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US ISSN 0013-872X 



fOL. 94 



JANUARY & FEBRUARY 1983 



NO. 1 



ENT 



_ ew species of pseudophylline katydid from Cocos Is., 

Costa Rica (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) David A Nickle 1 

Life history of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus, in white 

oak (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Jimmy R. Galford 1 

New milliped of genus Delophon from Mississippi (Callipodida: 
Caspiopetalidae) Rowland M. Shelley 1 1 

Nothochauliodes penai, new genus & species of Megaloptera 

from Chile (Neuroptera: Corydalidae) Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 15 

Larval Hydropsyche & Smyphitopsyche records from West Virginia 
(Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) C.K. Nugen, D.C. Tarter 18 

New species of Penaphlebia from Argentina (Ephemeroptera: 

Leptophlebiidae) E. Dominguez, M.L. Pescador 21 

Observations of territorality of Oligodranes mitis (Diptera: 
Bombyliidae) on flowers of Erigeron neomexicanus 

Neal L. Evenhuis 25 

Notes onAuplopus carbonarius, a spider wasp new to the United 
States (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) Sal Nolfo 29 

Chiggers from some small mammals from Nigeria (Acari: 
Trombiculidae) 

J.O. Whitaker, Jr., M.L. Goff, J.G. Matthysse 31 

Two new synonyms of Eutaenionotum guttipennis (Diptera: 

Ephydridae) Philip J. Clausen 33 

Asheum, replacement name in Chironomidae (Diptera) 

J.E. & M. Sublette 34 



New records of Ceratopogonidae from North Carolina (Diptera) 

\ Tommy W. Bo wen 35 

NOTICES and ANNOUNCEMENTS ($RAR1E.S. ... . 6, 14,24, 28 



SOCIETY MEETING OF October 7, 1982 . 20 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



A NEW SPECIES OF PSEUDOPHYLLINE KATYDID 

FROM COCOS ISLAND, COSTA RICA 

(ORTHOPTERA: TETTIGONIIDAE) 1 

David A. Nickle^ 

ABSTACT: A pseudophylline katydid, Parascopioricus binoditergus Nickle new species, is 
described and figured for the first time. It occurs only on Cocos Island, offthe coast of Costa 
Rica, and displays characters that are intermediate between species of Parascopioricus and 
Scopioricus. 

In his revision of the Pseudophyllinae, Beier ( 1 96 1 : 283) segregated 
two species of Scopioricus and placed them with an additional new species 
within a new genus, Parascopioricus Beier 1961. These species, P. 
lancifolius (Brunner von Wattenwyl), 1895 [type species], P. carinulatus 
(Saussure and Pictet), 1 897, and P. cordillericus Beier, 1961, differed from 
Scopioricus in the spination of the ventral carinae of the fore and mid 
femora and in the shape of the apex of the tegmen. In Scopioricus both 
ventral carinae of the fore and mid femora have spines, and the apex of the 
tegmen is rounded, in Parascopioricus only one ventral carina of the fore 
and mid femora has spines, and the apex of the tegmen is lanceolate or 
nearly so. 

In a faunal survey of the insects of Cocas Island, Costa Rica, Hogue 
and Miller (1981) collected five specimens of an undescribed species of 
pseudophylline katydid with characters that most closely align it with 
Parascopioricus. The pronotum is rugose, crenulated, with lateral lobes 
that are about as wide as deep; the fore and mid femora are each armed with 
spines on only one ventral carina; the male subgenital plate bears two styles; 
the male cerus is not branched; and the ovipositor is smooth, lacking rows of 
oblique or transverse nodes. However, it differs from members of that genus 
in several respects: the apex of the tegmen is acutely rounded and more 
similar in shape to those of Scopioricus species; the male cercus, though not 
branched, is acutely upcurved and lanceolate, similar to the cerci of 
Scopioricus species; and all genicular lobes are unarmed, again more 
characteristic of Scopioricus species. 

It is likely that the separation of species into Scopioricus and 
Parascopioricus as distinct genera is unjustified, based as it is on the 
spination of the ventral carinae of the fore and mid femora and shape of the 
apex of the tegmen. Within other genera of tettigoniids one can find both 



1 Received July 15. 1982 

^Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. c/o 
U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington. D.C. 20560. 

ENT. NEWS, 94 (1) 1-6, January & February, 1983 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



extremes of characters (Hebard 1925; Ragge 1980), and it is possible that 
they will be synonymized when more information is acquired for these 
species. However, for the present, it seems expedient to follow a conserva- 
tive approach and describe this as a new species of Parascopioricus, the 
genus to which it keys in Beier (1961: 283). 

The description will serve to make a name available for a paper on the 
insect fauna of Cocos Island (Hogue etal, in preparation). Specimens have 
been deposited in the Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles 
[LACM|, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco [CAS], U.S. 
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. [NMNH], and 
American Museum of Natural History, New York [AMNH]. 

Key to the Species of Parascopioricus 

1 Tegmina no more than 4 times as long as wide, anal margin moderately to strongly 
convex; margins of pronotum well-developed only in the lateral metazona 2 

1' Tegmina 5 times as long as wide, anal margin weakly convex; margins of pronotum 

well-developed along entire lateral margin (Costa Rica) 

carinulatus (Saussure and Pictet) 

2( 1 ) Male cerci short, thickened basally; male subgenital plate weakly emarginate apically; 

female subgenital plate bifid 3 

Male cerci long and slender, straight; male subgenital plate deeply excised apically; 

female subgenital plate broadly rounded (Panama. Colombia) 

lancifolius ( Brunner von Wattenwyl) 

3(2) Male tenth tergite apically elongate, rounded; female subgenital plate terminally 
emarginate, with triangulate, pointed, tapering lobes; smaller species (cf , 17-19 mm; 9, 

20-23 mm) (Colombia) cordillericus Beier 

Male tenth tergite apicolaterally expanded into two clawlike projections, each 
terminating in a sharp, ventrally-curved tooth; female subgenital plate emarginate, with 

rounded lobes; larger species (cf, 35-37 mm; 9, 38-42 mm) (Cocos Island) 

binoditergus Nickle. new species 

Parascopioricus binoditergus Nickle, new species 

Diagnosis. Male. This species differs from other species of Parascopioricus in the 
shapes of the tenth tergite and the cercus. The tenth tergite is produced well beyond the apices 
of the cerci, concealing them from above, and is belaterally extended into two broad, tapering 
lobes, each terminating apically in a deflexed tooth. The cercus is basally thick and cylindrical, 
abruptly narrowed and recurved acutely upward, and is apically sharp and lanceolate. 

Female. The shape of the tegmen, which is similar to that of the male, is apically acutely 
rounded (as in Fig. 1), and the subgenital plate is broad with a wide U-shaped emargination 
producing a rounded bifid apex (Fig. 9). 

Holotype. cf . COSTA RICA: Cocos Island. Wafer Bay, on beach at Wafer Bay Station 
1-26-1978 (C. Hogue and S. Miller, Steele Exped.) #1 (LACM|. 

Description of holotype. Head. Eyes small, prominent, globose; diameter of eye equal 

. length of subocular genal length; lower margin of eye confluent with ventral 

margin ot antennal insertion. Frons and vertex narrow, 0.3-0.4 mm wide: vertex apically 

rounded, extending horizontally slightly beyond frons and separated from it by a distance 

equal to apical diameter of vertex. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



Thorax. Pronotum saddle-shaped, with a weakly-expressed median ridge interrupted 
twice by an anterior shallow and posterior deep lateral sulcus. Posterior lateral sulcus entire, 
extending along midline of pronotum and lateral lobes to their ventral margins. Anterior lateral 
sulcus also extending to ventral margin of lateral lobe but more weakly expressed, becoming 
obscure along its course. Pronotum rugose, crenulate. Lateral lobe of pronotum quadrate, 
about as deep as wide; ventral margin of lateral lobe with a blunt, ventrally-directed tooth just 
below termination an anterior lateral sulcus. Prosternal spines slightly shorter and narrower 
than mesosternal spines, separated by a distance equal to length of spine. Metasternal spines 
shorter still, separated from mesosternal spines by a distance equal to three times as great as 
distance between pro- and mesosternal spines. 

Wings. Tegmina oval, extending just beyond tip of abdomen; acutely rounded apically; 
costal margin subtruncate; anal margin convex. Stridulatory field as in Fig. 2; mirrors of fields 
on both tegmina depressed by recurvature of anal margins of tegmina, producing a sharp ridge 
along median vein; accessory veins surrounding trapezoidal, translucent mirrors, inflating 
edges of anal margins of tegmina at region of Stridulatory field. Stridulatory file with 78 teeth, 
26 teeth/mm (Fig. 3). Hind wing translucent, light green, in repose concealed completely 
beneath tegmina. 

Legs. Procoxal spine present. Ventral margins of left and right fore femora with 4-0 and 3-0 
spines, respectively: ventral margins of left and right mid femora with 0-1 and 0-2 spines, 
respectively; ventral margins of left and right hind femora with 0-9 and 0-6 spines, 
respectively. Tympana concealed on both sides; tympanal shields closely appressed to tibial 
surface, barely inflated; shield openings slit-like. Genicular lobes of all legs unarmed. 

External Genitalia. Tenth tergite inflated, medio-apically depressed; apical margin 
produced beyond apices of cerci, concealing them in dorsal view. Posterior margin of tenth 
tergite lobes on either side of medial depression, with each lobe terminating in a well- 
developed deflexed tooth (Fig. 4). Basal half of cercus inflated, round in cross-section; distal 
half abruptly narrowing and recurving vertically, distally lanceolate and terminally pointed 
(Fig. 5). Subgenital plate elongate, upcurved, extended distally beyond apex of tenth tergite; 
mediobasally keeled, apically depressed, and terminating with two short, stout, articulating 
styles (Fig. 6). 




Figure 1. Parascopioricits binoditergus, new species. Holotype. Left lateral habitus. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Internal Genitalia. Not examined in holotype, but apparently lacking sclerotized or 
pigmented structures. 

Color. Uniform leaf green. Fuscous areas limited to Cu2 vein on stridulatory field. Basal 
third of antennae annulate, with dark brown rings. 

Allotype. 9. COSTA RICA: Cocos Island, Rio Genio 111-25-1978 (C. Hogue and S. 
Miller, Steel Exped. 1978) |LACM|. 




Figures 2-9, Parascopioricus binoditergus, new species: Figs. 2-6, holotype. Figs. 7-9, 
allotype. 2, stridulatory field: 3, stridulatory file, left legmen; 4. tenth tergite; 5, left cercus; 6, 
subgenital plate; 7, left lateral abdomen; 8, supra-anal plate; 9, subgenital plate. Figs. 5 and 7 
are lateral views; 2, 4, and 8 are dorsal views; and 3, 6 and 9 are ventral views. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



Description of allotype. Similar to holotype in nonsexually related characters. Differs 
from holotype in number of spines on ventral margins of femora; both fore femora with 5-0 
spines; mid femora with 0-3 spines; hind femora with 0-5 (right) and 0-6 (left) spines. 

External Genitalia. Abdominal tergites gradually becoming narrower successively from 
VII to X. Terminal tergite unmodified; in lateral view, lateral edge concealing base of cercus. 
Supra-anal plate flat, quadrate; distal edge directed posteriorly; lateral corners extending 
beyond distal edge as small papillae (Fig. 8). Cercus short, slightly longer than supra-anal 
plate, simple, cylindrical, curving medially along its length, slightly more constricted at distal 
third and curving more abruptly to the apex. Ovipositor about twice as long as pronotum, 
gradually upcurved across its length, sickle shaped, apically pointed, and minutely serrated 
along distal third of both dorsal and ventral valves; surface of ovipositor smooth, lacking 
oblique or transverse ridges (Fig. 7). Basal lobe of ovipositor oval, partially concealed dorsally 
by ventral margin of terminal tergite and ventrally by an expanded ridge of ventral valve of 
ovipositor. Subgenital plate spatulate, apically bifid, with a broad U-shaped emargination 
separating rounded furcae (Fig. 9). 

Paratypes. 2cr cf , 1 9. COSTA RICA: Isla del Coca [Cocos Island], Bahia Chatham III- 
8- 1964 (R.O.Schuster) 1 cf, 19 (CAS. NMNH|; Cocos Island. Wafer Bay III-1963 (P. Slud) 

i cf IAMNH]. 

Variation. The number of spines on the ventral margins of the femora varies among 
individuals and on either side of the same individual. Previous studies (Hebard 1925: Ragge 
1980) conclude that the number of spines are irrelevant as a taxonomic character, although 
their presence or absence may carry some relevant information at the generic level. The Cu2 
veins of the male paratypes are not nearly as fuscous as in the holotype, but portions of other 
adjoining veins are fuscous. 

Measurements, (means, range, mm). Total length, cf 36.0 (35.3-36.8), 9 40.3 (38.0- 
42.6). Pronotum length, cf5.6 (5.4-5.7), 9 5.8 (5.6-6.0). Pronotum width, cf 5.6 (5.4-5.8), 9 
5.9 (5.8-6. 1 ). Tegmen length, cf 30.2 (29.2-30.9), 9 32.3 (31 .5-33.1 ). Tegmen width, cf 9.9 
(9.3-10.2). 9 10.0 (9.8-10.1). Fore femur length, cf9.3 (8.9-9.6), 9 10.2 (9.8-10.6). Hind 
femur length, cf 21.0 (20.4-21.3). 9 22.4 (20.4-23.1). Length subgenital plate, cf 7.4 (7.2-7.6). 
Length ovipositor, 9 12.8 (12.6-12.9). Mean number of spines on ventral margins of 
femora: cf (4-0, 0-2, 0-6). 9 (4-0, 0-2, 0-5), medial and lateral margins of fore. mid. and hind 
femora, respectively. 

Etymology. (Lt.) bi- two; node- node, projection; tergus- tergite; referring to the apical 
modification of the male tenth tergite into two projections, a feature lacking in other species of 
Pa rascopio ricus. 

Discussion. Parascopioricus binoditergus is the second species of 
pseudophylline katydid considered to be endemic to Cocos Island. The 
other species, Cocconotus bellicosus Rehn, described in 1 902 from a single 
female, has been collected more recently by Hogue and Miller. The two 
species are not related, Parascopioricus belonging to the tribe Pterophyllini 
and Cocconotus to the Cocconotini. The nearest relatives to both species 
occur on the South American mainland in Columbia. Since Cocos Island is 
nearly midway between South America and the Galapagos Archipelago, 
one might expect the fauna to be related. Such is not the case, however, for 
the pseudophylline fauna on the Galapagos chain is limited to yet another 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



unrelated species, Nesocoecia cooksoni (Butler) (Hebard 1920), which 
may be a complex of several species. Beier (1961) synonymized three 
described species into one, but he apparently made the synonymy in part on 
the circumstantial evidence that no males are known for one species 
(McNeill 1901 ). This species is a brachypterous member of the Cocconotini, 
and its origins are more obscure, since its only known relatives occur in the 
Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and in Bahia, Brazil. 

Based on the shape of the male cercus, the elongate male tenth tergite, 
and the bifid subgenital plate of the female, P. binoditerugs appears to be 
most closely related to the Colombian species P. cordillericus. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author expresses his appreciation to Mr. Scott Miller, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., for securing the specimens and supplying information about this species. 
The author appreciates the comments and criticism of the manuscript that were provided by 
Drs. A.S. Menke and D.D. Wilder of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, USDA, 
and Dr. J.J. Whitesell, Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Ga. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Beier, M. 1961. Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae(Pseudophyllinaell). DasTierreich. Berlin 74: 1- 

396. 

Brunner von Wattenwyl, C. 1895. Monographic der Pseudophylliden. Wien. 282 pp. 
Hebard, M. 1920. Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos 

Islands, 1905, 1906. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ser. IV, 2(2): 311-346. 
1925. Dermaptera and Orthoptera from the state of Sinaloa, Mexico. Part II. 

Saltatorial Orthoptera. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 51: 265-310. 
Hogue, C. and S.E. Miller. 1981. Entomofauna of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. Atoll Res. 

Bull. No. 250: 1-29. 
McNeill, J. 1901. Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1898-1899. IV. 

Entomological results (4): Orthoptera. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 3: 487-506. 
Ragge, D.R. 1 980. A review of the African Phaneroperinae with open tympana (Orthoptera: 

Tettigoniidae). Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) (Entomol.) 40(2): 67-192. 
Saussure, H. and A. Pictet. 1897. Insecta, Orthoptera, vol. I. In Biologia Centrali- 

Americana, I: 285-458. 



NOTICE OF SURVEY RESULTS 

In the March - April, 1 982 issue of ENT. NEWS a card insert asked members to express 
their opinion concerning the possible inclusion of brief news reports, possibly as "fillers", 
about society meetings, proceedings, and other activities, as well as doings of society 
members. We wish to thank those members who responded, sixty percent of whom indicated 
they would very much like to have this material included in future issues. The first of these 
reports appears in this issue. 

- Ed. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



LIFE HISTORY OF THE RED OAK BORER, 

ENAPHALODES RUFULUS (HALDEMAN), 

IN WHITE OAK (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE) ' 

Jimmy R. Galford 2 

ABSTRACT: Young red oak borer larvae feed horizontally in white oak but mostly vertically 
in red, black, and scarlet oak. Overgrowths of successful attacks in white oak appear as "L" or 
reverse "L" marks on the trees. In a study in central and southern Ohio between 1977 and 
1981, 27 of 457 trees examined in the basal 6 feet had borer injuries. Only small, suppressed 
trees were injured. 

The life history of the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), 
in red, Quercus rubra L., black, Quercus velutina Lam., and scarlet oak, 
Quercus coccinea Muenchh., was reported by Hay ( 1 969). Donley and co- 
workers (1969) reported red oak borer damage in white oak, Quercus alba 
L. However, the behavior of the red oak borer in white oak was not reported. 

Methods 

The basal 6 feet of 457 living white oak trees, ranging from 5 to 45 cm 
dbh, were examined in central and southern Ohio between 1 977 and 1981. 
Twenty-seven trees had evidence of red oak borer attacks. Diameter breast 
height (dbh) measurements of the attacked trees were taken; the trees were 
cut and average annual diameter growth for the last 10 years was recorded. 
The trees were sectioned and debarked, and the number of attacks that 
damaged the xylem were recorded. Sections with attacks that went deep 
into the xylem were split open to see if long slivers (10 to 25 mm) of wood 
remained in the larval galleries indicating successful adult emergence. In 
addition, 27 other randomly chosen trees without attacks were cut, and their 
average annual diameter growth during the last 10 years was recorded. 

The life history of the red oak borer in white oak was determined as 
follows: 10 mated females were caged individually in hardware cloth sleeve 
cages on 10 white oaks, 10 to 15 cm dbh, in July of 1979. The beetles had 
been reared artificially using techniques reported by Galford (1974). The 
beetles were F i and F2 offspring of parents that had emerged from a white 
oak tree. In November of 1979, and June and November 1980. 10 of the 
attack sites on the trees were exposed and measurements of larval damage 
were made. In August of 1 98 1 the remaining attack sites were examined to 
see if adult emergence had occurred. 



1 Received August 12, 1982 

^Research Entomologist, USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 
359 Main Road, Delaware, Ohio 43015 

ENT. NEWS. 94 ( 1 ) 7-10, January & February, 1983 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Results 

The mean dbh of the 27 naturally attacked trees was 9.9 cm and ranged 
from 7.1 to 18cm. Mean number of attacks per tree that damaged the xylem 
was 7, ranging from 2 to 14. Mean number of adult emergents per tree was 
1 .4 and ranged from to 4. Average annual diameter growth of the attacked 
trees during the last 10 years was 2 mm, ranging from less than 1 mm to 4 
mm. 

Average annual diameter growth for the 27 trees without attacks was 6 
mm, ranging from 2 mm to 9 mm. The mean dbh of these trees was 1 3 cm 
and ranged from 7 to 28 cm. 

As a result of caging the 10 females on 10 different trees, 46 attacks 
were detected on 4 of the trees. Thirty of the attacks were exposed to make 
measurements, and the larvae were killed in the process. Only 2 of the 
remaining 16 larvae survived to become adults. 

Observations and measurements of attacks that occurred as a result of 
caging females on trees led to the following conclusions: the newly hatched 
larvae mine in the cambium area horizontally around the tree from late July 
and early August until cold weather arrives, and then overwinter. Damage 
in the phloem-cambium region ranges from roughly circular areas about 5 
mm in diameter to horizontal lines 2 to 3 mm wide and 6 to 15 mm long. 

During the spring of the next year, the larvae continue to feed 
horizontally around the tree until late June or early July. Horizontal feeding 
now extends 40 to 75 mm around the tree. The larvae then feed upward 
widening the gallery and begin to score the xylem more heavily. After 
feeding upward for 75 to 1 25 mm, the larvae bore obliquely into the xylem 
about 30 to 50 mm, then vertically for 1 00 to 1 50 mm. In the fall, the larvae 
plug the holes with wood slivers and overwinter behind the plugs. The 
following spring the plugs are removed and replaced with other plugs behind 
which the larvae pupate. Sometimes the overwintering plugs are not 
removed, and pupation occurs without new plugs being made. 

When emerging, the adults gnaw and rip the plugs out, pushing some of 
the wood slivers behind them. Long slivers of wood often extrude from the 
emergence hole indicating adult emergence. Figure 1 illustrates borer 
damage in white oak. 

When white oak trees are vigorous enough to overgrow borer injuries, 
the overgowths resemble an "L" or reverse "L" (Figure 2). One attack was 
found that did not have a horizontal feeding scar, but this was exceptional. 

Discussion 

In southern and central Ohio, 27 of 457 white oak trees examined had 
external evidence of red oak borer damage. These were suppressed, very 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



slow-growing trees. In Ohio, either the red oak borer does not readily attack 
white oak, or the larvae can survive only in very suppressed trees. 

The red oak borer has a 2-year life cycle in white oak, the same 
development period as Hay (1969) observed in red, black, and scarlet oak. 

The difference in feeding habits of young larvae in white oak versus red, 
black, and scarlet could be due to the very thin layer of phloem in slow- 
growing white oaks, or there could be a strain of red oak borers that prefers 
or attacks only white oak. 




Fig. 1 . Horizontal feeding scar caused by red oak borer larva during first year of development . 



10 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Donley, D.E.; Hay, C.J.; Burns, D.P. 1969. Borers in Ohio oaks. Ohio Woodlands 

7(4): 17-18. 
Galford, J.R. 1974. Some physiological effects of temperature on artificially reared red oak 

borers. J. Econ. Entomol. 67: 709-710. 
Hay, C.J. 1969. The life history of a red oak borer and its behavior in red, black, and scarlet 

oak. Proc. North Cent. Branch Entomol. Soc. Am. Vol. 24(2): 125-127. 







Fig. 2. Red oak borer attacks on white oak almost overgrown with callus tissue. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 11 

A NEW MILLIPED OF THE GENUS DELOPHON 

FROM MISSISSIPPI (CALLIPODIDA: 

CASPIOPETALIDAE) 

Rowland M. Shelley 2 

ABSTRACT: A fourth species of Delophon, D. mississippianum, is described and 
illustrated. It is closely related to D. georgianum Chamberlin and D. sernilatum Causey, and 
features a smooth margin on the coxal process, a tibiotarsal process that is homologous to the 
postfemoral process on the other species, and a parasolenomerite that is longer than the 
tibiotarsus. 

In 1979 I revised the callipodid genus Delophon and reported that it 
was comprised of three species - - georgianum Chamberlin, serrulatum 
Causey, and holti Shelley --in Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, and 
Alabama. Recently, while sorting through the diplopod collection of the 
Missisippi Entomological Museum, Mississippi State University, I discovered 
a single male of a fourth species from the northern part of that state. I present 
herein a description of the new species along with a new generic distribution 
map and phylogeny, to supplement information in the revision. I thank Dr. 
Richard L. Brown, Director of the Mississippi Entomological Museum, for 
the opportunity to describe this species and permission to deposit the 
holotype in the invertebrate primary type collection of the North Carolina 
State Museum of Natural History (NCSM). 

Delophon mississippianum, new species 

Figs. 1-3 

Type specimen: Male holotype (NCSM A3983) collected by W.H. Cross, 9 May 1 980, 
form a pitfall trap in deciduous woods, 1.6 km SE Ecru, Pontotoc Co., Mississippi. 

Diagnosis: A small species of Delophon distinguished by following features of male 
gonopods: distal elements forming approximately 90 degree angle with femur; coxal process 
with apical lobes on medial and lateral sides of femur, distal margins smooth; with tibiotarsal 
process representing postfemoral process of georgianum; parasolenomerite comparatively 
large, longer than tibiotarsus, bent slightly dorsad distal to midlength, subparallel to 
tibiotarsus; solenomerite short, blunt, arising from parasolenomerite at midlength, located 
between latter and tibiotarsus, without subterminal spur. 

Holotype: Length about 1 8 mm, greatest width about 1 . 1 mm, ca. 43 segments. Dorsum 
light mottled brown in color, with wide, light yellow middorsal stripe extending from 2nd 
segment to epiproct; pore crests faintly yellow anteriad and brown caudad, thus forming two 
less distinct stripes equidistant of median one. Epicranium dark mottled brown, interantennal 



Deceived August 23, 1982 

^North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 27647, Raleigh, North 
Carolina 2761 1 

ENT. NEWS, 94(1) 1 1-14. January & February, 1983 



12 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



region lighter, color fading out in clypeal region. Antennae long and slender, extending beyond 
caudal margin of segment 5; relative lengths of antennomeres 3>2>5>4>6>7>1, 2-6 
clavate. About 34 ocelli in subtriangular patches. 

Collum with 22 crests beginning near midlength, medial crests slightly shorter than lateral 
ones, anterior half of collum smooth. Secondary crests subequal in length to, but noticeably 
smaller than, primary crests on all segments, fading out around segment 27. Setal formula 
normal for genus. 

Gonopods (Figs. 1-3) small, femur extending caudad only to metazonite of segment 8: 
parasolenomerite extending laterad to edge of body. Coxal process very broad, sheathing 
femur, expanded apically into two lobes on medial and lateral sides of distal extremity of 
femur, apical margins smooth. Postfemur nearly perpendicular to femur, of normal length 
relative to distal elements. Tibiotarsus shorter than parasolenomerite, angling abruptly caudad 
apically and narrowing into spiniform projection, inner margin with broad lobe at level of 
solenomerite, with spiniform process proximad. homologous to postfemoral process of 
georgianum. Parasolenomerite relatively long, longer than tibiotarsus, bent dorsad just 
beyond midlength (level of solenomerite). with broad rounded lobe distad on dorsal margin, 
narrowing abruptly apically into spiniform projection. Solenomerite a short, blunt, bisinuately 
curved structure arising near midlength of parasolenomerite, located between latter and 
tibiotarsus, expanded slightly apically, without subterminal spur. 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality. 




Figs. 1-3. Delophon misissippianum. 1 , left gonopod, caudal view. 2, right gonopod, ventral 
view. 3, left gonopod. lateral view. cp. coxal process; f, femur; ps. parasolenomerite; 
s, solenomerite; tt, tibiotarsus. ttp. tibiotarsal process; Scale line = 0.50 mm for all 
figs. 



Vol. 94, No. 1. January & February 1983 



13 




Fig. 4. Distribution of Delophon. A smooth curve has been drawn around the range extremes 
ofgeorgianum and serrulatum. A, georgianum; B, sernilatum; dot, mississippianum; 
triangle, holti. 



georgianum serrulatum mississippianum 




Fig. 5. Relationships in the genus Delophon. 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Remarks: One of the main diagnostic traits of mississippianum is the 
location of a process on the proximal part of the tibiotarsus, which is similar 
in form to, and undoubtedly homologous to, the postfemoral process of 
georgianum. 

At first glance the parasolenomerite and tibiotarsus appear to be 
reversed in mississippianum, in comparison to georgianum and serrulatum. 
The longer parasolenomerite is similar to the tibiotarsi of the other species, 
and the tibiotarsus of mississippianum is likewise similar in length to their 
parasolenomerites. The origin of the solenomerite, however, is the key 
factor in identifying the projections, and as in georgianum and serrulatum, 
it arises from the more caudal of the two in mississippianum. Thus in this 
species, the parasolenmerite is longer than the tibiotarsus. 

Figure 4 shows the type locality of mississippianum along with known 
ranges of its congeners. It is the westernmost species, occurring some 60 
miles west of the nearest known record of serrulatum, in Franklin County, 
Alabama. The distribution of mississippianum in Mississippi is a subject 
for future investigation, and the species may also be found in western 
Tennessee. 

Although similar in size to holti, mississippianum is a product of the 
georgianum-serrulatum branch of evolution (Fig. 5). It has the general 
gonopodal form of these two species, so holti still stands by itself as 
representing a second line of descent. However, the unexpected discovery 
of mississippianum suggests that more species of Delophon may occur in 
the southeast and that a sister species for holti may eventually be 
discovered. The most probable area for such a form is northeastern 
Tennessee, western Virginia, and eastern Kentucky. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Shelley, Rowland M. 1979. A revision of the milliped genus Delophon, with the proposal of 
two new tribes in the subfamily Abacioninae (Callipodida: Caspiopetalidae). Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., 92: 533-550. 



SOCIETY MEMBER HONORED 

Dr. Hal C. Reed, a member of the American Entomological Society, and a contributing 
author to ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, is the 1 982 recipient of the Entomological Society 
of America Pacific Branch Graduate Student Award. This award is given annually to promote 
interest in the science of entomology at the graduate level. 

Dr. Reed is associate Professor, Dep't. of Natural Sciences, Oral Roberts University. He 
received his B.S. in biology in 1975 from Oral Roberts and his M.S. in entomology in 1978 
from Texas A&M University. His doctoral degree in entomology was awarded from 
Washington State Univeristy in 1982. Dr. Reed's research was in the nesting biology and 
social behavior of a forest dwelling yellowjacket, Vespula acadica. Usurpation and colony 
behavior of the obligate social parasite, V. austriaca, were also investigated. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 15 

NOTHOCHA ULIODES PENAL A NEW GENUS AND 

SPECIES OF MEGALOPTERA FROM CHILE 

(NEUROPTERA: CORYDALIDAE) 1 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: Nothochauliodes penai, new genus, new species, is described and figured. It is 
found on the coastal mountains of Maule Province in Chile. A key is provided to separate the 
genus from the related genera Neohermes, Protochauliodes, and Taeniochauliodes. 

In 1973 I reviewed the Megaloptera known to occur in Chile. In the 
nearly ten intervening years, numerous additional collections from this 
country have been examined, but all material has proven to be known 
species. Early in 1982 a collection from the coastal ranges was received 
from the noted Chilean naturalist and collector, Sr. Luis E. Pena G. In the 
lot were two male specimens of a species that differed strikingly from all 
known Chilean Megaloptera. Study shows these to represent an undescribed 
genus and species related to the chauliodine genera Neohermes (North 
America), Protochauliodes (North America, Chile, Australia), and 
Taeniochauliodes (South Africa). 

Family Corydalidae 

Subfamily Chauliodinae 
Genus Nothochauliodes, new genus 

Antenna filiform, with short hair; of 45-50 segments. Head lacking postocular ridge and 
spine; with raised, non-setose, muscle attachment scars. Pronotum roughly quadrate. 
Forewing with Rs branching pectinately, R4 not forked; M\ +2 forked; Cuj forked; anterior 
branch of 2 A fused to 1 A for a short distance. Hindwingwith Rs branching pectinately. R4not 
forked; Mj +2 forked; CU \ forked; both branches of 2 A arising close together, adjacent to 3 A. 

Type-species: Nothochauliodes penai, new species 

The genus belongs to the cluster of genera held together by the apotypy 
of the fusion for a short distance of the anterior branch of 2 A with 1 A in the 
forewing. In two of the genera in this series (Neohermes and Protochauliodes}, 
R4 in both the fore-and hindwings is forked. In Nothochauliodes and 
Taeniochauliodes the vein is simple, resulting in the appearance of 
pectinate branching of the Rs system. The vein MI -\-2 in the fore- and 
hindwings is branched in Nothochauliodes. In Taeniochauliodes this vein 
is not branched in either wing, and in Protochauliodes and Neohermes is 



1 Received August 9, 1982 

^Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560. 

ENT. NEWS. 94 ( 1 ) 15-17, January & February. 1 983 



16 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



branched only in the hindwing (in P. bullockiFYmt, the largest species of the 
genus, MI +2 is usually branched in both wings but R4 is forked). Thus the 
combination of the venational characteristics of an unbranched R4 in both 
wings and a branched MI +2 in both wings will distinguish Nothochauliodes 
from all other described genera showing the fusion of the anterior branch of 
2 A with 1A in the forewing. In addition to these characters, the male 
genitalia differ strongly from those of the other related genera. The vertical 
orientation of the tenth tergites appears to be unique within the subfamily. 






2 



3 




Figs. 1-4. Nothochauliodes penai: 1, fore- and hindwings (drawn by Elaine R. Hodges); 2, 
male genitalia, lateral; 3, male ninth and tenth terga, posterior; 4, aedeagus, dorsal. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 17 



The very long, slender, and deeply divided aedeagus is also very unusual, if 
not unique. 

The genus will run in Kimmins (1954) key to the Chauliodinae to 
couplet 4, genus Protochauliodes. Couplets 3 and 4 may be modified as 
below to allow easy separation of the four related genera. 

3. Anterior branch of M in hindwing forked 3A 

Anterior branch of M in hindwing simple Taeniochauliod.es 

3A. R4 of fore- and hindwings simple Nothochauliodes 

R4 of fore- and hindwings forked 4 

4. Male antenna with a whorl of erect hairs on each segment, no crossvein in apical fork of 

R4 in forewing (rarely present in large specimens) Protochauliodes 

Male antenna with whorls of erect hairs on each segment; a crossvein in apical fork of 
R4 in forewing (rarely absent) . Neohermes 

Nothochauliodes penai, new species 

Because the genus is monotypic, the species at this time is recognizable 
by the generic characters. If other species are discovered, specific 
characteristics ought to be evident in the male genitalia, as they are in 
related genera. Coloration often, but not invariably, differs between 
species. 

Adult. Length of forewing, 27-30 mm. Color pale brown, head brown, muscle scars 
virtually concolorous; pronotum with distinctly darker lateral bands; forewing mostly pale 
brown with short, darker, transverse maculae, generally darkest on veins giving them a distinct 
dotted appearance: hindwing, except for anal area, similarly marked, but dotting on veins less 
pronounced. Male genitalia: Ninth tergum large, with ventral margin oblique. Ninth sternum 
roughly triangular in lateral aspect; in ventral aspect with posterior margin almost semicircular. 
Tenth tergite elongate, almost vertical in lateral aspect, with a large basolateral cereal area: in 
posterior aspect with tergite slightly arcuate with apicomesal face bearing many, small, black 
setae. Posterior region of genitalia partially membranous, but with a large area between and 
below tenth tergites lightly sclerotized and sparsely setate. Aedeagus in lateral aspect long, 
slender, and slightly curved; in dorsal aspect with anterior margin deeply and broadly divided, 
lateral arms expanded anteriorly, produced into a long, slender lobe posteriad which is deeply 
and narrowly divided mesally, tips hooked slightly laterad. 

Variation. In the two specimens available, there are a number of venational differences. 
The type, the larger specimen, has in the forewing a small apical fork to the anteriormost 
branch of Rs in both sides, R5 (on the side not figured) has an apical fork, and one of the 
hindwings (figured) has an apical fork in R$. The smaller specimen lacks all these, that I 
believe to be, extra forks of the radial system. 

Material. Holotype, male: Chile, Provincia Maule. Cayurranquil, west of Cauquenes. 
400m, 23-31 Jan 1981, L.E. Pena G. USNM Type 100591. Paratype: Same data. Icf 

LITERATURE CITED 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. 1973. The Megaloptera of Chile (Neuroptera). Rev. Chil. Ent. 7 3 1-45. 
Kimmins, D.E. 1 954. A New Genus and some New Species of the Chauliodini (Megaloptera). 
Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). Ent. 3( 1 1 ): 417-444. 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

LARVAL HYDROPSYCHE AND SMYPHITOPSYCHE 
RECORDS FROM WEST VIRGINIA (TRICHOPTERA: 

HYDROPSYCHIDAE) l 

Charlene K. Nugen, Donald C. Tarter^ 

ABSTRACT: Over 4,000 larvae of the genera Hydropsyche and Symphitopsyche were 
collected from 225 sites in West Virginia. A total of 1 5 species, including 1 3 state records, and 
two species groups were identified from the collections. Important extensions included S. 
macleodi (Flint), S. ventura (Ross), H. leonardi Ross and H. hoffmani Ross. 

Until this investigation, only three Hydropsyche species have been 
recorded from West Virginia: H. morosa Hagen, H. sparna Ross and H. 
opthalmica Flint (Ross, 1944 and Flint, 1965). Tarter and Hill (1979) 
noted the H. scalaris group from the Cranberry Glades. 

From 225 sites in West Virginia, approximately 4,000 larvae of the 
genera Hydropsyche and Symphitopsyche were collected and identified. 
Fifteen species, including 13 state records, and two species groups were 
recorded from these collections. The classification system employed in this 
study follows that of Schuster and Etnier (1978), and species are arranged 
alphabetically with drainage basins and rivers (Janssen, 1973). State 
records are indicated by an asterisk (*). All specimens are stored in the 
West Virginia Benthological Survey at Marshall University, and detailed 
records are found in Nugen (1981). 

Four important range extensions are noted: S. macleodi (Flint) (GA, 
NC, TN, VA); S. ventura (Ross) (ME, MA, NY, PA, TN, VA, 
NEWFOUNDLAND); H. leonardi Ross (MI, VA); and H. hoffmani 
Ross (MD, VA). 

Symphitopsyche 

S. bifida group: S. cheilonis (Ross); S. bronta (Ross), Central Form, S. bifida (Banks): 

Drainages I, II (1, 2, 4), III (5, 7a, 7b) V (10, 13, 14, 15, 16) and VI. 
*S. bronia (Ross): Drainages 1, 11(1,3), 111(5, 6, 7a, 7b, 8), V (12, 13, 14, 16), VI and VII. 
*S. macleodi (Flint): Drainages II (1, 3), III (7b), V (13) and VII. 
S. morosa (Hagen): Drainages II (1, 3), III (5, 6, 7b), V (10, 12, 13, 14) and VI. 
*S. slossonae( Banks): Drainages I,II( 1, 2, 3), III (6, 7a, 7b), IV, V(13, 14. 15, 16), and VI. 
S. spa rna( Ross): Drainages 1, 11(1, 2, 3), III (5,6, 7a,7b),V( 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 15 16) 
VI and VII. 

*S. ventiira (Ross): Drainages II (3), III (7a, 7b), V (12, 13, 14, 15, 16), VI and VII. 
*S. walkeri (Betten and Mosely): Drainage II (1). 



'Received June 7, 1982 

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25701 

ENT. NEWS, 94(1) 18-20. January & February, 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



19 



Hydropsyche 

H. depravata group: H. betteni Ross; H. depravata Hagen: Drainages I, II ( 1 , 2, 3, 4), III 

(5, 7a, 7b, 8), IV, V(10, 11. 12, 14, 15, 16), VI and VII. 

*H. dicantha Ross: Drainages I, II (1, 3), III (5, 7a, 7b, 8), IV. V (1 1. 12, 13) and VI. 
*//. hageni Banks: Drainages III (8), V (10, 14, 16) and VI. 
*H. hoffmani Ross: Drainages III (8), IV, V (14, 15) and VII. 
*H. leonardi Ross: Drainage V (16). 
*H. orris Ross: Drainages I, VI. 




Figure 1 . Drainage Basins and Major Rivers in West Virginia. Black dots represent collecting 
sites. 

I. Ohio River. II. Monongahela River: 1. Cheat River 2. Monongahela River 3. Tygart 
River 4. West Fork River. III. Potomac River: 5. Cacapon River 6. Lost River 7. Potomac 
River a. North Branch b. South Branch 8. Shenandoah River. IV. Little Kanawha River: 
9. Little Kanawha River. V. 10. Bluestone River: 11. Coal River. 12. Elk River. I 3. 
Gaulcy River 14. Greenbrier River 15. Kanawah River 16. New River. VI. Guyandot 
River. VII. Big Sandy River. 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



*H. phalerata Hagen: Drainage III. 

*H. scalaris Hagen: Drainages III (5, 7a, 7b, 8), V (12, 13, 14). 

*H. simulans Ross: Drainages I, IV, VI, and VII. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are indebted to Dr. Guenter A. Schuster, Eastern Kentucky University, for 
identification and confirmation of many specimens. We acknowledge the loan of specimens 
from the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Division. A 
special thanks to Ms. Vickie Crager for typing the manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Flint, O.S., Jr. 1965. New species of Trichoptera from the United States. Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Wash. 67(3): 168-176. 
Janssen, R.E. 1973. Earth Science: A handbook on the geology of West Virginia. 

Educational Marketeers, Inc., Clarksburg, West Virginia. 345 pp. 
Nugen, C.K. 1981. A taxonomic study of the Symphitopsychc Ulmer and Hydropsyche 

Pictet larvae of West Virginia (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Unpublished Master's 

Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 149 pp. 
Ross, H.H., D.A. Etnier 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera. of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. 

Hist. Surv. 23: 1-326. 
Schuster, G.A., D.A. Etnier. 1978. A manual for the identification of the larvae of the 

caddisfly genera Hvdropsvche Pictet and Symphitopsyche Ulmer in eastern and central 

North America (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). EPA-600/4-78-060. 129 pp. 
Tarter, D.C., P.L. Hill. 1979. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Cranberry Glades in West 

Virginia. Ent. News 90(4): 205-206. 



SOCIETY MEETING OCTOBER 7, 1982 

The first fall meeting of the American Entomological Society was held October 7, 1982 at 
the University of Delaware. Nine members and four guests attended. Dr. Judith Hough, 
Assistant Professor of Entomology and Applied Ecology at the University of Delaware, 
presented an illustrated lecture on "Oviposition Behavior of Root Maggots." She described 
how maggots of the fly Hylemya antiquu can do considerable damage to commerical onion 
crops in the Northern United States. Females appear to be attracted to volatile, sulfur- 
containing compounds produced by onions after physical damage or by rot-inducing 
microorganisms. In Southern Delaware the related seed corn maggot, H. platura, is an 
agricultural pest on melon and bean seeds planted in April. The factors which stimulate 
ovipositon in this species are being studied in Dr. Hough's laboratory. 

In notes of local entomological interest, Howard Boyd reported the appearance of a 
substantial population of the tiger beetle, Cicindela lepida. on a tract of disturbed New Jersey 
Pine Barrens about 30 miles from the coast. Aside from some very early records (Clementon 
and Lahaway (Smith, 1909)). this is the first New Jersey record of this species so far from 
coastal sand dunes and the first on recently disturbed soil. Hal White displayed specimens of 
Aeshna tubercitlifera and A. verticalis collected October 3 at Lums Pond State Park. This is 
the first time either of the dragonflies has been found in Delaware. He also reported that the 
damselfly, Argia bipunctulata, was collected in the state for the first time this summer. 

Harold B. White Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 21 

A NEW SPECIES OF PENAPHLEBIA 

(EPHEMEROPTERA: LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE) 

FROM ARGENTINA 1 

Eduardo Dominguez^, Manuel L. Pescador^ 

ABSTRACT: A new species of Penaphlebia, P. exigua, is described from southerr 
Argentina. Diagnostic morphological characters of both nymph and images are illustrated 

Included in the mayfly collections of the senior author from Argentina 
are unusually small specimens of the genus Penaphlebia which represent a 
new species, Penaphlebia exigua, described herein. In the revision of the 
generic classification of certain Leptophlebiidae from southern South 
America, Peters and Edmunds (1972) listed four recognized species of 
Penaphlebia: P. chilensis (Eaton), P.fulvipes (Needham and Murphy), P. 
sepia (Thew), and P. vinosa (Demoulin). Pescador is presently revising the 
genus and additional species will be included in the genus. 

Penaphlebia exigua, new species 

(Fig. 1-9, 11) 

Male imago (in alcohol). Length: body 6.4-6.9 mm, fore wings 6.5-7.0 mm. Head pale 
brown; a black stripe extends from compound eyes to base of antennae. Scape and pedicel of 
antennae pale yellow, flagellum paler. Ocelli grayish-white, black at base. Upper portion of 
eyes beige, lower portion grayish-black. Thorax: nota brown, pronotum paler, except margins 
black with 2 pairs of longitudinal submedian black stripes. Pleura and sterna brown. Wings 
(Fig. 1-3): membrane of fore wings hyaline, yellowish at extreme base; pterostigma 
translucent white; longitudinal and cross veins yellowish-brown, vein C, Sc, and Rj darker; 
vein MP2 of at least one of fore wings attached to vein CUA (Fig. 1); prepterostigmatic cross 
veins weakly developed; number of costal cross veins 17-20. Hind wings elliptic; membrane 
hyaline; longitudinal and cross veins yellowish-brown; number of costal cross veins 7-8. 
Legs: coxae, trochanters, tibio-femoral joints, and tarsal joints brownish-yellow, remaining 
segments yellow, progressively paler toward apex; femora with faint transverse black median 
band; segment 3 of protarsi longer than segment 4. Abdomen: terga translucent yellow with 
pronounced black maculae (Fig. 7) and black posterolateral markings thinly extended to 
posterior margins of segment. Sterna yellow; lateral margins on sternum 9 yellowish-brown. 
Genitalia (Fig. 4-6); forceps pale yellow, segment 1 faintly washed with brown, pronounced 
on inner lateral margin; basal 3/4 of inner margin of segment 1 moderately serrated, segments 
2 and 3 subequal length. Styliger plate yellow with shallow U-shaped posteromedian 
emargination. Penes pale yellow; subapical spine on penis lobe stubby and pointed 
posterolaterally (Fig. 5, 6); subapical lobe weakly developed (Fig. 5, 6). Caudal filaments; 
pale yellow with apical 1/3 of basal segments brown, brown portion progressively becoming 



1 Received June 22, 1982 

^CONICET., Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, 4.000 Tucuman, Argentina. 

^Department of Entomology, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Fl. 32307. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(1) 21-24, January & February. 1983 



22 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fig. 1-9. Penaphlebia exigua. Fig. 1-7. cfimago: 1, fore wing, 2, variation in vein MP of fore 

wing; 4, genitalia, ventral; 5-6, dorsal (5) and ventral (6) detail of apex of penis lobe; 

7, abdominal terga 2-10. Fig. 8-9, nymph: 8, posterior margin of abdominal terga; 

9, fore claw. Fig. 10-11, posterolateral projections of abdominal segments 8-9 of 

nymph: ventral view: 10, P. chilensis; \\, P. exigua. 



Vol. 94. No. 1, January & February 1983 23 



broader towards apex until filaments consist of alternating pale yellow and brown segments 
with brown segments gradually faded distally. 

Female imago (in alcohol). Length: body 7.7 mm, fore wing 8. Omm. Color and marking 
of head, antennae and ocelli as in male. Eyes black. Thorax: color and markings as in male. 
Wings: color of fore and hind wings as in male except veins darker, and costal and subcostal 
cross veins well developed. Abdomen: color slightly darker than male, markings similar (Fig. 

7). 

Mature nymph (in alcohol). Body length 6.9-7.2 mm. Dorsum of head pale brown, venter 
paler; small triangular pale yellow spot anterior to median ocellus and lateral to lateral ocelli. 
Scape and pedicel of antennae light brown, flagellum paler. Ocelli black. Eyes of female black. 
Upper portion of male eyes orange brown, lower portion black. Mouthparts: labrum with a 
transverse row of closely set hair near dorsoapical margin. Outer margin of mandibles 
smoothly curved, middorsal depression shallow to absent. Maxillary palpi uniformly yellow. 
Thorax: nota light brown, sterna paler; color markings on pronotum as in imagos. Legs: light 
brown: femora with broad transverse median and apical dark brown bands. Middenticles on 
claws larger than apical denticles (Fig. 9). Abdomen: terga yellowish-brown with black 
maculae as in imagos; terga 2-7 with midsublateral pale yellow spot; tergal posterior spines 
subequal length with hair-like setae (Fig. 8); posterolateral projections on abdominal segments 
8 and 9 weakly developed (Fig. 11). Sterna pale yellow, anterior margin brownish. 
Gills: membrane grayish-white; tracheae black; lamellae terminated in a filamentous process. 
Caudal filaments; pale brown, with pronounced dark shiny brown annulation on every other 
articulations. 

Geographical Distribution. Holotype c? imago, ARGENTINA: Rio Negro Prov., 
Rincon de Asconape, 70 km S Valcheta, 27-11-80, Willink, el. al. Allotype 9 imago, same data 
as holotype. Paratypes: ARGENTINA: 19 o" imagos, 14 nymphs, same data as holotype. 

Association of nymph and imagos is by color markings of nymphs and adults collected in 
same locality. Holotype, allotype, 9 cfimaginal and 7 nymphal paratypes are deposited in the 
collections of Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo, Tucaman, Argentina. Ten cf imaginal 
and 7 nymphal paratypes are deposited in the collections of Florida A&M University. 

Etymology, exiguus, L., meaning little. 

Discussion. The nymphs of P. exigua exhibit minor variations on 
markings on the abdominal sterna, and the development of posterolateral 
projections on abdominal segments 8-9. Young nymphs have uniformly 
pale yellow abdominal sterna while mature ones have the anterior margin of 
each segment brownish, and anterior brown maculae on sternum 9. 
Additionally, mature nymphs have pronounced midsublateral pale yellow 
spots on terga 2-8, less pronounced or absent among the immature ones. 
Male nymphs have posterolateral projections of abdominal segments 8-9 
more developed (Fig. 1 1) than the females. 

Black maculae on abdominal terga 4 and 5 of most imagos are 
medially separated (Fig. 7) while a few have such maculae medially fused. 
Except for three cf imagos which have the base of vein M?2 of one of the 
fore wings attached by a cross vein to vein MP i (Fig. 2), the rest have vein 
M?2 basally fused or attached with vein CUA (Fig. 1 ). 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Penaphlebia exigua can be distinguished from the other species of the 
genus by any of the following characters. In the imagos: ( 1 ) small body size 
having a length of 6.4-6.9 mm (male), 7.7 mm (female); (2) pattern of black 
maculae on abdominal terga is similar to Fig. 7; (3) vein MP2 of at least one 
of the fore wings is basally attached to vein CUA (Fig. 1 ); and (4) apex of 
penes is as in Fig. 5, 6. In the nymph: (1) body length ranges from 6.9-7.2 
mm; (2) middle denticles on claws are larger than the apical denticles (Fig. 
9); and (3) posterolateral projections on male abdominal segments 8-9 are 
weakly developed (Fig. 11) compared to the other species (Fig. 10). 

Biology. The nymphs of P. exigua were collected in a small stream in 
Somuncura Plateau which supports a thick growth of Nostoc and moss. 
Along the edge of the stream are thick growths of Cortaderia speciosa 
Nees, Samoulus valerandi (L.), Cvnodon dactvlum, Agrostis, and ferns 
(Cei, 1969). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This research was supported in part by a grant (FLAX 79009) from SEA/CR. USDA. 
Collection of specimens by one of us (ED) was supported by a grant from the National 
Geographic Society, Dr. A. Willink, Principal Investigator. Fundacion Miguel Lillo. We 
thank M.D. Hubbard. W.L. & J.G.. Peters, and H.M. Savage for reading the manuscript. The 
nymphal figures were drawn by J.G. Peters. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cei, J.M. 1969, La Meseta basaltica de Somuncura, Rio Negro. Herpetofauna endemica y 
sus peculiares equilibrios biocenoticos. Physis XXVIII, 77: 257-271. 

Peters, W.L. and G.F. Edmunds, Jr. A revision of the generic classification of certain 
Leptophlebiidae from southern South America (Ephemeroptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. 
Am. 65: 1398-1414. 



AWARDS FOR STUDY 

at The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, through its Jessup and McHenry 
funds, makes available each year a limited number of awards to support students pursuing 
natural history studies at the Academy. These awards are primarily intended to assist 
predoctoral and immediate postdoctoral students. Awards usually include a stipend to help 
defray living expenses, and support for travel to and from the Academy. Application deadlines 
are 1 April and 1 October each year. Further information may be obtained by writing 
to: Chairman, Jessup-McHenry Award Committee, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 19th and the Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 25 

OBSERVATIONS ON TERRITORALITY OF 

OLIGODRANES MITIS CRESSON (DIPTERA: 

BOMBYLIIDAE) ON FLOWERS OF ERIGERON 

NEOMEXICANUS (ASTERACEAE) 1 

Neal L. Evenhuis^ 

ABSTRACT: Territorality and allied behavior exhibited by Oligodranes mitis on flowers 
heads of Erigeron neomexicanus in southern New Mexico is described and illustrated. 

Bombyliidae are well known as visitors to many different flowering 
plants (Graenicher 1910, Robertson 1928, Grant & Grant 1965) and are 
principal pollinators of certain species (Moldenke 1976, Schmitt 1981, 
Plichta, unpubl. data). Published observations on plant-insect relationships 
concerning Bombyliidae have dealt primarily with floral visitation and 
pollination ecology (Straw 1963, Moldenke 1976, Schmitt 1981). The 
present paper concerns territoriality exhibited by Oligodranes mitis 
Cresson on flower heads of Erigeron neomexicanus Gray (Asteraceae). 

On 6-7 and 13 May 1982, observations were conducted by the author 
at a site 5 mi [ 8.0 km ] N of Aguirre Springs, Dona Ana Co. in the Organ 
Mts of southern New Mexico, elevation ca. 5000 ft [1524 m]. Observa- 
tions were made daily from approximately 1000-1600 h. The prominent 
floral display of Erigeron neomexicanus, combined with a small, dry 
streambed that ran between two large patches of Erigeron, was 
an ideal collecting site for Bombyliidae. The site is located in the 
northernmost portion of the Chihauhuan Desert, and is characterized by a 
lack of vegetation save for sporadic growths of Salvia, Opuntia, Erigeron, 
and other small flowering annuals. The site is at the eastern base of the 
Organ Mts and sharply grades into a pinyon-juniper woodland less than a 
mile away. 

While collecting the many bombyliids that frequented the flowering E. 
neomexicanus (e.g., Pantarbes, Geminaria, Oligodranes, Mythicomyia, 
Apolysis, Villa, Lepidanthrax and Aphoebantus), it was noted that when 
disturbed, males of Oligodranes mitis would fly from their perches on the 
E. neomexicanus flower heads and return a few seconds later. The time 
between leaving the flower head and returning varied according to the 
degree of disturbance; however, males would almost invariably return to the 
same flower head. This type of behavior is similar to the territorial behavior 



'Received August 31. 1982 

^Department of Entomology, Bishop Museum. P.O. Box 19000- A. Honolulu. Hawaii 
96819. USA 

ENT. NEWS, 94 ( 1 ) 25-28, January & February. 1983 



26 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



exhibited by species of Bombylius. The males of Bombylius hover over 
marked territories and, after being disturbed from their territory, will 
eventually return to the same territory (Cunningham-van Someren 1979, 
Evenhuis, unpubl. data). Females of O. mitis did not exhibit territorality 
but instead moved from flower to flower when disturbed and fed much more 
frequently. 

After alighting, the Oligodranes male placed itself on the outer ray 
petals with its proboscis directed inward toward the disc flowers (Fig. 1). 
When it fed, it moved forward slightly to probe among the corollas of the 
disc flowers in search of nectar with its long proboscis. After feeding, the fly 
would again move backward to the ray petals resuming its original position. 
Feeding in males was infrequent; they spent most of the time in the resting 
position described above. 




1 



Fig. I . Resting position of a male Oligodranes mitis Cresson on a flower head of Erigeron 
neomexicanus Gray. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 



27 



Usually only one Oligodranes individual (male or female) would 
occupy a single flower head; however, ocassionally more than one fly was 
found on a single flower (observed in 12 out of 58 cases). As many as 4 
individuals of O. mitis were observed on the same flower (2 observations). 
When another individual alighted upon an occupied flower, the original 
occupant would not attempt to chase the new occupant away but would 
instead space itself 1 80 from the other indiviual (Fig. 2a). This equidistant 
spacing also held true in cases when there were more than two individuals 
on the same flower head (i.e., with three individuals, the spacing would be 
120 apart, with four it would be 90). 






Fig. 2. Spacing of Oligodranes on Erigeron during multiple occupation, a) ca. 1 80 C spacing 
with 2 individuals; b) ca. 120 spacing with 3 individuals; c) ca. 90 spacing with 4 
individuals. 



When viewed from above, movement on the flower head by more than 
one fly while feeding was always in a clockwise direction. When one fly 
came within ca. 20 of another fly, one or the other would move away, 
maintaining the equidistant spacing. During these confrontations, often the 
larger individual, whether male or female, would remain in its position and 
the smaller fly would move away (in a clockwise direction). Occasionally, 
when the smaller one failed to move away as the larger one approached, the 
larger one, after getting close enough, would kick its middle leg outward to 
push away the smaller individual. This was the only physical contact 
observed between individuals on the same flower and was seen three times 
during the course of these observations. 

Captures of other species of Oligodranes at this site, other localities in 
New Mexico, and Arizona, all on various species of Erigeron, lead me to 
conclude that Erigeron flowers play an important role in the biologies of 
adult species of Oligodranes, much as other flowers do in the Old World 
genus Us ia (Du Merle 1971 )[ both genera have been recently placed in the 
subfamily Usiinae (Hull 1973, Hesse 1973) |. Though not observed here. 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



territoriality exhibited by males of Oligodranes mitis presumably is related 
to courtship and mating as in other genera of Bombyliidae. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Cunningham-van Someren, G.R. 1979. Observations on the behavior and feeding of 

Bombvlius uniformis Paramonov and B. flammeus Bowden (Dipt., Bombyliidae) in 

Kenya. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 114: 107-11. 
DuMerle, P. 1971. Biologie de deux especies de genre Usia Latreille (Diptera: Bombyliidae). 

Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (N.S.)l: 241-59. 
Grant, V. & K. Grant. 1 965. Flower pollination in the Phlox family. Columbia Univ. Press, 

N.Y. 180 p. 
Graenicher, S. 1910. The bee flies (Bombyliidae) and their relations to flowers. Bull. Wise. 

Nat 1. Hist. Soc. 8: 91-101. 
Hesse, A.J. 1975. Additions to the South African species of Phthiriinae and Usiinae 

(Diptera: Bombyliidae) with keys to all known species. A nn. S. Afr. Mus. 66: 257-308. 
Hull, P.M. 1973. Bee flies of the world. The genera of the family Bombyliidae. Bull. U.S. 

Natl. Mus. 286: 1-687. 
Moldenke, A.R. 1976. California pollination ecology and vegetation types. Phrtologia 

34: 305-61. 

Robertson, C. 1928. Flowers and insects. Science Press, Lancaster, Penn. 221 p. 
Schmitt, J.M. 1981. Pollinator foraging and evolution in flowering plant populations. Univ. 

Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 73 p. 
Straw, R.M. 1963. Bee fly pollination in Penstemon ambiguus. Ecology 44: 818-19. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 58BD 

ITZN 11/4 

(A.N.(S.)) 123 4 October, 1982 

The Commission hereby gives six months notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 39, 
part 3, on 30 Spetember 1982, and would welcome comments and advice on them from 
interested zoologists. Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary at the above 
address, if possible within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

2384 Nymphula Schrank, 1802 (Insecta Lepidoptera): proposal to designate a type 

species. 
2296 Hybosorus illigeri Reiche, 1853 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed conservation 

by use of the plenary powers. 
2380 Anthalia Zetterstedt, 1838 (Insecta, Diptera): request for designation of type 

species. 

(Continued on page 30) 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 29 

NOTES ON AUPLOPUS CARBONARIUS, A SPIDER 

WASP NEW TO THE UNITED STATES 

(HYMENOPTERA: POMPILIDAE) 1 

Sal Nolfo 2 

ABSTRACT: Six Auplopus carbonarius Scopoli have been captured in New York state 
within the past fifteen years, five since June 15, 1981. It may be assumed that this Palearctic 
species is firmly established in the northeastern United States. 

Auplopus carbonarius Scopoli 

Male 5 mm to 6 mm in length; dorsum black, lacking iridescence; last tergum white; 
frons bears two longitudinal white stripes, one adjacent to each compound eye, starting just 
above the antennal sockets and extending down to the apical edge of the clypeus. Wings faintly 
infuscate, forewing 6 mm long; second flagellar segment 2.5 times as long as wide: apical 
margin of the clypeus moderately concave. 

Female 8 mm to 9 mm in length: dorsum black, without iridescence; apical section of 
mandibles rufous. Wings faintly infuscate, forewing 8 mm long; pygidial plate polished; 
second flagellar segment 4.0 times as long as wide; apical margin of clypeus broadly angled to 
form a rounded median point. 

This species closely resembles Auplopus variolarum Townes and 
Auplopus caerulescens subcorticalis Walsh in Townes (1957) keys. The 
female is similar to A. variolarum but differs in having its legs wholly dark, 
the clypeus somewhat produced forming a rounded median point, and 
averaging slightly smaller in size. The male is similar to A. caerulescens 
subcorticalis but lacks the bluish iridescence on the thorax. 

Auplopus carbonarius, like many other species of Auplopus, builds 
nests of mud, consisting of single, not side by side, tubes. The females 
collect small pellets of mud, using their mandibles and mental bristles, and 
build cells with rows of pellets. The mud is pressed into place with the tip of 
her gaster or pygidial plate. These barrel-shaped cells are flat topped and 
approx. 8-10 by 4-5 mm. 

It is not known if the cells are constructed before or after the prey is 
paralyzed, but it is almost certain that it is after. After paralyzing the spider, 
but before taking it back to the nest, the wasp usually mutilates it. The 
significance of this habit is unknown. Perhaps this makes the paralyzed prey 
easier to carry or pack into a cell. 

The nest are built in a variety of situations, such as on tree stumps, 
fences, under stones, under bark, in crevices of tree trunks and on walls. 



Deceived August 12, 1982 

2 14 19 Valley Rd., Garner. North Carolina. 27529 

ENT. NEWS. 94 ( 1 ) 29-30, January & February, 1983 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Nests may have been brought into this country in nursery stock or wood 
products. 

One female A. carbonarius was captured in Nyack, New York on June 
12, 1967, by M. Deyrup (collection of the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York). Since then five more have been captured in North 
Bellmore, New York since June 15, 1981, by V. Nolfo. It seems, in all 
probabilities, that this wasp is established here. One pair will be deposited 
in the collection at the U.S. National Museum, Wash., D.C. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am grateful to Howard E. Evans, Colorado State University, and to M.C. Day, of the 
British Museum of Natural History, for assistance in determining these specimens. I also wish 
to thank Vincent Nolfo for providing the five specimens from Long Island, New York and Mr. 
and Mrs. W. Hancock for their translation of Heinrich Wolfs German manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Richards, O.W. and Hamm, A.H. 1 939. The Biology of the British Pompilidae (Hymenoptera), 

Trans. Soc. British Ent. 6: 51-114. 

Townes, Henry. 1957, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 209. 286 pps. 
Wolf, Heinrich. 1972. Insecta Helvetica, pt. 5, Hymenoptera-Pompilidae. pps. 75-79. 



(Continued from page 28) 



ITZN59 4 October 1982 

The following Opinions and Directions have been published by the International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 
volume 39, part 3, on 30 September, 1982: 

Opinion No. 

1218 (p. 166) Trombidium akamitshi Brumpt, 1910 (Acarina): designation of 

type species. 

1221 (p. 175) Baeocera Erichson. 1845 (Insecta. Coleoptera): designation of type 

species. 

1222 (p. 178) Campylosteira Fieber, 1844 (Insecta, Hemiptera): type species 

designated. 

Direction No. 

112 (p. 194) PIERIDAE Duponchel. [1835] (Insecta. Lepidoptera): protected. 

113 (p. 196) MORPHIDAE (Insecta, Lepidoptera): further correction to Official List 

entry. 



The Commission regrets it cannot supply separates of opinion. 



R.V. Melville, 
Secretary 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 31 

CHIGGERS (ACARI: TROMBICULIDAE) FROM 
SOME SMALL MAMMALS FROM NIGERIA 1 

John O. Whitaker, Jr. 2 , M. Lee Goff3, John G. Matthysse 4 

ABSTRACT: Six species of chiggers were recorded from mammals from Nigeria: Gahrliepia 
(G.)bellieri, G. (Schoengastiella) nr. combesi, Leptotrombidium (Hypotrombidium) legaci, 
Microtrombicula iecensis, Neotrombicula nigeriensis, and Schoengastia eburnensis. Of 
these, only N. nigeriensis and L. legaci had been reported previously from Nigeria. 

Recently, two of us (Whitaker and Matthysse, 1982) presented 
information on ectoparasites of some small mammals in Nigeria. The 
present paper presents information on the larval trombiculids or chiggers 
from that collection. Mammal species collected which were not found 
infested by chiggers are as follows (with numbers of hosts examined in 
parentheses): Arvicanthis niloticus (2), Cricetomys gambianus (6), 
Leggada musculoides (1), Mastomys natalensis (6), Mus musculoides 
(2), Praomys tullbergi (9), and Rattus alexandrianus (1). All of the 
uninfested hosts were rodents. 

Four species of mammals were recorded as hosts for 1 12 chiggers of 6 
species as follows: 

Insectivora (Soricidae) 

Crociduraflavescens (I. Geoffrey, 1827) The single specimen examined 
(Ibadan, 18 Apr 1 975) of the White-footed shrew (= C. manni] yielded 24 
larvae of Leptotrombidum (Hypotrombidium) legaci (Andre, 1950). This 
species has been previously reported from a number of different hosts, 
including Felis sp., Taterillus e. emini, Mylomys cunninghamei alberti, 
Lemniscomys s. striatus and Gallus domesticus, from the Ivory Coast. 
Ghana and the Central African Republic. 

Rodentia (Muridae) 

Dasymys incomtus (Sundevall, 1 847) Two of the 7 Shaggy-haired rats 
examined (Ibadan; 30 Apr., 12 May 1975) were each infested by 1 
specimen of Schoengastia eburnensis Taufflief, 1 960. This chigger was 
previously reported from an antelope, Neotraguspygmaeus, taken from the 
Ivory Coast. 



1 Received July 9, 1982 

^Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute. IN 47809 
Department of Entomology, B.P. Bishop Museum, P.O. Box 1 9000-A, Honolulu. HI 986 1 9 
4 10810 E. Prince Rd.. Tucson, AZ. 85715 

ENT. NEWS, 94(1) 3 1-32, January & February. 1983 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Lophuromys sikapusi (Temminck, 1853) The single specimen of the 
harsh-furred mouse examined (Ibadan, 23 Apr 1975) was infested by 29 
chiggers representing 3 species: 7 Gahrliepia (Gahrliepia) bellieri Taufflieb, 
1 965; 1 2 Leptotrombidium (H.) legaci and 1 Neotrombicula nigeriensis 
(Ewing, 1928). Gahrliepia (G.) bellieri was originally described by 
Taufflieb (1965) from Crocidura sp. taken from the Ivory Coast and 
Neotrombicula nigeriensis was described by Ewing (1928) from Funisciurus 
auriculatus oliviae taken in Nigeria. 

Rattus rattus (Linneaus, 1758) A total of 53 chiggers of 4 species was 
recovered from 9 of 1 3 black rats examined. All rats with chiggers were 
taken between April 10 and April 22, 1975, at Ibadan. Leptotrombidium 
legaci was represented by 16 larvae on 6 hosts, 12 Microtrombicula 
iecensis Taufflieb, 1960, on 3 host individuals, 24 Neotrombicula nigeriensis 
on 6 host individuals, and a single Gahrliepia (Schoengastiella) likely 
combesi Taufflieb, 1966. Microtrombicula iecensis was described by 
Taufflieb (1960a) from Rattus frugivorus taken in Brazzaville, the Congo. 
Taufflieb (1964) described Gahrliepia (S.) combesi from Aethomys sp. 
taken near Bangui, Central African Republic. The specimen in the present 
collection has been damaged, thus precluding positive identification. In all 
observable characters, this specimen agrees with G. (S.) combesi. 

Of the 6 species of chiggers collected during this study, only Neotrombicula 
nigeriensis and Leptotrombidium (H.) legaci had been previously reported 
from Nigeria. Host records from shrews and rodents are new for all chigger 
species except Leptotrombidium (H.) legaci. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Andre, M. 1950. Une nouvelle forme larvaire de Thrombicnla d'AfriqueEquatoriale. Bull. 

Mus. His. Natur., 2 e Serie 22(5): 577-81. 

Ewing, H.E. 1928. A preliminary key to the larvae of fifteen species of the mite genus 
Trombicula, with descriptions of four new species. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 80: 77- 
80. Taufflieb, R. 1960. Etude d'une collection de Trombiculidae d'Afrique Occidentale. 
Acarologia 2: 224-37. 

. 1960a. Notes sur les Trombiculidae (Acarina) de la region de Brazzaville. 
Description de trois nouvelle especies. Acarologia 2: 472-79. 

. 1964. Les Schoengastiella (Acarina, Trombiculidae) de la region Subsaharienne. 
Acarologia 6: 455-75. 

. 1 965 . Le sous-genre Gahrliepia (Acarina, Trombiculidae) en Afrique Subsaharienne. 
Acarologia 7: 510-22. 

Whitaker, J.O., Jr. & J.G. Matthysse. 1982. Records of some ectoparasites from Nigeria. 
Entomol. News 93: 4: 95-102. 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 33 

TWO NEW SYNONYMS OF EUTAENIONOTUM 
GUTTIPENNIS (STENHAMMAR) (DIPTERA: 

EPHYDRIDAE) 12 

Philip J. Clausen 3 

ABSTRACT: The types of Notiphila producta Walker and Ephydra octonotata Walker 
have been examined, lectotypes designated for each, and both are consideredjunior synonyms 
of Eutaenionotum guttipennis (Stenhammar). 

In 1849, Walker describd Notiphila producta and, later in the same 
paper, described Ephydra octonotata, both from specimens taken at the 
same locality. Much later Wirth (1965) listed producta (Walker) and 
octonotata (Walker) as species in the ephydrid genus Hyadina. 

Consequently, during the course of my revision of the genus Hyadina, it 
was necessary to examine the Walker types of each of the above species. 
My examination proves beyond any doubt that not only are both species 
conspecific but both are definitely junior synonyms of Eutaenionotum 
guttipenis (Stenhammar). For a complete list of synonymies of guttipennis, 
both Notiphila producta Walker and Ephydra octonotata Walker should 
be added to those in Clausen and Cook (1971). 

In Walker's descriptions of both species, he made no mention of exactly 
how many specimens of each species were before him or actually in the type 
series. If there was ever a series of specimens of each species, apparently 
only a single specimen of each still exists. Thus, I can either assume these to 
be holotypes or designate each as a lectotype. For nomenclatorial stability, 
I am herein doing the latter. 

Both lectotypes are deposited in the collection of the British Museum 
(Natural History) and bear identical data, except for the original determina- 
tion labels and my lectotype and determination labels. The data on both 
lectotypes are as follows: "Hudson's Bay, St. Martin's Falls, George 
Barnston, B.M. 1844- 17. "The \eclotypeofNotiphilaproducta Walker is 
a female and is now so labeled. The lectotype of Ephydra octonotata 
Walker has the abdomen missing and is unlabeled as to sex, but from the 
size of the specimen I strongly suspect it to be female also. Beneath the 



1 Received June 8, 1982 

"Paper No. 12,266, Scientific Journal Series. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 
St. Paul Minnesota 55108. 

- Department of Entomology, Fisheries, and Wildlife, University, of Minnesota, St. Paul. 
Minnesota 55108 

ENT. NEWS, 94(1) 33-34, January & February, 1983 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



lectotype label, each also bears my determination label for Eutaenionotum 
guttipennis (Stenhammar). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Clausen, P.J. and E.F. Cook. 1971, A revision of the nearctic species of the tribe Parydrini 

(Diptera: Ephydridae). Mem. Am. Ent. Soc. 27: 1-150. 
Walker, F. 1849. List of the specimens of diperous insects in the collection of the British 

Museum. Vol. 4, pp. 689-1 172. London. 
Wirth, W.W. 1965. Family Ephydridae. pp. 734-759. In Stone, A., C.W. Sabrosky, W.W. 

Wirth, R.H. Foote, and J.R. Coulson, A catalog of the Diptera of North America north of 

Mexico. U.S. Department of Agriculture Research Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 

276. 1,696pp. 



ASHEUM, A REPLACEMENT NAME IN 
CHIRONOMIDAE (DIPTERA) 1 

James E. Sublette, Mary Sublette^ 

In reviewing the genera of Chironomidae of the world, Dr. Patrick 
Ashe, University College, Dublin, encountered a senior homonym for a 
genus name published by Sublette (1964). The following new name is 
proposed as a replacement for the junior homonym. 

Asheum New name Sublette & Sublette 

Etymology: This replacement name for Pedionomus Sublette, 1964, 
nee Pedionomus Gould, 1840, Birds of Australia, 5, pi. 80. (Aves); nee 
Pedionomus Haag-Rutenberg, 1875, Duetsch. Ent. Zeitschr. 19:42 (Insecta), 
is dedicated to Dr. Patrick Ashe who pointed out the homonomy. 

Gender: Neuter 

Type-species: Pedionomus beckae Sublette (= Asheum beckae( Sublette) 
n. comb.), by original designation. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Sublette, James E. 1964. Chironomidae (Diptera) of Louisiana. I. Systematics and 
immature stages of some lentic chironomids of west central Louisiana. Tulane Stud Zool 
11(4): 109-150. 



'Received August 23. 1982 

2 Natural History Museum, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, N. Mex. 88130. 
ENT. NEWS. 94 ( 1 ) 34, January & February, 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 1, January & February 1983 

NEW RECORDS OF CERATOPOGONIDAE 
(DIPTERA) FROM NORTH CAROLINA 1 

Tommy W. Bowen^ 

ABSTRACT: Eighteen species of ceratopogonids (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are reported 
from North Carolina for the first time. They include: Atrichopogon levis, A. fusculus, 
Forcipomyia brevipennis, F. fimbriata, F. squamipes, F. pluvialis, Dasyhelea major, D. 
navaiae, Culicoides chioplenis, Parabezzia alexanderi, Jenkinshelea albaria, Johannsenomyia 
argentata, Probezzia pallida, Bezzia glabra, B. laciniastyla, B. pulverea, B. setulosa, and 
Phaenobezzia opaca. 

Records of North Carolina ceratopogonids are scattered in the literature. 
Brimley ( 1938), in the first attempt at cataloging the insect fauna of North 
Carolina listed 7 species in 6 genera of ceratopogonids. Wray (1967) 
published a supplement to the Brimley catalogue which added 6 more 
species and 3 genera. Battle and Turner (1970, 1971) summarized the 
North Carolina Culicoides listing a total of 15 species. Kline and Axtell 
(1976) collected an additional 4 species of Culicoides in a Spartina salt 
marsh in coastal North Carolina. To my knowledge, no other major listing 
of North Carolina ceratopogonids has been published. 

Listed below are 18 species previously unreported from North Carolina. 
The specimens were collected during 1978 and 1979 at Lake Norman, a 
large, warm, monomictic, piedmont reservoir in Mecklenburg County, 
North Carolina. Adults were collected either by ultraviolet and standard 
fluorescent light traps (LT), emergence traps (ET), or by rearing (R) from 
pupae collected at the water surface (S). For each species listed, the dates 
collected, the sex, the number of specimens obtained, and the collection 
method are given. Voucher specimens are deposited in the Duke Power 
Company Environmental Services invertebrate collection. 

Forcipomyiinae 

Atrichopogon (Atrichopogon) levis (Coquillett 1901): 30-VI-78, 1 male, LT. 

A. (A.) fusculus ( Coquillett. 1901): 19-V-78, 1 male; 30-VI-78. 1 male: 19-X-78, 1 male, 

LT. 

Forcipomvia (Forcipomvia) brevipennis (Macquart. 1826): 23-VI-78, 1 male, LT. 
F. (F.) fimbriata (Coquillett. 1901): 19-X-78, 1 male, LT. 
F. (F.) squampies (Coquillett, 1902): 19-X-78, 1 male. LT. 
F. (Metaforcipomyia) pluvialis Malloch. 1923: 24-VIII-78: 1 male, LT. 

Dasyheleinae 

Dasyhelea major (Ua\\oc\\, 1915): 14-IV-78. 10 males, 14 females: 12-V-78. 2 males: 1-V1- 



1 Received May 28, 1982 

-Duke Power Company, Production Environmental Services, Rt. 4. Box 53 1 . Huntersville. 
NC 28078. 

ENT. NEWS. 94 (1) 35-36, January & February. 1983 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

78, 2 males; 4-VI-78, 1 male; 30-VI-78, 1 male; 15-V-79, 2 males, LT, R. 
D. navaiaeV/augh and Wirth, 1976: 30-VI-78, 1 male, LT. 

Ceratopogoninae 

Culicoidini 
Culicoides (Avaritia) chiopterus (Meigen, 1830): 28-IX-78, 1 male; 19-X-78, 1 male, LT. 

Stilobezziini 
Parabezzia alexanderi Wirth, 1965: 15-V-79, 2 male pupae, S. 

Sphaeromiini 

Jenkinshelea albaria (Coquillett, 1895): 17-VIII-78, 1 male. R. 

Johannsenomyia argentata (Loew, 1861): l-VI-78, 1 female; 14-VII-78, 1 male; 28-VII- 

78, 3 females, LT. 
Probezzia pallida Malloch, 1914: 26-V-78, 1 male; l-VI-78, 9 males, 10 females; 9-VI-78, 

1 male; 7-VII-78, 1 male; 15-V-79, 12 males, R. 

Palpomyiini 

Bezzia (Aspinabezzia) glabra (Coquillett, 1902): 12-V-78, 1 male, 1 female; 26-V-78, 2 

males; 4-VI-78, 1 male; 8-VI-78, 1 female, 9-VI-78, 2 males, 1 female; 16-VI-78, 2 

males; 30-VI-78, 4 males, 1 female, LT, ET, R. 

B. (Pseudobezzia) laciniastvla Dow and Turner, 1976: 30-VI-78, 1 female, LT. 
B. (P.) pulverea (Coquillet, 1901): 14-IX-78, 1 male, ET. 
B. (P.)setulosa (Loew, 1861): 19-V-78, 2 males; 4-VI-78, 1 male; 30-VI-78, 2 males; 31- 

VIII-78, 1 male. LT. 
Phaenobezzia opaca (Loew, 1861): 14-IV-78, 1 male, 17-V-78, 1 female: l-VI-78, 1 

female, 7-VI-78, 1 male; 15-V-79, 1 female, ET, R. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express his appreciation to William L. Grogan, Jr. and Walter I. 
Knausenberger for verification of identifications, and to Kenneth L. Manuel and Willis W. 
Wirth for reviewing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Battle, F.V. and E.G. Turner, Jr. 1 970. Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) reared from 

breeding site collections in North Carolina with a summary of the species occurring in that 

state. Mosq. News 30: 425-427. 
Battle, F.V. and E.C.Turner, Jr. 1971. The insects of Virginia: No. 3. A systematic review 

of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Virginia with a geographic catalog 

of the species occurring in the eastern United States north of Florida. Va. Polytech. Inst. St. 

Univ. Res. Div. Bull. 44: 1-129. 
Brimley, C.S. 1 938. The insects of North Carolina being a list of the insects of North Carolina 

and their close relatives. N.C. Dep. Agric. Div. Entomol., Raleigh. 560 p. 
Kline, D.L. and R.C. Axtell. 1976. Salt marsh Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): 

species, seasonal abundance, and comparisons of trapping methods. Mosq. News 36: 1- 

10. 
Wray, D.L. 1967. Insects of North Carolina. Third supplement. N.C. Dep. Agric. Div. 

Entomol., Raleigh. 



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US ISSN 0013-872X 



MARCH & APRIL 1983 



,3! 
\t, 



ENTOM 



NEW; 



Sexual dimorphism of tarsal claws in anthonomine 
weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) 

P. Kovarik, H.R. Burke 37 

Seasonal flight pattern of Plecoptera from 
North Otter Creek, Virginia 

B.C. Kondratiejf, J.L. Despins 41 

Nests and prey of two little known species of Cerceris 

(Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) Howard E. Evans 45 

Southern range extension ofAmeletus cryptostimulus 

(Ephemeroptera: Siphlonuridae) Robert D. Davic 47 

A blind Homolophus biceps (Arachnida: Opiliones) 

R.G. Holmberg, E.G. Kokko 49 

No. Dakota fleas VIII: Two new geographic records 
from northern flying squirrel (Siphonaptera) 

Omer R. Larson 53 

New records and descriptions ofAlloperla from Ozark- 
Ouachita region (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae) 

B.P. Stark, K.W. Stewart, J. Feminella 55 

Arthropods from a saw-whet owl nest in Connecticut 

J.R. Phillips, M. Root, P. DeSimone 60 

Annotated checklist of stoneflies of Maine (Plecoptera) 

Terry M. Mingo 65 



SOCIETY MEETINGS of November 4, 1982 and 
February 4, 1983 

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Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 37 

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF TARSAL CLAWS 

IN ANTHONOMINE WEEVILS 
(COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) 12 

Peter Kovarik, Horace R. Burke 3 

ABSTRACT: Sexual dimorphism of the protarsal claw tooth of several species of anthonomine 
weevils is discussed and selected examples are illustrated. This dimorphic character occurs in 
a scattered fashion in the subfamily. In the genus Anthonomus it is found mostly in closely 
related species in the nominate subgenus and in all species of the subgenus A nthonornorphus. 
Other genera containing species with sexual dimorphism of the claws areAchia, Coccotorus 
and Furcipus. The character was not found in any other subfamilies of Curculionidae which 
have toothed claws. 

Dieckmann ( 1 968) was the first to point out that some of the European 
species of the genus Anthonomous Germar have sexual dimorphic 
protarsal claws. In his revision of the Anthonomini of the western Palearctic 
region he described such claws for Anthonomus pomorum L. and 
Anthonomus pedicularius (L.). Morris (1976) briefly mentioned dimorphism 
in the tarsal claws of Anthonomus conspersus Desbrochers and A. 
pedicularius, illustrating the latter. Read (1981) added Furcipus rectirostris 
(L.) to this short list of anthonomine species showing secondary sexual 
characters of the tarsal claws. 

During our study of the systematics of North American anthonomines, 
we surveyed a wide array of species of the subfamily to determine the 
incidence and distribution of this dimorphism. Approximately 75 species, 
representing nearly all of the genera of Anthonominae and subgenera of 
Anthonomus, were investigated. Additional observations were made on 
several other genera of Curculionidae whose species have toothed tarsal 
claws similar to those of the anthonomines. 

Sexual dimorphism of the tarsal claws in the anthonomines involves 
only the protarsi. Tarsal claws of weevils in this subfamily are each usually 
provided with a tooth which arises on the inner surface of the claw near the 
base. The tooth may be short or it may extend almost the full length of the 
tarsal claws. Occasionally the tarsal claws of anthonomines are simple and 
there are a few which have the tooth arising from the underside of the claw 
rather than on the inside. 



1 Received November 8, 1982 

^Technical Contribution No. 18082. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. College 
Station, Texas 77843. 

-Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University. College Station. Texas 77843 
ENT. NEWS 94(2): 37-40. March & April. 1983 

UBRAR' 



38 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



In species where sexual dimorphism is present the tooth on the protarsal 
claw of the female is usually sharply pointed apically (Figs. 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, 
6a) while that of the male is somewhat rounded and blunt at the apex (Figs. 
2b, 3b, 4b, 5b, 6b). The reverse is true mAnthonomus nebulosus LeConte 
where the tooth of the female has a blunt apex (Fig. 1 a) and that of the male 
is more sharply pointed (Fig. Ib). The claw of the female is usually 
distinctly shorter than that of the male in species with dimorphic claws, 
although mAnthonomus texanus there is only a slight difference in length 
between the sexes. Another difference noted is that the female tooth often 




Figs. 1-6. Protarsal claws of species of Anthonomus. In each figure a=female, b=male. Fig. 
1. Anthonomus nebulosus LeConte. Fig. 2. Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Fig. 3. 
Anthonomus hunteri Burke and Cate. Fig. 4. Anthonomus texanus Dietz. Fig. 5. Anthonomus 
fulvus LeConte. Fig. 6. Anthonomus peninsularis Dictz. 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 39 



curves inward and forms a greater angle with the claw; the tooth of the male 
claw lies close to the claw so that the two are more or less parallel. 

The distribution of the sexual dimorphic claws in the subfamily is 
somewhat scattered. In addition to Anthonomus, they occur in the genera 
Furcipus Desbrochers, Coccotorus LeConte and in some species ofAchia 
Champion. Species of Furcipus and Coccotorus have occasionally been 
placed in Anthonomus, indicating their apparent close phylogenetic 
relationships to members of the latter genus. Furthermore, this affinity 
seems to be with species in the nominate subgenus Anthonomus, some of 
which also have sexual dimorphic claws. The majority of species of the 
subgenus Anthonomus, however, are not dimorphic in this character. 
Species of the subgeneraAnthonomorphus Dietz and Parathonomus Dietz 
also exhibit dimorphism of the claws; these taxa (at least the latter) are 
likewise relatively close phylogenetically to the species in the nominate 
subgenus which are dimorphic. It seems, therefore, that dimorphism of the 
tarsal claw occurs mostly in a relatively small number of species which have 
the closest relationships to A. pedicularius, the type species of the genus. 
The presence or absence of tarsal claw dimorphism may therefore be useful 
as an indicator of phylogenetic relationships in the subfamily. One 
exception to this general pattern is Anthonomus testaceosquamosus Linell. 
This species, a member of the A. squamosus Group, has sexual dimorphic 
claws but on the basis of overall characters does not appear to be closely 
related to other species having the character. 

Species of the subgenus Antonomorphus exhibit more distinct protar- 
sal claw dimorphism than most other anthonomines. There is a relatively 
small amount of difference in the sexual dimorphic tooth of the claw within 
this subgenus (Figs. 2-6). Anthonomus grandis Boheman and A. hunteri 
Burke and Gate are considered to be closely related (Burke and Gate 1 979) 
on the basis of overall characters and this relationship is also reflected in the 
tarsal claws (Figs. 2, 3). The most noticeable difference between the claws 
of the two species is in the more slender tooth of A. hunteri. Two other 
species, A. texanus Dietz and A. cognatus Burke, are considered by Burke 
( 1 964) to constitute a species pair within the subgenus. This relationship is 
supported by the claw characters. Similarity of claws of the two species is 
more striking in males than in females. Anthonomus peninsularis Dietz is 
not especially closely related to any of the other species in the subgenus; 
both males and females have a shorter tooth than that of the other species 
(Fig. 6). The remaining member of the subgenus, A.fulvus LeConte, is a 
distinctive species which appears to have no close relatives in the subgenus. 
The female tooth (Fig. 5a) of A.fulvus is somewhat intermediate in length 
between that of A. peninsularis and other members of the subgenus. The 
male tooth (Fig. 5b) is, however, one of the longest in the subgenus. 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The basis for the difference in the tarsal claw teeth of the two sexes in 
these anthonomines is not known. This may be an adaptation in the male 
which plays some part in grasping the female during copulation. In addition 
to showing some phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily, the 
character may also be used with ease to distinguish the sexes. 

Relatively few other curculionids have toothed claws like those of the 
anthonomines. None of the species with toothed claws examined from other 
subfamilies show sexual dimorphism of the tooth of the tarsal claw. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Special thanks are due Jim Ehrman, Electron Microscopy Center. Texas A&M 
University, for technical assistance in preparation of the SEM photographs included here. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Burke, H.R. 1964. Studies on the genus Anthonomus in North and Central America 

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) II. The subgenus Anthonornorphus Dietz. Colept. Bull. 

18: 7-17. 
Burke, H.R. and J.R. Gate. 1979. A new species of Mexican A nthonomus related to the boll 

weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 72: 189-192. 
Dieckmann, L. 1968. Revision der westpalaarktischen Anthonomini (Coleoptera: Curculiondae). 

Beitr. Entomol. 18: 377-564. 
Morris, M.G. 1976. The British species of Anthonomus Germar (Col., Curculionidae). 

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 112: 19-40. 
Read, R.W.J. 1981. Furcipus rectiorostris (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) New to Britain. 

Entomol. Gaz. 32: 51-58. 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S SEMINAR ON TRINIDAD 

For an exciting two weeks' stay in the tropics this summer, from June 9 to June 23, visit the 
Asa Wright Nature Centre and attend the seminar on tropical entomology. Cameras and 
collecting equipment are recommended. The island's unique location off the coast of 
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covering photography, insects and other animals of Trinidad will be given. The seminar price 
of $750 includes room, meals, transportation on the island, and two days in Tobago. For more 
information contact: Wonderbird Tours, 500 5th Ave., A 13, New York, New York 10036. 



Vol. 94, No. 2. March & April 1983 41 

SEASONAL FLIGHT PATTERN OF PLECOPTERA 
FROM NORTH OTTER CREEK, VIRGINIA 1 

Boris C. KondratiefT. Joseph L. Despins^ 

ABSTRACT: Adult stoneflies were collected by a hlacklight trap for one flight season from 
North Otter Creek, a 4th order Virginia stream. A total of 324 specimens were collected, 
representing 1 1 species of Perlidae and Perlodidae. Five species dominated: 2 species were 
collected for about a 7-week period, 5 over a 4-week period. Few stoneflies were collected by 
the trap when air temperature dropped below 1C. 

Little information exits on emergence patterns and flight period of 
adult stoneflies in eastern North America. Studies which report this type of 
information have employed tent or other emergence traps (i.e.. Harper and 
Pilon 1970 and White et al. 1979). Blacklight traps can provide similar 
data. They are easy to employ and capture large numbers of specimens, 
often including rare species. Resh et al. ( 1975) pointed out the advantages 
and disadvantages of light trapping and the types of information obtainable. 
Fernando (1961) indicated that regular light trapping is a useful method of 
characterizing colonization cycles of many insects. 

Some seasonal flight information for southeastern stonefly species has 
been reported by Morse et al. (1980). Our paper presents the pattern of 
adult stonefly occurrence over the flight season in 1981, based on blacklight 
trap collections from a Virginia stream. 

Study Area 

North Otter Creek (3727'30"N, 79 C 27'30"W). a tributary of the 
Roanoke River Basin, lies at the boundary between the Blue Ridge and 
Piedmont Plateau physiographic provinces in the northern portion of 
Bedford County, Virginia. It is formed by the confluence of Overstreet and 
Gunstock creeks. The sampling site was located on the N.A. Boone Farm, 
off County Route 639, approximately 1 700 m below Bedford Lake, a small 
14.5 ha impoundment. 

The substrate was mostly pebble (16-64 mm) with some cobble (64- 
256 mm), and silt accumulations were present in pool areas. The stream 
averaged 5 m wide and had a 16 m/km gradient. Dissolved oxygen 
concentrations were near saturation (> 90%) throughout the study period. 
The stream water pH ranged from 6.9-7.1 and was soft (mean alkalinity: 
3.1 mg/1 CaCO3). Riparian vegetation was dominated by American 



'Received February 5, 1982 

-Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Department of Entomology. Blacksburg. 
Virginia 24061 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 41-44. March & April, 1983 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and speckled alder (Alnus serrnlata 
Aiton). 

Methods 

A standard Ellisco Inc. general purpose blacklight insect trap (with GE 
F15T8/BL bulb) was operated continuously from 15 April to 20 September 
1981. The trap was set 40 m from the stream margin and trap contents were 
examined, identified and enumerated every 24 hours. Daily fluctuations in 
air temperature were measured using a recording hygrothermograph (Cole- 
Parmer Instrument Co.). There were no other streams near the trap site. 

Results and Discussion 

A total of 324 specimens representing 1 1 species were collected. The 
seasonal pattern of stoneflies attracted to the trap is illustrated in Fig. 1. 
Five species were numerically dominant: Perlesta placida (44% of all 
stoneflies collected), Acroneiin'a arenosa (24%), Isoperla dicala (1 1%), 
Acroneuria abnormis (10%), and Eccoptura xanthenes (7%). All except 

MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST 

1231123412341234 

Diploperla robusta Stark and Gaufin 

ALL S 

Cliooerla clio (Newman) 



WJ c- 

I soperla dicala Prison 

1 2 

Eccoptura xanthenes (Newman) 

1 2 

Acroneuria abnormis (Newman) 

1 3 

Acroneuria arenosa (Pictet) 

1 2 

Ac roneu ria sp. 
AIX a 

Perlesta placida (Hagen) 

1 3 

Nleoperla sp. 

ALL '. 

Ph asganophora capitals (Pictet) 

1 3 

Paragnetma fumosa (Banks) 



Fig I. Seasonal flight of adult stoneflies from May to August 1981. North Otter Creek, VA. 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 



43 



Diploperla robusta, Clioperla clio, and /. dicala (Perlodidae) belong to the 
family Perlidae, and members of both families are known to be readily 
attracted to light (Prison 1935, Hitchcock 1974, Stark and Gaufin 1979). 
The first stonefly, D. robusta, was trapped on 1 1 May and the last stonefly . 
Paragnetina fumosa on 3 August 1981. Eccoptura xanthenes and 
Phasganophora capitata exhibited the longest flight periods of about 7 
weeks (Fig. 1 ). Diploperla robusta, C. clio, Acroneuria sp., and Neoperla 
sp. had very short flight periods of less than 1 week. These species were 
considered rare at this site. Acroneuria abnormis, C. clio, and P. placida 
have approximately 4 week flight periods. Morse et al. (1980) reported 
similar flight periods for some of the same species in South Carolina. 

Nearly 73% of all stoneflies were collected in June, representing 7 of 1 1 
species. Clioperla clio and D. robusta, are spring emerging species 
collected only in May during this study. Adults of P. fumosa have been 
recorded from April to September, however we collected it only in August. 
Maximum air temperatures averaged highest in June (Fig. 2) the month 
when almost two-thirds of all stoneflies were collected. Few adults were 
collected when air temperatures dropped below 7C. 



35 



30 



25 



20 



Ul 

(T 



K 

UJ 
Q- 

Ul 



10 




15 22 29 

MAY 



12 19 26 
JUNE 



10 17 24 31 
JULY 



14 21 28 
AUGUST 



Fig. 2. Weekly range of air temperatures from May 1 to September 1. 1981. North Otter 
Creek. VA. Upper line is maximum, lower minimum. 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Throughout the sampling period, less males were collected than 
females (Fig. 1 ) and the sex ratio was less than 1 :2. Eighty-eight percent of 
females either carried extruded egg masses or were void of eggs, indicating 
that egg laying was occurring or had occurred. Active flying by females 
probably accounted for the higher capture rate of this sex. 

No attempts were made to test light trap efficiency or effects of light 
intensity. Relative abundance of individuals or sex captured/hour was not 
recorded. Benthic surveys of North Otter Creek indicated the presence of 
nymphs of all the species attracted to the trap except Acroneuria sp., D. 
robusta, and Neoperla sp. Five species: Amphinemura nigritta 
(Provancher), Leuclra spp. (2 species), Sweltsa onkos (Ricker), and 
Has taper/a brevis (Banks) were collected only by kicknet during the period 
of trap operation. Adults of these genera typically are not attracted to light. 

The majority of the species collected by the trap were widespread 
boreal species. These included/), robusta, C. clio, I. dicala, A. abnormis, 
P. placida, and P. capitata. No exclusively Appalachian species were 
collected even though the collecting site was at the boundary with the 
mountainous Blue Ridge Province. Stark ( 1979) considered E. xanthenes 
Appalachian, however in Virginia it occurs throughout the state. Paragnetina 
fumosa and A. arenosa are typical Piedmont and Coastal Plain species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank J.R. Voshell. Jr.. R.F. Kirchner. and P.P. Kondratieff for reviewing the 
manuscript. We also thank Mr. N.A. Boone. Bedford. VA for technical assistance and 
allowing us to place the trap on his property. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Fernando, C.H. 1961 Aquatic insects taken at light in Ceylon, with a discussion and 

bibliography of references to aquatic insects at light. Ceylon J. Sci. 4: 45-54. 
Prison, T.H. 1935. The stoneflies. or Plccoptera, of Illinois. III. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 

20: 281-471. 
Harper, P.P. and J.G. Pilon.1970. Annual patterns of emergence of some Quebec stoneflies 

(Insecta: Plecoptera). Can. J. Zool. 48: 681-694. 
Hitchcock, S.W. 1974. Guide to the insects of Connecticut: Part VII. The Plecoptera or 

stoneflies of Connecticut. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Conn. Bull. 107: 1-262. 
Morse, J.C., J.W. Chapin, D.D. Herlong, and R.S. Harvey. 1980. Aquatic insects of 

Upper Three Runs Creek. Savannah River Plant. South Carolina. Part I Orders other than 

Diptera. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 15: 73-101. 
Resh, V.H., K.H. Haag, and S.E. Neff. 1975. Community structure and diversity of 

cuddisfly adults from the Salt River. Kentucky. Environ. Entomol. 4: 241-253. 
Stark, B.P. 1979. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Mississippi. J. Miss. Acad Sci 24- 109- 

122. 
Stark, B.P. and A.R. Gaufin. 1979. The stoneflies (Plectopera) of Florida. Trans. Amer. 

Entomol. Soc. 104: 391-433. 
White, T.R., P.H. Carlson, and R.C. Fox. 1979. Emergence patterns of fall and winter 

stonctlics (Plecoptera: Filipalpia) in northwestern South Carolina. Proc. Fntomol Soc 

Wash. 81: 379 390. 



Vol. 94. No. 2, March & April 1983 45 

NESTS AND PREY OF TWO LITTLE-KNOWN 
SPECIES OF CERCERIS (HYMENOPTERA: 

SPHECIDAE) 1 

Howard E. Evans^ 

ABSTRACT: Cerceris gnarina Banks and C. \\-yomingensis Scullen were studied at 
montane sites in Colorado. In both cases the burrows penetrated the soil at about a 90 degree 
angle and cells were built in a more or less radial pattern from the bottom of the burrow. C. 
gnarina preyed on Boris striata (Curculionidae). C. wyomingensis on Graphops nebulosa 
(Chrysomelidae). 

Only about a third of the approximately 80 Nearctic species of Cerceris 
have been studied in the field. What is known suggests that there is 
relatively little diversity in nest structure but that each species is moderately 
to strongly host-specific, preying upon a limited assemblage of beetles 
(Scullen and Wold, 1969; Evans, 1971: Evans and Rubink, 1978). This 
paper concerns two little-known species I have studied briefly in Colorado, 
both appearing typical of the genus with respect to nest structure and also 
with respect to prey selection. 

Cerceris gnarina Banks 

This species has nested for two consecutive summers (1981 -82), during 
late June and early July, in the center strip of a little-used dirt road in 
Hewlett Gulch, near Poudre Park, Larimer Co., Colorado, at about 1 800 m 
elevation. The soil here is a fine-grained silty loam, with many stones on the 
surface but not below 3-5 cm. In 1981 there were two nests 3.5 m apart, 
each with a small tumulus and a vertical hole penetrating the center. 
Females provisioned slowly, taking up to an hour to return with prey. When 
not provisioning they remained within the burrow entrance, facing out. One 
prey-laden female was followed by a satellite fly, Senotainia trilineata 
(Wulp) (Sarcophagidae). 

On 1 2 July one nest was excavated. The tumulus was 1 cm high, 6.5 cm 
in diameter, the burrow nearly vertical, 5 mm in diameter, terminating at a 
depth of 16 cm. There were 8 cells, at depths of 15-18 cm, forming a 
somewhat radial pattern from the bottom of the burrow, each at the end of a 
short side-burrow that had been closed off. Six of them contained wasp 
larvae in various stages of development, one of them had 15 weevils but no 
egg or larva, and the remaining cell had only beetle fragments. All weevils. 



Received November 11. 1982 

-Department of Zoology and Entomology, Colorado State University. Fort Collins. CO 
80523. 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 45-46. March & April. 1983 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



including those taken from provisioning females, appeared to belong to the 
same species. Twelve that were saved for identification proved to be Boris 
striata (Say) (Curculionidae). 

Cerceris wyomingensis Scullen 

A single nest of this species was located in the steeply sloping bank of a 
gully at Chimney Rock, a geological formation on the Colorado -Wyoming 
border, 40 km SW of Laramie, Wyoming, at an elevation of 2350 m. There 
was no tumulus, simply an open hole which penetrated the slope at about a 
90 degree angle. The burrow was 4 mm in diameter and 45 cm long. When 
the nest was excavated on 2 September 1981, there was a single beetle at 
the end of the burrow and a single cell 4 cm from the terminus. The cell 
contained 6 beetles and a wasp egg on the topmost beetle. All beetles were 
Graphops nebulosa (LeConte) (Chrysomelidae). 

At Great Sand Dunes National Monument, in southern Colorado, a 
male C. wyomingensis was one of several species of bees and wasps being 
used as prey by Philanthus basilaris Cresson. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Cerceris were identified by George R. Ferguson. Oregon State University, the beetles 
by D.R. Whitehead and R. White of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory. USDA. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Evans, H.E. 1971. Observations on the nesting behavior of wasps of the tribe Cercerini. J. 

Kansas Entomol. Soc. 44: 500-523. 
Evans, H.E.,and W.L. Rubink. 1978. Observations on the prey and nests of seven species of 

Cerceris (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Great Basin Nat. 38: 59-63. 
Scullen, H.E., and J.L. Wold. 1969. Biology of wasps of the tribe Cercerini. with a list of 

Coleoptera used as prey. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62: 209-214. 



ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR PAPERS 

The 34th annual meeting of The Lepidopterists' Society will be held July 7- 1 0, 1 983 at the 
Fawcett Center for Tomorrow. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. For a PROGRAM 
AND REGISTRATION FORM and other pertinent details write to the Ohio Biological 
Survey, 484 West 12th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (614) 422-9645 or to Eric H. Metzler, 
1241 Kildale Square, North, Columbus. Ohio 43229 (614) 265-6507. 



Vol. 94. No. 2, March & April 1983 47 

SOUTHERN RANGE EXTENSION OF AMELETUS 

CRYPTOSTIMULUS (EPHEMEROPTERA: 

SIPHLONURIDAE) 1 

Robert D. Davic 2 

ABSTRACT: Ameletus cn-ptostimulus Carle, previously known only from western Virginia, is 
newly recorded from Macon County. North Carolina. 

Ameletus cryptostimulus Carle has been known only from small 
streams at high elevations in Giles County, Virginia (Carle 1978). Here 
nymphs of A. cryptostimulus are reported from a small mountain stream in 
Macon County, North Carolina, although Traver's ( 1 932) Ameletus sp. B 
from North Carolina almost surely was A. cryptostimulus. 

The unnamed stream, located on the U.S. Geological 7.5 minute 
Highland map (355'N, 83 C 14'W). is spring-fed, and has an elevation 
ranging from 1036m to 1049m. Stream width is less than 1 m; water depths 
range from 0.7 cm to 5.9 cm annually. The stream flows through an oak- 
hickory-deciduous heath second growth forest, with numerous Rhododendron 
sp. shrubs dominating the stream bank vegetation. Soil composition of the 
hill slope is utisol ashe loam series. Topsoil is dark brown humus loam with 
a pH of 4.3 to 5.3. 

A total of 48 A. cryptostimulus nymphs were collected from 408 Surber 
samples taken from 4 random sections of the stream. Collection dates and 
the number of A. cryptostimulus per square meter of stream-bed were as 
follows: 23-24 June 1980 (0.9), 13-14 August 1980 (0.2). 2-3 October 
1980(0.0), 29-30 December 1980 (3.3). 23-24 May 1981 (4.1). and 21- 
22 August 1981 (1.2). The largest nymphs (head width and total length) 
were collected during the two August time periods. The temporal pattern of 
the density data suggests a summer emergence period which differs from the 
April-May emergence observed by Carle (1978) in the western Virginia 
populations. 

Nymphs of other Ephemeroptera collected with A. cryptostimulus, 
including their total numbers, from the 408 Surber samples were as 
follows: Paraleptophlebia sp.-596, Stenonema meririvulanum Carle and 
Lewis-485. Habrophlebia vibrans Needham-175. Seratella sordida 
(McDunnough)-l 19. and Stenacron Carolina (Banks)-6. The relative 
rarity of A. cryptostimulus suggests that a casual collector would likely 
overlook it, which may explain its exclusion from previous species lists of 



'Received August 9. 1982 

-Department of Biological Sciences. Kent State University. Kent. Ohio 44242 
ENT. NEWS 94(2): 47-48. March & April. 1983 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



the southern Appalachian Mountains. The similarity of the North Carolina 
habitat to the type-locality in Virginia (e.g. small stream at high elevation) 
indicates that other cryptic populations of A. cryptostimulus should exist at 
high elevations throughout the southern Appalachians. 

I thank Dr. F.L. Carle for identification of the Ameletus and Stenonema 
nymphs and Dr. J.D. Unzicker for identification of the other species. I also 
thank Dr. B. A. Foote for reading the manuscript. This work was supported 
by grants from Sigma Xi and The Highlands Biological Station. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Carle, F.L. 1978. A new species of Ameletus (Ephemeroptera: Siplonuridac) from western 

Virginia. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 71: 581-584. 
Traver, J.R. 1932. Mayflies of North Carolina. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. J. 47: 163-236. 



SOCIETY MEETING NOVEMBER 4, 1982 

The American Entomological Society's second regular meeting of the 1 982-83 year was 
held Thursday, November 4 at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Ten 
members and four guests attended. The speaker for the evening was Dr. Dennis Joslyn, 
Assistant Professor of Zoology at the Camden Campus of Rutgers State University. Dr. 
Joslyn spoke on "Autocidal Control of Salt Marsh Mosquitoes." 

Of the approximately 60 species of mosquitos that are known from New Jersey, the salt 
marsh mosquito, A edes sollicitans is the most abundant. Since it is a major pest species and a 
vetor for eastern equine encephalitis virus, controlling its' populations is important. Dr. Joslyn 
is interested in developing a genetic strategy to complement current pest management 
practices. 

With a diploid chromosome number of six, the genetics of mosquitoes is potentially 
simpler than that of Drosophila. An effective laboratory selection procedure carried out in 
Florida on the Central American species. Anopheles atbimanus, has yielded a strain with 
defined chromosomal translocations and inversions in which only males were resistant to 
Propoxur. Analogous genetic manipulations of the salt marsh mosquito should be possible. 
Such a strain could be mass cultured to yield males that could be released in the wild after 
sterilization. Matings between these males and the wild monogamous females would result in 
nonviable offspring. A lively discussion followed Dr. Joslyn's talk. 

On notes of local entomological interest. Dr. William Day mentioned that alfalfa plant 
bugs, Adelphocoris lineolatus, found in the fall, may be so darkly colored that field 
identification can be difficult. He suggested that the dark coloration was probably an 
adaptation to absorb more heat. Drs. Ronald Romig and Charles Mason reported on their 
attempts to trace the spread ofLydella thompsoni into southeastern Pennsylvania. Lydella is 
an introduced parasite of the European corn borer. 

Harold B. White 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 94, No. 2. March & April 1983 49 

A BLIND HOMOLOPHUS BICEPS 
(ARACHNIDA: OPILIONES) 1 

R.G. Holmberg 2 , E.G. Kokko 3 



ABSTRACT: Scanning electron microscopy of a harvestman. Homolophus biceps, that 
lacked both eyes and ocular tubercle revealed no indication of external damage or healing. 
Internally, light microscope sections showed no evidence of eyes. The brain had no or very 
degenerate optic nerve masses. The ventral nerve cord was also reduced. Of the three possible 
causative mechanisms i.e.. physical damage, genetic change and biochemical disruption, the 
last is the most plausible. 

There are three suborders of the Opiliones, of which two. the 
Laniatores and Palpatores, typically have two eyes. Members of the third 
suborder, the Cyphophthalmi, are usually blind. Though the degree of eye 
development varies between species (Curtis, 1970; Juberthie and Munoz- 
Cuevas, 1973), it is a rare event for a species with eyes to produce eye-less 
individuals. Thus when we found a blind specimen of a normally sighted 
species, we tried to discover how it became blind. As the specimen was 
preserved 1 8 years previous to our study, we were limited to a morphological 
and anatomical inquiry of the cause and extent of the abnormality. 

Materials and Methods 

The eye-less specimen, an adult female Homolophus biceps (Thorell). 
was collected by A.L. Turnbull between 14 May and 8 June 1963 near 
Seven Persons, Alberta (49 5 I'M, 110 54'W, an area of short grass 
prairie). The specimen was taken along with another female and eight 
immatures that are apparently normal. After removal from the ethylene- 
glycol and water mixture of the pit-trap, the specimen was preserved in 
ethanol. When the abnormality was noted, the specimen was taken through 
a dehydration series of ethanol to 100%, critical point dried with carbon 
dioxide, mounted, sputter coated with gold (15 nm thick), and examined 
with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then the specimen was 
removed from its mount and infiltrated and embedded in plastic (Spurr. 
1969). After polymerization, it was sectioned (7 jum) and stained (1% 
aqueous toluidine blue) for light microscopy. 

For SEM comparisons a normal adult female that was collected in 



'Received September 3. 1982 

-Athabasca University, Edmonton. Alberta, Canada, T5L 2W4 

-^Research Station, Agriculture Canada, Lethbridge. Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 49-52. March & April. 1983 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Osoyoos, British Columbia was treated in the same fashion. 

For light microscopy comparisons we used previously prepared slides 
of normal subadult to adult females that were collected near Cypress Lake, 
Saskatchewan. These specimens had been fixed in Brasil's fluid, embedded 
in paraffin, sectioned (6 //m), and stained with Mallory's triple stain. 

Nomenclature of the nervous system follows Bullock and Horridge 
(1965). 



Results 

When we examined the abnormal specimen with SEM, there was no 
evidence of either any damage to the integument or of any, even 
rudimentary, development of an ocular tubercle (Fig. 1 ). There were a few 
shallow indentations in the region near where the ocular tubercle should 
have been, but these were also observed in the normal specimen (Fig. 2 ) and 
are almost certainly artifacts of cuticle collapse caused by drying. 

Light microscopy of the abnormal specimen revealed that the tissues 
were, considering their history, remarkably well preserved (Fig. 3). 
However, there was substantial (microbial?) degradation of the digestive 
diverticulae, and most structures within the brain and ventral nerve cord 
were very difficult or impossible to distinguish. There was no evidence of an 
ocular tubercle, eyes or optic nerves. Optic nerve masses were absent or 
very much reduced. The ventral nerve cord was also less developed than 
normal specimens (cf. Fig. 4). The specimen was mature but not gravid. 

Discussion 

From the morphological and anatomical evidence, we conclude that the 
abnormality was not caused by physical damage. Normally a large wound 
such as removal of the entire ocular tubercle would cause an opilionid to 
bleed to death or at least show some irregularities in the cuticle when the 
wound was repaired during moulting. 

A second possible explanation i.e., genetic change, is also unlikely. In 
cavernicolous species, eye reduction is common and may range from simple 
eye depigmentation, through absence of eyes, to absence of both eyes and 
ocular tubercle (Goodnight and Goodnight, 1960). Thus in cavernicolous 
species at least, degeneration of the eyes seems to be a gradual phenomenon 
and the result of many gene changes. However if the situation described here 
involves only a single genetic change, other closely related species occasionally 
should show the same kind of abnormality (i.e., lack of eyes and ocular 
tubercle and reduced brain and ventral cord). 

The most probable cause of the abnormality was a biochemical 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 



51 



imbalance that occurred during the opilionid's development. Biochemical 
disruptions may be caused by "exotic" chemicals such as pesticides as well 
as high temperatures. Juberthie (1968) has shown that in the opilionid 
Odiellus gallicus temperatures between 20 and 23.5C before or during 
somite differentiation may cause anopthalmia and indicated that some 
individuals may survive this disruption. 




/ 

/ 



VC 



> HE 



# 



f V 

- , . V 

\ , v 



vc 



3 



/ 

4 



Figures 1,2. Scanning electron micrographs of an anterior-dorsal view of the cephalothoraxof 
H. biceps. Fig. 1. Eye-less specimen. Note the chelicerae (c) and the openings of the scent 
glands (sg). Fig. 2. Normal specimen with ocular tubercle (ot). Figures 3,4. Light micrographs 
of cross-sections through brain. Fig. 3. Maximum extent of brain (b) in eve-less specimen. 
Note esophagus (e), digestive diverticulum (dd), trachaeae (t), and ventral cord (vc). Fig. 4. 
Maximum extent of brain in a normal subadult female. Note optic nerve masses (on). The 
position of this section is slightly anterior to Fig. 3. Bars represent 0.5 mm. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank J.C. Cokendolpher, Texas Tech University, for bringing the abnormal specimen 
to our attention; C.D. Dondale, Biosystematics Research Institute (Ottawa. Ontario), for 
granting us permission to examine it; and C. Juberthie, Laboratoire Souterrain (Moulis, 
France), for his valuable comments. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bullock, T.H. and G.A. Horridge. 1965. Structure and function in the nervous systems of 

invertebrates. Vol. 2, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco. 
Curtis, D.J. 1970. Comparative aspects of the fine structure of the eyes of Phalangida 

(Arachnida) and certain correlations with habitat. J. Zool. (London) 160: 231-265. 
Goodnight, C.J. and M.L. Goodnight. 1960. Speciation among cave opilionids of the 

United States. Am. Midi. Natur. 64: 34-38. 
Juberthie, C. 1968. Teratologie expe'rimentale chez un opilion (Arachnide). J. Embryo!. 

Exp. Morph. 19: 49-82. 
Juberthie, C. and A. Munoz-Cuevas. 1973. Le problemede la regression de 1'appareil visuel 

chez les Opilions. Ann. Speleol. 28: 147-157. 
Spurr, A.R. 1969. A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. 

J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26: 31-43. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLGOCIAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) CROMWELL ROAD, 

LONDON. SW7 5BD 

ITZN 59 

8 December. 1982 

The following Opinions have been published by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 39, part 4, on 
7 December, 1982: 

Opinion No. 

1227 (p. 233) Tinea bjerkandrella Thunberg, 1784 and Phalaena (Noctua) cardui 
Hubner. 1790 (Insecta, Lepidopera): conserved. 

1231 (p. 243) Blatta germanica Linnaeus, 1767 (Insecta, Dictuoptera): conserved and 
designated as type species of Blatella Caudell, 1903. 

1238 (p. 262) Mycteromyia Philippi, 1865 (Insecta, Diptera): designation of type 
species. 

The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinion. 

R.V. MELVILLE. Secretary 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 53 

NORTH DAKOTA FLEAS. VIII. TWO NEW 

GEOGRAPHIC RECORDS FROM THE NORTHERN 

FLYING SQUIRREL (SIPHONAPTERA) 1 

Omer R. Larson^ 

ABSTRACT: Opisodasys pseudarctomys (Baker) and Epitedia faceta (Rothschild) are 
reported for the first time from North Dakota on Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw). 



Since 1937 a total of 44 species or subspecies of fleas have been 
reported from North Dakota. This paper adds two species to that list. 

On October 29. 1981, a freshly killed northern flying squirrel, 
Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), from the city of Grand Forks (Grand Forks 
County) was brought to my laboratory. It harbored a large population of 
ectoparasites, including mites, larval ticks, mallophagans and three species 
of fleas. The latter were identified as Orchopeas caedens (Jordan) ( 1 cf, 2 
9), Opisodasys pseudarctomys (Baker) (2 cf, 2 9) and Epitedia faceta 
(Rothschild) (5 cf, 3 9). Voucher specimens of the fleas are in the 
Invertebrate Museum, University of North Dakota. 

Orchopeas caedens is common on red squirrels throughout their North 
American range, and occasionally occurs on other sciurids. The other two 
species of fleas are true parasites of flying squirrels and constitute new 
records for North Dakota. Opisodasys pseudarctomys has a transcontinental 
distribution (Lewis 1974), and is known regionally from north-central 
Minnesota (Benton, et al. 1971). Epitedia faceta has not been previously 
reported west of Pennsylvania (Benton 1980). This range extension of 
1500 km is interesting since flying squirrels from Manitoba, Minnesota, 
Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and Ohio have been examined for fleas 
in other studies. It is tempting to view the local occurrence of E. faceta as a 
disjunct population reflecting post-glacial movement of flying squirrels. 
However, E. faceta is primarily a nest flea with adults present only in the 
colder months. Since flying squirrels and their nests are seldom collected at 
such times, it may be that E. faceta occurs throughout the intervening area, 
at least across southern Canada. Apparently, there are not specimens or 
reports to substantiate this hypothesis, but winter collections of flying 
squirrel nests would probably resolve the question. 



'Received October 21. 1982 

-Department of Biology, University of North Dakota. Grand Forks. ND 58202 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 53-54. March & April. 1983 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank Dr. Paul B. Kannowksi, University of North Dakota, for providing the 
flying squirrel, and Dr. Allen H. Benton. State University College, Fredonia, NY. for 
verifying my identification of E. faceta. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Benton, A.H. 1980. An atlas of the fleas of the eastern United States. Marginal Media. 

Fredonia. 177 pp. 
O.R. Larson and B.A. Yen Huizen. 1971. Siphonaptera from Itasca State Park 

region. J. Minn. Acad. Sci. 37: 91-92. 
Lewis, R.E. 1974. Notes on the geographic distribution and host preferences in the order 

Siphonaptera. Part 3. Hystrichopsyllidae. J. Med. Ent. 11: 147-167. 



SOCIETY MEETING FEBRUARY 4, 1983 

The twelve members and twenty-one guests who attended the February 4, 1 983, meeting 
of the American Entomological Society at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
were treated to an absorbing talk by Dr. Paul W. Schaefer. Dr. Schaefer, an entomologist at 
the USDA Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory in Newark. Delaware, spoke on 
"Exploring for Parasites and Predators of the Gypsy Moth in Mainland, China, 1982." His 
illustrated talk included a rich mixture of geography, culture, and entomology. 

Dr. Schaefer reported that in China the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is not considered 
to be a major forest pest and defoliation rarely occurs. The populations there are kept under 
control by natural parasites and predators. Nevertheless, Dr. Schaefer and two other 
American forest entomologists had no difficulty finding the gypsy moth throughout northeastern 
China where they travelled and were successful in identifying a large number of its natural 
enemies. Glyptoapanteles liparidis was found to be the most important parasite. Several 
differences between the Chinese and American populations of gypsy moths were illustrated by 
Dr. Schaefer. In China the larvae are more brightly colored with red and yellow and they 
frequently retreat under rocks in the day time. The adult males are darker and females can fly. 
This latter observation was documented by photographs of large concentrations of egg masses 
around outdoor lights. The Academy of Forestry of the People's Republic of China, who 
sponsored Dr. Schaefer's visit, provided the utmost in hospitality. Although Chinese officials 
did not permit live insects to leave the country. Dr. Schaefer feels that his visit was a successful 
step toward locating natural enemies of the gypsy moth that could eventually be useful in 
controlling gypsy moth populations in this country. A small collection of Far Eastern insects 
was displayed after the talk. 

In the period for notes of local entomological interest. Dr. Kenneth Frank inquired if 
anyone had observed the Ailanthis silk moth in Philadelphia in recent years. Joseph Harrison 
responded that he had observed a colony about six years ago but that the populations are much 
reduced compared to about fifty years ago, partly due to loss of the host tree. Dr. Paul Schaefer 
reported a record of sorts. A gypsy moth egg mass found in the University of Delaware woodlot 
contained 1 , 038 eggs. Typically large egg masses in regions of an expanding populations may 
contain about 700 eggs. 

Harold B. White 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 

NEW RECORDS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF 

ALLOPERLA (PLECOPTRA: CHLOROPERLIDAE) 

FROM THE OZARK-OUACHITA REGION 1 

Bill P. Stark^, Kenneth W. Stewart^, Jack Feminella^ 

ABSTRACT: The male of Alloperla ouachita n. sp., from Arkansas is described and compared 
with other members of the A. leonarda Ricker group. Additional records of A. caudata Prison. A. 
hamata Surdick and A. leonarda from the Ozark-Ouachita region are given and a key to male 
Alloperla known from this area is presented. 

Since the Prison (1934, 1942) descriptions of Alloperla caudata from 
the Ozarks, no additional A lloperla species have been recorded in studies of 
stoneflies of this region (Stark & Stewart 1973; Stewart et al. 1 974). Recent 
field work on the Little Missouri River in Arkansas revealed one species 
new to science and the first record of A. hamata Surdick from west of the 
Mississippi River. A. hamata and an additional species, A. leonarda 
Ricker, were subsequently found among material from Missouri in the 
Monte L. Bean Museum. 

In order to facilitate regional studies, the new species is described 
herein, and a key to male Alloperla known to occur in the area is presented. 
Specimens utilized in this study have been deposited in the Monte L. Bean 
Museum, Brigham Young University (BYU), North Texas State University 
Museum (NTSU), Bill P. Stark Collection (BPS), and the United States 
National Museum (USNM). 

Allopera hamata Surdick 

Surdick (1981) described this species from Alabama, but illustrations 
of the male genitalia are given here in facilitate comparison with other 
regional species. Our specimens differ slightly from Alabama specimens 
described by Surdick (1981) in fine detail of the epiproct tip. In Ozark- 
Ouachita populations the widest part of the serrate apex occurs proximal to 
the base, while in Alabama specimens the widest part of the serrated region 
occurs anterior to the basal tooth (Figs. 1, 2). These populations are. 
however, not presently considered to be specifically distinct. 



Deceived September 30. 1982 

^Dept of Biology, Mississippi College, Clinton, MS 39058 

^Dept. of Biological Sciences, North Texas State Univ., Denton. TX 76203 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 55-59. March & April. 1983 



56 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Material examined ARKANSAS: Montgomery Co., Little Missouri Riv. 20-VI-80, 
E.J. Bacon and J.W. Feminella, 1 cf (BPS). MISSOURI: Christian Co., Bull Crk., 10-V-72, 
B.K. Newman, 29cf (BYU). 

Alloperla ouachita Stark & Stewart, n. sp. 

(Figs. 3, 4) 

Male. Forewing length 6-7 mm; body length 5-7 mm. General color white in alcohol; 
abdominal stripe absent. Epiproct tip ca. 2X long as wide; lateral margins covergent near base, 
gradually diverging to apical third then slightly convergent to horns. Anterior margin bluntly 
upturned, rounded with a pair of prominent lateral horns; dorsal aspect with a broad mesal 
carina, widest at apex; fine setae along lateral margins. Cowl with prominent membranous 
lateral lobes. Lateral brushes on segments 7-9. 

Types. Holotype cf (ISNM #100682) and 16 cf paratypes (BPS and NTSU) from 
Arkansas, Montgomery Co., Little Missouri Riv., 20-VI-80, E.J. Bacon and J.W. Feminella. 

Etymology. The specific name, A . ouachita, is based on the mountain range in which it 
is collected. 

Diagnosis. -- A. ouachita is a member of the A. leonarda complex 
which also includes A.furcula Surdick and A. natchez Surdick & Stark. It is 
most closely related to A. leonarda and speciation probably is the result of 
isolation in the Ouachita Mountains of ancestral populations of A. 
leonarda. The two species are distinguished by characters given in the key 
below. 

Allopera cuadata Prison 

Prison (1942) and Hitchcock (1974) have adequately characterized 
this species, but illustrations of the male genitalia (Figs. 5, 6) are given to 
facilitate comparison with other Ozark-Ouachita species. The records 
below include the first Missouri localities for the species. 

Material examined. MISSOURI. Christian Co., Bull Crk, Hwy W, Sof Ozark, 10-V- 
72, B.K. Newman. 13 cf (BYU); same location, 17-V-72, B.K. Newman, 17 cf (BYU). 
Greene Co., Little Sac Riv, abv. Fellows Lake, 16-V-72, R.W. Baumann, 2 cf (BYU); same 
location. 25-V-72, R.W. Baumann, 4 cf (BYU). Tanev Co. Blue Crk, nr. Swan, 23-V-72, 
R.W. Baumann, 2 cf (BYU); Bull Crk, Hwy. 176, 12-17-V-72, B.K. Newman, 22 cf (BYU). 
OKLAHOMA: Delaware Co., Flint Crk, Flint, 6-VI-73, B. Stark, 2 cf, 2 9 (BPS). 

Alloperla leonarda Ricker 

Harper & Kirchner (1978) and Ricker (1952) have adequately 
diagnosed this species, but illustrations of male genitalia (Figs. 7, 8) are 
given to facilitate comparisons with other regional species. The record 
below represents the first Missouri locality for the species. 

Material examined. MISSOURI: Christian Co., Bull Crk, Hwy W, S of Ozark, 10- 
V-72, B.K. Newman. 13 cf (BYU). 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 



57 







Fig. 1-4. Alloperla terminalia. Fig. 1. ,4. hamata male, dorsal. Fig. 2. .4. humaia cpiproct. 
lateral. Fig. 3. A. ouachita, male, dorsal. Fig. 4. .4. ouachita, epiproct. lateral. 



58 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




>Y/i^ 

, ' / ! 

/ / ' i / 


/ 





\ N 



8 



7 



Fig. 5-S.Alloperlaterminalia.A. caudata, male, dorsal. Fig. 5. A. caudata, male, dorsal. Fig. 
6. A. cauduta, epiproct, lateral. Fig. 7. A. leonarda, male, dorsal. Fig. 8. A. leonarda. 
epiproct, lateral. 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 59 



KEY TO OZARK-OUACHITA MALE ALLOPERA 

\ . Epiproct cowl with enlarged membranous lateral lobes (Fig. 4) 2 

Epiproct cowl without enlarged membranous lateral lobes (Fig. 2) 3 

2. Lateral margins of epiproct almost parallel (Fig. 7): lateral aspect of epiproct of almost 

uniform thickness (Fig. 8) leonarda 

Lateral margins of epiproct sinuate; Epiproct narrow at base, widest at apical third 
(Fig. 3); lateral aspect of epiproct distinctly inflated in apical half (Fig. 4). . . . ouachita 

3. Epiproct apex with lateral serrations (Fig. 1); dorsal aspect with scattered fine long 

setae hamata 

Epiproct apex without lateral serrations (Fig. 5); dorsal aspect densely covered with 
short golden brown setae caudata 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are grateful to R.W. Baumann, Monte L. Bean Museum, Brigham Young University 
and E.J. Bacon, Southern Arkansas University for the loan of material. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Prison, T.H. 1934. Four new species of stoneflies from North America. Can. Entomol. 

66: 25-30. 

1942. Studies of North American Plecoptera with special reference to the fauna 

of Illinois. Bull. III. Nat. Hist. Surv. 22: 234-355. 
Harper, P.P. & R.F. Kirchner. 1978. A new stonefly from West Virginia (Plecoptera: 

Chloroperlidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 80: 403-406. 
Hitchcock, S. W. 1 974. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. VII. The Plecoptera or stoneflies 

of Connecticut. St. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 107: 1-262. 

Ricker, W.E. 1952. Systematic studies in Plecoptera. Ind. Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 18: 1-200. 
Stark, B.P. & K.W. Stewart. 1973. Distribution of stoneflies (Plecoptera) in Oklahoma. 

Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 46: 563-577. 
Stewart, K.W., R.W. Baumann & B.P. Stark. 1974. The distribution and past dispersal of 

southwestern United States Plecoptera. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 99: 507-546. 
Surdick, R.F. 1981. New Nearctic Chloroperlidae (Plecoptera). Great Basin Natur. 

41: 349-359. 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

ARTHROPODS FROM A SAW- WHET OWL 
(AEGOLIUSACADICUS) NEST IN CONNECTICUT 1 

James R. Philips^, Michael Root^, Peter DeSimone^ 

ABSTRACT: Analysis of saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus) nest material collected in 
Sharon, CT yielded 6 species of insects and 1 4 species of mites, as well as phoretic nematodes. 
None of the species had previously been found in saw-whet owl nests and the list includes 3 
new mite records for the State of Connecticut. 

Saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus} (Gmelin)) are the smallest owls in 
eastern North American and occur in western, central and northeastern 
United States, as well as Canada and Mexico. They feed largely on rodents 
and nest in tree-holes, but they have not been studied as extensively as other 
eastern owls, and there are no published records of parasites or other 
arthropods found in saw-whet owl nests. 

Owl nests provide a prime habitat for many kinds of arthropods. The 
owls themselves represent only one potential food source; there is also a 
wide variety of organic material, including carrion in the form of prey 
remains, undigested pellets regurgitated by the owls, and plant material in 
the nest. Thus the nests attract a wide variety of saprophagous, predatory 
and parasitic arthropods which may be present in great numbers (Philips 
and Dindal 1977, 1979b). Owl nests may also contain unique taxa - for 
example, the beetle Trox tvtus Robinson is known only from barn owl ( Tyto 
alba (Scop.)) nests (Vaurie, 1955) and Fain and Philips (1977a, I977b, 
1 978a, 1979) have described a number of new mite genera and species from 
a screech owl ( Otus asio(L.)} nest. The objective of this study was to survey 
the arthropod fauna of a sample of saw-whet owl nest material. 

Methods 

During a survey of breeding birds of prey in northwestern Connecticut, 
a saw-whet owl nest was located by the junior authors in a tree-hole in a 
dead black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in Sharon, CT. The hole was 
8.2m high and a sample of nest material was collected on 13 June 1978 
while the one chick in the nest was banded. The sample of nest material was 
highly odoriferous and contained decaying prey remains as well as pellets 
and plant matter. The sample was shipped to the senior author for analysis. 
However, upon arrival it was found that conditions had become anaerobic 



'Received July 26, 1982 

2 Math/Science Division, Babson College, Babson Park (Wellesley), MA 02157 

3 West Cornwall Road. Sharon. CT 06069 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 60-64, March & April, 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 2. March & April 1983 



and the sample had become a mass of semi-liquefied material. This 
prevented quantitative analysis, but the material was examined under a 
dissecting microscope before disposal. 

Results 

Although no invertebrates were still alive in the sample at the time of 
analysis, 204 arthropods were found intact. These represented 14 species 
of mites and 6 species of insects (Table I). In addition, hundreds of 
nematodes were found attached to 4 of the trogid beetles on the sides of the 
elytra and pronotum, and on the prosternum, metasternum, and first 
abdominal segment. Hundreds of unattached nematodes were also found 
underneath the elytra of one trogid beetle and one silphid beetle. The prey 
remains in the sample included skulls of woodland jumping mice (Napaeozapus 
insignis (Miller)) and red-backed voles, (Clethrionomysgapperi( Vigors)). 

Discussion 

The role beetles play as hosts for other invertebrates needing food or 
transportation was dramatically illustrated in this sample by the finding of 
the nematodes and 6 species of mites associated with the beetles. No 
nematodes have previously been found on trogid beetles. Both the 
subelytral and externally attached nematodes seemed to be phoretic rather 
than parasitic. The externally attached nematodes were dauerlarvae, the 
third larval instar which is the usual phoretic stage formed under adverse 
conditions. According to Croll and Matthews (1977), rhabditid nematodes 
such as Pelodera form these larvae and attach by a secretion to beetles like 
Phodius. Crowson ( 1981 ) stated that a considerable variety of nematodes 
have such phoretic associations with beetles. However the unusual 
circumstances of this record prevent the assumption that this is a frequent 
association between nematodes and trogids. On the contrary, examination 
of 3,433 additional specimens of trogid beetles in museums and in the field 
has not yielded another incidence of an external infestation of dauerlarvae. 
However, phoretic nematodes have been found on mites of the genus 
Macrocheles, which are phoretic on trogid beetles (Philips and Dindal 
1979a). The Macrocheles found in this nest represent a new species (R.M. 
Emberson pers. comm.). 

Both parasitic and phoretic mites were found on the trogid beetles. 
Subelytral forms included an undescribed genus of pyemotid mite. Histiostoma 
sp. B., Eviphis sp., and Poecilochinis necrophori Vitzth. No mites have 
previously been reported from underneath the elytra of trogid beetles. The 
undescribed pyemotid mites were found on only one trogid. on the 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



anteroventral side of the elytra attached to membranous tissue and 
underneath both wings attached to cuticle at the wing insertion. Other 
pyemotid mites parasitize many beetle families (Cross and Krantz, 1964, 
Cross et al. 1975) and it is likely that these are also parasites. 

All specimens of Histiostorna sp.B. were found under the elytra of 4 
trogid beetles. These anoetid mites were all in the hypopus stage, a form 
adapted for phoresy possessing a posteroventral sucker plate and lacking 
mouthparts . Anoetid hypopi are of widespread occurrence on insects; many 
species occur on trogid beetle exteriors (pers. obs.) and one species of 
Pelzneria has been found underneath the elytra of Nicrophoms (Springett, 
1968). It is surprising that in this sample, Histiostorna sp.B. occurred only 
on Trox underneath the elytra, Histiostorna sp.A. occurred only on the 
exterior of Nicrophoms, and no mites occurred on Carcinops. Anoetid mite 
hypopi have been found on Carcinops in other birds' nests (pers. obs.). 

Three trogid beetles harbored 4 Eviphis females under or over the 
wings, and 7 more Eviphis were found separately in the sample material. 
Eviphidids have not previously been found associated with trogid beetles, 
but the family generally disperses by phoresy. AHiphis halleri Can., for 
example, is transported by Nicrophoms (Springett 1968). 

Four Poecilochims duetonymphs were found under the elytra and on 
the exterior of 2 trogid beetles; the rest occurred similarly on 2 Nicrophoms. 
Poecilochims necrophori Vitz. deutonymphs are typically phoretic on 
Nicrophoms, and this relationship has been studied by Springett (1968). 
The mites feed on small fly larvae, fly eggs, and carrion encountered by their 
beetle host, whose larvae feed on carrion. 

While some mites colonize owl nests with the assistance of flying 
insects, other reach the nests on various prey species. Three mammal 
associates were found in the sample. Dermacarus newyorkensis Fain and 
Glycyphagus hypudaei (Koch) hypopi have posteroventral claspers adapted 
for gripping hair; these species have not previously been found in 
Connecticut. Both species utilize many rodent hosts, but D. newyorkensis 
is known from woodland jumping mice, while G. hypudaei is known from 
the red-backed vole ( Whitaker and Wilson 1 974), which were the two rodents 
whose remains were found in the nest. 

The only vertebrate parasite found was an engorged chigger, Euschoengastia 
peromysci (Ewing), which mainly parasitizes white-footed mice (Peromyscus 
leucopus (Raf.)). Perhaps white-footed mice were also among the owl's 
prey, or the chigger might have been parasitizing one of the rodents whose 
remains we found. Another possibility is that white-footed mice may 
previously have used the owl nest site as a nest and denning site of their own. 

Most of the other species found were either saprovores or fungivores. 
Acotyledon paradoxa Ouds. is a fungivore known from screech owl and 
great horned owl (Bubo Virginia nits Gmelin)) nests in New York, mice 



Vol. 94, No. 2. March & April 1983 



63 



nests in Maryland, and from the USSR (Fain and Philips 1978b) so this 
find represents a new record for the State of Connecticut. Cosmoglyphus is 
another fungivore, while the oribatid mites are species associated with 
decomposing plant material. Overall, the community appears to be 
dominated by carrion insects and their associated mites. Scavenging fly 
larvae serve as food for predators like the histerid and silphid beetles and the 
mesostigmatic mites, which may also feed on nematodes and other mites. 
The silphid beetles also feed directly on the carrion, while the trogid beetles 
eat the hair from the carrion and feathers lost by the owls. No avian 
parasites were found, but the development of anaerobic conditions in the 
sample before analysis caused our results to be very incomplete. A 
thorough study of saw-whet owl nests is needed to accurately determine the 
composition of the arthropod community, the presence and density of 
nidicolous saw-whet parasites, and how the arthropod community changes 
during the nesting period. 



Table I. Arthropods from a saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadius (Gmelin)) nest in 
Connecticut. 



CLASS 



Insecta 



ORDER 



Coleoptera 



Diptera 



Arachnida 



Acarina 

Mesostigmata 



Prostigmata 



Astigmata 



FAMILY GENUS & SPECIES 



Elateridae Elaterinae sp. 

Histeridae Carcinops sp. 

Silphiade .Vicrophoms pustulatus Hersch. 

Trogidae Trox aequalis Say 

Muscidae Fannia sp. 

Scatopsidae sp. 



Eviphididae Eviphis sp. 

Macrochelidae Macrocheles n. sp. 
Parasitidae Poecilochirus necrophori Vitz. 



Pyemotidae n.g. 

Pygmephondae Bakerdania sp. 

Trombiculidae Euschoengastia peromysci (Ewing) 



NUMBER STAGE 



Oribatei 



Acaridae 



Anoetidae 



Glycyphagidae 



Galumnidae 
Parakalumnidae 



Acotyledon paradoxa Ouds 

Cosmoglyphus sp. 
Histiostoma sp.A. 
Hisliostoma sp.B 
Dermacams newvorkensis Fain 
Glycyphagus hypudaei (Koch) 

Pergalumna sp. 

Prolokalumma depressa (Banks) 



1 
1 

3 
12 

I 
1 



11 

8 

16 



18 

1 
1 



1 
89 

8 
6 

18 

1 
1 



larva 
adult 
adults 
adults 

larva 
larva 



adults 
adults 
adults, 
nymphs 

adults 

adult 

larva 

hypopi. 

nymphs 
hypopus 
hypopi 
hypopi 
hypopi 
hypopi 

adult 
adult 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to express our sincere appreciation to Dr. R.A. Norton and Dr. A.E. Newton 
for reviewing the manuscript and to the following experts for taxonomic assistance: R.A. 
Norton (Oribatei), A.F. Newton (Nicrophnrus) and R.M. Emberson (Macrocheles). 



LITERATURE CITED 

Croll, N.A. and B.E. Matthews. 1977. Biology of nematodes. Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 201 pp. 
Cross, E.A. andG.W. Krantz. 1964. Two new species of the genus AcarophenaxNev/stead 

and Duvall 1918. (Acarina, Pyemotidae). Acarologia 6: 287-295. 
Cross, W.H., W.I. McGovern and E.A. Cross. 1975. Insect hosts of parasitic mites called 

Pyemotes. J. Ga. Ent. Soc. 10(1): 1-8. 

Crowson, R.A. 1981. The Biology of the Coleoptera. Academic Press, London. 802 pp. 
Fain, A. and J.R. Philips. 1977a. Astigmatic mites from nests of birds of prey in U.S.A. I. 

Description of four new species of Glycyphagidae. Int. J. Acarol. 3(2): 105-1 14. 
1977b. Astigmatic mites from nests of birds of prey in U.S.A. II. Two new 

species of the genera Fusacanis Michael and Blomia Oudemans (Glycyphagidae). Acta 

Zool. Path. Ant. 69: 155-162. 

.. 1978a. Astigmatic mites from nests of birds of prey in U.S.A. III. Sapracarus 



iuberculatus g.n., sp. n. (Acari, Astigmata, Saproglyphidae). Acta Zool. Path. Ant. 
70: 227-231. 

1978b. Astigmatic mites from nests of birds of prey in the U.S.A. IV. Description 



of the life-cycle of Acotyledon paradoxa Oudemans, 1903. Zool. Meded. 53(3): 29-39. 
_. 1979. Astigmatic mites from nests of birds of prey in the U.S.A. V. Four new 



species of Anoetidae. Int. J. Acarol. 5(2) 147-153. 
Philips, J.R. and D.L. Dindal. 1977. Raptor nests as a habitat for invertebrates: A review. 

Raptor Res. 11(4): 86-96. 

1979a. Decomposition of raptor pellets. Raptor Res. 13(4): 102-111. 

1979b. The acarine community of nests of birds of prey. Pages 559-562 in J.G. 

Rodriguez ed. Recent Advances in Acarology. Vol. I. Academic Press, N.Y. 631 pp. 
Springett, B.P. 1 968. Aspects of the relationship between burying beetles Necrophorus spp. 

and the mite Poecilochirus necrophori Vitz. J. An. Ecol. 37: 417-424. 
Vaurie, P. 1955. A revision of the genus Trox in North America (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). 

Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 106(1): 1-89. 
Whitaker, J.O., Jr. and N. Wilson. 1974. Host and distribution lists of mites (Acari), 

parasitic and phoretic, in the hair of wild mammals of North America, north of Mexico. Am. 

Mid. Nat. 91(1): 1-67. 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 65 

AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE 
STONEFLIES (PLECOPTERA) OF MAINE 1 

Terry M. Mingo^ 

ABSTRACT: A total of 92 species representing nine families and 37 genera are contained in 
the first comprehensive checklist of Maine Plecoptera. Nineteen additional species which 
occur in adjacent states and provinces, but which have not yet been collected in Maine, are also 
listed. County distributions and adult collection dates are included for species occurring in the 
state. Twenty one species are reported from Maine for the first time. 

Although previous records of Plecoptera from Maine are scattered 
throughout the literature, the study of Maine species has been generally 
neglected. Studies by Proctor (1946), Mingo, et al. (1979). Rabeni and 
Gibbs ( 1 979) and Mingo and Gibbs ( 1 980) have added to the understanding 
of Maine species but have concerned either limited geographic areas or 
specific watersheds. 

The checklist presented herein represents the first attempt to compile a 
comprehensive inventory of Plecoptera species occurring in Maine. It is 
based primarily upon specimens collected by the author and reports 
contained in the literature. At present it contains nine families, 37 genera 
and 92 species. In addition five species new to science have been collected 
and are currently under study. 

The classification system used in the checklist follows that of lilies 
(1966) and Zwick (1973) as reviewed by Baumann (1976). The earliest 
and latest dates of collection follow each species name and are based solely 
upon adult specimens. County distributions are included below each 
species name and are based upon adult as well as immature specimens. The 
inclusion of a county name in parentheses following a single date of 
collection indicates that adults of that species were collected only from that 
county on the date given. Additional county records listed for these species 
refer to immature specimens only. 

Nineteen additional species have been reported from adjacent states 
and provinces but have not yet been collected in Maine. These species are 
indicated with a double asterisk. The territory concerned is listed for each of 
these species and the appropriate literature citation is given. Nine species 
previously reported from the state but not collected by the author during this 
study are indicated with a plus sign. The county of record is listed for each of 
these species and the appropriate literature citation is given. New state 
distribution records are indicated with a single asterisk. 



1 Received September 23. 1982 

2 Assistant Scientist. Department of Entomology. University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469 

ENT. NEWS 94(2): 65-72. March & April. 1983 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Nemouridae 

Amphinemurinae 

A mphinemura 

A. nigritta (Provancher) 30 July - 7 September 

Aroostook, Piscataquis and Somerset County 

A. wui (Claassen) 3 June - 16 August 
Piscataquis and Somerset County 

Nemourinae 
Nemoura 

*N. trispinosa Claassen 6 May - 3 June 

Piscataquis County 
Ostrocerca 

O. albidipennis (Walker) 17 May (Penobscot County) 

Penobscot, Piscataquis and Washington County 
*O. complexa (Claassen) 23 May 

Franklin County 
+O. prolongata (Claassen) 

Penobscot County (Needham and Claassen, 1925) 
O. tmncata (Claassen) nymphs only 

Hancock, Piscataquis and Somerset County 
Paranemoura 

P. perfecta (Walker) 4 May - 2 June 

Penobscot, Piscataquis, Somerset and Washington Count) 
P. sp. A 4 May - 7 July 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
Podmosta 

P. macdunnoughi (Ricker) 5 May - 15 May 

Hancock, Piscataquis and Washington County 
Prostoia 

P. completa (Walker) 5 May - 26 June 

Penobscot, Piscataquis and Washington County 
*P. similis (Hagen) 10 June 

Somerset County 
Ships a 

S. rotunda (Claassen) 4 May - 11 May 

Penobscot and Washington County 
S. sp. A 19 June 

Penobscot County 
Soyedina 

S. vallicularia (Wu) 4 May - 25 June 

Somerset and Washington County 
*S. Washington! (Claassen) 25 May 

Piscataquis County 
Zapada 

Z sp. A 24 April 

Piscataquis County 

Taeniopterygidae 

Brachypterinae 
Bolotoperla 

B. rossi (Prison) 5 May - 12 May 
Penobscot and Washington County 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 67 



Oemopteryx 

*O. contorta (Needham and Claassen) 24 April - 8 May 

Piscataquis County 
**O. glacialis (Newport) 

Quebec (Ricker. et al.. 1968) 
Strophopteryx 

S. fasciata (Burmcister) 31 March - 5 May 

Hancock and Penobscot County 
Taenionema 

*T. uilanticitm Ricker and Ross 8 May - 1 June 

Piscataquis and Somerset County 

Taeniopteryginae 
Taeniopteryx 

T. hurski Ricker and Ross 22 March - 16 April 

I lancock, Penobscot and Washington County 
T. maura (Pictet) 7 April - 16 April 

Penobscot County 
T. nivalis (Fitch) nymphs only 

Penobscot. Piscataquis and Washington County 
T. pan-ula Banks 22 March - 4 May 

Hancock. Penobscot. Piscataquis and Washington County 

Capniidae 
Allocapnia 

+A. illinoensis Prison 

Southern Maine (Ross and Ricker. 1971) 
A. maria Hanson 9 April - 29 March 

Hancock County 
A. minima (Newport I 25 February - 5 May 

Hancock. Penobscot. Piscataquis and Washington County 
**A. nivicola (Fitch) 

New Brunswick (Ross and Ricker. 1971) 
New Hampshire (Fiance. 1977) 
Nova Scotia (Ross and Ricker. 1971) 
Quebec (Ricker. et al.. 1968) 
**A. pechumani Ross and Ricker 

New Brunswick (Ross and Ricker. 1971 ) 
Nova Scotia (Ross and Ricker. 1971) 
Quebec (Ross and Ricker. 1971 ) 
A. pygmaea (Burmeister) 1 March - 16 April 

Hancock. Kennebec. Penobscot. Piscataquis and Washington County 
+A. recta (Claassen) 

Southern Maine (Ross and Ricker. 1971) 
**A. vivipara (Claassen) 

Quebec (Ross and Ricker. 1971 ) 
+A. zola Ricker 

This species occurs in a diagonal band from the southwestern flanks of the Appalachians 
to the hill country of Maine and New Brunswick (Ross and Ricker. 1971 ). 
Capnia 

C. manitoha Claassen 14 April 1 June 

Piscataquis County 
**C. vernal is Newport 

Quebec (Ricker. et al.. 1968) 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Nemocapnia 

**N. Carolina Banks 

Quebec (Harper and Hynes, 1971 and Harper, 1971) 
Paracapnia 

P. angulata Hanson 13 April - 27 May 

Hancock, Penobscot and Washington County 
P. opis (Newman) 9 April - 3 June 

Hancock, Piscataquis and Washington County 
Utacapnia 
**U. labradora (Ricker) 

Quebec (Ricker, et al., 1968) 

Leuctridae 

Leuctrinae 
Leuctra 

**L. baddecka Ricker 

Nova Scotia (Ricker, 1965 and Hitchcock, 1974) 
L. duplicata Claassen 1 7 June 

Washington County 
L.ferniginea (Walker) 3 June - 28 September 

Aroostook and Piscataquis County 
L. grandis Banks 1 June 

Piscataquis County 
**L. laura Hitchcock 

New Hampshire (Hitchcock, 1969 and 1974) 
**L. maria Hanson 

New Hampshire (Hanson, 1941 and Hitchcock, 1974) 
L. sibleyi Claassen 1 June - 26 June 

Penobscot, Piscataquis, Somerset and Washington County 
L. tenella Provancher 14 June - 16 August 

Hancock and Piscataquis County 
L. tennis (Pictet) 25 June - 23 August 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
**L. triloba Claassen 

Quebec (Ricker, et al., 1968) 
L. tnmcata Claassen 7 August - 22 August 

Hancock and Piscataquis County 
*L. variablis Hanson 29 August 

Piscataquis County 
Paraleuctra 

P. sara (Claassen) 29 April - 10 June 

Aroostook. Piscataquis and Washington County 

Pteronarcyidae 

In the classification system used by lilies ( 1966) and Zwick( 1973) the family Pteronarcyidae 
contains two eastern genera: Allonarcys and Pteronarcys. The validity of A llonarcys has 
been questioned and has recently been placed into synonymy with Ptcronarcvs by Stark and 
Szczytko(1982). 

Pteronarcys 

P. biloba (Newman) 3 June (Piscataquis County) 

Aroostook, Franklin, Penobscot and Piscataquis County 
P. co mslocki (Smith) nymphs only 

Aroostook and Hancock County 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 



69 



P. dorsal a (Say) 

Aroostook, Hancock, Oxford and Washington County 
P. proteus (Newman) 

Aroostook and Piscataquis County 

Peltoperlidae 

Peltoperlinae 
Peltoperla 

**P. arciiata Needham 

Quebec (Ricker, et al., 1968) 
Tallaperla 

*T. maria (Needham and Smith) 

Franklin, Oxford, Piscataquis and Somerset County 

Perlodidae 

Isoperlinae 
Isoperla 

+1. bilineata (Say) 

Hancock County (Proctor. 1946) 
**/. cotta Ricker 

Quebec (Ricker, et al., 1968) 
I. dicala Prison 

Penobscot and Washington County 
/. francesca Harper 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
/. fiisoni lilies 

Hancock, Piscataquis and Washington County 
/. holochlora (Klapalek) 

Aroostook and Piscataquis County 
/. tata Prison 

Penobscot and Washington County 
*/. marlynia Needham and Claassen 

Washington County 
+/. montana (Banks) 

Hancock County (Needham and Classen, 1925) 
*/. namata Prison 

Piscataquis County 
*/. orata Prison 

Aroostook and Piscataquis County 
/. signata (Banks) 

Hancock, Penobscot and Washington County 
*/. similis (Hagen) 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
+/. slossonae (Banks) 

Piscataquis County (Prison, 1942) 
/. transmarina (Newman) 

Penobscot, Piscataquis and Washington County 
/. sp. A. 

Piscataquis County 
/. sp. B. 

Piscataquis County 



10 May - 22 May 
nymphs only 



9 June (Somerset County) 



Arcynopteryx 

*A. compacta (MacKacklan) 
Piscataquis County 



Perlodinae 



10 June- 13 July 

14 June - 7 July 

10 June - 12 July 

24 July - 15 August 

10 June (Washington County) 

nymphs only 

nymphs only 

nymphs only 

17 June - 1 1 July 

19 May (Washington County) 

27 May - 14 June 
23 May - 3 June 
1 June 

nymphs only 



70 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Cultus 

*C. decisus (Walker) nymphs only 

Aroostook, Piscataquis and Somerset County 
Diura 
**D. nanseni Kempny 

New Hampshire (Ricker, 1964) 
Quebec (Ricker, et al., 1968) 
Helopicus 
+H. subvarians (Banks) 

Washington County (Prison, 1942) 
Isogenoides 
**/. doratus (Prison) 

Quebec (Ricker. et a!., 1968) 
*/. frontalis (Newman) nymphs only 

Piscataquis County 
/. hansoni Ricker nymphs only 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
**/. olivaceus (Walker) 

Quebec (Ricker, et al.. 1968) 
Malirekus 

M. hastatus (Banks) nymphs only 

Aroostook, Piscataquis and Washington County 



Chloroperlidae 

Chloroperlinae 
Alloperla 

A. atlantica Baumann 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
*A. banski Prison 

Penobscot County 
A. caudata Prison 

Piscataquis and Washington County 
A. chloris Prison 

Piscataquis County 
*A. concolor Ricker 

Piscataquis County 
A. idei (Ricker) 

Washington County 
A. leonarda Ricker 

Washington County 
*A. voinae Ricker 

Piscataquis County 
**A. vostoki Ricker 

Nova Scotia (Ricker. 1947) 
Hastaperla 

H. brevis (Banks) 

Hancock, Penobscot, Piscataquis and Washington 
H. orpha (Prison) 

Hancock, Penobscot and Washington County 
Rasvena 
**R. terna (Prison) 

New Hampshire (Fiance, 1977) 
Suwallia 

S. marginata (Banks) 
Piscataquis County 



10 June - 12 July 
13 July 

10 June - 7 July 
8 June - 30 July 
1 June - 14 June 
6 June - 13 July 

17 June 

18 July - 15 August 



10 June - 30 July 
County 

27 May - 24 June 



18 July 29 August 



Vol. 94, No. 2, March & April 1983 71 



Sweltza 

S. lateralis (Banks) 25 May - 1 June 

Piscataquis County 
S. mediana (Banks) 1 June - 21 June 

Piscataquis County 
*S. naica (Provancher) 20 May - 3 June 

Piscataquis County 
5. onkos (Ricker) 29 May - 10 June 

Washington County 

Paraperlinae 

U taper la 

**U. gaspesiana Harper and Roy 

New Hampshire (Fiance, 1977) 
Quebec (Harper and Roy, 1975) 

Perlidae 

Acroneuriinae 
Acroneuria 

A. abnormis (Newman) 10 June - 14 July 

Aroostock, Penobscot, Piscataquis, Somerset and Washington County 
A. arenosa (Pictet) 30 June - 3 August 

Penobscot County 
A. carolinensis (Banks) 12 June - 3 August 

Aroostook and Penobscot County 
A. lycorias (Newman) 10 July (Penobscot County) 

Penobscot and Washington County 
Perlesta 

P. placida (Hagen) 30 June - 16 August 

Hancock, Penobscot and Washington County 
Perlinella 

P. drymo (Newman) 29 May - 17 June 

Penobscot and Washington County 

Perlinae 
Neoperla 

*N. freytagi Stark and Baumann 4 July - 27 July 

Washington County 
+N. mainensis Banks 

Kennebec County (Banks, 1948) 

N. mainensis was originally described by Banks (1948) as a subspecies of Neoperla 
clymene (Newman). It has since been elevated to species status by Stark and Baumann 
(1978) in their revision of the Neoperla species complex. 

*N. stewarti Stark and Baumann 30 June 

Penobscot County 
Paragnetina 

P. immarginata (Say) 17 June (Washington County) 

Aroostook, Franklin, Penobscot, Piscataquis and Washington County 
P. media (Walker) 17 June - 13 July 

Penobscot. Piscataquis and Washington County 
Phasganophora 

P. capitata (Pictet) 10 June - 20 July 

Aroostook, Hancock, Penobscot. Piscataquis and Washington County 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The identification of various species contained in this list has been verified or corrected by 
Richard W. Baumann, Peter P. Harper. Rebecca F. Surdick-Pifer and Stanley W. Szczytko. 
Their assistance with determinations is greatly appreciated. 

The manuscript was reviewed by K. Elizabeth Gibbs and Eben A. Osgood. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Banks, N. 1948. Notes on Perlidae. Psyche 55: 1 13-130. 

Baumann, R.W. 1 976. An annotated review of the systematics of North American stoneflies 

(Plecoptera). Perla 2: 21-23. 
Fiance, S.B. 1977. Distribution and biology of the mayflies and stoneflies of Hubbard Brook. 

New Hampshire. M.S. Thesis. Cornell University. 149 pp. 
Prison, T.H. 1942. Studies on North American Plecoptera, with special reference to the 

fauna of Illinois. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22: 235-355. 
Hanson, J.F. 1941. Records and descriptions of North American Plecoptera. Part I. Species 

of Leuctra of the eastern United States. Am. Midi. Nat. 26: 174-178. 
Harper, P.P. 1971. Plecopteres nouveaux du Quebec (Insectes). Can. J. Zool. 49: 685-690. 
Harper, P.P. and H.B. N. Hynes. 1971. The Capniidae of eastern Canada. Can. J. Zool. 

49: 921-940. 
Harper, P.P. and D. Roy. 1975. Utaperla gaspesiana sp. nov., le premier Plecoptere 

Paraperline de I'Est canadien. Can. J. Zool. 53: 1 185-1 187. 
Hitchcock, S.W. 1969. Plecoptera from high altitudes and a new species of Leuctra 

(Leuctridae). Ent. News 80: 311-316. 
Hitchcock, S.W. 1974. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part VII. The Plecoptera or 

stoneflies of Connecticut. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Conn. Bull. 107. 262 pp. 
lilies, J. 1966. Katalog der rezenten Plecoptera. Das Tierreich. Lieferung 82. Walter de 

Gruyter and Company, Berlin. 632. pp. 
Mingo, T.M., Courtemanch, D.L. and K.E. Gibbs. 1979. The aquatic insects of the St. 

John River drainage. Aroostock County. Maine. Life Sci. and Agric. Exp. Stat. Tech. Bull. 

92. 22 pp. 
Mingo, T.M. and K.E. Gibbs. 1 980. The aquatic insects of the Narraguagus River. Hancock 

and Washington County, Maine. Life Sci. and Agric. Exp. Stat. Tech. Bull. 100. 63 pp. 
Needham, J.G. and P.W. Claassen. 1925. A monograph of the Plecoptera or stoneflies of 

America north of Mexico. Thomas Say Found., Entomol. Soc. Amer. 2: 1-397. 
Proctor, W. 1946. Biological survey of the Mount Desert region. Part VII. The insect fauna. 

Wistar Inst. of Anat. and Biol. pp. 54-55. 
Rabeni, C.F. and K.E. Gibbs. 1979. Ordination of deep river invertebrate communities in 

relation to environmental variables. Hydrobiologia 74: 67-76. 
Ricker, W.E. 1947. Stoneflies of the Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. Trans, of the 

Royal Can. Inst.. Toronto. 26: 401-414. 
Ricker, W.E. 1964. Distribution of Canadian stoneflies. Gewasser und Abwasser. 34/35: 

50-71. 
Ricker, W.E. 1965. New records and descriptions of Plecoptera. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 

22: 475-501. 
Ricker, W.E., Malouin, R., Harper, P.P. and H.H. Ross. 1968. Distribution of Quebec 

stoneflies (Plecoptera). Nat. Can. 95: 1085-1 123. 
Ross, H.H. and W.E. Ricker. 1971. The classification, evolution and dispersal of the winter 

stonefly genus Allocapnia. III. Biol. Monogr. 45: 1-166. 
Stark, B.P. and R.W. Baumann. 1978. New species of Nearctic Neoperla (Plecoptera: 

Perlidae) with notes on the genus. Great Basin Nat. 38: 97-1 13. 
Stark, B.P. and S.W. Szczytko. 1982. Egg morphology and phytogeny in Pteronarcyidae 

(Plecoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 75: 519-529. 
Zwick, P. 1973. Insecta: Plecoptera, phylogenetisches system und katalog. Das Tierreich. 

Lieferung 94. Walter de Gruyter and Company, Berlin. 465 pp. 



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US ISSN 0013 872X 



MAY & JUNE 1983 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Commentaries in cultural entomology. 3. An entomological 

explanation of Ezekiel's wheels. Charles L. Hague 73 

Redescription of Cicindela speculans and its relationship 
to other neotropical Cicindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) 

Robert R. Murray 81 

European Rhagionidae in eastern North America: Records 
of newly discovered species (Diptera) 

L.L. Pechuman, E.R. Hoebeke 86 

New species and distribution notes of Mexican and Bolivian 
Idiodonus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) Dwight M. DeLong 89 

Description of female Hydroptila jackmanni (Trichoptera: 

Hydroptilidae), with biological notes Alexander D. Huryn 93 

New record of attacks of Pedilus (Pedilidae) on Meloe 

(Meloidae: Coleoptera) L. LeSage, Y. Bousquet 95 



Lectotype designation for Euscaphurs saltator 
(Coleoptera: Eucinetidae) 



Richard A. Rochette 97 



New records of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera) in Tennessee 

R.E. Kelly, L.E. Klostermeyer 98 

Occurrence of Ellipes minutus (Orthoptera: Tridactylidae) 



in Kentucky 



M. Ann Phillippi 99 



Amphipoea velata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attacking corn 

near Friendsville, Maryland J.W. Amrine, Jr., L. Butler 101 

Notes on geographical distribution of Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma 

maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) /. Goddard, B.R. Norment 103 



125TH ANNIVERSARY of Amer. Ent. Soc. notice 

SOCIETY MEETINGS of March 3 and April 7, 1983 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 



105 

105, 106 

80, 85, 107, 108 

92, 100, 102, 106 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 94. No. 3, May & June 1983 



73 



COMMENTARIES IN CULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY 



3. AN ENTOMOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF EZEKIEL'S 

WHEELS?' 

Charles L. Hogue^ 

A category of aberrant angels was created when the Hebrew prophet 
Ezekiel recorded his vision of four cherubim by the Chebar canal in 
Babylon during his exile there around the year 592 B.C. (Holy Bible, 
Ezekiel 1: 1-28). These heavenly creatures, said to be manlike, were 
hardly described as such. In their depictions of Ezekiel's vision through the 
centuries, artists have had to employ considerable license in anthropomor- 
phizing "four-winged, four-faced spirits with eyes over their entire bodies" 
(Figs. 1 a-b). Only in the twentieth century did an entomologist suggest an 
alternate explanation of the nature of the cherubim. 





a b 

Figure 1 . Artists' impressions of Ezekiel's vision. Fig. la. Eyed cherub [p. 35, fig. 21 from E. 
Schimitschek. 1968. Insekten als Nahrung. in Brauchtum. Kult und Kultur. //; J.C. Helmcke 
etal. eds..Kukenthal'sHandbuchderZoologie(2ed.)4(2) 1/10: \-62.after G. Eicke. 1964. 
unpub. seminar report. Forstl. Fakult. Univ. Gottingen]. Fig. Ib. Ezekiel and his vision (p. 
1 25 from W.L. Phelps. 1933. Matthew Merian's Illustrated Bible. William Morrow. New 
York. ciftfrW. Merian. 1650. Bybel Printen. Amsterdam. 

In his little book on the relationships of beetles and human history, 
"Aus der Kaferweld," Karl Sajo (1910) offered the idea that Ezekiel 
actually recounts an eclectic image of scarabaeine and coprine dung beetles 

| Received November 2. 1982. Accepted March 5. 1983. 

-Entomology Section. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 900 Exposition 
Boulevard. Los Angeles. California 90007. 









ENT. NEWS. 94(3) 73-80 May & June 1983 

I? . 



OBRARIE? 



74 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



and their habits; that is to say, the prophet envisioned a montage of the 
several deified species known in Egypt and the Middle East, namely 
Scarabaeus sacer, S. variolosus, S. cicatricosus, S. puncticollis, Kheper 
aegyptiorum, Gymnopleurus flagellatus, Copris hispanus, and Catharsius 
sesostrus (Bodenheimer, 1928:111, species added by me) (Fig. 2). It is 




Figure 2. Three scarabaeines and coprines deified in the Middle East during ancient times. 
Fig. 2a. Copris hispanus brooding dung ball. Fig. 2b. Scarabaeus cicatricosus in flight 
showing salient features discussed in text. Fig. 2c. Kheper aegyptiorum rolling dung ball. 

reasonable to assume that, as a priest, Ezekiel should be intimately aware of 
such beetles and their habits because of the prominent religious status they 
held at the time in area culture. Indeed, the ball of dung rolled by these 
beetles symbolized the sun to the ancient Egyptians whose political 
influence extended through much of the Middle East (Weise, 1927). 

Sajd (p. 50) briefly justifies his conclusion on the basis of physical clues 
to the identity of the cherubim as scarabs as well as apparent etymological 
similarities between names for beetles and the word"cherub" (Heb. k'rubh, 
kerubh, kerub). 

He mentions the obvious references in the Biblical text to beetle elytra 
and flight wings (paraphrasing the Lutheran translations of parts of verses 
5-1 1 in Chapter 1 in the Heilige Schrift): "Sie waren Tiergestalten und ihre 
Flugel gingen oben auseinander; durch zwei Flugel beruhrte eines das 
andere und zwei Flugel bedeckten ihre Leiber." ("They were animal-like 
and their wings went out above from one another; by two wings they touched 
one another and two wings covered their bodies.") He is further convinced 
by the implications of verse 1 2 in the 10th chapter that the "eyes" covering 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 75 



the cherubim bodies are equivalent to the pits found on certain Scarabaeus, 
especially cicatricosus: "Und ihr ganzer Leib, Riicken, Hande und Fliigel, . 
. . waren voll Augen um und um; . . . . " ("And their whole body, backs, 
hands and wings, . . . were full of eyes all around; ....") Further, because 
he considers as cognates the Semitic k'rubh (cherub) and various Aryan 
words for beetle and like animals, Skarabaeus, Carabus (Latin, beetle), 
Kerb, Kerf, Kafer (German, beetle), there is an etymological argument for 
the beetle nature of the cherubim as well (Sajo, 1910:47f). 

Even if they are familiar with his argument, however, it is unlikely that 
biblicists would be convinced by Sajo's explanation of Ezekiel's cherubim 
as non-human forms. Haran ( 1 962), for example, stresses the variability of 
their form, which, though composite, is definitely human in shape and not 
comparable even with the fictitious griffin or similar Mesopotamian 
mythical creatures. Greenberg. a linguist to whom I introduced Sajo's 
ideas, also disagrees with Sajo's etymological argument. He believes 
"kerub" relates the Akkadian "karibu," a protective genius, to a basic 
quadriped form, like the griffin of Greek and Mesopotamian mythology but 
generally follows Haran's views on the humanoid nature of the cherubim. 
He summarizes (Greenberg, 1 980), "... nothing either in the texts or in the 
iconography of ancient Israel, or of the contexts in which the Akkadian 
supposed cognate appear, lends the slightest support to the view that there 
was anything beetle-like about the cherubs ... I am not suprised, then, that 
no one, to my knowledge, has taken up Sajo's notion." 

It would seem fatuous, therefore, to debate Sajo's ideas with Bible 
scholars. Yet, like Sajo, I am an entomologist intrigued with the possible 
connection between Ezekiel's cherubim and beetles, and therefore, reintro- 
duce the issue here as one of interest to readers concerned with cultural 
entomology (Hogue, 1979). 

In reviewing the current English versions of the Old Testament (King James- 
KJ, Modem Language-ML, Living Bible-LB, Revised Standard-RS, New 
American-Standard-NAS and Jerusalem Bible-JB), I have found consider- 
able support for Sajo's thesis from the descriptive standpoint, allowing for 
imprecise and varied interpretations of the original language, redactions, 
and the non-scientific background of the original authors. The text of the LB 
is expressed in a language most closely approximating contemporary 
English, and I shall quote it below as the primary source for discussion. 

Cherubim figure prominently in both the first and tenth chapters of the 
book, but the account presented in chapter one is probably closest to the 
original (Irwin, 1943). The first pertinent verses are 5-6, "Then from the 
center of the cloud, four strange forms appeared that looked like men, 
except that each had four faces and two pairs of wings!" The "four faces" I 
shall take up below (when detailed in verse 10); the four wings, of course, 
are typical of Coleoptera and insects in general. Verses 7-9 describe 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



anatomical details: "Their legs were like those of men (i.e. jointed), but 
their feet were cloven like calves' feet . . . ." The latter phrase could be a 
reference to the bifid tarsal claws; but a more likely reference, because 
Ezekiel presumably had no magnifying lens, is to the forked outline of the 
apex of the mid and hind legs produced by the elongate apical tibial spine 
diverging from the tarsus itself and easily seen with the naked eye. Verse 7, 
continues, "... and shone like burnished brass." (copper, bronze?) a 
possible allusion to the dull metallic greenish or coppery sheen of various 
species, such as Kheper aegyptiorum. 

In verse 8 he says, "And beneath each of their wings I could see human 
hands." By "beneath" he could have meant either below or on a lower level. 
In the former case he may have been likening to hands the hind wings with 
their heavy, articulated veins radiating finger-like from the base; in the latter 
case, his reference may have been to the five-pointed ("fingered") tibio- 
tarsi of the front legs, which can be seen easily from above. 

The beginning of verse 9 suggests a physical impossibility if, indeed, 
beetles are being described. "The four living things were joined wing to wing 
. . . ." This reference, however, is expanded upon in the 1 1th verse, "Each 
had two pairs of wings spreading out from the middle of his back. One pair 
stretched out to attach to the wings of the living beings on each side, and the 
other pair covered his body." Since I doubt that beetles or angels would find 
it possible to fly in this manner, I believe that the central portion of verses 1 1 
and 9 could mean what the rest of verse 1 1 explains, simply that there were 
two pair of wings basally attached to the body, one pair of flight wings and a 
second pair of protective elytra. 

The remainder of verse 9 reads, ". . . and they flew straight forward 
without turning." Verse 12 repeats this, "Wherever their spirit went they 
went, going straight forward without turning." The flight of scarabs, though 
deviating at times, is forceful and persistent, and often directional (Halffter 
and Matthews, 1966:90-91). 

Verse 10 is symbolic, based, at least in part, on scarab anatomy, "Each 
had the face of a man in front, with a lion's face on the right side of his head, 
and the face of an ox on his left side, and the face of an eagle at the back of his 
head!" The large lateral eyes, and rounded clypeal corona seen from the 
underside of the head explain the first reference; the last easily derives from 
the horn on the back of the head of Copris and certain Catharsius, which 
resembles an eagle's beak. The remaining two views might be imagined 
from material aspects of any of the beetles and more likely are absolute 
symbols to complete an ancient Mesopotamian allegorical animal tetrad, 
possibly the four leading deities of Babylon: Nabu, the human-faced 
revealer; Nergal, the lion-faced god of the netherworld; Marduk, represented 
by a winged bull; and Ninib, the eagle-faced god of hunting and war or are 
from figures in Solomon's Temple (Layman, 1971:414; Pfeiffer and 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 77 



Harrison, 1962: 710). Finally, the flashing colors of some species and 
darting flight are reiterated in verses 13 and 14, "Going up and down among 
them were other forms that glowed like bright coals of fire or brilliant 
torches, and it was from these the lightning flashed. The living beings darted 
to and fro, swift as lightning." 

Two points about flight are added in verse 24, "And as they flew, their 
wings roared like waves against the shore . . . When they stopped they let 
down their wings." Scarab wings make loud buzzing noise in flight and are 
carefully folded at rest. 

Sajd fails to follow with what I can suggest to be even more exciting 
imagery in continuing verses of chapter one describing the vision of the 
wheels. "Ezekiel's wheels" have puzzled biblical scholars and religious 
artists perhaps even more than the nature of the cherubim themselves (fig. 
lb).3 Assuming the correct precedence of the scarab as a model for the 
cherub, would it not be logical to assume that the wheels were originally not 
such at all but the round dung balls fabricated by and closely tended by these 
beetles (Fig. 2c)? 

The possibility of equivalence of the scarab ball and the wheel symbol is 
suggested by the equation, dung ball = sun (Egypt) = winged sun disc 
(Egypt- Assyria) = solar wheel (Assyria) (Goldsmith, 1 929:81 -83, 93-94). 
Several points of comparison, from additional text in chapter 1 , also relate 
the "wheels" to dung balls: Verse 15 says, "As I stared at all of this, I saw 
four wheels on the ground beneath them, one wheel belonging to each." I 
add the emphases in this passage to stress the fact that dung balls are rolled 
on the ground and that each has a definite beetle "owner." 

In verse 16 the color and basic structure of the wheels (balls) are 
described, "The wheels looked as if they were made of polished amber 
(other versions read, color of beryl-KJ, NAS, tarshish stone-ML, chrysolite- 
RS, JB) and each wheel was constructed with a second wheel crosswise 
inside (footnote, "Literally, a wheel within a wheel . . . "). the color 
comparison to "amber" is not entirely explainable but, dull or olive green 
are compatible with the muddy green of balls made from fresh bovine dung, 
although the soil-smeared balls of some may take on a yellowish color upon 
drying. The other color comparison might have been inspired by the blue- 
green and blue glazes applied to scarab amulets so common at the time. The 
LB translation adds the word "crosswise" to the description of the wheels' 
construction; the other versions merely mention "wheels within wheels," an 
arrangement easily compared to the layered structure that these balls may 
assume from the packing and rolling activities of their beetle makers 
(Klemperer, 1982a:79; Halffter and Matthews, 1966). 

> Interpretations even include "flying saucers" (M. Sachs. 1980. The UFO Encyclopedia. 
Perigee Books, New York). 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Verse 17 relates the ability of the "wheels" to ". . . go in any of four 
directions without having to face around" a natural capability of a rolling 
sphere as opposed to a flat wheel. 

Verse 18 is incomplete and inconsistent with the fuller corresponding 
verse 1 2 of the repeated account of the nature of the cherubim and wheels in 
Chapter 10,'The four wheels had rims and spokes (some translators note 
confusion in the earliest Hebrew manuscripts at this point) and the rims 
were filled with eyes around their edges." Here too the LB is also 
incomplete and we fall back to the KJ version, "And their whole body, and 
their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels, were full of eyes, 
round about, even the wheels that they four had," which clearly indicates 
that the cherubim were eyed all over (as were the wheels?). 

This is a very telling verse in its reference to such a bizarre feature as 
eyes on the corpus and wings of the angels. Yet certain scarabs of the region 
(e.g. S. cicatricosus) display diffuse oval punctae or elliptical depressions 
over the entire body which could appear to the purblind, lay viewer as eyes. 
In fact, this large type of puncture is described by beetle anatomists as 
"ocellate" or "ocelleV' (Janssen, 1940:9). Many depictions of cherubim 
show eyes dispersed over the body (Fig. la). 

It is reasonable to assume that the reference to eyes on the wheels 
(balls) is an embellishment and pseudepigraphon of the author of Chapter 
10, who most likely was a later editorializer of a single original account of 
the nature of the animal forms and associated structures (Irwin, 1943), 
although he may be preserving a notation lost from the primary narration. 

In verses 19-20 there is a statement about the control of the "wheels" 
by the cherubim, "When the four living beings flew forward, the wheels 
moved forward with them. When they flew upwards, the wheels went up 
too. When the living beings stopped, the wheels stopped." This is a 
plausible description of the purposeful rolling of the dung ball by the 
scarabs. (I cannot explain the rising of the balls with beetles in flight, 
however.) 

Verse 2 1 ascribes the "spirits" of the living beings to the balls, "For the 
spirit of the four living beings was in the wheels. . ." could the "spirits" be 
the larvae or pupae of the beetles? The idea is consistent with the correlation 
made by early Egyptian scarab cultists between the metamorphosis of 
insects and the birth (egg), life (larva), death (pupa) and resurrection 
(imago) stages of human life (Harpaz, 1973:23). 

The remaining verses repeat earlier passages in the chapter, except 
verse 26, which in part gives another clue to the natural basis of the vision, 
"For high in the sky above them was what looked like a throne . . . , and upon 
it sat someone who appeared to be a man." The basis of this imagery might 
lie in the habit of some scarab females to remain atop the dung ball brooding 
it and keeping it upright during the period of larval development. This 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 79 



behavior is best developed in Copris (Klemperer, 1982b) (Fig. 2a), but 
Scarabaeus can assume a position atop its ball for short periods as well. Of 
course, Ezekiel would have had to had special knowledge to know this for 
Copris since brooding occurs only in vaulted underground chambers. But 
such knowledge could have been common among priests of the time who 
surely studied such an important animal assiduously. (It is interesting that 
the ML uses the term "vault" to describe the place occupied by the man on 
the throne.) 

Other references to cherubim (Genesis 3:24, Exodus 25:18, II Samuel 
22:11, I Kings 6:23, Revelations 4:6, 7) doubtlessly are to separate 
prototypes and are not necessarily equal to those in Ezekiel's portrait. 

Therefore, altogether, we have an elaborate imagery consistent with a 
natural phenomenon. The etymological questions remain unresolved. If the 
Semitic and Aryan words equated by Sajo are indeed true cognates or 
others found to relate beetles to cherubim, our argument is strengthened, 
especially if they have known religious significance, e.g. Kheper (Egyptian, 
to exist, the Father of the Gods, Creation), corpus (Latin, body, vehicle of 
our earthy existence, predecessor of the soul) (see Sajo, 1910:49). That 
cherubim were scarabs is, of course, not provable; and since it deviates 
radically from traditional explanations. Biblical scholars, theologians and 
Fundamentalists will probably find ludicrous the suggestion that Ezekiel's 
cherubim and wheels were based on his supposed experience with dung 
beetles. However, the naturalistic method in Bible exegesis is as valid as 
any and has a basis in logic and history unlike most canonical, theosophic 
analyses, and surely represents as parsimonious an approach as literalism 
since it answers more, and raises fewer questions. Without facts to follow, 
attempting to reconstruct what influenced the mind of authors in antiquity 
can never be more than speculation; but from their writings, however 
fragmented and edited, basic ideas often shine through. Thus it would 
appear to me that whoever recorded the original of the story before us in 
Chapter 1 was a holy man of the seventh to sixth centuries with personal 
experiences and priestly training in Judea and Babylonia where the 
theophany of scarabs was understood, if not firmly believed and taught, as 
in proximate Egypt. The prophet appears to have been trained in this cult 
and possibly a direct observer of the events of scarab life. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I would like to thank Dr. W.D. Edmonds, scarabaeid specialist at the California 
Polytechnic University, Pomona, and Jay Bisno of the Archaeology Section of my own 
institution for criticising preliminary versions of this paper and assisting with technical and 
linguistic matters. Much appreciated also are the many fine suggestions for improvement of the 
manuscript provided by Dr. D Keith McE. Kevan, of McGill University and the review of the 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



final draft by Dr. Edgar N. Raffensperger of Cornell University. The cooperation of the 
foregoing individuals does not necessarily imply agreement with the ideas presented. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Bodenheimer, F.S. 1928. Materialien zur Geschichte der Entomologie. Junk, Berlin, vol. 1, 

x, 498 p. 

Goldsmith, E. 1 929. Ancient pagan symbols. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, xxxvi, 220 p. 
Greenberg, M. 1980. Personal communication, letter of 16 January 1980, 1 p. 
Halffter, G. and E.G. Matthews. 1966. The natural history of dung beetles of the subfamily 

Scarabaeinae. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 12-14: 1-312. 
Haran, M. 1959. The ark and the Cherubim: Their symbolic significance in Biblical ritual. 

Israel Exploration Journal 9:30-38, 89-94. 
Harpaz, I. 1973. Early entomology in the Middle East, pp. 21-36 inR.P. Smith, T.E. Mittler 

andC.N. Smith, 1973. History of entomology. Annual Reviews Inc. .Palo Alto, California. 

vii, 517 p. 
Hogue, C.L. 1980. Commentaries in cultural entomology. 1. Definition of cultural 

entomology. Entomological News 91: 33-36. 
Irwin, W.A. 1943. The problem of Ezekieh An inductive study. Univ. Chicago Press, 

Chicago, xx, 344 p. 
Janssens, A. 1940. Monographic des scarabaeus et genres voisins. Memoirs Musee Royal 

d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, Ser. 2, fasc. 16, 1-81 p. 3 pi. 
Klemperer, H.G.1982a. Normal and atypical nesting behaviour of Copris lunaris (L.): 

Comparison with related species (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Ecological Entomology 

7:69-83. 
Klemperer, H.G. 1982b. Parental behaviour in Copris lunaris (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae): 

Care and defence of brood balls and nest. Ecological Entomology 7:155-167. 
Layman, C.M. ed. 1971. The interpreter's one-volume commentary on the Bible. Abingdon, 

Nashville, xiv, 1386 p. 
Pfeiffer, C.F. and E.F. Harrison. 1 962. The Wycliffe Bible commentary. Southwestern Co., 

Nashville, xii, 1525 p. 
Sajo, K. 1910. Aus der Ka'ferwelt. Mit Rucksicht auf die Beziehungen der Kerfe zur 

menschlichen Kulturgeschichte. Theod. Thomas Verlag, Leipzig. 89 p. 
Weise, H.B. 1927. The scarabaeus of the ancient Egyptians. American Naturalist 61: 353- 

369. 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOREIGN CURRENCY 

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Foreign Currency Program, Office of Fellowships and Grants, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C. 20560, or call (202) 287-3321. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 81 



REDESCRIPTION OF CICINDELA SPECULANS 
BATES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER 
NEOTROPICAL CICINDELA (COLEOPTERA: 

CICINDELIDAE) 1 

Robert R. Murray^ 



ABSTRACT: The original description of Cicindela speculans Bates is incomplete and in 
error in respect to the maculation, elytral microserrulations, and shape of the aedeagus. This 
species has been assigned inaccurately to the subgenus Cylindera. The sculpturing of the head 
and thorax and the apical hook of the aedeagus indicate that C. speculans is related most 
closely to C. hemichrysea Chevrolat of the C. argentata Fab. species complex, subgenus 
Brasiella. The male syntype is redescribed and illustrated. 

Bates ( 1 890) described Cicindela speculans from a male and female 
collected by H.H. Smith in Omilteme, Guerrero, Mexico, el. 8000 ft. Bates 
indicated that the maculation consists of a humeral lunule, basal portion of 
the middle line, and marginal line which are mirror-like or shining. The 
apical margins of the elytra were described as being non-serrulate. Bates 
believed that C. speculans was most closely related to C. praecisa Bates. 

Cazier (1954) presented a taxonomic review of the Mexican Cicindela 
but representatives of some species, including C. speculans, were not 
available to him. He indicated in a footnote that it would probably key out 
beyond couplet 37 but did not otherwise key the species. His illustration 
was copied from Bates ( 1 890) and follows it in respect to the maculation. 
Cazier stated that C. speculans was probably more closely allied to C. 
viridisticta Bates than to C. praecisa on the basis of the smooth lateral 
elytral margins and non-serrate elytral apices. 

Rivalier (1954) in this division of the American Cicindela tentatively 
placed C. speculans in the subgenus Cylindera, also without examining 
specimens. 

Recently I have examined the male syntype of C. speculans in 
connection with studies of Mexican and Neotropical cicindelids and found 
that Bates' observations pertaining to the maculation were incomplete and 
that his description of the elytral apices as being non-serrulate was in error. 
This error probably caused Cazier and Rivalier to misplace C. speculans in 
respect to its relationship with other Mexican Cicindela. Cicindela 
speculans is redescribed, illustrated, and its position within Cicindela is 
determined more accurately in this paper. 

Deceived February 1 1, 1983. Accepted March 25, 1983. 

^Section of Invertebrate Zoology, Milwaukee Public Museum. 800 W. Wells Street, 
Milwaukee. WI 53233 

ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 81-85 May & June 1983 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Cicindela speculans Bates 

(Figures 1,2,3,4) 

Head: Distinctly wider than thorax, deeply excavate between eyes. Labrum unidentate, 
convex, tan to creamy white; anterior margin narrow, dark brown, medially produced; with 
single irregular row of 8 submarginal setae; length slightly more than half width. Antenna 
having basal 4 segments cupreous with green reflections, scape with 1 erect subapical seta, 
several erect setae on segments 3 and 4; distal 7 segments ferrugino-testaceous, covered with 
fine setae, Clypeus dark brown, glabrous, finely alutaceous. Gena dark greenish black, 
shining, glabrous, shallowly striate. Frons and vertex brown, concentrically striate, becoming 
rugose toward posterior margin, bare except for 1 pair anterior supraorbital setae and 1 pair 
medial supraorbital setae. 

Thorax: Pronotum same color as vertex of head, widest at apical third, narrowest at base, 
without posterior angles, obliquely striate anteriorly and posteriorly, becoming rugose 
medially, with scattered decumbent setae laterally and anteriorly; median longitudinal line 
shallowly impressed, represented by broad depressions at anterior and posterior ends; anterior 
and posterior transverse lines obscure. Sternal region smooth, shining, dark greenish black; 
proplura, prosternum bare; mesepisternum, mesepimeron each with 1-2 suberect setae; 
mesosternum bare; metepisternum with 2-3 suberect setae at anterior margin, 5-7 suberect 
setae at posterior margin; metepimeron bare; metasternum with 30 or more suberect setae. 
Legs with pro- and mesocoxae having several setae on anterior half, bare posteriorly; 
protrochanter with single subapical seta; femora greenish bronze with cupreous reflections, 
becoming testaceous at apex, setae sparsely arranged in longitudinal rows; tibiae testaceous, 
becoming darker toward apex, with rows of sparse stout suberect setae; tarsi testaceous with 
violaceous or green reflections. 

Abdomen: Venter dark greenish black; with few scattered, fine, suberect setae; setae 
numerous at apical margin of 6th segment. 

Elytra: Colored as vertex, granulate-punctate; punctures shallow, green, frequently 
confluent; foveae absent; gradually widened to apical 1/4, then narrowing until just before 
apex, then turned obliquely anteriorly; apex with short spine. Maculation with humeral lunule, 
marginal line and base of middle line connected, shining brownish black; medial portion of 
middle line white, transverse for half elytral width, bending apically, then returning medially 
forming an oblique C; marginal line endingjust behind junction with middle line; basal portion 
of apical lunule present as white spot separated from lateral margin by 1-1.5 times its 
diameter. Apical 1/5 of elytra finely microserrulate. 

Genitalia: Apex of aedeagus of cf syntype protruding, apex hooked at right angle, length 
of hook 1-1/2 times length of metathoracic tarsal claw. 

Measurements: (in mm): Labrum width 0.78, labral length 0.41, head width 1.59, 
greatest width between eyes 1.04, pronotal width 1.18, oronotal length 1.04, elytral length 
(apex of scutellum to apex) 3.33, total elytral length 3.52, metathoracic tibial length 2.26, total 
length (frons to elytral apex) 5.38, apical hook of aedeagus 0.22. 

Label data (from top to bottom): 1 ) (disc with red margin - printed) Type; 2) (printed) Sp. 
figured.; 3) (printed) Omilteme, Guerrero, 8000 ft.. July. H.H. Smith; 4) (handwritten) 
speculans Bates cf; 5) (inverted - printed) T.E.S.; 1890. 

Diagnosis: Cicindela speculans is easily distinguished from most Mexican 
and Central American Cicindela on the basis of its small size and bicolored 
maculation (Figs. 1 ,2). It is rivaled in size by C. hemichrysea Chevrolat, C. 
viridisticta Bates and C. wickhamiW. Horn. It can be distinguished from 
C. viridisticta by having apical microserrulations (Fig. 4). It can be 
distinguished from C. hemichrysea and C. wickhami by the bicolored, 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 



83 




CM 





I ; 



j 

E 



'S - 



T -^ 

c 
r: 

' 



, 

Li. E 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



almost complete maculation. Cicindela hemichrysea usually has greatly 
reduced maculation, typically represented by the internal portion of the 
middle line and basal portion of the apical lunule which are white. Cicindela 
\\ickhami likewise has totally white maculation. The female syntype of C. 
speculans in the BMNH was examined by G.G. Kibby, and the bicolored 
maculation is similar to that of the male (pers. comm.). 

DISCUSSION 

Bates (1890) did not completely describe the maculation of C. 
speculans. It was illustrated as being totally dark. Furthermore, the elytral 
apices were described as being non-serrulate when in fact they are distinctly 
microserrulate. Cazier ( 1 954) perpetuated the error with his discussion and 
copy of Bates' illustration of C. speculans. These authors believed that C. 
speculans is most closely related to C. praecisa or C. viridisticta. Rivalier 
(1954) placed C. speculans (as specularis) in the genus Cylindera without 
having seen specimens. He also placed C. praecisa and C viridisticta in 
Cylindera. The genera used by Rivalier are recognized only as subgenera 
by most American cicindelid specialists. In this same paper Rivalier 
described the genus Brasiella as containing species of small size (around 7 
mm in length) with a short labrum having 6-10 submarginal setae, 
protruding eyes, elytra with metallic spots, and often fragmented or 
partially reduced maculation. Furthermore, Rivalier states that the genus is 
best defined by the shape of the aedeagus which is almost always provided 
with a sharp, right-angled hook and by the absence of a flagellum in the 
internal sac. These characters, with the exception of those of the internal 
sac. which was not dissected, are all possessed by C. speculans. 

In a subsequent paper (Rivalier 1955) Brasiella is divided into 3 
species groups based on genitalic characters. 1 ) The typical (C. argentata 
Fab.) species complex is characterized by the distinct, right-angled 
aedeagal hook and by all 4 components of the internal sac being strongly 
sclerotized with the arciforrn piece being spiny and oriented longitudinally. 
The 13 species of this group, including C. hemichrysea (C. argentata 
hemichrysea in Cazier (1954)). range from the southwestern US to 
Paraguay and Argentina. 2) A Brasilian group containing 2 species is 
characterized by a sharply hooked aedeagus, a large oblique arciforrn piece 
in the internal sac and a lightly sclerotized foliaceous appearing shield- 
shaped piece in the internal sac. 3) A Central and South American group 
containing 2 species is characterized by the apical hook of the aedeagus 
being reduced or absent and by the complicated architecture of the internal 
sac. 

On the basis of the shape of the aedeagus and distributional data, in 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 85 



addition to its similarity in respect to head and pronotal sculpturing, C. 
speculans appears to be most closely related to the C. argentata species 
complex and probably is nearest to C. hemichrysea. 

Cicindela speculans will key to C. argentata (= C. hemichrysea} in 
couplet 43 of Cazier ( 1 954). These 2 species can be separated as follows. 

A. Maculation unicolored. white; maculation usually reduced, occasionally nearly 

complete but without marginal line: elytral coloration black or dark brown 

C. hemichrysea 

A'. Maculation bicolored ( Figs. 1,2); marginal line, humeral lunule and base of middle line 

shining brownish black, remainder of middle line and remnant of apical lunule white; 

maculation nearly complete, with marginal line; elytral coloration brown 

C. speculans 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

My thanks are extended to G.G. Kibby, British Museum (Natural History) forthe loan of 
the male syntype of C. speculans and his drawing of the maculation of the female syntype. 
E.G. Bashaw. USDA. SEA. College Station, Texas graciously allowed me to use the 
photographic equipment in his care. H.R. Burke and J.C. Schaffner. Texas A&M University 
critically reviewed the manuscript and contributed helpful suggestions for its improvement. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bates. H.W. 1 890. Additions to the Cicindelidae fauna of Mexico: with remarkes on some of 
the previously recorded species. Trans. Entomol. Soc. London. 1890. pt. 3: 439-510. 

Cazier, M.A. 1 954. A review of the Mexican tiger beetles of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera, 
Cicindelidae). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 103: 227-310. 

Rivalier, E. 1954. Demembrement du genre Cicindela Linne II. Faune americaine. Revue 
franc. d'Ent. 21: 249-268. 

Rivalier, E. 1955. Les Brasiella du groupe de argentata F. (Col. Cicindelidae). Revue franc. 
d'Ent. 22: 77-101. 



INSECT AND SPIDER COLLECTIONS OF THE WORLD 

A new work entitled "Insect and Spider Collections of the World" is now being compiled 
by Dr. Ross H. Arnett. Jr., Florida State Collection of Arthropods, P.O. Box 1269. 
Gainesville. FL 32601. Dr. G. Alan Samuelson, Bishop Museum. P.O. Box 19000-A. 
Honolulu. HI 96819. Drs. Robert E. Woodruff and John B. Heppner. Division of Plant 
Industry. P.O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32601. and Dr. Gerardo Lamas. Museo de 
Historia Natural "Javier Prado," Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Aptd. 434. 
Lima 14. Peru. 

The purpose of this work is to produce a standard list of museums and collections of the 
world containing specimens of insects and spiders useful for study of systematists; to provide a 
suitable coden for each collection for use in journals and monographs to refer to the place of 
deposit of specimens of insects and spiders: and to describe these collections, including the 
size, type of housing, and similar data. 

Questionnaires are being sent to all institutions listed in previous works. Any collections 
not included in previous lists may be added by writing to the compilers for information and a 
questionnaire. 



86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

EUROPEAN RHAGIONIDAE IN EASTERN 

NORTH AMERICA: RECORDS OF NEWLY 

DISCOVERED SPECIES (DIPTERA) 1 

L.L. Pechuman, E. Richard Hoebeke^ 

ABSTRACT: The Palearctic species Rhagio strigosus Meigen (Diptera: Rhagionidae) is 
newly discovered in New York State; this is a new North American record. In addition, R. 
tringarius (L.) is reported from Massachusetts and New York which represent new United 
States records. Diagnostic characters ofR. strigosus are illustrated to aid in its separation from 
other native and introduced species in North America. An existing key to the eastern species of 
Rhagio is modified to include R. strigosus. A possible means of introduction is hypothesized. 

The discovery of Rhagio strigosus Meigen in the Genesee Region of 
New York State is the first record of this common European species in 
North America. A collection of 5 specimens at Bergen (Genesee County), 
New York, in 1981-82, by Patricia Ferris, would seem to indicate that this 
species may be established here. A male specimen was taken from a garage 
window around August 8, 1981, and a female specimen was taken 
September 3, 1982. Three dead and damaged specimens also were taken 
from sills of garage windows at the same location in early August 1 982; one 
specimen was a male, while the sex of the other specimens were not 
determined as they lacked the head or most of the abdomen. Further 
attempts to collect this distinctive species in the vicinity of Bergen in late 
July and early August 1982 proved unsuccessful. 

In eastern North America, the genus Rhagio Fabricius is comprised of 
15 species, 4 of which are introduced. Chillcott (1965) revised the eastern 
nearctic species and reported for the first time the presence of the European 
species R. tringarius (L.) (from Lockeport, Nova Scotia) and R. Hneola F. 
(from Ottawa, Ontario). Thompson (1969) reported the occurrence in 
North America of a third European species, R. scolopaceus (L.), based on 
collections of specimens from the metropolitan Boston area (Massachusetts) in 
June 1949, 1963, and 1968. Our discovery of R. strigosus in New York 
marks the fourth European species of Rhagio to be found introduced into 
North America. 

Rhagio strigosus, a species common throughout much of Europe, is 
easily separated from most other eastern North American Rhagio. R. 
strigosus looks like scolopaceus in habitus and is likely to be confused with 
it. Thompson (1969) modified Chillcott's (1965) key to the eastern 
nearctic species of Rhagio to include R. scolopaceus. Here, Thompson's 



1 Received September 2, 1982. Accepted March 5, 1983. 

^Professor Emeritus and Extension Associate, respectively, Department of Entomology, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 86-88 May & June 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 



87 



couplet #4 (p. 142) is modified to incorporate R. strigosus. 

4. Notopleural shelf and metepimeron bare 4a. 

Notopleural shelf and metepimeron haired 5. 

4a. Wings strongly patterned; proepisternum bare and haired 4b. 

Wings clear; proepisternum bare tringarius (L.) 

4b. Proepisternum bare; stigma of wing isolated from radial fork (Fig. 1); third antennal 

segment smaller than the second, ovate or broader than long (Fig. 2) 

strigosus Meigen 

Proepisternum haired; stigma usually connected to radial fork by dark patch; third 
antennal segment larger than second, longer than broad (Fig. 3) scolopaceus(L.) 

The specimens of/?, strigosus from Bergen, NY, key out readily in the 
European literature (Lindner, 1 925; Oldroyd, 1969). The determination by 
us was verified by comparison with several European specimens identified 





Figs. 1-3. Rhagio spp. 1, Wing of R. strigosus Meigen. 2, Antennal segments 1-3, R. 
strigosus (after Oldroyd, 1969). 3, Antennal segments 1-3, R. scolopaceus (L.) (after 
Oldroyd, 1969). 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



by E. Lindner, and given to the Cornell University Insect Collection 
through the kindness of Wolfgang Schacht (Zoologische Staatssammlung, 
Munich). 

Chillcott (1965) noted that the "larvae of Rhagio are frequently 
intercepted in the soil on imported plant materials. . .". It would then seem 
probable that R. strigosus, like the other introduced Rhagio species, was 
introduced through nursery importation. In the second half of the nineteenth 
century, the city of Rochester (Monroe County), New York, had the proud 
claim to the title of "The Flower City: Center of Nurseries and Fruit 
Orchards." It is well documented (McKelvey, 1940) that some of the 
prominent nurseries of the greater Rochester area (notably the Ellwanger 
and Barry nurseries) in the mid-1800's acquired extensive purchases of 
nursery stock from abroad, especially Europe. This early and extensive 
importation of nursery and floriculture stock in New York, prior to any U.S. 
imposed quarantine restrictions, may be responsible, at least in part, for the 
presence of other exotic species in the area surrounding Rochester. We 
offer this hypothesis as one possible explanation for the mode of introduction 
for R. strigosus. 

A thorough search was made of the Cornell University Insect Collection's 
unidentified Rhagionidae for additional specimens of R. strigosus. No 
material was found. However, 2 specimens of another introduced species of 
Rhagio were discovered which represent new U.S. records, R. tringarius, 
first reported in North America by Chillcott ( 1 965 ) from Lockeport, Nova 
Scotia, is now recorded from Massachusetts and New York. The following 
locality records extend its known distribution in eastern North America: 

UNITED STATES: Massachusetts: Berkshire Co., Lenox (Eastover), 7 July 1982, L.L. 
Pechuman, coll. (1 tf). New York: Chenango Co., Jam Pond Bog nr. German, 7 August 
1980, D.J. Bickle, coll. (cf) 

These specimens key to R. tringarius in the European literature and in 
Chillcott ( 1 965 ). They also compare well with European representatives of 
R. tringarius in the Cornell collection. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chillcott, J.F. 1965. A revision of the eastern nearctic species of Rhagio Fabricius 

(Diptera: Rhagionidae). Can. Entomol. 97: 785-795. 
Lindner, E. 1925. 20. Rhagionidae (Leptidae) 49 pp. + 2 pis., 29 figs. In E. Lindner's Die 

Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. 
McKelvey, B. 1 940. The Flower City: Center of Nurseries and Fruit Orchards, pp. 1 2 1 - 1 69. 

In B. McKelvey's (ed.). Part I. Foreign Traveler's Notes on Rochester and the Genesee 

County before 1 840. Part II. Nurseries, Farm Papers, and selected Rochester Episodes. 

The Rochester Historical Society, Publications XVIII, Rochester. 
Oldroyd, H. 1 969. Diptera Brachycera. Section (a), Tabanoidea and Asiloidea. Vol. IX. Part 

4, 132 pp. In Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, Royal Entomological 

Society of London, London. 
Thompson, F.C. 1969. First record of Rhagio scolopaceus (Linne) in North America 

(Diptera: Rhagionidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 71(2): 141-43. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 89 

NEW SPECIES AND DISTRIBUTION NOTES OF 

MEXICAN AND BOLIVIAN IDIODONUS 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 1 

Dwight M. DeLong^ 

ABSTRACT: Six new species of Idiodonus, I. albifrons n.sp., E. sexpunctatus n.sp. /. 
marginatus n.sp., /. pallidus n.sp., /. nigrifrons n.sp., all from Mexico and /. costatus n.sp. 
from Bolivia are described. A new name Idiodonus beamerellus is proposed for /. beameri 
DeLong ( 1 946) preoccupied by /. beameri Ball (1937). New distribution notes are given for /. 
wickhami Ball. 

The Idiodonus of Mexico were treated by DeLong (1946) who listed 
35 species, 32 of which were described as new. Six species are being 
described at this time, five from Mexico and one from Bolivia. A new name 
Idiodonus beamerellus is proposed for /. beameri DeLong (1946), 
preoccupied by /. beameri Ball (1937). Notes on new distribution records 
of I. wickhami Ball are cited. 

The male genital structures in this genus are of little or no specific value. 
Color patterns and the female 7th sternum are therefore used for species 
identifications. All types are in the DeLong collection, Ohio Stae University. 



Idiodonus albifrons n.sp. 

(Figs. 1, 7) 

Length of female 4.5 mm. Male unknown. Crown broadly rounded, appearing parallel 
margined 2 1/2 times as wide between eyes at base as long at middle. Color: face white without 
markings. Crown sordid yellow with a large black spot just above margin next to each eye and 2 
smaller black spots between them. Pronotum gray, tinged with yellow. A small black spot near 
anterior margin behind each eye. Scutellum yellow, 2 proximal small, black spots at middle. 
Forewings grayish subhyaline, veins brownish. 

Female seventh sternum with posterior margin excavated about 1/4 distance to base, and 
bearing a spatulate process which extends to length of lateral angles. 

Holotype female: Chilpancingo, Gro. Mexico 25-X- 1 94 1 , DeLong. Good and Caldwell 
colls. 

/. albifrons is related to /. schwartzi (Ball) ( 1 9 1 1 , p. 197) and can be 
separated from it by the 2 large black spots close to the eyes, the 2 smaller 
central proximal spots, the 2 black spots on the pronotum, the 2 proximal 
minute black spots on the scutellum and by the mesally spatulate 7th 
sternum of the female. 



1 Received June 21. 1982. Accepted March 25. 1983. 
^Department of Entomology. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 89-92 May & June 1983 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Idiodonus sexpunctatus n.sp. 

(Figs. 2, 8) 

Length of female 5.5 mm. Male unknown. Crown slightly produced, approximately 1 1/2 
times as wide at base between eyes as long at middle. Color: face pale yellowish with 
remnants of black arcs and a black spot just below each ocellus next to each eye. Crown 
yellowish, tinted with orange, with 2 proximal large black spots at apex and 2 minute round 
black spots just basad of larger spots. Pronotum tinted with a faint dark brown transverse mark 
at center. Forewings pale gray subhyaline, veins brown. 

Female 7th sternum with posterior margin slightly produced between the lateral angles, 
bearing a median squarish notch 1/6 length of segment, with a convexly rounded base. 

Holotype male: Mexico, Rio Frio, D.F. (K-47) 18-X-1941, DeLong, Plummer, 
Caldwell, Good colls. 

/. sexpunctata is related to /. andanus DeLong (1946, p. 29) and can 
be separated from it by the 2 small proximal black spots on the middle of the 
crown, by the absence of small spots on the pronotum and by the squarish 
excavation of the 7th sternum of the female. 

Idiodonus marginatus n.sp. 

(Fig. 3) 

Length of male 4.5 mm. Female unknown. Crown broadly rounded, only slightly 
produced, half as long at middle as wide at base between eyes. Color: face pale yellow. Crown 
pale brown with a broad marginal black transverse band between eyes. Pronotum pale 
brownish with dark gray coloration on caudal margin. Scutellum yellowish with a dark brown 
T-shaped mark at middle. Forewings grayish subhyaline, veins mostly brown except white 
claval veins. 

Male genital plates elongate, triangular, 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices pointed. 

Holotype male: Mexico, Tulancingo, Hidalgo (K-129) 25-X-1945, Stone, DeLong, 
Hershberger, Elliot colls. 

/. marginatus is related to /. turpiter DeLong ( 1 946, p. 28) and can be 
separated from it by the black transverse band on the margin of the crown. 

Idiodonus pallidus n.sp. 

(Figs. 4, 9) 

Length of female 5 mm, male 4.6 mm. Crown slightly produced and broadly rounded, 1 
1/2 times as wide at base between eyes as long at middle. Color: face pale yellowish with 
remnants of brown arcs each side. A small round black spot next each eye below ocellus. 
Anterior coronal margin narrowly whitish with 4 transverse elongate black spots, 2 near apex, 
2 near eyes. Remainder of crown brown with darker brown coloration along with the white 
margin. Pronotum brown, scutellum brown with a white V-shaped wedge at middle each side. 
Forewings brown, veins brown except the terminal portion of claval veins next to commissure 
and the veins of posterior apical cells, which are white. 

Female 7th sternum with posterior margin slightly produced and broadly shallowly 
notched at center, 1/6 distance to base. 

Male plates elongate, triangular, 5 times as long as wide at middle. 
/. pallidus is related to /. anademus DeLong (1946, p. 29) and can be 
separated from it by the elongate spots on the crown, the white spots on the 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 



91 



scutellum and the white claval veins of the forewing. 

Idiodonus nigrifrons n.sp. 

(Fig. 5) 

Length of male 5 mm. Female unknown. Crown slightly produced, broadly rounded, half 
as long at middle as wide at base between eyes. Color: face black, crown yellow with a black 
transverse band in front of eyes. Pronotum yellow, a large irregular shaped spot behind each 
eye with a black, broken, transverse band extending across basal part of pronotum, brownish 
irregular pigment on apical protion. Scutellum yellowish with a dark brown spot near each 
basal angle. Forewings grayish subhyaline, veins brown. 

Male genital plates elongate, triangular, 4 times as long as wide at middle, apices sharply 
pointed. 




Fig. 1. Idiodonus albifrons n.sp. head, pronotum and scutellum. Fig. 7 female 7th sternum. 
Fig. 2. /. sexpunctata n.sp. head, pronotum and scutellum. Fig. 8, female 7th sternum. Fig. 
3. /. marginatus n.sp. head, pronotum and scutellum. Fig. 4. /. pallidus, n.sp. head, 
pronotum and scutellum. Fig. 9 female 7th sternum. Fig. 5. /. nigrifronsn.sp. head, pronotum 
and scutellum. Fig. 6. /. costatus n.sp. head, pronotum and scutellum. 



92 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Holotype male: Mexico, Huanchinango, Puebla (K.-170) 25-X-1945, Stone, DeLong, 
Hershberger, Elliott colls. 

/. nigrifrons is related to /. vinculus DeLong ( 1 946, p. 1 5) and can be 
separated from it by the black face, the black transverse band on the apical 
portion of the crown and the black spots on the pronotum and scutellum. 

Idiodonus cost at us n.sp. 
(Fig. 6) 

Length of male 4.2 mm. Female unknown. Crown scarcely produced, almost 3 times as 
wide at base between eyes as long at middle. Color: face white, crown white, basal portion 
along margin brownish. Pronotum brownish, scutellum brownish, caudal half sordid whitish, 
basal angles dark. Forewings brown with costal margin broadly white. 

Male genital plates elongate, triangular, 3 times as long as wide at middle, apices tapered, 
pointed. 

Holotype male: Bolivia, Santa Cruz, 19-VIII-1980, Donald Foster coll. 

/. costatus is related to /. rubellus DeLong (1946, p. 15) and can be 
separated from it by the white crown, the absence of black spots on the 
crown, the absence of red coloration and the broad white costal wing 
margin. 

Idiodonus beamerellus n.n. for /. beameri (1946) preoccupied by 
Idiodonus beameri Ball (1937) 

Idiodonus wickhami Ball was described from specimens collected in 
Arizona. It has been collected abundantly in Mexico, especially at higher 
altitudes, 6,000 to 9,000 feet. Records at hand are: Mt. Popo, D.F. 1 1 ,000 
ft., Mexico City D.F. 7,500 ft., La Guarda D.F. 8,500 ft., Chapingo, D.F. 
9,900 ft., Toluca D.F. 9,700 ft., Rio Frio D.F. 10,300 ft., Zitacuara, Mich. 
6,700 ft., Carapan, Mich. 5,000 ft., Zacapu, Mich. 6,500 ft. and Pueblo, 
Pue. 8,500 ft. 

A reddish form has been collected at Santa Cruz, Bolivia by Donald L. 
Foster. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ball, E.D. 1911. Additions to the Jassid Fauna of N.A. (Homoptera) Canad Entomol. 

43: 197-204. 
1937. Some New Species of Leafhoppers in Groups Recently Segregated from 

Thamnotettix. Bull Brook. Entomol. Soc. 32(1): 26-31. 
DeLong, D.M. 1946. The Mexican species of Idiodonus ( Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Ohio 

Jour. Sci. 46(1): 13-30. 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

ORTHOPTERAN MATING SYSTEMS. D.T. Gwynne & G.K. Morris, 
eds. 1983. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo. 376 pp. $30. 

Comprehensive study of diverse reproductive ecology and reproductive behavior of orthopteran 
insects. Based on symposium at 1980 E.S.A. meeting. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 93 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE FEMALE OF 

HYDROPTILA JACKMANNI BUCKLE 

(TRICHOPTERA: HYDROPTILIDAE), WITH 

BIOLOGICAL NOTES 1 

Alexander D. Huryn^ 

ABSTRACT: A description of the female of Hydroptila jackmanni Blickle is given. 
Included are notes on the flight period, distribution, and habitat of this species as it occurs in 
Ohio. 

During a recent survey of the caddisflies inhabiting the Little Muskingum 
River watershed, Monroe and Washington Counties, Ohio (Huryn 1982), 
an undescribed female of the genus Hydroptila was encountered. Through 
associations of male and female flight periods, local distributions, and 
terminalia morphologies, I determined this female to be H. jackmanni 
Blickle. 

In Ohio, H. jackmanni is restricted to the Appalachian Plateau with 
collections being made in Monroe, Portage and Summit Counties. Light 
trap collections of associated males and females were made at Haskell Run, 
Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, Summit County (June 27, 
1980; 12 males, 48 females), and Wildcat Run, Perry Township, Monroe 
County (June 9, 1981; 10 males, 61 females). Both collections were made 
along relatively unperturbed, second order streams of moderate gradient, 
which flowed through dense, mixed-deciduous forest areas. Other members 
of Hydroptila collected in association with H. jackmanni were H. amoena 
Ross, H. callia Denning, H. consimilis Morton and H. waubesiana Betten. 
Hydroptila jackmanni apparently is univoltine with peak emergence 
occurring in mid-June (Huryn 1982). 

Hydroptila jackmanni Blickle 

Male. Blickle (1963). 

Female. -- Length from front of head to tip of abdomen 2.8-3.8 mm (N = 10). Eighth 
abdominal segment as in Figure 1. Conspicuous, well sclerotized, "flange-like" clasper 
grooves are lateral (Figure 1A). Internally, anterior margins of clasper grooves are sites of 
attachment of apodemes of eighth segment. Eighth sternite short and trapezoidal in outline 
(Figure IB). Posterior margin of eighth sternite emarginate with a group of four stout setae at 
each apex. Eighth tergite showing a similar setal arrangement but with no posteromesal 
emargination. Approximately midway between the dorsal and ventral setal groups are two 
smaller setae. 

Females of//, jackmanni are easily distinguished from other described 
Deceived November 15, 1982. Accepted March 5, 1983. 

Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240. Present 
address: Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602. 

ENT. NEWS. 94(3) 93-94 May & June 1983 



94 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



members of the genus by the presence of the conspicuous clasper grooves. 
However, as females are known for only about one-quarter of the 60 species 
offfydroptila recorded from North America (Blickle 1 979), determination 
of//, jackmanni based on collections of females without associated males 
should be regarded as tentative. 

Specimens of H. jackmanni are depositied in the collection at the 
University of Georgia. 




ant. 



0.1 mm 



Figure 1. Eighth abdominal segment of the female of H. jackmanni. A. lateral view. B. 
sternite. (AP=apodeme, CG=clasper groove). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Ohio Biological Survey provided partial funding for this study. The drawings were 
executed by M. Shomack at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blickle, R.L. 1963. New species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. 
Soc. 58: 17-22. 

1979. Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) of American north of Mexico. New 

Hampshire Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 509: 1-97. 
Huryn, A.D. 1 982. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Little Muskingum River, Washington 

and Monroe Counties, Ohio. Unpublished M.S. Thesis. Kent State University, Kent, 

Ohio. 177 pp. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 95 

A NEW RECORD OF ATTACKS BY PEDILUS 

(PEDILIDAE) ON MELOE (MELOIDAE: 

COLEOPTERA) 1 

Laurent LeSage, Yves Bousquet^ 

ABSTRACT: Two specimens of the pedilid beetle, Pedilus lugubris (Say), were found on a 
male meloid, Meloe angusticollis Say in Rigaud, Quebec. They had severely damaged the 
meloid beetle by partially chewing the elytra. Photographs of the beetles and of the elytral 
damage are provided. 

The first North American record of Pedilus attacking Meloe adults was 
reported by Say (1826), who stated that the type-specimen of Pedilus 
impressus (Say) was found attached to the side of an adult Meloe 
angusticollis Say. Leech (1934) observed elytra of Meloe niger Kirby 
partially eaten by Pedilus monticola( Horn), and Pinto & Selander(1970) 
made similar observations involving Pedilus terminalis (Say) attacking 
Meloe angusticollis Say and M. americanus Leach. The purposes of this 
note are to present a new record of attack by Pedilus and to illustrate the 
damage caused to the elytra of meloid beetles. 

During a collecting trip at Rigaud, Quebec (45 29'N; 74 18'W) on 
May 17, 1982 we found a male and a female of the blister beetle Meloe 
angusticollis Say crawling on a trail in a deciduous forest. The male meloid 
(Fig. la) attracted attention because it was bearing two smaller black 
beetles, Pedilus lugubris (Say) (Fig. Ib) on its dorsal surface. All beetles 
were brought to the laboratory and placed together in a transparent plastic 
container for observations. Apparently the meloid beetles did not pay 
attention to the two Pedilus but seemed stressed by their confinement in the 
plastic container. The two Pedilus were very active, crawling on the dorsal 
surface of the male meloid and feeding on its elytra; indeed, the examination 
of the gut content of one Pedilus revealed several setae and small pieces of 
cuticle similar to those found on Meloe. They also quickly located the 
meloid female and began the same activity on its elytra. Maximum elytral 
damage was not observed because the Pedilus were killed and preserved for 
determination. The purpose of such a chewing behavior is still a mystery. 

An examination of the Meloe beetles in the Canadian National 
Collection, about 400 specimens, did not reveal any specimens with similar 
damage to the elytra. Consequently, attack by Pedilus on Meloe seems to 
be a rare phenomenon. However, more material and additional observa- 



1 Received October 12, 1982. Accepted March 5, 1983. 

^Biosystematics Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A OC6 
Canada. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 95-96 May & June 1983 



96 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



tions are needed to determine if this rarity is real or apparent, and we hope 
our note will stimulate research in this area. 

We would like to acknowledge Mr. C. Beddoe for the habitus 
photographs and our colleagues Drs. J.M. Campbell and E.G. Becker for 
the determination of the beetles and their comments on the manuscript. 





Figure 1 . Dorsal view of: left, Meloe angusticolis Say; right, Pedilus lugubris (Say); both at 
the same scale (enlargement: about 3 times). 



LITERATURE CITED 

Leech, H.B. 1934. Almost a cannibal. Bull. Brookl. ent. Soc. 29: 41. 

Pinto, J.D. and R.B. Selander. 1 970. The bionomics of blister beetles of the genus Meloe and 

a classification of the new world species. 111. biol. Mono. 42: 1-222. 
Say, T. 1 826. Description of new species of coleopterous insects inhabiting the United States. 

J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 5: 237-284. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 97 



LECTOTYPE DESIGNATION FOR EUSCAPHURUS 

SALTATOR CASEY (COLEOPTERA: 

EUCINETIDAE) 1 

Richard A. Rochette 2 

ABSTRACT: A lectotype and eight paralectotypes are designated for Euscaphurus saltator 
Casey. 

Casey ( 1 885 ) described Euscaphurus saltator from California without 
designating a type. Vit ( 1 977) later redescribed it from a specimen (female) 
from the Horn collection without designating a lectotype. The purpose of 
this note, therefore, is to select a lectotype for this species. 

There are nine specimens in the "type" series from the Casey 
collection. Spec. Nr. 1-8: "Cal'VCasey bequest 1925"/"Paratype NMNH 
(orange-red label, National Museum of Natural History) series #49232"; 
Spec. Nr. 9: Same data except, "Holotype NMNH series #49232". With 
Casey (1885) not mentioning any type designation in his paper, one 
questions the validity of the holo- and paratype labels. These labels were 
probably added later. Therefore, a male in good condition with the genitalia 
exposed is hereby designated as the lectotype. The label ''Lectotype 
Euscaphurus saltator Casey des. R.A. Rochette XI/3/82" was attached to 
it. All remaining specimens in this series are hereby designated paralecto- 
types. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Dr. John M. Kingsolver for bringing this nomenclatural problem to my attention; 
and also Drs. Richard W. Spellenberg and James R. Zimmerman for reviewing this note. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Casey, T.L. 1 885. New genera and species of California Coleoptera. Bull. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1 : 

283-336. 
Vit, S. 1977. Contribution a la connaissance des Eucinetidae (Coleoptera). Revue suisse 

Zool. 84: 917-935. 



Deceived December 16, 1982. Accepted March 5, 1983. 

^Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 



ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 97 May & June 1983 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

NEW RECORDS OF DRYINIDAE 

(HYMENOPTERA) IN TENNESSEE 1 

R.E. Kelly, L.E. Klostermeyer 2 

ABSTRACT: The known ranges of the dryinids, Gonatopus ashmeadi Kieffer, Neogonatopus 
agropyrus (Fenton), Dicondylus americanus (Perkins), and Pseudogonatopus stenocrani 
Perkins are extended to include Tennessee. 

Seven specimens of Dryinidae were collected with a D-Vac suction 
sampler in a 1980-1981 survey of leafhoppers associated with a mixed tall 
fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pasture at the University of 
Tennessee's Plateau Experiment Station, Grassland Farm, located 12.9 
km south of Crossville, Cumberland County, Tennessee (Kelly, 1982). 
Only females were collected and were identified by Dr. Paul H. Freytag, 
Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, as 
follows: 



Gonatopus ashmeadi Kieffer 1 specimen each on 19 August 1980, 1 1 June 1981 and 8 

July 1981. 
Neogonatopus agropyrus (Fenton) 1 specimen each on 10 June 1980 and 8 July 1981. 

Freytag 1977 transferred agropyrus from Gonatopus to Neogonatopus. 
Dicondylus americanus (Perkins) 1 specimen on 27 May 1980. Giri and Freytag (1982) 

transferred americanus from Haplogonatopus to Dicondylus. 
Pseudogonatopus stenocrani Perkins 1 specimen on 14 October 1980. 



These species are new records from the state of Tennessee. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Giri, M.K. and P.H. Freytag. 1982. A new generic placement for Haplogonatopus 

americanus Perkins (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). Entomol. News 93(4): 121-4. 
Freytag, P.H. 1977. A review of the genus -/Veogo/taro/JH.? for North America (Hymenoptera: 

Dryinidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70: 569-76. 
Kelly, R.E. 1982. Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with a mixed tall 

fescue pasture on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee. Knoxville, TN: Univ. of 

Tennessee. M.S. Thesis. 59 p. 



Deceived November 8, 1982. Accepted March 26, 1983. 

2 Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 
37901. 



ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 98 May & June 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 99 



THE OCCURRENCE OF ELLIPES MINUTUS 
(SCUDDER) (ORTHOPTERA: TRIDACTYLIDAE) 

IN KENTUCKY 1 

M. Ann Phillippi^ 

ABSTRACT: Tridactylids collected from ten counties across Kentucky have been identified 
as Ellipes minutus (Scudder). Reports of the species across North America are sporadic and 
undoubtedly reflect the paucity of collections from their riparian habitat. Ellipes minutus has 
not been previously reported from Kentucky. 

The orthopteran family, Tridactylidae, is represented by four species in 
North America (Guenther 1977), Neotridactylus apicialis (Say), Ellipes 
gurneyi Guenther, E. minutus (Scudder), and E. monticolus Guenther. 
Across the United States, locality records for the species are widespread 
(Guenther 1975, 1977, 1 980) but scarce (Urquhart 1937), most likely due 
to the paucity of collections from their riparian habitat and the difficulty in 
capturing these fast, small, exceptionally strong jumpers (Blatchley 1920, 
Goodwin and Powders 1968). This author inquired into the distribution of 
the family after a single individual of E. minutus was collected in a Surber 
sample from a stream in eastern Kentucky. 

There are no published reports of the family from Kentucky, and there 
are no Kentucky specimens housed at the University of Michigan Museum 
of Zoology in Ann Arbor; the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia; 
the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.; or the 
Eastern Kentucky University Insect Collection in Richmond. Ninety 
specimens of E. minutus were found in two museums, the University of 
Louisville and the University of Kentucky from the following counties: 
Breathitt, Fayette, Graves, Henry, Jefferson, Knox, Leslie, Meade, 
Oldham, and Pendleton. Collection dates were April 12,18,19,26, and 30; 
May 3, 18, 19, 26, 26, and 27; June 30; July 16; and Sept. 11 and 24. 

These specimens are from ten counties scattered across Kentucky 
including several physiographic regions as follows: extreme western 
Kentucky in the Gulf Coastal Plain Province (Graves Co.); in the central 
Bluegrass (Fayette Co.); along the Ohio River in north-central Kentucky 
(Meade, Oldham, Jefferson, Pendleton, and Henry Cos.); and in the 
Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky (Breathitt, Knox, and Leslie 
Cos.). Based on these few definite records in a wide geographic area, it is 
probable that E. minutus is more common and widespread than is presently 
known throughout Kentucky and perhaps throughout much of North 



'Received December 24, 1982. Accepted January 13. 1983. 

ZT.H. Morgan School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 

ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 99-100 May & June 1983 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



America (Merritt and Cummins 1978) primarily due to the scarcity of 
collections in its habitat. 

Unfortunately, information referring to the purported riparian habitat of 
E. minutus is limited to general statements. Blatchley ( 1 920) observed that 
E. minutus is "more abundant about ponds and lakes than along flowing 
streams," and other authors refer to its apparent preference for "lakes and 
watercourses" (Hebard 1934), "moist habitats" (Goodwin and Powders 
1968), "streams on moist sand banks where they closely resemble their 
background" (Rentz 1965), and "lentic and lotic margins near quiet water 
away from wave or splash effects" (Merritt and Cummins 1978). The Knox 
County, Kentucky, specimen came from a stream with trees, shrubs, and 
herbaceous plants on the immediate sandy, silty shore with adjacent 
cornfields. The stream was clear, and the substrate consisted of a stony, 
sandy bottom with silt accumulating in the pools. It is postulated that E. 
minutus was accidental in the Surber sample and is typically a riparian or 

semi-aquatic species. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blatchley, W.S. 1920. Orthoptera of northeastern America. The Nature Publishing 

Company, Indianapolis. 
Goodwin, J.T., and V.N. Powders. 1968. The Gryllotalpidae and Tridactylidae (Orthoptera) 

of Tenneessee. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 43(1): 28-29. 
Guenther, K.K. 1975. Das genus Neotridactylus Guenther, 1972. (Tridactylidae: Saltatoria 

Insecta). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 51: 305-365. 
1977. Revision der Gattung Ellipes Scudder, 1902 (Saltatoria, Tridactylidae). 

Dtsch. Ent. Zeit. N.F.. 24: 47-122. 

_. 1980. Katalog der Caelifera Unterordnung Tridactylodea (Insecta). Dtsch. 



Ent. Zeit., N.F., 27: 149-178. 
Hebard, M. 1934. The Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Illinois. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 

20: 125-279. 
Merritt, R.W., and K.W. Cummins. 1978. An introduction to the aquatic insects of North 

America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 
Rentz, D.C. 1 965. Additional locality records of Tridactvlus minutus. Pan Pacific Entomol. 

4(1): 70. 
Urquhart, F.A. 1937. Some notes on the sand cricket, (Tridactvlus apicalis Say). Canad. 

Field Naturalist 51: 28-29. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 

POPULATION BIOLOGY OF TROPICAL INSECTS. A.M. Young. 
1982. Plenum Press. 511 pp. $57.50. 

Author describes major developments in study of insect populations in tropical environments 
and brings together various concepts and related studies that explain spatial and temporal 
patterns of tropical insect diversity. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 101 



AMPHIPOEA VELATA (WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA: 

(NOCTUIDAE) ATTACKING CORN NEAR 

FRIENDSVILLE, MARYLAND 1 2 

James W. Amrine, Jr., Linda Butler^ 

ABSTRACT: The noctuid, Amphipoea velata (Walker), was observed attacking 20-30 cm 
corn in early June in Garrett Co. Md. Larvae made nests by tying leaves together with silk. 
Feeding habits included general defoliation, tunneling in the stalk, and cutting through the base 
of the stalk. The larvae fed on several species of weeds in addition to corn. Infestations 
occurred in grassy-weedy patches and averaged 6.2 larvae per corn plant. Carbaryl treatment 
produced 40% mortality (many larvae were protected by their leafy retreats). 

On June 4, 1980, a sample of "leaf-tying" larvae was submitted to us 
for identification. The larvae were collected 4 from corn on a farm, 4 miles 
west of Friendsville, Garrett Co., Maryland. Using the larval key of Crumb, 
1956, the specimens were identified to the genus Septis, a synonym of 
Amphipoea (=Apamea) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Approximately 75 
larvae were placed on cabbage looper media; the majority fed and moulted 
to pupae but only 5 adults emerged. Adults were then identified by Linda 
Butler, and confirmed by Eric Quinter, American Museum of Natural 
History, as Amphipoea velata (Walker). 

The infested field was visited on June 5, 1980; the corn plants were 20 
to 30 cm tall. The field was located along the top of a ridge. Cultivation was 
no-till, and numerous weeds occurred in random patches. The crop was 
planted on May 5, 1980 with an application of fonofos insecticide. The A. 
velata infestation was generally confined to weedy-grassy areas. The larvae 
made silken retreats by joining leaf margins together, thus forming curled 
tubes in corn and grass leaves, or leafy nests in broad-leaved weeds. Small 
larvae formed retreats by merely folding over leaf margins. Feeding habits 
included general defoliation, tunneling in the stalk, and cutting through the 
base of the stalk. Numerous plants were severely defoliated or cut off at the 
base. Damage to the corn crop was serious enough that the farmer 
considered plowing and replanting. A survey of another, distant corn field 
(5 km S.) indicated a light infestation along the forest margin ( 1 larva per 50 

1 Received September 30, 1982. Accepted March 5, 1983. 

^Published with the approval of the Director of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry 
Experiment Station as Scientific Article # 1 796. This research was supported with funds 
appropriated under the Hatch Act. 

^Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 

4 By Charles B. Sperow, Extension Specialist, Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West 
Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 

ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 101-102 May & June 1983 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



corn plants). A survey of larvae in a sample of 20 infested corn plants within 
a weedy patch yielded an average of 6.2 larvae (2nd to 5th instar) per plant 
(range of 1 to 14). Weeds found were quackgrass (Agropyron repens(L.)), 
pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium 
L.), blackberry (Rubus spp.), and milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.). Larval 
nests and feeding damage were found in all weed plants except pokeweed. 

The infestation was treated with carbaryl insecticide and dicamba 
herbicide on June 4, 1 980, and by the following day, approximately 40% of 
the larvae were dead or moribund. Apparently, the balance of the larvae 
were protected by their silken retreats. 

A literature search revealed no previous report of attack by this insect 
on corn or other crops. Forbes (1954), using the name Apamea velata 
Walker, relates that it feeds on grasses and is sometimes common but not 
injurious. Dethier (1944) described the larva and pupa and gave the 
following life history details for Massachusetts: overwintering pupae 
produce adults in the spring and eggs hatch in early May; second generation 
adults appear in early June and a third generation of adults appears in late 
July and August, producing larvae which develop to overwintering pupae. 
The adult male is illustrated by Grote and Robinson (1867) as Apamea 
sera. 

No larvae of A. velata were observed causing injury during the 1981 
growing season. Apparently, this is a fine example of a normally innocuous 
insect which has the potential to become a pest when conditions are 
favorable. Because of its voracious feeding habits and immense reproductive 
potential, future surveillance for outbreaks of this insect is warranted. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Crumb, S.E 1956. The larvae of the Phalaenidae [Noctuidae]. USDA Tech. Bui. No. 1 1 35. 

356 pp. 
Dethier, V.G. 1944. Observations on the life history of Apamea velata Wlk. Canadian 

Entomologist 76: 223-225. 
Forbes, W.T.M. 1954. LepidopteraofNew York and neighboring states. Part III. Noctuidae. 

Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. Mem. 329. p. 189. 
Grote, A.R. and C.T. Robinson. 1867. Description of American Lepidoptera, No. 3. Trans. 

Amer. Entomol. Soc. 1: 323-360. (Fig. 55, plate 7). 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 

PHENETICS & ECOLOGY OF HYBRIDIZATION IN BUCKEYE 
BUTTERFLIES. J.E. Hafernik, Jr. 1983. Univ. of Calif. Press. 109 pp. 
$16.50. 

This paper analyzes interrelationships among North and Central American representatives of 
Junonia, exclusive of the Caribbean region. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 103 

NOTES ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

OF THE GULF COAST TICK, AMBLYOMMA 
MACULATUM (KOCH) [ACARI: IXODIDAE] 12 

Jerome Goddard, B.R. Norment-' 

ABSTRACT: 1982, six specimens of the Gulf Coast tick, A mblyomma maculatum (Koch), 
were taken in two northern Mississippi Counties. Additional specimens were taken during a 
trip to southwestern Kentucky. 

The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), is a three host 
species found in the southern United States, generally in areas bordering the 
Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean (Bishopp and Trembley, 1945). 
According to Bishopp and Hixson (1936), it is seldom found in large 
numbers farther inland than 100 miles. Cooley and Kohls (1944) published 
on the distribution, hosts, and taxonomy of this species . The Gulf Coast tick 
has been reported from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, 
Virginia, and Delaware on the Atlantic coast and also from Arizona, 
Arkansas, and California (Bishopp and Hixson, 1936; Lancaster, 1973). It 
is well established in northeastern Oklahoma (Semtner and Hair, 1973) 
and is also known to exist in southeastern Kansas. A few specimens taken at 
Dallas, Texas and Memphis, Tennessee were suggested to have been 
brought in on livestock shipped from the coastal region. Amblyomma 
maculatum has been reported twice from Arkansas (Lancaster, 1973) and 
is considered relatively rare in Alabama occurring only in the southern one- 
third of the state (Cooney and Hays, 1972). 

In a current research project concerning the rickettsial organisms 
associated with the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), ticks 
were collected weekly throughout the 1 982 season in northern Mississippi, 
with occasional collecting trips to the TVA Land Between the Lakes region 
in southwestern Kentucky. Ticks were collected by dragging with a flannel 
cloth in the study area. Six specimens of the Gulf Coast tick were collected 
in northern Mississippi; four in Noxubee Co. and two in Oktibbeha Co. 
These locations are 200-250 miles from the Gulf Coast. Also, one 
specimen was collected in the Land Between The Lakes region of 
southwestern Kentucky. Subsequently, a search through the student 
collections in the Medical Entomology collection at Mississippi State 



'Received September 30, 1982. Accepted March 5. 1983. 
^Publication no. 5265, Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station. 

^Department of Entomology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State. Mississippi 
39762. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(3) 103-104 May & June 1983 



104 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



University revealed 1 1 more specimens from northern Mississippi, repre- 
senting Lafayette, Lowndes, and Oktibbeha counties. 

The majority of these specimens were collected in July or early August 
(see records) which is consistent with the findings of Hixson (1940) who 
reported an adult peak in July. These records further expand the known 
range of this species. Bishopp and Hixson (1936) suggested that northern 
records may represent specimens brought in on livestock from the coastal 
region; however, all of the ticks collected in Noxubee Co., Miss, were found 
in a national wildlife refuge isolated from pastureland. Also, the specimen 
from Kentucky was collected in an area free of any known livestock. These 
records indicate that either the previously reported range ofAmblyomma 
maculatum may be incomplete or this species is extending its range 
northward. 

New Records of Amblyomma maculatum 

Material examined Lafavette Co., MS, Oxford, 21-V-1974, L. Thead, 2 9 (SC)*; 
Lowndes Co.. MS, Crawford, 14-IV-1982, B. Hinkle,4 9 1 cf(SC); Marshall Co., KY, 6 mi. 
E. Aurora, 2- VIII- 1982, J. Goddard, 1 cf; Noxubee Co., MS, Noxubee Wildlife Refuge, 5- 
VI-1982,J.Goddard. 1 9; Noxubee Wildlife Refuge, 2-VII- 1982, J. Goddard, 1 cf; Noxubee 
Wildlife Refuge, 8-VII-1982, J. Goddard, 1 9 1 cf; Oktibbeha Co., MS, Starkville, 4-VII- 
1974, D. Wigle. 4cf (SC); Starkville, l-VII-1982, S. Winters, Icf (SC); Starkville, 10- VII- 
1982, J. Goddard, 1 9. 

All of these specimens are deposited in the Mississippi Entomological 
Museum, Mississippi State University. 

*Student Collection 



LITERATURE CITED 

Bishopp, F.C., and H. Hixson. 1936. Biology and economic importance of the Gulf Coast 

tick. J. Econ. Entomol. 29: 1068-1076. 
Bishopp, F.C. and Trembley, H.L. 1945. Distribution and hosts of certain North American 

ticks. J. Parasit. 31: 1-54. 
Cooley, R.A., and Kohls, G.M! 1944. The genus Amblyomma (Ixodidae) in the United 

States. J. Parasit. 30: 77-111. 
Cooney, J.C. and Hays, K.L. 1972. The ticks of Alabama. Auburn Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 

426. p. 
Hixson, H. 1940. Field biology and environmental relationships of the Gulf Coast tick in 

southern Georgia. J. Econ. Entomol. 33: 179-189. 
Lancaster, J.L. 1973. A guide to the ticks of Arkansas. Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 

779 p. 
Semtner, P.J. and J.A. Hair. 1973. Distribution, seasonal abundance, and hosts of the Gulf 

Coast tick in Oklahoma. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 66: 1264-1268. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 



105 




125th ANNIVERSARY OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

The American Entomological Society, publisher of "Entomological 
News," "Transactions," and "Memoirs" was founded in February, 
1859 as the Entomological Society of Philadelphia. Therefore, our 
Society is observing its 125th Anniversary this year. A special meeting 
to mark the occasion will be held on February 15, 1 984 at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Members and friends of the Society 
are invited. 

Tentative plans include exhibits of early insect collections, publica- 
tions, photographs of pioneer entomologists, and a series of short talks 
on outstanding entomologists who were active in the Society in its early 
years. Details will be announced in the fall of 1983. 

W.H. Day 



SOCIETY MEETING OF MARCH 3, 1983 

The American Entomological Society's fourth meeting of the 1982-83 year was held 
Thursday, March 3. in Agricultural Hall on the University of Delaware campus. Eight 
members and twenty-four guests attended the evening lecture on the "Biology of Mayflies," 
presented by Mr. David Funk of the Stroud Water Research Center, Avondale. PA. Dr. Paul 
Burbutis introduced the subject with a spirited reading from Benjamin Franklin's "The 
Ephemera: An Emblem of Human Life," written in 1778. Mr. Funk, winner of the 
Photographic Society of America's Silver Medal for Best of Show at last year's North Central 
Insect Salon held at the Entomological Society of America's North Central Branch Meeting, 
integrated beautiful slides of mayflies, their habitats, and natural history with a contemporary 
ecological analysis of species distribution and behavior. 

Of the approximately 2000 species of mayflies known, about 600 occur in the United 
States. The larvae of most species graze on algae and leaf litter on the bottom of streams or 
rivers. They display a variety of body shapes which are related to current speed, substrate 
types and behavioral patterns. Adults are sexually dimorphic with males usually having long 
forelegs and enlarged dorsal surfaces of their compound eyes. The eyes in some species are 
extremely specialized and have distinctive shapes and colors. Studies on the Salmon River in 
Idaho and White Clay Creek in Pennsylvania suggest that within a watershed, related species 
have evolved to minimize competition in a variety of ways. Closely related species may occur 
in different areas of the watershed and show an upstream-downstream distributional 
relationship. Temperature variance, both geographic and within a watershed, may effectively 
limit a species' distribution by lowering fecundity in areas where the annual temperature 
regime is not optimal. Where related species coexist their life history patterns may be 
displaced temporarily thereby minimizing overlap in their periods of maximal growth. A 
similar displacement in the emergence period minimizes the possibility of interbreeding. In the 
ensuing question period there was considerable interest in the subimago, a stage found in no 
other insect order. 

In notes of local entomological interest, Roger Fuester said that he had observed mating 
mourning cloak butterflies within the past week and that ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. are 
now active. Dr. Dale Bray added that a new species of tick close to Ixodes scapular!*. 
appeared in the area last year. It has a painful bite. Dr. William Day commented on the warm 
winter we have had and how spring flowers are blooming very early this year. With continued 
mild weather we may observe an early emergence of many insects. 

Harold W. White 
Corresponding Secretary 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SOCIETY MEETING OF APRIL 7, 1983 

The last regular meeting of The American Entomological Society for the 1982-83 year 
was held Thursday April 7, 1983 at the University of Delaware. Eight members and nine 
guests listened to Dr. John Lublinkhof of Biochem Products Montchanin, Delaware speak on 
"Integrated Use of Microorganisms and Chemicals for Managing Insect Populations." 

The main part of Dr. Lublinkhof s talk dealt with Nosema pyrausta, a protozoan parasite 
on the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. As a well-adapted parasite, in the laboratory 
Nosema does not normally kill its host despite high levels of infection. The primary effects of 
infection are reduced fecundity and longevity of the host. It was reasoned that infected 
individuals would be weakened and therefore more susceptible to killing by other agents in a 
field situation. Such an effect was demonstrated for concurrent Bacillus thuringensis infection 
and for treatment with carbaryl or carbofuran. 

At the AES Council meeting President Charles Mason announced the following 
committee assignments for the 1983-84 year: 

Finance - William Day (Chairman), Paul Burbutis, Harold White, and Jessie Freese. 

Libran' - Selwyn Roback (Chairman), Joseph Sheldon, Howard Boyd, and Roger 
Fuester. 

Publications - Selwyn Roback (Chairman), Howard Boyd, Daniel Otte, and Charles Mason. 

Membership - Joseph Sheldon (Chairman), and Ronald Romig. 

Program - Harold White (Chairman), and Carla Ritter. 

125th Anniversary Program - Charles Mason, (Chairman). William Day, Howard 

Boyd, Harold White, Joseph Sheldon, and Selwyn 
Roback. 

Harold B. White 
Corresponding Secretary 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 

TIGER BEETLES OF GENUS CICINDELA IN ARIZONA. J. 

Bertholf. 1983. Texas Tech Univ. 44 pp. $7.00. 

Systematics and species accounts of the 37 species found in Arizona. 

ANTS OF WESTERN TEXAS: MYRMICINAE. J.V. Moody & O.F. 
Francke. 1982. Texas Tech Univ. 80 pp. $12.00. 

Study objective was to determine which ant species inhabit western Texas, define their 
geographic regions, and explore factors limiting their distributions. 

BIOLOGY & POPULATION OF TIGER BEETLE CICINDELA 
JAPONICA. M. Hori. 1 982. Physiology & Ecology Japan, Kyoto. 2 1 2 pp. 

Life history, growth, development, and dynamics of natural population were studied for 8 
years by tracing labeled larval burrows and marked adults. 

AUSTRALIAN CRICKETS. D. Otte & R.D. Alexander. 1983. Mono- 
graph 22, Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 477 pp. $45.00. 

A taxonomic survey and study of 492 species, of which 376 are new. 

GUIDE TO LARVAE OF NEARCTIC DIAMESINAE (DIPTERA: 
CHIRONOMIDAE). J.S. Doughman. 1983. U.S. Geological Survey. 57 
pp. 

Keys and decriptions to known species of Boreoheptagyia, Protanvpus, Diamesa, and 
Pseudokiefferiella present in clean, cool arctic-alpine waters. 



Vol. 94, No. 3, May & June 1983 107 



CHECKLIST OF BEETLES OF NORTH AND CENTRAL 
AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES 

Several years ago I started the North American Beetle Fauna Project which was aborted in 
1 98 1 because of lack of funds. We were able to produce the "Red Version" of the "Checklist of 
the Beetles of Canada, United States, Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies" and 
two families of the "Yellow Version" of that checklist. The "Red" list was completed with the 
help of now Professor Emeritus Richard E. Blackwelder. Only a limited number of copies were 
produced and it immediately went out of print. 

Meantime several parts of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's "A Catalog of the 
Coleoptera of America north of Mexico" have been issued. Also four additional parts of the 
"Yellow Version" have been published elsewhere. 

Continued requests for the checklist parts have forced me to have some of that work 
reprinted and to undertake revision of these parts. To do this, I have incorporated the new 
sections of the "Yellow Version" mentioned above and changed the arrangement and 
renumbered the families included in the work to conform with the recent changes in the 
classification. 

This new work is entitled, "The Checklist of the Beetles of North and Central America and 
the West Indies." It covers the same geographical area as intended in the original Project. It is 
compiled and edited by myself. The present set of volumes ( 10) includes renumbered parts of 
the "Red" list, some with minor updating, except for the new parts mentioned above. 

It is my intention to continuously revise this work as the need and time permits. All of the 
new parts are entered into computer storage for ease in updating and revising. Various beetle 
specialists are invited to revise or help revise these sections. 

New family sections may be replaced or added to the work according to the wishes of the 
owner of the set. All of the volumes are stored in looseleaf notebooks. 

Each volume contains a table of contents. One volume is published elsewhere (the 
Weevils) but may be supplied to those wishing the complete set. The final volume is the 
bibliography. To find references given in the text use the name of the author of a taxon, the year 
of publication, and the page number (these appear as citations in the Checklist). However, 
please note that the present set includes references from 1758 through 1947. Later references 
will be included in future parts. 

These 10 volumes complete this work as it now stands; revisions will be issued as 
separate works. The titles of the 10 volumes follow. 

Vol. 1. The Ground Beetles, Water Beetles, and related groups. 

Vol. 2. The Rove Beetles and related groups. 

Vol. 3. The Scarab Beetles, Buprestid Beetles, and related groups. 

Vol. 4. The Click Beetles, Fireflies, Checkered Beetles, and related groups. 

Vol. 5. The Ladybird Beetles and related groups. 

Vol. 6. The Darkling Beetles, Strepsiptera, and related groups. 

Vol. 7. The Longhorned Beetles. 

Vol. 8. The Leaf Beetles and the Bean Weevils. 

Vol. 9. The Fungus Weevils, Bark Beetles, Weevils, and related groups. 

Vol. 10. Bibliography of the Coleoptera of North America north of Mexico, 1758- 
1948. 

Ross. H. Arnett, Jr. Florida State Collection of Arthropods, 
Div. of Plant Industry, P.O. Box 1269. Gainesville, FL 32601 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, 

LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 59 6 April 1983 

The following Opinions have been published by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 40, part 1, on 
29 March 1983: 

Opinion No. 

1239 (p. 25) Attelabus Linnaeus, 1758 (Insecta, Coleoptera): type species designated. 

1 240 (p. 27) HESPERIIDAE Latreille, 1 809 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): added to Official 

List. 

1244 (p. 37) Stethaspis Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae): designation of type 

species. 

1245 (p. 39) Linyphia tenebricola Wider, 1834 (Arachnida): to be interpreted in the 

sense of Kulcyzynski, 1887. 

The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 

ITZN 11/4 
(A.N. (S.) 125) 

The Commission hereby gives six months notice to the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 40, part 
1, on 29 March 1983, and would welcome comments and advice on them from interested 
zoologists. 

Correspondence should be adddressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible 
within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

1688 PseudopontiaPlotzv. GonophlebiaFe\der (Insecta, Lepidoptera): settlement 

of case. 
2233 Request for a ruling to correct homonymy in names of the family-groups based 

on Myrmecia (Insecta) and Myrmecium (Arachnida). 

2269 On family-group names based on Eurhin, Eurhinus and Eurhynchus (Coleoptera). 

2389 Myzusfestucae Theobald, 19 17 (Insecta, Aphidoidea): proposed conservation. 

2153 Calaphis Walsh, 1862 and Callaphis Walker, 1870 (Insecta, Hemiptera, 

Aphididae): proposals to remove the confusion. 
2373 UROPLAT -- as the stem of family-group names in Amphibia and Insecta 

(Coleoptera): proposals to remove the homonymy. 
2358 Oeciacus vicarius Horvath, 1912 (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cimicidae): proposed 

conservation. 

R.V. MELVILLE 

Secretary 



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US ISSN 0013-872X 



Vol. 94 



SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER 1983 



No. 4 



t 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Variation in structure of ligula of Tanypodine larvae (Diptera: 

Chironomidae) K.J. Tennessen, P.K. Gottfried 109 

Four acalyptrate Diptera reared from dead horseshoe 

crabs Allen L. Norrbom 117 

Biology of Euxesta quaternaria (Diptera: Otitidae) 

J.S. Yoon, M.T. Mathew, R.E. Holman 122 

New species of Loreta & Icaia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

from Bolivia & Peru Dwight M. DeLong 127 

Stygnocoris rusticus: new records in eastern No. America, 

with a review of its distribution A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 131 



New records of No. American Odonata 



Sidney W. Dunkle 136 



New record for Ixodes texanus (Acarina: Ixodidae) in Missis- 
sippi with a new host record /. Goddard, B.R. Norment 139 

New record of mayfly Baetisca rubescens for West 

Virginia D.C. Tarter, D.K. Peltry 141 

A mutillid mimic of an ant (Hymenoptera: 

Mutillidae & Formicidae) George C. Wheeler 143 

An aggregation of Chalybion californicum (Hymenoptera: 

Sphecidae) in a bell K. Schoenly, D.M. Calabrese 145 

Insects visiting flowers of wild red raspberry in spruce-fir 

forested areas of eastern Maine R. W. Hensen, E.A. Osgood 147 

Biology of Trichadentotecnum alexanderae (Psocoptera: 

Psocidae): its habitat, life stages & events B. W. Betz 152 



BOOK REVIEW & BRIEF EDITORIAL COMMENT 



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Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October. 1983 109 

VARIATION IN STRUCTURE OF LIGULA OF 

TANYPODINAE LARVAE (DIPTERA: 

CHIRONOMIDAE) 1 

K.J. Tennessen, P.K. Gottfried 2 

ABSTRACT: Variations in the structure of the ligula of Tanypodinae larvae (Diptera: 
Chironomidae) were found in six of nine genera examined. About 3 percent of the 2370 larvae 
examined were considered abnormal, possessing either fewer or greater numbers of teeth than 
typically found, or teeth that were bifid, curved, or otherwise asymmetrical. 

Findings indicate that taxonomic keys which rely primarily on the number of ligula teeth 
should be used with caution. Basic shape and color of the ligula, besides number of teeth, are 
important characteristics; combinations of other characters are provided here to aid in 
identifying certain genera. 

The number, shape, and color of teeth on the ligula of Tanypodinae 
larvae have been used as key characters in separating tribes and genera 
(Beck 1 976; Mason 1 973; Roback 1 978, 1 980; Webb and Brigham 1 982). 
We have found that the ligula is a variable structure in certain species, 
especially in regard to the number of teeth, and this variation can lead to 
mistaken determinations using present keys which overemphasize ligula 
morphology. Some larvae simply cannot be keyed to ligula characteristics 
alone. 

We examined nine genera and found atypical ligulas in six of them. For 
each genus in which we have observed abnormal ligulas. we describe and 
illustrate the major types of variations and give a combination of characters 
by which the larvae may be reliably identified. All specimens examined are 
from northern Alabama. The drawings were made by tracing photographs; 
the paraglossae were included since they can be useful in confirming 
identifications. 

Ablabesmyia 

The ligula typically bears five black teeth, the tips of which are often 
translucent; the median tooth is shorter than the first lateral teeth in most 
species. The ligula of A. annulata ( Say) is unusual in that the median tooth 
is at least as long as the first laterals and the apices of these three teeth are 
truncate (Figure 1). One larva from Alabama (25 examined) has a ligula 
with an extra lateral tooth, for a total of six teeth (Figure 2). Ablabesmyia 
larvae may be recognized by the presence of more than one basal palpal 
segment, and most species have one or two dark claws on the anal prolegs. 



'Received March 3. 1983. Accepted May 21, 1983. 

^Div. of Air & Water Resources, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville. Tennessee 37902 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 109-1 16. September & October. 1^X3 \\\ I 

I OCT 181983 



110 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





Figures 1-2. Typical ligula (1) and abnormal ligula (2) of Ablabesmyia annulata. 

Clinotanypus 

The typical Clinotanypus ligula has six clear amber teeth (Figure 3). 
Several C. pinguis (Loew) larvae we observed had five or seven teeth 
(Figures 4 and 5), while another larva had a ligula with six asymmetrical 
teeth (Figure 6). A total of 9 larvae (3.16 percent) out of the 285 larvae 
examined possessed atypical ligulas. 







5 6 

Figures 3-6. Typical ligula (3) and abnormal ligulas (4-6) of Clinotanypus pinguis. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 1 1 1 



Because of the variations in the number of teeth between specimens of 
the same species, the number of ligula teeth is not a totally reliable 
diagnostic character. In addition, other genera may have the same number 
of teeth as Clinotanypus, Roback (1974) reported Colelotanypus concinnus 
(Coquillett) larvae with six to eight teeth (the usual number of ligula teeth 
for this genus is seven). 

Characters that distinguish Clinotanypus larvae from those closely 
related include: (1) head about 1-1/2 times as long as wide, (2) antennae 
about 3/4 as long as head, and ( 3 ) mandibles hook-like. In addition, a small, 
lateral spur-like process between the second and third thoracic segments of 
Coelotanypus larvae will help to differentiate them from Clinotanypus. 

Djalmabatista 

The typical ligula of the only North American species, D. pulcher 
(Johannsen), has four black teeth (Figure 7) (See Roback and Tennessen 
1978). We have found a high degree of variation in the number and shape of 
teeth in several populations. Of 1545 larvae examined, 50 (3.24 percent) 
were atypical. The number of teeth varied from three to six: other 
configurations included asymmetrical, bifid, and curved teeth (Figures 8- 
16). The most common abnormal type of ligula had five symmetrical teeth 
(Figure 12) resembling the Procladius ligula and larvae of two South 
American species of Djalmabatista (Roback 1980). Larvae with three 
teeth cannot be keyed. 

Other diagnostic characters for the genus which should be used in 
addition to ligula characteristics for accurate taxonomic identification 
are: ( 1 ) blade of antennal segment 1 much longer than combined length of 
antennal segments 2-4 and (2) mandible with bilobed inner tooth (Roback 
1980). 

Larsia 

The ligula typically has five dark brown teeth (Figure 17). Out of 1 10 
larva examined, 1 had 6 teeth (Figure 18). The genus is characterized by the 
combination of: ( 1 ) teeth of ligula in concave configuration, with first 
laterals pointed anteriorly; (2) preanal papillae less than five times as long 
as wide: and (3) antennas yellow, ant >nnal ratio 4.0. 

Procladius 

The typical ligula of both subgenera (Psilotanypus and Procladius) has 
five black teeth, the outer laterals longest, the median shortest (Figures 19 
and 24). We examined 223 larvae of P. (Psilotanypus) bellus(Loew) and 
observed that 10, or 4.48 percent, had atypically shaped ligulas. Variations 
included four teeth (Figure 20), five asymmetrical teeth (Figures 21 and 
22), and six or seven teeth (Figure 23). 



112 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 










Figures 7 16. Typical ligula (7) and abnormal ligulas (8-16) of Djalmabatista pulcher. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 



113 





17 



18 



Figures 17-18. Typical ligula (17) and abnormal ligula (18) of Lars ia sp. 








23 



Figures 19-23. Typical ligula (19) and abnormal ligulas (20-23) of Procladius bellus. 

A reliable combination of other characteristics for P. bellus includes: 
( 1 ) blade of antennal segment 2 subequal in length to antennal segments 2- 
4, (2) single tooth on inner margin of mandible, (3) hypopharyngeal pecten 
with 4-8 teeth, (4) smallest one or two claws of posterior prolegs usually 
toothed, and (5) ligula of instar IV 61-87 /x (based on Roback 1980). 

One specimen out of fifty-eight P. (Procladius) sublet tei Roback larvae 
examined had an aberrant ligula, with six teeth (Figure 25 ). Part of one of the 
median teeth on this specimen was broken off. Otherwise, the specimen 
resembles an aberrant larvae reported by Roback (1980. Figure 25). 



114 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





25 

Figures 24-25. Typical ligula (24) and abnormal ligula (25) of Procla dins sublettei. 

Larvae of the subgenus Procladius differ little among the species. Roback 
( 1 980) offered a provisional key based on size differences. As a group, they 
differ from Psilotanypus in their larger size and the longer apical tooth of the 
paraglossae (compare Figures 19 and 24). 

Tanypus 

The typical ligula is pale to light brown, with five teeth; the median tooth 
and first lateral teeth are as long as or longer than the outer laterals (Figure 
26). We have 1 specimen of T. punctipennis Meigen with 6 teeth (Figure 
27 ); we examined 1 2 specimens. The genus is recognizable by the following 
combination of characteristics: ( 1 ) the presence of dorsomental teeth, (2) 
ligula pale, teeth with tips in convex or straight configuration, (3) body with 
conspicuous lateral hair fringe, an (4) mandibles thick and bulging in basal 
three-fourths of their length. 





26 27 

Figures 26-27. Typical ligula (26) and abnormal ligula (27) of Tanypus punctipennis. 

DISCUSSION 



Examination of over 2370 Tanypodinae larvae from northern Alabama 



Vol. 94, No. 4. September & October, 1983 115 



revealed that slightly over 3 percent possessed an abnormal ligula, with 
either more or fewer teeth than dictated for the taxa, or with some type of 
asymmetry. Although the incidence of ligular abnormalties is low, it shows 
that most keys rely too heavily on the ligula as a character for distinguishing 
genera. 

The majority of larvae examined were fourth instar, although a few 
abnormalities were found in second and third instar larvae. Our data 
indicate that the ligula within the Procladiini is more variable than within 
the Pentaneurini. For example, some monthly samples of Djalmabatista 
pulcher consisted of over 6 percent abnormal larvae. 

Hamilton and Saether (1971) observed deformed chironomid larvae in 
Lake Erie and in two lakes in British Columbia. Approximately 1 percent of 
the larvae were affected, the most common deformity being an extremely 
thickened integument; a few had deformed mouthparts. An analysis of the 
distribution of deformed larvae in these lakes showed that they occurred in 
areas receiving industrial discharge or agricultural runoff. 

The majority of larvae we examined were from two man-made lakes 
and three ponds formed in pits from which coal had been stripped in 
Marion County, Alabama. The percentage of ligula deformities was slightly 
higher in the combined strip-mine pond samples (Table 1), but was not 
significantly different that the percentages found in the man-made lakes. 
Whether certain environmental variables are causative agents during larval 
development is unknown. 

Table 1 . Number of larvae with a deformed ligula from three locations in Marion County, 
Alabama. Numbers in parentheses are numbers of larvae examined. 

Marion Strip-Mine Buttahatchee 

County Lake Ponds Lake 

Ablabcsmyia 1 (29) (50) (22) 

Clinotanypus 1 (35) 4 (73) 4(177) 

Djalmabatista 10 (547) 40 (1014) (2) 

Larsia (4) 1 (99) (7) 

Procladius (24) 1 (36) 10 (240) 

Tanypus (0) (2) 1 (12) 

Totals 12 (639) 46 (1274) 15 (460) 

1.88% 3.61% 3.26% 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This work was supported by the Environmental Protection Agency under terms of 
Interagency Agreement D8-E721-DS with the Tennessee Valley Authority. Energy Accomplish- 
ment Plan 80-BDS. We thank Dr. Selwyn S. Roback for advice and comments on the 
manuscript. 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Beck, W.M., Jr. 1976. Biology of the larval chironomids. State of Florida Dept. Environ. 

Reg.. Tech. Series, 2(1): 1-58. 
Hamilton, A.L. and O.A. Saether. 1 97 1 . The occurrence of characteristic deformities in the 

chironomid larvae of several Canadian Lakes. Can. Entomol. 103:363-368. 
Mason, W.T., Jr. 1973. An introduction to the identification of chironomid larvae. U.S. EPA 

Analytical Quality Control Lab.. Cincinnati. 90 pp. 
Roback, S.S. 1974. The immature stages of the genus Coelotanypus (Chironomidae; 

Tanypodinae: Coelotanypodini) in North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 126: 9- 

19. 
Roback, S.S. 1978 The immature chironomids of the eastern United States. III. Tanypodinae- 

Anatopyniini. Macropelopiini and Natarsiini. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 129: 151- 

202. 
Roback, S.S. 1 980. The immature chironomids of the eastern United States. IV. Tanypodinae- 

Procladiini. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 132: 1-63. 
Roback, S.S. and K.J. Tennessen. 1978. The immature stages of Djalmabatista pulcher 

[= Prodadius (Calotanypus) pulcher (Joh.)]. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1 30: 1 1-20. 
Webb, D. W. and W.U. Brigham. 1 982. Aquatic Diptera. pp. 1 1 . 1 - 1 1 . 1 1 1 . In A.R. Brigham, 

W.U. Brigham. and A. Guilka, eds. Aquatic insects and oligochaetes of North and South 

Carolina. Midwest Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, Illinois. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

A BIOSYSTEMATIC STUDY OF THE EUROPEAN STRATIOMYIDAE (DIPTERA), 

Vol. 2. R. Rozkosny. 1983. Dr. W. Junk BV, Pub. 431 pp. $87.00. 

This volume deals with the sub-families Cliterllariinae, Hermetiinae, Pachygasterinae, plus 
bibliography. 

DIAPAUSE AND LIFE CYCLE STRATEGIES IN INSECTS. V. Brown and I. Hodek, 
Eds. 1983. Dr. W. Junk BV, Pub. 283 pp. $59.50. 

Fourteen papers on mechanics regulating seasonal adaptation, life cycle polymorphism, and 
evolution of life cycle strategies. 

METABOLIC ASPECTS OF LIPID NUTRITION IN INSECTS. T. Mittle & R. Dadd, 
Eds. 1983. Westview Press. 252 pp. $27.50. 

Twelve papers from the 1 980 World Congress on the study of essential fatty acids and fat- 
soluble vitamins in insects, and in work on insect sterol nutrition and metabolism. 

INSECT BEHAVIOR: A SOURCEBOOK OF LABORATORY AND FIELD EXER- 
CISES. J. & R. Matthews, Eds. 1982. Westview Press. 324 pp. $20.00. 

A concept oriented collection of 34 laboratory and field behavioral exercises using insects as 
uniquely suitable animals for behavioral studies. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 117 

FOUR ACALYPTRATE DIPTERA REARED 
FROM DEAD HORSESHOE CRABS 1 2 

Allen L. Norrbom^ 

ABSTRACT: Four species of acalyptrate Diptera were reared from dead horseshoe 
crabs: Hecamede albicans (Meigen) (Ephydridae), Conioscinella hinkleyi (Malloch) 
(Chloropidae), Coproica vagans (Haliday) and C. hirtula (Rondani) (Sphaeroceridae). The 
third instar larvae and puparia of H. albicans and C. hinkleyi are described, and Urolepsis 
rufipes (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) is reported as a parasitoid of H. albicans. 

In spring and early summer, the beaches of Delaware Bay in the 
vicinity of Town Bank, New Jersey, become littered with the carcasses of 
horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus L., which crawl ashore to mate and 
lay their eggs. The decaying crabs provide an excellent larval substrate for a 
number of Diptera, including the following four species that I was able to 
rear: Hecamede albicans (Meigen) (Ephydridae), Conioscinella hinkleyi 
(Malloch) (Chloropidae), Coproica vagans (Haliday), and C. hirtula 
(Rondani) (Sphaeroceridae). These records probably represent an oppor- 
tunistic use of this locally abundant, temporary resource, as all four species 
appear to be generalist scavengers. 

The flies developed from fifteen dead horseshoe crabs collected from 
the beach on June 19 and July 5, 1982. The viscera of most of the crabs 
were dried up or were previously consumed by muscid and calliphorid 
larvae, leaving mainly the outer sclerotized parts, muscle, and connective 
tissue. The crabs were placed with moist sand in rearing jars and were 
stored at 18-23C. Water was occasionally added to prevent desiccation. 
Several crabs were dissected and the dipteran larvae and pupae in them 
collected and preserved or reared separately to allow association with the 
adults. This paper presents biological observations on these flies and 
descriptions of some of their immature stages. The morphological terminol- 
ogy of Teskey (1981) is followed in descriptions of the immatures. All 
specimens studied, unless otherwise noted, were deposited in the Frost 
Entomological Museum, The Pennsylvania State University or the National 
Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



1 Received February 19, 1983. Accepted March 31, 1983. 

^Authorized on February 9, 1983 for publication as Paper No. 6604 in the Journal Series of 
the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. A contribution from the Frost Entomo- 
logical Museum (AES Proj. No. 2594). 



Frost Entomological Museum, Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State 
University, University Park, PA 16802. 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 117-121. September & October, 1983 



1 1 8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Hecamede albicans (Meigen) 

H. albicans is a common maritime ephydrid found from Massachusetts 
to Maryland and also in Europe ( Wirth 1 965 ). It has been reared previously 
from rotting lettuce and excrement (Simpson 1976 andpers. comm.) and its 
congener, H. persimilis Hendel, has been found in "foul smelling sand 
beneath a human carcass" (Bohart and Gressitt 1951) and bred from 
seaweed (Tenorio 1 980). Both species probably develop in a wide range of 
decaying organic materials. 

Adults of//, albicans were very common on the dead horseshoe crabs, 
walking about on their surface and crawling inside them. They frequently 
extended their mouthparts to feed, or perhaps simply to obtain moisture. 
Over 200 individuals were reared from the crabs. The larvae were present 
mainly between the gills and on other moist membranous surfaces, and 
pupation occurred within the crabs, in the sand, and on the sides of the 
rearingjar. Descriptions of the third instar larva and the puparium are given 
below. In both stages, H. albicans is very similar to H. persimilis (see 
Bohart and Gressitt 1951; Tenorio 1980), but the tentoropharyngeal 
sclerite tapers more gradually anteriorly and there are 3 pairs of tubercles 
on the last segment of the larva. 

One pupa of H. albicans was parasitized by the pteromalid Urolepsis 
rufipes ( Ashmead). This wasp previously has been reared from two western 
Nearctic ephydrids, Hydropvrus hians (Say) and Setecera pacifica 
(Cresson) (Burks 1979)". 

Third Instar Larva (Figs. 4-9): Opaque white; length 4.00 - 4.50 mm; cylindrical, 
tapering anteriorly, truncate posteriorly. Cephalic segment bilobed anteriorly; antenna (Fig. 
5) two segmented, basally surrounded by broader membranous evagination; cephalopharyngeal 
skeleton about 0.65-0.70 mm long; mandibles (Figs. 6-7) strongly sclerotized, separate, 
strongly curved anteriorly, with short ventral process at about their midpoint, and with small 
circular window present at base of ventral process; hypopharyngeal sclerite strongly 
sclerotized; parastomal bar very slender, not connected posteriorly to tentoropharyngeal 
sclerite; tentoropharyngeal sclerite gradually tapering anteriorly to acute apex, broad between 
cornua, strongly sclerotized medially and anteriorly, gradudally weakening dorsally, ventrally, 
and on apical half of ventral corua; dorsal cornu with small window apically; ventral cornu 
with larger mesaily bent window dorsally near base; pharynx ventrally with longitudinal 
ridges, and with 2 small dark spots near tips of ventral cornua; anterior spiracle (Fig. 8) short, 
fan-shaped, six-lobed. Posterior spiracle tube short and cylindrical, slightly projecting in 
lateral view; spiracular plate (Fig. 9) moderately sclerotized, with inner margins of 3 
spiracular openings and ecdysial scar indistinct, and with 4 sets of fine, many-branched hairs. 
Terminal body segment with 3 pairs of small tubercles (Fig. 4), 1 pair dorsolaterally, 1 pair 
ventroapically, and 1 pair ventrolaterally. 

Puparium (Figs. 1-3): Medium brown, partially translucent; length 2.25 - 2.75 mm, 
width 1.00 - 1.25 mm. Segmentation obvious, delimited by distinct transverse sutures and 
ridges. Posterior spiracles very short. 

Conioscinella hinkleyi (Malloch) 

The chloropid C. hinkleyi occurs from Kansas and Pennsylvania south 
to Georgia and Louisiana (Sabrosky 1965). Kulman (1965) has reared it 
previously from tents of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 119 




Figs. 1-3. H. albicans: puparium in dorsal, ventral, and lateral views. 

(F.), and Berisford and Tsao (1975), from larval cases of the bagworm 
Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth). Two females were reared in 
this study; the pupal stage of one was observed to last 7 days. An adult 
female was also collected on a dead horseshoe crab, and a pupa which failed 
to develop was found lying on the sand beneath a crab. A phoretic hypopus 
of a histiostomatid mite was present on the captured adult. Descriptions of 
the puparium and the remains of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton of the third 
instar larva are given below. 

Third Instar Larva: Cephalopharyngeal skeleton (Fig. 10) about 0.45 mm long; 
mandibles separate, strongly sclerotized, narrow and slightly curved anteriorly, with narrow 
ventral process arising just behind middle, and with small circular window present at base of 
central process; hypostomal sclerite moderately sclerotized; parastomal bar extremely 
slender, connected to tentoropharyngeal sclerite posteriorly; tentoropharyngeal sclerite 
weakly sclerotized, especially cornua, anteriorly tapering to finger-like process; dorsal and 
ventral cornua apparently without windows; pharynx with longitudinal ridges. 

Puparium (Fig. 1 1 ): Very light golden brown, translucent: length 2.40 mm, width 0.85 
mm. Surface transversed by numerous thin, wrinkle-like ridges. Anterior spiracle (Fig. 12) 
small, with about 5 short lobes. Posterior spiracles slightly projecting. 

Coproica vagans (Haliday) 

C. vagans is a very common, cosmopolitan sphaerocerid frequently 
found on dung and compost (Richards 1973). Coffey (1966) reared it from 
chicken, horse, cow, and pig excrement and collected adults on mink 
droppings. I have also reared it from CMSA media (putrefying mixture of 
alfalfa meal and wheat bran). Adults of C. vagans were very common on the 
dead horseshore crabs and larvae and pupae were present mainly in the gills 
and other moist membranous parts. Over 300 individuals were reared. A 
second generation also developed in the same crabs, although fewer in 
number than the first generation. Complete development in the crabs and in 
the CMSA media required 19-23 days, 14-17 for the egg and larval stages 
and 5-6 for the pupal stage. Goddard (1938) previously described the 
cephalopharyngeal skeleton of the third instar larva of C. vagans, as well as 
the puparium which is nearly transparent. 



120 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





8 



6 




7 




12 



9 







Figs 4-9. //. albicans: third instar larva; 4 - lateral habitus; 5 - antenna; 6 - cephalopharyngeal 
skeleton, lateral view; 7 - mandibles, hypopharynge'al sclerite, dorsal view; 8 - anterior 
spiracle; 9 - posterior spiracular plate. 



Figs. 10-12. C. hinkleyi: 10 -third instar larva, cephalopharyngeal skeleton; 11 -puparium. 
dorsal habitus; 12 - puparium, anterior spiracle. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 121 



Coproica hirtula (Rondani) 

C. hirtula is also a cosmopolitan sphaerocerid, very similar in habit to 
C. vagans, being frequently found in association with dung and refuse of 
confined animals (Richards 1973). Coffey (1966) reared it (as Leptocera 
exiguella sp. A) from cow, pig, chicken, human, and mink excrement and 
collected it on sheep dung. A single male emerged from the dead horseshoe 
crabs. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

My sincere thanks are due to Eric Grissell and Curtis Sabrosky. Systematic Entomology 
Laboratory, USDA, for providing identifications of Urolepsis riijlpes and Conioscinella 
hinkleyi, respectively, and to Wayne Mathis. Smithsonian Institution, for his advice and for 
confirming my determination of Hecamede albicans. I am also indebted to Karl Simpson for 
generously sharing his unpublished information on H. albicans, and to Karl Valley for kindly 
referring me to the publications on C. hinkleyi. I would also like to thank Mrs. Thelma 
Brodzina for typing the manuscript and Peter Adler, K.C. Kim, and C.W. Rutschky for 
reading earlier drafts of this paper. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Berisford, Y.C. and C.H. Tsao. 1975. Parsitism, predation, and disease in the bagworm, 

Thvridopen'x ephemeraeformis (Haworth) ( Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Env. Enomol. 

4: 549-554. 
Bohart, G.E. and J.L. Gressitt. 1 95 1 . Filth-inhabiting flies of Guam. Bull. B.P. Bishop Mus. 

204, 152pp. 
Burks, B.D. 1979. Family PteromaJidae. In: Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of 

Mexico, Vol. 1. K.V. Krombein et al., eds. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, 

D.C. pp. 768-835. 
Coffey, M.D. 1966. Studies on the association of flies (Diptera) with dung in southeastern 

Washington. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 59: 207-218. 
Goddard, W.H. 1938. The description of the puparia of fourteen British species of 

Sphaeroceridae (Borboridae, Diptera). Trans. Soc. Brit. Entomol. 5: 235-258. 
Kulman, H.M. 1 965. Natural control of the eastern tent caterpillar and notes on its status as a 

forest pest. J. Econ. Entomol. 58: 66-70. 
Richards, O.W. 1 973. The Sphaeroceridae ( =Borboridae or Cypselidae; Diptera, Cyclorrhapha) 

of the Australian Region. Aust. J. Zool., Suppl. Ser. 22: 297-401. 
Sabrosky, C.W. 1965. Family Chloropidae. In: A Catalog of the Diptera of America 

North of Mexico. A. Stone et al., eds. USDA Agr. Handbook No. 276. pp. 773-793. 
Simpson, K.W. 1976. Chapter 17 - Shore flies and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). 

//;.- Marine Insects. L Cheng, ed. North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam, pp. 465-495. 
Tenorio, J.A. 1 980. Family Ephydridae, Shore Hies. In: Insects of Hawaii. E.D. Zimmerman, 

ed. Volume 13 - Diptera: Cyclorrhapha III, by D.E. Hardy and M.D. Delfmado. The 

Univ. Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, pp. 251-351. 
Teskey, H.J. 1981. Chapter 3: Morphology and Terminology - Larvae. //;: Manual of 

Ncarctic Diptera, Vol. 1 . J.F. McAlpine, et al., eds. Agriculture Canada. Ottawa, pp. 65- 

88. 
Wirth, W.W. 1965. Family Ephydridae. //;: A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of 

Mexico. A. Stone et al., eds. USDA Agr. Handbook No. 276. pp. 734-759. 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BIOLOGY Q? EUXESTA QUATERNARIA 
LOEW (DIPTERA: OTITIDAE) ! 2 

Jong S. Yoon, M.T. Mathew, R.E. Holman^ 

ABSTRACT: The picture-winged fly, Euxesta quarternaria Loew, was found in southern 
Florida, closely associated with coconut palm trees. The life-cycle is completed within 37-42 
days at 22C. This species has 2N=12 chromosomes andean be reared in the laboratory. The 
larvae feed in the apical meristem and other soft growing parts of the palm trees, especially 
those damaged by lethal yellowing disease. 

The life histories of most species of Otitidae are not known. According 
to Allen and Foote (1967) approximately 450 species have been described, 
but the larval feeding habits are known for only some 40 species 
representing 21 genera. The morphology of the immature stages has been 
studied even less. Thus far, the larvae and pupae have been described for 
about 10 species in 8 genera, and no adequate descriptions of the eggs or 
earlier instar larvae have been published. 

The genus Euxesta includes more than 70 species, most of which are 
distributed in tropical and subtropical areas ( Steyskal, 1 968). The larvae of 
several species have been found in fruits such as oranges, pineapples, 
melons and apples (see Allen and Foote, 1967). They also attack rotting or 
damaged onion bulbs and roots of yams. Larvae have been found under the 
loosened bark of pecan, hickory, American elm, and in the husks of walnuts. 
The adults of some Euxesta species have been reared from larvae in 
sugarcane and ears of corn (see Allen and Foote, 1967). Nearly all of the 
reared species of this genus have saprophagous larvae, and very few of the 
North American species are phytophagous (Oldroyd, 1964). 

Euxesta quaternaria Loew is known to be present in the West Indies 
(Bahamas, Cuba, Saint Thomas, Jamaica) and Panama (Steyskal, 1968). 
Recently the authors found large numbers of these flies on palm trees in 
southern Florida even though the presence of them was known earlier in this 
area (Steyskal, 1983, personal communication). These flies were associated 
mainly with palm trees affected by diseases including "lethal yellowing/' In 
an attempt to discover any possible relationship between E. quaternaria 
and palm tree diseases, a study of the biology of this species was 
undertaken. 



'Received March 24, 1983. Accepted May 23, 1983. 
2 This work was supported by NSF Grant DEB 80-1 1552. 

3 Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 
43403 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 122-126. September & October, 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 4. September & October, 1983 123 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Studies were conducted on both field-collected and laboratory-reared 
specimens. Eggs and larvae were collected from the soft growing parts 
(cambial tissues) of the coconut palm trees (Cocos nucifera and Malayan 
dwarf) in southern Florida. These eggs along with the cambial tissue were 
brought to the laboratory and placed in vials. The hatched larvae were fed 
on modified Drosophila food (Yoon et al., 1972) and/or young coconut 
fruits. Larval vials were kept in mason jars with moistened sand in the 
bottom. The 3rd instar larvae pupated in the sand. The adults were studied 
in both natural and laboratory conditions. The laboratory rearing was done 
at room temperature (22 C) with a relative humidity of 70%. 

The chromosomes were prepared by removing the brain ganglia of the 
iarvae in pnysioiogicai saline and allowing them to swell in a hypotomc 
solution of 1% sodium citrate for 10 minutes. The ganglia were then 
transferred to aceto-orcein stain for 10-15 minutes, mounted in 45% acetic 
acid solution and then squashed with thumb pressure. Slides were examined 
and photographed on a Zeiss phase photomicroscope. Kodak panatomic-x 
35 mm film and Kodak poly contrast rapid paper F were used in 
photography (Yoon et al., 1972). 

OBSERVATION AND DISCUSSION 

The life cycle of the picture-winged fly, E. quaternaria, is shown in 
Figure 1 . The eggs are deposited on the soft growing parts of the palm trees. 
The elongate, oval-shaped eggs (Fig. I. D), 2-3 mm long, vary in numbers 
from approximately 100-300 per female. The eggs are bone white in color 
and they hatch within 2-4 days at room temperature (22 C). 

The larvae (Fig. I. E) undergo two molts and develop into 3rd instar 
larvae. The third instar larvae are about 8-10 mm long and 1.4-1.7 mm in 
width. Well-developed mouth hooks are present in the larvae (Fig. II. 
B2). It was observed in nature that all larval instars were very active and fed 
on the soft parts of the palm tree (Fig. II. B), including apical meristem. 
inflorescence and young fruits. Generally larvae require about 21 days to 
pupate at 22 C. In laboratory conditions, due to unknown reasons, some 
larvae took more than one month to pupate. It was found that in the 
laboratory they pupated in moist paper tissues and/or moistened sand. In 
nature the larvae pupate in sand at the base of the palm trees. They remain 
in the pupal stage (Fig. I. F) for about 14-16 days. The pupae are light 
brown in color. 

The adults (Fig. I. A. & B) emerged on the 14- 16th day after pupation. 
The adults are about 5-6 mm long. The females can be distinguished easily 
by their elongated pointed telescoping ovipositor (3-4 mm in length) which 



124 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




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Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 



125 




Figure II. Damage to the Coconut Tree by E. c/iiuicrnaria. A. Adult laying eggs on soft parts 
of the stem. (In the circle). Al. Female fly. (Notice the ovipositor). B. Larvae (magnified view 
in B 1 ) feeding on the apical region of palm tree. Enlarged mouth hooks are shown in Fig. B2. C. 
A young coconut palm tree severely damaged by lethal yellowing and/or by these insects. D. 
Earlier stages (foreground) of infestation of lethal yellowing disease on mature trees and its 
final stages (dead trees). 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



is made up of 3 abdominal segments (Fig. I. B). Females have conspicuous 
yellow color on the dorsum of the abdomen. In nature, adults are found 
frequently on the trunks of palm trees. The adults were observed throughout 
the year, in the early morning or late afternoon, sitting on the sunny side of 
the trunks. The adults were peculiar in their wing-waving behavior. They 
move slowly, and constantly wave their dark-banded wings in a to-and-fro 
motion similar to that of many species of Tephritidae. This wing-waving is 
probably related to their courtship behavior. Both sexes are found to behave 
in this manner. This wing-waving behavior was noticed also in the 
laboratory (Fig. II. Aj). 

It was found that E. quaternaria has 12 chromosomes (2=12) 
including one pair of microchromosomes (Fig. I. C). Their polytene 
chromosomes are ectopically paired as predicted since the metaphase 
chromosomes have many heterochromatic segments in their genome. 

On the basis of the present data available, it is concluded that the life 
cycle of E. quaternaria is associated with palm trees as one of the host 
plants. The present study indicates that E. quaternaria can be reared in the 
laboratory conditions, therefore it may be possible to establish a direct 
cause-relationship between the insects and such diseases as "lethal 
yellowing," by obtaining more data on the biology and ecology of these 
flies. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We wish to thank Dr. B.A. Foote, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State 
University, Kent, Ohio and Mr. George C. Steyskal. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D.C. for their valuable suggestions and assistance in the identification of the flies 
in this study. We are grateful to Dr. Robert C. Graves. Bowling Green State University, for his 
helpful comments on the study and for critically reading the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, E.J. and B.A. Foote. 1967. Biology and immature stages of three species of Otitidae 
(Diptera) which have saprophagous larvae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 60: 828-836. 

Oldroyd, H. 1964. The natural history of Hies. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, pp. 324. 

Steyskal, G.C. 1968. Family Otitidae. Catalogue No. 54: 1-31 (Ortalidae: including 
Pterocallidae, Ulidiidae). //;: A catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the 
United States. Departomento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, Sao Paulo. 

Yoon, J.S., K. Resch and M.R. Wheeler. 1972. Cytogenetic relationships in Hawaiian 
species of Drosophila. I. The Drosophila hystricosa subgroup of the "Modified Mouthparts" 
species groups. Studies in genetics VII. Univ. of Texas Publ. 7213: 179-199. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 127 

NEW SPECIES OF LORETA AND ICAIA 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) FROM 

BOLIVIA AND PERU 1 

Dwight M. DeLong2 

ABSTRACT: Three species of Loreta, L.Jiskin.sp. (Peru). L. A Ibopunctatan.sp. (Bolivia), 
L. vista n.sp. (Bolivia) and a species of Icaia, I. montana n.sp. (Bolivia), are described. 



The genus Loreta was described by Linnavuori (1959). New species 
were described by Linnavuori and DeLong(1978, 1979). The genus Icaia 
was described by Linnavuori (1973). Linnavuori and DeLong (1976) 
described a Peruvian species. Three new species of Loreta and a new 
Bolivian species of Icaia are described in this paper. All types are in the 
DeLong collection, Ohio State University. 

Loreta fiski n.sp. 

(Figs. 1-5) 

Length of male 3.8 mm. Female unknown. Crown produced, angled, 3/4 as long at middle 
as wide between eyes at base. Color: crown mostly orange except a v-shaped white spot at 
apex, a slightly larger angled white spot each side between apex and eye, and a white elongate 
band extending along eyes and across base, except for a slight interruption at middle; all white 
markings margined with black. Pronotum mostly grayish brown, a median narrow white band 
between eyes at base and a rather large roundish grayish spot at middle of pronotum behind 
each eye. Scutellum orange, 2 median white spots at base, a small white spot in each basal 
angle and a small median white spot each side and at apex. Forewings greyish white 
subhyaline, veins dark brown, with a few irregular brownish spots on clavus. Claval area with 
numerous cross veins. 

Male genital plates (fig. 2) 2 times as long as wide at middle, apices narrowed, rounded. 
Style (fig. 5) with apophysis curved laterally and pointed. Aedeagus with 2 blade-like 
structures arising at base and extending laterocaudally (fig. 1 ). Aedeagal shaft rather small, L- 
shaped laterally (fig. 3), apex bluntly pointed. Pygofer narrowed, rounded apically (fig. 4). 

Holotype male: Tingo Maria, Peru 1 9-VI- 1982 at light. Frank Fisk coll. Paratypes: 2 cf 
Bolivia, Santa Cruz 21 -IX- 1980 Donald Foster coll. 

L. fiski differs from all described species of Loreta by having 2 blade- 
like structures arising at base of aedeagus and extending beyond the narrow 
angled aedeagal shaft. 

I take pleasure in naming this leafhopper for the collector, Frank Fisk. 



Deceived September 24, 1982. Accepted March 25, 1983. 
^Department of Entomology, Ohio State University. 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 127-130. September & October, 1983 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Loreta albopunctata n.sp. 

(Figs. 6-10) 

Length of male 3.5 mm, female 4 mm. Crown bluntly angled, more than 2/3 as long at 
middle as wide between eyes at base. Color: crown whitish, with 2 large squarish proximal 
brown spots between eyes. Pronotum mostly brownish or dark gray with a whitish area behind 
each eye and along apical margin. Scutellum white with a brown spot in each basal angle. 
Forewings brownish, subhy aline with large white spots at apex of claval veins on commissure 
and on middle of costa. Brown spots on costa and veins margined with darker brown. 

Female 7th sternum with posterior margin broadly, concavely rounded. 

Male genital plates 2 times as long as wide at middle (fig. 9), apex slightly narrowed, 
rounded. Style elongate (fig. 8) apical 5th narrowed, rounded. Aedeagus with apical 4th 
consisting of a process curved dorsally (fig. 7), a long slender process arises at base and 
extends latero-dorsally. Py gofer rounded apically with a curved hook (fig. 10) extending 
caudally on ventro-caudal margin. Pygofer bearing macrosetae on dorsocaudal margin. 

Holotype male: Bolivia, Santa Cruz 1- VI- 1980, Donald Foster coll. Paratypes: 1 9 
same data except 21 -IX- 1980. 

L. albopunctata is related to L. obtecta Linnavuori ( 1 959, p. 1 34) and 
can be separated from it by the more narrowed, curved portion of the 
aedeagus, in lateral view. 

Loreta vista n.sp. 

(Figs. 11-15) 

Length of male 3.5 mm. Female unknown. Crown bluntly angled, as long at middle as 
wide between eyes at base. Color: crown white with broad, transverse orange band between 
anterior portions of eyes. A slight orange ring around white apex. Pronotum dark brownish 
gray with paler area on each lateral margin. Scutellum white, tinted with orange, with black 
basal angles. Forewings pale grayish, subhyaline, with a few darker spots on clavus, veins 
mostly brown. 

Male genital plates 4 times as long as wide at middle (fig. 14), apices rounded. Style 
elongate with bluntly rounded apophysis extending caudally (fig. 11). Aedeagus with slender 
basal portion, broadened at middle dorsoventrally (fig. 12), apical portion narrowed, curved 
ventrally: with 2 slender processes, 3/4 length of shaft (fig. 12), arising at base of shaft and 
extending ventrally. Pygofer rounded apically (fig. 15). 

Holotype male: Bolivia, Buena Vista 21-V-1980, Donald Foster coll. 
L. vista is related to L. ornaticeps Linnavuori (1959, p. 155) from 
which it can be separated by the more broadened (dorsoventrally) central 
portion of the aedeagus and by the 2 long slender processes arising from its 
base. 

Icaia montana n.sp. 

(Figs. 16-21) 

Length of male 3.5 mm. Female unknown. Crown bluntly angled, a little wider between 
eyes at base than long at middle, margin bluntly angled with face. Color: crown pale yellowish 
with a small black spot at apex, a broad transverse black band, broadened at middle, extending 
betweeen eyes. Pronotum variable in color, yellowish with disc black and black vermiculate 
spots on basal half, or almost entirely black. Scutellum black. Forewings black, heavily 
sclerotized, rugose, extending to 8th tergite. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 



129 




Figs. 1-5. Loreta fiskin.sp. 1. aedeagus ventrally, 2. plate ventrally. 3. aedeagus laterally, 
4. pygofer laterally, 5. style ventrally. Figs. 6-10. L. albopunctata n.sp. 6. aedeagus 
ventrally, 7. aedeagus laterally, 8. style ventrally, 9. plate ventrally, 10. pygofer laterally. 
Figs. 11-15. L. vista n.sp. 11. style ventrally, 12. aedeagus laterally, 13. aedeagus 
ventrally, 14. plate ventrally. 15. pygofer laterally, apical portion. Figs. 16-21. Icaia 
montana n.sp. 16. aedeagus ventrally. 17. connective ventrally. 18. plate ventrally. 19. 
style ventrally, 20. aedeagus laterally. 21. pygofer laterally, apical portion. 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Male genital plates elongate, 4 times as long as wide at middle (fig. 18). Style narrow, 
elongate (fig. 1 9), with finger-like apophysis curving laterally. Aedeagus large at base, curving 
dorsally (fig. 20) and tapered to a slender pointed apex. Connective long and narrow with the 
basal portion divided and the 2 portions contiguous on basal fourth (fig. 17) Pyrofer rounded 
apically (fig. 21). 

Holotype male: Bolivia, Cochabamba, 20- V- 1 980. Paratypes 1 c? same data as holotype; 
1 c? 12-V-1981. All specimens collected by Donald L. Foster. 

/. montana is related to /. appendiculata Linnavuori and DeLong 
( 1 967. p. 32) and can be separated from it by the simple curved and tapered 
aedeagus without apical processes. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Linnavuori, Rauno 1959. Revision of the Neotropical Deltocephalinae and some related 
subfamilies (Homoptera). Anns. Zool. Soc. Vanamo 20(1): 1-370. 

. 1973. Additional Notes on the Cicadellidae fauna of Peru. Revista Peruana De 

Entomol. 16: 14-16. 

and D.M. DeLong. 1976. New Neotropical leafhoppers from Peru and Bolivia 



(Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Revista Peruana de Entomologia 19(1): 29-38. 

1978. Seventeen new species and three new genera of Central and South 



American Deltocephalini (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Brenesia 14/15: 195-226. 

1979. New genera and species of the tribe Deltocephalini from South America 



(Homoptera: Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae). Entomol. Scand. 10: 44-53. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE GENETICS OF INSECT DISEASE VECTORS. 
W. Steiner et al, Eds. 1982. Stipes Publ. 665 pp. $26.00. 

A collection of 30 papers from a 1981 symposium aimed at methods of stopping insects that 
vector parasites. 



NEUROHEMAL ORGANS OF ARTHOPODS: THEIR DEVELOPMENT, EVOLU- 
TION, STRUCTURES, AND FUNCTIONS. A. Gupta, Ed. 1 983. Chas. C. Thomas, Pub. 
629 pp. $74.50. 

Twenty contributions, including 13 on Insecta, updating available information on the 
development, evolution, structure and functions of the neurohemal organs of arthropods. 



ADVANCES IN GENETICS, DEVELOPMENT, AND EVOLUTION OF DROSOPHILA. 
S. Lakovaara, Ed. 1982. Plenum Press. 470 pp. $57.50. 

This volume offers 37 papers on current research on Drosophila, from the morphological to 
the molecular. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 131 

STYGNOCORIS RUSTICUS: NEW RECORDS IN 

EASTERN NORTH AMERICA, WITH A REVIEW 

OF ITS DISTRIBUTION (HEMIPTERA- 

HETEROPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) 1 

A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: New state records for Stygnocoris rusticus ( Fallen ), a Palearctic rhyparochromine 
lygaeid, are given for Michigan, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin; Prince Edward 
Island is a new provincial record for Canada. Additional records are provided for Connecticut. 
Maine, New York, Pennsylvania and Ontario. The known occurrence in the eastern United 
States and southern Canada is noted and mapped. S. rusticus may have been introduced with 
ballast brought ashore from ships, but it is more likely that it entered much later, perhaps with 
soil, seeds, or other such material. 

Stygnocoris rusticus (Fallen), a common Palearctic rhyparochromine 
lygaeid, was first reported from North America ("New York") by 
Heidemann (1908). In eastern North America the known distribution, 
primarily northern, includes Nova Scotia, Quebec (Montreal area north to 
Quebec and Tadoussac), Ontario (Ottawa and Ventnor), Maine (eastern 
coast), Connecticut (Canaan, Storrs), New York (Adirondacks region), 
and Illinois (Belvidere in extreme north). S. rusticus also has been recorded 
from British Columbia and Washington and thus is one of several Holarctic 
heteropterans known from northeastern North America and the Pacific 
Northwest. The lygaeid catalogue (Slater 1964) should be consulted for 
references to distribution records (except Connecticut see Sweet 1 964). 
A subsequent record likely to be overlooked is North East (Erie Co.), 
Pennsylvania, where S. rusticus was listed from vineyards as an "incidental 
species'" without collection data (Jubb et al. 1979); a series of specimens 
was taken in pitfall traps from 28 July to early Sept. 1972 (deposited in the 
Pennsylvania Dept. of Agric. collection). 

In detailed investigations on the rhyparochromine fauna of New 
England, Sweet (1964) characterized S. rusticus as a late-maturing, 
univoltine species that overwinters in the egg stage. He suggested that the 
obligate egg diapause may have favored its introduction with man's 
commerce, probably in ballast dumped from ships sailing from Europe. 
Sweet found that S. rusticus is more common in northern areas (northwestern 
Connecticut and northward), preferring mesic open fields dominated by tall 
forbs. It is one of the few rhyparochromines that ascends plants; in early fall 
it leaves the ground layer, where its diet consists of fallen seeds, to feed on the 
ripening seed heads of composites like tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L., and 



Deceived March 26. 1983. Accepted April 16, 1983. 

^Bureau of Plant Industry. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, PA 171 10. 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 131-135. September & October, 1983 



132 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



yarrow, Achillea rnillefolium L. (Sweet 1964, Beique and Robert 1964). 
Sweet also noted that S. rusticus is atypical among Rhyparochrominae by 
exhibiting frequent brachyptery in temporary habitats. 

Sweet (1964) suggested that the range of S. rusticus in eastern North 
America might remain nearly boreal, with its southward spread "... limited 
by the capacity of this insect to survive such a long summer nonreproductive 
period and then to oviposit vigorously in autumn." Herein, I provide an 
updated distribution in the eastern U.S. and Canada on the basis of personal 
collecting and records from museum specimens. S. rusticus is recorded for 
the first time from Michigan, Vermont, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and 
Prince Edward Island; additional records are given for Connecticut, Maine, 
New York, Pennsylvania, and Ontario. All new and previously published 
records are mapped for the U.S. and Ontario, and for most of the localities 
in southern Quebec (Fig. 1). 




Fig. 1. New records (solid circles) and previously published records (open circles) for 
Stygnocoris rusticus in eastern North America; records for northern Quebec. Nova Scotia, 
and Prince Edward Island are not shown. 



The following data extend the known distribution of Stygnocoris 
rusticus in eastern North America. Voucher material from personal 
collecting in Pennsylvania and West Virginia (and Genesee Co. and 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 133 

Ludlowville, NY) is deposited in the collection of the Pennsylvania 
Department of Agriculture (PDA). Records from Connecticut were 
obtained from J.A. Slater, University of Connecticut, Storrs (UC); 
Wisconsin records, from B.J. Harrington, University of Wisconsin- 
Madison (UW-M). All Ontario records (except for Huron Co.) are based 
on material in the Canadian National Collection, Ottawa (CNC). Other 
data were obtained from the following collections: American Museum of 
Natural History, New York (AMNH); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 
(CU); National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (USNM); 
and Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (ROM). 

CANADA. ONTARIO: Dalston, 6 Sept. 1 96 1 , Kelton & Brumpton; Eramosa, 5 Sept. 
1961, Kelton & Brumpton; Grand Bend, 6 Sept. 1954, C.D.F. Miller; Grimsby, 24 Aug. 
1 96 1 , Kelton & Brumpton: Huron Co., nr. Silver Cr., Seaforth Hwy. 8, 28 July 1 976, D. & W. 
Maddison (ROM); Kincardine, 7-8 Sept. 1961, Kelton & Brumpton; Oakland, 2 Aug. 1961, 
J. Brumpton; Orangeville, 24 July 1962. Kelton & Thorpe; Prince Edward Co., 9 Aug. 1925, 
J.F. Brimley; Sioux Narrows, 8 Aug. 1960, Kelton & Whitney; Smithville, 24 Aug. 1961, 
Kelton & Brumpton; Thornhill, 1 5 Aug. 1 96 1 , L.A. Kelton; Violet Hill, 5 Sept. 1 96 1 , Kelton 
& Brumpton; Woodford, 6 Sept. 1961, L.A. Kelton. 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: Cavendish, 14 Aug. 1959, J.A. Slater(UC), and 13-19 
Aug. 1976, L.A. Kelton (CNC). 

UNITED STATES. CONNECTICUT: Fairfield Co., Titicus Hamlet, Ridgefield, 2 
Sept. 1970, P.P. Maroney; Windham Co., Eastford, 7 July 1976, J.A. Slater (UC). 

MAINE: Penobscot Co., Orono, Aug. 1924, I.H. Blake (USNM). 

MICHIGAN. Mason Co., 1 Sept. 1947; Mecosta Co., Mecosta, 17 July 1955, R. 
Dreisbach (USNM). 

NEW YORK: Clinton Co., Merrill, 24-26 Sept. 1914, W.D. Appel (USNM); Genesee 
Co., Bergen Swamp Wildlife Sanctuary, 4 Sept. 1982, AGW; Tompkins Co., Ithaca, 4 Sept. 
1968, AGW (CU), and nr. Ludlowville, 4 Aug. 1979, AGW; Warren Co., Warrensburg, 29 
Aug. 1959, J.A. Slater (UC). 

PENNSYLVANIA. Centre Co., Scotia Barrens, 18 Aug. 1977 and 30 Aug. 1982, 
AGW; Clinton Co., Tamarack,22 Aug. 1977, AGW;Luzerne Co., Dallas, 12 Aug. 1977, 
AGW: MontourCo., Danville, 23 Aug. 1929 (USNM); Tioga Co., nr. Liberty, 3 Sept. 1982, 
AGW; Westmoreland Co., nr. Latrobe, 18 Aug. 1982, AGW. 

VERMONT. Orleans Co., East Charleston, 24 Aug. 1967 (AMNH). 

WEST VIRGINIA. Tucker Co., nr. Blackwater Falls State Park, 15 Aug. 1982, AGW, 
and Dolly Sods, 14 Aug. 1982, AGW. 

WISCONSIN. Price Co., Intersection its. 8 & 13, 21 Aug. 1982. B.J. Harrington; 
Sawyer Co., Radisson, 23 Aug. 1982, B.J. Harrington, and 4 mi. E. Stone Lake, Rt. 70, 23 
Aug. 1982, B.J. Harrington; Taylor Co., 2 mi. S. Price Co. line, co. rd. C, 21 Aug. 1982, B.J. 
Harrington, and 2 mi. E. rt. 1 3 on co. rd M, 2 1 Aug. 1 982, B.J. Harrington; Vilas Co., Arbor 
Vitae, 21 Aug. 1982, B.J. Harrington; Wood Co., 19 Aug. 1977, K. Thorpe. 

All specimens in Pennsylvania and West Virginia were collected by 
sweeping the seed heads of yarrow or by tapping the heads over a small tray; 
the collection at Bergen Swamp in New York was made from tansy. Mating 
pairs were common on these composites. S. rusticus was taken mainly 
during August and early September, and most of the museum specimens 
examined had been collected from late July to September. The general 
collector who relies upon sweeping is not apt to encounter this rhyparochromine 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

except in late summer when adults leave the ground layer to feed on ripening 

seeds. 

I often collected S. nisticus on yarrow growing along roadsides. In 
Connecticut, Sweet (1964) reported that larger populations were found in 
mesic open fields than along roadside edges. 

S. nisticus also was abundant in several areas well removed from its 
known North American distribution. The "Barrens" region of Centre Co., 
Pennsylvania, lying 100-200 ft. (30-6 1 m) above the rest of Nittany Valley, 
is characterized by sandy soil of low fertility. The iron ore industry that 
flourished in the 19th century and the associated production of charcoal 
with its frequent fires destroyed the original vegetation; thus, the flora 
differs strikingly from that of the surrounding area. Scrub oak, Quercus 
ilicifolia Wang., dominates the Barrens. Other characteristic species are 
aspens, Populus spp.; pitch pine, Pinus rigida Mill.; and blueberries, 
Vaccinium spp. (Westerfeld 1959). S. nisticus also was taken near the 
tamarack bogs in northern Clinton Co., Pennsylvania; in Bergen Swamp in 
Genesee Co., New York; and at nearly 4,000 ft. ( 1 ,2 1 9 m) on Dolly Sods in 
the Monongahela National Forest, Tucker Co., West Virginia. Dolly Sods 
is a wilderness area consisting largely of unbroken forest on the steep frontal 
knobs of the Alleghenies. 

The abundance of S. nisticus in these areas probably reflects a 
continuing southward spread of populations rather than a natural Holarctic 
distribution. As Sweet (1964) noted, the introduced status of S. nisticus is 
supported by its early collection on and near the Atlantic Coast and the 
rather "immature" pattern of distribution (see Lindroth 1957). S. rusticus 
and the introduced S. sabulosus (Schilling) also are the only Western 
Hemisphere representatives of the otherwise Old World tribe Stygnocorini 
(Slater 1974; see also Slater et al. 1977). The known distribution in 
western North America does not point to a trans-Beringian origin; it is not 
known from Alaska or across northern Canada. S. rusticus should be 
considered an immigrant element in the North American fauna, probably 
the result of separate introductions to the Atlantic Coast and Pacific 
Northwest. Although a ballast origin is possible, this lygaeid was detected 
well after the main ballast period, suggesting an introduction with soil, 
seeds, packing material around nursery stock, or other products of man's 
commerce. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am grateful to B. J . Harrington ( U W-M ) and J. A. Slater ( UC ) for allowing me to use their 
unpublished records of Stygnocoris rusticus; to T.J. Henry (Systematic Entomology 
Laboratory, USDA, c/o U.S. National Museum, Washington, DC) for recording label data 
from specimens in the CNC and USNM and L.A. Kelton (Biosystematics Research Institute, 



Vol. 94, No. 4. September & October, 1983 135 



Agriculture Canada, Ottawa) for allowing access to the CNC: to R.T. Schuh ( AMNH) for 
recording data from specimens under his care: and to M.F. O'Brien ( University of Michigan. 
Ann Arbor) for checking the Univ. Mich, collection for possible specimens of 5. rusticus. E.R. 
Hoebeke (CU) and K. Valley (PDA) kindly reviewed the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Beique, R. and A. Robert. 1964. Les Lygeides de la Province de Quebec, Heteropteres (2 e 

partie). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Quebec 9: 72-101. 
Heidemann, O. l9Q8.'[Stygnocoris rusticus in North America; specimens exhibited]. Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 10: 14. 
Jubb, G.L., Jr., E.G. Masteller, and A.G. Wheeler, Jr. 1979. Survey of arthropods in 

vineyards of Erie County. Pennsylvania: Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Environ. Entomol. 

8: 982-986. 
Lindroth, C.H. 1957. The faunal connections between Europe and North America. John 

Wiley & Sons, New York. 344 pp. 
Slater, J.A. 1 964. A catalogue of the Lygaeidae of the world. Univ. of Connecticut. Storrs. 2 

vols. 1668 pp. 
Slater, J.A. 1974. A preliminary analysis of the derivation of the Heteroptera fauna of the 

northeastern United States with special reference to the fauna of Connecticut. Mem. 

Conn. Entomol. Soc. 1974: 145-213. 
Slater, J.A. M.H. Sweet, and R.M. Baranowski. 1977. The systematics and biology of the 

genus Bathvdema Uhler (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 70: 343- 

358. 
Sweet, M.H. 1964. The biology and ecology of the Rhyparochrominae of New England 

(Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Part I. II. Entomol. Am. 43: 1-124:44: 1-201. 
Westerfeld, W.F. 1959. Flora of Centre and Huntingdon counties with related historical, 

geological, and physiographic features. Pa. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 647, 35 pp. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 



INSECT NEUROHORMONES. M. Raabe. 1982. Plenum Press. 352 pp. $42.50. 

Neurohormones and their source sites, release modes, and physiological roles are examined in 
this volume on insect endocrinology. 



NEW ZEALAND BUTTERFLIES: IDENTIFICATION AND NATURAL HISTORY. 
G. Gibbs, 1980. W. Collins Pub. 207 pp. $45.00. Available from ISBS, Box 1632, 
Beaverton, OR 97075. 

A conspectus of information on most aspects of butterfly life, aranged systematically, and an 
identification guide through use of identification keys, illustrations, and maps. Every species 
known to breed in New Zealand is described and illustrated in color. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



NEW RECORDS OF NORTH AMERICAN 

ODONATA 1 

Sidney W. Dunkle 2 

ABSTRACT: New records, including 28 state records, 1 1 range extensions, and 12 flight 
date extensions are given for 36 species of Nearctic Odonata. Aeshna multicolor Hagen is 
deleted from the Missouri fauna. Behavioral and habitat notes are given for Arigomphus 
maxwelli (Ferguson) and Aeshna mutata Hagen. 

This paper includes geographical and temporal information on Nearctic 
Odonata accumulated by the author since 1975. Data obtained prior to that 
year are given in Dunkle ( 1 975 ). The Anisoptera records listed below are in 
the same sequence as in Needham and Westfall (1955). One or more 
substantiating specimens are placed in the Florida State Collection of 
Arthropods (FSCA) at Gainesville, and specimens were collected by the 
author (SWD), unless otherwise noted. 

Hagenius brevistylus Selys. VERMONT, Essex Co., outlet Dennis Pond, 17 July 1982, 6 
cfcf. New VT record. Also listed for VT in Carle (1982). 

Octogomphus specularis Hagen. CALIFORNIA, Fresno Co., Fancher Creek, 8 April 
1977, 1 9 exuviae. New early date. 

Arigomphus maxwelli (Ferguson). MISSISSIPPI, Sharkey Co., Blue Lake and Barge Lake, 
20-2 1 May 1 98 1 , and a large pond on MS 1 6, 1 5 km SE Rolling Fork, 22 May 1981. New 
MS record. Blue Lake and Barge Lake are inter-connected, swampy, muddy sloughs. Here, 
a number of cfcf and 2 teneral 99 were collected. The mature cfcf perched in small sunlit 
areas in the swamp on the mud at the edge of the water, on logs near shore, or occasionally 
on leaves low over the water. They avoided open shoreline and logs in open water, and I did 
not find them in small forest sunspots. They were present at the water beginning about 1 000, 
and definitely dwindled in number after 1330. They usually perched with their abdomens 
held horizontally, but sometimes raised their abdomens 45 degrees, probably to decrease 
body temperature. Two exuviae were found 2-10 cm above the water on logs. At the pond 
on Route 1 6, which had open shores, several cfcf were present about 1 000, but seemed to be 
driven away by males of the \argerArigomphus submedianus Williamson which arrived in 
greater numbers later in the morning. A. submedianus was not present at Blue Lake or 
Barge Lake. One A. maxwelli oviposited while hovering 10 cm up, by tapping the tip of the 
abdomen to the water along the shoreline while facing the bank. At another locality, in 
Arkansas, 2 cfcf perched on a semi-shaded duckweed (Lemna sp.) mat in a slow small 
river. 

A. villosipes (Selys). MISSOURI, Shannon Co., Lewis Lake 3 km N of Winona, 8 June 
1981, 1 cf. New for MO and western range extension. 

Gomphus consanguis Selys. GEORGIA, Walker Co., E fork of East Armuchee Creek, SE 
of Villanow, 14 June 1979, 1 cf 1 9, SWD Collection. New for GA and southern range 
extension. 

G. rogersi Gloyd. GEORGIA, Lumpkin Co., Hidden Lake 15 km NW of Dahlonega, 18 
June 1979, 1 cf 1 9, SWD Collection. Gilmer Co., Big Turniptown Creek at GA 5, 13 
April 1980, 3 larvae (Louton, 1982). New GA records and southern range extension. 

G. graslinellus Walsh. TEXAS, Real Co., Nueces River at Barksdale, 15 March 1 978, 1 cf 
1 9 reared, SWD Collection. Southwestern range extension. 

1 Received March 12, 1982. Accepted May 12, 1983. 

2Rureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, Box 1269, Gainesville, Florida 32602. 
ENT. NEWS 94(4): 136-138. September & October, 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 137 

G. apomyius Donnelly. MISSISSIPPI, Lauderdale Co., Chickasawhay River at U.S. 80, 

1.7 km E of Chunky, 17 May 1981, 1 9, SWD Collection. New late date. 
G. parvidens Currie. GEORGIA, Richmond Co. , Sandy Run at U. S. 1 , 1 6 May 1 982, 2 cf cf 
19. New GA record. 

Stylogomphus albistylus (Hagen). ALABAMA, Tuscaloosa Co., Cooley Creek, 14 May 
1 93 9, collector unknown, 1 9. VERMONT, Essex Co., outlet McConnell Pond at VT 105. 
14-15 July 1982, 5 cfcf 2 99. New early date and VT record. 

Stylurus amnicola (Walsh). GEORGIA, Houston Co., Ocmulgee River at GA 96, 21 June 
1982, 5 cfcf 1 9. New GA record and southeastern range extension. 

Boyeria gruftana Williamson. GEORGIA, Lumpkin Co., Dick's Creek 5.7 km N of U.S. 
19,31 Augl975, 1 cf.WhiteCo.,HiwasseeRiveratGA75,2Aug. 1981, 4 cfcf, collected 
by J. Daigle and in his collection. VERMONT, Essex Co., outlet Wheeler Pond at VT 102, 
16 July 1982, 2 cfcf. New VT and GA records, the latter a southern range extension. Also 
listed for VT in Carle (1982). 

Anax longipes Hagen. MISSOURI, Oregon Co., pond 0.3 km W of MO 1 9 on Mark Twain 
National Forest Road 3 1 74, 7 June 1981, 1 cf exuviae. One mature cf also seen. New MO 
record. 

Aeshna mutata Hagen. MISSOURI, same data as Anax longipes, 1 cf cf. New MO record and 
western range extension. According to Needham and Westfall (1955), the very similar 
species A. multicolor Hagen ranges E to Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas, but their record for 
MO was apparently based on the "Upper Missouri" in Hagen ( 1 86 1 ). Thus A. multicolor 
should be deleted from the MO fauna. 

The MO habitat for Anax longipes and Aeshna mutata as well as Lestes eurinus Say was 
a small man-made pond, about 20 X 70 m. The abundance of these uncommon odonates at 
this pond was no doubt due to its lack offish, although larval newts were common. Up to 3 
cf cf A. mutata at a time patrolled the pond, especially in the shade, until 20 1 6 at a height of 
1 5-25 cm. They rested in the trees after patrolling for periods of about 1 5 min. The patrol 
flights were leisurely, erratic, and mostly well out from shore, with the abdomen slightly 
raised and the wings beating only a little below the horizontal plane. From 1937-2030, 
females were ovipositing in the underwater parts of the flower stems of water-shield 
(Brasenia sp.), almost entirely in the middle of the pond. 

A. persephone Donnelly. ARIZONA, Cochise Co., Cave Creek at John Hand Dam W of 
Portal, 23 Oct 1976, 4 cfcf 1 9, SWD Collection. New late date. These specimens were 
taken in cool weather as they flew closely along the shoreline at times when the sun had been 
shining for periods of at least 5 min. 

A. umbrosa umbrosa Walker. GEORGIA, Fannin Co., Edmunson Fish Rearing Pond N of 
Hawk Mountain, 27 Oct. 1951, 2 cfcf, collected by W.H. Cross. Hall Co., Owens Farm 
near Gainesville, 2 April 1979, 15 larvae, collected by M.J. Westfall. Towns Co., Bald 
Mountain Park, 1 Sept. 1975, 1 cf. These new GA records are at the southern edge of the 
species range. 

A. walkeri Kennedy. CALIFORNIA, Madera Co., small tributary to Kerckhoff Reservoir, 
13 June 1977, 2 exuviae, SWD Collection. Fresno Co., Sycamore Creek at Pine Flat 
Reservoir, 9 Nov. 1976, 5 cfcf, SWD Collection. New range of dates. 

Macromia margarita Westfall. NORTH CAROLINA, Macon Co., Cullasaja River 6.7 km 
W of Highlands on U.S. 64, 5 Aug. 1981, 1 cf 19, SWD Collection, J. Daigle Collection. 
New late date. 

Neurocordulia virginiensis Davis. ARKANSAS, Montgomery Co., Ouachita River at U.S. 
270, 28 May 1 98 1 , 1 9. New for AR. 

N. yamaskanensis (Provancher). NORTH CAROLINA, Macon Co., Little Tennessee 
River at lotla, 24 June 1982, 1 cf. New NC record. 

Epitheca costalis (Selys). ILLINOIS, Gallatin Co., Pounds Hollow Lake, 1 1 June 1981 . 2 
cfcf, 1 ovipositing 9, SWD Collection. MISSOURI. Wayne Co., Markham 
Springs, June 1981, 5 cfcf. New IL and MO records, the former a northern range 
extension. These specimens were tentatively determined as E. costalis by K.J. Tennessen 
and the author. However, E. costalis is nearly identical morphologically with E. spinigera 
(Selys) of IL and northward, and E. petechialis (Muttkowski) of Kansas and westward. 
These 3 species and the enigmatic E. williamsoni (Muttkowski) urgently need critical 
study. At the IL locality, E. cynosura (Say) was flying mixed in with E. costalis on sex 
patrols. 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

E. petechialis (Muttkowski). TEXAS, Val Verde Co., Sycamore Creek at U.S. 90, 14 

March 1978, 1 teneral 9. New early date. 
Somatochlora elongata (Scudder) GEORGIA, White Co., Chattahoochee River at 

Robertstown, 25 May 1979, 1 reared 9, SWD Collection. VERMONT, Essex Co., outlet 

McConnell Pond at VT 105, 1 5 July 1 982, 3 cf cf . Also listed for VT in Carle (1982). New 

VT and GA records, the latter a slight southern range extension. 
S. georgiana Walker. MISSISSIPPI, Jackson Co., Big Cedar Creek at S-63, 29 June 1 968, 1 

9, collected by W.F. Mauffray and W. Walters. Wayne Co., stream 5 km E of Buccatunna, 

11 Aug. 1977, 1 cf, SWD Collection. New MS records. 

S. minor Calvert. VERMONT, same data as S. elongata, 1 cf . New VT record. 
S. walshii (Scudder). VERMONT, same data as S. elongata, 1 cf 19. Also listed for VT in 

Carle (1982). New VT records. 
5. williamsoni Walker. VERMONT, Essex Co.. outlet Spectacle Pond, 1 4 July 1 982, 3 cf cf. 

Also listed for VT in Carle (1982). New VT records. 
Ladona deplanata Rambur. MISSOURI, Oregon Co., McCormack Lake, 7 June 1981, 1 cf 

1 9, SWD Collection. Wayne Co., Upalika Pond 1 1 .7 km E of Ellsinore, 9 June 1981,1 cf . 

New MO records. 
Libellula forensis Hagen. CALIFORNIA, Fresno Co., Lost Lake, 25 April 1977, 1 cf, 

SWD Collection. New early date. 
Sympetrum rubicundulum (Say). GEORGIA, Rabun Co., pond W of Moccasin Creek 

State Park, 29 Aug. 1978, 15 cfcf. White Co., Dukes Creek at GA 75, 18 June 1979, 1 cf. 
New GA records and southern range extension. 
Erythemis collocata (Hagen). CALIFORNIA, Fresno Co., Lost Lake, 25 April 1977, 1 

mature cf . New early date. 
Archilestes californica MacLachlan. CALIFORNIA, Fresno Co., Sycamore Creek at Pine 

Flat Reservoir, 9 Nov. 1976, 7 cfcf 1 9. New late date. 
Lestes eurinus Say. VIRGINIA, Highland Co., Locust Spring beaver pond, 4 July 1981, 1 

cf, SWD Collection. Giles Co., Mt. Lake Biological Station, 17-22 July 1978, 14 cfcf 5 99, 

collected by F.C. Johnson. New VA records. 

L. rectangularis Say. GEORGIA, White Co., Helen, 26 March 1 979, 4 cfcf. New early date. 
Enallagma hageni( Walsh). VIRGINIA, Highland Co., Locust Spring Beaver Ponds, 4 July 

1 98 1 , 9 cfcf 3 99. Giles Co., Mt. Lake Biological Station, 1 7-22 July 1 978, 2 cfcf, collected 

by F.C. Johnson. New VA records. 
Nehalennia gracilis Morse. GEORGIA, White Co., spring ponds at Dukes Creek and GA 

75, 25 May 1979, 1 cf. New GA record. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Minter Westfall and Jerrell Daigle for permission to include some of their records, 
and Minter Westfall, George Bick, Juanda Bick, and Leonora Gloyd for reading the 
manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Carle, F.L. 1982. A contribution to the knowledge of the Odonata. PhD Dissertation. 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg. 1095 p. 
Dunkle, S.W. 1975. New records of North American anisopterous dragonflies. Fla. 

Entomol. 58: 117-119. 
Hagen, H. 1861. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America. Smithsonian Misc. 

Collections, Washington D.C. 347 p. 
Louton, J.A. 1982. Lotic dragonfly (Anisoptera: Odonata) nymphs of the southeastern 

United States: Identification, distribution, and historical biogeography. PhD Dissertation. 

Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville. 357 p. 
Needham, J.G., and M.J. Westfall, Jr., 1 955. A manual of the dragonflies of North America 

(Anisoptera). Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 615 p. 



Vol. 94, No. 4. September & October. 1983 139 

NEW RECORD FOR IXODES TEXANUS 

fACARINA: IXODIDAE) BANKS IN MISSISSIPPI, 

WITH A NEW HOST RECORD 1 2 

Jerome Goddard^, B.R. Norment^ 

ABSTRACT: Nymphs of Ixodes texanus were collected in Marshall County. Mississippi 
from raccoon, rabbit and mice. This collection represents a new state record and the white- 
footed mouse is a new host record for the nymph. 

Ixodes texanus Banks, the raccoon tick, is an important parasite of 
raccoons in the eastern United States and is known from at least 30 states 
(Clifford et al. 1960; Darsie and Anastos, 1957; Keirans and Clifford, 
1978). Hosts include raccoon, ground squirrel, gray squirrel, pine squirrel, 
weasel, marten, chipmunk, mink, opossum, rabbit, gray fox, woodchuck, 
and domestic dog (Clifford et al, 1960; Cooley and Kohls. 1945; Cooney 
and Hays, 1972; Cooney and Burgdorfer. 1974). 

In a study of tick and rickettsial infections of mammals in northern 
Mississippi. 21 nymphs of /. texanus were collected: 14 from two 
raccoons, Procyon lotor; 4 from two cottontail rabbits, Silvilagusfloridanus; 
and 3 from a white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Stricklin, 1975). 

The presence of this tick in Mississippi has never been reported but was 
predicted in light of the results of surveys conducted in other Southern states 
(Cooney and Hays, 1972; Lancaster, 1973). 

Raccoon and rabbits have been previously reported as hosts for /. 
texanus, but the white-footed mouse represents a new host record for the 
nymph of this species. With the exception of 2 specimens which are in the 
MSU collection, all specimens are deposited in the Rocky Mountain 
Laboratories Collection. 

New Records 

Marshall Co., Wall Doxey State Park. 7-III-1975. L.S. Stricklin. raccoon. 1 1 nymphs. 
23-III-1 975, L.S. Stricklin. raccoon. 3 nymphs: 20-V- 1 975. L.S. Stricklin. cottontail rabbit. 2 
nymphs: 13-VIII-1975. L.S. Stricklin. cottontail rabbit. 2 nymphs: 12-IV-1975. L.S. 
Stricklin. white-footed mouse. 3 nymphs. 



'Received February 5, 1983. Accepted March 19. 1983. 

-Publication No. 5405 of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. 

-'Present address: Entomology Department. Drawer EM. Mississippi State. MS 39762. 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 139-140. September & October. 1983 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Dr. C.M. Clifford (Rocky Mountain Laboratories) for confirming the 
identification of these specimens and Dr. P.K. Lago (University of Mississippi) for helpful 
comments in the preparation of this manuscript. We also would like to acknowledge the 
collecting efforts of L.S. Stricklin. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Clifford, C.M., G. Anastos and A. Elbl. 1960. The larval ixodid ticks of the eastern United 

States. Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 2: 215-237. 
Cooney,J.C.and K.L. Hays. 1972. The ticks of Alabama. Auburn Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 

426. 40 pp. 
Cooney, J.C and W. Burgdorfer. 1974. Zoonotic potential (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 

and Tularemia) in the Tennessee Valley Region I. Ecologic studies of ticks infesting 

mammals in the Land Between the Lakes. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 23(1): 99-108. 
Cooley, R.A. and G.M. Kohls. 1 945. The genus Ixodes in North America. Nat. Inst. Health 

Bull. 184. 246 pp. 
Darsie, R.F. and G. Anatos. 1957. Geographical distribution and hosts of Ixodes texanus 

Banks. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 50: 295-301. 
Keirans, J.E. and C.M. Clifford. 1 978. The genus Ixodes in the United States: a scanning 

electron microscope study and key to the adults. J. Med. Entomol. Suppl. 2: "1-149. 
Lancaster, J.L., Jr. 1973. A guide to the ticks of Arkansas. Univ. of Arkansas Agr. Exp. Sta. 

Bull. 779. 39 pp. 
Stricklin, L.S. 1975. Tick and rickettsial infections of mammals in Marshall County. 

Mississippi. Master's Thesis, Mississippi State University. 31 pp. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 



THE ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF INSECT CELLS. H. Akai. R. 
King, & S. Morohoski, Eds. 1982. The Society for Insect Cells Japan. 195 pp. $28.00. 
Available from ISBS, Box 1632, Beaverton, OR 97075. 

This book records the proceedings of the International Conference on Insect Cells, Sapporo, 
Japan, August. 1982. Subject matter is same as in INSECT ULTRASTRUCTURE. 



INSECT ULTRASTRUCTURE, Vol. 1. R.C. King& H. Akai, Eds. 1982. Plenum Press. 
485 pp. $55.00. 

Up to date reviews on selected aspects of the ultrastructure of gametes, of developing cells, and 
of the development, differentiation, and functioning of specialized tissues and organs. From 
the proceedings. International Conference on Insect Cells. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 141 

NEW RECORD OF MAYFLY BAETISCA 

RUBESCENS (PROVANCHER) FOR WEST 

VIRGINIA (EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETISCIDAE) 1 

Donald C. Tarter, Daniel K. Peltry 2 

ABSTRACT: A new distribution record for Baetisca rubescens ( Provancher) is reported for 
West Virginia. Seven mature nymphs were collected from Red Creek, Tucker County, West 
Virginia. Prior to this collection, B. rubescens has been reported only in the northeastern 
region of North America from New Hampshire to Quebec. 

Baetisca rubescens (Provancher) is reported for the first time in West 
Virginia. Seven mature nymphs were collected on 1 October 1976 from 
Red Creek, Tucker County, West Virginia. Pescador and Berner (1981) 
provided excellent characters to separate the nymphs from the closely 
related B. berneri Tarter and Kirchner and B. Carolina Traver. 

Prior to this state record, four species of Baetisca have been reported 
from West Virginia: ( 1 ) B. Carolina (Monongalia County) (Needham et 
ul., 1935): (2) B. callosa Traver (Greenbrier. Mineral and Preston counties) 
(Needham etal., 1935; Faulkner and Tarter, 1977): (3) B. bajkoviNeave 
(='- B. lacustn's McDunnough) (Lewis, Lincoln, Pleasants and Wayne 
counties) (Faulkner and Tarter, 1977); and (4) B. berneri (Mingo County) 
Tarter and Kirchner. 1978). However, Pescador and Berner ( 1981 ). after 
making a careful study of paratypes of B. callosa from West Virginia, 
concluded that the species is not recognizable. Their examination of young 
nymphs of several species has shown that specimens which could be 
identified as B. callosa were collected along with more mature, easily 
recognizable older nymphs. Efforts are being made to collect and rear 
specimens from the type locality to help solve the taxonomic problem. 

The closely related B. berneri, B. Carolina, and B. rubescens occur in 
the cool mountain streams of the Appalachians. Baetisca Carolina is found 
in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West 
Virginia, while B. berneri is known from Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia 
and West Virginia (Needham et al., 1935; Pescador and Berner. 1981). 
Baetisca rubescens has been collected only in the northeastern region of 
North America from New Hampshire to Quebec. Pescador and Berner 
(1981) suggested these species represent a group that was either pushed or 
trapped in the streams of the Appalachians during Pleistocene glaciation. 
The collection of nymphs from Red Creek, a cool mountain stream in West 



Deceived March 22, 1983. Accepted April 26. 1983. 

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University. Huntington. West Virginia 2570 1 . 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 141-142. September & October. 1983 



14 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Virginia, helps to bridge the gap from the disjunctive species B. rubescensto 
the sister species B. berneri and B. Carolina. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors are grateful to Dr. Lewis Berner, Department of Zoology, University of 
Florida, Gainesville, Florida, for helping with the identification of the mayfly. Also, we thank 
Ms. Vickie Crager for typing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Faulkner, C.M.,and D.C. Tarter. 1977. Mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of West Virginia with 

emphasis on the nymphal stage. Ent. News 88: 202-206. 
Needham, J.B., J.R. Traver and Y. Hsu. 1935. The Biology of Mayflies. Comstock 

Publishing Company, Inc. Ithaca, New York. 759. p. 
Pescador, M.L. and L. Berner. 1 981. The mayfly family Baetiscidae(Ephermeroptera). Part 

II. Biosystemaitcs of the genus Baetisca. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 107: 163-228. 
Tarter, D.C., and F.R. Kirchner. 1978. A new species of Baetisca from West Virginia 

(Ephemeroptera: Baetiscidae). Ent. News 89: 209-213. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED (Continued) 



INSECTS ON GRAIN LEGUMES IN NORTHERN AUSTRALIA. M. Shepard et al. 
1983. Univ. Queensland Press. 89 pp. $8.50 pbk. 

Over 260 arthropod species were recorded in a survey of potential pests and their enemies. 1 1 5 
fine color photographs provide a ready field guide to identification. 



VARIABLE PLANTS AND HERBIVORES IN NATURAL AND MANAGED SYSTEMS. 

R. Denno & M. McClure, Eds. 1983. Academic Press, 717 pp. 

Understanding the dynamics of plant-herbivore relationships and applying this knowledge in 
agriculture and silviculture are the themes of this volume. 



WINDBORNE PESTS AND DISEASES: METEROLOGY OF AIRBORNE ORGAN- 
ISMS. D.E. Pedgley. 1982. Halsted Press: John Wiley & Sons. 250 pp. $59.95 

This book describes and explains the influence of the atmosphere on the wind-borne 
movement of small organisms, and how they get into and out of the atmosphere. It is a book for 
biologists, entomologists and ecologists, by a meteorologist. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 143 

A MUTILLID MIMIC OF AN ANT 

(HYMENOPTERA: MUTILLIDAE AND 

FORMICIDAE) 1 

George C. Wheeler 2 

ABSTRACT: The female of the Central American mutillid Pappognatha myrmiciformis 
mimics the major worker of the common Neotropical ant Carnponotus sericeiventris. It is 
hypothesized that the mimicry is aggressive and may enable the mimic to oviposit on the brood 
of the model. 

"Camponotus (Myrmepomis) sericeiventris, owing to its size, wide 
distribution and dense covering of silver or golden pubescence, is one of the 
handsomest and most conspicuous ants of the American tropics" (W.M 
Wheeler 1931: 86), and one might add, considering the defensive 
capabilities of a populous colony of large Camponotus species, a likely 
model for mimics. Dr. Wheeler continued (p. 87): "Some years ago Dr. J. 
Bequaert gave me several peculiar Cerambycid beetles which he had taken 
June 4, 1 924, on tree trunks at Prieta, Honduras, in company with workers 
of C. sericeiventris rex var. semirex. The beetles so closely resemble the 
ants that they may be regarded as highly mimetic." 

In 1897 Cameron described (p. 378) a new species of mutillid 
Sphaerophthalma myrmiciformis from a female collected at Bugaba, 
Panama, and commented that "this species bears a great resemblance to the 
not uncommon Central- American ant Camponotus sericeiventris, amongst 
specimens of which it was placed in the box when received by me; but I 
know not if they are found together in nature." 

In 1939 Mickel transferred the mutillid species (p. 336) to his new 
genus (p. 330) Pappognatha and adds the following records (all females) 
from Costa Rica: Zent; "Las Mercedes, bei San Jose. . . on blossoms of 
Tuga;" Irazu. 

Dr. Karl V. Krombein has kindly supplied me with copies of all 
significant literature of P. myrmiciformis, i.e., the two papers mentioned 
above. In his covering letter (19 January 1983) he stated: "Pappognatha 
has a long, and presumably potent, sting so probably the mimicry should not 
be ascribed to a requirement for protection by the wasp. We have in the 
USNM a specimen of P. speciosa Mickel reared from the euglossine bee, 
Euglossa brullei Lepeletier, and that is the only host record known to me." 

While collecting a sample of Camponotus sericeiventris (Gue'rin) on 
Barro Colorado Island in Panama, I noticed a specimen running with a 



1 Received April 6, 1983. Accepted May 12. 1983. 

^Adjunct Research Associate, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada. Present address: 
326 Laurel Ridge Road, San Antonio, Texas 78253. 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 143-144 September & October, 1983 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

peculiar gait. Fortunately I realized just in time that it was a mutillid. Had it 
been motionless I might have been severely stung as a result of its close 
resemblance in life to major workers of the ant. This close resemblance is 
somewhat less evident in Fig. 1 , because the color of the golden pubescence 
of both species does not show in a black-and-white photograph, while the 
spots on the gaster of the mutillid do show. Mickel stated that P. 
myrmiciformis "differs from other species in the genus in being | almost] 
entirely pale golden tomentose. . . The yellow, integumental spots on the 
[gaster] are. . . almost obscured by the pale, golden, tomentose pubescence." 

Mimicry is obvious but what purpose does it serve? Certainly not 
defense, for mutillid females are armed with long powerful stings. But the ant 
is not defenseless: the major worker of large species of Camponotus can 
easily cut the tough skin of human fingertips. Mutillids are known to be 
external parasitoids on the larvae and pupae of bees and wasps. Why not 
ants? Certainly the mature larvae and pupae of the females of this ant are 
larger than P. myrmiciformis. 

I would therefore hypothesize that this is an example of aggressive 
mimicry; the close resemblance may enable the female of Pappognatha 
myrmiciformis to enter the nest of Camponotus sericeiventris and deposit 
her eggs on the brood of the latter; if detected she is quite capable of 
defending herself. 



\ 





Fig. 1. Photograph by Jeanette Wheeler comparing the dried specimens of the mutillid (left) 
Pappognatha myrmiciformis (Barro Colorado Is., Panama; coll. G.C. Wheeler; 22-VII- 
1924; det. C.E. Mickel) and a major worker of the ant (right) Camponotus sericeiventris 
(Changuinola District, Bocas del Toro, Panama; coll. G.C. Wheeler: 2-VIII-1924). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cameron, P. 1897. New species of Hymenoptera from Central America. Ann. Mag. Natur. 

Hist. (6) 19: 376-379. 
Mickel, C.E. 1939. Monograph of a new Neotropical mutillid genus, Pappognatha. Ann. 

Entomol. Soc. Amer. 32: 329-343. 
Wheeler, W.M. 1931. The ant Camponotus (Mvrmepomis) sericeiventris Gue'rin and its 

mimic. Psyche 38: 86-98. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 145 

AN AGGREGATION OF CHALYBION 

CALIFORNICUM (HYMENOPTERA: 

SPHECIDAE) IN A BELL 1 

Kenneth Schoenly^, Diane M. Calabrese^ 

ABSTRACT: Wasps of the species Chalybion californicum aggregated in a bell. Initial 
contact with the bell was probably fortuitous, but later contact may have been mediated by a 
pheromone. 



During the summers of 1980 and 1981 (from about June through 
August) a population of Chalybion californicum (Sphecidae) aggregated in 
a bell ( 1 5 cm. diameter, 25 cm. high) on the porch of a house in the upper 
Rio Grande valley in El Paso, Texas The bell hung on the west-facing 
exposure of the building 6 feet off the ground. Aggregations of 50-100 
individuals were noted. We also observed the wasps aggregating in knot 
holes in the rafters and support posts under the porch. 

Aggregations of C. californicum are common (Bohart and Menke 
1963). Large groups have been found on the undersurface of overhanging 
rocks (Rau 1928) and on rafters (Rau 1938). This is the first report of an 
aggregation on a metal structure. 

The gregarious behavior of the wasps within and around the bell closely 
approximates that described by Ward ( 1 972) for the species in Indiana. C. 
californicum she studied roosted among shingles, under an overhanging rock 
and on rafters. She found that most of the wasps roosted before sunset - 
beginning about 2 hours before sunset. After dark the wasps were not 
disturbed if a light was focused on them. Similarly, the wasps we observed 
roosted before dusk and were undisturbed by beams of light. Ward (1972) 
proposed that the initial choice of a roost by C. californicum may be "based 
on temperature" (higher temperatures selected), and that return to the roost 
on successive nights may be mediated by a pheromone. 

The presence of wasps in the rafters and support posts of the porch from 
which the bell hung, as well as in the bell, indicates that initial contact with 
the bell may have been fortuitious. However, once the bell was located, 
perhaps its warmer temperature (or a pheromore) caused the wasps to 
return on successive nights. 



1 Received February 6, 1983. Accepted April 1 1, 1983. 

^Department of Biology, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX 

'Department of Biology and The Wildlife Sanctuary, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 1 70 1 3 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 145-146. September & October, 1983 



146 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 1. An aggregation of Chalybion californicum in a bell. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

We are grateful to A.S. Menke, of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, who 
identified the wasp specimens for us. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bohart, R.M. and A.S. Menke. 1963. A Reclassification of the Sphecinae. With a Revision 

of the Nearctic Species of the Tribes Sceliphronini and Sphecini (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). 

Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 30: 91-182. 
Rau, P. 1 938. Additional observations on the sleep of insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 3 1 : 540- 

556. 
1928. The nesting habits of the wasp, Chalvbion caeruleum. Ann. Ent. Soc. 

Amer. 21: 25-35. 
Ward, G.L. 1972. Aggregations of Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Hymenoptera: 

Sphecidae) near Centerville, Wayne County, Indiana. Ind. J. Sci., Proc. 81: 177-181. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 147 

INSECTS VISITING FLOWERS OF WILD RED 

RASPBERRY IN SPRUCE-FIR FORESTED 

AREAS OF EASTERN MAINE 1 

Richard W. Hansen, Eben A. Osgood^ 

ABSTRACT: Flower-visiting insects were collected from wild red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus 
L. ) flowers in spruce-fir forested areas of eastern Maine in 1981. Collections included 5 insect 
orders and 49 families. At least 38 species of Syrphidae, including 2 new species, and 47 
species of Apoidea were represented. The most commonly collected visitors were Dialictus 
spp. bees and Syrphidae. Native Apoidea are probably the primary pollinators of R. idaeus in 
Maine, though some of the more pubescent Coleoptera and Diptera, particularly the syrphids 
probably have a pollinating function. 

Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L.3, is a common shrub in Maine, 
growing in a variety of well-exposed situations. It is especially common in 
cuttings or natural openings in forested areas. It produces biennial canes 
that reach 2 m in height, from a perennial rootstock (Fernald 1950); only 
the second year canes produce flowers. Raspberry flowers are borne singly 
or in small clusters on the terminal portions of the floricane. The flowers 
are about 1 cm in diameter, with numerous stamens and pistils, creamy- 
white petals, and conspicuous bristly sepals. The fleshy fruit is typically red 
in color. 

Although the reproductive methods of the genus Rubus are not fully 
understood, it appears that raspberry flowers are largely self-sterile, and 
insect pollination is necessary for normal fruit development (Jensen and 
Hall 1979, McGregor 1976). Honeybees are the dominant pollinators of 
raspberries in agricultural situations (McGregor 1976) and because of the 
copious production of nectar and pollen, raspberry bloom is considered to 
be prime bee forage (Howes 1946). Besides the economic value of 
commercial raspberries in fruit and honey production, wild raspberries, 
such as R. idaeus, provide important wildlife food (Gill and Healy 1974). 

Honeybees, Apis mellifera L., are rare or absent throughout Maine's 
spruce-fir forest, so other insects are necessary for pollination and fruit set 
of wild raspberry. Raspberry flowers are accessible to many types of insect 
visitors (Faegri and van der Fiji 1971), and this factor, coupled with the high 
level of nectar and pollen production and wide distribution of R. idaeus, 
should ensure that a varied insect fauna visits the bloom. 



1 Received March 17, 1983. Accepted May 20, 1983. 

^Research Associate and Professor, Department of Entomology, University of Maine, 
Orono, ME 04469 

^Several varieties of R. idaeus L. can be found in Miane; var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim, is 
probably the variety encountered in this study (Fay Hyland, pers. comm., Femald 1950). 

ENT. NEWS 94(4):' 147-151. September & October. 1983 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

This work is part of a larger study to determine the effects of spraying 
with Sevin-4-oil on insect pollinators and fruit set in a spruce-fir forest 
(Hansen et al. 1982). The objectives of this portion of the study were to 
document the insect fauna that visits wild red raspberry flowers and to 
identify the most important species of pollinators. The species of important 
pollinators could then be compared with those collected in sprayed and 
unsprayed areas, by use of Malaise traps or by some other method, prior to 
and following spraying. Assuming that the effect of the spray on insect 
pollinators was sufficiently great, this type of information may provide 
evidence that would directly associate lower fruit set with mortality of 
specific insect pollinator species or groups. Information on other insect 
visitors would also suggest additional insect species or groups that could be 
studied in future work on the relationship between insecticide use and fruit 
set of R. idaeus. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Large stands of flowering Rubus idaeus were selected for study 
throughout Township 36 M.D., Washington Co., Maine. Insects observed 
visiting flowers were collected with a sweep net or aspirator. Small insects 
were collected by placing flowers in a killing jar. Collections were made on 
sunny days from June 4 to June 26, the peak 1981 bloom period. Insects 
were collected for 1 to 2 hours in the morning and again in the afternoon. 

R. idaeus stands were situated along roadsides and in forest openings. 
The forest overstory was predominantly red spruce, Picea rubens Sarg. and 
balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.; other softwood and various 
hardwood species occurred infrequently. Understory vegetation was sparse 
under the dense coniferous overstory and consisted primarily of blueberry, 
Vaccinium spp., bunchberry, Cornus canadensis L., wild lily-of-the- 
valley, Maianthemum canadense Desf., and several ferns and mosses. 

Collected insects, except the Macrolepidoptera, were pinned for 
identification. Some specimens of Syrphiae are at the U.S. National 
Museum. All other specimens have been deposited in the collection of the 
Department of Entomology, University of Maine at Orono. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Five orders and 49 families were represented in the collections. At least 
38 species of Syrphidae, including two new species, and 47 species of 
Apoidea were collected. 

Though the study was not designed to give quantitative results, the most 
numerous R. idaeus flower visitors were Dialictus spp. (Halictidae) and the 
various species of Syrphidae. Other common groups were the Cerambycidae, 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 



149 



INSECTS COLLECTED ON FLOWERS OF RUEUS 1DAEUS L. 
IN A SPRUCE-FIR FOREST, WASHINGTON CO., MAINE 



Hemiptera (nymphs) 

Miridae 
Pentatomidae 
Coleoptera 

Scarabaeidae 

Trichiotinus a/finis (Gory 

and Percheron) 
Byrrhidae 
Ptilodactylidae 
Elateridae 
Lampyridae 

Photuris pennsylvanica (De Geer) 
Cantharidae 
Anobiidae 
Byturidae 

Byturus rubi Barber 
Lagriidae 
Mordellidae 
Cerambycidae 

Anastranglia sanguinea 
(Le Conte) 

Clytus ruricola (Olivier) 

Cosmosalia chrysocoma (Kirby) 

Evodinus monticola monticola 
(Randall) 

Jitdolia montivagans montivagans 
(Couper) 

Neoalosterna capitata (Newman) 

Pidonia ruficollis (Say) 

Strangalepta abbreviata (Swederus) 
Curculionidae 
Lepidoptera 

Microlepidoptera 
Macrolepidoptera 
Lycaenidae 
Papilionidae 

Papilio glaucus L. 
Nymphalidae 

Nyphalis antiopa (L.) 

Vanessa atalanta (L.) 
Diptera 

Tipulidae 

Chironomidae 

Simuliidae 

Asilidae 

Bombyliidae 

Hemipenthes sp. 

Lepidophora sp. 



Empididae 

Dolichopodidae 

Syrphidae 

Blera confusa Johnson 
Carposcalis obscurum (Say) 
Cartosyrphus pallipes Leow 
Cartosyrphus n. sp. 
Chalcosyrphus libo (Walker) 
Chrysotoxum Jasciolatum 

(De Geer) 

Eristalis obscurns Leow 
Epistrophe emarginata (Say) 
E. xanthostoma (Williston) 
Heringia (Neocnemdon) coxalis 

(Curran) 
Heringia sp. 
Leucozna lucorum (L.) 
Ma/lota posticata (Fabricius) 
Melangyna lasiophthalma 

(Zetterstedt) 

Metasyrphus perplexus Osborn 
Microdon tristis (Leow) 
Orthonevra pulchella 

(Williston) 
Parasyrphus genualis 

(Williston) 

P. semiinterruptus (Fluke) 
Parasyrphus n.sp. 
Sericomyia chrysotoxoides 

Macquart 

S. lata fCoquillett) 
S. militaris (Walker) 
Sphaerophoria contingua ( Macquart) 
5. longipilosa Knutson 
S. novaengliae Johnson 
Sphegina rufiventris Leow 
Syritta pipiens (L.) 
Syrphus rectus Osten Sacken 
S. ribesii (L.) 
S. ton-iis Osten Sacken 
Temnostoma alternans Leow 
T. barberi Curran 
T. vespiforme ( L. ) 
Taxomerus geminatus (Say) 
T. marginatus (Say) 
Volucella hombylans (L.) 
Xylota annulifera Bigot 
X. quadrimaculata Leow 



150 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Conopidae 
Lauxaniidae 
Anthomyiidae 
Muscidae 
Calliphoridae 
Sarcophagidae 
Tachinidae 
Hymenoptera 
Tenthredinidae 
Braconidae 
Ichneumonidae 
Pteromalidae 
Chalcididae 
Gasteruptiidae 

Gasteruption kirbii kirbii 

(Westbrook) 
Chrysididae 
Formicidae (workers) 
Vespidae 

Dolichovespula arenaria 

(Fabricius) 
Eumenidae 

Ancistrocerus sp. 

Eumenes crucifer Provancher 

Euodynerus sp. 

Stenodynerus sp. 

Symmorphus sp. 
Pompilidae 
Sphecidae 

Ammophila azteca Cameron 

A. evansi Menke 

A. mediata Cresson 

Crossocerus sp. 

Ectemnius arcuatus (Say) 

Ectemnius atriceps (Cresson) 

E. borealis (Zetterstedt) 

E. continuus (Fabricius) 

E. dives (Lepeletier & Brulle) 

E. lapidarius (Panzer) 

E. ruficornis (Zetterstedt) 

E. stirpicola (Packard) 

Lestica sp. 
Apoidea 
Colletidae 

Hylaeus basa/is (Smith) 

H. ellipticus (Kirby) 

H. modestus modestus Say 

H. vertical/is (Cresson) 
Halictidae 

Augochlora pura pura (Say) 

Augochlorella striata (Provancher) 

Dialictus cressonii (Robertson) 



D. disabanci Knerer & Atwood 
D. laevissimus (Smith) 
D. versans (Lovell) 

D. viridatus (Lovell) 
Dialictus spp. 

Evylaeus divergens (Lovell) 

E. foxii (Robertson) 

E. quebecensis (Crawford) 
E. rufitarsis (Zetterstedt) 
Halictus confusus confusus Smith 
Lasioglossum athabascense 

(Sandhouse) 
L. coriaceum (Smith) 
L. forbesii (Robertson) 
Andrenidae 

Andrena cressonii Robertson 
A. dunningi Cockerell 
A. lata Viereck 
A. miranda Smith 
A. nasonii Robertson 
A. nigrihirta (Ashmead) 
A. regular is Mai loch 
A. thaspii Graenicher 
A. vicina Smith 

A. wheeleri Graenicher 
Megachilidae 

Hoplitis albifrons (Kirby) 

H. cylindrica (Cresson) 

H. product a producta (Cresson) 

Megachie frigida frigida Smith 

M. melanophoea melanophoea Smith 

M. mendica mendica Cresson 

M. mucida Cresson 

M. relativa Cresson 

Osmia albiventris Cresson 

Osmia atriventris Cresson 

O. bucephala bucephala Cresson 

O. proximo Cresson 

O. tersula Cockerell 
Anthophoridae 

Ceratina calcarata Robertson 

Ceratina spp. 

Nomada cressonii cressonii 
Robertson 

N. depressa Cresson 

;V. pygmaea Cresson 

N. sayi Robertson 
Apidae 

Apis mellifera L. 

Bombus ternarius Say 

B. terricola terricola Kirby 
B. vagans vagans Smith 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 151 

Scarabaeidae, represented by one species, Trichiotinus affinis (Gory and 
Percheron), Empididae, Sphecidae, Colletidae, and Andrenidae. The 
frequently collected adults of Byturus nibi Barber (Byturidae) fed on R. 
idaeus flowers and flower buds; these insects can cause enough floral 
damage to affect raspberry yield (Slate et al. 1947). 

Many insect groups collected on R. idaeus flowers are potential 
pollinators. The various species of native Apoidea are probably responsible 
for much of the R. idaeus pollination in Maine because of their behavioral 
and morphological adaptations for pollen transport. The stigmas and 
anthers of a raspberry flower mature over several days, and repeated 
pollinator visits are required for maximum fruit set (McGregor 1 976). The 
foraging behavior of bees is, therefore, important to ensure pollination. 

The floral morphology of R. idaeus ensures that insect visitors with 
pubescent ventral surfaces can also bring about significant pollen transfer 
(Faegri and van der Fiji 1971 ). Thus, other common floral visitors such as 
T. affinis, several cerambycids, and number of syrphid species may also be 
responsible for R. idaeus pollination. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank the following for identification or verification of several 
groups: Dr. J. Huether, Geneva, NY (Cerambycidae); Dr. F.C. Thompson. USDA 
Systematic Entomology Laboratory (Syrphidae); Dr. A.J. Menke, USDA Systematic 
Entomology Laboratory (Vespidae, Eumenidae, and Sphecidae); Dr. G.C. Eickwort. Cornell 
University (Dialictus spp., Evylaeus spp.); and Dr. R.J. McGinley, Harvard University 
(Lasioglossum spp.). We also wish to thank Dr. H.Y. Forsythe, Dr. H.M. Kulman, and Mr. 
T.M. Mingo for reviewing an earlier draft of the manuscript and Kathryn May for providing 
valuable assistance in the field. Funds for this study were provided by the Maine Forest 
Service. Department of Conservation and the Mclntire-Stennis Act. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Faegiri, K. and L. van der Fiji. 1971. The principles of pollination ecology. Pergamon Press. 

Oxford. 291 pp. 
Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany, 8th ed. American Book Co.. New York. 1632 

PP- 
Gill, J.D. and W.M. Healy. 1974. Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. USDA For. 

Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. 180 pp. 
Hansen, R.W., E.A. Osgood and M.L. Hunter, Jr. 1982. Effects of spraying with Sevin-4- 

Oir on the fruit set and it potential consequences for wildlife in a spruce-fir forest. In 

Environmental Monitoring Reports, Maine Forest Service, p. 91-122. 
Howes, F.N. 1946. Plants and beekeeping. Faber and Faber Ltd., London. 224 pp. 
Jensen, K.I. N. and I.V. Hall. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 36. Rubus hispidusL. 

Can. J. Plant Sci. 59: 769-776. 
McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated plants. USDA Agric. Hndbk. 496. 

411 pp. 
Slate, G.L., A.J. Braun and F.G. Mundinger. 1947. Raspberry growing: culture, diseases, 

and insects. Cornell Univ. Ext. Bull. 719. 67 pp. 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

THE BIOLOGY OF TRICHADENOTECNUM 

ALEXANDERAE SOMMERMAN (PSOCOPTERA: 

PSOCIDAE): I. HABITAT, LIFE STAGES 

AND EVENTS 1 

B.W. Betz2 

ABSTRACT: Populations of Trichadenotecnum alexanderae Sommerman are localized 
within apparently suitable habitat. Only 1 egg is laid during an ovipositional event. Eggs are 
encrusted with the contents of the gut mixed with debris collected by tapping the terminalia on 
the substrate. This mixture camouflages an egg once it is laid. Only a few silk strands are 
deposited on each egg. Eclosion and ecdysis are similar to other psocomorph Psocoptera. 
There are 6 nymphal stages. 

Sommerman (1948) described both sexes of Trichadenotecnum 
alexanderae from North Plainfield, New Jersey, where 302 males and 425 
females were collected on 27 and 29 July, 1 August, and 28 September 
1 947. Of all the collections she examined from other localities (Connecticut, 
District of Columbia, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New 
Jersey, New York, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania), only one from 
Union, New Jersey, collected on 4 June 1937, contained males, and in fact 
consisted of males only. 

Field and laboratory investigations over a 3 year period convinced me 
that a complex of 4 sibling species is involved: T. alexanderae which is 
biparental (=euphrasic), but in the laboratory was found to be capable of 
facultative parthenogensis (thelytoky) for only 1 generation, and 3 
obligatorily parthenogenetic species, T. castum, T. merum, and T, 
innuptum, which I have described (Betz 1983a). These species occur 
sympatrically. 

The habitat of T. alexanderae and also aspects of its life history 
observed in laboratory cultures are discussed in this paper, which is part of a 
series (cf. Betz 1983b, c, d) reporting these investigations. 

PROCEDURE 

Field and laboratory observations (and cultures) were made in 1977-9 
from Illinois populations located at Moraine View State Park, McLean 
County (hereafter called Lake Dawson); along the Sangamon River at Lake 
of the Woods, Champaign County; and along the Salt Fork River at 
Champaign County Forest Preserve District Homer Lake (hereafter 



Deceived December 28. 1982. Accepted May 8. 1983. 
2 1000 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 6061 1 

ENT. NEWS 94(4): 152-158. September & October. 1983 



Vol. 94. No. 4, September & October, 1983 

153 



called Salt Fork). 

Several breeding pairs were used to start each culture and their identity 
was verified morphologically. The parent females were mated in the 
laboratory to assure the identity of the offspring. The bark used in the 
cultures came from the vicinity of the parent population and the bark was 
examined for eggs prior to use. 

The cultures were kept in cotton-stoppered test tubes, supplied ad 
libitum with food (pleurococcine algae on bark), and were kept over a 
saturated potassium chloride (KC 1 ) solution in closed, glass desiccator jars 
to maintain a relative humidity of 80 5%. The temperature regimen for 
rearing was 23.3 C :18.0C light: dark, the photoperiod was 15h: 9h 
light: dark, and illumination was 4300 Iumens/m2. 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Habitat. Most populations are found in rather open forest where the 
relative humidity is high and pleuorococcine algae occur on the substrate 
(usually tree trunks). But for some unknown reason the populations at the 
study areas, and at the other 1 1 localities where I have collected this species 
(Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Ohio, and West Virginia), occur in limited patches in larger areas of 
what appears to be equally suitable substrate. This may be related to 
differences in food distribution (Broadhead and Wapshere 1966, New 
1970), in microhabitat, or the comparative stability of bark over a foliage 
habitat, making dispersal relatively unimportant (New 1969). Because 
pleurococcine algae are plants and are consumed by this species, it is 
probably safe to say that there is a host plant association involved. 
Statements to the contrary made about other bark-dwelling species (New 
1970) were at least partly in reference to "macro" substrate, i.e., conifers, 
broadleaved trees, etc. 

Migration to nearby tree trunks offering favorable habitat apparently 
occurs infrequently, even though this is a macropterous species. Similar 
behavior has been reported in Cuneopalpus cyanops (Rostock) by New 
( 1 968). Most species of bark-dwelling psocids do not fly readily (New 1 969, 
1971, personal observation) and generally are lacking in collections of 
airborne Psocoptera (Thornton 1964, Thornton and Harrell 1965, New 
1 969, 1 975). Individuals of T. alexanderae in cultures becoming overcrowded 
or depleted of their food supply show neither a noticable increase in activity 
nor a greater tendency toward flight, quite unlike some species in other 
families (cf. Sommerman 1943b, Mockford 1962, Turner 1974). Even 
movement on a tree trunk may be limited. On two occasions (at Lake 
Dawson and Salt Fork on 18 June and 27 July 1978, respectively) when I 
collected about 15 adults, their proximity in the aspirator led to a mating. 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Hence, the patchy population distribution pattern probably is not due to an 
aggregating response by the individuals (cf. Mockford 1957, Heilbronn 
1975). 

Oviposition. Oviposition by 7 females from the study areas (6 mated, 
1 not) was observed to be about the same. About 30-45 minutes before an 
egg was deposited, a female repeatedly pressed the tip of her abdomen to the 
substrate or probed at random for about 30 seconds, with an interval of a 
few seconds to 5 minutes between probes. One female dragged the tip of her 
abdomen along the substrate about 3 mm several times. While probing, 
algae and debris adhered to the ventral surfaces of a female's terminalia. 
When probing ceased, her abdomen returned to the normal resting position. 
An egg usually would be laid where her terminalia had last touched the 
substrate. 

A female normally remained motionless about 2-3 minutes before 
oviposition, except for pulsing and spasmodic abdominal contractions of a 
few seconds duration, at about half-minute intervals. One female rubbed 
her hind femora along the sides of her abdomen after an abdomen spasm, 
possibly moving an egg into position for extrusion. 

Next, an opaque, dark fluid was discharged on her terminalia and was 
manipulated rapidly between the epiproct, paraprocts, and valvulae for 
about 3-5 seconds. Then with one spasm, about one-third of an egg 
appeared, coated by dark fluid. About 5 seconds later another spasm 
exposed another third of the egg. Both egg and dark fluid were supported by 
the dorsal surface of the egg guide of her subgenital plate, an immobile, 
bracket-like structure. 

Once an egg was about two-thirds exposed, it also was manipulated 
rapidly for about 3-5 seconds. Then she quickly pressed the tip of her 
abdomen down on the substrate, thereby elevating the anterior part of her 
body and causing here forewings to part slightly. A female paused for less 
than 1 second in this position, then vibrated her body from side to side. 
Before a female withdrew her abdomen, she slightly flexed her terminalia 
and dragged the tip of her abdomen about 1 mm, thus not disturbing 
the placement of an egg on the substrate. Depositing an egg on the substrate 
required about 3-5 seconds. Absorption of the dark fluid by the bark 
appeared to solidify an encrustation. This ovipositional behavior resembles 
\hatofPeripsocusquadrifasciatus (Harris) (cf. Eertmoed 1966) because 
an egg emerges before a female's abdomen is applied to the substrate, rather 
than vice versa as with Caecilius manteri (cf. Sommerman 1943a). 

The dark fluid of an encrustation originates in the gut, as proposed by 
Pearman (1928a). The composition of fluid and feces are similar in 71 
alexanderae, both containing algae and debris, and thus appear to differ 
only in their degree of hydration. Females of T. alexanderae in the stage of 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 155 



oviposition produce fewer feces than males of the same age , so their use in 
encrustations may explain this. 

After a female withdrew her abdomen, she fastened several strands of 
silk from her labium to the egg and the surrounding substrate. She normally 
circumscribed the egg with silk in a roughly stellate pattern and then walked 
partially around it. Depositing silk took about 5-10 seconds. Each egg had 
about the same amount of silk whether or not eggs were present nearby. 
Once silk was laid down, oviposition was complete and a female walked 
about 5-10 mm and usually began feeding. Silk strands can keep an egg on 
the bark should its encrustation become dislodged. 

Silk strands are produced by females that have just oviposited, by those 
which have yet to oviposit, and by nymphs (presumably female). Adult 
males do not produce silk. Females in the stage of oviposition, but not 
actually ovipositing, were not seen to produce silk. 

Only one egg is laid during an ovipositional event. For another to be 
laid, the entire procedure must be repeated. Eggs are sometimes laid next to 
others previously laid, and cultures with a great number of eggs sometimes 
have clusters of two or three eggs produced in this way, giving the false 
impression that the eggs were deposited in succession. 

Appearance of Eggs. Eggs of T. alexanderae are ovoid in shape and 
are laid with their longitudinal axes parallel to the substrate. For the 
first few days after oviposition, the chorion is iridescent with a grayish- 
white background, but later the eggs become a lusterless yellow. 

Most eggs are covered completely by a hardened secretion, encrusted 
with algae and debris, which camouflages them on the bark. The encrustation 
is shaped during oviposition by the ventral surface of the epiproct and the 
medial surfaces of the paraprocts. Figure 1 depicts the appearance and size 
of a normally-shaped egg encrustation. If less dark fluid is produced during 
an oviposition, the egg is encrusted but the encrustation is not shaped. Some 
eggs are naked because they are laid without any fluid. The amount of 
encrusted material around an egg does not seem to affect the amount of silk 
subsequently attached to it. 

In two separate ovipositions, the female probed with her abdomen in an 
area on the bark, then moved or was chased away to a differently-colored 
substrate on which an egg was laid. The color of these encrustations did not 
match their substrates. The bark debris that had been collected on the 
terminalia at the intended ovipositional site must have become mixed with 
the encrusting fluid when this was discharged, thereby causing a mismatch 
between the encrustation and the substrate of the actual site. 

The site for oviposition apparently is selected before a female stops 
moving, probably because any further movement may cause a mismatch 
between the debris on her terminalia and the substrate, minimizing the 



156 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




0.5 mm 



Figure 1. Encrusted eggs of Trichadenotecnum alexanderae with silk strands (Salt Fork 
culture). 



effectiveness of the camouflaging encrustation. Also, further movement 
may result in the selection of a site ill-suited in some other way for 
ovipcsition. 

Eclosion. Eclosion is similar to that of other species of psoco- 
morph Psocoptera (cf. Pearman 1928b, Sommerman 1943a, b, c, 1944, 
Mockford 1957, Eertomoed 1966, Dunham 1972, Garcis Aldrete 1973). 
The hatching described is that of an egg from Lake of the Woods 

culture. 

Hatching began as the top of the egg opened flapwise at its anterior end 
and was forced up by the head of the upright pronymph. The head emerged 
first, and while the pronymph had its ventral surface facing the substrate it 
underwent ecdysis. As molting proceeded, the nymph remained almost 
perpendicular to the substrate, its legs being freed before its antennae. The 
nymph then arched posteriorly, slowly freeing its antennae. The legs moved 
slightly when freed, but more actively once the antennae were freed. The 
nymph then fell forward, and when its legs contacted the egg it slowly 
crawled ahead. Emergence was completed in about 20 minutes. The nymph 
was cream-colored with dark purple ommatidia. 

All pronymphal exuviae are grayish-white and are left about halfway 
out of an egg. Hatched but undisturbed eggs (N = 136) retain the hatching 
flap and pronymphal exuviae. 

Nymphal stages. Exuviae from 10 isolated individuals from Lake of 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 157 

the Woods culture indicated there are 6 nymphal stages, and all except the 
first resemble adults in overall coloration. Fecal material and debris 
passively accumulate on nymphs of all ages, presumably because of a 
secretion by glandular hairs, causing most older nymphs to become 
camouflaged on the bark. 

Ecdysis. Ecdysis is the same as that described for other species of 
psocomorphPsocoptera(Pearman 1928b, Sommerman 1943a, b, c, 1944, 
Eertmoed 1966, Dunham 1972). The following is a description of a molt 
from last stage nymph to adult female from Salt Fork culture. 

The first sign that the nymph was about to molt was its walking with stiff 
appendages. It then stopped moving, about 1 minute later its antennae 
began to pulse at about 2 beats per second. About 20 seconds after its 
antennae began to beat, a pulse began in synchrony, extending from the top 
of the frons to the bottom of the clypeus. Then the posterior portion of its 
abdomen began to pulse about once every 5 seconds and the size of the 
nymph increased. 

The dorsum of the nymph's thorax gradually split open medially and the 
adult emerged through this lengthening split. Excluding appendages, the 
thorax, head, and then abdomen emerged. The anterior end of the adult's 
abdomen began to withdraw from the nymphal cuticle once its head began 
to emerge. 

Once the thorax of the adult emerged from the old cuticle, the 
appendages were freed in the following order: mouthparts, wings, forelegs, 
midlegs, hindlegs, antennae. A foreleg pulled an antenna out of the old 
cuticle. When an appendage was freed it quivered for about 15 seconds. 

Once the appendages were out the adult was held to the old cuticle only 
at the posterior end of its abdomen, and was almost perpendicular to the 
substrate. The abdomen was freed when the adult dropped forward and 
crawled ahead. Once emerged, the epiproct was flexed ventrally and the 
paraprocts and valvulae were flexed medially in spasms for about 15 
seconds. 

The molt was completed in about 7.5 minutes, from the moment the 
nymph stopped moving to the time the abdomen of the adult became 
detached from the nymphal exuviae. 

Directly after molting the adult was unable to stand, but could move on 
its coxae. The wings were curled away from the body and the fore wings 
were pale yellow, and it took about 1 2 hours for the shape and color pattern 
to mature. 

Neither nymphs nor adults of T. alexanderae eat their exuviae, as 
some psocid species do that are mycophagous or lichenophagous (cf. 
Sommerman 1943b, c, 1944, Mockford 1957). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

E.L. Mockford was helpful in his discussions about Psocoptera. The manuscript 
was reviewed by E.L. Mockford, P.R. Vilaro, D.M. Sullivan, G.E. Eertmoed, and an 
anonymous reviewer. The author thanks I.N. Holod for production assistance. 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Betz, B.W. 1983a. Systematics of the Trichadenotecnum alexanderae species complex 

(Psocoptera: Psocidae) based on an investigation of reproductive modes and 

morphology. Can. Entomol. (in press). 
. 1983b. The biology of Trichadenotecnum alexanderae Sommerman 

(Psocoptera: Psociade). II. Duration of biparental and thelytokous reproductive abilities. 

J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. (in press). 
. 1983c. The biology of Trichadenotecnum alexanderae Sommerman 



(Psocoptera: Psocidae). III. Analysis of mating behavior. Psyche (in press). 

1983d. The biology of Trichadenotecnum alexanderae Sommerman 



(Psocoptera: Psocidae). IV. Mechanism of genitalic coupling. J. Kansas Entomol. 

Soc. (in press). 

Broadhead, E., and A.J. Wapshere. 1966. Mesopsocus populations on larch in England 
the distribution and dynamics of two closely-related co-existing species of 

Psocoptera sharing the same food resource. Ecol. Monogr. 36: 327-388. 
Dunham, R.S. 1972. A life history of Caecilius aiirantiacus (Hagen) (Psocoptera: 

Caeciliidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 5: 17-27. 
Eertmoed, G.E. 1966. The life history of Peripsocus qiiadrifasciatus (Psocoptera: 

Peripsocidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 39: 54-65. 
Garcia Aldrete, A.N. 1973. The life history and developmental rates of Lachesilla pacifica 

Chapman (parthenogenetic form) at four levels of temperature (Psocopt., Lachesillidae). 

Ciencia. Mex. 28: 73-77. 
Heilbronn, T.D. 1975. Some aspects of the biology of the bark louse Graphopsocus 

cruciatus (L.) (Psocoptera: Stenopsocidae). Entomol. Record 87: 132-136. 
Mockford, E.L. 1957. Life history studies on some Florida insects of the genus Archipsocus 

(Psocoptera). Bull. Fla. State Mus.. Biol. Sci. 1: 253-274. 
1962. Notes on the distribution and life history of Archipsocus frater 

Mockford (Psocoptera: Archipsocidae). Florida Entomol. 45: 149-151. 
New, T.R. 1968. The life history of Cuneopalpus cvanops (Rost. ), (Psocoptera). 

Entomologist's Gaz. 19: 189-197. 
1969. Aerial dispersal of some British Psocoptera, as indicated by suction 

trap catches. Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 44: 49-61. 

_. 1970. The relative abundance of some British Psocoptera on different species 



of trees. J. Anim. Ecol. 39: 521-540. 

.. 1971. An introduction to the natural history of the British Psocoptera. The 



Entomologist. 1971: 59-97. 

.. 1975. Aerial dispersal of some Victorian Psocoptera as indicated by suction 



trap catches. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 14: 179-184. 
Pearman, J.V. 1 928 a. Biological observations on British Psocoptera. I. Eggs and oviposition. 

Ent. Mon. Mag. 64: 209-218. 
1928b. Biological observations on British Psocoptera. II. Hatching and ecdysis. 

Ent. Mon. Mag. 64: 239-243. 
Sommerman, K.M. 1943a. Description and bionomics of Caecilius manteri n.sp. 

(Corrodentia). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 45: 29-39. 
1943b. Bionomics of Ectopsocus pumilis (Banks) (Corrodentia, Caeciliidae). 

Psyche 50: 53-64. 
1943c. Bionomics of Lachesilla nubilis (Aaron) (Corrodentia, Caeciliidae). 



Can. Entomol. 75: 99-105. 

_. 1944. Bionomics of Amapsocus amabilis (Walsh) (Corrodentia, Psocidae). 



Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 37: 359-364. 

_. 1948. Two new Nearctic psocids of the genus Trichadenotecnum with a 



nomenclatural note on a third species. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 50: 165-173. 
Thornton, I.W.B. 1964. Air-borne Psocoptera trapped on ships and aircraft. Pacific Insects 

6: 285-291. 
, and J.C. Harrell. 1965. Air-borne Psocoptera trapped on ships and aircraft, 

2-Pacific ship trappings, 1963-64. Pacific Insects 7: 700-702. 
Turner, B.D. 1974. The population dynamics of tropical arboreal Psocoptera (Insecta) on 

two species of conifers in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica. J. Anim. Ecol. 43: 323-337. 



Vol. 94, No. 4, September & October, 1983 159 



BOOK REVIEW AND BRIEF EDITORIAL COMMENT 

HOW TO WRITE AND PUBLISH A SCIENTIFIC PAPER. Robert A. 
Day. 2nd. Ed. 1983. ISI Press. 181 pp. $1 1.95 pbk. Available from Ent. 
Soc. of Amer., Box 4104, Hyattsville, MD 80781. (E.S.A. members 
$9.95). 

I have just finished reading and even studying this very instructive, interesting, and 
valuable small book on the subject of scientific writing and publishing. 

After first defining what is a scientific paper, the author proceeds to provide detailed 
instructions on how to prepare the title, to list the authors and addresses, to prepare the 
abstract, to write the introduction, the materials and methods section, the results, the 
discussion, to cite acknowledgments, to prepare literature cited, to design effective tables, to 
prepare effective illustrations, and to type and submit the manuscript. Also included are 
chapters on the review and publishing processes, the use and misuse of English, and several 
other pertinent subjects. 

This is a very direct and concise presentation of all the essential factors in the subject field. 
Throughout, the author illustrates his many points with copious, pertinent, and often 
humorous examples of good and poor scientific writing. 

I do not recall having read any other book that addresses this subject as completely and as 
interestingly as this small volume. As an editor. I picked up a number of points of real value. 
several of which I plan to incorporate into future ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS editorial 
procedures in continuing efforts to constantly improve the quality of scientific papers in this 
journal. 

I strongly recommend that all authors and would-be authors of scientific papers secure and 
carefully study this valuable reference before submitting any future paper to the editor of any 
scientific journal including, of course, ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS. 

Howard Bovd 



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BARK BEETLES IN NORTH AMERICAN CONIFERS. J. Mitton & K. Sturgeon. Eds. 
1982. Univ. Texas Press. 527 pp. $30.00, $17.50 pbk. 

Ten papers on bark beetle communities: on evolution, systematics, life cycles, pheromones, 
symbionts, host resistance and forest management. 

TRJCHOPTERA OF THE AREA PLATENSE (Argentina) O. Flint. 1982. In Biologia 
Acuatica No. 2. Institute de Limnologia, La Plata, Argentina. 70 pp. S8.00. 

Descriptions and keys for identification of 3 1 species in 1 1 genera and 6 families. Larvae and 
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FLIES OF THE NEARCTIC REGION. Vol. V, Pt. 1 3, No. 3. J. Hall & N. Evenhuis. 1 982. 
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Two more numbers in this continuing series. V: 13:3 is on Bombyliidae. VIII: 2: 1 is on 
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THE DOLICHOPODIDAE OF NEBRASKA. F. Harmston & W. Rapp. 1983. In 
Novitates Arthropodae 1 (4). J-B Pub. 75 pp. 

Annotated listing of species and localities, with maps, of members of this Diptera family 
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THE MARSH FLIES OF CALIFORNIA (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). T. Fisher & R. Orth. 
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Taxonomy, biology and distribution of 49 species in 13 genera known in California, plus 8 
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BUMBLE BEES AND CUCKOO BUMBLE BEES OF CALIFORNIA (Hymenoptera: 
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24 species of Bombus and ofPsithyrus are treated, including keys to and diagnosis of genera 
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COMMON INSECT AND MITE GALLS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. H. 
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A small, popular guide to provide brief answers to some common questions people ask about 
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A CATALOG OF THE DIPTERA OF AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO. A. Stone et 
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Catalog of over 16,000 species, plus index, bibliography, and section of periodicals. 



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Vol. 94 



NOVEMBER & DECEMBER 1983 



No. 5 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



tnmature stages & biology of Tetraglossa palpalis 
(Coleoptera: Ptilodactylidae) PaulJ. Spongier 161 

Second record of So. American burrowing bug, Scaptocoris 
castaneus Petty (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) in the U.S. 

R. C. Froeschner, W.E. Steiner, Jr. 176 

Notes on Brachydeutera from No. America (Diptera: 

Ephydridae) Wayne N. Mathis 111 

New Hydroptilidae from Alabama & So. Carolina 

(Trichoptera) R. W. Kelley, S.C. Harris 181 

A new species of Unerus from Honduras (Homoptera: 

Cicadellidae) Paul H. Freytag 187 

Ticks of So. Dakota: an annotated checklist (Acari: 

Ixodoidea) Emmett R. Easton 1 9 1 

Horse flies & deer flies of So. Dakota: new state records 
& an annotated checklist (Diptera: Tabanidae) 

Emmett R. Easton 1 96 

Prey-stalking behavior of a thomasid spider, Xysticus 
californicus (Araneae: Thomisidae) Roy R. Snelling 201 

Perissophlebiodes, a replacement name for Perissophlebia 

(Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) Harry M. Savage 204 

Mounting & preserving Neuroptera for scientific study 

Charles W. Agnew 205 

Paraphrosylus praedator & P. nigripennis, new to 
Washington, with notes on the genus (Diptera: 
Dolichopodidae) Larry D. Corpus 2 1 3 



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Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 161 

IMMATURE STAGES AND BIOLOGY OF 
TETRAGLOSSA PALPALIS CHAMPION 
(COLEOPTERA: PTILODACTYLIDAE) 1 

Paul J. Spangler^ 

ABSTRACT: The adult of the monotypic ptilodactylid Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, its 
distinctive labial palpus, and the male genitalia are illustrated. The larva, pupa, and habitat 
niches are described and illustrated; surface sculpture of the larva is illustrated by scanning 
electron micrographs. Notes on larval food and pupation are included. 

Many inhabitants of lotic habitats do not fly often, if at all, and are 
restricted to their respective habitat niches; also, those that do fly (with 
some exceptions) seem not to be commonly attracted to blacklights. 
Although the number of specimens collected in lotic habitats is lower than 
the number of specimens obtained from lentic habitats in the equivalent 
expended time, the extra effort to obtain material from lotic habitats usually 
is well worth the effort. During the month of May 1981 I conducted 
fieldwork in the states of Chiapas, Mexico, Oaxaca, and Veracruz in 
Mexico. Because my companions, Dr. Joaquin Bueno and Dr. Oliver S. 
Flint, Jr., were trichoperists, most of my collecting efforts were directed 
toward obtaining dryopoid and other stream inhabiting Coleoptera. My 
collecting efforts in the lotic habitats were divided among examining "leaf 
packs"; water-logged and rotting twigs, limbs, and logs; rocks in riffles; and 
examination of roots and other vegetation caught under overhanging banks 
of streams. My efforts to collect Coleoptera occurring in streams resulted in 
the collection of adults and immature stages of some interesting taxa. 

Among the interesting insects found was a common ptilodactylid larva 
which resembles larvae of members of the genera Anchytarsus and 
Anchycteis. However, by rearing a last-instar larva through to the adult 
stage I was able to establish that the larva was an immature stage of 
Tetraglossa palpalis Champion ( 1 897) which occurs widely through much 
of Mexico and Central America and represents the monotypic genus 
Tetraglossa. A review of the literature revealed that Bertrand (1972) 
included a dorsal view of the ninth abdominal segment of a larva of T. 
palpalis and included the genus in a key to larvae of the genera of 
Ptilodactylidae. Because the immature stages of T. palpalis have not been 
fully described previously and the pupa was unknown, descriptions of the 
larva and pupa follow. 



Deceived March 24, 1983. Accepted May 27, 1983. 

^Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 
Washington, D.C. 20560 

ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 161-175 November & /ecember 1983 

JAN '. 



162 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Tetraglossa palpalis 

The adult of this species was adequately described by Champion 
(1897); illustrations of the adult, labium, labial palpus, maxilla, and 
maxillary palpus were included in that publication. Because Champion's 
illustrations are very small and somewhat schematic, illustrations in greater 
detail of the adult male, including habitus (Fig. 1), labial palpus (Fig. 2), 
and genitalia (Figs. 3 & 4), are included in this paper. 



:>!;': 





1 



2.0mm 



Figs. 1-2. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, male adult: 1, Habitus; 2, Labial palpus. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



163 




Figs. 3-4. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, male genitalia: 3, Dorsal view; 4, Lateral view. 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Larva 

Figures 5-15 

Description: Length 17.8 mm; width of prothorax 2.1 mm. Body (Figs. 5, 6, 7) 
semicylindrical, moderately flattened ventrally. Color testaceous to castaneous dorsally; 
lighter testaceous ventrally except legs creamy yellow. 

Head: Slightly wider than long (1.4: 1.6mm) (Fig. 8). Ecdysial cleavage line forked near 
base; frontal arms diverge and extend in sinuous lines to bases of antennae. Frons sagittate. 
Cuticle appearing smooth except for numerous, moderately coarse punctures and 1 long seta 
behind each frontal arm at about basal third; 6 long setae adjacent to stemmata; 3 long setae on 
each anterolateral angle of clypeus near bases of antennae. Labrum with 6 long setae across 
anterior surface and small tufts of setae on anterolateral angles. Stemmata single; large, 
strongly convex; on each side of head directly behind bases of antennae; with distinct black 
pigment beneath lens. Antenna long, cylindrical; of 3 antennal segments; first segment longest; 
second segment about four-fifths as long as first; third segment minute. Clypeus broad, feebly 
arcuate. Labrum narrower than clypeus; finely, densely punctate; and feebly emarginate 
anteriorly. Mandible tridentate apically; mesal surface sulcate; anterior and posterior margins 
each with a tuft of long golden setae at about midlength. Maxilla and labium as illustrated (Fig. 
9). Submentum divided longitudinally into 3 sclerites. 

Thorax: Prothorax almost twice as long as mesothorax; bearing 3 long setae in a 
longitudinal row between midline and lateral margins and several more long setae along lateral 
margins. Mesothorax with 1 large spiracle anterolaterally; with 2 long setae in a longitudinal 
row between midline and lateral margins plus several more (6 or 7) on each lateral margin and 
a second longitudinal row of 3 long setae laterally in line with spiracle; 2 setae on mesal side of 
spiracle and 1 seta at about posterior third; cuticular punctures coarser and denser across 
apical margin. Metathorax similar to mesothorax but without spiracles. Hind margins of 
thoracic and abdominal segments strigate. Legs four-segmented, short and stout; second and 
third segments ventrally with row of dense, robust, spines along anterior and posterior (inner 
and outer) margins (Fig. 10). Last segment (tibiotarsus) terminates in a single robust claw. 

Abdomen: Of 9 segments; segments 1-8 similar to metathorax in punctation but long 
setae are in 2 rows between biforous spiracle (Fig. 1 1 ) and midline; 2 long setae posterior to 
spiracle and 2 long setae arising together from posterolateral angle of each segment. Tergum of 
last abdominal segment compressed dorsoventrally (Fig. 6); discal area moderately convex; 
lateral margins strongly keeled; side beneath keel on each side with longitudinal rows of long 
hairlike setae; posterolateral angles obtuse, subspinose; apex broadly and moderately deeply 
emarginate. Ventral surface of last abdominal segment bearing a pair of large, robust, 
prehensile appendages each of which bears a pair of large, stout, curved, lateral hooks and 8- 
22 similar hooks on posteroventral surface (Fig. 7). Gills, 6; 1 large conical dorsal gill above 
and between appendages; a single small lateroventral gill below lateral pair of hooks; and a pair 
of moderately large ventral gills between appendages. Two pairs of long setae between and 
slightly posterior to ventral gills and a single long seta posterior to lateroventral _gill. 

Surface sculpture of larva: Examination of the larval head capsule (Fig. 12) with the 
SEM revealed that most of, if not all, the punctures bear a cluster of minute slender setae 
arising from a common base (Figs. 13, 14). It is unknown whether those setae perform a 
sensory function; however, the apex of the last antennal segment is surrounded by sensilla 
(Fig. 15). 

Variations: The number of curved hooks on the prehensile appendages on the last 
abdominal segment vary considerably. The hooks on the smaller, earlier instars varied from 8 
to 1 3 hooks on each appendage; the hooks on the large, last-instar larvae varied from 1 5 to 22 
on each appendage. 

Food: Examination of the gut contents showed that the larvae were feeding on the plant 
material on which they were found. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



165 




: 



1 Omm 






Figs. 5-7. Tetraglossapalpalis Champion, larva: 5, Habitus, lateral view; 6, Last abdominal 
segment, dorsal view; 7, Last abdominal segment, lateral view. 



166 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 8-9. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, larva: 8, Head, ventral view, 125X; 9, Labium 
and maxillae, 170X. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



167 




Figs. 10-11. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, larva: 10, Front leg, 225X; 11, Spiracle, 
2650X. 



168 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 12-13. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, larva: 12, Head, dorsal view, 125X; 13, 
Sculpture on head, 360X. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



169 




Figs. 14-15. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, larva: 14, Setae in punctures on head, 1000X; 
15, Sensilla on antennal apex, 3000X. 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Pupa 

Figures 16-19 

Description: Length (including cerci) 1 2 .0 mm. Color white with pronotal styli, cuticular 
setae, spiracles, gin-traps, sclerite on first abdominal tergum, and cerci testaceous. Short 
cuticular setae on areas as described. 

Head: With moderately dense cuticular setae on dorsum, denser at inner apical corner of 
each eye. Antennae directed posteriorly, lying along side of pronotum (Fig. 16). Maxillary and 
labial palpi extended posteroventrally. Ultimate labial palpal segment trifurcate in male, 
unbranched in female. 

Thorax: Pronotum with moderately dense cuticular setae and 4 robust styli; 1 strongly 
angular stylus on each anterolateral angle and 1 arcuate stylus on each posterolateral angle. 
Mesonotum and metanotum and their respective wing pids with sparse cuticular setae only. 
Front, middle, and hind femora extend outward at right angles from body-axis and lie beneath 
elytral wing pads. All legs with tibiae folded against femora; all tarsi turned backward parallel 
with body axis. 

Abdomen: Tergum of abdominal segment 1 with small subrectangular sclerite at 
apicomedial margin; terga of remaining abdominal segments with sparse cuticular setae. First 
through seventh abdominal segments each with a pair of spiracles; 1 spiracle on each 
anterolateral corner of each segment; those spiracles on segment 1 small, poorly developed. 
Gin-traps, 4; present between first through fifth abdominal segments (Figs. 17, 18). Cerci 
elongate, blunt apically (Fig. 19). 

Pupation: On May 15, 1981, while collecting about 25 km northeast 
of Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico, I found a sapling which had fallen into the 
Rio Palma; many leaves and twigs had drifted against the sapling and 
formed a dense leaf pack. The leaf pack was about one-third of a meter 
thick, two meters long and one-half meter wide (Fig. 20). By carefully 
pulling this leaf pack apart I uncovered 60 larvae, 1 pupa, and 3 adults of T. 
palpalis. Numerous large, apparently last-instar larvae were found in 
poorly defined pupal cells. The pupal cells were simply oval depressions 
about 25 X 18 mm, were usually in moist leaves 3 to 4 cm above the 
waterline, and appeared to have been formed by the respective larvae 
chewing the leaves and compacting them by wriggling movements. Some 
earlier instar larvae were found randomly throughout the leaf pack; several 
larvae in cavities under loose bark of rotting branches in the leaf pack, and 
numerous larvae inside hollow twigs in the leaf pack. One pupa eclosed a 
half hour after it was collected. Three last-instar larvae found in pupal cells 
were kept alive for rearing to obtain pupae for preservation and illustration, 
to establish the length of the pupal stage, and to verify the presumed 
identity. The three larvae pupated and one of the pupae eclosed 4 days after 
pupation; that adult and the two remaining pupae were then preserved. 

Habitat Larvae, pupae, and freshly eclosed adults were present in 
almost all lotic habitats examined large rivers, small streams, small 
cascades, and seeps. In all of the habitats where specimens of Tetraglossa 
palpalis were found, two factors were always present clean running water 
and accumulations of vegetation in various stages of decomposition. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



171 




Fig. 16 Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, pupa, ventral view. 



172 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 17-19. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, pupa: 17, Dorsal view; 18, Gin-traps, 
enlarged; 19, Cerci. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



173 




Figs. 20-21. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, habitats: 20, Leaf pack, Rio Palma; 21, Leaf 
pack, Rio Tulija. 



174 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 22-23. Tetraglossa palpalis Champion, habitats: 22, Mat of roots from seep; 23, 
Picking specimens from roots. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 175 



Specimens were especially abundant in leaf packs (Figs. 20, 2 1 ) and among 
rootlets. On seeps, specimens were found by pulling the mats of roots loose 
from the substrate, placing the roots on a cloth and then carefully sorting 
through the plant material (Figs. 22, 23). 

In leaf packs lodged against the partly submerged tree in the Rio Tulija, 
taxa associated with specimens of T. palpalis were: Limnichidae 
(Eulimnichus sp.),Lutrochidae (Lutrochus sp.), and Elmidae (Austrolimnius 
sp., Heterelmis sp., Microcylloepus sp., and Phanocerus sp.). Other 
beetles associated with T. palpalis in the matted roots (Figs. 22, 23) on the 
seeps were: Dryopidae (Elmoparnus sp.), Elmidae (Elsianus sp. and 
Heterelmis sp.), Hydraenidae (Spanglerina sp.), and Hydrophilidae 
(Oocyclus sp.). 

Specimens examined (all in National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution). BELIZE: TOLEDO DISTRICT: Blue Creek Village, 30 June 1981, W. 
Steiner, 25 larvae; San Antonio (5 km N), Columbia Forest, 26 June 1981, W. Steiner, 1 
larva. GUATEMALA: ALTA VERAPAZ: Trece Aguas, April 1906, 1 larva; Trece 
Aguas, 25, 27, 30 Mar., Schwarz& Barber, 6 adults; Trece Aguas, 7, 16, 22 Apr., Schwarz& 
Barber, 5 adults. MEXICO: CHIAPAS: Ocosingo (22 km N), Rio Lacanja, 19 May 
1981, P.J. Spangler, 1 larva; Ocosingo, Rio Contento, 20 May 1981, P.J. Spangler, 1 larva; 
Pacific Coast Cordilleras, L. Hotzon, 800- 1000m, 1 adult. O AX AC A: Valle Nacional (8 
km S), 25 May 1981, P.J. Spangler, 14 larvae; Valle Nacional (8 km S), 25 May 1981, C.M. 
and O.S. Flint, Jr., 1 larva. SAN LUIS POTOSI: 2 km W. Tlamaya, 8 km N. Xilitla, Sotano 
de Huitzmolotitla, 29 Jan. 1 964, T. Raines and T. Phillips, 1 adult. VERACRUZ: La Palma 
(above town), Los Tuxtlas area, Rio Palma. 7 May 1981, P.J. Spangler and S. Santiago, 1 
larva; La Palma (above town), 15 May 1981, P.J. Spangler, 1 adult, 60 larvae, 1 pupa; Los 
Tuxtlas area, Rio Maquinas, 13 May 1981, P.J. Spangler, 4 larvae; Palenque (48 km S), Rio 
Tulija, 17 May 1981, P.J. Spangler, 1 larva; Palenque Ruinas, 10 July 1981, W. Steiner, 1 
larva. PANAMA: CHIRIQUI: Rio Chrirqui Viejo (Volcan), Foster, 1 larva. PANAMA: 
La Chorrera, 10 May 1912, Aug. Busck, 1 adult. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank the following friends who contributed to this article: Joaquin Bueno-Soria who 
made all the financial and logistical arrangements for the fieldwork during which time most of 
the biological data reported here were obtained; Silvia and Joaquin Bueno, Carol and Oliver 
Flint, Hector Velasco, and Roberto Arce for help in collecting the Mexican specimens; and 
Warren Steiner for collecting specimens from Belize during the Eaithwatch Expedition led by 
D.H. Messersmith; Robin Faitoute for preparation of larvae for SEM photography; Susann 
Braden for the SEM micrographs; Young Sohn for the art work; and Noreen Connell for typing 
the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bertrand, H.P.I. 1972. Larves et Nymphes des Coleopteres Aquatiques du Globe. 804 pp., 

561 figs. F. Paillart. Abbeville. 
Blackwelder, R.H. 1944. Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America, 

the West Indies, and South America. U.S.N.M. Bulletin 5(2): 189-341. 
Champion, G.C. 1897. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta, Coleoptera ( Rhiphidoceridae 

Dascillidae and supplement), 3(1): 585-662. 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

SECOND RECORD OF SOUTH AMERICAN 

BURROWING BUG, SCAPTOCORIS CASTANEUS 

PERTY (HEMIPTERA: CYDNIDAE) IN THE 

UNITED STATES 1 

Richard C. Froeschner, Warren E. Steiner, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: A second North American population of the neotropial Scaptocoris castaneus 
Perty was found among beach plants on a sand dune in Georgia about 200 miles south of the 
initial find in South Carolina. 

While collecting on Little Cumberland Island, Camden County, 
Georgia, in September 1 982, Steiner discovered five adult specimens of the 
South American burrowing bug, Scaptocoris castaneus Perty; this locality 
is approximately 200 miles south of Charleston, South Carolina, whence 
the species was originally reported in North America by Froeschner and 
Chapman (1963). That paper included a dorsal habitus drawing. Whether 
this represents a separate introduction into the United States due to 
dumping of ballast by early sailing ships (see paper cited) or a part of the 
same introduction reported for Charleston, South Carolina, is not now 
evident. Further collecting along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia 
is needed to determine if the two populations are continuous. 

Three of the Georgia specimens of S. castaneus (28 September 1982) 
were found among the roots of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria 
(L.) Link) and sea-oats (Uniola paniculata L.) on a primary ocean beach 
dune; bugs were exposed by digging into the top of the slip-face of the dune 
and were found at depths of 8-15 cm in slightly moist sand. At the same 
locality on 30 September 1982, two more specimens were taken during the 
late afternoon on the sand surface of a trail through the dunes. These 
cydnids bear a remarkabe similarity to some scarabaeid and tenebrionid 
beetles which also inhabit dune sand; the globular, rugose body, bladelike 
front tibiae and stout hind legs with reduced tarsi, and long setae on legs and 
venter are seen in many unrelated taxa which have evolved a psammophilous 
way of life. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Thanks are due the Little Cumberland Island Association for granting permission to 
collect insects on the island, and to Rebecca Bell and William A. Dix for valuable field 
assistance. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Froeschner, R.C. and Q.L. Chapman. 1963. A South American cydnid, Scaptocoris 
castaneus Perty, established in the United States (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). Ent. News. 
74: 95-98. 



1 Received April 27, 1983. Accepted June 4, 1983. 

^Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 
ENT. NF.WS Q4rs\ n* M^, O ^K. *- r u-_ .no-. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 177 

NOTES ON BRACHYDEUTERA LOEW (DIPTERA: 
EPHYDRIDAE) FROM NORTH AMERICA 1 

Wayne N. Mathis^ 

ABSTRACT: The type series of Brachydeutera argentata (Walker) and its junior synonym, 
B. dimidiata Loew, are reviewed, to include lectotype designations for both. B. argentata is 
now known to occur only in eastern North America, and in southeastern United States its' 
distribution overlaps that of B. neotropica. A few paratypes of B. neotropica were discovered 
to be misidentified, thus altering slightly the distribution of that species. A revised key and 
illustrations of North American species of Brachydeutera are presented. 

As part of a research project on the genus Brachydeutera Loew from 
the Oriental, Australian, and Oceanian regions (Mathis and Ghorpade, in 
preparation), we needed to know the identity of B. argentata, which had 
been reported from these regions in addition to North America (eastern 
United States) and the Palearctic Region (Canary Islands, eastward 
through the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries to Japan) ( Wirth, 
1964). Clarification of the status of B. argentata has resulted in this 
publication, which also includes illustrations of the male terminalia and a 
key to the three species known from the Western Hemisphere. 

Walker (1853) described argentata, but in the genus Notiphila. Less 
than a decade later, Loew (1862) erected the genus Brachydeutera for B. 
dimidiata, a species that he newly described in the same paper. The 
specimens Walker and Loew studied are from North America, "United 
States" and "Wasington [D.C.]" respectively. Becker (1896) recognized 
that Walker and Loew were dealing with the same species and cited B. 
argentata as the widespread, holarctic species, with B. dimidiata as the 
junior synonym. Not until Wirth's revision (1964) of Brachydeutera was 
the status of B. argentata changed. Wirth's studies, particularly of the 
male terminalia, indicated that several species were included under B. 
argentata of authors. For the most part Wirth (1964) described these 
species, although he still followed his predecessors in recognizing B. 
argentata as a widespread, holarctic species. My studies have revealed that 
specimens of "B. argentata" from the Old World represent another 
species, for which B. ibari Ninomiya (1929) appears to be an available 
name. Details concerning the latter species will be presented elsewhere 
(Mathis and Ghorpade, in preparation). 

In quoting information on labels, I have cited data as they appear, with 
clarifying or interpretive remarks in brackets. A double set of quotation 



Deceived June 16, 1982. Accepted July 23, 1983. 

^Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 177-180 November & December 1983 



178 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



marks is used to distinguish data occurring on one label from those on 
another. 



Key to North American species of Brachydeutera Loew 

Facial carina low, bluntly rounded, especially ventrally; male terminalia as in Figs. 3, 6 

(Texas to California, south into Mexico) B. sturtevanti Wirth 

Facial carina high, sharply defined, especially ventrally 2 

Merger of fused surstyli with epandrium, in lateral view, indicated by an angulate 
emargination (Fig. 5); gonite spatulate apically (Fig. 5) (Florida to Texas, southward 

throughout most of the Neotropics) B. neotropica Wirth 

Merger of fused surstyli with epandrium, in lateral view, broadly rounded (Fig. 4); gonite 
digitiform apically, narrowly rounded (Fig. 4) (eastern North America; Michigan to 
Maine, south to Texas and Florida B. argentata (Walker) 



Brachydeutera argentata (Walker) 
(Figs. 1,4) 

Notiphila argentata Walker, 1853: 407. 

Brachydeutera dimidiata Loew, 1862: 163 [synonymy according to Becker, 1896: 201]. 
Brachydeutera argentata: Becker, 1896: 201; Wirth, 1964: 5 [revision]. 
Brachydeutera neotropica Wirth, 1964: 8 [paratype series partially misidentifed, see remarks 
section below). 

Primary Type Material. Lectotype specimen of Notiphila argentata 
(herein designated), in the British Museum (Natural History), is labeled 
"Notiphila type argentata Walk, [name handwritten on a disk with a green 
sub-border]" " N. America. Ex coll. Saunders. 68.4 [handwritten]" " VB 
[?, handwritten on underside of label]" " argentata [folded, handwritten]" 
68.4." " LECTOTYPE Notiphila dimidiata Walker By W.N. Mathis 
[name and designator handwritten; black sub-border]." The Lectotype is 
double mounted (pin in paper rectangle) and is in poor condition (wings, 
abdomen, and two legs missing). It is not clearly evident whether Walker 
described this species from a single specimen or a series, hence the 
lectotype designation. 

Lectotype female of B. dimidiata (herein designated), in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, is labeled "D.C. [Washington, D.C.]" " Osten 
Sacken Coll." " LECTOTYPE 9 Brachydeutera dimidiata Loew by W.N. 
Mathis [sex, name, and designator handwritten; black sub-border]." The 
lectotype is double mounted (minuten nadel in polyporus rectangular 
block), is in fair condition (the abdomen is twisted, some setae broken or 
misoriented). Loew, in the original description, gave only the female sex 
symbol, but mentioned "specimens" in the description and gave measure- 
ments as a range. Evidently he had before him a syntypic series. As no 
specimen was designated specifically as the holotype, I am designating 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



179 




1 




2 




3 



Figs. 1-3. Male terminalia, posterior view. Fig. 1. Brachydeutera argentata. Fig. 2. B. 
neotropica. Fig. 3. B. sturtevanti. 




Figs. 4-6. Male terminalia. lateral view. Fig. 4. Brachydeutera argentata. Fig. 5, B. 
neotropica. Fig. 6. B. sturtevanti. 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

the lectotype here. The series, all from Osten Sacken's collection, is at the 
MCZ and includes two males and three females. Only one male and one 
female specimen bear a "D.C." label. As only the latter female agrees with 
the sex Loew indicated and the type locality of "Washington," it was 
selected as the lectotype. 

Remarks. The three species of Brachydeutera occurring in North 
America are closely related and belong to the same species group, the 
argentata group. The close relationship among them is particularly evident 
in their very similar appearance. Externally, for example, I can accurately 
distinguish only B. sturtevanti, and must rely on characters of the male 
terminalia for separation of the other species. Fortunately these characters 
are marked and clear (see figures and key). Accurate identification are 
presently available only for males. 

After making dissections and studying characters of the male terminalia 
of the type series of B. neotropica, it became evident that the paratypes of 
that species from North Carolina and some of them from Florida were 
misidentified. They are representatives of B. argentata. This discovery 
alters the cited distribution of B. neotropica (Wirth, 1964), which is 
corrected as follows: Southeastern United States (Florida to Texas, 
southward through Mexico and Central America to most of South America. 
In southeastern United States, the distributions of B. argentata and B. 
neotropica overlap, especially in Florida, and characters of the male 
terminalia must be used in making species indentifications. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Brian H. Cogan, British Museum (Natural History) and Norman E. Woodley, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, for the loan of syntypic material. I 
also am grateful to Curtis W. Sabrosky and Charlotte Burnett for reviewing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Becker, T. 1896. Dipterologische Studien IV: Ephydridae. Berl. Entomol. Zeit. 41(2): 91- 

276. 
Loew, H. 1862. Monographs of the Diptera of North America, Part I. Smithson. Misc. Coll. 

6: 1-221, 15 figures, 2 plates. 
Ninomiya, E. 1929. On a new species Brachvdeutera ibari (Ephydridae). Oyo Dobutsugaku 

Zat. 1: 190-193 (in Japanese). 
Walker, F. 1853. Diptera. Vol. I (pt. IV): 253-414. In Saunders, W.W., ed. Insecta 

Saundersiana: or characters of undescribed insects in the collection of William Wilson 

Saunders, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., & c. London. 
Wirth, W.W. 1964. A revision of the shore flies of the genus Brachydeutera Loew 

(Diptera: Ephydridae). Ann. Entomol. Amer. Soc. 57(1): 3-12. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 181 



NEW HYDROPTILIDAE (TRICHOPTERA) FROM 
ALABAMA AND SOUTH CAROLINA 1 

Robert W. Kelley 3 , Steven C. Harris 4 

ABSTRACT: Four new species of micro-caddisflies are described from blackwater streams 
of Alabama and South Carolina. Two species are assigned to the genus Oxyethira and one 
each to the genera Neotrichia and Hydroptila. Each is illustrated and compared to similar 
species within their respective genera. 

In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the southeastern 
United States supports a great diversity of micro-caddisflies. This diversity 
is a result of a southerly range extension of largely boreal species and a 
northerly range extension of Central American species, as well as the 
occurrence of many endemic species. Most of the species of Hydroptilidae 
endemic to the Southeast are associated with blackwater, sandy-bottom 
streams of the Coastal Plain. Included are such species as Orthotrichia 
curta and O. dentata from Florida (Kingsolver and Ross, 1961 ), Ochrotrichia 
provosti from Florida (Blickle, 1961), Hydroptila wakulla from Florida 
(Denning, 1947), H. lloganae and H. molsonae from Florida (Blickle, 
1 96 1 ), Oxyethira glasa from Louisiana to South Carolina (Ross, 1 94 1 ), O. 
lumosa from Florida to South Carolina (Ross, 1948), O. novasota from 
Texas to South Carolina (Ross, 1944), O. maya and O. setosa from 
Georgia to Florida (Denning, 1947), O. dunbartonensis from South 
Carolina (Kelley, 1981), and O. elerobi and O. sininsignefrom Louisiana 
to South Carolina (Kelley, 1981 ). To these we add four new species from 
the same type of habitat. They belong to the genera Neotrichia, Hydroptila, 
and Oxyethira. All four species appear to be locally abundant and may be 
expected to be found elsewhere in the southeast. 

Type specimens are deposited in the United States Museum of Natural 
History (USNM) at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, the 
Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), and the author's personal 
collections (RWK;SCH). 



Deceived June 10, 1983. Accepted July 23, 1983. 

^Technical contribution number 2172 of the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Clemson University. 

^Current address: Box 522, Clemson, South Carolina 29633 

^Current address: Environmental Division, Geological Survey of Alabama, P.O. Drawer 0, 
University, Aalbama 35486 

ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 181-186 November & December 1983 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Neotrichia alabamensis n. sp. 

(Fig. 1) 

In most respects, this species resembles riegeliRoss. It differs primarily 
in the inferior appendages, which are more elongate as infalca Ross, the 
three pair of processes enclosing the aedeagus, and the conformation of the 
spines of the aedeagus. 

Male: Antennae 1 8-segmented. Length 1 .8 mm. Venter VII lacking apicomesal process. 
Segment VIII not modified. Segment IX with elongate antero-lateral apodemes and blunt, 
rounded posterolateral processes. Inferior appendages proximally separated and diverging, 
each bearing a basal seta; bracteoles lightly sclerotized, with sinuous ventral margin. Tergum 
X membranous dorsally, produced ventrally into three pairs of acute processes which enclose 
aedeagus; bilobed processes subtending tergum. Aedeagus with two subdistal spines, one of 
which is strongly curved; titillator present. 

Female: Unknown. 

Etymology: Latin: "of Alabama." 

Holotype, male: ALABAMA, Mobile County, Indian Grave Creek near junction with 
Cedar Creek, 4 miles east of Citronelle, 29 Sept. 1981, Harris, O'Neil, and McCullough 
(USNM). 

Paratypes: ALABAMA, Mobile County, Puppy Creek at Co. Rd. 217, 7 miles 
southwest of Citronelle, 25 June 1981, 1 cf. Harris, O'Neil, and McCullough (SCH); Puppy 
Creek as above, but 5 Aug. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Puppy Creek as above, but 
20 Sept. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Big Creek at Hwy. 63, 25 June 1982, 1 cf, 
Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Cedar Creek, 6 miles east of Citronelle, 4 Aug. 1982, 1 cf, Harris 
(SCH); Cedar Creek as above, 20 Sept. 1982, 2 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Escatawpa 
River, 7 miles west of Citronelle, 5 Aug. 1982, 2 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Bennett Creek, 
6 miles west of Citronelle, 5 Aug. 1982, 3 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Chickasaw Creek, 2 
miles north of Oak Grove, 24 June 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); Baldwin County, 
Little Rvier at Hwy. 59, 1 1 May 1982, 1 cf, Harris (SCH); Pine Log Creek at Hwy. 59, 1 1 
May 1982, 3 cf, Harris (USNM); Washington County, Pond Creek at Co. Rd. 9, 13 May 
1982, 1 cf, Harris (USNM); Okwakee Creek at Co. Rd. 9, 13 May 1982, 1 cf, Harris 
(USNM); Monroe County, Little River at Little River State Park, 1 1 May 1982, 1 cf, Harris 
(USNM); Choctaw County, Middle Tallawampa Creek at Co. Rd. 23, 16 May 1982, 4 cf, 
Harris (RWK); Tallawampa Creek at Co. Rd. 23, 16 May 1982, 1 cf, Harris (INHS); Butler 
County, Pigeon Creek at Hwy. 110, 4 Sept. 1982, 1 cf, Harris (INHS); Perry County, 
Oakmulgee Creek at Co. Rd. 30, 15 June 1981, 1 cf, Harris (INHS); Oakmulgee Creek at 
Hwy. 2 1 9, 20 Sept. 1 98 1 , 1 cf , Harris and O'Neil (INHS); Tuscaloosa County, Tyro Creek, 4 
miles southeast of Berry, 15 June 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil (INHS); Escambia County, 
Little Escambia Creek at Hwy. 31, 6 Aug. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil (INHS). 

Hydroptila parastrepha n. sp. 

(Fig. 2) 

This species can be placed in the consimilis group and is closely 
related to strepha Ross. It can be distinguished from the latter on the basis of 
the inferior appendages which are distally broad, each bearing a darkly 
pigmented spot on the apex. The sclerotized plate supporting the aedeagus 
is distinctly pointed distally, unlike the rounded conformation in strepha. 

Male: Antennae 29-segmented. Length 3.5 mm. Apicomesal process of Venter VII 
short. Dorsum IX with mid-dorsal projection; blunt posterolateral processes; venter deeply 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



183 



ymt j 




Figs. 1-2. Male genitalia- Segments VII-X and aedeagus. 1, Neotrichiaalabamensisn.sp. 2, 
Hydroptila parastrepha n. sp. 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



excised anteriorly with a pair of posteriorly directed apodemes articulating with inferior 
appendages. Inferior appendages lacking mesal connection; with narrow anterior projections; 
broadening distally with black spot at apex. Tergum X largely membranous with lightly 
sclerotized lateral bands; sclerotized lateral rods enclose aedeagus and fuse ventrad of that 
structure. Aedeagus with broadened distal portion from which ejaculatory duct protrudes at 
tip; titillator short. 

Female: Unknown. 

Holotype, male: ALABAMA, Mobile County, Puppy Creek at Co. Rd. 217, 7 miles 
southwest of Citronelle, 9 Nov. 1981, Harris (USNM). 

Paratypes: Same, but 12 May 1982, 1 cf (SCH); Mobile County, Cedar Creek, 12 May 
1982, 1 cf, Harris (RWK). 

Oxyethira lumipollex n. sp. 

(Fig. 3) 

It appears that this species is part of the forcipata group, being most 
closely related to setosa Denning. There are many characters which render 
it distinct, including the shape of segment VIII with its two lateral spines and 
the tapering distal process of the aedeagus. 

Male: Antennae 3 1 -segmented. Length 2.9 mm. Venter VII with apicomesal process. 
Segment VIII short; dorsum roundly excised; pleuron excised dorsolaterally and bearing two 
spines, one at innermost point of excision and another at tip of lateral finger-like process. 
Venter IX reaching to posterior end of segment VII; dorsum IX reduced to thin strip. Inferior 
appendages apparently lacking. Subgenital processes convergent, with blackened tips. 
Aedeagus wtih ventral sclerotized process tapering to a point; titillator encircling aedeagus one 
time. 

Female: Unknown. 

Entymology: Latin: "thorn-thumb." 

Holotype, male: ALABAMA, Mobile County, Bennett Creek, 6 miles west of Citronelle, 30 
Sept. 1981, Harris, O'Neill, and McCullough (USNM). 

Paratypes: Same as above, 1 cf ; same as above, but 5 Aug. 1 982, 1 cf , Harris and O'Neil 
(USNM); Escatawpa River, 7 miles west of Citronelle, 31 March 1982, 2 cf, Mettee and 
O'Neil (RWK); Escatawpa River same as above, but 20 Sept. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil 
(INKS); Beaver Pond Branch, 1.5 miles west of Citronelle, 5 Aug. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and 
O'Neil (INHS); Washington County, Bates Creek at Hwy. 43, Aug. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and 
O'Neil (INHS); Choctaw County, Tallawampa Creek at Co. Rd. 23, 16 May 1982, 1 cf, 
Harris (SCH); Bogueloosa Creek at Co. Hwy. 9 near Toxey, 16 May 1982, 10 cf, Harris 
(SCH); Perry County, Oakmulgee Creek at Hwy. 219, 4 Apr. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil 
(SCH). 

Oxyethira savanniensis n. sp. 

(Fig. 4) 

This species belongs to the grisea group. It is similar to novasota Ross, 
grisea Betten, and rivicola Blickle and Morse in the heavily sclerotized, M- 
shaped inferior appendages. However, the broad dorsum IX and complete, 
non-excised, posterior margin of segment VIII are reminiscent of lumosa. 
The combination of characters mentioned above along with the elongate 
process of the aedeagus render it distinct. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



185 




lateral 




Figs. 3-4. Male genitalia - Segments VII-X and aedeagus. 3, Oxyethira lumipollex n. sp. 4, 
Oxyethira savanniensis n. sp. 



186 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Male: Antennae 29-segmented. Length 24 mm. Venter VII with apicomesal process. 
Segment VIII cylindrical with posterior margin complete, not excised. Inferior appendages 
heavily sclerotized and M-shape. Subgential processes pointed and convergent. Aedeagus 
with long distal process beginning at midlength and widening distally; titillator encircling 
aedeagus twice. 

Female: Unknown. 

Etymology: Referring to the type locality inthe Savannah River Basin. 

Holotype, male: SOUTH CAROLINA, Aiken County, Savannah River Plant, Upper 
Three Runs Creek at SRP 8-1, 29 March 1976, Herlong and Prichard (USNM). 

Paratypes: ALABAMA, Mobile County, Puppy Creek at Co. Rd. 217, 25 June 1982, 1 
cf, Harris and O'Neil (USNM); Puppy Creek same as above, but 12 May 1982, 4 cf (RWK); 
Puppy Creek same as above, but 20 Sept. 1982, 3 cf, Harris (RWK); Escatawpa River, 7 
miles west of Citronelle, 5 Aug. 1982. 2 cf, Harris and O'Neil (USNM); Nobodies Creek near 
junction with Escatawpa River, 8.5 miles southwest of Citronelle, 13 May 1982, 4 cf, Harris 
(USNM); Bennett Creek, 6 miles west of Citronelle, 20 Sept. 1982, 1 cf, Harris (USNM); 
Chickasaw Creek, 2 miles north of Oak Grove, 24 June 1 982, 1 cf , Harris and O'Neil (INHS); 
Beaver Pond Branch, 1.5 miles west of Citronelle, 5 Aug. 1982, 1 cf, Harris and O'Neil 
(INHS); Cedar Creek, 6 miles east of Citronelle, 4 Aug. 1982, 2 cf, Harris and O'Neil 
(INHS); Indian Grave Creek near junction Cedar Creek, 4 Aug. 1 982, 1 cf , Harris and O'Neil 
(INHS); Baldwin County, Turkey Creek at Hwy. 59, 11 May 1982, 2 cf, Harris (INHS); 
Farris Creek at Hwy. 59, 1 1 May 1982, 25 cf , Harris (INHS); Hall Creek at Hwy. 59, 1 1 May 
1 982, 5 cf , Harris ( SCH); Washington County, Okwakee Creek at Co. Rd. 9, 1 3 May 1982,3 
cf, Harris (SCH); Bates Creek at Hwy. 43, 4 Aug. 1982, 2 cf, Harris and O'Neil (SCH); 
Escambia County, Blackwater Creek at Co. Rd. 4, 12 June 1982, 1 cf, Harris (SCH). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors wish to thank Patrick O'Neil of the Geological Survey of Alabama for his 
assistance in field collections. We also thank Jolanta Wilman for assistance in processing of 
collections and Sabra Rager for typing the manuscript. Much of the study was supported by a 
grant (#82-9002) from the State Oil and Gas Board of Alabama and by the U.S. Department 
of Energy's Savannah River National Environmental Research Park, Aiken, South Carolina. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Blickle, R.L. 1961. New species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. 

Soc. 56(5): 131-134. 
Denning, D.G. 1947. Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from southern Unietd States. Can. 

Entomol. 79: 12-20. 
Kelley, R.W. 1981. New species of Oxyethira (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from the 

southeastern United States. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 16(3): 368-375. 
Kingsolver, J.M. and H.H. Ross. 1 96 1 . New species of Nearctic Orthotrichia (Hydroptilidae, 

Trichoptera). Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 54(1,2): 28-33. 
Ross, H.H. 1941. Descriptions and records of North American Trichoptera. Trans. Amer. 

Entomol. Soc. 67: 35-126. 

1948. Notes and descriptions of Nearactic Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Jour. 

Washington Acad. Sci. 38(6): 201-206. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 187 

A NEW SPECIES OF UNERUS FROM HONDURAS 
(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 1 2 

Paul H. Freytag^ 

ABSTRACT: A deltocephaline leafhopper Unerusgilvus n. sp. is described from Honduras, 
and compared with U. colonus (Uhler) and U. fessulus (Van Duzee). 

Linnavouri (1959) revised the deltocephaline leafhoppers of the genus 

Unerus DeLong and included two subgenera, Unerus with three species 

and Mattogrossus with one species. Linnavouri and DeLong (1978) added 

fessulus (Van Duzee) to the subgenus Unerus. I add one additional species 

from Honduras to this same subgenus. 

Unerus gilvus n. sp. 

(Figures 3, 4, and 10-14) 

Length of male 3.9-4.0 mm., female 4.1 mm. 

Rcsemb\ing fessulus (Van Duzee) (redescription in Linnavouri and DeLong 1978: 228) 
but with apical spots on crown. 

Generally pale ochraceous, with faintly indicated pattern on frontoclypeus, crown with 
two pairs of spots, larger pair behind ocelli and a smaller apical pair between ocelli. Face with 
pair of dark spots between the ends of frontoclypeal sutures and eyes. 

Male genitalia: Pygofer similar to colonus (Uhler) but posterior process (Fig. 14) not 
greatly expanded at base and more sharply pointed at apex. Genital plates (Fig. 13) triangular 
with lateral margin short with a few macrosetae (usually four). Style (Fig. 1 2) with apex small, 
claw-like, base robust. Aedeagus (Figs. 10 & 1 1 ) long, slender, evenly curved dorsad, gonapore 
subapical, apex bifed, sharply pointed, and a pair of extremely short, lateral processes halt 
distance to base. 

Female seventh sternum similar to colonus, except median projection shorter and wider. 

Holotype male, Honduras, El Zamorano, Nov. -Dec., 1970, George F. Freytag, 
blacklight trap: allotype female, same data except July 22 and 29, 1 970, both deposited in the 
collection of the California Academy of Science. Paratypes: one male, same data as 
holotype, deposited in the Ohio State University Collection; and one male, same data, except 
Oct.-Nov., in the University of Kentucky Collection. 

Notes: The male of fessulus is unknown but the color markings of the 
head are similar to this new species, except for the lack of the apical spots on 
the crown. I believe fessulus is a distinct species, not as Linnavuori and 
DeLong speculated that it would be a synonym of colonus. 

The head and male genitalia of colonus (Figs. 1, 2 and 5-9) are 
illustrated for comparison with gilvus. The major difference between this 



Deceived May 9, 1983. Accepted July 23, 1983. 



investigation reported in this paper (83-7-70) is in connection with a project of the 
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with approval of the Director. 

3 Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091 
ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 187-190 November & December 1983 



188 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





COLONUS 




I mm 




GILVUS 



Figs. 1-2. Male U. colonus (Uhler). 1, head, pronotum and scutellum (dorsal aspect). 2, head 
(anterior aspect). Figs. 3-4. Male U. gilvus n. sp. 3, head, pronotum and scutellum (dorsal 
aspect). 4, head (anterior aspect). All drawn to the same scale. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



189 





COLONUS 






14 



GILVUS 



Figs. 5-9. Male genitalia of U. colonus(UMer). 5, aedeagus and connective (lateral aspect). 6, 
apex of aedeagus (ventral aspect). 7, style (dorsal aspect). 8, genital plate (dorsal aspect). 9, 
posterior margin of pyrofer( lateral aspect). Figs. 10-14. Male genitalia of U. gilvusn. sp. 10, 
aedeagus and connective (lateral aspect). 11, apex of aedeagus (ventral aspect). 12, style 
(dorsal aspect). 13, genital plate (dorsal aspect). 14, posterior margin of pyrofer (lateral 
aspect). All drawn to the same scale. 



190 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

new species and colonus is the lack of a distinct dark pattern on the 
frontoclypeus, as in colonus, and the male aedeagus with very small medial 
processes, not the wing-like subapical processes as in colonus. 

The known distributions are: colonus from the United States, West 
Indies, Panama, and most of South America, fessulus only from Jamaica, 
and gilvus only from Honduras. The other two species in this subgenus are 
both known only from Argentina. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Linnavuori, R.E. 1959. Revision of the Neotropical Deltocephalinae and some related 

subfamilies (Homoptera). Ann. Zool. Soc. Vanamo 20: 1-370. 
Linnavuori, R.E. and D.M. DeLong. 1978. Some New or Little Known Neotropical 

Deltocelphalinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Brenesia 14-15: 227-247. 



SOCIETY MEETING OF OCTOBER 19, 1983 

Professor Dewey Caron, Chairman of the Department of Entomology and Applied 
Ecology at the University of Delaware, was the featured speaker at the American 
Entomological Society's first regular meeting of the 1983-84 year. Thirteen members and nine 
guests were treated to Dr. Caron's very informative talk on the "Status of the Killer Bee." 

Although the "killer bee" is morphologically almost identical to the normal European 
honey bee, behaviorly it is distinct and is considered to be a separate race of Apis mellifera. 
These bees are no more venomous than their European kin, but they are considerably more 
aggressive and will attack en masse with the slightest provocation. The race originated in the 
sub-Sahara of Africa and was introduced to Brazil in 1957. They accidently escaped, quickly 
established themselves, and have now displaced commercial colonies and many native bee 
species throughout tropical and part of temperate South America. Currently they are 
advancing across Central America at the rate of 200 to 300 miles per year. They are expected 
to arrive in the southern United States in about 1990 and eventually to infest much of the 
southern and coastal United States. 

The implications of this imminent arrival are hard to assess but they may be great. Bee- 
keeping for the hobbyist may become impossible as it has in much of South America. Culture 
techniques will have to change. The current 40 or so deaths per year due to bee stings may well 
increase. Furthermore, there is likely to be an effect on the one-third of the American diet 
estimated to be derived from bee pollinated crops. 

Although it had been theorized that the aggressive traits of the killer bee would be diluted 
by mating with local bee populations. Dr. Caron's research in Panama indicates that 
"Africanization" occurs by displacement without hybridization. Thus it seems unlikely that 
their unwanted traits will be reduced by the docile local honey bees. 

In notes of local entomological interest, Roger Fuester predicted that the southern New 
Jersey and Delaware populations of the gypsy moth would not collapse until 1985 or 1986. 
Other members noted the apparent abundance of earwigs, aphids, and preying mantids this 
fall. 

Harold B. White 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 191 

THE TICKS OF SOUTH DAKOTA: AN 

ANNOTATED CHECKLIST (ACARI: 

IXODOIDEA) 1 ' 2 

Emmett R. Easton^ 

ABSTRACT: Collection data are reported for 16 species of ticks from South Dakota. Nine 
species, Argas cooleyi Kohls & Hoogstraal, Ornithodorus concanensis Cooley & Kohls, 
Otobius megnini (Duges), Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, Haemaphysalis chordeilis (Packard), 
H. leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes eastoni Keirans & Clifford, /. kingi Bishopp and /. 
spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall are restricted in distribution to the western portion of the state, 
west of the Missouri River. Six species, Ornithodoros kelleyiCoo\ey & Kohls, Dermacentor 
albipictus (Packard), D. variabilis (Say), Ixodes sculptus Neumann, /. muris Bishopp & 
Smith and Rhipicephalus sanquineus Latreille are more widely distributed, while /. cookei 
Packard is restricted in distribution to the eastern edge of the state. 

Ticks have long been recognized as important transmitters of various 
disease agents to both man and animals. Saliba et al. (1966) described an 
outbreak of tularemia among native Americans on the Rosebud and Pine 
Ridge Indian Reservations of southwestern South Dakota that was 
associated with Dermacentor variabilis. Cases of Rocky Mountain spotted 
fever in man, associated with D. variabilis, regularly occur each year, more 
often in eastern South Dakota, and the virus of Colorado tick fever 
associated with D. andersoni is probably transmitted to man each year in 
the Black Hills of the western portion of the State. Powassan virus, a 
proven human disease agent, has been isolated from the blood of small 
mammals and ticks, /. spinipalpis and D. andersoni from Spearfish 
Canyon in the northern Black Hills (Keirans and Clifford 1983). 

Non-human etiological agents of disease have also been isolated from 
ticks in this state. Several isolations of the soft tick viruses Sapphire II and 
Six Gun City have been recovered from Argas cooleyi collected from the 
Badlands and the Wind Cave National Parks of southwestern South 
Dakota (C.E. Yunker, pers. comm.). 

The relationship to disease of these 16 species of ticks and their 
distribution, as provided in this list, will become more important as this 
geographical area is shared with an ever expanding tourist population. 
Currently many vacationers from the 50 United States as well as the 



1 Received for publication April 15, 183. Accepted July 25, 1983. 

2 Technical paper No. 1916 cf the South Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

> Associate Professor of Entomology, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State 
University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 191-195 November & December 1983 



192 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

provinces of Canada find the Black Hills area and the Badlands National 
Park pleasant areas to visit. Unless otherwise indicated by the name of the 
collector, the tick records included here were made by the author and most 
are on file at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories (USPHS), Hamilton, 
Montana. Entomologists and other persons concerned with ticks should be 
advised that the RML tick collection was transferred to The Smithsonian 
Institutions's new facility at Silver Hill, Maryland in August of 1983 (J.E. 
Keirans, pers. comm.). 

Family Argasidae Canestrini 

Genus Argas Latreille 

Argas cooleyi Kohls & Hoogstraal, Ex. nesting sites of cliff swallows, Petrochelidon 
pyrrhonota from the following locations: on face of cliff, 20 Aug. 1977, Wind Cave 
Canyon, Wind Cave NatM Pk., Custer Co.; nesting sites under small bridge, 24 Aug. 1977, 
Badland Nat'l Pk. n. of Interior, Jackson, Co.; nests in metal road culvert, 30 June 1980, e. 
side of Cuny Table near Rockford in Northern Shannon Co.; 19 July 1980, 18 mi se. of 
Scenic, Pennington Co. 

First published record in state was by Wilson ( 1978) from P. pyrrhonota nesting sites in 
a road culvert near Wanblee on the Pine Ridge Indian Reserv., Washabaugh Co. 

Genus Ornithodoros C.L. Koch 

Ornithodoros concanensis Cooley & Kohls. Ex. nesting site of P. pyrrhonota on face of cliff, 
20 Aug. 1977, Wind Cave Canyon in Wind Cave Nat'l Pk., Custer Co.; ex. imm. prairie 
falcons Falco mexicanus, 24-25 June 1967, western South Dakota J. Flavin (RML 
47651); ex. woman, Aug. 1967. Ft. Pierre, Stanley Co. B. Diamond (RML 48622). 

First published record by Wilson (1978) was from cliff swallow nests near Wanblee, 
Washabaugh Co. 

Ornithodoros kelleyi, Cooley & Kohls. Ex. Myotis lucifugus carissima, 29 May 1968, 
Harding Co., J.K.Jones, Jr. ( RML 50369); ex. A/Vo/ws. subulatus, 20 June 1947, 2 mi.se 
Wall, Pennington Co., M.L. Johnson (RML 24329); ex. Myotis lucifugus in school, Sept. 
1979, Mission, Todd Co. (RML 109699). 

First published record of this species by Anderson and Jones, Jr. ( 1 97 1 ) was from a barn 
at Ralph in eastern Harding Co. 

Genus Otobius Banks 

Otobius megnini (Duges). Cooley and Kohls (1944) reported the spinose ear tick from 
the ears of cattle in Haakon and Fall River Counties. 

The lack of recent record of O. megnini from South Dakota as well as the permanent 
establishment of the parasite in neighboring states suggests that previous records probably 
resulted from interstate movement of livestock. 

Family Ixodidae Murray 

Genus Dermacentor Koch 

Dermacentor albipict us (Packard). Ex. mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus, 22 Novem- 
ber 1951, Custer State Park, Custer Co., collector unknown, ( RML 3003 3 ); ex. elk, Cervus 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 193 



canadensis, 25 Jan. 1924, Wind Cave Nat'l Pk., Custer Co., collector unknown, (RML 
60433); ex. drag, 13 June 1962, Spearfish Canyon, Lawrence Co., R. Kennedy; (RML 
38013); ex beneath bale of hay, 4 May 1980, Redig, Harding Co.; ex. cattle, 8 Dec. 1982, 
Tyndall, Bon Homme Co. 

Bishopp and Trembley ( 1945) first reported this tick from South Dakota, but hosts were 
not listed. Boddicker and Hugghins ( 1 969) found D. albipictus on mule deer, Odocoileus 
hemionus in the Slim Buttes area of Harding Co. and the record from Bon Homme Co. 
listed above is the first reported occurrence of this species in eastern South Dakota. 

Dermacentor andersoni Stiles. Ex. woman, August 1950, Newell, Butte Co., collector 
unknown, (RML 27865); ex. drag, 18 May 1955, Wind Cave Nat'l Pk. campground, 
Custer Co. (RML 33268); ex. drag 1 3 May 1955, 1 mi. w. headquarters, Custer State Pk., 
Custer Co., Kohls and Jellison, (RML 33260); ex. drag, 14 June 1978, Hells Canyon, 
Jewell Cave Nat'l Mon., Custer Co.; in sheep pens, 16 May 1955, 12 mi. w. of Edgemont, 
Fall River Co. (RML 33264); ex. Eutamias minimus pallidus, 15 May 1968,2mi.s. 3 1/4 
mi. from Reva, Harding Co., J.K. Jones, Jr. (RML 50367); ex. drag, 13 June 1978, 12 mi. 
s. of Reva. Custer Nat. For., Harding Co.; ex. drag, 28 May 1963, near Interior, Jackson 
Co., J. Bell and G.M. Kohls (RML 38798); ex. drag, 2 May 1982. Spearfish Canyon, 
Lawrence Co. (RML 1 15987); ex. drag, 2 May 1 980, Bear Butte State Pk., Meade Co.; ex. 
man, 1 1 April 1948, Rapid City, Pennington Co., collector unknown (RML 25337); ex. 
drag, 3 May 1982, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Shannon Co. (RML 1 15990). 

Dermacentor variabilis (Say). Ex. drag, 24 May 1977, Oak Lane Girl Scout Camp, 7 mi. s. 
of Astoria, Brookings Co. (RML 105144); ex. drag, 3 June 1963, Belle Fourche River 
between Newell and Belle Fourche, Butte Co., G.M. Kohls and J. Bell; ex. drag, 8 May 

1981, Bailey's Lake 9 mi. n. of Clark, Clark Co.; ex. drag, 10 May 1977, 2 1/2 mi. NE 
Watertown, Codington Co.; ex. drag, 20 June 1981, Mitchell, along Big Sioux River, 
Davison Co.; ex. dog. 22 July 1957, Enemy Swim District, Day Co. (RML 34616); ex. 
drag, 1 June 1979, 2 miles northwest of Gary, Deuel Co., Kieckhefer and Swartos (RML 
109474); ex. drag, 18 May 1955, 1 1 mi. NW Oelrichs, Fall River Co., G.M. Kohls and 
W.L. Jellison (RML 33269); ex. drag, 15 May 1980, Damerow road side park, 4 mi. s. of 
Milbank, Grant Co.; ex. coyote, Canis latrans, 5 May 1977, 3 miles northwest of Lucas, 
Gregory Co., E. Sheldon; ex. drag, 10 May 1977, Lake Poinsett State Pk., HamlinCo.;ex. 
drag, 23 May 1979, St. Lawrence Natural Pk., St. Lawrence, Hand Co.; ex. drag. 30 April 

1 982, Farm Island State Pk., SE of Pierre, Hughes Co., (RML 1 1 5992); ex. drag 3 1 May 
1977, Cottonwood Range and Livestock Research Station, 2 mi. E. of Cottonwood, 
Jackson Co.; ex. drag, 1 3 May 1980, Lake Whitewood s. of Lake Preston, Kingsbury Co.; 
ex. Erethizon dorsatum, 25 May 1979, Whitewood, Lawrence Co., (RML 109470); ex. 
drag, 3 June 1978, Newton Hills State Pk., 5 mi. s. of Canton, Lincoln Co.; ex. drag, 21 
May 1977, Sica Hollow State Pk., 16 mi. NW of Sisseton, Marshall Co. (RML 105 143): 
ex. drag, 10 July 1979, Bear Butte State Pk., 9 mi. n. of Sturgis, Meade Co. (RML 109490); 
ex. dog, 2 May 1972,5 mi. n. ofColman, Moody Co.; ex. man, 28 April 1937, Rapid City, 
Pennington Co., R.J. Jackson (RML 1 3 167); ex. drag, 30 June 1978, Shadehill Reservoir, 
Perkins Co.; ex. drag, 20 May 1979, Hartford Beach State Pk., Roberts Co. (RML 
109462); ex. drag, 30 April 1982, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Shannon Co., J. Casken 
and E.R. Easton (RML 115989); ex. porpupine, Erethizon dorsatum, 9 July 1979, 17 
miles n. Midland, Stanley Co., (RML 109491); ex. dog, 3 May 1982, Rosebud Indian 
Reservation, Todd Co., R. Ballinger (RML 115991); ex. drag, 12 May 1979, Union 
County State Park,l 1 mi. s. of Beresford, Union Co., (RML 109460); ex. drag, 24 May 
1977, 12 miles ne Dupree, Ziebach Co., G.M. Kohls and J. Bell. 

Saliba et al. ( 1 966) reported this species from Todd and Shannon Counties in the western 
part of the state, but Ulrich and Vaughn (1963) were first to report it from Clay County in 
southeastern South Dakota. 



194 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Genus Haemaphysalis Koch 

Haemaphysalis chordeilis (Packard). Boddicker and Hugghins (1965) collected this tick 
from sharptailed grouse, Pedioecetes phasinaellus, in either Haakon, Jackson, Mellette or 
Washabaugh Co. of WC South Dakota. 

Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard). Ex. Sylvilagus audubonii, 6 Aug. 1980, 
Martin, Bennett Co., (B. Baran & E.R. Easton); ex. Sylvilagus floridanus, 30 May 1980, 
Spearfish Canyon, s. of Spearfish, Lawrence Co., (E.R. Easton, C.M. Clifford and J.E. 
Keirans. 

Even though Bishopp and Trembley (1945: Fig. 11) show H. leporispalustris as 
occurring nationwide, their collections at that time did not contain material from South 
Dakota. Turner (1974) evidently was first to report this species from S. auduboni near 
Minnekahta in Fall River Co. Thus far, I have been unable to find the rabbit tick in South 
Dakota east of the Missouri River. 

Genus Ixodes Latreille 

Ixodes cookei Packard. The only record of this tick available to me is from Banks ( 1 908), who 

reported /. cookei from a small mammal (possibly a woodchuck) from Brookings, 

Brookings Co. 
Ixodes eastoni Keirans & Clifford. Reported originally by Keirans and Clifford (1983) from 

rodents and insectivores from Lawrence and Pennington Counties of the northern Black 

Hills as well as from Harding Co., in the northwestern part of the state. 
Ixodes kingi Bishopp. Ex. red fox, vulpes vulpes, 19 May 1978, 16 Mi. e. of Chamberlain, 

Brule Co., C. Emmett; ex. Peromvscus maniculatus, 17 June 1967, Fall River Co., J.K. 

Jones, Jr. (RML 48986); ex. C. latrans, 12 October 1976, Harding Co., (L. Sheldon); ex. 

Mustelafrenata, 29 July 1972, e. of Cottonwood, Jackson Co. (RML 64200); ex. Mustela 

nigripes, 23 Oct. 1952, Zeona, 4 mi. n. ofMoreau River, Perkins Co. (RML 64214); ex. 

swift fox, Vulpes velox, June-Aug. 1978, 14 mi. n. of Ogalala, Shannon Co., J. Sharp. 

First reported by Boddicker (1968) from M. nigripes in Mellette Co. 
Ixodes muris Bishopp & Smith. Ex. Zapus hudsonius pallidus, 8 July 1967, LaCreek 

National Wildlife Ref., 4 mi. s. 8 mi. e., Martin, Bennett Co., J.K. Jones, Jr. (RML 48988); 

ex. Microtus p. pennsvlvanicus, 18 June 1965, Hartford Beach State Pk., Roberts Co., 

J.K. Jones, Jr. (RML46415). 

First reported in this state by Keirans and Clifford (1978) without additional data. 
Ixodes sculptus Neumann. Ex. Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, 27 July 1968, Cusler Co. 

J.K. Jones, Jr. (RML 53745); ex. Cynomys ludovicianus, April- June 1977, Wind Cave 

Nat'l Pkg., Custer Co., (J. Hoogland); ex. S. tridecemlineauts, 24 March 1977, Buffalo, 

Harding Co.: ex. Canis latrans, 11 Sept. 1976, Harding Co.; ex. longtail weasel M. 

frenata, June 1977, 7 mi. w. of Highmore, Hyde Co.; ex. S. tridecemlineatus, 24 July 

1972, se of Cottonwood, Jackson Co. (RML 64256). 

Cooley and Kohls ( 1 945 ) record this tick from S. tridecimlineatus in Brookings Co., but 

the earliest report was apparently by Bishopp (1911) (RML 66141). 
Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall. Ex. Neotoma cinerea, 26 July 1967, 2 mi. s., 10 mi. 

w. of Lead, Lawrence Co., J.K. Jones, Jr. (RML 48989); ex. N. cinerea, 14 Aug. 1979, 

Spearfish Canyon, Lawrence Co.; ex. Peromvscus maniculatus, 27 Aug. 1968, Wind 

Cave Canyon, Wind Cave Nat'l Pk., Custer Co., J.K. Jones, Jr. (RML 53746); ex. P. 

maniculatus, 4 Sept. 1983, 1 mi. n.,5 1/2 mi. e. of Hot Springs. Fall River Co., J.K. Jones, 

Jr. (RML 53768). 

McLean et al. (1964) mentioned isolations of Powassan virus from /. spinipalpis 

collected from Peromvscus mice in Spearfish Canyon in Lawrence Co. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 195 



Genus Rhipicephalus Koch 

Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Ex. dog in home, 21 Apr. 1980, Huron, Beadle Co. 
Nelson (1966) was first to report this species in South Dakota on a map of record 
nationwide. Later Nelson ( 1 968) listed a single record from Madison, Lake Co.. according 
to a U.S. Dept. of Agriculture collection dated 21 April 1962. The lack of additional 
records of this species in South Dakota indicates that R. sanguineus not only cannot 
overwinter out-of-doors at this latitude, but ticks would have to be accidentally introduced 
during the short summer season through the movements of pet animals for tick multiplication 
to occur. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author thanks James E. Keirans and Carleton M. Clifford of the Rocky Mountain 
Laboratories (USPHS), Hamilton, Montana, 59840, for permission to include records from 
their files. James E. Keirans critically read the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, K.W. and J.K. Jones, Jr. 1971. Mammals of Northwestern South Dakota. Univ. 

Kans., Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19: 361-93. 
Banks, N. 1908. A revision of the ixodoidea, or ticks of the United States. Tech. Ser. Bur. 

Entomol. U.S. Dept. Agr. 15. 61 p. 
Bishopp, F.C. 1911. Some new North American Ixodidae with notes on other species. Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Wash. 24: 197-208. 
Bishopp, F.C. and H.L. Trembly. 1945. Distribution and hosts of certain North American 

ticks. J. Parasitol. 31: 1-54. 
Boddicker, M.L. 1968. Parasites of the black-footed ferret. Proc. So. Dak. Acad. Science 

47: 141-148. 
Boddicker, M.L. and E.J. Hugghins. 1965. Parasites of sharp-tailed grouse in South 

Dakota. Proc. So. Dak. Acad. Science 44: 244. 
Boddicker, M.L. and E.J. Hugghins. 1969. Parasites of white tail and mule deer in South 

Dakota. Proc. So. Dak. Acad. Science 48: 47-57. 
Cooley, R.A. and G.M. Kohls. 1944. The Argasidae of North America, Central America 

and Cuba. Amer. Midi. Natur. Monog. 1. 
Cooley, R.A. and G.M. Kohls. 1945. The genus Ixodes in North America. Natl. Inst. Health 

Bull. 184. 246 pp. 
Keirans, J.E. and C.M. Clifford. 1 978. The genus Ixodes in the United States: A scanning 

electron microscope study and key to the adults. Suppl. No. 2. J. Med Entomol. 149 pp. 
Keirans, J.E. and C.M. Clifford. 1983. Ixodes (Pholeoixodes)eastonin. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), A 

parasite of rodents and insectivores in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. J. Med. 

Entomol. 20: 90-98. 
McLean, D.M., J.M. Best, S. Mahalingham, M.A. Chernesky and W.E. Wilson. 1964. 

Powassan virus: Summer infection cycle, 1964. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 91: 1360-62. 
Nelson, V.A. 1966. Pinpointing brown dog ticks. Pest Control 34: 18. 
Nelson, V.A. 1 968. The brown dog tick in the United States. Melsheimer Entomol. Ser. 2: 1 - 

2. 
Saliba, G.S., F.C. Harmston, B.E. Diamond, C.L. Zymet, M.I. Goldenberg, and T.D.Y. 

Chin. 1966. An outbreak of human Tularemia associated with the American dog tick, 

Dermacentor variabilis. Amer. J. Trop. Med. & Hyg. 15: 531-38. 
Turner, R.W. 1 974. Mammals of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Misc. Publ. 

Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 60. 178 pp. 
Ulrich, M.G. and C.M. Vaughn. 1963. Some intestinal and external parasites of the Deer 

mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus. Proc. So. Dak. Acad. Sci. 42: 140-143. 
Wilson, N. 1978. Four ectoparasites from South Dakota. Entomol. News 89: 77-78. 



196 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



THE HORSE FLIES AND DEER FLIES OF 
SOUTH DAKOTA 

NEW STATE RECORDS AND AN ANNOTATED 
CHECKLIST (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE) 1 ' 2 

Emmett R. Eastern^ 

ABSTRACT: Collecting data are reported for 33 species of Tabanidae from South Dakota. 
New state records and ecological data are presented for 6 tabanid species: Haematopota 
americana Osten Sacken, Hybomitra epistates (Osten Sacken), H. opaca (Coquillett), 
Tabanus lineola Fabricus, T. marginalis Fabricus, and Tabanus punctifer Osten Sacken. 

The horse and deer flies have always been considered one of the more 
economically important groups in the order Diptera. They not only possess 
the potential for transmitting pathogenic organisms to livestock and man 
(i.e. anaplasmosis, equine infectious anemia, tularemia) but their control is 
difficult to achieve by any means. Insecticides, although widely used, are 
only partially effective. 

Egg masses of Tabanus similis Macquart and Chrysops aestuans Van 
der Wulp are laid on aquatic emergent vegetation that surrounds farm ponds 
and impoundments in many of the north central states. When beef cattle 
have access to these sites, vegetation is often consumed or trampled, 
reducing the available oviposition sites for these flies. The lower numbers of 
horse and deer flies that inhabited farm ponds in western South Dakota in 
1980 indicate that vegetative management on farms and ranches can 
appreciably lower populations of both T. similis and C. aestuans (Easton 
1982). 

The present list includes 33 species, of which six are reported in the 
state for the first time. Records are based on specimens in the South Dakota 
State University insect collection, in addition to those collected by the 
author. Determination of Tabanidae in the SDSU collection has been made 
previously by L.L. Pechuman of Cornell University and C.B. Philip 
(California Academy). The initials following each collection refer to the 
original collector. Records of species lacking an initial were collected by the 
author. 



1 Received April 4, 1983. Accepted June 16, 1983. 

^Technical paper No. 1910 of the South Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

> Associate Professor of Entomology, Plant Science Department, South Dakota State 
University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 196-200 November & December 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 197 

Subfamily Chrysopsinae 

Genus Silvius Meigen 

Silvius quadrivittatus (Say). 14 June 1936, Springfield, Bon Homme County, HCS; 10 July 
1924, Hot Springs, Fall River County, H; 22 July 1982, 10 miles east, 5 miles south of 
Buffalo, Harding County; 23 June 1923; Philip, Jackson County. HCS; 1 July 1946, Elk 
Point, Union County, HCS; 23 June 1 946, Yankton, Yankton County. Miller (1978) first 
reported this species in South Dakota but county records were not given. 

Silvius pollinosus Williston. 1 July 1 978, Badlands National Park, Jackson County; 1 8 July 
1 980, 2 miles east of Cottonwood, Jackson County; 9 July 1 979, Haakon County; 1 5 July 
1977, 10 miles east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, Antelope Range and Livestock Research 
Station, Harding County; 12 July 1979, Wasta, along the Cheyenne River, Pennington 
County. Reported earlier in South Dakota by Philip (1965) and more recently by Easton 
(1982) from the Cottonwood Range and Livestock Experiment Station in Jackson County. 

Genus Chrysops Meigen 

Chrysops aestuans Wulp. 24 June 1939, 10 miles south of Wolsey, Beadle County, HCS; 28 
June 1939, 5 miles east of Wessington, Beadle County, NPL; 5 August, 1967, LaCreek 
Lake Wildlife Refuge, Bennett County, EUB; 25 June 1924, Springfield, Bon Homme 
County, H.; 24 June 1923, Newell, Butte County, HCS; 31 July 1940, Belle Fourche. 
Butte County, NPL; 1 9 June 1 92 1 , Volga, 24 Aug. 1 923, Bruce, Brookings County, HCS; 
19 June 1933, Hecla, Brown County, HCS; 12 July 1966, Aberdeen, Brown County; 5 
July 1946, Henry, Codington County, HCS; 5 July 1946, Watertown, Codington County, 
HCS; 20 July 1967, Mclntosh, Corson County, EUB; 5 August 1967, Stockade Lake, 
Custer State Park, Custer County, EUB; 15 August 1924, Waubay, Day County, H; 16 
July 1967, Dry Lake, Hamlin County, EUB; 15 June 1977, 15 miles southeast of Buffalo, 
Harding County; 15 July 1945, Canning, Hughes County, HCS; 11 July 1974, Farm 
Island, Hughes County, PEC and EUB; 17 July 1947, Pierre, Hughes County, HCS; 5 
July 1945, Highmore, Hyde County, HCS; 8 July 1947, Kennebec, Lyman County, GPS; 
17 July 1947, Presho, Lyman County, HCS; 12 July 1974, Fate Dam, Lyman County, 
PEC and EUB; 24 June 1 950, Cottonwood, Jackson County, HCS; July 1977, 2 miles east 
of Cottonwood, Jackson County, JR; 1 1 August 1969, 2 miles west, Arlington, Kingsburg 
County, JR; 12 July 1974, 1 1/2 miles north of Vivian, Lyman County, PEC and 
EUB; 26 June 1 940, Faith, Meade County, GPS; 30 June 1 977, West River Beef Research 
Unit, Ft. Meade, Meade County; 18 June 1929, Hartford, Vermillion River, Minnehaha 
County, HCS; 7 July 1966, 2 miles southeast of Rutland, Moody County, EUB; 15 August 
1979; 1 mile north Hill City, Lake Mitchell, Pennington County; 30 June 1981, 15 miles 
east of Pine Ridge, Shannon County, BB; 2 August 1967. Hayes, Stanley County. EUB; 1 8 
June 1924, Elk Point, Union County, H; 19 June 1924, Elk Point, Union County. C. 
Aestuans is the most commonly distributed deer fly in the state and probably the most 
important fly species affecting man in recreational areas. It is found in most of the lakes, 
rivers, and farm ponds in this state from east to west. Cobb and Balsbaugh ( 1 976) reported 
C. aestuans from Clark, Kingsbury and Spink counties. 

Chrysops callidus Osten Sacken. 4 June 1953, Yankton, Yankton County, HCS. First 
reported by Miller (1978). 

Chrysops carbonarius Walker. 21 June 1941, 10 miles southwest of Belle Fourche. Butte 
County, N.P. Larson; 19 June 1936, Newell, Butte County, HCS; 19 luly 1924, Sylvan 
Lake, Custer County, H; 4 June 1 98 1 , Bear Butte State Park. Ft. Meade, Meade County; 
27 May, and 3 1 May 1977,2 miles east of Cottonwood, Jackson County: 1 June 1 940, 
Porcupine, Shannon County, LKB; 3 June 1981, Wanblee, Washabaugh County. 



198 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Chrysops discalis Williston. Jellison (1950) reported this species from Tulare, Spink 
County, HCS. 

Chrysops Julvaster Osten Sacken. 6 July 1924, Martin, Bennett County, H; 25 June 1935, 
Springfield, Bon Homme County, HCS; 28 June 1923, Newell, Butte County, HCS; 29 
June 1939, Fruitdale, Butte County, NRL; 16 July 1924, Custer, Custer County; 13 July 
1924, Hot Springs, Fall River County, H; 21 Aug. 1978, Antelope Range and Livestock 
Research Station, 10 miles east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, Harding County; 21 July 1950, 
Cottonwood, Jackson County, HCS; 28 June 1941, 10 miles southwest of Spearfish, 
Lawrence County, NPL; 26 July 1947, Tinton, Lawrence County, HCS; 24 June 1935, 
Newton Hills, Canton, Lincoln County, NCS; 22 June 1940, 2 miles northwest of Rapid 
City, Pennington County, HCS; 13 July 1928, Tulare, Spink County, HCS. Cobb and 
Balsbaugh, Jr. (1976) were first to record this species from Spink County. 

Chrysops furcatus Walker. 19 July, 1924, Custer, Custer County, H. Reported by Miller 
(1978) but without date of collection or locality. 

Chrysops Indus Osten Sacken. 3 June, 1969, Gary, Deuel County, EUB. Reported by Miller 
(1978). 

Chrysops mitis Osten Sacken. 16 July 1924, Custer, Custer County, H; 21 July 1950, 2 
miles east of Cottonwood, Jackson County; 18 June 1968, Cheyenne Crossing, Lawrence 
County, EUB; 13 June 1978, Antelope Range and Livestock Research Station 10 miles 
east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, Harding County; 23 June 1950, Pierre, Hughes County, 
HCS. First reported by Miller (1978). 

Chrysops pikei Whitney. 30 July 1935, Edgemont, Fall River County, HCS. Reported by 
Miller. (1978). 

Chrysops sequax Williston. 25 July 1 98 1 , 7 miles south of Brookings, Brookings County; 3 1 
July 1966, Hide- A- Woods, Deuel County, EUB; 2 miles east of Cottonwood, Jackson 
County; 2 August 1967, Bear Butte, Meade County, EUB. Reported originally by Miller 
(1978). 

Chrysops univittatus Macquart. One female specimen collected from Yankton, Yankton 
County, is represented in the Nebraska State Museum. 



Subfamily Tabaninae 

Genus Haematopota Meigen 

Haematopota americana Osten Sacken. NEW STATE RECORD. 1 female, 15 July 1977, 
Antelope Range and Livestock Research Station, 10 miles east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, 
Harding County. 

Genus A ty lotus Osten Sacken 

Atylotus bicolor (Wiedemann). 24 June 1938, Springfield, Bon Homme County, WH. 
Reported originally by Miller (1978). 

Genus Hybomitra Enderlein 

Hybomitra criddlei (Brooks). 25 July, 1924, Spearfish, Lawrence County, H; 4 August, 
1967, 5 miles northwest Rockford, Road 231, Lawrence County, EUB. Listed in Miller 
(1978). 

Hybomitra epistates (Osten Sacken). NEW STATE RECORD. 1 female collected from 
Spearfish, Lawrence County, is in the Nebraska State Museum (Lincoln). 

Hybomitra frontalis (Walker). 24 Aug. 1924, Brookings, Brookings County, GPS; 12 July 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 199 



1923, Lake Hendricks, Brookings County, HCS: 15 July 1946, Henry, Codington County, 
HCS; 19 July 1924, Custer, Custer County, H; 15 August 1924, Waubay, Day County, 
H; 16 July 1967, Dry Lake, Hamlin County, HUB; 30 June 1977, West River Beef 
Research Unit, Ft. Meade, Meade County; 12 July 1932, Onida, Sully County, GPS. 
McAlpine (1961) reported this species from numerous fresh water sloughs characterized by 
aspens or willows at 3 localities in the northeastern and one locality in the southwestern area 
of the state near the Nebraska state line. 

Hybomitra illota (Osten Sacken). 6 July 1982, 7 miles south of Brookings, Brookings 
County; 10 July 1976, Willow Lake, Clark County, PEC; 25 June 1967, Sieche Hollow, 
Roberts County, EUB. Cobb and Balsbaugh, Jr. (1976) reported this species from Clark 
and Kingsbury counties of eastern South Dakota. 

Hybomitra lasiophthalma(Macquart). 22 July 1924, Custer, Custer County, H. Reported 
by Miller (1978). 

Hybomitra opaca(Coqm\\ett). NEW STATE RECORD. 1 female, 30 June 1978, Antelope 
Range and Livestock Research Station, 10 mi. east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, Harding 
County. 

Hybomitra pediontis (McAlpine). 16 July 1978, Antelope Range and Livestock Research 
Station, 10 miles east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, Harding County. Adults and immatures are 
associated with alkaline sloughs. H. pediontis was first reported in this state by McAlpine 
( 1 96 1 ) in August and July from Henry, Codington County and Gettysburg, Potter County. 

Hybomitra rhombica rhombica (Osten Sacken). 17 July 1932, Custer, Custer County, 
FRB; 4 August 1967, Crooks Tower Lake, Lawrence County, EUB. Reported by Miller 
(1978). 

Hybomitra rupestris (McDunnough). Custer, Custer County H. Reported by Miller ( 1 978). 

Hybomitra tetrica hirtula (Bigot). 22 June 1924, Custer, Custer County, H; 28 June 1977; 
West River Beef Research Unit, Ft. Meade, Meade County. Recorded originally from 
South Dakota by Philip (1965). 

Genus Tabanus Linnaeus 

Tabaus atratus Fabricius. 29 June 1 923, Newell Butte County; 28 July 1 940, Belle Fourche. 
Butte County, NPL; 24 July 1937, Gary, Deuel County, NCS; 25 August 1925, Faulkton, 
Faulk County, NCS; 1 1 July 1938, Estelline, Hamlin County, HCS; 17 July 1947, Pierre, 
Hughes County, HCS; August 1941, Wessington Springs, Jerauld County, HCS; 18 July 
1933, Lead, Lawrence County; 17 August 1931, Canton, Lincoln County, HCS; 9 August 
1 92 1 , Wood, Mellette County; July 1 980, Soiux Falls, Minnehaha County, SM; 1 7 July 
1939, Flandreau, Moody County, HCS; 7 Sept. 1979, 9 miles south of Brookings, Moody 
County; 1 July 1948, Sisseton, Roberts County, HCS; 12 August 1922, Witten, Tripp 
County; 17 July 1921, Parker, Turner County: 11 August 1980, Centerville, Turner 
County, JG. Reported by Miller (1978). 

T. atratus, as a pest of livestock, is the largest fly in the state however, numbers of this 
species are not particularly high in any area. Manitoba or black-ball traps do not 
particularly attract this species. 

Tabanus lineola Fabricus. NEW STATE RECORD. 1 specimen from Yankton, Yankton 
County, collected by J. Edman, is in the Nebraska State Museum. 

Tabanus marginalis Fabricus. NEW STATE RECORD. 1 female, 6 August 1977, 
Cottonwood Range and Livestock Research Station, Jackson County. 

Tabanus orbicallus Philip. First reported in S. Dakota by Philip (1936) at Yankton in 
Yankton County, however, Easton ( 1982) reported it more recently in the western part of 
the state at Cottonwood in Jackson County. 

Tabanus puncttfer Osten Sacken. NEW STATE RECORD. 4 females, 15 July 1977, 10 
miles east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, Harding County; 4 July 1982, Spearfish, Lawrence 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



County; 1 July 1980, Presho, Lyman County; 30 June 1977, West River Beef Research 

Unit, Ft. Meade, Meade County. 
Tabanus quinquevittatus Wiedemann. 27 June 1924, Springfield, Bon Homme County. 

Listed originally from S. Dakota by Philip ( 1 965 ). 
Tabanus reinwardtii Wiedemann. 2 August 1924, Springfield, Bon Homme County, H; 

Antelope Range and Livestock Research Station, 10 miles east, 3 miles south of Buffalo, 

Harding County; 23 July 1969, Wood, Mellette County, HCS. 
Tabanus similis Macquart. 5 August 1967, LaCreek Lake Wildlife Ref., Bennett County, 

EUB; 25 June 1924, Springfield, Bon Homme County, H; 30 June 1923, Brookings, 

Brookings County, HCS; 16 June 1944, Hecla, Brown County, HCS; 25 August 1944, 
Chamberlain, Brule County, HCS; 29 June 1923, Newell, Butte County, HCS; 30 June 
1924, Lake Andes, Charles Mix County, H; 19 June 1974, Willow Lake, Clark County, 
PEC; 1 8 June, Mitchell, Davison County, HCS; 1 4 July 1951; Bristol, Day County, J AL; 
15 July 1945, Canning, Hughes County, HCS; 26 July 1948, Highmore, Hyde County, 
HCS; July 1977-83; 2 miles east of Cottonwood, Jackson County; 28 June 1941, 10 miles 
southwest of Spearfish, Lawrence County, NPL; 1 2 July 1 974, Fate Dam, Lyman County, 
PEC and EUB; 2 August 1967, Bear Butte, Meade County, EUB; 28 June 1977, West 
River Research Station, Meade County; 19 June 1924, Elk Point, Union County, H. Cobb 
and Balsbaugh (1976) reported this species from Day, Kingsbury and Spink Counties of 
eastern South Dakota. 

Tabanus stonei Philip. 1 1 July 1 94 1 , Belle Fourche, Butte County, NPL. Reported by Miller 
(1978). 

Abbreviations for collectors: BB, Bruce Baran; EUB, Edward U. Balsbaugh, Jr.; FRB, 
Fred R Bingham; LKB, Lynn K. Brunn; PEC, Philippe E. Cobb; JG, Joey Gednalske; H, 
H.C. Hallock; WH, William Horsfall; NPL, N.P. Larson; JAL, John A. Lofgren; SM, 
Stephen Munk; JR, Jerry Riedel; WMR, William M. Rogoff; HCS, Harry C. Severin; and 
GBS, G.B. Spawn. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to thank Dr. Richard H. Roberts (USDA, Gainesville, Florida) and 
Dr. John F. Burger (Department of Entomology, University of New Hampshire, Durham) for 
determining the species of Tabanidae collected by the author in this study. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cobb, P.E., and E.U. Balsbaugh, Jr. 1976. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Spink County, 

South Dakota. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 49: 514-520. 

Easton, E.R. 1982. Reduction of horse and deer flies on the Cottonwood Range and 

Livestock Experiment Station as a result of grazing. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 292-294. 

Jellison, W.L. 1 950. Tularemia geographical distribution of "deer fly fever" and the biting fly, 

Chrysops discalis Williston. Public Health Reports. 65: 1321-1329. 
McAlpine, J.F. 1961. Variation, distribution and evolution of the Tabanus (Hybomitra) 

frontalis complex of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Canad. Ent. 93: 894-924. 
Miller, E.L. 1978. A checklist of the Diptera in the South Dakota State University Insect 

Collection. I. Suborders Nematocera and Brachycera. Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 57: 32-45. 
Philip, C.N. 1936. Tabanus rhombicus and related western horse flies. Canad. Ent. 

68: 148-160. 
Philip. C.N. 1965. Family Tabanidae, In A. Stone. C.W. Sabrosky, W.W. Wirth, RH. 

Foote and J.R. Coulson. A Catalog of the Diptera of America, North of Mexico. ARS, 

USDA Agric. Handbook No. 276. pp. 319-342. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 201 

PREY- STALKING BEHAVIOR OF A THOMISID 

SPIDER, XYSTICUS CALIFORNICUS 
KEYSERLING (ARANEAE: THOMISIDAE) 1 

Roy R. Snelling 2 

ABSTRACT: The thomisid spider,Xysticus californicus Keyserling, was seen to deliberately 
stalk and capture individuals of the ant, Veromessorchicoensis M. Smith, at three localities in 
northern California. 

Xysticus (X.) californicus Keyserling is a common crab spider that 
ranges from British Columbia to southern California (Schick, 1965). While 
many thomisids secrete themselves in flowers to await potential prey, 
others actively pursue their prey (Gertsch, 1939). Xysticus californicus is 
one such active predator. Within a period of a few days, I was able to 
observe the stalking behavior of this spider at three different sites in 
northern California. 

The first observation site was situated along State Highway 32, 4.4 
miles east of its junction with U.S. Highway 99 in the city of Chico, Butte 
County. This site, at an elevation of about 1100 feet, is oak woodland 
grading into chaparral. In early evening, 18 June 1979, alate females and 
males of the harvester ant, Veromessor chicoensis M. Smith, were 
emerging from nests for mating flights. Individuals of both sexes usually 
climbed up nearby grass blades and took flight shortly thereafter. A few, 
especially males, milled about on the soil surface amidst the many workers. 
At 1940 hours PST, an adult female of X. californicus was seen at about 10 
cm from the periphery of the area occupied by the milling group of ants. She 
slowly approached to within 3 or 4 cm of the group, near a quiescent male 
ant. After hesitating for a few seconds, the spider rushed up to the ant, seized 
it and retreated into the grass, climbed a few cm up a grass stem and began 
feeding. 

Several meters away, at another nest, much the same procedure was 
utilized by another X. californicus female. The ant initially attacked, 
however, was a large worker. The ant responded to the approaching spider 
by adopting a threatening posure, facing the spider, with gaping mandibles. 
The spider immediately withdrew a few cm along the periphery of the area 
occupied by the ants. She then successfully attacked another smaller 
worker and disappeared into a clump of grass. 

The second site was in Tehama County along State Highway 36, 



'Received May 7, 1983. Accepted June 24, 1983. 

2 Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles, 
California 90007. 

ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 201 203 November & December 1983 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



approximately 5.8 miles northeast of the junction with U.S. Highway 99. 
This site, at an elevation of about 550 feet, now consists of open grassland 
with scattered live oaks. Observations here were made late in the afternoon 
on 22 June 1979. A foraging column of the harvester ant was crossing the 
pavement of old Highway 36. At 1905 hours PST, an adult female of X. 
californicus approached the file of ants and halted about 4 cm away. After a 
few minutes, the column of ants thinned momentarily; the spider darted 
forward, seized an isolated ant and rapidly retreated about 10 cm. There she 
halted a few seconds and then moved at a more leisurely pace into a small 
clump of grass. 

A final observation was made on 24 June 1979 along Neal Road, about 
6.1 miles northeast of its junction with U.S. Highway 99, Butte County. 
This site was a grassy clearing in chaparral, at an elevation of about 1000 
feet. An adult female of X. californicus approached a foraging column of V. 
chicoensis at 1932 hours PST and took an isolated worker ant from the 
column. 

During the period in June when these observations were made, foraging 
columns and mating flights of another Veromessor, V. andrei (Mayr), were 
also studied. This is a larger species of ant than V. chicoensis (the sexual 
forms are much larger) and has monomorphic workers, rather than 
polymorphic workers. X. californicus never attacked or approached V. 

andrei, although both ant species occupied the same sites and have similar 
periods of activity. Possibly the larger size of V. andrei is a deterrent to 
predation. 

Veromessor workers lack a functional sting, but, when disturbed, emit a 
somewhat foul-smelling liquid from the gastric apex. Their powerful 
mandibles, used to crush seeds, are capable of inflicting serious damage to 
other anthropods. V. andrei, by virtue of its larger size and correspondingly 
more powerftil mandibles, probably is a more formidable opponent than V. 
chicoensis. It seems possible, then, that some individuals of X. californicus 
may by able to discriminate between the two ant species. 

According to MacKay (1982), another thomisid, Misumenops 
californicus (Banks), preys upon foraging workers of another harvesting 
ant, Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery, capturing the ants in vegetation 
around nests. Holldobler (1976) observed M. coloradensis Gertsch 
capture resting females of Pogonomyrmex spp. MacKay (1982) mentions 
that Xysticus sp. preys primarily or exclusively upon Pogonomyrmex 
rugosus. Neither of the authors comments on spider foraging behavior. 

It would be interesting to learn more about the prey preferences, if any, 
of individuals of X. californicus. The specimens I observed seemed to be 
performing a routine procedure. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 203 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I wish to thank Dr. J.H. Redner for the identification of the crab spider. Thanks are due 
also the several reviewers of this note. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Gertsch, W.J. 1939. A revision of the typical crab-spiders (Misumeninae) of America north 

of Mexico. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 76: 277-442. 
Holldobler, B. 1976. The behavioral ecology of mating in harvester ants (Hymenoptera: 

Formicidae: Pogognomyrmex). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1: 405-423. 
MacKay, W.P. 1 982. The effect of predation of western widow spiders ( Araneae: Theridiidae) 

on harvester ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Oecologia 53: 406-411. 
Schick, R.X. 1965. The crab spiders of California (Araneida, Thomisidae). Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. 129: 1-180. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 59 20 July, 1983 

The following Opinions have been published by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, vol. 40. part 2, on 15 
July, 1983: 

Opinion No. 

1247 (p. 77) Dactylopius Costa, (Nov. 1829) and PseudococcusWeslwood, 1840(Insecta, 

Homoptera): designation of type species. 

1248 (p. 81) Lethocerus Mayr, 1853 (Insecta, Hemiptera): conserved. 

1250 (p. 85) Gvro/n'prcws Samouelle, 1819, ex Leach MS, Xantholinus Dejean, 1821, ex 
Dahl, and Othius Stephens, 1829, ex Leach MS (Insecta, Coleoptera): type 
species designated for these genera. 

1255 (p. 97) Lespesia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Diptera, Tachinidae): designation of 
type species. 



The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 



R.V. MELVILLE. 
Secretary 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

PERISSOPHLEBIODES, A REPLACEMENT NAME 

FOR PERISSOPHLEBIA SAVAGE NEC TILLYARD 

(EPHEMEROPTERA: LEPTOPHLEBIIDAE) 1 

Harry M. Savage^ 

ABSTRACT: A new generic name, Perissophlebiodes, is proposed for Perissophlebia 
Savage nee Tillyard (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae). A misspelling of 
Perissophlebia Tillyard (Odonata: Anisozygoptera) is noted. 

Recently, Savage ( 1 982) established a new genus, Perissophlebia, for a 
curious new species of mayfly, P. flint i, from the southern coastal mountains 
of Brazil. Previously, Tillyard (1918) had established Perissophlebia 
based upon a fossil wing fragment placed as Odonata incertae sedis from 
the Triassic Ipswich Fossil Bed in Queensland, Australia. Perissophlebia 
Tillyard was recently placed as Anisozygoptera incertae sedis in Rohdendorf s 
(1962) treatment of the fossil Odonata. Perissophlebia Tillyard was 
misspelled as Periassophlebia by Rohdendorf ( 1962), and this misspelling 
was repeated by Hennig (1969). 

Perissophlebia Savage is a junior homonym of Perissophlebia Tillyard; 
therefore, I propose the replacement name Perissophlebiodes for Peris- 
sophlebia Savage. 

Etymology, perissos, Gr., meaning odd, extraordinary; phlebos, Gr., vein, a common 
stem within the Leptophlebiidae; -odes, Gr., suffix denoting likeness; masculine. 

Type-species: Perissophlebia flinti Savage = Perissophlebiodes flinti (Savage) NEW 
COMBINATION. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hennig, W. 1969. Die Stammesgeschichte der Insekten. W. Kramer, Frankfurt. 436 pp. 
Rohdendorf, B.B. 1962. Otryad Odonata. Strekozi. pp. 73-85. In Rohdendorf, B.B., Osnovi 

Paleontologii, v. 9, Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow. 560 pp. (in Russ.) 
Savage, H.M. 1982. A curious new genus and species of Atalophlebiinae (Ephemeroptera: 

Leptophlebiidae) from the southern coastal mountains of Brazil. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 

Environ. 17: 209-217. 
Tillyard, R.J. 1918. Mesozoic insects of Queensland. No. 3. Odonata and Protodonata. Proc. 

Linn. Soc. New South Wales 43: 417-436. 



1 Received June 23, 1983. Accepted July 16, 1983. 

Department of Entomology, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32307. 



ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 204 November & December 1983 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 205 

MOUNTING AND PRESERVING NEUROPTERA 
FOR SCIENTIFIC STUDY 1 2 

Charles W. Agnew^ 

ABSTRACT: Proper techniques for mounting and preserving adult specimens of Neuroptera 
are described. All neuropterans should be pinned or pointed except the Coniopterygidae, 
which are best preserved in alcohol. Summaries of special mounting practices for each family 
are provided. Procedures for preparing genitalia for study are also discussed. 

Authors of publications dedicated to proper techniques for mounting 
and preserving insects have generally assigned methods of preservation to 
groups of insects based on body size and structure without regard to 
important taxonomic characters of individual families. Generalizations 
within certain orders such as Neuroptera, with its widely varied forms, have 
proved unsatisfactory and usually vary with authors. Consequently, 
specimens of a single taxon within a large collection may be preserved in a 
variety of ways due to confusion or disagreement of collectors as to the best 
techniques. 

Members of each family possess certain characters important for their 
determinations to species. Any specimen should be preserved to: 1 ) best 
retain and allow examination of important characters with a minimum of 
future manipulation; 2) reduce the likelihood of breakage; and 3) facilitate 
incorporation into a large permanent collection for future study. The best 
techniques often require a compromise of these considerations. 

This paper deals specifically with the best methods for mounting and 
preserving Nearctic species of Neuroptera. There seldom is unanimous 
agreement as to which methods should be employed. This paper is a 
compilation of ideas with the purpose of identifying inferior practices, 
suggesting which techniques are superior and providing alternatives when 
no consensus exists. 

METHODS AND MATERIALS 

The fact that most Neuroptera tend either to shrivel or discolor when 
dried has prompted many collectors to opt for alcoholic preservation of 
specimens. One advantage of alcohol is that specimens remain soft and 



1 Received February 10, 1983. Accepted July 5, 1983. 

2 Approved for publication as TA 18334 by Director, Texas Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

-'Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843. 
ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 205 212 November & December 1983 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



flexible, thus reducing breakage problems associated with fragile insects 
such as neuropterans. Another advantage is that broken parts remain 
associated with the specimen. Generally, however, dried specimens retain 
all important taxonomic characters and usually require less trouble to 
maintain than those in alcohol. Most neuropterists find it easier to work with 
pinned material. Even liquid-preserved specimens are often difficult to 
manipulate and wing tearing or antennal breakage can result. In addition, 
coloration nearly always fades in alcohol (for example, Chrysopidae), 
although color usually is of limited importance in taxonomic studies. 
Occasionally, neuropterists will retain a few specimens of certain groups in 
alcohol when collecting a series, but pinning (or pointing) remains the 
general preference. 

Some collectors use glassine envelopes for storing larger forms such as 
ascalaphids or myrmeleontids. Envelopes allow more compact storage 

and help keep broken parts from being lost without the disadvantage of 
fading caused by alcohol; however, they are not recommended except for 
temporary storage before spreading. Specimens so preserved are often 
difficult to examine and breakage is frequently a problem. The fact that 
alcohol, envelope, and pinned collections must be maintained separately is 
inconvenient. In the interest of standarization, pinning or pointing neurop- 
terans should be the general rule with the exception of the Coniopterygidae. 
The latter should be stored in alcohol. 

Materials needed for mounting and preserving Neuroptera are basically 
simple. For a detailed treatment of general collecting and mounting 
techniques, see Martin ( 1977). There is disagreement regarding which sizes 
of pins to use. Most neuropterists use sizes no. 1 to 3; however, some prefer 
the use of size to 00 pins for more delicate forms in order to reduce damage 
to the thorax and the need for double-mounting or pointing. The main 
disadvantages of thin pins are: they are only practical for foam pinning 
surfaces; they tend to bend easily; and their springing action, if flipped, can 
cause destruction of the specimen. For these reasons, and the fact that 
characters of the mesothorax are seldom important, I do not recommend 
specimens be pinned directly with anything smaller than a no. 1 . A good 
rule is to use the largest pin that will not cause damage to the specimen. 

For small specimens that are too delicate to be pinned, there are two 
alternatives: double-mounting and pointing. Double mounting, using a 
minuten pin through a strip of polyporous material (pith), is preferred. 
When pointing, the right side of the specimen is glued to the paper point 
which has been bent at the tip. The disadvantage of this technique is that 
specimens often break loose and become damaged, lost or cannot be 
associated with proper labels. One should use a sufficient amount of glue for 
a good bond and affix the point to the thorax of the specimen rather than to 
the wing. Specimens bonded at the wing alone tear loose more frequently 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 207 



leaving only the forewing attached. 

A styrofoam block is useful for support during drying, or a grooved 
spreading board is useful when the spreading of wings is desired. Specimens 
can also be dried in a box placed in the vertical position. This eliminates the 
need for support and allows the abdomens to dry parallel to the pinning 
bottom. 

A few general rules should be followed when mounting Neuroptera. It is 
preferable to pin freshly collected material. Relaxing dried neuropterans 
should be avoided, when possible, to prevent wings from sticking together and 
loss of color. When mounting, care should be taken that wings and antennae 
do not dry in a position where they might be broken by subsequent handling 
of the specimen. Bending the head and antenna downward before drying, 
and the use of pins securing the wings will prevent this. It is also important 
not to allow the wings to dry in a position too close to the abdomen so that 
removal of terminal abdominal segments is difficult. 



Special Instructions 

The Hemerobiidae are usually too small to be pinned directly with 
anything except the smallest size pins. It is recommended that they be 
double-mounted. Because examination of external male genitalia is sufficient to 
determine most species, it is desirable to pull out at least one pair of wings to 
allow a better view of the abdomen. This procedure also allows examination 
of hindwing characters which sometimes aid in determinations. It can be 
easily accomplished by pulling out the wings individually with a pin beneath 
the wing and securing them in place as illustrated in Fig. 1. A spreading 
board can also be used for drying the wings flat. Double-mounting should be 
done before embedding the minuten in the strip. When using paper points, 
allow the glue to set with the specimen supported on a block of styrofoam, 
then pull the left pair of wings away from the body and secure with pins. If 
spreading the wings flat is desired, this can be done in a grooved board after 
the glue dries. If the specimen dies with the wings in an upstroke position, 
some manipulation of the wings may be necessary in order to allow forewing 
characters to be seen. 

Most Chrysopidae are large enough to be pinned directly with no. 1 
pins. Because wings are transparent, it is seldom necessary that they be 
spread, but it may be advantageous for several specimens of a series or for 
uncommon species. Wing venation is used extensively as a taxonomic 
character at the generic level, but male genitalia, which are primarily 
internal, are the most important for specific (and some generic) determina- 
tions. Markings of the head and body are also used to a great degree but 
variation can make them unreliable characters. 



208 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fig. 1 . Double-mounted hemerobiid. 

If preserving chrysopids in alcohol is necessary, it should be noted that 
color markings, especially reds and oranges, often fade completely and some 
dark veins in the wing may become pale. This can cause confusion when 
attempting determinations. 

It should be noted that chrysopid genitalia do not fully develop and 
sclerotize until a few days after emergence. For this reason, it may be wise 
to hold live specimens for a few days if genitalic examinations are desired. 
This is essential for reared material. 

The Sisyridae are small and should always be double-mounted or 
pointed. The few North American species of this family can be separated by 
characters of the forewing. Still, genitalia of both sexes are usually 
diagnostic so it is suggested these insects be mounted like Hemerobiidae 
(wings partially spread). 

The Mantisipidae are usually large enough to be pinned directly. The 
wings may be spread if desired, but wing venation is seldom used for 
determinations. Mantisipid taxonomy is in need of revision, thus important 
diagnostic characters have not been identified in some cases. Color patterns 
are important in determining Mantispinae (Redborg 1982), while male 
genitalia are used in Platymantispinae (Rehn 1939). The only special 
mounting consideration might be to spread the forelegs so that setal patterns 
are easily seen. 

The Myrmeleontidae are among the largest Neuroptera and can create 
spatial problems if wings are fully spread. Stange ( 1 970) prefers pining ant- 
lions with wings held rooflike over the body and recommends against use of 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



209 



a stabilizing pin to prevent loss of the abdomen. I have found that spreading 
the right pair of wings slightly out from the body (Fig. 2) allows easier 
examination of the important hindwing without sacrificing much additional 
space. This can be done with a grooved spreading board, a block of 
styrofoam or by the use of pins in a box. Some workers prefer the right pair 
of wings spread at right angles, primarily for aesthetic reasons. 

The Ascalaphidae are the most robust Neuroptera and no. 3 pins can 
always be used. As with ant-lions, specimens require more space in 
collections if wings are spread. Moreover, their long antennae are easily 
broken if left to dry while extended away from the body, thus, wings should 
be held over the body and antennae pulled back as in Fig. 3. This practice 
can reduce space requirements by about one-half. The six recognized 
Neartic species can usually be separated without difficulty and the visibility 
of characters is not a problem in this group. 

The Coniopterygidae is the only group best preserved in alohol. Pinned 
material is much more difficult to determine and removal of terminalia for 
genitalic examination is always required. In alcohol, the characteristic 
whitish coat of wax covering the insect is lost, but this proves to be an 





Fig. 2. Suggested method of mounting 
myrmeleontids. 



Fig. 3. Suggested method of mounting 
ascalaphids. 



210 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



advantage since removal of the wax facilitates interpretation of veins which 
can aid in placing specimens to genus. Specimens in alcohol can be 
manipulated to allow examination of the hindwing and external genitalia of 
the male, which can sometimes be diagnostic without having to be cleared in 
KOH. This may prove unreliable unless one has experience with the group, 
but is time-saving if many specimens are to be examined. Females, for the 
most part, lack sclerotized structures (except in the Aleuropteryx) and 
cannot be determined to species unless associated with males. 

There are a few lesser-known families of Neuroptera that are not often 
encountered by collectors. The Berothidae are similar to Hemerobiidae but 
can usually be pinned successfully with no. 1 pins. The shape, venation, and 
markings of the forewing along with internal genitalia are the most 
important characters. Spreading of wings is recommended since these 
insects are not usually common. 

The Dilaridae are rare in collections, partially because they resemble 
small moths and are overlooked. The two Nearctic species of this group are 
easily separated by wing venation and geographic range. They are delicate 
insects and should be double-mounted. 

Our few species of Polystoechotidae and Ithonidae are large and can be 
pinned without any problem. They all have distinctive forewings and 
spreading is unnecessary for determination. 

Sometimes considered as part of the Neuroptera are the Megaloptera 
(Corydalidae and Sialidae) and the Raphidioptera (Raphidiidae and 
Inocelliidae. These insects should be pinned. It might be necessary to examine 
the hindwing of some Corydalidae to be able to work certain keys, but on the 
whole, no special procedures are needed. The genitalia remain the most 
important characters in making determinations, especially in Sialidae. 

There are several exotic families not considered here. A basic rule is to 
pin or point everything except Coniopterygidae. If there are external 
genitalic structures, their view should be unobstructed by wings and if the 
forewing is not wholly transparent, some degree of spreading may be 
necessary to see hindwing characters. Also keep in mind the risk of 
breakage and conservation of space. 

Genitalia Preparation 

Accurate identification of most neuropterans to species often requires 
examination of genitalic structures, usually of the male. In some cases, the 
last few abdominal segments must be removed and treated in a 10% 
solution of KOH^ to dissolve internal tissue and clear the abdominal wall 



^Bram and Bickley (1963) used a 15% KOH solution to clear chrysopid genitalia (boiling for 
13 minutes) while Meinander used a 5% solution for Coniopterygidae). 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 211 



for examination of internal sclerotized structures. The time of treatment 
depends largely on size of the specimen and temperature of the solution. 
The clearing procedure will usually take about 24 hours in a room 
temperature solution (Tauber 1969). The smaller Coniopterygidae require 
less time, about 2-10 hours (Johnson 1980). A hot or boiling solution of 
KOH greatly reduces the time required for clearing. Dr. Phillip Adams 
(pers. comm.) recommends about 5 minutes for chrysopids. Martin (1977) 
recommended bringing the solution short of an actual boil to prevent 
possible damage. To eliminate this risk, a small beaker with KOH and 
genitalia can be placed inside a larger beaker of water. The water boils, 
heating the KOH without damaging setae. 

After the abdomen has been cleared, it is usually desirable to flush out 
any remaining residue using a small (27 gauge) hypodermic syringe (Bram 
and Bickley ( 1 963). After flushing, terminalia should be rinsed in distilled 
water. Sometimes structures may be everted for better viewing with a strong 
flush with a syringe (Tauber 1969) or with forceps for large forms such as 
myrmeleontids (Stange 1970). 

Staining is often desirable in order to better discern the internal 
structures. Dr. Adams' method (pers. comm.) requires injecting the cleared 
abdomen with 5% 5 chlorazol black E aqueous solution and rinsing in 
distilled water. The specimen is placed in glycerine for viewing with 
glycerine being injected into the abdomen. A fine needle is used to apply the 
stain. For best results, the tip should be nicked, broken off square and the 
edges rounded with Arkansas stone. 

Some workers mount genitalia on slides, but they should be preserved in 
glycerine-filled microvials (known as genitalia vials) and pinned with the 
specimen or placed in the vial of alcohol (silicone stoppers preferred). 
Mounting genitalia on slides does not allow manipulation to view dorsal or 
ventral aspects and they usually must be dissolved off slides for critical 
examination. 

Female genitalia are not extensively used in most groups for species 
determinations. Usually structures are not sclerotized and while some are 
diagnostic, they are difficult to interpret. Structures such as spermatheca, 
copulatory bursa or subgenital plate have been used in some groups. 
Stange's 1970 revision of the brachynemurine ant-lions uses digging setae 
and posterior gonapophysis in the keys. 

Larvae 

Larvae of Nearctic species of Neuroptera are poorly known and 
represent a challenge for future workers. In some groups such as the 
Coniopterygidae, larvae of very few species have been described, while 
others such as Chrysopidae are better known. 

5 Some workers recommend a 1% solution to reduce the risk of overstaining, noting that 
destaining with Clorox * is possible, but hard on specimens. 



2 1 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Larval stages should be treated in KAAD (Peterson 1959) and 
preserved in 80-90% alcohol (ethyl or isopropyl). Dr. Catherine Tauber 
(pers. comm.) recommended treating chrysopids and hemerobiids for 20 
minutes while Stange (1970) treated myrmeleontid larvae for about 24 
hours. Henry ( 1 976) discussed a method for clearing ascalaphid larvae for 
study. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I would like to thank Drs. P.A. Adams, H.R. Burke, J.E. Eger, R.S. Peigler, K.E. 
Redborg, L.A. Stange and C.A. Tauber for their contributions to this manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bram, R.A., and W.E. Bickley. 1963. The green lacewings of the genus Chn'sopa in 

Maryland (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Univ. Maryland Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. A-124: 1- 

18. 
Henry, C.S. 1976. Some aspects of the external morphology of larval owlflies (Neuroptera: 

Ascalaphidae), with particular reference to Ululodes and Ascaloptvnx. Psyche. 83: 1- 

31. 
Johnson, V. 1980. Review of the Coniopterygidae (Neuroptera) of North America with a 

revision of the genus Aleuropteryx. Psyche 87: 259-98. 
Martin, J.E. H. 1977. The insects and archnids of Canada Part 1: Collecting, preparing, and 

preserving insects, mites and spiders. Biosystematics Res. Inst. Ottawa, Ontario 

1643: 182 pp. 
Meinander, M. 1972. A revision of the family Coniopterygidae (Planipennia). Acta Zool. 

Fennica 136: 1-357. 
Peterson, A. 1959. A manual of entomological techniques. How to work with insects. 9th ed. 

Edward Brothers Inc. Ann Arbor, Mich. 435 pp. 
Redborg, K.E. 1982. Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) parasitic on spider egg sacs: an 

update of a pioneering paper by B.J. Kaston. J. Arachnol. 10: 92-3. 
Rehn, J.W.H. 1939. Studies in North American Mantispidae (Neuroptera). Trans. Amer. 

Entomol. Soc. 65: 237-63. 
Stange, L.A. 1970. Revision of the ant-lion tribe Brachynemurini of North America 

(Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 55:1-192. 
Tauber, C.A. 1969. Taxonomy and biology of the lacewing genus Meleoma (Neuroptera: 

Chrysopidae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 58: 1-94. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 213 



PARAPHROSYLUS PRAEDATOR AND 

P. NIGRIPENNIS, NEW TO WASHINGTON, 

WITH NOTES ON THE GENUS (DIPTERA: 

DOLICHOPODIDAE) ^ 

Larry D. Corpus-* 

ABSTRACT: Adult Paraphrosylus praedator (Wheeler), P. nigripennis (Van Duzee), and 
P. direptor(Van Duzee) were collected from Freshwater Bay, Clallam County, Washington, 
This represents the first report of P. praedator and P. nigripennis occurring within the state. 
Habitat preferences of the 3 species are described. 



Paraphrosylus Becker, originally proposed as a subgenus otAphrosylus 
Haliday (Becker 1922) later considered a synonym ofAphrosylus (Foote 
et al., 1965; Cole 1969) is presently considered a valid genus (Robinson and 
Vockeroth 1981). Paraphrosylus contains 8 species (Van Duzee 1924; 
Harmston 1951, 195 2) found in the western Nearctic region. Collection of 
adult Diptera, at low tide, from a beach in Freshwater Bay, 22.5 km west of 
Port Angeles, Clallam County, Washington on 23 May 1981 yielded 3 
species of Paraphrosylus. Six males and 6 female Paraphrosylus praedator 
(Wheeler), 4 male and 3 female adults of P. nigripennis (Van Duzee), and 
4 male and 3 female adults of P. direptor(Van Duzee) were collected. The 
finding of P. praedator and P. nigripennis represents new records for 
Washington state. 

Prior collection records for P. praedator list various California 
locations from La Jolla in the south to Bodega Bay in the north (Wheeler 
1897; Cole 1969) and Departure Bay in British Columbia (Saunders 
1928). P. nigripennis has been recorded from Seaward, Alaska (Van 
Duzee 1924) and Waldport, Oregon (Cole 1969). Cole incorrectly 
indicated Waldport as being in Washington. P. direptor has been collected 
from Pacific Grove in California, and Ilwaco, Pacific County, Washington 
(Cole 1969). Specimens of the latter two species, in the James Entomological 
Collection at Washington State University, are from Seaview, Pacific 
County, Washington (Fig. 1). 

Adults were collected during low tide, between 1000 and 1 1 30 hours, 
by sweep netting close to the shaded regions of rocks covered with Fucus 



Deceived February 12, 1983. Accepted July 25, 1983. 

^Scientific Paper Number 6454, Washington State University, College of Agriculture 
Research Center, Pullman. Work done under Project 0037. 

'Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6432. 
ENT. NEWS, 94(5) 213-215 November & December 1983 



214 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



sp. This alga is found in abundance along the beach (Fig. 2). Adults seemed 
to congregate only about the Fucus, since intensive sweeps and disturbance 
of other beach debris and seaweed wrack yielded only coelopid and 
ephydrid adults. This may be an indication that members ofParaphrosylus 
prefer to congregate on and may be attracted to Fucus. 

Wheeler (1897) and Saunders (1928) described the larvae and pupae 
of P. praedator, and indicated that the immatures were found in the algae 
growing on beach rocks. A thorough search of the Fucus at Freshwater Bay 
failed to provide immatures, but continued investigations should eventually 
result in other life stages of these species being found here. 



F.iSw 

Savl* * llwaca 
3 woklpo.i 



<3> Forollao Il 

ific G 
Point lobo, 

La JoMa 
1 Point L 




Fig. 1. Collection localities of Paraphrosylus in Washington, Oregon and California. 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



215 




Fig. 2. Specific collection sites ofParaphrosylus from shaded portions ofFucus covered rocks 
(arrows). 



LITERATURE CITED 

Becker, T. 1922, Dipterologishe Studien. Dolichopodidae. B. Nearktische und neotropische 

Region. Zool. - Bot. Gessel, Wien, Abhandl. 13: 1-394. 

Cole, F.R. 1969. The flies of western North America. Univ. Calif. Press: Berkeley, 693 p. 
Foote, R.H., J.R. Coulson, and H. Robinson, 1965. Family Dolichopodidae. p. 482-530. 

In: A. Stone et al. A catalog of Diptera of America North of Mexico. USDA Agr. Hndbk. 

276. 1969 p. 
Harmston, F.C. 1951. New species of Dolichopodidae from California and Utah (Diptera). 

Great Basin Nat. 11: 11-17. 

. 1952. New species of Dolichopodidae in the U.S. National Museum. Proc. Ent. 

Soc. Wash. 54: 281-294. 
Robinson, H. and J.R. Vockeroth. 1981. Dolichopodidae. p. 625-639. In: J. McAlpine et 

al. A manual of the Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1 . Biosystematics Research Institute, Monogr 

27. Ottawa. 674. p. 
Saunders, L.G. 1928. Some marine insects of the Pacific coast of Canada. Ann. Ent. Soc. 

Am. 21: 521-545. 
Van Duzee, M.C. 1924. North American species of Paraphrosvlus Becker, a subgenus of 

Aphrosylus Walker, Pan-Pac. Ent. 1: 73-78. 
Wheeler, W.M. 1897. A genus of maritime Dolichopodidae new to America. Proc. Cal. 

Acad. Sci. Ser. 3. 1: 145-152. 



216 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



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Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



217 



INDEX: VOLUME 94 



Acari, 31, 103, 139, 191 

A.E.S. meetings, 20, 48, 54, 105, 106 

A.E.S. 125th anniversary notice, 105 

Agnew, C.W., 205 

Mounting & preserving Neuroptera for 
scientific study 

Alloperla, 55 

Amblvomma maculatum, gulf coast tick, 
103 

Amaletus cryptostimulus, 47 

Amphipoea velata attacking corn in Md., 
101 

Amrine, J.W., Jr., L. Butler, 101 

Amphipoea velata attacking corn in 
Md. 

Announcements, 6, 14, 24, 40, 46, 80, 85, 
105, 107 

Arachnida, 31, 49, 103, 139, 201 
Araneae, 201 

Arthropods from saw-whet owl nest in Ct., 
60 

Asheum, replacement name in Chironomidae, 

34 

Auplopus carbonarius, spider wasp new to 
U.S., notes on, 29 



Baetisca rubescens record in W. Va., 141 

Betz, B.W., 152 

Biol. of Trichadentotecnum alexanderae, 
its habitat, life stages & events 

Bombyliidae, 25 
Book review, 159 

Books received & briefly noted, 92, 100, 
102, 106, 116, 130, 135, 140, 142, 
159, 160 

Bousquet, Y., 95 

Bowen, T.W., 35 

New records of Ceratopogonidae from 
No. Carolina 

Brachvdeutera, notes on, from No. Amer., 

177 

Burke, H.R., 37 
Butler, L., 101 



Calabrese, D.M., 145 
Callipodida, 1 1 
Caspiopetalidae, 1 1 
Cerambycidae, 7 
Cerceris, 45 
Ceratopogonidae, 35 

Chalvbion californicum aggregation in a 
bell, 145 

Checklist of beetles, announcement, 107 
Chironomidae, 34, 109 
Chloroperlidae, 55 
Cicadellidae, 89, 127, 187 

Cicindela speculans, redescrip. of & rela- 
tionship to other neotropical Cicindela, 
81 

Clausen, P.J., 33 

Two new synonyms ofEutaenionotum 
guttipennis 

Coleoptera, 7, 37, 81, 97, 161 

Corpus, L.D., 213 

Paraphrosylus praedator & P. 
nigripennis, new to Washington, with 
notes on genus 

Corydalidae. 15 

Cultural entomology, commentaries in, an 
ent. explanation of Ezekiel's wheels, 

73 

Curculionidae, 37 
Cydnidae, 176 



Davic. R.D., 47 

So. range ext. of Ameletus 
cryptostimulus 

Deer & horse flies of So. Dakota, new state 
records & annotated checklist, 196 

DeLong, D.M. 

N. sp. & distrib. of Mexican & Bolivian 
Idiodonus, 89 

N. sp. Loreta & Icaia from Bolivia & 
Peru, 127 

Delophon, new milliped of genus, from 
Miss., 1 1 

DeSimone, P., 60 



218 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Despins, J.L., 41 
Diplopoda, 1 1 

Diptera, 25, 33, 34, 35, 86, 109, 117, 122, 
177, 196, 213 

Dolichopodidae, 2 1 3 

Dominguez, E., M.L. Pescador, 21 

N. sp. of Penaphlebia from Argentina 

Dryinidae, 98 

Dunkle, S.W., 136 

New records of No. Amer. Odonata 



Easton, E.R. 

Ticks of So. Dakota, annotated check- 
list, 191 

Horse & deer flies of So. Dakota, 
new state records & annotated checklist, 
196 

Ellipes minutus in Ky., 99 

Enaphalodes rufulus, red oak borer in 
white oak, life history of, 7 

Ephemeroptera, 21, 47, 141, 204 
Ephydridae, 33, 177 
Eucinetidae, 97 
Euscaphurus saltator, 97 

Eutaenionotum guttipennis, two new 
synonyms of, 33 

Euxesta quaternaries biol. of., 122 

Evans, H.E., 45 

Nests & prey of two little known species 
of Cerceris 

Evenhuis, N.L., 25 

Obs. on territorality of Oligodranes 
mitis on flowers of Erigeron 
neomexicanus 

Ezekiel's wheels, entomological explanation, 
73 



Feminella, J., 55 

Flint, O.S., Jr., 15 

Nothochauliod.es penai, new genus & 
sp. of Megaloptera from Chile 

Formicidae, 143 

Freytag, P.H., 187 

New sp. Unerus from Honduras 



Froeschner, R.C., W.E. Steiner, Jr., 176 
Second record of So. Amer. burrowing 
bug, Scaptocoris castaneus in U.S. 



Galford, J.R, 7 

Life history of red oak borer, 
Enaphalodes rufulus in white oak 

Goddard, J., B.R. Norment, 

Geog. distrib. of gulf coast tick, 
Amblyomma maculatum, 103 
New record forlxodes texanus in Miss, 
with new host record, 1 39 

Goff, M.L., 31 
Gottfried, P.K., 109 



Hansen, R.W., E.A. Osgood, 147 

Insects visiting flowers of wild red 
raspberry in spruce-fir forested areas in 
eastern Maine 

Harris, S.C., 181 
Hemiptera, 131, 176 
Hoebeke, E.R., 86 

Hogue, C.L., 73 

Entomological explanation of Ezekiel's 
wheel 

Holman, R.E., 122 

Holmberg, R.G., E.G. Kokko, 49 
A blind Homolophus biceps 

Homolophus biceps, 49 
Homoptera, 89, 127, 187 

Horse & deer flies of So. Dakota, new state 
records & annotated checklist, 1 96 

Huryn, A.D., 93 

Descrip. of female Hydroptila 
jackmanni, with biol. notes 

Hydropsychidae, 18 

Hydroptila jackmanni, 93 
Hydroptilidae, 93, 181 
Hymenoptera, 29, 45, 98, 143, 145 



Icaia sp. from Bolivia, 127 

Idiodonus sp. from Mexico & Bolivia, 89 

Internat'l. Commiss. Zool. Nomenclature 
Announcements, 28, 30, 52, 108 



Vol. 94, No. 5, November & December 1983 



219 



Ixodidae, 103 



Kelly, R.E., L.E. Klostermeyer, 98 
New records of Dryinidae in Tenn. 

Kelley, R.W., S.C. Harris, 181 

New Hydroptilidae from Alabama & 
So. Carolina 

Klostermeyer, L.E., 98 
Kokko, E.G., 49 

Kondratieff, B.C., J.L. Despins, 41 

Seasonal flight pattern of Plecoptera, 
No. Otter Ck., Va. 

Kovarik, P., H.R. Burke, 37 

Sexual dimorphism of tarsal claws in 
anthonomine weevils 



Larson, O.R., 53 

No. Dakota Fleas: 2 new geog. records 
from northern flying squirrel 

Lepidoptera, 101 
Leptophlebiidae, 21, 204 

LeSage, L.Y. Bousquet, 95 

New record of attacks of Pedilus on 
Meloe 

Loreta from Bolivia & Peru, 127 
Lygaeidae, 131 



Mailing dates for 1983, 216 
Mathew, M.T., 122 

Mathis, W.W., 177 

Notes on Brachydeutera from No. 
Amer. 

Matthysse, J.G., 31 

Meloe, attacks on by Pedilus, 95 

Mingo, T.M., 65 

Annotated checklist of stoneflies in 
Maine 

Mounting & preserving Neuroptera for 
scientific study, 205 

Murray, R.R., 81 

Redescrip. of C. speculans & its relation- 
ship to other neotropical Cicindela 

Mutillidae, 143 



Neuroptera, 15, 205 

Nickle, D.A., 1 

New sp. pseudophylline katydid from 
Cocos Is., Costa Rica 

Noctuidae, 101 

Nolfo, S., 29 

Notes on Auplopus carbonarius, a 
spider wasp new to U.S. 

Norment, B.R., 103, 139 

Norrbom, A.L., 117 

Four acalyptrate Diptera reared from 
dead horseshoe crabs 

Nothochauliodes penai, n. genus & sp. of 
Megaloptera from Chile, 1 5 

Nugen, C.K., D.C. Tarter, 18 

Larval Hydropsyche & Smyphitopsyche 
records from West Va. 



Odonata, new No. Amer. records, 1 36 

OHgodranes mutis, obs. on territorality of, 
on flowers of Erigeron neomexicanus, 

25 

Opiliones, 49 
Orthoptera, 1, 99 
Osgood, E.A., 147 
Otitidae, 122 



Paraphrosylus praedator & P. nigripennis, 
new to Washington, with notes on 
genus, 213 

Parascopioicus binoditergus, n. sp. of 
katydid from Costa Rica 

Pechuman, L.L., E.R. Hoebeke, 86 

European Rhagionidae in eastern No. 
Amer. & records of newly discovered 
sp. 

Pedilus attacks on Meloe, 95 

Perissophlebiodes, replacement name for 
Perissophlebia, 204 

Pescador, M.L., 21 
Peltry, D.K., 141 
Phalangida, 49 

Philips, J.R., M. Root, P. DeSimone, 60 
Arthropods from saw-whet owl nest in 
Ct. 



220 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Phillippi, M.A., 99 

Occurrence of Ellipes minutus in Ky. 

Plecoptera, 41, 55, 65 
Pompiliidae, 29 
Psocoptera, 152 
Ptilodactyliae, 161 
Publisher's statement, 216 

Rhagionidae, 86 

Rochette, R.A., 97 

Lectotype desig. for Euscaphurus 
saltator 



Savage, H.M., 204 

Perissophlebiodes, replacement name 
for Perissophlebia 

Scaptocoris castaneus, 2nd record of So. 
Amer. burrowing bug in U.S. 

Schoenly, K., D.M. Calabrese, 145 

Aggregation ofChalybion californicum 
in a bell. 

Seasonal flight pattern of Plecoptera, No. 
Otter Cr., VA., 41 

Sexual dimorphism of tarsal claws in anthono- 
mine weevils, 37 

Shelley, R.M., 1 1 

New milliped of genus Delophon from 
Miss. 

Siphlonuridae, 47 
Siphonaptera, 53 
Smyphitopsyche, 18 

Snelling, R.R., 201 

Prey-stalking behavior of thomisid 
spider, Xysticus californicus 

Society (A.E.S.) meeting reports, 20, 48, 
54, 105, 106 

Spangler, P.J., 161 

Mature stages & biology of Tetraglossa 
palpalis 

Sphecidae, 45, 145 

Stark, B.P. K.W. Stewart, J. Feminella, 55 
New records & descrip's. ofAlloperla 
from Ozark - Ouachita region 

Steiner, W.E., Jr., 176 
Stewart, K.W., 55 



Stygnocoris rusticus, new No. Amer. 
records & distribution review, 1 3 1 

Sublette, J.E., & M., 34 

Asheum, replacement name in 
Chironomidae 



Tabanidae, 196 
Tarter, D.C., 18 

Tarter, D.C., D.K. Pettry, 141 

New record of mayfly Baetisca rubescens 
for West Va. 

Tennessen, K.J., P.K. Gottfried, 109 
Variation in structure of ligulaof Tany- 
podinae larvae 

Tetraglossa palpalis, immature stages & 
biology of, 161 

Tettigoniidae, 1 
Thomisidae, 201 

Ticks of So. Dakota, annotated checklist, 
191 

Trichadentotecnum alexanderae, biol. of, 
its habitat, life stages, & events, 152 

Trichoptera, 18, 93, 181 
Tridactylidae, 99 
Trombiculidae, 31 



Unerus, n. sp. from Honduras, 187 



Wheeler, A. G., Jr., 131 

Stygnocoris rusticus, new records in 
No. Amer., & distrib. review 

Wheeler, G.C.,, 143 

Mutillid mimic of an ant 

Whitaker, J.O., Jr., M.L. Goff, J.G. 

Matthysse, 31 

Chiggers from some small mammals 

from Nigeria 



Xysticus californicus, a thomisid spider, 
prey-stalking behavior of, 201 



Yoon, J.S., M.T. Mathew, R.E. Holman, 
122 
Biol. of Euxesta quatemaria 



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f! 



Vol. 9E 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
JANUARY Cr FEBRUARY 1984 No. 1 






ENT 



EWS 



New species of Prionus from Monahans Sandhills 
of western Texas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) 

F. T. Hovore, R.H Turnbow, Jr. 



1 



Range extension & emergence of subterranean nesting 
by German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica, in 
No. America (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) 

J.F. MacDonald, R.D. Akre 5 



Revised key to Idiodonus of Mexico & Bolivia 



(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 



Dwight M. DeLong 9 



New species of Troglopedetes from Guerrero, 
Mexico (Collembola: Paronellidae) 

M. Ojeda, J.G. Palacios-Vargas 16 



Helopicus rickeri, new stonefly from Tennessee 
(Plecoptera: Perlodidae) 



Bill P. Stark 21 



A new Mexican Epidamaeus (Oribatei: Damaeidae) 

J.G. Palacios-Vargas 23 

Notes on distribution of evaniid wasps in western 

No. America (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) Roy R. Smiling 27 

Ants (Crematogaster clara) nesting in bird boxes 
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

W.H. Davis, W.C. McComb, P. Allaire 29 

Indication of mounting media information 

R.D. Waltz, W.P. McCafferty 31 



Two undescribed fossil Dermaptera from 
Florissant, Colorado 



F. Martin Brown 33 



Does old world family Plat asp idae (Hemiptera) 

occur in North America? Richard C. Froeschner 36 



SOCIETY MEETING of November 16, 1983 



30 



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Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



A NEW SPECIES OF PRIONUS (HOMAESTHESIS) 

FROM THE MONAHANS SANDHILLS OF 

WESTERN TEXAS (COLEOPTERA: 

CERAMBYCIDAE) 12 

Frank T. Hovore^, Robert H. Turnbow, Jr.4 

ABSTRACT: Prionus (Homaesthesis) spinipennis is described as new from the Monahans 
Sandhills of western Texas. Comparisons are given for related and sympatric species, and the 
taxonomic parameters of the subgenus are re-examined. A key to species of Homaesthesis is 
provided. 

Prionus (Homaesthesis) arenarius Hovore, described (1981) from 
Monahans Sandhills State Park in western Texas, is one of several 
Homaesthesis species associated with sand dune habitats. During a visit to 
the Monahans dune system in August, 1982, R.H. Turnbow, Jr., and T.P. 
Friedlander collected yet another undescribed Homaesthesis with structural 
adaptations similar to those of P. arenarius (and common to many 
arenicolous arthropods). The two species share a number of secondarily 
derived characters, and may have a common distribution in the Monahans 
dune system, but the new species is taxonomically quite distinct from 
arenarius. In fact, it exhibits characters which might be interpreted as 
intermediate between Homaesthesis and Prionus sensu stricto. The 
inclusion of this new species and arenarius in Homaesthesis limits 
considerably the definition of the subgenus (see generic discussion below). 
For the present, Homaesthesis may be recognized by the opaque, 
nonstriolate poriferous areas on the male antennal segments, 12- to 14- 
segmented antennae in both sexes, and smaller overall size (average length 
usually less than 30 mm.). 

Prionus (Homaesthesis) spinipennis, new species 

Male: Form moderate-sized, robust, dorsal surface broadly convex, integument castaneous 
to piceous, thoracic sternites, coxae, femora, and head reddish-brown, antennal segments 3 to 
12 lighter reddish-brown. 

Head with antennae attaining apical one-third of elytra, 1 2-segmented, external processes 
of segments 3 to 1 1 broadly rounded or feebly truncated, apical segment elongate, flattened, 
rounded at tip; upper lobes of eyes separated on vertex by about one-third greatest width of 
head. 

Pronotum with discal surface coarsely, irregularly punctate, margins strongly produced 
and reflexed, anterior tooth arcuate, acute, antemedian tooth acute, moderately produced, 
posterior angle strongly dentiform, feebly acute or right-angular in dorsal outline; metasternum 



Deceived March 26, 1983. Accepted August 18, 1983. 

^Contribution number 18271 to the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 

^Placenta Canyon Nature Center, 19152 W. Placerita Canyon Road, Newhall. California 
91321 

^Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843. 
Current address: Route 4, Box 84, Lot 10, Enterprise, Alabama 36330. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 1-4. January & February, 1984 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



finely, densely punctate, clothed with fine, moderately long pubescence; scutellum with sides 
angulated at middle, then tapered to apex, basal two-thirds coarsely, irregularly punctate. 

Elytra feebly explanate apically, parallel-sided for most of length, discal surface 
coriaceous, coarsely, irregularly punctate, costae strongly elevated, apices rounded to suture, 
sutural angle produced into a narrow acute spine (Fig. 2). 

Legs with outer angle of protibia subspiniform, tibial spurs long, thin, laminiform, 
metatibial spurs thickened, tarsi broad, flattened (Fig. 4), first metatarsal segment lacking 
spongy setal pads on ventral surface, pads greatly reduced on segments 2 and 3, ventral surface 
of segments densely punctate and pubescent with short, suberect setae, margins of segments 1 
to 3 acute, dentiform. 

Length (exclusive of mandibles): 19.5 - 32 mm. 

Female: Form robust, coloration as in male. 

Head with antennae nearly attaining basal one-half of elytra, 12-segmented, external 
processes of segments increasingly produced apically, apical segment simple. 

Pronotum similar in dorsal outline to that of male, lateral teeth conspicuously produced; 
metasternum very finely punctate, glabrous. 

Elytra with sides slightly expanded behind humeri, gradually tapered from middle to 
suture, sutural angle spinose. 

Legs with tibial spurs slightly more pronounced than in male, tarsal spongy pads reduced 
or absent on all tarsi, tarsal segments similar in form and setation of those of male. 

Length (exclusive of mandibles): 29 - 30 mm. 

Type data: Holotype male, allotype (California Academy of Sciences) and 35 paratypes 
(34 cf, 1 9) from: TEXAS, Ward County, Monahans Sandhills State Park, at lights, 21 
August 1982 (R.H. Turnbow, T.P. Friedlander). Paratypes deposited in the following 
collections: Texas A&M University; University of California, Berkeley; U.S. National 
Museum of Natural History; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University; R.H. 
Turnbow, Jr.; F.T. Hovore; R.L. Penrose; M.E. Rice; and J.E. Wappes. 

Diagnosis: Prionus (H.) spinipennis may be distinguished from all 
other known Homaesthesis by the combination of 1 2-segmented antennae, 
expanded tarsi, dark-brown to piceous integument with wholly reddish 
antennae, and spinose sutural angle of the elytra (Figs. 1 , 2). From P. (H.) 
rhodocerus Linsley, which it resembles in coloration and } 2-segmented 
antennae, spinipennis may be further differentiated by the more elongate 
form, more narrowly placed upper eye lobes (separated by more than one- 
third greatest width of head in rhodocerus}, larger antennae with more 
strongly developed external processes, and, in males, the much more 
densely pubescent metasternum. In the limited material available, females 
of spinipennis possess a thin, elevated line on the apical abdominal tergite, 
absent in female rhodocerus. 

Of the known Homaesthesis, P. spinipennis appears most closely 
related to P. (H.) palparis Say, from which it differs (in addition to the 
combination of characters enumerated above) by the more widely-spaced 
upper eye lobes (separated by only one-fourth greatest width of head in 
palparis). The strongly developed pronotal margins, form of the tarsi and 
antennae, and coloration would have placed spinipennis wilh palparis and 
P. (H.) simplex (Casey) in Casey's genus Prionina (synonymized with 
Homaesthesis by Linsley, 1962). 

At the Monahans locality, spinipennis and arenarius appear to be 
allochronically separated, the latter having been taken only in late May and 
early June; little, however, is known of their habits or life histories. Two of 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 





\ 





4 



Figures 1, 3: Prionus arenarius Hovore, male: 1, right dorsum, pronotum and elytron; 3, 
right metatarsus. Figs. 2, 4: P. spinipennis new species, male: 2, right dorsum. pronotum and 
elytron; 4, right metatarsus. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



the paratypes of P. spinipennis were collected away from lights in 
association with shinnery oaks (Quercus havardii Rydb.) growing on the 
dunes. 

Generic Discussion and Key to Species: The number of characters 
by which Homaesthesis may be distinguished has been reduced by the 
inclusion of arenarius (possessing rounded apices on the third metatarsal 
segment) and spinipennis (possessing strongly produced and reflexed 
anterior pronotal angles). For the present, the 12 to 14-segmented 
antennae, with non-striolate poriferous areas will suffice to differentiate all 
known Homaesthesis from other nearctic subgenera of Prionus. 

Key to the Species of Homaesthesis (adapted from Linsley, 1962) 

la Antennal processes distinctly emarginated and bilobed; color reddish-brown 2 

Ib Antennal processes at most truncated-or very feebly emarginated, not bilobed; 

coloration variable, usually brownish or piceous 3 

2a Antennae 1 2-segmented; pronotal disk glabrous; metatarsi broadly expanded, flattened, 

fimbriate with long hairs (Fig. 3) arenarius Hovore 

2b Antennae 1 3- or 1 4-segmented; pronotal disk sparsely to densely pubescent; metatarsi 

narrow, elongate, without fringe of hairs emarginatus Say 

3a Antennae 1 2-segmented 4 

3b Antenna 1 3-segmented integer LeConte 

4a Eyes separated on vertex by one-third or more the greatest width of head; coloration 

variable; antennal segments all or in part light reddish-brown 5 

4b Eyes separated on vertex by one-fourth or less the greatest width of head; coloration 

piceous to black; antennae concolorous with body palparis Say 

5a Coloration dark brown, castaneous, or piceous; antennae all or in part lighter reddish- 
brown 6 

5b Coloration concolorous light reddish- brown, antennae not contrasting 7 

6a Metatarsi expanded and flattened (Fig. 4); sutural angle of elytra distinctly spinose; 

male metasternum densely pubescent spinipennis Hovore and Turnbow 

6b Metatarsi narrow, elongated; sutural angle of elytra acutely or obtusely dentiform, not 

spined; male metasternum thinly pubescent rhodocerus Linsley 

7 a Anterior pronotal angle distinct; sides of scutellum evenly rounded to apex; first 

metatarsal segment subtriangular in dorsal outline, less than twice as long as broad .... 

simplex (Say) 

7b Anterior lateral pronotal angle irregularly rounded; sides of scutellum obtusely 

angulated at middle; first metatarsal segment slender, elongate, parallel-sided, three 

times as long as broad linsleyi Hovore 

Corrigenda: Hovore (1981) incorrectly cited Monahans Sandhills State Park as located 
in "Webb County;" it is in Ward County, Texas. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank D.H. Riskind, Texas Department of Parks and Wildlife, for permission to 
collect in Texas State Parks, and R.L. Penrose and H.R. Burke for manuscript reviews. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hovore, F.T. 1981. Two new species of Prionus (Homaesthesis) from the southwestern 
United States, with notes on other species. Coleop. Bull. 35: 453-7. 

Linsley, E.G. 1962. The Cerambycidae of North America, pt. II. Taxonomy and classification 
of the Parandrinae, Prioninae, Spondylinae, and Aseminae. Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol., 
Vol. 19, 102. pp. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



RANGE EXTENSION AND EMERGENCE OF 

SUBTERRANEAN NESTING BY THE GERMAN 

YELLOWJACKET, VESPULA GERMANICA, 

IN NORTH AMERICA (HYMENOPTERA: 

VESPIDAE) 12 

John F. MacDonald^, Rogers D. Akre^ 

ABSTRACT: The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Fab.), has continued to 
extend its distribution to the west and northwest and now is established in such cities as 
Minneapolis/St. Paul and Winnipeg. In addition, this species has been found in Nampa, Idaho 
and in the Seattle area as of 1981-82. However, V. germanica had not spread into the south 
Atlantic states or the southwest. 

Previously known only as a structural nester in North America, subterranean colonies of 
V. germanica have appeared in Indiana, where they constituted 38% ( 1 1/29) of the colonies 
studied in the Lafayette area in 1982. 

More so than any other yellowjacket species, the German yellowjacket, 
Vespula germanica (Fab.), has displayed a remarkable propensity for 
becoming distributed and established throughout temperate regions of the 
world (Edwards 1976). Although periodically introduced into the north- 
western United States over the past century, this species probably did not 
become established until the late 1960's( Morse etal. 1977). Since then, V. 
germanica has spread rapidly and steadily from the northeast into the upper 
midwest (Fig. 1; Dunn 1980; MacDonald et al. 1980). 

The established North American biotype is noteworthy because of its 
pronounced tendency to nest inside structures, forsaking the typical 
subterranean nesting site of European conspecifics. Indeed, V. germanica 
in North American was reported as nesting almost exclusively in structures 
(Dunn 1980; Keyel 1983; MacDonald et al. 1980; Morse et al. 1977). In 
contrast, other Vespula species may occasionally nest inside structures, 
but they are predominately subterranean nesters (Akre et al. 1981). Thus, 
structural nesting surfaced as one diagnostic criterion for the presence of V. 
germanica in various communities in eastern North America. 

This paper reports the current distribution of V. germanica in North 
American and reveals the emergence of subterranean nesting by this 



1 Received July 5, 1983. Accepted August 16, 1983. 

2 Journal paper number 9526, Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station, W. Lafayette, 
Indiana. Work supported in part by Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station project number 
58045 and Washington State College of Agriculture Research Center, Project 0037. 

^Associate Professor, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana 
47907. 

^Professor, Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 
99164. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 5-8. January & February, 1984 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



species in Indiana. 

Distribution of the German Yellowjacket in North America 

As predicted, the German yellowjacket has continued its spread west- 
northwestward as evidenced by recent (1981-82) reports from collaborators 
plus specimens from Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and 
Winnipeg. To date, we have no specimens (or suspicious reports suggesting 
establishment) of V. germanica westward between the Dakotas and the 
Pacific northwest, but we feel eventual establishment is inevitable, at least 
in urban areas. 

The first record of the German yellowjacket on the west coast of North 
American was the collection of workers in Puyallup, Washington in 
September 1982 (Fig. 1 ). Initially four poorly preserved specimens, sent to 
us for identification by a King County extension agent, were tentatively 
determined to be V. germanica. This determination was confirmed during 
the next several days with nine additional workers collected from the same 
locality in Puyallup. Subsequently, a worker was collected in a garage in 
Puyallup, and six males were sent from a colony found in the ceiling of a 
home in Spanaway, Washington. In addition, a queen V. germanica was 
collected in Puyallup in January 1983. These collections, plus reports of at 
least three structural colonies in the Puget Sound area that persisted late 
into the year and chewed through walls of homes, strongly suggest that the 
German yellowjacket is established in the area. 

In March of 1983, workers, queens, and males from a V. germanica 
colony collected in October 1981 were received from Nampa, Idaho. In this 
case the colony was subterranean and was located inside an abandoned 
irrigation pipe. Although specific data are lacking, the colony was large and 
had produced numerous queens. 

Despite the efforts of collaborators, V. germanica still has not been 
detected south of Virginia, the southeast or the central midwest. For 
example, although the German yellowjacket is common in the Indianapolis 
area, it has not been detected in the southern part of Indiana. 

Emergence of Subterranean Nesting in Indiana 

Establishment of V. germanica in Indiana probably occurred in 1975- 
76 (Mac Donald et al. 1980). For the last few years, all colonies studied 
were located inside structures, with just over 87% (69/79) situated inside 
structural voids, including 57 inside wall voids (Table 1). The first 
subterranean V. germanica colony was discovered in 1 980, situated among 
roots of ivy adjacent to a building; an additional subterranean nest was 
found in 1980 and another in 1981 (Table 1). However, subterranean 
nesting became readily apparent in 1982, with 38% ( 1 1/29) in such sites as 
in lawns, shrub beds and in soil behind retaining walls. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



Discussion and Implications 

The rate of range extension of the German yellowjacket has been far too 
rapid to be explained by natural dispersal of inseminated queens. Rapid 
dispersal, initial detection of V. germanica in urban areas, and the presence 
of isolated populations in Idaho and Washington suggest the major mode of 
dispersal has been via commerce. However, once established in an urban 
area, natural dispersal by queens occurs, for we have discovered an 
occasional V. germanica colony in rural homes near Lafayette, Indiana the 
past two years. Thus, while most problems associated with the German 
yellowjacket occur in urban areas, dwellings in less populated areas are also 
subject to infestation. 

The sudden appearance of V. germanica on the west coast suggests that 
this species may be discovered in other disjunct areas in the near future, at 
least in the northern portion of the United States and Canada. The 
continued absence of V. germanica in the South remains unexplained, but 
climatic factors may be responsible (Keyel 1983). 

Subterranean nesting in other V. germanica populations may already 




HAWAII 



Fig. 1. Distribution of V. germanica in North America as of May 1983. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



exist (undocumented) or may develop in the future. Accordingly, we should 
not continue to rely so strongly on nest site as a criterion for diagnosis of V. 
germanica. It appears our early characterization of the German yellowjacket in 
North America as an exclusively structural nester was inaccurate. 

Table 1. Nest locations of Vespula germanica in the Lafayette, Indiana area 1977-82. 

NUMBER OF COLONIES 

Year Subterranean Structural Total 

Enclosed voids 3 Basements Attics Other b 

1977 5 0005 

1978 11 1 12 

1979 10 2 1 13 

1980 2 8 2 1 1 14 

1981 1 18 1 20 

1982 11 17 1 29 

Totals 14C 69 4 5 1 93 

a Most nests inside wall voids; 4 above drop ceilings, 3 above soffits, 3 inside porch voids, 1 in a 
chimney void. 

^Inside a wood duck house suspended in a tree ca. 8m above ground. 
c Five in lawns, 7 in shrub beds, 2 in soil behind retaining walls. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Appreciation is extended to Ron Mundell, Purdue University Exterminator, for his years 
of cooperation in facilitating research on social wasps on the Purdue campus. We also thank 
Byron Reid and Donald Ross for assistance in locating many of the yellowjacket colonies. S. J. 
Collman, A. Antonelli, and A. Stanford provided specimens and records of western V. 
germanica. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Akre, R.D., A. Greene, J.F. MacDonald, P. Landholt, and H.G. Davis. 1981. The 
Yellowjackets of America North of Mexico. USDA Agric. Handbook 552, 102 pp. 

Dunn, G.A. 1980. The introduced yellowjacket in Michigan. Entomol. Soc. Mich. 
Newsletter. 25: 1,3. 

Edwards, R. 1976. The world distribution pattern of the German wasp, Paravespula 
germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ent. Germanica 3: 269-271. 

Keyel, R.E. 1983. Some aspects of niche relationships among yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: 
Vespidae) of the northeastern United States. Ph.D. Dissertation thesis, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York, 161 pp. 

MacDonald, J.F., R.D. Akre, and R.E. Keyel. 1980. The German yellowjacket ( Vespula 
germanica) problem in the United States (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Bull. Entomol. Soc. 
Amer. 26: 436-42. 

Morse, R.A., G.C. Eickwort, and R.S. Jacobson. 1977. The economic status of an 
immigrant yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), in the north- 
eastern United States. Environ. Entomol. 6: 109-1 10. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



A REVISED KEY TO THE IDIODONUS 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 

OF MEXICO AND BOLIVIA 1 

Dwight M. DeLong2 

ABSTACT: A revised key is presented for the forty described species of Idiodonus of 
Mexico and Bolivia. Species treated are 2 described by Ball: /. wickhami and /. schwartzi, 
and 38 described by DeLong: /. graeculus, I. costatus, I. rubellus, I. spatulatus, I. tubulus, I. 
sexpunctatus, I. marginatus, I. albifrons, I. anademus, I. nigridens, I. apertus, I. beamerellus, 
I. vinculatus, I. incisurus, I. caldwelli, 1. pallidus, I. turpiter, I. albocinctus, I. bicinctus, I. 
dampfi, I. acus, I. pravus, I. claustrus, I. verecundus, I. titulus, I. mexicanus, I. goodi, I. 
copulus, I. latidens, I. incidus, I. nigifrons, I. insculptus, I. clastrus, I. edentulus, I. 
excavatus, I. dicerus, I. bakeri, and /. plummeri. All species are from Mexico except /. 
costatus which is from Bolivia. Illustrations of the color markings on the head, pronotum and 
scutellum, and of the 7th sternum of the females are included. 

The genus Idiodonus was described by Ball (1936) with Jassus 
kennicotti Uhler designated as the type species. DeLong (1946) described 
32 Mexican species of Idiodonus and published a key with illustrations. 
Five additional Mexican species and one from Bolivia were described by 
DeLong (1983). Since the male genital structures in this genus are of little 
or no value, the color patterns and 9 genitalia are used for species 
identification in this revised key to the species of Idiodonus. Illustrations of 
the color markings on the head, pronotum and scutellum of all species and 
the female 7th sternum of most species are included. Females of a few 
species are not known. The species of Idiodonus in Mexico occur normally 
on perennial plants and shrubs, and are found mostly at higher altitudes, 
5000 to 12000 feet elevation. 

Revised Key to the Species of Idiodonus of Mexico and Bolivia 

1 . Crown without black markings 2 

1 ' Crown with black markings 3 

2( 1 ) Face with 2 black spots (Fig- 7) graeculus DeLong 

2' Face with black markings (Fig. 73) costatus DeLong 

3( 1 ) Crown and pronotum with small punctate spots or flecks of red 4 

3' Crown and pronotum without reddish coloration 5 

4(3) Margin of crown, only, with black spots (Figs. 4,66) rubellus DeLong 

4' Crown and pronotum with black markings . . . . (Figs. 14,37) wickhamiBM 

5(3') Crown, only, with black markings 6 

5 ' Crown with black markings and black or dark ful vus markings on pronotum .... 20 

6(5) Crown, only, with black rounded spots 7 



Deceived October 1, 1982. Accepted August 13, 1983. 

^Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 9-15. January & February, 1984 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



6' Crown with rounded spots in combination with other color markings or 

with elongate spots, or transverse bands 11 

7(6) Crown with round black spots only on or near margin 8 

7' Crown with 2 black spots on margin and 2 distal spots 10 

8(7) Female 7th sternum with spatulate process (Figs. 1, 40) spatulatus 

DeLong 

8' Female 7th sternum not spatulate 9 

9(8') Female 7th sternum broadly rounded, produced (Figs. 5, 46) 

schwartzi Ball 

9' Female 7th sternum produced, broadly, shallowly excavated apically . . . 

(Figs. 13, 55) tubulus DeLong 

10(7') Margin of crown with 2 large elongate spots at middle and a small spot on 

margin, close to each eye (Figs. 69, 75) sexpunctatus DeLong 

10' Margin of crown with a series of fused black spots (fig. 70) marginatus 

Delong 

1 1(6') Crown with rounded spots distal to margin 12 

11 ' Crown with elongate markings distal to margin 14 

12(1 1) Basal portion of crown with 2 proximal small round spots 

(Figs. 68, 74) albifrons DeLong 

12' Crown with small black spots close to each eye 13 

13(12') Female 7th sternum roundly produced, with a slight V-shaped notch at 

apex (Figs. 6, 38) anademus DeLong 

13' Female 7th sternum produced, excavated at apex and bearing a small 

tooth in excavation (Figs. 15, 50) nigridens DeLong 

14( 11 ') Margin of crown with 4 rounded spots and a black dash spot next to each 1 5 

eye 

14' Without a small dash spot next to each eye 17 

15(14) Female 7th sternum with a spatulate process (Figs. 10, 42) apertus 

DeLong 

15' Female 7th sternum produced and rounded 16 

16( 15') Female 7th sternum broadly rounded with a U-shaped notch 1/3 length of 

segment (Figs. 9, 43) beamerellus DeLong 

16' Female 7th sternum more produced, with a slight U-shaped notch at apex 

(Figs. 2, 35) vinculus DeLong 

17(14') Crown with a narrow black band just above margin (Figs. 1 1, 44) 

incisurus DeLong 

17' Crown without a continuous black band 18 

18(17') Distal portion of crown with a broken blackband . . . . (Figs. 3,45) caldwelli 

DeLong 

18' Distal portion of crown with a broken black band 19 

19(18') Crown with 4 dash lines, basal angles of scutellum black 

(Figs. 7 1 , 76) pallidus DeLong 

19' Crown with 4 dash lines, basal angles of scutellum not black 

(Figs. 24, 57) turpiter DeLong 

20(5') Pronotum with white transverse band between fulvus transverse bands .... 

(Figs. 17, 52) albocinctus DeLong 

20' Pronotum with black spots or bands 21 

21(20') Pronotum with 2 broad, transverse, black bands 22 

21' Pronotum with black spots or only 1 transverse black band 24 

22(21 ) Pronotum with distal band on apical margin 25 

22' Pronotum with distal band on disc (Figs. 32, 63) bicinctus DeLong 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



11 



23(22) Female 7th sternum with posterior margin produced, with a squarish notch 

at center (Figs. 25, 54) dampfi DeLong 

23' Female 7th sternum with posterior margin notched at apex and bearing a 

small tooth (Figs. 34, 67) acus DeLong 

24(21') Pronotum with a black transverse band on basal margin 25 

24' Pronotum with a faint line or spots 30 

25(24) Apical margin of pronotum slightly margined with black 26 

25' Apical margin of pronotum not margined with black 27 

26(25) Female 7th sternum angularly produced, with a broad U-shaped notch 1/3 

length of segment (Figs. 22, 60)pravus DeLong 

26' Female 7th sternum broadly, slightly concave with a slight U-shaped 

notch ( Figs. 27, 51) claustrus DeLong 

27(25') Crown with a transverse black band 28 

27' Crown with a broken transverse black band. . . (Figs. 33, 58) verecundus 

DeLong 

28(27) Pronotum with irregular dark markings on disk (Figs. 23, 55) 

titulus DeLong 

28' Pronotum without irregular dark markings 29 

29(28') Female 7th sternum produced, with a shallow squarish excavation 

(Figs. 19, 48) mexicanus DeLong 

29' Female 7th sternum roundly produced, with a slight V-shaped notch at apex 

(Figs. 20, 47) goodi DeLong 

30(24') Pronotum with a faint transverse line, straight or irregular 31 

30' Pronotum with black spots or irregular markings 33 

31(30) Pronotum with 2 incomplete transverse dark lines (Figs. 8, 41) 

corpulus DeLong 

31' Pronotum with a broken line, or line bent cephalad at middle 32 

32(3 1 ') Pronotum bearing a broken transverse line (Figs. 30, 64) 

latidens DeLong 

32' Pronotum with a transverse line bent cephalad at middle (Figs. 12,39) 

incidus DeLong 

33(30') Pronotum with large lateral black spots next to eyes 

(Fig. 72) nigrifrons DeLong 

Pronotum with spots along basal margin 34 

34(33') Pronotum with a row black spots extending almost across basal margin .... 35 

34' Pronotum with black spots only on central portion of pronotum 36 

35(34) Pronotum with large black spots and transverse black bands on crown 

(Figs. 18, 53) insculptus DeLong 

35' Pronotum with smaller black spots and one broken transverse band on 

crown (Figs. 14, 37) wickhami Ball 

36(34') Crown with a black transverse band .... (Figs. 21,56) clathrus DeLong 

36' Crown with a broken band, with spots or dashes 37 

37(36') Crown with rounded black spots only 38 

Crown with elongate or squarish spots 39 

38(37) Scutellum with black spots at apex. . . . (Figs. 26, 59) edentulus DeLong 

Scutellum with black spots (Figs. 16, 49) excavatus DeLong 

39(37') Distal portion of pronotum margined with black (Figs. 28,61 ) diserus 

DeLong 

39' Distal portion of pronotum without black margin 40 

40( 39') Female 7th sternum slightly notched each side of median apical tooth 

(Figs. 29, 36) bakeri DeLong 

40' Female 7th sternum sloping to median notched tooth 

(Figs. 31, 65) plummeri DeLong 



12 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




SPATULATUS 





VI NCUL.US 



C A LOWtLLI 




C OPU LU S 



BEAMERELLUS 



APE RTUS 



I N CISU R U S 




I NC I U S 



T UBULUS 



W I C KH AMI 



N IGRI DE N S 






tXC AVATUS 



ALBOC INCTUS 



INSCULPTUS 



Figs. 1-18, Head, pronotum, species of Idiodonus, as labeled. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



13 




C L AUSTR US 



ISERUS 



B AKE Rl 




PLUMMCRI 



BICINCTUS VERECUNDUS 




34V 



AC US 



Figs. 19-34, Head, pronotum, and scutellum of species of Idiodonus, as labeled. 



14 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



/ l 

C OPULUS 
^ ^ 




67 



AC US 



Figs. 35-67, Female 7th sterna of species of Idiodonus, as labeled. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



15 




71 



PALLIDUS 



NIGRIFRONS 





COSTATUS 




ALBIFRONS 



SEXPUNCTATUS 



PALLIDUS 



Figs. 68, 74. /. albifrons: 68. head, pronotum, and scutellum; 74. female 7th sternum. Figs. 
69, 75. /. sexpunctatus: 69. head, pronotum, and scutellum; 75. female 7th sternum. Fig. 70, 
/. marginatus: head, pronotum, and scutellum. Figs. 71, 76, /. pallidus: 71. head, 
pronotum, and scutellum; 76. female 7th sternum. Fig. 72. /. nigrifrons: head, pronotum, and 
scutellum. Fig. 73: /. costatus, head, pronotum, and scutellum. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Ball, E.D. 1936. Some New Genera of Leafhoppers Related to Thamnotettix. Bull. Brook. 

Entomol. Soc. 31(2): 57-60. 
DeLong, D.M. 1946. The Mexican Species of Idiodonus(Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Ohio 

Jour. Sci. 46(1): 13-30. 

1983. New Species and Distribution Notes of Mexican and Bolivian Idiodonus 

(Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Ent. News 94(3): 89-92. 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A NEW SPECIES OF TROGLOPEDETES 

(COLLEMBOLA: PARONELLIDAE) FROM 

GUERRERO, MEXICO 1 

Margarita Ojeda, Jose G. Palacios-Vargas^ 

ABSTRACT: Troglopedetes oztotlicus n.sp. from Juxtlahuaca Caves, Guerrero State, is 
described and differentiated from its closest relatives. Fifteen drawings are included. 

RESUMEN: Se describe la nueva especie Troglopedetes oztotlicus de las Grutas de 
Juxtlahuaca, Estado de Guerrero se diferencia de las especies mas cercanas. Se proporcionan 
15 dibujos. 

In America, the genus Troglopedetes has been found only in caves of 
the Neotropical Region of Mexico and in Central America, and in leaf litter 
in South America. To date only four species have been described. T. maya 
(Mills, 1938), described from Yucatan caves, is the only species known 
from Mexico, although there must be more undescribed taxa in the tropical 
areas of the country. T. cfe/a warn Massoud and Gruia, 1973 was described 
from Cuba and cited from Dominican Republic by Mari Mutt (1977). T. 
/awotfe? (Delamare-Duboutteville, 1 950) occurs in the French Guinea and 
T. millsi(Ar\Q, 1939), known from Brasil, probably belongs to Troglopedetina. 

The new species described below was reported by Palacios-Vargas 
(1982) as Troglopedetes sp. and belongs to the Neotropical fauna that 
probably invaded southern habitats of Mexico recently (maybe during the 
Pleistocene) after the formation of the Eje Neovolcanico, which now is a 
barrier for the distribution of this family. In Mexico, the genus has invaded 
various caves such as Grutas de Atoyac in Veracruz State, where we have 
found a different undescribed species. 

The species of this genus are remarkable because of the troglomorphism 
they present, e.g., lack of eyes and modifications of the tibiotarsal complex. 
There also must be some physiological adaptations, because of the 
difficulties of rearing these animals in laboratory conditions. 

Troglopedetes oztotlicus n.sp. 

Length 2-3 mm. Without eyes or trace of pigmentation in body and ocular region. Head 
and body covered with several types of setae and trichobothria (Fig. 1 ). Scales elliptical, oval 
or somewhat lanceolate, with regular longitudinal striations ( Fig. 2 ). Dens with ciliated spines. 

Ratio diagonal head: antennae (average of five specimens) = 1.0:3.0; ratio of antennal 
segments I: II: III: IV = 1:1.1:0.9:1.7. Ant. I and ant. II with scales and setae, the basis of the 



Deceived July 19, 1983. Accepted September 23, 1983. 

^Laboratorio de Acarologia, Departamento de Biologia', Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, 
045 10 Mexico, D.F. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 16-20. January & February, 1984 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February. 1984 



17 



first with small spinelike setae. Sense organ of ant. Ill of 2 blunt sensillae and 2 guard sensillae 
subequal in length but thinner than the first pair (Fig. 3). Ant. Ill has several sensillae of 
various lengths and numerous ciliated setae. Ant. IV with weak tendency to annulated and 
covered by ciliated setae and sensillae (Fig. 4). 



W(9) 







f i ^' 'i ^fc V', 

^1 w 

tSi \^ 

"5.1 "?\ 
Vk -A 



% 

5 d: 



W> 



i * 



"^.i 

\'' f '( 

~i 



i?4 

1^,4, 

V i '', 



. 





Figs. 1-5. Troglopedetes oztotlicus n.sp. 1 . Types of setae; 2. Scales; 3. Apex of Ant. Ill; 
Apex of Ant. IV; 5. Dorsal setal pattern of head. 



18 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Head with two dorsal trichobothria, setae of several lengths, scales and pores (Fig. 5). 
Labrum with five long posterior setae, five smaller medium setae and four anterior thicker 
setae (Fig. 6). Base of labium with setae "r" small and the others longer and ciliated (Fig. 7), 
apex of labium with an external differentiated setae. 




Figs. 6-10. Troglopedetes oztotlicus n.sp. 6. Setal pattern of Labrum; 7. Chaetotaxy of 
Labium; 8. Trochanter; 9. Tibiotarsus; 10. Abdominal setal pattern. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



19 



Tenant hair apically lanceolate, short and thin. Unguis with a pair of minute outer teeth, a 
pair of subequal inner teeth in the middle region and 2 unpaired inner teeth, 1 median and 1 
distal, the latter much smaller. Unguliculus lanceolate, ventral lamella weakly crenulate (Fig. 
9). Ratio unguis: unguiculus = 1.0:0.6; ratio unguis: tenent hair = 1.0:0.4. Trochanteral 
organ as in Figure 8. 

Abd. I without trichobothria; Abd, II, III, and IV with 2, 3 and 2 pairs of trichobothria 
respectively (Fig. 1 0). Tenaculum with 4+4 teeth and a thick setae on the corpus, which often 




13 




,,, 

' ' -A * 




Figs. 11-15. Troglopedetes oztotlicus n.sp. 11. Tenaculum; 12. Collophore; 13. Basal 
spines of dens; 14. Distal spines of dens; 15. Mucro. 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



appears bifid (Fig. 1 1). Collophore with anterior setae much longer and thicker than posterior 
ones (Fig. 12). Genital region with many thick ciliated setae. 

Manubrium covered with setae and scales. The ventral setae thin and long but not 
differentiated. Dens with 2 rows of spines (35-40 each row). Proximal spines thick and weakly 
ciliated (Fig. 1 3), distal ones larger and thoroughly ciliated, similar to setae (Fig. 14). Mucro 
with 4 teeth, 3 in a row and 1 in paramedial position (Fig. 15). Ratio dens: mucro = 1.0:0.06. 

Type Locality: Mexico, Guerrero State, Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. ex soil and bat guano. 1 1- 
FV-1981. J.G. Palacios leg. This cave is in the Transitional Region between the Biotic 
Provinces Guerrerense and Balsas Inferior, Neartic and Neotropical regions respectively 
(Smith, 1940). 

The Holotype and 5 paratypes will be kept in the second authors' collection and 2 
paratypes will be deposited in the Museo de Historia Natural de la Ciudad de Mexico. 
Derivatio nominis: from the Nahuatl oztotl = cave, referring to the habitat of this species. 

DISCUSSION 

The new species differ from T. maya (Mills, 1938) by its smaller 
ungual teeth and tenent hair and by the shape of the mucro, Troplopedetes 
oztotlicus differs from T. delamarei (Massoud and Gruia, 1973) in having 
dental spines which are shorter, thicker and less ciliated, and in the length of 
the tenent hair. 

Several characters, e.g., sensorial organ of Ant. Ill, head and abdominal 
chaetotaxy, number and shape of dental spines, if included in the 
description of new taxa, could be of assistance both in differentiating 
species, and in the clarification of phylogenetic relations. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors express their gratitude to the following collembologists who kindly reviewed 
the manuscript: Dr. Jose A. Man Mutt, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez; Dr. Peter F. 
Bellinger, California State University Northridge, California; and Dr. Kenneth Christiansen, 
Grinnell College, Iowa. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Delamare-Debouteville, C. 1950. Deux nouvelles especes de Collemboles du mont Nimba 

(Guine'e francaise) re'colte's par M. Maxime Lamotte. Bull. Soc. Zool Fr., 75( 1 ): 43-45. 
Mari Mutt, J.A., 1977. Fifteen New Records and new species of Collembola from the 

Dominican Republic. Florida Ent., 60(4): 281-286. 
Massoud, Z. et M. Gruia. 1973. Collemboles Arthropleones de Cuba recoltes en 1969 par la 

mission Cubano-Roumaine. Res. Exped. biospeol. Cubano-Roumanie a Cuba 1: 327- 

343. 

Mills, H.B. 1938. Collembola from Yucatan Caves. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., 

491: 183-190. 
Palacios- Vargas, J.G. 1982. New Records of Cave Collembola of Mexico. Ent. News, 

93(4): 104-113. 
Smith, H. 1940. Las provincias bioticas de Mexico, segun la distribucion geografica de las 

lagartijas del ge'nero Sceloporus. An. Esc. nac. Cien. biol. (Mexico), 2(1): 103-1 10. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 21 

HELOPICUS RICKERI, A NEW STONEFLY FROM 
TENNESSEE (PLECOPTERA: PERLODIDAE) 1 

Bill P. Stark2 

ABSTRACT: Helopicus rickeri, n. sp is described from a single male collected in Tennessee 
(USA). The epiproct is atypical of other Helopicus in bearing spines, but the absence of lateral 
stylets, presence of transverse meso and metasternal pigment bands along with the 
mesosternal groove conformation suggest this tentative generic placement. 

William E. Ricker recently sent a distinctive periodic! male, which he 
recognized as a new species in 1965, to me for study. As he noted on his 
determination label, this specimen "does not fit any present subgenus" but 
it is apparently most closely allied to Helopicus Ricker. Since Stark and 
Ray (1983) gave comparative figures of the known Helopicus species, I 
take this opportunity to bring a remarkable stonefly to the attention of 
aquatic biologists. Hopefully this description will promote discovery of the 
nymph and female and subsequently the testing of this generic placement. 

Helopicus rickeri n. sp. 

Male. - Macropterous. Forewing length 1 5 mm; body length 1 3 mm. General color brown, 
patterned with yellow. Wings hyaline, veins brown. Mesosternum and metasternum with 
transverse band, interrupted by areas of lighter pigment lateral to midline. Hemitergal lobes 
broadly rounded, sparsely covered with setae and sensilla basiconica. Dorsal aspect of 
epiproct bulbous, with slender recurved tip; dorsal sclerite tapered throughout length; a pair of 
prominent, posteriorly directed sclerotized spines located lateral to dorsal sclerite in apical 
third; membranous area of epiproct covered with fine short setae. Ventral aspect of epiproct 
with scoop-like apex (Figs. 1, 2). 

Mesosternal grooves typical of genus. Submental gills present. Lateral stylets absent. 

Types.- Holotype cf (100976) from 5.5 mi Wof Hartsville, Trousdale Co., TN, USA, 28- 
III- 1965, M. Braasch, deposited at the United States National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, DC. 

Etymology. I take great pleasure in naming this species for Dr. W.E. Ricker in honor of his 
numerous contributions to stonefly systematics. 

Diagnosis. - This species is distinguished from other Helopicus by the 
presence of dorsal sclerotized spines on the epiproct. The epiproct 
superfically resembles that of Hydroperla crosbyi (Needham and Claassen) 
in lateral aspect (Stewart and Stark 1977; Ray and Stark 1981) but these 
two species are distinguished by the absence of lateral stylets in Helopicus 
rickeri. 



Deceived June 30, 1983. Accepted July 30, 1983. 
2 Dept. of Biology, Mississippi College, Clinton, MS 39058. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 21-22. January & February, 1984 



22 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



; ''/)%* I 
') -j&P \ 

' \ Sif 1 '- i '>!vi?C 




Figures 1-2. Helopicus rickeri, male genitalia. 1. Terminalia, lateral. 2. Epiproct, dorsal. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank William E. Ricker for his gift of the holotype specimen. Paul Lago and S.W. 
Szczytko provided helpful comments during review of the manuscript. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Ray, D.H. and B.P. Stark. 1981. The Nearctic species of Hydroperla (Plecoptera: Perlodidae). 

Florida Entomol. 64: 385-395. 
Stark, B.P. and D.H. Ray. 1983. A revision of the genus Helopicus (Plecoptera: Perlodidae). 

Freshwat. Invertebr. Biol. 2: 16-27. 
Stewart, K.W. and B.P. Stark. 1977. Reproductive system and mating in Hydroperla 

crosby i: a newly discrovered method of sperm transfer in Insecta. Oikos 24: 84-89. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 23 

A NEW MEXICAN EPIDAMAEUS 
(ORIBATEI: DAMAEIDAE) 1 

Jose G. Palacios-Vargas^ 

ABSTRACT: A new mite species in the genus Epidamaeus, inhabitating leaf litter on 
Popocatepetl volcano, is described. 

RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva especie de acaro del genero Epidamaeus, habitante de 
hojarasca del Volcan Popocatepetl. 

The family Damaeidae (sensu Norton, 1979a) is almost unknown in 
Mexico; only one species (Belba clavisensilld) has been described recently 
(Norton and Palacios-Vargas, 1982). The genus Epidamaeus includes 
about 30 known species, mainly distributed in the Palearctic Region 
(Norton, 1979b). Only three of them are known to occur in South 
America and none has ever been described or recorded from Mexico; the 
first is described below. 

The terminology used in the description is mostly that of Grandjean 
(see Trave and Vachon, 1975 for many references). 

Epidamaeus mitlsensillus n.sp. 

Dimensions. Mean ventral length of five specimens 68 1 jum (range 652-740 jum); mean total 
length 746 jum (range 7 1 0-796 jum); mean maximum notogastral width 429 jum (range 403- 
460 urn). 

CerotegumenL Body and legs covered with a layer of reticular cerotegument (Fig. 1). 

Prodorsum. (Figs. 2, 3). Relatively narrow, subtriangular. Integument smooth. Dorsosejugal 
enantiophysis (Da) present; without discernible postbotridial enantiophysis. Setae le finely 
barbulated; ro smooth and thinner; in relatively short, barbulated. Sensillus (ss) smooth, 
long (190 /xm), not tapering, distal end expanded, sagittate. 
All setae other than most of tarsi and venter, and sensillus birefrigent in basal 3/4. 

Notogaster. (Figs. 2, 3). Slightly ovate viewed perpendicular to circumgastric suture; about 
1.1 times longer than broad. Spinae adnatae (sa) small. Notogastral setae smooth, 
gradually tapered, with dark pigmentation except close to insertions. Setae C\ and 2 
directed anteriad, others directed posteriad ( except /w setae). Setae decreasing in length from 
C2 to h\. Row ps more or less parallel to circumgastric suture; p$2 andpsj much smaller 
than other notogastral setae and finely attentuated. Opistosomal glands and lyrifissures 
normal as for family. Nynphal exuviae often carried by adults. 

Ventral region. (Fig. 4). Tubercles E2p, Va and Vp well developed. Tubercles Sa and Sp 
short, difficult to see. Numerical formula for epimeral setae (I to IV) 3-1-3-4. Discidium 
(di) broadly rounded. Anogenital region typical for family. 

Legs. (Figs. 5-9). Porose areas on trochanters III and IV, on all femora, tibiae and tarsi. Setal 
formulas for the legs, from trochanter to tarsus (famulus included, number of solenidia in 



Deceived April 6, 1983. Accepted August 22. 1983. 

^Laboratorio de Acarologia', Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. 
04510 Mexico, D.F. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 23-26. January & February, 1984 



24 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



w 

-s^ J&t?wc 1 




Figs. 1-4. Epidamaeus mitlsensillus n.sp. 1, cerotegument between setae Cj; 2, dorsal 
aspect; 3, lateral view; 4, ventral aspect. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



25 




Figs. 5-9. Legs ofEpidamaeus mitlsensillus n.sp. 5, femur and genua I; 6, tibia and tarsus I; 7, 
trochanter IV; 8, femur and genua IV; 9, tibia and tarsus IV. 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



parentheses) as follows: Leg I, 1-7-4(1 )-4(2)-20(2); leg II, l-6-4(l)-17(2); leg III, 2-4- 
3(1)-3(1)-17; leg IV, l-4-3-3(l)-14. 

Ratio of the length of legs I:II:III:IV = 1 :0.8: 1 .0: 1 .3. Leg IV about 1 .2 times ventral body 
length. Relative length of leg segments as follows: Leg I, F:G:Ti:Ta = 1:0. 3:0. 5: 1.1; leg II 
= 1:0.3:0.5:1.3; leg III, Tr:F:G:Ti:Ta = 1:1.3:0.6:1.0:2.2; leg IV = 1:1.1:0.5:1.0:1.9. 

Derivatio nominis: from the Nahuatl: mill = arrow and the Latin sensillum; referring 
to the arrow-like form of the sensillus. 

Material Examined: Specimens were obtained from Pinus hartwegii litter samples from 
Popocatepetl Volcano, State of Mexico, 3,800 m elevation, 5-IV-1982, J.G. Palacios-Vargas 
leg. There is another record from Sta. Ana, Milpa Alta, D.F. ex. leaf litter, D. Chora leg. The 
holotype and two paratypes in alcohol are deposited in the Laboratorio de Acarologia, 
Facultad de Ciencias, UN AM, Mexico. Two paratypes in alcohol will be sent to each of 
following institutions: Museo de Historia Natural de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., 
College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York; Laboratory of 
Acarology, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. 

DISCUSSION 

The new species here described is similar to Epidamaeus flagelloides 
Norton, 1 979 (Norton, 1 979c) but differs in the type of cerotegument, form 
of setae ps\ , sensillus, notogastral setae and enantiophyses. The new 
species is distinguishable from all known species of Epidamaeus by the 
reticulate cerotegument and sagittate sensillus. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author expresses his gratitude to Dr. Roy A. Norton, State University of New York, 
College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York, USA, for his advice 
and comments on this paper; and to Dr. Isabel Bassols, Laboratorio de Acarologia, Escuela 
Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN, Mexico, who kindly reviewed the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Norton, R.A. 1979a. Familial concepts in the Damaeoidea as indicated by preliminary 
phylogenetic studies. In: Recent Advances in Acarologv (J.G. RODRIGUEZ ED.). 
Academic Press, Inc., NY. USA: 529-533. 

. 1979b. Aspects of the biogeography of Damaeidae sensu lato (Oribatei) with 
emphasis on North America. In: Recent Advances in Acarologv (J.G. RODRIGUEZ 
ED.). Academic Press, Inc., N.Y. USA: 535-539. 

_. 1979c. Damaeidae (Acari: Oribatei) collected by the Hungarian Soil Zoological 



Expedition to South America. Fol. Ent. Hungarica 52(1): 55-64. 

y J.G. Palacios-Vargas, 1982. Nueva Belba (Oribatei: Damaeidae) de musgos 



epifitos de Mexico. Fol. Ent. Mex. 52: 61-73. 
Trave, J. and M. Vachon. 1975. Francois Grandjean, 1882-1975. (Notice biogeographique 
et bibliographique). Acarologia 17: 1-19. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 27 

NOTES ON DISTRIBUTION OF EVANIID WASPS 
IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA 
(HYMENOPTERA: EVANIIDAE) 1 

Roy R. Snelling 2 

ABSTRACT: New distribution data are given for Evaniella californica (Ashmead) and 
Hyptia oblonga Townes. A possible host, Parcoblatta americana (Scudder), is suggested for 
E. californica. 

Evaniid wasps are parasitoids in the oothecae of roaches and attain 
their greatest abundance and diversity in the tropics of both Old and New 
Worlds. Proceeding away from the tropics, these unusual wasps become 
increasingly less common; in the arid lands of western North America they 
are decidedly uncommon. When I wrote my very brief paper (Snelling, 
1963) on the evaniids of California, I recorded two species, known from a 
total of only seven specimens. The few additional specimens recorded 
below are thus of some interest. 

Evaniella californica (Ashmead, 1901) 

This species was described from a single male from Sacramento 
County, California. Snelling (1963) recorded additional material from 
Tuolumne County, California. 

Two females extend the range of E. californica south to Tulare County. 
Both were collected at Kaweah Powerhouse Reservoir No. 3, at Ash 
Mountain. One was collected on 3 July 1982 by J. Halstead and one on 15 
August 1982 by R.D. Haines. 

On 23 June 1979 a single female was collected by R.R. Snelling and P. 
Mehlhop, about 5.8 mi. NE of Chico, Butte County, California, on the 
Cohasset Highway, elevation 475 feet. The specimen was taken while we 
were excavating a nest of the harvester ant, Veromessor chicoensis M. 
Smith, and was removed from a chamber into which it had darted when first 
exposed; the chamber was at a depth of about 2.5 cm. Within the upper 
chambers of this nest were individuals of both sexes of the roach, 
Parcoblatta americana (Scudder). This roach often resides within nests of 
V. chicoensis during the day and at night emerges to feed on debris in the 
chaff pile surrounding the nest. Another roach, Ischnoptera deropeltiformis 
(Bruner) has similar habits; both species were found associated with nests 
of V. chicoensis and V. andrei(Mayr) in Butte and Tehama Counties. One, 



'Received May 7, 1983. Accepted June 24, 1984. 

^Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles, 
California 90007. 

ENT. NEWS 95(1): 27-28. January & February, 1984 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

or both, of these roach species may serve as host for the parasitoid. 
Evaniella neomexicana (Ashmead, 1901) 

This species was described from two male specimens collected at Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. Snelling ( 1 963 ) recorded a third male from Riverside 
County, California. Two additional specimens are now available: Icf, 5 
mi. S. of Parker, Yuma County, Arizona, 13 April 1965 (D.A. Barstow); 1 
9, Kane Springs, Imperial County, California, 22 April 1964 (R.L. 
Westcott). According to Mr. Westcott (personal communication), the 
Kane Springs specimen was flying through a clump of Ephedra sp. 

The female differs from the male specimens in that the entire body is 
bright ferruginous. 

Hyptia oblonga Townes, 1949 

Townes (1949) described this from specimens from the Huachuca 
Mountains, Arizona (type locality) and from Alabama (Evergreen), 
Georgia (Spring Creek), Mexico (Cuernavaca) and Costa Rica (Suerre). 

Two females were collected at La Laguna, 5500-5675 feet elevation, 
Sierra de la Laguna, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 28 August - 1 September 
1977 (R.R. Snelling). This is the first record of the species in Lower 
California. The population there is almost certainly isolated from that 
which occurs to the northeast in southern Arizona. Presumably the range 
was continuous during the Tertiary when most or all of the intervening area 
was forested. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ashmead, W.H. 1901. New species of Evaniidae. Canad. Entomol. 33: 300-304. 

Snelling, R.R. 1963. The evaniid wasps of California (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae). Pan- 
Pacific Entomol. 39: 107-108. 

Townes, H. 1949. The Nearctic species of Evaniidae (Hymenoptera). Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 
99: 525-539. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 29 

ANTS (CREMATOGASTER CLARA MAYR) 

NESTING IN BIRD BOXES 
(HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) 1 

Wayne H. Davis 2 , William C McComb 3 , Pierre Allaire 4 

ABSTRACT: Ants (Crematogaster clara Mayr) occupied bluebird boxes on metal posts 
posted in reclaimed coal mines. Eggs, larvae and pupae were found covering the floor of one of 
the boxes. 

On April 8, 1982, we established 50 stations of experimental bluebird 
houses on reclaimed surface mines of Falcon Coal Co., near Quicksand, 
Breathitt Co., KY. At each station 3 boxes were bolted to a board fastened 
between two standard 1.8 m iron fence posts. The boxes, made of planed, 
untreated yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipferd), had inside dimensions of 
1 3 cm x 1 3 cm and a height of 25 cm. One type was the standard bird house 
with a circular entrance 38 mm in diameter located 20 mm below the roof. A 
second type had the front panel reaching to within 38 mm of the roof leaving 
an entrance space of 38 x 1 30 mm. The third type had a similar entrance in 
the roof made by having the roof come within 38 mm of the front panel. The 
roof of each type was easily removed for inspection. Each station was 
visited weekly throughout the summer. 

Ants, identified as Crematogaster clara Mayr by James C. Trager and 
William F. Buren, began entering the boxes by May 15. In succeeding 
weeks more boxes were occupied until 8 stations finally came to be utilized 
by ants. The ants were apparently exploratory swarms. There were no 
crevices or cavities in the wood that seemed suitable for colonizing by ants. 
There was no nesting material in any of the boxes used by ants. This 
exploratory behavior continued through the next month. 

On July 1 5 ant eggs were found on the floor in 3 of the boxes. On August 
3 the entire floor of one box was covered with eggs, larvae and pupae. 

The 3 box types varied in exposure to light and elements with the 
circular entrance type having the least exposure and the top entrance type 
the most. Ants preferred the most sheltered type, but at 3 stations all 3 types 
were occupied and ant eggs were found on the floor in both the circular 
entrance and the front slot entrance type. 

We know of no instances of ants nesting in situations such as we have 
described. Ants that nest above ground generally choose crevices with 



Deceived March 14, 1983. Accepted August 4, 1983. 

2 School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 
-^Dept. of Forestry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546 
^Dept. of Science & Mathematics, Lees Junior College, Jackson, KY 41339 
ENT. NEWS 95(1): 29-30. January & February, 1984 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



small openings to maintain humidity and to dampen temperature fluctuations 
(Sudd, 1967). Solenopsis sp. and Monomorim minimum (Buckley) have 
been reported entering bluebird boxes and devouring young nestlings 
(Laskey, 1940; Hurst 1980). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank James C. Trager and William F. Buren for the identification of the ants, and 
Paul H. Freytag for help with the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hurst, G.A 1980. Possible Predation by Ants on Nestlings in Nesting Boxes. Mississippi 

Kite 10(1): 3-4. 
Laskey, AR. 1940. The 1939 Nesting Season of Bluebirds at Nashville, Tennessee. Wilson 

Bull. 52: 183-190. 
Sudd, J.H. 1967. An introduction to the Behavior of Ants. Edward Arnold Publ., London. 

200 pp. 



SOCIETY MEETING OF NOVEMBER 16, 1983 

The second meeting of the 1 98 3-84 year was held on Wednesday evening at the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Eleven members and two guests heard Joseph M. Harrison 
speak on "Mounting Insects in Transparent Media." 

Mr. Harrison described the history of transparent mounts, which date back to the 2-sided 
glass "book type" mounts of Titian Peale (ca. 1 830), the popular 2-sided glass mounts sold on 
a large scale by the Dentons (ca. 1890-1925), the familiar "Riker" mounts, and finally, his 
own acrylic mounts. Many examples of various types of mounts were on display, and samples 
were passed around the audience for examination. The "Harrison" mounts have a transparent 
1/8" acrylic top and bottom, and opaque acrylic sides, and provide excellent sample visibility 
without the much greater weight and fragility of glass. Polyure thane foam sheeting provides an 
attractive backing material, but discolors if exposed to sun or artificial light for extended 
periods. Cotton batting can be substituted in the latter situations. Use of a stainless steel pin 
through the insect's body during the spreading process allows the pin to be more easily 
removed before the insect in placed in the mount. Injection of an insecticide solution into the 
insect's body is recommended to prevent future dermestid attacks. 

Numerous practical hints on field methods were also provided by Mr. Harrison. He 
prefers lighter fluid as a killing agent, injected hot water as a relaxant, and flea collars worn 
around the lower pantlegs as a tick and chigger deterrant. 

Mrs. Mildred Morgan, office secretary of the Society, was presented with an attractive 
butterfly mount by Mr. Harrison for her conscientious service. 

Wm. H. Day 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 31 

INDICATION OF MOUNTING MEDIA 
INFORMATION 12 

R.D. Waltz, W.P. McCafTerty 3 

ABSTRACT: The vast array of mounting media currently being used for slide mounts of 
arthropods makes it imperative that mounting media be precisely indicated with specimens 
and in publications. Information should also include the solvent and date of mounting. Such 
information is necessary for specimen study, curation, and remounting, and is especially 
important for type specimens. 

The recent development of a wide variety of slide-mount media for 
arthropod preservation gives rise to an urgent need for incorporating 
medium-related data in the preparation and designation of such specimens 
(or parts thereof), particularly of type specimens. Recommendations for 
procedures must be clearly addressed because of taxonomists' increasing 
use of slide mounted and embedded materials. 

Prior to the burgeoning development of the newer media, balsam was 
used in most slide preparations. Today taxonomists may use any of several 
acceptable media depending on requirements of the particular taxonomic 
group, ease of use, personal preference, and other criteria. Frequently a 
taxonomist will change preferences over time, thus perhaps using many 
different media in study materials. 

The taxonomist must also vary medium usage with specimen usage, as 
media will variously affect specimens, their characteristics, and the ability 
to interpret them. For example, Hoyer's or some other medium with similar 
clearing properties and compatibility with acids or bases may be routinely 
used by a particular specialist unless permanent storage is needed, when a 
longer-lived, more stable medium such as Euparal or other hydrophobic 
type may be used (cf/Wilkey, 1977). Too much clearing or not enough 
clearing action may prevent certain characteristics from being studied, just 
as a refractive index near that of chitin may prevent clarity of setal and 
surface characteristics (Christiansen and Bellinger, 1980; Salmon, 1951 
and 1954). 

The taxonomist should select a medium carefully and indicate the 
medium used. Without such information, others who may have to work with 
the specimens in the future may not be able to interpret effects peculiar to 
the medium. Such information is also necessary for dissolving the medium 
when remounting is required, and an appropriate solvent should also be 
indicated. Remounting is undertaken i) so that characteristics (often newly 
discovered ones) may be examined, ii) as part of long term slide curation, 
iii) for improving permanency, or iv) for collection restoration. 

1 Received April 21, 1983. Accepted August 12, 1983. 
^Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station Journal No. 9429. 
^Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 
ENT. NEWS 95(1): 31-32. January & February, 1984 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Given the necessity for information on mounting media, we make the 
following recommendations: For general collections of slide mounted 
material, data on media should be routinely added to the data label. This 
could be done, for example, as a line following locality and collection data 
that would denote the medium used, the appropriate solvent, and the date of 
preparation. A similar practice should also apply to embedded parts 
associated with pinned insects, such as Coleoptera genitalia mounted on 
clear acetate attached to the pin of the whole specimen (cf/Johnson, 1982; 
Smetana, 197 1). Slides bearing type specimens or parts thereof could have 
any important information, including data on the medium, permanently 
etched into the glass in addition to the usual label. Important information 
such as the general locale (country, state, county), mounting medium, 
solvent, and date of preparation could be appropriately etched under one 
label area, and type status, genus, species and author under the second label 
area. The etching could reside under a label or on the back of the slide and 
could be highlighted with ink. 

Data on mounting media should also be available in taxonomic reviews 
and revisions, and especially with species descriptions. Whenever type 
specimen data are given, data on mounting media should be included as 
standard procedure if embedded or slide mounted materials are involved. 
Certain workers have recognized the importance of this and routinely 
publish such information (e.g., Braasch, 1980; Johnson, 1982; Puthz, 
1974; Smetana, 1971). An excellent format is that of Puthz (1974) 
including both the medium and its solvent: (p. 916) "Both syntypes have 
been mounted anew, the aedeagus of the male (internal sac everted) 
embedded in Euparal (soluable in ale. abs.) on a strip of celluloid." We 
hope all taxonomists will adopt these recommendations to aid curators and 
future researchers, and for the general welfare of collection resources. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Braasch, D. 1980. Baetidae in Mittelasien II. (Ephemeroptera). Reichenbachia, Mus. Tierk. 

Dresden. 18: 147-152. 
Christiansen, K. and P. Bellinger. 1 980. The Collembola of North America, North of the Rio 

Grande. Part I: Introduction, Families Poduridae and Hypogastruridae. Grinnell College, 

Grinnell, Iowa, 386 pp. 
Johnson, C 1982. An introduction to the Ptiliidae (Coleoptera) of New Zealand. New Zeal. 

J. Zool. 9: 333-376. 
Puthz, V. 1 974. A new revision of the Nearctic Edaphus - species and remarks on other North 

American Euaesthetinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Rev. Suisse Zool. 81: 91 1-932. 
Salmon, J.T. 1 95 1 . Polyvinyl alcohol as a mounting medium in microscopy. The Microscope, 

March- April, pp. 139-142. 

1954. A new polyvinyl alcohol mounting medium. The Microscope, Sept.-Oct., 

pp. 66-67. 
Smetana, A 1971. Revision of the tribe Quediini of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: 

Staphylinidae). Mem. Entomol. Soc. Canada No. 79, 303 pp. 
Wilkey, R.F. 1977. How to make professional microslide mounts of insects and other 

arthropods. Arthropod Slidemounts, Inc., Bluffton, Indiana, 4 pp. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



33 



TWO UNDESCRIBED FOSSIL DERMAPTERA 
FROM FLORISSANT, COLORADO 1 

F. Martin Brown^ 

ABSTRACT: Names are proposed for two undescribed Oligocene Dermaptera from the 
shales of Florissant, Colorado: Labiduromma scudderi, n.sp., and L. gurneyi, n.sp. 

While preparing a revision and catalogue of fossil Dermaptera for the 
"Natural History Inventory of Colorado," we set aside several specimens 
that clearly were not any of the species Scudder had described. Since no one 
else has described fossil Dermaptera from the Oligocene in North America, 
these specimens represent currently unnamed species. The specimens 
represent two distinct species. Both appear to be best placed at this time in 
Scudder's genus Labiduromma (Labiduridae). One of the species falls into 
the avia group and the other into the commixtum group of that genus. 






' 



Fig. 1. Left: holotype Labiduromma gurneyi. n.sp.; center: holotype L. scudderi, n.sp.; 
right: paratype L. scudderi n.sp. 

Labiduromma scudderi, n.sp. 

This new species resembles most closely labens Scudder of the avia - 
group. It is considerably larger than labens, and the cerci are quite different 
from the threadlike ones of that species. The resemblance lies largely in the 
shape of the abdomen. 



1 Received July 30, 1983. Accepted September 1 1983. 

^Research Associate, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO 80309 



ENT. NEWS 95(1): 33-34. January & February, 1984 



34 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Holotype: A female, with counterpart, UCM numbers 29907 & 29908. Collected by 
Wilmatte Porter Cockerell from UCM (Cockerell) pit 13B, probably in 1908. Total length 
21.3 mm, from tip of mouth parts to tip of cerci. 

Head: stout pear-shaped (well rounded subtriangular), 2.3 mm long and 2. 3 mm wide at eyes. 
Antennae: visible length 2.3 mm with only 4 countable segments in view, quite incomplete. 

Basal segment very stout, 0.9 x 0.5 mm. 
Pronotum: trapezoidal; posterior margin narrower than head, anterior margin much more so. 

Length 1.0 mm, anterior width 1.3 mm, posterior width 1.5 mm. 
Tegmina: partly opened, each legmen probably 1 .65 mm wide; when closed probably nearly 

"square" in appearance; distal margin rounded. Length 3.4 mm. 
Legs: poorly preserved. Leg 1: femur 2.2 x 0.5 mm, possibly includes some of tibia, tarsus 

3.3 x 0.2 mm; Leg 2: femur 1 .8 x 0.7 mm; Leg 3: femur 2.2 x 0.8 mm, tibia 2. 1 x 0.4 mm, 

tarsus 1.8 mm - incomplete, possibly as much as 4.5 x 0.2 mm. 
Abdomen: six well defined segments; parallel sided to segment 4. Dorsal outline presents a 

semi-circular curve to terminate abdomen. Width 3.6 mm. 
Note: The abdomen is not part extended as in most fossils but so compressed 

longitudinally that the heavy chitinous tergites are in contact throughout showing none of 

the delicate anterior and posterior margins of the segments. This has had a notable effect on 

the total length. 

Pygidium: prominent; a bluntly rounded triangular structure. 
Forceps: basal half straight, distal half increasingly curved to tips. Length 5.7 mm, basal 

width 0.8 mm, midway width 0.5 mm, width near tip 0.3 mm. Forceps are 33.3% of total 

body length, or, to use Scudder's method, 50% of body length, omitting the forceps. 

Named for Samuel Hubbard Scudder, the father of American studies of 
fossil insects and especially those of the Eocene and Oligocene of 
Colorado. His "Tertiary Insects of North America" (1890) is the basic 
work on the topic. 






Fig. 2. Labiduromma scudderi, n.sp. Left: head and pronotum; center: positions of legs; 
right: forceps and pygidium. Bar scale is in millimeters. 

Labiduromma guerneyi, n.sp. 

The structures of cerci and pygidium of this species resemble those of 
commixtum Scudder, thus placing the insect in the commixtum - group and 
differing from all other Oligocene fossil earwings of North America. The 
new species is much larger than commixtum with proportionally larger 
forceps. 



Vol. 95, No. 1, January & February, 1984 



35 



Holotype: a male, UCM number 29902, collected by Wilmatte Porter Cockerell in UCM 
(Cockerell) pit 13B, probably in 1908. Total length from tip of mouth parts to tip of forceps, 
27.3 mm. 
Head: broadly triangular with apices. Eyes large but probably not holoptic. Palpi and 

mandibles well defined. Length 2.5 mm, width 2.3 mm. 
Antennae: only 4 mm of length visible. Basal joint swollen, 0.4 xO.4 mm, second joint 0.5 5 x 

0.25 mm, other too vague to count or measure. 

Pronotum: quadrilateral, 1.8 mm long, 1.9 mm wide, corners rounded. 
Tegmina: not well defined, partly open, posterior margin almost straight. Length 3.0 mm, 

anterior width 2.7 mm, posterior 3.9 mm. 
Legs: Legl: femur 1.7 x 0.8 mm, tibia incomplete 1.0+ x 0.3 mm; Leg 2: femur 2. 3x0. 7 

mm, tibia 2.0 x 0.4 mm and slightly curved, tarsus incomplete with basitarsus subchordate; 

Leg 3: femur 2. 8 xO.75 mm, tibia incomplete 0.4 mm wide. Leg 2 closer to leg 1 than to leg 

3. 
Abdomen: long and slender which may be an artifact of fossilization: parallel sided, last 

segment appears much longer than any other and slightly tapered to very shallowly convex 

posterior margin. This is a ventral aspect so segments II through X can be seen. 
Pygidium: broad and bluntly rounded. Base 44% the width of visible hind margin of last 

abdominal segment. 
Forceps: long, moderately stout, gently curved throughout giving a "bow-legged" appearance. 

Near the base on inner side is a large, strong tooth that embraces the pygidium. This tooth 

on both cerci almost encircles that structure. Length 6.9 mm, width at base 0.8 mm (across 

bases of the two cerci 2.6 mm); tooth width 1.1 mm, midway width 0.8 mm. Forceps 

constitute 25.3% of total length. Using Scudder's method, forceps are 34% of the body 

length, omitting the forceps. 

Paratypes: AMNH: no. 18912, a male, collected by S.A. Rohwer in UCM (Cockerell) pit 
14 in 1907. 

UCM: nos. 29900 & 29901, counterparts, a female with no specific pit number or 
collector's initial; no. 29935, a male in ventral aspect, collected by Wilmatte P. Cockerell in 
pit number 1 3B in 1 908; no. 29936, forceps only, counterparts, probably female, collected by 
Harry McGinite at University of California pit 3736 in 1937; no. 29957, probably female, 
with no indication of pit number or collector's initial. 

The species is named for Dr. Ashley B. Gurney, United States 
National Museum, the leading American student of the order Dermaptera. 





Fig. 3. Labiduromma gurneyi, n.sp. Left: head and pronotum; center: positions of legs; 
right: forceps and pygidium. Bar scale is in millimeters. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Scudder, Samuel H. 1890. The Tertiary Insects of North America. Report of the United 
States Geological Survey of the Territories. F.V. Hayden. Vol. XIII. Washington, D.C. 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DOES THE OLD WORLD FAMILY 

PLATASPIDAE (HEMIPTERA) OCCUR 

IN NORTH AMERICA? 1 

Richard C. Froeschner^ 
Evidence of two sorts leads to the posing of this question. 

First: In the national insect collection at the Smithsonian Institution 
are three females of the Asian (India through Burma into Malaysia) species 
Coptosoma duodecimpunctatum (Germar) hand-labeled "Alaska. 40 yds 
E. of Kerai Lake Lodge, near Sterling Bay, VIM 1-1954, R. Coleman." If 
this label is correct the exactness of the locality should enable interested 
persons in that area to concentrate collecting efforts to verify its presence 
there. 

Coptosoma duodecimpunctatum would be easily recognized among 
North American Heteroptera: 5.9-7 mm in length; broadly rounded, 
appearing nearly as wide as long; scutellum much enlarged, almost reaching 
sides and apex of abdomen; dorsum shining black with 8 reddish-yellow 
elongate spots on pronotum and 4 similarly colored spots in a row across 
base of scutellum. 

Second: In Catalogus Insectorum Sinensium, pages 256-257, Wu 
(1935) listed Coptosoma biguttulum Motschulsky from China, Japan, 
Korea and "America." Review of the reference listed by Wu and in works 
by other authors found no source for this "America" record. Perhaps 
"America" was an improper copy of "Amuria" listed by Oshanin (1906, 
Verz. Palaeark. Hemip., 1:3). 

Until fresh records support these occurrences, probably neither species 
should be considered a member of the North American fauna. 



1 Received and accepted November 26, 1983. 

^National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. 20560. 



ENT. NEWS 95(1): 36. January & February, 1984 



When submitting papers, all authors are requested to ( 1 ) provide the names of two qualified 
individuals who have critically reviewed the manuscript before it is submitted and (2) submit 
the names and addresses of two qualified authorities in the subject field to whom the 
manuscript may be referred by the editor for final review. All papers are submitted to 
recognized authorities for final review before acceptance. 

Titles should be carefully composed to reflect the true contents of the article, and be kept as 
brief as possible. Classification as to order and family should be included in the title, except 
where not pertinent. Following the title there should be a short informative abstract (not a 
descriptive abstract) of not over 1 50 words. The abstract is the key to how an article is cited in 
abstracting journals and should be carefully written. The author's complete mailing address, 
including zip code number, should be given as a footnote to the article. All papers describing 
new taxa should include enough information to make them useful to the nonspecialist. 
Generally this requires a key and a short review or discussion of the group, plus references to 
existing revisions or monographs. Illustrations nearly always are needed. All measurements 
shall be given using the metric system or, if in the standard system, comparable equivalent 
metric values shall be included. Authors can be very helpful by indicating, in pencil in the 
margin of the manuscript, approximate desired locations within the text of accompanying 
figures, tables and other illustrations. 

Illustrations: For maximum size and definition, full page figures, including legends, should 
be submitted as nearly as possible in a proportion of 4/6. Maximum size of printed illustration, 
including all legends, is 4Vi x bVi inches. Authors will be charged for all text figures and half- 
tones at the rate of $7.50 each, regardless of size. 

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WANTED: Studies on the Comparative Ethology of Digger Wasps of the Genus Bembix by 
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VOL 9E 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
MARCH & APRIL 1984 No. 2 



MOLOGICAL NEWS 



New species of Rhyacophila group (Trichoptera: 

Rhyacophilidae) S.D. Smith, J.S. Weaver, III 37 

Description of last nymphal instar of Xestocephalus 

ancorifer (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) Paul S. Cwikla 40 

Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), 
Douglas Fir chalcid, found in New York State 

C.E. Palm, Jr., L.P. Abrahamson 43 



New habitat records for Glenanthe species 
(Diptera: Ephydridae) 



B.A. Steinly 45 



Nest defense by social wasps Polistes exclamans & 
P. instabilis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) against the 
parasitoid Elasmus polistis (Hymenoptera: 
Eulophidae) G. G. Lutz, J.E. Strassmann, C.R. Hughes 47 



Host plant records for North American ragweed 
flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) 



B.A. Foote 51 



A spate of glowworms (Coleoptera: Phenogodidae) 

Steven R. Wing 55 

A simplified holder for eumenid nesting blocks 

(Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) J.A. Collins, D.T. Jennings 58 



An inexpensive carrion beetle trap (Coleoptera: 
Silphidae) 



Paul P. Shubeck 63 



Mass rearing method for large milkweed bug Oncopeltus 
fasciatus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) 

K.P. Koerper, C.D. Jorgensen 65 

| A method of storing insect genitalia for taxonomic 

study J.E. O'Hara, M.G. Mclntyre 70 



ANNOUNCEMENTS 
BOOK REVIEW 



39, 44, 46, 50, 54, 57, 62, 69 

42 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 

A NEW SPECIES OF THE RHYACOPHILA 

BRUNNEA GROUP (TRICHOPTERA: 

RH YACOPHILIDAE) ' 

S.D. Smith 2 , J.S. Weaver, IIj3 

ABSTRACT: Rhyacophila starki, new species of the Rhyacophila brunnea species group, 
from Oregon and northern California, is described and figured. Adults of/?, starki are similar 
to those of R. inculta. However, R. starki is unique with male in lateral view having 
posterodorsal margin of abdominal segment IX shaped like a human face in profile, with a 
short "nose" (a transverse posterodorsal ridge) extending over the base of segment X and with 
female having posterior of abdominal segment IX bearing a pair of ventrolateral keel-like 
ridges. 

Recent examinations of caddisfly collections from Oregon and 
California revealed a previously unknown species of Rhyaophila. This 
species is included in the Rhyacophila bninnea group (== R. acropedes 
group, sensu Schmid 1970) cf. Smith and Manuel (1984). This brings the 
total number of Nearctic species in the R. brunnea group to 7, including/?. 
brunnea Banks, R. grandis Banks, R. inculta Ross and Spencer, R. 
neograndis Denning, R. sequoia Denning, R. starki Smith and Weaver, 
and R. vao Milne. 

Rhyacophila starki, new species 
figures 1, 2, 3 

This species appears to be most closely related to R. inculta Ross and 
Spencer (1952). However, R. starki is unique, with male in lateral view 
having posterodorsal margin of segment IX shaped like a human face in 
profile, bearing a short pointed "nose" (a short transverse ridge) just above 
segment X, and inferior appendages each with 2nd article unlike those of 
related species, neither foot shaped nor with dorsal margin greatly incised; 
females distinguished by having posterior of segment IX with short 
ventrolateral keel-like ridges. 

MALE (fig. 1 ): Length 1 2 mm. Head and thorax dark brown to black; wings same color, 
irrorate; legs and abdominal sclerites brown. Genitalia having abdominal segment IX in 
lateral view (fig. 1 A), with dorsum about 1.5 times longer than pleuron and posterior margin in 
lateral view shaped like human face in profile, just above base of segment X; abdominal 
segment X in lateral view somewhat rectangular, length about 2 times its height, in dorsal view 
(fig. 1 B) divided into pair of wide elongate lobes with apices each bearing shallow notch, about 
3 times as long as basal width; inferior appendages in lateral view (fig. 1 A) similar to those of 

'Received November 30, 1983. Accepted February 14, 1984. 

2 Dept. of Biological Sciences, Central Washington University. Ellensburg. WA 98926. 

^Dept. of Entomology, Fisheries and Wildlife, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631. 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 37-39 March & April 1984 




38 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



R. inculta, but each with 1st article elongate, not sharply constricted, widest at base, ventral 
margin concave, and with 2nd article somewhat acuminate, apex blunt, dorsal margin not 
greatly incised, apical half of mesal surface spinose; phallic apparatus typical of bnumea 
group, lateral arms membranous, extensive, apices spinose. 

FEMALE (figs. 2, 3): Length 14 mm, with similar coloration as in male. Genitalia with 
posterior of abdominal segment IX in lateral view (fig. 2A) bearing ventrolateral, keel-like 





1A 



2A 




1B 



Figures 1-3 Rhyacophila starki. 1 . Male genitalia; A. lateral view; B. dorsal view. 2. Female 
abdominal segment IX; A. lateral view; B. dorsal view. 3. Female vaginal apparatus, ventral 



view. 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 39 



ridges, in dorsal view (fig. 2B) posterior margin having wide, irregular, W-shaped emargination 
with short mid-dorsal, curved flange. Vaginal apparatus (fig. 3) similar to those of R. inculta, 
having 2 pairs of elongate, acuminate arms and shorter ovate central process about 2 times as 
long as wide. 

Material Examined 

HOLOTYPE: Male, Oregon, Jackson Co., 1 mile north of Wrangle Camp, Rogue River 
National Forest, 8 July 1979, W.P. Stark &K.W. Stewart; deposited in California Academy 
of Sciences, an Francisco, CA. 

ALLOTYPE: Female, same data as holotype. 

PARATYPE: Male, California, Del Norte Co., seeps. Smith River Canyon, U.S. Hwy. 
1 99, 1 8 March 1 972, R.A. Haick & D.S. Potter; deposited in collection of Dr. D.G. Denning. 
Moraga, CA. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are grateful to Drs. D.G. Denning and W.P. Stark who made the caddisfly material 
available to us for examination which included this new species. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ross, H.H. and G.J. Spencer. 1952. A preliminary list of Trichoptera of British Columbia. 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. British Columbia, 48: 43-51. 
Schmid, F. 1970. Le genre Rhvacophila et la famille des Rhyacophilidae (Trichoptera). 

Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can., 66: 1-230. 
Smith, S.D. and K.L. Manuel. 1984 (in press). Reconsideration of the Rhvacophila 

acropedes group based on adults (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). In J.C. Morse, ed., 

Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Trichoptera, Junk, The Hague. 



ELM RESEARCH INSTITUTE TO AWARD FIRST ANNUAL 
PRIZE FOR DUTCH ELM DISEASE CONTROL 

In an effort to develop new controls for Dutch elm disease. Elm Research Institute, 
Harrisville, NH has announced its first annual research prize of $10,000. 

The prize to be announced via national media, will go to the entry which best outlines a 
research program that will ultimately lead to development of a new systemic repellent for the 
elm bark beetle. 

All proposals will be judged on the basis of: 

1. Water solubility for systemic injection 

2. Phytotoxicity 

3. Beetle deterence at point of feeding 

4. Chemical stability of the repellent 

5. Bio-assay technique for tracing distribution 

ERI stresses that this is not a research grant. It is an award for originality in the 
presentation of new concepts, new methods of achieving repellency through systemic 
treatment. 

Prizes will be awarded as follows: $5,000. first place, $3.000. second. $2.000. third. 
Judging will be by a panel of recognized experts composed of entomologists and plant 
pathologists. All entries should be mailed to Elm Research Institute. Harrisville, NH 03450 
by May 1st, 1984 and will become the property of the Institute. 

For further information call (603) 827-3048. 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DESCRIPTION OF LAST NYMPHAL INSTAR OF 
XESTOCEPHALUS ANCORIFER (HOMOPTERA: 

CICADELLIDAE) 1 

Paul S. Cwikla 2 

ABSTRACT: The last instar nymph ofXestocephalus ancorifer Linnavuori is described and 
the pharate adult is illustrated. 

No nymphal stage of any member of the leafhopper genus Xestocephalus 
Van Duzee has ever been described. Through the kindness of Dr. James P. 
Kramer, U.S. National Museum, I have been able to examine 2 male 
specimens of Xestocephalus, one of which is a teneral adult still attached to 
the exuviae and a pharate adult which shares the same size and characteristics as 
the exuviae. The adult is identified as X. ancorifer Linnavuori, 1959. 

X. ancorifer ranges from Panama south to Paraguay (Linnavuori, 
1959). The biology of the genus is poorly known. Oman (1949) suspects 
that the nymphs of Xestocephalus live in ground litter or other subterranean 
habitats. In addition, Oman ( 1 949) speculates that the nymphs may also be 
myrmecophilous because the closely related genus Myrmecophryne Kirkaldy 
has been collected in ants' nests. This is supported by Hamilton ( 1 975 ) who 
sifted a species of Xestocephalus from topsoil which also contained ants. 

This paper describes and illustrates the last instar nymph of X. 
ancorifer. It is hoped that the description and illustration will aid in future 
identifications of immature Xestocephalus species. The collection data for 
the specimens used in this study are: Brazil, Bahia, Itabuna, July 1971, 
T.A. Winder, in cacao leaf litter. The specimens are deposited in the U.S. 
National Museum. 

Description of Last Instar Nymph 

Length: 3.2 mm., width of pronotum - 0.9 mm. 

Form: Elongate, stout dorsoventrally, widest at wingpads. Head rounded anteriorly in 
lateral view, antennal pits not well developed, beak 3-segmented, extending to mesosternum, 
crown and clypeus roughened by tuberculi bearing small setae, surface of clypellus, lora and 

gena smooth. Pronotum asperate, trapezoidal in dorsal view, episternum triangular, coxa of 
prothoracic leg about 2/3 that of femur, tibia with single row of spines on dorsal margin, 
tarsomeres of prothoracic legs 2-segmented. Dorsum of mesonotum asperate, mesonotal 
wingpad almost as long as metanotal wingpad, episternum not divided as in the adult, coxa 2 
smaller than coxa 1 , rest of mesothoracic leg like prothoracic leg. Dorsum of metanotum 
asperate, wingpad extending to anterior margin of third abdominal tergite, metathoracic femur 
laterally flattened, tibia with 2 rows of spines on dorsal and ventral sides, apex of tibia ringed 

Deceived October 21, 1983. Accepted February 14, 1984. 

2 Department of Entomology, 1735 Neil Avenue, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 
Ohio, 43210. 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 40-42 March & April 1984 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 



41 



with setae, tarsomeres 3-segmented. Abdomen 8-segmented, ninth segment forms the genital 
capsule, posterior margin of abdominal tergites with row of setae, small setae occasionally 
scattered on surface of tergites. 

Coloration: Dorsum rust brown, ventral surface of abdomen and thorax pale yellow, legs 
in dorsal view light brown. 




Fig. 1 . Habitus of the pharate adult of Xestocephalus ancorifer showing last nymphal instar 
characteristics. 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEGMENTS 

I thank Dwight M. DeLong and Charles A. Triplehorn, Department of Entomology, The 
Ohio State University, for criticizing an earlier draft of this manuscript. Lori Capron, 
Columbus, Ohio, kindly prepared the habitus illustration. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hamilton, K.G.A. 1975. A review of the Northern Hemisphere Aphrodina (Rhynchota: 
Homoptera: Cicadellidae) with special reference to the Nearctic fauna. Can. Entomol. 
107: 1009-1027. 

Linnavuori, R. 1959. Revision of the Neotropical Deltocephalinae and some related 
subfamilies (Homoptera). Ann. Zool. Soc. 'Vanamo' 20: 1-370. 

Oman, P.W. 1949. The Nearctic leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae): a generic classi- 
fication and check list. Entomol. Soc. Wash. Mem. 3. 253 pp. 



BOOK REVIEW 

NEW ZEALAND BUTTERFLIES Identification and Natural History. George W. 
Gibbs. 1980. Collins, Auckland. 207 p., 197 pis., 63 text figs. Price $45. 

This sumptuously illustrated and beautifully printed book recently made its way to the 
American market. It is an excellent example of the kind of book those of us interested in 
butterfly faunistics would like to publish; an exhaustive treatment of all species known from the 
area under consideration, with sharp colored plates depicting immature stages, living adults, 
habitats, and spread museum specimens as well. In addition, there are excellent scanning 
electron photomicrographs of eggs, larval setae, adult scale types, and other ultrastructure. 
Photos of parasitoids, additional drawings to aid identification of adults, and distribution maps 
add further to the visual enrichment of this book. 

Of the 23 species recorded from New Zealand, 1 1 are known only from that island 
country; the rest are common to Australia and New Zealand. Some of the latter group- such as 
Danaus plexippus, Pieris rapae, and Lampides boeticus - are widespread in the world. After 
an introduction in which he discusses New Zealand's paucity of butterfly species and a general 
history of New Zealand lepidopterology, Gibbs discusses migration and introduction of 
species "over the Tasman" Sea from Australia. The body of the book is devoted to meticulous 
treatment of identification, life histories, ecology, and habits of the 23 species, with diagnostic 
introductions for each family, subfamily, and genus. The fauna consists of 2 Pieridae, 3 
Danaidae, 7 Satyridae (these last 2 families treated as subfamilies of the Nymphalidae), 5 
Nymphalidae (sensu strictu), and 6 Lycaenidae (4 coppers and 2 blues). No Papilionidae or 
Hesperiidae have been recorded there as yet. 

The book is rounded out with a chapter discussing how and where to look for butterflies in 
New Zealand, and a glossary and extensive bibliography. The quality of writing and 
illustration is high (though I noticed the irritating use of "larvae" in the singular), and printing 
and binding are more than satisfactory. Gibbs has given us a well-researched and virtually 
complete coverage of New Zealand butterflies from all aspects. It could be a model for similar 
works in other regions where the butterfly fauna is not so overwhelming in quantity as to 
preclude such a work from a standpoint of labor and expense. 

Charles V. Covell Jr., Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 43 



MEGASTIGMUS SPERMOTROPHUS WACHTL. 

(HYMENOPTERA: CHALCIDOIDEA) 

(DOUGLAS-FIR CHALCID) FOUND IN 

NEW YORK STATE 1 

Carl E. Palm, Jr., Lawrence P. Abrahamson^ 

ABSTRACT: A seed and cone insect survey in New York state documented the first 
recorded occurrence of Metastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. in the eastern United States. 

Preliminary surveys of seed and cone insects are being conducted in 
conjunction with an evaluation of conifer seed production in New York. 
Seeds and cones were collected and examined for insect damage. Adults of 
Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl. emerged from a collection of 
Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii(Mirb.) Franco] cones. This is the first 
record of M. spermotrophus in the eastern United States. 

M. spermotrophus is widespread in the western United States, 
throughout the range of Douglas-fir (Hedlin et al. 1 980). In addition, it has 
been recorded in Scotland, Germany and New Zealand (Gourlay 1930, 
Hanson 1952 and Milliron 1949). 

Detection of M spermotrophus is difficult due to the seclusion of larvae 
in seeds, where the larvae may remain in diapause for up to three years. 
Larvae can be detected by radiography (Ruth 1980), but no external 
evidence of damage is present until the adult chalcid emerges in the spring 
(Hedlin et al. 1980. Keen 1958, and Milliron 1949). 

METHODS AND RESULTS 

Sixty Douglas-fir cones from Columbia and Orange counties, (Cler- 
mont and Windsor townships, respectively) in eastern New York were 
examined. These cones were collected from the ground beneath ornamental 
trees in April 1983 and held indoors at approximately 20 C C. Within three 
weeks, 26 chalcids (7 males and 19 females) emerged from the overwintering 
seeds. Additional collections will be made in the coming year to evaluate 
the impact and extent of this Douglas-fir seed pest. 



'Received September 1. 1983. Accepted November 4, 1983. 

-Technical Assistant and Senior Research Associate, State University of New York. College 
of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse. NY 13210. 



ENT. NEWS 95(2) 43-44 March & April 1984 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Kenneth R. Law, U.S. Department of Agriculture, APHIS, Newburgh, New 
York for his assistance and Dr. E.E. Grissell, Systematic Entomology Laboratory IIBIII, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland for species verification. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Gourlay, E.S. 1 930. Some parasitic Hymenoptera of economic importance in New Zealand. 

The New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology. 1 1: 339-343. 
Hanson, H.S. 1952. Megastigmus seedflies. Quarterly Journal of Forestry. 46: 261-264. 
Hedlin, A.F., H.O. Yates III, D.C. Tovar, B.H. Ebel, T.W. Koerber and E.P. Merkel. 

1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. Environmental Canada. 

Canada Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 122 pp. 
Keen, F.P. 1958. Cone and seed insects of Western forest trees. USDA Tech. Bull. No. 

1169: 110-111. 
Milliron, H.E. 1 949. Taxonomic and biological investigation in the genus Megastigmus. The 

American Midland Naturalist. 41: 313-316. 
Ruth, D.S. 1980. A guide to insect pests in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Canadian Forestry 

Service, Pacific Forest Research Centre, BC-X-204: 19. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 59 21 October 1983 

The following Opinions have been published by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, vol. 40, part 3, on 21 
October 1983: 

Opinion No. 

1257 (p. 149) Tipula ferruginea Fabricius, 1805 (Insecta, Diptera): conserved. 

1258 (p. 151) Oc hthera exsculpia Loew, 1862 (Insecta, Diptera): placed on the Official 

List. 

1260 (p. 157) Orthunga Dohrn, 1859 (Insecta, Hemiptera): added to Official List. 
The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 

RV. MELVILLE, Secretary 



Vol. 95. No. 2. March & April 1984 45 

NEW HABITAT RECORDS FOR GLENANTHE 
SPECIES (DIPTERA: EPHYDRIDAE) 1 

B.A. Steinly 2 

ABSTRACT: New habitat records are presented for Glenanthe interior Chillcott. Several 
specimens were collected over an algal-covered seep and sand shore. Also, G. litorea Cresson 
was discovered in the marine sand beach habitat. 

Three species of shore flies, Glenanthe litorea Cresson, G. interior 
Chillcott, and G.fascipennis Sturtevant and Wheeler are recorded from the 
United States. Sturtevant and Wheeler ( 1954) reported G.fascipennis and 
G. litorea from rather barren, moist saline areas. Also, G. litorea has been 
recorded from saltmarshes (Cresson, 1925; Simpson, 1976). G. interior 
was initially swept from Petalostoma sp. growing on stable spruce covered 
sand dunes in Manitoba, Canada (Chillcott, 1 964). A single specimen of G. 
interior collected over a sedge meadow seepage area in Butler County, 
Ohio, constitutes the only United States record (Regensburg, 1978; 
Deonier and Regensburg, 1978). 

Morphological separation of Glenanthe Haliday species is based upon 
wing and antennal characters. G. litorea has hyaline wings lacking pattern 
and gray antennae. In contrast, G. fascipennis has wings with two broad, 
poorly defined dark fasciae, one including the posterior crossvein and one 
nearer the wing apex, as well as yellowish antennae (Sturtevant and 
Wheeler, 1954). Additional descriptive characters include a fourth vein 
index of 2.2 for G. litorea and a fourth vein index of 2.0 for G.fascipennis 
( Sturtevant and Wheeler, 1 954). Cresson ( 1 925 ) listed the body length of 
G. litorea at 1.7 mm, while G. fascipennis is slightly smaller with a body 
length of 1.5 mm (Sturtevant and Wheeler, 1954). 

While sampling in southern Ohio, I discovered several populations of 
Glenanthe interior in Butler County. Several specimens were collected 
with a modified aerial sweep net (Regensberg, 1 977) in close proximity to a 
freshwater creek above an algal covered seep and sand shore. Also, the 
common saltmarsh inhabitant, G. litorea, was collected over a marine sand 
beach in Milford, Connecticut. The new aquatic and marine records 
substantiate wider habitat distributions. The two new Ohio records expand 
the distribution of G. interior to four distinctive aquatic habitats. G. interior 
has been collected from these four habitats from May through early July. 



1 Received November 19, 1983. Accepted February 14, 1984. 

2 Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 45-46 March & April 1984 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Family Ephydridae 

Glenanthe interior Chillcott 

Distribution: Butler Co., Ohio Four Mile Creek, Algal covered seep with limestone mud 
substrate, four adults, V-17-1979; three adults, V-18-1979; Marker's Run, Sand shore, 5 
adults, VI-28-1978. 
Glenanthe litorea Cresson 

Distribution: Milford, Conn., Anchor Beach, Sand beach intertidal area, 1 adult, VIII-7- 
1978. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Dr. D.L. Doenier for confirmation of species determinations and review of an early 
draft. I wish to express appreciation to Dr. May Berenbaum for reviewing the final manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chillcott, J.G. 1 964. A new species of Glenanthe Haliday (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the 

North American interior. Can. Ent. 96: 811-812. 
Cresson, E.T. 1925. Descriptions of new genera and species of the dipterous, family 

Ephydridae. VII. Ent. New 36: 165-167. 
Deonier, D.L. and J.T. Regensberg. 1978. New records of Ohio shore flies (Diptera: 

Ephydridae). Ohio J. Sci. 78: 154-155. 
Regensberg, J.T. 1977. A modified sweep net for quantitative sampling. Ent. News 88: 141- 

142. 
Regensberg, J.T. 1978. A new U.S. record for Glenanthe interior Chillcott (Diptera: 

Ephydridae). Ent. New 89: 93-94. 
Simpson, K.W. 1976. Shore and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). Chapter 17. In: L. 

Cheng, ed. Marine insects. Am. Elsevier Publ. Co. New York. 
Sturtevant, A.H. and M.R. Wheeler. 1954. Synopses of Nearctic Ephydridae (Diptera). 

Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 79: 51-257. 



ANNOUNCING 

MEMOIR # 34 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM 

ON CHIRONOMIDAE 

32 papers on chironomid systematics, ecology, biology, and genetics. 385 pp. $25.00. 



Vol. 95, No. 2. March & April 1984 47 

NEST DEFENSE BY THE SOCIAL WASPS, 

POLISTES EXCLAMANS AND P. INSTABILIS 

(HYMENOPTERA: VESPIDAE) AGAINST THE 

PARASYTOID.ELASMUSPOLISTJS (HYMENOPTERA: 

CHALCIDOIDEA: EULOPHIDAE) 1 

Genie G. Lutz, Joan E. Strassmann, Colin R. Hughes^ 

ABSTRACT: Polistes exclamans and P. instabilis were observed to remove from their nests 
larvae ofElasmuspolistis, and to snap at adult parasitoids. These are newly reported defenses 
against a parasitoid that is new to North American Polistes. 

Social wasps are plagued by many nest parasitoids which attack and eat 
brood (Nelson, 1968; Rau, 1941; Jeanne, 1979; Strassmann, 1981). 
Polistes employ several different defenses against these parasitoids. When 
adult parasitoids are detected near the nest, Polistes engage in a "parasite 
dance" and search all over the nest and substrate for the parasitoids (West 
Eberhard, 1969; Strassmann, 1981). Litte (1981) found that Mischocyttarus 
labiatus cut their nests down to the pedicel when phorid flies were detected 
nearby. Jeanne (1979) discovered that Polistes canadensis formed multiple 
combs to protect new brood from tineid moths infesting older cells. Starr 
(1976) suggested that nests of Polistes are not used for more than one 
season because of the parasitoids that overwinter in them. This hypothesis 
was supported by the observation that a population of P. annularis that was 
nearly free of parasitoids reused 10% of its nests (Strassmann, 1979). 

METHODS 

The observations reported here were part of a larger study of the 
behavior of P. exclamans and P. instabilis. A wild population of P. 
exclamans on the roof of the biology building at Rice University was 
observed in the summer of 1982. P. instabilis was observed in Puerto 
Oscondido, Oaxaca, Mexico in August 1983. Females were marked in 
both cases and nests were monitored daily. 

RESULTS 

We found that Polistes exclamans and P. instabilis actively defended 
their brood against Elasmus polistis, a small chalcid parasite whose larvae 



1 Received October 7, 1983. Accepted December 10, 1983. 
^Biology Department, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 47-50 March & April 1984 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



are external parasitoids on prepupae and pupae in capped cells of Polistes 
(Reed and Vinson, 1979). They snapped at adult parasitoids with their 
mandibles, sometimes cutting them in two, and searched over the nest for 
females trying to lay eggs. Larvae of E. polistis were pulled out of cells and 
dropped or fed to wasp larvae. 

We observed an older worker that had been marked on a regularly- 
censused nest of P. exclamans in Houston, Texas, pull several larvae of E. 
polistis out of a cell and drop them. Since the nest was in a plywood nest 
box, the expelled larvae fell only a few inches to the bottom of the nest box 
where about 15 parasitoid larvae had accumulated. The worker P. 
exclamans had reached the larvae of E. polistis by chewing through the 
partition separating them from the remains of the wasp larva. This partition 
is made of meconia of the larvae of E. polistis and is constructed just before 
pupation, after they have finished feeding on the host prepupa, or pupa 
(Reed and Vinson, 1 979). The partition appears to simulate the texture and 
color of the meconium normally deposited in the bottom of the cell by larvae 
of Polistes and pupation. 

P. instabilis was observed in a tree in Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca, 
Mexico. After briefly observing the nest one day we returned the following 
day to find that about half of the cells with pupal caps had been destroyed by 
the workers on the nest. While we watched, two more paper wasp pupae 
with larvae of E. polistis attached to them were aborted by the workers. The 
E. polistis were chewed up and fed to brood by workers. 

DISCUSSION 

The short development times from egg to adult of E. polistis of 1 7 to 20 
days allow several generations of E. polistis to infest the same nest over the 
season (Reed and Vinson, 1979; Strassmann, 1981). Strassmann (1981) 
found that males emerged before females, remain near the nest to mate with 
their sisters who reinfested the nest. Numbers of parasitized cells increased 
over the season to a maximum of 25 cells per nest parasitized by E. polistis 
(S.D. = 37, N = 41 nests) in an Austin Texas population of P. exclamans 
in 1 978 ( Strassmann, 1981). Since the potential for increased parasitism on 
the host nest exist, Polistes with a high incidence of parasitism by E. polistis 
may be expected to benefit from an active defense mechanism even one 
that removes parasitoids after the wasp brood has been killed. 

E. polistis is a parasitoid that is new to central Texas Polistes. Burks 
(1971) described it for the first time in 1971. Polistes have been so 
thoroughly collected and studied that it is unlikely that it was present and 
undetected previously (Reed and Vinson, 1979 and refs. therein). Rau, a 
most thorough collector, collected in Austin, Texas, and does not mention 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 49 



E. polistis or anything similar though he does mention other parasitoid 
species (Rau, 1943). He stored his nests in bags from which E. polistis 
could not escape (Rau, 1941 ). It is possible that E. polistis has a defense 
behavior that can be defeated by wasps because Polistes are a new host for 
E. polistis. 

Parasitoids adopt one of two general types of defense against 
destruction by Polistes: concealment and fortification. E. polistis have 
pupae concealed under a layer which mimics meconium of Polistes. E. 
polistis achieves this by migrating as larvae to one position, and all larvae 
depositing their meconia at one level resulting in a plate of meconium 
thicker at the edges than in the center (Reed and Vinson, 1 979). The ability 
of adult Polistes to tear through this and remove parasitoids of E. polistis 
once they have defeated the mimicry involved contrasts with the situation of 
several other parasites. Chalcoela iphitalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 
another common parasitoid of Polistes, builds webbing so strong that 
workers seem to be incapable of chewing through it. However C. iphitalis do 
not reinfest the nest from which they emerge in the same season so it would 
only be worthwhile to remove them before they have damaged brood 
( Strassmann, 1981). Polistes may also remove brood of C. ipitalis to keep 
them from attacking nearby nests if those nests are likely to belong to 
relatives. Pachysomoides stupides and Pachysomoidesfulvus (Hymenop- 
tera: Ichneumonidae) also construct casings that Polistes can remove only 
by destroying that entire region of the nest. Polistes also tear great sections 
of the nest away to remove pupae of Sarcophaga polistis (Diptera: Sar- 
cophagidae) which lie across several cells at the very bottom of the nest 
where they are concealed (Strassmann, unpubl.; Hughes, unpubl.). Appar- 
ently these pupae can only be removed by substantial nest destruction. 

Of 1 6 nests which had extensive areas of the nest chewed away at a field 
site near Houston, seven contained brood of P. stupidus and 2 contained 
brood of C iphitalis. Since some parasitization probably went unrecorded, 
for example that underneath pupal caps, this nest destruction is probably 
always a response to parasitoids. Fourteen of the 16 nests were P. 
carolinus, a species which nests very close to its natal nest site (Hughes, 
unpubl. ; Rau, 1931), and would therefore aid relatives by removing parasite 
pupae from the immediate area. 

Over 60% of all nests of P. exclamans lose brood to the parasitoids E. 
polistis or C. iphitalis or both each year in central Texas (Strassmann, 
1981 ). Though worker wasps appear to make every attempt to keep adult 
parasitoids from laying eggs in the nest, and to remove parasitoid eggs and 
larvae when they do, many of these attempts are ineffective. The abundance 
of E. polistis in nests of Polistis suggests that workers often do not detect the 
parasitoids. 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Bill Mueller for comments on the manuscript. This research was supported by 
NSF DEB81-17682 to J.E.S. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Burks, B.D. 1971. A North American Elasmus parasitic on Polistes. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 

61: 194-196. 
Jeanne, R.L. 1979. Construction and utilization of multiple combs in Polistes canadensis in 

relation to the biology of a predaceous moth. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 4: 293-310. 
Litte, M. 1981. Social biology of the polistine wasp, Mischocyttarus labiatus: survival in a 

Colombian rain forest. Smithsonian Contrib. Zoology 327: 1-27. 
Nelson, J.M. 1968. Parasites adn symbionts of nests of Polistes wasps. Ann. Entomol. Soc. 

Amer. 61: 1528-1539. 
Rau, P. 1 93 1 . The nesting habits of Polistes rubiginosiswith special reference to pleometrosis 

in this and other species of Polistes wasps. 
Rau, P. 1 94 1 . Observations on certain lepidopterous and hymenopterous parasites of Polistes 

wasps. Ann. Entomoi. Soc. Amer. 34: 355-366. 
Rau, P. 1 943. The nesiing habits of Mexican social and solitary wasps of the family Vespidae. 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 36: 515-536. 
Reed, H.C. and S.B. Vinson. 1979. Observations of the life history and behavior of Elasmus 

polistis Burks (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 

52: 247-257. 
Starr, C.K. 1976. Nest reutilization of Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and 

possible limitation of multiple foundress associations of parasitoids. J. Kansas Entomol. 

Soc. 49: 142-144. 
Strassmann, J.E. 1979. Honey caches help female paper wasps (Polistes annularis) survive 

Texas winters. Science 204: 207-209. 
Strassmann. J.E. 1981. Parasitoids, predators, and group size in the paper wasp, Polistes 

exclamans. Ecology 62: 1225-1223. 
West Eberhard, M.J. 1969. The social biology of polistine wasps. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. 

Univ. Mich. 140: 1-101. 



The American Entomological Society 

congratulates 

The Entomological Society of Washington (D.C.) 

upon its' achievement of 100 years of service 

to the science of entomology 



Vol. 95, No. 2. March & April 1984 51 

HOST PLANT RECORDS FOR NORTH AMERICAN 
RAGWEED FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) 1 

B.A. Foote 2 



ABSTRACT: Information is given on host plants and infestation rates for 7 of the 8 North 
American species of Euaresta. The host plants are either ragweeds of the genus Ambrosia or 
cockleburs of the genus Xanthium, 2 genera of the tribe Ambrosieae (Compositae). 

The genus Euaresta is a relatively small taxon within the family 
Tephritidae of the acalyptrate Diptera. It includes 8 species from America 
north of Mexico (Quisenberry, 1950; Foote, 1965), as well as several from 
south of the United States; however, virtually no host data are available for 
these latter species and some doubt exists as to whether they actually belong 
to the genus (R.H. Foote, in litt.). Relatively little is known of the life 
histories or larval feeding habits of the Nearctic species except that they 
seem to be associated either with cockleburs of the genus Xanthium or 
ragweeds of the genus Ambrosia (Compositae: Ambrosieae). Marlatt 
( 1 89 1 ) discussed the natural history of E. aequalis(Loew), a seed predator 
of cocklebur (X. strumarium L.). Foote (1965) reported that larvae of E. 
bella(Loew) and E. festiva (Loew) attacked the seeds of common ragweed 
(A. artemisiifolia L.) and giant ragweed (A. trifida L.), respectively. He 
also listed host plants for selected species of Euaresta and discussed briefly 
the life cycles of E. bella and E. festiva. Batra (1979) described in 
considerable detail the courtship behavior and oviposition habits of these 
two species. Goeden and Ricker (1974a, 1974b, 1976) recorded host 
plants for E. bellula Snow and E. stigmatica Coquillett. Wasbauer ( 1972) 
listed hosts for 7 species of Euaresta. 

Because species of Ambrosia are prime sources of hayfever-causing 
pollen (Dickerson and Sweet 1 97 1 ) and are important weeds in agricultural 
regions (Danielson et al. 1965), various workers (e.g. Harris and Piper 
1970) have suggested that seed predators such as the larvae of Euaresta 
spp. could be important biocontrol agents. 

The present paper gives information on the host plants and infestation 
rates for several of the Nearctic species of Euaresta. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Unless otherwise indicated on Table 1 , all of the host plant records were 
obtained by the author. Collections of seeds obtained in the field were 



'Received April 22, 1983. Accepted February 14. 1984. 

^Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 51-54 March & April 1984 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



transferred to a laboratory where estimates of infestation rates and 
identifications of the seed predators were made. Each sample consisted of 
at least 10 involucres containing one or more seeds, with at least three 
replicate samples of involucres being taken from each host plant. Whenever 
possible, several individuals of the same plant species were sampled (see 
columns 3 and 4 of Table 1). 

Field-collected involucres were either dissected and examined in the 
laboratory for Euaresta larvae or placed in 4-dram shell vials to allow 
emergence of adults. Infestation percentages were obtained by dividing the 
number of seeds containing larvae by the total number of seeds examined in 
each sample. Identifications of the infesting species of Euaresta were based 
on adult flies that emerged from seeds of each host plant in the laboratory 
rearings. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Table 1 presents information on the host plants and gives infestation 
levels for 7 of the 8 Nearctic species of Euaresta. Several conclusions can be 
drawn from the data. It is obvious that considerable variation exists in the 
amount of seed damage sustained by different host plants. For example, up 
to 98% of the seeds of canyon ragweed [A. ambrosioides (Cav.) Payne] 
were attacked by larvae of E. bellula, whereas never more than 8% of the 
seeds produced by common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) were destroyed by 
larvae of E. bella. A second observation deals with the infestation levels 
that were obtained for different species of Ambrosia that served as the host 
plant for the same species of Euaresta. Thus, it seems evident that a 
preferred host of E. stigmatica is holly leaf bur sage [A. ilicifolia(Gray) 
Payne], as up to 90% of its seeds were being utilized. Fairly high infestation 
levels were also encountered in bur sage [A. deltoidea(Torrey) Payne], but 
no more than 2% of the seeds of canyon ragweed were infested by this 
species of Euaresta. Another conclusion is that different genetic strains of a 
host plant can show varying responses to Euaresta attack. In northeastern 
Ohio, over half of the seeds of cocklebur contained larvae of E. aequalis, 
whereas the same host plant in southcentral Arizona showed no larval 
infestation even though the stand occurred well within the range of the fly. 
Finally, it should be noted that several species of Ambrosia apparently are 
not utilized by any species of Euaresta. Seeds of A. cordifolia (Gray) 
Payne (270 seeds examined) collected near Tucson, Arizona and of A. 
dumosa (Gray) Payne (889 seeds) collected in western Arizona contained 
no larvae or puparia of Euaresta, Similarly, no infestations were encountered in 
A. bidentata Michx. (20 seeds, Missouri) or A. grayi (Nels.) Shinners (40 
seeds, Nebraska). 

The data presented above give credence to the idea that the genus 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 



53 



Euaresta is unified biologically by its restriction to host plants belonging to 
the composite tribe Ambrosieae. It is obvious that the genera A mbrosia and 
Xanthium are heavily utilized, but whether species of other genera of 
Ambrosieae are also attacked remains unknown. Thus, no records are 
available for species of Iva, Dicorea, and Hymneoclea. 



Table 1. Host Plants and Infestation Rates for North American Euaresta 



Species of 

Euaresta Host Plant 

aequalis Xanthium stnimarium 

X. strumarium 

bella Ambrosia artemisiifo/ia 

bellula A. acanthicarpa 
A. ambrosioides 
A. chamissonis 
A. chenopodiifolia 
bullans X. spinosum 
festiva A. trifida 
jonesi A. chamissonis 

stigmatica A. acanthicarpa 
A. ambrosioides 
A. del to idea 
A. ilicifolia 
tapetis Unknown 

1. Goeden and Ricker, 1974a. 

2. Goeden and Ricker, 1974b. 



No. of Plants No. of Seeds % of Seeds 
Sampled Examined Infested 



5 
2 
3 

17 



12 



17 
9 

3 



200 

80 

180 



2306 



2207 

841 

40 



8.0-55.0 

0.0 
0.0- 8.0 



2207 50.0-98.0 



2.0-24.4 



1.0- 2.0 

4.0-33.0 

70.0-90.0 



Locality of 
Study 

Northeastern Ohio 
Southcentral Ariz. 
Northeastern Ohio 
California' 
Southcentral Ariz. 
California^ 
California-^ 
California-'''' 
Northeastern Ohio 
Washington 
California' 
Southcentral Ariz. 
Southcentral Ariz. 
Southwestern Ariz. 



3. Foote and Blanc, 1963. 

4. Aczel, 1952. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Aczel, M.L. 1952. El genero Euaresta Loew (=Camaromyia Hendel) en la Region 

Neotropical. Rev. Chilena Entomol. 2: 147-172. 
Batra, S.W.T. 1979. Reproductive behavior of Euaresta bella and E. festiva (Diptera: 

Tephritidae), potential agents for the biological control of adventive North American 

ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.) in Eurasia. J.N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 87: 118-125. 
Danielson, L.L., W.B. Ennis, Jr., D.L. Klingman, W.G. Shaw, F.L. Timmons, J.E. 

Jernigan, J.R. Paulling, and P.E. Strickler. 1965. A survey of extent and cost of weed 

control and specific weed problems. USDA Crops Res. Bull., ARS 34-23-1. 78 p. 
Dickerson, C.T., Jr., and R.D. Sweet 1971. Common ragweed ecotypes. Weed Sci. 1 9: 64- 

66. 
Foote, B. A. 1965. Biology and immature stages of eastern ragweed flies (Tephritidae). Proc. 

Northc. Br. Entomol. Soc. Am. 20: 105-106. 
Foote, R.H. 1 965 . Family Tephritidae, p. 658-678. In A. Stone, et. al, eds., A Catalog of the 

Diptera of America north of Mexico. USDA Agric. Handbk. 276. 

. 1967.57. Family Tephritidae, p. 1-91. In Dept. Zool. Sec. Agric., Sao Paulo. A 

Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of United States. 
and F.L. Blanc. 1963. The fruit flies or Tephritidae of California. Calif. Insect 



Survey Bull. 7: 1-117. 

Goeden, R.D. and D.W. Ricker. 1974a. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed, 
Ambrosia acanthicarpa, in southern California. Environ. Entomol. 3: 827-834. 

. 1974b. The phytophagous insect fauna of the ragweed. Ambrosia chamissonis. 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



in southern California. Environ. Entomol. 3: 835-839. 

1976. The phytophagous insect faunas of the ragweed. Ambrosia chenopodiifolia, 



A. eriocentra, and A. ilicifolia, in southern California. Environ. Entomol. 5: 923-930. 
Harris, P. and G.L. Piper. 1970. Ragweed (Ambrosia spp: Compositae): its North 

American insects and the possibilities for its biological control. Commonw. Inst. Biol. 

Control Tech. Bull. 13: 117-140. 

Marlatt, C.L. 1891. The Xanthium Trypeta. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 2: 40-43. 
Quisenberry, B.F. 1950. The genus Euaresta in the United States (Diptera: Tephritidae). 

J.N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 58: 9-38. 
Wasbauer, M. S. 1 972. An annotated host catalog of the fruit flies of America north of Mexico 

(Diptera; Tephritidae). Bur. Entomol. Calif. Dept. Agric. Occas. Pap. 19, 172. p. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 1 1/4 (A.N.(S.) 128 5 January 1984 

The Commission hereby gives six months notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 40, part 
4, on 30 December 1983 and will welcome comments and advice on them from integrated 
zoologists. 

Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible 
within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

2284 Caeparia Stal, 1877 (Insecta, Dictypoptera): proposed designation of a 

type species under the plenary powers. 

2401 Proposal to suppress the first designation of a type species for the generic 

name Megilla Fabricius, 1805, and to place Macropi's Klug, 1809, on the 
Official List of Generic Names (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 

2436 Cri nodes Herrich-Schaffer, 1 855 and Pew Herrich-Schaffer, 1 855 (Insecta. 

Lepidoptera): proposed conservation. 

1686 Euphaedra Hiibner, [1819] (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed conservation 
under the plenary powers. 

1687 Ourocnemis Baker, 1887 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed conservation 
under the plenary powers. 

2180 Ceroplesis Serville, 1835 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed designation of a 

type species under the plenary powers. 

2405 Zeugophora Kunze, 1818 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed conservation 

under the plenary powers. 

R.V. MELVILLE, Secretary 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 

A SPATE OF GLOWWORMS (COLEOPTERA: 
PHENOGODIDAE) 1 

Steven R. Wing 2 

ABSTRACT: At several flooded sites phengodid larvae, tentatively identified as Phengodes 
nigromaculata, were found in far greater abundance than any previously reported. 

Beetles of the family Phenogodidae are notable for their spectacular 
bioluminescence (Tiemann 1970), their extreme sexual dimorphism 
(Tiemann 1967, Lloyd 1979), and their scarcity (Smith 1900). Females 
and larvae are especially uncommon, though males occasionally turn up in 
light traps. Phenogodids of the genus Phengodes are so rare that Harvey 
(1952) saw "only four living luminous specimens in 25 years." I was 
surprised, then, to encounter 90 such specimens in one hour. 

The observations were made in a field of grass [mostly Axonopus 
affinis Chase and Eremochloa ophiuroides(Munro) Hack.] with scattered 
pine trees, north of the Gainesville Regional Airport in Alachua County, 
Florida. This area has been searched for glowing organisms on the ground 
almost nightly during April-October over the past three years. In that time 
only one phenogodid was found. 

This year phengodids were flooded from the soil in large numbers. The 
area is usually dry, but heavy rains in 1 983 left water standing in ditches and 
low areas. Glowing phengodid larvae were found in every flooded site in the 
area shown in Fig. 1 , but not in the ditch or in flooded sites to the north, west, 
and east of the area shown. The larvae, tentatively identified as Phengodes 
nigromaculata Wittmer, measured 0.7 to 2.1 cm in length (n=10). They 
were found clinging to grass that protruded from the water. No larvae were 
found in the unflooded area between sites (Fig. 1). As the soil dried, the 
larvae apparently returned underground. The sites were inspected on nights 
subsequent to each inundation, but no larvae were seen. 

One night I spent about one hour walking through the inundated sites 
and found 90 larvae. More thorough searches were made in 1 m2 plots on 
different nights and at different sites (Table 1). The average count was 5 
larvae/M^. If this reflects the phengodid density in the area between 
flooded sites, thousands of larvae occur there. Five Iarvae/m2 may be an 
underestimate because only glowing larvae were counted (see Tiemann 
1970). Although it has long been known that phengodids occur in soil 
(Atkinson 1887), densitites of this magnitude have never before been 



'Received October 7, 1982. Accepted November 15, 1983. 

^Dept. Entomology and Nematology, 3107 McCarty Hall. University of Florida, Gainesville, 
FL 32611. 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 55-57 March & April 1984 



56 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



reported (see Tiemann 1967). 




Figure 1 . A map showing flooded sites (black), the ditch (stippled) beside a paved road, and 
some of the trees in the study area. 



Table 1. Mean number of Phengodes larvae counted in flooded 1 m^ plots. 



Date 

14 August 1983 
6 September 1983 
13 September 1983 



Plots 
(n) 

3 

4 

10 



Number of Larvae 
~x range 



5 
6 

5 



5-6 

5-7 
2-8 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Joe Cicero, Tim Forrest, James E. Lloyd, and John Sivinski reviewed the paper. John 
Sivinski also identified the specimens, and he and James E. Lloyd gave access to their 
literature collections. David W. Hall identified the grasses. Susan Wineriter prepared Fig. 1 . 
Barbara Hollien typed the manuscript. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal 
Series No. 5021. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Atkinson, G.F. 1887. Observations on the female form of Phengodes laticollis Horn. Am. 

Nat. 21: 853-856. 

Harvey, E.N. 1952. Bioluminescence. Academic, New York. 649 pp. 
Lloyd, J.E. 1 979. Sexual selection in luminescent beetles. Pages 293-342 in M. Blum and N. 

Blum, eds. Sexual selection and reproductive competition in insects. Academic, New 

York. 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 57 



Smith, J.B. 1900. The insects of New Jersey. MacCrellish and Quigley, Trenton, NJ. 
Tiemann, D.L. 1967. Observations on the natural history of the western banded glowworm 

Zarhipis integripennis (Lee.). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 35(12): 235-264. 
Tiemann, D.L. 1 970. R.F. Sisson. photographer. Nature's toy train, the railroad worm. Nat. 

Geog. Mag. 138: 56-67. 



MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

A SERIES OF MONOGRAPHICS PAPERS BY STUDENTS OF AUTHORITY IN 

THEIR RESPECTIVE SUBJECT. 

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE NUMBERS LISTED BELOW. 

1. The Cresson Types of Hymenoptera. Ezra T. Cresson. 1916. $12.00. 

3. A Venational Study of the Suborder Zygoptera (Odonata), with Keys for the Identification of 
Genera. Philip A. Munz. 1919. $10.00. 

4. The Blattidae of Panama. Morgan Hebard. 1920. $8.00. 

5. The Types of Hymenoptera in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia other 
than those of of Ezra T. Cresson. Ezra T. Cresson. 1928. $8.00. 

8. The Eumastacinae of Southern Mexico and Central America. James A.G. Rehn and 
John W.H. Rehn. 1934. $8.00. 

9. The Generic Names of the Sphecoid Wasps and Their Type Species. W.S.L. Pate. 1937. 
$8.00. 

10. A Revision of the North American Species Belonging to the Genus Pegomvia. H.C. 
Huckett. 1941. $6.00. 

1 1. Catalogue and Reclassification of the Nearctic Ichneumonidae. Henry K. Townes, Jr. 
1944. $20.00. 

13. Elaschistidae of North America (Microlepidoptera). Annette F. Braun. 1948. $10.00. 

14. Classification of the Blattaria as Indicated by their Wings (Orthoptera). John W.H. 
Rehn. 1951. $10.00. 

16. A Taxonomic Study of the North American Licinini with Notes on the Old World 
Species of the Genus Diplocheila Brulle (Coleoptera). George E. Ball. 1959. $15.00. 

17. A Taxonomic Study of the Milliped Family Spirobolidae (Diplopoda: Spirobolida). 
William T. Keeton. 1960. $15.00. 

(Listing continued on page 62) 

DOMESTIC - Postage is charged on all domestic orders unless payment accompanies 

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Philadelphia, PA 19103 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A SIMPLIFIED HOLDER FOR EUMENID 

NESTING BLOCKS (HYMENOPTERA: 

EUMENIDAE) 12 

Judith A. Collins 3 , Daniel T. Jennings 4 

ABSTRACT: Materials and construction of a simple, inexpensive holder for eumenid 
nesting blocks are described. 

Many species of solitary wasps (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) nest in 
hollow stems and cavities constructed by wood-boring insects. Foundress 
female wasps also accept and provision predrilled blocks of wood as nesting 
sites. Numerous investigators have designed and successfully used trap 
blocks for collecting eumenid wasps (Cooper 1953; Fye 1965 a; Medlerand 
Fye 1956; Krombein 1967), and bees (Parker and Bohart 1966). Koerber 
and Medler (1958) used bundles of sumac stems held together with rubber 
inner-tube bands. Fye ( 1 965b) developed several methods for placing trap 
nests in elevated locations. Although trap blocks are not identical to natural 
nesting sites, they are very useful for collecting and studying eumenid wasps 
in forest and nonforest habitats. 

Most trap designs consist of a bundle of predrilled blocks held together 
with rubber bands. A solid piece of wood usually is added to facilitate 
attachment of a wire hanger. The rubber bands frequently stretch and break 
with prolonged use. This paper describes a simple but effective method of 
binding and hanging nesting blocks. 

MATERIALS 

The materials needed for trap and holder construction are readily 
available at most hardware and fabric stores. Each trapping unit consists 
of: 1) a bundle of predrilled blocks (usually 9 or 12), 2) a hanging board, 3) 
a wire hanger, 4) four fastening staples, and 5) two non-roll ribbed elastic 
bands (Fig. 1). 

Our trap blocks were cut from straight-grained eastern white pine, 
Finns strobus L. Each block was 2 x 2 x 1 8 cm with a central hole, 8 mm in 



1 Received October 13, 1983. Accepted October 21, 1983. 

2 A contribution to the CANADA/UNITED STATES (CANUSA) Spruce Budworms 
Program. 

^Graduate student. Department of Entomology, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469 

^Principal Research Entomologist, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Building, 
University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 58-62 March & April 1984 



Vol. 95, No. 2. March & April 1984 



59 



diameter, bored to a depth of 1 4.9 cm. We used a twist drill for boring holes. 
Blocks should be straight-grained and free of knots to allow easy splitting 
and study of nests. 

The hanging board is a solid block of wood; common "strapping" is 
sufficient. Our board was 2 x 6 x 1 8 cm for a nine-block bundle. The size 
may vary depending on the number of blocks per bundle. The board should 
completely cover the top row of nesting blocks. 

The hanging wire consists of a wire coat hanger. The botton half of the 
hanger is cut off about 1 4 cm below the twisted neck. Pliers are used to bend 
the cut ends so that they are pointing outward. The hanger is fastened to the 
center of the hanging board with four #9 double-pointed wood staples, two 
at each end. For convenience, the hook above the neck of the coat hanger 
may be cut off; the twisted neck serves as a hanging point. 

The bundle of nesting blocks is held together with two pieces of 3/4 inch 
(1.9 cm) non-roll ribbed elastic, such as used in waistbands of various 
garments. Each piece, 23 cm long, is formed into a loop with the ends 
overlapping 2.5-3.0 cm. The ends are sewn together with heavy-duty nylon 



Hanging Board 
Trap Block 



Wire Hanger 



Double Point Wood Staples 



3/4 inch 

Non-roll ribbed Elastic 




Fig. 1. Design of a simplified holder for eumenid nesting blocks. 



60 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



* --i 



_ 
* , 



& - 



J^-,- . < 

* w , > , 



_, - ^- * i.' 

-^2r ' -i ' **. %"tfc"- 

, sP^ 

^fc^--.\ 




Fig. 2. Field placements ot trap-nesting bundles in a spruce-fir forest; a) tree-mounted, b) 
stake-mounted, c) on logging slash. 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 61 

thread, and for added strength, the ends are oversewn two or three times. 
Loop size is dependent on bundle size. The elastic bands should be tight 
enough to hold the blocks firmly together, but also allow easy removal and 
replacement of nesting blocks. 

DISCUSSION 

The trap nest holder we describe is simple, easily constructed and 
relatively inexpensive. Nesting block sizes, numbers of blocks per bundle, 
diameter and depth of borings, and deployment sites may vary depending on 

study objectives. Bundles of blocks may be hung from live or dead trees 
(Fig. 2a); from stakes (Fig. 2b); or from logging slash and debris near the 
ground (Fig. 2c). 

Blocks that have been provisioned by the wasps (i.e., entrance holes 
sealed with mud plugs) can be removed and replaced with new, unused 
blocks. Provisioned blocks are taken to the laboratory where they are split with a 
chisel and rubber mallet. Block contents are examined and reared in situ 
(Krombein 1967); or, the contents (wasp egg, larva, or pupa and prey) are 
removed and reared separately in 4-dram shell vials (Jennings and 
Houseweart 1984). 

The elastic bands usually last for one collecting season (4 months). 
Under rigorous and continued use, the elastic stretches and no longer holds 
the nesting blocks firmly together. However, the non-roll ribbed elastic is 
more durable than ordinary rubber bands which readily stretch and crack in 
open sun. 

These trap nesting blocks and holders have been used successfully to 
determine the species of eumenid wasps preying on spruce budworm, 
Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), and other lepidopterous larvae in 
spruce-fir forests of Maine. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank John B. Dimond, Arnold S. Menke, Eben A. Osgood and Frank D. Parker for 
their review comments. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cooper, K.W. 1953. Biology of Eumenine Wasps. I. The ecology, predation, and 

competition of Ancistrocerus antilope (Panzer). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 79: 13-35. 
Fye, R.E. 1965a. The biology of the Vespidae, Pompilidae, and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) 

from trap nests in northwestern Ontario. Can. Entomol. 97: 716-744. 
Fye, R.E. 1965b. Methods of placing wasp trap nests in elevated locations. J. Econ. 

Entomol. 58: 803-804. 
Jennings, Daniel T., and Mark W. Houseweart 1984. Predation by eumenid wasps 

(Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) on spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and other 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



lepidopterous larvae in spruce-fir forests in Maine. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77: 39-45. 
Koerber, T., and J.T. Medler. 1958. A trap nest survey of solitary bees and wasps in 

Wisconsin, with biological notes. Proc. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts and Lett. 47: 53-63. 
Krombein, Karl V. 1 967. Trap nesting wasps and bees: life histories, nests, and associates. 

Smithsonian Press, Washington, D.C. 570 pp. 
Medler, J.T., and R.E. Fye. 1956. Biology ofAncistrocerus antilope( Panzer) (Hymenoptera, 

Vespidae) in trap nests in Wisconsin. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 49: 97-102. 
Parker, F.D., and R.M. Bohart. 1966. Host-parasite associations in some twig-nesting 

Hymenoptera from western North America. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 42: 91-98. 



MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

A SERIES OF MONOGRAPHICS PAPERS BY STUDENTS OF AUTHORITY IN 

THEIR RESPECTIVE SUBJECT. 

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE NUMBERS LISTED BELOW. 

(Listing continued from page 57) 

18. The Genus Bucculatrix in America North of Mexico (Microlepidoptera). Annette F. 
Braun. 1963. $15.00. 

19. The Butterflies of Libera. Richard M. Fox, Arthur W. Lindsey, Jr., Harry K. Clench and 
LeeD. Miller. 1965. $12.50. 

20. A Revision of the Mexican and Central American Spider Wasps of the Subfamily 
Pompilinae (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Howard E. Evans. 1966. $12.50. 

21 . A Taxonomic and Zoogeographic Survey of the Scarabaeinae of the Antilles (Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae). Eric G. Matthews. 1966. $5.00. 

22. A Monograph of the Ithomiidae ( Lepidoptera) Part III. The Tribe Mechanitini Fox. 
Richard M. Fox. 1967. $9.00. 

23. A List of New North American Spiders, 1940-1966. Beatrice R. Vogel. 1967. $9.00. 

24. The Higher Classification, Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Satyridae (Lepidoptera). 
LeeD. Miller. 1968. $7.00. 

25. The Schizopteridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) With the Description of New Species 
from Trinidad. Michael G. Emsley. 1969. $6.50. 

(Listing continued on page 69) 

DOMESTIC Postage is charged on all domestic orders unless payment accompanies 

order 
FOREIGN - Add $1 .50 for postage on all foreign orders. Payment must accompany 

order 

20% Discount for Society Members 

When ordering copies of above publications, write to: 

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Philadelphia, PA 19103 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 63 

AN INEXPENSIVE CARRION BEETLE TRAP 
(COLEOPTERA: SILPHIDAE) 1 

Paul P. Shubeck 2 

ABSTACT: An inexpensive carrion beetle trap is depicted (with diagrams and directions 
made available to the reader). Eight species of Silphidae and representatives from the families 
Dermestidae, Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae and Nitidulidae have been 
taken in this trap. 

More than two decades of experience with sampling carrion beetles 
have given me ample opportunity to try out a variety of different traps. In my 
early studies I used a simple pitfall trap described by Walker ( 1 957). Since 
then the pitfall method of trapping has been improved and described in 
detail by Newton and Peck (1975). For a period of time I used ground 
(surface) traps which were cleaner and easier to operate than pitfall traps 
(Shubeck, 1976). Although I still consider ground traps excellent in all 
ways, when being prepared for use they are cumbersome to transport if one 
must carry them any distance and if a large number of traps must be set up. 
One way to minimize the transport problem is to use a suspended-type trap 
which requires two No. 10 cans and a wire coat hanger for its construction 
( Shubeck, 1 968). This trap has been improved by constructing a permanent 
inexpensive wood frame and rain cover to which a disposable No. 10 food 
can is attached. This trap is depicted in Fig. 1 . It has been used by me in 
New Jersey, Maryland, and Missouri during the last few years and it has 
proved to be most satisfactory so long as it is not set up in the direct rays of 
the sun. Intense buildup of heat in the can may discourage beetles from 
entering the trap or may even drive some of the individuals out after they 
have entered. 

Eight species of carrion beetles (Silphidae) have been taken in these 
traps. They are: Necrophila americana, Oiceoptoma noveboracense, O. 
inaequale, Necrodes surinamensis, Oiceoptoma orbicollis, N. tomentosus, 
N. pustulatus, and TV. marginatus. Other families of "carrion beetles" that 
have been taken in these traps include Dermestidae, Staphylinidae, 
Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, and Nitidulidae. 

Detailed diagrams and directions for the construction of this inexpensive 
carrion beetle trap have been prepared and duplicated and are available to 
the reader upon request. 



'Received October 5, 1983. Accepted October 8, 1983. 

^Biology Department, Montclair State College, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 63-64 March & April 1984 



64 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



* 



"t^ ^^BB^' < *wP<iMi WH 

^* ^^-"P^^p.' 



'>. 





Fig. 1 . Inexpensive carrion beetle trap in use at Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, NJ. 
Photograph by Thomas P. Shubeck. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Newton, A. and S.B. Peck. 1975. Baited pitfall traps for beetles. The Coleopterists Bull. 

29(1): 45-56. 
Shubeck P.P. 1968. Trapping Fabre's "sexton" beetles. The American Biology Teacher 

30(6): 564-565. 
Shubeck, P.P. 1976. An alternative to pitfall traps in carrion beetle studies (Coleoptera). Ent. 

News87(5&6): 176-178. 
Walker, T.J. 1957. Ecological studies of the arthopods associated with certain decaying 

materials in four habitats. Ecology 38: 262-276. 



Vol. 95. No. 2. March & April 1984 65 

MASS-REARING METHOD FOR THE LARGE 

MILKWEED BUG, ONCOPELTUS FASCIATUS 

(HEMIPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) 1 

Karl P. Koerper, Clive D. Jorgensen 2 

ABSTRACT: A method of mass-rearing the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, has 
been developed that requires limited time and costs. This method allows removal of the eggs 
without disturbing the adults or damaging them during handling. Eggs are produced for about 
$1.307 1000 eggs. 

The large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus faciatus, has been the subject of 
much experimental research. Mass-rearing methods specifically designed 
to reduce labor required to maintain the colony, and reduce difficulties 
experienced in gathering eggs seem to have escaped the literature (Anon- 
ymous 1982, Best 1977, Butt 1949, Dingle 1968, Gordon 1974, Richards 
andKolderie 1957, Richards and Suanraksa 1962, Siverly 1962). Methods 
of collecting eggs described in these studies include removing them with 
small brushes from cotton or gauze oviposition media. These techniques 
sometimes cause egg damage and always disrupt the adult colony. We have 
developed a labor conservative method for rearing large milkweed bugs 
that, if implemented, will assist other researchers in maintaining their 
colonies. Harvesting and handling eggs will be especially enhanced. 

Materials listed are adequate for about 195 breeding pairs of adults. 
Expansions or reductions in the number of specimens (especially eggs) 
required should be made according to space requirements of the adult pairs, 
each pair requiring 38 to 46 cm^ for optimum egg production. Gordon 
( 1 974) found optimum egg production was obtained at about 38 cm^/pair. 
Increased densities will cause some reduction in the rate of egg production. 
Materials required are: five plastic freezer storage containers about 3,01 9 cm2 
(6.5-7.0 1 capacity), ten 250 ml nalgene water bottles, grade 50 (6.5-7.0 
1 capacity), ten 250 ml nalgene water bottles, grade 50 cheesecloth, 
cotton, No. 233 and 363 Nitex nylon monofilament screen cloths, 25 mgs 
of sunflower seeds per week that have not been sprayed with pesticides, and 
50 large milkweed bug eggs. 

Adult cages ( Fig. 1 ) are designed to give females no choice of where to 
oviposit. The only satisfactory site is through the cheesecloth onto paper 
sheets provided outside (below) the cages. The center portion of the original 
snap-on lid is cut away so that only the snap-on ( S) rim remains ( Fig. 1 A). 
This rim is used to secure the stretched cheesecloth (Z) onto the bottom of 



1 Received June 16, 1983. Accepted November 12. 1983. 

^Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602. 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 65-69 March & April 1984 



66 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 1 . A Top view of adult rearing cage: W = water bottles; O = windows cut in the 
original bottom of the freezer storage container; S = snap-on lid with the center removed, 
leaving only the rim to hold the cheesecloth ( Z) bottom. B - - Bottom view showing the wicks 
(K) from the water bottles; cheesecloth (Z) bottom held in place by the rim of the snap-on lid 
(S); and the windows (O); all seen through the cheesecloth. 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 67 



the cage. Water (W) is provided through two holes cut in the bottom (which 
is the top of the cage when completed, (Fig. 1 A) of the freezer container, in 
which water bottles with tight cotton wicks (K) covered with No. 233 screen 
cloth are inserted (Fig. IB). The screen cloth prevents oviposition into the 
cotton. Windows (O) in the top of the cage are covered with No. 363 screen 
cloth glued into place to allow observation and yet prevent oviposition ( Fig. 
1 ). About 1 5 gms of sunflower seeds and 65 adults pairs are introduced into 
the cage before the water bottles are screwed in place. The cage is then 
placed on or above the collection sheets (paper) where eggs are collected as 
often as needed. Eggs may be continuously collected from outside the cage 
without ever opening the cage until it is time to discard the adults. Three 
adult cages are required. 

Nymph cages are the same as adult cages except: ( 1 ) the center of the 
lid is not removed, (2) wicks in the water bottles are not covered with screen 
cloth, and (3) about 50 gms sunflower seeds are cracked to provide a better 
food base for the young nymphs. Sunflower seeds and eggs are placed in the 
cages before the water bottles are screwed into place. These cages need no 
additional care until emerged adults are removed and placed in the adult 
cages. Two nymph cages are required. 

Collecting 200 eggs from the first collection of adults (4 weeks) will take 
longer than subsequent collections since only 25 adult females are present. 
More eggs to start with would speed up this process. 

Week 1 4 is the beginning of routine maintenance, with the reinoculation 
of adults into adult cage " 1 " after it has been cleaned, and gauze and water 
bottles with their cotton wicks replaced. After this, 400 nymphs and 195 
adults will be maintained continuously. Maintaining this colony indefinitely 
will require about 25 gms of sunflower seeds per week, which should be 
stored in refrigeration to avoid contamination with stored products pests. 
Egg production is maximized with a photoperiod of 16L-8D, and tempera- 
ture set at 27 C (Dingle 1968). 

Cost and time assessments for this method are unusually conservative. 
The initial cost, excluding intitutional costs, for the entire system ready to 
maintain at week 1 4 is estimated at $85, 25% of which is for the cost of 50 
eggs. Maintenance cost expressed in terms of eggs produced is about 
S. 70/1000 eggs. In addition, the labor estimate is about $2.50/1000 eggs. 
We estimate eggs counted into groups of 1000 will cost about $3.20 per 
group. Of course, if approximate number of eggs is acceptable the cost is 
much less, about $1.30/1000. Only about five minutes per collection are 
required to collect eggs, plus one hour twice monthly to clean cages, transfer 
adults and collect eggs for future generations. This method offers minimal 
expense in maintaining a colony where specimens are needed continually 
for experimental purposes. 



68 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Colony establishment and maintenance are sequentially explained in 
the following flow table: 

Table 1. Flowtable to explain colony established and maintenance. 

Cage contents and collection no. 
Week Action Nymph cages Adult cages 

50 eggs placed in a=l.yrcoll b=empty l=empty 2=empty 3=empty 

nymph cage "a" 

4 25 pairs of adults a= Is/ coll b=empty l = lsf coll 2=empty 3=empty 

from nymph cage "a" 
placed in adult 
cage "1" 

6 200 eggs from adult a=empty b=2nd coll 1 = 1 st coll 2=empty 3=empty 
cage "1" placed in 
nymph cage "b" 

8 200 eggs from adult a=3rd coll b=2nd coll \ = lst coll 2=empty 3=empty 
cage "1" placed into 
nymph cage "a" 

10 65 pairs of adults a=3rd coll b=4th coll l=lst coll 2=2nd coll 3=empty 

from nymph cage "b" 
placed in adult cage 
"2." 200 eggs from 
adult cage "1" placed 
into nymph cage "b" 

12 65 pairs of adults a=5^ coll b=4th coll l = ls/coll 2=2/zrfcoll 3=3rcfcoll 

from nymph cage "a" 
placed in adult cage 
"3." 200 eggs from 
adult cages "1 and 2" 
placed into nymph 
cage "a" 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anonymous. 1982. Carolina Arthropods Manual 45-4401. Carolina Biol. Sup. Co., 

Burlington, NC. 

Best, R.L. 1977. The milkweed bug. Carolina Tips 40:1-2. 
Butt, F.H. 1949. Embryology of the milkweek bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera). 

Cornell Expt. Sta. Mem 283: 43 pp. 
Dingle H. 1968. Life history and population consequences of density, photo-period, and 

temperature in a migrant insect, the milkweed bug Oncopeltus. Amer. Nat. 102: 149- 

163. 
Gordon, H.T. 1974. Cohort rearing and cold-storage of the sunflower strain of Oncopeltus 

fasciatus. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 67: 976-980. 
Richards, A.G. and M.Q. Kolderie. 1957. Variation in weight, development rate, and 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 69 



hatchability of Oncopeltus eggs as a function of the mother's age. Entomol. News. 

68: 57-64. 
Richards, A.G. and S. Sunaraksa. 1962. Energy expenditure during embryonic development 

under constant versus variable temperatures \Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas)j. Entomol. 

Expt. Appl. 5: 167-178. 
Siverly, R.E. 1962. Rearing insects in schools. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque. Iowa. 



MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

A SERIES OF MONOGRAPHICS PAPERS BY STUDENTS OF AUTHORITY IN 

THEIR RESPECTIVE SUBJECT. 

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE NUMBERS LISTED BELOW. 



(Listing continued from page 62) 

26. A Taxonomic Revision of the Aquatic Beetle Genus Laccophilus (Dytiscidae) of North 
America. James R. Zimmerman. 1970. $12.00. 

27. A Revision of the Nearctic Species of the Tribe Parydrini (Diptera: Ephydridae). Philip 
J. Clausen and Edwin F. Cook. 1971. $7.00. 

28. Tischeriidae of America North of Mexico (Microlepidoptera). Annette F. Braun. 1972. 
$7.00. 

29. The Shield-backed Katydids of the Genus Idiostatus. David C. Rentz. 1973. $9.50. 

30. The Systematics and Morphology of the Nearctic Species of Diamesa Meigen, 1835 
(Diptera: Chironomidae). Dean Cyrus Hansen and Edwin F. Cook. 1976. $10.00. 

31. The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Rocky Mountains. Richard W. Baumann, Arden R, 
Gaufin and Rebecca F. Surdick. 1977. $10.50. 

32. The Genus Isoperla (Plecoptera) of Western North America; Holomorphology and 
Systematics, and a New Stonefly Genus Cascadoperla. Stanley W. Szczytko and 
Kenneth W. Stewart. 1979. $7.50. 

33. Revision of the Milliped Genus S;gmon'a(Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae). Rowland M. 
Shelley. 1981. $11. 00. 

34. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Chironomidae. Jacksonville, Florida 
July 25-28, 1982. 1983. $25.00. 



DOMESTIC Postage is charged on all domestic orders unless payment accompanies 

order 
FOREIGN Add $1 .50 for postage on all foreign orders. Payment must accompany 

order 

20% Discount for Society Members 

When ordering copies of above publications, write to: 

The American Entomological Society 
1900 Race Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19103 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A METHOD OF STORING INSECT GENITALIA 
FOR TAXONOMIC STUDY 1 

J.E. O'Hara, M.G. Mclntyre 2 

ABSTRACT: A genitalia tray specifically designed for use by insect taxonomists is 
described and illustrated. A method is outlined whereby trays can be reproduced using molds 
and a polyester-based casting resin. Trays are suitable for storage of genitalia during 
revisionary work, and provide immediate access to series of genitalia for comparative study. 

Many insect taxonomists store adult insect specimens on pins in foam- 
bottomed trays, inside specially designed drawers and cabinets. Specimens 
stored in this manner are readily available for study and comparison of 
external structures. Unfortunately, a similar system has not been developed 
to accommodate the needs of taxonomists interested in studying large series 
of insect genitalia, so it is often necessary to repeatedly examine genitalia 
stored in microvials, or temporarily remove limited series of genitalia to 
porcelain trays or similar ad hoc containers for comparative study. With the 
increasing awareness of the importance of genitalic characters in the 
systematics of many insect taxa, a method is needed whereby numerous 
genitalia can be efficiently stored, easily retrieved and readily grouped for 
study under a dissecting microscope. The gentialia tray here described is 
one solution to this problem, and over the past several years has not only 
proved itself useful in practice, but has indirectly encouraged the senior 
author's study of genitalic structure within the Tachinidae (Diptera) by 
eliminating time-consuming and inefficient storage difficulties. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Design of the genitalia tray shown in Fig. 1, and technical aspects of its 
production and duplication, were developed by the junior author. Production 
of genitalia trays basically involves machining of a master tray, creation of 
one to many molds from that tray, and replication of plastic trays from the 
molds. Our master tray was cut from 0.5 in (12. 7mm) thick Plexiglass and 
sanded to the outside dimensions shown in Fig. 1 , and then machined with a 
0.5 in milling tool to produce the interior contours. The completed tray, 
approximately 63x66mm square, was placed in the center of a small wooden 
box, of such a size as to allow about 10mm clearance on each side. A 
molding compound (Dow Corning Silastic Moldmaking Rubber RTV E, 
soft) was poured over the tray, covering the top by about 5 mm, and allowed 



1 Received June 1, 1983. Accepted October 28, 1983. 

^Department of Entomology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E3 

ENT. NEWS 95(2) 70-72 March & April 1984 



Vol. 95, No. 2, March & April 1984 



71 



to set. (To ensure smooth edges in the finished product, trapped air bubbles 
were removed from the angles of the tray by running a pointed object along 
tray edges.) Once hardened, the flexible molds were ready for repeated 
casting of plastic genitalia trays using a polyester-based casting resin, such 
as commonly found under a variety of brand names commercially and in 
hobby stores. White dye added to the resin gives superior results, as white 
trays reflect light more evenly than do clear plastic ones. This is important 
because the trays are designed for use with a dissecting microscope, with 
standard illumination. 

For best results, trays should be lightly sanded on outside surfaces after 
removal from molds to smooth slight irregularities caused by shrinkage 
during the hardening process (interior surfaces are not adversely affected). 
Lids, which can be fashioned from a variety of materials, should be fitted to 
finished size of the trays rather than to dimensions of the master tray. (Our 
lids simply rest loosely on top of the trays, and are not fastened in any way.) 
We prefer 0.125in (3.2mm) thick Plexiglass for lid material, as it is 
transparent and can be written on with India ink. 



628 



127 



60 





r- 1 
1 


i 




1 






1 






1 






1 






1 






L _ j 


1 








3 - 


'. 


( 


H 


-12.' 


T > 



Fig. 1. Dimensions of genitalia tray (in mm). 



72 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 






Fig. 2. Two completed trays, left tray with lid and right without, as used for storage of tachinid 
fly genitalia in glycerin-filled dishes. 



DISCUSSION 

Each tray is designed to hold 20 genitalia dishes in 4 rows. Dishes are 
best cut to a height of 7mm from 0.5 dram, 12x35mm, shell vials (such as 
Kimble brand #60930-L vials). Genitalia are stored one per dish in several 
drops of glycerin, accompanied by a code number to ensure correct 
association with the adult specimen. By keeping a record of all code 
numbers and specimens dissected, pairing of pinned specimens and 
genitalia are facilitated, even if the former are scattered throughout a large 
general collection. 

Two finished trays, as used for storage of tachinid fly genitalia, are 
shown in Fig. 2. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors thank Dr. G.E. Ball for his comments on this paper and for meeting 
publication costs through NSERC Grant No. A- 13 99, and Mr. J.S. Scott for the illustrations. 



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US ISSN 0013-872X 



NTOM 



MAY & JUNE 1984 

JJJLT 



No. 3 



M 



New species of Cicindela from Florida and elevation of 
C. abdominalis scabrosa to species level (Coleoptera: 
Cicindelidae) Paul M. Choate 73 

New Nearctic species of Hyadina (Diptera: Ephydridae) 

Philip J. Clausen 83 

Acanthoscelides winderi, new species (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) 

associated with Mimosa spp. John M. Kingsolver 87 

| Elevation of Diabrotica sicuanica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) 
to species level with notes on altitudinal distribution 
of Diabrotica species in Cuzco Department of Peru 

J.L. Krysan, T.F. Branson, 
R.F.W. Schroeder, W.E. Steiner, Jr. 91 

Pseudocossinae: a new subfamily of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) 

J.B. Heppner 99 

Additional observations on association ofPedilus (Pedilidae) 

withMe/oe (Coleoptera: Meloidae) Linda Butler 101 

Trichoptera of the Cahaba River system in Alabama 

S.C. Harris, P.K. Logo, P.E. O'Neil 103 

Checklist of stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Kentucky 

D.C. Tarter, D.A. Adkins, C.V. Covell, Jr. 113 

Insect marking techniques: durability of materials 

S.A. Wineriter, T.J. Walker 117 



BOOK REVIEW AND BOOKS RECEIVED 



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Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 73 



A NEW SPECIES OF CICINDELA LINNAEUS 

(COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE) FROM 

FLORIDA, AND ELEVATION OF C. ABDOMINALIS 

SCABROSA SCHAUPP TO SPECIES LEVEL 1 

Paul M. Choate 2 

ABSTRACT: A new species of Cicindela Linnaeus was discovered during a study of the 
named forms of C, abdominalis Fabricius. This species, C. highlandensis n. sp., is described 
here. Additionally, the various names applied to C. abdominalis are examined for validity. C. 
abdominalis is redescribed. Based on examination of types, the following name changes are 
proposed. C. scabrosa Schaupp is found to be a valid species. C. extenuata Casey is a 
synonym of C. scabrosa Schaupp, as is C. abdominalis floridana Cartwright (NEW 
SYNONYMY). C.faceta Casey is a synonym of C. abdominalis F. (NEW SYNONYMY). 
C. highlandensis n. sp. is believed to be a sister species of C. abdominalis, having evolved 
on pre-Pleistocene islands in central Florida. 

This research began several years ago during a cursory study of the tiger 
beetle fauna of Florida. An attempt at collecting and identifying the named 
forms of this group revealed inconsistencies concerning the application of 
names to Cicindela abdominalis and its subspecies scabrosa. 

Several museum collections that were borrowed had mixtures of the 
various forms under the same heading, some examples merely set aside with 
question marks. Invariably it was found that the confused specimens were 
scabrosa. 

Cicindela abdominalis Fabricius has included 3 subspecies; abdominalis, 
scabrosa Schaupp, andfloridana Cartwright. Additionally, Casey (1913) 
described C. extenuata and C. faceta as species close to abdominalis. 
Newman (1838) described C. ventralis from St. John's Bluff, Florida, but 
his description is too incomplete to be interpreted. The name must therefore 
remain a no men inquirendum. 

The genus Cicindela (sensu latu) still requires comprehensive study in 
North America. Numerous subspecies names have yet to be resolved. 
Species descriptions, however, have been relatively few in recent years. It is 
surprising, therefore, to discover a new species in Florida. The following 
descriptions and discussions are presented to make a species name 
available for a manuscript dealing with the phylogeny, zoogeography, and 
ecology of Cicindela abdominalis Fabricius and its related species. 
Detailed discussion of the relationships of this new species is postponed to 
publication of the above mentioned manuscript. 



Deceived June 10, 1983. Accepted February 27, 1984. 
2 USDA SEA IAML., PO Box 14565, Gainesville, FL 32604 

ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 73-82. May & June, 1984 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Cicindela highlandensis n. sp. 

Head: Eyes prominent, approximately as wide as humerus, wider than pronotum. 
Clypeus black with purple, green, and blue reflection; microsculpture isodiametric. Labrum 
pale, medially convex with 2 anterior medial setae, 2 lateral setae; slightly wider than long; 
front margin with central protuberance, edentate; microsculpture isodiametric laterally, 
effaced or stretched on median convexity. Mandibles pale basally, apical half piceus. Mentum 
with acute median tooth. Ligula lacking. Maxilla cardo with 2 setae, stipes with 5 setae; 
segment 1 with 1 apical seta, segment 2 glabrous, segment 3 with 2-3 setae, segment 4 with 2 
apical setae, segment 5 glabrous. Labial palp 4 segmented; segments 1 and 2 rufous, glabrous; 
segment 3 rufous, glabrous ventrally, with 15-18 scattered erect setae dorsally; segment 4 
piceus, glabrous. Gena glabrous, bright purple with 8 longitudinally impressed striae 
terminating anteriorly in a depressed pit under anterior margin of eye; microsculpture effaced 
medially, isodiametric towards ventral margin. Frons glabrous, longitudinally strigose; 
laterally purple; medially green; microsculpture isodiametric medially, stretched laterally. 
Inner margin of eye emarginate; elevated interocular area of head smooth near lateral edge, 
longitudinally grooved in center of head; 2 supraorbital setae. Antennae with segments 1-4 
glabrous except for scattered erect setae, rufous with green reflection; segment 1 with 1 apical 
seta; segment 2 glabrous; segment 3 with 3 evenly spaced medial setae, several apical setae; 
segment 4 with 1 medial seta, 2 apical setae; segment 1 slightly swollen apically, 2-3 times 
length of segment 2; segment 3 equal in length to segments 2+4; segments 5-1 1 covered with 
short dense pubescence. 

Thorax: Pronotum with deeply impressed anterior V-shaped impression; longitudinal 
median line with impressed transverse strigae; microsculpture isodiametric, tending toward 
meshes anteriorly and laterally; basal impression deep; posterior angle on elevated bump; 
surface green with cupreus-purple mixture; lateral margin glabrous. Prosternum glabrous, 
shining purple. Proepisternum smooth, glabrous, shining purple, microsculpture effaced. 
Procoxae with small cluster of white setae on inner and lateral margin, glabrous medially; 
inner surface with single erect seta. Trochanter glabrous. Profemur metallic purple on basal 
half, rufous apically; 3 erect setae on venter. Protibia rufous with purple reflection; inner 
surface of apical half covered with dense fringe of short hairs; anterior surface with 6 large erect 
setae set in green foveae. Protarsi glabrous dorsally; ventrally with 4 pair of erect setae; 
segment 1 longest, 2-5 subequal. Claws 2, long, smooth. Protarsal segments 1-4 ventrally at 
apex with 2 larger setae. Mesosternum glabrous. Mesepisternum glabrous, shiny, purple. 
Mesocoxae setose on anterior lateral surface; glabrous medially on inner surface; posteriorly 
with a few hairs and a single, fine, erect, seta. Trochanter glabrous. Mesofemur glabrous 
ventrally. Mesotibia with dense inner fringe of hairs in apical half. Meta sternum glabrous. 
Metepisternum glabrous. Metacoxae with single erect seta each on anterior and median 
portion, posterior lateral edge with 3-4 decumbent setae. Trochanter glabrous. Metatibia with 
short fringe of setae at apex on inner margin. Metafemur with 5 ventral setae. Elytron black; 
scutellum transversely impressed, with slight purple-green reflection; 7-9 irregular sutural 
foveae containing a seta set in shallow pit, pit with slight metallic purple reflection. Entire 
dorsal surface appearing shallowly punctate; microsculpture coarse, isodimetric. Suture 
terminating posteriorly in spine. Apices microserrulate. Depressed area near humerus with 6 
setae. 

Abdomen: Rufous, glabrous except for erect tactile setae along posterior margin of apical 
stemite, and medially on sternites 3-4. Sternite 5 depressed medially with numerous small 
hairs in depression. 

Size: Holotype female: 1 1.5 mm. in length (Fig. 1). 

Variation: (35 measured) Females average 11.4 mm. in length (10.5-12.0); 35 males 
average 10.9 mm. in length (10.5-12.0). Males have protarsal segments 1-3 dilated with 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 75 



ventral pad of dense setae. Approximately half of the specimens were immaculate. The only 
maculation seen was a very narrow apical lunule. Neither ventral pubescence nor pronotal 
lateral hairs occurred on any specimens. 

Type Locality: Florida; Highlands Co., Rt. 27, 0.25 mi. south of Josephine Creek, 4.3 
mi. north of junction of Rt. S-17 and 621; 10-VII-1976, P.M. Choate & L. Davis, 23 
paratypes (15 males, 8 females). 

Distribution: Restricted to Highlands Co., FL., on fossil sand dunes south of Sebring. 
This sand ridge extends into Polk County, thus this species may also occur there. 

Etymology: This new species is named for Highlands Co., FL., an area noted for its plant 
and animal endemics. 

Specimens examined: Holotype and 101 paratypes, all from Highlands Co., FL. All but 
5 specimens were from the type locality. 30 specimens were collected in June (some teneral) 
and 71 in July. The 5 specimens not from the type locality are in FSCA (Florida State 
Collection of Arthropods, Gainesvile, FL, 32602), and bear the data "Hendricks Field, nr. 
Sebring, on fossil sand dunes," 5 - VII - 1976, H.V. Weems, collr.. 

Type material will be distributed as follows: Holotype and 9 paratypes from the original 
series will be deposited in FSCA. Additional specimens (4 ea.) from the same series will be 
sent to AMNH (New York), USNM, CAS (California Academy of Sciences), MCZ 
Harvard University), Strickland Museum (Edmonton, Alberta), Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh), 
with the remainder in the author's personal collection. 

Redescription of Cicindela abdominalis Fabricius 

Cicindela abdominalis Fabricius, 1801. p. 237, Syst. Eleuth. Type locality "Carolina." 
Cicindela ventralis Newman, 1818. p. 413-414. Type locality "St. John's Bluff, East 

Florida, North America." 
Cicindela abdominalis faceta Casey, 1913. p. 38. NEW SYNONYMY. (No locality, single 

female) Type USNM 45969 red label. 

Size: Females average 1 1.0 mm. (10.3 - 12.5); males average 10.0 mm (9.3 - 10.5). 

Head: Eyes prominent, approximately as wide as humerus, distinctly wider than 
pronotum; black, with purple, green, and blue reflections, microsculpture isodiametric. 
Labrum pale, with 2 anterior medial setae and 2 lateral setae; edentate, lateral area 
microsculpture isodiametric, stretched medially. Mandibles pale basally, apical half piceous 
with metallic reflection. Ligula lacking. Mentum with single acute median tooth. Maxilla with 
cardo 2-3 setae, stipes with 3-4 setae, segment 1 with single erect seta, segment 2 glabrous, 
segment 3 with 2-3 setae, segment 4 with 2 apical setae, segment 5 glabrous. Labial palp 4 
segmented; segments 1-2 pale rufous, glabrous, segment 3 rufous with 20 erect setae, segment 
4 piceous and glabrous. Gena glabrous, shallowly grooved. Frons longitudinally strigose, 
strigae isodiametric. Inner margin of eye emarginate; 2 erect supraorbital setae. Antennal 
segments 1 -4 glabrous except for isolated large erect setae. Segment 1 with 1 erect apical seta, 
rufopiceous ventrally. Segment 2 lacks tactile setae. Segment 3 with 3-4 basal setae, 1-2 
medial setae, 5 apical setae. Segment 4 glabrous basally, 5-7 apical setae. Segments 1 -4 with 
metallic green reflections. Segments 5- 1 1 densely covered with short pubescence. Segment 5 
rufopiceous, 6-1 1 piceous. Segment 1 swollen apically, 3 times as long as segment 2, one half 
as long as segments 3 and 4; segments 3 and 4 subequal, elongate. 

Thorax: Pronotum dorsally with deep anterior v-shaped impression, longitudinal median 
line moderately impressed with transverse strigae extending laterally. Microsculpture coarse, 
isodiametric. Basal impression moderately impressed , posterior lateral angle suggested by an 
elevated bump. Surface with cupreous (blue-green) reflection. Lateral margin with inconspicous 
fringe of white hairs which, when missing, are indicated by extremely fine punctures near 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



marginal groove. Prosternum glabrous, microsculpture effaced, with purple reflection. 
Proepisternum with approximately 15 white setae along basal margin adjacent to procoxae, 
otherwise glabrous. Microsculpture effaced, shiny. Procoxae with anterior surface with fringe 
of white hairs, inner surface glabrous. A single erect seta on inner medial surface. Trochanter 
glabrous, pale rufous. Profemur with metallic blue-green reflection; piceous basally, rufous 
apically, knees with metallic green reflection. Ventrally with 2-3 erect setae. Numerous large 
erect setae on anterior and inner surface. Isodiametric microsculpture evident over entire 
surface. Protibia ventral inner surface with fringe of hair, dorsal surface glabrous except for 
scattered tactile setae. Tibia with metallic green reflection. Tibia with 2 large ventral apical 
spines. 

Protarsi of male ventrally with segments 1-3 with dense covering of hairs, segments 4-5 
glabrous except for a few erect setae. Females with tarsal segments unmodified. Each tarsal 
segment (both sexes) with 2 ventral apical spines, claws smooth, subequal. Mesosternum 
smooth, glabrous. Mesepisternum glabrous medially, basally with fringe of white decumbent 
setae. Mesocoxae as in procoxae. Mesotrochanter glabrous, tibia and tarsi as above. 
(Posterior surface of coxa with basal setae.) Mesofemur with 1-2 ventrally erect setae on 
apical half. Mesepimeron with covering of decumbent white hairs. Metasternum glabrous 
medially, extreme anterior margin with up to 8 white setae; anterior lateral angle labrous; 
posterior lateral margin with fringe of setae. Metepimeron covered with whte decumbent setae. 
Metacoxal process with single large erect tactile seta basally and apically, also with lateral 
fringe of white setae. Metafemur with 2-4 ventral erect setae. 

Abdomen: Rufous, sternites 1-4 with decreasing lateral fringe of white setae. Segment 3 
laterally overlapping segment 4 in the form of a flange, extending posteriorly to segment 5. 
Segments 3-5 medially with several inconspicous setae. Segment 5 emarginate apically in 
male, depressed and setose in female. Segment 6 in male with apical fringe of setae. Elytra 
black, with apical lunule and other maculation white. Median lunule represented by broken 
dots or lunule may be totally absent. Scutellum with cupreous to blue-green reflection; 
microsculpture coarse, isodiametric. Basal elytral punctures at scutellum umbilicate. Elytra 
with row of 6-9 large foveae, each with metallic blue-green reflection and containing a single 
umbilicate setiferous puncture. Elytra irregularly and shallowly punctured (Fig. 2), micro- 
sculpture isodiametric, granular. Subsutural row of metallic punctures shallow, with blue- 
green reflection. Apex of elytra spined and microserrulate in both sexes. Humeri with 
impressed groove containing 5-6 umbiliferous punctures. Male genitalia (Fig. 5). 

Distribution: New Jersey, south along the Atlantic seaboard to north central Florida, 
west along the Gulf States to Louisiana. 

Variation: Elytral pattern appears to be more heavily maculated in northern specimens, 
decreasing southward. This probably led to the naming of Casey's Cicindela faceta. 

Cicindela scabrosa Schaupp NEW STATUS 

Cicindela abdominalis var. scabrosa Schaupp 1884, p. 108. type locality FLA (Cedar 

Keys). 
Cicindela extenuata Casey 191 3, p. 38. Type locality Crescent City. Holotype USNM Type 

45970 red label. 

Paratype USNM Type 45970 "extenuata 2," red label. 
C. abdominalis floridana Cartwright 1939, p. 364. Type locality Miami, FL., Collr. F.N. 

Young, Aug. 9-12, 1934, NEW SYNONYMY. 

Size: Females average 10.5 mm. (10.0 - 1 1.5), males average 9.8 mm. (8.2 - 10.3). 
Head: Eyes prominent, as wide as humerus, wider than pronotum. Clypeus black with 
green central area, purple laterally. Microsculpture isodiametric. Labrum pale, with 4 medial 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 77 



setae, 2 lateral. Mandibles piceous with narrow pale basal lateral portion. Mentum with acute 
median tooth. Ligula lacking. Maxilla cardo with 3 white setae, stipes with 4-5 setae. Segment 
1 with 1 apical seta, segment 2 glabrous, segment 3 with 3 setae ventrally, segment 4 with 1 
ventral seta (apex), segment 5 glabrous. Labial palpi 4 segmented, segments 1 and 2 glabrous, 
segment 3 with approximately 20 erect setae on dorsal surface, segment 4 glabrous. Colored as 
in abdominalis and highlandensis. Gena glabrous with purple reflection, 3-5 grooves 
terminating anteriorly in a depressed pit. Frons glabrous with suggestion of striae laterally, 
central area smooth and elevated. Eyes with 2 erect supraorbital setae. Antennal segments 1-4 
glabrous with metallic reflection, 1-2 erect setae on each segment. Segments 5-1 1 covered 
with dense tomentose setae. Segment 1 with 1 large erect seta; segment 2 glabrous. Segment 3 
with 3-5 medial setae, 6 apical setae. Segment 4 with 1-2 medial setae, 3-5 apical setae. 
Segment 1 gradually swollen apically, 2 times the length of segment 2. Segment 3 less than 2 
and 4, greater in length than 1 and 2. Segment 4 shorter than 3. 

Thorax: Pronotum with anterior v-shaped impression; middle smooth, microsculpture 
reduced, basal impression shallow. Lateral margin with 30 - 50 flattened setae. Prosternum 
glabrous, with greenish reflection, shiny. Proepisternum with numerous white setae near 
procoxae, the remainder smooth, shiny, microsculpture effaced. Procoxae anterior surface 
with dense layer of flattened setae. Single erect slender seta on inner surface. Trochanter 
glabrous. Profemur with 6-7 ventral erect setae. Protibia anterior surface with 6-7 short, erect 
seta in depressions. Inner half surface apically with dense layer of fine setae. Protarsi glabrous 
dorsally , ventrally with 4 pair of small erect setae and 1 large apical pair. Segment 1 longest, 2- 
5 subequal. Males with segments 1-3 ventrally with dense layer of hair; female unmodified; 2 
tarsal claws, long smooth, subequal. Meso-stemum glabrous, smooth, shiny. Mesepimeron 
covered with dense fringe of decumbent setae. Mesocoxae anterior surface with numerous 
white setae, posteriorly with single large erect seta. Trochanter glabrous. Mesofemur with 5-6 
erect setae on ventral surface. Mesotibia with dense fringe of short setae near apex on inner 
surface. Mesosternum with scattered decumbent setae on anterior margin. Metepisternum and 
metepimeron with dense covering of decumbent setae. Metacoxae with fringe of setae along 
posterior margin, also with 2 erect setae. Metatrochanter glabrous. Metatibia glabrous 
apically except for short scattered erect setae. Ventral surface with row of 1 1 - 1 2 erect setae on 
posterior and anterior margin. 

Abdomen rufous. Sternites 1-3 with dense lateral margin of decumbent setae. Stemites 3- 
5 with 2 central erect tactile setae. Stemite 6 with deep median depression in females, covered 
with short erect pubescence. Males with sternite 6 moderately emarginate, not depressed. 
Elytra shiny black, often with greenish luster around humerus ( extreme form of greenish cast 
seen in C. abdominalis floridana, but also seen to greater or lesser degree from different 
localities). Maculation consisting of apical lunules, median lateral mark, and 2 small medial 
dots slightly anterior to mid-lateral dots. Few specimens lacked the mid-lateral maculation 
missing in the majority of specimens of C. abdominalis. Elytral apices spined in both sexes. 
Microsculpture largely effaced, finely isodiametric, lending a shiny appearance to the beetles. 
Microsculpture of type entirely unlike abdominalis. Elytral tips microserrulate; surface 
heavily and deeply punctured throughout ( Fig. 3), punctures often separated by less than their 
own diameter. Large sutural foveae with umbiliferous center. 

Gcnitalia, male: Fig. 6. 

Distribution: Restricted to peninsular Florida, in sand-pinescrub and along margins of 
pine flatwoods. 

Variation: This species exhibits little variation. Some specimens are quite greenish (i.e., 
floridana) but this is interpreted to be a sign of recent emergence. Older specimens appear to 
have lost the greenish tint. Maculation (Fig. 3) is quite constant. 



78 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




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Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



79 



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Fig. 4 A. C. highlandensis n. sp., paratype, aedeagus. Internal sac removed. Fig. 4B. 
Internal sac, same specimen, removed to show internal sclerites characteristic of 
Cicindelidia Rivalier. Fig. 5. C. abdominalis Fab., aedeagus. Fig. 6. C. scabrosa 
Schaupp, aedeagus. Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are printed at the same magnification to show relative 



size. 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



DISCUSSION 

Cicindela highlandensis n. sp. (Fig. 1) belongs in the subgenus 
Cicindelidia (sensu Rivalier's genus Cicindelidia) as illustrated by its red 
abdomen and male genitalia (Fig. 4). It differs from C. abdominalis Fab. 
(Fig. 2) by its total lack of decumbent setae ventrally, by the lack of pronotal 
hairs, and by reduced maculation. The male aedeagus is more robust than 
that of abdominalis (Fig. 4 vs. Fig. 5). 

C. highlandensis will key to couplet 4 in Willis's (1968) key to the 
North American species of Cicindela. This should be modified as follows: 

4a. Labrum with 2 anterior medial setae, 2 lateral setae. 

4a'. Ventrally glabrous; lacking pronotal hairs C. highlandensis n. sp. 

4a.'! Ventrally with lateral sclerites covered with decumbent setae, also sternites 1-4 
with lateral decumbent setae; pronotum with at least a few lateral setae, or if 

absent, punctures are visible along suture C. abdominalis Fabricius 

4b. Labrum with 4 anterior medial setae, 2 lateral setae 5 

5a. Elytra deeply punctured, scabrous; surface shiny (Fig. 3) . . . C. scabrosa Schaupp 

5b. Elytra shallowly punctate or impuncate 6 

6a. Elytra shallow punctate 

6a'. Proepisternum densely setose C. roseiventris Chev. 

6a'! Proepisternum with sparse setae near coxal margin C. politula LeConte 

6b. Elytra impunctate 7 

Cicindela scabrosa will key to the species with 4 anterior medial setae 
on the labrum. From abdominalis and highlandensis, scabrosa may easily 
be separated by habitus (Fig. 3) and by male genitalia (Fig. 6). Both 
abdominalis and highlandensis have 2 medial setae on the labrum. 

The most striking differences between scabrosa and the other two 
species are densely punctate elytral surface in scabrosa only; conspicuous 
lateral row of pronotal hairs in scabrosa 30-50 per side, 0- 1 5 in abdominalis. 
in highlandensis; extensive covering of decumbent setae ventrally in 
scabrosa, while in abdominalis is reduced, and highlandensis is glabrous. 

Cicindela highlandensis n. sp. has been collected only in Highlands 
Co., Florida, near Sebring. This is an area of high endemism in many groups 
of plants and animals. Species restricted to this area include spiders (Brady 
1972, McCrone 1963, McCrone & Levi 1 964), lizards (Carr 1 940), camel 
crickets (Hubbell 1960), millipedes (Keeton 1959), and mutillid wasps 
( Schmidt &Mickel 1979). The sand dunes near Sebring are considered the 
southernmost extension of the Lake Wales Ridge (Laessle 1958). Typical 
scrub as well as sandhill vegetation occupy much of this area, and some of 
the highest elevations in peninsular Florida are found here. Cicindela 
scutellaris unicolor and C. hirtilabris LeConte which would normally 
occur in this habitat, are absent. Larvae of C. highlandensis have not yet 
been collected, and adult activity probably occurs only in the summer 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



81 




<*3HNT -JS 








8 

Fig. 7. Type locality of C. highlandensis n. sp.. Fig. 8. New citrus grove near type locality 
of C. highlandensis n. sp.. 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

months as in C. abdominalis Fab.. 

The range of C. highlandensis is apparently restricted to fossil sand 
ridges. Unfortunately, these sand ridges are rapidly being converted into 
citrus groves (Figs. 7 & 8). Unless some means of preserving this habitat 
is found, numerous organisms will become extinct, including this species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank the following individuals for their encouragement, assistance, and 
constructive criticism during the preparation of this manuscript: Gary Dunn, John Stamatov, 
Donald Wilson, Ken Vick, Terry Erwin, Howard Frank, Mike Thomas, Al Undeen, Angela 
Cameron, Teresa Choate, Pat Carlisle, Brenda Beck, Robert Woodruff, Reece Sailer, and 
Lloyd Davis. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brady, A.R. 1972. Geographic variation and speciation in the Sosippus floridanus species 

group. Psyche 79(1-2): 27-48. 
Carr, A.F., Jr. 1940. A contribution to the herpetology of Florida. Univ. Fla. Pub. Biol Sci 

Ser. 3(1): 1-118. 

Casey, T.L. 1913. Memoirs on the Coleoptera IV. New Era Printing Co., Lancaster, PA. 
Hubbell, T.H. 1961. Endemism and speciation in relation to Pleistocene changes in Florida 

and the southeastern coastal plain. 1 1th Int. Cong. Ent. Wien 1: 466-469. 
Keeton, W.T. 1959. A new family for the diplopod genus Floridobolus ( Spirobolida: Sprio- 

bolidae). Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 54: 1-7, 16 fig. 
Laessle, A.M. 1958. The origin and successional relationships of sandhill vegetation and 

sand-pine scrub. Ecol. Mon. 28 (4): 361-387. 
McCrone, J.D. 1963. Taxonomic status and evolutionary history of the Geolycosa pikei 

complex in the southeastern United States (Aranea: Lycosidae). Amer Mid Nat 

70(1): 47-73. 
McCrone, J.D. and H.W. Levi. 1964. North American widow spiders of the Latrodectus 

curacaviensis group (Aranea: Theridiidae). Psyche 71(1): 12-27. 
Newman, E. 1838. Description of Cicindela ventralis in Communications on the natural 

history of North America by E. Doubleday. Ent. Mag., London V: 414/532. 
Rivalier, E. 1954. Demembrement du genre Cicindela L.. II. Faune Americane. Rev. Fran. 

d'Ent. 21(4): 249-268. 
Schmidt, J.O., and C.E. Mickel. 1979. A new Dasymutilla from Florida ( Hymenoptera: 

Mutillidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 81(4): 576-579. 
Willis, H.L. 1968. Artificial key to the species of Cicindela of North America north of 

Mexico. J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 41: 303-317. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 83 

A NEW NEARCTIC SPECIES OF HYADINA 
(DIPTERA: EPHYDRIDAE) 1 2 

Philip J. Clausen 3 

ABSTRACT: A new species of Hyadina is described, while the generic description and 
species key is modified for its inclusion. 

Not long after completing a revision of the genus Hyadina for the 
Nearctic (Clausen, 1983), I received a number of specimens from the 
Canadian National Collections for identification. Contained therein were 
three specimens of a new species. Consequently, this paper should be 
considered as a supplement to the above revision. 

Hyadina vockerothi n. sp. 

It is with great pleasure that I name this species in honor of Dr. J.R. 
Vockeroth who collected the male specimens. 

At this point, I should mention that this species contains the only 
brachypterous specimens of Hyadina known from the Nearctic Region. Of 
the three known specimens, one male has normal or nearly normal wings 
while the other male and the female are brachypterous. Unfortunately, with 
this small sample, I have no way of knowing the frequency of brachypterism, 
therefore I have designated the normal male as the holotype. The wing 
measurements for each specimen are listed separately in the following 
description. 

Types: Holotype cf and paratype cf, both from Cranberry I., Lockeport, Nova Scotia, 31- 
VII- 1958, J.R. Vockeroth, mouse run among Carex; paratype 9, Upper Rock L., 30 mi. N. 
Kingston, Ontario, VII- 1977, J. Redner, ex. sphagnum bog; all three deposited in the 
Canadian National Collections. 

Diagnosis: Wings with all crossveins dark brown to black; head with 2 pair of large, 
vertical setae (inners large and convergent, outers large and divergent), and 1 large pair, 
divergent, orbital setae; face laterally with dense black, velvety patch and medially with dense 
grayish to silvery pruinosity. 

Description: MALE. Total body length 1.26 to 1.40 mm; shining black with grayish, 
silvery, golden, coppery and dense, black velvety pruinosity. 

Head shining black with black, grayish, silvery, golden and coppery pruinosity; length 
0.25 to 0.27 mm; 1 large pair divergent, orbital setae; 1 large pair convergent inner vertical 
setae; 1 large pair divergent outer vertical setae; vertex shining black, laterally with dense 



1 Received January 3, 1984. Accepted February 29, 1984. 

^Received No. 13,706, Scientific Journal Series, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment 
Station, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108. 

^Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108. 
ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 83-86. May & June, 1984 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



black, velvety pruinosity above and below, medially with coppery pruinosity above, becoming 
grayish to silvery below; gena black with dense black, velvety pruinosity above, dense grayish 
below. Face shining black, laterally with dense black, velvety patch, medially with dense 
grayish to silvery pruinosity; parafacial setae in 2 convergent and decumbent rows, 4 or 5 
outers, 3 inners. Clypeus black with dense grayish to silvery pruinosity. Antennae black with 
copper pruinosity. 

Thorax shining black with sparse golden to coppery pruinosity, no stripes or spots; scutum 
length 0.31 to 0.34 mm; dense grayish patch of humeral pruinosity; 1 large mesopleural seta. 
Scutellum shining black with sparse golden to coppery pruinosity medially, laterally with 
dense black, velvety patch; length 0.14 to 0.15 mm. Legs black with golden to coppery 
pruinosity; apex of mesothoracic tibiae with a large black spur and 2 small, black, anterior setae. 
Wing slightly clouded, not darkened at crossveins, no whitish spots, veins and all crossveins 
dark brown to black; R2+3 very short and angles upward sharply, meeting costs just beyond 
junction of Rj and costa. Normal of with wing rather short and broad, length from humeral 
crossvein 0.90 mm, width 0.48 mm, distance from h to RI 0.14 mm, RI to R2+3 0.09 mm, 
1*2+3 to Rr+5 0-66 mm, R4 +5 to M 1+2 0.12 mm, length R4+5 0.66 mm, length M 1+2 
0.44 mm, costal section from RI to R2+3 0.13 times distance from R2+3 to R4+5- 
Brachypterous cf with wing veins fused at crossveins, length from humeral crossvein 0.42 mm, 
width 0.22 mm, distance from h to RI 0. 10 mm, RI to R2+3 0.07 mm, R2+3 to R4+5 0.25 
mm, R4+5 to MI +2 0.10 mm, length R4+5 0.29 mm, length MI +2 0.12 mm, costal 
section from RI to R2+3 0.27 times distance from R2+3 to R4+5- Halteres light brown; 
normal in holotype cr, capitulum reduced in paratype cf. 

Abdomen as in Fig. 1 , shining brown with sparse golden to coppery pruinosity. 

Genitalia (Fig. 2). Note narrow tergite 9 with very long, narrow surstyli with rounded, 
slightly broadened and flattened apices, each bearing several short setae; gonites rather long, 
narrow, curved, pointed apically; gonal arch incomplete; aedeagus large, long, abruptly curved 
near base, enlarged apically with striations. 

FEMALE: Total body length 1.41 mm. Head, thorax and legs as in males except as 
noted: 

Head length 0.27 mm; parafacial setae in 2 convergent and decumbent rows, except 2 
outers proclinate, 5 outers, 4 inners. 

Thorax with scutum length 0.31 mm, scutellum length 0.14 mm. Wing brachypterous, 
veins not fused at crossveins, length from humeral crossvein 0.53 mm, width 0.27 mm, 
distance from h to RI 0.12 mm, RI toR2+30.07 mm, R2+3 toR4+5 0.32 mm, R4+5 to 
MI -)-2 0-08 mm, length R4+5 0.32 mm, length Mj +2 0. 14 mm, costal section from RI to 
R2+3 0.21 times distance from R2+3 to R4+4- Halteres normal. 

Abdomen as in Fig. 3, sternites 7 and 8 more strongly sclerotized and darker than others. 
Ventral receptacle as in Fig. 4. 

Distribution. Nova Scotia and Ontario. 

Specimens examined. 3 specimens (2 cftf and 1 9), the types with data as listed 
previously. 

To include vockerothi in the genus Hyadina, some minor changes in the 
generic diagnosis and description (Clausen, 1983) are necessary. These are 
as follows: 

Diagnosis and Description. Body length 1.26 to 2.30 mm. Head with face black, 
pruinosity uniform, striped or spotted, pruinosity grayish, silvery, golden, coppery or black; 1 
large orbital seta or orbital setae very small. Wing with costal section from R \ to R2 +3 0. 1 3 to 
1.25 times the distance from R2+3 to R4+5- 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



85 




TERQITE 1 
SPIRACLE 1 
3TERNITE 1 



0.26mm 



3TERNITE 6 
SPIRACLE 6 

TERQITE + SUftSTYLl 

CERCU3 





AEDEAQUS 



AEDEAQAL APODEME 



QONAL ARCH 
QONITE 



TERQITE 9 + SUR8TYLI 

CERCUS 



3TERNITE 




0.167mm 




Fig. I . Male abdomen, Hyadina vockerothi Clausen. Fig. 2. Male genitalia, Hyadina 
vockerothi Clausen. 



86 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The inclusion of vockerothi'm Hyadina also necessitates the modification 
of the species key in Clausen (1983). The modifications are as follows: 

4. Scutellum laterally with dense black, velvety patch 4A 

Scutellum without lateral, dense black, velvety patch, covered uniformly with golden to 
copper pruinosity pruinosity (Cresson) 

4A. Face laterally with dense black, velvety patch and medially with dense grayish to 

silvery pruinosity; 1 large pair, divergent orbital setae vockerothi n. sp. 

Face with uniformly dense, grayish to golden pruinosity; 1 to 5 very small, orbital 
setae . binotata (Cresson) 



TERQITE 1 
SPIRACLE 1 
STERNITE 1 




SPIRACLE 8 
STERNITE 8 
TERQITE 8 
CERCUS 



0.26mm 



3 




0.167mm 



Fig. 3. Female abdomen, Hyadina vockerothi Clausen. Fig. 4. Ventral receptacle, Hyadina 
vockerothi Clausen. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Dr. J.R. Vockeroth and Dr. B.E. Cooper, both of the Biosystematics Research 
Institute of Ottawa, Canada for providing these extremely interesting specimens. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Clausen, P.J. 1983. The genus Hyadina and a new genus of nearctic Ephydridae (Diptera). 
Trans. Am. EnL Soc. 109(2): 201-228. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 87 

ACANTHOSCELIDES WINDERI, NEW SPECIES, 

(COLEOPTERA; BRUCHIDAE) ASSOCIATED 

WITH MIMOSA SPP. (LEGUMINOSAE: 

MIMOSOIDEAE) FROM BRAZIL 1 

John M. Kingsolver^ 

ABTRACT: During a survey of Mimosa species in Brazil for potential biocontrol agents to 
control Mimosa pigra recently introduced into Australia, a new species, Acanthoscelides 
winderi, was reared from seeds of Mimosa pigra and Mimosa sp. The species is named after 
the collector. 

John Winder recently collected several series of specimens of a new 
species of Acanthoscelides reared from Mimosa sp. and M. pigra. All 
localities are in southeastern Brazil. Since this species is one of those being 
considered for biological control of M. pigra introduced into Australia, a 
name is needed for reference. 

Acanthoscelides winderi Kingsolver, new species 
Fig. 1-3 

Body length. 2.3-2.6 mm; width.- 1.5 -1.7 mm. 

Color. Integument yellowish red to dark red, eyes piceous. Vestiture of yellow, white, and 
dark brown slender hairs in mottled pattern (fig. 1 ) on dorsal surface. Head sparsely clothed; 
pronotum predominantly yellow with short, narrow, white spot on basal lobe and scattered dark 
brown hairs on paired apical and median, diagonal, slightly elevated gibbosities. Elytra with 
1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 10th intervals yellow, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th intervals with 
alternating dark brown and yellow, elongate spots. Pygidium predominantly yellow, with 3 
vague basal spots and 1 subapical median spot white, ventral border fringed with yellow, apical 
1/2 with prominent, nearly bare, paired dark red reniform spots (fig. 1 ). Abdomen with lateral 
row of white spots set in broad band of yellow; metepisternum yellow with white margin. 

Structure. Body short, broad, subdepressed. Head turbiniform, eyes prominent, ocular 
sinus about 1/2 length of eye; vertex microfoveolate, each foveola bearing a hair, frons with 
fine, short carina flanked by rugose punctation, clypeus with basal 1/2 rugosely punctate, 
apical 1/2 finely granulose, antenna serrate from 5th segment, 4th slightly eccentric, terminal 
segment subelliptical. Pronotum campaniform, strongly convex, lateral margins sinuate, 
apical margin evenly rounded, basal margin straight with somewhat angulate basal lobe; 
surface microfoveolate, foveolae mostly discrete, separated by a diameter, nearly concealed 
by vestiture except sparse on dark red gibbosities; prosternum short, triangular, not separating 
coxae at apices. Scutellum quadrate, bidentate apically. Elytra slightly longer than wide, 
convex except subdepressed between 4th striae, striae prominent but not deep, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 
and 9th intervals slightly wider than 1 st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th; intervals minutely imbricate, 
concealed by vestiture, mesostemum subtriangular, apex rounded, postmesocoxal sulci not 



Received February 18, 1984. Accepted April 11, 1984. 

^Systematic Entomology Laboratory, IIBIII, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, c/o 
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. 20560. 

ENT. NEWS. 95(3). 87-89. May & June, 1984 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



meeting on midline. Abdomen with 1 st sternite longer than remaining sternites in cf , subequal 
in 9; terminal sternite in cf broadly emarginate to receive apex of pygidium, in 9 evenly 
rounded; cf pygidium gently convex, 9 pygidium nearly flat, surface finely imbricate, nearly 
concealed by vestiture except sparse on dark red triangular spots. Male genitalia with median 
lobe (fig. 2) moderately broad, internal sac trilobed; ventral valve bluntly rounded apically, 
lateral margins incurvate, dorsal valve subtriangular, densely setose; basal 1/3 of internal sac 
with minute blunt denticles gradating to minute quadrate denticles, middle of sac with 
transverse cluster of small spines, lateral lobes of sac partly lined with minute triangular 
denticles; lateral lobes (fig. 3) broad, cleft to 1/2 their length. Pro- and mesolegs normal for 
genus, metafemur moderately incrassate, pecten with 1 long and 2 or 3 short denticles, 
metatibia with lateral, ventral, and dorsomedial carinae distinct and complete to apex, 
lateroventral carina obsolete in apical 1/5, mucro short, acute; lateral dentical short, corona 
with 3 denticles. 

Holotype cf. BRAZIL: Panorama (SP), 26 April 1981, ex seed pods Mimosa sp., J.A. 
Winder (149- A- 1). Allotype 9 2 cf, 29 paratypes, same data. 

Primary types are deposited in the Departamento de Zoologia (Museu), Universidad 
Federal de Parana, Curitiba, Brazil. 

Other paratypes. BRAZIL: Uberlandia (MB), 2 May 198 1 , ex seed pods Mimosa sp., 
J..A. Winder (173-A), 47 cf 9; Ribeirao Preta (SP), 9 May 1981, ex seed pods Mimosa sp., 
J.A. Winder ( 194- A- 1), 45 cf 9; Santa Rite do Araguaia(GO), 28 April 1981 , ex seed pods 
Mimosa sp., J.A. Winder (158-2), 1 9; Pedra Azul(MG), 20 February 1981, ex seed pods 
Mimosa pigra, J.A. Winder (99-2), 12 cf 9; Vassouras(RJ), 23 March 1981, J.A. Winder 
(131-B), 8 cf 9. Paratypes are deposited with the primary types and in the C.D. Johnson 
collection, Flagstaff, Arizona; the National Museum of Natural History , Washington, D.C.; 
the Institute Miguel Lillo, Tucuman, Argentina; the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, 
Brazil, and the CSIRO Museum, Canberra City, Australia. 

This species is in the mexicanus group (Johnson, 1983: 6) and is 
apparently closely related to Acanthoscelid.es mexicanus (Sharp); lapsanae 
(Motschulsky), and piceoapicalis (Pic) differing principally in its more 
extensive dark red pygidial spots, and in the armature of the male genitalia. 
In A. mexicanus, lapsanae, and piceoapicalis, the pygidial spots are small 
and submarginal, the basal white patches on the pygidium are vaguely 
defined, and the lateral pockets of the internal sac are completely lined with 
thorn-like spines, whereas in A. winderi, new species, the pygidial spots are 
large and triangular or falcate, the basal white patches are large and 
conspicuous, and each of the lateral pockets of the internal sac has a 
transverse row of slender spines at the middle, and are only partly lined with 
minute denticles. Furthermore, in piceoapicalis, the apical 1/5 of the 
elytron is piceous to black whereas the other three species are patterned to 
the apex of the elytra. The lateral lobes of A. winderi are broad as in 
lapsanae and piceoapicalis (Johnson, 1983, figs. 259, 406); those of 
mexicanus are slender (ibid, fig. 329). Acanthoscelides winderi will key to 
lapsanae in Johnson's key. 

I am pleased to name this species for John A. Winder who collected all 
of the specimens upon which this description is based. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



89 



LITERATURE CITED 

Johnson, C.D. 983. Ecosystematics of Acanthoscelides (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) of southern 
Mexico and Central America. Misc. Publ., Entomol. Soc. of Amer. 56: 1-370. 




Figs. 1-3, Acanthoscelides winderi. n. sp. 1 . Dorsal habitus. 2. Male genitalia, median lobe, 
ventral aspect. 3. Male genitalia, lateral lobes, ventral aspect. 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BOOK REVIEW 

THE AUSTRALIAN CRICKETS (ORTHOPTERA: GRYLLIDAE). 
Daniel Otte and Richard D. Alexander. 1983. Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia Monograph 22. 477 pp. $45.00. 

This is a major taxonomic monograph that deals with an important fauna in some unusual 
and noteworthy ways. 

Otte and Alexander state that when they undertook their studies of Australian crickets 
they presumed most species were known. However, in their monograph 376 of 492 species are 
new, as are 41 of 85 genera. And this is not a matter of splitting taxa recognized by previous 
workers. Nearly all new taxa are based on specimens taken by the authors during a year of 
intensive field work throughout Australia and Tasmania. The chief cause of their finding so 
much more diversity than previous collectors is their use of the male's call to distinguish 
species in the field. When they entered a new locality, they determined how many species were 
calling and set about collecting at least one of each. They rightly emphasize that cricket calls 
are not just one more character that can be used in species discrimination. Male calling songs 
have a direct relation to species status females use them in seeking conspecific mates. 

This book is beautifully and abundantly illustrated. Insect lovers will gain pleasure in 
leafing through the pages and viewing the varied shapes and sonagrams (calls) of Australian 
crickets. The approximately 3070 drawings, arranged in 357 "figures," include 120 whole 
crickets (representing nearly every genus), 2270 identifying morphological features, 310 
sonagrams, and 340 distribution maps. The illustrations accompany appropriate text and are 
arranged for convenient comparisons of related species. 

This monograph is unusual in its thrifty choice of what's included and in its avoidance of 
redundancy. For example, synonymies are brief and streamlined, and the 905 collecting 
localities mapped and described in the introduction are thereafter represented by a simple 
code. One instance where brevity is a flaw is the book's indexing. Its only index is taxonomic 
and each tax on is referenced to a single page (not always an appropriate one; and some taxa are 
omitted e.g. Eurepa and Gryllulus. This leads me to another flaw internal inconsistencies 
and mistakes occur more frequently than one expects in a work otherwise so compelling. 
Nonetheless, in most respects this is a monograph that other monographers should emulate. 

Thomas J. Walker, Dept. of Entomology, University of Florida 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

INSECTS ON NETTLES, GRASSHOPPERS, SOLITARY WASPS, INSECTS AND 
THISTLES. Various authors. 1983. Naturalists Handbooks Nos. 1, 2, 3, & 4. 

A series of small books for "sixth formers and others without a university training in biology." 
Each features four colored plates and keys to identification of British insects. 

SYSTEMATICS AND BIONOMICS OF ANTHOPHORA THE BOMBOIDES GROUP 
AND SPECIES GROUPS OF THE NEW WORLD (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). 
R.W. Brooks. 1983. Univ. Calif. Press. 86 pp. $8.50 pbk. 

The species groups ofAnthophora (s. str.) in No. America and the life history ofAnthophora 
bomboides stanfordiana Cockerell. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 91 

ELEVATION OF DIABROTICA SICUANICA 
(COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) TO THE 

SPECIES LEVEL WITH NOTES ON THE 
ALTITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION OF DIABROTICA 
SPECIES IN THE CUZCO DEPARTMENT OF PERU 1 ' 2 

J.L. Krysan3, T.F. Branson3, R.F.W. Schroeder 4 , W.E. Steiner, Jr. 5 

ABSTRACT: Diabrotica decempunctata sicuanica Bechyne is elevated to the species level. 
The altitudinal distribution of 1 7 species of Diabrotica in the Cuzco Dept. of Peru, based on 
material collected in January of 1 979 and 1 982, is presented. The greatest diversity of species 
(11) was collected in the altitudinal range of 1 250 to 2450 M. At elevations below 2800 M, 
most beetles were found on flowers of cucurbits. In the altitude zone from 2800 to 3500 M, two 
taxa were collected, both from Zea mays L.: D. speciosa vigens Erichson, from 2800 to 3200 
M and D. sicuanica Bechyne, from 3000 to 3500 M elevation. The two species with the most 
extensive continental ranges were collected over the greatest range of altitudes. 

Diabrotica is a largely Neotropical genus that includes several species 
of great economic importance in North America, particularly as pests of 
maize. Given the pest status, the South American members of the genus 
have been of interest to North American entomologists as, for example, 
reservoirs of natural enemies. Despite this interest, most South American 
Diabrotica are very poorly known. Except for a few widespread economic 
pests, the literature consists of original descriptions and catalog entries. 
Distribution records are scanty and indefinite. Given the nature of Andean 
ecology, altitudinal distribution patterns are expected, but no such informa- 
tion is available for Diabrotica. 

In the course of a total of nearly 7 weeks of searches for natural enemies 
in the Cuzco Department of Peru in January of 1979 and 1982, we made 
extensive collections of Diabrotica. Based on these collections, we herein 
elevate one taxon, D. decempunctata sicuanica Bechyne, to the species 
level, and report on the altitudinal distribution of 1 7 taxa of Diabrotica, 



1 Received October 10, 1983. Accepted March 3, 1984. 

2 Purchased by Science & Education Administration, V.S.D.A., for official use. 

^USDA, ARS, Northern Grain Insects Research Laboratory, Rural Route #3, Brookings, 
SD 57006 

^USDA, ARS, Beneficial Insects Introduction Laboratory, Beltsville Agriculture Research 
Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 

5 Dept. of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (Present 
address: Dept. of Entomology, NHB-169, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C. 20560) 

ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 91-98. May & June, 1984 



92 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Taxonomic Status of Diabrotica decempunctata sicuanica Bechyne 

Our experience indicates a status change for this taxon is appropriate 
despite our commitment to the ideal that piecemeal changes separate from a 
major revision can be detrimental. We have recognized D. d. sicuanica as a 
pest of maize (see below), so a literature might develop which makes 
nomenclatural simplicity and stability highly desirable. Taxonomic infor- 
mation indicates species status is appropriate, and because trinomials are 
commonly ignored in general entomological literature, we elevate D. d. 
sicuanica to the species level. A brief description is given here because the 
original description is limited to a key couplet. 

Diabrotica sicuanica Bechyne new status 

D. decempunctata sicuanica Bechyne, 1958: 555. 

Description. Body elongate oval, lime green nearly throughout, elytra widest slightly 
post-medially. Length 5 to 7 mm. 

Pronotu m. Shiny lime green, wider than long, mean ratio length to width, 0. 70; disc with 2 
foveae tiny or absent, glabrous except for a prominent seta on anterior and posterior angles and 
1 or 2 short setae on the lateral margin adjacent to the prominent seta; lateral margin distinct, 
reflexed; scutellum piceous. 

Elytra. Humeral plicae absent, disc asculate, finely, irregularly punctate, surface very 
finely alutaceous; each elytron with 2 spectrum orange (frequently faded) diffuse spots, one 
originating on humerus and narrowing apicad, ending at basal one-third to one-half of elytron, 
other oblong, one-third width of elytron, originating at apical one-third of elytron, one-third of 
elytral width of suture, directed diagonally towards apical curve. Piceous maculation highly 
variable; piceous sutural vitta at basal one-sixth of elytron and at most 5 spots on each 
elytron: 1 humeral; 2 in proximal one-half, 1 on disc near but not touching suture, the other 
nearer lateral margin lying slightly apicad from the first, 2 arranged similarly in posterior one- 
third. Piceous maculation may be reduced to a very narrow sutural vitta; distal medial spots 
are the last to disappear, except occasionally only humeral spots present; when present, the 
distal spots lie at either end of distal orange spot. Disc essentially glabrous; a few setae on 
apical margin. 

Head Very shiny, entirely piceous. Antennae entirely piceous, three-fourths length of 
body in male, two-thirds length of body in female; third segment 1 V4 times length of segment 2; 
segments 2 and 3 together two-thirds length of segment 4. 

Ventral side. Prothorax yellow or lime green, meso and metathorax entirely piceous, all 
legs entirely piceous, abdomen yellow or lime green. 

Male genitalia. The internal sac is illustrated in Figure la. 

Material Examined Three hundred and thirteen (313) specimens from the localities 
listed in Table 1 collected by J. Krysan and T. Branson, January 1982, and deposited in 
USNM and Ministerio de Agricultura y Alimentacion, Lima, Peru; San Jeronimo, Cuzco 
Dept., Peru 111-24-79, G. Buckingham, private colln.; AUTOTYPE, Urabamba, Peru V-16- 
62, 3200 M, Carrasco, obtained from Dr. F. Carrasco, Cuzco Dept., Peru (to be deposited in 
USNM). 

Distribution. In addition to the material examined, we know of specimens collected at 
Cuzco, Peru, 3500 M, by G. Molleda, X- 15-61 in California Insect Survey and the type 
material collected at Sicuani, Peru (Museum G. Frey). Thus, the species has been collected 
only in the Cuzco Dept. of Peru and from localities above 3 1 50 M elevation. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



93 





B 



Fig. 1. Internal sac structure of D. sicuanica (A) and D. d. semiviridis (B). 



Taxonomic Discussion. Bechyne (1958) named D. sicuanica as a 
subspecies of D. decempunctata Latreille in a key. In that key, he also 
combined D. semiviridis Bowditch as a subspecies of D. decempunctata. 
We collected both D. d. semiviridis and D. sicuanica in the Cuzco Dept., 
but their ranges are altitudinally distinct; the former was collected at 1 800 - 
2500 M and the latter only above 3150 M (see next section). Usually 
subspecies rank indicates morphological similarity, so at least some 
specimens should be hard to place. That is not so with these taxa. Size of 
elytral punctations, Bechyne' s diagnostic character for these taxa, is 
technically a quantitative trait and hence potentially variable, but we have 
seen no beetles with intermediate punctation size, and Bechyne mentioned 
none. We consider the internal sac of the male genitalia to bear the most 
useful characters for distinguishing Diabrotica, so we illustrate here the 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



armature of internal sacs of D. sicuanica and D. d. semiviridis (Figs, la 
and Ib). The differences are obvious and should be taken into account by 
the next revisor; the important point for now is the relationship between D. 
sicuanica and the nominate taxon D. decempunctata Latreille. The type of 
the latter is a damaged female specimen without exact locality data. The 
pronotal shapes of D. sicuanica and the type of D. decempunctata Latreille 
are obviously different, a difference which can be measured. Of 33 female 
D. sicuanica measured, the length to width ratio of the pronotum (mean 
0.70, range 0.66 to 0.74) is clearly different than that of the type of the 
nominate subspecies (0.78). 

Collection Sites and Methods 

The climate and ecology of Peru is summarized in Gorbman et al. 
(1961), and we use their designations for ecological regions. The collections 
above 2500 M are in the Quechua region. Sites between 1000 and 2500 M 
in the Valle Lares, and the valleys of the Rio Urubamba and Rio Pilcopata, 
are in the Fluvial Yunga. The collections between 400 and 1000 M are in 
the Selva Alta, and those below 400 M are in the Selva Baha. The collection 
sites near Limatambo and Curahuasi in the Rio Apurimac system, while 
classified in the Quechua, are considerably drier than the other sites in this 
biological zone. 

In most localities, all plants found in flower were examined for beetles 
on the foliage as well as the floral parts. The great majority of beetles 
(exceptions are noted) were collected from the flowers or foliage of domestic 
or wild cucurbits. Collections in the Selva Baha and Selva Alta were from 
highly diverse vegetation systems, and few beetles were found. Only a total 
of four days was spent searching at those elevations. Collections in the 
Fluvial Yunga were usually from tiny garden plots invariably containing 
domestic cucurbits and sometimes containing corn. From these complex 
systems in the Selva and Fluvial regions, numbers of beetles collected 
would mean little. 

Collections in the upper elevations (> 2800 M) of the Quechua region, 
however, were always from row-crop agricultural land or alfalfa monocul- 
tures. In maize fields in these upper elevations we saw evidence of 
altitudinal change in species composition so we conducted a rather 
intensive search. This search focused on the Urcos, Sacred, Ccorao, and 
Cuyo Grande valleys and the valley of the Rio Colorado. The Cuyo Grande 
valley is above, but contiguous with, the Sacred Valley proper and it was 
fortuitous that we could collect where maize production was continuous 
between the two valleys. Twenty-seven fields were searched for a minimum 
of 30 minutes each. Longer search numbers were adjusted to reflect 30 
minutes of search. We think those numbers reflect the elevational relation- 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 95 



ship between D. sicuanica and D. speciosa vigens. 

The beetles will be deposited in the USNM and the collection of the 
Ministerio de Agricultura y Alimentcion, Lima, Peru. 

RESULTS 

Elevation of Collections 

The species collected at the various sites summarized by elevation 
levels are presented in Table 1 . In the Selva Alta and Selva Baha, 5 species 
were found, but each was represented in very low numbers. The greatest 
variety of species (11) was encountered in the Fluvial Yunga where we 
collected at elevations from 1250 to 2450 M. All these beetles were 
collected from cucurbit flowers. 

In the Quechua region from elevation 2600 M to 3000 M, D. speciosa 
vigens was by far the most common species found. It was collected from 
maize, cucurbits, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) foliage and flowers, 
alfalfa foliage and flowers, and flowers of the weedy legume Sparteum 
junceum. The one other species (new species, virgifera group) collected in 
this elevation range was represented by a series of 3 1 cf beetles found near 
Limatambo at 2800 M. 

Above 2800 M elevation we found two species, D. s. vigens and D. 
sicuanaca (Table 2). In the elevation range from 3000 to 3200 M, D. s. 
vigens occurred with D. sicuanaca; we never collected the latter taxon at 
lower elevations. Above 3200 M, D. sicuanica was the only species of 
Diabrotica collected. The highest elevation at which we collected D. 
sicuanica was 3500 M (Table 2). In the Valley of the Rio Colorado, where 
we collected from 2800 to 3500 M, we did not find D. sicuanica, but we did 
find D. speciosa vigens up to 3200 M elevation. Incidentally, the Urcos and 
Anta valleys, where only D. sicuanica was collected, have no accessible 
openings to valleys at lower elevations comparable to the intersection of the 
Cuyo Grande and Sacred valleys. 

Despite the polycultural nature of many of the fields, we found D. 
sicuanica beetles only on maize plants. Furthermore, larvae of D. 
sicuanica were found feeding on maize roots. 

DISCUSSION 

These collections were made at the peak of the growing season; e.g., in 
the Quechuan region, maize was silking and legumes were commonly in 
flower. Therefore, they make a first approximation of the altitudinal 
distribution of Diabrotica in the southern Andes of Peru. 

Some patterns can be detected among the collections. Several of the 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

taxa with restricted elevational distribution have been recorded only from 
Peru. 

Two species, D. s. vigens and D. viridula, were distinctive in that we 
collected them over a much greater range of altitudes than any of th? other 
species. This great altitudinal range in this small area of the Andes is 
consistent with the fact that these two species have the most widespread 
geographical distributions of any Diabrotica. Diabrotica speciosa (sensu 
lato) range from Columbia and Brazil to Argentina and Bolivia ( Smith and 
Krysan, unpublished). The range of D. viridula extends from Mexico and 
Brazil to Chile (Wilcox, 1972) and the Easter Island (Olalquiaga, 1980). 

Our first collections above 2800 M suggeted a change in species 
composition in a rather narrow altitudinal zone. The two species of 
Diabrotica in that zone were found in association with maize in row-crop 
agricultural plots, a relatively uniform ecosystem amenable to a systematic 
search. We have tabulated here (Table 2) the numbers of beetles collected 
in our rather unrefined survey in preference to simply listing localities to 
better record our basis for concluding that D, sicuanica occurs at elevations 
above the wide-ranging species, D. s. vigens. Ecological characteristics that 

Table 1. Species collected at various sites summarized by elevation levels. 

Localities and elevation ranges (in meters)^' 
1250- 1900- 2100- 2800- 3000- 3350- 

<900 1400 1830 2000 2100 2200 2450 2980 3200 3500 

D. sicuanica Bechyne 12 13 

D. new sp. ( virgtfera group)-'' 1 

D. nigromaculata Jacoby 4 

D. tumidicornis Erichson 456 

D. mauliki Barber 4 

D. sharpi usualis Bechyne 456 

D. decempunctata semiviridis 45678 

Bowditch 

D. mapiriensis new ssp.*> 456 8 

D. speciosa vigens Erichson 3 4 5 6 8 9,10,11 12 

D. viridula Fabricius 13456 

Unknown species # 1 3 

D. peruensis Bowditch 3 

D. limitata quindecimpunctata 3 

Germar 

D. septemliturata Erichson 1 

Unknown species #2 2 

D. gracilenta Erichson 1 

Unknown species #3 (near 1 

D. godmani Jacoby) 

Hi = Quince Mil; 2 = Pilcopata; 3 = road near Chaullay, 4 = Macchu Picchu; 5 = 50 km south 
Quillabamba, 6 = Lares Valley, 75 km north Calca; 7 = 1 40 km post, road to Pilcopata; 8 = 70 km south 
Quillabamba; 9 = OUantaytambo; 10 = Limatambo; 1 1 = Curahuasi; 12 = Pisac and lower Cuyo 
Grande; 1 3 = Andahuaylillas(Urcos Valley), Cuyo Grande Valley, Pucyura( Anta Valley), Ccoraofon 
road from Cuzco to Pisac). 

''These new taxa will be described in a revision of the virgifera group now being completed. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 97 

obviously change through this zone and could bear on species distributions 
are temperature, plant composition of the fields, and edaphic factors related 
to slope. The Sacred Valley is a flat floodplain, intensively cropped, largely 
in maize monoculture. By contrast, the Cuyo Grande Valley is very steep 
and characteristically has small, sloped fields where polycultures are the 
rule but maize clearly dominates. The Cuyo Grande opens onto the Sacred 
Valley at 3000 M elevation. Both species were found in floodplain and 
sloped fields so slope alone is probably not a factor. Also, we found beetles 
of both D. sicuanica and D. s. vigens in both maize monoculture and 
polycultural fields so the admixture of forbs so common in maize fields in 
the Cuyo Grande Valley is not a likely explanation for the elevation-related 
changes in species composition. 

Given the larval and adult associations, we conclude that D. sicuanica 
is a pest of maize restricted to high Andean elevations. Indeed, in the Cuyo 
Grande, Ccorao, Urcos, and Anta Valleys, we found D. sicuanica at the 
highest elevations at which we found maize. 



Table 2. Numbers of D. speciosa vigens and D. sicuanica collected at elevations of 2800 M 
and higher. 

D. 

speciosa D. 

Location Elev. (M) vigens sicuanica Culture 

Sacred Valley (SV) and Contiguous Valleys 

Ollantaytambo (SV) 2800 20 maize 

Urubamba(SV) 2920 212 maize 

Yucay(SV) 2990 46 maize 

9 km N. Pisac (SV) 3020 31 13 maize 

1 km S. Pisac(SV) 3050 34 158 poly 6 

Cuyo Grande Valley 3170 11 18 maize 

Cuyo Grande Valley 3200 8 28 poly 2 

Cuyo Grande Valley 3350 36 poly 5 

Ccorao Valley 3470 42 poly 1 

Ccorao Valley 3500 8 poly 4 

Adjacent Valleys 

Rio Colorado 3050 60 poly 3 

Rio Colorado 3 1 40 6 maize 

RioColordao 3200 13 maize 

Urcos Valley 3500 18 maize 

Anta Valley 3500 43 poly 1 

Poly 1 - maize + fava beans 

Poly 2 - maize + fava beans + snapbeans + peas 

Poly 3 - maize 4- snapbeans 

Poly 4 - maize + fava beans -I- potatoes 

Poly 5 - maize + lupine 4- snapbeans 

Poly 6 - maize 4- peas (few) 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

During the 1979 expedition, Dr. R.D. Gordon, USDA, ARS, Washington, D.C., and 
Arturo Giron, Entomol. Dept. University of Maryland, were very helpful in the practical 
matters of working in Peru. Mr. Alfonso Arestequi and Dr. Francisco Carrasco, Entomologists, 
Cuzco, Peru, provided invaluable assistance. 

We thank Dr. P. Passerin d'Entreves, Curator, Museo Ed Institute di Zoologica 
Sistematica, Universita di Torino, Italy, for loan of the type ofDiabrotica decempunctata and 
Drs. Ron McGinley and Al Newton, Museum Comparative Zoology, Harard University, for 
hospitality extended to JLK while examining types at MCZ. 

The 1979 expedition was supported by a cooperative agreement between the Beneficial 
Insects Introduction Laboratory, USDA, ARS, and the Dept. of Entomology, University of 
Maryland. The 1 982 expedition was supported by the Office of International Cooperation and 
Development, USDA. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Bechyne, J.I 958. Notizen zu den neotropischen Chrysomeloidea (Col. Phytophaga). 

Entomol. Arb. Mus. Frey Vol. 9, pp. 478-706. 
Gorbman, A., W. Salhuana, Ricardo Sevilla, and P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1 96 1 . Races of maize 

in Peru: Their origins, evolution and classification. Pub. 915. Nat. Acad. Sciences, Nat. 

Res. Council, Washington, D.C. 374 pp. 
Olalquiaga, G. 1980. Aspectos fitosanitarios de La Isla de Pascua. Revista Chilena de 

Entomologia. 10: 101-102. 
Wilcox, J.A. 1972. Coleopterorum catalogus supplementa. Pars. 78. Fasc. 2 (editi seconda). 

(Galerucinae, Luperini: Aulacophorina). pp. 296-431. 



Y.E.S. 

Y.E.S., the YOUNG ENTOMOLOGIST'S SOCIETY, was originally the Teen 
International Entomology Group which was formed in 1 965 . Y.E.S. serves as an organization 
through which members can exchange information about insects through correspondence and 
group publications. The oranization's name reflects it's youth orientation, but "young" 
members of any age are needed for its many activities and functions. 

The Societies' publication, Y.E.S. QUARTERLY, is full of "how to" articles, collecting 
tips, news, field notes, life history information, identification dps, and virtually every other 
entomological topic, including the non-insect arthropods. Nearly all of the articles are written 
by the members themselves! In addition, the members tell about themselves and their specific 
interests via a member directory and the "tradingpost." 

Membership in Y.E.S. is open to all individuals, young or old, amateur or professional, 
with an interest in entomology. There are four membership categories: youth members ( up to 
age 18), collegiate members, adult members and sustaining members. Membership applications 
and additional information may be obtained from the Department of Entomology, Michigan 
State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1 1 15. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 99 

PSEUDOCOSSINAE: A NEW SUBFAMILY 
OF COSSIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) 1 

J.B. Heppner 2 ' 3 

ABSTRACT: Pseudocossinae, new subfamily, is named and diagnosed for three genera in 
Cossidae: Pseudocossus Kenrick (type-genus), Chilecomadia Dyar, and Rhizocossus 
Clench. Pseudocossus is from Madagascar and the other genera are from Chile. Pseudocossinae 
have proto-tympanal organs on the anterior abdominal sternite. 

Recent review of Lepidoptera classification for a book to be published 
soon on Lepidotera families (Heppner, 1984) and for the Atlas of 
Neotropical Lepidoptera (W. Junk Publ., The Hague, Netherlands) has 
indicated the need for a new subfamily name for a group of primitive genera 
in Cossidae. Since the name is needed for these two publications, I propose 
the new subfamily at this time. 

Pseudocossinae, new subfamily 
Type-genus: Pseudocossus Kenrick, 1914. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1913: 590. 

Diagnosis: Adults medium sized (wingspan ca. 30-45 mm); head somewhat roughened 
on vertex, antenna filiform (somewhat serrate ventrally), ocelli present (Pseudocossus) or 
absent, compound eye large, labial palpus upturned with small terminal segment; thorax with 
legs having arolium between tarsal claws; forewing venation typical for family but pterostigma 
absent, cubital veins connate at base (Pseudocossus) or separated, CuP merged with anal 
veins near tornus (Pseudocossus) or nearly so, median vein in discal cell single or forked; 
hindwing with no crossvein from Sc to Rs at base; abdomen with proto-tympanal organ as a 
lateroventral invagination on anterior stemite; male genitalia with rounded uncus (slightly 
bifid), valva simple, saccus reduced; female with setose ovipositor, simple ostium and bursa 
copulatrix. 

Immature Stages: Unknown. 

Remarks: The new subfamily is proposed for one Ethiopian and two 
Neotropical genera of primitive Cossidae, first noted for their unique 
characteristic by Clench (1957, 1959). These genera are the Madasgascar 
endemic Pseudocossus Kenrick, 1914, with two known species, and the 
Chilean genera Chilecomadia Dyar, 1937, with two species, and Rhizocossus 
Clench, 1957, with one species. The characters demonstrating the primitive 
nature of these genera in relation to other Cossidae, as well as in definition 
of Pseudocossinae, primarily involve the so-called proto-tympanal organs 



1 Received December 19, 1983. Accepted April 7. 1984. 

^Center for Arthropod Systematics, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Bureau of 
Entomology. DPI. FDACS, P.O. Box 1269, Gainesville, FL 32602. 

^Contribution No. 580, Bureau of Entomology, FDACS, Division of Plant Industry. 
ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 99-100. May & June, 1984 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

on the anterior abdominal sternite. These proto-tympanal organs are not as 
developed as the more advanced tympana found in Dudgeonea (Dudgeoneidae). 
Pseudocossus additionally has ocelli, but the two Chilean genera do not. 
The Indian genus Catopta and the Australian Idioses also have ocelli and 
may also belong to Pseudocossinae. The remainder of the Cossidae, as well 
as Metarbeliadae and Dudgeoneidae, do not have ocelli (except as noted 
above for two genera) and lack proto-tympanal organs, except that 
Dudgeoneidae have developed enlarged tympanal organs. There may be 
other Cossidae with a simple abdominal imagination similar to a proto- 
tympanal organ, but this requires further study. 

The three genera here included in Pseudocossinae also have very 
similar male genitalia, as pointed out by Clench (1959), particularly in 
lacking the long beak-like uncus characteristic of most Cossidae, as well as 
Dudgeoneidae. Pseudocossus clearly is the more distinct genus of the 
subfamily and shows more affinities to some proto-Dudgeoneidae stem 
lineage than do the Chilean genera. The extent of the parameters of 
Pseudocossinae will undoubtedly continue to change as more cossids are 
discovered in remote areas of the world, particularly in the Gondwanaland 
refugia (South Africa, Madagascar, Assam, New Zealand, Chile) that 
involve the habitats of Pseudocossinae. This fact is likewise true for most 
higher categories of Lepidoptera. Thus far at least, the three genera herein 
included in Pseudocossinae clearly demonstrate a set of characters 
distinctive enough among Cossidae to require a separate higher category to 
adequately delimit their distinctions within the family. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Clench, H.K. 1957. Cossidae from Chile (Lepidoptera). Mitt. Miinchner Ent. Ges. 

(Munich), 47: 122-142. 
1959. On the unusual structure and affinities of the Madagascan genus Pseudocossus 

(Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Rev. Franc. Ent. (Paris), 26: 44-50. 
Heppner, J.B. 1984. Lepidoptera family classification. A guide to the higher categories, 

world diversity and literature resources of the butterflies and moths. Medford, NJ: Plexus 

Publ. (ca. 1200 pp.) 



ERRATA 

In the March- April 1984 issue of ENT. NEWS, an article appeared entitled "A Spate of 
Glowworms" by Steven R. Wing. In that paper the words Phengodidae and phengodid( s) were 
misspelled four times: in the title, and on lines 1,5, and 13. The correct spelling should be 
Phengodidae and phengodid(s). Both the author and the editor regret these errors. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 101 

ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

ASSOCIATION OF PEDILUS (PEDILIDAE) 

WITH MELOE (COLEOPTERA: MELOIDAE) 12 

Linda Butler 3 

ABSTRACT: Three specimens of Pedilus collaris (Say) were observed in association with a 
male Meloe angusticollus Say. Two of the beetles were firmly attached to Meloe abdominal 
tergites but were producing little or no obvious damage. 

Recently, LeSage and Bousquet (1983) reviewed reports of Pedilus - 
Meloe associations and described their observations of P. lugubris (Say) 
chewing Meloe elytra. 

On April 27, 1979 I observed an association between Pedilus and 
Meloe near the unincorporated community of Triune, 21 km south of 
Morgantown, West Virginia. The habitat was a steep hillside in a typical 
Eastern cove of hardwood forest (oak, hickory, maple). 

A male Meloe angusticollis Say was observed resting on the edge of a 
fallen dead white oak leaf. Two male Pedilus collaris (Say) were firmly 
attached by their mandibles to the second and third abdominal tergites of 
the Meloe with their legs drawn up below their bodies. A third male P. 
collaris, which was crawling over leaf litter and dead twigs about 23 cm 
away, oriented to the leaf on which Meloe was resting. The leaf was reached 
by means of an indirect route of about 64 cm utilizing small twigs as 
"bridges" to the leaf. Once on the leaf, the Pedilus walked directly to the 
Meloe and attempted to crawl onto it at the abdominal apex. When touched 
by the third pedilid, the Meloe rapidly jerked forward and began walking 
over the forest floor directly away from the Pedilus. 

After observing the blister beetle walk over a distance of about one 
meter, I collected the Meloe and two pedilids and placed them in a plastic 
bag together with leaves and twigs. The captive Meloe moved actively and 
frequently crawled upside down on the twigs. At these times, the pedilids 
hung freely by their mandibles. The pedilids detached about 10 hours later 
and apparently were no longer attracted by the Meloe. Examination of the 
meloid's abdominal tergites showed only very small scratches on their 
posterior margins. 



Deceived January 23, 1984. Accepted April 5, 1984. 

^ Published with the approval of the Director of the West Virginia University Agricultural and 
Forestry Station as Scientific Article #1865. 

^Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, P.O. Box 6 108, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 
WV 26506-6108. 

ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 101-102. May & June, 1984 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



These observations gave no indication of pedilid feeding on Meloe. 
Meloe specimens in the West Virginia University Collection also show no 
damage such as that described by LeSage and Bousquet (1983). I agree 
with these authors that the phenomenon of elytral chewing by pedilids may 
be uncommon. 

The two attached pedilids in the current study held firmly to the Meloe, 
but appeared to be carried passively, generally not even clinging with the 
legs. This type of behavior is suggestive of that demonstrated by many 
groups of phoretic arthropods. It is unlikely, however, that beetles as 
relatively mobile as pedilids would benefit from phoresy on another insect, 
especially one as sluggish as the flightless Meloe. 

The behavior of the unattached pedilid indicated that is was detecting 
Meloe from a distance and was strongly attracted to it. While visual 
orientation may have been important, the possibility of chemical attraction 
seems more likely. A chemical of obvious consideration is cantharadin, the 
allomone secreted by meloid beetles when disturbed. Pedilid orientation to 
Meloe chemicals might be for any of a number of purposes: protection from 
natural enemies by means of Meloe 's repellant fluid; attraction to the 
chemical for feeding; or use of Meloe as an aggregation site for mating. 
Another possibility is that pedilids as larvae or adults associate in some 
fashion with Meloe eggs. These suggestions can be only speculative at this 
point. 

LITERATURE CITED 

LeSage, L. and Y. Bousquet A new record of attacks by Pedilus (Pedilidae) on Meloe 
(Meloidae: Coleoptera). Ent. News 94: 95-96. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

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disciplines: 

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Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 103 

TRICHOPTERA OF THE CAHABA RIVER 
SYSTEM IN ALABAMA 1 

S.C. Harris 2 , P.K. Lago 3 , P.E. O'Neil 2 

ABSTRACT: Distribution records for 146 species of caddisflies collected in the Cahaba 
River basin are presented and seasonal occurrence and abundance of each are indicated. 
Annotations include habitat notes and geographical distributions. Seven undescribed species are 
reported for the river system and two northerly species are newly reported from southeastern 
United States. Distinct faunas were differentiated on the basis of stream size and physiographic 
province. 

The Cahaba River is one of the largest free-flowing rivers in Alabama. 
Although there is some municipal and industrial drainage into the river, 
large stretches remain relatively undisturbed. The biota of the river is 
considered to be particularly rich and unique, with 32 plants, 23 mollusks, 
and 9 fishes considered threatened or endangered within Alabama occurring 
in the river system (Boschung, 1976; Freeman et al., 1979). Studies of the 
aquatic insect fauna of the river have been few and primarily limited to 
environmental impact studies in the Birmingham area. This study lists the 
caddisfly species known to occur in the Cahaba River system and annotates 
their distribution. Distribution patterns are discussed in more detail in 
Harris et al. (in press) with which this paper should be considered a 
companion. 

Description of River System 

The Cahaba River originates north of Trussville, Alabama (fig. 1 ) in the 
Valley and Ridge physiographic province and flows southerly for nearly 
245 km before joining the Alabama River near Selma on the East Gulf 
Coastal Plain. Within the Valley and Ridge, the river flows in the Cahaba 
Valley flanked by the Cahaba and Coosa Ridges. Soils are typically 
nonresistant sandstone and shale with some unconsolidated deposits of 
sand, clay and gravel. North of Centreville, which is situated on the fall line, 
the river flows through an area rich in limestone and dolomite. This is the 
most scenic and unique portion of the river, with the limestone outcroppings 



' Received January 4, 1984. Accepted February 27, 1984. 

^Geological Survey of Alabama, P.O. Box 0, University Station, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 

35486 

'Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677 
ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 103-1 12. May & June, 1984 



104 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



forming extensive shoals. The majority of species considered rare in the 
river system occur in this small section. South of Centreville the river flows 
across the Coastal Plain. The soils of this physiographic province are 
primarily fine to coarse sands and sandy clay with some deposits of gravel. 
In total, the river drains an area of approximately 4,700 km2. 

Water quality in the river is generally good (Table 1), although some 
degradation seems to have occurred in those river sections and tributaries in 
the Birmingham area. Dissolved oxygen levels are lower and nitrate and 
phosphate levels higher in the river sections near Birmingham, particularly 
in Shades Creek, a river tributary receiving domestic sewage. 

Collecting Sites and Methodology 

Adult Trichoptera were collected using UV light traps (BioQuip 
Universal Trap) at 24 localites in the Cahaba River basin (Fig. 1). 
Collections were concentrated within five sections of the river: river 
headwaters above Birmingham (sites 1-4, 6, 7); main river channel between 
Birmingham and Centreville (sites 8, 11, 12, 17, 18); river tributaries 
between Birmingham and Centreville (sites 5 a, 5b, 10, 13-16, 19); main 
channel and tributaries in the Coastal Plain physiographic province (sites 
20-24); and springs (sites 5c,5d, 9, 15). Sampling was most intensive in the 
section of river north of Centreville which is considered the most unique 
portion faunistically (Chermock, 1977). Collections at sixteen sites were 
made at approximately monthly intervals, while collections at the remaining 
eight sites were made irregularly. Light traps were situated on the stream 
banks and operated for approximately one hour after dusk. Specimens were 
collected and preserved in 70% ethanol. In all, 8 1 collections were made in 
1981 and 1982. Over 54,000 specimens, primarily males, were examined 
during the course of the study. 

Annotated List of Species 

Included with each species is information on distribution and abundance 
within the Cahaba River watershed. Collecting stations are shown in figure 
1 . Since collections were made at several dates within each month, seasonal 
occurrences were broadly defined. Distribution annotations are brief with a 
more detailed discussion contained in Harris et al. (in press). Number of 
specimens collected is indicated by ( ). In most cases only males of the 
species were identified and enumerated. Voucher specimens are deposited 
at the Geological Survey of Alabama and in the collections of the authors. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



105 




Alabama 
It-V dnil Rulqr 



East Gull 

Coastal Pldl 



JEFFERSON COUNTY 

1 Cahaba River at Interstate 59 

2 Cahaba River al Co Hwv 132 ITrussvillel 

3 Cahaba River at Camp Colpman 

4 Cahaba River at Co Hwv 10 

5 Tannehill State Park 

a Mill Creek at grist mill 
b Mud Creek at park entrance 
c Bubbling Spring 
a Republic Steel Spring. 
1 mile NW park entrance 

6 Drv Creek nr Co Hwv 132 ITrussvillel 

7 Little Cahaba Creek at Camp Coleman 



SHELBY COUNJY 

8 Cahaba River at Co Hwv 52 I Helena! 

9 Spring al Eben.zer Church. 
5 miles S Alabaster 

10 Shoal Creek at Montevallo 

BIBB COUNTY. 

1 1 Cahaba River at Co Hwv 24 

12 Cahaba River at Co Hwv 27 

13 Little Cahaba River nr Co Hwv 65 

14 Si. Mile Creek at AL Hwv 25 

15 Little Schultz Creek and spring 
5 miles S West Blocton 

16 Schult; Creek 4 mile N Centrmlle 

17 Cahaba River at U S Hwv 82 ICentreviilel 

18 Cahaba River at Centreville. nr goll course 

19 Little Ugly Creek 2 miles SE West Blocton 

PERRY COUNTY 

20 Cahaba River al Co Hwv 183 nr Sprott 

21 Cahaba River at Co Hwv 6 nr Sultle 

22 Oakmulgee Creek at Co Hwv 219 

23 Oakmuigee Creek at Co Hwv 30 

24 Little Oakmuigee Creek at Co Hw y 30 



Figure 1. Collecting stations in the Cahaba River basin. 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Hydropsychoidea 

Philopotamidae 

Chimarra aterrima Hagen. Stations 5b, 5d, 6, 13, 16. March-October. (12) 

C. moselyi (Denning). 2, 14, 16, 18, 22, 23. Widely collected and common in the basin, 

but most numerous in Coastal Plain tributaries. April-October. (78) 
C. n. sp. 8, 12, 16, 18, 20-23. Collected in large tributaries and main river channel. June- 
August. (37) 
C. obscura (Walker). 1-4, 5b, 5d, 8, 11-13, 15, 16. The most common Chimarra 

collected in the basin, widely distributed north of the fall line. April-October. (145) 
Wormaldia moesta (Banks). 5c. May. (1) 
Psychomyiidae 

Lype diversa (Banks). l-5c, 6, 8, Collected primarily in small tributaries and headwaters 

of the main river channel. April-October. (45) 
Psvchomyiaflavida Hagen. 1, 2, 5a, 5b, 12-16, 18. Widespread and common in basin 

' north' of the fall line. (175) 
Polycentropodidae 

CernotinacalceaRoss. 4, 11-14, 18. Collected in large tributaries and main river channel. 

May- September. (71) 
C. spicata Ross. 2, 1 1-13, 15, 20, 22, 23. Widely distributed in the basin. May-June, 

September. (56) 
Cyrnellus fraternus (Banks). 3, 4, 5d, 8, 1 1-13, 16, 18, 20, 22. Widely distributed and 

common in the basin. May-October. (457) 
Neureclipsis crepuscularis (Walker). 3, 11, 13, 16, 20. Collected in large tributaries and 

main river channel. April-October. (78) 
N. melco Ross. 13, 23. June, September. (2) 
Nyctiophylax affinis (Banks). 15, 16, 20. April, June, October. (6) 
N. banksi Morse. 6. May. (1) 
TV. celta Denning. 1, 2, 12-14, 16, 18, 21-23. Widely distributed and abundant in the 

basin. May-October. (1527) 
TV. denningi Morse. 6. May. (2) 
N. moestus Banks. 5a, 15. Only collected in two small tributaries during the spring and 

fall. (6) 

Phylocentropus carolinus Carpenter. 14, 16. April, August (3) 
P. placidus (Banks). 7, 8, 23, 24. Primarily collected in small tributaries. April, June, 

September. (13) 
Polycentropus cinereus Hagen. 1, 2, 5c, 6, 1 3, 14, 16. Collected in small tributaries and 

river headwaters north of the fall line. April-June, September. (60) 
P. confusus Hagen. 1-6, 14-16, 19. Primarily collected at the river headwaters and in 

small tributaries north of the fall line. April-October. (134) 
P. crassicornis Walker. 5b. May. (1) 
P. n. sp. (nr. elarus). 6. May. (2) 

Hydropsychidae 

Cheumatopsyche burksi Ross. 23. June. (1) 

C. campy la Ross. 1,3,4, 5d, 7, 11, 12. Primarily collected in the main river channel north 

of the fall line. May-October. (616) 

C. edista Gordon. 12. Primarily a Coastal Plain inhabitant. October. (1) 
C. ela Denning. 3, 4, 5d, 8, 10-12, 14. Collected primarily in the main river channel north 

of the fall line. April-October. (43) 
C. geora Denning. 16, 19. Rare in the basin but common in small central Alabama 

streams. August- October. (10) 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 107 



C. gracilis (Banks). 1, 2, 5a, 13, 14. Collected in large tributaries, primarily station 13, 

and headwaters of the Cahaba. May- September. (66) 
C. minuscula (Banks). 3, 5c, 8, 11-15, 18, 19. The most common Hydropsychidae 

collected, widespread in basin north of fall line. April-October. (2919) 
C. n. sp. 1. July. (1) 
C. nr. wabasha. 12. Probably represents a new species since C. wabasha Denning is only 

known from the Pacific northwest. October. ( 1 ) 
C. oxa Ross. 1-3, 5a, 5b, 5d, 9, 15. Collected in springs and at the headwaters of the 

Cahaba. May-October. (89) 
C. pasella Ross. 4, 8, 11-17. Widespread in basin north of the fall line. April-October. 

(721) 
C pettiti (Banks). 2-5a, 5d, 6-8, 12, 15, 16, 23. Widespread in basin although never 

collected in large numbers. April-October. (138) 

C. sordida (Hagen). 14, 20-23. Primarily restricted to the Coastal Plain. April, June- 
September. (52) 
Ceratopsyche cheilonis(Ross). l-5a, 8, 10-16. Widespread in basin north of the fall line 

but most abundant at station 13. April-October. (345) 
C. sparna(Ross). l,2,5a,5b, 14. Primarily occurring in small tributaries and headwaters 

of the Cahaba. May, October. (9) 
Diplectrona modesta Banks. 2 1 . September. ( 1 ) 
Hydropsyche alvata Denning. 14,20-23. Except for a single specimen taken at station 14, 

restricted to the Coastal Plain, primarily in the main river channel. May- June. (547) 
H. betteni Ross. 1 1. May. (5) 
H. depravata Hagen. l,3,5a,5b,8, 10, 13-16. Widespread in river tributaries north of the 

fall line. April-October. (123) 
H. dicantha Ross. 15, 19. April-May. (2) 
H. elissoma Ross. 23. June. (2) 
//./mom Ross. 1, 3, 4, 5a, 7, 8, 11-16, 19. Widespread in the basin north of the fall line 

but most abundant at station 13. (765) 
H. hagent 'Banks. 3, 5d, 8, 11-14, 16, 18, 19. The most common Hydropsyche taken in the 

watershed; most abundant in the main river channel at station 12. April-October. 

(1089) 

H. incommode Hagen. 4, 14. May, August- September. (4) 
H. mississippiensis Flint. 3, 14, 20, 22-24. Primarily collected in Coastal Plain 

tributaries to the river. April-July. (73) 
//. ormRoss. 11-14, 17,20-23. Primarily collected on the Coastal Plain. April-October. 

(296) 
H. rossi Flint, Voshell and Parker. 1,4, 5d, 8, 1 1, 12, 14, 16, 20-23. Widespread in the 

basin, but most common on the Coastal Plain. April-October. (179) 
H. scalaris Hagen. 13, 14. May, September. (6) 
H. venularis Banks. 3, 4, 8, 1 1, 14. Collected in large tributaries and main river channel 

north of the fall line. May-June, October. (9) 
Macrostemum Carolina (Banks). 8, 1 1-14, 17, 18, 20-23. Widespread in the basin, but 

most common on the Coastal Plain. June- August. (208) 
M. transversum (Walker). 20, 21 . Only collected on the Coastal Plain in the main river 

channel. June. (58) 
M. zebratum (Hagen). 14. May. (3) 
Potamyia flava (Hagen). 11, 12, 14, 20-23. Collected in large tributaries and main 

channel throughout the basin, but most numerous on the Coastal Plain. April- 
September. (515) 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Rhyacophiloidea 

Rhyacophilidae 

Rhyacophila Carolina Banks. 2, 5c, 6, 15. Collected in small tributaries and the 

headwaters of the Cahaba. May- September. (7) 

R. ledra Ross. 1, 2. Restricted to the headwaters of the Cahaba. May, October. (8) 
R. vuphipes. 13. Record tentative on the basis of larvae collected by D.A. Etnier. April. 
Glossosomatidae 

Agapetus hessi Leonard and Leonard. 14. May. (8) 

A. rossi Denning. 14. This species and A. hessi only known in Alabama from this locality. 

May. (3) 

A. tomus Ross. 1,2, 13. May. (8) 

Glossosoma nigriorBanks. 1,2. Only collected at the headwaters of the Cahaba. May. (5) 
Matrioptila jeanae (Ross). 14. May. (2) 
Protoptila lega Ross. 2, 4, 5 a, 8, 1 2- 1 8. Widespread in basin north of the fall line, but most 

abundant at station 13. April-October. (1599) 
Hydroptilidae 

Dibusa angata Ross. 16. Many immatures collected at site in April from red algae 

(Lemanea). April. (16) 
Hydroptila alabama Harris and Kelley. 2, 3, 14-16. Collected in small tributaries and at 

the headwaters of the Cahaba. May, August- October. (10) 
H. amoena Ross. 14, 16. April-October. (24) 
H. angusta Ross. 5d. July. (1) 
H. armata Ross. 1-6, 8, 9, 1 1-16, 19. Widespread in basin north of the fall line, but most 

common in the main river channel at station 11. April-October. (4320) 
H. callia Denning. 2. Only known Alabama locality for this species which had not been 

reported south of Kentucky previously. September. (2) 
H. delineate Morton. 5d, 11-13, 15, 16, 18. Primarily collected in main river channel 

north of the fall line. April-October. (1490) 
H. gunda Milne. l-5a, 7, 8, 11-16, 18, 19, 21. Widespread in the basin primarily 

occurring above the fall line. April-October. (1889) 
H. hamata Morton. l-5a, 7, 8, 1 1-16. Widespread in basin north of the fall line, but most 

abundant at station 13. May-October. (903) 
H. n. sp. (nr. amoena) 2, 5a-5c, 15, 19. Collected in small tributaries and at the 

headwaters of the Cahaba. April-October. (73) 
H. n. sp. (nr. eramosa). 15. May, October. (2) 
H. n. sp. (nr, molsonae). 22-24. Collected in Coastal Plain tributaries to the river. April, 

June. (225) 
H. novicola Blickle and Morse. 15, 23, 24. Collected primarily in Coastal Plain 

tributaries. April- June, October. (13) 
H. quinola Ross. 3, 4, 5b, 8, 1 1-16, 19, 21-23. Widespread in the basin. April-October. 

(260) 
H. spatulata Morton. 3, 4, 5d, 1 1, 12, 15, 18. Widespread in basin north of the fall line, 

but most common in the main river channel. April-October. (33) 
H. waskesia Ross. 1, 2. Only known Alabama locality for this species. May. (3) 
H. waubesiana Betten. 2-5b, 7, 8, 11-16, 18-20, 22, 23. Most frequently collected 

caddisfly in the basin, widespread in watershed. April-October. (6608) 
Mayatrichia ayama Mosely. 16. August. (13) 

Neotrichia alabamensis Kelley and Harris. 22, 23. June, September. (3) 
N. minutisimella (Chambers). 20, 23. As was N. alabamensis, only collected in the 

Coastal Plain. June, September. (4) 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 109 



N. vibrans Ross. 4, 15, 16. July-October. (30) 

Ochrotrichia graysoni Parker and Voshell. 1-3, 12, 13. Previously only known from 

Virginia, most abundant at station 13. May-October. (2466) 
O. riesi Ross. 5b. October. (1) 
O. tarsalis (Hagen). 2, 5d, 1 1, 12, 16-18, 20, 21. Widespread in basin. May-October. 

(309) 
Orthotrichia aegerfasciella (Chambers). l-5a, 5d, 7, 8, 12, 14-16, 18-23. May-October. 

(146) 
O. cristata Morton. 1-4,8, 13, 15, 16, 18,22. As was O. aegerfasciella, widespread in the 

basin. June-October. (51) 
Oxyethria coercens Morton. 12-14, 16, 19. Primarily a northeastern species; this record 

represents the southermost extension of its range. April-May, August-October. (45) 
O. forcipata Mosely. 1 . October. ( 1 ) 
O. janella Denning. 11, 12, 22. September- October. (8) 
O. lumipollex Kelley and Harris. 22. April. (2) 
O. novasota Ross. 4, 5d, 13, 15, 16, 23. May-August. (14) 
O. pallida (Banks). 1-4, 5d, 8, 11-15, 19-23. Widespread in the basin. April- September. 

(171) 
O. zeronia Ross. 1 -3, 5b, 5d, 14-16. Widespread, but uncommon, in basin north of the fall 

line. May-October. (20) 
Stactobiella martynovi Blickle and Denning. 2, 4-5b, 1 1-14, 16, 19. Primarily collected 

in small tributaries north of the fall line. April-May. (208) 
S. n. sp. 16. April. (4) 

Limnephiloidea 

Phryganeidae 

Agrypnia vestita (Walker). 16. October. (1) 
Ptilostomis ocellifera (Walker). 9. July. (1) 
P. postica (Walker). 21. April. (1) 
Brachycentridae 

Brachycentrus numerosus(Say). 16. Record from a single larva identified by O.S. Flint. 

March. 

Micrasema rusticum (Hagen). 16. April. (1 14) 
M. watagaRoss. l-3,5a,5c-6, 14-16. Widespread in tributaries to the river north of the 

fall line. August-October. (32) 
Limnephilidae 

Goera calcarata Banks. 15. May, September. (9) 

Ironoquia punctatissima (Walker) 4, 13, 15, 20. September-October. (8) 

Neophylax sp. 13. Record from larva collected by D.A. Etnier. April. 

Pycnopsyche Indiana (Ross). 1, 3, 4, 15, 16. Collected in small tributaries and 

headwaters of the river. October. (14) 
P. luculenta (Betten). 16. October. (1) 
P. scabripennis (Rambur). 5b, 15, 16. October. (5) 
Lepidostomatidae 

Lepidostoma latipenne (Banks). 15 May. (1) 
Helicopsychidae 

Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen). 1, 2, 4, 5a, 6, 13, 15, 16. Primarily collected in small 

tributaries and headwaters of the river. May-October. (224) 
Leptoceridae 

Ceraclea ancylus ( Vorhies). 5 a, 11, 13. Primarily collected in the main river channel at 

station 11. May-June. (224) 



1 10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



C. cancellata (Betten). 3-5a, 8, 11-14, 20-23. Widespread in the basin but most 

commonly collected in the main river channel. May-August. (892) 
C. flava (Banks). 4, 8, 1 1-1 3, 20-23. Distribution similar to that of C. cancellata, May- 
June. (395) 
C. maculata( Banks). 1,3,4, 5d, 8, 11-15, 18, 20-23. Widespread and abundant in the 

basin. May-October. (2713) 
C. nepha (Ross). l-5c, 13, 14. Primarily collected at the headwaters of the river. May. 

(128) 
C. ophioderus (Ross). 8, 1 1 , 1 3, 20-23. Primarily collected in the main river channel on 

the Coastal Plain. June, September. (775) 
C. protonepha Morse and Ross. l-5c, 8, 1 1 , 1 3, 14, 19. Widespread in basin north of the 

fall line, but most commonly collected at the river headwaters. April- June. (325) 
C. resurgens (Walker). 12, 14, 23. April. (7) 
C. tarsipunctata (Vorhies). 1, 3, 4, 8, 1 1-16, 20-23. Widespread in the basin, but most 

numerous in the main river channel. April- June. (631) 
C. transversa (Hagen). 5a-5d, 11-14. May-July. (78) 
Mystacides sepulchralis (Walker). 1-3, 5b, 14-16. Collected in small tributaries and at 

the river headwaters. May- October. (28) 
Nectopsvche Candida (Hagen). Within the watershed, only collected in the Coastal Plain. 

June. (21) 

N. exquisita (Walker). 8, 11-13, 20, 23. May-September. (78) 
N.pavida (Hagen). 2-4,8, 11, 12, 14, 16, 21, 23. As was N. exquisita, widespread in the 

basin. May-October. (42) 
N. spiloma(Ross). 1 1, 12,21. Only collected in the main river channel, easternmost range 

extension of this species. June-October. (25) 
Oecetis avara (Banks). 3, 11-13, 16-18, 20-23. Widespread in the basin, but most 

abundant in the main channel and larger tributaries. May- September. (1814) 
O. cinerascens( Hagen). 3, 11, 15, 20, 23. May-June, September. (28) 
O. ditissa Ross. 1-4, 5b, 5d, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 20-23. Widespread in the basin. May- 
October. (90) 
O. inconspicua (Walker). l-5d, 8, 10-16, 18, 20-23. More common than O. ditissa, but 

with a similar distribution within the basin. May-October. (736) 
O. morsei Bueno-Soria. 13, 16, 22. June-October. (14) 
O. nocturna Ross. 1-4, 8, 1 1-14, 16, 21-23. Widespread in the basin, with distribution 

similar to that of O. ditissa and O. inconspicua. May-October. (234) 
O. osteni Mime. 1, 16. September-October. (2) 
O.persimilis( Banks). l-5a,5d,8, 1 1-14, 16, 18. Widespread in the basin, north of the fall 

line, but most numerous in large tributaries and main river channel. May-October. 

(429) 
O. scala Milne. 11-13, 16, 18. Most commonly collected at station 16. June-October. 

(385) 
O. sphyra Ross. 13, 16, 20-23. Primarily collected in river tributaries on the Coastal 

Plain. June-August. (224) 
Setodes dixiensis Holzenthal. 11, 13, 15, 16, 22. Most common in large tributaries, 

particularly station 13, and main river channel. May-June, September-October. (482) 
5. guttatus (Banks). 14. Previously only known from the northeastern United States. This 

species has also been collected in southern Alabama. August. ( 1 ) 
Triaenodes Ignitus (Walker). 1-4, 5b-6, 9, 18, 22. Widespread but uncommon in the 

basin. May-October. (21) 
T. injusta (Hagen). 1 , 2, 8, 1 1 , 1 2, 1 4. Primarily collected in the main channel north of the 

fall line. May-June, September. (33) 
T. perna Ross. 2, 5a, 12. May. (4) 
T. smithi Ross. 23. June. (1) 
T. tarda Milne. 22. June. (1) 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 111 



SUMMARY 

The Cahaba River yielded 146 species of caddisflies in 45 genera and 
1 3 families. Hydroptilidae (35 species), Hydropsychidae (34 species), and 
Leptoceridae (32 species) were the dominant families. In comparison to the 
few caddisfly studies conducted on other large southeastern rivers (Resh et 
al., 19 75; Gordon and Wallace, 1975), the Cahaba River seems to support 
a particularly rich fauna. The wide diversity of habitat in the river, including 
the rocky, swift waters of the headwaters, the shoal areas north of the fall 
line, and the slow, sandy waters of the Coastal Plain, probably accounts for 
the rich fauna. 

The majority of species and individuals were collected during May and 
June (112 species, 36,647 specimens), but a diverse fauna was also present 
during September and October (90 species, 3,1 34 specimens). While most 
species were collected throughout the study period, including Cheumatopsyche 
minuscula, Hydropsyche hageni, and Hydroptila armata, others had more 
restricted emergence patterns. Stactobiella n.sp., Dibusa angata, and 
Ceraclea resurgens, for example, were collected only during early April, 
while others such as Pycnopsyche spp. and Ironquia punctatissima only 
occurred during early October. 

Cluster analysis, using Jaccard's coefficient and based on species 
presence or absence at a station, indicated that the caddisfly fauna of the 
Cahaba basin also displayed geographical distribution patterns (Harris et 
al., in press). In general, three areas of the river system were recognized on 
the basis of a similar caddisfly fauna: a main river and large tributary fauna 
of the Valley and Ridge region (97 species); a headwater and small tributary 
fauna of the Valley and Ridge region (101 species); and a Coastal Plain 
fauna (58 species). Although many species were widely distributed within 
the basin, several were more restricted. Hydropsyche betteni was only 
collected in the main river channel above the fall line; eight species 
including Macrostemum transversum and Nectopsyche Candida only 
occurred on the Coastal Plain; and 43 species, including Agapetus spp. and 
Rhyacophla spp., were collected only in tributaries and at the river 
headwaters. 

These distribution patterns appear to be influenced primarily by 
physical parameters, including stream size, flow regimes, and substrate. 
Water quality within the watershed seemed to have a limited impact on 
species abundance and distribution. Of those parameters measured and 
compiled over a 35-year period, only dissolved oxygen levels were 
noticeably lower in some sections of the river (O'Neil, 1 983). Water quality 
deterioration in the basin appears to be primarily limited to Birmingham and 
the surrounding area. 



112 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Table 1. Ranges of physiochemical water parameters in the Cahaba River basin 
(1976-1981) 

River sections 



Parameters 



Dissolved oxygen 

(mg/1) 

Temperature (C) 
pH (units) 
Hardness (mg/1) 
Specific conductance 

(/imhos/cm) 
Alkalinity (mg/1) 
Sulfate (mg/1) 
Nitrate (mg/1 N03-N) 
Phosphate (mg/1) 
Discharge (cfs) 





Upper 


Middle 


Middle 




Cahaba 


Cahaba 


Cahaba 


Upper 


River 


River 


River 


Cahaba 


(Shades 


(Birmingham 


(Centreville 


River 


Creek) 


area) 


area) 


4.8-13.0 


1.4-12.0 


1.1-13.0 


2.9-15.0 


1.0-29.0 


3.0-31.0 


4.0-30.0 


5.0-32.0 


5.2-8.7 


5.7-9.2 


5.7-8.6 


6.4-8.9 


14-180 


20-230 


17-120 


24-140 


55-680 


139-657 


104-315 


24-380 


5-123 


10-189 


9-169 


18-140 


1.0-220 


6.0-60 


10-39 


3.0-46 


0-9.8 


.03-35 


0-6.5 


0-2.3 


.02-3.0 


.05-4.2 


.01-2.1 


1.0-2.1 





11-7,220 


0.39-1,440 


90-83,600 



Lower 

Cahaba 

River 

7.1-14.1 

6.0-29.5 

6.7-8.2 

26-97 

76-228 
24-90 
3.0-17 
0-1.0 

224-83,400 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors wish to thank the following researchers for their assistance in specimen 
identification and verification: O.S. Flint, Jr., A.E. Gordon, K.L. Manuel, J.C. Morse, R 
Kelley, J. Weaver, and J. Wojtowicz. D.A. Etnier generously made available his collection 
records from the Cahaba River system. We also thank J. Wilman for assistance in processing 
samples and I. Thompson and S. Rager for typing and editing the manuscript. In addition to 
help with specimen identifications, R Holzenthal and S. Hamilton reviewed the manuscript 
and offered valuable comments. Portions of the study were supported by a research grant to the 
senior author from the Xerces Society. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Chermock, R.L. 1977. A unique area along the Cahaba River. Ala. Conserv. 47: 4-7. 
Boschung, H.T., (ed). 1976. Endangered and threatened plants and animals of Alabama. 

Ala. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 2: 1-92. 
Freeman, J.D., A.S. Causey J.W. Short, and R.R. Haynes. 1979. Endangered, threatened, 

and special concern plants of Alabama. J. Ala. Acad. Sci. 50: 1-26. 
Gordon, A.E. and J.B. Wallace. 1975. Distribution of the family Hydropsychidae 

(Trichoptera) in the Savannah River basin of North Carolina, South Carolina, and 

Georgia. Hydrobiologia. 46: 405-423. 
Harris, S.C., P.E. O'Neil, and P.K. Lago. ( In Press.) Emergence patterns and distribution of 

Trichoptera in the Cahaba River system, Alabama, USA. Proc. IV Intern. Symp. Trich. 
O'Neil, P.E. 1 983. Historical surface water-quality analyses of the Cahaba River basin north 

of Centreville, Alabama. Alabama Geol. Survey Open-file Rept., 130 p. 
Resh, V.H., K.H. Haag, and S.E. NefT. 1975. Community structure and diversity of 

caddisfly adults from the Salt River, Kentucky. Environ. Entomol. 4: 241-253. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 113 

A CHECKLIST OF THE STONEFLIES 
(PLECOPTERA) OF KENTUCKY 1 

Donald C. Tarter, Dean A. Adkins 2 , Charles V. Covell, Jr. 3 

ABSTRACT: Examination of numerous collections and published records has resulted in a 
summary of the stoneflies of Kentucky. A total of 77 species representing nine families and 30 
genera is found in the state. Five state records are added to the plecopteran fauna of Kentucky. 
Fifteen additional species which occur in nearby states, but which have not yet been found in 
Kentucky, are also noted. 

Prior to 1 982, little detailed work had been focused on the identification 
of stoneflies from Kentucky. Some investigators, including Ross and Ricker 
(1964), lilies (1966), Ricker and Ross (1968), Zwick (1973), White 
(1974), James (1976), Stark and Baumann (1978), Marker et al. (1979, 
1 980) and Picazo and DeMoss ( 1 980), have published plecopteran records 
for the state. In a preliminary checklist, Tarter et al. (1982) recorded 70 
species of stoneflies for Kentucky. The classification system of lilies 
(1966) and Zwick (1973) is followed in this study. 

The following numbers of species have been recorded from nearby 
states: Illinois - 49 species (Prison, 1942); Ohio - 42 species (Gaufm, 
1956); Indiana - 61 species (Bednarik and McCafferty, 1977); Virginia - 
116 species (Kondratieff and Voshell, 1979); and West Virginia - 106 
species (Tarter and Kirchner, 1980). 

Fifteen additional species should eventually be collected in Kentucky. 
The folowing list includes species which occur in nearby states: Acroneuria 
mela Prison (IN, IL), Allocapnia illinoensis Prison (VA, IN, IL), 
Alloperla banksi Prison (VA, IL), A. caudata Prison (IL, IN, OH, VA), 
Attaneuria ruralis Hagen) (IL, VA, OH), Hydroperla crosbyi (Needham 
and Claassen) (IN, IL), Isogenoides varians (Walsh) (IN, IL, TN, VA), 
hoperla decepta Prison (IN, OH, IL), I. dicala Prison ( WV, VA, IN), /. 
orata Prison ( WV, VA, OH), Leuctra tenuis (Pictet), WV, IN, VA, OH), 
Paracapnia angulata Hanson (WV, VA, IN), Paragnetina kansensis 
(Banks) (IN, IL), Prostoia completa (Walker) (WV, IN, VA) and 
Talloperla maria (Needham and Smith) (VA, TN, WV). 



1 Received February 6, 1984. Accepted March 29, 1984. 

^Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25701 

^Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Kentucky, KY 40292 

ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 113-1 16. May & June, 1984 



114 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Order Plecoptera 

Suborder Arctoperlaria 

Group Euholognatha 

Superfamily Neumouroidea 

Family Leuctridae 
Subfamily Leuctrinae 



Leuctra alexanderi Hanson 
L. ferruginea (Walker) 
L. sibleyi Claassen 



Paraleuctra sara (Claassen) 
Zealeuctra claasseni (Prison) 
Z. fraxina Ricker and Ross 



Family Taeniopterygidae 
Subfamily Brachypterinae 



*Oemopteryx contorta (Needham and 

Claassen) 
Taenionema atlanticum Ricker and Ross 



Strophopteryx fasciata 
(Burmeister) 



Subfamily Taeniopteryginae 



Taeniopteryx burski Ricker and Ross 
T. lita Prison 
T. maura (Pictet) 



T. metequi Ricker and Ross 
T. parvula Banks 



Amphinemura delosa (Ricker) 
A. nigritta (Provancher) 



Prostoia similis (Hagen) 



Family Nemouridae 
Subfamily Amphinemurinae 

A. varshava (Ricker) 
A. wui (Claassen) 

Subfamily Nemourinae 

Soyedina vallicularia (Wu) 
Family Capniidae 



Allocapnia cunninghami Ross and Ricker 

A. curiosa Prison 

A. forbesi Prison 

A. frisoni Ross and Ricker 

A. granulata (Claassen) 

A. indianae Ricker 

A. mystica Prison 

A. mystica Prison 

A. nivicola (Fitch) 



A. ohioensis Ross and Ricker 

A. pygmaea (Burmeister) 

A. recta (Claassen) 

A. rickeri Prison 

A. smithi Ross and Ricker 

A. vivipara (Claassen) 

A. vivipara (Claassen) 

A. zola Ricker 



Group Systellognata 

Superfamily Pteronarcyoidea 

Family Pteronarcyidae 



Allonarcys proteus (Newman) 
*Pteronarcys dorsata (Say) 



*P. pictetii Hagen 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



115 



Peltoperla arcuata Needham 



Family Peltoperlidae 
Subfamily Peltoperlinae 



Superfamily Perloidea 

Family Perlodidae 
Subfamily Isoperlinae 



Isoperla bilineata (Say) 

/. burski Prison 

/. clio (Newman) 

*/. Ao/oc/z/ora(Klapalek) 

/. marlynia Needham and Claassen 



/. namata Prison 

/. nana (Walsh) 

/. richardsoni Prison 

/. similis (Hagen) 

/. transmarina (Newman) 



Subfamily Perlodinae 



Cultus dicisus (Walker) 

Diploperla robusta Stark and Gaufin 

Helopicus subvarians (Banks) 



Malirekus has talus (Banks) 
Remenus bilobatus (Needham and 
Claassen) 



Family Chloroperlidae 
Subfamily Chloroperlinae 



Alloperla chloris Prison 
A. ute/(Ricker) 
A. imbecilla ( Say) 



Hastaperla brevis (Banks) 
Sweltsa onkos ( Ricker) 



Family Perlidae 
Subfamily Acroneuriinae 



Acroneuria abnormis Newman) 

A. carolinensis (Banks) 

A. evoluta Klapalek 

A. filicis Prison 

A. internata (Walker) 

A. lycorias (Newman) 



A. perplexa Prison 

Eccoptera xanthenes (Newman) 

Perlesta placida (Hagen) 

P. frisoni Banks 

*Perlinella dry mo (Newman) 

P. ephyre (Newman) 



Subfamily Perlinae 



Neoperla freytagi Stark and Bauman 
N. gaufini Stark and Baumann 
N. stewarti Stark and Baumann 



Paragnetina media (Walker) 
Phasganophora capitata (Pictet) 



* state record 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are grateful to the following persons who loaned specimens or helped with 
identifications: Kimberly Benson, Marshall University and University of Louisville; Gerald 
DeMoss, Morehead State University; Paul Freytag, University of Kentucky; Ralph Kirchner, 
U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, Huntingdon District; W.P. McCafferty, Purdue University; 
Rudy Prins, Western Kentucky University; Jim Sickel, Murray State University; Bill Stark, 
Mississippi College; and Mel Warren, Kentucky Nature Preserve. Special thanks to Vickie 
Crager for typing the manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Bednarik, A.F., and W.P. McCafferty. 1977. A checklist of the stoneflies, or Plecoptera, of 

Indiana. Great Lakes Entomol. 10: 223-226. 
Prison, T.H. 1 942. Studies of North Americn Plecoptera, with special reference to the fauna 

of Illinois. Bull. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv., Urbana 22: 235-355. 

Gaufln, A.R. 1956. An annotated list of the stoneflies of Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 56: 321-324. 
Harker, D.F., Jr., S.M. Call, M.L. Warren,Jr., K.E. Camburn, and P. Wigley. 1979. 

Aquatic biota and wter quality survey of the Cumberland River Basin. Tech. Rpt., 2 vols., 

Ky. Nat. Pres. Comm. 

, M.L. Warren, Jr., K.E. Camburn, S.M. Call, G.J. Fallo, and P. Wigley. 1980. 

Aquatic biota and water quality survey of the Upper Cumberland River Basin. Tech. Rpt., 
^ 2 yols., Ky. Nat. Pres. Comm. 
lilies, J. 1966. Katalog der rezenten Plecoptera. Das Tierreich, 82. Walter de Gruyter and 

Co., Berlin. 632 pp. 
James, A.M. 1976. Two new species of Leuctra with notes on the ferruginea group 

(Plecoptera: Leuctridae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 69: 882-884. 
Kondratieff, B.C. and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1979. A checklist of the stoneflies (Plecoptera) of 

Virginia. Ent. News. 90: 241-246. 
Picazo, E.P. and G.L. DeMoss. 1980. The aquatic insects, exclusive of Diptera, of Hays 

Branch, Rowan County, Kentucky. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 41: 99-104. 
Ricker, W.E., and H.H. Ross. 1968. North American species of Taeniopteryx(P\ecoptera, 

Insecta). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 25: 1423-1439. 
Ross, H.H., and W.E. Ricker. 1964. New species of winter stoneflies, genus Allocapnia 

(Plecoptera, Capniidae). Trans. 111. St. Acad. Sci. 57: 88-93. 
Stark, B.P.,and R.W. Baumann. 1978. New species of nearcticNeoperla( Plecoptera: Perlidae) 

with notes on the genus. Great Basin Nat. 38: 97-1 14. 
Tarter, D.C., and R.F. Kirchner. 1980. List of stoneflies( Plecoptera) of West Virginia. Ent. 

News 91: 49-53. 

_, D.A. Adkins, K.B. Benson, and C.V. Covell, Jr. 1982. A preliminary checklist of 

the stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Kentucky. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 43(3-4): 138-141. 
White, D. 1974. The distribution of stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) of the Salt River, 

Kentucky. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 35: 17-23. 
Zwick, P. 1973. Insecta: Plecoptera. Phylogenetisches System and Katalog. Das Tierreich, 

94. Walter de Gruyter and Co., Berlin. 465 pp. 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 117 



INSECT MARKING TECHNIQUES: 
DURABILITY OF MATERIALS 1 2 

Susan A. Wineriter, Thomas J. Walker* 

ABSTRACT: Durability of 26 marking materials was tested on three species of insects for 
usefulness in studies requiring long-term recognition of individual insects. The three - 
chosen for their differences in size, cuticular surface, and habitat - - were a field cricket, 
Gryllus rubens\ a mole cricket, Scapteriscus acletus (pubescent, burrowing); and a flour 
beetle, Tribolium castaneum (small, oily). Non-water-soluble paints proved most suitable. 
One of these, Tech-Pen Ink, remained on all three species of test insects throughout their adult 
lives. The nature of the surface to which the marks were applied and marking conditions 
influenced how long a material adhered. 

Recognition of individuals is important in many studies of insects, such 
as those dealing with territorial ity or reproductive success. This generally 
requires a marking material that lasts the lifetime of the adult insect. Many 
art, hobby, and industrial products might serve this purpose. In most 
studies, whatever material is tried and works at all is used from then on. 
Generally no time can be spared for finding an optimal marking material. 
Although Walker and Wineriter (1981) tested the durability of three 
highly-rated materials, this study is the first extensive survey of the 
performance of candidate marking materials in long-term studies. We 
report here the durability of 26 marking materials on the pronata of three 
species of insects. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Test insects were southeastern field crickets, Gryllus rubens, southern 
mole crickets, Scapteriscus acletus, and red flour beetles, Tribolium 
castaneum. These species were chosen because of their differences in size, 
cuticular surface, and habitat, and their ease of rearing. Southeastern field 
crickets are insects of moderate size, have smooth, shiny pronota, and live 
in leaf litter, southern mole crickets are larger-than-average, have pubescent 
pronota, and live in subterranean tunnels; red flour beetles are small, have 
shiny, oily pronota, and inhabit grain products. 

Marking materials were selected by perusing art, hobby shop, and office 
supply stores, talking with students and colleagues, and corresponding with 
companies that might make suitable materials. The 26 materials chosen are 
listed in Table 1 . If the product was known or suspected to be particularly 



Deceived December 17, 1983. Accepted March 13, 1984. 
^Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 5281. 

* Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL3261 1 
ENT. NEWS. 95(3): 117-123. May & June, 1984 



1 1 8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



durable, more than one color of the product, if available, was tested (viz. 
Tech-Pen Ink and Liquid Paper Correction Fluid). 

Insects were marked as follows. A dot (mark) of each material was 
applied to each quadrant of the pronotum of five young adult individuals of 
each species (N = 20 dots/material/species). A marking system using dots 
was selected because the marks are easy to apply and read (Walker and 
Wineriter 1981). More elaborate marks, e.g. numbers or letters, can be 
used only on insects with large writing surfaces and have the disadvantage 
of making the insect highly conspicuous. Materials were applied in several 
ways. The bent tip of a minutin pin was used to apply dots to red flour 
beetles. The broken sharp tip of a wooden applicator stick was used to mark 
field crickets and the blunt end of a wooden applicator stick was used to 
mark mole crickets, except that the applicator brush was used for Liquid 
Paper Correction Fluid, and the marker tip was used for Pentel White 
Marker. 

Each set of marked individuals (5 insects with 20 marks of one 
material) was placed in a container with the appropriate food. Mole crickets 
were allowed to burrow in damp sand, and flour beetles in flour. At one- 
week intervals food was replenished, and insects were checked for partially 
or wholly missing marks and or mortality. Checks continued until more than 
50% of the marks were lost on living insects in a container (i.e. until the 
median mark was lost), or until all insects were dead. 

The data were analyzed using two ranking systems. The first system 
determined which materials were likely to stay on throughout the adult life 
expectancies of the insects; the second, if marks were lost, whether marks 
disappeared gradually or all at once. These systems are explained fully in 
footnote "a" of Table 1. 

RESULTS 

Results are detailed in Table 1 . Materials that were water-soluble when 
applied, though water-resistant or waterproof when dry, generally adhered 
poorly. Of eight such materials tested, six did not last well on any of the 
three insects used. A seventh material, Stroblite Daybrite Tempera, stayed 
on mole crickets and field crickets but not on flour beetles. The remaining 
material, Dupont Latex Enamel, was not durable on field crickets or flour 
beetles, but our data suggests it would adhere to mole crickets. 

Non-water-soluble materials were more durable. Only one material, 
Tech-Pen Ink, was successful in marking all three insect species. For flour 
beetles it was not consistent, but no other material was successful in 
marking flour beetles, according to the criteria of this study. Two materials, 
Liquid Paper Correction Fluid and Nissen Metal Marker, dried before they 
could be applied to the flour beetles and could not be evaluated (The amount 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 119 



of material needed for a mark was small, and these paints were fast-drying.) 
For Creme L'Oreal Nail Accents, the results on flour beetles were 
inconclusive because the experiment was inadvertently terminated early; 
however, almost 50% of the marks were lost by the sixth week, indicating 
this material would not be highly rated. For mole crickets, in contrast to 
flour beetles, 1 6 of 1 8 non-water-soluble materials adhered well. Phosphor- 
escent Ink PB412 did not adhere well and Pentel White Marker stayed on 
only two out of three times. Where more than one color of a material was 
used, as in Tech-Pen Ink and Liquid Paper Correction Fluid, or repetitions 
of the same color, as in Tech-Pen Ink orange, results were consistent for 
mole crickets (except for Pentel Pen as mentioned above). 

Only 9 of 1 8 non-water-soluble materials adhered well to field crickets, 
5 materials did not, and the data for 3, though inconclusive because the 
crickets died too soon, suggest these materials would have worked well. 
When more than one color of a material was used Tech-Pen Ink was 
consistent in results while Liquid Paper Correction Fluid was not. 

Of those materials that were durable throughout the life expentancy of 
the three insects, evidence of peeling, chipping or flaking was rare (see 
Table 1). Most partial loss of marks occurred in materials used on mole 
crickets, fewer on field crickets, and almost none on flour beetles. Liquid 
Paper Correction Fluid was the only material that gradually disappeared on 
both mole crickets and field crickets. 

Non-water-soluble materials had varying qualities that affected their 
ease of application and "scorability" over time. Most of these materials, 
except some colors of Tech-Pen Ink, had to be mixed well before 
application because the pigment tended to separate from the base. If this 
was not done, the marks made with these paints were less pigmented and 
more difficult to score. Many materials, such as Gams Printer's Ink, were 
very fluid and bled when applied, sometimes forming irregular and poorly 
pigmented marks that were difficult to score. A few materials, such as Tech- 
Pen Ink and Pactra Hi-Glo, were more viscous and formed regular, easy-to- 
score marks. Two materials, Liquid Paper Correction Fluid and Pentel 
Pen, faded over time. Buff, a color of Liquid Paper Correction Fluid, lost its 
distinctiveness after two weeks on mole crickets and appeared white. Some 
materials like Tech-Pen Ink and Pactra Hi-Glo were particularly easy to 
score because of their bright and heavily pigmented colors. Other colors 
such as Creme L'Oreal Nail Accents and Stroblite Paint were less intense 
and required bright or UV light to be viewed easily. 

DISCUSSION 

Although the use of many marking materials has been reported in the 
literature, this is the first extensive, comparative study. Many materials 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



used by earlier workers have been discontinued or chemically altered. We 
have attempted to test and compare a large number of materials currently 
available. However, those using materials reported here should be cautioned 
that these too may be discontinued or chemically altered without the user's 
knowledge. 

Our ultimate goal in this study was to find marking materials that would 
be useful for marking a variety of adult insects of different sizes, surface 
qualities, and habitats for long-term studies. Walker and Wineriter (1981) 
describe the perfect marking material as one that does not peel, chip or 
flake, and is durable, non-toxic, easy to apply, quick-drying, light-weight, 
and available in several easy-to-distinquish colors. 

We found that in almost all situations non-water-soluble materials 
adhered better than water-soluble materials to our test insects. Our results 
suggest, however, that the nature of the surface being marked affects the 
durability of the material and whether the results are repeatable. The non- 
water-soluble materials adhered much better and more consistently to the 
pubescent pronotum of mole crickets than to the smooth shiny surface of 
field crickets or the oily surface of flour beetles. However, the more 
abrasion a material received, as in mole crickets continually tunneling 
through soil, the more likely the material was to chip, flake, or peel. 

The best material for marking insects in long-term studies, according to 
our tests, is Tech- Pen Ink. Only Tech- Pen Ink stayed on all three species of 
insects as long as adults are expected to live under field conditions - 
although the durability of marks on flour beetles varied. We attribute this 
inconsistency to variation in the oiliness of the beetle pronotum or to slight 
alteration in the marking conditions or materials. Tech-Pen Ink is available 
in 1 1 colors. All are easily distinguishable in daylight, and most are 
distinguishable by flashlight at night. The inks are not usually available 
locally and must be ordered from scientific suppliers or the manufacturer in 
New Jersey (see Appendix). The material comes in a tube without an 
applicator. Application can be tricky especially when the ink starts to dry 
and becomes stringy; fresh paint should alway be used for best results. For 
larger insects, this inconvenience can be overcome by using a paint pot 
similar to one designed by W.D. Hamilton (Walker and Wineriter 1981). 
For insects the size of flour beetles, application is painstaking; small 
amounts of the material dry rapidly and the ink must be applied as quickly as 
possible. 

In searching for an optimal marking material, several considerations 
must be made: the size and habitat of the insect, the nature of the surface to 
be marked, and the duration of the study. Materials that are water-soluble 
when wet even though water-resistant or waterproof when dry should be 
avoided. Non-water-soluble materials will probably work best and a 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 



121 



number will probably work well in short-term studies (4 weeks or less), but 
the number of durable materials useful for long-term studies, especially on 
small insects or insects having smooth, shiny or oily surfaces, seems limited. 
Of eighteen non-water-soluble materials compared in this study, only one, 
Tech-Pen Ink, was durable on all three insects. 

Table 1 . Durability 3 of 26 marking materials^ applied as a dot on each quadrant of the 
pronotum of 5 individuals of each of three species of insects (N = 20 dots/paint/species). 



Non-water-soluble Materials 



C. rubens 



S. aclftus 



T. castaneum 



1) Tech-Pen Ink 










yellow 


A,B (> 7, > 7,2, >6 h 


A 


(> 18, > 18) 


F (<1,2) 


orange 


2A.B (>5, > 5; > 5, > 5; 


4A,B 


,(> 23, >23; > 18, > 18; 


8,2 F (5.29, < 1.4; 




1. > 7) c 


B 


> 10, > 10; > 10, > 10; 


3, 6') c 








9. > 15; 6, > 10) c 




white 


A (> 7, > 7) 


A 


(> 15, > 15) 


F (<1.6) 


red 


B (3, > 8) 


> 


<>9, >9,) 


2B (< 1. 20;5.>53) h 


green 


B (< 1. > 5) 


A 


(> 14, > 14) 





blue 










F (1,7) 


2) Liquid Paper C.F. 










white 


B* (< 1. > 6) 


A 


(> 19, > 19. > 18, > 18) h 


Could not be applied 6 


buff 


F 1,4) 


A 


(> 15, > 15) 


Could not be applied 6 


green 


F (<!,<!) 


A 


(> 15. > 15) 


Could not be applied 6 


goldenrod 


B~ (2, > 8) 


A,A*(> 15, > 15; > 11, > 11)" 


Could not be applied 6 


blue 


A* (>7. > 7) 


9 


<>7. >7.) 


Could not be applied 6 


3) Gams Printer's Ink 










dayglo rocket red 


B" ,2. >7) 


A 


(> 17. > 17) 


F (<1,2) 


4) Glo-m-the-Dark P.P 


F (<!.<) 


A 


(> 17, > 17) 


F (<!,<!) 


5) Pactra 'Namel 










gloss white X-2 


B (2, >5) 


A 


(> 15, > 15) 


F (1.8) 


6) Pactra Scale Model F 










brick red M8 


? (>4, >4) 


A 


(> 14, > 14) 


F (<1.2) 


7) Lumikwik 566 










daylt fluorescent 










red-orange 


F l,3) 


A 


(> 14. > 14) 


F (<1,1) 


8) Pentel White Marker 


F !.<!) 


2A, 


F(> 11. > 11; 10, > 20; 


2F (< 1. < 1; 1, I 1 ) 








3.8)" 




9) Nissen Melal Marker 










red 


B (2. >5) 


B 


(8, > 15) 


Could not be applied 6 


10) Pactra Aero Gloss Dope 










swift white 64- 1 


F (<!.<!) 


2B- 


(< 1. > 15; < I. > 22) h 


F (<!,<!) 


11) Naz Dar Screen Ink 










daylt fluorescent 










5593 cnmson red 


B (2, >5) 


A* 


(12, > 14) 


F (<1.3) 


12) Pactra Hi-Gto 










orange 


B (2. > 6) 







F <<2. 5) f 


yellow 





B 


(9, > 14) 





13) Strobhte Paint 










yellow-orange 


A (> 6. > 6) 


B,B(1. 16. 5, > 12)" 


F (<1.2) 


14) Pactra Formula U Poly. 










20073 aviation yellow 


? (< 1, > 3) 


B 


(5, 15) 


F (< 1, 2) 


15) Testers Pla Enamel 










1145 white 


? (>4. >4) 


A 


(> 12. > 12) 


F (<l.2) 


16) Creme L'Oreal Nail A 










British redcoat 


F 1.2) 


A 


(> 11. > 11) 


<<1.>6) 


17) Sam 100 white 


B (2. > 8) 


A 


(> 12, > 12) 


F (<l,3) 


IK) Phosphorescent Ink 


? (< 1. > 4) 


F 


(< 1. 2) 


F <<2. 4) f 



Water soluble Materials (waterproof or water resistant when dry) 

19) Strobhte Tempera 

Chartreuse VL B (<1.>7) B~ (3. -14) 

20) Dupont Latex Enamel 

gloss while. 1 800C F (<!.<!) " (4. > 9) 

21) Speedball Opaque Ink 

red F ( < 1 . < I ) 

yellow F (1.8) 



F (< 1. < 1) 
F (< 1. < 1) 
F (< I. < I) 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 







G. rubens 




S. acletus 


T. 


castaneum 


22) Hyplar Acrylic 














Titanium white H212 


F 


(< 1. < 1) 


F 


(< 1, < 2)^ 


F 


(< I, < 1) 


23) Liquitex Acrylic 














Titanium white #432 


F 


(< 1. < 1) 


F 


(< 1, < 1) 


F 


(< 1, < 1) 


24) Rich Glo Daylight 














Fluorescent Paint 














D43 red-orange 


F 


(< 1, < 1) 


F 


(< 1, 1) 


F 


(< 1, < 1) 


25) Designer's Gouache 














536 zinc white 


F 


(< 1. < 1) 


F 


(< 1. < 1) 


Would 


not adhere 



26) Speedball Water-Soluble 
Fluorescent Block 
Printing Ink 
magenta 3428 F (< 1, < 1) F (<!,<!) F (<!,<!) 

a Durability scoring system. 

A = likely to last as long as adult live under field conditions. A paint received an "A" if 100% of the marks stayed on greater than 
or equal to the following life expectancies: G. rubens. 5 weeks; S. acletus. 10 weeks, and T. castaneum. 20 weeks. The 
numbers in parenthesis are the data (nj, n2>. nj is the number of weeks before the first mark was lost; r\^ is the number of 
weeks before the median mark was lost. > n j , > r\2 means all insects died before any marks were lost n [ , > n2 means one or 
more marks were lost but the median mark was not lost before all insects died. Thus, if n j is > the life expectancy, the paint is 
given an "A." (Note that loss of one mark can determine that a marking material does not earn an "A.") 

B = some marks likely to be lost, at least in long-term studies A paint received a "B" if < 100% but > 50% of the marks stayed 
on for the life expectancy of the insects. Thus, for G. rubens n] < 5, n2 i 5. 

F = should not be used. A paint received an "F" if < 50% of the marks stayed on for the life expectancy of the insects. For G. 
rubens n2 < 5. 

? = insects died too soon to evaluate paint using the above criteria. 

If a material stayed on as long as the life expectancy of the insects, i.e. 5 weeks in G. rubens. 10 weeks in S acletus and 20 weeks in 

T. castaneum. the material was scored for its adhesive property as well. 

A or B - marks rarely peeled, chipped, or flaked. In every week during the life expectancy of the insects, the number of partial 

marks on living insects was < 10% 
A* or B* - marks sometimes peeled, chipped, or flaked. In at least one week during the life expectancy of the insects, the number of 

partial marks on living insects exceeded 10% but never 50% 
B** - marks often peeled, chipped, or flaked. In at least one week during the life expectancy of the insect, the number of partial 

marks on living insects was 50% 
"For more information on materials see Appendix 

c Since all sets of insects could not be marked on the same day, one set of insects was marked with Tech- Pen Ink, orange, every time insects 
were marked. 

d Marks not scored first week, thus n[ < 1, n2 < 2. 

e Liquid Paper Correction Fluid and Nissen Metal Marker dried too fast to be applied as very small dots 
'Marks were not scored the second week, thus nj <2 weeks 

"Marks were difficult to score {color not very opaque) and were not successfully scored until the second week using a brighter light, thus 
nj < 1; insects were terminated by mistake before the median mark was lost, thus n2 i 6. 
More th^n one set of insects was marked if there was some question about how they were marked or reared 
'Data from Walker and Wineriter 1981 

APPENDIX 

Listed below is additional information about marking materials that 
were highly rated on at least one of the test insects. The materials are in the 
same order as in Table 1 . 

1) Tech- Pen Ink, developed for marking laboratory glassware, 1 1 colors; Mark- Tex 
Corp., 161 Coolidge Ave., Englewood, NJ 07631. 

2) Liquid Paper Correction Fluid, 9 colors, also useful as a background material on 
which a number can be written with a technical pen (see Walker and Wineriter 1981); Liquid 
Paper Corp., 9130 Markville Dr., Dallas, TX 75243. 

3) Gams Printer's Ink, reported as successful marking material on ants(S.D. Porter and 
B.M. Glancey, pers. comm. 1980), available in 10 daylight-fluorescent colors, appears thick 
but when applied bleeds gradually, marks near one another merge together; Gams Ink, 1919 
W. 2300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 841 19. 

4) Glo-in-the-Dark Phosphorescent Paint, Series P-5100. pale in daylight, glows 
brightly in dark or under UV light, pigment separates from base readily, must be repeatedly 
mixed for best results; Conrad-Hanovia, Inc., 100 Chestnut St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

5) Pactra 'Namel, available in 38 colors (17 flat, 21 gloss), hobby paint, bleeds when 



Vol. 95, No. 3, May & June, 1984 123 



applied, color remains bright over time; Pactra Industries, Hobby Div., 16946 Sherman Way, 
Suite 300, Van Nuys, CA 90028. 

6) Pactra Scale Model Flats, available in 24 colors (flat), hobby paint, thin, bleeds when 
applied, marks become different sizes; Pactra Industries, Hobby Div., 16946 Sherman Way, 
Suite 300, Van Nuys, CA 90028. 

7) Lumikwik 566, daylight-fluorescent poster ink, available in 6 colors, thick, easy to 
apply; Advance Process Supply Co., 400 Noble St., Chicago, IL 60622. 

8) Pental White Marker, delivers a fine line of opaque-white, oil base ink that dries 
quickly, fades over time, must be mixed well for best results; Pentel of America, 1 100 Arthur 
Ave., Elk Grove Village, IL 60007. 

9) Nissen Metal Marker, ball point (not used, material squeezed through puncture in 
side of tube),bright opaque ink available in 12 colors; John P. Nissen, Jr., Co., Glenside, PA 
19038. 

10) Pactra Aero Gloss Fuel Proof Dope, hobby paint, available in 25 colors, thin; 
Pactra Industries, Hobby Div., 16946 Sherman Way, Suite 300, Van Nuys, CA 90028. 

11) Naz-Dar Screen Process Ink, No. 5500 series silk screen ink, available in 10 
daylight-fluorescent colors; Naz-Dar Co., 1087 N. Northbranch, Chicago, IL 60622. 

12) Pactra Hi-Glo, daylight-fluorescent poster paint available in 6 colors, thick, easy to 
apply; Pactra Industries, Hobby Div., 16946 Sherman Way, Suite 300, Van Nuys, CA 
90028. 

13) Stroblite Daybrite Bulletin Paint, poster paint, brightest on light surface or on dark 
surface under UV light, available in at least 4 colors; Stroblite Co., Inc. 10 E. 23rd St., New 
York, NY 10010. 

14) Pactra Formula U Polyurethane, hobby paint, available in 18 colors (15 gloss, 3 
flat); Pactra Industries, Hobby Div., 1 6946 Sherman Way, Suite 300, Van Nuys, CA 90028. 

15) Testers Pla Enamel, hobby paint, available in 100 colors, 6 fluorescent; The Tester 
Corp., 620 Buckbee St., Rockford, IL 61 101. 

16) Creme L'Oreal Nail Accents, nail polish, thin, not very opaque; Cosmair, Inc., 
Dist., New York, NY 10036. 

17) Sam 100, flat poster ink, available in 22 colors, thick, easy to apply; Advance 
Process Supply Co., 400 N. Noble St., Chicago, IL 60622. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are grateful to personnel from the following companies for supplying information and 
marking materials for use in this study: Mark- Tex Corp.; Liquid Paper Corp.; Gams Ink; 
Conrad- Hanovia, Inc.; Pactra Industries; Advance Process Supply Co.; Pentel of America; 
John P. Nissen, Jr. Co.; Naz-Dar Co.; The Tester Corp.; Shannon Luminous Materials Co.; 
Litelab Corp.; Stroblite Co., Inc.; Berol USA; Eberhard Faber, Inc.; Somay Products, Inc.; 
Day-Glo Color Corp.: U.S. Radium Corp.; Independent Ink Co.; Radiant Color of Ciba- 
Geigy Corp.; and The Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. 

We are also indebted to these colleagues: D.W. Hagstrum provided information on 
rearing flour beetles and laboratory facilities; B.M. Glancey gave us samples of Gam's 
Printer's Ink; T.G. Forrest collected insects and recorded data; D.K.. Simon provided 
information on Pactra paints; S.A. Jungreis assisted in contacting companies. 

For help with the manuscript we thank J.E. Lloyd, T.G. Forrest, B.G. Hollien, J. Sivinski, 
and S.R. Wing. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Walker, T.J., and S.A. Wineriter. 1981. Marking techniques for recognizing individual 
insects. Fla. Entomol. 64: 18-29. 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 11/4 A.N.(S.) 129 30 March 1984 

The Commission hereby gives six months notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 41 , part 1 , 
on 29 March, 1984 and would welcome comments and advice on them from interested 
zoologists. 

Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary at the above address, if possible 
within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No. 

1759 Heliconius erato Aurivillius, 1882 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed conserva- 

tion under the plenary powers. 

2266 Curculio picirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Tychius stephensi : Schbnherr, 1836 

(Coleoptera, Curculionidae): proposed conservation under the plenary powers. 

2312 DapsilarthrafoersteT, 1 862 ( Insecta, Hymenoptera): proposed conservation 

under the plenary powers. 

R.V. MELVILLE, Secretary 

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON 
ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

The following Opinions have been published by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 4 1 , part 1 , on 
29 March, 1984: 

ITZN 59 30 March, 1984 

Opinion No. 

1264 (p. 8) Oscinis plumigera Loew, 1860 (Insecta, Diptera): suppression by use of 
the plenary powers. 

1269 (p. 19) METRIDIIDAE Carlgren, 1893 (Anthozoa) and METRIDIIDAE Sars, 

1902 (Copepoda): a ruling to eliminate the homonymy. 

1270 (p. 22) Chrysomelaflavicornis and C. tibialis Suffrian, 1851 (Insecta, Coleoptera): 

conserved.. 

1273 (p. 28) Anaspis, Luperus, Lampyris and Clerus (Insecta, Coleoptera): determina- 

tion of authorship and fixation of type species. 

1274 (p. 32) Notonecta striata Linnaeus, 1 758 (Insecta, Hemiptera): neotype designated 

under the plenary powers. 

1276 (p. 36) Semblis marginata Panzer, 1799 (Insecta, Plecoptera): conserved. 
The Commission regrets that it cannot supply separates of Opinions. 

R.V. MELVILLE, Secretary 



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US ISSN 0013-872X 



September & October, 1 984 



ENTO: 



EWS 



125th ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 

The 125th anniversary of The American Entomological 

Society Charles E. Mason 125 

The library of the A.E.S. & a brief review of the society's 
association with The Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia Howard P. Boyd 1 3 1 

T.B. Wilson, MD., a founder & benefactor of the A.E.S. 
& his family: our first Newark, DE - Philadelphia, PA 
connection William H. Day 137 

The Cressons & The American Entomological Society 

Roger W. Fuester 149 

Philip Powell Calvert student, teacher, & odonatologist 

HaroldB. White, III 155 

James A.G. Rehn & The American Entomological Society 

Selwyn S. Roback 163 



Society meeting of February 15, 1984 

Society meeting of March 21, 1984 

Society meeting of April 18, 1984 

Letters of congratulations, greetings, & best wishes 

Montage of photographs taken at anniversary meeting 



129 
136 
154 

128, 130 
148 



Names of officers & their terms of office from 1960 to 1984 166 

168 



Members of The American Entomological Society, 
June 30, 1984 



Announcements 



167, 171, 172 



i Y L Y'ik\mi 



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Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 125 



THE 125th ANNIVERSARY OF 
THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1 

Charles E. Mason^ 

ABSTRACT: The American Entomological Society (AES) recently celebrated its 125th 
anniversary with a commemorative meeting held February 15, 1984, at The Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The AES is the oldest entomological society that has been 
in continuous existence in the western hemisphere. It has a rich history and was instrumental- in 
the development of entomology as a science in the United States. This paper, which was 
presented at the meeting, gives a brief overview of the history of the AES and its impact on the 
development of American entomology. The paper also serves as an introduction to other 
papers presented at the commemorative meeting on key aspects of the history of the society. 
These other papers are published in this issue of Entomological News, in the sequence in 
which they were presented. 

It is particularly fitting that The American Entomological Society have 
its 125th anniversary commemorative meeting on February 15, 1984. For 
it was just the day before this day, 125 years ago on February 14, 1859, that 
Ezra T. Cresson, James Ridings and George Newman got together and 
decided to form an entomological society. On February 15, 1859, an 
invitation was sent from these three gentlemen to 1 6 other persons asking 
them to attend a meeting on February 22 to discuss establishing a society 
for the purpose of advancing the study of insects. It is noteworthy that the 
fiftieth anniversary commemorative meeting was held February 15, 1909, 
which featured a talk on the history of The American Entomological 
Society presented by one of the founders, Ezra T. Cresson. 

The society was originally named The Entomological Society of 
Philadelphia. After eight years, on February 23, 1867, its name was 
changed to The American Entomological Society. The name was changed 
because at the time it was the only society in the United States devoted 
entirely to the study of entomology and it had published the Proceedings 
since 1861 which was one of the earliest publications devoted to insects. 
Also, this publication had received wide recognition. Upon changing the 
society name, the Proceedings was changed to Transactions of The 
American Entomological Society, and was first published under this title in 
June 1867. It has continued without interruption in publication to the 
present. 



' Published with the approval of the Director of the Delaware Agricultural Experiment Station 
as Miscellaneous Paper No. 1058, Contribution No. 547 of the Department of Entomology 
and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717-1303. 

^ President, The American Entomological Society, Associate Professor, Department of 
Entomology and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19717-1303. 

ENT. NEWS 95(4): 125-128. September & October, 1984 




. 






126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



It is believed that The American Entomological Society is the oldest 
entomological society that has been in continuous existence in the Western 
Hemisphere. The Society serves as the American birth place for the cultural 
development of entomology as a science. In many ways The American 
Entomological Society has contributed a great deal to the heritage of 
entomology in the United States. For many years it was the only 
entomological society in the United States that had interests continental in 
scope. 

From the very beginning its founders were committed to the advancement of 
entomology as a science. They saw the need for publication of observations 
and new knowledge about insects; they saw the value of a good insect 
collection, especially representing insects of North America; they saw the 
need for a complete library of entomological literature; and finally they saw 
the importance of having financial stability in the form of contributions and 
endowments to ensure that these goals would be carried out. The society 
today still maintains these commitments. It has three publications, the 
Transactions, Entomological News and Memoirs, all well known through- 
out the world. The insect collection is also well known. It is maintained by 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and is well represented 
with Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and other specific insect tax a. 
The library, also maintained by the Academy, has over 15,000 volumes on 
entomology. Because of several bequests made to the society throughout its 
history, the capital assets now exceed $350,000. The income from these 
endowments is used to supplement the cost of publications, to purchase 
entomological books and periodicals for its library and to cover general 
operating expenses of the society's office located in the academy building at 
19th and Race Streets. 

The American Entomological Society was the first to publish a journal 
devoted to economic entomology. The Practical Entomologist was initiated 
as the second journal of the society in 1 865. This publication included short 
papers of popular aspects of entomology and was distributed among 
farmers and other agriculturalists. However, it was started before a need for 
this type of publication was fully recognized and appreciated by the public. 
Due to lack of support The Practical Entomologist was not published after 
1867. 

During the period following 1 867 , the emphasis of interest by members 
and the types of articles in the publications of The American Entomological 
Society were in the basic rather than applied aspects of entomology. Much 
was published in its journals in the areas of systematics, morphology, 
biology and ecology. As the field of entomology advanced, new subdivisions 
developed in the discipline, particularly in the applied areas. These 
included chemical control, biological control and insects as vectors of 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 127 



disease, just to name a few. Because of the growth throughout the field of 
entomology, other entomological societies developed along the way, some 
with the encouragement of The American Entomological Society. 

The formation of the Entomological Society of America, currently the 
largest entomological society located in North America, had its roots in 
Philadelphia in conjunction with The American Entomological Society. 
Several members of The American Entomological Society were instrumental in 
the early stages of organizing the Entomological Society of America. There 
was a joint meeting held December 19, 1904, at The Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. The meeting included members of The American 
Entomological Society, the Association of Economic Entomologists, the 
Entomological Section of the Academy and The Feldman Collecting 
Social. Dr. P.P. Calvert, then president of The American Entomological 
Society, was made chairman of the joint meeting and Dr. Henry Skinner, 
then recording secretary of the Society, was made secretary of the joint 
meeting. Dr. Calvert led the discussion at this meeting on the need for 
having a national entomological society that would be truly American in 
nature and which would represent the interests of all aspects of entomological 
science. Dr. J. Chester Bradley, a resident member of The American 
Entomological Society, moved that a committee be appointed to consider 
the organization of an American society in which all branches of entomology 
would be represented. The committee, consisting of J.C. Bradley, H.T. 
Fernald and E.D. Sanderson, was selected to pursue the matter. Dr. 
Bradley reported in the Nov. 1906 issue of Entomological News on the 
formation of the Entomological Society of America. 

The relationship between The American Entomological Society and 
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia has been germain to the 
survival of the society. Without the support of the academy in providing office 
space, curatorial services, library facilities and meeting rooms, The 
American Entomological Society would have had difficulty in maintaining 
a continued existence. The society owes a great deal of gratitude to the 
academy for the support received. In turn the academy has benefited from 
its association with The American Entomological Society through contribu- 
tions to the library and insect collections and through the publication of 
articles in journals of the society. 

It is gratifying to be a member of The American Entomological Society 
and realize its rich history. Its founders were on the right track in 
establishing a society in 1 859 for the purpose of advancing knowledge about 
insects. Before that time, little was known about insects other than that there 
were a lot of them. Now, 1 25 years later, we have thousands of volumes of 
information on insects. This is a short period of time when you think of it in 
terms of two times the age of a 62.5 year old person, which is a little less than 
the average life span. Without a doubt. The American Entomological 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Society has played a major role in the advancement of entomology as a 
science during the past 1 25 years. 

SELECTED REFERENCES 

Allen, Harry W. 1960. The History of The American Entomological Society, Trans. Amer. 

Entomol. Soc. 85: 335-372. 
Anonymous. 1959. The Centennial Celebration, American Entomological Society 1859- 

1959. Entomol. News 70: 113-116. 
Cresson, E.T. 1911. A History of The American Entomological Society of Philadelphia 

1859-1909. Amer. Entomol. Soc., Philadelphia, PA. 60 pp. 
Phillips, Maurice E. 1959. The First Hundred Years. Entomol. News 70: 1-6. 



COMMUNICATION 

February 8, 1984 



Dr. Charles Mason, President 

The American Entomological Society 

Dear Dr. Mason, 

Congratulations to you and The American Entomological Society on its 125th Anniversary. 
I regret that a previous commitment prevents me from attending. 

The Academy recognizes the crucial role that The American Entomological Society has 
played in the development of entomological study at this institution. We are particularly 
grateful for the donation of the society's entire collection and for the use of your library, which 
is the finest in the world. 

We are proud of our association during these 1 25 years. The American Entomological 
Society has reflected credit and favor on the Academy. 

Sincerely, 

Howard P. Brokaw 
Chairman of the Board 
The Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 129 



SOCIETY MEETING OF FEBRUARY 15, 1984 

The 125th Anniversary of the founding of The American Entomological Society was 
celebrated at The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on Wednesday evening, 
February 15,1 984. Twenty members and twelve guests attended the special program devoted 
to the history of the society. The American Entomological Society is the oldest continuously- 
operating entomological society in the Western Hemisphere. 

President Charles E. Mason called the ceremonies to order and had each member of the 
audience introduce himself. He then read several letters of congratulations from members and 
dignitaries who were unable to attend. Most fitting was a $ 1 25 contribution from Dr. Charles 
Hodge IV to be used for the purchase of a book or something of lasting value. Dr. Mason 
continued with an account of the founding of the society. 

The society's library of approximately 15,000 volumes is integrated with the library of 
The Academy of Natural Sciences. This collection of entomological works is one of the finest 
such collections in the country and is particularly noted for its many rare 19th century 
volumes. Howard P. Boyd, editor of Entomological News and former president of the society, 
recounted how the library began its growth with the founding of the society and eventually 
became so large and valuable that it was moved to the academy in 1876. The long and 
sometimes rocky association between the society and academy was told with irony and humor. 

About the time of the transfer of the USDA Beneficial Insects Laboratory to the 
University of Delaware in 1973, the society began to hold some of its meetings in Newark, 
Delaware. To many this was thought to be the first Newark-Philadelphia connection in the 
society. Dr. William H. Day, chairman of the society's finance committee and former 
president dispelled that illusion. Thomas B. Wilson, M.D. (1807-1865), a founder of The 
American Entomological Society, was a resident of Newark, Delaware. In addition to being a 
major benefactor of the society and the academy, contributing thousands of volumes to their 
libraries and financing major expansions to house his donated collections, he was also 
intimately associated with the development of what was to become the University of 
Delaware. His brother, with whom he lived, was president of that fledgling academic 
institution for 1 1 years. It is a quirk of fate that T.B. Wilson died from typhus, a disease which 
was later found to be tranmitted by insects. 

Another founder of the society was Ezra Townsend Cresson. He served the society in a 
variety of important positions for 67 years. In that he married Mary Ann Ridings, daughter of 
another of the society's founders, it is understandable that his two sons E.T., Jr. and George B. 
Cresson were entomologists associated with the society. Roger W. Fuester, recording 
secretary of the society, discussed the contributions of the Cresson family. Although the family 
was involved with the society for 89 years, none ever served as president. It is reported that the 
elder Cresson actively discouraged nomination to that position. 

The Transactions of the The American Entomological Society is one of three periodicals 
published by the society. The current editor. Dr. Daniel Otte, presented an analysis of the 
importance of the Transactions in describing the diversity of insect life. Over 16,000 species 
and 1000 genera have been described in this publication. A curious dip in the descriptions of 
new taxa in the Transactions during the 1950's prompted considerable discussion and 
speculation among society's members. 

Philip P. Calvert, long-time editor of Entomological News, first attended an American 
Entomological Society meeting at the age of 16 in 1887. He was president in 1909 when the 
society celebrated its 50th anniversary and he lived to participate in the 100th anniversary. 
His 74-year association with the society is probably a record. Dr. Harold B. White, 
corresponding secretary of the society, spoke about the important role the society and the 
academy played in the preprofessional development of Philip Calvert. He suggested that we 
should learn from our history and in the future realize our potential for exciting and sustaining 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



the interest of budding entomologists. 

The final presentation of the evening was about James A.G. Rehn by Dr. Selwyn S. 
Roback, editor of the Memoirs of The American Entomological Society. Dr. Roback, a 
personal friend of Mr. Rehn, cited Rehn's many contributions and great dedication to the 
society. This presentation and others commemorating the 1 25th anniversary are published in 
extended form in this issue of Entomological News. 

In addition to the formal presentations, there were displays of many early photographs, 
publications and memorabilia from the archives of The Academy of Natural Sciences. These 
were expertly presented by Mrs. Carol Spawn, academy archivist with the assistance of Mrs. 
Mildred Morgan, society secretary. Mrs. Morgan capped the delightful meeting by presenting 
President Mason with a new gavel to replace the one that apparently has been lost. 

Harold B. White, 
Corresponding Secretary 



COMMUNICATION 

February 15, 1984 

To The President and Council of The American Entomological Society: 

On the occasion of the American Entomological Society's 125th anniversary, The 
Academy of Natural Sciences, and its staff, Board of Trustees, and membership, send 
greetings and best wishes. 

We congratulate the American Entomological Society for 1 25 years of uninterrupted 
contributions of research and scholarship in the science of entomology; for a distinguished 
record of publication; for its continuing efforts in fostering interest in and dedication to the 
science of entomology among many generations of scientists of America. 

The ties between The American Entomological Society and The Academy of Natural 
Sciences are long-standing. May this historic association continue to flourish throughout this 
century and the next. 



Thomas Peter Bennett 
President 

The Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 131 

THE LIBRARY OF THE AMERICAN 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND A BRIEF 

REVIEW OF THE SOCIETY'S ASSOCIATION WITH 

THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF 

PHILADELPHIA 

Howard P. Boyd 1 

ABSTRACT: Histories of the library of The American Entomological Society and the 
society's association with The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia are reviewed. 

It is not the intent of this paper to retell the history of The American 
Entomological Society. That story has been told adequately in at least three 
recorded histories. Nevertheless, in order to trace the story of our society's 
library holdings, on the occasion of this 125th anniversary meeting, it will 
be necessary to infringe, to some extent, upon history. 

The Entomological Society of Philadelphia, later, in 1867, to become 
The American Entomological Society, was organized on February 22, 
1 859. Less than one year later, at a meeting on December 12, 1 859, it was 
resolved "to establish a library of entomological literature for the use of 
members, and a committee was appointed to take charge of such books and 
pamphlets as may be contributed." Thus the importance of a good 
entomological library was recognized from the very beginning and, over the 
past century and a quarter, the library of The American Entomological 
Society has proven to be one of its' most useful and valuable possessions. 

The first contribution to the library was a copy of Melsheimer's 
Catalogue of the Coleoptera of North America, contributed by Dr. S.S. 
Haldeman at the meeting of January 9, 1 860 held in the society's new large, 
second-floor meeting room in the home of Charles Wilt at 1 308-10 South 
St. The next donation was made later that same month, on January 23rd, 
when Dr. Ezra T. Cresson presented twelve volumes and four pamphlets. 
Next month, on February 13, Dr. Thomas B. Wilson donated eight 
volumes to the library. This latter was only the beginning of a series of 
donations of rare works by Dr. Wilson during the last five years of his life. 

The society continued to meet in Mr. Wilt's house for about two and a 
half years during which time the library continued to grow rapidly. The 
annual report of the recording secretary made at the meeting in December 
1862 includes the statement that "there has been an increase of 344 
volumes during the year, making a total of 473 volumes now on the shelves. 



' Immediate past president. The American Entomological Society; Editor, Entomological 
News; Honorary associate. Department of Entomology, The Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia. 

ENT. NEWS 95(4): 131-136. September & October, 1984 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



including a number of rare and valuable works, whereby the student of 
entomology may have opportunities of research hitherto unattainable 
except at considerable expense." 

Two short years later, at the close of 1 864, according to Dr. Cresson in 
his 1909 history, the library contained 1,083 volumes and pamphlets, 
including a large number of valuable books on entomology contributed by 
Dr. Wilson and, following his death early in 1865, by his brother and 
executor, Rathmell Wilson. In total, according to Dr. E.T. Cresson, Jr., in 
1909, Dr, Wilson contributed about 1500 volumes. 

When, in 1862, the rapid increase in the library and collections made it 
necessary to obtain larger quarters, these were provided by James Ridings 
who constructed, for the sole use of the Society, a two story building at 5 1 8 
South 1 3th St., on the northwest corner of 1 3th and Rodman Sts., to which 
the Society moved in August 1862. The Society continued to occupy this 
facility for thirteen and one half years, until January 1876. 

The office of society librarian was created on September 9, 1 867, with 
G.B. Dixon as the first librarian. In his first report, he credited the library 
with 1262 volumes and 849 pamphlets. 

During the period when the society occupied its' own building on South 
1 3th St., from 1 862 to 1876, the library and collections of the society grew 
to such large proportions and were of such great value that the possibility of 
destruction of all this material by fire gave the members much concern, and 
possibilities of obtaining safer quarters were seriously considered. Efforts 
were even made to interest persons of wealth to provide a fireproof building 
for the society, but without success. 

So, at a meeting held on April 1 2, 1 875, Dr. George H. Horn suggested 
the possibility of securing "apartments" in the new building of The 
Academy of Natural Sciences at 19th and Race Sts. and a committee was 
appointed to determine the possibility and feasibility of an arrangement 
with the academy. After a number of conference meetings, the first of a 
series of agreements with the academy was reached on December 17,1875 
whereby the society has been permitted over all these succeeding years to 
occupy rooms within the academy building. The first meeting of the society 
in its' new quarters at the academy was held on February 14, 1876. 

During this brief portrayal of library history and development up to this 
point, it is quite apparent that the various early moves of the society were 
dictated largely, at first, by the need for ever greater space for the society's 
library and collections holdings, and, later, by growing concerns for its' 
safety and protection. It was this latter concern that was the principal 
motivating factor in the society's decision to move to the academy's new 
facilities. 

Contributions continued to play an important role in library acquisitions. 
Proof of this is contained in early catalogues of library holdings. Three early 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 133 



catalogues exist of works in the library of the society. These are: 1 . a 
handwritten listing consisting of 35 5Vi x %Vi " pages and containing over 
250 entries. This listing is undated but clearly was compiled early in 1 864. 
2. a printed catalogue dated "up to January 1st, 1 868" consists of 32 6Vi x 
10 " pages and contains 325 entries of more than 585 volumes, plus 45 
serial journals and 1 3 miscellaneous publications. An interesting feature of 
these two early catalogues is that the contributor or other source of each 
entry is noted by "presented by" or "deposited by." In the 1 868 listing, at 
least 265 or 45% of these were donated by Dr. Thomas B. Wilson or his 
executor brother, Rathmell Wilson. Another major contributor was Dr. 
Ezra T. Cresson who donated over 40 volumes. Other substantial 
contributors were J.C. Brevoort, A.R. Grote, S.S. Haldeman, Baron Osten- 
Sacken, and J.O. Westwood. 3. the third catalogue, a handwritten listing 
dated 1885, consists of 83 8V: x 1 1 " pages, contains 582 entries, and shows 
the case, by capital letters, to which each was assigned. 

In 1897, by his will, the entire library on Coleoptera of Dr. George II. 
Horn was donated to the society's library. As a result of all these 
contributions, the library in 1909, according to Dr. Cresson in his 1909 
history, contained nearly 1 300 titles, consisting of over 4100 volumes, of 
which over 2000 volumes represented journals of 190 soc'eties. 

In 1 907, the society was bequeathed a one half interest in a tract of land 
in Texas by a member, Henry Shimer. The realization from the sale of this 
land, nearly $7,700, was invested in the library fund. 

On November 2, 1936, an agreement was made with the academy for 
the removal of the society's library from the proximity of its collections and 
study rooms, where it had been for the previous sixty years, to the stack of 
the academy's library. Although this was only a change in physical location, 
it really was the forerunner of a new agreement to come eleven years later. 

Until 1947, the society maintained and added to its' library without any 
outside assistance. However, the ever increasing size of the library, the 
complexitites of its' operation, and the increasing use(s) being made of it by 
researchers both within and outside the society, called for an operational 
change. Under terms of an agreement made on December 17, 1947, the 
society deposited its library with that of the academy, while retaining title 
and absolute ownership of it. The academy agreed to catalog the library, 
maintain it, and supervise its' circulation among members of both the 
society and the academy. The society continues to purchase, with restricted 
endowment funds, or exchange its' periodicals for, entomological books, 
periodicals, and serials, to the best of its' financial ability. In addition, the 
costs of binding all its' entomological literature are borne by the society's 
Cresson fund. The continuing objective of the society is the acquisition of all 
entomological literature pertinent to the pursuit of research in systematics, 
taxonomy, zoogeography, morphology, physiology and other non-applied 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



entomological disciplines. 

In the one hundred and twenty five years since the founding of the 
society's library, it has grown into one of the most important collections of 
systematic literature in America, particularly in the older and rarer 
categories. It now contains well over 15,000 volumes and many thousands 
of pamphlets, reprints, and separata, and it is still growing. In addition, 
many valuable journals have been and continue to be acquired through 
exchanges of society publications with those of other organizations. 

Turning more, now, to the society's associations with The Academy of 
Natural Sciences, by the terms of the initial agreement of December 17, 
1875, all members of the society became life members of the academy, but 
it was further agreed that no person could become a member of the society 
who was not also a member of the academy. This prevented membership in 
the society by anyone who, although an active entomologist, felt unable or 
unwilling to afford the additional annual dues of the academy. In consequence, 
membership in the society gradually declined to the point that many 
business meetings could not be held for lack of a quorum. 

Another stipulation in this first agreement was that the members of the 
society would form and constitute the entomological section of the 
academy. In compliance with this, application was made to the academy for 
admission as an entomological section. This was granted by the academy 
and the section was duly organized and officers elected on May 12, 1876. 
For all practical purposes, this entomological section of the academy, 
comprising active and associate members of the society, carried out all the 
scientific activities of the society, while the society itself held its' meetings 
only twice a year, in June and December, for the transaction of business and 
election of officers and committees. 

An interesting side-light of this society arrangement to become the 
entomological section of the academy is that in the year 1 889, it was agreed 
that the section would "publish its proceedings, and such short notes as may 
be offered" at or near the first of each month. It was further agreed this 
publication would consist of at least 1 60 pages annually, to be published in 
ten monthly parts, except July and August, with the title ENTOMOLOGICAL 
NE \VS and Proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. This new serial commenced publication 
in 1 890. The interest here is that whereas the society's Transactions serial 
and Memoirs series both originated as and always have been society 
publications, in the case of Entomological News, although probably the 
same people were involved, whether society members or academy personnel, 
technically, at least, this really was an academy publication for the first 
thirty-five years of its' existence, from the time of its' first issue in 1 890, 
until the sectional organization of the academy was abolished in 1924, 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 135 



following which it became a society publication. 

A third major point in this early agreement with the academy required 
that all bequests, gifts, or donations of any property then possessed by, or 
acquired in the future by, the society, shall be considered and treated as the 
property of the academy during the continuance of the agreement. This, the 
members felt, was not the intent of the society so, in 1 894, they submitted a 
revision to the effect that all such acquisitions shall remain the property of 
the society. However, this was not agreeable to the academy and 
considerable discontent was fostered, to the extent that there were 
discussions as to the advisability of withdrawing from the association with 
the academy. Finally, however, a new or second agreement was reached on 
June 17, 1895 which allowed the society to retain possession of its' 
collections and library in its' own name, but that "each specimen hereafter 
received by the Academy or the Society shall bear a label indicating its' 
ownership, in case of dissolution." 

When, in 1914, there were insufficient funds to provide for the 
necessary curatorial service the society's collections demanded, the society 
proposed a new agreement under which the academy would assume the full 
salary of at least two curators, thus allowing the society to devote its' funds 
to its' library and publications. To this the academy would not agree, but a 
new, now third agreement was reached on December 7, 1915, in which the 
society agreed to deposit its' collections with the academy in perpetuity, the 
academy agreeing "to forever care for said collections of insects, along with 
all its' other collections, to the best of its' ability," the society "to continue 
its library" and publications "in such space as may be set apart, suitably 
heated and made convenient." 

With the adoption of a new code of by-laws by the academy, on October 
14, 1924, all former sections of the academy were abolished and the 
requirements in the agreement with the society regarding restrictions of 
membership were nullified. Thereafter, members of the society no longer 
were required also to be members of the academy. At the same time, the 
associates of the academy's former entomological section were invited to 
become members of the society and several availed themselves of this 
opportunity. 

Current relationships between the society and the academy are 
governed by the basic agreement of December 7, 1915, supplemented by 
the library agreement of December 17, 1947. From this brief review of the 
society's library, collections, meeting facilities, Entomological News 
publication, and relationships with the academy, it is clear that these two 
organizations have had a very close working relationship for well over 100 
years. It is hoped that the society and the academy believe that each has 
had, and will continue to receive, mutual benefits from the present 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

arrangement. 

REFERENCES 

Allen, H.W. 1960. The History of The American Entomological Society. Trans. A.E.S. 85 

(4): 335-373. 
Anonymous. 1864(7). Catalog of works in the library of The American Entomological 

Society, (unpubl.) 
Anonymous. 1868. Catalogue of works in the library of The American Entomological 

Society up to January 1st, 1868. 
Anonymous. 1885. Catalogue to the library of The American Entomological Society. 

(unpubl.). 
Cresson, E.T. 1909. A History of The American Entomological Society in The American 

Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 1859-1909. 
Cresson, E.T., Jr. 1909 . Library of The American Entomological Society in The American 

Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 1859-1909. 
Cresson, E.T., Jr. 1939. A History of The American Entomological Society. Read at 80th 

Anniversary of Society. February 23, 1939. (unpubl.) (?). 
Grant, H.J., Jr. 1960. The Library of The American Entomological Society. Trans. A.E.S. 

85 (4): 333-334. 

SOCIETY MEETING OF MARCH 21, 1984 

The fourth regular meeting of The American Entomological Society was held on 
Wednesday evening March 21, 1984, in Townsend Hall on the University of Delaware 
campus. Seven members and ten guests attended a fascinating talk on ' ' Forsenic Entomology" 
by Dr. Wayne D. Lord from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. 

Dr. Lord's thesis at the University of New Hampshire dealt with the succession of insect 
populations that decompose vertebrate carcasses. A knowledge of the species of insects 
present, their developmental stage, and their distribution on a carcass can provide a great deal 
of information about the time of death and in some cases the circumstances of death. Although 
Dr. Lord's interests were in the ecology of decomposition, it became apparent that this 
systematic approch to decomposition provides critical pieces of information that are 
sometimes difficult for law enforcement officers to obtain on decomposing bodies. 

Within hours and sometimes minutes after death, calliphorid and sarcophagid flies will lay 
eggs on exposed facial and urogenital openings and on flesh wounds. Thus colonization of 
carcasses by new life practically coincides with death. Determination of the developmental 
stages of the various species on a carcass, combined with a knowledge of their developmental 
rates at different temperatures, allows one to deduce when the first eggs were laid and in turn 
the time of death. Staphylinid and silphid beetles arrive when their prey, the fly larvae, are well 
established Still later, dermestid and trogid beetles consume connective tissue that was 
resistant to the initial decomposition. Dr. Lord discussed several homicide cases where 
knowledge of this type provided critical clues for the criminal investigators. 

In notes of local entomological interest, Hal White reported that the dragon fly, Gomphus 
(Stylurus) plagiatus had been discovered in Delaware. This species, which had been expected 
in the state, was identified in a student insect collection by Robert Lake. Garnet Nye reported 
that a male promethea moth had emerged last week from a cocoon collected two years ago. 
This was considered rather unusual by those present. 



Harold B. White 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 137 

T.B. WILSON, MD., A FOUNDER AND 

BENEFACTOR OF THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, AND HIS FAMILY: 
OUR FIRST NEWARK, DELAWARE- PHILADELPHIA 

CONNECTION 

W.H. Day* 

ABSTRACT: Thomas B. Wilson (1807-1865) was one of 15 founders of The American 
Entomological Society (AES) in 1859. He contributed large sums of money, complete 
reference libraries, and comprehensive insect collections to the AES, and also helped guide 
this society in its early years. Several other Philadelphia organizations benefited from his 
generosity, especially The Academy of Natural Sciences. His contributions were so large and 
diverse that they greatly advanced the development of entomology and other natural sciences 
in the United States during their formative years in the 19th century. 

Important contributions to science were also made by his brothers, Edward and William 
S. Wilson. Another brother, Rathmell, served on the Board of Trustees of Delaware College 
(now University of Delaware) in Newark for 41 years, and was acting president of the college 
for 1 1 years. Thomas' living quarters, private museum, and library were in a private wing of 
Rathmell's mansion, "Oaklands," southwest of Newark. Details on other Newark connections, 
and additional Wilson family members, are also included. 

Throughout its 125 years of existence, The American Entomological 
Society (AES) has had members and subscribing libraries nationwide, as 
well as in many foreign countries. However, until recently, most members 
who attended regular meetings and those who managed the society (the 
governing "council") lived or worked within a 20-mile radius of the AES 
headquarters in Philadelphia. 

From its founding in 1859, regular meetings of the society had always 
been held in Philadelphia. However, when the several U.S. Department of 
Agriculture laboratories in Moorestown, NJ, were closed (197 1-73), most 
of the personnel were transferred to Newark, DE, joining staff and student 
entomologists at the University of Delaware. As a result, there were more 
AES members in the Newark area than in Philadelphia, so in recent years 
part of the society's business and regular meetings each year have been held 
in Newark. 

The objectives of this paper are to: briefly review 1 the contributions of 
Thomas B. Wilson to the AES and other organizations; outline the little- 
known contributions of other members of his family to education and the 



a Research Entomologist, Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv., USD A, 
Newark, DE 19713. Past President, The American Entomological Society. 

'Details have already been published in Ennis et al. (1865). 

ENT. NEWS 95(4): 137-147. September & October, 1984 



1 38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



sciences; and document the first connection between Newark, DE, and the 
AES in Philadelphia, which occurred more than 1 10 years before the recent 
one described above. 

T.B. WILSON 

Thomas B. Wilson was born in 1 807 in Philadelphia, of wealthy British 
parents (Ennis et al. 1865) who lived in America for 20-30 years (W-D)2. 
He was well educated in sciences, pharmacy, and medicine in Philadelphia, 
PA, England, and Paris (W-D, W-A3, Ennis et al. 1865). Although he 
earned the M.D. at the University of Pennsylvania at age 23 (W-A, Sharf 
1888), he never maintained a medical practice (Ennis et al. 1865). His 
pursuits in the natural sciences may have begun when Thomas was 
temporarily in poor health (as asserted by Sharf 1888), but they were 
probably maintained by the great interest Thomas had in the natural 
sciences, and his financial independence. He and his brothers and sister 
probably did not need regular employment: for example, when Thomas 
was 33, his father gave each son nearly 1 1,500 English pounds, and each 
inherited a larger sum when the father died three years later (W-D). 

T.B. Wilson lived in Philadelphia (except when on his extensive 
travels) until he was 26, when he moved to a farm in rural Chester County, 
PA, in New London Township, and lived with his brother Rathmell (Ennis 
etal. 1865, W-D, 1840 Census). A few years later (perhaps when Rathmell 
married in 1836) T.B. purchased and moved to his own farm, nearby, in 
East Nottingham Twp. ( 1 840 Census). In about 1 84 1 , Rathmell moved to 
near Newark, DE with this wife and two children, and Thomas joined them 
(W-D). A third brother, William S., also lived with them during much of the 
1839-1843 period (W-D). 

Newark remained Thomas' principal residence for the rest of his life 
(W-D). He regularly traveled on the train to Philadelphia, and maintained 
rooms there (Ennis et al. 1865), for use when he was in the city to attend 
AES and other society meetings, for his large book purchases, and perhaps 
for managing his investments. 

T.B. Wilson made many distant trips on horseback to collect birds, 
minerals, shells, reptiles, fish, and fossils in addition to insects (Ennis et 
al. 1865). He also purchased entire collections of these groups, and of 
pertinent reference books, by mail and during his five trips to Europe (Ennis 
etal. 1865, W-D). 

2 Wilson papers (University of Delaware special collections, Morris Library, Newark DE): to 
save space this source is referred to in the text as "W-D." 

3 Wilson papers. The Academy of Natural Sciences archives, Philadelphia, PA: referred to 
as "W-A" hereafter. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 139 

Available information (W-D, Ennis et al. 1 865) suggests that Thomas 
invested his inheritance wisely, mainly in transportation stocks and bonds 
(railroads and a few canals). His generosity is well-documented. During his 
membership (1832-1865) in The Academy of Natural Sciences in 
Philadelphia (the first institution of its kind in the United States), T.B.'s 
total gifts to this one scientific organization totaled $200,000 (my estimate, 
based on data in Ennis et al. 1 865 ). This sum was a very large fortune at that 
time, making Thomas a principal benefactor of this organization. Not all of 
this amount was in cash; T.B. gave 12,000 books to the academy, and was 
co-donor of 26,000 worldwide birds ( Ennis etal. 1865). The latter gift was 
made necessary when Thomas was poisoned a second time, while curating 
his collection, by the arsenic then used to protect birds from insect and 
fungus attack ( Ennis et al. 1 865 ). This massive collection was far too large 
for the academy's original building at Broad and Sansom Sts., so T.B. 
financed construction of a large addition (Ennis et al. 1865). He also 
donated excellent collections of minerals, fossils, shells, reptiles, and fish to 
the academy (Ennis et al. 1865). 

Thomas B. Wilson was one of 1 5 founders of The American Entomological 
Society in 1859 (Cresson 1909). During the next six years, he gave about 
$26,000 to launch and sustain it (Ennis etal. 1865, Cresson 1909); some of 
these funds are still intact, as the "Wilson Fund," and help support the 
Transactions of The AES. He also donated to the AES at least 20,000 
insects, and many now priceless books. For example, after his death, his 7 1 
books on the Diptera were given to the AES. This was considered a 
complete collection of all known works on this order (Ennis etal. 1865). An 
oil painting of Thomas, apparently based on an engraving (in Cresson 
1909) circa 1863, portrays his appearance during this period (Fig. 1). 

Other known beneficiaries of his generosity were the Historical Society 
of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia Medical Society (Ennis et al. 1865), and 
Fairmount Park (W-D). 

Despite his large and frequent gifts, T.B. Wilson was genuinely modest. 
His donations were always made on the condition that if his anonymity 
were not maintained, he would not contribute further in the nature (Ennis et 
al. 1865). 

Ennis et al. (1865) also credited Wilson with exceptional wisdom in 
guiding the AES in its early years. They state that he recognized that the 
academy could never be a strong advocate for the field of entomology alone, 
and that a separate organization was needed to advance this field. They also 
indicate that T.B. concluded that an independent journal was needed to 
ensure the publication of entomological studies, and that he was instrumental 
in establishing such a periodical in 1862. This publication continued for 6 
years, then was superseded by the Transactions of The AES, now in its 
118th year. 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



THE WILSON FAMILY 

Thomas' father was Edward^, a Quaker iron merchant (Ennis et al. 
1865) who established the fortune that eventually enabled several of his 
children to contribute generously to science and education (W-D). He 
operated his successful business in Philadelphia from approximately 1 795- 
1830 (my estimate). According to Lewis (1961), Edward owned a large 
townhouse on Chestnut St., which stood until ca. 1900. He returned to his 
estate, "Elm Farm"5, in Lancashire (county) near Liverpool in about 1830 
(W-D). His portrait (Fig. 2), in the University of Delaware Library, is 
evidently one of four copied from the original after his death, for distribution 
to his four sons^ who lived elsewhere (W-D, W-A). The scene visible 
through the window on the left shows a train crossing a high bridge, 
probably a reference to Edward's investments in railroads (many family 
members purchased rail stocks (W-D)). 

Edward and his wife Rebecca^ (Bellerby) had five (known) sons, three 
of whom lived most or all of their lives in America (Thomas, Rathmell, and 
William S.). Details on the Wilson family were compiled to allow 
identification of various family members and determine their relationships 
for this paper, from fragmentary data in W-D and other sources, and these 
will be recorded in Day (198-, in prep). 

William S. Wilson** lived in the U.S. until he was about 40, and is 
known to have made extensive collections of minerals (W-D)9. He moved 
to Paris in about 1 843, and often assisted Thomas in obtaining and shipping 
specimens and books back to America. The limited information that I've 
seen suggests that he earned his living by careful investments (W-D). 

In about 1853, William returned to America with his family and may 
have constructed a large mansion for himself, four row homes on property 

he already owned (all probably in Philadelphia), and a large commercial 
building 10 

The remaining two sons, Edward ( Jr. ) 1 1 and Charles 1 1 , were probably 
younger, because they returned to England with their parents (W-D). I have 

4 ca. 177 2- 1843 (W-D). 

^Erroneously referred to in Ennis et al. (1865) as "Elmwood." 

6 When donated by Wilson descendents in ca. 1 956, they believed that this portrait was of T.B. 
Wilson (W-A). 

7 Ca. 1 776-after 1 855. Listed as "Elizabeth" in Ennis et al. ( 1 865), but her letters to Thomas 
(W-D) are signed "R. Wilson," indicating that Elizabeth is either a middle name or an error 
(she had a daughter named Elizabeth). 

8 Ca. 1803/05-1870 (LHCR, see references for full citation). 
"Complete examination of the W-D papers may bring other contributions to light. 
lOArchitect's plans (by Charles A. Rubicam) for these buildings are in W-D. 
H 1812?-after 1866 (W-D). 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 



141 




T3 


00 

if 

Q S3 



- 

II 



18 




142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



found nothing to indicate that they ever returned to America. However, 
both accompanied Thomas on some of his European trips, and assisted him 
in shipping his acquisitions to the U.S. (W-D). In addition, Edward is listed 
(Ennis et al. 1 865) as a donor of 3,660 books and co-donor with Thomas of 
the immense Wilson bird collection (mentioned earlier) to The Academy of 
Natural Sciences. 

There were also two (known) daughters of Edward Sr. and Rebecca. 
Helen Eliza died youngl2 in Philadelphia, and Elizabeth 1 1 returned with 
her parents and two brothers to live in England (W-D). She later married 
Henry Crosfield (W-D). 

Thomas' brother Rathmell 13 actually initiated the first Newark, DE- 
Philadelphia, PA connection, by moving to Newark in 1841 (W-D). As 
mentioned earlier, T.B. and William followed. Rathmell was listed as a 
"farmer" in the 1 850 census, but was also a civic leader and businessman, 
with investments in an insurance company (Sharf 1888), a coal mine in 
Bedford Co., Pennsylvania, and its associated short-line railroad (W-D). 
He evidently was a careful steward of his inheritance, for at age 50, he listed 
his net worth (1860 census) as $250,000, and his occupation as "retired 
farmer." 

Rathmell became a member of the Delaware College^ Board of 
Trustees in 1 848, and served for 4 1 years ( Viale 1 968). He was president of 
this board twice, for a total of 1 1 years (1851-59, 1870-71). In addition, 
Rathmell was acting president of the college from 1859- 1870 (Viale 1968), 
while it was closed due to low enrollment. The latter was the result of an 
unfortunate murder of a student, followed by the disruption caused by the 
Civil War (Handy and Vallandigham 1 882). Rathmell's portrait (Fig. 3) is 
in the University of Delaware archives. 

Rathmell was listed as a member of the AES in 1867, and contributed 
$6,000 to the Society in that year. He also saw that Thomas' books and 
insects were given to the AES, after his brother's death (Cresson 1909). 

The extended Wilson family first lived in a new house, constructed by 
Rathmell on his farm just southwest of Newark in 1841 (W-D). This home 
was referred to as "The Hermitage" (W-D). A large brick mansion was 
then built close by in 1845-1846 (Lewis 1961). Thomas financed the north 
wing (right side, in Fig. 4) for his private bachelor quarters (Lewis 1961). 
This was connected inside to the main house by only one door (Lewis 
1961), and contained living rooms, a study , library, and museum. This 
house was named "Oaklands," for a large grove of oaks on the farm. The 

12 18037-1 808 (memorial inscription on Rathmell's stone in Laurel Hill Cemetary). 

13 1810-1890(LHCR, W-D, 1850 and 1860 censuses). His name is incorrectly spelled (as 
"Rathmel") in several publications. 

University of Delaware. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 



143 




Fig. 3. Rathmell Wilson (Courtesy University of Delaware). 



| 1 

Irn 




Fig. 4. "Oaklands," home of Rathmell and Thomas B. Wilson (Courtesy University 
Archives). Exact location is shown in Fig. 5. 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

exterior was covered with stucco, and a mansard roof was added, in about 
1 890 (my estimate, based on Fig. 4). The house was well-known locally for 
its solid walnut interior trim (Cooch 1936) and many antiques (Hossinger 

192?). 

"Oaklands" was the home of the Wilson family for three generations, 
over a span of 1 1 years, and was a principal social center of Newark for at 
least 55 years (Gallagher 198315, Hossinger, 192?). 

The town of Newark in Rathmell and Thomas' time is shown in Fig. 5. 
The arrows indicate the single large Delaware College building (Fig. 6), and 
the "Oaklands" estate. The major streets are in the same locations as today. 
There were about 1 ,300 residents then (1860 census), compared to about 
25,000 now (the city limits have been expanded over the years). The 
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore railroad (" P, W& B") just south 
of town was used by Thomas and Rathmell on their many trips to 
Philadelphia, and was probably the reason for their relocation from the New 
London area which, despite its auspicious name, was destined to remain 
rural and thus lack the convenient schedules and speed that the "main line" 
at Newark offered. 

The "Oaklands" estate was purchased in 1955 by Hugh F. Gallagher, 
Jr., a Newark developer, after the last of the three granddaughters (none 
ever married) of Rathmell died 1 5. The mansion 16, in need of many repairs, 
was torn down ca. 196215, when new homes were being built nearby, but 
many of the oaks were intentionally left untouched. Mr. Gallagher, a 
graduate of the university, named the development "Oaklands" and one of 
the streets "Wilson Road." The mansion's access lane was relocated to the 
north in 1886, due to construction of the B & O railroad south of 
"Oaklands." This lane was eventually transferred to the city, and is now 
known as "Old Oak Road." 

As far as I can determine, the last direct descendants of Rathmell 
Wilson in Newark were the three daughters (Martha R 1 7, Elizabeth E. 1 8, 
and Alicel9) of his son, Edward R Wilson20. Edward's family lived in 
"Oaklands" from about 1870, when Rathmell began to spend more of his 
time in his other residence, at 1712 Walnut St. in Philadelphia (W-D, 
LHCR). 

Two other significant reminders of the Wilson family remain in 
Newark. The former St. Thomas Episcopal Church at Delaware Ave. and 

15 Personal communication. 

16 Former site just NE of intersection of Old Oak Rd. and Hullihen Dr. 

17 1864- 1947 (W-D; personal communication from Mrs. Marilyn Mathias). 

18 1865-1955 (W-D; personal communication from Mrs. Marilyn Mathias). 

19 1 868- 1948 (W-D; personal communication from Mrs. Marilyn Mathias). 

20 1839/41-1894 (no two birthdate sources agree: WCCCR; U.S. Census of 1850, 1860). 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 



145 




Fig. 5. Newark, DE and vicinity, ca. 1867 (adapted from Beers, 1868). 




.. 



Fig. 6. Delaware College, as it appeared in Rathmell Wilson's time (courtesy University 
Archives). 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Elkton "St.," (see Fig. 5) was constructed in 1844-45; 40% of the costs 
were subscribed by Thomas, Rathmell, and William Wilson (Handy and 
Vallandigham 1882). This church served from 1846 to the 1950's, when a 
new, larger building was erected a half mile away (Lewis 1 96 1 ). Edward R. 
Wilson^l owned what is now the "university farmhouse" (previously the 
W.H. Schultz house, see Fig. 5) and considerable farm land for 22 years; 
unfortunately, he lost much of the family fortune purchasing unsuccessful 
race horses (Lewis 1961), and the farm was sold by the sheriff in 1889^2. 
Edward died only five years later. 

CONCLUSION 

Thomas B. Wilson died after a short illness at age 5 8 ( 1 865 ) in Newark, 
DE. As his condition worsened, it was finally recognized as typhus (Ennis 
et al. 1 865), a disease that is frequently epidemic during wars (at the time, 
the Civil War had been raging for four years). Unfortunately, it was not until 
1909 (James and Harwood 1969) that the transmitting agent of this 
rickettsial disease was identified as an insect, and more years passed before 
some preventive measures could be devised. It seems harshly ironic that his 
man, who had given so much of his time and funds to advance man's 
knowledge in entomology, was indirectly killed by a small insect. However, 
as entomologists well know, this unfortunate occurrence is just a small 
indication of the immense importance of insects to mankind, then and now. 

Thomas' motto, "Res non Verba" (actions, not words), is engraved on 
his granite gravestone, located on the side of a high hill23 overlooking the 
Schuylkill River, in Philadelphia. It is fair to conclude that he lived by his 
motto, and in so doing, he, with the assistance of others in his family, greatly 
advanced both the natural sciences and entomology, during their critical 
formative years in the United States. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

It is a pleasure to thank the following people who assisted me in locating information 
needed for this paper. Permission to reproduce illustrations was supplied by Mrs. Carol Spawn 
(Academy Archives Librarian) and John Clayton (University Archivist). Library assistance 
was furnished by John Clayton, Stuart Dick (University Special Collections), Susan 
Brynteson (Director of University Libraries), Mrs. Mildred Morgan ( AES office secretary), 
Mrs. Spawn, Daniel Otte (AES editor), T.J. Spilman (USDA-SEL), reference and 
micromedia staff of the University Library, and the University Archives staff. Birth and death 
data were provided by Peter Kerch (Laurel Hill), John L. Murray and Paul Peach (White Clay 
Creek), Mrs. Marilyn Mathias, and the R.T. Jones Funeral Home of Newark. Additional 
information was supplied by Hugh F. Gallagher, Jr. (E.G. Scott, Inc.). Prof. John Monroe 
kindly suggested additional references, which unfortunately I was unable to pursue due to lack 
of time. Technical assistance was provided by Mrs. Betty R. Witmer. 

21 Edward R. was also elected a trustee of the college in 1869 (Sharf 1888; Viale 1968). 
22 Title search by John Clayton (personal communication). 
23 South Laurel Hill Cemetary. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 147 



REFERENCES CITED 

Banks, N., E.A. Schwarz, H.L. Viereck. 1910. The life of Henry Ulke, 1821-1910. Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Washington 12: 105-111. 
Beers, D.G. 1868. Atlas of the State of Delaware. Pomeroy and Beers, Philadelphia. 41 pp. 

(reprinted by Sussex Press, Georgetown, DE in 1980). 
Cooch, F.A. 1936. Little-known history of Newark, DE and its environs. Press of Kells, 

Newark. 297 pp. 
Cresson, E.T. 1 909. A history of The American Entomological Society, Philadelphia, 1 859- 

1909. 60 pp. Amer. Entomol. Soc., Phila. 
Ennis, J., J.H.B. Bland, and J.F. Knight 1865. A memoir of Thomas Bellerby Wilson, 

M.D. 38 pp. Phila. Entomol. Soc., Phila. 
Federal Population Census: Delaware: 1840, 1850, 1860; Pennsylvania: 1800, 1810, 

1820, 1830, 1840, 1850. U.S. Bureau of Census, Washington 2 *. 
Handy, E.G. and J.L. Vallandigham, Jr. 1882. Newark, DE, past and present. Delaware 

Ledger, 91 pp. (reprinted 1982 by Historical Society of Newark). 
Hossinger, A.M. 1920-307. Oaklands. Updated newpaper article, preserved in Del. 

Miscellany. 1: 147 (Univ. Del. Libr.). 
James, M.T. and R.F. Harwood. 1969. Herm's Medical Entomology. 6th Ed. MacMillan. 

Toronto. 484 pp. 

Laurel Hill Cemetary Records ("LHCR"). 3822 Ridge Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19132. 
Lewis, W.D. 1961. University of Delaware: ancestors, friends, and neighbors. Delaware 

Notes 34: 1-242. Univ. Delaware, Newark. 

Sharf, J.T. 1888. History of Delaware, 1609-1888. L.J. Richards. Philadelphia. 2 vols. 1358 
pp.25 

Trumbore, J.F. 1979. Delaware Geneology. (Unpublished guide) Morris Library, Univ. 

Delaware. 5 pp. 
Viale, A.M. 1968. List of Trustees of Newark Academy, Newark College, Delaware College, 

and University of Delaware, 1769-1968. 20 pp. (Unpubl. ms. in Univ. Del. library) 
White Clay Creek Cemetary Records ("WCCC") John L. Murray, 917 Nottingham Rd., 

Newark, DE 19711. 
Wilson papers ("W-A"). In Archives of Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Race St., 

Philadelphia, PA 19103. 
Wilson papers ("W-D"). In Special Collections, Morris Library, Univ. Delaware, Newark, 

DE 1971126. 



^Available on microfilm in National Archives Branches and many libraries; should be used 
in conjunction with recent indices by Jackson and Teeples (Accelerated Indexing Systems, 
Bountiful, UT; 1972-78). Helpful information is also in Trumbore, 1979. 

2->This reference is best used after consulting the detailed index to it compiled by Coughlin and 
Fields in 1976. 

26Contains a large quantity of uncollated and unindexed material, mostly correspondence; a 
lesser quantity of Wilson material is filed separately in the "Evans collection," which has 
been indexed; the two collections are very similar in content, and are both included here 
under "W-D." 



148 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




125th ANNIVERSARY SCENES 

Fig. 1 . Members of Executive Council. L. to R. Harold B. White, Charles E. Mason, Jesse J. 

Freese, Howard P. Boyd, Selwyn S. Roback, Roger W. Fuester, Joseph K. Sheldon, 

Lewis P.Kelsey, William H. Day. 

Fig. 2. L. to R. Kenneth Frank, Karla Ritter, Sam Roback, Joe Sheldon. 
Fig. 3. L. to R. William Day, Sam Roback, Roger Fuester, Howard Boyd, Daniel Otte. 
Fig. 4. Mildren Morgan cutting birthday cake. 
Fig. 5. L. to R. Lew Kelsey, Dan Otte, Charles Mason. 

Fig. 6. Charter (center, on table) and old photographs on and behind display table. 
Fig. 7. L. to R. Roger Fuester, Kenneth Frank, Dan Otte. 

All photographs by Harold White. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 149 

THE CRESSONS AND THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Roger W. Fuester^ 

ABSTRACT: A brief history is presented summarizing the contributions of Ezra T. Cresson, 
Sr., hymenopterist( 1838-1925), and his two sons, George B. Cresson, general naturalist and 
formicidologist( 1859- 19 19) and Ezra T. Cresson, Jr., dipterist( 1876-1948), to the science of 
entomology and to The American Entomological Society. This talk was given at the society's 
125th anniversary meeting on February 15, 1984. 

If there were ever to be a "first family" of The American Entomological 
Society, it most certainly would have to be the Cresson family, because 
Ezra Townsend Cresson, Sr. and his two sons, George Bringhurst Cresson 
and Ezra Townsend Cresson, Jr., contributed a great deal to the society. 

Logically, the story begins with E.T. Cresson, Sr., who, according to his 
biographer, the reknowned odonatist Philip P. Calvert ( 1 928), was born at 
Byberry, Bucks Co., Pennsylvania on June 18, 1838. Little is known of his 
childhood other than that he attended Philadelphia public schools through 
grammar school (eighth grade), but didn't go to high school. Evidently, he 
was obliged to work for the support of his mother, and during the late 
1850's, was employed as a clerk for the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

The year 1859 was an important one for the young (2 1 -yr.-old) Cresson 
for several reasons. To begin with, in February of that year, together with 
James Ridings and George Newman, he founded The Entomological 
Society of Philadelphia, the name of which was changed to The American 
Entomological Society in 1867. He was also elected its first recording 
secretary. 

In March of the same year, he married Mary Ann Ridings, daughter of 
one of the society's co-founders. They later had five children, one girl and 
four boys, two of which had an active interest in entomology and became 
valued members of the society. 

On May 8, still in 1859, Ezra Cresson resigned from the society and 
with his young wife, his brothers John, Elliott, and Jacob and their families, 
left for New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas, where they pooled their 
resources in a cattle ranch. This venture did not work out, however, and 
Cresson returned to Philadelphia and appeared again at the society on 
October 24. That day marked the beginning of 65 years of continuous 
service to The American Entomological Society. One final note concerning 
1 859: he was also elected corresponding secretary of the society, in which 
capacity he served for 16 years (1859-1874). 



' Research Entomologist, Beneficial Insects Research Laboratory, Agric. Res. Serv.. USDA, 
Newark, DE 19713. Recording Secretary, The American Entomological Society. 

ENT. NEWS 95(4): 149-154. September & October, 1984 



150 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

In 1861, he began the series of publications on the Hymenoptera of 
North America which was to earn him international recognition as a 
specialist on that order. This series, consisting of catalogs, synopses, and 
monographs, numbered 66 papers and was summarized in a comprehensive 
publication entitled Synopsis of the Families and Genera of the Hymenoptera 
of America North of Mexico in 1887. 

Throughout his association with the society, Cresson played a significant 
role in the publication of the society's journals. From August 1865, to 
October 1866, he edited The Practical Entomologist which was the first 
journal dealing with economic entomology published in the United States. 
Unfortunately, the journal was only published for two years because of 
insufficient financial support. (It was distributed gratuitously and could not 
attract sufficient advertisers.) In Cresson's (1909) history of the society 
(which incidently was read 75 years ago tonight at the society's 50th 
anniversary meeting), he expressed the opinion that "The time had not yet 
come for the agricultural public to realize the value of such knowledge." 

In 1871, he became editor of the Transactions of The American 
Entomological Society. He served as editor of this, the Society's longest 
running serial publication, until 1912, a period of 42 years. In 1889, 
working in conjunction with the Entomological Section of the Academy, he 
was instrumental in the establishment of the journal Entomological News. 
Finally, in 1916, he published, as the first number of the Memoirs of The 
American Entomological Society, a paper entitled The Cresson Types of 
Hymenoptera. This paper, which listed 2737 species, gave a list of 
Cresson's entomological writings arranged chronologically and numbered 
consecutively so as to facilitate location of a paper in which a given type was 
described. Thus we see that he contributed, in one way or another, to all of 
the society's publications. 

From 1 866 to 1 874, Cresson served as curator of the society. Basically, 
this job included conducting the day-to-day business of the society, serving 
as custodian of society property, and performing much of the press work and 
composition of publications. In 1901, Cresson donated his own extensive 
collection (2367 types, 3511 species, and 87,775 specimens) of Hymenoptera 
to the society. 

It should be noted that Ezra T. Cresson, Sr. never worked professionally 
as a scientist, curator, or teacher, but that his entomological studies were 
pursued as an avocation, while he was engaged in a full-time business 
career, the greater part of which was spent at Franklin Fire Insurance 
Company, where he worked for 41 years (1869-1910). This fact, coupled 
with his lack of formal training in biology, makes his long and laborious 
service to our society and his contributions to the taxonomy of Hymenoptera 
all the more noteworthy. Because Cresson was obliged to do his taxonomic 
work at night under gas-light, it led to partial failure of his eyesight, which 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 151 



prematurely ended his taxonomic work in 1887 at the age of 49. This 
unfortunate event did not appear to diminish his enthusiasm for the work of 
the society because in addition to continuing on as editor of Transactions, 
he also served as treasurer of the society from 1874 to 1924, a period of 50 
years. When his letter requesting that he be relieved of his duties as 
treasurer was read at the society meeting held October 23, 1924, the 
following resolution carried unanimously: 

"The American Entomological Society hears, with deep regret, the 
letter from the Treasurer, Mr. E.T. Cresson, . . . requesting that he be 
relieved of his office. This Society looks on Mr. Cresson as its founder. It 
recalls the sixty-five years which he devoted to its welfare as a member 
of its Publications Committee, as Editor of its Transactions and as 
Treasurer, the last for fifty consecutive years. His services have been 
given without salary or pecuniary reward. In acceding to Mr. Cresson's 
request, this Society desires to place upon record its appreciation of his 
unselfish and untiring labors in its behalf, its pride in his long connection 
with the Society and in his numerous contributions to entomology and 
its best wishes that he may long remain with us as our most honored 
member." 

On March 26, 1925, he was selected the first honorary member of The 
American Entomological Society. He continued to visit the society's rooms 
up until a few months before his death. He passed away on April 19, 1925, 
in his 88th year, at the home of his son, E.T. Cresson, Jr., in Swarthmore, 
Pennsylvania. 

George B. Cresson, first-born child of Ezra T. and Mary Ann Cresson, 
was the second Cresson to be associated with The American Entomological 
Society. He was born in Philadelphia on November 15, 1 859. There is not 
much information available on G.B. Cresson, and most of my material was 
obtained from minutes of society meetings and the obituary written by 
Calvert ( 1 920). His name first appeared in the minutes for the meeting held 
December 8, 1879, as part of a marginal insertion reading, "George B. 
Cresson, proposed for Resident Membership of the Society at the meeting 
June 9, 1879, was duly elected." He was also elected society curator for 
1880 at that same December meeting. From 1880 to 1881 and from 1886 
to 1889, he was also the conservator of the entomology section of the 
academy. According to Calvert (1920), George B. Cresson resigned from 
the society in 1 883 but was re-elected "to full membership" at the meeting 
held December 12, 1887. During the intervening years, 1883-1886, he 
printed volumes XI-XII of the society's Transactions and was listed 
frequently as a visitor at society meetings. It was at his recommendation 
that the society purchased a press "sufficiently large to print four (4) pages 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



of the Transactions (sic) at one impression" (AES minutes XII-8-1884). 
Apparently, Mr. Cresson was being reimbursed for his services as printer 
and resigned so as to preclude any possibility of a conflict of interest arising. 
In any case, upon re-election to the society, he was elected society curator 
and served in that capacity for two years (1888-89). 

According to Calvert( 1920), it was during 1886-87 thatG.B. Cresson 
aided him (Calvert) in his early entomological pursuits and advised him to 
specialize in some order other than Lepidoptera or Coleoptera. 

G.B. Cresson was a general naturalist, but was especially interested in 
ants of which he formed a representative collection. However, he apparently 
never published any entomological papers. 

After leaving the custodial position with the academy in 1889, he also 
went to work in the insurance business, first at Franklin Fire Insurance 
Company (where his father worked) and later at People's National Fire 
Insurance Company. He served as society librarian from 1 892 to 1 896 and 
remained a member of the society until his death on October 18, 1919. 

Ezra T. Cresson, Jr., the third member of the family to work in 
entomology, was born in Philadelphia on December 18, 1876. From 1896 
to 1898, he attended the Drexel Institute of Technology where he took 
courses in mechanical drawing, mechanics, shop work, and machine 
construction, but did not receive a degree or diploma. Upon leaving school, 
he was employed by the George T. Cresson Company, the Morse Elevator 
Works, and the Otis Brothers and Company (following their takeover of 
Morse). 

He joined the Society in 1905 and became a member of The Academy 
of Natural Sciences in the same year. In 1906, he became librarian of the 
society, a position he held for 42 years (until 1947) and also published his 
first entomological paper entitled Some North American Dipterafrom the 
Southwest. Paper I. Ortalidae. 

Late in 1 907, E.T. Cresson, Jr. went to California and was admitted to 
the University of California in January, 1908, as a special student in the 
College of Natural Sciences. He attended for one semester taking courses 
"primarily in entomology." 

He returned from the west later that year, and took up residence in 
Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, where he lived the rest of his life. During the 
same year, he took a position with the academy as an assistant to the board 
of curators. In 1925, he was promoted to assistant curator of entomology 
and remained in that position until he retired in 1 945 . Thus, we see that E.T. 
Cresson, Jr. was the only member of the family to receive any formal 
training in entomolopv and to work as an entomologist for his livelihood. 

During his productive career, he published widely (144 titles) on the 
Diptera, but was most interested in the family Ephydridae, the shore flies. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 153 



In his biography of E.T. Cresson, Jr., Calvert (1949) published the 

following excerpt from a memorandum prepared by Cresson several years 

before his death, giving a summary of his work on the Ephydridae: 

"When the study began, 1908, the Academy's collection contained 5 

species, 12 specimens. At the present it contains about 600 species, 

340 of which have been described as new, (and) over 8,000 specimens. 

The North American series contains over 275 species. Over 26,000 

specimens have been examined and determined during this study. This 

collection is the largest in the world and contains about 75% of the 

known species." 

Dr. Calvert ( 1 949) also noted that Cresson "devoted much time and thought 
to doing all sorts of things, accumulating many devices for rapid mechanical 
manipulation." Cresson wrote two papers on mounting micro-Diptera and 
designed the very useful pinning forceps which bear his name. 

In addition to serving the society as librarian, E.T. Cresson, Jr. was also 
corresponding secretary for 19 years (1909-11, 1932-47), treasurer for 
three years (1926-28), and vice-president for one year (1947). Like his 
father, he played an important role in the society's publications. He was 
elected associate editor ofEnt. News in 1 9 10, and remained on its editorial 
staff until his death. Moreover, he edited both Transactions and the 
Memoirs from 1927 to 1945 (19 years.) 

In recognition of his more than 40 years of service to the society, he was 
elected an honorary member in 1947. E.T. Cresson, Jr. died at Swarthmore, 
Pennsylvania, on April 8, 1948. In his will, he left the society the sum of 
$1,000 "to establish an Ezra T. Cresson Library Fund, the income from 
which is to be used for binding, repairs, and other preservation of the 
entomological books and pamphlets owned by the society." (The present 
balance of this fund is ca. $25,000.) 

In summing up, it is clear that the Cressons provided indispensable 
services to The American Entomological Society during its first 100 years. 
It is curious that none of the Cressons ever served as president of the 
society, especially in view of their obvious abilities and devotion to AES. In 
his biography of E.T. Cresson, Sr., Calvert (1928) remarks that "He 
steadfastly declined nomination as president, to which office his fellow 
members would gladly have elected him." Perhaps E.T. Cresson, Sr. and 
his sons were merely modest gentlemen. In any case, their industry and 
dedication stand as examples to all of us. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Special thanks are due to Mrs. Carol Spawn, Archivist of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, for allowing me to examine the minutes of meetings of The American 
Entomological Society. I also thank Ms. Betty Witmer for technical assistance and Dr. W.H. 
Day for loan of published materials and valuable suggestions. Finally, I thank Drs. R.J. 
Gagne, R.M. Hendrickson, Jr., and P.M. Marsh for reviewing the manuscript. 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Calvert, P.P. 1920. Obituary. George Bringhurst Cresson. Entomol. News 31: 29-30. 

1926. Obituary. Ezra Townsend Cresson. Ibid. 37: 161-163. 

1 928. Ezra Townsend Cresson: A contribution to the history of Entomology in 

North America. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. Supplement to Vol. 52: i-lxiii. 
.. 1949. Obituary. Ezra Townsend, Jr., Entomol. News. 60: 85-99. 



Cresson, E.T. (Sr.). 1887. Synopsis of the Families and Genera of the Hymenoptera of 
America north of Mexico. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. Supplementary Volume (unnumbered). 

1909. A History of the American Entomological Society Philadelphia 1859- 

1909. 

1916. The Cresson Types of Hymenoptera Memoirs. Amer. Entomol. Soc. No. 



1, pp. 1-141. 

Cresson, E.T. (Jr.). 1906. Some North American Diptera from the Southwest. Paper 1. 
Ortalidae. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 32: 279-288. 



SOCIETY MEETING OF APRIL 18, 1984 

Dr. Veronica Dougherty, research associate in the Department of Entomology and 
Applied Ecology at the University of Delaware, was the speaker at the fifth regular meeting of 
The American Entomological Society. Eleven members and two guests attended her talk 
entitled "Systematics of Ectrichodiinae: a subfamily of Reduviid Bugs." 

In the New World there are about 30 genera and 1 50 species of Ectrichodiinae. These 
large and colorful bugs are largely restricted to the tropics with only two species, Rhiginia 
cinctiventris and R. cruciata, known this far north. The subfamily is characterized by a 
bifurcated posterior margin of the scutellum in all but a few species, and fused abdominal 
segments. The presence of scent glands, sexual dimorphism, apparent aposematic mimicry 
complexes, and a variety of head morphologies suggest an interesting biology. The example of 
one African species that has been observed to track down and feed on millipedes seems to be 
one of the few observations of behavior made on the group. Old World Ectrichodiinae include 
a number of iridescent species, some species where males are brachypterous, and other species 
where females have hairy basal antenna segments. These characteristics are unknown in New 
World species of the group. Other comparisons indicate that New World Ectrichodiinae are 
polyphyletic. 

In notes of local entomological interest, Charles Mason reported his recent discovery in 
northern Delaware of a full-grown, overwintering, black cutworm larva, Agrotis ipsilon In the 
midwest this species usually does not overwinter. 



Harold B. White 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 155 

PHILIP POWELL CALVERT: 
STUDENT, TEACHER, AND ODONATOLOGIST 

Harold B. White, III 1 

Seventy-five years ago Philip -Powell Calvert was president of The 
American Entomological Society when it celebrated its 50th anniversary. 
He lived to participate in the 100th anniversary of the society in 1959. 
During Dr. Calverf s 74-year association with the society, he served on its 
council for nearly 60 years. In addition to being president from 1 900- 1 5 , he 
was vice president (1894-^8), corresponding secretary (1895), associate 
editor (1893-1910) and editor (1911-43) of Entomological News, and 
member and chairman of the finance committee for many years. It is 
therefore fitting that the society on the occasion of its 125th anniversary 
should commemorate Dr. Philip P. Calvert. 

With the exception of a postdoctoral year ( 1 895-96) at the Universities 
of Berlin and Jena and a sabbatical year (1909-10) in Costa Rica, Dr. 
Calvert was a resident of the Philadelphia area. He was born on January 29, 
1871, near the University of Pennsylvania, the oldest of three sons of Mary 
Sophia Powell Calvert and Graham Calvert, a Philadelphia lawyer. After 
graduating from Central High School in 1 888, he went to the University of 
Pennsylvania where he obtained his certificate in biology in 1892 and his 
Ph.D. in 1895. Calvert's student career at the University of Pennsylvania 
blends with his professional career there. Successively his appointments 
were assistant instructor (1892-97), instructor (1897-1907), assistant 
professor ( 1 907- 1 2) and professor (191 2-39). He married Amelia Catherine 
Smith in 1901 . They had no children. Throughout his career and until his 
death on August 23, 1 96 1 , Dr. Philip Calvert was a recognized authority on 
the Odonata. 

The foregoing list of milestones and accomplishments serves to impress 
upon us his distinguished career, but it conveys little of the personality of the 
man, the impact he had on other people, and the influences that led him to a 
career in entomology. After his death, Amelia Calvert bequeathed Dr. 
Calvert's personal and professional letters to The Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia (see list at end). This accumulation of over 70 
years, numbering over 12,000 items, contains among other things his high 
school notebooks, early field notes, and his lengthy correspondence with 
entomologists. Due to Dr. Calvert's long association with Entomological 
News and his stature as an odonatologist, this collection in the academy 



'Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Delaware, Newark. DE 
19716. Corresponding Secretary, The American Entomological Society. 

ENT. NEWS 95(4): 155-162. September & October, 1984 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



archives traces the history of Entomological News and the field of 
odonatology for over half a century. It also documents Calvert the person 
and provides glimpses of his early development as an entomologist. Rather 
than repeat Dr. Calvert' s accomplishments and contributions to entomology 
that have already been published (see list at end), this tribute will focus on 
his early interests in Odonata and the role of The American Entomological 
Society in his development. 

As is often the case with professional biologists, Calvert's career is 
rooted in a childhood interest in natural history. At the age of 1 2, in 1 883, he 
had assembled a botanical dictionary of native and exotic plants which 
included field notes and a few drawings. The dictionary is extensive with 
common and Latin names interspersed. In its later versions it appears as if 
Calvert may have intended to publish it. Clearly he was an accomplished 
botanist at an early age. Letters from his mother years later indicate she was 
knowledgeable about plants and thus may have inspired his early botanical 
interests. 

When Louis Agassiz died in 1873, America lost its most popular and 
influential scientist (Lurie, 1960). In the spirit of the Swiss-bom naturalist 
who had advocated, "study nature, not books," Harland H. Ballard founded 
the Agassiz Association in 1875 (Ballard, 1888). This organization grew 
rapidly and boasted hundreds of chapters and over 20,000 members by the 
early 1890's. Although the organization attracted many adults, its original 
intent was to promote natural history interests among young people. The 
first general convention of the Agassiz Association was held in Philadelphia 
in September 1884 in conjunction with the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. It seems likely that this event 
directly or indirectly affected Calvert for in January 1 885 he was curator of 
an informal Agassiz Association group. In the fall of 1 886 Frank G. Jones, 
George L. Bahl, J. Lee Patton, and Philip P. Calvert, all students at Central 
High School, founded Chapter 242 of the Agassiz Association. Calvert was 
chapter secretary until the group discontinued activities in 1890. 

As curator for the Agassiz Chapter, Calvert's annual report for 1885 
was exuberant, noting the collections had been more than doubled. The 
report listed all the additions which ranged from minerals and skulls to birds 
and insects. Many of the additions were from Calvert himself. At this time 
there is little indication of a specialization in insects. A diary from a family 
trip to visit relatives in South Carolina in the summer of 1885 reveals a 
typical boyhood fascination with snakes and details an amusing episode 
where he offered a reward to obtain a much sought specimen of a water 
moccasin. The specimen, though small, was obtained eventually and added 
to the Agassiz collection. On later inspection the specimen turned out to be 
a less interesting nonpoisonous species. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 157 



It is evident that Calvert' s parents not only tolerated but encouraged his 
interests in natural history. Their Christmas present to the Agassiz 
Association in 1885 was a microscope with slides. Earlier they had 
contributed a butterfly case. As treasurer of the chapter's scientific fund 
from 1885-88, Calvert meticulously detailed the cash flow of an annual 
budget of less than $11. His father's semiregular monthly contribution of 
50C and occasional smaller contributions from his mother accounted for 
most of the income. An interest in coins is suggested by the "numismatical" 
withdrawals from the fund. Such were the financial roots of the future long- 
term member and chairman of The American Entomological Society's 
finance committee. 

By 1886 Calvert was an accomplished illustrator. His attention to 
details in color and form are remarkably displayed in a series of beautiful 
illustrations of local butterflies. One of these is accompanied by an equally 
detailed description of the life cycle of the monarch butterfly as he had 
observed it. These observations and illustrations of butterflies at the age of 
1 5 seem to be the first indications of what would become a lifelong interest 
in insects. 

Late in 1 886 Calvert began to visit the library and insect collections of 
The Academy of Natural Sciences. There he read journal articles on 
Lepidoptera and studied specimens. At that time George B. Cresson was 
conservator of the entomological section of the academy and a member of 
The American Entomological Society. As noted by Calvert (1920) in his 
obituary of Cresson, Cresson told him he would do well to study some group 
of insects other than Lepidoptera and Coleoptera since there were many 
people already interested in those groups. Since he had a few dragonflies, he 
took Cresson's advice and began to study the Odonata seriously. 

Although he was not to publish his first entomological paper until 1 890, 
Calvert's increasing interest in the Odonata is documented in the records of 
the Agassiz Association. As secretary of Chapter 242, Calvert submitted 
annual reports of the chapter's activities to the national Agassiz Association. 
These were published in the April 1887, 1888, and 1889 issues of Swiss 
Cross, a monthly magazine published by the Agassiz Association. He 
reported in 1887, "The secretary has also paid some attention to 
Lepidoptera, but is now prepared to devote his time and energies to dragon- 
flies." 

In 1887 most of the Odonata fauna of the northeastern United States 
had been described but very little was known about geographic distribution, 
seasonal distribution, habitat preference, or behavior of the species and 
certainly there were no good guides. Nevertheless, the young Calvert 
became knowledgeable about the local species and within a short time 
became the local expert. As his interest grew, so did his horizons. The June 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

1887 and 1888 issues of Swiss Cross contain requests from Calvert to 
exchange Odonata. It is worth noting that this high school student listed his 
return address as The Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Respondents to the 1888 requests were sent forms on which to record 
their observations and detailed instructions on how their observations 
should be made. Data obtained from respondents in Maine, New York, and 
Illinois provided the basis for Calvert's first manuscript. It was submitted to 
Swiss Cross in the fall of 1888. The manuscript was accepted by H.H. 
Ballard, set in type, and then rejected by the editor because it was "too 
technical/' A brief summary was published in the January 1889 issue. The 
college freshman accepted the setback and went on to publish many articles 
on the Odonata in other journals. (Swiss Cross ceased publication later in 
1889.) 

The founders of the Philadelphia Chapter of the Agassiz Association 
went on to college leaving no younger members with the enthusiasm to carry 
on the activities. Calvert' s last entry in the minutes record an abrupt end to 
the waning chapter: "Francis Gilmore Jones, President of Chapter 242, 
died March 19, 1891." Although the rise and fall of the chapter was tied to 
the careers of the founders, it also seems to be related to the publication of 
Swiss Cross. This magazine served to stimulate the formation of the chapter 
and link it with numerous local chapters around the country. When 
publication ceased, communication ceased. 

When the Agassiz Association chapter disbanded, Calvert already had 
strong ties to other local organizations. The minutes of the entomological 
section of The Academy of Natural Sciences show that Calvert attended 
its meeting on January 27, 1887, and was nominated for associate 
membership. He was elected at the March 24th meeting and regularly 
attended subsequent meetings. Then as now there was a close association of 
the academy and The American Entomological Society. The society met 
semiannually and dealt mostly with business rather than science. The 
society minutes record Calvert as a visitor at their June 13, 1887 meeting. 
It is apparent that George B. Cresson, an entomologist who never 
published, not only promoted Calvert's interest in the Odonata but also 
brought him into the company of adult entomologists of the academy and 
The American Entomological Society. 

Calvert attended and participated regularly in the meetings of the 
society and the academy for six years before he formally became a full 
member of both. In 1889 a report by him on the Odonata fauna of 
Philadelphia was noted in the Transactions of The American Entomological 
Society and the Proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences. The inaugural issue of Entomological News issued 
shortly before Calvert's 19th birthday contains a review by him and lists 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 159 



him as a member of the publication's advisory board. By 1893 he was 
associate editor of Entomological News. Apparently he was not considered 
for full membership in the academy or the society until he graduated from 
college despite his many contributions. 

The premier American odonatologist in the 1880's was Dr. Hermann 
Hagen. He had described more than one hundred of the North American 
species of Odonata. In 1861 he had published his Synopsis of the 
Neuroptera of North America. This had been translated from Latin to 
English by P.R Uhler. When Uhler moved from the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology at Harvard in 1867, Louis Agassiz, the director of the museum, 
selected Dr. Hagen from Konigsberg in East Prussia as the successor. As 
might be expected, the first odonatologist with whom Calvert corresponded 
was Hagen. The correspondence which began in 1 888 culminated in July of 
1 890 with a several day visit by the 19 year old Calvert with the ailing 74 
year old Hagen at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. In September 
1890 Hagen was stricken with paralysis and he died in November 1893. 

Clearly Hagen accepted and greatly encouraged Calvert' s interests in 
Odonata. It was almost as if the baton of Americn odonatology was passed 
from Hagen to Calvert at their meeting in Cambridge. The news of Hagen's 
death travelled quickly, for the December 1893 issue of Entomological 
News carries an obituary of Hagen written by Calvert. It is notable that 
Hagen's obituary was the very first of over 200 entomological obituaries 
that Calvert was to write for Entomological News. Calvert ( 1 893b) wrote 
of Hagen, "In February, 1 890, he (Hagen) sent me his unpublished notes 
on Leucorrhinia, giving me permission to publish them, and when I wrote 
him for a title he wrote ' Synopsis of Leucorrhinia' with my name as author, 
although the work was all his own." This exchange was precipitated by a 
January 1 890 publication by Calvert describing three species of Leucorrhinia 
Embarrassingly the one he named in honor of Hagen was identified as a 
synonym by Hagen in his February letter to Calvert. Calvert responded to 
Hagen, "I regret it very much if I have created a synonym in the case of L. 
hageni, the more especially because I had named the species after you." In 
future years Calvert was noted for his careful work. Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd 
recalls that Calvert routinely shared his observations and new species 
descriptions with E.B. Williamson and F. Ris so as to compare opinions 
and to avoid publishing prematurely. 

Throughout his college years Calvert published notes and commentary 
relevant to the Odonata and in 1893 he published his first major work, 
Catalogue of the Odonata (dragonflies) of the Vicinity of Philadelphia, 
with an Introduction to the Study of this Group. This served as a model for 
regional insect study and was the first major attempt at a guide to the order. 
Calvert went on to publish over 300 notes and articles on the Odonata, 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

mostly in Entomological News. 

In addition to his career as an entomologist, Calvert was also a first- 
class educator. Dr. Arnold Clark, former professor of biology at the 
University of Delaware and a graduate student in Dr. Calvert's entomology 
course in 1937-38, described Dr. Calvert's six-hour oral final examination 
as the best learning experience he ever had. Dr. Clark distinctly remembers 
Calvert's retirement party in 1939 where Calvert described his teaching 
philosophy, "I never taught anyone anything. I only tried to stimulate them 
to learn for themselves and to edit the literature for them." In a way this is a 
statement of the way Calvert himself had been taught by members of The 
Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Entomological Society. 

Calvert's contributions to the academy and the society are enormous. 
Yet it was the members of these organizations who stimulated and guided 
Calvert's interest in insects. Calvert was a precocious teenager whose 
abilities could have led him into many successful careers. He was fortunate 
to have the experts available when he needed them to answer his questions 
or to point the way. There is a lesson to be learned in the long association of 
Philip P. Calvert with The American Entomological Society and The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia., In the future we should 
realize our potential for exciting and sustaining the interests of budding 
entomologists. 



COLLECTIONS RELATING TO PHILIP POWELL CALVERT IN THE 
ARCHIVES OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, PHILADELPHIA 

Coll. No. 48 Minutes of Chapter 242 of the Agassiz Association, Philip P. Calvert, Secretary 

1887-1891. 

Coll. No. 198 Certificates of Achievement and Honors awarded Philip P. Calvert. 
Coll. No. 290 Biographical papers and records. 
Coll. No. 492 Correspondence of Philip P. Calvert, Editor of Entomological News, 1910- 

1943. 
Coll. No. 633 Itinerary, field notes, notebooks, photographs and diary from sabbatical leave 

in Costa Rica, 1909-1910. 
Coll. No. 634 Material relating to professional matters kept at Dr. Calvert's home office until 

his death. 
Coll. No. 635 A bibliography (1895-1958) on seasonal distribution of organic life in the 

tropics. 

Coll. No. 695 Calvert's diary of his postdoctoral year in Europe, 1895-1896. 
Coll. No. 902 Bibliographic Catalog of the Odonata of the World 1891-1943. 
Coll. No. 926 Dictionary of Plants compiled in 1883 by Philip P. Calvert. 
Coll. No. 929 Family letters, 1895-1910. 
Coll. No. 933 Early observations and field notes, 1885-1888. 
Coll. No. 939 Correspondence, scientific and general, 1887-1960. 
Coll. No. 965 Final drafts of papers for publication 1899-1912. 
Coll. No. 966 Annotations on the Odonata, 1901-1908. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 



161 





162 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



BIBLIOGRAPHY AND BIOGRAPHY OF PHILIP POWELL CALVERT 

(Compiled by Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd) 

Asahina, S. 1961. Dr. Philip Powell Calvert( 187 1-1 961) in memoriam. Tombo, 4(3-4): 1- 

2. 

Gloyd, L.K. 1973. Additions to Calvert bibliography. Selysia, 6(1): 8-9. 
Mallis, A. 1971. American Entomologists, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. 

Philip P. Calvert pi 78-1 80 (photo). 
Moore, J. 1962. Year Book of the American Philosophical Society. Philip Powell Calvert 

(1871-1961) pllO-115. 
Needham, J.G. 1951. To Doctor Philip Powell Calvert, Editor Emeritus of Entomological 

News, octogenarian odonatologist, generous colleague, counselor and friend. Ent. News 

62(1): 1 (photo). 
Rehn, J.A.G. 1962. Philip Powell Calvert (1871-1961). Ent. News 73(5): 113-121 

(photo). 
Schmieder, R.G. and M.E. Phillips. 1951. Bibliography of Philip P. Calvert, 1889-1950. 

Ent. News 62(1): 3-40. 
Schmieder, R.G. 1962. Additions to the bibliography of Philip P. Calvert. subsequent to 

1950. Ent. News 73(5): 121. 
St Quentin, D. 1963. Dr. Philip Powell Calvert in memoriam. Zeitschr. der Arbeitegemein- 

schaft Orsterr. Entomologen. 15(1-2): 62-63. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd and Dr. Arnold M. Clark for sharing their personal 
recollections of Dr. Calvert presented in this article. I thank Mrs. Carol M. Spawn for her help 
in locating material on Dr. Calvert in the archives of The Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ballard, H.H. 1888. Three Kingdoms, The Winter's Publishing Co.. NY 167 pp. 
Calvert, P.P. 1887a. | Annual Report of Chapter 242 of the Agassiz Association]. Swiss 

Cross 1: 161. 

Calvert, P.P. 1887b. (advertisement for Odonata). Swiss Cross 1: 248. 
Calvert, P.P. 1888a. (Annual Report of Chapter 242 of teh Agassiz Association). Swiss 

Cross 3: 122. 

Calvert, P.P. 1888b. (advertisement for Odonataj. Swiss Cross 3: 191. 
Calvert, P.P. 1889a. (summary Calvert's recent work on Odonata). Swiss Cross 5: 26-27. 
Calvert, P.P. 1889b. (Annual Report of Chapter 242 of the Agassiz Association). Swiss 

Cross 5: 123. 
Calvert, P.P. 1 890a. Notes on some North American Odonata with descriptions of three new 

species. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 17: 33-40. 
Calvert, P.P. 1890b. [Introduction and notes to) A synopsis of the odonate genus 

Leucorrhinia Britt. By H.A. Hagen. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 17: 229-236. 
Calvert, P.P. 1893. Catalogue of the Odonata (dragonflies) of the vicinity of Philadelphia, 

with an introduction to the study of this group of insects. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 20: 152- 

272. 

Calvert, P.P. 1893b. Dr. H.A. Hagen [obituary, with portrait) Ent. News 4: 313-317. 
Calvert, P.P. 1920. George Bringhurst Cresson [obituary]. Ent. News 31: 29-30. 
Lurie, E. 1 960. Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

449 pp. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 163 



JAMES A.G. REHN AND THE AMERICAN 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Selwyn S. Roback 1 



The association of Mr. Rehn with The American Entomological 
Society is long and intertwined - - it would be only a slight exercise in 
hyperbole to say that for a great deal of that period he was The American 
Entomological Society. 

Mr. Rehn was born in 1881 and joined The Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, as a Jessup student in 1900. The minutes of the 
meeting of December 23, 1909 record his nomination for membership in 
The American Entomological Society. He was elected in 1910 and 
obviously at once became very active in the affairs of the society. At the end 
of 1 9 1 1 he was nominated as corresponding secretary, a post he apparently 
held to 1929. At the end of 1913 he was appointed a member of the 
publication committee and served on this committee, with some small 
breaks until 1965. He was chairman of this committee, from 19 14? through 
1923? and again in 1940? through 1964. 

I might mention, parenthetically, that the reason for the question 
regarding some of the dates given is that the minutes of the society do not 
always clearly indicate the composition of the committees nor do they 
always indicate the chairmanship of the committee in question. Sometimes 
this has to be inferred from the reports in the minutes of the regular meetings 
by noting who gave the report for the committee. The same is true for the 
editorship of the Transactions, with the volumes before 1917 and 1925, 
1926, not clearly indicating who was editor. 

The inside front cover of the Transactions indicates that Mr. Rehn was 
editor from 1917-1924 though he may have taken over the editorship in 
1914 when he became chairman of the publication committee. As 
mentioned above, the 1 925 , 1 926 volumes do not indicate the editor and the 
last number of the 1927 volume gives E.T. Cresson, Jr. as editor. Mr. 
Cresson may have taken over the editorship at the end of 1924 when he 
became chairman of the publication committee. 

In addition to his obvious service to the publications of the society, Mr. 
Rehn published extensively in the society's journals. Almost half (47%) of 
the papers he published under his name alone were printed in the 
Transactions or Entomological News, the division being 25% to Ent. 



1 Curator, Department of Entomology, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; 
Past President, The American Entomological Society. 

ENT. NEWS 95(4): 163-165. September & October, 1984 



164 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fig. 1. Mr. Rehn at his desk in 1959. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 165 



News and 22% to the Transactions. If the papers he published with Morgan 
Hebard and other authors are added, the figures remain about the same - 
46% in the Transactions and Ent. News (22% Enl News, 24% Transactions). 

Mr. Rehn's greatest contribution to the society was undoubtedly in the 
field of finance. We owe our current strong financial underpinnings to his 
lengthy stewardship in this area. He became a member of the finance 
committee at the end of 1914 and is recorded as chairman at the end of 
1916. He apparently was chairman through 1920? and 19607-1964. He 
remained part of the committee and active in its work until his death. He 
became treasurer of the society in ! 930 and served in this post for 29 years. 
He was a very meticulous person and his financial reports are a model of 
detail and accuracy. The amount of labor he performed must have been 
prodigious when one considers that most of his financial statements were 
prepared before the age of computers or even electronic adding machines. 

While serving on both the finance and publication committees Mr. 
Rehn found time to serve the society in several other offices. In 1916 he 
became vice president of the society and held this office through 1922. He 
served as president from 1 942 through 1 946 and again in 1 95 2-5 3 . He was 
corresponding secretary from 1911 through 1929? and also served on the 
committee on corresponding (honorary) members. 

The following list will summarize Mr. Rehn's services to the American 

Entomological Society. 

President 1942-1946, 1952-1953 
['ice President 1916-1922 
Treasurer 1930-1959 
Corresponding secretary 191 1-1929'? 
Editor, Transactions 19 17- 1924? 
Finance committee 1914-1964 
Publication committee 1913-1964 

It was my privilege to have known Mr. Rehn from 195 1 until his death 
in 1 965 and while he was not, at all times, the easiest person to deal with, his 
efforts on behalf of the society were unstinting and his dedication to the 
welfare of The American Entomological Society was unquestionable. For 
more detail on Mr. Rehn's life, the reader is referred to the 1 965 obituary by 
Maurice Phillips in Ent. News 76(3): 57-61. 



!66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



NAMES OF OFFICERS AND THEIR TERMS OF OFFICE 

FROM 1960 TO 19841 

PRESIDENT 

Years 

Dr. Neal A. Weber, 1960 1 

Dr. Murray I. Cooper, 1961-1962 2 

Dr. Selwyn S. Roback, 1963-1964 2 

Dr. Harold J. Grant, Jr., 1965-27/11/1966* 1 + 

Mr. Marvin H. Brunson, 1967-1968 2 

Dr. Ellery French, 1969-1970 2 

Dr. William H. Day, 1971-1972 2 

Dr. David C. Rentz, 1973-1974 2 

Dr. Lewis P. Kelsey, 1975-1976 2 

Mr. Howard P. Boyd, 1977-1981 5 

Dr. Charles E. Mason, 1982-1984 3 

*Dr. Grant died in office. Vice-President Brunson took over for the balance of 1966, but 
continued to serve in his official capacity as Vice-President 

VICE-PRESIDENT 

Dr. Murray I. Cooper, 1960 1 

Dr. Selwyn S. Roback, 1961-1962 2 

Dr. Harold J. Grant, Jr., 1963-1964 2 

Mr. Marvin H. Brunson, 1965-1966 2 

Dr. Ellery French, 1967-1968 2 

Mr. Edward G. Warner, 1969-1971 3 

Dr. David C. Rentz, 1972 1 

Dr. Lewis P. Kelsey, 1973-1974 2 

Mr. Howard P. Boyd, 1975-1976 2 

Dr. Daniel Otte, 1977-1980 4 

Dr. Charles E. Mason, 1981 1 

Dr. Joseph K. Sheldon, 1982-1984 3 



names of officers of the Society from 1859-1908, incl. were published in "A History of 
The American Entomological Society," 1909, and those from 1909-1959, incl., in the 
Centennial number of the TRANSACTIONS, Dec. 1959 (4): 275-276. 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 167 



CORRESPONDING SECRETARY 

Dr. Selwyn S. Roback, 1960 1 

Dr. Harold J. Grant, Jr., 1961-1962 

Mr. Benjamin Puttier, 1963-1964 

Dr. Ellery French, 1965-1966 

Mr. Edward G. Warner, 1967-1968 2 

Dr. John J. Drea, Jr., 1969 

Dr. William H. Day, 1970 

Dr. David C. Rentz, 1971 1 

Mr. Frank E. Boys, 1972-1976 

Dr. Charles E. Mason, 1977-1980 4 

Dr. Joseph K. Sheldon, 1981 1 

Dr. Harold B. White, 1982-1984 3 

RECORDING SECRETARY 

Mr. Richard P. Sivel, 1960-1974 15 

Dr. Richard W. Rust, 1975-1978 4 

Mr. Roger W. Fuester, 1979-1984 6 

TREASURER 

Mr. Raymond Q. Bliss, 1960 1 

Mr. Vernon A. Bell, 1961-1968 8 

Mr. Jesse J. Freese, 1969-1984 16 



ANNOUNCEMENT 
PAGE CHARGES TO BE REDUCED 

As a benefit of the recent Dr. Charles P. Alexander bequest, coupled with a favorable 
financial operating experience in recent years, and current good budget control procedures, 
ENT. NEWS is pleased to announce a reduction in page charges down to $22 per page, 
effective with papers received after January 1, 1985. It is hoped further reductions may 
become possible in the future. 

In addition, the editor now has a somewhat greater number of pages available for granting 
reduced page charges for students, unemployed amateurs, and retired entomologists who are 
without benefit of institutional or grant funds and who apply for such reductions at the time 
they submit their papers. 



168 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

July 31, 1984 



LIFE MEMBER 
Kennedy, J.H. Pennsylvania 

HONORARY MEMBERS 



Brundin, L. 
Clarke, J.F.G. 
DeLong, D.M. 
Evans, H.E. 
Krombein, K.V. 
Linsley, E.G. 
Michener, C.D. 
Sabrosky, C.W. 
Salmon, J.T. 
Timberlake, P.H. 
Townes, H.K. 
Weber, N.A. 
Wigglesworth, V.B. 
Yarrow, I.H.H. 



Sweden 

D.C. 

Ohio 

Colorado 

D.C. 

California 

Kansas 

D.C. 

New Zealand 

California 

Michigan 

Florida 

England 

Australia 



RESIDENT HONORARY MEMBER 
Brunson, M.H. New Jersey 
MEMBERS 



Acciavatti, R.E. 
Adkins, D.A. 
Agnew, C.W. 
Akre, R.D. 
Amrine, Jr., J.W. 
Anderson, R.S. 
Arbogast, R.T. 
Arduser, M.S. 
Armitage, B.J. 
Arnett, Jr., R.H. 

Baker, C.W. 
Ball, G.E. 
Barbour, K. 
Barksdale, C.M. 
Barnum, A.H. 
Bartow, D.H. 
Bath, J.L. 
Baumann, R.W. 
Baxter, J.E. 
Beal, Jr., RS. 



West Virginia 

West Virginia 

Texas 

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Maryland 

Georgia 

Michigan 

Alabama 

Florida 

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Alberta 

California 

Wisconsin 

Utah 

Pennsylvania 

California 

Utah 

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Arizona 



Bechtel, R.C. 
Beckemeyer, R.J. 
Berte, S.B. 
Blenderman, M.I. 
Bohart, RM. 
Bouseman, J.K. 
Boyd, H.P. 
Boys, F.E. 
Brigham, A.R. 
Brousek, S.A. 
Brown, P.M. 
Brown, H.P. 
Brown, Jr., K.S. 
Brown, K.W. 
Brown, Jr., W.L. 
Burbutis, P.P. 
Burger, J.F. 
Burke, H.R. 
Burks, B.D. 
Burrows, W.L. 
Butler, L. 

Cadbury, 3rd, J.W. 
Cancellare, J.A. 
Canterbury, L.E. 
Canton, S.P. 
Carle, F.L. 
Caron, D.M. 
Carter, M.R. 
Casdorph, D.G. 
Ciborowski, J.J.H. 
Clausen, P.J. 
Clifford, H.F. 
Cokendolpher, J.C. 
Collins, J.A. 
Connell, W.A. 
Conway, P.J. 
Cooper, K.W. 
Corpus, L.D. 
Coumea, P. A. 
Covell, Jr., C.V. 

Daggy, T. 
Dakin, Jr., M.E. 
Davis, H.G. 
Day, W.H. 
Deschka, G. 
Deyrup, M.A. 



Nevada 

Kansas 

Pennsylvania 

New York 

California 

Illinois 

New Jersey 

Delaware 

Illinois 

Australia 

Colorado 

Oklahoma 

Brazil 

California 

New York 

Maryland 

New Hampshire 

Texas 

Arizona 

West Virginia 

West Virginia 

New Jersey 

Illinois 

Ohio 

Colorado 

New Jersey 

Delaware 

Virginia 

California 

Alberta 

Minnesota 

Alberta 

Texas 

Maine 

Delaware 

Illinois 

California 

Kansas 

Pennsylvania 

Kentucky 

North Carolina 

Louisiana 

Washington 

Delaware 

Austria 

Florida 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 



169 



Dougherty, V.M. 


Maryland 


Hafele, R.E. 


Oregon 


Dozier, H.L. 


South Carolina 


Hagen, K.S. 


California 


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Colorado 


Hall, J.C. 


California 


Drea, J.J. 


Maryland 


Hall, R.L. 


Ohio 


Drecktrah, H.G. 


Wisconsin 


Harmston, F.C. 


Utah 


Duncan, P.M. 


Pennsylvania 


Harris, S.C. 


Alabama 


Dunkle, S.W. 


Florida 


Harrison, J.M. 


Pennsylvania 


Dunn, G.A. 


Michigan 


Hartman, H. 


California 


Dysart, R.J. 


Delaware 


Havranek, D. 


Venezuela 






Helwig, E.R. 


Colorado 


Edmunds, Jr., G.F. 


Utah 


Hendrickson, J. 


Pennsylvania 


Elliott, D.E. 


Kansas 


Hendrickson, Jr., R-MDelaware 


Enns, W.R. 


Missouri 


Henschen, M.T. 


Indiana 


Epler, J.H. 


Florida 


Hildebrandt, D. 


Ohio 






Hill, R.E. 


California 


Faber, B.L. 


New Jersey 


Hodges, R.W. 


D.C. 


Fee, F.D. 


Pennsylvania 


Holzbach, J.E. 


Ohio 


Fink, T.J. 


Utah 


Hummer, L.R. 


California 


Fischer, R.L. 


Michigan 






Fisher, E.G. 


Maryland 


Irwin, R.R. 


Illinois 


Fisher, J.R. 


South Dakota 






Flint, Jr., O.S. 


D.C. 


Jacobson, F.B. 


Pennsylvania 


Fowler, D.B. 


Kentucky 


Jennings, D.T. 


Maine 


Frank, K.D. 


Pennsylvania 


Johnson, N.F. 


Ohio 


Frank, S.E. 


Pennsylvania 


Jones, E. 


Florida 


Forbes, G.S. 


New Mexico 


Jones, R.H. 


Colorado 


Franclemont, J.G. 


New \ork 






Fredrickson, R.W. 


Pennsylvania 


Kelley, R.W. 


South Carolina 


French, E.W. 


Pennsylvania 


Kelsey, L.P. 


Pennsylvania 


Froeschner, R.C. 


D.C. 


Kevan, D.FLMcE. 


Quebec 


Fuester, R.W 


Delaware 


Kingsolver, J.M 


D.C. 






Kirchner, R.F. 


West Virginia 






KissilefT, A. 


Pennsylvania 


Galford, J. 


Ohio 


Kiteley, E.J. 


Quebec 


Gantz, C.O. 


North Carolina 


KJostermeyer, L.E. 


Tennessee 


Gannett, W. 


Ohio 


Knisley, C.B. 


Virginia 


Gerdes, C.F. 


Missouri 


Kondratieff, B.C. 


South Carolina 


Giese, R.L. 


Wisconsin 


Komberg, H. 


Florida 


Giesecke, N.M. 


Texas 


Koski, J.T. 


New Jersey 


Gill, R.F. 


California 


Krainacker, D.A. 


New Jersey 


Gordon, R.D. 


D.C. 


Kramer, J.P. 


D.C. 


Grafton-Cardwell, 




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Ohio 


E.E. 


California 


Krysan, J.L. 


South Dakota 


Grant, P.M. 


Florida 






Graustein, M.R. 


Delaware 


LeBerge, W.E. 


Illinois 


Graves, R.C. 


Ohio 


Lago, P.K. 


Mississippi 


Green, S.G. 


Pennsylvania 


Lampert, L.L. 


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Groothuis, D.R. 


Illinois 


Lange, Jr., W.H. 


California 


Guidry, LF. 


California 


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Gunther, R.G. 


Illinois 


LaRue, D.A. 


California 


Gumey A.B. 


Virginia 


LaSalle, M.W. 


Mississippi 



170 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Lavigne, R. 
Lewis, R.E. 
Linam, J.E. 
Lippert, G.E. 
Little, R.G. 
Loerch, C.R 
Lordier, M.K. 
Loring, S.J. 

Maddox, E.G. 
Mallis, A. 
Manley, G.V. 
Manuel, K.L. 
Martin, P.J.S. 
Mason, C.E. 
Mason, Jr., T.L. 
Mathis, W.N. 
Matta, J.F. 
McDaniel, B. 
Miller, L.D. 
Monica, M.L. 
Moore, E. 
Morgan, M.T. 
Morse, J.C. 

Naczi, R.F.C. 
Nantel, F. 
Naif, R.P. 
Nelson, C.H. 
Nelson, C.R, 
Nelson, H.G. 
Nolfo, S. 
Norrbom, A.L. 
Nye, Jr., C.G. 



Okano, Y 
Otte, D. 

Pakaluk, J. 
Parshall, S.J. 
Pechuman, L.L. 
Perrault, G.G. 
Peters, W.L. 
Philips, J.R. 
Phllippi, M.A. 
Piatt, J. 
Pinter, L.J. 
Pogue, M.G. 
Porter, C.H. 
Post, D.C. 
Prat, N. 



Wyoming 

Iowa 

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California 

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Michigan 

Maryland 

Maryland 

Michigan 

North Carolina 

California 

Delaware 

West Virginia 

D.C. 

Virginia 

South Dakota 

Florida 

New Jersey 

California 

Colorado 

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Delaware 

Quebec 

Wisconsin 

Tennessee 

Utah 

Illinois 

North Carolina 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 



Japan 
Pennsylvania 

Kansas 

Texas 

New York 

France 

Florida 

Maine 

Kentucky 

Pennsylvania 

Hawaii 

North Dakota 

Georgia 

Wisconsin 

Spain 



Press, J.W. 
Preston, F.W. 

Reed, H.C. 
Reeves, R.M. 
Rex, R.O. 
Richards, Jr., A.G. 
Riegel, G.T. 
Ritter, K.S. 
Roback, S.S. 
Robbins, R.G. 
Roberts, R.H. 
Roemhild, G.R. 
Romig, R.F. 
Roth, L.M. 
Rubinstein, G. 
Ruiter, D. 
Rumpp, N.L. 
Rust, R.W. 

Sacchi, T.V. 
Saitta, P.P. 
Santiago-Blay, J.A. 
Savage, H.M. 
Scheiring, J.F. 
Schesser, Jr., J.F. 
Schiefer, T.L. 
Seaborg, N.G. 
Selander, R.B. 
Seward, R.M. 
Shapiro, A.M. 
Sheldon, J.K. 
Shepard, W.D. 
Shetterly, J.A. 
Shubeck, P.P. 
Silvestri, E. 
Simek, R.A. 
Singletary, H.M. 
Sleeper, E.L. 
Smiley, D.L. 
Smith, D.R. 
Soponis, A.R. 
Spilman, T.J. 
Stanford, A.E. 
Stannard, L.J. 
Stibick, J.N.L. 
Stidham, J.A. 
Stolzenbach, J. 
Stassmann, J.E. 
Sumlin, III, W.D. 
Surman, M.A. 
Suter, W.R. 



Georgia 
Kansas 

Oklahoma 

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Pennsylvania 

Minnesota 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

Virginia 

Florida 

Montana 

Pennsylvania 

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New Jersey 

Colorado 

Nevada 

Nevada 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

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Florida 

Alabama 

Kansas 

Pennsylvania 

Illinois 

Illinois 

Pennsylvania 

California 

Pennsylvania 

California 

Massachusetts 

New Jersey 

New York 

Michigan 

North Carolina 

California 

California 

D.C. 

Florida 

D.C. 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Maryland 

Texas 

Colorado 

Texas 

Texas 

Louisiana 

Wisconsin 



Vol. 95, No. 4, September & October, 1984 



171 



Tarter, D.C. 
Tates, P. 
Taylor, J.M. 
Teale, S.A. 
Templeton. C.W. 
Thompson, F.C. 
Trager, J.C. 
Trial, L. 
Tumbow, Jr., R.H. 

Vannote, R.L. 
Vincent, D.L. 
Volkar, V.B. 
Voshell, Jr., J.R. 
Vulinec, K. 

Wagner, MR. 
Wahl, D.B. 
Wahle, B.M. 
Wallis, R.C. 
Walls, J.G. 
Waltz, R.D. 
Warner, E.G. 
Warren, Jr., M.L. 



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New York 

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Kansas 

North Dakota 

Virginia 

Florida 

Missouri 

Alabama 

Pennsylvania 

Maryland 

Pennsylvania 

Virginia 

Ohio 

Arizona 
Kansas 
Colorado 
Connecticut 
New Jersey 
Indiana 
New Jersey 
Illinois 



Weaver, III, J.S. 
Wheeler, G.C. 
Wheeler, J.N. 
White, D.S. 
White, H.B. 
White, T.R. 
Whitehead, V.B. 
Willemse, F. 
Willink, A. 
Wimmer, H.P. 
Wineburgh, J.J. 
Wineriter, S.A. 
Wing, S.R. 
Wojtowicz, J.A. 
Wolinksi, J.A. 
Wright, R.A.S. 

Young, O.K. 
Young, F.N. 
Young, O.P. 

Zimmerman, J.R. 
Zuccaro, E. 



South Carolina 

Texas 

Texas 

Michigan 

Delaware 

Georgia 

South Africa 

Holland 

Argentina 

Vermont 

Florida 

Florida 

Florida 

Tennessee 

Maryland 

Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Indiana 

Mississippi 

New Mexico 
Mississippi 



ERNST MAYR GRANTS 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University is pleased to announce that 
a generous gift permits us to endow a program for grants in systematics, to be known as Ernst 
Mayr Grants. These grants will be awarded to systematists who need to make short visits to 
museums in order to undertake research needed for the completion of taxonomic revisions and 
monographs. They are particularly designed for scientists who might otherwise have difficulty 
in obtaining access to museum specimens that are necessary for their research. Preference will 
be given to studies that use the MCZ collections, although applications to work at other 
museums will also be considered. 

Typical expenses that may be covered by these grants include travel, lodging, and meals 
for up to a few months while conducting research at the museum, services purchased from the 
host institution, research supplies, etc. 

L Applications will be reviewed biannually, and should consist of a short proposal, budget, 
curriculum vitae and, if possible, some letters of support Deadlines for submission are 15 
September and 15 April. Announcements of awards will be made within one month of these 
dates. Application and correspondence related to these grants should be addressed to the 
Director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, 
Cambridge, MA 02 138. 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL 

NOMENCLATURE 

c/o BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) 
CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 5BD 

ITZN 11/4 A.N.(S.) 130 2 July, 1984 

The Commission hereby gives six months notice of the possible use of its plenary powers 
in the following cases, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, volume 4 1 , part 
2, on 29 June, 1984 and would welcome comments and advance on them from interested 
zoologists. 

Correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary of the above address, if possible 
within six months of the date of publication of this notice. 

Case No 

2442 Zygaena anthyllidis Boisduval, [1828] (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed 

conservation. 
1456 GOERIDAE Ulmer, 1903 versus TRICHOSTOMATIDAE Rambur, 1842 

(Insecta, Trichoptera request for a ruling under Article 23d(ii). 
2393 Atractocera latipes Meigen, 1804 (Insecta, Diptera, Simuliidae): proposed 

conservation in the common usage with rejection of the presumed holotype 

under the plenary powers. 

2448 Leucaspis Signoret, 1869 (Insecta, Homoptera, Diaspididae): proposed con- 
servation by the suppression of Leucaspis Burmeister, 1835 (Insecta, Hymen- 

optera, Leucospidae). 
2333 CAECILIDAE in Amphibia and Insecta (Psocoptera): alternative proposals 

to remove the homonymy. 
2421 Laspeyresia Hiibner, [1825], (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed conservation 

by the suppression of Cydia Hiibner, [1825]. 

. 2314 Byrrhus murinus Fabricius, 1794 (Coleoptera, Byrrhidae): proposed conserva- 
tion by the suppression of Bvrrhus undulatus and Bvrrhus rubidus Kugelann, 

1792. 
2456 Rhopalocerus W. Redtenbacher, 1842 (Coleoptera, Colydidae): proposed 

conservation by the suppression of Spartycerus Motschulsky, 1837. 
1748 Capys Hewitson (1856), (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), proposed conservation 

under the plenary powers: a restatement of the case. 
707 Cochliomyia Townsend, 1915 (Diptera, Calliphoridae): proposed conservation 

by the suppression of Callitroga Brauer, 1883. 

Secretary 



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92503. 



WANTED: Literature and specimens North American harvestmen ( Arachnida, Opiliones). 
Also purchase any arachnid (non-mites) literature. Jerry G. Walls, Box 42, Hightstown, NJ 
08520. 



POSITION WANTED: Experienced, energetic, bilingual Medical and Veterinary Entomol- 
ogist seeking position. BS in Zoology, MS in Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Willing to 
relocate. Salary negotiable. (809) 723-5571, 722-2666 days, (809) 769-8595 evenings; or 
write PO Box 1 1501 Fdez. Juncos Sta., Santurce, PR 00910. 



WANTED: to exchange Scarabaeidae (especially Rutelinae and Melolonthinae) from the 
United States, Mexico, Central and South America All correspondence welcomed. Delbert 
A. La Rue, 3894 McKenzie Street, Riverside, CA 92503. 



US ISSN 0013-872X 



fo\. 95 



November & December, 1984 



No. 5 



Utu o 1984 



The first adult of Spinadis (Ephemeroptera: 

Heptageniidae) W.P. McCafferty, A.V. Provonsha 173 

New state ma