the fleas of the gray-tailed vole, Microtus canicaudus Miller. 

Entomological News 91(4):93-101. 

Fisher, R.A. 1941. The negative binomial distribution. Annals of Eugenics 1 1(2): 182-1 87. 
Milne, A. 1 943 . The comparison of sheep-tick populations (Ixodes ricinus L. [ sic ] ). A nnals of 

Applied Biology 30(3):240-250. 
Robbins, R.G. 1976. A quantitative survey of the fleas associated with the gray-tailed vole, 

Microtus canicaudus Miller. Master's thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. 102 

numbered pp. 
Southwood, T.R.E. 1978. Ecological methods. New York, John Wiley & Sons: London, 

Chapman and Hall, xxiv + 524 pp. 
Williams, C.B. 1964. Patterns in the balance of nature and related problems in quantitative 

ecology. Academic Press, New York and London, viii + 324 pp. 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 75 

NOTES ON NESTING BEHAVIOR OF ECTEMNIUS 

CENTRALIS (CAMERON) 
(HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) 1 

A. Hook 2 

ABSTRACT: Nesting behavior was recorded for the previously unstudied wasp, Ectemnius 
centralis (Cameron) in Texas. Female provisioned nests in decay ing wood with an assortment 
of Diptera. 

Ectemnius wasps are unusual in that they utilize diverse nesting 
habitats and prey on several insect orders (Bohart and Menke 1 976). Most 
commonly they construct branching nests in rotten wood and prey on 
Diptera. This paper provides the first biological records for Ectemnius 
centralis ( Cameron) which occurs in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico to 
Colombia and Trinidad. 

Methods 

Provisioning behavior and nest architecture were recorded from 
Kenedy Ranch, Kenedy Co., 5 mi. south and 10-15 mi. east of Sarita. 
Texas on 24 May 1979. Hunting behavior was observed during July 1 980 
along the Rio Grande River, near Castolon in Big Bend National Park, 
Texas. 

Results and Discussion 

Although I collected at various locations along the Rio Grande in Big 
Bend, Ectemnius centralis was only encountered between Castolon and 
Santa Elena Canyon, possibly because this area contained many fallen 
logs, a result of periodic flooding. Wasps were commonly observed hunting 
along the river bank, flying slowly past grass and seepwillow (Baccharis 
sp.). Females hovered next to such vegetation, then darted forward and 
grasped potential prey items, a hunting behavior similar to that reported for 
Crabro argusinus Packard (Matthews et al. 1979). Often prey were 
discarded, possibly because they were inappropriate, such as small bees. 

Nests were located at Kenedy Ranch where females provisioned in a 
broken, deal limb of live oak ( Quercus sp.). This horizontal branch was 60 
cm in diameter, rested 50 cm above the ground, and had nest entrances 



'Received November 17. 1981 

^Department of Zoology and Entomology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523 

ENT. NEWS. 93 (3) 75-76, May & June 1982 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



located on the lower half. Provisioning was first noticed at 1 1 :00 A.M., the 
wasps using pedal type 1 carriage (Evans 1962) when transporting prey to 
their open entrances. Two females were collected and their nests subse- 
quently excavated. Nest A had 5 side burrows branching off a shallow main 
burrow, while nest B had 3 side burrows. Both nests were still being 
expanded. Side burrows ranged from 4.2 to 9.0 cm long including cell 
length. Considering 6 completed side burrows, 3 had 2 cells linearly 
arranged and 3 had single cells. This nest structure fits between "simple 
branched type" and "complex branched type" (Tsuneki 1960). Side 
burrows with completed cells were plugged with packed sawdust ranging 
from 1 .7 to 4.8 cm long. Linear cells were separated by plugs ranging from 5 
to 7 mm long. Cell dimensions ranged from 1 to 20 mm long by 5 to 1 1 mm 
wide. The number of prey in completed cells ranged from 4 to 7, (x =5. 3, 
n6). Prey were stored in a cell until a full complement was obtained, then 
oviposition and prey arrangement followed. The egg was attached to the 
throat of a fly which was placed farthest into the cell, with the remaining 
prey facing head inward. An assortment of prey was identified as follows; 
Stratiomyidae: Nemotelus trinotatus Mel.; Bombliidae: undetermined; 
Sarcophagidae: Blaesoxipha hamata (Aldrich), B. hunteri (Hough), 
Sarcodexia sp.; Muscidae: Orthellia caesarion (Meigen), Coenosia sp.; 
Tachinidae: Pseudomyothyria ancilla (Wlk.), Paralispe infernalis (Tns.), 
Spoggosia sp. 

Ectemnius centralis nesting biology is similar to that of the majority of 
Ectemnius species studies (Krombein 1963; Tsuneki 1960); that is nests 
are in rotten wood and the prey consists of Diptera. However, a number of 
species outside of North American are known to nest in the ground and to 
use other types of prey(Bohart and Menke 1976). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I would like to thank J.E. Gillaspy for taking us to the Kenedy Ranch site and the 
authorities of the U.S. National Park Service at Big Bend for their support. R.M. Bohart, Univ. 
of California, Davis, identified the wasp while R.J. Gagne, C.W. Sabrosky and W.W. Wirth 
of 1. 1. 1. P. I., USDA determined the prey. This research was supported by NSF Grant BNS 76- 
09319 to H.E. Evans and a Sigman Xi R.E.S.A. Grant-in-Aid of Research. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bohart, R.M. and A.S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. Univ. of California 

Press, Berkeley. 695 pp. 
Evans, H.E. 1 962. The evolution of prey-carrying mechanisms in wasps. Evolution. 1 6:468- 

483. 
Krombein, K.V. 1963. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proc. Biol. Soc. 

Wash. 76:225-280. 
Matthews, R.W.,Hook, A. and J.W. Krispyn. 1 979. Nesting behavior of Crabroargusinus 

and C. hilaris (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Psyche. 86:149-166. 
Tsuneki, K. 1960. Biology of the Japanese Crabroninae. Mem. Fac. Lib. Arts, Fukui Univ. 

(2. Nat. Sci. ) 10:1-53. 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 77 

NEW RECORD OF TANYTARSUS 

(SUBLETTEA) COFFMANI (DIPTERA: 

CHIRONOMIDAE) FROM NORTH CAROLINA 1 

Thomas J. Wilda 2 



ABSTRACT: The midge Tanytarsus (Subletted) coffmani Roback 1975 is reported from 
North Carolina for the first time. Measurements of pupal structures are given which are 
generally lower than those reported in the species description. 



Three pupal exuviae of Tanytarsus (Sublettea) coffmani Roback 1 975 
were collected from a small unnamed tributary of the West Fork of the 
Rocky River in Iredell County, located in the southern Piedmont of North 
Carolina. These collections, taken in October 1978, represent the first 
actual record of the taxon in North Carolina. The specimens reported in 
Roback's (1975) species description as having been collected near Salem, 
North Carolina, were actually collected near Salem, Oconee County, 
South Carolina. 



Ranges of measurements taken from the three pupal exuviae are 
presented in Table 1. The majority of these measurements are lower than 
those reported by Roback (1975). The long clear filament described by 
Roback (1975) as mesad of the anal combs was obvious on only one 
specimen. The specimens were deposited in Duke Power Company's 
Macroinvertebrate Reference Collection. 



1 Received March 6, 1982 



Power Company, Environmental Services Section, Route 4, Box 531, Huntersville. 
NC 28078 

ENT. NEWS, 93 (3) 77-78. May & June 1982 



78 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Table 1 . Measurements of pupal structures from this study and from Roback's ( 1 975 ) species 
description. The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of specimens from this 
study on which the structures could be measured. Roback (1975) gave several 
measurements of pupal characters which are not presented here. 



Pupal Structure Measured 

Overall length 
Respiratory organ 

Overall length 

Dimensions of Base 

Length of longest 

apical filament 

Length of shortest 

apical filament 

Paired ovoid spine patches at 
apex of sternite VIII 

Dimensions 

Number of spinules in each 

patch 

Distance between patches 

Dark spurs on lateral comb of 
anal fin 

Number 

Length 

Number of longer filaments 
on lateral comb of anal fins 



Roback 1975 
2.4 mm 

300-350 jum 
167-204 jum long 
22 jum wide 

148-167 /an 
about 78 jum 

26 x 1 3 /mi 



about 48 
0.11 -0.23 
segmental width 



4- 7 
about 6 

3-5 



This Study 
2.0-2.2 mm (3) 

252-280 jum (2) 
99- 120 /Am long (2) 
18 jum wide (1) 

130-180 jum (2) 
67-72 jum (2) 



15x8 fun to 
25 x 12 jum(3) 

20 to 35 (3) 
0.4 segmental 
width 



4-6(3) 
about 6 jum (3) 

2-4(3) 



LITERATURE CITED 

Roback, S.S. 1975. A new subgenus and species of the genus Tanytarsus (Chironomidae: 
Chironominae: Tanytarsini). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 127( 10):71-80. 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 79 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF TRICHOPTERA OF 
SEVERAL STREAMS ON EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, 

FLORIDA 12 

S.C. Harris 3 , P.K. Lago 4 , J.F. Scheiring 5 

ABSTRACT: The distribution and seasonal occurrence of adult Trichoptera along 
three small streams within Eglin Air Force is presented. The trichopteran fauna was 
represented by 56 species, seven of which are undescribed. 

The Florida panhandle is known to support a number of disjunct 
northern populations and endemic species of plants and animals (Neill, 
1957), but studies of aquatic insects in the area have been few. Several 
caddisflies, including Cheumatopsyche petersi and Agarodes ziczac, are 
thought to be endemic to this region (Ross et al., 1971; Ross and 
Scott, 1974). 

Eglin Air Force Base is located in the Florida panhandle in portions of 
Walton, Okaloosa, and Santa Rosa Counties (Fig. 1). Since the early 
1970's, base personnel have been engaged in gathering baseline environ- 
mental information for the watersheds of the area. These watersheds are 
primarily sandhills with a pine-oak association. As part of this environmental 
program, a survey and analysis of the macroinvertebrate fauna of several 
streams on the base was initiated. 

Three streams in the eastern half of the base. Rocky Creek, Ramer 
Branch, and Bull Creek (Figs. 1 and 2), were collected from 1 978 to 1 980. 
Rocky creek empties into Choctawhatchee Bay while Ramer Branch and 
Bull Creek are tributaries to Titi Creek which empties into the Shoal River. 
Five sites on the upper portions of Rocky Creek and two each on Bull Creek 
and Ramer Branch were sampled for Trichoptera. All sites, with the 
exception of site 3, were located in wooded areas with fairly heavy canopy. 
Site 3 was situated in an open area immediately below a small impoundment. 
The streams were small and clear with moderate streamflow. Substrates 
were primarily sand except at site 3 where the bottom consisted of sand and 



1 Received February 3, 1982 

Contribution number 47 from the Aquatic Biology Program, University of Alabama 

^Environmental Division, Geological Survey of Alabama, P.O. Drawer 0, University, AL 
35486 

^Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, University. MS 38677 
^Department of Biology, University of Alabama, University, AL 35486 
ENT. NEWS, 93 (3) 79-84, May & June 1982 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

gravel. Water quality was good at all sites, although pH and mineral content 
were low (Table 1). 

Adult Trichoptera were collected using UV light traps (BioQuip 
Universal Trap) situated on the stream banks. Traps were operated from 
dusk to dawn at approximately monthly intervals. Specimens were 
collected dry and later preserved in 80% ethyl alcohol. 

Annotated List of Species 

Trichoptera were represented in the study area by 56 species in 26 
genera and 14 families. Information for each species includes collection 
site, collection dates, and number of adult male specimens collected! ). 
Only males of the species were identified, except as noted. 

Hydropsychoidea 

Philopotamidae 

Chimarra aterrima Hagen. Sites 3, 5, 6. 20 April, 8 June, 19 Sept. (4) 

Chimarra florida Ross. Sites 1-5, 8, 9. 14 March-19 Sept. (51) Most (80%) of the 
specimens were collected at site 3. A possible distribution factor could be the high amount of 
gravel intermixed with sand at this site. 

Chimarra n. sp. All sites. 14 March-19 Sept. (219) This species is a member of the 
Chimarra soda complex which is currently being revised by PKL, SCH, and R. W. Holzental 
of Clemson University. 

Wormaldia moesta (Banks). Site 3. 8 June. (1) 

Psychomyiidae 

Lype diversa (Banks). Sites 1,3. 16 Aug., 8 Nov. (3) 

Polycentropidae 

Neureclipsis melco Ross. Sites 1, 3-5, 8. 14 March-11 May, 19 Sept. (6) 
Nyctiophylax affinis (Banks). Sites 1, 2, 8. 11 May, 8 June. (4) 
Nvctiophylax n.sp. Sites 1, 2, 4, 5, 7. 25 April-11 May, 19 Sept. (10) Material 
being described by PKL and SCH. 

Polycentropus cinereus Hagen. Sites 1-3. 14 March-20 April. (8) 

Polycentropus n.sp. Site 5. 1 1 May. (1) Material being described by PKL and SCH. 

Hydropsychidae 

C 'hen matopsvche n.sp. All sites. 20 April- 19 Sept. (78) Material being described by PKL 
and SCH. 

Cheumatopsyche pasella Ross. Sites 1-3, 8. 20 May-8 June. (16) 

Cheumatopsyche petersi Ross, Morse, and Gordon. Sites 1-5, 7. 14 April-8 June. 19 
Sept. (66) All but three specimens were collected at the lower Rocky Creek sites. 

Cheumatopsyche pettiti (Banks). Sites 1-4, 6-8. 11 May-8 June, 19 Sept. (26) 



Vol. 93, No. 3. May & June 1982 81 



Cheumatopsyche virginica Denning. Sites 1-8. 14 March, 1 1 May-19 Sept. (36) The 

largest numbers of specimens were collected at site 3. 

Diplectrona modesta Banks. All sites. 1 1 May-19 Sept., 8 Nov. (41) 
Hydropsyche decalda Ross. Sites 1,3. 14 March, 20 April-8 June, 8 Nov. (41 ) 
Hydropsyche ellisoma Ross. All sites. 14 March-19 Sept. (250) Most of the specimens 

were collected at site 3 during March and April. 

Hvdropsvche incommoda Hagen. Sites 1, 3, 5. 11 May. (3) 

Macronema Carolina Banks. Sites 1-6, 8. 20 April- 16 Aug., 8 Nov. (89 males, 103 

females) Greatest number of specimens were collected at site 3, primarily during the spring. 

Rhyacophiloidea 

Rhyacophilidae 

Rhyacophila Carolina Banks. Sites 1, 6. 5 May, 19 Sept. (3) Previously known only from 
the southern Appalachians. 

Hydroptilidae 

Hydroptila hamata Morton. Site 3. 8 June. (1) 

Hydroptila latosa Ross. Sites 1,3-5. 20 April, 8 June, 8 Nov. (67) The greatest numbers 
(65%) were collected at site 3 during June. 

Hydroptila quinola Ross. All sites. 25 April-8 June, 19 Sept. (41 ) As with H. latosa, 
most of specimens collected at site 3 during June. 

Hydroptila remita Blickle and Morse. Sites 1, 5. 20 May. (3) 

Mayatrichia ayama Mosely. Sites 3, 4, 7. 11 May, 8 June. 19 Sept. (6) 

Oxyethira elerobi (Blickle). Site 1. 8 June. (1) 

Oxyethira glasa (Ross). Sites 3, 5. 11 May, 8 June. (3) 

Oxyethira janella Denning. Site 5. 8 June. (1) 

Oxyethira novasota Ross. Site 5. 8 June. ( 1 ) 

Oxyethira setosa Denning. Site 3. 8 June. ( 1 ) 

Oxyethira zeronia Ross. Site 3. 1 1 May. ( 1 ) 

Limnephiloidea 

Phryganeidae 

Banksiola concatenate (Walker). Site 1.11 May. ( 1 ) 

Brachycentridae 

Bruchycentrus numerosus (Say). Sites 1-5. 14 March-1 1 May, 8 Nov. (31 ) 
Micrasema n.sp. All sites. 20 April-8 June. (45 ) Species beingdescribed by J. W. Chapin. 

Edisto Experiment Stat. South Carolina. The majority of the specimens were collected at site 

3. 

Limnephilidae 

Pycnopsychescabripennis Rambur. Sites 1-5.8 Nov., 6 Dec. (72 males, 83 females) 90% 
of the specimens were collected at sites 1 and 2. 

Lepidostomatidae 

Lepidostoma sp. Site 4. 1 1 May. ( 1 ) 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Sericostomatidae 

Agarodes crassicornis (Walker). Sites 1,3. 11 May. (4) 

Agarodes ziczacRoss and Scott. All sites. 14 March-19 Sept. (202) Primarily restricted 
to the headwater portions of the streams. 

Molannidae 

Molanna ulmerina Navas. Site 4. 8 June. (1) 

Molanna tryphean Betten. All sites. 14 March-19 Sept., 8 Nov. (18) 

Calamoceratidae 

Anisocentropus pvraloides (Walker). Sites 1, 2, 4, 6, 9. 25 April- 1 1 May, 16 Aug.- 19 
Sept. (11) 

Leptoceridae 

Ceraclea maculata (Banks). Sites 1-3. 11 May-8 June. (5) 

Ceraclea nepha (Ross). Sites 3, 5. 20 April, 1 1 May. (3) 

Ceraclea protonepha Morse and Ross. Sites 2, 3, 5, 6, 8. 20 April-8 June. (13) 

Ceraclea tarsipunctata (Vorhies). Sites 3, 5. 25 April-1 1 May. (28) 

Nectopsyche Candida (Hagen). Site 3. 1 1 May-8 June. (5) 

Nectopsycheexquisita( Walker). All sites. 14 March-8Nov. (1 13) Most of the specimens 
(60%) were collected in May at sites 3 and 4. 

Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen). Site 1. 8 Nov. (1) 

Oecetis georgia Ross. Site 6. 19 Sept. (1) 

Oecetis n.sp. Site 9. 20 May. ( 1 ) Species being described by J. Bueno-Soria, Institute de 
Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 

Oecetis osteni Milne. Sites 1,3,6. 11 May, 19 Sept. (3) 

Oecetis sphyra Ross. Sites 3, 9. 8 June, 19 Sept. (3) 

Triaenodes helo Milne. Sites 1, 5, 7, 8. 25 April, 20 May, 16 Aug., 19 Sept. (4) 

Trianenodes ignitus (Walker) Sites 1, 3, 5, 6, 8. 20 May-8 June. (6) 

Trianenodes n.sp. Site 1.11 May, 8 June. (2) Species being described by K.L. Manuel, 
Duke Power Co., North Carolina. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank Dr. J.C. Morse, Clemson Univ., J.C. Chapin, Edisto Experiment 
Stat., K.L. Manuel, Duke Power Co., and A.E. Gordon, Florida A&M University for 
verifying several identifications. We are also grateful to S. Hamilton, R. Holzenthal, and R. 
Kelley of Clemson Univ. for their help in the identification of specimens in certain genera and 
for reviewing the manuscript. We also thank Irene Thompson for typing and editing the 
manuscript. The USAF Armament Laboratory provided part of the funding for the study. 
Laboratory personnel, R. Crews and S. Lefstad, did much of the actual light trapping and are 
due our thanks. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Neill, W.T. 1957. Historical biogeography of present-day Florida. Fla. St. Mus. Bull. 

2(7): 175-220. 
Ross, H.H. and D.C. Scott. 1974. A review of the caddisfly genus Agarodes, with 

descriptions of new species (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 

9(3):147-155. 
Ross, H.H..J.C. Morse, and A.E. Gordon. 1971. Newspcc\esofCheumatopsyche from the 

southeastern United States (Hydropsychidae, Trichoptera). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 

84(37)301-306. 



Vol. 93, No. 3, May & June 1982 



83 



Table 1. Physicochemical water quality parameters, expressed as means, for three streams 
on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Rocky Creek readings were made monthly, July 
1978-June 1979; Bull Creek and Ramer Branch readings were bimonthly, August 
1979-June 1980. 



Sampling 
site 

Rocky Creek 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 



Stream- 
flow Temperature pH 02 
(cm/sec) (C) (mg/1) 



40.2 
36.0 
45.1 
47.6 
55.2 



21.8 
21.1 
20.2 
20.0 
19.9 



5.4 

5.3 
5.6 
5.5 
5.5 



8.3 
8.2 
8.7 
8.3 
8.4 



Total Total Chloride 

alkalinity hardness (mg/1 

(mg/1) (mg/1 CaCO 3 ) NaCl) 



5.3 
5.2 
4.3 
4.4 
4.4 



4.9 
5.0 
5.9 
5.2 
5.4 



12.3 
11.8 
11.4 
12.2 
11.3 



Bull Creek 
6 

7 



33.5* 

45.7* 



19.3 
19.1 



5.4 

5.1 



8.3 
8.4 



3.9 
3.9 



5.5 
6.1 



11.3 
11.2 



Ramer Branch 

8 45.7* 19.1 5.5 

9 45.7* 19.3 5.4 

*Single reading, 16 August 1979 



8.6 



4.1 

3.5 



5.9 

5.8 



11.5 
10.9 



8630' 



WALTON CO 



3045' 



OKAIOOSA CO 



SANTA ROSA CO 



-3015' 




EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE 



Figure 1. Study areas on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. 



84 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




CHOClAWHATCHEf BAY 



Figure 2. Sampling sites on Rocky and Bull Creeks and Ramer Branch on Eglin Air Force 
Base, Florida. 



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5 



US ISSN 0013-872V 



Vol. 93 



SEPTEMBER ft OCTOBER 1982 



No. 4 






ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Gynandromorphs of Megachile rotundata 
(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) 
R.D. Akre, E.P. Catts, R.S. Zack, E.C. Klostermeyer 85 

Records of some ectoparasites from Nigeria 

J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J.G. Matthysse 95 

Melexerus, new genus proposed for Pseudanthonomus 

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Horace R. Burke 103 

Overwintering site of hop looper, Hypena humuli 

(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Shigeru Kikukawa 108 

New records of cave Collembola of Mexico 

Jose G. Palacios-Vargas 10) 

New species of Bolivian Gyponinae (Homoptera: 

Cicadellidae) D.M. DeLong, D.R. Foster 114 

Description of larval form and new distribution 
record for Tuckerella hypoterra (Acari: 
Tuckerellidae) B. McDaniel, E.G. Bolen 119 

New generic placement for Haplogonatopus 
americanus (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) 

M.K. Giri, P.H. Freytag 123 

New state records of the mayfly Leptophlebia bradleyi 

B.C. Henry, Jr., B.C. Kondratiejf 125 



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Vol. 93, No. 4. September & October 1982 85 



GYNANDROMORPHS OF MEGACHILE 

ROTUNDATA (FAB.) (HYMENOPTERA: 

MEGACHILIDAE) 12 

Roger D. Akre, E. Paul Catts, Richard S. Zack, E.G. Klostermeyer 3 

ABSTRACT: Two gynandromorphs of Megachile rotundata ( Fab. ) are described. One was 
a bilateral specimen and homologies of structures of the male and female external genitalia 
were determined. 

Gynandromorphs are abnormal individuals exhibiting both male and 
female characteristics. Although bilateral gynandromorphs (that is. indi- 
viduals with one side of the body male and the other female) are most easily 
and commonly recognized, specimens showing anterior-posterior differ- 
ences or a mosaic of sexual characteristics also occur. 

Gynandromorphic individuals have been reported for a number of 
insects and related organisms including grasshoppers (Ritchie 1978). 
moths and butterflies (Manley 1971. Schmid 1973, Riotte 1978). mosquitoes 
(Grimstad and DeFoliart 1974. Huang 1974, Mason 1980). black flies 
(Dang and Peterson 1979). wasps (Cooper 1959, Greb 1933. Whiting et 
al. 1934, Wilson and Woolcock I960), bees (Ruttner and Mackensen 
1952, Gordh and Gulmahamad 1975) and spiders (Roberts and Parker 
1973). These individuals probably also occur in other groups. Various 
mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including 
those by Greb (1933). Rothenbuhler et al. (1951) and Ruttner and 
Mackensen (1952). Wigglesworth ( 1 972) presents a short discussion of the 
mechanisms leading to gynandromorphic individuals. 

In the Pacific Northwest, farmers maintain large numbers of the alfalfa 
leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fab.), to provide pollination for 
alfalfa seed production. Because of its economic importance, a vigorous 
research project concerning the alfalfa leafcutter has been underway in 
Washington State since about 1961 (Klostermeyer 1964, Johansen and 
Eves 1966, Johansen and Klostermeyer 1967, Johansen et al. 1963). 
However, in the handling and examining of thousands of bees each year, 
only three gynandromorphic individuals have been discovered. While this 
indicates that these individuals rarely occur, few data are available for 
consideration. However, only one specimen was found among 2,657 



'Received March 1. 1982 

^Scientific Paper Number 6106 College of Agriculture Research Center. Pullman Work 
conducted under project 0037. 

- Entomologist. Entomologist. Curator II. and Emeritus Entomologist, respectively. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 85-94 



86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



individually examined females last year (1981, pesticide testing) for a ratio 
of 1:2,656. This compares to 1:10,000 for gynandromorphs in scolioid 
wasps, genus Myzinum (Krombein 1949) and 1:3800 for gynandromorphs 
in pompilids (Evans 1951). The first gynandromorph was a bilateral 
specimen, but unfortunately only a cursorial study, which did not include an 
examination of the external genitalia, was conducted (Gerber and Akre 
1969). Since then, two additional gynandromorphs have been found. 
The purpose of this paper is to describe these two individuals and to relate 
the morphology of one of them to the evolution of insect genitalia (Smith 
1969). 

Specimen 1 

A "gynandromorph" was collected 28 July 1972 as it emerged from a 
group of prepupae maintained in the laboratory at the Irrigated Agriculture 
Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, 
WA. This specimen was placed in alcohol until examined 10 July 1981. 

The specimen was thoroughly examined externally, and was dissected 
to examine the reproductive tract. Although not well preserved internally, it 
contained two definite ovaries. The external genitalia were female but were 
somewhat abnormal as only a single valvula 2 (gonapophysis 9) was present. 
All other sclerites were present and shaped normally (an illustrated 
description of normal genitalia is presented in Gerber and Akre 1969). 
Externally the specimen lacked scopal bristles from sterna 3-6 on the left 
side of the gaster, otherwise it was a typical female in coloration and 
morphology. 

Specimen 2 

The second specimen emerged 27 April 1981 from peeled cells 
produced in the Yakima Valley, Washington. These cells, containing 
prepupae of Megachile, were incubated in the laboratory, and emerging 
adults were being used in various experiments. Examination showed the 
specimen to be a bilateral gynandromorph with one side male, the other 
female (Figs. 1 and 2). It was killed 29 April and injected with Kahle's 
solution so the reproductive tract was preserved. 

Head: The left side of the head was typically male with long, golden- 
yellow hair. The antenna had 13 segments. The right side of the head was 
covered with short, white hairs, and the antenna was 1 2 segmented; typical 
female characterisitics. In addition, the right mandible was female with 4 
sharply pointed teeth, while the left was typically male with 2 blunt teeth, 
and a medially-facing, sharp, subapical tooth (Gerber and Akre 1 969). The 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



87 







1 




Fig. 1. Gynandromorph of M. rotundata. The left (male) antenna is longer. Fig. 2. Ventral 
view of specimen showing scopa (female character) on left side of gaster. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



right, lateral ocellus was slightly displaced to one side (.52 mm) from the 
median ocellus compared to the other (.3 1 mm). The entire labio-maxillary 
complex was distinctly offset and originated on the female side of the head. 
The glossa (tongue) was hairy (Fig. 3) indicating these mouth parts were 
entirely female. Male glossae are always bare. 

Thorax: The male/female sides of the thorax were reversed from that 
of the head. The right side (male) was covered with long, golden hair, the 
first coxa had a coxal tooth, and all 3 tarsi had bifid claws. The left side 
(female) had short, white hair, no prothoracic coxal tooth and the tarsal 
claws were all single (see Gerber and Akre 1969). The wings were of 
slightly unequal length; left front (female) 5.77 mm, the right front 6.18 mm. 

Gaster: The gaster showed the most striking gynandromorphic features, 
especially the total absence of scopal bristles on the right side (male) (Fig. 
2). The 5th sternum was normal, but the 6th was highly modified with a 
small sclerotized patch just lateral to the midline. A normal female has 7 
externally visible sterna, the male only five, with the 6th and 7th lying 
underneath (dorsal to) the fifth. Thus, when these two unequal "halves" 
were fused together, displacement occurred. In this specimen, the 6th 
sternum on the male side was mostly membrane, with a small sclerotized 
patch, the 7th was probably represented only by membrane (Fig. 4). 

Reproductive system: Typical females of Megachile rotunda ta have 
ovaries consisting of 6 ovarioles, 3 per side, while males have the testes 
fused into a single unit (Figs. 5a, b). Posteroventrally to the testes are paired 
dilations, the seminal vesicles, and the tract continues as small tubes, the 
paired vas deferens. 

The gynandromorph had one ovariole on the left (female) side, 
containing at least 3 well defined oocytes/nurse cells (Fig. 5c). Basal to the 
oocytes, the oviduct continued as a single tube into the ovipositor. Issuing 
from somewhere near the base (connection inadvertently broken) was a 
single accessory gland, the Dufour's gland. In normal females the duct from 
the Dufour's gland and the duct from the poison gland reservoir continue 
into the sting bulb. The reproductive tract was not as well developed on the 
right (male) side. The most discernible structure was the nearly spherical 
seminal vesicle. The testis was represented by a short, slightly coiled tube 
issuing from the apical end of this dilation. A single vas deferens connected 
the tract to the base of the male genitalia (Fig. 5c). A small sheet of tissue 
was adnate to both the vas deferens and to the lateral oviduct, otherwise 
they were totally separate. 

Genitalia: Normal Genitalia: Smith (1969, see also Smith 1970, 
Matsuda 1976), in discussing the evolution of insect genitalia, proposed 
that these appendages are primarily limb derivatives, and presented 
evidence indicating that mouth parts, thoracic legs, abdominal prolegs, and 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



89 






Fig. 3. The glossa was hairy indicating the maxillary/labial complex was female. Fig. 
4. Terminal segments of gaster showing genitalia. 5S=5th sternum. 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



genital appendages are homologous. [This topic has been somewhat 
controversial, particularly in regard to Hymenoptera genitalia, and has 
been subject to various interpretations (Michener 1944, Matsuda 1958)]. 
Hymenoptera retain a primitive condition for the ovipositor (female), and 
gonocoxites 8 (valvifer 1 ) give rise to the 1 st pair of gonapophyses (valvulae 
I), while gonocoxites 9 (valvifer 2) gives rise to the 2nd pair of gonapophyses 
(valvulae II) anteriorly, and a pair of gonostyli (valvulae III, sting sheath) 
posteriorly. Gonapophyses 9 (valvulae II, stylet in honey bee sting 
apparatus terminology) are fused into an elongated trough which contains 
gonapophyses I (valvulae I, lancets of honey bee). Thus, the sting is a fairly 
rigid structure composed of gonapophyses 8 and 9; the sting sheath 
(gonostyli 9) is folded up out of the way when the sting is used (Snodgrass 
1956, see also Akre et al. 1981). 

Conversely, the male has lost all appendages of segment 8 (no 
gonapophyses 8), and gonocoxites 9 give rise to a pair of gonapophyses 
(penis valves). Gonostyli 9 (sting sheath of female) are modified into 
claspers, the gonoclaspers or gonoforceps. The genital appendages are not 
rigidly articulated to tergite 9 as in the female which gives the phallus 
maximal flexibility in contrast to the fairly rigid sting. 

Gynandromorph: Female: Gonapophyses 8 and 9 (valvulae I and 
II) originated on the female side, but extended across the male (right) side of 
the specimen (Fig. 4). The 7th tergum was removed exposing hemitergite 8 
(identified by a spiracle in the posterior margin) which overlapped the 9th 
tergite (Figs. 6b,d). Gonocoxites 8 (valvifer I) and 9 (valvifer II) were 
shaped normally. Gonapophyses 8 and 9, however, were somewhat twisted 
near the distal end. These would typically fuse with the corresponding pair 
from the other side in a normal individual, but because these corresponding 
structures were lacking, the gonapophyses extended out over the male side. 

Male: This extension of the female genitalia over the male side 
displaced the male-side genitalia and caused them to rotate ca. 180 (Fig. 
6a). They appear in Fig. 4 in a position that suggests they also originated on 
the female side. However, dissection clearly shows that these structures 
originated on the male side, but the partial fusion of the unequal sclerites (cf , 
9) caused them to rotate into position. The 7th tergum of the male was 
mostly membrane (Fig. 6c). Hemitergite 8 (identified by the spiracle) was 
overlapped by 7, and had a narrow sclerotic bar connecting it to hemitergite 
8 on the female side (Fig. 6e). The eighth sternum was somewhat modified, 
but still bore a short process from the proximal end. As in normal males, the 
9th sternum was represented by a small sclerite lying dorsolateral to the 8th 
(Figs. 6c, e). The remaining genital appendages were rotated to a position 
dorsolateral to the 8th and 9th sterna. Gonostylus 9 (valvula III of female, 
gonoforceps) was easily identified by its shape (Figs. 6b, d). A small sclerite 
and a sclerotic bar at the base of gonostylus 9 represented the gonocoxite/ 



Vol. 93, No. 4. September & October 1982 



91 



OVARIOLES 




POISON GLAND 



LATERAL OVIDUCT 

DUFOUR'S GLAND 



POISON GLAND 
RESERVOIR 



SPERMATHECA 



COMMON OVIDUCT 



GONAPOPHYSIS 9 



.SEMINAL VESICLE 



VAS OEFERENS 




OVARIOLE 



OVIDUCT 



TESTIS 



Fig. 5. Internal reproductive systems of M. rotundata. A. normal female. B. normal male. C. 
gynandromorph. 



92 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



GONOFORCEP 



GONOCOXITE9 GONAPOPHYSIS 9> 
GONAPOPHYSIS 8 



GA5TER 
ROTATION PLANE. 



GONAPOPHYSIS 
GONAPOPHYSIS 



GONOBASE 

HEMITERGITE 
9 



STERNUM 9 

TERGUM 9 



HEMITERGITE 
8' 



GONAPOPHYSIS 9 
(PENIS VALVE) 



rVENTRAL.1] 
VIEW J, 



| VENTRAL 
VIEW 



DORSAL CONNECTING 
BAR 



HEMITERGITE 8 



LATERAL VIEW 
S 




(_ LEFT SIDE 
GONOCOXITE 8 
HEMITERGITE 9 

GONOCOX1TE9 

GONAPOPHYSIS 9 
(PENIS VALVE) 



GONAPOPHYSIS 9(9) 
GONAPOPHYSIS 8 0?) 



GONOFORCEP 



VOLSELLA 



GON DBASE 



DORSAL CONNECTING 



GONAPOPHYSIS 
GONAPOPHYSIS 9 
GONAPOPHYSIS 8 

GONOSTYLUS 9(y 



HEMITERGITE 8 

TERGUM 7 




Fig. 6. External genitalia of gynandromorph. A. diagram indicating the longitudinal twist of 
the gaster. B. Ventral view of female half. C. Ventral view of male half. D. Lateral view of 
female half. E. Lateral view of male half. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



93 



gonobase (Gerber and Akre 1 969) that forms a solid arch at the base of the 
genitalia in normal males (Fig. 6d). Medially to gonostylus 9 was 
gonapophysis 9, the penis valve (Figs. 6d, e). A membranous structure 
medial to this structure probably represented a malformed, partial penis 
(Gerber and Akre 1969, Fig. 6e). 

Discussion 

This bilateral gynandromorph offered a unique opportunity to evaluate 
Smith's (1969) hypothesis on male genitalic origin as it pertains to 
Hymenoptera. Our examination of this specimen supports Smith's interpre- 
tation. A summary chart follows: 



gonocoxite 8 (valvifer I) 

gonapophysis 8 (valvula I) 
gonocoxite 9 (valvifer II) 
gonapophysiL 9 (valvula II) 
gonostylus 9 (valvula III) 



Gynandromorph 
9 Side 
present 



cf Side 



present (twisted) 
normal shape 
present (twisted) 

present (sting 
sheath) 



lost in pterygotes 
(represented by partial 
8th sternum) 

lost 

gonocoxite 9 

gonapophysis 9 (penis valve) 
gonostylus 9 (gonoforcep) 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Sincere appreciation is due to Carl A. Johansen for recognizing the second specimen as a 
gynandromorph and for bringing it to our attention. He also supplied data on occurrence rates. 
Carl, C. Gillott, H.C. Reed, and R. Sites read the manuscript and made suggestions for 
improvement. We are also indebted to the two reviewers for suggested improvements. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Akre, R.D., A. Greene, J.F. MacDonald, P.J. Landolt, and H.G. Davis. 1981. The 

yellowjackets of America north of Mexico. USDA Agric. Handbook 552. 102 p. 
Cooper, K.W. 1959. A bilaterally gynandromorphic Hypndyncnis, and a summary of 

cytologic origins of such mosaic Hymenoptera. Biology of eumenine wasps. VI. Bull. Fla. 

State Mus. Biol. Sci. 5(2): 25-40. 
Dang, P.T., and B.V. Peterson. 1979. A case of bilateral gynandromorphism in Simuliitm 

sorhrcnse Vajime and Dunbar (Diptera: Simuliidael.Tropenmed. Parasit. 30: 548-550. 
Evans, H.E. 1951. A taxonomic study of the Nearctic spider wasps belonging to the tribe 

Pompilini (Hymenoptera: Pompilodac). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 77: 203-330. 
Gerber, H.S. and R.D. Akre. 1969. The external morphology of Megachile rotundata 

(Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Melanderia 1: 1-36. 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Gordh, G. and H. Gulmahamad. 1975. A bilateral gynandromorphic Xylocopa taken in 

California (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 77: 269-273. 
Greb, R.J. 1933. Effects of temperature on production of mosaics in Habrobracon. Biol. Bull. 

65: 179-186. 
Grimsted, P.R. and G.R. DeFoliart, 1974. A gynandromorph in Aedes hendersoni 

Cockerell, Mosq. News 34: 336-338. 
Huang, Y. 1974. Occurrence of two types of gynandromorphism in a sibling series of Aedes 

(Stegomyia) craggi (Barraud) (Diptera: Culcidae). Mosq. News 34: 428-430. 
Johansen, C.A., E.R. Jaycox and R. Hutt. 1963. The effect of pesticides on the alfalfa 

leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata. Wash. State Univ. Coop. Ext. Circ. 418. 12 p. 
Johansen, C.A. and J. Eves. 1966. Enemies of the alfalfa leafcutting bee and their control. 

Wash. State Univ. Coop. Ext. EM 2631. 3 p. 
Johansen, C.A. and E.C. Klostermeyer. 1967. Suggestions for alfalfa leafcutting bee 

management. Wash. State Univ. Coop. Ext. EM 2775. 3 p. 
Klostermeyer, E.C. 1964. Using alkali bees and leaf-cutting bees to pollinate alfalfa. Wash. 

Agric. Exp. Sta. Circ. 442. 8 p. 
Krombein, K..V. 1949. Two new gynandromorphs, with a list of previously recorded sexual 

aberrations in the scolioid wasps. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 3257: 55-59. 
Manley, T.R. 1971. Two mosaic gynandromorphs of Automeris io (Saturniidae). J. Lepid. 

Soc. 25: 234-238. 
Matsuda, R. 1958. On the origin of the external genitalia of insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 

51: 84-94. 
Matsuda, R. 1976. Morphology and Evolution of the Insect Abdomen. Pergamon: NY. 

534 p. 

Mason, G.F. 1980. A gynandromorph in Anopheles gambiae. Mosq. News 40: 104-106. 
Michener, C.D. 1944. A comparative study of the appendages of the eighth and ninth 

abdominal segments of insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 37: 336-351. 
Riotte, J.C.E. 1978. Gynandromorphs in Hawaiian butterflies and moths. J. Res. Lepid. 

17: 17-18. 
Ritchie, J.M. 1978. A gynandromorph specimen of Oedaleus inornatus Schulthess 

(Orthoptera: Acrididae). Acrida 7: 149-155. 
Roberts, M.J. and J.R. Parker. 1973. Gynandry and intersexuality in spiders. Bull. Brit. 

Arach. Soc. 2: 177-183. 
Rothenbuhler, W.C., J.W. Gowen, and O.W. Park. 1951. Androgenesis in gynandromorphic 

hone (sic) bees (Apis mellifera L.). Genetics 36: 573. 

Ruttner, F. and O. Mackensen. 1952. The genetics of the honeybee. Bee World 33: 71-79. 
Schmid, F. 1973. Deux cas de gynandromorphisme chez les Ornithopteres (Lepidoptera, 

Papilionidae). Can. Ent. 105: 1549:1552. 
Smith, E.L. 1969. Evolutionary morphology of external insect genitalia. 1. Origin and 

relationships to other appendanges. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 62: 1051-1079. 
Smith, E.L. 1970. Evolutionary morphology of the external insect genitalia. 2. Hymenoptera. 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 63: 1-27. 

Snodgrass, R.E. 1956. Anatomy of the Honey Bee. Comstock: Ithaca, NY. 334 p. 
Whiting, P.W., R.J. Greb, and B.R. Speicher. 1934. A new type of sex-intergrade. Biol. 

Bull. 66: 152-165. 
Wilson, F. and L.T. Woolcock. 1960. Environmental determination of sex in a partheono- 

genetic parasite. Nature 186: 99-100. 
Wigglesworth, V.B. 1972. The principles of insect physiology. 7th ed. London: Chapman 

and Hall. 827 p. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 95 

RECORDS OF SOME ECTOPARASITES FROM 

NIGERIA 1 

John O. Whitaker, Jr.,2 John G. Matthysse^ 

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to present information on a series of ectoparasites, 
mainly mites, from Nigerian small mammals. 

Ectoparasites were collected from a series of mammals from Nigeria 
during an appointment by the junior author as Visiting Professor, University 
of Ibadan^. The present contribution is a continuation of a series 
"Preliminary Report on Mites Collected from Plants and Animals in 
Nigeria" (Matthysse 1978, Matthysse and Funmilayo 1979). 

There are relatively few data on ectoparasites of Nigerian mammals, 
but some of the papers most relevant to the present study are Coffee and 
Retief (1972); Okereke ( 1968, 1970, 1971, 1973) who studied Nigerian 
Gamasina and described several new species; Zumpt and Elliot (1970) 
who described new species of Nigerian Androlaelaps; Sakamota et al. 
(1979) who described new species of Haemolaelaps from Nigeria; Till 
(1963) who monographed Ethiopian A ndrolaelaps; Keegan (1956, 1962) 
who gave information on 4 species of mites first found in Nigeria; 
Lavoipierre ( 1 956) who described a new Steatonyssus from Nigerian bats; 
Fain (1970, 1971, 1972) who summarized information on African 
myocoptid and listrophoroid mites; and Pearse (1929) who collected 
information on ectoparasites of several species of Nigerian rodents and 
insectivores. 

Materials and Methods 

Parasites were collected from wild mammals, mainly caught in traps, in 
or near Ibadan from J anuary through August, 1975. They were collected by 
first manipulating the fur while viewing it under a dissecting microscope. 
Each animal was then washed in an aqueous detergent solution, after which 
the liquid was filtered through a Buchner funnel. Parasites were then picked 
off the filter paper while viewing through a dissecting microscope. The 
ectoparasites were preserved in 70% alcohol, cleared and stained for 5 days 



1 Received February 2, 1982 

^Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

3 108 10 E. Prince Road, Tucson, Arizona 85715 

^Funding was provided by the Ford Foundation and by a Senate Grant from the University of 
Ibadan. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 95-102 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



to 2 weeks in Nesbitt's solution containing acid fuchsin, mounted in 
Hoyer's Solution and the coverslips were ringed with Euparal. Help in 
identifications was given as follows: Laelapidae, W. Calvin Welbourn 
(Acarology Laboratory, Ohio State University); ticks and fleas, Nixon A. 
Wilson (University of Northern Iowa); listrophoroid and other parasitic 
mites, Alex Fain (Institut de Medecine Tropical Prince Leopold, Antwerpen, 
Belgium); free-living mites, Evert E. Lindquist (Research Branch, Biosystem- 
atics Research Insitute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa); lice, K.C. Emerson 
(2704 N. Kensington St., Arlington, Virginia). The chiggers and a few other 
mites are not included because they have not yet been identified. The ticks 
were mainly immature and have not as yet been identified beyond genus. 
The host animals were identified by Dr. Oluwadare Funmilayo, 
Department of Agricultural Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 

Results and Discussion 

Parasites were identified from a few individuals of each of several 
species of rodents, plus two shrews, Crocidura manni and Crocidura sp., 
from Nigeria (Table 1 ). Several species of fleas, anoplurans, and mites were 
taken, along with a few ticks and chiggers. 

Siphonaptera 

Only two species of fleas, Xenopsylla aequisetosus and X. cheopis, 
were taken during the present study. Both were from Cricetomys gambianus. 
Pearse (1929) took these same two species from rodents and Crocidura 
from Nigeria, along with two other species of fleas. 

Anoplura 

Five species of sucking lice were found, each on a different mammal 
species. Pearse ( 1 929) reported Polyplax reclinata from Crocidura manni 
and P. abyssinica Ferris from Arvicanthis mordax from Nigeria. We are 
not aware of previous records from Nigeria of the lice Hoplopleura 
chippauxi, H. intermedia, or H. somereni. 

Acarina: Ixodidae 

Ticks of three genera (Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, and Rhipicephalus) 
were found during the present study. 

Laelapidae 

Several laelapid mites were found during the present study, primarily of 
three genera, Andreacarus, Androlaelaps, and Laelaps. Andreacarus 
petersi was first described from parasitic insects from the giant rat, 
Cricetomys gambianus (Radford, 1953). However, Tipton ( 1 960) suggested 
that they might normally parasitize the rat itself, and this was the case as 
indicated by present data and by Clifford and Keegan (1963) who also 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 97 



examined specimens of this species from Nigeria. Okereke (1971) stated 
that A petersi and A. zww/?//Taufflieb are true rodent parasites in Nigeria. 

Androlaelaps cricetomys was described by Zumpt and Elliott (1970) 
from C. gambianus from Nigeria. Okereke ( 1 970) notes thai A. cricetomys 
was known only from Northern Nigeria. Ours are the first records from 
Southern or Western Nigeria. 

All of the mites of the subgenus Echinolaelaps, genus Laelaps, taken 
by us have been previously taken in Nigeria, and L. litigiosa and L. 
dasvmydis Relief were described from there (Coffee and Retief, 1972; 
Okereke, 1973). 

Ok'ereke (1971) collected 20 species of gamasine mites from more than 
1000 small mammals in the Ibadan, Nigeria, area. Nine of the species were 
the same as ours, as follows: Laelaps (Echinolaelaps) muricola on 13 
hosts, L. (Echinolaelaps) echidninus on Rattus rattus only , L. (Echinolaelaps) 
giganteuson 8 hosts, but mainly onLemniscomysstriatusandAwicanthis 
niloticus, Laelaps roubandi on 2hosts,Andreacarns petersi and A. zumpti 
on Cricetomys gambianus only, Androlaelaps murinus on 1 1 hosts, A. 
zulu on 16 hosts and A. galagus on Cricetomys gambianus only. 

Okereke ( 1 973) in a further report on his Nigeria collections notes that 
Echinolaelaps dasvmydis occurs primarily on Dasymus incomtus. Pearse 
(1929) found Laelaps liberiensis on Nigerian mammals. 

We are not aware of previous records from Nigeria of the laelapid mite, 
Laelaps lavieri. 

Atopomelidae 

Six species of atopomelid mites were reported. Previous data on mites 
of this family from Africa were summarized by Fain ( 1 972a). Listrophoroides 
(Listrophoroides) aethiopicus Hirst, 1923, was previously reported from 
several African localities, always on Cricetomys gambianus, the same host 
on which we found it. Listrophoroides (Listrophoroides) dasymys Radford. 
1942, has been found alway on species of Dasymys from several African 
localities. Matthysse and Funmilayo (in press) report L. dasymys from D. 
incomtus at Ibadan, Nigeria. Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) 
teinophallus Fain, 1970, was previously found on Rattus (Mastomys) 
natalensis, and this is the only host upon which we found it. Listrophoroides 
(Afrolistrophoroides) scambophallus Fain, 1 970, was previously found on 
Rattus (Mastomys) natalensis, Praomys tullbergi and Otomys sp.; we 
found it on M. natalensis. 

One species was listed in the Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) 
mastomys group. This form was previously reported from Mastomys 
natalensis, R. erythroleucusand Thallomys paedulcus. Our single specimen 
was from Mus musculoides. We found three specimens of Listrophoroides 
uranomys on an unidentified rodent. This mite is previously known only 
from Uranomys ruddi and Acomys johannis, except that Matthysse and 
Funmilayo report L. uranomys Fain, 1970, from Uranomys foxi at 
Ibadan, Nigeria. 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Listrophoridae 

Four forms in the family Listrophoridae were also reported. Data on 
this family were previously summarized by Fain (1971). Afrolistrophorus 
dasymys was found during the present study primarily on Dasymys 
incomtus, but a few individuals were found on Lophuromys sikapusi, 
Praomys tullbergi and Rattus rattus. Matthysse and Funmilayo (1979) 
also report A. dasymys from D. incomtus and R. rattus, but in addition from 
Mus musculoides, all from Ibadan, Nigeria. This species was previously 
known only from Dasymys incomtus from the Congo (Zaire) and from the 
Ivory Coast. Matthysse and Funmilayo (1979) report Afrolistrophorus 
lophuromys lophuromys Fain from Lophuromys sikapusi taken at Ibadan, 
Nigeria. The identification was made by Fain. The A. lophuromys 
(Radford, 1940) we report may be the same subspecies. Afrolistrophorus 
lophuromys and A. congoicola were known from several African localities 
and mammals. Afrolistrophorus muricola was previously known from 
Mus, Rattus, and Crocidura from the Ivory Coast; we found it on Mus 
musculoides. 

The atopomelids Listrophoroides (Listrophoroides) aethiopicus, 
Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) teinophallus, L. (A.) scambophallus 
and L. (A.) mastomys and the listrophorid, Afrolistrophorus muricola are 
new records for Nigeria. 

Glycyphagidae 

Dermacarus from Dasymus incomtus was identified as probably D. 
oenomys Fain. Matthysee and Funmilayo (1979) report Dermacarus 
oenomys (identified by Fain) from Dasymus incomptus from Ibadan, 
Nigeria. 

Other Mites 

Nymphal mites of the family Uropodidae frequently attach to 
insects or other animals. A number of nymphal uropodid mites, 
Trichouropoda sp., was taken from Cricetomys gambianus. The 
genus Ornithonyssus is often represented in low numbers on small 
mammals, and four individuals were found on one host species 
during the study. Mites of the families Acaridae and Tarsonemidae 
are likely accidentals on the host. 

Myobiidae 

Radfordia ensifera is widespread on Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus 
over much of the world and on R. rattus specifically in Angola (Fain, 
1 972b), in South Africa (Zumpt, 1 96 1 ), and in Zaire (Fain and Lukoschus, 
1977). Radfordia hylomyscus was described from Hylomyscus simus 
from the Ivory Coast by Fain (1972c). Neither of the myobiids had 
previously been recorded from Nigeria. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 99 



Table 1. External parasites of some small mammals from 


Ibadan, Nigeria (upper number is 


the number of hosts on which the parasite was 


found; lower is the number of parasites 


found). 








t^ 






3 


61 '""" to **> 


*^ 
g 


| 


a ^ 1 '1 1 a 




-5 


soo'S'oSV.S c 


1 1 


5 


?^;-u:"S^'.? 1 ~ " 

fc g ^ B ^1 J "Q "O 


a '~ 
5 % ~ 


a 


8g^2^Sg^ 







S 5 "j. ^ ~ " r; 2 -a 


"S 


g 


:-. Q O c >; 2 -2^ 5^E 


TS ^ 


o 


SaaoSc'^^c 


'C 'C -i 


QJ 


'- Sj-^S^oSSw 


S 8 c 


U 


S S-S3 as S~ 
^o^c ca a c 

Q-4>j5tO,QCQC ^ 


number of hosts examined (1) (1) (2) 


(6) 


(7) (1) (1) (6) (2) (9) (1)(13) (3) 


Fleas 






Xenopsvlla aequisetosus 


3 




(Enderlein, 1901) 


8 




X. cheopis (Rothschild. 1903) 


1 






1 




Sucking lice 






Polvplax reclinata (Nitzsch, 1864) 1 






3 






Hoplopleura intermedia Kellogg & 




1 


Ferris, \9\5 




10 


H. somereni Waterston, 1923 




3 






6 


H. chippauxi (Paulian and Pajot, 1966) 1 






3 






Polvplax spinulosa (Burmeister, 1839) 




8 






34 


Ticks 






Haemaphvsalis sp. 1 




1 


6 




1 


Rhipicephalus sp. 1 






1 






Ixodes sp. 


1 


1 5 




1 


1 8 


Mites 






Acaridae 






Tvrophagus sp. 1 1 




1 1 1 


1 \ 




9 1 1 


Laelapidae 






Andreacarus petersi Radford, 


2 




\953 


25 




A. zumpii Taufflieb, 1955 


1 






\ 





Androlaelaps cricetomvs Zumpt & 4 

Elliott. 1970 74 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





<> j 5 -~ 
g .2 <" ^ _ 2 


^ c 




~ -o 5 3" Si 
1 -2 5 5 "5 ^ "5 


8 '& -g g 

"^J QJ "tj "U 




a 's Q o si "> ~ 


"o "^ ^ o 




go.~6^2^2 






<0 0} .R --. 






a a '=: S> fc R * 


?J *- ^ 1 fll 




al^e^alg 1 


S 2 "a 2 S 




^^S^ a:3 2 


S S3 3 c 




p P '? 8* |o "I- ! 

*- * -k ^ ^J Q fc^* 


^ ^ 5 5 "O 




OUx^Q -j-j < 


c t 1 


number of hosts examined 


(1) (1) (2) (6) (7) (1) (1) (6) 


(2) (9) (I) (13) (3) 


A. galagus (Lavoipierre, 1955) 


1 






2 




A. murinus Berlese. 1911 


1 






1 




A. zulu (Berlese. 1918) 


1 1 






3 1 




Hvpoaspis nr. machado Aswegen & 


1 




'Loots, 1970 


1 




L. lavieri Taufflieb, 1954 


1 






1 




L. liberiensis Hirst, 1925 


1 3 


1 




6 10 


3 


L. roubaudi Taufflieb. 1954 


1 






1 




Laelaps (Echinolaelaps) dasvmvdis 


5 




Okereke, 1973 


46 




L. (E.) giganteus Berlese, 1918 


1 






2 




L. (E.) litigiosa Coffee & Relief, 1972 




5 






28 


L. (E.) muricola Tragardh, 1910 


2 


2 




24 


10 


L. (E.) echidninus Berlese, 1887 




1 






1 


Macronyssidae 






Omithonyssus sp. 


1 






4 




Uropodidae 






Trichouropoda sp. 


2 






34 




Listrophoridae 






Afrolistrophorus dasymys Fain, 1970 


5 1 


1 1 




221 2 


3 3 


A. lophuromys congoicola Fain, 1971 


1 






2 




A. lophuromys (Radford. 1940) 


1 






3 




A. muricola Fain, 1970 




1 






4 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



101 



8 
U 



.a 
-S 



5 S 5 



I 






.s 

E 
r 



* -s 

5 > 

- S 

^ ^ 

* a 



Q c 

== a 




-o 



-a 



? o ~' ~Q S ^ 



~ S 







o c: c 



number of hosts examined 



(1) (1) (2) (6) (7) (1) (1) (6) (2) (9) (1)(13)(3) 



Atopomelidae 

Listrophomides (Listrophoroides) 

aethiopicus Hirst, 1923 
L. (Listrophoroides) dasvmvs 

Radford. 1942 
L. (Afrolistrophoroides) 

scambophallus Fain, 1 970 
L. (Afrolistrophoroides) 

teinophallus Fain, 1970 
L. (Afrolistrophoroides) "mastomys 

group" 

L. uranomys Fain, 1970 



Glycyphagidae 

Dermacarus, probably oenomys 



Myobiidae 

Radfordia ensifera (Poppe, 1896) 
R. hylomyscus Fain, 1972 



Tarsonemidae 

Tarsonemus sp. 



7 
136 



2 

3 



LITERATURE CITED 

Clifford, C.M., and H.L. Keegan. 1973. A redescription of A ndreacarus petersi Radford. 

1953 (Acarina: Laelaptidae) and clarification of the status of this genus within the 

subfamily Laelaptinae. J. Parasitol. 49: 125-129. 
Coffee, G.M., and L.A. Relief. 1972. The Laelaps muricola complex in the Ethiopian 

region; description of a new species and a new subspecies (Acarina: Mesostigmata). J. 

Med. Entomol. 9: 417-424. 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Fain, A. 1970. Les Myocoptidae en Afrique au sud du Sahara (Acarina: Sarcoptiformes). 

Annls. Mus. r. Afr. Cent. Ser 8vo Sci. Zool. No. 179: 1-67. 
. 1 97 1 . Les listrophorides en Afrique au sud du Sahara (Acarina: Sarcoptiformes). 

II. Families Listrophoridae et Chirodiscidae. Acta Zool. Path. Antwerp. 54: 1-231. 
_. 1 972a. Les listrophorides en Afrique au sud du Sahara (Acarina: Sarcoptiformes). 



III. Famille Atopomelidae. Annls Mus. r. Afr. Cent. Ser 8vo Sci. Zool. No. 197: 1-200. 
. 1972b. Myobiidae de F Angola (Acarina: Trombidiformes). Publ. Cult. Co. 



Diam. Ang. Lisboa 86: 13-68. 
. 1972c. Diagnoses de nouveaux Myobiidae (Acarina: Trombidiformes). Rev. 



Zool. Bot. Afr. 86: 148-157. 
Fain, A., and F.S. Lukoschus. 1977. Nouvelles observations surles Myobiidae parasites de 

rongeurs (Acarina: Prostigmates). Acta Zool. et Pathol. Antverp. 69: 1 1-98. 
Keegan, H.L. 1956. Ectoparasitic laelaptid and dermanyssid mites of Egypt, Kenya and the 

Sudan, primarily based on NAMRU 3 collections 1948-1953. J. Egypt. Publ. Hlth. Ass. 

31: 199-272. 

. 1962. A new ectoparasitic laelaptid mite from Africa. J. Parasit. 49: 621-622. 

Lavoipierre, M.M.J. 1956. A description of a new genus and of three new species of mites 

(Acarina, Parasitiformes) parasitic on West African mammals. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 

50: 291-298. 
Matthysse, J.G. 1978. Preliminary report on mites collected from plants and animals in 

Nigeria. Part I. Mites from plants. Nigerian J. Entomol. 1: 57-70. 
Matthysse, J.G. , and O. Funmilayo. 1979. Preliminary report on mites collected from plants 

and animals in Nigeria. Part II. Mites parasitic on animals. Nigerian J. Entolomol. 

3: 179-184. 

Okereke, T.A. 1968. A new laelapine mite from Western Nigeria. Acarologia 10: 1-5. 
1970. A contribution to the study of parasitic gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) 

in Nigeria. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Nigeria 2: 136-141. 

_. 1971. On the distribution of blood-sucking gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) 



on small mammal hosts in Western Nigeria. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Nigeria 3: 50-55. 

1973. The laelapine mites of the Echinolaelaps complex from Nigeria with 



description of a new species. J. Med. Entomol. 10: 1 17-123. 
Pearse, A.S. 1929. Ecology of the ectoparasites of Nigerian rodents and insectivores. J. 

Mammal. 10: 229-239. 
Radford, C.D. 1953. Four new species of parasitic mites (Acarina). Parasitology 43: 239- 

243. 
Sakamoto, C.J., C.D. Jorgensen and C.S. Herrin. 1979. Haernolaelaps (Acarina, 

Laelapidae) of the northwest Ethiopian region. Int. J. Acarol. 5: 39-62. 
Till,W.M. 1963. Ethiopian mites of the genus, 4 ndrolaelapsBer\eses.\al.( Acari: Mesostigmata). 

Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. 10: 1-104. 
Tipton, V.J. 1960. The genus Laelaps with a review of the Laelaptinae and a new subfamily 

Alphalaelaptinae (Acarina: Laelaptidae). Univ. Cal. Publ. Entomol. 16: 233-356. 
Zumpt, F. 1 96 1 . The arthopod parasites of vertebrates in South Africa south of the Sahara 

(Ethiopian Region) vol. 1 (Chelicerata): 1-457. S. Afr. Inst. Med. Resc. Johannesburg. 
Zumpt, F., and G. Elliott. 1970. Description of two new species of A ndrolaelaps Berlese 

from Nigeria, with remarks on three other species (Acarina: Mesostigmata, Dermanyssidae). 

J. Med. Entomol. 7: 341-347. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 103 

MELEXERUS, A NEW GENUS PROPOSED FOR 

PSEUDANTHONOMUS HISPIDUS CHAMPION 

(COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) 1 

Horace R. Burke^ 

ABSTRACT: Melexenis is described as a new monotypic genus containing Pseudanthonomus 
hispidus Champion. Pseudanthonomus crinitus Champion is synonymized with hispidus 
(NEW SYNONYMY). In addition to the generic description, the species is redescribed on the 
basis of a series of specimens. Melexerus hispidus is now known to occur in Cuba, El 
Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica and Mexico. Photographs of the habitus are included and the 
male genitalia are illustrated. 

The present paper represents a contribution to revision of the North and 
Central American weevils of the subfamily Anthonominae. Emphasis is 
presently being placed upon reviewing the status of each of the genus-group 
taxa in the subfamily. Several of the small supraspecific taxa of Anthonominae 
have already been treated (Burke 1964, 1968a, 1973, 198 la, 1 98 Ib; Burke 
and Ahmad 1967; Burke and Hafernik 1971). During the course of this 
continuing study it has been determined that the peculiar little weevil 
Pseudanthonomus hispidus Champion is not assignable to Pseudanthonomus 
Dietz or to any other described genus. While it is with some reluctance that I 
create another monotypic genus, there appears to be no other acceptable 
solution to the placement of the species. In addition to the description of the 
genus, some new synonymy is proposed and a revised description of 
hispidus is presented. 

Melexerus Burke, New Genus 

Type Species: Pseudanthonomus hispidus Champion 1903:198, here designated. 
Etymology: Melexerus is an arbitrary combination of letters and is considered here to be of 

masculine gender. 

Description of Genus: Body above rather densely clothed with coarse, gray to ochreous 
scales intermixed on the dorsal surface, rostrum and legs with semierect to erect scattered, 
sharply pointed or bifid scales; length 1 .7 - 2.1 mm. Rostrum moderately strongly curved in 
both sexes, slightly more so in females: equal in length to prothorax along dorsal midline in 
male and equal to or slightly longer than prothorax in female. Upper margin of lateral rostral 
groove well defined, extending against lower 1/3 of eye; lower margin of groove poorly 
defined. Funicle 6-segmented. Eyes strongly protuberant; height of eye equal to nearly 2 x 
width; separated in front by distance equal to width of rostrum at base. Head feebly constricted 
behind eyes. Prosternum with anterior margin slightly emarginate. Procoxae contiguous. 
Mesocoxae separated by distance equal to 3/4 width of a coxa. Mesosternum truncate 
posteriorly. Elytra at base distinctly broader than prothorax. Humeri strongly rounded. 



Received March 30, 1982 

^Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 103-107 



104 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Abdominal sterna 3 and 4 ca. equal in length. Pygidium normally not exposed in either sex. 
Femora not strongly clavate; profemur bearing minute, sharply pointed tooth; mesofe T 
usually unarmed, occasionally with minute tooth; metafemur always unarmed. Tibiae short, 
straight, metatibia ca. 1/2 length of femur. Tibiae each bearing a minute apical mucro. Teeth 
on inside of tarsal claws each nearly as long as claw. 

Discussion: Melexerus hispidus was originally placed in the genus 
Pseudanthonomus Dietz on the basis of the 6-segmented funicle and the 
upper margin of the lateral groove (referred to as "scrobe") extending 
against the lower anterior margin of the eye. This species is readily 
distinguished from the true Pseudanthonomus by the constricted head, erect 
scales on dorsum and legs, short tibiae, and protuberant and transverse eyes. 
Burke ( 1 968b) mentioned that most of the species which Champion ( 1 903) 
assigned to Pseudanthonomus on the basis of the 6-segmented funicle are 
not members of this genus; several will eventually be transferred to other 
genera, mainly A nthonomus. The vestiture of M. hispidus is similar to that 
ofAnthonomus (Anthonomochaeta) heterogenus Dietz, a similarity also 
noted by Champion (1903). Otherwise the two species are quite different 
and do not appear to be especially closely related. A. heterogenus has a 7- 
segmented funicle, head not constricted, eyes round and not strongly 
protuberant, all femora unarmed, and tibiae nearly as long as the femora. 
The latter species also has the upper margin of the lateral rostral groove 
extending against the middle of the anterior margin of the eye while that of 
M. hispidus impinges on the lower margin of the eye. The erect scales on the 
elytra of M. hispidus are also much longer. 




Fig. 1 . Lateral view of male of Melexerus hispidus (Champion) from Tamazunchale, S.L.P., 
Mexico. Fig. 2. Dorsal view of same. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



105 



Melexerus does not seem to be closely related to any genus or generic 
group in the subfamily. 

Melexerus hispidus (Champion), New Combination 

(Figs. 1-7) 

Pseudanthonomus hispidus Champion 1903:198 (orig. desc.); Schenkling and Marshall 

1934:72 (cat.): Blackwelder 1947:840 (cat.). 
Pseudanthonomus crinitus Champion 1910:189 (orig. desc.): Schekling and Marshall 

1934:72 (cat.): Blackwelder 1947:840 (cat.) NEW SYNONYMY. 

Body elongate-ovate: ca. 2 x longer than broad; length 1 .7-2.1 mm (n = 1 7 ). Integument 
dark reddish brown, becoming light reddish on rostrum and tibiae. Vestiture moderately dense, 
consisting of coarse, gray to ochreous prostrate scales intermixed with suberect to erect 
pointed scales on dorsum, rostrum and legs, presenting bristly appearance (Figs. 1. 2): 
ventrally scales decumbent. Rostrum (Figs. 6, 7) moderately strongly curved in both sexes 
but more evenly and slightly more strongly curved in female; as long as prothorax in male, may 
be slightly longer in female. Male with fairly dense covering of prostrate and suberect scales 
from base of rostrum to just anterior to point of antennal attachments; in female basal portion 



\\ 







Fig. 3. Dorsal view of male median lobe. Tamazunchale. S.L.P., Mexico. Fig. 4. Lateral 
view of same. Fig. 5. Dorsal view of basal piece and parameres of male genitalia. Fig. 6. 
Lateral view of rostrum and head of male. El Salto, S.L.P., Mexico. Fig. 7. Same of female. 
San Salvador. Lines each equal to 0.5 mm. 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



of rostrum bearing only a few scattered scales. Rostrum of male distinctly tricarinate dorsally 
from base to point opposite antennal attachments; female with rostrum merely finely punctate 
dorsally, subcarinate laterally. Lateral rostral groove well defined dorsally; lower margin lying 
ventrally on rostrum, not distinct; upper margin impinging on anterior margin of eye at lower 
one-third; a few scattered elongate scales present in basal portion of lateral groove. Antennae 
attached just before middle of rostrum of female and slightly closer to the apex in male. Scape 
strongly enlarged in apical one-fourth; moderately strongly bent outward near apex. 
Funicular segment 1 strongly clavate, ca. equal in length to following 3 funicular segments 
combined; 2 varying from slightly shorter than to as long as 3+4; segment 3 slightly longer 
than 4; segments 4, 5 and 6 about equal in length, 6 broader. Club elongate-oval; as long as 
preceding 5 funicular segments combined. Head feebly constricted on sides and dorsally 
behind eyes. Eyes strongly convex, protuberant; height equals nearly 2 x greatest width; 
separated in front by distance equal to width of rostrum at base. Frons densely covered by 
coarse scales which conceal fovea. Prothorax 1.1-1.3 x wider than long; widest at base; sides 
more or less evenly converging to apex, with feeble subapical constriction; dorsal surface 
strongly convex. Coarse hairlike scales dense, completely obscuring integument. Scutellum 
strongly convex; width ca. equal to length; densely clothed with gray scales. Elytra distinctly 
wider at base than prothorax. Humeri strongly rounded. Sides parallel to past middle thence 
broadly rounded to apex. Dorsal surface strongly depressed at basal one-third, especially in 
area of intervals 2 and 3. Intervals strongly convex. Striae deeply impressed. Procoxae 
contiguous. Mesocoxae separated by distance equal to ca. three-fourths of width of a coxa. 
Abdomen with sternum 1 subequal in length to sterna 2+3; sternum 2 one-third shorter than 
1 ; sterna 3 and 4 equal in length; sternum 5 same length as 2. Scales not as dense ventrally as 
dorsally. Pygidium not exposed in either sex. Legs with prostrate and erect scales sparse, not 
entirely obscuring integument. Profemur 3.3.-4.0 x longer than broad. Profemoral tooth 
minute, sharply pointed. Mesofemur usually unarmed, occasionally bearing a minute tooth. 
Metafemur without tooth. Tibiae short, straight; metatibia about one-half length of femur. 
Tibiae all minutely mucronate. Tarsal claws each with a long, inner tooth which reaches nearly 
to apex of claw. Genitalia with male median lobe (Figs. 3, 4) slender, membranous dorsally; 
endophallus bearing minute teeth near apex. Parameres (Fig. 5) elongate. 

Discussion: The types of hispidus and crinitus, the former a female 
and the latter a male, were examined in the BM(NH) and crinitus is here 
considered to be a junior synonym of hispidus. There is considerable sexual 
dimorphism in the rostra of the two sexes, that of the female being more 
strongly curved, mostly bare, and relatively longer than that of the male. 
Based on examination of a larger series of specimens than was available to 
Champion, the other differences he mentioned appear to be due only to 
natural variation in the species. Specimens from Jamaica and Cuba differ 
from Mexican and Central American specimens by having many of the 
erect dorsal scales split at the apices. The significance of this difference is 
not apparent but I am unable to find other characters which would indicate 
that those specimens are specifically distinct from those in Mexico and 
Central America. 

Except for the type localities, San Geronimo, Guatemala for hispidus 
and San Salvador, El Salvador for crinitus, no other distributional data are 
available for this species in the literature; consequently, the following 
additional records are presented: CUBA: Soledad,Cienfuegos. JAMAICA: 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 107 



Trelawny, Duncans. MEXICO: Nayarit-3 mi. NW Santa Maria del Oro. 
San Luis Potosi-Tamazunchale; 5 mi. SW Tamazunchale; El Salto. 
Sinaloa-10 mi. N. Mazatlan. Tamaulipas-2 mi. W. Neuvo Morelos; 
Tampico. Michoacan-20mi. E. Morelia. Mexico-Tejulpico; Temescaltepec. 
The only information available on the plant associations of this species 
is that a specimen was found on a cynipid gall on Quercus sp. at Tampico, 
Mexico. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blackwelder, R.E. 1947. Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central America, 

the West Indies, and South America. Pt. 5, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 185. pp. 765-925. 
Burke, H.R. 1964. Studies on the genus Anthonomus in North and Central American 

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) II. The subgenus Anthonomorphus Dietz. Coleopt. Bull. 

18(1):7-17. 
Burke, H.R. 1968a. Biological and taxonomic notes on Brachyogmus ornatus, with 

descriptions of larval and pupal stages (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Coleopt. Bull. 

22(4):126-132. 
Burke, H.R. 1968b. Pupae of the weevil tribe Anthonomini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) 

Tech. Monog. 5, Tex. Agric. Exp. Sta., 92 p. 
Burke, H.R. 1973. Taxonomic relationships and biology of Macrorhoptus (Curculionidae). 

Coleopt. Bull. 27(4):175-181. 
Burke, H.R. 198 la. Review of the genus Cionomimus Marshall with descriptions of two new 

species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Southw. Entomol. 6(3):174-183. 
Burke, H.R. 1 98 Ib. The genus Cionopsis Champion: New species, key and taxonomic notes 

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Southw. Entomol. 6(4):288-297. 
Burke, H.R. and M. Ahmad. 1967. Taxonomic status and relationships of Coccotorus 

LeConte and Furcipus Desbrochers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. 

Amer. 60(6): 1 152-1 155. 
Burke, H.R. and J.E. Hafernik. 1971. Biology and taxonomy of the genus Smicraulax 

Pierce (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Southw. Nat. 15(3):309-317. 
Champion, G.C. 1903. Rynchophora. Curculionidae. In Biologia Centrali-Americana, 

Coleoptera IV(4): 15 1-199. 
Champion, G.C. 1910. Rynchophora, Curculionidae. In Biologia Centrali-Americana, 

Coleoptera IV(7): 186-1 89. 



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Systematic and Environmental Biology. Grants in the local currencies of the above listed 
countries are awarded to American institutions for the research of senior scientists. 
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Fellowships and Grants. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C. 20560. or call (202) 
287-3321. 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

AN OVERWINTERING SITE OF THE 
HOP LOOPER, HYPENA HUMULI (HARRIS) 1 

Shigeru Kikukawa^ 

ABSTRACT: Overwintering adults of Hypena humili (Harris) were collected near the 
entrance of a cave in Boone County, Missouri, in January 1981. The adults shared the cave 
with bats. Any possible relationship between the moth and the insectivore during winter, 
however, is unknown. 

Overwintering patterns vary among insect species. Each species has 
adapted physiologically and ecologically to a particular overwintering site. 
Here, I report a moth found overwintering in a Missouri cave. The Holton 
cave, the site of the observation of Jan. 28, 1 98 1 , is located near Sturgeon in 
Boone County, Missouri. Many moths were resting on the upper wall of the 
cave. Fourteen moths collected from this cave were identified as the hop 
looper or hop-vine snout-mouth, Hypena humuli (Harris) (Noctuidae), by 
J.R. Heitzman, and are preserved in the Entomological Museum of the 
University of Missouri-Columbia. 

The distribution of this cave population of H. humuli appeared to be 
restricted to the region within approximately 100 feet from the mouth of the 
cave. The insects were not found further inside the cave where several kinds 
of bats were also hibernating. In adopting cave hibernation, the moth has to 
encounter bat predators and may be under considerable predatory pressure 
in the late fall and early spring. Any possible strategy of avoiding predation 
is an open question at present. 

H. humuli is a bivoltine species distributed over the United States and 
Canada (Holland, 1905). No other host than the hop plant is known 
(Howard, 1897). Howard (1897) suggested that the adults pass the winter 
in bark crevices and fence corners, or in old logs and stumps. Caves are now 
identified as one overwintering site for this species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I am grateful to Mr. J.R. Heitzman for his identification of the moth. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Holland, W.J. 1 905. The moth book A popular guide to a knowledge of the moths in North 

America. Doubleday, Page & Company, New York. 479 pp. 
Howard, L.O. 1897. Some insects affecting the hop plant. Bull. U.S. Dept. Agric. N.S. No. 7. 

p. 40-5 1 . 



1 Received October 7, 1981 

^ 1-87 Agriculture Building, Department of Entomology, University of Missouri-Columbia, 
MO 652 11 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 108 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 109 

NEW RECORDS OF CAVE COLLEMBOLA 

OF MEXICO 1 

Jose' G. Palacios-Vargas^ 

ABSTRACT: Thirty-five species of Collembola are recorded from eleven Mexican caves, 
nest of Pappogeomys tylorhynus and the fur of Neotomodon sp. and Peromyscus alstoni. A 
brief discussion about their ecological classification is included. 

RESUMEN: 35 especies de Collembola son registrados de 1 1 cuevas mexicanas, nidos de 
Pappogeomys tylorhynus y ejemplares colectados sobre Neotomodon sp. y Peromyscus 
alstoni. Se hace una breve discusion sobre su clasificacion ecologica. 

Mexican caves have one of the most abundant and diverse cavernicole 
fauna of any region in the world (Reddell, 1981). This is due to the existence 
of huge cave systems, and to the geographic position and diversity of 
climates and vegetational communities. 

Although springtails are usually well represented in any Mexican cave, 
frequently being the most abundant food source for other arthropods, there 
are few papers dealing with cave Collembola in Mexico. 

The first reference dates from Mills (1938) who recorded seven species 
from Yucatan caves. Bonet (1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947), Bonet and 
Tellez (1947) described several species; Christiansen (1973) described 
and recorded five species of Pseudosinella; and Bonet (1953, 1971) 
discussed the cave fauna in Mexico and gave new records. The latest 
records are those of Reddell (1971, 1981), Hoffman et al (1980) and 
Palacios-Vargas (1980). A tentative classification of some cavernicole 
Collembola, based on ecological, morphological and geographical data was 
presented by Palacios-Vargas (1981). 

Apparently, there are two or three groups of cavernicole Collembola in 
Mexico. One group of Mexican troglomorph species are closely related to 
species inhabiting soil and litter in the same area. 

Another group represents taxa abundant in temperate North America 
both in caves and in soil, which have extended to the south; the third group 
represent Neotropical fauna that has moved to habitats in southern 
Mexican caves. 

Epigeomorphs and ambimorphs are interesting because some of them 
are probably relicts that survived in the caves thanks to the stability of these 
environments. 



'Received February 19. 1982 

*J ' ' 

^Laboratorio de Acarologia. Departamento de Biologia. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, 
04510 Me'xico, D.F. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 109-113 



110 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The new records of Mexican caves Collembola given in this paper may 
assist in understanding the origin, distribution and evolutionary relationships 
of this group. 

It has been found that some of the springtails known as cavernicoles can 
also live in rodent nests and these are not restricted to caves, rather, they are 
associated with guano or rodent feces. 

The material involved in this study included samples provided by 
Hector Guzman, Sociedad Mexicana de Exploraciones Subterra'neas de 
Mexico; the author's collections and specimens from other collectors who 
are mentioned with the locality data. 

The cavernicole classification used here for the springtails mainly 
follows that of Christiansen (1962). 



ONYCHIURIDAE 

Mesaphorura krausbaueri Borner, 1901. 

GUERRERO: Grutus de Cacahuamilpa. 17-V-1977, J.G. Palacious col. 
SAN LUIS POTOSI: Aquismon: Hoya de Guaguas. 6-II-81, H. Guzman, col. 
*M. yosiii Rusek, 1967. 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. 6-XII-1981. V. Granados col. 
GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca, 29-XI-1980, M.L. Jimenez col. 
Mesaphorura sp. 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Grutas de la Estrella. 27-V-80, J.G. Palacios. col. 
Onychiurus encarpatus Denis, 1931. 

QUERETARO: Sotano Otates. 7-IV-1981, H. Guzman, col* 
HYPOGASTRURIDAE 

Acherontides atoyacensis Bonet, 1945. 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Ecatepec: Ventade Carpio. ex. nestofPappogeomvs tvlorhvnus, 

27-VII-1980. V. Sosacol. 
Acherontiella sabina Bonet, 1945. 
D.F.: Ajusco. ex Neotomodon sp. y Peromyscus alstoni. April and May, 1978, E. 

Hentschel col. 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. ex. guano. 12-XII-1981, V. Granados col. 
Ceratophysella sp. 
MORELOS: Cave at Km. 104, 5 FFCC Me'xico-Cuernavaca. 19-IV-1980 J.G. 

Palacios col. 

Willemia persimilis Bonet, 1945 
EDO. DE MEXICO: Venta de Carpio. ex. nest of P. tylorhynus 27-VII-1980, V. Sosa 

col. 

GUERRERO: Gruta de Acuitlapan. 12-XII- 1981, J.G. Palacios, col. 
NEANURIDAE 

Brachystomella parvula group (Schaeffer, 1896). 

QUERETARO: Sotano Otates. 7-IV-1981, H. Guzman col. 

B. sfac/ii Mills, 1934. 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Venta de Carpio, ex. nest of P. tylorhynus 27-VII-1980, V. Sosa 

col. 



The species marked with an asterisk represent a new record for the country. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 1 1 1 



*Pseudachorutes subcrassoides Mills, 1934. 

QUERETARO: Jalpan: Sotano Tilaco. 23-XII-1980, H. Guzman col. 

*Sensillanura sp. 

QUERETARO: Sotano Otates. 8-II-1981. H. Guzman col. 
ISOTOMIDAE 

Ballistura sp. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. 29-XI-1980, M.L. Jimenez col. ll-IV-1981, 
J.G. Palacios col. 

Cryptopygus thermophilus (Axelson, 1900). 

QUERETARO: Sotano Tilaco. 21 -XII- 1980, H. Guzman col. 

Folsomides americanus Denis, 1931. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca, 1 l-IV-1981. J.G. Palacios col. 

QUERETARO: Sotano Tilaco. 21-XII-1980, H. Guzman col. 

F. angularis (Axelson, 1905) 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. 1 l-IV-1981, J.G. Palacios col. 

Folsomina onychiurina Denis, 1931. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. ll-IV-1981, J.G. Palacios col. 

QUERETARO: Sotano Tilaco. 23-XII-1980, H. Guzman col. 

*Isotoma trispinata MacGillivray, 1896. 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Venta de Carpio, ex. nest of P. tylorhynus 27-VII-1980, V. Sosa 
col. 

Isotomiella minor (Schaeffer) 1896. 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. 6-XII-1981, V. Granados col. 

*Proisotoma (Appendisotoma) dubia Christiansen et Bellinger. 1980. 

SAN LUIS POTOSI: Aquismon: Hoya de Guaguas. 6-II-1981, H. Guzman. 

*P. minuta Tullberg, 1871. 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Venta de Carpio. ex next of P. tylorhynus 27-VII-1980. V. Sosa 

col. 
ENTOMOBRYIDAE 

Neorchesella mexicana Mari-Mutt, 1980 (Mari-Mutt del.) 

TAMAULIPUS: Cueva Conrado Castillo. 19-IV-1980, P. Date col. 

Lepidocyrtus sp. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. 1 l-IV-1981. J.G. Palacios col. 

Pseudosinella petrustrinatii Christiansen, 1973. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. 16-11-1979, E. Martin and M. Corte's col. 

P. violenta (Folsom) 1924. 

HIDALGO: Grutas de Tolantongo. 6-IX-1980, A. Hidalgo col. 

Pseudosinella sp. 1 . 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Venta de Carpio. ex. nest of P. tylorhynus 27-VII-1980, V. Sosa 
col. 

Pseudosinella sp. 2 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. 6-XII-1981, V. Granados col. 

Seira sp. 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. 6-XII-1981, V. Granados col. 
CYPHODERIDAE 

Cyphoderus sp. nov. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. ll-IV-1981. J.G. Palacios col. 
PARONELLIDAE 

Paronella sp. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. 6-III-1979, E. Martin and M. Cortes col. 



112 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Troglopedetes sp. nov. A. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. ll-IV-1981. J.G. Palacios col. 

Troglopedetes sp. nov. B. 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. 6-XII-1981, V. Granados col. 
NEELIDAE 

Megalothorax minimus Willem, 1900. 

VERACRUZ: Grutas de Atoyac. 6-XII-1981, V. Granados col. 
SMINTHURIDIDAE 

Sphaeridia sp. A. 

EDO. DE MEXICO: Venta de Carpio. ex nest of P. tylorhynus 27-VII-1980, V. Sosa 
col. 

Sphaeridia sp. B. 

GUERRERO: Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. 1 1 -IV- 1981, J.G. Palacios col. 



Discussion 

The most abundant Onychiuridae belong to the group Mesaphorura 
krausbaueri and further studies should reveal endemic forms. 

Acherontiella sabina was described by Bonet (1945) from caves of 
San Luis Potosi'and was found in caves of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. It 
also has been recorded from Kangaroo Rat nests (Christiansen and 
Bellinger, 1980), from Santa Fe, New Mexico; and here it is reported from 
the fur of the rodents Neotomodon and Peromyscus alstoni, from Ajusco, 
D.F. This leads us to think that some carvernicole springtails, mainly those 
associated with guano, can be transported by accidental phoresis from one 
cave to another by the rodents. 

Acherontides atoyacensis from Cueva de Atoyac, Veracruz (Bonet, 
1945), has been found in one basaltic cave from Morelos State (Palacios- 
Vargas, 1981) and in Gruta de Aguacachil, Guerrero (Palacios-Vargas, 
1 982). Our new record from nests of P. tylorhynus implies that this species 
is not restricted really to caves but that it might be associated with the feces 
of rodents. 

Ceratophysella sp. and W. persimilis are trogloxene, the first hemida- 
phic and the second euedaphic. All the neanurids seem to be trogloxene. 

The family Isotomidae includes very few troglomorphs. Although this 
is the best represented family in the caves here in studied, the species 
represent a fauna which also lives outside the caves and they should be 
considered as ambimorphs or epigeomorphs. 

TV. mexicana and Seira sp. are trogloxenes. The undescribed Cyphoderids 
and Paronellids are better representatives of trogomorphs. 

Neelids are euedaphic or ambimorphs and the Sminthurids troglomorphs 
belongs to Arrhopalites and Pararrhopalites, which were not found in the 
caves recorded in this paper. 



Vol. 93. No. 4. September & October 1982 113 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author expresses his gratitude to the following collembologists who kindly reviewed 
the manuscript: Dr. Peter F. Bellinger, California State University, Northridge. California: 
Dr. Jose A. Mari Mutt, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez and Dr. Kenneth 
Christiansen, Grinnell College, Iowa. 

REFERENCES 

Bonet, F. 1943. Sobre laclasificaci6ndelosOncopoduridae(Collembola)condescripci6nde 
especies nuevas. An. Esc. nac. Cienc. bioi, Mexico. 3: 127-153. 

. 1944. Tullberginos de Me'xico (Collembola) Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 5 (1- 
2): 51-72. 

1945. Neuvos generos y especies de Hipogastruridos de Mexico. (Collembola) 



Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 6. (1-2): 13-45. 

1946. Mas Hipogastruridos anoftalmos de Mexico. (Collembola) Rev. Soc. Mex. 
Hist. Nat., 7: 51-62. 

. 1947. Monografi'a de la Familia Neelidae. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 8: 133- 
192. 

1 953. Espeleologia Mexicana. Cuevas de la Sierra Madre Oriental de la region de 
Xilitla. Institute de Geologia. UNAM. Bol. 57: 1-96. 

1971. Espeleologia de la Region Cacahuamilpa. Gro. Institute de Geologia. 



UNAM. Bol. 90: 1-98. 
Bonet, F. y C. Tellez. 1947. Un nuevo genero de Esminturidos. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat., 

8: 193-203. 
Christiansen, K. 1962. Proposition pour la classification des animaux cavernicoles. 

Spelunca, 4(2): 75-78. 
Christiansen, K. 1973. The genus Pseudosinella in Mesoamerican Caves. Ass. Mex. Cav. 

Stud., 5: 129-134. 

and P. Bellinger. 1980- 1981. The Collembola of North America North of the Rio 

Grande. Grinnell College, Grinnell. Iowa. 
Hoffmann, A., J.G. Palacios- Vargas y J.B. Morales. 1980. Bioecologia de la cueva la 

Ocotitlan, Tepoztlan, Mor. Fol. Ent. Mex., 43: 21-22. 
Mills, H.B. 1938. Collembola from Yucatan caves. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ, 491: 183- 

190. 
Palacios-Vargas, J.G. 1 980. Cole'mbolos cavernicolas del Estado de Morelos, Mexico. Fol. 

Ent. Mex., 45: 76-77. 

1981. Clasificacion Espeleologica de los Colembolos Cavernicolas de morelos, 
Mexico. Fol. Ent. Mex., 47: 5-15. 

1982. Microartropodos de la Gruta de Aquacachil, Guerrero, Mexico. An. Esc. 
nac. Cienc. Biol. (in Press). 

Reddell. J.R. 1971. A preliminary bibliography of Mexican cave Biology. Ass. Mex. Cav. 
Stud., Bull. 3: 1-184. 

1 98 1 . A review of the cavernicole fauna of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Texas 
Memorial Museum. University of Texas at Austin. Bull. 27: 1-327. 



114 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NEW SPECIES OF BOLIVIAN GYPONINAE 
(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 1 

Dwight M. DeLong 2 , Donald R. Foster 3 

ABSTRACT: Six new species of Bolivian Gyponinae, Hecalapona villaria n.sp., Gypona 
saavedra n.sp., Gyponia tunaria n.sp., Folicana boliviano n.sp., Curtara audacitara 
n.sp., and Poland son tana n.sp. are described. 

The genus Hecalapona and 38 new species were described by DeLong 
and Freytag (1975). A revisional study of the genus Gypona was published 
by DeLong & Freytag (1964). The genus Folicana was described by the 
same authors (1972). The genus Curtara was also described by the same 
authors, and 76 species and 6 subgenera were treated (DeLong and Freytag 
1976). The same authors (1972) treated the genus Polana and placed 87 
species, 73 described as new, in 10 subgenera. A species of Hecalapona, 2 
species of Gypona, and a species each of Folicana, Curtara and Polana are 
described in this paper. All types are from Bolivia and are in the DeLong 
collection at the Ohio State University. 

Hecalapona villaria n.sp. 

(Figs. 1-5) 

Length of male 9 mm, female unknown. Crown broadly rounded, more than 4/5 as long at 
middle as wide at base between eyes. Ocelli nearer eyes than median line and at 5/8 length of 
crown. Color yellowish green with a black spot on wing margin at apex of each claval vein. 

Male genital plates 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices narrowed, rounded. Style with 
foot-like apex. The "heel" portion is ventral and rounded, the "toe" extends dorsally and is 
rounded at apex. Shaft of aedeagus rather broad laterally, bearing 5 apical processes; the 
median process curved basad on ventral sie of shaft; the 2 lateral processes extend laterally 
and the 2 median processes extend caudally. Pygofer rounded apically. 

Holotype male, Bolivia, Villa Tunari, 21-11-1981, Donald R. Foster coll. 

H. villaria is related to H. dellella DeLong & Freytag but with the foot-like 
apical portion of style shorter and the toe-like portion broader. 

Gypona saavedra n.sp. 

(Figs. 6-10) 

Length of male 9 mm, female 10.5 mm. Crown a little more than half as long as wide 
between eyes at base. Ocelli closer to median line than to eyes, closer to basal than to apical 
margin. Color brownish green scutellum more greenish. A faint, small, black spot behind each 
eye on pronotum at half length of pronotum. Forewings with apical portion more brownish. 

Female 7th sternum broadly angularly excavated from lateral angles almost to base of 
.segment, apex of median notch with a brown sclerotized plate. 

Male genital plates twice as long as wide at middle, apices broadly rounded. Style with 
blade broad dorsoventrally, apical portion foot-shaped, with a broad rounded ventral "heel" 

Deceived January 9, 1982 

2 Department of Entomology, the Ohio State University 
'Consortium for International Development, Cochabamba, Bolivia. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 114-118 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 115 



and a dorsal "toe" which is pointed, with a filamentous apex. Aedeagal shafi rather broad, 
bearing 2 apical, laterally directed processes, almost half as long as shaft, and 2 very short 
subapical processes, 1/4 length of apical processes. Pygofer narrowed and rounded 
apically. 

Holotype male, Bolivia, Saavedra, 9-VIII-'80. Donald R. Foster coll. Paratype female 
same data except 7-V-'80. 

G. saavedra is placed in the subgenus Gypona and is related to G. 
lingua DeLong and Freytag from which it can be separated by the shorter 
subapical aedeagal spines and the longer, narrower apical portion of the 
style. 

Gypona tunaria n.sp. 

(Figs. 11-15) 

Length of male 9 mm, female 10.5 mm. Crown produced and broadly rounded, slightly 
more than half as long at middle, as wide between eyes at base. Ocelli closer to median line 
than to eyes. Color: crown green, ocelli red, pronotum green with a minute round black spot, 
each side, behind eyes, not quite half the length of pronotum, scutellum green, forewings pale 
greenish subhy aline with black areas at base of wing, along scutellum, and across basal portion 
of apical cells. 

Female 7th sternum with a median, broadly rounded lobe which bears a squarish 
excavation at middle 1/9 width of segment and 1/4 distance to base, with a slight median 
notch. 

Male genital plates 2 1 /2 times a long a wide at middle, apex broadly rounded. Style long, 
slender, slightly curved ventrally, near middle, tapered to a long, slender, pointed apex. 
Aedeagus short, shaft bent dorsally at 3/4 it length, apex bluntly pointed. Pygofer with a 
finger-like process, each side, on inner dorsal margin. 

Holotype male, Bolivia, Villa Tunari, 21-11-1981, D.R. Foster coll. Paratypes: 1 male, 
females same data as holotype; 1 male Chapiro, Bol. 26-V-1980. 

G. tunaria is related to G. tubulata DeLong & Freytag and is placed in 
the subgenus Gypona. It can be separated from tubulata by the longer, 
tapered style and by the apically curved and tapered aedeagus. 

Folicana bolviana n.sp. 

(Figs. 16-20) 

Length of male 10 mm, female unknown. Crown broadly rounded, about twice as wide 
between eyes at base as long at middle. Ocelli much closer to posterior than to anterior margin, 
closer to median line than to eyes. Color, crown pale brownish. Pronotum with median 
longitudinal half dark greenish brown. Each lateral portion, behind eyes, pale grayish green. 
Scutellum brownish yellow, apical angles brown. The outer margin of the darker coloration on 
pronotum appears as a darker brownish longitudinal stripe which terminates on the basal 
angles of scutellum. 

Male genital plates 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices broadly rounded. Style 
elongate, apical portion narrowed, apex curved dorsally, ventral margin of apical portion 
serrate. Aedeagus with paraphyses which extend more than 2/3 distance to apex and are 
pointed apically. Aedeagal shaft with apex angles and pointed at one side, apex enclosed by a 
slightly sclerotized sheath which extends about 1/3 distance to base, enclosing 2 apical 
processes. 

Holotype male, Bolivia, Santa Cruz, 21 -VII- 1980, D.R. Foster coll. 

F. boliviano is related to F. acrita DeLong & Freytag and can be 
separated from it by the angular apex of the aedeagal shaft, the slightly 
sclerotized apical capsule of the aedeagal shaft and the shorter, rounded 



116 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 1-5 Hecalapona villaria n.sp. 1. aedeagus ventrally, 2. plate ventrally, apical portion, 
3. aedeagus laterally, 4. style laterally, 5. pygofer laterally, apical portion. Figs. 6-10 
Gypona saavedra n.sp. 6. plate ventrally, 7. aedeagus ventrally, 8. pygofer laterally, 
9. style laterally, 10. aedeagus laterally. Figs. 11-15 Gypona tunaria n.sp. 11. style 
laterally, 12. aedeagus ventrally, 13. aedeagus laterally, 14. pygofer laterally, 15. plate 
ventrally. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



17 




Figs. 16-20 Folicana boliviano n.sp. 16. aedeagus ventrally, 17. aedeagus laterally. 
18. plate ventrally, 19. pygofer spine, laterally, 20. style laterally, with enlarged apical 
portion. Figs. 21-25 Curlara audacitara n.sp. 21. plate ventrally, 22. style laterally. 
23. pygofer laterally, apical portion, 24. aedeagus laterally. 25. aedeagus ventrally. Figs. 
26-30 Polana santana n.sp. 26. style laterally. 27. aedeagus and connective ventrally. 
28. aedeagus laterally, 29. plate ventrally, 30. pygofer laterally, apical portion. 



1 1 8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



apex of the style. 

Curtara audacitara n.sp. 

(Figs. 21-25) 

Length of male 8.5 mm, female unknown. Crown produced and rounded, 1/2 as long at 
middle as wide between eyes at base. Ocelli about equidistant between eyes and median line. 
Color pale gray with numerous black punctate spots. Pronotum yellowish gray on anterior 
portion with 2 reddish brown spots behind each eye, disc pale gray with numerous small black 
punctate spots. Scutellum dull yellowish, a small black spot each side at inner margin of basal 
angle, on anterior margin. Forewings pale gray, almost white, with black spots or dashes in 
linear arrangement along wing veins, most prominently along costal and claval veins. Veins of 
apical portion margined with pale brown. 

Male genital plates 5 times as long as wide at middle, apex narrowed and rounded. Style 
narrow, curved ventrocaudally at apex, tip roundly pointed. Aedeagal shaft bearing a 
conspicuous pointed tooth on median ventral margin, apex foot-like with a ventral narrow, 
rounded "heel" and a dorsal narrow, rounded "toe". Paraphyses about equal width for entire 
length, median portion rod-shaped, terminating in spine-like processes. Pygofer narrow, 
bluntly pointed apically. 

Holotype male, Bolivia, Puerto Villarael, 16-IV-'81, D.L. Foster Coll. 

C. audacitara is placed in the subgenus Curtara. The aedeagal 
processes resemble those of C. inflata DeLong & Freytag from which it can 
be separated by the transverse apical portion of the aedeagal shaft and the 
almost uniform width of the paraphyses. 

Poland santana n.sp. 

(Figs. 26-30) 

Length of male 8 mm, female unknown. Crown broadly rounded, not quite half as long at 
middle as wide between eyes at base. Ocelli nearer apical than basal margin of crown and 
about equidistant between eyes and median line. Color, crown, pronotum and scutellum 
reddish brown, with irregular blackish brown areas, basal angles of scutellum, black. 
Forewings reddish brown, veins and cross veins darker brown or black. 

Male genital plates more than twice as long as wide at middle. Style broad dorsoventrally, 
apical portion foot-like with a broadly rounded "heel" and a bluntly pointed dorsal "toe". 
Apical margin of "foot" notched near middle. Aedeagus broad basally in ventral view, in 
lateral view curved ventrally, broader ventrally than caudally, apical third narrowed and 
pointed apically. Pygofer narrowed, rounded apically, without pygofer spine. 

Holotype male, Bolivia, Santa Cruz, 21-V-1980 D.R. Foster coll. 
P. santana is placed in the subgenus Polanana. It is related to P. 
obliqua DeLong and Freytag and can be separated from it by the absence of 
a pygofer spine, and the absence of aedeagal processes. 

LITERATURE CITED 

DeLong, D.M. and P.H. Freytag 1964. Four genera of world Gyponinae. A synopsis of the 
genera Gvpona, Gvponana, Rugosana and Reticana. Ohio Biological Survey Bull. 11(3); 
227 pp. ' 

1972. Studies of the Gyponinae: The genus Folicana and nine new species. 

Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 45: 282-295. 

1972. Studies of the world Gyponinae. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae): The genus 



Poland. Arquivos Zoologia, S. Paulo, 22(5): 239-324. 

1975. Studies of the Gyponinae. A new genus Hecalapona and 38 new species. 



Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48: 547-579. 

1 976. Studies of the world Gyponinae, (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) A synopsis of 



the genus Curtara. Brenesia 7: 1-79. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 119 



DESCRIPTION OF LARVAL FORM AND NEW 

DISTRIBUTION RECORD FOR TUCKERELLA 

HYPOTERRA McDANIEL & MORIHARA 

(ACARI: TUCKERELLIDAE) 1 

B. McDaniel,^ Eric G. Bolen^ 



ABSTRACT: A description of the larvae of Tuckerella hypoterra McDaniel and Morihara 
is given. The distribution of T. hypoterra is extended to include southwestern Glasscock 
County, Texas. 

Tuckerella hypoterra previously was described only from adult specimens 
collected in South Dakota and Colorado (McDaniel et al. 1975). In this 
paper a description of the larval stage is given and the distribution of T. 
hypoterra is extended to include Texas. 

Tuckerella hypoterra McDaniel and Morihara 

Larvae: Caudum with 5 pairs of whiplike setae (7 are present on the adults) arising from 
tuberclelike setal bases. Posterior half of each whiplike seta moniliform. pilose: anterior 
portion plumose as in adults. Posterodistal element of duplex setae on tarsus I absent, 
anterodistal element very large. Rostrum and palpi approximately equal in length, palpi well- 
developed, bearing two apical setae similar to those of adults: stylets recurved basally , rostrum 
with two vertical setae placed above coxae of palpi, similar in structure to adult, rostrum not 
completely covered by extension of gnathosoma. Dorsum with typical fan-shaped setae 
characteristic of adult except smaller, distribution same as in adult except for the opisthonotum 
which has only 20 fan-shaped setae, 6 in a transverse series behind the suture marking 
delineation of metapodosomatic and opisthosomatic regions, 6 setae on opisthosonotal margin 
(Fig. 1 ) (adults have 8 setae in this location); opisthonotum with 2 rows of 4 medial setae, 
posterior row smaller than all other dorsal fan-shaped setae, submedian pair placed anteriorly 
to outer lateral pair. Ventral region with only 2 pairs of pilose seta, anal region with 3 pairs of 
pilose setae. 

Habitat: The Texas specimens of T. hypoterra were collected 19 September 1981 in 
southwestern Glasscock County on the Wilkerson Ranch, 10 miles south of Garden City and 
1 .5 miles west of State Highway 33. The county lies in an econtonal region of the Southern 
High Plains and the Edwards Plateau characterized by a subtropical climate with annual 
averages of 16 inches of precipitation and 217 frost-free days. Soils at the collection site are 
silty clay loams of the Reagan Series: these are moderately alkaline, deep upland soils formed 
in calcereous loamy sediments of eolian origins. The habitat is heavily grazed rangeland 
dominated by a mesquite (Prosopis sp.) overstory and broomweed (Xanthocephalum sp.) 
understory: thin stands of grasses interspersed on exposed soil provide the only other 



1 Received December 21, 1981 

^Plant Science Department (Entomology), South Dakota State University, Brookings. South 
Dakota 57007. 

^Dean's Office, The Graduate School, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 119-120 



120 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



vegetation. These conditions, particularly the extensive broomweed understory, reflect the 
proximity of a nearby windmill where cattle concentrate for water and thereby cause 
considerable disturbance to the range community. 




1 



Fig. 1. Tuckerella hypolerra McDaniel and Morihara Larval Opisthonotum. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We appreciate the support of Organized Research from the College of Agricultural 
Sciences, Texas Tech University. Approved for publication by the Director, Agrictural 
Experiment Station, South Dakota State University, Brookings, as Journal Series No. 1805. 

REFERENCES 

McDaniel, B., D.K.. Morihara, J.K. Lewis. 1975. A New Species of Tuckerella from South 
Dakota and a Key with Illustrations of all Known Described Species. Acarologia. 
17(2): 274-283. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 121 

A NEW GENERIC PLACEMENT FOR 

HAPLOGONATOPUS AMERICANUS PERKINS 

(HYMENOPTERA: DRYINIDAE) 12 

M.K. Giri, P.H. Freytag 3 

ABSTRACT: Haplogonatopus americanus Perkins, a North American species of the 
family Dryinidae, is transferred to the genus Dicondylus. The morphological characters 
needed for the identification of this species are illustrated for the first time. 

This paper is an attempt to clarify the proper generic placement of 
Haplogonatopus americanus Perkins. Perkins ( 1905) described the genus 
Haplogonatopus for three new species, H. apicalis, H. moestus (from 
Australia) and H. americanus (from America) on the basis of an undivided 
pronotum, 2-segmented labial and maxillary palpi. Olmi and Currado 
(1979), on reexamination of the type-species, H. apicalis, found that it had 
a 1 -segmented labial palpi. On this basis they redescribed the generic 
characters of Haplogonatopus and excluded americanus from the genus. 

Besides Haplogonatopus, Dicondylus was the only logical alternative 
genus for the placement of americanus. Richards (1939) described 
Dicondylus as having an undivided pronotum, 2-segmented labial palpi and 
a delphacid host. The type-species of Dicondylus (bicolor Haliday) was 
described as having 4-segmented maxillary palpi. The type-specimen of 
americanus has 2-segmented maxillary palpi as confirmed by Freytag's 
study of the female types. We have illustrated americanus (Fig. 1 , 2 and 3) 
and compared it with the type-species of Dicondylus. The variation in the 
number of maxillary palpi has previously been reported for this genus as 
well as some of the other genera (Richards, 1939; Raatikainen, 1961; 
Freytag, 1977 and Olmi, personal communication). Raatikainen (1961) 
reported that the maxillary palpal segments of Dicondylus helleni Raatikainen 
varies from 2 to 3 segments. Because of the above mentioned facts, we 
transfer H. americanus Perkins to the genus Dicondylus. 

Dicondylus americanus (Perkins), NEW COMBINATION 

Haplogonatopus americanus Perkins 1905 p. 39. Described from a series of females 
collected from Ohio. 



1 Received February 22, 1982 



is paper is published with the approval of the Director of the Kentucky Agricultural 
Experiment Station as Journal Article No. 82-7-35. 

^Graduate Student and Associate Professor, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kentucky. 
Lexington, KY 40546. 

ENT. NEWS 93(4): 121-124 



122 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Characters: 

Male (Fig. 1) 

Length 1 .8 to 2.6 mm. Winged with reduced venation. Body black, posterior ocelli farther from 

each other than each is from the anterior ocellus. Aedeagus long, bifurcated at apex and 

prominent (Fig. 3B). Tip of distivolsella has only one filament and 2 shorter spines. Dorsal 

processes of gonoforceps long, colorless, slightly curved, touching beyong middle, extending 

slightly beyond distivolsella with tips rounded and a few dentations. 

Female (Fig. 2) 

Length 2.2 to 3.1 mm. Apterous. Head with vertex depressed, labial and maxillary palpi 2- 
segmented (Fig. 3A). Antennae 10-segmented, first 2 and the last segments pale, remainder 
dark brown. Pronotum not crossed by a transverse impression (undivided). Mesonotum and 
metanotum yellowish brown. Femur has black tinge visible from side. Tibial spurs 1 , 0, 1 . Last 
segment of tarsus bearing 1 4 enlarged lamelliform setae in 3 groups; enlarged tarsal claw has a 
preapical tooth with a row of 5 enlarged setae (Fig. 3C and D). Propodum yellowish brown, 
with a pair of spiracles, and fine transverse striae, without evident pilosity. Abdomen mostly 
black (after feeding, banded, black and yellow because of the extension of abdominal 
sclerites). 

We also examined the Holotype ofDicondylus texanus (Ashmead), a 
male from Texas, originally described as Labeo texanus. Both americanus 




Fig. 1. Male Dicondylus americanus (Perkins), dorsal view. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 



123 



and texanus have 2-segmented maxillary palpi and similar dorsal processes 
in the male genitalia. A good comparison of these two species could not be 
made at this time, because of the absence of adequate specimens, primarily 
females of texanus. 




Fig. 2. Female Dicondylus americanus (Perkins), dorsal view. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

We wish to thank A.S. Menke, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA. for arranging 
the loan of type material from the National Museum of Natural History, Washington. D.C. 
Thanks are also due to M. Olmi, Department of Plant Protection. University of Viterbo. 
Faculty of Agriculture, 01 100 Viterbo, Italy for his valuable suggestions, and G.M. Nishida. 
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, for permission to study the Perkins types. 



124 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fig. 3. A. Mouthparts of a female showing segmentation of palpi, ventral view. 

B. Male genitalia, dorsal view, showing curved dorsal processes and aedeagus. 

C. Female chela showing 5th tarsal segment with 14 enlarged setae. 

D. Female chela showing claw with a subapical tooth and 5 enlarged setae. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Freytag, P. H. 1 977. A Review of the Genus Neogonatopus for North America (Hymenoptera: 

Dryinidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70(4): 569-476. 
Krombein, K.V. 1979. Dryinidae. pp. 1240-1241. 7/2 Krombein et al., eds. Catalog of 

Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, Vol. 2. Smithsonian Inst. Press. 
Olmi, Massimo and Italo Currado. 1979. Revisione del genera Haplogonatopus R.C.L. 

Perkins (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Ann. Fac. Sci. Agr. Univ. Torino 11: 37-44. 
Perkins, R.C.L. 1905. Leafhoppers and their natural enemies (Part I Dryinidae). Hawaii 

Sugar Planter's Assoc., Div. Entomol. Bull. 1(1): 1-69. 
Raatikainen, Mikko. 1961. Dicondylus helleni sp. n. (Hym., Dryinidae), a parasite of 

Calligvpona sordidula (Stal) and C. excisa (Mel.). Ann. Entomol. Fenn. 27(3): 126- 

137. 
Richards, O.W. 1 939. The British Bethylidae (S.L.) (Hymenoptera). Trans. Royal Entomol. 

Soc. London. 89(8): 185-344. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 125 

NEW STATE RECORDS OF THE MAYFLY 
LEPTOPHLEBIA BRADLEYI NEEDHAM 1 

Brad C. Henry, Jr., 2 Boris C. Kondratieff 3 

ABSTRACT: Leptophlebia />rad/<?v/' Needham is newly recorded from New York, Oklahoma, 
Texas, and Virginia. This species was previously known from only Alabama, Florida. 
Georgia, and Louisiana. 

The original description of Leptophlebia bradleyi was based on male 
imagoes collected in the Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia (Needham, 1932). 
Traver (1935) transferred L. bradleyi to the genus Paraleptophlebia. 
Berner (1950) discussed this species and noted its uncertain generic 
placement. Berner (1975) reasssigned bradleyi to Leptophlebia based on 
adult and nymphal characters and described the nymph and female imago. 
Edmunds et al. (1976) retained bradleyi in Paraleptophlebia but noted 
Berner's (1975) transfer. Berner (1975) summarized the characters for 
separating /. bradleyi from Paraleptophlebia. 

The previous known range of L. bradleyi was the southeastern states of 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana (Needham, 1932; Berner, 
1977). Recently we examined field-collected, and reared images of this 
species from Long Island, New York, south central Oklahoma, central 
Texas, and Virginia. These records represent significant extensions of the 
known range of L. bradleyi far to the northeast and west. Kondratieff and 
Voshell (1981) briefly discussed L. bradleyi in Virginia. 

Material Examined: 

New York: Suffolk Co., Manorville, 12 April 1979, Darlene Massey, 5cf. 

Oklahoma: Murray Co., Honey Cr. and 1-35, 13 March 1981, B.C. Henry, 4cf. 

Texas: IrionCo., W. Rocky Cr. at FM 853, 23 Jan. 1981, 5cf; 17Dec. 1980, cf (reared): 18 

Dec. 1980, 1 cf (reared); 23 Jan. 1981,5 cf, B.C. Henry. Travis Co., Barton Cr. at Bee 

Cave, 23 Dec. 1980, Icf (reared), 49 (2 reared), B.C. Henry. 

Tom Green Co, Dov. Cr. on Tweedy Ranch 2 mi S W Knickerbocker, 1 9 Feb. 1 98 1 , 3 cf, 

B.C. Henry. S. Concho R. at Christoval, 23 Dec. 1980, 11 cf, Lynn McCutchen. 
Virginia: Hanover Co., South Anna River overflow marsh, Co. Rt. 657, 2 1 March 1 978, B.C. 

Kondratieff, 3cf. 



1 Received October 19, 1981 

Department of Biology, Angelo State Univ., San Angelo, Texas 76909. Present address: 
Department of Biology, Texas A & M Univ., College Sta., TX 77843 

^Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA 
24061 



ENT. NEWS 93(4): 125-126 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank Dr. Lewis Berner, University of Florida for confirming our 
identifications and reviewing the manuscript. We would also like to thank Dr. Paul K. Lago, 
University of Mississippi for the New York record and Dr. J. Reese Voshell, Jr., Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute and State University for helpful suggestions with the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Berner, L. 1950. The mayflies of Florida. Univ. Fla. Press, Gainesville, Bio. Sci. Serv. 267 

pp. 
Berner, L. 1975. The mayfly family Leptophlebiidae in the southeastern United States. 

Florida Entomol. 58: 137-156. 
Berner, L. 1977. Distributional patterns of southeastern mayflies (Ephermeroptera). 

Bull. Fla. State Mus., Biol. Sci. 22: 1-56. 
Edmunds, G.F., Jr., S.L. Jensen, and L. Berner. 1976. The mayflies of North and 

Central America. Univ. Minn. Press, Minneapolis. 330 pp. 
Kondratieff, B.C. and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1 98 1 . Seasonal distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) 

in two Piedmont rivers in Virginia. Entomol. News 92:189-195. 
Needham, J.G. 1932. Three new American mayflies. Can. Entomol. 64: 273-276. 
Traver, J.R. 1 935. In J.G. Needham, J.R. Traver, and Y.C. Hsu. The biology of mayflies with 

a systematic account of North American species. Comstock, Ithaca. 759 pp. 



CHARLES P. ALEXANDER 

One of the giants of taxonomic entomology. Dr. Charles P. Alexander, passed away on 
December 3. 1981. He was 92 years of age. Dr. Alexander was a retired professor of 
entomology at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He was even better known, world- 
wide, as an outstanding authority on crane fly (Tipulidae) systematics, having described and 
named over 10,000 species during his long career. His extensive collection has been 
transferred to the U.S. National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Alexander was an almost life long member of the American Entomological Society 
and a frequent contributor of papers to both our Transactions and to Entomological News. 
Over his lifetime, he authored and published over 1000 papers containing the results of his 
extensive research. 

He and his very supportive wife, Mabel, who passed away a little over two years ago, left a 
will which included bequests to over a dozen entomological societies and publications, 
including the American Entomological Society, to assist in the publication of the results of 
entomological research. Thus the influence of Dr. Alexander will live on for years to come, not 
only in his own published works, but in the published research of others. 



Vol. 93, No. 4, September & October 1982 127 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

A DIRECTORY OF POLICIES ON ARTHROPOD COLLECTING 
ON PUBLIC LANDS. Gary A. Dunn. 1982. The Great Lakes Entomol- 
ogist 15: 123 - 141. 

Though not a book, this paper is an excellent guide to the policies and regulations on arthropod 
collecting and research on public lands. 

A FAUNISTIC SURVEY OF THE ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED 
WITH ANTS IN WESTERN TEXAS. K.C. Neece and D.P. Bartell. 
1 982. Graduate Study #25, Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, Tx. 36 pp. $6.00 
pbk. 

A survey and study of myrmecophilous insects in Texas, west of the 100th meridian. Six 
orders of associates were collected with 20 ant genera. 

TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ENCYRTIDAE WITH DESCRIPTIONS 
OF NEW SPECIES AND A NEW GENUS (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). 
Gordh & V.A. Trjapitzin. 1981. Univ. of Calif. Pub. in Entomology #93. 
U. of C. Press. 64 pp. $7.00 pbk. 

Several problem genera are treated to correct problems and deficiencies in encyrtid taxonomy 
in preparation for a revision of the Nearactic Encyrtidae. 

FAUNAL AFFINITIES, SYSTEMATICS, AND BIONOMICS OF 
ORTHOPTERA OF CALIFORNIA CHANNEL ISLANDS. D.C.F. 
Rentz & D.B. Weissman. 1982. Univ. of Calif. Pub. in Entomology #94. 
U. of C. Press. 240 pp. $22.00 pbk. 

This monograph, the culmination often years of intensive research on the Orthoptera of the 
California Channel Islands and adjacent coast of southern California, reports on the unique 
combination of an interesting island system and a manageable and diverse group of insects. 

WASPS OF GENUS TRYPXYLON, SUBGENUS TRYPARGILUM, 
IN NO. AMERICA (Hymentoptera: Sphecidae). Rollin E. Coville. 1 982. 
Univ. of Calif. Pub. in Entomology #97. U. of C. Press. 147 pp. $13.00 
pbk. 

Systematics of No. Amer. sphecid wasps of the genus Trypoxylon. subgenus Trypargilum. 
are examined. Biological habits of the subgenus are reviewed. 

THE ROLE OF HYPERPARASITISM IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: 
A SYMPOSIUM. David Rosen. 1981. Div. Agric. Sciences, Univ. of 
Calif. Pub. #4103. 52 pp. $3.00 pbk. 

Six papers discuss defining and identifying hyperparasites, their occurence among insects, key 
characteristics of better studied species, impact on primary parasites, and the practice of 
importation. 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



THE PENTATOMOIDEA (HEMIPTERA) OF NORTHEASTERN 
NO. AMERICA WITH EMPHASIS ON THE FAUNA OF ILLINOIS. 
J.E. McPherson. 1982. So. Illinois Univ. Press. 240 pp. $30.00. 

This comprehensive survey provides updated keys to the Pentatomoidea. illustrations of key 
characters, brief summaries of field life histories, distribution maps for each Illinois species or 
subspecies and an index of existing literature, current to 1981. 

LOCOMOTION & ENERGETICS OF ARTHOPODS. C.F. Herreid II 
and C.R. Fourtner, eds. 1981. Plenum Press. 546 pp. $59.50. 

This symposium report presents an overview of swimming, walking, and flying the major 
methods of arthropod movement. Included are studies on mechanics and kinematics, on 
neuromuscular interactions and muscle biochemistry, on circulation and gas exchange, on 
temperature regulation, and on energetics. 

BIOLOGY OF DESERT INVERTEBRATES. Clifford S. Crawford. 
1981. Springer- Verlag. 314 pp. $39.30. 

An interesting and in-depth study of the ways in which invertebrate animals function in arid, 
and often stressful, environments. What these creatures do, how and when they do it, and how 
they manage to survive while doing it are questions that are addressed by the author. 

A TEXTBOOK OF ENTOMOLOGY, FOURTH EDITION. H.H. 
Ross, C.A. Ross, and J.R.P. Ross. 1982. John Wiley & Sons. 696 pp. 
$25.95. 

This standard introductory text in entomology has had much of its material rewritten to reflect 
significant changes in entomological thought in recent years. The major aims of earlier editions 
are retained while added emphasis is placed on the relationships between insects and their 
environments and on their evolutionary relationships. 

LARGE WHITE BUTTERFLY. THE BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY 
AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PIERIS BRASSICAE. John Feltwell. 1981. 
Dr. W. Junk BV Pub. 542 pp. $98.00. 

This book is designed for the research scientist as a resource to all relevant literature and as an 
introduction to all aspect of the biology of P. brassicae. 

THE BIOLOGY OF CENTIPEDES. J.G.E. Lewis. 1981. Cambridge 
Univ. Press. 476 pp. $69.95. 

This comprehensive account of centipede biology provides a critical review of all work to date, 
covering anatomy, behavior, reproduction and life history, predators and parasites, physiology, 
ecology, and taxonomy. 



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NEW ANNOTATED CHECKLIST of Cicindelidae of North America now available. 
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Butterflies for sale or exchange. Over 1 200 species from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, 
Ceylon, Indonesia. Sumatra and Borneo. Write to Sim Yam Seng, 21 Joon Hiang Road. 
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EXPEDITION for collection of rare butterflies and Coleopteras, February !-10, 1982, to 
Papua New Guinea. Cost $ 1 600 US per person ex San Francisco. Write Sim Yam Seng, 2 1 
Joon Hiang Road, Singapore 19. 

FOR SALE: Bee Flies of the World, 1973, 687 pp., $20.00 and Robber Flies of the World, 
1962, 907 pp. ,$20.00; both by F.M.Hull. Order from C.S.Hull, Box 1883. University, Miss. 
38677. 

WANTED: Crane-flies of N.Y. by Alexander(2 vol.); Prinipaux Coleopteres de la Province 
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earlier. Write stating condition and price to John E. Holzbach, 229 Maywood Dr., 
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FOR SALE. Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological Society, Vols. I (1905) through XV 
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Wanted: Gerridae (Hemiptera and Heteroptera), particularly nymphs, in fixative (recom- 
mended: 3:1, ethanohacetic acid); postage reimbursement available/Dr. Diane M. Calabrese, 
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Vol. 93 



November & December 1982 



US ISSN UO13 872X 
No. 5 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



if&l 

af 



eview of species of Ptilodactyla in U.S. with descriptions of 
three new species (Coleoptera: Ptilodactylidae) 

V. Johnson, P.H. Freytag 129 

New species of Goni oz us (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) imported 
into California for biological control of navel orangeworm 
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Gordon Gordh 136 

Occurrence of A nthrenus fuscus in Iowa (Coleoptera: 

Dermestidae) James W. Merlins 139 

Phoresis between the snail Oxytrema (Elima) carinifera 
and aquatic insects, especially Rheotanytarsus 
(Diptera: Chironomidae) William S. Vinikour 143 

Gerris remigis in a unique winter environment 
(Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Gerridae) 

D.M. Calabrese, P. Tallerico 152 



Annotated checklist of fleas of South Dakota 
(Siphonaptera) 

Thoughts on the origin of insect flight 



Emmet t R. E as ton 155 
Frank L. Carle 159 



Notes on biology and distribution of Hylotrupes bajulus 
in Virginia (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) 

K.F. Cannon, W.H. Robinson 173 

New No. American records for Palearctic soldier fly 
Chloromyia formosa (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) 

E.R. Hoebeke, L.L. Pechuman 177 

Collembola from Vermont Peter F. Bellinger \ 80 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 151 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 172, 176, 183 

MAILING DATES AND STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP 184 
INDEX: VOLUME 93 185 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 93, No. 5. November & December 1982 129 



A REVIEW OF THE SPECIES OF PTILODACTYLA 

IN THE UNITED STATES WITH DESCRIPTIONS 

OF THREE NEW SPECIES (COLEOPTERA: 

PTILODACTYLIDAE) 12 

Victor Johnson, Paul H. Freytag^ 

ABSTRACT: Nine species of Ptilodactyla from the United States are discussed, with three 
being described as new. Two species are related to angustata Horn (cqitilohata Chapin. and 
exotica Chapin) and five species are related to temcollis (Say) (isolaha n. sp.. carinata 
Johnson and Freytag. nanoderma n. sp.. acitta Johnson and Freytag. and hyperglotla n. sp.). 
Distribution records arc included for each species and a neotype is designated for Ptilinus 
sem'colliv Say. A key to all species is included. 

Six species of Ptilodactyla are known from the United States (Johnson 
and Freytag, 1978). Three new species are added at this time, bringing the 
total to nine. Since records of this family are so few and many areas are not 
well collected, we believe there may still be several more undescribed 
species in North America. 

All species of Ptilodactyla are very similar in size, coloration, and 
external body characteristics, so deteminations are currently based on male 
genitalia. which readily separate all known species. Previous workers 
(Chapin. 1927: Horn 1880) have used the shape of the tarsal claws. We 
used tarsal claws (Johnson and Freytag, 1 978) but found that the angle at 
which one views them leads to variable interpretations and makes comparisons 
difficult. We therefore have based our determinations only on the male 
genitalia. There are slight variations in the male genitalia but these do not 
interfere with identifications. Most variations are the position and length of 
the lateral lobes (parameres). These may cross or bend laterally and they 
may be the same length as the median lobe (aedeagus) or somewhat shorter. 
The illustrations (Figure 7-12) used in this paper place these lobes in the 
same position and represent a typical specimen of each species. 

Females are very difficult to properly identify and were excluded from 
our study. Many have been collected and are in collections but few can be 
associated to the proper species. 



'Received September 22. 1981. 

-The investigation reported in this paper (No. 81 -7-1 81 ) is in connection with a project of the 
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with approval of the Director 

^Respective addresses: 33 1 4 Woodbond Dr.. Claremont. California. 91711; and Department 
of Entomology. University of Kentucky. Lexington. Kentucky. 4054<v 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 129-135 November & December I9S2 

rouni/ 









130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

We also designate a neotype for P. serricolis (Say) at this time to 
stabilize this name. There has been some confusion in the past as to which 
species this name refers and there may be additional species found which 
may be closely related to it. 

KEY TO THE MALES OF PTILODACTYLA OF NORTH AMERICA 

1 Genitalia less than four times as long as wide 



(angustata group) 2 

Genitalia more than four t,mes as long as wide 

( tcrricollis group ) 4 

2. Lateral lobes truncate at apex cquilnhata Chapin 

Lateral lohes pointed at apex 3 

3 Lateral lohes closely appressed to median lobe 

exotica Chapin 

Lateral lobes capable of being deflexed near base 

angustata Horn 

4 Median lobe with dorsal, subapical. fleshy inner (laps (Fig. 7) 

5 

Median lobe without dorsal, subapical fleshy inner flaps (nanndcrnui has very small 
inner flaps, ususally not visible) (Fig 9) (S 

5. Median lobe with apex asymmetrical (Fig 7) V(>;v/co///v (Say) 

Median lobe with apex symmetrical (Fig. 8) isnlohn n. sp 

6. Median lobe with apex asymmetrical (Fig. 10) nanndcnna n. sp 

Median lobe with apex symmetrical (Fig. 9) 

7 Median lobe with apex rounded, with a subapical dorsal process (Fig 12) 

hyperglottd n sp 

Median lobe with apex narrow without a subapical dorsal process 8 

8. Median lobe with apex boat-shaped (Fig. 9) carinata Johnson & Freytag 

Median lobe with apex not boat-shaped (Fig. 11) acuta Johnson & Freytag 



Angustata Group 

This group of three species is well characterized in Chapin's paper 
(1927) and he gives good illustrations of the male genitalia of each. 

Ptilodactyla angustata Horn 

Ptilodactyla angustata Horn 1880. p. 90: Chapin 1927. p. 243. 

This species is now known from the following states: Florida, Georgia, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Pennsylvania. 
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. 

Ptilodactyla equilobata Chapin 
Ptilodactyla equilobata Chapin 1927. p. 245. 

This species is known only from Texas. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



131 









Figs. 1-6, Ptilndactylaspp., apex of male genitalia. Fig. 1: p. isoloba n. sp., lateral view. Fig. 
2: P. isoloha n. sp., dorsal view. Fig. 3: P. nanoderma n. sp., lateral view. Fig. 4: P. 
nanoderma n. sp.. dorsal view. Fig. 5: P. hyperglotta n. sp.. lateral view. Fig. 6: P. 
hyperglotta n. sp.. dorsal view. Figs. 1-5. 1 20x Fig. 6. 240x. 



132 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




SERRICOLLIS 



8 

ISOLOBA 




mm 



10 
NANODERMA 




HYPERGLOTTA 



Figs. 7-12, Dorsal view of male genitaliaof Pti/odacty/aspp.. Fig. 7. P. serricollis(Say): Fig. 
8. P. isoloha n. sp.; Fig. 9. P. carinala Johnson and Frcytag: Fig. 10. P. nunndcrma n. sp.: 
Fig. 1 1 . P. aciita Johnson and Freytag: Fig. 1 2. P. hypcr^lotla n. sp.. All drawn to the same 
scale. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 133 



Ptilodactyla exotica Chapin 

Ptilodactyla exotica Chapin 1927. p. 246. 

This species is known only from the northeastern states from Illinois to 
Washington. D.C. 

Serricollis Group 

Ptilodactyla serricollis (Say) 

(Figure 7) 

Ptilimts serricollis Say 1823. p. 186. 

Ptilodactvla serricollis Horn 1880. p. 90: Chapin 1927 (in part), p. 242: Spilman 1961: p. 

105: Johnson and Freytag 1978. p. 125. 

This species was discussed by Chapin (1927). who accompanied his 
description with a line drawing of the male genitalia. This drawing indicated 
a median lobe of the penis that was symmetrical. Johnson and Freytag 
(1978) further discussed this species and included scanning electron 
micrographs of the male genitalia. These micrographs showed a median 
lobe that was strongly expanded and distinctly asymmetrical. After further 
study of several hundred specimens, we have concluded that the species 
with the larger and more asymmetrical median lobe of the penis is 
serricollis. This species is quite common and its distribution includes the 
type locality (Missouri) as indicated by Say (1823) in his original 
description. For clarification of serricollis we are hereby specifying a male 
specimen labeled "Advance. Missouri, corn field. June 9. 1919. J.R. 
Painter" (Type No. 100316, USNM) as theneotypeof Ptilinus serricollis 
Say. The other species with the symmetrical median lobe of the penis is 
uncommon and appears to be distributed in the northeast. We describe it as 
a new species (isoloba n. sp.) in this paper. 

We have seen many specimens of serricollis from the following 
states: Arkansas, D.C., Florida. Georgia, Illinois, Indiana. Kentucky. 
Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, New York. North Carolina. 
Ohio. Pennsylvania. Tennessee, Texas. Virginia, and West Virginia. Also 
one male was seen from Ontario, Canada. 

Ptilodactyla isoloba, new species 

(Figures I. 2 & 8) 

Ptilodactyla serricollis Chapin 1927 (in part), p. 242. 

Similar to serricollis in all aspects, except male with median lobe of penis symmetrical 
Tarsal claws of male forelegs with inner portions of unguis about one half length of claws 
Male genitalia with median lobe of penis expanded symmetrically at apex, with two 

smaller inner flaps proximal to lateral expansions. Lateral lobes oi penis sub equal in length of 

median lobe, setiform. 

Holotype male: Erlanger. Kentucky, at light. June 8. 1980. Victor Johnson. (Type No. 

100315. USNM). Paratypes: Same data as type, except one male. June II. l l 'N<> one male. 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



August 9. 1981: one male. August 15. 1981 : one male. Rockhaven. Kentucky. July 22. (no 
year). J. Soltau: one male. Cincinnati. Ohio. August 19. (no year). H. Soltau: one male. 
Wayne. Co .. New York. August 10. 1950. Shoemaker: one male. Breton Bay. Maryl and. July 
1 3.1923. H.S. Barber: and one male. Plummers Island. Maryland. July 30. 1 9 1 9. H. Barber. 
The first three paratypes in the University of Kentucky Collection and the remainder in the 
US. National Museum. 

Note: This species was illustrated (as serricollis} by Chapin from 
specimens from Pennsylvania. No Pennsylvania specimens have been seen 
by us, but this state is within the distribution of this species. It does not occur 
in Missouri (no specimens collected there) so could not be sem'collis as 
described by Say. 

We have also seen one questionable male specimen of this species in the 
U.S. National Museum. It is labeled "Albuq. N.M., Wickman, Wickman 
Coll. 1933". This appears to be a mislabeled specimen. 



Ptilodactvla nanoderma, new species 

(Figures 3. 4. & 10) 

Similar to isoloba in all aspects, except male having median lobe of penis without the pair 
of inner flaps. 

Tarsal claws of male forelegs with inner portions of unguis about one-half length of claws. 

Male genitali ' with median lobe of penis nearly symmetrically expanded at apex, and 
usually lacking the pair of inner flaps proximal to the expanded apex. Lateral lobes of penis 
sub-equal to median lobes, setiform. 

Holotype male: Osborne. Indiana. June 4. 1911. E. Lilijeblad, (Type No. 100313. 
USNM). Paratypes: Two males, same data as holotype:one male, LaBelle, Florida, July 16. 
1939; Oman: one male, Missouri, July, collection of C.V. Riley: one male. N. Illinois, 
collection of J.B. Smith. The first paratype in the University of Kentucky collection and the 
remainder in the U.S. National Museum. 

Note: This species differs from serricollis by the absence of the inner 
flaps on the median lobe of the male penis. It is also close to carinata but 
differs by having the median lobe more abruptly expanded near the apex. 

Ptilodactvla carinata Johnson and Freytag 

(Figure 9) 

Ptilodactyla carinata Johnson and Freytag. 1978. p. 126. 

This is a common species in the eastern states and has a wide 
distribution. It is now known from the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, 
D.C., Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, New 
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. 

Ptilodactvla hvperglotta, new species 

(Figures 5, 6, & 12) 

Similar to serricollis in overall characteristics, but with the median lobe of male penis 
having a dorsal subapical tongue-like process. 



Vol. 93, No. 5. November & December 1982 1 35 



Tarsal claws of male forelegs with inner portion of unguis about one-half length of claws. 

Male genitalia with median lobe of penis symmetrically expanded at apex into a rounded 
spoon-shaped tip. At the proximal end of spoon-shaped expansion a tongue-like process 
extends dorsad. 

Holotype male: Near Brownsville. Texas, November 22, 1967. A & M.E. Blanchard 
(Type No. 100314, USNM). Paratypes: all Brownsville. Texas, three males, same data as 
holotype; three males, at light, April 4, 1908, O.K. McMillan: one male. May 15. 1934. J.N. 
Knull: and one male. May 15, 1935. J.N. Knull. The first paratype in the University of 
Kentucky Collection, the last two paratypes in the Ohio State University Collection, and the 
remainder in the U.S. National Museum. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank the following persons: C.A. Triplehorn. Ohio State University Collection 
(OSUC): T.R. Yonke. University of Missouri Collection (UMRM): and J.M. Kingsolver. 
U S. National Museum (USNM). for the loan of material examined, and P. Southgate for 
assistance with the SEM photographs. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chapin, E.A. 1927. The North America species of Ptilodactyla (Coleoptera: Heliodae). 

Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 53:241-248. pi. 23. 
Horn, G.H. 1880. Synopsis of the Dascyllidae of the United States. Trans. Amer. Entomol. 

Soc. 8:90-91, pi. 1. 
Johnson, V., and P.H. Freytag. 1978. Two new species of Ptilodactyla (Coleoptera: 

Ptilodactylidae). Entomol. News 89 (5 & 6): 125-128. 9 figs. 
Say, T. 1823. Description of coleopterous insects collected in the late expedition to the Rocky 

Mountain, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun. Secretary of War under command of 

Major Long. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 3(1): 186. 
Spilman, T.J. 1961. On the immature stages of the Ptilodactylidae (Coleoptera). Entomol. 

News 72: 105-107. 



1 36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A NEW SPECIES OF GONIOZUS (HYMENOPTERA: 
BETHYLIDAE) IMPORTED INTO CALIFORNIA 

FOR THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE NAVEL 
ORANGEWORM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) 1 

Gordon Gordh^ 

ABSTRACT: Goniozus legneri NEW SPECIES is described. This primary parasite was 
imported into California from Uruguay for the biological control of the Navel Orangeworm 
(NOW), Amyelois transitella (Walker). The parasite has become established and shows 
exceptional promise for the control of NOW on almonds in California. 

In conjunction with biological control work on the navel orangeworm 
(NOW), Amyelois transitella (Walker), E.F. Legner conducted foreign 
exploration for natural enemies in Uruguay. During November 1977 
Legner collected parasites of this moth with Professor Silvera-Guido near 
Payanu, Uruguay on Erythrina cristaga Hi Linnaeus. Among the parasites 
recovered was an undescribed species of bethylid. This material was 
propagated in Professor Silvera-Guido's laboratory on NOW and shipments 
of parasites on NOW were sent to the Division of Biological Control, 
University of California, Riverside, during the spring of 1978. The parasite 
was cultured in the laboratory, subsequently released against NOW in the 
Central Valley of California, and has become established on NOW 
attacking almonds. This paper provides a name for the parasite. A 
comprehensive biological study is currently being conducted and will be 
published elsewhere. Terminology follows Evans (1964, 1978). 

Gonioius legneri n. sp. 

Female: 3.86 mm long (Holotype). Body jet black; wings hyaline. 2.50 mm long. Coxae 
black: fore femur black with apex dusky: middle femur dark brown with apex somewhat more 
pale: fore tibia and tarsomeres tan: middle and hind tibiae dusky with apices more pale: middle 
and hind tarsomeres tan; antenna predominantly tan with apical segments dusky. 

Head in dorsal aspect 1.05 times longer than wide, minutely and finely reticulate, with 
numerous shallow, setigerous punctures forming a conspicuous vestiture of long white setae 
such that the length of each seta extends to the socket of an adjacent seta. Median longitudinal 
keel of clypeus short, not conspicuous but acute: scrobal impressions not acute. Ocelli forming 
a slight, but definite, acute triangle; lateral ocellus less than its diameter from occipital margin: 
WOT:OOL 6:16. Head in lateral aspect with compound eye rather small, very sparsely 
setose; HE:LH 19:42. Mandible with three teeth and a truncation. Antenna as illustrated 
(Figure 3). 



' Received January 11. 1982 

-Division of Biological Control. Department of Entomology, University of California. 
Riverside, CA 92521 



ENT. NEWS, 93 (5) 136-138 November & December 1982 



Vol. 93. No. 5, November & December 1982 



137 






Fig. I . Right forewing of 9 Goniozus legneri, new species. Fig. 2. cf genitalia ot O". 
new species. Fig. 3. Right antenna of 2 C. Ic^ncri. new species (inner aspect) 



1 38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Ratio of pronotum: mesoscutum: scutellum: propodeum 17:15:1 1:25 in dorsal aspect. 
Pronotum with same sculpture and chaetotaxy as dorsum of head. Mesoscutum sculpture less 
pronounced, with two parallel, longitudinal, lateral, shallow sulci (evident only in certain plays 
of light); anterior 0.20 - 0.25 asetose, remainder with same chaetotaxy as pronotum. Antero- 
lateral scutellar pits exceptionally small, obsolete; scutellum with same sculpture and 
chaetotaxy as mesoscutum; anteromedial portion of propodeum with a few minute pits, 
otherwise polished: remainder of propodeum minutely, finely, obliquely reticulate; lateral 
carina not strongly developed. Forewing as illustrated (Figure 1 ). 

Male: Virtually identical to female except slightly smaller in size. Genitalia as illustrated 
(Figure 2). 

Described from 1 05 99. 87o"o" lab reared in the UCR insectary during September 1 98 1 on 
Amyelois transitella (Walker) from material originally collected near Payanu, Uruguay. 
Holotype 9, 599, Scfcf paratypes deposited in the U.S.N.M. Paratypes deposited in the 
following institutions: California Academy of Sciences (499, 4cfcf); Canadian National 
Collection (499. 4cfd 1 ): Australian National Insect Collection (499. 4d"cf); Zoological 
Institute, Leningrad. USSR (499. 4cfcf); Plant Protection Institute. Pretoria, South Africa 
(499, 4cfcf); Entomology Department. Colorado State University, Fort Collins (499, 4cfcf), 
Ehime University, Shikoku, Japan (499. 4cfcf); remainder of paratypical series deposited in 
Divison of Biological control, UCR. 

This species is named in honor of Dr. E.F. Legner is recognition of his 
work with the biological control of the Navel Orangeworm and other 
agricultural pests. 

Goniozus legneriis a member of the PUNCTATICEPS species group, 
characterized by short antennae, sharp median clypeal keel, complete 
areolet of the forewing, and scrobes not carinate. Within the PUNCTATICEPS 
species group G. legneri appears most closely related morphologically to G. 
emigratus(Rohwer) of the species in the PUNCTATICEPS species group 
found in the United States. The new species may be distinguished from 
emigratus based on antennal segment size and shape, shape of the ocellar 
triangle, relative closeness of the lateral ocellus to the crest of the vertex, 
and the ratio of the length of the compound eye to the length of the space 
behind the compound eye to the lateral margin of the vertex (HE:LH). 
Goniozus emigratus is found in Texas, Hawaii, and California: G. legneri 
is found in Uruguay and the Central Valley of California. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Dr. John Pinto and Mr. Jack Hall for critically reading the manuscript. Mr. Robert 
Medved cultured the host and parasite in the laboratory and provided the material which 
constituted the type-series. The illustrations were prepared by Ms. Patti Mote. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Evans, H.E. 1964. A synopsis of the American Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Bui. 

Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ. 132: 1-222. 
Evans, H.E. 1978. The Bethylidae of America North of Mexico. Mem. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 

27: 1-332. 



Vol. 93, No. 5. November & December 1982 139 

OCCURRENCE OF A NTH REN US FUSC US OLIVIER 
(COLEOPTERA: DERMESTIDAE) IN IOWA 1 : 

James W. Merlins^ 

ABSTRACT: There is evidence that Anthrenus fuscus Olivier, an Old World dermestid 
beetle, is permanently established in Ames. Iowa. The first collected specimen dates from 
1970. This is the best documented and westernmost infestation of, 4. fuscus in North America 
and is a new state record. Morphological and biological means are presented for differentiating 
larval A. fuscus from the similar larvae of A. verbasci (L.). 

Life history studies (Mertins 1980) of the bethylid wasp parasitoid, 
Laelius pedatus (Say), depleted the supply of hosts in culture. The wasps 
and hosts, larvae of Anthrenus verbasci (L), originated in Madison, WI. I 
attempted to replenish the host supply from local infestations of dermestid 
larvae in my office and other areas in the Insectary Building on the Iowa 
State University campus, Ames, Iowa. 

I was surprised when these collected insects proved largely refractory to 
the venom of L. pedatus, a situation theretofore not observed with A. 
verbasci. The local larvae appeared to be A. verbasci; they were acceptable 
hosts to female L. pedatus for stinging and oviposition, but the ephemeral 
efficacy of the wasp venom made them unsuitable for subsequent develop- 
ment of progeny. Paralysis rarely lasted more than 48 hours and, usually, 
half that. Oviposition usually occurred in the interim, but the fully mobile 
host larvae always dislodged the parasitoid eggs on revival. These larvae 
ran to A. verbasci/ A. fuscus Olivier in the key of Hinton (1945). which 
noted the difficulty of satisfactorily distinguishing between the two. I 
therefore collected associated adult Anthrenus from windows in the 
Insectary and reared some of the collected larvae to the adult stage. These 
adults were easily identifiable as A. fuscus by the unusual five-segmented 
structure of the antennae (Hinton 1945). 

A. fuscus is indigenous to Europe (Mroczkowski 1968. 1975) and 
Great Britain, where it is considered one of the three common species of 
Anthrenus(Munro 1966). Palearctic populations persist in nature, primarily 
in bird nests (Kunike 1939. Hinton 1943. Woodroffe and Southgate 1951. 
Woodroffe 1953), nests of aculeate Hymenoptera(Marechal 1932. Hinton 
1943, Linsley 1944), and especially in and around spider webs (Hinton 



'Received for publication April 6. 1982. 

2 Journal Paper No. J-10591 of the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment 
Station, Ames. IA 5001 1. Project No. 2259. 

-^Department of Entomology, 10 Insectary. Iowa State University. Ames. I A 5001 1 
ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 139-142 November & December 1982 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



1 943, 1 945 ). The latter sites seem to be the primary source of infestation by 
A.fuscus in houses and other buildings, although the beetle is seldom a pest 
except occasionally in insect collections (Hinton 1943, Mroczkowski 
1975). The adults also occur on flowers (Olivier 1789, Hinton 1943, 
Linssen 1959, Mroczkowski 1975). 

Initial permanent establishment of A. fuscus in the United States is 
open to question (R.S. Beal, Jr., Northern Arizona University, pers. 
commun.) The first published New World distribution is in the Leng ( 1 920) 
catalog from "Pennsylvania (North America)" and probably is based on a 
misidentification. Hinton (1945), perhaps paraphrasing Leng, states "North 
America (Holarctic)", and Mroczkowski (1975) likewise mentions 
"North America (introduced)." Arnett (1968) records Helocems, the 
subgenus of A.fuscus, from the United States. The existence of specimens 
to support these reports is undocumented. However, Bayer et al. (1972) 
record one specimen from Kenosha, Wisconsin, and housed in the Purdue 
University collection; W.E. Burkholder (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 
pers. commun.) confirms establishment in Madison, Wisconsin. Becker 
(1977) reports specimens from three sites in southern Ontario, the earliest 
in 1962 from a flour mill in St. Jacobs and, the latest, in 1974 from Dunn 
Township. Finally, although the specific records are heretofore unpublished, 
Beal (pers. commun.) reports seeing 21 specimens from Durham, NH 
(1907), two specimens from Ithaca, NY (1966), and one specimen from 
Syracuse, NY (1966). 

The population in Ames seems to be well established. I found only one 
preserved specimen in the Iowa State Insect Collection, but it was taken 
from a "human habitation" in Ames in 1970. Larvae are found with little 
difficulty throughout the ISU Insectary Building, usually associated with 
dead insects and often in or near spider webs. Adult beetles begin to appear 
in windows of the building by the middle of March. I collected 29 A nthrenus 
adults on May 26, 1981, from flowers of Spiraea x vanhouttei Zab. 
growing on campus; 1 5 proved to be A. fuscus. I also have collected adults 
and larvae in several area homes; indeed, I observed and captured a female 
as it squeezed in through the mesh of a patio screen door in my own home. 

Because of the frequent difficulty in separating larvae of A.fuscus from 
those of A. verbasci, I have summarized the differences I have observed 
between the two in Table 1. Hinton (1945) also noted that A. verbasci 
larvae are paler and more active than A. fuscus larvae. 

These observations establish a new state distribution record for A. 
fuscus and provide the most complete published evidence for permanent 
establishment in the United States, if not North America inclusive. This is 
also the westernmost locality of collection for A. fuscus. Voucher specimens 
are deposited in the Iowa State Insect Collection, Ames, and with R.S. 
Beal, Jr., at Northern Arizona University. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



141 



Table 1. Morphological, behavioral, and biological characters useful in differentiating 
mature larvae of Anthrenusfuscus and A. verbasci. 



A. fuscus 

1. Smaller species: maximum larval 
length ca. 4.1 mm x maximum width 
ca. 1.7 mm 

2. Not especially active or agile; 
forward movements smooth: not good 
climbers 

3. Abdominal terga 1-5 evenly pigmented 
dark brown side-to-side 



4. Short, transversely porrect hasti- 
setae on posterior of each thoracic 
and abdominal tergum through number 
4 robust, darkly pigmented. and 
densely arranged 

5. Because of points 3 and 4 (above), 
larvae appear uniformly dark 
dorsally from anterior to posterior 



6. Reaction to attack by Laelius spp. 
rarely involves more than erection 
of posterior hastisetae and eleva- 
tion of the cephalic and caudal ends 
of the body 

7. Refractory to venom of Laelius 
pedatus, usually recovering in 24 
to 48 hours 



A. verbasci 

1. Larger species: maximum larval 
length ca. 4.5 mm x maximum width 
ca. 2.0 mm 

2. Very active and agile: forward 
movements irregular and jerky: 
good climbers 

3. Abdominal terga 1-4 medium to dark 
brown laterally but lightly pig- 
mented medially: tergum 5 evenly 
very dark brown side-to-side 

4. Short hastisetae on posterior of 
each thoracic and first 4 abdominal 
terga more delicate, less pigmented, 
and often more sparsely distributed 



5. Because of points 3 and 4 (above), 
larvae usually appear somewhat pale 
dorsomedially. especially on the 
abdomen 

6. Reaction to attack by Laelius spp. 
similar, but also usually involves 
violent somatic twists, turns, and 
tumbles aimed at dislodging the 
parasitoid 

7. Completely susceptible to venom 
of L. pedatus 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Special thanks are due to Dr. R.S. Beal, Jr.. Department of Biological Sciences, Northern 
Arizona University, for confirming identification of A. fuscus, for pointing out the lack of 
published Nearctic records, for encouraging this report, and for reading a draft of the 
manuscript. Dr. D.E. Foster, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, also 
critically read an early manuscript draft. 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Arnett, R.H. 1968. The beetles of the United States. Am. Entomol. Insi.: Ann Arbor. 
Bayer, L.J., W.E. Burkholder, and R.D. Shenefelt. 1972. The Dermestidae of Wisconsin, 

primarily as represented in the University of Wisconsin Insectarium. Univ. Wis. -Madison 

Coll. Agric. Life Sci. Res. Div., Res. Bull. R 2381. 
Becker, E.C. 1977. New and noteworthy records of Coleoptera in Canada (1). Ann. Soc. 

Entomol. Que. 22: 14-17. 
Hinton, H.E. 1943. Natural reservoirs of some beetles of the family Dermestidae known to 

infest stored products with notes on those found in spider webs. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. 

Lond. Ser. A. Gen. Entomol. 18: 32-42. 
Hinton, H.E. 1945. Monograph of the beetles associated with stored products, vol. 1. British 

Museum: London. 
Kunike, G. 1939. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der GattungAntrenus (Coleoptera-Dermestidae). 

Proc. VII Int. Congr. Entomol. (Berlin, 1938). 4: 2833-2839. 
Leng, C.W. 1 920. Catalogue of Coleoptera of North American north of Mexico. John D. 

Sherman: New York. 
Linsley, E.G. 1944. Natural sources, habitats, and reservoirs of insects associated with 

stored food products. Hilgardia 16: 185-224. 
Linssen, E.F. 1959. Beetles of the British Isles. First Ser. Frederick Warne and Co., 

Ltd.: London-New York. 
Marechal, P. 1932. Recherches sur deux Osmies communes: O. cornuta Latr. et O. rufa L. 

(Hymenoptera Apidae). Soc. Entomol. France, Livre Centennarie 505-512. 
Mertins, J.W. 1980. Life history and behavior of Laelius pedatus, a gregarious bethylid 

ectoparasitoid of Anthrenus verbasci. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 73: 686-693. 
Mroczkowski, M. 1968. Distribution of the Dermestidae (Coleoptera) of the world with a 

catalogue of all known species. Ann. Zool. (Warsaw) 26: 15-191. 
Mroczkowski, M. 1975. Dermestidae. Skornikowate (Insecta: Coleoptera). Fauna Pol. 

4:1-163. 

Munro, J.W. 1946. Pests of stored products. Hutchinson and Co. Ltd.: London. 
Olivier, [A.G.] 1789. Encyclopedic methodique; Histoire naturelle. Tome IV. Insectes. 

Chez Panckoucke: Paris. 
Woodroffe, G.E. 1953. An ecological study of the insects and mites in the nests of certain 

birds in Britain. Bull. Entomol. REs. 44: 739-772. 
Woodroffe, G.E., and B.J. Southgate. 1 95 1 . Birds' nests as a source of domestic pests. Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond. 121: 55-62. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 143 



PHORESIS BETWEEN THE SNAIL OXYTREMA 

(-ELIMA) CARINIFERA AND AQUATIC INSECTS, 

ESPECIALLY RHEOTANYTARSUS (DIPTERA: 

CHIRONOMIDAE) 1 

William S. Vinikour 2 

ABSTRACT: Insects, especially the midge Rheotany tarsus, were found to be phoretically 
associated with the snail Oxytrema (=Elimia) carinifera. Maximum incidence (82.5%) and 
density fx = 2.4 midges/snail ) occurred at a shaded headwater site. This association provided 
the midge with food resources through its filtration of organic matter suspended by the snail. 
The midge optimized filtration by orientating its tube opening toward the aperture of the snail. 
This association also provided the midge with a measure of protection from sedimentation, 
dislodgement, and predation. Rarely, the midge Thienemanniella, the blackfly Simulium 
tuberosum, and the hydroptilid Ochrotrichia were observed as phoronts of Oxytrema. Their 
low incidence (< 0.5% per species) indicates a nonselective colonization of the snail over 
other available substrates. Rheotanytarus may be unique among the midges in its preferential 
phoretic association with snails, especially in less suitable habitats. 



Symbiotic relationships between aquatic insects and gastropods were 
first noted by Barnard (1911). Other authors have reported similar 
associations (see Steffan, 1967) These relationships involve parasitism of 
the snail by dipterans of the families Chironomidae and Sciomyzidae. Only 
recently have phoretic associations (nonparasitic relationships in which 
one species lives on another to obtain transportation) between snails and 
insects been reported. These associations have invariably involved the 
midge Rheotanytarsus Bause (Diptera: Chironomidae) occurring on pleuro- 
cerid snails (Mancini, 1979; White etal., 1980). This study also reports on 
the occurrence of Rheotanytarus as a phoront of snails and provides an 
interpretation of the nature of this association. Additionally, other insect 
species are reported as phoronts of snails for the first time. 

Study Site and Methods 

I collected snails of the species Oxytrema (=Elimia) carinifera 
(Lamarck) (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae) from three sites in the upper 
reach of Davis Creek, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. Pertinent physicochem- 
ical parameters associated with each site have been presented by Vinikour 
(1982). Sampling was conducted on 1 4 March and 1 7 June 1981. Snails 



' Received February 12, 1982 

2 Argonne National Laboratory, Land Reclamation Program and Division of Environmental 
Impact Studies, Argonne, Illinois 60439. 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 143-151 November & December 1982 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



were hand-collected, and attempts were made to obtain a random sampling 
of a full range of snail sizes. In the laboratory the number of Rheotany tarsus 
(as indicated by numbers of tubes) and other insects associated with each 
snail was determined under a dissecting microscope. All midges encountered 
within the tubes were mounted for identification, and predominant gut 
contents were noted. The length of each snail was measured to the nearest 
0.05 mm with dial calipers. A total of 679 snails were examined. 

Results and Discussion 

The percent infestation 3 and mean number of Rheotanytarsus occurring 
on snails for each sample site and date are given in Fig. 1. Midge 
infestations were highest at the headwater site (DV-01). Combining the 
data for the two sampling dates, I found that 75.2% of the snails at DV-01 
harbored Rheotanytarsus, while infestaton rates at the other sites were 
much lower (7.2% at DV-02 and 6.0% at DV-03). White et al. (1980) 
observed that 80% (36 of 45) of the pleurocerid Elimia acutocarinata 
harbored Rheotanytarsus; Mancini (1979) routinely observed 35% infestion 
of the pleurocerid Goniobasis semicarinata at two of the three sites he 
studied, with the highest infestation rate being 56%. 

In my study, the mean number of midges per snail for the combined 
dates was highest at DV-01 (1.9), compared to only 0.07 at DV-02 and 
0.06 at DV-03. If only infested snails were considered, the mean number of 
midges per snail was 2.5 at DV-01 and 1.0 at both DV-02 and DV-03. 
Multiple infestations were common at DV-01 , with 69% (161 of 233) of the 
infested snails harboring two or more midges. Most infested snails harbored 
from one to four midges, but one snail had ten midges (see Fig. 1). In 
instances of heavy infestations, some of the the individual midge tubes were 
constructed on top of each other (see Fig. 2). White et al. (1980) observed 
89% (52 of 36) of infested snails to have multiple infestations of two to four 
midges; Mancini (1979) only found = 10% of infestations to be multiple, 
although he did collect one snail with seven midges. 

Mancini ( 1 979) found that mature specimens of Goniobasis semicarinata 
tended to harbor more midges than did immature specimens. To determine 
whether the size of Oxytrema governed infestation by Rheotanytarsus, I 
conducted t-tests comparing the length of infested and uninfested snails 
from DV-01 for each sampling date. For the March collection, the mean 
length of the infested snails (13.55 mm) was significantly greater than that 
for uninfested snails ( 1 1 .40 mm). This is mainly attributable to the fact that 



^The term "infestation" is used in this paper to denote the nonparasitic occurrence of 
Rheotanytarsus on snails. 



Vol. 93, No. 5, November & December 1982 



145 



March, 1981 June, 1981 


30- 


59 DV-OI 


DV-OI 




55 




25- 


49 
3 % infested = 71. 5 


25 
"Xo infested = 82. 5 


20- 


x/snoil = 1.6 


I/snail =2.4 


f- 


x/infested snail = 2.2 


17 17 I/infested snail = 2. 9 


S 15- 




| 


ai 




12 II 


10- 

5- 


Bis 

Hi Ll : 






01 12 I 31415 16 17 18 19 IIOl 


l|2 345 617 81 


100- 


OV-02 100- 


147 DV-02 


80- 


80- 
% infested = 5.3 


% infested =8.1 


E 60- 


x/snoil = 0.05 go 


x/snail = 0.08 


c 
a> 
o 


x/infested snail = 1.0 


11 nfested snoil = I.O 


J40- 


40 




20- 


20- 
4 
, , 


13 




oj nn 


1 121 




60 


100- 


OV-03 100- 


66 DV - 3 


80- 


80- 






% infested = 0.0 


% infested =10.8 


-60- 


x7snail = 0.0 0- 


x /snail = 0.11 


C. 

a> 

CJ 




I/infested snail = 1.0 


|40- 


40- 




20- 


20- 


8 






I 




2 


1 I 2 



Number of Rheotanytarsus per Snail 



Number of Rheotanytorsus per Snail 



Figure 1 . Percent infestation and density of Rheotanytarsus on Oxytrema carinifera. The 
number above each bar is the number of snails. Sites DV-0 1 , DV-02, and DV-03 
are 0.6, 4.7, and 12.8 km downstream of the headwater of Davis Creek, 
respectively. 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



most ( 1 3 of 1 7) snails less than 8 mm long harbored no midges. For the June 
collection, no significant difference in mean shell length was found between 
infested (x" length = 13.65 mm) and uninfested (x" length = 13.50 mm) 
snails. In part this was because the mean snail length in June ( 1 3.61 mm) 
was significantly larger than the mean length in March (12.87 mm). Only 
four snails <8.0 mm long were collected in June. A larger shell length 
provides greater surface area for colonization by midges. This partly 
accounts for the percent infestation, the mean number of midges per snail, 
and the mean number of midges per infested snail at DV-0 1 being greater in 
June than in March (see Fig. 1). 

Also, recruitment of midges that occurred prior to the June collection 
would account for the insignificant difference in mean size between infested 
and noninfested snails in June, and for the higher incidence and density of 
infestation in June compared with March. Many of the midges encountered 
in the June collection were early instars. Smaller midge size accompanying 
early instar recruitment would readily allow habitation upon smaller snail 
shells. In contrast, most midges in the March collecion were later instars, 
and therefore the size of their tubes either precluded their occurrence on 
smaller snails or, less often, resulted in there being room for only one midge 
on a snail (see Fig. 2). However, significant differences between mean snail 
length and the number of midges per snail were not observed, as midges 
would also construct tubes on top of each other (see Fig. 2). Therefore, 
multiple infestations were not constrained solely by the amount of snail- 
shell surface area available for colonization. 

Both Mancini (1979) and White et al. (1980) concluded that the 
occurrence of Rheotanytarsus on snails is phoretic and not parasitic. The 
distinct filter-feeding habits of Rheotanytarsus (see Walshe, 1950) lends 
support to their conclusions. The gut contents of 180 midges I examined 
consisted predominantly of sand and diatoms, with no indication of animal 
tissue. -White et al. (1980) believed that the phoretic association between 
Rheotanytarsus and snails in their study area may have resulted from the 
snail shell being an easier attachment site for the midge than rough rock 
surfaces. However, the site at which I found the highest incidence and 
density of midges on snails contained a smooth bedrock substrate. 
Therefore, adequate substrate attachment sites would not be limited as in 
the study area of White et al. (1980). 

Several factors have been implicated as reasons for phoretic associations 
between the dipteran families Chironomidae and Simuliidae and other 
aquatic invertebrates. Corbet ( 1 96 1 , 1 962) believed the Simulium species 
associate with freshwater crabs, mayflies, and dragonflies primarily for a 
pupation site. This was inferred from the occurrence of large larvae and 
pupae on the host. Rheotanytarsus does pupate upon Oxytrema, as 



Vol. 93. No. 5, November & December 1982 



147 



evidenced by the fact that 1 3% of the midges I observed were pupae. 
However, I observed all larval instars on the snails, with earlier instars 
predominating in June due to recruitment. Furthermore, an abundance of 
natural attachment sites was available for midge development. Also, rather 
than seeking an area for pupation, Rheotanytarsus only adds to its tube as it 
develops, closing it off for pupation (Walshe, 1950). 

Researchers investigating the association between Simulium and 
invertebrates (crabs and mayflies) prior to Corbet's studies (see Steffan, 
1967) concluded that the blackfly derived a number of advantages, 
including shelter from the current, a more stable substrate in areas of 
erodible habitat, and/or increased access to food resources. The midge 
Nanocladius obtains increased mobility, habitat security, and protection 
through its phoretic association with alderflies (Gotceitas and Mackay, 
1980) and stoneflies (Dosdall and Mason, 1981). Gotceitas and Mackay 
(1980) felt that Nanocladius derived a greater degree of protection from 
predators once it was established on the alderfly. This was due to the 
alterfly's position as top carnivore in the trophic structure of the community 
studied. Although Oxytrema is low in the tropic structure of Davis Creek, it 






Figure 2. Rheotanytarsus and Simulium tuberosum on Oxytrema carinifera. Note orienta- 
tion of the anterior portion of the midge tubes toward the aperture or body whorl of 
the snail. Also evident are how early instar Rheotantarsus (based on the posterior 
portion of the tube) orient along suture lines and that some midges construct their 
tubes atop other midges. 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

is among the largest and most abundant of the invertebrates in the stream, 
and the shell protects the snail from many predators. Through its 
association with the snail, Rheotanytarsus would be protected from most 
invertebrate predators and would be subject to predation mainly by fish and 
other organisms large enough to consume the snails. 

Dosdall and Mason (1981) believed that the midge Nanocladius 
obtained security by associating with the stonefly Acroneuria, in that the 
stonefly, being larger and stronger than the midge, could better relocate in 
instances of habitat disturbance. This could be pertinent in Davis Creek, 
because soils in Tuscaloosa County are highly erosive and the smaller 
streams are subject to chronic flood scouring (Harkins, 1980). Also, the 
high density of snails at the study site could be a potential threat to 
Rheotanvtarsiis in that midges colonizing bedrock surfaces could be readily 
disrupted by the wanderings of the snail. Thus, a major benefit that the 
midge would obtain from the association would be security from the snail 
itself. 

The phoretic association can provide a measure of protection to the 
midge from dislodgement and sedimentation, but such protection may be 
secondary to the increased availability of food to the midge (especially in 
less than optimal habits). 

Diatoms were abundant in the gut contents of midges found on the snail 
at all sites. However, because of ( 1 ) dense riparian shading at location DV- 
01 and (2) the short stream length upstream of this headwater site, it is 
doubtful that diatoms would be abundant within the water column for 
filtration by midges. The sparsity of diatoms and other fine particulate 
organic matter (FPOM) in the water column at DV-0 1 can be inferred from 
the fact that while large populations of Asiatic c\ams(Corbiculafluminea) 
were present at DV-02 and DV-03, the species was totally absent from DV- 
01. 

It thefefore can be concluded that at DV-01 , the midges obtained their 
food by filtration of diatom-ladened sediments suspended near the aperture 
of the snail during the snails' movement and feeding activities. This 
conclusion is supported by the fact that only eight midges were located on 
the dorsal side of the snail shell and that overall, 98% of the midges had their 
anterior tube openings oriented toward the aperture of the snail or toward 
the body whorl adjacent to the aperture (see Fig. 2). Such orientation is 
probably a behavioral modification to facilitate feeding, because material 
sloughed into suspension by the snail would flow directly into the capture 
net of the midge. 

Tubes of early instar larvae were usually found along suture lines, with 
the anterior end directed toward the body whorl. Although such orientation 
would generally direct the capture net perpendicular to the line of snail 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 149 



movement (that is, perpendicular to snail length), the midges' filtration 
capabilities would not be minimized. Early instar Rheotanvtarsus tend to 
have only one arm from which silk is attached (Walshe, 1950), and thus a 
slightly perpendicular orientation to the flow of suspended matter would 
actually maximize filtration potential (i.e., expose more silk strands directly 
to incoming flow). With a full compliment of arms (five) on late instar 
midges, filtration would be maximized by the anterior of the tube facing the 
incoming source of organic matter. This was apparent in that the body 
position of many late instar larvae were oriented along suture lines, but the 
anterior ends ( especially the raised position containing the net) were turned 
toward the aperture. At DV-01, where mstream primary production and 
inflow of FPOM is probably limited, the midge could obtain more food by 
filtering relatively concentrated quantities of sediments being continuously 
suspended by the snail. That Rheotanvtarsus was attaching to the snails 
primarily for this feeding advantage may also be inferred from the position 
of the midges on the underside of the snail. This positon essentially 
precludes direct contact of the net with the inflowing mainstream current, 
thereby reducing acquisition of the mainstream drifting food resources. 

It should be noted that no other invertebrates were found harboring 
Rheotanvtarsus at any of the sample sites. The fact that Oxytrema was the 
only large invertebrate commonly encountered on bedrock substrates may 
account for this. Thus, although the association between Rheotanvtarsus 
and Oxytrema may have been initiated through chance encounter; the 
midge was able to take full advantage of the association by orienting itself on 
the snail in such a way as to optimize its collection of food, as described in 
the preceding discussion. 

Two factors may account for the high incidence of Rheotanvtarsus on 
snails at DV-01 and the low incidence at DV-02 and DV-03. the first is 
that Rheotanvtarsus densities were low at DV-02 and DV-03. Samples 
taken at DV-02 indicate that Rheotanvtarsus densitites were less than 10 
per square meter, compared to potential densities at DV-01 of > 4,000 per 
square meter (based on estimated snail densities and mean number of 
midges per snail). Low Rheotanvtarsus densities, coupled with high 
densities of Oxytrema, at DV-02 and DV-03 would result in both the low 
observed incidence and low density of midges on snails. 

The other factor accounting for the low incidence of Rheotanvtarsus on 
snails at DV-02 and DV-03 is that both the Quantity of FPOM and instream 
primary productivity are likely higher at those two sites than at DV-01. 
These increases result from the amplification of upstream input sources 
associated with extended stream reach distance and from enhanced sunlight 
penetration from an open canopy associated with broader stream widths. 
Thus, food resources available to the midge are increased at downstream 
reaches to the extent that the feeding advantage gained by associating with 



150 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



the snail at DV-01 is diminished at DV-02 and DV-03. 

Other aquatic insects phoretically associated with Oxytrema were the 
midge Thienemanniella, the blackfly Simulium tuberosurn, and the 
hydroptilid caddisfly Ochrotrichia. The single specimen of Thienemanniella 
encountered was found to be inhabiting a vacated Rheotanytarsus tube. 
Mancini (197Q) observed a similar situation with an unidentified beetle 
larva inhabiting an empty midge tube. Only two pupae and one vacated 
pupal cocoon of Simulium were observed. As concluded by Corbet (1961, 
1962), such an association between blackflies and other invertebrates is 
probably formed as a means for the blackfly to obtain an adequate pupation 
site. The two Ochrotrichia larvae encountered probably associated with 
Oxytrema for a similar reason. White and Fox (1979) found pupae of the 
hydroptilid Oxyethira azteca phoretically associated with the dragonfly 
Macromia georgina due to lack of adequate pupation sites (e.g., vegetation 
and rocks) normally utilized. The low incidence of Thienemanniella, 
Simulium, and Ochrotrichia on Oxytrema (mean per species <0.5%) 
indicates a nonselective colonization of snails over the other available 
substrates. 

Most authors have concluded that phoretic associations involving 
aquatic insects are relatively common (Roback, 1977; Mancini, 1979; 
White et al., 1980). The specific relationship involving Rheotanytarsus 
and snails appears to be geographically widespread - - such associations 
have been reported from Indiana (Mancini, 1979), South Carolina (White 
et al., 1980), and Alabama (this study). Although Rheotanytarsus is 
widespread, it may develop a high incidence of association with snails only 
within restricted areas of a given locality where substrate and/or food 
resources are inadequate. Due to its use of capture nets to filter food, 
Rheotanytarsus may be unique among the Chironomidae in its preferential 
phoretic association with snails, especially in less suitable habitats. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Contract 
W-31-109-Eng-38. I would like to thank Tom Daniels and Pete Prodin for field assistance. I 
am grateful to Dr. Carol B Stein of the Ohio State University Museum of Zoology for 
determination of the snail species and to Karla Vocke for photography. I also appreciate the 
reviews and comments of Drs. Richard V. Anderson and Robert W. Vocke and the editorial 
assistance of John DePue. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barnard, K.H. 1911. Chironomid larvae and watersnails. Ent. Monthly Mag. 22: 76-78. 
Corbet, P.S. 1961. The biological significance of the attachment of immature stages of 
Simulium to mayflies and crabs. Bull. Ent. Res. 52: 695-699. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 151 



1962. Observations on the attachment of Sinntlium pupae to larvae of Odonata. 

Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 56: 136-140. 
Dosdall, L.M. and P.G. Mason. 1981. A chironomid (Nanocladius Plecopteracoluthus) 

branchicolus: Diptera) phoretic on a stonefly (Acroneuria lycorias: Plecoptera) in 

Saskatchewan. Can. Ent. 113: 141-147. 
Gotceitas, V. and R.J. Mackay. 1980. The phoretic association of Nanocladius (Nanocladius) 

rectinen'iis ( KeitTer ) ( Diptera: Chironomidae ) on Nigronia serricornis Say ( Megaloptera: 

Corydalidae). Can. J. Zool. 58(12): 2260-2263. 
Harkins.J.R. 1980. Hydrologic assessment. Eastern Coal Province Area 23. Alabama. U.S. 

Geological Survey. Water-Resources Investigations Open-File Report 80-683. 76 pp. 
Mancini, E.R. 1979. A phoretic relationship between a chironomid larva and an operculate 

stream snail. Ent. News 90(1): 33-36. 
Roback, S.S. 1977. First record of a chironomid larva living phoretically on an aquatic 

hemipteran (Naucoridae). Ent. News 88: 192. 
Steffan, A.W. 1967. Ectosymbiosis in aquatic insects. Chapter 4. In S.M Henry (ed.). 

Symbiosis. Academic Press, New York and London, pp. 207-289. 
Walshe. B.M. 1950. Observations on the biology and behavior of larvae of the midge 

Rheotanvtarsus. J. Quekett Microscop. Club. 3:171-178. 
White, T.R. and R.C. Fox. 1979. Chironomid (Diptera) larvae and hydroptilid (Trichoptera) 

pupae in phoretic relationship on a macromiid (Odonata) mymph. Notul. Odonatol. 

1(4): 76-77. 
White, T.R. J.S. Weaver, III, and R.C. Fox. 1980. Phoretic relationships between 

Chironomidae (Diptera) and benthic macroinvertebrates. Ent. News 91(3): 69-74. 
Vinikour, W.S. 1982. Eastern Project. Aquatic ecosystems subproject: Macroinvertebrate 

and fish species distribution within small order streams variously impacted by coal mining. 

Annual progress report. Land Reclamation Program. Argonne Nat'l. Lab.. In press. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY). CROMWELL ROAD. LONDON. 

SW7 5BD 

ITZN 11/4 16 June I9S2 

(A.N.fS.) 122 

The Commission hereby gives six months notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Rul/etin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 39. part 
2. on 15 June 1982, and would welcome comments and advice on them from interested 
zoologists. Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary of the above address, it 
possible within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

327 Revived proposal for the suppression of the Aphid names of Rafinesque under the 
plenary powers (Insecta. Hemiptera. Aphididae). 

Continued on page I 79 



1 5 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

GERRIS REMIGIS SAY IN A UNIQUE WINTER 
ENVIRONMENT (HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA: 

GERRIDAE) 1 

Diane M. Calabrese^, Peter Tallerico-^ 

ABSTRACT: Adult Gem's remigis Say (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) may accumulate day 
degrees within rock crevices along edges of limestone hot spring beds. 

Gerris remigis Say, widely distributed throughout North America, 
ranges south to Mexico and Guatemala (Drake and Harris 1934). It is 
commonly found in lentic habitats having water temperatures below 10C 
(Calabrese 1977). Spence et al. (1980) proposed that waterstriders 
belonging to the genus Gerris Fabricius exhibit submergence behavior to 
accumulate day degrees in the spring. In this way the waterstriders reach the 
threshold for reproductive maturation (gametogenesis) more quickly than 
they would if they accumulated day degrees only in the colder air 
environment (Spence et al. 1980). 

Limestone hot spring beds (Fig. 1 ) in Huntsdale, Pennsylvania, visited 
on 19 February 1982, contained large populations of Gerris remigis 
(aggregations of 20-40 individuals per 20 sq. m bed). The air temperature 
was 4 C; the water temperature was 15C. 

Water temperature varies only between 1 2 C and 1 5 C throughout the 
year^ in the limestone beds, and the waterstriders remain active throughout 
the year (pers. comm., Paul Biebel, phycologist who conducts research in 
the area). 

Further observation of the populations on 26 February 1982 revealed 
that adults were moving in and out of crevices in the 1 imestone beds ( Fig. 2 ). 
We suggest that the G. remigis adults were accumulating day degrees 
within the rock crevices, another means of increasing reproductive rate. 
(No submergence behavior was observed.) 

Some reproduction must have gone on while the air temperature was 
very low because a second instar was collected on 19 February 1982. 



'Received March 24. 1982 

^Department of Biology and The Wildlife Sanctuary. Dickinson College. Carlisle PA 1 701 3 

-^Department of Nursing. The Pennsylvania State University. University Park PA 16802 

^Huntsdale Fish Cultural Station, brochure. The Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 152-154 November & December 1982 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



153 



Adults taken into the laboratory and dissected were found to be reproduc- 
tively mature. It has been shown that although the optimum temperature for 
growth in G. remigis is 22 C., the threshold temperature is only 12.6 C. 
(Jamieson 1973). 

Tipulids and chironomids emerging in large numbers at the site 
probably serve as a food source for the gerrids. 




\ 




i. 

Fie,. I. Limestone Bed at Huntsdale. Pa. 



154 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fie. 2. Crevices in limestone at Huntsdale. Pa. 



LITERATURE CITED 

CalabreSe, D.M. 1977 The habitats of Gem's F. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) in 

Connecticut. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 70: 977-983. 
Drake, C.J. and H.M. Harris. 1 934. The Gerrinae of the western hemisphere. Ann Carnegie 

Mus. 23: 179-240. 
Jamieson, G.S. 1973. Coexistence in the Gerridae. unphl. Ph.D dissertation. Univ. Bt 

Columbia. Vancouver. Canada 255p. 

Spence, J.R., D.H. Spence and G.G.E. Scudder. 19X0 Submergence behavior in 
underwater basking. Amer. Midi Nat. 103: 385-391. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE FLEAS 
OF SOUTH DAKOTA (SIPHONAPTERA) 1 2 

Emmett R. Easton^ 

ABSTRACT: Collecting data are reported for 35 species of Siphonaptera from South 
Dakota. New state records and ecological data are presented for the flea species Ctenophlhalmus 
pseudagvrtes pseudagyrtes Baker. Ceratophyllus celsus celsus Jordan. Cer. niger C. Fox. 
Cer. st\:\ riparius (Jordan and Rothschild), and Cer. petrocheliodoni Wagner. 

Distribution studies of many Nearctic insect species are impeded by a 
scarcity of information. Except for the mosquitoes, there is no complete list 
of potential vectors of disease in South Dakota. Fleas are known vectors of 
sylvatic plague in nature, and even though human cases of plague have not 
been reported in the state, cases have been reported from most of the states 
west and south of South Dakota. Results of periodic collecting of fleas from 
1977 to 1982 are presented in addition to references to known published 
accounts. Small mammals in most cases were live-trapped followed by light 
etherization in a plastic bag enabling the fleas to leave their hosts. Following 
preservation in 80% alcohol, parasites were cleared in 10% KOH. washed, 
and subjected to ascending concentration of alcohol. They were then 
transferred to xylene before mounting in Canada balsam. Specimens are in 
the author's personal collection unless indicated otherwise. 

FAMILY HYSTRICHOPSYLLIDAE 

Genus Catallagia Rothschild 

Catallagia decipiens Rothschild. Ex. Peromyscus maniculatus. Black Hills; ex. Microtus 
pennsvlvanicus, I 8 July 1 977. Spearfish Canyon, Lawrence County. First reported in South 
Dakota by Turner (1974). 

Genus Ctenopthalmus Kolenati 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes pseudagyrtes Baker NEW STATE RECORDS Ex. Tamias 
striatiis, 20 May 1979. Hartford Beach State Park. Roberts County. 

Genus Epitedia Jordan 

Epitedia wenmannH Rothschild). Ex. P. maniculatus. Clay Cunty; Ex. Microtus longicaudus, P. 
maniculatus. 30 Sept. 1978. Spearfish Canyon. Lawrence County. First reported from 
central South Dakota by Benton (1955). 

Genus Hystrichopsylla Taschenberg 

Hystrichopsylla dippiei Rothschild. Ex. P. maniculatus. 18 Sept. 1977. Spearfish Canyon. 
Lawrence County. First reported in Custer County by Holland (1957) as H. d. dippiei. 



'Received April 17. 1982. 

^Technical paper no. 1839 of the South Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

3 Plant Science Department, (Entomology) South Dakota State University. Brookings. South 
Dakota. 57007. 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 155-158 November & December 1982 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



FAMILY ISCHNOPSYLLIDAE 
Genus Myodopsylla Jordan and Rothschild 

Myodopsylla gentilis Jordan and Rothschild, ex. Myotis lucifigus, 21 August 1978, Ralph, 
Harding County. Reported earlier from South Dakota by Anderson and Jones, Jr. ( 197 I ) Ex. 
Myotis volans and M. lucifigus in Harding County. Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild). Ex. 
M. lucifigus, 2 1 Aug. 1978. Ralph, Harding County. Reported from South Dakota earlier by 
Anderson and Jones (1971) Ex. M. lucifigus. 

FAMILY LEPTOPSYLLIDAE 
Genus Peromyscopsylla I. Fox 

Peromyscopsylla catatina (Jordan). Ex. M. pennsylvanicus, 18 July 1977 and 18 Sept. 
1978. Spearfish Canyon. Lawrence County. Reported in South Dakota by Easton ( 198 1 ). 
Peromyscopsylla hesperomys( Baker). Ex. P. manicitlatus, 20 Aug. 1977. 18 Sept. 1977. 1 
Oct. 1978: Spearfish Canyon, Lawrence County: Ex. P. maniculatus. 26 March 1978. 
Badlands Nat. Park, Jackson County. Johnson and Traub (1954) reported subspecific 
intergrades of this flea from Clethrionomys gapperi and P. maniculatus in Custer County and 
from P. maniculatus in Pennington and Meade Counties. 

FAMILY CERATOPHYLLIDAE 

Genus Ceratophyllus Curtis 

Ceratophyllus celsus celsus Jordan. NEW STATE RECORD. Nest of Pctmchelidon 
pyrrhonota, 4 May 1980. nr. Redig. Harding County. 

Ceratophyllus niger C. Fox. NEW STATE RECORD. Nest of Phalacrocorax auritus, 4 
July 1926, Lake Poinsett, Hamlin County: 16 Aug. 1977. Waubay Nat. Wildlife Ref.. Day 
County. 

Ceratophyllus styx riparius Jordan and Rothschld. NEW STATE RECORD. Nest of 
Riparia riparia, Aug. 1977, 1 mi. N. Miller. Hand County. 

Ceratophyllus petrochelidoni Wagner. NEW STATE RECORD. Nest of P. pvrrhonota. 
10 Oct. 1977, Badlands Nat. Park, Jackson County. 

Genus Foxella Wagner 

Foxella ignota ( Baker). Ex. Thomomys talpoides, Harding County. Ex. Mustelasp. 29 Oct. 
1921 . Brookings County; First reported from Harding County by Anderson and Jones ( 1971 ). 

Genus Monopsyllus Kolenati 

Monopsyllus eumolpi eumolpi (Rothschild). Ex. Eutamius minimus, I Oct. 1978. 
Spearfish Canyon, Lawrence County. Earlier reported in Custer County by Johnson ( 1 96 I ). 
and from E. minimus in Harding County. (Anderson and Jones. Jr. 1971 ). 
Monopsyllus exilis (Jordan). Ex. Onvchomvs sp. from Jones County first reported by 
Johnson"(1961). 

Monopsyllus wagneri (Baker). Ex. Zapus hudsonicus, 29 May 1978. Spearfish Canyon. 
Lawrence County. Ex. P manuculatus, 8 Oct. 1977: Ex. M. penntylvanicus, 30 July 1978. 
Spearfish Canyon. Lawrence County. First reported in South Dakota by Johnson (1961 i 

Genus Opisocrostis Jordan 

Opisocrostis bruneri (Baker). Ex. Spermophilus franklinii, 30 April 1977. Astoria. 
Brookings County: Ex. S. tridecernlineatus, April 1915 and Sept. 1935. Brookings County in 
the State University Collection. First reported by Prince ( 1 943 ) from Potter, Brown and Spink 
Counties. 

Opisocrostic hirsutus (Baker) Ex. Cyonomys ludovicianus, April-June 1977. Wind Cave 
National Park, Custer County. J. Hoogland: Ex. C. ludovicianus 26 May 1979, 2 miles west 
of New Underwood. Pennington County. King ( 1955) was first to report this species from 
prairie dogs in the Black Hills. Boddicker ( 1968) also reported it from Mustela nigripcs in 
Bennett and Mellette Counties. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 157 



Opisocrostis tuberculatus cynomuris Jellison. Ex. Cynomys ludovicianus, April-June 
1977. Wind Cave National Park. Custer County. J. Hoogland: Ex. C. ludovicianus 26 May 
1979. 2 miles west of New Underwood. Pennington County. 

Genus Megabothris Jordan 

Megabothris quirini( Rothschild). Ex. Zapus hudsonicus, 29 May 1978. Spearfish Canyon. 
Lawrence County. First reported in South Dakota by Easton ( 1981 ). 

Genus Malareus Jordan 

Malareus telchinum ( Rothschild). Ex. Zapus hudsonicus 2h May 1977. 1 2 mi. S. Spearfish. 
Lawrence County; Ex. P. maniculatus, 6 May 1 978. First reported by Turner ( 1 974) in the 
Black Hills from Reithrodontomys megaton's. 

Genus Nosopsyllus Jordan 

Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc.) Ex. Rattus norvegicus. (no date). Brookings Brookings 
County. South Dakota State University Insect Collection. 

Genus Orchopeas Jordan 

Orchopeas caedens (Jordan). Ex. Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, 17 May 1955. Sylvan Lake. 
Custer County. Jellison and Kohls. Unpublished record of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory. 
Hamilton. Montana. Ex. T. hudsonicus, 5 May 1979, 10 mi. S. Pluma. Lawrence County: 
Ex. T. striatus, 20 May 1979. Hartford Beach State Park. Roberts County. First reported by 
Coffman and Balsbaugh Jr. ( 1971 ) in Brookings County from the nest of Sciunis niger. 
Orchopeas howardi ( Baker) Ex. Sciunis niger 16 December 1978. 9 miles south. 2 miles 
west of Brookings. Brookings County. W. Soeffing. First published record in South Dakota by 
Wilson ( 1978) from the same host in McCook County. 

Orchopeas leucopus ( Baker). Ex. Microtus ochrogaster. and P maniculatus from the Black 
Hills was reported by Turner ( 1974). Orchopeas sexdentatus (Rothschild). Ex. P. maniculatus, 
Black Hills. Lead. Ex. ,V. cinerea, 14 Aug. 1979. Spearfish Canyon. Lawrence County. First 
published records by Turner ( 1974) from /V. cinerea southwest of Lead. 

Genus Thrassis Jordan 

Thrassis Stanford! Wagner. Ex. Marmota Jlaviventris, 5 May 1979. I mi. N. Deadwood. 
Lawrence County. First reported in Custer County by Stark in 1970. 
Thrassis bacchi ( Rothschild). Ex. M. pennsylvanicus, 10 May 1977 2 mi. NE Watertown. 
Codington County. First reported by Prince (1943) from Potter. Brown and Spink Counties 
from S. richardsonii, S, franklini and S. tridecemlineatus. 

Thrassis fotus (Jordan). Ex. 5. tridecemlineatus. Wind Cave National Park. Custer County 
(Turner. 1974). First reported by Stark ( 1970) at two locations near the center of the state. 



FAMILY PULICIDAE 
Genus Ctenocephalides Stiles and Collins 

Ctenocephalides canis( Curtis). Ex. Dog. 15 July 1935, Huron, Beadle County. Ex. Dog, 14 
July 1914. Brookings County. O. Larson. 

Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche). Ex. Cat. 15 July 1935. Brookings. Brookings County, 26 
June 1941. Aberdeen. Brown County; 15 July 1935. Huron. Beadle County. Ex. House. 
Sioux Falls. Minnehaha County. South Dakota State University Insect Collection. 

Genus Cediopsylla Jordan 

Cediopsylla inequalis (Baker). Ex. Sylvilugus audubonii. First reported by Anderson and 
Jones. Jr. ( 197 1 ) in Harding County. 

Cediopsylla simplex (Baker). First reported by Kohls ( 1940) Ex. Sylvilagusfloridanus, in 
Brookings County. South Dakota. 

Genus Euhoplopsyllus Ewing 

Euhoplopsyllus ajfinus (Baker). Ex. Lepus townsendi, Brookings. Brookings County: Ex. 
S._floridanus, 15 April 1936, Brookings County, D.E.H. First published record was i 
as Hoplopsyllus affinis by Kohls ( 1940). 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Genus Pulex Linnaeus 

Pulex irritans (Linnaeus). Home, no date, Brookings. Brookings County; Ex. Cam's latrans 
pup. 16 May 1955: Edgemont, South Dakota. Fall River County. Kohls and Jellison. 
Unpublished record of the Rocky Mountain Laboratory. Hamilton. Montana. Ex. C. latrans. 
12 Oct. 1976, Harding County. E. Schitoskey: Ex. Vulpes relos, Aug. 1978. Shannon 
County. J. Sharp. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to thank Dr. William L. Jellison (USPHS. retired. Hamilton. 
Montana) and Dr. Omer R. Larson (University of North Dakota. Grand Forks) for the 
identity of fleas in this study. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, K.W. and J.K. Jones, Jr. 1971. Mammals of Northwestern South Dakota. 

University of Kansas, Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19(5) 361-93. 
Benton, A.H. 1955. The taxonomy and biology of Epitedia wenmanni (Rothschild. 1904) 

and E. testor (Rothschild. 1915) (Hystrichopsyllidae: Siphonaptera). J. Parasit. 41(5): 

491-95. 
Boddicker, M.L. 1968. Parasites of the black-footed ferret. Proc. S.D. Acad. Science. 

47: 141-148. 
Coffman, C.C. and E.U. Balsbaugh. 1971. The immature insects found in three leaf nests of 

the eastern fox squirrel, Scirurus niger.Pmc. S.D. Acad. Sci. Vol. 50: 202-204. 
Easton, E.R. 1981. New geographical records for some fleas (Siphonaptera) from the Black 

Hills of South Dakota. Ent. News 92( 1 ): 45-47. 
Holland, G.P. 1 957. Notes on the genus Hystrichopsylla Rothschild in the New World, with 

descriptions of one new species and two new subspecies (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsylla). 

Can. Ent. 89: 309-324. 
Johnson, P.T. 1961. A revision of species of Monopsrllns Kolenati in N. Amer. ARS. 

USDATech. Bull. No. 1227. 
Johnson, P.T. and R. Traub. 1954. Revision of the flea genus Peromvscopsvlla. Smithsonian 

Misc. Coll. 123: 1-68. 
King, J.A. 1955. Social behavior, social organization and population dynamics in a black 

tailed prairie dog town in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Contrib. Lab. Vert. Biol.. Univ. 

Michigan. 67: 1-123. 
Kohls, G.M. 1 940. Siphonaptera: A study of the species infesting wild hares and rabbits of 

North America north of Mexico. Nat. Inst. Hlth. Bull. 175: 1-34. 3 plates. 
Prince, F.M. 1943. Report on the fleas Opisocrostis hnmeri and Thrassis bacchi as vectors 

of plague. Public Health Reports. 58: 1013-1016. 
Stark, H.E. 1970. A revision of the flea genus Thrassis Jordon 1933 (Siphonaptera: 

Ceratophyllidae) with observations on ecology and relationship to plague. Univ. Cal. 

Publ. Entomol. No. 53, Univ. Cal. Berkeley. 
Turner, R.W. 1974. Mammals of the Black Hills of the South Dakota and Wyoming. 

University of Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Mis. Publ. No. 60. 178 pp 
Wilson, N. 1978. Four ectoparasites from South Dakota. Ent. News 89:2 and 3. 77-78. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 159 

THOUGHTS ON THE ORIGIN OF INSECT FLIGHT 1 

Frank Louis 



ABSTRACT: It is suggested that early Paleozoic landscapes were characterized by 
extensive seepage areas which provided relatively stable environmental conditions for early 
apterygotes. Increased dependence on the aquatic environment is envisioned as directing the 
development of pleural respiratory folds which could be ventilated by subcoxo-coxal muscles; 
pleural folds are not considered to be derived from preexisting insect structures such as 
paranoia or coxal styli. It is also suggested that wing development may have been influenced 
by a thermoregulatory or swimming function of wings, or both. Flight is considered to have 
evolved in the reproductive adult stage in response to a continuous downstream displacement 
during the juvenile stage; flight eventually augmenting other forms of locomotion during the 
migration to upstream oviposition and nursery areas. The polyphyletic origin of wings is 
considered improbable, although the Protodonata and Odonata are considered to be the sister 
group of remaining Pterygota. Further, it is suggested that if the small stream theory is similar 
to the actual course of events then it is probable that pertinent fossil evidence will be scarce due 
to the high energy nature of the small stream environment. 

Speculation concerning past evolutionary events is perhaps the most 
intriguing aspect of evolutionary study, although inherently the most 
problematic. Evolutionary scenarios are based on the determination of 
character state polarity as are cladograms and phylogenies, but the impetus 
for their conception lies beyond morphology, being primarily to achieve an 
understanding of the evolution of function. This is a noteworthy virtue as 
adaptive radiations are often triggered by functional adaptations of 
preexisting structures. A well-known example concerning preadaptation of 
flight involves the fossil "bird" Archaeopteryx which displays feathered 
wings and tail but lacks a well-developed breastbone for flight muscle 
attachment. The most ancient pterygote or winged insects are the Palaeoptera (a 
paraphyletic group with living representatives being the Ephemeroptera 
and Odonata) characterized by the inability to withdraw the wings into a 
folded arrangement flat over the abdomen. The abdominal gill plates of 
palaeopteran nymphs are obvious candidates for preadapted wings and 
have been suggested as such by several authors. 

The origin of insect flight has been the subject of considerable 
speculation, the most favored scenario currently being the paranotal theory 
of Muller ( 1 873-75 ). However, the paranotal theory did not receive general 
acceptance until Crampton (1916) considered, apparently incorrectly, 
insect wings to be of tergal origin. Crampton's version of the paranotal 
theory proposes that protective thoracic paranota first acted as parachutes. 



'Received February' 16. 1982 

^Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg. Virginia 24061 



. NEWS. 93 (5) 159-172 November & December 198? 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



then as gliding and steering wings, and finally as flapping wings. The 
considerable discontinuity between gliding and flapping paranota is also an 
objectionable supposition of the theory and has led to the proposal of 
several alternative theories incorporating the idea of the preadapted 
"flapping" wing. The majority of these alternatives have involved an 
aquatic-related origin of insect wings; Woodworth (1906) proposed the 
origin of wings from gill opercula (gill-plates). Bradley (1942) and Grant 
(1945) from swimming gills, and Wigglesworth (1973, 1976) from gill plates 
derived from coxal styli. Rasnitsyn (1981) has proposed the origin of wings 
from movable structures which supposedly fused with the tergum and then 
again became movable coincident with the development of flight. In the 
present paper it is suggested that the environment of Paleozoic spring seeps 
provided suitable conditions for the evolution of insect flight, that wings 
originated from pleural respiratory folds ventilated by what are now the 
flight muscles, and that wing development may have been influenced by a 
swimming or thermoregulatory function, or both. 

DISCUSSION 
Mid-Paleozoic Terrestrial Environments 

Silurian spring seeps may have been widespread, offering hospitable 
habitats to the early apterygote insects. Possible soil bacteria discovered in 
the Gowganda formation of Ontario suggest the presence of soils by the 
Mid-Prepaleozoic, and the textural and compositional maturity of Cambrian 
terrigenous sediments compared to those of the Ordovician suggest the 
development of soils and terrestrial plants by the Mid-Paleozoic (Dott and 
Batten 1971). Land plants appeared at least by the Silurian and by the late 
Devonian diverse lowland forests existed in eastern North America, 
Greenland, and Britain (cf. Andrews 1961). Fossil winged insects show 
considerable diversity in carboniferous rocks, indicating, as in the case of 
land plants, an earlier origin than documented by known fossils. Silurian 
terrestrial plants included the psilophytes (Dott and Batten 1971) and 
probably also lichens, liverworts, mosses, and primitive ferns. This low and 
shallow-rooted vegetation would reduce runoff and evaporation, and 
although evapotranspiration would occur it would be much less than that 
associated with later more deeply rooted plants (cf. Hibbert 1967). These 
conditions would favor the accumulation of vast ground water reserves and 
the widespread formation of seepage areas. Therefore, seepage areas and 
spring-fed streams may have characterized large portions of the Paleozoic 
landscape at a time coinciding with the origin of insect wings and flight. 

Seepage areas, springs, and spring-fed streams would afford a somewhat 
discontinuous but stable environment to the early apterygotes. Emerging 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 161 



groundwater generally remains at about the average annual air temperature, 
has stable chemical characteristics, and is relatively abundant in nutrients 
although oxygen concentrations near the source are typically lower than 
that of the atmosphere. Mid-Paleozoic seeps were probably only partially 
shaded by plants and therefore supported the growth of green algae which in 
addition to the inflow of allochthonous material formed the basis of 
innumerable productive seepage communities. It is clear that ancient 
apterygotes would be attracted to seepage areas, even though it is likely they 
originally inhabited the terrestrial environment. 

Life History and Morphology of Protopterygota 

The life history of protopterygotans is likely best approximated among 
living forms by that of the Archaeognatha(Machilidae). Asemiaquaticway 
of life for the Protopterygota is supported by the habitat requirements of 
archaeognathan genera such as Allomachilis and Petrobius which live in 
the damp crevices of coastal cliffs. Heeg (1967) found archaeognathans 
much more susceptible to dehydration than thysanurans, and Smith ( 1 970) 
found that if mienertelids, the most primitive archaeognathans. were 
deprived of water in droplet form they would die in two or three days. In 
addition, the aquatic nympal stage of extant Palaeoptera and primitive 
Neoptera (i.e. Plecoptera) also suggests that protopterygotes were semi- 
aquatic. It is likely that the protopterygotes were characterized by an 
ametabolous development which included several instars after the attain- 
ment of sexual maturity, indirect sperm transfer which was accomplished in 
the terrestrial environment via the substrate, and exophytic oviposition 
probably in moist detrital material. The diet probably combined items 
consumed by archaeognathans and ephemeropterans such as algae, diatoms, 
lichens, microscopic organisms, and detritus, all of which are generally 
relatively abundant in or near spring seeps. Smith ( 1 970) reported that the 
archaeognathan Machilinus is attracted to warm surfaces, which indicates 
that protopterygotes were likely attracted by the stenothermal environment 
of spring seeps. 

Protopterygotan morphology was evidently characterized by a pronounced 
serial homology of body parts (Fig. 1 ). although the specialization of body 
segments had already led to the formation of insectan tagmata, as evidenced 
by the morphology of Archaeognatha and fossil Monura. The mandibular. 
maxillary, labial, thoracic, and abdominal segments bore paired coxae, 
with each coxite in turn apparently bearing a lateral telopodite (leg), a 
sensory stylus, and an absorptive organ or vesicle. Snodgrass (1954) 
considered apterygote abdominal styli to be homologous with the lateral 
abdominal gills of Ephemeroptera and Zygoptera: and Wigglesworth 



162 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



(1973) considered archaeognathan coxal and abdominal styli, and 
ephemeropteran gill-plates homologous with wings. However, Smith, 
(1969, 1970) considered abdominal styli telopodites, and archaeognathan 
thoracic styli homologous with apterygote vesicles and gonapophyses. 
Smith's interpretation is supported by the presence of segmented abdominal 
styli in some fossil Palaeoptera (Kukalova-Peck 1978). Several workers 
have considered gill plates to be serially homologous with wings, and 
venational patterns of gill-plates noted by Woodworth (1906) have also 
been demonstrated in the abdominal "wings" of Palaeozoic nymphs 
(Kukalova-Peck 1978). Wings are always found above the spiracle and 
telopodites below the spiracle ( Snodgrass 1935). Landa ( 1 948 ) has shown 
the intermediate position of the spiracle between the dorsal gill-plate (wing) 
trachea and telopodite tracheae of ephemeropteran nymphs. The position 
of vestigial "abdominal wings" above the spiracles of certain adult 
Ephemeroptera (Birket-Smith 1971) and the position of leg-derived male 
forceps below the spiracles also support this arrangement. It is also noted 
that the lateral abdominal gills of certain zygopteran nymphs may be 
homologous with those of the Ephemeroptera as indicated by their position 
with respect to the developing female gonocoxae. According to Kukalova- 
Peck (1978), Durken (1907, 1923) reported that gill-plates arise from 




Figure 1. Hypothetical protopterygota: (a) anterior view of subadult. (b) lateral view of 
subadult, and (c) lateroventral view of adult in gliding posture; length of body 10-15 



mm. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 163 



pleural evaginations above the spiracles which migrate with consecutively 
older instars toward the terga, as do the thoracic wings (Tower 1903: 
Bocharova-Messner 1 959, 1 965 , 1 968 ). However. Matsuda (1981) claims 
that Durken's work on Ephemerella ignita supports the tergal origin of 
ephemeropteran gills. Unfortunately, the gills of Ephemerella are highly 
specialized in their dorsal position, indicating that study of forms such as 
Ameletus, Siphloplectron, or Isonychia may clearly support a pleural 
origin of ephemeropteran gills. Dorsal migration of stylus-derived wings 
proposed by Wigglesworth (1973. 1976) would be blocked by the subcoxal 
annulus which E.L. Smith (Kuklova- Peck 1978) believes was developed in 
primitive apterygotes since it occurs in both recent Archaeognatha and 
fossil Monura. Paleozoic nymphs have been found with articulating 
"wings" on three thoracic and nine or ten abdominal segments (Carpenter 
1935.Kukalova 1968). As shown by Kukalova-Peck( 1978) the immobile 
nature of recent nymphal thoracic wings is secondary and does not support 
the origin of wings from paranota. Therefore, the apparent desirability of 
proposing the origin of wings from old structures such as paranota or coxal 
styli is vacuous, wings being likely derived from new structures arising from 
the pleural region above the spiracles. 

Origin of Preflight Wings 

The possibility that wings are entirely new insect structures greatly 
increases the array of scenarios which may explain their origin. Bocharova- 
Messner (1971) suggested the origin of wings from spiracular flaps which 
served sensory and protective functions related to respiration. In addition. 
Kukalova-Peck (1978) suggested that spiracular flaps may have served as 
opercula to close spiracles while under water, or to prevent water loss while 
on land: and Woodworth (1906) considered wings to be derived from gill 
plates which were used to ventilate and protect filamentous gill-clusters. 
Indeed, the abundance of plesiomorphic character states attributable to 
aquatic juveniles indicate that terrestrial apterygotes invaded the aquatic 
environment and that the origin of wings was somehow related to a change 
in respiratory function. In addition, an original respiratory function of the 
wings is somewhat supported by the wing pad spreading behavior of various 
Zygoptera in response to low oxygen levels. 

A transition to aquatic respiration would be favored by the unique 
environment of the seepage area. Protopterygotes attracted by an abundant 
food supply and stable temperatures would encounter high oxygen concentra- 
tions during daylight due to photosynthetic activity. Low oxygen levels may 
have occurred after nightfall due to both the low oxygen content of emerging 
ground water and a substantial biological oxygen demand. The lowest 
oxygen concentrations would then coincide with the time of maximum 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

possible benefit from the stenothermal nature of spring seeps. The wide 
range in oxygen concentrations possibly allowed a gradual increase in the 
efficiency of aquatic respiration. Plastrons (air cells) and the absorption of 
oxygen through the membranous pleural region were likely the initial 
mechanisms of aquatic respiration, and it is possible that setae present on 
the developing wing buds of recent insects may be vestiges originally used in 
the retention of plastrons. Increased dependence on the aquatic environment 
would select for a dendritic-like development of small trachael branches 
above and lateral to the spiracles to aid in the distribution of oxygen through 
the original tracheal system. This could be augmented by the development 
of pleural folds on the thoracic, abdominal, and possibly the maxillary and 
labial segments to increase pleural surface area. Such folds apparently 
occur in the Archaeognatha. Pleural folds would be preadapted for 
ventilation by the subcoxo-coxal muscles which would distort a membran- 
ous pleural region during walking, and it is perhaps significant that tergal- 
sternal muscles could also aid in ventilation by compressing the pleural 
region. These muscles would represent the primitive direct and indirect 
flight muscles, respectively. It is likely that the uppermost gill folds would 
become operculate both for ventilation and protection of the more delicate 
inner gills. A review of the literature reveals that elements of this sequence 
were first proposed by Oken (1811), Lang ( 1 888 ), and Woodworth ( 1 906). 
Efficiency could be improved by increasing the surface area to volume ratio 
through a flattening and expansion of the protowings. However, mainten- 
ance of sufficient blood flow through the protowings would require internal 
modifications. 

Preflight Wing Venation 

Kukalova-Peck (1978) suggested that the haemocoel was restricted to 
channels which later became cuticularized and sclerotized to form a 
stiffening t enational framework. Fluting was supposedly achieved by a 
differential excretion of cuticular material on the veinal tubes, and blood 
circulation achieved by a refluxing of blood into and out of six basal vein 
openings. If convex veins were primitively formed on the dorsal wing 
surface and concave veins formed on the ventral surface, than an alternate 
scenario is suggested. It is noted that this condition apparently persists as a 
plesiomorphic character state in at least ephemeropteran wings (Spieth 
1932), wing pads, fossil wing pads (Carpenter 1979), and possibly gill- 
plates; and in nymphal odonate wings (Calvert 191 1), and wing pads. 
Nonalignment of blood channels and venation in the nymphal wings of 
recent insects is here considered an adaptation of the lacunae to subsequent 
changes in wing function. It is possible that as the protowings became 
flattened, a septum was formed between the dorsal and ventral surfaces to 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 165 



maintain a sufficient blood flow ( Fig. 2). Accessory dorsal pulsatile organs 
were eventually utilized, although gravity probably maintained the circula- 
tory gradient in the earliest wings. The dorsal convex chasm was the 
efferent route and the ventral concave chasm afferent. In addition to the 
obvious functions of blood circulation in the wing such as the transfer of 
nutrients and hormones, the blood transfers heat which may have been its 
most important function in the wings of early insects. 

Preadaptation of Protowings 

Prothoracic winglets of adult Palaeodictyoptera and wings of Paleozoic 
nymphs are characterized by a tubular cuticularized venation, a slight 
corrugation, and a hinge comprised of tergal sclerites and enlarged vein 
bases suggesting that preflight wings were significantly preadapted for flight 
( Kukalova-Peck 1978). The possibility of a preadapted hinge indicates that 
preflight wings were utilized in a flapping manner, either as gill opercula 
(Woodworth 1906) or possibly as spiracular flaps (Bocharova-Messner 
1971 ). However, since corrugation and copious venation are not needed in 
the gill-plates of recent insects, it is possible that additional selective 
pressures acted in their development, notably the need to control body 
temperature. A semiaquatic insect adapted to the stable temperatures of 
emerging ground water would certainly benefit from a system which 
regulated body temperature while entering the terrestrial environment for 
reproductive purposes. Such a system is apparently utilized by the Odonata 
for either "heating up" in the morning or "cooling down" at midday; the 
system involves the wing, its circulatory system, and its variable orientation 
with respect to the sun. Certain fossil Palaeoptera have the dorsal veins 
hyperdeveloped suggesting a thermoregulatory function in early wings. The 
transition of gill opercula to structures useful in thermoregulation could 
occur in the humid microenvironment of the spring seep, and it is noted that 
the caudal gills of certain Zygoptera such as Megalagrion are surprisingly 
resistant to damage while the nymph scampers about in the terrestrial 
environment. A thermoregulatory function in early wings would be 
enhanced by the increase of wing size which would require an associated 
venational framework for support and heat transfer. In addition, corrugation 
would aid support, allow for a greater surface area, and provide for zones of 
shading and air pockets. It is evident that the dorsal and ventral blood 
chasms of the wing were reduced to five or six rib-like veins which contained 
tracheae and nerves as well as blood. Possibly, convex veins were originally 
located directly above concave veins so that the dorsal-ventral dimension of 
wing corrugation developed before the anterior-posterior dimension (Fig. 
3 ). As the dorsal veins have apparently slipped forward, a suitable wing vein 
notation slightly modified from that of Kukalova-Peck ( 1978) would be: 



166 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



costa anterior (CA+), costa posterior (CP-), subcosta anterior (ScA+) 
subcosta posterior (ScP-), radius anterior (RA+), radius posterior (RP-), 
media anterior (MA+), media posterior (MP-), cubitus anterior (CuA+), 
cubitus posterior (CuP-), anal anterior (A+), and anal posterior (AP-). 
However, evidence for recognizing CP- and Sc+ is weak because the anterior 
wing margin questionably represents a vein, and Sc+ is vestigial when 
apparent. Improvements of the hinge involving a thickening of wing vein 
bases and a thinning of the wing in general coupled with changes in venation 
to improve a thermoregulatory function of wings would lead to the 
modification of the original blood flow pattern. The concave (ventral) veins 
may have become multilooped in order to increase shading efficiency by 
increasing the width of troughs (Fig. 4). This process of looping was 
apparently carried to some dorsal veins, but vein pairs in the anterior wing 
region were probably not involved at all in order to maintain strength along 
the leading edge of the wing. Major vein pairs became fused basally and 
cross veins allowed the eventual anterior-posterior blood flow of existing 
Pterygota. 

A thermoregulatory function of the wings not only offers a possible 
explanation for the increase in wing size and the development of venation 
and corrugation in the preflight wing, but may explain the muscular and 
articular changes necessary for pronation and supination. It is apparent that 
early insects could regulate their temperature while in the terrestrial 
environment by varying body orientation with respect to the sun, but 
considering only the wings it is obvious that at low angles of inclination only 
slight reorientations of the wings are necessary to regulate body temperature. 
This effect is particularly enhanced when the corrugations are characterized 
by wide troughs and oriented perpendicular to incoming light. Therefore, 
rotation and the associated modifications of the wing base can be 
considered an adaptation to thermoregulation and a preadaptation to flight. 

Bradjey (1942) and Grant (1945) have suggested that preflight wings 
became adapted for flight by serving as fins and propulsion devices in water. 
However, the original use of gill plates in swimming would probably not be 
similar to the gill-plate method employed by nymphal mayflies such as 
Chloeon, or the method used by certain adult Chaleid wasps which swim 
under water with their wings. The original hinge was apparently straight, 
wide, and parallel to the body axis. Swimming, if achieved, was likely 
accomplished by undulating the body in an up and down fashion while 
altering the pitch of the gill-plates. The gill-plates could be tilted with the 
subcoxal-coxal muscles (precursors of the direct flight muscles), which is a 
possible explanation for the muscular and articular changes necessary for 
pronation and supination. However, the development of pronation and 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



167 






Figures 2-4. Hypothetical insectan protowings illustrating a possible scenario leading to the 
formation of corrugation and venation. 

Figure 2. Section through protowing distal to hinge, note formation of septum: 
(s) septum, (a) afferent chasm, (e) efferent chasm. 

Figure 3. Formation of corrugation and venation: (a) primary dorsal-ventral 
corrugation, (b) secondary anterior posterior corrugation. 
Figure 4. Branching or looping of the posterior (ventral) veins. 



168 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

supination of gill-plates to improve the ventilation of inner gills may have 
been a preadaptation for both swimming and flying. 

Development of Flight 

The development of flight, like the origin of wings, was quite possibly 
brought about by conditions in the small stream environment. Life history 
was likely segregated into a semiaquatic juvenile stage and a terrestrial 
adult stage. However, it is noted that Kukalova-Peck (1978) believes that 
metamorphosis did not evolve until much later and occurred several times 
in the Pterygota. The nymphal stage would be primarily a period of feeding 
characterized by a substantial increase in body size; in contrast the adult 
stage would be primarily concerned with reproduction. A continuous 
downstream displacement, or drift (cf. Waters 1972), characterized the 
nymphal stage which was compensated for by an upstream migration during 
the adult stage. Wigglesworth (1963, 1973, 1976) proposed that semiaquatic 
pterygotes "learned to fly" after being swept up by the thermal upcurrents of 
semiarid regions to be deposited with the next rainfall. However, advantages 
accrued to adults while migrating to upstream reproductive areas also seem 
a plausible explanation for the origin of flight. Upstream migration was 
probably achieved through a combination of walking, swimming, jumping, 
and eventually gliding and flapping flight. The author has observed 
primitive archaeognathans jumping from the surface of water, and primitive 
ephemeropterans (Isonychia) jumping back into water when disturbed 
while out of water to emerge. The author has also observed Isonychia to 
""swim" out of water into the air when startled; it is perhaps significant that 
this ability is developed in forms inhabiting rapid streams. Although these 
primitive forms do exercise some attitude control in flight, presumably with 
the cerci, legs, and antennae. Flower (1964) has calculated that attitude 
control arid gliding distance would be improved in small insects with even 
rudimentary wings. This suggests that even small articulating lateral gill 
opercula might be advantageous in flight. Evening updrafts through stream 
valleys could have helped carry the early pterygotes to the upstream mating 
and nursery areas, and downstream drift of nymphs to areas containing 
unexploited food resources would gradually lengthen migratory routes and 
necessitate the gradual improvement of gliding and flapping flight. The 
specialization of the ovipositor for laying eggs in the protective environment 
of living and dead plant material surrounding seepage areas could lead to a 
further consolidation of reproductive sites and also to intense sexual 
selection between males which would probably involve flight capabilities. 
Increased vagility coupled with the isolated nature of reproductive areas 
would then set the stage for a dramatic adaptive radiation. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 169 



Monophyletic Origin of Wings 

Matsuda (1981) has revived the polyphyletic origin of insect wings 
originally proposed by Lemche ( 1940). Matsuda suggests the origin of the 
Eupalaeoptera (Protodonata and Odonata) from the Archaeognatha. and the 
origin of the Neopalaeoptera (Protephemrida, Ephemeroptera, Palaeodictyoptera, 
and Megasecoptera) and Neoptera (remaining Pterygota). from the Thysanura. 
Although an original dichotomy between the Eupalaeoptera and remaining 
Pterygota seems well-founded, a polyphyletic origin of wings seems 
doubtful. Matsuda's conclusion was reached by considering certain similarities 
of the Archaeognatha and Odonata synapomorphic (derived characteristics 
held in common), when they are as reasonably considered symplesiomorphic 
(primitive characteristics held in common) or a result of convergence. 
Primary justification for the character state polarities determined by 
Matsuda is his belief that the considerable autapomorphy (unique derived 
characteristics) of the Eupalaeoptera cannot be explained by ecological 
divergence. However, all eupalaeopteran autapomorphy may be explained 
by what appears to be a basic ecologic dichotomy of the Pterygota. that is 
between "predator and nonpredator", a dichotomy which is repeated within 
later orders such as the Plecoptera and Coleoptera. Of the several 
eupalaeopteran autapomorphic thoracic characteristics listed by Matsuda 
(1981). all can be explained by the need to increase flight agility. 
Furthermore, the unique wing venation of the Eupalaeoptera (supposed 
absence of MP and CuA) can be explained by the basal fusion of 
longitudinal veins (Carle 1982a), again in response to the need for 
increased flight agility and not due to a unique origin of eupalaeopteran 
wings. 

Matsuda considered the large compound eyes "which almost meet 
dorsally in Anisoptera and Machilidae" synplesiomorphic. However, 
annectants reveal this similarity to have developed through convergence. 
Symplesiomorphic characteristics of the Archaeognatha and Eupalaeoptera 
probably include: presence of four intratergal apophyses, presence of the 
pseudoprescutum. absence of the indirect flight mechanism, and the 
absence of contact between the primary genitalia during sperm transfer. 
The latter characterstic is again likely related to the predatory nature of the 
Eupalaeoptera (Carle 1982b). It is probable that ancient eupalaeopteran 
males used the cerci to guide females to their spermatophores (as in at least 
some archaeognathans), and eventually developed the tandem hold to 
prevent being eaten by the female. The eupalaeopteran copulatory process 
then developed with its unique secondary copulatory apparatus, sperm 
removal, and male above copulatory position. In contrast, in the Ephemeroptera 
and Neoptera the primitive copulatory position of the female is above the 



1 70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



male, and the presence of ephemeropteran-like forceps on the ninth sternum 
of male Palaeodictyoptera (Kukalova 1970) supports the female 
above copulatory position in all noneupalaeopteran Pterygota. Other 
synapomorphic character states of the Neopalaeoptera and Neoptera are 
related to the development of the indirect flight mechanism in which the 
downstroke is achieved by contraction of longitudinal dorsal muscles which 
restore curvature to momentarily flattened pterothoracic terga, these 
include: partial fusion of the thoracic terga and pleura, specialization of 
several muscles (cf. Matsuda 1981), differentiation of the nodal wing 
processes, and apparent differentiation of the proximal portion of the 
axillary plate into the second and third axillary sclerites. The Neoptera are 
further specialized in the integration of the third axillary sclerite into a 
unique wing folding mechanism. Similarities of the Thysanura and non- 
eupalaeopteran Pterygota which have been suggested as synapomorphic by 
Matsuda ( 1981 ) may of course be due to convergence. It is also possible 
that the Thysanura represent an early Neopalaeopteran group which 
became secondarily wingless. 

Fossil Protopterygota 

The small stream theory concerning the origin of insect wings and flight 
has many implications if it does indeed depict the true course of events. 
Foremost are implications concerning the abundance and distribution of 
early pterygote fossils. If the assumption concerning the thermoregulatory 
function of preflight wings is correct; then regions of the Devonian 
geography characterized by seasonal climates may yield enlightening fossil 
evidence; these areas include Siberia, Greenland, and the southern 
continents as evidenced by the occurrence of Paleozoic "tree" rings (cf. 
Dott and Batten 1971). The high energy environment of the small stream 
is certainly not a suitable environment for insect fossilization, leaving a bias 
in the fossil record toward relatively advanced forms which lived near 
swamps and lakes. However, Rasnitsyn (1981) states that the "chances of 
fossilization were much higher for aquatic and amphibious insects than for 
terrestrial ones." Rasnitsyn's belief seems doubtful in light of the author's 
experience in carefully processing benthic lake and stream samples (cf. 
Carle 1980). Insect remains were primarily of hard-bodied terrestrials, 
typically Coleoptera. This is apparently related to both the higher 
population levels and higher durability of terrestrial insects. Therefore, bias 
in the insect fossil record is probably toward a disproportionate representation of 
coleopteroids and orthopteroids. However, the importance of fossil evidence 
in determining the correct phylogenetic classification of insects must not be 
underrated in light of the considerable degree of parallel evolution likely 
after the origin of insect flight. 



Vol. 93. No 5. November & December 1982 171 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Drs. E.F. Benfield. P.M. Carpenter. J.L. Eaton. M. Kosztarab. and E.C. Turner. 
Jr. and the several individuals solicited by the editor of this journal for their reviews of this 
manuscript and their many helpful suggestions. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Andrews, H.N., Jr. 1961. Studies in Paleobotany. John Wiley. New York. 487 pp. 
Birket-Smith, J. 1971 . The abdominal morphology of Porilla adusta Navas(Polymytarcidae) 

and of Ephemeroptera in general. Entomol. Scand. 2: 139-60. 
Bocharova-Messner, O.M. 1959. Development of the wing in the early post-embryonic stage 

in the ontogeny of dragonflies (order Odonata). Trudy Inst. Morf. Zhiv. Im. Severtosova 

27: 187-200 (in Russian). 

1 965. Ontogeny of the skeleton and muscles of the thoracic division in Buetissp. 

(Baetidae, Ephemeroptera.) Zool. Zh. 44: 1790-9 (in Russian). 

1968. Principles of ontogenesis of pterothorax in Polyneoptera in relation with 

the problem of the origin in the evolution of the insectan flight apparatus. Voprosy funkt. 

mort i embryol. nasek. Nauka. Moscow, pp. 3-26 (in Russian). 

1 97 1 . On the origin of flight apparatus of insects. Proc. XIII Int. Congr. Entomol. 

(Moscow) 1 : 232. 
Bradley, J.C. 1942. The origin and significance of metamorphosis and wings among insects. 

Proc. VIII Pan Amer. Sci. Congr. Biol. Sec. 3: 303-9. 
Calvert, P.P. 1911. Studies on Costa Rican Odonata. The larva of Cora. Entomol. News and 

Proc. Entomol. Sec. 22(2): 49-64. 
Carle, F.L. 1980. Accurate and efficient estimation of benthic populations: A comparison 

between Removal estimation and conventional sampling techniques. Hydrobiologica 

71: 181-7. 

1 982a. A contribution to the knowledge of the Odonata. Doctoral Dissertation. 

Va. Polytechnic Inst. and State U.. Blacksburg. 1 195 pp. + xv. 

1982b. Evolution of the odonate copulatory process. Odonatologica (in press). 
Carpenter, P.M. 1935. The Lower Permian insects of Kansas. Part 7. The order 

Protoperlaria. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 70: 103-46. 

1979. Lower Permian insects from Oklahoma. Part 2. Orders Ephemeroptera 

and Palaeodictyoptera. Psyche 86: 261-90. 
Crampton, G.C. 1916. The phylogenetic origin and the nature of the wings of insects 

according to the paranotal theory. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 24: 267-301. 
Dott. R.H., Jr. and R.L. Batten. 1971. Evolution of the Earth. McGraw-Hill. New York 

649 pp. 
Durken, B. 1 907. Die Tracheenkiemernmuskulaturder Ephemeriden unter Berucksichtigung 

der Morphologic des Insektenflugels. Z. Wiss. Zool. 87: 435-550. 

1923. Die postembryonale Entwicklung der Tracheenkiemen und ihrer 

Muskulatur bei F.phcincrclla ignita. Zool. Jahrb. 44 (Anatomic): 439 613. 
Flower, J.W. 1964. On the origin of flight in insects. J. Insect Physiol. 10: 81-8. 
Grant, C. 1945. More on the origin of flight. Entomol. News 61: 243-5. 
Heeg, J. 1967. Studies on Thysanura. II. Orientation reactions of Machiloides delanyi 

Wygodzinsky and Ctenolepisma longicaudata Escherich. Zool. Afr. 3: 21-41. 
Hibbert, A.R. 1 967. Forest treatment effects on water yield. In Sopper. W.E. and H.W. Lull 

(Ed.) Int. Symp. For. Hydrology, pp. 527-43. New York. 
Kukalova, J. 1968. Permian mayfly nymphs. Psyche 75: 310-27. 

1 970. Revisional study of the order Palaeodictyoptera in the Upper Carboniferous 

shales of Commentrv. France. Part III. Psvchc 77: 1 44. 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Kukalova-Peck, J. 1978. Origin and evolution of insect wings and their relation to 

metamorphosis, as documented by the fossil record. J. Morphology 156: 53-126. 
Landa, V. 1948. Contribution to the anatomy of ephemerid larvae. I. Topography and 

anatomy of trachael systems. Vestnik Csl. Zool. Spol 12: 25-82. 
Lang, A. 1888. Lehrbuch der Vergleichende Anatomie. Jena. 566 pp. 
Lemche, H. 1940. The origin of winged insects. Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk. Naturh. Foren 

Kobenhavn 104: 127-68. 
Matsuda, R. 1 98 1 . The origin of insect wings (Arthropoda: Insecta). Int. J. Insect Morphol. 

& Embryol. 10: 387-98. 
Muller, F. 1873-75. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Termiten. Jena Z. Naturwiss. 7: 333-58, 

451-563; 9: 241-64. 

Oken, L. 1811. Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie. Jena. 
Rasnitsyn, A.P. 1981. A modified paranotal theory of insect wing origin. J. Morphology 

168: 331-8. 
Smith, E.L. 1 969. Evolutionary morphology of the insect genitalia. I. Origin and relationships to 

other appendages. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 62: 1051-79. 

. 1970. Biology and structure of some California bristletails and silverfish. Pan- 

Pacif. Entomol. 46: 212-25. 

Snodgrass, R.F. 1935. Principles of Insect Morphology. McGraw-Hill, New York. 667 pp. 
. 1954. The dragonfly larva. Publication 4175. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 123(2): 

1-38. 
Spieth, H.T. 1 932. A new method of studying the wing veins of the mayflies and some results 

obtained therefrom. Entomol. News 43: 103. 
Tower, W.L. 1903. The origin and development of the wings of Coleoptera. Zool. Jahrb.. 

Anat. 17:517-72. 

Waters, T.F. 1972. The drift of stream insects. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 17: 253-72. 
Wigglesworth, V.B. 1963. The origin of flight in insects. Proc. Roy. Entomol. Soc. London 

(C)28: 23-32. 

. 1973. Evolution of insect wings and flight. Nature 246: 127-9. 

. 1976. The evolution of insect flight. In: Insect Flight. R.C. Rainey, Ed. Symposia 

of Roy. Entomol. Soc. London 7: 255-69. 
Woodworth, C.W. 1 906. The wing veins of insects. Univ. Calif. Publ., Tech. Bull., Entomol. 

1(1): 1-152. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

A BIOSYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE EUROPEAN STRATIOMYTDAE 
(DIPTERA).VOL. 1. Rudolf Rozkosny. 1982. Dr. W. Junk, Pub. 401 pp. 

$79.50. 

A biosystematic revision of the european Stratomyidae. summarizing basic information on 
morphology, biology, ecology, distribution, economics, and taxonomy Vol. 1 contains 
introductory sections and the systematics of the Beridinae. Sarginae and Stratiomyinae 
subfamilies. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 173 

NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION 

OF HYLOTRUPES BAJULUS (L) (COLEOPTERA: 

CERAMBYCIDAE) IN VIRGINIA 1 

Kevin F. Cannon, William H. Robinson^ 

ABSTRACT: The old house borer. HylotrupesbqjuIus(L.). was found equally distributed in 
the three geographic regions of Virginia. A survey of pest control operators and homeowners 
showed a majority of infestations were in buildings less than 7 years old. Old house borer 
adults and larvae were collected in a sawmill, associated with processed and unprocessed 
wood. 

The old house borer (OHB), Hylotmpes bajuliis (L.), is an important 
structural insect pest in eastern and southern United States (St. George et 
al. 1957). It was introduced into the U.S. over 200 years ago and now 
occurs in states along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf Coast. It is ranked 
second to subterranean termites in its damage to buildings and structures 
(St. George et al. 1957). In the U.S., the OHB is a pest of man-made 
structures with no known evidence of naturally occurring populations in 
unprocessed wood (Snyder 1955). 

Larvae of this cerambycid beetle tunnel in the sapwood portion of 
seasoned softwoods used in the construction of houses and other wooden 
structures. Larvae are known to feed in wood for several years. Larval 
feeding often results in loss of structural integrity of infested wood, and 
financial losses incurred in the treatment and replacement of damaged 
wood. 

The OHB is native to the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and is 
found feeding, under natural conditions, in pine stumps and logs. Becker 
( 1 979) noted that the OHB has been introduced onto all major continents, 
and gave its distribution in the U.S.. including 38 counties in Virginia. On 
most continents the OHB is considered an established pest, capable of 
surviving under natural conditions in unprocessed wood, as well as in 
seasoned softwoods. 

The purpose of this study was to record the distribution of the OHB in 
Virginia. Midway in the distribution of the OHB along the east coast, and 
with 3 distinct geographic regions, (coastal, piedmont, mountain) Virginia 
offers representative temperatures for the entire Atlantic seaboard. 



'Received February 25. 1982 

2 Dept. of Entomology. VPI & SU. Blacksburg. Va. 

ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 173 176 November & December I9S2 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Materials and Methods 

Distribution records were compiled from 1 977 to 1982 from specimens 
located in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History. VPI&SU insect 
collection, and VA Cooperative Extension records. Professional pest 
control operators and homeowners in Virginia were surveyed ( 1 979- 1981) 
to determine occurrence and location (within structure) of OHB infestations. 
A 1 0-point questionnaire was sent to pest control operators and homeowners 
submitting specimens of OHB to VPU&SU for identification. Two lumber 
yards and one sawmill in Montgomery Co., VA were sampled for OHB 
adults and larvae. Sampling involved a 2 hr. walk 3 times weekly around the 
premises over a 3 week period (June 17 to July 5, 1981 ). Adult OHB were 
captured with sweep nets. Wood containing OHB larvae was returned to 
the laboratory and the larvae removed. 

Results and Discussion 

Distribution records and survey data show the OHB is equally 
distributed throughout Virginia's 3 geographic regions (Fig. 1 ). The OHB 
was reported to occur in 86 of Virginia's 99 counties. 

Five OHB adults (3 males, 2 females) and 3 medium-to large-sized 
(100-150 mg) larvae were collected at the sawmill. Adults were found, in 
mid-day, flying about the lumber yard. Larvae were found in pine lumber 
stacked around the periphery of the mill . The adult females were returned to 
the laboratory where they laid viable eggs. The larvae were transferred to 
fortified wood blocks (southern yellow pine) in the VPI&SU OHB colony. 

These findings strongly suggest that the OHB is surviving and 
reproducing in areas where wood is processed and stored. Wood for local 
use as well as rough-cut pine logs for modern log homes are processed at the 
sawmill where the OHB specimens were collected. Moore (1978) reported 
that the majority of OHB infestations were found in structures built with 
infested wood. Data from the pest control operator and homeowner survey 
further supported this premise. 

The survey data showed that of the homeowners and pest control 
operators reporting infestations, 81 .3% were in houses < 7 years old, with 
56.3% in houses < 4 years old. This data indicates that OHB larvae were 
probably in the wood when the houses were constructed. 

Cannon (1979) reported that first-instar larvae were able to live and 
feed for 6 months outdoors in pine blocks placed in the geographic regions of 
Virginia. The data indicated that the wood moisture content in the test 
blocks and not temperature was the limiting factor in larval survival 
outdoors. The data presented here confirms that OHB can survive outside 
structures. The presence of OHB adults and larvae in a lumber yard helps to 
explain active infestations in buildings less than 10 years old. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



175 



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176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEGMENTS 

Dr. T.J. Spilman. USNM. and Drs. W. A. Allen and M. Kosztarab. VPI&SU. provided 
OHB specimens and distribution data. An unnamed reviewer provided many helpful 
suggestions that improved the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Becker, G. 1949. Beitrage zur Okologie der Hausbockkafer-Larven. Z. angew. Entomol. 

31: 135-174. 
Becker, H. 1979. Die Verbeitung des Hausbockafers (Hylotrupes bajulus (L.)) Serville 

(Coleoptcra: Cerambycidae). Sonderdruck aus Prakt. Schadlengsbekampfcr 31: 3-19. 
Cannon, K.F. 1979. Aspects of Hylotrupes hajuhis (L.) biology in Virginia. M.S. Thesis. 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg. 52 pp. 
Cannon, K.F. and William H. Robinson. 1981. Wood consumption and growth of 

Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) larvae in three environments. Environ. Entomol. 10: 458-461. 
Moore, H.B. 1978. The old house borer, an update, part one. Pest Control 46(3): 14-1 7. 52- 

53. 
Robinson, W.H. and K.F. Cannon. 1979 The life history and habits of the old house borer. 

Hrlotrupes hajiiliif (L). and its distribution in Pennsylvania. Melsheimer Entomol. 

Ser.27: 30-34. 
St. George, R.A., H.R. Johnston, and T. Mclntyre. 1957. Wood enemy number 2 in the 

East: the old house borer. Pest Control 25: 29-37 
Snvder, T.E. 1955. Introduced wood borers. Pest Control 23: 28. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

SYSTEMATICS OF BEES OF THE GENUS EUFRIESEA 
(HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE). Lynn S. Kimsey. 1982. Univ. of Calif. 
Press. 125 pp. $12.50. pbk. 

The purpose of this paper is to provide a general overview of the Euglossini. with a key to the 
genera, and to present a revision of the genus Eiifriesea. including taxonomic and biological 
information and a key to the species. 

BIOLOGY OF SPIDERS. Rainer F. Foelix. 1982. Harvard Univ. Press. 
306 pp. $30.00. 

Comprehensive treatment of spider biology, emphasizing their physiology, sensory physiology 
and behavior. Anatomy, web spinning, locomotion, predation. reproduction, development and 
ecology are all covered. Translated and updated from the original ( 1979) German edition 

SOCIAL INSECTS. VOLS. Ill & IV. H.R. Hermann, ed. 1982. 
Academic Press. Vol. Ill 459 pp. $58.00. Vol. IV 385 pp. $52.00 

Vol. 3 treats the eusocial insects, the Apidae, with chapters on the bumble bees, the honey bees 
and the stingless bees. Vol. 4 completes the series with chapters on wasps and ants 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 19X2 177 

NEW NORTH AMERICAN RECORDS FOR THE 

PALEARCTIC SOLDIER FLY, CHLOROMYIA 

FORMOSA (SCOPOLI) (DIPTERA: 

STRATIOMYIDAE) 1 

E. Richard Hoebeke, L.L. Pechuman^ 

ABSTRACT: The Palearctic soldier fly. Chloromyia formosa (Scopoli). was found at 
Ithaca (Tompkins County). New York, in May-June 1978 and 1979: at Letchworth State 
Park (Livingston County) in June 1981 and 1982: and in Genesec County in July 1981 These 
collections represent new North American records and an extension of the known range oft his 
Old World species. 

The Palearctic species, Chloromyia formosa (Scopoli) was first 
reported in North America by James (1941) based on a collection of two 
males at Rochester (Monroe County), New York on July 16, 1939. 

In 1970, James reported two additional specimens, a male and female, 
taken in Monroe County, on June 23, 1 967. probably in the town of Hamlin 
(about 18 miles NW of Rochester). 

Pechuman (1974) collected a single male from vegetation along the 
edge of a swamp on the Cole Road, Mendon( Monroe County) on June 15. 
1972, and he collected an additional male and female at the same locality 
on June 22, 1973, and two males from vegetation along a pond at Mendon 
Ponds Park, about 3 miles west of the Cole Road site a few hours later. 

In late June 1981 and 1982, collecting trips to Letchworth State Park 
(Livingston County), approximately 30 miles SW of Mendon. turned up a 
large series of males and females; all were swept from tall, uncut grasses and 
weeds growing adjacent to a roadside in a campground at the north end of 
the park. The collection data are as follows: NY: Livingston County. 
Letchworth State Park. Highbanks Campground, ca. 5 miles E. of Perry. 
June 18-21. 1981 and 1982, E.R. Hoebeke and M.E. Carter, collectors. 
From July 10-12, 1981, likely habitats for C. formosa were sampled by 
L.L. Pechuman in portions of Orleans and Genesee Counties adjoining 
Monroe County. Pechuman collected a single female in Bergen (Genesee 
County) on July 12, by sweeping tall grasses. In addition, a collection of 
four specimens (all males) was made in the Finger Lakes Region of New 
York in May-June 1 978 and 1 979. These specimens were collected by D.J. 
Bickel (Cornell University) at Ithaca (Cayuga Heights) (Tompkins County) 
on June 12. 1978. and May 30 and June 15. 1979. 



'Received April 28. 1982 

-Extension Associate and Professor Emeritus, respectively. Department of Entomology. 
Cornell University. Ithaca. NY 14853. 



ENT. NEWS. 93 (5) 177-179 November & December l l s: 



178 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



. SCHUYLER 
STEUBEN --"- 




-T.J I 



CHEMUNG/ TIOGA 



Fig. 1 . Map of western New York showing North American distribution of Chlnromyia 
formosa (Scopoli). 




Figs. 2, 3. Chloromyia formosa (Scopoli). 2. dorsal habitus, male. 3. closcupof head (male] 
showing pilose eyes. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 179 



The specimens referred to above are deposited in the Cornell University 
Insect Collection (CUIC). All known collections of C. formosa in North 
America are mapped in Fig. 1 . 

Adults of Chloromyia formosa (Fig. 2) may be distinguished from 
other geosargine stratiomyids by the following combination of characters: a 
moderate-sized species, 7.5-9.0 mm in length: brilliantly colored, with the 
thorax bright metallic blue-green and the abdomen dull metallic gold-green 
(these hues are subject to some variation among individuals in a population): 
scutellum unspined: second antennal segment sometimes convex and not 
produced into a finger-like process: and the eyes densely and conspicuously 
pilose ( Fig. 3 ). Male eyes are holoptic while those of females are dichoptic. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to thank C.O. Berg (Cornell University) and D.W. Webb (Illinois Natural 
History Survey. Champaign. IL) for their critical review of this paper. 

LITERATURE CITED 

James. M.T. 1941. Notes on the Nearctic Geosarginae (Diptera: Stratiomyiidae). Ent. 

News 52: 105-108. 

. 1970. A new species, correction of synonymy, and new records of Nearctic 

Stratiomyidae (Diptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 72: 327-332. 
Pechuman. L.L. 1974. Chloromyia formosa established in the United States (Diptera: 

Stratiomyidae). Ent. News 85: 54-55. 



Continued from page 1 5 1 

ITZN 59 16 June. 1982 

The following Opinions have been published by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 39. part 2. on 
15 June 1982: 

Opinion No. 

1203 (p. 95) ERIOCOCCIDAECockerell. 1899 conserved: type species designated 

for Hriocnccifi Targioni-Tozzetti. 1868 (Insecta. Homoptera). 

1204 (p. 99) Acrydium nndulatum J. Sowerby. 1806 (Insecta. Orthoptera): placed 

on the Official List. 

1208 (p. 109) Goniitrellia Hendel. 1927 (Insecta. Diptera): designation of type species. 

1212 (p. 119) Siphonuphom Brandt. 1837 (Diplopoda): conserved. 

121 3 (p. 122) T<>\(>i-hynchiii"i hrcvipalpi^ Theobald. 1901 (Insecta. Dipteral: con 

served. 

The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 

R V. MELVILLE 

Secretary 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

COLLEMBOLA FROM VERMONT 1 

Peter F. Bellinger 2 



ABSTRACT: 57 collembolan species are recorded, mainly from the University of Vermont 
collection: 52 of these are new state records. 

The only published records of Collembola from Vermont prior to 
Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980-81, are of three species of Entomobrya 
(Folsom, 1924; Christiansen, 1958). Since 200 species were recorded from 
New York by Maynard ( 1 95 1 ), it is evident that the Vermont fauna of this 
order has been neglected. 

I have recently had the opportunity to study the collection of the 
University of Vermont, accumulated mainly through the efforts of Dr. Ross 
T. Bell and his students. Much of the material comes from the mountains 
east of Burlington, but there are scattered collections from many parts of the 
state. Most records are of specimens collected by hand or in pitfall traps, 
and large, active surface species predominate. However, some Berlese 
extracts from Camel's Hump, Chittenden County, contain representatives 
of the smaller hemiedaphic and euedaphic species. 

The following list includes all species of Collembola known to occur in 
Vermont. Unless a reference is given, records are from the University of 
Vermont collection. Localities are in Chittenden Co. unless another county 
is named. Records without locality are from Camel's Hump, Chittenden 
Co. 

Podura aquatica L. Gleason Brook. 1400'. 

Hypogastrura (H.) harveyi (Folsom). Mt. Dewey. Underhill. 

H. (H.) lima Christiansen & Bellinger. 16 collections. 3000'-4000'. 

H. (H.) nivicola (Fitch). 2800', 22 July: Lewis Creek Mouth. N. Ferrisburg. Addison 
Co.. 25 May. The species is usually found on snow in winter. 

H. (H.) packardi (Folsom). Owl's Head. Richmond. 

H. (Ceratophysella) denticulata(Bagna\\). 4050'. bilberry meadow: Jonesville: Milton. 
Mt. Dewey: South Starksboro. Addison Co.: Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

H. (Mitchellania) hiawatha (Yosii). 3900'. 

H. (M.) loricata Yosii. 5 collections. 3300'-3900'. in mushroom, in sphagnum, etc. 

Freisea sublimis Mcnamara. 2800'. 

Pseudachorutes aureofasciatus (Harvey). 5 collections. 3800'-3950': Bristol Middlebury 
line. Addison Co. 

P. simplex Maynard. 2800'. 

Anurida (A.) cf. granaria (Nicolet). 3300'. in sphagnum. 

A. (Micranurida) pygmaea (Borner). 2800'. 3900'. 



'Received April 12, 1982 

2 Dept. of Biology. California State Univ.. Northridge. CA 91 330 

ENT NEWS. 93 (5) 180-182 November & December 1982 



Vol. 93, No. 5. November & December 1982 181 



Neanura musconim (Templeton). 7 collections. 3300'-4000': Jonesville: South Starksboro. 
Addison Co. 

Onychiurus (Archaphorura) afflnis Agren. 4050'. bilberry meadow. First record south 
of Canada. 

O. (Protaphorura) armaius (Tullberg). Rutland Co. (Christiansen & Bellinger. 1980). 

O. (P.) parvicornis Mills. 2800'. 3700'. 

O. (P.) subtenuis Folsom. 9 collections. 2800'-4000'. balsam fir litter etc.: Mt. Deuc\ . 
Underbill. 

O. (Onychiurus) folsomi (Schaffer). 3 collections. 3300'-3900'. 

Proisotoma (Ballistura) alpa Christiansen & Bellinger. 7 collections. 3900'-4050'. 
including bilberry meadow: Owl's Head. Richmond. Previously known only from the type 
locality. Mt. Washington. New Hampshire. 

Cryptopygus thermophilus (Axelson). Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

Folsomia penicula Bagnall. 12 collections. 2800"-4500". in sphagnum, balsam fir litter, 
bilberry meadow, etc. 

Metisotoma grandiceps (Reuter). 5 collections. 2800'-4000'. WindsorCo. (Christiansen 
& Bellinger. 1980). 

Isotomiella minor (Schaffer). 5 collections. 2800'-3900'. 

Isotomurus palustris (Muller). Duxbury. 3900'. Washington Co. 

/. tricolor (Packard). Winooski R.. Winooski. 

Isotoma (Desoria) nigrifrons Folsom. South Starksboro. Addison Co. 

/. (D.) notabilis Schaffer. 4 collections. 2800'-3900': South Starksboro. Addison Co. 

/. (D.) cf. propinqua Axelson. 2800'. 8 July: 3300'. 1 August: most are "Spinisotoma" 
ecomorphic forms which may be seasonal. This is probably a new species which is being 
described by J. Najt. 

/. (D.) tariva Wray. 3900'. balsam fir litter. Not previously recorded north of 
Pennsylvania. 

/. (Isotoma) veridis Bourlet. 6 collections. 3900' 4050': Ml Philo Rd.. Shelburne: 
Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

/. (Pseudisotoma) sensibilis Tullherg. 3000". 3900'. 

Orchesella cincta (Linnaeus). Springfield. Windsor Co. 

O. hexfasciata (Harvey). 37 collections. 1 1 80'-3900': Lewis Creek. Milton. Mt. Dewey. 
and Owl's Head: Bristol-Middlehury Line, and South Starksboro. Addison Co.: South 
Cambridge. Lamoille Co. 

O. villosa (Linnaeus). 4 collections. Mt. Philo Rd.. Shelburne: South Burlington: 
Winooski: Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co 

Entomobrya (Entomobrya) assuta Folsom 3800'. Rutland Co. (Folsom. 1924). 

E. (E.) multifasciata (Tullberg). 3500': Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co.: South 
Cambridge. Lamoille Co.: Springfield. Windsor Co. 

E, (E.) nivalis (Linnaeus). Milton town line. Mayo Rd. off Rt. 2. Burlington 
(Christiansen. 1958). 

E. (Entomobrvoides) purpurascens ( Packard). Milton town line. Mayo Rd. off Rt. 2: 
South Starksboro. Addison Co. Brattleboro. Windham Co. (Christiansen. 1958). 

Willowsia nigromaculata (Lubbock). South Burlington, in bathtub. 

Lepidocynus helenae Snider. South Starksboro. Addison Co. 

L. pallidus Reuter. Milton, net sweeping: Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

L. paradoxus U/el. Milton, sweeping and pit traps: Shelburne. Lewis Creek Mouth, and 
New Haven. Addison Co.: Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

L. violaceus (Fourcroy ). 3 collections. 1850'-4000'. 

Pseudosinella rolfsi Mills. Johnson. Lamoille Co. 

Tomocerus (Pogonognathellus) elongatus Maynard. Milton town line. Mayo Rd off 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Rt. 2: Bristol-Middlebury line. Addison Co. 

T. (P.) flavescens (Tullberg). 65 collections, 1 1 80'-4000': Burlington. Essex. Essex 
Park. Fort Ethan Allen. Milton. Mt. Dewey. Owl's Head. Shelhurne Bay. South Burlington, 
and Winooski: Starksboro. South Starksboro. and 1 mile south of Lincoln Gap, Addison Co.: 
Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co.: South Cambridge, and Stowe. Lamoille Co.: Duxbury. and 
Montpelier. Washington Co.: Springfield. Windsor Co. 

Neelus (Megalothorax) minimus (Willem). 3900'. 

N. (Neelides) minutus Folsom. 3300'. 

Sminthurides (S.) lepus Mills. 7 collections. 1 180'-3900'. 

Sminthurinus (Katiannina) macgillivrayi (Banks). 6 collections. 1 180'-4000' 

S. (Sminthurinus) henshawi (Folsom). 1180'. 

S. (S.) quadrimaculatus (Ryder). 3500': Jonesville. 

Bourletiella (B.) hortensis (Fitch). Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

Sminlhurus(S.) butcheri Snider. 9 collections. 3400'-4100': Fort Ethan Allen: Fairfax, 
sand pit. Franklin Co. 

Dicyrtoma (Ptenothris) atra (Linnaeus). 5 collections. 2800'-3900': Milton: South 
Starksboro. Addison Co. 

D. (P.) marmora ta (Packard). 9 records. 1 1 80'-3900': South Starksboro. Addison Co.: 
Fairfax, sand pit. Franklin Co. 

This list omits several species which could not be determined because 
specimens were immature or damaged; among these is a new species of 
Arrhopalites. 

There are no records of Collembola from six of the fourteen counties of 
Vermont, and I suspect that the 50 species recorded from Chittenden Co. 
are less than half the number which actually occur there. Vermont is not 
really unusual in this respect; systematic collecting in almost any locality in 
the United States would add new records and, very likely, new species. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Christiansen, K. 1958. The nearctic members of the genus Entomobrva (Collembola). Rii/l 

Miif. Comp Zoo/ Harvard Coll. 118: 437-545. 
Christiansen, K., & P. Bellinger. 1980-81 The Collembola of North America north of the 

Rio Grande. GrinneM College. Grinnell. IA. 1322 pp. 
Folsom, J.W. 1 924. New species of Collembola from New York State Amer. Mus. Novitates 

108: 12 pp. 
Maynard, E.A. 1951. A monograph of the Collembola or springtail insects of New York 

State. Comstock Publishing Company. Inc.: Ithaca. 339 pp. 



Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 183 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 



INSECT LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS: HABITAT & GEOGRAPHIC 
VARIATION. Robert F. Denno & Hugh Dingle, eds. 1981. Springer- 
Verlag. 225 pp. S29.80. 

Twelve papers from a symposium held during ESA meeting in Denver. CO in November 
1 979. The theme centers on controversies in ecology and evolutionary biology associated with 
plant-herbivore interactions, life history theory and equilibrium status of communities. Study 
organisms are all either herbivorous insects or those intimately associated with plants 

SOCIAL INSECTS. Vol. II. Henry R. Hermann, ed. 1981. Academic 
Press. 491 pp. $55.00. 

Vol. I reviewed known concepts related to insect sociality. Vol. II enters a period of intensive 
research in the study of insect sociality in an attempt to fill the gaps in our knowledge oi' these 
arthropods. Book consists of five chapters contributed by seven authors. 

EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY. Vol. 14. M. Hecht. B. Wallace. & G. 
Prance, eds. 1982. Plenum Press. 445 pp. $39.50. 

Six chapters contributed by eleven authors present subjects as relationship of genetics to 
human evolution, classifications of selection-migration, regulatory mutations, and yeast flora 
associated with decaying cacti and Drnsophila in No. America. 

THE ECOLOGY OF PESTS: SOME AUSTRALIAN CASE 
HISTORIES. R.L. Kitching & R.E. Jones, eds. 1981. CSIRO (thru ISBS. 
Box 1632. Beaverton, OR 97075). 254 pp. $12.00 pbk. 

The biology, ecology and control of eleven Australian pests are studied in detail by fourteen 
authors Pests studied include: skeleton weed, kangaroos, crown of thorns starfish, aphidv 
codling moth, light-brown apple moth, mosquitoes. Australian bushfly. sheep blowfly, 
cabbage butterfly, and the .SY/w woodwasp. 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF ROCKY MT. NATURALISTS. 

1682-1932. J. and N.D. Ewan. 1981. Bohn. Scheltema & Holkcma. 
Utrecht. 253 pp. $37.50. 

A guide to the writings and collections, as well as brief biographical sketches, of botanists. 
zoologists, geologists, artists, and photographers, arranged alphabetically, in encyclopedic 
style. 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



MAILING DATES 
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No. Date of Issue Pages Mailing Date 



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STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION 

1. Title of publication: ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

2. Date of filing: September 22. 1982 

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Philadelphia. Pa. 19103 

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Publisher: American Entomological Society, 1900 Race St., Philadelphia, 
Pa.. 19103. Editor: Howard P. Boyd. Oak Shade Rd.. RD 7, Tabernacle 
Twp.. Vincentown PO, New Jersey, 08088 

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8. Known bondholders, mortgagees and other security holders owning or holding one 
percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages and other securities: None 

9. For optional completion by publishers mailing at the regular rates: signed 

10. For completion by nonprofit organizations authorized to mail at special rates: The 
purpose, function and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status for 
Federal income tax purposes: 

Have not changed during preceding 12 months (checked) 

Average No. Actual Number 

Copies Each of Copies of Single 

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Months Date 

11. EXTENT AND NATURE OF CIRCULATION 

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1. SALES THROUGH DEALERS AND CARRIERS. 
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2. MAIL SUBSCRIPTIONS 704 696 

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Vol. 93. No. 5. November & December 1982 



185 



INDEX: VOLUME 93 



Ablabesmyia sp., identity of, 13 
Acari, 119 

Akre, R.D., 85 

Gynandromorphs of Megachile rotun- 
da t a 

Andrallus spinidens, biology & life history 
of, 19 

Anthrenus fuscus in Iowa, 139 

Arbogast, R.T., 61 

Egg of the cadelle, Tenebroides 
mauritanicus 



Barriers increase efficiency of pitfall traps, 
8 

Batac-Catalan, Z., 54 

Creating & maintaining cultures of 
Chironomus tentans 

Bellinger, P.P., 180 

Collembola from Vermont 

Bethylidae, 136 
Bolen, E.G., 119 
Book reviews, 48, 59 

Books received & briefly noted, 127, 172, 
176, 183 

Burke, H.R., 103 

Melexerus, new genus for Pseudan- 
thonomous hispidus 

Byrd, R.V., 61 



Caddisflies, neotropical, five n.sp. from 
Argentina, 43 

Calabrese, D.M., 152 

Gem's remigis in unique winter environ- 
ment 



Cannon, K.F., 173 

Biology & distrib. of Hylotrupes bajulus 

Carle, F.L., 159 

Thoughts on origin of insect flight 

Catorhintha mendica, great plains coreid 
now on Atlantic coast, 29 

Catts, E.P., 85 
Cerambycidae, 173 
Chironomidae, 13, 54, 77, 143 

Chironomus tentans, creating & main- 
taining cultures of, 54 

Chloromvia formosa, new N.A. records 
for. 111 

Chrysomelidae, 32 
Cicadellidae, 16, 114 

Coleoptera, 1, 32. 37. 61. 103. 129. 139. 
173 

Collembola. 109, 180 

Collembola, cave, new records from Mexico, 
109 

Collembola from Vermont. 1 80 

Compsocryptus jamiesoni, new ichneu- 
monid from Calif., 42 

Coreidae, 29 
Curculionidae, 103 



DeLong, D.M., 16 

N.sp. Gyponana from Panama & Mexico 

N. sp. Bolivian Gyponinae, 1 14 



186 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Deltostethus scitulus, new hydrophilid from 
Mexico, 1 

Derbidae, 51 

Dermestidae, 139 

Diptera, 13. 49, 54, 67, 77, 143, 177 

Dryinidae, 121 

Durkis, T.J., 8 

Barriers increase efficiency of pitfall 
traps 

Dytiscidae, 37 

Easton, E.R., 155 

Annot. checklist of fleas of So. Dakota 

Ectemnius centralis, nesting behavior of, 

75 

Ectoparasites from Nigeria, 95 

Enns, W.R., 32 

Ephemeroptera, 1 25 

Euklastus harti, coll. of in Wisconsin, 51 

Faulkenberry, G.D., 70 

Fleas of So. Dakota, 155 

Flight, insect, thoughts on origin of, 159 

Flint, O.S. Jr., 43 

Studies of neotropical caddisflies 
XXXI: Five n.sp. from Argentina 

Formicidae, 25 
Foster, D.R., 114 
Freytag, P.H., 121, 129 



Gerris remigis in unique winter environ- 
ment, 152 

Giri, M.K. 

New generic placement for Haplogo- 
natopus americanus 121 

Goniozus, n.sp. in Calif, to control navel 
orangeworm, 136 

Gordh, G., 136 

N.sp. Goniozus imported into Calif, 
for biol. control of navel orangeworm 

Gynandromorphs of Megachile mtundata, 
85 

Gvponana, n.sp. from Panama & Mexico, 
16 

Gyponinae, n.sp. of Bolivian, 1 14 



Hansens, E.J., 67 

Haplogonatopus americanus, new generic 
placement for, 1 2 1 

Harris, S.C., 79 

Annot. list Trichoptera, streams, 
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida 

Hemiptera, 19, 29, 152 

Henry, B.C., 125 

New state records of mayfly Lepto- 
phlebia bradleyi 

Hoebeke, E.R., 29 

Catorhintha mendica, great plains coreid 
now on Atlantic coast 

New N.A. records for palearctic soldier 
fly, Chloromyiaformosa, 111 

Homoptera, 16, 51, 114 

Hook, A., 75 

Nesting behavior of Ectemnius centralis 



Gerridae, 152 



Huacuja, A.H., 1 



Vol. 93, No. 5, November & December 1982 



187 



Hybomitra daeckei, biology of, 67 
Hydrophilidae, 1 

Hydrovatus horni, first record from 
Antilles, 37 

Hylotrupes bajulus, biology & distrib. of 
in Virginia, 173 

Hymenoptera, 25,27,42,75,85, 121, 136 
Hypena humuli, overwintering site of, 108 

Ichneumonidae, 42, 58 

Internal'!. Commiss. Zool. Nomenclature, 
28, 151 



Jellison, W.L., 27 

Concentrations of mutillid wasps 

Johnson, V., 129 

Review of sp. of Ptilodactyla in U.S. & 
desc. three n.sp. 



Kikukawa, S., 108 

Overwintering site of hop looper, Hypena 
humuli 

KJostermeyer, E.C., 85 
Kondratieff, B.C., 125 

Lago, P.K., 79 

Lavigne, R., 49 

First host record for Paroxynia dupla 

Lepidoptera, 108 

Leptophlebia bradlevi, new state records 
of, 125 

Leptophlebiidae, 125 



Manley, G.V., 19 

Biology & life history of rice field 
predator, Andrallus spinidens 

Matthysse, J.G., 95 

McDaniel, B., 119 

Descrip. larval form & new distrib. 
record for Tuckerella hypoterra 

Megachile rotundata, gynandromorphs of, 
85 

Megachilidae, 85 

Melexerus, new genus for Pseudanthonomus 
hispidus, 103 

Mertins, J.W., 139 

Occurrence of Anthrenus fuscus in 
Iowa 

Missouri leaf beetles, supplement annotated 
checklist of, 32 

Mutillidae, 27 



Noctuidae, 108 

Nolfo, S., 42 

Compsocn'ptusjamiesoni, new ichneu- 
monid from Calif. 

Notice, 107 



Palacios-Vargas, J.G., 109 

New records of cave Collembola from 
Mexico 

Paroxyna dupla, first host record for, 49 
Pechuman, L.L., 177 
Pentatomidae, 19 

Phoresis between snail Oxytrema carinifera 
& aquatic insects, esp. Rheotanvtarsus, 
143 



Mailing dates, 184 



Pitfall traps, barriers increase efficiency of, 
8 



188 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Population model for fleas of gray-tailed 
vole, 70 

Ptilodactyla, review of U.S. species & 
descript. of three n.sp., 129 

Ptilodactylidae, 129 
Publisher's statement, 184 

Reeves, R.M., 8 

Riley, E.G., 32 

Supplement to annot. checklist of 
Missouri leaf beetles 

Roback, S.S., 13 

Identity of Ablabesmyia sp. 

Robbins, R.G., 70 

Population model for fleas of gray- 
tailed vole 

Robinson, W.H., 173 



Tanytarsus coffmani, new record from 
North Carolina, 77 

Tenebroides mauritanicus, egg of, 61 
Tephritidae, 49 
Trichoptera, 43, 79 

Trichoptera, annot. list of, from Eglin Air 
Force Base, Florida, 79 

Trogositidae, 61 

Tuckerella hypoterra, descrip. larval form 
& new distrib. record, 1 19 

Tuckerellidae, 1 19 

Vega, A.. 3 

Vinikour, W.S., 143 

Phoresis between snail Oxytrema 
carinifera & aquatic insects, esp. 
Rheotanvtarsus 



Scheiring, J.F., 79 
Siphonaptera, 70, 155 

Sofield, R.K., 67 

Biology of Hybomitra daeckei 

Spangler, P.J. 

Deltostethus scitulus, new hydrophilid 
beetle from Mexico, 1 

First record of Hydrovatus horni from 
Antilles, 37 

Sphecidae, 75 
Stratiomyidae, 177 

Tabanidae, 67 
Tallerico, P., 152 



Wheeler, A.G. Jr., 29 

Wheeler, G.C. & J., 25 
Air sacs in ants 

Whitaker, J.O. Jr., 95 

Records of ectoparasites from 
Nigeria 

White, D.S., 54 

Wilda, T.J., 77 

New record of Tanytarsus coffmani 
from No. Carolina 

Willis, H.L., 51 

Coll. of Euklastus harti in Wisconsin 

Wolda, H., 16 



Zack, R.S., 85 



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FOR SALE: Bee Flies of the World, 1973, 687 pp., $20.00 and Robber Flies of the World, 
1962, 907 pp., $20.00; both by P.M. Hull. Order from C.S. Hull, Box 1 883, University, Miss. 
38677. 

WANTED: Crane-flies of N.Y. by Alexander (2 vol.); Prinipaux Coleopteres de la Province 
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earlier. Write stating condition and price to John E. Holzbach, 229 Maywood Dr., 
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FOR SALE: Proceedings Hawaiian Entomological Society, Vols. I (1905) through XV 
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WANTED: Gerridae (Hemiptera and Heteroptera), particularly nymphs, in fixative (recom- 
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NEWSLETTER: Women in Entomology /ideas, concerns, activities/send notes for inclusion, 
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FOR SALE: Luther S. West's monumental work. An Annotated Bibliography of Musca 
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entries; 743 pp. Hardcover. (Add $2.25 post. -handling &$ 1.60 Mich, sales tax. NMU Press, 
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FOR SALE: Worldwide butterflies, moths and beetles. Beautiful unmounted specimens in 
Al condition. Price list subscription, send $5.00 to lanni Butterfly Enterprises, P.O. Box 
81171, Cleveland. OH 44181. 








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