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Full text of "The Entomologist"

THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 

^n lUustrateti Journal / 5 / 

GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 

EDITED BY RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 



ROBERT ADKIN, F.E.S. W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S 

W. LUCAS DISTANT, F.E.S., &c. G. W. KIRKALDY, F.E.S. 

EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S. W. J. LUCAS, B.A., F.E.S. 

F. W. FROHAWK, F.E.S. . Dr. D. SHARP, F.R.S., F.E.S., &c 

MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S. | G. H. VERRALL, F.E.S. 



"By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done and great discoveries made." 



VOLUME THE THIRTY-FIFTH. 



LONDON: 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN, 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., Limited. 

1902. 



^V 



0^ «K,fl/' 






P' 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Adkin, Egbert, F.E.S., 45 

Alderson, Miss E. Maude, 75 

Alderson, Mrs. M., 266 

Allen, J. E. B., 268 

Anderson, Joseph, 322 

Ansorge, E. C, 322 

Arkle, J., 118 

Bagwell-Pdrefoy, E., 301 

Bankes, Eustace E., M.A., F.E.S., 194, 

320 
Barrett, J. P., 242, 243 
Beeston, S. J., 144 
BiGNELL, G. C, F.E.S., 322 
Birch, Frederick, 5, 175 
Blenkarn, Stanley A., 323 
Boxer, C. E. Y., 326 
Bradley, Henry H. Benton, 143 
Browne, G. B., 267, 270, 288 
Brown, Henry H., 219, 267 
Burton, William, 219 
Butler, W. E. 285, 287, 288 
Cameron, Peter, 18, 38, 108, 179, 206, 

237, 263, 312 
Cardinall, A. W., 266 
Carr, F. M. B., 75, 145, 172, 218, 247 
Chapman, Dr. T. A., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 42, 

81, 138, 159, 225, 252 
Charles, Herbert, 242 
Christy, W. M., M.A., F.Z.S., F.L.S., 

F.E.S., 146 
Claxton, Eev. W., 326 
Cockayne, E. A., 219 
Cockeeell, T. D. a., F.Z.S., 15, 58, 

111, 114, 177, 194, 232, 257, 285, 317 
Colthrup, C. W., 320, 322 
Dale, C. W., F.E.S., 115, 170, 286, 323 
Davis, M. J. L., 115 
Day, Geo. 0., 144 
Distant, W. L.. F.E.S., 212, 256 
Dodd, F. p., 16, 17, 43, 44, 73, 1.53, 

184, 194 
Donovan, Capt. C, M.D., F.E.S., Ac, 10 
Donovan, E. J. F., 10 
Douglas, James, 24, 25 
Faye, H. G., 322 
FiNzi, J. A., F.E.S., 195 
Fitch, Eichard J., 244 
Forsythe, C. H., 246 
FouNTAiNE, Margaret E., F.E.S., 60, 97 
Freke, Percy E., F.E.S., 197 
Frohawk, F. W., F.E.S., &c., 27, 285, 

286, 297 
Glover, Eev. George, 218 
Goodwin, Edward, 195 
Goss, Herbert, F.L.S., F.E.S., &c., 149, 

293, 327 
GouLTON, E. C, 267 
Graham, Stephen, 269 



Green, E. Ernest, F.E.S., 202 

Haggart, J. C, 172 

Hampson, Sir George F., Bart., B.A., 

F.Z.S., F.E.S., 193 
Hansen, Dr. H. J., 214, 234, 260 
Hardy, Walter E., 266 
Harrison, J. W., 173 
Harvey-Jellie, B., 73 
Hicklin, B., 244 
Hill, J. & W., 27 
Hitchcock, F. N., 288 
Hodge, Harold, 268, 285, 286 
Hodson, Lawrance S., 287 
Hooker, W. G., 323 
Imms, a. D., 157 
Jacoby, Martin, F.E.S., 203 
Jager, J., 287 
Jefferys, T. B., 76 
Job, Herbert S., 220 
Johns, E. J., 219 
Johnson, C. F., 47, 266 
Jourdain, Francis C. E., 267 
Kaye, W. J. K., F.E.S., 334 
Kemp, S. W., F.E.S., 268 
Kirby, W. F., F.L.S., F.E.S., 22, 80 
Kirkaldy, G. W., F.E.S., 32, 56, 63, 

128, 136, 151, 152, 164, 176, 199, 214, 

224, 234, 248, 260, 272, 280, 296, 315, 

316, 319, 334 
Laddiman, E., 266 
Lang, Eev. Henry Charles, M. D., 

F.E.S., &c., 228 
Lawrance, A. J., 23, 242, 287, 291 
Leigh, G. F., F.E.S., 74, 243, 321 
LiTTLEWooD, Frank, 44 
Lucas, W. J., B.A., F.E.S., 33, .53, 79, 

80, 116, 127, 147, 151, 183, 266, 268, 

294, 295 
Marshall, A., 28 
Mathew,GervaseF.,E.N.,F.L.S.,F.E.S. 

197 
May, Albert, 195 
Meade-Waldo, G., 196 
Meldola, Prof. E., F.E.S., F.E.S., 244 
Middleton, B. L., 27, 321 
Milton, F., 25, 26 
Nash, W. Gifford, 172 
Newman, L. W., 25 
Newman, T. P., 322 
Nix, John A., 197 

Nurse, Major C. G., F.E.S., &c., 304 
Oldaker, F. a., 121, 218, 285, 326 
Pallas, M., 74 
Perks, H., 244 

PiLCHER, Colonel J. C, F.E.C.C, 39 
Porritt, Geo. T., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 27, 

145 
Prest, E. E. B., 289 



IV 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Pyett, Claude A., 2, 241 
Quail, Ambrose, F.E.S., 57 
Eaynor, Eev. Gilbert H., 45, 288 
EOBERTSON, E. B., 323 
EosA, A. F., M.B., CM., 93 
Eowland-Brown, H., M.A., F.E.S., 30, 

49, 78, 122, 149, 174, 198, 202, 223, 

292 
Eussell, G. W., 244 
Eydon, A. H., 286 
Sabine, E., 115 
Seth-Smith, L. M., 24 
Sharpe, Miss Emily Mary, 40, 65, 101, 

135, 276, 308 
Shaw, V. E., 196 

Shepheard-Walwyn, H. W., F.E.S., 323 
SiCH, Alfred, F.E.S., 43 
Sladen, Eev. C. A., 74, 242, 244, 273 
Smallman, Ealeigh S., 220 
Smith, Geoffrey, 7, 69, 89 
Sopp, E. J. Burgess, F.E.S., 126, 150, 332 



South, Eichard, 2, 23, 25, 45, 74, 74, 
127, 143, 144, 156, 170, 200, 220, 221, 
243, 244, 267, 268, 284, 285, 321 

Spencer, L. A., 266 

Stockwell, H. Douglas, 25 

Sweeting, H. W., 287 

Tait, E., 14 

Tetley, J. B., 144 

Thurnall, a., 129, 167, 188, 208, 265 

TowELL, P., 285 

Turner, Hy. J., F.E.S., 31, 51, 78, 124, 
149, 175, 199, 223, 272, 294, 329 

Wainwright, Colbran J., F.E.S., 52,79, 
125, 150, 219, 223, 249, 330 

Walker, Eev. F. A., D.D., F.E.S., 116, 
147 

Waller, F. G., 194 

Woodforde, F. C, B.A., F.E.S., 275 

WOODGATE, H., 323 

Wright, T., 25, 74 



PLATES. 



PAGE 

to face 33 



I. — Nymph of Oxygastra ciirtisii 

II. — Group : Members of the Entomological Society of London at Oxford 201 

III. — Bleriania argentifera • . 249 

IV. — Larva and Pupa of Liphyra hrassolis 297 



ILLUSTEATIONS IN THE TEXT. 



Some Aberrations of British Butterflies captured in 1901 

Lucanus cervus 

Vanessa atalanta ........ 

Acidalia mar(jinepunctut(i ...... 



1 

53 

53 

156 



INSTRUCTIONS to BINDER.— The SPECIAL INDEX, given with 
the 'Entomologist' for January, 1903, belongs to this Volume, and 
should be placed next to to this General Index. 



INDEX. 



GENERAL. 



Aberration of Vanessa urticffi, 23, 265 ; 

Zygaena minos, 265 
Aberrations of British Butterflies cap- 
tured in 1901, Some, 1 
Abundance of Melitaaa aurinia in Co. 

Westmeath, 27 
Acherontia atropos in Westmoreland, 43 
Acidalia marginepunctata ab. (fig.), 156, 

219 
Agrilus sinuatus in Hampshire, 288 
Agrotis cinerea, 322 
Agrotis obehsca — a correction, 288 
Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria 

in Essex, 197 
A new genus of South African Coccidte, 

15 
Apamea ophiogramma at Balliam, 267 
Aporia crataegi in Kent, 243 
Are cocoons waterproof ? 241 
Asphalia diluta in Chester district, 164 
Autumnal emergence of Cerigo cytherea, 

23 

Bat killing a moth at sugar, 73 

Bilateral asymmetry in male appendages 
of a Sphinx, 173 

Blatta australasiae in South Derbyshire, 
267 

British Museum Collection of British 
Lepidoptera, The, 193 

British Orthoptera, 219 ; Tachinidffi, 219 

Butterflies collected in Equatorial Africa 
by Captain Clement Sykes, On the, 
276, 308 ; in Mid-Surrey, Easter, 1902, 
144 ; of the Witherslack district, 245 ; 
of Syria and Palestine, A few notes on 
some of the, 60, 97 

Butterfly collecting in Southern Anda- 
lusia in the spring of 1902, 228 

Calocarapa exoleta. Note on, 195 

Carnivorous Lycenid larvas. On, 202 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland, 
115 

Cerastis erythrocephala near Bourne- 
mouth, 323 

Chariclea delphinii, 25 

Choerocampa celerio, 44; in Hampshire, 
287 

Chrosis bifasciana in Surrey, 244 



j Chrysophanus dispar. Haw., 321 

■ Classification of Gracilaria and allied 

I genera, 81, 138, 159 

i Coccidte, South African, 15 

Coccid genus Aulacaspsis. The, 58 

Coleoptera, 151, 152 

Colias edusa at Bexhill, 285 ; in Corn- 
; wall, 286 ; in Essex, 244 ; in Kent, 
j 322 ; in Surrey, 266 ; in Sussex, 285 ; 
! in the New Forest, 322 ; in Wales, 
I 244 ; near Norwich, 266 
I Colias edusa and hyale in 1902, 197 
I Colias hyale and C. edusa in Kent, 285 
i Colias hyale and Sphinx convolvuli in 
I Wiltshire in 1901, 74 
I Colias hyale near Dartford in 1902, 115 
I Collecting at Deal, 246, 269 ; near Tan- 
i gier in August and September, 195 
I Colour changes in larval hairs of Arctia 
villica, 194 

Contribution to the classification of the 
Coccidffi, 232, 257 

Correction, 27 

Cyaniris argiolus, Two notes on, 44 

Cyaniris (Lycena) argiolus in West- 
minster, 266 ; Note on a habit of, 43 

Cymatophora octogesima (ocularis) and 
Plusia moneta in Middlesex, 220 

Deilephila livornica in South Devon, 
larva of, 287, 322 

Description of a new Grasshopi^er from 
Natal (Pomatonota bipunctata, Kirb.), 
22 

Description of a new species of Cicadid.e 
from Ceylon, 256 

Descriptions of two new genera and 
thirteen new species of Ichneumonidre 
from India, 18 

Descriptions of two new species of the 
genus Planema from the Uganda Pro- 
tectorate, 135 

Dieycla oo in Kent, 267, 287 ; in Middle- 
sex, 287 

Diptera, 32, 151 

Ditula semifasciana and Antithesia 
salicella in Surrey, 220 

Dragonflies in 1901, 33 ; in the Norfolk 
Broads, 146 

Dragonfly in London, 323 



VI 



INDEX. 



Early appearance of Euchelia jacobsese, 
144 

Earwig (Labidura riparia) at Pokesdown, 
The large, 268 

Emergence of Anthera3a from the Co- 
coon, The, 143; MelanijDpe galiata in 
December, 45 

Ennomos erosaria and Himera pennaria, 
322 

Entomological Club, The, 45 

Erratum, 152 

Erythromma naias in Berks, 268 

Essex Dragonliies, 116 

Eupithecia jasioneata in North Wales, 
268 ; trisignaria in Scotland, 197 

Fauna of Mexico (Bees and Coccidte), 

Additions to, 177 
Five days collecting at Deal, 246 
Food-plants of the larva of Cnephasia 

sinuana, Steph., 194, 265, 320 
Formation of Pattern on eggshell of a 

species of Lepidoptera, 57 
Fortnight at Deal, A, 269 

Gall-making Cynipidffi, Description of a 

new sjjecies of, 38 
Genera and species of Hymenoptera, 

On some new, 108, 79, 206, 237, 263, 

312 
Genus Clunio, Hal., Notes on the, 157 
Genus of South African Coccidse, A new, 

15 
Gonepteryx rhamni ab., 284 
Gonepteryx rhamni and cleopatra in 

Ireland, 301 
Gonepteryx rhamni in November, 323 
Gordius in a butterfly, 42 
Grasshopper from Natal, A new, 22 
Gynandromorphism in Diptera, 32 
Gynandrous Argynms paphia, 242 
Gynandrous examples of Amphidasys 

betularia, 72 
Gynandrous (Hermaphrodite) specimen 

of Argynnis paphia, 291 
Gynandrous example of Lyctena icarus, 

218 
Gynandrous specimen of Agrotis puta, 

121 
Gynandrous specimen of Anthocharis 

cardamines, 197 

Habits of Macrothylacia (Bombyx) rubi, 
On the, 24 

Harpella bracteella, 75 

Hawk -moth pupating in branches of 
trees, 73, 194 ; on trees, 321 

Hedya lariciana in Surrey, 220 

Hepialus humuli var. thulensis, New- 
man, 170 

Hybrid Malacosoma castrensis x M. 
neustria, 122 

Hydrelia uncula in Surrey, 220 

Hymenoptera, 151 



Hymenoptera-Aculeata of the Oxford 
district, 74 

Ichneumonidse from India, 18 

Ichneumon in Zygasna trifolii, 241 

Insecta of Surrey, 143 

Instrument with which Moths of the 
genus Antherfea cut out of their hard 
cocoons, 16 

Iphiclides (Papilio) podalirius in Lan- 
cashire, 219 

LarviB and pupte of Plusia moneta in 

London, 220 
Larvffi in Durham, 173 
Larvffi of Chrysophanus phlreas. Note 

on. 114 
Ijarvae of Cossus ligniperda at Vauxhall, 

144 
Larva of Liphyra brassolis, Westw., On 

the, 225, 252 
Lasiocampa quercifolia in London, 244 
Late appearances, 323 
Late emergence of Cucullia asteris, 287 
Lecanopsis dugesi. The Coccid, 194 
Lepidoptera, 32, 151, 152 
Lepidoptera at the New Forest in June, 

289 
Lepidoptera at Witherslack, 47 
Lepidoptera collected by Dr. Cuthbert 

Christy in Nigeria, A list of, 65, 101 
Lepidoptera-Heterocera of Paris, 116 
Lepidoptera in Eoss-shire in 1901, 145 
Lepidoptera in Suffolk in 1901, Notes 

on, 2 
Lepidoptera of County Cork, 10 
Lestes dryas at Hanwell, Middlesex, 

268 
Lestes dryas at Wicken, 268 
Life-history of Liphyra brassolis, Westw., 

Contribution to the, 153, 184 
Life-history of Vanessa antiopa, 297 
List of British Diptera, 74 
List of butterflies fronrthe Rhone Valley, 

An additional, 93 
List of the Lepidoptera of County (Jork, 

A, 10 
Luperina dumerili at Dover, 25 
Lycfena argiolus at Kotherhithe, 286 
Lycaena corydon ab., 284, 321 
Lycaana minima var. alsoides in Hamp- 
shire, 243 

Macro-lepidoptera in North Stafford- 
shire in 1901, 26 

March Notes from Kent, 1902, 144 

Meriania argentifera, Meig., a Tachinid 
new to Britain, 249 

Mesotype virgata (lineolata) in Berk- 
shire, 288 

Methods used to preserve colour in relax- 
ing entomological specimens. On, 39 

Miscellanea Rhynchotalia. No. 3, 136 ; 
No. 4, 164; No. 5, 280 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Morphology and Classification of the 
Auchenonhynchous Homoptera, On 
the, 214, 234, 260 

National Collection of British Lepido- 
ptera, The, 170 

Neuroptera, 32, 248 

Neuroptera of Oxon and Berks, Notes 
on, 183 

New butterflies from East Africa, De- 
scriptions of, 40 

New I orest Notes, 170 

New species of Heterocera from the 
Transvaal, Descriptions of, 216 

New species of Indian ChrysididiP, 304 

New species of Phytophagous Coleoptera 
from the Island of Mauritius, Descrip- 
tions of some, 203 

Nola albulalis and Nonagria sparganii 
in South Devon, 27 

Nomenclature of the Coccidse, 114 

North Staffordshire form of Zonosoma 
(Ephyra) pendularia, The, 275 

Note on Euzophera pinguis, 265 

Notes from Dorking for the season of 
1901, 118 ; from East Suffolk, 1901, 
45 ; from Shropshire, 326 ; on Lepi- 
doptera in August, 268 ; on the season 
1901, 75 

Notodonta carmelita in South Scotland, 
172 ; dryinopa, 42, 1!)3 

Obituary : — 

Charles Lionel de Niceville, 79 

Major Alfred Ficklin, 80 

J. B. Williamson, 248 
Odonata, &c., at Camberley, Surrey, 

74 
Odonata bred in 1902, 267 
Odonata in Paris, 147 
Ophiodes lunaris in Cheshire, 25, 74 
Ornithoptera carsandra and 0. richmon- 

dia, 17 
Orrhodia rubiginea, 322 
Orthoptera, 151 

Papilio machaon in Berks, 286 

Parental care of the Cimicidse (Rhyn- 
chota), 319 

Pieridfe at Winchmore Hill, 244; in 
London, 243 

Pieris daplidice in Sussex, 286; napi 
twelvemonths in pupa, 242 

Pionea (Ebulea), stachydalis in Surrey, 
244 

Plusia moneta, a few notes and queries, 
242; in England, 320; at Finchley, 
196 ; in London, 243 ; in Surrey, 244 ; 
in Wilts, 244 ; larvas at Earnborough, 
172 ; near Tunbridge Wells, 323 

Polyommatus (Lyca;na) artaxerxes, 
Fahr. in Banffshire, 266 

Prionuscoriarius in Berkshire and Hert- 
fordshire, 267 



Proposed Entomological Society in Man- 
chester, 266 

Protracted emergence of Tephrosia bi- 
undularia, 195 

Psamotis pulveralis in Surrey, 268 

Publication date of the Ehynchotal 
Part of the Voyage of the ' Coquille,' 
316 

Pyrameis (Vanessa) cardui in Fifeshire, 
219 ; at 1050 ft. in Banffshire, 267 

EajDhidia larva attacked by a Fungus, 

266 
Rare Trichoptera at Glanvilles Wootton, 

Captures of, 323 
Rearing Agrotis ashworthii and Acidalia 

contiguaria. 14 
Recent Literature : — 

A List of the Beetles of Ireland (W. 
F. Johnson & J. H. Halbert), 272 

A Revision of the North American 
Species of Athysanus (H. Osborn 
& E. D. Ball, 199 

A Systematic Arrangement of tlie Di- 
ptera (D. W. Coquillet), 31 

Aquatic Insects in the Adirondacks 
(J. G. Needham), 295 

British Lepidoptera (J.W.Tutt), 332 

British Tyroglyphid* (A. D. Michael), 
176 

Butterflies and Moths of Europe (W. 
F. Kirby), 200 

Catalogue of the Described Ortho- 
ptera of the United States and 
Canada (S. H. Scudder), 294 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ire- 
land (W. F. de V. Kane), 54 

Descent of Man and Origin of Species 
(C. Darwin), 128 

Die Hemipteren von Celebes (G. Bred- 
din), 224 

Economic, 331 

Elm-leaf Beetle in New York State 
(E. P. Fell), 296 

Fauna Analytique illustree des Ortho- 
pteres de France (C. Houlbert), 295 

Fauna Hawaiiensis (W.H. Ashmead), 
127 

First Report of the Natal Govern- 
ment Entomologist (Claude Fuller), 
199 

Gartenfeinde und Gartenfreund (H. 
Kolbe), 176 

Genera Insectorum (Wytsman), 295 

Handbook of the Natural History of 
Glasgow, 126 

Insect Enemies of the Spruce in the 
North-east (A. D. Hopkins), 128 

Insects injurious to the Elm-trees (E. 
P. Fell), 151 

Insect Life : Souvenirs of a Natura- 
Hst (J. H. Fabre), 79 

Les Odonates du Continent Austra- 
lien (M. Rene Martin), 151 



Vlll 



INDEX. 



Photography for Naturalists (Douglas 
English), ;j2 

Pink Grasshoppers (S. H. Scudder), 32 

Proceedings of the South London En- 
tomological and Natural History 
Society (1901), 200 

Scale Insects of Importance and a 
list of the Species in New York State 
(E. P. Fell), 128 

The Hessian Fly (E. P. Fell), 296 

The Skeleton of the head of Insects 
(J. H. Comstock & Chujiro Kochi), 
152 

The Stridulatory Organs of Water- 
bugs (G. W. Kirkaldy), 127 

The Tettigidffi of North America, 294 

Transactions of the City of London 

Entomological and Natural History 

Society (1901), 200 [322 

Ileminiscences of the late Miss Ormerod, 

liEPORTS OF Societies:,— 

Birmingham Entomological, 52, 78, 
124, 150, 175, 223, 329 

London Entomological, 28, 47, 76, 121, 
148, 173, 197, 221, 291, 326 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomolo- 
gical, 51, 125, 149, 175, 330 

South London Entomological and Na- 
tural History, 30, 49, 78, 123, 149, 
174, 198, 223, 271, 293, 327 
Ilhodopha?a formosa and Oncocera ahe- 

nella in Herts, 244 
Rhynchota, 32, 151, 152, 248, 336 
Ehynchota, Notes on the division Veli- 

iaria, 63 

Sesia allantiformis, Newm. ( = andreni- 

formis, Lasp.) in Dorsetshire, Capture 

of, 286 
Sesia myopiformis in London, 286 
Scent organs of Hepialidje, 73 
Season 1901, The past, 75 
Season of 1902, The 323 
South African Coccidse, 111 
South Devon Micro-lepidoptera, 145 
Sphinx convolvuli and Acherontia atro- 

pos in London and Somersetshire, 25 
Sphinx convolvuli in Dorsetshire, 24 ; 

in 1901, 172 ; on Dartmoor, 172 
Sphinx pinastri at Winchester, 219 
Stauropus fagi at Mickleham, 267 

Thecla w-album and Colias edusa in 

Bristol district, 115 [23 

Third brood of Phragmatobia fuliginosa. 

Three weeks in South Dorset, 288 

Tortrices in South Essex, 194 ; taken 

in South Essex between 1885 and 

1901, A Hst of, 129, 166, 188, 208 

Tortrix piceana and Sericoris bifasciana 

in the Esher district, 220 
Treatment of pupas during the winter, 26 
Two varieties of Lycsena icarus, 218 
Typhlocyba coloradensis in Mexico, 285 



Unusual pairing of Butterflies, 242 

Vanessa antiopa. Life-history of, 297 ; 

urtica? ab., 321 
Vanessidaj in 1901, 27 ; in 1902, 322 
Variation in the genus Erebia, 7, 69, 89 ; 

of Lycaena corydon in North Wilts, 273 
Vakieties : — 

Abraxas grossulariata, 199 [219 

Acidalia marginepunctata, 156, 175, 

Acronycta menyanthidis, 50 

Agrotis puta, 121 ; ripffi, 271 ; sege- 
tum, 124 

Amphidasys betularia, 218 

Arctia plantaginis, 150 [50 

Argynnis adippe, 50 ; aglaia, 1 ; selene, 

Asphalia ridens, 293 

Anchocelis rufina, 50 

Callimorjjha dominula, 291 

Chrysophanus phlceas, 2, 121 

Cosmia trapezina, 50 

Dilina tiliffi, 221 

Ematurga atomaria, 294 

Epinephele ianira, 2 

Euchloe cardamines, 2 

Gonepteryx rhamni, 284 

Hybernia leucophpearia, 174 

Larentia multistrigaria, 148 

Lycaena arion, 292 ; corydon, 2, 273, 
274, 284, 292, 294, 321 ; icarus, 218 ; 
minima, 294 

Macaria liturata, 124 

Mania typica, 50 

Melitaea cinxia, 50 

Metoecus paradoxus, 292 

Noctua sobrina, 121 

Odontoisera bidentata, 50 

Papilio demoleus, 291 

Pieris brassicas, 50 

Plusia gamma, 51 

Prionus californicus, 150 

Psilura monacha, 198 

Pygsera curtula, 293 

Ehodophffia consociella, 4 

Satyrus semele, 124 

Tceniocampa opima, 198 

Vanessa antiopa, 285 ; polychloros, 
121 ; urticffi 322 

Xylophasia polyodon, 50 

Zonosoma pendularia, 50, 275 
Variety of the moth Hypsa substracta 

(Walk.), 73 
Visit of the Entomological Society of 

London to Oxford, 201 

What is Monophlebus, Leach ? 317 
White Ant or Termites, 218 

Xanthia (MeUinia) ocellaris in North 
Kent, 25 

Xylina furcifera (conformis) in Lanca- 
shire, 25 

Yorkshire Dragonflies, 115 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.] 



JANUARY, 1902. 



TNo. 464. 



SOME ABERRATIONS OF BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 
CAPTURED IN 1901. 




I AM indebted to Mr. E. Sabine, of Erith, for a loan of the 
interesting specimens figured above. 

Fig. 1. — Arciynnis aglaia <? • Taken by Mr. L. W. Newman, 
at Eynsford, last year. This example is somewhat similar to 
an aberration of the female of A. adippe {A. aglaia in error) 
figured Entom. xv. pi. i. figs. 2, 2a. On the upper surface the 
marginal and antemavginal spots are more elongated : on the 
under surface the confluent, silvery, basal spots of hind wings 
form distinct patches, and there are some silvery oblong spots 
on outer marginal area. 

ENTOM. — JANUARY, 1902. B 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Fig. 2. — Epinephele ianira, <? . Also captured at Eynsford, 
last year, by Mr. Newman. The upper surface is of the usual 
colour and otherwise normal, but on the under surface the discal 
area of the fore wings is whitish grey, inclining to buff towards 
base and inner margin ; the margins and outer border of these 
wings are greyer than usual. The hind wings are also greyer 
than in typical specimens. 

Fig. 3. — Lyccena corydon. So far as regards the body and 
three of the wings this appears to be a male specimen, the left 
fore wing and half of the thorax, however, are of the female 
colour, with some patches of blue scales on the wing. On the 
under surface the specimen seems to be normal, except that 
there is a broad dark-grey dash along the costal area of the left 
fore wing. This specimen was taken at Purley, by Mr. Kirk- 
man, of Plumstead. 

When sending the specimens just referred to, Mr. Sabine also 
included some other varieties that he had obtained during last 
season. Among these were the following : — A fine example of 
syngrapha, the blue female form of L. corydon, taken by Mr. 
Stockwell, at Dover. An example of Euchloe cardamines with 
curious pale orange tips (Plumstead). Two specimens of Cliry- 
sophanus jMoeas, taken by his son, at Dartford, in October ; one 
of these had unusually large blue spots on the hind wings, and 
the other had the black before the band on the hind wing 
delicately streaked with the coppery colour. 

EicHARD South. 



NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA IN SUFFOLK IN 1901. 
By Claude A. Pyett, M.I.J. 

It was with pleasure that I was able this year to renew 
acquaintance with my favourite branch of entomology after two 
years' comparative inactivity, owing to pressure of professional 
engagements, and this resume of my more notable captures in 
Suffolk will, I think, show that the season has been exceptionally 
productive from the lepidopterist's point of view. 

Briefly summarised, the year has been remarkable in one 
curious respect, that many of the usually common species have 
been conspicuous by their infrequent occurrence, whilst rarities 
have turned up in unexpected places. In speaking of the pro- 
ductiveness of the season, however, I should exclude the first 
five months of the year, during which moths were decidedly 
scarce, collecting at light, with which I am principally familiar, 
being an absolute failure. This circumstance I attribute to 
climatic influences, the weather being " magnificently feminine," 
as a London editor facetiously described it. A few warm sunny 
days were sandwiched in a long period of wet, wintry, and windy 
weatherj and I witnessed the unusual spectacle of four species of 



NOTES ON LEPIDOPTERA IN SUFFOLK IX 1901. 3 

hybernated butterflies disporting themselves in the centre of 
Ipswich one spring-hke morning in April. These included two 
Gonepteryx rhamni and Vanessa io (which seems to be getting 
scarcer year by year), whilst I also saw one Colias edusa at Bar- 
ham later on — the only specimen of this irregular visitor which 
I encountered this year. 

Looking at my diary I find the first noteworthy capture 
was Teplirosia piuictidata, several of which were boxed on tree- 
trunks in Woolpit Wood on June 8th, together with one T. 
extersaria. The last-named was also netted at Bentley Wood on 
the 29th, when several other local Geometrte were beaten, viz. 
Macaria notata (a long series), Bapta temerata, Ephyra punctaria, 
Acidalia trigcminata (a rubbed specimen), A. candidata and A. 
luteata. Plenty of Micros were disturbed, including two which 
had not previously been recorded in the county, viz. Stigmonota 
7'edimitana --^ nitidana and Penthina picana --= corticana. A num- 
ber of Crambus iiiquinatelliis were taken, also Halias prasinana 
(female), Harpella geojfrella, Halonota cirsiana, Dicrorampha poli- 
tana, Phoxopteryx lactana, ColeopJiora limosipennella (two), and 
C. anatipennella. 1 was also rather surprised to take Homoeosoma 
simieUa so far inland. 

Anent my capture of Acidalia trigeminata, I gather from 
correspondence with Mr. C. G. Barrett, that this pretty 
species (which beginners using " Newman's " are apt to confuse 
with A. hisetata, owing to the transposition of the figures) is 
becoming very scarce in this country. It may therefore be in- 
teresting to record the wide distribution of the moth in the 
Ipswich district. I have met with it several times during an 
experience of eight years, in fact I have not set all I have taken. 
It has more than once come to light, but usually I have found it 
on palings, and in this situation I secured it this summer — three 
in the borough, one at Westerfield, and another at Barham, in 
addition to the Bentley specimen. I find on looking back through 
my diary that my first record for the species was in the summer 
of 1895. 

Keverting to my captures for June, the finding of Cossus 
Ugniperda and Orgyia pudihmida on palings in the town may be 
mentioned. I also saw lying in the road whilst cycling through 
Little Glemham a damaged specimen of Arctia villica, a moth 
which is by no means so common hereabouts as one might 
expect, July was ushered in with Dipterygia pinastri {scabj-i- 
uscida), two of which were detected under a wall ledge ; whilst 
on the 2nd an interesting addition was made to the Suffolk list 
of Micros in the shape of Tinea merdella, which was flying in 
numbers in the Lecture Hall, Ipswich, their presence being pre- 
sumably accounted for by the baize covering of the platform. I 
could have secured some fifty specimens, but being engaged 
reporting a meeting, I only managed to box two which alighted 

B 2 



THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 



close by. A day or two later I boxed Tinea nigrijnmctella on 
the entrance door of the hospital. This species was also 
new to the county. Light yielded some notable captures, in- 
cluding the rare Apamea ophiogramma. I may mention that 
Mr. Hy. Miller, of Ipswich, tells me that he and Mr. Hy. Ling- 
wood, of Needham Market, have also taken this species this 
year. It should be explained that all my collecting at light 
has been at suburban street lamps fitted with incandescent 
mantles, and a nocturnal excursion has never failed to result 
in a good capture. The best records for the month included 
Smerinthns ocellatus, S. populi, pale forms of Bomhyx neustria, 
Nudaria senex, Liparis salicis, Amphidasus hetularia var. double- 
day aria (which is not infrequently met within Ipswich), Leucania 
conigera, L. Uthargyria, Hecatera serena (several), Aplecta advena, 
Thyatira derasa, Tethea suhtusa, Acidalia ruhricata, lodis vernaria, 
Phihalapteryx vitalhata, Cidaria fulvata, EupitJiecia fraxinata, 
E. suhnotata, E. oblongata, E. succentnriata, E. sobrinata, E. 
pumilata, Strenia clathrata, Enimelesia alchemillata, E. decolorata, 
Tiniandra imitaria, &c. 

The Micros were also well represented, the commonest being 
the pretty Pyralis costaUs. This was constantly met with from 
the beginning of July right up to October, and it was nothing 
unusual to see three or four on a lamp. It would have been a 
perfect jjest but for the peculiar habit it has of resting with its 
wings pressed flat on the glass, by which, viewed from below, 
it is readily distinguished. Endotricha fiammealis was also a 
frequent visitor to light in the town, and single specimens were 
also taken of Eazojjhora pinguis, Halonota foenella, Ephestia 
elutella, Myelois cribram, Carpocapsa ^wmonella, llomocosoma 
nebidella, Rhodophcea formosa, li. eo/isociclla, Sphaleroptera icteri- 
cana (female), and Jlydrocampa stagnalis. 

The specimen of B. consociella requires more than passing 
notice, it being a very fine variety — dark purple instead of bright 
purplish red. Mr. C. G. Barrett thinks it may be a local form, 
as it quite differs in colour from any that he has hitherto seen ; 
but I cannot settle the point, as I have never met with the 
species before. I searched the few oaks in the neighbourhood in 
hopes of finding some of the larva, but was not successful. 
Another interesting and unique capture was an exceptionally 
fine and large pale variety of Acidalia incajiaria {virgalaria), 
which I took near Bentley. This has also been examined by 
Mr. Barrett, who considers it the most beautiful and by far the 
most distinctly marked specimen of this rather obscure species 
which he has ever seen. He informs me that this pale form is 
known abroad, but he does not recollect it occurring elsewhere in 
this country. I think it must be a local form, as I have another 
older specimen, quite as large, and taken several years ago in 
Ipswich, whilst two or three others were met with i the same 



NOTES ON LEPIDOPTRRA IN SUFFOLK IN 1901, 5 

spot at Bentley ; but as I was not at the time aware that they 
differed from the type, I unfortunately did not trouble to set 
them out. I intend, however, to try and get other similar ex- 
amj)les next year. 

Bentley Wood was a veritable happy hunting-ground during 
July. I made two or three visits there with Mr. A. E. Gibbs, 
of St. Albans, and we tried sugar with good results, the 
best Nocture being Orthosia suspecta, Thyatira hatis, T. derasa, 
Noctua baia (in profusion), Cerigo cytlierea, Amphipyra pyramidea, 
Dipterygia pinastri, Xylophasia scolopacina, &c. Numerous speci- 
mens of Herminia tarsipennalis and Endotriclia jiammealis were 
also boxed, whilst Triphcena promiha was present in abundance. 
A day with the beating-stick on the 23rd was productive of fairly 
good results. Being dull, butterflies were only occasionally seen, 
and the only noteworthy captures were Limcnitis sibylla and 
Thecla quercus. The former were getting over, and I congratu- 
lated myself on having made a special visit a fortnight earlier, 
when I netted eight grand specimens. Scores could have been 
easily taken, I am glad to say, notwithstanding the regrettable 
fact that something like a thousand specimens were caught last 
year by two or three unprincipled collectors. Calligenia miniata 
was taken at dusk with Crambus pinetellus ; Coremia quadrifasci- 
aria was found on palings, and Mr. Gibbs also espied Geometra 
papilionaria on a leaf. Xylophasia lithoxylea was detected on a 
fir-trunk, resting with head downwards, a peculiarity which I 
have more than once noticed in regard to this species. The Micros 
encountered included Harpipteryx xylostella, several Rhodophcea 
tiimidella in fiile condition, Pcedisca solandriana (rather worn), 
Ebidea rerbascalis, &c. We stayed the night in the wood, putting 
up at a cottage. Next morning we resumed operations, but 
beyond Lyccpjia argiolus, Argynnis adippe, and Epione apiciaria, 
nothing worth recording was met with. Several eggs of Cerura 
vinula were seen on the upper surface of leaves of aspen bushes, 
looking to all appearances like galls. On the way home to 
Ipswich I boxed another C. innetellus. 

The latter end of August I spent at Felixstowe with Mr. 
Gibbs, and some scarce coast things came to sugar, including 
long series of Agrotis ripce and A. vestigialis ; also innumerable 
specimens of A. tritici and A. nigricans, many of which were very 
interesting varieties. On Landguard Common Crambus contami- 
nelliis and Cledeobia angustaUs were found in considerable numbers 
in the daytime, whilst Gelechia desertella was swarming in the 
grass-tufts. Several Homoeosoma sinuella were also netted, and 
two Herbida cespitalis. A morning with the beating-sticks on 
the cliffs towards Bawdsey was not very profitable, but what few 
things we met were good. I took a fine specimen of Platyptilia 
gonodactyla and two Conchylis dilucidana, the latter being a new 
record for the county ; whilst Mr. Gibbs was fortunate in cap- 



b THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

turing Spilodes ^mlealis. Inspection of palings resulted in the 
addition of Eupithecia coronata, C. innetellus, Antithesia salicella, 
Spilonota ocellana, Sciaj)liila alternella {chrysantheana) , Depressaria 
costosa, D. Uturella, (Ecogenia qiiadripuncta = kindermanniella, 
and Xanthosetia hamana ; whilst Tinea tapetzella and T. hiselli- 
ella were noticed at my lodgings. I had previously never met 
with hiselliclla outside Ipswich. It was imported into my house 
in a mattress in 1895, and caused havoc amongst the upholstered 
furniture. In the summer of 1896 I practically exterminated the 
pest by searching for the imagines at night, killing some two 
hundred altogether early in June before they had time to breed 
again. The gaudy Zygcena filipendnlcB were swarming on the 
downs in the Landguard Fort enclosure, but I had never met 
with the species previously in Suffolk. Like Euchelia jacohcece, 
it seems to be very local. 

Returning to Ipswich on August 2nd, I was fortunate in 
getting Epunda viminalis in good condition at light, which also 
yielded Notodonta dictcea, Ptilodontis pcdpina, Ephyra omicronaria, 
Peliirga comitata, Thera firmata, T. variata, Eupithecia centaure- 
ata, Crocallis elinguaria, Hyponomeuta padellus, Cramhus tristelliis 
and C. geniculeus (both perfect pests), Parapoiiyx stratiotalis, 
Ebidea verbascalis, Eudorea cembrce, Pionea forficalis (abundant), 
Cataclysta lemnata (female), Eupcccilia atricapitana, Phycis rohor- 
ella (rubbed), Plutella cruciferarum, Depressaria sid)propinquella, 
Gelechia imdinella, G. senectella (?), and last but not least Leio- 
ptilis osteodactylus, an unexpected visitant at a street lamp, and 
a notable addition to the county list. Search of walls produced 
a nice brown female form of Hepialus sylvinus, whilst Catocala 
nupta was frequently met with ; Phyllocnistis sujfnsella was found 
swarming on palings near poplars l3efore dusk ; and varieties of 
Plutella cruciferarum were beaten on Rushmere Heath. Dusking 
at Yoxford, the garden of Suffolk, in the beginning of the month 
resulted in Ephyra punctaria, Platyptilia ochrodactylus --=- her- 
trami (which also came to an Ipswich street-lamp), Pterophoriis 
monodactylus ^= pterodactylus, MivKEseoptilus fuscus, C. pinetellus, 
Spilodes cinctalis, &c. I also secured several full-fed larvae of 
Sphinx ligustri, which were found on an ash tree under curious 
circumstances, my attention being called to the frass by a lady 
who imagined they were smuts or gunpowder pellets from some 
mischievous boys in an adjoining garden ! I mention this as a 
striking instance of rural ignorance. 

September was principally noted for the occurrence of Sphinx 
convolvuU, which came regularly to the flowers of Nicotiana affinis 
in my garden just before dusk. This fine moth seems to have 
been abundant this year, dozens of specimens having been re- 
ported from Belstead, Stutton, and several parts of Ipswich. 
Light was not quite so productive, but I took a nice Luperina 
cespitis, four Heliophohus popidaris, Eugonia tiliaria = alniaria, 



VARIATION IN THE GENUS EREBIA. 7 

Aciclalia x>yomutata, Tliera variata (var.), and a diminutive Aci- 
dalia aversata. 

I spent the afternoon of Sept. 7th at Bentley Wood, and 
curious to say, the only Macro I took was Macaria notata, 
evidently a second brood. Micros, however, were beaten in 
numbers. I boxed about fifty altogether, including Cerostoma 
radiatella (a variable series), C. costella, C.sylvella, C. vittella {?), 
Chelaria hiibnerella, Penthina hetulcstana, Dictyopteryx contamin- 
ana, and Ephippiphora himaculana {Halonota similana) ; Grapho- 
litlia penkleriana was also found in great numbers; also several 
Peronea ferrugana and Poedisca solandriana, one or two of the 
latter being variable forms. 

Up to the time of writing, October has yielded Diloha ccendeo- 
cephala, Polia flavicincta (several), Eubolia cervinaria (four), 
Cidaria miata, and Orthosia macilenta. 

I must not close this review of the season without expressing 
my indebtedness to Mr. Barrett and the Eev. E. N. Bloomfield 
for kind assistance in determining my Micros. 

Thornley Place, Waterloo Eoad, Ipswich. 



VARIATION IN THE GENUS EREBIA. 

By Geoffrey SanTH. 

Part I. 

(Continued from Entom. xxxiv. p. 308.) 

It is now time to look back at Table II. in the light of the 
foregoing remarks. This table, which actually represents case 
(1) is typical also of case (4). In both these cases the sex that 
is in the minority is also constant. A discussion of this constant 
factor is necessary. In Table II. the constant female heritage 
of 4g- was added to the variable male heritages, and in this way 
the powers for the next generation were raised, with a corre- 
sponding rise in the mean power. But if males and females are 
in equal numbers in the next generation, then the powers in 
column 6, Table II., must be equally distributed between males 
and females. But the females have a constant power, viz. 9, 
hence the calculated mean power for the males will be 4|^, which 
is the same as in the preceding generation ; hence no rise of 
power has taken place. In other words, the deductions that 
were made from this table can only hold good if the females of 
the next generation are ignored. I believe that there is good 
reason for ignoring them. For what is the meaning of this 
constant state of the females and variable state of the males ? 
It means, firstly, that the variable state of the males has no 



8 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

effect on the constitution of their female offspring, for if so, a 
mean would be established for the females intermediate between 
9 and the various powers of the males. But this does not occur. 
Hence we must suppose that the constant power of the females 
is handed down independently of the males. But if this is so, 
what reason is there for supposing that the constant power of 
the females has any effect on the variable powers of the male 
offspring ? The reason, I think, is given in the two terms con- 
stant and variable. The constant power represents the power 
that is typical of the species ; all reversionary processes tend 
towards its re-establishment. It is consequently prepotent over 
the variable powers, and in the females asserts itself entirely, 
although the tendency of each female, being partly the product 
of a variable male, should be to vary partly in accordance with 
its male parent. In the males this variability is not entirely 
effaced by the constant heritage from the female parent, but it 
is largely affected by it, owing to the strength that naturally 
belongs to a constant and typical factor. In other words, the 
variable male heritage is not strong enough to influence the 
female offspring, but the constant female heritage is strong 
enougli to influence the males. 

In cases (5) and (6) there is supposed to be no constant or 
prepotent factor, so the mean (M) between the two sexes would 
tend to establish itself if the numbers of the sexes were equal ; if 
one sex or the other preponderates, a state of fluctuation would be 
maintained. It will be well to follow this out a little more closely. 
In cases (1) and (4) one of the sexes was supposed to be con- 
stant with regard to the character under consideration : it was 
shown for case (1), and so incidentally for case (4), that a state 
of equilibrium or comparative constancy would be attained for 
the variable sex if every individual paired, by means of a steady 
march in the direction of the constant sex. It has also been 
shown that if the sexes are quite unequal in number, this steady 
march is very unlikely to occur. 

Now, in cases (5) and (6) there is no constant sex, ex hypo- 
thesi, to which the other is to conform. How then would a state 
of equilibrium be attained, supposing the sexes were equal in 
numbers. Let us take an instance. 

The M of certain males of E. cassiope inhabiting a given area 
is 4 ; that of the females inhabiting the same area is 5. If all 
breed we may be certain, ignoring of course other factors and 
exigencies, that the M of the next generation will be 4^. 
Supposing that the range of variation is between 1 and 9, we 
know that with the M at 4|- any of the values between 1 and 9 
may occur. But if the M keeps at 4|, as it will do if proportional 
numbers of each variety breed every generation, the number 4^, 
being the most probable value of any unknown measure in the 
group — i.e. re^jresenting the mediocre condition — will tend to 



VARIATION IN THE GENUS EREBIA. 9 

establish itself as the typical number. (A further discussion of 
this -^vill be given.) 

It is plain also that if the M of -ij is not preserved from 
generation to generation owing to the inequality of the sexes, 
then that M has no very much better chance of establishing 
itself than any other. Hence a state of fluctuation. 

The cases typified by (5) and (6) are, I believe, of more 
general application than (1) and (4) ; and also they demand less 
theoretical hypothesis for their explanation. But I found the 
latter more convenient to deal with at first owing to the simplicity 
of the figures when given in full. 

I think it will be found, w^ien dealing with actual data in 
reference to some particular character or characters, that the 
species under consideration cannot be very definitely referred to 
any of the six categories given above, but possesses some of the 
qualities of several in a not very marked degree. Also many 
instances will occur to the reader's mind of animals with sexes 
disproportionate in numbers, and yet with no marked degree of 
variability, &c. ; but it must be remembered that onlj^ one factor 
in a very complex mechanism, that of heredity, is l3eing taken 
into account. When the rule is stated — that equality in the 
number of the sexes tends towards equilibrium, i.e. fixation of 
one character or degree of a character, and that inequality wdien 
coupled with variability in the preponderating sex tends tow'ards 
continued fluctuation — it must be borne in mind that this rule 
would be strictly true, only on the condition of all other factors 
being equal ; but in nature, where interaction is universal, its 
particular effect may be entirely obliterated or at least modified. 
Nevertheless, if it is shown to hold good in theory, its possible 
effect must not be ignored in practice. 

In the foregoing Part, a factor has, as it were, been isolated 
from all the other factors with which it is naturally compounded, 
and has, so to speak, been examined iti vacuo. We will, in the 
next Part, turn to actual data, and consider them in the light of 
the theoretical considerations already discussed. 

To recapitulate so far : equality in the numerical proportions 
of the sexes tends towards constancy of characters. If one sex 
is already constant, the variability of the other will tend to con- 
form to the constancy of the one, owing to the prepotency of 
reversion. If both sexes are variable and there are no marked 
reversionary tendencies, then a mean will be struck between the 
two variabilities, which will become constant, according to the 
laws of chance. If, however, the sexes are very unequal in 
numerical proportions, and the preponderating sex is variable, 
whether one sex is constant or not, the variability of one or both 
sexes is preserved, owing to the impossibility of the laws of 
chance working regularly. 

(To be continued.) 



10 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A LIST OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF COUNTY CORK. 

By C. Donovan, M.D., F.E.S., Capt. I.M.S., and R. J. F. Donovan. 

(Concluded from Entom. xxxiv. p. 336.) 

A. corticea, scarce, T. ; three specimens, C. A. nigricans, one, 
the YM'-famosa, C. A. tritici, common, G. and C. A. obelisca, 
about six specimens picked out by Mr. Barrett in a long series of 
A. tritici procured at C. A, strigula, not very common, T. ; 
fairly common, G. A. lucernea, two near C. ; a few, G. Noctua 
glareosa, scarce, T. [N. augur: although Mr. Kane says this 
moth is to be met with throughout Ireland, we have never met 
with it.] N. plecta, common. N. c-nigrtim, not scarce, T.; com- 
mon at G., and especially so at C, in the autumn brood, about 
September. N. triangulum, rather scarce, T. ; few, G. ; several, 
C. N. hrunnea, fairly common. N. /estiva, one, T.; few, G., and 
near Bandon ; several, C. N. dahlii, two specimens at G. 
N. ruhi, fairly common. N. umhrosa, a few specimens. A'', haia, 
one, T. ; few, C; common near Dunmanway and G. N. xantlio- 
graplia, very common. TriphcEna ianthina, fairly common. 
T. fimbria, scarce. T. interjecta, four specimens, T. ; common, 
G. and C. T. comes, common. T. pronuha, very common. 
Amphipyra pyramidea, a number of specimens in 1901, T. ; 
common, C. ; as many as a dozen on a sugared tree. A. trago- 
jjogonis, common. Mania typica, one, T. ; few, G. ; and near 
Bandon. M. maura, one larva, T. ; few, G. Panolis j)iniperda, 
three specimens, T. Pachnohia rubricosa, scarce, T. ; few, near 
Bandon. Taniocampa gothica, common, T., and near Bandon. 
T. incerta, rather scarce, T., and near Bandon. T. stabilis, 
common, T., and near Bandon. T. gracilis, scarce, T., few near 
Bandon. T. pulverulenta, common, T. Orthosia lota, not com- 
mon, T. ; common at G., and near Bandon. 0. macilenta, not 
so frequently met with as the preceding species, T.; common, G. 
Anchocelis pistacina, fairly common, T. A. limosa, not common, 
T. ; several, G. and C. Cerastis vacciiiii, common, T. and G. 
Scopelosoma sateUitia, common, T., G., and near Bandon. Xan- 
thia flavago, rather scarce, T. ; few near Bandon. X. circellaris, 
common. Cirrhoedia xerampelina, two si^ecimens, G. Calymnia 
trapezina, rather plentiful, T. ; several, C. Dianthoecia luteago 
var. barrettii, two specimens near C. ; the first a couple of years 
ago, identified by Mr. Kane ; the second procured this year, con- 
cerning whose identity there was considerable doubt, has now 
been definitely pronounced by Mr. Barrett to be this species. 
I), casta, few, C. ; several, G. [D. nana. — Mr. Kane in his 
Catalogue, has attributed to me (0. D.) the captures of this 
species at G. I do not recollect the moth, nor does my register 
contain any record of the occurrence.] D. capsincola and cucubali, 
common. D. capsophila, common on the coast, as well as some 



LEPIDOPTERA OF COUNTY CORK. 11 

four miles inland. Hecatera serena, rather scarce, T. ; several, 
G. ; common, C. [PoUa chi. — Although said to be widely dis- 
tributed and frequently common, it has never been procured by 
us.] Miselia oxijacanthce, fairly common. Agriopis aprilina, 
one, T. ; several, G. ; and near Bandon. Euplexia lucipara, 
common. Phlogophora meticidosa, very common ; we have 
counted as many as thirty-four on one tree, and twenty-one on 
another, at sugar at C, on a night in September of this year. 
Aplecta prasina, scarce, T. ; several, G. and C. A. nchulosa, 
common ; all of the pale whitish grey coloration. Hadena 
dentina, common. H. dissimilis, scarce, T. H. oleracea, com- 
mon. H. tJudassina, not common, T, ; common, G. ; several, C. 
Xylocampa areola, common, T., and near Bandon. Calocampa 
vetusta, common, T. and G. C. exoleta, scarce, T. ; several, G. 
Xylina ornithopus, scarce, T. ; several, G. X. socia, common, T. 
and G. ; one, C. Cucullia verhasci, three imagines captured and 
the larvfe plentiful this year at T., on Scrophularia aquatica, and 
some on Verhascum thapsus ; two larvae on Scroplmlaria nodosa, 
at Castlefreke, near Kosscarberry. Prior to the present year the 
conspicuous larvae were never noticed ; there must have been a 
recent immigration of the moth. (Mr. Kane is doubtful whether 
our moth is verhasci or scrophularioi) . C. ahsinthii, two imagines, 
T. ; larvae very plentiful this year, both on Artemisia absinthiwn 
and vulgaris, in about twenty localities within a six miles radius 
of C. C. umbratica, common. Gonoptera libatrix, fairly common. 
Hahrostola tripartita, scarce, T. ; several, C. and G. H. triplasia, 
common. Plusia clirysitis, common. P. bractea, one, T.; several, 
G. and two localities near Bandon. P.festucce, common, T. and 
C. ; one near Bandon. P. pidchrina, scarce, T. and G. P. 
gamma, very common. Anarta myrtilli, larvae not uncommon, 
T. ; several imagines, G. HeliotJds peltigera, one, G. Charidea 
umbra, not scarce, T. ; few, C. Erastria fasciana, two specimens 
near G. Phytometra viridaria, common, T. and G. Euclidia mi, 
not common, T. and G. Itividasericealis, common, T.; several, C. 
Zanclognatha griseaUs, common. Z. tarsipennalis, scarce, T. ; one, 
C. Bomolochafontis, scarce, T. : one, G. ; two, C. Hypena pro- 
boscidalis, common. 

Geometry. — Uropteryx sambucaria, common. Epiione apici- 
aria, scarce, T. ; few, G. Piumia luteolata, very common. 
Venilia macidaria, common, T. ; near Bandon. Metrocampa 
margaritaria, common. Ellopia prosapiaria, rather scarce, T. ; 
several, G. ; few, Dunmanway. Eurymene dolobraria, several, 
T. ; three, C. ; few, Dunmanway. Selenia bilunaria, common, 
in both broods. Odontopera bidentata, common. Eugonia alni- 
aria, one, T. E. quercinaria, common, T. and G. ; one, C. 
Himera pennaria, fairly numerous, T. ; several, near Bandon. 
Phigalia pedaria, scarce, mostly met with in pupal state, T. ; one, 
G. Amphidasys strataria, a few males at light, and a single 



12 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

female at rest, from whom ova were obtained, T. A. hetularia, 
larvae and pupse, plentiful, T. ; few, G. Cleora Uchenaria,, fairly 
common. Boarmla repandata, common. B. cinctaria, one 
specimen, T. Tephrosia hiundalaria, common, G. and C. ; few, 
near Dunmanway. Gnophos ohscuraria, not common. Pseudo- 
terpna pruinata, common. Geometra papilionaria, two larvse 
and one imago, T. ; several, G. ; common, near Dunmanway. 
lodis lacteayia, very common. Hemithea strigata, one, T. ; single 
specimens, near Bandon, Drimoleague, and G. ; several at C. 
Zonosoma linearia, one, T. Acidalia dimidiata and hisetata, 
common. .1. margine punctata, not common, T. ; common, G. 
and C. A. subsericeata, not uncommon, T. ; several, G. ; com- 
mon, C. A. remataria, few, G. A. imitaria, common. A. aver- 
sata, common. Cahera pusaria and exantliemata, common. 
Macaria Uturata, scarce, T. Panagra petraria, one, T. ; two, G. 
[Scodiona helgiaria. — By mistake, Mr. Kane gives my name 
(C D.) against this insect ; the entry should be transferred to 
the next species.] Selidosema ericetaria, one, T. ; several, G. 
Ematurga atomaria, common on heaths. Bupalus piniaria, one 
specimen, dusking on May 27th, 1900, T. Sterrha sacraria, one 
specimen at ragwort on Aug. 27th, 1898, T. ; seen by Mr. Kane. 
Abraxas grossidariata, very common. Lomaspilis marginata, com- 
mon. Hijbernia viarginaria, not uncommon at sallow blossom, 
T. H. defoliaria, a few imagines and pupae, T. Anisopteryx 
cescidaria, fairly common, T. Cheimatobia brumata, common, T., 
G., and near Bandon. Oporabia dilutata, common, T., G., and 
near Bandon. Larentia didi/mata, scarce, T., C. ; common, G. 
L. multhtrigaria, common, T. L. vlridaria, common, especially 
inland. Emmelesia alcheniillata, three specimens, T. ; few, G. 
F. albulata, locally abundant, T. E. iinifasciata, several, T. and 
C. Enpithecia venosata, common, a melanic variety at G. E. 
pulchellata, rather scarce, T. ; common, G. E. oblongata, com- 
mon, T. and C. E. subftdvata, scarce, T. ; few, C. E. plnnibeo- 
lata, scarce, T. ; fairly plentiful in a small wood near Dunman- 
way. E. scabiosata, common, T. ; few, C. E. pygmcEata, one 
specimen beaten out of oak on June 24th, 1900, T. E. satgrata, 
a few specimens, T. and C. E. castigata, fairly common, T. and 
C. E. jasioneata, common by the sea, C. E. virgaurcata, com- 
mon, T. and C. E. ralerianata, common, T. and C. E. indigata, 
one specimen. May 18th, 1900, T. E. constnctata, larvae locally 
common, C. E. nanata, fairly common, T.; one, C. E. ridgata, 
common. E. albipwnctata, larvae plentiful on Angelica sylvestris, 
T. E. absinthiata, common, T. and C. E. assiimlata, few larvae 
and imagines, T. E. tenuiata, two larvae in sallow catkins, T. 
E. lariciata, rather scarce, T. E^ abbreviata, common, T. and C. 
E. togata, larvae plentiful in spruce fir-cones, T., and near Dun- 
manway. E. pumUata, common. E. coronata, scarce, T. and C. 
E. rectangidata, fairly common. E. debiliata, larvae plentiful, T. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF COUNTY CORK. 13 

Lobojjhora viretata, very common, T. and C. Thera rariata, 
common. Hypsijjetes trifasciata, pupty not scarce in rotten alder 
wood, T. H. sordidata, rather scarce, T. ; common, G., Drimo- 
leagiie and Dunmanway. Melantlda bicolorata, common, Drimo- 
league and Dunmanway. M. ocellata, common. M. alhicillata, 
scarce. Melanijrpe sociata and montanata, common. M. fjaliata, 
fairly common, C. M. fiuctuata, very common. Anticleabadiata, 
one specimen near Bandon. Coremia unidentaria, common; we 
have made no attempt to discriminate between this species and 
ferrugata. Camptogramma hilineata, very common. C. fluviata, 
a few specimens, T. PliibalajHeryx vittata, not common. Eu- 
cosmia undidata, scarce, larv£e more plentiful than imagines, T. ; 
few, G.; fairly common, Drimoleague and Dunmanway. Cidaria 
siderata, common. C. miata, scarce, T. and G. C. corijlata, one 
specimen, T. C. truncata and C. immanata, common. C. suffu- 
niata, fairly common, T. and C. C. priinata, scarce, T. and G. 
C. testata, not common, T. and G. C. populata, fairly common, 
T. and G. Pelarga comitata, not common, T. and C. Eubolia 
limitata, very common. E. plumbaria, common. Anaitis plagi- 
ata, common. 

Pyralides. — Pyralis farimdis, common, T. ; few, C. Sco- 
paria ambigualis, S. basistrigalis, S. cembrce, S. diibitalis, S. mer- 
curella, S. cratcegella, S. resinea, S. angustea. Novwphila noctuella. 
Pyrausta ostrincdis. Herbida cespitalis. Eiinychia octomaculata. 
Kurrhypara iirticata, very common. Scopida lutealis, S. pru- 
nalis, S.ferrugalis. Botys ruralls, B.fuscaiis, common. Ebidea 
crocealis. Piouea forjicalis, common. Orobeiia straminalis. 

Pterophori. — Platyptilia ochrodactyla, P. bertrami, P. gono- 
dactyla (?). AmbUiptilia aainthodactyla. MimcBseoptilus bipuncti- 
dactyla, M. pterodactylus. (Ede)iuitopJiorus IWiodactglus. Ptero- 
phorus monodactyUiH. Leioptilns tephradactylas. Aciptilia pcnta- 
dactyla, very common. Alucita hexadactyla, common. 

Crambi — Sch(/'iwbiusforJicelli(s. Crambuspratellus, C.perlellus, 
C. tristelliis, C. inquinatellus, C.geniculeus. Hovioeosor.ui binmvella. 
Ephestia kuJiniella. Pliycis fitsca, P. adornatella. Nephopteryx 
splendidella , scarce in spruce fir-cones, T., and near Dunmanway. 
Rhodophcea consociella. Ajihomia sociella , common. Achraagrisella. 

ToRTRiCES. — Dichelia grotiana. Tortrix podana, T. xylo- 
steana, T. heparana, T. unifaseiana , T. costana, T. viridana, 
common. T.forsterana. Leptogrammaliterana. Peronea spon- 
sana, P. comparana, P. perplexana, P. variegana, P. Jiastiana, 
P. ferrugana, P. aspersana. Rhacodia caudana. Teras con- 
taminana. Dictyopteryx loiflingiana. Argyrotoxa conivayana, 
common. Ptycholoma lecheana. Penthina variegana, P. mar- 
ginana. Pledya dealbana. Spilonota incarnata. Pardia tri- 
punctana. Aspis udmanniana. Sericoris littoralis, S. lacunana. 
Orthotcenia ericetana. Cnephasia muscidana. Sciaphila consper- 
sana, S. subjecta)ui, S. virgaureana, S colquhounana, common on 



14 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

rocks by the sea, C. ; the larvae feed on Armeria vulgaris, in long 
silken tubes, entwined among the leaves and stems of the plant. 
There is marked variation, ranging from nearly white to a 
dark stone-grey. C apua favillaceana. Bactra lanceolaiia. Phoxo- 
pteryx lundana. Grapholitha nisella, G. nigromaculana, G. tri- 
maculana, G. ijcnkleriana, G. ncevana. Phloeodes immundana. 
Pcedisca corticana, P. profandana, P. seviifuscana. Ephippiphora 
pfliigiatia, E. hrnnnicliiana, E. trigeminana. Coccyx argyrana, 
C. tcedella. Stigmonota regiana. Dicrorampha alpinana, D. 
herhosana. Catoptria idicetana, C. hypcricana, C. cana, C. citrana. 
Symcethis oxyacanthella. Eupoecilia pallidana, E. angustana, E. 
ciliella. Xanthosetia zoegana, X. hamana. Argyrolepia hart- 
manniana. Conchylis straminea. 



ON REARING AGROTIS ASHWORTHII AND AGIDAUA 

CONTIGUARIA. 

By R. Tait. 

My annual visit to North Wales was made rather later than 
usual this year, and I did not reach Penmaenmawr until July 
17th, by winch time imagines of A. ashworthii were practically 
over. I did not find one, although a careful search was made ; 
but Mr. W. G. Sheldon (who was staying at Penmaenmawr) was 
more fortunate, and captured two or three specimens at rest. 

However, ova were fairly plentiful, and I decided to try and 
force them again. The results were fairly satisfactory, as I 
managed to get some sixty odd perfect insects, and should have 
had more, but for an illness which stopped the feeding of the 
larvpe just when many of them were almost full-grown. Two 
batches of ova failed to hatch at the same time as the others, 
although they changed colour ; but eventually they produced a 
fine brood of minute ichneumons. 

.4. contiguaria was taken sparingly by both Mr. Sheldon and 
myself, and I succeeded in obtaining a few ova. About sixty 
hatched, and by keeping them in the same temperature as the A. 
ashivortliii I got about forty odd into pupie by the end of August. 
They began to emerge on Sept. 8th, and between that date and 
the 23rd forty-four specimens came out, and were duly killed and 
set. Fully half of these were of the dark form, probably the 
progeny of a dark female ; but as the ova were all put together, I 
cannot speak definitely on this point. 

The moths pair easily, and I have now a nice batch of larvffi 
hybernating on heather. 

I may add that I also forced a batch of Noctiia f estiva under 
the same conditions as A. ashworthii ; these emerged during the 
last fortnight in October. 

15, Eectory Road, Crumpsall, Manchester : Nov. 25th, 1901. 



15 



A NEW GENUS OF SOUTH AFEIOAN COCCID^. 
By T. D. a. Cockerell. 

Halimococcus, n. gen. 
A Dacfcylopiine Coccicl enclosed in a horny sac shaped like 
that of Solenococcus, without legs or antennae in the adult. 
Larva with no rows of dorsal spines, no hairs on anal ring, and 
no caudal tubercles, but four long caudal bristles as in Phoenico- 
cocciis. Closely related to Phoenicococciis (which lives in Algeria), 
but distinguished by the form of the sac, which exactly imitates 
that of Solenococcus. 

Halimococcus lampas, n. sp. 

? . Enclosed iu a dark browu horny sac (which is not dissolved by 
liquor potasste), which is shaped like a TcrebraUda shell, i.e. oval, with 
the end raised and terminating in au orifice. Length of sac 510 />i, 
breadth 300, breadth of orifice about 66 /a. The orifice is closed by a 
reticulated plate, except basally, where there is a semilunar opening. 
In immature examples the sac is prominently segmented on the ven- 
tral side. 

^ . Scale small, cylindrical, horny, ferruginous, of the same 
texture as that of the female, but usually somewhat paler. Length 
350 /x, breadth 140. The end comes off, leaving a round opening, as 
in Muscid pupte. 

? . A mere bag, with well-developed mouth and spiracles. 

Larva, — Rather narrow; legs and antenna present. No caudal 
tubercles, but two pairs of long caudal bristles ; two small bristles 
close to these. Antennte about 45 /x long, six-jointed, last joint much 
the longest. No dorsal spines. Last antennal joint with two long 
bristles. Femur remarkably stout, about 15 /x broad ; length of femur 
+ trochanter about 30 /x. 

Older specimens have actually shorter (36 /x) antenna?, with joint 6 
longer than 4 + 5 ; 5 longer than 3, 3 longer than 4, 1 large. 

A few white curled waxen threads protrude from beneath the sacs 
of the females. 

Hah. In great numbers on upper sides of leaves of palm on 
the coast of Natal (Claude Fuller, No. 3). A remarkable insect, 
essentially a modification of the Phosnicococcns type. With 
H. lampas in Natal, and P. marlatti in Algeria, it is not difficult 
to imagine the existence of a whole series of such forms in the 
vast intermediate region, the coccids of which are almost wholly 
unknown. 

East Las Vegas, New Mexico, U.S.A. 
Nov. 1st, 1901. 



16 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



INSTRUMENT WITH WHICH MOTHS OF THE GENUS 
ANTHER.EA CUT OUT OF THEIR HARD COCOONS. 

By F. p. Dodd. 

I AM not aware that any Australian entomologist has yet dis- 
covered how these silk-producing motlis contrive to work their 
way out after bursting the pupa-shell. Many believed they 
managed it with their woolly prolegs, aided by the liquid they 
discharge to soften the material during the cutting process. A 
more reasonable supposition would have been that the powerful 
wing-veins near base performed the work, for a large percentage 
of the moths have the scales of fore wing for one-fourth or three- 
eighths of an inch from base completely rubbed off, giving the 
insects quite a shabby appearance, though perfect in every other 
way. Again, the insect whilst working seems to be employing the 
fore wings, apparently striking with one for a time, then the other. 

However, Dr. A. J. Turner informed me that he was one day 
watching an AnthcrcBa sivqjlex cutting out, and observed that it 
did so with a pointed instrument, like the end of a small brad- 
awl ; but the insect having emerged, he did not see this again. 
As he was aware that I was breeding out several species, he ex- 
pressed a wish that I should keep a watch when an opportunity 
arose. I was soon able to prove that there is a cutting "weapon," 
which our collectors appear to have failed to observe ; but that 
is not strange, for, as the moth comes into view, his work is 
nearly completed, and there is little necessity for him to use the 
" cutter." This is a short hard black and curved thorn, situated 
in the thick joiuts at base of fore wings, one on each side ; in a 
rubbed specimen the thorn is easily discernible, but in a good 
one it is concealed amongst the dense scales. This thorn is 
present in all my species ; it can at once be felt in any speci- 
men. It would be interesting to know whether anyone can state 
whence the liquid issues which the moth discharges to soften 
the cocoon where he cuts through ; it must issue from near the 
thorn, for, as a rule, the scales left at base of the wing and along- 
side of the thorax are wet and matted when the moth emerges. 

The cutting operation takes a considerable time — several 
hours ; I have known A. lorantJii to commence work at 2.30, and 
still be cutting at 7 o'clock, the constant " clicking " being heard 
several yards away. This species, besides having its cocoon to 
cut through, has the "community covering" to negotiate as 
well — an extra one-fourth or three-eighths of an inch of tough 
but loose material. When about to change the larvae bunch 
together at the butt of the loranthus, and set to work together to 
spin a great outer web, which envelopes them. When this is 
completed each insect then constructs a cocoon, which is very 
thick and harder than those of ^4. eucalypti, ianetta, or Ji.elenece. 



ORNITHOPTERA CASSANDRA AND O. RICHMONDIA. 17 

One of these cocoon-masses* is forwarded, but some are larger ; 
from a larger one I obtained seventeen moths. The cocoons are 
so placed that each moth can get out — at least, that is my 
experience. 



ORNITHOPTERA CASSANDRA and 0. RICHMONDIA. 
By F. p. Dodd. 

Some entomologists are not quite satisfied that these fine 
butterflies are distinct, for they are so alike in their larval and 
perfect stages ; the larvae feed on Aristolochia of different species, 
and the males of both have the strange habit of frequently flying 
in pairs, it being quite a common sight to see a male of either 
closely followed by another. A writer in the ' Victorian 
Naturalist ' mentions this peculiarity in richmondia, and I have 
noticed it myself in the Brisbane district. 

With the larger and northern species cassandra, I am familiar 
in all its stages. From an article which I read in the ' Entomo- 
logist ' several years ago, I can state that that the eggs are 
identical in colour ; the iarvse present a few slight differences, 
the principal being that cassandra is generally darker, and with- 
out a trace of the "invisible green " discernible in richmondia. 
The pupa of the latter is vivid green, as mentioned in the article 
referred to, and as seen by myself upon one occasion in the 
Brisbane Museum. 

Cassandra chrysalis may be mentioned as being of a light 
brown underneath, and yellow above, between the wings and along 
to tip of abdomen. Pupae in my boxes occasionally varied in a 
slight degree in the yellow colouring, and pupae taken on green 
leaves in tbe bush were identical with mine. Therefore, I presume, 
such a wide and constant difference in the colour of the pupae of 
the two butterflies is sufficient to prove that they are entirely 
distinct. A healthy pupa of cassandra is being forwarded to Dr. 
Turner, which may safely reach England. Most of the others of 
a brood produced imagines in May ; this and several others still 
left were no doubt destined to outlast the long dry period we have 
between March and December or January. During some years' 
residence in Townsville, I have never seen the butterfly before 
December ; so I hope that this particular chrysalis may be 
viewed by some of the entomologists of London. Should it 
emerge, an empty shell is also sent, which shows the colouring 
of a living chrysalis fairly well. 

Warburton Street, Townsville, Queensland. 

* This reminds us somewhat of a cluster of cocoons of Axylioniia sociella, 
but the silk of which it is composed is coarser. — Ed. 

ENTOM. — JANUARY, 1902. C 



18 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW GENERA AND THIRTEEN 
NEW SPECIES OP ICHNEUMONID^ FROM INDIA. 

By p. Cameron. 

ToEBDA, gen. nov. 
Head cubital, largely developed behind the eyes, which are large 
and parallel ; the malar space is large. Clypeus not distinctly sepa- 
rated from the face by a furrow ; its apex transverse. Labrum largely 
projecting. Mandibles stout, their apex bidentate. Parapsidal fur- 
rows distinct at the base. Pronotum tuberculate in the middle. Meso- 
sternum indistinctly furrowed laterally behind. Median segment large, 
rounded behind ; there is one transverse keel at the base ; the spiracles 
are linear, not elongated. Areolet large, longer than wide ; the trans- 
verse cubital nervures slightly converging above ; there is no stump of 
a nervure on the disco-cubital nervure ; the transverse median nervure 
is received behind the transverse basal ; the transverse median nervure 
in the hind wings is broken at the middle. Legs elongate, stout ; the 
tarsi spinose ; the fore tarsi are longer than the tibiae ; all the tarsi 
are thickly spinose. Petiole stout, narrowed at the base ; the spiracles 
are placed almost in the middle ; the penultimate segment is largely 
developed, is nearly as long as the four preceding segments united ; 
the last segment is distinctly longer laterally than the penultimate ; 
its apex is depressed and clearly separated ; the cerci are long. The 
antenna are long and stout ; the second and third joints are equal in 
length ; the fore tibiae are distinctly narrowed at the base ; the claws 
are simple ; the occiput is broadly incised, and has a distinct but not 
sharp margin ; the scutellum is large, rounded, and hardly raised 
above the level of the mesonotum ; the hinder coxa; are large, about 
three times longer than thick ; the scutellar keels are thick. The 
areolet is pentagonal, it being angled where the recurrent nervure is 
received. In T. femorata, and in the luteous section of the genus, the 
apex of the clypeus is obliquely depressed ; in the male of that species 
the hinder tarsi are longer compared to the tibia. 

I am not quite certain as to the exact location of this genus, 
or if it should form one or two genera. It has some affinity 
with the Cryptina. The position of the spiracles on the petiole 
separates it from the Cryptina, The very large hypopygium is 
somewhat as in the Acoenitini, but it cannot be referred to any 
of the described genera in that group. The depressed clypeus in 
some of the species is similar to what it is in the Xoridini, and 
they have some relationship to Echthrus. Probably the natural 
position of Torbda is with the Xorides. The species are very 
large and handsome — among the largest of the Ichneumonidse. 

A. Black, with white markings ; the legs fulvous, marked 
with black and white. 
1. Post-scutellum raised, depressed only laterally at the 
base. Wings suffused with fuscous or violaceous, 
not maculate. Large species. 



DESCKIPTION OF ICHNEUMONID^ FROM INDIA. 19 

a. Hinder femora and tibise fulvous. 

Posterior knees and apex of tibiae black ; the scu- 

tellum black, its apex white . . ijenicidatd , Cam. 

Posterior knees and apex of tibiae not marked with 
black ; the scutellum white, with a black line in 
the centre at the base . . . riolaceipemiis, Cam. 

b. Posterior femora and tibite for the greater part black 

femorata, Cam. 
2. Post-scutellum widely hollowed ; the fore wings with 
a cloud at the base of the subdiscoidal nervure ; 
the areolet smaller, and receiving the recurrent 
nervure in the middle ; the cubital nervure at the 
base roundly curved, not straight, oblique and 
parallel with the basal . . . maculipennis, Cam. 
B. Fulvous, marked with black ; the recurrent nervure is 
received at the base of the apical third of the 
cellule ; the lower part of the cubital nervure at 
the base straight, oblique and parallel with the 
basal ; the basal half of the petiole distinctly 
narrowed ; the top and lower side of the petiole 
sharply margined. Clypeal suture distinct. 

Wings brassy ; the stigma rufo-testaceous ; the abdo- 
minal segments lined with black at the base only ; 
the apical segment with a small triangular de- 
pression in the middle, from which an obscure 
furrow runs obliquely down the sides . fahjidipennis, Cam. 

Wings smoky, paler at the base ; the third and follow- 
ing segments of the abdomen deep black ; the last 
dorsal segment with an elongate depression down 
the middle ...... apkalis, Cam. 

TORBDA FULGIDIPENNIS, Sp. nOV. 

Ferruginea, thorace abdomineque nigro-maculatis ; alis fulvo- 
fumatis ; stigmate fulvo ; nervis nigris ; pedibus ferrugineis ; coxis 
posterioribus nigro-maculatis. ? . Long. 23 mm. ; terebra, 13 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

ToRBDA APICALIS, Sp. nOV. 

Ferruginea ; maculis thoracis, apice antennarum late, apice abdo- 
minis terebraque nigris ; alis violaceo-hyalinis, stigmate nervisque 
nigris. ? . Long. 18 mm. ; terebra, 11 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

ToRBDA GENICULATA, Sp. DOV. 

Nigra, capite, thorace abdomineque albomaculatis ; pedibus fulvis, 
trochauteribus, geniculis apiceque tibiarum posticarum late nigris ; 
coxis albis, nigro maculatis ; alis fulvo-hyalinis, nervis stigmateque 
nigris. . Long. 23 mm. ; terebra, 13 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Fiothney). 

c2 



20 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

TORBDA VIOLACEIPENNIS, Sp. nOV. 

Nigra, facie, orbitis oculorum late thoraceque albomaculatis ; pedi- 
bus fulvis ; coxis nigris, albomaculatis ; alis violaceo-fumatis ; nervis 
stigmateque nigris. ? . Long. 25 mm. ; terebra, 10 mm. 

Hab. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

ToRBDA FEMORATA, Sp. nOV. 

Nigra, late albo-maculata ; pedibus fulvis ; coxis trochanteribusque 
albis ; coxis, femoribus dimidioque apicali tibiarum posticarum nigris ; 
tarsis posticis albis, basi nigro ; alis fusco-hyalinis, nervis stigmateque 
nigris, $ . Long. 22 mm. 

Hab. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

ToRBDA MACULIPENNIS, Sp. nOV. 

Nigra, capite, thorace abdomineque albo-maculatis ; pedibus fulvis ; 
coxis anticis albis, posterioribus nigris, basi albis ; alis hyalinis, stig- 
mate uervisque nigris. ? . Long. 14 mm. ; terebra, 6-7 mm. 

Hab. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

CoLGANTA, gen. nov. 
Areolet large, wider above than below ; tbe transverse basal ner- 
vure interstitial or nearly so ; in the hind wings the transverse median 
nervure is broken below the middle ; the radial cellule elongate, narrow. 
Antennae stout, stouter at the apex than at the base ; the basal joints 
of the fiagellum greatly elongated. Eyes large, almost parallel, widely 
distant from the base of the mandibles. Clypeus not clearly separated 
by a suture from the face ; the mandibles short, thick, bidentate at the 
apex. Labrum minute. Palpi long. Parapsidal furrows obsolete. 
Scutellum keeled laterally. Median segment with two curved keels at 
the base ; its spiracles large, linear, oblique. Petiole longer than the 
second segment, distinctly dilated at the apex ; the spiracles are placed 
near the base of the post-petiole, as in Ichneumon ; there are eight 
segments ; the ovipositor projects. Legs stout ; the tarsi spinose ; the 
claws large, curved, simple. In the only known male the antennae are 
serrate, densely pilose, and taper perceptibly towards the apex. The 
head is obliquely narrowed behind, and has the occiput sharply keeled. 
The pterostigma is elongate, narrow. 

The systematic position of this genus is not very clear. Only 
two views are tenable ; it either forms a new tribe, or it forms a 
new subtribe of the Cryptina. It has a furrow on the lower part 
of the mesopleuriB, as in the Cryptina, and the female has the 
exserted ovipositor of that group, but it wants the parapsidal 
furrows ; the transverse cubital nervures are oblique, and con- 
verge towards the bottom, while in the Cryptina they are either 
straight or converge towards the top. The form of the metanotal 
keels is different from what it is with the Cryptina ; in that 
group they are straight, transverse, and do not form arese. In the 
present group they are interrupted, and bent backwards, so that 
two complete areae are formed. 



DESCRIPTION OF ICHNEUMONID^: FROM INDIA. 



21 



COLGANTA NIGRO-MACULATA, Sp. DOV. 

Lutea, antennis nigris, flagello late albo annulato ; mesonoto, 
femoribus, tibiis tarsisque posticis nigris ; alis fulvo-hyalinis ; nervis 
stigmateque nigris. ? . Long, 15 mm. ; terebra, fere 3 mm. 

Hah. Sarawak, Borneo {Shelf ord). 

Autennse black, the sixth to nineteenth joints white. Head luteous ; 
the vertex broadly in the middle and the greater part of the occiput 
black ; the face is wrinkled in the centre ; the sides bear large round 
clearly separated punctures ; the mandibles are broadly black at the 
base. Thorax luteous, the sides paler in tint ; the mesonotum and the 
sides of the median segment at the base black ; the mesonotum is 
closely punctured ; the scutellum is thickly covered with long black 
hair ; the scutellum is keeled to near the apex. The median segment 
is wrinkled ; the basal keels are straight at the base ; the rest of them 
are irregularly twisted and curved towards the edges of the segments, 
where they join a straight lateral outer keel, a large enclosed area being 
thus formed, which is about twice longer than broad. Propleurse 
punctured above, the middle obliquely striated. Mesopleurfe smooth 
and shining ; the metapleurae with the lower apical part stoutly 
obliquely striated. The four front legs are coloured like the body, 
with the middle femora darker above ; the hind legs black ; the coxae 
and the basal joint of the trochanters luteous ; the coxaB are marked 
with black at the apex above. The apex of the petiole and the other 
abdommal segments are for the greater part fuscous-black above. 

CoLGANTA RUFIPES, Sp. IIOV. 

Nigra ; pedibus rufis ; tibiis posticis nigris ; alis fulvo-hyalinis. $ . 
Long. 15 mm. ; terebra, 4 mm. 

Hah. Borneo. 

Antennse black, the eighth to seventeenth joints white beneath ; the 
apical joints brownish. The face roundly projects in the middle, and 
is there closely but not strongly punctured ; the sides bear large deep 
punctures, and are irregularly striated on the inner side ; the malar 
space is brownish ; on the lower inner orbits is a pale yellowish mark. 
Mesonotum and scutellum closely punctured ; the apex of the scutellum 
and the post-scutellum pale testaceous. The base of the median seg- 
ment is closely punctured and irregularly striated ; the middle of the 
apical slope of the segment is closely, irregularly striated ; the sides 
are coarsely, irregularly reticulated ; the lower outer part bears four 
stout keels, and is bordered by keels on either side. The lower half of 
the propleurse is stoutly keeled ; the mesopleurfe almost smooth; the 
metapleurte closely, obliquely striated on the apical half. Legs rufous ; 
the apex of the hinder femora, the tibi^, and the base of the hinder 
tarsi black ; the rest of the hinder tarsi white. Abdomen black ; the 
apical two segments white above. 

This genus is probably well represented in Northern India. 
The species known to me from the Khasia Hills may readily be 
recognized by the following table. They are all fulvous or 
ferruginous in colour. 



22 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

1 (8) Areolet distinctly narrowed on the lower side ;» the 

nervures oblique. 

2 (5) The tarsi not black, at most only slightly annulated 

with black. 

3 (4) Wings hyaline, suffused yellow or fulvous ; the an- 

tennfE pale yellow, the apex broadly black. Length, 

12 mm. ; terebra, 4 mm. .„ . . fulvipennis, Cam. 

4 (3) Wings dark violaceous ; the antennse blackish, amiu- 

lated with dark fulvous. Length, IG mm. S" 

falgidipennis, Cam. 

5 (2) The tarsi black. 

6 (7) The tibife black. Length, 12 mm. $ . . tibialis, Cam. 

7 (6) The tibijB not black. Length, 12 mm. <? . tarsalis, C&m. 

8 (1) Areolet not distinctly narrowed on the lower side; 

the nervures straight. Length, 12 mm. ; tere- 
bra, 2 mm. ^ . . . . . tiibercidata, Cam. 



DESCEIPTION OF A NEW GRASSHOPPER FROM NATAL 
[POMATONOTA BIPUXCTATA, Kirb.) 

By W. F. Kirby, F.L.S. 

Among some Orthoptera recently received by Mr. Distant 
from Natal, collected by Mr. A. Eoss, I found a pair which 
appear to belong to a new sj)ecies allied to Pomatonota dregii, 
Burm. This is a small green species, with very long legs, 
belonging to the family Mecopodidfe, and the subfamily Moris- 
tinffi. The wings are short and broad in the fully developed 
insect ; but in the only specimen of P. dregii at present in the 
Natural History Musuem they are only just visible under the 
shield. The types of P. hipunctata are also apterous or sub- 
apterous. Whether the specimens before me are immature, or 
whether they are micropterous specimens of a dimorphous 
species, we must wait for more specimens to decide. A descrip- 
tion is given below. 

Pomatonota bipunctata, sp. n. 
S' . Long. Corp. 20 mm. ; capit. et pron. 13 mm. ; fem. post. 
20 mm. $ . Long. corp. 17 mm. ; capit. et pron. 10 mm. ; fem. 
post. 14 mm. ; ovip. 15 mm. 

Size and general shape of P. dregii, Burm. Brown, with a slight 
reddish or coppery lustre, especially on the face ; mandibles smooth, 
shining, pale orange ; hinder edge of the pronotum marked with two 
large black spots, and a few smaller ones beyond and on the disc ; 
abdomen with some longitudinal rows of black dots, and with a 
purplish and black oblong mark at the base on each side ; wings in 
male blackish, half hidden by the shield, somewhat as in the European 
genus P]phi/ipi(/('y, which this species also resembles in the long slender 
upcurved ovipositor. 



NOTES AND OBSEBVATIONS. 23 

The colour, and especially the two conspicuous black spots at 
the extremity of the pronotum, besides the form of the ovipositor, 
will sufficiently distinguish the present species from P. dregii. 
From Epliippiger, which belongs to another family, the struc- 
tural characters, such as the open foramina and the two spines 
on the prosternum, will distinguish it at a glance. 

One pair of this rather remarkable insect, which will be 
figured in a forthcoming part of Mr. Distant's ' Insecta Trans- 
vaaliensia.' 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Aberration of Vanessa urtic-e. — The Reverend Archibald Day 
has been good enough to send for inspection a well- executed coloured 
drawing of a variety of V. urticoB that he captured at Storridge, near 
Malvern, in Worcestershire, on September 26th, 1901. It is a modi- 
fication of the aberration of this species figured in the ' Entomologist,' 
vol. xxxiii. pi. iii. fig. 1, but differs from that specimen in having the 
outer margin of all the wings normally angulated ; the outer marginal 
area of the fore wings is more variegated, and there are some rather 
large blue submarginal spots on the hind wings. There is a blue spot 
between second and third median nervules of fore wing, placed farther 
from the margin than the normal blue spots in typical F. urtica;. 

Autumnal Pupation of Cerigo cytherea. — I have a number of 
larvjB of C. cytherea which I am endeavouring to get through the 
winter ; they are all about an inch in length, excepting two, which fed 
up rapidly to a large size and have subsequently pupated. It would 
be interesting to know if it is the rule for this species to pupate in the 
late autumn, as I believe they are commonly known as hybernators. — 
A. J. Lawrance ; Bromley Common, Kent. 

Third Brood of Phragmatobia fuliginosa. — On May 5th last I 
had a female P. fuliginosa sent me by a friend, and on the 8tli she laid 
between thirty and forty whitish eggs. These began to hatch on 
May 23rd, a dark speck having appeared two days before in each egg, 
which gradually spread over the whole, making it appear of a dark 
grey colour. All of them hatched out by next day. The caterpillars 
were then of a dark greyish colour, most difficult to distinguish from 
their food-plant. They fed well on dock, eating the lower membrane, 
and lying on the under side of the leaf along the veins. From some 
cause, possibly being too dry at their first moult, their number was on 
the 29th reduced to six ; they were then covered with light reddish 
hairs, but this tint on June' 1st became much darker, so that there 
was no further difficulty in seeing them. They grew fast, and five 
ultimately spun up about the end of June ; unfortunately I omitted to 
make a note of the exact days. They were, however, about eighteen 
days in the pupa state, and the first moths emerged on July 18th. 
They proved to be a pair, and again I had a batch of between forty 
and fifty fertile eggs. The larvae began to emerge on July 29th, and 



24 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

all came out on that and the following day. I have so far been 
successful in rearing most of these. They varied considerably in size 
from the first, and by the end of September ranged from one-half to 
one inch in length, some of them apparently being at least a moult 
behind others. The colour of the hair of those similarly advanced 
also varied from light reddish to dark brown, the latter being by far 
the commoner ; and it will be interesting to note whether the iraagos 
will differ in the same way. Two spun up on Sept. 25th and 26th, 
but the remaining caterpillars, thirty-four in number, continued to 
feed until the end of October, and are now hybernating. The two that 
pupated in September emerged on Oct. 23rd and 27th respectively, 
but unfortunately were not a pair. They have been kept in a corner 
of a room facing east, with the window generally open. — James 
Douglas ; Sherborne. 

On the Habits of Macrothylacia (Bombyx) rubl — In ' The Lepi- 

doptera of the British Islands,' Mr. Barrett says concerning the larvas 
of Macrothylacia (Bombt/x) nihi, "It feeds vigorously through the 
summer, becoming full grown in the late autumn, when it reposes at 
full length on any plant or on the ground in the sunshine." My 
experience is that it never appears until after the sun has gone down. 
There is a field near here where they are abundant, but although I 
have searched, I have never found one in the sunshine ; but im- 
mediately after the sun has gone down I could collect fifty or a hundred 
with ease. I am only referring to the late autumn ; in the early 
spring I have no doubt that they come out iu the sunshine, but I have 
not yet had an opportunity of finding this out. Mr. Newman says 
that the hairs of the caterpillar are abundantly intermixed in the 
cocoon. This also I have not found to be the case, although I must 
confess that my experience of the cocoon is limited to three or four. — 
L. M. Seth Smith; Alleyue, Caterham Valley, Surrey, Nov. 13th, 1901. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Dorsetshire. — During the month of Septem- 
ber last I tooK twenty-nine S. convolxuU, flying about tobacco-flowers at 
dusk ; they appeared each night the same length of time after the sun 
had set, practically to a minute. Those taken at the beginning of the 
month were much the larger, though not in such good condition. Two 
females in this batch measured no less than 124 mm. and 127 mm. 
respectively across the wings ; the largest male 113 mm. Tlie extreme 
given by Meyrick is 118 mm. Males were also much scarcer, number- 
ing only six out of nineteen, while of ten last taken four were males. 
These last were smaller, and in absolutely fresh condition ; the females 
apparently barren, there being no difference between them and the 
males in the shape or size of the body, while there was a decided and 
very apparent difference amongst the first lot. These data would 
seem to point to the fact that the later specimens were English bred ; 
and they may also go some way towards explaining why iS. conrolculi 
fails to become a permanent resident. It would be interesting to 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 



25 



know whether the experience of other collectors would confirm these 
deductions or otherwise. — James Douglas ; Sherborne. 

Sphinx convolvuli and Acheron tia atropos in London and Somer- 
setshire. — One evening last autumn a living specimen of Sphinx con- 
voU-uli was brought to me to identify. It had been caught in Shore- 
ditch, flying to the light of a shop-window, and about the same time 
a specimen was sent me from Wellington, Somerset, which was found 
there at rest on a wooden post. About the beginning of October a 
very fine specimen of Acheroyitia atropos was brought to me, which haa 
recently been taken at rest on the ground in a garden at Bow. This 
was in very fine condition ; that is more than could be said of the 
specimens of *S'. cunvolvuU. — F. Milton ; 7, Chilton Street, Bethnal 
Green, Nov. 13th, 1901. 

Xylina furcifera (conformis) in Lancashire. — Mr. C. H. Forsythe, 
of Lancaster, recently sent me a very nice photograph of a moth which 
he was unable to identify, and which I recognized as X. conformis. 
He states that he took two specimens when beating ivy blossom late 
at night, nearly 12 o'clock, on Oct. 22nd last. — Richard South. 

Chariclea delphinii. — Two examples of this species have been pre- 
sented to the British Museum by Mr. J. F. Bennett. These examples, 
which will be added to the British Collection of Lepidoptera at South 
Kensington, were obtained at Brighton in 1876, by Mr. Bennett's late 
father. It is not known whether the examples were captured or reared, 
but although slightly faded in colour they are in very perfect condition. 
The British history of this species is given by Mr. Barrett, Lep. Brit. 
Islands, vi. p. 145. The localities there mentioned are chiefly Berks 
and Middlesex, and the dates early in the last century. 

Xanthia (Mellinia) ocellaris in North Kent. — I beg to record the 
capture of M. ocellaris in small numbers, at sugar, in a locality in 
Kent not far from Wilmington. In 1899 I took three ; in 1900, three ; 
and a friend who worked with me, a pair. This September I was too 
busy to go for the species, but I hope to work it up next year. 
M. gilvario and M. citrago usually are freely taken with M. ocellaris in 
my locality. Three of these specimens are now in the cabinet of E. D. 
Bostock, Esq. — L. W. Newman ; Bexley, Kent. 

LuPERiNA dumerili AT DovER. — I havc the pleasure to announce the 
capture of a fine female of this rare Noctua, on a gas-lamp in this 
town, during the latter part of September. It would be as well to put 
on record that I have parted with the specimen, and it is now in the 
collection of Mr. Eustace R. Bankes. — H. Douglas Stockwell ; 
2, Albert Road, Dover, Dec. 16th, 1901. 

Ophiodes lunaris in Cheshire. — While sugaring at Delamere 
Forest, in company with Mr. A. G.Wallington, in June last, I took a large 
Noctua which neither I nor Mr. Wallington could identify ; and it was 
not till a week or two ago, when some of my entomological friends of 
this town, Messrs. Womersley and Collins, saw it among my season's 
captures, that it was recognized as Ophiodes lunaris. I may add that 
this specimen was exhibited at the Entomological Society of London 
on Dec. 6th, atid also at Chester by Mr. Collins on Dec. 9th. — 
T. Wright; 13, Heath Side, Warrington, Dec. 12th, 1901. 



26 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Treatment of Pup^e during the Winter. — Some of us have found 
it difficult to rear imagines from dug puppe of Amphidasi/a betularia, 
and a few other species, as they are so apt to dry up. By putting 
them in a small tin box, say a tobacco-box, with holes punched in it 
top and bottom, and burying it a few inches deep in the ground out of 
doors, I liave obtained satisfactory results during the last two or three 
years. I put a few dry leaves on the top of the box to keep the mould 
from going through the holes into the box. — F. Milton ; 7, Chilton 
Street, Bethnal Green, London, E. 

Macro-Lepidoptera in North Staffordshire in 1901. — The past 
season has been a very productive one in North Staffordshire, a large 
number of species having been taken that we had not met with before. 
Our first captures for the year were Phigaiia pilosaria, Hy hernia pro - 
gemmaria, &c., and on March 31st one Cyiinitophoni flavicornis was 
taken, and several more early in April, at rest on birch twigs. Other 
species noticed during April were Anisopteryx (eacularia, Anticlea 
badiata, Larentia mitldstrigaria, Trachea piniperda (abundantly on sallow 
bloom, in company with Tceniocanipa gothica), T. rubricosa, T. inatahilis, 
T. tttabilis, T. cruda, &c. 

May : — EiicJdo'e cardamines, Tliecla rnhi, Saturnia carpini, Venilia 
maculata (in the Manifold Valley, very common in Dovedale), Aviphi- 
dasys betularia (black var.), Tephruda crepiiscnlaria, Bupaliis pijiiaria, 
Abraxas ulmata, Lovias/dlis marginata, Emmclesia affinitata (a few), 
Hj/p.upetes ruberata, on the moors (the larv?e of this species we have 
taken not uncommonly some years on sallow), H. inipliiviata, Scotosia 
dubitata (one hybernated specimen). On the 28th two worn females 
of Acrongcta vienganthidis were taken on the moors, from one of which 
we obtained a batch of ova, and were successful in rearing fifty or 
sixty larvas on sallow. Hadena glnucavf&s also fairly common. 

June : — Macroglossa stellatarum, Procris geryon (common locally in 
Dovedale), Chelonia plantaginis (on the moors), Odontopera bidentata, 
Aathena puJchraria (in the Manifold Valley near Dovedale), Eupisteria 
heparata, Venusia eambricaria, Ewinelesia alche))iillata, Eupithecia veno- 
sata (larvffi of this pretty species were taken from Sile7ie iDjiata planted 
in the garden), Melanthia ocellata, M. albiciUata, Melanippe tristata 
(common, but local), M. galiata, Cidaria corgi at a, Acrongcta mega- 
cephala, Miami fasciuncnla, Gramriu'sia trilinea (at light), Abrostola 
nrtica and A. triplasia (at flowers of rocket, and at light). 

July : — Epinephele ianira, Zygana filipendidcB, Nudaria mimdana, 
Liparis auriflna (at light), Uropteryx mmbucata , Larentia cafiiata, 
Anaitis plagiata, Cidaria pyraliata, C. dotata (freely at light), Plusia 
interrogationis (a single specimen of this insect was taken, at rest, on a 
wall, on the moors, on July 8th). 

August: — Vanessa urticce. (very common), T". io (this insect, which 
we have not seen for several years, has been fairly common during 
August), V. atalanta (not nearly so abundant as last year), Guncpteryx 
rhanini (a hybernated specimen of this butterfly, which is rare in the 
county, was seen in Dovedale on June 4th, also early in August, and 
a specimen was taken in the Manifold Valley on the 21st), Halia 
vauaria, Oporahia filigrammaria (a few on the moors at the end of the 
month), Melanthia rubiginata, Cidaria ribesiaria, C. testata, C. popidata, 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 2? 

C. fitlvata, EuhoHa menHunria, E. bipuiictaria, CharcBaH graminis, Noctua 
f/lareosa (at flowers of heather), Xanthia citrarjo, X. cerafjo, Cirrhcedia 
xerampelina (this insect, which we had not taken previous to this year, 
was found in the Manifold Valley, where seven specimens were taken 
on Aug. 21st, and three more on the 25th ; they were all found at the 
foot of ash-trees and on the surrounding herbage, between three and 
four o'clock in the afternoon), Tethea suhtusa (bred from larvae taken 
on poplar in June), Cloantha solidaginis, and Gonoptera llbatrix. 

Sugaring we did not try until early in September, when it proved 
exceedingly attractive. Anchocelis litura was on the trees in great 
numbers, together with Hydraicia nictitans, H. micacea (worn), Arp'otis 
safitsa, A. sancin (two specimens), A.segetum, Noctuaglareosa, N.plecta, 
Orthosia macilenta, Anchocdis riifinci, Xanthia cerago. On Sept. 11th 
two specimens of X. gilvago turned up in fair condition, and on the 
18th two more were taken, also X. ferruginea, Polia chi, Miselia oxy- 
acantlm (and the dark brown var.), Agriopis aprilina, Phlogophora 
meticulosa, Hadena proteua. On Sunday the 29th, having occasion to 
pass the trees that had been sugared the previous evening, a fine speci- 
men of Vanessa c-albuvi was taken, feeding on the sugar ; Ceiastis 
vaccina and Calocampa exoleta were also taken early in October, and 
Pcecilocampa populi in November. — J. & W. Hill; 7, Westwood Grove, 
Leek, Staffordshire, Nov. 14th, 1901. 

NOLA ALBULALIS AND NoNAGRIA SPARGANII IN SoUTH DeVOX. 1 have 

this week had sent to me for determination one of two specimens of 
Nola albulalis captured in South Devon during the past season, but 
I am asked at present not to state the exact locality. It is a fine and 
well-marked example. I have also seen a Xonagria sparganii from the 
same district. Neither species has, I believe, hitherto been recorded 
for Devonshire, though I understand the latter has been known to 
occur in the county for two or three years or more. — Geo. T. Porritt ; 
Crosland Hall, near Huddersheld, Dec. 20th, 1901. 

'■^ Correction. — The hair-grass alluded to (Entom. xxxiv. 325) is 
probably Festuca orina (small plants of this order are difficult to 
identify for certain), not Aira caspitosa, as stated. — F. W. F. 

Abundance of Melit^a aurinia in Co. Westmeath. — I have been 
greatly struck by the abundance of the young larvte of M. aurinia 
here this autumn. I searched for them in several localities where the 
food-plant is common, and in every case found them in numbers. In 
one locality, where they were specially numerous, I collected, I am 
sure, several thousand in less than half an hour, and could have taken 
plenty more. In one particular spot I counted no less than eleven of 
the webs which they spin, all within an area of about fifteen square 
yards ; and as each web contained from about fifty up to several 
hundred larvfe, it will give some idea of their numbers. — B. L. 
MiDDLETON ; Mullingar, Nov. 3rd, 1901. 

Vanessid^ is 1901. — I was specially on the look-out for these 
during last season, with the followmg results : — Vanesm atalanta was 
plentiful, although not so common as last year, but the specimens 
were very small, one measuring only If in. V. urticcc was more 



28 ^ THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

common than usual, and very line specimens of this favourite insect 
frequented the gardens, seeming, with V. atalanta, to be especially 
fond of " everlastings." Not a single specimen of V. io was observed, 
but one fine specimen of V. jwlychlurus was seen on Aug. 4th. Early 
I saw an hybernated specimen of V. cardni, although I had not seen 
any during 1900. The spot where I saw it was a favourite walU, and 
as I saw one on several other occasions, I afc last came to the conclu- 
sion that it was a solitary specimen, and on July 17th I caught it, and 
found it to be a male. This was the only example I saw during the 
season, although I searched the neighbourhood well, and there are 
plenty of thisdes and also plenty of "ling," of which, I believe, this 
species is fond. — A. Marshall ; Cranbrook, Kent. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — Xovember 6th, 1901. — The 
Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the chair. — Mr. 
Arthur W. Bacot, 154, Lower Clapton Road, London, N.E. ; Mr. 
Edward Martin Dadd, 3, Colina Villas, Green Lanes, Wood Green, 
N. ; Mr. George Frederick Leigh, Musgrave Road, Durban, Natal; 
Mr. Rupert S. Lower, Oswaldton, Bartley Crescent, WayviUe, South 
Australia; Mr. John Crampton Wilkinson Kershaw, Macao, China; 
Mr. Henry Woolner Peal, Indian Museum, Calcutta ; Mr. Ethelbert 
Forbes Skertchly, Hong-Kong ; and Mr. Arthur Smith, 5, Cavendish 
Street, Grimsby, were elected Fellows of the Society. — The Rev. F. D. 
Morice exhibited two imperfectly developed females of Osmia lenco- 
melana found dead in a rubus stem at Woking, with their cases. — 
Mr. C. P. Pickett exhibited a series of (Mias hyale taken at Folkestone 
during August, 1900-1, including one male dwarf, one male with 
smoky hind wings, one male with the edge of the hind wings showing 
a double row of serrated curves, three males with very deep yellow 
colouring and with spots in the centre of the hind wings twice the 
normal size, one male under side without spots, one male showing a 
row of black dots running parallel round the fore and hind wings, also 
one female with the edge of the hind wings showing a double row of 
serrated curves, one female with extra deep border to the fore wings, 
and one female with only half the usual border to the fore wings. — 
Mr. F. B. Jennings exhibited a specimen of Trachyphlmia tnyrmeco- 
philits, Seidl., taken at Hastings in September last, retaining intact 
the deciduous "false mandibles," with the aid of which the imago of 
the species of this and certain other genera of weevils is said to work 
its way to the surface after emerging from the pupa under ground. 
These mandibles are usually shed as soon as the imago begins its life 
above ground, as there is no further use for them. — • Mr. W. J. Kaye 
exhibited a collection of butterflies made by him in Trinidad, with 
several hitherto undescribed species. He said that the probable total 
Rhopalocerous fauna was about 250 species, the island— practically, the 
size of Somersetshire — being thus remarkably rich in butterflies. The 
number of the species in the families exhibited were: Nymphalidpe, 34 ; 
Satyridffi, 13; Papilionidte, 6 ; Pieridae, 31 ; Erycinidse, 29; Lycsenid^, 



SOCIETIES. 29 

27 ; Hesperiid^, 62 — nearly all taken within three or four miles of 
Port of Spain. The series of Helicoidns telchinia and Tithorea meriara 
var. Jiavescens were particularly fine, showing the yellow colouration 
only found in Trinidad and upon the coast of Venezuela immediately 
opposite. A long series of PapUio xeuxis and P. alyattus, many of them 
bred from the same parent, female, show that these two are really 
identical species. The number of Erycinidfe in Trinidad compared 
with the poverty of the same family in other West Indian islands alone 
indicates the different origin of its fauna, and suggests affinity with the 
mainland of Venezuela, which at the nearest point is but seven miles 
distant. — Dr. Chapman exhibited specimens of ParnassiKs apollo taken 
last July in Castile and Aragon (Spain), as well as a number of speci- 
mens of both P. apollo and P. deliiis, chiefly Swiss and French, taken 
by himself, Mr. Tutt, Mr. A. H. Jones (at Digne), and Mr. Rowland 
Brown (at Susa, North Italy), for comparison with the Spanish speci- 
mens and to illustrate the extent to which the races of these species 
approached each other in Western Europe. The Spanish specimens 
differed from most of the others in their great size, the males reaching 
3f in. in expanse, and the females 3| in. Both males and females 
seemed to be exceedingly close to the Asiatic form of apollo, called 
heseboliis, in general facies. The males placed between ordinary Swiss 
apollo and deliiis obviously incline much more to the latter than the 
former in general tone of colour and intensity of markings. The 
females were very large, and varied to forms with much increased red 
ocelli. The best character whereby to distinguish apollo and deliits is 
certainly the black ringed antennae, which are also usually proportionally 
shorter. The denser creamier colouring is also very characteristic, yet 
this would make the Aragon specimen delius. The pouch of the female 
appears to be identical in both species. The male appendages seem to 
have no ascertained structural difference beyond one in size, those of 
apoUo being larger and apparently more solid. In the Spanish apollo 
this is markedly so, the differences, however, less proportionately than 
may be observed in Erebia cethiops, of which the appendages of Conti- 
nental specimens are so much larger than those of British examples. — 
Mr. G. C. Bignell sent for discussion a specimen of Sphecophaga 
vesparuiji, Curt., and the cocoon from which it had been bred. Mr. 
Donisthorpe expressed his opinion that the host was a ground wasp. — 
Mr. Gilbert J. Arrow communicated a paper upon "The Genus Hyliota, 
with descriptions of new forms, and a list of described species" ; and 
Mr. W. L. Distant, " Contributions to a knowledge of the Rhynchota." 
Xovember 20th. — Mr. G. H. Verrall, Vice-President, in the chair. — 
Mr. James B. Casserley, 7, Gloucester Road, Finsbury Park, N., and 
Mr. M. Lawson Thompson, 35, Leven Street, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, 
were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. A. H. Jones exhibited 
various Lepidoptera from the Cevennes, including a series of Lycmia 
dolus var. vittata, L. damon, L. meleager, Melanargia iapygia var. cleanthe, 
and M. galatea ab. leucomelas ; also a dark form of Thais ceiisyi bred 
from a pupa received from Armenia. He also exhibited a specimen of 
Vanessa antiopa taken this year at Eltham, and two specimens of 
Cerastes erythrocephala bred from ova laid by parent moth captured at 
sallows near Canterbury. — Mr. H. Rowland Brown exhibited a re- 



30 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

markable var. of MelitcBa dulf/ma, taken at Chateau de la Caze, Tarn, in 
which the black markings of the lower under-side wings were almost 
entirely absent ; and a series of Lyccena dolus var. vittata from the 
Ceveunes, with L. admetus var. ripjjertii, from Digne, showing the re- 
markable affinity of the two species, which, however, were never found on 
the same ground or in the same localities while collecting. — Dr. Chapman 
exhibited butterflies taken by himself and Mr. G. C. Champion in the 
Sierra Albarraein, Spain, last July. He said: " The district traversed 
by Mr. Champion and myself was practically the same as that described 
by Mrs. Nicholl in the ' Transactions ' for 1897, and not many new 
butterflies were added to Mrs. Nicholl's list. Z. querciis was taken at 
Tragacete, but this is in Castile, not in Aragon. Auyiades sylvanus was 
taken both at Albarraein and Tragacete. AdojuBa act(Bon was met with 
at Cuenca (Castile), while Adopaa linea seemed to be more abundant 
than (ineola at all stations. L. Jujlas and its variety ?iuvs(v«s occurred on 
the same ground. The common form of L. conjdon seemed to be corij- 
donius, or near that variety; this was especially abundant at Tragacete, 
and was met with at all other places. The very large pale form hispana 
was the commonest at Albarraein, where the corydonim form was rare, 
and at Cnenca, and was not seen at Tragacete. Looking at these and 
other dimorphic forms occurring here, one could not help questioning 
whether adiin'tus might not be a dimorphic form of damon. The former 
was often abundant, the latter always rather scarce. The females, 
however, have constant differences, and the general tone of colour and 
arrangement of spots on the under sides seem abundantly sufficient to 
satisfy one that they are definite species, though very closely allied. 
L. dolus, however, seems to precisely occupy the relation to damon that 
nivescens does to hylas, and that the vars. hispana and albicans do to 
corydon. The male appendages of the three — damon, dolus, and admetus 
— appear to be identical. We observed nothing to account for or explain 
the use of the colouring of Satynis var. uhayoni. It resembles very much 
the female of semele, which is abundant on the same ground. But the 
habits of flight of the two are very different, and we never in fact mis- 
took one for the other. The brown colour is no doubt the original one 
in the Satyrids, but in this case is more probably a reversion." — Mr. 
L. B. Prout exhibited a number of Geometridaj, also taken by Dr. 
Chapman and Mr. Champion in Spain. — Mr. F. Merrifield exhibited 
specimens of Pieris rapes and P. eryane from Dalmatia, showing that 
the two species are extremely difficult to separate, even if they are not 
identical. — -Mr. C. P. Pickett exhibited varieties of Aryynnis papJiia and 
A. aylaiu from the New Forest.- — Mr. C. J. Watkins sent for exhibition 
micro-photographs of the larva in its case and the perfect insect of an 
Oxyethira, one of the Hydroptilidse, a family of Micro-Trichoptera ; 
these had been taken by Mr. Mearns, of Aberdeen. Also a drawing 
made by himself under the microscope of a larva (in its case) of the 
same genus. — H. Eowland Brown, Hon. Sec 

South London Entomologica.l and Natural History Society. — 
October 24th, 1901. — Mr. A. Harrison, F.L.S., in the chair. — Mr. 
"West (Greenwich) exhibited about ninety species of British Homoptera, 
mainly taken by himself, and which he generously gave to the Society's 
collection. — Mr. Barnett, a long series of BryophUa muralis [ylandifera) 



RECENT LITERATURE. 31 

of a somewhat dull coloration, from Shorncliffe, and a series of B. perla, 
including one particularly dark form. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, two species of 
Lepidoptera new to science, discovered by him at Bartica, British 
Guiana, during a collecting expedition this year, viz. Fapilio sp.? 
near F. latinus, and a Sphingid Ambulyx sp. ? near A. strigUu. — Mr. 
H. Moore, specimens of Sphinx convolvuli taken at Rotherhithe this 
autumn, and an example of S. litjustri bred from a larva found in the 
same place. — Messrs. Harrison and Main, six specimens of -S. ro?it'o/r«Zi 
taken at the electric lights on the Romford Road, E. — Mr. R. Adkin, 
bred series of Plusia muneta from larvcB found in a garden at Bexley, 
and a bred series of P. gamma from eggs laid by a female which flew 
into his house. He contributed notes on the occurrence, feeding, and 
habits of the latter species. Mr. Adkin also showed a series of Boarnda 
repandata taken by Mr. McArthur in the Isle of Lewis in 1901. The 
latter gentleman exhibited the same species, captured in 1887 and 
1901 in the same place ; also a case set up to show the resting habit of 
the species on the rocks. He also showed a series of Melauippe sociata 
var. ubscurata from the same locality. — Mr. Main, an unusually large 
specimen of the spider Tegenaria domestica. — Dr. Chapman, Jir;oM^ia 
urania, a beautiful North American Noctuid he had bred, and three 
New Zealand specimens of a species of Oeketicus. 

November ith. — Mr. W. J. Lucas, B.A., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Mr. Lowe, of Putney, was elected a member. — Messrs. Harrison and 
Main exhibited a long bred series of Agriopis aprilina from the 
New Forest, and series of Calocainpa exoleta from Delamere Forest. — 
Mr. Moore, a trap-door spider's nest from Corfu. — Dr. Chapman, long 
and varied series of Purnassius apollo and P. delius from various 
European localities, with many intermediate forms. — Mr. Percy F. 
Smith gave a lecture on " Spiders," illustrated with a large number of 
lantern slides. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Report Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



D. W. CoQuiLLETT. A Systematic Arrangement of the Families of the 
Diptera. (1901 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxiii. pp. 653-8.) 

The old Latreilleian primary divisions (1805) are adopted, with 
names '^ Proboscidea" and '' Epruboscidea" (Pupipara).''' The latter 
embraces the families Nycteribiidas and Hippoboscidre, and is con- 
sidered to differ so importantly from the other forms in structure, 
habits, and reproduction, as to justify its separation into a group 
equivalent to all the other Diptera. The Tipulidfe are placed at the 
lowest rung of the Proboscidea, on account of their " comparatively 
large size, elongated form, weak organization, numerous, many- 
branched veins, and long, many-jointed antennae." At the head 
are the Borboridte, a family of Muscse Acalypterse. 

The Proboscidea comprehend the Orthorhapha and Cyclorhapha ; 
the former with two subsections, Nemocera (Tipuloidea with eight 

* The name "Proboscidea" as limited by Latreille and Coquillett is 
much more extensive than that of Scbiner aud other dipterists. 



32 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

families, and Bibionoidea with five families), and Brachycera (Taban- 
oidea with six families, Bombylioidea with three, Asiloidea with five, 
and Phoroidea with two families). The Cyclorhapha are divided iuto 
two superfamilies, Syrphoidea (with four families) and Muscoidea 
(Calypteratse with six, and Acalypterae with nineteen families). 

G. W. K. 



S. H. ScuDDER. Pink Grasshoppers. (1901 Entomological News, xii. 
pp. 129-131, Plate (coloured) vi.) 

Many of the Grasshoppers with elongate antennae occur in two 
colour-forms, either leaf-green or dead-leaf brown, there being no 
structural differences noticeable. Very rarely (less than a dozen 
times) they have been found of a delicate violet or pink colour, and 
these are considered by Mr. Scudder to be " sports." Two examples 
of Ambh/cori/pha oblonyifolia from Massachusetts are figured ; the 
female is a delicate coral-red colour, while the male is tinged with 
orange. The eyes are green in both. The causes of this remarkable 
colouring are quite unknown, and Mr. Scudder's specimens were 
healthy and behaved quite normally. 

E. D. Ball records under the varietal name oi pccta a pink form of 
the green MacropsU latci, Uhler (1900 ' Psyche,' p. 130). 

G. W. K. 



Among recent papers of general interest may also be mentioned: — 

Diptera. — A curious case of gynandromorphism is recorded in 
Hilara ivheehri, Melander, from Wyoming, U.S.A. The species of 
Hilara mostly exhibit striking sexual dimorphism ; for example, the 
first segment of the anterior tarsi is greatly enlarged in the male, but 
of normal shape in the female, this character varying considerably 
among the various species. The individual in question has the 
abdominal styles of the female, but the enlarged legs of the male. 
It is remarkable that in the same locality and at the same time a 
specimen of Dilophus tibialis, Loew, was taken which possessed an 
antenuary appendage arising from the right anterior coxa. (A. L. 
Melander in ' Psyche,' 1901, pp. 213-5 ; 2 figs.) 

IViynchoUi. — D. von Schlechtendal : Traiii.i troylodi/tes, Heyden, a 
singular Aphid (Zeitschr. fiir Entom. vi. pp. 245-55 ; 14 figs.). 

Lepidoptera.^G. Schroder : Experiments on the Transference of 
Characters in the Larval State, for ex. in Tephroclystia vulyata (t. c, 
255-8 ; 2 figs.). 

Neiiruptera. — L. Kathariner : On the Biology of Perla maxima, 
Scop. (t.c. 258-60; fig.). 

Lepidoptera. — C. Obrthiir : Observations upon the Lepidoptera of 
the English Fauna (Feuille jeunes naturahstes, pp. 12-17). We pro- 
pose to consider this at greater length in our next number. 

Lepidoptera. — E. Mory: On some New Swiss Hybrids of the Genus 
Deilephila (M. T. Schweiz. Entomol. Gesellsch. x. pp. 333-60; plate). 

G. W. K. 



Entomologist, February, 1902. 



Plate I. 




W. J. Lucas, del. 



Nymph of Oxygustra curtisii, Dale ( x 4). 

a. Labium (mask) flattened out ( x 4). 

b. Kegion of moveable joint (much more highly magnified). 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.] FEBRUAEY, 1902. [No. 465. 

DRAGONFLIES IN 1901. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

Though there is no record of the capture of a new species to 
be made for the year 1901, yet in some respects the season was 
an interesting one. The earliest imago noted was a male 
of Pyrrhosoma nymphula — at the Black Pond, in Surrey, on 
April 28th. By May 12th, three or four species were on the wing 
at the same place, though even on May 19th such early species as 
Calopteryx splendens and P. nymphula were still in the teneral 
condition at Send, also in Surrey. But during the summer 
weather at Whitsuntide, which fell at the end of May, dragon- 
flies were numerous, some ten species being noticed on the wing 
in the New Forest during the week-end. 

Sympetnim striolatum was, of course, noticed at several new 
localities, amongst them being Cumbrae, in Buteshire (A. M. 
Stewart) ; Frensham Great Pond, in Surrey (E. B. Bishop and 
W. J. Ashdown) ; Pokesdown and Stour side, in Hants ; and 
Totness, in Devon. The species was very plentiful on Esher 
Common in the autumn, as was also S. scoticum. The latter was 
found at Pokesdown, in Hampshire, and a large number, all 
practically normal in size and colouring, were received from 
Rogart and Lairg, in Sutherlandshire (J. M. Munroe). 

Libellula depressa was common and mature in the New Forest 
between May 25th and 28th. It was found in several districts in 
Yorkshire (G. T. Porritt) ; and near Bedford (R. W. Thompson). 
L. quadrimaculata was first seen at the Black Pond on May 12th ; 
on June 9th it was in considerable numbers there, and a var. 
prcenuhila was taken ; it was still about on July 8th. It was found 
at Frensham Great Pond, Surrey (E. B. Bishop) ; Mr. C. A. Briggs 
received some specimens from Mr. McArthur, taken at Stornoway, 
in Lewis ; and Mr. A. M. Stewart sent me one taken by Mr. Duns- 
more in July in the island of Arran (Scotland). British odonatists 

ENTOM. — FEBRUARY, 1902. D 



34 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

will be pleased to hear that the capture of four more specimens of 
L.fulva may be added to the very short British list — three females 
and one male — all taken in 1900 and 1901 between Bournemouth 
and the New Forest. The captures were made by Major Robert- 
son, who works so assiduously the insects of Dorset and Hants. 
The male had not obtained its blue colouring, one of the females 
was very immature, and one at least had the black tip to the wings. 

Ortlietrum ccerulescens was seen in the New Forest, sparingly 
and in teneral condition, between May 27th and 28th ; it was 
very common there as usual in August. 0. cancellatum was found 
on July 7th at Frensham Great Pond, in Surrey, by Messrs. E. B. 
Bishop and W. J. Ashdown. 

Perhaps the most important feature of the season was the 
taking of Oxygastra curtisii by Major Robertson in the old 
locality near Christchurch, in Hampshire. But one capture was 
made, and in fact, though several visits were made to the locality, 
only a few specimens in all were seen. On one occasion the net 
was successfully placed over a female, but she managed to escape. 
The single specimen taken was given to me, and is a male in 
perfect condition. The last previous capture of the species was 
in 1882, when four males were taken. Two visits paid by myself 
to the locality, on July 31st and on August 7th, failed to reveal 
its presence, and we must conclude that the insect is over by' 
that date. The spot where 0. curtisii occurs is not its breeding 
ground clearly, and the question arises, where is the nymph- 
stage passed ? A drainage-pond near at hand, which apparently 
disappears in dry weather, cannot be the place, and a little 
stream, which at times is found connected with the pond, seems 
equally out of the question. The probability is that the species 
breeds in the Stour, a clear, swift stream, often deep, running 
over pebbles and gravel, about a quarter of a mile away. By the 
kindness of a French naturalist, M. Rene Martin, of Le Blanc 
(Indre), I am able to give a description and figure (PI. 1) of the 
nymph of 0. curtisii, made from empty cases which he sent to 
me, and which were obtained from river-banks in the centre of 
France. The skins received were not in very good condition, 
and the species in the nymph-stage being hairy and rugose, the 
skins were covered with earthy matter which was not easily 
removed. It is likely, also, that many hairs and bristles were 
broken off. When living specimens come to hand, it may be 
found necessary to modify the description a little, especially with 
regard to the thorax, and possible also the figure may need a little 
amending where the skin was ruptured by the emergence of the 
imago. Description : Length, from front of face to end^of appen- 
dages, 21*5 mm. ; greatest ividth of abdomen, about 9 mm. Colour, 
a more or less uniform dark brown. Head, transversely 6 mm., 
somewhat less longitudinally; pentangular; surface chiefly rugose, 
except a few smooth patches, notably three on occiput ; a ridge 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1901. 3^ 

of hairs between antennae, a tuft on the vertex, and two tufts 
containmg some very long hairs (or bristles) on occiput ; hind 
margin of occiput concave. Eyes small, bluntly conical (nearly 
spherical) at front lateral corners of head. Antenncs 7-jointed ; 
basal two short and swollen; next three rather longer, more 
slender, and each with a long hair ; distal two longer and quite 
slender, possibly having had a whorl of hairs at one time ; length 
of anteuucie about 4 mm. Mask (PL I. a) large, deeply spoon- 
shaped, covering the face, and reaching back to the insertion of 
the mid-legs; mediam lobe obtusely pointed with slopes slightly 
concave ; lateral lobes with outer lateral margin slightly concave, 
inner lateral margin convex, distal margin finely crenated and 
divided into eight teeth, each bearing spines, on some teeth as 
many as six in number (PL I. h) ; moveable joint rather short, 
blunt* ; mental setfe, eleven in each comb ; lateral setfB, about 
seven on each side (eight in one case). Prothorax narrow, pro- 
duced laterally into a point on each side bearing a few long stiff 
bristles. Pleura rugose, with a few long stiff bristles. Wings 
rough, with scattered long stiff bristles like those on pleura. 
Legs, fore about 105 mm. long, mid about 15 mm., hind about 
18 mm. ; hairy except, apparently, femora of mid and hind pairs, 
which, however, are rough ; they all bear a number of long, 
scattered, stiff' bristles (many broken off) ; the femora with a 
couple of dark bands. Abdomen very rugose ; stiff hairs along 
the distal margin of the segments, these being longer in the mid- 
dorsal line ; one or two still longer stiff bristles among the rest 
on most of the segmental margins ; a slightly lighter mid-dorsal 
line, the colour being a little darker on each side of it ; lateral 
margins hairy, especially in tufts near the front and back of each 
edge of the segment, on segment nine the marginal hairs much 
longer ; lateral hooks on segments eight and nine, those on nine 
being much the longer ; no dorsal hooks. Appendages rough, 
pointed, hind ones a little longer than dorsal one, laterals rather 
more than half hind ones. 

Gomphus vulgatissimus was found fairly numerous between 
25th and 28th May by one of the streams in the New Forest ; but 
specimens were as a rule not very easily taken. They were at that 
date rather immature, and were generally seen settled upon, or 
flying round, some of the larger bushes and small trees. Near 
Oxford, Messrs. A. H. Hamm and W. Holland found the range of 
this insect to be rather more extended than previously. 

Cordidegaster anmdatus was common in some parts of the 
New Forest in August, and on the 3rd of that month a female 
was watched as she was ovipositing in BLickwater stream by 
dipping the tip of her abdomen rather forcibly, but apparently 

'''■ Possibly the points may have been broken off in specimens mounted 
for microscopical examination ; but all were alike. 

D 2 



86 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



quite at random, into the water — in one place amongst loose 
gravel-stones, where practically no water remained. On August 
7th, one was taken near the Stour, at Pokesdown. Mr. G. T. 
Porritt reports the species from Yorkshire. 

Dr. F. A. Walker reports a female Anax imperator, taken on 
Hampstead Heath on May 11th. On June 9th the species was 
common at the Black Pond as usual. On June 26th, one female 
at least was watched ovipositing at Byfleet Canal on a large 
Potamogeton, sometimes in the leaf- stalk, at others in the leaf 
itself, apparently. Messrs. Bishop and Ashdown saw the insect, 
on July 7th, hovering over Frensham Great Pond. 

Brachytron pr'atense. In the spring a number of nymphs 
were procured by Messrs. F. Enock, S. W. Kemp, and myself at 
the Byfleet Canal, in Surrey, and at the Black Pond ; and, later, 
Mr. Enock bred a fair quantity. When dredged up on a rotting 
piece of dead bulrush or sedge, their resemblance to it in form 
and colour is perfect, and the position taken up is well adapted 
either to enable them to lurk unseen for their unsuspecting^-prey, 
or to conceal their presence from some dangerous enemy. The 
habit they have of remaining perfectly inactive when taken or 
touched assists also in the same direction. Imagines were com- 
mon at Byfleet Canal on June 1, and on June 16th I took a female 
at rest at the Black Pond — still another new record for that 
prolific locality. 

Alischna mixta has again been comparatively common in the 
South of England, possibly in consequence of an immigration, 
though personally I think not. The species was again quite 
numerous at the Black Pond in September. It was noticed 
singly at several places in the New Forest in August — a female 
near Einefield on August 5th, a male at Denney Bog on August 
10th (A. B. Higgs), a female at Lady Cross on August 13th, a 
male near Beaulieu Gate on August 15th. In Epping Forest a 
female was taken on September 12th (F. W. Campion), and a 
male on 20th September (H. Campion), both near Chingford. A 
male (12th August) was sent to me from the golf-links at Deal 
(R. J. McOnie). ^E. juncea did not come across my path once 
during the season, but Mr. A. M. Stewart reports it from near 
Paisley, in Renfrewshire, and Mr. C. A. Briggs received the species 
through Mr. McArthur from Stornoway. Of the common sj)ecie8, 
y©. cyanea and JE. grandis, it is scarcely necessary to speak, ex- 
cept to say that the latter seemed to be specially common in one 
or two places. Possibly other collectors may have noticed the 
same thing. M. cyanea was taken (A. B. Higgs) in the New 
Forest, and near Bedford (R. W. Thompson), both new records. 

Calopteryx virgo was taken at Tubney Wood, in Berks (W. 
Holland), on June 2nd. It was a brown male, and if mature, as 
it appeared to be, was var. anceps. On August 5th I noticed one 
in the New Forest which had a very peculiar appearance as it 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1901. 37 

flew, and, a capture being made, it was found that part of one of 
the wings was quite bleached. Major Eobertson shewed me a 
specimen of C. splendens, taken at Holmslea, in the New Forest. 
The species has not, I beheve, been previously noted for the 
Forest. On June 9th, three or four specimens were seen at the 
Black Pond, one apparently being a female ; they no doubt had 
migrated thither from the river Mole. 

Lestes sponsa was reported from Eenfrewshire, near Paisley 
(A. M. Stewart). The presence of Platycnemis pennipes was 
noticed near Byfleet station ; previously it had only been noticed 
much nearer Weybridge. On July 24th the same interesting species 
was found, by no means singly, at the Black Pond (R. South) ; 
but one specimen had previously been recorded for that locality. 
One specimen, at least, was seen in the New Forest, between May 
25th and 28th, the previous earliest I had noted being June 6th. 

Pyrrliosoma nymphula has to be recorded from Renfrewshire, 
near Paisley (A. M. Stewart), while Mr. C. A. Briggs has received 
some Stornoway specimens from Mr. McArthur. P. tenellum 
was, as usual, common in August in the New Forest, where a 
female of var. rubratum was taken on August 10th (S. W. Kemp), 
and two females, intermediate between the type and var. ceneatum, 
on July 28th and August 5th. 

Ischnura pumilio was beginning to appear on May 27th in 
the New Forest, and it is possible that it was not uncommon 
somewhat later, but not one could be seen by the end of July. 
On May 27th and 28th they were found chiefly on swampy 
ground, amongst bog-myrtle, and some circumstances seem to 
point to the fact that they may possibly breed in this swampy 
ground rather than actually in the streams or pools. All but one 
of the females I have taken belong more or less pronouncedly to 
var. aiirantiaca. I. elegans was taken at Stornoway by Mr. 
McArthur for Mr. Briggs ; the specimens, three males and one 
female, were rather small. Mr. A. M. Stewart took the species 
near Paisley, in Renfrewshire. Messrs. Bishop and Ashdown 
captured it on July 7th at Frensham Great Pond, while Mr. South 
found it not uncommon, on July 24th, in one corner of the Black 
Pond, single specimens only having been noticed there before. 
The orange var. rufescens, Steph., was taken at Byfleet Canal on 
June 1st and 26th. 

Agrion pulchellum waa taken on June 5th, near Oxford (W. 
Holland), thus adding a new locality to the rather meagre list for 
this pretty dragonfly. The capture of a male, with the U-shaped 
spot on the second segment detached from the circlet, has already 
been noted in this magazine (Entom. xxxiv. p. 215). A. puella 
was taken in Renfrewshire, near Paisley, by Mr. Stewart, and a 
male was taken, presumably in Epping Forest, in which there 
was a median black line, converting the typical U-shaped spot on 
the second segment into a trident (H. and F. W. Campion). Both 



38 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

sexes of A. mercuriale were taken in the New Forest between 
May 25th and 28th, and the species was still on the wing in the 
beginning of August. Mr. Stewart took Enallagma cyathigerum 
in Eenfrewshire, near Paisley, and Messrs. Ashdown and Bishop 
captured it, on July 7th, at Frensham Great Pond. Mr. McArthur 
captured for Mr. Briggs twenty-four specimens at Stornoway — 
twenty males and four females. The specimens were of good size, 
and in most cases the spot on the second segment was large — in 
one or two cases similar in shape to that on the specimen figured 
in the Ent. Mo. Mag. for 1890, p. 110. On June 26th, at Byfleet 
Canal, I noticed a pair united per collum, and settled upon a leaf 
of Potamogeton, in which the female seemed to be ovipositing 
without going below the surface of the water. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OP GALL-MAKING 
CYNIPIDiE FROM THE N.W. HIMALAYAS. 

By p. Cameron, 

Callirhytis SEMiCARPiroLiiE, sp. nov. 
Ferrugineous ; the antennae, except the basal two joints, the head, 
the greater part of the middle lobe of the mesonotum, the scutellum, 
median segment, the pro- and mesopleurse, except above and the back 
of the abdomen, black; the legs lighter coloured than the body, with 
the tarsi and hinder tibife darker ; the wings clear hyaline, the nervures 
blackish, the cubitus paler. J . Long. 2-5 mm. 

Hah. North-West Himalayas. 

Antennae bare, as long as the body. Head shining, finely acicu- 
lated, bare. Except at the base, the middle lobe of the mesonotum is 
rather strongly transversely striated ; the lateral lobes are minutely, 
obscurely punctured. The parapsidal furrows are complete. Scutellum 
irregularly punctured, its sides at the base are bordered by shining, 
smooth furrows ; in the middle at the base are two narrow, longish 
fove^e. The scutellum is roundly convex, and is not much raised 
above the level of the mesonotum. On the base of the median seg- 
ment is a smooth, shining semicircular broad keel, which is not quite 
so broad in the middle as on the sides. The upper edge of the pro- 
pleurge and the mesopleurse at the base above are rufo-testaceous. 
The median segment bears a thick, white pile. Abdomen smooth and 
shining ; the base and ventral surface are broadly black. The legs 
have a microscopic white pile. Wings long and narrow, clear hyaline ; 
the transverse cubital nervures and the cubitus are paler than the 
others. The areolet is completely closed, slightly oblique, and 
triangular. 

The third joint of the antennae is not much longer than the fourth ; 
the tarsal claws are unidentate ; the antennae are slender and do not 
become thickened towards the apex ; the radial cellule is long and 
narrow and is not quite closed at the base, the nervure being faint 



TO PRESERVE COLOUR IN RELAXING SPECIMENS. 39 

towards the costa ; the median segment is hollowed at the base below 
the curved keel and, in the centre of this part are three not very 
distinct, short, stout longitudinal keels. 

This species was reared from an acorn collected by Mr. E. P. 
Stabbing from Quercus semicarpifolia in North-West Himalayas. 
It agrees better with Callirhytis than with Andricus. One of 
the European species of Callirhytis galls acorns. The Indian 
oak-galls are quite unknown ; and there must be a splendid field 
for any naturalist who would undertake their investigation. The 
type of the species here described is in the British Museum. 



ON METHODS USED TO PRESERVE COLOUR IN 
RELAXING ENTOMOLOGICAL SPECIMENS. 

By Colonel J. G. Pilcher, F.R.C.S. 

Like most of my fellow-workers in Entomology, my attention 
was early called to the invariably altered colour of nearly all the 
blue and green moths submitted to moisture in the relaxing-box ; 
no specimen wholly retained its primitive colour, but became 
more or less yellowed in the process of relaxing. 

The only exception to this rule were the fresh specimens 
which it has been my custom to put into a moist atmosphere 
until the rigor mortis had passed, when they were entirely 
freed from all rigidity, and yielded therefore more readily to the 
touch of the needle than if they had been pinned and allowed to 
partially dry before they are mounted. In passing I would note 
the very great help this method has afforded in dealing with all 
fresh forms, but especially with the small muscular Noctuidse. 
In fresh specimens discoloration was not so frequent, though it 
occasionally did take place in fresh specimens submitted to a 
moist atmosphere for only a few hours. 

The thought occurred to me in 1889 that the cause of dis- 
coloration was free ammonia, due to the decomposition which 
must be presumed to begin in the killing-bottle, and is renewed 
with greater energy when many dried specimens are put into 
the relaxing-box at one time. And even before the alkali has 
tainted the atmosphere of the relaxing-box it would have been 
conducted to all parts of the specimen by its nervures and their 
branches. 

A volatile acid suggested itself as a fit antagonist to the 
ammonia, and carbolic acid seemed specially suitable, but its 
vapour was apparently not diffusive enough, nor did it neutralize 
the ammonia as produced. 

Glacial acetic acid was found to answer best. I placed a 
small capsule or measure-glass of this acid in the relaxing-box — 



40 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

60-90 drops as a charge — and renewed it as it evaporated, and 
this method I have used for many years. 

The relaxing-box or vessel which appears to afford advan- 
tages above all others is a glass cylinder, covered with a round 
disk of glass ground to fit accurately. Into this cylinder is 
placed a tripod of glass, to hold the clock-glass upon which the 
specimens are to rest. Distilled water to the depth of half an 
inch is put into the cylinder. The latter is then placed over a 
Bunsen's burner, with wire gauze over it, and the water allowed 
to boil for five minutes or more. On allowing the vessel to cool, 
a partial vacuum is produced, and the cover must be removed 
with care some hours afterwards, when the specimens to be 
relaxed and the acetic acid are then inserted. 

The vessel cannot remain completely sterilized because of the 
frequent movement of specimens to and from it, but heat can be 
applied from time to time, and it can be kept, as free as possible, 
from those spores which do germinate with marvellous rapidity 
in the saturated atmosphere of the relaxing-box. 

The requisites for this relaxing-chamber can be procured for 
a few shillings from Messrs. J. J. Griffin & Sons, 20, Sardinia 
Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 

A casual remark by Sir Geo. Hampson on the loss of colour 
of specimens in the relaxing-box led to an explanation as to the 
method I adopted, which he has been good enough to test for 
several months in the Natural History Museum, and with such 
satisfactory results that he encouraged me to make a note of the 
method for the benefit of fellow-workers. 

These notes are the reply to his request, which it gives me 
great pleasure to send to him. 

5, Stanley Crescent, W. : 16 Jan., 1902. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF THEEE NEW BUTTERFLIES FROM 

EAST AFRICA. 

By Emily Mary Sharpe. 

ACR^A BAXTERI, Sp. U. 

Closely allied to A. insignis, Distant, but is at once dis- 
tinguished by the clear transparent band on the apical area of 
the fore wing. 

Primaries. Basal half ferruginous red, the outline irregular 
where it joins the dusky brown terminal portion of the wing ; a 
transverse line of three transparent spots, situated above the third 
median nervule, and between the first and second radial nervules, thus 
relieving the apical area of the wing. Costa dusky brown, the ex- 
treme base with black streaks, one of the latter extending for a little 



THKEE NEW BUTTERFLIES FROM EAST AFRICA. 41 

way along the inner margin. Secondaries. The entire diseal area 
ferruginous, the basal half decidedly black, faintly suffused with 
ferruginous towards the costal margin ; the hind margin narrowly 
lined with brownish black ; the veins on both wings blackish. Under 
side. Primaries similar to those of A. insiguis, but showing the trans- 
parent band, and with the general colour somewhat lighter. Second- 
aries more sombre in colour than in the allied form ; the diseal area 
greyish white, relieved by the black nervules, the hind margin having 
deep chestnut-brown spots between the nervules ; the basal area 
chestnut-brown, thickly spotted with heavy black dots, a distinct 
line of these spots outlining the outer edge of the basal half of the 
wing. Expanse, 2*1 in. 

Hob. Mpapwa, German East Africa (Dr. J. W. Baxter). 

ACR^A OCHRASCENS, Sp. 11. 

Similar to the species of the A.serena group, but distinguished 
by the pale yellow ground colour of the wings. 

Primaries. General colour pale ochre-yellow, the brown spots and 
markings agreeing with those of A. serena, Fabr., but somewhat lighter 
in colour ; the hind marginal border relieved by six small spots of pale 
ochre, tinged with deeper yellow. Secondaries. Ground colour pale 
ochre-yellow ; the brown hind margiu with the lighter dots similar to 
those of the primaries ; basal area dusky brown ; a faint black streak 
visible at the end of the cell. Under side. Primaries pale yellow, 
slightly darker in colour on the hind margin ; the light nervules 
heavily streaked with black on the marginal area ; the usual black 
mark at the end of the cell much reduced in size. Secondaries : 
Ground colour pale yellow, with the usual black and red spots on the 
basal area ; the hind marginal border consisting of spear-shaped 
marks outlined with black, the usual light nervules having black 
streaks down the centres ; between each of these hastate marks are 
distinct spots of ferruginous red ; this submargiual border broadest 
near the costa and towards the anal angle ; on the extreme edge of the 
marginal border a row of light yellow spots, but slightly smaller than 
in A. serena. Expanse, 1"1 in. 

Hah. Entebbe, Uganda, March to May, 1895 (F. J. Jack- 
son coll.). 

Elymnias rattrayi, sp. n. 

Similar to E. phegea, Fabr., in colour, but easily distinguished 
by the white band on the secondaries. The female closely re- 
sembles E. hammakoo, Westw., but the white mark on the 
primaries is larger, and the white streak on the inner margin is 
only faintly indicated, while the white band on the secondaries 
is almost obsolete. 

(?. Primaries. Ground colour of the primaries brown, crossed 
near the apical area by a broad transverse band of bright yellow, 
extending a little below the first median nervule ; an ovate spot of 
yellow near the posterior angle, and almost connected to the conspicu- 
ous yellow baud by a faint suffusion of yellow. Secondaries. A broad 



42 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

border of brown along the hind margin, this colour again represented 
on the basal area, with a distinct white baud crossing the centre of 
the wing, and becoming narrower towards the costal margin. Under 
side. Basal area of the primaries brown, with fine wavy lines of white 
in the discoidal cell ; the yellow band distinctly indicated, and extend- 
ing to the hind margin between the first and second median nervules ; 
the apical area lighter brown, thickly covered with wavy lines of 
brownish white. Basal area and costal margin of the secondaries deep 
reddish brown, relieved by five lines of black, somewhat disconnected 
towards the extreme base ; the white band streaked on the inner margin 
with brown ; the broad hind marginal border of brown thickly traversed 
by innumerable wavy lines of brownish white. Expanse, 8 in. 

? . Primaries. General colour brown, relieved by a large white 
band near the apical area, extending just over the first median nervule ; 
a faint streak of white visible near the centre of the inner margin. 
Secotidaries. Ground colour brown, with an almost obsolete band of 
greyish white crossing the central area of the wing ; this colour most 
strongly pronounced towards the inner margin. Under side. Primaries 
similar to those of the male, with the exception that the white band 
is replaced by a yellow one ; between the first and second median ner- 
vules are two tawny yellow spots. Secondaries not different in colour 
and markings from those of the male above described. Expanse, 
3-1 in. 

Hah. Entebbe, Uganda, June, 1900 {Capt. H. B. Rattray). 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

GoRDius IN A Butterfly. — In the 'Entomologist,' vol. xxv. (1892), 
p. 247 and 291, is a notice of a hair-worm emerging from a butterfly. 
I have met with a precisely similar case. A specimen of Erebia 
enryale, female, taken at Mendel (Tyrol) in 1895, presents, on being 
taken out of paper, two ends (of one or two worms '?) of Gordins pro- 
jecting from the cephalo-thoracic joint ; they are brown, coiled, and 
shrivelled, but, even so, are each between a half and three-quarters of 
an inch long, and would probably be about one inch and one and a half 
inch respectively, if straightened out. One often meets with these 
worms emerging from larvas, especially in some seasons, but they are 
decidedly rarer in imagines. These two cases are curiously parallel in 
both being Satyrids, in the worm emerging at the same point, and in 
their giving no evidence of their existence at the time the insect was 
captured. The interest 'of these specimens is chiefly in their being 
exceptions to the almost invariable rule, that parasites in the Lepido- 
ptera destroy their hosts before they reach the imaginal stage. — T. A. 
Chapman ; Betula, Eeigate, January, 1902. 

NoTODONTA DRYiNOPA, Lower. — It has already been shown how the 
large Anthereae cut out of their hard and tough cocoons [ante, p. 10). 
I now have pleasure in furnishing notes upon the above insect, which 
also constructs a hard but more breakable cocoon. These cocoons are 
formed mostly of small fragments of bark and wood, bitten out of the 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 43 

surface around which the cocoou is constructed. Upon examining a 
cocoon, a piece will be found to have been removed for the escape of 
the moth ; this piece is not broken out, but is cut or pierced out, the 
fragment usually falling back into its place when the moth emerges. 
I have not observed the insect removing this roundish piece, but as I 
cannot detect any special instrument in the moth, there can be only 
one explanation as to the manner in which it is cut out, i. e. that it is 
done by the chrysalis, for the remarkable spike with which it is 
provided can be for no other purpose than for piercing the cocoon ; 
this instrument is really double, though it looks like one piece. It is 
certainly extraordinary how the chrysalis, which is shorter than the 
cocoon, can expand sufficiently to be enabled to bring this spike to 
work upon the upper end of the cocoon. All the " Zeuzeridte " 
pupffi are provided with stout but blunt "beaks," each species different, 
with which they break or push out, whole, the strong and thick wad 
which encloses them in their bores ; they then work halfway out of 
their bores before they split open their shells, and the moths crawl 
out; but this sharp-spiked pupa is altogether strange in my expe- 
riences. I regard it as extremely probable that many other of our 
Bombycidffi, which construct hard cocoons, are provided in the pupal 
state with special cutting or breaking instruments. Several of the 
" Xyloryctidfe " (Tineidae) are provided with extraordinary head-pieces 
to enable them to get through the thick " felt "-like constructions 
with which they securely fasten themselves in their chambers. This 
by the way, Eeverting to our Notodonta, it may be noticed that the 
larva is a queer-looking creature, with its flat and widened out tail- 
segments ; this ta,il is turned over the larva's back when it rests; it 
is veined, and so formed as to present a striking resemblance to a 
young leaf of the tree [Tertninalia, sp. ?)upon which it feeds. The full- 
grown larva is dull green, head nearly black ; very small caterpillars 
are coffee-brown ; they all have the raised, flattened-out "tail," which, 
however, is lowered during progression. — F. P. Dodd ; Warburton 
Street, Townsville, Queensland. 

Note on a Habit of Cyaniris (Lyc^ena) argiolus. — (J. artjiolus was 
very comm.ou in this neighbourhood last year, and I noticed a curious 
habit of the imago wliich I have not observed in other butterflies. 
The insect, while sitting on a leaf or flower, will move the lower 
wings — not spreading them out as in flight, but vertically up and 
down, like a lever works. I believe I have seen both male and female 
moving the lower wings in this manner. — Alfred Sigh ; 65, Barrow- 
gate Koad, Chiswick, Jan. 6th, 1902. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPos IN WESTMORELAND. — This specics lias been again 
present in our district during the year 1901, upwards of a dozen larvae 
and pupfe having been found in difi'erent parts, and four of these have 
fallen to my lot. No. 1 pupated Aug. 20tli ; emerged Oct. 6th. 
No. 2 pupated Sept. 21st ; emerged Nov. 19th. No. 3 pupated Sept. 
21st; not yet emerged. No. 4 (pupa) put to force Nov. 23rd; 
emerged Jan. 10th, 1902. The first three were received as unearthed 
larvae, and turned almost immediately. Ten days after pupation they 
were laid on dry soil, and put to force in an absolutely dry atmosphere 
of seventy to eighty degrees, not allowed even atmospheric moisture. 



44 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

which hitherto I have considered a necessity. Nos. 1 and 2 would 
have emerged, I believe, without forcing, only a little later than the 
dates given. No. 4 changed to a dark colour on Dec. 20th, and as it 
lost weight considerably, I believed it to be dying. It proved, how- 
ever, to be a case of slow development, for on Jan. 10th this year, a 
fine moth emerged. No. 3 is still healthy, but unchanged in colour. 
Both these latter would, I suppose, in a natural way, have "gone over" 
till June this year. The experiment of keeping the pupse dry during 
forcing, although as yet not sufficiently extensive to be regarded as 
conclusive, still leads me to think that with this species a system of 
forcing, allowing absolute dryness or at most slight atmospheric 
moisture, offers the best prospect of success. There is no doubt that 
specimens which naturally would emerge the same year will often do 
so in spite of excessive moisture, but there is a risk, I think, in 
applying this treatment to pupa; which would ordinarily " lie over," 
and in the case of the former, if moisture is not really necessary to 
their successful emergence, there is little use being at the trouble of 
providing it. — Frank Littlewood ; Lynn Garth, Kendal, Westmore- 
land, Jan. 12th, 1902. 

Chcerocampa celerio. — In April, ova, and larvfe in various stages 
of growth, were to be found freely upon a fleshy-leaved and spreading 
weed. I took a number of the larger larvae, leaving any uuder an inch 
in length, and noticed, particularly in the larger specimens, small 
marks or scars upon their backs, and feared they were caused by para- 
sites ; however, they fed up and attained full growth, some spinning 
the pupal web, .but not a single example changed ; all sickened and 
died, and produced maggots of a rather large grey dipteron. A fresh 
lot of smaller larvae was selected, care being taken that all with any 
discernible marks were rejected ; still many proved to be stung, and 
several healthy pupa only resulted. As the ova depositing continued 
during May, and even into June and July, I obtained as many of the 
moths as I desired, emergence taking place about three weeks after 
pupation, several having appeared this month. It may be mentioned 
that June and July are our coldest months ; further, that this locality 
is in a dry belt of country, and that to find a hawk-moth in all its 
stages at such a time is very unusual, the early emergence being 
interesting from the fact that the weather is cold, and Lepidoptera can 
scarcely be met with. The most interesting point concerning celerio 
now in my possession is that fully half of the moths have emerged 
between eight a.m. and ten a.m., the others appearing during the 
evening, but they are very sluggish, and can safely be left all day or 
night, even longer. No doubt they would soon become lively if placed 
in the sun , the shade temperature here seldom being so low as seventy 
at midday. In Brisbane district Sphinx casuarincE larvas may be freely 
found in May and June, but the moths do not appear for several 
months. Altogether I examined scores, even hundreds, of celerio 
larvEe, but I failed to discover a single specimen of any size with- 
out the tell-tale parasitic marks. — F. P. Dodd ; Warburton Street, 
Townsville, Queensland. 

Two Notes on Cyaniris argiolus. — On May 10th, 1901, I noticed a 
female of this species fluttering round a rhododendron in my garden 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 45 

here, and on closer examination I saw her deposit an egg on one of 
the unespanded flower-buds. This rhododendron, of which the flowers 
are white sHghtly flushed with pink, is named " purity." During 
the first week in July I beat some fifty argiolus larvae off holly at 
Danbury. They were of all sizes. I had never obtained many wild 
larvsB of this species before, and was surprised to find how many pro- 
duced ichneumons. — (Kev.) Gilbert H. Eaynor ; Hazeleigh Kectory, 
Maldon, Essex, Jan. 8th, 1902. 

Emergence of Melanippe galiata in December. — In the autumn of 
last year I fed up a couple of batches of M. galiata, one of which 
pupated between Sept. 21st and 25th, and it was a surprise to me, on 
examining the cage in which they were kept, to find six freshly 
emerged imagines on the morning of Dec. 8th. The cage in which 
the larvffi were fed up, and in which the pupje remained, had through- 
out the whole time been protected from rain and the direct sunshine, 
but otherwise fully exposed to the weather. The 8th was a particu- 
larly mild day, with a fresh south-west breeze, and warm rain-showers, 
the shade-temperature reaching 55 degrees, while the minimum of the 
preceding night had not fallen below 52 degrees. — Robt. Adkin ; 
Lewisham, December, 1901. 

The Entomological Club. — A meeting of this ancient Club was 
held at the Holborn Restaurant on June 14th last, on the invitation 
of the host of the evening, Mr. G. H. Verrall. The reception was 
held in the Entomological Salon, and the guests and members of the 
Club commenced to arrive soon after 6.30 p.m. By 8 o'clock there 
was quite a large assemblage of notables in the entomological world. 
Several only paid a short visit, but nearly seventy sat down to a most 
recherche supper, which was served about 9 o'clock. Mr. Verrall, in 
proposing the toast of the evening — " The prosperity of the Entomo- 
logical Club " — very properly embraced the opportunity afforded by 
the occasion to refer at some length to the ballot that was to take 
place in another place on the following evening. His remarks on this 
head were thoroughly impartial in character, but at the same time 
very much to the purpose. Further reference to the oration cannot 
be made, however, without infringing the privileges of a guest, or 
abusing the hospitality of the host. 

The pleasure of the evening was again contributed to by Mr. M. 
Jacoby, who, accompanied by his son on the piano, enchanted the 
company by his delightful performance on the violin. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Notes from East Suffolk, 1901. — The list of insects appended 
below, and taken here during the last season, may possibly be of 
interest, a few of the species at any rate being, I believe, somewhat 
rare or local in this county. The earlier summer months were 
certainly very productive of insect life ; but it has been a peculiar 
season, and I have been disappointed in the non-occurrence of many 
autumn insects ; ivy, as far as my experience goes, has been very 
unremunerative. 



46 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Insects taken at sugar were as follows : — 

Thijatira derasa, T. hatis, Cyiiiatophora ocularis, Acronycta jjsi, A. 
leporina (one), Leucania conigera, L. litltargyria, L. comma, L. impura, 
L. pallcns (four beautiful dark-red varieties), Hydrcecia nictitans (some 
nice varieties), H. micacea, Aa-ylia putris, Xylophasiarnrea, X. litlwxylea, 
X. polyodon, X. hcpatica, Dipteryyia pinastri, Neuria saponaria (abun- 
dant both at sugar and lilac bloom), Ceriyo cytherea, Mamestra ahjecta, 
M. anceps (abundant), M. hrassicce, M. persicaricB, Apahiea basilinea, A. 
yemina (var. remissa and many nice forms), A. fibrosa (both varieties), 
A. oculea, Minna strigilis, M. fasciuncula, M. furuncida, Grammesia tri- 
linea, Caradrina morpheus, C. blanda, C, cubicidaris, Puusina tenebrosa, 
Ayrotis valliyera (one), A. puta, A. suffusa (June brood), A. seyetum, A. 
exclamationis, A. corticea, A. nigricans, A. tritici, A. aquilina, Triphana 
ianthina, T. interjecta (especially fond of sugared tansy), 2\ orbona, T. 
pronuba, Noctaa auynr, N. plecta, N. c-niyrum, N. triangulum, N. rhom- 
boidea (one), X, brannea (one), N. /estiva, N. rnbi, N. ambrosa N.xantho- 
yrapha, Tmiiocampa gothica, T. instabilis, T. stabilis, T. munda, T. cruda, 
Orthosia lota, 0. macilenta, Atichochelis pistacina, A. lunosa, A. litura, 
Cerastis vaccinii, C spadicea, Scopelosoma satdlitia, Xantlda gilvago, 
X. ferruginea, Cosmia trapezina, C. a^ffinis, Hecatera serena (one), Miselia 
oryacanthiE, Pldoyoplwra vieticulosa, Euplexia lucipara, Aplecta iiebidosa, 
A. adrena (very plentiful), Hadena protea, H. dentina, H. chenopodii 
(specimens kept appearing from the early part of June to quite the end 
of August), H. suasa, H. oleracea, H. thalassina, H yenistcc, Xylina 
rhizolitha, Gonoptera libatrix, Ampkipyra pyranddea, A. tragopogonis, 
Mania typica, M. maura, Catocala nupta. A small number of Geo- 
metry and Micros also appeared. 

My illuminated moth -trap added a few species, but on the whole I 
did not find light very attractive, possibly because I did not hit upon 
the right place to set my trap. Ccriyo cythera seems to have a special 
penchant for light, more so than for sugar, and came in numbers ; and, 
amongst others, I may mention Nola confusalis, Lnphopteryx camelina, 
Cilix ylaucata, Charcias yraminis, Calamia liitosa, Epione apiciaria, 
Selenia lunaria, Odontopera bidentata, Himera pennaria, Acidalia bi- 
setata, A. trigeyninata (this insect also comes freely to sugar), A. rubiyi- 
nata {lubricata), A. emarginata, A. proinutata, &c. From reed-beds at 
dusk, in addition to some of the Leucaniidse already noted, Lencania 
straminea (a few), Calamia phragmitidis (in some plenty), Nonagria 
neurica (one), together with examples of Chilo pliragmitclhis, were 
secured. The reed-beds were only worked at dusk, three rather windy 
nights during the second v/eek in August. AspUates citraria was 
plentiful in a clover-field, and many other Geometra? were met with 
on the wing at dusk. I took a few Micros, but was unable to devote 
much time to them. Spldnx conrolndi appeared on August 15th, and 
September brought quite an army of them, but for the most part in 
bad condition, until the first week in October, when there seemed to 
be a fresh emergence and I took five or six perfect specimens. My 
experience in this respect seems to tally with that of Mr. J. H. 
Fowler [vide Entom. Nov. 1901, p. 321). Larvae and pupje of Acherontia 
atropos have not been uncommon. All the Noctu^ mentioned as 
taken at sugar occurred within a very small area, comprising some 
two and a half acres of cultivated garden-land and pasture, with a 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 47 

small copse, mainly composed of oak, ash and elm, adjoining, and 
situated about a quarter of a mile or less from some salt marshes bor- 
dering the river Deben. 

I would like to remark upon the attractions of lilac and arbutus. 
The former was a great bait for Neuria saponarm and Diantluecia cap- 
sincola, not to speak of many others. Tiie charms of arbutus, too, 
seem great. Happening to notice bees and wasps and other insects 
swarming around its blossoms by day, I suspected it might prove 
equally attractive to motlis at night, and I was not deceived, for 
though I found only common species, the number of these afforded by 
a large shrub of arbutus in full bloom compared very favourably with 
what I saw on the same nights at ivy, the latter being also fully out in 
the near vicinity. I may add, sugared flowers upon many occasions 
added to the bag, when tree-trunks and posts were entirely unproductive. 
(Eev.) A. P. Waller; Hemley Rectory, Woodbridge, Nov. 21st, 1901. 

LEPmopTERA AT WiTHERSLACK. — Two days, July 7th and 8th, on the 
well-known Witherslack Mosses proved very successful. A very fine 
and long series of Hyria anroraria (all of the dark purple form) were 
secured ; one or two worn females laid a small batch of ova, and I have 
succeeded in rearing half a dozen moths ; these emerged on January 
2nd this year. Nemeophila russiila was also exceptionally abundant, a 
grand lot of females being taken ; I obtained a quantity of ova of this 
species also, and was successful in rearing a very complete second brood, 
not more than three out of about sixty-six refusing to feed up, thirty-three 
females and twenty-seven males being bred the last week in September. 
C(ciio)njmpha davas was over, only a few worn ones being seen. Acidcdia 
fumata was also over, although a few nice females were secured, after 
much picking. Eupithecia nanata was fairly common and in fine con- 
dition ; whilst Lasiocampja [Bomb>jx) quercus di&shedi about at a terrific pace. 
Lijcmia agon males were m evidence, but no females were observed. — 
C. P. Johnson ; Brenuington Crescent, Stockport, Jan. 22nd, 1902. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — December Qth, 1901. — The 
Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the chair. — Mr. 
Frederick E. S. Adair, Flixton Hall, Bungay ; Mr. William Anning, 
Box Hill, Surrey, and 39, Lime Street, London, E.C. ; Mr. Edward 
Connold, 7, Magdalen Terrace, St. Leonards-on-Sea ; Mr. Frederick 
Muir, 86, Christchurch Street, Ipswich ; Mr. R. Shelford, The 
Museum, Sarawak, Borneo ; and Mr. John Waddington, 38, Leicester 
Grove, Blackmail Lane, Leeds, were elected Fellows of the Society. — 
Mr. J. H. Carpenter exhibited a number of Coliaa hyale bred from ova 
laid by the parent butterfly taken at Sheerness, August 18th, 19U0. 
Mr. J. W. Tutt said that twelve months ago there was no reliable 
evidence as to the stage in which hyale passed the winter, but that 
Mr. Carpenter had proved that it hybernates in the larval state, and 
pupates and emerges in the spring. No one has yet successfully bred 
G. ediisa through the winter, as they do not and cannot feed up these 
in this country. Hyale, on the other hand, is perfectly quiescent 



48 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

during the winter months (October 20th to February 3rd, according 
to Mr. Carpenter's observation), and nothing would induce the larvfe 
to feed at that period even when subjected to a temperature of 
between 60"" and 70° Fahrenheit. In the South of Europe and in 
North Africa both species emerge normally in May or earlier, and the 
larvae attempt in Great Britain to follow out their natural habit, with 
the result that the great majority must perish, especially in the case 
of C. edasa. The complete life history has been most accurately 
described by Mr. F. W. Frohawk in the ' Entomologist ' for June, 
1901. — Mr. R. S. Standen exhibited specimens of Lyccena dolus, 
the type from Bordighera, and also Pierifi brassivoe. with greenish 
under wings, a common form in the neighbourhood of Florence. Mr. 
C. P. Pickett exhibited pupa-cases of Saturnia pavonia, one with two 
openings, one with no openings, and a third containing three pupae, 
from only one of which the imago had emerged. Mr. J. W. Tutt said 
that this phenomenon was not unusual in the case of silkworms, and 
commonly occun-ed also in the case of artificially bred Lasiocampa 
lancstris, being probably due to overcrowding, but he did not know 
that there was any evidence how the work was done. — The Rev. A. E. 
Eaton exhibited adult Fsychodida; of morphological interest, preserved 
in cork tubes with two per cent, formic aldehyde in distilled water. 
— (1) Pericoma notabUis, Etn., as a sample of male flies retaining 
prothoracic air nipples, such as Curtis figured (Brit. Ent. xvi. 745, 
1839), and are possessed by pupae of both sexes, illustrated both by 
Mial and Walker and by Fritz Miiller in the volume of the ' Trans- 
actions ' of this Society for 1895 ; also by Kellogg, Ent. News, xii. 48, 
figs. A, B. (Feb., 1901). Pericoma soleata, Hal. MS., has similar small 
claviform air-nipples on the prothorax; and so have some undescribed 
species more nearly related to P. notabUis, natives of Middle Europe 
or of Algeria. (2) Male flies possessing erectile sacs, or else protrusible 
tentacles arising one on each side of the mesothorax near the spiracle, 
and receiving a strong branch from the main trachea of each side. In 
the state of contraction these sacs or tentacles resemble a tuft of hair 
which is very dense in some flies; by their distension, the tufts are 
either spread open, or the tuft is resolved into scattered hairs distri- 
buted over at least the whole of the upper surface of the tentacle. 
These organs are probably subservient to sexual attraction, and 
perhaps secrete scent. A few males possess them in addition to the 
pair of prothoracic air-nipples — for instance P. fiisca and the species 
figured by Curtis, P. aiiriculata (both exhibited) ; but more species are 
possessors of the meso-pleural pair of appendages alone. The two 
species last named differ in the shape of their thoracic appendages 
now under consideration : the male P. fusca has short, chitinous, 
slightly curved prothoracic air-nipples, and short nipple-like meso- 
pleural appendages that spread a dense epaulet-like tuft of hair ; while 
P. anriculata has slender club-shaped whitish prothoracic air-nipples, 
and meso-pleural tentacles that are clad with silky hair and are 
capable of great extension. But in the majority of species furnished 
with this kind of tracheate appendages issuing from the meso-thorax, 
those of the prothorax are absent ; and some have appendages of the 
sac form, others of the tentacular form. Among the exhibits, Uloimjia 
fuliginosa, Pericoma nitbila and trivialis are exponents of the short, 



SOCIETIES. 49 

nipple-like, erectile, sac- shaped meso-pleural type of appendage seen in 
P. fusi-a ; while Pcriroma palusitris, mutna and the nameless species 
from the Schwarzwald, together with P. cognata, which was not 
exhibited, have the tentacular type of meso-pleural appendage seen 
in P. auriculata. Mr. H. St. J. Douisthorpe read a paper entitled 
" The Life-history of Ch/thra qiiadnpiinctata," and Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy 
communicated "A Memoir upon the Rhynchotal Family Capsidce." — 
H, Rowland Brown, M.A., Hon. Sec. 

Jan.. 15th, 69th Annual Meeting. — The Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., 
F.L.S., President, in the chair. — After an abstract of the Treasurer's 
accounts, showing a large balance in the Society's favour, had been read 
by Colonel Yerbury, R.A., one of the Auditors, Mr. H. Goss, one of the 
Secretaries, read the Report of the Council. It was then announced 
that the following had been elected Officers and Council for the 
Session 1902-1903 :— President, the Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S. ; 
Treasurer, Mr. Robert McLachlan, F.R.S. ; Secretaries, Mr. Herbert 
Goss, F.L.S. , and Mr. Henry Rowland-Brown, M.A. ; Librarian, Mr. 
George C. Champion, F.Z.S. ; and as other Members of Council, Mr. 
R. Adkiu, Professor T. Hudson Beare, F.R.S.E. ; Mr. Arthur J. 
Chitty, M.A. ; Mr. W. L. Distant, Mr. F. DuCane Godman, D.C.L. ; 
F.R.S. ; the Rev. Francis D. Morice, M.A. ; Professor E. B. Poulton, 
D.Sc, F.R.S.; Mr. Edward Saunders, F.L.S.; Dr. David Sharp, 
M.A., F.R.S. ; and Colonel C. Swinhoe, M.A., F.L.S. The President 
announced that he should appoint Dr. F. DuCane Godman, F.R.S., 
Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. ; aud Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., as Vice- 
Presidents for the Session 1902-1903. The President referred to the 
losses the Society had sustained during the past Session by the deaths 
of Mr. C. E. Collins; the Rev. Professor William P. Dickson, D.D. ; 
Dr. H. W. Livett, M.D. ; Mr. Lionel de Niceville, F.L.S. ; Miss 
Eleanor Ormerod, LL.D.; and Mr. H. Vivian, M.A. He then 
delivered an Address, in which he dwelt chiefly with the question of 
protective resemblance and mimicry in the case of the Coleoptera. At 
the conclusion of the Address a vote of thanks to the President was 
proposed by Professor Poulton, seconded by Professor Meldola, and 
carried. A vote of thanks to the other officers was tben proposed by 
Colonel Swinhoe, seconded by Mr. Distant, and carried. Canon 
Fowler, Mr. Goss, and Mr. Rowland-Brown replied, and the pro- 
ceedings terminated. — H. Goss and H. Rowland-Brown, Hoyi. Sees, 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Nocember 28th, 1901.— Mr. W. J. Lucas, B.A.,F.E.S., Vice-President, in 
the chair. The evening was set apart for a special exhibition of 
varieties and notable captures. A considerable number of members 
and friends attended, and a large number of specimens were exhibited. 
— Mr. Carpenter exhibited a long and fine bred series of ( 'alias hyale, 
from ova laid by a female from Sheerness, taken Aug. 18th, 1900. — 
Mr. Lucas, male and female of the rare British dragonfly Libel lulafulva, 
taken near Bournemouth by Major Robertson ; male Oxygastra curtisii 
from the same district ; and male, female, and female var. aurantiaca 
of Ischnura elegans, from the New Forest. He also showed two large 
and perfect bubble-shells, Haminea hydatis, from South Devon, with a 
curious thickened and eroded specimen of Anodonta anatina, from the 

ENTOM. — FEBRUARY, 1902. E 



50 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

New Forest. — Mr. Aslidown, extreme variations in size of the following 
Coleoptera : — Clytua arietis, G. mysticus, Molochus minor, and Pachyta 
ceramhyciformis. — Mr. West, a species of Homoptera, Stictocoris flaveolus , 
new to the British list, and taken by himself near Blackiieath, in 
August and September, 1901. — Mr. Thornthwaite, a dark Hyhernia 
defoliaria, taken by him on his way to the meeting. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, 
a beautiful series of Ambulyx rostralis, a South and Central American 
Sphingid, with specimens of var. yanascus, which some consider a 
species. Also he showed a single specimen of a new species of Ambulyx, 
which he taken during the past summer, while on an expedition to the 
interior of British Guiana. — Messrs. Harrison and Main, varied series 
of (1) Triphama comes from various localities, including the Isle of 
Lewis; (2) Ayrotis tritici from Isle of Lewis and Wallasey ; (3) Odonto- 
pera bidentata ; (4) Camptoyraiiniia bilineata ; and (5) jSlelanippe sociata, 
all from the Isle of Lewis. — Mr. E. Adkin, several of the same species 
from the Isle of Lewis, with Noctna xanthoynipha, particularly fine and 
varied Boarmia repandata, Coremia ferruyata, and Xylophasia mono- 
ylypha. He also showed an example of Pieris daplidice, with Colias 
hyale and C. ediisa, taken at Eastbourne, 1901. — Mr. Montgomery, a 
very fine bred series of Pieris napi, including a number of fine 
examples of var. bryonice, from ova laid by a female taken by Mr. Har- 
rison at Meyringen, July 9th, 1900 ; a series of bred Leiicophasia 
sinapis, consisting of four broods from females sent alive to him from 
Malvern ; and bred series of Aryynnis paphia and var. valezina from 
New Forest ova. — Mr. Porritt, black forms of Pharetra menyanthidis 
from Selby ; Mania typica, with a large pale pinkish V-shaped mark 
across each wing ; Cosmia trapezina, with central baud dark olive- 
green ; black Larentia mtdtistriyaria ; a yellow Anchocelis rufina ; and a 
black Odontopera bidentata ; all from Yorkshire. — Mr. Garrett, Sphinx 
convolvidi from Wilts, September, 1901 ; Miselia oxyacantlm and var. 
capucina from Wimbledon ; Epiinda lutulenta taken off ripe black- 
berries at Reading ; Dasycanrpa rubiyinea from Berkshire ; and Tanio- 
cavipa pupuleti ixoxn. Wimbledon Common. — Mr. Chittenden, Lithosia 
sericea ; var. confiuens of Anthrocera trifolii; black Nyssia hispidaria ; 
Zunosoma pendalaria, blue from Lancashire, light from Kent ; Cymato- 
phora duplaris, black, bred, from Kent; dark Pachetra leucophaa ; dark 
Hybernia maryinaria, Kent; &c. — Mr. Brown (G. B.), a specimen of 
Euvanessa antiopa taken by his little boy at Lee, together with a 
Sphinx concolvuli taken at Lydd, the former on Aug. 24th, and the. 
latter on Sept. 14th. — Major Ficklin, two very pale DiantJmcia luteayo 
var. Jicklini, and one with suffused marking ; together with an ex- 
ample of Brenthis selene with very dark under wings. — Mr. Stanley 
Edwards, several species of the "leaf" butterflies, Kallima, and 
a box of exotic PapiUos. — Dr. Chapman, Pieris brassicce with black 
marginal line on hind wing ; Aryynnis adippe var. chlorodippe with 
black suffusion ; and a dark variety of Melitcua athalia from Spain. 
— Mr. Rowland-Brown, series of Lycmna dolus var. vittata from 
Cannes, and L. admetiis var. rippertii for comparison ; a var. of MelitcBa 
cinxia with the black spots on the under side almost absent ; and 
Aryynnis lathonia with the left lower wing abnormally small. — Mr. 
Sich, small dark var. of Aylais urticce ; two varieties of Xylophasia 
polyodon, one having a dark median band, the other with confluent 



SOCIETIES. 51 

stigmata ; a Plusia fjamma having the y mark reduced to a pale 
spot. 

December \1th. — Mr. W. J. Lucas, Vice-President, in the chair. — 
Mr. Newnham, Hersham, Surrey, was elected a member. — Mr. 
MacArthur exhibited a male specimen of Lasiocawpa quercus taken at 
Brighton, and having the female coloration. — Mr. Kirkaldy, a specimen 
of the Heteropteron Pu'duviolus Jems ?, having the wings on one side 
brachypterous and on the other macropterous. — Mr. F. M. B. Carr, a 
bred series of Selenia illunaria, compared with the female parents, 
and showing considerable variation ; series of Ennomos angularia from 
several localities, for comparison ; Dicijcla oo from Chingford ; varied 
series of BnjopJdla muralia from Hythe ; and series of Acidalia mar- 
ginepunctata from Hythe and Porloek, the latter being much the 
darker. — Dr. Chapman read a paper entitled, " A few weeks in Central 
Spain, and exhibited long and varied series of the Spanish forms of 
British Lepidoptera, and of species very closely related to British 
species. — Hy. J. Turner [Ron. Report Secy.). 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The monthly 
meeting was held on Dec. 9th, 1901, in the Grosvenor Museum, 
Chester, where the members were most cordially received by the 
Curator, Mr. Robert Newstead, and Dr. H. Dobie. The Vice-President, 
Mr. R. Wilding, occupied the chair. — The chairman, on behalf of the 
Society, thanked Mr. Newstead for his handsome donation to the 
library of a copy of the first volume of his work on the scale insects 
entitled, ' A Monograph of the British Coccidfe.' This valuable con- 
tribution to the science of entomology has been published by the Eay 
Society, and contains thirty-nine plates from original drawings by the 
author. The work, purely a labour of love, is not only of great in- 
terest to the entomologist as being the first monograph of these injurious 
insects ever published in this country, but is also of great practical 
value to the fruit-grower ; and it would be well if a copy of it could be 
placed in the hands of every market-gardener and horticulturist 
throughout the land. — The following exhibits were examined : — Recent 
specimens of Lyccsna arion, and Welsh specimens of Saturnia pavonia, 
by Mr. Newstead ; British Aphodiina, including A. villoms a,iid jEgialia 
rufa, by Mr. Wilding ; Trigonogenius globulus, a Coleopteron new to the 
Cheshire Hst, on behalf of Mr. E. J. Burgess- Sopp ; rare Aculeate 
Hymenoptera from Cheshire and North Wales, including Pompilus 
approximatus, Astata stigma, Oxybelus mucronatus, Vespa austriaca, 
Colletes cuniciilaria, Halictus atricornis, Osmia xanthomelana 0. inermis, 
and 0. parietina, by Mr. Willoughby Gardner ; the exceedingly rare 
Ophiodes lunaris, taken in Delamere Forest by Mr. T. Wright, of War- 
rington (an account of this capture, establishing its genuineness 
beyond all doubt, was given by Mr. Joseph Collins, along with a 
summary of all the previous British records) ; a fine series of Lepido- 
ptera from Simons wood Moss, including Carsia imbutata and Celmia 
haworthii, by Dr. J. Cotton. — Mr. Newstead read a paper entitled 
" Entomological Gleanings from my Diary," which was illustrated by 
electric hght views. As usual, it was exceedingly instructive, almost 
every sentence containing some new observation or fact in insect 
economy, so that this most wide-awake of naturalists kept his hearers 



52 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on the alert all the time. The paper included the following subjects : — 
A night in Delamere with an electric arc lamp ; the occurrence of 
Zeuzcra (bscuH in Cheshire ; the assembling of Saturuia paronia ; jays 
and the larvfe of Geometra impilionaria ; the genus Semi in Delamere ; 
Tipnla oleracca and its ravages — how the rooks and gulls destroy it 
by thousands, four hundred being found in a single pellet or casting of 
the black-headed gull ; the life-history of Sdundria atra, or pear-tree 
sawfly ; and recent researches amongst the scale insects. Hearty 
thanks were offered to Mr, Newstead by Mr, R. Wilding, Dr. J. W. 
ElUs, and Mr. W. Gardner, — Fkederick Biech, Hon. Secretary. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — November 18th, 1901. — Mr. 
A. H, Martineau in the chair. Dr. Stacey Wilson and Mr. E. A. 
Laxar were elected members of the Society. — Mr. Wainwright ex- 
hibited the Tachinid Brachyclmta Hpiniijera from near Hampton-in- 
Arden, and said that this was the species which had been described by 
Meade as Desroidea fusea, and not Staiirochata gracilis, as supposed by 
Brauer and Von Berganstamm. — Mr. P. W. Wynn, a number of Lepi- 
doptera taken by himself in South Devonshire, during the last week of 
August and first of September this year ; amongst others were LitJiosia 
caniola, three worn specimens; Leucania albijiuncta, one only ; Cara- 
drina exigua, two only; C. amhigua, a nice long series in very fine con- 
dition ; Heiiothis aniiigera, worn ; As]}ilates ochrearia (citraria), a nice 
long series; Aridalia subsericeata ; and a very fine long series of A. 
marginepunctata. — Mr. A. D. Finns, mounted preparations and draw- 
ings of marine larvae which he believed to belong to the genus Clnnio, 
and which were taken submerged in rock-pools at Port Erin Bay, Isle 
of Man. — Mr. J. T. Fountain, Lepidoptera from Jersey : — a series of 
CaUimorpha quadripunctaria (Jwra), including forms running into 
yellow ; a long and very variable series of Bryophila muralis, and a 
very fine series of Psecadia bipunctella ; the last species, he said, was 
found early in the morning, and the earlier they were looked for, the 
more there were, most being found at six a.m. — Mr. R. C. Bradley, a 
series of Velecocera tricincta from Bournemouth, taken this summer ; 
this time he found them on the top of the cliffs, not in the hollows of 
the chines as before. — Colbkan J, Wainwright, Hon, Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Photography for Naturalists. By Douglas English. Illustrated by 
the Author's photographs from the living objects. London : 
Iliffe and Sons, Limited. 1901. 

Present-day biologists have a great advantage over their prede- 
cessors in that they have a ready means of recording facts in con- 
nection with animal life other than by drawing, painting, or verbal 
description. To the brothers Kearton, perhaps, we owe chiefly the 
popularizing of the camera in field natural history, and in Mr. 
English's book we are reminded of the work of the better known 
writers just mentioned. In addition to general information on 



KECENT LITERATURE. 



53 



methods, aims, apparatus, and materials, there are chapters specially 
devoted to various groups of animals, though the information given 
under these various headings often seems to be of general application. 
Most of the somewhat numerous illustrations we like very much, 




LucANUs OEK\ us. (From ' Photography for Naturalists.') 

the small mammals, reptiles, and fish being in most cases particularly 
pleasing. Entomologists no doubt would have forgiven the author if 
he had devoted more than one chapter to their special branch, but that, 
of course, was out of the question, and, indeed, unnecessary, since 
throughout the book are given so many hints on means and methods 
of securing desired results. Perhaps it is hardly worth meutioninc 




Vanessa atalanta. (From ■ ['i.l 



jhy for Naturalists.') 



that we notice the word "variety" used more than once where 
"species" is clearly intended; and that we fail to see where the 
" birds " will fall in the scheme of Nature if they are not to be classed 
amongst the " animals " (p. 27). Mr. English is clearly writing 
about what he has himself practised, and we heartily recommend his 
work to the favourable notice of the " Naturalist with a Camera." 

Two illustrations in the book are here reproduced by permission of 
the publishers. 

W. J. Lucas. 



54 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

W. F. DE ViSMES Kane. — A Catalogue of the LepidojJtera of Ireland. 
Reprinted, with an Introduction, from the ' Entomologist.' 1901. 
West, Newman & Co. xviii, viii, and 166 pp. ; and a coloured Plate. 

The readers of the ' Entomologist ' will already be familiar with 
the main portion of this useful work, which has been running serially 
for some years through the pages of the ' Entomologist,' and now re- 
published in a complete and handy form, prefaced by a discussion upon 
the origin of the distribution of the Irish Lepidopterous Fauna. 

From the collector's standpoint, Ireland is not offered as an attrac- 
tive field, for not only does the climate interfere with continuous work, 
but Lepidoptera in most districts are actually scarce. This is due to, 
"firstly, the very large area of country with a heavy and tenacious soil, 
which retains and becomes sodden with wet. Secondly, by the ' in- 
sular climate,' with constant rainfall and but little frost throughout the 
autumn, winter, and spring ; . . . while the summers are characterized 
by the want of sunlight and heat." The absence of the great banks 
and hedgerows of England — due to ancient and settled agriculture — 
the absence of any great districts of primaeval forest-lands, or of fen 
districts, &c., are other causes of this scarcity. Where the opposite 
conditions prevail, are the most productive hunting-grounds, as also 
the extensive bogs, and the long coast-line with sand-dunes. " In such 
situations no disappointment will be felt by the most greedy collector." 

Ireland is held out, however, as " unrivalled in Europe in respect 
of isolation of geological history," and it is for the purpose of eluci- 
dating the numerous problems connected with the origins of the geo- 
graphical distribution of the Insecta that scientific collectors are so 
much needed in Ireland. Even in England, the only orders of whose 
local distribution there is extended information are Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera ; while in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales there are huge 
tracts entomologically unknown. In Scotland a few "show places" 
— as, for example, Eannoch — are visited year after year for the same 
rarities, while the lonely glens of Ross and the wild moors of the 
Hebrides remain silent. In Ireland it is almost incredible that the 
Lepidoptera are a " neglected order," but now that Mr. Kane has pro- 
vided a sound Introduction, based upon many years of patient research, 
it remains for the many enthusiastic and experienced English collectors 
to combine an inexpensive and health-giving holiday amid magnificent 
scenery with opportunities for entomological work of an enduring value. 

The origin of the Palsearctic Insect fauna is an extremely difficult 
matter to discuss briefly. In the first place, the leading authorities 
are widely divergent as to their opinions on climatic conditions at 
certain important periods ; and, secondly, even were this not so, it is 
very doubtful whether the methods of dispersal adopted by the Insecta 
are at all comparable with those employed by e.y. the Mammalia. As 
the principal arguments of writers are in general based upon their 
studies of Vertebrates, Plants, and, to some extent, MoUusca, we may, 
in following these authorities, be founding our speculations on an 
erroneous basis. Students of the Vertebrata, moreover, are enormously 
aided by fossil remains, which in the Insecta are so seldom found, and 
when found are so rarely in sufficiently good preservation for the 
obtaining of more than very general inferences as to their systematic 
position, that they may safely be disregarded in detailed work. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 55 

It is usually admitted that in the earlier periods of the Tertiary 
Epoch — the epoch in which we are now actually living, though it was 
formerly the fashion to isolate ourselves in a "Quaternary Epoch " — 
the climate and configuration of Western Europe were very different 
to their present condition. The former was semi-tropical, while the 
Continent had a ijotable extension westwards, there being solid laud, 
broadly speaking, from North Scandinavia to Spain, including the 
Britisli Isles. Till recently it was very generally held that a " Glacial 
Period" or "Ice Age" ensued, which was of such a rigorous nature 
that all life was blotted out over almost the whole of Europe. This is 
the view held, for instance, by Buchanan White,''' E. Hofman.f and 
W. Petersen.]: E. F. Scharff, on the contrary, § maintains an almost 
diametrically opposite view, the crux of his position being "that the 
glacial period in Europe was not a time of extreme cold, and that its 
destructive effect on the animals and plants was by no means such as 
is currently reported"; in fact, that the climate was not very different 
from what obtains now, but moister, with warmer winters and cooler 
summers. Scharff has been criticized at great length by L. Stejueger,|| 
who holds an intermediate position, and considers that the Ice Age in 
Europe was similar in climate to that now obtaining in Greenland and 
the islands north of Hudson's Bay.H It is therefore obvious that the 
presence or absence, at the present day, of " pre-glacial " faunas in the 
British Islands, and in Ireland especially, is far from being an esta- 
blished fact. Buchanan White considered that Britain derived the 
whole of " its butterfly fauna from Continental Europe in post-glacial 
times," a natural sequence to his belief of the rigour of the glacial 
climate. It is remarkable, however, that at the commencement of the 
Ice Age a large portion of the western continent was submerged, and 
Ireland was cut off from Spain, but was nevertheless prolonged south- 
wards considerably beyond its present limits. It is considered possible 
that this south-western extension — now submerged — was the refuge of 
the pre-glacial semi-tropical British " Biota " (as Stejneger terms the 
"Fauna" and " Flora"). The presence in Ireland of such forms as 
the spotted slug [Geomalacus macHlosiis), and the strawberry-tree (^Jriuius 
unedo), can scarcely be otherwise explained, although Kane seems to 
favour a post-glacial bridge between South Ireland and the west coast 
of France. It is doubtful, however, whether any Insects can be 
pointed out with any degree of certainty as pre-glacial relics, and there 
is always the risk of confounding these with comparatively recent im- 
portations due to the formerly not inconsiderable commerce between 
the Peninsula and Ireland. Among these "relics" may possibly be 
the little moth Zelleria philli/rella, a native of Southern France, Italy, 

■'' "Some thoughts on the distribution of the British Butterflies," 1881, 
'Entomologist,' xiv. pp. 265-77. 

t " Die Isoporien der Europ. Tagfalter," 1873, Inaugural Dissert. Philos. 
Fakultat, Jena. 

I "Die Lepidopt. Fauna d. arktisch. Gebiete v. Euroi3a," 1888, Beitr. 
Kenntn. Euss. Eeichs iv. 

§ ' History of the European Fauna,' London, 1899, vii and 364 pp., 21 figs. 

II Scharff' s " History of the Europ. Fauna," 1901, American Nat. xxxv. 
p. 87, et seqq. 

•f In connection with this Stejneger notes that a humming-bird occm's as 
far North as Sitka, almost within sight of the gigantic glaciers* 



56 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and Greece, and recently discovered in Connemara, but not found else- 
where in Britain. The weevil Otiorrhnnchus auropunctatus occurs also 
in Ireland, but not elsewhere north of the Auvergne Mountains. 

Stejneger considers that some pre-glacial forms (such as (Jeomala- 
cus) may well have survived the Glacial Period in sheltered nooks, and 
adds : — " We see even to-day isolated spots having a southern tempera- 
ture within the limits of countries with a northern climate, and, on the 
other hand, similar northern oases in regions bounded by isotherms 
indicating a southern climate." 

Stejneger also contends that too much reliance must not be placed 
on an admixture of northern and southern forms, as to conditions of 
climate. It is well known that the tiger, usually regarded as a tropical 
animal, hunts the wild reindeer in Manchuria, in a district having an 
annual temperature of between 0° and —2° C. 

Since the climax of the Glacial Period, whatever may have been the 
amount of rigour then endured, the cold has gradually diminished, and 
our islands have been gradually restocked from the Continent. There is 
little agreement as to periods at which this influx occurred, and these 
matters cannot possibly be discussed within the limits of this notice. 
Suffice it to say that the greater part probably took place when the 
isles (or rather Great Britain only) were joined to the Continent by 
France and by Scandinavia, although of course there was much topo- 
graphical shifting during the periods in question. Ireland was cut off 
at probably a very early date, and it is to this in great part that the 
meagre Irish fauna is due. Kane, however, insists upon the mis- 
leading character of a survey of the extant species, based solely upon 
geological history, without considering the characteristics of the organ- 
isms, and their capabilities of adaptation to environment. He regards 
the restriction of distribution in many of the Irish Lepidoptera as due 
to a similar restriction of the food-plant. lUwdocera {Guneptenjx) 
rhaiiDu, e.g., is apparently restricted, in Ireland, to the "localities 
affording a sufficient abundance of FJuDnnns, and not by climatic con- 
ditions ; C'aisia puliulata is similarly dependent upon its local food- 
plant," Vaccinium oxi/coccos. Larentia flavicinetana has hitherto only 
been noted — and that recently — from Ballycastle, but its search is 
recommended on its food-plant, Saxi/raga hijpnoides, along the Antrim, 
Sligo, and Clare coast-line. The notable absence of many English 
fen-haunting species from the Irish loughs, where Arnndo, Typha, and 
various Oarices are plentiful, is explained by the supposition that 
these insects "reached England from Holland, and, not finding suit- 
able conditions west of Cambridge, did not spread further." 

One of the most remarkable and inexplicable failures in the Irish 
fauna is the lepidopteron V(ine>;m cardiu, which establishes itself either 
partially or wholly, with difficulty. As the "Painted Lady" is cosmo- 
politan, having penetrated to New Zealand, and even to the Hawaiian 
group, it is not easy to account for this instability by a reference to 
the "insular" climate of Ireland. 

The impression gained from a study of the facts in their widest 
application leads only to the opinion that it is possible to say very 
little definite at present — as regards the Insecta, at least — and this is 
strengthened by close examination of the speculations advanced by 
White, Scharff, Stejneger, and Kane, in the works cited. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.l MAKCH, 1902. [No. 466. 



FORMATION OF PATTERN ON EGGSHELL OF A SPECIES 
OF LEPIDOPTERA. 

By Ambrose Quail, F.E.S. 

Messrs. Dawson and Woodhead published * the results of 
some experiments with certain fats and waxes, showing that on 
cooling these form into shapes of a "crystalline" nature; melted 
beeswax forming into natural hexagons, the dimensions of which 
may be varied by the thickness of the wax, microscopical hexa- 
gons resulting when very thin. 

Analogy between these naturally formed "crystalline" shapes 
of fats and waxes, and the sculpturing of the eggshell of lepi- 
dopterous ova suggests itself, and to this I refer in my paper on 
"Embryology," Part I. (Trans. N. Z. Institute, vol. xxxiii.). A 
recent examination which I made will no doubt be of interest, 
and so far as it goes justifies the analogy. 

The ovum of Melanchra (Mamestra) mutans has very distinct 
sculpturing, probably not more so than other Mamestra, but the 
longitudinal ribs are strongly developed, the transverse lines 
being very fine, it is really only with high magnification it is 
seen that the fundamental pattern is a modified hexagon ; at 
the micropylar area the pattern is definitely hexagonal. Theore- 
tically, it might be suggested that the strong parallel ribs assist 
the ova to keep in position until deposited, but this does not 
appear to be so. 

Within the abdomen of Hepiali the ova are connected by 
thread-like tissue, each ovum forming a definite part of long 
strings of ova, and are not easily separable. The ova of M. 
mutans are not so connected by tissue ; in fact, I was unable to 
detect any such bearing definite relation to the ova, which are 
smooth, placed end on end, pressed flat against each other, so 

* ' Natural Science,' vol. xv. p. 347. 

ENTOM. — MARCH, 1902. F 



58 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

forming continuous rouleaux of ova, from which any and each is 
easily separable. It is not easy to detect the exact process, but 
I am fully satisfied that the rouleaux of ova are bathed length- 
wise by a fluid (fat ?) ; so long as this continues the ova are 
sniooth, but as the quantity of fluid diminishes the ova become 
exposed to the air, sculpturing forms thereon, when quite dry the 
ova have orthodox sculpture of deposited ova. 

There is little doubt that the bathing of the ova with fluid 
continues until the act of deposition, and it seems certain that 
the pattern of the ovum is due to this fluid, as it dries on ex- 
posure to air, forming into "crystalline" shapes. The fact that 
a few ova remained smooth is in accord with this conclusion, 
since these were amongst the earliest exposed to the air on 
opening the abdomen, being thereby probably too suddenly 
deprived of the necessary fluid. 

Palmerston, N., New Zealand : Dec. 3rd, 1901. 



THE COCCID GENUS AULACASPIS. 
By T. D, a, Cockerell. 

The genus Aulacaspis, the type of which is A. rosce (Bouche), 
was separated from Diaspis by the present writer in 1893. The 
generic characters were supposed to be the strongly tricarinate 
male scale, and the divergent median lobes of the female, serrate 
on their long inner margins, Mr. R. Newstead, in his ' Mono- 
graph of the Coccidffi of the British Isles,' just published by the 
Ray Society, argues that these characters are not of generic 
importance. Nevertheless, he accepts Aulacaspis, distinguishing 
it from Diaspis by the regular rows of dorsal glands in the 
abdomen of the female. This character, taken as generic, gives 
us a new classification of the species, and I have therefore 
attempted to see whether it could be applied satisfactorily to all 
the species of the world. After some study, I remained un- 
decided whether or not to accept Mr. Newstead's proposed reform, 
until I observed that by segregating the species on the proposed 
basis Diaspis became an American genus, Aulacaspis an Old 
World one. The type of Diaspis is D. calyptroides, which lives 
on cacti, and is unquestionably of American origin. Other 
species of Diaspis, tested by Mr. Newstead's character, are 
D. celtidis, arizonicus, townsendi, pharadendri, baccharidis, and 
australis, all American. D. carueli was first found in Europe, 
and has been thought to be of European origin ; I now believe 
it is American, as it is not uncommon in the United States, and 
it is significant that the British specimens were on an American 



THE COCCID GENUS AULACASPIS. 59 

species of Juniperus. Aulacaspis hoisdiivalii v. maculata, Ckll., 
becomes Diaspis boisdavalii v. maculata. Aidacaspis vdranda, 
Ckll., becomes Diaspis miranda. Aidacaspis cattlei/ce, Ckll., 
becomes Diaspis cattleijcB. These three are all American. Diaspis 
piricola, Del Guercio, appears to be certainly paltearctic, yet it 
is not an Aidacaspis. But it has the club-shaped glands at the 
bases of the lobes, as in Diaspidiotus, and I think it is related 
thereto rather than to Diaspis. It may stand as Epidiaspis 
piricola, using in a generic sense the subgeneric name already 
applied to it. (' Suppt. Check-list of Coccidse,' p. 398.) Aida- 
caspis will contain at least the following, all described or listed 
under Diaspis by authors : — 

Aidacaspis roses (Bouche). Europe. 

Aidacaspis fagrcece (Green). Ceylon. The male scale has 
no keel. 

Aidacaspis pentagona (Targ.). Probably native of -Japan or 
China. 

Aidacaspis auranticolor (Ckll.). Japan. The first (caudad) 
row of dorsal glands consists of only eight, the second has hardly 
so many. 

Aidacaspis pcrsimilis (Ckll.). Mexico; but so close to penta- 
gona that it is doubtless originally from the same region, and 
was taken to Mexico on cultivated plants. It is possibly only a 
variety of pentagona. 

Aidacaspis loranthi (Green). Ceylon. Male scale tri- 
carinate. 

Aidacaspis craivii (Ckll.). China. 

Aidacaspis craivii fidleri (Ckll.). South Africa. 

Diaspis zaniics and Poliaspis cycadis are of unknown origin, 
having been found hitherto on cultivated plants only, mainly in 
hothouses. But, judging from their affinities as shown by the 
glands, it seems likely that the first came from tropical America, 
and the second from the tropics of the Old World, where it finds 
a reasonably close ally in Aidacaspis fagrcece. 

I will add a word about Mr. Newstead's treatment of Parla- 
toria. I have regarded P. pergandei as a variety of proteus, but 
I must now agree with Mr. Newstead that it is a valid species. 
Further, I think P. proteus v. crotonis (of which Mr. Newstead 
gives a beautiful plate) is also a good species, to be called Parla- 
toria crotonis (Douglas). 

East Las Vegas, New Mexico, U.S.A. : 
Jan. 2nd, 1902. 



F 2 



60 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



A FEW NOTES ON SOME OF THE BUTTERFLIES OF 
SYRIA AND PALESTINE. 

By Maegahet E. Fountaine, F.E.S. 

Though I spent four months (from April 5th to August 3rd) 
in these two countries during the past summer, my success 
entomologically was anything but unprecedented, possibly the 
many counter interests of the places I visited may in some 
degree account for this ; but at the same time I cannot describe 
Syria or Palestine, with the exception of one or two favoured 
spots, as countries in which butterflies might be said to abound. 
This is, I think, easily accounted for by the excessive aridity and 
absolute bareness of most of the mountains, which I can only 
describe as treeless, shrubless, and flowerless wastes, with large 
rocks and stones strewn everywhere in profuse abundance, even 
in the narrow strips of cultivated ground, generally appropriated 
for the cultivation of wheat or barley ; indeed, I have seen the 
furrows of a cornfield entirely composed of loose stones, no sign 
of earth being visible, but a scanty crop was struggling on 
towards a mean and miserable harvest notwithstanding. Yet it 
is in these cornfields, choked with weeds, that (as Mrs. Nicholl 
remarked) the butterflies often seek a refuge, and places that in 
Europe would be passed over as most unlikely to be productive 
of anything worth netting would be the very spots that in Syria 
one would make for in desperation as the only alternative to an 
absolutely barren wilderness. 

However, in the month of April I had an excellent fortnight's 
collecting in the neighbourhood of Ain Zahalta (a village in the 
Lebanon), though the weather some days was not altogether 
desirable. The country round Beyrout, too, especially up the 
Nahr-el-Kelb, or Dog River, was on the whole far from dis- 
appointing. In May I visited Damascus; and at the end of that 
month I found myself at Baalbek, a place of immense archaeo- 
logical interest, but where I did practically no collecting worth 
mentioning. From June 4th to June 11th I was at Bsherreh, 
collecting in the neighbourhood of the Cedars. And on June 26th 
I started from Damascus to take the overland route to Jerusalem 
on horseback, arriving on July 6th. The heat was terrific, but 
I managed to do a certain amount of collecting on the way, 
much to the annoyance of the mukari, who finally ended in 
expressing his disapprobation by smashing my net to pieces, 
presumably by accident (?), but was greatly dismayed when, on 
being ordered by my courier to unload the baggage horse, 
another equally well-appointed net was produced from one of my 
valises, the which he was told that if, when consigned to his 
care, it should be either torn, lost, or broken, he should receive 



BUTTERFLIES OF SYRIA AND PALESTINE. 61 

no bakhshish at the end of the journey, needless to add that that 
net arrived at Jerusalem in a high state of preservation. 

I will now proceed to describe consecutivel,y the few species I 
did come across ; though my list lacks several that were taken 
by Mrs. Nicholl in the same localities, and also often at about the 
same time of year in 1900, and contains very few that she did 
not take, though my stay in the country began rather earlier 
than hers, and extended several weeks later in the season. I 
shall not mention any of the commoner species one meets with 
everywhere unless I have any remarks to make upon them. 

Thais cerhiji, B, — Abundant almost everywhere in Syria, from the 
sea-level to an elevation of some 4000 ft. ; especially common at Ain 
Zahalta in April. In May, at Aley, I found the larvae feeding on a 
very large kind of Aristolochia, which I sent to a friend in Budapest, 
but unluckily tbey all died on the journey. I did not see a second 
brood of this butterfly. 

Doritis apollinus, Hbst. — This insect was practically over when I 
got to Syria, even in the mountains in the middle of April ; for, though 
in some places in the neighbourhood of Ain Zahalta it flew in great 
abundance, it was almost impossible to find one specimen that was 
not torn and rubbed. However, I collected a number of the larvae, 
which I found in great quantities, full-grown, and rolled up in the 
leaves of the same large Aristolochia, so that in a few days they all 
pupated. I took some sixty or seventy of them, and could have 
gathered hundreds more had I wished to do so. The larva of this 
butterfly had been first pointed out to me by Prof. Day up the Dog 
River, near Beyrout, feeding on a different and smaller kind of this 
plant.* 

Pieris mesentina, Cramer. — This butterfly was beginning to come 
out on the plains south of Nazareth the first week in July ; but I only 
succeeded in catching one specimen. It is the strongest and most 
rapid flyer of any butterfly I have ever seen. On July 31st, at about 
5 p.m., I saw several which I could easily have captured in the 
grounds of the American College at Beyrout, but unluckily, not having 
my net with me, I was unable to do so ; and the following morning, 
towards midday, the chances of catching swallows on the wing with a 
butterfly-net could scarcely be less than was my chance at this hour of 
the day of netting one of these swift-flying Pieris. (Observation. — 
Should not be sought for till after five o'clock on a sunny after- 
noon.) 

Anthocharis helemia var. glauce, Hiib. — An occasional much worn 
specimen down on the coast in April and the beginning of May. 

■'- The first emergence took place on December 22nd ; unluckily it was a 
cripple. Several have since come out, but as yet only three specimens have 
expanded properly ; the rest were all more or less deformed. One specimen, 
after having remained for about twenty-four hours in exactly the same con- 
dition as when it left its chrysalis, all at once began to expand, till it was 
almost perfect, except for one of the hind wings. Is it usual for freshly- 
emerged insects to wait twenty-four hours before they make up their minds 
to develop ?— M. E. F. 



62 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A. belia var. aiisonia, Hiib. — Not common, either on the coast or in 
the mountains. 

A. cJiarlonia \?iv penia, Frey. — My experiences with this buttterfly 
seem exactly to tally with those of Mrs. Nicholl and others, Never 
common, only occurring singly and at rare intervals ; I took four 
specimens, some of which were rather worn, and saw a few besides, 
near Ain Zahalta, towards the end of April. 

A. damone, Feisth. — Fresh and plentiful near Ain Zahalta in April; 
the females, too, were fairly common, but much less so than the 
males. Specimens I have seen from Greece were much larger and 
finer than the Syrian form. 

Lencophasia duponcheli var. (Bstiva, Stgr. — I took this variety on the 
Jebel-el-Arz (Cedar Mountain) early in June, not far below the 
summit of the pass (8000 ft.) upon which only a week previous I had 
ridden for a distance of several yards over some still unmelted snow. It 
was not rare, but difficult to catch, on account of the steepness of the 
mountain side over which it was flying. 

Idmais fausta, Oliv. — Of the habits and life-history of this butterfly 
I received a very interesting description from Mrs. Day. It first 
appears on the wing at the very end of June or beginning of July, and 
from that time produces a succession of broods on till the end of Sep- 
tember, when it entirely vanishes in all its stages, and Mrs. Day has 
hitherto been unable to determine whether it passes the winter, spring 
and early summer in the ova, larva, or pupa state, or even, possibly, 
as a hybernating butterfly ; though I cannot but think, if this were 
the case, the warm, sunny days of April, May and June could not fail 
to tempt it from its winter retreat ; and it never reappears till the 
period above stated when, curiously enough, eggs, caterpillars and 
butterflies are all to be found simultaneously. The first appearance of 
it during the past summer, observed by Mrs. Day, was the sight of a 
worn female laying eggs ; this would lead one to lean towards the idea 
of hybernation in the perfect state. However, at about the same 
time I saw it myself, inland; first on June 28th, one specimen, fresh 
out, near Banyas, and others, for the most part also quite fresh, three 
days later, in an olive-garden near the supposed Cana of Galilee, evi- 
dently just emerged. I observed it more than once flying in the 
streets of Jerusalem, and when I returned to Beyrout on July 15th, 
"the salmon butterfly" was very much in evidence everywhere, I 
think I might say, in town and country, I also found eggs and larvse 
in all stages, feeding in quantities upon the leaves of the caper-plant, 
which grows wild in these countries. Mrs. Day informed me that, 
whereas the eggs and caterpillars are always to be found like this from 
the very beginning of July, she has never been able to discover any 
during the earlier months of the year. I bred some forty or fifty 
specimens myself and, with the exception of one deformity, every 
pupa I had produced a perfect insect, the proportion of males and 
females being about equal, though the male flies in considerably 
greater abundance in the natural state. The period from ova to 
imago occupies only three weeks, or even less ; the larvae feed up with 
the greatest rapidity ; and the pupa stage of these summer broods 
extends over a period of only a few days. Yet it is as a pupa that I 
should be most inclined to think it passes those mysterious inter- 



NOTES ON THE DIVISION VELIIAEIA [eHYNCHOTA] . 63 

mediate months, a problem, Mrs. Day tells me, she is determined to 
solve, and the solution of which will, I think, be most interesting. 

Thecla ilicis var. caudatula, Z. — Taken near Aineta, in the Lebanon, 
first week in June, on the slopes of a mountain more or less clothed 
with plantations of young Syrian oak-trees, where they were extremely 
plentiful, and all, as far as I could make out, belonging to the long- 
tailed aberration. 

T. mi/rtale, Klug. — Fairly common in the neighbourhood of the 
Cedars early in June, but I only took one female, and not a very long 
series of males. 

Thestor callimachus, Ev. — I took one perfect male specimen of this 
butterfly on May 13th, at Aley. It was probably only just emerging, 
and a spell of dull cold weather would account for my seeing no more 
of it before I left Aley, two days later. 

PolyommatHS thersanwn var. omphale, Klug. — This is undoubtedly 
a summer variety ; those I took in the spring were all normal, while 
all the males of the summer brood possessed tails quite as long, if not 
longer, than the ordinary female. 

Ci(/aritis acamas, Klug. — Three bad specimens only, all near 
Beyrout in May, two of which were taken in the grounds of the 
American College ; and I saw another in this same place early in 
August. Mrs. Day has not as yet been able to discover upon what 
plant this little Cigar itis lays its eggs. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON THE DIVISION VELIIARIA [RHYNCHOTA] 
( = SuBFAM. VELIDiE, Leth. & Sev.). 

By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 
(Concluded from Entom. xxxiv. p. 310.) 

E. NIGRICANS {Burm.). 

Velia nigricans, Burm. 1835, Handb. p. 213. 

Burmeister's description is altogether inadequate, and the 
species has long been unknown to me. I now have a pair from 
Syria which are probably referable to it. 

Elongate ; first segment of antennae two-thirds longer than second, 
second and fourth subequal, third one-sixth longer than fourth ; third 
segment of intermediate tarsi very slightly longer than second. 
(Maeropterous form : prono'tum obtusely angulate, obsoletely carinate 
longitudinally.) 

Blackish brown with yellowish pubescence ; base of first segment 
of antennae pallid. Femora shining black, base (coxae, spines, except 
tips of latter, &c.) pallid ; an interrupted pale line at apex of 
pronotum. 



64 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

^ . Seventh segment above truncate apically, longer than sixth, 
and a trifle longer than the eighth. 
Long, 4 mill. ; lat. 1^ mill. 

Hab. Syria, Kaifa (coll. Kirkaldy). 

E. ANGUSTIPES, Uhler, Venezuela, Puerto Cabello (Mus. 
Hamburg!). 

K. HAVANA, sp. nov. 

Allied to crassipes, but the latter has the ultimate segment 
of the intermediate tarsi slightly longer than the second, the 
venter carinate, and the colouring different. R. crassipes is also 
larger. 

Elongate. Antennae : first segment one-half longer than the second, 
which is one-seventh longer than the third, which is one-fifth longer 
than the fourth ; first scarcely longer than third and fourth together. 
Pronotum (inacropterous) obtusely rounded ; (apteyous) widely rounded 
behind. Elytra rounded at apex, not reaching as far as the apex of 
the genital segments. Anterior tibiae not dilated, <? $ . Intermediate 
femora not constricted medianly ; ultimate segment of tarsi two and 
two-thirds as long as penultimate. Posterior femora incrassate ; tibisB 
sinuous, without a hook at apex ; ultimate segment of tarsi three and 
a half times as long as penultimate. Abdomen moderately long. 

Brownish black; head (more or less), and a central longitudinal 
stripe on pronotum, ferruginous. Anteunfe unicolorous (not widely 
palhd at base of first segment of antennte). A large silvery patch 
near antero-lateral angle of pronotum. An elongate spot of base of 
corium, another in the central cell, and another nearer the apex of 
the elytra, silvery white ; nervures very distinct. Femora more or 
less palUd, especially basally and beneath ; coxje and trochanters 
pallid. Connexivum with a broad median longitudinal pale flavous 
stripe. Venter dark brownish (very thickly dark yellowish pilose) 
more or less pallid medianly. 

<? . Posterior femora two and two-third times as long as wide, 
three moderate-sized and several small spines beneath ; tibia strongly 
sinuous, tuberculo-spinose beneath ; seventh abdominal segment 
beneath, long laterally emarginate, medianly subtruncate, apically 
depressed ; above, truncate apically. 

? . Posterior femora three and a half times as long as wide ; 
spinose similarly to ^ ; tibiae slightly sinuous ; seventh segment 
beneath slightly roundly emarginate. 

Long. 4-4-6 mill. ; lat. 1-9 mill. 

Hah. Ceylon, Peradeniya (E. E. Green). 



65 



A LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED by DR. CUTHBERT 
CHRISTY IN NIGERIA. 

By Emily Maby Shakpe. 

The insects in this collection were all taken on the banks 
of the Niger, or within a few miles of the river, at various points 
between Lokoja and Ilo. Those from Lokoja were mostly cap- 
tured on Mount Patti, which rises abruptly behind the town for 
about a thousand feet. It is thickly wooded, except on the top, 
which is flat, open, grass country. At a certain spot, used by 
the Imperial forces stationed at Lokoja as a flag- station and 
sanatorium for convalescent officers and men, are the remains of 
what may have been a small village, and round about this spot 
flourishes a profusion of flowers and plants, many of which seem 
to be peculiar to the locality. Here more butterflies were to be 
seen in an hour than could be seen in a month at any other place 
in Nigeria that I visited. 

Lokoja is at the junction of the Benue Eiver with the Niger, 
and is, roughly speaking, about 400 miles from the sea. Egga is 
about eighty miles above Lokoja, and Jebba, the head-quarters 
of the Imperial forces in Nigeria, is some 150 miles further up. 
Most of the insects from Jebba were collected about the island on 
which the town and Imperial camp are situated, or on Juja-rock 
Island. The Juju-rock, such a prominent feature in the land- 
scape at Jebba, rises from the bed of the river to a height of 
300 ft. or more. It is practically a sheer cliff on all sides, and 
was never explored till I succeeded, after three days' toil, in 
finding a way to the summit in May, 1898. It was up to that 
date the centre of much superstition and mystery, and was 
talked of with dread by the natives for hundreds of miles both 
up and down the river. Its summit is covered with scrub, 
amongst which I noted several plants I had not seen elsewhere. 
The same was the case with the butterflies, and two or three 
species which are specially mentioned in the following list I saw 
nowhere else. The flora and fauna of the Juju-rock at Jebba 
are peculiar in many ways, and would, I am sure, well repay 
anyone making them a special study. 

Bajibo, Leaba, Bussa, Yelwa, and Gomba are places on or 
near the river bank between Jebba and Ilo, the most northerly 
station in British territory, and nearly a thousand miles from 
the river's mouth. At Ilo the country is very different to what 
it is lower down the river. It is less wooded, and large stretches 
of open country little more than desert are frequent. The people, 
too, are very different, being a much finer race, particularly the 
men, who wear the flowing robes and ornaments of the Arab. In 
this district, bordering upon the Western Soudan, the butterflies 



66 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

are largely represented by the Pieridae, especially by the genus 

Teracolus. 

The Beniie flows for most of its course through impenetrable 
jungle. The town, and Niger Company's station, of Mozum is 
about twenty miles from its junction with the Niger. — i C. C] 

Family Danaidid^. 

1. Danais alcippus (Cram.). — a, ? . Sierra Leone ; February, 
1898. b-h, 3' ?. Jebba, Kiver Niger; September, October, 1898. 
i,j, 3' 2. Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1898. k-i^, <? ?. Ilo. 
q, r, 3" 2 . Shonga ; September, 1898. 

" One of the commonest butterflies all the year round, fre- 
quenting the damp open parts near the river." — C. C. 

2. Danais petiverana, Douhl. d- Hewits. — a, 3 • Jebba, Niger 
Eiver ; October, 1898. 

" Only observed on one occasion, when a dozen or more 
appeared in October at one particular spot near the river. They 
were difficult to catch, owing to their quick movements and rapid 
flight."— C. C. 

Family Satyrid^. 

3. Melanitis solandra (Fahr.). — a, ? . Jebba, Niger Eiver ; 
May, 1898. 

4. Mycalesis milyas, Hewits.— a, 3. Jebba, Niger River; 
September, 1898. 

5. Mycalesis DESOLATA, Butl. — a, h, <? . Jebba, Niger Eiver; 
November, 1898. 

In the collection at the British Museum three specimens of 
this species are recorded from the Atbara Eiver and Abyssinia. 

6. Mycalesis safitza, Heivits. — a, 3 - Jebba, Niger Eiver ; 
November, 1898. b, 3 . Mozum, Benue Eiver ; June, 1899. 

7. Mycalesis vulgaris, Biitl.—a-c, <? . Jebba, Niger Eiver; 
May, September, 1898. 

8. Ypthima simplicia, Biitl. — a. Leaba ; December, 1899. 
This species seems to be widely distributed, specimens being 

recorded in the National Collection from Somaliland, Victoria 
Nyanza, Zomba, Fwambo, and Wadelai. 

9. Ypthima doleta, 7iM%.— a, 3. Jebba, Niger Eiver ; Sept- 
ember, 1898. b, ? . Lolioja"; May, 1898. 

10. Ypthima itonia, Hewits. — a. Shonga ; August, b. Jebba, 
Niger Eiver ; October, 1898. 

Family Acrjeid^. 

11. AcR^A zetes [Linn.). — a, 3- Lokoja; May. 

12. AcR^A Cecilia (Fabr.) .—a-d, 3 ? . Jebba, Niger Eiver; 
September, October, 1898. e-g, <y ? . Ilo ; March, 1899. h, ? . 
Shonga ; September. 



LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN NIGERIA. 67 

13. AcRiEA PSEUDEGINA, WesUv. — a-cl, (? . Lokoja ; May. 
e, <y . Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. /, g, 3- ? . Jebba ; 
May, 1898. h-j, <? . Ilo. k, <? . Sierra Leone ; February, 1898. 

14. AcPt;EA SKRENA {Fab)'.). — a. Leaba ; December, 1899. 
b,c. Shonga; August, d-g. Jebba, Niger Eiver; September, 
1898. 

15. AcR^A viNiDiA, Hewits. — a-i. Jebba, Niger River ; May, 
September, 1898. j. Mozum, Benue River ; June, 1899. 

16. AcRiEA BONASiA (i^aZ^r.). — a. Shonga; August. 

17. AcRiEA LYCiA {Fahv.). — a,b. Boussa ; December, 1898. 
c-j. Shonga ; August, September. 

" Acrcea lycia, A. pseudegiiia, and A. cacilia were exceedingly 
common along the banks of the River Niger."— C. C. 

18. Planebia gea {Fabr.). — a, b, <? . Sierra Leone ; February, 
1898. 

19. Planema umbra (Drury). — a, ? . Mozum, Benue River ; 
June, 1899. 

" Caught in an open glade in the thick jungle on the right 
bank of the Benue River." — C. C. 

Family NvMPHALiCiE. 

20. Atella PHALANTHA (Dnw?/). — a. Shonga ; August. b~e. 
Ilo; March, 1899. /. Jebba; May. g,h. Lokoja. 

21. Pyrameis CARDui (Lirm.).— a-e. Jebba; October. 

22. Junonia bo5pis, Trimen. — a, g- . Leaba ; December, 
1899. h, 3 . Jebba ; November, c, tZ, <? 2 . Ilo ; January, 1899. 

23. Junonia clelia {Cram.). — a, ? . Shonga ; August, b, c, 
(? ? . Ilo ; March, 1899. 

24. Junonia cebrene, Trimen. — a, 3 . Jebba ; May. b-d, 
(? ? . Ilo ; January, March, 1899. e, 2 . Boussa ; December. 

" Junonia boopis, J. clelia, and J. cebrene frequent the most 
exposed stony and glaring hot places. They are difficult insects 
to catch."— C. C. 

25. Precis amestris (Drury). — a. Ilo ; March, 1899. 

26. Precis trimeni {Butl.). — a. Shonga ; September. 

27. 'PuBCiscv AM A. {Heivits.). — a,b. Jebba; October, November. 
The species seems to be widely distributed, specimens in the 

British Museum being recorded from Masailand, Nyasaland, and 
Mashona. 

28. Precis cbryne {Boisd.). — a, b. Shonga ; August. 

29. Precis leodora {Godt.). — a. Jebba ; September. 

30. Precis pelarga {Fabr.). — a. Shonga ; August. 

31. Precis terea {Drury). — a,b. Sierra Leone; February, 
1898. c. Lokoja, 11,000 ft. above river ; May. d, e. Jebba ; 
May. /, g. Ilo ; March, 1899. 



68 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

32. Peecis orthosia {Klug). —a. Lokoja. h. Boussa ; De- 
cember, c. Jebba ; May. d-g. Ilo ; March, 1899. 

" Common in the thicker parts of the jungle." — C. C. 

33. Hypolimnas misippus {Linn.). — a-d, ^ ?, Ilo; March, 
1899. e, 3'. Boussa; January, 1898. 

34. Neptidopsis ophione {Cram.). — a. Mozum, Benue Eiver; 
June, 1899. 

35. Byblia GOTzius {Herhst.). — a-g, <? ?. Ilo; March, 1899. 
h, 3 . Jebba ; October. 

36. Neptis AGATHA {Stoll.) . — a, ?. Shonga ; September. 

b, 3' . Jebba ; September, 1898. c, 3 • Rabba ; November. 
d, 3 . Boussa ; December. 

37. Neptis MELiCERTA (Drury). — a. Ilo; March, 1899. 

38. Catuna crithea {Drury). — a. Mozum, Benue River; 
June, 1899. 

39. Hamanumida d^dalus {Fabr.). — a, b. Ilo : January, 1899. 

c. Ilo ; February, 1899. d-f. Jebba ; November, g. Boussa ; 
December, h, i. Shonga ; August, j, k, S 2 . Mount Patti, 
Lokoja ; June. 

" Common on shady paths, settling with the wings open, thus 
escaping observation unless it rises, when it is difficult to catch, 
owing to its strong flight." — C. G. 

40. EuPHiEDRA THEMIS (Huhi.). — a. Ilo; March, 1899. 

41. EuPHJEDRA JANETTA {Biitl.).—a. Jebba ; May. 

42. EuPHiEDRACROSSEi, sp. H. — 3 . Primaries differing from 
the typical E. crockeri, Butler, in having a large ochre-yellow 
patch on the apical area, as well as a yellowish bronze shading 
along the inner margin. Secondaries : Central area rather more 
uniform steel-blue, the other spots and markings not differing 
from those indicated in other varieties of E. crockeri. Under 
side similar to that of E. crockeri. Expanse, 2'4 in. 

Hab. Mozum, Benue River ; June, 1899. Type. 

This species, which belongs to the E. crockeri group, has 
apparently not been named. Two specimens are in the British 
Museum, one from the Cameroons, and the other from the Lower 
Niger (Asaba?), collected by Dr. E. W. Crosse. In this genus 
some of the species have a yellow phase, but whether this can be 
attributed to a seasonal change of colour remains to be deter- 
mined. 

43. Charaxes ach^menes, Feld. — a, ? . Lokoja ; May. 

44. Charaxes viola, Butl. — a, ? . Lokoja ; May. 

45. Charaxes varanes {Cram.). — a. Ilo ; March, 1899. 

(To be continued.) 



69 

VARIATION IN THE GENUS EREBIA. 

By Geoffrey Smith. 

(Continued from p. 9.) 

Sufficient stress has not been laid upon the fact that when 
the mean (M) of a normal scheme of distribution of certain 
variations is preserved from generation to generation, the 
measures of those variations will tend to converge toward that 
mean. It was on this ground that the acquisition of constancy 
by some character was stated to occur, when both sexes were 
variable, and all prepotent tendencies to reversion were theo- 
retically eliminated. 

One of the properties of M of a normal scheme was stated to 
be that the most probable value of any unknown measure in a 
group is M. This results from the following consideration, in 
the words of Prof. Galton, " that if N be one of the measures, 
and U be the value of the unit in which the measure is recorded, 
then the number of measures that fall between iN — |- U) and 
(N + J U) is greatest when N — M." Or from a somewhat dif- 
ferent point of view, the idea of mediocre may be extended away 
from the mean so as to include more measures ; but the idea of 
extreme cannot be so extended, since by the nature of things it 
is strictly limited. It must also be remembered that as a matter 
of fact in a normal scheme the mediocre is always the commonest 
condition, and that the numbers of individuals possessing the 
various degrees of the character on each side of the mean (M) 
graduate away, and become less as the extremes are approached. 
Hence it is that in schemes of distribution applied to the same 
group from generation to generation a centripetal tendency would 
hold good, with the final theoretical result that the mean would 
be established as a constant measure of the character under con- 
sideration. Moreover, this tendency to converge toward the 
mean is increased in the process of sexual reproduction ; for, if 
we take an extreme male, the chance is small of its pairing with 
a female which is extreme in the same direction, as against the 
combined chances of its pairing with a female either of the oppo- 
site extreme or of the mediocre. In this way, too, the extremes 
would tend to merge into the mediocre. Of course, all these 
considerations only hold absolutely, supposing that the scheme 
is normal, that the selection of mates is made entirely by chance, 
and also ex hypothesi that the numbers of the sexes are pro- 
portional. 

We will now go on to consider the numerical proportions of 
the sexes with reference to the genus Erehia. 

In chap. viii. part ii. of the 'Descent of Man' (2nd edition), 
Darwin has written on this subject : the point of view taken is 
that normally equal numbers of the sexes should be produced, 



70 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

but that various circumstances tend to upset this equal propor- 
tion. Among men, mammals in general, birds, fish, &c., various 
conditions occur from equality to great preponderance of one sex 
or the other, and equally various circumstances seem to deter- 
mine these conditions. Among Lepidoptera various conditions 
in the numerical proportions also occur ; in silk-moths the 
females are said to be bred in excess ; in Ehopalocera the general 
impression of collectors is that males are produced in excess. 
We are not here concerned with the actual production of males 
or females, but of their arrival to the state of sexual maturity ; 
so that what we have to examine is this impression of collectors. 
Two views may be taken — (1) that owing to differences in habits, 
times of appearance, &c., of the two sexes, this impression of 
collectors is a mistaken one ; (2) that this impression is a true 
one. The former view was taken by Mr. Stainton, the latter by 
Mr. Bates, in the discussion before the Entomological Society in 
1868. It seems probable that there is truth in both views, so 
long as each is not applied to Rhopalocera in general. No doubt 
if the two sexes of a species have dift'erent habits, &c., collectors 
who are ignorant of those habits would very likely gain a wrong 
impression of the numerical proportion of the sexes ; but if such 
a disparity in the habits does not exist, it is an unwarrantable 
position to ignore the repeated assertions of collectors. Now, 
with the genus Erehia I do not think there is any great difference 
in the habits of the sexes. Whenever I have taken a female of 
the species that I have collected (and I have taken many), I have 
done so generally unwittingly until the capture has been made, 
and usually I have caught females flying on the same ground 
with males, from which they are indistinguishable in general 
appearance, flight, &c., and conspicuousness. Then again, even 
supposing that the females do lie hid more than the males, or 
occur at different periods, it would be rash to suppose that a 
collector of even moderate attainments does not state or even 
understate the numerical disproportion of the sexes by the col- 
lections he brings home ; for, knowing the supposed rareness of 
the females, he will always retain them when they are caught, 
whereas he will continually pass by or let go the commoner 
males. Considering the abundance of many species of Erehia, I 
think that the collections brought home probably understate the 
numerical disproportion of the mature sexes. 

The proportions given to the species considered afterwards 
are derived from my collection, and from the collections in the 
British Museum. Here again the risk run is one of under- 
statement, for in the latter collection many specimens have been 
ejected, and these will be sure to have been mostly males, owing 
to the scarcity of females for representing types. 

In applying the methods, that have now been discussed at 
some length, to actual data derived from the genus Erehia, my 



VARIATION IN THE GENUS EREBIA. 71 

object is to discover whether those data give any evidence as 
regards the hypothesis, that inequality in the numerical propor- 
tions of the sexes, when coupled with variability in the pre- 
ponderating sex, tends towards continued fluctuation of the 
variable character. Of what nature, then, will the data be that 
will lend support to this hypothesis? It is a matter of very 
general observation that when the ordinary individual variations 
of a species are thrown into a scheme of distribution, the curve 
derived from them is normal. The essential property of a 
normal curve is that it falls away symmetrically on either side of 
M by regular gradations, the numbers becoming gradually less 
below, and more above the mean. Curves A and B in Fig. 1 
are therefore not truly normal, but curve C is. [See Entom. 
Oct. 1901, p. 278.] 

Now, on the theory under discussion, we would not expect the 
individual variations to fall into a normal curve, if the sexes are 
disproportional, &c. ; there should be breaks in the continuity of 
the slope, if the principle in question has come into play. If, of 
course, we take individuals from many different areas, or from 
one very large continuous area, we might obtain a normal curve, 
owing to the whirligig of chance having brought in his revenges, 
and filled up the breaks of continuity in one area with individuals 
from another ; but if we take individuals from one somewhat 
confined area, we should expect to find these breaks. By breaks 
in the continuity of the slope, breaks in the actual series of 
variations are not necessarily implied. The latter breaks, 
namely, when some variations are omitted altogether, might be 
accounted for by natural selection ; but when in some confined 
area all the variations do occur, but not in such numerical pro- 
portions as to fall into a normal scheme, then the facts are most 
easily accounted for by the hypothesis that has been framed. A 
confirmatory test besides this of abnormality of slope would be 
in the M of individuals of some confined area not corresponding 
to M of other areas, taken separately or combined. The method 
then will be to fix on some species with numerical disproportion 
of sexes, to select some character of that species which is variable 
in the preponderating sex, then to determine if that character 
falls into a normal scheme or not when a group of individuals is 
considered that has been derived from some one confined area, 
and also if the M of those from the confined area is the same as 
the M of other areas taken separately or combined. The con- 
clusions arrived at from the following data must be accepted 
tentatively, as my material is not large enough to ensure any- 
thing like accuracy. 

(To be continued.) 



72 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



GYNANDROUS EXAMPLES OP AMPHIDA8Y8 BETULARIA. 

Mr. Albert Harrison has been good enough to entrust to 
me six of the seven gynandrous A. betidaria that he bred from a 
batch of ova obtained from a female specimen taken in the New 
Forest in June, 1900 (Entom. xxxiv. 203, 349). These specimens 
have been submitted to Sir George F. Hampson for examination. 
As it was not permissible to mutilate the insects in any way, 
attention has necessarily been confined to the secondary sexual 
characters, and the results of his examination have been tabulated 
by Sir George as follows : — 

No. 1. Right side (^ antenna, frenulum, and retinaculum. Left 

side ? antenna, frenulum, and retinaculum. 
No. 2. Right side g^ antenna, frenulum, and retinaculum. Left 

side ? antenna, frenulum, and retinaculum. 
No. 3. Right side antenna unipectiuate, 2 frenulum, ^ retinaculum. 

Left side ^ antenna, 5 frenulum, ^ retinaculum. 
No. 4. Right side <? antenna, ? frenulum and retinaculum. Left 

side ? antenna, ? frenulum and retinaculum. 
No. 5. Right side (^ antenna, ^ frenulum and retinaculum. Left 

side ? antenna, 2 frenulum and retinaculum. 
No. 6. Right side 2 antenna, <y frenulum and retmaculum. Left 

side (? antenna, ^ frenulum and retinaculum. 

From this table we see that, as regards external organs, 
Nos. 1, 2, and 5 are each male on the right side and female on 
the left side. I find that the wings themselves also exhibit the 
same sexual differences, and if one may judge from the appear- 
ance of the anal segments of the body it would seem that these 
are also " half and half." 

No. 4 appears to be a female in all respects except that it 
has a male antenna on the right side. 

No, 3 has the wings on each side of equal size. There is a 
well-formed male antenna on the left side, but the right antenna 
is that proper to the female with some short pectinations along 
its lower side, an abnormal position. 

Except that it has a female antenna on the right side, No. 6 
appears to be a male specimen, and comes nearest to being a 
counterpart of either Nos. 1, 2, or 5. It is not, however, the 
exact reverse of either, because the frenulum and retinaculum 
on the right side are male in character. 

EiCHARD South. 



73 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Hawk Moth Pupating in Branches of Trees. — During February 
larvfe of Panacra lupiaria were common here on Pisonia aculeata. One 
large creeper, which clambered up and over a tall tree, was quite de- 
nuded of its foliage by them. Whilst examining some shrubs and young 
trees which grew immediately underneath, I discovered many of the 
larvae spun up therein; continuing my search, I found many more 
changing, and an occasional pupa, in the branches. Some were close 
to the ground, others being seven or eight feet therefrom, probably 
many more were higher up. Though larvfB of many of the Queens- 
land Sphingidae are known to me, this is the only species which I 
have observed to pupate above ground. I have referred to several of 
our experienced entomologists, and none of them have known of 
Sphingidse pupating in trees. — F. P. Dodd ; Warburton Street, North 
Ward, Townsville, Queensland. 

Scent Organs of Hepialid^. — During a lengthened experience 
with the southern Hepialid^e, I have always noticed a powerful and 
somewhat pleasant scent emanating from the male of Charagia 
daphnandri (should be scotti), and was for some time unable to locate 
the organ from which it i^roceeded, but finally discovered that the 
large hair-like tufts on the diminutive hind legs of this species gave 
forth the scent. It will be noticed that each of these hairs is enclosed 
from the base to some little distance above in a delicate skin, forming 
a gland. Tliese glands proved to contain a yellowish fluid, the fluid 
possessing the strong scent so noticeable in freshly emerged and 
handled males of this species. In ramsayi, cyanochlora, splendens, and 
others, the tufts of the male are much smaller, and I have not noticed 
any pronounced odour arising from any of these. During the past 
two years I have bred out a series of the magnificent mirabilis of 
Rothschild, which is the largest and generally considered the finest of 
Queensland Hepialidae ; the male has the tufts largely developed, and 
they, too, give forth a powerful and sweet scent, which is also secreted 
at the base of the hairs. The scent from these two species does not 
finally depart until long after the insects have been placed away in 
the store-boxes. — F. P. Dodd. 

Bat Killing a Moth at Sugar. — While my sister. Miss Harvey- 
Jellie, was sugaring in a garden in Essex last September, a large bat 
swooped down just as she was approaching a tree, and, in the full 
light of the lantern, settled on the patch of sugar, demolished a 
M. brassiccB, and flew away. — B. Harvey- Jellie; Moorside, Hartlepool. 

Variety of the Moth Hypsa substracta (Walker). — Having bred 
a very large number of specimens of H. substracta last year, and 
several this, among which were a good many of the banded variety, 
and also a few other examples, I think a specimen which emerged 
to-day, September 8th, is worth noting. Tlae fore wings are quite 
typical, but the right hind wing has a distinct band, which is totally 
different from the ordinary banded form ; the other hind wing is like the 
type, all yellow. Besides those I have bred myself I have also seen a 
great number of others, but nothing like the one now recorded. The 

ENTOM. — MARCH, 1902. G 



74 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimen, which is a male, was bred from a pupa found by me about 
three weeks ago, and was not reared in confinement. The insect is 
now in the possession of P. T. Lathy, Esq., Enfield, England, to 
whom I forwarded it. — G. F. Leigh ; Musgrave Koad, Durban, Natal. 

Hymenoptera-Aculeata of the Oxford District. — The report of 
the Oxfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club for 1900 
(recently received) is accompanied by a list of the Aculeate Hymeno- 
ptera of the Oxford district. The species enumerated number two 
hundred and eight, and comprise ten Heterogyna, sixty-two Fossores, 
fifteen Diploptera, and one hundred and twenty-one Anthophila. 

List of British Diptera (2nd Edition). — Even if the addition to 
the faunal lists of some three hundred species, and still more numerous 
important emendations and alterations, had not indicated the pressing 
need of a new edition of Mr. Verrall's invaluable list of British Diptera, 
it appears that the original edition was exhausted, and that a reprint 
had become a necessity. Although the author is not yet satisfied 
with the list as regards accuracy and completeness, we are sure that 
this revised edition will be gladly welcomed by dipterists. In the 
preface, reference is made to the increased interest in British Diptera, 
and the hope is expressed that this may lead to the production of 
more perfect lists than is possible at present of such families as the 
Cecidomyidae and the Mycetophilidae. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

COLIAS HYALE AND SpHINX CONVOLVULI IN WILTSHIRE IN 1901. 1 wisll 

to record the capture here last year, on Sept. 18th, of a female 
specimen of Colitifi hi/ale, which I released, upon identification. This 
is the first and only one I have seen in this neighbourhood during 
many years. I also caught a female Sphinx convolvuli on the evening 
of Sept, 23rd, which I restored to liberty ; and I noticed this same 
insect, or others of its kind, on several subsequent evenings, at the 
flowers of Nicotiana affinis. — (Rev.) C. A. Sladen ; The Rectory, Alton 
Barnes, Pewsey, Feb. 14th, 1902. 

Ophiodes lunaris : a Correction. — In my record of the above 
species [ante, p. 25), I should have said that it was exhibited at the 
City of London Entomological Society on Dec. 3rd, 1901, not at the 
Entomological Society of London on the 6th. — T. Weight ; Heath 
Side, Warrington, Jan. 9th, 1901. 

Odonata, &c., at Camberley, Surrey. — Libellida depressa, L. qnadri- 
macnlata, Sijmpetrmn striolatum, ^EscJina cijanea, Lestes sponsa, Agrion 
paella, and Pyrrhosoma nymphnla were very plentiful at Camberley in 
1900. I got several specimens of Cordnlcyuster annulatus, and three 
of Orthetnun candescens, two of which were caught in an orchard. Of 
Coieoptera, I met with Cicindela canrpestris, Cryptocephalus aureolus, and 
Cetonia aurata continually, and a gardener gave me thirteen specimens 
of Geotrupes stercorarim, males and females, which he had caught on 
the way to Bagshot. — M. Pallis ; Tato'i, Aigburth Drive, Sefton Park, 
Jan. 4th, 1902. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 75 

Haepella bracteella. — A specimen of this rare species was 
brought to me for identification by Mr. J. T. Houghton, who took it 
in this town on June 23rd of last year. — (Miss) E. Maude Aldekson; 
Park House, Worksop. 

Notes on the Season, 1901 : Makch-June. — On the whole, collect- 
ing has, I think, been satisfactory during the past season. In the 
immediate neighbourhood a few unusual species turned up. Colias 
hyale was seen at Hither Green, Sept. 22ud, and others were heard of 
from there. An example of Vanessa polychlows was found indoors, as 
already reported, whilst both broods of Cyaniris argiolus were well 
represented. A single Sphinx convolvuli was brought to me Sept. 25th, 
which was taken at rest on some clothing in a yard near Lee station. 
It was unfortunately in battered condition, owing to having been kept 
alive in a cigar-box for three days. The usual species turned up, and 
single specimens of Eupithecia succenturiata and Cosmia diffinis (Grove 
Park) were taken. A black female Amphidasys betnlaria was secured, 
in cop. with a typical male, and was kept for eggs, of which she 
deposited a large number. Some of the larvae fed up well, and we 
now have a good number of pupfe. A single larva of lodis vernaria was 
taken at Grove Park. — F. M. B. Carr ; 46, Handen Eoad, Lee, S.E. 

The Past Season, 1901. — The season of 1901 which has just closed 
I have again found, with one or two exceptions, a good one for butter- 
flies. On referring to notes, I find the first specimen observed was 
one of Vanessa io, at Clifton, Bristol, on March 12th, no doubt tempted 
forth from its winter quarters by a warm day. Goyuptenjx rhammi 
appeared on the 13th of same month. The weather being again colder 
after this, Pieris rapa, was not noted before April 21st, and on the 25th 
Lycmia argiolus turned up. On the Cotswold Hills, in Gloucestershire, 
in May, I was pleased to find several kinds in fair abundance, as Euchlo'e 
cardamines, Polyomniatus phlceas, Lycmia icarus, Thecla rubi, Argynnis 
euphrosyne, Thanaos tages, &c., and the "whites." During June and 
July, in North Wales, Merionethshire, Argynnis aglaia and A. adippe 
were frequently seen in favourable situations; also A. selene and, 
locally, Melitasa artemis {aurinia) and Ccenonymplia pamphilns were in 
abundance amongst the coarse grass on the uplands. Vanessa urticcR 
was very frequently seen, and I was pleased to notice several specimens 
of Polygonia c-alhum, not far from Barmouth, and the " whites " were 
very abundant. Thecla quercus, also, was continually seen flitting over 
the oak trees, this, as is often the case, especially when the sun was 
declining in the afternoon. On passing through Bath, the second week 
in August, I found one evening, on one of the hill slopes, Lycmia icarus 
in greater abundance at rest than I think I have ever before noticed it. 
Without moving, several dozens might be counted on the stems of grass 
or plantain — so many as four specimens might be seen on a single 
grass stem alone. In West Somerset, at the end of August and 
through September, the butterflies then out have been generally seen, 
as V. urticcB, Chryaophanus phlceas, L. icarus, T. quercus, &c.,but atalanta 
I have not found so commonly as last season in Devonshire. Pararge 
egeria was noted so late as October 17tli, and a specimen each of V. io 
and G. phlceas were the last butterflies of the season of 1901 ; these 
were seen on October 23rd, During the whole year not a single speci- 



76 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

men of Vanessa cardui or Colias edusa lias been noticed in the places 
above mentioned. My observations of the moths have been mostly 
confined to day collecting, excepting examining on one or two evenings 
many plants of the red valerian in North Wales, to which the common 
moths came plentifully, as Xylophasia polyoduji, M. hrassica, Hadena 
dentina, &c. ; the last seems generally common in many parts of Wales. 
The larvae, pupse, and imago of Zi/i/ceiia Jilipendulce were extremely 
abundant near Barmouth — the pupte spun up in all kinds of places, 
even on rocks, and wood pahngs ; the imagines were most constant in 
their markings, excepting an occasional one with the spots rather 
smaller. Macroglossa stellatarnm occasionally visited the red valerian 
in the same district, and later on I have now and then seen this insect 
in West Somerset, where, also, larvfe and pupae of Acherontia atiupos 
have been found not unfrequently. The larvae of the " whites," and, 
in one place apparently, of Pionca foiiicalu have been very destructive. 
I rnay, perhaps, add a word here for that often much abused bird, the 
house sparrow — of his usefulness, often forgotten, in destroying both 
the larvae and imagines of troublesome insects. This season alone I 
have seen him devouring the larvffi of Malacotioma (B.) neustria, and 
Clieimutuhia brumata, and imagines of Pldotjophora meticidosa and 
Triphmna jyyomiba. The dry, warm season appears to have been 
favourable to wasps ; and in June and part of July the little chafer- 
beetle, the Welsh " Coch y bouddhu," appeared in swarms near Bar- 
mouth, on the uplands. I noticed one day the surface of a tarn 
dotted over with struggling victims, and the bracken and low nut- 
bushes were at times covered with them. — T. B. Jefferys; Minehead, 
Nov. 4th, 1901. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — February 5th, 1902. — The 
Eev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the chair. — The Pre- 
sident announced that he had appointed Mr. F. DuCane Godman, 
D.C.L., F.E.S., Professor E. B. Poulton, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., and 
Dr. David Sharp, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., as Vice-Presidents for the 
Session. Dr. Norman Joy, of Bradfield, near Pleading, was elected a 
Fellow of the Society. — Professor Poulton exhibited with lantern a 
series of slides belonging to Professor Meldola, made from actual 
specimens by the three-colour process, illustrative of mimicry in 
British and exotic Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. He also exhibited 
the several specimens from which the lantern-slides had been pre- 
pared. A discussion on the subject took place, in which Col. Swinhoe, 
Mr. F. Merrifield, Dr. Chapman, Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, the Rev. F. 
D. Morice, and Col. Yerbury took part, Mr. Verrall observing that in 
the case of Diptera they mimicked other groups rather than were 
mimicked by them, while there were even cases in which flies fed on 
dragonflies, and not vice versa, as was usual. With regard to the 
protective value of the scent-glands present in groups allied to the 
Chalcosiinffi, and conspicuous also in Anthroccra, Mr. J. W. Tutt said 
it was possible that they might have something to do with edibility or 



SOCIETIES. 77 

otherwise of the species. The glands, though better developed in the 
male, existed also in the female. Professor Meldola, however, supposed 
them to be characters of sexual attraction, as laid down by Fritz 
Muller, and therefore not affecting the question of distastefulness. — 
Mr. C. G. Barrett exhibited a series of the perfect insect of Gluttula 
fiisca, Hpsn., together with ears of maize (locally called mealies), 
showing the damage done by the well-grown larva of the species, 
which lives in the hrst place in the stem, eating the pith from the 
ground, and afterwards attacking the cobs, and eating from the inside 
into the bases of the unripe grains, which then change colour and 
shrivel up. He also exhibited: Gynaniza main (male). Walk., and a 
drawing of the larva ; Nudaurelia menippe (male), Feld., and drawing 
of larvffi ; Bombi/comorpha hifascia, Hpsn., circlet of eggs, cocoons, and 
figure of larva ; Phissana flava, Feld., food, cocoon, and figure of larva; 
Gonometa postica (male and female). Walk., cocoon (poisonous), and 
male and female larva figures; Henacha smilax (male and female), 
Feld., pupa, cocoon, figures of larva, and an enlarged segment to show 
markings; Metarctia rafesccns, Walk., and figure of larva; TcRniopyga 
sylva}ia,Wsdk., and figures of larva ; liigema ornata, Walk., and figures 
of larva — all the foregoing specimens and figures being received from 
Miss Frances Barrett, Buntiugville, Transkei, South Africa. — Mr. W. 
L. Distant exhibited two specimens of Coleoptera which had reached 
him alive from the Transvaal — one Anthia thoracica, Thunb., now 
dead, the other, Braclujcems granosus, Gyll., still living, sent by Mr. 
Eobert Service, of Dumfries, who received them from Sergt. Peter 
Dunn, of the volunteer company of the Scottish Borderers, which 
regiment was in the vicinity of Krugersdorp. The genus Anthia ex- 
tends to the Southern Palaearctic region, and there seems little doubt 
that these species could be easily acclimatized there. All they require 
at home is the run of a good palm or orchid-house. — Mr. E. Adkin 
exhibited a series of Acidalia acersata. The parent moth (a banded 
female, the male parent not being known) was taken at Lewisham in 
June, 1900. Of the resulting larvae about one-half fed up rapidly, and 
produced imagines in the autumn of the same year — a very unusual 
circumstance in the habits of the species; the remainder hybernated 
and produced imagines in June of tlie following year, thus occupying 
the normal time in completing their metamorphoses. The proportion 
of individuals following the female parent in the two portions of the 
brood were almost equal, the percentages being approximately fifty- 
three banded in the autumnal emergence as against fifty-eight in the 
spring, but in point of sex the disparity was great, over 65 per cent, of 
the autumn moths being males as against fully 72 per cent, females 
in the spring portion. — Mr. G. C. Champion exhibited long series of 
Leptura stragulata, Germ., and Strangaiia pubescens, Fabr., from the 
pine-forests of Aragon and Castile, showing the great variation in 
colour of the two species in these districts, whereas the allied forms 
occurring in the same places, viz., L. rubra, Linn., L. distigma, 
Charp., L. unipunctata, Fabr., and L. sangiduolenta, Linn., were per- 
fectly constant; also Dennestes aurichaicem, Kiist., which he and Dr. 
Chapman had found everywhere in abundance in the old nests of the 
processionary-moth (Cnethocampa processionea, Linn.) on the pines in 
these forests. — Dr. T. A. Chapman exhibited in illustration of his 



78 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

paper " On a new subfamily of Pyralid^e," living larvae of Hypotia 
coj-ticalis, Schiff, as well as preserved larvfe, pupa-cases, imagines, and 
prepared wings to show the neuration of tliat species. — Mr. Edward 
Meyrick, B.A., F.Z.S., communicated "Descriptions of new Australa- 
sian Lepidoptera." — Mr. W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., communicated a 
" Eeport on a Collection of African Locustidfe, chiefly from the Trans- 
vaal, made by Mr. W. L. Distant." — H, Rowland-Brown, Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
January mh, 1902.— Mr. W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S., Vice-President, in 
the chair. — Mr. Tonge, Eedhill, Surrey, was elected a member. — 
Mr. Hewitt exhibited a specimen of the rare Homopteron, Cicadetta 
viontana, taken flying in Stubby Copse, New Forest, on July 7th. — Mr. 
R. Adkin, five specimens of Melanlppe yaliata, which emerged on 
Dec. 8th last, in a cage outdoors and protected only from rain and 
direct sunshine. The ova were laid towards the end of August. — Mr. 
McArthur, specimens of Triphmia comes, bred on Dec. 26th and 27th, 
from ova laid in July by an Isle of Lewis female. — Mr. Main, slides 
made by himself of the larvfe of Sumia cecropia, and of Aniphidasys 
hetnlaria ; of the imago of Pleris napi, drying its wings after emergence 
from the chrysalis case ; and of a batch of ova of Macrothylacia rubi 
on a sprig of heather. 

January 23/7/. — Annual Meeting, Mr. F. Noad Clark, Vice-President, 
in the chair. — The Twenty-ninth Annual Report was read, and showed 
that the Society was in a very satisfactory condition, both in member- 
ship and finances ; and had carried on with much success its educa- 
tional and scientific work. The present number of members is 174, 
and the balance-sheet showed a very fair balance, with no liabilities. — 
The following is a list of the Officers and Council elected for the ensuing 
year : — President, F. Noad Clark ; Vice-Presidents, H. S. Fremlin, 
M.R.O.S., F.E.S. ; E.^ Step, F.L.S. ; Treasurer, T. W. Hall, F.E.S.; 
Librarian, H. A. Sauze; Curator, W. West; Hon. Secretaries, Stanley 
Edwards, F.L.S., F.E.S. , Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. ; Council, W. J. 
Ashdown, J. H. Carpenter, F.E.S., T. A. Chapman, M.D., F,E.S. ; 
A. Harrison, F.C.S., F.L.S. ; W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. ; H. Main, 
B.Sc, F.E.S., and J. W. Tutt, F.E.S.— Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a long 
series of Acidalia aversata, and read notes on their life-history and 
variation. — Mr. Garrett, a living specimen of Dasychira pudibunda, 
which had just emerged in the open. — Dr. Chapman, forms illustra- 
tive of the geographical races in Spain and Switzerland of the butter- 
flies Polyommatus corydon, Lyccena daman, and L. hylas. — Hy. J. 
Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — December 16th, 1901. — Mr. 
G. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. A. H. Martineau 
showed Hymenoptera from Tubney, near Oxford, in Berks, a sandy 
locality ; they included Cleptes pallipes, Crabro palmarius, and Nyssa 
dimidiatus. — Mr. A. D. Imms showed empty cocoons and pupa-shells 
of (Ecojjhora sulphurella, from Moseley. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, a 
collection of Liptenre and Pentilffi, subfamilies of the Lycfenidfe, from 
South Africa, which are remarkably mimetic ; some were strikingly 
like Acraeidse ; others were very like Pieridfe, like some Geometridas 
and many other groups of Lepidoptera, the resemblance being in 



OBITUARY. 79 

various degrees of perfection, in some cases almost perfect. There 
seemed no explanation for the resemblances to some species, such as 
some of the Geometrid forms. — Mr. C. J. Wainwright, a small collec- 
tion of Chrysids, including Chrysis viridula, from Wyre Forest ; C. 
sHccincta, from St. Ives, Cornwall ; Hedi/chridmm roseuni, from West 
Runton, Norfolk ; Ellampns caruleus, from West Runton ; and West 
Hide, near Hereford; and Chri/sis pustulosa, from West Hide. — Colbran 
J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Insect Life : Souvenirs of a Naturalist — J.-H Fabre, D.-es-Sc. Trans- 
lated from the French. By the Author of ' Mademoiselle Mori.' 
With a Preface by D. Sharp, M.A., F.R.S. Pp. 320. London : 
Macmillan and Co. 1901. 
A TRANSLATION generally declares itself as such ; this one does not. 
Possibly this is due to the fact that, as Mr. Sharp says, Fabre is a 
difficult writer to translate. The book before us, which pictures to its 
readers the habits of a few beetles and Hymenoptera, is a translation 
of the first volume of Fabre's ' Souvenirs Entomologiques,' of which 
there are now seven series. If all are as interesting as this volume, 
we hope the rest may soon be presented to us in English garb. The 
writer is a genuine field-naturalist, and has a charming way of giving 
the details of his observations in such a way that the reader almost 
fancies he is making the observations for himself. The ingenuity, 
too, with which experiments in the field are made to assist the writer 
in his observations, takes hold of one and keeps his attention fixed in 
no ordinary manner. There are sixteen full-page pictures, but, 
though the insects pourtrayed on them are good, we hardly care for 
the style ; this, however, is perhaps only a matter of taste. 

W. J. L. 



OBITUARY. 



Charles Lionel de Niceville belonged to a noble Huguenot 
family, and was born at Bristol in 1852. In the year 1876 he pro- 
ceeded to India, where he commenced the formation of a collection of 
butterflies, which he sold to the Asiatic Society of Calcutta some years 
afterwards. He travelled extensively in various parts of India, and at 
the time of his death had amassed one of the finest private collections 
of the butterflies of that country, which, we understand, has- been 
purchased by the Indian Museum for Rs. 20,000 (about £1300). His 
first published papers were issued in conjunction with the late Prof. 
Wood-Mason, but he also published a great number of lists, with 
descriptions and illustrations of numerous new species of the butterflies 
of various parts of India, chiefly in the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, and in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 
But his most important work was the ' Butterflies of India, Burmah 



80 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and Ceylon,' of which three volumes — including the whole of the 
families Nymphalid^e, Lemoniidae, and Lyctenidffi — -appeared from 1881 
to 1890. The first volume was by Capt. G. L. F. Marshall and Lionel 
de Niceville, but the remainder were by de Niceville only. It is much 
to be regretted that this valuable work remains a fragment. Sub- 
sequently, Mr. de Niceville was appointed Government Entomologist, 
Indian Museum ; and it was while engaged in official investigcitions in 
the Terai, near Darjeeling, that he contracted the fever of which he 
died, at Calcutta, on Dec. 3rd, 1901. His death came as a shock to 
his numerous friends in India and Europe, and is a great loss to the 
cause of Indian entomology. — W. F. K. 

Major Alfred Ficklin. — On February 4th, at the comparatively 
early age of sixty-three. Major Ficklin succumbed to an attack of 
apoplexy, after an illness of but a few days' duration. As an 
entomologist he was essentially a practical one, and few perhaps knew 
better than he the collecting-grounds of north Surrey, and what they 
were able to produce in the way of Lepidoptera. Field-naturalists, 
therefore, of tiie south of London will miss greatly from their ranks 
his well-known figure. Major Ficklin was almost or quite one of the 
very first members of the South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society, of which he was President in 1880, and it is, perhaps, 
amongst members of that Society that he was best known, and by 
them his genial company and quaint entomological and fishing yarns 
(for he was a fisherman, too) will not soon be forgotten. It was his 
great delight to assist beginners in Entomology, and the members of 
a school Natural History Society in Kingston-on-Thames, where he so 
long resided, will, indeed, miss from their meetings and excursions one 
who was so expert a breeder of insects, so diligent a collector, and who 
possessed withal a manner so entertaining and so capable of winning 
the hearts of boys. Tlie pursuit of Entomology, however, did not claim 
the whole of Major Ficklin's spare time. He was an artist of no 
mean order, and to his education at a school in one of the loveliest parts 
of the Rhine valley may be due the development of his artistic taste, 
and perhaps also we may here find the reason why he delighted to 
paint scenes on the rugged Cornwall coasts. On these painting 
excursions time was found for entomology, too, and it was under these 
circumstances that he made acquaintance with the Cornish form of 
Dianthecia Inteago, which some entomologists have thought sufficiently 
distinct to need a varietal name, and have therefore termed Y&v.jicJdini. 
But even entomology and art did not exhaust the energies of Major 
Ficklin ; for from August, 1860, he had been connected with the 
Kingston Volunteers, and from 1884 till his resignation in 1898 he was 
their commanding oflficer, while for many years during his long service 
he was one of the best shots of the battalion. Major Ficklin leaves 
behind him to regret his loss a widow, a daughter, and two sons, the 
elder of whom bids fair to keep up his father's reputation as an ento- 
mologist and an artist. — W. J. L. 



THE ENTOMOLOaiST 



Vol. XXXV.] APEIL, 1902. [No. 467. 



THE CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED 

GENERA.* 

By T. a. Chapman, M.D., P.E.S. 

I DESIRE in these notes to point out that certain genera which 
I call collectively the Gracilariadffi are connected together by 
certain very definite characters of their larvae and pupse, and by 
the special nature of these characters are equally cut off and 
separated from certain other genera with which all our sys- 
tematists, up to Staudinger, or rather Eebel, following his pre- 
decessors, have more or less mixed them. 

These genera are Gracilaria, Ornix, and Coriscium as one 
subgroup, Lithocolletis as another, and Phyllocnistis as a third, 
together with several non-European genera, this group being 
much more abundantly represented in x\merica than Europe. 

As a subsidiary point, I associate Lyonetia, Cemiostoma, and 
Bedellia as a very natural group, crisply marked off by pupal 
characters from all other forms, with Phyllohrostis as probably 
representing a connecting form. 

This being so, it is of course merely a corollary that Tischeria 
and Bucculatrix must find their proper place somewhere else, 
and not in association with these two groups or families. 

I hardly know whether classification founded in earlier stages 
has still to fight for recognition ; I hope not — I may merely say 
that where good characters are to be found in the earlier stages, 
and none in the imagines for classification, then classification by 
such characters is imperative. Classification by any one character 
or by any one stage is liable to be very erroneous, and any true 

='= Read before the City of London Entomological Society, March 18th, 
1902. Mr. J. Hartley Durrant has very kindly looked through these notes* 
I mention this in order to make grateful acknowledgment, and to indicate 
that no gross errors of bibliography or nomenclature occur in them, but of 
course without for a moment desiring to make him responsible for any of 
my heresies. — T. A. G. 

ENTOM. — APRIL, 1902. S 



82 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

classification will be supported by every fact that we can observe, 
whether it be a fact of habit or of structure, of the larva, or of 
the imago. 

Every fact that tends to group species together may be proof 
of relationship, probably is, but it may be an instance of what is 
familiar to all as convergence. Every f-act that separates two 
species unquestionably separates them. Whether specifically, 
generically, or more profoundly, will usually depend on its 
agreement or otherwise with other similar facts, as much as on 
its own apparent importance. In any case of two groups being so 
separated the presumption is strong that the relationships 
within each group are closer than of any members of one group 
to any of the others. 

The great and very frequent exception to this is where two 
or more groups split up by a differentiation common to all of 
them, usually in some character that is liable to great variation 
under frequently occurring changes of environment. As an ex- 
treme case, admitting no doubt, I might illustrate by saying that 
many species of Lepidoptera have pale and melanic races. No 
one would suggest that the pale races all belong to one family or 
genus, and all the melanic ones to another. Or, we might say 
that all species having apterous females belong to one family. 
This is not so absurd an illustration as one might suppose, since 
I fancy there are still to be found entomologists who think Psyche 
and Orgyia are very closely related, practically on this ground 
only. 

It is but recently that the Arctiad nature of the Syntomids 
has been fully acknowledged, and their resemblance to Anthro- 
cerids (Zygsenids) admitted to be convergent only. Whilst the 
likeness that obtains between the Nolidae and Lithosiadae appears 
strong enough to deceive the very elect. 

The objections that are raised to consideration of the earlier 
stages in classification include two that I may allude to. The 
first is usually expressed in something of this form — Is not the 
imago the more complete and evolved form, and ought we not 
therefore to classify by it, and not by the larva or pupa ? This 
proposition is open to two serious comments. The first takes 
note that the objector considers that classification is to be founded 
on one stage only, probably on one character, or at most on a 
very few characters, and, having so made his classification, 
anything that contradicts it in any way is necessarily wrong. 
The second comment is — he assumes that the upholder of the 
use of the earlier stages in classification possesses precisely the 
same narrow views, and is going to classify, say, by some larval 
character, and flout everything that does not agree with his 
results. The only excuse he has is, of course, that a certain 
element of this nature must always exist. Life is short and art 
is long, but science is longer still, and so we must all specialize, 



CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED GENERA. 83' 

and inevitably fall victims in some degree to our more or less 
narrow outlook. 

Another objection raised is, that we cannot classify by early 
stages, because of our ignorance of them in so many instances. 
This would be a valid objection were it the case that the demand 
was to ignore the imago. Such an imputation is, however, pure 
delusion. All that is proposed is that all the light that the 
earlier stages throw on the relationships of species shall be used, 
where we know them ; that what it tells us about a shall be 
accepted, and not ignored, because it happens to be silent 
about h. 

There is little doubt that the value of a knowledge of the 
early stages for classification became very much neglected in 
the eighties and early nineties, probably in consequence of the 
enormous numbers of new species of exotic Lepidoptera con- 
stantly coming to hand and being constantly described with 
often no idea whatever of their earlier stages. The same causes 
are no doubt still very active in the same direction, but some- 
thing is being done in the opposite direction by not a few active 
workers. 

The truth being that we require every scrap of knowledge 
that we can get, about every species ; that the early stages are 
quite as important as the imaginal, as illustrating relationships, 
probably often more than less so ; but in any case, being further 
information, they often guide us readily in cases where imaginal 
indications are obscure, and must always be useful in checking 
imaginal results and enabling us to see whether we have correctly 
interpreted imaginal facts. 

It is because facts in the earlier stages are very pointed and 
definite in separating Gracilariadae and Lyonetiadae from each 
other and from other genera that I have selected them, partly to 
illustrate this point, but chiefly to secure a better classification 
of those families as a subject for this paper. 

The characters of the Gracilariadae that I propose to deal 
with are two — one larval, the other pupal. 

The larval character is the very peculiar modification of the 
mouth parts that exists in all the species in their first two 
instars, continuing for further instars in some species. In all — 
even in Phi/llocnistis — changing suddenly at one moult to the 
ordinary form. In Phyllocnistis, the third moult is of this 
character, but the mouth parts are now useless for feeding, and 
only available for spinning the cocoon. 

The pupal character consists in the movable or free segments 
being reduced to the 5th and 6th abdominal, as in the obtect 
pupa, but with the 7th also free in the male, and the habit of 
protruding from the cocoon for emergence. It is, in fact, the 
highest form of Incomplete Pupa, with the first four abdominal 
segments fixed. I know of no other family, genus, or species 

h2 



84 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

possessed of this type of pupa. Since, however, it is the 
limiting form in one line of pupal evolution, I think it is not 
improbable that some other group of which I am ignorant may 
have attained a similar structure. 

There can, however, be no question that these two peculiar 
specializations, of the early larva and of the pupa, are unlikely 
in the highest degree to occur together in any other group. It 
is possible, but convergence in this way can hardly be expected 
to produce an approach in two apparently independent and un- 
related characters. 

I may mention that, except where I use the facts recorded 
by the late Vactor Tousey Chambers, to which I refer below, I 
have depended for my data entirely on my own observations, and 
therefore have to leave alone a number of American and other 
exotic genera. Their places are tolerably obvious from imaginal 
characters which associate them with those genera which I have 
specially examined, but I have thought it better to say nothing 
about them, especially as space prevents my dealing in detail 
even with the material I have. As, for example, though I refer 
to only a few species of Gracilaria and Lithocolletis, I have 
actually examined the young larva3 of a considerable number 
of species, and the pupae of a very large proportion of our British 
species. 

The earliest reference I can find to the peculiar structure of 
the mouth parts of these larvae is in Stainton's collected papers 
of Dr. Brackenridge Clemens.* Clemens seems to have noticed 
them as early as 1857 in Phyllocnistis, and to have been aware 
that they occurred in some Lithocolletis. 

Stainton made reference to them in connection with Phyllo- 
cnistis in the ' Entomologist's Intelligencer' in 1860. 

In the seventies this knowledge was fairly common property, 
and the facts had been more or less observed by many micro- 
lepidopterists. I know that at this period my friend Dr. Wood, 
of Tarrington, was familiar with the main facts, and we often 
discussed the questions of their origin and significance, as we 
did many others with reference to the Micro-Lepidoptera. My 
knowledge of the Micros is in fact largely due to information 
obtained in this way from Dr. Wood. 

No one apparently published anything on the subject before 
Chambers's papers appeared in Psyche, in the ' Journal of 
the Cincinnati Nat. Hist. Soc' and in the American 'Entomo- 
logist ' in 1877 and following years. He worked the matter out 
very fully and carefully, ascertained the genera in which this 
structural modification occurred, and also, which is most im- 
portant, that they did not occur in any others (so far as known). 
There are some details in which his work is open to extension 

- These papers were originally published in the Pr. Ac. Nat. Sc. and 
Pr. Ent. Soc. of Philadelphia. 



CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED GENERA. 85 

and emendation, but, broadly speaking, he had a complete grasp 
of the facts. He first, I think, pointed out the closeness of 
Gracilaria and Lithocolletis, now universally admitted, and 
would, I doubt not, had he lived and gained fuller confidence 
in the value of his own observations, have placed Phyllocnistis 
along with them. These papers of Chambers are characterized 
by a philosophical reasoning and careful observation, which will 
delight those who read them for the first time. 

It is a little difficult by description to give you a clear picture 
of the specialization that occurs in the structure of these larvae. 

We have been asked, as an exercise in ontology, to consider 
the experiences and mental attributes that would be possessed 
by beings possessing only two tiimensions and confined thereto, 
in the same way as we are confined within three. These larvae 
not only had this question laid before them, but obviously ex- 
perimented with a view to gain some actual knowledge on the 
subject. If a steam-roller went over an ordinary caterpillar, it 
might reduce it to some resemblance to these Gracilariads. 

Their mouth-parts are profoundly altered. They are right 
away at the anterior angle of a flat triangular head. Each jaw 
is no longer a biting instrument, but a flat disc hinged at its 
proximal margin, and working to and fro in its own plane (that 
of the head and of the larva also), with a serrated margin that 
acts on anything in front of it like a circular saw. The two jaws 
may cross one another more or less, but they cut nothing 
between them ; the cutting is done right in front by each 
separately. These jaws work between two thin membranous 
veils, one above and one below them ; these are the labrum and 
labium. They are finely granulated and spiculated, but possess 
practically no palpi, no spinneret, nor any other structure, nor 
are any maxillae to be detected, unless they are represented by 
certain obscure lines on the jaws. 

In some species the appearance is as though the upper and 
lower veils were continuous at their margins, thus placing the 
jaws, as it were, at the mouth of a bag, from which they pro- 
trude sufficiently to show their cutting edge. Their manner of 
working suggests that this bag arrangement really exists. 

The larvae live beneath the cuticle of the leaf, which they 
separate from the parenchyma below by cutting through a row 
of cells by the circular saw action of the margins of their jaws. 
The fluid contents of the cells are thus set free, and fall at once 
into the mouth of the bag. It is probable that the sap is forced 
towards the oesophagus by the action of the jaws. Being con- 
fined between the veils above and below, the uncut leaf in front 
and the moving jaws laterally, it will be subject to a force-pump 
action like that of certain rotary pumps. 

Chambers (American Ent., 1880, p. 260) deals at some 
length with the evolutionary questions that are provoked by 



86 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

these curious modifications. He treats as quite open to dis- 
cussion the view that these are the original forms oilepidopterous 
trojjhi, and that the ordinary forms are a further development, 
but decides against it. I think we may follow him here without 
the least hesitation. This group is a solitary one. There is no 
other group showing such modified structures, and it is a very 
long way indeed from being one of the lowest groups. So that 
it is improbable in the last degree that a primary condition like 
this is, if it be one, should be preserved here, and here only. 
This, when we consider only the Lepidoptera ; but we have to 
remember that the ordinary form of lepidopterous tropin falls 
into line with that in other insects, whilst that of the early 
Gracilariad larva does not. 

We are forced, I think, to conclude that this special form of 
larva is derived from the ordinary form by selective modification. 
Mr. Chambers speaks of these changes as degradation and 
elevation. There is a certain convenience in so doing. 
The absolute loss of labial and maxillary palpi, just like the loss 
of true legs and of prolegs, which occurs in so many other larvae 
as well as these, may be spoken of as degradation. But the 
marvellous modification of the jaws and of the labrum and 
labium to enable a very special form of feeding to be carried 
out is rather elevation than otherwise. They are at least 
evolutionary changes. Whether we call them degradations or 
elevation is rather a matter of the personal equation of the 
observer than of the facts themselves. No doubt we incline to 
say that an organ that becomes more complicated is advancing, 
one that is simplified is degrading ; and probably this is correct 
if we apply it to the organ considered, and not to the whole 
organism. With regard to our larva, it is specialized, therefore 
elevated ; the jaws and labium and labrum are specialized, 
therefore an advance; the loss of palpi, &c., is a degradation; 
but the whole insect is advanced. In modification of any 
question of advance or retreat, we must remember that the lost 
processes, palpi, feet, &c., are merely in abeyance, not lost; 
their embryonic nuclei persist and give rise to them in the later 
stages. 

The great interest from an evolutionary point of view of 
these larvse is from a rather different aspect. Our ordinary 
view of larval evolution in the Lepidoptera is that during the 
whole of larval life selection is acting on the larva, and produces 
its greatest effect on the full-grown larva, and that the characters 
so acquired by the adult larva tend to pass backwards to earlier 
moults, so that a primitive condition may persist up to the last 
moult, or may be lost earlier, and we find as a very common 
occurrence some primitive condition present in the first instar, 
but not afterwards. And, finally, the backward pressure of 
evolutionary changes annexes the first instar also, and that 



CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED GENERA. 8? 

larva has no primitive condition, in any of its aspects that are 
so modified. 

This picture of larval changes in the Lepidoptera is probably, 
to a great extent, a true one. Nevertheless, it is probably much 
less frequently so than we imagine. 

Let us try to apply it to the Gracilarians. An ancestral 
larva has lived some sort of life as a leaf-miner, like a Nepticida, 
or a Tischeria, but in its last moult takes on the special structure 
of Gracilaria, and feeds in the Gracilarian manner, and then 
passes the change back to all the earlier instars. It is just 
conceivable ; but to follow this life in its last skin, a Gracilaria 
would need a very large and very succulent leaf. It may perhaps 
be said that Phyllocnistis practically does this, though its last 
instar shows that even here this is not so ; and we may derive 
the group from Phyllocnistis. 

But how are we to get back in the later stages to the ordinary 
form of larva. The embryonal centres have lost the power to 
develop the ordinary trophi ; they can develop Gracilarian 
trophi, and afterwards the imaginal ones. But the ordinary 
ones have been eliminated, and no suitable imaginal discs to 
give rise to them remain. It is not possible to picture a 
Phyllocnistis giving rise to a form with a larva possessed of 
ordinary mouth-parts. They are gone and cannot return. Any 
modification of the mouth-parts of Phyllocnistis larvae that are 
possible would probably be less like the ordinary form than they 
are at present, though there is no reason why a modification 
might not occur fulfilling very similar functions to those of 
the ordinary trophi, but structurally they would be decidedly 
different. No such forms appear to exist. 

When we remember that it is the first stage that is always 
Gracilarian, and that it persists into the second or some further 
stage, and that it is useful in very small larvse only, and there- 
fore especially in the first stage. That later there is always an 
ordinary stage, though not completely so in Phyllocnistis, since 
in it — this also is modified so as to possess no jaws, and only a 
spinneret as an actually functional organ — the conclusion is 
inevitable that the Gracilarian form arose by modification in the 
first instar, and thence moved forward into the second, and in 
other cases further. 

This modification in the early instars of Gracilaria is by no 
means an isolated instance of such an occurrence, but it is 
probably the most pronounced and the most unmistakable case 
in which an early larval instar undergoes modification, indepen- 
dently of any change in the later ones. 

We are familiar with the four stages of egg, larva, pupa, and 
imago, and that modifications may take place in any one of 
these, without any corresponding change necessarily occurring 
in any of the others. And we are tolerably prepared to find 



88 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

changes in full-grown larvae gradually pushing their way back to 
the earlier instars. What we learn here, however, is that each 
larval instar is a stage, comparable to the pupal or imaginal 
stage in its individual importance, and that it may undergo 
changes without necessarily involving any other instar, which 
holds to it the attitude of a separate stage. 

In the larval state there are no doubt two conditions at work; 
the one is the tendency of a peculiarity acquired at any stage to 
be passed to the preceding and following stages — a tendency 
that will gradually produce an effect on these adjacent stages 
unless they resist it. This they will do should the peculiarity 
be such as to produce harmful effects if passed on to them. The 
other condition is that the full-grown larva has usually to adapt 
itself to conditions that are much more various than those 
affecting the young larva, and so the adult larva is much more 
liable to varied specialization than it is in its earlier instars. 

Essentially, nevertheless, the young larva is just as liable to 
specialize in view of changed conditions as the adult one is. 

This consideration, if we could always keep it in view, 
especially if we could recognize and understand the cases in 
which it occurs, would often assist us very much in overcoming 
difficulties that arise from supposing that young larvse are 
always less modified than older ones ; and especially that such 
modifications as they present are reminiscences of modifications 
acquired by the adult larvfe of some or other of their ancestors. 

As a possible instance, I may remind you of the young larva 
of Papilio machaon. This larva seems obviously reminiscent of 
an adult Vanessa larva. Yet it is certain that, whether Va7iessa 
be or be not derived from a Papilio-like form, Papilio is certainly 
not derived from any Nymphalid, nor is there any probability 
that any adult PapiHio larva ever was spinous in precisely this 
manner. 

The spines are a special development of the young Papilio 
larva for protective objects affecting itself. They have not been 
derived from spinous full-grown larvae amongst their ancestors, 
and are not passed on to the present adult larva because it does 
not require them. 

The processes on adult larvae of Ornithoptera and of Clytia 
are not spinous, so as to be ancestral to those of young Machaon, 
but may themselves be derived from the spines of the first 
stage. 

As I have said, however, this and other instances are open 
to some doubt, and the case of Gracilaria, in which doubt is 
difficult to insinuate, is useful, as giving us a standpoint different 
from that usually held. 

(To be continued.) 



89 

VARIATION IN THE GENUS EEEBIA. 
By Geoffrey Smith. 
(Concluded from p. 71.) 

E. tyndarus (measurement of fore wings from apex to inser- 
tion in thorax ; male and female variable. Proportion of females, 
25 per cent.) — 

Eange in males . . 15 mm. to 19 mm. 
Eange in females . . 16 mm. to 19 mm. 

These measurements are from fifty individuals collected in a 
confined area in Haute- Savoie. The males fell into a normal 
scheme, thus : — 

3 per cent, measured under 16 mm. 

J-" J> >J >J -'■ • 5> 

40 ,, ,, ,, lo ,, 

o\j ,, ,, ,, ly ,, 

" >> JJ >f ^^ JJ 

This is opposed to the theory, but the following considerations 
afford a possible explanation. From the specimens I possess I 
am strongly inclined to believe that the larger individuals of 
both sexes occur earlier in the year, and graduate down to the 
smaller as the season advances. By this means the variations 
are kept separate and constant in proportion, despite the dis- 
parity in number of the sexes, just as the numerical relations 
between so many distinct unvarying species would be kept un- 
changed from generation to generation, unless some outside 
influence, e.g. natural selection, disturbed those relations. .From 
the variations being thus kept separate, the character of length 
of fore wing may be considered as a constant one from our 
point of view. We possibly see here a case of incipient seasonal 
dimorphism. 

E. melampus (spot-power : male variable, female more or less 
constant at 7. Proportion of female about 10 per cent.). 

In order to economise space, I will condense the remarks on 
this species. 

The scheme derived from males of very different areas was 
normal, and gave a M of 6J. 

The scheme derived from males collected by myself in a con- 
fined area was abnormal ; M was 5. The M of var. sudetica male 
is about 7. 

E. ligea-euryale (spot-power : male and female variable. Pro- 
portion of female about 20 per cent.). The questions relating to 
the specific distinctness of these forms are very complex. In his 
list of the genus Erebia (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1898), Mr. Elwes 
separates the two as good species, but names such varieties as 
E. ligea vars. adi/te and livonica as transitional to E. euryale. 



90 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Dr. Chapman (Trans. Ent. See. Sept. 1898), from considerations 
based on the forms of the gonapophyses, states that " the two 
recognized forms, ligea, with its vars. adyte and ajanensis, and 
euryale, with var. ocellaris, whilst usually distinct, are not always 
so, and in some places intermix." From my own experience, I 
am inclined to believe that there is only one true species to be 
derived from the numerous forms included under the two names 
ligea and euryale — that is to say, that any of those forms are 
capable of intercrossing and of producing any or all of the rest. 
I have collected from one confined area, namely, from a somewhat 
isolated mountain slope above the St. Gervais valley, the follow- 
ing forms : ligea (typical, with large ocelli), ligea (smaller, and 
with ocelli replaced by black spots, identical, in my opinion, with 
var. adyte), euryale (typical, with small ocelli), euryale (only 
conventionally separable both by clasp-form and wing-facies from 
adyte forms of E. ligea), euryale var. ocellaris. I can see no 
valid reason for doubting that these forms are specifically one. 
In order to bring out the degrees of resemblances and differences 
that exist between the two so-called species and their varieties, I 
have drawn up a table showing the amounts of ocellation 
possessed by them respectively. In giving numerical values to 
ocelli and spots, I have gone on the rough principle of counting 
two for an ocellus and one for an unpupilled spot, but I have had 
to use discretion further than this. The following table is made 
up from the specimens in the British Museum : — 



Table. 



16^ 




- 


15 




14 


^. 




to 


13>§ 


12 -^ 


11 ^ 


10' 


9 




8 


a 


7 


C6 




6' 


^ 


5 


-1 


4 


i' 


3 J 


J 


2 


1 





]^ 


19 


k 



TO 



;:;: CO 






16 
15 

14 
M3 

I 12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 




M8 



VARIATION IN THE GENUS EREBIA. 91 

The facts to be deduced from this table are as follows : The whole 
range of variability in ocellation in the two forms taken together 
is from 16-0. Taken separately the two forms overlap one 
another at opposite extremities, the M of ligea being 9j, that of 
euryale 6^. Now, if the two are to be miited into one species, the 
following conditions must be fulfilled — (1) the mean combined 
from the means of the two forms must equal the mean of the 
whole range of variability ; (2) the combined mean should fall at 
a point where the two forms confessedly pass over into one 
another. Now, it will be seen that both these conditions are 
satisfied by the table, for (1) i (9|- + 6^-) = 8, and (2) 8 falls at 
the point round which the two forms adyte and euryale type are 
grouped, and it is admitted that these are transitional forms. 

I cannot give here the evidence derived from clasp-forms, 
though, to my mind, it is even more convincing than any that 
can be derived from wing-facies, because it is so unfailing in its 
application to other species of the genus. But anyone who has 
worked through a series of them, as I have done, will, I think, 
agree with the following remark of Dr. Chapman: " The clasp 
differences are not great enough to render this (identity of the 
two species) otherwise than likely where they occur together on 
the same ground." That the various forms do occur together 
more commonly than is supposed, I can only suggest by referring 
back to my own remarks and the following of Mr. Elwes : " The 
larger the number of specimens which are brought together from 
many localities, the more difficult it becomes to name those 
varieties ; and I have therefore dropped the names of a few which 
I had previously adopted, though I have not done so in cases 
where, as with many Asiatic forms, my knowledge is as yet in- 
sufficient to justify this course." 

From the foregoing arguments it can easily be gathered that 
if we treat all forms of ligea and euryale as one species, we have 
here the kind of evidence that we set out to find. Collectors 
from different parts of the world bring back such different speci- 
mens of this species that separate varietal and even specific 
names are given to them ; as collections from these areas become 
more complete, intermediate links between these varieties and 
species are supplied, which show that all are only one species. 
The explanation I would give of these facts is that a casual 
collector in some area meets only with the M of that area (M 
being the mediocre or commonest condition) ; it is only after long 
collecting in the same area that the other terms of the scheme 
can be supplied. Now we saw that, according to our hypothesis, 
the M of different areas would probably be different, and this 
supposition is confirmed by the number of named varieties that 
exist whichjwere supposed at first to be peculiar to some par- 
ticular locality. But as collections become more perfect, it is 
found that what occurs as an habitual variation in one area 



92 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

occurs as an occasional variation or aberration in another ; in 
other words, the M of one area is the M + or M — of another. 

We expected also to find another piece of evidence, if the 
principle discussed in Part I. had come into play ; and that was 
that the schemes derived from separate areas should not be 
normal. Although my material is not sufficient to ensure any- 
thing more than some degree of probability, the scheme derived 
from the percentages of forms occurring in a confined area is not 
a normal one. There is too sharp a transition in numbers from 
those possessing large ocelli to those with the ocelli replaced by 
spots. 

Further additions are much needed to confirm or correct the 
imperfect observations here recorded, both in regard to the 
species treated, and also other species of this and other genera. 

To recapitulate the whole discussion — the two leading charac- 
teristics of the species of the genus Erehia are variability and 
numerical disproportion of sexes. These two characteristics are 
put into causal connection by the principle that equality in the 
numbers of the sexes tends towards equilibrium, i.e. constancy 
of hitherto variable characters, and that inequality when coupled 
with variability in the preponderating sex tends towards con- 
tinued fluctuation of variable characters. This is effected in the 
following ways : — 

When the sexes are equal in numbers constancy of characters 
is attained by — 

1. Kegular product of variability of one sex into constancy 
of the other, under undisturbed regulation of the laws of 
chance. 

2. Eegular product of variability of one sex into variability 
of the other, under undisturbed regulation of the laws of 
chance. 

When the sexes are unequal in numbers fluctuation is pre- 
served by — 

1. Irregular product of variability of one sex into constancy 
of the other, the laws of chance acting irregularly. . 

2. Ditto, when both sexes are variable. 

The evidence of the existence of this principle as a working 
factor would be that the individuals of a variable species satis- 
fying the conditions of principle, and taken from a confined area, 
do not fall into a normal scheme with respect to the variable 
characters under consideration, although individuals taken from 
many areas very likely do so ; and also that the M of different 
areas would differ both from one another, and from the M of all 
the areas combined. Observations were then given on E. tyn- 
'darus, melampus, and ligea-euryale, which tended to show that 
such evidence was forthcoming. 



93 

AN ADDITIONAL LIST OF BUTTEEFLIES FROM THE 
RHONE VALLEY. 

By a. F. Rosa, M.B, CM. 

In relation to a list of butterflies published by me in the 
'Entomologist' for February, 1900, the following are a few notes 
in comparison, and an additional list of species and varieties 
observed, during two subsequent visits of a fortnight and ten 
days respectively, in July (7th to 21st), 1900, and August (3rd to 
13th), 1901. 

On these two occasions practically the same ground was 
worked — viz. (1) the vicinity of Aigle ; (2) the forest of Pfin ; 
(3) Berisal and the Simplon route ; with the exception that in 
August, 1901, a short stay was made at Zermatt, and the Nicolai 
Thai traversed. 

With respect to the species included in the previous list, at 
Aigle, in July, 1900, the first seen was Melanargia galatea, which 
put in an appearance whenever there was the faintest glimmer 
of sunshine, the first day or two being wet and almost sunless. 

Things looked brighter on the 9th, and from that date onward; 
but butterflies were decidedly scarcer than in the previous July, 
especially the Lycaenidse. A few of L. icarus were noted, and of 
L. corydon and L. damon, which were abundant the year before, 
only one or two of each were seen. Wherever trees occurred by 
the road Limenitis sihylla flitted about, often in twos and threes, 
L. Camilla being only represented altogether by one or two speci- 
mens ; and it was the reverse the previous year as regards these 
two species. 

Papilio machaon was frequently observed, and one was seen 
depositing ova on umbelliferous plants by the roadside. Par- 
nassius ajjollo, as usual, becomes common as one ascends the 
road towards Le Sepey, and amongst others I secured one very 
large female specimen. Euchloe belia var. simplonia and E. carda- 
mines were sparingly seen, as also was Leptidia sinapis. Colias 
hyale was common, but rarely in good condition; and of C. ediisa 
a fresh brood was noted, but these were few and far between. 
Thecla ilicis and T. spini in worse condition than in the previous 
year ; and of the Vanessids, Polygonia c-album was taken several 
times, the larvse of Vanessa io occurred plentifully on nettles by 
the side of the road near Le Sepey, and one imagine of Pyrameis 
atalanta was captured. The fiery Melitcea didyma was the com- 
monest of its genus, which was otherwise represented by M.pthoehe 
and M. athalia. The three large fritillaries Argynnis aglaia, 
A. adippe, and A. paphia turned up now and then ; and Satyr us 
hermione, much smaller than in the previous July, was abundant. 
S. actcea var. cordula, Pararge mcera, P. megcera, P. acki)ii, and 
many other common butterflies, as Aporia craUegi, Gonepteryx 
rhamni, Satyrus semele, etc., were taken or noted. 



94 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

In the Pfin forest, July, 1900, butterflies at times were ob- 
served in great abundance. In the shady parts a fine brood of 
Erehia ligea was emerging, and Lyaena avion var. obscura was 
the same and in like condition (one of these has all the wings 
completely shaded). These two species were very plentiful, and 
so was Argijnnis latonia, of which four or five more than once 
were noted within as many yards. Limenitis Camilla here was 
fairly common, the difficulty being the scarcity of perfect speci- 
mens, many being chipped, although all were fresh. L. sibylla 
apparently does not occur in the forest. 

In the smaller fields, especially where overrun with tall 
rank weeds, &c., Pajnlio machaon frequently occurred, and the 
larger fritillaries also frequented these hot sheltered spots, along 
with Aporia cratcegi, Gonepteryx rliamni, Colias hyale, and an 
occasional C. edusa, &c. 

LejHidia sijiapis and its var. erysimi also occurred commonly, 
and in the larger open fields Lyccena corydon was about in 
abundance, and at times MeliUsa athalia arose in numbers at 
every step. M. phcehe was also taken, and Satyrus hcrmione, 
very small, probably some referable to S. alcyone ; and, in 
addition to these, S. actaa v. cordula, Epinephele lycaon, and 
many others. 

On the Simplon route, in the same year, the principal fea- 
ture was the abundance of the Lycsenidfe, not only as regards 
numbers, but as species and varieties, as Lyccena cegon, L. argus, 
L. astrarche, L. eros, L. icarus, L. eumedon, L. hellargus, L. 
corydon, L. hylas, L. damon, L. minimus, L. semiargtis, L. avion, 
and seven other blues, which will be taken up in the list to 
follow. 

Evehia euryale was also a conspicuous insect on account of 
its abundance, from above Brieg to well up the Simplon road 
above Berisal it was to be noted, as is its habit, congregated in 
little groups on the road. Papilio machaon was common on a 
steep embankment at a bend in the road above Berisal, and 
Parnassius apollo in the neighbourhood of Berisal. Pievis calli- 
dice, P. napi var. hvyonice, and Colias phicomone were taken at and 
near the top of the Simplon, and Goenonympha arcania var. 
davwiniana on the Italian side. 

Near Brieg Golias edusa was a passing and generally rapidly 
disappearing visitor, and below Berisal G. hyale, Goneptevyx 
rhamni, Melitcea phosbe (very common and varied), M. didyma, 
M. athalia; the larger fritillaries, Argynnis aglaia, A. adippe, 
and A. niohe (mostly var. evis), also A. euphrosyne and A. pales. 
Chvysophanus virgauvece, G. hippothoe, G. alciphvon var. govdins, 
near Berisal; and among the skippers, which were very common, 
Gavcharodiis {Syviclitlius) lavatevce was frequently taken. Melitcea 
dictynna also occurred above Berisal, and, higher up, Erebia 
tyndarus and E. melampus. 



LIST OF BUTTERFLIES FROM THE RHONE VALLEY. 95 

In August, 1901, in those different districts, being a month 
later, I naturally expected to find many new things, but these 
anticipations were not realized, very few new species were ob- 
served. Many had disappeared, many still lingered on the 
wing, and a few were represented in their later broods, as Colias 
hyale, Pararge megcera, &c., in the Pfin Forest. Pieris hrassicce 
was much more common and generally distributed than I had 
previously observed it ; and on the Simplon, Erehia goante was 
very plentiful, as also was Pieris callidice in the neighbourhood 
of the Schwarzee, on the Matterhorn. 

The undernoted are the additional species and varieties 
taken or seen during these two seasons : — 

PaPILIONIDvE. 

Papilio podalirius. — This species, which, as above indicated, was 
not seen in 1899, although assiduously looked for, was sparingly seen 
and taken on the road between Aigle and Le Sepey in early July, 1900, 
and also a few days later in the Pfin Forest. In August last it was 
very common in the latter locality, far more common than P. machaon. 
One white example of P. x>odalirius was taken at Aigle, July, 1900 ; 
and another, a fine specimen, was secured in the forest in August, 1901. 

P. machaon var. aurantiaca. — One of this variety netted on the 
Simplon route above Berisal, and one or two others seen in the Pfin 
Forest, July, 1900. 

Parnassius apollo var. pseudonovdon. — One male near Aigle on the 
Le JSepey road in 1900. 

P. mnemosyne. — Common in a field below Berisal from 15th to 
18th July, 1900, the males being mostly worn and scarce ; but the 
females were not difficult at this late date to obtain in good condition. 

PlERID^. 

Pieris daplidice. — A few captured in the Pfin Forest in July, 1900, 
and in August, 1901, it was to be taken freely; a fine brood, nearly 
all in splendid condition, in the same locality. 

Leptidia sinapis var. diniensis. — Common in the Pfin Forest last 
August. 

Colias palano. — Occasionally on the top of the Simplon and at the 
Ganter Bridge below Berisal in July, 1900. Also one pale male taken 
in the Pfin Forest the same year, which I believe is a low elevation for 
it in Switzerland. 

Lyc^nid-e. 

Zepliyrus quercus. — One netted near Aigle in July, 1900. 

Chrysophamis viryaitrecE, var. zermattensis. — Common by the side of 
the road at Berisal, and frequently at Zermatt, and in a field in the 
Zmutt Thai, August, 1901. 

Lycmna aryus var. ayidion. — One of this blue variety of the female 
taken at Visp, and another near Looche in August last. 

L. zephyrus var. lycidas. — Between the second refuge and the 
Ganter Bridge on the Simplon road, which I believe is the best 
locality for it, I secured a series of this interesting blue between the 
15th and 18th July, 1900, and probably more would have been taken 



96 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

had it not been the case that L. escheri was m great profusion, and 
being of a more brilliant colour distracted one's attention. 

L. baton. — Two at Berisal, July, 1900. 

L. pJieretes. — One in the Ganter-Thal, July, 1900. 

L. orbitulus. — Fairly common in the same locality as last, and at 
the same time. 

L. icarus ab. icarinus. — Occasionally at Berisal, July, 1900. 

L. escheri. — As before mentioned, this species was in grand form 
between Brieg and Berisal, and especially abundant on nearing the 
latter locality, July, 1900. Also one large male taken in the Pfynwald, 
and a few in 1901. 

L. meleager. — I accompanied a friend to the Pfin Forest who was in 
search of this insect in July, 1900 ; we did not identify the species 
until our return to the hotel, although we had both secured specimens. 
Its resemblance to L. corydon is at first siglit very close, although the 
next day I had little difficulty in distinguishing it on the wing. It 
was apparently fairly common, and in August, 1901, although a month 
later in the season, the insect was still on the wing ; the males were, 
however, rather worn, but not so badly as one would have expected. — • 
Ab. steveni. The females taken are apparently of this form. 

L. corydon var. corijdonius. — One of this beautiful variety taken at 
Pfin, July, 1900. 

L. alcon. — One male beyond the Hospice on the Simplon Pass, 
July, 1900. 

NyMPHALIDjE. 

Apafura iris. — Other butterflies, especially the Lycaenidje, being 
comparatively scarce at Aigle in July, 1900, the presence of this fine 
species on the road contributed greatly to compensate for the deficiency. 
All those seen were males, and being very bold were frequently easily 
captured. Seven were seen in one morning, and of these four were 
taken ; and on other days in smaller numbers. Only observed each 
day from about the time the sun struck the road (10 a.m. or later) till 
about noon. Generally settled on the dry white rock at the side of 
the road, or on the road itself. Only once on mule droppings, which 
were more frequently visited by Satynis herinione and Alelitaa didyma. 

A. ilia. — The first strange butterfly seen in the Pfin Forest, July, 
1900, was this, and the individual seemed to have an attraction for a 
special spot in a dry ditch, to which it returned several times after 
taking long flights. I eventually captured it later on in the day as it 
alighted on the leaves of a shrub. The species was not particularly 
common, three or four being the total catch — all males. 

Limenitis jjopidi. — Seen on three occasions in the Pfin Forest, 
July, 1900. 

Polygonia c-alhum. var. hutchinsonii. — One taken in the Nicolai-Thal, 
near Stalden, last August. 

Vanessa antiopa. — One seen circling round near the top of some 
lofty trees at Aigle, and one worn specimen at rest on a wall near 
Brieg Station, July, 1900. Again at Aigle in August last, and not 
infrequently on the road between Loeche and Pfin. 

Pyrameis cardui. — One or two in the Pfynwald, July, 1900 ; and in 
August, 1901, taken commonly in the same neighbourhood. Some of 



BUTTEKFLIES OF SYRIA AND PALESTINE. 97 

them very diminutive, all freshly emerged, and frequently very richly 
coloured. 

Melitcca didyma var. aJpina. — Seen first on a wall at Aigle, and taken 
on the road to Berisal. Again taken last season at Aigle and Berisal. 

M.phcebe YSiV. occitanica. — Near Berisal, July, 1900; also var. minor. 

Aryynnis i)apliia va,x. .valesina. — Stalden, Visp, and Aigle, August, 
1901. 

A. selene. — Several above Brieg, July, 1900. 

A. dia. — Common in the Pfynwald last August; also one taken 
near Zermatt on the path to Staffel Alp. 

SATYRIDiE. 

Erebia epiphron var. cassiope, — One on the Simplon above Berisal, 
July, 1900. — Var. valesUma. Two on the Matterhorn, August, 1901. 

E. mnestra. — Two specimens on the Matterhorn, August, 1901. 

E. athiops. — Pfynwald, very large specimens ; and one female of 
the var. leucotcBida, August, 1901. 

E. euryale ab. adyte. — Many specimens of euryale taken on the 
Simplon, July, 1900, were of this form. 

Satyrus clryas. — Sparingly at Aigle ; but common in the Pfin 
Forest last season. 

Pararge egeria. — One at Pfin, August, 1901. 

Hesperiid.!:. 
Augiades [Hesperia) comma. — Occurred in the Pfynwald last August. 

Altogether during the three seasons about one hundred and 
forty-four species and named varieties were observed, and taken, 
with the exception of Limenitis populi. 

28, Pitt Street, Edinburgh. 



A FEW NOTES ON SOME OF THE BUTTERFLIES OF 
SYRIA AND PALESTINE. 

By Maegaket E. Fountaine, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 63.) 

LyccBiia balcanica, Frr. — This exquisite little " blue " occurred 
during the last days of June in great abundance on the shores of the 
Sea of Galilee, and in other localities, always at low levels in Pales- 
tine ; also on the Plain of Huleh, below Baniyas. I generally found 
it flying round a small-leafed, prickly shrub, which grew in clumps in 
all these places. 

L. gamra, Ld. — The butterfly, identified by Mr. Elwes as L. yamva, 
which I only met with in Palestine, was first seen by me just above the 
Sea of Galilee, but not found, like balcanica, down on the very "brink of 
the lake. On the Plain of Jenin, on July 3rd, when I was riding from 
Nazareth to the next halting-place, it literally swarmed ; some of the 
specimens were in perfect condition, others not so fresh, so that I 

ENTOM. APRIL, 1902. I 



98 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

would rather suggest tlie end of June as the time of appearance for 
this butterfly than the beginning of July. 

L. troclujlm, Frr. — Common round Beyrout and other places, at 
low levels, from May on throughout the summer, I do not recollect 
ever seeing it in Palestine. 

L. galha, Chr, — Occurring at the same time in all the same 
localities as gamra. 

L. li/siiiwn, Hiib. — Only found by me on the Plain of Huleh, near 
BAniyas, and nowhere else. L. galba, to which it bears a striking 
resemblance, did not occur in the same place. 

L. loewii, Z. — I found these butterflies flying in some considerable 
numbers near Damascus, on a mountain rising immediately behind 
the Kurd village, the parched-up aridity of which baffles all descrip- 
tion, being also more especially remarkable in contrast to the rich, 
fertile plain, where the white city of Damascus lies surrounded by 
gardens intersected with streams and watercourses. But, unfor- 
tunately, on the 8th of May and succeeding days upon which I visited 
this mountain, it was only with the greatest difficulty that I succeeded 
in taking any specimens of loewii worth keeping ; the females espe- 
cially were in very bad condition. I also took one male of this 
butterfly at Baalbek in June, but saw no others. 

L. zephyrus var. nichoUi. — I was particularly interested to take this 
variety, named after and discovered only a year ago by Mrs. Nicholl. 
At Baalbek, though I searched everywhere, I neither found the variety 
or the type ; but at the Cedars, the first week in June, I was more for- 
tunate, and took some remarkably well-marked specimens of var. 
nicholli. 

L. anteros var. crassipjincta, Christoph. — I took a good series of this 
butterfly, mostly at the B'hamdoon Cedars, near Aiu Zahalta, in 
April ; also a few specimens, including one female from Bsherreh in 
June. 

L. isaurica, Ld. — At the Cedars, males only, in June. 

L. bellargm var. polonus, Z. (?). — This variety was fairly common 
in the dried-up bed of a stream, on the way to the Cedars from 
Bsherreh in June ; the females, however, were rare, and I only took 
two specimens. In calling it polonus I am submitting to the superior 
knowledge of Mr. Elwes and Mrs. Nicholl, for it seems to me to 
approach much more nearly to corgdon than bellargus, and to answer 
exactly to the description of var. corydonius, H. S. 

L. admetus var. ripartii, Frr. — Common in the neighbourhood of 
Bsherreh and the Cedars in June. 

L. poseidon, Ld. — I took several specimens of this species, at 
Baalbek, the Cedars, &c. ; I cannot think it is a variety of damon, the 
males are so remarkably dissimilar, both sexes bearing a very striking 
resemblance to damon females. I should be interested to know if this 
is a distinct species or not. 

L. semiargus var. antiochena, Ld. — Common near Maharain, in the 
neighbourhood of Ain Zahalta, in April ; the females, which were 
much rarer than the males, were extremely beautiful, being shot with 
vivid blue on all the wings, in addition to the broad orange border. 
All the males had minute orange spots on the hind wings, near the 
aual angles on the upper side ; more distinct, and on all the wings 



UTTERFLIES OF SYRIA AND PALESTINE. 99 

beneath, in both sexes. I could not trace much resemblance to semi- 
arrjHs in either sex, either in size, shape, or colour. 

Vanessa egea, Cr. — Common in most places, at no great elevation ; a 
large, bright form. I do not recollect ever having seen such large 
specimens anywhere in Europe. 

T'. urticm var. turcica, Stgr. — Having found a quantity of " lesser 
tortoiseshell " caterpillars feeding, as usual, on nettles, on the southern 
slopes of the Jebel-el-Arz, at an elevation of some 7000 ft., on June 11th, 
I took about two dozen of the largest I could find. They all pupated 
in a few days, and in less than a week emerged into perfect insects, all 
more or less belonging to the var. turcica, and some very markedly so. 
Possibly the intense heat of Damascus, which place I had moved on 
to, was partly accountable for their very rapid emergence. 

{Melitma, F. — I have not been able to identify the species I took of 
this genus with sufficient certainty to give any satisfactory account of 
them. A series from Ain Zahalta, in April, I believe to be M. arduinna, 
Esp., but I am by no means certain of their identity. I certainly 
took a magnificent form of M. dichjma var. neera, on a high mountain 
near Damascus, in May and, less decided, in a few other places.) 

Argynnis niobe var. eris, Meig. — One every small specimen at the 
Cedars in June ; black tracery above extremely scanty. I saw others. 

A. jiioidora, S.V. — Common in several places. I saw one at Ain 
Zahalta on April 28th ; was not this very early ? 

Danais chrysippus, L. — Fairly common on the Plain of Huleh, 
round Beyrout, &c. ; I should say, on the wing throughout the summer. 

Melanargia titca, Klug. — At the mouth of the Dog River, and at 
Hadet, near Beyrout, throughout the mouth of May. It was on May 
4th that I first saw one specimen up the Dog Eiver, but unluckily I 
did not visit its particular haunt at the mouth of the river that day, 
which Prof. Day had kindly pointed out to me on a previous occasion ; 
and when I did visit it, a week or two later, all the specimens were 
worn. 

M. teneates, Men. — Like Mrs. Nicholl, I also mistook this butterfly 
for M. larissa var. herta, when I first saw it, on the top of a mountain 
near Damascus, in May. It seemed to occur on all the high moun- 
tains throughout the summer, apparently producing a succession of 
broods, as fresh specimens were always to be met with, as well as 
others in as bad condition as they well could be. Perhaps it was most 
common on the comparatively lower regions of Mt. Hermon, towards 
the end of June ; but, unlike most of this genus, instead of colonizing 
in groups in certain localities, it was widely distributed, and specimens 
generally occurred singly. 

Satyrus anthe, 0. — Abundant everywhere in the Lebanon and Anti- 
Lebanon; throughout the greater part of May and June ; I do not 
recollect seeing it anywhere in July, or at all in Palestine, At the 
foot of a mountain near Damascus, on May 10th, it was freshly 
emerging in the early morning, and I took a number of specimens only 
just out of the chrysalis, with their wings still limp. The var. hanifa 
occurred everywhere with the type ; this variety seemed to be confined 
to the females, though I took one male at Damascus very nearly 
approaching it in richness of tone. 

i2 



100 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

S. pelopea, Klug. — Not out much before June, and very con- 
siderably less plentiful than the preceding, or the next species. 

S. tclephassa, Hiib. — Very common indeed ; I should say it was 
out some eight or ten days earlier than anthc this year, but might vary 
according to the season. To me it appears quite distinct from S. 
awalthea, which I took some numbers of in Greece last year. The 
females were quite as common as the males, and this was also the case 
with awalthea. 

S. stalilinus var. siclimi, Ld. — This variety was common in moun- 
tain gorges and ravines in Palestine early in July. I also took it near 
Beyrout, and at Aley later in the month. 

Y2)thima asterope, Klug. — This little brown butterfly was common 
on the coast from April till August, and probably on till the autumn, 
evidently producing a succession of broods throughout the summer. 
I did not think it interesting ; none of the specimens ever presented 
the slightest variation, being almost identical. 

Pararije roxelana, Cr. — Not uncommon, and in excellent condition, 
near Bludan on June 20th. It flew in shady, narrow lanes. The 
specimens did not vary with those I have taken in Hungary, only in 
the extraordinary development of the hind wings from costa to outer 
margin. 

Epinephele lycaon, Rott. — All along the lower slopes of Mouilt 
Hermon on June 28th. The specimens struck me as being paler in 
tone than the European form ; indeed, the first male I saw I mistook 
for a large pale-coloured Lycmia. 

E. ianira var. telmessia, Z. — In the grounds of the American College 
and other places near Beyrout in April and May. I found the female 
rare and difficult to secure a good series of. 

Syrichthus tesseUum, var. nomas. — A very fine " skipper." I took 
single specimens in various localities in the Lebanon in May and 
June. 

S. malvm var. mclotis, Dup. — Common in the Lebanon, May and 
June. 

*S'. jxHjyei, Ld. — On the top of a mountain near Damascus ; fairly 
common early in May. 

S. orhifer, Hiib. — Very common in many places in April and May. 

Nisoniades marloyi, B. — I took one specimen and saw another near 
Ain Zahalta in April. 

Hesperia nostrodavnis, F. — I used to see this butterfly up the Dog 
River, &c., but never succeeded in getting a specimen worth keeping. 
I imagine, like most " black butterflies," it gets rubbed very easily. 

Before concluding these notes, it may perhaps be of some 
use to other entomologists intending to visit Syria to mention 
some of the localities I found the best for collecting, with perhaps 
a few observations of a practical nature as well. Of these, I 
select three especially, viz. Ain Zahalta, Bsherreh, for the neigh- 
bourhood of the Cedars, and Baniyas, at the foot of the southern 
slopes of Mount Hermon. Ain Zahalta, which is reached by a 
four hours' walk over the mountains from Ain Sofar, on the 
Beyrout-Damascus Railway, is a mission station, and accom- 



LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN NIGERIA. 101 

modation — clean but rough — can be obtained during the spring 
months (which I should imagine was the best time for collecting 
here) at the house of a Syrian woman named Takla Abood, who 
speaks English ; and in summer there is a mountain hotel. At 
Bsherreh, about one hour's walk or ride from the Cedars, situated 
in a magnificent position overlooking a glorious well-watered 
valley, there is now a new hotel, very small but most clean and 
comfortable, with the most obliging host and hostess, both of 
whom, having spent some time in Australia, can speak English. 
Bsherreh is approached on the west by a carriage-road, and is 
two days' drive from Beyrout by Tripolis ; or, on the east over 
the pass of the Jebel-el-Arz, about ten or twelve hours' ride from 
Baalbek, with good collecting most of the way. At Baniyas I 
would willingly have made a much more protracted stay, as 
from what I did see I should say it was one of the best "butterfly 
corners" in Syria ; but I only passed it as one of the halting- 
places on my ride from Damascus to Jerusalem, and not being 
provided with tents, the accommodation in the native house 
where I put up was of such a nature that my courage failed me 
at the thoughts of another night in Baniyas, so I decided to ride 
on to Giayoni. But I feel sure that for those who should be 
camping out, and therefore independent of the horrors of native 
houses, this neighbourhood would afford excellent collecting. 

7, Lansdown Place (East), Bath: Dec. 1901. 



A LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED by DR. CUTHBERT 
CHRISTY IN NIGERIA. 

By Emily Mary Sharpe. 
(Concluded from p. 68.) 

Family LYCiENiD^E. 

46. Lachnocnema d'urbani, Trimen. — a. Jebba ; May. 

47. PiLODEUDORix c.ERULEA {H. H. Dnice). — a, h, <? . Juju- 
rock, Jebba ; November. 

48. ViRACHOLALiviA (/v^M^r).— rt. Juju-rock, Jebba; November 
This species was hitherto supposed to be restricted to Aden 

whence there are specimens in the British Museum. 

49. ViRACHOLA ANTALus (iIo|)^.). — a-c, ^. Juju-rock, Jebba 
November, d, ? . Lokoja ; May. 

50. SuKiDioN lASis (Hewits.). — a, <? . Juju-rock, Jebba 
November. 

*' Pilodeudorix ccerulea, Virachola livia, and Sukidion iasis 
seem to frequent high ground, as I only came across these species 
on the Juju-rock."— C. C. 



102 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

51. Spindasis NiLus (Hewits.). — a, ^. Ilo ; February, 1899. 
This is a very interesting species, hitherto represented by a 

female in the Hewitson Collection in the British Museum from 
the White Nile. 

52. AxiocERSES PERioN (Cram.). — a, h, 3' ■ Ho ; January. 
c, ? . Lokoja ; May. d-f, 3 . Ilo ; March, 1899. 

53. Lyc^nesthes amarah (Guer.). — a, ? . Ilo ; January, 
1899. 

54. Lyc^nesthes adherbal, Mahille. — a, 3' . Lokoja ; May. 

55. Lyc^nesthes LARYDAS (Cram.).— a, $. Lokoja. 

56. Cacyreus lingeus (Cra??i.). — a-c, <? . Jebba ; September, 
1898. 

57. Tarucus plinius (Fabr.). — a-d, 3- Jebba; May, Sept- 
ember, November, 1898. e, $ . Sierra Leone ; February, 1898. 
f-i, 3 . Kabba ; November. 

58. PoLYOMMATus B^Ticus (Linn.). — a, e, 3 ?. Jebba; Nov- 
ember. /, 3 . Boussa ; December, cj, $ . Eabba ; November. 

59. Catochrysops fumosus. Bull. — a. Lokoja. 

60. Catochrysops OSIRIS (Hoijff.).—a, 3- Leaba; December, 
1899. h, <y . Shonga; August. 

61. EucHRYSOPS NiGERiiE, sp. n. — Primaries: General colour 
bright azure blue ; the apex and hind margin narrowly lined 
with greyish brown ; cilia dirty white. Secondaries similar to 
the primaries ; the hind margin narrowly edged with greyish 
brown, the cilia nearly white ; a submarginal row of white spots 
with more or less obsolete dark centres, the darkest and largest 
spot situated between the first and second median nervule ; near 
the anal angle a second row of faintly indicated white spots. 
Underside similar to that of Catochrysops contracta, Butler. An 
extra row of spots on the marginal area of both wings, these 
spots being larger and more compact than in the above-named 
form, and consisting of four narrow lines of brown, with white 
spots on either side situated between the nervules ; the basal 
area of the secondaries relieved by the usual three black dots ; 
the distinct black spot on the hind margin edged on its lower 
side with metallic silver ; one spot between the second and third 
median nervule and two spots on the anal angle being of the 
same metallic colour. Expanse, '8 in. 

Hah. $ . Ilo ; February, 1899. Type. 

62. Lampides HIPPOCRATES (Fabr.). — a, b. Jebba ; September, 
1899. 

63. Neolyc^na cissus (Godt.). — a-e, <? . Shonga; August. 
/, ? . Jebba ; November. 

64. Zizera knysna {Trimen). — a-d, 3 ? • Jebba ; Sept- 
ember and October. 



LIST OP LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN NIGERIA. 103 

Family Pierid^. 

65. Nychitoma alcesta {Cram.).— a, b. Jebba ; May, October. 

c. Lokoja. 

66. Mylothris CHLORis (i^aftr.).— a, <? . Shonga ; September. 

67. Phrissura SYLVIA (Fabr.). — a. Mount Patti, Lokoja; 
May, 1899. 

68. Glutophrissa saba {Fabr.).— a-d, ^ . Jebba; May, October. 
e-g, 3^ 2 . Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. h, <? . Boussa ; December. 

69. Belenois gidica (Go(i;f.). — a, 3. Jebba; May. 

70. Belenoisabyssinicus (Lwcfls).— a, <y . Ilo ; January, 1899. 

71. Belenois creona {Cram.). — a-4, <? ? . Ilo ; Marcb, 1899. 
j, 3 . Rabba ; November, k-m, <? ? . Jebba ; September, 1898. 
n-r, 3 ? . Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. s, 3' . Lokoja ; 
May. t, ? . Juju-rock, Jebba ; November. 

72. Belenois mesentina {Cram.). — «, b, 3 • Ho ; March, c, <? . 
Rabba ; November. 

73. Belenois calypso (Drury). — a-c, <? ? . Ilo ; March, 1899. 

d, ? . Lokoja ; May. 

74. Pinacopteryx ? liliana {Grose Smith). — a, ? . Ilo ; Feb- 
ruary, 1899. 

75. Teracolus maimuna {Kirby). Teracolus maimima, E. M. 
Sharpe, Monogr. Ent. i. p. 24, pi. 9, figs. 1-19 (1898).— a, 3 . 
Jebba ; September, 1898. 

76. Teracolus Amelia {Lucas). — a, b. IJo ; February and 
March, 1899. 

This species has been recorded from Senegal and Abyssinia, 
and seems therefore to range throughout the Soudan. 

77. Teracolus DEDECORA (i^eW.). — a-i, 3 ?• Ho; January, 
February, 1899. 

The occurrence of this species in Nigeria is of great interest, 
as it has previously only been recorded from Senegal, in Western 
Africa. It is a well-known species in North-eastern Africa, 
where it ranges from Abyssinia to Somali-land, and eastward as 
far as Muscat, in Arabia. 

78. Teracolus EviPPE {Linn.). — a-l, 3 ? . Jebba; September, 
November, 1898. m, 3 . Ilo ; March, 1899. n, o, 3 ^ . Mount 
Patti, Lokoja ; May. jp-s, 3 ? . Lokoja ; May. 

79. Teracolus LOANDicus, SitiZ. — a. Lokoja; May. 

80. Teracolus evagore {King).— a-e, <? ?. Ilo; January, 
February, 1899. 

I am unable to separate Dr. Christy's specimens from those 
in the British Museum from Aden, from which place the British 
Museum contains a large series. 

81. Teracolus isaura {Lucas). — a-c, <? . Jebba; September 
and November, 1898, 



104 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

This eastern species is here recorded for the first time from 
Nigeria. The British Museum has specimens from the White 
Nile and Upper Egypt, Abyssinia, and the Arusa Galla country 
and Mombasa. 

82. Teracolus simplex, Butl. — a-d, $ ? . Ilo ; February and 
March, 1899. 

The occurrence of this southern species is somewhat extra- 
ordinary, but my father tells me that in the Hinterland of the 
Gold Coast some South African species of birds, which have not 
been found in the intervening districts of Africa, occur quite 
unexpectedly. 

83. Teracolus xanthevarne, Butl. ; E. M. Sharpe, Monogr, 
Ent. p. 90, pi. 29, figs. 1-1^ (1900). — a, 6, 3^ $ . Ilo ; January, 
February, 1899. 

This species has hitherto only been known from North-east 
Africa ; the specimens in the British Museum being from the 
Anseba Valley, Bogos-land, Abyssinia, and the White Nile. 

84. Leuceronia argia {Fahr.). — «, <? . Mozum, Benue Eiver; 
June, 1899. 

85. Leuceronia pharis (Boisd.). — a-c, S ? . Mozum, Benue 
Eiver ; June, 1899. 

86. Catopsilia florella {Fahr.). — a, <y . Ilo ; January, 1899. 
&-/, 3^ . Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. 

87. Terias brenda, DouU. <£ Hewits. — a. Mozum, Benue 
Eiver; June, 1899. 

88. Terias orientis, Butl. — a. Sierra Leone ; February, 
1898. b, c. Jebba ; September, 1899. d, e. Ilo ; March, 1899. 

89. Terias hapale, Mahille. — a. Ilo ; January, 1899. h. 
Boussa ; December. 

90. Terias regularis, Butl. — a-c. Jebba ; September and 
October, 1899. d-f. Shonga; August. 

91. Terias brigitta (Cra??i.). — a,h. Sierra Leone; February, 
1898. c. Jebba ; October, d-j. Ilo ; January, February, and 
March, 1899. 

92. Terias zoe, Hopf. — a-e, 3 ? • Jebba ; September and 
October, 1898. /, 3 . Eabba ; November. 

Family Papilionid^. 

93. Papilio demodocus, Esper. — a-f. Lokoja ; May. g-k. 
Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. I, m. Ilo ; February, 1899. 

" Frequented a species of orange tree." — C. C. 

94. Papilio PYLADES, i^a&r. — a-c. Jebba; May and Novem- 
ber, d. Eabba ; November, e. Ilo ; March, 1899. /. Mount 
Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. 

95. Papilio leonidas, Fahr. — a. Lokoja; May. 6. Mozum, 
Benue Eiver ; June, 1899. 



LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN NIGERIA. 105 

Family Hesperid^. 

96. Sarangesa synestalmenus (Karsch). — a, h. Boussa ; 
December. 

97. Hesperia dromus (Ploetz). — a-c, $ ? . Shonga ; August. 

98. Pardaleodes incerta (Snellen). — a. Sierra Leone; Feb- 
ruary, 1898. h, c. Lokoja ; May. 

99. Ampittia? iNORNATUs (Trme^i). — a. Shonga; August. 

100. Gegenes hottentota [Latr.). — a, <? . Boussa; De- 
cember. 

101. Gegenes LETTERSTEDTiCI^aZZeji^fr.^i. — a. Shonga; August, 
1898. 

102. Parnara borbonica (BoiscL). — a. Jebba ; November. 

103. Baoris FATUELLus (iJoji^.). — a. Sierra Leone ; February, 

1898. h-f. Jebba; October and November, g-h. Lokoja; May. 
i. Rabba; November. 

" This species has the peculiar habit of frequenting one's tent 
at dawn of day. It flits about in every corner in a restless manner, 
and is easy to catch. When the sun gets well up it disappears. It 
was common every morning on Mount Patti, and also at Boussa, in 
the hospital, flitting about beneath the beds and elsewhere." — C. C. 

104. Baoris netopha (Heivits.). — a. Lokoja. 

105. Platylesches batang^e (HolL). — a, b. Lokoja; May. 

106. Ehopalocampta forestan {Cram.). — a. Jebba; Septem- 
ber, h-g. Lokoja ; May. 

Family Sphingid^. 

107. Pseudosmerinthus submarginalis {Walk.). — a. Jebba; 
November. 

108. Leucophlebia afra. — Leucophlehia afra (Karsch), Ent. 
Nach. Berlin, xvii. p. 2, pi. 1, fig. 1 (1891). a. Ilo; February, 1899. 

109. Nephele peneus {Cram.). — a. Jebba. 

Family Syntomid^. 

110. Syntomis interniplaga {Mabille). — Hampson, Cat.Lepid. 
Phalffinje, vol. i. p. 114, pi. 11, fig. 16 (1898). a. Lokoja. 

Family ARCTiADiE. 

111. Alpenus iEQUALis {Walk.). — a. Mozum, Benue Piiver; 
June, 1899. 

112. DiACRisiA lutescens (TFa^A;.).— Hampson, Cat. Lepid. 
Phalsense, iii. p. 295, 1901. a. Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 

1899. b. Lokoja. 

113. UTETHEiSAPULCHELLA(Lm7i.).— a. Jebba; October, 1898. 

Family Hypsid.e. 

114. Argina cingulifera {Walk.).— a, h. Jebba; November, 
c. Shonga; August, 1898. 



106 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Family Liparid^. 

115. LiELiA SETiNoiDES (Holland). — a. Lokoja. 

Family Lymantriad^. 

116. CiMOLA ELEUTERiA (StolL). — a-c, 3' ? . Mozum, Benue 
Eiver ; June, 1899. 

" This species was seen frequently whilst traversing the 
thickest jungle on the right bank of the Benue." — C. C. 

117. Dasychira sp. — a. Mount Patti, Lokoja ; May, 1899. 

118. Dasychira remota (Druce). — a, h. Lokoja; December, 
1899. 

Family Limacodid^. 

119. Parasa urda {Bruce). — a. Mount Patti, Lokoja; May, 
1899. 

120. Chilena sp. — a, h. Ilo ; January and March, 1899. 

Family Notodontid^. 

121. Zana sp.— a. Mount Patti, Lokoja; May, 1899. 

Family Saturniid^. 

122. BuRNEA CHRiSTYi, E. M. Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(7) iii. p. 371 (1899). ? Burnea phcsdusa (Drury), Walk. Lepid. 
Heter. v. p. 1229 (1855).— a. Jebba. 

Sir George Hampson considers my B. christyi to be a variation 
of B. phcednsa, Drury. As, however, there is another specimen 
in the British Museum from Nigeria, which agrees with my type 
in having the large ocelli on the fore wing, I think it is quite 
probable that the two species are distinct. 

123. BiiuN^A PYGM^A, Maassen, Beitrage ziir Schmett. f. 100. 
Nudaurelia jehhce, E. M. Sharpe, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) iii. 
p. 372 (1899).— a. Jebba; October, 1898. 

124. Salassa maia (Klug). — a. Jebba. 

125. Henucha smilax (Weshv.). — a. Jebba; November. 

Family Lasiocampid^. 

126. Metanastria ?contraria (TFaZA;.). — a. Jebba; November. 

127. GoNOMETA CHRISTYI, sp. n. — Primaries : Ground colour 
reddish buff, somewhat paler in colour on the hind margin ; two 
transverse bands of a darker tint across the centre of the wing, 
the basal line proceeding straight from the costa to the inner 
margin. Secondaries : Yellowish buff with a satiny appearance, 
rather deeper in colour along the inner margin and the base. 
Under side : General colour reddish buff, the secondaries paler, 
especially on the hind margin. Head, antennae, thorax, and 
body reddish buff. Expanse of male, 3*6 in. 

Hab. Jebba; November. 



LIST OF LEPIDOPTEEA COLLECTED IN NIGEKIA. 107 

Female. — Primaries bright reddish buff, with three darker 
transverse lines, the two basal lines being only slightly waved ; 
a faint suffusion of grey along the inner margin, and extending 
over the discal area to the costa. Secondaries lighter in colour 
than the primaries, and with a satiny gloss. Under side similar 
to that of the male ; the hind marginal area of the secondaries 
lighter in colour than the ground colour ; both wings devoid of 
any spots or lines. Head, antennae, thorax, and body reddish 
buff, the latter having a distinct gloss. Expanse, 5'6 in. 

Hab. Jebba; November. 

" The cocoons of this species were frequently seen on some of 
the largest trees growing near the river bank at Jebba, not far 
from the Juju-rock. They were usually placed in a cluster on the 
under surface of a large bough. The caterpillar, an enormous 
'woolly bear,' which I always associated with these cocoons, was 
on several occasions brought to me in camp. Its colour was 
dark reddish brown, much darker than the colour of the dead 
hair woven into the cocoons." — C. C. 

Family Cossid^. 

128. AzYGOPHLEPS mcijVSA (Walk.).— a. Jebba; November. 

• 

Family Noctuid^. 

129. Sphingomorpha MONTEiRONis (BwiL). — tt-e. Jebba; May. 

130. Cyligramma limacina {Guer.). — a, b. Lokoja, 11,000 ft. 
above the river ; May. 

131. Ophisma indicabilis (Walk.). — a. Lokoja; May. 

132. OpHiusAMBLicERTE(DrMr?/). — a. Leaba; December, 1899. 

133. Eemigia archesia (Cram.). — a. Mount Patti, Lokoja; 
May, 1899. 

134. Plecoptera resistens {Walk.). — a. Ilo; March, 1899. 

135. Entomogramma pardus (Guen.). — a. Jebba; May. 

136. Hypocala plumicornis (Guen.). — a. Jebba; May. 

137. Charidea cauta. — C/iantZea caiite, Hampson {mMSS.). 
a. Mount Patti, Lokoja; May, 1899. 

Family Geometridje. 

138. ? AcROPTERis angulataria {Fabr.). — a, b. Jebba ; May 
and October, 1899. 

139. Pareumelea perlimbata {Guen.). — a. Sierra Leone ; 
February, 1898. 

Family Pyralid^e. 

140. Phryganodes QUADRiGUTTATA(prrtZ^.). — a. Sierra Leouc ; 
February, 1898. 

141. Glyphodes simv at a. {Fabr.). — a. Mozum, Benue Biver; 
June, 1899. 



108 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ON SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENO- 
PTERA (ICHNEUMONID^, CHRYSIDID^, FOSSORES, 
AND APID.E). 

By p. Cameron. 

ICHNEUMONID^. 
Amblyjoppa, gen. nov. 

Antennae stout, slightly compressed and dilated between the middle 
and the apex. Scutellum roundly convex, raised above the level of 
the mesonotum ; its sides not margined, the apex with a flat, oblique 
slope. The base of the median segment has a distinct oblique slope ; 
the areola is somewhat horseshoe-shaped, slightly narrowed behind ; 
it is flat, raised, smooth and shining ; the sides, except at the apex, 
are furrowed, the farrows becoming wider and striated towards the 
apex ; the posterior, median, and the spiracular areae only are clearly 
defined ; there are no spines or projections, and the apex of the 
segment has a gradually rounded slope. Areolet narrowed at the top. 
Abdomen closely punctured ; the segments are closely punctured and 
do not project much at the apex laterally. Legs stout; the apex of 
the hinder femora does not extend beyond the third segment. The 
post-petiole is wide and clearly separated; on the second segment only 
the part between the gastrocoeli is striated. The abdomen is com- 
paratively short, being not much longer than the head and thorax 
united ; its apex is bluntly pointed and broad ; it is not quite half the 
length of the penultimate ; the ovipositor is broad and projects. 

The temples are obliquely and rather sharply narrowed ; the 
occiput is roundly incised, and is sharply margined ; the malar space 
is large ; the apex of the clypeus is transverse ; the labrum slightly 
projects ; the second joint of the maxillary palpi is widely dilated ; 
the mesopleural tubercles are long, narrow, and plate-like ; the ventral 
keel extends on to the fourth segment, and is not very distinct. There 
is a short stump of a nervure on the cubital-disco nervure. The wings 
are dark-coloured. 

The species I have included in this genus are large handsome 
insects. The characteristics of the genus are the roundly convex 
scutellum and the flat, raised, smooth and shining areola. The 
median segment is completely areolated ; there are three basal 
and five apical areae, besides the spiracular area. The basal 
joints of the flagellum are elongated, more than three times 
longer than wide ; the transverse median nervure is not quite 
interstitial ; the transverse cubital nervures may be distinctly 
separated above, or they may be almost united. 

To this genus belongs " Iclmeamon" (elvanus, Cam.,* which 
appears to be a common Indian species. 

Amblyjoppa rufo-balteata, sp. nov. 
Nigra, capite thoraceque flavo-maculatis ; abdominis medio late 

''''■ ' Manchester Memoirs,' xl. pt. 4, p. 8. 



SOME NEW GENEKA AND SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA. 109 

rufo, apice petioli flavo; pedibus nigris; tibiis tarsisque late flavis, tarsis 
nigro- maculate ; alis fusco-violaceis, nervis stigmateque nigris. ? . 

Hah. Khasia Hills (coll. Kothney). 

Antennae stout, slightly dilated and compressed before the middle ; 
the tenth to fifteenth joints white below ; the scape minutely punc- 
tured, thickly covered with white pubescence. Head black ; the face, 
clypeus, labrum, except in the middle, the inner orbits, the outer on 
the lower half — narrowly above, broadly below, the yellow extending to 
the base of the mandibles — pale yellow. Face and clypeus punctured, 
thickly covered with short white hair ; the front above closely 
punctured. Thorax black ; the edge of the pronotum, two short 
lines shortly behind the middle of the mesonotum, the scutellum, 
post-scutellum, two somewhat triangular marks on the sides of the 
metanotum, extending on to the spiracular area, the tubercles, a large 
mark on the under side of the mesopleurfe — rounded in front, obliquely 
narrowed at the apex — pale yellow. Mesonotum opaque, distinctly 
punctured in the middle, less distinctly and more closely on the sides; 
and thickly covered with short fuscous pubescence. Scutellum roundly 
convex, punctured, and thickly covered with long pale hair ; post- 
scutellum smooth, thickly covered with fuscous hair. Median segment 
rugosely punctured ; the supramedian area has the basal half narrowed; 
the base in the middle transverse and slightly more than half the 
width of the apex ; inside it is not depressed, is smooth and shining ; 
the apex with two rows of punctures, the basal row not reaching to 
the sides ; the posterior median and posterior intermedian area? are 
stoutly transversely striated, the latter more strongly than the former. 
Pro- and mesopleur^e closely punctured, their apices more or less 
striated ; metapleuras closely rugosely punctured, above the middle 
keel more or less obliquely striated. The lower part of the stigma and 
the apical nervures are fuscous; the areolet five-angled, at the top 
half the width of the bottom ; the recurrent nervure is received shortly 
behind the middle. Legs black ; all the trochanters, the four anterior 
coxfe, the apices of the four anterior femora, the anterior tibiae in front 
and at the base behind, the basal part of the intermediate to shortly 
beyond the middle and the basal two-thirds of the hinder pair, and an 
irregular mark on the top and sides of the hinder femora — broad 
above, narrow on the sides — pale yellow ; tarsi pale yellow, the basal 
three joints at the apex and the apical two entirely black. Abdomen 
black ; the apex of the petiole yellow ; the second and third segments 
entirely, and the base and sides of the third, ferruginous. The petiole 
is depressed in the centre above, the base irregularly roughened ; the 
apex rugosely punctured ; the base of the post-petiole rugosely punc- 
tured; the apex less strongly punctured ; the sides are closely, strongly, 
obliquely striated ; the second, third, and fourth segments are closely 
punctured ; the second closely, longitudinally striated at the base ; 
the gastroccBli on their inner sides with curved striae. 

AcANTHOJOPPA, gen. nov. 
Antennae dilated and compressed beyond the middle. Scutellum 
pyramidal, the base with an oblique slope ; the top roundly depressed ; 
the sides of the top leaf-like ; the apex has a more abrupt slope, is 



110 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

shorter, and has its sides keeled. Median segment completely areo- 
lated ; the base in the middle is depressed ; there are five basal areae 
and three apical ones ; the areola is completely defined ; its base 
transverse ; its sides oblique ; the sides at the apex are oblique ; the 
apex rounded inwardly. The spines are long and stout ; the basal 
depression is keeled laterally. Face flat, hardly projecting in the 
centre ; the labrum projecting. Occiput widely incised. Temples 
broad, obliquely narrowed. Areolet five-angled, narrowed at the top ; 
the cubito-disco nervure has an almost obsolete stump of a nervure. 
Wings hyaline, or slightly infuscated at the apex. Legs long ; the 
apex of tiie hinder femora reaches to the fourth segment. Petiole long 
and slender ; the post-petiole becomes gradually wider from the base 
to the apex ; the second and third segments are closely aciculated ; 
the others smooth ; the apical three segments become gradually 
narrowed ; the last is largely developed ; the cerci are prominent ; 
the ovipositor largely projects; the ventral keel is large, and extends 
to the apex of the fifth segment. 

The species of this genus known to me are uniforml}^ ferru- 
ginous, with the wings hyaline, or yellowish-hyaline, at the most 
only slightly smoky at the apex ; the antennae are similarly 
coloured, darker towards the apex and lighter in the middle. 
The median segment is more regularly and completely areolated 
than usual ; the sides of the abdominal segments do not project 
laterally. In the male the antennae are not distinctly serrate. 

A distinct genus, easily known by the flat face, the completely 
areolated median segment, with its stout spines ; the pyramidal 
scutellum, deeply depressed on the top ; and the abdomen 
narrowed at the apex, and with a long projecting ovipositor. In 
the arrangement of Kriechbaumer and Ashmead, the genus 
would come in near Cryptojoppa. 

ACANTHOJOPPA SCHIZOASPIS, Sp. UOV. 

Perruginea, facie, clypeo, pleurisque flavis ; antennis ferrugineis, 
apice late nigris ; alis fulvo-fumatis, stigmate ferrugineo. ? . 
Long. 15-16 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Eothney). 

Antennae rufo-fulvous, beyond the sixteenth joint black; the scape 
punctured, thickly covered with short black hair ; the flagellum with 
a pale down. Head rufo-fulvous ; the face and clypeus with a paler 
yellower tinge ; closely and rather strongly punctured ; the apex of 
the clypeus impunctate in the middle ; the labrum closely punctured ; 
thickly covered with long fulvous hair. The apex of the mandibles 
broadly black. Front very smooth and shining ; the vertex shagreened ; 
the orbits yellow. The mesonotum dark rufous ; closely punctured, 
thickly covered with short black hair. Scutellum large, pyramidal ; 
the base with an oblique slope ; the apex almost perpendicular ; the 
top roundly and deeply depressed ; the sides somewhat triangular, 
rouuded; margined; the basal keels large, curved, acute; the basal 
depression narrow, transverse, not very deep ; the hair thick, long, 
blackish. Post-scutellum yellowish, with an obliquely rounded slope ; 



SOUTH AFRICAN COCCID^. Ill 

the centre closely and finely striated ; the sides with a few stout 
striations ; the depressions at its sides wide, shallow, and marked 
with stout keels ; the base of the median segment in the centre has a 
rounded slope, deeply depressed in the middle, and bordered with a 
stout keel round the sides and apex ; the apex is rugose. The supra- 
median area is slightly wider than long ; the base almost transverse ; 
the sides at the base oblique ; at the apex more sharply oblique ; the 
apex bulges roundly inwardly ; the posterior median area is of almost 
equal width throughout ; the teeth are large, broad ; the base of the 
segment is strongly punctured ; the supramedian area has a few 
oblique striations ; the apex strongly transversely striated. The upper 
part of the propleurae is strongly punctured ; the centre at the base 
with a few fine oblique striations ; the lower part at the middle and 
apex with stout, irregular, mostly curved, keels. Mesopleur^e strongly 
punctured ; the middle with some stout longitudinal striations ; the 
tubercles large, elongate, leaf-like, roundly narrowed at the base and 
apex. The base of the metapleurse above finely, the rest coarsely, 
punctured, the punctures running into reticulations ; in front of the 
hinder coxje are some stout oblique striations, and in front of these is 
a stout curved keel. Mesosternum thickly covered with fuscous hair, 
punctured; the furrows deep, much widened at the apex. Legs stout; 
the four anterior coxae and trochanters more or less yellowish ; the 
hinder strongly punctured ; the hinder tarsi spinose. The costa and 
stigma are luteous ; the nervures darker ; the areolet narrowed at the 
top, the transverse cubital nervures almost uniting there ; the first is 
largely bullated at the top ; the second in the centre ; the recurrent 
nervure is received in the centre of the areolet ; the transverse median 
nervure is received distinctly in front of the transverse median. Petiole 
yellowish at the base, the apex shagreened ; the sides at the apex with 
some large deep punctures. The other segments are closely punctured; 
blackish down the middle ; the gastrocoeli shallow, closely punctured ; 
the space between them striated. The sheaths of the ovipositor 
fulvous, densely haired ; the apex black. 

(To be continued.) 



SOUTH AFRICAN COCCID^.— II. 

By T. D. a. Cockekell. 

Aspidiotus (Marganella) maskelli, Gkll. 
Botanical Gardens, Durban, Natal ; on twigs of Camellia 
(Fuller). New to the African continent ; it has been found in 
Mauritius by De Charmoy. 

Hemichionaspis cyanogena, Ckll. 
Verulam, Natal (Fuller). Botanical Gardens, Durban, Natal ; 
on Alternaria (Fuller). The last-mentioned material showed 
circumgenital glands as follows : median, 17 ; cephalolateral, 
16 ; caudolateral, 13. The type had median, 11 ; cephalo- 
lateral, 17 ; caudolateral, 15. 



112 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Chionaspis exalbida, n. sp. 

2 • Scales crowded, about If mm. long, convex, very narrow, pure 
white, with yellow-brown exuviae ; the second skin has the basal half 
covered with white secretion, but the apical half is bare and clear 
brownish yellow. 

5 , Deep carmine-red (turns green on boiling in caustic potash), 
elongate, the margins of the segments nowhere projecting. Caudal 
end scarcely chitinised ; no circumgenital glands ; the usual rows of 
transverse dorsal glands, but they are irregular, with few glands ; 
margin of caudal end with many lobules, which hardly take the form 
of definite lobes ; the median lobules are rounded, and separated by a 
rather wide interval, and present a projecting point at their outer 
edge ; after these come two rounded prominences, then two rounded 
depressions, separated by a prominence which is sometimes bifid ; 
then comes a little projection, and then a large gently convex portion, 
then a notch, and after that a few notches at rather distant intervals. 
There are apparently no squames, but specimens which have not 
been treated with potash show a short waxy fringe taking the place of 
squames. 

S' • Scales of the usual Chionaspis form, but texture quite dense ; 
unicarinate, some faintly tricarinate. 

On leaves of aloe, Howick, Natal {Fuller). This is not a true 
Chionaspis, but there is no other genus to receive it. 

PoUaspis carissce, n. sp. 

? . Scale similar to that of P. cycadis, but perhaps narrower ; 
second skin pale, as in cycadis. 

$ . Similar to P. cycadis, but the strongly serrulate reddish- 
brown median lobes are wide apart, the interval being nearly as great 
as the breadth of a lobe ; the second lobe consists of two lobules, of 
which the inner is the larger, and its tip projects a little beyond the 
level of the tips of the median lobes ; the margin just beyond the 
second lobe bears two large oval dorsal glands, like those of the series 
on the next segments anteriorly ; there are only four dorsal glands in 
the short rows nearest the anal orifice. The middle of the body is 
red-brown, and strongly chitinised. Circumgenital glands in eight 
groups ; the posterior laterals 19, middle laterals (cephalolaterals of 
other genera), 11, median 5, in a transverse row, and the anterior 
groups characteristic of PoUaspis form a transverse series broken into 
three linear groups of three or four, which are widely separated. 

(? . Scale tricarinate. 

On Carissa (? C. grandiflora, DC), a plant which belongs to 
the Apocynaceae. Durban, Natal {Fuller). In this species and 
P. cycadis the anterior groups of glands are in transverse lines ; 
in P. media, and the species described by Fuller from Australia, 
the groups are circular. 

Haliniococcus lampas, Ckll. 
Mr. Fuller sends new material on the palm, Hyphcsiie crinita, 
Gaertn. This palm is a native of Natal. 



SOUTH AFRICAN COCCID^. 



113 



Dactylopius filamentosus, Ckll. 
Mr. Fuller sends a large variety of this species on orange, 
and says it is more common upon a native Domheya. The an- 
tennae measure as follows in (a, joints : (1.) 30, (2 ) 42, (3.) 30-36, 
(4.) 39-45, (5.) 24-30, (6.) 33, (7.) 75-78. 

Ceroplastes candela, Ckll. & King, n. sp. 
5 . Long. 2f , lat. 8^, alt. 4|nim. ; dark red-brown, elevated, with 
vertical sides. Caudal horn a prominent stout spine, hardly f mm. 
long, placed nearer the top of the scale than the base. Dorsum smooth 
and shining, with only a very small central raised line. Sides of in- 
sects with vertical stripes of dense white secretion ; no wax, except 
that composing these stripes, between the insects, which are densely 
crowded together, their vertical sides contiguous. They rest on a thin 
substratum of wax, and are covered above with yellowish-white wax, 
about 1 mm. thick. The outlines of the insects are vaguely marked 
on the surface of the covering wax by a brownish stain. The wax, 
with the insects beneath, surrounds the twigs as the wax does the wick 
of a candle ; the whole mass is about 20 mm. diameter, that of the 
twig being about 5 mm. 

Mr. King found the antennae to measure thus in /a. :— 

Joints: (1.) (2.) (3.) (4.) (5.) (6.) (7.) 

Length : 56. 68. 56. 60. 28. 32. 40. 

Breadth: 64. 48. 40. 32. 28. 28. 24. 

Found by Mr. Fuller at Eichmond, Natal. The nearest ally is an 

undescribed species from Paraguay, collected by Professor Bruner. 

Ceroplastes egharum, Ckll., subsp. fidleri, T. D. A. & W. P. Ckll., 

n. subsp. 

2 . Waxy scale hemispherical, long. 15^, lat. 12, alt. 10 mm. ; in 
dry specimens rough, pale reddish, not divided into plates. ? . De- 
nuded of wax hemispherical, very dark red-brown, long, 8^, lat. 8, 
alt. 8 mm, ; sides infolded beneath, so that the inferior aperture is 
considerably smaller than the diameter of the scale. Anterior end 
narrowed and elevated, having the form of the end of a pig's snout. 
Caudal horn distinct, but very short, about ^ mm. long ; a very deep 
sulcus runs from below the caudal horn to the margin. Middle of 
back with a prominence about as high as the caudal horn, but larger, 
because lengthened posteriorly, having a keel-like form. 

In caustic potash the female gives a deep madder-red colour ; this 
colour is obliterated, leaving only a faint greenish tint, by the addition 
of acetic or nitric acid. On adding more potash, so as to neutralise 
the acid, the red colour is restored. The wax is not altered in colour 
by chloroform. 

Skin with several large (about 800 fi diam.) strongly chitinous red- 
brown patches, thickly perforated with small gland-pores, recalling the 
nozzle of a garden sprinkler. Legs ordinary, except that the femur is 
very stout ; measurements in /x: femur with trochanter, 192 (width of 
femur 95); tibia, 160; tarsus, 81; claw, 27. Tarsal digitules about 
60 fx long, very fine hairs, with rather large round knobs. Claw- 
digitules stout, about 36 //. long, with large dark brown knobs. 

ENTOM. APRIL, 1902. K 



114 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Sent by Mr. Fuller, labelled: "Large red Ceroplastes, on 
Acacia and Mimosa, coast of Natal." Tliis is probably a valid 
species ; Mr Fuller seems to consider it different from the ordi- 
nary white species, C. egharum {cristatus, Green). Some time 
ago Dr. Strachan sent me from Lagos a very large C. egharum — 
waxy scale, long. 20, lat. 13, alt. 10 mm. —with the dorsal area 
of the wax slightly pinkish. This seems to be another distinct 
variety or subspecies, but the material was not sufficient for 
satisfactory description. 

Mr. Fuller writes that it is from the species of Ceroplastes 
that the Kaffirs make their head-rings. The large white species 
on Mimosa — I suppose G. egharum — is the one most commonly 
used, as it is very plentiful. Mr. Fuller thus describes the pro- 
cess : — " The head-rings are made from a mixture — half and half, 
I am told — of calcined coccids and fresh material. Of course, 
no effort is made to extract the insects, a fact which accounts no 
doubt for the intense blackness of the rings." 

East Las Vegas, New Mexico, U.S.A. 
Jan. 14th, 1902. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Nomenclatuke of the Coccids. — In the course of revising 
the genera of Coccidae, I have found the following new names and 
changes of name apparently necessary : — 

(1.) Ultraccelufitoma, new subgenus oi Cadostomidia; female adult 
without mouth or legs; antennae more or less rudimentary. Type 
Cailostumidia assiinilis [delostoma assimile, Maskell), from New Zealand. 

(2.) Arctorthezia, new section of OrtJiezia ; female with waxy secre- 
tion dense, not easily removed; wedge-shaped lamellje in dorsal line. 
Boreal forms. ((7. occidentalis and 0. cataphracta.) 

(3.) Bambusaspis new section of Asterolecanium ; scale elongated, 
often very narrow ; living on bamboos and palms in the Tropics. 
Includes A. miliaris, A. hamhmcB, A. delicatum, A. solenophoroides, A. 
pahnce, A. urichi. 

(4.) Phenacobryum, new section of Asterolecanium ; scale with laminae 
resembling moss-leaves. A. bryoides (Maskell) and A. stellatum 
(Maskell, as bryoides var.). 

(5.) Ascelis, Schrader ; n. syn. Cystococciis, Fuller, Tr. Ent. Soc. 
Lond. 1899, p, 462. [A. echuiiformis [Cystococciis echinlformis, Fuller) ). 
T. D. A. CocKERELL ; E. Las Vegas, New Mexico, U.S.A. ; Feb. 2nd, 
1902. 

Note on Lakv^ of Chrysophanus phlobas. — I obtained a large 
number of C. phloeas ova last October, from captured females. The 
larvse duly hatched out, and have lived through the winter in a con- 
servatory, but not heated, except by means of a lamp, just enough to 
keep the frost from plants. Some of them appear to have fed all 
through the winter and are now full grown, while others are smaller. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 115 

Those found in the open to-day by my son were all very small. — 
E. Sabine; The Villas, Erith, March 13th, 1902. 

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Ireland. — There are three 
points I am sorry not to see touched upon in the review of this Cata- 
logue (mite, p. 54). First, why C'ceiioni/mpha typhon occurs further 
south in Ireland than in England, i. e. why it should occur in the 
Killarney district and not in the wilds of Dartmoor and Exmoor, in 
Devonshire. Second, the occurrence of Bankia argentula both in the 
English fen counties and in the west of Ireland, but not in the inter- 
vening space. Third, why should our islands have been restocked 
from the Continent since the climax of the Glacial Period ? One 
question is, how long might the ova and pupae of insects remain 
buried in the earth or in rubbish, beneath snow and ice ? If they can 
do so for years, what occasion was there for our islands to be restocked ? 
Another is, was not the greater part of Europe overwhelmed, as much 
as our own islands ? What prevents our islands from being part of the 
Arctic Regions but the changeability of the winds ? Should the wind 
blow uninterruptedly from the north-east for twelve months or more, 
we shall again have a glacial period. — C. W. Dale ; Feb. 8tli, 1902. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

CoLiAs HYALE NEAR Dartford IN 1902. — While out Collecting larv* 
this morning, one of my sons saw a male of this species disporting 
itself on the railway bank. It passed close by him several times, 
apparently in good condition, its colour being very bright. I should 
fancy this is a " record " early appearance. Are we to have a third 
hyale year in succession ? — E. Sabine ; Erith, March 13th, 1902. 

Thecla w-album and Colias edusa in Bristol District. — It might 
interest some readers to know that 7'. iv-albuin was very common last 
year in certain favoured spots at Bristol, while in the season of 1900 
it positively swarmed. In the latter year C. edusa was very abundant 
in Leigh woods and neighbourhood. — M. J. L. Davis ; Lyndhurst, 
St. Ronnan's Avenue, Redland, Bristol. 

Yorkshire Dragonflies. — Mr. H. J. Burkill sends the following 
notes on Yorkshire dragonflies : — "In the ' Entomologist ' for 
February last Cordulefjaster annulatus is reported for 1901, from York- 
shire. I saw two insects of this species on Aug. 15th, 1901, in 
Hayburn Wyke, a wooded ravine on the coast, six miles north of 
Scarborough. Being unprovided with a net, I could do no more than 
stalk them slowly, and on one occasion stood for nearly ten minutes 
within five yards of one of the pair which was sunning itself on an 
ash-trunk. I think there is no doubt as to the identity of the species, 
the alternate yellow and dark bands being so very conspicuous. A 
few miles further north, on Sept. 4th, 1899, I captured several 
specimens of Sipnpetram scoticiuii on the moors. This last year, in 
June, I found Libellula depressa very abundant on the cliffs south of 
Scarborough, together with Ischnura eler/ans and a few Agrion pueila. 
I might add that I picked up a dead male Calopteryx v'mjo, in the road 

k2 



116 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



near Hackness, in August, 1897 or 1898. The insect had been run 
over in the dust, but was almost perfect nevertheless." — W. J. Lucas. 

Essex Dkagonflies. — As no records for dragonflies at Romford 
exist, it cannot be out of place to mention that Eev. W. Claxton took 
the two common species, Libellula depressa, male (May 22nd), and 
Agrion puella, female (June 8th), in his garden at Navestock Vicarage, 
in 1901.— W. J. Lucas. 

Lepidopera Heterocera of Paris. — The following is a list of 
Lepidoptera Heterocera obtained in the suburbs and environs of Paris 
in June and July, 1901 : — Smerinthus tilicc, Eue des Dames Augustins ; 
one specimen freshly emerged. Sphinx liijustri, two specimens ob- 
tained from the lads of the racing stables, Maison Lafitte. Macro- 
f/lossa stellatarum, Courbevoie, Forest of St. Germain, Pare Maison 
Lafitte ; here, as elsewhere, on viper's bugloss. Saturnia pavonia 
major, one specimen (given me at Hotel de la Gare, Fontainebleau). 
Lasiocanipa riibi, ditto. Odoncstis potatoria, two specimens obtained 
from the lads of the racing stables, Maison Lafitte. Enchelia jacobcecp, 
one specimen taken. Pare Maison Lafitte. Liparis salicis, L. auriftua, 
and L. chri/sorrhcea, one specimen, Boulevard Bineau, Neuilly. Arctia 
villica, one specimen, Chantilly. Pluda gamma, a few seen, lucerne 
field, Courbevoie. Venilia macalata, two captured, Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau. Camptogramma hilineata, common, Pare Maison Lafitte and 
Forest of St. Germain. In September, 1901 : — Macroglossa stella- 
tarum, seen, Courbevoie. Saturnia pavonia major, seven specimens 
obtained from the tram conductor, Port Marly. Smerinthus pnpuJi, 
Sphinx ligustri, and Acherontia atropus, all in possession of tram con- 
ductor, but in indifferent condition. Port Marly. — (Rev.) F. A. 
Walker ; Dun Mallard, Cricklewood. 

Notes from the Chester District. — On July 19th I took a larva 
of Notodonta dictaa, and one of Acronycta abii, o& some red willows 
near Shotwick. The first-mentioned emerged as a perfect insect on 
August 18th — a representative of a second brood. The larva of A. 
alni spun up on August 5th. On August 26th a friend sent me a 
full-grown larva of Cossm lignipcrda in an ordinary chip match-box. 
Fortunately it arrived safely, but it had so enveloped itself in a cocoon 
that I left it as it was. About a month afterwards it bit its way out 
into the cage, and then surrounded itself with another web. This, I 
expect, from previous experience, to be its last performance before 
appearing as a moth in June. Larvae of Smerinthus ocellatus were 
common, here and there, on willows and sallows. From a single bush 
near Saughall a friend and I gathered over a dozen on August 24th ; 
but it was the only favoured shrub among six or eight. From sedges 
by a pond side I got four pup^e of Plusia festucce in their long cocoons 
of white silk on August 81st. The moths emerged between Sept. 2nd 
and Sept. 13th, and I am inclined to look upon them as a third brood 
(see Entom. xxxiv. 257). In a particular spot of Delamere Forest, 
where branches of the Scotch firs are well within reach, I went to 
beat for larvae of Macaria Uturata on Sept. 13th. The sooty melanic 
form occurs with the type, and has been given the varietal name 
nigrofulvata by Mr. J. Collins, of Warrington (Entom. xxxiv. 364). 
Thunberg's name for the species was M. fuscata, and this sets one 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 117 

wondering if his type was our varietal form. I got three species of 
larvae, and all very much like each other — M. liturata, Bupalus piniaria, 
and Thera variata. Skipping minor points of difference, all were 
, green, all about the same shape and size, and all were striped with 
either white or yellowish white ; but the red-brown head, legs, and 
claspers easily marked out M. litarata, while the white dorsal line of 
B. piniaria separated the latter from T, variata. Some imagines of 
T. variata appeared in October ; possibly others are lying over till next 
June. But I was a week or more too late, and I did not get many 
of either species. The August brood of Paranje megcBra showed up 
numerously in the neighbourhoods of Saughall and Shotwick. The 
under sides of this butterfly, with their delicate dark pencillings on a 
grey ground, their marginal crescents and target-like discs (I am 
referring to the secondaries), deserve more attention than perhaps 
they receive. Among " varieties " I have little more to add. I 
reared two or three dozen Odonestiii potatoria, and I believe the follow- 
ing description holds generally good as far as the spots on the upper 
wings are concerned: " A white central spot, and a small white spot 
between it and the costa." One of my males is without this small 
white spot. On Oct. 12th I went to Delamere Forest with a friend 
who is great on fungi. These ephemeral things were the objects of 
his visit, mine were as many imagines of Oporahia autumnata as I 
could take. Fungi there were in profusion. Two species of the 
" fairy-rings '' grew in the fields — the tasty champignon and the 
equally common " puff-balls." In the woodlands there were fungi 
scarlet, fungi violet, fungi white, and fungi chocolate. Broadly 
speaking. Nature marks the poisonous species in brilliant colours, like 
so many danger signals. On the birch trunks, no longer hidden by 
denser foliage, -grew the fungus peculiar to these trees, PoUjporus 
betuliniis. This, when dried, forms a capital substitute for cork. It 
is pure white when dried and cut up, and the first exitomological 
cabinet I ever saw was lined with strips of this fungus. By beating 
the birches I sent on the wing three geometers, which, from their 
silvery whiteness, may have been antunmata, but I failed to net them. 
And I was obliged to give the birches up, for they were so charged, in 
the early morning, with the rain-drops of the previous night, that 
beating the branches was like standing in a shower-bath. My friend 
left by a mid-day train, and I went to lunch at the 'Abbey Arms,' and 
then to dessert in the forest off luscious blackberries, which nobody 
seems to gather in these days of factory-made jams and "substitutes." 
But this led me among, the oaks, and as everything was now dry, I 
beat them for all I was worth, as I had accidentally started two or 
three Oporabias from them. I got about two dozen altogether, in- 
cluding nice banded forms and paler specimens. But, thanks to the 
kind assistance of Mr. L. B. Prout, they all turned out to be U. dilutata. 
The moral of this story, I should say, is keep away from oaks if you 
want a7itumnata, and stick to alder and birch (Entom. xxxiv. 43). At 
the electric lamps the luck continued, on the whole, deficient in 
quantity, although very fair in quality. On August 20th I took a 
moth new to the district, Asphalia diluta. Unfortunately it had been 
trodden upon as it rested on the pavement below the lamp. In 
September, Anchocelis lunosa was unusually plentiful, including pale 



118 , THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and dark forms. During the latter half of the month A. pistacina 
appeared. This moth exhibited varieties leading from the type to the 
uuicolorous and nearly spotless bright-chestnut form. On the other 
hand, an intermediate pattern was so spotted as to strikingly remind 
one of Basrjcampa nih'Kjhu'a. A few Kpitnda liitulcnta, all nearly black, 
were also taken during the month. My best capture, however, was 
on the 9th, a very fair specimen of Heliothis armujera. It is un- 
doubtedly of British nationality, straw-coloured, instead of the dark 
form I always rear, say a month earlier, from larvse found in foreign 
tomatoes. According to Mr. Walker's list, this is the second capture 
of the species in the district. P. festuca occurred again at the lamps, 
Sept. 9th, fresh from the chrysalis ; and on the 21st one Agmtis saucia. 
A grand male Dasypolin templi turned up on Oct. 10th. Winter 
weather set in on Nov. 13th, with alternate rain, snow, and frost up 
to the 26th, when mild weather prevailed and brought out Pcecilocmnpa 
populi. Some individual examples of certain species occurred on such 
extraordinary dates that they suggest second broods ; they were as 
follows : — Hcpiaius hitmiili, a small but fresh female, August 24th ; 
Spilosoina tnentkastri, Sept. 2ad ; Portkesia sii)iilis = auriftua, Sept. 8th. 
J. Arkle ; Chester. 

Notes from Dorking for the Season of 1901. — Of the four 
seasons that I have lived in this neighbourhood, the one just past has 
been far and away the best. I have worked hardest, like most of 
those who are, comparatively speaking, beginners in entomology, 
among the Diurni, intending to pay more attention to the Nocturni 
when the former are more complete. I will go through in order the 
forty-one species which I have taken here. Of course Pieris brassicte, 
rapcE, and napi were in profusion, the first-named perhaps less so than 
is the case sometimes. EncJdoe cdrdamines I took in plenty, especially 
males, from May 7th till May 23rd. Colias ediisa was far from being 
so common as last year, only one specimen coming in my way, and 
that I did not take. C. hyaJe was seen on August 7th, and again on 
the 12th, when I got a male in good condition. Goneptenjx rhamni, 
for some reason or other, was far from common in the later summer, 
though the hybernated specimens were very plentiful from April 1st 
till the beginning of May. Among the Nymphalid^ I was very 
successful, for besides breeding a fine series of Argynnis paphia, I took 
A. aylaia and A. adippe in splendid condition from the beginning of 
July till about the middle of that month. A. selene and A. euphrosyne 
were also plentiful enough about the end of May. My A. paphia larvae 
began to pupate on May 21tli, and went on doing so till June 9tli. 
The first imago appeared on June iOth, and the last on June 25th. 
Among the Vanessas, the larvae of V. urtica were swarming during 
May and the first week in June, the first pupa appearing on June 4th, 
and the first imago on June 17th. V. pnlychloros occurred in greater 
numbers than I have previously experienced. The hybernated speci- 
mens were quite common during the first fortnight of April ; the 
larvae emerged from ova on May 13th and 14th, and pupated from 
June 10th to the 14th. The imagines came out from June 29th till 
July 2nd. I regard the profusion of this insect to be one of the 
events of the year. But the other members of the genus were con- 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 119 

spicuous by their absence. I saw two hybernated specimens of V. io 
on April 19th, but not a single V. atalanta or V. car did, though I 
heard of V. atalanta being seen. Of course Epinephele ianira and 
E. tithoniis were in profusion, and Satyrns (H.) semele was to be 
obtained in some numbers about the end of July. Aphantopus [H.) 
hyperanthus was as common as E. ianira about the third week in July; 
and Ccenonympha painphilns was as usual too abundant to be pleasant. 
Pararge (S.) vifytBra was common in August, and P. cyerides was to be 
taken in the middle of May, and again in the middle of August. 
Many of the Lycaenidae were in the utmost profusion, notably Thecla 
rubi, from May 12th till June 6tli ; Lyccena icarus, of course more 
than once ; L. adonis during the latter half of May and again towards 
the end of August ; L. curydon from July 20th to August 8rd ; L. 
argiolm from May 1st to the 23rd, and again at the end of July; and 
Chrysophanus phJceas in the middle of May, in the middle of July, and 
again in the middle of August, one being seen as late as September 
the 29th. All the above Lycjeuidae were very abundant, but others 
occurred alsoi Though I have not yet succeeded in finding either 
Thecla w-album or T. querciis here, a friend sent me some pup© of 
both these species, and I have got a fine series of each. L. cBgon must 
abound somewhere here, but I have hitherto only found one or two 
specimens at a time, and it has been the same with L. ayestis. L. 
minima {alsus) was quite plentiful towards the end of June and up to 
the middle of July, but was not in such numbers as cor y don, adonis, 
icarus, or argiolus. An enthusiastic entomologist called on me one day 
(July 15th), and, in return for the meagre information I could give 
him as to this locality, he most generously gave me two fine specimens 
of L. avion, caught during the previous week in Cornwall. The second 
event of the season for me has been the successful rearing of Nemeobius 
liicina to the pupal stage. Tliis insect is found near here in some 
numbers, and from May 15th to the 29th I took a fair quantity, being 
fortunate enough to secure a male and female in coitu. I placed the 
female in a cylinder with a primrose-root, and got a large batch of 
ova. The larvse appeared on June 4th, and began to pupate on 
July 8th. I wondered whether the imagines would emerge this year, 
seeing that the pupae were somewhat early ; but none of those I kept 
have done so, nor can I hear of the emergence of any that I sent away 
to friends. Of the Hesperidae, I have taken five : — Thanaos tages and 
Syrichthus malva; in May and the early part of June ; Hesperia sylvamis 
in June and July ; H. tlummas and H. comma in July. The very 
interesting article in this month's ' Entomologist ' (xxxiv. 325-328) on 
the "Life-history of H. comma," has led me to hope that I may breed 
some next year. 

So much for the Diurni, to which, as I said before, I have paid 
most attention, though I feel sure I have not yet exhausted the species 
to be found in our neighbourhood. T. quercus and probably T. w-album, 
occur somewhere in the district, and Mdanargia galatea must be about 
also ; in fact, I have been told of its capture, though I could not 
ascertain the precise locality. 

What I have done among the Nocturni has been chiefly breeding 
from ova or larvae sent me by friends. I tried sugaring to a limited 
extent in August, but, like your correspondent, Mr. A. J. Lawrence, of 



120 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Bromley (vide Entora. xxxiv. p. 354), I met with no success at all. 
Woodlice and earwigs appeared in plenty, but not a single moth. 
Curiously enough, a young friend of mine who was sugaring on the 
same nights about half a mile away was fairly successful ; the chief 
results he obtained being A. pijmmidea, T. fimbria, and others of the 
same genus. I did very little net-work, but by means of light, or 
dusking, or by beating in the daytime, I took the following : — S. 
Hgustri, M. stellatarmn, H. bombtjiiformis, Z . JilipcndulcB, E. jacobcea, 
P. bucephala, C. f/raminis, T. orbona, T. comes, T. prunuba, M. maura, 
P. moneta, E. mi, E. glypJiica, C. nupta, U. saynbucaria, R. luteolata, 
V. macularia, M. margaritaria, C. elinguaria, E. alniaria, G. vernaria, 
A. grossrilariata, and E. cervinata. 

As to breeding, I have mentioned in former notes (vide Entom. xxxiv. 
pp. 229 and 258) liow that several Sphingidre, S. ligustri, S. ocellatus, 
S. populi, and S. tilicB, were much earlier this year than usual, and 
how I got a double brood of S. ocellatus and S. pnpuli. I expected the 
same to occur with S. tilice, but it did not. I experienced a complete 
failure with some larvte of Hgloicus [S.) pinastri, which, died off after 
the fourth moult. A batch of about a dozen C. elpenor fed up success- 
fully on vine, and began pupating on August 11th, but several died 
in the attempt, and I am left with seven healthy pupte. Larvse of 
E. jacob(d(B were very plentiful on ragwort during the latter part of 
July ; and on May 29th I found two fine larvse of A. caia, which, 
however, refused to feed in confinement, and died before reaching the 
pupal stage. A batch of ova of Z. cbscuU, which were given me, 
yielded larvfe on July 23rd, which are at present feeding inside a piece 
of apple-wood, as are also four larvje of C. lignipcrda. I was very 
successful with Lymantria (0.) monacha, which fed up on apple. The 
larvffi emerged on April 19th and 20th, pupated during the early part 
of June, and imagines began to appear on June 26th. Out of fifteen 
larvffi of Malacusoma {B.) neustria, also fed on apple, and which began 
to pupate on June 23rd, only four imagines resulted, the first appear- 
ing on July 11th. This autumn I have taken a number of larvae of 
Maciothylacia (B.) rubi, which continued to feed on bramble up to the 
beginning of November, when they retired for the winter. A dozen 
larvffi of Losiocampa {B.) qnercus were sent me on April 80th. They 
were fed on poplar, and the first four spun up on May 16th or 17th. 
A male appeared on July 11th, two females on July 12th, and one 
female on July 19th. But the remaining eight went on feeding slowly 
till the first week in August, and are hybernating as pupte. A brood 
of E. versicolor came out on April 21st, and were full fed by the first; 
week in June ; and a batch of H. carpini, which emerged on May 30th, 
fed up on willow till July 7th to 10th. Frequently on a hot day I 
have noticed the pupte of this insect wriggling about inside the cocoon, 
the result being a harsh grating noise. I had a very late brood of 
Pheosia (N.) dictcea sent me from Bexley, the last of which did not 
cease feeding till Nov. 1st. During the previous week or ten days I 
had experienced considerable difficulty in getting fresh poplar leaves 
for them. I had a batch of ova of C. fraxini sent me from abroad, 
and from these (larvfe emerged April 27th till May 9th, pupated 
June 17th and next ten days) I got, from July 20th to August 4th, a 
fine series of imagines. They are very fine insects, and I experienced 



SOCIETIES. 121 

no diflSculty with them, for tliey fed quite readily on poplar. Why, 
then, do they not breed freely in England ? Simultaneously with 
these I was breeding C. nnpta and C. spoyisa. The conditions were 
precisely similar in all three cases. Sponsa emerged from ova on 
April 23rd, 24th, and 25th, pupated May 28th to -June 2nd, imagines 
appeared July 1st to 6th. Niipta larvse came out April 27th till 
May 9th, spun up during the first week in June, and arrived at 
maturity July 7th to 17th. They are all very fine insects, and their 
breeding afforded me much pleasure. I brought through a summer 
brood of S. illustraria , which fed on birch from May 20th till June 11th. 
They grew very rapidly, and produced fine imagines from June 29th 
to July 4th. This struck me as being very quick work — i.e. forty 
days from ovum to imago, under natural conditions. I got some ova 
from a female, and hoped to rear a second brood, but unfortunately 
they all proved to be unfertile. A batch of E. fuscantaria, fed on ash 
from May 19th to June 21st, produced a good series, which emerged 
at intervals between July 22nd and August 17th. A very fine female 
of A. betularia var. douhledaijarid was sent me from Yorkshire, together 
with a number of ova she had laid. Swarms of larvfe appeared on 
July 5th and 6th. They fed up successfully on lime, and pupated 
between August 20th and 26th, with the exception of one, which went 
on feeding till September 21st. Four Kuonifuius bushes in my garden 
were, as last year, swarming with larvae of A. grosfiularidta : but 
though I examined about a hundred of the resultant imagines, I failed 
to find any that were not typical. 

The above represents the bulk of my work during the season of 
1901, which I think I may fairly call a very satisfactory one. — F. A. 
Oldaker ; Parsonage House, Dorking, Dec. 7th, 1901. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — March 5th, 1902. — The Kev. 
Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the chair. — Dr. B. Douglas 
Macdonald, M.D., of Malsette, Ehodesia, S. Africa ; and Mr. Arthur 
M. Montgomery, of the Grove, Ealing, W., were elected Fellows of 
the Society.— Mr. L. B. Prout exhibited, on behalf of Mr. J. P. Mutch, 
of Hornsey Eoad, London, N. : — {a) Vanessa (Enyonia) pohjchloros, L., 
a female bred by Mr. H. Baker from pupa from Stowmarket, Suflblk, 
the ground colour much darkened and the black markings somewhat 
enlarged, &c. ; suggesting perhaps the influence of cold at time of 
pupation (compare Tr. Eut. Soc. 1894, p. 431, &c.). [h) Chrijsophanus 
phlceas, L., an aberration (captured in the Isle of Wight, August, 1901) 
much suffused with the dark colour, especially at outer margin and on 
hind wings, only a very small patch of the red colour remaining at 
the inner angle of the latter, (c) Ar/rotis jmta, Hb., a perfectly halved 
gynandromorphous example, the right side male, the left side female, 
taken in August, 1901, in the Isle of Wight, [d) Noctua sobrma, Gn., 
an aberrant specimen with white antennaB and a somewhat hoary 
appearance on the fore wings, taken in East Aberdeenshire, August, 
1900. — Mr. A. Bacot exhibited a series of Malacosoma castrensis and a 



122 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

series of M. neustria for comparison with a hybrid brood, resulting 
from a pairing between a male neustria and a female castrensis. Only 
a portion of the batch of from two hundred to three hundred ova that 
the female laid hatched. The la?t of the females that eventually 
emerged was three weeks ahead of the first male, and most unfortu- 
nately before any males of either of the parent species, so that the 
fertility of the hybrid females could not be tested. Their bodies 
apparently contain few, if any, ova. Mr. Bacot said lie had every 
reason to believe, however, that he obtained pairings between the 
hybrid males and females of cdstrensis, in addition to fresh pairings 
between males of neustria and females of castrensis, and therefore had 
hopes of continuing the experiment next summer. Mr. J. W. Tutt 
said this was the first time any exhibition of experiments of the kind 
had been made before the Society by British investigators, though 
Mr. Merrifield had shown a number of crosses bred by Dr. Standfuss. 
In this case the colouring of the female hybrids, departing from the 
usual colour of the females of the parent species, appeared to approach 
more nearly in tint the females of the closely-allied Alpine species 
M. alplcola, and it would be interesting to discover whether the 
peculiarity of colour in the hybrid females really marked a tendency 
to revert to a more primitive type of coloration, such, for example, 
as that exhibited by M. alpicola. The sexes, as exhibited, were 
very clearly distinguishable, and there was not much tendency to 
gynaudromorphism, though of sixty or seventy specimens almost every 
female showed some signs of male coloration. — Mr. 0. E. Janson 
exhibited a pair of Stephanocrates dohertiji, Jord., a goliath beetle 
discovered by the late W. Doherty in the highlands of British East 
Africa. — -Dr. T. A, Chapman exhibited cocoons of a Limacodid moth 
from La Plata, with empty pupa-cases of a dipterous parasite of the 
genus Sijstropus, obtained from Herr Heyne, who unfortunately had no 
imagines either of the moth or the fly. There is a close resemblance 
between the two pupa-cases, as seen by comparison with genuine 
Limacodid cases. The resemblance is, however, not merely of appear- 
ance, but functional also. Tlie moth pupa, i.e. the moth itself inside 
the pupa-case, almost certainly by inflating itself with air, to secure 
greater size and a stifiened epiderm as a basis of muscular action, 
exerts an end-to-end pressure within the cocoon, and so forces off a 
lid. It is here that the beak or " cocoon-opener," with which the 
pupa is armed, is useful as determining that the fracture shall be at 
the right end, making the lid split off here, under much less pressure 
than would be efficient without it, and leaving no chance for fracture 
to occur at the wrong end when pressure is equally distributed. The 
Systropus breaks off a similar lid, no doubt by similar end-to-end 
pressure to that exerted by the moth, Diptera having highly developed 
the habit of inflating themselves with air, at emergence from the 
pupa. This pupa also has a beak very like that of the Limacodid, but 
even stronger and sharper. — Dr. Chapman also showed a Bombyliid 
pupa-case from West Africa, very like that of some British forms, the 
head-armature of which is not a "cocoon-opener," but an excavating 
or navvying machine, for use in burrowing a way out of loose soil, 
such as that in which solitary bees' nests are found. The pupa of an 
African species of practically the same habits as this South American 



SOCIETIES. 123 

one is described and figured in Prof. Westwood's Monograph of the 
genus Si/stroinis in the ' Transactions ' for 1876. — Mr. J. E. Collin, in 
further illustration of Dr. Chapman's remarks, exhibited specimens 
of: — ■{(() Si/xtropus sp. ?, from Buenos Ayres, parasitic on a Bombyliid 
Lepidopteron (Limncodes ?). This he said was possibly the same as 
Dr. Chapman would have reared from his cocoons. The species was 
apparently undescribed, but most allied to S. brasiUensis, Meg. As 
Prof. Westwood noticed in 1876, the insect is very slender to inhabit 
so stout a pupa-case, ib) Systropus sp.?, a large handsome undescribed 
species from Bigot's collection. — Professor Poulton, F.E.S., introduced 
a paper by Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall, entitled, "Five years' (1897-1901) 
observations and experiments in the bionomics of South African 
insects, dealing especially with warning colours and mimicry, with 
appendices containing descriptions of new species by Col. C. T. 
Bingham and W. L. Distant." The paper was illustrated by many 
photographs projected on the screen showing the groups of South 
African insects of many orders collected by Mr. Marshall, each with a 
common type of warning coloration. Some of these groups included 
mimetic species of great interest. An important section of the paper 
contained the description of a long series of careful experiments con- 
ducted upon the chief vertebrate and invertebrate insect enemies of 
South Africa. The number of new facts is so large ; the experiments 
so numerous and complete ; and the range of observation extended 
over so many Orders, in addition to the much-studied Lepidoptera, 
that this memoir places South Africa in the first rank as the country 
from which the chief evidence in support of existing theories of 
mimicry, warning colours, &c., has been supplied. A discussion 
ensued, in which Mr. F. Merrifield. Dr. F. A. Dixey, Prof. Hudson 
Beare, Colonel Yerbury, Mr. J. W. Tutt, and Prof. Poulton took part. 
— Mr. Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.L.S., contributed "A monograph of the 
genus Acrida, with notes of some allied genera, and descriptions of 
new species," and Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., communicated three papers 
by Mr. R. C. L. Perkins, respectively entitled: — {a) "Notes on 
Hawaiian wasps, with descriptions of new species"; (b) "Four new 
species and a new genus of parasitic Hymenoptera (Ichneumonidfe) 
from the Hawaiian Islands" ; and (c) " On the generic characters of 
Hawaiian Crabronidae; four new genera characterized." — H. Goss and 
H. Rowland-Bkown, Hon. Sees. 

South London Entomological and Natueal History Society. — 
February ISth, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair. — 
Mr. South exhibited a specimen of Cydimon {Urania) leihis from St. 
Kitts, one of the Leeward group of the West Indies. The species is 
common along the north coast of South America and in Trinidad, but 
has not hitherto been taken in this island. — Mr. McArthur, some 
specimens of Eupceciiia yilvicomana taken about forty years ago by 
Standish, and stated that the species had not since been obtained in 
this country. — Mr. H. Moore exhibited an exceedingly fine specimen 
of the orthopteron Sanaa imperialis from Sylhet in North India. — Dr. 
Chapman, specimens of Hypotia cortical is from the Riviera, a species 
having some of the characters of the genera Pyralis and Phycita, 
and for which he had proposed a new genus. — Rev. F. P. Perry, a 



124 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

large number of Coleoptera from the Transvaal and Orange Colony 
taken by himself during a short residence in South Africa. 

Fehruarij 2i7th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. South exhibited 
a specimen of a very interesting form of Macaria litnrata, which he 
had received from Mr. J. Arkle, who took it, with others, in Delamere 
Forest last year. Tliis form is heavily suffused with fuliginous brown ; 
it has been figured in vol. vi. of Barrett's ' Lepidoptera of the British 
Islands,' and Mr. Collins has recently proposed the name ni(jrofulvata 
for it (Entom. xxxiv. 364). — Mr. McA.rthur, an example of Ar/rotis 
segetiim, having a narrow, very dark marginal band on each of the 
hind wings, the white ground colour and fringes making it a very 
conspicuous character. — Mr. Edwards, an unusually large and perfect 
nest of Ve&pa vtdi/aris, obtained near Rochester in a hollow tree. — Dr. 
Chapman, specimens of Crinoptenjx yancUiella bred from larvfe. It 
belonged to the lower section of the Adelidje, and lived in cases like 
the Coleophorte, to which it had no structural relation whatever. — 
Mr. R. Adkiu, long bred series of Acidalia marfjiitepunctata, and read 
a paper on them entitled, "A Life-cycle of Acidalia marginepunctata.''^ 
A discussion ensued, when it was pointed out that the genus certainly 
required subdivision, both on account of diversity of structure and of 
distinction of habit. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — January 20^/t. — Mr. H. 
Willoughby Ellis, Vice-President, in the chair. — The following were 
exhibited : — By Mr. R. C. Bradley, a series of Hyetodesia vayans, 
a species which is not included in Mr. G. H. Verrall's recent list 
of British Diptera, but which is common and well-known in Sutton 
Park ; also a specimen of Sphex phniipennis taken by Mr. J. T. 
Fountain in Jersey last year. It is a large and handsome Fossore, 
which is uncommon in Britain. By Mr. C. J. Wainwright, Khyssa 
persuasoria, one of our largest, handsomest, and rarest Ichneumonids, 
taken by Mr. J. T. Fountain in Derbyshire last year; also a fine series 
of Trupidia scita (viilesiforniis), taken near Paignton, South Devon, 
in a damp meadow by the sea ; it is a species which is common 
in the fens, but was not known before from the West of England ; it 
was, however, in abundance at this one spot. By Mr. H. Willoughby 
Ellis, the following Coleoptera : — Xebria yyllenhali, from Matlock ; 
PterosticJms uhlongo-punctatus, from Buxton, and Liusoma ovatulum var. 
collaris, from Knowle. The last-named was a form which he said 
some Coleopterists believed to be only an immaturity, but he had taken 
it at all times of the year, and many specimens were undoubtedly 
mature. By Mr. Aug. D. Imms, extreme forms of Satyrus semele, 
from Wales ; one, very dark and strongly marked, came from near 
Barmouth, and was taken on the slate ; and the other, a light, 
bleached-looking, but apparently perfect specimen, from near Llan- 
dudno, where it was taken on limestone. Mr. Imms read a paper 
upon " The Structure and Distribution of the Collembola," in which 
he gave a thorough account of the external and internal anatomy, 
with some account of the embryology, and illustrated it with black- 
board drawings and microscope preparations. 

February 11th. — Annual Meeting. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, 
President, in the chair. — The Thirteenth Annual Report of the 
Council was read, and the Treasurer's Annual Report presented, 



SOCIETIES. 125 

showing a slight balance in the Society's favour. — The following 
officers were elected for 1902: — Mr. G. H. Kenrick, F.E.S., President ; 
Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., F.E.S., Vice-President ; Mr. R. 
C. Bradley, Treasurer; Mr. A. H. Martiueau, F.E.S., Librarian ; and 
Mr. C. J. Wainwright, F.E.S , Secretary. The following were also 
elected on to the Council : — Messrs. H. Willoughby Ellis, F.E.S. ; J. 
T. Fountain ; W. Harrison, and G. W. Wynn. — Mr. A. D. Imms ex- 
hibited, by means of a lantern, a series of microscopic preparations of 
the Collembola, including specimens of typical species and sections, 
&c. — Mr. J. T. Fountain showed a series of Selenia hilunaria, Esp. 
[illunariit, Hb.), of different broods ; including a series bred June to 
August of \a.v. jnliaria, Haw., and others bred November to March, all 
of the usual spring form. — Mr. A. H. Martineau showed Hymenoptera 
taken at Budleigh Salterton, South Devon, at beginning of August 
last year, including Andrena pilqjes, F,, and A, thoracica, F., both 
from bramble bloom ; Astatiis boops, Schr., taken at blossoms of gorse; 
Andrena denticulata, Kirb. ; Jornada fiicata,Vd.nz.; Dasypoda hirtipes, 
Latr. ; Hedycridium roseum, Rossi, the parasite of Astatus hoops, Schr. ; 
and Trypoxylon firjulus, L., with cells which had been found in sand, 
instead of in the more usual wooden posts. — Colbran J. Wainwkight, 
Hon. Sec. 

Lancashire and CnEsmRE Entomological Society. — The Annual 
Meeting was held at the Royal Institution, Liverpool, on January 13th, 
Mr. R. Wilding, Vice-President, in the chair. — Mr. Frederick Birch, 
Joint Secretary, in presenting the Council's report, gave a short resume 
of the work of the past session. The Treasurer then read his state- 
ment, which showed an increased and satisfactory credit balance to be 
carried forward. The following officers were elected to serve during 
1902 :— President, Mr. S. L. Capper, F.L.S., F.E.S.; Vice-Presidents, 
Rev. R. Freeman, M.A., and Dr. H. Dobie ; Secretaries, Messrs. Fredk. 
Birch and E. J. B. Sopp, F.R.Met.Soc, F.E.S.; Treasurer, Dr. J. 
Cotton, F.E.S. ; Librarian, Mr. F. C. Thompson ; Council, Messrs. R. 
Wilding, F. N. Pierce, F.E.S., A. Tippins, H. Tonkin, W. A. Tyerman. 
In the absence of the President, the retiring Vice-President, Mr. R. 
Wilding, delivered a most interesting address, reviewing the general 
entomological work and literature of the first year of the century, with 
special reference to several matters of local importance. The Rev. R. 
Freeman proposed, and Mr. F. N. Pierce seconded, a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Wilding, both for his able address and for his valuable services in 
the chair during the past year, which was heartily accorded. On the 
motion of Mr. Sopp, a cordial vote of thanks was also tendered to 
Mr. Fredk. Birch, for his indefatigable labours as Secretary during 
the past three sessions. The following exhibits were made during the 
evening : — Ccelinxys mandihularis, a Hymenopteron new to the British 
list, taken at Wallasey, by Mr. Birch, who also exhibited, on behalf 
of the Rev. T. B, Eddrup, various species of Lepidoptera sent for 
distribution amongst students of the group ; Vanessa c-alhum, captured 
in the Liverpool district, by Mr. G. A. Dunlop ; and Corydia petitveriana, 
an attractively marked cockroach from Madras, by Mr. Sopp. 

February 10th. — Mr. R. Wilding in the chair. — A valuable paper 
was read by Mr. Willoughby Gardner on the life-habits of the 



126 THE KNTOMOLOGIST. 

Hymenoptera-Aculeata, dealing in a full and complete manner with 
all that is at present known of the life-history of these most useful 
hexapods. After describing the characteristic features of the order as 
a whole, he exhaustively reviewed the various families constituting 
■ the section Aculeata, the females of which are armed with a retractile 
sting. Dealing first with the Heterogyna, or social ants, he gave 
many facts of interest connected with the instinct and economy of 
these remarkable insects, and mentioned that most of our indigenous 
species belonged to the family Formicidse, or mining ants. He also 
described the methods pursued by the Fossores in the capture and 
preservation of their prey. Of the Diploptera, or true wasps, two 
families are native to Britain ; their value on account of their whole- 
sale destruction of lepidopterous and other injurious larvfe being fully 
discussed. After enumerating the coleopterous and other inmates of 
the nests of Vespa vnlf/dris and V. (/ermanica, the lecturer passed to a 
consideration of the Anthophila, or bees, alluding to the great part 
played in nature by these pollen -loving insects in the fertilization of 
clover and other plants. Having referred to Gulletcs cimicularia, our 
" Wallasey bee," and Ccelioxys mundibularis, a recent local addition to 
the British list, the concluding portion of the address was devoted to 
the life-history of Apis mellifica, the common honey bee, in which 
many interesting, historical, economic, and other matters were ably 
dealt with. At the close of his paper Mr. Gardner presented his 
recent monograph on the Hymenoptera-Aculeata of Lancashire and 
Cheshire to the library of the Society. A hearty vote of thanks was 
tendered Mr. Gardner for his interesting paper, and also for his 
welcome gift, after which the following exhibits were made : — Bem- 
bidiiini saxatile, from Garston, by Mr. F. Birch ; B. stomoides, from the 
River Hodder, by Mr. C. E. Stott ; Tropiphorns tomentosus (Heswall), 
Berosus affinis (Moreton), Reptanlacus viUosiis and Mgialia ru.fa (Wal- 
lasey), Carcinops l-istriata, &c., by Mr. R. Wilding ; and a pair of the 
earwig Pi/rar/ra braziliemix, from Espirito Santo, by Mr. E. J. B. Sopp. 
Mr. G. 0. Day also exhibited some rare Dutch books by Sepp, the 
life-like coloured figures in which were greatly admired ; and Mr. Oultou 
Harrison showed some excellent life-size photos of lepidopterous larv® 
taken direct from nature. — E. J. Burgess Sopp, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Handbook of the Natural Histori/ of Glasgoiv and the West of Scotland. 
(Pp. i-x ; 1-567. Glasgow. 1901. 
A series of handbooks have been prepared by the Local Committee 
in connection with the Meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, held last year in Glasgow ; the volume under 
notice being one of these. It is edited by G. F. Scott-Elliot, Malcolm 
Laurie, and J. Barclay Malcolm, and deals with the Fauna, Flora, 
and Geology of the Clyde area. The several lists seem to have been 
prepared with care, those treating of the Insecta extending to 103 
pages. The number of species enumerated in each of the Orders, 
with which we are specially concerned, together with the names of the 



RECENT LITERATURE. 127 

compilei's of the respective lists, and also the nomenclature adopted, 
are shown in the following table : — • , 

Hymenoptera-Terebrantia(Konow). ByAnd. AdieDalglish 119 species. 
Hymenoptera-Aculeata (Saunders). By J. Russell Malloch 104 ,, 
Lepidoptera. "Macro" (Meyrick). By And. Adie Dalglish 515 ,, 
Lepidoptera. '-Micro" (Meyrick). By James J. F.X.King 390 ,, 
Diptera (Verrall). By Percy H.Grimshaw & R. Henderson 506 ,, 
Coleoptera (Sharpe & Fowler). By Anderson Fergusson 988 ,, 
Trichoptera (M'Lachlan). By James J. F. X. King ...108 
Hemiptera Heteroptera (Saunders). By John E. Murphy 116 ,, 
Hemiptera Homoptera (Edwards). By J. M. B. Taylor 119 ,, 
Odonata (Lucas). By J. J. F. X. King ... ... ... 8 ,, 

Orthoptera (Burr) By J. J. F. X. King 13 

Neuroptera-Planipennia(M'Lachlan). By J. J. F. X. King 25 ,, 
Collembola & Thysanura (Carpenter & Evans) By D.A.Boyd 38 ,, 

The sequence of the Orders is somewhat unusual, and we are sur- 
prised that no mention is made of the Neuropterous families Psocid^e, 
Perlidse, and Ephemeridae. 

Additional value to this important work is the inclusion therein of 
a large Bathy-Orographical map of the Clyde Basin, which was 
specially prepared for the Meeting of the British Association. 



The Stridulating Organs of Watei-biigs (Rhynchota), especially of Corixidce. 

By G. W. KiRKALDY, F.E.S. In the ' Journal of the Quekett 

Microscopical Club, April, 1901. 
After passing carefully in review the observations and opinions of 
writers who have referred to this subject, from Frisch, in 1740, to 
Handlirsch, in 1900, the author states his belief that stridulation is 
brought about in these insects by a method different from any 
previously suggested. " In 1874 Landois described the ' comb ' on 
the anterior tarsus of the male in CorLva, and its action (as he thought) 
on the last segment of the rostrum." Kirkaldy, however, brings to 
notice the fact which he has discovered, that there is " on the inner 
surface of the femora (in the males only), near the base, a specially 
modified area of minute chitinous pegs arranged in regular rows." 
These fornj the stridulating area. In the author's opinion " the 
' comb ' of the left tarsus is drawn somewhat obliquely across the 
femur of the right leg, or vice versa," and in this way stridulation is 
brought about. This paper, which extends to fourteen pages, contains 
much valuable information on the structure and stridulation of water- 
bugs, the text being illustrated by two clear plates containing details 
from no fewer than twenty-six different species. tx/- j Lucas 

Fauna Hawaiiensis. — Vol. i. pp. 277-364. Plates 8 and 9. Hymeno- 
ptera Parasitica. By W. H. Ashmead (August, 1901). Vol. iii. 
pp. 1-77. Plates 1-3. Diptera. By P. H. Grimshaw (Dec, 1901). 
One hundred and twenty-eight parasitic Hymenoptera are recorded 
by Mr. Ashmead, doubtless a small proportion of the forms actually ex- 
isting in the Hawaiian Isles ; of these, eighty-seven are new to science. 
Of the fourteen families represented, all have a wide geographical 
range; the 128 species are distributed among sixty -nine genera, of 



128 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

which eleven are peculiar, so far, to the islands, nearly all the others 
being cosmopolitan. 

Our previous knowledge of this fauna was very meagre, four 
papers only being cited. The same remarks apply to the Diptera, 
only four short papers having been published previously. Mr. Grim- 
shaw records 150 species — ^106 new to science — but regards the Diptera 
as still imperfectly known, as 134 species have as yet been noted from 
a single island. The great families Tipulidre (s. s.), Tabauidfe, Bom- 
byliidae, and Empidre, are entirely absent, while the Orthorrhapha 
Brachycera are very sparsely represented. The Anthomyiidte and 
Drosophilidse furnish the bulk of the forms, Drosophila, Fallen, being 
represented by nearly fifty species. 

G. W. K. 

Economic : A. D. Hopkins, " Insect Enemies of the Spruce in the 
North-East" (1901, U.S. Dept. Agric. new series, Bull. 28, 
pp. 1-48 ; Plates i-xvi). 

Db. Hopkins is well known as the leading American authority on 
forest -tree insects, and has produced what must prove a valuable aid 
for practical measures in combating the damage occasioned to spruce 
by (principally) certain Coleoptera. An excessive death of spruce 
occurred in the Northern United States during the last century, to the 
extent of many billions of feet of timber, much of it a total loss. 
The principal depredator was a hitherto uudescribed Scolytid beetle 
{Dendroctonits piceaperda, Hopkins), which attacks even apparently 
healthy trees, the largest trees and best stands of timber being most 
affected. The broods of the beetle do not remain in a tree more than 
a year after it commences to die, and out of one tree from five to seven 
thousand adults, on an average, may emerge. Their principal 
enemies are woodpeckers — which destroy from fifty to seventy-five per 
cent, on many trees in one year — aided by an ant-like predaceous 
beetle (Thunasiiiins) a,nd a parasitic Hymenopteron {Bracon simplex). 
Remedies are also indicated and discussed. The beetles described are 
figured detailedly, and photographs of their mines and galleries, and 
of the trees in various stages of health and decay, are added. 



Economic : E. P. Felt, " Scale Insects of Importance, and List of the 
Species in New York State" (1901, Bull. N. Y. State Mus., ix. 
pp. 289-377 ; 15 plates (7 coloured) ). 
An account, with beautifully executed illustrations, of the principal 

Coccidae of New York State, prepared in the detailed and careful 

manner usual with these Bulletins. 



C. Darwin. — The issue (by John Murray, 432 pp., crown 8vo) of a 
shilhng edition of the ' Origin of Species,' is a noteworthy event in the 
history of natural science ; the printing is clear and good, and the 
volume is a marvel of cheapness. The same firm has issued a 2s. 6d. 
edition of the 'Descent of Man,' in which so much entomological 
information occurs. 

G. W. K. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.] MAY, 1902. [No. 468. 



A LIST OF TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX 
BETWEEN 1885 AND 1901. 

By a. Thurnall. 

Having recently left Stratford, after residing there more 
than twenty-six years, I have drawn up the following list, with 
a few notes, in the hope that it may prove useful to the small 
number of collectors who are interested in the Micro-Lepidoptera 
of Essex. During the sixteen or seventeen years which were 
devoted (as far as my very limited time would allow) to collecting, 
I have taken in South Essex — principally in the south-western 
portion of the county — about two hundred and ten species ; if I 
had had more time to spare it is probable that a few more 
species might have been added to this list. I have included 
some half-dozen which have been taken in past years by the 
late Mr. Machin and others, and which in all probability only 
want looking for to be taken again. I will at some future time 
make out a list, with notes, of the Pyralididae, Pterophoridge, 
and Crambidae (including the Phycitidae), which have been met 
with by me during the same period and in the same district. 
In conclusion, if any beginner in the above groups should require 
assistance in naming captures, I should be most happy to help 
him, and also to impart what little knowledge I may have ac- 
quired as regards habits and food-plants of these most interesting 
little insects. 

Tortrix podana (Scop.). — Generally abundant ; the beautiful velvety 
var. fusca (St.) is not rare in both sexes ; I bred a number some years 
ago from larvte feeding on elder at Stratford. A var. of the female 
occasionally occurs in colour between the type and this variety. 

T. cratacjana, Hb. — Decidedly rare ; in fact I did not meet with it 
until last season (July, 1900), when a single specimen, a worn female, 
was beaten from an oak on the borders of Monkwood, Loughton. 
Mr. Machin used to take it in the same district years ago. 

ENTOM. — MAY, 1902. L 



130 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

T. xylosteanu, L. — Very common, except, of course, on the salt 
marshes. The pale yellowish var. obliquana, St., not very uncommon. 
I once bred a large number of the type and a few of the var. from 
larvae in rolled-up leaves of elm near Brentwood. 

T. sorhiana, Hb. — Not very common, and rather local; I used to 
beat it from oaks near Brentwood, and have occasionally bred huge 
females from larvae feeding on the same trees. Also taken at Wan- 
stead, Loughton, Ongar Park Woods, &c. 

T. rosnna, Haw. — Generally common throughout, the larva feeding 
on very many plants. I bred a good many from larvae feeding on 
dwarf sallow (Salix repens var. ascendens) some years ago, and, curiously 
enough, everyone, without exception, came out female. 

T. diversana, Hb. — Locally abundant, Wanstead, Brentwood, War- 
ley, Eomford, &c. Both beaten and bred from birch and elm. Some 
collectors, I believe, consider that the larvae feeding on birch produce 
a different insect from those found upon elm, but after breeding a 
fairly large number I fail to see any distinction. 

2\ cinnamomeana, Tr. — Much more local than the last ; a very few 
specimens beaten at long intervals from beech in Monkwood, and 
more commonly beaten from larch at Warley ; also bred from the 
latter locality. 

T. heparana, Schiff. — Very common throughout ; may often be 
beaten abundantly from hedges towards evening. Seems little given 
to variation. I have never met with any wide departure from the type. 

T. ribeana, Hb. — Perhaps the commonest species in the genus. 
The two named vars. cerasana, Hb., Sbnd grossularimia, St., also com- 
mon, the latter especially so. 

2\ corylana, Fb. — Much less common than the last two species, 
and the latest of the genus to appear in the imago state. Generally 
to be obtained by beating oaks, especially the isolated trees. Loughton, 
Warley, Ongar, &c. This species does not appear to vary much ; the 
only striking var. I ever met with was a small very dark specimen 
(Aug. 28th, 1891), almost as dark as heparana. 

T. unifaseiana, Dup. — Very common everywhere, often a complete 
nuisance when working the hedges in the evening. I once bred about 
thirty from one of those "bird's-nest"-like formations on a hornbeam, 
very much to my surprise, expecting, of course, to breed Pyralis glau- 
cinalis, which has been bred from similar formations on birch twigs. 
The "nest" was taken early in April, and kept in a hat box till the 
imagos emerged ; what they found to live upon has always been a 
mystery to me. 

T, costana, Fb. — Very common, more especially in damp meadows; 
the var. latiorana, Wilk., not uncommon in the salt marshes, and 
strictly confined to them ; more often found in the larva state. I 
have bred it (the variety) from larvae feeding on Aster tripolium and 
Statice limonium. Thames Haven, Benfleet, and beyond Shoeburyness. 

T. vihurnana, Fb. — Local, and, as far as my experience goes, 
confined to the saltings, where the larva is commonly met with on 
such plants as Aster tripolium, folded leaves of Statice limonium, and 
spun-together tops of Artemisia maritima. The males always of the 
dull leaden type, the females reddish and more strongly marked ; in 
some cases the fascia is very plain, in others only faintly shown. 



TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 131 

Under the name " viburnana " I fancy it will be some day proved that 
two species are mixed together in this country. 

T. paUecma, Hb. — A single specimen taken in a boggy place near 
Upminster, July, 1889. Not met with by me elsewhere in the county. 

T. viridana, L. — Only too common (and destructive) in oak woods 
throughout the county ; dozens sometimes coming down at nearly 
every blow from the beating stick. I have never been fortunate 
enough to meet with the pretty var. suttneriana in Essex. 

T. ministrana L. — Pretty generally distributed, and frequently com- 
mon ; to be beaten from birch shrubs and flying over the same at 
early dusk at the beginning of June. I have never bred this species. 

T.forstemna, Fb. — Larva common on ivy, and sometimes honey- 
suckle. The imago may often be beaten freely from the former at the 
beginning of July. Some of the females run very large. Does not 
appear to vary much except in the size of the spots. 

Dichelia (jrotiana, Fb. — Common where it occurs, but seems to be 
a decidedly local species. I have found it on two or three occasions 
freely by beating a mixed growth of whitethorn and bramble on 
Wanstead Flats. Other localities are Upminster, Warley, and Fair- 
mead Bottom, Chingford. 

Leptogramma scahrana, Fb. — Used to occur a few years ago at 
Leyton, close to the spot now covered by the Town Hall buildings, where 
1 used to beat it rarely from an elm hedge. Not met with elsewhere 
by me. 

Peronea sponsana, Fb. — Very common in Eppiug Forest amongst 
beech and hornbeam, upon which the larva feeds. What is usually 
regarded as the type is very rare there ; with one or two exceptions 
all of the many dozens I have examined belong to the very plain 
variety lividana, as described by Wilkinson. 

P. schalleriana, L. — Not very common, but distributed widely. I 
have more often beaten it from blackthorn than anything else. The 
pretty var. latifasciana, Haw. (if, indeed, it is a variety, and not a 
distinct species), has occurred, but I have not met with it myself. 

P. comparana, Hb. — By many entomologists considered merely a 
variety of the above, is not uncommon in many localities, but not, I 
think, quite so common as the previous species. I have bred it from 
a species of willow and also from blackthorn. 

P. variefjana, Schiff. — May be beaten in numbers from almost 
every hawthorn hedge in the district. All the named varieties occur, 
except albana, which I believe is more often found in the north of 
England. The almost black var. cirrana is the least common. 

P. cristana, Fb. — Still to be found in limited numbers in Epping 
Forest, but in nothing like the numbers which were taken by the 
collectors of forty or fifty years ago in the neighbouring Hainault 
Forest, long since destroyed. I have not taken it anywhere but in 
the forest, where it may be beaten from hawthorn. 

P. hasiiana, L. — Not by any means common ; a few larvae have 
been found near Upminster, Barking, and (formerly) Hainault Forest. 

P. umbrana, Hb. — Mr. Machin and others used to get it very 
sparingly in Epping Forest, but I have spent many hours in many 
seasons searching in vain for it. 

l2 



132 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

P.ferrugana, Tr. — Common as this little species is in many places, 
it certainly cannot be called so in South Essex ; indeed, I was 
collecting several seasons before I met with it at all ! I have since 
found the larva sparingly on birch at Loughton, Warley, and Ingate- 
stone. I have bred from them vars. tripunctata, rufana, Hb., and 
gnomana, Haw. 

P. aspersana, Hb. — Decidedly local, but found in several places, 
of which I may mention Loughton, Upminster, and Woodford Bridge. 
In addition to its two usual food-plants, SpircBci fiUpendula and 
Poteriuni sanguisorba, I have found the larvffi on Potentilla anserina 
and P. tormeyitilla. 

Rhacoclia caudana, Hb. — Well distributed, but never very common, 
perhaps more common in the Brentwood district ; I have beaten the 
pretty variety ochracea, St., from poplar at Warley, and the type 
generally from sallow and alder. 

Term contaminana, Hb. — Often in hundreds, and in every variety 
in hedgerows and whitethorn bushes ; some of the forms are very 
bright and pretty. I have bred it from larvae feeding on flowers as 
well as leaves of whitethorn. 

Bictyoptenjx Iceflingiana, L, — Very common together with the vars. 
plumbana, Hb., and ectypana on oak trunks, and may be beaten freely 
from the boughs of the same wherever I have collected in the county. 
D. holmiana, L. — Not very common ; may be beaten early in 
August from hedges, especially those which contain a good quantity 
of brambles, on which the larva feeds. 

D. bergmanniana, L. — Very common everywhere amongst wild 
and, to a lesser extent, cultivated roses ; the larva in folded leaves of 
the same. 

D. forskaleana, L. — Common everywhere amongst sycamore and 
maple, on which the larva feeds. May often be beaten out in large 
numbers from these two trees. 

Argyrotoxa conwayana, St. — Generally common, together with the 
var. subaurantiana, amongst privet, on which the larva is said to feed, 
but I have never bred it. 

A. audouinana, Dup. — Local and rare. I have beaten out from 
oak (usually) a very few specimens at Loughton about the third week 
in June. Not met with elsewhere. 

Ptycholoma leacheana, L. — In great abundance among oak, flying 
swiftly round the branches in the early evening. The pupa very com- 
mon in the crevices of the oak bark, spun up in a white web. 

Ditula hartmanniana, L. — Local, and by no means abundant where 
it does occur. By the River Lea in one or two places, at rest on 
young willow trunks. Much more abundant formerly, before so many 
of the willows on the banks of the river were destroyed. 

D. semifasciana, Haw. — Another local species. I have found the 
larv« on sallow bushes near Warley, and beaten the imago from the 
same. Not met with elsewhere. 

Pent/dna corticana, Hb. — Rather local, but not uncommon amongst 
its food-plant, birch. May be often found at rest on the trunks, but 
requires rather a sharp eye to detect it, owing to its colours matching 
the colour of the trunk. Brentwood, Warley, Ingatestone, Ongar, 
Wanstead Park, &c. 



TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 133 

P. hehdatana, Haw. — Found in the same localities and in the same 
way as the last, but much later; in fact, I have this year taken a 
worn specimen in September. 

P. caprcBcma, Hb. — Local and scarce. I have beaten it from Salix 
caprea once or twice at Warley and near Upminster. 

P. prcBlongana, Gn. — Another local and scarce species, occasionally 
beaten out of birch bushes at Warley and Ingatestone at the end of May. 

P. pruniana, Hb. — Very common throughout amongst blackthorn. 
I once beat out a curious creamy variety exactly corresponding to the 
var. nubiferana of cynosbatella. This was at Box Hill, however. 

P. ochroleucana, Hb. — Not scarce in hedges where plenty of its 
food-plant, wild rose, grows. I have occasionally taken it at light. 

P. cynosbatella, D. L. — Very common throughout ; larva polypha- 
gous. Dock (!), whitethorn, blackthorn, apple, cherry, are some of 
its food-plants. 

P. dimidiana, Tr. — The late Mr. Machin assured me that he once 
took a specimen at Loughton, but I fancy that, accurate as he was, 
there must have been some mistake, as its food-plant most certainly 
does not grow there. 

P. fjentiana, Hb. — Common in the larva state wherever the teasel 
grows, seldom seen (unless bred) in the imago state ; the finest 
specimens I ever bred were from teasel heads gathered in the winter 
of 1890 on Canvey Island. 

P. sellana, Hb. — Local, and from its dull colours and quickness of 
wing is often missed. I have taken a very few at Stanford-le-Hope, 
Thames Haven, Leigh, and Upminster. 

P. carbonana, Dbl. — A single specimen captured by a friend in a 
boggy place near Upminster is the only record I have. The food- 
plant, Stachys palastris, is not uncommon on the spot. The allied 
species fidigana, Hub., I have not met with. 

P. niyncostana, Haw. — Fairly common wherever its food-plant, 
8. sylvatica, grows. Larvae may be found in the early spring in the 
dead stems. 

Antithesia salicella, L. — Fairly common wherever willows are to be 
found ; at rest usually on the trunks and sometimes on the leaves. 

Hedya ocellana, Fb. — Very common, and in great variety throughout 
amongst whitethorn, on which the larva feeds in May. 

H. lariciana, Zell. — Not rare in the Brentwood district on larch, 
on which tree the larva and pupa may be found. I have not taken it 
elsewhere in South Essex. 

H. pauperana, Frr. — I may just mention this species, which has 
been taken rarely in North Essex, but so far not in the southern 
portion, I believe. I took a beautiful series in April last in this 
county \^Surrey). 

H. aceriana, Dup. — A little local, but common in many places 
among Populus nigra and other species of poplar ; usually at rest on 
the trunks or any neighbouring fence. 

H. dealbana, Frol. — Very common wherever I have collected 
amongst poplar, oak, whitethorn, &c. The melanic var. alnetana not 
uncommon. 

H. neglectana, Dup. — So often mixed up with the two preceding 
species by beginners, is locally abundant on willow trunks along the 



134 THK RNTOMOLOGI8T. 

Lea valley ; I have also found it commonly in Wanstead Park and by 
the river at Chelmsford. 

H. senillana, Dap. — A single specimen beaten from SalLv caprea 
between Loughton and Epping is the only one I have taken in the 
county. My series in the cabinet I took in Kent. 

Sjdkmota incarnatana, Hb., I have never met with, but the late Mr. 
Machin used to take it rarely in Fairmead Bottom, Chingford, amongst 
wild rose, and he also bred one specimen. This forest form is very 
large and brightly coloured. 

S. triinaculana, Haw. — Common everywhere amongst hedgerows ; 
the larva feeds in early summer in spun-together tips of whitethorn. 

S. roscBcolana, Dbl. — Not rare, but often overlooked from its re- 
semblance to the above. May be beaten from its food-plant, wild 
rose, and I have occasionally bred it from garden rose. Loughton, 
Chingford, Woodford, Upminster, may be mentioned as localities for 
this species. 

8. robovdiia, Tr. — Very often too common amongst cultivated roses, 
clearing out the unexpanded flower bud, and is equally common 
amongst the wild species. 

P. tripunctana, Fb. — Equally common amongst wild roses in nearly 
every place where I have collected. 

Aspis xidmanniana, L. — Amongst its food-plant, bramble, the larva 
may be collected freely, making a conspicuous bunch of the leaves by 
spinning them together and pupating therein. 

Sideria achatana, Fb. — Fairly distributed amongst whitethorn ; the 
larva, which in appearance and habits resembles RhodopJuca snavella, 
spins two or three dead leaves to a twig of the food-plant, coming out 
at dusk to feed. Loughton (commonly), near Upminster, Benfleet, &c. 

Sericoris bifasciaiia, Haw. — Used to occur freely on a Scotch fir 
tree at Wanstead, but I have not seen it for several seasons ; the larva 
was found feeding amongst the flowers early in June. 

S. littoralis Curt. — Common amongst thrift in the salt marshes. 
Wakering, Thames Haven, Benfleet, &c. 

S. obscisana, D. L. — Very local, near Tilbury, amongst its food- 
plant, Carduns arvensis. 

S. cespitana, Hb. — I have only met with this usually common 
species on a rough, dry piece of waste ground near Upminster. 

8. rivulana, Scop. — The late Mr. Machin told me that he used to 
take this species freely on one part of Wanstead Flats some forty years 
ago ; it certainly does not occur there now, in fact, I have not seen a 
specimen in Essex. 

8. urticans, Hb., and lacimana, Dup. — Both, of course, very abun- 
dant everywhere ; the latter species is, I should say, about the 
commonest British Tortrix. I have taken rarely, on the railway 
bank near Harold Wood station, a beautiful reddish var. of the first 
species, but have not seen it for some years now. 

" Mascotte," Whitehall Eoad, Thorton Heath : 
October, 1901. 

(To be continued.) 



135 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
PLANEMA FROM THE UGANDA PROTECTORATE. 

By Emily Mary Sharpe. 

Planema arenaria, sp. n. 

Allied to P. consanguinea, Auriv., but distinguished from that 
species by the sandy buff ground-colour of both wings. 

Primaries. Central area sandy buff, enclosed by a dark brown 
irregular band from the costa to just above the submedian nervure, 
this dark band having a second transverse band of sandy buff on the 
outer edge ; the apical area and hind margin greyish brown ; a faint 
brownish shading visible on the costal margin and in the discoidal 
cell. Secondaries. Ground colour sandy buff, relieved by nervular and 
internervular streaks of brown, from the hind margin to the discoidal 
cell ; a border of greyish brown visible on the upper half of the hind 
margin, where it graduates down towards the inner margin ; a cluster 
of black spots at the base of the wing. Underside. Similar to that of 
P. consanguinea. Expanse, 1*5 in. 

The female does not differ from the male, with the exception that 
the ground colour is paler, as well as the brown markings mentioned 
above. Expanse, 1-7 in. 

Hah. Entebbe, August (F. J. Jackson coll.). 

Planema Dorothea, sp. n. 

Allied to P. gea, Fabr., and P. esebria, Hewits., but differs in 
having the apical band on the primaries much lighter in colour 
towards the costa. The hind marginal border on the secondaries 
is only indicated by a patch of brown on the apical area. 

Primaries. Ground colour dark brown, relieved by a broad band of 
orange-buff on the apical area, but becoming almost white towards the 
costal margin ; a similar patch on the inner margin also fades into 
white on the basal side ; a small orange-buff streak is visible between 
the first and second median nervules. Secondaries. Ground colour 
orange-buff, a lighter tint occurring near the base ; the usual broad 
hind marginal border only represented by a patch of dark brown on 
the apical area ; the nervules with strongly indicated internervular 
streaks of dark brown. Underside. Closely allied to that of P. esebria ; 
the black marking in and beyond the cell on the primaries more heavily 
indicated, the orange-buff markings showing more white than on the 
upper surface. Secondaries with the hind marginal border entirely 
absent ; otherwise the spots and markings not differing from those of 
the allied species. Expanse, 1-5 in. 

The female of this species differs from the male above described 
in having the spots and markings white, instead of orange-buff. 
Expanse, 1-7 in. 

Another specimen agrees with the male, but has the apical band 
on the primaries white, as well as the minute streak situated between 
the first and second median nervules. Expanse, 1-4 in. 

Hah. Entebbe, October {Capt. H. B. Rattray). 



136 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA.— No. 3. 
By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

Fam. Eeduviid^. 
*Tapeini;s fuscipennis (Stal). 

Head and prouotum luteo-fulvous ; base of elytra, legs, scutellum 
(except the rufo-flavous point), conuexivum above and below, flavesceut. 
Abdomen above pale brownish, apically flavescent. Sterna and abdo- 
men below sordid dilute brownish red, more or less obscure, apico- 
laterally flavescent. Eyes and elytra black. Antennae obscure fus- 
cous. Head between the eyes a little wider than an eye. Posterior 
lobe of pronotum somewhat deeply longitudinally impressed, the im- 
pression closely and coarsely punctured. Second segment of antennae 
five times as long as first, three-fifths longer than third. 

3- . Seventh segment beneath (Verhoeff's nomenclature) very 
deeply ovally emarginate. 

? . Sixth segment obtuse-angularly emarginate beneath, medianly 
truncate apically : seventh angularly emarginate, somewhat obsoletely 
carinate medio-longitudinally. Long. 17-18 mill. 

Hah. Assam : Chenapungi, Khasia Hills (coll. m. ex coll. 
Dom. Malcolm Burr). Stal described this from "Patria iguota." 

tEHYNOcoRis NiTiDULus (Fabr.) var. strophades, nov. 

Differs from the type by the apically broadly luteous inter- 
mediate and posterior femora. The eyes are black, the anterior 
coxae luteous. The abdomen above and below (except connexi- 
vum) more brownish. 

Hah. Kongo (coll. m.). 

I possess also an example of R. nitidulus, given to me by my 
friend Mr. Malcolm Burr, in which the left anterior tibia is 
shining black, the right anterior tibia dilute crimson. The 
locality is unknown. 

Further notes on Vol. I. of Lethierry and Severin's Cata- 
logue:— 

P. 181. — Rhynchocoris hamatus (Fabr.) is the type of the 
genus (= humeralis, Thunb.). " Characteres generici e Rh. 
hamata descripti" (Westwood). 

P. 3. — Brachyplatys, Boisd. 1835 = Plataspis, Westw. 1837 
= Platijcephala, Laporte, 1832. 

P. 2. — LiBYASPis, n. n. = Plataspis, Leth. and Sev. (type, 
coccinelloicles, Lap.). 

Plataspis, Westw., is only a replacement of the preoccupied 
Platijcephala, Lap., type metallica ; unless metallica can be sup- 
posed to differ generically from vanikorensis, Plataspis should be 
regarded as a synonym of Brachyplatys. 

-'• —Sminthus, Leth. and Sev. Cat. Hemipt. iii. p. 113. 
f = Beduvitis, Qtk\=:Harpactor, Leth. and Sev. 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA. 137 

P. 25. — Callidea, Am. Serv. typ., is a synonym of Calliphara, 
Guer., not of Chrysocoris, Hahn. 

P. 46, — Irochrotus, Am. Serv. =A7xtocoris, L. and S., the 
latter being proposed as a "classical emendation" of Ursocoris, 
which is identical with Odontoscelis. 

P. 88.— DiNiDOR, Latr., 1829, Lap. 1832 ; type, maculatus = 
Empicoris, Lath, and Sev. 

P. 235. — DicTYOCORis, M.?iy v. = Dinidor, Leth, and Sev. 

Vol. II. 

P. 30. — Metapodiessa, n. n. subgen. for Metapodius, Stal. 
Metapodius is properly homotypical with Acanthocephala, Laporte. 

P. 86. — CocHRus, Stal. =^ Discogaster, Leth. and Sev. 

P. 86— DiscoGASTER, Burm. (1835, Herr.-Schaff. 1840) = 
Coryzoplatiis, Spin. Type, rhomhoideus, Btirm. 

P. 191. — Orthoea, Dallas = Pamera, Leth. and Sev. 

P. 194. — Ptochiomera, Say, 1832. type, nodosus=Plociomera, 
Leth. and Sev. 

Vol. III. 

P. 93. — Ptilocnemus, Y^est.=Ptilocerus, Gva,y = Maotys, Am. 
Serv. Type, /itscMs, Gray. 

P. 93. — Ptilognemidia, n. n.=: Ptilocnemus, Am. Serv. Type, 
lemur, Westw. 

Fam. GERRiDiE. 

Eotrechus, gen. nov. 

Facies of Gerris, Fabr., but distinguished by each tarsus being 
terminated by two strong curved apical, aroliated claws. Tibiae cylin- 
drical, not tapering. 

E. kalidasa, sp. nov. 

Dark blackish brown, tinged with fulvous, anterior lobe of pro- 
notum with broad testaceous longitudinal stripe, posterior lobe* more 
or less rufescent. Elytra with fulvous costa and nervures. Legs and 
antennae fulvous, femora paler beneath, blackish at apex. Lateral 
margins of anterior lobe of pronotum widely testaceous. Head beneath 
fusco-luteous, centrally black. Pleura black. Venter, including am- 
bulacra, fusco-luteous. Rostrum reaching to middle of mesonotum. 
Abdomen canaliculate beneath ; seventh abdominal segment not pro- 
duced spinosely or even angulate laterally. 

^ . Seventh segment beneath apically roundly emarginate. 

? . Seventh segment beneath apically truncate. Long. 10-5 mill., 
lat. 1-8 miU. 

Hah. Carin Cheba, 900-1000 m. L. Fea, 1889 (Mus. Genoa). 

Gerris hesione, sp. n. 

Distinguished from the other American species of Limnogonus 
by much smaller size and proportionately greater width. 

Black, base of head medianly, a round spot near anterior margin 
of pronotum medianly, lateral margins of pronotum, ferruginous ; an- 



138 THE BNTOMOIiOGIST. 

tennje, intermediate and posterior legs ferruginous, more or less fumate, 
anterior femora blackish, basally pallid. Elytra olivaceous, fumate, 
nervures blackish. Beneath covered with silvery grey pubescence. 
Head (with eyes) two-fifths wider than long, pronotum roundly angu- 
late posteriorly. 

$ . Anterior tibiae curved. Long, (to apex abd.), 5^ mill. 

America : Florida ; Darien (collns. Montandon and Kirkaldy). 

Germs euphrosyne, sp. n. 

Belongs to typical subgenus. 

Head and pronotum dark ferruginous ; a broad central longitudinal 
stripe and a sublateral stripe on vertex, a narrow median longitudinal 
stripe and a sublateral stripe (greatly widened inwardly on anterior 
lobe) on pronotum, blackish, lateral margins of pronotum pale yel- 
lowish. Elytra ferruginous-fumate, nervures blackish. Femora pale 
fulvous, black at apex, longitudinally banded with same colour ; tibiae 
and tarsi blackish. Sterna black, a sublateral undulate stripe yellowish. 
Venter fawn-colour, spotted laterally with black, covered (except later- 
ally) with silver-grey pubescence. Above covered with golden yellow 
pubescence. Long. 9 mill. 

Australia : Victoria, Alexandra (collns. Montandon and 
Kirkaldy). 



THE CLASSIFICATION OF GEACILAKIA AND ALLIED 

GENEKA. 

By T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 88.) 

I DO not propose to go into detail as to the habits of these 
larvEe ; that would be to write a life-history of each species, 
since, though there are some small groups of Gracilaria and 
Lithocolletis in which one life-history might be written for all 
the species, altering for each little more than the habitat and 
food-plant, it is more widely the case that each species has 
special habits of its own — in its form of mine, in its life out of 
the mine, in its formation of a cocoon, and so on. There are, 
nevertheless, things that may be glanced at, as they are probably 
important as regards classification within the group. 

The group being by its pupal characters a high one amongst 
the Incompletae, there is no doubt that it had amongst its not 
very remote ancestors a form something like Buccidatrix in 
living at first as a leaf-miner, afterwards as an external larva. 
Bucculatrix may have been derived from the same ancestor, 
retaining a more primitive pupa, but advancing in having a larva 
in its later stages living externally and exposed. The primitive 
Gracilarian must have had a mining larva in its early stages ; 
an external but leaf-rolling larva in the later. It must then 



CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILAKIA AND ALLIED GENERA. 139 

have been a Gracilaria, except for the want of the special Graci- 
larian trophi. On obtaining these, in its first stage, it became a 
Gracilarian. On passing this speciaHzecl larval condition on to 
the second instar also, it became a Gracilaria or Ornix. 

I have examined a number of species of Gracilarianae {Graci- 
laria and Ornix), and find they all have two stages with 
Gracilarian trophi ; and the same is the case with the two or 
three species of Ornix I have been able to examine. 

Mr. Chambers only observed one Gracilarian stage in this 
group, but there are unquestionably two. 

Even in the first instars the habits differ in different sections. 
Gracilaria syringella, for instance, with some half-dozen eggs 
laid in a row, has the same number of larvEe marching forward 
abreast for some distance before they form a blotch. Gracilaria 
stvederella and Ornix avellanella make a narrow thread-like mine, 
which they lace to and fro into the pattern of a small square 
gridiron before throwing it into one square blotch, which they 
leave for a leaf-rolling, or perhaps I ought to say, cone-making 
existence. 

In the genus Coriscium, which has always been associated 
with Gracilaria, I am familiar with hrongniardelhim and cuculi- 
'pennellum, but on sulphurellum I made no observations. It is 
described as cone-making, and is therefore congeneric with 
cuculipennellum. 

Cuculiyennellum is a true Gracilaria in its early stages, 
having two Gracilarian instars, and afterwards inhabiting cones. 
Its mode of pupation is very special, as it makes a cone such as 
it makes for feeding in ; inside this it slings its cocoon like a 
hammock, a structure very similar to, but more robust than, that 
of Lyonetia clerckella, and it cuts out a little circular exit-hole in 
the wall of the cone precisely opposite the end of the cocoon. 

Brongniardellum has a very different history : the larva 
makes a very large mine on the upper surface of an oak-leaf, 
and there are often two or three larvse in a mine, but this is 
always the result of the coalescence of as many different mines, 
that happened to be in one leaf. It never leaves this mine until 
it does so to pupate, and so far does not differ from such a larva 
as that of Gracilaria omissella. It does differ, however, in a very 
fundamental point, viz. it has three instars of Gracilarian form. 

In this it differs from all the other Gracilarias {sensu stricto), 
and is allied to the Lithocolletid division, to which it ought to be 
transferred. 

Though never leaving the mine until it does so to pupate, it 
differs from such Gracilarias as omissella that do the same, in a 
respect that again unites it to Lithocolletis and separates it from 
Gracilaria. In feeding in its Gracilarian stages, omissella makes 
a very small mine like other Gracilarias, and afterwards, when 
armed with ordinary trophi, it mines in ordinary fashion beyond 



140 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the original Gracilarian mine. BrongniardeUum, on the contrary, 
makes a very large Gracilarian mine, and in its later stages 
feeds entirely on the parenchyma so exposed, never in any way 
extending the mine, a habit which is exactly that of Lithoculletis. 
In separating these two species generically, the name Coriscium 
I fancy adheres to cuculipennelliLm. For hrongniardellum we 
have the name Acrocercops, provided by Wallengren, whose 
diagnosis is founded entirely on imaginal characters. 

In the European LithocoUetis we have a very homogeneous 
group ; all of which have three Gracilarian instars, and all 
pupate in the mine. Amongst even these there is great variety 
of habit, both as to the mine itself, the way in which the larva 
contracts the thin epidermal cover, and in the pupating habits. 

LithocoUetis typically separates merely the cuticle when in its 
Gracilarian stage, and thereafter eats the parenchyma so exposed, 
meantime contracting the cuticular roof by the silk spun on it. 

There are, however, some, and possibly a good many, varia- 
tions and complications of this habit, of which I may refer to 
one or two. 

LithocoUetis stettinensis mines in alder leaves. It is stated to 
mine on the upper side, but in one respect it might be more 
correctly described as mining on the lower. It possesses three 
instars with fiat Gracilarian head, and during these it mines not 
immediately below the cuticle, but at a lower level ; rather, how- 
ever, above the middle of the leaf, and leaving the ribs of the 
leaf in the lower half. When, however, in the fourth instar, 
with ordinary head, &c., it commences to eat; it attacks, not the 
thick lower layer, but the thin layer of green parenchyma that 
is attached to the upper cuticle, first eating in a longitudinal 
line, and as it clears off the parenchyma, spinning silk on the 
denuded upper cuticle. 

The habit of corylifoUeUa is perhaps in some degree inter- 
mediate between this and the ordinary, habit. CorylifoUeUa, as 
its first effort, enters a similar layer of the leaf to that in which 
stettinensis mines ; but apparently, whilst still in the first skin, 
leaves this position and mines beneath the upper cuticle, and 
continues to work in both these mines, one above the other, for 
some time, a valvular slit in the veil of intermediate parenchyma 
affording access from the one mine to the other. It, however, 
leaves the deeper mine of comparatively small size, and extends 
the subcuticular one to large dimensions. When it assumes an 
ordinary head it eats the lower parenchyma, there being in fact 
no parenchyma attached to the upper cuticle. The round piece 
of intermediate tissue is separated from its attachment to the 
floor of the mine, and, dried up to a very flimsy scale, is attached 
to the cuticle forming the roof of the mine, and is covered over, 
with it, with the silk that contracts and pulls together the roof 
of the mine. 



CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED GENERA. 141 

Chambers's observations, to which I have already called 
your attention, show that in America there are two other forms 
within the genus which certainly deserve, and have possibly 
received since Chambers wrote, generic recognition. 

Our English form he calls the cylindrical form. It has three 
Gracilarian instars, and does most of its feeding as a larva of 
normal form in the fourth and following instars. 

What he calls the flat form has five Gracilarian instars, and 
does all its feeding in these ; in the two following it is only pre- 
paring for pupation. Why it should have an idle instar between 
the last feeding and the cocoon spinning instar, Mr. Chambers 
does not tell us, and there is something still to be learnt here. 

A third section, consisting of only one species (ornatella = 
ostensackenella) , agrees with the last group in everything except 
that it is the only species in the genus that leaves the mine for 
pupation. 

I would suggest, if other names have not already been given 
to these two sections, that the flat group be called Cameraria, 
after Chambers, with type guttifinitella ; and as regards osten- 
sackenella, Fitch, I would place it provisionally in Leucanthiza, 
since the larval habits are identical. If imaginal characters 
forbid this, it will require a new generic name. 

We finally reach the Phyllocnistinse, in which we have the 
highest elaboration of the Gracilarian specialization, in so far 
that there are three Gracilarian instars, but no ordinary larval 
form afterwards. In the fourth instar the larval mouth-parts 
are reduced to a spinneret only as a functional organ ; there are 
no functional jaws, either Gracilarian or normal. 

Probably the Cameraria group of Lithocolletines are as far 
advanced, having no instar in which the larva feeds with ordinary 
jaws, and may be regarded as even more specialized in having 
five instead of three Gracilarian instars ; but this, I think, has 
really an opposite bearing, as five or six is a normal number of 
moults, and a reduction to three is a very decided specialization. 

In any case, however, I have no personal acquaintance with 
these American forms, and cannot go very far in theorizing 
about them. 

The pupae (Pupse Incompletse) of the lower Neo-Lepidoptera 
are characterized by having the 7th abdominal segment in the 
male free, though fixed in the female, and by the pupa leaving 
the puparium for the emergence of the imago. In the lowest sur- 
viving forms we have, the antennae, wings, legs, &c., are but slightly 
held together, and equally slightly to the abdominal segments, and 
these appear to be free up to even the first; so that in Nepticulae 
and Cochlidids the first six abdominal segments are all free. 

As we advance to higher forms movement is lost in the anterior 
segment, and, as each segment loses freedom of movement, it 
tends to become also soldered to the appendages lying in front 



142 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of it. In the lowest Lepidoptera Aculeata (Adelida^, as Incurvaria 
and Crinopteryx, we find only the 1st abdominal segment so fixed. 

In the higher Lepidoptera Aculeata, in Tischeria, and some 
others, the first two abdominal segments are fixed. Then we 
come to the great mass of species with Pupte Incompletae, in 
which the first three abdominal segments are fixed. These 
include the true Tinese, Cossidse, /Egeriadse, all the Tortrices and 
their allies, &c., as well as the Pterophorina, which are otherwise 
specialized. This seems to have been the structure of pupa that 
was most successful as a Pupa Incompleta — at any rate, it is the 
most popular. We then come to a Pupa Incompleta with the 
first four abdominal segments fixed. This is the pupa of the 
Gracilariadae . 

At this point in the evolution most lines of advance seem to 
have ceased to remain as Pupae Incompletes, and to have become 
Pupse Oblectte, i.e. they ceased to emerge from their puparia, 
and they acquired fixity in the 7th segment in the male, and 
became of the type of Pupa Obtecta that ranges throughout all 
the Macro-Lepidoptera, the Pyrales, Gelechids, Depressariads, 
Yponomeutids, Q^cophorids, &c. 

A Pupa Incompleta, with only two free segments (5 and 6, 
female ; 5, 6, 7, male), seems to have been an unsatisfactory 
organism, and only obtained a permanent existence in the group 
we are considering — the Gracilariad^. 

It seems to me extremely probable that amongst the many 
exotic families of Micros, of which I am entirely ignorant, there 
is one or more with this pupal structure, attained quite in- 
dependently of the Gracilariads ; since it is a form, so to speak, 
quite in the highway of ordinary evolution in the Lepidoptera. 
Up to the present, however, I have not met with such a form. 

The process of emerging from the puparium must be less 
easily performed with only two movable segments, and the ten- 
dency must have been very strong to go right forwards at once 
into the obtect condition. 

The pupal condition of the Gracilariadse is as definite in 
separating them from all other groups as is the larval one. And, 
of course, each of these is much more important, taken with the 
other, than it would be by itself. The larval specialization is so 
remarkable and unique, that by itself it may be taken as fairly 
sufiicient to define the group, when we consider that there is no 
strong point — no point at all, in fact — per contra. The pupal 
condition is of very nearly the same weight in associating the 
species within the group, and delimiting them from others. 
Either by itself is adequate for this purpose ; the two, taken 
together, are of course not simply twice as potent, but at least 
four times as potent. 

(To be continued.) 



143 



NOTES AND OBSEKVATIONS. 

The Emergence of Anther^a from the Cocoon. — In reference to 
Mr. Dodd's note on this subject (ante, p. 16), I should like to say that 
in 'Australian Lepidoptera,' a work published in part by Scott and 
concluded by the Australian Museum, reference is made to the hooks 
with which the moth makes its exit in the following words : — " It was 
at this time our attention — being directed to the care of the numerous 
specimens in our possession emerging from the cocoons- — was naturally 
attracted by the peculiar and loud noise produced by the imago in that 
operation for freeing itself, which led to a more careful observation, 
and to the discovery that the sound thus created was caused by two 
powerful hooked appendages of a horny substance placed one on each 
side, immediately at the junction of the base of the anterior wing to 
the thorax while in the act of tearing and destroying the strong 
fibrous texture of the nest, previously, however, moistened by a 
solvent fluid, until a rude and irregular aperture was made. During 
this action the insect maintained a slow rotatory motion until the 
hooks were plainly visible to us, appearing and disappearing alter- 
nately, and quickly and irresistibly calling to mind the sound produced 
by the gnawmg of that domestic torment, the rat." He concludes by 
remarking that he found all the AiithercBa were provided with similar 
hooks; and he also found them in two foreign species of Saturnid^e — 
i. e. Tropma luna and Telea poh/phemus. I myself have bred out several 
A. astrophela lately, but, unfortunately, have missed them when 
emerging. Vol. i. of Mr. A. W. Scott's work was published in 1864 ; 
vol. ii. in 1890-1893. — Henry H. Burton Bradley ; 60, Margaret 
Street, Sydney, March 18th, 1902. 

Insecta of Surrey. — In the first volume of the ' Victoria History 
of Surrey' over a hundred pages are devoted to the Insecta, and pro- 
bably never before has so full a list been got together for any county : 
perhaps there is no other county for which, with our present know- 
ledge, one equally ample could be prepared. In some cases we are 
given lists only of the species known, in other cases we have such lists 
with localities, while of a few orders— t;. g. the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, 
Lepidoptera, and Homoptera — the lists are presented in narrative 
form, and these last we prefer. Those who have worked up a local 
list of any kind know how difficult it is to make it complete ; but 
there is evidence that the work before us has in general been well 
done, and this record of Surrey insects may be looked upon as fairly 
complete, as far as our present knowledge permits. Everyone is of 
course aware that many additions must be made as time goes on, but 
that fact will not prevent the present list being of very great use to 
entomologists who reside or occasionally collect in Surrey, as well as 
to all who are interested in the distribution of species. 



144 THPJ KNTOMOLOGIST. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

AspHALiA DiLUTA IN Chester DISTRICT. — With reference to the 
statement in Mr. Arkle's " Notes from the Chester District " {ante, 
p. 117) that Asphalia diluta is new to the district, I may mention that 
I took the species in Delamere Forest, on Aug. 19th, 1893. — Geo. 0. 
Day; Parr's Bank House, Knutsford, April 14th, 1902. 

Early Appearance of Euchelia jacob^^. — I am sending with 
this a specimen of, I beheve, E. jacobacB. My wife found it creeping 
over the garden path, on the 9th inst. Apparently it had only just 
emerged, the wings being undeveloped. Last year I saw a moth on 
the wing which I believed to be E. jacohmcB, and with that exception 
this is the first specimen I have seen in this neighbourhood — S. J. 
Beeston ; Shrubbery Hill, Cookley, Kidderminster, April 14th, 1902. 

[The moth received from our correspondent is certainly an example 
of E. jacohcea. It was alive when it reached us, but the hind wings 
were still undeveloped. — Ed.] 

LARViE OF Cossus LiGNiPERDA AT Vauxhall. — One moming towards 
the end of September last (the 25th, I fancy), I was surprised by the 
discovery of five or six full-grown larvffi of C. ligniperda in Vauxhall 
Park, South Lambeth. They were marching in a business-like 
manner along one of the gravelled paths, at regular intervals of a couple 
of yards or so, objects of great interest to the passers-by, who seemed 
to regard them as a new kind of centipede, and therefore as fair game. 
Two had already fallen victims. I managed to rescue the remainder 
and to place them in a position of safety. I also examined the trees in 
the vicinity as well as the attentions of the park-keeper would permit, 
but could tind none that seemed to have harboured them. I am aware 
that the larva shows great restlessness when about to pupate, but this 
seemed very much like a migration in force. Possibly they had been 
disturbed by pruning operations. — J. B. Tetley ; 5, Wilkinson Street, 
Albert Square, S.W. 

Butterflies in Mid-Surrey, Easter, 1902. — Hybernated speci- 
mens of Gonepteri/x rhamni were numerous on Easter Monday in 
the neighbourliood of Cranleigh, Surrey. I saw at least a dozen 
during a walk of two or three miles from that town. They were all 
males with one exception. Specimens of Vanessa urticce, V. io, and 
F. pohjchloros were also noticed. — J. B. Tetley; 5, Wilkinson Street, 
Albert Square, S.W. 

March Notes from Kent, 1902, — Very little collecting was done 
during the first part of March, but a good series of Hybernia leuco- 
phcearia was taken, principally from Bexley, including a fair sprinkling 
of the banded black and white form, and one or two females. Ayiiso- 
pteryx (Bscularia (males) was fairly common from the 9th, but only one 
Phigalia pedaria (pilosaria) was seen, and that a small male. I have 
never yet found this insect in any numbers about here, except in the 
larval state, and then almost invariably stung. For the first time for 
four years Easter was spent at home instead of in the New Forest. 
On the morning of March 29th we started to walk to Paul's Cray, but 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD KEPORTS. 145 

the rain came down so hard and persistently that we were forced to 
beat a retreat. After lunch, however, we were off again, and consider- 
ing the wretched weather, were much pleased with our takings. On 
a big lime-tree at Chislehurst we found a fine male Amphidasys pro- 
dromaria, and a few inches below it Asphalia Jiavkornis. We then 
proceeded to St. Paul's Cray Common, where we examined the birch- 
trunks, and were rewarded by a grand pair of A. flavicornis in cop., 
and three Brephos parthenias. This is the first time I have found the 
latter at rest. They were found on the small brown birches, in the 
forks of two branches, with the wings pressed tightly against them. 
One or two Xylocampa lithorhiza, Anisopteryx cescularia, a,nd Diurnea fayella 
were also noticed. The same locality was visited in the afternoon of 
the next day, which was so miserably cold and dull that a single Hy- 
bernia maryinaria {progemmaria), and a few Xylocampa lithorhiza and 
D. fayella were the only insects noticed. The Bank Holiday (March 
31st), however, turned out a grand day, and St. Paul's Cray was again 
attacked. From 2 o'clock till 3.30, Brephos parthenias was flying in 
great numbers, but was, as usual, by no means easy to catch. Three 
of us succeeded in netting sixteen specimens in all, of which fifteen 
were males, mostly in good condition. A male Gonepteryx rhamni 
was tempted out by the sunshine, as were also three or four Vanessa 
pulychloros, which seems to turn up in most unexpected places. 
Tmniocampa pulverulenta (cruda), Anisopteryx ascularia, and Diurnea 
fayella were also noticed. We heard of another Amphidasys prodro- 
maria taken that morning in Pett's Wood. With no niglit-work, and 
taking the weather into consideration, I think we should not have done 
any better in the New Forest. At any rate, the few hours' collecting 
compare very favourably with our three Easters there. — F. M. B. Carr ; 
46, Handen Road, Lee, S.E., April 6th, 1902. 

South Devon Micro-Lepidoptera. — At the time I wrote my notes 
on South Devon coast Lepidoptera I had put on one side several 
micros from there I was doubtful about. These have recently been 
determined for me by Mr. C. G. Barrett as Gelechia semidecandrella, 
(not uncommon at sugar), G. mulinella, and Dicroramphaflavidorsana. 
The last mentioned was taken at Starcross. As at least one of these 
has, I believe, not previously been recorded for Devonshire, it may 
be as well to place them on record. — Geo. T. Porritt ; Crosland Hall, 
Huddersfield, April 4th, 1902. 

Lepidoptera in Ross-shire in 1901. — The following is a list of a 
few Lepidoptera that I took last year in a mountainous part of Ross- 
shire, about the head waters of the river Carron. The Carron flows 
out at Bonar Bridge, on the east coast. My first visit there was for a 
few days about July 19th. The weather was excessively hot, and most 
of the insects were in poor condition as a result of a long spell of hot 
weather : — Pieris napi. Aryynnis aglaia, not uncommon ; only one 
was taken, and this at a high altitude, about 1500 ft. It is a male 
specimen, and decidedly dark. Canonympha typhon (davas), a few every- 
where about the hills, except on very high ground ; nearly all were in 
poor condition ; some of the females, however, were fresh out, and very 
pale in colour. Xylophasia riirea and the var. (?) combusta. Miana 

ENTOM. MAY, 1902. M 



146 THE KNTOMOLOGI8T. 

fasciuncula, common at sugar ; and different to the southern forms. 
Noctua augur. N. rubi, large in size. Emmelesia ericetata. E. albu- 
lata. Eubolia mensuraria. Gnophos obfuscata, only one. Larentia 
didymata. L. ccesiata. L. jyectinitaria. MelantJiia ocellata. Anaitis 
plagiata. Cidaiia nissata, a female from which ova were obtained. 
The larvffi, to my surprise, hybernated when quite small, and have 
now (beginning of April) started feeding again. I was previously 
viuder the impression that this species wintered in the pupal state, 
while C. iiniaanata does so in the egg state. Ooremia munitata, several 
females were taken and these deposited eggs. The species was found 
from 1000 ft. in the valley to nearly 3000 ft. on the tops. From these 
eggs one imago resulted in the autumn, but the rest of the larvfe 
hybernated when about half grown, and they have not yet (beginning 
of April) made their appearance this spring, so I fear they are dead. 
Scapula (dpinalis was very common on the tops wherever the right sort 
of ground occurred. 

On my second visit to the same place, in September, I noticed the 
larvfe of Lasiocampa calluna; were common in places. These larvae, 
which were about 1^ in. long, were fond of sunning themselves on old 
bleached stalks of burnt heather. I brought away a good many, and 
they have successfully hybernated in an airy cage out of doors, and are 
now (beginning of April) changing their skins and beginning to feed 
again. Celana hawortJiii, including one female found at rest on the 
heather. Cliaraas r/raminis. Tapinostola fulva, common. T/iera 
juniperata, two specimens at rest on a juniper-bush, and the- empty 
pupa-skin attached among the needles of the juniper. The juniper- 
bushes in this district grew quite prone along the ground and were 
scarcely noticeable, very unlike their erect habit in the South of 
England. Ciduria miata, one example on Sept. 29th. Phibalapteryx 
lapidata, three specimens on Sept. 11th. These were all that I saw, 
although I spent some time on succeeding days at the same place 
trying to find more. These three specimens were found about a 
grassy and rushy spot in a sheltered glen, at about 1250 ft. elevation. 
W. M. Christy ; Watergate, Emsworth, Hants. 

Dragonflies in the Norfolk Broads. — Mr, H, M. Edelsten has 
forwarded a notice of some dragonflies taken in June last. They were 
a pair of Libellula fulva (June 19th), the male with adult colouring; a 
pair of Orthetrum ccerulescens, and another of L. depressa (June 20tli), 
the male in each case adult in colour ; several pairs of 0. cancellatum 
(June 19th), but all the males of this species were immature. They 
were all flying in a quiet corner near a big reed-bed. In the after- 
noon he had been watching the female L. fulva hawking over a 
little bog-hole, when a male appeared and they copulated, and flew so 
close to him that he was able to net them both. 0. cmrulescens was 
also taken in cop. 0. cancellatum was quite plentiful. 

Records of some of the scarcer dragonflies are becoming plentiful, 
and the fear that several of them were disappearing from our midst 
seems to be quite unfounded. Will JEschna isosceles be given a better 
status during the season that is just commencing ? It should be 
looked for in the broads and fens in June. — W. J. Lucas ; Kingston- 
on-Thames. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 147 

Odonata of Paris. — The following species of Odonata were ob- 
served by me in the suburbs and environs of Paris, in the months of 
June and July, 1901 : — 

Libellula quairimacidata. — One specimen, Forest of Fontainebleau 
(captured). Others seen. 

L. depressa. — Two specimens, males, Forest of Fontainebleau 
(captured). Others, all males, seen by one of the artificial lakes, Bois 
de Boulogne. 

L.fulva. — One male, Chantilly. This handsome species is entirely 
new to my collection, and I had never seen it alive before. Like 
L. depressa and Oithetriun ccendescens, the male is of a lavender blue, 
the female of a tawny brown, Its abdomen is larger but somewhat 
narrower than is the case with L. depressa, and both longer and broader 
than that of 0. ccBrulescens. It is by no means an easy species to 
secure. I went after one subsequently which alighted on the gravel 
sweep surrounding an artificial lake at St. Cloud, but failed to catch 
it, I also missed two (also males) that were flying about pools left by 
the rain in the lucerne field at Courbevoie. It is also possible that I 
saw it in the Bois de Boulogne. 

Cordulia miea. — One specimen. Forest of Fontainebleau. I ima- 
gined that this was quite new to my collection, but on my return home 
I found I had a second specimen from Basingstoke Canal, near Byfleet, 
a year or two since. I had mistaken it at the time for an yEschna. 

jEschna ccBrulea. — Not in my collection. If I am not greatly 
mistaken, I saw this species flying hither and thither over the lake in 
the Bois de Boulogne. The shape of its abdomen precluded the idea 
of its being a Libellula, and on the other hand it was not large enough 
to be Anax imperator. 

Calopteryx splendens. — Two or three males seen, and one female 
captured by the canal, Forest of Fontainebleau. One male afterwards 
seen at Courbevoie. 

Si/inpetrum striolatum. — One in the Pare Maison Lafitte. 

S. flaveolum. — One specimen captured, Forest of Fontainebleau. I 
fancy it had not long emerged from pupa. 

Lestes harbara. — Two specimens captured, Forest of Fontainebleau. 

Agrionidse : — Forest of Fontainebleau and Bois de Boulogne. There 
are in all probability one or more of the common British species, 
Ischnura elegans, Agrion pidchellum, A, puella, and Enallagma cyathi- 
gerum. — F. A. Walker ; Dun Mallard, Cricklewood. 

[Is Dr. Walker quite certain that he is not taking some other 
species for C. cenea — there seems so little resemblance between that 
species and an JEschna ? One would hardly expect also to meet with 
such a northern insect as JEschna ceerulea in the Bois de Boulogne ; 
might it not rather have been Brachytron pratense, or an early /Eschna 
mixta ? Personally, too, I should hesitate to call Agrion pukliellum a 
common British species, though possibly it is generally plentiful where 
found at all ; but the known localities do not appear to be very 
numerous in Britain. — W. J. L.] 



148 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — March l%th, 1902. — Dr. F. 
DuCane Godman, D.C.L., P.R.S., Vice-President, in the chair. — 
Mr. Benaiah W. Adkin, of Brandon House, Morden Hill, Lewisham; 
Mr. E. D. Bostock, of Texall Lodi^e, Stafford; Mr. Hubert Edelstein, 
of the Elms, Forty Hill, Enfield, Middlesex; Capt. Frederick W. 
Hutton, F.R.S., of the Canterbury Museum, Christchurcli, New Zea- 
land ; Mr. Frederick William Lambart Sladen, of Ripple Court, 
Ringwould, Dover ; and Mr. Gerard Orby Sloper, of Westrop House, 
Highworth, Wiltshire, were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. W. J. 
Kaye exhibited a number of insects from British Guiana, many of 
them taken by himself, illustrative of Miillerian mimicry. Dr. DuCane 
Godman remarked that in these regions many different forms of the 
same butterfly would often occur within a radius of fifty miles, showing 
a wide range of variation. — Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., exhibited 
cocoons of Malacosoma vcmtria, collected by Mr. Hamm in 1900, spun 
upon black currant and apple trees in his garden at Oxford. All of 
them had been attacked by birds through the leaf, this being the 
thinnest part of the cocoon, and the pupa thus more easily abstracted. 
With regard to the resting habit of Hyhemia leucophearia, he said that 
he had observed that this moth usually rested in a horizontal position. 
Dr. Lougstaffe said that all the specimens he had observed on green 
stems affected a similar position, and that he had only found one on a 
birch tree. Mr. M. Jacoby said that he never found the species on 
oak at all, but on palings, also in the same position, which facts 
Professor Poulton said tended to show that the protective instinct of 
the species was retained in such localities. — Mr, G. T, Porritt exhibited 
two bred black Larentia multistrigaria from Huddersfield, and said that 
the dark form was rapidly increasing in Yorkshire. Of those already 
emerged and reared from the same brood, three were normal and two 
dark. — Dr. Frederick A. Dixey read a paper, illustrated by lantern 
slides, entitled :—" Notes on some cases of Seasonal Dimorphism in 
Butterflies, with an account of Experiments made by Mr. Guy A. K. 
Marshall." He said that he had long since formed the opinion that 
CaUypsilia crocale, Cram., was specifically identical with C.pomona, Fabr., 
and had suspected that the differences between them might prove to 
be seasonal in character. The belief in their specific identity was 
held by Piepers and by De Niceville, neither of whom, however, 
thought that the dimorphism thus shown had any relation to the 
seasons. In the discussion which followed, Colonel Yerbury said that 
a temporary rainfall in a dry season in dry places had a marvellous 
effect in producing intermediate and wet- season forms. Mr. F. Merri- 
field pointed out the difference between experiments upon tropical 
and European species. In the tropics there are not any very great 
distinctions of seasons and temperature, whereas in temperate climates 
the seasons are clearly marked off from one another. Professor E. B. 
Poulton expressed his opinion that by breeding species through, Mr. 
Marshall had proved that one form gives rise directly to the other ; 
the pairing of the two forms being a biological test of very con- 
siderable value. Colonel Swinhoe, Dr. Jordan, and Dr. F. DuCane 



SOCIETIES. 149 

Godman also joined in the discussion. — Professor E. B. Poulton read 
a paper on " Mimicry illustrated by the Sanger- Shepherd three-colour 
process," supplementary to his paper read at the meeting of the 
Society on March 5th. — H. Goss and H. Eowland-Brown, Hon. Sees. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
March ISth, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair.— Mr. 
A. L. Rayward, of Wallington ; Mr. B. Stonell, of Ciapham ; and Mr. 
S. P. Harry, of Ciapham, were elected members. — Dr. Chapman 
exhibited a number of species which he was placing in the Society's col- 
lections, inclixding Erqjithecia consignata, Hyboma strigosn, and Jochemra 
alni, the first of which species was now only to be obtained in one very 
restricted private locality. — Mr. Kemp, living larvae and perfect insects 
of the Coleoptera Endomychus coccineus, Ptilinns pectinicornis, and Pyro- 
chroa serraticornis, the two former from Epping Forest, on hornbeam, 
and the latter from New Eltham, under moss. — Messrs. Harrison and 
Main, specimens of the dark var. niyrofulvata of Macaria liturata, from . 
Delamere Forest. — Mr. F. M. B. Carr, a considerable number of 
specimens from the New Forest, including, Odonata : Ischnura pmnilio, 
female vars. of Pyrrhosoma nyniphula, Ayrion mermiriale, and Gnmphus 
vulyatissimiis ; Lepidoptera : a large number of species, among which 
were Aventia Jiexnla, Lithosia helveola, bred Cinopltria quadra, Nola 
striyula, TriphcBna snbsequa, Heliutkis dipsaceus, Cleora glabraria, bred 
C. lichenaria, Selidoseina plumaria, and Hyrla aurorarici ; eggs of the 
night-jar; a hornet taken from a hollow tree, Easter. — Mr. Nottle, 
examples of Ayrotis tritici and A. agathina, from Keston. — Mr. Barnett, 
a living specimen of Nyssia hispidaria, female, from Chingford. — Mr. 
F. Noad Clark, two species of tick new to the British list. They were 
forwarded to him by Mr. Hewitt, of York, who found them upon 
guillemots on the Yorkshire cliffs. They had been identified, after 
considerable trouble, as Ixodes limhriatus and I. borealis, both rare and 
little known species. He also exhibited the common Ixodes reduvms 
for comparison, together with photographs of I. fimbriatus. — Dr. 
Chapman, a living bred specimen of Endroviis versicolor and some 
pupffi, in the larva-cases, of Thyridopteryx ephemeriformis. — Mr. 
Edwards, very fine examples of Ornithoptera lydeus and 0. socrates, 
from the Malays, with Parnassiiis imperator, from Thibet. — Mr. Turner, 
a long bred series of Macroglossa stellatarum, from larvfe obtained at 
Bromley, Kent ; and contributed notes on breeding and habits of the 
larvae. — Mr. Lucas, a very large number of lantern-slides to illustrate 
his remarks on " Entomological localities." They were chiefly of 
well-known spots in the New Forest. — Mr. West, of Streatham, also 
showed a few slides taken from several localities near Loudon. — 
Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — A well-attended 
meeting was held in the Memorial Hall, Manchester, on March 10th, 
Mr. Robt. Newstead, A.L.S., F.E.S., in the chair.— Mr. E. Whitley, 
of " Clovelly," Sefton Park, Liverpool, and Oxford University, was 
elected a member. It was resolved that the next meeting be held in 
Liverpool, on April 14th, and that Messrs. F. C. Thompson, F. Birch, 
and E. J. B. Sopp be appointed a sub-committee to examine and 



150 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

report on the condition of tiie library of Lhe Society at an early date. 
A paper on Organic Evolution, with lime-light views, was communi- 
cated by Mr. William Hewett, President of the York and District 
Naturalists' Society, who, whilst dealing very ably with the subject in 
general, also made special allusion to many points of peculiar interest 
to entomologists, more particularly with respect to varieties intheLepido- 
ptera. An interesting discussion followed, on the melanism of Amphi- 
dasys hetularia var. donbleJaijaria and other moths, in which the chair- 
man, Mr. J. Eay Hardy, of Owens College, Dr. J. Cottou, Messrs. F. N. 
Pierce, B. H. Crabtree, G. 0. Day, and others took part. On the motion 
of Mr. Pierce, seconded by Mr. E. J. B. Sopp, a hearty vote of thanks 
was accorded the lecturer for his paper. The fine display of exhibits 
included, amongst others, the drawing of an extraordinary abnor- 
mality in Prionns californiais, which was double in every limb ; and a 
series of cases of Coleoptera by Mr. Piay Hardy ; Triphmia interjccta, 
Noctua glareosa, N. hrunnea, &c.,by Mr. R. Newstead, on behalf of Miss 
Steele Perkins, of Rhyl; bone variety of Arctia pla ntag inis a.nd var. 
hospita, by Mr. Harold Milne ; Orgiiia pudibunda, by Dr. J. Cotton and 
Mr. F. C. Thompson ; varieties oi Ahraxai^ grosmlariata, Ephyra, &c., by 
Mr. B. H. Crabtree ; two rare Dutch volumes with coloured plates by 
Sepp, and Lepidoptera varieties by Mr. G. 0. Day ; varieties of Arctia 
caia, by Mr. C. F. Johnson ; Arctia lubricipeda, A. urtica, &c., by Mr. 
Herbert Massey ; Dianthcecia conspersa by Mr. F. N. Pierce ; Perth- 
shire Coleoptera, and Coelioxgs viandibularis, a hymenopteron new to 
the British list, by Mr. F. Birch ; Hemiptera from Bolton, by Mr. Oscar 
Whittaker ; Anechura bipunctata, an Armenian earwig, with the 
Caucasian variety orientalis, by Mr. E. J. B. Sopp. — E. J. Bukgess 
Sopp, Hon. Secretary. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — March llth. — Mr. G. T. 
Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. R. C. Bradley exhibited 
a few Lepidoptera taken in Wyre Forest, including a pair of Ajnimea 
testacea, which had been taken in cop. at 3 p.m. ; Sesia ichneumoni- 
forniis, Myelois cribrella [crihrum), FJncJtluris pustulata (hajitlaria), and 
Hemithea strigata (tkymiaria). — Mr. J. T. Fountain, a series of Lasio- 
ctimpa quercus, including local bred females from young larvfe taken in 
the spring and bred same summer ; the specimens running from very light 
ones to quite dark ones ; also some males taken " sembhng " at Sutton, 
with wide light lines approaching var. callnnce. In answer to questions, 
he said that he had also taken full-fed larvae of the same species at 
Sutton in the autumn. — Mr. A. D. Imms, Lepisma saccharina, taken 
in a kitchen at West Bromwich ; it is one of our fovir British species 
of Thysanura. — Mr. C. J. Wainwright, photos of insects and parts of 
insects taken by Mr. Mearns, of Aberdeen. — Mr. G. T. Bethune- 
Baker, a drawerful of LycaBiiidse of the group Amblypodia, chiefly 
the genus Arhopala, and gave an account of the same, explaining his 
theories of the origin of the various forms. He believes all were 
originally brown, and the more blue there is, the more recent the 
species, roughly speaking. — Colbran J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 



151 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Les Odonates dii Continent Australien, par M. Ren6 Martin, in the 
' Memoires de la Societe Zoologique de France,' tome xix. 
p. 220. Paris: 1901. 
In an article extending to twenty-nine pages M. Martin has given 
us a concise account of the Australian Dragonflies. Little worked as 
this region has so far been, still the number of species at least equals 
those known for Europe, and the number is likely to be added to con- 
siderably, whereas the tale for Europe is no doubt almost complete. 
Just as is the case with the higher animals of Australia, so it is with 
the dragonfly fauna — it has characteristics peculiarly its own, and we 
are not surprised to find that about a quarter of the known species are 
peculiar to that continent ; and this individuality shews up even more 
clearly when reference is made to the genera. Several new species 
are characterized, and in some cases figures are given which will 
assist in the identification of them. W J L 



E. P. Felt, " Insects Injurious to Elm Trees." (1902, Fifth Ann. Rep. 

Fisheries Comm. New York State, pp. 351-79 ; B coloured 

plates and 7 text figs.) 
We noticed (Entom. xxxiii. p. 254) Dr. Felt's report on insects 
injurious to maple ; the present beautifully prepared memoir deals 
with the elm, and discusses and figures in their various stages the 
following insects: — GaleruceUa luteola, Sajjeida tridentata, Magdalis 
arinicollis and barbita (Coleoptera) ; Euvanessa antiopa, Thridiypteryx 
ephemercBformh and Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera), and Gossyparia 
ulmi (Rhynchota). ' G W K 



General : H. Gadeau de Kerville, in an exhaustive account of the 
marine and maritime faunas of a part of Normandy, enumerates 117 
species of maritime insects viz. one Thysanuron {Anurida vmritima), 
4 Orthoptera, 65 Coleoptera, 8 Hymenoptera, 2 Lepidoptera, 21 Rhyn- 
chota, and 16 Diptera (including the remarkable Clunio hicolor dis- 
covered by the author). The two Lepidoptera are Deilephila eupJiorbice 
and Zygcena trifoUi which, with var. orohi and ab. minoides, is discussed 
in some detail (" Recherches sur les faunes marine et maritime de 
la Normandie; 3^ Voyage," 1901, Bull. Soc. Amis Sci. Nat. Rouen 
(for 1900), pp. 194-206). We are indebted to the same autlior for an 
extended resume on " Galls and Gall-Insects" (" Les Cecidozoaires et 
leurs Cecidies," 1901, Causeries Sci. Soc. Zool. France, i. pp. 281-807; 
2 plates and 1 text figure). 

The remarkable genus Koenenia, of the Arachnid order Palpigradi 
is fully discussed by H. J. Hansen (" On six species of Koenenia, with 
remarks on the order Palpigradi," 1902, Entom. Tidskv. (for 1901), 
xxii. pp. 193-240, plates 2-4). The same author has monographed 
the Myriapod order Pauropoda (" On the genera and species of the 
order Pauropoda,'" 1902, Vidensk. medd. naturh. foren Kjoben. (for 
1901), pp. 321-424, plates i.-vi.). English students will congratulate 



152 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



themselves that this Danish zoologist has contributed his latest three 
or four fine monographic memoirs upon the Arthropoda in their 
language. 

Pihijnckuta. — T. Pergande works out very fully the interesting and 
complex life-histories of HonHnphis hanuonelidis and Hcwicimelistes 
spinosns (1901, " The Life-history of Two Species of Plant-Lice," 
U.S. Dep. Agric, Entom., Techn. ser. 9, pp. 1-44; 23 text figs.). 

Lt'pidoptera. — H. Gadeau de Kerville discusses tlie copulation of 
Lepidoptera (" L'accouplement des Lepidopteres," 1901, Bull. Soc. 
Ent. France, pp. 76-81 ; 5 figs.). 

Coleoptera. — -The variability of the two-spot ladybird is considered 
by C. Schroder (" Die Variabilitat der Adalia bipunctata, L., gleich- 
zeitig ein Beitrag zur Descendenz-Theorie "; Illustr. Zeitschr. Entom. 
1901, No. 24 ; 1902, Nos. 1 to 5 ; 1 plate and 5 text figs.). 

G. W. K. 

J. H. CoMSTocK AND Chujiro Kochi, " The Skeleton of the Head of 

Insects." 1902. 'American Naturalist,' xxxvi., pp. 13-45; 

29 text figs. 

The skeleton of the head, particularly in the more generalized 

forms, is discussed at some length. The authors consider that the 

existing nomenclature is "really of little morphological value; for 

but few of the primitive sclerites of the head have remained distinct, 

and some of them greatly overshadowed others in their development. 

The result is that in some cases a named area includes several 

sclerites, while in others only a portion of a sclerite is included." It 

is maintained that seven segments exist, with the following sclerites 

and appendages. " In each section of the middle column the dotted 

line indicates the division between the sternal and lateral elements of 

the segment." 

SEGMENTS. SCLEEITES. APPENDAGES. 

1. Ocular (Protocerebral). Vertex and genae. 

Ocular sclerites. 

Front. 

2. Antennal (Deuterooerebral).Antennal sclerites. 

Antennae. 

Clypeus proper. 

3. 2nd Antennal (Tritocerebral) 2nd antennae of Campo- 

Labrum (Mouth). dea et al. 

4. Mandibular. Postgenal. 

Mandibles. 

Antecoxal pieces. Trochantin (of do.). 

Pharyngeal sclerites. 

5. Superlingual. Superlinguse. 

6. Maxillary. Maxillary pleurites. 

Maxillffi. 

Lingua. 

7. Labial. Dorsal cervical sclerites. 

Lateral do. do. 

Labium. 

Ventral do. (Gula). 

G. W. K. 



Erratum. — Page 16, line 4, for "prolegs " read " forelegs." 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.l JUNE. 1902. [No. 469. 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LIPHYRA 
B HAS SO LIS, Westw. 

By F. p. Dodd. 

Having made many enquiries in Australia with reference to 
this remarkable butterfly without receiving any information of 
an important nature, it appears to me that httle or nothing is 
really known of its life-history. One correspondent stated that 
it is *' said to be found in ants' nests in its larval and pupal 
stages," but presumably he did not know which species of ant 
it was said to fraternise with. Another correspondent informed 
me that " his books gave it as a twilight flier, with a query, and 
that they suggested that larvae may be carnivorous, feeding on 
woolly bugs." 

I had already seen a female on a warm sunny day in July, 
1900, depositing eggs upon a tree, which was in complete 
possession of the wonderfully interesting green tree ant, Q^co- 
jjliylla smaragdina, Fab., which exists here in vast numbers in 
the coast and mountain scrubs. Upon this tree there were 
several large nests of the ants, and the butterfly would rapidly 
fly over the top of the tree once or twice, then come underneath 
and settle on one of the branches near the trunk ; there were 
four spots to which it returned at different times after its flights, 
and, upon examination, I found that there were two or three 
eggs deposited on each. Judging by the number of flights, I 
believe only one egg was laid at each rest. I have since 
frequently seen the eggs on other trees in ones, twos, or more ; 
but deposits of two, in several different places, is the number 
usually to be met with. They are placed on the under side of 
branches, or protected side of the trunk. I took several of the 
ova, and in twenty-two days the larvae, flat oval creatures, 
appeared, but of course refused to eat, and died. I had taken 
them upon the chance of their being leaf-eaters, and with the 
ants merely for protection, as I had found is the case with 

ENTOM. — JUNE, 1902. N 



154 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

several other Lycaenids of ours — Arhopalas and Hypohjccena 
jjkorhas. Some weeks later I pulled the habitations of the ants 
to pieces, but could find no traces of larvae from the ova left un- 
touched, and was unsuccessful with many other nests examined. 
Then I made the enquiries alluded to. 

During the next few months I examined scores of nests, in 
the hope of finding larvae of this, to me, mysterious insect, but 
without success, and my efforts relaxed considerably. However, 
eventually I stumbled across a larva when searching an ants' 
nest for other insects. This specimen was half-grown, the size 
and shape being about that of a medium-sized lozenge, with a 
rim, as in a coin, bordering it all round, but raised somewhat 
along the dorsal surface ; colour a very pale yellowish brown, 
seven dark spots on each side near margin, and across the centre 
of dorsal surface there were three furrows, reaching nearly to 
sides ; these furrows are constant through all the moults — it 
must be borne in mind that I have not examined larvae less than 
about one-third grown, those obtained from the ova were lost 
before I had noticed them particularly— nor do they disappear 
even when the larval skin becomes the outer pupal shell. The head, 
legs, and claspers are in a groove, the edges of which close down 
tightly all round, consequently they are seldom seen, except of 
course during progression, when the body is raised a little. 

After this discovery, I met with other larvae, generally larger 
and of a darker brown, and finally obtained pupae, and bred out 
a series of the perfect insect. 

I regret my inability to describe the ova, or the extra- 
ordinarily shaped larvae and pupae ; but I trust, Mr. Editor, that 
you will kindly deal with these, for I send you specimens of 
same, with examples of the butterfly as it appears soon after 
emergence and when set — the set specimens, male and female, 
showing the white fugitive scales on fore wings.* I furnish, 
however, the following particulars, which may be considered 
deeply interesting : — 

Taking several larvae and supplying them with ant grubs of 
various sizes, I soon had the satisfaction of observing one in- 
dividual approach a half-grown grub, deliberately seize it, and 
withdraw it from sight ; but, being impatient, I turned him over 
soon after, and he slowly released his hold of the grub ; unfor- 
tunately I failed to observe anything of the kind again. Finding 
that the caterpillars did not thrive upon ant larvae alone, they 
were supplied with small nests containing ants and pupae as 
well, but in a week or so they showed signs of sickness. By 
changing the ant nests, I kept several other caterpillars for 

* We are obliged to our correspondent for the material he has so kindly 
furnished, and we are very pleased to add that Dr. Chapman has been good 
enough to undertake the examination of it, and will report thereon in these 
pages at an early date. — Ed. 



LIFE-HISTORY OF LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS 155 

nearly two weeks ; they also became sickly, and had to be 
returned to nests on the trees. However, they deposited frass, 
showing that they had been feeding ; this is small for such bulky 
creatures, is grey or greyish white, and is greasy-looking. So, 
though I cannot positively declare that they exist upon the ant 
larvsB, I am quite satisfied myself that they do. As five or even 
six caterpillars may be found in one nest, the quantity of food 
required by such large creatures must be considerable, though 
they are very slow growing ; but the masses of ant larvae could 
be drawn upon without making any great reduction in same. I 
cannot discern the mandibles of the caterpillar, and incline to 
the belief that when it comes to be thoroughly examined, the 
mouth-parts will prove to be of peculiar construction. 

As many readers may be sceptical as to this insect subsisting 
upon ant larvae, I may mention that at present I have young 
caterpillars of a moth (female, 20-25 mm.) feeding upon the 
larv^ of another species of ant which lives in the ground. When 
given the fresh grubs they soon take a lively interest in them, 
and affix themselves thereto, and appear to suck their victims. 
None of the grubs are eaten, but they are considerably smaller 
and much shrivelled when finished with. The moth is even 
more greasy than our butterfly. None of the grubs given to 
L. brassolis were eaten, but some had the same shrivelled 
appearance as those given to the moth larvae. 

Moulting. — When the caterpillars are about to cast their skins, 
they spin a webbed footing, nearly their whole length, to which they 
affix themselves rather firmly ; but in many instances the ants, 
utilising the tveh of their grubs, secure them still more firmly to 
their position, the web reaching half-way to, or even up to, the 
rim. Whether this ant web is added with friendly intent, or 
with a view to fasten down a larva to get rid of him if possible, 
is a puzzling matter ; still I have not met with any dead larvae 
so fastened. Pup^ are occasionally treated in a similar manner, 
without the escape of the butterflies being prevented. The 
larger larvae require three to four days after taking up their 
moulting position to crawl out of their old skins, which become 
a little darker, and finally split downwards under the front edge, 
and right and left along the rim. The old skin retains its shape 
above, and being relieved of its occupant, regains its former 
colour, so that, viewed casually, it is difficult to believe that it 
is an empty shell, as it resembles a real larva so closely. 

When the larva is about half grown, the spots so plainly 
discernible upon young examples become much smaller, but can 
always be detected, even upon the pupae. I have only observed 
the moulting process in several specimens about one-third grown, 
and in a fair number which had attained almost full size. 

Change to the puija. — The larval skin is not cast off, but 
changes in shape, and becomes a comparatively strong and outer 

n2 



156 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

covering. The insect shrinks away from this and becomes de- 
tached, so that it can be shaken like an Antherea pupa in its 
cocoon, or a nut in the shell. The true pupal skin is very thin 
and transparent, and, provided of course the outer shell is 
opened, the colour changes of the chrysalis can be observed 
plainly. After the larva has taken up its position for the trans- 
formation, there is no change for thirty-six hours or so, the first 
being a narrowing of the thoracic portion, with an increased 
thickness in same. Upon examining the future pupa at this 
time underneath, it will be noticed that the shell has closed in 
on each side, enveloping the head and legs completely; no 
closing in upon the prolegs occurs. For some hours no further 
alteration takes place, then the remaining portion of the creature 
contracts, accompanied by a considerable rise in the dorsal 
surface ; the pupal change, so far as can be ascertained from 
outside observance, now being complete. However, without in- 
creasing the length of these notes, I think I can safely state from 
my experience that it is. For several days after, the shell is 
liable to split at the outside edge or rim if care in handling same 
is not taken, the whole of the top being liable to split and come 
off like a lid, and the chrysalis, being particularly delicate and 
pulpy, may be killed. 

(To be continued.) 



ACID ALIA MARGINEPUNCTATA, ab. 




The above figure represents an unusual form of A. margine- 
punctata {yromutata). Mr. Lucas has so faithfully delineated the 
peculiar marking of this example that it is unnecessary to say 
anything beyond stating that the ground colour is grey. The 
specimen is one of two, both of the same form, taken in August 
last by Mr. J. P. Lawson, of South View, Clevedon, Somersetshire. 
They were flying at dusk on a hillside in the neighbourhood. 

It may be interesting to add that Mr. Lawson, in reply to an 
enquiry respecting the ordinary form, writes: — "From what I 
can gather from other people, typical examples of this species 
have never been taken at Clevedon, the nearest locality in which 
it is found being Weston-super-Mare, which is some little distance 
from here." 

Richard South. 



157 



NOTES ON THE GENUS CLUNIO,^' Hal. 
By a. D. Imms. 

During a short period of work last summer, while occu- 
pying the University of Birmingham Table at the Biological 
Laboratory, Port Erin, I met with some larvae of a marine 
Chironomid, and have subsequently devoted a considerable time 
to working up what literature there exists upon the marine 
species of the family. The following notes which I have made 
upon the genus Clunio may not be perhaps without some value. 
Our only British species is in urgent need of further investi- 
gation, and probably, if carefully sought for, will not prove so 
rare as our present knowledge of it seems to warrant. 

The genus was erected by Haliday in 1855 for a single 
species, namely Clunio marinus, the males of which he found on 
the shores of Kerry. It is characterised by the presence of a 
pair of enormous claspers — a feature which distinguishes it at 
once from any other Chironomid. In 1856 he recorded stray 
individuals of the species from Dublin Bay ; in 1872 some ex- 
amples were taken by Dale on the sea-coast at Hastings, From 
that time onwards until 1894 no contributions appear to have 
been made bo our knowledge of the insect, and Theobald, in his 

* As far as I have been able to ascertain, the following is a complete 
bibliography of the genus Clunio : — 

1855. A. H. Haliday, Nat. Hist. Rev. vol. ii. Proc. p. 54, pi. ii. 
1856. lb., vol, iii. Proc. p. 73. 

1856. J, R. ScHiNEE. Ver. Zoo. Bot. Ver. vi. p. 216. 

1864. Fauna Austriaca, Die Fliegen (Diptera), Wien, 

vol, ii, pp, 593-4. 

1872. C. W. Dale, New and Rare British Diptera, Ent, Month, Mag, 
XX, p, 214, 

1892. F. V. Theobald. An Account of British Flies, pp. 195-6, London. 

1894. G. H, Carpenter, Clunio marinus, HaHday, — A Marine Chirono- 
mid, Ent. Month. Mag, p, 129. 

1894. R, Chevrel, Sur un Diptere Marin du genre Clunio, Haliday, 
Arch. Zool, Exp, et Gen, pp, 583-98, 

1897. H, Gadeau de Kerville. Recherches sur les faunes marine et 

maritime de la Normandie, 2e Voyage. Bull. Sec. Rouen, 
pp. 366-71. 

1898. A. Giard, Sur I'appareil tracheen de Clunio niarmus, Haliday. 

Compte-rendu Assoc, franc. (Congres de Saint-Etienne), l^e partie, 
p, 299, 

1898, J, J. Kieffer, Description d'un Diptere sous-marin recueilh aux 
Petifces-Dalles (Seine-Inferieure), Bull, Ent. Soc, Franc, pp, 105-8. 

1900. H, Gadeau de Kerville, Description, par M, I'abbe J, J, Kieffer, 
d'une nouvelle espece de Diptere marin de la famille des Chiro- 
nomides {Chinio bicolor), et renseignements sur cette espece, 
decouverte par M. Henri Gadeau de Kerville dans I'anse de Saint- 
Martin (cote septentrionale du departement de la Manche) et 
trouvee par M, Rene Chevrel a Saint Briac (Ille-et-Vilaine), 
Bull. Soc. Rouen, 2 pp. 



158 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



'British Plies,' is unable to supplement the work of Haliday. 
Coming to the year 1894, its rediscovery almost simultaneously 
by Carpenter (from Killiney Bay, Co. Dublin) and Chevrel (from 
the coasts of Calvados ; he calls it Clunio syzygialis) filled some 
of the blanks in the life-history of the insect. Both these 
authors discovered the eggs, the larva, and the female. The 
eggs are narrowly spindle-shaped, and are enclosed, like those 
of Chironomus, in a gelatinous green tube. The larva is green, 
and possesses no ventral blood-gills ; it lives among Cladophora 
and other algae in the rock-pools, and is therefore truly marine. 
It is worthy of note that blood-gills are similarly wanting in 
Chironomus oceanicus, described* by Packard (Proc. Essex Inst. 
1868, pp. 41-46) from Salem Harbour, as well as in the larvae I 
have met with at Port Erin, and in some of the fresh-water 
species. The female may be fairly described as apterous, for 
what remains of the wings is reduced to tiny vestigeal appen- 
dages ; she crawls about over the rocks and weed at low water, 
and during pairing the male flies about with her held in a 
straight line with his own body by means of his strong claspers. 
A full account of the habits of both sexes will be found in 
Chevrel's paper.* I might mention that in Halirytus amphihius, 
discovered by Eaton in Kerguelen Land, the wings are similarly 
vestigeal ; although placed in the Tipulida?, S^iaiv considers 
that it is probably a Chironomid. The degeneration of the 
wings in the female has been described as the result of complete 
adaptation to a littoral habitat ; for in so tiny and highly fragile 
an insect, if wings were present, the chances of being blown out 
to sea would be very great, and an appreciable numerical 
deterioration of the species would result from the destruction of 
the eggs. The mouth-parts are very rudimentary in both sexes, 
a feature which distinguishes the imagines from those of other 
Chironomids. 

Besides marinus, two other species of Clunio have been de- 
scribed, namely, G. adriaticus by Schiner, who states that it is 
found on the sea-shore among sea products of all kinds, and that 
Fraunenfeld found it amongst colonies of Mytilus minimus ; and 
C. hicolor by Kieffer from the French coasts. 

Chevrel gives a few observations upon the internal anatomy 
of the Clunio larva, and Giard has described its tracheal system. 
Nothing is known of the anatomy of the imago. 

In conclusion, I wish to state that I submitted this short 
article to Mr. G. H. Verrall, and I am indebted to his kindness 
in reading it through, and offering a suggestion upon it. 
Zoological Laboratory, University of Birmingham. 

* An interesting account is also given by Carpenter in ' Knowledge,' 
1901, pp. 197-8. 



159 



THE CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED 

GENERA. 

By T. a. Chapman, M.D., F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 142.) 

In viewing the classifications that have been made of the 
Gracilariads, we have seen how they have always been placed 
close to the Lyonetiads, and usually more or less mixed up 
with them ; in accordance, no doubt, with the fact that there 
is probably no very profound difference in any important cha- 
racter between them in the imago state. The superficial re- 
semblance of Leucoptera (Cemiostoma) to Phyllocnistis is very 
close indeed. 

I am not prepared to advance any larval characters that 
suffice to distinguish the Lyonetiadse, but there is a very definite 
pupal character that is, I think, both inclusive and exclusive. 
This is that the pupa is entirely immobile, and in a special 
manner that distinguishes it from other immobile pupse, such as 
Perittia, Thyris, &c. It has never passed through an ordinary 
obtect stage, in which the wings, &c., usually are attached down 
to the fourth abdominal segment only. Here the wings, &c., are 
attached for their whole length to the abdominal segments. In 
Lyonetia the wings and abdominal segments form one mass that 
tapers to a point — a point to which the wings, antennae, and 
third legs reach, as well as the abdominal extremity. This mass 
is not, however, as solid as it looks. As in Pupse Incompletse, 
all the appendages separate from each other, and with rather the 
facility one finds in Nepticula than with the difficulty that one 
meets with, say, in Tortrix. When the appendages are pushed 
aside, one inclines to doubt whether they were really at all 
adherent to the abdominal segments, and these again are found 
to be quite movable. Still, it is tolerably certain that no move- 
ment whatever takes place in the living pupa, hardly even on 
dehiscence. 

In Leucoptera the appendages do not come so far down, and 
the pupa itself is comparatively short and dumpy ; still, it agrees 
with Lyonetia in essential structure. We have here, then, a 
pupa very different indeed from that of Gracilariads. But is it 
after all very far off from them, if its probable evolution is con- 
sidered ? 

If we confine the name Obtect to those pupae that have reached 
that character by the same route as, say. Nocture have, or by 
some very similar one, then the Lyonetiads are certainly not 
Obtectse. They are a separate modification of the Pupse Incom- 
pletas. They are consolidated so far that the segments have lost 
mobility, but are still very primitive as regards the soldering 



160 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

together of the different parts, appendages, &c. In this respect 
they appear to be lower rather than higher than the Gracilariads. 
Gracilaria is a Pupa Incompleta that has reached, as regards 
movable segments, the highest point that such a pupa can attain. 
Lyonetia has just passed this point, but is otherwise no higher 
than Gracilaria, whilst both are, as regards imaginal and other 
structures, still rather low amongst Micros above the Tinefe. 
Even pupally, as regards general soldering ol appendages, they 
are lower than Tortrices, for instance, which in the matter of 
movable segments are a stage below them. Further, each in its 
own way is different from any other pupa. 

Taking all these things into account, it is highly probable that 
the pupa of Gracilaria and that of Lyonetia are really not very 
far apart. Each has taken one step forward from a similar form, 
quite probably a common ancestor ; but they have taken it in a 
different manner. 

It might be asked if they be possibly so near as this, whether 
each form of pupa might not have arisen separately perhaps 
several times, and whether Cemiostotna might not possibly be 
nearer to Phyllocnistis, and Lyonetia to Coriscium, than Lyonetia 
to Cemiostoma, and Phyllocnistis to Coriscium. Apart from the 
inherent improbability of this, the larval specializations give it a 
complete contradiction. 

The lateral pseudopods of the larvffi of Phyllocnistis and of 
Cemiostoma, and the curious tail-ending of the pupa of Lyonetia, 
and of the larva of Phyllocnistis, show that there is close relation- 
ship between the two groups, probably in the facility of develop- 
ing such structures rather than in a common inheritance of 
them. 

Phyllohrostis daphneella is a very interesting species in several 
respects to us just here, chiefly in regard to its pupal structure. 
This places it outside the Lyonetiadae, but very close indeed to it, 
if we accept the explanation of the pupal alliance that possibly 
exists between Gracilaria and Lyojietia that I have hazarded, 
and, indeed, very strongly enforces the probability of that ex- 
planation. At first sight the pupa, though darker in colour, and 
looking more solid, is very like that of Cemiostoma. A closer 
view, however, shows that it is of a form that I have described as 
occurring in Epermenia (Ent. Trans. 1897), at a time when that 
was the only one I knew with this structure, viz. with the free 
segments as in Gracilaria, but without the habit of leaving the 
puparium for emergence. This might very well be a connecting- 
link between Lyonetiadae and Gracilaria. 

The classifications that have recently been made of these 
groups may be taken to be well represented by Meyrick (1895), 
Spuler (1898), and Rebel (1901). These seem all to be founded 
more or less on characters of neuration, and the variations in the 
results are largely due to the personal equation by which each 



CLASSIFICATION OF GRACILARIA AND ALLIED GENERA. 161 

systematist attributes a little more or a little less value to some 
slight variations of nervine arrangement. 

We may accept the result so far as showing a strong proba- 
bility that the Gracilariad and Lyonetiad families are somewhat 
related, and that the genera Opostega and Bucculatrix are more 
nearly related to them than perhaps any others of the European 
fauna. 

Meyriok does not divide them into families, and the series of 
genera including Lyonetia and Gracilaria reads continuously. 

Interpreting this by his phylogenetic table (p. 708) by placing 
gaps in the list of genera, it is a little less unnatural than it 
looks ; but when we go a little further, and find the connecting 
link between Lithocolletis and Phyllocnistis is the terribly impos- 
sible one of Argyresthia, we feel sure that that table has led 
Mr. Meyrick into one of the pitfalls such tables open in all 
directions, even for the most wary. 

Mr. Meyrick, however, discussed all these genera rather fully 
in the 'Transactions' of the Sydney Linnean Society in 1881, 
with results that are but obscurely shown in his Handbook. He 
recognizes, from geographical reasons, that Gracillaria is an 
older form than Lithocolletis, and that the two groups are closely 
allied from their larvae having the same number of ventral pro- 
legs, viz. 6, in their post-Gracilarian stage. He does not, how- 
ever, mention the Gracilarian trophi. I disagree with him when 
he places Phyllocnistis with Cemiostoma, as he does still, and in 
separating Bedellia from Lyonetia, and associating it with other 
forms that are outside this group. 

It is rather outside this paper, but it may be noted that he 
then placed Nepticida high in this group, and in the ' Handbook' 
he places it at the top of the group containing our Gracilarians ; 
whilst the wing-structure and the pupal development both show 
that it is as low as, or rather lower than, the lowest Aclelidce 
(Tinete Aculeatae), though on a different line. Apart from these 
points of disagreement, and taking into account that his classi- 
fication is based almost entirely on imaginal characters, one 
admires the grasp he shows of the generic relationships, and how 
closely he approaches the true phylogeny. It must be remem- 
bered that, in taking my own results to be more correct than his, 
I am accepting his facts and conclusions to a great extent, whilst 
modifying them by other series of facts ; and that but for the 
sound and masterly foundation laid by Meyrick, Chambers, 
and Stainton, my own contribution would have been of little 
effect. 

Spuler and Eebel divide them into families. I am not in 
possession of Lord Walsingham's classification of these genera, 
beyond what I have been able to gather from a paper in the 
'Proceedings' of the Zoological Society for 1897. From this it 
appears that he associates together Bedellia, Buccidatrix, and 



162 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Tischeria. Where he places Phyllocnistis does not appear, but I 
rather suspect in Lyonetiadae. Lithocolletis he places under 
Gracilarianae, but does not apparently subdivide it in any way. 
Gracilaria, however, is more or less subdivided, and several new 
genera are given. This arrangement does not quite accord with 
Meyrick's, which, however, as concerns the Tineides generally, 
he approves. 

Meyrick, 1895. 

Opostega. 

Bucculatrix. 

Oinophila. 

Lithocolletis. 
Or nix. 
Coriscium. 
Gracilaria. 

Leucoptera {Cemiostoma). 

Lyonetia. 

Phyllocnistis. 

Bedellia. 

Tischeria. 

Ocnerostoma. 

Spuler, 1898. 

VIII. Gracilarid^b. 
Gracilarinas — Gracilaria. 
Corisciiiin. 
Ornix. 
Lithocolletinae —Lithocelletis. 
Bedellia. 
Bucculatrix. 

IX. ffiNOPHILID^. 

Oinophila. 

X. Cemiostomid^. 
Cemiostominae — Cemiostoma. 
Phyllocnistinse — Phyllocnistis. 

XI. Lyonetidje. 
Phyllohrostis. 
Lyonetia. 
Opostega. 

TiNE^ Aculeate. 
Tischerinse — Tischeria. 



classification of gracilaria and allied genera. 168 

Eebel (Staudinger), 1901. 

Gracilariid^. 

Gracilariinae — Gracilaria . 

Corisciiim. 

Ornix. 
Lithocolletinae — Bedellia. 

Lithocolletis. 
Palumbinse — Tischeria. 

Lyonetiid^. 
hyoneiimse— Lyonetia. 

Phyllohrostis. 
Phyllocnistinse — Phyllocnistis. 
Cemiostoma. 
Bucculatrix. 
Opogona. 
Opostega. 

Of the various other genera associated with the Gracilariads 
and Lyonetiads in the several systems we have been considering, 
I may say that my knowledge of the early stages does not enable 
me to place Oinophila, Opostega, Ocnerostoma, Palumbina, or 
Opogona ; but except Palumbina, if there be such a thing, I doubt 
whether any of them are Gracilariads. 

Tischeria and Bucculatrix, about which I do know something, 
happen also to be those that have been most persistently placed 
here. Most certainly neither of them are either Gracilariads or 
Lyonetiads. 

Spuler has so far recognized this, as regards Tischeria, a.8 to 
take it right away, and place it in the Tinese Aculeatae, where 
also it is certainly out of place. 

The pupa of Tischeria has only two fixed segments, though 
the third begins to lose freedom at the abdominal base, and is 
therefore at a much earlier stage of evolution than our Graci- 
lariads, nor is the larva specialized like them. It is not an 
Aculeate, as it has no piercing ovipositor, nor has it spiculated 
wing-membrane. So far as my knowledge goes, I incline to 
place it alone in a family by itself. 

Bucculatrix also wants the peculiar juvenile larval trophi, and 
the pupa is only a little in advance of that of Tischeria. It has 
the two basal segments fixed, and the third is all but fixed. 

I should classify these genera as follows : — 

GEACILARIAN COHORT. 

I. GRAciLARiADiE. — Larva with " Gracilarian " trophi in first 
two or more stages. Pupa Incompleta 1 to 4 abdo- 
minal fixed. 



164 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

1. Gracilarianae. — First two larval stages '* Gracilarian." 

a. Gracilaria. 

b. Coriscium (cundipennellum). 

c. Ornix. 

2. Lithocolletinse. — First three or more stages " Gracilarian " 

6 or 7 larval instars. 

a. Lithocolletis (European group). 

b. Cmneraria* (type, guttifinitella) . 

c. Leucanthiza {ostensackenella, Fitch). 

d. Acrocercops (type, hrongniardellum). 

3. Phyllocnistinse. — Three Gracilarian stages and 1 modified 

normal stage (4 larval instars). 
a. Phyllocnistis. 
II. Phyllobrostid^— Pupa does not leave puparium, but 5 and 
6 free, and 7 in c? (larva normal '?). 
1. Phyllobrostinae. 
a. Pliyllobrostis. 
III. Lyonetiad^. — Pupa immobile, fusion of parts feeble (larva 
normal). 

1. Leucopterinre. — Pupa with appendages shorter than 

abdomen, 
a. Leucoptera {Ccmiostoma). 

2. Lyonetianffi. — Appendages reach end of pupa, weakly 

fused, 
a. Lyonetia. 

3. Bedelliange. — Appendages to end of pupa, rather firmly 

fused. 
a. Bedellia. 
Somewhere else, and at a lower level, but not together — 
Bucculatrix. 
Tischeria. 

Bedellia is pupally very similar to Lyonetia, but has advanced 
to a much greater solidity and fixity of parts, sufficiently possibly 
to require that it should be placed in a separate subfamily. 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA.— No. 4 (Heteropteba). 
By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

1. Antilochus coqubbertii (Fabr.). — Kangra Valley, India, 
4500 ft. (G. C. Dudgeon). 

2. Dysdercus cingulatus (Fabr.). — Red form; Kangra Valley, 
as above. 

3. D. RUFicoLLis (Linn.). — Cura9ao (coUns. Sceldrayers and 

mine). 

''''■ "Of or belonging to Chambers," 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA. 



165 



4. D. suPERSTiTiosus (Fabr.). — South Africa; Transkei (G. 
C. Barrett). 

5. Nysius raphanus, W. R. Howard. — 1872, Phillips's 
* Southern Planter ' (sec. Kiley), and 1872, ' Country Gentle- 
man,' Sept. 15th (sec. Eiley), and ' Canad. Entom.' iv. p. 409. 
= N. destructor, Pdley, 1873, 'Fifth Missouri Eeport,' p. 113, 
fig. 41. . . 

Riley admits {I.e. p. Ill) that Howard's description was 
published before his own, and that the two names refer to the 
same species. 

6. Sephina vinula (Stul). — Jamaica (C._ B. Taylor). The 
ground colour of the two examples I possess is as red as that of 
S. maculata (Dallas) from the same island. _ This species has 
not, I believe, been recorded before from Jamaica. 

7. MORMIDEA MONTANDONI, Sp. n. 

This handsome little species combines the characters of the typical 
subgenus and Melanochila, Stal. It is separated from all the other 
described species (except M. liujens (Fabr.)) by the deflexed head and 
transversely callose-fasciate pronotum. From M. lugena it is dis- 
tinguished by the colour of the head and buccul^e, the general pictura- 
tion, and by the pronotal fascia being practically entire. 

Bronzy black ; tylus, lateral margins of head, anterior and lateral 
margins of pronotum, a submedian fascia and the latero-basal margin 
of the pronotum, the three sides of the scutellum, two lateral and a 
sublateral stripe on corium, clear pale yellow. Connexivum above and 
entire ventral surface (including antennae, bucculcB, and legs) dilute 
fusco-testaceous. Abdomen beneath with seven obscure, slightly 
darker, longitudinal stripes at subequal distances apart. _ Membrane 
bronzy fumate. Femora and tibite speckled with black, apical half of 
third and the fourth segment of antennae black, first and second more 
or less blackish. Head anteriorly somewhat deflexed ; rostrum reach- 
ing to posterior coxse, first segment to base of head. Antennas short, 
fourth segment about three-fifths longer than the third, which is 
slightly longer than the second, which is two-thirds longer than the 
first. Head, pronotum, scutehum, and elytra (except the subcallose 
or subreflexed pallid parts) strongly impresso-punctate (the outer corial 
stripe sometimes somewhat sparingly so). Pronotum a little before 
the middle with a callose, entire (or almost entire) transverse fascia. 
Pronotum antero-laterally obtusely denticulate, lateral angles acumi- 
nately spinose. Scutellum not callosely spotted. Pleura sparsely 
punctured. Apical angles of abdominal segments acute, somewhat 
prominent. Long. 7i-8i mill., lat. (across pronotal spines) 5|- 
5f mill. 

Hah. Ecuador, Ambato (collns. A. L. Montandon and mine). 
I have great pleasure in naming this well-marked species 
after my friend Mr. A. L. Montandon, our chief authority on some 
branches of the Cimicidse. 



166 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Gelastaspis, gen. nov. 

Closely allied to Ceratocoris, White, and more especially Libyaspis, 
Kirkaldy, but differs from them by the form of the head (at least in 
the males). 

Roundly convex. The upper surface, the head beneath, and the 
laminate parts of the sterna closely but irregularly punctured. Head 
horizontal, tylus small but distinct. Eyes small. Ocelli close to base 
of head. Buccul® very short, elevated, anteriorly not touching clypeus. 
Head (with eyes) narrower than the apical margin of the pronotum ; 
antennsB inserted a little nearer to the base of the rostrum than to the 
eyes. Head strongly callosely tuberculate between insertion of an- 
tennae and intero-basal part of head, and also callosely elevated between 
the former and the eyes. Apical margin of pronotum widely and 
minutely emarginate, briefly truncate in the middle. Pronotum strongly 
elevated posteriorly, sinuately impressed in the middle on the anterior 
margin, lateral margins rounded. Prosternum strongly and pro- 
foundly depressed between the true sterna and the expanded laminate 
parts. Mesosternum laminate laterally. Stink-orifices simple, elon- 
gate. Coxse almost contiguous. Spiracles at lateral margins of 
abdominal segments, not on connexivum. 

^ . Tylus very short, juga meeting in front of the eyes, and pro- 
duced somewhat overlappingly, about 3f times (or more) as long as 
tylus (to base of head) ; juga not forming a single curve together, the 
anterior margin of head being thus angularly emarginate in the 
middle. Antennte very short, second segment one-half longer than 
the first, which is subequal to the third, fourth one-seventh longer 
than third. Distance between an ocellus and the nearest eye about 
three times as great as between the ocelli. Fifth abdominal segment 
(Verhoeff's nomenclature) beneath apically acutely emarginate, nearly 
touching apex of fourth in the middle ; sixth beneath apically rotund- 
ately emarginate. 

? . Tylus more rounded, and shorter than in the male. From 
base of head to apex of tylus, scarcely shorter than the length of the 
juga in front of tylus. Eyes sessile. Second segment of antennas 
about equal in length to the first. Distance between an ocellus and 
the nearest eye about seven-twelfths greater than between the ocelli. 
Apical margin of fifth segment of abdomen beneath obtuse-angled 
emarginate, sixth rotundately emarginate. 

8. G. BRowNi, sp. nov. 

Above flavescent or flavo-testaceous, irregularly speckled, blotched, 
and marmorate with blackish brown. Beneath black ; the laminate 
parts flavescent, variegated as above. Antennte, rostrum, legs, &c., 
pale rufo-testaceous. Abdomen beneath laterally more or less pallid 
in wedges. First segment of -rostrum reaching to the middle of the 
prosternum, second to middle of mesosternum, third to middle of meta- 
sternum, fourth reaching beyond posterior coxge. Long. ^ 13-13J 
mill. ; ? 12 mill., lat. 9i mill,, 

Hab. British Central Africa, Mlanji, Thornwood Estate 
(Henry Brown). On coffee, in company with Antestia lineati- 



TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 167 

collis Stal {^^Aegaleus hechuana, Kirk.), Lihyaspis tvahlhergii 
(Stal), &c. Of the last named, there is at present only a single 
mangled male, without scutellum ; but I think the identification 
is correct. 

I have great pleasure in naming this species after its dis- 
coverer, Mr. Henry Brown. The difference of head-structure in 
the sexes will separate the genus from Lihyaspis, the only genus 
with which it can be confused. In G. hrowni, the length of the 
antennal segments, and of the head, &c., vary slightly ; while 
the amount of dark blotching is much less in one male than in 
the other. 

9. Amorgius cordofanus (Mayr, 1852, larva), {=^ niloticum, 
Stal, 1854).— Kangra Valley, 4500 ft. (G. C. Dudgeon). Oblig- 
ingly determined as niloticum by Mr. A. L. Montandon. 

10. My friend Mr. E. P. van Duzee considers {in litt.) that I 
have fallen into error in placing Liburnia as a synonym of 
Emholophpora (Entom. 1901, p. 340). On looking again into the 
matter, I quite agree with him that Emholophpora, 1853, is not 
synonymous with Lihurnia as understood by later authors. The 
five species included in Lihurnia by him in 1866 (Hem. Afric. iv. 
pp. 179-81), however, belong to at least three genera, and no type 
is stated. 



A LIST OF TORTEICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX 

BETWEEN 1885 AND 1901. 

By a. Thurnall. 

(Continued from p. 134.) 

Roxana arcuana, L. — This beautiful insect iisually occurs pretty 
freely wherever oak and bracken are growing together. I have still 
to learn how, where, and when the larva feeds, and upon which of 
these two very distantly related plants ! 

Euchromia purpurana, Haw. — Local, but occurs in several places, 
usually preferring rough uncultivated ground ; not often in good con- 
dition when captured. Larva on roots of dandelion and other allied 
composites in May. Warley, Thames Haven (sea wall), Upminster, 
&c. My darkest and largest specimens came from Wicken. 

Orthotmnia striana, Schiff. — Generally common in similar localities 
to the last ; I have met with it in all the localities where I have col- 
lected. Larva feeds in the "crown" of the dandelion and other 
composites. The female is not so readily obtained, and is very 
much smaller, 

0. (?) hranderiana, L. — I have taken this in three localities : Wan- 
stead (but not for some years), Ongar Park Woods, and in the 
neighbourhood of Colchester amongst aspen. 

0. ericetana. — This species surely ought to be found, but I am 
obliged to confess that I have never seen a specimen alive either in 
Essex or any other county ! 



168 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Eriopselx fractifasciana, Haw. — Rare and local ; two or three speci- 
mens were taken by me some years ago in an open space in Epping 
Forest, somewhat to my surprise. I have bred it in May from larv® 
taken at Box Hill the previous autumn, feeding underneath the radical 
leaves of Scahiosa columbaria. 

Phtheochroa riujosana, St. — Not uncommon, flying at dusk in early 
June along hedgerows, and generally worn. The larva is more com- 
monly met with in July and August, feeding in the fruit and shoots 
of Bryonia dioica. This insect should be killed at once, as it is usually 
very restless when boxed. 

Cnephasia musculana, Hb. — ^Common generally ; may be beaten, 
usually rather freely, in May from whitethorn and birch shrubs. 

Sciaphila nnbilana, Hb. — Often in swarms, the males only, round 
whitethorn and blackthorn (upon which the larva feeds in May). A 
species which soon gets worn, and is best bred, thereby ensuring a 
good set of females, which are not free fliers. 

S. cunsjiersana, Dougl. — Local, but occurs in a few localities on the 
coast ; I have not met with it inland. Near St. Osyth, near Bright- 
lingsea, and about fifteen years ago near Southend, on ground now 
covered with buildings, I believe. 

S. snbJL'ctana, St. — Swarming almost everywhere ; an old wooden 
fence skirting a dry meadow often finds a resting place for hundreds 
of this variable little moth. 

S. viryaureana, Tr. — Common, but not nearly so much so as the 
last species ; although commonly found with it at rest on fences, I 
have quite as often beaten it from oaks, &c. ; the shelter afforded by 
trees seems to be more acceptable to this insect than to snbjectana. 

S. pascaana, Hb.^Distributed, but much more uncommon than 
the last species. I have found it on fences in the Lea valley, and 
bred it from larvae found at Stanford-le-Hope in spun-together tops of 
milfoil. A very curious form of this insect occurs only in the salt 
marshes ; pale yellowish, or straw colour, would roughly describe it. 
I have bred this from a folded leaf of Aster tripuliuvi. 

S. chrysanthcana, Dup. — Not common, but has occurred in many 
places. Near Upminster, Harold Wood, Warley, Leyton Marshes, 
may be mentioned. I found this larva on two occasions — the first 
week in June, 1890, and 1891, at Harold Wood, feeding on the leaves 
of Tussilayo farfara, in some cases turning down a lobe of the leaf, 
and in others puckering the leaf by partly drawing two portions 
together with silk. Of course, I expected some common Pyrale to 
appear, possibly luteaUs, and I was greatly surprised when this insect 
came out. About eight were bred. 

S. dnaana, St. — Local, as, indeed, it seems to be everywhere. I 
have only taken it near Brentwood ; a single male at rest on an oak, 
but a fair number of larvae taken on what I expect is its only food- 
plant — viz. the spun-together flower-heads of the wild hyacinth [Scilla 
nutans). Eleven were bred this summer, and thirteen last year (1900). 
Some of the females are very fine. 

S.{?) hybridana, Rh. — Fairly common; frequently found amongst 
elm bushes and blackthorns, on one or both of which I expect the 
larva feeds, but many hours have been spent in vain looking for it ! 
I once bred a single specimen from a pupa spun up in a composite 



TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 169 

flower, but I am inclined to think that the larva had merely gone 
there to pupate. 

S. ictericana, Haw. — Very common throughout, often a nuisance 
when collecting at dusk. The larva is polyphagous. Lychnis, Senccio 
(three species), and Aster tripolium may be mentioned as common 
food-plants. 

Capua favillaceana, Hb. — A true wood insect, common in many 
places ; Epping Forest, Brentwood and Warley, Ingatestoue, Upmin- 
ster, &c. I have never met with the larva, but should imagine oak or 
hornbeam to be likely foods. 

Bactra lanceolana, Hb. — Common in boggy places throughout, and 
in great variety. The larva may be found well on in May, feeding 
and afterwards pupating in the stems of Juncus conglomcratus. 

B.furfurana, Haw. — Excessively local. I have only met with it 
in the marshes bordering the Eiver Lea near Lea Bridge. Early in 
June it may be disturbed from its food-plant, Eleocharis palustris, in 
the stems of which it feeds and pupates. Its habits in all stages are 
exactly similar to lanceolana. I bred this species — for the first time 
in England, I believe — in 1894. 

Phoxopteryx sicnlana, Hb. — Eare and local. One or two worn 
specimens beaten from Rhammis near Brentwood. Mr. Harwood 
takes it more freely near Colchester, I believe. 

P. tmcana. — Pretty generally amongst ling and birch shrubs. 
Loughton, Epping, Warley, and several other heathy places. 

P. myrtillana, — Hardly an insect one would expect to find in 
South Essex. Nevertheless I took a fine male at Temple Mills, near 
Stratford, near the railway sidings (June 22nd, 1890). I fancy it 
must have been conveyed from Yorkshire by one of the numerous 
goods-trains which run between Doncaster and London on the Great 
Eastern Railway. 

P. Imulana, Fb. — Not very common, but widely distributed. Double 
brooded. I have taken it near Stanford, Harold Wood railway bank, 
Loughton (rarely), Upminster, &c. 

P. mitterpacheriana, Schiff. — Common generally amongst oak and 
beech, in the folded leaves of which trees the larva feeds in the 
autumn, pupating therein in the spring. A very beautiful species 
when fresh from the pupa. 

P. upupana, H. S. — Scarce and local. Near Loughton, Warley, 
and near lugatestone, always among birch shrubs, the food-plant of 
the larva. 

P. lactana, Fb. — Another local species. I have found it not rarely 
in woods near Warley and Childerditch, also in Ongar Park Woods 
among aspens. 

Grapholitha paykulliana, D. L. — Common amongst birch, the larva 
feeding in the catkins in the spring. 

G. nisella, Clerck. — Fairly common, and very variable ; on aspen 
trunks only (I have never found it on sallow). The named vars. all 
occur. Wanstead, near Loughton, Ongar, &c. 

(To be continued.) 



ENTOM. — JUNE, 1902. 



170 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The National Collection of British Lepidoptera. — As this col- 
lection in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington is now 
being rearranged, revised, and augmented, a convenient opportunity is 
afforded for making it what we all wish it to be, that is, thoroughly 
representative of the Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 

One very important improvement would be the addition, in as much 
detail as possible, of the early stages of each species. It is hardly to 
be hoped, however, that this desirable end could be attained in any 
way approaching completeness without the assistance of the entomo- 
logical public. We therefore venture to ask our readers to help the 
Museum to effect this useful work by contributing whatever material, 
either living or preserved, that they may have to spare. There are 
already larvae and pup^e of a few species in the collection, but all the 
examples are not good, so that gifts of ova, larv^ and pup^e of any 
species would be acceptable. Lists of presentations, with names of 
donors, will be pubhshed in this Journal each month. 

Hepialus humuli var. thulensis, Newman. — In these days of 
priority names, why should not justice be done to the distinguished 
first editor of the ' Entomologist ' ? Mr. Newman first named the 
Shetland form of H. humuli (Entom. ii. 162), and his name was 
accepted by Mr. Crotch in the same vol. p. 176. I often wonder why 
Mr. Jenner Weir, in the ' Entomologist,' vol. xiii. p. 250 (plate of 
H. humuli vars.), adopted the name hethlandica, Stgr., 1871, in pre- 
ference to thulioisis, Newman, 1865. — C. W. Dale ; Glanvilles Wootton. 
May 5th, 1902. 

[See also Entom. xxvi. 100 ; and Stand. Cat. (3), i. 410.— Ed,] 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

New Forest Notes (1902). — The last week in April this year was 
spent in the New Forest. We were favoured with wonderfully tine 
weather on the whole, but, though fine, a strong east wind prevailed, 
which was very bad for collecting. Treacle was tried on two occasions, 
but, except for a very few Cerastis vaccinii, and a large army of beetles 
and earwigs, nothing was attracted. Blackthorn blossom, of which 
there was plenty, was a trifle better, but very little. A few each of 
C. vaccinii, Tccniocampa cruda (worn), T. stabilis (worn), and T. gothica 
(in fine condition) were observed at the blossom, with single examples 
of Trachea piniperda, Xylina socia, Scopelosoma satellitia, Ant idea ba- 
diata, A. nigrofasciaria (derivata), and Hyhcrnia marginaria (worn). 
Eupithecia abhreviata common. , On the wing the following additions 
were made : — Pachnobia rubricosa (one, in good condition), Ligdia 
adustata (one), Selenia illunaria (three males), S. tetralunaria (one male, 
unfortunately badly damaged), and Anticlea nigrofaaciaria (one). 

Day-work was none too good either. Butterflies were in fair 
numbers, especially the hybernated species. Gonepteryx rhamni was 
much in evidence, both sexes being well represented. Vanessa poly - 
chloros, common. V. io, five examples seen, the two specimens netted 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 171 

being in wonderfully good condition. F. tirticcB, a few. Of the spring 
butterflies, Pararge egeria was the commonest, but though so freshly 
emerged, a good number had the wings torn. Pieris rapcc occurred 
sparingly, as did Cijanirls [LyccBna) argiolus, and Mr. Lucas took 
SgrichtJiHS malvcB. 

By far the most interesting moth was Boarmia cinctaria, and the 
nice series obtained made up for any disappointment in other respects. 
It was certainly no easy work to get B. cinctaria, but three visits to 
Holmsley rewarded us with about three dozen specimens. Why this 
moth refuses to rest on the trees when they grow closely together is 
incomprehensible to me, but this certainly seems to be the case, for 
most of the examples taken were on the medium-sized stunted Scotch 
firs in the most boggy parts of the heath. On one occasion four moths 
were found on one tree, and this after more than an hour's searching 
without finding one. The darker-coloured moths seem to be the best 
protected, the light ones being frequently discernible at a considerable 
distance. About three-fourths of the moths taken were males. Some 
of the females were kept in chip-boxes, and deposited their eggs 
beneath the rough wood of the box, or between the rim of the lid and 
the outside of the box. In a natural state one would suppose that the 
ova are deposited in the crevices of the bark of the fir-trunks. Has it 
been observed whether they are deposited thus or on the food-plant ? 
Besides the Holmsley specimens, two males were taken not far from 
Denny Lodge, one from a birch trunk. 

Two examples of a Tephrosia, which I suppose would be T. ere- 
piiscularia, were taken from fir trunks. Ematurga atomaria and Bupalus 
piyiiaria were just coming out, and Bapta taminata (bimaculata) and 
Panagra petraria were taken singly, whilst a few fine examples oiAnticlea 
nigrofasciaria were also obtained. Five species of Eupithecia were 
noted. Two nice specimens of the pretty and local E. irriguata were 
the best. E. abbreviata was common almost everywhere. Ej. pumilata 
was also fairly common, whilst E. coronata and E. nanata were each 
singly represented, the former being taken in the ' Rose and Crown ' 
'bus. Xglina socia was taken from a post. Xglocampa lithoriza was in 
fair numbers, but poor condition. 

Turning to the larvse, my father worked pretty hard with the 
beating- stick, and met with a fair amount of success, the following 
being obtained : — Gnophria quadra (two, very small), Nola strigula 
(one), N. cueuUatella, Halias bicolorana (two), Bombyx quercm (one), 
Porthesia similis, Miselia oxyacantlm (the commonest larva), Catocala 
sponsa (one), Triphmna fimbria [I ), Metrocanipa margaritaria, Ellopia 
fasciaria (prosapiaria), fhera variata, T. firmata{.^), Oporabia diliitata, 
Rumia cratcegata, Scodiona helgiaria [?), Cleora lichenaria (about two 
dozen, some nearly full-grown). On the last morning a long search 
for the larva of Limenitis sibglla was well rewarded, as we took twenty- 
nine between us. The small brown larva was discovered on the 
brown stick of the honeysuckle just below the green shoot, generally 
rather low down in the bush in sheltered positions. Mr. Lucas found 
two on the green leaves, where they are fairly conspicuous, but on the 
brown stick they were splendidly protected. 

It was rather early for dragonflies, but three female Pyrrhosoma 
nymphula were observed, and also a quite freshly emerged Libellula 



172 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

depressa, resting on a grass-stem with the old nymph-case just below it. 
The nymphs of this species were in some numbers in the same pond. 

A few Coleoptera were taken at odd moments, and Mr. S. W. Kemp 
kindly sent me the following list of species obtained : — Pterostichus 
striola (F.), Druiuius q^iadrimacnlatus (L.), Deronectes deprcssus (F.), 
Staphylmus casareus (Cover.), found under stones and turf, Anatis 
ocellata (L.), Coccinella septempunctataijj.), Byrrhus 2}ilula (h.), FiluKjmm 
bifasciatnm (F.), Helops stiiatus (Fourc), Scyninus suturalis (Thunb.), 
Hylobius abietis (L.), Ehynchites ceneo-irreus (Marsh.), R. pauxillus 
(Germ.), Apionmmiatum (Germ.), Balanimts villosus (F.), and Geotrupes 
typh(sns (L.). 

Cicindela campestris was seen commonly on the heaths, flying and 
running in the sunshine. Two species of Hemiptera also sent to 
Mr. Kemp were identified by him as Podlsus luridus and Acanthosoma 
griseum.—F. M.B. Carr; 46, Handen Road, Lee, S.E., May 6th, 1902. 

Sphinx convolvuli in 1901. — In the 'Entomologist' for August, 
1901, I recorded that Mr. Pestell, of Elstow, near Bedford, captured 
four specimens of S. convolvuli at honeysuckle on June 30th and 
July 2nd, 10th, and 11th. Mr. Pestell received from field-labourers 
two larvffi of S. convolv^di on August 16th, which pupated on August 
22nd ; one on August 28th, which pupated on September 2nd ; two 
larvae on September 7th, which pupated on 12th ; one on September 
14th, which pupated on the 16th. All these larvfe were found feeding 
on the scarlet runner, or french-bean. On October 4th he received a 
pupa which was found in a potato patch. These pupae all failed to 
emerge, and are now dead. It appears to me to be probable that the 
specimens caught at midsummer were hybernated, and that these laid 
the eggs which produced the larvffi found in August and September. — 
W. GiFFORD Nash ; Bedford. 

Sphinx convolvuli on Dartmoor in 1901. — At Yelverton, South 
Devon, at an elevation of about 800 feet, on the edge of Dartmoor, I 
captured, at tobacco flowers, two specimens of (S'. convolvuli on August 
20th, two on 25th, one on 26th, and one on 28th. Many specimens 
were seen by others after I left the neighbourhood on August 31st. — 
W. GiFFORD Nash ; Bedford. 

NoTODONTA CARMELITA IN SouTH OF SCOTLAND. — I was greatly Sur- 
prised to find on April 19th last that a female specimen of xV. carmelita 
had emerged in one of my breeding pots, which contained pupfe from 
larvfB collected in this locality during the last week in July and first 
week in August, 1901. The larva; were collected from birch and 
black poplar. I knew that I had dictwa, dicttmides, dromedarins, and 
ziczac among those larva3, but never suspected that I had carmelita. — 
J. C. Haggart ; Galashiels, N.B., May Brd, 1902. 

Plusia moneta Larvae at Farnborough (Kent) and Neighbourhood. 
— Last season I had the good fortune to capture some imagines of this 
species at Bromley Common {ante, Entom. July, 1901). There is a 
considerable quantity of its food-plant in the neighbourhood [Aconitum 
and Delphinium), so this year I resolved to look for the larva?. A 
diligent search (mostly on private ground) resulted in the capture of 
a good number, spun up in bunches of terminal leaves, undergoing 



SOCIETIES. 173 

their last moult. A friend of mine has also found two in his garden 
at Tooting, S.W. — A. J. Lawrance ; 65, Malyon Road, Ladywell, 
S.E., May 19th, 1902. 

Larv^ in Durham. — This year has been one of the most successful 
years for larvae I have had. We have taken within a very few miles 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne about fifty larvae of Triphana fimbria, one hundred 
of Argijnnis eiiphyosijne, eighty of Eupithecia tcnuiata, and one of A. 
selene. These figures are rather remarkable, for the local records say 
that A. euphnmjne is disappearing from this district, and similarly with 
A. selene. We obtained larvae of the two Argynnids mentioned in about 
two hours, for we only sought one day. — J. W. Harrison; 1, Craig 
Street, Birtley, R.S.O., Durham, May 19th, 1902. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — April IGth, 1902. — The Rev. 
Canon Fowler, M.A., D. Sc, F.L.S., President, in the chair. — Mr. 
James Roland Charnley, of Howick House, Howick, near Preston, 
Lancashire ; and Mr. A. T. Gillanders, of Park Cottage, Alnwick, 
were elected Fellows of the Society.— Mr. 0. E. Janson exhibited 
specimens of both sexes of Ornithoptera victoria, from Ysabel, Solomon 
Islands, recently taken by Mr. Albert Meek ; and remarked on the 
variation in the colour and markings in the males. — Mr. H. W. 
Shepheard-Walwyn exhibited variations of EucJwlia jacolxBcc taken by 
him at Winchester in July, 1889. — Mr. Willoughby Gardner exhibited 
Ccelioxys mandibnlaris, Nyl., from the Cheshire coast, a species new to 
Britain ; and Osmia xanthomelana, male and female, and Osmia parie- 
tina. Curt., male and female, from North Wales. — Mr. A. J. Chitty 
exhibited a specimen of Aglais urticcR taken at sallow on March 28th, 
having a large portion of the hind wings cut off, so that when folded 
they were symmetrical in outline. From their appearance he con- 
cluded they had been bitten off by some animal, probably during 
hybernation. — Dr. T. A. Chapman called attention to the remarkable 
bilateral asymmetry in the male appendages of the Hemarid Sphinx, 
Cephonodus hylas, Linn. He said that bilateral asymmetry in insects 
was sufBciently rare to make it always notable. In the male apo- 
physes of Lepidoptera he had only been able to find records in the 
case of the Hesperid genus Thanaos, to which Scudder and Burgess 
first called attention — though it seems highly probable that the facts 
can hardly have been unobserved in so common a species as C\ hylas. 
In hylas the right clasp is larger, rounded, but very imperfectly articu- 
lated to the base, so as to be capable of very little movement, other- 
wise, and compared with other Hemarid genitalia, one would call this 
the normal clasp. The left clasp looks at first as though it had been 
the same as the right, but had met with some accident that had 
removed a large terminal disc, leaving two lateral cusps. It is shorter 
than the right as about three to five, and the arrangement of bristles 
and spines is quite different to that on the right, if it is indeed possible 
to compare these very different forms. It is much more movable 
than the right clasp. The arrangement suggests that it is intended to 



174 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

facilitate a lateral, instead of a medial approach in the capture of the 
female. The upper appendage or tegument is also twisted, so as no 
doubt to correspond with the obliqueness of the whole appendage, as 
most definitely seen in the clasps. Dr. Chapman also exhibited speci- 
mens removed from the insect, and also of the several parts, as well 
as a rough sketch of the clasps and tegumen. — Mr. C. P. Pickett ex- 
hibited Hyhernia leucnplucurid taken during March at Chingford, High- 
gate, and Pinchley, including the ordinary mottled, the black and 
white banded, and six very deep chocolate-coloured forms, one uni- 
colorous. He also showed series of Phir/alia pedaria, Anisoptenjx ascu- 
laria, and Nyssia hispidaria, from the North Metropolitan district. — 
Mr. H. J. Turner, on behalf of Mr. W. West, of Greenwich, exhibited 
specimens, males and females of Stictocoris flaveola, Bohm., a species 
new to the British fauna, found amongst long grass in damp places at 
Lee, Kidbrook, and Shooter's Hill. He also exhibited several speci- 
mens of Typhlocyba candidula, Kir., a species first discovered by Mr. 
West at Lewisham and Blackheath on Populm alba, and remarked 
that it was interesting to find two quite new species occurring in the 
district so well worked by Douglas and others in years past. — Dr. D. 
Sharp, F.R.S., communicated a paper by Miss Alice L. Embleton, 
B.Sc, entitled " On the Economic Importance of the Parasites of 
CoccidfB." — Colonel Charles Swinhoe, M.A., F.L.S., read a paper 
entitled " Eastern and Australian Drepanulidfe, EpiplemidtB, Micro- 
niidfB, and Geometridfe in the British Museum Collection." Mr. 
William F. Kirby, F.L.S., contributed a paper entitled " Additional 
Notes on Mr. Distant's Collection of African Locustidre." — H. Rowland- 
Brown, Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
March 21th, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair.— Mr. 
Stanley Edwards exhibited (1) very fine specimens of Ornithoptera, 
0. hormanni, 0. naias, and 0. criton, from the Malay Peninsula, and a 
male of the rare 0. plateni, from New Guinea; also a large collection of 
Hemiptera-Heteroptera from all parts of the world, comprising seven- 
teen genera and eighty-five species. 

April 10th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Main exhibited a 
twig of hawthorn from the New Forest, having a large batch of ova of 
Eriogaster lanestris, and remarked on the curious spiral arrangement 
of the eggs. — The Rev. F. P. Perry, a large number of specimens col- 
lected during a short residence in South Africa, including a large and 
conspicuous ant-lion, several species of cockroach, clusters of Mantis 
eggs from the gum-trees, numerous species of Coleoptera — especially 
Longicorns — and a very large species of the Hemiptera. He specially 
pointed out a large beetle which had powerful stridulatory organs at 
the back of the pronotum. — Mr. Moore, some ten species of exotic 
Blattodea, including Blahera gigantca. — Mr. Kemp, a macropterous 
example of IJydrowctra stagnoritni from Mitcham. — Mr. Hewitt and 
Mr. Nottle, long bred series of Nyssia hispidaria and Amphidnsys 
strataria, both from Epping Forest parents ; and a number of Phigalia 
pedaria from West Wickham. — Mr. Edwards, a collection of Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera mainly from South America, and a number of species of 
the genus Charaxes, including several fine examples of C. jasius. — Mr. 



SOCIETIES. 175 

Lucas, specimens of Kriocrania suhpitrpurella, which he stated was now 
common at Oxshott on fences. — Mr. Clark, microscopic slides showing 
details of structure of Corixa striata, On/i/ia antiqua, &c. — Dr. Chap- 
man, specimens of Pueslerstdvimia erxlebella bred from larvfe beaten by 
Mr. F. M. B. Carr at Oxshott on birch ; he also gave notes on its 
habits and occurrence, and made remarks on the spelling of its specific 
name. — Mr. South, a curious banded form of Acidalia marline punctata, 
from the hills round Clevedon, and a large number of species of British 
and Eastern Asian Lepidoptera, the latter to illustrate his paper en- 
titled " Some British species of Lepidoptera and their Geographical 
Distribution." — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Eep. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — Ajrril 21st. — Mr. G. T. 
Bethune-Baker, Vice-President, in the chair.— Mr. E. C. Bradley showed 
the following species of Aculeate Hymenoptera from Wyre Forest : — 
Pompilus ciiictellus, Agenia Jdrcana, Pseudagejiia punctiun, and Stelis 
aterrima, all being new to the district. — Mr. C. J. Wainwright, a small 
collection of Diptera made by Dr. T. A. Chapman in Spain last year, 
chiefly in the Sierra Albarracin. Amongst the most interesting were 
Volucella elegans (originally described from Spain), Physocephala chrysor- 
rhcea, Antlirax velutina, Si/stcBchiis leucopliaus, Hulopogon clavipes, Cyrtus 
gibbus, and a series of a species of Tachinid of the Plagia group, which had 
been bred from Albarracina kurbi, and appears to be quite new and very 
distinct. — Mr. W. H. Flint, a long series of Brephos notha, taken in 
the Forest of Dean last Easter Tuesday. The species was quite 
common, flying chiefly round the aspens, and he noticed that they did 
not appear to come to sallow blossom at all as B. parthenias does. — 
Mr. Bethune-Baker, a number of LycffinidiB from South Africa, of 
unusual colours and patterns for the family. — Mr. W. H. Flint gave an 
account of the wiugs of Lepidoptera, their structure, development, &c. 

Correction. — The Apamea testacea mentioned in last report {ante, 
p. 150) were from Moseley, and not from Wyre Forest as there stated 
in error. — Colbran J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The usual 
monthly meeting was held on April 14th, in the Royal Institution. Dr. 
J. W. Ellis, F.E.S., occupied the chair. — The following gentlemen 
were elected members of the Society : — Mr. Hy. Champ (Manchester), 
Mr. Benjamin Jones (Levenshulme), Mr. W. Baeper (Levenshulme), 
and Mr. J. T. Wardley (Knotty Ash). Mr. R. Wilding proposed that the 
evening meetings be adjourned until October next ; Mr. Webster 
seconded, and it was carried. — Mr. Wilding further proposed that a 
field meeting be held in the summer, the arrangements to be made by 
the secretaries ; Mr. Pierce seconded, and it was carried unanimously. 
Mr. F. N. Pierce, F.E.S., read a paper on the British Pulicidte, which 
was communicated by Mr. G. C. Biguell, F.E.S., and was well illus- 
trated by the micro-lantern. — The following exhibits were examined : — 
A small collection of Coccidro, by Mr. R. Newstead ; micro-slides of 
Pulicid^e, by Mr. Pierce ; Biston kirtarla, by Mr. W. A. Tyerman ; 
Coleoptera from Mossley Hill, by Mr. G. A. Dunlop ; Coleoptera, in- 
cluding species new to the district, by Mr. Wilding ; and Cgmatophora 
Jiavicornis mounted in the natural position on a branch of the food- 
plant [Betula alba), by Mr. Fred. Birch. — Fred. Birch, Joint Hon. Sec. 



176 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

RECENT LITERATUEE. 

H. KoLBE, " Garfcenfeinde und Gartenfreunde, die fiir den Gartenbau 
schadlicben und niitzlichen Lebewesen." Gartenbau Bibliotek, 
Band 34-36 ; pp. 1-320, and 76 text figures. Karl Siegisniund, 
Berlin (preface dated June, 1901). 

This useful little book may be compared best, perhaps, with Dr. 
John B. Smith's ' Economic Entomology ' (1896), The arrangement, 
however, is quite different, the present work discussing the pests under 
the heading of their food-plants, instead of in systematic order. 

After an introduction upon the structure of the insect frame, and 
an account of the principal economic orders and families, with analy- 
tical tables for their further identification, preventive measures and 
remedies are briefly discussed. The more important plants are next 
considered, with an account under each of their various pests, viz. 
divers fruit-trees, strawberries, vegetables, and ornamental shrubs ; a 
considerable amount of otherwise scattered information is here gathered 
together. The second part deals with the gardener's friends — beasts, 
birds, ichneumon-flies and others. 

The author's name is a guarantee of the accuracy of the entomo- 
logy, while the illustrations, most of which are from the pencil of 
Dr. Riibsaamen, are clear and well-selected. The book is plainly but 
substantially "got up," and the printing (which is in the German 
character) is wonderfully clear. q -^ j^ 



A. D. Michael, " British Tyroglyphidfe," vol. i. pp. v and 291 ; 
19 partly coloured plates (Ray Society, 1901). 

A COMPANION volume to the author's " Oribatidte," and deals with 
the Acari of which the " Cheesemites" are the type. 

This first volume contains a history of the literature ; criticism on 
recent classifications of the Acarina ; followed by detailed accounts of 
the anatomy and development, and a systematic account of a portion of 
the family. In the forthcoming second volume we are promised the con- 
tinuation of the systematic account and a bibliography of the literature. 

Although so minute — one thirtieth of an inch being the length of 
a very large species — the Tyroglyphidfe are of considerable importance. 
The number of known species is very few, some fifty being recognized, 
and these mostly very widely distributed ; yet many of them " swarm 
in such countless myriads . . . that the mind shrinks from any 
attempt to estimate their numbers, even in a small space." They are 
enormously destructive to cheese, flour, hay, and druggists' stores ; 
sound healthy bulbs as well as rotten ones, and dried fruits, attest their 
ravaging powers. Biologically, however, the Tyroglyphidse are spe- 
cially remarkable for the possession of a " Hijpopus-sta,ge." The 
" Hypo pi " are heteromorphous — comparatively rarely occurring — 
nymphs (of both sexes) which are not true parasites, but only attach 
themselves to any suitable moving creature for purposes of transit. 
This Hypopiis-stsige was for long an enigma, but was elucidated by the 
author in 1885, and is now fully discussed in the sixth chapter. We 
must not omit mention of the nineteen plates containing 241 beautiful 
drawings by the author, of which forty-five are coloured. They are 
beyond all praise. G_ w. K. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.] JULY, 1902. [No. 470. 



ADDITIONS TO THE FAUNA OP MEXICO (BEEB AND 

COCCID^). 

By T. D. a. Cockerell. 

Prof. C. H. T. Townsend has this year been exploring parts 
of the State of Chihuahua, and has brought to light the following 
forms, new to the Mexican fauna. 

Apoidea. 

Melissodes tristis malvina, n. subsp. — (? . Similar to M. 
tristis, but smaller (length about 8j mm.) ; eyes dark brown 
(pale greenish or greyish in tristis) ; antennse with the flagellum 
dark reddish l)eneath (bright ferruginous in tristis) ; nervures of 
wings mostly piceous (ferruginous in tristis) ; pygidial plate 
narrower ; otherwise as in tristis. The clypeus, labrum, and 
mandibles are black, as in tristis. 

Hah. Cerro Chilicote, State of Chihuahua, Mexico, at mouth 
of caiion on south side, March 22nd, 1902, at flowers of a species 
of Malvaceae, apparently one of the purple species of Sidalcea. 
Collected by C. H. T. Townsend. 

The following table separates the males of Melissodes in 
which the clypeus is black : — 

Antennae reaching far beyond thorax ..... 1. 

Antennje not reaching beyond thorax ..... 3. 

1. Mesothorax with much black hair. (Calif.) . personatella, Ckll. 
Mesothorax without black hair ..... 2. 

2. Larger, length about 10 mm. (New Mexico) . . tristis, Ckll. 
Smaller, length about 8| mm. ; differing also as described 

above ........ malvina, Ckll. 

3. Antennge scarcely reaching to scutellum ; abdomen with- 

out bands. (Texas) intorta, Cr. 

Antennae reaching to metathorax ; abdomen banded . 4. 

4. Antennae black, mandibles without a yellow spot. (Oaxaca, 

Mexico) ........ a^siniilis, Sm. 

Flagellum bright ferruginous beneath, mandibles with a 

large yellow spot. (Sta. Fe, New Mexico) sijlmralceoi, Ckll. 

ENTOM. — JULY, 1902. P 



178 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Agajwstemon texanus, Cresson. — ? . Bluer than usual. Cerro 
Chilicote, April 3rd, on flowers of some species of Compositae 
(Townsend). Although this species is now first recorded from 
Mexico, its occurrence in the State of Chihuahua could have 
been predicted with certainty, as it is very common in the 
adjacent parts of the United States. 

CocciD^. 

Tachardia cornuta, Ckll. — Cerro Chilicote, at mouth of caiion 
on south side, March 22nd, on a bushy composite plant called 
Salvilla by the Mexicans (Townsend). The specimens are more 
irregular than the original types. This makes the sixth lac- 
insect from Mexico. 

Lecaniodiasjns rufescens (Ckll.). — Cerro del Chile, east base in 
Arroyos, on green spiny shrub, March 26th, 1902 (Townsend). 

Eidecanium rohinice (Townsend). — Cerro Chilicote, April 10th, 
on ash (?) and Rhus (?). Collected by Townsend. This is a 
shiny dark ferruginous convex scale ; rugose, more or less pitted, 
and covered with a waxy secretion at the sides. Length 6, 
breadth 4, height 3|^ to 4 mm. I have been doubtful whether to 
regard it as veritable rohinice, and conclude for the present^ to 
designate it as a new variety — suhsimile — agreeing with I'obinice 
in the general form and appearance of the scale, the character 
of the skin and the dimensions of the legs, but differing in having 
the antennae 8-jointed (7-jointed in rohinue) and the eggs white 
(pink in rohinice). The antennae and legs of suhsimile measure as 
follows in /x : — 

Antennal joints: (1) 30-36, (2) 30-36, (3) 45-48, (4) 44-48, 

(5) 18-20, (6) 20-21, (7) 18, (8) 28-30. 
Legs : femur and trochanter, 135-138 ; tibia, 96-102 ; tarsus, 

66-75. 

The scale is narrower and more shiny than specimens referred 
to E. rohinice, which I lately collected at Tempe, Arizona, on 
osage-orange. The Tempe insect has the antennae 7-jointed, 
measuring as follows:— (1) 33, (2) 30-36, (3) 42, (4) 33-42, 
(5) 18, (6) 15-16, (7) 30-38. 

It seems that E. rohinice and its varieties (or closely allied 
species ?) are almost certainly natives of the south-west, and are 
not identical with E. rohiniarum (Douglas), as has been supposed. 
The exact classification of these forms is a matter of difficulty ; 
we need more material from different plants and localities, and 
a knowledge of the early stages and males. 

East Las Vegas, New Mexico, U.S.A. 
April 17th, 1902. 



179 



ON SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENO- 
PTERA (ICHNEUMONID^, CHRYSIDID^, FOSSORES, 

AND AFIDM). 

By p. Cameron. 

ICHNEUMONID^. 
(Continued from p. 111.) 

Habrojoppa, gen. nov. 

AntennsB dilated aud compressed beyond the middle ; the apex 
attenuated. Eyes small, reaching to the middle of the face, the malar 
space being large ; they are parallel on the inner side. Occiput mar- 
gined. Clypeus not separated from the face by a suture. Labrum 
hidden. Mandibles with two equal teeth on the apex. Mesonotum 
reticulated, without furrows. Scutellura stoutly keeled laterally ; its 
apex incised. Median segment reticulated; the basal and central 
arete only are defined ; the sph-acles linear. Areolet much narrowed 
at the top ; the transverse cubital nervures almost meeting there ; it 
is angled below, and receives the recurrent nervure near the middle ; 
the transverse median nervure is received shortly beyond the trans- 
verse basal on the outer side. Legs normal ; the claws simple. Petiole 
long and slender, dilated at the apex ; the spiracles are placed near 
the apex of the basal fourth. Gastrocoeli large, deep. There are seven 
segments ; the last three are smaller than the others, and form a sharp 
point ; the ovipositor hidden ; the ventral fold only extends to the apex 
of the second segment ; the last ventral segment is large, entire, 
broadly rounded at the apex ; its base extends to the base of the 
penultimate dorsal, and does not extend to the apex of the last dorsal ; 
there are only six ventral segments in the female. The apex of the 
hinder femora reaches to the base of the fourth segment. 

From Charitojoppa it may be known by its more slender 
form, by the scutellum not being pyramidal, by the petiole being 
more slender, and not broadly dilated at the apex. In the form 
of the scutellum it more resembles Magrettia* but it wants the 
coxal spine, the pronotum is not incised behind, and the second 
and third segments are longitudinally striated ; the petiole is 
more slender towards the apex, and longer, more as in Ichneumon 
than as in Platyuri. 

Habrojoppa rufo-petiolata, sp. nov. 

Cserulea ; abdomine albo annulato, basi rufo ; pedibus rufis, tarsis 
posticis nigris ; alis fusco-hyalinis. ? . Long. 12 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Kothney). 

Antenna black, the eighth to the thirteenth joints white, the 
apical joints compressed, fuscous. Head shining, blue, the face and 

■''■ Magrettia, I find, is preoccupied in Orthoptera. I now propose the 
name of Xenojoppa for it. 

p2 



180 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



clypeus sparsely punctured ; sparsely covered with short fuscous hair ; 
the inner orbits from near the base to opposite the lower ocellus, a 
2nark on the side of the clypeus, the base of the mandibles broadly, 
and the palpi yellow. The clypeus not separated from the face by a 
suture, nor foveate. Mesonotum coarsely reticulated; the sides de- 
pressed, crenulated ; there is a smooth furrow on either side from 
nearly opposite the base of the tegulte to the apex. Scutellum smooth, 
impunctate, its sides keeled ; at its base is a large, deep, smooth, 
slightly curved depression ; from shortly behind the middle to near the 
apex it is pallid yellow. The areola is longer than broad ; becomes 
slightly and gradually wider to beyond the middle, then becomes 
gradually narrower ; its base is rough ; in the middle at the apex is a 
stout longitudinal keel ; the posterior median area is stoutly trans- 
versely striolated ; the spiracular area behind the spiracles is finely 
rugose, in front of them stoutly transversely striolated. The base of 
the pronotum has a few curved strife ; above, at the apex, it is 
irregularly stoutly striolated ; the lower side is stoutly obliquely 
striolated ; the upper part of the mesopleurae and the apex with a few 
stout irregular keels ; the rest closely and coarsely punctured, almost 
reticulated ; the upper part of the metapleurse at the base coarsely 
aciculated ; the middle at the base with fine stout curved keels ; the 
rest closely and stoutly reticulated. Mesosternum closely punctured ; 
the furrow large, wide and triangular at the apex. Legs ferruginous, 
the fore coxre paler at the base ; the apex of the hinder tibiae and the 
tarsi black ; the latter spinose beneath. The areolet is narrowed at 
the top, but the nervures do not touch ; the recurrent nervure is 
received almost in the middle of the areolet. The petiole is ferru- 
ginous, yellow at the apex, cariuate down the middle, and striated on 
the base of the dilated part ; the second, third, and fourth segments 
are blue ; the second and third closely punctured, the others smooth ; 
the second acutely striated in the middle between the gastrocceh, which 
are striated at the base, their apex smooth and brownish ; the apical 
segments are for the greater part yellowish, 

HoLcojoppA, gen. nov. 

Abdominal segments strongly constricted at the base, and clearly 
separated ; the constrictions deep and closely longitudinally striated ; 
the segments longitudinally striated, and broadly depressed laterally ; 
the petiole raised in the middle, and bearing there two longitudinal 
keels ; there are seven segments ; the last is small and has stout 
cerci. Scutellum conical, large, distinctly raised above the level of the 
mesonotum ; its basal slope is steep, its apical long and gradually 
sloped from the top to the apex. Post-scutellum smooth, bifoveate at 
the base, and with a deep depression on either side. The median seg- 
ment is widely and deeply obliquely depressed at the base ; the areola 
is represented by a smooth tubercle ; there are three large are* on the 
apical slope ; the spiracular area being also defined ; there are no 
spines. Wings larger than usual ; the apex of the abdomen does not 
reach to the areolet when folded against it ; the areolet is large, five- 
angled, narrowed above ; the two transverse cubital nervures are 
roundly curved ; the transverse median nervure is received beyond the 



SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA. 181 

transverse basal ; the wings are yellowish hyaline, with the apices of 
both infuscated. The hinder legs are much longer than the four 
anterior ; they are longer than the body ; the apex of the hinder 
femora reaches to the apex of the fourth segment ; the tarsi are 
spinose. The head has the vertex depressed between the eyes ; it is 
sharply obliquely narrowed behind them ; the face is longish ; the 
malar space is large ; the labrum projects. The transverse median 
nervure is almost interstitial ; there is the stump of a nervure on the 
disco-cubital nervure ; the transverse cubital nervure in the hind wing 
is broken far below the middle ; the lower part of the metapleurfB is 
bounded by a keel, and there is a stouter curved keel below the middle; 
the gastrocoeli are deep, narrow ; the ventral keel extends to the end 
of the third segment ; the antenna) in the male are slightly serrate. 

A distinct genus, easily known by the constricted segments of 
the abdomen separated by deep furrows, 

HoLCOJOPPA FLAVIPENNIS, Sp. UOV. 

Lutea, flagello antennarum tarsisque posticis nigris ; alls flavo- 
hyalinis, apice nigris, stigmate testaceo. ^ . Long. 14-15 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Eothney). 

Uniformly rufo-luteous ; the inner orbits, the forelegs in front, the 
three divisions of the pleurae behind, and the petiole broadly at the 
base, more or less yellowish. The scape of the antennas rufous, punc- 
tured, thickly covered with short fuscous hair ; the base of the flagellum 
dull rufous, the rest blackish. Head somewhat triangular behind, 
being narrowed to a rounded point in the middle ; the face roundly 
projecting in the middle, and obscurely punctured ; the sides flat, 
yellowish, impunctate ; the clypeus obscurely punctured ; the apex 
obliquely depressed ; the mandibles pale yellowish ; the teeth black ; 
the palpi rufo-testaceous. Thorax ferruginous above ; the sides paler, 
having a yellowish tinge ; thickly covered with short hair, dark on tbe 
mesonotum, paler on the pleurae. The roundly pyramidal scutellum 
shining, rather thickly covered with longish fuscous hairs, and bearing 
all over large deep, not very widely separated, punctures ; the post- 
scutellum small, not very distinct ; the space on either side of it de- 
pressed, wide, smooth, and having a few stout irregular keels. The 
base of the median segment widely separated from the post-scutellum, 
raised to nearly the level of the top of the scutellum ; without any 
defined area, but with two stout straight keels going down the centre, 
which is coarsely irregularly transversely striolated ; the sides rugosely 
irregularly reticulated. Propleur£e closely punctured above, yellowish 
and impunctate below ; the upper half of the mesopleur^e shining, im- 
punctate ; the middle with a wide shallow longitudinal depression 
down the centre ; the lower half closely punctured, and of a yellowish 
hue at the base and apex ; the metapleurs with a wide oblique de- 
pression on the base at the top ; over the sternum is a wide shallow 
furrow, bearing stout widely separated, slightly oblique keels. Legs 
rufo-testaceous ; the apex of the hinder tibire and the tarsi blackish ; 
the fore legs of a paler, more yellowish hue, and thickly covered with 
short white hair ; the hair on the hinder tibite and tarsi blacker. 



182 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Wings yellowish hyaline, the apices blackish ; the areolet narrowed 
at the top ; the first cubital nervure slightly, the second distinctly, 
roundly curved, the two almost uniting at the top ; the recurrent ner- 
vure is received almost in the middle. The basal half of the petiole 
greatly narrowed, yellowish ; tiie apical with two stout keels down the 
middle, and coarsely punctured ; the other segments coarsely rugosely 
punctured, striolated at the base down the centre; all the segments 
separated by a deep moderately wide depression ; the ventral surface 
whitish. 

CKYPTINA. 

OSPRYNCHOTUS PERONATUS, Sp. DOV. 

Niger, tegulis, apice scutelli, post-scutello, maculis 3 metanoti, ore 
orbitisque oculorum fiavis ; pedibus flavis ; coxis, trochanteribus, 
femorum posticorum dimidio apicali apiceque tibiarum posticarum 
nigris. 2 et ^ . Long. 16, terebra 6 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

Antennffi black ; the tenth to fifteenth joints white, stout ; the scape 
yellow beneath, and covered with short white hair. Head black ; the 
face, except for a conical mark in the middle under the antennae, the 
clypeus, labrum, the inner orbits above, and the outer more broadly 
below, and the palpi, yellow ; the clypeus is edged with black at the 
sides and apex ; the mandibles are entirely black. The face is closely, 
the clypeus more coarsely and not so closely punctured. Vertex 
strongly punctured, and with a few oblique stride below the ocelli ; the 
front depressed, at the sides very smooth and shining. Thorax black ; 
a broad line on either side of the base above, the tegulre, scutellum, 
except at the base, the post-scutellum, the scutellar keels, the apex of 
the median segment at the base and sides, the base more narrowly 
than the sides, where the yellow is dilated broadly outwardly, and a 
somewhat oval mark immediately under the hind wings, yellow. Meso- 
notum closely and strongly punctured, thickly covered with short white 
hair ; its middle lobe is distinctly raised at the base ; the scutellum 
shining and thickly covered with long white hair, and sparsely punc- 
tured ; the punctures are large, round, and shallow ; the post-scutellum 
is almost impunctate ; its base is deeply bifoveate ; the depression at 
the sides is not striated, and is covered with long white hair. The 
median segment, at the base behind the transverse keel, is closely 
punctured ; the punctuation is stronger towards the apex, in the 
middle of which is a stout short semicircular keel ; in front of the keel 
the segment is coarsely punctured, rugosely so at the apex, which has 
a slight oblique slope ; its sides and top are bordered by a stout keel ; 
the black mark in the middle is rounded at the base, transverse at the 
apex, and twice longer than broad. Pro- and meso-pleurje closely 
punctured ; the lower part of the former with some stout longitudinal 
keels at the apex ; the metapleur^ more strongly punctured ; the punc- 
tures run into reticulations, and are stronger on the lower side ; over 
the hinder coxte is a large yellow mark, twice longer than broad, and 
rounded and narrowed at the top. Wings hyaline, the apex smoky ; 
the stigma and nervures black ; the areolet is a little longer than wide, 
slightly narrower at the top than at the bottom ; the recurrent nervure 
is received shortly beyond the middle ; the second transverse cubital 



NOTES ON NEUKOPTERA OF OXON AND BERKS. 183 

nervure is bullated on the lower side, but nqt strongly. Legs fulvous ; 
all the coxae and trochanters, almost the apical half of the hinder 
femora, and the apical third of the posterior tibiae, black ; the hinder 
tarsi have a more yellowish paler hue, and are black at the base. 
Abdomen black and shining : all the segments are banded with yellow 
at the apex ; the ventral surface, except the petiole, pale yellow. 

This is an Osprynchotus, Spin., sec. Ashmead, non Kriech- 
baumer, which equals Linoceras, Tasch. The genus is new for 
the Indian fauna. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON NEUEOPTEEA OF OXON AND BERKS. 

By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

Eecently I received for inspection from Messrs. W. Holland 
and A. H. Hamm a box of Neuroptera (other than Odonata) 
collected in Berks and Oxon. Insects of this order are so 
seldom recorded that the list will probably prove of interest to 
those who are working at them. I have to thank Mr. C. A. 
Briggs for assisting very greatly in naming the specimens, 
especially the more obscure ones. 

Oxon. 

Ephemeridia. — EpJiemera vulgata, Thames side near Binsey, 
and canal side north of Oxford. Cloeon rufulum, Oxford. Cen- 
troptilimi luteolmn, Godstow and Oxford. 

Planipennia. — Sialis lutaria, canal side north of Oxford, and 
Thames side at Binsey. Raphidia xanthostigma, Shotover Hill 
(May 28th). Sisjjrafuscata, Thames side at Binsey (May 29th). 
Chrysopa flava, University Park, Oxford. C. vulgaris, taken in 
the Museum, Oxford (Mar. 28th). C.^eHa, near Oxford. Panorpa 
germanica, Stow Wood. 

Trichoptera. — Phryganea striata, Charlbury, Wychwood For- 
est. LimnopJiilus lunatus, Oxford. Anaholia nervosa, Oxford. 
Notodohia ciliaris, canal side north of Oxford (May 26th) ; not a 
common species. LeptoceriLS cinereus, Thames side at Binsey. 
Mystacides nigra (McLach., Trich Eur.), canal side north of 
Oxford. M. aziirea (McLach., Trich. Eur.), Thames side at 
Binsey. 

Berks. 

Ephemeridia. — Ephemera vidgata, Thames side above God- 
stow, and Reading. E. danica, Pteading. Leptophlebia marginata, 
Thames side above Godstow (June 1st), and Wellington College, 
near Reading (April 22nd.) Centroptilum pennidatiim , Thames 
^ide near Oxford (May 27th). Ecdyurus volitans, Thames side 
above Godstow (June 1st, 1901) ; an interesting capture. 



184 THE ENXOMOLOGIS'l. 

Planipennia, — Sialis lutaria, Thames side above Godstow. 
Raphidia notata, Wokingham, near Reading. Sisyra fimcata, 
Thames side above Godstow (June 1st). Hemerohius stupna, 
Wellington College Chri/sopa vulgaris, Wellington College. 
C. fteptempimctiita, Ferry Hincksey. C. ve7itralis, Tubney W^ood, 
and Wokingham. C. perla, Thames side near Kennington. 
Panorpa comimmis, Tubney Wood, and East Ilsley. P (jermanica 
Tubney Wood, Thames side above Godstow, and Boar's Hill, 
near Oxford. 

Trichoptera. — Phrygania striata, Eeading. Colpotaulius in- 
cisus, Thames side above Godstow. Grammotaulius atomarius, 
Eeading. Limnophilas rliombicas, Reading. Notidohia ciliaris, 
Thames side above Godstow (June 1st). Goera pilosa, Thames 
side above Godstow. Leptoceras annaUcornis, Thames side above 
Godstow (June 1st). Mystacides nigra, Thames side above 
Godstow, and the Kennet, Reading. Neuroclipsis bimacidata, 
Reading. Tinodes wceneri, Thames side above Godstow. Lype 
phceopa, the Kennet, Reading. Glossoma boltoni, Thames side 
above Godstow. 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF LIPHYRA 
B1USS0LI8, Westw. 

By F. p. Dodd. 

(Concluded from p. 156.) 

The perfect insect comes forth in twenty-one to twenty-five 
days, and further astonishing developments in the life-history of 
this strange insect occur. Before bursting the outer shell the 
butterfly can be heard moving within, and shortly a sharp 
cracking sound announces that the burst has been effected, then 
either a [)ortion of the shell, which opens in the centre in front 
up to the first furrow, is broken right out, or it opens sufficiently 
above after breaking away at the rim to admit of the imago's 
emergence. But who would recognize L. brassoUs now as he 
crawls out ? Instead of the weak drooping wings of a butterfly, 
he has little short appendages like a freshly-emerged moth, arid 
lying very flat ; the front wing is creamy white to extreme tip, 
and the edge of the hind wing projects from under this ever so 
little ; the abdomen looks very large, a thick mass of furry- 
looking substance showing on each side of it to the tip ; on the 
thorax small tufts of loose brownish scales may be noted, which 
easily roll off. It is soon seen that the white appearance of fore 
wing is caused by a dense covering of fugitive scales ; there is 
also a small patch on each side of thorax. As the wings slowly 
lengthen, the density of the scales lessens sufliciently to admit 
of a view of the black and rich yellow colouring underneath. 



LIFE-HISTORY OF LIPHYRA BRA.SSOLIS. 185 

These white scales tly off after expansion of wings at the least 
breath of air ; they are blown away much more easily than the 
scales on our clearwinged hawks {Hemaris kingii, hylas, and 
janus). A stroke or two of the insect's wings detaches everyone 
in a cloud ; therefore it is a difficult matter to kill and set 
specimens and leave a fair proportion of these scales. Tbe 
matter on the abdomen is of coarse also composed of scales ; 
they are dark grey, packed very densely, and cover about half 
of ventral surface, reach further along the sides, but do not 
reach the thorax, none being on the upper surface. These are 
much more adhesive, and must be scraped away, as they cannot 
be blown oi3^; they come away in masses, and fasten lightly to 
anything they come in contact with, and appear to be held 
together. Upon examining them with a lens, exceedingly delicate 
threads can be discerned dispersed throughout. The legs and 
antennae are also clothed with minute and easily detachable 
white scales. 

The insect requires longer than the largest Australian moths 
to pump its wings to their full length. The wings of even the 
gigantic Zeuzeridae attain their full proportions in fifteen or 
twenty minutes, and I have seen a five-inch hepialid expand the 
wings in seven minutes ; but our butterfly requires twenty-five 
to thirty minutes, and instead of being prepared for flight in a 
little over an hour, like the Antheraea and many other large 
moths, is quite helpless for a much longer period, and none of 
my specimens exhibited the least desire to fly in three or even 
four hours. The great Oniithoptera cassandra flies in a com- 
paratively short time. 

The butterflies are very oily; in some instances grease came 
through abdomen in less than a week after setting. A thick 
layer of almost liquid grease lines the abdomen, so it was 
necessary to resort to stuffing the insects ; unfortunately this 
operation causes displacement of the extra scales to some extent, 
especially in the male. 

As to the butterfly being crepuscular in its habits, I may 
mention that I am frequently out in the twilight, but have not 
met with it ; that may be on account of its rarity. However, 
they are decidedly wideawake in the daytime. I have captured 
several which I had disturbed as any ordinary butterfly would be 
disturbed. Several times they have flown from near ant-nests 
which I was about to examine ; one specimen was seen flying 
across an open space in the early afternoon, and had evidently 
come from a fair distance, as there were no green ants in the 
vicinity. Many years ago I caught my first specimen, a female, 
on a hot summer day about eleven o'clock. It flew rapidly 
across a scrub and settled on a branch under the foliage, 
precisely as the egg-depositing female did which I observed in 
July, 1900. 



186 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Now, concerning the loose scales on this unique butterfly, we 
have no evidence that the larvse are welcome inhabitants of the 
ants' nests. However, it is highly probable that the ants have 
no friendly feeling for the perfect insect, and would most likely 
attack and kill it during its long rest after emergence if it were 
not specially and wonderfully protected. So it will be seen that 
the loose scales act as a perfect protection, for directly the ants 
encounter these they are in trouble ; they fasten on to their feet 
and impede their movements, or, if their antennae or mandibles 
come in contact with any part of the butterfly, the scales adhere 
thereto, so that the ant is soon in a bad way, and has quite 
enough to do in attempting to free himself of his encumbrances 
without taking any further interest in the butterfly, from which 
he retreats as well as possible. It is exceedingly ludicrous to 
observe the ants endeavouring to free themselves ; their legs 
move awkwardly, and their mandibles are opened and closed in 
evident annoyance and perplexity, and they are much concerned 
at the state of their antenna, for the obnoxious scales will not 
be shaken off, and they seem to become very low-spirited. 

It is amusing to observe this dejected change in an ant after 
his first spar with L. brassolis, for he is such a pert pugnacious 
fellow, and perfectly willing to tackle anything that moves if in 
proximity to his pets or nest. As mentioned, I had several 
small nests of ants taken home, and could introduce them to the 
butterfly as I wished. It would doubtless be highly entertaining 
to watch a numerous colony of ants making the acquaintance of a 
freshly-emerged butterfly. 

The small wings of the insect enable it to get through the 
nest entrances. The scales on fore wing are necessary to his 
safety whilst he is crawling out, for the ants might in some cases 
evade his legs and get on to the thorax ; but if the scales there 
did not vanquish him, those on the fore wing would. As the 
butterfly's abdomen becomes strong enough, he raises the tip to 
touch the support where he is hanging ; in that position he is 
invulnerable, hundreds of ants could not hurt him. As the fore 
wings lengthen and touch there is no further need of the scales 
thereon. The wind doubtless dislodges the majority before the 
insect flies off, but the other scales would not disappear wholly 
for some time. 

I placed four larvae on a nest where I knew there were none, 
and afterwards visited it, and obtained two pupa therefrom. 
Upon another small tree with several ant habitations, seven 
larvae were placed, and going there some days later I found one 
chrysalis on the outside of a nest, one within, several attenuated 
larvae wandering about the tree— the ants, having become 
familiar with their presence, taking no notice of them — and a 
dead larva on the ground. It would appear that the entrances 
to the nests were too small for the larger caterpillars to gain 



LIFE-HISTORY OF LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS. 187 

admittance. Once I saw a larva on the outside of a new nest, 
and I took a pupa on another ; these were in localities where I 
had not interfered with the ants. These instances serve to show 
that the larvae pass from one domicile to another, presumably 
when their pabulum is exhausted in one. They are very slow 
moving, and when they find it necessary to change quarters, 
they must wander after sundown, for out of over eighty larvae 
and pupse which passed through my hands not a single example 
was parasitised; but the other Lycpenids I have mentioned, though 
seemingly always accompanied by a number of ants, in both 
larval and pupal stages, are frequently victimised by Diptera 
and ichneumons ; but these species do not live in the ant nests, 
and being day feeders (I don't know about night), numbers are 
stung. 

The larvae of L. hrassolis are evidently so tough-skinned that 
the mandibles of the ants can make little or no impression upon 
them, for in placing specimens upon a nest, the inmates rush 
out at them, catch hold of the caterpillar rim, and appear to be 
acting most viciously. They also endeavour to reach the head 
or legs, but these are at once protected, the creature just lowers 
its great sides and is secure. After examining caterpillars which 
have been on nests for several hours, and tugged at and nipped 
by dozens of ants, not a mark or wound was discernible ; yet, if 
the slightest cut is made in the rim with a knife, juices issue as 
from any ordinary caterpillar with an opening in the skin. 

In conclusion, I may mention that it is not all pleasure 
searching for L. hi'assolis, or other insects, in the habitations of 
the green ants. This species is as plucky and determined as 
the fierce and dreaded "bulldog" and "jumper" ants, and come 
trooping in hundreds from all parts of the tree when a nest is 
disturbed. Then there is the multitude in the nest itself, also 
those in other nests, for often there are many in even a small 
tree. They are remarkably quick to get upon and spread them- 
selves over an intruder, and do not waste their energies in biting 
one's clothing ; but directly they reach the flesh they commence 
operations, and one's neck and arms suffer considerably. The 
bite of the insect is trifling, but he discharges a liquid on to the 
bitten spot, which gives sharp pain. In approaching closely to 
an ants' nest, or where they are in attendance upon scales, 
aphides, or other insects, they show fight unmistakably. Whilst 
they are prancing and plainly showing that they are desirous of 
a closer acquaintanceship, it will be noticed that the abdomens 
are held up and occasionally jerked forward ; this jerking action 
means that the insect has brought his little " squirt" into play, 
a jet of decidedly acrid liquid being discharged therefrom, sent 
straight over his head, and capable of striking an object several 
inches direct in front before it assumes a downward tendency. 
Having received several of these jets, or part of them, in the 



188 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

eyes, on the lips, and often bad the liquid in cuts or scratches, I 
can testify as to its stinging properties. When hundreds of ants 
are sending forth these jets, which can be seen against the sun, 
it behoves one to be careful when in their immediate vicinity. 
We have many interesting species in Queensland, but this green 
tree insect, with his vast colonies, strangely used larvse, and 
queer and varied acquaintances, is the most remarkable of all. 

Warburton Street, Townsville, Queensland. 



A LIST OP TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX 
BETWEEN 1885 AND 1901. 

By a. Thurnall. 

(Continued from p. 169.) 

Grnpholitha cinerana, Haw. — Considered by many to be a var. of 
nisella. I have not met with it, but, if I am not mistaken, Mr. Harwood 
told me once that he takes it near Colchester. 

G. nuirouiacuUma. — Souiewbat local, but usually common (some- 
times very common) where it occurs, amoni^st Seiwcin jacobe^.a, on the 
seeds of which plant the larva feeds in September. I once bred a 
specimen, which did not emerge till the second season after spinning 
up. Near Harold Wood, Witliam, Upminster, &c. 

G. caiiipoliliana, Tr. — Generally distributed amongst sallow, from 
which it may be beaten in June. 

G. minutana, Hb.— Local and uncommon amongst poplar. Near 
Lea Bridge, Wanstead, and Ongar are the only places where I have 
taken it. 

G. trimaculana, Don. — Exceedingly abundant and variable, may be 
beaten from elm in hundreds ; the larva equally common earlier in 
the season. 

G. penkleriana, Pisch. — Common in many places amongst nut 
bushes and alder, on both of which the larva feeds. 

G. obtasana, Haw. — Locally common. I have beaten it from oak, 
wild rose, and blackthorn. Perhaps most abundant at Fairmead 
Bottom, Chingford. Larva quite unknown to me. 

G. oicevana, Hb. — Very common amongst holly, in the shoots of 
which the larva may be found abundantly in June. 

Phlacodes tetraguetrana, Haw. — Equally common in May and early 
June amongst birch shrubs. 

P. imvnindana, Fisch. — Not very scarce (and widely distributed) 
where alder grows commonly, in May ; a second and less common 
brood in August. 

P. demarnimia, Fisch. — Eather scarce and local amongst birch. 
I have taken it at Loughton, Warley, and near Ingatestone. 

Hypermecia angustana, Hb. — Not uncommon amongst its food-plant, 
sallow, in most places where its food-plant is abundant. 

Batodes angustiorana, Haw. — Very common, especially upon yew, 



TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 189 

which seems to be the favourite food of the larva, which, however, 
feeds upon a variety of other trees and plants. 

Pmiisca bilunana, Haw. — Very common at rest on birch trunks, 
but not always easily seen on occount of its whitish colour matching 
so closely the bark of the tree. 

P. oj^piessana, Tr. — Very local on Popnlua nigra trunks. I have 
only met with it, as far as Essex is concerned, near Loughton. 

P. corticann, Hb. — Very abundant almost everywhere amongst oaks ; 
varying from greenish to almost coal-black. 

P. ju'ofiindana, Fb. — Much less common ; may be occasionally 
beaten from oak, wliitethorn, &c., at Loughton, but I have not taken 
it elsewhere. 

P. npthahnicana, Hb. — Local, but fairly common where aspen 
shrubs grow freely. May be beaten from them towards the end of 
September. Ougar Park Woods, near Ingatestone, and near St. Osyth. 

P. occidtana, Dough— Probably found in most plantations where 
larch grows freely, but I have only met with it near Brentwood, 
where the larva is in some seasons not at all rare. 

P. solfindriana, L. — Distributed throughout wherever birch shrubs 
are found ; some of the numerous vars. are very pretty. 

P. semifuscana , St. — Usually considered a common insect, but I 
have only met with a few larvae on sallow near Thames Haven ; it 
must surely be found in many other places in the county. 

P. sordidana, Hb. — Common where it occurs, more especially in the 
larva state, on alders. Warley, Wanstead, Harold Wood, Witham, &c. 

Ephippiphora buiiaculuna, Don. — Local, and never very common 
amongst birch shrubs. Near Brentwood, Wanstead Park, and rarely 
at Loughton. 

E. pjiiu/iana, Haw. — Generally common, especially in the larva 
state, in thistle stems. Varies much in size, some of my specimens 
being no larger than the next species, circiana, Zell., which I have 
not taken in S. Essex. 

E. inopiana, Haw. — Very local. I have only found it in two or 
three places. On the roadside between Stamford Eivers and Epping, 
and more commonly in a boggy place near East Horndon, always 
amongst Inula dysentrrka, in the roots of which the larva passes 
the winter. 

E. briinnichiana. Frol. — ^Distributed throughout amongst TumJago 
farfara, in the roots of which the larva may be found in the autumn 
and early winter. I have bred specimens of a creamy white colour, 
with scarcely any markings on the upper wings. 

E. fceveana, Haw. — May generally be found in the larva state in 
the winter in the old gnarled roots of Artemisia vulgaris ; the imago 
not so often seen. Laindon, Lea Bridge, Fobbing, and Pitsea. 

E. si(jnatana, Doagl. — Mr. Machin used to beat this insect rarely 
from blackthorn (its food-plant) and oak at Chingford, but I have 
searched for it there many times in vain. 

E. trigeminana, St. — tjsually to be found in waste places and on 
railway banks wherever its food-plant, Senecio jacobfca, grows. The 
larva feeds on the roots, and may be dug up freely in the late autumn. 
When bred, the female especially is a very pretty insect. 

E. tetragonana, St. — Local, and rather scarce. My own series 



190 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

were obtained by beating the wild rose bushes at Loughtou at the 
beginning of August. Varies much in dimensions. I liave a specimen 
from Hunstanton scarcely larger than the little C. artjijrana. 

E. populana, Pb.— Somewhat local amongst its food-plant, sallow, 
and, I think, willow as well. I once bred a number from larvffi feeding 
on dwarf sallow in Wicken Fen. 

E. (jalliculana, Zell. — May be sometimes beaten from oak, or found 
at rest on the trunk, but by far the best way to obtain it is to gather 
the old oak-apples in the winter ; the imago comes out, but not always 
freely, in May. One season I bred over fifty, and another winter's 
work resulted in a single specimen. 

E. obscuraua, St. — Has been taken rarely in Epping Forest, but I 
have never had the good fortune to meet with it in Essex or elsewhere. 

Olindia ulinana, Hb. — A single worn female specimen beaten from 
a hedge in early June last at Benfleet or Hadleigh is the only one I 
have met with. 

Seiiiasia apiniana, Dup. — Decidedly rare. I have taken it flying in 
the afternoon late in August at Fairmead Bottom, Chingford, and a 
few worn ones (generally singly) in three or four distant localities. 
Although there can be little doubt that whitethorn is the food-plant of 
the larva, it has never been bred to my knowledge. 

S. ianthinana, Dup. — Much more common than the last, flying 
over whitethorn, in the berries of which the little pink larva may be 
found in September and October, along with the greyish larva of 
Laverna atra. It leaves when full-fed, and spins up jn bark ; when 
bred it has a rich purple gloss ou the fore wings, which soon fades away. 

S. rutillana, Zell. — Common, and generally distributed wherever 
Damns carota, its food-plant, grows. Larvte in abundance in the um- 
bels, often eight or ten in a single one. 

*S'. ivccheriana, Schiff. — Not rare at rest on apple and cherry trunks, 
in the bark of wliich it feeds in the larval state. Most ot my own 
series were taken on the trunks of wild cherry growing in Wanstead 
Park. 

Coccyx strobilana, Hb. — Local, and more often found in the larval 
stage in the cones of spruce fir, pupating therein in April, when by 
gathering a lot of the fallen cones a series may be bred. I have only 
met with it near Warley and near Blackmore. 

C. splendidulann, Gn.- — Fairly common at rest on oak trunks, and 
may be often bred from oak-apples gathered during the winter. 

C. annjrana. — Generally common in May and June at rest on oak 
trunks ; not very variable, the only notable specimen is one of a dirty 
white, without any prominent markings, taken in Bushwood, Wanstead 
(May 7th, 1892). May often be bred freely from oak-apples gathered 
in the winter months. 

C. nigrkana, H. S. — Eare and very local. I took it for the first 
time in Essex, I believe, on Jubilee-day, 1887, by beating tlie boughs 
of a fir tree near Brentwood, taking about twenty on that occasion. I 
took it again (two only) in 1892 ; have not worked for it since. 

C. hyrciniana, D. L. — Very common and variable amongst spruce 
fir everywhere. 

Hemimene finibriana, Haw. — Not common, but widely distributed 
amongst oaks in April. I have bred a very few from oak -apple" 



TORTRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 191 

gathered in the winter, and netted it very rarely flying in the sunshine 
over oak bushes. 

Pu'tinia buoUana, Schiff. — Very common wherever Pinus sylrestns 
grows, the larvae often doing considerable damage to the young shoots. 

R. pinicolana, Doubl. — Much rarer than the last species ; singly in 
Wanstead Park, Warley, and Blackmore at rest on P. sylveatris. 

R. pinivorana, Zell. — Pretty common amongst Pinus throughout ; 
variable. Some of the vars. are very pretty. 

Carpocapsa spleiidaiia, Hb. — Much more abundant in the larval 
than the perfect state ; the acorns in September and October are 
sometimes much infested with them ; I bred a large number last year 
from acorns picked up at Loughton the previous autumn. 

C. fjrossana. Haw. — Locally common in the larval state in beech- 
nuts, often two seasons before coming out, like the previous species. 
The imago may sometimes be beaten from beech boughs, or found at 
rest on the trunks. Epping Forest, Brentwood, &c. 

C. pomonella, Lin. — Found, I believe, wherever apple trees grow ; 
also feeds in the apples of the wild crab. The spun-up larva may be 
found in the winter and spring under loose pieces of bark or moss on 
the trunks. 

C. Juliana, Curt. — Somewhat local, but common in certain localities. 
May be found early in June at rest on oak trunks. I have met with 
it in several localities, but nowhere so commonly as around Wanstead. 

C. nimbana, H. S. — This very local and very distinct species seems 
to be much wanted by collectors. I have bred a good number, perhaps 
fifty, in the past few years from spuu-up larvfe found under rough 
bark on beech trunks in Epping Forest in the winter. Very occasion- 
ally found at rest thereon early in May. I have never met with the 
feeding larva. 

Opadiafunebrana, Tr. — Larvfc sometimes found in bought damsons. 
The late Mr. Machin used to beat the imago rarely from blackthorn at 
Chingford, and he bred a series from larvae feeding in the fruit. I 
have not met with the imago in Essex. 

Endopisa nigricana, St. — Very common in pea-fields, or on railway 
banks amongst vetches; varies a good deal in size and depth of colour. 
For this reason, I suppose, some authors have made two species from 
this insect. 

Stigmonota leguminana, Zell. — Always very rare and local. Although 
constantly on the look-out for it every June, I can only boast of three 
rather indifferent specimens in sixteen seasons ! Strictly confined to 
the Loughton part of Epping Forest, from the village to the borders 
of Monkwood. Larva unknown to me. 

S. perlepidana, Haw. — Not particularly abundant ; may be some- 
times found flying high up in the sunshine in May. I have bred it 
from larvae taken at Loughton feeding on Lathyrus macrorrhizxis. 

S. biternana, Gn. — Local amongst furze in open spaces in Epping 
Forest and near Chelmsford, but nowhere so abundantly as on Warley 
Common at the end of May and early in June. 

S. compositella, Fb. — May be found almost always in clover-fields 
by sweeping in May and August. Near Childerditch, Ongar, Canvey 
Island, &c. 

S. iveirana, Dougl. — Very common in Epping Forest, at Brentwood, 



192 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

&c., amongst beech. The larva may be found in September and 
October between two leaves spun together, pupating therein ; very 
easy to breed. 

S. redimitana, Gn. — As common as the previous species, and more 
generally distributed amongst oaks. The habits of both larva and 
imago are also precisely the same as weirana. 

S. rpgiana, Zell. — Occurs almost everywhere where sycamores grow ; 
the larva spun up under the bark through the winter and spring ; the 
imago not so often met with. The nearly allied and equally beautiful 
trauniana, Schiff., I have never met with. 

S. roseticolana, Zell. — Common in the larval state everywhere, in 
the " hips " of the wild roses. Not difficult to rear if pieces of rough 
bark are put in the pot for the larvffi to spin up in. 

;S'. germarana, Hb. — -May be beaten from or netted flying round oak 
boughs in May and early June. Epping Forest, Warley, Hadleigh, &c. 
I have spent many, many hours vamly searching for the larva ; one 
was once bred casually by the Rev. G. Raynor from some oak twigs 
gathered to feed other larvae on. 

Dichrorampha pnlifana, Hb. — Local, but has been met with very 
sparingly in several distant localities amongst its food-plant, Achillea 
viillefolium. Near Upminster, Pitsea, Harold Wood, and Purfleet. 

D. aipinana, Tr.— I have only met with it in a small clump of 
Taiiacetaiii vul;/<ire grooving in a garden at Stratford ; the larva in the 
roots through the winter, and the imago late in July at rest during 
the daytime amongst the foliage. 

D. alpeatrana, H. S. — -This species, which I had the pleasure of 
adding to the British list in 1893, seems to be very local ; indeed, I 
have only met with it in the original spot where it first turned up 
in Epping Forest, and in a similar locality about half a mile away. 
It has since been taken in Sussex, and doubtless in other places. 
For remarks concerning habits, food-plant, viile E.M. M. vol. xxix. 
p. 175. 

D. petiverella, L. — -Very common almost everywhere amongst 
Achillea viillefolium. 

D. seqnaua Hb, — Somewhat local, but generally common where 
found. 1 have bred it from A. millefoliwn. Loughton, Ingatestone, 
Childerditch, and many other places. 

D. pliuiihaijana, Tr. — Very common and generally distributed ; 
seems very partial to railway banks. 

D. acuminatana, Zell. — Local and uncommon. I have only met 
with it very sparingly amongst Clinjmntheimun leucatithemum on the 
railway bank near Harold Wood in September, and the first brood 
early in June at Mill Green, near lugatestone. 

D. siiiiplicimiii, Haw. — Not uncommon amongst Artemisia vulgaris, 
in the roots of which the larva feeds, through the winter. The imago 
is sluggish, and when beaten out immediately makes for the shelter 
of its food-plant again. 

D. roiisortana, St. — Local and uncommon. I have very occasion- 
ally taken tlie larva and imago on railway banks. Harold Wood, 
Woodford, and near Thames Haven. The larval habits are different 
from the other species of this genus, feeding in the growing shoots of 
Chrymnthemuvi leucanthcmnm, and pupating therein. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 193 

Lipoptycha plumhana, Scop. — Frequents the same places with 
plwiibagana, and the two species are generally to be found together. 
The allied L. satitnuina I have never met with. 

Fijrodes rheediella, L. — May be taken freely at the end of May 
flying in the sunshine round the tops of tall hawthorn bushes or 
hedges. Generally distributed. The larva feeds in the green berries. 

Catoptria albeisana. — Not common any wliere, but widely distributed. 
I have taken a fair number at Warley, also, but rarely at Wanstead, 
Epping, Ingatestone, and Hadleigh. The larva may be found in 
September in rolled-up leaves of honeysuckle, and is not difficult 
to breed. 

C. ulicetana, Haw. — In swarms round almost every furze bush. I 
once or twice met with specimens almost as strongly marked as the 
well-known Scotch form (isseclcma, St., but as a rule tliey are very 
plainly marked in Esses. 

C. hjjpericana, Hb. — Somewhat local amongst Hypericum., in the 
young shoots of which the larva may be found early in May. Localities 
are Ingatestone, Blackmore, South Weald, Chelmsford, &c. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The British Museum Collection of British Lepidoptera. — In 
connection with the rearrangement of this collection some living larvte 
have been received from Mr. A. M. Smallpeice, Ringwood, Hants, which 
have been blown and preserved. We have also received promises of 
larvffi from Mr. Ed. H. Thornhill, Boxworth, Cambridge ; and of a 
large collection of preserved pupae from the Rev. J. Green, Rostrevor, 
Clifton. These will all be extremely useful, and we are much obliged 
to the donors. — G. F. Hampson. 

Notodonta deyinopa. Lower. — I stated {ante, p. 42) that the pupa 
of this moth is furnished with a sharp spike on the head, and that the 
only explanation accounting for the removal of the round piece of the 
hard cocoon must be that the pupa cuts it out, for no piercing instru- 
ment could be found upon the moth. I have now ascertained that the 
moth, with this spike, cuts the fragment out ! The particulars are 
these : obtaining some of this season's cocoons, containing pupte, I cut 
holes in them, determined to watch for developments, and was soon 
rewarded by observing that the first moth had burst its pupal shell, 
and was moving, very deliberately, backwards and forwards, in fact, 
pushing against the wall in front. Upon removing more of the 
cocoon, to admit of a better view of the operation, I was pleased and 
surprised to see that the portion of the pupal shell covering the eyes 
and that above holding the spike, remained fixed to the moth's head ; it 
is kept in position by two little pegs which pass in between the eyes. 
I have since tried to bottle several of the motljs with the head-piece 
attached, but they strike it off directly they emerge. However, I have 
sent the pupal head-pieces, cocoons, chrysalids, &c., to a well-known 

ENTOM. — JULY, 1902. Q 



194 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

entomologist, who may have something to say upon this interesting 
species. — F. P. Dodd ; Warburton Street, Townsville, Queeushxnd. 

Hawk Moth Pupating on Branches of Trees. — It appears tiiat 
my note upon Panacra lujnnriu [ante, p. 73) is not sufficiently clear, for 
a leading entomologist in England has taken it to mean that the larvffi 
had bored into the wood of the trees to pupate ! Naturally, he doubted 
such a strange statement. I trust no others have read the note as he 
did. Of course the larvie were spun up in the leaves and twigs. — F. P. 
Dodd ; Warburton Street, Townsville, Queensland. 

ToRTRicES IN South Essex. — When reading the very interesting 
article by Mr. Thurnall on " Tortrices in South Essex between 1855 
and 1901," I was reminded when I reached the note on Phoxopterijx 
myitillana that I had recently seen, lying on one of the many new 
roads in this district, a quantity of bilberry which had been used in 
the packing of a load of drain-pipes. Such consignments, packed in 
the same way, are probably commonly seen at Stratford, and might 
readily account for the importation of P. myrtillana, I might add that 
Ortkotccnia ericetana does occur in South Essex. I have taken it both 
at Benfleet and Shoeburyness. — F. G. Whittle ; 3. Marine Avenue, 
Southend, June 13th, 1902. 

Food-plants of the Larva of Cnephasia sinuana, Stph. — In his 
very interesting " List of Tortrices taken in South Essex, Mr. A. 
Thurnall says {ante, p. 168) that he expects wild hyacinth {SciUa 
nutans) is the only food-plant of the larva of Cnephasia (" Sciaphila") 
silt nana, and no other food-plant is mentioned in Mr. Meyrick's ' Hand- 
book of British Lepidoptera,' p. 589 (1895). The idea that the larva 
confines its attentions to Seilla nutans is, however, at variance with 
the fact, recorded by myself in Ent. Mo. Mag., ser. 2, x. 105 (1899), 
that Mr. G. Elisha has occasionally bred a few specimens of C. sinuana 
(together with many of C. pasivana), from spun-up flowers of Chry- 
santheiinun lencanthemun) , collected in a wood in North Kent. — Eustace 
E. Bankes ; Norden, Corfe Castle, June 7th, 1902. 

The Coccid Lecanopsis ouoiisi. — This species was very briefly 
described by Signoret and Lichtenstein in 1886, and has never since 
been definitely recognized. In Biol. Cent. Amer., Coccidae, p. 15, I 
surmised, that it might be the Ceioplastodes niveiis (Ckll., 1893). I have 
now received examples of it from Guanajuato, Mexico, collected there 
by Dr. Alfred Duges, who tells me that he did indeed send it to 
Lichtenstein many years ago, but received no reply concerning it. 
This, I think, may be considered to settle the matter, and the species 
will be known as CeropUistodes dughi — T. D. A. Cockeeell ; E. Las 
Vegas, N.M., May 31st, 1902. 

Colour Changes in Larval Hairs op Arctia villica. — The influence 
of certain foods in causing alterations in the coloration of some 
animals is well known to everyone. As a further instance of this 
influence in the case of one of the Lepidoptera may be of interest to 
entomologists, I venture to record the following facts : — I have found 
that if the larvffi of Arctia villica, which usually live on various low- 
growing herbs, are fed entirely on sallow from the time they are 
hatched, the hairs covering their bodies are of a black instead of the 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 195 

usual brown colour. The larvae are therefore perfectly black with the 
exception of the red head and legs. The imagines resulting from 
larvae modified in this way present no variation from the usual type. 
I have observed that when the larvae are partly grown, if the character 
of their food is changed, and dock and other herbs are substituted for 
sallow, they, after the next change of skin, are clothed with hairs more 
or less approaching the usual brown colour. — Albert May ; Hayling 
Island, May 16th, 1902. 

Note on Calocampa exoleta. — On March 12th and 13th I captured 
at sugar three of these insects (one male and two females). They were 
placed under a glass cylinder with various food-plants, and a sprig of 
sallow with catkins ; the latter were occasionally moistened with syrup 
on which the moths feasted every evening, Nothing particular was 
observed until April 13th, when I noticed two batches of ova had been 
deposited on nettle ; these proved to be infertile. On April 15th and 
20th pairing took place, and the male was then released. By May 3rd 
over three thousand ova had been laid, and on May 13th the two 
females, being still alive, were set at liberty. — Edward Goodwin; 
Canon Court, Wateringbury, Kent, June 16tli, 1902. 

Protracted Emergence of Tephrosia biundularia. — I have been 
rearing the above from eggs from a female taken at Boscombe last 
April. The imagoes commenced to emerge on Feb. 8th, and have 
been coming out regularly up to to-day (June 16th). The imagoes 
show very little variation. — J. A. Finzi ; 53, Hamilton Terrace, N.W. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Collecting near Tangier in August and September, 1901. — 
Autumn is the end of the dry season, and so everything is parched 
up, including the flowers, and there is not a very large variety of 
insects on the wing, but we caught Lycana telicanus, L. bivtica, Chri/so- 
2}hanus pJilceas, Papilio podaUrius, P. tnachaon, during the first few days 
of August, and Catocala elocata came in to light on the 11th; they 
were beautifully fresh in condition. During the first week we saw 
Charaxes jasius, but did not catch one until the 16th. They were 
numerous and in splendid condition. They sit head downwards, 
chiefly on branches of the cypress, and are very fond of basking with 
their wings open ; often they fly right away over a large area, and come 
back again to the very branch they left. We saw ova of this species 
on arbutus, and when the larvfe hatched they were green with black 
horns at each end, the pair by the head having a fork. On the 14th 
a fine specimen of Clucrocam/xi, celerio flew into the hall about 6.30 p.m., 
and on the 20th we caught a worn Catocala conversa during bright 
sunlight. The next day we took a perfect male H. zelleri, and a 
perfect Deiupeia palchella. 1 obtained C. celerio again in the hall on 
August 25th ; the following day freshly emerged specimens of P. 
machaon were out in great numbers, and we caught several beauties. 
There were also many more P. podaUrius than earlier in the month. 
We found several larvae of the latter feeding on plum and cherry ; they 



196 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

feed up at a great pace. When first hatched the larva is black, and the 
sldn very rough ; after the first change it is black, then green with 
orange spots, and turns yellow before it pupates. We caught twelve 
Hesperia nostrodamus in one small patch of rough grass on the 27tli. 
They were mostly very good specimens, and seemed very fond of 
sitting on the lumps of earth. C. eiiusa was about in fair numbers. 
By watcliing the plumbago bushes in the evenings I caught ten C. 
celerin : one evening I caught three specimens, and on another two. 
Tliey are very regular in their appearance, always coming from 6.15 
to G.45. A friend used to watch them hovering round some begonia 
plants he had in pots in his verandah, and by this means got some 
ova, which are green at first and laid singly on the upper or lower 
side of the leaves. The larva hatches out in about nine days, and is 
light green with a long pink horn. When about a week old it has two 
purple eye-like marks on the enlarged segments behind the head. 
There are brown and green varieties of larvae, as in C. elpenor. On 
Sept. 3rd we went to a field in an open plain, where my father had 
seen two or three Deiopeia pulchella a day or two before, when he was 
riding. We caught twenty-five without any trouble, and as many the 
next day, and were able to bring back some live females which laid a 
lot of ova. These hatched in about five days, and fed on a plant 
which abounded in the field where we caught them ; it was a low- 
growing plant witli woolly leaves. The larvi^e fed-up well, and were 
brown with reddish spots and some black hairs when I last saw 
them. The last species I caught before leaving was Argynnis 
pandora, a very worn female, which we induced to lay by giving her 
some violet-roots in water in a breeding-cage. This is the only one I 
have seen here, and the date (Sept. IGth) seems very late. The next 
day a good Euprepia pndica was brought to us. Some of the moths I 
got at light and while butterflying are : — Grammodes bifasciata and G. 
alglra, Leucanitia stolida, Catocala electa, Hemerophila abriqitaria, Acontia 
luctuosa, Noctua nigrum, larvae of Acronyeta psl. I noticed a rather 
interesting example of memory and protective colouring, for in a long 
hedge of geranium there was one white leaf, and on this a white 
butterfly or two used to roost regularly for over a week. We did not 
see much of Sphinx convolvuli, but we were early, I think, for its 
appearance, as we left on Sept. 17th. Pyrameis cardui, Vanessa 
atalania, Parage egeria, and the two whites, Pierisrapce and P. hrassiccB, 
were not very common, but Lycana argiolus was abundant. During 
the end of August Macroglossa stellatariini was common always. There 
was only rain on two occasions, and then only showers, but from 
Christmas to Easter it does rain. — G. Meade-Waldo ; Eaton College. 

Plusia moneta, &c., at Finchley. — P. moneta appears to be fairly 
well established here, as by searching Aconitum I have taken the larvte 
in three gardens widely apart. Night-searching for larvre at Hamp- 
stead during the past two weeks has resulted in my taking Noctua 
durapeziimi, which species, however, is not so plentiful as has been the 
case hitherto. Noctua triangulum, N. f estiva, N. augur, N. baia, Tri- 
phcBH a fimbria, T. comes. Mania typica, Leucania litliurgyria, L. impura, 
were all more or less plentiful. — V. E. Shaw; 8, Moss Hall Grove, 
North Finchley, May 29th, 1902. 



SOCIETIES. 197 

CoLiAS HYALE IN 1902. — I took a male C. hyale here to-day, not 
far from where I took two specimens on Oct. 20th last year. Are we 
going to have another clouded -yellow year? — Percy E. Freke ; 
Folkestone, May 25th, 1902. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN 1902. — To-day one of my boys, who was playing 
cricket at Felixstowe, saw one of these butterflies in a field where 
clover and vetches were growing. He gave chase to it and nearly 
knocked it down with his cap. Tliere were a few gleams of sun during 
the afternoon, Init otlierwise it has been a cold unseasonable day and, 
considering the wet wintry kind of weather we have experienced since 
the last week of April, it is rather strange that this species should 
have put in an appearance. It can scarcely have been an immigrant. 
Gebvase F. Mathew; Dovercourt, Essex, June 11th, 1902. 

EupiTHEciA trisignaria IN SCOTLAND. — I liave been fortunate in 
rearing several specimens of this insect from larvae taken on Angelica 
sylvestris last September in Argyleshire. I cannot ascertain whether 
it has hitherto been noticed in Scotland, and this record of it may 
therefore be interesting. It certainly does appear in the Clyde 
District list published last summer. — John A. Nix ; 20, Hans Place, 
S.W. 

Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria in Essex. — On May 27th 
I bred a line example of the above from a larva taken here last autumn. 
This is the first time I have observed the variety in this district. To- 
day I bred another, a very interesting variety, thorax and abdomen 
black, front part of head white, wings nearly black, dusted here and 
there with white atoms. — Gervase F, Mathew ; Dovercourt, Essex, 
June 11th, 1902. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — May 1th, 1902. — The Eev. 
Canon Fowler, M. A., D. Sc, F.L.S., President, in the chair. — Mr. 
Charles R. Cliichester, B.A., M.B., L.R.C.P., of Bathurst, Gambia, 
West Africa, and Clonmore, Co. Cork ; and Mr. J. H. Lewis, of Ophir, 
Otago, New Zealand, were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. H. W. 
Shepheard-Walwyn exhibited a gynandromorphous specimen of AntJio- 
charis cardaniines, taken near Winchester in 1899. The left side was 
that of a normal male, the right that of a normal female, with the 
exception of a splash of orange pigment on the under side of the 
primary. — Mr. H. Goss exhibited male specimens of Saturnia carpini 
from Essex, bred on whitethorn, and three males of the same species 
caught in Surrey by the aid of bred virgin females. He remarked that 
as a rule bred specimens were smaller than wild, but the bred Essex 
specimens were much larger than those captured in Surrey. The 
Essex specimens were light in colour, while the Surrey specimens 
were not only much smaller in size, but very dark, probably because 
their larvae had fed upon Erica or Culluna. — Colonel C. Swiuhoe 
announced the emergence of Comis ligniperda in the Zoological 
Society's Gardens from a pupa received in a piece of wood from South 



198 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Africa, and said that it was remarkable that the species should have 
been introduced there, and then brought back to Great Britain. — 
Professor E. B. Poulton exhibited two FjupUeina, captured in Fiji 
by Professor Gustave Gilson, and presented by him to the Hope 
Department. The species, which belonged to the different genera 
Nipara and Deia(jena, bore the closest superficial resemblance to each 
other, afi'ording an interesting example of MixUerian or Synaposematic 
likeness. — Professor Poulton also exhibited several specimens of 
Diliiia populi which had been exposed during the pupal stage to 
the intense heat of July, 1900. lu consequence of this " forcing " the 
moths emerged towards the end of that month, and were markedly 
different in colour from the normal, being much paler in tint with less 
distinct markings, and the red of the hind wings of a very different 
shade. They were also smaller, but this effect may have followed 
from the larvae having been brought up under artificial conditions in 
the Oxford Museum. — The Rev. A. E. Eaton exhibited drawings illus- 
trating the wing of Pawpterinus latipeimu, Etn., MS., a remarkable 
dipterous fly of the family Psychodidas, from New Guinea, in the 
collection of the Hungarian National Museum, Budapest. — Prof. L. 
Comptou Miall, F.K.S., contributed a paper "On a New Cricket of 
Aquatic Habits, found in Fiji by Professor Gustave Gilson." Mr. R. 
McLachlan said this was not the first time an orthopteron of aquatic 
habits had been noticed. Mr. Pascoe had brought back one such 
insect from the Amazons, which leaped on the leaves of aquatic 
plants, and there was a recent record of another species with kindred 
habits being found in Java. Professor E. B. Poulton remarked that 
Professor Miall was interested in insects which skate upon the water, 
but there were also some Orthoptera which were aquatic in another 
sense. Mr. Annandale had brought back from the Malay region an 
aquatic insect of this order (a BLatta), which was far too heavy to 
skim upon the surface. The President added that there were some 
Coleoptera which, although non-aquatic, were so specialized as to be 
able to use their limbs in a snnilar manner to water-beetles. — Dr. 
T. A. Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S., communicated a paper on " Asymmetry 
in the Males of Hemarine and other Sphinges." — Mr. E. Meyrick, 
B.A., F.Z.S., communicated a paper on " Lepidoptera from the 
Chatham Islands." — H. Rowland-Brown, Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
April 24:th, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair. — Mr. 
C. R. L. Boxer, of Lee, was elected a member. — Mr. Harrison 
exhibited a long series of Tmniocampa opima, bred from ova collected 
at Wallesey, Cheshire. More than half the specimens were of an 
extremely dark coloration, and very few of the type form. — Mr. Main, 
numerous species he had collected in the New Forest at Easter. — Mr. 
Kaye, a very fine series of Heliconius Undigii taken in British Guiana, 
on the Rio Potaro ; and also specimens of the Hymenoptera Melittia 
ceto and M. caudatum, both from South America. — Mr. R. Adkin, a 
series of dark forms of Pdlnra monacha, bred from a New Forest 
parent taken in 1901. — Mr. Moore, the Orthoptera Polyspilota striata 
and Tenodera aridtfolia from Africa ; Hierodula vitiila and Creoboter 
urbana, from Sylhet. — Mr. Colthrup, a var. of Abraxas grossulariata, 



RECENT LITERATURE. 199 

in which the black markings were extended, some coalescing into 
bauds ; and a specimen of Cicada mnntana from the New Forest, found 
close to the pupa-case from which it had just emerged. Rev. F. Perry, 
a large number of insects from South Africa, including stages of the 
migratory locust, a wasp which preys upon spiders, Hemiptera showing 
mimicry, &c. — Mr. Edwards, several species of the Nymphaline genus 
Prepona, and the various species and races of the Aciaviemnun group 
of Papilio. — Mr. Turner, a specimen of the harlequin beetle, Acrusinus 
loiKjimaniis, from Trinidad. — Mr. Sich read a paper on "The Lesser 
British Lepidoptera," and exhibited a large number of species typical 
of the various groups. 

May 8it/t. — The President in the chair. — Messrs. Harrison and 
Main exhibited a very varied series of Tmiioeampaincerta, from Delamere 
Forest, Epping Forest, and Liverpool. — Mr. Moore, Papilio ptolychus, 
male and female, from the Solomon Isles, and P. erectkus from New 
Guinea. — Mr. Scourfield gave an address on "Lakes, and their 
Scientific Investigation," with diagrams. — Hy. J. Turner [Hon. Rep. 
Secretary). 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Claude Fuller. "First Report of the Government Entomologist, 
1899-1900." Natal Dep. Agric, 1901, pp. iv. and 150 ; twenty- 
five plates and numerous text figures. 
Our Colonial Governments have in general far from recognized 
the pressing need for agriculturists of adequate entomological guidance, 
and we welcome this first report of the recently established Entomo- 
logist in Natal. The work is more in the nature of a general guide to 
the principal insect pests of the country, with notes for their preven- 
tion and destruction, than a special report, and is of a thoroughly 
practical nature, filling up a distinct gap, as our previous knowledge 
of African insect-pests was somewhat fragmentary. We hope to see 
many of these reports from the pen of Mr. Fuller in the future. 

G. W. K. 

H. OsBORN and E. D. Ball. "A Review of the North American 

Species of Athysanus (Jassidse)," 1902, Oiiio, Nat. ii. pp. 231-57, 

plates 16 and 17 [also forming Ohio Univ. Bull. (6) 14. 7th 

Contrib. from Dep. Zool. and Ent.] . 

Recently (Entom., 1901, p. 336) we had occasion to notice the 

useful work by the above authors on some obscure American Homo- 

ptera of special interest to entomologists in this country, on account 

of the close relation of the forms treated to their allies of the 

European fauna. 

In the present paper the difficult genus Athysanus is dealt with, 
three new subgenera being separated from Burmeister's original 
group. Twenty-six species (not including four doubtful) are now 
accredited to North America, and of these, three are also European, 
viz. A, striola (Fall.), A. obsoletics, Kirschbaum, and A. striatula (Fall). 

G. W. K. 



200 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Butterflies and Moths of Europe. By W. F. Kirby, P.L.S., F.E.S. 

With fifty-four coloured plates. 4to. London, Paris, New 

York, and Melbourne : Cassell & Co. 1902. 
It is satisfactory to find that the British interest in European 
Lepidoptera is large enough to induce Mr. Kirby to produce a revised 
and greatly extended edition of his popular work on the subject. 
Apart from the fact that much new matter, and some illustrations, 
have been added to the text, new coloured plates have been specially 
prepared for this re-issue. The plates in parts 1, 2, and 4, which we 
have received, are exceedingly well executed, and far superior in every 
way to those in the previous edition. 

The arrangement and nomenclature of the first edition have not 
been materially altered, and as a result the work will be found, as 
regards these matters at least, to differ very little from most of the books 
on European Lepidoptera published during the past fifty years or so. 



Proceedings of the SoucIl Lo7idon Entomological and Natural History 

Society. 1901. Pp. 76. With two plates. Pubhshed at the 

Society's Rooms, Hibernia Chambers, London Bridge, S.E. 

In addition to reports of the five field-meetings held during the 

year, this volume contains two papers: one on "Fossil Insects," by 

Mr. W. West, and the other by Mr. A. M. Montgomery, entitled "Notes 

on Rearing Lepidoptera." We most heartily commend the latter to 

the notice of all who are interested in the observation of Lepidoptera 

in their early stages. The author seems exceptionally happy in 

devising means of obtaining ova from butterflies as well as from 

moths, and his methods of treating larvae, from the time of leaving 

the egg until they attain full growth, are admirable. The paper is 

illustrated by two plates. 

From the Report of the Council we learn that the membership of 
this firmly established Society is rather larger than in the previous 
year, the exact number for the year being one hundred and seventy- 
four. Judging from the nature of the exhibits, as set forth in the 
" Abstract of Proceedings," the business transacted during the session 
was thoroughly in toi h with the objects of the Society. 



Transactions of the City "" London Entomological and Natural History 
Society. Part XI. (1901). Pp. 73.' The Society's Rooms, 
London Institution, Pinsbury Circus, E.C. 

The "Reports of Meetings" aflbrd, as usual, interesting and 
instructive reading. The nomenclature adopted is very decidedly up- 
to-date, and in most cases the average student will no doubt experience 
little difficulty in following it; without previous introduction, possibly 
not a few may fail to recognize such old familiar friends as Colias ediisa 
and Tmiiocampa stabitis under the combinations Eurymus croceus and 
Graphiphora cerasi. 

There are three papers dealing with collecting during holidays at 
Hunstanton, Folkestone, and New Forest, as well as an important one 
on the genus Cideria. The latter is by Mr. Louis B. Prout, who also 
contributes a further instalment of the Lepidoptera of the London 
District. 



Entomologist, August, 1902. 



Plate II. 




THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.l AUGUST, 1902. [No. 471. 



VISIT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OP LONDON 

TO OXFORD. 

(Plate II.) 

The members of the Council and Fellows of the Entomological 
Society, who had accepted Professor E. B. Poulton's kind in- 
vitation to visit Oxford, assembled in the Hope Department of 
Zoology in the Museum on Saturday, July 5th. After a pleasant 
afternoon spent in inspecting the collections, now in process 
of rearrangement, an adjournment was made to Jesus College, 
where Professor Poulton entertained the following members of 
the University and Fellows of the Society : the Vice-Ghancellor, 
Mr. D. B. Monro, Provost of Oriel ; Mr. A. B. Poynton, Senior 
Proctor ; Mr. A. J. Evans, Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum ; 
Professor Dixey, Dr. David Sharp, Mr. E. McLachlan, Pro- 
fessor Meldola, the Eev. F. D. Morice, Colonel Swinhoe, Mr. 
A. J. Chitty, Mr. M. Jacoby, Mr. Hamilton Druce, Mr. H. St. J. 
K. Donisthorpe, Mr. Guy Marshall, and Mr. H. Eowland-Brown. 
"While of the uninvited but appropriate (!) guests who put in an 
appearance was the rare Reduvius personatus, Linn., taken by 
Professor Poulton on the college wall, crawling up toward the 
electric light. On Sunday tea was served in one of the meadows 
that border the Cherwell, after a pleasant pull on the river, now 
in all its summer freshness, and the haunt of innumerable 
Odonata, of which Ccdopteryx splendens and ALschna cyanea 
were perhaps the commonest and most admired. Later in the 

ENTOM. — AUGUST, 1902. B 



202 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

day Colonel Swinhoe and Professor Dixey invited a number 
of Fellows to their high table in Wadham, in the beautiful 
garden of which college the party ended what must certainly 
be considered not the least successful of the many hospitalities 
Professor Poulton and the entomological Fellows of the University 
of Oxford have so kindly extended to the Council and Fellows of 
the Entomological Society of London. 

H. E-B. 



ON CARNIVOEOUS LYC.ENID LARV^. 

By E. Ernest Green, F.E.S. 
(Government Entomologist of Ceylon.) 

In the June number of the * Entomologist,' Mr. F. P. Dodd 
describes an interesting larva of an Australian Lycaenid {Liphyra 
brassolis, Westw.) from nests of an ant, CEcophtjlla sinaragdina. 
Mr. Dodd gives reasons for believing that the larvse prey upon 
the grubs of the ants ; but has failed to rear any by providing 
them with that food. 

That the larvae are really carnivorous seems to be proved by 
the fact that they seized and attempted to eat some of the 
grubs ; but they do not appear to have been satisfied with that 
diet. Is it not possible that their proper food may be some 
Coccid enclosed in the ant's nests ? In Ceylon, the arboreal 
nests of this same ant almost invariably include colonies of 
Coccidae, Aphidae, or Aleurodidae. We have here also a coccido- 
phagous Lycaenid larva (of SjJalgis epius, Westw.). I have on 
more than one occasion found them inside nests of another tree 
ant, Cremastogaster dohrni, feeding upon ** mealy bugs" {Dacty- 
lopius sp.) enclosed therein. 

The larvae of another Ceylonese Lycaenid (Apknoous loJiita, 
Horsf. = lazularia, Moore) frequent the nests of Cremastogaster 
on Acacia and Grevillea trees, upon the foliage of which they 
feed. These larvae carry a dorsal honey-gland near the posterior 
extremity of the body, and are cultivated by the ants on that 
account. They are herded in special shelters built by the ants, 
are driven out at night to feed, and brought back to their shelters 
each morning. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon : June 20th, 1902. 



203 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF PHYTO- 
PHAGOUS COLEOPTERA FROM THE ISLAND OF 
MAURITIUS. 

By Maktin Jacoby. 

In the * Transactions ' of the Entomological Society of London 
for 1898 I have already described several species from the above 
locality, which were obtained by Mons. Alluaud, of Paris. I 
have now received some other species from the same gentleman, 
which, although closely aUied, seem again different, and of which 
I give the descriptions here. 

CCENOBIUS SULCICOLLIS, Sp. n. 

Black, the labrum flavous ; thorax impunctate, deeply obliquely 
sulcate at the sides ; elytra moderately deeply punctate-striate, black, 
shining, with a transverse flavous spot at the middle of the disc. 
Length, 3f mill. 

Head black, nearly impunctate, the clypeus broad, with a few 
punctures ; eyes extremely large, occupying the entire sides of the 
head and nearly joined at the vertex, deeply notched ; antennae sub- 
filiform, the lower four joints fulvous, the rest black, basal joint elon- 
gate, second one short, third and fourth joints equal, the others 
slightly thickened and shorter ; thorax transverse, narrowed anteriorly, 
if viewed from above, the sides greatly deflexed, the lateral margins 
rounded, anterior margin accompanied by a deep groove, the surface 
entirely impunctate and shining, black, the sides with a deep oblique 
groove at the middle, extending nearly to the middle of the disc, the 
basal margin slightly produced at the middle and truncate at that 
place ; scutellum subquadrate ; elytra short and parallel, rather deeply 
punctate-striate, the punctures very fine near the apex, the interstices 
flat and impunctate, those near the lateral margins convex, shoulders 
rounded and prominent, the surface black and shining, with a small 
transverse flavous spot at the middle of the disc ; below and the legs 
black ; prosternum broader than long, the base concave. 

The structural characters in regard to the antennae and the 
thorax scarcely fit in any of the different genera of Crypto- 
cephalidae, but the large and nearly joined eyes and the broad 
prosternum are characters peculiar to Cosnobius ; the deep 
thoracic groove in connection with the coloration will at once 
distinguish the species. 

Ehyparida bimaculicollis, sp. n. 

Obscure testaceous or fulvous ; antennae (the basal joints excepted) 
black ; thorax impunctate, with two black spots ; elytra strongly 
punctate-striate, the interstices minutely wrinkled, the sides broadly 
and the suture very narrowly black. Length, 5 mill. 

Of oblong parallel shape ; the head impunctate, opaque, obscure 
fulvous, with a deep central groove at the vertex ; clypeus separated 
by another very deep transverse groove, its anterior margin concave, 
the surface finely and sparingly punctured ; labrum fulvous ; antennsB 

li 2 



204 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

slender, the lower three joints fulvous, the rest black, the second and 
thml joints equal, each sliorter than the fourth ; thorax transverse, 
the sides rounded, the anterior angles pointed, the basal margin pre- 
ceded by a narrow but deep partly punctured groove, the surface im- 
punctate, very minutely granulate, with a rather large black spot at 
each side ; scutellum piceous ; elytra subcylindrical, strongly punctate- 
striate, the punctures much finer towards the apex, the interstices here 
and there finely wrinkled, the suture narrowly and the sides more 
broadly black, this colour at the latter place abbreviated near the 
apex ; below and the legs fulvous, the posterior femora with a small 
tooth. 

This species — the only one known at present from Mauritius 
— resembles much in coloration many Australian forms of the 
genus, but may be separated by the impunctate and maculate 
thorax, and the markings of the elytra ; the latter are somewhat 
variable, and probably sometimes either entirely absent or more 
strongly marked. The structural characters are entirely those 
of the genus Rhyparida. 

Trichostola puncticollis, sp. n. 

Black below, above greenish cupreous, clothed with white pubes- 
cence ; the basal jomts of the antennae and the legs fulvous ; thorax 
very strongly punctured ; elytra very closely and equally strongly 
punctate. Length, 2 mill. 

Head metallic greenish, strongly but sparingly punctured, clothed 
with single long white hairs ; labrum fulvous ; antennse extending 
nearly to the end of the elytra, black, the lower three or four joints 
fulvous, third and fourth joints rather slender, equal, the following 
joints slightly thickened ; thorax about twice as broad as long, the 
lateral margins rounded, the surface very closely and deeply punctured, 
cupreous, sparingly pubescent ; elytra with a feeble transverse de- 
pression below the base, punctured like the thorax, the punctuation 
arranged in very close rows, the interstices scarcely defined, with a 
few fine punctures, partly transversely wrinkled and clothed with 
white hairs ; below black, legs fulvous. 

I know of no other species of this genus having an equally 
strongly punctured thorax. T. rugulosa, Fairm., is described 
with a pale fulvous pubescence, and with a finely rugose thorax 
and elytra ; the antennae are also described as fulvous. 

Trichostola thoracica, sp. n. 

Below black ; antennae and legs fulvous, above obscure cupreous ; 
thorax transverse, finely rugosely punctured, clothed with grey pubes- 
cence ; elytra finely punctate-stnate, the interstices finely wrinkled 
and pubescent. Length, 3 mill. 

Head finely rugose and pubescent, dark cupreous, opaque ; antennse 
fulvous, the last joint darker, third joint distinctly shorter than the 
fourth ; thorax more than twice as broad as long, of equal width, the 
sides scarcely deflexed, the lateral margins rounded, the surface sculp- 
tured like the head, and clothed with grey pubescence ; elytra with a 



NEW SPECIES OF PHYTOPHAGOUS COLEOPTERA. 205 

slight transverse depression below the base, rather finely punctate- 
striate, more distinctly so at the sides ; the interstices likewise finely 
punctured, slightly wrinkled and pubescent ; legs fulvous. 

The general coloration of this species is opaque cupreous, 
and the thorax is less narrowed anteriorly than is generally the 
case ; the elytral punctured stria are not so well defined as in 
most of its allies, owing to the somewhat wrinkled interstices. 

Trichostola fasciatipbnnis, sp. n. 

Pale fulvous or ferrugineous, closely pubescent ; thorax clothed 
with yellow pubescence ; elytra strongly punctate-striate and pubes- 
cent, pale fulvous, the suture and a short discoidal stripe at the disc 
fuscous. Length, 2 mill. 

Head smooth, not perceptibly punctured, the lower portion and the 
palpi flavous ; antennas fulvous, the terminal five or six joints fuscous, 
thickened ; thorax more than twice as broad as long, the sides feebly 
rounded, slightly narrowed anteriorly, the basal margin sinuate at 
each side, surface sculptured and pubescent like the head ; scutellum 
similarly clothed with yellow hairs ; elytra with regular and rather 
closely placed rows of deep punctures, the interstices pubescent, ful- 
vous, the suture narrowly fuscous, the middle of the disc with a short 
more or less distinct fuscous stripe, not extending to the base or 
apex ; below and the legs coloured like the upper surface. 

The general coloration of this species differs from any of its 
allies, but the elytral stripe is sometimes obsolete or absent. 

Trichostola femoralis, sp. n. 

Below obscure fulvous ; the terminal joints of the antennae and the 
breast fuscous ; above obscure aeneous, clothed with fulvous hairs ; 
thorax extremely finely, elytra more distinctly punctured in indistinct 
rows, the interstices finely and sparingly punctate ; legs fulvous, the 
apex of the femora and tibins fuscous. Length, 5 mill. 

Of comparatively large size ; the head obsoletely punctured and 
furnished with some fulvous hairs, the anterior margin of the clypeus 
and the labrum fulvous ; antennae extending to about the middle of 
the elytra, the lower four or five joints fulvous, the others black, the 
third and following two joints slender and equal, the rest slightly 
thickened, shorter ; thorax more than twice as broad as long, slightly 
narrowed anteriorly, the sidesn-ounded, the punctuation very fine and 
close, the interstices furnished with fulvous pubescence, the posterior 
margin straight at the sides ; scutellum pubescent ; elytra with a 
feeble depression below the base, punctured in rows, rather difficult to 
distinguish on account of the close and but little less strongly punctured 
interstices, the latter also clothed with longish fulvous hairs ; abdomen 
and legs fulvous, the femora with a fuscous spot or patch near the 
apex ; the tibiae more or less similarly coloured at the base. 

One of the largest species of the genus, of obscure aeneous or 
cupreous coloration ; the punctuation of the thorax and the 
elytra close and fine ; the legs marked with fuscous. 



206 - THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ON SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENO- 
PTERA (ICHNEUMONID^, CHRYSIDID^, FOSSORES, 
AND APID^). 

By p. Cameron. 

(Continued from p. 183.) 

CHRYSIDID^. 

Chrysis (Tetrachrysis) lepcha, sp. nov. 

Viridis, supra late cferuleo ; antennis tarsisque nigris ; alls fusco- 
violaceis. Long. 14 mm. ? . 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

Antennffi black ; the basal three joints bluish above ; the base of 
the scape broadly green ; the flagellum, except at the base, covered 
Virith a pale down. Head green, tinged with blue ; the front brassy in 
the middle ; the ocellar region purple ; the apex of the clypeus and 
the mandibles, except at the base, black. The vertex coarsely and 
deeply punctured, the punctures larger and deeper at the sides near 
the eyes ; the front closely punctured in the middle ; the sides much 
more strongly punctured ; the eyes are bordered by a distinctly defined 
row of punctures ; in the centre of the front above is a shallow de- 
pression ; the orbits behind are bordered by a sharp distinct keel. 
Thorax above dark green ; the base and a transverse band on the pro- 
notum, and the centre of the meso- and metanotum, broadly purple ; 
the pronotum coarsely and closely rugosely punctured, except a smooth 
impunctate space in the centre at the base, this space being broadest 
behind ; the mesonotum and the scutellum have the punctures larger 
and deeper, especially in the middle ; the middle of the metanotum is 
punctured like the scutellum, its sides near the wings depressed ; the 
projecting lateral angles are coarsely punctured at the base ; the outer 
sides at the apex have two slight depressions. The upper part of the 
propleurffi coarsely punctured ; the middle is depressed, and bears a 
few irregular strise ; below this depression is a deeper narrower longi- 
tudinal one ; mesopleurse deeply and largely punctured, the punctures 
running into reticulations. Mesosternum brassy, closely punctured 
behind ; the sides and middle with stronger punctures. The meta- 
pleurffi are irregularly longitudinally striated, the striae being stronger 
and more widely separated at the base. Legs green, largely mixed 
with blue ; the tarsi black. "Wings fuscous, paler towards the apex ; 
the nervures deep black. The basal segment of the abdomen is bluish 
green ; the sides with a distinct brassy tinge ; the base and sides are 
strongly punctured ; the centre has the punctures more widely sepa- 
rated and smaller ; between the larger punctures are smaller ones. 
The second segment is closely punctured, the punctuation on the sides 
being closer and stronger than on the middle, and they have a brassy 
tint ; the third segment is finely and sparsely punctured at the base, 
the rest of it much more strongly and closely punctured ; the apical 
depression is wide and deep ; the foveas are also deep ; the four teeth 
are large ; the outer broader than the inner, and somewhat triangular. 



SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA. 207 

This is considerably larger than any of the other species of 
this section. 

MUTILLID^. 

MUTILLA CASIPHIA, Sp. nOV. 

Black ; the basal three segments of the abdomen red ; the scutellum 
with a narrow deep furrow down the centre ; the area on the median 
segment reaches to the apes of the truncation, and becomes gradually 
narrowed ; wings violaceous, paler at the base. $ . Long. 18 mm. 

Hah. Borneo. 

Antennae short, the flagellum opaque ; the third joint slightly 
longer than the fourth, which is of the length of the fifth. Head nar- 
rower than the thorax, densely covered with long griseous hair ; on the 
cheeks the hair is longer, denser, and bright silvery in tint. Front 
and vertex coarsely rugosely punctured ; the face and clypeus smooth 
and shining ; on the centre, above the clypeus, is a conical projection, 
the narrow part being above ; the clypeus is depressed below it, and 
foveate on either side of its apex. Mandibles broad ; the apical tooth 
broad, broadly rounded at the apex, the subapical tooth transverse ; at 
the base, behind the middle, is a large blunt tooth, which projects 
downwards ; the base is thickly covered with grey pile, and with 
silvery hair ; the palpi are black. Pro- and mesothorax closely and 
strongly punctured ; the mesopleurs and sternum thickly covered 
with silvery pubescence ; the mesonotum thickly with longisb blackish 
hair ; the scutellum and post-scutellum with long black hair ; there 
are two furrows on the apical two-thirds of the mesonotum, a smooth 
flat keel between them, and a shorter one on either side. Scutellum 
roundly convex, rugosely punctured ; there is a furrow in the centre 
of the apical two-thirds, bordered by fiat smooth keels, and there is a 
flat smooth keel at its base. Median segment coarsely and regularly 
reticulated ; there is a central area which reaches to the top of the 
truncation ; it is wide at the base, and becomes gradually narrowed to 
the apex, which is not quite one-half the width of the base. Propleurfe 
closely rugosely punctured, the apex smooth, with some stout stride 
behind. Legs thickly covered with white hair ; the spurs pale. Wings 
deep fusco-violaceous, paler at the base ; the pale space on the hinder 
wings more extended than on the front ; the third cubital cellule at 
the top and bottom is distinctly shorter than the second ; the apex of 
the radius is obliquely bent upwards, is straight, and at a different 
angle from the lower part ; the first transverse cubital uervure is 
rounded, and has an oblique slope ; the second is not oblique, and has 
a broad rounded curve ; the third is sharply angled in the middle ; 
both the recurrent nervures are received shortly, but distinctly beyond 
the middle. The apical half of the first and the whole of the second 
and third segments are rufous ; the basal five segments are covered 
with white, the apical more thickly with longer black hair ; the ventral 
keel is stout, does not extend beyond the middle, and is roundly but 
not deeply curved below. The pygidium has an elongated bare space, 
narrowed at the top and bottom in the centre ; the sides on the basal 
two-thirds are covered with long black hair ; the apex is sparsely but 
not strongly punctured ; the hypopygium is flat, covered with long 
black hair, and not keeled. 



208 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



MUTILLA AESYCA, Sp. nOV. 

Black ; the head and thorax red ; the front femora and the basal 
three-fourths of the four posterior rufous ; the lower part of the petiole 
rufous ; a quadrate spot on the centre of the petiole, a broad band on 
the apex of the third segment, widest in the middle, the apex of the 
penultimate, and the sides of the last segment covered with silvery 
pubescence. ? . Long. 11 mm. 

Hab. Borneo. 

Antennffi entn-ely black ; the third joint more than double the 
length of the fourth ; the fourth and fifth equal in length. Front and 
vertex rugosely punctured, and sparsely covered with longish black 
hair ; the front indistinctly keeled down the centre. Antennal tubercles 
dark rufous, smooth. Mandibles black, rufous at the apex ; their base 
punctured ; their apical tooth long, rounded at the apex ; the hair on 
their base long and pale fulvous. The head is broader than long, but is 
largely developed behind the eyes ; the occiput is roundly incised, not 
transverse or convex. Thorax twice longer than broad; the base and 
apex almost transverse, with their sides rounded ; the outer edge of 
the mesonotum is irregular ; the sides of the apex above bear four 
stout teeth. The top of the median segment has a rounded slope ; it 
is sparsely punctured, and is keeled down the centre. Pleurse smooth 
and shining ; the upper part projects. Legs black ; the front femora 
entirely, and the four posterior, except at the apex, rufous ; they are 
covered with long white hair ; the tibial spines apparently are few in 
number, and are black ; the spurs are pale ; the tarsal spines are 
rufous ; their basal joints are thickly covered with pale pubescence. 
The abdomen deep black ; there is a square mark of silvery pubescence 
on apex of the petiole, in the middle there is a broad band of similar 
pubescence, broadest in the middle, on the apex of the second segment ; 
a broader one on the penultimate, and the sides of the pygidium are 
thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the last segment is punctured 
at the base ; the apical half is smooth, shining, and piceous. The 
keel on the basal ventral segment does not project much, and is 
rounded at the base and apex ; the second segment is smooth and de- 
pressed on the basal half, and is there indistinctly keeled in the middle ; 
the epipygium is closely punctured, and is distinctly bordered laterally. 
On the side of the second segment is an elongated patch of dark rufous 
pubescence. 

(To be continued.) 



A LIST OF TOETRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX 

BETWEEN 1885 AND 1901. 

By a. Thurnall. 

(Concluded from p. 193.) 

Catojytria wimmerana, Wilk. — Strictly confined to the salt marshes 
along the Thames, and on the coast. Wakering, near Shoeburyness, 
Thames Haven, Fobbing, and Benfleet. Larva in September and 
October spun up in the tops of Artemisia maritima. 



TOETRICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 209 

C. cana, Haw. — Very common amongst thistles, in the heads of 
which the larva may be found in abundance in September. From 
one of several larvfe taken near Clacton in September, 1888, I bred a 
female in 1890. This is the only instance known to me of this species 
taking two seasons to arrive at the perfect state. 

C. scopoliana, Haw. — Fairly common amongst Centaurea nigra, in 
the heads of which the larva feeds. Much more commonly met with 
some seasons than others. Its near sd\y , fulvana , St., I have only met 
with in the north of the county, strictly confined to Centaurea scabiosa. 

C. cacimaculana , Hb. — Apparently rare and local in the county. I 
once took a pair amongst Centaurea nigra, &c., on a piece of chalky 
waste ground near Grays, but unfortunately lost the boxes, so that I 
am still without any Essex examples 1 

C. (Buiulana, Schl. — Strictly confined to places where its food- 
plant, golden-rod, grows. I have found the larva very sparingly 
between Brentwood and Ingatestone. Very much more abundant on 
the Kentish side of the Thames, from whence I have bred it freely. 

C. tripoliana, Barr. — I have found this variable species wherever 
Aster tripolium grows in the " saltings." The larva may be found 
full-fed early in October in the seed-heads. Not difficult to breed if 
kept fully exposed to all weathers. 

C. expallidana, Haw. — Very local ; I have only met with it in a 
rough field not far from Upminster early in July, 

G. citrann, Hb. — Mr. Machin used to get this species sparingly on 
the sloping banks between Southend and Leigh, but I fear it is not 
likely to be met with there now. Still occurs, I believe, on Canvey 
Island. Larva feeds in flower heads of Achillea miUefolium. 

Trijcheris auraiia, Fb. — Local ; I have netted a few in rough fields 
near Hadleigh, but I am told that it occurs in many places. 

Lobesia permixtana, Hiib. — Very abundant in Epping Forest, 
Brentwood district, and many other places, generally amongst oak. I 
have never met with the larva to my knowledge, but it has been bred 
from blackthorn and birch. It is almost sure to be found on oak as 
well some day. 

Eupcecilia nana, Haw. — Common amongst birch shrubs generally. 
I once bred two specimens from a dead thistle stem, much to my 
surprise, until I came to recollect that the stem was picked (in Wan- 
stead Park) from beneath a birch tree. 

E. dubitana, Hb. — Eather local. Wanstead, Upminster, Waltham 
Abbey, Danbury, Wakering, &c. I have bred it from golden rod, 
Hieracium tridentatum and umbellatuni, and Senecio jacobmt. Feeds on 
the young seeds in September. 

E. atricapitana, St. — Local and uncommon in South Essex. I 
liave bred it once or twice from dead stems of Senecio from near 
Thames Haven, and the second brood from the green stems of the 
same plant from the railway bank near Harold Wood. 

E. maculosana, Haw. — Not uncommon in plantations and woods 
where its food-plant, Scilla nutans, grows. The larva feeds on the 
green seeds, in July, and then leaves to spin- up amongst rubbish. 
Very quick on the wing when flying in the sunshine over a bed of its 
food-plant. I have met with it in the woods round Warley more 
abundantly than elsewhere. 



210 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

E. hybiidellana, Hb. — Local and scarce ; more abundant in the 
larva state. I have taken a very few not far from Pitsea, and found 
the little pinkish larva in abundance, feeding in the seed-heads of 
Helmmthia echioides, but I found it very difficult to breed. 

E. anr/ustana, Hb. — The small pale form sometimes swarming in 
early August over Calluna vulgaris at Loughton, Warley, Tiptree, &c. 
The much more handsome and earlier form (which feeds upon the 
seed of Plantago lanceolata, and, I believe, other plants) is much less 
common. Thames Haven, railway banks near Komford, also rough 
fields near Upminster. I was at one time inclined to think we had 
two species mixed up here. 

E. vectisana, Westw. — Very common in the salt marshes amongst 
Triglochin maridmum, its food-plant. Mr. Machin met with a specimen 
on Hackney Marshes, where it had probably fed on the allied T. ixilustre. 

E. afjinitana, Dougl. — Common in every salting where Aster tri- 
poliiim grows. I have found the pupa in the spring in the upper part 
of the previous season's flower-stalks. 

E. ndana, Gn. — Seldom seen on the wing, but the larva may be 
found in most places in the stems of Alisma plantago, pupating therein. 
The insects last over a considerable time ; this summer, for instance, 
I bred one on June 11th, and the next specimen came out on July 12th ! 

E. notidana, Zell. — I have never bred this insect or met with the 
imago in Essex ; but in 1886 I found, near Brentwood, in the early 
autumn, several larvae in stems of Mentha aquatica, which were no 
doubt this species, but I failed to rear any of them. 

E. rupicola, Curt. — Scarce and local. I have found the larva on 
the banks of the Chelmer, near Chelmsford, in the old prostrate stems 
of Eupatorium cannahinum, but this plant is by no means common in 
the districts where I have collected. 

E. rnseana, Haw. — May generally, but not always, be found in the 
larval state in heads of the common teazel. Harold Wood, Benfleet, 
Pitsea, and Cauvey Island. From the last named locality I bred the 
largest and most beautifully coloured specimens I have seen. 

E. ciliella, Hb. — Only met with at Ingatestone, where a few larvae 
were found feeding in the seeds of the common cowslip. Primula veris. 

E. iinplicitana, H. S. — Not rare ; may be found among such plants 
as Anthemis cotula, Matricaria inodora and chamomilla, in the seed of 
which tlie larva feeds, often, but not always, pupating in the stems. 
I have also bred it freely from flowers or seeds of golden rod from Kent. 

E. erigerana, Wlsm. — Very local in South Essex. I have only met 
with it once on a piece of waste ground near Harold Wood. I found 
it very abundantly near here (Croydon), and also bred it from flower- 
heads of Erigeron acre a few weeks ago (August, 1901). 

Xanthosetia zoegana, L. — Not common, but very widely distributed. 
I have taken the very striking xsn-.ferriigana, Haw., near Stratford, on 
Ley ton Marshes. 

X. hamana, L. — Very common and variable amongst the various 
species of thistle in every locality I have worked. The larva is said 
to feed on thistles, but I have never met with it. 

Chrosis tesserana, Tr. — Common on rough, dry, waste grounds, and 
in great variety, some of which are very beautiful, others nearly or 
quite unicolorous. I once bred nearly forty from larvae obtained the 



TORTBICES TAKEN IN SOUTH ESSEX. 211 

previous autumn feeding on roots of Relminthia echioides, and a few on 
Picris, on the railway bank near Stanford-le-Hope. 

Argyrolepia haxmimmiana, Schiff. — Scarce and local in damp places 
amongst Scabiosa succisa, in the roots of which plant it is believed to 
feed. Near Brentwood, and beside the road leading from the ' Eobin 
Hood ' to High Beech, Loughton. 

A. sub-banmanniana, Wilk. — Another scarce and local species. I 
have only met with it in a rough place on the chalk near Purfleet. 
I am inclined to think that Scabiosa columbaria roots will be found to 
be the food of the larva. 

A. zephyrana, Tr. — Not uncommonly found where Dauciis carota 
grows ; in the root and lower part of the stem the larva may be found 
through the winter. Like so many other Tortrices, it is partial to 
railway banks. 

A. maritimana, Gn. — Entirely confined to those places on the 
coast where Eryncjium maritimnm grows. The larva may be found in 
the winter far down in the sand in the root of this somewhat local 
plant. I have bred a good number in past years from roots dug up in 
the neighbourhood of Clacton, but I expect the plant is scarce there now. 
A. badimia, Hb. — Generally common amongst burdock, in the seeds 
(not the stems) of which the larva feeds, together with Parasia lapella, 
leaving when full-fed and pupating amongst rubbish on the ground. 

A. cnicana, Dbl. — Mr. Machin used to take this amongst thistles, 
&c., in boggy places in Epping Forest. I have not met with it. 

A. ceneana, Haw. — This, perhaps the most beautiful of all our 
Tortrices, although local, is by no means rare in Essex. I have met 
with it (usually the larva) on the railway banks near Eomford, Harold 
Wood, Stanford-le-Hope to Thames Haven, also at Fobbing, Benfleet, 
and near Upminster. The larva may be found in the autumn and 
winter in the roots of Senecio jacobaa, in which it pupates. 

Conchylis dipoltdla, Hb. — Another beautiful but far more local 
insect. Mr. Machin used to find the larva in seed-heads of Achillea 
millefolium near Southend ; I have not met with it in any stage. 

C. francillonana, Fb. — Locally common amongst its food-plant, 
Daitcus carota. Harold Wood, Komford, and commonly near Upmin- 
ster and Benfleet. 

C. dilucidana, St. — More commonly found in the larva state in dead 
stems of Pastinaca satira wherever it grows abundantly. 

C. smeathmanniana, Fb. — Somewhat local among A. millefolium and 
Anthemis cotula on waste ground. Very common at Temple Mihs, near 
Stratford, Eomford, Blackmore, East Horndon, &c. I have found it 
difiicult to breed. 

C. stramineana, Haw. — Only met with at Harold Wood and near 
Pitsea, always amongst Centanrea nigra, in the heads of which the 
larva feeds. 

Aphelia osseana, Scop. — Common as this curious species is in many 
places, I have only met with it on one occasion in South Essex, on a 
rough, dry slope near Upminster. 

Tortricodes hyemana, Hb. — In great abundance in March in oak 
woods, and varying considerably ; some of the specimens are rather 
pretty, but the majority of them plain. The female is less often met 
with ; I once got a good many by searching the trunks of the oaks 
after dark. 



212 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF HETEROCERA 
FROM THE TRANSVAAL. 

By W. L. Distant. 

The following seven species have recently been added to my 
collection from various sources, and will be eventually figured in 
' Insecta Transvaaliensia,' now in course of publication : — 

Fam. NocTuiD^. 

TiMORA TRANSVAALICA, Sp. n. 

Head pale brownish, pronotum greyish-pink, abdomen dull ochra- 
ceous, sternum greyish-white. Anterior wings very pale carmine or 
pinky red, with a greyish ray extending from base to about middle of 
wing, above this a similar but longer ray margining lower area of cell 
and extending to apical margin, other narrower and more obscure 
greyish rays between the nervures ; posterior wings creamy-white ; 
anterior wings beneath much paler than above. Exp. wings 34 millim. 

Hah. Transvaal; Johannesburg (J. Hyde). 

AUDEA SUBLIGATA, Sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, and legs piceous ; abdomen, sternum, femora 
above, and spots to tarsi ochraceous ; disk, apex, and lateral margins 
of abdomen suffused with fuscous. Anterior wings above piceous ; 
posterior wings somewhat obscure greyish, the basal area tinged with 
pale ochraceous, the veins mostly fuscous, and with a narrow marginal 
piceous fascia, the fringe greyish. Wings beneath greyish ; anterior 
wings with the costal margin, subapical and apical fasciae, and outer 
marginal spots piceous, cellular' area fuscous ; posterior wings with 
the posterior apical margin and a costal spot piceous. Exp. wings 
88 millim. 

Hah. Transvaal ; Lydenburg district (Pret. Mus. and Coll. 
Dist.). 

Chalciope PRETORIA, sp. n. 

Head pale ochraceous, its basal area and antennfe darker ; pro- 
notum with the anterior area ochraceous-brown posteriorly defined by 
a dark transverse castaneous line between the costal angles of the 
wings, beyond this the colour is pale luteous ; abdomen dark ochra- 
ceous ; sternum and legs pale luteous. Anterior wings pale ochraceous, 
sparingly speckled with small brown points ; two small discal brown 
spots near base, an oblique costal spot near centre of cell, a reniform 
discal spot at end of cell preceded by a short costal stripe, followed by 
a curved series of minute spots crossing wing, the costal largest, all 
brown, outer marginal area very pale purplish brown, inwardly defined 
by a white line margined with brown and outwardly by three narrow 
contiguous whitish lines; posterior wings pale greyish, outer area 
tinged with pale ochraceous, the discal veins marked with a short 
fuscous streak. Exp. wings 52 millim. 

Habi Transvaal ; Pretoria. 
Allied to C. carnieola, Hamps. 



NEW SPECIES OF HETEROCERA FROM THE TRANSVAAL. 213 



Fam. NoTODONTiD^. 

RiGEMA AURIFODIN^, Sp. D. 

Head andpronotumgolden-yeliow; abdomen brownish-ocbraceous, 
the base and apex greyisbly pilose, and with a lateral marginal black 
fascia on each side ; sternum and legs ochraceous, with yellow pilosity ; 
tarsi spotted with blaclc ; autennre pale ochraceous. Anterior wings 
stramineous, with a broad central longitudinal fascia, a shorter and 
narrower fascia from end of cell, and a very short subapical marginal 
streak, pale brownish-ocbraceous with blackish speckles ; posterior 
wings greyish-white ; anterior wings beneath much paler than above. 
Exp. wings 37-40 millim. 

Hah. Transvaal; Johannesburg (J. Hyde). Pretoria (Pret. 
Mus.). 

Cerura swierstr^, sp, n. 

Head, pronotum, and body beneath hoary-white ; a transverse 
ochraceous fascia preceded by a black suffusion between lateral pro- 
notal angles ; a spot at base of head, a transverse basal fascia to 
pronotum, abdomen above, head beneath, tibial spots, and the tarsi 
black ; base and apex of abdomen above hoary-white ; antennae with 
the pectination fuscous. Wings hoary-white ; anterior wings with 
costal and outer marginal spots and a speckled suffusion on outer 
basal area, black ; posterior wings with a central subcostal spot and 
minute outer marginal spots as on anterior wings, black. Exp. wings 
32 millim. 

Hah. Transvaal; Pretoria (Swierstra — Pret. Mus. and Coll. 
Dist.). 

Fam. CossiD^. 
DuoMiTus squameus, sp. n. 

Body above and beneath, with legs, greyish-brown ; pronotum 
thickly irrorated with pale greyish scales; head and anterior margin 
of pronotum dark purplish ; pectination of the antennas dull ochrace- 
ous. Anterior wings brownish, thickly irrorated with grey scales ; a 
purplish-brown patch occupying costal area for about one-third from 
base, where it is also about one-third of breadth of wing, a similarly 
coloured costal spot nearly above apex of cell ; posterior wings greyish- 
brown ; wings beneath somewhat uniformly greyish-brown. Exp. 
wings 58 millim. 

Hah. Transvaal ; Pretoria. 

AZYGOPHLEPS leopardina, sp. n. 
Head and pronotum pale yellowish-white; pronotum with a trans- 
verse fascia on anterior collar, two transverse series of four spots in 
each across disk, and four spots on posterior area — two laterally on 
each side — black ; antennae greyish-white, speckled with black, their 
bases broadly black ; body and legs pale greyish-brown, tibi» and tarsi 
more or less annulated with black. Anterior wings cretaceous-white, 
somewhat thickly and irregularly black spotted, on apical third the 
spots transversely crossing wing, before this, or on basal two-thirds, 



214 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the spots in more longitudinal series; posterior wings cretaceous, with 
obscure dark spots placed transversely on their outer areas ; the veins 
of both wings more or less ochraceous ; wings beneath as above, but 
anterior wings with the spots a little paler. Exp. wings 60 millim. 
Hob. Transvaal ; Pretoria. 



ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
AUCHENORRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 

By Dr. H. J. Hansen. 
(Continued from vol. xxxiv. p. 154.) 

D. Spieacles and Abdomen.* 

As regards the number of spiracles, I do not know ot any 
opinions founded upon research other than L. Dufour's erroneous 
statement (in 1833) for the number in Cicada (see above),! and 
WiTLACZiL (in 1885) for TyjMocijha. In the above cited work, 
ScHioDTE remarks (p. 255): "EhynchotaHeteroptera have without 
exception ten pairs of spiracles, whose distribution is exactly as I 
pointed out long ago in. the Coleoptera." That is to say, the 
first pair lie between the pro- and meso-sternum ; the second pair 
between the meso- and meta-sternum; the third pair "on the 
insect's back concealed by the wings, between the metanotum 
and the first tergite of the abdomen " (p. 257) ; the fourth to 
tenth pairs " lie on the ventral part of the pleural-fold of the 
abdomen. There are thus seven pairs of ventral abdominal 
spiracles." In the types of all four families of tlie Atichenorrhynclia 
I have likewise found ten pairs of spiracles. In the location of the 
eight pairs of abdominal spiracles, one finds, moreover, features 
affording exquisite family characters, and some of these deviate 
from the rule formulated by Schiodte as being applicable to the 
Heteroptera. In discussing the abdominal spiracles it will be at 
the same time necessary to deal with some points in the structure 
of the abdomen, and each of the families must be treated 
separately as regards this ; while, on the other hand, the thoracic 
spiracles appear not to offer special differences in the several 
families, and the latter can therefore be considered together. 

a. Thoracic Spiracles. 
1. Spiracles between the pro- and meso-thorax lie in the soft 
articulating membrane between these two sclerites, almost under 

* A somewhat different account has been given of the spiracles by 
Verhoeff (1894, Verh. Naturh. Vereins Eheinlands, vol. 1. pp. 307-74 ; 
abstract in 1893, Entom. Nachr. xix. pp. 369-80), but Handlirsch has recently 
fully confirmed Hansen's account (1899, Verh. zool. botan. Gesellsch. Wien. 
xlix. pp. 449-510 ; see also ' Entomologist,' 1900, p. 20).— G. W. K. 

f This refers to the Hihtorical resume, not translated. — G. W. K. 



THE AUCHENORRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 215 

the root of the fore wings, either on the lateral margin of the 
body (Cicada), or a little under the same {Aphrophora) . They 
are hidden by the flattened-out, broad, prothoracic lateral mar- 
gin, and can be seen very easily when this is cut away. They 
are almost perpendicular {Cicada), or inclined postero-ventrally 
(Aphrophora) ; they are always conspicuous, occasionally very 
large (Tettigonia, Aphrophora) . 

2. Spiracles between meso- and meta-iliorax lie concealed under 
the articulation of the hind wings, a little from the lateral mar- 
gins on the ventral surface. They are smaller than {Aphrophora), 
of equal size with {Cicada), or almost larger than {Fulgora), the 
'first pair. In, for example, Fulgora they are externally visible 
without preparation ; in the Stridulantia they are best viewed in 
profile, as they are more or less covered by a posteriorly-directed 
flap arising from the posterior margin of the mesothorax ; in the 
Jassidse and Cercopidse they are covered by a similar plate- 
shaped projection, and lie so completely hidden that they are 
not easy to discover. 

b. Abdomen and its Spiracles. 

1. Strididantia. — The tergite of the first segment of the 
abdomen is well developed, especially about the middle, but 
much shorter than the following segments ; the sternite is also 
well chitinized, especially in the male more strongly and pecu- 
liarly. The second segment is solid throughout, without any 
trace of membrane between the tergite and the sternite ; dorsally 
it is quite as long as the following segments. Each of the third 
to seventh segments is formed out of a sternite, which is far from 
reaching the lateral margin of the body, and of a tergite, which 
is extended to that lateral margin ; between the lateral margins 
of the tergite and the sternite there is found a somewhat broad 
band, which, according to the explanation here adopted, is taken 
to be the Pleuron. This consists of two parts, viz. — externally, 
a conspicuous "chitinous" plate, which (except in Cystosoma, 
and partly in individuals of other forms with somewhat swollen 
abdomen) is separated from the tergite by a very narrow, thin, or 
somewhat thin marginal membrane ; and, interiorly, by a (except 
in Cystosoma) distinct, narrow, thin membrane between the plate 
and the sternite.* The tergite of the eighth abdominal segment 
is coalesced with the pleural chitinous plate, whilst the sternite 
is entirely modified as a genital segment. (The following seg- 
ments are not considered either in this or in the following 
families ; it will only be stated that one finds in both sexes of 

* The location of the spiracles in the third segment in, for example, 
Tettigonia viridis suggests the reckoning of the plate as part of the Pleuron, 
not as a ventral part of the tergite ; the structure in Cercopidae and Jassidse 
suggests the consideration of the skin between the plate and the tergite, not 
as a suture, but as a part of the Pleuron. 



216 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Cicada, posterior to the eight s'piracle-hearing abdominal segments ^ 
three distinct segments in addition to the " anal flap" (= telson), 
and that the ninth and tenth abdominal segments are, in the 
male, extremely modified ; whilst in the female only the ninth 
is very strongly modified, the tenth being small and only slightly 
altered.) 

The first pair of abdominal spiracles lies on the ventral side of 
the body close to the lateral margins in a depression at the base 
of the abdomen, surrounded by solid chitin (a part of the meta- 
sternum), which, particularly in the male, is very thick, and of 
a considerable breadth ; they are transverse like the thoracic 
spiracles, but somewhat shorter than these. In most females' 
they are generally not diificult to see when the abdomen is bent 
a little upwards, but in some females, and in most males, they 
are covered by the so-called "Opercula." The seven remaining 
pairs of spiracles are considerably smaller than the first pair, 
and of different structure ; they are entirely open, loith an oval or 
almost circular orifice, the Peritreme being a solid ring, which is 
also furnished with a great number of hairs directed towards the 
centre of the spiracle. The locking-mechanism lies a little behind 
the Peritreme. The first of them (thus the second pair of abdo- 
minal spiracles) is not altogether easy to discover. Tliey lie like 
the first pair on the under side of the abdomen a little from the 
lateral margin close to the front margin of the second abdominal 
segment, but the chitin of this segment is inclined inwards 
(downwards seen from below) in such a manner that a transverse 
furrow arises, so that the spiracles actually lie near the bottom 
of the outer angle of this furrow, looking forwards and towards 
the insect's middle plane. In the female one can see them with- 
out preparation, but in the male they are often concealed by the 
"Opercula." Each of the third to eighth abdominal spiracles 
lies in the sternite itself a little behind its front margin, and 
close to the Pleuron. 

2. Cercojjidcs. — The first tergite extends right to the lateral 
margins, where it is moderately long,* but not strongly chitinized; 
towards the median line it shortens strongly, or even disappears 
as a solid formation ; the sternite is short, well chitinized at the 
middle, and terminates far from the lateral margins. The second 
tergite is somewhat long, well chitinized, and extends right out 
to the side margins ; the sternite is shorter medianly than the 
tergite, and is still shorter towards the lateral margins ; it extends 
right out to this, and almost to the apical margin of the tergite 

-■= In the original the word is " broad," but Dr. Hansen now accords with 
me that the words " broad," " narrow," " long," " short " should refer solely 
to the situation of the margin in question with regard to the longitudinal 
axis of the insect. This paper therefore is not a literal translation of the 
original in these respects, but represents Dr. Hansen's present views. — 
G. W. K. 



THE AUCHENORRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 217 

(the sternites of these two segments are not visible without pre- 
paration, and the posterior coxae should preferably be cut away, 
as they project forwards over them, and partly cover them). The 
third to eighth segments are formed essentially like those in the 
Strididantia. Only the inner part of the Pleuron is always very 
distinctly developed, but not, however, particularly broad ; it is 
now and then almost entirely membranous, but occasionally con- 
tains chitinous portions. In Ajjhrophora alni there are thus 
found in the membranous part of the Pleuron of the third to 
fifth segments two distinct narrow chitinous plates (an anterior 
and a posterior) in each segment. 

The first pair of spiracles lies inside the lateral margins on 
the lower side of the body as far forward as possible towards the 
posterior margin of the metasternum, and on account of the shape 
of this plate, the projection of the coxa and the aperture of the 
spiracle being rather feebly defined, the spiracle is difficult to 
perceive. The second pair of spiracles lies on the lateral margins 
in a small chitinous piece, which projects a little forward and 
downward from the lateral angles of the second sternite of the 
abdomen, and, indeed, may appear to correspond with the large 
outer pleural chitin-plate in the following segments. The third 
to eighth pairs lie on the under side in the inner part of the 
Pleuron, and if this contains chitinized fragments it is located 
in the first of these. At least the second to eighth pairs of 
spiracles are cleft-shaped, fairly large. 

3. Jassidce. — The structures of this family agree largely with 
the foregoing. The form, the structure of which I have found 
easiest to study — and, if one likes, most typically developed — 
is the female of the very common Tettigonia viridis, L., for 
which reason it is the basis for the following observations. 

The tergite of the first segment is not developed medianly, 
but more towards the side it appears as a not particularly long 
plate, which then contracts again, and terminates a little from 
the lateral margin ; the sternite is very short, and does not 
extend quite out to the lateral margins, and is interrupted 
medianly. The second tergite is well developed, not particularly 
long, and extends almost to the side margins ; the sternite is 
medianly nearly as long as the tergite, and its shortened lateral 
margins reach almost to the lateral margins of the body. The 
third to eighth segments are very similar to those in the Cerco- 
pids. On the fourth to seventh segments each Pleuron consists 
of a broad, strongly chitinized, exterior piece, and an inner band, 
which for its entire length contains a narrow chitinous plate ; in 
the third and the eighth segments an inner plate of that kind is 
not developed. 

(To be continued.) 



ENTOM. — AUGUST, 1902. 



218 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

White Ants or Termites. — Amoug the wonders of natural history, 
few can surpass the dependence of the life of these insects on that of 
their queen. This, at least, is generally believed in Bloemfontein, and 
I have reason to believe it true from what I have known myself. Many 
years ago (1879) a colony established itself close to the cathedral and 
to the house of Bishop Webb. Two Dutch Boers undertook the rid- 
dance, and had to go eleven feet deep before the queen was found — a 
large grub, with head like that of a bee. Till then the soldiers fought 
hard, and the hands of the Boers were covered with blood. After she 
was captured and taken away they became lethargic, and I had some 
difficulty in inducing one to attack me — but the mandibles cut like a 
pair of sharp scissors. I left South Africa shortly afterwards, but was 
glad to ascertain that no mischief whatever occurred afterwards. The 
creatures are called " hbutkoppers " (wood-cutters), and I have seen a 
plant about the size of a slate-pencil cut to pieces by them. The 
white ants of Queensland, though about as mischievous, are, as far 
as I have seen them, much smaller and different. I was told by the 
Government ant-destroyer that he had found fifty-three queens in one 
nest ! He had, of course, some difficulty in convincing other experts. 
In that colony another sort of ant, of a dull red, of exactly the same 
size, and so able to go up their tunnels, fights and destroys many. — 
(Rev.) George Glover; 65, Church Road, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. 

Two Varieties of Lyc^ena icarus, — I have been fortunate enough 
to take two varieties of Lijcicna icarus this year in Dorking, both of 
them on the same ground on the south side of Ranmore. On June 7th, 
while pill-boxing Lycmia hellargus among the wet grass in the evening, 
I came upon a male specimen of L. icarus quite normal on the upper 
side, but whose under side was as follows : — The marginal spots are 
very faint on both the fore and hind wings, and on each wing, in 
place of the usual thirteen or nine black spots with white circumscrip- 
tion, there is a single spot, the middle one only, all the rest of the 
wings being plain ashy-grey. It is rather a small specimen, but, 
luckily, in perfect condition. On June 14th, when engaged upon a 
similar pursuit, I took a gynandrous specimen. It possesses the male 
coloration on the left side, and the female on the right, the latter 
being of the blue form, though the black discoidal spot and the mar- 
ginal spots are quite distinct. This, too, is in perfect condition. — 
F. A. Oldaker; Parsonage House, Dorking, July 11th, 1902.' 

Varieties of Amphidasys betularia. — I was much interested in 
Mr. Gervase Mathew's note (ante, p. 197) on the variety of A. betularia 
bred by him. Last year I took here a typical male, in cop. with a 
black female, resembling the variety described by Mr. Mathew. The, 
latter I kept for ova, and she deposited a large number, the larvas 
from which fed up well on plum. I unfortunately kept the pupas too 
dry, and only thirteen moths were bred, but every one of them had 
black primaries dusted with white scales, some rather more than 
others ; thorax and abdomen black, some examples having a few white 
scales on these also, front part of head white ; secondaries pale. I 
may mention that I was walking in the road when I saw the male 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 219 

parent, which was very conspicuous on a dark brick wall, but I had 
no idea the female was there also, until I came right up to it. This 
struck me as being an excellent instance of the usefulness of melanism 
for protective purposes in the neighbourhood of smoky London. — 
F. M. B. Carr ; 46, Handen Road, Lee, S.E. 

British TACHiNiDiE. — I should be very greatly obliged to any rearers 
of Lepidoptera, &c., who would save for me any Tachinidae (parasitic 
two-winged flies) they happen to breed. — Colbran J. Wainwright ; 2, 
Handsworth Wood Road, Handsworth, Staffs. 

British Orthoptera. — Mr. W. J. Lucas, of 28, Knight's Park, 
Kingston-on-Thames, who is preparing a Monograph on British 
Orthoptera, would be glad to receive local lists of the various species 
of earwigs, cockroaches, grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets. The lists 
should include every species, however common, and those from Scot- 
land and Ireland would be especially welcome. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

AciDALiA MARGiNEPUNCTATA Ab. — I 866 in the June number of ' The 
Entomologist ' a figure of a curious aberration of Acidalia margine- 
punctata taken by Mr. J. P. Lawson at Clevedon. I took an exactly 
similar specimen in Sheppey, on the evening of Aug. 26th, 1899, with a 
large number of typical examples. — E. A. Cockayne ; 6, Tapton House 
Road, Sheffield, June 23rd, 1902. 

Pyrameis (Vanessa) cardui in Fifeshire. — As the appearance of 
this butterfly in Scotland is irregular, it may be worthy of note that I 
took a fine specimen on Kemback Hill, four miles from here, on June 
28th last. It was flying among firs, over heather adjoining cultivated 
land. — Henry H. Brown ; Cupar-Fife. 

Sphinx pinastki at Winchester. — On June 30th one of my pupils 
took a fine specimen of S. pinastri on a lamp-post in the suburbs of 
Winchester. — E. I. Johns ; Winton House, Winchester. 

Iphiclides (Papilio) podalirius in Lancashire. — A short time ago 
a scholar attending a country school in South Lancashire brought a 
live butterfly to the school and gave it to the master. The latter 
killed it, and asked a friend interested in the Lepidoptera to mount 
and name it. He said it was Iphiclides podalirius. The specimen was 
then shown to several collectors, some of whom strongly urged that 
inquiries should be made concerning its capture, &c., and the results 
published, as the affair was one which could not fail to be interesting 
to all engaged in the study of the Lepidoptera. The inquiries resulted 
as follows : — The fly was found entangled in a spider's web, in the 
forcing-house of Mr. Wm. Westwell, florist, Pennington Leigh. The 
following is a list of all the plants which have been in that house 
during the last year : — Small palms from Belgium, ditto from St. 
Albans, roses from France, spirasa from Holland, azaleas from Belgium, 
aralia (seeds) from France. — Wm. Burton; 39, Newton Road, Lowton, 
Newton-le-Willows, July 1st, 1902. 



220 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Lakv^ and Pup^ of Plusia moneta in London. — Between June 
4th and lOtli last I found fifteen larvre and three pupae of Plusia moneta 
on Delphinium in a garden at Heme Hill, Surrey, which place is 
within the four-mile radius of Charing Cross. All the larvae have now 
spun up, except three which died ; those which spun up on the under 
side of the leaves made cocoons of a semi-transparent white colour, 
which after about a week changed to a rich golden yellow, while those 
(the majority) which spun up on the wood of the breeding-house spun 
similar cocoons, but these, however, have not changed colour. Two 
imagos, up to the present time, have emerged. — Pialeigh S. Small- 
man ; Carlton House, Heme Hill, S.E., July 5th, 1902. 

Cymatophora octogesima (ocularis) and Plusia moneta in Middle- 
sex. — It may interest you to hear that I have taken, at Hampton Hill, 
two good specimens of C. ocularis at light this month, one on the 6th 
and the other on the 7th ; also two specimens of P. moneta over flowers 
at dusk, one on the 12th and the other on the 13th of this month. — 
Herbert S. Job ; The Vicarage, Hampton Hill, Middlesex, July 20th. 

Hydrelia uncula in Surrey. — On the occasion of the Field 
Meeting of the South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society, held at Wisley on July 5th last, several specimens of H. 
uncula were captured. On the 14tli of that month the species was still 
out, and I secured five specimens in fine condition; This species does 
not appear to have been previously observed in the county. — Eichard 
South. 

Ditula semifasciana and Antithesia salicella in Surrey. — At 
Wisley, on July 14th, whilst collecting FAipithecia tenuiata from the 
lichen-covered stems of some large sallows, I obtained one example of 
D. seimfasciana and one of A, salicella ; another specimen of the last- 
named species was missed. With regard to D. semifasciana, I may 
mention that I am indebted to Mr. A. Cant for a fine specimen that he 
reared from a larva found at Wimbledon in the spring. — Eichard 
South. 

Hedya lariciana in Surrey. — This species is sometimes fairly 
common among the larches on the Deepdene estate at Boxhill. I 
looked for it there on July 12th this year, but did not see it. At 
Wisley, however, on July 14th, I netted two specimens, and others 
were seen, but as I had the misfortune to break the top joint of my 
net-rod, I was unable to capture any more examples. — Eichard South. 

ToRTRIX PICEANA AND SeRICORIS BIFASCIANA IN THE EsHER DiSTRICT. 

As very close searching during the latter part of May and the beginning 
of June had failed to detect the larva of T. piceana, I had formed tlie 
opinion that the species would be scarce in the perfect state this year. 
On the contrary, however, it proved to be more abundant than I have 
ever known it to be before. A female specimen was beaten out during 
the afternoon of June 28th, and between six and seven o'clock in the 
evening of the same day several examples were seen flying high around 
pines, and two males and one female were captured. Between 3 and 
4 p.m. on July 1st Tortrices were flying in great numbers over and 
around the pine trees ; most of these were out of reach, but by four 
o'clock, when a heavy thunder-shower caused me to retreat, I had 



SOCIETIES. 221 

secured six male specimens of T. piceana. Two males and one female 
were netted on July 3i'd, and twelve specimens, including one female, 
were captured on July 7tli. On the last-named date most of the 
examples taken were disturbed from heather under the pines in the 
afternoon, but scores were seen madly careering around the trees 
about 7 p.m. S. bifasciana was common on each of the dates men- 
tioned, but the majority of the specimens netted were not in good con- 
dition after the thunderstorm. — Kichard South; 96, Drakefield Eoad, 
Upper Tooting, S.W. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — Jane Ath, 1902. — The Eev. 
Canon Fowler, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., President, in the chair. — Mr. 
Stanley W. Kemp, of 80, Oxford Gardens, Notting Hill, W., was 
elected a Fellow of the Society. — Mr. H. W. Shepheard-Walwyn ex- 
hibited a recently-emerged male specimen of Lampides bcEticus taken at 
Winchester in September, 1899, and two varieties of Lyccena icarus. — 
Mr, C. P. Pickett exhibited one asymmetrical male and two females of 
Dilina tilicB, and a series of the same insect showing great variation of 
colour and marking, bred during May, 1902. — Mr. F. Merrifield showed 
enlarged photographs of larvae of Hygrochroa syringarla. The larva is 
usually represented in an attitude in which it is practically never seen, 
crawling in an elongated form with its pair of long fleshy dorsal tubercles 
conspicuously projecting. But its habit is not to crawl, except in the 
dark, when it cannot be seen. All day it clings to the edge of a leaf 
or to a twig, in an attitude about as unlike a caterpillar good for a bird 
to eat as anything can well be, presenting a quadrangular form, some- 
thing like a square hassock with tassels at the corners, and in one or 
two other places ; the body is bent so as to form four right angles, the 
head and the anal segments forming two of the tassels, and the rest of 
the body forming a square from which the pair of long tubercles 
project at one corner, the other dorsal tubercles making other projec- 
tions. Usually the parts of the body are so closely appressed that no 
daylight is visible between them, even when seen broadside against the 
light, which can rarely happen in nature. The resting attitude, un- 
like that of the Selenias, is practically the same in all stages of growth, 
and at all ages it is especially addicted to hanging down a few inclies 
suspended by a silken thread, still preserving the hunched-up quad- 
rangular form. Compared with the very dissimilar but equally mis- 
leading attitudes of other larvae — such as the rigid A. betularia or the 
thorn-like Selenia — it seems an interesting illustration of the very 
different forms of disguise by which the result of escape from danger is 
attained. Mr. Merrifield also showed photographs of the dark-brown 
bronzy pupa of this species, in its hammock of open network of silk, 
very slight but exceedingly strong, from the bottom of which the larval 
skin is projected, not shortened and compressed, but pushed through 
the network, and hanging down like a long tail, so as apparently to 
attain the same end as in the larval stages, the disguising of its real 
nature; it looks very unlike an ordinary pupa. — Professor E. B. 
Poulton, F.R.S., exhibited a lantern-slide showing the perfect protec- 



222 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tive resemblance of H. leucophcBaria to the oak-trunk upon which it 
rested. — Mr. A. Bacot exhibited hybrid larvje resulting from a pairing 
between a male Malacosoma nenstria and a female M. castrensis, also 
larvae of M. nenstria, and reputed larvae of M. franconica, for com- 
parison. He said that this year's brood of hybrid larvae had separated 
into two batches, tbe " Forwards " being now nearly full-fed, and from 
one and a-half to two and a-half inches in length. The " Laggards " 
were not yet half grown, being half to three-quarters of an inch long, 
in this respect exactly following last year's brood resulting from a 
similar cross, in which case the "Forwards" produced only female 
specimens, while the " Laggards " produced only males. — Mr. H. J. 
Elwes, F.R.S., read a paper on " The Butterflies of Chile," and ex- 
hibited a selection of .the specimens he had taken during December, 
January, and February, in that country. The endemic species of 
Satyrid^e and Hesperid^e constituted about two-thirds of the whole 
butterfly fauna, Nymphalidfe and Lycfenidfe being very few in numbers. 
Some butterflies of Holarctic types, such as Colias vautieri, had an 
extremely wide range, and extended, with little variation, right down 
to the Straits of Magellan. Among the most remarkable species 
which he showed was the unique Satyrid, Ari/i/rophurus argenteus, the 
upper side of which is of a brilliant metallic silver colour, nothing 
similar existing in the whole family. This flies on open grassy hill- 
sides; whilst in the forests close by, a Hesperid, Cyclnpides piiehiue, has 
its wings on the under side entirely of a metallic golden colour, this 
also being unique among the Hesperidse. It seemed impossible to 
account for such remarkable cases of coloration by any theory of pro- 
tective colouring. No natural frontier appeared to exist between Chile 
and Argentina, and nearly all the mountain species occurred on both 
sides of the political frontier, there being little difference between the 
alpine and the low country species. — -Mr. S. L. Hinde read a paper, 
illustrated by lantern-slides, upon "The Protective Resemblance to 
Flowers borne by an African Homopterous Insect, Plata nigrocincta, 
Walker." He said that " the cluster of insects grouped to resemble a 
flower-spike," which forms the frontispiece of Professor J. W. 
Gregory's ' Great Rift Valley,' had attracted some criticism, and that 
as he was familiar with the insect figured, and with its larva, in a 
wild state, it seemed desirable to publish the evidence. In the plate 
the insects are collected on the vertical stem, the green individuals 
uppermost considerably smaller than the red beneath, like the un- 
opened green buds towards the top of a flowering spike as compared 
with the expanded blossoms below. The separate representations of 
the green and red forms, however, indicate no difi'erence in size, and 
experience confirms this conclusion, so that the impression conveyed 
by the frontispiece plate is erroneous. After further noting that the 
uniform deep pink colour of the exposed parts of the insects figured was 
also incorrect, Mr. Hinde remarked that he had never seen the insects 
grouped according to their colours, but invariably mixed ; that he had 
never found larvse and imagines on the same stem, or even together on 
the same tree or bush ; nor did the imagines affect vertical stems, but 
always those actually or approximately horizontal. When disturbed 
the imagines fly, and the larva hops, a short distance in any direction, 
but soon collect into groups again. The larvse toward the end of a 



SOCIETIES. 223 

growing branch are the smallest, and this arrangement might possibly 
reconcile Professor Gregory's account with the more recent observa- 
tions. — H. Eowland-Brown, Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Mai/ 22/(ri, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair. — Mr. 
Edwards exhibited fine specimens of Morpho cypris from Soutli America, 
and several species of the genus Cali;/o. — Mr. F. M, B. Carr, a variable 
series of Boarmia cinctaria from the New Forest. — Mr. Barnett, 
Hyhernia marfjiiuiria from West Wickham woods, one example ap- 
proaching the form var. fuscata. — Mr. South, male and female Liphyra 
brassolis, with ova, preserved larva, larva-skins, a pupa, and a pupa- 
case, illustrating the curious life-history of this Queensland Lyc^enid, 
received from Mr. Dodd, and read notes. — Mr. B. W. Adkin, series of 
Tceniocampa miniosa, pale forms, and series of 2\ incerta, both from the 
New Forest. — Mr. Montgomery, bred Pieris napi, showing slight 
gynandromorphism in the markings. — Mr. Main, living larvae of 
Lithosia mesomella. It was remarked that this larva has spatulate 
hairs. — Mr. Lucas read the report of the field-meeting held at Book- 
ham on May 10th. 

June 12th. — The President in the chair, — Mr. Ashdown exhibited 
living larvfe of Attagenus pellis feeding on wool. — Mr. Tonge, a Noctua 
he had recently captured, and which was afterwards recognized by Mr. 
South as a worn and probably hybernated example of Hadena protea. 
— Mr. Moore, a specimen of the rare Psetuiacrcea trimenii from the 
Transvaal Colony, which differed from the type in the large area of 
white on the lower wings. — Mr. Lucas, GryJlotalpa vulgaris (the mole- 
cricket) from Brockenhurst, and an example of the dipteron, Meriania 
argentifera, from the New Forest, and new to Britain. — Mr. E. Adkin 
gave a report of the Annual Congress of the South-Eastern Union of 
Scientific Societies, held at Canterbury on June 6th and 7th. — Mr. 
Hy. J. Turner read the report of the field-meeting held at Eeigate on 
May 24tli. — Hy. J. Turner {Hon. Rep. Secretary). 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — June 16th, 1902. — Mr. E. C. 
Bradley in the chair. — Mr. Bradley showed Syrphus barbifrons, Fall., 
taken at Sutton on April 14th last. He went specially to find it, but 
it was scarce, and very difficult to distinguish from Melangyna quadri- 
viaculata, Ver., amongst which it was flying. The latter species is 
common, the former species very rare and local, and possibly over- 
looked amongst the guadrimacidata. He obtained six males and five 
females ; also, at the same time and place, he took one -S'. arcticus, 
Zett. (male). All were taken flying at sallow-bloom. — Mr. C. J. 
Wainwright, a boxful of Trypetids, including a large number taken 
ill Wyre Forest on July 13th, 14th and 22ud last. On these three 
days he obtained no less than thirteen species of this one family. 
Trypeta onotrophes, Lw., in great abundance ; T. florescenticc, L., and 
T. serratulcB, L., not common, but a fair series of each from various 
thistles ; Urophora stylata, F. ; Carphotricha guttularis, Mg., and C 
impillata, Fall., in single ones ; Tephrites miliaria, Schrk., common ; 
T. proboscidea, Lw., a short series ; T. ruralis, Lw. (two) ; T. tessellata, 
Lw., common ; and a few of the commoner and more usual species. 
-^CoLBRAN J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 



224 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

G. Breddin. "Die Hemipteren von Celebes." 1901. Abli. Naturf. 
Gesellsch. Halle, xxiv. pp. 1-217, 1 plate and 1 text-map [sepa- 
rately paged copy] . 

As everyone knows, Celebes is remarkable, as regards its Vertebrata 
at least, in belonging strictly neither to the Oriental nor to the 
Australian Region. Dr. Breddin has been so fortunate as to have had 
for examination the collections recently made by Fruhstorfer, Kiiken- 
thal, and the brothers Sarasin, and the result is an elaborate and care- 
fully-prepared contribution to our knowledge of insular faunas, con- 
sisting of (1) a list, with localities, of all the certain and dubious 
Celebesian Rhynchota ; (2) description of new forms, &c, ; and (3) the 
inter-relations of the various Malayan faunas, the latter section being 
very fally discussed. Of course, as is natural where non-specialists 
have been the collectors, it is of the Cimicidfe, Lygaeidae (=:Coreidfe), 
Reduviidffi, Cicadidffi, and Cercopidte that we have the fullest informa- 
tion, 75 per cent, of the recorded forms being referable to these 
families. 

The claims of 221 species are regarded as established, of which 143 
are precinctive''- so far as is known. Of the rest, a small number are 
widely distributed throughout the Oriental and Australian Regions ; 
most, however, are confined to one or more of the neighbouring 
islands, principally Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines. The 
conclusions reached are as follows : — 

(1.) A land-bridge existed formerly, connecting East Java and 
South Celebes. 

(2.) A similar bridge between the Philippines (Mindanao) and 
North Celebes. 

(3.) Of these two, the former has been a little the more productive. 

(4.) Borneo has not a single rhynchoton in common with Celebes 
(this is also the case with the mammals, land-birds, reptiles, am- 
phibia, and land- and freshwater molluscs), which is not also found at 
the same time in Java, or in the Philippines, or in both of these latter. 
Celebes and Borneo have therefore never been in direct communica- 
tion so as to render possible an interchange of species, the Macassar 
Straits forming an impassable boundary. The species common to 
Borneo and Celebes have become interchanged, either partly by a 
detour through Java, or partly tln'ough the Philippines, or probably by 
both ways at the same time. 

(5.) Java has not been directly connected with Borneo, Sumatra 
having been the connecting link. 

(6.) A bridge between Borneo and the Philippines existed formerly 
via Bangvey Island which, though nearer Borneo, shows some clear 
Philippine types. 

I have noted only a single omission from the list of authentic 
Celebesian Rhynchota, viz. the widely distributed Clerada apicicornis, 
Signoret. q ^_ Kirkaldy. 

■''• " Confined to the area under discussion." See D. Sharp, 1900, 'Fauna 
Hawaiiensis,' ii. p. 91. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.l SEPTEMBER, 1902. [No. 472. 



ON THE LA.RVA OF LIPHYRA BRAS80LIS, Westw. 
By Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S. 

Two of the larvae of Liphyra brassolis, sent to the Editor by 
Mr. Dodd {ante, p. 154), are apparently a full-grown one and 
another of very much smaller size, l^hese two are so very 
different that, if they came from different places with different 
histories, one would never suspect their being at all related. 

The smaller one is 6 mm. long and 2*3 mm. wide, very 
flat, reminding one very much of the larva of Camponiscus luridi- 
veiitris (a common alder sawfly) in its general size and form, or, 
for that matter, of an ordinary Lyccsna larva, if we make it first 
colourless, then nearly flat instead of raised along the dorsal 
line, and, thirdly, if we somewhat exaggerate the rounded lateral 
projections of the segmental margins. The segmental divisions 
as seen dorsally are twelve, of which the first and last, of course, 
are terminal. White and soft as this larva looks, the margins 
nevertheless have something of the appearance and structure of 
the full-grown larva, having a strong chitinous binding, divided 
into small cells. The prothorax has a slight angle on either 
side, allowing the front between the two angles to be a transverse 
straight line ; beneath it is the head, placed quite centrally 
beneath it, but quite free from it and capable of much move- 
ment, including probably protrusion in front. The last segment, 
which is seen dorsally, is the ninth abdominal, and beneath 
this is the tenth, carrying the anal prolegs ; the true segmental 
divisions are very plain on a ventral view of the larva. The 
prothoracic spiracle lies in the fold between the pro- and meso- 
thorax, but the abdominal spiracles are each on about the middle 
of its own segment, placed dorsally, about half-way from the 
middle line to the margin. I do not detect anywhere any hairs 
or tubercles. 

ENTOM. — SEPTEMBER, 1902. T 



226 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The nervous ganglia are very visible as reddish brown 
masses ; a large one in prothorax : this represents the cephalic 
and oesophageal : the prothoracic proper towards posterior mar- 
gin of segments ; then one each to meso-thorax and eight 
following segments ; the last and largest of these, though in 
sixth abdominal segment, appears to belong to seventh and 
following segments, which are without ganglia. 

The prolegs are of much interest, not in themselves, but 
when we compare them with those of the adult larva ; they are 
on a rather thick cylindrical base, and have the usual " macro " 
form of one row of crotchets, facing inwards, thirteen to seventeen 
in number ; on the anal claspers they are much smaller and few 
in number (nine), and are similarly in one row. The true legs 
are short and thick, and terminate in very curved claws. The 
head is small, about 2*5 mm. in diameter ; it has in front — on 
epicranium, clypeus, and labrum — a number of short stiff hairs 
(none seen elsewhere on larva), the largest about "08 mm. in 
length. The autennne are rather longer than this, but happen 
to be telescoped, — the second joint is not in evidence, — about 
•06 mm. long and "04 mm. thick, with a terminal armament of 
bristles, amongst which the third joint is not clearly discriminated. 
The head itself is rather dark in colour from being well chitinised 
(the true legs and crotchets are the only other dark chitinised 
parts) ; beneath it are three circles, carrying jointed palpus-like 
appendages ; the central one is the largest, and represents 
probably the labium, though at first it looks very like the 
spinneret, with the other two as labial palpi. The two lateral 
ones, however, are probably the maxillary palpi, especially as 
they appear to have another, ill-developed process. The jaws 
are long, and cross one another for some distance, and each 
seems to consist of a straight conical process, with only one 
sharp terminal point — a simple spike or dagger, and not the 
flat-toothed jaws usual in leaf-eating Lepidoptera. 

The large larva is a very different object. At first sight 
nothing could be less like a lepidopterous larva. Looking down 
on its back, we have an approximately flat surface, oval in form, 
rather narrower in front than behind, with a margin smooth, 
regular, uniform, and of same texture, &c., all round, no trace 
of segmentation, &c. Let us turn it over : it now lies on its flat 
dorsal surface, the dimensions of which, by the way, are 23 mm. 
X 15 mm. It stands up above the surface about 5*6 mm., with 
a level, but not smooth top, but with smooth and sloping sides. 
The amount of the slope may be seen by the comparison of the 
top and bottom; the top (venter of larva) is 18 mm. by 7 mm., 
against the 23 x 15 just mentioned. The slope is nearly nil at 
the head end, and by so much the more therefore elsewhere. 
The dorsum and sides are brown, hard, and chitinous. The 
sloping sides show little indication of segmentation, but at the 



ON THE LARVA OF LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS. 227 

margin of the open (and soft) ventral area present a series of 
dark markings, very slightly raised on rounded elevations, but 
so shaded as to look very much so. As it now lies on its back, 
it is not unlike a Melton-Mowbray pork-pie, of perhaps unusual 
oval shape, and sides more than usually sloping, the resemblance 
being heightened by the brown (chitinous) crust-colour of the 
sides, and the dark markings representing the more baked mar- 
ginal sinuations with which such pies are often ornamented. 
The lid of the pie is the small flat ventral area of the larva, 
slightly wider anteriorly, and presenting the head, legs, prologs, 
&c. This area is pale and white, and is the only portion where 
any movement can possibly occur, the rest being a solid chitinous 
cap. Constructed as it is to permit this soft area to be absolutely 
covered and hidden on the surface on which the larva rests, one 
is surprised at its widening out above this area, quite regularly 
till, at a sudden sharp margin, the sides meet the flat top. The 
brown marginal marks are apparently two to a segment, certainly 
so at the sides where they are largest, and where a faint de- 
pression along the sloping sides seems to mark each segmental 
division. To see this, however, requires close examination, and 
some might say a little imagination. 

Turning the larva over again, to examine the back more 
carefully, we find the margin very sharp, and slightly browner 
than the terra-cotta centre. Laterally and posteriorly it is a 
little hollowed within the margin. Across the middle are three 
very distinct lines, darker in colour, and with the surface in 
front of them decidedly higher than that behind. They occupy 
the middle two-fourths of the surface, but do not invade the 
fourths on each side next the margin. In front and behind 
these the indication of the segmental divisions are very obscure. 
A faint indication of a dorsal ridge exists in front of these lines. 
There are also a number of dots that appear to be obsolete hair- 
points, arranged in some degree as a transverse line across each 
segment, but with outlines enough to make such a statement a 
little doubtful or even misleading. The two segments marked out 
by the dorsal lines are the fourth and fifth abdominal. 

The character of the sharp margin of the dorsal area wants 
a little more definite description. In the first place, the out- 
sloping sides, for their top millimetre, cease to slope, but become 
vertical ; then inside the sharp border the surface descends again 
steeply, so as to form a sharp raised border to the central area. 
In front the inner slope soon bends into the flat dorsal area ; 
behind it does so more slowly, resulting in the hollow above 
noticed; round this portion there is, inside as well as outside, 
the sharp margin, a breadth of about 1 mm., differentiated by a 
slight line from the general dorsal surface. Seen microscopically, 
the whole surface consists of very minute raised dots, each carry- 
ing a fine point ; on the marginal flange surrounding the dorsum 

T 2 



228 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



these are modified into an arrangement that has just the appear- 
ance of overlapping fish-scales. The spiracles are difficult to 
find, in fact I have failed to find the thoracic spiracle ; the 
abdominal ones are precisely where they are in the small larva, 
viz. on the flat dorsum, half-way between the median line and 
the margin ; they are very small, and differ little in appearance 
from the hair-dots noted above ; they are minute holes, with no 
marginal structure ; some trace of the true spiracles can be seen 
at a little depth within them, accompanied by a scale-like outer 
margin. 

(To be continued.) 



BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN SOUTHERN ANDALUSIA 
IN THE SPRING OF 1902. 

By Rev. Henry Charles Lang, M.D., F.E.S., M.R.C.S., &c. 

After a marvellous recovery from a severe illness, the result 
of mental strain, I was ordered to get away for rest and change 
of scene, and found just what I required in the shape of an 
English chaplaincy at Jerez de la Frontera, in Andalusia. 
Starting from England on March 11th, I arrived at Jerez, via 
Paris, Madrid, and Seville, on Saturday, March 15th. For a 
few days, as the guest of Mr. W. Buck, British Vice-Consul, at 
his beautiful house 'El Palacio,' I had every advantage in the 
suggestion of likely localities. My collecting began after church- 
time on Sunday, March 16th. 

Jerez is an exceedingly picturesque Spanish town, full of 
Moorish and mediaeval remains of great interest, and with quaint 
old streets of dazzlingly whitewashed houses, lined Avith fragrant 
orange trees. The vegetation in the gardens and squares is that 
of the subtropical character common to Southern Andalusia, 
the palm trees in the Plaza Mayor being taller than any I have 
seen in Europe. The country round is, in point of scenery, not 
very striking, being of an undulating character rather than 
hilly. The soil is heavy, and the roads are very dusty in dry 
weather, and very sticky and muddy after rain. Vineyards and 
corn-fields are the chief features of the scenery ; these are inter- 
sected by roads flanked on either side with hedges of cactus or 
of aloes. The latter are often the only shelter from the burning 
sun, there being very few trees of any size in the district. 

On my first day's collecting, principally along one of the 
afore-mentioned roads, between the cactus hedges, I found IViais 
rumina (common), Pieris brassicce, P. rapa, Colias ediisa, Thestor 
hallus, Pyrameis atalanta, P. cardui, P. megcera, and P. egeria. 

During the next two days, on the latter of which I visited a 
small estate known as " El Pinal," where is a small forest of 



BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN SOUTHERN ANDALUSIA. 229 

gigantic umbrella pines, I added the following to my list : — 
Pajjilio podaliriiis va^v./eisthcunelii, Euchloe belemia and var, glauce, 
E. euphenoides, E. cardamines (one), Gonepteryx cleopatra, Chry- 
sophanus phlceas, Callophrys riibi, Lyccena astrarche, Vanessa 
polychloros. 

During the first few days the weather was very hot — ab- 
normally so, even for Andalusia ; but during the last ten days of 
the month it became very unsettled and cloudy, with rain at 
frequent intervals, and with but little sunshine ; my collecting, 
however, continued whenever opportunities occurred, but by the 
end of March I had only added to the list Euchloe belia and 
Pieris daplidice on March 24th, and Papilio machaon and Lyccena 
icarus on March 25th. 

The commonest butterflies during this month at Jerez were 
Colias edusa and Pyrameis cardiii, which seem to be very abun- 
dant throughout Andalusia. P. atalanta was also common, and 
appeared to be in quite a fresh condition. Apparently this 
species emerges early in the spring ; none of the specimens 
appeared to have hybernated. Pieris hrassicce was also common 
everywhere. 

From April 1st to 4th I collected at Konda. I felt well 
repaid for my journey thither, not only on account of the 
interesting old place, with its wonderful rocky gorges 530 ft. 
deep in the centre of the town, and its lofty surrounding moun- 
tains, but also by reason of my successful collecting. I found a 
lovely spot about two miles south of the town on the banks of 
the Guadalevir, well wooded with olives, pines, and ilex, with a 
thick undergrowth of mytles and bay trees, and abounding with 
white and purple cistus and other beautiful flowers, precipitous 
rocks rising on every side ; this was my daily collecting ground, 
and here I found butterflies in abundance. Thestor hallus was to 
be seen in great numbers, accompanied by Callophrys rubi, which 
I have never seen in such profusion, except at Digne, in Provence. 
Gonepteryx cleop)atra was in great numbers, and added greatly to 
the beauty of the scene, at least in my eyes. Euchloe belia and 
E. belemia were also very common, but the chief prize was 
E. tagisy which was to be seen here in profusion. It is easily 
distinguished when on the wing from the other two species, 
being of much more feeble flight, and easier of capture. E. 
belemia, though very common, is not easy to take ; it has a way 
of evading the net by a dexterous doubling movement, of which 
E. tagis seems to be incapable. E. belia also is a strong-winged 
species, and requires a great deal of negotiation, but E. tagis is 
easily taken ; I took fifty specimens in two days, and might 
have taken very many times that number if I had chosen to do 
so. This was my first acquaintance with the typical form of the 
species ; hitherto I had only known it in its Provencal form 
bellezina, from which it is very distinct. It is very constant, 



230 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and is not capable of being confounded with E. helia ; most 
English writers have been rather at fault in their description of 
this species (myself included), but a personal acquaintance with 
it will leave no room for mistaking the hazy, clouded appearance 
of the markings of the under side, and the generally slender 
character of the insect as compared with the other species. The 
original figure of Hiibner exactly represents it. 

I found here Leptidia sinajns for the first time in Spain ; 
large and lightly marked. Other species taken here were 
Papilio podalirms var. feisthanielii, P. machaon, Pieris daplidice, 
Gonepteryx rhcunni, Euchloe euphenoides, and Lyccena bellargus. 
Thais rumina was also common. 

Vanessa polychloros was seen several times at Ronda, flying 
about ilex trees ; I mention this particularly, as it is marked in 
both editions of Staudinger's Catalogue "?And." The specimens 
taken appeared to be hybernated ones. 

On my return to Jerez, on April 6th, I visited a range of low 
calcareous hills (Los Cruces) four miles to the south, overlooking 
the Atlantic, with views of Cadiz and Puerto S. Maria ; there I 
found, in addition to the common species, Lyccena lo7'qmnii 
(very sparingly, however) and Melanargia ines just beginning to 
appear. Syrichthus sao was also taken. 

The only other species taken during the rest of my stay at 
Jerez were Epinephele pasijjliae, which became after a time pretty 
abundant; and, in one spot only, Melitcea (etheria, now ranked as 
a good species in Staudinger's Catalogue, 1901. Of this I took 
a good series in fine condition on April 18th. 

On April 12th I saw a specimen, in good condition, of Argynnis 
latonia, in the grounds of ' El Palacio.' 

Two days were spent in Cadiz, but the weather was very un- 
favourable, with only a few gleams of sunshine. Yet, whenever 
the sun did shine, there were plenty of butterflies to be seen, 
though only common ones — P. atalanta, P. cardui, C. edusa, 
P. rap(B, P. brassicce, &c. Several times observed P. cardui 
flying, moth fashion, round the gas-lamps at night. 

On April 22nd I went to Malaga, where the environs are very 
beautiful, and suggestive of the presence of butterflies. Here in 
the hills of the Mediterannean littoral I found a fair number of 
species. Melanargia ines and Epinephele pasiphae were abun- 
dant ; E. ianira was beginning to appear, also Coenonympha 
pamphiliis. Of Lyccena bcetica two specimens were observed. I 
also saw two or three specimens of the very small form of Colias 
edusa var. pyrenaica, Gr. Gr., "fere duplo minor," Staudinger, 
1901. Here also I took var. helice. Epinephele ida was also 
taken on April 29th. Euchloe belemia and E. belia and Pyrameis 
cardui and atalanta were common. 

From Malaga I went up to Alhourhin el Grande, a village 
about ten miles northward ; in the mountains here I hoped to 



BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN SOUTHERN ANDALUSIA. 231 

find Zegris meridionalis, but did not succeed in getting it. I 
found Lyccena lorquinii in abundance in the higher regions, 
flying about thyme flowers in little groups. This is a good 
species, quite distinct from L. minima, and only occurs in 
Andalusia. I was in error in describing it in a former paper as 
occurring at Digne ; I am now convinced that the Provencal 
specimens were only a small form of L. sebnis, from which this 
differs entirely. 

From trying to do too much climbing after my recent illness, 
I unfortunately strained my knee-joint, and was unable to do as 
much collecting as I should have wished in this locality, which 
seems a very good one, but I took a few specimens of MclitcBci 
phoebe var. occitanica, Stgr., on the higher ground, and, in 
addition, Melanargia syllius and Pararge mcsra var. adrasta. 

At Gibraltar, on May 2nd, I looked out for butterflies, and 
observed on the rock, and particularly at Europa Point, Thais 
rumina (one specimen), Papilio viachaon, C. edusa, P. atalanta, 
P. cardui, E. Ida, E. ianira, P. megcera, CoenoJiympha pampkilus, 
Lyccena asirarche, and L. icarus. 

During one day's excursion in the woods near the waterfall 
at Algeciras, I found most of the common species, including 
Euchloe helemia, and took one specimen of Lyccena melanops. 

The following is a list of the species taken in Andalusia from 
March 16th to May 3rd :— 



1 Papilio podalirius var./eisi- 


22 


Melanargia syllius. 


2 P. machaon. [hamelii. 


23 


M. ines. 


3 Thais rumina. 


24 


Pararge megcera. 


4 Pieris hrassicce. 


25 


P. mcera var. adrasta. 


5 P. rapce. 


26 


P. egeria. 


6 P. daplidice. 


27 


Epinephele ianira. 


7 Euchloe helemia and var. 


28 


E. ida. 


8 E. helia. [glance. 


29 


E. padphae. 


9 E.tagis. 


30 


Coenonympha pamphilus 


10 E. cardamines. 


31 


Callophrys riibi. 


11 E. euphenoides. 


32 


Thestor ballus. 


12 Leptidia sinapis. 


33 


Chrysophanus pldoeas. 


13 Colias edusa and var. helice. 


34 


Lampides hoeticus. 


14 Gonepteryx rhamni. 


35 


Lyccena astrarche. 


15 G. cleopatra. 


36 


L. icarus. 


16 Pyranieis atalanta. 


37 


L. bellargus. 


17 P. cardui. 


38 


L. lorquinii. 


18 Vanessa polychloros. 


39 


L. melanops. 


19 Melitcea cetheria. 


40 


Cyaniris argiolus. 


20 M. phoebe var. occitanica. 


41 


Carcharodus alcece. 


21 Argynnis latonia. 


42 


Hesperia sao. 



232 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



A CONTEIBUTION TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE 

COCCIDiE.* 

By T. D. a. Cockerkll. 

monophlebin^. 
Monophlehus, Leach. 

Monophlehiis, Leach, in Westwood, Arc. Ent. i. (1845), p. 22. 
Tyi^e, atripemiis. 

Guerinia, Targ.-Tozz., in Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 
1875, p. 352. Type, serratulce. 

Drosicha, Walker, List Homop. Brit. Mus. Supp. (1858), 
p. 306. Type, contrahens. 

Tessarohelns, Montronzier, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, xi. (1864), 
p. 246. Type, guerinii. 

Llaveia, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1875, p. 370. 
Type, axin. 

Ortonia, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1875, p. 367 (not 
Ortonia, Wood, 1869). Type, uhleri. 

Protortonia, Townsend, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. ,1898, p. 169. 
Type, yrimitivus. 

2 . Soft, somewhat elongated, more or less hairy, with powdery 
or cottony secretion. Legs and anteunse present ; antennae 11- (some- 
times 9-) jointed ; no long posterior ovisac. One species has 7-jointed 
antennae. 

3' . With fleshy caudal processes, arranged along the sides of the 
abdomen. 

Species. — M. duhius, Fabr. {fahricii, Westw.), Sumatra; M. 
atripennis, King, Java; M. leachi, Westw., Malabar; M. saun- 
clersi, Westw., India; M. hurmeisteri, Westw., India (?) ; M. zey- 
lanicus, Green, Ceylon ; M. contrahens, Signoret, China ; M. 
maskelli, Ckll. {hnrmeisteri, Maskell, Tr. N.Z. Inst. xxix. p. 327), 
Japan ; M. corpulentus, Kuwana, Japan. 

M. illigeri, Westw., Tasmania ; M. crawfordi, Maskell, Aus- 
tralia; M. fusciis, Maskell, Australia; M. giiei-inii, Montr., New 
Caledonia. 

M. sermtulcs, Fabr., Algeria ; M.fortis, Ckll., Natal ; M.ful- 
leri, Ckll., Natal ; M. raddoni, Westw., W. Africa. 

M. axin, Llave, Mexico ; M. primitivus, Townsend, Mexico ; 
M. mexicanormn, Ckll., Mexico; M. bouvari, Signoret, Guatemala ; 
M. uhleri, Signoret, Ecuador ; M. championi, Ckll., Panama ; 
M. cacti, Linne, St. Eustatius Island, Lesser Antilles. 

Unfortunately, many of the species are known only in one sex. 
The genus may be divided into a number of sections, thus : — 

(1.) Monophlehus, Leach. Male with two caudal appendages. 
M. atripennis, M. duhius. 

* For tables of subfamilies and genera, see ' Canadian Entomologist,' 
October, 1899. 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE COCCIDiE. 233 

(2.) Tessarobelus, Montr. Male with four caudal appendages. 
M. guerinii, M. championi. 

(3.) Llaveia, Sign. Male with eight caudal appendages ; 
female antennas 11-jointed. M. axin, M. saundersii. 

(4.) Drosicha, Walk, Male with ten caudal appendages ; 
female antennae 9-jointed. M. contrahens, M. maskelli, M. leachii, 
M. burmeisteri. 

(5.) Monophlehulus, Ckll. Female with antennae 7-jointed. 
M. fuscus. 

Stigmacoccus, Hempel. 

Stigmacoccus, Hempel, Kev. Mus. Paulista, iv. (1900), p. 399. 
Type, asper. 

Perissopneumon, Newstead, Ent. Mo. Mag. 1900, p. 250. 
Type, ferox. 

? . Antennae and legs present ; antennae 7- to8-jointed ; abdomen 
with numerous marginal spiracles. Found in nests of ants. 

Syecies. — S. asper, Hempel, Brazil ; S. ferox, Newstead, India. 

Lopliococcus, Cockerell. 

Lophococcus, Ckll, 'Entomologist,' 1901, p. 227. Type, 
mirabilis. 

2 . Fixed, with a strongly chitinous skin, and a long erect spine on 
the middle of the back, this spine originating as an elevated fold of the 
skin. No ovisac. 

Species. — L. mirabilis, Ckll., Natal ; on Mimosa. 

Palceococcus, Cockerell. 
Palceococcus, Ckll., Canad. Entom. 1894, p. 36. Type, /w-sci- 
peniiis. 

Crypticerya, Ckll., Psyche Suppt., 1895, p. 15. Type, rosa. 
Leachia, Signoret, Ann Soc. Ent. France, 1875, p. 359 (not 
Leachia, Eisso). Tj^e, fuscipennis. 

? . Soft, convex, without an ovisac ; genital aperture large, con- 
siderably anterior to the end of the body ; antennfe with 9 to 11 joints, 
(?. Without caudal fleshy tassels. 

Species.— P. fuscipennis, Burm., Europe; P. hellenicus, Gen- 
nadius, Attica ; P. irregularis, Germ., P. pinnatus. Germ., and 
P. trivenosus, Germ., fossil in Prussian amber. 

P. australis, Maskell, Australia ; P. nudata, Maskell, Australia. 

P. eivarti, Newstead, W. Africa. 

P. braziliensis, Walker, Buenos-Ayres ; P. hempeli, Ckll., 
Brazil ; P. rosce, Riley-Howard, West Indies, &c. ; P. mexicanus, 
Cockerell — Parrott, Mexico ; P. toicnsendi, Ckll., New Mexico ; P. 
pluchece, Ckll., New Mexico ; P. simplex, Scudder, fossil at Floris- 
sant, Colorado. 

Section Mimosicerya, Ckll. Female antennae 9-jointed ; skin 
strongly chitinous at the sides. P. hempeli. 

(To be continued.) 



234 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
AUCHENORRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 

By Dr. H. J. Hansen. 

(Continued from p. 217.) 

The first pair of spiracles lies, as in the Cercopidae, on the 
under side, a little within the lateral margin close to the posterior 
margin of the metasternum ; the second pair lies at the antero- 
exterior angle of the second segment near the lateral margins, 
so that they are looking laterally and upwards. The third and 
eighth pairs of spiracles lie in the outer solid Pleural Plates, 
the fourth to seventh pairs in the anterior part of the narrow 
Plates in the inner part of the Pleuron. All the spiracles are 
small. 

In the Membracinae the abdomen, as is well known, is often 
elevated very considerably, compressed, and strongly chitinized, 
therewith following certain peculiarities in structure, and in the 
situation of the spiracles. As an example, the structure in 
Centrotns cornutus is now described. In this the tergite of the 
first segment is moderately feeble, somewhat peculiarly formed, 
and terminates a good way from the lateral margin ; the sternite 
is longer and more solid than in Tettigonia, and is not interrupted 
medianly. The second segment's tergite is tolerably feeble and 
short, ends a good way from the lateral margin, and at its ends 
a small pleural plate is found. On both segments there is thus 
a somewhat large space between the lateral margins of the tergite 
and the sternite. As regards the second segment, the third seg- 
ment's pleural plate and the lateral part of its tergite form 
together a strong solidly chitinized wedge, which fills up the space 
mentioned. On the third segment's tergite one sees at the anterior 
margin a deep transverse furrow, and in front of this an arched 
part, which one would readily take for the posterior part of the 
tergite of the second segment— which it is not — as this is situated 
in advance thereof as a more feeble short stripe. On the third 
to eighth segments the inner part of the Pleuron is only a some- 
what narrow membrane, while its chitinized outer plate is very 
considerable. The first and second pairs of spiracles are con- 
sequent upon the peculiar structure and altered bodily form of 
the first segment, transferred considerably above the lateral mar- 
gins, and look backwards ; the second pair lie in the tiny pleural 
plate a little higher up than the first pair ; the third to eighth 
pairs are transferred to the intero-anterior angles of the pleural 
plate. 

In Memhracis tectigera somewhat comparable circumstances 
are found, but here the pleural plates of the third to eighth seg- 
ments are separated from the tergite and sternite only by a 



THE AUCHBNOKRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 235 

feeble suture without proper membrane. Mthalion reticulatmn 
accords, discounted by tolerably small peculiarities, essentially 
with Tettigonia in the structure of the first two segments, and in 
the situation of their spiracles ; on the other hand, they agree 
essentially with Ceutrotus in the structure of the pleura of the 
third to eighth segments, and in the situation of their spiracles. 
Ledra aurita, on the contrary, agrees in all essentials with 
Tettigonia. 

4. Fulgoriche. — The peculiar structural characters of this 
family are simplest and easiest to study in one of the large 
forms — for example, a species of the subgenus Fulgora — and a 
species of this genus is for that reason the basis of the following 
observations. 

The tergite of the first segment, which is medianly indistinct 
and short, is laterally longer and well chitinized, and terminates 
a little from the lateral margin of the abdomen, which is mem- 
branous, externally limited and- coalesced with a posterior and 
somewhat outivardly directed lateral part of the metanotum ; the 
sternite is everywhere very short, but well chitinized, and extends 
right out to the lateral margins. The tergite of the second seg- 
ment is broad medianly, and shortens considerably laterally up 
to the vanishing point, before it reaches right out to the lateral 
margins ; the sternite is everywhere tolerably short, not very 
strongly chitinized, and does not reach right out to the segment's 
lateral margins, which are entirely membranous, but very short, 
as the pleura of the third segment and the outer part of its tergite 
extend forward as a — taken together — considerable oblique tri- 
angular formation on the lateral parts of the abdomen. The 
sternites of the first and second segments, together with a large 
part of that of the third segment, are covered, as seen from below, • 
by the posterior coxae and trochanters. The dorsal tergites of 
the third to eighth segments reach, as usual, out to the lateral 
margins, whereas their sternites (of which the eighth is modified 
for the service of the genitalia) extend somewJiat farther out later- 
ally than in the above families. The pleura are broad, and con- 
sist of a loiver, ivell developed, but, however, not especially broad 
{in Fulgora ventral) chitinous plate, and a usually broader, upper, 
lateral part, ivhich may be noted as typically membranous, appears 
as such in many forms (for example, Megamehis, Issus), but in 
Fidgora presents a somewhat irregularly formed, strongly chiti- 
nized portion near its lower margin. 

The first pair of abdominal spiracles lies on the ventral part of 
the segment in front, and partly exterior to the end parts of the first 
segment's tergite, and behind and within the backwardly directed 
lateral parts of the metanotum ; this is in Fulgora considerable 
and transverse. The second pair of spiracles also lies ventrcdly at 
a very considerable distance from the lateral margins behind 
the lateral part of the first tergite, thus more approaching the 



236 THE ENTOMOLOCtIST. 

insect's middle plane than the first pair does ; it is a little larger 
than the latter, and also transverse. The third to eighth pairs lie 
at the side of the insect in the membranous part of the pleuron 
close to their solid chitinization ; they consist of oblique, apically 
downwards inclining fissures, and are all large, the first three 
pairs the biggest, and about the size of the dorsally-situated 
second pair.* 

Deviations from this dorsal structure in the other Fulgoridse 
examined by me appear to be tolerably feeble, and of subordinate 
significance. Some more essential examples may be mentioned. 
In Arceopus crassicornis the first and second pairs of spiracles 
are proportionately importantly smaller, and (as it seems) shorter 
and broader than in Fulgora ; their situations with regard to the 
outer part of the metanotum, and with regard to one another, 
are the same ; the third to eighth pairs lie in the solid part of 
the pleuron, which here, on account of the breadth of the 
sternites, looks laterally just like the upper membranous part. 
In Euryhrachys sp. the third to eighth pleura are very broad, but 
a chitinized lower part is not particularly developed— at least the 
pleura are everywhere membranous without special differentiation 
in the quality of the skin. In T'ettigometra costulata the second 
tergite has nearest to the lateral margins a very considerable 
length, and its ovate spiracle lies in the tergite itself; but the 
relative situations of this and the first pair are as in Fulgora ; 
the spiracles of the third to seventh pairs lie a little inwardly in 
the solid part (of the pleura), which turns obliquely outwards 
and downwards ; on the eighth segment the solid spiraculiferous 
pleural part is coalesced with the sternite. The peculiar Flatidae, 
with elevated compressed abdomen, accord essentially with the 
medium-sized Fulgoridae. 

A resume of this well-marked family may be stated as follows : 
the dorsal situation of the first and second pairs of sjnracles, the 
location of the first pair in the angle of the metanotum, the 
looking outwards essentially or totally of the third to eighth 
pairs of spiracles situated in the pleura, which are either in great 
part or totally lateral, and consist of an upper essentially or 
quite membranous part, and a lower portion, which is mostly 
strongly chitinized. 

=- Judging from observations on thesellateral spiracles in Cahjptoproctus, 
their structure is very peculiar, but I have reason to believe that their forma- 
tion is not uniform in the different forms of Fulgoridae ; so that I entirely 
omit a description here, as I am not able to make it complete. 

(To be continued.) 



237 



ON SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENO- 
PTERA (ICHNEUMONID^, CHRYSIDID^, FOSSORES, 
AND APID^). 

By p. Cameron. 

(Continued from p. 208.) 

SCOLIID^. 
TiPHiA SPINOSA, sp n. 
Nigra, alis flavo-hyalinis, nervis fuscis, stigmate nigro ; metanoto 
striolato ; petiolo subtus spinoso ; mandibulis palpisque nigris. <? . 
Long. 12 mm. 

Hab. Khasia Hills (coll. Rothney). 

Antenn£e short, stout ; the scape closely and distinctly punctured, 
sparsely covered with fuscous hair ; the flagellum covered with a pale 
microscopic down. Front closely, strongly, and uniformly punctured ; 
the vertex has the punctures more irregularly distributed, larger and 
more widely separated ; both are thickly covered with white hair. 
Clypeus closely punctured, and thickly covered with white hair ; in 
the middle is a slight incision, Mandibles black, shining ; the base 
closely punctured, thickly covered with silvery hair ; the palpi dark 
testaceous. Pronotum closely and strongly punctured, its apex 
smooth ; behind the basal keel obscurely longitudinally striated. 
Mesonotum with large deep moderately widely separated punctures ; the 
scutellums are similarly punctured. On the median segment are 
three keels ; the central is straight, the outer more irregular ; the 
space between them is strongly shagreened, and irregularly trans- 
versely striated ; the space outside them is irregularly reticulated and 
striated ; on the apex are three short stout keels, the inner of which 
does not reach to the transverse apical keel ; the outer converge at the 
base. The apex is coarsely shagreened, irregularly reticulated, and 
round the edges striated ; the keel bounding the top is stouter than 
usual ; on the sides near the middle, extending half on to the notum 
and half on to the pleurse, is a large deep ovate depression with raised 
sides ; inside it is shagreened. Propleune closely striated ; the top 
punctured, the apex smooth ; mesopleurae strongly but not closely 
punctured ; metapleurse strongly striated ; the base largely and deeply 
excavated on the upper part, the lower part strongly shagreened. 
Mesosternum rather strongly but not closely punctured, thickly covered 
with a pale pubescence, and with long fuscous hair ; the middle has a 
broad rounded furrow. Legs thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; 
the spines rufous. The radius has an oblique slope at the base ; the 
second transverse cubital nervure has a rounded outwardly curved 
slope ; the first recurrent nervure is rounded outwardly at the top, and 
is received almost in the middle of tbe nervure. The petiole is strongly 
but not closely punctured at the apex ; the base of the second segment 
has a narrow strongly and closely striated depression ; the other seg- 
ments are punctured, the punctures becoming stronger and closer 
towards the apex ; the apical segments are thickly covered with pale 
pubescence. The base of the first ventral segment bears a stout 



238 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

curved, somewhat triangular, spine ; the apical part of the segment is 
strongly shagreened ; on the sides are two or three large irregular 
fovere ; the apex is furrowed and stoutly longitudinally striated. The 
pygidium is coarsely punctured; the epipygium is coarsely punctured, 
with a smooth shining band in the middle ; the ventral segments are 
fringed with bright golden hair. 

A species easily known by the tooth on the base of the petiole, 
by the stoutly transversely striated middle of metanotum, and 
by the stoutly striated base of the second abdominal segment. 

TiPHIA CURVINERVIS, Sp. nOV. 

Long. 14 mm. 5 . 

Hah. Khasia Hills (coll. Eothney). 

Agrees closely in form and coloration with T.fidvincrins, but 
is smaller ; may readily be separated from it by the second 
transverse cubital nervure being roundly curved at the top, the 
whole nervure being of the shape of a reaping-hook. 

Scape of antenna thickly covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the 
flagellum with a pale pile, its last joints rufous. Front and vertex 
strongly and deeply but not very closely punctured, and sparsely 
covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the keel over the antennaj is 
large, but not stout, and is bluntly conical. Face and clypeus closely 
and somewhat strongly punctured ; the apex and the middle of the 
clypeus smooth. Mandibles rufous in the middle, fringed below with 
long pale golden hair. The basal slope of the pronotum is closely and 
distinctly punctured ; the basal half of the upper part bears large deep 
punctures ; the apical is smootli ; the whole is thickly covered with 
long white hair. Mesonotum bearing large deep scattered punctures, 
the sides impunctate in the middle. iScutellum with some large deep 
punctures on the apex; the post-scutellum similarly punctured at the 
base Median segment coarsely shagreened, more strongly between 
the keels ; of these there are three ; the outer are curved outwardly at 
the base ; the inner reaches near to the apex ; the oblique slope is 
strongly shagreened, is thickly covered with a short white pile, and is 
irregularly punctured and striated round the edges. PropleurtB longi- 
tudinally striated ; above the strife are thinner, more irregular, and 
are intermixed with punctures. Mesopleurae rugosely punctured, 
thickly covered with white pubescence. Metapleurte closely striated, 
except at the base, which is broadly shagreened. Basal half of the 
mesonotum strongly punctured ; the apical smooth ; the apical area 
narrowed at the base, the narrowed part deeply furrowed ; there is a 
triangular depression in the middle at the base ; the sides have a few 
punctures. Legs thickly covered with glistening silvery hairs ; the 
spines are rufous. Wings fulvo-hyaliiie, the hinder pair paler at the 
apex and behind ; the nervures and stigma are fulvous. The base of the 
radius is straight, and has an oblique slope ; the upper half of the 
second transverse cubital nervure has a round outward curve ; the 
lower half is almost straight, oblique ; the first transverse cubital 
nervure has a rounded outward curve at the top ; the second has an 
oblique slope, and is received near the base of the apical third. 



SOME NEW OENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA. 239 

Abciomen shining, sparsely punctiired ; the apical segments thickly 
covered with long white hair ; the basal half of the pygidium is strongly 
punctured, and is thickly covered with long pale fulvous hair ; the apex 
is smooth, rufous, and is keeled down the middle ; the epipygium is 
closely and finely punctured. 

TiPHIA BICARINATA, Sp. IIOV. 

Nigra, punctata, longe hirsuta ; alls fusco-violaceis ; metanoto 
bicarinato. 3'' Long. 16 mm. 

Hab. Japan (George Lewis). 

This species is larger than any of the recorded Japanese 
species, from which it differs (as it does also from the Indian) in 
having only two keels on the median segment. 

Scape of the antenna) shining, bearing large deep punctures and 
long pale fulvous hairs ; the basal three joints of the flagellum shining, 
thickly covered with glistening fulvous hair ; the rest of the flagellum 
opaque, covered with a dull pale down. Front and vertex closely and 
strongly punctured ; there is a smooth space on the outer side of the 
hinder ocelli, which is continued across behind them by a space having 
only a few small punctures ; the part immediately behind the ocelli is 
strongly punctured. Front thickly covered with long, the vertex with 
shorter, fuscous hair ; in front of the ocelli there is a smooth space- 
somewhat dagger-shaped in form — broad at" the base, narrowed and 
sharply pointed at the apex. Clypeus smooth and shining in the 
middle ; the base and sides shagreened. Mandibles broadly piceous in 
the middle ; the lower side fringed with long pale golden hair at the 
base. The pronotum on the perpendicular base closely punctured, 
except on the lower side in the middle ; the upper part coarsely punc- 
tured, except a broad somewhat curved space at the base. The middle 
of the mesonotum is slightly depressed, closely and coarsely punctured, 
the sides are bordered by a row of large deep punctures, closely united 
together, followed inwardly by a row of larger ones, fewer in number, 
and more widely separated ; inside of these again is a smooth space, 
with a large puncture near its centre. Scutellum closely punctured at 
base and apex, the middle smooth. Median segment shagreened, 
opaque, finely longitudinally aciculated at the apex ; in the middle are 
two stout keels, which hardly converge towards the centre. The base 
of the propleurfe bears moderately large punctures, closely united 
together at the extreme base, widely separated and scattered over the 
rest ; the lower half is closely obliquely striated, the strias somewhat 
coarser towards the apex ; the whole shining. Mesopleurfe strongly 
punctured, opaque, thickly covered with long white hair. In the 
middle of the metapleur^e is a shallow curved furrow ; the upper part 
at the base strongly obliquely striated ; the lower smooth, very finely 
striated ; the apex is also finely striated. Legs black, the projection 
on the apices of the femora piceous ; the cox^, trochanters, and 
femora smooth, sparsely covered with soft white hair ; the fore tibias 
slightly, the four posterior very thickly, covered with white hair ; 
coarsely punctured on the outer, smooth on the inner side ; the outer 
row of broad spines pale and fulvous ; the calcaria testaceous. The 
petiole shining, smooth, covered with long fuscous hair, more sparsely 



240 



THE ENTOMOLOOIS'l, 



towards the apex ; the second and third segments sparsely and shal- 
lowly punctured : the fourth much more coarsely and closely ; the fifth 
rugosely punctured ; the pygidium coarsely longitudinally striated, 
intermixed with some coarse punctures ; its apex finely, closely, longi- 
tudinally striated. The basal ventral segment punctured at the base ; 
the second coarsely, the others more finely and closely punctured ; the 
second smooth ; the third and fourth aciculated at the base ; the last 
rugosely punctured. Wings fusco-hyaline ; the nervures and stigma 
deep black. 

POMPILIDiE. 
Salius himalayensis, sp. nov. 
Niger, capite thoraceque dense aureo pilosis ; pleuris brunneis ; 
apice abdominis late rufis ; pedibus rufis, coxis trochanteribusque 
brunneis ; alls flavo-hyalinis. ? . Long. 15 mm. 

Hab. Khasia (coll. Eothney). 

A species closely related to S. flavus. The differences between 
the two may be best shown in synoptical form : — 
Second cubital cellule at the top distinctly shorter than 
the first ; the pleurae and median segment black ; the 
femora broadly black at the base ... ... ... flavus. 

Second cubital cellule equal in length to the first ; the 
pleurjB and median segment brownish ; the femora 
without black ... ... ... ... ... ... Jdmalayensis. 

AntennaB pale fulvous, the scape darker in tint. Head dark ferru- 
ginous ; the vertex, front, and face densely covered with golden 
pubescence, the face bearing also some long rufous hairs. The apex 
of the clypeus is broadly rounded, closely punctured, except on the 
extreme apex. Mandibles dark ferruginous, the teeth black, the 
extreme base covered with depressed golden pubescence. The greater 
part of the prothorax and the mesonotum densely covered with de- 
pressed golden pile ; scutellum minutely punctured, and covered with 
rufous hair. Median segment irregularly transversely striated, sparsely 
covered with black hair ; the base and apex black ; the middle with a 
wide shallow furrow. The propleurfe are of a brighter colour than the 
meso- ; the metapleurae darker ; the mesopleural furrow is narrow ; 
the metapleurte irregularly obliquely striated. Legs ferruginous ; the 
coxffi blackish behind ; the tarsi are paler ; the hinder femora darker. 
Wings yellowish hyaline ; the apex slightly infuscated; the first and 
second cubital cellules are equal in length on the top. Abdomen 
black, shining ; the apical two segments ferruginous, and thickly 
covered with long rufous hairs. 

POMPILUS SETABIS, Sp. nOV. 

Black, the under side of the scape white, of the basal joints of the 
flagellum brown ; the apex of the median segment densely covered 
with white pubescence ; wings hyaline, the apex smoky ; the third 
cubital cellule petiolated. c? . Long. 8 mm. 

Hab. Borneo. 

AntennaB stout ; the apical joints of the flagellum roundly dilated ; 
the basal three joints brownish ; the scape for the greater part white 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 241 

beneath. Head densely covered -with silvery pubescence, thickest on 
the front and clypeus. Eyes long, slightly converging above ; the 
ocelli are in a curve ; the hinder are separated from each other by a 
slightly greater distance than they are from the eyes. Clypeus at the 
apex transverse in the middle ; the labrum large, the palpi black. 
Thorax densely pruinose ; the apical slope of the median segment is 
densely covered with woolly hair, silvery white in colour. Legs 
densely pruinose ; the tibial and tarsal spines long and black ; the 
calcaria white ; the longer of the hinder pair is two-thirds of the 
length of the metatarsus. Wings hyaline ; the apex of both wings 
infuscated ; the radial cellule short, wide ; the third cubital cellule is 
petiolated ; below it is as long as the second ; the first transverse 
cubital nervure is broadly and roundly curved ; the first recurrent 
nervure is received close to the transverse cubital ; the second shortly 
beyond the middle of the cellule ; the accessory nervure in the hind 
wing is received behind the cubital. Abdomen sessile ; the basal seg- 
ments densely covered with silvery pubescence ; the apical segment 
bluntly pointed. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSEKVATIONS. 

Are Cocoons Waterproof ? — The question is suggested by my 
experience of the disastrous rain-storm at Ipswich on July 1st. I 
had a chrysalis of Odonestis potatoria in the cocoon on a stem in a tall 
glass jar, which stood in a sheltered position near a wall. To my 
surprise next morning I found the jar was filled with water to the 
depth of five inches (a fact which indicates the greatness of the deluge), 
and I concluded the chrysalis was drowned, and threw it aside. Two 
days later, when it was dry, curiosity caused me to open the cocoon, 
and I found the pupa alive and kicking ! Considering that it must 
have been nearly twenty hours under water, I thought the incident 
worthy of record, and should be interested to hear of similar experiences. 
Claude A. Pyett ; 28, Waterloo Koad, Ipswich. 

Ichneumon in Zyg^ena trifolii. — In July, 1901 (when in search of 
Aporia cvatccgi), I came across a fresh locality for Z. trifulii, and the 
examples appeared to be of a more blotched character than those I 
usually get. This year I went to the spot in June in order to collect 
a number of cocoons, and to my surprise I found that there were two 
distinct sizes, one about one-third the size of the other. In about a 
couple of hours I collected 400 cocoons, and after I reached home I 
separated the two sizes, and found there were 275 small ones and 125 
large ones. Several small larviB (typical trifolii) spun up while in my 
possession, and were amongst the 275. I thought there must be two 
species, and anxiously waited for their emergence. Alas 1 I was dis- 
appointed, for the large cocoons produced very normal Z. trifolii, and 
the smaller ones were all ichneumoned, with three exceptions, which 
produced very dwarfed trifolii. The percentage of ichneumoned cocoons 
(68-75 per cent.) seems exceptionally great, for in another place I 

ENTOM. — SEPTEMBER, 1902. U 



242 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

found the cocoons of Z . fdipendu I a very plentifully, and, having col- 
lected five hundred in a very short time (getting as many as six on 
one stem of grass), only two ichneumon flies emerged, or a percentage 
of '04, but unfortunately vars. were represented by a percentage of -000. 
Should anyone visiting Margate find that either of these species of 
Zijf/mia is a pest, he may blame me for having introduced them in any 
numbers. I shall be glad to show anybody interested in ichneumon 
flies the two sizes of cocoons. — J. P. Bakrett ; St. John's Villas, 
Margate. 

PiEBis NAPi Twelve Months in Pupa. — During June last several 
specimens of Pieris napi emerged from chrysalids of June, 1901. For 
some reason they did not emerge as second brood last year, and their 
colouriug is of the spring type. — C. A. Sladen ; The Rectory, Alton 
Barnes, Pewsey, Wilts, August 6th, 1902. 

PiiUsiA MONETA : A FEW NoTEs AND QuERiEs. — The above species was 
first discovered, I believe, in this country in 1890 ; odd specimens were 
captured or bred every year in and about the county of Kent by different 
collectors and duly recorded, the insect being looked upon as a great 
prize. In 1900 a good number of the larvae were discovered and suc- 
cessfully bred ; in 1901 a larger quantity of the larvte were found and 
more captures recorded, but this season, I think, has eclipsed all pre- 
vious records ; it has appeared all over London, practically wherever 
its food-plants [Aconitum and Delphinium) are cultivated ; and when one 
reviews its career from the time it first appeared, we must admit it has 
apparently firmly established itself, at least in Kent ; but will it last ? 
I should never be surprised to hear of its sudden disappearance ; there- 
fore, on behalf of all concerned, I think it would be most interesting if 
some of our brother enthusiasts, older and more experienced than I, 
would give us their valuable opinions re this species through the 
medium of this Journal. In the meantime, I would strongly advise 
those collectors who have not yet got this handsome insect to add it to 
their collections while it is— as a friend of mine rightly or wrongly 
puts it — so awfully " common " !— A. J. Lawrance ; 65, Malyou Eoad, 
Ladywell, S.E., Aug. 16th, 1902. 

Gynandrous Akgynnis paphia. — Whilst staying at Brockenhurst, 
in the New Forest, last month, I was fortunate enough to capture, 
on July 28th, a very good specimen of A. paphia (hermaphrodite). It 
was at rest on bramble-blossom, and was quite easily seen, due to the 
distinct shades of colour. The right side is male, and the left female ; 
each half of head, thorax, and body also corresponds to the sex. — 
Herbert Charles ; Woodend, Torringtou Park, North Finchley, Aug. 
15, 1902. 

Unusual Pairing of Butterflies. — 1 think the following is worth 
recording. On July 15th last I found a male Eiiri/tela hiaibus in cop. 
with a female Neptis ai/atha. I had not a net with me, but managed 
to secure both insects with my hand. I kept the female N. ayatka 
alive in the hope of getting some ova, but unfortunately she would not 
lay in confinement. Is it not very unusual for two such distinct spe- 
cies to pair ? I shall be pleased to know if any other collector in 
Africa has ever found these two insects in cop. I may mention that 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 243 



N. agatha has been unusually abundant here this season, andi?, hiarbas 
not nearly so common as during the two previous seasons. — Gr. F. 
Leigh ; Heathfield, Sydenham Road, Durban, Natal, July 26th, 1902. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Lyc^na biinima var. alsoides in Hampshire. — Mr. B. Piffard 
reports the capture of this large form of L. minima on the coast near 
Lymington, and he has kindly presented a pair to the National Collec- 
tion of British Lepidoptera. It should be mentioned that Mr. Piffard 
states that there is no chalk or limestone in the district where he 
obtained the specimens. 

Aporia Crat^gi in Kent. — This butterfly, I am pleased to record, 
still survives in my neighbourhood. Early in July I caught a fresh 
male on a small patch of clover, which proved to be the " home " of a 
batch of the insect, for on subsequent days I very easily took niueteen 
more, making exactly a score. I also saw about another score speci- 
mens on the "rampage," but at such time A. cratagi is not easy to 
capture, for the wind takes it along at a terrific pace, and I can only 
account for six examples captured away from the "home"; the 
greatest distance between specimens captured was about ten miles. I 
am inclined to think the insect is domiciled in the fruit orchards. 
I failed to get eggs, though one female, taken in cop., lived over a 
fortnight under artificial conditions. I kept two females and a male 
together with the proper food-plants and fed them regularly, but to no 
purpose. — J. P. Barrett ; 3, St. John's Villas, Margate. 

P1ERID.E in London. — In the daily papers one occasionally sees 
letters from astonished correspondents recording the appearance of a 
butterfly in Loudon. It is doubtful whether these occurrences are 
quite as rare as is generally supposed. It may, however, be worth 
mentioning that on June 19th, at about 4.30 p.m., I saw a specimen 
of Pieris brassiccB in Northumberland Avenue. There was at the time 
a strong breeze coming off the river, and, after vainly struggling 
towards a plane tree, the butterfly got blown towards Trafalgar Square. 
The flowers in the window-boxes at the Metropole had been changed 
that morning, and the specimen may have been accidentally imported 
with them. I saw another specimen of P. brassiccB in Northumberland 
Avenue on June 24th. Earlier in the season I saw, but was not near 
enough to identify accurately, a Pieris in St. James's Park. — D. P. 
Turner ; 2, Shalston Villas, Surbiton, July, 1902. 

Plusia moneta in Hampshire. — Four larvae of P. moneta were taken 
here during the last week in May from plants of Dciphiniwn. The 
moths successfully emerged between June 28th and July 9th. It 
would be interesting to learn in what form this species passes the 
winter. It seems reasonable to suppose that the eggs from which 
these larvge were produced were laid last July, since the patch of 
Delphinium was that over which a specimen of the perfect insect was 



244 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

then taken. But in the autumn the plants die down to the roots, and 
in the spring the whole of the surface of the ground was disturbed 
several times. It seems difficult, therefore, to imagine how either eggs 
or hvbernated larvse could survive. — G. W. Russell ; Portchester, 
Hants, July 26th, 1902. 

Plusia moneta in Wiltshire. — I have to report the capture of 
ChcBrocani pa porceUus and P. moneta at honeysuckle on the evening of 
July 17th last. — C. A. Sladen ; The Rectory, Alton Barnes, Pewsey, 
Wilts. 

Plusia moneta at Winchmore Hill. — On the evening of August 6th 
a fine specimen of P. moneta flew into the room where there was an 
incandescent light burning. — B. Hicklin ; Cranford, Winchmore Hill. 

Plusia moneta in Surrey. — On July 14th a specimen of this moth 
was captured flying over DeljiJiinimn. in a garden at Sutton, and for- 
warded to me. From that date down to the time of writing (August 1st) 
twelve more specimens have been taken in the same garden, the later 
captures showing signs of being worn. The species has evidently 
" come to stay," and there is perhaps no necessity for further detailed 
records. Nevertheless, I venture to forward this record, in order that 
the spread of the species throughout the counties may be noted for 
future reference. I may add that two of the specimens have laid 
eggs, and that an attempt will be made to feed up the larvfe when 
they hatch. — R. Meldola ; 6, Brunswick Square, W.C, Aug. 1st, 1902. 

CoLiAS edusa in Essex, 1902. — On August 10th, a very hot day, 
three C. edusa were seen, and one of these was captured. — Richard J. 
Fitch ; Brick House, Maldon, Essex. 

Lasiocampa QUERciFOLiA IN LoNDON. — On July 29th I took a fine 
female specimen of this moth, resting on a window-frame of a re- 
staurant in the Euston Road, N.W., about 10.45 p.m. On arriving 
home, a few minutes later, I found it had already deposited about a 
dozen eggs. As the moth was so fresh I killed it, thinking that the 
ova would be infertile. To my surprise, on August 12th I found nine 
larvfE had hatched, and these are feeding all right up to the present. — 
H. Perks; 43, Charlotte Street, Portland Place, W., Aug. 17th, 1902. 

Rhodoph^iEA FORMOSA AND Oncocera ahenella IN Herts. — Amoiig 
some Lepidoptera sent to me for identification by Mr. Philip J. 
Barraud, of Bushey Heath, were three specimens of R. formosa and 
one male example of 0. ahenella. — Richard South. 

Chrosis bifasciana in Surrey. — So far as I am aware, Reigate 
and Haslemere are the only localities in Surrey from which this 
species has previously been recorded. On July 12th last, whilst 
netting a few specimens of Batodes angustiorana at Box Hill, I secured 
one example of C. bifasciana {audouinana). — Richard South; 96, Drake- 
field Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Pionea (Ebulea) stachydalis in Surrey. — I took two examples of 
this species in the Esher district on July 18th last. They were dis- 
turbed from herbage amoug which were a good many plants of Stachys 
syIvatica.^B.icB.AT.B South. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 245 

The Butterflies of the Witherslack District. — In one of the 
Lancaster local papers there appeared recently a short article stating 
that nearly all the British butterflies occurred at or in the vicinity of 
Witherslack, Westmoreland. A list of the different species which do 
occur in that district will no doubt be interesting, and serve as a guide 
for intending entomological visitors. No less than thirty-nine species 
occur or have been taken in the neighbourhood, out of a grand total 
of seventy-two. This is undoubtedly a fine list for one locality, 
especially when we consider that, of the remaining thirty-three species, 
fourteen are either very rare or only occasional visitors to our shores — 
e. g. A. cratiBiji, P. daplidice, C. hyale, A. latona, A. niohe, A. dia, 
M. didyma, V. (mtiopa, V. virginiensis, D. enp'jms, 8. liyea, P. virgaurecR, 
L. bcetica, and L. acis, while one, C. dispar, is practically extinct, and 
eight are local, — P. iiiachaon, M. einxia, A. iris, L. priini, L. avion, 
H. lineola, H. actceon, and C. paliBmon. 

The following is a complete list of the Rhopalocera of Witherslack 
and district : — 

Pieris brassiccB, P. rapa, and P. napi. Common everywhere. 

Euchlo'e cardamines. Common, end of May, in the lanes, Grange, 
Methop, Witherslack, &c. 

Leucophasia sinapis. Common, near Witherslack and at Methop ; 
only one brood, end of May. 

Colias ednsa. Common at intervals, in " edusa years." 

Gonepteryx rhumni. Common in lanes about Witherslack. 

Aryynnis selene. This species was formerly common on a piece of 
waste swampy ground near Witherslack, but cultivation and drainage 
are gradually stamping it out. 

A. euphrosyne. Common, beginning of June. 

A. aylaia. Not common, occurs about Witherslack sparingly ; at 
Warton Crag it is fairly common, also on Arnside Knofct. 

A. adippe. Common during July and beginning of August. 

A. paphia. Rare; I took one specimen near Witherslack last 
year — a record. This was no doubt introduced with farm produce. 

Vanessa polychloros. Rare ; one specimen taken by myself last year. 
The same remark applies to this as to ^. paphia, vide supra. 

V. urtictB. Common everywhere. 

V. io. Abundant. This is the commonest butterfly about in August. 

V. atalanta. Fairly common. 

V. cardiii. Not quite so plentiful as F. atalanta. 

Erehia epiphrun. Common on the Langdale Pikes, Helvellyn, &c. 

E. athiops. Common, beginning of August. 

Pararge meycBva. Common, May, June, July, and August, sunning 
itself on the walls. 

Satyrm semele. Common, end of July and beginning of August, 
on rocky ground. 

Epiiiephele ianira. No remarks needed. 

E. tithonus. Odd specimens have been taken, but this species is 
rare ; the nearest locality is near Heysham, on the Overton Road ; 
end of July and beginning of August. 

E. hyperanthm. Was formerly common in Maud's Wood, near 
Grange, but a hydro now stands there, and the grounds are enclosed 
and private. It has been taken near Kendal, but is evidently scarce. 



246 THIS ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Ccenonympha davus. Very common, end of June to mid-July, on 
all the mosses. 

C. pawpJdlns. Vide E. ianira. 

Thecla betulcB. Local ; occurs on the Silverdale road, beginning of 
September. 

T. qucrcm. Common about the oaks on Arnside Knott, mid-July. 

T. ruhi. Common during May. 

Chrysophanus phlceas. Common, odd specimens, everywhere. 

Lycmia agestis. Fairly common, also var. salmacis. 

L. icarus. Common; the second brood in September is diminutive. 

L. corydon. Formerly common near Arnside Tower ; also occurs 
on W^arton Crag. 

L. argiolus. Common ; only one brood, end of May. 

L. minima. Local ; I only know of one locality, on the roadside, 
near the ' Derby Arms,' Witherslack. 

Nemeobms lucina. Common, near Grange, end of May. 

Nisoniades tages. Common on most of the heaths. 

Hesperia sylvanus. Common. — C. H. Forsythe ; Lancaster. 

Five Days' Collecting at Deal. — Arrived at Deal on the morning 
of June 25th for five days. I was met at the station by a trap, which 
was to take me to my destination, Martinsfield, which is two and a 
half miles from the station, and is situated in the middle of the Deal 
sandhills. As we drove along I noticed a very large pair of Cerura 
vinula on a telegraph pole. After lunch I started off in quest of Calli- 
morpha dominula, but was at first unsuccessful in finding the exact 
locality, which was not discovered until we again visited the spot on 
the next day. The larvae were then found fairly commonly, feeding 
on nettle, bramble, sloe, and several low plants, though the majority 
were on the first two. 

Porthesia chrysorrlicea larvae were abundant on blackthorn, and 
single examples were also taken all round Deal. P. similis was not 
nearly as common as its usually far rarer relative. Larvffi of Malacosoma 
neustria were abundant on fruit trees at Worth and Sandwich, and 
odd larvfe of L. quercns were also picked up. The full-grown larvffi 
and cocoons of Anthrocera JilipenduhE, were very thick, both on the 
chalk at Kingsdown and in a certain spot on the sandhills ; whilst 
two freshly emerged A. trifolii were also obtained. The much-eaten 
mallow produced larvae of Euholia cervinata, but searching for Ciicidlia 
verbasci produced only two small larvfe on Scrophularia (figwort), which 
was very abundant in the ditches on the sandhills and near Sandwich, 
where the larvae were taken. 

The most notable butterflies were Pyrameis cardui and Cupido 
minima ; the first-named was quite common, but, of course, in very 
poor condition. As for C. minima, it abounded on the chalk around 
Kingsdown and Martin Mill. Five or six were often to be seen in 
company flying over low bramble bushes in some sheltered corner. 
Those taken were mostly in perfect condition. I have never known 
the species anything like so common before. Other butterflies noticed 
were Pieris brassiccB, P. rupee, Vanessa urtica (also larvae of all sizes), 
V. atalanta, Epinephele ianira, Ccenonympha pamphilus, Polyommatiis 
phlteas, Cyayiiris argiolus, Lyccena icarus, L. adonis (a few males in grand 
condition), Thanaos tages, and Hesperia sylvanus. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 247 

The posts forming the uprights of the post and rail fences, so 
common in this part of the country, were well worth searching, 
especially for Nocture. At Kingsdown, Hecatera serena was the com- 
monest moth taken in this way, whilst on the sandhills, where Silene 
is not so much in evidence, Cucullia umhratica was an easy first, about 
twenty being taken in an hour, and nearly all in first-rate condition. 
Other species thus obtained were Diantluccia coiispersa (one at Kings- 
down), Mamestra biassica, M. albicolon, M. anceps, Xi/lophasia polyodon, 
X. lithoxijlea, Apamea gemina, Hadena dentina (abundant), H. oleracea, 
H. fjenistoi (one), and Hepialus lupidinus. 

A few Arctia villica were met with, and other insects taken or 
noticed by day-work were Dianthcecia capsincola, Aplecta nebulosa (one), 
Plusia gamma (ta^ivly common), EucUdla mi, Phytometra cenea, Spilosoma 
lubricipeda, Melanthia ocellata, Melanippe galiata (Kingsdown), M. mon- 
tanata (Martin Mill), M. subtrlstata, Camptogramma bilineata, Acidalia 
oniata, A. marginepunctata (one only, at Kingsdown), Asthena candidata, 
Cabera pusaria, Metrocampa margaritaria (Worthj, Cidaria truncata, 
Lomaspilis margmata, Phibalapteryx vitalbata (near Sandwich and Martin 
Mill), Eupithecla rectangulata (two, Deal and Worth), Pionea forjicalis, 
Pyralis costalis, P yrausta pur puralis , Eurrhypara urticata, Scopula olivalis, 
Ebuleacrocealis, Cataclysta lemnata (abundant, Sandwich), Scoparia dubi- 
talis (abundant), and Botys pandalis. 

At night we treacled rows of posts on the sandhills. The first 
night turned out a blank, and, though there was a somewhat strong 
north-easterly wind on the other nights, there were plenty of insects at 
the sugar, especially on the last night. They were mostly, however, 
of the commonest. As soon as the treacle was on, and before it was 
quite dark, Cluerocampa porcellus turned up in grand condition, but 
only two of them. The following were also attracted : — Agrotis excla- 
matiunis (far and away the commonest moth), A. curticea and .-J. segetum 
(both scarce), Xylupliasia polyodon, X. suhlastria (one), Leucania comma 
(abundant and fine), L. pallens, Mamestra brassicce, M. albicolon (at first 
mistaken for brassiae and passed over, but afterwards we obtained 
about a dozen, mostly in fine condition), M. anceps, Miana strigilis 
(dark forms with some reddish markings), M.fasciwiciila, Grammesia 
trigrammica, Apamea gemina (not common), TriphcBua pronuba, Hadena 
chenopodii, PL. oleracea, and a few Cacullia umhratica, which I believe 
is not generally taken at sugar. Last, but not least, a fine Neuria 
reticulata. Light attracted, among commoner things, Arctia villica. 

The Odonata were not particularly interesting, only seven species 
being noticed — viz. Libellula quadrimaculata and L. depressa (one of 
each), Brachytron pratense, Platycnemis pennipes, Pyrrhosomanympliala, 
Agrion puella (abundant), and Ischnura elegans (abundant). 

A few species of Coleoptera were taken. The best were single 
specimens of the fine Molytes germanus (Kingsdown), and Harpalus 
subulicola. The following were also obtained : — Harpalus ruficornis, 
Donacia sericea, D. lemnce, D. linearis (the last three near Sandwich on 
Iris), Otiorrhynchus atroapteriis (in the sand), Cneorrhinus geminatus, 
Crypticus quisqailius, Dascilliis cervinus, ]\[alachius viridis, Pyrochroa 
serraticornis, and Leptura livida. Larvae of Hypera variabilis were 
abundant on lucerne at Kingsdown, but beetles were not seriously 
worked. — F. M. B. Carr ; 46, Handen Road, Lee, S.E. 



248 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Economic. — -Mr. W. J. Lucas has written the first entomological 
leaflet in the " Nature-Knowledge " series, issued by the Agricultural 
Education Committee. It deals with the Lace-wing fly (Chri/sopa 
perla), and is briglitly and simply written ; it should prove a valuable 
inducement to children for the acquisition of "nature-knowledge." 
("Lace-wing or Golden-eye." "Nature-Knowledge" Leaflets, no. 9. 
3 pp. ; 3 figs. [No date.] ) 

Bhyncliota. — Herbert Osboen notes an interesting case of mimicry 
presented by the South African Tetigoniid Cephalelus infumatus, a 
species described some seventy years ago. The insect "is a little 
over half an inch long, of a brown colour, and has a remarkably pro- 
longed head, which anteriorly tapers out into a very long spine. This 
prolonged head is almost one half the total length of the insect. The 
body is slender, and the wings terminate posteriorly, somewhat abruptly, 
but in such a manner that they fit very perfectly upon the stem of the 
plant which is its ordinary food. The protective feature comes in from 
the aborted leaf-sheaths on the stem of the plant, forming sharp spines 
occurring at intervals along the length of the stem, and these are 
perfectly reproduced in the form and colour of the insect. So close 
is the resemblance that, when a number of the spines are mounted 
separately alongside of the insects, it is very difticult to distinguish 
them without the most careful scrutiny." Cephalelus " lives on the 
rush Buvea tectorum, Masters, the spines of which are mimicked." 
(1902: 'Psyche,' p, 327.) 

Neuroptem. — V. L. Kellogg discusses the phylogeny of the Mallo- 
phaga, and calls attention to an earlier paper published by him in 1896 
("New Mallophaga, &c.," inContrib. to Biol, from Hopkins Seaside 
Lab., vii. ; 117 pp., 14 Plates). From evidence based upon the struc- 
ture, principally of the mouth-parts and, in a less degree, of the internal 
organs, the author concludes that the Mallophaga are degenerate 
Psocidas, the wingless Atropos forming an important link. (1902 : 
'Psyche,' ix., pp. 339-43, " Are the Mallophaga degenerate Psocids ? ") 

G. W. K. 



OBITUARY. 



Mr. J. B. Williamson died at Slough on June 21st last, at the 
age of seventy-four years. The present writer had known him for 
over ten years, and esteemed his friendship very highly. He Avas 
by profession an artist, and formerly a frequent exhibitor in the 
Academy, principally in water-colour. He was first led to take up 
entomology on account of the assistance the wing-colouring of the 
Lepidoptera gave him in the study of colour and in designing. He 
formed a very fine collection of British Lepidoptera, but owing to 
failing health he had been unable for some years to keep in touch with 
other entomologists, though there are still many readers of the ' Ento- 
mologist' who will remember him. — E. S. C. 



Entomologist, October, 1902. 



Plate III. 





THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.] OCTOBER, 1902. [No. 473. 



MERIANIA ARGENTIFERA, Meig., A TACHINID NEW 
TO BRITAIN. 

By Colbran J. Wainweight, F.E.S. 

(Plate III.) 

Amongst a few Diptera sent to me for identification by Mr. . 
W. J. Lucas in the early part of this year, I found a specimen 
of this species, which, so far as I know, is quite new to the 
British list. Novelties are by no means uncommon in this com- 
paratively little-known family ; at the same time, I was interested 
in recognizing such a well-characterized and handsome species, 
and, as Mr. Lucas has prepared very excellent drawings of the 
fly, and of the side view of its head, some account of it may be 
generally interesting. 

The Tachinidfe form a very large group of the Cahjptrate 
Muscidce, nearly allied to the common " blue-bottles," and in- 
cluding the very abundant and familiar Sarcophagidae, or flesh- 
flies. Many of the species are parasitic upon other insects, and 
in consequence some of them have made themselves unpleasantly 
known to breeders of Lepidoptera, who have found them in their 
breeding cages in place of the expected and more desired butterfly 
or moth. 

We have in this country a quite uncertain number of species, 
probably about three hundred, and possibly many more. Owing 
'to the fact that they are mostly very much alike, and the specific 
distinctions minute and often indefinite, they have received very 
little attention, and consequently are little known ; and a number 
of species undoubtedly remain undetected and unidentified. More- 
over, those that are known are often little understood — their 
limits indeterminate and their nomenclature in a muddle. New 
names and new species, therefore, are more nearly the rule than 

ENTOM. — OCTOBER, 1902. X 



250 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



the exception in tins group. Meriania argentifera, Meig., is, 
however, more than usually clearly defined, and is rather a fine 
insect, as will be judged from Mr. Lucas's drawing. 

The genus Meriania was founded by Eobineau Desvoidy, or 
rather the name was created by him, in his ' Essai sur les 
Myodaires,' 1830. Whether his names should ever be adopted 
at all is a question, and how they are ever identified with any- 
thing is a wonder to me. He monographed the whole of the big 
family of Muscidcs {sens, lat.), and only very occasionally deigned 
to notice anyone else's work. He renamed everything, genera 
and species alike ; he split up genera and species so that in 
many cases a genus represented a species, and was of the value 
of a species only, and the included species were only the various 
sexes and forms of the one species ; and he characterized all so 
feebly that they seem to me quite unrecognizable, as a rule. 
However, Brauer and von Bergenstamm, in their ' Vorarbeiten 
zu einer Monographie der Muscaria Schizometopa (exclusive 
Anthomyiidae),' the most important work on the Tachinidae yet 
published, revive his name Meriania for this genus. Brauer and 
Bergenstamm give argentifera, Meig., as the type. Of the three 
species (all new names) placed by Eobineau Desvoidy in his genus, 
however, silvatica and horealis are both definitely identified with 
puparum, F,, by Macquart in the ' Annales de la Soc. Entom. de 
France,' 1848, p. 122 ; and the other one is a Cape species ; so 
that it seems to me that puparum, F., should be the typical 
species, and argentifera cannot be, as it was not in the original 
genus at all. 

Eondani, in his * DipterologifB Italicse Prodromus,' vol. i., 
p. 64, and vol. iii., p. 74, creates a genus Platychira, quoting 
pupa7'um, F., as the tj^pe, and including other species — radicmn, 
F., strenua, Meig., &c. — which are now recognized as abundantly 
distinct. This genus was constituted practically in the same 
manner as the genus afterwards familiar as Nemorcea, and as it 
is cotypical with Meriania, E.D., the name must go at once as 
a useless synonym. 

Schiner, Macquart, Verrall (in his first * List of British Di- 
ptera '), and others recognized a big genus, Nemorcea (another 
name of Eobineau Desvoidy, is used, however, in a much wider 
sense than he intended), and merged puparum into it. The name 
by which it is familarly known, therefore, is Nemorcea puparum. 
This genus contained a number of closely allied common species 
distinct from puparum ; and that species, together with its close 
ally argentifera, always formed a section apart, distinguished at 
once from all the others by their hairy cheeks. Finally, Brauer 
and Bergenstamm, in the work already referred to, showed how 
different they were, and removed them not only to another genus, 
for which the name Platychira, Edi., was first adopted (part i., 
p. 86), afterwards changed to Meriania, E. D. (part iii., p. 112), 



MEKIANIA ARGENTIFERA. 251 

but also finally placed them in a distinct section, far away from 
the true Nemoma species, calling the section Platijchira ; and 
Verrall, in his revised ' List of British Diptera,' published 1902, 
accepts the name Meriania, and gives pu2)arum, F., as the one 
British representative. Plaiychira, with its single genus Meriania, 
is well characterized by the facts that the facial angles (a) stand 
well above the mouth edge {h), which projects between them; 
that the cheeks (c) are very hairy, as well as the eyes ; that the 
third antennal joint {d) is short and broad, and but little longer 
than the second (c) ; and that the female has its fore tarsi 
flattened out. The other characters of venation, &c., which 
are less distinctive, can be gathered from Mr. Lucas's excellent 
drawings. 

N. puparum, F., has been known as British since Walker's 
time, but, so far as my knowledge goes, seems to be always rare. 
I have never met with it mj^self, and only possess one British 
specimen, a fine large male taken at Holmbury last April by 
Dr. T. A. Chapman. This particular specimen is fully 6 lines 
long, and is larger than any of my Continental types. It is a 
handsome, robust-looking insect ; the general colour brown, with 
the scutellum and the sides of the second and third abdominal 
segments red, with interrupted white shimmering bands occupy- 
ing the fore half of the second to the fourth abdominal segments ; 
the head dark greenish brown, with a golden shimmer on the 
lower parts, and the usual dark line on the frons ; the palpi are 
yellow ; the antennae and legs all black ; the whole insect very 
hairy, with discal and marginal macrochetge on the abdominal 
segments, the remaining characters being the same as shown in 
the drawing of argentifera. 

N. argentifera, Meig., seems to be a smaller insect. The one 
male taken by Mr. Lucas is barely 4^- lines long, and looks about 
half the size of Dr. Chapman's piip)aruin. I expect, however, 
that as a rule the difference is not great, and, of course, in the 
Tachinidge, size is of little, if any, value for specific distinctions. 
The principal difference between puparum and argentifera is that 
in the former species the hairs on the cheeks (c), and many of 
those on the chins (/) and back of the head {g), are pale (Schiner 
says white, but in mine they are golden, and I expect they are 
always so in fresh specimens), whilst in argentifera they are black 
throughout. Other differences are, that in argentifera the general 
colour is more blue-black than brown, and the white shimmering 
bands on the abdominal segments are very faint, and only to be 
seen plainly at the sides. Schiner says that the forehead in the 
male of argentifera is wider than in puparum, taking up "almost 
one-third of the whole head-width " ; it is certainly a little wider 
in Mr. Lucas's specimen than in puparum, but not much, and 
certainly does not take up one-fifth of the total head- width. 
Schiner also says that the red on the abdomen is less noticeable 

x2 



252 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in argentifera, but in these two specimens I have before me there 
is little difference in that respect. The red abdominal markings 
in the Tachinidae are, however, always very variable, and of 
little specific value. 

Mr. Lucas obtained his specimen in the New Forest, on 
April 30th, this year. Both species of Meriania appear to be 
always early spring insects, and possibly for this reason have 
been overlooked, as few Diptera appear so early in the year, and 
dipterists are accordingly not often out collecting them. Schiner 
says that they occur " in the earliest spring, on sunny tree- 
trunks, and like to sport with one another and with other 
Muscidce.'" Brauer records the breeding of argentifera from a 
lepidopteron, Mesogona oxalina, Hb. ; and imparum has been 
bred from Panolis pijiiperda, Pz. 

I have to thank Mr. Lucas for kindly presenting me with 
the, at present, unique British specimen. 



ON THE LARVA OF LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS, Westw. 

By Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 228.) 

Perhaps the most remarkable thing about this remarkable 
larva is the modification which has affected the prolegs. When 
we examine the soft under side of the larva, the head, true legs, 
and prolegs are seen very much as in the young larva ; the head, 
however, is nearly white, and so are the true legs, except the 
tarsal tips. 

Beginning at the margin of the dorsal shield where it sets 
down on the surface on which the larva may be resting, we find 
that the shagreened jjoints of the general surface carry hairs of 
various lengths, some almost evanescent, others nearly "25 mm. 
long ; these no doubt assist in making the opposition of the 
larva to its resting place more complete. These seem to be true 
hairs jointed at the base, and the points over the dorsum are 
probably also really hairs rather than spicules. The shagreened 
dots are about '08 mm. in diameter. As one passes inwards 
from the margin, the hairs get rather thicker, and retain their 
length of "2 to "28 mm., the shagreened bases lose all chitinous 
colour, and, a short way in, is apparently a smooth surface, 
thickly studded with white, short, thick hairs ; as we approach 
the prolegs these get shorter and sharper, and fail altogether at 
a line just below the summit of the column, at top of which is 
the retractile portion of the leg. Then, just at the margin of 
the summit of the column, is a compact circle of crotchets, that 
differ in no very decided manner from those ordinarily found on 



ON THE LARVA OF LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS. 253 

prolegs. Within this circle is a white projecting mass of tissue, 
with a ridge along its summit from front to back, with parallel 
striae running down to the margin. The crotchets are hooked 
outwards, have a short flat base applied to the surface of attach- 
ment, and, without forming two or three regular rows, are in 
more than one row. The little smooth space outside them gives 
them room for movement without being interfered with by the 
hairs that clothe the rest of this under surface. 

These circles of crotchets, which are to all appearance identical 
with the complete circles found on the prolegs of " Micro " larvae, 
are not the ordinary crotchets at all, but an entirely new struc- 
ture. The true crotchets exist in the young larva, but in this 
full-grown one are merely represented by the striae on the central 
fleshy mass noticed, which is really the true proleg; the crotchets 
here existing are round the summit of the pillar, at the centre of 
which the true proleg is here, as often, placed. Its method 
of working must be very similar to that of the " Micro " full 
circle, but, instead of having a central tendon as they have, it 
has the whole proleg structure, by the movement of which it 
must be expanded and contracted so as to take and relax 
its hold. 

The true legs are rather small and rather thick, and densely 
or at least very closely and regularly clothed with fine white 
hairs, and terminate in a claw ; slightly hooked, slender as com- 
pared with the last joint of the leg, dark in colour, making it 
look very strong and sharp, and capable of being flexed, so as to 
fold up on to the last (tarsal) joint of the proleg, reminding one 
of the tibiae of Nepa or Mantis. 

The head is nearly colourless, about 1'7 mm. wide; centrally 
below the mouth, and pointing backwards, is the labium or part 
of it, a pale conical rather than cylindrical process ending in a 
short chitinous tube (spinneret '?) . On each side is a long palpus 
(maxillary?) of three joints, the last very small, projecting ven- 
trally, and apparently with a fleshy process (maxilla ?) towards 
the middle line ; in front is a tolerably normal labrum, square 
and notched below, with a good many short hairs on its anterior 
surface. The antennae are very long, about I'l mm., and regularly 
clothed with fine hairs ; I cannot recognize a basal joint, if there 
is one; the next, therefore however, first, is very long, 1 mm., 
and also thick about '22 mm. ; the last joint is a small square 
piece about '1 mm. 

The labrum is very fixed in its position and moves little ; 
even if I am deceived in this matter by having only stiff pre- 
served specimens to deal with, it is certain that it fits down very 
closely and tightly laterally in the maxillary bases, leaving in 
front an oval opening between it and the labium, within which 
the jaws are visible, with apparently some room for movement 
in the cavity thus formed. 



254 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Each jaw carries three teeth, not mere notches as in Lepi- 
doptera generally, but each tooth is a long sharp spine, capable 
of piercing, but certainly not of biting ; each jaw is probably 
capable of meeting the other, so that the teeth may interlock, 
but in the specimens examined one jaw is entirely in front of 
the other. 

The eye-spots are six, five of them in a semicircle, the 
other separate. 

The head, which looks sunk into the white fleshy tissue of the 
under side of the larva, is really very moveable, and has a definite 
neck (?), so that the mouth-parts, which are at front of head 
and point more or less forwards, can be directed directly back- 
wards, between the true legs, exposing the front or dorsum 
of the head, which is rather longer than broad, nearly colour- 
less, and has some hairs, and the usual suture marking off the 
clypeus. 

I should like, by again mentioning, to emphasize what seems 
to me as remarkable a feature as any it possesses — vis;, the de- 
velopment, de novo, of a " Micro " proleg, by the obsolescense of 
the real crotchets, though not of the base that carries them, and 
by the appearance of an entirely new set of crotchets round the 
base of the proleg proper. 

Not so remarkable as a structural modification, but more so, 
perhaps, as connected with most unusual habits, is the modifica- 
tion of the jaws, as piercing and tearing and no longer biting 
organs, and, if I observe correctly, the alteration of the tropin 
into a suctorial tube, from which the jaws are just able to pro- 
trude ; remarkably similar, functionally, to the tube surrounding 
the jaws in PJiyllocnistis, though the details of structure and 
habits are so widely different. 

The jaws would most efl'ectively take a hold of the skin of an 
ant larva, piercing its skin at the same time in six places ; they 
would then draw the piece so seized within the closed cavity 
formed between labrum, labium, and (laterally) maxillae, so that 
the juices of the larva could be easily sucked out. 

There is also a larva of intermediate size, which differs from 
the larger one in nothing except perhaps that the spiracles are 
more readily seen than in the full-grown one. 

The pupa I have before me is very large, 28 mm. long, 14 
mm. broad, and 10 mm. deep, whilst it is depressed in front, in 
a way apparently due to pressure ; were the rounded contour of 
the dorsum and sides continued its depth would be 12 mm. It 
is typically Lycasnid in form, being very round at either end, 
broadest at fourth and fifth abdominal segments, narrower 
thoracically ; head beneath ; no moveable segments ; no trace of 
cremastral hooks or of any silken girth ; first leg equally against 
head and antennae. The maxillae are well developed; they appear 
to contain no maxilla (the specimen being close on emergence), 



ON THE LARVA OF LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS. 255 

but the labial palpi are very evident beneath them. The most 
special feature of the pupa is a set of flanges, or raised ribs. If 
the pupa were divided into a dorsal and ventral piece, by a 
section through its widest dimensions, the line of section would 
mark one of these ribs, which starts round the abdominal seg- 
ments from the anal angle of the wings (end of vein Ic), and 
goes round the end of the pupa, dividing the last segment into 
two portions; this segment is consequently of considerable antero- 
posterior dimensions, stretching a good way under the pupa, but 
also having a portion, as it were, lifted right out on to the dorsum 
by having to be above the flange. The segmental incisions are 
all raised into double ridges, but ventrally, i. e. below the mar- 
ginal flange above noted, but with no trace of anything of the 
sort above it, each segment has another single ridge or flange 
about one-third of the way in front of each incision. The scars 
of prolegs are well-marked by large areas into which these ribs 
do not intrude. 

These flanges are obviously the remains of the great marginal 
border of the caterpillar, and of the division beneath it of each 
segment into two. The marginal ridge extends forwards through 
the wings, but the pupal shell is so delicate that it is diflicult to 
say whether this ridge is in the wing- covers, or an indication of 
a flange on the segments beneath them, showing through. 

The spiracles are more obvious than in the larva, and occupy 
a similarly dorsal position. The pupa is very smooth and 
polished at least thoracically ; the abdomen has very numerous, 
almost microscopic hair-points. 

I have also a specimen of the pupa within the larva skin. 
This fully illustrates Mr. Dodd's account of how pupation 
occurs. The larva skin becomes a little altered by the dorsum 
being rather raised and rounded, but substantially it is the 
adult larva one sees, and this forms a case or cocoon, precisely 
as happens in the pupation of the Muscidae. 

The pupa inside lies quite free from any attachment to the 
skin, but the ventral depression of the pupa is due to its having 
to fit on the ventral aspect of the larval skin, which is raised 
centrally by the head, legs, prolegs, &c. 

The larval skin dehisces by cracking round the marginal 
crest in front, by a crack across the front of the three ridges, 
i. e. between third and fourth abdominal segments. The semi- 
circular portion thus marked off again divides longitudinally 
into two portions ; in my specimen one of these portions is 
missing, the other loose. 

[A plate illustrating the early stages of Liphyra brassolis is 
being prepared, and will be published in the present volume. — 

Ed.] 



256 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CICADID^ FROM 

CEYLON. 

By W. L. Distant. 

COSMOPSALTRIA GAMAMEDA, Sp. n. 

3" . Head and pronotum greenish ochraceous — possibly pale green 
in fresh specimens ; head, front with black carinae on each side, leaving 
a pale spot at base and a smaller spot at apex, vertex with the area of 
the ocelli connected obliquely with a lateral streak, black, eyes piceous; 
pronotum with two central discal lines connected at anterior margin, 
two contiguous converging spots near centre of posterior margin, the 
margins and incisures black ; mesonotum with a central discal line, 
on each side of which is a broader curved lineate fascia, followed by 
two small spots on anterior maigin, a lineate fascia on each lateral 
area, and a small spot near each anterior angle of the cruciform 
elevation, black ; abdomen brownish ochraceous, the lateral and basal 
areas paler ochraceous, with a small central black spot on basal 
segment ; sternum, rostrum, and legs pale ochraceous, abdomen 
beneath brownish ochraceous ; basal margin of face, excluding central 
spot, striated with black, and a black fascia between face and eyes ; 
apices of femora and tibije more or less piceous. Tegmina and wings 
hyaline, the venation ochraceous, here and there tinged with fuscous. 
Body robust, oblong, slightly greyishly tomentose ; face not pro- 
minently gibbous, obliquely transverse and moderately striate ; rostrum 
reaching apex of posterior coxa3, its apex piceous ; opercula short, 
subtriangular, a little sinuate outwardly, obliquely straight inwardly, 
apices subacutely rounded and reaching the third abdominal segment. 

? . Abdomen above reddish ochraceous. 

Long. excl. tegm. <? 39, ? 31 millim. ; exp. tegm. ^ 110, 
? 105 millim. 

Hah. Ceylon ; Pundalu-oya (E. E. Green). 
Allied in markings above to C. vibrans, Walk., but a larger 
species, "with a broader head and the opercula altogether different. 

Synonymical Note. 

Mr. Matsumura, who has studied Dr. Horvarth's types at 
Budapest, and who recently passed through London on his 
return to Japan, informed me that Lejptopsaltria japonica, Horv. 
= Pomponia japonensis, Dist. ; both descriptions published in 
1892. He wished to know the date of publications, and I have 
looked into the question. 

Pomponia japonensis. 

Pomponia japonensis, Dist., Mon. Orient. Cicad. p. 102 

(Part V. pp. 97-120, May, 1892). 
Leptopsaltria japonica, Horv. Termesz. Fiizetek, xv. p. 136 

(October 31st, 1892). 



257 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE 

COCCID^. 

By T. D, a. Cockerell. 

(Concluded from p. 233.) 

Walkeriana, Signoret. 

Walkeriana, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1875, p. 390. 
Tyi^e,floriger. 

5 . More or less covered with dense waxy lamellae ; antennae 
10-jomted. 

Species. — W.floriger, Walker, W. compacta, Green, W. euplior- 
hies, Green, W. polei, Green, and W. senex, Green, Ceylon. 

W. jJertinax, Newstead, and W. andrecs, Green, Central Africa. 

Section Aspidoproctiis,'Nevfsiea,d,'P.Z.S., 1900, p. 948. Female. 
Genital opening covered by a flap ; waxy processes small, not 
covering body. IF. pertinax. 

leery a, Signoret. 

Icerya, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1875, p. 351. Type, 
seychellarum. 

Proticerya, Cockerell, Psyche Suppt., 1895, p. 15. Type, 
rileyi. 

Crossotosoma, Douglas, Ent. Mo. Mag. March, 1890, p. 79. 
Type, (Egyptiaca. 

? . Soft, with a long (usually ribbed) posterior ovisac ; antennae 
typically 11-jointed. 

3'. Without caudal processes. 

Species. — /. seychellarum, Westw., islands of Indian Ocean ; 
I. natalensis, Douglas, Natal ; I. albolutea, Ckll., W. Africa ; I. 
formicarum, Newstead, India ; I. agyptiaca, Douglas, Egypt, 
Ceylon ; I. tangalla, Green, Ceylon ; I. crocea, Green, Ceylon ; 
/. pilosa, Green, Ceylon ; I. purchasi, Maskell, Australia, &c. ; 
I. koehelei, Maskell, Australia. 

I. brasiUensis, Hempel, Brazil ; I. schrottkyi, Hempel, Brazil ; 
1. montserratensis, Kiley-Howard, West Indies ; I. palmeri, Eiley- 
Howard, Mexico; I. rileyi, Ckll., New Mexico ; I. littorcdis, Ckll., 
Mexico. 

Section Proticerya, Ckll. Female antennae 9- to lO-jointed. 
I. rileyi, I. littoralis. 

Margarodin.^. 
Margarodes, Guilding. 

Margarodes, Guilding, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xvi. (1829), 
p. 115 ; Giard, C. R. Soc. Biol. Feb. 10th, 1894, p. 412. Type, 
formicarum. 

Porpliyrophora, Brandt, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. 1834, 1835. 



258 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Sphceraspis, Giard, C. E. See. Biol. Nov. 10th, 1894, p. 712. 
Type, vitium. 

Subterranean, anterior legs of both sexes adapted for digging. 

? . Adult soft, mouth absent, legs and antennae present ; inter- 
mediate stage hard, globular, more or less like a pearl, with no legs. 

Species. — M. gallicus, Signoret, France ; M. hameli, Brandt, 
Armenia ; M. perrisi, Signoret, France ; M. polonicus, Linne, 
Poland. 

M. trimeni, Giard, S. Africa ; M. capensis, Giard, S. Africa. 

M. formicarum, Giiilding, West Indies ; M. rileyi, Giard, 
West Indies ; M. hiemalis, Ckll., New Mexico ; M. vitium, Giard, 
Chile. 

Section Spharaspis, Giard. Intermediate stage ovoid, with- 
out any appearance of segmentation. M. vitium, M. capensis. 

Section Porphyrophora, Brandt. Anterior legs less swollen ; 
antennae with 7 to 9 joints. M. hameli, M.polonicus, M. gallicus, 
M. perrisi. 

Coelostomidia, Cockerell. 

Ccelostomidia, Cockerell, * Nature,' Feb. 15th, 1900, p. 367. 
Type, zealaudicum. 

Coilostoma, Maskell, Trans. New Zealand Inst. xii. (1879), 
p. 294. lly\)Q, zealandiciim (not Coelostoma, Brulle, 1835). 

5 . Soft, with legs and antennae, but no mouth. Anterior legs 
in both sexes normal. 

3' . With no caudal brush. 

Species. — G. assimilis, Maskell, C. wairoensis, Maskell, C. 
zealandica, Maskell, C. compressa, Maskell, and C. pilosa, Mas- 
kell, New Zealand. 

Subgenus Ultracoelostoma, Ckll. Female. Adult without mouth 
or legs ; antennae with about five joints, more or less rudi- 
mentary. C. assimilis. 

Calli2Ja2}2nis, Guerin. 

Callijxippus, Guerin-Meneville, Eev. Zool. 1849, p. 129 ; 
Fuller, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1899, p. 435. Type, ivestwoodi. 

? . Body more or less triangular, thin in front ; abdomen with 
only the first two or three segments visible, the rest forming a pouch 
which contains the eggs. Antennas 10- or 11 -jointed. Mouth absent. 

^ . With a caudal brush. 

Species. — C. westwoodi, Guerin ; C. australis, Maskell ; C. im- 
manis, Maskell; C. ruhiginosiis, Maskell; G. fariiiosus, Fuller; 
G. bufo, Fuller : all from Australia. 

Sasakia, Kuwana. 
Sasakia, Kuwana, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1902 (not yet pub- 
lished). 

? . "Enclosed in cottony secretion ; antennae 9-segmented ; body 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE COCCID^. 259 

distinctly segmented ; no digitules on claw nor on tarsus ; mouth 
wanting in adult ; anal tube absent." (Kuwana.) 

Species. — S. quercus, Kuwana, Japan. 

Xylococcus, Loew. 

Xylococcus, Loew, Verhandl. d. k.k. Zool.-Bot. Ges. xxxii. 
(1882), p. 271 ; Pergande, Bull. 18, n.s., Div. Ent. Dep. Agric. 
(1898), p. 18. Tj^e,Jiliferus. 

5 . Antennae 9-jointed ; legs well-developed ; mouth absent ; 
digitules present, but without knobs. In all stages between larva and 
adult the mouth is present, and the legs and antennte are absent. 

(^ . With an abdominal brush. Arboreal insects, living on Tilia, 
Betula, and Quercus. 

Species. — X.filiferus, Loew, Central Europe ; X. betulce, Per- 
gande, North America ; X. quercus, Ehrhorn, California. 

Ortheziin^. 
Orthezia, Bosc. 

Orthezia, Bosc, Journ. de Phys. xxiv. (1784), p. 171 ; Louns- 
bury, 32nd Ann. Fiep. Mass. Agr. College. Type, characias 
{^=urticce). 

Cyphoma, Gistel, Nat. des Thier. (1848), p 151. Type, cha- 
racias (not Cyphoma, Bolt. 1798). 

? . Body compact, short, more or less covered with waxy white 
lamellffi ; a more or less elongated ovisac of firm texture ; legs long 
and well-developed ; antenna3 8- (rarely 7- or 9-) jointed ; mouth well- 
developed. 

S- . Eyes compound ; abdomen with a caudal brush. 

Species. — 0. cataphracta, Shaw, Northern Europe, Siberia, 
Greenland ; 0. urticce, Linne, Europe ; O. delavauxi, Thieb., 
Europe ; O.floccosa, DeGeer, Europe; 0. mcenariensis, Douglas, 
Italy. 

0. occidentalis, Douglas, Colorado, New Mexico ; O. aniice, 
Ckll., New Mexico, &c. ; 0. nigrocincta, CklL, New Mexico ; O. 
sonorensis, Ckll., Mexico; 0. artemisice, Ckll., New Mexico ; 0. 
garryce, Ckll., New Mexico ; 0. monticola, Ckll., New Mexico ; 
O. cheilanthi, Tinsley, New Mexico ; 0. graminis, Tinsley, New 
Mexico ; 0. lasiorum, Ckll., New Mexico. 

0. insignis, Douglas, Tropics of the New World, Ceylon ; 0. 
prcelonga, Douglas, Tropics of the New World ; 0. ultima, Ckll., 
Argentine Eepublic. 

Section Arctorthezia, Ckll. Waxy secretion dense, not easily 
removed ; wedge-shaped lamellae in dorsal line. Boreal types. 
O. occidentalis (type of section),' 0. cataphracta. 

Ortheziola, Sulc. 
Ortheziola, Sulc, SB. Bohmisch. Ges. 1894, p. 5. 
? . Similar to Orthezia, but antennae 4 -jointed. 



260 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Species. — 0. vejdovsktji, Sulc, 0. signoreti, Haller, Europe ; 
O.fodiens, Giard, Guadeloupe. 

PHENACOLBACHIINiE . 

Phenacoleachia, Cockerell. 
Phenacoleachia, Cockerell, Cauad. Entom. 1899, p. 274. 

? . Form elongated, labium long ; anal ring with six hairs ; 
antennae 11-jointed, with curved spines at the end. 

(?. With two long caudal filaments; and compound eyes con- 
sisting of ocelliform bodies forming a single ring round the head, 
interrupted above and below. 

General form of both sexes resembling the Dactylopiini. 

Species. — P. zealandica, Maskell, New Zealand. 



ON THE MOEPHOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE 
AUCHENOKRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 

By Dr. H. J. Hansen. 

(Continued fi'om p. 236.) 

IV. 

As above mentioned, I accept the classification of the 
Auchenorrliynchous Homoptera into four families (proposed by 
Stal in ' Hemiptera Africana,' vol. iv.), with the limitations for 
these given by him. At the same time, Stal's fundaments of this 
system are very defective, so that not one of the later authors, 
not once even J. Sahlberg, has adopted them. I now attempt 
to collect the chief points of the new results of my researches, 
with the earlier known facts for an analytical table of the family 
characters. 

The exclusive characters are printed in italics, the not absolutely 
exclusive hut well characterized structures are jii'i^ited in ordinary 
type. 

When one has to deal with several types (here families) the 
nature of the analytical table sometimes causes a difficulty, i. e. 
the strong emphasizing of a character absolutely peculiar to one 
family (for instance, the absence of an empodium in the Stridu- 
lantia in contradistinction to its presence in all the other families) ; 
I have endeavoured to obtain this by the employment of special 
printing; square brackets are used for sentences inserted, and 
are not used when a special point is to be brought into relief. 

A. Second segment of peduncle of the antennce ivithout sensory 
organs, flagellum ivith several or many sensory fovea. Intermediate 
coxce with the intero-basal angles a little remote inter se ; coxal ah- 



THE AUCHBNORRHYNCHOUS HOMOPTERA. 261 

diLction somewhat small. Metasternmn either entirely chitinom, or 
luith two medium-sized membranous areas. Posterior coxce mobile, 
trochantins apparent; posterior trochanters a little or not wider 
than the femora ; a flexion only possible between trochanter and 
femur ; posterior femora without a ''yellow spot" on the upper sur- 
face. Pleura of third to eighth abdominal segments entirely located 
on the loiver side, formed of a larger exterior chitinous plate, and 
of an interior narrower area, partly membranous or evanescent.^ 
First pair of abdominal spiracles j)laced either laterally or ventrally. 
Third to eighth pairs placed ventrally, looking dowmvards. Tegulse 
always absent. 

a. Three ocelli. 

Flagellum consisting of five (or four?) elongate segments; 
sensory fovese very numerous in the two basal segments of the 
flagellum (some even found in the other segments). Con- 
spicuous part of the mesonotum very large. Anterior femora 
very different from the intermediate pair [always considerably 
incrassate] . No empodium. Second pair of abdominal spiracles 
placed in a transverse ventral furrow, looking anteriorly and 
mcdianly ; third to seventh pairs placed in the sternites, not in the 
pleura. Stridular organ present in the male. Antennae always 
placed in deep pits in front of the eyes under the anterior margin 
of the vertex. Tegmina unarmed beneath. Anterior margin of 
the wings a little curved towards the base, unarmed. Meta- 
sternum entirely chitinous. Posterior scarcely wider than the 
intermediate coxae, never reaching to the lateral margin of the 
thorax. Posterior femora simple, posterior tibiae cylindrical. 

1. Stridulantia. 

6. Ocelli two or none. Flagellum composed of cither numerous 
segments, or of an inflated basal segment and a very slender " seta" ; 
some sensory fovea present, never numerous. Conspicuous part of 
the mesonotum medium-sized, or small or absent. Anterior femora 
scareely different from the second pair [most often not incrassate]. t 
A large empodium present. Second pair of abdominal spiracles 
placed laterally, looking exteriorly or partly upwards. Third to 
eighth pairs placed in the pleura. No strididar organ. 

a. Flagellum composed of a large subpyriform basal segment, 
and a very slender *' seta " — generally subarticulate ; basal segment 
with some sensory organs, '' seta " without them. Tegmina ivith a 
carina towards the base on the lower surface. Anterior margin of 
wings towards the base with a triangular plate, which is fur- 
nished on the exterior margin with some hooks. Metasternum 
someivhat long, with two medium-sized membranous areas, 
Posterior coxce scarcely tvider than the intermediate pair, not reach- 
ing to the lateral margin of the thorax. 

* In Cystosoma entirely coalesced with the tergites and sternites. 
f In Darnis, Fabr., the anterior and intermediate femora are strongly 
incrassate. 



262 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Posterior femora towards the base on the upper surface 
with a wider transverse keel. Empoclium thicker, beneath with 
two chitinous spinose strips, the free margin a little or scarcely 
emarginate. Eyes always placed on the vertex towards the base. 
Antenna always placed in deeper pits in front of the eyes under 
the anterior margin of the vertex. Intermediate coxas with a 
strong meracanthus. Posterior tibiae cylindrical, each with a 
single process, or with two conical larger processes on the outer 
surface. 2. Cercopidse. 

/3. Flagellmn alivays composed of numerous segments ; basal 
part longer, formed either of some {2-6) segments, or transversely 
furcate, furnished with some scattered sensory pits ; distal part 
divided into many segments, at least in part. Tegmina beneath not 
carinate. Anterior margin of the wings ivithout a triangular plate, 
sometimes someivhat convex. Metasternum short, entirely chitinous. 
Posterior coxte much ivider than the intermediate pair, extending 
as far as to the lateral margin of the thorax. Posterior femora 
simple at the base. Emptodiiim thinner beneath, ivithout apparent 
chitinous spines ; free margin profoundly incised medianly. 
Ocelli sometimes on the vertex, sometimes on the front, occa- 
sionally evanescent. Antennae usually inserted in front of the 
eyes, sometimes under the eyes. Intermediate coxae somewhat 
rarely with a meracanthus. Posterior tibiae very often prismatic 
or foliaceous, very rarely almost cylindrical, generally seriately 
spinulose, very rarely unarmed. 3, Jassidse. 

B. Second segment of the peduncle with many or very many 
pecidiar {composite) sensory organs ; Jiagellum ivith a single larger 
sensory organ on the piyriform basal segment. Intermediate coxce 
loith the inter o -basal angles considerably or very distant inter se ; 
coxal abduction tvell developed. Metasternum almost entirely mem- 
branous, and this tliin cuticle is extended outwards to the lateral 
parts of the metathorax, tvhich is inflected someivhat on the lower side 
of the body. Posterior coxa immobile, their exterior part coalesced 
with the metathorax ; trochantins absent. Trochanters very much 
stouter than the posterior femora ; both an adduction\and a flexion 
jjossible between trochanter and femur. Posterior femora with a 
" yelloiv spot" near the base on the upper surface. Pleura of the 
third to eighth segments largely or altogether situated laterally, 
either altogether membranous, or with a large upper area in large 
pai't hr altogether membranous, and a lower plate chitinous. First 
pair of abdominal spiracles situated dorsally within the exterior 
produced part of the metanotum. Third to eighth pairs situated 
essentially laterally, and in large part or altogether turning out- 
wards. 

Ocelli more rarely evanescent, more often two at the sides of 
the head in front of the antennae ; sometimes a third ocellus is 
found on the lower margin of the front near the base of the 
clypeus. Antennae inserted under the eyes ; flagellum composed 



SOME NEW GENEKA AND SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA. 263 

of a thicker basal segment, and a very slender " seta," either 
exarticulate, or partly or altogether divided into numerous seg- 
ments. Tegula almost always present. Empodium coalesced 
with the claws throughout a shorter distance, and at most 
through two-thirds of the length of the claws ; free margin a 
little emarginate or simple. Second pair of abdominal spiracles 
dorsal, somewhat remote from the lateral margin. 

4. Fulgoridse. 

(To be continued.) 



ON SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENO- 
PTERA (ICHNEUMONID^, CHRYSIDID^, FOSSORES, 
AND APID^). 

By p. Cameron. 

(Continued from p. 241.) 

SPHEGIDiE. 
Ampulex longicollis, sp. nov. 
CaBrulea, antennis pedibusque nigris, femoribus posticis dimidio 
basali rufo ; alis fusco-violaceis. ? . Long. 16-18 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Piothney). 

Antenna black, sparsely covered with black hairs ; the third joint 
twice the length of the fourth. Head dark purple, the cheeks and oral 
regions of a brighter tint ; the front and vertex coarsely rugosely punc- 
tured ; the former with a keel down the apical two-thirds. Clypeus 
aciculated, stoutly keeled dowu the middle, and sparsely haired ; the 
apex rounded ; the sides armed with an oblique longish tooth. Man- 
dibles black, keeled down the middle and at the sides. The front and 
vertex are sparsely haired. Thorax blue, mixed with purple and 
green ; the median segment for the greater part indigo-blue. Pro- 
thorax smooth, aciculated, and with a few scattered punctures ; its 
base distinctly separated, and the apex is depressed ; the apical part 
narrowed towards the apex and transverse at the base ; the prothorax 
is if anything longer than the mesothorax, which bears large deep 
scattered punctures, as do also the scutellum and post-scutellum ; 
these are sparsely covered with long black hair. The central keel on 
the median segment is straight, and reaches shortly beyond the 
middle ; the second keel is of similar length ; the outer longer, 
reaching to the apex ; the segment is stoutly transversely striated, 
the strife becoming more curved and irregular at the apex of the keels ; 
the middle part at the apex is smooth ; the apex of the segment is 
perpendicular, and ends at the sides above in stout teeth. Mesopleurse 
coarsely irregularly punctured ; the metapleurae with a longitudinal 
keel below the keel which ends in the tooth ; the space between the 
two bearing, near the middle and apex, some straight keels ; the base 
below is aciculated, the rest reticulated. Mesonotum bearing large 
deep round punctures ; its base smooth ; the middle furrow deep. 



264 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Legs blue ; the tarsi black ; the apex of the hinder femora and the 
tibiae black ; the basal half of the hinder femora red. Wings fuscous- 
violaceous, more hyaline in the discoidal cellules. Abdomen blue, 
shining ; the basal half of the petiole very narrow ; the apical half 
abruptly dilated, and distinctly narrower than and separated from the 
second segment, which is constricted at the base. 

Ampulex trigona, sp. nov. 
Caerulea ; antennis tarsisque nigris, femoribus posterioribus rufis ; 
alis fusco-violaceis, nervis fuscis. J . Long. 21 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Eotbney). 

Antennae stout, shorter than the thorax, black, covered with a pale 
down ; the third joint about one-third longer than the fourth. Head 
sharply obliquely narrowed behind the eyes ; the vertex has a wide 
shallow furrow in the middle behind, and is sparsely punctured later- 
ally ; the front has some elongate fove^e or punctures on the sides ; in 
the centre over the antennae are some semicircular keels, and one also 
encloses the front ocellus. The autennal keels are stout, slightly 
curved, and narrowed at the top ; in the middle immediately above 
them is a distinct black tubercle. The clypeus is sharply keeled 
throughout in the centre ; the apex in the middle roundly and broadly 
projects, and has on either side a small rounded tooth. The eyes dis- 
tinctly converge above, and are there separated by about the length of 
the third antennal joint. Pronotum slightly longer than broad, of 
almost equal width ; in the basal half above is, in the middle, a distinct 
keel, the space on either side of which is slightly depressed. Meso- 
notum smooth, the furrows deep ; the space between them darker, of 
a more violaceous hue than the sides. The median segment is trans- 
versely striated throughout ; the stria) enclosed by the inner keels 
being more widely separated ; and those on the extreme outside are 
stouter and still more widely separated. All the keels reach to the 
apex, being united there to a stout semicircular keel ; its posterior keel 
is broadly depressed in the centre. The lower two-thirds of the apex 
of the segment is closely transversely striated ; the upper part has a 
keel down the middle, and three or four irregular keels on the sides. 
The spine on the top is stout, narrowed and transverse above ; below 
it is a smaller triangular one. The upper half of the propleurae is 
raised, and distinctly separated from the lower ; below the middle, on 
the apical half, are a few stout keels ; the upper half of the mesopleurse 
bears large deep irregular punctures ; the apex of the metapleurfe is 
striated. Mesosternum with a few scattered, punctures ; the central 
furrow moderately wide, and with transverse keels. The anterior 
trochanters, femora, and tibiae are reddish in front ; the four posterior 
trochanters and femora are bright red ; the hinder claws are stout at 
the base, and have a stout sabapical tooth. The alar uervures are 
fuscous. Abdomen smooth, the middle purple ; the petiole with the 
narrowed basal part short ; the basal part beneath is stoutly trans- 
versely striated. The head is more sharply narrowed behind than 
usual, and the legs have more red. 

(To be continued.) 



265 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Food-plants of the Larva of Cnephasia sinuana, Steph. — Mr. 
Bankes's remarks on the food-plants of this species had escaped my 
eye until the other day, when I was looking over the July number of 
the ' Entomologist.' He there (p. 194) states that Mr. G. Elisha bred 
it from spun-up flowers of Ckrysanthcnuuii leucanthemnm, collected in 
North Kent. If he will turn to the ' Entomologist' for the year 1879 
(vol. xii. p. 61) he will there see that Mr. Elisha says: " I have also 
bred 8. pasivana (sinuana) rathe^ ireely the last two seasons from larvae 
feeding in the flowers of Chri/santhemum leucanthemnm .... various 
parts of Kent and Surrey." Now the question is, Did he breed 
sinuana, Steph., from this plant at all ? Of course pasivana, or more 
correctly pascuana, Hiib., is, as everyone knows, a very different species, 
bearing no resemblance whatever to sinuana, Steph., and it does feed 
(as well as upon several other plants) upon the flowers of the " dog 
daisy." I am aware that for some extraordinary reason Dr. Wocke 
sank simiana, Steph., as a synonym of "pasivana," Hiib. ; not by any 
means the only mistake he made. Possibly Mr. Elisha was using 
Wocke's name, otherwise surely there must have been some mistake 
somewhere ! There is one great difficulty to get over. If the late 
Mr. Sang saw the specimens which were bred from C. lencanthem.}im, 
and pronounced them to be simiana, Steph., I of course must bow to 
his decision, as so good an entomologist could never have mixed up 
two such very distinct species. — A. Thurnall ; " Mascotte," White- 
hall Road, Thornton Heath, Sept. 12th, 1902. 

Note on Euzophera pinguis. — On Thursday, August 7th, I was 
passing (about 8 p.m.) a solitary ash tree about ten minutes' walk from 
here, and upon glancing at the trunk as I passed was rather surprised 
at counting thirteen specimens of Euzophera piiufuis upon it ; most of 
them had only just left the pupa, their wings being held butterfly 
fashion over their backs. I visited this tree for several successive 
evenings until the 17th, and never failed to find several on each visit. 
On two occasions the moths were seen to leave the pupa. After an 
interval of nearly a fortnight I revisited the tree, and E. pinguis was 
still coming out, but in much smaller numbers, and last evening (31st) 
I saw one just emerging. In all I boxed forty, and saw quite fifty 
more out of reach, as they come out late in the afternoon, and very 
soon run up the trunk, generally well out of reach. How long they 
had been appearing before the 7th of course I am unable to say, but 
during the month I think I may say, without much exaggeration, that 
hundreds must have emerged from this one unfortunate ash ! — A. 
Thurnali. ; Whitehall Road, Thornton Heath, Sept. 1st, 1902. 

Aberration of Vanessa urtic^e. — Miss G. Jeddere-Fisher caught 
a specimen of V. urticcc, at East Grinstead, Sussex, ou August 28th, 
1901. This example is entirely without the two spots on the disc of 
the wing, and is similar in form to that mentioned in Newman's 
' British Butterflies ' as the variety ichnusa of Bonelli. 

Aberrations of Zyg^na minos. — On June 18th I visited the Welsh 
locality for the above-named species, and found it in great numbers. 

EKTOM. — OCTOBER, 1902. Y 



ti66 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The imagines were just emerging and drying their wings, hanging on 
to the heather and short herbage. Amongst them was one without 
any trace of crimson, both upper and lower wings being entirely 
bronzy black ; another specimen had the crimson very much reduced 
and darkened, whilst three others were decidedly darker than is the 
usual form. — C. F. Johnson ; Brinnington Crescent, Stockport. 

Raphidia Larva attacked by a Fungus. — At the Oxshott Field 
Meeting of the South Loudon Entomological and Natural History 
Society on Sept. 6fch one or two larvae of liaphidia, a neuropterous 
insect, were found on tree-trunks with abdomen very much distended 
and pale in colour where the integument was soft enough to distend. 
On the surface of the glass-tube in which one was placed I afterwards 
found a multitude of spores, and some of them were evidently ger- 
minating. On enquiry at Kew Gardens it was found that the larvae 
were attacked by Emptisa lampyridarnm. In conversation with other 
field entomologists I have heard of similar instances. Probably the 
wet season is in a large measure responsible for this. — W. J. Lucas. 

Proposkd Entomological Society in Manchester. — We are making 
a strong effort here to form an Entomological Society, and would be 
pleased to hear from any of your readers who are in any way interested 
in the movement, and who could assist us in our object. — Walter E. 
Hardy ; 52, Bedford Street, Moss Side, Manchester, Sept. 8th, 1902. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Cyaniris (LYCiENA) ARGioLus IN WESTMINSTER. — I havc lately dis- 
covered that L. argiolus has permanently taken up its abode near 
Westminster Abbey. During the last day or two I have seen one 
or two specimens flying round some ivy not fifty yards from that 
building. — L. A. Spjencer ; 52, Burghley Road, Highgate, N.W., 
Aug. 29th, 1902. 

CoLiAs EDusA IN SussEx.— One cloudy and very windy day about 
August 10th, I noticed a specimen of 0. edma flying along the downs 
not far from Brighton. This is the only specimen I have so far seen 
this year on the wing. — A. W. Cardinall ; 18, Cromwell Road, 
Brighton. 

CoLiAs EDUSA IN Wales. — Ou August 26th, whilst staying at 
Pwllheli, North Wales, I saw a fine male specimen of C. edusa. It 
was flying close to the sea-shore. — (Mrs.) M. Alderson; Park House, 
Worksop. 

CoLiAS EDUSA NEAR NoRwicH. — Oil August 16th I saw a male 
C. ednsa flying by the roadside about two miles from Norwich, but 
failed to capture it. Two more were seen near this city on Sept. 6th ; 
and a male was captured near my residence on Sept. 9th. — R. Laddi- 
MAN ; 25, Drayton Road, Norwich, Sept. 17th, 1902. 

PoLYOMMATUs ARTAXERXEs, Fabr., IN Banffshire. — On July 8th last 
my son and I found this rare butterfly in a valley among the cliffs on 
the Banffshire coast. As the food-plant of the larva {H.elianthemum 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 267 

vulffare) was abundant at the spot, I have been for some time in 
expectation of getting the butterfly, but I failed till this year. There 
seemed to be only a few individuals in flight, as we did not see more 
than two at one time during a whole month. — Henry H. Beown ; 
Cupar-Fife. 

Pyrameis (Vanessa) cardui, Linn., at 1050ft, in Banffshire, — My 
son captured a specimen of this butterfly beside the cairn on the 
summit of the Binn Hill at Cullen, Banffshire, 1050 ft. above sea- 
level, on July 22nd last. It was faded and rubbed, having probably 
been carried to that elevation by a high wind, although it is not easy 
to account for the vagaries of cardui. — Henry H, Brown ; Cupar-Fife, 

Stauropus fagi at Mickleham. — On July 27th last, after a poor 
day's collecting, I took a fine female specimen of the above species 
resting on the trunk of a beech tree about ten feet from the ground. 
It was quite perfect, and I think had not been out of the pupa more 
than a day. — E, C, Goulton ; 4, Carnford Grove, Balham, 

Apamea ophiogramma at Balham. — On August 26th last I took a 
worn specimen of this insect at electric light in the town. Although 
I have kept a good look-out, it is the only one I have seen, and should 
like to know if any others have been taken here. — E. C. Goulton; 
4, Carnford Grove, Balham. [See report of S. Lond. Ent. and Nat, 
Hist, Soc, Aug. 28th, published in this number. — Ed.] 

DicYCLA 00 IN Kent. — I took a fine specimen of this species on a 
gas-lamp near Chislehurst towards the end of June last. — G. B. 
Browne ; 43, Southbrook Eoad, Lee, S.E., Sept. 17th, 1902. 

Prionus coriarius in Berkshire and in Hertfordshire. — On 
August 26th last Mr. W. H. Warner, of Fyfield, near Abingdon, sent 
me, for identification, a specimen of this somewhat uncommon beetle, 
which he had found on the 21st of the month "crushed and lying on 
a path in a neighbouring wood." I may mention that in 1893 I 
captured an example of this species as it was flying across a pathway 
on Batchworth Heath in Hertfordshire. — Eichard South ; 96, Drake- 
field Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Blatta AUSTRALASIA IN SouTH DERBYSHIRE. — A cockroach forwarded 
to me by Mr. Hugo Harpur Crewe from South Derbyshire proved to 
belong to this species. Enquiries kindly made for me by Mr. Harpur 
Crewe show that it has been established for the last five years, and 
that it first made its appearance in a greenhouse where some orchids 
were unpacked which were received from Queensland in 1895. — 
Francis C. R. Jourdain ; Clifton Vicarage, Ashburne, Derbyshire. 

Odonata bred in 1902. — From nymphs obtained in Byfleet Canal, 
and a few from the river at Wye, I bred this year tiie following 
species : — Of the Anisopterids, JEschna grandis (eight or nine, sexes 
in about equal proportion), Lihelliila qnadrimaculata, Sympetrtim 
striolatum ; of the Zygopterids, Ischnura elegans, Erythronivia naias, 
Enallagm.a cyathigernm. The greater number of the Zygopterid 
nymphs turned out to be Enjthromvia naiaa; nearly all the Anisopterids 
were of the family J^lschnidte, and all of these of the species Mschna 
grandis. The first jE. grandis imago appeared in the earlier part of 



268 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

July, the latest in the last week of August — an isolated case long after 
all the other nymphs had duly accomplished their last transformation. 
It is a curious thing that every ^schnid nymph I have obtained from 
Byfleet Canal during the last three years has proved to be .E. (jrandis. 
Some, it is true, have come to a premature end before emergence, and 
I could not say certainly that they were fjiandis, but I have very little 
doubt that they were. Can anyone explain why the nymphs always 
turn head downwards to devour any prey they may have caught ? and 
why the head of the empty nymph-case after the emergence of the 
imago is invariably inclined to one side, and (from my observation) 
usually to the right ? — ^Harold Hodge ; 9, Highbury Place, Loudon, N. 

Lestes dryas at Hanwell, Middlesex. — During July of the present 
year I was delighted to discover a large colony of Lestes dri/as at ponds 
near Hanwell, in Middlesex. The males were abundant, but females 
were not so common. During last winter the ponds were absolutely 
dry; so, apparently, the nymphs must have burrowed down into the 
mud during that season. The species was about from July till the 
first week in August, but was over by the end of the latter month. 
Points of distinction from the common Lestes spojisa will be found in 
the bronze spot on the dorsal surface of the first segment of the 
abdomen, and in the shape of the anal appendages of the male — these 
in addition to the much bulkier and heavier appearance of the better 
insect. The distinguishing points are figured in Lucas's ' British 
Dragonflies,' pp. 230 and 284.— S. W. Kemp ; Notting Hill, Sept. 2nd. 

The Large Earwig, Labidura riparia, at Pokesdown. — Major 
Eobertson has shown me a female of this scarce insect, taken by his 
daughter. Miss Nellie Robertson, at Bournemouth, on July 17th last. 
I understand that others have been taken this season. It would be 
interesting if those who have taken the insect during late years would 
record their captures, so that its position as a British insect might be 
better understood. — W. J. Lucas; Kingston-on-Thames, Sept. 8tii. 

Erythromma naias in Berks. — Mr. W. Holland took a male of this 
local dragonfly during the present season at King's Weir on the 
Upper Thames.— W. J. Lucas ; Sept. 1902. 

Lestes dryas at Wicken. — On August 12th, 1901, Mr. A. H. 
Hamm took a male of this scarce dragonfly at Wicken Fen. It was 
undetected at the time of capture amongst the common Lestes sponsa. — 
W. J. Lucas ; Sept. 1902. 

Eupithecia jasioneata in North Wales. — I have to record Eiipi- 
thecia jasioneata from two localities on the Welsh coast. I found the 
larva sparingly last August in Carnarvonshire, and also noticed it in 
some flower-heads of Jasione vumtana sent me by a friend from the 
neighbourhood of Barmouth. — J. E. R. Allen; Euniskillen. 

PsAMOTis puLVERALis IN SuRREY. — I am vcry pleased to add this 
species to the list of Lepidoptera occurring in the county of Surrey. 
I took one example last August in the Ockham district. — Rich.^rd 
South ; 96, Drakefield Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Notes on Lepidoptera in August. — On August 1st I visited Enfield 
Lock with the intention of getting a number of larvae of Saturnia 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 269 

pavonia. Two years ago one could have brought away four or five 
hundred without difficulty — I am afraid this fact was only too well 
known to entomologists ; now it would be hard to find twenty. 
Judging from the empty cocoons, (iastropacha quercifolia and Odonestis 
potatoria are becoming more numerous in this district. At indoor 
light at Chingford the following were taken : — Zeuzera mculi, Cerura 
bifida, Pterostoma palpina (several), Xotodonta dictaa, Stilpnotia salicis 
(abundant), Porthesia aurijiua, MUtochrista viiniata, Philea irrorella, 
Arctia caia, Spilosoma menthnstri (a nuisance), Gastropacha quercifolia 
(one spoilt), a worn-out specimen of Cymatoplwra ocularis, Hijdrmcia 
micacea, Axijlia putris, Xylophasia mrea, Xylophasia polyodon, Dipteryyia 
pinastri, Agrotis puta, Mania maura, and many other common Noctuae. 
All these were taken during the first fortnight of August — not a bad 
product for a London suburb ! Sugaring seemed altogether a failure, 
and there was apparently little worth netting in the Epping Forest 
district. Some worn-out specimens of Cossus ligniperda were brought 
to me, but this latter moth is one of the commonest in this district. 
Chisel a little in the willow-trees in June and you may obtain as 
many pupae as you wish. The latter, I may mention, are extremely 
easy to keep. Larva of the "kittens" were common enough, but I 
have seen not a sign of Cerur<i vinula in any state this season. At 
Dawlish, during the second and third weeks of August, Callimorpha 
hera was abundant. I did not see another collector all the time I was 
in the district. The weather was charming, and the return of insects 
was equally so. Pupa-digging is not much patronized in August — 
why I do not know ; I have always found it most productive. I 
obtained about a dozen Amplddasys strataria (it was rather early for 
the species, however). I could have taken home a large number of 
Ayriopis aprilina, or of the Tasniocampidae. Cerastis vaccinii and C. 
liyula (spadicea) were in force. Two pupae of Ennomns tiliaria and one 
of Acronycta alni were found under bark of willow, and one of the E. 
tiliaria has since emerged. A pupa of Xotodojita dromedariiis should 
be mentioned. Altogether I procured five hundred and ninety-three 
pupae, to more than half of which it would be difiicult to assign the 
right names. In August, 1900, I obtained over two hundred pupfe at 
Lyndhurst, and I scarcely knew the name of one, but there emerged 
a lot of very good things, well worth the trouble of digging. — Stephen 
Graham ; Chingford, Essex. 

A Fortnight at Deal. — In the course of a fortnight's holiday at 
Deal, commencing with August 10th, I found the moths at night- 
time extremely abundant on the sand-hills. I put up at Martinsfield, 
between Deal and Sandwich, and had therefore a fine opportunity of 
night work in this locality. The garden at Martinsfield was surrounded 
by a privet-hedge in full bloom, and simply swarmed with life by day 
and night. I found treacling in this garden gave the most remunerative 
results, the moths coming in large numbers nearly every night to the 
posts and trees I had selected ; at one time I counted over thirty 
insects on one patch alone, and it was amusing to watch them 
struggling for the sweets I had provided. The specimens of Xylophasia 
polyodon were particularly pugnacious and a great nuisance, as they 
doubtless drove away some of the rarer sorts. The following were 
in abundance and great variety: — Ayrotis obelisca (by far the most 



270 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

numerous), A. valUgera, A. puta, A. cxclautationh, Apamea (/emina, 
A. oculea, Hydrcecia nictitans, Triphana pronuba, T. orbunn, Mamestra 
brassica, X. pohjodon (fine light and dark varieties), and Noctun xantho- 
l/rapha. Among the others less numerous were : — Miana literosa, M. 
furimcula, Nuctua c-nu/nou, N. baia, Ac.ronyctn rumicis (three), Amphi- 
j)yra trayopogonis, Xoctua siiffusa, Ayrotis corticea, T. interjecta (two), 
T. fimbria, Calymnia trapezina, Leucania impwa, L. pallens, L. obsoleta 
(two), PhlnyopJwra meticulosa, Xylophasia sublu^tris (one), Lnperina 
testacea, Cossus liyniperda (one), Mania maura, and Leucania lithargyria. 
In the privet-hedge Plusia gamma swarmed, and examples of this 
species also came to light in such numbers that they were quite a 
nuisance in the music-room on the lawn. There were also several 
locusts in the hedge, and one came to the treacle. Thinking that the 
season for Callimnrpha dominuJa was over, I did not work especially 
for this species, but I was fortunate enough to capture one in the 
garden during the day in fair condition. I also took by day AcidaUa 
emutaria (one), ZyyccnafiUpenduIt/' (very numerous), T. interjecta (one); 
and at dusk, Porthesia awifliia, and one Eremobia ochrolenca in fine 
condition. Among the butterflies here wexe—Pyram.eis cardui, P. 
atakinta, Vanessa urticcc, V. io, V. polychloros, Chrysophanus plilaas, 
Pararge megccra, Epinephele ianira, E. tithonus, Ccenovympha pampJiilns, 
Lyccena ayestis, L. alexis, L. argiolus, Pieris brassica, P. rapa, and 
Hesperia linea, but, as a whole, day- collecting was not propitious; the 
hours of sunlight were few and far between, and when the sun was 
shining the wind was cool and rather high, and suggestive always of 
rain blowing up. In fact, the only ideal day was the one on which I 
came away, and I was then too busy packing up to be able to take 
advantage of it. In the few opportunities I had of exploring the 
country round about on my bicycle, I saw several Colias ediisa, and 
captured seven, five in fine condition, but C. liyale was not apparently 
about. I also took four more Eremobia ochrolenca on some thistle- 
heads in a lane near Sandwich. P. cardui were also very abundant 
in the same spot, and indeed all about that neighbourhood, and I 
captured as many perfect insects as I wanted. I found Melanaryia 
galatea plentiful near Folkestone, and also took one Aspilates yilvaria 
there. I went down and returned from Deal on my bicycle by way 
of Dover, Folkestone, Hythe, and Ashford, but had little opportunity 
of doing any collecting on the road, as the weather during the two 
journeys was most unfavourable. I slept at Dymchurch, near Hythe, 
on the outward journey, and did a little dusking there, with the result 
of capturing Cleora lichenaria (three), Lithosia vwlyhdeola (two), and C. 
phraymitidis (one). Abraxas yrossulariata were flying about here in the 
bushes in large numbers. It will be observed that nearly all my insects 
were taken in the garden at Martinsfield, and, considering the poor 
success I had had at sugar all the season up to this fortnight (I treacled 
in the New Forest for seven nights in early July, with the result of two 
insects], the few days I spent at Deal were quite a revelation to me. 
Too many insects at a time (especially to a novice) have certain draw- 
backs, and I have little doubt that my list of captures could have been 
largely extended had I not been only a comparative beginner, as I 
must have passed over many varieties that a more experienced eye 
would have readily detected. — G. B. Bbowne ; 43, Soutlabrook Road, 
Lee, S.E., Sept. 17th, 1902. 



271 



SOCIETIES. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
July 10th, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair.— The 
President, in a few sympathetic words, referred to the sudden death 
of Mr. Mark Winkley, an old member, and until recently a regular 
attendant at both ordinary and field meetings. — Mr. West (Greenwich) 
exhibited the following Hemiptera taken by Mr. Asliby at Deal during 
the last week in May and the first week in June: — Podops Inuncta, 
Sciocoris cursitans, Rhi/parochrojuas chiragra, R.prcBtextatus, Trapezonotus 
agrestis, Macrodema micropterum, and Plinthisushrevipennis. — Mr. Ashby, 
several species of Coleoptera he had taken on the Deal sand-hills in 
June, including Zabrus gibbus, Saprlnws virescens, Melanotics puncto- 
lineatics, Chrgsoiaela distinguenda, and Apion sedi. — Mr. West, a piece 
of amber from Maldon, found some forty feet below the surface. There 
were numerous insects imbedded in it, and, from there being no smell 
of pine when rubbed, he thought it was not true amber, but gum 
animi. — Mr. MacLachlan communicated a note on Cotgledon uinbilicus, 
pointing out its occurrence at Winchelsea and other places in Kent. — ■ 
Mr. Step read a short report of the Field Meeting at Eanmore Common 
on June 7th, 1902, and regretted the unfavourable weather which the 
nineteen who attended had to endure. 

July 24i/j.— The President in the chair.— Mr. F. M. B. Carr ex- 
hibited twelve varieties, and the male parent of Amplddasys betularia, 
bred from ova deposited by a black female, taken in cop. at Lee in 
1901. — Mr. Kemp, a series of Lccmostcnus compJanatiis, a species new 
to the British list, nearly related to Pristonychus terricola, and taken 
by him near Dublin. He also showed Carabus clathratas, Pelophila 
borealis, Blethisa uiulti punctata, ChlcBuias vigricornis, dark Pterostichus 
cupreus, Bembidium bipunctatiim, Ca^lambas quinque-lineatus, C. novem- 
Imeatus, OrectocJiilus villosus, and PJiopalomesites tardyi from Lough 
Neagh, together with Bembidium argentiohun, a recently added species, 
also from Lough Neagh. From near Dublin he showed Phytosus 
balticus, Diglossa mersa, yellow Cercyon littorale, Saprinus niantimus, 
Telephorus danvinianus, Cillenus lateralis, Pulydrusas clirysomela, Hydro- 
poms several species, Silpha atrata and var. sub rotund ata, Hcemonia 
appendiculata, CJirysomela baiiksii, Barynotus schdnherrl, Meloe violaceus, 
and a series of the purely Irish Otiorrhynchus auropmictatus. — Mr. 
Kemp, a series of the rare Lestes dryas from Hanwell, with L. sponsa 
for comparison. 

August 14:th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Edwards exhibited 
ova of Anthrocera tHfolii from Byfleet. — Dr. Fremlin said that, during 
a recent visit to the Isle of Man, he had taken Dianthcecia ccesia and 
larvae of Polia xanthomista var. nigrocincta. — Dr. Chapman, specimens 
of Neuroptera bipennis [lusitanica) from Bajar, in Spain. 

August 28th. — Mr. E. Step, Vice-President, in the chair. — Mr. E. J. 
Eiley, of 91, Drakefield Road, Upper Tooting, was elected a member. — 
Mr. South exhibited a series of Apamea ophiogramma, bred from larvae 
taken in his garden at Tooting. — Mr. Turner, a short series of Agrotis 
ripcB, bred at the end of June, 1902, from larvae taken in August, 1901, 
at Dawlish. The variation was very considerable, from very snowy 
forms to an exceedingly dark example. — Mr, Bowman, a large number 



272 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of species of the genus Erehia, including series of E. zapa?eri, from 
Spain, and K. christi from Switzerland. He also showed a series of 
Melanar/iia lachesis. — Mr. South, ova of Tortri.v piceann. and Retinia 
pinicolana from Oxshott. — Mr. Adkin, several masses of cocoons of a 
species of Apanteles, which had emerged from the larvas of Boarmia 
(jemmaria in his garden. A discussion ensued as to the cause of the 
curious curved position of the larval remains over the cocoons. — Dr. 
Chapman, a specimen of ScoliaiUa [Boliemannia) quadrimaculella from 
Reigate. — Hy. J. Turner [Hon. Rep. Secretary). 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



W. F. Johnson and J. N. Halbert. " A List of the Beetles of 
Ireland." 1902. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. (3), vi., pp. 535-827, 
and 1 map. 

It was hut a few months ago (Entom. 1902, pp. 54-6) that we 
hailed the termination of Mr. Kane's ' Catalogue of Irish Lepidoptera,' 
and we have now to welcome a similar summary of our knowledge of 
the Coleoptera. A number of local records and partial lists have been 
published since the days of Haliday, the father of Irish entomologists, 
in 1828, but Johnson and Halbert are the first to present us with a 
complete list, a large proportion of the records, indeed, having been 
made by these author's themselves. 

In noticing Kane's work, we briefly summed up the views upon the 
Erse Fauna held by various specialists in geographical distribution, 
and these remarks naturally apply also very largely to the beetles.* 

Some 1630 species are enumerated, a little less than half the total 
British Coleopterous Fauna ; of these some forty are noted as having 
been probably introduced more or less recently. There are no species 
certanily peculiar to Erin, though one form [Silpha atrata var. .sui- 
rotundata) occurs in the Isle of Man, but not on the Continent, and 
has been recorded only very doubtfully from England. There are, 
however, five species of European distribution not yet found in 
England — viz. Di/scJiirius obscuriis, Stenun anjentellus, Beinhidmm 
arijentiolum, Xantholuntu cribripennis, and OtiorrliyncJius auropunctatiis, 
the last three being recorded for the first time as British. 

In the Bibliographical List there are cited fifty- five authors who are 
responsible for nearly 250 papers and isolated records of Irish beetles. 
This work, accompanied as it is by notes of capture, &c., of the rare 
and local species, must prove of high value to the working coleopterist. 
We believe that the authors have also devoted considerable attention 
to the Rhynchota, and we hope that they will before long produce a 
similar account of that highly interesting but sadly neglected order. 

G. W. K. 

* Led astray by a misprint in Scharff's work, we unfortunately over- 
looked a suggestive paper by G. H. Carpenter, " The Problems of the British 
Fauna" ('Natural Science,' 1897, xi., pp. 875-86). 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.] NOVEMBER, 1902. [No. 474. 

VARIATION OF LYC.ENA CORYDON IN NORTH WILTS. 
By the Rev. C. A. Sladen. 

This species — the " chalk-hill blue," as it is commonly 
called — occurs in profusion on the downs of North Wilts. Here 
about harvest-time the foot of the downs, where the turf ends 
and cultivation begins, is red with the flowers of the knapweed 
(Centaurea), or "hardhead," as it is sometimes locally called ; 
and on the flowers of this plant L. corydon swarms in countless 
numbers, fighting its fellows for standing room, or expanding its 
wings to the sun. 

In this neighbourhood it varies little in size, though I have 
occasionally caught little dwarfs of less than an inch in wing- 
expanse, and other fine fellows of over Ih in. 

The male varies little in colour, but the female varies much ; 
and this applies both to the upper and the under side. 

Upper side, male type. — Silvery blue, sometimes with black 
discoidal spot on fore wings : — 

1. With broad black hind margin. 

2. With narrow black hind margin. 

3. With spotted black hind margin. 

In this latter the ocellated spots of the under side show through 
the hind marginal band on the upper side. The extreme form 
of this variety has a row of white spots along the hind margin, 
the black border disappearing. Sometimes specimens occur 
with the ocellated spots on the hind margin of the hind wings 
tinged with orange, as in the female. 

All these variations are mentioned by Mr. South in his notes 
on the genus Lyccena in the 'Entomologist,' vols. xx. and xxxiii., 
var. 3 being figured on Plate I., fig. 9, in the former volume, and 
the extreme form of it in Plate III., fig. 5, in the latter. 

ENTOM. — NOVEMBER, 1902. Z 



274 



THE ENTOMOIiOGIST. 



Upper side, female type. — Brown or black-brown, with black 
discoidal spot on fore wings, sometimes also visible on hind 
wings, and with more or less distinct hind marginal row of 
orange ocellated spots on hind wings : — 

1. Variegated with white. 

(«) Discoidal spots edged with white. 

{b)^ Hind wings with one or sometimes two interrupted rows 
of white spots or dashes between the hind margin and base of 
the wing. 

2. Variegated with blue. 

(a) Hind wings with blue spots or dashes, sometimes wholly 
blue ; the fore wings also less commonly with spots or dashes of 
blue, and sometimes with a central splash of blue, the distri- 
bution of colour in this latter case resembling that of dark 
forms of Li/aena argiolus. This form, though apparently not 
uncommon elsewhere, I have not come across here before this 
year. 

(b) All the wings blue as in the male, but of a richer colour, 
with or without black discoidal spots, the black hind margin 
varying in width, as in the male, but always with orange 
ocellated spots along hind margin of hind wings, as in typical 
female. This is the variety Syngrajyha, and it is figured in 
Dr. Lang's 'Butterflies of Europe,' plate xxvi. fig. 7. I found 
this variety here first in 1870, though it no doubt occurred here 
before my time ; but I have only lately tried to obtain a series. 
Last year, when there was favourable weather, while L. corydon 
was on the wing, I caught thirty specimens of this variety ; this 
year, in unfayourable weather, I only obtained twelve. 

One female caught last year is a small specimen with blue fore 
wings, and hind wings normal, with few blue scales, reversing the 
ordinary course of variation in this species. One female caught 
this year has the veins of the hind wings blue, the intervening 
spaces being normal colour. In the usual form of partial blue 
variation the veins remain black, while the intervening spaces are 
blue. Another female caught this year is of a dull black colour, 
with white-edged discoidal spot on fore and hind wings, and with 
indistinct greyish dashes from the hind margin to the base of 
hind wings. The under side of this specimen is c^-eamy white, 
wanting the basal spots on fore wings, and several of the spots 
on hind wings, the other spots, though reduced in size, showing 
up very distinctly against the light background. 

Under side, male. — This does not vary much as to the 
number of spots, though the spots often vary much in size. 
Occasionally some of the spots are duplicated, occasionally some 
are confluent. The variety without basal spots on the fore wings 
is not uncommon, and the discoidal spot on the hind wings often 
lacks the black centre. 



ZONOSOMA (ephyra) pendularia. 275 

Under side, female. — The spots vary much both in size and 
number. An extreme specimen has only discoidal spot on the 
hind wings, the basal spots being absent on the fore wings, and 
the row of spots inside the hind marginal row being also very 
small and indistinct. I have many varieties leading up to this. 
The ground colour of the under side varies from dark brown to 
pale or yellowish brown, and on the fore wings to almost white, 
the white form of under side generally coinciding with variation 
of colouring of the upper side. 

Alton Barnes Eectory, Wilts : Sept. 30th, 1902. 



THE NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE FORM OF ZONOSOMA 
{EPHYRA) PENDULARIA. 

By F. C. Woodforde, B.A., F.E.S. 

The object of this paper is to call attention to a remarkable 
form oi Zonosoma pendularia, which appears to be confined to a 
very small area in North Staffordshire. The typical form of this 
species has a very pale, nearly white, ground colour, which makes 
the insect almost indistinguishable when sitting on the white 
stems of birches. In the variety under consideration the ground 
colour is a slaty grey, rather closely approaching that of Z. 
orbicularia, while the whole of the centre of the wing is filled 
up with a rosy pink. This rosy coloured portion has no clearly 
defined edges, but merges gradually into the ground colour. It 
is very difficult to describe colouration of this sort where the 
colours are thus suffused, so as to convey a clear idea of the 
object under description ; and the Editor, to whom I sent some 
specimens, has kindly promised to include figures of one or two 
of them in the next coloured plate of varieties published in the 
* Entomologist.' 

The habit of most of the species of the genus is to sit during 
the day on leaves, and, although I have often seen Z. jnmctaria 
sitting on the trunks, yet I have obtained far more by beating 
the bushes. Z. porata and Z. annidata (omicronaria) seem 
always to choose a leaf for a resting-place ; Z. pendularia, on 
the contrary, as far as my experience goes, seems always to rest 
on the stems, generally of small birches, but not unfrequently 
on the trunks of oak-trees. Very few of the birch-stems in this 
district of North Staffordshire are white, by far the larger pro- 
portion being reddish brown, mottled with dark green by lichens. 
On such a stem the type-form, which is almost invisible on the 
white birch-trunks of the New Forest, would stand out most con- 
spicuously ; whereas the form under consideration is extremely 
hard to see, even when one is close, and looking at the very spot 

z 2 



276 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

where the insect is sitting. Forms approaching the typical 
occur here, but the palest is greyer than the type, and individuals 
of the darker forms are more numerous than representatives of 
the pale one. 

It would appear therefore that this aberration from light to 
dark is a change brought about for protection, the conspicuous 
pale form having gradually developed into the very inconspicuous 
dark one. 

Mr. Barrett, in his great work, figured a specimen that I sent 
him for that purpose, with a very similar but darker form of the 
same aberration from Mr. Webb's collection ; but the locality 
from which this latter specimen came is not given. After 
numerous inquiries I cannot discover that anyone has ever seen 
or heard of this peculiar form occurring in any other locality, 
though my inquiries extended even into Germany. 

Such a distinct and remarkable variety seems to deserve 
a distinctive name, so I propose naming it Z. i^endularia var. 
&uhroseata. 

Market Drayton : October, 1902. 



ON THE BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN EQUATORIAL 
AFRICA BY CAPTAIN CLEMENT SYKES. 

By Emily Mary Sharpe. 

[My journey into the interior of Africa I commenced early in 
1898. Starting from Mombasa in the train, which in those days 
only took one 120 miles, I soon got to Kebwezi and Nairobi. 
Both these places were excellent haunts for the entomologist, 
and I much regret that I did not embark on making a collection 
of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera until the time came for my return. 
Alas ! I found myself steaming through these places in 1900 in 
a train, and my opportunity had gone. 

I commenced my collection about July, 1899, when I was at 
a place called Lamogi, in the valley of the Upper Nile, close to 
Baker's old fort of Fatiko. Though there are woods in those 
regions, there is little or no forest, and butterflies were rather 
scarce. The Nymphalida were principally represented. In 
December, 1899, I journeyed to Wadelai, which is a far drier 
and sandier place, and there the Pierida^ were fairly prolific. 
More especially did Teracoli abound in great numbers and 
varieties. Near the sandy banks of the Nile I could always 
catch as many as I wanted. But the Nile District is a dis- 
appointing country for the entomologist, who would naturally 
expect many new species in such little frequented regions. In 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 277 

March, 1900, I began my return journey to the coast, and com- 
menced then to work more seriously. Had I known earlier in 
my career how easily butterflies are sent home, and in what 
good condition they arrive, I should have sent many thousands 
more than I did. As it was, I waited until I could bring 
them to the coast personally, fearing to trust the fruits of so 
much labour to the tender mercies of the various savages through 
whose hands they would have to pass. 

Through Unyoro I collected a fair number, in the swamps, of 
the Nymphalidse and Acrseid^e, and on entering Uganda proper, 
the wooded dells, fringed with swamps, afforded opportunities 
for considerably increasing the collection, especially amongst the 
Hesperidse. During the evening and at night it was my custom 
to sit with one end of my tent open, and two lights burning. As 
the moths came towards and around the light, I watched my 
opportunity, and directly tliey were stationary I pressed them to 
death with the handle of a spoon or fork, having no killing- 
bottle. I found this possible without doing any appreciable 
damage to the scales of the specimens, I thus got all the 
Hesperidae and Noctuidte in the collection. 

All the wooded shores of the Victoria Nyanza are admirable 
hunting-fields, and I have seldom seen such a sight as the 
butterflies on the shore opposite Lubwa, where an arm of the 
lake forms an exit for the old river Nile. The steep hill over- 
looking an exquisite view was ablaze with their colours, and I 
stood for many hours netting as hard as I could. 

Passing through Usoga and Kavirondo, I encountered a 
famine, where dead bodies of natives and animals lay at frequent 
intervals in the pathway. Over these hideous objects beautiful 
butterflies hovered, and it seems strange that nature should give 
such repulsive food to perfect works of her art. Then I came to 
the great primaeval forest of Nandi, and within its depths the 
species of Charaxes seek the many putrefactions which are 
always to be found amongst trees and damp heat. As they 
shake and quiver over some filthy morsel they gradually make 
themselves drunk, and fall easy victims to the collector. Some 
enthusiasts hang up putrid meat and carcases to attract these 
foul feeders, but if forest is near this is unnecessary. It is prac- 
tically the only way to catch all those butterflies that have a 
strong flight. 

And so I finally got to the train and reached the coast. 
I could not take the collection home myself, as I had to hurry 
off to the war ; but I carefully put the specimens in paper 
"envelopes," these into biscuit tins, and these again into air- 
tight tin uniform cases, with plenty of naphthaline, and packed 
them oft' by sea to England, where they arrived in a most satis- 
factory state. — C. A. Sykes, Capt. R.H.A.] 



278 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Family Danaid^. 

1. TiRUMALA PETivERANA {Doiihl. dj Hsivits.). — a, 3'. UsogR ; 
April, 1900. 

2. Danais chrysippus (Linn.). — a, $. Lamogi ; November, 

1899. h, 3 . Wadelai ; January-March, 1900. 

3. D. ALCiPPUs {Cram.). — a, 3. Wadelai; January-March, 
1900. 

4. D. KLUGii (Biitl.). — a, b, 3. Wadelai; January-March, 

1900. c, ? . March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

5. D. DORippus {King). — a, ? . March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

6. Amauris DAMOCLES {PciUsot cle Beciuvois). — a. March from 
Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

7. A. ENCELADus {Brown) . — a, $. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

8. Nebroda albimaculata {Butl.). — a,h, <y ? . March from 
Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

Family SatYrid^. 

9. Melanitis leda {Linn.), —a, $. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

10. Mycalesis funebris {Guen.). — a, h, ^ ? . Wadelai ; 
January-March, 1900. c, $ . March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

11. M. desolata, Butl. — a, h, 3" 2 . Lamogi; November, 
1899. 

12. M. angulosa, Butl. — a, 3 . March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

13. M. PBRSPicuA, Trimen. — a, 3 . March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. b, ? . Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

14. M. MIRIAM {Fahr.). — u, 3. Wadelai; January-March, 
1900. 

15. M. SAUssuREi, Detvitz, — a, b, 3 2 . March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

16. Aphysoneura pigmentaria, Karsch, Ent. Nachr. xx. p. 191 
(1894). RhajMceropsis piinglei, E. M. Sharpe, P. Z.S. 1894, 
p. 336, pi. 19, figs. 1,2. a. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 
1900. 

17. Ypthima albida, Butl. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi, 
April, 1900. 

18. Y. pupillaris, Butl. a. Wadelai ; January-March, 1900.' 

19. Y. asterope {Klug). — a, 3 • Lamogi ; November, 1899. 

20. Y. iTONiA, Heiuits. — a,b. Lamogi; November, 1899. 



BUTTEEFLIES COLLECTED IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 279 

Family Acr^id^. 

21. AcR^A SERENA {Fabr.). — a, <? . Lamogi ; November, 1899. 
b, 2 . March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

22. A. viNiDiA, Hewits. a, b. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

23. A. BONASiA {Fabr.). — a, b. Wadelai ; January-March, 
1900. c. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

24. A. ALICIA, E. M. Sharpe. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

25. A. SYKESi, sp. n. — Allied to A. atergatis, Westwood, and 
A. gaekivari, E.M. Sharpe; but is distinguished from the former 
by the much darker ground colour, and from the latter species 
by having no transparent patch on the primaries. 

Primaries : Ground colour light chestnut-brown, the nervules 
black, the costa, apex, and hind margin narrowly edged with 
black, the cilia white ; the spots, which are all black and well 
defined, are situated as follows : two in the discoidal cell, and 
one at the end of the cell; just beyond this a transverse band 
consisting of five spots between the nervules, the first four being 
all united ; two small spots above the submedian nervure, and 
one somewhat larger between the first and second median ner- 
vules ; near the hind margin a row of black streaks situated be- 
tween the nervules, commencing above the submedian nervure ; 
the basal area suffused with brownish black. Secondaries : The 
ground colour somewhat pinker in tint than that of the primaries ; 
a distinct black border on the hind margin, the cilia white, the 
base dusted with black, and having three distinct black spots ; an 
uneven row of small black spots crossing the discal area, each spot 
situated between the nervules, which are not black as in the fore 
wing. Under side : Ground colour much lighter, the apical 
area being paler ; all the black spots and markings as on 
the upper surface, the hind marginal border being very narrow ; 
near this border, situated between the nervules, are seven ochra- 
ceous coloured spots or streaks, the second one from the costa 
extending almost to the black transverse band on the upper side. 
Secondaries pale in colour, the whole of the basal area thickly 
spotted with black, and also showing some pink spots ; the black 
hind marginal border relieved by half-circles of yellowish-white 
spots. Expanse, 2 in. Wadelai ; January-March, 1900. 

Female. — General colour of both wings more tawny brown, 
the black spots on the primaries similarly situated as in the 
male, but larger, the submarginal row of streaks being more 
suffused ; beyond the black band, on the apical side, a paler band 
is indicated. Secondaries lighter in colour, the black spots 
larger, and the hind marginal border broader. Under side 
agreeing exactly with that of the male above described, the pink 
spots on the secondaries having faded to a more ochre-yellow. 



280 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Expanse, 2*3 in. (Spec, ex White Nile. Consul Petherick ; 
Mus. Brit.). 

The collection in the Natural History Museum contains two 
males from Wadelai (collected in the months of March and 
April, 1887, by the late Emin Pasha), and the female above 
described, from the White Nile. 

26. A. CABiRA, Hopff. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 
1900. 

27. A. DICE, Drury. — a. Wadelai ; January-March, 1900. 

28. A. iNsiGNis, Distant. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

29. A. PENELEOS, Ward. — a-c. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

30. A. POMPONiA, Grose Smith.— a. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

31. A. NEOBULE, Douhl. d Heivits. — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

32. A. PUDORiNA, Stand. — a, <? . March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

33. A. NATALiCA, Boisd. — a-c, <? . March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

34. A. ciECiLiA {Fahr.). — a-c, $• ?. March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1901. d, <y . Wadelai; January-March, 1900. 

(To be continued.) 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA.— No. 5. 
By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

Fam. GERRiD.iE. 
'^ Hydrometra agenor, sp. nov. 

Brownish castaneous, a narrow median longitudinal very pale 
bluish grey line on pronotum, apical margin of pronotum black. 
Antennae (except pallid base of first segment), apex of head, &c., 
black. Abdomen above shining black, connexivum fiavo-stramineous, 
extero-lateral margin narrowly black. Abdomen beneath pale fiavous, 
except the dark genital segments. Legs pale flavo-fuscous, tarsi 
and apices of femora and of tibiae black. Elytra lurid, nervures black. 
Rostrum reaching to eyes, but not beyond ; antennae equal to about 
two-thirds of insect's length ; anteocular part of bead more than twice 
as long as the postocular ; head somewhat dilated at apex, scarcely so 
at base ; anteocular part of head four times as long as first segment of 
antennae, third more than twice as long as the fourth, four times as 
long as the second, which is two-thirds longer than the first. Apex 
of anterior femur scarcely reaching to apex of head. <y . Long. 
13* mill. 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA. 281 

Hob. Ecuador, Guayaquil (coUn. Montandon). 
Allied to H. caraiba, Guerin, but separable by the proportions 
of the antennae, &c. 

• ^ Hydrometra naiades, nom. nov. 

= H. mensor, Champion, nee White. 

Besides unimportant colour differences. Champion mentions 
" anteocular portion (of head) about twice as long as the post- 
ocular portion," while White describes H. mensor as "anteocular 
part not quite once and a half as long." As this proportion of 
the head is one of the most important characters in the specific 
differentiation of Hydrometra, it is impossible, at present at least, 
to retain the name mensor for Champion's species. White's type 
is unfortunately lost or destroyed, as is also that of H. metator. 

Rheumatometra, gen. nov. 

Allied to Kallistometra, Kirk., and Halobatopsis, Bianchi, but 
differing by the proportions of the antennae, legs, &c. 

Suboval ; antennae short, subequal to the pronotum in the winged 
form ; first segment shorter than the other three together, fourth 
fusiform, one-fourth longer than the third. Apical segment of anterior 
tarsi three or fourth times as long as the basal ; posterior femora 
a little longer than tibiae and tarsi together ; intermediate legs very 
long, tibiae longer than femora, which are a trifle longer than tarsi. 

Macropterous form : Pronotum slightly convex, rounded posteriorly. 
Elytra long, extending far beyond apex of abdomen. 

Apterous form : Pronotum short, transverse. 

R. philarete, sp. nov.* 
Velvety black ; base of first segment of antennae, a large spot in 
the middle of the anterior lobe of pronotum, lateral margins of the 
nota, the connexivum above, coxae (in part), &c., bright luteo-fiavous. 
Male anterior femora and tibiae strongly curved and somewhat in- 
crassate. Female anterior femora and tibiae only slightly, if at all, 
curved or iucrassate. Long, (to apex of abdomen), 3' 2|- mill., $ 
il mill. ; lat. <? H mill., ? 2-2^ mill. ; long, to apex of elytra, ? 
e^mih. 

Hab. Australia, Victoria, Alexandria (collns. Montandon 
and Kirkaldy). 

MiCROVELIA STELLATA, Sp. UOV. 

Apparently allied to M. albonotata, Champion, but that species 
is described as not having the vertex longitudinally sulculate, and 
the colouring is somewhat different. 

Elongate. Black ; basal half of first antenual segment, basal 
three-fourths of femora pale flavescent. Anterior margin of pronotum 
(entirely) fulvous. Antennae, elytra, and legs dark sienna-brown, the 

'''■ I have a revision of the Gerridse in progress, where these and other 
forms will be described in more detail. 



282 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

elytra being largely silvery white basally ; there are also seven or eight 
much smaller silvery spots from base to apex. Beneath black, con- 
nexiva fulvous. First segment of antennae distinctly longer than 
second, fourth a little longer than third, which is one-fourth longer 
than second. Pronotmn not carinate medianly. Long. 2i mill. ; lat. 
0-85 mill. 

Hab. Ecuador, Guayaquil (collns. Montandon and Kirkaldy). 

Fam. Pyrrhocorid^. 
AsTEMMA (Dysdercus) mimus (Say). 
Jamaica (C. B. Taylor). 

Fam. MiridjE. 
Makua, gen. nov. 

Belongs to div. Capsaria, Eeuter. 

Macropterous form : Impunctate, pronotum slightly rugulose. 
Vertex immarginate, not sulcate. Head strongly declivous, about as 
long as high ; clypeus confluent with the front, but well separated. 
Rostrum not reaching beyond intermediate coxae. First segment of 
antennae extending well beyond apex of head, distinctly shorter than 
the pronotum. Pronotal collar shorter than width of second antennal 
segment at base. Pronotum slightly transverse. Scutellum some- 
what convex. Corium without supplementary nervures ; cuneus 
longer than wide at base. Greater membranal areole angulate- 
rotundate. Posterior femora short, not nearly reaching apex of 
abdomen, shortly hairy ; tibire with spiny bristles. 

M. PSOLE, sp. nov. 
Head, pronotum, scutellum, elytra, connexivum, ventral surface, 
and legs sordid luteo-testaceous ; pubescence whitish. Eyes, two 
basal segments of antennae, tarsi, and apex of rostrum blackish. 
Clavus and corium (interiorly) dark purplish brownish; pronotum 
laterally smoky. Corium intero-apically sanguineous, membrane 
dilute smoky, nervures sanguineous. Clypeus and narrow sublateral 
stripe on sterna sanguineous. Vertex about three-fifths wider than 
an eye, rounded apically (as seen from above); second segment of 
antennae three times as long as first, and twice as long as pronotum 
(excluding collar). Long. 5|- mill., lat. If mill. 

Mozambique, Rikatla. 

Plexaris, gen. nov. 

Belongs to Capsaria, Reut. 

Strongly punctured. Head large, distinctly wider than half the 
base of pronotum. Vertex immarginate. Eyes not widely divergent 
apically. Second segment of antennae slightly incrassate apically. 
Rostrum not reaching as far as posterior coxre. Pronotum widely 
sinuate at the base, latero-posterior angles acute, base nearly four 
times as wide as the collar, lateral margins straight, widely diverging. 
Collar very slightly wider than the vertex at base. Scutellum convex. 



MISCELLANEA EHYNCHOTALIA. 283 

Cuneus deeply incised, major areole of membrane widely rounded 
apically. Posterior femora short, not nearly reaching to apex of 
abdomen ; first segment of posterior tarsi distinctly shorter than the 
second, third the longest. 

Allied to Deracecoris. Stal, but distinguished by the large 
head, &c. 

P. SATURNIDES, Sp. IIOV. 

Suboval ; more or less shining black above and below ; a triangular 
spot at base of vertex posterior to eyes, an elongate spot on vertex, 
middle third of second segment of the antennfe, posterolateral mar- 
gins of pronotum, a spot in middle of apical margin of pronotum, and 
the tarsi testaceous ; a longitudinal narrow stripe on middle of basal 
half of pronotum fulvous. Tibi« annulate alternately with black and 
white. Rostrum fusco-testaceous, apically black. Membrane hyaline, 
with a median curved band and the nervures black Long. 5 mill., 
lat. 2 mill. 

Hah. Natal, Howick. 

Meginoe, gen. nov. 

Belongs to Capsaria. 

Subelongate ; not (or only superficially) punctured. Scutellum 
rugose -punctured. Head strongly declivous. Vertex immarginate, 
very narrowly longitudinally sulcate, a little impressed subtransversely 
near the base. Clypeus somewhat prominent, not forming a continuous 
curve with the head. Eyes large, contiguous with pronotum, extending 
almost to internal margins of rostrum, second as long as high (in pro- 
file), posterior margin sinuately emarginate (in profile). Antennte 
inserted almost at middle of eye (in profile). First segment of rostrum 
reaching to about the middle of prosternum, fourth segment extending 
beyond posterior coxae. Pronotum one-half wider than head and eyes, 
base two and three-quarter times as wide as collar ; one-third longer 
than length of head (profile) ; base subsinuately rounded widely ; two 
small sharply marked rounded tuberculate callosities ; lateral margins 
not reflexed. Collar somewhat narrow. Stink-orifices large, suboval, 
subauriculate. Major areole of membrane narrowly rounded apically. 
Cuneus longer than broad at base. 

Not very closely allied to any other genus. 

M. HOVANA, sp. nov. 

Hairy and pubescent. Head pale sordid flavous, multistriate sub- 
rotundately, and clouded transversely with sanguineous. Pronotum 
pale luteo-flavous, mottled with brownish. Two snbconfluent dark 
brown blotches in the middle of the basal margin of the pronotum ; 
callosities black. Three apical segments of rostrum and the stink- 
orifices testaceous. Scutellum blackish brown, posterior angles pallid. 
Elytra fuscous, cuneus blackish brown, a broad curved pale yellow 
band across the middle. Membrane hyaline, fumate, nervures fuscous. 
Underneath pale fusco-fulvous, darkening laterally. Eyes prominent, 
each as wide as — or a little wider than — vertex between them. Vertex 



284 THE KNTOMOLOGIST. 

(as seen from above) rounded anteriorly. ? . Long. 7 mill., lat. 
2^ mill. 

Hah. Madagascae, Diego Suarez. 

GuTRiDA, gen. nov. 

Belongs to Capsaria. 

Suboval ; glabrous, abdomen above, &c., sparsely pubescent; pro- 
notum and elytra punctured. Vertex marginate. Head vertical, about 
twice as wide (in profile) as high. Eyes (profile) more than one-half 
of the length of the head ; first segment of antennae extending beyond 
apex of head, inserted within the apical margin of the eyes. First 
segment of rostrum very short, reaching a little beyond base of head. 
Eyes contiguous with pronotum. Pronotum declivous, not or only 
very slightly callose anteriorly ; base widely rounded (subsinuately), 
more than two and a half times as wide as the length of the first seg- 
ment of antennae, about four times as wide as collar, not quite twice 
as wide as head and eyes together. Lateral margins of elytra a little 
rounded, apical margin of corium extero-laterally reaching somewhat 
beyond base of cuneus, the latter a little declivous ; membranal ner- 
vures angulately rotundate apically. Posterior femora not much 
stouter than the other pairs. Tarsi with bristly spines. 

G. GABONIA, Sp. nov. 

Head, pronotum, and scutellum flavous, a subbasal elongate 
blackish brown spot in the middle. Eyes red-brown. Anterior angles 
of scutellum fumate. Elytra pale sordid yellowish, lateral margins of 
clavus widely dark, apical margin of corium clouded irregularly with 
brownish. Base and apex of cuneus blackish brown, membranal 
nervures fuscous. Head rounded apically (seen from above). Long. 
6 mill., lat. 2i mill. 

Hob. Gaboon (ex coll. Montandon). 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

GoNEPTERYx RHAMNi, AB. — Mr. Sabine, of Erith, has kindly sent for 
inspection an example of G. rhamni, which is apparently a female, 
but the fore wings are tinged with the male colour, especially at the 
base and on the costal and hind marginal areas ; the hind wings are 
very similar in colour to those of the male. The specimen was taken 
this year in the New Forest by Mr. L. W. Newman. 

LYCiENA coRYDON AB. — Grouud colour of all the wings blackish. 
Fore wings have a black centred white discal spot and a series of six 
quadrate white spots on the submarginal area ; the latter are dusted 
with black atoms, especially the lower three of the series, and are 
traversed by an interrupted, blackish, diffuse line extending from the 
inner margin to the third spot ; the basal and central areas are heavily 
dusted with blue scales. The markings on the hind wings are some- 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 285 

what similar to those of the fore wings, but the white spots on sub- 
marginal area are smaller and not so well defined ; marginal spots 
white with blackish centres. The under surface of all the wings is 
very like that of a normal male. The specimen was taken at Wrotham 
in August last by Mr. W. A. Carter, and is now in the possession of 
Mr. Sabine. 

Variety of Vanessa antiopa. — One of the imagines resulting from 
a batch of German larvae of Vanessa antiopa bred by me this season is 
rather a remarkable variety, of which I can find no mention in my 
entomological books. On the upper wings there is a complete absence 
of the blue spots, and on each of the lower wings there is only one 
small blue spot. The specimen is somewliat smaller than the normal 
ones of the same brood, and I had noticed a sort of indentation on the 
wing-cases of the pupa, which led me to fear that the imago might not 
emerge. However, though it was not the first to pupate, it came 
through first, on July the 24th, having been sixteen days in the pupa 
state. — F. A. Oldaker ; Parsonage House, Dorking, Sept. 23rd, 1902. 

Typhlocyba coloradensis in Mexico. — Dr. Bonansea Silvio has 
just sent me numerous specimens of this grape-vine leaf-hopper, 
collected at Cuidad Porfirio Diaz, Mexico. The insect is common in 
New Mexico, but is, I believe, new to the fauna of Mexico. — T. D. A. 
Cockekell ; Sept. 16th, 1902. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

CoLiAS EDUSA AT Bexhill. — In August last I took C. ednsa near 
Bexhill — one male on the 13th, another male on the 16th, and a 
male and two females on the 20th. — P. Towell ; Homesdale Road, 
Teddington. 

CoLiAs HYALE AND C. EDUSA IN Kent. — As far as I caii ascertain, only 
the early brood (consisting of immigrants) of 0. hyale has appeared 
this year at Sheerness, the headquarters of this species. My in- 
formant, Mr. E. Griffiths, very kindly sent me all his captures, which 
amounted to seven specimens, consisting of six males and one female 
(which proved infertile). These he captured on June 27th, 29th, and 
July 12th. He now informs me he has not seen one C. hijale since the 
latter date, and tbat C. edusa has been scarce, having only seen ten 
altogether, three of them in June. The above is interesting, showing 
how unsuitable a cold English summer is for the existence of these 
butterflies.— F. W. Frohawk ; October, 1902. 

I noticed two specimens of Colias edusa at Folkestone in August of 
this year, on the golf links. — Harold Hodge ; 9, Highbury Place, N. 

While staying at Folkestone the first fortnight of September, I 
captured a few Colias edusa, one var. helice, and four C. lujale. — -W. E. 
Butler ; Hayling House, Reading, October 4th, 1902. 

Colias edusa, &c., in Sussex. — My boy caught here, in September 
last, four male C. ednsa, in quite fresh condition ; also about six 
Vansesa cardiii, and four V. io, in equally good condition. The latter 
insect only turns up occasionally here. It has been a very bad year 
for insects ; treacle and light absolutely useless. I collect on my 



286 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

small estate of four hundred acres, on which are about a hundred 
acres of wood, chiefly oak. Since I came here, five years ago, my 
experience has been very disappointing. Both treacle and light seem 
to be losing tlieir power of attracting. I shall be glad to hear from 
some of your correspondents, whether they have had a similar expe- 
rience in other parts of the country. I live about two miles and three- 
quarters from Hayward's Heath, in a country which looks very suit- 
able for collectmg, but I have not found it so. V. atalanta has been 
very scarce this year, as it was last. Two years ago it swarmed. — 
A. H. Rydon ; Awbrook, Lindfield, Sussex, Oct. 4th. 

CoLiAs EDusA IN CORNWALL. — I noticed two specimens of C. edusa 
in September of this year, on the West Cornwall golf-links at Lelant, 
Hayle, Cornwall. — Harold Hodge ; 9, Highbury Place, N. 

Sesia myopiformis in London. — I took a perfect specimen of S. 
myopifurnm in the garden of this house early in June last. There 
are several pear-trees in the gardens about here, one quite close by 
of great size and age. But, though I have observed the insects in this 
garden for over fourteen years, I have never seen S. wyopiforinis here 
before. — Harold Hodge ; 9, Highbury Place, N. 

Capture of Sesia allantiformis, Newm. (= andreniformis, Lasp.) 
in Dorsetshire. — On August 23rd I swept a male of this grand 
addition to our county fauna at Glanvilles Wootton, oft' feverfew 
flowers. This enables me to state that my specimen from the New 
Forest, recorded as Sesi/i conopifuniiis (Entom. vol. xxvii. pp. 245, 342 ; 
vol. xxix. p. 185), is the female of S. andreniformu. Laspeyres, in his 
work on European Sesiida;, states that he has not seen the female. 
This sex differs from the male in having three instead of two yellow 
rings round the abdomen, and in having a black anal tuft with a few 
yellow hairs on each side instead of the yellow tuft so characteristic 
of the male. Like the male, the femora are violet black, but the 
tibial portions of the legs are yellow- 
Previous records of S. allantiformis: — 1. By Mr. Chant, in a wood 
near Greenhithe, in July, 1829 (Ent. Mag. vol. i. p. 80). 2. By Mr. 
Harding, also near Greenhithe, in July, 1846 (' Zoologist,' vol. iv. 
p. 1515). 3. By Piev. A. H. Wratislaw, between Dover and Folkestone, 
in 1859 (Entom. vol. iv. p. 214). 4. By Rev. A. M. Matthews, near 
Market Harborough, in 1868 (Newman's ' Moths,' p. 15). 5. By Master 
Jenney, near Tring, on July 15th, 1876 (Entom. vol. ix. p. 204). 6. By 
R. C. L. Perkins, at Wootton-under-Edge, in 1886 (Entom. vol. xx. 
p. 108). 7. Two, by Mr. Davis, at Dover, on July 10th and 14th, 1889 
(Entom. vol. xxii. p. 211). — C. W. Dale ; Glanvilles Wootton, 
August 27th, 1902. 

PiERis daplidice IN SussEx. — Mr. A. Wood records in the ' Field ' 
the capture of /'. daplidice on August 29tli, 1902, near the racecourse 
at Brighton.— F. W. F. 

Papilio machaon in Berks. — Mr. A. Wood reports in the ' Field ' 
a specimen of P. viachaon captured near Wellington College station in 
July, 1902.— F. W. F. 

Lyc^na argiolus at Rotherhithe. — I captured a male specimen 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD REPORTS. 287 

of L. arfiiolus in this vicarage garden on Aug, 22nd last, as it was 
flying around some ivy, of which there is a quantity in the garden ; 
one Pieris napi and a few Vanessa urtica also seen here. There is 
nothing like a garden nearer here than Southwark Park, which is a 
good mile away. — H. W. Sweeting ; Holy Trinity Vicarage, Eother- 
hithe, S.E., Oct. 17th, 1902. 

DicYCLA 00, &c. IN Middlesex. — On July 27th I took D. oo at rest 
on the trunk of an oak at Palmer's Green. I should like to know if 
this insect has been taken in Middlesex before. I also took, on Sept. 
3rd, Cahjmnia difflnis and Noctua c-ni<iru.m, in the same locality, at 
sugar, and a friend of mine took Pararge mq/ccra at Potter's Bar on 
Sept. 7th. — Laurence S. Hodson ; 8, The Villas, Palmer's Green, 
Sept 11th, 1902. 

DicYCLA 00 IN Kent. — I was very pleased to read of Mr. Browne's 
capture of this species near Chislehurst, as recorded in the last 
number {a)ite, p. 267). It occurred very plentifully at Bromley (adjacent 
to Chislehurst) in 1888, when the late Mr. Collins, of that town, took 
a great number at sugar, a portion of my own series being some of 
them ; but, strange to say, in spite of much annual sugaring near the 
" old" ground (now built over), it has never been seen since, to my 
knowledge, so that Mr. Browne's record proves without a doubt that 
it still occurs near its old locality.— A. J. Lawrance ; 76, Samos 
Koad, Anerley, S.E. (late of Lady well). 

Deilephila livornica IN South Devon. — On July 22nd last, just 
as I was leaving home for Devonshire, I received from Starcross a full- 
grown Sphingid larva, found by a boy as it was crawling in a lane. 
At first sight this appeared to me closely to resemble the dark form of 
Deilephila (jalii. On arriving at my destination I supplied it with 
Galium, verum and G. molliKjo, but it had ceased feeding, and made at 
once preparation for pupating. It then occurred to me that the time 
was too early for D. galii, and later on, when referring to my books, I 
found that the description of D. livornica tallied with my larva. On 
Sept. 27th, however, all my existing doubts were dispelled, as on that 
day a perfect imago of D. livornica emerged. During a recent visit to 
Starcross I ascertained the locality, Avhich is a lane where G. molliujo 
grows in profusion, on which the larva had probably been feeding. I 
am told that there is no record of this rare moth having been 
previously found in the larval state in Britain. — J. Jager; 65, Saint 
Quintin's Avenue, North Kensington, Oct. 4th, 1902. 

Chcerocampa celerio in Hampshire. — On Sept. 27th I had a living 
specimen of C. celerio brought to me to name, by Miss Stevenson, of 
Reading (a young collector), who informed me it was sent to her, by 
post, by some friends who know nothing about entomology, and was 
taken on Lady Munday's estate, Emsworth, Hants, two days pre- 
viously. — W. E. Butler; Hayliug House, Oxford Eoad, Eeading, 
Oct. 5th, 1902. 

Late Emergence of Cucullia asteris. — This species generally 
emerges in June, July, and the early part of August, the larvas in the 
Essex marshes being found on Aster tripolium until quite late in 
September. This year the imago has continued to emerge during 



288 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

September, culminating with a very fine perfect specimen bred to-day, 
September 23rd. This seems to me worthy of record, as the progeny 
of such late specimens would assuredly perish, as even by the time 
when the ova hatched the flowers of the sea aster and the alternative 
food-plant Solidai/o virgaurea would be unobtainable. — (Rev.) Gilbert 
H. Eaynor; Hazeleigh Eectory, Maldon, Essex, Sept. 23rd, 1902. 

Mesotype virgata (lineolata) in BERKsmRE. — I am very pleased to 
add this species to the list of Lepidoptera occurring in the county of 
Berks. I took one example on August 4th last, on one of the chalk 
hills near Streatley. — W. E. Butler ; Hayling House, Reading, Oct. 
4th, 1902. 

Agrotis obelisca : a Correction. — The species recorded by me as 
Aijrotis obelisca [ante, p. 269) has been wrongly determined, and I now 
find that it is A. tritici. I much regret having been led into this error 
of identification. — G. B. Browne. 

Agkilus sinuatus in Hampshire. — During the second week in 
August this year, I had the fortuue to take eleven specimens of A. 
sinuatus. Two were sunning themselves on some sallow leaves, the 
rest I obtained off one hawthorn bush by beating. This was in Hurst 
Wood, near Lyndhurst, New Forest. I beat a good many shrubs and 
trees, but came upon no more of this species. I should like to know 
upon what the larvffi feed. I and my companion also beat three 
Acronycta ahii larvffi in their final skin, and two Stauropus fac/i in 
their second skin. — F.N. Hitchcock; Ben Omar, South Road, Clapham 
Park, S.W. 

Three Weeks in South Dorset. — Early in July, Dr. H. M. 
Stewart and I started off for a holiday in South Dorset, determined 
to spend a large portion of our time in entomological pursuits. The 
subjoined list of one hundred and forty-two species of Lepidoptera 
show that there is a large variety of insects to be met with there, and 
had the weather been kinder there is no doubt that the list would have 
been largely augmented. 

Of the butterflies, Hesperia actceou was exceedingly plentiful in its 
restricted localities, while Mcianan/ia >ialatea and Satijras semele 
swarmed on the clifi'-sides. Limenitis sibylla was seen in sheltered 
situations near the woods, and Picris 7iapi was coming out in numbers 
as we left. EucheUa jaeobaw was very common in the lanes, while the 
woods gave us plenty of Lithosia deplana and L. lurideola. Sugaring, 
sadly interfered with by stormy winds, yielded Agrotis luniyera, 
Thyatira derasa, and the commonest insects at it being Dipteryyia sca- 
briuscula, Ayrotis exclamationis, and Xylophasia monoylypha {^pohjodon). 
Fences and trunks produced Hccatera serena and Hadena dentina in 
considerable numbers, also Cucullia umbratica and numerous Geo- 
metrid moths. The heaths swarmed with Plnsia gamma, while both 
Anarta myrtilll and Ileliothis dipsacea were in some numbers. June 
would, I believe, be a very good month there in a normal season, and 
we hope to test it another year. 

Rhopalocera : — Pieris brassica, P. rapcB, P. napi, Argynnis euphro- 
syne, A. aglaia, A. adippe, Vanessa urtica', V. atalanta, V. cardui, 
Limenitis sibylla, Melanargia galatea, Satyrus semele, Epinephele ianira, 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 289 

E. tit/ionus, Coenonympha pamphilus, Thecla rubi, Chrywphaims phlccus, 
LyccBua agon, L. icanis, Hesperia actceon, H. sylvanus. 

Heterocera : — H.einaris fmiformis, Trochiliam crabroniforiids, Zyycena 
lonlcerce, Lithusia deplana, L. lurideola, Emydia cribrum, Euchelia 
jacobcece, Spilosonia lubricipeda, Hepialus humuli, H. hectus, Porthesia 
siniilis, Malacosoma neustria, Odonestis Rotatoria, Thyatira batis, T. 
derasa, Acronycta psi, A. aceris, A. megacephala, Leucania cunigera, L. 
lithargyria, L. comma, L. impara, L, pallens, Xylophasia lithoxylea, X. 
monoglypka, X. heputlca, Dipteryyia scabriuscida, Cerigo matura, Ma- 
viestra surdida, M. brassica, Apamea didyma, Miana strigilis, M. bicoloria, 
Graminesia trigrammica , Caradrina mor'pheus, C. alsines, C. taraxaci, 
Rusina tenebrosa. Agrotis suffusa, A. segetum, A. lunigera, A. exclama- 
tionis, A. corticea, A. nigricans, Noctua triangidum, Triphana ianthina, 
T. fimbria, T. comes, T. prontiba, Orthosia upsilon, Hecatera serena, Eu- 
plexla lucipera, PhlogopJiora meticulosa, Apiecta nebidosa, Hadena den- 
tina, H. trifolii, H. oleracea, Cucullia umbratica, Gonoptera libatrix, 
Habrostola tripartita, Plusia gamma, Anarta myrtilU, Heliothis dipsacea, 
Acontia luctuosa, Phytometra viridaria, Zanclognatha tarsipennalis, Hy- 
pena proboscidalis, Uropteryx samhucaria, Ramia luteolata, Metrocampa 
margaritaria, Ellopia prosapiaria, Pericallia syringaria, Amphidasys be- 
tularia, Boarmia repandata, B. gemmaria, Tephrosiabiundularia, Gnophos 
obscuraria, Pseiidoterpiui pruinata, Nemoria viriduta, Hemithea strigata, 
Acidalia dimidiata, A. bisetata, A. dilutaria, A. virgnlaria, A. margine- 
punctnta, A. imitaria, A. aversata, Cabera pusaria, C. exanthemata, 
Macaria litiirata, Bupalus piniaria. Abraxas grossidariata, Lomaspilis 
marginata, Lareiitia viridaria, Enpithecia castigata, E. subnotata, E. 
minutata, E. tenuiata, E. pumilata, Thera variata, T. firmata, Hypsi- 
petes sordidata, Melanthia bicolorata, M. ocellata, M. albicdlata, Melanippe 
procellata, M. unnngulata, M. rivata, M. sociata, M. galiata, M.Jiuctuata, 
Anticlea rubidata, Camptogramma bilineata, Phibalapteryx tersata, Ci- 
daria immanata, C. dotata, C. associata, Eubolia limituta, E. plumbaria, 
Anaitis plagiata, Tanagra atrata. — E. E. B. Prest ; Arva, Dacres 
Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 

Lepidoptera at the New Forest in June. — So much has been 
said and written of this glorious hunting-ground that I am afraid I 
can add little that will be of interest. I arrived at Brockenhurst on 
June 15th, and my first capture was Hadena genistce, at rest on a 
paling, on my way to our rooms. Needless to say, perfect insects 
were very backward, and the species that are usually so plentiful in 
this district at this time of the year were conspicuous by their absence. 
Larva)-beating (which I went principally for), on the other hand, was 
fairly profitable, the following species occurring — mostly from oak — 
every day during my stay: — Thecla qiicrcus, common ; Limcnitis sibylla, 
larvte and pupae fairly plentiful on honeysuckle around tree-trunks ; 
Nola striguln, fairly plentiful, very few emerging after successfully 
pupating ; Liparis aurifina and L. vionacha, very common ; Lithosia 
quadra, plentiful, but fearful cannibals in confinement ; Malacosoma 
neustria, occasionally; Pericallia syringaria, a few on honeysuckle; 
Himera pennaria, Phigalia pilosaria, and Amphidasys prodromaria, all 
plentiful ; Cleora lichenaria and C. glabraria, occasionally on the 
lichens, but difficult to find ; Phorodesma bajiilaria, very scarce, I only 

ENTOM.— NOVEMBER, 1902. 2 A 



290 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

got two ; easily overlooked, owing to its remarkable resemblance to 
refuse and bits of dead leaves, &c., with whicli it covers itself; 
Ckeimatobia brumata, in swarms, a positive nuisance ; several species 
of the genus Eupithecia, difficult to recognize, possibly E. iriu/iiata 
occasionally ; hlybemia defoliaria, very common, difficult to get into 
pupae successfully ; Petasia cassinea, a few at night on blackthorn, &c. ; 
Notoilonta chaonia, occasionally, from oak ; Cymatophora flavicomis, 
very local — I got seventeen full-fed larvae from a solitary birch in 
Stubby Copse on June 20th ; C, ridens, very few compared with other 
years ; several species of Tteniocampa, especially 2\ vdniosa, rather 
common; Ancliocelis ru/ina, occasionally; Scopelosoma satellitia, very 
common ; often found in one's pockets after a day's beating; the same 
remarks applying to (Josmia trapezina ; Ai/ri.opis apiilina, sometimes 
at sugar at dusk. Catacola promissa and C spunsa were also plentiful, 
and I successfully reared all those I obtained. I was too late for 
heather-searching, and missed Agrotis agnthina and Noctua negiecta, 
although I did obtain one full-fed larva of the former on my return 
home across the naoor on June 19tli, but it unfortunately died. Why 
is this species so difficult to rear '? I have tried them now for several 
years in succession, but without any success. Genista angelica pro- 
duced Pseudoterpna nji.i.saria. which were very plentiful, especially near 
Jones's Enclosure, Lyndhurst, and at the foot of Hurst Hill, Brocken- 
hurst. What struck me very much on entering the enclosures was 
the fearfully barren state of the oak. Gazing at the gaunt leafless 
branches overhead reminded one more of Christmas than of mid- 
summer. Late frosts and countless larvte had, no doubt, wrought the 
mischief. It is really a marvel how the latter thrived at all on 
practically bare branches (which when beaten, strange to say, produced 
the most larvae). Probably the lichens are resorted to as a last resource 
by larvte. Butterflies were few, only Arijynnis euphrosyne, Gonepteryx 
rh'inmi, and Syrichthtis alveolus appearing in any numbers worth 
mentioning, with occasionally a stray Neineobius litcina just to relieve 
the monotony. Macrothylacia rubi (males) were occasionally seen, and 
on June 18th a turf-cutter gave me a very nice female, which he had 
found on the heather. Lithosia rnbricollis made up for many dis- 
appointments ; I was fortunate enough to take forty altogether, mostly 
found drying their wings on bracken at Aldridge and Hurst Hill. 
Macroylossa fuciforinis and M. bombyliformis were fairly plentiful on 
sunny days in the Ornamental Drive, Ehinefields, at rhododendron 
and azalea bloom. At light, the only visitors that put in an appear- 
ance were Ckelonia villica (very fresh) and a few "daddy long-legs." 
Lastly, at sugar the following occurred: — First and foremost "ye 
hornet," and extremely formidable ones too; and then, in their 
Doubl. List order: ChcBroccimpa elpencn-, several each evening ; Lithosia 
rnbricollis, one ; Thyatira batis, common ; Diphthera orion, three, 
turning up about 10 p.m. ; Miana strigilis, two ; Grammesia trilinea, 
three, and one var. bilinea ; Tienincampa gothica, one, just out ap- 
parently, and two months overdue ; Euplexia lucipara, one ; Aplecta 
herbida, common ; and Erastria fuscula, common and easily mistaken 
for M. strigilis. Several species of Coleoptera, Diptera, &c., occurred, 
but, as I do not collect these, I am sorry to say I cannot name them ; 
some were new to me, and most extraordinary. As was the case last 



SOCIETIES. 291 

year, sugaring was very bad indeed, the results being extremely poor. 
Leucania turca, which I felt almost certain of getting, was either not 
out, or extinct, at Hurst Hill. The weather, too, talfen ou the whole, 
was shocknig — rain almost every day ; so, packing up my baggage, I 
left on Tuesday, June 24th, having only spent ten days in Brocken- 
hurst, where I had intended spending a whole fortnight. — A. J. 
Lawrance; 65, Malyon Road, Ladywell, S.E., Sept. 16th, 1902. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London, — October 1st, 1902. — The Rev. 
Canon Fowler, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., President, in the chair.— Mr. H. 
St. J. Donisthorpe exhibited specimens of Dibolia cynoglossi, taken 
by him near Pevensey on the 11th August last. He said that the 
beetle had not been recorded as British since 1866. — Mr. 0. E. 
Janson exhibited a fine hermaphrodite specimen of Arijiinnis paphia, 
taken in the New Forest by Mr. Herbert Cliarles ou July 28th, 
and recorded in the ' Entomologist ' ; also a melanic specimen 
of Papilio demolem, from Ceylon, in which all the usual marginal 
and submarginal yellow markings were absent and the discal mark- 
ings much obscured ; on the under side the yellow markings were 
entirely wanting. — Mr. C. P. Pickett exhibited a male Callimorpha 
dominiila with the hind wings suffused with black, and an extra black 
spot in the centre, tlie white spot on the fore wings being absent ; and 
a very large female of the same species, both bred from larvae found 
at Walmer at the end of March ; and three aberrant specimens of 
Triphcena fimbria, bred from larvffi taken at Wood Street during the 
same month. — Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse exhibited specimens of a wasp 
[Zethus cliahjheus) and a neuropteron (Mantissa semihyalina), received 
with a collection of Hymenoptera from Rio Janeiro, suggesting a 
curious case of mimicry. — Mr. F. B. Jennings exhibited specimens of 
Hister merdarius, from Broxbourne, Herts, part of a large colony of 
this usually scarce species found with H. Vl-striabus and other beetles 
inhabiting a heap of a chemical substance, probably gas-lime, in 
which also many larvffi, presumably of H. merdarius, and burrows, 
were observed. The soil was warm and moist, and this, and the 
presence of a quantity of vegetable refuse thrown on the heap, was no 
doubt the attraction to the Histers to settle there. — Mr. A. J. Chitty 
exhibited a specimen of Metoecm paradoxus with a part of the cells of 
a nest of Vespa vulfjaris, in which place the beetle is invariably found. 
The beetle in the cell tucks in his head, only displaying on the surface 
the thorax, which is coloured similarly to the face of the wasp. This 
peculiarity suggests a case of mimicry, and Professor Poulton, F.R.S., 
said that it fitted in with the case of some other bees and wasps. — 
Mr. H. Rowland-Brown exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Gr. P. Leigh, of 
Durban, a female and male specimen of a rare noctuid, Mus(/ravia 
leighi, Hampson, discovered by him in Natal, and read remarks upon 
the life-history of the species, communicated by the captor. — Mr. 
Stanley W. Kemp exhibited two additions to the British list of Coleo- 
ptera — Bembidium aryentiulum, from Lough Neagh, Armagii ; and 



292 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Lamostenua complanatiis, from the neighbourhood of Dublin — taken iu 
June, 1902. — Mr. W. J. Kaye exhibited examples of Heliconhis lindiyii, 
H. antiochus, and MorpJio achilles, from British Guiana, with notches 
taken out of the hind wings, presumably by birds ; to illustrate that 
these distasteful or warning-coloured species are subject to attack, this 
helping to show that experimental tasting, as propounded by the 
Miillerian theory of mimicry, does exist and go on. — Professor L. C. 
Miall, F.E.S., communicated a paper by Mr. T. H. Taylor, M.A., 
entitled "The Tracheal System of Simnlmm." — Professor Augusta 
Forel, M.D., communicated a paper entitled "Descriptions of some 
Ants from the Eocky Mountains of Canada (Alberta and British 
Columbia) collected by Edward Whymper." — Dr. T. A. Chapman 
read a paper entitled "On Heteroyynis paradoaa." — H. Goss and 
H. EowLAND- Brown, Ho7i. Secretaries. 

October 15i/t.— Professor Edward B. Poulton, M.A., D.Sc, F.E.S., 
Vice-President, in the chair. — Mr. A. J. Cliitty showed an entirely 
black specimen of Metoecm paradoxus, as tending to disprove the 
mimicry suggested by him at the meeting on Oct. 1st. Dr. Chapman 
said that in his experience one out of every six specimens of this 
species was black. Mr. Donisthorpe stated that out of about one 
hundred specimens he had never caught or bred a black Metoecus. — 
Mr. E. P. Pickett exhibited a variety of the female of Aryynnis aylaia, 
varieties of Satyms iairira, and a long series of Lyccena corydon, taken 
near Folkestone and Dover in August last, including four males of 
the last-named species, with the black band on the edge of the fore 
wings much deeper than usual ; also twelve dwarf male specimens of 
this species, four dwarf females, and many other aberrant forms. 
Mr. Goss said this dwarf form of L. corydon occurred constantly, 
according to Mr. Sydney Webb, in one valley about two miles east of 
Dover, but he was unaware of its regular occurrence elsewhere in 
this country. He remarked that a dwarf form of L. ariun occurred 
wherever the type was found, both in Gloucestershire and Cornwall. 
Professor Poulton, Dr. Chapman, and Mr. Sloper also remarked on 
the dwarf forms of L. corydon. — Dr. Chapman exhibited specimens of 
Notodonta (Hybocawjni) dryinopa from Queensland. It was remarkably 
similar in appearance, structure, and habits to Hybocampa milhauseri 
(see ' Entomologist,' 1889, and p. 43 of 1902). He stated that the 
pupa with a similar spine to that of H. milhauseri does not cut out a 
regular oval lid from the cocoon like that species, but by a stabbing 
process pierces it with a number of holes, so that a piece is more 
easily pushed off. The cocoon being covered with bits of bark, stone, 
&c., a cutting process would be impossible, whereas the cocoon of 
H. milhauseri was of pure gum-like silk. He pointed out that the 
larva much resembled that of H. wilhanseri, but the hinder segments 
were more like those of Stauropus fayi. He also exhibited living eggs, 
larvfe, and imagines of Orina tristis var. smaragdina, from Pino, Lago 
Maggiore. The beetles, since they were taken on May 30th, had laid 
many eggs. Dr. Chapman said that the embryo, ready to hatch, might 
be seen within some of the eggs, and its hatching spines observed. 
Mr. Sloper exhibited a specimen of Lycana hylas, said to have been 
caught at Dover on the 7tli September last. — Mr. Martin Jacoby com- 
municated a paper entitled " A further Contribution to our Knowledge 



SOCIETIES. 293 

of African Phytophagous Coleoptera." — Mv. Malcohii Burr read a com- 
muuication from Hofrath Dr. Carl Brunner von Wattenwyl, entitled 
" Observations sur le nom generique Acrida." — H. Goss, Hon. Secretary. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
September 11th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. South exhibited 
a series of PygcEra curtnla, bred from ova laid by a large silver-grey 
female taken at Batchworth. The larvae were fed on poplar, and the 
imagines were all small and dark in colour. — Mr. Turner, two Longicorn 
Coleoptera taken by Mr. Tutt at Torre Pellice — viz. Cerambyx herns 
(cerdo) and Pnrpuricenus koehleri. — Mr. Kemp, numerous species of 
Coleoptera taken in the New Forest in August, including Prionus 
coriarius, Halyzia 16-guttata, Abdera bifasciata, Bembidium decorum, 
Tomoxia biyuttata, and Denmectes latus. — Dr. Chapman, examples of 
theHesperid Heteropterusniorpheus, from St. Jean de Luz, and cases and 
imagines of the Psychid Oreopsyche leschenaulti from San Sabastian. 

September 25th. — The President in the chair. — Dr. Chapman ex- 
hibited typical examples of Euchelia jacubcecB, bred from larvae found at 
Bejar, and stated that the black bands or rings of the larvae were 
broken into four black marks. — Mr. Kaye, a short series of Leucania 
albipimcta, from the Isle of Wight, taken this year. Mr. Kirkaldy, a 
remarkable case of insect mimicry in a number of Brazilian Rhyn- 
chota. Mabelia pulcherrima, a new species of Mirid^, was shown with 
the Pyrrhocorine Theraneis oleosus, from Costa Rica, and T. hiridus, 
from Brazil. — Mr. Kemp, species taken by him at various field-meet- 
ings of the Society : — Wisley, July 5th, Coleoptera : Donacia thalassina, 
Pcederus riparius, Agrihis anynstatus, Xyloborus dryophayus, and Anthero- 
phagiis nigricornis. Odonata : Orthetriim carulescens. Epping Forest, 
Sept. 20th, Coleoptera : Zeiigophora Jiavicollis and Ilyhius fenentrattis 
Oxshott, Sept. 6th, Coleoptera : Hydaticus seminiger, Pelubius tardus, 
Ilybius ater, PJiantus hutriatus, Bidessus geininus, Hydroporus tristis, H . 
umbiosus, and Ccelambus inipresso-puuctatus. — Mr. Lucas, a coloured 
sketch of a var. of Asphalia ridens, bred from the New Forest. The 
contrast of light and dark markings was unusually strong. He also 
showed a specimen of a very rare Dipteron, Physocephala nigra, and a 
female of Kctobia lapponica, w'ith its egg-capsule, which it had carried 
protruding for five days before dropping it. Mr. Colthrup, Lasiocampa 
quercus vars. (1), with splashes of yellow at base of fore wings ; (2), 
male with male antennae and wings, but body showing ova through 
abdomen ; (3), with yellow band on hind wing extending to fringes ; 
also Agrotis corticea, with a white submarginal band on the fore 
wings. — Mr. Lucas read the report of the field-meeting held at Wisley 
on July 5th, and exhibited lantern slides to illustrate his remarks. 

October 9th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Jennings, four rare 
species of Coleoptera : — Cathormiocenis socius, from Sandown, Isle of 
Wight; Gymnetron liniaritB, horn Southport ; Paris lapidii, trom. l^d- 
monton Marsh ; and Hister vierdarius, from Broxbourne. — Mr. Kemp, 
examples of Curabus violaceus var. exasperatus, from North Cornwall 
and the New Forest. — Mr. R. Adkin, a Cossus ligniperda from the same 
fence referred to in the ' Proceedings ' for 1889 and 1900, and read 
notes. — Dr. Chapman, imagines, pupae, and cocoons of Hybocampa 
(^Notodonta) dryinopa, from Queensland. — Mr. South, four aberrations of 



294 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the female of Lycmna cort/don, including two fine examples of var. syn- 
(jrapha ; all were taken by the Rev. C. A. Sladen, in Wiltshire. He also 
exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Robinson, of Boscombe, Hants, L. minima, 
almost devoid of markings on the under surface, from Swanage, and 
Ematurga atomaria, a melanic male from Bournemouth. Zonosoma 
jjeiidtilaiia, four specimens from Market Drayton, of a dark gray form, 
said by Mr. Woodforde to be typical of the district ; also a specimen of 
the rare Pyralia iieni(jialis taken near Oxford, Aug. 22nd, 1902, and sent 
to Mr. South for identification, by Mr. Robinson. — Mr. Clark, a large 
number of slides illustrative of his paper entitled "Contributions to 
the life-history of Argulus fnliaceus, the parasite of the stickleback." — 
Hy. J. Turner {Hon. Rep. Secretary). 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Cataloyue of the described Orthoptera of the United States and Canada. 
By S. H. Scudder. (Proc. of the Davenport Acad, of Nat. 
Sciences, vol. viii.) Oct. 1899. 

Though somewhat late in reaching us, this useful pamphlet is not 
less welcome. We find that the total number of species at present 
known for the United States and Canada is about eight hundred and 
fifty- six, nearly double that given in Brunuer's ' Prodromus ' for 
Europe, while of course there is more scope for additions there than 
in Europe. Four of the earwigs, five cockroaches, and the house 
cricket are either British insects, or have at least been taken here. 
What appears to be a useful synonymy accompanies each species, and 
there is an appendix giving descriptions of eleven new species, and 
illustrated by three good plates. 

W. J. L. 

The Tettigidm of North America. By Joseph Lane Hancock. 
Chicago. 1902. 

Preceded by an excellent and lengthy introduction treating of the 
habits, anatomy, &c., of a family of rather curious grasshoppers, and 
followed by many notes on vivarium experiments, this splendidly got 
up monograph of one hundred and ninety pages will be read with 
interest by all students of the Orthoptera who are able to procure it. 
Each species, some eighty- seven in all, is fully treated, and the work 
is enriched by a number of illustrations in the text, and eleven plates, 
several being very beautifully executed photogravures. Periodically 
revisions and monographs of parts of the American Orthoptera appear. 
Li the pages of the ' Entomologist,' Scudder's ' Revision of the Mela- 
nopli ' has already been noticed, while we have before us an excellent 
illustrated ' Revision of the Truxalinse of North America,' by Mr. 
Jerome McNeill (Nov. 1895), which has not previously been noticed in' 
these pages. The treatment of the latest group to be looked after — 
the Tettigidfe — shows up well in company with the rest. 

W. J. L. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 295 

Fa line Analytiqiie illustree des Orthopteres de France. By C. Houlbert. 

Paris. 1900. 
The present is a suitable opportunity for calling attention to a 
cheap publication extracted from the ' Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes,' 
annee 1900. It consists of short descriptions of the French Ortho- 
ptera, and a very large number of sufficiently well-drawn figures. As 
the French Orthoptera contains practically the whole of the British, 
this treatise should be of considerable use to British orthopterists as 
well as to their French brethren. 

W. J. L. 



Aquatic Insects in the Adlrondacks. (Bulletin No. 47, New York State 
Museum.) By J. Gr. Needham. Albany, U.S.A. Sept. 1901. 

In this bulky and extremely interesting bulletin we have the result 
of ten weeks spent by Dr. Needham and his assistant, Mr. C. Betten, 
in examining the aquatic insect fauna of this district in the north-east 
of the State of New York. Dr. Needham's work, especially in con- 
nection with the Neuroptera, is getting well known amongst English 
entomologists, and by them this report will be read with interest. 
The entomological field-station in the Adirondacks was taken up " to 
collect and study the habits of aquatic insects, paying special attention 
to the conditions necessary for the existence of the various species, 
their relative value as food for fishes, the relations of the forms to each 
other, and their life-histories." Accordingly, " the routine work of the 
station consisted in collecting and studying aquatic insects in all their 
stages of development, in conducting feeding experiments, in making 
quantitative studies of the life of certain situations, in gathering the 
materials for the study of the natural and habitual food of trout, bull- 
frogs, and some of the larger species of dragon-flies, in runnmg trap- 
lanterns, and sending their nightly catch to the State museum, &c." 
As a result, about one hundred life-histories were worked out in more 
or less detail, material additions were made to the list of insects 
occurring in the State, while ten new species and two new genera 
were discovered. In the 213 pages of text there are forty-two illus- 
trations, while there are in addition no less than thirty-five plates, 
several of being them coloured. Would not many of the remote and 
less-known British and Irish lakes repay similar close attention ? 

W. J. Lucas. 



Genera Insectorum. (Published by P. Wytsman, Brussels.) Fasc. 
3 : Coleoptera Clavicornia, Fam. Lathridiidre, by R. P. Belon. 
Pp. 1-40 ; 1 Plate. — Fasc. 6 : Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera, Fam. 
Papilionidse, sect. Troides, by R. H. F. Rippon. Pp. 1-15 ; 
2 Coloured Plates. (1902.) 

The plan of this work is to provide a systematic account of all the 
genera of the Insecta, including a list of Species. Having regard to 
our fragmentary knowledge of certain families, considerable time must 
necessarily elapse before the completion, but if all the groups are 
treated in the same manner as those before us, the work will retain a 



296 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

very hiji^h position in entomological literature. The paper is sub- 
stantial and the printing clear, while the size is convenient. We have 
only two parts for review, but apparently each part is paged separately 
and complete in itself. After a general survey of classification, a key 
to the genera is given, followed by a description of each genus, a list 
of their several species (with synonymy), accompanied by their geo- 
graphical distribution. The tliird fascicule summarizes the Lathri- 
diidjB, a family of tiny clavicoru beetles, of which 5 tribes are accepted, 
containing 22 genera and 435 species ; these are elucidated by a plate 
containing 28 species. The sixth fascicule is treated in a more sump- 
tuous fashion, being adorned with two plates, embracing some fourteen 
coloured figures and eight details of venation. Six genera of " Troides " 
(Oruithoptera, &c.) are upheld, and 46 species are enumerated, of 
which, however, little more than thirty are considered by Rippon to 
be good species. 

G. W. K. 

E. P. Felt. (a) " Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State," Ed. 2 
57th Bull. New York State Mus., pp. 1-43; 8 Plates 
(1 coloured) and 2 text figures. Aug., 1902. — {j3) " 17tii Rep. 
of the State Entomologist for 1901;"' 58rd Bull. New York 
State Mus., pp. 699—925 ; 6 Plates and 29 text figures. Aug., 
1902. 

These two recent bulletins maintain the high repute of the pub- 
lications of the New York State Entomologist. The 57th (No. 262 
of the State University) being a revision of the 20th (June, 1898). 

Although comparatively easy to control, the elm -leaf beetle 
(Galenicella luteola) is still the cause of extensive injuries to elms 
in cities and villages along the Hudson, and is regarded by Dr. Felt 
as the most important natural enemy of shade-trees in New York 
State. The causes for this condition of afl'airs are not hard to find, 
as the majority, if they notice the work of this pest at all, are inclined 
to trust in Providence and hope that its ravages will not be as severe 
the next season." The beetle is widely distributed over Europe, and 
is abundant and destructive in parts of Germany, France, Italy, and 
Austria. It is supposed to have been introduced into America about 
1834, and its extension there now is from north of Massachusetts to 
North Carolina. It was noted in Albany about 1892, in 1897 most 
of the European elms in the streets were completely defoliated, and it 
is computed that fully 1000 elms were destroyed within the city limits 
in 1898. Dr. Felt cites cases even more lamentable in other towns. 
A coloured plate shows the metamorphoses, the other illustrations 
consisting of photographs of damage, spraying operations, and so forth. 
This bulletin should be as necessary to the restricted European 
worker as to the American. 

The chief pest noticed hi the 53rd Bulletin (No. 268 of the State 
University) is the Hessian Fly {Cecidoini/id di'structor), the rest of the 
report being taken up chiefly with a description of the Entomologic 
Exhibit, which must have been of exceptional interest, at the Pan- 
American Exhibition in 1901. 

G. W. K. 



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Entoniologist, December, 1902. 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXV.l DECEMBER, 1902. [No. 475. 



LIFE-HISTORY OP VANESSA ANTIOPA. 
By F. W. Frohawk, M.B.O.U., F.E.S. 

I AM deeply indebted to Mr. Frederic Raine for his kindness 
in procuring for me living examples of V. antiojxi, which has 
enabled me to work out the life-history of this interesting species. 
On the 7th of April last I received from this gentleman eight 
females and three males, alive, which he captured at Hyeres on 
the 5th; again, on the 7th, he caught two males and one female, 
and these he also sent me, arriving on thej 9th. Five females 
of the first consignment I placed on two growing plants of willow, 
the same morning they reached me, but owing to the continuance 
of cold dull weather they remained quiet until the 13th, and on 
the 14th, with bright sunshine at midday, I had the pleasure of 
watching one of the females deposit a number of eggs, and made 
a sketch of her in the act. She clung to a small stem, and de- 
posited 192 eggs in one batch, which encircled the stem ; while 
depositing the end of the abdomen curves from side to side of the 
branch ; the ovipositor, feeling for the last egg laid, carefully 
places another beside it, in circles round the stem, working 
upwards, until the batch is completed. On this day another 
batch was deposited by another female, and others on the 
following days ; so that by the 25th eight batches were laid. 
These five females continued depositing at intervals for several 
weeks, and the last eggs were laid in small batches on 
June 27th. 

On May 21st four batches were laid, consisting of about 450 
eggs, the smallest batch containing 53, and the largest about 160. 
On May 27th another lot of eggs deposited in four batches, the 
smallest batch of 3 doz. and the largest 170 — in all 336. All five 
females still alive on May 25th. The first one died on the 26th ; 
the other four were quite lively, and had a big drink each after 

ENTOM. — DECEMBER, 1902. 2 B 



298 



THK KNTOMOLOGIST. 



depositing the 336 eggs. Another female died on June 4th ; the 
third one died on June 22nd. On June 27th 100 more eggs 
were deposited in batches ; these were the last eggs laid. The 
following day another female died, and on June 30th the last one 
succumbed, having lived in my possession exactly three months 
(eighty -four days). 

From the above it will be seen that this species deposits its 
eggs in two or three or even more batches, averaging from about 
150 to 250 eggs in a batch. When a stout stem is selected for 
the eggs, the batch does not encircle it, but only covers that por- 
tion (generally about half the circumference, and always on' the 
under side) which the abdomen can cover with the ovipositor. 
These five females laid over 2000 eggs— as well as I could count 
them, I found there were about 2200 ; therefore the complement 
of eggs laid by antiopa numbers between 400 and 500. When 
resting these butterflies usually clustered together at the top of 
the gauze covering the plant. 

The egg measures ^^^ in. high, of an oblong form, and having, 
as a rule, eight, but occasionally nine, longitudinal keels, com- 
mencing below the summit, and rising prominently ; they then 
gradually decrease in height, and disappear before reaching the 
base ; they are fluted, and resemble white frosted glass ; the 
spaces between the keels are slightly concaved, and very finely 
fluted transversely, the ridges being extremely fine. The micro- 
pyle is slightly raised in the centre, and is finely granulated ; 
near the base the surface is faintly ridged longitudinally; the base 
is firmly embedded in glutinous substance. The colour when first 
laid is a rather deep ochreous yellow, inclining to olive-yellow, 
which very gradually deepens to an olive-brown to the naked eye ; 
but when viewed under the microscope the whole surface presents 
a finely mottled appearance, resembling in pattern crocodile- 
skin, the ground colour being amber-brown, with light amber- 
yellow reticulations ; this pattern is under the shell. When 
about fourteen days old one batch of eggs had changed to a deep 
lilac-red, approaching indian-red, and on the eighteenth day had 
assumed a deep leaden grey, and hatched on the 21st. Other 
batches did not attain such a deep red colour, the normal change 
of colouring being from a deep ochreous-yellow and olive-brown 
to a deep red-brown ; then the larva begins to show under the 
shell, exhibiting a pale ochreous body and dark brown head, 
which gradually turns to black ; the shell is then of a glistening 
pearl-grey. To the naked eye the entire batch appears of 
a beautiful silver-grey-blue just before hatching. The larva 
begins making its exit by nibbling tiny holes in a circle 
round the crown of the egg; this continues until it is com- 
pletely cut round ; then it pushes off the cap and emerges. It 
immediately starts spinning a carpet of silk as it crawls away, 
spinning as it goes, crawling to the extremity of the branch. 



LIFE-HISTOKY OF VANESSA ANTIOPA. 299 

They all do precisely the same, and at once form a colony on the 
last cluster of leaves, covering the bases with web, on which they 
live and feed in company. 

The first batch hatched on May 3rd, remaining in the egg 
state nineteen days ; this batch contained 192 eggs, all of which 
hatched, excepting one. On May 5th another batch hatched, and 
all did the same as the first lot; and on the 16th a very large 
batch hatched, the eggs being on the same branch as those which 
hatched on the 5th ; and directlj' the larvse emerged they all started 
spinning and crawling up the branch till they arrived at the part 
already covered with web by the previous brood, and, following 
the web-covered branches, every individual of the large batch 
ascended and joined the elder company, which were eleven days 
old ; the two families then formed one big community, the ones 
just hatched nestling among their larger companions. On the 
17th of May another big batch emerged, which divided into two 
companies. 

The larva, directly after emergence, measures J in. long ; the 
head is large and shining black, and a few fine black bristles are 
scattered over the surface ; the segmental divisions are clearly 
defined, each segment having about four transverse wrinkles and 
ten black hairs (five on each side) ; those on the dorsal surface 
are very long, slightly curved, and three in number above the 
spiracle ; immediately behind the spiracle is another, which pro- 
jects laterally ; and slightly in front and below the spiracle is the 
fifth, which curves downwards ; all these are black, with shining 
black bulbous bases; the surrounding skin is bare of the minute 
black granulations which cover the whole of the surface of the 
body; these bare places form a pale circular disk round each 
hair, and also the spiracles, which are black ; the claspers are 
granulated with black at the base, and have two whitish spines 
directed downwards ; the foot is large, and furnished with very 
ample claws. The entire colouring of the body is pale olive- 
yellow, inclining to citron. 

The larvas always rest in a dense mass, all crowded together, 
some on top of the others ; they cover the leaves with web. As 
soon as the leaves are stripped of the cuticle the entire company 
move to a fresh supply. If disturbed they curve upward the 
anterior portion of the body, and remain in that attitude for a 
short time. When the whole company are slightly on the move 
in the sun, they form a curious sparkling mass, due to the im- 
mense number of glistening black heads. 

Shortly before the first moult the larva measures -j^ in. long ; 
it is uniformly cylindrical, the segments deeply incised and very 
glossy. The ground colour is amber-brown, with a medio-dorsal 
series of longitudinal dark brown marks, and mottlings of the 
same colour form a dark spiracular band ; the spiracles are also 
amber-brown ; the sub-dorsal surface is freckled with brown. 

2b2 



300 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

When undergoing the change for moulting they occasionally 
move about on the web-covered leaves, a habit unusual among 
other species of butterflies. 

The first moult occurred on May 20th. Directly after moulting 
the head is ochreous, but in a very short time turns jet-black 
and shining ; also there are ochreous dorsal markings, which 
soon change to dull brown. 

Before the second moult, when twenty-three days old, it 
measures f in. long ; the body is covered with minute black 
points, being so small that they give the glossy surface a granular 
appearance ; besides these, tiny black warts are sprinkled over 
the whole surface ; these vary in size, and each emits a tiny 
black hair ; there are also longitudinal rows of small black 
tubercles ; the first is medio-dorsal, the second sub-dorsal, the 
third super-spiracular, and the fourth sub-spiracular ; these 
all terminate in a rather long, slender, curving, black bristle, 
and several shorter ones spring from the sides of each tubercle ; 
the spiracles are black ; the ground colour is brown freckled 
with ochreous, and a broad band of the latter colour extends 
dorsally, which is broken up by a medio-dorsal series of dark 
markings as in the previous stage ; the head is shining black and 
beset with hairs ; legs shining black ; the claspers are clear ochre- 
yellow, the same colour as the dorsal band. The larvae feed upon 
the topmost leaves, at first eating the basal portion of them, 
which hang down by the weight of the larvae, the ends resting on 
the next lot of leaves, and feeding on these in turn, and so on, 
working their way downwards, feeding as they go, eating all the 
leaves, and covering everything with web. 

Second moult on May 27th. Before the third moult — twenty- 
nine days old — it measures j^^ in. long. The ground colour is a 
deep ashy or purplish black ; the dorsal band orange, broken up 
with black markings as in former stage ; immediately below the 
spiracles are very faint crescentic markings, almost invisible ; 
the tubercles of the previous stage are now developed into 
moderately long black spine-like tubercles, each terminating 
in a longish curved white bristle, and numerous much smaller 
lateral hairs, and all the minute body-warts bear white hairs 
instead of black as in the last skin ; the head and legs are 
shining black, with fine white hairs; the claspers are amber 
colour. The medio-dorsal series of spines are very short, and 
commence on the sixth segment and end on the eleventh, one on 
each of these six segments. The^ still remain gregarious. When 
one branch is denuded of leaves, 'they all descend until reaching 
another branch, which they ascend to the end, and, again 
clustering together in a mass, feed downwards as before ; when 
moving they are extremely active, and feed rapidly. Warm 
weather greatly influences the rapidity of their growth, cold 
retarding them considerably. 



GONBPTBRYX RHAMNI AND CLEOPATRA IN IRELAND. 301 

Third moult on June 2nd. Before the fourth moult -thirty- 
four days old — it measures I5 in. long; the ground colour is 
velvety black, otherwise very similar to previous stage, but the 
dorsal orange band is richer and deeper in colour, and there are 
numerous very small pearly-white warts sprinkled over the body 
(mostly forming circles round each segment on the two posterior 
wrinkles) ; these, as well as the minute black warts, emit fine 
curved white hairs ; the black spines also bear fine white hairs ; 
the dorsal spines terminate with black spine-like bristles ; the 
super- and sub-spiracular spines end with longish curved white 
hairs with black tips ; the black head is bilobed and cleft on the 
crown, and covered with white hairs ; legs shining black ; claspers 
bright tawny, excepting the anal pair, which are black ; on the 
eleventh segment is a small medio-dorsal shining black disk, and 
on the twelfth segment is a much larger one, which closely 
resembles the head. They still live in close company. 

(To be continued.) 



GONEPTERYX RHAMNI -AND CLEOPATRA IN IRELAND. 
By E. Bagwell- Purefoy. 

In the December number of the ' Entomologist ' for the 
year 1896 (xsix. 363), I reported the successful introduction of 
Gonepterijx rhamni into the County Tipperary. A few further 
notes on the subject may possibly prove of interest. To re- 
capitulate as briefly as possible : — In 1890, and again in 1894, a 
number of plants of llhamnus frangula, and a few of R. catharticus 
were planted about over grounds which may be roughly estimated 
at five hundred acres. In the autumn of the latter year, between 
two and three hundred imagines of G. rhamni were turned out in 
the most suitable spots of the same grounds. The result, as 
observed in 1896, was of a most gratifying nature; the butterflies 
had "caught on," and had enormously increased in numbers. 

During the five succeeding years I was continuously abroad, 
and plants and insects alike were left strictly to take care of 
themselves. Eeturning home once more in the autumn of 1901, 
I visited the South of Ireland about the middle of September, 
and found that the plants, on the whole, had done well, many 
of the R. frangula having grown into fine big trees ; some of the 
R. catharticus, too, had not only survived, but had developed into 
strong plants. The first bit of sunshine revealed the fact that 
G. rhamni, also, was still flourishing, and, during a fortnight of 
fair weather, I counted a goodly number on the wing. 

Early in November I planted out one hundred small trees of 
R. frangula around the borders of the place, and, at the same 



302 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

time, I placed about in the Hhrubberies a few each of some eight 
different foreign species of Ilhamnus. The unfavourable spring 
of this year kept me from paying the district a visit before 
June 24th, and this date proved quite early enough. The 
number of ova and small larvae which I observed was quite 
astonishing. From off the newly planted R. frangula I took 
over three hundred and fifty larvce ; half of these I placed on 
older trees better able to support them, and the other half I 
brought in to rear myself, but of these more anon. I may men- 
tion here that it is not the healthiest trees with abundance of 
foliage that receive the best patronage, but rather the weaklings — 
sometimes, indeed, those that are just dying off — and many larvae 
must perish every year through this peculiar 2)enchant of their 
mothers. 

The "foreigners" had all been planted in pet, sunny spots, 
and were growing well. Five out of the eight species received 
attention from G. rliamni, and four out of the five produced fine- 
sized larvae in due course. The following are the plants in 
question: — R. latifoliiis, R.tinctoriiis, R.piLrsJdanus, R.imeritinus, 
and R. alpinus. A considerable number of eggs were laid on 
the last-named plant, but the little larvae did very badly on it. 
Of six that I brought in, I only succeeded in obtaining one pupa. 
This pupa was considerably less than half the normal size, and 
failed to produce an imago. Latifolius was the only evergreen 
species which was noticed, and it produced the largest larvae I 
have seen. 

On June 16th I received twelve dozen pupae of Gonepteryx 
cleopatra, which Mr. H. W. Head, of Scarborough, had procured 
for me from South Austria. Some of the insects began to 
emerge before I was able to get over to Ireland on the 24th, but 
these were kept snug in a big tin box with wet grass, and in no 
way suffered. The last imago appeared on July 1st, and, all 
told, I had been able to liberate about one hundred healthy 
insects. The place is peculiarly suited to an experiment of this 
kind, the young plantations being intersected by broad rides, 
sheltered from the wind and open to the sun, with an abundance 
of wild flowers, and, lastly, a total absence for miles around of 
the man with the net and collecting box. Cleopatra quickly 
settled down to her changed surroundings, and very comely she 
looked floating about in the sun — a sun which failed not during 
the first few days of her liberation. Bramble blossoms proved 
the chief attraction at first, and later on thistle-heads, scabious, 
knapweed, and other composites. 

I had found it very hard to obtain any information about 
this insect, and was working under the impression that it was 
single-brooded, after the manner of our native G. rhamni. I 
was, however, quickly undeceived. Pairing commenced at once, 
and on July 13th I observed a female depositing ova on a big 



GONBPTEEYX RHAMNI AND CLEOPATRA IN IRELAND. 303 

tree of R. frangida. The male insects are the most ardent 
suitors imaginable, and I have many times watched one for over 
half an hour persisting in a courtship which was evidently not 
welcome. In this particular case the female had laid several 
eggs on the tree, and was proceeding down the ride to another 
bush, when she was seized upon by a male, and the usual 
struggle for supremacy began. I watched them for many minutes, 
till they finally disappeared over the tops of the larch trees. (I 
have since had access to certain German works on European 
butterflies at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, 
and find that the fact that this variety is double-brooded is 
well known.) From the middle of July onwards the work of 
ovipositing was busily proceeded with, H. frangula receiving 
nearly all the attention, R. catharticus, however, being noticed 
occasionally. 

Up to this point all had gone smoothly, but, alas ! this was 
not to continue : the little larvae, on emerging from their eggs, 
did not look upon R. frangula as food fit to be eaten. Some, 
indeed, nibbled a little, and kept themselves alive for three or 
four days, and then disappeared, but the large majority passed 
away at once, and were no more seen. Better luck, however, 
attended those few which found themselves born into the world 
on R. catharticus. Provided they had been laid on, or had access 
to, the tender, only half-unfolded leaves of a young shoot, their 
fate was never in doubt. They crawled into one of these half- 
closed leaves and remained there until after the first moult, or 
perhaps longer. For the first half of their larval career they 
ate nothing but the very youngest leaves, and even when nearly 
full-grown would refuse foliage which was in the least 4egree old 
or tough. Thus I was confronted by the annoying spectacle of 
the mother butterfly almost invariably choosing the useless food- 
plant whereon to place her eggs, and passing by the one really 
suitable for her purpose. On several occasions I have seen a 
female, after hovering all round a bush of catharticus, refuse it, and 
proceed at once to a neighbouring frangula and lay on it. The 
full-grown larva of cleopatra is generally slightly superior in size 
to that of rhamni, and exhibits a bluish hue over the dorsal 
surface, the white lateral lines being remarkably clear. The 
pupal stage, I found, lasted twenty-five days, sometimes a little 
longer, and for eight to ten days previous to emergence the orange 
colour on the fore wings of the males showed through the wing- 
cases as a broad patch of colour. The previous autumn I had 
planted out three or four small plants of R. alaternus var. an- 
gustifolius, and I placed several newly-hatched larvae on sprigs of 
this plant, but they would not touch it. This I am quite unable 
to explain, alatei-nus being the natural food-plant of cleopatra in 
Southern Europe. 

As soon as I had quite convinced myself that R. frangula 



304 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

could not rear them, I proceeded to collect all the eggs I could 
find on that plant, and transfer them to R. catharticus, by the 
simple expedient of pinning the portion of leaf wheron they had 
been deposited to the most suitable situation on the new shrub. 
In this manner I procured a large number of larv^, the food- 
plant evidently suiting them admirably, as comparatively few 
failed to grow and wax strong. 

On August 4th, a bright, sunny day after several dull ones, 
I placed a box containing a number of my home-reared G. rhamni 
beneath a clump of brambles and left it open, so that the insects 
could fly as soon as they felt inclined to. Eeturning to the spot 
a couple of hours later, I was surprised to see no less than four 
males of cleopatra hovering over the brambles, but on drawing 
quietly near their presence was soon explained to me. Beneath 
each Cleopatra was the quivering form of a female rhamni, with 
abdomen pointing upwards and wings half open and flattened 
out in a most unnatural position. The unexpected and un- 
welcome suitors were most persistent in their court, and by 
sheer rough treatment one after the other succeeded in forcing 
the object of its attentions to take to wing, when the pair would 
soar high in the air and then return low down among the 
herbage, the female doing her utmost to escape. Later on in 
the month the wild chase of rhamni by cleopatra was a matter of 
common occurrence, though whether any results were obtained 
is more than doubtful. 

At the end of August I had to return to England, and it was 
necessary to abandon my caterpillars to their own devices. I, 
however, took with me half a dozen pupse* (just turned), and 
about fifty larvse of cleopatra, which were all doing well. On the 
R. catharticus of the hedgerows of Bucks I found no succulent 
young leaves to offer them, and the want of these made itself 
apparent at once. Many turned prematurely, and many died. 
How those that I left behind have fared I know not, but their 
parents were still on the wing, healthy and strong, up to the 
end of August, and I am of opinion that they will so have con- 
tinued through September. 



NEW SPECIES OF INDIAN CHRYSIDIDiE. 

By Major C. G. Nurse, Indian Staff Corps. 

The species described in the following paper form part of a 
collection of Hymenoptera made by me during the past two 
years at Deesa in Northern Gujarat, Quetta in Baluchistan, and 
during a two months' trip to Kashmir in 1901. 

* Two of these pupse kindly sent to me by Mr. Purefoy produced fine 
specimens of cleopatra in September last. — E. S. 



NEW SPECIES OF INDIAN CHKYS[DIDiE. 305 

NOTOZUS KASHMIKENSIS, n. Sp. 

5 (? . Front from above base of antennae to about half- way to 
vertex concave and finely striate, the striae running in a circular 
direction, with the base of antennae as centre ;^ remainder of head and 
thorax somewhat coarsely punctured, except the extreme base of 
mesonotum, which is finely punctured ; abdomen very finely and 
minutely punctured ; inner orbits parallel ; mucro conspicuous and very 
coarsely punctured, rounded at apex; abdomen about the length of the 
head and thorax united, very convex above, gradually rounded towards 
the extreme apex, which is transverse or slightly emarginate. Deep 
metallic blue or blue-green, tiie antenuje and tarsi rufo-testaceous ; 
wings hyaline at base, the outer half infuscated, tegulae shining bronzy 
brown ; abdomen and legs covered with a very sparse and short 
greyish pubescence, only perceptible with a strong lens ; the antennae, 
when examined under a microscope, are closely punctured and densely 
liairy. Long. 4-5 mm, 

Hab. Kashmir, 5000 ft., on the banks of the Jhelum ; 
several specimens. 

This genus has not been previously recorded from India. 

Ellampus timidus, n. sp. 

$ . Head, pronotum, and mesonotum shallowly and somewhat 
irregularly, scutellum, postscutellum, and median segment more 
coarsely and closely punctured, abdomen impunctate ; the incision at 
the apex of abdomen, characteristic of the genus, small and incon- 
spicuous. Deep metallic blue; antennae piceons, microscopically 
hairy; tarsi testaceous; clypeus with a few long hairs, legs with 
greyish pubescence, head, thorax, and abdomen almost entirely smooth ; 
wings hyaline, nervures testaceous, tegulas brownish testaceous. 

(? . Similar; more conspicuously shining; vertex of head, pro- 
notum, and mesonotum above almost, if not quite, impunctate. 
Long. 2-5-3 mm. 

Hah. Quetta ; Peshin ; five specimens. 

This species has not previously been recorded from India. 

HOLOPYGA CUPREATA, n. Sp. 

^ . Front from below vertex to base of antennae very concave, 
and finely transversely striate, head behind ocelli somewhat finely 
punctured ; remainder of head, thorax, and median segment coarsely, 
abdomen closely and finely punctured ; head slightly wider than pro- 
notum, abdomen slightly longer and broader than thorax ; a little 
short, sparse pubescence, visible only with a lens, on the head, legs, 
and abdomen ; a trace of a median longitudinal carina on 2nd 
abdominal segment. Head and thorax dark blue, the vertex, pro- 
notum, and mesonotum with a greenish tinge ; abdomen brilliant 
coppery golden, scape of antennae dark blue, flagellum and tarsi very 
dark testaceous, almost black ; wings hyaline at base, the outer half 
tinged with fuscous, tegulae black. Long. 5-6 mm. 

Hah. Kashmir, 5000-6000 ft. ; two specimens. 



306 THE ENTOMOLOGIST, 

Hedychridium perveksum, n. sp. 
$ $ . Vertex of head, and thorax, closely, but not very finely, 
abdomen minutely and regularly punctured— all the punctures some- 
what shallow ; front concave, with stiff, white pubescence, which 
hides the sculpturmg ; pronotum smaller than the head, its sides 
almost parallel ; posterior angles of median segment acute and con- 
spicuous ; abdomen wider than head and thorax. Metallic green, with 
some bluish reflections, especially about the joints of the segments 
and near the tegulse ; abdomen with a slight coppery effulgence ; 
flagellum of antennae dark rufous ; the whole of the head, thorax, 
abdomen, and legs covered with very short greyish pubescence ; wings 
hyaline and iridescent, nervures testaceous, tegulse metallic blue or 
blue-green. Long, 2-5-3 mm. 

Hah. Peshin ; Quetta ; five specimens. 

The smallest species hitherto described from India. 

Hedychridium selectum, n. sp. 
$ . Head and thorax closely and finely, postscutellum more 
coarsely, abdomen minutely and closely punctured ; pronotum and 
head subequal, the former with its sides almost parallel ; abdomen 
wider than thorax, very convex, 3rd segment almost vertical. Dark 
blue ; 2nd abdominal segment with purple reflections ; antenna dark 
rufous, tarsi testaceous ; wings hyaliue, their apical margins very 
slightly darker, nervures and tegulae testaceous ; a little sparse, short, 
greyish pubescence on head, thorax, abdomen, and legs. Long, 3"5 mm. 

Hah. Quetta ; a single specimen. 

This species is easily distinguished from H. perversum above 
by its being dark blue, and not light green, and by its longer 
pronotum. The basal nervure is also more sharply curved in 
the present species than in H. perversum. 

Chrysis jalala, n. sp. 
? . Slenderly built ; head, except front, thorax, and abdomen, 
closely but not very finely punctured, and very sparsely covered with 
short greyish pubescence ; clypeus emarginate anteriorly, front con- 
cave from below a transverse ridge which is situated just below the 
vertex, covered with a somewhat sparse white pubescence, and finely 
transversely striate in the centre ; head, thorax, and first two abdo- 
minal segments of about equal width ; head, when viewed from above, 
equal in size to pronotum ; scutellum and postscutellum somewhat 
more coarsely punctured than the rest of the segments ; abdomen as 
long as the head and thorax united, the 2nd segment with a median 
longitudinal carina, 3rd segment rounded at apex, with a conspicuous 
subapical row of fovese. Dark blue, the clypeus bright green, the 
pronotum, mesonotum, scutellum and postscutellum, and a spot on 
the 3rd abdominal segment just above the subapical row of fovesB, 
green ; the first abdominal segment, except the extreme base and a 
line on the centre above not reaching the apex, and the apical two- 
thirds of the 2nd abdominal segment bright coppery golden ; second 
and following joints of flagellum of antennae dark red; tarsi dark 



NEW SPECIES OF INDTAN CHRYSIDID^. 307 

testaceous, almost black ; remainder of legs metallic green ; wings 
hyaline, tegnlas dark blue, radial cell closed. 

(J . Similar ; the patch of blue on the 2nd abdominal segment not 
transverse, but somewhat wedge-shaped ; no green spot on 3rd abdo- 
minal segment ; antennae light red below, except the first two joints, 
which are metallic green. Long. 6-5-9 mm. 

Hah. Kashmir, 5000-6000 ft. ; three specimens. 

Chrysis kashmirensis, n. sp. 

2 J" . Head closely and regularly, thorax somewhat coarsely punc- 
tured and rugose, abdomen with the first segment coarsely punctured, 
but not rugose, 2nd and 3rd segments finely punctured, especially at 
base of 2nd segment ; the whole insect sparsely pubescent ; clypeus 
slightly emarginate, and with a median carina ; front not forming an 
angle with the vertex, and the puncturing little, if any, finer than on 
the remainder of head ; head, when viewed from above, considerably 
larger than pronotum ; abdomen nearly as long as head and thorax 
united ; pronotum with a shght median depression ; a ho\low at the 
base of postscutellum ; the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments with an 
ill-defined median carina ; 3rd segment rounded, with subapical fove^. 
Dark blue or blue-green ; base of mandibles, clypeus and front, scape 
and first two joints of flagellum of antennae, and the legs, except the 
tarsi, light metallic green ; mandibles, remainder of flagellum of 
antennae, and the tarsi, reddish black ; abdomen below light metallic 
green, the base of the apical segment and two large basal maculae on 
2nd segment, reddish brown ; wings hyaline, apex of fore wing with a 
very slight fuscous tinge, which is sometimes confined to the radial 
cell; tegulffi dark blue, finely punctured; radial cell of fore wing 
closed. Long. 9-10 mm. 

Hah. Kashmir, 5000-6000 ft. ; five specimens. 

ChRYSIS QUiERITA, D. Sp. 

J . Eather stoutly built ; head, thorax, and abdomen closely, but 
not very finely, punctured, and covered with a short, sparse, greyish 
pubescence ; head about as wide as pronotum and, when viewed from 
above, subequal to it ; abdomen not quite so long as head and thorax 
united, vertex overhanging the front, but with no distinct ridge 
between them ; front concave, closely and finely punctured, and with 
stiff, somewhat sparse, white pubescence ; prpnotum with a median 
longitudinal depression ; 3rd abdominal segment tri-sinuate, with sub- 
apical foveae. Dark blue, with a greenish tint in some lights ; front 
and scutellum light green ; mandibles, antenna, and tarsi black ; 
wings hyaline, the radial cell subfuscous and closed. Long. 6 mm. 

Hah. Deesa ; a single example. 

Chrysis abuensis, n. sp. 
? . Head and thorax finely and rugosely, abdomen finely and 
closely punctured ; a little short greyish pubescence on the cheeks and 
on 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments ; front, basal half of antennae, 
and legs with short white pubescen(?e ; head at least as wide as pro- 
notum, and, viewed from above, about equal to it ; abdomen about the 



308 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

length of head and thorax united; clypeus convex, its anterior margin 
slightly concave ; a conspicuous | -shaped carina in front of anterior 
ocellus, and the front below it slightly concave, finely and very 
closely punctured, the punctures running into striae, and with a median 
longitudinal carina ; a median longitudinal depression on the basal 
half of pronotum ; 1st and 2nd abdominal segments with a trace of a 
median longitudinal carina, 3rd segment rounded posteriorly, with 
subapical fovefe. Dark blue ; front, pronotum, and the centre ot 
1st abdominal segment green ; scutellum and large lateral spots on 
1st abdominal segment coppery golden ; postscutellum bright greenish 
golden ; scape and first two joints of flagellum of antennae blue or 
blue-green, remaining joints and tarsi reddish black ; fore wing sub- 
fuscous, hind wing hyaline, radial cell of fore wing closed. 

(?. Differs only in having the vertex of the head green, and the 
mesonotum, and 2nd and 8rd abdominal segments of a greenish blue 
colour ; the eyes are somewhat convergent below, not parallel, as in 
the female, and the joints of the antennae are thicker and somewhat 
shorter. Long. 9-11 mm. 

Hab. Mt. Abu ; common in September and October. 

ChRYSIS CHAVANiE, n. Sp. 

? . Head and thorax closely but somewhat irregularly, abdomen 
rather more regularly and finely punctured ; head wider than pro- 
notum, the latter with sides almost parallel ; 1st abdominal segment 
with a deep median longitudinal indentation at base, 2nd and 3rd 
segments with traces of a carina, apical segment without teeth, slightly 
sinuate. Head and thorax dark blue, the mesonotum with greenish 
reflections; abdomen light metallic green, with a coppery effulgence 
on 2nd and 3rd segments ; legs dark blue ; flagellum of antennae 
piceous ; tarsi dark red or reddish black ; the whole insect more or 
less covered with rather sparse greyish pubescence ; wings hyaline, 
fore wing with the central portion very slightly infuscated, nervures 
dark testaceous. Long. 6 mm. 

Hab. Quetta ; a single specimen. 

(To be continued.) 



ON THE BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED IN EQUATORIAL 
AFRICA BY CAPTAIN CLEMENT SYKES. 

By Emily Mary Shakpe. 
(Continued from p. 280.) 

35. Acr^a Cecilia (a variety). — a, <? . March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1900. 

This species has the black spots on the primaries larger, 
especially those at the end of the discoidal cell. The same thing 
occurs with the discal spots on the secondaries, the first three 
being black streaks ; with the costal one united to the hind 
marginal border. 



BUTTEEFLIES COLLECTED IN EQUATOEIAL AFRICA. 309 

36. A. PERENNA, Douhl. (& Hewits. — a, h, <? . March from Usoga 
to Nandi; April, 1900. 

37. A. PHARSALUS, Ward. — a, b, 3". March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

38. A. ZETBS [Linn.). — a-c, S' ? • March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

39. A. ASTRiGERA, ^MfL — «,&,<? 2 . Wadolai ; Januarj-March, 
1900. 

40. A. EGiNA {Cram.). — a, <? . March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

41. A. LYciA {Fabr.). — a. Lamogi ; November, 1899. h, c. 
March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

42. Planema arctifascia, Butl. — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

43. Pardopsis punctatissima, Boisd. — a, b. Wadelai ; Janu- 
ary-March, 1900. c. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

Family Nymphalid^. 

44. Atella phalantha {Drunj). — a,b. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

45. A. COLUMBIA {Cram.). — a, b. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

46. Pyrameis cardui {Linn.). — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. b. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

47. Argynnis hanningtoni, Ehves. — a, b. March from Usoga 
to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

48. Vanessula milca, Heivits. — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

49. Hypanartia ? delius {Drurij). — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

This specimen represents a melanistic phase, as the upper 
surface is entirely brownish black, the characteristic chestnut 
band on the primaries being obsolete, but distinctly indicated on 
the under surface, as are all the other spots and markings. 

50. H. HippoMENE, Hubn. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

51. JuNONiA CLELiA {Cram.). — a, b, ^ ^ . Wadelai ; January- 
March, 1900. c. ?. Lamogi; November, 1899. 

52. J. CEBRENE, Trim. — a, b. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. c. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

53. J. Boopis, Trim. — a, 2 . Wadelai ; January-March, 1900. 
6, <? . March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

54. J. WESTERMANNi, Wcstw. — a,b, <? 2 . March from Usoga 
to Nandi ; April, 1900. c, <? . Unyoro ; March, 1900. 



310 • THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

55. Precis sesamus, Trim. - a, b. March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1900. 

56. P. CALESCENs (Butl.) .—a, h. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

57. P. ccELESTiNA, Dcwitz. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

58. P. ARCHESiA {Cram.). — a, h. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

59. P. CERYNE (Boisd.). — a, h. Wadelai ; January-March, 
1900. c. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

60. V. GAhAMi (Boisd.). — a. Unyoro; March, 1900. 6. March 
from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

61. P. PELARGA (i^a&r.). — a. Wadelai ; January-March, 1900. 
b. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

62. F. mF ACTA (Butl.).— a. Wadelai; January-March, 1900. 
b. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900 

63. P. TEREA {Drury). — a. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. b. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

64. P. ORTHosiA {Klug). — a. Wadelai ; January-March, 1900. 
b, c. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

65. P. GREGORii {Butl.). — a-c. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

QQ. Catachroptera cloantha {Cram.). — a,b. March from 
Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

67. Pseudargynnis HEGEMONE (GrOfZi.). — a. March from Usoga 
to Nandi; April, 1900. 

68. EuRYTELA DRYOPE {Cram.). — a,b. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

69. E. OPHIONE {Cram.). — a. Unyora ; March, 1900. 

70. Ergolis ENOTREA (Crrtm.).— a-c^, ^ ?. March from Usoga 
to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

71. Byblia ilithyia (Drury). — a. Lamogi ; November, 1899. 

72. Crenis occidentalium, Mabille. — a, b. March from Usoga 
to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

73. C. NATALENSis, Boisd. — a, b. — March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

74. Neptis mapessa, Hopff. — a. Unyoro ; March, 1900. 

75. N. AGATHA (Cram.). — a, b. March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

76. Panopea lucretia (Cram.). — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

77. Hamanumida d^dalus (i^'a&r.).7-rt, &. Wadelai; January- 
March, 1900. c, d. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

78. Hypolimnas Misippus (Linn.). — a,b, S. Unyoro; March, 
1900. r, ? . March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 



Bl'TTERFLIES COLLECTED IN EQUATORIAL AFRICA. 311 

79. H. ANTHEDON, DoitftL — a, (? . March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

80. H. MONTEiRONis (Druce). — a, 2. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

81. Salamis anacardii (Linn.). — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

82. S. cacta (Fahr.). — a, $ . March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

83. S. TEMORA, Fdd. — a. March from Usoga to Nandi ; April, 
1900. 

84. EuRYPHENE THEOGNis, Heivits. ~ a,b, 3" 2 . March from 
Usoga to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

85. Euph.s;dra uganda, Auriv. — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

86. Cymothob lurida [Butl.). — a, 3 . March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1900. 

87. EuxANTHE cRossLEYi {Ward). — a, 3- . March from Usoga 
to Nandi ; April, 1900. 

88. E. ANSELLiCA {Butl.). — (i, 3 - March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

89. Charaxes castor (Cram.). — a,b. March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

90. C. LicHAS {Douhl. dc Hewits.). — a. March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1900. 

91. C. NUMENES {Hewits.). — a,h,3 2 • March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1900. 

92. C. TiRiDATES {Cram.). — a,b, 3 . March from Usoga to 
Nandi ; April, 1900. 

93. C. KiRKii, Butl. — a, b, $ . March from Usoga to Nandi ; 
April, 1900. 

94. C. ETHEocLEs {Cram.). — a,b, 3 . March from Usoga to 
Nandi; April, 1900. 

95. C. ETESiPE {Godt.). — a, 2 . March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

96. G. EPiJASius, Reiche. — a, b, 3 ■ Wadelai ; January-March, 
1900. 

97. C. POLLUX {Cram.). — a. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

98. 0. VARANES {Cram.).- a, b. March from Usoga to Nandi; 
April, 1900. 

(To be continued.) 



312 THE KNTOMOIiOGIST. 



ON SOME NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF HYMENO- 
PTERA (ICHNEUMONIDyE, CHRYSIDID.E, FOSSORES, 
AND APID.E). 

By P, Cameron. 

(Continued from p. 264.) 

Ampulex brevicornis, sp. nov.* 
CaBruleo-viridis ; antennistarsisquenigris ; femoribus posterioribus 
rufis ; alls fnsco-violaceis. ?. Long. 23-24 mm, 

Hab. Khasia (coll. Rotlmey). 

Antennae short, stout, about twice the length of the head ; black, 
opaque; the thhd and fourth joints equal in length ; the fourth to sixth 
joints incised at the base beneath. Head shining, smooth, except for a few 
large deep punctures above each antenna ; each puncture bears a long 
hair. Eyes converging slightly above, the width separating them 
being about the length of the basal three joints of the antennae united. 
The apex of the clypeus is largely depressed, the depression becoming 
gradually wider towards the apex, which is not toothed ; backwards the 
keel extends to the base of the antennae. Antennal tubercles stout ; 
there is no keel over the antennte ; behind the head is developed to a 
greater length than the length of the eyes. The apical part of the 
prothorax is broader than long, the sides almost straight ; its basal 
half bearing large deep distinctly separated punctures, and with a 
narrow distinct longitudinal furrow. The basal half of the mesonotum, 
except in the middle, bears large deep clearly separated punctures, and 
is covered with long black hairs ; the middle has a distinct furrow, 
extending from the base to near the apex. The scutellum has a row 
of punctures round the sides and apex, as has also the post-scutellum. 
There is no central keel on the median segment, except at the extreme 
base ; the inner lateral lines form a large triangle, which is distinctly 
striated ; the basal strife are slightly oblique, and arise from the 
centre ; the apical ones go right across ; at the apex the keels are 
waved and reach to the apex. The apex has an almost perpendicular 
slope, is smooth at the base, the rest with curved striations, which are 
finer on the inner side. The propleurte smooth ; the middle under 
the keel striated at the apex. Mesopleurge smooth, the upper and 
apical parts striated ; the lower middle part more finely and closely 
striated. Mesosternum smooth, sparsely pilose ; the furrow keeled in 
the middle. The mesonotum at the base and sides and the greater 
part of the median segment are more or less indigo-blue. There is no 
distinct tooth on the apex of the median segment, only the second keel 
on the metapleiir^B projects slightly. The anterior femora blue ; the 

•!- This species has the basal ventral segments formed as with Amindex 
assimilis, Kohl, from Guinea, and figured by him (Annal. d. k.k. Natur. hist. 
Hof. Mus. Wien, viii. pi. xii. f. 38), and not as in A. cognata, fig. 34, i.e. the 
lower side is roundly curved and incised at the apex, somewhat as in ^. lati- 
frons, but not roundly dilated at the apex as in that species (c/. Kohl, I. c. 
f. 43). The apical half, too, of the clypeus is cleft, not the apical third, as in 
cognata. 



SOME NEW GENRKA AND SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA. 313 

tibife and tarsi blackish ; the apex of the tibiae rufous. The four 
hinder femora are red, blackish at the extreme apex ; the trochanters, 
tibiae, and tarsi black ; the end joint of the tarsi with a heart-shaped 
dilatation, which reaches to the middle of the joints ; the claws bifid. 
Wings fuscous-violaceous ; the appendicular cellule is open ; the apex 
of the radial nervure is united to the nervure bordering the radial 
cellule, not received in front of it as in A. latifrons ; the two abscissa 
of the radius are equal in length ; the first recurrent nervure is 
roundly curved from top to bottom, and is received shortly beyond the 
middle ; the second has three slight curves, and is received before the 
middle of the cellule. The cubital nervure in the hinder wings is 
interstitial. Abdomen smooth and shining, blue ; the apices of the 
segments piceous. The narrowed part of the petiole as long as the 
widened apex ; the second segment is as long as the succeeding united. 

Allied to A. latijrons. 

Trypoxylon gkniculatum, sp. nov. 
Nigrum, trochanteribus tarsisque anterioribus, tibiis auticis basique 
tibiarum posticarum testaceis ; alls hyalinis, stigmate nigro; abdo- 
minis medio rufo. $ . Long. 13 mm. 

Hab. Khasia (Coll. Kothney). 

Antenna black, the second joint rufous beneath ; the scape and 
flagellum almost bare. The face and clypeus thickly covered with 
silvery pubescence ; the front and vertex almost bare, finely punctured 
and opaque ; below the ocelli is a shallow, but distinct, furrow; below 
this furrow is a stout keel, with oblique sides. Mandibles rufous ; the 
palpi pale testaceous. Mesonotum shining, plumbeous ; distinctly, 
but not strongly, punctured all over. The middle depression on the 
base of the median segment is wide, shallow, narrowed at the base, 
and finely transversely striated ; the lateral furrows are wide, slightly 
narrower and deeper than the middle one, and striated like it ; the 
apex of the segment has an oblique slope ; its furrow is deep, with 
oblique sides ; its apical half transversely striated. Pleuraa smooth 
and shining ; the tubercles have a thick hair fringe behind ; the 
furrow on the base of the mesopleurte deep ; the central fovea large, 
round. Mesosternum closely and finely punctured ; the central furrow 
wide. Legs black ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi, all the trochanters 
and the four posterior knees, rufo-testaceous. Wings clear hyaline ; 
the stigma and nervures black. Abdomen black ; the apices and 
sides of the second and third segments rufous ; the petiole is slightly 
longer than the second and third segments united ; its base is distinctly 
channelled above ; its apical fourth is dilated. 

Trypoxylon trochanteratum, sp. nov. 
Nigrum, abdomine rufo, petiole nigro ; alls hyalinis, stigmate 
nervisque fuscis. $ . Long. 12 mm. 

Hah. Khasia Hills (Coll. Rothney). 

Antennae black, covered with a short pile. The face, the eye 
incision, and clypeus thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the 
clypeus projecting broadly in the middle and at the apex, where it is 

ENTOM. — DECEMBER, 1902. 2 C 



B14 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



smooth, shining and glabrous. Mandibles rufous, sparsely covered 
with long pale hair ; the palpi rufo-testaceous. Front and vertex 
opaque, the front finely and closely punctured ; the upper half with an 
indistinct furrow down its middle ; the lower half keeled in the middle; 
the upper half of the keel distinctly farrowed in the centre. Thorax 
opaque ; the pleurae and apex of the median segment covered with 
silvery pubescence ; the base of pronotum on the top raised ; the 
raised part dilated laterally. The base of the median segment longi- 
tudinally striated ; the rest of the basal region closely transversely 
striated ; the central depression wide, not much widened towards the 
apex ; the apex of the segment has an oblique slope, and has a narrow, 
deep furrow down the centre. Pleurae smooth, the mesopleurse covered 
with silvery pubescence. Legs black ; the trochanters, the tibise in 
front, the anterior tarsi, the spines, and the claws rufous. Abdomen 
rufous ; the petiole black, except at the apex ; it is as long as the 
second and third segments united ; the apical half is distinctly wider 
than the basal, which is furrowed down the middle ; on the apex of 
the second segment is a small black mark ; on the third a larger cleft 
mark. 

VESPID^. 

Zethus quadridentata, sp. nov. 
Deep black ; the mandibles broadly lined with pale yellow in the 
middle ; wings fuscous-violaceous, paler at the base ; the tegulas bright 
red ; apex of mandibles with two sharply pointed teeth in the middle, 
and a broader, blunter one on either side. <? . Long. 15 mm. 

■ Hab. Borneo. 

Antennae black, distinctly thickened towards the apex ; the last 
joint brownish below ; the hook long, curved, stout. Head closely, 
rugosely punctured ; thickly covered with pale fuscous pubescence, 
which is longest on the front. Clypeus broader than long, sparsely 
punctured and thickly covered with long fuscous hair ; its apex is 
broadly rounded ; the teeth are only distinctly visible when looked at 
from below. There is a narrow reddish line on the pronotum near 
the tegulae, where it is less strongly punctured than elsewhere. Meso- 
notum shining, not strongly punctured, the apical half less strongly 
than the base ; the furrows extend from the base to the apex ; they are 
deep and smooth. Scutellum punctured, but not deeply or closely ; 
there is a short, deep longitudinal furrow on the apex behind ; the 
post-scutellum is more strongly punctured than the scutellum; its 
sides are bordered by a distinct raised keel. The central part of the 
apical slope of the median segment is bordered laterally by a stout 
keel ; between the two is a shorter broad keel ; the enclosed space is 
coarsely transversely striated ; the outer side and the apex of the 
metapleurffi coarsely reticulated. The middle of the propleurse bears 
some stout keels ; the apex is smooth, with a row of punctures on the 
lower edge. The upper part of the mesopleurte is more strongly 
punctured than the lower, and there is a longitudinal punctured furrow 
in the middle ; the apical two-thirds of the upper part of the meta- 
pleurae are strongly obliquely striated. Legs black, thickly covered 
with pale pubescence ; the knees and calcaria pale. Wings fuscous- 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA. 315 

violaceous, the stigma and nervures black ; the top of the second 
cubital cellule is not much more than half the length of the space 
bounded by the recurrent nervures. The petiole is coarsely rugosely 
punctured ; on the sides the punctuation is coarser, more irregular, 
and running into reticulations. 

(To be continued.) 



MISCELLANEA RHYNCHOTALIA.— No. 5. 

By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 284.) 

L.EMOCORIS POSEIDON, Sp. DOV. 

Allied to L. costce, Eeuter, but the latter has much smaller 
eyes. 

Clothed with sparse white pubescence. Head, pronotum, and 
scutellum blackish. Elytra brownish, basal third of corium (base 
itself excepted), a large spot on the costal margin near the apex, not 
reaching to the claval or membranal margin, whitish. Membrane 
fumate, iridescent. Antennae brownish white, basal half of the first 
segment blackish brown, apical half dirty wliitish. Beneath pale 
brownish, apex of cox^e and the rostrum whitish. Lateral margins 
of the sterna blackish. Eyes very large, occupying the greatest part 
of the head (in profile). Eostrum reaching well beyond posterior 
coxas ; second segment of antennae one-fifth longer than the third, 
more than three times as long as the first, the latter reaching a little 
in front of the head. Vertex scarcely wider than an eye. Base of 
pronotum one-half wider than the head and eyes, twice as wide as the 
eyes together. Long. 3-2 mill, (with elytra), 2*5 mill, (to apex of 
abdomen), lat. 1 mill. 

Hah. Guinea, Addah (ex coll. Montandon). 

L.EMOCORIS (?) RAVENAR, Sp. nOV. 

Clothed with fairly long, somewhat bristly, yellowish hairs. Head, 
pronotum, scutellum and under side, antennae, rostrum, &c., pale 
flavous. Elytra pale olivaceo-flavous, a whitish band across elytra at 
apex of clavus, and a large whitish spot at apex of corium, not 
reaching to interior margins. Head (in profile) twice as long as the 
thickened first antennal segment, vertex a trifle wider than the eyes 
together. Eostrum reaching to apex of posterior coxae. Second seg- 
ment of antennae three times as long as the first, one-sixth longer than 
the third. Long. 3 mill, (including elytra), lat. | mill. 

Hab. Java (ex coll. Montandon). 

Shana, gen. nov. 
Belongs to Ca-psaria ; distinguished from Polijmerus, Eeuter, 
and Poeciloscytus, Fieber (to which it is remotely allied) by the 
very distinct stink-orifices ; from Charagochilus by the slender 
collar and the length of the tarsi. 

2c2 



316 THE BNTOMOLOGIS'l . ' K.G'—^ 

More or less punctured; clothed with pallid pubescence. Head 
smooth, polished, declivous, longer than high ; width of vertex with 
eyes equal to twice the length of the first antennal segment. Vertex 
strongly and entirely margmate at base. Eyes oblique. Clypeus not 
very prominent. Pronotum at base nearly twice as wide as head, 
collar short, not as wide as the vertical margination. Pronotal 
callosities subconfluent, behind these the pronotum is punctulate ; 
lateral margins somewhat rounded, not reflexed. Lateral margins of 
elytra ampliate, wider near the apex than the cuneus, fracture of the 
latter deeply marked ; cuneus nearly isosceles, or a trifle wider than 
long. Posterior femora not strongly incrassate, reaching a little 
beyond apex of abdomen, tibi» long and slender. Third segment of 
posterior tarsi longer than either first or second, second longer than 
first. 

S. HAVANA, Sp. nOV. 

Apex of head, two basal antennal segments, base of pronotum, 
scutellum, elytra, femora and base of tibiae, underneath, black or 
brownish black. Remainder of head and pronotum reddish testaceous. 
Legs pallid fuscous. Stink-orifices pallid. Membrane fumate. Abdo- 
men beneath smooth and polished. Second segment of antennse 
three times as long as first, apical two-thirds incrassate a little, two 
and one-third times as long as the slender third segment. Rostrum 
reaching posterior coxse. J . Long. 5 mill. 

Hah. BiRMA, Chan Yoma (ex coll. Montandon). 

Fam. LygjEid^ (= Coreid^, olim). 
AcANTHOMiA TOMENTicoLLis (Still, sub. Clavigvalla, 1855) 
^tomentosicollis (Stal, 1865), 

Fam, TETiGONiiD.ffi;. 
Harmonides, n. n. for Parmula, Fairm., nee Heyd., 1825 
(Mollusca), 

Agondas, n. n, for Janthe, Stal, nee Marseul, 1865 (Goleoptera). 



THE PUBLICATION-DATE OF THE RHYNCHOTAL PART 
OF THE 'VOYAGE OF THE COQUILLE.' 

By G. W, Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

When preparing the first part of my work '' On the Nomen- 
clature of the Genera of the Pihynchota " (Entom. 1900, p. 25 
et seq.), I was able to examine only a separate copy of the Ehyn- 
chotal portion of Duperrey's ' Voyage autour du monde sur la 
Coquille.' This was dated 1830, and as the work was cited by 
Laporte in 1832, and Boisduval in 1835, I did not question its 
correctness. Lately, however, I have been able to examine the 
whole work, and find that I was led into grievous error. The title- 
page of the zoological part, vol, ii. pt, 2, division 1, bears the date 



WHAT IS MONOPHLEBUS. 317 

1830, but the ' Avant-propos ' is subscribed Nov, 15th, 1838, by 
Guerin Meneville, and this year is the actual date of the text, as 
is seen by a reference to the lepidopteral portion (p. 271, not 171, 
as stated in the 'Avant-propos '), where Guerin mentions the dates 
of publication of the various " livraisons " of the Atlas. Plates 
x.-xii. (Rhynchota) were published in 1831, but the text not till 
1838. It may be noted that Hagen (' Bibliotheca Entom.') cited 
1829-32 as the date, but had not seen the work. The references 
in Laporte and Boisduval are to the plates only. According to 
Guerin, the second volume, by Boisduval, of the ' Voyage de 
decouvertes de I'AstroIabe ' was published May, 1835. 

This will unfortunately necessitate some slight alterations in 
my "Nomenclature," which will be effected at the end of part 1, 
now in the press. 



WHA.T IS MONOPHLEBUS, Leach? 
By T. D. a. Cockerell. 

In Entom., September, 1902, p. 232, I gave an account of 
Monophlebus which I supposed would not need correction. Since 
then, however, some facts have developed which call for a recon- 
sideration of the whole matter. 

(1.) Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy wrote me that Monophlebus did not 
date from Westwood's publication, but from Burmeister, Handb. 
ii. p. 80, published in 1835. It is also to be remarked that 
Westwood's paper dates not from 1845, but from 1842 {fide 
Kirkaldy) or 1841 (according to a date pencilled by M. Wytsman 
on the copy before me). 

(2.) The question arose, however, whether Leach himself 
published Monophlebus at any earlier date. Prof. C. H. Fernald 
has exhaustively investigated this matter, with the following 
principal results : — 

(a.) Agassiz's ' Nomenclator Zoologicus ' cites "Monophlebus, 
Leach, Probos. Ins. 1817." This doubtless refers to Eprobos. 
Ins. (Wern. Soc), but Professor Fernald has examined this work, 
as well as several others by Leach, and finds no reference to 
Monophlebus. It seems very improbable that Leach ever pub- 
lished the genus. Samouelle's ' Compendium,' 1819, has no 
reference to Monophlebus. 

(b.) Latreille (' Families Naturelles du Regne Animal,' p. 429, 
1825) published a genus " Monophlebe," with characters de- 
rived from the male antennae. This name being only in the 
vernacular has no standing, but in ' Dictionnaire Classique 
d'Histoire Naturelle,' vol. ii. p. 99, published in 1827, the name 
is published as Monophlebus. The male antennae are said to be 
moniliform, and of about 22 joints, which is an error known to 
have resulted from counting each joint as two, some as more. 



318 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

So far, however, no really distinctive character had been given, 
and no type had been cited. 

(c) In Cuvier's ' Eegne Animal,' edition of 1829, vol. v. p. 232, 
the genus is called Monophleba, is said to be of Dr. Leach, and we 
are informed that it is based on an insect from Java, with antennae 
of about 22 joints, very hairy, and having thick and almost coria- 
ceous wings. Still, however, the type is unnamed. 

(d.) Next we come to Burmeister, as cited above. Here the 
genus is properly introduced, and the first species is M. atri- 
pennis, Klug, from Java. It does not appear that Klug himself 
ever published atripennis, but there is every reason to suppose 
that it was the species known to Leach and others, and made the 
type of the MS. genus Monophlehus. M. dubius (Fabricius) was 
from Sumatra. 

(3.) On all grounds, therefore, M. atripennis is the type of 
Monophlehus. This species, along with .1/. dubius, is placed by 
me {loc. cit.) in a section characterized by having only two fleshy 
caudal appendages. No female of this section has been described, 
but we have assumed that the female must be similar to that of 
the other sections. 

(4.) This assumption, however, proves to be unwarranted. 
Prof. C. H. T. Townsend has lately discovered a new form of 
Icerya {Icerya littoralis var. tonilensis, Ckll.) at Tonila in Jalisco, 
Mexico. He sent me both sexes, and the male reached me alive, 
having hatched e7i route. This male has two long hairy fleshy 
crimson processes at the end of the abdomen, nearly as long as the 
abdomen. The female has the regular Icerya ovisac, well-ribbed, 
suffused with yellow at the base. 

(5.) Since it is consequently just as probable (to say the 
least) that the females of Monophlebus atripennis and M. dubius 
pertain to the Icerya group as that they belong to what we have 
called Monophlehus, we find ourselves in a dilemma. I am not 
yet prepared to use Monophlehus in place of Icerya; or of a 
section of Icerya containing males with long caudal processes, 
which might be regarded as a valid genus, so as to save the well- 
known term Icerya for purchasi, &c. At the same time, we can- 
not safely use Monophlehus in the old sense. It seems best, on 
the whole, to provisionally recognize several genera, as follows : — 

{a.) Monophlehus, with M. atripennis, M. dubius, and M. (?) 
littoralis {Icerya littoralis, Ckll.). The last I will still call an 
Icerya, pending new evidence from the Malay Archipelago. 

(b.) Tessarohelus, with T. querinii, Montr., and T. championi 
(Ckll.), 

(c.) Llaveia, with L. axin (Llave) and L. saundersii (Westw.). 

(<^). Drosicha, with D. contrahens (Walker), D. maskelli (Ckll.), 
D. leachii (Westw.), D. hurmeisteri (Westw.), D. corpidenta (Ku- 
wana), D. crawfordi (Maskell). 

(e). Monophlehulus, with M.fuscus (Mask.). 



PARENTAL CARE OF THE CIMICIDiE. 319 

This unfortunately leaves several species, known only in the 
female, unclassified. So far as known, the female of Monophle- 
hulus has 7-jointed antennae, of Drosicha 9 -jointed, of Tessarohelns 
10-jointed, of Llaveia 11-jointed ; but it is by no means certain 
that these characters are severally always associated with par- 
ticular forms of male. Mr, E. E. Green (ni litt.) tells me that 
his Monophlehus zeylanicus belongs to Sasakia. Several American 
species must for the present be treated as Llaveia; viz. L. cacti 
(L.), L. bouvari (Sign.), L. uhleri (Sign.), L. primitiva (Towns.), 
L. mexicanorum (Ckll.). Monophlehus fortis and M. fiilleri, from 
Natal, may possibly go in Llaveia, but their males are much to 
be desired. 

Monophlehus illigeri, Westw., and M. raddoni, Westw., are 
known only in the male ; they have numerous short lateral abdo- 
minal processes. They come nearest to Drosicha, but their 
position is doubtful. 

I am very greatly indebted to Professor Fernald for kindly 
communicating the results of his bibliographical researches. 

East Las Vegas, New Mexico, U.S.A. : Sept. 30th, 1902. 

P.S. — I have been trying to see whether any generic charac- 
ters could be found in the larvse of what has been called Mono- 
phlehus. Unfortunately very few larvae are known, and, so far as 
I can see, these do not afford any good generic characters. They 
may be separated as follows : — 

Long hairs all round the body ; antennae 6-jointed, but the 

suture between 3 and 4 indistinct, 4 much longer than 3 crawfordi. 

Long hairs on the last seven segments ; antenna 6-jointed, 

3 and 4 equal ........ axin. 

Long caudal hairs, but relatively short hairs round the body 1. 

1. Long caudal hairs four; antennae 6-jointed, 4 shorter 

than 3 ........ . $erratulcB. 

Long caudal hairs two ; antennae 5 -jointed (Jide Maskell) 2. 

2. With very long brittle glassy threads ; legs relatively 

longer ......... ftiscus. 

Without such threads ; legs relatively shorter . . maskelli. 



ON THE PARENTAL CARE OP THE CIMICID.E 
(RHYNCHOTA). 

By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

Writers have often cited a species of Acanthosomatinae as one 
of the few known instances where insects display parental care 
for their young. The original observations of DeGeer were con- 
firmed by Hellius, and have been reproduced or quoted in most 
entomological text-books. This habit is, however, probably not 



320 THK RNTOMOLOGIST. 

exceptional among the Cimicidae, for I have recently found a 
similar reference in the ' Ann. Soc. d'Agriculture de Lyon,' 
1855 (2), vii. p. 91, where Montrouzier, in dealing with the bugs 
of Oceania, writes : — " The habits of the Scutellerines are inter- 
esting. Many deposit their eggs on the under surface of leaves 
out of reach of the rain, covering them with their body, and when 
they are hatched, lead their young ones, looking after them until 
they have acquired their wings. Their numerous family is seen 
following them along the trees, and crowding close to them at 
the least danger." I have also examined specimens sent to me 
in spirits of a species of Spudaeus (?), which seem to show 
similar signs. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Food-plants of the Larva of Cnephasia sinuana, Stph. — Temporary 
separation from my library prevented me from penning an answer to 
Mr. A. Thurnall's note {ante, p. 265) in time for insertion in the 
November number of this magazine. When writing my paper on the 
life-history of Cnephasia sinuana, Stph., which was published in the 
Ent. Mo. Mag. ser. 2, x. 105-6 (1899), I was fully as aware as he is 
that the two totally distinct species — sinuana, Stph., and pasivaiia 
(rectius pascuana), Hb., had formerly been often confused together, 
and that their names had erroneously been used as synonymous by 
various writers, as, for instance, by Mr. G. Elisha in 1879. But 
since, in 1891, I had had some detailed correspondence with Mr. 
Elisha about his experience with these two species, and had specially 
guarded against any possibility of confusion or misunderstanding about 
them, my assertion, in the paper alluded to above, that he had bred 
sinuana from larvfe in flowers of Chrysanthemum leucanthemwn, rested 
upon the clearest possible proof of the fact {viz. upon Mr. Sang's iden- 
tification of the bred moths, as there mentioned), short of having 
actually seen with my own eyes the specimens in question. Moreover, 
Mr. Thurnall, in the same note in which he questions my statement, 
himself admits that that statement is beyond question, as the following 
facts will show. He says (ajite, p. 265), "If the late Mr. Sang saw 
the specimens which were bred from C. leucanthemum and pronounced 
them to be simiana, Steph., I of course must bow to his decision . . ." ; 
whilst in my paper in the Ent. Mo. Mag. (I.e.), to which I referred 
Mr. Thurnall [ante, p. 194), I had, more than three years previously, 
clearly stated, on p. 105, that "His specimens {i.e. the specimens of 
C. sinuana, Stph., bred by Mr. Elisha from flowers of Chrysanthemum 
leucanthemum, as the context most plainly shows) were identified by 
the late Mr. J. Sang, who knew the true sinuana well." — Eustace R. 
Bankes; Norden, Corfe Castle, Nov. 17th, 1902. 

Plusia moneta in England. — I was interested in Mr. Lawrance's 
note on P. moneta {ante, p. 242), but I do not share his pessimism. 
My opinion is that it has come to stay, and I should not be surprised 
to hear that other Continental species which come to light should 
turn up also. My reason for thinking this is that Porthesia chrysorrhcea, 



NOTES AND OBSEEVATIONS. 321 

which is very plentiful on the French coast, has turned up at New- 
haven, Folkestone, Dover, Margate, and Harwich, where there are fast 
steamer services running. The vessels load alongside a pier or wharf, 
where there are bright electric lights or incandescent lamps, and what 
is to stop an impregnated female flying on board, and getting carried 
over? This, I think, also applies to Ennomos autumnal ia on the south- 
east coast, and Callimorpha hera in Devon. P. chrysonlicea is now 
rapidly spreading over the South of England, through the medium of 
the hawthorn hedges on the railway banks, and has been taken as 
near London as Bromley. — C. W. Colthrup ; 127, Barry Eoad, East 
Dulwich, S.E. 

Hawk Moth Pupating on Trees. — Referring to Mr. F. P. Dodd's 
note relative to the above (ayite, p. 73). I am able to give the name of 
one sphingid that does the same here ; this is Nephele varierjata. In 
almost every instance the larva spins up in the leaves and between the 
small branches of the fig-tree. The cocoon, too, is very thick for this 
species of moth. Out here it is undoubtedly done for protective pur- 
poses, as on the few occasions when I have found a few where the 
ground and an exposed root ot the tree has been used for pupation, 
the pupae have nearly always been eaten by ants. The ants seem to 
commence the attack directly the change takes place, and when the 
pupa-case is soft, as I have ascertained by experiment that they will 
not attack a perfectly dry pupa of this moth. The pupa is very active 
indeed, and when it is touched rolls itself completely round and round, 
and then gives a series of jerks for some time afterwards. It is very 
common here, and I have found as many as seventeen on one tree, 
but they were very badly ichneumoned. I have also found pupae of 
y. varieyatd in lioles of trunks of the trees, and, when so placed, the 
larvae had carefully spun a thick web over the opening. This moth 
always emerges from the pupa between 10 and 12 p.m., and flies at 
dawn, feeds at the flowers of honeysuckle, and is the swiftest flier I 
know of for its size. — G. F. Leigh ; Durban, Natal. 

Lyc^na corydok, ab. — In the note on this aberration (ante,-^. 284), 
the sex symbol was accidentally omitted. The specimen is a female. 

Vanessa urtic^, ab. — Early in September this year I obtained a 
well-marked variety of this butterfly, differing from the ordinary type 
in the following particulars : — It is somewhat small in size ; the two 
outer blotches on the costal margin of the fore wing are confluent ; 
the two black spots near the anal angle are absent ; the hind wings 
are entirely black, and there is no trace of blue on the wings whatever. 
In fact, it seems to correspond to the third variety figured in New- 
man's ' British Butterflies.' — B. L. Middleton ; Mullingar, Ireland, 
Oct. 27th, 1902. 

[Somewhat similar aberrations of V. urticcB are figured in the 
' Entomologist ' for 1896, p. 73, and 1900, pi. iii. fig. 1 ; see also 
Entom. xxxiii. p. 103. — Ed.] 

Chrysophanus dispar, Haw. — Will lepidopterists who possess speci- 
mens of this species kindly communicate with J. R. Charnley, F.E.S., 
Howick House, Preston, Lanes., who states that he is endeavouring 
to find out how many specimens of British C. dispar there are in 
existence. 



322 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Professor Robert Wallace is preparing for publication the 
'Reminiscences' of the late Miss E. A. Ormerod. This was the 
work of her later days, and was enjoyed by her as a relaxation from 
the more arduous labours of Agricultural Entomology. Although the 
Autobiography was not completed, yet there is much material of a 
very interesting character on which to work. Professor Wallace would 
be glad to receive such letters from Miss Ormerod as her correspondents 
may deem of sufficient importance, together with any other information 
which they think will be of interest to the general public. His address 
is The University, Edinburgh. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN THE New Forest. — About Aug. 14th last I saw a 

specimen of C. ediisa flying across Butt's Lawn, near Brockenhurst, 

and a friend saw one in the same place a day or two later. — E. G. 

Ansorge ; Bedford Park. 

■? 

CoLiAs EDUSA IN Kent IN 1902. — I took fine specimens of C. edusa 

at Margate, between Aug. 23rd and 30th; one example was seen flying 

over Peckham Rye on Sept. 8th ; and at Deal, on Sept. 9th, I saw 

two specimens. — C. W. Colthrup; 127, Barry Road, E. Dulwich, S.E. 

Vanessid^ in 1902. — Pyrameis cardui was by far the most plentiful 
Vanessid in the Isle of Thanet ; it abounded in every clover or lucerne 
field. I noticed only a few Vanessa urticce, and but one specimen of 
V. atalanta, — C. W. Colthrup. 

Agrotis cinerea. — I captured a specimen of this insect, at sugar, 
on the Sussex downs, in June last. — C. W. Colthrup. 

Dasycampa (Orrhoma) rubiginea. — From the egg my kind friend 
Mrs. Fogden, of Apuldram, near Chichester, skilfully reared to the pupal 
stage about a dozen C). rubiginea, which she most generously handed 
over to me in the flower-pot in which the larvfe pupated. The first of 
these beautiful " chestnuts " emerged on Oct. 9th, another on the 
13th, another on the 14th, one on the 21st, one on the 22nd, another 
on the 28th — six fine specimens up to the time of writing. It is 
somewhat singular that one only emerged on each occasion. — Joseph 
Anderson ; Chichester, Oct, 29th, 1902. 

Ennomos erosaria and Himera pennaria. — On Oct. 10th last I took 
a specimen of E. erosaria on a gas-lamp in this district. H. pennaria 
has been exceedingly abundant in this locality ; I counted no less than 
sixteen in an evening's walk on Oct. 29th last. — H. G. Faye ; 3, Mary- 
land Road, Bowes Park, N., Nov. 5th, 1902. 

Deilephila livornica in South Devon. — Mr. J. Jager [ante, p. 287) 
records the capture of the larva of D. livornica, and says, " I am told 
that there is no record of this rare moth having been previously found 
in the larval state in Britain." If reference is made to the ' Entomo- 
logist,' vol. V. p. 169, it will be seen that it was obtained by me in 
1870. I figured the larva, and the drawing is reproduced in IBarrett's 
' British Lepidoptera,' vol. ii. The same year Mr. Rickard obtained 



CAPTURES AND FI?:T,I) REPORTS. 323 

nine larvfe and bred the moths ; the larvfe were found on dock in a 
nursery garden in Plymouth [vide Entom. vi. 522), and fed up on the 
same. — G. C. Bignell ; Saltash, Cornwall, Nov. 3rd, 1902. 

Plusia moneta near Tunbridge Wells. — This insect made its 
appearance much later than was the case last year. On June 10th I 
went over to my old home at Bidborough (near Tunbridge Wells), to 
search for it upon the plants where I was so successful last year about 
the same date ; but after a long hunt I only obtained three young larvae, 
although they were in the chrysalis state at the same time last year. 
A fortnight later — June 24th — I revisited the garden, when upwards 
of three hours' search in the broiling sun produced three cocoons only. 
The experience was disappointing, to say the least of it, after having 
obtained three dozen or so the year before. The protective nature of 
these cocoons is very striking, for those which are placed upon the 
under side of the yellow withered leaves of the Delphinium are invari- 
ably of a beautiful golden colour, which exactly harmonises with the 
leaf, but if one of the larvae be placed in a box it will usually spin a 
pure white cocoon. — H. W. Shepheard-Walwyn ; Dalwhinnie, Kenley, 
Surrey, Oct. 18th, 1902. 

Late Appearances. — I was at Charmouth on Oct. 27th, and was 
surprised to find Satijrus ianira and Nonagria lutosa still out. How- 
ever, I well remember taking bright and fresh specimens of the former 
at Ventnor, on Oct. 11th, 1868.— C. W. Dale; Glanvilles Wootton, 
Nov. 3rd, 1902. 

GoNEPTERYx RHAJMNi IN NOVEMBER. — Ou Nov. 13th I saw, in the 
morning, near Horsley, Surrey, a specimen of G. rhamni on the wing, 
and tried to catch it, but without success. By its colour it appeared 
to be a male. — H. Woodgate ; Teddington, 

Dragonfly in London. — Whilst walking along Queen Victoria 
Street on Sept. 29th last, I was suprised to see a species of Mschna 
{cynnca, I think), flying swiftly along the road. The weather was cold 
and dull at the time. — Stanley A. Blenkarn ; East Dulwich, Sept. 30th, 

Cerastis erythrocephala near Bournemouth. — On Nov. 7th I 
took, at sugar, near Bournemouth, a fine male specimen of C. erythro- 
cephala. Major R. B. Eobertson had taken one also three weeks pre- 
viously, about two miles away from my locality. — W. G. Hooker ; 
125, Old Christ Church Road, Bournemouth, Nov. 30th, 1902. 

Cerastis erythrocephala near Bournemouth. — Sugar has been 
giviug better results lately. I took a fine C. erythrocephala on Oct. 14th 
last. — R. B. Robertson ; Pokesdown, Nov. 16th, 1902. 

Captures of Rare Trichoptera at Glanvilles Wootton. — Hydro 
psyche ornatula, McLach,, one on Aug. 14th, 1900. Trianwdes conspersa 
Ramb., occasionally; I have also taken it at Torquay, and Mr. D 
Cork used to meet with it in Dovedale. Tinoides imicolor, Pict., occa 
sionally ; I have also taken it at Ventnor. MicrojUerna sequan, McLach. 
one on Sept. 19th, 1901.— C. W. Dale; Nov. 3rd, 1902. 

The Season of 1902. — The first entry in my diary for 1902 is the 
sight of Gonepteryx rhamni and Vanessa urticm on March 5th. On the 



324 THE WNTC)M()IiO«IST. 

following day V. polychloros was first seen, and during the rest of the 
month the first and last named were very plentiful, nrtictB being seen 
in greater numbers during April than March. On April 17th a batch 
of larvas of Pohjijonia c-album emerged from ova sent me from York- 
shire, and these fed up very well on elm. Tliey pupated from May 
26th till May 30tli, and the resultant imagines appeared from June 8fch 
till June 17th. The under sides of all were of the pale ochreous 
ground colour. On April 27th the first Cijanii is argiolus was taken, 
but this species was not nearly so common here this year as it was 
last. I took a good number of the second brood near St. Leonard's on 
August 15th, and noticed that these were much larger than the speci- 
mens of the early brood taken in Dorking. Pieris rapes and P. napi 
began to appear during the first week in May, and many very small 
specimens of each were seen. On May 4th the first of a batch of forty 
Melitata cinxia larvae, which had been sent me from Ventnor about the 
middle of April, pupated, and they continued to do so till May 26th ; 
but only fourteen reached the pupa stage, all the others being stung. 
I counted twenty-four cocoons of "ichneumons" that emerged from one 
larva, but about fourteen or fifteen was the usual number. They deve- 
loped into little black flies. Thirteen imagines of M. cinxia came 
through successfully, but the fourteenth failed to develop its wings 
properly. The first appeared on June loth, and the last on June 
27th. On May 24th a good number of male Eiichloe cardamines were 
seen, and from that date till June 22nd this species was very plentiful. 
On May 24th, also, Xenieobius liicina, Henjjeria malva, and Thanaos 
tages were observed for the first time. The first-named was not 
nearly so abundant as it was last year, doubtless owing to the scarcity 
of sunshine ; but a good number of ova were discovered on the under 
side of cowslip leaves, and I reared a few through to the pupa stage. 
The young larvae began to appear on June 19th, but about sixty per 
cent, of them died before pupation. They took a long time to feed up, 
as it was well into August before the last one had changed. Callophrys 
rubi was first seen on May 24th, and several were taken from that date 
till the first week in June, but never in any numbers. Pararge egeria 
was taken on May 28th, on which date Hesperia malvce was to be seen 
in profusion. Chrgsophanus phlceas was seen on May 31st, but the 
early brood did not seem nearly so plentiful as that of August, when 
I found it quite common at Bembridge, in the Isle of Wight. Pieris 
brassiccB wsiS first seen on June 2nd, and in August very fine specimens 
of this species were observed in great numbers at Bembridge and at 
St. Leonard's. LyccEna icarus was first noticed on June 4th, but, 
owing to the absence of sunshine, few were seen on the wing. Boxing 
off the long grass in the evening produced two fine varieties [ante, p. 
218), one a gynandrous specimen, and the other having only one spot, 
besides the marginal ones, on the under side of each wing. A very 
small specimen was taken at Bembridge on Sept. 8th, and a single 
male was seen in the long grass on Oct. 7th. On June 8th L. astrarche 
was taken, and at Bembridge, during the latter part of August, several 
specimens, including one very small one, were caught. My experience 
with this insect is that it is never seen in any numbers, four being the 
most that I have ever taken at one time on the same ground. L. bell- 
argus was to be taken from June 8th till June 24tii, after which date 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 325 

the specimens seen were worn. This species, as well as L. icarus, and 
later on L. corydon, were caught far more plentifully this year in the 
evening than during the daytime. On June 9th hyberuated specimens 
of Vanessa cardni were swarming on the shore near Bembridge, and 
the newly emerged insects could be taken in any number during the 
latter part of August. This was by far the commonest species of 
Vatiessa observed r,his year, V. io being fairly plentiful, V. nrtica rare 
at Bembridge, and V. atalanta far from common. On June 9th, and 
again in August, Pararge meiimra was swarming. June 18th, which I 
have entered in my diary as " the first really fine day for weeks," was 
marked by the profusion of Hfsperia malviB and Euchlo'e canlamines, 
and by the fact that several females of Nemeobius lucina were seen ovi- 
positing. I took one female and placed her in a pill-box with a cowslip 
leaf, and by the time I had reached home she had deposited twenty- 
four ova, some on the leaf and others on the box. On June 21st we 
found a large number of very fine larvae of Vanessa urtiac ; they were 
so large that I took a few, which pupated the next day ; and the 
resultant imagines, which emerged on July 3rd, are not only the 
largest but also the darkest specimens of this insect I have ever seen. 
Their markings, however, are quite normal. A larva of Einnephele 
jurtina {ianira), found by chance in long grass, pupated on June 22nd, 
and the imago appeared on July 9th. On June 24th Lyccena alsus was 
first taken, but this species was never plentiful in Dorking this year. 
On June 28th an imago of Tkecla w-albnm emerged from the pupa ; the 
larva was found on Boxhill, and pupated on June 10th. Hesperia 
sylvanus was first seen on June 28th, and from then till July 14tli it 
was common on Ranmore. Some German larv* of Vaiiessa antiopa 
began to pupate on July 8th, and the first imago appeared on July 
24th. It was a curious variety, without a trace of the blue spots on the 
upper wings, and with only one small spot on each of the lower wings 
(ante, p. 285). The other specimens were quite normal. Aphantopus 
hyperunthus was taken on July 9th and following days, but was far 
from being as plentiful as in 1901. On July 12th Hesperia thaumas 
was first seen, and from then till the end of August was very common 
at Dorking, St. Leonard's and Bembridge. On July 12th, also, Satynis 
semele was first noted, and some very good specimens were taken near 
the Culver Cliff, Isle of Wight, on Sept. 4th. On July 17th a female 
Lycmia avion, sent from Bude, deposited eight ova on wild thyme, but 
they produced no larvte. Although I had made many attempts, I did 
not succeed in taking Hesperia comma this year till July 26th, and then 
I only obtained one specimen. Several were captured by others. after- 
wards, but as I had to leave Dorking on the 28th, I was unable to go 
for it again. A fine larva of Pieris brassicce pupated on July 27th, and 
a female emerged from it on Aug. 16th. Epinephete tithonus and, of 
course, Cmnonympha pampldlus were common, the latter from the 
beginning of July onwards, and the former from the beginning of 
August. On Aug. 29th I came upon a swarm of Lycana corydon, but 
they had emerged some time, and it was difficult to find males in good 
condition, though the females were perfect. They were on a small 
patch of long grass close to the sea, by the Culver Cliff. I saw two 
specimens of Culias edusa, both males, on the shore by Bembridge 



326 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Point, one on Sept. 5th, and the other on Sept. 8th ; but I had no 
net with me, so did not take them. 

The above represents the bulk of my observations among the 
Diurni during the past year. Two facts seem to stand out pro- 
minently, when one looks back upon the season as a whole : the 
weather has been atrocious, and even moderate success has only been 
gained after unusually hard work ; and nearly every species has been 
much later than usual in its time of appearance. — P. A. Oldaker ; 
Parsonage House, Dorking, Oct. 23rd, 1902. 

Notes from Shropshire. — Astliena hlomeri was very common at 
Hopton Wagers, near Clevening Mortimer, during the first week of 
July last. It occurred only in some covers bordering a small stream, 
resting on the trunks of beech-trees ; and I also beat it out of bramble- 
bushes growing amongst the trees. The part where it was to be found 
was only about three quarters of a mile long and about fifty yards 
wide. Other captures in July : — Anji/miis sclene, common in lanes ; 
A, euphrosijne, Pararge egeria, Thecla ruhi, Lijcmia icariis, Syrichthus 
malva. (one), Hesperia sylvanns, Zygmia fllipendula, very common in 
some fields ; Dasychira pudibunda, a few ; one female laid several 
batches of eggs, from which hatched out over three hundred larva3. 
Tkyatira hatis, caught last year, as also were Cliaraas yramvnu, Melan- 
thia alhicillata, Melanippe muntanata. Triplicena pronuha swarmed round 
laurel bushes in full bloom. — C. Pi. Y. Boxer ; 151, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — November 5th, 1902. — The 
Eev. Canon Fowler, M.A., D. Sc, F.L.S., President, in the chair. — 
Lieutenant T. Delves Broughton, E.E., of Alderney, Channel Islands ; 
Mr. Arthur Percival Buller, of Wellington, New Zealand, and of the 
Inner Temple, E.C. ; the Kev. Canon C. T. Cruttwell, M.A., of Ewelme 
Eectory, Oxfordshire ; Mr. K. S. Hole, of the Eectory, North Tawton, 
Devon; and Mr. W. E. Sharp, of Ledsham, Shakespeare Eoad, Han- 
well, W., were elected Fellows of the Society. — The Secretary informed 
the meeting that a request for certain alterations in the bye-laws, 
signed as required by Chapter 21 thereof, having been received by the 
Council, Mr. Arthur J. Chitty had been good enough to draft the 
necessary amendments. Mr. Chitty then read the proposed amend- 
ments, and explained the course to be taken to carry them into effect. — 
Mr. H. J. Elwes, F.E.S., exhibited, on behalf of Mrs. Mary de la 
Beche Nicholl, a collection of butterflies made by her in February, 
March, and April, 1902, in Southern Algeria ; also a collection of 
butterflies afterwards made by her in the Picos de Europa, in Spain ; 
the latter collection comprised about eighty-five species, and was made 
in twenty-five days. Mr. Elwes remarked that these collections con- 
tained several interesting species of Ercbia, Lyeana, and other genera, 
and included three species not at present represented in the British 
Museum Collection. — Dr. Chapman exhibited, and made remarks on, 
two butterflies taken last July at Bejar, in West Central Spain, both 
notable as being very decidedly larger than any forms of the same 
species recorded from any other locality. He stated that one of them 



SOCIETIES. 327 

belonged to a form of Lycccna arf/us (the L. agon of the British list). 
They were taken about one and a half miles east or south-east of 
Bejar on July 9th and following days. He said that he proposed to 
name this form var. hfjarensis. — Mr. R. South exhibited four specimens 
of a large form of Cupido minima [Lycmna minim.a) from Cumberland, 
sent to the Natural History Museum by Mr. Mousley, of Buxton. He 
also exhibited, on behalf of Mr. J. H. Fowler, of Riugwood, a series 
of Lithosia deplana, Esp., from the New Forest, showing interesting 
variations in both sexes, but expecially in the females. It was stated 
that Mr. Eustace Bankes had recently recorded somewhat similar 
aberrations of the species from the Isle of Purbeck. — Mr. Hamilton 
Druce exhibited a specimen of Limenitis populi, L., caught whilst 
being chased by a small bird in July, 1901, near Eiga, Russia ; also a 
specimen of Sesam-ia nouagrioides, Lefeb., bred from a larva found 
feeding in the interior of a banana. — Mr. J. H. Carpenter exhibited a 
gynandromorphous specimen of Lycana icarus, having the coloration 
of the male on the left side, and that of the female on the right side, 
captured on Ranmore Common, Surrey, in June last ; also several 
aberrations of this species from Ranmore Common and the Isle of 
Wight. He also showed specimens of Vanessa antiopa, bred from 
German larvse, including a remarkable aberration, in which the usual 
blue spots on the upper wings were entirely absent. — Mr. H. St. J. 
Donisthorpe exhibited a foreign specimen of Quedius suturalis, lent 
him by Mr. Keys, of Plymouth, and a British specimen taken by 
himself at Gravesend in 1891 ; also, for comparison, a specimen of 
Quedius obliteratus taken at Plymouth. He said that most of the 
specimens of so-called Quedius suturalis in British collections were 
really Q. obliteratus. — Mr. Pickett exhibited a remarkable series of 
Anyerona priinaria, the result of four years' interbreeding between 
dark males from Raindean Wood, near Folkestone, and light-coloured 
females from Eppiug Forest ; also unicolorous light orauge-yellow 
males, light yellow females, dark orange males sprinkled with black, 
and other unusual aberrations. — Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., 
exhibited a series of lantern slides prepared from negatives taken by 
his assistant, Mr. A. H. Hamm, of the Hope Department, and Mr. 
Alfred Robinson, of the Oxford University Museum. The slides repre- 
sented a series of the larvae and miagines of British moths photographed 
under natural conditions. Mr. Hamm's photographs of moths clearly 
showed the attitude of the insect in relation to the background which 
it had selected. Some of the species were shown upon their normal 
background of the bark of various kinds of trees, others upon lichen- 
covered stone walls. Mr. Robinson's photographs similarly represented 
the larvffi of species of British moths in their natural attitudes upon 
the food-plants. Prof. Poulton also showed a representation of the 
pupa of Limenitis pjopidi, prepared from Portschinski's figure and de- 
scription, and explained the highly ingenious hypothesis by which the 
appearances are accounted for by the Russian naturalist. — Mr. C. 0. 
Waterhouse communicated a paper by Mr. L. R. CraAvshay, entitled 
" On the Life-history of Drilus Jiavescens, Rossi." — H. Goss, Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
October 23rd, 1902.— Mr. F. Noad Clark, President, in the chair.— 
Mr. Inglis, of Clapham, and Mr. Scollick, F.E.S., of Wimbledon, were 



328 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

elected members. — Mr. South, on behalf of Mr. Fowler, of Ringwood, 
exhibited varieties of the female of Lithosia deplana : (1) grey in colour, 
with yellow costa extending to the fringe = var. ochreata ; (2) with 
fore wings almost as yellow as L. sororcula, and the hind wings only 
slightly tinged with grey ; they were from the New Forest. Mr. Tutt 
pointed out that variation in the Lithosiids took one of two directions, 
either a general darkening or an intensification of the yellow. — Mr. 
Dennis reported that on October 9th all stages of Cyaniris argiolns 
were to be found at Earl's Colne, Essex. — Mr. Turner, a number of 
examples of Hi/driomena fuicata [Hypsipctes sordidata) illustrative of 
local forms, and remarked upon the inconvenience caused by the 
continual change of the specific names. — Mr. B. W. Adkin, some 
remarkable forms of Fachyyastria [Bombyx) trifolii, bred from larvae 
taken on the Scilly Islands. One female was conspicuously light in 
colour, and the wedge-shaped markings of the fore wings of several 
males were much enlarged. — Mr. Lucas showed a number of lantern- 
slides illustrating (1) choice spots in the New Forest; (2) protective 
resemblance in insects ; (3) various botanical characters of interest ; 
and (4) some of the idiosyncrasies of collecting. 

November ISth. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Colthrup ex- 
hibited a bred series of Lymantria monacha, originating from the New 
Forest, and exhibiting considerable black suffusion. — Mr. R. Adkin had 
had a number of larva from the same source, but the few imagines he 
bred were quite normal. — Messrs. Harrison and Main, long bred series 
of Aylais (Vanessa) urticcB from Eastbourne, Delaniere Forest, and 
Argyllshire, and contributed notes on the characters of the several 
races. Those from the last-named locality were generally darker. — 
Mr. R. Adkin, a series of Lycana cor y don from Eastbourne, taken 
between Sept. 18th and Sept. 25th, and called attention to the fre- 
quency of blue scaling in the females. He also showed melanic forms 
of Acronycta nienyanthidis from Selby, Yorkshire. — Mr. H. J. Turner, 
(1) a bred series of HypsUophus marginellus from Banstead Downs, 
he also reported it from the Roman Road, Mickleham ; (2) a long and 
very varied series of Pcedisca corticana, taken on a wet day in July in 
Epping Forest ; he referred to the exceedingly perfect protective re- 
semblance exhibited by the species, as well as to the great range of 
variation ; (3) a female Pechypogon barbalis, set to show the secondary 
sexual characters existing in the extreme development of tufts of hairs 
on the fore legs ; and (4) two varieties of Polyonimatus icarus from 
Banstead, one, a small male, with all the basal spots of the under side 
missing, the marginal markings very faint or suppressed, and only a 
few of the submarginal ocelli remaining ; the second, a female, with 
much-enlarged ocelli on the submargin. — Mr. Kaye, a fine female 
variety of Fidunia atomaria, having the ground colour very light and 
much increased in area at the expense of the dark bands; and a series 
of Tiliacea aurago, bred from ova laid by the only female he had ever 
captured, at Worcester Park, Surrey. — Mr. H. Moore read a paper 
entitled "A Visit to the Forest of Arques (Dieppe)," and showed a 
number of species of insects of various orders in illustration. Perhaps 
the most interesting were a series of dark, small, and thinly scaled 
Canonympha arcania, no doubt indicative of the fact that here the 
species was near the limit of its area of distribution. — Dr. Chapman 



SOCIKTIES. 329 

read a paper entitled " On Inflation in Insects," summing up the 
results of more than thirty years' observation and experiment. In the 
discussions which followed, Mr. Tutt pointed out that the problem 
was as yet unsolved, why C. arcania and other species characteristic 
of very adjacent Continental areas were absolutely non-British. — 
Hy. J. Turner [Hon. Rep, Sec). 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — Septeinher 15th, 1902. — 
Mr. E. C. Bradley in tlie chair. — -Mr. G. W. Wynn showed various 
Lepidoptera, including Protoparce convolvuU, taken at Hampton-in- 
Arden, September 28th, 1901 ; series of Cymntophora duplaris from Wyre 
Forest, Sutton, and Hay Woods, near Knowle ; those from Wyre (a 
long series) were typical, with well-marked transverse markings and 
quite pale median bands ; whilst those from Sutton and Hay Woods 
were all dark, and approachiug a unicolorous character, the pale 
markings practically gone and the dark ones indistinct, one dark band 
beyond the middle being fairly distinct, and the others quite faint. He 
said others he had from Tamworth were also of this dark form, and 
suggested that it might be due to the neighbourhood of Birmingham 
to these three localities ; also a fine variety of Xanthia lutea Strom. 
(silaffo, Hb.), from Hampton-in-Arden, which sliowed a broad intensified 
median band and an intensified costal spot near the base of the wings, 
and practically no other markings, the small spots being absent ; also 
Ci/vidtophoraoctoi/esiiiia and other insects from Wyre Forest. — Mr. A. H. 
Martineau, Volmella inanis from Littleham, South Devon, where it was 
taken on rubus flowers on August 6tli, 1902. — Mr. J. T. Fountain, 
Charocampa elpennr bred from larvae found near Shirley in 1901 ; also 
a series of Spiluwma mentkastri bred from a nearly unicolorous one ; a 
few resembled the parent, and these, he said, appeared first. — Mr. E. C. 
Bradley, Aculeata from Barmouth, 1902 : Aijenia vtirieyata, a good 
series of both sexes, taken in June and August; and Sapi/ifa 5-piinctat(t, 
a series with one male only, taken in June ; both must have been com- 
mon, but hard to take. — Mr. Golbrau J. Wainwright, rare Tachinidse: 
Parexonista fimbriata from Tan-y-bwlch, North Wales, 1901 ; and 
Phytomijptera nitiduentris from Bournemouth, 1901 ; both taken by 
Mr. E. C. Bradley.— Mr. W. H. Fhnt exhibited the following Lepido- 
ptera : — Drijmonia chaonia, a fine bred one from the Forest of Dean 
district; Notodonta trepida, found at Kingswood, just emerged; Larentia 
cuculata (sinuata) and Acidalia rubiginata {rubricata), one of each, from 
South Devon, between Marychurch and Newton Abbott; also three very 
fine varieties o( Larentia so rdidata [el.utata) horn the Forest of Dean, which 
showed a broad pale median band, with a broad dark hind marginal 
band, and a broad dark band before the median one ; also Sesia chnjsi- 
difonnis and S. ichneumoniformis from the Forest of Dean district ; of 
the latter he showed a fine series, and said he had traced it to its 
headquarters, where he fouud it commonly flying over trefoils and other 
low-growing flowers ; he could have taken two dozen a day easily ; also 
a fine specimen of Lijcmia semianjas {acis), which he took himself at 
Wolvey, in Warwickshire, in 1896. He did not recognize it till he got 
it home, but it is in fine condition and unmistakable ; also a specimen of 
Augiades comma, said to have been taken in Warwickshire, near Stone- 
leigh, but needing confirmation. 

BNTOM. DECBMBliR, 1902. D 2 



330 THE BNTOMOIiOGIST. 

October 20th. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — 
Mr. C. J. Waiiiwright showed a specimen of Meriania argentlfera, Meig., 
a Tachinid new to Britain, taken by Mr. W. J. Lucas in the New Forest 
on April SOfch last ; also M. piqjarum for comparison. — Mr. W. H. 
Flint, various Lepidoptera: Larentia unam^idata from Yardley and Hay 
Wood; L. sordidata (elutnta), and L. autumnalis, Strom, (^inipluviata, 
Wo.), showing a great range of variation ; Boarmia repandata, dark 
specimens, one from Sutton very black, but not suffused, the markings 
clear but all very dark grey, not brown ; also others from Forest of 
Dean almost as black, and a dark one from South Yorkshire, which, 
however, was brown and not grey in colour ; dark Hybernia leuco- 
phcEaria from the Forest of Dean ; Lygris populata, dark suffused speci- 
mens from near Glasgow ; Calymnia trapezina, a very dark specimen 
from Sutton of a deep olive green, nearly black ; Hybernia maryinaria, 
nearly black suffused specimens from Sutton ; Larentia sufnmata, a 
suffused but not black specimen, also from Sutton. He pointed out 
that amongst these specimens were four species from Sutton with more 
or less tendency towards melanism. — Mr. H. Willoughby Ellis, a series 
of the Midland species of the coleopterous genus Cercyon, Leach ; four- 
teen species out of the total of eighteen found in Britain occur near 
Knowle, including granariun and quisquilius. — Mr. J. T. Fountain, 
Lepidoptera, including Mamestra serena from Sutton, Knowle, Spark- 
brook, &c. ; Dianthcecia nana[cunspersa) from Jersey ; Eurymene dolabraria 
from the Wyre Valley ; &c. — Mr. G. W. Wynn, various Lepidoptera, 
including Hylophila bicolorana [quercana), two fine specimens taken in 
Wyre Forest on August 22nd last ; Ayrotis neylecta, one fine one taken 
at the same time and place ; Zeazera pynna, a pair from Hampton-in- 
Arden taken in cop., the female being quite double the size of the male ; 
and Metopsilas porcell us, taken at Hampden-in-Arden on June 26th last. 

COLBRAN J. WaINWRIGHT, HoU. ScC. 

Lancashire and CnEsmRE Entomological Society. — The opening 
meeting of the winter session, held on October 13th, in the Royal 
Institution, Liverpool, was largely attended. In the unavoidable 
absence of the President, Mr. S. J. Capper, Dr. John Cotton, F.E.S., 
of St. Helen's, occupied the chair. — Mr. E. J. B. Sopp proposed, and 
Mr. F. C. Tiiompson seconded, that Messrs. Oscar Whittaker, of 
Bolton ; James Roland Charnley, F.E.S., of Preston ; A. G. Walling- 
ton, of Warrington ; John Lea, and J, Jervis Richardson, of Liver- 
pool, be elected members of the Society. It was unanimously decided 
to hold the next meeting in Liverpool, on Nov. 10th, and that a 
meeting be held in Warrington, on Dec. 8th, provided the secretaries 
were able to make all necessary arrangements for the same. A large 
and interesting display of insects was shown by members, amongst 
the more striking being the following : — Fine series of Lepidoptera 
captured during 1902, by Dr. J. Cotton, on Simonswood Moss and in 
North Devon, ui exhibiting which he gave much valuable information 
regarding the methods employed in the taking of Notodonta dlctceoides. 
Captures at the Delamere field-meeting by Mr. F. N. Pierce included 
excellent specimens of the local Tepliroda biandularia var. delamerensis, 
Cidaria corylata, Thera variata, and other moths. — Mr. C. F. Johnson 
exhibited very fine black varieties of Zygmia viinos. Mr. J. R. le 



SOCIETIES. 



331 



Brockton Tomlin, F.E.S., a valuable collection of British Coleoptera, 
containing, amongst other scarce species, series of recent captures of 
the very rare Hijilrovatus chjpeatus, a water-beetle that had not been 
taken for many years ; the rare "skipjacks," Elater miniatus, E. Ujthro- 
pterus, and E. sanguwolentUR ; Antlui.ria nitidula, Af/rilus bigiittatns, 
and Cryptocephalus se.rpiinctatus, from the New Forest ; Phosphcenus 
Imnipterus, from Southampton ; and the beautiful longicorn, Saperda 
scalaris, from Sherwood. — Dr. G. W. Chaster, recent captures in the 
Southport district, which included many unique additions to the 
Lancashire county list. Of the many species in his exhibit, perhaps 
the following attracted most attention : — Medoti obsoletas, Thinobius 
brevipennis, Pseudopsis sulcata, Anisotoma furva, and A. ciliaris. The 
extremely local Ammcecms brevis, Mgialia riifa, Telephorus darwinianus, 
Gymnetron collinus and G. linaria, and Ceuthorrlupichus euplwrbim. — Mr. 
J. T. Wardley, a case of Cossus ligniperda, bred from Formby larvfe ; 
and Mr. Oulton Harrison (Wavertree), on behalf of Eev. T. Eddrup, 
a box of E)iimetic(( cervmata, from Bremhill, Wilts, kindly sent for 
distribution. — Mr. E. Tait, fine varieties of Bimrmia repand'ita, some 
rosy forms of Agrotis agathinn, a beautiful series of A. ripa. from 
Cumberland, and bred varieties of AcidaUa contigimria, including two 
unique aberrations. — Mr. -J. Roland Charnley, a fine male Chryso- 
phanus dispar. — Mr. J. Collins, long bred series of Eupithecia debiliata, 
from Stafford ; C'rambus warringtonellus ; (J. hamelliis, from Lancashire 
Mosses, Lithosia sericea, and Exaretia allisella. — Mr. H. B. Prince, 
a remarkably fine series of Erebia cassiope, and other species. — Mr. B. 
Crabtree, a long series of Cmionympha typhon (davus) var. rothliebi, 
arranged to show the extreme range of variation on the under side. 
Mr. W. Raeper, Scotch captures during the present season, including 
many interesting moths. — Mr. J. Jervis Richardson, exotic Lepido- 
ptera, including Intomeris io, reared this season ; also a series of 
beautifully produced photographs of British lepidopterous larvfe. 
Mr. E. J. B. Sopp, a collection of paltearctic and exotic Forficulidae, 
which included representatives of our giant Christchurch earwig, 
Labidiira rip aria ; Anisolabis mauritanica, from Tunis; SponyipJwra 
Croceipennis Iherminieri, from Santo Espirito (Brazil) ; Chelidura 
bolivari, from Castile; Apterygida jnpo7iica, from Japan, and Forficula 
pubescens, a Southern-European earwig recently taken at Colchester by 
Mr. Harwood. 

The usual monthly meeting was held in the Royal Institution, 
Liverpool, on November 10th, Dr. J. Cotton (St. Helens) in the chair. — 
Messrs. Oscar Whittaker (Bolton), J. R. Charnley, F.E.S. (Preston), 
A. G. Wallington (Warrington), John Lea, and J. J. Richardson 
(Liverpool) were duly elected members of the Society. — The arrange- 
ments made for the forthcoming meeting to be held in Warrington 
having been approved, a highly interesting paper on " Some Famous 
Collecting Grounds " was communicated by Mr. Oulton Harrison 
(Wavertree), whose instructive descriptive account of various entomo- 
logical " centres" in Switzerland and Britain was rendered still more 
attractive by nearly two hundred lantern views. Many of the typical 
lepidopterous and other denizens of the Meiringen district. Lucerne, 
Rosenlaui, &c., were enumei-ated, and descriptions given of favourite 
haunts of some of our insular insects and birds in the New, Epping, 



332 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



and Delamere Forests. A hearty vote of thanks having been accorded 
the lecturer, the following exhibits were described and shown : — British 
Donacia, by Messrs. J. F. Dutton and J. E. le B. Tomlin ; Emmetica 
cervinata (Wilts), by Mr. 0. Harrison ; Lithosidse, by Mr. F. N. Pierce ; 
hymenopterous captures during 1902, by Mr. F. Birch ; Tri.i/onotienius 
globulum from Hoy lake, and Ixodidns from leg of a tortoise, by Mr. W. H. 
Jennings ; MeUecns j^aradoxus, and recent coleopterous captures at 
Liverpool, by Mr. Guy A. Dunlop ; some magnificent exotic Lepido- 
ptera, and photographic slides of British lepidopterous larvae shown 
upon the screen, by Mr. J. Jervis Eichardson ; and Coleoptera from 
the Sibutu and Sulu Islands, by Mr. E. J. Burgess Sopp. — E. J. 
Burgess Sopp, Ho7i. Sec. 



EECENT LITEEATUEE. 



J. W. TuTT. — British Lepiduptera. Vol. iii. 558 pages. London : 
Swan Sonnenschein & Co., Paternoster Square, E.C. 

It is pleasant to be able to review such an eminently satisfactory 
book as is the third volume of ' British Lepidoptera.' Its predecessors 
were very welcome, but to a large number of entomologists the mass 
of material relating to the " Micros" was probably unread, and thus 
a large portion of vols. i. and ii. appealed only to a limited number. 
This third volume, therefore, should find more support, as the species 
treated of are all very well known to the great majority of collectors. 
The rainutise inevitably involved in such an undertaking are again 
manifest, and with what effect they have been utilized it is for each 
individual to judge for himself. It is strongly to be hoped that the 
necessary increased support will be forthcoming, and that many more 
numbers are in store for us. 

The super-family Lachneides is continued, and the first species 
treated is L'acliijijastria trifolii, which occupies exactly thirty pages. 
Following this comes the species that has doubtless caused more 
research and taken up more time than any hitherto already done, viz., 
Lasiocampa querais. Preceding the description and all that follows 
concerning the life-history of the type and its numerous forms and 
varieties, is a summary of the experimental work in the hybridizing of 
the different local races. Although nominally we have no chapter to 
commence vol. iii., this summary of hybridization is a very good sub- 
stitute, and has as much general interest as any such that has appeared 
in the previous volumes. By the time the " Times of Appearance," 
" Habits," " Localities," &c., have all been worked through, eighty 
pages have been covered over this species alone, and it is doubtful if 
anything of any moment concerning this insect can have escaped 
Mr. Tutt's attention. 

Passing on to Macrothyhtcia rubi. and CoHmotriche potatoria, perhaps 
one of the most interesting collection of facts is to be found in the 
length and diversified character of the habits of the larvae of these two 
species. To the former as much as five and a half pages are alone 
given to this part of the scheme. Gastropacha ilicifolia comes, in its 



RECENT IJTERA'I'IIRE. 333 

turn, with full descriptions of larva, cocoon, pupa, food-plants, para- 
sites, and so on ; and the collector will doubtless read with avidity the 
" Habits and Habitat " section. 

Under Dinwrpha versicolora the question of its allies is freely dis- 
cussed, and the reader is referred back to vol. i., pp. 124-125, and 
vol ii., p. 440, for further discussion. One cannot help wishing, however, 
that the author would point out where (when possible) the imaginal 
characters are in agreement with the biological ones in assigning, or 
helping to assign, a position to a sub-family. The larval and pupal 
habits under this species are again full of interest, and cannot fail to 
engage the attention of both student and collector. 

At p. 265 the super-family Attacides is brought under review. In 
the Preface the author says he is " entirely dissatisfied with his know- 
ledge of the relationships of the various families of the Saturniides 
(Attacides) inter se, of those of the Sphiugides intei- se, and of these two 
super-families to each other.'" It, however, cannot be that he has not 
probed deep enough, for the thirty pages or so, before our only British 
Attacid [Saturnia pavonia) is treated, require the closest attention of 
the reader. The very thorough examination and diagnoses of the 
characters afforded by the larvae of the Attacides will call for time and 
thought for full digestion. 

From p. 342 to the end of the volume the classification and position 
of the Sphingides are discussed, and the complete natural history of 
the British species of Amorphins and Hemarinae recorded. Starting 
with Linnaeus, and working through Fabricius, Scopoli, Lamarck, 
Latreille, Hiibner, Laspeyre, Oken, Leach, Dalman, Ochsenheimer, 
Swainson, Boisduval, Stephens, Curtis, Duponchel, Duncan, and 
Westwood, a very complete review is given of the generic synonymy 
of the British Sphingids, and at the close a list of the types of the 
genera deduced is set forth. Another long diagnosis is given to the 
history of the super-family, and, starting with Reaumer, the works of 
Hiibner, Stephens, Grote and Robinson, Butler, Herrick-Schaffer, 
Meyrick, Poulton, and Dyar, are all brought under the focus in the 
order given. On pp. 865-866 is a scheme, drawn up by Bacot, for 
separation into genera, based on larval characters, and close following 
is a family and sub-family division proposed by Chapman. Concerning 
the latter, one notes that the Sesiinae are only separated from the 
Eumorphinas by the tufts to the abdomen, a character that certainly 
does not hold good throughout. Perhaps in vol. iv. some better 
character will be furnished when the true Macroglossids come to be 
reviewed. The high specialisations of both larva, pupa, and imago 
are fully discussed. The details concerning the pupa offer food for 
reflection, both as regards the proboscis-casing and the varying 
position of the glazed eye, which latter, if we are not mistaken, is 
brought forward for the first time. We have descriptions given of all 
the different hybrids produced in the Amorphinse, not the least 
interesting being the comparison between the hybrids produced by 
Amorpha popidi and Smerinthus ocellata, and hybrids from Amnrpha 
austauti and Smerinthus atlanticus. A very complete classification of 
the forms and aberrations of Mimas tilicc is to hand at p. 404, and the 
same long lists of localities are given, showing in many cases unsus- 
pected curtailment or otherwise in the range of distribution. On 



334 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

reference, for instance, to Hemaris fuciformls, it is noted as *' exceed- 
ingly rare, if not entirely absent in Scotland and Ireland." No one, 
after this, will deny that these extended lists serve a purpose other 
than that for the collector. 

In conclusion, there is only one matter we really regret, and that 
is that we have had to wait two years for the present instalment. It 
is pretty certain, however, that the book is all the more complete. 

W. J. K. 



Eecent Economic Literature. 
(By G. W. KiRKALDY, F.E.S.) 

G. Darboux and C. Howard. " Hilfsbuch flir das Sammeln der 

Zoocecidien mit Beriicksichtigung der Nahrpflanzen Europas und 

des Mittelnieergebietes," pp. xii and 68. Berlin, 1902. Gebriider 

Borntraeger. 

This is a list of the " gall-makers " of Europe and the basin of the 

Mediterranean, arranged under their respective plants, the latter being 

catalogued alpliabetically under their genera and species. The location 

of the attack is also indicated by signs. The title-page and preface 

are in German and French, and there is an alphabetical appendix of 

183 genera of gall-makers. The little work is plainly but well " got 

up," and of convenient compass, and should be indispensable to 

students of galls and economic entomologists generally. 



Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists (1902, U. S. Dep. Agric. Entom. n. s. 
Bull. xxxi. pp. 1-103 ; two plates and four text fig.). 
Among the numerous interesting papers read at the 1901 meeting 
were E. P. Gillette's account of the Codling Moth (Carpocapsa pomo- 
nella), and notes on Colorado Insects ; E. P. Felt, on the Hessian Ply 
{Cedduinyia destructor), and observations on forest and shade tree 
insects in New York State; W. M. Scott and W. F. Fiske, on "Jar- 
ring for the Curculio," with a list of the numerous Ehynchota and 
Coleoptera collected ; C. L. Marlatt's Preluninary Report on the San 
Jose Scale; and H. Gossard's Review of the Whitefly (Alonrodes citri) 
problem. The discussion on the San Jose Scale {Aspidiotusperniciosus) 
seems to have been very animated, Marlatt and Howard holding that 
the pest was introduced from America into Japan, while Cockerell and 
Kellogg considered that it came to America via Japan. The Japanese 
forms were generally considered to be the true pemiciosus. 



E. E. Green. " Mosquitoes and Malaria" (1901, December, Botanic 
Gardens, Ceylon ; Circular, 1st series, no. 25, pp. 345-68). 
In common with all other practical investigators. Green holds that 
the connection between malarial fever and mosquitoes has passed out 
of the hypothetical stage ; the only debatable pomt, even about which 
there is very little difference of opinion, is " whether the mosquito is 



RECENT LITERATURE. 335 

the sole medium of infection." The "mosquito" — of which twenty 
species belonging to nine genera are noted as Sinhalese, though only 
one species, viz. Anopheles' rossii, Giles, " has been definitely proved to 
convey the malarial germs" — is pronounced guilty of an appalling 
series of crimes ; malarial fever, filariasis (including elephantiasis), 
excessive anaemia, yellow fever, and " after-efi'ects " following repeated 
attacks of malaria, such as the dangerously enlarged spleen so preva- 
lent amongst natives, derangement of the liver, &c., " Bright's Disease," 
•&c. It is therefore obvious that practical studies in the most minute 
detail are of the highest national importance, and it is remarkable that 
British entomological journals should have devoted so little attention 
to notices of some part at least of the vast amount of work already 
done.* It is evident from perusal of the daily and weekly news- 
papers that an enormous amount of misconception and pig-headed 
ignorance as to the causes of malarial fever, &c., still remains to be 
combatted. 

As these Circulars are primarily for the benefit of residents in 
Ceylon, not specially entomologists, the present one is necessarily to a 
certain extent a compilation ; at the same time the whole subject is 
very adequately treated in the brief space at the author's disposal, and 
it is evident that Mr. Green has thoroughly and practically investigated 
the details discussed. 

Preventive measures are considered at some length. 

1. " THose aimed at tlis extennination of the mosquito " ; and 2. " The 
elimination of the main rial element. — To destroy the early stages in their 
breeding-pools, as advocated by L. 0. Howard, rags soaked in kerosine 
are employed for painting the surface of the water, thus forming a 
thin film, which is rapidly fatal to the inhabitants of the pools. Of 
course this treatment is not feasible for drinking-water ; the tanks or 
cisterns for this should be constructed with closely fitting covers. 
Moreover, as the oil is as destructive to plants as to animals, it is in- 
applicable for ornamental lakes containing water-plants, or for rice- 
fields. A good system of drainage of useless pools is strongly advo- 
cated. For protection against the adults, '• mosquito cones," castor- 
oil plants, &c., are considered entu-ely useless ; the isolation of active 
"eases" of malarial fever and the proper use of quinine are advo- 
cated. 

3. ^' Protection from the bites of mosquitoes. — The construction of 
mosquito-proof bungalows, such as have been experimentally erected 
in Africa and Italy, and are in use in America, is recommended ; 
but Mr. Green fears that the question of expense and the aesthetic 
feeling of those who would dislike to reside in a huge meat-safe 
are likely to prevail at present. The use of properly constructed 
mosquito-nets and applications of various substances, particularly 
common soap, are advised, the latter being very effective for curative 
purposes. 

John B. Smith discusses interesting insecticide experiments at some 
length in "The Entomologists' Experimental Orchard" (1902, New 
Jersey Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 155, pp. 1-71). 

* See, however, ' Eutomologist,' 1900, pp. 133, 218, 363, &c. 



33() THE KNTOMOLOGI8T. 

Malcolm Burr. "The Earwigs of Ceylon." 1902, Journ. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1901, pp. 59-78 and 316-36 ; two plates (one 
coloured). 
A VALUABLE account of the Sinhalese Forficularia, which are of 
special interest as embracing the long enigmatic D>/scritina, now, 
through the researches of E. E. Green, known to be the larva of 
Diphiti/s. After an introduction dealing with the external morphology 
of the group,* the genera and species are fully discussed systematically. 
Fifteen genera and thirty-five species (four new) are credited to the 
fauna ; of these seventeen are preciiictive, ten confined to the Southern 
Oriental Region, three extend over this and also over the Malayan 
Archipelago, one of the latter also over Polynesia ; one is found in the 
Kamemns, and in Ceylon, and four are cosmopolitan. The large pro- 
portion — practically 50 per cent. — of precinctive species is doubtless 
due largely to the indifference of collectors in the Oriental Eegion. 
The two plates, by Mr. Schuster, are carefully drawn and effective. 



Geo(jraphical Distribution. — R. F. Schaeff publishes a preliminary 
note on the influence of the Pyrenees on the animal migrations be- 
tween France and Spain. The details are taken from Vertebrata and 
MoUusca, with the exception of a reference to the butterfly Pamasdiis 
apolh), but the conclusions will be interesting to other workers. Dr. 
Scharff states (a) that although the Pyrenees formed an obstacle to 
the migration of animals between France and Spain, and vice versa, 
nevertheless they would readily be able to go round on the east and 
west sides ; and (/?) that the older, widely distributed species have 
travelled mostly over the mountain-ridges. It is also to be accepted 
as a fact that this migration took place in most cases before the Ice 
Age (" Uber den Einfluss der Pyrenilen auf die Tierwanderungen 
zwischen Fraukreich und Spauien," 1902 Verb. V. Internat. Zool. 
Cougr. Berlin, 1901, pp. 1-5 [sep. ?] ) 



Rhynchota. — Mrs. C. H. Fernald discusses the application of the 
type of the Linnean genus Coccus, and concludes that that distinction 
should be conferred upon liesperidum Linne. Coccus, therefore, replaces 
Lecanium Burmeister (= Calypticus and Cali/miuitus Costa). The 
species so long known as Coccus cacti will, as shown by Cockerell, 
now bear the name Mouophlebus cacti. We are glad to learn that Mrs. 
Fernald will soon publish a synonymic Catalogue of the Coccidse. 
Owing to their economic importance, stability in their nomenclature 
is more important even than in other groups, and many wide changes 
have been effected in this respect since the appearance, in January, 
1899, of the first supplement to Cockerell's Check-list (1902, " On 
the type of the genus Coccus, L." Canadian Entom., pp. 232-3). 

* Mr. Burr believes that many " so-called cases of gynandromorphism 
are merely males with one branch of tlie forceps undeveloped, i. e. simple, 
and resembling those of the female. In all the instances that 1 have seen 
there have been nine abdominal segments visible, as in the normal male." 



ir 



V 






'^^ > }if ^'^r 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



New Genera and Species are marked with an asterisk. 



COLEOPTERA. 



Acanthocinus sedilis, 135 

Adalia bipunctata, 31, 64 

i-Egialia rufa, 124 

Agabus arcticus, 324 ; nebulosus, 137 

Agrilus sinuatus, 322 ; viridis, 322 

Aleochara fuscipes, 324 

AinmcBcius brevis, 363 

Anchomenus gracilis, 344 ; thoreyi, 344 

Anisotonia picea, 363 

Anomala friscbi, 344 

Anoplodera sexguttata, 135, 323 

Anthaxia nitidula, 322 

Antherophagus silaceus, 363 

Anthicus bimaculatus, 363 ; fioralis, 

324 ' 
Aphodius lapponum, 186 
Apoderus coryli, 135, 232 
Asemum striatum, 323 
Attelabus curculionoides, 232, 360 
Bagous cylindricus, 137, 363 
Balaninus venosus, 135 
Bembidium moiiticola, 135 ; nigricorne, 

186 ; schuppeli, 161 
Bradycellus eollaris, 324 
Bryaxis juncorum, 135 
Buprestis sanguinea, 321, 323 
Byturus sambuci, 136 
Calandra oryziB, 344 
Caltha palustris, 324 
Campylus linearis, 344 
Carabus arvensis, 186 ; glabratus, 186, 

363 ; hampei, 64 ; nitens, 186 
Cassida equestris, 290, 323 
Cerambyx fedilis, 298 
Ceuthorhynchus sulcicoUis, 133 ; quer- 

ceti, 344 
Ceuthorrhynchidius dawsoni, 363 
Chla^nius nigricornis, 364 ; vestitus, 136 
Chrysomela cerealis, 364 ; salisburien- 

sis, 59 
Cicindela campestris, 104 
Coccinella sedecim-guttata, 323 ; 19- 

punctata, 344 
Colydium elongatum, 322 
Corymbites teneus, 135 
Crepidodera modeeri, 344 
Crioceris asparagi, 31, 135, 136 
Crypticus, 344 



Crytopiiagus pubescens, 324 
Cryptorhynchus lapathi, 344 
Cteniopus sulphureus, 135 
Cychrus rostratus, 232 
Deporaiis betulse, 232 
Diabrotica 12-punctata, vittata, 300 
Disonycha argentiaensis,* 147; caroli- 
ana, 148 ; costipennis, 147 ; creni- 
collis, 148 ; floridana,* 146 ; glabrata, 
148 ; labiata,* 148 ; pennsylvanica, 
147 ; venezuelas,* 148 
Donacia affinis, 344; bicolor, 231 ; cin- 
erea, 231 ; clavipes, 344 ; comara, 
344 ; crassipes, 323 ; discolor, 231, 
324 ; impressa, 344 ; menyanthidis, 
344; semicuprea, 231, 344; sericea, 
231,323; simplex, 231 ; versicolorea, 
323 
Dytiscus circuraflexus, 140 ; marginalis, 

118 ; punctulatus, 107, 118 
Elater pomorum, 232 
Erirhinus nereis, 344 
Eros aurora, 135 
Galeruca lineola, nympheffi, sagittariffi, 

344 ; tenella, 344, 363 
Gastroidea viridulis, 118 
Geotrypes spiniger, 63 
Glyphoderes sterquilinus, 209 
Gymnetron pascuorum, 344 
Gymnusa brevicollis, 256 
Helioeopris gigas, 183 
Hister marginatus, 321 
Homalota trinotata, 324 
Hydrsna nigrita, 363 
Hydrochus elongatus, 363 
Hydrothassa hauoverana, 324 
Hylastinus obscurus, 361 
Hypocephalus armatus, 59 
Lachophilus interruptus, 344 
LitmophlcEus ater, 361 
Larinus carlinaj, 135 
Leioi^us nebulosus, 323 
Leptinotarsa 10-lineata, 64 
Lucanus cervus, 256 
Malthodes dispar. 344 
Medoia castaneus, 322 
Melasis buprestoides, 135, 322 
Melasoma jeneum, 136 ; cupreum, 64 

b 



11 



INDEX. 



Melolontha solstitialis, 106 

Metaecus paradoxus, 324 

Mici'ozoum, 344 

Mycetophagus quadripustulatus, 210 

Necrophorus ruspator, 106 

Notiophilus expunctatus, 135 

Odontseus mobilicornis, 209 

Onthophagus vacca, 62 

Orina, 59 

Orthocliffites setiger, 363 

Pathocerus wagneri, 209 

Phloeophthorus rhododactylus, 361 

J^hloeopora corticalis, 363 

Phyllobrotica 4-maculata, 135 

Phyllotreta nemorum, 124 ; undulata, 

124 
Phytodecta rufipes, 232 
Platydema violaceum, 322 
Psammcechus bipunctatus, 344 
Psylliodes cyanoptera, 133 ; dulcamarfe, 

tricina, 344 
Pterostichus jethiops, 186 ; striola, 232 
Ptinus brunneus, 64 



Pyrophorus noctilucus, 210 

Ehagium bifasciatum, 231 

Bhinoncus gramineus, 363 

Ehizobius jujubae, 127 

EhizoLrogus solstitialis, 250 

Khynchites cupreus, 324 

Saperda scalaris, 135 

Scolytus intricatus, 322 

Silis I'uficollis, 344 

Silpha biguttata, 183 ; sinnata, 363 

Sinodendion cylindricum, 136, 137 

Sitones cambricus, 136 

Sphffirites glabratus, 324 

Stenocorus fasciatus, 63 

Stilicus, 135 

Strangalia nigra, 323 

Tachypus flavipes, 135 

Telephorus abdominalis, 324 ; darwini- 

auus, 324 ; figuratus, 344 
Tetrax)halerus wagneri, 209 
Trichius fasciatus, 135 
Velleius dilatatus, 321 
Xantholinus linearis, 324 



DIPTEEA. 



Actina tibialis, 203 

Anopheles, 121 

Anthrax fenestralis, 29 ; fenesti-ata, 29, 

137; flava, 137; paniscus, 28, 137, 

203, 362 
Asilus crabroniformis, 187 
Atherix crassipes, 28 
Beris vallata, 345 
Bittacomori^ha clavipes, 140 
Calobata petronella, 345 
Cecidomyia campanula, 276 ; destructor, 

64 ; pruni, 276 ; salicis, 274 
Ceromasia spectabilis, 345 
Ceroxys crassicornis, 345 ; crassipennis, 

13t3 
Chironomus plumosus, 120 
Chrysogaster hirtella, macquarti, 345 
Chrysojjs relictus, 345 
Chrysotoxum festivum, 203 
Cordylura, 20 ; albipes, ai^icalis, 345 
Corethra asiatica,* Giles, 196 ; plumi- 

cornis, 122 
Culex, 121 ; albopectus, 193 ; guberna- 

torius,* Giles, 194 ; fasciatus, 192 ; 

notoscriptus, 192 ; pseudotteniatus,* 

Giles, 192 ; pulchriventer,* Giles, 194 ; 

scutellaris, 193 ; tffiuiatus, 192 ; tri- 

tasniorhynchus,* Giles, 192 
Didea alneti, fasciata, intermedia, 137 
Dioctria rufipes, 345 
Dysmachus trigonus, 203, 345 
Ensnia sonclii, 136, 202 
Eristalis sepulchralis, 345 
Gastrophilus equi, 63 
Hffiinatopota italica, 158 ; pluvialis, 136, 

345 



Helophilus lineatus, versicolor, 345 

Hippobosca equina, 63 

Hoplogaster bicolor, mollicula, 345 

Hyetodesia errans, variabilis, 345 

Hypoderma bovis, 63 

Leptis, 28 

Leucozona lucorum, 345 

Limnia marginata, rufifrons, ungru- 

cornis, 187 
Liogaster splendida, 345 
Melanochelia riparia, 345 
Melanostoma hyalinatum, 137 
Melophagus ovinus, 63 
Microchrysa flavicornis, polita, 345 
Mochlonyx, 196 
Morinia nana, 345 
Notiphila uliginosa, 345 
Odontomyia ornata, 158 ; tigrina, 158, 

345 ; viridula, 158 
ffistrus ovinus, ovis, 63 
Oncomyia atra, 203 
Oxycera pulchella, 137, 158, 203 ; trilin- 

eata, 158 
Pelecocera tricincta, 137 
Physocephala rufipes, 203 
Pipuneulus confusus, 345 
Platychirus fulviventris, 345 
Polietes lardaria, 345 
Pteropffictria frondescentriae, 203, 345 
Pyrophiena ocymi, rosarum, 345 
Bivellia syngenesias, 203 
Sargus flavipes, 158 
Sciomyza albocostata, 345 
Sepedon sphegeus, 187 ; spinipes, 187, 

345 
Sphenella marginata, 202 



INDEX. 



SpilogTtapha alternata, 202 
Stegomyiagubernatorius,* 194; pseudo- 

treniatus,* 192; scutellaris, 193 
Stratiomys chameleon, 137, 203 
Tabanus anilis, annulata, 158 ; bromius, 

29 
TcBniorhynchus ager,* Giles, 196 
Tephritis barclans, 136, 202 ; miliaria, 

202; tessellata, 136, 202; vespertina, 

203 



Tipula maculosa, oleracea, 124 
Trichocera, 40 
Tropidia milesiformis, 345 
Trypeta cornuta, tussilaginis, 

202 
Urellia eluta, stellata, 136, 203 
Urophora solstitialis, 202 
Volucella zouaria, 187 



136, 



HYMENOPTERA. 



Aglaoaiiis,* Cameron, 262 ; brevipennis,* 
Gam., 262 

AUautus arcuatus, 360 

Ammophila campestris, hirsuta, 137 ; 
sabulosa, 137, 202 

Aadrena apicata, ambigua, 187 ; bi- 
maculata, 136, 201, 202 ; bicolor, 201 ; 
cetii, 136, 201, 202; cingulata, 136; 
coitana, 201 ; fucata, 187 ; gwynana, 
201 ; helvola, 187 ; lapponica, 187 ; 
minutula, 345 ; nigriceps, 201 ; simil- 
lima, 201 ; tridentata, 201 ; varians, 
187 

Andricus cirratus, curvator, inflator, 
quadnlineatus, ramuli, 275 ; teimin- 
alis, 270 

Anthidium manicatum, 201 

Astata boops, 135, 136, 202 

Aulax rhcBadis, 271 

Bassus Isetatorius, 344 

Biorhiza aptera, 272 ; terminalis, 272, 
275 

Blennocampa albipes, ephippium, fusci- 
pennis, 344 

Callimone aequalis, 274 ; affinis, 270 ; 
angelicffi, 272 ; autumualis, 275 ; 
chloromerus, 274 ; confinis, 275 ; cy- 
nipedes, 271; dauci, 275; devonien- 
sis, 272 ; eurynotus, 271 ; formosus, 
275 ; inconstans, lateralis, 272 ; lepto- 
cerus, 275 ; littoralis, 270 ; macro- 
ptera, minutus, mutabilis, 275 ; no- 
tatus, pubescens, 270 ; quadricolor, 
regalis, roboris, 272 ; rosaceus, 271 ; 
rudis, subterraneus, 272 

Cephus linearis, pygmjeus, 344, 345 

Chelostoma campanulum, 136 

Chrysis viridula, 136 

Cilissa, 202 ; h£emorrhoidalis, leporina, 
201 

Cleptes pallipes, 187, 202 

Coelioxys acuminata, elongata, 201 

CoUetes fodiens, succincta, 201 

CoUyria calcitrator, 344 

Crabro anxius, 202 ; chrysostoma, erib- 
rarius, 202; clavipes, 136,345 ; pan- 
zeri, palmarius, 202 ; peltarius, ."^45 ; 
quadrimaculatus, 136, 202 ; tibialis, 
136 

Crypturus fulvipes, 330 



Cynips koUari, 272 

Diastrophus rubi, 275 

Dinura stilata, 344 

Diodontus minutus, tristis, 202 

Diomorus armatus, nobilis, 270 

Diplolepis juniperi, 274 

Dryoplianta divisa, 272 ; f olii, 272 ; longi- 

ventris, 271 
Eciton sumichrasti, 140 
Emphytus calceatus, o44 
Entomognathus brevis, 202 
Epeolus, 202 ; productus, 201 
Eriocampa annulipes, 344 
Formica rufa, 209 
Gorytes quinquecinctus, 860 
Halictus cylindricus, 201, 345 ; albipes, 

201, ;345 ; rubicundus, 201 ; zonulus, 

201 
Hedychrum rutilans, 361 
Holaspis holaspis, militaris, 271 
Ichneumon albicinctus, 344 ; bedegu- 

aris, 273 ; erucarum, fulgens, 271 ; 

juniperi, 274 
Lasius fuliginosus, 137 ; niger, 184 
Macrophya albicincta, 12-punctata, 344 
Megachile centuncularis, maritima, 201 
Melhnus sabulosus, 135, 136, 202 
Mimesa equestris, 135, 202 
Monodontomerus obscurus, dentipes, 

270 
Myrmosa melanocephala, 202 
Nematus abdominalis, 344 ; cinerea, 

345; fulvipes, 344; gallicola, 273, 

274 ; ribesii, 344 ; salicis, 345 ; vallis- 

nerii, 273 
Neuroterus lenticularis, 274, 275 
Nomada flavoguttata, laterales, 136 ; ob- 

tusifrons, 136, 201 ; solidaginis, 201 
Nysson dimidiatus, 136, 202 
Odynerus callosus, 202 ; gracilis, 136 ; 

parietum, 345 ; pictus, 202 
Oligosthenus stigma, 271 
Ophion luteum, 02 

Osmia, 59 ; aurulenta, 136, 187 ; bi- 
color, cferulescens, xanthomelana, 136 
Oxybelus uniglumis, 202 
Parevaspis, 262 
Pemphredon lugubris, 202 
Perdita affinis, albipennis, 190 ; asteris, 

bigeloviffi, 191 ; bruneri, crawfordi,* 

b2 



IV 



INDEX. 



CockereU, 190 ; phymatse, 191 ; per- 

pallida,* CocA:., 190; maura, * Coc/c, 

vagans, 191 ; wootonfe, 190 
Perilissus fumatus, 344 
Perisemus triareolatus, 344 
Phffiogenes collaris, 344 
Pcecilosomaexcisum, guttatum, liturata, 

344 
Polistes, 331 

Pompilus niger, 202 ; viaticus, 202 
Pteromalus, 274 
Ehodites eglanterifE, 270 
Khogas circumscriptus, 344 
Ehyssa persuasoria, 344 
Salius propinquus, 360 
Selandria raorio, 344 
Sirex gigas, 136, 344, 345 ; juvencus, 

136 
Sphecodes, 202 
Spinoliella australior, 191 
Stelis, 262 ; aterrima, 201 
Syntomaspis cyanea, 271 ; fastuosa, 

pubescens, saphirina, 270 
Tachytes pectinii^es, 136, 202 
Telenomus graptje, 211 
Tenthredo atra, moniliata, punctulata, 

344 
Tenthredopsis tiiise, 344 



Tiphia femorata, 135, 202 ; minuta, 136, 
202 

Torymusabbreviatus, 273; abdominalis, 
affinis, 272 ; amethystinus, amoenus, 
appropinquus, 274 ; armatus, 270 ; 
auratns, 275 ; azureus, 272 ; bedegu- 
aris, 273 ; campanulas, 276 ; caudatus, 
270, 272 ; chlorinus, chlorocopes, 274 ; 
chrysocephalus, 272 ; compressus, 
275 ; cyaneus, 271 ; dauci, 275 ; dru- 
parura, 273 ; elegans, 273 ; erucarum, 
271 ; euchlorus, 274 ; fastuosa, 270 ; 
foersteri, 273 ; fulgens, fulgidus, 270 ; 
fuscipes, 274 ; galii, gracilis, 275 ; 
hibernans, 274 ; holaspis, 271 ; igni- 
ceps, 274; juniperi, 274; maciopterus, 
muscarum, 275 ; nigricans, nobilis, 
272; propinquus, 275; pruni, 276; 
pubescens, 270 ; pumilis, 274 ; pur- 
purascens, 275 ; regius, 272 ; sapphi- 
rinus, 270 ; sodalis, 275 ; tipulari- 
arum, 274 ; vallisnierii,* Cam., vari- 
ans, 273 ; ventralis, 272 ; viridis, 276 ; 
viridissiinus, 275 

Tryphon scotopterus, 344 

Trypoxylon clavicerum, 136, 202 ; figu- 
lus, 202 

Xyphidria camelus, 34 



EHYNCHOTA. 



Acanthicus, 177 [177 

Acanthocephala compressipes, latipes, 
Acanthocerus, 219 ; sanctus, 178, 218 
Acanthosoma griseum, 135 
Acinocoris calidus, 218 
Acocephalus, 219, 338 ; albifrons, 324 

brunneobifasciatus, 30, 324 ; flavo- 

striatus, 324 
Acompus rufipes, 346 
Actorus fossularum, 219 
Acucephalus, 219, 279 
^lia acuminata, 135 
^lioides inflexus, 135 
^thalia, 219 
Agallia, 337, 338 ; consobrina, puncti- 

ceps, 178, 339 
Agapophyta bipunctata, 176 
Agonosoma flavolineata, 178 
Alebra, 338 
Alidus, 219 
Amaurus, 218 
Amblycephalus viridis, 178 
Amorgius, 6 ; americana, 114 ; dey- 

roUii, 50; impressa, 114; indica, 51, 

113, 215 
Amphibolus venator, 176 
Amphiscepa, 176 
Anasa tristis, 300 
Anisops breddini,* Kirk., ciliata, fie- 

beri,* Kirk., nivea, productus, 5; vit- 

reus, 6 
Anisoscele foliaceus, 178, 219 



Anisoscelis, 176 

Anoplocnemis phasianus, 115 

Anthocoris, 177 ; nemorum, 135 

Apache,* Kirk. ; rosea, 6 

Aphfena, 176 

Aphana, 219 

Ajjhanus rolandri, 177 

Aphelocheirus ffistivalis, 179 

Aphis gossypii, 300 

Aphrodes albifrons, 178, 338 ; brunneo- 
bifasciata, fiavostriata, fuscofasciata, 
nervosa, rivularis, serratulae, striata, 
338 ; testudo, 178 

Aphrophora, 49 [218 

Apiomerus, 176 ; hirtipes, nigrilobus, 

Aptus, 176 

Aradus, 177 

Arseopus crassicornis, 340 

Archiinerus, 219 

Arenocoris, 218 

Arilus, 176 

Arma, 177 

Ascra bifida, 176 

Asiraca clavicornis, 340 

Asopus, 218 

Aspidiotis (-us) duplex, 226 ; moorei, 
paionitB, 226 ; perniciosus, 233 ; rho- 
dodendri, tesserata, theas, trilobiti- 
formis, 226 

Aspidotoma capitata, 178 

Aspongopus janus, 178 

Astacops, 219 



INDEX. 



Atelocera armata, 178 

Atelocerus, 219 [338 

Athysanus obsoletus, striatus, striola, 

Atractus cinereus, 177 

Attus pulicarius, 177 

Atypa gibba, 177 

Augocoris, 219 [116 

Austrocapsus,* Kirk. ; martigena,*^irA;. 

Azinecera, 176 

Balclutha punctata, 338 

Batrachomorphusirroratus, 219 ; micro- 
cephala, 219, 339, 340 

Bellocoris, 218 

Belostomum, 219 [113 

Belostoma, 6 ; fluminea, 116 ; indicus, 

Benacus grisea, 114 

Blissus hirtulus, 176 ; leucopterus, 300 

Bocydium, 176 ; globularis, 179 

Boecula, 286 

Bonacialis,* Distant, 346 ; dixoni,* 
IDist., 347 

Bothriocera tinealis, 219 

Brachyplatys vanikorensis, 219 

Brachyrynchus membranaceus, orienta- 
lis, 177 _ [178 

Brachystethus geniculatus, marginatus, 

Bryocoris, 176 

Bythoscopus, 179 ; fJavicoUis, 346 ; lanio, 
219, 339, 340 ; tilia?, 340 

Cffilidia, 176 

Calidea signata, 178 

Caliscelis bonellii, 178 ; heterodoxa, 179 

Callidea. 219 

Calliscelis, 153 

Calmar,* Kirk. ; punctata, 6 

Caloscelis, 219 

Calymnatus acuminatus, angustatus, 
flaveolus, hesperidum, longulus, min- 
imus, nanus, schini, terminaliae, viri- 
dis, 91 

Calypticus spumosus, 91 

CalyiJtoproctus, 153 ; stigma, 151 

Cantao ocellatus, 52 

Catacanthus nigripes, 52 

Centrotus cornutus, 323 

Cephalelus, 219 ; infumatus, 177, 339 

Cephalocterus, 219 

Cephalocteus, 219 ; histeroides, 218 

Ceptocris, 218 

Cerascopus marginatus, 176 

Cerbus, 170, 218; umbilicatus, 219 

Cercopis lineata, spumaria, 388 

Cerynia maria, 259 

Chariesterus armatus, gracilis, 177 

Chermes fuscus, 91 ; quercus, reni- 
formis, 92 [249 

Chionaspis myrthi, 93 ; retigera,* Cock., 

Chlaenocoris impressus, 219 

Chlamydatus margmatus, 178 

Chondrocera laticornis, 177 

Chorosoma arundinis, schillingi, 176 

Chrysocoris stolli, 218 

ChrysomphalusmimoScT, 226; phenax,* 
Cock. ; rossi, 225 

Cicada, 187 ; bihamata, 49 ; clavicornis. 



340 ; crassicornis, 340 ; flammata, 

leeclii, 49 
Cicadella, 176 

Cicadetta, 187 ; pellosoma, 50 
Cicadula punctifrons, sexnotata, vari- 

ata, 338 
Ciccus, 176 
Cicus, 177 

Cimbus, 176, 219 ; versicolor, 178 
Cixia, 219 
Cixius, 153 
Clinocoris, 218 
Coccus alni, 92; amygdali, 93; betulffi, 

carpini, 91 ; clematidis, coryli, costa- 

tus, 92 ; cratpegi, 90 ; fuscus, 91 ; mes- 

pili, 90 ; persieffi, persicorum, tilise, 

92 ; tuberculatus, 93 ; uva, 92 ; vitis, 

90 
Ccelidia venosa, 219 
CoUiocoris griseus, subapterus, 179 
Colmadona,* Kirk., fenestratus, 6 
Colobathristes, 219 
Colpoptera, 219 
Combophora, 179 
Conorhinus, 177 
Copius, 177 

Coptosoma 218 ; globus, scutellatus, 178 
Coranus, 179 ; pedestris, subapterus, 178 
Corecoris cinnamomeus, 179 
Corixa, 52 ; affinis, 6; geoffroyi, 9 ; hiero- 

glyphica, lateralis, 6 
Corixia, 177 
Corizus, 176 
Cosmopsaltria fete, hainanensis,* Dist., 

247 ; opalifera, 49 
Craspedum, 88 
Crinocerus, 219 

Criomorphus albomarginatus, 178 
Cryptostemma alienum, 176 
Ciyptotympana pustulata, 49 
Cydonus, 218 
Cylapas tenuicornis, 176 
Cyllecoris, 218 
Cymatia, 9 
Cymus, 177 ; glandicolor, 346 ; clavi- 

culus, 219 
Cyphonia ornata, trifida, 177 
Cyphotes nodosa, 219 
Cyptocoris lundii, 219 
Dactylopius filamentosus, 224 
Dasycoris hirticornis, 135 
Dasynus coccocinctus, 218 
Delphax, 153, 340 

Deltocepbalus, 337, 338 ; ocellaris, 338 
Deroploa parva, 218 
Diactor elegans, 178 
Diaspis auranticolor, crawii var. fulleri,* 

Cock., pentagona, 225 
Dicraneura, 6, 339 
Dicranomerus, 176 ; nugax, 219 
Dictyonota eryngii, strichnocera, 176 
Dictyophara, 153, 179 ; Dictyophora, 

219 
Dictyotus vilis, 52 [338 

Dikraneura, 6, 338, 339 ; flavipennis, 



VI 



INDEX. 



Dindymus sanguineus, 52 
Dinidor, 176 
Dinocoris, 219 
Diplonychus rustica, 177 
Discocephala marraorea, 178 
Discocera, 178, 218 
Discogaster, 219 

Diseomenis erosa, 177 [114 

Disphinctus dudgeoni, 115; formosus, 
Dorycephalus, 'S'68 

Dorydium infumatus, 219, 339; lanceo- 
latum, 339 ; paradoxum, 219, 339 ; 
westwoodi, 339 
Dryptocephala, 178 ; biuUei, 177 
Dimdubia opalifera, 49 
Ectrichodia, 219 
Ectrychotes, 219 
Edessa, 176 
Embolophora, 6, 340 
Embolophpoia, 340 

Empicoris variolosus, 218 
Empoasca smaragdula, 338 

Entilia, 179, 219 

Eodelphax,* Kirk., 39; serendiba,* 
Kirk., 40 [39 

Eogypona,* Kirk., 38; kirbyi, walkeri, 

Euacanthus, 219, 3o8 

Euagoras, 219 

Ealecanium alni, coryli, 92; fuscuni, 
91 ; persicffi, tilise, vini, 92 

Eulopa, 176 

Eumallia variegata, 218 

Eumerus, 176 [178 

Eupteryx atropunctata, 178, 346 ; picta, 

Eurybrachys, 153, 170 ; lepeletieri, 
218 

Eurycex^hala atrata, luteicollis, 177 

Euryeera cornutum, nigricornis, 177 

Eurydema oleracea, 178 [178 

Eurygaster fuscocucullatus, hottentotta, 

Euryophthalmus, 178, 219 

Euryptera obscura, 218 

Eusthenes robusta, 178 

Eysarcoris, 218 

Fulgora, 150 ; candelarius, 50 ; later- 
naria, 210 ; naaculatus, 50 [178 

Galeatus angustieollis, 178 ; spinifrons. 

Geisha distinctissima, 50, 259 

Geocoris, 176 ; colon, 52 

Gerris anadyomene,* A'/rA-., 117 ; cana- 
lium, 51 ; costs, 256 ; fletcheri,* 
Kirk., 51 ; minuta, 117 ; najas, 51, 
231 ; odontogaster, 231 ; pallidum, 
51 ; sakuntala,* Kirk., 117 

Germaria cucuUata, marmorata, 177 

Globocoris globus, scutellatus, 178, 218 

Gnathodus, 338 

Gonocerus, 176 

Giaphosoma, 178 ; rubrolineatum, 52 

Graptopsaltria colorata, 49 

Gulielmus,* Dist., lateraiius,* Dist., 
marmoratus,* Dist., 347 

Gypona, 337 ; kirbyi, prasina, striata, 
walkeri, 39 

Halobates micans, 178 



Halticus apterus, pallicornis, 177 
Hammacerus, 219 ; conspicillaris, 178 
Hammatocerus, 219 
Hansenia pnlverulenta, 259 
Harmostes dorsalis, 219 
Harpactor angulatus, angulosus, 177 
Hebrus pusilla, 178 
Hecalus, 338 
Helopeltis theivora, 115 
Hemichionaspis cyanogena,* Cock., mi- 
nor, mussfenda?, these, 226 
Hemidictya frondosa, 219 
Hemiptycha, 179 
Henicocephalus, 209 
Heterogaster, 176 ; urticfe, 177 
Heteronota, 219 
Heteronotus, 177 
Heteroscelis, 176 ; servillei, 178 
Hexatoma marginalis, tipuliformis, 177 
Holoptilus, 178 
Holotriclaius, 219 
Homalocoris, 178 
Homceocerus, 219 
Hoplophora, 6, 179 
Hoplophorion,* Kirk., 6 
Hydroessa, 219 

Hydrometra, 219 ; stagnorum, 231 
Hylophila, 176 
Hymeniphera crucifer, 177 
Hynnis rosea, 6, 219 ; degeeri, 219 
Hypsauchenia ballista, 219 
Hypselonotus, 178 
Hypselopus, 219 

Icerya koebelei, 249 [219 

Idiocerus, 336-9 ; adustus, stigmaticalis, 
Issns, 154 
Jalla dumosa, 177 
Kallipterygia,* Kirk., macquarti,.6 
Kallitaxila,* Kirk., granulata, 6 
Kermes, 91 ; quercus, 92 
Kleidocerys, 176 
Kybos, 338 

Labops diopsis, sahlbergi, 219 
Lamproptera, 179 
Largus, 176, 219 
Lasiocera, 177 
Lecanium hesperidiuni, 91 ; persicas, 

prunastri, rotundum, vini, 92 
Ledra, 338 ; aurita, 152 
Leptocoris, 218 ; abdominalis, rufus, 179 
Leptocorisa, 176 ; varicornis, 52 
Leptocorise linearis, 178 
Leptoglossns dilaticollis, 176 
I.eptonieris picta, 177 
Leptoscelis hasmorrhoidalis, 177 
Liburnia, 6 ; iDellucida, 340 
Limnobates, 219 
Limnometra, 117 
Lophocei3hala guerini, 177 
Lophococcus,* Cock., 227; mirabilis,* 

Cock., 226, 227, 248 
Lopus, 176 ; hieracei, thunbergii, 178 
Loriceriis, 176 ; hrematogaster, 218 
Loricnla pselaphiformis, 178 
Lycoderes ancora, 219 



INDEX. 



VU 



Lygus, 178 

Machserota, 153 ; ensifera, 219 

Macrops, 219 

Macropsis, 219, 338; flavicollis, lanio, 

virescens, 340 
Macrophthalmus, 219 ; pallens, 177 
Mseonia, 6 
Margarocles uva, 92 
Megalotonius, 52 
Megalymenum, 219 
Megamelus, 153 

Meganotus apterus, 177 | 

Megarhynclius elongatus, rostratus, 178 
Megophthalmus, bipunctatus, scanicus, 

178 
Megymenum, 17G, 218 ; clentatum, 178 
Membracis tectigera, 152 
Menenotus lunatus, 177 [tis, 178 

Merocoris merianas, meriani, 218 ; tris- 
Meropachus nigricans, 177 
Meropachys, 219 

Metrocoris lituratus, 51 [177 

Micrelytra, 219 ; apterus, fossularum, 
Microphysa pselaphiformis, 218 
Microtoma echii, 177 
Microvelia, 219, 285 ; pygmroa, 218,^231 
Mietis profana, 52 
Monanthia cardui, 135 ; echii, 178 
Monophlebus fortis,* Cock., 224; ful- 

leri,* CocA;., 223 ; iDrimitivus, walkeri- 

ana, 224 
Mononyx raptoria, 177 
Montandonista,* Kirk., 6 
Myocoris, 219 
Myodocha varicornis, 52 
Myrmus miriformis, 177 
Mytilaspis defecta, 250 ; myrthi, 93 
Nabis, 177 ; rugosus, 135 
Najmatopus, 219 [lus, 177 

Njeogeus, 178 ; erythrocephalus, pusil- 
Nebrissa, 6 

Nematope nervosus, 178. 
Nematopus, 176 
Neovelia, 285 ; trailii, 286 
Nepa cinerea, 51 
Notocera, 6 

Notocyrtus clavipes, 219 
Notonecta glauca, maculata, 61 
Nysius thymi, 346 

Ochetopus denticulatus, spinicollis, 178 
Odontopus sexpuuctatus, 177 
Odontoscelis, 218 ; fuliginosa, 178 
Odontotarsus, 218 ; grammicus, pur 

pureolineatus, 178 
(Elia, 177 

Oncocephalus, 176 ; squalidus, 219 
Oncomeris flavicornis, 178 
Oncomerus, 219 
Oncopsis, 339 ; tilire, 340 
Ophthalmicus, 176 
Opinus, 178 

Opistoplatys australasiie, 218 
Opsiccetus, 176 
Orectoderus, 324 
Oriterus, 176 



Orthezia urticfe, 93 

Orthonotus, 176 

Orthorapha cassidioides, 177 

Otiocerus stollii, 219 

Oxynotus gibba, 178 

Oxyrhacis tarandus, 178 

Pachycoris, 219 

Pachylis pharaonis, 178 

Pachymera, 176 

Pachymeria, 219 ; armata, 176 

Pachymerus, 176 

Pachynomus picipes, 176 

Pamera, 176 

Pantilius tunicatus, 178 

Parabolocratus, 338 

Paracoris jDaradoxus, 218 [339 

Paradorydiurii,* Kirk., lanceolatura, 

Paramesus, 338 

Paravelia, 285 

Paropia scanica, 178 

Paryphes, 219 

Pedeticus fasciata, marmoratus, 177 

Pediopsis, 336-8; tilife, 340 

Peggia,* Kirk., nitida, 6 [178 

Peirates, 51, 176; hybridus, stridulus, 

Peltophora, 219 

Pendulinus, 218 

Pentatoma, 218 ; verbasci, 135 

Penthimia, 338 

Pephricus fasciatus,* Dist., 90 ; fragilis,* 

Dist.,89; livingstoni, 90 ; paradoxus, 

pellicula, 89 
Perittopus breddini,* Kirk., rufus, 286 
Perthostoma aurantiaca, 116 
Phenacoccus mespili, 90 
Phenax, 218 ; variegata, 178 
Philfenus spumarius, 153 
Philia senator, 52 
Phlasa, 219 
Phlepsius, 338 
Phlceocoris, 219 
Phorodon humuli, 31 
Phrynomorphus nitidus, 178 
Phyllocephala, 219 ; senegalensis, 178 
Phyllomorpha laciniata, 89, 177; his- 

trix, 177 
Phyllomorphus, 219 
Phylus, 176 
Physomerus, 219 
Physopelta gutta, 52 
Piesma, 177, 178 
Piestostemma depressus, 177 
Pirates. 219 

Plagiognathus saltitans, 346 
Platycephala metallica, 178 
Platycoris, 176 ; varia, 178 
Platydius subpurpurascens, 218 
Platygaster, 176 
I'latymetopius, 338 
Platymeris biguttatus, 178 
Platynotus ajjterus, 176 
Plinthisus, 176 
Ploa, 170 

Ploiaria domestica. 176 
Podops inuncta, 178 



Vlll 



INDEX. 



Pceciloptera, 153 

Poecilosoma, 176 

Poeocera, 219 

Poiocera luczoti, 177 

Pollinia ovoides,* Cock., poUini, 225 

Polyacanthus, 177 

Polyglypta costata, 219 

Polymeius, 176 

Postemma, 218 

Prionotiis caiinatus, seiratns, 177 

Prostemma guttula, 177 

Psallus varians, 346 

Pseudaonidia ciavigera,* Cock., duplex, 
pajonia?, ihododendri, tesserata, theaj, 
trilobuliformis, 226 

Pseudaradus brevicornis, 2la 

Pseudococcus mespili, 90 

Pseudophana, 219 

Pseudophlceus, 21!) 

Pterodictya ephemera, 219 

Pterygia, 6 ; macquarti, 177 

Ptilocerus fuscus, 176 

Ptochiomera nodosus, 176 

Ptyela, 179 [vacea, 219 

Ptyelusferrum-equinum, flavescens, oli- 

Pulvinaria betulaj, car2)ini, cratjegi, 91 ; 
lanata, mespili, oxyacantha;, sericea, 
vitis, 90 ; tuberculatus, 93 

Pundaluoya, 40 

Pycanum rubens, 52 

Pycna kasmpferi, 49 

Pygolampis, 178 [50, 185 

Pyrops candelarius, 50, 185 ; maculatus, 

Pyrrhoceris, 179 

Pyrrhocoris, 176, 177 

Eanatra chinensis, linearis, priuceps, 
unicolor, vicina, 51 

Eaphirhinus adscendens, 177 

Keduvius, 176 

Ehagovelia, 285, 286 ; aneipes, angusti- 
pes, armata, 310 ; collaris, cras'sipes 
distincta, elegans, femoralis, festre 
309 ; infernalis, 310 ; insularis, 309 
nigricans, obesa, 310 ; peggise, plum- 
bea, ravana," Kirk., reitteri, 309 
salinus, 310; spinigera, tayloriella 
309 ; tenuipes, trailii, 310 ; uncinata 
308 ; varipes, whitei, 309 

Rhaphigaster, 178 

Ehizobius jujubaj, 127 

Ehopalus, 176 

Ehynarius, 177 

Ehynoeoris, 179 

Eipersia tomlini, 184 

Eudia, 6 

Saissetia, 91 

Scaphoideus, 336-7 

Scaphula, 6 

Scaptocoris castaneus, 178 

Schizia servillei, 177 

Sciocoris terreus, umbrinus, 176 

Scolopostethus contractus, 135 

Scutiphora, 219; pedicellata, picta, 176 

Smaris, 179 



Smilia, 179 

Spartocera, 178, 179 ; geniculata, 219 

Spartocerus, 219 

Sphffirocoris, 219 

Sphan-odema rotundata, rustica, 177 

Spha?ronotus globularis, 177 

Spiniger, 219 

Stegasi3is, 179 ; fronditia, 219 

Stenocephale, 219 ; nugax, 178 

Stenocephalus agilis, 135 

Steuodema viscus, 177 

Stenogaster lavatene, tardus, 219 

Stenopoda cinerea, culiciformis, 177 

Stiretrus, 178, 218 

Storthia brullei, livida, 178 

Strachia cruciger, 178 

Strongylocephalus agrestis, 339 

Syromastes, 176 

Syrtis, 177 

Tachardiaactinella,* CocA;., 342; albida, 
249 ; coruuta, 249 ; decorella, 342 ; 
lacca, 249 

Tachardiella,* Cock., 249 

Tachardina,* Cock., 249 

Tapeinus pictus, 178 

Taxila, 6 

Tectocoris cyanipes, 218 ; lineola, 52, 
218 

Telmessus, 6 

Temora,' Kirk., dilutus, 6 

Tessaratome papillosa, 52 

Tesseratoma, 219 

Tetigonia (Tettigonia), 178, 338 ; ferru- 
ginea, 49 

Tettigometra, 153 

Thamnotettix, 338 

Thyreocoris scarabfeoides, 218 

Tiarodes versicolor, 219 

Tragopa, 176 

Triatoma gigas, rubrofasciatus, 177 

Trigonosoma nigellse, rustica, 178 

Tristan,* Kirk., 6 

Trochopus marinus, plumbea, 286 

Tropicoris rufipes, 218 

Typhlocyba, 179, 338 

Ugyops percheroni, 176 

Ulopa, 338 ; reticulata, 152 

Umbonia spinosa, 219 

Urophora hardwickii, 177 

Ursocoris dorsalis, fuliginosus, 218 

Velia, 285 ; feneipes, angustipes, armata, 
310 ; collaris, crassipes, 309 ; dis- 
tincta, elegans, femoralis, festie, 309 ; 
infernalis, 310 ; insularis, 309 ; nigri- 
cans, obesa, 310 ; peggia;, plumbea, 
ravana,* Kirk., reitteri, 309; salinus, 
310 ; spinigera, tayloriella, 309 ; tenu- 
ipes, trailii, 310 ; uncinata, 308 ; vari- 
pes, whitei, 309 

Veliomorpha, 285 

Ventocoris, 218 

Xylocoris, 179 

Zaitha Huminea, 116 

Zosmenus maculatus, 177 



INDEX. 



IX 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



Abraxas adustata, 102 ; grossulariata, 
23, 61, 62, 103, 124, 185, 319, 359 ; 
pantaria, 300 ; sylvata, 85 ; ulmata, 
6, 185, 257, 359 
Abrostola triplasia, 108, 320 
Acherontia atropos, 20, 21, 25, 56, 62, 
99, 100, 101, 103, 163, 185, 206, 227, 
245, 281, 294, 314, 317, 318, 320, 321, 
333, 348, 353, 356 
Achivus asiatica, 173 ; hippocrates, 173 ; 

machaon, 173, 223 
Acidalia aversata, 30, 109, 110, 111, 319, 
320, 359; bisetata, 109, 110, 359; 
contiguaria, 23 ; degeneraria, 71, 357 ; 
dimidiatii, 359 ; emarginaria, 110, 
111, 356 ; imitaria, 16, 111, 269, 359; 
. incanaria, 359; inornata, 112; mar- 
ginepunctata, 28, 231, 319, 320, 329; 
ornata, 28, 362 ; osseata, 110, 111 ; 
'promutata, 329 ; remutata, 26, 28, 
109 ; scutulata, 359 ; subsericeata, 10 ; 
trigeminata, 28, 111 ; virgularia, 359 
Aciptilia baliodactyla, 87 ; galactodac- 
tyla, 87 ; tetradactyla, 87 ; peuta- 
dactyla, 87, 359 
Acoutia luctuosa, 26, 222, 268 
Acosmetia caliginosa, 305 
AcrtBa calderena, 73 ; doubledayi, 74 ; 
horta, 74 ; nohara-halali, 73 ; petrea, 
74 ; violarum, 74 
Acronycta aceris, 25, 109, 335 ; alni, 
137, 163, 230, 255, 361 ; euphorbiaB, 
335 ; leporina, 14, 163, 363 ; mega- 
cephala, 25, 102 ; menyauthidis, 102, 
162, 163, 352 ; psi, 103, 109, 335 ; 
rumicis, 102, 199, 335 
Actius selene, 198 
Adopaea action, 245, 266 ; lineola, 266 ; 

thaumas, 266 
iEgeria apiformis, 223 
Aglais urtica?, 58, 72, 181 
Aglossa pinguinalis, 200 
Agriopis aprilina, 208, 269 
Agrophila sulphuralis, 199 ; trabealis, 

190 
Agrotis agathina, 109 ; ashworthii, 40, 
105, 246, 362; cinerea, 299, 357; 
corticea, 14, 103, 136, 362 ; cursoria, 
14, 305, 362, 364 ; exclamationis, 28, 
103, 104, 207, 336, 358, 363 ; lucernea, 
362 ; lunigera, 336, 362 ; nigricans, 
105, 108, 136; porphyrea, 110,35