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THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST 

%n illustrate lourual 

OF 

GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 

EDITED BY RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 



ROBERT ADKIN, F.E.S. W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

W. LUCAS DISTANT, F.E.S., &c. G. W. KIRKALDY, F.E.S. 

EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S. W. J. LUCAS, B.A., F.E.S. 

F. W. FROHAWK, F.E.S. Dr. D. SHARP, F.R.S., F.E.S., &c. 

MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S. G. H. VERRALL, F.E.S. 



"By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done and great discoveries made." 



VOLUME THE THIRTY-EIGHTH. 



LONDON: 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN, 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., Limited. 



1905. ^70^0/ 



% 















LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Adkin, Robert, F.E.S., 311 
Aldekson, Miss E. Maude, F.E.S., 136 
Anderson, Joseph, 313, 314 
Arkle, J., 165, 189, 290 
Bankes, Eustace R., M.A., F.E.S., 162, 

275, 313 
Barrett, C. G., 135 
Barrett, J. P., 214, 215 
Battersby, Francis J., 238 
Baumann, R. T., 215 
Baxter, T., 281, 283 
Bell, S. J., 262, 320 
Bentall, E. E., 62 
Blanford, W. T., 110 
Bordu, Arthur, 260 
Bogus, W. A., 26 
Brooks, G., 120 

Burr, Malcolm, B.A., F.E.S., etc., 185 
Butler, W. E., F.E.S., 280, 281 
Cameron, Peter, 14, 21, 83, 105, 153, 

170, 223, 227, 249, 268 
Campion, F. W., 282 
Campion, F. W. & H., 24, 298 
Campion, H., 282 
Cansdale, W. D., F.E.S., 239 
Capper, Samuel James, F.E.S., 240 
Chapman, T. A., M.D., F.E.S., 1, 38, 73, 

90, 213 
Chittenden, D., 260 
Clarke, A. Lionel, 186 
Claxton, Rev. W., 240 
Clutterbuck, C. Granville, 91, 215 
Cockerell, Prof. T. D. A., 23, 33, 58, 

104, 111, 145, 217, 236, 237, 258, 270, 

302, 309 
Corbin, G. B., 311 
Croft, J. A., 27, 93 
Dadd, E. M., F.E.S., 200, 226 
Dale, C. W., F.E.S., 313 
Distant, W. L... F.E.S., &c, 121, 169, 

194 

DoNCASTER, L., Ill 

Drabble, Eric, D.Sc, F.L.S., 310 

Ellis, Claude L., 314 

Fletcher, T. Bainbeigoe, R.N., F.E.S., 

18 
Forsythe, C. H., 86, 108, 133, 158, 180, 

185, 186, 199 
Foster, A. H., 280 
Freke, Percy E., F.E.S., 149 
Frohawk, F. W., F.E.S., 26, 193, 283 
Fryer, H. F., F.E.S., 125 
Fryer, G. C. F., 125 
Gentry, E. G., 311 



Gibbs, A. E., F.L.S., 79, 137, 138 
Gilles, W. S., 237 
Goss, H., F.L.S., F.E.S., &c, 68 
Grellet, H. R., 238 
Hall, Arthur, 228 
Harrison, W. B., 96, 192 
Harvey-Jellie, Rev. B., 282 
Heath, Dr. E. A., F.L.S., 74, 97 
Hodge, Harold, 283 
Holland, C. B., 260 
Horrell, E. Charles, 92 
Jackson, R. A., 258 
Jeddeke-Fisher, Cuthbert, 63 
Joy, E. C, 185 
Kenyon, H. D., 162 
Kinder, A. B., 22 
Kirby, W. F., F.L.S., F.E.S., 244 
, Kirkaldy, G. W., F.E.S., 56, 76, 120, 

127, 173, 195, 231, 255, 304 
Knaggs, Dr. H. G., 240 
Lang, Henry Charles, M.D., F.E.S., 

&c, 122 
I Lathy, Percy I., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 226, 

254 
Littler, Frank M., F.E.S., &c, 11 
Lock, George, 161 
i Lowe, Rev. Frank E., M.A., 61 
i Lucas, W. J., B.A., F.E.S., 72, 91, 111, 

178, 266, 281, 282, 283, 296, 313 
j Lyle, G. T., 25 
I Mansbridge, William, F.E.S., 116, 

289 
; Meldola, Prof. R., F.R.S., F.E.S., 90 
Miller, J., 260 
Morgan, E. D., 92 
Morris, J. B., 22 
Mutch, J. P., 161 
Oldaker, F. A., 64 
Page, W. T., F.Z.S., 25, 62 
Phillips, W. E., 311 
Plum, H. V., 135, 185 
Prout, Louis B., F.E.S., 6, 43 
Raynor, Rev. Gilbert, 22, 280 
Richards, Percy, 25, 239 
Rollason, W. A., 63, 92, 93, 94 
Rose, Albert F., M.D., 49 
Rothschild, Hon. Walter, D.Sc, M.P., 

&c, 125 
Rowland-Brown, H., M.A., F.E.S., 29, 

95, 117, 140, 165, 190, 213, 241, 243, 

273, 285, 309, 318 
Sharp, Dr. David, M.A., F.R.S., &c, 

161 
Sich, Alfred, F.E.S., 259. 309 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



SlMMOXDS, llii;r.tui \Y., F. E.S.| 187 

Smith, W., 91 

Sow*, B. .'. B., F.E.S., Ao., 81, 69, 96, 

LIS, L19, L67, L92, 288 
Sooth, Richard, F.E.S., 24, 26, 97, 89, 

61, 62, 72, 92, 94, 98, L12, 120, i:*7. 

140, L49, 161, 162, 185, 218,215, 288, 
268, 264, 265, 280, 282, 288, 312 

Sv; \ku. K. R,, 31 I 

Stafford, 1... L62 

S n n US F.L.S., F.E s . 250, 

299 
S s 1 I . B . (-7. 288, 289 
Theobald, Fred V.M.A . 52, 101, 142, 



Tburnall, A.. 239, 281, 310 

Tomun, .1. R. i.i: B„ 31, 69, 119, 167, 

288 
Turner, Hy. J., F.E.S., 31, 68, 96, 119, 

1 10. 166, 191,216,261, 286, 319 
\i\ ui, Hugh J., 61 
Wainwright, Colbran J., F.E.S., 70, 

120, 168, 216 
Wadlbr, Rev. A. P., 215, 283 
Whittle, F. G., 289, 260 
WlGGKLSWORTH, Robbrt J.. 71, 168 

Wtohtkan, A. J.. 66, : >li 
Woodbridob, Francis C. 161, 259 
Yoong, S. L. Orford, 316 



FLA . - 
Stages 

.. r. 



OTOXS IN THE TEXT. 



: ■ . 

S 
T J...".:.-:.:.".-. J . S. -:"•;.- i^.; .' y. ...:..-.: 




' 



- 
121 
: 
341 



Mf".:v.v.; 



INDEX. 



GENERAL. 



Aberration of Euchelia (Hipocrita; ja- 

cobaeae 1 1 
Abundance of Pieris brassies in West 

Meath. 238 
A Butterfly Hunt in the Pyrenees. 243. 

273 
Academic Honours conferred on Com. 

J. J. Walker, 213 
Acherontia atropos in London, 260; on 

the Lancashire Coast, 2^3 
JEschna cyanea, 283 ; mixta in Epping 

Fore 
A Few Captures from North Cornwall in 

1903. 92 
A Guide to the Study of British Water- 
bugs, 173, 231 
A New Forest Holiday, 314 
A List of the Macro-Lepidoptera of 

Lancaster and District, 86, 108, 133. 

158, 180, 199 
An Abbreviated List of Butterflies from 

the South of France and Corsica. 49 
An interesting Melanic Form of Acro- 

nycta leporina. 28 
A New Genus and Species of Larridae 

from Central America, 21 
A New Genus of Culieidae, 52 
A New Genus of Hemitehni from Cape 

Colony, 24.' 
A New Pest of the Orange, 255 
A New Race of Morpho adonis, Cram., 

226 
A New Species of Nodaria from Japan. 

74 
A New Stegomvia from the Transvaal. 

224 
A Note on some Species of Prepona. 254 
Apamea ophiogramma, 161 
Aporia crataegi, 215 
A Preliminary List of the Lepidoptera 

of Malta, 18 
A Baid by Nabis limbatus, 281 

Barrett's Lepidoptera, 135 

Bibliographical Notes on the Hemiptera, 
76, 304 

Breeding Dragonflies from the Egg, 110 

Butterflies collected by Surgeon Lam- 
bert, R.N., at Valdimar Bay. dfcc, 
August, 1897, 122 



Butterflies of France. 

Campodea staphylinus, 250. 313 
Capture- a: L:jL: ::. Cla] bam, 

Captures from Wvre Forest in 1004. 

Catocala frasini in Suffolk. 2 - 
Cerura bicuspis in Lancashire. 18 
;. theLinnean Genus. 110. 304 
ednsa a: Flee;. H ts, 28 
Colias edusa, C. hya'.- _olke- 

ston-: - 
Colias edusa reared from Ova in 1904, 

22 
Collecting Diptera at Light. 236 
Collecting in West Cornwall during 

1903, 1904. 93 
Cryptic Form and Colouring in Melitaa 

Larvae. 73 
Current Notes. 5^. 127. 195. 255 
Cymatophora ocularis and Agrotis ra- 

vida at Hitchin. 238 
Cymatophora octogesima (ocularis) in 

Epping Forest. 215 

Deilephila livornica bred fromth 

313; in Cornwall. 162 : in Gloucester, 

1905, 186 ; in Wales. 162 
Descriptions of a New Genus and some 

New Species of East Indian Hyrneno- 

ptera, 14 
Descriptions of a New Genus and Species 

of Braconidae from Cape Colony, 
Description of a New Species of Aradidaa 

from Ceylon, 194 
Description of a New Species of Cica- 

didae, 121 
Description of a New Species of Gaster- 

uption from Cape Colony. 227 
Description of a New Species of Lygaeidas 

from South Africa, 169 
Description of a New Species of Pseud- 

agenia from Natal. 223 
Description of Lyeaena arion pupa. J , 

193 
Descriptions of Three New Beetles from 

the Gold Coast and Angola. West 

Africa. 74 
Descriptions of Three Undescribed 



VI 



INDKX. 



Genera of Ichncumonidac from Borneo, 

170 
Descriptions of Two New Aculeate Hy- 

menoptera from the Transvaal, 153 
Descriptions of Two New Beetles from 

Angola, 97 
Dichorampha flavidorsana, Knaggs = 

quaestionana, Zell., 240 
Dragontiy Season of 19U4, 178 
Dytiscids in the New Forest, 161 

Early hybernation of Vanessa urticse, 

281, 311 
Entomology at Barmouth, 290 
Epiblema (Phheodes) immundana, F. B., 

281, 311 
Errata, 138, 168 
Eupithecia stevensata, 161 
Exotic Earwigs wanted, 185 

Gynandrous Example of Lachneislanes- 
tris, 29 ; of Lycnena regon, 114 ; of 
Lycuma icarns, 114 ; of Saturnia pa- 
vonia, 29 ; of Smerinthus populi, 114 

Hornet and Butterfly, 309 
Hybrid Notodont, 94, 261 ; Saturnid,117 ; 
Smerinthid, 114, 164; Zygamid, 118 

Larva of Thecla rubi on Dogwood, 185 
Late Appearance of Colias edusa, 25 ; 

of Pyrameis atalanta, 25, 62 
Late Flight of Dragontiies, 313 
Lepidoptera at Kingston, Surrey, 25 
Lepidoptera at Light in Beigate and 
Dorking, 1904, 64 ; collected at Clap- 
ham, 239, — in Central America, 228 ; 
in Hertfordshire, 137 ; of the Lincoln- 
shire Coast, 79 
Leucania favicolor, Barrett, 215 
Leucopheea surinamensis, L., breeding 

in Britain, 11 1 
Leucopheea surinamensis, Linn., in 

Essex, 92 
Lictor Cane-moth, 11 
Limacodes testudo in Gloucestershire, 

215 
Limenitis sibylla, 282 ; in August ? 62 
Locusta viridissima, 283 
London Lepidoptera, 161 
Lucanus cervus at Chichester, 313 
Lycama bcetica in Cornwall, 91 
Lycffiiia orbitulus, Prun., L., var. ober- 
thur, Stgr., andL. pyrenaica, B., 241 

Melanic Aspilates gilvaria, 61 

Method of Oviposition by Cordulegaster 

annulatus, 310 
Migration of Lepidoptera, 213, 237 
Monk's Wood and Thecla pruni, 22 
Mutilla europaa, 283 

Neuroptera collected by Dr. T. A. Chap- 
man in France and Spain. 296 



New and Little-known American Bees, 
145 

New Australian Bees in the Collection 
of the British Museum, 270, 302 

New Australian Bees of the Genus No- 
mia, 217 

New Culicidffi from the West Coast of 
Africa, 101, 154 

New Species of Hymenoptera(Aculeata, 
Ichneumonidas, and Braconida') from 
India, 83, 105 

New Work on British Butterflies, 312 

Noctua at Hartlepool, 282 

Note on Second Emergences, 259 

Note on Haworth's Type-specimen of 
"Noctua subfusca," 161 

Notes from Australia, 186 ; Essex, 260 ; 
the Chester District for 1904, 163, 
187 ; Surrey, 239 ; on Agrotis puta,135 ; 
on Coleoptera in South-west Surrey, 
26, 93 ; on Larva of Nyssia lappo- 
naria, and Orgyia antiqua, 237 ; on 
Lepidoptera in 1904, 125 ; on Odo- 
nata, 91 ; on Some Stephensian types 
of Tortricina in the National Collec- 
tion, 98 ; on the Wave Moths (Genus 
Acidalia), 6, 48; on the Season 1905, 
258 ; on Tortrix podana, 135 ; on Zan- 
clognatha grisealis, 185 

Notodonta dromedarius (Second Brood) 
at Beading, 280 

Obituary : — 

Barrett, Charles Golding, 32 

Beaumont, Alfred, 120 

Packard, Alpheus Spring, 143 

Batley, A. U., 144 

Johnson, W., 240 

Quail, Ambrose, 264 

Douglas, John William, 264 

Warne, Norman Dalziel, 288 
Odonata in Herts, 1905, 314 
On a Small Collection of Anthophorid 

Bees from Colorado, 58 
On Late Broods of Lepidoptera, 280 
On the dark form of Ischnura elegans 

(female), 298 
Orthoptera in 1904, 266 
Ova of Butterflies wanted, 1S5 

Papilio steinbachii, 125 

Pararge achine on the Mendel, 60; me- 

gasra, 282 
Partial Second Brood of Pseudoterpna 

bajularia, 259 ; of Spilosoma men- 

thastri, 311 
Phalonia (Argyrolepia) badiana, Hb., 

213, 275, 309 
Phtheochroa (Commophila) rugosana in 

Surrey, 214, 239 
Plusia bractaaa in Selkirk, 238 
Plusia moneta in Lewisham, 260 ; 

(Second Brood) at Beading, 281 
Preoccupied Names in Coleoptera, 104 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Preponderance of Females in Autum- 
nal Broods, 280 

Prolonged Pupal Stage of Emmelesia 
unifasciata, 310 

Pupation of Catoclysta lemnata, 90 ; of 
Smerinthus tiliae, 258 

Pygasra pigra in Surrey, 27, 62 

■Recent Literature: — 

Catalogue of Lepidoptera, by F. Lowe, 

31 
New Dragonfly Nymphs in the United 

States National Museum, by J. G. 

Needham, 71 
The Labium of the Odonata, by Hor- 

tense Butler, 71 
The Skewness of the Thorax in the 

Odonata, by J. G. Needham and 

Maude H. Anthony, 71 
The Phasmida 1 or Walking-sticks of 

the United States, by A. N. Caudell, 

71 
An Orthopterous Leaf-roller, 7 
Oviposition and Carnivorous Habits 

of the Meadow Green Grasshopper, 

by J. L. Hancock, 72 
The Leaf-hopper of the Sugar-cane, 

by R. C. L. Perkins, 72 
Suppression and Control of the Plague 

of Buffalo Gnats in the Valley of 

the Lower Mississippi River, by 

F. M. Webster, 72 
The Common Mosquitoes of New 

Jersey, by John B. Smith, 72. 
Who's Who ?, 72 
Analytische Uebersicht der paluark- 

tischen Lepidopternfamilien, by C. 

V. Hormuzaki, 72 
Ants and some other Insects, by Dr. 

August Forel, 72 
A Treatise on the Acarina or Mites, by 

Nathan Banks, 72 
Entomologisches Jahrbuch, by Oskar 

Krancher, 72 
The Mosquitoes or Culicida? of New 

York State, by G. P. Felt, 110 
Report on the Mosquitoes occurring 

within the State of New Jersey, 

their Habits, Life-history, <Src, by 

John B. Smith, 141 
A Monograph of the Anopheles Mos- 
quitoes of India, by S. P. James, 

141 
Twenty-eighth Annual Report and 

Proceedings of the Lancashire and 

Cheshire Entomological Society, 142 
Entomologen Adressbuch, 143 
Proceedings of the South London En- 
tomological and Natural History 

Society for 1904-5, 192 
A Catalogue of the Erycinidre, by Levi 

W. Mengel, 262 
A Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of 

Northumberland, Durham, and 



Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by John E. 
Robson, 263 

The Insects of Jethou, the Insects of 
Herm, and the Fauna and Flora of 
the Sarnian Islands, 263 

Transactions of the Hertfordshire 
Natural History Society and Field 
Club, 263 

Transactions of the City of London 
Entomological and Natural History 
Society for the year 1904, 26:5 

Report of the Work of the Experi- 
ment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Association, by R. C. L. 
Perkins, 288 
Reports of Societies : — 

Birmingham Entomological, 69, 168, 
192, 216 

City of London Entomological and 
Natural History, 261, 319 

Entomological Club, 140, 162 

Entomological of London, 27, 67, 94, 
116, 138, 165, 189, 284, 316 

Hawaiian Entomological, 120 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomo- 
logical, 31, 68, 96, 119, 166, 191, 
286 

Manchester Entomological, 70, 167 

South London Entomological and 
Natural History, 29, 68, 95, 117, 
140, 165, 190, 216, 260, 285, 318 
Rhopalocera at Barcelona, Montserrat, 

and Vernet-les-Bains, 250, 277, 299 
Rhopalocera pahearctica, 282 

Season of 1904, 63 

Second Broods of Lepidoptera, 260, 281 

Selenia lunaria in the Lancaster Dis- 
trict, 186 

Sirex gigas at Chichester, 314 ; juvencus 
in Edinburgh, 283 

Some Australian Halictine Bees in the 
British Museum, 33 

Some Tasmanian Case-bearing Lepido- 
ptera, 11 

Species of Plusia visit flowers of Stachys, 
25 

Sphinx (Agrius) convolvuli in Hamp- 
shire, 24 ; convolvuli at Bournemouth, 
260 ; in South-west London, 314 

Stray Notes on Aculeates, 149 

Supplementary List of the Lepidoptera 
of the Island of Capri, 82 

Synaposematic Hymenoptera and Di- 
ptera, 117 

Teratological Specimen of Hybernia de- 
foliaria, 22 

The Day Collection, 238 

The Earlier Stages of Cataclysta lem- 
nata, L., 1, 38 

The Entomological Club, 61, 213 

The Entomological Collections of the 
Oxford University Museum, 23 



Vlll 



INDKX. 



The Habits of A.silidffl, 236 

The Depidoptera of Berlin, '200, 220 

The Mason Collection, 112, 136, 162 

The Nairn- Aldriohia, 236 

The National Collection of British Lepi 

doptera, 61, 213 
The Noctuid Genus Ala, 23 
The Hose Scale, 309 
The Time of Appearance of Lepido- 

ptera in conjunction with Season and 

Latitude, 90 
Tort rices in the Liverpool District, 115 

Unusual Dates, 92 

Vanessa antiopa in Middlesex, 283 ; in 

Norfolk, 283; in Suffolk, 283; in 

Surrey, 91 
Varieties :-— 

Abraxas grossulariata, 119 

Acidalia aversata, 163 ; inornata, 29 

Acronycta leporina, 289 

Aglais urtioffl, 285 

Anthrocera filipendulss, 29 

Apleota nebulosa, 187 

Iporophyla australis, 30 

Arctia caia. 117. 136 

Argynnis aglaia, 29, 111 ; euphrosyne, 
ill; paphia, 111 ; selene, 114 

Aspilates gilvaria, 01 

Boarmia gemmaria, 286 ; repandata, 
163 ; rhomboidaria, 163 

Biston hirtaria, 189 

Callimorpha dominula, 130 



Calynmia trape/.ina, 29 
Chrysophanus phlceas, 114, 320 
Cleora glabraria, 3D, 286 
Ccenonympha pamphilus, 319 
Colias edusa, 2",); hyale, 29 
Cupido minima, 286 
Dianthcecia capsincola, 29 
Epinephele ianira, 29, 114; tithonus, 

114 
Euchelia jacobrea\ 185, 216 
Euchloe cardamines, 114 
Eupithecia rectangulata, 239 
Euthemonia russula, 30 
Forfioula auricularia, 317 
Heleconius silvana, 317 
Laclineis lanestris, 29 
Lyciena corydon, 202 
Melitaea athalia, 27 ; cinxia, 30 
Nemeobius lucina, 114 
Ortholitha plumbaria, 204 
Polyommatus corydon. 286 
Pyrameis atalanta, 29 
Sarrothripus revayana, 114 
Satnrnia pavonia, 28 
Satyrus seniele, 114 
Spilosoma menthastri, 30, 136, 311 
Syrichthus malvse, 28 
Zonosoma pendularia, 29 

Wasps with Butterfly, 282 
Western Smerinthids, 111 

Xylina semibrunnea in Reigate, 314 



INSTRUCTIONS to BINDER.— The SPECIAL INDEX, given with 
the 'Entomologist' for January, 1906, belong' s to this Volume, and 
should be placed next to this General Index. 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



New Genera, Sjiecies, and Varieties are marked with an asterisk. 



COLEOPTERA. 



aedilis (Acanthocinus), 287 
ffinea (Triplex), 119 
feruginosus (Longitarsus), 119 
aethiops (Pterostichus), 26 
Agathidium, 318 
Alexia, 104 

anale (Sinoxylon), 167 
Anodon, 104 
anthobia (Amara), 139 
aquaticus (Xotiophilus), 26 
armata (Strangalia), 26 
arvensis (Spergula), 286 
arietis (Clytus), 93 
Asenum, 192 
atrata (Silpha), 93 
atricapillus (Bolitobius), 93 
aurata (Cetonia), 26 
barnevillei (Malachnis), 95, 119 
betulae (Omophlus), 189 
bicolor (Triplax), 119 
bifasciatum (Rhagiurn), 168 
biguttatus (Notiophilus), 26 
bimaculatus (Hister), 27 
'biplagiata (Prosopocera), 75 
bipustulatus (Agabus), 93 
bipustulatus (Spha?ridium), 93 
bipunctata (Coccinella), 27 
bissexstriatus (Hister), 137 
blandus (Otiorrhynchus), 287 
brevicollis (Xebria), 27 
bruchoides (Rhinoncus), 286 
burchelli (Haplothorax), 28 
cacicus (Goliathus), 167 
caligatus (Paederus), 26 
campestris (Cicindela), 26 
caraboides (Melandrya), 69 
cardinalis (Vedalia), 131 
castaneum (Tetropium), 28 
castaneus (Medon), 165 
cerasi (orsodacna), 287 
cervus (Lucanus), 26 
chalceus (Pogonus), 27 
chlorocephala (Lebia), 165 
chrysostigma (Chrysobothris), 167 
clypealis (Hydrovatus), 161 
clypeatus (Telephorus), 27 
ccerulea (CEdemera), 27 
coriarius (Prionus), 26 

Entom. Vol. xxxviii. 1905. 



consanguinea (Homalota), 137 
contractus (Ceuthorrhynchns), 284 
Coryphus, 104 
crassipes (Atherix), 27 
cyanocephala (Lebia;, 165 
cynoglossi (Dibolia), 287 
discolor (Donacia), 287 
*distanti (Ophryodera), 97 
distinguenda (Melanopthalma), 284 
druryi (Goliathus), 167 
dytiscoides (Platydema), 168 
Eriocephalus, 192 

erythrocephalus (Xeoclytus), 138, 166 
exigua (Oxypoda), 116 
*exitiosus (Oxycarenus), 169 
familiaris (Amara), 27, 139 
femorata (Oncomera), 93 
ferrea (Stenostola), 69 
fimetarius (Aphodius), 26 
flavipes (Cercyon), 93 
fossor (Clivina), 27 
foveolatus (Claviger), 93 
fowleri (Dacne), 31S 
fraxini (Hylesinus), 167 
fuliginosus (Ilybius), 93 
fulgidus (Xantholinus), - 2fi 
fulva (Armara), 27 
gentilei (Anophthalmus), 2S7 
gibbus (Zabrus), 93 
giganteus (Goliathus), 167 
giganteus (Titanus), 30 
gracilipes (Anchomenus), 119 
granaria (Oligota . '.'4 
grandis (Anthonomus), 131 
graniceps (l^hycoctus), 285 
granulatus (Carabus), 26 
haemorrhoidalis (Athous), 27 
hagensi (Dinarda), 287 
hermanni (Pelobius), 161 
hieroglyphica (Coccinella', 137 
horticola (Phyllopertha), 26 
humator (Necrophorus), 26 
humeralis (Dacne), 318 
intricatus (Carabus), 93 
insularis (Stenus), 284 
*jordani (Plectrogaster), 76 
lsevigata (Timarcha). 26 
laavigatum (Apion), 316 

b 



MIO M-Q 



INDEX. 



*lanei (Zographus), 74 
latus (Deronectes), 161 
linearis (Cossonus), 27 
longicornis (Quedius), 287 
lucida (Amara), 27, 139 
lunatus (Callistus), 93 
luriclipennis (Psylliodes). 284, 287 
lutosus (Bagous), 119 
madidus (Pterostiehus), 26 
mandibularis (Acrognathus), 189 
marginata (Stenellina), 101 
marginalis (Dytiscus), 93, 166 
marginatus (Malthodes), 26 
maurus (Otiorrhynchus), 287 
maxillosus (Creophilus), 26 
melipoma (Megalopus), 139 
meridianus (Toxotus), 93 
niinuta (Myllama), 137 
monilis (Carabus), 26 
monilis (Lcemophilus), 318 
mortuorum (Necrophorus), 26 
moschata (Arorniai, 20 
mucronata (Blaps), 26 
natator (Gyrinus), 93 
navale (Lymexylon), 284 
nigriceps (Cercyon), 137 
nigrina (Oxypoda), 116 
nigrita (Pterostiehus), 93 
nigroc»ruleus (Quedius), 28, 119 
nobilis (Gnorirnus), 189 
noctiluca (Lampyris), 27 
obliquus (Haliplus), 93 
ocellata (Coccinella). 27 
ocellarus (Dinoderus), 165 
olens (Ocypus), 26 
orichaleia (Chrysomela), 69 
ossiurn (Stenusi. 284 
ovatus (Hyphydrus), 93 
palustris (Hydroporus), 93 
palustris (Notiophilus), 93 
pallipes (Ceuthorrhynchus), 284 
paradoxus (Metoecus), 69 
parallelopipedus (Dorcus), 26 
parumpunctatus (Anchomenus), 287 
pectinicornis (Plectrogaster), 76 
pectoralis (Anoplognathus), 186 
pertinax (Anobium), 93 
peruviana (Dermestes), 119 
piceus (Hydrophilus), 287 
pini (Bruchus), 69 
polita (Chrysomela), 93 
pomonse (Apion), 93 
potentilla? (Sibinia), 286 
primita (Sibinia), 286 
proscarabfeus (Meloe),93, 166 



pubescens (Leptura), 167 
purnilio (Placusa), 137 
pusillus (Adrastus), 287 
quadripustulatum (Bembidium), 119 
reppensis (Hyperaspis), 287 
rostraius (Cychrus), 26 
"rothschildi (Prosopocera), 98 
rufifrons (Dacne), 318 
rufimanus (Bruchus), 69 
rufocincta (Amara), 69 
rugosa (Silpha), 93 
russica (Triplax), 119 
sabulicola (Harpalus), 137 
sagax (Spilonotella), 104 
sagax (Spilonota), 104 
sanguinolenta (Chrysomela), 287 
sericea (Oxypoda), 116 
sepicola (Tropideres), 68 
septempunctata (Coccinella), 27 
sericatus (Catops), 137 
serricornis (Prionocyphon), 318 
solstitialis(Rhizotrogus), 26 
sparsus (Orchestes), 27 
Sphondylia, 104 
spinibarbis (Leistus), 93 
Stenella, 104 

stephensi (Illaphanus), 285 
stercorarius (Geotrupes), 26 
strenuus (Pterostiehus), 93 
striata (Helops), 116 
striatus (Helops), 118, 167 
striola (Pterostiehus), 26 
sulcatum (Aulonium), 119 
sulcatus (Acilius), 93 
sulcipennis (Phycoctus), 2S5 
sutor (Monohammus), 2S7 
suturalis (Cordylomera), 284, 320 
suturalis (Lochma?a), 189 
sycophana (Calosoma), IIS 
sylvaticus (Geotrupes), 93 
tardus (Pelobius), 93 
tectus (Ptinus), 287 
tessellatum (Xestobium), 27 
typhffius (Geotrupes), 26 
variabilis (Coccinella). 27 
vernalis (Geotrupes), 26 
versicolor (Pterostiehus), 26 
villosus (Balaninus), 26 
violaceus (Carabus). 26 
violaceus (Meloe), 93 
violaceum (Callidium), 168 
virescens (CEdemera), 119 
vulgaris (Melolontha), 26 
vulgaris (Pterostiehus), 26 



INDEX. 



XI 



DIPTERA. 



abdominalis (Ospriocerus), 236 
*alboannulatus (JEdimorphus), 154 
alboannulata (Anisocheleornyia), 54 
albolineata (Danielsial, 104 
ampelophila (Drosophila), 198 
* Anisocheleornyia, 52 
*austenii (Pyretophorus), 102 
bellus (Tanypus), 236 
carnaria (Sarcophaga), 150 
choreus (Tanypus). 236 
cornicina (Lucilia), 152 
creticus (Culex), 158 
cynipsea (Sepsis), 152 
devius (Micrododon), 284 
f alias (Cynorrhina), 284 
fasciata (Stegomyia), 225 
fatigans (Culex), 158 
ferruginea (Hamrnerschmidtia), 284 
fusca (Gossina), 288 
Heptaphleboniyia, 156 
hirsutipalpis (Culex), 156 
inquinatus (Stenopogon), 236 
latifrons (Micrododon), 284 



modestus (Chironomus), 236 
monilis (Tanypus), 236 
nigripes (Anopheles), 102 
nigrita (Ptilops), 168 
*nivipes (Anisocheleornyia), 52 
palpalis (Glossinai. 288 
paludosa (Tipula), 282 
pilipes (HydrotaBa), 116 
pygrna'a (Uranotaenia), 54 
rusticus (Machimus), 95 
scsevoides (Chamaesyophus), 284 
sexpunctata (Psychoda), 165 
simplex (Heptaphleboniyia), 157 
'simpsoni (Stegomyia). 224 
*smithii (Anopheles), 101 
splendiia (Lonchasa), 198 
talpaa (Hystrichopsylla). 165 
tenuis (Tany tarsus), 236 
tuberculata (Hydrotaea), 116 
Uranotaenia, 52 
*wellmanii (Danielsia), 103 
xanthodes (Tephrites), 198 



HEMLPTEEA. 



Acanthia, 110 
aeneus (Eysarcoris), 286 
Aphelocheirus, 173 
auratus (Ellampus), 120 
australis (Antonina), 256 
australis (Hydrometra), 256 
avenaj (Siphocoryne). 132 
brevipennis (Nabis), 285 
Callidea, 78 
Calliphora, 78 
campestris (Liburnia), 130 
canalium (Gerris), 177 
Cephalocleus, 79 
cerealis (Macrosiphum), 132 
Cimex, 110, 304 

cimicoides (Ilyocoris), 173, 177, 178 
cimicoides (Naucoris), 174, 177 
cimicoides (Nepa). 174 
Clinocoris, 77, 110 
corticalis (Phylloxera), 197 
Corythuea, 195 
costs (Gerris), 177 
crassipes (Berytus), 318 
Daktulosphaira, 79 
divinator (Perithous), 120 
divisa (Dryophanta), 120 
Embolophora, 79 
fecundatrix (Andricus), 120 
femorata (Pelocoris), 174 
festuca (Eriopeltis), 285 
fragariella (Siphonophora), 309 
fragariellum (Macrosiphum), 309 
fluminea (Belostoma), 175 
geoffroyi (Corixia), 232 



gibbifera (Gerris), 177 
glauca (Notonecta), 177 
Gonianotus, 79 
granaria (Macrosiphum i, 132 
'greeni (Aneurus), 194 
hesperideana (Leucanium). 31 
hieroglyphica (Arctocorisa), 232 
histrionica (Murgantia), 130 
indica (Amorgius), 175 
Klinophilos, 76 

lantaniae (Cerataphis), 196, 198 
lateralis (Arctocorisa), 232 
lateralis (Gerris), 177 
lacustris (Gerris), 177 
laeustris (Pygolampis), 174 
Leucaniodiaspis, 78 
Leucanodiaspis, 78 
lectularius (Cimex), 77, 110 
Legnotus, 79 
lemana (Sigara), 235 
lenticularis (Neuroterus), 120 
lethifer iPemphredon), 120 
limbatus (Nabis), 281 
lineata (Hydrometra), 255 
lutea (-Notonecta). 132 
lutulenta (Liburnia), 130 
Macrocephalus, 79 
maculata (Naucoris), 178 
mali (Aphis), 132 
Macrothyreus, 79 
martini (Hydrometra), 256 
melanocephalus (Eysarcoris), 286 
mercenaria (Arctocorisa), 232, 233 
meridionalis (Sigara), 235 

h 2 



Xll 



INDEX. 



minuta (Sigara), 235 
minutissinia (Micronecta), 235 
montancloni (Aphelocheirus), 17S 
naias (Gerris), 177 
Naucorinus 79, 309 
naucoris (Nepa), 174 
nigrolineata (Arctocorisa), 232 
odontogaster (Gerris), 177 
Odontopus, 79 
pe-la (Ericerus), 128 
perniciosus (Aspidiotus), 130 
Philia, 78 

Phloeophthiridium, 79 
pilicornis (Drymus), 318 
poweri (Sigara), 235 
Probergrothius, 79 
pruni (Coccus), 78 



pygmaea (Microvelia), 173 
Khizophthiridium, 79 
rosae (Aulacaspis), 309 
rufoscutellata (Gerris), 177 
saccbaricaulis (Aspidiotus), 7 
salicis (Cbionaspis), 256 
scbillingii (Chorosoma), 261 
Scbicedtia, 79 
schoitzii (Micronecta), 235 
senator (Schicedtia), 79 
septendecirn (Tibicen), 130 
striata (Coriza), 232 
sylvestris (Drymus), 318 
thoracica (Gerris), 177 
trifolii (Macrosiphum), 132 
"vestita (Ga>ana), 121 
viridis (Tetigonia), 198 



HYMENOPTERA. 



abdominalis (Corynura), 34 

*Acantbopryrnnus, 249 

ffinea (Nomia), 222 

feruginosus (Agaposteruon), 34 

agilis (Corynura), 35 

agilis (Melissodes), 145 

agrorum (Bombus), 151 

alternata (Nomada), 152 

*annulicornis (Spilichnenmon), 85 

*apicate (Anomalon), 106 

arbanus (Halictus), 272 

ardens (Crabro), 16 

argentatus (Crabro), 15 

argentifrons (Nomia), 220 

arvensis (Mellinus), 151, 152 

aspasia (Augochlora), 37 

aspasia (Halticus), 37 

assamensis (Cerceris), 269 

australica (Nomia), 221 

austrovagans (Nomia), 218 

barbara (Atta), 96 

belfragei (Synhalonia), 147 

bellus (Crabro), 15 

bicingulatus (Halictus), 272, 302, 303 

bicolor (Gonotopus), 130 

bituberculata (Megaloptera), 35 

bomboides (Anthophora), 35 

briseis (Augochlora), 35 

briseis (Corynura), 35 

calliope (Megaloptera), 36 

cephalotes (GEcodoma), 96 

Chartergus, 22 

Chloralictus, 37 

cnici (Melissodes), 146 

*Co3nostoma, 171 

"coxalis (Spiliclmeumon), 105 

cuprifrons (Megaloptera), 36 

*darupieri (Halictus), 270 

dentiventris, (Melissodes), 146 

dentiventris (Nomia), 221 

dilecta (Synhalonia), 148 

*Dinocryptus, 170 

discolor (Corynura), 34 



*doddii (Nomia), 222 

*Echthrus, 171 

edwardsii (Synhalonia), 147 

elegans (Nomia), 223 

"elizeus (Iphiaulax), 107 

elongata (Coslioxys), 68 

*elvinus (Crabro), 14 

"erythrozonus (Cratichneumon), 105 

euops (Anthophora), 58, 60 

europaea (Mutilla), 283 

*excavatus (Cryptus). 84 

familiaris (Halictus), 304 

fasciatus (Heriades), 317 

festivaga (Augochlora), 37 

filicornis (Ccenostoma), 172 

flava (Formica), 93 

rlavoplagiata (Crabro), 16 

flavoviridis (Nomia), 222 

rlindersi (Halictus), 271 

rloralis (Halictus), 271 

floris (Melissodes), 145 

frater (Synhalonia^, 147 

furcata (Schizocera), 216 

fusca (Formica), 96 

generosa (Nomia), 217 

germanica (Vespa), 149 

gibbus (Pompilus), 151 

*gilesi (Halictus), 273, 302 

gillettei (Synhalonia), 148 

globosus (Halictus), 303, 304 

gohrmana (Anthophora), 59, 60 

hero (Pompilus), 17 

himalayensis (Cerceris), S4, 269 

hirsutus (Tachvtes), 153 

'Holcalysia, 268 

Hoplonomia, 218 

*humei (Halictus), 273, 302, 303 

"hypodonta (Nomia), 220 

*Icuma, 21 

idalia (Megaloptera), 36 

inclinans (Halictus), 272 

incognitus (Pompilus), 17 

janthina (Megaloptera), 36 



INDEX. 



XU1 



johnsoni (Emphoropsis), 58 

jucunda (Corynura), 34 

kollari (Cynips), 27 

lsetatorius (Bassus), 224 

lanuginosus (Halictus), 273, 302, 304 

lapidarus (Bombus), 151 

*lauta (Perdita), 145 

•lepidota (Nomia), 218 

limatus (Halictus), 272 

*lissocephalus (Gasteruption), 227 

livida (Tenthredo), 216 

*luculentus (Cryptus), 85 

•lutea (Phalega), 170 

lysias (Crabro), 15 

mandarina (Vespa), 167 

marginalis (Corynura), 34 

mentzelire (Perdita), 145 

mentzeliarum (Perdita), 145 

*menyllus (Crabro), 15 

metallica (Nomia), 269 

minutula (Andrena), 152 

mcerens (Nomia), 217 

montana (Antbophora), 58, 60 

moricei (Panurgus), 317 

murrayi (Halictus), 272 

mucida (Emphoropsis), 58, 59 

mysops (Melissodes), 146 

nana (Augochlora), 37 

nanus (Halictus), 37 

nasidens (Odynerus), 21 

nasutus (Agapostemon), 34 

*natalensis (Pseudagenia), 223 

neomexicana (Anthophora), 58 

*niger (Dinocryptus), 171 

niger (Lasius), 96 

nigrofemorata (Megaloptera), 36 

norvegica (Vespa), 149 

Nyxeophilus, 171 

odontophorus (Crabro), 16 

opulenta (Nomia), 223 

orbatus (Halictus), 303 

ornata (Megalopta), 35, 36 

*orodes (Anoplius), 17 

*oxleyi (Halictus), 272, 302, 303 

pallidior (Perdita), 45 

pedestrius (Pompilus), 17 

*Phalega, 170 

pilosa (Megaloptera), 36 

Plesiozethus, 269 

portene (Anthophora), 58, 60 

posticus (Odynerus), 153 

pseudobaccha (Corynura), 34 



Psithyrus, 151 

pulchribalteata (Nomia), 218 

punjabensis (Iphiaulax), 107 

purpurata (Megaloptera), 35 

reginse (Nomia), 221 

reprsesentans (Halictus), 273, 302, 304 

*reticulatus (Diodonatus), 83 

rhopalocera (Agapostemon), 34 

*roseoviridis (Paracolletes), 270 

rothneyi (Pompilus), 17 

rubicundus (Halictus), 152 

*rubroviridis (Nomia), 223 

rufa (Formica), 96, 168 

rufa (Vespa), 149 

rufocornis (Nomia), 217 

*rufocognata (Nomia), 219 

ruginodis (Myrmica), 96 

sanguinea (Formica), 96, 256 

"semipallida (Nomia), 220 

*serieea (Icuma), 21 

sicheli (Agapostemon), 34 

silvaensis (Odyneurus), 153 

*simlamsis (Cerceris), 83 

'smenus (Iphiaulax), 107 

smithella (Nomia), 217 

speciosa (Synhalonia), 148 

striolatus (Diodonatus), 83 

*subagilis (Melissodes), 145 

sulphurea (Crabro), 16 

sylvestris (Vespa), 149 

tenuihirta (Nomia), 219 

terrestris (Bombus), 151 

*territella (Synhalonia), 146 

*testaceipes (Holcalysia), 269 

titania (Auglochlora), 35 

Torbda, 171 

transvaalensis (Tachytes), 153 

trimmerana (Andrena), 152 

tristis (Anasa), 255, 256 

tristis (Crabro), 16 

trutta (Synhalonia), 147 

vaalensis (Odynerus), 153 

*violaceipennis (Acanthoprymnus), 250 

vischnu (Pompilus), 17 

vivax (Megaloptera), 36 

vivax (Pompilus), 17 

vulgaris (Vespa), 149, 151 

willeyi (Nomia), 269 

wilkella (Andrena), 151 

Zethoides, 269 

zonata (Anthophora), 223 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



abbreviata (Eupithecia), 184 
abbreviata (Tephroclystia), 184 
abietaria (Boarmia), 216, 318 
abietella (Dioryctria), 82 
abruptaria (Hemerophila), 29,<35, 67, 182 
abscondita (Acronycta), 205, 208 
acacias (Thecla), 52, 244, 274 
acauda (Papilio), 140 



Acentropus, 1, 2 

aceriana (Gypsonoma), 218 

aceriana (Hedya), 281 

aceris (Acronycta), 64, 65, 66, 257, 319 

achillie (Zygsena), 210 

achinoides (Pararge), 124 

achine (Pararge), 60, 124, 275 

Acidalia, 6, 8, 9, 47 



XIV 



INDEX. 



acis (Lycaena), 113 

acroleuca (Lymnas), 230 

actaaa (Satyrus), 275 

actaaon (Adopaa), 209, 275 

actaaon (Hesperia), 315 

adaaquata (Larentia), 202 

adelopsis (Xysiuatodoma), 13 

adippe (Argynnis), 87, 274, 295 

admetus (Lycaena), 52 

adonis (Lycaana), 63 

adonis (Morpho), 139, 22G 

adrasta (Pararge), 274, 300 

adusta (Hadena), 205 

adusta (Pararge), 279 

adustata (Ligdia), 94 

advenaria (Epione), 203, 261, 315 

advena (Aplecta), 69, 168 

advena (Mamestra), 205, 208 

aageria (Pararge), 278 

aegon (Lycaana), 52, 88, 93, 226, 301, 315 

aarnulana (Catoptria), 115 

aascularia (Anisopteryx), 183 

aesculi (Thecla), 251, 274, 301 

aathiops (Erebia), 30, 87, 226, 286 

affinis (Calymnia), 66 

affinis (Danais), 86 

affinitata (Emmelesia), 94, 183, 292 

agathina (Agrotis), 70, 287 

agestis (Lycaana), 87, 88, 92, 123, 207, 

209, 274, 294, 315 
aglaia (Argynnis), 29 
agrippina (Thysania), 231 
Ala, 23 

albicillata (Melanthia), 184, 204, 292 
albicolon (Mamestra), 80, 205, 207 
albimacula (Dianthoecia), 216 
albipuncta (Leu.), 207, 208, 227, 287, 319 
albitarsella (Coleophora), 285 
albulata (Emmelesia), 183 
alchemillata (Em.), 63, 64, 92, 93, 94, 183 
alcaaaa (Carcharodus), 274, 301 
alcon (Lycama), 207, 273. 274 
alciphron (Chrysoph.), 206, 274,300, 301 
alcyone (Satyrus), 209, 226, 244, 274, 301 
alcyonipennella (Coleophora), 285 
alecto (Erebia), 139, 275 
alexanor (Papilio), 49, 274 
algaa (Bryophila), 208 
aliena (Mamestra), 205, 208 
allionia (Satyrus), 51, 274 
alniaria (Ennomos), 65, 181 
alternata (Conchylis), 127 
alternata (Macaria), 227 
alternata (Semiothisa), 204 
althaaaa (Carcharodus), 245, 274 
alveus (Hesperia), 207, 245, 274, 301 
amanda (Lycama), 206, 211 
amandus (Lycaana), 207, 245, 274, 301 
amata (Timandra), 8, 204 
ambigua (Caradrina), 209, 227 
ambrosa (Chloridea), 258 
americus (Papilio), 229 
amurensis (Chrysophanus), 124 
amurensis (Leptidia), 123 



anachoreta (Pygaara), 70 

anargyra (Argynnis), 50 

andreniformis (Sesia), 114 

andromache (Acraaa), 186 

angularia (Ennomos), 67, 181, 227 

angustana (Eupceciha), 116 

angustea (Scoparia), 137 

Ania, 8 

anomala (Stilbia), 163 

antiopa (Vanessa), 70, 91, 112, 212, 227, 

229, 274, 283 
antiqua (Orgyia), 108, 237 
apiciaria (Epione), 93, 181 
apollo (Parnassius), 246, 248, 274, 300 
aprilina (Agriopis), 160 
aprilina (Dichonia), 227 
aquilina (Agrotis), 80, 134 
arbuti (Heliodes), 93 
arbuti (Heliacea), 180 
arcania (Ccanonympha), 51, 207, 209, 

253, 274, 278, 279, 301 
arcuosa (Miana), 287 
arete (Epinephele), 95, 319 
archippus (Danais), 186 
areola (Xylocampa), 65, 160 
arethusa (Satyrus), 274 
argentea (Cucullia), 201 
argentina (Spatalia), 207 
argentula (Bankia), 207 
argiades (Lycaana), 52, 245, 274, 301 
argillacea (Aletia), 131 
argiolus (Cyaniris), 52, 82, 90, 191, 203, 

227, 244, 262, 274, 286, 301 
argiolus (Lye ), 63, 90, 185, 251, 259, 315 
argus(Lyc), 52, 93,211, 226, 253, 279, 301 
argyrognomon (Lycaana), 124, 274, 284 
arion (Lye), 113, 193, 209, 240, 274 
aristaaus (Satyrus), 51 
armiyera (Heliothis), 93, 258 
artemisiaa (Cucullia), 201 
artemisiella (Coleophora), 260 
arundinis (Nonagria), 64, 133, 294 
asellaria (Acidalia), 18 
asellaria (Psychopoda), 46 
asclepius (Papilio), 228 
ashworthii (Agrotis), 30, 61, 165, 287 
aspersana (Peronea), 115 
associata (Cidaria) 199, 212 
asteris (Cucullia), 260, 291 
Asthena, 6 
astrarche (Lycaana), 52, 93, 207, 251, 

252, 274, 279, 301 

atalanta (Pyrameis), 25, 29, 30, 62, 87, 

117, 229, 253, 259, 274, 294, 301, 309 
atalanta (Vanessa), 163 
atergatis (Lycorea), 230 
athalia (Melitaea), 27, 73, 207, 209, 251, 

253, 274, 278, 279, 301 
atlantis (Ageronia), 229 
atomaria (Ematurga), 182 
atraria (Aspilates), 214 
atrata (Odezia), 212 
atrata (Tanagra), 199, 292 
atriplicis (Hadena), 287 



INDEX. 



XV 



atripliois (Trachea), 206, 208 

atropos (Acheromia), 88, 113, 260, 283 

atropos (Manduca), 113 

augur (Noctua), 134 

aurago (Xanthia), 65, 66 

aurantiaria (Hybernia), 25, 183 

auratus (Ghrysophanus), 12-4 

aureola (Lithosia), 205 

aurelia (Melitaa), 207, 209 

auricoma (Acronycta), 200, 20S, 227 

aurtflua (Euproctis), 211 

auriflua (Liparis), 292 

aurirlua (Porthesia), 259 

aurinia (Melitsea), 50, 206, 251, 252, 263, 

275, 295, 317 
aurora (Colias), 123 
auroraria (Hyria), 199, 315 
ausonia (Euchloe), 251, 274 
australis (Aporophila), 30, 93 
australis (Doleschalia), 187 
autumnaria (Ennomos), 227 
aversata (Acidalia), 67, 163, 200, 292, 319 
aversata (Ptychopoda), 10 
badiaua (Argyrolepia), 213, 275 
badiaua (Phalonia;, 213, 275, 309 
badiata (Anticlea), 184 
badiella (Depressaria), 127 
badiipennella (Coleophora), 285 
baja (Noctua), 93, 134, 208, 227, 292 
bajularia (I'seudoterpna), 259, 315 
baltica (Hadena), 205 
bankesiella (Anerastia), 287 
barbalis (Pechipogon), 204 
basilinea (Apamea), 66 
basiliuea (Hadena), 207 
batis (Thyatira), 93, 109, 315 
baton (Lycsena), 274 
belgiaria (Scodiona), 182 
belia (Euchloe), 49, 251, 274 
bellargus (Lye), 253, 274, 279, 301, 319 
bellezina (Euchloe), 274 
bellidice (Pieris), 49 
bembeciformis (Troch.), 126, 167 
bergmanniana (Dictyopteryx), 115 
berolinensis (Zygama), 210 
betulae (Salebria), 293 
betulse (Zephyrus), 88, 275 
betularia (Amphidasys), 30, 67, 115, 116, 

181, 187, 188 
bianor (Papilio), 122 
biarcuana (Ancylis), 164 
bicolor (Leucodonta), 136 
bicolorana (Hylophila), 92, 207 
bicolorata (Melanthia), 184, 292 
bicoloria (Miana), 208 
bicostella (Pleurota), 164 
bicuspis (Cerura), 136, 186, 201 
bidentata (Odont.), 65, 181, 188, 261, 287 
bifasciata (Perizoma), 310 
bifida (Cerura), 66, 109 
bifida (Dicranura), 63 
bilineata (Camptogramma), IS, 184, 292 
bilineata (Larentia), 18 
bilunana (Padisca), 116 



bilunaria (Selenia), 181 

binaria (Drepana), 204, 314 

bipunctaria (Eubolia), 30, 210, 283 

bipunctaria (Ortholitha), 210 

bipunctidactyla (Xlirnses.), 164 

bipunctidactyla (Stenoptilia), 20 

bisetata (Acidalia), 81, 93, 199, 209, 292 

biundularia (Tephrosia), 182 

blanda (Caradrina), 93 

blumei (Papilio), 118 

Boarmia, 7 

bcetica (Lycajna), 91, 92 

bosticus (Lampides), 245, 273, 274 

bombyliformis (Heruaris), 89, 206 

bombyliformis (Macroglossa), 295 

boreata (Cheimatobia), 25, 183 

bractea (Plusiah 26, 238 

brassicas (Pieris), 25, 238, 259, 274, 300 

brassies (Mamestra), 65, 66, 292 

briseis (Satyrus), 244, 274 

brooksiana (Prepona), 254 

brumata (Cheimatobia), 96, 183, 192 

brunnea (Noctua), 66, 134 

brunneata (Halia), 202 

bucephala (Phalera), 65, 109, 204, 259 

buckleyana (Prepona), 255 

cacalia; (Hesperia), 275 

caecimacula (Ammoconia), 227 

cseruleocephala (Diloba), 25, 40, 65 

Cffisiata (Larentia), 183, 212 

effisonia (Meganostoma), 216 

casstrum (Hypopta), 82 

caia (Arctia), 29, 64, 89, 117, 164, 212 

c-album (Grapta), 211, 227 

c-album (Polygonia), 274, 279, 301 

c-album (Vanessa), 63 

caiida (Lycama), 52 

calidella (Ephestia), 19 

callidice (Pieris), 249, 274 

callidryas (Ana;a), 230 

callunre (Lasiocampa), 69 

cambricaria (Venusia), 7, 263 

camelina i Lophopteryx), 65, 109, 207, 262 

Camilla (Limenitis), 253, 274, 279, 301 

candalarum (Agrotis), 205 

candidata (Asthena), 6, 199 

candidulana (Catoptria), 260 

canescens (Polia), 82 

canigulensis (Melan.),244, 274, 301, 317 

cantenerella (Bradyrrhoa), 19 

capaneus (Papilio), 187 

capsincola (Dianthcecia), 29 

capsophila (Dianthcecia), 94 

captiuncula (Phothedes), 134 

carbonariella (Phycis), 119 

cardamines (Euchloe), 63, 86, 114, 202, 

274, 279, 295, 300, 319 
cardui (Pyrameis), 25, 87, 94, 212, 251, 

262, 274, 287, 301 
cardui (Vanessa), 93, 163, 237, 282 
carniohca (Zygama), 210 
carnus (Hepialus), 108, 163 
carpinata (Lobophorai, 184 
carpinata (Larentia), 202 



XVI 



INDEX. 



carpini (Saturnia), 292 

carthami (Hesperia), 210, 274, 279, 301 

cassiuea (Asteroscopus), 25 

cassiope (Erebia), 248, 274 

castigata (Eupithecia), 93, 183, 292 

castrensis (Malacosoma), 210 

caudana (llhacodia), 285 

cecrops (Protogonius), 230 

celerio (Chicrocampa), 88, 113 

celsia (Nsenia), 227 

celtis (Libythea), 246, 275 

ceinbra? (Scoparia), 292 

cenea (Papilio), 28 

centaureata (Eupithecia), 93 

cerago (Xanthia), 159, 287 

cerisyi (Smerinthus), 111 

cerri (Thecla), 57 

cervinata (Eubolia), 199 

eespitis (Luperina), 63, 209, 314 

cespitis (Epineuronia), 227 

cespitana (Sericoris), 115 

ckffirophyllata (Tanagra), 199, 292 

chalcytes (Plusia), 18 

charaomilla (Cucullia), 214, 287 

chaonia (Drymonia), 206 

charitonia (Heliconius), 229 

chenopodii (Hadena), 66 

chenopodii (Mamestra), 259 

chi (Polia), 30, 160, 292 

chlamitulalis (Nola), 82 

chlorana (Earias), 66 
chrysantheana (Cnephasia), 99 

chrysantbemi (Zygama), 114 

chryseis (Chrysophanus), 113 

chrysidiformis (.Egeria), 261 

chrysidiformis (Sesia), 261 

chrysitis (Plusia), 26, 66, 68, 180, 209, 
238, 292, 314 

chrysippus (Limnas), 139 

chrysorrhoea (Euproctis), 211 

chrysori'hoDa (Porthesia), 260 

cinctaria (Boavmia), 202 

cinerea (Agrotis), 63, 205 

cinxia (Melitea), 30,73,206,253,275,301 

circe (Satyrus), 51, 246 

citrago (Xanthia), 64, 65, 227 

citraria (Aspilates), 18 

clara (Aruea), 230 

clathrata (Strenia), 8, 182, 202 

cleobis (Lycama), 124 

cleodippe (Argynnis), 123 

cleopatra (Gonepteryx), 190, 246, 251, 
253, 274 

clytie (Apatura), 207, 275 

c-nigrum (Agrotis), 208, 227 

c-nigrum (Noctua), 134 

ccenia (Junonia), 229 

cceuosa (Lrelia), 136 

collina (Agrotis), 212 

comes (Tripruena), 158 

comitata (Pelurga), 199, 259 

comma (Augiades), 203, 207, 274 

comma (Hesperia), 64 

comma (Leucania), 110, 208, 292 



comma (Urbicola), 312 
comma-notata (Cidaria), 93 
complana (Lithosia), 80, 208 
complanula (Lithosia), 292 
contiietella (Cebysa), 11 
conformis (Xylina), 160 
conigera (Leucania), 30, 65, 208, 293 
consonaria (Tephrosia), 165, 182, 204 
consortaria (Boarmia), 165, 206 
conspicillaris (Xylomyges), 82, 287 
constrictella (Eupithecia), 183 
contaminana (Teras), 115 
contigua (Hadena), 261, 291, 293 
contigua (Mamestra), 206, 208 
contiguaria (Acidalia), 287 
contiguaria (Ptychopoda), 48 
conversaria (Boarmia), 29 
convexella (Heterographis), 19 
convolvuli (Agrius), 24, 29 
convolvuli (Sphinx), 24, 88, 13S, 163, 

168, 214, 260, 293, 314 
cordula (Satyrus), 275 
coretas (Lycama), 52, 301 
coridon (Lycama), 301 

Corsica (Lycaena), 52 

corticana (Penthina), 115 

corticea (Agrotis), 161, 213 

coronata (Eupithecia), 202 

corydon (Lycama), 88, 129, 201, 210, 
251, 262, 274, 286 

corydon (Polyommatus), 30 

corylana (Tortrix), 115 

corylata (Cidaria), 185, 204 

coryli (Deraas), 63, 109, 205, 314 

Cosmorhoe, 8 

cossus (Cossusj, 19 

cossus (Trypanus), 19 

costovata (Melanippe), 320 

crabroniformis (Trochilium), 89 

Craspedia, 47 

cratregata (Rumia), 92, 181 

cratiegi (Aporia), 57, 144, 215, 253, 273, 
274, 278, 279, 300 

crenata (Glyphisa), 136 

crepuscularia (Tephrosia), 182, 202 

cribrum (Coscinia), 211 

cristana (Peronea), 262 

cruciana (Hypermecia), 115 

cruciferarum (Plutella), 20 

cubicularis (Caradrina), 293 

cucubali (Dianthcecia), 160, 208, 287 

cucullata (Anticleai, 46, 64 

cucullatella (Nola), 89 

culmellus (Crambus), 292 

cuprealis (Aglossa), 68, 126 

cursoria (Agrotis), 134 

curtula (Pygffira), 109 

cydno (Heliconius), 30 

cyllarus (I.ycsna), 52, 209, 275, 301 

cytherea (Cerigo), 293 

cytisaria (Pseudoterpna), 200, 292, 318 

cypris (Morpho), 119, 230 

dahlii (Noctua), 63 

damon (Lycrena), 129, 275 



INDEX. 



XV11 



daphne (Argynnis), 50, 123, 244, 274 

daplidice (Pieris), 49, 112, 251, 253, 274 

davus (Coenonympha), 96, 285, 319 

deceptaria (Erastria), 203 

decolorata (Emmelesia), 163, 183, 292 

defoliaria (Hybernia), 22, 25, 94, 117, 183 

degeneraria (Acidalia), 212, 317 

deione (Melitrea), 244, 274, 301 

deiphile (Prepona) , 254 

demialba (Adelpha), 230 

dentina (Hadena), 160, 208 

deplana (Lithosia), 64, 319 

Depressaria, 20 

derasa (Habrosyne), 92, 93 

derasa (Thyatira), 65, 109, 292, 315 

derivalis (Herminia), 292 

desfontainii (Melitaa), 317 

designata (Coremia), 184 

designata (Larentia), 203 

despecta (Coenobia), 126 

deversaria (Acidalia), 209 

dia (Argynnis), 207 

dictaa (Notodonta) , 63, 109 

dicta?a (Pheosia), 65, 109 

dictffioides ( Pheosia), 64, 65, 66 

dictynna (Melitaea), 207, 244,249, 274,301 

didyma (Aparaea), 65, 161 

didyma (Mel.), 73, 207, 209, 274, 279, 301 

didymata (Larentia), 183 

diluta (Asphalia), 293 

dilutata (Oporabia), 183 

dilutaria (Acidalia), 25, 163, 285 

dilutaria (Ptychopoda), 45 

dimidiata (Acidalia), 82, 199 

dimidiata (Ptychopoda), 43, 45 

diniensis (Leptidia), 123, 274 

dipsacea (Heliothis), 315 

dispar (Chrysophanus), 113, 124, 207 

dispar (Liparis), 70 

dispar (Lymantria), 211 

dispar (Ocneria), 285 

dissimilis (Hadena), 160 

dissimilis (Mamestra), 206, 207, 208, 227 

ditrapezium (Noctua), 291 

dolobraria (Eurymene), 63, 64, 181, 315 

dominula(Callimorpha), 69,136,318,319 

dorilis (Chrysophanus), 203, 204, 274 

dorus (Ccenonympha), 51, 275 

dotata (Cidaria), 199, 292 

dotata (Lygris), 199 

doubledayaria (Amphi.), 65, 67, 116, 181 

dromedarius (Notodonta), 63, 94, 109, 

207, 261, 280 
dromus (Erebia), 248, 274 
dryas (Satyrus), 124, 273, 274 
dubitana (Eupcecilia), 116 
dubitata (Triphosa), 184, 204 
dumerili (Luperina), 136 
dumetana (Tortrix), 115 

duplaris (Cymatophora), 66, 92, 93, 109, 

208, 315 
duponcheli (Leptidia), 49 
duponcheliana (Phtheochroa), 20 
ectypana (Tortrix), 292 



edusa (Colias), 22, 25, 29, 50, 86, 90, 92, 

93, 94, 116, 140, 216, 251, 253, 274, 

27'.), 283, 300 
egaajeus (Papilio), 186 
egea (Polygonia), 50 
egeria (Pararge), 25, 29, 63, 87, 251, 253, 

274, 278, 282, 294, 319 
electra (Colias), 216 
eleus (Chrysophanus), 31, 52, 274 
elinguaria (Crocallis), 181, 292 
elisa (Argynnis), 50 
ellops (Zaretes), 230 
elpenor (Chcerocampa), 64, 320 
elutata (Hypsi.), 30, 67, 92, 163, 184, 292 
elva (Microtia), 229 
elymi (Tapinostola), 80, 282 
emargana (Khacodia), 285 
emarginata (Acidalia), 8, 207, 209 
emortualis (Zanclognatha), 209 
emutaria (Leptomeris), 46 
enagoras (Papilio), 254 
encelades (Papilio), 140 
Eois, 7, 9 
Ephyra, 7 

ephialtes (Zygasna), 210 
epistrophis (Morpho), 168 
erate (Colias), 216 
ericetaria (Selidosema), 182 
erinnys (Erebia), 247 
eros (Lycasna), 249, 274 
erosaria (Ennomos), 65, 66 
erythrocephala (Orrhodia), 202, 227 
escheri (Lycaena), 251, 253, 274, 279, 301 
estreyeriana (Epiblema), 312 
eubule (Catopsilia), 230 
eumedon (Lycaena), 207, 275 
eumene (Mesosemia), 94 
euphemus (Lycaena), 124 
eupheno (Euchloe), 246 
euphenoides (Euchloe), 49, 245, 251, 

253, 274 
euphorbia? (Deilephila), 69, 113 
euphorbiata (Minoa) , 63 
euphrosyne (Argynnis), 274, 279, 301 
Eupithecia, 69 
euryale (Erebia), 212, 274 
eurytheme (Colias), 216 
evajous (Talmenes), 186 
evias (Erebia), 28, 31, 51, 245, 274, 301 
exanthemata (Leptomeris), 6 
exanthemata (Cabera), 182 
excfficatus (Calasymbolus), 111 
exiguata (Eupithecia), 93, 184 
expallidana (Catoptria), 100, 287 
exoleta (Calocampa), 160, 202, 227 
extersaria (Acidalia), 82 
extersaria (Boarmia), 207 
extranea (Leucania), 287 
exulans (Zygama), 114 
fagi (Stauropus), 64, 66, 259 
falcataria (Drepana), 108, 204 
falcula (Platypteryx), 63 
farinalis (Pyralis), 20 
farinata (Lithostege), 205 



XV111 



INDEX. 



Easoiana (Erastria), 207 
Easoiaria (Ellopia), L81, 188, 315 
Easoiunoula (MianaJ, 66, 314 
Eavioolor (Leucania), 215, 287 
Eeisthamelii (Papilio), 278, 300 
Eentoni (Nodaria), 7 i 
Eerrugahs (Pionea), 20 
Eerrugata (Ooremia), l^J. 292 
Eerrugata (Larentia), 203, "204 
fervida (Phragmatobia), 19 
[estiva (Nootua), L34, 287, 291 
Eestucre (Plusia), 80, 180, 209..291 
fidia (Satyrus), 51, 275 
filicata (Acidalia), IS 
filigrammaria (Oporabia), 183 
filipendulse (Anthrocera), 29 
filipendubs (Zygama), 114, 118, 293,319 
fimbria (Triphsena), 65, 66, 293 
fimbria (Agrotis), 208 
fimbrialis (Thaler a), 226 
firmata (Thera), l v ^ 
flammealis (Endotricha), 294 
flavago (£anthia), 159 
flavella (Depressaria), 127 
flavioinota (Polia), 93 
fiavicinctata (Larentia), 183 
flavicornis (Asphalia), r>4. 202 
fiavidorsana (Dichrorampha), 240 
flexula (Aventia), 64, 209 
lioralis (Noctuella), 20 
riuctuata (Larentia 
.fluctuate (Melanippe), < ; 7. 184, 320 
fontis (Bomolocha), 205 

belia), 20 
fbrmiciformis (Sesia), 126 

. ta (Tortrix), 115, 135, 292 
Eraxini 227 28 

Erequentella (Scoparia), 292 
fritillum (Hesperia), 274 
Euciformis (Hema - B 
foliginosa 19, 64, 89 

fuliginosa (Spilosoma), 64, 89 

. rapmostola), 133. 208, 227. 287 
- 
fulvago (Xanthiah 65, 159 
fulvata (Cidaria 
fuinata (Acidalia). 8. 200. 203 
faniata (Leptomeris), 18 
funerella (Anesychia), 127 
:a (Xylina), 202, 227 
fureula (Dicranurai. 63, 109 

. 10','. 209. 2i32. 320 

furuneula (Miana 134, 299 
- . 133, 208 

: iscata B LIS 

108 
roseola 

137 
irgia ' '. 2, 21 274 

301. U 

. 210 



galiata (Melanippe), 93, 137, 184, 210 

galii (Deilephila), 88, 113 

gamma (Plusia), 18, 20, 163, ISO 

garleppiana (Prepona), 254 

gaudialis (Chlosyne), 229 

gelon (Papilio), 140 

gemmaria (Boarmia), 182, 286 

gemina (Apamea), 65 

gemina (Hadena), 208 

geniinipuncta (Nonagria), 201 

genista? (Hadena), 65, 203, 214 

genista (Mamestra), 207 

gilvago (Xanthia), 66 

gilvaria (Aspilates), 18, 61 

glabra (Orrhodia), 227 

glabraria (Cleora), 30, 94, 286, 315 

glacialis (Erebia), 139, 247, 275, 316 

glareosa (Noctua), 63. 134, 160 

glaucata (Colix), 64, 109 

glaucicolella (Coleophora), 285 

glyphica (Euchlidia), ISO. 190 

gouostigrna (Orgyia), 63, 70 

goossensiata (Eupithecia), 227 

gordius (Chrysophanus), 300 

gorge (Erebia), 247, 274, 316 

gorgone (Erebia), 247, 274, 316 

gothicina (Tseniocampa), 159 

gracilis (Tamiocanipa), 202, 286 

grammica (Coscinia), 19 

grarnmica (Emydia), 136 

graminis (Char.Eis), 81, 133, 227 

granella (Tinea), 137 

grisealis (Zanclognatha), 180, 185 

griseola (Lithosia), 207 

grossulariata (Abraxas), 30, 64, 182, 188, 

262, 2-7 
grossulariata (Spilote), 262 
gryphipennella (Coleophora ). 261 
gueneei (Lnperina), 136 
halirnede (Melanargia), 124 
harpagula (Drepana). 136 
hastiana (Acalla), 164 
hastiana (Peroneal. 30, 2>7 
hastata (Larentia), 203 
hastata (Melanippe), 184 
haworthii (Cela&nai. 134, 227 
bectus (Hepialus), 64. 315 
helice (Colias), 29, 112. 116, 140 
hellmanni (Tapinostola). 208 
helvola (Orthosia), 159, 227 
helvola (Anehoeelisi. 203 
heparata i i 203 

herbariata (Acidalia), ^2 
herbida (Agrotis). 315 
hermione - j74 

hessii (Nonagria), 319 
. 117 
-. 95 

- . 
hippoeastanaria (Pachycnemiai. 315 
hippocrepidis (ZygsBna), 118 
hippopl a . 113 

hippothoe i Chrysophanus ), 124. 274 
hirtaria (Bisl S7 Lfi . 



INDEX. 



XIX 



hispidus (Heliophobus), 318 

hispulla (Epinephele), 51, '2-57, 271, 278, 

279, 301 
hospiton (Papilio), 19 
humiliata (Acidalia), 216 
humiliata (Ptychopoda). 16 
huniuli (Hepialus), 61, 108 
hyale (Colias), 25, 29. 50, 123. 216, 226, 

274, 300 
hybridus (Smeriuthus). 127 
hyemana (Tortricodes), HG 
hyerana (Hastula), 118, 190 
hygiasa (Vanessa), 70 
hylas (Lycama), 211. 215 
hyperanthus (Aphautopus). 87. 95. 121. 

259, 301 
hyperanthus (Epinep.). 95, 271. 279, 319 
hyperia (Chlosyne), 229 
hypericana (Catoptera), 81 
ianira (Epinephele), 25, 29, 61, 316 
ianthina (Triphana). 61, 65, 66, 158,208 
ianthina (Agrotis). 208 
iberica (MelitsEa), 251, 252, 317 
icarus (Lycsena),25, 210. 251, 252.261,301 
ichueumoniforniis (Sesia), 210 
ichnusa (Vanessa), 50 
ictericana (Cnephasia), 20 
ictericana (Sphaleroptera) 81, 116 
ida (Epinephele), 51. 211, 251, 275 
ide (Sideronei. 230 
ignobilis (CEceticus), 11, 13 

ilia (Apatura), 206 

ilicifolia (Epinaptera), 136 

ilicifolia (Gastropacha). 136 

ilicis (Thecla), 51. 211. 251, 253. 271.275. 
301 

illuruinatella (Argyresthia), 281. 286 

iliunaria (Selenia), 166. 181 

imbutata (Anaitisl, 120. 199 

imitaria (Acidalia), 80. 2-7. 2:<2. 315 

imitaria (Leptomeris), In 

immaculata (Argynnis), 50 

immanata (Cidaria), 30, 199 

immorata (Acidalia), 8, 201 

immorata (Leptomeris) , 16 

immundana (Epiblema), 281, 311 

imniutata (Acidalia), 8, 199, 201, 212 

inipudens (Leucania), 20S 

impura (Leucania), 65. 80, 110, 208 

inachis (Kallima), 190 

incarnatus (Spilonota), 115 

incanana (Cnephasia), 98 

incanaria (Acidalia). 285 

incanata (Leptomeris i. 10 

iocerta (Tasniocampa), 207 

indigenata (Eucrostes), 18 

innotata (Eupithecia), 201 

ino (Argynnis), 207 

inopiana (Ephippiphora). 127 

inornata (Ptychopoda), 13, 11 

insignis (Clothilda), 229 

instabilis ( 1 seniocampa), 65 

interjectaria (Ptychopoda). 8, 10, ii 

interjecta (Tri.), 66, 80, 92, 93, 110, 158 



intermedia (Erebia), 271. 316 

intermedia (Erebia), 215, 316 

interrogationis (Plusia). 26, 180 

io (Vanessai.31. -7. 163. 168, 203, 227. 301 

iota (Plusia). 26, ' 30,11 !, 180, 238 

iphigenia (Hypena), 230 

iphis (Ccenonympha), 275 

iphis (Ccenonympha), 207. 2 

iris (Apatura), 70, 110. 207, 216, 285, 316 

irroreila (Setina), 63, 21" 

isabellse (Graellsia\ 216 

jacobffiffi (Eucheliai. S9, 185, 211. 216, 

237. 265 
jacobaeae (Eupocrita<. 89, 265, 267 
jasius (Charaxes), 50 
jasoniata (Eupithecia). 210 
jaspidea (Xamia), 227 
juniperata (Theral, 181 
jurtina (Epinephele), 29, 30, 51. 209, 

251. 271. 278, 301 
karwinskii i Smyrna), 230 
kershawii (Vanessa). 186 
lacertinaria (Drepana). 108, 2 6 
lachesis (Mel.), 51, 211. 271. 278, 301, 317 
lactearia (Thalera), 65, 200 
lactearia (Iodis), 200, 315 
lacteella (Endrosis). 161 
lavis (Orthosia). 227 
1-album (Leucania), 208 
lancealis (Perinephele), 291 
lanceolana (Bactrai, 100 
lanestris (Eriogaster), 108. 120. 2-7 
lanestris (Lachneis), 29 
laodice (Argynnis), 121 
lappona (Erebiaj, 215. 248, 271 
lapponaria Nyssia), 69. 168, 216, 237 
lariciata ( Eupithecia ), I I 
laripennella (Coleophora). 285 
latefasciata (Limenitis), 123 
latenai (Mamestrai. 2 6 
lateritia (Hadena>. '. - 
lathona Argynnis 

lathonia, 207, 209, 227. 274. 279, 301 
latonia (Argynnis), 112, 226 
lathyrus (Leptidia), 19 
latreillellus (Nemotois), 2 i 
lavatera? (Carcharodus), 21^. 274 
*leechi (Nodaria), 71 
lefebvrei (Erebia), 245, 217, 248, 271, 

301, 316 
lemnata (Cataclysta). 1. 38, 42, 90 
leosthenes (Papilio). 187 
leporina (Acronvcta), 96. Iu9, 206, 208, 

2-7. 289 
Leptomeris, 6. 8, 17 
leucophaa (Mamestra), 2 5 
leucophsa (Pachetra). 2-7 
leucophaaria (Hybernia), 183, 202 
levana (Araschma). 2>j7 
lewinii (Clania), 11, 13 
libatrix (Gonoptera). 65. 180 
lichenaria (Boarmiai, 209 
lichenaria (Cleora), SO, 287, 315 
lidderdalii (Bhutanitis), 31 



XX 



INDEX. 



lienigianus (Leioptilus), 191 

ligea (Erebia), 212 

ligniperda (Cossus), 19, 61, 66, 208, 315 

ligula (Orrhodia), 125, 159 

ligustri (Acronycta), 110, 291, 315 

ligustri (Craniophora), 110 

ligustri (Sphinx), 64 

limitata (Eubolia), 199 

limitata (Ortholitha), 210 

limoniella (Goniodoma), 285 

lirnosipennella (Coleophora), 285 

linariata (Eupithecia), 183 

linariata (Tephroclystis), 183 

linea (Adopaea), 120 

liuea (Hesperia), 92 

lineago (Xanthia), 227 

lineola (Adopaea), 120, 207, 271 

lineola (Hesperia), 226 

1-nigrum (Laria), 206 

linogrisea (Agrotis), 205, 208 

liria (Ectima), 230 

literbsa (Miana), 80, 93, 131 

liturata(Mac), 182, 188, 262, 285, 287, 315 

liturata (Semiothisa), 209 

litura (Orthosia), 159, 227 

liturella (Depressaria), 161 

lithargyria (Leucania), 61, 65, 110 

lithoxylea (Xylophasia), 65, 160 

lividalis (Hypena), 18 

livormca (Deilephila), 137 162, 186, 313 

lixella (Coleophora), 285 

lobulata (Lobophora) 181 

longana (Cnephasia), 20 

lonicerae (Zygasna), 209 

lota (Orthosia), 94, 159 

lubricipeda (Spilosoma), 64, 90 

luciua (Nemeobius), 63, 88, 275, 295 

leucostigma (Hydroecia), 208 

luctuosa (Acontia), 63, 65, 136, 210, 214 

lucernea (Agrotis), 210, 320 

lunaria (Selenia), 181, 186 

lunaris (Ophiodes), 191, 207 

lunigera (Agrotis), 70, 94, 136 

lunosa (Orthosia), 65 

lunula (Calophasia), 82 

lupulinus (Hepialus), 108 

luridata (Boarmia), 204 

luridata (Tephrosia), 205 

lurideolata (Lithosia), 89 

lutea (Xanthia), 227 

lutealis (Scopula), 292 

luteata (Asthena), 6, 64, 199, 203, 204 

luteolata (Bumia), 181 

lutescens (Phytometra), 213 

lutosa (Nonagria), 282 

lutulenta (Epunda), 65 

lutulenta (Aporophyla), 227 

lycaon (Epinephele), 211, 226 

lychnitis (Cucullia), 191 

lycidas (Lycaena), 248, 275 

lyllus (Coenonympha), 51 

lyside (Kricogonia), 229 

machoeralis (Pyrausta), 198 



machaon (Papilio), 122, 251, 274, 278, 

282, 300, 320 
macilenta (Orthosia), 65, 159 
macleayana (Papilio), 139 
macularia (Mesene), 230 
rnacularia (Venilia), 181 
maculata (Venilia), 231 
maculipennis (Plutella), 20 
maera (Pararge), 211, 212, 253, 274, 301 
magnella (Lepidoscia), 12, 14 
major (Morpha), 226 
malvffi (Hesperia), 203, 254, 301 
malva; (Syrichthus), 29, 63, 261, 275 
manto (Erebia), 275 
margaritaria (Metrocampa), 181 
marginata (Lomaspilis), 183 
marginaria (Hybernia), 29, 96, 118, 183 
rnarginepunctata (Acidalia), 209, 214 
marginepunctata (Leptomeris), 10, 43 
maritima (Senta), 126, 201 
matura (Cerigo), 65, 80 
maura (Mania), 65, 66, 70, 158, 286, 291 
medesieaste (Thais), 244, 274, 278, 300 
medon (Lycaena), 93 
rnegrera (Pararge), 51, 87, 211, 251, 252, 

274, 282, 295, 301 
rnegacephala (Acronycta), 65, 109, 208 
melanocephala (Acronycta), 289 
melanocephalum (Trochilium), 206 
melanops (Lycaena), 52, 94, 226, 275 
meleager (Lycaena), 52 
melas (Erebia), 205, 280, 301 
melete (Pieris), 123 
meliloti (Zygaena), 207 
memnon (Caligo), 230 
mendica (Spilosoma), 89 
mensurana (Eubolia), 199 
menthastri (Spilosoma), 64, 90, 259, 311 
menyanthidis (Aero.), 110, 206, 226, 227 
meridionalis (Melanargia), 124 
mesomella (Cybosia), 89, 210 
mesomella (Lithosia), 315 
meticulosa (Brotolomia), 227 
metirius (Hypocysta), 139, 187 
metis (Apatura), 275 
mexicana (Eurema), 229 
mi (Euclidia), 180 
miata (Cidaria), 183 
micacea (Hydroecia), 65, 133, 211, 314 
milleri (Caradrina), 205. 209 
milhauseri (Hoplitis), 82, 200, 209 
miniata (Calligenia), 287, 315 
minima (Lye), 63, 88, 117, 201, 211, 286 
minimus (Lycaena), 274 
ministrana (Tortrix), 115 
minorata (Larentia), 212 
minutata (Eupithecia), 184 
minutata (Tephroclystia), 184 
misippus (IJypolimnas), 117 
mnemosyne (Parnassius), 274, 280 
modesta (Pachysphinx), 111 
molothina (Agrotis), 205 
monacha (Lymantria), 211 



INDEX. 



XXI 



monacha (Psilura), 315 
moneta (Plusia), 64, 65, 138, 260, 280, 281 
monodactylus (Pterophorus), 20, 96,292 
monoglypha (Hadena), 280, 227 
monoglypha (Xylophasia), 65 
monogramma (Metoptria), 18, 190 
montanata (Melanippe), 184 
morpheus (Caradrina), 134, 207 
morpheus (Heteroptus), 273, 274 
multistrigaria (Larentia), 183, 319 
mundana (Nudaria), 89, 292 
muricata (Hyria), 7, 199 
murinata (Minoa), 202 
muscerda (Lithosia), 207, 208 
musculosa (Synia), 136, 162, 287 
mylotes (Papilio), 229 
myopffiformis (Sesia), 63 
myrtillana (Phoxopteryx), 115 
myrtilli (Anarta), 63, 96, 180, 227, 285 
nanata (Eupithecia), 184 
nanata (Tephroclvstia), 184 
napi (Pieris), 25, 29, 94, 197, 198, 202, 

259, 274, 300, 319 
nebulosa (Aplecta), 29, 30, 160, 187, 205, 

287, 291 
neglecta (Noctua), 63 
nemesis (Dismorphia), 119 
nemoralis (Agrotera), 261 
neornyris (Satyrus), 51 
neoridas (Erebia), 275 
neoterpe (Prepona), 254 
nerii (Daphnis), 113 
nerii (Deilephila), 198 
nerii (Sphinx), 197 
neurica (Nonagria), 319 
neustria (Malacosoma), 64, 292 
nicholli (Erebia), 139,316 
nictitans (Hydroecia), 30, 65, 66, 126, 

133, 208, 227 
nigricans (Agrotis), 66, 227 
nigrofasciata (Anticlea), 184, 188 
nigrofulvata (Macaria), 188, 262, 285 
niobe (Argynnis), 112, 207, 209, 274 
nitida (Orthosia), 227 
nitidella (Epichnopteryx), 206 
niveus (Acentropus), 1, 126 
noctuella (Nomophila), 20, 81 
nornion (Parnassius), 122 
notata (Macaria), 182, 315 
notata (Semiothisia), 165 
nubeculosa (Asteroscopus), 202 
nudalis (Phlyctrenodes), 20 
numata (Heliconius), 165, 317 
nupta (Catocala), 209, 227, 259, 285 
nymphaeata (Hydrocampa), 42 
obeliscata (Larentia), 227 
obelisca (Agrotis), 93 
oberthuri (Lycarna), 241, 316 
obliterata (Eupisteria), 7, 204 
obscura (Agrotis), 206, 208 
obscuraria (Gnophos) 182, 209, 292, 315, 

319 
obsitalis (Hypena), 18 
obsoleta (Chloridea), 258 



obsoleta (Leucania), 126, 201 

obtusella (Coleophora), 285 

occulta (Agrotis), 205, 208 

ocellaris (Xanthia), 227 

ocellata (Melanthia), 184 

ocellata (Larentia), 204 

ocellatus (Smerin.) 29, 63, 64, 66, 89, 237 

ocellatus (Aphantopus). 124 

ocellea (Eromene), 240 

ochracea (Gortyna), 65, 123, 256 

ochracea (Ochria), 261 

ochrata (Acidalia), 9, 317 

ochrata (Sterrha), 45 

ochrearia (Aspilates), 18, 214 

ochroleucata (Acidalia), 82 

ootavia (Morpho 1 , 230 

octogesima (Cymatophora), 215, 23S, 287 

octomaculata (Ennychia), 292 

ocularis (Cymatophora), 63, 215, 238 

oculea (Apamea), 161 

occultana (Predisca), 116 

oedippus (Ccenonympha), 124, 273, 274 

cenie (Erebia), 275 

oleracea (Hadena), 64, 66 

oleracea (Mamestra), 227 
olivata (Larentia), 183 

oo (Dicycla), 2S6, 287 

opacella (Acanthopysche), 206 

ophiogramma (Apamea), 161, 208 

opima (Tffiniocampa), 70, 192, 202 

or (Cymatophora), 63, 203, 208, 287, 315 

orbicularia (Ephyra), 315 

orbitulus (Lye), 241, 246, 247, 248, 316 

orbona (Triphama), 66, 140, 158 

orbona (Agrotis), 205 

orientalis (Pieris), 122 

orion (Lycrena), 301 

orion (Moma), 206, 315 

ornata (Acidalia), 206 

ornitopus (Xylina) 227 

osseana (Aphelia), 164 

osseana (Cnephasia), 293 

oxyacanthae (Miselia), 160 

pabulatricula (Hadena), 208 _ 

palsemon (Carterocephalus), '22, 275 

palffino (Colias). 226, 275 

palarica (Erebia), 28, 30 

paleacea (Cosmia). 159, 209 

pales (Argynnis), 245, 248, 274 

pallens (Leucania), 65, 110 

pallescens (Argynnis), 123 

palpina (Pterostoma), 64, 109, 259, 262 

paludata (Anaitis), 120, 199 

paludis (Hydroecia), 30 

palustris (Hydrilla), 136 

palustris (Zygama) 293 

pamphilus (Ccenonympha), 25, 51, 209, 
259, 274, 285, 316, 319 

pandora (Argynnis), 50, 275 

paphia (Argynnis), 50, 87, 294, 315 

paphia (Dryas), 207, 209 

Papilio, 30 

papilionaria (Geometra), 207, 209 

parthenias (Brephos), 181, 202 



XX11 



INDEX. 



parthenie (Melittea), 50, 248, 274 

paralekta (Kallima), 190 

parva (Micra), 287 

parva (Thalpoohares), 18, 287 

parvipuncta (Cyaniris), 52 

pasiphae (Epinephele),51, 244, 251, 275 

pasithoe (Heliconius), 117 

pastinum (Toxocampa), 208, 2S7 

pavonia (Satumia), 29, 108, 292 

pectinitaria (Larentia), 183, 239 

pedaria (Phigalia), 65, 96, 181, 202 

pendularia (Ephyra), 207 

pendularia (Zono.), 29, 64, 1S9, 216,262 

pennaria (Himera), 65, LSI 

pentadactyla (Aciptilia), 292 

peranthus (Papilio), 140 

perla (Bryophila), 65, 109 

perlellus (Grambas), 294 

permutaria (Peronea), 115, 287 

perochraria (Acidalia), 212 

perochraria (Ptychopoda), 11 

persicarise (Mamestra), 63, 65, 133, 291 

petasitis (Hydroecia), 133 

petiverella (Dichrorampha), 116 

petraria (Panagra), 182 

pnugiana (Ephippiphora), 116 

pharnaces (Papilio), 228 

pheretes (Lycsena), 316 

phicomene (Colias), 210. 24S. 274 

philodice (Colias), 216 

phloeas (Chrysophanus), 31. 52, 203, 226, 

251, 274. 301, 320 
phcebe (Melitaea), 274, 278 
picteti (Ala), 23 
picteti (Trichanarta), 23 
pigra (Pygsera), 27 

;alia), 181 
pilosellse (Zygsena), 287 
pinastri (Sphinx), 113, 206 
pinguinalis (Aglossa), 20 
pini (Dendrolinius), 211. 227 
piniaria (Bupalus), 182, 188, 209, 315 
piniariella (Ocnerostoma), 28 
pinicolana (Retinia), 116 
piniperda (Panolis), 65, 131, 159 
pinivorana (Retinia), 116 
pisi (Hadena), 80, 160 
pistacina (Orthos LS 159 
pitheas tmma), 229 

- . 18. 199 
. Stenoptilia), 20 
plantaginis (Parasemia 8 

. jinis (Nemeophila I, 89, 168 
plectr. -27 

6, 134. 320 
plev sia), 112 

plexippus (Danais . 112 

. 123 
plunia: . S sema), 182 
pluniigera (Ptilophora), 314 
plumbaria 199 

plumbaria (Ortholitna), 204 
plumbeolata (Eupithecia), 93 
Plusia. 25 



podalirius ((Papilio). 245, 274, 300 
podana (Tortrix), 115, 135 
poggei (Pseudacrrea). 139 
poliographus (Colias), 123 
polychloros (Eugonia), 2G1, 274, 316 
polychloros (Vanessa), 25, 87. 210, 253, 

261, 274. 301 
polycommata (Lobophora), 1S4 
p ilygramma (Thalpochares), 82 
polygrammata (Phibalapteryx), 209 
polyodon (Cloantha), 208 
polyodon (Xylophasia), 30 
polyphemus (Morpho), 230 
pomonelhi (Carpocapsa), 19S 
populana (Ephippiphora), 287 
popularis (Epineuronia), 133. 211, 227 
popularis (Heliophobus), 63 
popularis (Neuroma), 05, 93 
populata (Cidaria), 199 
populella (Gelechia), IIS 
populeti (Tseniocampa), 159 
populi (Amorpha), 212 
populi (Limenitis), 2 16 
populi (Pcecilocampa), 30, 63, 64, 108 
populi (Smerinthus), 63, 04. 06, 287 
poreellus (Cheer. I. 04. 138, 263. 291, 319 
porcellus (Metopsilus), 88. 207 
poreellus (Pergesa), 196, 19S 
porphyrea (Agrotis), 315 
porphyrea (Hadena), 227 
potatoria (Cosmotricha), 108 
potatoria (Odonestisi, 80. 108, 287 
praeformata (Anaitis), 212 
prasina (Agrotis), 205, 208 
prasinana (Halias), 63 
prasinana (Hylophila), 89, 207 
pretiosa (Ala), 23 
primula- (Agrotis), 206 
proboscidalis (Hypena), 65, 180, 259 
procida (Melanargia), 51 
procellata (Melanippe), 64 
procellata (Melanthia), 2-7 
prodromaria (Amphidasys), 181 
progemmaria (Hybernia), 118 
promissa (Catocala), 226 
promutata (Acidalia), 94, 214, 293 
pronoe (Erebia), 275 
pronuba (Triphaena), 168 
pronuba (Agrotis). 227 
pronubana (Tortrix), 20 
propuguata (Coremia), 319 
prosapiaria (Ellopia), 65, 181, 188, 209. 

315 
protea (Pryobota). 227. 319 
proto (Hesperia), 275 
provineialis (Melitaea), 50 
prunaria (Angerona), 216, 287. 315 
prunal i . 199, 209 

prunata (Lygris), 199 
pruni (Odonestisi. 211 
pruni (Thecla), 113, 262 271 2£ 
pruinata (Pseudoterpna), 30. 65. 200, 318 
psi (Acronycta), 65, 109, - - ' 
,:a (Cidaria 



INDEX. 



XXlll 



Psyche, 19 

pylorita (Lycaana), 198 

Ptvchopoda, 8 

pudibunda (Dasychira), 64, 108, 205, 207 

pudica (Euprepia), 19 

pudica (Cymbalophora). 19 

pudorina (Leucania). 208 

puera (Hyblaea). l'- 1 ^ 

pulchella (Utetheisa). 19 

pulchella (Deiopeia), 19, 130 

pulchellata (Eupithecia), 183 

pulchellata (Tephroclystia), 183 

pulchrma (Plusia), 26, 180, 238 

pulla (ICpichnopteryx), 206, 260 

pulveraria (Numeria), 182 

punctaria (Ephvra). 204 

punctularia (Tephrosia), 94, 165, 202. 204 

pumilata (Eupithecia), 202 

pumilata (Tephroclystia), 18 

purpuralis (Zygama), 209 

purpurata (Rhyparia). 211 

pusaria (Cabera), 182 

pusaria (Deilinia), 204 

puta (Agrotis), 65, 134, 135, 214 

putata (Thalera), 203 

putris (Axylia), 65, 66, 80, 93, 293 

Pylarge, 8,' 48 

pyraliata (Cidaria), 199 

pyramidea (Amphipyra), 63, 209, 226 

pyranthe (Catopsilia), 255 

pyrenaica (Erebia), 245, 280, 301 

pvrenaica (Lycaena), 241, 246, 247. 248, 

"274, 316 
pyrensa (Erebia), 245, 274. 316 
pyrina (Zeuzera), 64, 66, 168 
quadra (Gnophria), 89 
quadra ((Enistis), 89, 211 
quadratus (Papilio). 125 
quadrifasciaria (Larentia), 207 
quadripunctata (Caradrina), 65, 208 
quaestionana (Dichrorampha), 240 
quercana (Hylophila), 92 
quercifolia ( Lasiocarnpa) , 64, 198,262, 292 
quercifolia (Gastropacha), 64, 198, 262 
quercifoliella (Lithocolletis), 216 
quercinaria (Ennornos). 65, 181, 211 
quercus (Borubyx), 90, 108 
quercus (Lasiocarnpa), 69, 90, 94, 108, 

144. 203 
quercus (Thecla). 294 
quercus (Zephyrus), 88, 206, 211. 275 
quinquemaculata (Phlegeth.), 113 
ramella (Grapholitha), 115 
ramulanus (Sarrothripus), 114 
rapse(Pieris), 25, 122,137,251,253,259,300 
rectangulata (Chloroelystis), 184 
rectangulata (ISupithecia), 84, 184, 239 
rectilinea (Hyppa), 207 
rernutaria (Acidalia), S 
repandata (Boar.), 29, 30, 69, 163, 182, 188 
reticulata (Neuria), 80, 206, 214 
reticulata (Lygris), 212 
revayana (Sarrothripus), 214 
rhamni (Gonepteryx). 87, 251, 300 



rhomboidana (Boarmia), 67. 163. 182 

rhizolitha (Xylina), 94 

ribeana (Tortrix), 115 

ribesiaria (Cidaria), 292 

richmondii (Ornithoptera), 187 

ripaa (Agrotis), 291 

ripartii (Lycaena), 52 

rivata (Melanippe), 94. 287 

roboraria (Boarmia). 1*2. 207, 209 

roboris (La?osopis). 51. 244. 246, 274, 278, 

301 
robsoni (Aplecta). 29. 30, 187, 292 
rosana (Tortrix). 115 
rubi (Bombvx). 1 - 

rubi (Callophrys), 88, 204. 211, 275. 301 
rubi (Macrothylacia), 108. 204, 227 
rubi (Noctua), 134 
rubi (Thecla), 70, 185. 191, 260 
rubidata (Anticlea). 93, 94 
rubiginata (Acidalia), 287 
rubiginata (Melanthia), 184 
rubiginea (Dasycampa). 202 
rubiginea (Orrhodia), 227 
rubricollis (Gnophria). 315 
rubricosa (Pachnobia). 68, 70, 159, 202, 

314 
rufa (Coenobia), 261 
rufana (Catoptria), 100 
rufina (Orthosia), 159 
rugosana (Phtheochroa), 214. 239 
rumina (Thais), 274, 27S, 300 
rumicis(Acronycta), 80,110,206,208,227 
rupicapraria (Hybernia), 96, 117, 183 
rurea (XyTopnasia), 66 
russata (Cidaria), 30, 185, 320 
russula (Euthemonia), 30 
russula (Diacrisia), 89 
russula (Xemeophila), 89, 166, 286, 314 
rusticata (Acidalia), 8, 43, 261 
rusticata (Ptvchopoda ). 43. 44 
rutilus (Chrysophanusi. 207 
sacraria (Rhodometra). 18 
sacraria (Sterrha), 18. 119 
salicata (Larentia), IS, 183 
salicis (Liparis), 96 
salicis (Stilpnota), 64. 66. Ill 
salinellus (Crambus), 126 
sallei (Pythomdes), 231 
salmacis (Hypolirunas), 119 
salmacis (Lycaena), 18 
sanibucaria (Uropteryx). 65, 66, 181 
saponaria; (Neuria), 214 
sanguinalis (Pyrausta), 82 
sanio (Nerneophila), 227 
sap (Hesperia . 245. 301 
sarpedon (Papilio i. 186 
satellitia (Scopelosoma). 159 
saturatella (Coleophora). 165 
satyrata (Tephroclystia). 204 
satyrata (Eupithecia), 63 
saucia (Agrotis j, 134, 317 
scabiosata (Eupithecia), 64 
scabriuscula (Dipterygia), 203 
scipio (Erebia), 285 



XXIV 



INDEX. 



scolfeformis (Sesia), 203, 207 

scoliiformis (Sesia), 113, 163 

scolopacina (Hadena), 208, 227 

scolopacina (Xylophasia), 294 

scutulata (Acidalia), 199, 292 

sebrus (Lycsna), 52 

secalis (Hadena), 208 

segetum (Agrotis), 22, 77 

selene (Argynnis), 87, 123, 203, 274, 287 

seleni (Caradrina), 82, 205 

semele (Satyrus), 25, 51, 87, 210, 226, 

274, 282, 301 
semiargus (Lycsena), 113 203, 211 
seruibrunnea (Xylina), 137, 314, 320 
semicanaria (Thamnonoma), 82 
semifuscana (Pa?disca), 116 
sempronius (Charaxes), 186, 187 
senex (Nudaria), 81 
septodactylus (Leioptilus), 191 
sepiuru (Bacotia), 206 
serena (Hecatera), 66 
sericea (Lithosia), SI 
sericealis (Rivula), 180,292 
serratula? (Hesperia), 275 
Sibylla (Lirnenitis), 62, 90, 207, 275, 282, 

316 
siculata (Heliconius), 30 
siderata (Cidaria), 92, 137, 185 
signum (Agrotis), 208 
silaceata (Cidaria), 199 
silago (Xanthia), 159, 287 
silvana (Heliconius), 317 
siruilana (Ephippiphora), 116 
similana (Epiblema), 164 
similis (Porthesia), 64. 108, 259, 262 
simplonia (Euchloe), 274 
simulans (Agrotis), 206 
simulata (Thera), 184 
sinapis (Leucophasia), 29, 86, '207, 274 
sinapis (Leptidia), 49, 123, 251, 253, 279, 

300 
sinuana (Cnephasia), 98 
sinuata (Anticlea), 94, 137, 320 
smaragdaria (Pseudoterpna), 260,2S5,320 
smilax (Terias), 186 
sobrina (Xoctua), 286 
sobrinata (Eupithecia), 64, 161, 1S4, 227 
sobrinata (Tephroclystia), 184 
socia (Xylina), 227 
sociata (Melanippe), 184 
sociella (Aphomia), 292 
solandriana (Pasdisca), 30, 116 
solidaginis (Calocampa), 120, 160, 227 
sordida (Hadena), 206, 262 
sordidata (Hypsipetes), 30, 81, 184 
sororcula (Lithosia), 63 
sororculaua (Penthina), 115 
spadieea (Orrhodia), 125, 159, 164 
sparganii (Xonagria), 136 
sparsata (Collix), 204 
spartiata (Chesias), 25, 90 
sphegiformis (Sesia), 113 
sphinx (Asteroscopus), 25, 65 
spilodactyla (Aciptilia), 191 



spini (Thecla), 52, 275 

splendens (Mamestra), 208 

sponsa (Catocala), 206, 226 

sponsana (Peronea), 115 

stabilis (Ta?niocampa), 82 

stahli (Ceratopterus), 139 

stagnata (Hydrocampa), 1 

statices (Ino), 64, 89, 205, 292 

statilinus (Satyrus), 51, 275 

*steinbachi (L'apilio), 125 

stellatarum (Macroglossa), S4, 90, 94 

Sterrha, 8, 9 

stevensata (Eupithecia), 161 

sthennyo (Erebia), 248, 274 

sthenelus (Papilio), 186 

stonanus (Sarrothripus), 114 

straminata (Acidalia), 212 

straminea (Leucania), 126 

strataria (Amphidasys), 63, 65, 181 

Strenia, 8 

striata (Euprepia), 19, 211 

striata (Coscina), 19, 211 

strigaria (Leptorneris), 46 

strigata (Hemithea), 200, 207 

strigilaria (Leptorneris), 46 

strigilis (Miana),29, 65, 66 

strigillaria (Aspilates), 182 

strigillaria (Perconia), 182, 209 

strigosa (Acronycta), 126 

strigula (Agrotis), 65, 205, 211 

stygne (Erebia), 28, 31, 245, 274, 300, 

301, 317 
stiasa (Hadena), 160 
suava (Eublemma), 82 
subalpina (Ch'rysophanus) , 274 
subfusca (Noctua), 161, 213 
subgothica (Noctua), 136 
sublustris (Hadena), 208 
sublustris (Xylophasia), 65, 80, 133 
subrosea (Noctua), 136 
subroseata (Zonosoma), 29 
subsericeata (Acidalia), 93, 199, 240 
subsericeata (Ptychopoda), 43 
subsequa (Agrotis), 2 '5 
subtristata (Melanippe), 184 
suffumata (Cidaria , 199 
suffusa (Agrotis), 63, 65 
sulphuralis (Eumelia), 18 
suspecta (Dyschorista), 159, 209, 227 
suspecta (Orthosia), 159 
sydi (Limenitis), 123 
syllius (Melanargia), 51, 251, 253, 275 
sylphis (Bulboneura), 229 
sylvata (Abraxas), 182. 261, 292 
sylvana (Heliconius), 165 
sylvanus (Augiades), 301 
sylvanus (Hepialus), 108 
sylvanus (Pamphilus), 257, 259 
sylvius (Carterocephalus), 203 
syringaria (Hygrochroa), 1S1 
syringaria (Pericallia), 65, 163, 181, 2S7 
tabaniformis (iEgeria), 318 
tajniata (Emmelesia), 183 
tages (Thanaos), 82, 251, 254, 274 



INDEX. 



XXV 



tages (Nisoniacles), 261, 295 

taminata (Bapta), 64, 203 

taraxaci (Caradrina), 209 

tarsipennalis(Zanclognatha), 93, 180, 209 

tau (Aglia), 202 

taygetus (Danais), 187 

telemonius (Caligo), 49 

telicanus (Lanipides), 52, 251, 275 

temerata (Bapta), 93, 94, 182, 239 

temerata (Corycia), 93, 94 

tempestivata (Tephroclystia), 18 

templi (Dasypolia), 282 

tenebrata (Heliaca), 180 

tenebraria (Dasydia), 139 

tenebrosa (liusina), 93, 163, 206 

tentacularia (Herminia), 207 

tenuiata (Eupithecia), 93 

tereas (Archonius), 229 

testacea (Luperina), 30, 65, 133, 211 

testata (Cidaria), 199 

testudo (Lirnacodes), 215 

tetradactyla (Aciptilia), 164 

tetradactyla (Alucita), 20 

tetralunaria (Selenia), 65 

tetraquetrana (Phloeodes), 116 

Thais, 95 

thaidina (Armandia), 30 

thalassina (Hadena), 160 

thalassina (Mamestra), 207 

thapsiella (Depressaria), 191 

thaumas (Adopaea), 120, 207, 209, 251, 

254, 301 
thaumas (Hesperia), 226 
thompsoni (Aplecta), 30, 187, 292 
thymiaria (Hemithea), 200 
tigelius (Pararge), 51 
tincta (Aplecta), 160, 292 
tincta (Mamestra), 208 
tihae (Smerinthus), 64, 66, 164, 258 
tiliaria (Ennomos), 181 
Timandra, 7 

tithonus (Epiuephele), 87 
typhon (Ccenonympha), 207 
trabealis (Agrophila), 211 
trabealis (Erotyla), 18 
tragoponis (Amphipyra), 65, 158 
transversella (Oxybia), 19 
trapezina (Calymnia), 29, 160, 262 
triangulum (Noctua), 66, 166 
trepida (Notodonta), 63, 64, 66 
Trichanarta, 23 
tridens (Acronycta), 208, 285 
trifasciata (Hypsipetes), 204 
trifasciata (Larentia), 207 
trifolii (Mamestra), 206, 208, 227, 259 
trifolii (Zygama), 118. 207, 209, 293 
trigeminata (Ptychopoda), 43, 46 
tvigrammica (Grammesia), 65, 134 
trilineata (Ephyra), 205 
trilinea (Grammesia), 134 
trilophus (Notodonta), 136 
triplasia (Abrostola), 26, 66, 180, 292 
tripartita (Abrostola), 65, 180 
tripunctana (Pardia), 115 



triopes (Erebia), 247 

trisignaria (Eupithecia), 164 

tristata (Larentia), 202, 204 

tristata (Melanippe), 184 

tritici (Agrotis), 134, 208, 227 

tritophus (Notodonta), 162 

trophonius (Papilio), 28 

truncata (Cidaria), 93, 185 

turca (Leucania), 136, 208 

turfosalis (Tholomiges), 180 

tyndarus (Erebia), 24S, 274 

typhae (Nonagria), 133 

typhon (Ccenonympha), 87, 285 

typica (Mania), 65, 60 

typica (Namia), 227 

uddmanniana (Aspis), 115 

uddmanniana (Notocelia), 82 

ulceratalis (Cornifrons), 20 

ulicetana (Caloptria), 116 

ulmata (Abraxas), 182, 239, 261 

ulvffi (Senta), 126 

umbra (Pyrrhia), 209 

umbraria (Boarmia), 82 

umbratica (Cucullia), 65, 180 

umbrosa (Noctua), 134 

unangulata (Melanippe), 94, 204 

unanimis (Apamea), 291 

unanimis (Hadena), 208 

uncula (Hydrelia), 207, 287 

undulata (Eucosmia), 185, 204, 315 

unicolor (Canephora), 206 

unicolor (Cirrhcedia), 159 

unidentaria (Coremia), 44, 184, 285 

unidentaria (Larentia), 212 

unifasciana (Tortrix), 115 

unifasciata (Emmelesia), 286, 310 

unifasciata (Larentia), 212 

unipuncta (Lycama), 226 

urticae (Abrostola), 26, 180, 238 

urtica? (Aglais), 259, 285 

urtica? (Spilosoma), 30, 90 

urticas (Vanessa), 25, 50, 117, 259, 163, 

210, 260, 262, 280, 281, 311 
urticana (Sericoris), 115 
urticata (Eurrhypara), 30 
vaccinii (Orrhodia), 192 
valesina (Argynnis), 50 
valligera (Agrotis), 134 
varia (Melitaea), 248 
variata (Larentia), 205 
variata (Thera), 184 
variegana (Peronea), 115 
variegata (Gnophos), 18 
varleyata (Abraxas), 262 
vauaria (Halia), 182 
vaupunctatum (Orrhodia), 227 
veleda (Junonia), 186 
velleda (Hepialus), 108, 163 
venosata (Eupithecia). 94, 183, 287 
venosata (Tephroclystia), 183 
venustula (Erastria), 207 
verbasci (Cucullia), 82 
verberata (Larentia), 212 
vernaria (Geometra), 65, 68 

c 



XXVI 



INDEX. 



vernetensis (Melitasa), 244, 301 

versicolor (Endroniis), 202 

vespiformis (Sesia), 113 

vestigialis (Agrotis), 80, 134, 211, 227 

vetulata (Scotosia), 209 

vetusta (Calocampa), 160, 202, 227 

vetustus (Heliconius), 317 

v-flavum ((Enophila), 262, 320 

viardi (Perrhybris), 229 

vibicaria (Rhodostrophia), 209, 226 

viciella (Psyche), 206 

villica (Arctia), 19, 82, 89, 216 

vinctuncula (Miana), 292 

vinula (Dicranura), 64, 109. 287 

virgaureae (Chrysoph.), 31, 209, 226, 246 

virgaureata (Eupithecia), 183 

virescens (Hepialus), 318 

virgularia (Acidalia), 18 

virgularia (Ptychopoda), 43, 46, 47 

viridana (Tortrix), 115 

viridata (Nemoria), 200 

viridaria (Larentia), 80, 183 

viridaria (Phytometra), 63, 180, '210 



virens (Luceria), 227 
virgularia (Acidalia), 285 
vitalbata (Phibalapteryx), 184 
vitelina (Leucania), 136, 287 
vittata (Larentia), 209 
vulgata (Eupithecia), 67, 184 
w-album (Thecla), 22, 216, 294 
wavaria (Halia), 182 
wavaria (Thamnonoma), 212 
westwoodii (Eurerna), 229 
wheeleri (Lycama), 94 
wockearia (Dasydia), 139 
xanthodippe (Argynnis), 123 
xanthographa (Noctua), 126, 227 
xerampelina (Cirrhcedia), 65, 66, 159, 

163, 262, 314 
xuthus (Papilio), 122 
yamamai (Antheraea), 129 
ypsilon (Agrotis), 30, 237 
zephyrus (Lycaena), 248, 275 
ziczac (Notodpnta), 65, 94, 261, 262, 2S0 
zoegana (Xanthosetia), 127 
Zonosorna, 7 



NEUROPTERA. 



aenea (Cordulia), 179 
albicorne (Odontoeerum), 297 
annnlatus (Cordulegaster), 179, 296, 

297, 310 
armatum (Agrion), 162, 179, 189 
aspersa (Chrysopa), 297 
azurea (Mystacides), 297 
barbara (Lestes), 298 
braueri (Leptocerus), 298 
caerulescens (Orthetrum), 296, 297 
cancellaturn (Orthetrum), 179 
centralis (Limnophilns), 298 
coceajus (Ascalaphus), 297 
cognata (Panorpa), 95 
communis (Panorpa), 95 
cyanea (.Eschna), 91, 179, 283, 313, 314 
cyathigerum (Enallag.), 91, 178, 179,314 
depressa (Libellula), 178, 179, 296, 297, 

310, 314 
dryas (Lestes), 314 
elegans (Ischnura), 91, 110, 179, 296, 

297, 298, 314 
elegans (Limnophilus), 288 
flaveolum (Sympetrum), 310 
formicarius (Myrmeleon), 298 
fuliginosa (Sialis), 298 
fusca (Sympycna), 297, 298 
galleatum (Sericostoma), 297 
germanica (Panorpa), 95 
grandis (iEschna), 91, 179, 189, 314 
hoemeroidalis (Calopteryx), 297 
hirtus (Megalomus), 298 
imperator (Anax), 30, 179, 298 
inconspicuus (Hemerobius), 298 
infuscans (Ischnura), 299 



isosceles (iEschna), 179 
juncea (.Eschna), 179, 296, 310 
latipes (Platycnemis), 298 
longicornis (Ascalaphus), 298 
lutescens (Hemerobius), 297 
mercuriale (Agrion), 30, 310 
meridionalis (Dilar), 298 
meridionalis (Panorpa), 297 
meridionalis (Sympetrum), 298 
minium (Agrion), 296 
mixta (.Eschna), 24, 30, 91, 313 
naias (Erythromma), 91, 179, 314 
nymphula (Pyrrhosoma), 91, 178, 296, 

297, 314 

pennipes (Platycnemis), 30, 179, 298 

pra tense (Brachvtron), 297 

puella (Agrion), 91, 178, 314 

pulchellum (Agrion), 91, 179 

pumilio (Ischnura), 30, 288 

pyrenaicum (Sericostoma), 298 

quadrimaculata (Libellula), 178, 179, 310 

rufescens (Ischnura), 299 

scoticum (Sympetrum), 179, 310, 313 

selysi (Sericostoma), 298 

simillimus (Gomphus), 297 

splendens (Calopteryx), 179 

sponsa (Lestes), 91 

striolatum (Sympetrum), 91, 179, 296, 

298, 313, 314 

tenellum (Pyrrhosoma), 178, 179 
ventralis (Chrysopa), 95 
virgo (Calopteryx), 179, 296, 298 
vulgaris (Rhyacophila), 297 
vulgata (Libellula), 296 
vulgatissimus (Gomphus), 30 



INDEX. 



XXV11 



ORTHOPTERA. 



.Edipoda, 261 

regyptiutn (Acridium), 69, 95 
albipennis (Apterygida), 266 
americana (Blatta), 267 
annulipes (Anisolabis), 266 
arachidis (Apterygida), 189 
arachidis (Chelidura), 266 
aurieularia (Forricula), 266, 318 
australasi.-e (Blatta), 267 
bicolor (Stenobothrus), 139, 268 
cinereus (Thamnotrizon), 268 
elegans (Stenobothrus), 268 
germanica (Phyllodromia), 267 
grisea (Platycleis), 268 
grossus (Mecostethus), 268 
holosericea (Nyctibora), 69 
lesnei (Forficula), 267, 288 
lineatus (Gomphocerus), 268 



maculatus (Gomphocerus), 268 
media (Apterygida), 266 
orientalis (Blatta), 267 
panzeri (Ectobia), 288 
parallelus (Stenobothrus), 268 
peregrina (Sehistocerca), 69 
pubescens (Forricula), 288 
quadripunctata (Phaneroptera), 317 
riparia (Labidura), 267 
rutipes (Stenobothrus), 268, 284 
rufus (Gomphocerus), 268 
surinamensis (Leucophffia), 92, 111, 119, 

267 
sylvestris (Nemobius), 268 
varium (Meconema), 268 
viridissima (Locusca), 261, 283 
viridulus (Stenobothrus), 268 



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Entomologist, January, 1905. 



Plate I. 




uu 



^!R.,^«.fPuc)*MM«t- ^uttt. i? J;- jr'a//?, y?jf. jmu,-/^.J &-<. «*«tf <w/U- 




Q Qa P 



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Utl. 

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TTuAui- otiCViit &.«. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII.] JANUARY, 1905. [No. 500. 

THE EARLIER STAGES OF CATACLYSTA 
LEMNATA, L. 

By T. A. Chapman, M.D. 

(Plate I.) 

On June 4th, 1904, being at Bookham with the South London 
Entomological Society, I observed C. lemnata in some abund- 
ance, and remembering that it was the only one of the Hydro- 
campas (except Acentropus) with whose early stages I had no 
acquaintance, I took home a supply of moths, with a view to 
obtaining eggs. 

Curiously enough, I found, on looking into the matter, that 
all the other species had been well reported on by various 
authors, but I could find nothing better about lemnata than that 
by Buckler, who tells us nothing of its history earlier than Nov. 
10th, when it is beginning to think of hybernation. 

The way in which lemnata lays her eggs interested me perhaps 
as much as anything in its history. It lays them under water, 
and that surface of the egg which in the case of nearly all Lepi- 
doptera is exposed to the air, is in that of C. lemnata bathed in 
water. This fact has never been recorded of C. lemnata, but it 
has been, I think, of all the other Hydrocampas ; A. niveus 
(female) appears to go under water to do so, but the others 
apparently only submerge their ovipositors. The curious fact 
that all these eggs are truly aquatic is one that I had never 
clearly understood, probably because attention has not been 
called to it in records; for example, Buckler (E.M.M. xiv. p. 97) 
records how Mr. W. E. Jeffrey got H. stagnata, Don., to lay eggs, 
which he found placed in little batches on the under side of 
floating pieces of Sparganium. Not being pointedly told that 
the eggs are in the water and wetted by it, one reads the fact 
along with the accounts, which are much more abundant, of how 

ENTOM. — JANUARY, 1905. B 



2 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the larva, though under water, keep themselves surrounded by 
air, and supposes the eggs are afforded some similar method of 
aeration. 

Bitsema, in stating how Acentropus lays her eggs, says they 
are under water, but does not say they are wet, which never- 
theless they doubtless are. 

My notes say that the moths, taken June 4th at Bookham, 
were kept in a glass, with various leaves and some Lemna, with 
water at the bottom. Eggs are found June 6th, laid in two 
different manners. In the one case they are laid on leaves of 
Lemna triadea, and are wholly submerged — one surface of the 
egg attached to the leaf, the other free in the water. These eggs 
are laid close together, but not overlapping — generally several 
together, and in one case covering the whole surface of a leaf — 
reaching the number of twenty-three. The other method of 
laying affected about a score of eggs, and the eggs were in 
batches of about three, and in one case six, together. These 
floated freely on the surface of the water, the lower surface being 
in the water and wet, the upper above water and dry. This 
upper surface was coated with a pavement of the scales of the 
moth, laid over the whole of each batch in one uniform direction, 
the stalks of attachment in one direction, the serrated margins 
in, of course, the opposite ; but all parallel, and apparently 
close together or overlapping. When the eggs did not seem 
quite in the same direction, the scales were nevertheless so, and 
seemed to be what held the eggs of each group together, and 
also what kept the upper surface dry, the scales not apparently 
being capable of getting wet. 

The eggs are very flat, almost scale-like, of oval outline, 
about 0*75 mm. long and 0'56 across. The contents yellowish, 
and in some cases already showing structure, there being a 
notch at one side in the yellow mass, from which a groove 
appeared to nearly cut off a central circular portion. 

June 15th. — Larvae very nearly fully developed ; a tortuous 
tube is visible, no doubt the tracheal trunk of side nearest 
observer. 

16th, 11 a.m. — The larvae (and eggs) are now very con- 
spicuous, owing to the head and prothoracic plate, which occupy 
so large a part of the top of the egg, being black ; the clypeus 
is paler, and the jaws, which stand forward prominently, are 
brown. The eggs look thicker and more rounded, as if by 
imbibition of water, but this may be merely a perspective effect 
of the change of colour. No measurement seems available. 

June 16th, 5 p.m. — Some larvae found hatching, and some 
have already done a good deal in the way of clothing themselves. 
Their heads, including the clypeus, are now very black. They 
creep out of the eggs in the ordinary way, and walk off along 
the leaf on which the egg is laid ; in doing so they are in the 



EARLIER STAGES OF CATACLYSTA LEMNATA. 3 

water, are quite wet, and seem quite at home. They cut out 
irregular portions of leaf of L. trisulea, and get between the 
loose bit of leaf and the remaining portion. So far there is 
nothing that can be called a case, i.e. a movable case, and no 
larva is yet in a tube, or anything of that sort, but is between 
two flat surfaces, or sometimes three. One larva under L. minor 
had cut up the short radicle into three or four pieces rather more 
than his own length, and had fastened them together irregularly. 
All the larvae that had done anything, and some that had not, 
had already green matter in the alimentary canal, and it seems 
certain that portions of plant are cut off by eating the material 
along the dividing line. 

9 p.m. — One of the floating eggs has hatched, and the larva 
has reached a bit of duckweed ; his procedure was not observed, 
but he did not come out on top ; so that the clothed face of the 
egg is the face of attachment, not the free one, as in such ova as 
caruleocephala, lanestris, &c. 

There can be little doubt that the eggs are attached to the 
duckweed by the same face as that covered by the scales in the 
floating ones. One face of the egg is in the water, the other 
attached to something. The eggs on the duckweed could no 
doubt obtain a supply of oxygen from the green plant, the 
floating eggs from the air, but I incline to think that in both 
cases breathing takes place by the wet surface, which is the 
exposed active surface in all other similar eggs ; and were it not 
so, eggs laid, as must frequently occur, on bits of floating dead 
vegetation, whether bits of wood or dead Lemna, would be unable 
to respire. I wondered a good deal about the floating eggs. 
How were they laid, and how were they coated with scales ? I 
came to the conclusion that they must be laid by the moth on 
her own body, and in some way detached, as she has no appa- 
ratus for coating eggs with scales. No doubt laying the eggs 
under water on leaves of Lemna is the usual and proper way of 
laying the eggs. Were the floating eggs the result of some 
accident by which the moth laid the eggs on herself, or on 
another moth (there were several in the jar) ? Against this 
supposition is the fact that the eggs got detached from the 
surface of the moth, suggesting that it was a normal process, 
and still more especially that the eggs thus laid, under a layer 
of scales floating on the water, got on in every respect as well as 
those on the Lemna. 

June 17th, 8 a.m. — All the floating eggs have hatched, and 
the young larvae are on the bits of duckweed, against which they 
floated. Two have eaten so far into leaves of L. minor, that 
they can be distinguished from the upper side through the 
thinned centre of the leaf. 

The larvae in their shelters are still in the water ; they have 

r> 2 



4 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

not surrounded themselves by an air-cavity in a case, or any 
such arrangement. Two larvae are found mining in the middle 
of the thick parenchyma of leaves of L. polyrhiza, without 
any indication that they are not completely wetted by water 
and sap. 

June 16th. — In handling the newly-hatched larvae, to place 
them separately, and in positions in which their proceedings 
may be observed, it is seen that the larvae are completely wet, 
but when brought out of the water they become largely dry, but 
immediately get wet on being placed in the water again. The 
amount of protection and the manner of it seems not very 
different from that of the upper surfaces of the leaves of Lemna 
(except trisnlca). When submerged these became quite wet, but, 
reaching the surface, the water leaves them, as though they were 
slightly greasy, and in a way to force the leaves to the surface in 
a proper position, as soon as one bit reaches the surface. The 
under side, on the other hand, is always wet, and carries a layer 
of water with it when taken out. Neither the Lemna nor the 
larva carries with it a coating or layer of air, as is the device of 
many surfaces that repel water. At the same time a floating 
larva creeps away under a leaf without any obvious effort, 
whilst some force is necessary to submerge an upper surface 
of Lemna leaf ; so that, though the water-repulsion of both 
seems of much the same character, it is weaker in the case 
of the larva. 

June 18th.— Larvae all in cases, of all sorts of sizes and 
shapes ; sometimes all the pieces are cut off, and the cases are 
portable ; sometimes one side is the under surface of a large leaf 
of Lemna, and the case is a fixture. The pieces are of irregular 
shape, roughly triangular, &c, often as broad as long, so that 
no sort of larva-shaped case results. These irregular shaped 
pieces are also of various sizes, down to small corners of leaves, 
often sections of rootlets, &c. It is in fact somewhat erroneous 
to call them cases ; they are really shelters, manufactured as 
rapidly as possible from the available materials. The little 
larvae also appear to eat freely. 

19th. — Examined several cases, and found that they con- 
tained no air — that the larva lived bathed in the surrounding 
fluid ; the simplest way to verify this was found to be to open 
the case under water, when no air at all was found. 

22nd. — Several cases examined ; the larvae were found to be 
in their second stages, and the cases now contained air. The 
head is pale, with a faint dusky tinting ; the prothoracic plate is 
large and very black, anal plate not tinted, and looks as if of 
same texture as rest of larva. The larva is full 2 mm. long, 
rather thick, large head, of fairly uniform thickness throughout 
(0'3 mm.). The hairs are now (comparatively) much shorter 
(II=0'08 mm.) ; they are one to each tubercle, which are now 



EARLIER STAGES OF CATACLYSTA LEMNATA. 5 

large oval convex scuta, with the hair central (about 0*04 mm. in 
diameter) ; I is about half the length of II ; IV, V have a com- 
mon scutum, posterior hair higher ; VI, single hair, and 3 at 
base of proleg. On thorax 1 and 2, I, II, III and IV (?) have 
each two hairs. 

In preparing a skin, the silk gland was broken against the 
glass, and the contents almost immediately afterwards were 
found to have glued the specimen to the glass, although under 
water. 

June 27th. — Opened two cases; found the larvae of two dif- 
ferent ages, one (in second skin ?) pale and distended, and nearly 
as large as the other (in third skin), with larger head, looking 
collapsed and nearly black ; when stretched out it was very 
much paler ; length about 3 mm. 

July 2nd. — Two larvae have gone much ahead of the others, 
and are very large, possibly in last skin, certainly in penul- 
timate. 

Left a number of larvae in a multitude of glasses on July 4th. 
They were soon reported to be very voracious. Just before 
July 12th and 13t1i had fastened themselves to sides of glasses, 
and were supposed to be pupating, but they cut themselves free, 
and were therefore supposed to have been moulting ; they were 
now in need of much fresh duckweed, as they were very 
voracious. They then pupated without calling any special 
attention to the procedure, and on July 22nd two moths emerged. 
On the 25th seven came out, and many had emerged since 22nd. 
On 27th all appeared to have emerged. On Aug. 10th, however, 
another appeared, and on 12th there were found to be still three 
larvae feeding. Whether these were laggards, or intruders intro- 
duced small with the relays of duckweed, must remain in doubt ; 
one was preserved, one emerged (a male) Sept. 1st, and one was 
then still feeding. This one was still alive in November, and 
apparently hybernating. 

The cocoon is of much denser (very white) silk than the 
larva- case, though made within it (or of it), and on the emerg- 
ence of the moth seems almost at once to lose its water-resisting 
property. 

My larvae were clearly double-brooded, but, as they were kept 
indoors, and in (comparatively) small glass vessels exposed to 
the sun whenever it shone through the window, this part of my 
experience cannot safely be extended as applying to the insect in 
its native ponds. 

(To be continued.) 



(i 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS (GENUS ACIDALIA, 

Auct.)* 
By Louis B. Prout, F.E.S. 

In the above title I have retained the name " A cidalia" to 
which the moths of which I want to speak have been so generally 
referred ; but there are two objections to it, and I am only using 
it as a recognizable appellation, not as a tenable genus. In the 
first place, most modern authors consider it " preoccupied " by 
Acidalia, Hb. Verz., p. 31, and it is just possible that was really 
published before Acidalia, Tr. And in the second place, even if 
the Geometrid genus (Acidalia, Tr.) has really the prior claim to 
the name, its true type should evidently be brumata, Linn., 
according to the diagnoses of Schiffermiiller (Fam. K.) and 
Treitschke. 

The so-called genus " Acidalia" is somewhat nearly related 
to the subfamily which is generally considered typical of the 
entire superfamily Geometrides, namely the subfamily Geome- 
trinse, or " emerald moths." The name of " wave moths," given 
by our old English writers, is due to the pattern of the wings, 
which is of a tolerably uniform type almost throughout them, 
consisting of a succession of waved dark lines traversing both 
pairs of wings, though a few species modify the pattern, e.g., 
by blotches, especially behind the outer line. Unfortunately, 
however, this is a rather general — probably primitive — type of 
marking in the Geometrides, and the terribly superficial classifi- 
cations of our entomological forefathers, being based upon mere 
wing- markings, suffered in consequence. Thus Hubner (Verz. 
bek. Schmett. pp. 308-12, circ. 1825), the first to attempt any 
elaborate subdivisions, created one stirps for practically the 
whole of the wave-marked species, giving the stirps, for no very 
obvious reason, the name of Sphecodes — " wasp-like " ; he dia- 
gnoses it thus : " Body very slender, wings ample, that without 
markings, these marked with waved lines " — a fair sample of 
the classificatory characters which satisfied the old lepido- 
pterists. As may be imagined, the genera in this stirps or family 
were sometimes decidedly mixed as to their contents ; thus, 
Lcptomeris comprised exanthemata and some true Acidaliids, 
Asthena, candidata, luteata, and some true Acidaliids, and so on. 
This is neither better nor worse than our vernacular, in which 
exanthemata is the " dingy white wave," candidata the "small 
white wave," and so on. Even so recently as 1857 the French 
systematist, Guenee, retained the genus Asthena (candidata, &c.) 
in his Acidalidse, and considered that his Caberidse (exanthemata, 
&c.) also had considerable affinity with them. But his views 

* Bead before the North London Natural History Society, November 
22nd, 1904. 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS. ( 

were already a little " behind the times " even when he wrote; 
for his German contemporaries, Speyer, Herrich-Schaeffer, and 
Lederer, had for some years been investigating classification 
upon more of an anatomical basis — leg- structure and neuration 
in particular — and had published much which showed that the 
genera in question belonged to three very distinct groups, and 
this seems fully borne out by studies of the early stages. Asthena 
belongs to the Larentiidre (commonly called " carpet moths ") 
rather than to the " waves," while Cabera has the essential 
characteristics of the great family Boarmiidse, including true 
Boarmia (the "oak beauties," &c), the Fidoniinse ("heath" moths, 
&o.)i and many others. These, therefore, lie quite outside the 
range of the Acidaliae, and I shall dismiss them from consideration. 

I have just said that Guenee — whose work has constantly to 
be referred to because it is the basis of Doubleday's and South's 
arrangements, so largely used by British workers — that Guenee 
wrongly includes candidata, &c. (Astheninas) in his family Acida- 
liidae, and a glance at South's List will show you that the elimi- 
nation of these reduces the family by sis — four species of 
Asthena, Eupisteria obliterate/,, and Venusia cambrica. But it so 
happens that, by way of compensation, six species which 
Guenee placed in a different family immediately before Acidaliidse, 
namely, his Ephyriclas, have certainly to be incorporated therein. 
No one can have noticed the ova or, the imaginal characters of 
Zonosoma {Ephyra), without seeing how near they come to the 
" Waves," and even the highly specialized, butterfly-like pupa 
has clear affinities with the pupa of " Acidalia." Probably, 
however, that compact little group can still stand as a subfamily, 
Ephyrinae, leaving us to deal with the typical subfamily Acida- 
liinse (Sterrhinge) or "Waves" proper. By an absurdly antiquated 
arrangement, all of these which are represented in Britain, with 
the single exceptions of the " blood-vein moth" (Timandra) and 
— in some authors — the beautiful little muricata (Hyria), are still 
allowed to stand as one genus (Acidalia), not only in our British 
lists, but also in Staudinger and Bebel's recent ' Catalog' of the 
Palaaarctic Lepidoptera. There is no doubt still much work to 
be done in investigating the closer affinities of one species with 
another, but the fact that they represent at least three distinct 
biological groups has been recognized by the best workers for 
fully half a century, and the genera which Herrich-Schaeffer 
formed from the anatomy of the imago are supported, so far as 
research has yet proceeded, by marked larval distinctions, and I 
believe by those of the egg also. Probably, however, even the 
three genera will prove inadequate when the larva? have been 
more thoroughly worked through. 

The only English text-book which has yet shown us these 
three main "genera" is Meyrick's 'Handbook of British Lepi- 
doptera ' (London, 1895). He calls the genera in question Eois, 



O THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Sterrha, and Leptomeris,* only ochrdta going to sterrha. I shall 
speak more particularly of the two larger genera presently ; of 
the early stages of his Sterrha I know practically nothing, ex- 
cepting that the larvae seem somewhat intermediate in form 
between those of the other groups, and that Mr. Tutt notes dis- 
tinctive egg characters. In Buckler's ' Larvae of British Butter- 
flies and Moths' (vii. p. 82) is the astonishing italicized statement 
that " its (the larva of S. ochrata) ventral pair of legs is on the 
eleventh segment," which, in modern nomenclature, would be 
the seventh abdominal ; if there is not some error of observation, 
this distinction would be of far more than generic value, but I 
confess that I can hardly credit the statement. I ought to 
mention here that Herrich-Schaeffer founded yet a fourth genus 
upon imaginal leg-structure for A. fumata, naming it Pylarge, 
and that Meyrick has accepted this in his ' Handbook ' ; but the 
larva seems, from all accounts, so near those of imrnutata and 
remutata, that I doubt whether it could not better have been 
allowed to rest in Leptomeris, as in Meyrick's 1892 ' Classifica- 
tion ' (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.). 

A few other attempts to isolate aberrant species of "Acidalia" 
may be very briefly mentioned. Immorata, with its warmer and 
rougher scaling, tesselated fringes, and less characteristically 
"waved" pattern, was placed by Guenee in Strenia, along with 
clathrata ; but this was entirely erroneous. Emarginata] on 
account of its peculiar shape, had a special genus, Ania, erected 
for it by Stephens long ago, and this is followed by Barrett in his 
new book, and will probably prove worth adopting. Barrett also 
(' Lep. Brit.' viii. p. 72) uses Timandra (wrongly, of course, as the 
name belongs to amata) for the species which have the hind wing 
angulated ; they can probably for the present remain as a section 
of Meyrick's Leptomeris. Rusticata, being our only British wave 
with a "carpet band" (i.e., darkened central band) originally 
got placed among the Carpets, and Stephens in his 1850 Cata- 
logue maintained it as a separate genus under the name of Cos- 
morhoe, Hb.; Hiibner himself (' Verzeichniss,' p. 326), had some- 
what mixed contents for his Cosmorhoe, namely, galiata, ocellata, 
rusticata. The question of the exact position of this charming 
little species (rusticata) is a somewhat difficult one ; but it has 
long been recognized, and is beyond the possibility of cavil that 
it is a true " Acidalia' " in the broad sense in which I have used 
the term in the title of my paper this evening. Its larva is one 
of the stout and rugose ones with stiff, clubbed bristles, and 
would belong very well with interjectaria, &c, in Ptychopoda (= 

* Eois, as Moore and Warren have pointed out, rightly belongs to 
russearia, Hb., and this genus should be called Ptychopoda, Steph. Mey- 
rick's other names seem historically correct. Warren and Swinhoe have 
recently substituted Emmiltis, Hb., for Leptomeris, but Herrich-Schaeffer's 
prior restriction makes pygmcearia, Hb., the type of Emmiltis, which is 
hence a quite distinct genus. 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS. 9 

Eois, Meyr.), in which genus, indeed, Meyrick places it. But 
his genus rests on imaginal characters alone, amongst the chief 
of which is, " posterior tibiae in male .... without spurs " ; 
whereas those of rusticata most emphatically have the terminal 
spurs, and well developed. This circumstance has led Herrich- 
Schaeffer to place it in the genus which Meyrick calls Sterrha, 
along with ochrata, &c. 

I am afraid I shall have wearied you already with these 
intricacies of the imaginal classification, but I thought it almost 
necessary to state how matters stood in that regard, in order to 
be able to compare one or two of the results arrived at with those 
obtainable from the earlier stages, which have been, in this 
group, too much neglected from the systematist's point of view, 
but which I am hoping to take in hand as opportunity offers ; 
and concerning which I want to show that I have already 
made a commencement. To be sure, I cannot claim to have 
yet discovered anything novel, and the peculiar hair- structures 
of certain of the larvae have been mentioned in a haphazard 
way by different writers, as have also the extreme differences in 
the relative length and thickness in various members of the 
group ; but, so far as I am aware, no attempt at all has been 
made to correlate the imaginal genera with the larval. This, no 
doubt, arises from the fact that our genus-makers are chiefly 
museum-workers, who know nothing, and care less, about the 
earlier stages ; for instance, the celebrated Dutch entomologist, 
Heer P. C. T. Snellen, who not so long ago remarked, very 
inaptly, that it seemed to him that the classifying of insects by 
any other than the perfect state was very much like classifying 
men and women by the shape of the cap which their grand- 
mothers wore ! Surely the nearest approach which can be made 
to a perfect classificatory system will be made by those who — 
like Mr. Tutt and his collaborators in his great work, ' British 
Lepidoptera ' — endeavour to take due account of all stages, and 
all characters, of course with an adequate recognition of their 
probable relative antiquity and stability, and so forth, under 
the stress of the manifold operations of natural selection. 

In speaking of the larvae of " Acidalia," let me first mention 
some peculiarities of habit, &c, which are more or less distinc- 
tive of them, and which may readily attract the attention of even 
the casual observer. I do not quite know how best to arrange 
these scattered observations ; but perhaps the following will 
satisfactorily cover the ground, viz. : when they are found ; where 
they are found; how they feed; hoiv they are protected. In one 
sense, at least so far as my own experience is concerned, the first 
two might almost be disposed of in single words — "nowhen" 
and " nowhere." During a period of some eighteen years as a 
more or less active field-lepidopterist, I have only on four occa- 
sions, to my recollection, found an " Acidalia" larva, and in each 



10 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

instance by the purest "fluke." Many years ago I remember 
meeting with a full-grown caterpillar of the common " riband 
wave " {Ptychopoda aversata) crawling on a tree-trunk in Epping 
Forest, probably searching for a place in which to pupate. And 
thrice more recently, when prying about amongst a mixture of 
low-growing plants on rough broken ground, such as that around 
the " Limpet Kun " at Sandown, I have happened upon a larva 
which has been successfully bred, the three species being P. in- 
terjectaria, Leptomeris imitaria, and L. marginepunctata. Yet all 
these four species, and several others in the genus, are really 
quite common — either everywhere, as in the case of P. aversata, 
or locally, as in that of the other three. Hence it is pretty clear 
that their small size and retiring habits— the latter including the 
fact that they all, or nearly all, feed upon insignificant growths 
close to the ground, shield them sufficiently from human obser- 
vation ; and were it not that the eggs are easy to obtain from a 
captured female, and the larvae not hard to rear, we should probably 
know comparatively very little about their early stages. It is 
only right to add, however, that a few entomologists, such as 
Dr.' Rossler, of Wiesbaden, seem to have been exceptionally 
gifted at finding obscure larvae in their native haunts, and have 
given us records of the habits and habitat of quite a respectable 
number of the species. 

If, however, I cannot say much about when the larvae are 
" found," I can tell you definitely when they are, or theoretically 
should be, finddble. And this is throughout ten or eleven months 
of the year — almost any time, excepting, say, June or July (when 
practically all the imagines are out). For this is a genus, or 
group, of clearly-defined habit as regards the general course of 
its life-cycle. 1 remember hearing my friend Mr. Bacot tenta- 
tively suggest a fixed hybernating stage as a possible generic 
character — i.e., mark of close phylogenetic relationship — in 
certain cases amongst the Lepidoptera. Of course neither he 
nor I would overpress it ; for it is well known that sometimes the 
very closest allies differ in this respect, so that it would even 
seem as though the physiological isolation which formed them 
into species were actually due to an initial divergence in the 
hybernating habit ; e.g., Cidaria immanata passes the winter as 
an egg, its twin brother C. truncata as a larva. But it is none 
the less true that several thoroughly natural groups have main- 
tained complete uniformity, so that we find all the Acronyctae, 
all the Dianthoeciae, &c, hybernating as pupae, all the great 
genus Agrotis as larvae, and so on. Now our ' Acidalia ' seem ab- 
solutely incapable of hybernating in any other state than that of 
caterpillar, and the apparent inflexibility of this rule in so large 
a group seems at least worthy of mention. I noticed that the 
Rev. G. H. Raynor commented on the fact in a recent number of 
the ' Entomologist's Record ' (vol. xvi. p. 108) ; but, misled by 



SOME TASMANIAN CASE-BEARING LEPIDOPTERA. 11 

defective information in some of the books, be thought that P. 
perochraria afforded a possible exception. I find that Bossier, 
from whom the suggestion was supposed to emanate, gives no 
hint of anything exceptional in its hybernating period. 

(To be continued.) 



SOME TASMANIAN CASE-BEARING LEPIDOPTERA. 
By Frank M. Littler, F.E.S., M.A.O.U. 

(Concluded from vol. xxxvii. p. 315.) 

Oeceticus ignobilis, Walk. 

3 . 40 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen brownish ochreous, face 
whitish, antenna? ochreous, legs fuscous. Fore wings elongate, mode- 
rate; costa nearly straight; termen oblique, semihyaline, minutely irro- 
rated with fuscous scales, thicker towards base and along costa. Hind 
wings with termen rounded, slightly uneven ; colour as in fore wings ; 
some dull ochreous fuscous hairs towards base and along dorsum. 

$ . 15-20 mm. Apterous. Cream-coloured, except for the head 
and thoracic segments, which are brownish ; surface naked, except 
for slight pilose fringe of short yellowish hairs on the posterior 
segments. 

What I have remarked about the female of Clania lewinii 
applies with equal force to this species. Therefore there is no 
necessity to repeat myself. This species is not so plentiful as 
the previous one ; its case is formed in the same manner, but is 
longer and stouter. Personally, I have found it feeding on 
eucalyptus only. The habits of the male and female moths are 
precisely the same as those of C. lewinii. 

On the mainland this species is commonly known as the 
"Lictor Case-Moth," because its case bears some resemblance to 
the fasces or bundles of rods borne by the lictors of old before 
the Ptoman magistrates. 

Cebysa conflictella. 

3 . 14-19 mm. Fore wings very deep brown, black in some 
lights, powdered with minute golden scales ; along the costa are five 
orange-yellow spots at practically equal distances apart ; the first spot 
is just inside the apical angle, and the fifth at the base of the wing ; the 
fringes are likewise orange-yellow. Hind wings same colour as fore, 
but with more orange-yellow markings ; discoidal cell orange-yellow, 
also apical angle, but this yellow spot is absent in some specimens ; 
the inner margin has four orange-yellow spots ; fringes orange-yellow. 
Under side same as upper. Body very dark brown, tufts on side of 
thorax pale yellow ; under side of abdomen orange-yellow. 

$ . 11-15 mm. Semi-apterous. Fore wings a beautiful shade of 
peacock-green ; apical area orange-yellow, extending one-fourth ; two 



12 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

orange-yellow spots on costa ; fringes yellow. Hind wings : apical 
half orange-yellow, basal half peacock-green, with a small orange- 
yellow spot on inner margin ; fringes yellow. Body : upper and under 
sides peacock-green. Legs same colour. Body often projects 6 mm. 
beyond the hind wings. 

This species is fairly common in parts. The males during 
February and March may often be seen hovering about fences, 
especially on any very warm day. They are very rapid and erratic 
flyers, somewhat difficult to capture. This last summer they 
were more numerous than usual. The females, on emerging, 
crawl on to a post or a bough, and are there impregnated by the 
males. They cannot fly in the least, but can run very fast, with 
a curious ant-like motion. When approached they immediately 
run round the post or bough, and hide in some crevice. Very 
few females are seen in proportion to the number of males ; this 
is perhaps owing to their shyness. The posterior extremity is 
elongate, and the ovipositor is sheathed in long fuscous hairs. 
Eggs dull milky white, no sign of any markings even under high 
magnification, inclined to oval in shape. They are laid singly 
on or in close proximity to their food-plants, which consist of 
grasses and many species of garden-plants ; also members of the 
acacia family. The larvae are, as is usual with many species of 
case-moths, pale yellowish white, with the head and thoracic 
segments chitinous, and marked with black. The cases are 
15 mm. long by 5 mm. broad, and are composed of silk incrusted 
on the outside with minute fragments of bark ; no twigs are 
employed in their structure. They are flattened, being not more 
than 3-4 mm. deep. The under sides of fence-rails is a favourite 
locality for them, as are also the crevices in the bark of old 
acacia-trees. The larvae reverse in the usual manner before 
emerging from the lower end. 

Lepidoscia magnella, Walk. 

$ . 25 mm. Head yellow, face fuscous ; thorax, antennae, legs, 
and abdomen dark fuscous ; thorax yellow anteriorly. Fore wings 
elongate, moderate, dark fuscous, markings yellow ; a diffused spot on 
inner margin ; a moderate straight fascia from before middle of costa to 
before middle of inner margin ; a triangular spot on costa at four- 
fifths ; a smaller spot on inner margin before anal angle ; a spot on 
termen below middle. Hind wings dark fuscous ; basal third ochreous 
yellow. 

? . 12 mm. Apterous. Ochreous brown. Round the ovipositor 
is a dense tuft of hair, yellowish brown on surface, pale yellow at tips, 
1'5 mm. long. 

The cases of this species are often very plentiful in gardens, 
especially on apple-trees. They are both curious and interesting, 
being composed of seven, sometimes eight, segments, each formed 
by regular narrow strips of wood, 5 mm. long, laid on in a slight 
spiral. The cases are cylindrical, or rather cannon-shaped, 



SOME TASMANIAN CASE-BEAKING LEPIDOPTERA. l3 

somewhat narrow, broadest at base, and gradually tapering to 
apex ; up to 40 mm. in length, and 4 mm. at greatest breadth. 

I have caught but one male moth ; it was very weak on the 
wing. The others I have bred. The female is quite destitute of 
wings, and is a very sluggish crawler. She never strays far 
from her case, but remains an inconspicuous object on a bough 
of its food-plant until impregnated. Then an occurrence takes 
place which I am at present at a loss to thoroughly understand. 
On cutting open a number of cases, I have found eggs sprinkled 
in them from top to bottom. These eggs, on hatching, have 
proved to be those of this species. Does the moth, after impreg- 
nation, thrust the projecting pupa-case out of the way at the 
posterior aperture, crawl inside, lay her eggs among the silk 
lining of the case, crawl out again, and then die ? Taking into 
consideration the behaviour of the female of Clania lewinii, such 
a thing is quite possible. On no occasion did I find the remains 
of a female in any of the cases. 

At present I see no other explanation possible to account for 
the eggs getting inside the cases. They are round in shape, and 
of a yellow colour. The larvae on first emerging are 1 mm. long, 
thorax and abdomen yellowish, and the head black. From actual 
observations I found that the first case is made exactly in the 
same manner as that of C. lewinii or 0. ignobilis. The full- 
grown larvae are 15 mm. long and 1*5 mm. broad ; head and 
thoracic segments striped with reddish brown, abdomen yellowish 
white, legs dark brown. Their food -plants consist of a number 
of species of native trees, including the acacia and Casuarinese. 
Sometimes they become very destructive in fruit -gardens by 
nibbling through the young shoots on apple-trees. The moths 
are to be found during February and March. 

Xysmatodoma adelopsis, Meyr. 

$ . 25 mm. Fore wings blackish brown, dusted with fine silvery 
scales ; running from costa to inner margin are fine interrupted lines 
of black. Hind wings black, almost purple in some lights ; fringes 
same colour. Head and thorax covered with moderately long silvery 
hair ; abdomen brownish black. 

$ . 35 mm. Fore wings blackish brown, well dusted with fine 
silvery scales ; wavy black markings not so pronounced as in male. 
Hind wings dull blackish brown ; fringes tinged with purple. Head 
grey and thorax black ; abdomen blackish brown. 

In some districts the cases of this species are rather plentiful 
on their favourite food-plant, acacia, especially A. dealbata, the 
silver-wattle. 

Both male and female moths are heavy flyers, especially the 
latter. The cases are 24 mm. long and 5 mm. at the widest 
part, tapering off slightly towards the posterior extremity. They 
are composed of very fine grains of bark, tightly fastened to a 



14 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

strong silken envelope. But rarely is a fragment of twig used. 
When about to emerge the pupa-case is thrust well out of the 
posterior aperture. The moths emerge in February and March. 

Other interesting species I hope to deal with at some later 
date. My best thanks are due to Mr. Oswald Lower, F.E.S., of 
New South Wales, for very kindly running me out, from material 
supplied, the descriptions of Clania leivinii (male), and Lepidoscia 
magnella (male). 

Launceston, Tasmania : August, 1904. 



DESCBIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW 
SPECIES OF EAST INDIAN HYMENOPTERA. 

By P. Cameron. 

(Concluded from vol. xxxvii. p. 310.) 

CKABRONIDiE. 

Crabro elvinus, sp. nov. 
Black ; the scape of the antenna, two-thirds of the pronotum, a 
small, transverse pyriform mark on the sides near the tegulae, the 
greater part of the scutellum, its keels, a line on the post-scutellum, a 
line down the base of the mesopleuras, an interrupted line on the base 
of the third abdominal segment, the front femora, tibiae, and tarsi, the 
apical two-thirds of the middle femora, the apex of the hinder broadly 
— more broadly below than above — and the four hinder tibias, yellow. 
Wings fuscous, the stigma fulvous, the nervures darker. $ . Length, 
9 mm. 

Hab. Himalayas. 

Head with the front and vertex closely and distinctly punctured, 
the former more strongly than the latter ; the lower part of the front 
in the centre smooth, shining, furrowed and covered with silvery 
pubescence and sparsely with long fuscous hairs. Face and clypeus 
densely covered with silvery pubescence. Mesonotum opaque, closely 
punctured and covered with long fuscous hair, as are also the scutel- 
lums. The metanotal area bears some curved strife, and is bounded 
by a curved keel on the sides ; the apical slope is deeply furrowed in 
the middle, and bears some curved transverse striae. The furrow on 
the base of the mesopleuras is wide and deep, and bears eight transverse 
keels ; in front of the yellow line is a curved keel. Above the middle 
coxae are four curved keels ; there is an oblique keel above the hinder 
coxas, and the metapleura is bounded at the apex by a curved keel. 
The basal segment of the abdomen becomes gradually wider towards 
the apex where its width is about two-thirds of the total length ; the 
pygidium is bare, closely and distinctly punctured, and is hollowed in 
the middle; the epipygium is thickly covered with fuscous pubescence. 
The apex of the radius is rounded. 



EAST INDIAN HYMENOPTERA. 15 

Crabeo lysias, sp. nov. 

Black ; the scape of the antennas, an interrupted line on the pro- 
notum, and two large transverse marks on the second and fourth 
abdominal segments, yellow ; the greater part of the front tibia?, the 
middle at the base and apex, tbe hinder, except in the centre behind, 
and tbe basal joint of tbe hinder tarsi, yellow. Wings hyaline, the 
stigma fulvous, the nervures darker. 5 . Length, 9-10 mm. 

Hah. Himalayas. 

Clypeus thickly covered with dark silvery pubescence, and distinctly 
keeled in the centre. Mandibles punctured strongly, but not closely 
at the base ; the apical teeth equal in size, large. Front and vertex 
closely, rugosely punctured, opaque, more shining along the lower 
inner orbits. Ocelli in a curve. Mesonotum opaque, closely rugose, 
a narrow furrow in the centre of the basal half; the punctures on the 
scutellum run into strife at the apex. Metanotal area irregularly, 
closely longitudinally striated ; a deep furrow in its centre ; the furrow 
becomes wider towards tbe apex, and is united to tbe furrow on the 
apical slope, which is obscurely transversely striated. Tbe upper part 
of the propleurae obliquely striated ; below, at the apex, are three stout, 
oblique keels. Tbe upper part of the mesopleuras is stoutly striated, 
the strife curved ; the lower part punctured, tbe punctures running 
into strife ; tbe basal furrow is wide. Metapleurae obscurely striated. 
Tibiaa stoutly irregularly spined. The basal half of the pygidium bears 
large punctures ; the apical is smooth, hollowed, narrowed, and keeled 
laterally ; it is fringed with long golden hair. 

Comes near C. argentatus and C. bellus in Bingham's ar- 
rangement. 

Crabro menyllus, sp. nov. 

Black ; the scape of the antennfe, except for a brownish line above, 
an interrupted line on tbe pronotum and two transverse large marks 
on the base of tbe second abdominal segment, yellow. Wings hyaline, 
the nervures and stigma dark fuscous. J . Length, 7 mm. 

Hab. Himalayas. 

Front and vertex closely and distinctly punctured, the former more 
strongly than the latter, which is not furrowed, and is covered below 
with silvery pubescence. Ocelli in a curve. Clypeus not keeled or 
furrowed in the centre ; tbickly covered with silvery pubescence. 
Mandibles black, piceous towards the apex. Mesonotum closely and 
strongly punctured, and thickly covered with longish pale pubescence. 
Scutellum closely punctured, less strongly and obscurely striated at 
tbe apex ; the extreme apex shining. Post-scutelluin closely punc- 
tured, with a smooth space in tbe centre. Metanotum aciculated, the 
base closely striated, the strife stronger and oblique on the sides ; the 
apical slope aciculated and closely, but not strongly, obliquely striated. 
Mesopleurfe distinctly, but not very closely, punctured ; the meta- 
closely, finely obliquely striated. Petiole as long as the second and 
third segments united ; it becomes gradually wider towards the apex ; 
the third and following segments are thickly covered with fulvous 



16 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

pubescence, Legs normal ; the fore tibia? with a broad yellow band 
on the apical half. 

This species, from the form of the petiole, is allied to 
C. ardens and C. odontophorus. The area on the metanotum is 
not bounded by a furrow; the furrow on its apical slope is wide 
and deep on the upper half. 

Cerceris flavoplagiata, sp. nov. 
Black ; the upper part of the head, the mesonotum and scutellum 
red ; the head and thorax largely marked with yellow, the vertex with 
four yellow marks in a transverse row ; the abdomen black, the sides 
of the first segment, the base of the second broadly, its apex and that 
of the third, fourth, and fifth narrowly, the lines becoming gradually 
narrower, two marks, wider than long, on the base of the third 
segment, the edge of the pronotum behind, the middle of the propleura?, 
a mark behind the tubercles, projecting narrowly upwards at the base,. 
an irregular mark on the lower part of the mesopleura?, the yellow 
turning into rufous below and two large oval marks on the apex of the 
metanotum, extending on to the metapleurae, a mark on the sides of 
the scutellum and the post-scutellum, yellow. Wings hyaline. ? . 
Length, 12 mm. 

Hob. Himalayas. 

Antennae rufous, darker above, the scape lined with yellow below. 
Head : the lower half of the outer orbits, the inner broadly from 
shortly above the middle, a line extending from the ocelli to the base 
of the antenna?, dilated below and to a less extent above, the face, 
clypeus, aud the mandibles, except at the apex, lemon-yellow ; there 
is a black line commencing shortly behind the ocelli, where it is 
obliquely narrowed, extending down the sides of the central yellow line 
to the base of the clypeus. Occiput black below. Clypeus roundly 
convex, its apex almost transverse, rufous. The outer marks on the 
vertex are irregularly oval, the two central narrower, longer, and 
oblique. The whole head is closely and strongly punctured ; the 
clypeus is less strongly and closely. Thorax punctured, but not 
strongly, the base of the pronotum shagreened. Metanotal area closely 
but not very strongly punctured, and more closely on the sides than 
in the centre. The rnetapleura? at the base above with some stout, 
clearly separated stria, the lower part and the centre finely, indistinctly 
striated. Four front legs rufous, mixed with yellow, the coxa? and the 
femora for the greater part above, black, the middle tarsi black above ; 
the hinder coxa? black, with a yellow line in the centre above, the 
trochanters for the greater part yellow, the femora for the greater part 
black, their tibia? broadly black, as are also the tarsi. Petiole stout, 
of nearly equal width throughout, fully one-third longer than wide. 
Pygidium longitudinally rugose, of almost equal width throughout ; 
the epipygium with the apical two-thirds incised ; the incision becoming 
gradually, but not much, widened towards the apex. The basal three 
ventral segments are largely marked with yellow. 

In Bingham's arrangement this species would come in near 
C. tristis and G. sutphurea. 



EAST INDIAN HYMENOPTERA. 17 

ANOPLINI. 

Anoplius (Pompilus) orodes, sp. nov. 

Black ; densely pruinose ; the apex of the hinder femora broadly 
and the hinder tibiae red ; the wings yellowish-hyaline, the apex from 
the end of the radius smoky ; the third cubital cellule much narrowed 
above. ? . Long. 13 mm. 

Hah. Darjeeling. 

Black ; pruinose ; the abdomen broadly banded with white pile ; 
the apical third of the hinder femora and the hinder tibiae red. Head 
very little developed behind the eyes ; the occiput transverse. Eyes 
parallel, only very slightly converging above. Ocelli in a curve, the 
hinder separated from each other by a greater distance than they are 
from the eyes; there is a narrow furrow on the lower half of the front. 
Apex of clypeus transverse, its sides rouuded. Thorax smooth, densely 
pruinose ; the pronotum is as long as the head. Median segment 
large ; the top flat ; the apex with an oblique slope, its sides slightly 
dilated ; the outer edges broadly, roundly dilated ; below ending in a 
tooth. The first and third transverse cubital nervures are broadly, 
roundly curved ; the second is straighter and more oblique ; the fuscous 
apical cloud commences at the end of the radial cellule, and does not 
extend to the third transverse cubital nervure ; the third cubital cellule 
is greatly narrowed above. 

Comes near to P. incognitas, Cam., but is a larger and stouter 
insect ; has the third cubital cellule not petiolate, the apex of 
the median segment not thickly covered with silvery matted 
pubescence, and the wings are not uniformly infuscated. It has 
the coloration of P. pedestris, but it wants the transverse furrow 
on the second ventral segment found in that species. 

Obs. — P. vischnu, Cam., has nothing to do with P. incognitas, 
Cam., as Bingham suggests (Hym. of India, 157). It would be 
much better when an author, in a monographic work, cannot 
quote a species with certainty as a synonym, to give the original 
description in full. Vischnu, Cam., has the legs entirely black, 
and has not the hinder femora and tibiae red, as in incognitus. 
It is related, as I have stated (Manr. Memoirs, 1891, 469), 
to P. vivax, Cam. So, too, on p. 169, hero, Cam., is doubtfully 
referred to P. rothneyi. There are considerable differences in 
coloration between them, and although the two might be sexes 
of one species, it would have been better, and have saved the 
student trouble, if the original description had been given in full, 
seeing that the identity of the two species was so doubtful. 



ENTOM. — JANUARY, 1905. 



18 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF 

MALTA. 
By Thomas Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.E.S. 

(Concluded from vol. xxxvii. p. 319.) 

2429. T. parva, Hb. — Common ; occurs in June and October, and 
probably throughout the summer. A specimen taken on October Gtli , 
1903, is ab. rubs facta, Mab. 

2490. Emmelia (Erotyla) trabealis, Sc. (sulphuralis, Linn.). — Not 
common. Marsa ; May lGtb, 1901, and June 7th, 1902. 

2557. Plusia cJialcytes, Esp. One specimen ; at light ; October 
11th, 1903. 

2562. P. gamma, Linn. — Common from March onwards. 

2583. Metoptria rjnonogramma, Hb. — Common, but very local. 
Occurs in grassy places in the wieds in April and May. Birzebbugia 
(Mathew) ; Wied Kratal ; Mnaidra. 

2818. Hypena obsitalis, Hb. — Common in shady places and caves 
from May to October. The variation is very great. 

2820. H. lividalis, Hb. — Not common. May 24th, 1902, and 
November 14th, 1903. 

2897. Eucrostes indigenata, Yill. — One specimen ; October 11th, 1902, 

2971. Acidalia asellaria, H.S.— '« 28th March, 1891 " (dela Garde). 
I have a specimen, beaten from carouba May 24th, 1902, which I doubt- 
fully refer to this species. 

2983. A. virgularia, Hb. — " Male, pale form (var. australis, Zell.) ; 
May 1898 (is not this rather early for ' gen. aest. ?'), Mathew's coll." 
(Prout, Entom. xxxvi. p. 204.) 

3032. A. (Idaa) filieata, Hb. — One specimen; May 16th, 1901. 

3143. Tthodometra (Sterrha) sacraria, Linn. — Common from April 
to October. 

3220. Anaitis plagiata, Linn. — Common from February to October. 

3340. Larentia salicata, Hb. Yenusia sp. (de la Garde). Common 
in February and March. Maltese specimens rather incline to var. 
ablutaria, Bdv. 

3344. L. jiuctnata, Linn. — "Female, dated 3rd March, 1897; an 
extremely interesting aberration, the markings being all excessively 
weak, notwithstanding that the specimen is in immaculately perfect 
condition — Mathew's Coll." (Prout, Entom. xxxvi. p. 204.) 

3481. L. {Camptogramma) UUneata, Linn. — Common in March and 
April. Boschetto, Zurrico, &c. ; beaten out of ivy, &c. (Mathew). 

3658. Tephroclystia pumilata, Hb. — Common ; February to June. 
Maltese examples seem intermediate between the northern form and 
var. tempe&tivata, Z. 

3948. Gnophos variegata, Dup. — Not uncommon in the early spring. 
This species is beautifully protected by its coloration when at rest on 
the rocky sides of the wieds. 

4075. Aspilates gilvaria, Fb. — Mr. Mathew [in litt.) informs me of 
the occurrence of this species. 

4077. A. ochrearia, Rossi, (citraria, Hb.). — Common from March 
to May. 



PRELIMINARY LIST OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF MALTA. 19 

4168. Phraymatobia fuliyinosa, Linn. — Not uncommon in March. 
I have found the larva in May, so there is probably another brood 
which emerges in the summer and oviposits in the early autumn. 
Maltese specimens seem to incline to v&v.fervida, Stdgr. 

4203. Arctica villica, Linn. — One crushed larva upon a road near 
Zurrico (Mathew). 

4238. Cymbalophora (Euprepia) pudica, Esp. — Common from July 
to October. The larvae are common under stones, in waste places, 
from January to March ; they feed by night on various kinds of grass. 

4249. Euprepia (Coscinia) striata, Linn, (grammica, Linn.). — One 
specimen ; July, 1897 ; valley leading down to Birzebbugia (Mathew). 

4257. Utetheisa (Deiopeia) pulchella, Linn. — I never met with this 
species, which appears to be scarce as a rule, but intermittently 
abundant. There seem to be two (? three) broods, as dates noted 
are : — May 9th (de la Garde) ; beginning of August, 1892 (Caruana- 
Gatto) ; and October 25th, 1897 (Mathew). Mr. Caruana-Gatto gives 
us an interesting note on the spasmodic abundance of the species in 
1892. He writes (Medn. Nat. vol. ii. p. 239, September, 1892):— 
" It is worthy of notice that this pretty moth has occurred in unusual 
abundance this year, and at the moment of writing (August 10th), 
and for a fortnight past, it has been the commonest moth to be seen 
on the wing. I do not remember, in fact, ever having had occasion 
to record such extraordinary numbers of any butterfly or moth. In 
the open country, and in fields, especially where the Heliotropium 
europmum (on which the Deiopeia feeds) grows, it is a most curious 
sight to see the innumerable quantities of this pretty species, fluttering 
here and there, looking like large animated snowflakes. Nor is it only 
by daylight that the moth appears, but also in the night it is found, 
attracted by the lights. Mr. R. Bnffa, a friend of mine, and a gentle- 
man greatly interested in our Lepidoptera, was telling me that at 
Sliena there were thousands of the species flitting about in every part 
of the gardens and fields. The same may be said of all other parts of 
the island, as I have seen the Marsa, Corradino, Notabilo, Attard, and 
many other places, teeming with this moth and its caterpillar." 

" As to the cause of such an unusual frequence, I believe it is to be 
referred to the rains which fell during the late spring causing an over- 
growth of the Heliotropium. The extra abundance of this plant . . . 
may therefore in a measure account . . . for the unusual numbers of 
this insect." 

Psyche sp. — Larvae are abundant during the spring, and feed on 
various kinds of grass. The moth appears in August. 

4641. Trypanus (Cossus) cossas, Linn, [ligniperda, Fb.). — Mr. 
Mathew notes that he has often smelt the larva of this species. I 
cannot help thinking that it is of rather doubtful occurrence in Malta, 
and even then ouly as a casual importation in trees. 

II. 257. Ephestia calidella, Gn. — One specimen. April 5th, 1902. 

377. Heteroyraphis convexella, Led. One specimen. June 14th, 
1902. 

401. Oxybia transversella, Dup. — Two; June 7th and 14th, 1902. 

516. Bradyrrhoa cantenerella, Dup. — Fairly common at the end 
of May. 

c 2 



20 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

825. Aglossa plngulnalis, Linn.—" 28th March," 1891 (de la Garde). 

836. Pyralis farinalis, Linn. — Common from March to May ; pro- 
bably throughout the year. 

927. Duponchelia fovealls, Zell. — One specimen ; April 14th, 1902. 

1039. Nomophila noctuella, Schiff. — Abundant throughout the 
year. The dates of capture of my specimens range from February 
24th to June 7th ; the variation, however, does not seem to depend 
on the season of emergence. 

1058. Phi yet anodes nudalis, Hb. — One specimen ; October 10th, 
1903. 

1151. Pionea ferrurjalis, Hb. — Common from March to June. 
Specimens range from pale straw-colour to dark yellowish brown. 

1274. Cornifrons ulcer ataiis, Ld. — " March (var.)." — De la Garde. 

1291. Noctuelia floralis, Hb. — Common from June to September, 
flying in the sunshine over fields, and feeding on flowers of wild thyme. 

1365. Aluclta tetradactyla, Linn. — Common from April to June; 
Wied Kratal. 

1387. Pterophorm monodactylus, Linn. (?) — One specimen; June 
14th, 1902. This identification appears doubtful. If correct, the 
specimen is very small, but I have a similar one from Greece. 

1406. Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla. Haw., var. plagiodactyla, Stt. — 
One specimen ; April 6th, 1902. 

1437. Orneodes hexadactyla, Linn. — One specimen ; January 14th, 
1902. 

1573. Tortrix pronubana, Hb. — Fairly common in April. 

1608. Cnephasia longana, Hw. (Ictericana, Hw.). — Common in 
March and April. 

1811. Eitxanthis straminea, Hw. — One specimen; May 24th, 1902. 

1832. Phtheochroa duponcheliana, Dup. — One specimen; May 15th, 
1902. 

2447. PluteUa maculipennis, Curt, (cmci feramm, Zell.). — Common in 
February. 

Depressaria, sp. — Common in May and August. The green larvae 
were common, spun-up in leaves of wild fennel, in Wied Kratal, at 
the beginning of April, 1902. Pupation takes place in a cocoon formed 
of fragments of the fennel-leaves. 

4693. Nemotois latreillellus, Fb. — Common in May, but very local. 
I have seen the males flying around thistle-flowers in the hot afiernoon 
sunshine. 

In addition to the foregoing, I have some fifteen species 
which as yet I have been unable to identify. 

Finally, I cannot conclude better than by thanking those to 
whose courtesy I am indebted for making the foregoing list as 
complete as possible. To Sir George Hampson my warmest 
thanks are due, for valuable assistance in enabling me to identify 
many doubtful species ; and also to Mr. Gervase F. Mathew, for 
his extreme kindness in supplying information, and for the loan 
of some of the specimens from his own collection. 



21 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF L ABRIDGE FROM 
CENTRAL AMERICA. 

By P. Cameron. 

On bringing together recently, for the purpose of study, my 
neo-tropical specimens of Odynerus nasidens and allies, I found 
among them a species of Larrida? which agreed almost exactly 
with 0. nasidens, having the same size, golden pubescence, wing- 
coloration, and form. It belongs to the Lyrodinae, and comes 
closest to Heliocausus, which may be known from it by the 
transverse median nervure being received behind the transverse 
basal, by the cubitus in hind wings being received much behind 
the median, by the recurrent nervures being widely separated, 
he first behind the middle, and by the eyes converging above. 

Icuma, gen. nov. 
Eyes parallel, not converging above, reaching to the base of the 
mandibles. Ocelli in a triangle. Clypeus short, its apex broadly 
rounded. Mandibles not incised below, the apical tooth long. Temples 
broad, obliquely narrowed ; the occiput transverse. Pronotum very 
short. Scutellums large. Median segment short, gradually rounded, 
the basal area large, closely striated. Tibia? and tarsi spined, the fore 
tarsi ciliated with long stout spines on the outer side ; claws long, 
curved, without a spine. Abdomen short, ovate ; the pygidial area 
distinct. Antenna? short, placed close to, but clearly separated from, 
the clypeus. Kadial cellule long, its apex narrowed, but bluntly 
pointed ; the transverse median nervure received clearly beyond the 
transverse basal ; the recurrent nervures are received in the apical 
third of the second cubital cellule ; the cubitus in hind wings origin- 
ating shortly beyond the transverse median. 

Icuma sericea, sp. nov. 
Black, covered densely with a pale golden pile ; the under side of 
scape, an irregular line across the middle of the clypeus, a line on the 
lower half of the inner orbits on the apex of the pronotum, a narrow 
one on the second abdominal segment, more than the apical half of 
the third, and the whole of the other segments, fulvous yellow. Legs 
black, a line on the under side of the femora, on the under side of the 
tibiae, and on the posterior at the basal half behind, fulvous yellow. 
Wings fulvous hyaline, clearer at the apex, the radial cellule and the 
basal two cubitals smoky ; stigma and costa fulvous, the nervures 
darker. ? . Length, 12 mm. 

Panama, Pacific side. 

Head with scattered punctures, the face and clypeus more shining 
than the rest. Thorax distinctly but not closely punctured, the meta- 
noturn more strongly than the rest ; the stria? on the basal area 
distinct, rather stout, clearly separated. Abdomen, except the pygidial 
area, almost impunctate ; the area with longish, clearly separated 



22 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

punctures in rows. The second cubital cellule is the smallest, and is 
narrowed in front ; the first and second abscissas of the radius are 
equal in length ; together they are equal in length to the third. Hind 
ocelli separated from each other by a slightly greater distance than 
they are from the eyes. Basal four joints of flagellum rufo-fulvous 
below ; the first joint of flagellum is shorter than the following two 
united. 

The form of coloration shown by this species is found in 
various genera and species of neo-tropical Vespidae. I have a 
Chartergus which resembles it very closely. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Colias edusa reared from Ova in 1904. — Last August I received 
from a friend twenty ova of Colias edusa, which were deposited by a 
female taken by him at Sidmouth, South Devon, in the same month. 
These hatched on the 30th, and feeding-up on clover all the larva? 
pupated from Sept. 25th to Oct. 16th. I then moved the pupa? into a 
warm room and they began to change colour on Oct. 19th. Nineteen 
fine imagos emerged from Oct. 23rd to Nov. 4th, eight males and 
eleven females, one of the latter being without the yellow spots in the 
black hind-marginal band on the fore wings. — J. B. Morris; 14, Rane- 
lagh Avenue, Barnes, Dec. 12th, 1904. 

Teratological Specimen of Hybernia defoliaria. — It may be of 
interest to note that on Nov. 20th I captured at West Wickharn a 
recently emerged male specimen of Hybernia defoliaria in which both 
wings on the right side are entirely absent. The antenna?, legs, and 
the wings on the left side are perfectly developed and quite normal ; 
but there is no trace of even the rudiments of wings on the right 
side. — A. B. Kidner ; 139, Rosendale Road, West Dulwich, S.E., 
Dec. 12th, 1904. 

Monk's Wood and Thecla pruni. — It will, I fear, be a great dis- 
appointment to entomologists in general to hear that Monk's Wood, 
near Huntingdon, is now closed to the public. Lord Chesham, the 
owner, is at present preserving game in this wood so closely that the 
keepers have strict orders to forbid the entrance of entomologists. 
The result of this will, no doubt, be an increased difficulty in obtaining 
a good series of T. pruni, for, although the species does occur else- 
where — notably at Barnwell Wold — still Monk's Wood may be regarded 
as its headquarters in the British Isles. So much so that those desir- 
ing to take T. pruni with their own hands have for the last hundred 
years undertaken a pilgrimage to this celebrated Midland wood. At 
various times I have had the pleasure of looking through many of the 
best collections of British Lepidoptera, and I think I may safely say 
that the two obtainable species that are least adequately represented 
are T. pruni and Carterocephalus pal&mon — but more especially the 
former. Caught specimens are the rule, generally brown with age, or 
torn, or bereft of many scales. In iact, T. pruni, like T. w-album, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 23 

to be really fine, must be bred. It is tben of an intensely black hue 
(instead of black-brown) and is a decidedly "taking" species. C. 
palamon is almost equally local, but is fortunately much easier to obtain 
in fine condition, if captured when it first appears at the end of May. 
I suspect tbe reason one so seldom sees a fine representative series is 
that very few collectors live within reach of this most charming 
member of the Hesperidas. To some collectors the idea of placing a 
monetary value on British Lepidoptera is altogether repugnant, But 
I must confess that to me it seems tbe only feasible method of deter- 
mining the relative value of the different species, and I do not mind 
confessing that I am always deeply interested in the prices charged by 
reliable dealers or realized at London auctions. Most of us, I think, 
occasionally buy species we see no other possibility of obtaining, but 
any one who thinks he can buy really fine specimens of pruni and 
palamon at the usual quotations is grievously mistaken. I myself have 
bought a good deal of late years, but have never succeeded in purchas- 
ing a single fine bred specimen, or a single larva, of T. pruni, although 
I have commissioned the chief dealers to procure me the latter even at 
so high a price as 2s. each. I reallv think that a fine bred pruni, 
compared with other British butterflies, is quite worth 5s., and 
palamon I should estimate at 2s. With regard to the range of pruni 
in these islands, I find old records of its occurrence at Linford Wood, 
near Stony Stratford (Entom. vii. 175) and at Beaumont, Berks 
(Eutom. xvii. 267) ; but at the latter place the (single) specimen was 
only seen. I wonder if any of your readers have come across pruni 
elsewhere than in its Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire haunts. 
— (Rev.) Gilbert H. Raynor ; Hazeleigh Rectory, Maldon, Dec. 13th, 
1904. 

The Noctuid Genus Ala. — The name of this genus (Staudinger, 
1882) was used by Lockington for a crustacean in 1877. Hence the 
later name Trichanarta, Hampson, 1896, will stand, and the three 
species will be known as Trichanarta picteti (Ala picteti, Staud.), T. 
pretiosa (Alapretiosa, Alph.), and T. ladakensis (Anarta ladakensis, Feld.). 
t. d. a. cockerell. 

The Entomological Collections in the Oxford University 
Museum. — In the " Sixteenth Annual Report of the Delegates of the 
University Museum " (for 1903) will be found an exceedingly interest- 
ing account of work completed, in hand, or to be undertaken, con- 
nected with the entomological collections in the Hope Department of 
the Museum. Some idea of the thoroughness with which the labours 
are there conducted may be gathered from the following excerpt from 
Dr. Dixey's account of work upon the Pierinaa which is embodied in 
the " Report of the Hope Professor of Zoology" (pp. 21-69). 

" In 1893 the Pierinas in the Hope Collection occupied about fifty 
drawers ; they were to some extent sorted out into genera and species, 
but the arrangement did not pretend to critical exactness, nor did it 
profess to represent the existing knowledge of the different species with 
their distribution and affinities. There were no labels except those in 
' MS. attached to the individual specimens. These were often elaborate 
and written with much care ; but they could not, as a rule, be read 
without the removal of the specimen from the cabinet. The greater 



24 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

number of the species were grouped together, but several were de- 
tached from the general arrangement, aud had to be sought in 
different parts of the collection. For reasons of this kind the dif- 
ficulties in the way of making an effective study of the group were 
very great. 

" At the present time the space devoted to the Pierinae consists of 
five cabinets of sixty drawers each — three hundred drawers in all. 
Each specimen has been carefully considered and placed in the position 
that may best illustrate its natural affinities and relation to conditions 
of locality and season. The genera and species have been indicated 
throughout by easily-read labels, and synonyms have been added when 
they possess special interest or importance. The order of the species 
within each genus, and of the genera within the subfamily, has been 
determined with the view of exhibiting the probable relationship of 
the various forms on a phylogenetic basis. With every genus and 
every species a map is given, coloured to show the present distribution 
of the particular assemblage on the earth's surface. Within the limits 
of each species the individual specimens are arranged geographically, 
according to a uniform plan ; seasonal modification of forms, where it 
exists, is duly indicated by special labels." 

iEscHNA mixta in Epping Fokest. — Henry Doubleday is apparently 
not properly entitled to hold the Epping Forest record for M. mixta. 
In his list of 1871, Doubleday speaks of this dragonfly as being on the 
wing as early as June — in fact, his observations are confined to that 
month. Now, we claim to have a particularly close acquaintance 
with mixta in the Epping Forest district, and we have never met with 
the species before September ; indeed, its flight seems to be restricted 
to that and the succeeding month. We think it is pretty clear that 
Doubleday wrongly identified some other species as mixta, or, alter- 
natively, failed to keep a proper note of the dates of capture or observa- 
tion. — F. W. & H. Campion ; 33, Maude Terrace, Walthamstow, 
Essex, Oct. 31st, 1904. 

[It certainly seems to be the case that ;E. mixta does not appear 
before August. — W. J. L.] 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Sphinx (Agrius) convolvuli in Hampshire. — S. convolvuli has been 
common here this season wherever the tobacco-plant was grown. A 
cat belonging to a gentleman residing in Brockenhurst has accounted 
for three specimens. She might be seen on any mild evening during 
August and September prowling along by the flower-beds and waiting 
for the moths which, although never seen in the act, she, no doubt, 
captured on the wing. The three specimens mentioned were taken 
from her mouth alive (they were not cabinet specimens) ; how many 
more she caught and consumed is, of course, unknown. S. convolvuli 
did not come to the flowers on cold nights, neither did puss attempt 
to go hunting. In this she showed more wisdom than some of our 
local entomologists. Mr. L. F. Hill, of Cremona, Brockenhurst, has 



CAPTUKES AND FIELD REPORTS. 25 

kindly supplied me with a list of forty-nine specimens which he saw, 
and most of which he captured, at tobacco, between Aug. 16th and 
Sept. 23rd, a record for this neighbourhood. — G. T. Lyle ; Brocken- 
hurst. 

Late Appearance of Colias edusa. — On Oct. 18th last, a fine warm 
day, I saw, while shooting on the marshes at Wallasea, Essex, a male 
C. edusa on the wing ; after watching it a short time it settled to feed 
on yarrow-blossom. It was apparently in perfect condition. I hear 
that other specimens have recently been seen in Devon, one as late as 
Nov. 13th.— F. W. Frohawk; November, 1904. 

Late Appearance of Pyrameis atalanta. — Owing to the recent fine 
warm weather, P. atalanta has been putting in a late appearance. On 
Nov. 13th my wife saw a specimen on the wing, in the finest condition, 
at Rayleigh, Essex, and daring the past week specimens have been 
emerging. The larvae were found quite young at the end of Septem- 
ber and beginning of October, which were obviously from eggs deposited 
during September by specimens which emerged during August or 
September. Although it is generally believed that only one brood 
emerges in the year, I am convinced that usually, if not every year, 
there are two broods, the first appearing in July and August, and the 
second continuing through the autumn. — F. W. Frohawk; Nov., 1904. 

Colias edusa, C. hyale, &c, at Felixstowe. — On Aug. 10th and 
11th last I took, at Felixstowe, two female specimens of C. edusa, on 
open land, fluttering over patches of red clover. I saw six altogether, 
but these two alone gave any chance of capture. I also saw two speci- 
mens of C. hyale in the public road, but my net was disconnected, and 
they flew almost at once into private grounds. I was only able to spare 
two days for collecting out of my brief vacation, and then found the 
following plentiful but much worn ; only a small number of the speci- 
mens captured were worth retaining: Pieris brassica, P. rapce, P. napi, 
Vanessa urtica, V. polychloros, Pyrameis atalanta, Pararge egeria, P. 
megara, Satyrus semele, Epinephele ianira, Ccenonympha pamphilus, and 
of Lycana icarus I obtained a large series, both males and females. 
I may perhaps note that I did not see a single specimen of P. cardui, 
neither have I met with this species during the year in or near 
London.— W. T. Page, F.Z.S. 

Lepidoptera at Kingston, Surrey. — Cheimatobia boreata is simply 
swarming at the lamps here just now. It is no exaggeration to say 
that one might easily take hundreds each evening. Previous to this 
year I had only one specimen taken in Kingston, although I have 
often searched for it. I may also mention that Chesias spartiata, Opo- 
rabia dilutaria, and Hybernia defoliaria have been extremely abundant, 
and some beautiful forms of the latter have been obtained. I have seen 
a specimen of Asteroscopus sphinx (cassinea) which was taken on the 
hill, also a few Diloba cceruleocephala. I have not seen H. aurantiaria 
at all this year. — Percy Richards; " Wellesley," 11, Queen's Road, 
Kingston Hill, Nov. 18th. 

Species of Plusia visit Flowers of Stachys. — When capturing 
insects on the wing at dusk this year, I noticed a fact which may not 



26 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

be generally known. It is that several species of Plusia come to the 
flowers of the hedge woundwort [Stachys). I have never seen the name 
of this plant in the list of natural attractions, hut of some Plusias I 
could have captured large numbers, so attractive is it. During the past 
summer the following species were captured at Stachys: — Abrostola 
urticce, A. triplasia, Plusia chrysitis, P. gamma, P. iota, and P. pulchrina. 
Of these species P. chrysitis and P. pulchrina were the most numerous, 
but both species of Abrostola were fairly common. P. iota and 
P. gamma were scarce. — W. A. Bogue ; Spring Cottage, Shepton 
Mallet. 

[Barrett (Lep. Brit. vol. vi.) mentions the following Labiate as 
being attractive to species of Plusia : — Ballota nigra and other Labi- 
ates (P. chrysitis), Stachys palustris and S. syhatica (P. festucce), and 
Teucrium scorodonia (P. interrogation,! s) ; the blossoms of various labi- 
ate plants are visited for their honey by P. iota. Several species of 
the Labiatfe, especially Lamium and Stachys, are among the known larval 
food-plants of P. bractea, P. chrysitis, P. gamma, P. iota, and P. pul- 
chrina. — Ed.] 

Notes on Coleoptera in South-west Surrey. — The following is a 
list of Coleoptera taken in this district during 1901 : — Cychrus ros- 
tratus, L. : I took two specimens of this Carabid in July, and one of 
them exhibited traces of three irregular lines on each wing-case. 
Carabus monilis, F., C. violaceus, L., were plentiful on paths and under 
stones. C. granulatus, L., in the rotten wood of fallen trees and 
under stones on Peasmarsh. Creophilus maxillosus, L., abundant on 
dead animals. Pader.us caligatus, Er. : I found this for the first time 
on Peasmarsh on Feb. 21st. Xantholinus fulgidus, F., in decayed 
wood. Ocypus olens, Mull., occurred frequently. Aromia moschata, L., 
in July, on willows. Cetonia aurata, L., common on roses. Lucanus 
cervus, L., occurred from about July 2nd, the males being far more 
plentiful than the females. Prionus coriarius, L., one female taken on 
July 24th, while flying against a window at night. Melolontha vulgaris, 
F., Rhizotrogus solstitialis, Latr., very plentiful. Phyllopertha hordeola, 
L., frequently during the daytime in June, at rest on oak. Strangalia 
arniata, Herbst.. occurred frequently on flowers. Geotrupes typhmis, L., 
common at Puttenham in early spring, in the loose sandy soil. I ob- 
served several dragging pellets of rabbits' excrement into their burrows. 
They varied much in colour, some having castaneous elytra. Do reus 
parallelopipedus, L., abundant. On March 26th 1 found larvae, pupaa, 
and several imagines in one piece of decayed oak, Necropkorus 
humator, F., common on dead animals. A r . mortuorum, F., occurred 
only once, on a dead rat near Eashing. Cicindela campestris, L., fairly 
common on sandy soil. Notiophilus biguttatus, F., common on ploughed 
fields. N. aquaticus, L., occasionally on Peasmarsh. Geotrupes sterco- 
rarius, Er., abundant everywhere. G. vemalis, L., occasionally in 
cowdung. Timarcha laevigata, L., on grassy banks. Aphodius fime- 
tarius, L., plentiful in cowdung. Balaninus villosus, Herbst., on oak- 
trees. Malthodes marginatus, Latr., under bark and in C'ossHs-infected 
trees. Blaps mucronata, Latr., common in cellars and outhouses. 
Pterostichus madidus, F., P. athiops, Panz., P. vulgaris, L., P. striula, F., 
P. versicolor, Sturm., under stones and logs of wood. Lampyris nocti- 



SOCIETIES. 27 

luca, L., abundant. Coccinella 7 -punctata, L., C. bipunctata, L., C. 
variabilis, F., common everywhere. Coccinella ocellata, L., only one, 
taken on pine-tree, Hister bima.cul.atus, L., under stones. Cossonus 
linearis, F., very local. Clivina fossor, L., under stones. At/was 
hcemorrhoidalis, F., very abundant. (Edemere ccerulea, L., abundant 
on flowers during July and August. Telephorus clypeatus, 111., and 
other Telephorida3, common on flowers. Xestobium {Anobium) tessel- 
lation, F., plentiful in old wood. Nebria brevicollis, F., Pogonvs 
chalceus, Marsh, under stones on the " Hog's Back." Amara fu/va, 
De G., very few met with. A. familiaris, Duft., A. lucida, Duft., 
common under stones, particularly on Peasrnarsh. — J. A. Croft ; 
Charterhouse, Godalming, Surrey. 

Pyg&ra pigra in Surrey. — In the most recent list of the Lepido- 
ptera of Surrey P. pigra is noted as being uncommon, and only two 
localities in the county are given for the species. It may therefore be of 
interest to mention that larva? of P. pigra are to be found more or less 
commonly in the Esher and Ockham districts. On August 27th last 
they were decidedly numerous at Wisley, and I collected over forty 
small ones in less than half an hour. The species also occurs at 
Byfleet, and I have frequently found larvaB there on dwarf sallow. — 
Richard South. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — Wednesday, November l§th, 
1904.— Professor E. B. Poulton, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President, in 
the chair. — Mr. Edward Goodwin, of Canon Court, Wateringbury, 
Kent, was elected a Fellow of the Society. — Mr. H. St. J. Donis- 
thorpe exhibited the second recorded British specimen of Orchestes 
sparsus, Fahr., taken by him on August 28th last in the New Forest. 
— Mr. H. W. Andrews, specimens of Atherix crassipes, Mg., from the 
New Forest, the only previously recorded locality in Great Britain 
being near Ticehurst, Sussex. — Mr. G. 0. Sloper, two aberrant forms 
of Melitaa athalia, male and female, from Luan, above Corbeyrier, 
Switzerland, and one male taken on June 26th this year at Martigny. 
The tendency of the black markings to supersede the fulvous was par- 
ticularly noticeable in the latter specimen. — The President, cases con- 
taining Diptera, and a case containing the skins of African Sphingid 
larva?, dried in botanical paper, and, after seventy years, still preserving 
their colours, from the Burcheli collection in the Hope Museum, Oxford. 
Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, a gall of some lepidopterous insect found on the 
Califate bushes in Patagonia. The gall resembled that of Cynips kollari, 
but was hollow, the walls being about ^ in. in thickness. The circular 
door prepared by the larva was about ^ in. in diameter. The pupa 
was lying free, without any silk cocoon. It was suggested that the 
insect was perhaps allied to CEcocecis. — Mr. C. H. Kenrick communi- 
cated a paper entitled " Natural Selection applied to a Concrete Case." 
Mr. J. C. Kershaw, papers on "Enemies of Butterflies in South China," 
and "A Life-history of Gerydus chinensis." — Mr. Nelson Annaiidale, 
B.A., a paper on " The Eggs and Early Stages of a Coreid Bug, pro- 
bably Dalader acuticosta, with a note on its Hymenopterous Parasites." 



28 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Wednesday, December 1th, 1904. — Professor E. B. Poulton, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.R.S., President, in the chair. — Mr. Horace A. Byatt, B.A., of 
the Colonial Office; and Mr. J. 0. Winterscale, F.Z.S., of Karangan, 
Kedah, Penang, Straits Settlements, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. — Mr. Rowland Brown, one of the Secretaries, read the list of 
Fellows recommended for election as Officers, and to serve on the 
Council for the ensuing year ; and there being no additional Fellows 
proposed, they were nominated accordingly. — Mr. H. St. J. Donis- 
thorpe exhibited Quedius nigrocwruleus, taken by Mr. H. C. Dollman in 
a rabbit-hole at Ditchliug, Susses, this being the fourth recorded 
British specimen. — Professor T. Hudson Beare, a specimen of the rare 
Longicorn, Tetropiwn castaneum, L., taken about two years ago in the 
vicinity of the Hartlepool Quays, and probably introduced from abroad. 
— Mr. G. J. Arrow, a series of the Lamellicorn beetles from the 
Burchell Collection, and remarked that Burchell, at the time of their 
capture some seventy years ago, had already noted their powers of 
producing musical sound. — Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse, drawings illus- 
trating the development of the front wing in the pupa of the tusser 
silk-motli, showing the relation of the tracheae to the veins, prepared 
for exhibition in the Natural History Museum. He also exhibited 
some coffee-berries from Uganda, injured by a small beetle belonging 
to the Scolytidaa. The beetles laid their eggs in the berries when 
young and green. The mature berries were often found with little of 
the inside left. Mr. Waterhouse further exhibited two coleopterous 
larvae from the Burchell Collection from Brazil, submitted to him for 
determination by Prof. Poulton. One was a heteromerous larva two 
inches long, much resembling the larva of Helops. The more interest- 
ing one was noted by Burchell to be luminous, and appeared to be the 
larva of an Elaterid, but the prothorax was unusually large, and the 
head retracted beneath. — Commander J. J. Walker, the type-specimen 
of Haplothorax burchelli, G. R. Waterhouse, from the Hope Collection, 
Oxford University Museum. This very remarkable Carabid was dis- 
covered by Burchell in St. Helena. It is now exceedingly rare, if not 
entirely extinct, in its sole locality, the late Mr. Wollastou, during his 
visit to the island in 1875-6, having entirely failed to find the beetle 
alive, although its dead and mutilated remains were often met with. 
— The President, cases showing the results of breeding experiments 
upon Papilio cenea conducted by Mr. G. F. Leigh, who had for the 
first time bred the trophonius form from trophonius itself ; also a photo- 
graph, taken by Mr. Alfred Robinson, of the Oxford University 
Museum, showing the Xylocopid model and its Asilid mimic exhibited by 
Mr. E. E. Green at a previous meeting. The example was particularly 
interesting, inasmuch as Mr. Green's record of the mimic circling 
round its model tended to support the view that the bee is the prey of 
the fly. — Dr. T. A. Chapman, M.D., read a paper on Erebia palarica, 
n. sp., and E. stygne, chiefly in regard to its association with E. evias 
in Spain. Describing E. palarica, he said it was a new species from 
the Cantabrian range, phylogenetically a recent offshoot of E. stygne, 
and the largest and most brilliant in coloring of all the known mem- 
bers of the family. — Dr. G. B. Longstaff, D.M., gave an account of his 
entomological experiences during a tour through India and Ceylon, 
Oct. 10th, 1903, to March 26th, 1904, illustrating his remarks by 



SOCIETIES. 29 

exhibiting some of the insects referred to, and lantern-slides of the 
localities visited. — H. Rowland Brown, M.A., Hon. Secretary. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
November 2ith, 1904.— Mr. E. Step, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Special exhibit of varieties : — Mr. H. W. Moore, of Shortlands, Kent, 
was elected a member. — Mr. Cannon exhibited, on behalf of Mr. 
Frohawk, (1) a long series of Colias edusa v. helice bred from v. helice 
ova in 1900 (autumn), showing every gradation from typical white v. 
helice to typical C. edusa ; (2) a series of C. hyale showing gradation in 
extent of markings; and (3) a fine pale variety of the last with all the 
usual black markings replaced by pale opalescent colouring. — Mr. 
Colthrup, (1) a very pale form of Smerinthus ocellatus; (2) a partially 
xanthic form of Anthrocera Jilipendulce ; and (3) a Bianthcecia capsincola 
of a very unusual shade. — Mr. Harrison and Mr. Main, (1) Argynnis 
aglaia, from North Cornwall, with xanthic markings; (2) a bleached 
specimen of Epinephele jurtina (ianira), from North Cornwall ; (3) 
Zonosoma pendularia v. subroseata from Staffordshire ; (4) a series of 
Boarmia repandata and v. conversaria from North Cornwall, with series 
from Wiltshire and Isle of Lewis for comparison ; (5) a series of 
Aplecta nebulosa from North Cornwall, with series for comparison from 
Delamere Forest, including v. robsoiii, and from Epping Forest ; (6) 
Miana strigilis, from North Cornwall, but none dark ; from Delamere 
Forest, but scarcely any bright forms ; (7) Hybemia marginaria, 
melanic specimens from near Liverpool ; (8) long series of Pier is napi, 
spring brood from North Cornwall, with spring-bred Enniskillen series 
for comparison ; (9) summer broods of the same species from Ennis- 
killen and Delamere Forest ; and (10) series of spring brood of the 
same species from Kilkenny, bred by Mr. Montgomery, with particu- 
larly dark females. — Mr. Montgomery, series of bred and captured 
Leucophasia sinapis of both broods, from Berkshire, Cornwall, Devon- 
shire, Worcestershire, and the New Forest. — Mr. Hickman, an extremely 
dark var. of Arctia caia bred from a larva taken at Wye in August, 
1903. — Mr. Crow, a remarkable rosy form of Calymnia trapezina from 
Hayes, and a specimen of Pyrameis atalantu, showing xanthic spots, 
bred from a larva taken at Elmer's End. — Mr. Stonell, a gynandrous 
example of Lachneis lanestris. — Mr. Joy, (1) a bred series of Pararge 
egeria, from ova laid by a female taken in June, 1903 ; (2) two series 
of the same species, bred from a pairing induced in captivity, of which 
(a) hybernated as pupse, (b) hybernated as half-fed larvae. — Mr. Chit- 
tenden, a large number of varieties and aberrations of Lepidoptera, 
including Spilosoma lubricipeda var. radiata with black fringes, Boarmia 
repandata, dark, Acidalia inornata, very dark, from Kent, very dark 
Cymatophora duplaris from Market Drayton, Caradrina morplieus, Agrotis 
segetum, A. exclamationis, A. corticea, all very dark, from Kent. — Mr. 
R. Adkin, (1) a specimen of Saturnia pavonia, having the body and 
wings undoubtedly female, while the antennas were distinctly male. 
It was bred in 1904 from an Isle of Lewis larva of 1901 ; (2) a very 
dark specimen of Syrichthus malvm from Brighton ; and (3) a fine 
specimen of Agrius convolvuli taken at Eastbourne, Sept. 18th, 1904. — 
Mr. Harris, a very interesting series of Hemerophila abruptaria, bred from 
a pairing obtained in captivity between two captured specimens, includ- 



30 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ing a number of the more or less extreme melanic form. — Mr. Goulton, 
varied series and examples of Hypsipetes sordidata (elutata) with dark 
forms, Pseudoterpna priunata with brown forms (bred), aud light forms 
of Boarmia repandata from Ranmore. — Mr. Brown, numerous species 
and forms, including Hydrcecia nictitansv&Y. paludis, very dark Xylophasia 
polyodon, dark Leucania coniyera, all from Deal; varied under sides of 
Polyommatm corydon from Reigate, bred and very varied series of 
Cidaria russata and C. immanata from Horsley, and light and dark 
forms of Amphidasys betularia, bred. — Mr. Dobson, twenty-seven species 
of dragonflies taken by him in Surrey and Hampshire during the last 
two years, including Gomphus vulgatissimus, Anax imperator, JEschna 
mixta, Platy mentis pennipes, Ischnura pumilio, and Agrion mercuriale. — 
Mr. H. Moore, an example of Heliconins siculata from Trinidad, some- 
what different from the type, and a series of the beautiful H. cydno, 
showing the range of variation of the snow-white markings. — Mr. 
Garrett, a specimen of Pyrantels atalanta, taken in Northamptonshire, 
having xanthic markings in red band of the hind wings. — Mr. South, 
(1) Aplecta nebulosa with var. robsoni and the so-called var. thompsoni, 
and numerous examples from many localities to show the range of 
variation in the species ; (2) Polia chi, a female var. oliuacea, and a 
series reared from ova laid by it, all of which were dark ; * (3) an 
Abraxas yrossulariata with buff ground colour ; (4) Ewrrhypara urticata 
with confluent or much-intensified spots ; (5) Peronea hastiana, series 
from Wisley and Lancashire,! the latter including several forms; and 
(6) Peedisca solandriana, a long series, collected in two afternoons at 
Oxshott, including at least seven named forms. — Mr. G. T. Porntt, a 
fine bred series of Agrotis ashworthii from North Wales. — Mr. H. J. 
Turner, a copy of the original edition of Moses Harris' ' Aurelian,' 
slightly defective, picked up for a few shillings on a bookstall. — Mr. 
W. J. Kaye, (1) a series of Pseudoterpna pruinata, showing considerable 
variation in the banding, several bred specimens from Bude had all 
the usual markings suppressed ; and (2) a specimen of Titanus yiyanteus, 
the largest known longicorn beetle, from British Guiana. — Mr. Barraud, 

(1) Epinephele jurtina var., with the usual white pupilled spot on the 
fore wing absent, and on the under side hind wings specks instead of 
spots; and (2) a brown suffused Spilosoma menthastri from Bushey. — 
Rev. J. E. Tarbat, (1) Euthemonia russula, with smoky hind wings ; 

(2) a female Pcecilovampa populi, having a rudimentary fifth wing 
anterior to the right fore wing ; and (3) a male Erebia cethiops with 
shaded marks on left hand wings. — Mr. Bacot, varieties of various 
species and long series of Spilosoma urtica consisting of eight broods 
belonging to three generations, all originating from a single female 
captured in Norfolk. They showed large extremes of variation as 
regards the spotting. — Mr. Prout, for Mr. Mutch, pale aberrations of 
Agrotis ypsilon and Phloyophora meticulosa, with much darkened speci- 
mens of Cleora glabraria. — Mr. Prout, some extremely fine varieties of 
(1) Melitaa cinxia, mostly of one aberrant brood in 1902 ; (2) blackish 
ab. ingenua of Aporophyla australis ; and (3) very dark Eubolia bipunc- 
taria from North Devon and Luperina testacea from Sandown. — Mr. 
Edwards, representatives of all the genera closely allied to the genus 
Papilio, and contributed notes on each. The rare Armandia thaidina 

* See Entom. xxxvii. 263. f See Entom. xxxvii. 320. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 31 

and Bhutanitis lidderdalii were included in the exhibit. — Dr. Chapman, 
(1) a very large number of the genus Chrysophamis taken this year in 
Spain, including the var. miegii of C. virgaurea, various forms of C. 
phlaas, from light forms to the extreme dark var. eleus ; (2) a drawer 
of Erebias, also from Spain, including various races of E. evias and 
E. stygne, and a long series of a new species, which he had named 
E. palarica, and which was closely allied to E. stygne, but much larger 
than any Erebia hitherto known. — Dr. Chapman, on behalf of Mr. 
Tutt, for comparison with his own, a large number of Chrysophanids 
from many mid-European sources. — Mr. Tonge, three albums of 
photographs of Lepidoptera, most of them taken with the aid of the 
electric light, — Mr. Carr, on behalf of Mr. F. M. B. Carr, a specimen 
of Vanessa io having the usual eye-like spots on the hind wings very 
obscure. — Mr. West (Streatham) and Mr. Fremlin exhibited objects 
under their microscopes. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — By the kind- 
ness of the Chester Society of Natural Science an ordinary meeting 
was held in the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, on Monday, Nov. 21st, 
1904, Mr. Ed. Wilding, Vice-President, in the chair. — The following 
gentlemen were elected members of the Societv : Messrs. C. M. Adams, 
F.C.S. (Southport), Ed. S. Bagnall, F.E.S. (Winlaton-on-Tyne), J. H. 
Leyland (Ormskirk). W. C. Boyd (Cheshunt), John F. Dixon-Nuttall 
(Prescot), Ed. Hancock (Handsworth), and E. E. Lowe (Plymouth). — 
Dr. Herbert Dobie having welcomed the Society to Chester, the chair- 
man called on Mr. Eobert Newstead, A.L.S., F.E.S. , Hon.F.E.H.S., 
who gave a most interesting and instructive lecture on " The Collections 
in the Grosvenor Museum." — Amongst interesting exhibits examined 
during the evening were: — Mr. Newstead, a living specimen of the 
male of Lecanium hesperidum : this he had recently bred from a colony 
of Coccids which had been under observation for the past three or four- 
years, the example being the first authentic one observed, although 
the male had been searched for since the time of Linureus. — Mr. J. J. 
Eichardson, a series of exotic Lepidoptera mounted in frames, with 
slips of glass so arranged as to allow of the examination of the under 
sides. — Mr. J. E. Charnley, F.Z.S., fourteen specimens of insects in 
amber from the north coast of Germany, both the insects and clearness 
of some of the pieces of amber being much admired. — Anisotoma furva 
(from Crosby) was exhibited by Mr. Wilding ; and a selection of British 
Lepidoptera by Mr. W. Mansbridge, F.E.S. ; &c. — E. J. B. Sopp and 
J. E. le B. Tomlin, Hon. Secretaries. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Catalogue of Lepidoptera. By Frederick Lowe. Vol. i. pt. 1. Pp. 51. 
London: Hutchings & Crowsley. 1901 (Dec). 
The initial instalment of this important work deals with the 
Nymphalid subfamily Danainae, and all the species, subspecies or local 
races that have been described up to date are included therein. The 
part is interleaved with MS. paper, so that subsequent new species, 
&c, may be added. There is also an index to the species mentioned 



32 THE ENT0M0L0GI8T. 

in the catalogue. This method of treating the Lepidoptera by sub- 
families possesses obvious advantages, and the scheme of compilation 
has been devised to facilitate the work of the student. Where they are 
accessible the location of types is stated. The arrangement of genera 
and groups is based on a trivial character which the author states he 
has found constant and not confined to one sex. 

Judging from the part before us, the Catalogue promises to be of the 
utmost utility, and will meet a pressing need. 

The Second Part is in the press, and it is proposed to complete the 
work during the year. 



CHARLES GOLDING BARRETT. 

Entomologists throughout the kingdom will regret to hear that 
on December 11th last Mr. C. G. Barrett succumbed to the malady 
from which he had suffered for some time past. As an authority 
on Lepidoptera he was known far and wide, and his willing help and 
kindly advice were always at the service of anyone who appealed 
to him. His departure from among us has created a void that will 
not be readily filled. 

Among his contributions to entomological literature are notes con- 
tained in the ' Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer' (1856-61), also 
in the 'Weekly Entomologist : (1862), and occasional communications 
to the ' Entomologist,' dating from 1864. 

Mr. Barrett, in 1880, joined the editorial staff of the ' Entomolo- 
gists' Monthly Magazine,' to which he had been a valued contributor 
from its foundation in 1864. Among the more important of his 
writings that have been published in that journal are a series en- 
titled " Notes on British Tortrices," which were commenced in 
vol. ix. (1872), and continued year by year up to vol. xxvi. (1890). 

In his excellent work " The Lepidoptera of the British Islands " 
is concentrated the knowledge acquired during a lifetime of assiduous 
research and careful observation. The first volume was issued in 
1893, and the ninth in 1904. In the tenth volume, which was passing 
through the press at the time of his decease, was commenced the 
consideration of the Tortricina, a group in which he as an expert 
had long been acknowledged pre-eminent. It is ever to be regretted 
that he was not spared to see this great undertaking completed, and 
we earnestly hope that among his literary remains material will be 
found to enable the work to be continued to, at least, the end of 
the Tortricina, which, excepting the Tineina, is perhaps the most 
neglected group of British moths. 

Mr. Barrett was elected a Fellow of the Entomological Society 
of London in 1884, and a Member of the South London Entomo- 
logical and Natural History Society in 1889. He was President of 
the latter Society in 1892. 

We understand that the collections of British, Continental types, 
and South African Lepidoptera will be realized. 



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CONTENTS. 

The Earlier Stages of Cataelysta lemnata, L., T. A. Chapman (with Plate), 1, 
Notes on the Wave Moths (Genus Aeidalia. Auct.b Louis B. Front, 6. Some 
Tasmania n Case-bearing Lepidoptera, Frank M. Littler, 11. Descriptions of 
a Kew Genus and some New Species of East Indian Hyrnenoptera (concluded), 
dmeron 14. ■ A Preliminary List of the Lepidoptera of Malta (concluded i, 
Thomas Bainbriyye Fletcher, 18. A New Genus and Species of Larrkhe 
from Central America, P. Cameron, 21. 

Notes am> Observations. — Colias edusa reared from Ova in 1904, J". B. Morris, 
22. Teratologics! Specimen of Hybernia dtluliaria, A. B. Kidncr, 22. Monk's 
Wood and Thecla pruni, (Bev.) Gilbert H. Baynor, 22. The Noctuid Genus 
Ala, T. D. A. Cockercll, 28. The Entomological Collections in the Oxford 
University Museum, 23. iEschna mixta in Epping Forest, F. \V. $ II. 
Campion, 24. 

Captures and Field Reports. — Sphinx (Agrius) convolvuli in Hampshire, G. T. 
Lyh , 24. Late Appearance of Colias edusa; Late Appearance of Pyrameis 
atalarita, F. W. Froluark, 2"). Colias edusa, C, hyale, &.c, at Felixstowe, 
TI". 7". Page, 25. Lepidoptera at Kingston, Surrey, Percy Ricliards, 2.i. 
Species of Plusia visit Flower- o1 Stachys, IP. A. Boyue, 25. Notes on Coleo- 
ptera in South-west Surrey, ./. A. Croft, 20. Pygsera pigra in Surrey, Ei< 
Sou tli. 27. 

Sorn./jiKs. — 27. Obituary. — Charles Golding Barrett, 32. 

ISsf SPECIAL INDEX for 1904.— This is issued with the present 
number of the ' Entomologist,' and should be added to the General Index 
issued with the December number, 1904. Binder will please note this. 

DR. STAUDINGER & BANG = HAAS, Blasewitz- Dresden, in their 
Trice List, No. XLYIIL for 1905, offer more than 16,000 Species of 
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• ox. A ^_:VIIL] FEBRUARY, 1905. [No. 501. 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII. ; FEBRUARY, 19 05 [No. 501. 

SOME AMERICAN HALICTIXE BEES IN THE 
BRITISH MUSEUM. 

By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

After being long neglected, the Halictina? of America have 
come to receive a good deal of attention. Mr. Charles Robert- 
son has lately published tables (Can. Ent., Sept., 1902) for the 
separation of the Illinois species ; -while Mr. Crawford has pre- 
pared, and I believe will shortly publish, a synopsis of all those 
inhabiting the United States. Mr. J. Vachal, in ' Miscellanea 
Entomologica," 1903-1901, has in course of publication a synopsis 
of all the American Halictines seen by him. very many being 
regarded as new. All this activity is rapidly increa>ing our 
knowledge of these insects, but the value of some of the re 
obtained is seriously impaired by the difficulty of recognizing 
many of the numerous >pecies described years ago by E. Smith, 
of the British Museum. Mr. Vachal, in the majority of . 
practically abandons the attempt to identify th 5mi1 
and gives new names to a great many bees, some of which must 
certainly be Smithian. I should be more ready to condemn this 
proceeding, had I not discovered that some of my own iden- 
tifications of Smithian species, made by the most careful use 
the descriptions, were quite erroneous. 

The present paper is the result of an examination of the m 
rial, including most of Smith's types, in the coll< :. i the 
British Museum. This collection, although it has been scarcely 
touched since Smith's death in 1878, is probably still the most 
valuable collection of bees in existence, and it is remark 
that it has not received more attention from students. 

The following abbreviations are used: — \T.^ = type specimen 
examined ; s. m. = submarginal cell ; r. n. = recurrent nervure ; 
b. n.= basal nervure : t. c.= transverso-cubital nervure ; t. m.= 
transverso-medial nervure : hind spur=hind spur of hind tibia ; 

ZNTOM. — FEBRUARY, 1905. D 



34 THE ENT0M0L0GI8T. 

area=basal area of inetathorax ; vibriseae=hairs forming a fine 
ciliation on hind margins of abdominal segments 1 and 2. 

Agapostemon. 

(1.) A. sicheli, Vacbal. — The museum contains a male of this 
extraordinary species from Mexico, out of F. Smith's collection. 
The flagellum is black, twisted like a corkscrew. The insect has 
the hairy eyes and plumose pubescence of Cameron's Cainoha- 
lictus. 

(2.) A. rhopalocera, Sm. (T.) $ . — Easily known by the very 
long antennae, with the last joint black and somewhat broadened. 
The yellow band on first abdominal segment has on it two dark 
spots. Eyes naked. 

(3.) A. nasutus, Sm. (T.) $. — Easily known by the broad, 
yellow, turned-up anterior margin of clypeus, like a hog's snout. 
Abdomen with six dark bands ; head broader than long ; eyes 
naked. 

(4.) A. ceruginosus, Sm. (T.) $. — Buns to this in Vachal's 
table, but punctures of scutellum, though somewhat larger than 
those of mesothorax, are still extremely dense. 

Corynura. 
Abdomen red, second segment not rapidly broadening, 
and not much broader than first ; antennal joints 
9 to 11 strongly crenulate; first r. n. joins second 
s. m. (which is broad) very near its end (Chile). 

abdominalis, Sm. (T.). 
Abdomen not red . . . . . . . . 1. 

1. Head and thorax bright green all over ; second s. in. 

parallel-sided, first r. n. meeting second t. c. ; 
first abdominal segment narrow, second rapidly 
broadening to apex ; antennas very much shorter 
than in abdominalis or marginata (which Chilian 
species have very long antennas) 

jucunda, Sm.(?(T.); n. syn. pseudobaccha, Ckll. 1901. 
Head and thorax at least largely dark . . . 2. 

2. Marginal cell and costa beyond fuliginous ; first r. n. 

meeting second t. c. ; hind spur with three spines ; 
first abdominal segment narrow, but much broader 
at apex than at base, with no depression between it 
and second along lateral margins (Mexico) discolor, Sm. $ (T.). 
Wings yellowish ; marginal cell and costa beyond not 

fuliginous ........ 3. 

3. Hind margins of abdominal segments white, edged in 

front with a sort of golden-brown ; first and 
second abdominal segments both very narrow, 
second not expanding apically to any extent ; 
antennas very long ; second s. m. very broad, re- 
ceiving first r. n. near its end (Chile) . marginata, Sm. $ (T.). 
Hind margins of abdominal segments not so coloured : 



AMERICAN HALICTINE BEES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 35 

first segment very narrow, second becoming broader 
apically ; first r. n. meeting second t. c. ; antennae 
moderate (Brazil) agilis, Sm. $ (T.). 

By the venation and the long antennas, the Chilian species 
form a group separable from those of Brazil. In Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci, Phila. 1901, p. 218, I misidentified C. jucunda, owing 
to a misinterpretation of a sentence in the description. My so- 
called jucunda will stand as G. (enigma, Gribodo, while my C. 
pseudobaccha is the real jucunda. 

The antennae of C. discolor ( $ ) are bright orange at the tip, 
a useful character to separate it from C. atromarginata. 

Augochlora titania, Sm. (T.), which I have referred to Cory- 
nura, has a clavate abdomen, narrowed basally, but otherwise is 
not suggestive of Corynura. It is very small ; first r. n. joining 
second s.m. near its end ; no vibrissa? ; wings dusky; eyes deeply 
emarginate ; area striato-granular. 

Corynura briseis (Augochlora briseis, Sm.) (T.). 5 . 

Hind spur with two spines and two nodules or extremely short 
spines; second s. m. extremely narrow, receiving r. n. at its middle or 
slightly beyond ; first abdominal segment broad but narrowed basally, 
with strong large punctures, its dorsal surface, viewed laterally, occupy- 
ing a much lower plane tban that of second; second segment with large 
punctures like first, but third and beyond lack these punctures, and 
have a greenish lustre ; no vibrissas ; upper part of metathorax smooth 
and shining ; scutellum dark pinkish-purple ; mesothorax shining very 
dark purplish, with large sparse punctures, its anterior margin sharp, 
and overlapping prothorax. 

Megalopta. 

I discuss under this name the species here placed by Smith, 
although it is evident that they do not form a natural group. 
Eventually, either Megalopta must be given up, and its species 
merged in Augochlora, or else it must be restricted to a much 
smaller number of species. 

Bright blue-green; abdomen shining; thorax very 

coarsely sculptured . . . . . . ornata, Sm. 

Not so, colours dull ....... 1. 

1. Without metallic colours, or at most slightly purple . 2. 
With bright metallic colours on some part . . 3. 

2. Wings strongly suffused with orange ; abdomen nar- 

rowed basally ; scutellum normal ; body dark 

purplish ....... purpurata, Sm. 

Wings not suffused with orange ; abdomen broad at 
base ; scutellum bituberculate ; body not* purplish 

bituberculata, Sm. 

3. Abdomen pallid ....... 4. 

Abdomen dark. ....... 0. 

n 2 



36 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

4. Abdomen green, covered with short pubescence . pUosa, Sm. 
Abdomen fulvous ; scape long and slender . . 5. 

5. Face narrow ; legs without black .... idalia, Sm. 
Face broad ; legs with much black . . . nigrofemorata, Sm. 

6. Hind margins of abdominal segments 1 and 2 regu- 

larly ciliate (vibrissate) with orange hairs ; metal- 
lic colours of face bluish-green and purple . . vivax, Sm. 
Hind margins of abdominal segments 1 and 2 not 

ciliate ........ 7. 

7. Abdomen thinly pruinose with pale pubescence ; cly- 

peus and supraclypeal area strongly suffused with 

crimson ....... cuprifrons, Sm. 

Abdomen not thus pruinose ; face brilliant golden- 
green, vextex purplish ..... 8. 

8. Larger ; tegula3 dark ..... janthina, Sm. 
Smaller; tegulaa ferruginous .... calliope, Sm., ms. 

The following notes, additional to the table, will serve to 
confirm identifications made by it : — 

(1.) M. bituberculata, Sm. $ (T.). — Face narrow ; ocelli large ; 
wings hairy ; hind spur microscopically ciliate (but probably 
spined in the $ , which I have not seen); first r.n. joins second s.m. 
well before its end ; third s. m. very large, about as large as 
first. 

(2.) M. janthina, Sm. — Ocelli only moderate; wings hairy; 
stigma large ; both r. n. received by third s. m. (near base and 
apex), which is not nearly so large as first. 

(3.) M.purpurata, Sm. (T.). — Ocelli large; first r. n. joining 
second t. c. ; third s. m. not nearly as long as first. 

(4.) M. cuprifrons, Sm. (T.). — Wings hyaline, not at all orange, 
but costa and marginal cell fuliginous ; first r. n. joining second 
t. c. ; second r. n. entering third s. m. farther from its end than 
in janthina (in janthina almost at its end); ocelli moderate; first 
abdominal segment with very numerous large strong punctures. 

(5.) M. vivax, Sm. (T.). — Ocelli moderate; wings dusky 
hyaline, not yellowish or dark on costa ; first r. n. joining third 
s. m. at its extreme base ; second r. n. joining third s. m. as in 
ciqirifrons. 

(6.) M.ornata, Sm. (T.). — Bright green, face splendid crim- 
son ; ocelli fairly large ; thorax with very large punctures, 
becoming subcancellate ; hind spur with numerous (6 or 7) long 
spines ; first r. n. meeting second t. c. on the basal side. 

(7.) M. pilosa, Sm. (T.). — Hind spur with long spines; first 
r. n. joining second t. c. 

(8.) M. nigrofemorata, Sm. (T.).— Ocelli rather large ; wings 
hairy ; first r. n. meeting second t. c. ; second r. n. joining third 
s. m. almost at its end. 

(9.) M. idalia, Sm. (T.). — Hind spur with few long spines; 
first r. n. joining second s. m. near its end. 



AMERICAN HALICTINE BEES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 37 

(10.) M. calliope, Sm., from Ega, Brazil, was never pub- 
lished. I should refer it to Augochlora, with the following 
characters : — 

Augochlora calliope (Smith) n. sp. $ . 
Head, thorax, and abdomen dark purple ; face brilliant golden 
shining with coppery ; clypeus very sparsely punctured ; mandibles 
dark ferruginous ; ocelli moderate ; area with a beautiful crimson 
lustre (orange-golden lustre in janthina), and delicately striate ; scu- 
tellnm not bituberculate ; hind spur with very few long spines ; hair- 
brush at apex of basal joint of hind tarsi orange-fulvous ; venter of 
abdomen with quite abundant white hair; first r.n. joining second t.c. 
(entering third s. m. near base in janthina) ; second r.n. joining third 
s. m. at its end ; stigma large. 

Augochlora festivaga D. T. {/estiva, Sm.) $ (T.). 
Santarem. — This is a peculiar species, in some things suggestive 
of Corynura and Megalopta ; it has gigantic ocelli, such as are not seen 
in Megalopta idalia ; nor has it any vibrissas. Face white-pruinose at 
sides, much narrowed below ; clypeus prominent, its central part 
yellow ; scape yellow, with the apex brown ; ocelli large for Augochlora ; 
mesothorax shining, smooth ; area shining, slightly rugose, not 
striated ; each side of metathorax with a very remarkable dense patch 
of slightly yellowish cotton-like pubesceuce ; posterior face of meta- 
thorax shining, longitudinally sulcate; legs yellow; abdomen with the 
first two segments, and base of third, shining fulvous ; wings hairy ; 
second s. m. very narrow, with parallel sides ; first r. n. joining second 
t.c. ; fourth ventral segment of abdomen with middle of apical margin 
produced. 

Halictus nanus (Augochlora nana, Sm.) (T.). 
Very small ; head and thorax yellowish -green, abdomen and legs 
entirely fulvous ; inner orbits not emarginate, but gently concave ; 
first r. n. joining second s. m. at its end ; outer nervures weak as in 
Chloralictus. 

Halictus aspasia (Augochlora aspasia, Sm.) (T.). 
? . Inner orbits gently concave, not emarginate. Front, vertex, 
mesothorax, and some adjacent parts, entirely covered with a dense 
moss-like fulvous tomentum ; abdomen largely covered with a similar 
tomentum, and its tegument fulvous, the bases of the third and fourth 
segments becoming black (but this colour mostly concealed by the 
pubescence) ; venter dark red-brown with fulvous bands ; first and 
second dorsal segments without vibrissa? ; area strongly defined, 
strongly longitudinally striate-ridged ; teguke fulvous ; first r. n. joins 
second s. m. before its end ; nervures very pale, outer nervures 
weakened as in Chloralictus ; hind spur with few spines. 



38 THR ENTOMOLOGIST. 

THE EARLIER STAGES OF CATACLYSTA 
LEMNATA, L. 

By T. A. Chapman, M.D. 

(Concluded from p. 5.) 

The newly-hatched larvse are l'5-2'0 mm. long, according to 
the degree to which they are extended ; they have hairs appa- 
rently in precisely the same positions as the older larvae, but the 
principal setae are very long, II and III being more than half the 
diameter of the larva in length, and the middle pair on the anal 
plate three times as long, viz. about 0*3 mm., the others being 
about 0*1 mm., and I about 0*07 mm. The circlet of hooks 
on the prolegs contains about eighteen crochets, all of about 
the same size, and not in two or three lengths as in the older 
larvae. 

In an older larva the thoracic plate possesses at its anterior 
border three pairs of hairs, much like those on the next two seg- 
ments, but has also one towards the middle at its dorsal and 
another at its outer edge, and there is one in the posterior half- 
tinted border. On the first abdominal, I is on one side dupli- 
cated, a rare variation. I, II, and III are in usual position, 
Ilia, is wanting, but is present as a very minute point on the 
following segments. IV+V has the posterior and smaller mem- 
ber the higher, a character apparently common to all Pyraus- 
tidae, and the reverse of what occurs in Pyralidae and Phycitidae. 
Below these, first abdominal has two hairs at regular intervals; on 
second the first of these has a companion above and behind it ; 
on third the lower of these is represented by the usual three 
hairs above and one below the proleg. The anal plate is rounded, 
and has three hairs down each side. Ninth abdominal has four 
hairs in line, the third hardly visible ; they range with and mav 
be I, II, III, and IV+V. 

The prolegs have a complete circle (or oval) of crochets, of 
which the inner and outer ones are closely set and nearly of a 
size, but the anterior and posterior have the alternate ones of 
more than double the size of the others, to the number of three 
or four on each margin. The claspers have about seven large 
hooks anteriorly, with smaller between, and beyond these at 
either end they dwindle away to mere points in about a dozen 
crochets, slightly alternate in size. On both prolegs and claspers 
are a few points here and there, as if representing a third class 
of still smaller crochets. 

The general surface is covered with very minute black points, 
to which, in fact, the dark colour of the larva is due ; these are 
ranged or massed in some degree more densely in zones, so as 
to suggest three subsegments in each segment, the anterior 



EARLIER STAGES OF CATACLYSTA LEMNATA. 39 

being the larger. They are ranged in some degree in transverse 
and other lines, but broadly their arrangement is too irregular 
to be described. They present various circular lacunar, one of 
which, a little above and behind the spiracle and two to three 
times its diameter, is conspicuous. The spiracles are very in- 
conspicuous. 

The head and mouth parts are not very intelligible without 
elaborate drawings. The second (?) antennal joint is very long, 
and the jaws have a remarkable form. Where they face each 
other they have not merely a toothed margin, but have a circular- 
face, hollowed centrally, and with teeth round more than half 
the margin, so that they are like scoops with toothed edges. 
This structure seems to be attained by the ordinary five teeth 
being placed in more crowded disposition than usual, and then 
continued and supplemented beyond the end with largest (not 
smallest) teeth by a little row of four smaller accessory teeth, 
which I do not remember to have observed before in other larvse 
(of course I have examined really very few). The circle in which 
the teeth lie is, however, continued right round to the attached 
margin of the jaw, suggesting that the two jaws form a more 
than usually closed pocket, possibly to retain sap, &c, in sub- 
aqueous mastication. 

The larva moults four times. The difficulty of following any 
individual larva and noting its moults seemed to be so great that 
I did not attempt it, but I preserved first instar larvae and full- 
grown ones, as well as a considerable number in intermediate 
stages, of which those in second instar were the only ones of 
whose stage I was certain. But, arranging all my specimens by 
the sizes of their heads, I find that between the second and the 
last instars two, and only two, sizes occur, and these five sizes 
range themselves in regular order. This method is of course 
nevertheless not so sure to be correct as the actual observation 
of each moult in one individual. 

The pupa is 8-10 mm. in length and 3 mm. in breadth, 
varying a little in size, and especially the females are the larger 
and wider ; but there is much latitude in size in both sexes. 
The apparent size varies also a good deal, owing to the amount 
of collapse possible in the two free abdominal segments (five 
and six). In a dead pupa these close up very much by 
drying, and in an empty pupa-skin they are often completely 
telescoped. 

The widest part of the pupa is at the end of the wings, some 
5-5 mm. from the front. Seen laterally, the pupa is of somewhat 
ordinary oval form, well rounded at each end, and a little flat in 
front ; but, viewed dorsally (or ventrally), it tapers to either end, 
and this looks more remarkable forwards, conically rather than 
by an oval outline. At any rate, it differs from our average idea 
of a pupa in this direction. 



40 THE ENTOMOLOGIST, 

The next point to attract attention is the projection beyond 
the wing-cases as a free spine of the cases of the third pair of 
legs, supported basally by the wing apices and the ends of the 
second legs and antennae. 

The colour is a pale brownish, decidedly darker than straw- 
colour, but still nearer straw-colour than to the ordinary pupal 
brown. 

The wings and appendages are fixed to the end of the fourth 
abdominal segment. The hind wing is visible between the fore 
wing and the abdominal dorsum as a narrow strip, made some- 
what waved and irregular by having to accommodate the spiracles 
on second and third abdominal ; it ends at the end of third 
abdominal segment, at the anal angle of fore wing, it being the 
hind margin of fore wing that crosses the fourth abdominal 
segment. The inner margins of both wings, and especially of 
the under one, have many fine wrinkles or creases, probably due 
to resistance to the backward movement of the wings that takes 
place when they expand immediately after pupation. 

The spiracles are interesting ; on second, third, and fourth 
abdominal segments they have a very elaborate circumvallate 
fortification and are very conspicuous ; on the other segments 
(fifth, sixth, seventh abdominal) they are quite simple and 
not very easily seen. In these special spiracles is first and 
centrally the spiracle proper, consisting of a central opening 
(transverse to length of pupa), with a fibrillate margin, and 
round this a set of fine circular lines, making the oval spiracle 
into a circular (or nearly so) area. Next round this is a smooth 
dome-like area, by which the spiracle is raised on to a promi- 
nence, and next a series of raised ridges varying in number 
and form, but apparently trying to be circular, but forced by 
the wings to extend themselves as trenches along the wing 
border. 

The effect of these spiracles on the associated tubercles 
suggest strongly that the spiracles have been forced dorsally 
by the wings — a circumstance not distinctly suggested, as in 
many similar pupae, by the form of the circumvallate ridges. 

The dorsal tubercle I is generally easily seen, but II cannot 
be found ; III is situated fairly normally, as in the larva on 
fifth, sixth, and seventh abdominal, and Ilia, is in front and 
above the spiracle. On fourth abdominal, III and Ilia, are 
fairly normal in direction from the spiracle, but are close to the 
cireumvallatory ridges. On third, however, III is quite as much 
in front as above spiracle, and on second abdominal segment it 
is quite in front of spiracle ; Ilia, though in front in both 
cases, is rather below spiracle in third, and quite so on second 
segment. 

At first view, one demands, is this not V, in a situation very 
usual for it in some families, but, by tracing its migration 



EARLIER STAGES OF CATACLYSTA LEMNATA. 41 

segment by segment, as above, its real nature is not open to 
doubt ; and further confirmation comes from finding IV and V 
close together a considerable way below the spiracles on the 
following segments disposed as in the larva. These hairs and 
tubercles are microscopic, and the pupa may be described as 
quite smooth, as that idea is 'usually understood. There is a 
pair of hairs on the face, but there seem to be none on the 
thorax. They appear to have become obsolete, like II on the 
abdominal segments. 

The two anal spines noted by Buckler are very curious ; they 
are on the tenth abdominal segment, but the segmental incisions 
are so obscure that in some views they seem to be on the ninth. 
Their situation is quite dorsal, dorsal to the spiracular level ; 
they point directly outwards, and are thin and flat, so that even 
from behind they appear to lie almost flat on the surface. 

Noting the appendages in front, there is a well-marked 
labrum, and there are angles of the face below it that may be the 
mandibles ; between these is a small angular space, the floor of 
which is no doubt the labial palpi. Between the eyes and the 
base of the second pair of legs is a small square piece abutting 
against the antenna. I believe I have called this piece the 
maxillary palpus in some pupae similar to this one, and I am not 
prepared to say positively that it is not, as it occupies precisely 
the position that the end of the palpus occupies in all those 
pupce incomplete in which its nature is obvious. Here, however, 
on dehiscence, this piece remains attached not to the maxilla, 
but to the prothoracic dorsal piece, and it seems therefore that 
it really is a portion of the prothorax visible in front of the 
antenna. 

The pupa possesses a primitive feature in having a separate 
dorsal head-piece, to which the eye-piece, separated from the 
rest of the face, remains attached on dehiscence. The maxillae 
reach more than half-way to the wing-tips, and then disappear 
by passing under the second pair of legs ; in some specimens 
there is an appearance as if the extremity came to the surface 
just at the wing-tips, behind the free portions of the appendages. 
In dehisced specimens the applied surfaces of the hind legs in 
this process separate, and leave an angular line that looks some- 
times as though there were something else besides the hind legs 
present ; this could only be the maxillae. The appearance is, 
however, due merely to the exposure of the inner aspect of the 
leg-case. 

Between the maxilla and first leg is a portion of the first 
femur (as in sphingids, &c.) ; the first legs are cut off from the 
face (eye) by the angular portion of the prothorax, and do not 
extend quite as far as where the maxillae disappear. The second 
legs and antennae, as already noted, reach a little beyond the 
end of the wings, along the free portion of the third leg-cases. 



42 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

It is noteworthy that in the female they hardly reach one-third 
of the length of the spine formed by the third leg-cases, whilst 
in the male they reach rather more than two-thirds. 

The wing apices are long and pointed, quite different to those 
of the imago, and reach inwards behind the antennae to the 
second pair of legs. The apex of the hind wing also appears 
here, and is as pointed, and a little longer than the fore wing. 

The front of the last abdominal segments differ in the two 
sexes in the usual way, the male having two eminences on the 
ninth abdominal segment, whilst the female has a longitudinal 
impressed line on the eighth. On the ninth, however, the female 
structures are of a very unusual character. There are nine or 
ten raised ridges, parallel and longitudinal, and the sharp edges 
of the ridges are of dark (dense ?) chitin. Though straight 
longitudinally, they have an antero-posterior curvature, such 
that the set together look just like the upright iron bars placed 
to protect windows, where the lower portions are bent outwards. 

It may be well to recapitulate that the larva is truly aquatic, 
i. e. in water and wetted by it, in the first instar. Afterwards, 
though under water, is aerial, i. e. surrounded by air in a case. 
To compare it with the allied species, A.niveus and N . stratiotata 
appear to be aquatic throughout. H. stagnata appears to be 
aerial after hybernation, but I can find no definite statement on 
the point. H. nymphceata is aerial ; I do not find any definite 
statement that it is aquatic in first instar. It is the species 
described by Reaumur, and often since as filling its case with 
air, and the one that most readily occurs to us in thinking of the 
group. At top of p. 2 I was thinking of nymphceata rather than 
stagnata, of which I was speaking. 



Explanation of Plate I. 
Details of Cataclysta lemnata. 

Fig. 1. — Eggs, as laid under a leaf of Lemna trisulca, x 20. The 
reproduction of photo (by A. E. Tonge, Esq.) fails to show the slight 
sculpturing, but gives size, and shows method of laying, viz. border 
to border, and not imbricated, as is usual in this sort of scale- like 
egg- 

Fig. 2. — Diagram of one side of larva-skin, from medio-dorsal to 
medio-ventral line, to show disposition of tubercles from first thoracic 
to third abdominal segments. 

Fig. 3. — One mandible, much magnified, to show marginal teeth 
supplementing the usual five, and forming a scoop ( x 160). 

Fig. 4. — Side view of pupa, x 3f . 

Fig. 5. — Portion of dehisced pupa, x 10, shows : — 1. Dorsal head- 
piece, carrying (2) eye-cover. 3. Prothoracic cover, carrying (4) ventral 
portion, that looks in pupa like maxillary palpus. 5. Mesothorax. 6. 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS. 43 

Antenna. 7. Metathorax. 8, 9, and 10. First three abdominal seg- 
ments. 11. Fore wing. 12. Hind wing. 

Fig. 6. — Another portion of dehisced pupa, X 10, showing appen- 
dages. 1. Face piece. 2. Labrum. 3. A rent due to flattening pre- 
paration. 4. Antenna. 5. Eye-cover restored to natural position ; it 
is at once torn from here if in handling the dorsal and ventral portions 
of pupa are separated, as happens also to G. Ventral portion of pro- 
thorax, really probably outer end of dorsal plate. 7. Angle where 
labial palpi would form floor of space. 8. Maxilla. 9. Femur of 
first leg. 10. First leg. 11. Second leg. 12. Wing ; third tarsi are 
seen beyond second leg. The main sketch is female ; the subsidiary 
addition is of same parts in male pupa, showing relative greater length 
of second legs and of antenna. The line on third tarsi shows where 
their opposed faces have been separated (on dehiscence), and not 
another member of appendages. 

Fig. 7. — Ventral aspect of last four segments of male pupa, x 10. 

Fig. 8.— ,, ,, ,, female pupa, X 10. 

Fig. 9. — Portion of same, further enlarged ( x 20), to show grid- 
like arrangement on ninth segment. 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS (GENUS ACIDALIA, 

Auct.). 

By Louis B. Prout, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 11.) 

But although an " Acidalia" cannot hybernate otherwise 
than as a larva, it does not by any means follow that it needs to 
hybernate at all. Some of the species, I believe, do need, and 
therefore only give a single life-cycle in the year. But others 
can go through their metamorphoses quite rapidly in the warmer 
months, being only checked by the approach of winter, so that 
there are two, or even three or more, generations of the imago 
in a single summer, the lame which produce the later broods 
necessarily dispensing with any hybernation. Cases of such 
double-broodedness occur, in the South of England, with Ptycho- 
poda dimidiata, P. subsericeata, Leptomeris marginepunctata, and 
I think others, in all excepting the most backward seasons ; 
whilst the abundant little P. virgularia has probably at least three 
generations in the year. Yet a third (and not inconsiderable) 
class, not at present known to throw a second brood in a state of 
nature, can readily be induced to do so in artificial breeding. 
Such are P. inornata, P. rusiicata, P. trigeminata, &c. ; and at 
least one of the partially double-brooded ones, P. subsericeata, 
can yield a third brood in captivity. Concerning P. trigeminata, 
let me relate my own experience, as it " points a moral," not to 
lepidopterists only, but to all scientific workers. I have three 



44 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

times tried to breed it from the egg, and each time, in spite of 
the stimuli of abundant warmth and abundant food freely ad- 
ministered, the larvae have persisted in hybernating ; and had I 
had only my own experience to draw upon, I should by this time 
probably be dogmatically asserting that this was one of the 
species which did not allow of artificial "forcing." But Barrett 
writes as follows (' Lep. Brit.' viii. p. 18) : " On the wing in May 
and June, and as a partial second generation, at the end of July 
and in August, but Mr. A. H. Jones records that if fed up in 
moderate warmth the second generation becomes complete, every 
moth emerging in August or September." Two or three friends, 
whose word I would trust as implicitly as my own, have confirmed 
this last statement from their own experience ; and I am fain to 
admit that mine has really been quite exceptional, albeit thrice 
repeated. My moral is obvious. Do not generalize on slender 
data. By all means record personal experiences, but use them, 
not as a basis for too sweeping deductions, but simply as one 
tiny contribution to be cast upon the common heap, from which, 
at last, sound generalizations may be made practically without 
fear of a " possibility of error." 

I have said above that an " Acidalia" "cannot hybernate 
otherwise than as a larva." One would not be surprised there- 
fore to hear that there was further a fixed age, or larval stadium, 
assigned for this important period in its economy. There was a 
good deal of talk in our entomological circles a few years ago 
about this fixed hybernating stage and the certainty of death if 
the stress of weather, or of failure of food, met the insect at any 
other than the right period. But some data are already to hand 
showing that the operation of natural selection is not always so 
cruelly rigid as this, but — sometimes, at least — allows of a little 
flexibility. Thus our " Wood Argus " butterfly and our common 
" Brimstone Moth " can winter either as larva or pupa; Mr. K. 
South once successfully hybernated four larva of Coremia uniden- 
taria, a species which almost invariably hybernates as pupa ; and 
in the Acidalice I have certainly had P. rusticata and almost 
certainly also P. inornata hybernate in two different larval stadia. 

Where Acidaliid larvae may be found — or sought — I have 
already indicated to a certain extent. They are all low-plant 
feeders ; few, if any, are specialized to a particular plant ; and 
therefore, theoretically, they might occur almost everywhere. 
But there are few things more noticeable than their extreme 
localization, and often they seem almost gregarious, so closely 
does a particular colony keep to a particular hedge or bank. 
There was a little bit of hedge opposite Highams Park Station 
where, for years, the imago (and therefore of course the larva, 
if one had searched closely enough) of P. interjectaria posi- 
tively swarmed ; I have had seven in my net at once when 
"dusking" along that hedge. And most entomologists have 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS. 45 

had some similar experiences with members of the genus. The 
wider question of" Where—" i.e., that of geographical distribu- 
tion — deserves separate treatment and shall be passed over for 
the moment. 

How do the larva? feed '? They are somewhat specialized in 
their tastes, notwithstanding that I have just denied their 
specialization to any particular plant. Their peculiarity is that, 
unlike most caterpillars, they have a strong preference for 
withered or even mouldy food. We may be interested or amused 
at this apparently unnatural taste ; but let not those of you who 
have any liking for " high game," or for certain cheeses which I 
could mention, or even for dried vegetables or fruits, " cast the 
first stone." P. rusticata likes dead and mouldy leaves, and is 
suspected of feeding, in a state of nature, on fallen elm, haw- 
thorn, and other leaves under the hedges in which the moth 
occurs. P. dimidiata is stated to be " even well pleased with a 
mouldy slice of turnip ! " P. lierbariata, so scarce in England, 
where it is certainly not indigenous, does not mind how dry its 
food is ; indeed, the few that have been taken in this country 
have been in herbalists' shops, where, doubtless, the larvae had 
fed up ; it is also reputed occasionally to attack herbaria. P. 
dilutaria, better known as holoserieata, has a very interesting 
habit ; it first bites nearly through the leaf-stalk of its chosen 
plant, causing the leaf to droop and wither, and then feeds off 
the delicacy thus prepared. Sterrha ochrata will not touch fresh 
leaves when withered ones are at hand ; yet likes to have the 
latter sprinkled with water. P. virgularia used to be found 
freely by Rossler feeding on brushwood heaped up in his garden. 
I rear nearly all my Acidaliae with withered dandelion leaves, 
and with a generous supply of these, larger and liner specimens 
may often be reared than are met with in a wild state. 

How are the larva? protected ? They are mostly of a very 
sober brown or brown-grey garb, and probably most of them 
sufficiently resemble little bits of curled-up dead leaf, &c. A 
few, such as Leptomeris strigilaria, are long, thin and twig-like, 
and rest in a rigid position to aid this resemblance. But these, 
or at least the one just named, have also a more aggressively 
defensive habit, which has caused me a good deal of amusement. 
When disturbed they throw themselves into the most violent and 
indescribable contortions, during which it would probably be as 
hard for any small enem}' to seize them, as it is to get a firm 
hold of the proverbial eel. Curiously, I have, during the past 
summer, made acquaintance with three Geometrid species W'hich 
indulge in these remarkable acrobatic performances, which I had 
never witnessed in any prior to this year, though of course I 
had heard of them. The three species are the commoni J o/ii;/ni 
petraria (whose larva I had never found simply because I had 
never searched bracken for it at the right time), the much scarcer 



46 THE ENT0M0L0GI8T. 

Anticlea cucullata, and heptomcris strigilaria, ova of which Dr. 
Chapman sent me from Guethary (Basses-Pyrenees) this summer. 
Mr. Barrett says that the larva of L. immorata, another of the 
long, thin, rigid species, "if touched, coils up almost like a watch- 
spring." Mr. Bacot reports on the larva of L. incanata — a con- 
tinental species, not occurring in Britain, hut related to our 
marginepunctata — that " They rest either in an extended position 
or with a partial double spiral coil." I have also noticed these 
singular coils in others of the slender group of larvae — L. 
imitaria, &c. The stout species, which cannot actually coil 
themselves, like to rest in slightly curved positions or sometimes 
quite straight, and when disturbed bend the front segments in to 
meet or approach the under side of the hinder, making a form 
which may very roughly be likened to a figure 2 ; whereas the 
thin larvae, in making the " spiral," of course have to bring the 
front segments round beside the hinder. 

To give, in a paper like the present, the technicalities of the 
larval descriptions which Mr. Bacot has kindly prepared on 
Leptomeris incanata, Ptychopoda trigeminata, and a Pyrenean 
species P. asellaria, would serve no useful purpose ; we shall 
hope to make scientific use of them when a larger number of 
species have been studied in the same thorough way. I have 
myself, in addition, some fairly full notes on certain stages 
of the larvae of P. virgidaria and L. strigaria, made four or five 
years ago, and some on the newly-hatched larva of P. trigemi- 
nata; and these furnish a few further details of value for our 
studies, as do also some very good notes on the earliest stages of 
L. emutaria by Mr. A. Sich (Ent. xxxvii. p. 108). I will only now 
mention one or two general points. 

So far as I know personally, all the Acidaliid larvae are, on 
first hatching, distinctly slender in proportion to their length, 
though probably in somewhat varying degree. I learn from 
Van Leeuwen's account in Sepp's 'Nederlandsche Insecten,' that 
those of P. humiliata and P. interjectaria are stouter than most. 
I find from my notes that P. trigeminata, which becomes decidedly 
one of the stumpy ones in its later stages, is slender at first, and 
so is P. virgidaria, which is of medium proportions when full 
grown, as well as such larvae as L. strigilaria, strigaria, &c, 
which remain slender to the last. The arrangement of the 
tubercles would seem to be fairly constant. The setae furnish 
some interesting structures, and I fancy will yield material of 
some classificatory value. Sometimes they are fairly normal, 
short, stiff hairs, often they are thickened or clubbed at the 
extremity, sometimes thickened throughout, sometimes (as in 
newly-hatched P. trigeminata, or in P. asellaria, up to the very 
last) they begin thickening rapidly almost from the base, and 
make either a flask-shaped structure or something approaching 
an inverted pyramid. I suspect that some of these last-named 



NOTES ON THE WAVE MOTHS. 47 

structures are glandular, and I cannot help wondering whether 
they are akin to what Mr. Burrows calls " battledore processes " 
in the larva? of the " Emeralds," though I understand him that 
these are not homologous to the true larval seta?. Most, if not 
all, of the Acidaliid larva? have the skin decidedly rugose in 
appearance, subsegmentation distinctly marked, and generally a 
more or less well-developed lateral flange. 

Earlier in my paper I spoke of the two large genera into 
which — excluding ochrata and perhaps rusticata and fumata — 
Meyrick and others find our imagines divide according to neura- 
tion and leg-structure ; and I have stated or hinted two or three 
times in its course, that these seem to be roughly correlated with 
some of the more striking larval differences. Ever since the 
Acidaliid larva? have been at all systematically described — i. e., 
since the time when Buckler and Hellins were at work — it has 
been customary to speak of the " short broad Acidalia type " and 
the " long thin." Now it is noteworthy that the larva? of all the 
British species which fall under Meyrick's Leptomeris — namely, 
remutaria, immutata, marginepunctata, ornata, imitaria, emutaria, 
strigilaria,immorata, and rubiginata — belong most distinctly to the 
" long thin" group ; and so do such non-British ones of the same 
genus as I have had under observation (incanata and strigaria), 
or as are known to me from figures and descriptions by Milliere, 
&c. The least unequivocal — to judge from the figures — is that of 
L. ornata, and this, with its allies, has been placed into a distinct 
section by Lederer, on account of the indentations of the margin 
of the hind wing between veins 4 and 6, and would, perhaps, 
form the type of a natural genus — Craspedia, Hb. There are, 
of course, other larval characters which go with this "long thin" 
group, such as the nearly cylindrical form, the comparative free- 
dom from rugosities, the extremely short seta? apparently seldom 
developing, in the later stages, into the clavate forms, &c. 

The bulk of the remaining species — Meyrick's genus Eois — 
have quite a different type of larva, short and thickened — 
'especially posteriorly, more or less flattened, very rugose, gene- 
rally comparatively hairy, the hairs often knobbed at their 
extremity. But I fancy they are less homogeneous than the 
Leptomeris. group, and will need careful revision. A few seem 
almost to form connecting links between the group in which their 
imago would place them and Leptomeris ; P. virgularia, for 
instance, has not very much of the typical Ptycliopoda character, 
and even P. bisetata, P. straminata, P. subsericeata, &c, make 
some approach to the intermediate form. Still, I do not think 
any of them are capable of assuming the spiral coil characteris- 
tic of true Leptomeris* and they all show some approach to the 

" :: P. virgularia may be an exception, as some small, but by no means 
newly-hatched, larvae kindly given me by Mr. South since this paper was 
written, show a strong predilection for the Lejrtomeris attitude. — L. B. P. 



48 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

flattening, the thickening. &c., characteristic of their conveners. 
By the way. the pupa-case of subsericcata is superficially very 
different from ail the others which I have, whether of Leptomeris 
or Ptychopoda ; but I have made no close examination of them. 

A few words in conclusion as to the distribution of the 
species of " Aeidalia." I have remarked, in connection with 
the larva?, how extremely local they generally are, and a study 
of our British species will afford plenty of illustrations. We 
have one species confined, in these islands, to Lewes, one to 
Freshwater (Isle of Wight), one almost to Deal, one to Folke- 
stone, one to the "Breck Sand*' district of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
one to the Isle of Portland, while others are only a little less 
restricted in their range— e.g., P. rusticate (which has colonies 
in the Isle of Portland and in the Northfleet-Gravesend district, 
but hardly occurs elsewhere 1 , or P. eontiguaria, which is confined 
to the mountains of Wales. With the exception of this last, 
and possibly the Breck Sands, each habitat which I have named 
may reasonably be described as southern, and it should be added 
that a few of the other species, though somewhat more widely dis- 
tributed, are distinctively southern, others mainly so, while very 
few of the species extend into Scotland. Our only characteristic 
northern species of the group is Leptomeris (Pylarge) finnata. 
- facta shadow forth what no student of the Pala?arctic 
m brides as a whole can fail to notice — namely, that the 
genus, or subfamily, belong more to southern Europe than to 
northern. It has been my good fortune to have brought to me by 
my kind friend Dr.Cnapman four collections from different parts of 
Spain, and one <sonie year- a from Norway ; in ail the former, 
Acidaliid species were very much in evidence, generally indeed 
forming the dominant family; whereas in the Norwegian collec- 
tion, amongst a large number of species, there was only one of 
them [L. fumata). In Staudinger and Rebel's ' Catalogue of the 
Palsearctic Lepidoptera,' the genus is credited with 179 species, 
of which we in Britain can claim 27, or about one-seventh. The 
total number of Geometrides is given as 1229, of which Britain 
yields about 275, or well over one-fifth. The discrepancy is 
fairly marked, and would be still greater were it not for the 
number of species which just maintain themselves in one spot 
in our southern counties (chiefly on the coast). These species 
will give much food for reflection to the student of geographical 
distribution, and I regret that I have no definite suggestions to 
offer on the subject. I trust I have said enough this evening to 
show that, both in this and in other directions, the homely little 
' ; wave moths" are not unworthy of the attention of the scientific 
naturalist. 



49 



AN ABBREVIATED LIST OP BUTTERFLIES FROM THE 
SOUTH OF FRANCE AND CORSICA. 

By Albert F. Rosa, M.D. 

The following are a few notes on the more special butterflies 
observed during three visits to the South in 1902-3-4. The two 
first occasions included Nimes (Pont du Gard and Remoulins), 
Digne, and Hyeres ; in 1902, May 9th to 20th, and in 1903, 
July 5th to 14th. Last season, ten days, from July 9th to 19th, 
were spent in Corsica. To obviate the too frequent repetition of 
full dates, it will be noticed by the foregoing that May indicates 
May, 1902, and July means July, 1903, unless where a Corsican 
locality is given, in which case July, 1904, is understood. 

Papilio alexanor, Esp. — I secured one on the afternoon of the 
day of arrival, the 6th of July, at Digne, ou the left of La Colette, 
the next morning two on the ridge at the other side of the Bleone, and 
two that afternoon on Les Dourbes road. After this it was more 
frequently seen, but soon began to show signs of wear. I got a 
series of nearly a dozen perfect specimens, including four females. 
The females have the ground colour paler, but otherwise there seems 
to be very little variation amongst mine excepting in size, one being 
abnormally small. 

P. hospiton, Gene. — "We arrived in Corsica on the 9th, and it was 
the 13th before this was actually taken. Leaving out those that were 
only seen and might be doubtful, I think we can account for about 
eight or ten. Our records are as follows : I got a female on the 13th, 
a perfectly fresh male on the 11th, had another in my net on the loth 
but it escaped, another female on the 16th, liberated because imperfect, 
and lastly, a perfect male on the 18th. Mr. Tylecote also secured a 
female on the 13th, two, I think males, on the 15th, and one (or 
two) on the 16th set at liberty. Ail of these in the neighbourhood of 
Tattone. There is some little variation amongst mine. The female 
is much darker than the males, the characteristic diffused band on the 
hind wings and other black markings being more pronounced. One 
male and the female have only five marginal yellow lunules on the 
hind wing, the one next the costa being absent ; but this lunule is 
developed in the other male. 

Pieris doplidice, L., var. bellidice, O. — One taken on the Dourbes 
road at Digne on May 12th, and another at Pont du Gard a few days 
later. 

Euchloe belia. Cr. — Along with the preceding, living at the more 
barren parts over the shaly mounds. 

E. eujjhmuides, Stgr. — Only a short series obtained. One or two 
at Digne, to the west of the town, on May 13th, and a few at Pont du 
Gard on the 20th, including two females. Not seen at Hyeres, where 
I was from the 16th to the 18th. 

Leptidia duponcheli, Stgr. — The spring brood was flying at Digne 
along w T ith the var. lathyius of L. sinaj-is, and both were taken in good 
condition between May 10th and 13th. 

ENT03I. — FEBRUARY, 1905- E 



50 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Colias edusa, Fab., var. helice, Hubn. — One at Digne, July 9th, and 
one at Corte, July 18th. C. edusa was very common at Tattone, but I 
did not see any of this variety there. 

Gonepteryx cleopatra, L. — Common at Nimes, Kemoulins, and 
Pont du Gard early in July, but rare at Digne. Very abundant 
and fine at Hyeres from the 12th to the 14th of the same month. 
In May I only saw one or two at Digne, and one at Hyeres in the 
grounds of the Hotel des Palmiers. 

Charaxes jasius, L. — Three seen at Hyeres on the hills north of 
the town, on the 12th and loth July. This is the only species included 
in the list of which a specimen was not obtained. 

Vanessa urticte, L., var. ichnusa, Bon. — One taken, newly emerged, 
at Tattone, on the 17th July. Also some larva? from nettles, near the 
Hotel du Monte d'Oro, at Vizzavona, which pupated in Corsica and 
during the return journey. Of twenty- eight pupa?, seventeen pro- 
duced single ichneumons, and eleven butterflies emerged after I 
arrived home, three being cripples. 

Polygonia egea, Cr. — Three taken at Digne, on the 9th and 10th 
July, about the beginning of the Dourbes road. No doubt a couple of 
weeks earlier would have been better for the taking of this species. 

Melitcca aurinia, Rott., var. provincialis, B. — A few at Digne, about 

the middle of May, on the ' Les Dourbes' road and adjacent fields, in 

company with M. cinxia, which was very common and in fine condition. 

M. parthenie, Bkh. — Not uncommon at Digne in July. I do not 

remember noticing any of M. athalia. 

Argynnis daphne, Schiff. — A few also taken at Digne in July. 
A. elisa, Godt. — At first only seen occasionally, but became very 
common, towards the middle of July, about Tattone and Vizzavona, 
especially in the fields around the former locality. The sexual varia- 
tion at the extreme is very distinct, the smaller males being of a very 
ruddy fulvous, and the females, besides being considerably larger, are 
very much duller in tone ; although a few members of the sexes run 
pretty closely alike in size and colour. By the third week of July the 
males especially were getting worn. 

A. paphia, L., var. immaculata, Bell (anargyra, Stgr.). — All the 
paphia, which were very common in the forest at Vizzavona and at 
Tattone, probably incline to this variety ; but it is not easy to get 
specimens entirely without the silver fascia?. The violet colour seems 
to be associated with the development of the silver markings, because 
it diminishes in equal proportions and is absent in well-marked 
specimens of anargyra. 

Ab. ? valesina, Esp. — This variety was frequently observed in the 
forest at Vizzavona, and, as might be expected, has the same tendency 
to suppression of the silver markings. One is valesina above and imma- 
culata below, the under side of the hind wing being a very vivid green. 
A. pandora, Schiff. — Much more frequently seen than taken, and 
was most common at Tattone, a few extending as far as Vizzavona 
station. It did not seem to occur amongst the paphia in the forest, 
but two were observed higher up on La Foce, in the neighbourhood of 
the hotel. One or two were also seen at Corte. I got six males and 
one female, having taken, after the first day or two, about one per day, 
not considering those discarded at the time when imperfect. One male 



BUTTEBFLIES FROM THE SOUTH OF FRANCE AND CORSICA. 51 

is all but without the silvery fasciae on under side hind wing, thus 
approaching ab. paupercula, Ragusa, only one small crescent next the 
costal margin being present. 

Melanargia lachesis, Hb. — Was pretty common on the road between 
Remoulins and Pont du Gard on July oth. I got a series of males, but 
only one female. 

M. galatea, L., var. procida, Hbst, — Common at Digne early in July. 
They vary a good deal, some being considerably darker than others. 

M. syllius, Hbst. — Very abundant and fine at Hyeres in the Beau 
Vallon and terraced garden plots behind the town. Taken from the 
16th to the 18th May. 

Erebia evicts, Godt. — Two at Digne on the 9th and 11th May. 

Satyrus circe, F. — Taken at Remoulins and Pont du Gard on 5th 
July, and common at Digne from the 6th onwards, mostly males. 
Females more common later, as at St. Auban, July 11th, and at 
Hyeres about the 14th. Also very abundant in Corsica, especially in 
the fields around Tattone. 

S. semele, L., var. aristceus, Bon. — Occasionally in Corsica, on the 
roads at Tattone, Vizzavona, &c. Only four or five taken. 

S. neomyris, Godt. — Pretty common, mostly on the roads and 
occasionally in the fields around Tattone, Vizzavona, Bocognano, &c. 

8. statilinus, Hufn., var. allionia, Fab. — Two taken at Hyeres on the 
13th and 14th July, in the terraced plots to the right behind the town. 

S. Jidia, L. — Flying along with the last species, which it closely 
resembles, but was apparently more common, judging from the 
number taken. 

Pararge megcera, L., var. tigelius, Bon. — Nearly every locality 
visited in Corsica produced a specimen or two ; never common and 
inclined to be getting past its best. 

Epinephele jurtina, L., var. hispulla, Hb. — The best specimens were 
taken at Hyeres, July 16th and 18th. In Corsica it was most abun- 
dant though not so large, and going over when we were there. 

E. ida, Esp. — One male at Remoulins, and a few at Digne early in 
July ; but most at Hyeres towards the middle of the month, where the 
females also were obtainable. Also occasionally in Corsica. 

E. pasipha'e, Esp. — Just about as abundant and in as fine condition 
as 31. syllius at Hyeres 16th to 18th May. One or two were also seen 
at Pont du Gard on the 19th and 20th. Worn specimens were also 
noted in July. 

Ccenonympha dorus, Esp.— Digne, July 6th and onw r ards, common 
at some parts, as also was C. arcania, both in good condition. C. dorus 
was also taken at Remoulins on the 5th. 

C. eorinna, Hb. — Very abundant on the Vivario road, between 
Vizzavona and Tattone, and also at La Foce de Vizzavona. 

C. pamphilus, L., var. lyilus, Esp. : — A few taken in cut hay-fields 
about Tattone. 

Laosopis roboris, Esp. — On 6th, 7th, and 8th July, at Digue, flying 
around pollard oak. The same tree was occasionally visited, perhaps 
eight or ten being seen altogether, sometimes a pair at a time. I got 
two males and one female, all freshly emerged and perfect. 

Thecla ilicis, Esp., var. cerri, Hb. — This variety was common, 

e 2 



52 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

along with T. spini, in a quarry at Rernoulins, and they both also 
occurred at Digne. 

T. acacia, Fab. — One undoubted female at Digne on July 9tb, and 
five other specimens from Rernoulins and Digne which are not so certain. 
The latter have a row of orange spots, six in number, on the under side 
of the hind wing, almost reaching the costal margin (Kane gives two 
or three in the male and three or four in the female) ; at anal angle 
there is little or no blue, and the nest spot is not marked with a black 
dot outside. The upper sides, however, correspond most closely with 
this species. 

Chrysophanus phlceas, L., var. eleus, Fab. — Common at Ajaccio, also at 
Tattone aud Corte. The date was apparently rather late for this brood. 

Lampides telicanus, Lang. — Tattone, two in copula, but rather 
poor specimens. 

Lycama argiades, Pall., ab. coretas, 0. — One on May 11th at Digne, 
on the mountains in Les Dourbes direction at considerable elevatiou. 

L. argns, L. (agon), var. Corsica, Bell. — Rather common on the 
bracken at La Foce de Vizzavona, and also frequently at Tattone. 

L. astrarche, Bgstr., var. calida, Bell. — Some very bright; Tattone, 
Ajaccio, Vizzavona, Corte, pretty common. 

L. meleager, Esp. — A few at Digne, at the other side of the Bleone 
and Les Dourbes road, including one fine blue female. Just emerging 
about July 7th. 

L. admetus, Esp., var. ripartii, Frr. — Three at Digne on July 9th, 
beside the river on the road to the thermal springs. Just emerging. 

L. sebrus, B. — Two at Digne on May 10th, Les Dourbes direction, 
where the road ascends the side of the mountain. 

L. cyllarus, Rott. — Common towards the middle of May at Digne, but 
going over. I got, however, a fairly good series, including some females. 

L. melanops, Boisd. — Not nearly so common as the last-named and 
more worn. Half-a-dozen fair specimens, being all obtainable, 

Cyaniris argiolus, L., gen. aest. parvipuncta, Fuchs (ex Corsica). — 
Common at sunny corners on the Vivario road, both in the forest 
above Vizzavona and in the open towards Tattone. 

28, Pitt Street, Edinburgh. 



A NEW GENUS OF CULICID^E. 
By Fred. V. Theobald, M.A. 

Genus Anisocheleomyia, nov. gen. 
Head clothed with flat scales rather loosely applied to surface of 
head, and which form a more or less projecting mass between the eyes 
in front. Antennae densely pilose in the male. Proboscis swollen 
apically. Palpi very short in both sexes. Thorax with narrow-curved 
scales in the middle, and with broad spindle-shaped ones around the 
front and sides ; scntellum with small flat scales rather loosely applied, 
very distinctly trilobed. Wings ornamented. Ungues of male not 
very unequal in length but differing in breadth, one on each leg broad 
and leaf-like. Fork-cells short, as in UranoUmia, 



A NEW GENUS OF CULICID^. 



53 



Closely related to Uranotania, but differing in the non- 
plumose male antennae and peculiar ungues, also in the absence 
of flat thoracic scales and more rugged appearance of the head 
and scutellum. 

I cannot detect the genitalia, but the perfect specimens are 
evidently all three males. The ungues are the most marked 
characters, and can only be seen by breaking up the types. The 
two species are undoubtedly connected by squamose characters 
as well as the quaint ungues. Although the ungues are unequal, 
as in all male Culicids, they are not very unequal in length, but 
are in breadth, and differ in form. As no genitalia can be 
detected, I can only assume them to be all males from the 
abnormal ungues. A female sent was all destroyed but the 
head and thorax, so no details can be given. The antennae are 
less pilose than in the male. 



Anisocheleomyia nivipes, nov. sp. 

Head creamy-white. Thorax rich brown in the middle, creamy- 
white around the dark area; pleurae creamy-white. Abdomen deep 
brown with apical white bands. Legs deep brown, with pale reflections 
apically, last two hind tarsi white. Wings ornamented ; costa dark, 
veins pale-scaled except for a dark area spread across at the base of 
the fork-cells ; a noticeable pale spot on the dark costal area not 
reaching the costa. 

3 . Head brown, clothed with rather loosely applied creamy- white 
flat scales ; antennae deep brown, basal segment deep reddish-brown; 
clypeus brown ; palpi clothed with deep brown scales and with a few 
long black chaetae; proboscis deep brown 
with bronzy reflections swollen apically, 
hairy. Thorax bright brown ; the middle 
of the mesothorax with narrow-curved 
bronzy-brown scales, and three rows of 
black chaetae, the dark scaled area sur- 
rounded by thicker creamy-white curved 
scales, forming a well-contrasted whitish 
area, which is indented into the dark 
area on each side in front before the 
base of the wings ; scutellum with small 
flat dark brown scales and black border- 
bristles, four to the mid-lobe ; meta- 
notum bright chestnut-brown ; pleurae 
clothed with dense creamy-white scales 
continuous with the pale areas around 
the mesothorax. Abdomen deep brown, 
with deep brown scales and creamy- 
white scaled apical borders ; the apical 
segment all pale-scaled ; border-bristles 
pale. Legs deep brown ; coxae and tro- 
chanters pale, last two and apex of the antepenultimate hind tarsi 
white; the fore and mid tarsi pale beneath; ungues unequal iu size, 




Ungues of Anisocheleomyia nivipes, 

n. sp. 

(i.Fore; ii. Mid; iii. Posterior.) 



54 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

but the posterior of nearly equal length, the larger very broad and thick, 
the smaller abruptly curved basally. Wings ornamented ; costa black 
and spiny ; first long vein black-scaled with a large white area over 
the cross-veins, and a white apex ; a dark area on the stem of the first 
submarginal cell, a small dark area beneath it on the third, most of 
the stem of the second fork-cell dark, also a dark area in the middle of 
the upper branch of the fifth and at the apex of the lower branch ; the 
whole forming a dusky band across the otherwise pale- scaled wing; 
first submarginal cell about two-thirds the size of the second posterior 
cell, its stem twice as long as the cell ; stem of the second posterior 
slightly longer than the cell ; posterior cross-vein longer than the 
mid, and nearly twice its own length distant from it, situated close 
to the base of the upper branch of the fifth vein. Lateral scales 
on the fork-cells and the third long vein large and lanceolate, a few 
very similar ones on the apex of the upper branch of the fifth ; median 
vein-scales small and dark on the fork-cells, third vein and middle of 
the upper branch of the fifth and the apex of the lower branch ; those 
on the stem of the first fork-cell dark, and some of almost Etiorleptio- 
niyian- form (i. e. heart-shaped), but more elongate. Halteres with pale 
testaceous stem and fuscous knob. Length 25 mm. 

Habitat. Queensland (Dr. Bancroft). 

Observations. — Described from two perfect specimens ; Dr. 
Bancroft bred the specimens, which live, he says, in association 
with Uranotcenia pygmcea, Theob. Although very distinct, they 
cannot be told from pygmcea until boxed. This species differs 
from all other related iEdinaB, except the next species described 
here, in having distinctly ornamented wings. The thoracic 
ornamentation is also very marked, the indent of white scales 
into the dark area of the mesonotum in front being very charac- 
teristic, and the general sharply defined light and dark areas 
of the mesothorax make it very conspicuous. The tarsi show 
paleness on all the legs in certain lights, and all are evidently 
pale beneath, but the hind legs only have the last two creamy 
white above. The ungues are not drawn from a microscopic 
preparation, so only the general form is shown. 

I have placed the type in the British Museum collection. 

Anisocheleomyia alboannulata, nov. sp. 

Head black, with a narrow white line around the eyes with very 
long white projecting scales in front between them ; proboscis black, 
with a white patch above near the apex and another large white patch 
near the base. Thorax deep brown, with a narrow silvery-white line 
around the end of the mesonotum up to the base of the wings, and 
another more irregular one on the brown pleurae. Abdomen black and 
snow-white, ornamented with median white areas and white segments. 
Legs black, the hind pair with broad apical white bands, and the last 
two segments white ; femora of all with white spots. Wings orna- 
mented, costal border black, veins white- scaled with two broad dusky 
bands running across them. 




A NEW GENUS OF CULICID^E. 55 

$ . Head black, clothed with small flat black scales, and a border 
of similar white ones around the eyes, which show pale-blue reflec- 
tions in certain lights under the frd power, in front between the eyes 
projects a tuft of very long white scales, 
there are also scattered small upright 
black forked scales and a small basal 
medial blue patch ; antennae deep brown, 
basal segment black, base of second seg- 
ment reddish-brown ; palpi very small 
black-scaled; proboscis black, a large 
silvery-white patch towards the base, 
and a smaller one on the dorsum nearer Fore ungues of AnisocheUomyia 
the apex. Thorax deep brown, with alboannulata, n. sp. 

narrow-curved bronzy scales, a narrow 

white border around the front and sides of the mesonotum composed 
of broad curved scales, which appear pale-blue in certain lights, ending 
about the roots of the wings ; scutellum deep brown, clothed with 
small flat deep brown scales, very distinctly trilobed, the mid-lobe 
large with four border-bristles ; chsetre of mesothorax and scutellum 
black ; metanotum black ; pleurae brown, with a narrow wavy white- 
scaled line running along it from the base of the abdomen to the head, 
and a few white puncta near the base of the legs. Abdomen black 
and silvery-white, the first segment mostly white-scaled, the second 
and third with a white median patch, the fourth all white, the fifth 
black with a few apical white scales, the sixth all white, the apical one 
black and white. Fore legs deep brown with a white spot at the apex 
of the femora and a trace at the apex of the tibire ; mid legs with two 
white femoral spots and silvery-white venter to femora ; hind legs 
with femoral spots more pronounced ; tibiae with broad white median 
and apical bauds ; metatarsi and tarsi with broad white apical bands 
except the last two tarsi, which are all white ; ungues unequal, one 
on each fore and mid leg very broad and curved, a thin web-like 
membrane between the curved outer portion ; hind not examined, 
wings ornamented with black and white scales much as in the former 
species, but there are two dusky areas across the surface. The stem 
of the second long vein close to the first, almost fused with it ; stem 
of the first posterior cell nearly three times as long as the cell ; stem 
of the second not quite twice as long ; scales on the stem of the fourth 
rather long and broad, longer than in the former species ; posterior 
cross-vein longer than the mid, about one and a half times its own 
length distant from it. Black scales on the stem of the first fork-cell, on 
the basal half of the third, some on the base of the stem of the second 
fork-cell, on the greater part of the upper branch of the fifth, a few at 
the apex of the lower branch, and a batch near the base, also some 
near the base of the fourth. Halteres with testaceous stem and fuscous 
knob. Length 2-5 mm. 

Habitat. India (Capt. James, I.M.S.). 

Observations. — Described from a single specimen. The species 
is a very beautiful and marked one, and cannot be confused with 
any other mosquito. The structure of the ungues is very 



56 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

peculiar. The specimen is a male certainly. The fore leg re- 
moved to show by microscopic examination the ungues, which 
seem to be exactly the same in the mid leg. This type is also 
sent to the British Museum collection. 



CURRENT NOTES. 
By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

(Continued from vol. xxxvii., p. 305.) 



11. Jas. G. Needham and others: " Aquatic Insects in New 
York State " (Bui. 68 N. York State Mus. (Entom. 18), pp. 199- 
517, pis. 1-52, text-figs. 1-26 (1903) ). 

12. Walter W. Froggatt : "Locusts and Grasshoppers" (Agr. 
Gazette N. S. Wales, xiv. pp. 1102-10, coloured plate) (1903). 

13. Benj. D. Walsh: "First Ann. Rep. on the Noxious 
Insects of the State of Illinois (1867)" (reprinted 1903 by S. A. 
Forbes as a Special Publication of the Illinois State Lab. of Nat. 
Hist.), pp. 1-140, 1 plate. 

14. ' Zoologischer Anzeiger' (Dec. 8, 1903), xxvii. pp. 113- 
144. 

15. ' Allgemeine Zeitschrift fur Entomologie ' (Nov. 1, 
1903), viii. nos. 20-1, pp. 389-436. 

16. J. C. Koningsberger : " Ziekten van Rijst, Tabak, Thee 
en andere Cultuurgewassen, die door Insecten worden veroor- 
zaakt (Meded. uit 's lands plantentiun " lxiv. pp. 1-109, pis. 1- 
5 (first three coloured) (1903) ). 

Dr. Needham, with three collaborators, has given us a valuable 
second instalment of his investigations upon the aquatic life of 
New York State (11). The first instalment * treated of the 
aquatic fauna of the Adirondacks ; the second deals with that of 
Ithaca, and consists of a preface by Dr. Felt (p. 199) ; " Station 
Work of the Summer of 1901 " (pp. 200-4) ; " Food of Brook 
Trout in Bone Pond " (pp. 204-17) ; " Life Histories of Odonata, 
suborder Zygoptera " (pp. 218-79) ; " Some New Life Histories 
of Diptera " (pp. 279-87)— all by J. G. Needham ; " Aquatic 
Chrysornelidas and a Table of the Families of Coleopterous 
Larvae " (pp. 288-327) by A. D. MacGillivray ; " Aquatic Nema- 
tocerous Diptera " (pp. 328-441) by O. A. Johannsen ; " Sialididae 
of North and South America" (pp. 442-86) by K. C. Davis; 
explanation of plates, index, &c. (pp. 487-517). 

The Entomologie Field Station formerly at Saranac Inn was 
made in 1901 to Ithaca with advantage. As was to be expected 
considerable space is occupied by the consideration of the meta- 
morphoses of zygopterous dragonfiies, and this is elucidated by 

• :: See ' Entomologist,' xxxv. p. 295 (1902). 



CURRENT NOTES. 57 

2 coloured and 8 plain plates, as well as numerous text-figures. 
Next in extent comes the monograph of American Sialidae, 
illustrated by 2 plates and numerous text-figures, and the paper 
on aquatic Chrysonielidae, accompanied by 11 plates. The most 
extensive contribution, however, and in some ways the most 
important, is the section devoted to Nematocera, amounting to 
114 pages and supplemented by 18 plates. As very many of 
the forms delineated and described are either also British or very 
closely allied to British forms, this bulletin should prove indis- 
pensable to British students ; the price is nominal. Mention 
should also be made of the seven pleasing views of some of the 
collecting grounds. 

Froggatt (12) discusses, with a coloured plate of six of the 
species, the short-horned grasshoppers of Australia, which is 
very rich in species of that fauna. Eleven species are described 
in this part. Entomologists will be grateful to Dr. Forbes for 
the timely reprint of Walsh's Classic " First Illinois Report " 
(13), which has long been out of print and difficult to obtain. 

The December number of the ' Zoologischer Anzeiger ' is 
devoted almost entirely to Insects (14), and contains the following 
papers : — 

R. von Ihering : "On the Origin of the Formation of Societies 
in the Social Hymenoptera " (pp. 113-8). 

N. Cholodkovsky : " Aphidological Contributions, No. 20, on 
a Species of Phylloxera destructive to Pear-trees " (pp. 118-9; 
text-figs. 1-2) ; and "On the Morphology of the Pediculidae" 
(pp. 120-5, text-figs. 1-6). The author agrees with Melnikov 
that the Mallophaga and the Pediculidae should be placed close 
together, but considers that they are connected with the 
' Pseudoneuroptera ' rather than with the Rhynchota, deeming 
it better to found a special order for the Pediculidae, which he 
names " Pseudorhynchota," ignoring the already well-established 
" Anoplura." 

A. Thienemann : "Anal Branchiae in the Larvae of Glossosoma 
boltoni, Curt, and someHydropsychidae" (pp. 125-9, text-figs. 1-3). 

G. Enderlein : "On the Position of Leptella, Reut., and 
Reaterella, nov. gen.)* the representatives of two new European 
subfamilies of Copeognatha (Psocidae) (pp. 131-4). 

H. Stitz : "On the Genital Apparatus of Lepidoptera " 
(pp. 135-7, 1 text-fig.). 

A. C. Oudemans : " Symbiosis of Coptortkosoma and Greenia. 
A question of priority" (pp. 157-9). 

The Allg. Zeitschrift (15) as usual contains a large amount 
of interesting notices, among which may be cited : — 

P. Bachmetjev : " On the Variability in the Length of the 
Wings of Aporia cratcegi in Sophia [Lepid.] " (pp. 389-95). 

G. Ulmer : " On the Trichopterous Fauna of Hesse " 

' ;: Too near Rcntcriella, Signoret, 1880. 



58 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(pp. 397-406, text-figs. 1-3), from which seventy-three species 
are recorded. 

L. Reb continues his paper "On European Coccidae " 
(pp. 407-19), dealing with twenty-one species of "Lecanium." 

Dr. Koningsberger has continued his researches upon the 
economic entomology of Java hy his recent consideration (16) of 
the insect enemies of rice, tobacco, tea, coffee, india-rubber, 
and other plants. The metamorphoses, so far as known, are 
described as well as the nature of the damages. The five plates 
contain over one hundred figures of all orders. 



ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF ANTHOPHORID BEES 
FROM COLORADO. 

By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

The Anthophorids are swift-flying bees, not easily caught, 
and on this account have not usually been obtained by col- 
lectors of miscellaneous insects. Some of them fly only in the 
spring, and have disappeared before the usual advent of the 
visiting entomologist. Thus it has happened that several large 
and conspicuous forms, which are probably widely distributed 
and not uncommon, have been overlooked until quite recently. 
A small collection of these insects received from the Colorado 
Agricultural College brings out a number of new facts which 
are given below. The species represented may be separated as 
follows : — 

Females. 

Hair of thorax appearing grey, from a mixture of 

black and white ...... 1. 

Hair of thorax not so ; more or less yellowish or 

red 2. 

1. Size larger ; length about 16 mm., very robust 

Anthophora portent, Ckll. 
Smaller; length about 13 mm. . . . Anthophora euops, Ckll. 

2. A patch of black hair in middle of thorax ; outer 

side of hind tibiae with orange hair 

Emphoropsis mucida var. johnsoni, n.v. 
No patch of black hair in middle of thorax . 3. 

3. First three abdominal segments covered with 

hair, which is usually red ; hair on outer 
side of hind tibiaa black 

Anthophora bomboides subsp. neomexicana, Ckll. 
Only the first abdominal segment covered with 
hair, which is not very red ; hair on outer 
side of hind tibiae yellowish-white 

Anthophora montana, Cresson. 



ANTHOrilORID BEKS FROM COLORADO. 59 

Males. 

Basal joint of hind tarsus toothed . . . . 1. 

Basal joint of hind tarsus not toothed ... 2. 

1. Basal joint with a large tooth ; pubescence often 

red . . . . A. bomboides subsp. ncomexicana, Ckll. 

Basal joint with a small tooth ; pubescence never 

red . ..... Anthophora gohrmance, Ckll. 

2. Middle tarsus with copious red hair; face-marks 

light-yellow, a heavy black band on each 

side of clypeus ...... A. euops, Ckll. 

Middle tarsus without red hair ... 3. 

3. Abdomen fasciate ; thoracic pubescence often 

red; face-marks light yellow . . A. montana, Cresson. 
Abdomen not fasciate ; thoracic pubescence 

never red ....... 4. 

4. Face-marks white . . Emphoropsis mucida var. johnsoni, n. v. 
Larger ; face-marks light yellow . Anthophora porteree, Ckll. 

(1.) Emphoropsis mucida (Cresson) var. johnsoni, n. var. 

? (type ; Fort Collins district, 1903) differs from E. mucida 
by having a patch of black hair in middle of dorsum ; hair on 
outer side of hind tibiae shining reddish-orange, conspicuously 
plumose ; first recurrent nervnre joining second submarginal cell 
a little distance from its end (meeting second transverso-cubital 
in mucida) ; hair of middle of fifth abdominal segment light 
brown, at sides white. 

$ . Pubescence of hind legs black on femora, white on 
outer side of tibiae and tarsi ; abdomen with the first two 
segments with yellowish-white hair, segments beyond with 
black, except extreme sides and the apical segment. 

The type was taken by Mr. S. A. Johnson in the foothills 
near Horsetooth Mountain, flying over a patch of larkspur. 
The bees were very shy, swift flyers, Mr. Johnson reports. 
The actual label on the specimen gives the date, May 12, 1903, 
and the locality "Fort Collins." I presume, therefore, that 
other such labels are to be understood to refer to the region 
about Fort Collins, but not necessarily to the place itself. 
This is important, because the foothills fauna certainty 
differs in many respects from that of the town. Other speci- 
mens, males, are from Fort Collins, May 10, 1901, and Lamar, 
Colorado, collected by Prof. C. P. Gillette. 

This may be a valid species. I have not seen typical 
mucida, but Mr. Viereck kindly examined for me Cresson's type, 
and reports that it has no black hairs on the thoracic dorsum ; 
and the hair on outer side of hind tibiae is whitish straw- 
coloured, and not at all conspicuously plumose. From Cresson's 
descriptions, I inferred that mucida (female) and morrisoni (male) 
were the sexes of one species, and Mr. Viereck, after comparing 
the types, is of the same opinion. 



60 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(2.) Antkophora gohrmance, Ckll. — Denver, Colo., May 2, 1902 
(S. A. Johnson, 465) ; Montrose, May 5, 1901 ; Grand Junction, 
May 8, 1901. New to Colorado; previously known only by a 
single specimen found in New Mexico. 

(3.) A. bomboides subsp. neomexicana, Ckll. — Fort Collins, 
May 29, 1901 ; Denver, May 24, 1902 (S. A. Johnson, 221) ; 
Parker, May 10, 1902 (S. A. Johnson, 475). Mr. Johnson writes 
that the Parker specimens were bred from cells collected from 
adobe banks along Cherry Creek, four miles north of Parker. 
From this group of cells he bred the meloid beetle Leonidia 
neomexicana (Ckll.). 

(4.) A. motitana, Cresson. — Denver, July 15, 1899 ; Fort 
Collins (P. K. Blynn) ; Livermore (E. D. Varney); foothills near 
Horsetooth Mountain, at larkspur, along with Emphoropsis 
miicida johnsoni, one male (S. A. Johnson). The male, which 
has not previously been described, is distinguished by the linear 
abdominal bands. 

(5.) A. porterce, Ckll.— Golden, May 3, 1902 (S. A. Johnson, 
477) ; Montrose, May 5, 1901. New to Colorado. 

(6.) A. enops, Ckll.— Palisade, May 7, 1901 ; Fort Collins, 
June 12, 1898 ; Boulder, May 17, 1902 (S. A. Johnson, 481) ; 
Denver, May 2, 1902 (S. A. Johnson, 469). 

Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. : Dec. 6, 1904. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Pararge achine on the Mendel. — I trust I was justified in draw- 
ing attention to the peculiarity I noticed in the Mendel specimens of 
P. achine. The more so that Riilh says: '• It is a usually constant 
species which has little or no tendency to variation — as a matter of 
fact, I find among more than one hundred examples before me not a 
single anomalous form " p. 583. I think the following additional 
notes, if you can find room for them, will show that, though my sug- 
gestion that the Mendel form might be a local race cannot be main- 
tained, yet the form is worthy of a distinguishing name, and appears 
to be the form of Tyrol and eastwards, with, of course, intermediates. 
But none of my correspondents record it from Switzerland or France, 
though probably it will be proved to be everywhere an occasional 
aberration. I am much obliged to Mr. Rowland-Brown for his exami- 
nation of collections beyond my reach. The sum of his investigations 
(Entom. xxxvii. p. 322) I take to be this: that Mr. Lemann's specimens 
of achine from the South Tyrol are of the form I have called " mendel- 
ensis," with an intermediate example from Zurich. Dr. Lang, from a 
series of seventeen specimens, describes the white band as broadest, and 
embracing both sides of all spots, in an individual from Podalia (I have 
specimens from Aigle and Freiburg in Baden agreeing with the Podalia 
specimen). Dr. Lang's examples from Amur, Switzerland, and Dres- 
den have the band reduced in varying degrees, till some from Dresden 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 61 

appear to agree entirely with my Mendel specimens. Mr. Tutt, in 
reply to a letter of enquiry, writes : "I have examples of achine I took 
myself at Mendel Pass in 1895 ; some others taken in the same 
district at Pejo by Chapman ; and some examples I got at Fontaine- 
bleau. Only two real Switzers, though. These Mendel and Pejo 
specimens are extra dark on the under sides. The Fontainebleau 
examples are much larger and paler, the under sides with very much 
white." Later, Mr. Rowland-Brown writes : " I have since examined 
a fairly long series of achine in Miss Fountaine's beautiful collection 
at Bath. Specimens from Switzerland (mostly Glion) are type, but in 
the Buda-Pest specimens I find very much the same tendency of the 
broad band to break up with light wavy interior, and leaving the 
ocellated spots, as noted by you, in the ground colour of the wings." 
Mons. L. Dupont says : " I was interested with this new var. of 
P. achine, as I had never seen it. I have just looked at my specimens. 
They are from Pont de l'Aube (Eure) and from Angouleme (Charente), 
and I have also one from Japan ; they all have the white fascia." The 
evidence collected then by Mr. Rowland-Brown and myself " seems to 
suggest that the peculiarities noted in the Mendel series are not 
necessarily constant or distinctive of this particular locality," to quote 
Mr. Rowland-Brown. Ouly it does not yet appear that we have the 
type from the Tyrol, nor " mevdelensis" from France or Switzerland ; 
but in Austria, and Hungary, and perhaps Eastern Germany, this 
latter form is the prevailing one. — Frank E. Lowe; Guernsey, 
Dec. 20th, 1904. 

The National Collection of British Lepidoptera. — Mr. Porritt, 
of Huddersfield, has contributed a number of species, chiefly from his 
district ; also some beautiful specimens of Ayrotis ashworthii reared from 
larvae obtained in Wales in 1904. 

Melanic Aspilates gilvaria. — On July 25th last, while netting 
specimens of Aspilates gilvaria in the Warren at Folkestone, I took a 
female very strongly affected with melanism. On the upper surface 
the fore wings are of a smoky brown, with a slight ochreous tint, 
the transverse bar scarcely visible, and the central luuule completely 
lost in the ground colour. The hind wings are smoky white, clouded 
with brown towards the hind margin. The only part of the insect 
which is at all of the normal colour is the collar of the thorax. On 
the under side the transverse bar on the fore wings is rather more 
distinct and the lunule is also visible, but the hind wings are exceed- 
ingly striking, as they are dark brown (darker than on any other part 
of the insect), but inclining towards white at the base. As this is an 
insect fairly constant in its markings and colour, it occasioned me con- 
siderable surprise to meet with such a variation, especially in so 
southern a locality as Folkestone. All the other specimens I took 
were males, and strictly typical. The species appeared to be just out, 
and all I obtained, including the insect above described, were in 
excellent condition. — Hugh J. Vinall, 3, Priory Terrace, Lewes. 

The Entomological Club. — The meeting of this old-established 
association held at the Holborn Restaurant on Jan. 17th last was by far 
the largest that even Mr. Verrall, the chairman and host of the evening, 



62 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

had presided over. The number we understand was eighty-four, in- 
cluding all but one of the eight members of the club. 

In proposing " The prosperity of the Club," the chairman expressed 
his pleasure at seeing so many entomological friends but, he remarked, 
although the number present exceeded that at any previous meeting, 
he should not be quite satisfied until the total reached three figures. 

We believe that the toast just referred to is not proposed at other 
assemblings of the club, and there seems to be one especially excellent 
reason that this should be reserved as a feature of the first meeting of 
the year, practically the "Annual" of the club. At one time this 
venerable institution, flourishing as it now is, came dangerously near 
extinction, and there is little doubt that had it not been for Mr. 
Verrall's strenuous, and eventually successful, efforts in the direction of 
obtaining a full complement of members, it would have collapsed some 
years ago. Other associations of a similar character might have 
arisen (even now the meetings of the Entomological Club are no 
longer unique), but the long line of these social reunions, connecting 
the past with the present, would have been severed, and this would 
have been regrettable from a sentimental point of view if for no other 
reason. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Limenitis sibylla in August ?. — Mr. Gerard H. Gurney (Entom. 
xxxvii. 324) states that in the middle of August L, sibylla literally 
swarmed in forests near Boulogne. It would be interesting to hear 
whether Mr. Gurney can give any reason why this species should be 
out about two months later there than at the other side of the 
Channel. In the lower part of the Jura this year L. sybilla was out 
from June 13th to 23rd, I having a number of specimens taken by 
friends between those dates, which is about the time the species would 
probably be out in England. — E. E. Bentall ; The Towers, Heybridge, 
Essex, Dec. 29th, 1904. 

Late Appearance of Pyrameis atalanta. — Mr. Frohawk [ante, 
p. 25) notes the late appearance of P. atalanta. On Dec. 3rd last I 
saw one basking in the sun (which was very strong), on ivy, in 
Chiswick Mall, London ; it was very fresh, and had the appearance of 
having only recently emerged. Being so late I had no box with me, 
or its capture would have been quite easy. I may here say that I 
have records of having seen P. atalanta, V. pulychloros, and V. urtica 
in October, November, December, January and February ; of course 
such cases cover a number of years, and they were hybernated speci- 
mens, enticed abroad by unusually genial weather. But the one seen 
last month was without doubt a very recent emergence and in faultless 
condition. — W. T. Page ; 6, Rylett Crescent, Shepherd's Bush. W., 
Jan. 6th, 1905. 

Pyg.kra pigra in Surrey. — In reference to your note on Pygara 
piyra in Surrey (ante, p. 27), it may be of interest to mention that 
larva3 of this species were taken plentifully near Dormansland, on 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 63 

dwarf sallow, in the first week in September. — Cuthbert Jeddere- 
Fisher ; Apsleytown, East Grinstead, 10th January, 1905. 

A Few Captures from Wyre Forest in 1904. — During a week of 
bad weather in the middle of August, the following, amongst others, 
were taken: — Heiiophobus popularis, Luperina cespitis, Vanessa c-album, 
Agrotis suffusa, Noctua dahlii, abundant ; N. neglecta, abundant ; 
IV. glareosa, Amphipyra pyramidea, Sotodonta dromedarius, Minoa 
euphorbiata. Amongst larva? taken were : Dicramira bifida, D. furcida, 
Platypteryx falcida, Demas coryli, Pcecilocampa populi, Cymatophora or, 
C. ocularis, Halias prasinana, Orygia gonostigma, — W. A. Rollason ; 
The White House, Truro, Cornwall. 

The Season of 1904. — My work at Dorking this year compares 
favourably with that of 1903 ; several species were unusually abun- 
dant, and I took no less than seventeen that were new to me, as far 
as this locality is concerned. The first noteworthy entry in my diary 
is for April 4th, from which date until the 14th Amphidasys strataria 
was very abundant on the lamps, though not a single female was 
observed. On May 14th I took Euchloe cardamines for the first time, 
and this species swarmed until well into June. A single specimen 
of Lycana argiolus was taken on May 14th, the only one I have 
seen in this neighbourhood for two years. Nemeobius lucina made its 
appearance on May 18th, and from then until the first week in June it 
was extremely abundant, its range on Ranmore and elsewhere appear- 
ing to have extended more widely than during previous years. Pararge 
egeria occurred sparingly from May 18th onwards, and Syrichthus 
malvce was not nearly so abundant as in 1903. I took a nice series of 
Phytometra viridaria on May 19th and 23rd, and on the latter date a 
very large specimen of Notodonta dictaa from a lamp. On June 1st 
Eupithecia satyrata was abundant, and on the 2nd I observed Lycana 
adonis for the first time, though this species was not nearly so plentiful 
as it has been in former years. On June 3rd I was fortunate enough 
to take five examples of Agrotis cinerea from one lamp, but they were 
all males ; and on June 5th I took Notodonta trepida from the same 
lamp. On this date also a nice brood of Mamestra persicarm began to 
emerge ; I had fed the lame during the autumn of 1903, on geranium. 
Lithosia sororcula was taken from a lamp on June 11th, and the first 
Lycana minima was observed on the 17th. On the following day 
Eurymene dolabraria was beaten out of a blackberry-bush on Ranmore, 
and on the 27th a nice series of Setina irrorella was taken from long 
grass. On the 30th Acontia luctuosa was taken on the same ground, 
and a female deposited about fifty ova in the pill-box on the way 
home. Emmelesia alchemillata was taken from a lamp on July 1st, and 
on the 2nd a fine specimen of Sesia myopaiformis was taken, just after 
it had emerged from an old apple-tree in my garden early in the 
morning. Though I watched the tree carefully, however, I never saw 
another, and I only took one specimen from the same tree in 1903. 
On July 6th Anarta myrtilli was taken on Ranmore, and Cidaria ful- 
vata was flying out of almost every bush. On the 8th some larva? of 
Smerinthus populi went down to pupate, and the imagines emerged and 
died during my absence from home in August, as also did one speci- 
men of S. ocellatus, which had gone down to pupate on July 15th. 



64 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

This is the second time I have bred both these species in the late 
summer, the first having been already recorded in the ' Entomologist ' 
(vol. xxxiv. pp. 229 and 258), and I was very much interested to read 
Mr. Richard Garratt's note in this month's issue (vol. xxxvii. p. 323) 
on the same subject, indicating that the two broods occur wild as well 
as in confinement. On July 12th Aventia flexula was beaten out, and 
on the 14th and 20th Plusia moneta was taken from the lamps. 
Acronycta aceris was taken on the 18th, and Triphana ianthina on the 
23rd. Larvje of Smerinthus tilia, went down to pupate on the 25th, 
but neither this year, nor previously, have the imagines appeared the 
same year. On the 25th also, a rather striking light variety of 
Abraxas grossulariata flew into my study window ; and on the 27th 
and 30th Hesperia comma was to be seen in great numbers on Ranmore. 
On these dates also, I beat Lithosia deplana and Anticlea cucullata, both 
of which were new to me. Also, on the 27th, I took a bleached speci- 
men of Epinephele ianira, the under side being especially light. From 
this time until the middle of September I was away from Dorking, and 
so my next entry for this locality is Sept. 17th, when a brood of larva? 
of Iladena oleracea begun to go down ; they had been feeding since 
July 26th. I did nothing of note during the rest of the year, except 
an occasional visit to the lamps, when I took Xanthia citrago on Oct. 
11th, and Xonagria arundinis on Oct. 12th. On Dec. 1st Paicilocampa 
populi was fairly abundant. 

The new species taken by me in this locality this year are : — 
Lithosia deplana, Drepana falcataria, Asphalia flavicornis, Leucania 
Hthargyrict, Nonagria arundinis, Xanthia citrago, Anarta myrtUli, Eury- 
ii/cite dolabraria, Zonosoma pendularia, Asthena luteata, Bapta taminata, 
Emmelesia alchemillata, Eupithecia scabiosata, E. lariciata, E. sobrinata, 
Melanippe procellata, and Anticlea cucullata. Some of these, of course, 
are quite common things, but I had not taken them here before. — 
F. A. Oldaker ; Parsonage House, Dorking, Dec. 30th, 1904. 

Lepidoptera at Light in Reigate and Redhill, 1904. — During 
the past season I have worked the street-lamps in this district for 
Lepidoptera very regularly, and I think perhaps the following list of 
my captures may be of interest to some of my fellow-collectors. The 
electric arc lamps in the market-places of both towns were especially 
productive, Staiiropus fagi, Pheosia dictaoides (fertilized female), Noto- 
donta trepida, and Ennomos fuscantaria (37) being taken flying around 
these. I must add that I am indebted to Mr. Tonge, of Reigate, for 
the identification of many of the species. The date given is for the 
first specimen taken. Sphinx ligustri, July 5th. Chcerocampa elpenor, 
June 20th. C. porcellus, July 8th. Smerinthus tilia, May 23rd. S. 
ocellatus, June 27th. S. populi, July 5th. Tuo statices, July 27th. 
Arctia caia, July 27th. Phragmatobia (Spilosovia) fuliginosa, July 6th. 
Spilosoma lubricipeda, May 16th. S. menthastri, May 26th. Hepialus 
hamuli, July 7th. H . hectus, July 1st. H . hipulinus, May 30th. Cossus 
ligniperda, June 30th. Zeuzera pyrina, July 27. Porthesia similis, 
June 28th. Stilpnotia (Leucoma) salicis, July 8th. Dasychira pudibunda , 
June 6th. Pcecilocampa populi, Nov. 14th. Malacosoma neustria, July 
27th. Lasiocampa quercifolia, July 27th. Cilix glaucata, June 3rd. 
Dicranura vinvla, May 11th. Stauropus fagi, July 27th. Pterostoma 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 65 

palpina, Aug. 9th. Lophopterycc camelina, July 5th. Pheosia (Noto- 
donta) dictcea, May 11th. P. (X.) dictaoides, May 18th. A 7 , ziczac, 
May 14th. IV*. trepida, May 17th. Phalera bucephcda, June 28th. 
Thyatira derasa, June 28th. Bryophila perla, June 30th. Acronyeta 
psi, June 30th. A. aceris, June 28th. A. megacephala, June 29th. 
Diloba ccBruleocephala, Oct. 10th. Leucania conigera, July 29th. P. 
comma, June 30th. L. lithargyria, July 8th. P. impura, June 30th. 
P. pollens, July 8th. Gortyna ochracea, Sept. 28th. Hydrcecia nicti- 
tans, Sept. 2nd. P/. micacea, Sept. 30th. Axylia putris, July 27th. 
Xylophasia monoglypha, June 15th. A', lithoxylea, July 5th. A". sr<6- 
lustris, July 29th. Xeuronia popularis, Sept. 28th. Cerigo matura, 
Sept. 3rd. Luperina testacea, Sept. 8th. Mamestra brassica, May 18th. 
M. persicaria, June 30th. Apamea gemina, June 28th. J. didyma, June 
11th. Miana strigilis, July 4th. Grammesia trigrammica, June 8th. 
Caradrina quadripunctata, Sept. 19th. Agrotis puta, Sept. 7th. J. 
sujfusa, Oct. 11th. ^4. segetum, Aug. 8th. ^4. exclamationis, July 8th. J. 
strigula, June 21st. Noctaa plecta, July 5th. A. c-nigrum, Sept. 22nd. 
A. brunnea, June 28th. A. xanthographa, Sept. 8th. Triphcena ian- 
thina, Sept. 2nd. T. fimbria, Nov. 1st. T. orbona, July 6th. T.pro- 
nuba, June 24th. Amphipyra tragopogonis, July 4th. Mania typica, 
June 24th. M. maura, June 8th. Panolis piniperda, April 30th. 
Pachnobia rubricosa, April 4th. Tmniocampa gothica, March 24th. 
r. instabilis, April 9th. 7 1 . stabilis, March 31st. 7\ pulverulenta, April 
4th. Orthosia macilenta, Nov. 1st. O. litura, Sept. 13th. A. pistacina, 
Sept. 19th. J. lunosa, Sept. 14th. Cerastis vaccinii, March 7th. Ualym- 
nia trapezina, Sept. 29th. Scopelosoma satellitia, Oct. 17th. Xanthia 
fulvago, Sept. 12th. X flavago, Sept. 27th. A. citrago, Aug. 17th. 
X. gilvago, Sept. 8th. A", anrago, Sept. 23rd. X. circellaris, Sept. 
15th. Cirrhadia xerampelina, Aug. 30th. Epunda lutulenta, Sept. 
28th. Miselia oxyacantha, Sept. 12th. Euplexia lucipara, June 24th. 
Phlngophora meticulosa, Sept. 14th. Hadena oleracea, July 5th. i?. 
genista, July 29th. Xylocampa areola, April 7th. Asteroscopus sphinx, 
Nov. 29th. Cueullia umbratica, June 29th. Gonoptera libatrix, Sept. 
11th. Abrostola tripartita, May 29th. Plusia chrysitis, June 29th. 
P. moneta, July 5th. P. t'ota, June 27th. P. gamma, May 27th. 
Acontia luctuosa, July 27th. Hypena proboscidalis, July 2nd. P/o- 
pteryx sambucaria, June 30th. Rumia luteolata, May 12th. Metro- 
campa margaritaria, June 27th. Ellopia prosapiaria, July 30th. 
Pericallia syringaria, June 28th. Selenia bilunaria, April 16th. <9. 
tetralunaria, June 14th. Odontopera bidentata, May 26th. Crocallis 
elinguaria, Aug. 5th. Ennomos alniaria, Aug. 8th. P. erosaria, Aug. 
22nd. E. fuscantaria, Aug. 9th. P. quercinaria, Aug. 16th. Himera 
pennaria, Oct. 18th. Phigalia pedaria, Jan. 11th. Biston hirtaria, 
May 10th. Amphidasys strataria, March 21st. A.betularia, May 14th. 
Var. doubledayaria, July 3rd. Hemerophila abruptaria, May 1st. 
Poarmia repandata, July 1st. P. rhomboidaria, June 28th. Pseudo- 
terpna pruinata, July 5th. Geometra vernaria, July 6th. Thalera (Iodis) 
lactearia, June 16th. 

Many species were taken belonging to the Ephyridre, AcidaliidiB, 
&c, but these, I fear, are not yet accurately identified, all my time 
being taken with the larger species enumerated. 

ENTOM. — FEBRUARY. 1905. F 



66 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A few further notes on some of the species may perhaps be 
useful: — N, trepida, three were taken between May 17th and 23rd. 
P. dictaoides, eight were taken May 15th and 21st. 8. fagi, one 
only, July 27th. X. aurago, three between Sept. 23rd and 27th. 
X. gilvago, eight during September. C. xerampelina, twenty-seven 
were captured between Aug. 30th and Sept. 23rd, but many of the 
latest specimens were very worn, and few were in good condition. 
E. erosaria, one only, Aug. 22nd. E. fuscantaria, abundant from 
Aug. 9th to Sept. 8th, and a few were taken even later in good con- 
dition.— A. J. Wightman ; 28, Station Koad, Redhill. 

A List of Captures at Light, in Clapham, 1904. — Every species 
mentioned in the following list has been taken by myself, on shop 
windows within twenty yards of Stockwell Station, City and South 
London Eailway . — Smerinthus oeellatus, several specimens, June and 
July. S. populi, common, June and July. S. tilice, rather scarce, 
June. Earias chlorana, six specimens, May 11th to 16th. Arctia caia, 
one female, July 3rd. Spilosoma lubricepeda, exceedingly common, 
June. S. menthastri, very common, June and July. Hepialus hecius, 
two dwarf specimens, June 11th. Cossus ligniperda, fairly common, 
July. Zeuzera pyrina, males common, females scarce, July 2nd to 
24th. Stilpnotia salieis, a few specimens, August. Dicranura vinula, 
two males, June 3rd and 7th. Centra bifida, two specimens, June 3rd, 
1903. Phalera bucephala, very common, May and June. Cymatophora 
duplaris, one female, June 7th. Bryophila perla, several specimens, 
May, June, July. Acronycta psi, very common, June. A. aceris, very 
common, June to July. A. megacephala, very common, June and July. 
Leucania pattern, common, June. L. impura, slightly scarcer than 
former species, June. Hydrcecia nictitans, two specimens, July 17th. 
Axylia putris, common throughout June and July. Xylopihasia rurea, 
one female, June 9th. X. polyodon, very common, June to August. 
Apamea basilinea, two specimens, June 15th and 17th. Mamestra 
brassiccB, one specimen, August 5th, usually common. M. persicariee, 
common, June and July. Miana strigilis, fairly common, June. 
M. fasciuncula, eight specimens, June 15th to 20th. (Jaradrina 
morpheas, common, July 1st to 18th. G. quadripunctata, common, 
June and July. Agrotis exclamationis, very common, July to Sep- 
tember. A. nigricans, rather scarce, July. Noctua plecta, very common, 
June to August. N. triangulum, one specimen, July 9th. N. brunnea, 
a few specimens in June. N. festiva, one male, July 7th. N. xantho- 
grapha, common, August to September. Triphana fimbria, three, 
common yellow form, July. T. ianthina, common, August 1st to 29th. 
T. interjecta, one male, August 3rd. T. orbona, occasional specimens 
throughout August. T. pronuba, fairly common, June to August 23rd. 
Mania typica, common, August. M. maura, a few to light, but 
commonest inside streets. Galymnia trapezina, one female, July 18th. 
C. affinis, one, August 1st. Hecatera serena, four specimens, July. 
Euplexia lucipara, very common, July to September. Hadena cheno- 
podii, common, August 1st to 8th. H. oleracea, very common, June 
and July. Abrostola triplasia, one specimen, August 5th, usually 
common. Plusia chrysitis, fairly common, August. Uropteryx sam- 
bucata, common, July 15th to 29th. Rumia cratmgata, very common, 



SOCIETIES. 67 

May 16th to July 3rd. Etmomos angularia, one or two males, August 
10th to 12th. E. fuscantaria, one male, August 29th. Amphidasys 
betularia, males common, females rare, June to August ; var. 
doubledayaria, rather scarce, July. Hemerophila abruptaria, one dwarf 
specimen, July 11th. Boarmia rhomboidaria, males common, July 
10th to 28th. Acidalia aversata, scarce, June and July. A. incanaria, 
fairly common throughout July. Abraxas grossulariata, common, 
July. Hybemia defoliaria, three males, November 13th, 14th and 
15th. Ckeimatobia brumata, one male, December 18th. Eupithecia 
vulgata, common, June and July. E. centaureata, three specimens, 
June. Hypsipetes elutata, fairly common, July. Melanippe Jiuctuata, 
very common, June to August. 

This list is by no means exhaustive as regards all my London 
captures ; it is simply a list of specimens obtained at light during 
last year. Many species mentioned in it as rare are to be captured 
commonly by other methods; as, for instance, H. abrupt-aria, of which 
I have only once taken a specimen at light, I find commonly on fences 
and walls. B. hirtaria still seems as common as ever on the trunks of 
the limes, and appears not to change its position for sun or wind ; in 
fact, the only species of the seventy-one above mentioned that seems 
to get scarcer is E. centaureata. Ten years ago it would have been an 
easy matter to have taken twenty or thirty specimens by a cursory 
examination of the garden wall ; gradually, however, it became 
scarcer, and at last seemed to die out. In fact, the three specimens 
recorded above are the only examples I have seen here for five years. 
I should be very grateful to any London entomologists who would 
inform me of captures of any species not mentioned in the above 
list. — B. Stonell, 25, Studley Road, Clapham, S.W. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — Wednesday, Jan. 18th, 1905. 
— The 71st Annual Meeting, Professor Edward B. Poulton, D.Sc, 
F.R.S., the President, in the chair. — After an abstract of the Trea- 
surer's accounts, showing a good balance in the Society's favour, had 
been read by Mr. R. W. Lloyd, one of the Auditors, Mr. Herbert Goss, 
one of the Secretaries, read the Report of the Council. It was then 
announced that the following had been elected Officers and Council 
for the Session 1905-1906 :-t- President, Mr. Frederic Merrifield; 
Treasurer, Mr. Albert H. Jones; Secretaries, Mr. H. Rowland-Brown, 
M.A., and Commander James J. Walker, R.N., F.L.S. ; Librarian, 
Mr. George C. Champion, F.Z.S. ; and as other Members of Council, 
Mr. Gilbert J. Arrow, Lieut. -Colonel Charles Bingham, F.Z.S., Br. 
Thomas A. Chapman, F.Z.S., Mr. Janies Edward Collin, Dr. Frede- 
rick A. Dixey, M.A., Mr. Hamilton H. C. J. Druce, F.Z.S., Mr. Herbert 
Goss, F.L.S. , Mr. William John Lucas, B.A., Professor Edward B. 
Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S., Mr. Louis B. Prout, Mr. Edward Saunders, 
F.R.S., F.L.S., and Colonel John W. Yerbury, R.A., F.Z.S. The 
President referred to the loss sustained by the Society by the deaths of 
the Treasurer, Mr. Robert McLachlan, F.R.S., Mr. Charles G. Barrett, 



68 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

and other entomologists. He then delivered an address, in which he 
discussed the part played by the study of insects in the great contro- 
versy on the question, "Are acquired characters hereditary?" He 
argued that the decision whether Lamarck's theory of the causes of 
evolution is or is not founded on a mistaken assumption largely 
depends upon evidence supplied by the insect world, and finally con- 
cluded that the whole body of facts strongly supports Weismann's 
conclusions. At the end of his address the President urged that the 
study of insects is essential for the elucidation and solution of 
problems of the widest interest and the deepest significance. Professor 
Meldola, F.R.S., proposed a vote of thanks to the President and other 
officers. This was seconded by Mr. Verrall and carried. Prof. Poulton, 
Mr. Goss, Mr. Rowland-Brown, and Mr. Jones replied. — H. Goss, 
Hon. Secretary. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
December 8th, 1904. — Mr. Step in the chair. — Mr. Grosvenor, of Red Hill, 
Surrey, was elected a member. — Mr. Tonge exhibited some thirty-five 
species of British Lepidoptera, which he gave to the Society's collec- 
tions. — Mr. Main, Orthoptera from Borneo and the Cape. — Mr. West, 
a specimen of the extremely rare coleopteron, Tropideres sepicola, taken 
by him in the New Forest in the summer of 1901. — Mr. Edwards, the 
parasitical bee, Ccelioxys elongata, from Blackheatb, and read notes on 
its habits. — ■ Mr. Dobson, series of Geometra vernaria and At/lossa 
cuprealis, which had come to light at dusk around his house at 
Maldon ; the former sitting on leaves, and the latter resting in the 
curtains. Plusia chrysitis had also been seen at light in the neigh- 
bourhood. — The remainder of the evening was devoted to an exhibition 
of lantern-slides by Messrs. Tonge (ova of Lepidoptera), Lucas (bio- 
logical and botanical subjects), Goulton (lepidopterous larvae), Step 
(lepidopterous larvae), Main (resting positions of larvae and imagines of 
Lepidoptera), and Dennis (flowering and seeding of trees and shrubs). 
Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The Annual 
Meeting was held in the Royal Institution, Liverpool, on December 
19th, 1901, Mr. Robt. Tait, Junr., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Messrs. A. Bury (Newburgh), I. W. Horton (Mawdesley), and W. A. 
Rhodes (Liverpool), were elected members. Mr. Sopp, one of the 
Secretaries, read the Report of the Council, which showed that the 
past session had been one of the most successful in the history of the 
Society, and that the membership had increased by thirty-three. The 
Treasurer's Balance-sheet, presented by Dr. Cotton, showed a credit- 
balance at the bank and in the hands of the Treasurer of £12 13s. 7d. 
Certain alterations in the rules having been adopted, the following 
officers were elected to serve during 1905 : — President : Saml. James 
Capper, F.E.S. Vice-Presidents : Professor T. Hudson Beare, B.Sc, 
F.E.S., F.R.S.E.; H. St. J. K. Domsthorpe, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; Richard 
Wilding; F. C. Thompson ; J. R. Charnley, F.Z.S., F.E.S. Trea- 
surer: J. Cotton, M.R.C.S., F.E.S. Secretaries: E. J. B. Sopp, 
F.R.Met.S., F.E.S. ; J. R. le B. Tomlin, M.A., F.E.S. ; W. Delamere 
Harrison, Librarian: F. N. Pierce, F.E.S. Council: B. H. Crabtree, 
F.E.S.; J. F. Dutton; Wm. Mansbridge, F.E.S.; F. R. Dixon- 



SOCIETIES. 69 

Nuttall, F.R.M.S.; C E. Stott ; H. R. Sweeting, M.A. ; R. Tait, 
Junr. ; A. Tippins ; W. A. Tyerman, aucl W. Webster, M.R.S.A.I. 
The following were appointed Recorders : — Messrs. J. R. le B. Tomlin, 
M.A. (Coleoptera); Edwd. Saunders, F.R.S., P.L.S., F.E.S. (Hymeno- 
ptera) ; F. N. Pierce (Lepidoptera) ; C. R. Billups, M.R.C.S., and 
E. E. Lowe, P.L.S. (Dipfcera) ; W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. (Neuro- 
ptera) ; E. J. B. Sopp (Orfchoptera), and Oscar Whittaker (Hemiptera). 
Mr. R. Tait, Junr., delivered an exhaustive address on " The Season 
1904 lepidopterologically considered" ; after which the undermentioned 
exhibits were shown : — Boarmia repandata (Penmaenmawr), Aplecta 
advena, Nyssia lapponaria (Rannoch), &c„ by Mr. Tait; Deilephila 
euphorbia, by Mr. J. Roxburgh ; Amara rufocincta (Crosby), by Mr. R. 
Wilding; Xletcccus paradoxus, Melandry a caraboides (Winlaton), Steno- 
stola ferrea (Gibside), Chrysomela orichalcia var. hobsoni fS. Hylton), 
&c, by Mr. R. S. Bagnall; Licrona cccndea, L. (Grange), by Mr. 0. 
Whittaker; a live specimen of Acridium agypticum (Italy), by Mr. 
C. B. Williams; Labidura riparia (Liverpool), Nyctibora holosericea 
(Kew), Sclustocerca peregrina (Birkenhead), and B melius pisi and B. rufh- 
manus (Liverpool), by Mr. Sopp. — E. J. B. Sopp and J. R. le B. 
Tomlin, Hon. Secretaries. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — October 11th, 1904. — Mr. 
S. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. J. T. Fountain 
showed Callimorpha dominula, L., from Devonshire larvae, and men- 
tioned his difficulties in breeding them. He found that whatever 
treatment he adopted, more than half were cripples. He also showed 
Lasiocampa quercus, L., bred from larvae taken in Sutton Park in March 
and April. They included light and dark forms, the latter apparently 
var. cailunm, Dalm. Amongst the dark ones were two which were very 
diaphanous, though the wings were perfect and the cilia? unbroken, 
the outer third of each wing looked as if rubbed, owing to deficient 
scaling. — Mr. H. W. Ellis exhibited a collection of the Rhyncophora 
and allies ; he gave a general account of the group, and then mentioned 
the local species, which included many that were rare, and numbered 
about 308 out of the 540 occurring in Britain. — Mr. R. C. Bradley 
shewed Thriplocera bicolor, Meg., three specimens bred from larvae of 
Lasiocampa quercus, L., from Sutton Park, taken in 1904 by Mr. 
W. H. Wilkinson. 

November 21st, 1904. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the 
chair. — Mr. A. H. Martineau exhibited for Mr. H. Stone a collective 
cocoon made by some lepidopterous larvae. Information was lacking 
as to its place of origin and the species which had caused it. It con- 
sisted of one large cocoon like a great brown nut, about 6 in. x 4 in., 
with a thick hard integument, containing a considerable number of 
ordinary brown cocoons massed together inside. The pupae were 
empty, but there was no obvious means of exit, and the interior was 
closely packed with the material of the cocoons, so that it was not 
easy to judge how the moths had emerged. — Mr. R. S. Searle showed 
various Lepidoptera and foreign Coleoptera. — Rev. C. F. Thornewill 
read a paper upon " The Genus Eupithecia, especially in relation to 
Breeding them from the Larva?." He had reared a considerable 
number of the species, and gave a general account of the larvae, their 



70 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

life-history, and a number of useful hints as to methods to be followed 
to find and rear the larvae of various species. Mr. G. T. Bethune- 
Baker showed a number of British and continental specimens of the 
genus in illustration of the paper. — Colbran J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 

Manchester Entomological Society. — In the Manchester Museum, 
Owens College, on October 5th, 1904. — The President and Vice- 
President being unavoidably absent, the chair was occupied by Mr. 
B. Tait, Junr. — A paper was read by Mr. G. Kearey, entitled " Pupae 
Digging and Collecting." — The following exhibits were shown by the 
members: — Mr. R. Brauer, Indian moths (family Chalcosiidae). Mr. 
G. Kearey, larvae of A. cava. Mr. L. Krah, Lepidoptera, selected; 
specimens bred from continental ova — L. dispar (from Locarno), S. 
menthastri, P. pigra, 0. gonostigma, P. anachoreta (from Bex), P. rubri- 
cosa, P. trifolii (from Bex), S. populi (British). Mr. C. F. Johnson, 
Lepidoptera from Torquay, North Wales, and Staffordshire — L. ccesiata, 
T. opinio,, A. lunigera, and B. muralis. Mr. A. Binns, specimen of 
A. atropos taken at Clayton, near Manchester, on Sept. 17th, 1904. 
Mr. W. Buckley, specimen of A. ashivorthii, emerged Oct. oth, 1904. 

November 2nd, 1904. — Mr. R. Tait, Junr., presided in the absence of 
the President. — The meeting took the form of an exhibit evening, and 
the following specimens were shown by the members : — Mr. L. Krah, 
case containing exotic silk spinners, and including P. cecrapia, C. j>ro- 
methea, A. Ixina, T. poLyphemns (North America), C. regalis (South 
America), A. pernyi (China), A. mylitta, A. cynthia (India), C. regina 
(Japan). Mr. C. E. Bailey, the following silk moths (with cocoons 
and pupae) : S. pyH, T. poiyphemus, and A. cynthia; Vanessa antiopa, 
with pupa3 (Austrian form); Thecla rubi, male and female (Isle of 
Wight), Mania maura (Marple, Cheshire); Kuclidia mi (Isle of Wight); 
Arctia villica, bred from larvae taken at Eastbourne. Mr. J. Ray Hardy, 
larvae, pupae, and imagos of Calandria palmaria. Mr. R. J. Wigels- 
worth, illustrations of larvae and insect life. Mr. R. Brauer, Coleoptera 
from West Africa of the genus Goliath, Ceratorhina, &c. ; Coleoptera 
from Transvaal and East Africa — Cetoniinae, Elateridae, Scarabaeidae, 
&c. ; also Lepidoptera — Apatura iris var. iole, V. antiopa var. hygicea, 
V. chelmys, and Satyridae (various) from Europe and Asia. Mr. W. 
Warren Kinsey, case containing preserved larvae of British moths ; 
cocoons of E. lanestris ; larvae and ichneumon cocoons of M. typica. 
Mr. R. Tait, Junr., A. galatea, T. pruni, C. fulvata, ill. rubiginata, 
P. bajularia, T. albicillata, from Monkswood, 1904 ; A. agathina, a 
grand series, including some fine rosy forms, bred from Welsh larvae, 
1904 ; /<;. lichenea, from Welsh larvae, 1904. 

December 5th, 1904. — A very successful Conversazione was held in 
the Manchester Museum, Owens College, on the above date. Upwards 
of three hundred invitations were issued, the majority of which were 
accepted. Representatives from scientific and other societies in Man- 
chester, Liverpool, Chester, and other towns, were present during the 
evening. Dr. W. E. Hoyle, addressing the company, extended to 
them a very hearty welcome. He was not only the Director of the 
Manchester Museum, but esteemed it a great honour to be the first 
President of the Society, the history of which was then briefly traced, 
from the first meeting in the Municipal School of Technology, Man- 
chester, to the present occasion. The object and aims of the Society 



RECENT LITERATURE. 71 

were explained ; also the advantages and privileges enjoyed by the 
members, some of which were, access to entomological collections, and 
use of the library. The Lepidoptera exhibited during the evening had 
been specially selected and laid out for inspection by Mr. J. Bay 
Hardy (who has the charge of the Natural History Department). He 
explained the more interesting details of the insects, of which upwards 
of seven thousand specimens were on view, the Manchester Museum, 
possessing one of the finest and most valuable public collections of Lepi- 
doptera outside London. During the evening light refreshments were 
served ; afterwards the visitors appreciated, to the fullest extent, all 
that had been prepared for their benefit and enjoyment. The follow- 
ing is the list of Lepidoptera exhibited (principally from the well- 
known " Schill " collection): — Ornithoptera crcesus (Batyan), O. para- 
diseus (North Guinea), showing sexual differences. Papilio antimachus 
(Africa), P. sesostris (South America), sexual differences. P. ascanius 
(Brazil), P. coon (Java), &c. P. blumei, P. joesa, P. paranthus, &c. 
P. homerus (Jamaica). P. androcles (Celebes) &c, showing development 
of hinder wing prolongations or "tails." Teinopalpus imperial™ (India), 
Armandia lidderdalii, and their allies, showing the great difference in sex. 
The genus Prioneris. The genus Dismorphia : New World species of 
extraordinary coloration. The genus Morpho : mostly New World 
insects of great size and brilliancy. The genus Acraa: nauseous 
insects. The genus Kallima ("Leaf-butterflies "). The genus Callicore 
(the " 88 " butterfly). The genus Callithea : a New World group of 
perfectly opaque butterflies. Palasarctic Lepidoptera : Parnassiidre and 
Coliadre. — Bobert J. Wigelsworth, Hon. Secretary. 



BECENT LITERATURE. 

1. New Braqonfly Nymphs in the United States National Museum. Proc. 

U.S. National Mus., vol. xxvii. pp. 685-720. 11 figs, and 7 pis. 
J. G. Needham. Washington, 1904. 
A valuable addition to the excellent work done by Mr. Needham in 
this long neglected field of Entomology. 

2. The Labium of the Odonata. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxx. pp. 111-133. 

7 plates. Hortense Butler. 1904. 
A most useful addition to our knowledge of the highly specialised 
labium of the dragonfly nymph. The seven plates of details are excellent. 

3. The Skeivuess of the Thorax in the Odonata. Journal of the New 

York Entom. Soc. Sept., 1903. J. G. Needham and Maude H. 
Anthony. Pp. 117-125, with a plate. 

4. The Phasmidce, or Walkin<)-sticks of the United States. Proc. U.S. 

National Mus. Vol. xxvi. Pp. 863-885. 4 plates. A. N. 

Caudell. Washington, 1903. 
Another of the useful monographs of groups of American insects 
that appear from time to time. The Phasmids, of which we have no 
single representative in Britain, are not numerous in the United States. 

5. An Orthopterous Leaf-roller. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. Vol. vi. No. 1. 

A. N. Caudell. 



72 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

6. Oviposition and Carnivorous Habits of the Meadow Green Grasshopper 

(Orchelimum glaberrinium). Psyche. Vol. xi. Pp. 69-71, with 
one plate. J. L. Hancock. 1904. 

7. The Leaf-hopper of the Sugar-cane. Bulletin No. 1. Board of 

Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry ; territory of Hawaii. 
R. C. L. Perkins. Pp. 38. Honolulu, 1903. 
A full account of the insect and its natural enemies. 

8. Suppression and Control of the Plague of Buffalo-gnats in the Valley 

of the Lower Mississippi Ulcer. Proc. 25th Ann. Meeting of Soc. 
for Promotion of Agrie. Sci. Pp. 53-72 ; 7 figures and dia- 
grams. F. M. Webster. 1904. 
An account of the insect and a review of its occurrence in the 
district. W J L 

The Common Mosquitoes of New Jersey. By John B. Smith. New 

Jersey Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletin 171. Pp.40. 

Plates 11, and other figures in the text. 

Of the thirty-three species of Culicidns occurring in the State of New 

Jersey, only three are unable to bite. Several others are confined to 

limited areas, and for one reason or another the number of noxious 

species considered of sufficient economic importance to be noticed in 

this bulletin is reduced to thirteen ; three of these are members of the 

malaria-transmitting genus Anopheles 

Who's Who? pp. 1796; Who's Who Year-book, pp. 128; and The English- 
woman's Year-book. pp. 368. London : Adam & Charles Black. 
1905. 
Each of the above-mentioned annuals will be found of great interest 
to all whom they may concern, and this means a large section of the 
general public. The chief volume, Who's Who ? comprises short bio- 
graphies of many biologists, including specialists in various branches of 
Entomology whose names are familiar to most, if not all, of our readers. 

We have also received the following : — 

Analytische Uebersicht der paldarktischen Lepidopterenfamilien. Von C. v. 
Hormuzaki. Pp. 68, with 45 figures in the text. Berlin : R. Fried- 
lander & Sohn. 1904. 

Ants and some other Insects. By Dr. August Forel. Pp. 49. Chicago : 
The Open Court Publishing Company. London : Kegan Paul, 
Trench, Triibner & Co. Ltd. 1904. 
An inquiry into the psychic powers of these animals, with an 

appendix on the peculiarities of their olfactory sense. Translated 

from the German by Prof. William Morton Wheeler. 

A Treatise on the Acarina, or Mites. By Nathan Banks. Pp. 114, 
with numerous text-figures. ( Smithsonian Institution. United 
States National Museum). Washington : Government Printing 
Office. 1904. 

Entomologisches Jahrbuch. Kalender fur alle Insekten-Sammlcr auf das 
Jahr 1905. Von Dr. Oskar Krancher. Pp. 240, with one 
coloured plate. Leipzig : Frankenstein & Wagner. 1905. 



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CONTENTS. 

^e American Halictyie Bees in the British Museum, T. D. A. Cocherell, 33. 
The Earlier Stages of Cataelysta lemnata, L. (concluded), T. A. Chapman 38. 
Notes on the Wave Moths (Genus Acidalia, Auct.) (concluded), Louis B. Prout, 
43. An Abbreviated List of Butterflies from the South of France and Corsica, 
Albert F. Bosa, 49. A New Genus of Culicidse, Fred. V. Theobald, 52. 
Current Notes (continued), G. W. Kirhaldy, 56. On a Small Collection of 
Anthophorid Bees from Colorado, T. D. A. Cockerell, 58. 

Notes and Observations. — Pararge achine on the Mendel, Frank K. Lowe, 60. 
The National Collection of British Lepidoptera, 61. Melanic Aspilates gilvaria, 
Hugh J. Vinall, 61. The Entomological Club, 61. 

Captures and Field Reports. — Limenitis sibylla in August ?, E. E. Bentall, 62. 
Late Appearance of Pyrameis atalanta. W. T. Page, 62. Pygsera pigra in 
Surrey. Cuthbert Jedatpe-Fisher, i')'l. A Few Captures from Wyre Forest in 
1904, W. A. Bollason. 63. The Season of 1904, F. A. Oldaker, 63. Lepido- 
ptera at Light in Beigate and Bedhill, 1901. A. J. Might man, 64. A List of 
Captures at Light, in Clapham, 1904, B. Sto>iell, 66. 

Societies. — Entomological Society of London, 67. South London Entomological 
and Natural History Society, 68. Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, 68. Birmingham Entomological Society, 69. Manchester Entomo- 
logical Society, 70. 

Recent Literature, 71. 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII] MARCH, 1905. [No. 502. 

CRYPTIC FORM and COLOURING in MELITMA LARVAE. 
By T. A. Chapman, M.D. 





The larvae of Melitaa cinxia and M. athalia when full grown 
are usually very conspicuous, still it has often struck me that, 
obvious as they are when you look for them — i. e. if they are 
not hidden away — you may easily pass by without seeing them, 
even though looking where they are, if not thinking of them. 
These larvse considerably resemble the heads of Plantago ; but 
this is still more the case with MeliUea didyma, whose yellow 
and brown markings make it very like a plantain-head with 
yellow stamens and brown scales. 

This resemblance is brought out very well in the above 
reproduction of a photograph taken by Mr. H. Main of a larva 
of M. didyma — remarkably so since the assistance given by 
coloration is left out. 

ENTOM. — MARCH, 1905. G 



74 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A NEW SPECIES OF NOD ARIA FROM JAPAN 
AND COEEA. 

NODARIA LEECHI, Sp. n. 

Antennae of male knotted and contorted about the middle. Pri- 
maries grey-brown tinged with lilacine, and with four transverse brown 
markings ; antemedial and postmedial lines, the former slightly un- 
dulated, the latter rather wavy and curved round the end of cell ; medial 
line broad, band-like, with a darker discal mark on it ; submarginal 
line undulated, outwardly edged with whitish. Secondaries similar in 
colour to primaries and with two darker transverse lines, the outer one 
angled and outwardly edged with whitish below the middle. Expanse 
24-26 millim. 

Somewhat similar to Nodaria fentoni, Butl., but in the male 
separable therefrom by the knotted antennas, and in both sexes 
by the different shape of the postmedial line. The secondaries 
also are darker in colour. 

Described from a male specimen from Fusan in the National 
Collection at South Kensington, where also are a female specimen 
from Fusan and another from Gensan, one example of each sex 
from Tsuruga, and two males from Nagahama. All these were 
formerly in the Leech Coll., and were erroneously referred to 
Nodaria fentoni, Butl. 

Richard South. 



DESCRIPTIONS of THREE NEW BEETLES FROM THE 
GOLD COAST, AND ANGOLA, WEST AFRICA. 

By E. A. Heath, M.D., F.L.S. 

ZOGRAPHUS LANEI, Sp. 11. (fig. 1). 

Shining black ; pronotum transversely striate, in alternate bands 
of pale ochraceous pubescence, and shining black. The head is 
shining black, rugose, with two curved lines of pale ochraceous pube- 
scence on each side, the one at the base being much shorter than the 
anterior line. The antennae are very slightly longer than the body ; 
the basal joint is stoutest, and shorter than the head, rather coarsely 
granulated, the second joint being smoother, and nearly three times 
as long as the first joint ; the remaining joints are shorter than the 
second, and about equal in length ; the segments are bluish grey at 
their basal insertion, and black at the apical end. The elytra are 
thickly and coarsely punctured and sparsely pilose ; the humeral 
angles are slightly produced forward ; a broad band of pale ochraceous 
hair on each elytron about the centre reaching from the lateral margin 
to near the suture, a short narrow pale ochraceous transverse fascia 
on each side of suture, half-way between the white pale band and 
the base, and in a line with these on each side are irregular pale 
ochraceous marks at margin of elytra ; near the apical margin of 



THREE NEW BEETLES FROM THE GOLD COAST, ETC. 



75 



each elytron is a short longitudinal fascia of pale ocliraceous hair, and 
from the centre to apex are small irregular dots of the same colour ; 
the apices of the elytra are fringed with black hair. The body beneath 
and the legs and tarsi are black, with pale ocliraceous hairs. Long. 
8 lines, max. lat. 3 lines. 

Hab. Angola. 

Prosopocera biplagiata, sp. n. (fig. 3). 
Shining brown, densely covered with pale brown pubescence. The 
pronotum is roughly sculptured, and has a tooth on each side, and the 




posterior margin transversely striated. The scutellum is rounded, 
tongue-shaped. The head, legs, and antennas are the same brown 
colour; the latter are longer than the body ; the basal joint stoutest, 
and twice as long as the head, rather rougher than the second joint, 
which is nearly twice as long as the first ; the third joint is not quite 
as long as second joint, and rather longer than the fourth joint; the 
remaining joints are of equal length. The elytra are rather coarsely 
punctured, and densely shortly pilose ; the humeral angles are 
slightly raised, and near them the basal area is blackly tuberculate ; 
an irregular triangular white spot about the centre, broader at the 
lateral margin, which it does not quite touch, and its apex reaching to 

g2 



76 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

near the suture. The body beneath is of the same brown colour, 
densely pilose, with a long white lateral fascia reaching from the base 
of the head, where it is broadest to the base of the mesosternum, 
where it is pointed ; in some specimens this mark is only on the meso- 
sternum, in others it is absent. Long. 12 lines, max. lat. 3| lines. 

Hab. Angola. 

Plectrogaster jordani, sp. n. (fig. 2). 
Elytra brownish black, piceous, coarsely and thickly punctured, and 
having on each elytron four longitudinal carinate lines, which terminate 
2 lines from the apex. The scutellum is rounded, tongue-shaped. Pro- 
notum densely pilose ; in the centre is a brownish black longitudinal 
fascia reaching from the head to the scutellum ; on each side of this is a 
rich reddish fascia, also reaching from the head to the elytra, and on 
each side of this red mark is another brownish black one reaching from 
the head to just below the pronotal tooth, which is reflexed backward. 
The head is red, pilose. The antennae are blackish brown, beautifully 
pectinate ; the basal joint is red, small at its insertion and thickened 
at its apex, which is blackish ; the lamellae, nine in number, arise 
from the joints of the antennae and are nearly equal in length (3 lines), 
except the first, which is a little shorter ; the joints of the lamellae 
form a serrature on the under side of antennae. The body beneath and 
the legs are light shining reddish brown ; the joints of legs are blackish. 
The middle and hind femora are pubescent, and the hind femur has 
a longitudinal groove underneath ; the tarsi are blackish brown. Long. 
20 lines, max. lat. 6 lines. 

Hab. Gold Coast. 

This insect conies very near to P. pectinicornis, Waterhouse, 
a female of which is figured in his ' Aid ' ; but it differs in some 
important respects. P. pectinicornis has blacker elytra, and the 
pronotum and head are wholly black ; the femora are yellow, 
and black at their insertion, with black tibiae and tarsi. The 
elytra and pygidimn are pilose. 

I am indebted to Mr. Horace Knight for the wonderfully fine 
drawings for the figures of the three beetles above described. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE HEMIPTERA. 

No. 4. 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

General Notes. 

1. Schauta's ' Bericht ' gives the dates of the nineteenth Band 
of Herrich-Schaeffer's ' Wanzenartigen Insecten ' as follows : — 
Heft 1, 1849 ; hefte 2-6, 1850; heft 7 (Index), 1853. 

2. In a review in ' Nature,' W. T. Blanford (Dec. 31st, 1903, 
vol. 69, pp. 199-201) objected to my new name for the bed-bug, 
viz. Klinophilos, one of the grounds being that it was already 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE HEMIPTERA. 77 

the type of the Linnean genus Gimex. To this I replied, in the 
same journal (March 17th, p. 464), that the type of the Linnean 
Gimex could never be lectularius, as (1) Linnaeus stated no types; 

(2) lectularius does not agree with the diagnosis of Cimex ; and 

(3) another type for the latter genus was duly selected by 
Fabricius later on. Blanford replied on the same and following 
pages, stating that types of certain genera were fixed by Linne. 
As the information was, in part, new to me and several of my 
correspondents, I abstract it now. It would have been answered 
long ago had I not had a very bad accident while horse-riding, 
rendering me a cripple for over eight months (with the prospect 
of several more), and necessitating operations under chloroform 
(one more in a few days).* Under these circumstances all my 
work has been greatly retarded, and I was unable to visit 
the only house in which ' Nature ' was to be found {then) in 
Honolulu. 

The " rules of Linnaeus " were, according to Blanford, printed 
in his ' Philosophia Botanica,' a work not accessible to me now. 
Of these, Nos. 242 and 246 are quoted by Blanford : — 

" 242. Nomen genericum Antiquum antiquo generi convenit. 

" 246. Si genus receptum, secundum jus natures et artis in plura 
dirimi debet, turn nomen antea commune manebit vulgatissimse et 
officinali plantce." 

There are several comments to be made on this : — 

(1) The 1758 edition of the ' Systema Naturae ' is universally 
regarded as the foundation of entomological nomenclature, and 
there is nothing there of such rules, nor is there any mention, 
in the Introduction, of the ' Philosophia Botanica.' 

(2) Even admitting these rules for Vertebrata, it is well 
known that many of the insects known to the ancients are 
incorrectly identified at the present day. Linne himself fell, 
apparently, into gross error ; for example, Chermes, Ichneumon 
(not an insect), Empis, Tipula, Aphis, &c. ; and, personally, I 
would be very sorry to attempt to affix the types of any Linnean 
genera by those " rules." 

There are, I believe, only two generic names which can be 
settled in this manner, viz. Apis (mellifera) and Cimex ; but 
here another (and, as I believe, superior) factor comes into play 
— lectularius cannot be the type, because it is antagonistic to the 
generic diagnosis. 

It is curious that not one, so far as I can trace, of Linne's 
entomological pupils paid any attention to this (impossible) rule 
of " commonest species," and that the best known, i. e. Fabricius, 
deliberately fixed on bidens as the type of Cimex. 

As to Clinocoris, 1829, which I restored in place of Klino- 
philos, I am aware that the " substitution of one name for 

[* The present article was received on January 9th, 1905. — Ed.] 



78 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

another on the score of convenience is absolutely in defiance of 
the 'rule of priority,'" but when the earlier name is found to 
have been wrongly accepted up to the present, it is, I think, 
obvious that such a substitution is not only convenient, but 
obligatory. 

3. It may be noted, with reference to recent discussions, 
that Sherborn (' Index Animalium,' 1902) accepts Geoffroy's 
1762 genera. 

Fam. Cocctdje. 

1. Fernald Cat., p. 54. Lecaniodiaspis ; the original spelling 
of this was Lecanodiaspis, and the type is sardoa, not dendrobii, 
as stated. 

2. A species omitted in Fernald Cat. (apparently) is Coccus 
pruni, Burmeister (May 28th, 1849), in Zeit. fur Zoologie, p. 177, 
on Primus domestica, Germany. 

The diagnosis is as follows : — 

" $ viridi-griseus, albo farinosus, alis albidis ; scutello parvo, 
binodoso ; antennis pubescentibus, pedibus nudis gracilibus ; 
abdominis segmento penultimo et antepenultimo bisetoso. Long, 
flin. 

" 2 elliptica, viridigrisea, albo farinosa, capite magno in 
prothoracem postice producto ; abdominis lateribus paululam 
depressis, segmentis duobus ultimis utrinque pilosis. Long. 
1 lin." 

This is followed by a long description, in German. 

3. The references to many of the Zehntnerian species are in- 
correct, being taken from separately paged reprints. At the 
present moment I can supply a correct reference only to the 
following : — 

Axpidiotus saccharicaidis, Zehntner (July loth, 1897), ' Archief 
voor de Java-Suikerindustrie,' v. p. 735-44, pi. viii. 

Fam. Cimicidje. 
In the 'Entomologist ' (August, 1903, p. 215), I stated that 
I had not seen the description of Philia, Schiodte. I have now 
been able to secure Kroyer's ' Naturhistorisk Tidskrift,' Bind iv. 
(1842-3), and find that Philia is not a valid genus. In the 
' Bevisio critica specierum generis Tetyrae Fabricii, qvarum 
exstant in Museo Regio Hafniensi exempla typica ' (pp. 279-312), 
"Philia ?/j." is simply placed at the head of the descriptions of 
several species below the Fabrician nomenclature. On p. 281, 
Schiodte states that Calliphara and Callidea (sic) are preoccupied 
by Calliphora, Macquart, 1835, and Calleida, Dejean, Latr., 
1829, and that they form only one genus. On pp. 315-60 are 
the " Forhandingler i det skandinaviske entomologiske Selskab," 
in which (on pp. 346-8) Schiodte discusses his own paper, and 
definitely states that Philia is proposed as a new name for the 
above mentioned genera. As neither Calliphara nor Calidea is 



LEPIDOPTERA OF THE LINCOLNSHIRE COAST. 79 

preoccupied, and as they form good genera, Philia cannot stand, 
and for "Philia, Stal nee Schiodte," I propose " Schioedtia, nn., 
type senator (Fabr.)." 

2. To the same entry in the 'Entomologist ' (1903, p. 215) 
add : — 

Schiodte, 1842-3, Naturh. Tidskr. iv. p. 330. (8) Cepha- 
loctenus, unnecessary " emendation " for Cephalocteus, Dufour, 
1834. 

3. The reference to Legnotus, Lethierry and Severin (Cat. i. 
p. 78), is Kroyer's Naturh. Tidskr. (2), ii. p. 464. 

Fam. Naucorid^: (?). 
1. Sherborn (' Index Animalium,' 1902, p. 647) cites a hemi- 
pterous genus, Naucorinus, Meuschen, 1778, Mus. Gronov. p. 69, 
with apparently (see p. 1146) no species mentioned. I have not 
seen the work recently, but believe the form is only used in the 
plural, and is rather of a tribal or sectional value. I would be 
grateful for any information. 

ERRATA (Entom. xxx.). 

"Bibliographical and Nomenclatorial Notes on the 

Hemiptbra. — No. 3." 

Page 280, Fam. Pyrrhocoridae, delete " Probergrothius, ,, n.n., 
for Odontopits. The latter is apparently not validly preoccupied. 

Page 281, line 18, for "techii" read t. echii ; line 23, for 
"1903" read 1803 ; lines 24 and 26, delete Macrothyreus and 
Macrocephalus ; line 6 from bottom, for Dakulosphaira read 
Daktulosphaira ; line 3 from bottom, for Embolophora read Em- 
bolophpora ; line 2 from bottom, for Gonionotus read Gonia- 
notus ; transpose marks to footnotes. 

Page 282. The footnote refers to the spelling of Phlceo- 
phthiridium and Rhizophthiridium. 



LEPIDOPTERA OF THE LINCOLNSHIRE COAST. 

By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S. 

I had the good fortune to spend the month of July, 1904, at 
Theddlethorpe St. Helen, a little-frequented spot on the Lincoln- 
shire coast. Our bungalow was situated on the top of the sand- 
hills, which are of considerable height, and have been raised to 
protect the low-lying distriet eastwards of the wolds from the 
ravages of the sea. These sandhills, upon which most of my 
collecting took place, are covered with scrub, consisting chiefly 
of sea-buckthorn, dwarf elder, whitethorn, bramble, and similar 



80 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

low bushes, the first named so greatly predominating that one 
soon became painfully familiar with its prickly spines. The 
seaward face of the sandhills is clothed with lyme-grass, marram, 
and other plants, which serve to bind the sand and keep it from 
being blown or washed away. Tapinostola elymi was here to be 
found in almost unlimited numbers, while by searching among 
the lower-growing grasses a plentiful supply of Nudaria senex 
was obtainable. My lamp, however, attracted the attention of 
the coast-guard officers, who warned me that a moving light on 
this flat coast was apt to be attended with danger to shipping, 
and courteously requested me to keep on the other side of the 
hills. Long series of both the species mentioned were secured, 
but in the case of T. elymi the specimens were for the most part 
rather worn, owing doubtless to their habit of clinging to the 
swaying heads of the lyme-grass, and so getting blown against 
the surrounding herbage. On the day of arrival at the bungalow 
the first consideration was to find a suitable spot for sugaring. 
The district being almost treeless, advantage had to be taken of 
the posts of the wire fence which surrounded our little enclosure, 
and of the thicker stems of the buckthorn and other shrubs, 
while some clumps of thistles just coming into flower proved 
excellent objects on which to spread the alluring sweets. Among 
the moths obtained in limited numbers at sugar were Lithosia 
complana, Axylia putris, Xylophasia sublustris, Neuria reticulata, 
Mamestra albicolon, Agrotis vestigialis, A. aquili?ia, Triphcena 
interjecta, Plusia festucce, P. iota, while any number of specimens 
of Acronycta rumicis, Cerigo matara, Miana literosa, Agrotis tri- 
tici, and Hadena pisi could have been obtained. Dusking yielded 
fair results. The most plentiful Geometer was Acidalia imitaria, 
which flew among the scrubs in considerable abundance, in 
company with A. immutata. Some elder-bushes in front of the 
bungalow appeared to have attraction for Cleora lichenaria and 
Larentia viridaria, the latter species greatly predominating. 
Light did not prove the success which was anticipated. A bril- 
liantly illuminated sheet, placed in what appeared to be an 
excellent position, brought nothing but a few T. elymi and 
L. viridaria, and this method of working was therefore aban- 
doned. The lights of the house, however, to some extent made 
up for the disappointment, and on several evenings the net was 
kept busy by the insects which came in at the open door. The 
most noteworthy visitor, so far, at any rate, as size was con- 
cerned, was Odonestis potatoria, of which there were often 
several males flying about at the same time. This is one of the 
familiar insects of the sandhills — the males at light and the 
females ovipositing among the long grass. On one particular 
evening, Saturday, July 16th, the bungalow was visited by a 
swarm of Leucania impura, which were flying about in large 
numbers, but curiously enough the experience was confined to 



LEPIDOPTERA OF THE LINCOLNSHIRE COAST. 



81 



that particular night, though the insect was fairly common at 
sugar on other occasions. Several days were spent investigating 
the large woods a few miles inland, but so far as Lepidoptera 
were concerned the result was not very cheering. Burwell 
woods yielded only Charceas graminis, Aeidalia bisetata, Hypsi- 
petes sordidata, Nomophila noctuella, and Sphaleroptera ictericana. 
A visit to the " Greasy Field," near Louth, in company with 
Mr. C. S. Carter and Mr. Vincent Crow, two local entomologists, 
in search of Melitcea aurinia, which is recorded to occur there, 
and from which the field takes its name, proved fruitless, no 
signs of the presence of that insect being discernible, nor was a 
second attempt on a subsequent day any more profitable. A 
chalk-pit near by was carpeted with the yellow blossoms of 
Hypericum perforatum, from which Catoptera hypericana was 
beaten out in considerable numbers. The following is a list of 
the Lepidoptera observed at Theddlethorpe between July 1st and 
August 3rd : — 



Nndaria senex. 
Lithosia lurideola. 
L. complana. 
Euchelia jacobcw. 
Hepialus humuli. 
Odonestis potatoria. 
Thyatira derasa. 
Cymatophoraoctogesima. 
Acronycta psi. 
A. riimicis. 
Lcucania lithargyria. 
L. comma. 
L. impura. 

Calamia phragm itidis. 
Tapinostola elymi. 
Axylia putris. 
Xylophasia rurea. 
X. lithoxylea. 
X. sublustris. 
Neuria reticulata. 
Cerigo matura. 
Mamestra sordida. 
M. albicolon. 
M. brassicaz. 
Apamea basilinea. 
A. gemina. 
A. didyma. 
Miana strigilis. 
M. fasciuncula. 
M. liteiosa. 
M. bicoloria. 



M. arcuosa. 

Co radrina morpheas. 

C. alsines. 

C. taraxaci. 

C. quad rip unctata. 

Rusina teuebrosa. 

Agrotis vestigialis. 

A. sitffusa. 

A. segetum. 

A. exclamationis. 

A. corticea. 

A. tritici. 

A. aquilina. 

Xoctua augur. 

N. festiva. 

N. rubi. 

Triph a nu inter jecta . 

T. orbona. 

T. pronuba. 

Mania typica. 

Euplexia lucipara. 

Aplecta advena. 

Hadena oleracea. 

H. pi d. 

Plusia chrysitis. 

P. festucee. 

P. iota. 

P. gamma. 

Cleora lichenaria. 

A cidalia dimidia ta . 

A. dilutaria. 



A. immutata. 

A. imitaria. 
A. emarginata. 
Caber a pusaria. 
Larentia didymata. 
L. viridaria. 
Eupithecia subful rata . 
Melanthia ocellata. 
M. albicillata. 
Melanippe sociata. 
M. montanata . 
M. Jiuctuata. 
Cidaria dotata. 
Pelurya comitata. 
Aglossa pinyuinalis. 
Pyralis glaucinalis. 
Scoparia mercurella. 
Herbula cespitalis. 
Scopula olivalis. 
S. prunalis. 
Cr ambus tristellus. 
Homceosoma nimbella. 
H. nebulella. 
Dictyopteryx kejiingiana. 
Aspis udmanniana. 
Sericoris lacunana. 
Sciaphila conspersana. 
S. virgaureana. 
Sphaleroptera ictericana. 
Catoptria hypericana. 
Eupccciiia atricapitana. 



82 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SUPPLEMENTARY LIST OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF 
THE ISLAND OF CAPRI.— No. 2. 

By C. Seymour Browne. 

In my previous supplementary list (Entom. xxxvii. pp. 186- 
188) twenty additions were enumerated. I now give twenty-two 
others. 

NoTODONTIDiE. 

791. Hoplitis milhauseri, F. 

Noctuid^;. 

1787. Polia canescens, Dup. 

20056. Caradrina selini, B., var. et ab noctivaga, Bell. 

"2068. Tamiocampa stabilis, View. 

2183. Xylomyges conspicillaris, L., ab. Melaleuca, View. 

2199. Calophasia lunula, Hufn. 

2221. Cucullia verbasci, L. 

2391. Kublemma suava, Hb. 

2417. Thalpochares polygramma, Dup. 

Geometric^;. 

2953. Acidalia dimidiata, Hufn. 
3003. A. extersaria, H.-S. 
3008. A. ochroleucata, H.-S. 
3020. A. herbariata, F. 
3886. Boarmia umbraria, Hb. 
4.009. Thamnonoma semicanaria, Frr. 

NoLID/E. 

4110. Nula chlamitulalis, Hb. 

Arctiad.e. 

4203«. Arctia villica, L., ab. (et var.) angelica, B. 
42036. A. villica var. konewkai, Frr. 

CoSSID-E. 

4685. Hypopta castrum, Hb. 

Pyralid^e. 
700. Dioryctria abietella, F. 
1242. Pyrausta sanguinaiis, L. 

Tortricid.k. 
2055. Notocelia uddmanniana, L. 



83 



NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA (ACULEATA, ICH- 
NEUMONID.E, AND BRACONIDiE) FROM INDIA. 

By P. Cameron. 

ACULEATA. 
DlODONTUS RETICULATUS, Sp. 110V. 

Niger, mandibulis late flavis ; geniculis, tibiis tarsisque anticis 
flavis ; alis liyalinis, nervis stigmateque nigris. ? . Long, fere 
5 mm. 

Hab. Deesa (Major C. G. Nurse). 

This species comes near to D. striolatus, Cam., from Lahore. 
The two may be separated thus : — 

Clypeus roundly and deeply incised in the middle ; the 
base of the mesopleura? without stout striations ; 
the hinder tibia? and tarsi testaceous . . striolatus, Cam. 

Clypeus not roundly and deeply incised in the middle ; 
the base of the mesopleura? with some stout stria- 
tions ; the hinder tibiae only testaceous at the base reticulata. 

Antennas black ; the flagellum with a pale microscopic pile. Head 
black ; the front and vertex minutely and sparsely punctured ; the face 
is thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus 
almost transverse. Mandibles yellow, their apical third black. Thorax 
shining ; the base of the propleura? with stout striations ; there are 
two stout long oblique stria? behind the middle, and a shorter curved 
one behind these, almost in the middle ; inesopleura? with stout, widely 
separated keels on the basal half, which form irregular reticulations ; 
the basal half coarsely aciculated, the apical smooth and shining. The 
base of the metapleura? is smooth and shining ; the rest bears oblique 
distinctly separated stria?. The base of the median segment bears 
stout oblique keels, which run into irregular reticulations in the middle ; 
the apical slope is irregularly transversely striated ; the fovea is large 
and deep. The four anterior tibia? and the anterior tarsi are for the 
greater part testaceous ; the base of the hinder tibia? white ; there are 
four longish spines on the hinder tibia?, and there are three or four 
shorter spines on the apex on the outer side ; the middle tibia? are 
similarly but not so strongly spined. Abdomen smooth and shining ; 
the apical half covered with a pale down. 

Cerceris simlaensis, sp. nov. 
Black, largely marked with yellow, and thickly covered with white 
hair ; the scape of the antenna? beneath yellow ; the third joint and 
the base of the fourth rufous ; legs yellow ; the four anterior femora 
largely marked with black behind ; the hinder pair with the apical 
two-thirds black ; the basal area on the median segment stoutly longi- 
tudinally striated. $ . Length, 10-11 mm. 

Hab. Simla (Nurse). 



84 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Head black ; the frontal spine, the face, the inner orbits to shortly 
above the base of the antenna? — the yellow line narrowed and rounded 
above — the clypeus, cheeks, and mandibles, except at the apex, yellow. 
Face strongly punctured ; the clypeus is rounded at the top ; its upper 
part convex, its lower with a semicircular depression in the middle ; 
the apex black and transverse in the middle ; the sides obliquely 
narrowed ; both are black on the lower side. Vertex strongly punc- 
tured ; the punctures distinctly separated ; the front is much more 
closely and more minutely punctured, especially below where they run 
into striations. Thorax strongly and closely punctured, and thickly 
covered with white hair ; there is a yellow mark — obliquely narrowed 
on the inner side — on either side of the pronotum, and the post- 
scutellum is yellow. The scutellum is more sparsely punctured than 
the mesonotum. The basal area on the metanotum is stoutly longi- 
tudinally striated ; the rest of it is closely rugosely punctured, and is 
thickly covered with long white hair. Pleurae closely but not deeply 
punctured, except the part below the hind wings, which is closely 
striated. Legs yellow ; the four front femora above broadly at the 
base, slightly more than the apical half of the posterior, and a line on 
the outer and inner sides of the apical half of the hinder tibia?, black ; 
the hinder tarsi infuscated. Wings hyaline, the apex smoky ; the 
stigma, the costa, and the basal nervures fulvous. The abdominal 
segments are lined with yellow on the apex ; the last has an irregularly 
round mark on the sides. The pygidial area is strongly punctured, 
more sparsely in the middle than at the apex or base ; the epipygium 
has a rounded incision in the apex ; the fifth and sixth segments are, 
at the apex laterally, armed with bundles of stiff golden hair, the last 
being the thicker and longer, and looks like a stiff broad spine. 

Come nearest to C. himalayensis, Bingham. 

ICHNEUMONIDJi. 

Cryptus excavatus, sp. nov. 
Niger ; pedibus runs ; coxis trochanteribus femoribusque anticis 
subtus nigris; alis hyalinis, stigmate nervisque nigris. ? . Long. 12, 
terebra 3 mm. 

Hah. Simla (Nurse). 

Antenna? entirely black. Head black ; the inner orbits narrowly 
in the middle and the outer still more narrowly yellow. Face strongly 
and closely punctured, and thickly covered with white hair ; the centre 
roundly projecting. Clypeus smooth, shining, and sparsely punc- 
tured. Front deeply depressed, smooth, closely and finely transversely 
striated ; the part below the ocelli is coarsely irregularly transversely 
striated; the vertex near the ocelli is stoutly reticulated. Thorax 
closely rugosely punctured, more or less striated on the pleura? and 
mesonotum. Scutellum shining and sparsely punctured. The median 
segment is more coarsely rugosely punctured than the mesonotum ; 
the basal keel is less distinct than the apical ; the teeth are broad. 
The mesosternal furrow is deep, curved, and does not reach beyond the 
middle. Legs rufous ; all the coxa? and trochanters, the front femora 
to near the apex below and behind, the middle pair behind to near 



NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA FROM INDIA. 85 

the middle, the apex of the hinder narrowly, and of the tibiae more 
broadly, black. Abdomen shining, the black with a bluish tinge. The 
wings have a slight fulvous tint. 

A smaller and more slenderly built species than C. lucn- 
lentus. 

Cryptus luculentus, sp. nov. 

Niger; pedibus runs ; coxis trochanteribusque nigris ; alishyalinis, 
stigmate testaceo, nervis fuscis. ? . Long. 17, terebra 5 mm. 

Hah. Simla (Nurse). 

Antennae entirely black ; the scape punctured and sparsely covered 
with short hair. Head black ; the inner and outer orbits and a trans- 
verse mark on the middle of the clypeus near the apex, yellowish. 
Face closely and rather strongly punctured, and thickly covered with 
white hair ; the centre is dilated broadly and roundly ; the clypeus is 
more shining, and not quite so strongly punctured as the face. 
Mandibles black, rufous behind the teeth. Thorax closely and dis- 
tinctly punctured ; the pleurae more strongly than the mesonotum. 
The punctuation on the sides and on the apical slope of the median 
segment run into reticulations, this being also the case with the meta- 
pleurae. The base of the median segment is obliquely depressed in the 
middle ; the basal transverse keel on it is interrupted in the middle, 
distinct on the sides, and projecting on the outer edge. Wings hyaline, 
with a slight but distinct fulvous tinge. Abdomen smooth ; the middle 
segments aciculated. Legs rufous ; the coxae and trochanters black ; 
the hinder tarsi have a yellowish tinge ; they are distinctly spinose. 

Spilichneumon annulicornis, sp. nov. 
Niger ; pedibus, scutello abdomineque late rufis ; annulo flagello 
antennarum, abdominisque apice albis ; alis hyalinis, stigmate nervis- 
que nigris ; apice tibiarum posticarum tarsisque posticis nigris. $ . 
Long. 11 mm. 

Hab. Simla (Nurse). 

Antennae shorter than the body, black, the flagellum brownish 
beneath towards the apex ; there is a broad white band beyond the 
middle. Head black ; the inner orbits and the sides of the clypeus 
broadly lemon-yellow ; the centre of the clypeus has a rufous tinge. 
Face and clypeus closely punctured ; the front and vertex are quite as 
strongly and closely punctured ; the mandibles are broadly rufous near 
the middle. Thorax black, the scutellum yellow. Pro- and meso- 
thorax closely and strongly punctured, and thickly covered with pale 
pubescence ; the scutellum is not so closely punctured, and is covered 
with long pale hair. Median segment closely and strongly punctured, 
and thickly covered with longish white pubescence ; the areola is twice 
longer than broad ; the basal half is slightly but distinctly narrowed, 
its apex transverse ; the sides are stoutly transversely striated, the 
centre aciculated ; in the middle of the apical half is a longitudinal 
keel ; the apical slope is closely irregularly rugose. Pleurae closely, 
almost rugosely, punctured, the metapleurae more coarsely than the 
rest. Legs rufous ; the four anterior coxae and the trochanters pale 
yellow ; the hinder coxae, the basal joint of the trochanters, the apical 



86 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

third of the tibire, and the hinder tarsi, black. Wings hyaline, the 
stigma and nervures dark fuscous. Abdomen black ; the post-petiole, 
the second and third segments, and the sides of the fourth red ; a large 
semicircular white mark on the apex of the sixth segment and the 
whole of the seventh white. The post-petiole is strongly but not very 
closely punctured ; the gastrocoeli are narrow, dilated at the base ; 
their outer side longitudinally striated. 

(To be continued.) 



A LIST OF THE " MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA " OF 
LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 

By C. H. Forsythe. 

In compiling this list of our local " Macro-Lepidoptera," 
I have kept strictly in view the necessity of excluding any 
species I have had the slightest doubt about. I could have 
included several species on the authority of the late Mr. J. B. 
Hodgkinson, who marked them in Newman's ' British Butterflies 
and Moths ' as " probably occurring in the neighbourhood " ; 
but, as I have no record of their actual capture, I have excluded 
them. That the list is far from complete I know, but I hope 
this will stimulate collectors to record the capture of anything 
" new to the district," so that we may in the near future have 
a more complete one. I have to thank Mr. George Loxham, of 
Lancaster, for much valuable information ; some of his records, 
extending over a period of forty years, are unique. 

Pierid^e. 

Fieris brassica. — Common everywhere in June and July, and the 
second brood in August and September. 

P. mpce. — Abundant ; late May and June, and the second brood in 
August and September. A yellow form occurs occasionally. 

P. napi. — Abundant ; late May and June, and the second brood in 
July, August, and September. Some of the forms about Clougha Pike 
are much suffused with black scales, and the veins are broadly marked, 
showing a tendency to melanism. 

Ettchloe cardamines. — Uncommon about Lancaster. Odd specimens 
near Quernmore and Torrisholme. Abundant at Witherslack and 
Methop in May and June. 

Leucophasia sinapis. — Local. Fairly common at Methop and 
Witherslack in April and May. No second brood has been recorded. 

Colias edusa. — Very rare generally ; in " edma years " we frequently 
obtain specimens. I have taken this species (in 1900) at Hest bank 
and near Halton, and saw a specimen the following year flying over a 
clover field near Lancaster. "In 1892 I took several examples near 
Lancaster, and in 1900 I took a few near Methop bank " (G. Loxham). 
The var. helice has not been captured, as far as I know. 



MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 87 

Gonepteryx rhamni. — Rare about Lancaster, fairly common at Arn- 
side, and abundant at Witberslack in late July, August, and September. 

Nymphalid^e. 

Argynnis selene. — Formerly common near Clougha Pike ; now ex- 
tinct there. " Up to a few years ago it occurred commonly in a rough 
field near Witherslack, but cultivation has stamped it out in that 
locality" \G. Loxham). The imago appears in June. 

A. euphrosyne. — Common near Warton, Carnforth, on Arnside 
Knott, and near Grange-in-Cartmel, in early June. 

A. aylaia. — I took a specimen in July, 1901, near Hest bank. 
Common at Warton, Arnside, and Witberslack. 

A. adippe, — Fairly plentiful at Warton ; common at Arnside and 
Witherslack in July and August. " I took a fine aberration of this 
species some years ago on Arnside Knott " (G. Loxham). 

A. paphia. — I took a specimen at Witherslack on August 3rd, 1901 
— a record (vide ' Entomologist,' vol. xxxiv. p. 253). 

Vanessa poh/chloros. — One specimen taken by me at Witherslack, 
July 24th, 1901 (vide 'Entomologist,' vol. xxxiv. p. 245— " The 
Butterflies of the Witherslack District," contributed by me in Sep- 
tember, 1902). 

V. urticce. — Abundant everywhere in early May and in September. 
Although we rarely get aberrations of this species, I took one at Arn- 
side in August, 1903, and another in Grimsbaw Lane three days later. 

V. io. — Uncommon about Lancaster. Odd examples near Clougha 
Pike, Quernmore, Grimshaw Lane, &c, in August. Abundant about 
Witherslack and Arnside. This species is apt to vary ; though such 
aberrations are rare, I have a Witherslack example, taken in 1901, 
without the " eye" markings on the hind wings. 

Pyrameis atalanta. — Fairly common in some seasons, scarce in 
others. Lancaster, Methop, Witherslack, Arnside, Halton, &c, in 
July, August, and September. 

P. canlui. — Uncommon generally ; in some years (as in 1903) 
fairly plentiful. Lancaster, Arnside, Silverdale, Witherslack, &c, in 
August and September. " I used to take the larva feeding upon 
Cnicus, annually, at Heysham some years ago" (G. Loxham). 

Erebia cethiops. — Plentiful at Arnside and Witherslack in August. 

Paranje egeria. — " Fairly common near Witherslack some years 
ago " (G. Loxham). This species is now extinct in this district. 

P. megara. — Common near Sline, Heysham, Warton, Methop, and 
Witherslack in late May and June, and the second brood in August. 

Satyrus semele. — Common at Arnside and Witherslack in July and 
August. 

Epinephele ianira. — Abundant everywhere in June and July. 

E. tithonus. — Very local, near Overton. " Formerly common about 
Heysham Moss in July " (G. Loxbam). 

Aphantopus (E.) hyper anihvs. — " Formerly common in Maud's Wood, 
near Grange-in-Cartmel, in July and August" (G. Loxham). This 
species has not been taken in this district for the last few years, and is 
probably extinct. 

Camonympha typhon. — The type does not occur here. On the 



88 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

mosses at Witherslack, Methop, and Heysham, the var. rothliebi is 
abundant in June and July. 

C. pamphilus. — Abundant everywhere in June, July, and August. 

Zephyrus (Thecla) betula. — Very local and scarce near Silverdale in 
late August and September. "Common near Silverdale, formerly" 
(G. Loxham). 

Z. (T.) quercus, — Fairly common on Arnside Knott in July and 
August. 

Callopkrys (T.) rubi. — Abundant near Clougha and Quernmore ; 
common at Metbop in April, May, and June. 

Chrysnphaniis phlocas. — Fairly common in Grimshaw Lane, near 
Clougha, Blea Tarn, Arnside, Witherslack, &c, from June to September. 

Lyccena agon. — Locally common at Witherslack in August. 

L. ayestis. — Common at Arnside, Methop, &c, in May, June, and 
July. The var. salmacis occurs occasionally at Warton and Arnside, 
and the var. allous at Arnside fairly commonly. 

L. icarus. — Common everywhere in June, and the second brood 
(often very diminutive in size) in September. 

L. corydon. — " Common about Arnside Tower some years ago. 
Common near Warton in 1892" (G. Loxham). 

L. minima. — Very local near Witherslack early in June. 

Cyaniris (L.) argiolus. — Common about Grange, Methop, and 
Witherslack in late May and early June. No second brood occurs in 
this district. 

Erycinid-e. 

Nemeobius lucina. — Very local near Grange and at Witherslack in 
late May and June. 

Hesperiad^;. 

Tlianaos (Nisoniades) tages. — Plentiful at Arnside and Witherslack 
in May. 

Augiades (Hesperia) sylvanus. — Fairly common near Methop and 
Arnside in May and June. 

Sphingid.e. 

Acherontia atropos. — Scarce, although odd specimens are captured 
nearly every year in July, August, and September. The larvre have 
also been taken feeding on potato occasionally. 

Sphinx convolvuli. — Rare. I took two specimens in August, 1900, 
and had another brought to me by a gardener, wbo found it at rest on 
a fuchsia; and on August 23rd, 1902, I found a specimen on a gate 
near Halton. I have only one record of the larva being found on 
bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) on July 19th, 1900, near Quernmore. 

Deilephila galii. — The larvas are rare at Heysham on Galium in 
September. 

Chcerocampa celerio. — Very rare. Mr. John Ralph has a specimen, 
taken in Lancaster some years ago ; and on July 28th, 1898, I had a 
small male brought to me by our electrician. 

Metopsilus (C.) porcellus. — I took two specimens at Quernmore in 
June, 1901, and have seen it on the wing near Clougha. "It occurs 
on the Witherslack and Methop Mosses " (G. Loxham). 



MACRO-LBPIDOPTBRA OF LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 89 

Smerinthus ocellatus. — This species occurs near Hest bank, but I 
have only taken larvae tbere ; at Witherslack the sallows growing 
by the sides of the mosses are prolific hunting grounds for the larva3 
in July. 

S. populi. — Common everywhere : imago in June, larvre in July 
and August. 

Macroglossa stellatarum. — "Common at Arnside, Methop, and 
Witherslack in May" (G. Loxham). 

Hemaris (M.) fuciformis. — " Rare near Methop bank in late May" 
(G. Loxham). 

H. (ill.) bombyliformis. — " Occasionally about the mosses at Wither- 
slack and near Methop bank in late May " (G. Loxham). 

SESIIDiE. 

Trochilium crabroniformis. — Common in the County Asylum grounds 
on sallow trunks in late June and July. Occasionally at Heysham and 
Hornby. 

Zyg^nimd. 

Ino statices. — Very local near Witherslack in late June and early 
July. 

Zygana filipendultz. — Local, but abundant near Grange in July. 

Cymbid^;. 
Hylophila prasinana. — Not common ; Grimshaw Lane, County 
Asylum grounds, near Quernmore, &c, end of May. I have bred 
this species from Witherslack and Methop larva?. 

Nolid.e. 
Nolo, cucuUatella. — Local ; Freeman's Wood, Lancaster, in July. 

Arctiad^:. 

Nudaria mundana. — Not common, but generally distributed. Blea 
Tarn, Quernmore, County Asylum grounds, &c, end of July. 

Cybosia (Lithosia) mesomella. — " Uncommon near Scotforth and at 
Witherslack in July " (G. Loxham). 

Lithosia lurideola. — Common at Witherslack and Arnside in July. 

L. sericea. — Local at Witherslack in mid-July. 

(Enistis (Gnophria) quadra. — "Two examples attracted to light 
near Lancaster, July, 1902 " (G. Loxham). 

HipocHta (Euchelia) jacobace. — Abundant at Witherslack and 
Methop, less so at Warton, in June. 

Diacrisia (Nemeophila) russula. — Fairly common near Quernmore 
and Clougha, common on the Witherslack and Methop Mosses in July. 

Parasemia (X.) pJantaginis. — Common at Witherslack, near Quern- 
more, and Clougha in July and early August. 

Arctia caia. — Common everywhere in July. 

A. villica. — " Rare. Two specimens were taken in Ridge Lane, 
near Lancaster, in June, a few years ago " (G. Loxham). 

Phragmatobia (Spilosoma) fuliginosa. — Rare at Heysham ; common 
near Clougha and Methop bank, end of June. 

Spilosoma mend ica. — Common; Freeman's Wood, Lancaster (gene- 
rally), Quernmore, &c, in June. 

BNTOM. — MARCH. 1905. H 



90 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

S. lubricipeda, — Common everywhere in June. 
S. menthastri. — Plentiful in June, and generally distributed. 
S. urticee. — Very local. "I have only taken this species near 
Oakcliffe Hall in June " (G. Loxham). 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Pupation of Cataclysta lemnata. — The larva noted (ante, p. 5) as 
alive in November was brought into a warm room, fed up rapidly, and 
made a case nearly an inch long. When it made its cocoon (about 
January 25th) it much shortened this, and made it broader, by what 
engineering expedients I do not know, nor how it made a further 
important improvement. The larval case was very shabby, being 
covered with leaves of Lemna, mostly dead and discoloured. The 
cocoon (15 mm. long and 10 wide) is now covered by bright fresh 
leaves of the duckweed, so far as regards the portion above water, and, 
except that it is convex and prominent, it now looks just like the weed 
growing around it. — T. A. Chapman ; Betula, Keigate, Feb. 4th, 1905. 

The Time of Appearance of Lepidoptera in connection with 
Season and Latitude. — The question of the time of appearance of 
Limenitis sibylla, raised by the notes of Messrs. Gurney (Entom. xxxvii. 
324) and Bentall (ibid, xxxviii. 62), is one of wider interest than may 
appear from the case of a single species. The whole subject of the 
time of appearance of species in connection with the two factors of 
season and latitude requires collating and discussing. I regret that I 
have no time to do this myself, but I beg to communicate two personal 
observations as a contribution to the discussion. Some years ago I 
spent a few weeks at the little village of Framzelle, near Cape Gris 
Nez. Early in October, when the weather had become cold, and Lepi- 
doptera had nearly all disappeared, the only butterfly found along the 
coast was Argynnis lathona, which species was fairly common. On 
those rare occasions when this butterfly is taken in this country, it is, 
if I remember the records accurately, always taken some weeks earlier. 
Again, this last autumn (1904), I was at Ballater, in Scotland. On 
Sept. 21st, in the course of an evening walk by the banks of the Dee, I 
saw and captured Chesias spartiata, which was flying in profusion over 
the broom on a clear, cold, moonlight night. The flight lasted for about 
twenty minutes. This date struck me as being very early for Scotland. 
E. Meldola; 6, Brunswick Square, W.C., Feb. 1st, 190*5. 

Gynandrous Specimen of Cyaniris (Lyc^na) argiolus. — During a 
fortnight's holiday in South Devon I paid a visit to Torquay on Aug. 
8th, 1904, and was rewarded by the capture of a freshly-emerged 
gynandrous specimen of Lyccena argiolus. I had just previously taken 
a fine male Lasiocampa (Bombyx) quercus, one male L. argiolus, and 
seven specimens of Macroglossa stellatarum, and had seen Colias edusa, 
when, as we were returning to the harbour from the bathing-cove, my 
wife called my attention to a holly blue, which settled in the middle of 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 91 

the road, and fell an easy victim to my net. When boxed, the insect 
elevated its wings over its back, and its true character was not then 
recognized. On our return to the boarding-house it was transferred to 
the killing-bottle, when it closed its wings round its body and revealed 
the fact that the right pair of wings were those of the male, and the 
left pair those of the female. The markings on the under side are 
quite normal. The abdomen appears to possess the characters of the 
female. The specimen is 1} in. in expanse. There was no oppor- 
tunity of establishing evidence of the theory that these freaks occur in 
pairs, for the fellow one did not cross my path. I have collected for 
twenty-one years without having met with a gynaudrous specimen, and 
this capture was in consequence especially pleasing to me. The 
weather that day was all that could be desired, the sun shining bril- 
liantly in a cloudless sky, and the heat was intense. — 0. Granville 
Clutterbuck ; Heathside, Heathville Road, Gloucester. 

Notes on Odonata. — Mr. H. M. Edelsten sends the following 
interesting notes on dragonflies in 1905 : — Sympetrum striolatum and 
Msclma mixta, South Devon, common, Aug. 19th to 80th ; M. cyanea 
and /E. grandis, Enfield, August; Erythromma naias, Enfield, several, 
June 10th ; Pyrrhosoma nymphula, Enfield and Epping Forest, June ; 
Ischnura eleyans, Enfield and Epping Forest, June, July, and August ; 
Agrion pulchellum, Enfield, June; A. puella and Enallagma cyathi- 
gerum, Enfield, June, July, and August. He also received from the 
Norfolk Broads, S. striolatum and Lestes sponsa, Aug. 25th, Sept. 5th. 
On one occasion Mr. Edelsten was able to watch a female E. cyathi- 
gerum ovipositing. It descended below the surface and remained 
under water for nearly fifteen minutes. When it came up again it 
flew off and was at once seized by a male, per colhim. — W. J. Lucas ; 
Kingston-on-Thames. 



CAPTUKES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Vanessa antiopa in Surrey. — I have a rather damaged specimen 
of the " Camberwell Beauty " butterfly, which was captured on August 
29th, 1904, at Raynes Park.— W. Smith ; 46, Durham Road, Cotten- 
ham Park, Wimbledon, Jan. 3rd, 1905. 

Lyc^na bcetica in Cornwall. — I have much pleasure in recording 
the capture, near to Truro, of a female specimen of L. bcetica. It was 
netted on August 2nd, 1904, by a young friend of mine, a schoolboy 
collector, who so far has only a very small collection of the commoner 
species of butterflies. He saw the insect in his garden hovering around 
a veronica-bush, which it quickly left for a fuchsia-tree in bloom, and 
from which he netted it. It was not until he boxed the insect that he 
thought it to be anything unusual. He kept it alive for a day or two, 
hoping to find me at home, but unfortunately I was away on my holi- 
days. He therefore pinched the thorax in the old-fashioned way, and 
set the insect, which is now in my collection. Both the wings on the 
right side are a little split at the edges, and the fringe worn ; otherwise 
it is in good condition, the under side being beautifully marked and 



92 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

coloured. The tail-like appendages and antennas are complete, but by 
the pinching of thorax to kill it only one leg remains. I am delighted, 
however, to have the specimen. Can you inform me whether there are 
any later records of the capture of this insect than those given in 
Barrett's ' British Lepidoptera,' published in 1893 ? — W. A. Kollason; 
The White House, Truro, Feb. 10th, 1905. 

[In 1893 three specimens of L. bcetica were recorded in the ' Ento- 
mologist ' for that year — a male on September 7th at Dartford ; one at 
Hastings, also in September ; and a specimen in Sussex, August 28th. 
Two examples were reported as occurring in England in 1899. Qne 
of these was recorded as taken at Tunbridge Wells on September 1st ; 
the other was said to have been captured at Deal on September 16th 
(Entom. xxxii. p. 281). — Ed.] 

Unusual Dates. — The following dates may be worth recording : — 
On Nov. 15th, 1901, a fine male specimen of Colias edusa vta,s seen on 
the wing ; on Jan. 25th, 1905, one example of Cidaria psittacatq 
(siderata) was found at rest on a bank ; and on Feb. 3rd, 1905, a 
specimen of Eumia luteolata (cmtmjata) was seen in a similar position. 
The latter is, I think, quite exceptional even for South Devon. — E. D. 
Morgan ; 8, Luscombe Terrace, Dawlish, Devon, Feb. 3rd, 1905. 

[In the December number of the ' Entomologist ' for last year there 
are two records of G. edusa having been observed in November. 
C. psittacata hybernates in the imago state. February is certainly an 
unusual date for 11. luteolata. — Ed.] 

Leucoph^a surinamensis Linn, in Essex. — This pretty cockroach 
has occurred abundantly in a tanpit adjoining the greenhouses of a 
private garden between Chelmsford and Bloomfield, and is doing con- 
siderable harm to the pineapples, orchids, and other plants. In Mr. 
Burr's 'British Orthoptera,' published in 1897, the occurrence of two 
individuals at Bognor, Sussex, and one at Kew is mentioned, but Mr. 
Burr states that "it hardly deserves to be called British until it is 
proved that it actually breeds here." There is no doubt of its breed- 
ing in the present locality, as it has been established for several years, 
and the specimens brought to me are of every age and size, from 
recently hatched young to mature insects. The gardener who sub- 
mitted the specimens to me does not know how they came, but in the 
past few years numerous tropical plants have been brought into the 
garden, and the cockroaches may have been brought with one of them. 
I have sent specimens to the British Museum Collection, and my 
naming has been confirmed there. — E. Charles Horrell ; County 
Laboratories, Chelmsford, Essex. 

Since writing the above, I hear from Mr. W. H. Harwood, of Col- 
chester, that about thirty specimens have recently been found near 
Liverpool and Manchester. — E. C. H. 

A few Captures from North Cornwall in 1903. — The following 
insects, taken during July and August, may be worth noting : — Argynnis 
aijlaia, abundant and in grand condition ; Leucophasia sinapis, includ- 
ing one of the pale variety ; Hesjieria linea, abundant ; Melanargia 
galatea, Habrosyne derasa, Cymatophora duplaris, Emmelcsia alchemiilata, 
Triphccna intcrjecta, Hylopkila quercana (bicolorana), Hypsipetes ehitata 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 93 

beautiful vars. ; Epione apiciaria, common ; Noctua baia ; and a grand 
specimen of Cidaria triincata var. comma-notata, of the colouring de- 
scribed by " Newman." — W. A. Rollason ; The White House, Truro, 
Cornwall. 

Notes on Coleoptera in South-west Surrey. — Claviger foveolatus, 
Mull. In the nests of Formica flava under stones on the " Hog's 
Back." — Chrysomela polita, L. Occurred only once in the interior of 
a fallen tree on Peasmarsh. — Oncomera femorata, F. Abundant in the 
vicinity of Shackleford, on JEgopodium podagraria. — Leistus spinibarbis, 
F. Under refuse in a wood near Puttenham. — Carabus intricatus, L. 
Fairly plentiful during the summer months. — Pterostichus nigrita, F., 
P. strenuus, Daws. Widely distributed, but few specimens taken. — 
Notiophilus palustris, Duft. Occurred once or twice on Peasmarsh. — 
Geotrupes sylvaticus, Panz. One specimen taken in a copse near 
Compton. — Clytus arietis, L. On roses at Godalming. — Meloe pro- 
scarabceus, L., M. violaceus, Marsh. Occurred frequently on grassy 
banks. — Zabrus gibbus, F. Was taken only once in a field of standing 
corn at Shackleford. — Anobium pertina.v, L. Plentiful in old willows 
on the banks of the Wey. — Toxotus meridianus, L. One specimen 
only crawling on a road. — Bolitobius atricapillus, F. Abundant in 
fungi. — CaUistus lunatus, F. Under stones on the " Hog's Back." — 
Apion pomonie, F. Abundant. — Silpha rugosa, L., S. atrata, L. 
Plentiful on dead animals. 

I also did a little collecting among the water-beetles during the 
first fortnight in July. From Cuttmill ponds I obtained Pelobius 
tardus, Herbst ; Agabus bipustulatus, L. ; Acilius sulcatus, L. ; llybius 
fuliginosus, F. ; Gyrinus natator, Scop. ; Cercyon jiavipes, F. ; Dytiscus 
marginalis, L. ; Haliplus obliquus, F. ; Hyphydrus ovatus, L. And 
from Losely, Hydroporus palustris, L. ; Spharidium bipustulatum, F. — 
J. A. Croft ; Charterhouse, Godalming, Surrey. 

Collecting in West Cornwall during 1903-1904. — Omitting cap- 
tures of the commoner species, the following may be interesting to 
record : — 

1903. Truro District. — June : Lycana argus (agon), Acidalia sub- 
sericeata, Eaj)ithecia plumbeolata. July : Habrosyne derasa, Thyatira 
batis, Acidalia bisetata, Cymatophora duplaris, Bapta [Corycia) temerata, 
Melanippe galiata. 

Newquay District. — July: Lycana argus (fairly abundant), L. 
astrarche {inedon). 

Falmouth District. — July: Melanippe galiata. August: Colias 
edusa (scarce), Vanessa cardui (fairly common), Epineuronia (Neuro?iia) 
popularis, Noctua rubi, Melanippe galiata, Agrotis sur/usa, A. pitta, A. 
obelisca, Triphana interjecta, Noctua c-nigrum, Axylia putris, Miana 
literosa. September: Eupithecia centaureata, Heliothis armigera, Cara- 
drina blanda, Aporophyla australis, Folia Jiavicincta. 

1904. Truro District. — May : Rusina tenebrosa. June : Heliodes 
arbuti, Emmelesia alchemillata, Melanippe galiata, sEthia {Zanclognatha) 
tarsi pennalis, Anticlea rubidata (common), Rusina tenebrosa, Eupithecia 
exiguata, E. castigata, Cymatophora duplaris, Acidalia subsericeata. July : 
Eupithecia tenuiata (from larvae taken in sallow-catkins in April), 



94 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Metrocampa margaritaria, Ligdia adust at a, Eapithecia rectangulata, Mela- 
nippe unangidata, Anticlea sinuata, August : Acidalia promutata, 
Xanthia silago (from larvae taken in sallow-catkins in April). Septem- 
ber : Xylina rhizolitha, Golias edusa (2), Orthosia lota (from larvas taken 
in sallow-catkins in April), Polia flavicincta. 

St. Austell District. — June: Erastria fuscida, Tephrosia punctu- 
laria. July : Emmelesia alchemillata, Melanippe unangidata, M. rivata, 
Anticlea rubidata, Erastria fuscida. 

Falmouth District. — June: Anticlea rubidata, Emmelesia ajfinitata, 
Bapta (Gorycia) temerata, Anticlea sinuata. July : Agrotis lunigcra, 
Gleora glabraria, Emmelesia ajinitata, Eupithecia rectangulata. August : 
Lasiocampa (Bombyx) quercus, Pyrantels (Vanessa) cardui (numerous). 
This month were taken also larva of Bapta temerata, and in July 
larvae of Emmelesia ajpnitata, Dianthcecia capsophila, Eupithecia venosata, 
Macroglossa stellatarum, and Pieris napi. 

I should be glad to know if Gleora glabraria and Anticlea sinuata 
have been previously recorded from Cornwall. — W. A. Rollason ; 
The White House, Truro, Cornwall. 

[Anticlea cucullata (sinuata) has once been recorded from Cornwall. 
Gleora glabraria is known to occur in Devonshire, but, so far as we are 
aware, it has not been reported before from Cornwall. — Ed.] 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — February 1st, 1905. — Mr. F. 
Merrifield, President, in the chair. — The President announced that he 
had appointed Dr. Thomas Algernon Chapman, M.D., F.Z.S. ; Dr. 
Frederick Augustus Dixey, M.A., M.D. ; and Professor Edward B. 
Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S., as Vice-Presidents for the Session 1905-6. — 
Mr. H. St. J. Donisthorpe exhibited specimens of Oligota granaria 
found in a granary in Holborn, the only other localities reported 
hitherto being Shoe Lane and Scarborough. — Mr. W.J. Kaye, a speci- 
men of the Erycinid butterfly, Mesosemia eamene, pinned in its natural 
position of rest to show its resemblance to the head of a small 
mammal, such as a mouse. — Dr. T. A. Chapman, a variety of the 
female of Lycaena melanops. As a mere aberration it was interesting, 
but it was of value as showing that the position in the genus for long 
accorded to the species, whether by accident or design, close to the 
Arion-Euphemus group, was correct. The considerable extension of 
the blue in this specimen showed up certain black spots on the upper 
surface of both upper and lower wings, strictly similar to these 
characteristics of the Arion-Euphemus group. He had named the 
variety, which seemed to be undescribed, var. uheeleri, in recognition 
of the work done by the Rev. George Wheeler among alpine butter- 
flies. — Mr. F. Enock, a living female H. defoliaria, taken as late as 
February 1st, at rest on north side of oak-tree, and another female 
taken January 28th in the same wood at Bexley. He also exhibited, 
on behalf of Mr. Leonard Newman, of Bexley, two fine hybrids bred 
from a male Notodonta ziczac and a female N. dromedarius, the colour 
being that of dromedarius while the markings were those of ziczac. — 



SOCIETIES. 95 

Mr. 0. E. Janson, a living specimen of Acridium eegyptium, L., found 
in a cauliflower in Bloomsbury, and probably imported from Italy. — 
Mr. G. C. Champion, two specimens of Malachius bamevUlei, Puton, 
captured by Mr. Thouless at Hunstanton, Norfolk, in June, 1899, a 
recent addition to the British List. — Mr. H. W. Andrews, male and 
female examples of Machimus rusticus, Mg., a rare Asilid, taken in cop. 
at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, on August 13th, 1903.— Mr. W. J.Lucas, 
a female specimen of Panorpa cognata taken at Byfleet Canal on August 
23rd, 1904. The species occurs at Folkestone, and is said to be found 
in the New Forest. For comparison he also exhibited female specimens 
of P. communis and P. germanica. — The following papers were read : — 
" A Eevisiou of the Genus Criocephalus, with Notes on the Habits of 
Asemum striatum and Criocephalus ferns,'" by Dr. D. Sharp, M.A., F.R.S., 
and J. Gilbert Smith, Mr. Smith exhibiting specimens. — "Another 
Entomological Excursion to Spain " (with descriptions of two new 
species of Hemiptera by Dr. 0. M. Reuter), by Dr. T. A. Chapman, 
M.D., and G. C. Champion, F.Z.S. — " On the Matrivorous Habit of 
Heterogynis," and " On the Pupal Suspension of Thais," by Dr. T. A. 
Chapman, the author exhibiting examples of Heterogynis from nume- 
rous localities. — "Notes on New Zealand Lepidoptera," by E. Meyrick, 
B.A., F.R.S. — H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., Hon. Secretary. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
January 12th, 1905. — Mr. E. Step, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the chair. — 
The President referred to the death of Mr. C. G. Barrett, who had been 
a former President of the Society, and it was unanimously agreed to 
send a letter of condolence to Mrs. Barrett and family. — Mr. Main 
exhibited Panorpa communis and P. germanica from Folkestone. — Mr. 
Lucas, P. cognata, the rarest British scorpion-fly, and the other two 
species for comparison, with a female of the latter taken during the 
field-meeting at Byfleet on July 23rd. He also showed Chrysopa cen- 
tralis, from the same locality. — Mr. Goulton, photographs of lepido- 
pterous larva?. — Mr. Joy, varieties of Aphantopus (Epinephele) hyper - 
anthus (1) with white ocelli on the upper side of the hind wing; (2) 
with the ocelli on the under side wholly or partially reduced to mere 
dots = var. arete; and (3) with elongate ocelli on the under side =ab. 
lanceolata. — Mr. R. Adkin gave an account of the Annual Meeting of 
the South-eastern Union of Scientific Societies, which he attended as 
the Society's delegate. He also read the report of the field-meeting 
held at Eynsford on June 25th, 1904. — Mr. Lucas read the report of 
the field-meeting at Byfleet on July 23rd, and then showed a number 
of lantern-slides illustrative of protective resemblance, kindly lent 
him by Mr. Hamm, of the Hope Museum, Oxford. — Messrs. Dennis, 
Clark, Lucas, Step, Tonge, and West also exhibited various slides. 

January 26th. — Mr. Sich, F.E.S., President, in the chair. — Annual 
General Meeting. — The first part of the meeting was devoted to the 
business of receiving the Treasurer's balance-sheet and statement ; the 
reading of the Council's report for the past year ; the announcement 
of the Officers and Council elected for the ensuing year ; and the 
reading of the retiring President's address. A satisfactory financial 
condition was announced by the Treasurer, Mr. T. W. Hall, and the 
Council's report showed that the work of the Society had been gener- 
ally successful throughout the year, with an average attendance 



96 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

at the twenty-five meetings of over thirty. A list of the elected 
Officers and Council: — President, Hugh Main, B.Sc, F.E.S. ; Vice- 
Presidents, A. Sich, F.E.S., and E. Step, F.L.S. ; Treasurer, T. W. 
Hall, F.E.S. ; Librarian, A. W. Dodds ; Curator, W. West (Green- 
wich) ; Hon. Secretaries, Stanley Edwards, F.L.S. , F.E.S., and Hy. 
J. Turner, F.E.S. ; Council, R. Adkin, F.E.S., F. Noad Clark, F. B. 
Carr, A. Harrison, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.C.S., W. J. Kaye, F.E.S., H. A. 
Sauze, and W. West (Streatham). — Ordinary Meeting: Mr. Hugh 
Main, B.Sc, President, in the chair. — Dr. Chapman exhibited a living 
specimen of Doritis apollinus, bred from a pupa sent from Syria. — Mr. 
Step, a further portion of the " Tugwell" herbarium. — Mr. Main 
reported having seen Hybernia rupicapraria, Phigalia pedaria, Cheima- 
tobia brumata, H. marginalia, and P. monodactylus in Epping Forest in 
some numbers on Jan. 22nd. — Mr. Turner read a few notes on the 
Entomology of Assiniboia, Canada, received from Mr. A. J. Croker. — 
Hy. J. Tubner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The first 
ordinary meeting of the session was held in the Royal Institution, 
Liverpool, on Monday, January 16th, 1905. — Mr. Wm. Webster, 
M.R.S.A.I., in the chair. — The Rev. Chas. E. G. Kendall, B.A., 
Ripon Street, Preston, and Mr. Albert Wade, F.E.S., Frenchwood 
Street, Preston, were elected members of the Society. — Donations to 
the Library were reported by the Secretary from Messrs. H. St. J. K. 
Donisthorpe, F.Z.S.; J. R. Charnley, F.Z.S., and H. B. Score, 
F.R.G.S. — The chairman announced that the Council had decided 
to hold a microscopical and lantern meeting in March, when it was 
hoped that as many members as possible would contribute to make 
the innovation a success. — This completing the business, a paper 
was communicated by Mr. E. J. B. Sopp, F.R. Met. Soc, on the 
" Orthoptera of Lancashire and Cheshire." — A paper was then read 
by Mr. H. B. Score, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist. S., on "Ants and their 
Ways," which was copiously illustrated by lantern slides. In opening, 
the lecturer treated interestingly and fully of the general external 
anatomy of the ant, afterwards discoursing on the uses of the various 
organs described, and shown on the screen. He then reviewed the 
habits of some of the better-known insects, and enlarged on the 
life-histories of such well-known species as the "Driver Ants" 
(Anomma arceus) of West Africa, the " Grain Storing Ants" (Atta 
barbara), of Palestine, &c, the "Parasol Ants" {(Ecodoma cepha- 
lotes), "Agricultural Ants" (Atta malefaciens), and others. Passing 
to a consideration of Formica rufa, F. fusca, F. sanguined, Myrmicd 
ruginodis-, and other British species, he recapitulated what is known 
regarding the habits and life-history of the various species, and 
mentioned that he had for many months had under observation, in 
a Lubbock formicarium, a nest of our common black house ant, 
Ladus niger. — On the motion of Dr. Cotton, seconded by Mr. Oulton 
Harrison, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded the lecturer. — 
Amongst exhibits shown were a beautiful series of slides of larvas by 
Mr. J. J. Richardson : Acronycta leporina, Anarta myrtilli, Liparis 
salicis, Fidonia atomaria, Ccenonympha davits, &c, by Dr. Cotton, and 
Periplaneta americana and LeucopJicea surinnmensis, from the Liverpool 
Docks, by Mr. Sopp. — E. J. B. Sopp and W. B. Harrison, Hon. Sees. 



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CONTENTS. 

Cryptic Form and Colouring in Melitsea Larvae, T. A. Chapman. 73. A Now 
Species of Nodaria from Japan and Coro:i, Richard South, 71. Descriptions 
of 'Three New Beetles from the Gold Coast and Angola, West Africa, E. A. 
Heath, 74. Bibliographical Notes on the Hemiptera, — No. 4, G. W. Kirkaidy, 
76. Lepidoptera of the Lincolnshire Coast, A. E. Gihhs, 70. Supplomentary I 
List of the Lepidoptera of the Island of Capri. — No. 2, C. Seymour Browne, 
82. Now Species of Hymenoptera (Aculeata, Ichneumonida?, and Braconidai 
. from India, P. Cameron, 83. A List of the " Macro-Lepidoptera " of Lan- 
caster and District, C. H. Forsi/the, 80. 

Notes and Observations. — Pupation of Cataclysta lemuata. T. A. Chapman. 90. 
The Time of Appearance of Lepidoptera in connection with Sea?on and Lati- 
tude. R. Mehlola, 90. Gynandrous Specimen of Cyaniris iLycitna) argiolus." 
C. Granville Olulierbuck, 90. Notes on Odonata, W. J- hucas, 91. 
'[•res and Field Reports. — Vanessa antiopa in Surrey, W. Smith. 
L.vcm n.i i'utica in Cornwall, W: A. Bollason. 91. Unusual Dates, E. D. 
Mart/an, 92. Leucoplnea surinaiuensis. Linn., in Essex, E. Charles Horn! I, 
92. A lew Captures from North Cornwall in 1903, W. A. Bollason, 92. 
on Coleoptera in South-west Surrev. J. A. Croft, 98. Collecting in West 
Cornwall during 1903-1904, W. A. BoUason. 93; 
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Vol. XXXVIII.] 



APRIL, 1905. 



[No. 503. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW BEETLES FROM 

ANGOLA. 

By E. A. Heath, M.D., F.L.S. 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Fani. Cicindelid;e. 



Ophryodera distanti, sp. n. (Fig. 1.) 

Head, pronotum, and elytra piceous, varying in some specimens to 
coppery brown ; elytra coarsely punctured with very pale ochraceous 
irregular and indistinct marks from a little above the centre to the 
apex, where they form an irregular submarginal band. The head, 
face, pronotum, and pygidium are covered with brownish white hairs. 
The antennae are piceous, except the first three joints, wbich are 
purple ; the first joint is much thicker than the second, which is twice 

ENTOM. — APRIL, 1905. I 



98 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

longer ; the third joiut is half as long as the second. The body 
beneath is shining black, except the pro- and mesonota, which are 
green and coppery. On each side of the head, thorax, and abdomen 
is a band of white hairs reaching to the pygidiuin. The femora are 
bluish coppery black, and densely covered with white hairs ; the 
tibisB are bluish black, and slightly less hairy ; the posterior tibia? are 
longer than the tarsi ; all the tarsi are purple, with white hairs at 
the joints. 

Var. a. — Elytra with only a few white spots. 

Var. b. — Elytra spotless. 

Var. c. — Elytra coppery brown. 

Long. 12 lines, lat. 4 lines. 

Hah. Angola. 

Farn. Cerambycid^e. 

Prosopocera rothschildi, sp.n. (Fig. 2.) 
Head, pronotum, scutellum, and elytra densely covered with short 
pale brown pubescence ; the pronotum is slightly sculptured, and has 
a very short tooth on each side, and a black puncture on the upper 
side in a line with and near each tooth, and one just under the tooth, 
the anterior and posterior margins are transversely striated ; the 
scutellum is tongue-shaped ; the elytra are rather thickly covered with 
black punctures, the humeral angles are slightly raised and produced 
forward, the basal area is blackly tuberculate. The antenna? in the 
male are nearly three times as long as the body, and covered with a 
fine silky lavender-coloured pubescence ; the basal joint is stoutest, 
and half as long as the second joint ; all the remaining joints are of 
the same length as the second, except the last joint, which is slightly 
longer. The legs and tarsi are covered with pale lavender- coloured 
pubescence. The body beneath is the same brown colour as the elytra. 
Long. 15 lines, max. lat. 6 lines. 

Hab. Angola. 



NOTES ON SOME STEPHENSIAN TYPES OF TORTRI- 
CINA IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTION. 

By Pochard South. 

Cnephasia sinuana, Stepli., and C. incanana, Steph. 

For nearly a quarter of a century I have been under the im- 
pression that I knew C. sinuana, Steph., but it was not until 
quite recently that I became aware of the existence of C. in- 
canana. The revelation came about when examining the Tortri- 
cina in the Stephens collection in the Natural History Museum. 
In working through the species of Cnephasia, I found three speci- 
mens over the name sinuana ; each of these had one of the small 
oval labels on the pins which distinguish veritable Stephensian 
specimens from others which have been added since the collec- 
tion went into the Museum. One of these specimens accurately 



TYPES OF TOItTRICINA IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTION. 99 

agrees with the description of C. sinuana (111. iv. 128) ; the other 
two were indicated as cineraria, Bent., a label bearing that name 
being pinned in the drawer under the specimens. These last are 
most certainly referable to C. chrysantheana, Dup., but the type 
of sinuana, if it is not an aberrant form of C. chrysantheana, is 
most distinctly not the sinuana of Wilkinson and all later authors. 
In the same drawer was a series of a Cnephasia over the name 
incanana, Steph. ("The Scotch Gray T."). The description of 
this species was found in the appendix to Stephens's ' Catalogue 
of British Micro-Lepidoptera,'* p. 101. The species is also in- 
cluded as Cnephasia incanana, Steph. MSS., in the list itself 
(p. 66, No. 12). There were twelve examples of this species 
in the series, but only three of these were Stephensian, and, 
although neither was so indicated, it was not difficult to fix on 
the type. 

After a close but unsuccessful search through all the available 
literature to discover further reference to C. incanana, I com- 
municated with Mr. Eustace Bankes on the subject, but he was 
unable to refer me to any work wherein the species was men- 
tioned. When he was in town lately, Mr. Bankes was good 
enough to call at the Museum, and, when he had made a critical 
examination of the types of sinuana and incanana, he expressed 
himself satisfied that the latter was identical with the insect that 
he and others have always considered to be sinuana, Steph. 
With regard to the specimens standing as sinuana, he concurred 
in the removal of the two labelled cincrana, Bent., to C. chry- 
santheana ; but he was rather- dubious, I think, about referring 
the type of sinuana to that species also. 

I append a copy of the original description of C. incanana : — 

" Alls anticis cinereo-albidis, fascia basalt rotundata, secimda obliqua 
media, margineque postico nigro-fuscis. (Exp. alar. 7-8 lin.) 

"Head hoary; thorax and anterior wings pale ashy- white, or 
hoary, with a few dusky scales ; near the base is a distinct deep 
fuscous bar, rounded externally, and not reaching to the inner margin ; 
on the costa towards the middle is a similarly coloured bar, extending 
across the wing, but not to the anal angle ; this bar is well-defined 
and bi-angulated on the basal edge, but on the hinder one it is gradu- 
ally shaded off to the ground colour ; the hinder margin is also fuscous, 
with a curved black transverse streak, reaching from the costa to 
nearly the anal angle ; fringe ashy ; posterior wings and fringe pale 
fuscous. 

"Scotland: Perthshire." 

It will be noted from the above that the subbasal bar is 
described as rounded externally, whereas of sinuana the descrip- 
tion runs : " with an incurved deep fuscous fascia near the base, 
having a tooth without." The italics are mine. Wood's fig. 1003 

" ;: ' List of the Specimens of British Animals in the Collection of the 
British Museum,' part x. Lepidoptera (continued). 1852. 

I 2 



100 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(obsoletana in error) represents sinuana, Steph., whilst Wilkin- 
son's figure of sinuana (Brit. Tort. pi. ii. fig. 6) is really that of 
incanana, Steph. 

Catopteia rjjfana, Steph., and C. expallidana, Haw. 

In the Stephens collection were five specimens of a Catoptria 
over the name expallidana, and in the same series a specimen 
with the name rufana pinned under it. The latter, except in 
the matter of colour, does not agree exactly with Stephens's 
description of " Carpocapsa" rufana (111. iv. 124), as there are no 
traces of the "very obscure somewhat ocellated silvery spot, with 
two fulvescent lines in the middle." Wood's fig. 989 certainly 
represents this particular specimen. Of the other specimens 
referred to, two only are Stephensian, and neither of these can 
be made to accord with Stephens's description (identical with 
Haworth's) of Bactra expallidana, Haw., but they fit in very 
closely with the C. expallidana of Wilkinson, Stainton, and 
others, and in part with Stephens's description of rufana. 

As pointed out to me by Mr. Bankes when he examined the 
series, the specimen of rufana might be a reddish form of B. 
lanceolana, Hiibn., and there is a somewhat similar example 
from Stainton's collection in the Museum series of this species. 
I am, however, not at all certain that the Stephens specimen is 
referable to B. lanceolana. In his Catalogue, previously men- 
tioned, Stephens places rufana under " Grapholita" expallidana, 
Haw., as a synonym, and he quotes Wood's fig. 989. Now, as I 
have already stated, the specimen of rufana in Stephens's collec- 
tion is without doubt the one figured by Wood, although it does 
not tally in every detail with Stephens's description. It would 
appear therefore that this description was made from more than 
one individual. The fact of specimens with a lined ocellus (the 
expallidana of Wilk. and Sta.) being in his series with rufana 
strongly supports this view. But why did he afterwards merge 
rufana in expallidana, Haw. ? Seeing that there is no mention 
of an ocellus in the description of expallidana, Haw. and Steph., 
it would seem that both authors had a species before them 
which was not identical with the expallidana of Wilkinson and 
others, and in part with the rufana of Stephens. The descrip- 
tion of expallidana, Haw., in 111. iv. 125, reads : " Pallida, lucida, 
tincturd costam versus alarum anticarum icterici^ ; and to this 
Stephens adds : " Palpi long, and slightly curved over the back." 
He further remarks : " Taken near Coombe Wood: probably not 
strictly belonging to the genus [Bactra], but my specimen is too 
injured to determine." I have been unable to detect any speci- 
men in the Stephensian collection that could be the one from 
which the above was written. 



101 

NEW CULICIDiE FKOM THE WEST COAST 
OF AFEICA. 

By Fred. V. Theobald, M.A. 

The new Culicidse described here were sent me by Mr. Austen, 
of the British Museum, and were collected at Bihe, Angola, 
Portuguese West Africa, by Dr. Creighton Wellman in 1904, 
and at Sierra Leone by Major Smith, D.S.O., B.A.M.C. 

The new Danielsia and /Edimorphus are very marked and 
beautiful species. The Pyretophorus was pointed out as being 
distinct from P. costalis, Loew, by Mr. Austen, after whom I 
have named the species. The Anopheles closely resembles A. 
nigripes, Staeger, but is clearly distinct. 

The types are deposited in the National Collection. The 
strange genus Heptaphlebomyia is more fully described than in 
my Monograph, as fresh material was included in the collection 
from Angola. 

Genus Anopheles, Meigen. 

(Syst. Beschr. 1818, Meigen ; Mono. Culicid. iii. p. 17, 
Theobald .) 

Anopheles smithii, n. sp. 

Head black, with a patch of frosty grey scales in front; proboscis 
black ; palpi black, with three narrow pale bands, apex black. An- 
tenna? with outstanding scales as well as hairs on the second segment, 
giving a tufted appearance. Thorax frosty grey in the middle, deep 
brown at the sides, and with a median dark line and brown hair-like 
scales. Abdomen black, with dull golden hairs. Legs black, un- 
handed. "Wings unspotted, the veins clothed with dense dark brown 
scales. 

$ . Head black, with a patch of frosty grey upright forked scales 
in front, dense black upright forked scales behind, over which shows a 
prominent tuft of large grey narrow-curved scales projecting forwards 
from the thorax ; several thick black bristles project forwards between 
the eyes ; proboscis and clypeus black, the former thin ; palpi as long- 
as the proboscis, thin, scaly, black, with three pale bands, the apical 
segment black. Antenna? black, the second segment with a small 
dense tuft of hairs on the inner side as well as the normal longer black 
ones. Thorax frosty grey in the middle, showing a median dark line 
and a pale yellowish brown one on each side of it in front, more or less 
tessellated behind, and with many small black specks, the sides deep 
brown, the pale frosty area contracted in front, thus widening the dark 
brown lateral areas ; hairs or hair-like scales of thorax brown ; scu- 
tellum and metanotum deep brown, posterior border-bristles of the 
former black. Abdomen black, with deep brown hairs. Legs long 
and thin, deep brown ; ungues equal and simple, thin, rather long. 
Wings clothed with dense rather stumpy lanceolate scales, uniformly 
dark brown ; the first submarginal cell considerably longer and nar- 
rower than the second posterior cell, its base nearer the base of the 



102 THE ENTOMOLOGI8T. 

wing than that of the latter, gradually becoming acute at the base, its 
stem about two-thirds the length of the cell ; stem of the second pos- 
terior cell longer than the cell ; supernumerary and mid cross-veins 
close together, the mid a little behind the supernumerary posterior 
cross-vein about its own length distant behind the mid. Length, 
3'5 to 4 mm. 

Habitat. Sierra Leone (800 ft.) (Major Smith). 

Observations. — Described from several females collected by 
Major Smith. It is a very dark species, coming near A. nigripes, 
Staeger, but can be told at once by the denser wing-scales and 
banded palpi. The structure of the second antenna! segment is 
very marked ; the scales are rather long and outstanding, giving 
a tuft-like appearance. 

Genus Pyretophorus, Blanchard. 
(Comp. Rend. Soc. d. Biol. p. 795 (1902) ; Mono. Culicid. iii. 
p. 6G, 1902, Theobald.) 

Pyretophorus austenii, n. sp. 

Head black, with grey scales in front ; proboscis black, with two 
broad snowy white bands, the last forming a white apex to the palpi, 
and a third very narrow white band. Thorax brown, clothed with 
silvery grey scales ; also the scutellum. Abdomen black, with golden 
hair. Legs black, with apical white tips. Wings with black and 
white patches of scales, costa with two small white spots and traces of 
a minute third spot towards the base ; most of the veins pale-scaled, 
but prominent black spots at base of the second posterior cell and apex 
of lower branch of fifth long vein. 

2 . Head black, with upright snowy white forked scales in front, 
black ones behind ; proboscis black ; palpi black-scaled, densely at the 
base, with two broad white bands towards the apex, one forming the 
apex of the palpi, and a third small one towards the basal half. 
Antennae black, with grey pubescence. Thorax black, with scattered 
broad curved snowy white scales ; also the scutellum. Abdomen 
black, densely clothed with golden hairs ; the two lobes with black 
scales. Legs black, the apices of all the segments, except the last in 
the fore and mid legs, with a narrow white band ; in the hind legs all 
the segments are banded ; ungues equal and simple, rather long. 
Wings with rather dense Pyretophorus-like scales ; the costa with 
three white spots, the apical one large, the second smaller, and the 
third very small ; all three spread fairly evenly on to the first long 
vein, which has in addition a small white spot between the two apical 
costal ones, and another near the third spot, its base mostly white. On 
the base of the costa is another small white spot not reaching the top 
of the costa ; the branches of the third long vein are black at the tips 
and bases near the fork, and there is another black patch near its base ; 
the third long vein pale, except for a black spot near the apex, and two 
near the base ; the fifth has two black spots near the apices of its 
branches, a large black-scaled area in front of and including the base 
of the fork and its stem near the fork, rest of the vein pale-scaled ; 
the sixth has three black spots, the median one the largest ; wing- 



NEW CULICIDjE FROM THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 103 

fringe with a pale area at the junction of all the veins. First sub- 
marginal cell considerably longer and a little narrower than the 
second posterior cell, its base nearer the base of the wing, its stem 
about one-fourth the length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior 
cell rather more than two-thirds the length of the cell ; supernumerary 
cross-vein a little behind the mid, the posterior about its own length 
distant behind the mid ; posterior border-scales of the fringe long, 
narrow, and curved. Lengtb, 5 mm. 

Habitat. Bihe, Angola (Dr. Creighton Wellman). 

Observations. — Described from a single perfect female. The 
chief characters are in the thoracic squamose structures and 
marked wing ornamentation. 

Genus Danielsia, Theobald. 
(The 'Entomologist,' p. 78, March, 1904.) 

Danielsia wellmanii, n. sp. 

Head creamy white, with two median black spots. Palpi and 
proboscis brown. Thorax deep brown, with a broad creamy area on 
each side, expanding in front, and passing around the front of the 
mesonotum, and with a short creamy median line arising from the pale 
anterior area ; numerous golden brown bristles posteriorly. Abdomen 
black, with basal white lateral spots on basal segments, becoming 
median on the apical ones. Legs deep brown, front pair unbanded, 
mid and hind with a broad basal pale band to the metatarsi and first 
tarsal segments. 

? . Head deep brown, with rather loosely applied flat creamy 
scales, with two large patches of flat dark scales above, and with 
creamy narrow-curved scales behind. Clypeus and proboscis black ; 
palpi rather long, black ; antennas black, with indistinct narrow grey 
bands. Thorax black, clothed with narrow-curved bronzy-brown 
scales, with a broad creamy scaled area on each side, which expands 
anteriorly, and which meets around the front, and sends a narrow 
short median line of creamy scales into the brown area ; a few pale 
scales in front of the scutellum and numerous golden brown bristles 
over the roots of the wings ; prothoracic lobes with small flat creamy 
scales ; scutellum with rather broad narrow -curved scales, narrowest on 
the lateral lobes ; border-bristles bright golden brown ; mesonotum 
black ; pleura? with white puncta. Abdomen black, with deep violet 
reflections ; the basal segments with basal white lateral spots, which 
become median on the last two or three segments, the latter having a 
few white scales extending on to the dorsum and in the middle, but 
not forming bands ; border-bristles small, pale golden. Venter with 
basal white bands. Legs deep blackish brown, the front pair with 
only a faint trace of a pale band at the base of the metatarsus ; the 
mid and hind with a broad white basal band to the metatarsi and first 
tarsus ; venter of base of fore and mid femora white ; base of hind 
femora white, and white knee-spot. Ungues uniserrated, the tooth 
long. Wings with the first submarginal longer and narrower than 
the second posterior cell, its stem nearly two-thirds the length of the 
cell ; stem of the second posterior as long as the cell ; posterior cross- 



104 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

vein about twice its own length distant from the mid ; lateral vein- 
scales long and straight. Halteres creamy. Length, 4-0 mm. 

Habitat. Bihe, Angola. 

Observations. — Described from a perfect female. It is a very 
distinct species, easily told by the thoracic and abdominal orna- 
mentation and leg-banding. It clearly comes in the genus 
Danielsia, but the scutellar scales are rather broader than in 
the type (D. albolineata). 

(To be continued.) 



PREOCCUPIED NAMES IN COLEOPTERA. 

By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

There is urgent need for someone to go over the generic 
names used for Coleoptera, and sift out the homonyms. For 
some reason coleopterists seem extraordinarily careless about 
homonymy, and it is evident that some of them, while proposing 
numerous new generic names, never take the trouble to consult 
the indices of Scudder or Waterhouse. Alexia, Steph., 1835, is 
the name still in use for a genus of Endomychidai, but it is 
invalid because of the molluscan Alexia, Leach, 1818.* Fair- 
maire still uses the name Anodon, proposed in the seventies, for 
a Dynastine beetle, but Oken used Anodon in Mollusca in 1815. 
The Dynastine genus may take the name Paranodon, n. n. 
Coryphus, Cski, 1902, for an Endomychid genus, would be con- 
sidered by many a homonym of Corypha (Gray, 1840 ; Walker, 
1860), but I think it may be allowed to stand. \ Weise, in 1902, 
proposed Stenella and Spilonota as the names of two Chrysomelid 
genera, but both names are invalid (Gray, 1870; Stephens, in 
Lepidoptera). Stenella may be changed to Stenellina, n. n., 
type Stenellina marginata (Weise), and Spilonota may become 
Spilonotella, n. n., type Spilonotella sag ax {Spilonota sagax, 
Weise). The original descriptions are in Arch. Naturg. vol. 68, 
pp. 145 and 151. In the same paper, Weise proposes a genus 
Sphondylia, which many would consider too like Sphondyla (Illi- 
ger, 1805). 

* Since writing the above I have found that, according to Mr. B. B. 
Woodward (Journ. of Conch. 1903, p. 361), the date given for the molluscan 
Alexia in the ' Nomenclator Zoologicus ' is wrong ; that is, it is the date of 
Leach's manuscript, which was not actually published until 1847. Hence 
the coleopterous name stands, and it is the familiar molluscan Alexia which 
has to go. 

f It may be added that the arachnid genus-name Coryphceus, Cam- 
bridge, 1895, is a homonym of Coryphaeus, Gistl, 1848. 



105 



NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOPTEEA (ACULEATA, ICH- 
NEUMONID^, AND BRACONIDiE) FROM INDIA. 

By P. Cameron. 

(Concluded from p. 86.) 

Spilichneumon coxalis, sp. nov. 

Niger ; facie, clypeo, mandibulis, linea prouoti, mesosterno, scu- 
telloque flavis ; abdominis medio late rufo ; apice petioli flava : pedi- 
bus rufis, coxis posticis, apice tibiarum posticarum tarsisque posticis 
nigris. S • Long. 10 mm. 

Hab. Simla (Nurse). 

Antennae black ; tbe under side of the scape yellow, of the flagellum 
brownish ; they are hardly longer than tbe body, and taper perceptibly 
towards the apex, where they are serrate. Head black ; the face, 
clypeus, mandibles, the inner orbits to the occiput narrowly, and the 
outer from near the top broadly, yellow. Face and clypeus closely, 
uniformly, and distinctly punctured ; the front and vertex are more 
closely punctured. Mandibles yellow, their teeth black, the part 
behind them rufous ; palpi pale yellow. Thorax black, shining ; the 
edge of the prouotum, the scutellum, the apex of the post-scutellum, 
the tegula?, and the tubercles pale yellow. Mesonotum closely and 
uniformly punctured, the scutellum fiat and less closely punctured. 
Post-scutellum smooth ; its sides at the base largely depressed. Median 
segment closely and distinctly punctured, the base and the areola 
smooth and shining ; tbe apical slope is thickly covered with white 
hair ; the areola is twice longer than wide ; the basal keel is flat, wide, 
and broken in the middle ; the apex is transverse ; the inner side is 
bordered by a wide furrow ; in the centre of the apex is a small 
triangular projection ; the surface is finely sbagreened. Pleurae 
closely punctuied ; the apex of the pro- irregularly striated. Wings 
clear hyaline, the stigma and nervures black. The four anterior legs 
are reddish fulvous ; the coxas and trochanters pale yellow, the hinder 
coxae black, their apex yellow all round, the basal joint of the trochan- 
ters black, as is also the apex of the hinder femora narrowly, the 
apical two-thirds of the tibia?, and the tarsi entirely ; the calcaria pale 
yellow. Petiole black ; the apex with a yellow band, which is narrowed 
in the middle ; the second, third, and basal half of the fourth segment 
rufous ; the rufous band on the fourth extends to the apex ; there is a 
narrow yellow band on the apex of the fifth, a large one on the apex of 
the sixth, and the seventh segment is entirely yellow. The segments 
and the post-petiole are thickly covered with short white pubescence, 
and closely punctured ; the gastrocoeli are small, deep, and smooth. 

Cratichneumon erythrozonus, sp. nov. 
Niger ; abdomine late femoribusque posticis rufis ; alis hyalinis, 
nervis stigmateque nigris. $ . Long. 11 mm. 

Hab. Simla (Nurse). 

Antennaa as long as the body ; tbe flagellum brownish beneath. 



106 THE ENTOMOLOGI8T. 

Head black, the inner orbits from the middle to shortly below the eyes 
lemon-yellow, the band becoming wider below ; the face and clypeus, 
except at the apex, closely and rather strongly punctured, and thickly 
covered with white pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus is slightly 
obliquely depressed and impunctate ; the front and vertex are closely 
and distinctly punctured. Mandibles black, dark rufous near the 
apex ; the palpi fuscous. Thorax entirely black, and thickly covered 
with short white pubescence ; the scutellum is less closely punctured ; 
the basal half of the post-scutellum is smooth, the apical closely punc- 
tured. The base of the median segment is closely and somewhat 
strongly punctured; the sides of the arese are irregularly striated. 
Pleurae uniformly and distinctly punctured. Mesosternum thickly 
covered with white pubescence. The four anterior tibiae in front and 
the anterior femora above in front are pale testaceous ; tbe hinder 
femora, except at the apex, are bright red ; the calcaria are black. 
Wings clear hyaline, the nervures and stigma black ; the stigma 
fuscous on the lower side ; the disco-cubital nervure is largely bullated 
in front of the stump of a nervure ; the recurrent nervure bullated 
above and below the stump. Petiole closely punctured ; the middle of 
the post-petiole smooth ; the sides sparsely punctured ; the otber 
segments are closely punctured and thickly covered with short white 
pubescence ; the gastrocceli are shallow and stoutly striated at the 
base ; the apex deep, wide, and aciculated. 

Anomalon apicate, sp. nov. 

Nigrum ; abdomine rufo, apice nigro ; facie, clypeo, scutello, post- 
scutelloque flavis ; pedibus anterioribus flavis, posticis runs ; alis hya- 
linis, stigmate fusco, nervis nigris. $ . Long. 16 mm. 

Hob. Simla (Nurse). 

Antennae testaceous, the second and the greater part of the fourth 
joints black. Head black, below the antennae pale yellow ; the vertex 
closely punctured ; the front with eight irregular keels on the central 
part, which is also closely transversely striated ; the face closely and 
distinctly punctured, and thickly covered with white pubescence ; the 
base of the clypeus closely punctured, the apex almost impunctate. 
Mandibles pallid yellow, their teeth black ; the palpi pallid yellow. 
Thorax black ; the scutellum, post-scutellum, and tegulae yellow. 
Mesonotum closely and rather strongly punctured, its centre at the base 
raised ; the apex in the middle transversely irregularly striated. Scu- 
tellum and post-scutellum coarsely punctured. Propleurae above 
closely punctured ; the rest coarsely irregularly reticulated. Meso- 
pleurae above irregularly longitudinally striated ; below closely punc- 
tured. The median segment at- the base is closely rugosely irregularly 
reticulated ; the lateral keels are roundly curved ; the space behind 
these is smooth ; the apex behind is narrowed into a distinct neck, 
and is irregularly transversely striated. Metapleurae coarsely irregu- 
larly reticulated. Legs rufous; the anterior pair paler, more yellowish 
in tint ; the four front coxae and trochanters pale yellow. Wings 
hyaline, with a faint fulvous tinge at the base ; the stigma testaceous, 
the nervures black. The second and third segments of the abdomen 
are black above ; the apical two are entirely black. 



NEW SPECIES OF HYMENOPTERA FROM INDIA. 107 

BRACONIDiE. 

Iphiaulax elizeus, sp. nov. 

Luteous ; the antennas, front, vertex, the occiput, the upper half 
of the outer orbits, and the apical abdominal segment black ; the face, 
clypeus, and malar space, and upper half of the inner orbits, pale 
yellow ; the wings to the transverse basal netware and the basal half 
of the stigma yellow ; beyond that dark fuscous ; the apex of the 
hinder tibiaa broadly, and the hinder tarsi black. $ and ? . Length 8, 
terebra 2 mm. 

Hab. Deesa (Nurse). 

Head smooth and shining, the face sparsely covered with pale hair ; 
mandibles pale rufous. Back of abdomen irregularly rugosely punc- 
tured ; the sutures on the second, third, and fourth segments are wide 
and stoutly striated ; on the sides of the fifth the furrow is wide, 
closely and finely striated ; the furrows on the apex of the fifth and 
sixth segments are narrow, distinct, and deep ; there is no keel or 
distinct plate on the base of the second segment. The base of the first 
cubital cellule is hyaline, broadly above and below ; the cloud on the 
posterior wings commences opposite that on the anterior. 

Iphiaulax smenus, sp. nov. 

Rufous, the flagellum of the antennas black ; the wings dark 
fuscous, the first cubital cellule and a spot below it hyaline, the stigma 
yellowish fulvous ; the mesonotum and scutellum sparsely but dis- 
tinctly punctured ; the median segment closely and strongly punc- 
tured. $ and J . Length 8-11 mm., ovipositor 13-16 mm. 

Hab. Deesa (Nurse). 

Vertex smooth ; the front with a deep furrow, its sides finely and 
closely punctured ; the sides of the face somewhat strongly and 
closely punctured. Clypeus almost smooth, except close to the apex. 
Mandibles punctured and rufous at the base, the apex black. Parap- 
sidal furrows distinct, narrow, deep, indistinctly crenulated. Median 
segment thickly covered with white pubescence. Petiole coarsely 
rugosely punctured, except in the centre at the apex ; the lateral 
furrows with a few transverse keels ; the second, third, and fourth 
segments are more closely rugosely punctured ; the transverse and 
oblique furrows are closely striated ; the apices of the segments are 
smooth ; the oblique furrows on the second segment are stoutly 
striated, the hollow at their apex smooth. There is no plate or keel 
on the base of the second segment. The basal four segments of the 
abdomen are together as long as the head and thorax united. 

Agrees in coloration (except that the hinder tibial and tarsi 
are not black) with I. punjabe?ises, Cam., but that species has the 
ovipositor only as long as the body, and the abdomen is shorter 
and broader. The species varies considerably in size. The 
male has (or may have) the apical segments of the abdomen 
black. 



108 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A LIST OF THE " MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA " OF 
LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 

By C. H. Forsythe. 

(Continued from p. 90.) 

Hepialid.e. 

Hepialas hwnuli. — Abundant near Halton, County Asylum grounds, 
Quernmore, Grimshaw Lane, &c, in July. 

H. sylvanus. — Fairly common at Arnside and Witherslack in July. 

H. fusconebulosa (velieda). — Plentiful in Grimshaw Lane, Ridge 
Lane, Blea Tarn, Halton, &c, late June and July. The var. carmts 
is fairly common. 

H. lupulinus. — Abundant in Grimshaw Lane, near Halton, County 
Asylum grounds, &c, in June. 

H. hectus. — Very local near Quernmore in late June. 

Lymantriad^:. 

Porthesia similis. — Common in July everywhere, especially at Blea 
Tarn and near Freemau's Wood. 

Dasychira pudibunda. — Local ; near Clougha. I beat the larva? 
from oak in this locality in 1902, and bred the imago the following 
June. " Uncommon near Quernmore " (G. Loxham). 

Orgyia antiqua. — Common on Cockerham Moss, about Arnside and 
Witherslack, &c, in August. 

Lasiocampid;e. 

Pcecilocampa populi. — Fairly common some seasons, scarce in 
others ; comes freely to the street lamps about Lancaster in October 
and November. 

Eiiogaster lanestris. — Nests of the larva? are plentiful at Grange, 
Warton, &c, in late June. 

Macrotlujlacia [Bombyx) rubi. — The larvae are common about 
Witherslack, Methop, and Grange in August. In the wild state the 
imago is uncommon. 

Lasiocampa (Z>.) quercus. — Plentiful at Witherslack, less so at 
Heysham, in mid-July. Var. callunce occurs about Clougha and near 
Quernmore, 

Cosmotriche (Odonestis) potatoria. — The larva? are often abundant 
about Heysham in the spring ; the imago occurs in July. 

SaTURNIAD/E. 

Satumia pavonia. — Abundant on the mosses around Witherslack 
and Methop ; less plentiful near Quernmore in late April and May. 

DrEPANIDjE. 

Drepana lacertinaria. — Fairly common at Methop and Witherslack 
in June. I have bred this species from larva? obtained in September 
near Methop bank. 

D. falcataria. — Fairly common at Methop and Witherslack in late 
May and June. 



MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 109 

Cilix ylaucata. -Common in Grimshaw Lane, at Blea Tarn, &c, in 
June. 

NoTODONTIDiE. 

Centra (Dicranura) furcvla. — I have bred this species from Wither- 
slack and Methop larva3 obtained in September. The imago occurs in 
June, on sallow tree-trunks, but is not common. 

C. (D.) bifida. — Scarce. I have bred this species from Methop 
larva? only, taken from aspen trees in September. " I have taken the 
larva? on aspen trees near Faraway Moss, Witherslack, occasionally " 
(G. Loxham). 

Dicranura vimda. — Fairly common and generally distributed in June. 

Pterostoma palpina. — Uncommon. I have bred this species from 
larva? beaten from sallow and birch near Methop bank in September. 

Lophopteryx camelina. — Occasionally in the County Asylum grounds 
in July. The larva? are common on birch and oak on the mosses at 
Cockerham, Methop, and Witherslack in September. 

Pheosia (Notodonta) dictaa.— Local, and not common. I have only 
bred this species from Witherslack larva?, beaten in September from 
sallow. 

Xotodonta dromedarius. — Not uncommon on the Witherslack, Methop 
and Cockerham Mosses. The larva? occurs on birch in September. 

Phalera bucephala. — Common everywhere in June. The larva? 
occur in Grimshaw Lane, liidge Lane, near Halton, &c, on oak, in 
July and August. 

1'i/gant curtula. — Not common. I have bred this species from 
larva? taken near Methop Bank in September. The imago appears in 
late April and May. 

Cymatophokid^:. 

Habrosyne (Thyatira) derasa. — Fairly common at sugar near 
Bowerham Bottom, County Asylum grounds, Witherslack, Methop, 
&c, in July. 

Thyatira batis. — Fairly common at sugar in late June. County 
Asylum grounds, Bowerham Bottom, Witherslack, &c. 

Cymatophora duplaris. — Local. I have bred this species from 
Methop and Witherslack larva? beaten off birch in early September. 
The imago appears in May and June. 

NoCTUIDjE. 

Bryophila perla. — Common and well distributed on walls, July and 
August. 

Demas coryli. — Comes to sugar at Arnside and Grange in May and 
June. 

Acronycta psi. — Fairly plentiful and generally distributed in June 
and July, 

A. leporina. — Local. I have only bred this species from larva? 
taken off birch trees in the County Asylum grounds (Old Side) in 
July and August. The imago appears in late May and June. 

A. megacephala. — I brought a quantity of larva? from London last 
year (1902), and have since found larva? feeding on poplar in the 
County Asylum grounds. I have also bred it from larva? taken in 
September near Methop bank, otherwise I should not have included it 
in this list. 



110 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A. rumicis. — Fairly common and generally distributed in late May 
and June. The larvae are generally to be found in dyke sides, &c, on 
rumex and various other low plants in August and September. 

A. menyanthidis. — Occurs near Methop, Clougha, &c, but is not 
common, in June. 

Craniophora (A.) Ivjustri. — Uncommon. I took three specimens in 
mid- July m the County Asylum grounds. "I have taken it in Cor- 
poration Wood, Quernmore " (G. Loxham). 

Diloba caruleocephala. — Fairly common and generally distributed. 
The imago in September and October, and the larva on the white- 
thorn in June; Quernmore, Halton, Caton, Grimshaw Lane, and near 
Clougha. 

Leucania lithargyria. — Fairly common at sugar, County Asylum 
grounds, near Halton, Grimshaw Lane, &c, in June and early July. 

L. comma. — Common at sugar and bloom ; generally distributed in 
June. 

L. impura. — Abundant at sugar in July. 

L. pallens. — Abundant everywhere at sugar in July and August. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

My attention has been called to a note on the type of the Linnean 
genus Cimex by Mr. Kirkaldy in the last number of the ' Entomo- 
logist.' I dealt with the matter in ' Nature ' of March 17th, 1904, 
and showed why C. lectularius must be regarded as the type of the 
Linnean genus, and I also pointed out that Clinocoris is a mere 
synonym of Acanthia. To this note I would ask the attention of any- 
one who takes any further interest in the matter. If Mr. Kirkaldy 
would consult the 12th edition of Linnseus he would find why G. lectu- 
larius is classed with winged species under Cimex. — W. T. Blanford. 

Breeding Dragonflies from the Egg. — In my note (Entom. 
xxxvii. 285) recording dimorphism in the females of Ischnura elegans 
and Enallagma cyathigerum at Wicken, I mentioned that I had attempted 
to get the females taken in copula to lay eggs, but without success. I 
now find, however, that in one of the aquaria used in the attempt with 
E. cyathigerum there are a number of dragonfly nymphs about half an 
inch in length. Before being used for the dragonflies the aquarium 
had been untouched for more than a year, and contained only small 
Crustacea, &c. ; so that there can be no possibility of accidental intro- 
duction of the nymphs. The dragonflies taken in copula were put in a 
large muslin bag over the aquarium, and I saw the females feeling 
about under the water with the tip of the abdomen, and occasionally 
walking down the weeds till they were quite submerged, but at the 
time I could find no eggs. I should be grateful if anyone experienced 
in rearing dragonfly nymphs could tell me what is the best food to 
supply them with when they grow larger. And I should like again to 
point out that anyone interested in dragonflies who may succeed in 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. Ill 

rearing considerable numbers from known parents, of a species shewing 
female dimorphism, will be able to render valuable service to science. — 
L. Doncaster; University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, Feb. 13th. 
[If such small animals as water-fleas can be easily obtained, these 
should be given. Otherwise decaying leaves, &c, from the bottom of 
a pond or stream will always contain bloodworms and other small life 
on which the nymphs will feed ; but care must be taken that no fresh 
nymphs are introduced. The size of the nymphs of E. cyathigerum in 
the present instance raises an interesting question. Clearly they will 
not be full-grown and ready to emerge in May, yet they will probably 
disclose imagines this year. It is pretty certain that in this species 
emergences do take place late in the season ; still there do not appear 
to be two broods annually. Possibly the eggs laid early in the season 
produce early imagines in the next season, while the late ones produce 
late imagines the next year. Are there two races, in fact? Perhaps 
Mr. Doncaster will be able to settle the question. I have thought that 
the late males of E. cyathigerum at the Black Pond, in Surrey, have 
more pronounced markings than the early ones. — W. J. L.] 

Western Smerinthids. — The whole Smerinthid fauna of the United 
States numbers only about nine species. A few of these have spread 
over a very large area, and have split up into more or less distinguishable 
local races. -Thus Smerinthus cerisyi, Kirby, and Pachysphinx modesta, 
Harris, have their eastern and western forms, quite distinguishable, 
but not very well to be separated specifically. The beautiful Cala- 
symbolus exececatus, Abbot and Smith, is common in the States east of 
the plains, but has apparently not been reported further west." At 
Pecos, New Mexico, July 22nd, 1903, 1 took a fine female of C. exece- 
catus, with an expanse of 85 mm. It differs from the normal eastern 
form in having the upper third of the outer margin of the anterior 
wings more strongly dentate, and the colours of the wing in general 
paler and yellower, with the upper two-thirds of the median field light 
greyish ochre, leaving the dark central spot very conspicuous. Pro- 
visionally, this form may be treated as a variety, vecosensis ; but, as 
the pallid coloration is just what would be expected in a western race, 
judging from other known cases, it is at least probable that the dis- 
covery of other examples will enable us to recognize a subspecies or 
idiomorph. On the other hand, it is very likely that a similar colora- 
tion may occur here and there as an aberration among eastern 
examples. — T. D. A. Cockerell ; Boulder, Colorado, Feb. 10th, 1905. 

Leucopho3a surinamensis, L., breeding in Britain. — With reference 
to the interesting note by Mr. Horrell in your last issue (ante, p. 92), it 
may be worth recalling that at the October (1901) meeting of the 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society in Liverpool, I ex- 
hibited a series of this distinct little cockroach, in all stages of growth, 
which had been captured amongst turfs at Fallowfield during 1903 
and 1904, and kindly sent to me by Dr. W. E. Hoyle, M.A., and 
Mr. J. Ray Hardy, of the Manchester Museum. Cockroaches are at 

* Except in the far north-west (British Columbia), where climatic con* 
ditions are entirely different from those in New Mexico. 



112 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

all times difficult to rear in captivity, and I regret that I was unable 
to keep the insects alive sufficiently long to learn much of their habits 
and life-history. I hope Mr. Horrell may be more fortunate. — E. J. B. 
Sopp; Liverpool Road, Birkdale, March 15th, 1905. 

The Mason Collection. — A portion of this historical collection of 
British Lepidoptera, accumulated by the late Philip Brookes Mason, 
Esq., M.R.C.S., F.L.S., &c, of Burton-on-Trent, was dispersed at 
Stevens's Auction Rooms on March 14th and 15th last. Besides the 
extinct and rare species and numerous interesting aberrations that it 
contained, there were types and other specimens from the collection of 
Adrian Hardy Haworth, author of ' Lepidoptera Britannica,' and 
editor of the first volume of ' Transactions of the Societas Entomo- 
logical which was founded in London in the year 1806. Also some 
types and examples of many species from other collections that were 
formed in the early part of the last century. 

The attendance was good, but perhaps not quite so numerous, 
especially on the second day, as we have seen on other occasions when 
notable collections have come under the hammer. The bidding for many 
of the lots could hardly be described as competitive ; in fact, it was some- 
times found necessary to combine two and even three lots before any 
desire to make an offer was evinced. The majority of the specimens 
were on white pins, and without localities, &c. ; possibly, in these days 
of black pins and full data, this may have somewhat influenced prices. 
Altogether there were 538 lots put up during the two days, and we 
believe that the amount realized was somewhere about £550. In the 
following notes only the most important details of the first day's sale 
are referred to : — ■ 

Butterflies. — Pieris daplidice, eleven specimens, averaged 11/- 
each. The specimen mentioned in Newman's ' British Butterflies ' as 
having been reared from one of the eggs laid by a female captured near 
Dover was sold for 1G/- ; a pair, one of which was a female captured 
in the Isle of Wight in 1867, 30/- ; one example taken at Folkestone, 
and another without data, 26/- ; three specimens (two from Sydenham), 
27/6. There were sixteen examples of Colias edusa var. helice ; these 
averaged 2/6 apiece, and seemed to be not dear at the price. A speci- 
men of Arijynnis niobe (Canterbury), together with a long series each of 
A. euphrosyne and A. selene, only made 8/-. Of A. latonia there were 
no less than sixteen specimens, and these sold for four guineas, or at 
the rate of 5/3 each. They were in four lots of three specimens, and 
one lot of four specimens, the price per lot ranging from 14/- to 24/-. 
Ten examples of Vanessa antiopa produced £9 8s. altogether. They 
were put up singly, and the prices each were 26/- (3), 22/- (1), 18/- 
(2), 16/- (1), 14/- (2), and 8/- (1). Several of these were ancient 
examples from the Haworth and E. Shepherd collections, but those that 
brought the highest price were two from Horning, Norfolk (1872), and 
one taken by the late Mr. J. Sang at Darlington. An example of 
Anosia (Danais) ple.vippus, L. (archippus, Fabr., erippus, Cr.), the com- 
mon milk-weed butterfly of the United States. Apparently this species 
had not been noted as migratory previous to 1870. However this may 
be, its first visit to Britain seems to have been in 1876, and between 
that year and 1896 several specimens have been recorded, chiefly from 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 113 

places on the southern and western coasts of England, and during the 
years 1885 T 6. The earliest report was from Wales, and the latest 
records (of specimens seen) were from Surrey and Hampshire. The 
Mason specimen was formerly in the late Mr. Tugwell's collection, and 
at the sale thereof realized 35/- It now passes into the Tring Museum 
at the enhanced price of £4 10s. Lyccena avion, in good condition, were 
not expensive. Three lots of males, seven and eight in a lot, sold at 
7/- a time, while a series of seven females found a buyer at 12/-, and 
six other females (one with large spots) went for 20/-. The three 
dozen brought in a total of 53/-, and this gives an average of about 
1/6 each all round, or, say, 10/- per dozen males, and 30/- per dozen 
females. For three couples of L. semiargus (acis), the prices were 
45/-, 60/-, and 70/- ; two lots of the same species, each comprising 
three males, 40/- and 50/- ; three males, 35/- ; three males and two 
females, with long series of L. minima, 60/- ; three males, with a num- 
ber of L. minima, some of the latter without spots on the under side, 
32/6., Sixteen specimens of Chrysophanus dispar increased the total 
for the first day's sale by £80 6s., which amount gives an average of 
about £5 per specimen. The highest price was £8 for a fine female in 
which the basal spots of the fore wings were united. The lowest bid 
was 45/- for a female example that was not exactly in the best con- 
dition. Two examples of C. virgaurea, and one of O. chryseis, from 
Haworth's collection, together with nice series of Thecla w-album and 
T. pruni (among the latter was one example without white lines on 
under side), went for £3 10s. (Janson). These two " coppers " are not 
now recognized as British species, but the specimens offered are of 
historical interest. 

Moths. — A dark specimen of Acherontia (Manduca) atropos, with 
broad black outer margin, sold for two guineas, and an example of 
Hyluicus {Sphinx) pinastri from Haworth's collection, together with a 
specimen of the same species from E. Shepherd's collection, only made 
12/-, whilst 18/- was given for another specimen that formerly be- 
longed to Dr. Hewgill. Eight Deilephila euphorbia obtained £8 12s. 
One specimen labelled from " Mr. Raddon, Sept., 1848 ; larva found 
near Bideford," ran the bidding up to 40/- ; three other Raddon speci- 
mens sold for 16/-, 18/-, and 22/- each ; the specimen recorded by the 
late Mr. W. P. Weston as taken by himself in a garden at South- 
ampton in August, 1871, made 24/-; one from Mr. Spry's collection 
brought in 36/-; and one from Haworth's collection, coupled with 
I), hippophaes (Devonshire) only fetched 12/-. A specimen of Daphnis 
nerii, taken in a street at Burton-on-Trent in 1888, found a purchaser 
at 14/- ; another example from Dr. Hewgill, together with the type of 
Pldegethontius quinquemaculata, Haw., a North American species, was 
bought for the Tring Museum at a cost of £6. Deilephila galii, of 
which species there were twelve specimens, went for 2/6 apiece, while the 
seven I). livomica ranged in price from 7/- to one guinea. Of Cha.ro- 
campa celerio nine specimens were offered, and these sold at from 8/- 
to 20/- each, the total for the set being £5 14s. Among the Sesiadre 
were some very desirable species, and for the possession of some of 
these bidding was pretty brisk. Six examples of " vespiformis " were 
disposed of at from 12/- to 20/- each. Sesia seolii/ormis and S. sphegi- 

ENTOM. — APRIL. 1905. K 



114 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

formis were put up in three assorted lots, thirteen or fourteen speci- 
mens in each, and fetched 14/-, 24/-, and 26/- per lot. Five specimens 
of S. andreniformis, lotted singly, produced £8 3s. altogether, but the 
price per lot varied greatly ; one from E. Shepherd's collection only 
made 8/-; one from "Rev. A. Matthews" secured £4; two others 
went for 10/- each ; and for one taken at Folkestone in 1878, 55/- 
was obtained. There was a nice series of Zygoma exulans, but the price 
per specimen did not much exceed 1/-. Twenty-six Z. jUipendulce, 
including two examples of the yellow form and other minor aberra- 
tions, sold for 20/-. For a fine specimen of the rare " black " form of 
this species, known as chrysanthemi, the bidding quickly ran up to ten 
guineas (Janson). The type of Sarrothripus rev ay ana var. stonanus, 
Curtis, was sold for 27/6 (Janson), and the type ramulanus, Curtis, a 
form of the same species, made 20/-. 

Aberrations. — A curious specimen of Euchloe cardamines, in which 
the orange patch on left fore wing did not extend to the apex, was 
bought by Mr. Sydney Webb for 30/-. Two females streaked with 
orange on upper or under surface were sold for 18/- and 20/- respec- 
tively, one going into the collection of Mr. J. A. Clark. A straw- 
coloured variety of Argynnis selene sold for 20/- (Janson). but another 
interesting under-side aberration of the same species was obtained by 
Mr. Farn for 4/- less. There were two fine " sports " of A. euphrosyne ; 
one of these, nearly black both above and below, was sold to Mr. Farn 
for 37/6 ; the other, " extraordinary light var., almost spotless, with 
cream-coloured margins," reached the handsome price of £8 (Tring 
Museum). A pale straw-coloured var. of A.paphia, from E. Shepherd's 
collection, sold for £2 (Janson), and a very dark, almost black, form of 
A. aylaia went for 20/-. Two aberrations of Satyrus semele, one tawny 
and the other very pale, were not dear at 22/-. A. specimen of Epine- 
phele ianira (jurtina) " cream coloured, with disc of fore wings orange, 
J. W. Douglas collection," realized £5 (Janson), and an interesting 
example of E. tithonus, " outer disc of fore wings white with pale grey 
border," was secured, we believe by Mr. Studd, for £4. An almost 
unicolorous male example of Nemeobius lucina, brownish orange or 
fulvous in colour, went for £S, but a similar aberration of the female 
was bought for the Tring Museum at £9. A specimen of the schmidtii 
form of Chrysophanus pklceas went for the easy price of 8/-. Although 
it was not exactly true schmidtii, it was only removed therefrom by 
reason of the slight creamy tint of the ground colour. The specimen 
was from E. Shepherd's collection. Among the species of Lycana 
there were some nice aberrations, but the prices obtained for them 
seemed to be low in most cases, possibly due to the absence of data. 

The gynandrous specimens were five in number, and these realized 
£4 18s. : — (1) Lyccena agon (left,? , right ? ), 28/- ; (2) L. icarus (left ^ , 
right $ ), 18/- ; (3) L. icarus (left $ , right <? ), 16/- ; (4) Smerinthus 
populi (left ^ , right ? ), 18/-; (5) S. populi (left?, right <?), 18/-. 
Three hybrid S. ocellata- populi produced only 16/-. 

Notes on the second day's sale will be given in the May number of 
the ' Entomologist.' 



115 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Tortrices in the Liverpool District. — The localities worked com- 
prise Wallasey sand-bills, and Kirby and Simonswood Mosses, near to 
Liverpool ; also Delamere Forest, some twenty miles away, in Cheshire. 
Most of the species are common and pretty generally distributed, but, 
as no local notes appear to have been published for some time, this 
record may be of interest. Tortrix podana, Scop., is common all 
round Liverpool. T. rosanct, L., occurred freely at Wallasey, a nice 
series being bred from larvae taken on sallow early in July ; while 
T. dumetana, Tr., was captured on Kirby Moss at the end of the 
month. T. ribeana, Hb., was taken sparingly on the Moss early in 
August, and a few T. corylana, Fb., were bred from Wallasey. T. uni- 
fasciana, Dup., occurred freely on palings arouud Sefton Park, though 
worn, as a rule, when I came across them. T. viridana, L. I did not 
see any green specimens, although very abundant on the Mosses, and 
at Delamere in July. The moths were yellow, although many ap- 
peared fresh ; I attribute this to the damp, especially on the Mosses, 
where it was very noticeable. T. ministrana, L., and var. ferrugana 
occurred in some numbers at Delamere in May. T. forsterana, Fb., 
is common throughout the district, as one would expect of so uni- 
versally distributed an insect. The genus Peronea, Curt., is well 
represented. P. sponsa, Fb., was bred from beech, and the moth was 
common on palings under the trees during September. The specimens 
are all noticeably darker than a series taken at Brockley, S.E., in 1898. 
A visit to Wallasey the last week in July produced P. variegana, Schiff., 
which was very abundant among the burnet-rose (Rosa spinosissima). 
The special object of search was P. permutana, of which only one 
example was found ; another trip on August Bank Holiday was blank 
as regards this local insect, but P. aspersana turned up in good num- 
bers. It is noteworthy that the black form of variegana was only 
found on the east side of Liverpool, in the Sefton Park district ; the 
nearest approach to it, at Wallasey, was a nearly unicolorous dark 
brownish variety. Teras contaminana, Hb., was a common moth round 
Sefton Park in the autumn, but I did not take many, being busy with 
other things. The pretty Dictyopteryx bergmanniana, L., was plentiful 
among the burnet-rose on the sand-hills throughout June ; one speci- 
men was a pale lemon-yellow, with the ferruginous markings obsolete. 
Penthina betulatana, Haw., and P. corticana, Hb., are everywhere abun- 
dant among birch ; some examples were bred from Delamere larva? 
obtained in May. Of P. sororculana, Zett., only one was captured at 
Delamere, also in May. Pardia tripunctana, Hb., and Spilonota in- 
carnatana, Hb., were met with at Wallasey, where the latter simply 
swarmed the last week in July, but only seemed to last a few days in 
good condition. Aspis ndmanniana, L.,is common, and found through- 
out the district. Sericoris urticana, Hb., S. lacunana, Dup., and S. 
cespitana, Hb., were also generally common. Delamere produced 
Phoxopteryx myrtillana, Tr., in May ; abundant and easily disturbed in 
the daytime. Hypermecia crnciana, L., a pretty little species addicted 
to sallow, abounded on the sand-hills, and, at Wallasey, was found to 
vary scarcely at all. Grapholitha ramella, L., and Catoptria amulana, 



116 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Schl., were represented only by single specimens from Simonswood and 
Wallasey respectively. A visit to the Mosses at the end of July pro- 
duced Pcedisca bilunana, Haw., P. occultana, Doug., and Retinia pini- 
colana, Hb., as well as one R. pinivorana, Zell., occultana being very 
common among the pines. Pcedisca solandriana, L., was bred from 
birch at Delamere, and P. semifuscana, St., was yielded by larvae found 
on sallow from St. Helens ; these two variable species will have more 
attention in 1905, as they appear to be common in the district. 
Ephippiphora similana, Hb., and E. pflugiana, Haw., are represented by 
a few specimens of eacb. One specimen of Dichrorampha petiverella, L., 
was found at Wallasey ; at the same place, in June, Eupoecilia dnbitana, 
Hb., occurred freely on tbe wing in the evening, and E. angustana, 
Hb., abounded on Kirby Moss among heatber. I looked out keenly for 
evidences of melanochroic tendency, but so far as I could see there was 
no particular variation, the series I took being very little darker than 
some captured in Kent several years ago. I have one insect which has 
been doubtfully referred to Pcedisca corticana, Hb., from Wallasey, and 
a few specimens of Phlocodes tetraquetrana, Haw., from Delamere Forest ; 
while, in conclusion, I should state that the following species were 
observed in some numbers, viz. Sphaleroptera ictericana, Haw., at Wal- 
lasey ; Catoptria ulicetana, Haw., at Formby, on the sand-hills among 
furze ; and Tortricodes hyemana, Hb., at Delamere in April. — William 
Mansbridge ; 27, Elmbank Eoad, Liverpool. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — March 1st, 1905. — Mr. F. 
Merrifield, President, in the chair. — The Duke of Bedford, E.G., 
President of the Zoological Society, &c, of Woburn Abbey, Beds., and 
15, Belgrave Square, S.W. ; M. Lucien Chopard, Membre de la 
Societe Entomologique de France, of 98, Boulevard St. Germain, 
Paris ; Mr. Wilfred Fleet, F.H.A.S., of " Imatra," Bournemouth ; and 
Mr. Robert Sidney Mitford, C.B., of 85, Redcliffe Square, S.W., were 
elected Fellows of the Society.— Mr. H. St. J. Douisthorpe exhibited 
an example of Oxypoda sericea, Heer, taken in Dulwich Wood, June 
17th, 1904, a species new to Britain ; also 0. nigrina Wat. (with a 
type lent by Mr. E. A. Waterhouse), to demonstrate that it is not 
synonymous with sericea as stated on the Continent ; and 0. exigaa 
wbich is also there regarded as synonymous with nigrina. — Mr. Hugh 
Main and Mr. Albert Harrison, a long series of Colias edusa, with var. 
helice, bred from one female helice sent by Dr. T. Chapman from the 
South of France, to show the proportion of type and variety obtained ; 
and the results of similar experiments with Amphidasys betularia, bred 
from a male var. doubledayaria and a type female taken at Woodford, 
Essex, in 1903. — Mr. R. Priske, a specimen of Helops striata, with a 
photograph, showing an abnormal formation of the right antenna, 
which was divided into two branches from the fifth joint. — Mr. Percy 
H. Grimshaw, examples of Hydrotcea pUipes, Stein, male and female, 
the latter sex being previously unknown ; and several specimens of 
II. tuberculata, Eond, not hitherto recorded in Britain, captured by 
Mr. W. Dale and Dr. J. H. Wood in various localities. — Dr. F. A. 



SOCIETIES. 117 

Dixey, some cocoons and perfect imagines of hybrid Satumiids, in- 
cluding female and male of S. pavonia, L. x S. pyri, Scheff., with 
added specimens of both sexes of the parent forms for comparison, 
the cross product resembling a large S. pavonia rather tban a 
small S. pyri. The exhibit further included three males and three 
females, of which the female parent was S. pavonia and the male 
parent a hybrid between S. pavonia male and S. spini female, viz. the 
cross product to which Professor Standfuss has given the name S. bovne- 
manni. These six individuals had been reared from ova supplied by him, 
aud Dr. Dixey gave an account of their life-history. The remaining 
four examples of the hybrid = 8. schaufussi disclosed far less strongly 
marked sexual differences tban in S. pavonia. — Professor E. B. Poulton, 
F.R.S., groups of synaposematic Hymenoptera and Diptera captured 
by Mr. A. H. Hamm ; three broken specimens of Papilio hesperus, taken 
at Entebbe in 1903, by Mr. C. A. Wiggins, showing that the tails of a 
Papilio, if untouched by enemies, can endure a great deal of wear ; and 
Nymphaline butterflies from Northern China, apparently mimetic of the 
male Hypolimnas misippus, which is not known to occur in that region. 
The President, a number of examples of Pyvameis atalanta and a 
pair of Aglaias urtica, illustrating the effects of cold season breeding, 
by Mr. Harwood of Colchester. — Mrs. De la B. Nicholl read a paper 
on " Butterfly-hunting in British Columbia and Cauada," illustrated 
by numerous examples of the species captured during the summer of 
1904. — Sir George Hampson, B.A., F.Z.S., communicated a paper on 
" Three Remarkable New Genera of Micro-Lepidoptera." — Mr. Herbert 
Druce, F.LS., F.Z.S., a paper entitled "Descriptions of Some New 
Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, collected by Mr. Harold Cookson in 
Northern Rhodesia in 1903-4 ; LycEeuidse and Hesperiida? by Hamilton 
H. Druce, F.Z.S."— Mr. F. DuCane Godman, F.R.S., D.C.L., a paper 
entitled "Descriptions of Some New Species of Satyridre from South 
America." — Mr. W. L. Distant, a paper entitled, " Additions to a 
Knowledge of the Homopterous Family of Cicadidae." — H. Rowland- 
Brown, M.A., Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
February 9th, 1905.— Mr. Hugh Main, B.Sc, F.L.S., President, in the 
cbair. — A special exhibition of Hybevnia defoliaria males had been 
arranged, and series were shown by Messrs. Rayward, Pratt, Crow, 
Browne, Hickman, Harrison, Main, Goulton, and Tonge. The variation 
ranged from uniformly dark forms to uniformly light ones, with con- 
siderable variation in widths and colour of the transverse markings. 
It was noted that the males migrated in large numbers, but no well 
ascertained facts were known as to the distribution of the females. — 
Mr. Rayward. liviug females of H. rupicapraria from Wallington. — 
Mr. Crow, on behalf of Mr. Hickman, the whole of the imagines and 
varieties bred from the brood of Arctia caia, referred to at the Exhibition 
of Varieties in November, 1904. Several extreme forms had scarcely 
any white or light markings, and yet the usually dark markings ap- 
peared through a veil of semitransparent smoky scales. There were no 
intermediates. — Mr. Kaye, two forms of the rare Heliconius pasithoe 
from the Demarara River. — Mr. Adkin, a series of Lyccena (Cupido) 
minima, taken last year at Eastbourne, and showing an unusual 
amount of blue iu the males. — Mr. South, a long series of very varied 



118 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimens of Gelechia populella, taken on birch trunks at Oxshott on 
Aug. 20t.li, 1904. He also showed a hybrid between Anthrocera 
(Zygana) filipendulce female x A. trifolii male, and contributed the 
following note : — The specimen of Zygoma exhibited was reared from 
eggs deposited by a female Z. j\ 'Upend uIcb that had paired with a male 
Z. trifolii. The parents, also exhibited, were one of the four cross 
pairs to which reference was made at a meeting of the Society held on 
Oct. 22nd, 1903 (see also En torn, xxxvii. 15). Although all the eggs 
hatched, and the larvae, over 100 in number, appeared at first to be 
doing fairly well, they gradually died off until there appeared to be only 
a few that seemed likely to survive the winter. In the spring of 1904 
it was found that only four larvae gave any promise of completing their 
metamorphoses, but two of these ultimately disappeared ; the other two 
formed cocoons in due course, but only one imago emerged, and this 
was unable to clear itself properly from the pupal case. The specimen 
therefore is imperfectly developed, and each antenna is still encased in 
the pupal sheath. However, it is evident that the offspring has in- 
herited characters of each parent, but in a modified form. The sixth 
spot of the fore wings is present, but only faintly discernible (in the 
female parent this spot is unusually large, and united with spot 5) ; 
the border of the hind wings is much broader than in Z.Jilipendula, 
but not quite so broad as in Z. trifolii. Altogether the specimen closely 
resembles the form of Z. filipendulce known as var. hippocrepidis. — Mr. 
Edward, two male examples of the rare Papilio blumei, from Celebes. — 
Mr. Priske, an example of Cahsoma sycophant a, recently picked up in 
Kew Gardens. — Dr. Chapman, a long series of bred Hastula (Dtchelia) 
hyerana and its dark var. marginata, a Tortrix from the South of 
France, together with a quantity of details of its life-history, including 
larvae in each iustar, pupa-cases, stems of asphodel showing the 
ravages, photographs of ova, microscopical slides showing tubercles, 
&c, and read a paper on the exhibit. 

February 23' d. — The President in the chair. — Mr.. Or. H. Briault, of 
Acton, was elected a member. — There was a special exhibition of 
Hybemia marginaria (progemmaria). — Messrs. Harrison and Main, 
series from (1) Epping Forest, mostly typical ; (2) neighbourhood of 
Liverpool, including a number of var. fuscata ; (3) Delatnere Forest, 
only a few var. fuscata. — Mr. Tonge, series from Tilgate Forest and 
Keigate, with some very prettily variegated forms from the latter 
place. — Mr. Priske, a short series from Richmond Park, including one 
specimen with the basal half of the fore wings dark, and the only 
example of southern origin approaching var. fuscata. — Mr. Adkin, bred 
series from Yorkshire, and read notes on the brood, together with 
series from Rannoch, Kent, and Surrey. — Messrs. Dennis, Rayward, 
Edwards, and Turner also exhibited series from various southern 
localities. — A discussion took place, and it was noted (1) that all the 
southern specimens had light hind wings, while in all var. fuscata 
forms they were dark ; (2) all but var. fuscata had the submarginal 
row of light wedge-shaped marks on the fore wings ; and (3) a general 
absence of intermediate forms between the general type and the dark 
var. — Mr. Priske, a specimen of Helops striatus in which the left 
antenna was bifurcated about one-third of its length from the apex. — 
Mr. Main exhibited specimens of various species of scorpions, and also 
an example of the kmg-crab (Lirmdvs), and by means of a series of 



SOCIETIES. 119 

diagrams showed that many of their characters appeared to point out 
a somewhat closer relationship than was formerly considered to he the 
case. — Hy. J. Tukner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The second 
ordinary meeting of the session was held in the Royal Institution, 
Liverpool, on Monday, February 20th, Mr. Richard Wilding, Vice- 
President, in the chair. — Mr. G. Lissant Cox, of Oxton, was elected a 
member of the Society. — Donations to the library were announced 
from Messrs. J. W. Carter, F.E.S., H. B. Score, F.R.G.S., and E. J. 
B. Sopp, F.R.Met. S. — A paper was communicated by Mr. William 
Mansbridge, F.E.S., on " The Tortrices of the Liverpool District," in 
which, in addition to the enumeration of the species met with, much 
valuable information was given on the habits of many of the more 
noteworthy insects, both in the larval and imaginal states. Several 
allied groups of the Micro-Lepidoptera were also discussed, and notes 
of considerable interest relating to life history given. Altogether four 
Pyrales, six Crambida3, three Pterophori, forty-three Tortrices (of 
which fifteen were bred), and twenty-six Tinese were dealt with. The 
Chairman congratulated Mr. Mansbridge on his paper, and the Society 
on possessing such a keen worker amongst the Micro-Lepidoptera of the 
district. After remarks by Messrs. F. N. Pierce, W. H. Holt, and Dr. 
J. Cotton, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded the lecturer. — Amongst 
the many interesting exhibits on view were the following : — Several 
cases of Micro-Lepidoptera, to illustrate the paper, including fine 
series of Phycis fusca = carbouariella, Kphestia elutella, Teras contami- 
nana,. Bictyopteryx bergmanniana (a very pallid form), Catoptria cemu- 
lana, &c, by Mr. Mansbridge ; varieties of Abraxas grossulariata, in- 
cluding fine light forms, in which the dark markings were almost 
obliterated, by Mr. Mountfield ; Morpho cypris (Columbia), Caligo tele- 
monius, Hypolimnas salmacis, and Dismorphia nemesis (South America), 
by Mr. J. J. Richardson, who also showed a live specimen of Dermestes 
peruviana from Liverpool ; Antoricum sulcatum (Oliv.), and Longitarsus 
aruginosus, and other recent additions to the British list, by Mr. W. E. 
Sharp, F.E.S. ; (Edemera virescens, L. (pair), and Malachius barnvillei, 
Putore, recent additions to the British list, and a specimen of the very 
rare Bagous luto&us, Gyll., by Mr. W. Thouless, F.E.S. ; Anchomenus 
gracilipes, Duft, of which only one or two specimens have been recorded 
for Britain ; Quedius nigrocmruleus, Rey, of which only three British 
specimens are known ; and Bernbidium quadripustulatum, one of the 
rarest of our Bembidia ; all three species captured and exhibited by 
Mr. E. C. Bedwell, F.E.S. ; Triplax bicolor, Gyll. (with T. russica and 
T. cenea for comparison), recently reinstated in the British list on its 
occurrence to Mr. R. S. Bagnall, for whom the insects were exhibited 
by the Secretary. Leucophaa surinamensis, an exotic cockraoch, just 
received from the Liverpool Docks, was shown by Mr. Sopp. — E. J. B. 
Sopp and J. R. le B. Tomlin, Hoyi. Sees. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — February 20th, 1905. — Mr. 
G. T. Bethuue-Baker, President, in the chair. — Annual Meeting. The 
various annual reports were received, and the officers and council were 
elected for the ensuing year. — Mr. W. E. Collinge, The University, was 
elected a member. — A resolution was carried to invite the following 



120 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

gentlemen to become honorary members of the Society : — Mr. H. St. 
J. K. Donisthorpe, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; Kev. F. D. Morice, M.A., F.E.S. ; 
Messrs. E. Saunders, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.E.S., and J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. 
— Mr. G. H. Kenrick exhibited a few insects collected by himself in 
the North of Scotland last year in the intervals of shooting ; he said 
the most interesting perhaps were nice silvery forms of Larentia 
autumnata, Bkh. They also included Calocumpa solidaginis, which was 
not uncommon, and Anaitis paludata var. imbutata, Hb. — Mr. J. T. 
Fountain exhibited Adopted thaumas (linea) and A. lineola, taken to- 
gether in the Wye Valley ; also bred Actias selene, Hb., reared in this 
country from Indian ova. — Mr. A. H. Martineau exhibited a spray of 
oak with three different kinds of galls on close together ; they were 
probably made by Neuroterus lenticularis, 01., Andiicus fecundatrix, 
Hart., and Dryophanta divisa, Hart. ; he also showed Pemphredon 
lethifer, Schenck., bred from bramble-stems gathered at Marston Green, 
together with its parasites, the chrysid Ellampus auratus, L., and the 
ichneumon Perithous divinator, Rossi. — Mr. W. Harrison showed a 
nice series of Eriogaster lanestris, L., breed from a brood of larvae found 
at Trench Woods ; some had emerged in 1902, and others in 1901. — 
Colbran J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 

Hawaiian Entomological Society. — A preliminary meeting was 
held in December last, and the constitution of the Society was formu- 
lated on January 26th. The following are the officers for 1905 : — 
President : R. 0. L. Perkins (Supt. of Entomology, Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Experimental Sta.), who appointed Alexander Craw (Supt. 
of Entomology, Bureau of Agriculture and Forestry) as Vice-President; 
Secretary and Treasurer : Jacob Kotinsky (Asst. Entomologist, Bureau 
of Agriculture and Forestry) ; Committee: D. L. Van Dine (Entomo- 
logist U.S. Experiment Sta.), and Otto H. Swezey (Asst. Entomologist, 
Hawaiian Planters' Sta.). Twelve members constitute the Society so 
far, which meets the first Thursday in every month, at the Bureau of 
Agriculture and Forestry, Honolulu, 7.30 to 10 p.m., for the study of 
the Arthropoda, especially of the Pacific Region. — G. W. Kirkaldy. 



OBITUARY. 



With much regret we have recently heard that Mr. Alfred Beaumont, 
of Gosfield, Essex, died early in March of this year. He was a most 
indefatigable worker, and his interest was extended to all orders of the 
Insecta, although Coleoptera was possibly his strong point. He was 
especially keen in his investigations, and was sometimes rewarded by 
the discovery of additions to the British lists of Diptera and Hymeno- 
ptera, or more frequently by the capture of very rare species in those 
orders or in Coleoptera. There are many notes from his pen in the 
'Entomologists' Monthly Magazine' subsequent to the year 1882; and 
there are also a few of his contributions in the ' Entomologist,' the 
latest of which was published in the number for December, 1904. He 
was a Fellow of the Entomological Society of London, and one of the 
oldest, having been elected in 1851. A man of high principle, stead- 
fast courage, and great tenacity of purpose, Mr. Beaumont was highly 
esteemed by all who knew him. 



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CONTENTS. 

Descriptions of Two New Beetles from Angola (with illustration), E. A. Hea \ 97. 
Notes on some Stephensian Types of Tortricina in the National Colli tion, 
lilchard South, 98. New Cuhcidae from the West Coast of Africa, .Fm?. V. 
Theobald. 101. Preoccupied Names in Coleoptera, T. I). A. CockereU, 104. 
New Species of Hvmenoptera (Aculeate, Ichneuuionida?, and Braconidae) from 
India (concluded), P. Cameron, 105. A List of the " Macro-Lepidoptera" of 
Lancaster and District (continued), C. H. Forsythe, 108. 

Notes and Observations. — Breeding Dragonflies from the Egg, L. Doncaster, 
110. Western Sinerinthids, T. D. A. CockereU, 111. Leucopheea surinam- 
ensis, L., breeding in Britain, E. J. B. Sopp, 111. The Mason Collection, 112. 

Captures and Field Reports. — Tortrices in the Liverpool District, William 
Manshridge, 115. 

Societies. — Entomological Society of London, 116. South Loudon Entomological . 
and Natural History Society, 117. Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, 119. Birmingham Entomological Society, 119. Hawaiian Entomo- 
logical Society. 120. 

Obituary, 120. 

DELAMERE FOREST LARV/E AND PUP>E. 

Nebulosa, Is. 6d. doz., Var. Eobsoui, 5s., Var. Tliompsoni, 20s. ; 
Festiva (melanic), 2s. 6d. ; Baia, Brunuea, Triangulum, 9d ; Augur, 
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Vol. XXXVIII] MAY, 1905. [No. 504. 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 



UHmsiratri) journal 



i 



GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 



EDITED BY RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 

ROBERT ADKIN, F.E.S. I W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

W. L. DISTANT, F.E.S., <&c. G. W. KIRKALDY, F.E.S. 

EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S. W. J. LUCAS, B.A., F.E.S. 
F. W.FROHAWK, F.E.S., M.B.O.U. 
MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S. 



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On view the Monday prior, and mornings of sale. Catalogues ready a 
week prior to sale, post-free on application. 



M 1 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII.] 



MAY, 1905 



[No. 504. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CICADID^E. 
By W. L. Distant. 




Subfani. G^anin^e. 

Div. GiEANARIA. 

Gaana vestita, sp. n. 

$ . Body and legs black ; head with an oblique spot on each side 
of vertex at inner margins of eyes, mesonotum with a curved trans- 
verse series of four spots, and two central spots to cruciform elevation 
golden yellow ; posterior abdominal segmental margins narrowly 
luteous ; abdomen beneath with two discal spots on second, third, 
fourth, and fifth segments and an apical lateral spot on each side, 
stramineous ; tegmina black on basal, dark fuscous on apical area 
with the venation black ; radial area, large elongate spots in the two 
lower ulnar and claval areas, and a broad transverse fascia near 
middle, stramineous ; wings with more than basal half stramineous, 

ENTOM. — MAY, 1905. L 



122 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

remaining area dark fuscous with the venation black ; rostrum just 
passing the intermediate coxas ; opercula small, obliquely transverse. 
Long. excl. tegm. $ , 40 millim. Exp. tegm. 102 millim. 

Hah. Yunnan; Yunnansen (Excoffier ; Paris Mus.). 
This beautiful species is allied to G. sulphured, Hope. 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED BY SURGEON LAMBERT, 
R.N., AT VLADIMAR BAY, &c, AUGUST, 1897. 

By Henry Charles Lang, M.D., F.E.S., M.R.C.S., &c. 

This small collection came into my hands through Mr. 0. E. 
Janson in 1900 ; it consists of one hundred and five specimens, 
collected by Surgeon Lambert at Vladimar Bay, in Russian 
Tartary, between the dates of August 1st and 9th, 1897, and a 
few from Port Hamilton, in Corea, on June 16th and 17th of the 
same year. Owing to the care with which these specimens were 
labelled, I am able to give the exact dates. He also collected in 
Japan and China, but at the time of seeing the collection I was 
not interested in these latter, as I did not then consider that the 
butterflies of Japan and China should be included in the Palae- 
arctic Region, though I have now altered my views in this respect 
as regards Japan. 

Papilionid^:. 

Papilio xuthus, L. — Eight males, one female ; August 5th to 8th, 
1897. Vladimar Bay. On comparing these with four males and five 
females from Pryer's collection, taken near Tokio, I find that the 
Japanese specimens differ as regards the males from those from 
Vladimar Bay in having the marginal band of the hind wings broader, 
and reaching to the discoidal cell, just as in P. machaon var. sphyrus. 
Four of the Japanese females differ in no way from that from the 
Amur, and the fifth only in being somewhat larger, and in the deeper 
yellow of the ground colour. 

P. machaon, L. — One female; August 3rd, 1897. Vladimar Bay. 
Differs in nothing from ordinary large European specimens ; expanse, 
3^ in. Certainly not to be considered as var. hippocrates. 

P. bianor, Cram. — One female. Port Hamilton, Corea, June 16th, 
1897. The ordinary typical form. 

P. bianor var. maackii, Men. — Vladimar Bay. Two males, August 
8th and 9th, 1897; two females, August 9th, 1897. These resemble 
specimens from Japan. 

Parnassius nomion, Fisch. — Vladimar Bay. Two males, August 
5th and 6th, 1897 ; three females, August 5th and 9th, 1897. 

PlERID/E. 

Pieris rapce, L. — Vladimar Bay. One female, August 8th, 1897 — 
usual typical form ; one female, August 8th, 1897 — var. orientalis, 



BUTTERFLIES COLLECTED AT VLADIMAR BAY, ETC. 123 

Oberfch. Larger, bases of anterior wings dusky ; resembles some of 
Pryer's specimens from Japan. 

P. melete, Men. — Vladimar Bay. One male, August 5th, 1897. 

Leptidia sinapis, L., gen. ffist. diniensis, B. — Vladimar Bay. One 
male, August 9th, 1897. This specimen differs in no way from 
European examples. 

L. amurensis, Men. — Vladimar Bay. Two specimens, August 5th ; 
two, August 8th ; one, August 9th ; two without date. These seven 
specimens do not differ from those in a series of twenty-eight speci- 
mens taken by Pryer at Oiwaki, Japan, or from others received from 
the late Dr. Staudinger from the Amur. I have never been able to 
understand why Staudinger should suggest that amurensis is a var. of 
sinapis, and yet gives duponcheli specific rank. From Vladimar Bay it 
will be noticed that we have sinapis in its summer form, taken at the 
same time as amurensis, which is altogether different in its appearance 
and conformation. 

Colias hyale var. poliographus, Mots. — Port Hamilton, Corea. June 
6th, 17th. 

C. aurora, Esp. — Vladimar Bay. August, 1897. One worn female. 

Nymphalid-e. 

Limenitis sydi var. latefasciata, Men. — Vladimar Bay. One female, 
August 8th, 1897. 

Melitaa plotina, Brem. — Vladimar Bay. One female, August 6th, 
1897. 

Argi/nnis selene, Schiff. — Vladimar Bay. One female, August 6th, 
1897. 

A. daphne, Schiff. — Vladimar Bay. Ten males, August 5th ; one 
male and three females, August 8th. The males are smaller, and 
both sexes are less vividly fulvous than the specimens taken by myself 
in Provence and Hungary. 

A. aqlaia var. fortuna, Jans. — Vladimar Bay. One female, August 
9th, 1897. 

A. adippe var. xanthodippe, Fixs. — Vladimar Bay. Two males, 
August 5th ; one, August 3rd, one female which I put down to this 
var., as the silvery markings are absent except the marginal lunules. 
Some specimens of this come very near to the Spanish ab. cleodippe. 
This form differs from the next, not only in the absence of the silvery 
spots, but in having the androconia on veins 2 and 3 of the fore wings. 
A form received from Staudinger in 1898 from Kentei resembles the 
above, and was named cleodippe. The present edition calls it xantho- 
dippe, retaining cleodippe for the Spanish var. 

? A. adippe var. pallescens, Butl. — Vladimar Bay. Two males on 
August 1st, and six on August 5th ; one female, August 3rd. I place 
these under this head on the strength of Staudinger's remark, " $ 
lunul. marginalibus argenteis." All these males have the androconia 
only on vein 2. Mr. Elwes (Trans. Ent. Soc. 342, 1899) says : 
" Those with the androconia only on vein 2 seem to occur in Amurland, 
Korea, and in North and Central China and Japan." He expresses 
an opinion that they may belong to another species. It is to be 
remarked that typical adippe and vars. cleodoxa and chlorodippe have 

l 2 



124 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the androconia on veins 2 and 3. In 1898 I received a form from the 
Transbaical named chrysodippe, with the androconia as in the present 
form. 

A. laodice, Pallas. — Vladimar Bay. Four males, August 5th, 8th, 
9th, 1897. These do not differ from European specimens except in 
the paleness of the colour of the upper surface. 

Melanargia halimede, Men. — Vladimar Bay. Three males, three 
females, August 5th, 1897. 

M. meridionalis, Feld. — One male, Port Hamilton, Corea, June 
17th ; two males, four females, Vladimar Bay, August 3rd, 5th, 
and 8th. 

Satyrus dryas, Esp. — Vladimar Bay. Four males, August 8th, 
1897. Three of these have the under side of hind wings unicolorons. 

Pararge achine, Sc, var. achinoides, Butl. — Two females, rather 
worn, August 5th, 1897, Vladimar Bay. ("Var. major, ocellis majori- 
bus," St. Cat.). 

Aphantopus hyperanthus, L., var. ocellatus, Butl. — One male, three 
females, August 5th, 1897, Vladimar Bay. These agree with Stau- 
dinger's remark, " major, subt. obscurior, ocellis majoribus," as regards 
the ocelli, which are larger ; but the ground colour is certainly not 
"obscurior," but rather lighter tban usual. 

Coenonympha cedippus, F. — Vladimar Bay. Two males, August 5th, 
1897. These do not in any way differ from European specimens. I 
think that it is worthy of remark that the three species last enumerated, 
which have so strong a superficial resemblance to one another, should 
have all been taken in the same locality, and at the same time. 

LiYCiENID^. 

Chrysophamis dispar, Haw., var. auratus, Leech. — One male, one 
female, August 8th, 1897, Vladimar Bay. These exactly tally with 
Staudinger's diagnosis (" 3 supra impunctatus, ? al. post, nigri- 
cantoribus ; sub. al. post, griseis, non caerulescentibus "). This 
appears to me much nearer the true British type than the Euro- Asiatic 
rutilus in the general appearance and size, and in the width of the 
submarginal band on the under side hind wings ; but there is only a 
trace of a discoidal spot in the male, and an entire absence of the blue 
basal shading found in true dispar. The hind wings of the female 
above more resemble those of female hippothoe. 

C. hippothoe, L., var. amurensis, Stgr. — Two males, rather worn, 
Vladimar Bay, August 8th and 9th, 1897. This var. is distinguished 
from the type by its larger size, more brilliant colour, and by a double 
discoidal spot on the hind wings. It greatly resembles var. caudens as 
far as the male is concerned, but has less of the violet reflection seen in 
that form. 

Lycana arygyronomon, Bgst. — Vladimar Bay. Two males, rather 
large and brightly coloured, August 5th, 1897. 

L. cleubis, Brem. — Vladimar Bay. Two males, five females, August 
8th, 1897. A very variable species. 

L. euphemns, Hb., var. obscurata, Stgr. — Vladimar Bay. Three 
females, rather worn, August 6th. 



125 

PAPILIO STEINBACHI, spec. kov. 
By the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Allied to P. quadratus, Staud. 

cT . Fore wing a little broader than in quadratus ; no fringe-spots ; 
a white patch divided by M 2 , not reaching to M 1 , but occasionally 
extending to SM a . Hind wing strongly dentate, subcaudate ; a row 
of spots round apex of cell from R 2 to (SM 1 ), and a dot in cell, which 
is sometimes missing, posterior spot and base of spot JVP-M 2 white, 
the other spots red ; fringe-spots white ; wool in abdominal fold short, 
dirty grey, no tuft of spreading hairs at base of fold as is the case in 
quadratus ; vein M 2 much less distal than in quadratus. Under side 
like upper, a little paler, white spots of fore wing somewhat larger, 
spots of hind wing much paler, an additional red spot at anal angle. 
Palpus and abdomen quite black. 

$ . Fore wing with a large white patch traversed by veins M 1 and 
M 2 , and a minute spot in cell ; no fringe-spots. Hind wing with white 
fringe-spots; a red band distally of cell from near tl 1 to (SM 1 ), spot 
R 3 -M 1 being the longest, last spot slightly white at posterior edge. 
Under side of fore wing like upper, but paler ; band of hind wing pale 
rosy pink, last spot and bases of the two preceding ones whitish pink, 
a separate red spot close to anal angle. Palpus black, eighth sternite 
of abdomen and edge of seventh red (vaginal spot). 

Herr J. Steinbach found four males and one female of this 
interesting species near Santa Cruz de la Sierra, East Bolivia, 
between February and June, 1904. 



NOTES ON LEPID0PTE11A IN 1904. 
By J. C. F. & H. F. Fryer. 

As far as our experience went the season of 1904 was below 
the average, especially in "Micros," possibly owing to the cold 
and wet of the previous year. 

Two facts were remarked, and are perhaps worth mentioning 
— a greater tendency than usual in all variable species to pro- 
duce dark forms — and the prevalence in many species of more 
than the usual number of broods, the latter perhaps on account 
of the long hot summer. For instance, among such species as 
Orrhodia ligula (spadicea) and Anchocelis pistacina several freshly 
emerged Leucania pattens seemed sadly out of place. Various 
localities such as Monk's Wood, Wicken, and the Norfolk Broads 
were well worked, but only in the daytime, and nothing of 
general interest was obtained. Sugar and light were also given 
a good trial in the neighbourhood of Chatteris, but the fact that 
there are no woods or fens near probably accounts for the 



126 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

absence of any species worthy of remark, for, although most of 
the commoner Noctusewere abundant, one specimen of Acronycta 
strigosa was the only rarity taken. The number of species 
observed was upwards of four hundred, but the following only 
seem to deserve mention : — 

Sesia formiciformis. — This species appears to occur plentifully in 
nearly all willow-holts, but we find it hard to obtain in good condition. 
Trochilium bembeciformis, which usually occurs with it, is easily bred, 
but the few larva of S. formiciformis which we have taken have died 
in the willow-stumps before becoming pupse. 

Acronycta strigosa. — One specimen at sugar near Chatteris. As far 
as we are aware, this is the only record for some thirty years in this 
district. When it is remembered that its food-plant (hawthorn) is so 
universally distributed, and that the species is reported to be not hard 
to breed in confinement, it seems curious that it should occur so in- 
frequently. 

Senta maritime/, (ulvas). — Although the food-plant is common in the 
district, this species occurs in one locality only, and that one of 
extremely limited extent. It would seem natural to attribute the 
absence of this and other reed species such as Lencania straminea and 
L. obsoleta to the fact that the reeds are cut nearly every year when 
the dykes are cleansed, but if this be so, it is difficult to explain the 
profusion of Caiamia phragmitidis, which feeds in a very similar way. 

Ccenobia despecta. — The above remark applies as to locality, but 
despecta occurs there in much greater numbers. The insect appears to 
be confined to that part of the habitat where the food-plant is liable 
during a considerable portion of the year to be covered with water. 
Last year we succeeded in breeding several specimens from plants of 
Jancus lamprocarpus (?). 

Hydnecia nictitans. — -Noted only on account of the occurrence of 
the greyish yellow form at Hunstanton, and one of a dark chocolate at 
Waxham. It is strange that, considering that the localities are so very 
similar in character, that not a single dark specimen was taken at 
Hunstanton, nor yellow one at Waxham. 

Noctua xanthographa. — Occurred at Waxham in immense numbers. 
On each of thirteen posts there was an average of over thirty insects on 
several evenings, so that there was really no room for any other species. 

Aglossa aiprealis. ■ — Plentiful in one cake and meal granary. We 
have endeavoured to establish ''colonies" in similar situations, but 
hitherto without much success. 

Aceentropus niveus, — About thirty years ago this occurred in large 
numbers at light. Since then, although the dykes containing its food- 
plant have many times been diligently searched, no specimen has been 
seen. Our ?urprise was therefore great on taking a single specimen at 
an acetylene light exposed on the top of a house between fifty and sixty 
feet high, the house itself standing some twenty-five feet above the 
level of the surrounding fen-land. One would hardly associate such 
powers of flight with this insect. 

Crambus salinellus. — A single specimen at Weybourne, and that a 
variety. Although we have collected in salt-marshes for years, we 
have not found the way of taking this species. 



CURRENT NOTES. 127 

Bactra furfurana. — Hunstanton. Very local and very small in 
size in the locality in which we found it. 

Ephippiphora inopiana. — Weybourne, among Inula and Artemisia. 
Both have been mentioned as its food-plant, but we are uncertain on 
which it feeds. 

Xanthosetia zcegana. — Chatteris. Besides the type there was a 
noticeable proportion of the form ferrugana, as well as forms inter- 
mediate between the two. 

Conchylis alternana. — Waxham. Taken on heads of Centaurea. 

Anesychia funerella. — Common in the fen-dykes around Chatteris, 
both larva and imago, but for some reason we have not succeeded in 
breeding it. 

Depressaria Jiavella. — For the last two years we have bred this 
species, together with Sciaphike, from the spun-up heads of Ranun- 
culus, as well as from rolled leaves of Centaurea. Two kinds of larvae 
were noticed, a pink one and a dark green ; neither of these, however, 
on pupation, attained the size of the Jiavella larva when feeding on its 
usual food-plant, Centaurea. 

Depressaria badiella. — A curious form of this species was also bred 
from the buttercup-heads above referred to, the larva having been 
probably introduced by mistake. 

The Priory, Chatteris : April 6th, 1905. 



CURRENT NOTES. 

By G. W. K.IRKA.LDY. 

(Continued from p. 58.) 

1. E. Krodel : "Duvch Einwirkung niederer Teinperaturen 
auf das Puppenstadium erzielte Aberrationen der Lycama- 
arten" (Allgem. Zeitschr. fur Entom. ix. pp. 49-55, 103- 
110, 134-7 ; text-figs. 1-21. (Feb. to April, 1904) [Lepi- 
doptera] ) . 

2. H. Schouteden : " Faune entom. de l'Afrique tropicale : 
Rhynchota aethiopica " i. (Ann. Mus. Congo Zool. (iii.) i. 
pp. 1-131 ; Index and Corrigenda ; pis. i. and ii. (Nov. 

1903) [HemipteraJ). 

3. W. W. Froggatt : " Locusts and Grasshoppers, part 2 " 

(Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales, xv. pp. 240-3, with coloured plate 
(unnumbered) (March 2, 1904) [Orthoptera]). 

4. F. M. Jones : " Pitcher-Plant Insects " (Ent. News, xv. 
pp. 14-7 ; pis. iii. and iv. (Jan. 1904) ). 

5. M. Gillmer : " Ein gynandromorphes Examplar von dem 
Hybriden Smerinthus hybridus, Stephens" (1850) (Allg. 
Zeitschr. f. Ent. ix. pp. 140-3 ; text-figs. 1-3. Apl. 15, 

1904) [Lepidoptera]). 

6. E. P. Van Duzee : "Annotated list of the Pentatomidse 



128 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

recorded from America, North of Mexico," &c. (Trans. 
Amer. Bnt. Soc. xxx. pp. 1-80 (1904) [Hemiptera]). 

7. W. M. Schoyen : " Beretning om Skadeinsekter og Plante- 
sygdomme " ; 1903 (Aarsher, Offent. Foranst. Landbr. 
Fremme; [sep. p. 1-36] (1904). 

8. T. W. Kirk: " Kep. Biology," &c. (11th Bep. Dep. Agr. 
1903, pp. 363-461 ; 40 plates and 5 text-figs. (1903) ). 

9. " Proc. 16th Annual Meeting Assn. Economic Entomolo- 
gists " (Bull. Div. Ent. U.S. no. 46, pp. 1-113 ; plates i. 
and ii. ; l text-fig. (1904) ). 

10. E. D. Sanderson: "Report of the Entomologist" (14 
Ann. Rep. Delaware Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1902, pp. 109-51 ; 
figs. 10-16 (1903) ). 

11. W. E. Britton : " 3 Rep. State Entom." (Rep. Connecti- 
cut Agr. Exp. Sta. for 1903, pp. i-iv and 199-286, pis. 
i.-viii. ; text-figs. 27-42 (1904) ). 

12. C. S. Banks : " Preliminary Bulletin on Insects of the 

Cacao " (Bui. Biol. Lab. Dep. Interior Philippine Isles, 
no. 1, pp. 1-58 ; coloured frontispiece, and figs. 1-60 
(totalling 51 plates) (1904) ). 

13. J. H. Maiden: "The Flora of Norfolk Island, parti" 
(Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxviii. pp. 692-785, pi. 38 
(April 28th, 1904) ). 

14. F. L. Washburn : " Injurious Insects of 1903 " (Bull. 
Minnesota Agr. Exp. Sta. 84, pp. i-viii and 1-184; 
coloured plate and text-figs. 1-119 (Dec. 1903) ). 

15. H. A. Ballou : "Further Notes on Pests attacking the 
Cotton Plant in the West Indies " (West Indian Bull. iv. 
pp. 326-48 (1904) ). 

16. D. Sharp: "Description of a new Genus and Species of 
Coleoptera (Family Hispidae) from New Britain " (Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxviii. pp. 924-5 (April 28th, 1904)). 

17. F. Mum & D. Sharp: "On the Egg-cases and Early 

Stages of some Cassididae " (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. pp. 1-23, 
pi. i.-v. (April 27th, 1904) [Coleoptera] ). 

18. C. L. Marlatt : " Importations of Beneficial Insects into 
California" (Bull. U.S. Div. Ent. 44, pp. 1-99, text-figs. 
1-19 (1904)). 

19. O. F. Cook : " An Enemy of the Cotton Boll Weevil " 

(Rep. U. S. Dep. Agric. 78, pp. 1-7 (May 27th, 1904) 
[Hymen, and Col.] ). 

20. C. Sasaki : " On the Wax producing Coccid, Ericerus jte-la, 
Westwood " (Bull. Col. Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ. vi. pp. 1- 
13, pi. 1-2 (coloured) (March, 1904)). 

21. F. E. Bemis : " The Aleyrodids, or Mealy-winged Flies, of 
California, with references to other American Species" 
(Proc. U.S. Mus. xxvii. pp. 471-537, pis. 27-37 (1904) ). 

22. T. Pergande : "On some of the Aphides affecting Grains 



CURRENT NOTES. 129 

and Grasses of the United States " (Bull. U.S. Div. Ent. 
44 pp.). 

23. G. Leonardi : " Generi e specie di Diaspiti " (Ann. Scuola 
Agric. Portici, v. 1908) [Herniptera] ). 

24. P. Spauluing : "Two Fungi growing in Holes made by 

Wood-boring Insects" (15th Ann. Rep. Missouri Bot. 
Gardens, pp. 73-7, pis. 25-7 (1904) [Col.] ). 

25. H.Osborn: "The Economic Status of the Fulgoridae" (Proc. 
25th Meeting Soc. Prom. Agr. Sc.pp. 32-6(1904) [Hem]). 

26. A. H. Kirkland : "Usefulness of the American Toad" 

(Farmers' Bull. 196, U.S. Dep. Agr. pp. 1-16 (1904) ). 

27. H. E. Hodgkiss : " The Life-history Treatment of a Com- 
mon Palm Scale (Ckrysomphalus dictyospermi, Morgan) " 
(41st Ann. Piep. Massachusetts Agr. Coll. [Publ. Doc. 31], 
pp. 95-106, pis. 1 and 2 (Jan. 1904) ). 

28. R. A. Cooley : " First Annual Rep. State Entom." (Bull. 

Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. 51, pp. 199-274 ; frontispiece and 
pis. i.-vii. ; text-figs. 2-10 (Jan. 1904) ). 

29. G. A. Baer : "Note sur un Membracide, myrmecophile 
de la Republkjue Argentine [Hemipt.] " (Bull. Soc. Ent. 
France, 1903, pp. 306-8). 

30. J. G. Sanders : " Coccidae of Ohio, I." (Ohio State Acad. 

Sci., Special Papers 8, pp. 25-92, pis. 1-9 (May 16th, 
1904) [Hem.]). 

31. J. R. de la Torre Bueno : "A Palaearctic Notonecta " 

(Ent. News, xv. 220-1 (June, 1904) [Hem.]). 

32. C. Sasaki : " On the Feeding of Silkworms with the Leaves 
of Cudrania triloba, Hance " (Bull. Coll. Agr. Tokyo Imp. 
Univ. vi. pp. 15-9, pis. 3 and 4 (March, 1904)). 

33. Ditto : " Corean Race of Silkworms " (op. cit. 21-6, pi. 5). 

34. Ditto : " The Beggar Race (Kojikiko) of Silkworms " (op. 
cit. 27-31). 

35. Ditto: "Double Cocoon Race of Silkworms" (op. cit. 
33-6, pi. 6). 

36. Ditto : "On the Feeding of the Silkworms with the Leaves 
of wild and cultivated Mulberry-trees" (op. cit. 37-41). 

37. Ditto : " Some Observations on Anthcrcea (Bombyx) 
yamamai, G. M., and the Methods of its Rearing in 
Japan" (op. cit. 43-50, pi. 7). 

38. C. M. Weed : " The Brown-tail Moth in New Hampshire " 

(Bull. N. H. Agr. Sta. 107, pp. 45-60, text-figs. 1-10 
(Feb. 1904) [Lepid.]). 

39. Ditto : " The Pernicious or San Jose Scale in New Hamp- 

shire " (op. cit. 109, pp. 73-83, text-figs. 1-3 (March, 
1904) [Hem.]). 

Krodel (1) discusses the aberrations of Lyccena corydon and 
damon caused by low temperature experiments on their pupae. 
Twenty-one under sides are figured. 



130 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Schouteden (2) has published the first part of a proposed 
monograph of the Ethiopian Heniiptera, prepared on the largest 
scale. In this the ScutellerinaB and Graphosomatinse subfamilies 
of the Cimicidae are detailed, with two finely coloured plates. 

E. P. Van Duzee (6) has given us a much-needed list of the 
Cimicidre (or Pentatomidse as he calls them) of North America, 
twelve species and one variety being here added. 191 species are 
recorded, 163 being known to the author. The paper is charac- 
terized by extreme care and precision in the description and 
notes, but it is regretted that the author has rejected the nomen- 
clature of Bergroth and Kirkaldy, based upon priority, and fallen 
back on the irregular nomenclature of Lethierry and Severin. 

Schoyen (7) discusses the injurious insects of Norway during 
1903, on corn, grass, cabbage, fruit-trees, &c. There are ex- 
tended notes on the biology of many of the species, most of 
which are also British.* 

T. W. Kirk's Keport (8) is largely concerned with fruits and 
their inspection ; as regards entomology, Phylloxera is, as usual, 
dealt with at some length, and there is also a brief notice (with 
figures) of the Fulgorid Pochazia australis, the vinehopper. 
There are also interesting notes, with photographs, of some of 
the South Sea Islands. " Pests and diseases are worst on the 
Island of Rarotonga, which appears to be a perfect paradise 
for all species. We understand that there is a little scale on 
Aitutaki, but the other islands visited are, so far as our ob- 
servations went, practically free from pests, except black aphis." 

The Proceedings of the recent meeting of the Association 
of Economic Entomologists (9) contain, as usual, a mass of 
interesting details on all topics. 0. H. ^^wezey presents ob- 
servations on the life-history of IAburnia campcstris and 
lutulenta (Heniiptera), which are parasitised by a Proctotrypid 
Hymenopteron, Gonotopus bicolor. This is the form which 
has recently been introduced into the Hawaiian Islands to 
check the ravages of Perkinslella saccharicida, a Fulgorid pest 
on sugar-cane. 

Sanderson's Pieport (10) deals principally with Hemiptera ; 
the seventeen-year Cicada (Tibicen septendecim) and the harle- 
quin cabbage-bug (Murgantia histrionica) ; both these are illus- 
trated by photographs. 

Britton (11) details at length the fight with the San Jose 
scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus) during 1903, with shorter notes on 
various insects. 

Banks (12) publishes a bulletin on Cacao insects. This is the 
result of only three months' investigation, and naturally many 

* I believe the reference quoted (7) is correct, but the copy before rne, 
which I owe to the kindness of the author, has only the appearance of a 
separate publication. The title-page is dated 1903, but the last page is 
" Gte Januar, 1904." 



CURRENT NOTES. 131 

of the insects are not fully determined. The principal enemies of 
Cacao in the Philippines are a Cicadid which attacks the roots ; 
a Cerambycid larva and Termites which destroy the trunk and 
branches ; and various caterpillars and aphides ravishing the 
leaves. 

In a monographic paper on the " Flora of Norfolk Island " — 
a small island almost equidistant from New Zealand and New 
Caledonia— Maiden (13) notes (pp. 769-70) that at_ present the 
islanders are little cursed with insect-pests. He noticed " mealy 
bug" on oranges and lemons, and "black scale" on Lisbon 
lemons. Onions are liable also to the attacks of a scale-insect, 
while water-melons are attacked by aphids. White ants are 
absent, and mosquitoes very rare. 

Washburn's latest Bulletin (14) contains much information 
upon various entomological topics ; the coloured plate contains 
fourteen drawings of larvse of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. 
Ballou (15) discusses at some length the recent serious outbreaks 
of the cotton-worm (Aletia argillacea) that have been experienced 
in the West Indies, St. Vincent being the only cotton-growing 
island to escape. D. Sharp (16) describes a new beetle which 
has severely ravaged young palms in Beraia ; " the insect 
deposits its eggs upon the young shoots of the plant upon which 
the larvae feed." 

The same author collaborates with F. Muir (17) in an im- 
portant and well-illustrated paper on the metamorphoses of 
certain Coleoptera. 

Marlatt (18) notes that the Coccinellid Vedalia cardinalis is 
maintaining its usefulness in California, being regularly bred up 
by Mr. Craw and others. " The rapidity with which a colony of 
scales is cleared up by these insects is something marvellous, a 
few weeks only being sufficient for it to clear up a considerable 
area of infestation." Of more recent importations, Scutellista 
cyanea " is apparently duplicating against the black scale the 
wonderful work of the Vedalia against the white scale in Cali- 
fornia." 

0. F. Cook (19) has discovered a formidable enemy in Guate- 
mala of the destructive cotton-boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis). 
This foe is an ant, which spreads over the cotton-fields, and, 
attacking the weevils, paralyses them after the manner of so 
many other Aculeate Hymenoptera. Arrangements are appa- 
rently being made to introduce this beneficial insect into Texas, 
where the ravages of the weevil have, been so appalling. 

Sasaki (20) concludes that the Chinese wax-scale is a native 
of both China and Japan. His excellent paper is illustrated by 
two fine plates. Miss Bemis (21) adds nineteen species of 
Aleyrodidffi to the North American fauna, these being described 
in, mostly, all their stages very fully. Pergande has (22) un- 
ravelled a vast amount of confusion in certain Aphidae. He has 



132 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

proved that Siphocoryne avence, Fabr., feeds on a great number 
of plants, including apple, pear, cberry, hawthorn, celery, wheat, 
oats, and various grasses, and is the Aphis mali, Fitch, pruni- 
folice, Fitch, &c. The genuine Aphis mali, DeGeer, has only 
quite recently appeared in America. Macrosiphum granaria, 
Buckton* (formerly confused with Siphocoryne avence) , M. cerealis, 
Kalt., and trifolii, Perg., n. sp., are fully discussed. It seems a 
pity to introduce " vulgar " names with almost every species, as 
is the custom with the American entomologists ; " German 
grain louse," "English grain louse," and "European grain 
louse " are not only not distinctive, but even misleading. 

The School of Agriculture in Portici, near Naples, are rapidly 
turning out entomological studies second to none in accuracy 
and thoroughness. Two of the recent publications embrace a 
monographical revision (23) of the Parlatoria and Mytilaspis 
(recte Lepidosaphes) groups of the Coccidas. Unfortunately only 
reprints (separately paged, alas !) are before me, so that it can 
only be said that the Parlatoria paper extends to 59 pages with 
16 cuts, the Mytilaspis 114 with 42 cuts. 

Spaulding (24) remarks that the relations existing between 
some of the fungi and the wood-boring insects is as yet but little 
understood, and its economic significance probably much under- 
rated. He states that on rotting logs of Pinus palustris, in 
Texas, two species of fleshy Agaricoid fungi were growing out 
numerously from the holes of wood-boring insects. The latter 
are present in every log in large numbers, and, although many 
of the holes had no fungus growing in them, the two fungi were, 
with a single exception, never found growing otherwise. Various 
other cases are cited, including the "Ambrosia-beetles," which 
prepare beds for and plant the spores, feeding exclusively, so 
far as is known, on the fruiting portions of the fungi. 

Osborn (25) discusses the prominence into which the Ful- 
gorida3 have risen through the comparatively recent discovery of 
their economic importance. 

Montana is one of the last of the United States to appoint an 
entomologist, in the person of Mr. R. A. Cooley, the well-known 
student of Coccidae. A large portion of his first report (28) 
deals with "Locusts," and with notes on fruit-pests, &c. It is 
largely illustrated. Baer (29) publishes a brief note on the 
relations between Enchenopa ferruginea, Buckton, and Campo- 
notus punctulatus, Mayr, with remarks on other Myrmecophiles. 
Bueno (31) records the occurrence, in British Columbia, of Noto- 
necta lutea, Miiller, a European form. 

* This name cannot be considered valid, as Buckton refers his species to 
granaria, Kirby. I propose avenivorum, n. n. 



133 



A LIST OF THE " MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA " OF 
LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 

By C. H. Forsythe. 

(Continued from p. 110.) 

Ncmagria arundinis (typha). — "Near Cockerham in September" 
(G. Loxham). 

Tapinostola fulva. — Local near Rush-a-lee in September. Our 
local form is nearly white. 

Gortyna ochracea.—" The larvae are common near Cockerham Moss 
in July and August" (G. Loxham). 

Hydrcecia nictitans. — Common and fairly well distributed in July, 
August, and early September. 

H. petasitis. — Near Hest Bank and Carlisle Bridge. The larvas 
occur in the roots of the butter-bur {Petasites vulgaris) in June and 
July. 

H. micacea. — Common everywhere in August and September, and 
comes to sugar and bloom freely. 

Xylophasia rurea. — Common everywhere in May and June ; the 
var. combusta is fairly common. 

X. lithoxylea. — Comes to sugar in the County Asylum grounds, at 
Bowerham, Blea Tarn, &c, end of July and August. 

X. sublustris. — Uncommon ; near Halton, County Asylum grounds 
and Witherslack, in June and July. 

X. monoglypha (polyodon). — Abundant and very variable in colour — 
from light grey to black — in June, July, and August. 

Epineuronia [Neuronia) popularis. — Fairly common some years, not 
so in others ; Halton, Quernmore, Blea Tarn, County Asylum grounds, 
&c, in August and September. 

Charteas graminis. — Generally distributed but nowhere common, in 
July and August. 

Luperina testacea. — Comes freely to street lamps in August and 
September, and is generally distributed. 

Mamestra furva. — Local, near Clougha at sugar in July. " Fairly 
common at Witherslack " (G. Loxham). 

M. brassica. — Plentiful everywhere ; all through August and Sep- 
tember the larvae are to be found feeding upon cabbage and other 
Cruciferae in nearly every garden. 

M. persicaritB. — I have only bred this species from Methop and 
Witherslack larvae taken in September. The imago appears in June 
and July. 

Apamea basilinea. — Fairly common in Grimshaw Lane, Blea Tarn, 
Bowerham, &c, in June. 

A. gemina. — Fairly common and generally distributed in June 
and July. 

A. didyma (pculea), — Abundant and very variable; comes freely to 
sugar everywhere in July and August. 

Miana strigilis. — Fairly plentiful at sugar, County Asylum grounds, 
Halton, near Clougha, Blea Tarn, Bowerham, &c, in June and July. 
The var. cethiops is common. 



134 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

.1/. fasciuncnla. — Fairly common at sugar at Blea Tarn, Hal ton, 
Quernmore, County Asylum grounds, &c., in June. 

M. literosa. — Not common but generally distributed ; comes to 
sugar and bloom in July and August. 

M. furuncula. — Uncommon, County Asylum grounds in July. 

Phothedes captiuncula. — Local, near Whitbarrow (Witherslack) and 
at Arnside in July and August. 

Celana haworthii, — Uncommon ; I have taken odd examples at 
Methop and near Clougha in July. 

Grammesia trigrammica (trilinea). — Not plentiful ; comes to bloom 
and sugar in July in the County Asylum grounds and near Blea Tarn. 
I have bred it from Methop larvae taken in May. 

Caradrina morpheus. — Uncommon ; I have only taken it in Grimshaw 
Lane, and bred it from larvae (same locality) taken in September. The 
moth appears in June. 

C. quadripunctata I cubic ularis). — Fairly plentiful at sugar in late 
May and again in September. County Asylum grounds, Halton, Blea 
Tarn, Quernmore, Freeman's Wood, &c. 

Rush i a tenebrosa. — Fairly common at sugar, County Asylum grounds, 
Blea Tarn, and Halton, and I have bred it from Methop larvae. The 
moth appears in June and July. 

Agrotis vestigialis (valligera). — Fairly plentiful at Heysham on the 
flowers of ragwort (Senecio jacobtece), in July and August. 

A. puta. — Not plentiful at Heysbam in late July. 

A. suffusa. — Comes to sugar in September; County Asylum grounds, 
Blea Tarn, &c, and is fairly common. 

A. saucia. — Comes to sugar in September. Not common. 

A. segetxun. — Common at sugar in September; some of the forms 
show a tendency to melanism. 

A. exclamationis. — Common at Heysbam in June ; comes to sugar 
and bloom. 

A. cursoria. — Occurs at Heysham in July. 

A. corticea. — Not common about Heysbam in early July. 

A. nigricans. — Comes to ragwort flowers freely in July ; Heysham, &c. 

A. tritici. — Fairly common about Heysbam in July. Comes to the 
flowers of the ragwort. ' 

A. aquilina. — Uncommon ; about Heysham in July and August. 

Noctua glareosa. — Not common. I have taken odd specimens at 
Blea Tarn and in the County Asylum grounds, and bred it from 
Witherslack larvae. The moth appears in August and September. 

2V. augur. — Common at sugar in July ; Blea Tarn, Quernmore, 
County Asylum grounds, &c. 

N. plecta. — Fairly common at sugar in July ; County Asylum 
grounds, Grimshaw Lane, Halton, &c. I have also bred it from 
Methop and Witherslack larvae. 

.V. e-nigrum. — Fairly common at sugar everywhere during late 
summer and autumn. 

N. brunnea. — Generally distributed but not plentiful ; comes to 
sugar in July. 

A 7 , festiva. — Fairly common throughout the district. I have taken 
it at sugar in July in nearly all the localities in which I have 
collected. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 135 

N. ruH. — Plentiful at sugar during August ; County Asylum 
grounds, Quernmore, Blea Tarn, &c. 

N. umbrosa. — Comes to sugar and bloom in August; County 
Asylum grounds, Grimshaw Lane, Blea Tarn, Freeman's Wood, &c. 

X. baja. — Fairly common and generally distributed in July. 

N. xanthographa. — Abundant at sugar everywhere in late July and 
August. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

On bebalf of the late Mr. C. G. Barrett's family, I bave great 
pleasure in announcing that we have been able to persuade Mr. 
Richard South to superintend the publication of the remaining manu- 
scripts of the ' Lepidoptera of the British Islands,' which will carry 
the work to the completion of the Tortricina. — C. G. B. 

Note on Agrotis puta. — Lame of A. puta, a brood of which I 
have been rearing, were full-fed early in December, about the 10th, I 
think. They are only just beginning to pupate. The first changed on 
March 17th, and so far only three out of about eighty have pupated. — 
H. V. Plum ; The College, Epsom, March 20th. 

Notes on Tortrix podana. — Some weeks ago, finding I wanted a 
few specimens of Tortrix forsterana to complete my series, I collected 
about half a dozen larv» from ivy, and placed them in a warm green- 
house to hasten their emergence. The moths began to appear early in 
the present month, and I was greatly surprised to find not only 
T. forsterana in the breeding-cage, but also T. podana. It is well 
known that T. podana is extremely polyphagous in its habits, but, 
with the exception of once breeding the species from yew, I have 
never before known it to occur on an evergreen plant. For the past 
two or three years T. podana has been very troublesome in the vineries 
here. The larva?, when young, feed between united vine-leaves, and 
in the warmth necessary for forced vines quickly attain their full 
development, and if not checked thus produce two or three broods in a 
season. When the larva? are about half-grown they frequently forsake 
the leaves of the plant and attack the fruit. At the present time, 
when the bunches of grapes are just setting, they not infrequently bite 
through the tender stalks, thus ruining the entire bunch. Later, 
when the grapes are about half-developed and still green, they bore 
into the individual berries, causing each one attacked to mould and 
decay. During last year I frequently noticed, in the pages of ' The 
Garden' and 'Gardener's Chronicle,' queries respecting a Tortricid 
larva which was causing great havoc in vineries. The answers almost 
invariably given were that the species was referable to T. forsterana. 
Judging from my own experience, I have little doubt that T. podana 
was the real culprit. The larva? of both species are much alike, and 
might readily be mistaken for one another by anyone not very well 
acquainted with Tortricid larva?. Whilst, however, it is most unusual 
for P. podana to be found on evergreen plants, it is equally unusual to 



136 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

find T. forsterana on deciduous ones. Ivy is, of course, its usual food- 
plant, and I have also found it on laurustinus ; honeysuckle is given 
by many authorities, but, so far as my experience goes, this is no 
exception to the rule, as it only occurs on Lonicera fragrantissima, 
which is an evergreen species. — E. Maude Alderson ; April 11th. 

The Mason Collection. — Fifteen specimens of Deiopeia pulchella 
sold at from 8/- to a guinea apiece. An example of Emydia grammica, 
from E. Shepherd's coll., together with a specimen of D. pulchella, said 
to have been taken at Camden Town, only made 10/-. A male E. gram- 
mica (Tunbridge Wells) 14/-, and a female of the same species from 
Windsor 9/-. Ablack aberration of Callimorpha dominula realized£3 10s. 
while another variety, with brown hind wings, made 30/-. There were 
a good many interesting aberrations of Arctia caia, and thirteen of the 
best of these brought in a total of £27 17s. The highest price being 
5 guineas for one example, and the lowest 20/- for two specimens. 
The type of Spilosoma menthastri var. u-alkeri, Curtis, went for 21/-. 
Twenty-four specimens of Lcelia ccenosa, put up in pairs, sold at from 
10/6 to £3 per pair. Of Epicnaptera (Gastropacha) ilicifolia there 
were ten examples, and the price for these ranged from 25/- to 70/- a 
couple. Twelve specimens of Drepana harpagula (sicula) from the 
Bristol locality made 20/- to 40/- per pair, while three males were 
secured for 1 guinea. Centra bicuspis, of which there were eighteen 
Tilgate specimens, made 5/- to 15/- each. A specimen of Glyphisa 
crenata ("Isle of Man, E. G. Meek, 1870"), when offered alone did 
not obtain a bid, but when included with ninety-nine other specimens 
of desirable species, the round hundred made 20/-. Four specimens 
of Leucodonta (Xotodonta) bicolor (three from Staffs, and one from Ire- 
land), realized £8 10s. For a specimen of Notodonta trilophus, " reared 
from a larva found in Essex, J. W. Douglas," the bidding rose to 
£6 10s. ; but another example of the same species (" Ergham, Norfolk, 
Gurney "), only made £2 10s., and a third specimen (from E. Brown's 
coll.) had to be put up with two other lots of nice Notodonts, when 
the combined lots sold for 17/-. Five Synia musculosa were disposed 
of at 5/- to 11/- each. Leucania vitelline/, sold at 11- and 9/- a couple 
but single specimens included with half-a-dozen L. turca produced 8/-, 
10/-, and 11/- per lot. The specimen of Leucania extranea recorded 
by the late Mr. W. P. Weston (Entom. xii. 19), only realized 9/-. 
Nonagria sparganii, from Dover, made 4/- to 8/- each, but four other 
specimens without data went for 8/-. One example of Luperina 
dumerili and one of L. gueneei, each with a history, fetched 12/-, and 
for one specimen of the last-named, from Sang's coll., 5/- was given. 
Four Hydrilla palustris, with data, sold at 22/- and 24/- per pair, 
while two lots, each including two males of this species, with other 
things, only made 7/- and 8/- the lot. The specimen of Noctxia sab- 
gothica, from which the figure in Stephens' "Illustrations" was 
drawn, with another example of the same species, brought in a guinea; 
but the type of Agrotis lunigera, Steph., was bought for the Tring 
Museum at £3. Of Noctua stibrosea, a moth that appears to be now 
extinct in Britain, there was a nice series of fourteen specimens. The 
first of these were the male and female types from Yaxley Fen, de- 
scribed by Stephens ; these made £5 10s., and go into the Tring 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 137 

Museum. The others were offered singly, and realized all sorts of 
prices, from 30/- up to £4, for specimens that might be described as 
decent to fine; two somewhat poor specimens only made 10/- and 14/- 
each. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Hertfordshire Coleoptera. — Eight new species have been added 
to the Hertfordshire list during 1904 by Mr. E. G. Elliman, of The 
Broadway, Chesham. They are : — Harpalus sabulicola (Ross way, near 
Berkhampstead), Cercyon nigriceps (Tring), Homalota consanguinea (two 
examples in much-decayed beech-leaves at Tring), Placusa pumilio 
(under bark of oak at Rossway), Myllana minuta (Wiggington), Catops 
sericatus (taken by sweeping at Aldbury), Coccinella hieroglyphica (Aid- 
bury Owers), and Hister bissexstriatus (St. Albans). With the exception 
of the last-named species, which was captured by myself, all the above 
were discovered by Mr. Elliman. — A. E. Gibbs; Kitchener's Meads, 
St. Albans. 

Lepidoptera in Hertfordshire. — At a meeting of the members of 
the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, held at 
Watford on March 29th, Mr. A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S., of St. Albans, pre- 
sented a report on the Lepidoptera observed in the county chiefly 
during 1904. Although tbe season, generally speaking, was an un- 
favourable one, seven additional species, mustly recorded during 1904, 
were added to the county list. They are: — 1. Xylina semibrunnea ; 
four specimens taken at sugar at Baldock, in August and September, by 
Mr. A. H. Foster, of The Grange. 2. Melanippe galiata, taken by 
Miss Alice Dickinson at New Farm, St. Albans. 3. Anticlea sinuata, 
taken both at St. Albans by Miss Dickinson, and at Hexton by Mr. 
Foster ; at the latter locality five specimens were beaten from a hedge 
on the chalk-hills. 4. Cidaria siderata, taken at Tring in the larval 
stage by Mr. A. T. Goodson. 5. Scoparia angustea, captured at Wat- 
ford in 1900 by Mr. V. P. Kitchin. 6. Aceptiiia galactodactyla, taken at 
St. Albans by Miss Dickinson. 7. Tinea granella, caught at St. 
Albans by Mr. Gibbs. These seven records brought up the total 
number of species on the list kept by the Society to 1165. So far as 
the Rhopalocera were concerned, Mr. Gibbs said he had little to report, 
most of his correspondents being agreed as to their comparative 
scarcity, the only exception to this being Pieris rapes, the second 
brood of which were stated by Miss Dickinson to have been unusually 
abundant. Mr. Gibbs showed a series of specimens of males of the 
early brood of this species, taken in his garden at St. Albans, in which 
the black markings were either very faintly indicated or entirely 
wanting. The extreme form was known as ab. immaculata, and by 
way of contrast some strongly marked specimens of the second brood 
were also exhibited. Alluding to the occurrence of Deilephila livornica 
in the British Isles in 1904, Mr. Gibbs said he could not hear of any 
stragglers having reached Hertfordshire, but he exhibited a specimen 
taken by Miss Ada Selby in her garden at Bottler's Green in 1898, 
and mentioned that a second example has since been taken by her at 

ENTOM. — MAY, 1905. M 



138 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the same place. The only previous record of which he was aware of 
the capture of this moth in the county was at Cheshunt, where Mr. 
W. C. Boyd was fortunate enough to secure one on August 25th, 1868. 
Sphinx convolvuli was several times reported during 1904, and Chcero- 
campa porcellus was taken on July 2nd by Mr. Arthur Cottam, of Wat- 
ford, flying over a honeysuckle-bush. The rapid spread of Plusia 
moneta, which was becoming one of the commonest garden insects in 
the district, was alluded to, and a long series of specimens reared from 
larvae captured on aconite in the recorder's garden at Kitchener's 
Meads, St. Albans, was shown, a short account of the life-history of 
the species being given. Among the records of the year was the cap- 
ture of Panolis piniperda near St. Albans, an insect which possessed a 
special interest for them, as the first British specimen was taken 
at Hertford in 1810 by Mr. J. F. Stevens, the father of English ento- 
mology. Detailed reports of observations made during 1904 by Miss 
A. Dickinson, of New Farm, near St. Albans ; Mr. Arthur Cottam, of 
Eldercroft, Watford (who is unfortunately leaving the neighbourhood 
very shortly to reside in Somersetshire) ; Mr. P. J. Barraud, of Bushey 
Heath ; Mr. V. P. Kitchin, of Watford ; Mr. A. T. Goodson, of Tring ; 
Mr. W. C. Boyd, of Waltham Cross ; Mr. A. H. Foster, of Hitchm ; 
and the recorder were then presented to the Society. — A. E. Gibbs ; 
Kitchener's Meads, St. Albans. 

Erratum. — P. 120, line 14 from bottom, for "early in March" 
read " on February 21st." 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — March 15th, 1905. — Mr. F. 
Merrifield, President, in the chair. — Sehor Don Ignacio Bolivar, of 
Paseo de Becoletos Bajo, 20, and Calle Jorge Juan, 17, Madrid, was 
elected an Honorary Fellow of the Society, in the place of Professor 
F. M. Brauer, deceased. Mr. Frank P. Dodd, of Kuranda, via Cairns, 
Queensland ; Mr. Cecil Floersheim, of 16, Kensington Court Mansions, 
S.W. ; Mr. Joseph Lane Hancock, of 3757, Indiana Avenue, Chicago ; 
and Mr. Herbert C. Bobinson, Curator of the State Museum, Kuala 
Lumpur, Selangor, were elected Fellows of the Society. — Mr. C. O. 
Waterhouse announced tbat the late Mr. Alexander Fry, a Fellow of 
the Society, had bequeathed his large and important collections of 
Coleoptera to the British Museum. — Dr. F. A. Dixey exhibited some 
butterflies from Natal which had been presented by Mr. G. A. K. 
Marshall to the Hope Department at Oxford, illustrating certain ex- 
periments made with a view to determine whether the assumption of the 
wet or dry season form of various African butterflies could be con- 
trolled by exposure in the pupal state to artificial conditions of tempe- 
rature and moisture. — Mr. W. E. Sharp, a specimen of the North 
American Longicorn, Neoclytus erythrocephalus. He said the species 
had been discovered in a sound ash-tree seven inches from the bark, 
grown in the neighbourhood of St. Helens, Lancashire. Some palings 
of American ash in the vicinity suggested the origin of the progenitors 



SOCIETIES. 139 

of the colony ; but it was not known how long they had been erected. 
He also showed examples of Amara anthobia, Villa, with a series of A. 
familiaris, Duf., and A. htcida for comparison. They had been sent 
him by the Eev. G. A. Crawsbaw from Leighton Buzzard, where they 
occurred not infrequently at the roots of grass in sandy places. — Mr. 
M. Burr, a number of multilated Stenobothrus from the Picos de 
Europa, Spain. Of the grasshoppers occurring on this spot, almost 
every specimen had the wings and elytra more or less mutilated, some- 
times actually torn to shreds, entirely altering their appearance. A 
notable exception was S. bicolor, of which no single specimen was 
found mutilated. This species also frequently indulged in flight, 
which the others were unable to do ; and he suggested that its immu- 
nity might be due to the vitality which has enabled it to become the 
most abundant and widespread grasshopper in Europe. — Mr. F. W. 
Pierce, drawings of the genitalia of Noctuid moths, and also with the 
lantern a number of slides showing the respective peculiarities of 
many members of the genus. 

April 5th. — Mr. P. Merrifield, President, in the chair. — The decease of 
Dr. Alpheus S. Packard, an Honorary Fellow, and of Mr. Alfred Beau- 
mont, and M. Alfred Preudhomme de Borre, Fellows of the Society, was 
announced. — Mr. H. St. J.Douistborpe exhibited specimens of amelanic 
Grammoptera, discovered by Mr. J. C. T. Poole at Enfield, which appeared 
to be quite distinct from any member of the genus taken in Britain. — 
Mr. M. Jacoby brought for exhibition a specimen oiMegalopus melipoma, 
Bates, an insect which so much resembles a bee that Bates had said they 
were indistinguishable in nature. — Mr. A. Bacot exhibited, on behalf 
of Dr. Culpin, specimens of Papilio macleayana and Hypocysta metirius 
captured in Queensland, illustrating the use of " directive " markings 
in the Rhopalocera in influencing their enemies to attack non-vital 
parts. — Mr. G. J. Arrow, an example of CeratopUrus stahli, Wast., a 
beetle from Australia possessing notable powers of crepitation. — Mr. 
A. H. Jones and Mr. H. Rowland-Brown showed a series of Erehia 
alecto {ylacialis) var. nicholli, Obth., taken by them at about 8000 ft., 
at Campiglio, South Tyrol, with specimens of Dasydia tenebraria var. 
wockearia, caught in the company of the Erebias in the same localities. 
Mr. Jones also exhibited examples of Krebia melas from the Parnassus 
Mountains, Greece, for comparison, and fine forms of butterflies found 
at Mendel, near Botzen. — Mr. W. J. Kaye exhibited a series of bred 
Morpho adonis from British Guiana, with the very rare dimorphic 
black-and-white female. — Dr. F. A. Dixey, the social web and pupal 
shells of Eacheira socialis, Westw., together with specimens of the 
perfect insect, being the actual nest from Mexico described and figured 
by Westwood in the Transactions for 1836, in connection with which 
exhibit the Rev. W. T. Holland, of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., gave an 
account of a social silk cocoon spinning species he had met with 
also from Mexico. — Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., read a note 
recently received from Mr. S. A. Neave, giving further interesting 
evidence of the superstitious dread of larva? with terrifying eye-like 
markings entertained by the natives of Rhodesia. — The President read 
a note on experiments conducted by him to ascertain the vitality of 
pupas subjected to submersion. — Mr. H. A. Byatt, B.A., read a paper 
on " Pseudacrcea poggei and Limnas chrysippus; the Numerical Proportion 



140 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of Mimic to Model." — Mr. G. Bethune-Baker contributed "A Mono- 
graph on the Genus Ogyris." — H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
March 9th.— Mr. Hugh Main, B. Sc, F.E.S., President, in the chair.— 
Mr. Harrison exhibited a living specimen of a large green orthopterou 
found among bananas imported from Jamaica. — Mr. Main, a box in 
which a living Javan spider had been kept. A number of ova had 
been deposited, and a brood of young spiders had emerged. These had 
spun a dense mass of web, and then shed their skins. He also showed 
a photograph of the larva of Apatura iris in its hybernating position 
on a leaf of sallow. — The remainder of the evening was spent in an 
exhibition of lantern slides by Messrs. Dennis, Lucas, Tonge, Harri- 
son, and Main. 

March 2Srd. — The President in the chair. — Mr. H. Moore, a large 
globe-fish {Tetrodon fahaka) from the Red Sea, and contributed notes. — 
Messrs. Harrison, Main, and Cowham, long bred series of Colias edusa, 
from ova deposited by an example of helice sent by Dr. Chapman from 
South France in 1904. Seventy-nine were males, seventy-one females. 
Of the latter, nineteen were typical, fifty-two helice. Only one or two 
specimens were in any degree intermediate in shade. Mr. Edwards, 
Papilio peranthus from Java, P. pelon from New Caledonia, P. encelades 
from Celebes, and P. acaiuia from the United States. — Mr. West 
(Greenwich), some large species of Homoptera and Heteroptera from 
South Africa. — Mr. Kaye, preserved larva? of Triphana interjecta, and 
pointed out the distinguishing characters from the larva of T. orbona, 
also exhibited. — Mr. J. W. Tutt gave an address on " Our British 
Plumes," illustrating his remarks on classification by a philogenetic 
tree. — Hy. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Entomological Club. — A meeting was held on March 21st, 1905, 
at 58, Kensington Mansions, South Kensington, the residence of 
Mr. Horace St. John K. Donisthorpe, the president and host of the 
evening. The members present were — Messrs. Adkin, Chitty, Donis- 
thorpe, and Verrall, and there were about a dozen visitors. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 
Works on Mosquitoes. 



The Mosquitoes or Oulicida of New York State. By E. P. Felt. 

Bull. 79, Entom. 22. New York State Museum. Pp. 400 + 

57 plates. Albany (1904). 
This work deals in a most able and sound scientific manner with 
the mosquitoes of the State of New York. The plates, taken from 
photos of the wings, male genitalia, scales, and larval characters, are 
beautiful reproductions. It forms an almost complete natural history 
of the New York State species of a high scientific standard. A most 
interesting part is the appendix, which consists of a " Generic Revision 
of Culicidre " of the State. Only true Anopheles occur, but of the 



RECENT LITERATURE. 141 

Culicinae we find Janthinosoma, Psorophora, Grabhamia, Stegomyia, 
Culex, Uranotania, Wyeomyia, and .Edes recorded. To these the author 
adds some new genera split off from the unwieldy genus Culex. For 
Culex serratus, Theobald, he proposes the genus Protoculex ; in another, 
Culiseta, he includes Culex incidens ; this comes in Neven-Lemaire's 
genus Theobaldia, so some modification must be made for the others he 
includes, or the genus must sink. C. dyari, Coquillett, is taken as the 
type of a genus Cidicella ; C. sytvestris, Theob., the type of Ecculex ; and 
Meigen's cantans the type of Culicada, a most necessary separation. 
The common North and Soutli American and West Indian Culex 
ttmiorhynchus, Wied., he places in a genus Culicelsa. 

The work is so sound and excellent that it shouid prove one of the 
greatest advances in recent years. It is unfortunate that the author 
lays such stress on the male genitalia, as males are often so difficult to 
obtain. 



Report on the Mosquitoes occurring within the State of New Jersey, their 
Habits, Life-History, &c. By John B. Smith, Sc.D. Pp. 482 + 
133 figs, and 4 maps. Trenton, New Jersey (1901). 
This is a large and valuable work, dealing with mosquitoes gener- 
ally, and especially with those of New Jersey State. The work is 
divided into four parts. The first deals with Mosquito Characteristics 
and Habits ; the second, Checks and Remedies ; the third, Classifica- 
tion and Descriptions ; the fourth, Local Problems and Surveys. The 
genera dealt with are true Anopheles, Janthinosoma, Psorophora, Culex, 
Urayiotania, Wyeomyia, and Mdes. No genera related to Culex are 
given, Grabhamia not being employed, nor Tceniorhynchus. 

The illustrations, like the text, are excellent, and there is much 
valuable matter regarding the destruction of Culicid larvae. 



A Monograph of the Anopheles Mosquitoes of India. By S. P. James, 
M.B., I.M.S., and W. Glen Liston, M.D., I.M.S. Pp. 123 + 
30 plates. Calcutta (1904). 
This work deals with most of the known Indian Anopheles. It is 
excellently got up as far as binding and plates go, and has evidently 
been issued after much painstaking research. The book is divided into 
two parts. The first deals with " General Matter," the second is 
"Systematic." Part of the former is excellent, the latter shows a 
superficial knowledge. The information is not up to date, so the work 
loses much of its value ; for instance, the primitive classification given 
on page 5 is now considerably altered {vide ' Genera Insectorum.' 
Family Culicidae). Some pages (19 to 21) are devoted to showing the 
invalid nature of scale-structure; they need no further notice, as they 
show such want of knowledge that one is really surprised at reading 
them. 

Chapter II. deals with collecting, mounting, examining, and the 
identification of Anopheles larvaa. The authors give a table for identi- 
fying species, partly based on the colour banding of the palpi. This is 
no more uniform in Indian Anophelinae than it is in any others, 



142 



THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 



according to recent examinations. For some reason the authors miss 
out Walker's A. vanus, and in a weird way ignore a distinct genus and 
marked species (Atdrichia error). On page 112 they say : " This genus 
is hased on a single specimen which was found amongst the types of 
A. rossii deposited in the British Museum." We should like to know 
which therefore they consider rossii. Is it Aldrichia error, or one of 
the other five specimens left under A. rossii ? If Aldrichia error, which 
is not a unique specimen, is only an abnormality of rossii, why not place 
Stegomyia fasciata as an abnormality of Cule.v pipiens ? There is quite 
as much similarity. The authors apparently have not seen the types. 
In a similar vein these investigators state (p. 61) : " Another instance 
of a monstrosity even more marked than the above is the specimen upon 
which Mr. Theobald has founded a new subfamily called Heptaphle- 
bomyia. The single insect," &c. The authors are evidently quite ignorant 
of the fact that the single insect is a very common species in Sierra 
Leone ; they are also equally unaware that Ventrillon has described 
two very marked species of Heptaphlebomyia from Madagascar, and 
that a third occurs there. They also do not seem to be aware of the 
fact that types are single specimens. Such matters as these make us 
at once chary of the whole work. 

The authors in a most painstaking manner describe the larva}, but 
unless we know the exact stage described such work is of no value. 
The frontal hairs, as Dr. Grabham has found, vary in form in different 
stages of the same species. Do they or do they not do so in India ? 
Until we have a more sound account of these Indian larval Anophelines 
we cannot accept the validity of " frontal hair" characters. Let the 
authors by all means go back for medical purposes to Anopheles, Culex, 
and Mdes, and let them alter the original descriptions to suit them- 
selves, but it will not do for zoological purposes. 

It is regrettable to write this of such a book ; but where there is such 
unsound judgment and such errors it is impossible to look upon it as a 
whole in any other way. 

The coloured plates (fifteen) are beautifully drawn by Dr. D. A. 
Turkhud, M.B., of which some of the wings were reproduced from 
the original drawings (given to the British Museum) in error by the 
artist who illustrated the present writer's monograph without proper 
acknowledgment in the work. 

Fred. V. Theobald. 



Twenty -eighth Annual Report and Proceedings of the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Entomological Society. Session 1904. Pp. 56. 
This well-known local Society is to be congratulated not only on 
the considerable progress it has made in the matter of membership, 
but also as regards the useful nature of the work its members are 
engaged upon. Not the least valuable of the Society's efforts is the 
proposed compilation of accurate lists of the insect fauna of the 
counties which it represents. An important contribution to this 
series is "A Preliminary List of the Orthoptera," by Mr. E. J. B. 
Sopp, published in the volume before us. Another interesting paper 
by this author is on the " Callipers of Earwigs." In an address Mr. 
Robert Tait(Vice-President) discourses most pleasantly and instructively 



OBITUAKY. 143 

on a lepidopterist's work during 1904. The volume contains an ex- 
cellent portrait of Mr. Samuel J. Capper, F.E.S., the perennial Presi- 
dent of the Society. 



Entomologen-Adrcssbuch. Pp. 296. Berlin : W. Junk. 1905. 

This exceedingly useful Entomologist Directory gives the names 
and addresses of some 9000 individuals living in various parts of the 
world who are occupied in the study of Entomology or are interested 
in collecting insects. Of these about 2000 are credited to Germany, 
something like lbOO to Great Britain, and rather less than 1000 
to France. The number for the United States very slightly exceeds 
that for our own country. 



OBITUABY. 

Alpheus Spring Packard. 



This celebrated American entomologist died at Providence, Khode 
Island, on February 14th last, having held the position of Professor of 
Zoology and Geology in Brown University since 1878. He was born 
at Brunswick, Maine, where his father, who bore the same name as 
himself, was then a Professor. He graduated there in 1861, and sub- 
sequently qualified in medicine, and served as Assistant-Surgeon 
during 1864 and 1865 in the United States Army ; but otherwise he 
devoted his time wholly to science, and very largely to entomology, 
where he won for himself a position not unlike that so long filled 
by Prof. Westwood in Britain ; and it is only of his entomological 
work that we propose to speak here. 

Entomologists of the present day do not perhaps know that fifty 
years ago there was a small penny paper, ' The Entomologist's Weekly 
Intelligencer,' edited by H. T. Stamton, which ran for ten volumes, 
and was the immediate ancestor of the ' Entomologists' Monthly 
Magazine.' The influence of this small forgotten paper on the progress 
of entomology both in Britain and America was almost incalculable, 
and in vol. vii., pp. 14, 15 (Oct. 8th, 1859), we find a letter from 
young Packard, saying that he wished to make a special study of the 
Geometrinse, and appealing to British entomologists for assistance. 
Packard was thus one of the earliest of the great band of entomolo- 
gists — Scudder, W. H. Edwards, H. Edwards, Grote, Cresson, Osten- 
Sacken, Walsh, Riley, and others — who have worked during the last 
half-century till the insects of the United States are more thoroughly 
and exhaustively studied and known than those of any part of the 
world, not excepting Britain itself. To this result Packard himself 
very largely contributed. He was one of the founders of the ' American 
Naturalist,' which he edited for twenty years. (Part of the informa- 
tion in the present article is taken from the March number of that 
Journal.) From 1868 to 1872 Packard edited a ' Record of American 
Entomology,' and his contributions to leading American scientific 



144 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

periodicals on insects of all orders, Crustacea, Myriopoda, Economic 
Entomology, Zoology in general, Anatomy, Embryology, Anthro- 
pology, Geology, Palaeontology, and other allied subjects are extremely 
numerous. The list of Packard's entomological books and papers fills 
nearly ten pages of the Library Catalogues of the Entomological 
Society of London ; but among the most important of these are perhaps 
the following : — 'A Monograph of the Geometrid Moths or Phalaenidaa 
of the United States,' 4to, 1876, thirteen plates ;" ' Guide to the 
Study of Insects,' 1869, a thick 8vo volume, profusely illustrated, 
which has gone through many editions, and did for America what 
Westwood's ' Modern Classification ' did for general entomology ; 
' Monograph of the Bombycine Moths of America, North of Mexico ; 
Part I. Notodontidaa,' 4to, 1895, with forty-nine plates, mostly beauti- 
fully coloured, and maps ; and ' Text-book of Entomology, including 
the Anatomy, Physiology, Embryology, and Metamorphoses of Insects, 
for use in Agricultural and Technical Schools, as well as by the 
working Entomologist,' 8vo, 1898. One of his last books was on 
' Lamarck, the Founder of Evolution ; his Life and Work.' 

W. F. K. 



A. U. Battley. 

It is with the deepest regret that we record the untimely death of 
Mr. Arthur Unwin Battley, which took place at his residence at Heme 
Bay, on April 1st, at the early age of thirty-nine. Mr. Battley had 
been an ardent field-naturalist from his boyhood, and although the 
Lepidoptera were his favourite study, his acquaintance with ornitho- 
logy was of no mean order, and botany and geology also claimed a 
share of his attention. Notes from his pen are scattered in our maga- 
zines and transactions of societies, the latest being " On Assembling 
in Lasiocampa quercus" (Entom. xxxvii. 820), whilst another very 
interesting contribution was the careful paper, "Notes on the Life- 
history of Aporia cratcegi " (ibid, xxxvi. 249). Thoroughly practical in 
everything in which he interested himself, he was always ready to 
impart information and advice whenever it was within his power ; and 
his geniality and unselfishness endeared him to a wide circle of 
acquaintance. Perhaps some of his best work was in the promotion 
of nature study through his encouragement of the smaller societies, 
and especially his interest in, and help to the young beginners. He 
was a Secretary of the City of London Entomological and Natural 
History Society from 1890 to 1895, President of the North London 
Natural History Society in 1893, and a valued member of that society 
up to the time of his death. During his residence at Hanwell and at 
Heme Bay he was associated with the Ealing Natural Science Society 
and the East Kent Natural History Society respectively ; and only just 
before his death he had organized a new "Heme Bay and District 
Field Club," of which he was to act as Hon. Secretary and Treasurer. 
His loss will be keenly felt by many who had come under the magnetic 
influence of his enthusiasm, or who were indebted to his unvarying 
kindness. 



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CONTENTS. 

Description of „, New Species of Cieadidae (with illustration), W. L. Distant, 121. 
Butterflies Collected by Surgeon Lambert, R.N., at Vladimar Bay, &c. August, 
1897, Henry Charles Lang, 122. Papilio steinbachi, spec, nov,, Hon. Walter 
hschild, 125. Notes on Lepidoptera in 1904, J. C. F. d H. l<\ Fryer, 125. 
Current Notes, G. W. Kirhaldy, 127. A List of the " Macro-LepidopteiV of 
Lancaster and District (continued), C. H. Forsytke, 133. 

Notes and Observations. — Note on Agrotis puta, H. V. Plum, 135. Notes on 
Tortrix podana. PL Maude 'Alder&on, 135. The Mason Collection, 136. 

Captures and Fiki.d Reports. — Hertfordshire Ooleoptera ; Lepidoptera in Hert- 
fordshire,^. /;. Gibbe, 137. 

Societies. — Entomological Society of London, 138. South London Entomological 
and Natural History Society, 140. Entomological Club, 140. 

Recent Literature, 140 Obituary, 14.".. 

CENTRAL PARAGUAYAN SPECIMENS, 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII] JUNE, 19 05 [No. 505. 

NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN AMERICAN BEES. 
By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Perdita mentzeliarum, Ckll., var. lauta, n. var. 

2 . Anterior and middle femora without dark markings, or 
slightly marked with black or blackish in front ; abdomen creamy- 
white, with the bands much reduced, usually represented by two pairs 
of lateral or sublateral spots on the first segment, and one pair each 
near the hind margins of the second and third ; lateral face-marks 
usually pointed above. 

<? . Head very large ; cheeks with a short spine ; yellow going 
above level of antennae in median line, the process blunt. 

Hub. Collected by Professor E. 0. Wooton " on Mentzelia 

(wrightii or multiflora), five or six miles above Tularosa, New 
Mexico, on road to mountains, end of August " ; seven females, 
two males. Flying with them, over the same flowers, were 
P. mentzeliarum, Ckll., two females ; P. mentzelia, Ckll., one 
male, one female ; and several P. wootonce, Ckll. 

The mentzelia (i. e. Touterca) species of Perdita are very 
variable. At Piaton, N. M., Aug. 29th, I took a variety of 
P. mentzelice, much larger in both sexes than that found near 
Tularosa, the male having a very large head, like the pulchrior 
form of P. pallidior. At flowers of Touterea multiflora, at La 
Cueva, Organ Mts., Sept. 2nd, Prof. C. H. T. Townsend took a 
male P. mentzeliarum, in which the abdomen is orange, wholly 
without bands or spots, except an arched dark band on the first 
segment. 

Melissodes agilis, Cresson, var. subagilis, n.var. 
$ . Length about %\ mm. ; labrum. entirely black, mandibles 
without a yellow spot ; third submarginal cell less narrowed above ; 
eyes (when dry) light green. 

Hab. Fort Collins, Colorado, Aug. 21st, 1903. (Colorado 
Agricultural College.) 

By the black labrum and spotless mandibles this agrees with 
the Mexican M. floris, Ckll. ; it differs from floris by the rufous 

entom. — JUNE, 1905. N 



146 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

edge of the clypeus, absence of black hairs on thorax, and 
generally lighter colour. The type specimen was taken at 
flowers of Grindelia % squarrosa by Mr. F. C. Bishopp. 

Melissodes mysops, n. sp. 

$ . Length nearly 14 mm., pubescence dull white, some black on 
scutellnm, and black on the basal parts of the abdominal segments 
except the first; clypeus lemon-yellow, its upper margin black; labrum 
black ; mandibles without a yellow spot ; flagellum red beneath. Very 
close to M. cnici, Kob., from which it differs thus: yellow of clypeus 
only obscurely trilobed ; face broader ; eyes (when dry) pale bluish- 
grey ; antennas darker ; ventral hair of thorax not black ; scutellum 
with black hair in middle ; hair of legs not black ; disc of mesothorax 
and scutellum more shining, the punctures more separated ; abdomen 
narrower and longer, with weak light hair-bands, failing in the middle; 
lateral subapical teeth longer and narrower. 

$ . Length about 14 mm. ; face broad, facial quadrangle much 
broader than long; eyes light grey ; flagellum stained with red beneath; 
hind part of mesothorax, and scutellum, shining, with well-separated 
punctures, and sparsely clothed with erect black bair ; pubescence of 
legs black, but scopa on outer side of hind tibiaa and base of tarsi long, 
strongly plumose, and light reddish, in striking contrast; hair on 
under side of abdomen and lower part of pleura black, that at apex of 
abdomen dark fuscous or black. Differs from J\f. cnici, Kob., by the 
conspicuous black hair on disc of thorax, the more shining and less 
closely and coarsely punctured scutellum, and the narrower abdomen, 
with distinct pale hair-bands, especially on the third and fourth 
segments. 

Hab. Maybell, Colorado (type locality), Aug. 1st, 1904, both 
sexes; Virginia Dale, Colorado, Aug. 2nd, 1903, two females. 
M. cnici is an oligotropic visitor of thistles ; the pollen collected 
by the present species at Maybell looks like thistle-pollen. My 
M. cnici, used for comparison, are Nebraska specimens received 
from Mr. J. C. Crawford. In dry specimens the eyes of M. 
mysops are light grey in both sexes ; in M. cnici they are light 
reddish ; in M. dentiventris (female) they are light green. 

Since writing the above I have ascertained that the Maybell 
material was collected by Mr. S. A. Johnson at flowers of thistle, 
while the Virginia Dale specimens were collected by Mr. F. C. 
Bishopp at flowers of white thistle. 

Synhalonia territella, n. sp. 
$ . Length slightly less than 10 mm. ; black, the head, thorax, 
base of abdomen, and legs with abundant long erect greyish-white 
hair, not at all fulvous, even on mesothorax ; eyes (dry) dark plumbe- 
ous ; facial quadrangle about square ; clypeus lemon-yellow, without 
any black border above, but with the usual narrow brown anterior 
edge ; antennas long, entirely black, third joint comparatively long, 
considerably over twice length of second ; labrum light yellow, with 
the lateral margins black ; mandibles black ; last joint of maxillary 



NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN AMERICAN BEES. 147 

palpi long, apparently a little longer than the fifth, fourth and fifth 
together about as long as third ; tegulne dark ; wings clear ; abdomen 
subglobose, black, the erect white hair covering first segment and 
basal two-thirds of second, the apical third of second covered with 
black hair ; third and fourth segments with short black hair, and no 
pale hair-bands ; fifth with a subapical band of very thin light hair ; 
sixth witli a more pronounced band or fringe ; last ventral segment 
with the lateral margins elevated ; legs normal, hair on inner side of 
basal joint of tarsi orange. 

Hab. Palisade, Colorado, May 7th, 1901, two males. (Colo- 
rado Agricultural College.) 

Similar in many respects to S. edwardsii, but smaller, with 
the third antennal joint longer, the yellow of the clypeus paler, 
&c. The type specimen was taken by Prof. C. P. Gillette at 
flowers of plum. 

Synhalonia trutt^e, n. sp. 

Synhalonia frater (not of Cresson), Ckll., Amer. Naturalist, 
vol. 36, p. 815 (no description). 

df . Length about 12 mm.; black, the head, thorax, base of 
abdomen and legs with abundant long erect greyish-white hair, not at 
all fulvous, even on mesothorax ; eyes (dry) reddish-black ; facial 
quadrangle broader than long ; clypeus very bright lemon-yellow, the 
upper border narrowly black, this black broadening before it ends 
laterally ; narrow anterior margin very pale brownish ; labrum re- 
tracted in the specimen described; mandibles black; last joint of 
maxillary palpi at least as long as the fifth ; antennae long, entirely 
black, third joint of moderate length ; wings slightly dusky; abdomen 
quite without light hair-bands ; first two segments with erect light 
hair, but extreme apical margin of first, and base and apex of second, 
with black hair ; last ventral segment with no distinct lateral eleva- 
tions ; legs normal; pectinigerous spur on anterior tibia ending in two 
long slender spines, one of which terminates the comb, while the other 
is prolonged in the line of the spur ; hind spurs normal. Although 
the abdomen is without hair-bands, properly speaking, the sides of the 
third and fourth segments, viewed laterally (obliquely) show glittering 
white hairs. This is extremely like the male of S. edwardsii, but the 
pubescence is paler, and the second abdominal segment has it black at 
base; the scape also is considerably less swollen. 

? . Differs from that of .V; frater by its rather smaller size ; 
reduced abdominal hair-bands, those on the third and fourth segments 
being narrow and more or less broken in the middle line ; apical plate 
much more rounded, less conical in outline ; hind spur of hind tibia 
long and straight, not curved at the tip ; mandibles without a light 
streak. The reduced abdominal bands, the shape of the apical plate, 
and the long straight hind spur, also distinguish it from S. belfragei. 
The ventral abdominal segments are fringed with pale hair, greyish- 
white at the sides, more or less fulvous in the middle. The second 
dorsal abdominal segment has a complete transverse area covered with 
light hair to the exclusion of the black, which is belore and behind it, 
but this light hair is thin and erect, so that it does not seem to form 

n 2 



148 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

a band when the insect is seen from above, as it does in frater and 
belfragei', this area of light hair is gently concave behind, and is con- 
siderably narrowed laterally. 

Hah. Trout Spring, Gallinas Caiion, New Mexico, May 24th 
(Cockerell). It visits the flowers of Iris missouriensis. Evidently 
the New Mexico representative of S. edwardsii, Cresson.. 

Synhalonia speciosa (Cresson). 
$ . Length about 14 mm. ; black, with dull white pubescence, 
tinged with ochreous on thorax above ; facial quadrangle longer than 
broad ; clypeus bright lemon-yellow, the yellow notched deeply on 
each side above ; labrum pale yellow ; mandibles black, with the apical 
part reddish, and furnished below with a number of shining red hairs ; 
maxillary palpi 6-jointed, the second and third joints long and about 
equal, the last three together about as long as the third, and succes- 
sively smaller, the last being narrow and minute ; antenna? reaching 
to base of abdomen, entirely black, apical part of flagellum crenulated, 
and obscurely longitudinally ridged above ; scape short and broad ; 
third joint about one-third length of fourth; mesothorax and scutellum 
with very close shallow punctures ; tegula? dark anteriorly, pallid and 
subhyaline posteriorly ; wings tinged with brown, the nervures piceous ; 
abdomen with black hair mixed with the pale on the basal parts of 
segments three to six ; apex of second segment with coarse black 
hair ; third to sixth segments with apical or subapical bands of white 
tomentum (such as are seen in females of Synhalonia), these bands 
successively stronger on each segment going backwards ; apical plate 
black, broadly truncate, very little narrowed posteriorly ; last ventral 
segment with a short square tooth or process on each extreme lateral 
margin ; legs black, the tarsi ferruginous, the basal joints black or 
blackish on the outer side, the hair on inner side of basal joints 
orange-ferruginous ; middle tarsi slender but normal, first joint with 
no apical process ; both spurs of hind tibiae hooked apically ; basal 
joint of hind tarsus with a couple of red curved bristles at apex, 
simulating a curved spine. 

Hob. Fort Collins, Colorado, May 29th, 1901, and May 28th, 
1901 (Colorado Agricultural College) ; Boulder, Colorado, May 
17th, 1902 (S. A. Johnson, 496). 

Allied to S. gillettei, Ckll., but easily distinguished by the 
smaller size, hooked spurs, &c. The May 29th example is 
recorded as from mountain ash, taken by Mr. Titus. I had 
described this as a new species, but having some misgivings lest 
the remarkable character of the hind spur might have been over- 
looked in the description of one of Cresson's, I asked Mr. Viereck 
to examine Cresson's types with this question in mind. He has 
very kindly done so, and reports that in S. frater, dilecta, lepida, 
and all the other species of Synhalonia in the collection at Phila- 
delphia the spurs are simple ; except in the male of S. speciosa 
as determined by Kobertson, who has taken the sexes in coitu. 
In this male speciosa the spurs and the peculiarities of the hind 
tarsi are just as described above, and it is evident that the species 



STEAY NOTES ON ACULEATES. 149 

is the same. It had not occurred to rne to refer the insect to 
speciosa, because the only description of that species given by 
Cresson is that of a female, and Robertson had published the 
opinion that it is a synonym of /rater. It is now evident that 
frater can readily be distinguished from speciosa in the male by 
the character of its spurs. 

Boulder, Colorado : March 6th, 1905. 



STRAY NOTES ON ACULEATES. 
By Percy E. Freke, F.E.S. 

I have always found Vespa vulgaris more numerous than 
other wasps. In some places V. germanica seems to be as abun- 
dant or, indeed, more so, but this is, I believe, more apparent 
than real, the latter coming much more into houses and shops 
in search of sweets. At Tramore, Co. Waterford, it seemed to be 
almost the only wasp in the town, but on examining the country 
hedgerows, I found V. vulgaris maintained its numerical supe- 
riority. V. germanica might well be called the " house -wasp," 
or the "town-wasp," and V. vulgaris the " country-wasp." At 
Borris, Co. Carlow, I examined many nests, and found that 
V. vulgaris was responsible for 81 "5 per cent, of them, V. ger- 
manica coming next, but a long way behind. There V. rufa and 
V. sylvestris are about equally common, probably rather less so 
than V. germanica, whereas about Dublin V. rufa is rare, and 
V. sylvestris and V. norvcgica (the last the least common at Borris), 
are about equal, and V. germanica is about half as common as 
vulgaris. In one place one seems more numerous, whereas in 
another place the reverse is the case, but always vulgaris holds 
the lead more or less. Why is this ? I believe because it is 
the most "hardy" of our wasps. I have noticed it flying in 
some numbers quite late in the season, when others of its genus 
had ceased to appear weeks before, and I think it probable that 
this character enables a larger proportion of females to survive 
the winter. I believe vulgaris has also a larger family. Certain 
it is that the males of this species are more commonly seen on 
the wing in autumn than germanica even in the latter's most 
favoured districts. 

With regard to the face-markings, I have found the females 
and workers of germanica to vary more than vulgaris, and I 
believe variation is by nests, and not individually. I examined 
a nest of rather abnormally marked germanica, and found 
80 per cent, of the workers were thus marked. In the normally 
marked nests I found no abnormally marked individuals. 

Generally, wasps are very good-tempered, unless the nest 



150 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

itself is actually attacked, or they have been irritated by former 
attacks upon their home. I have often stood in front of the 
nest and captured numbers of the inmates as they came or went, 
without the others interfering. I have never know a wasp make 
a totally unprovoked attack. Hive-bees constantly do so, and 
are far worse tempered than wasps. A wasp, on coming into a 
room, shows far more sagacity than a hive-bee about getting out 
again. The latter seems to lose its head completely and, being 
frightened, gets very cross. But a wasp may lose its temper, 
even when its safety is not threatened. I saw one of them 
feeding on fallen apples, in company with some large flies. One 
of the flies carelessly jostled the wasp, who turned savagely 
upon it and bit off one of its wings and then left it and returned 
to the apple. 

I think V. sylvcstris is perhaps our most savage wasp, and 
V. norvegica the least so. Indeed, when a boy, I have, with the 
help of one of the grooms, cut away a nest of norvegica, and 
carried it home half a mile, defending ourselves with pieces of 
brushwood, and have not received a single sting. We ran all 
the way home, and any wasps that were in the nest when we 
started, came out, but did not attack us. 

Wasps are very gentle towards individuals of their own 
species. I have seen them, having fallen into the gardener's 
bottle of sugar and water, and have noticed that when one tried 
to save itself by climbing on to its neighbour, the latter would 
turn on it with open jaws, yet if it were one of its own species 
(possibly its own nest), it was never attacked. Not so, however, 
if one of them were vulgaris and the other germanica. Then 
.they closed in mortal combat, and I have often seen them lying 
drowned, locked in each others grasp. 

When a wasp attacks a large fly, it attempts to disable it by 
biting through the principal nervures of one wing. This is not 
as easy as one might suppose, and I have often seen the contest 
last a considerable time. I once saw a wasp attack a large fly 
(Sarcophaga camaria), and it seemed incapable of disabling it 
thus. The fly dragged it about over the ground for some time, 
until at last the wasp, desparing of success in the usual way, 
shifted its grasp forward, and seized the fly by the neck and bit 
its head off at once. Why is not this the usual mode of attack ? 
It seemed so much easier than the other. Probably it offers 
more chance for the victim to slip from its antagonist's grasp 
before she can seize the neck. 

Generally, a wasp bites its captive almost into a shapeless 
mass, and then carries it home to its nest. I saw one attempt 
to fly across a river with an unusually heavy burden of that 
kind. It started from a high bank, but was not equal to the 
task, and got lower and lower, until, just as they touched the 
water, a big trout rose and sucked them both down. 



STRAY NOTES ON ACULEATES. 151 

The males of some of the Aculeates are very quarrelsome. 
I have seen a pair of Pompilus gibbus fight furiously for the 
possession of a female which was present, and, on examining 
them, have found that they had both suffered severely ; indeed, 
the smaller of the two had no wings left, only the remnants of 
nervures. 

I have seen the males of Mellinus arvensis, when cruising up 
and down in front of the burrows of their females, seize each 
other and, fighting fiercely, roll down the bank together. The 
most combative of our Aculeates is, I think, Andrena ivilkella. 
I have often seen the males fight with each other in a most 
determined manner. But they do not confine their quarrels to 
those of their own race. I once saw a large female of Bombus 
terrestris struggling on the ground, buzzing, and trying to get 
away from something that held her. I found a male of A. ivil- 
kella had seized her by the hind leg, and refused to let go, until 
I captured them both. She was able to crawl about, but could 
not fly away with her antagonist holding on, and did not appear 
to offer any resistance. I put the angry Andrena into a bottle 
which already contained a worker of Vespa vulgaris, thinking he 
would soon have the tables turned on him, but he unhesitatingly 
attacked the wasp, which, to my surprise, seemed quite afraid 
of him, and disposed to keep out of his way, and he renewed 
the attack every time the wasp came near him, and drove it off. 
I cannot help thinking that this wasp was timid from finding 
himself in the bottle, but that does not detract from the valour 
displayed by the little Andrena. 

The males of Bombus sometimes quarrel among themselves, 
and I have seen those of B. lapidarius fighting on the ground, 
and tumbling over each other like two dogs, although I could 
not see any female in the neighbourhood. Also when they are 
presumably seeking the females, they often fly up and down a 
hedge on a hot day, and will attack any one who passes near 
them. In this way I have been persistently attacked by males 
of B. agrorum and B. terrestris, the latter even striking my hat 
as they dashed at me. 

I saw a fierce battle near Caesar's camp at Folkestone, 
between four large females of B. lapidarius. Three of them 
were on the ground when I first saw them, and the fourth came 
to join in the fight while I was looking on. At first I thought 
they must be males fighting for a female, but this was certainly 
not the case. Then I thought perhaps it was a contest be- 
tween Bombus and Psithyrus, but they were undoubtedly all 
B. lapidarius. This is contrary to all my former experience. 
Generally, the females of the social Hymenoptera are rather 
gentle outside their nest. But these were fighting on the open 
ground, on the grass. 

I once watched a bank where many small solitary bees had 



152 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

their nests in a colony. The parasitic Nomada altcrnata were 
busy examining their burrows. They appeared extremely care- 
ful, stopping at the mouth of the holes, with their antennae 
directed forward, and carefully watching for any symptom from 
within of the presence of the rightful owner. I saw the head of 
an Andrena at one burrow, and it was presently withdrawn. 
Very soon Nomada came and inspected the hole, but promptly 
departed. However, in the case of one returning, A. trimmerana, 
I thought the intruder had been caught inside. There was a 
terrible scuffle at the mouth of the hole. It lasted just two 
minutes, which appeared a long time as I watched it. Andrena 
pulling with all her might, and something within which as 
steadily resisted. At last, suddenly, out came something which 
she thrust backwards beneath her between her legs, and which 
rolled to the bottom of the bank, while she entered the burrow 
triumphantly. I picked up the vanquished insect, which seemed 
to be very seedy, and was surprised to find it was not a Nomada, 
but a female Halictus rubicundus. 

I have watched females of Mellinus arvensis catching flies on 
cow-dung. Mellinus ran about until it saw a fly, advanced to 
within from two to three inches of it, paused for an instant, like a 
dog pointing, as if it were taking aim, and then sprang forward, 
rarely more than about two inches. The fly was often missed, 
but, if caught, they both rolled over, Mellinus biting its prey. I 
noticed it did not attack every species. The little flies, Sejisis 
cynipsea, it passed by contemptuously. Lucilia cornicina it often 
passed unnoticed, though I saw it attempt to catch several, only 
in one case successfully, and then the fly was released immedi- 
ately, seemingly none the worse, Mellinus running off apparently 
disgusted at having made a mistake. Musca was greedily 
seized. I did not see any " blue-bottles," which I know are a 
favourite prey, but there was present a specimen of Mesembrina 
meridiana which Mellinus avoided, giving it a wide berth, and I 
frequently saw this big fly chase it for a few inches from one 
place to another. I do no not know why this should be, for I 
have often seen Mellinus carry off blue-bottles just, or nearly, as 
large, and I have seen wasps attack this fly readily. 

Sometimes the tables are turned, and I have seen a little 
Andrena minutula, when busily engaged rifling a dandelion-head, 
pounced on by one of the bloodthirsty red " cow-dung flies." 
The little bee was taken unfairly at a disadvantage, as it was 
seized from above, and a desperate struggle ensued, until Andrena 
reversed herself, when the fly decamped with most ludicrous 
promptitude. 

Southpoint, Limes Road, Folkestone. 



153 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW ACULEATE HYMENO- 
PTERA FROM THE TRANSVAAL. 

By P. Cameron. 

Tachytes transvaalensis, sp. nov. 
Black, the apical two joints of the four front tarsi reddish ; the 
tibial and tarsal spines pale testaceous ; the calcaria testaceous ; head 
and thorax densely covered with grey hair ; the apices of the abdo- 
minal segments with broad bands of silvery pile ; the pygidium covered 
with fulvous, mixed with silvery pubescence. Wings clear hyaliue, 
highly iridescent, the costa, stigma, and nervures pale testaceous ; the 
secoud abscissa of radius shorter than the third ; the second recurrent 
nervure is received in the middle of the cellule ; the apex of radius 
is rounded below, obliquely sloped ; the first transverse cubital nervure 
is roundly curved backwards to the cubitus. Eyes distinctly con- 
verging above, where they are separated by the length of the antennal 
scape and pedicle. Apical half of mandibles pallid testaceous, the base 
thickly covered with silvery pubescence. Base of fore tarsi with six 
spines. Pygidium clearly longer than it is wide at the base, gradually 
narrowed towards the apex, as in T. mira, Kohl (cf. Ann. Hof. Mus. 
Wien, 1894, pi. xiii. f. 32). The second joint of the flagellum is three 
times longer than its thickness in the middle. The furrow on the base 
of the metanotum is irregularly transversely striated ; it is indistinct ; 
on top of the apical slope is a closely, distinctly, transversely striated 
space ; the apical slope is transversely rugose. The long spur of the 
hind tibiae is as long as the metatarsus. $ . Length, 14 mm. 

Transvaal. 

Palpi dark testaceous. The pubescence on the hind tibire behind 
has a golden tinge. On either side of the clypeus are three stumpy, 
not very clearly defined, teeth or ridges. The pubescence on the 
pygidium is close, short, and depressed. The second abscissa of the 
radius is shorter than the space bounded by the recurrent nervures. 

It is possible that this may be T. hirsutus, Sm. (Cat. Hym. 
Ins. Brit. Mus. iii. p. 300), of which only the male has been de- 
scribed ; but the description is not sufficiently precise to enable 
me to decide this without an examination of the type ; the pube- 
scence of the head and thorax is certainly different, it being 
yellow and " rich golden " on the face. 

Odynerus vaalensis, sp. nov. 
Black ; the scape below, clypeus, labrum, a mark wider than long, 
transverse above, roundly narrowed below and slightly incised m the 
middle, a band, narrowed in the middle, on the first abdominal seg- 
ment above, a broader one, irregular behind and slightly incised in the 
middle there, on the second above and below — the under line trilobate 
— and the apices of the other segments, yellow. Legs bright fulvous 
red, the coxa? and trochanters black. Wings almost hyaline, the 
radial and cubital cellules smoky violaceous ; tegulte rufous. 3 . 
Length, 8 mm. 



154 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Vertex rugosely punctured, the front closely longitudinally reticu- 
lated-striated. Clypeus as long as it is broad, rounded broadly above, 
the apex with an incision on its apex, where it is wider than its 
greatest length ; it becomes gradually wider towards the apex, the 
sides being sharply pointed. Apices of mandibles rufous. Temples 
reticulated-punctured closely. Apex of pronotum transverse, the lateral 
angles not acute. Pro- and mesopleurae more coarsely rugose than 
the mesonotum ; the metapleurae, except near the base above, closely 
striated obliquely, the striae intermixing and forming almost reticula- 
tions in places. Lateral angles of metanotum forming, with the base, 
almost a triangle, i.e. the sides are produced into a bluut point in the 
middle. Scuteilum quadrangular, broader than long, its base obliquely 
sloped. Apex of post-scutellum smooth, obliquely sloped. Centre of 
metanotum hollowed, smooth ; the keel in the centre widened towards 
the apex. Basal abdominal segment cup-shaped ; the second slightly 
longer than the width at the apex, which is smooth and turned up. 
The nagellum of antennae is brownish beneath ; tbe hook is brown, 
stout, reaching to the apex of the joint. There are two lines on the 
post-scutellum. 

Comes near to 0. posticus and O. silvaensis. The former I 

do not know in nature, but the latter may be separated from my 

species as follows : — 

Apical segments of abdomen and basal half of antennae 
red, a yellow line in the eye-incision, the sides of tbe 
median segment not dilated in the middle (some- 
times yellow) ...... silvaensis, Sauss. 

Apical segments of abdomen and antennae not red, no 
yellow line on the eye-incision, tbe sides of median 
segment dilated in the middle . . . vaalensis, sp. nov. 

The specimens of silvaensis which I have seen (there is a 
specimen from the Transvaal in the Albany Museum, Grahams- 
town) is Saussure's variety, they having the post-scutellum and 
sides of metanotum yellow. The tibiae, too, are yellow on the 
outer side [cf. Saussure, ' Vespides,' i. p. 214). 



NEW CULICIDiE FEOM THE WEST COAST 
OF AFRICA. 

By Fred. V. Theobald, M.A. 

(Concluded from p. 104.) 

Genus ^Edluorphus, Theobald. 
(Mono. Culicid. iii. p. 290, 1903 ; Genera Insectorum, Culic. 
p. 20, 1904.) 

/Edimorphus alboannulatus, n. sp. 
Head dark brown ; proboscis black, with a white baud on the 
apical half. Thorax deep rich brown, with scanty golden scales ; a 
silvery white spot on each prothoracic lobe; pleurae pale brown, with 



NEW CULICIDiE FROM THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 155 

silvery white puncta ; scutellum silvery white. Abdomen deep brown, 
unhanded, with basal white lateral spots. Legs deep brown, with 
apical silvery white bands, most pronounced in the hind legs, the last 
hind tarsal being all white. 

? . Head deep brown, clothed with dusky flat scales over most of 
the surface, and some flat creamy ones at the sides ; around the eyes 
rather large golden narrow- curved scales, and smaller and duller ones 
at the back ; over the whole surface very long deep black upright 
forked scales. Proboscis black, with a pale ochreous band slightly 
towards the apical half. Palpi deep brown and densely scaly ; clypeus 
brown. Thorax rich deep chestnut-brown, with scattered small golden 
curved scales ; silvery white flat scales on the prothoracic lobes ; 
numerous black bristles over the roots of the wings ; scutellum 
brown, clothed with silvery white flat scales and black border-bristles, 
six to the mid lobe and some smaller ones with them ; pleuraa brown, 
with prominent silvery white puncta composed of flat scales ; one large 
spot of these scales seems to project outwards, and can be seen when 
the insect is viewed from above, looking almost like a silvery spot close 
to the roots of the wings. Abdomen deep brown, with basal white 
lateral spots and pale venter. Legs black, with apical silvery wbite 
bands as follows : small but prominent on the femora and tibite of all 
the legs, on all the metatarsi, and on the fore and mid first tarsal 
segment ; in the hind legs prominent on all the segments, the last 
tarsal being pure white. All the ungues equal and uniserrated. Wings 
with the first submarginal a little longer and narrower than the second 
posterior cell, its base nearly level with that of the second posterior, 
stem of the first submarginal cell about two-tbirds the length of the 
cell, stem of the second posterior cell as long as the cell ; posterior 
cross-vein nearly twice its own length distant from the mid. Halteres 
with pale stem and fuscous and white knot. The scales are dark 
brown, especially along the oosta, with deep violet reflections towards 
the base, and a white patch of scales at the base of the costa and first 
long vein. Length, 4-5 mm. 

$ . Palpi about the same length as the banded proboscis, the two 
apical segments small and about equal, a pale baud at the base of the 
apical segment ; on both apical segments, and on the apex of the ante- 
penultimate, a few long brown hairs. Fore and mid ungues unequal, 
the mid more so than the front ones, both uniserrated, the tooth of the 
larger mid unguis near the base and small. Length, 4 to 4*5 mm. 

Habitat. Sierra Leone, West Africa. 

Observations. — Described from two specimens (a male and 
female) in perfect condition. It is a very marked species, the 
general ornamentation of the thorax and legs being character- 
istic. I cannot be certain as to the exact structure of the male 
ungues, as there is only one specimen, nor the genitalia, which 
are hidden in hairs and scales. No notes were sent with the 
specimens. 

Genus Culex, Linnaeus. 

(Syst. Nat. 1738, Linnams ; Mono. Culicid. i. p. 326, 1901, 
Theobald.) 



156 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Culex hirsutipalpis, Theobald. 
(Mono. Culicid. i. p. 378, 1901.) 

Several males and females from Bihe, Angola. The males 
differ from the type in that there is no pale band at the apex of 
the palpi. 

My figure of the male ungues (Mono. Culicid. i. p. 378) were 
drawn from a pinned specimen in which they could not clearly 
be seen. When mounted and examined flat the tooth of the 
larger fore and mid ungues is seen to be large and outstanding, 
almost at right angles to the claw, and the tooth of the smaller 
one is more pronounced and nearer the base. The series also 
shows great variation in size, some specimens being one-third 
less than the type. 

Genus Heptaphlebomyia, Theobald.* 

(Mono. Culicid. iii. p. 336, 1903.) 

This genus was described from a single female. The fresh 
material sent from Angola by Dr. Creighton Wellman has enabled 
me to add fresh generic characters to those already given. The 
males sent by the collector do not agree with the females, and I 
am not sure if they are of the same species. 

Characters of the Genus. — Head clothed with narrow-curved scales, 
and upright forked ones, except at the sides, where they are small and 
spathulate. Palpi of the female small but prominent, in the male 
acuminate, the last two segments hairy. Thorax clothed with narrow- 
curved scales, and also the scutellum and prothoracic lobes ; the 
pleuras in the female with patches of flat scales, which end in a sharp 
point ; in the male they are rounded apically. The wings have the 
typical Culex venation, hut the females have a distinct seventh long 
vein, scaled for part of its length with rather large elongated flat 
scales, which apparently vary in number from ten to fifteen. The 
scales of the wing are rather broader than in Culex, especially in the 
apices of the veins, including the branches of the fork-cells. In the 
males there does not seem to be a scaled seventh vein, but the sixth is 
markedly bent at right angles near the edge of the wing. 

The two chief features in the genus are the presence of a 
scaled seventh vein in the female, aud the peculiar form of the 
scales on the pleurae, which I have not seen in any other 
Culicids. There is a superficial resemblance between the males 
and females, but the absence of the scaled seventh vein in the 
males makes it doubtful if they really belong here, although 
evidently they were taken together by the collector. 

* Since this was sent to press, two very marked new species have 
been sent me from Madagascar. The descriptions will shortly appear in 
the ' Archiv der Parasitologic,' in a paper on Madagascan Culicid* by 
M. Veutillon. 



NEW CULICIDiE FROM THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 157 

Heptaphlebomyia simplex, Theobald. 

Head deep brown, with greyish scales ; palpi of female thin, black, 
and white-scaled, of male thin, black ; proboscis black, unhanded. 
Thorax deep brown, with small reddish golden narrow-curved scales, 
brown pleuras with snowy white puncta. Abdomen deep brown, with 
basal white curved bands, aud basal white lateral spots. Legs deep 
brown, unhanded ; white femoral and tibial apical spots and traces of 
a very fine indistinct white line on femora and tibias. Ungues of 
female small, equal, and simple. 

$ . Head deep brown, with narrow-curved grey scales, somewhat 
largest in the middle of the head, and black upright forked scales ; 
small white flat lateral scales and a row of rather long and prominent 
deep brown bristles projecting from the front of the head, those of each 
side pointing inwards ; clypeus and proboscis deep black ; palpi thin, 
rather irregular in form, and clothed with black and white scales. 
Thorax deep brown, clothed with narrow-curved reddish golden scales, 
some grey ones in front near the head, another small patch in front 
of the roots of the wings, pale ones over the roots and before the 
scutellum ; scutellum with pale dull creamy narrow-curved scales, with 
two series of border-bristles, the larger deep brown, the smaller pale 
golden ; prothoracic lobes with narrow-curved pale scales, and some 
brown chaatas ; pleurae deep brown, with patches of flat-pointed white 
scales and short golden bristles here and there. Abdomen deep 
orange-yellow, clothed with deep blackish brown scales with violet 
reflections, and with basal white curved bands, those of the second, 
third, and fourth segments being in the form of almost median curved 
spots ; all the segments with basal white lateral spots ; border-bristles 
small and pallid, many pallid hairs at the sides of the body ; venter 
mostly white, scaled with black. Legs deep black, the apices of the 
femora and tibiae with a white spot ; also on the femora and tibiae is a 
rather indistinct ventral white line ; ungues small, equal, and simple. 
Wings with the first submarginal cell longer and narrower than the 
second posterior cell, its base nearer the base of the wing than that of 
the latter, its stem varying from one-third to one-half the length of the 
cell ; stem of the second posterior about two-thirds the length of the 
cell ; the posterior cross-vein from one and a half to twice its own 
length distant from the mid ; the seventh vein with scales which vary 
in number from ten to about fifteen. Length, 3-5 to 4 mm. 

$ . Head clothed with narrow-curved pale scales, a more or less 
prominent median bare line ; clypeus and proboscis deep brown ; 
antennae grey, with deep brown bands and verticillate hairs. Palpi 
deep brown, the apical segment acuminate, last two segments hairy, 
the antepenultimate segment thin and weak, with a trace of a pale 
band upon it, hairs black ; two apical segments equal. Thorax very 
similar to the female, but does not show the pale scales. Abdomen 
banded as in the female, narrow, with rather scanty long pale brown 
hairs ; the apical segment with scattered creamy scales, the penulti- 
mate with the pale basal band extending down each side of the seg- 
ment. Fore and mid ungues unequal, both uniserrated, hind equal, 
simple, and small. Wings with the seventh vein apparently not scaled 
(/. e. only a fold and no true vein). The first submarginal cell consider- 



158 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ably longer and narrower than the second posterior cell, its base nearer 
the base of the wing than that of the second posterior cell, its stem 
about half the length of the cell ; stem of the second posterior cell not 
as long as the cell ; posterior cross-vein nearly twice its own length 
distant from the mid ; sixth vein curved almost at right angles at the 
apex. The male genitalia have rather a narrow basal lobe, with a long 
curved lateral process composed of several narrow laminae, and nearer 
the clasper another process, shorter, and composed of finer parts ; the 
clasper terminates in a small jointed process. Length, 3-5 to 4 mm. 

Habitat. Bihe, Angola, Portuguese West Africa (Dr. Creighton 
Wellman). 

Observations. — The four females sent by Dr. Creighton Well- 
man all show the marked seventh scaled vein, but the males do 
not. There is variation in size, showing, as usual, that exact 
measurements of Culicids are of no diagnostic value. This 
species might easily be mistaken at first for Culex fatigans, 
Wied., and, on more careful examination, to be near C. creticus, 
Theob., owing to the white scaled line on the femora and tibiae ; 
but a microscopic, or even a careful hand-lens, examination will 
at once reveal the seventh scaled vein. 

The original type is in the British Museum, and all the 
specimens redescribed here. There were three males sent with 
the females. 

Further notes on this genus will shortly be issued in the 
' Archiv der Parasitologic ' on important material collected and 
described by M. Veutillon. 



A LIST OF THE " MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA '' OF 
LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 

By C. H. Forsythe. 

(Continued from p. 135.) 

Triphana ianthina. — Generally distributed throughout the district ; 
comes to sugared ragwort flowers in July and August. 

T. interjecta. — Uncommon. I have only taken examples near 
Heysham, Hest Bank, and in the County Asylum grounds in July. 

T. comes (orboiia). — Comes freely to sugar in July and August, and 
is generally distributed. This species is very variable. 

T. pronnba. — Abundant at sugar in July and August everywhere. 
This is another very variable species in colour — from silver-grey to 
black-brown 

Aviphipyra tragopqgonis. — Fairly common everywhere at sugar in 
August. 

Mania maura. — Comes to sugar in Aqueduct Wood and other 
localities on the banks of the Lune at the end of July. I have also 
taken specimens in the County Asylum grounds. 



MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA OF LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 159 

Panolis piniperda. — Not common ; comes to sallow-bloom in April : 
Corporation Wood, Quernmore, County Asylum grounds, near Clougha, 
Blea Tarn, &c. 

Pachnobia rubricosa. — Fairly common at sallow-bloom, and generally 
distributed throughout the district. 

Tamiocampa gothica. — Common at sallow-bloom in March and April, 
everywhere. This species shows considerable variation. The var. 
gothicina is scarce. 

T. incerta (instabilis). — Common everywhere at sallow-bloom in 
March and April. 

T. populeti. — Not common ; comes to sallow-bloom in March 
and April, near Clougha, the County Asylum grounds, Quernmore, 
Hal ton, &c. 

T. stabilis. — Plentiful everywhere at sallow-bloom in March and 
April. This species shows considerable variation of ground colour. 

T. puherulenta. — Generally distributed and fairly common. Comes 
to sallow-bloom in March and April. 

Dyschorista (Ortko&ia) suspecta. — I have only taken this species near 
Clougha at sugar in July. 

Orthosia lota. — Fairly common at sugar, and generally distributed, 
in September. 

0. macilenta. — Fairly common at sugar in September ; Halton, Grim- 
shaw Lane, County Asylum grounds, Blea Tarn, Freeman's Wood, &c. 

0. helvola (rufina), — Fairly common at sugar in September and 
October ; County Asylum grounds, Grimshaw Lane, Halton, Aqueduct 
Wood, &c. This species varies considerably. 

0. pistachio. — I have bred this species from Witherslack and Methop 
larvae, and have taken it at sugar in the County Asylum grounds in 
September and October, but it is not plentiful. 

0. litura. — Common at sugar in September ; Witherslack, Methop, 
County Asylum grounds, Blea Tarn, Freeman's Wood, Corporation 
Wood, &c. 

0. circellaris (ferruginea). — Abundant at sugar in late September 
and October in the County Asylum grounds, Grimshaw Lane, Aqueduct 
Wood, Corporation Wood, &c. 

Orrhodia vaccinii. — Abundant everywhere at sugar and ivy-bloom 
in September, October, and November. 

0. ligida (spadicea). — Abundant everywhere at sugar and ivy-bloom 
in September, October, and November. 

Scopelosoma satellitia. — Fairly common at sugar in September and 
October. This species varies much in ground colour— from red to dark 
dull brown, and with a white, red, or yellow reniform. 

Xanthia fulvago (cerago). — Fairly common and generally distributed 
in July, August, and September. 

A', jiavago (silago). — I have taken this species in September at 
Methop, Witherslack, Grimshaw Lane, County Asylum grounds, and 
Blea Tarn. 

Cirrfuedia xerampelina. — Not common ; Blea Tarn, Clougha, Lan- 
caster, Arnside, Halton, Caton, &c, end of August. The var. unicolor 
is rare, odd examples occasionally at Clougha and Arnside. 

Cosmia paleacea (fulvago). — Scarce. I have only bred it from Methop 
larvae taken from oak in early June. The imago appears in August. 



160 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Calymnia trapezina. — Fairly common and generally distributed 
throughout the district in August. 

Dianthcecia cucubali. — I have only taken this species between Caton 
and Quernmore in June. 

Pulia chi. — Abundant on the walls about Clougha, Lancaster, 
Quernmore, Halton, and Caton, &c, in September and October. The 
var. olivacea is scarce. 

Miselia oxyacanthee. — Abundant at sugar in September ; Halton, 
Grimshaw Lane, Blea Tarn, County Asylum grounds, &c. The var. 
capucina occasionally. 

Agriopis aprUina. — Not common, but occurs in most of the localities 
throughout the district. Comes to sugar in October. 

Euplexia lucipara. — Fairly common at sugar in June and July, 
and again in September ; County Asylum grounds, Clougha, Wither - 
slack, &c. 

Phlogophora meticulosa. — Common at sugar in September and 
October ; County Asylum grounds, Halton, Aqueduct Wood, Freeman's 
Wood, Witherslack, &c. 

Aplecta nebidosa. — Common, but local ; Witherslack and Methop. 
Comes to sugar in June. This species varies considerably in ground 
colour— ranging from light grey to nearly black (the latter is rare — 
var. robsoni). 

A. tincta. — Local ; near Witherslack end of June. 

Hadena protea. — Fairly plentiful near Clougha, Quernmore, Blea 
Tarn, &c, in September. 

H. glauca. — Local and not common. I have ouly taken this species 
at rest on the rocks near Clougha in June and early July. 

H. dentina. — A few at sugar, but more frequently at rest on the 
stone walls and rocks in the vicinity of Clougha in July. 

H. dissimilis [suasa), — Not common; odd examples come to sugar in 
the County Asylum grounds, and I have bred specimens from Methop 
larvae. The imago appears in June. 

H. oleracea. — Common at sugar and privet-bloom in July ; and 
generally distributed. 

H. pisi. — Fairly common at Witherslack and Methop in June. 
This species is very variable. 

H. thalassina. — Not common; examples come to sugar in most 
seasons at Blea Tarn, County Asylum grounds, Quernmore, &c, in 
June. 

Xylocampa areola (lithorhiza). — Fairly common in some seasons ; 
appears in March and April, and comes to sallow-bloom. 

Calocampa vetusta. — Uncommon ; comes to sugar and ivy occasion- 
ally in October in the County Asylum grounds, at Blea Tarn, and 
Quernmore. 

G. exoleta. — Fairly common and generally distributed ; comes to 
sugar and ivy-bloom in October and November. 

C. solidaginis. — I have only taken this species near Clougha and in 
the County Asylum grounds ; end of July. 

Xylina conformis. — Very rare. I took two specimens at ivy-bloom 
on October 22nd, 1902, near Lancaster ; vide 'Entomologist,' vol. xxxv. 
p. 25. 

(To be continued.) 



161 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Dytiscids in the New Forest. — Mr. Ansorge (Entom. xxxvii. 
241) asks if anyone knows of the occurrence of Deronectes lotus in the 
New Forest. I may therefore say that there is a stream in the forest 
in which it may always be found in early June. I was very much 
surprised when I first found it there, a good many years ago. Another 
rare Dytiscid occurring in the forest I thiuk has not been recorded, viz, 
Hydrovatus clypealis. This lives in a pond near Lyndhurst, in com- 
pany with Pelobius hermanni. — D. Sharp; Cambridge, May 9th, 1905. 

London Lepidoptera. — I should be very grateful if any of your 
readers would kindly supply me with the names of Macro-Lepidoptera 
actually seen or captured inside the "four-mile radius" at any time 
since, and including, 1900. I trust it will be noted that I desire per- 
sonal experiences only. — George Lock; 41, Nithdale Road, Plumstead, 
S.E., May 16th, 1905. 

Eupithecia stevensata. — When collecting in Freshwater, Isle of 
Wight, last September, I captured a Eupithecia which puzzled me to 
name. I have just shown the specimen (which is in perfect condition) 
to my friend Mr. L. B. Prout, and he informs me that it is undoubtedly 
E. stevensata. The specimen was caught while dusking along an 
ordinary hedgeside where a few tamarisks were growing, but certainly 
no juniper. This substantiates the statement, made some time ago by 
Mr. Sydney Webb, that the insect appears in September, and that 
the larva does not feed on juniper. As the insect had never to my 
knowledge been caught outside the Dover district, I thought the record 
might prove of interest. — J. P. Mutch ; 415, Hornsey Road, N. 

[Barrett, in ' British Lepidoptera,' treats stevensata as a form of 
E. sobrinata. " If this form," he remarks, " when reared, should 
appear to be distinct from E. sobrinata, it will be an exceedingly 
difficult species to describe, seeing that although the shade of colour is 
peculiar, the markings, though differing in intensity, are accurately 
the same." — Ed.] 

Apamea ophiogramma. — Is Poa aquatica a usual food-plant for this 
species ? I have found no less than six larvae this year feeding upon it. 
Both Phalaris arundinacca and Poa aquatica grow together along the 
margins of the streams here, and I get larvae of A. ophiogramma in both, 
although mostly in the Phalaris. A. didyma (oculea) feeds commonly 
on Poa aquatica, but is not very abundant on Phalaris arundinacea in 
this district. — Francis C. Woodbridge ; Northcroft, Uxbridge. 

Note on Haworth's Type-specimen of " Noctua subfusca." — At 
the sale of the first portion of the Mason Collection, Lot 498 — which 
included Haworth's original type-specimen, bearing his own MS. label 
"subfusca," of his Xochia subfusca — became my property. The moth, 
which was first described by him in Lep. Brit. p. 114, as " Bombyx 
subfusclts, , ' but was afterwards, on p. 219 of the same work, assigned a 
more correct position under the name " Noctua subfusca" is an 
obscurely-marked fuscous example of Ayrotis corticea, Hb., and the 
name has been rightly sunk as a synonym of corticea. I observe, how- 

ENTOM. — JUNE, 1905. O 



162 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ever, that in the Entom. Syn. List, p. 7 (1884), subfusca is specially 
indicated as being referable to the female sex of A. corticea, and is not 
entered as a variety, whereas the type-specimen, which I am about to 
present to the National Collection, is unquestionably a male, as proved 
both by the antennae and the frenulum, and represents a decidedly 
aberrant form, for which the name subfusca must be retained, of this 
species. — Eustace R. Bankes ; Norden, Corfe Castle, May 11th, 1905. 

The Mason Collection. — With reference to the notice (antea, 
p. 136) of the sale of this collection, it seems advisable to mention 
that the MS. label on the pin of the Norfolk specimen of Notodonta 
tritophus, Esp. (rendered as "trilophus," loc. cit.), read '• Ersham, 
Norfolk, Garneys." "Ersham" is obviously a mistake for "Ears- 
ham," in south-east Norfolk, which is close to Bungay (in Suffolk), 
where Messrs. Charles and W. Garneys used to reside (vide Ent. Ann. 
1856, p. 18). In the sale catalogue " Garneys " was incorrectly 
rendered " Gurney," and the attempt to quote (antea, p. 136) the exact 
data given in the catalogue has further resulted in " Ersham " of the 
catalogue appearing as " Ergham." I also notice that it is stated 
(antea, p. 136) that " Five Synia musculosa were disposed of at 5/- to 
11/- each," but would point out that whereas this is true of the last 
four of the five specimens sold separately and apart from other species, 
the first of the five fetched 22/-. — Eustace R. Bankes ; Norden, Corfe 
Castle, May 10th, 1905. 

Entomological Club. — A meeting was held at Wellfield, Lingards 
Road, Lewisham, the residence of Mr. Robert Adkin, the host and 
chairman of the evening. Other members present were Messrs. 
Donisthorpe and Porritt. Mr. Lucas exhibited a living example of 
each sex of Agrion armatum from Cambs. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Deilephila livornica in Cornwall.— On April 16th last, at Charles- 
town, there was taken a specimen of D. livornica, which is now in my 
possession. I believe that four other specimens were taken about the 
17th inst. viz. : — one Grampound Road, one Helston, one Falmouth, and 
one at Hayle ; all in Cornwall. For three days preceding the 16th inst. 
very strong south-south-east and south winds prevailed here, so I 
assume that these insects, at least, were helped along thereby, on their 
long journey. — H. D. Kenyon ; Lamorna Villas, Mount Charles, St. 
Austell, April 28th, 1905. 

Deilephila livornica in Wales. — On April 20th last, a good speci- 
men of D. livornica was brought to me by a little girl. She had found 
it in a hole in the garden. It was alive, and quite perfect, although 
the girl carried it in a small tumbler. There is no doubt about its 
being a true British specimen of that somewhat rare species. I would 
have sent a record of this capture before, but I have been away from 
home. — L. Stafford ; Gold Croft, Caerleon, near Newport, Monmouth, 
May 16th, 1905. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 163 

Notes fkom the Chester District for 1904. — Contrary to the 
predictions of certain, or, more accurately speaking, uncertain weather 
prophets, the summer of 1904 turned out to be sunny, warm, and 
enjoyable. The months of June, July, and August had especially high 
temperatures and clear atmospheres, and August 4th, when Londoners 
sweltered in 91° (shade reading), had the distinction of being the 
hottest day for four years. As usual, the weather became unsettled 
about August 12th, summer returning towards the end of the month. 
It was an especial matter of interest to me to see if the two previous 
cold wet summers would have any appreciable effect on the numbers 
of the butterflies. The following species were conspicuous by their 
absence, either as larvns or imagines : — Vanessa in (I saw none). — V. 
urticaz (I do not remember seeing one). — V. atalanta was represented 
by a few specimens. Mr. J. Thompson took five larvas and one pupa 
off nettles just outside Chester. One of the butterflies was seen, 
September 11th, in the Grosvenor Park ; one in Delamere Forest, 
August 30th ; two in Delamere Forest, September 10th ; and I saw 
six feeding on heather-bloom, September 17th, in the same locality. 
I did not see V. cardui at all. But, as all other butterfly species of the 
district seemed up to their usual numbers, it was evident that the 
failures in Vanessidre could hardly be attributed to the two preceding 
seasons. Much more likely are they due to the growing practice of 
cutting down almost every available nettle and thistle, just when the 
larvaB are most dependent upon these food-plants. 

Electric lamps were almost a failure — certainly not worth working. 
My best capture was an example of Cirrhcedia xerampelina, August 30th. 
Several specimens of Sphinx convohndi were taken in September. In 
connection with moths being attracted by light, it may be worth 
recording that a Plusia gamma flew iuto a farmhouse during a fall of 
snow on the night of November 21st. 

I will only mention the most interesting moths that I obtained in 
various localities : — Sesia scoliiformis. I was well within striking dis- 
tance of a fine fresh female at rest on birch in Delamere Forest, June 
4th. Although it was a good shot for the net, I unfortunately missed 
it. This is, to my knowledge, the second specimen seen in Delamere 
Forest. — Chcerocampa porcellus. A freshly emerged specimen netted by 
Mr. J. Thompson at flowers of white campion, Delamere Forest, on the 
night of June 17th. — Rusina tenebrosa. Common in Delamere Forest 
in June. All specimens melanic forms. — Hepialus.velleda var. carnns 
(almost unicolorous brown, markings indistinct). One, Delamere 
Forest, July 8th. — P. iota. A melanic specimen, Delamere Forest, 
July 8th. — IStilbia anomala. One, the Leet, Valley of the Alwyn, 
Denbighshire, July 30th. — Acidalia dilutaria, Hiibn. Previously 
recorded in the district by Gregson only. One netted by me in Dela- 
mere Forest on the night of July 8th. — A. aversata. A rosy-brown 
form blotched with darker instead of bands on the upper wings, Dela- 
mere Forest, July 1st. — Emmelesia decolorata. Plentiful about Chester 
and in Delamere Forest, June and July. — Boannia repandata. A black 
specimen taken near Chester, July 5th. — B. rhomboidaria. A melanic 
form taken near Chester, August 2nd. It laid a number of red eggs. 
(The eggs of B. repandata are dull green.) — Hypsipetes elutata. A 
beautiful green form (upper wings), August 4th. — Pericallia syringaria. 



164 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

One, Delamere Forest, July 8th. — Eupithecia trisignaria, H.-S. I had 
the good fortune to net one (Delamere Forest) on the night of July 
1st. The previous occurrence in the district rests on a doubtful 
record. — -Mimceseoptilus bipunctidactyla, Haw. Common on the Leet 
carboniferous limestone, Denbighshire, August 12th. — Aciptilia tetra- 
dactyla, L. A small whitish plume not previously recorded. Common 
on the Leet, Denbighshire, July. — Pterophorus monodactylus, L. One 
beaten out of Scotch fir in Delamere Forest, October 1st. — M. ptero- 
dactylus, L. Common in Delamere Forest, July 8th, but rather worn. 

The following Micros were taken, or bred from larvae, in or near 
Chester : — Orthotelia sparganella, Thnb. ; common on marshy places 
in August. Depressaria liturella, Schiff., and Aphelia osseana, Sc.= 
pratana, Hb. ; both on the Lache Eye in August. Epiblema similana, 
Hub. ; Acalla hastiana, modification of var. autumnana, Steph. ; A. 
hastiana, L., var. radiana, Hub. ; Endrosis lacteella, Schiff. =fenestrella, 
Stt. ; Ancylis biarcuana, Steph. ; E. subocellana, Don. 

From Delamere Forest : — Depressaria ap plana, Fabr. ; Pandemia 
corylana, Fabr. ; Cerostoma radiatella, Don., a very variable species ; 
Pandemia heparana, Schiff. ; Pleurota bicostella, CI. ; Scoparia ambigu- 
alis, Tr. ; Ulethreutes corticana, Hub. ; Caccecia lecheana, L. ; Acompsia 
pseudospretella, Stt., almost black (also Chester examples). 

From tbe Leet, Denbighshire: — A. osseana, Sc. = pratana, Hb. ; 
C. radiatella, Don. ; Acalla variegana, Schiff. 

Hybrids between Smerinthus ocellatus (female) and S. populi (male) : 
From the eight pupae referred to (Entom. xxxvii. 25) six fine moths 
emerged in June — three on the 4th, one on the 5th, one on the 6th, 
and the sixth on the 17th — -all apparently males. As the sexes of the 
parent moths were the same as those referred to by Mr. P. Kirk, of 
Dundee (Entom. Record, i. 95), I was curious to see how my hybrids 
would compare with those reared by Mr. Kirk. Mr. Tutt's description 
of five of the latter (Entom. Record, i. 203) fits so accurately with my 
hybrids that I give his description verbatim : — " They are perfectly 
intermediate between the two species. The fore wings have all the 
characters of both species, the basal line as in populi, but with distinct 
traces of a shade showing the angulation of the basal line in ocellatus, 
the hind wings have the fulvous basal patch of populi (no red colour), 
and indistinct eye-spots characteristic of ocellatus." 

S. til'm. — From the fifteen pupae referred to (Entom. xxxvii. 25), I 
got ten moths in May — two females on the 18th, a male and female on 
the 20th, a male on the 21st, a male and female on the 22nd, a 
crippled female on the 23rd, and a male and female on the 24th ; four 
males and six females in all. This moth might more accurately be 
named the " elm moth," as I found, in agreement with the experience 
of others, that the larvae prefer elm to lime. 

Arctia caia. — A third brood of imagines (forced) began to appear 
November 18th, and continue now (February). As in the second 
brood, which began to emerge on September 4th, the perfect insects 
were in company with caterpillars of the same brood in every stage of 
growth. With the exception of a fine female, in which the cream- 
coloured area of the upper wings is increased, all the moths so far have 
been typical. The insect does not seem to vary perceptibly in this 
district, even with forced successive broods. The eggs laid by moths 



SOCIETIES. 165 

of the third brood have, in rny case, all turned out infertile, although 
a friend tells me his experience of the same brood has been quite the 
reverse. I kept my larva? in cages placed on a warm kitchen shelf by 
the fireplace, and fed them on dock and groundsel. 

(To be continued.) 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — May 3rd, 1905. — Mr. F. 
Merrifield, President, in the chair. — Mr. J. Butt'erworth, B.Sc, was 
elected a Fellow of the Society. Mr. M. Jacoby exhibited a series 
of Xenarthra cervicornis, Baly, from Ceylon, and drew attention to 
the curious structure of the antenna? of the male, that of the female 
being simple. — Mr. G. T. Porritt, specimens of Tephrosia consonaria, 
ab. nigra, and melanic examples of Poarmia consortaria, all from a 
wood in West Kent, by Mr. E. Goodwin. These forms were exactly 
on the same lines as the melanism in West Yorkshire, and it is 
curious they should occur in such widely separate localities. The two 
genera, however, are evidently prone to melanism, as Mr. Porritt 
stated that he had now seen black or almost black specimens of all the 
British species except Tephrosia punctulata. — Commander J. J. Walker 
(1) two specimens of the very rare Staphylinid, Medon castaneus, Grav., 
taken in the Oxford district during the last week of April, 1905 ; (2) 
several examples of both sexes of the giant flea Hystrichopsylla talpce, 
Curtis, from field-mouse nests in the same district; and (3) the type- 
specimen of the Bostrichid beetle, Dinoderus ocellaris, Steph. (taken 
by the late Prof. Westwood at " Little Cbelsea " previous to 1830), 
from the Hope Collection at Oxford. — Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., 
read a note on " Heliotropism in Pararge and Pyrantels," communi- 
cated by Dr. G. B. Longstaff, M.D.— Professor L. C. Miall, F.R.S., 
communicated a paper on " The Structure and Life History of Psychoda 
sexpunctata, Curtis," by John Alexander Dell, B.Sc. — Dr. D. H. Hut- 
chinson gave an address on " The Three-colour Process as applied to 
Insect Photography," illustrated by lantern slides of British and 
Indian Rhopalocera, the exhibits showing a marked advance in excel- 
lence upon any yet shown at the Society's meetings. The President, 
at the close of the proceedings, heartily congratulated Dr. Hutchinson 
upon the results of his work. — H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
April VSth.—Mv. Hugh Main, B.Sc, F.E.S., President, in the chair.— 
Mr. Wiukworth, of Burdett Road, E. ; Mr. Wright, of Woolwich; 
and Mr. Penn Gaskill, of Wandsworth Common, were elected mem- 
bers. — Mr. Harrison, living larva? of Ay rods ashworthii from North 
Wales. — Mr. West, Lebia cyanocephala and L. chlorocephala from Box 
Hill. — Mr. Edwards, a number of species of the South American 
groups of Papilio, Rndopogon, Hectorides and Parides. — Mr. Kaye, long 
series of Heliconius numata, showing extensive variations, in the hind 
wings particularly; and also pairs of H. sylvana and H.novatus (?) ; all 
were from British Guiana. — Mr. Turner, cases of Cleophora saturatella 



166 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on broom. — Mr. Sich read a paper entitled, " The Spot we stand on," 
and illustrated it with lantern slides. 

April 27 tk. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Bevins, of Ongar, 
was elected a member. — Messrs. Harrison and Main exhibited larvae 
of Nemeophila russula in their last stage ; they were from ova laid by a 
Cheshire female, and were feeding on dandelion. Mr. Cowham had 
reared a brood in the autumn from spring ova. Mr. Main showed his 
method of holding a twig with a larva or imago in position for photo- 
graphing, by means of a compound clamp or test-tube holder and retort 
stand, such as are used by practical chemists. He also exhibited a ball- 
and-socket arrangement for fitting on a camera-stand to allow of incli- 
nation of the camera in any direction. — Mr. Adkin read a paper on 
"Belated Emergences," and exhibited various species in illustration. 
Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The third 
ordinary meeting was held in the Society's rooms, Royal Institution, 
Liverpool, on March 20th, Mr. Richard Wilding, Vice-President, in the 
chair. — -Donations to the Library were announced from Messrs. B. H. 
Crabtree, F.E.S. ; H. B. Score, F.R.G.S. ; Jas. Fletcher, LL.D., F.L.S., 
and C. M. Adams, F.I.C. This meeting took the form of a micro- 
scopical, lantern, and general exhibitional meeting, and proved to be 
a most popular and successful innovation, the number of members and 
their friends present being considerable, aud including several ladies. 
In addition to the various microscopical exhibits of members, ten 
members of the Liverpool Microscopical Society contributed greatly to 
the success of the evening by their exhibits, and the Society is much 
to be congratulated on securing their invaluable co-operation. The 
first half of the meeting was devoted to the microscopes and general 
exhibits. — Mr. J. M. Williams's slides included the suckers of Dytiscus 
and the head of the jumping spider, Salticus tardigradus ; Mr. Garnett 
showed the " fairy fly," Anagrus incamatus, and the Hessian fly; Mr. 
F. N. Pierce, the chirping drum aud file of the common house-cricket ; 
Mr. D. Whittaker, the strigil of Corixa yeoffroyi and other slides of 
Aquatic Hemiptera ; Mr. J. E. Turner, head of plumed gnat, and 
ichneumon flies; Mr. A. H. Dudley, the circulation of protoplasm in 
Niiella and El odea, and a Cyclops carrying eggs ; Mr. C. M. Adams, 
the larva, and male and female imagines of the itch-insect, Sarcojites 
scabiei; Mr. W. T. Haydon, sections showing development of embryo 
of Pinus sylvestris; Mr. E. J. B. Sopp, larva of Melo'e proscarabaits 
and spiracles of Dytiscus marginalis. Among other interesting slides 
on view were the tracheal system of silkworm; parasite of mouse, 
showing its victim's blood in its stomach ; wing-case of tiger-beetle ; 
transverse section of caterpillar, showing its last meal, &c. The 
general exhibits were varied and instructive. The President, Mr. S. 
J. Capper, sent his well-known educational collections, representing 
all the orders of insects ; Mr. W. A. Tyerman, a series of bred Selenia 
iilunaria, and some beautiful moths from Winburg, Orange River 
Colony; Mr. F. R. Dixon-Nuttall, specimens of the North American 
Longicorn Xeoclytus erythrocephalus, found seven inches below the bark 
of an ash supposed to have grown in the St. Helens district ; Dr. W. 
Bell, preserved larva of Noctua triangulum ; Mr. Horton, larvae of Tro- 



SOCIETIES. 167 

chilium bembeciformis in willow stems; Mr. J. R. le B. Tomlin, a case 
of exotic Cetoniida and one of goliath beetles, including Goliathus 
druryi, G. giganteus, and G. cacicus ; Mr. R. S. Bagnall, Leptura 
pubescens, Sinoxylon anale, Ghrysobothris chrysostigma, and a number of 
other foreign beetles introduced into the Hartlepool district in timber. 
Mr. Sopp, British burying-beetles, borings of Hylesinux fraxini in ash 
and locusts ; Mrs. Sopp. the leaf insect, Phyllium scythe ; Mr. Whittaker, 
Gerris canalium, from the canal at Marple ; Mr. Pierce, a large wasp, 
probably Yespa mandarina, captured by Mr. Wm, Johnson in the dis- 
trict about sixty years ago ; Mr. H. R. Sweeting, a model-map of the 
'• Liverpool District," taken from the one-inch ordnance map, revised 
to 1895, &c. Refreshments were served at 8.30, after which there was 
an excellent lantern demonstration. Among excellent photographs of 
insects, by Mr. Henry Ball, Mr. Whittaker, and Mr. Oulton Harrison, 
one of Helops striatus, showing bifurcated antenna, exhibited by Mr. 
Harrison, was especially interesting. — E. J. B. Sopp and J. R. le B. 
Tomlin, Hon. Secretaries. 

Manchester Entomological Society. — January 4tth, 1905. — The 
President, Dr. W. E. Hoyle, presided over a large gathering of mem- 
bers on the occasion of the Annual Meeting. A general outline of the 
work of 1904 was read by the Secretary, and the Treasurer's statement 
showed a balance in hand of nearly £i. Four friends were nominated 
for membership. The following officers were elected for 1905 : — Presi- 
dent, B. H. Crabtree, F.E.S. ; Vice-President, R. Tait, Jr. ; Hon. Trea- 
surer, W. Buckley ; Hon. Secretary. R. J. Wigelsworth ; Librarian, C. 
F.Johnson; Council, J. Ray Hardy, Geo. 0. Day,F.E.S., and W.Warren 
Kinsey. In a brief address the retiring President, after congratulating 
the Society on its successful career, said a word of warning was neces- 
sary. The reading of papers and exhibiting of specimens were good and 
helpful, but the usefulness of the Society would be impeded if a wider 
outlook of the insect world was not taken. To do useful work, mem- 
bers must take up other orders of insects besides Lepidoptera, some of 
the less known groups, read and carefully study them, and ultimately 
become authorities regarding them. The following exhibits were 
shown : — Mr. Geo. 0. Day, cocoons of Hemerophila abruptaria. — Mr. 
R. Brauer, case containing species of Argynnis, from the United States 
of America. — Mr. L. Krah, Lepidoptera bred from ova obtained from 
the Continent : Gatocala fraxini, C. nupta, G. sponsa, G. elocata, and G. 
paranymphaa. The members afterwards attended a demonstration on 
"Recent Researches in Mimicry," delivered by Dr. W. E. Hoyle. 

February 1st. — The President, B. H. Crabtree, F.E.S., presided. 
The following were elected members of the Society: — Messrs. C. E. 
Iveson, C. Camp, Herbert M. Leach, and Harold S. Leigh. Mr. W. 
Warren Kinsey was elected Assistant Secretary, and Dr. W. E. Hoyle 
was elected to fill the office left vacant on the Council. A paper 
entitled, " Extracts from an Accentuated List of British Lepidoptera," 
was read by Geo. 0. Day, F.E.S. The pronunciations of the Latin 
names were based on the authority of a publication by the Entomo- 
logical Societies of Oxford and Cambridge. Many groups of Lepido- 
ptera were dealt with, and in some cases the original meaning of the 
names were explained. Messrs. B. H. Crabtree, R. Tait, Jr., L. Krah, 
and other members commented upon the essay, and at the conclusion 



168 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

a hearty vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Day. The following 
exhibits were shown : — Mr. B. H. Crabtree, specimens of C. planta- 
yinis, showing var. hospita, in which the orange colouring is replaced 
by white. — Mr. R. Tait, Jr., Lepidoptera bred from ova and larva? : 
Boarmia repandata, well-marked examples, bred from Welsh larvae ; 
Aplecta advena, two specimens bred in November from forced larvae ; 
A. australis, taken in the Isle of Wight by Dr. Dewar, of Stanley ; 
Nyssia lapponaria, bred by Mr. A. E. Cockayne from Rannoch ova. — 
Mr. J. Ray Hardy, specimens of Vanessa io from Grange-over- Sands, 
fed on nettle and lettuce, showing difference in imago, — wings being 
in some cases semi-diaphanous, the upper being of a dark purple 
colour ; photograph of the larvae of Morpho epistrophis.— Mr. H. S. 
Leigh, parasite of Saturnia pyri (July, 1904) ; Sphinx convolvuli, in 
perfect condition, taken near Worsley, Sept., 1904. — Mr. G. Kearey, 
fifteen species of Coleoptera taken on a small plot of ground near 
Philips Park, Bradford, near Manchester. 

March 1st. — In the absence of the President and Vice-President, 
the chair was occupied by Mr. C. F. Johnson. After the formal busi- 
ness of the meeting, an adjournment was made to another part of the 
Manchester Museum, when one of the members, Mr. A. E. Thomson, 
delivered a lecture (to which the public were invited), entitled, " The 
House Fly " (illustrated by lime-light views). This was enjoyed by an 
exceedingly good gathering of persons, and at the close was followed 
by discussion. — Robert J. Wigelsworth, Hon. Secretary. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — March 20th, 1905, — Mr. G. 
T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Sir George Hampson was 
elected an honorary member of the Society. — Mr. A. H. Martineau 
showed a specimen of Zeuzera pyrina, L., taken at light at Solihull; 
also an entirely black specimen of Formica rufa, L., from Hay Woods. 
— Mr. S. H. Kenrick, a fine lot of Pyralidae from New Guinea, in- 
cluding some new and many rare species. — Mr. H. W. Ellis, a speci- 
men of the rare beetle Platydema dytiscoides, L., from the New Forest. 
— Mr. Colbran J. Wainwright, four specimens of Ptilops nigrita, Fall., 
a species of the Tachinidae new to the British list, which Dr. J. H. 
Wood had found in various localities in Herefordshire. He said that 
since receiving Dr. Wood's specimens he had seen one taken by the 
late Rev. T. A. Marshall near Teignmouth.— Mr. H. W. Ellis, a 
number of the late John Sang's exquisite colour drawings of insects. 
— Mr. Gilbert Smith, a specimen of Callidiam violaceum, with two 
tibiae and two tarsi on the left hind leg ; the supernumerary tibia left 
the normal one in about the middle, but was traceable below that ; it 
had normal metatarsi, thickened tarsi, and two claws, so that there 
were three claws on that leg. He also showed the rare Longicorn 
Mesosa nubila from the New Forest ; also a number of an ichneumon 
found in the refuse stuff of an old tree- trunk infested by Rhagium bi- 
fasciatum upon which it most likely lived ; they were in great numbers, 
and all huddled together for hybernating. — Colbran J. Wainwright, 
Hon. Sec. 

Erratum. — The notice of Prof. Packard, referred to in our last, 
appeared, not in the ' American Naturalist,' but in the ' American 
Journal of Science ' for March, 1905, p. 264. 



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CONTENTS. 

New and Little-known American Bees, T. D. A. Cocherell, 145. Stray Notes on 
Aculeates, Percy E. Freke, 149. Descriptions of Two New Aculeate Hymeno- 
ptera from the Transvaal, P. Cameron, 153. New Culicidse from the West 
Coast of Africa, Fred. V. Thddbald, 154. A List of the " Macro-Lepidoptera" 
of Lancaster and District (continued), C. H. Forsythe, 158. 

Notes and Observations. — Dytiscids in the New Forest, D. Sharp, 161. London 
Lepidoptera, George Lock, 1 61. Eupitheeia stevensata, J. P. Mutch, 161. 
Apamea ophiogramma, Francis G. Woodbridge, 161. Note on Haworth's 
Type-specimen of " Noctua suhfusca," Eustace E. Ban kes, 161. The Mason 
Collection, Eustace li. Bank'es, lf>2. Entomological Club, 162. 

Captures and Fikld Reports. — Deilephila livornica in Cornwall, H. D. Kenyon, 
lti'J. Deilephila livornica in Wales, L. Stafford, 162. Notes from the Chester 
District for 1904, J. Arklc, 163. 

Societies. — Entomological Society of London, 165. South Loudon Entomological 
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Society, 166! Manchester Entomological Society, 167. Birmingham Ento- 
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CENTRAL PARAGUAYAN SPECIMENS. 

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Vol. XXXVIII.] JULY, 1905. No. 506. 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 



GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 



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Apply, HARRY ELTRINGHAM South Shields, England. 



The Entomologist, July, 1905. 



Plate II, 




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BRITISH WATERBUGS. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII.] JULY, 19 05. [No. 50G. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF LYGMIDM 
FROM SOUTH AFRICA. 

By W. L. Distant. 

Some time since a Lygreid was sent to me from the Cape 
Colony which was described as "injurious to peach." Many 
occupations prevented my identifying it at the time, and I was 
recently reminded of my obligation by an enquiry from Mr. F. V. 
Theobald, who had received the species from another African 
habitat, where it was destructive to " cotton seed." I therefore 
examined the insect, which appears to be undescribed. 

Oxi/carenus exitiosus, sp. n. 

Black ; posterior lobe of pronotum and corium testaceous ; a black 
spot at posterior angle to corium, and the lateral margins to corium 
sometimes distinctly lutescent ; membrane pale grey hyaline ; body 
beneath (imperfectly seen in the carded specimens from which this 
description is made) black ; the abdomen beneath — excluding apex 
and a central longitudinal medial fascia — sanguineous ; posterior 
angular areas of prosternum testaceous ; the coxae, a central annula- 
tion to intermediate tibia?, and the posterior tibiae — excluding base 
and apex — luteous ; head and pronotum rugosely punctate, scutellum 
finely punctate, clavus longitudinally punctate, corium very finely and 
obscurely punctate ; membrane extending beyond the apex of the 
abdomen ; antenna? moderately robust, second joint longest and slender 
towards base, third and fourth subequal in length, third distinctly 
narrowed at base ; head and pronotum laterally rather longly pilose. 
Long. 3 to 4 millim. 

Hab. Cape Town; Seapoint. "South Africa" (Mansell 
Weale). 



ENTOM. — JULY, 1905. 



170 THK KNTOMOLOGtST. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE UNDESCRIBED GENERA 
OF ICHNEUMONIBvE FROM BORNEO. 

By P. Cameron. 

ACCENITINI. 

Phalega, gen. nov. 

Wings without an areolet; second recurrent nervure received behind 
the transverse cubitus, widely distant from it ; disco-cubital nervure 
broken by a stump of a nervure, transverse median nervure received 
beyond transverse basal ; transverse median nervure in hind wings 
broken at the middle. "Wings longer than the body. Basal joint 
of hind tarsi fully longer than the following two united. Parapsidal 
furrows deep ; the mesonotum clearly trilobate. Metanotum with a 
keel above the apical slope. Petiole stout, three times longer than 
wide, clearly separated from the second; ovipositor not much longer 
than the abdomen. Four front claws cleft. The second abdominal 
segment is wider than long ; the hypopygium in the female does not 
project beyond the tip of the abdomen. Head not much wider than 
the thorax ; apex of clypeus with a small but distinct tubercle in the 
middle of the apex. Hind coxa? short, about twice longer than wide. 
Colour uniformly rufous. First joint of flagellum nearly as long as 
the following two united. 

Comes closest to Collyria and Chorischizus. 

Phalega lutea, sp. nov. 

Rufous-luteous, the flagellum of antenna? and apex of tibiae fuscous ; 

the hind tarsi black. Wings bright luteous hyaline, the apex of the 

fore wings behind and of the hind pair all round, smoky ; the nervures 

and stigma bright luteous. ? . Length, 12 mm. ; ovipositor, 6 mm. 

Matang. August (R. Shelford, M.A.). 

Face and clypeus strongly and closely punctured ; the face roundly 
projecting in the middle ; the clypeus with a tubercle on either side 
above. Vertex almost smooth. Front deeply excavated in the middle, 
its centre with a distinct longitudinal keel ; the sides punctured. 
Thorax closely punctured, smooth on the apex of the mesopleura? 
and on the base of metapleura?. Base and apex of metanotum smooth ; 
the middle punctured and with some striae. Abdomen smooth. Re- 
current nervure distant from the transverse cubital by three-fourths of 
the length of the latter ; its front half roundly curved. Hind legs very 
long ; the femora not greatly thickened, but still clearly thicker than 
the much longer tibia?. 

Dinocryptus, gen. nov. 
Areolet large, square, not narrowed in front ; transverse median 
nervure almost interstitial ; disco-cubital nervure not broken, the 
radial cellule elongate ; transverse median nervure in hind wings 
broken below the middle. Wings uniformly fuscous violaceous. 
Median segment without keels ; the apical slope tuberculate on the 



ICHNBUMONID.B FROM BORNEO. 171 

sides above ; spiracles large, linear. Abdominal petiole stout, be- 
coming gradually slightly wider towards the apex, where it is twice 
the width of the base ; the post-petiole not separated ; the spiracles 
placed close to the middle ; those on second placed at the apex of the 
bssal third. Clypeus clearly separated, its apex in the middle with 
two short rounded teeth ; the sides with a hollowed rounded dilatation. 
Fore tibias thickened, narrowed at the base ; basal joint of tarsi longer 
than all the rest united. 

This genus, like Echthrus, Torbda, &c, is intermediate 
between the Cryptinse and the Pimplinas ; from the position of 
the spiracles on the abdominal segments, they may be placed in 
the Xoridini. The mesopleuras, as in the Cryptinas, are bordered 
by a furrow ; and, as in that group, there are parapsidal furrows. 
Its affinities are clearly with Torbda, Cam., from which it may 
be known (the coloration being also very different) by the bi- 
dentate apex of clypeus, smaller square areolet, tuberculate apex 
of metanotum, and longer metatarsus. Echthrus and Nyxeo- 
philus are placed by some authors in the CryptinaD ; by others in 
the Piuiplinae ; probably there will be also a difference of opinion 
as to the position of Dinocryptus and Torbda. 

DlNOCRYPTUS NIGER, Sp. DOV. 

Black ; thorax, base of abdomen and of legs thickly covered with 
short black pubescence ; wings uniformly fuscous violaceous. ? . 
Length, 21 mm. ; ovipositor, 10 mm. 

Kuching. April (R. Shelford, M.A.). 

The entire body is closely punctured. Basal part of metanotum 
slightly carinate in the middle, and slightly depressed on either side of 
the centre. There is a pale white line in the centre of the orbits on the 
outer and inner. The second to fifth abdominal segments have trans- 
verse impressions near the middle. The last segment is large, depressed 
at the base ; the apex is depressed above, and is thickly covered with 
long black hair. Antennas long, slender, the basal two joints of 
flagellum equal in length. 

XORIDINI. 

Co3nostoma, gen. nov. 

c? . Upper part of clypeus short, obliquely projecting ; the lower 
part longer, not obliquely projecting, obliquely narrowed, the apex 
transverse. Labrum large, semicircular, fringed with long hair. 
Mandibles edentate, broad at the base, narrowed towards the apex. 
Malar space furrowed, as long as the antennal scape. A furrowed 
keel between the antennas. Head cubital, temples broad, occiput 
transverse, margined. Thorax four times longer than wide, largely 
developed before the wings ; mesonoturn 3-lobate. Scutellum flat, 
two large deep foveas at its base. Post-scutellum stoutly keeled on 
the sides. Metanotum longer than broad, flat, with the apex rounded, 
longitudinally reticulated ; the spiracles longish oval. Wings without 
an areolet, the recurrent nervure received beyond the transverse 

v 2 



172 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

cubital, the transverse median behind the transverse basal. Radial 
cellule long, lanceolate. Transverse median nervure in hind wings 
broken below the middle. Abdomen narrow, as long as the head and 
thorax united ; the first segment long, the basal half narrowed ; it is 
nearly as long as the following three segments united ; spiracles placed 
behind the middle; a triangular depression at its apex; the second and 
third raised in the middle, the raised part bordered behind by furrows. 
Hind coxa? about six times longer than thick ; the trochanters long ; 
both united are longer than the femora, which are stout ; tibia? long, 
calcaria short ; basal joint of tarsi longer than the others united. 
Claws simple. Antenna? slender, filiform, longer than the body, 
narrowed towards the apex. Palpi long. The antenna? are not 
densely haired ; the first abdominal segment is transverse at the 
apex ; the second longer than wide ; the head is not dilated behind 
the eyes ; the front tibiae slender, not inflated. At the apex, laterally, 
the metanotum projects into blunt teeth. Stigma distinct, linear. 

The affinities of this genus may be left over for discussion 
when the female becomes known. Very probably the female 
antenna? are broken, as in Cyanoxorides and Spiloxorides. The 
hind legs (and especially the coxa?) are much longer than they 
are with these genera. 

CffiNOSTOMA FILICORNIS, sp. 110V. 

Black ; lower part of clypeus, labrum, palpi, the orbits — the hinder 
broadly — edge of pronotum, scutellum, the metanotal tubercles, and 
the apices of the abdominal segments — the first band dilated at the 
sides — the second, third, and fourth in the middle, and the ventral 
surface, pale yellow. Legs pale yellow, the hind femora fulvous ; the 
apex of hind coxa?, trochanters, apex of femora and of tibia? more 
broadly, yellow. Antenna? much longer than the body, fuscous, a 
broad white band before the middle. Wings hyaline, the stigma and 
nervures black, the former white at the base, <? • Length, 13 mm. 

Kuching. November (E. Shelford, M.A.). 

Antenna? towards the apex covered with depressed hairs. Face 
punctured and more or less striated ; the rest smooth and shining. 
Middle lobe of mesonotum transversely striated ; the depressed apical 
middle part with three longitudinal keels. There are five rows of 
irregular, longish longitudinal reticulations ; the apical slope with 
three area?, of which the central is the larger. Pro- and mesopleura? 
smooth, the metapleura? coarsely reticulated. Base of first abdominal 
segment smooth, bicarinate in the middle, the rest closely reticulated ; 
the white apical part obscurely striated laterally, the centre smooth ; 
the basal part of the second segment punctured, strongly, but not 
closely, the basal central furrow stoutly, transversely striated, the 
raised central part longer than its width at the apex, triangular ; that 
on the third shorter, broader, rounded at the narrowed base. 



173 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS 
(AQUATIC RHYNCHOTA). 

By G. W. Kirkaldy, F.E.S. 

(Plate II.) 

(Continued from vol. xxxiii. p. 152.) 

Since publishing the last instalment of this "Guide," Mr. 
Halbert informs me that a dead Aphelocheirus was taken by 
Mr. Buckle from Loch Neagh in Ireland. I presume this was 
recorded in the ' Irish Naturalist ' at the time, but I have un- 
fortunately no access to this journal. 

Ilyocoris cimicoides (Linne). 

In Ilyocoris the same general appearance obtains as in 
Aphelocheirus, but the dorsal part of the head is bent under in 
front, the antenna shortened and thickened, the anterior femora 
greatly thickened, and the posterior tibiae and tarsi somewhat 
modified for natatory purposes. 

The rostrum is considerably shortened, not extending beyond 
the anterior coxaa. The antennas are composed of four segments, 
and do not reach, when extended, beyond the lateral margins o*f 
the head ; the head is excavated [viewed from below] beneath 
the apical segments of the antenna?, forming what is probably an 
auditory chamber for the intensifying of sounds.* 

The anterior femora are greatly thickened, as mentioned 
above, but are not suddenly ampliated in a right angle at the 
base beneath and then narrowed. Also internally beneath there 
is a broad pad of hair the whole length (fig. 45). 

There is only one British species, /. cimicoides (Linn.) ; the 
head, pronotum, scutellum, connexivum, legs, under side, &c, 
are pale greenish testaceous ; the head, pronotum, &c, irregu- 
larly punctured with brown. The intermediate and posterior 
legs are well furnished with brown spines. The elytra dark 
greyish brown, very closely and finely punctured. Abdomen 
black above. 

It is excellently figured by Douglas and Scott, and also very 
well by the old author A. J. Rosel von Rosenhof ('Der Monatlich- 

* I have noted in the 'Entomologist' (xxxii. p. 114) that Microvelia 
pygmcea does not use the antenna} as tactile organs. Newport ("On the Use 
of the Antennae in Insects," 1840, Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud. ii. p. 235), how- 
ever, considers that the antennae in water cirnices (i. e. Ilyocoris) and Noto- 
necta are auditory, sometimes also tactile, certainly not smell organs. They 
are of great though not of vital importance. He frequently observed the 
above-named bugs sticking to the sides, and lying beneath the wall of an 
outhouse that Lad recently been covered with coal-tar, which emits an odour 
of carburetted hydrogen, the gas that is so abundantly formed in stagnant 
pools. 



174 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

herausgegebenen Insecten-Beliistigung,' iii. pi. 28 (1755)) under 
the name of the " broad-bodied black-brown waterbug." * 

It is generally common and widely distributed all over 
England, and the lowland parts of Scotland. It is the Ncpa 
cimicoides of Linnaeus, the Nepa naucoris of De Geer, and the 
Naucoris cimicoides of most authors. 

It is a somewhat lazy swimmer, though it can attain to a 
very considerable speed upon occasion, and it often takes to w 7 ing 
at night. It is very voracious, and, though generally vanquished 
by the more powerful Notonecta, it is sometimes even the victor. 
The imagines hibernate, and the ova are deposited at the end 
of March or during April on leaves of water-plants ; they are 
whitish, oblong, subcylindrical, obliquely truncate anteriorly. 
They have been described at length by Eathke (" Studien zur 
Entwicklungsgeschichte der Insekten," 1861, ' Stettiner Ent. 
Zeitung,' xxii. pp. 172-4), who, however, gives July as the 
month of deposition, and says that they are laid in somewhat 
great numbers near one another on the under side of the leaves 
of Polygonum amphibium. 

The method of oviposition seems to vary. Regmibart (1875, 
Ann. Soc. Ent. France, pp. 204-6) states that an incision is 
made in the stems of plants with the ovipositor, about 2 or 
3 mm. long, and that the egg is enclosed about three-quarters 
of its length ; one of the ends (corresponding to the cephalic 
extremity of the embryo) is almost entirely free. Bueno, how- 
ever, states that in Pelocoris the "majority have been found 
attached axially to the stems or leaves of Ceratophyllum, and 
secured to them by a glue in which the ovum is set, and which 
surrounds the slender stem or leaf to a variable extent. The 
adhesion is not very firm, however, and the ova are readily 
detached." This corresponds to my own observations on Ilyo- 
coris, as well as those of Dufour. I have also observed varying 
conditions in Notonecta. 

The nymphs, which Eathke states feed on Confervas, are very 
similar in all stages to the imago, the tarsi, however, being 
unjointed, and the lateral margins of the abdominal segments 
not produced spinoseiy. I have observed five nymphal instars, 
thus agreeing with Bueno, who states that there are five in 
the allied Pelocoris femorata, an American bug which he has 
discussed recently ("Brief Notes towards the Life-history of 
Pelocoris femorata, Pal. B., with a few Remarks on Habits," 
1903, Journ. New York Ent. Soc. xi. pp. 166-73, text-figs. 1-2). 
Bueno gives a total of about seventy-seven days for the meta- 
morphoses, twenty-four of these being in the egg-state. t 

:;: It was also discussed by an old " pre-Linnean " author under the name 
of Pygolampis lacustris ! (Johann von Muralto, 1684, ' Ephemerae Acad. Nat. 
Curios, Dec. ii. Ann. ii. Obs. 80, p. 197'). 

f Extensive researches have recently been made by R. Heymons on the 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS. 175 

. Ilyocoris, like most waterbugs, is subject to the attacks of 
watermites (family Hydrachnidse). After what d'Herculais terms 
a "bizarre copulation," the eggs are laid in spring in incisions 
in soft-stemmed aquatic plants, or on the under side of the 
leaves. The young larva is pale red, six-legged, each leg com- 
posed of six segments. These young larvae, upon hatching, 
move about in the water, and fasten themselves, often in large 
numbers, to different water insects by means of sharp hooks at 
the end of the palpi. Once fixed, the head and mouth-parts 
stretch until they become separated by a neck from the main 
body, the transparent skin of which rapidly swells and elongates 
so as to form a bag, with the more solid dark-red parts visible 
anteriorly. The elongated rnaxillre penetrate and extend beneath 
the chitinous covering of the host until they form a long pointed 
thread. The legs curl up, become useless, and are more or less 
withdrawn. The larva gradually passes to the pupa state within 
this bag, which becomes more and more swollen and rounded 
posteriorly, and finally bursts to release the adult eight-legged 
mite. These bag-like larva? were looked upon as the eggs of the 
waterbugs by many old authors, and the bugs were likened to 
the Surinam' toad (Pipa pipa (Linn.)), that hatches its eggs on 
the skin of its own back. The adult swims actively about in the 
water, but before attaining maturity fixes to some plant, and 
undergoes another moult without material change of form. On 
the smaller aquatic bugs only three or four larva? are perhaps 
seen, but on certain giant exotics a much greater number are 
found, as many as five hundred having been counted on a single 
specimen of Belostoma fluminea, Say. The commonest British 
species appear to be Hydrachna geographica, Koch, the imago of 
which is scarlet and black, and Hydrochoreutes globulus (Mull.), 
a rich purple in the imago state. The American species men- 
tioned above was described as Hydrachna belostomce, Eiley ; 
Mr. A. D. Michael examined for me some larval Hydrachnids on 
a Sinhalese waterbug (Amorgius indica) about four years ago, 
and considered them probably the same as the American form. 
He concluded : " The watermites, when parasitic, do not usually 
confine themselves to a single host, but are often found on 
several species; and the geographical distribution of Acari is 
usually very wide, often astonishingly so."* 

embryology and anatomy of Ilyocoris (see "Beitrage zur Morphologie und 
Entwicklungsgeschichte der Rhynchoten," 1899, in Nova Acta Leop. Carol. 
Deutsch. Akad. lxxiv. pp. 355-81, text-figs, ii., and pi. xv. figs. 1, 4, 9, 
pi. xvi. figs. 15-17, 21-22, pi. xvii. figs. 29. ■ 

:;: Note by G. W. Kirkaldy in E. E. Green, " Biologic Notes on some 
Ceylonese Rhynckota. — No. 1," 'Entomologist,' xxxiv. p. 116 (1901). See 
also U.S. Entom. Commission, First Report (1878), p. 313; Kiinckel d'Her- 
culais, " Les Insectes " in Brehm's ' Merveilles de la Nature,' ii. pp. 757-8 
(1883) ; and Andrew Murray, ' Economic Entomology. Aptera,' pp. 151-2. 
Mr. J. N. Halbert, of Dublin, is studying the British Hydrachnidse, and 
would be "lad of material. 



176 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The power of stridulation, so marked a characteristic of 
certain groups of Dermaptera, and present indeed in most if not 
all insect orders, occurs also in many Hemiptera, and apparently 
in all or most waterbugs. The phenomenon, however, still 
requires considerable investigation. 

Stridulation, or the making of certain " musical " sounds, is 
a term that should apparently be restricted to sounds resultant 
from two mutually developed interacting surfaces, one of which 
is the recipient and is usually striated, the other the acting 
agent and sometimes striated, sometimes consisting of a series 
of more or less isolated spines or pegs. It may be taken for 
granted that there must always be tivo specially developed parts 
of the stridulatory organ, and that these must be interacting 
and mutually developed. A violin with its bow is a good ex- 
ample (from an insect point of view) of stridulatory apparatus. 

The first to call attention to the phenomenon in waterbugs 
was J. L. Frisch,* who remarks that this species produces with 
its neck a fiddling noise like the Longicorn beetles. Swinton,t 
a century and a half later, described the results of his investiga- 
tions, and declared that he had detected minute /-shaped linire, 
thickly set with strire, on the antero-lateral angles of the meso- 
notum. Handlirsch \ reinvestigated the whole subject four or 
five years ago, and ridiculed Swinton, calling the imaginary linme 
a " Swintonophone." At the same time, however, Handlirsch 
discovered on the sixth and seventh abdominal tergites of the 
male numerous transverse striatums which are not present in 
the female. If these are part of a stridulatory apparatus, the 
other portion and also the modus operandi remain as obscure as 
in the case of the Corixid strigil, presently to be discussed. 

It is usually stated that no openings have yet been discovered 
to the stink-glands in aquatic Hemiptera, the odour appearing 
in these insects to be connected with the anal parts. 

In Ilyocoris this is distinctly tart, and I have discovered a 
minute single opening (between the posterior coxse), to which I 
will recur later on.§ 

Naucoris maculata, Fabricius. 

The claim of this common European bug to admission to the 
British lists rests upon a single specimen in Buchanan White's 
collection at the Perth Museum, labelled "England." There is 

:;: 1727, " Beschreibung von allerley Insecten in Teutschland," vi. p. 32. 

t 1877, "On Stridulation in the Hemiptera-Heteroptera " (Ent. Mo. 
Mag. xiv. pp. 29-31, 2 figs. ; and 1880, " Insect Variety," pp. 108 and 
203). 

I 1900, " Neue Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Stridulationsorgane boi den 
Bhynchoten " (Verb.. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien, 1. pp. 555-60, figs. 1-7). 

§ Leidy (1847, J. Ac. Sci. Philadelphia, n. s. i. G4, mentions a similar 
opening in the Belostomatidse. 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS. 177 

no reason, apparently, why it should not occur with us, as it is 
ver}' common in France as near as Paris, and also in Belgium. 
I have taken it plentifully in South Brittany. As it is a possible 
British inhabitant, it is now described and figured (fig. 35). It is 
smaller than Ilyocoris cimicoides, greenish testaceous, marked 
with brown. The pronotum is marked with a distinct, inverted, 
brown W. The tibia? are longer, less robust, and not so spinose 
as in the common species. The most marked difference, however, 
lies in the anterior femora, which are very greatly thickened, 
and suddenly ampliated in a right angle at the base beneath, 
then narrowed (fig. 36) ; the pad of hair on the femora is also 
much smaller, and occurs only near the base. The species, 
unlike I. cimicoides, is dimorphic. While I. cimicoides varies 
from 12-16 millimetres in length, N. maculata averages about 
10. The brachypterous form was described as a distinct species 
by Dufour under the name of Naucoris aptera. 

This bug is the type of the genus, and was described originally 
by Geoffroy (1762, ' Histoire abregee des Insectes de Paris,' 
p. 173, pi. ix. f. 5) as Naucoris cimicoides, under the impression 
that it was Linne's species. There is also a coloured figure in 
Herrich-Schaffer's ' Wanzenartigen Insecten,' ix. pi. cexciii. 
f. 899, and detail F. E. D. (1849). It is said by Leon Dufour* 
to lay its eggs at the end of April in a similar situation to those 
of Ilyocoris. They are obtuse oval, not truncate. Dufour, in 
the same work, gives much information on the digestive ap- 
paratus, sexual glands, &c, of both these genera. 



Explanation of Plate II. f 

FIG. 

15. Gerris canalium, $ , apical abdominal sternites. 
1«. „ ,, ?, „ 

17. G. naias, <$■>,, » ,, 

is. ,. 2, „ 

19. G. rufoscutellata, $ , ,, „ ,, 

20. „ ?, „ 

21. G. lateralis, $ , „ „ ,, 

22. G. thoracica, g, ,, „ ,, 

23. „ 2, „ 

21. G. costai, J , ,, ,, ,, 

25. G. gibbifera, J , ,, ,, ,, 

2(3. G. lacustris, J , ,, ,, ,, 

27. G. odontofjaster, $ , apical abdominal segments, viewed from the side. 

28. ,, 5 , apical abdominal sternites. 

29. Ilyocoris cimicoides, showing articulation of anterior legs. 

30. Notonecta glauca, ,, ,, ,, „ „ 

'■■'■ " Kecherches Anatomiques sur les Hemipteres," 1833, Mem. Savans- 
etrangers Acad. Roy. Sci. France, iv. pp. 349. 413, &c, pi. xvi. figs. 180-2. 

| This plate includes " PI. iii.," mentioned in vol. xxxii. pp. 202-3 (1899). 
(Figs. 33, 37-44 are omitted.) 



178 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

84. Aplieloclieirus montandoni, anterior legs. 

32. ,, ,, rostrum, &c. 

31. ,, ,, ,, in profile. 

O.3. Naucoris maculata. 

36. ,, ,, anterior legs. 

45. Ilyocoris cimicoides, ,, ,, 

(To be continued.) 



DBAGONFLY SEASON OF 1904. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

Little of fresh interest has to be recorded in connection 
with the dragonfly season of 1904. No new species was dis- 
covered, and all the critical species, which were known to be 
really British, but about whose status there was uncertainty, 
had before this season been re-established. 

On April 24th, in the New Forest, I met with the first speci- 
men, an Agrionid, which flew by out of reach ; the next day I 
took three Pyrrhosoma nymphula. This early promise, however, 
was not kept up. The next species seen was Enallagma cyathi- 
gerum, in small numbers at the Black Pond on E slier Common, 
and at the same time and place, one of a larger species, probably 
Libcllula quadrimaculata, was sighted. On May 29th a male 
Agrion puclla was taken near Ashtead. By June 4th this species 
was plentiful on Bookham Common, where also a larger dragon- 
fly, probably Libellula depressa, was seen. The next day, June 
5th, L. quadrimaculata, A.puella, E. cyathigerum, and P. nymphula 
were out at the Black Pond, and Pyrrhosoma tenellum was appa- 
rently just appearing. Till near the beginning of June, there- 
fore, it could scarcely be said that the dragonfly season had 
commenced in earnest. 

At the Black Pond, on June 5th, I found a nymph of L. 
quadrimaculata, from which the imago had just commenced to 
emerge. It happened to be near the bank, and, though it was 
tedious and tiring to stoop and watch the process, I stayed till 
emergence was complete. The nymph was discovered about 
11 a.m., and by 11.40 the imago had completely emerged. Out 
of this time the " rest," with head hanging vertically down- 
wards, lasted nearly or quite half an hour. The " spring-back " 
was quite sudden, the abdomen being pulled out of the nymph - 
skin almost immediately afterwards. "While hanging at " rest " 
the lower lip seemed to expand. When an emerging dragonfly 
hangs head downwards, does it do so to allow of the filling out 
and expanding of the fore parts ? 

On June 19th a visit was paid to Frensham Ponds, in Surrey, 
to test its dragonfly fauna, but unfortunately the day was gener- 
ally dull and unsuitable. Numbers of E. cyathigerum were 



DRAGONFLY SEASON OF 1904. 179 

found, one Ischnura elegans, and one teneral male Orthetrum 
cancellation. The day was not wasted, however, for a few 
nymph-skins of the last were discovered, and, as these were 
little known previously — scarcely at all in Britain — they were at 
least of equal value with the rather scarce imagines of the same 
species. 

At or near the Black Pond, on June 22nd, one or two Anax 
imperator and one Cordulia eenea were seen ; this was the only 
C. cenea that I noted during the season. On June 26th, on 
E slier Common, I caught a male of L. depressa, a species of 
which I met with very few during 1901. On the same day 
Pyrrhosoma tenellum was very numerous at the Black Pond. 
There also, on July 16th, I took a very nice var. pnenubila of 
L. quadrimaculata. 

Mr. G. T. Porritt again visited the Norfolk Broads in search 
of Mschna isosceles, and the other good dragonflies to be found 
there in early summer. He met with fair success as regards 
isosceles, and, writing on June 25th, said that he had taken one 
hawking on land, as M. cyanea does, when it was nearly dark. 

On July 23rd a visit was paid to the Basingstoke Canal, near 
Byrleet Station, when the species found were the usual ones for 
that part of the season, though some that should have been 
there were absent or unnoticed. There were present Mschna 
grandis, Calopteryx splendens, Platycnemis pennipes, Erythromma 
naias, Ischnura elegans and its var. rufescens, Agrion pulchellum, 
and Enallagma cyathigerum. 

Some weeks spent in the New Forest revealed little new there. 
A worn female Orthetrum cancellation was taken on August 1st, 
and a female Mschna juncea on August 9th. A Calopteryx virgo 
was seen as late as September 3rd. On September 2nd Cordule- 
gaster annulatus was seen on the wing at Becton Bunny, on the 
coast, and a female Mschna cyanea was caught at Milton. 

Wisley Ponds, in Surrey, were visited on September 10th. 
Lestes sponsa, a few iEschnas, and Sympetrum striolatum were 
found at the smaller pond, but none of the better species of 
Sympetrum were met with. There was, however, very little sun. 

On September 18th an Mschna juncea was taken at the Black 
Pond, where for one or two seasons this species had been seen by 
me very seldom, if at all. 

Mr. F. B. Browne was good enough to give me a female 
specimen of Agrion armatum from the Broads. Of the species 
he took about ten specimens in the spring, one only being 
a male. 

My last record for the season was Sympetrum scoticum and 
S. striolatum, at the Black Pond, on October 9th. The latter, 
however, probably continued well into November, and not im- 
probably the former may have lasted almost as long. 



180 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A LIST OF THE " MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA " OF 
LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 

By C. H. Forsythe. 

(Continued from p. 160.) 

Cucullia umbratica. — A few examples in most seasons in June. This 
species is generally distributed, but nowhere common. 

Gonoptera libatrix. — Comes to sugar in September in County Asylum 
grounds, Grimshaw Lane, Halton, Quermnore, &c. 

Abroxtola tripartita (urti-cce). — Comes to sugar and privet-bloom in 
July; Arnside, Witherslack, Methop, and Lancaster (generally). 

A. triplasia. — Not plentiful; comes to sugar and bloom in August, 
and is generally distributed throughout the district. 

Plusia chrysitis. — Common about Methop and Witherslack, less so 
at Arnside and Hest Bank, not common about Lancaster, in July. 

P.festuca. — Scarce and local; near Heysham in September. "I 
used to take the larvae and pupse of this species commonly near 
Heysham some years ago" (G. L.). 

P. iota. — Odd specimens come to bloom in June and July; nowhere 
common, but generally distributed. 

P. pulchrina. — Comes to cultivated flowers at dusk in late June in 
the County Asylum grounds, and I have also taken examples near 
Halton, Quernmore, Arnside, Witherslack, Methop, &c. 

P. gamma. — Comes freely to bloom in August and September, and 
I have seen worn (hybernated) examples in early June. It is common 
and generally distributed. 

P. interrogations. — Local ; I have only taken this species on the 
moors near Clougha Pike in June. 

Anarta myrtilli. — Common on all the moors and mosses, as at 
Clougha, W T itherslack, Methop, &c, in June, July, and August. 

Heliaca tenebrata (arbuti). — Local; near Hornby, Deep Cutting 
Bridge, and between Torrisholm and the river Lune. The imago 
appears in May. 

Phytometra viridaria [mica). — Local, but common near Clougha in 
June, occasionally at Arnside, Witherslack, &c. 

Euclidia mi. — Generally distributed ; common near Clougha in 
June ; I have found the larvaa feeding upon yellow melilot [Trifolhim 
procumbens) in August. 

E. (jlyphica. — Local ; near Carnforth and Galgate on the L. & N. W. 
Railway batters. The larva? feed upon Trifolium repens (Dutch or white 
clover). The moth flies in the sunshine in late May and June. 

Pdvula sericealis. — Occurs at Witherslack in early July. 

Zanclognatha grisealis. — Fairly common near Clougha, Blea Tarn, 
Arnside, and in the County Asylum grounds in June and July. 

Z. tarsipennalis. — Uncommon ; at Arnside, Heysham, and County 
Asylum grounds in June and July. 

Hypena proboscidalis. — Common in most of the lanes among nettles 
(Urtica dioica) in July. 

Tholomiges tiirfosalis. — Local ; I have only taken specimens near 
Clougha in July. 



MACR0-LEPID0PTERA OF LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 181 

BrepJios parthenias. — I have only bred specimens from Witherslack 
larvae. " Common on Methop and Witherslack Mosses in March and 
early April " (G. L.). 

GEOMETRIDiE. 

Urapteryx sambucaria. — Common and generally distributed in July 
and August. 

Epione apiciaria. — I took a specimen in the County Asylum grounds 
in July, 1900 ; at Witherslack it is local, and not uncommon in one 
locality near Methop. The moth flies late at night at the end of July 
and beginning of August. 

llumia luteal ata (cratcegata). — -Abundant everywhere throughout the 
summer months. 

Venilia macularia (maculata). — Fairly common near Carnforth on 
the L. & N. W. Railway batters. The moth flies in June. 

Metrocampa margaritaria. — Fairly common in Grimshaw Lane, 
County Asylum grounds, Blea Tarn, &c, in July. Abundant in 
Arnside. 

Ellopia prosapiaria (Jasciaria). — Common at Arnside in July. 

Eurymene dolabraria. — Local and uncommon ; Corporation Wood, 
Quernmore, County Asylum grounds, Arnside, and Witherslack, in 
June. 

Hyqrochroa (Pericallia) syringaria. — " Local, near Hornby in July " 
(G.L.j. 

Selenia bilunana (illunaria). — Fairly common and generally distri- 
buted in April and July. 

S. lunaria. — A male specimen taken at Warton, near Carnforth, on 
June 8th, 1905. 

Odontopera bidentata. — Common in Grimshaw Lane, Corporation 
Wood, County Asylum grounds, Blea Tarn, &c, in May. 

Crocallis elinguaria. — Common and generally distributed in July 
and August. 

Ennomos (Eugonia) alniaria (tiliaria). — Comes freely to light in 
August, and is common about Quernmore, Blea Tarn, &c. 

E. quercinaria (angularia). — Occurs about Methop and Witherslack 
in September and October. 

Himera pennaria. — Comes freely to light in September and October 
at Blea Tarn, Quernmore, County Asylum grounds, &c. This species 
is subject to considerable variation — from light brown to rich rufous 
red, in colour, and some specimens are strongly suffused with black 
scales. 

Phigalia pedaria (pilosaria). — Common in Corporation Wood, Quern- 
more, County Asylum grounds, Blea Tarn, &c, on the tree-trunks in 
March ; also comes freely to the street-lamps. We get a fine dark 
unicolorous grey variety of this species in the first-named locality. 

Amphidasys strataria (prodromal id). — Uncommon ; I have bred ex- 
amples from Methop larvae taken in July. "It occurs sparingly in 
Corporation Wood, Quernmore" (G. L.). 

A. betularia. — -I have bred both the type and var. doubledayaria from 
Methop and Witherslack larvas taken from birch in September. I have 
only taken specimens on the wing near Lancaster on three occasions — 
near Rush-a-lee in June — and these have all been the black variety. 



182 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Hemerophila abruptaria. — Comes to light in May in several localities 
in the district, but nowhere plentiful. 

Boarmia repandata. — Occurs in June and July at Arnside, Methop, 
near Clougha, Corporation Wood, &c. 

B. gemmaria (rhomboidaria). — Common throughout the district in 
June and July. 

B. roboraria. — Local and scarce. " Corporation and Quernmore 
Woods in June " (G. L.). 

B. consortaria . — -Local and scarce. " Corporation and Quernmore 
Woods in June" (G. L.). 

Tephrosia consonaiia. — Local. Witherslack and Quernmore at the 
end of May. The imagine may be found sitting on the fir-tree trunks. 

T. ere puscul aria.— Corporation Wood and near Methop in April. 

T. biuiuhdaria. — I have bred some fine dark forms of this species 
from Methop larvae beaten from birch and oak-trees in June. "Cor- 
poration Wood in April" (G. L.). 

Gnophos obscararia. — Local ; at Methop and Witherslack in July. 

Cabera pusaria. — Plentiful everywhere in July and August. 

C. exanthemaria. — Occurs abundantly in nearly every locality in 
July and August. 

Bapta temerata. — Fairly common at Arnside (on the Knott), 
Witherslack, Methop, &c, in June. 

Macaria notata. — Local ; this species occurs at Arnside in June, 
but is not common. 

M. liturata. — Fairly common in the fir-woods at Arnside, Grange, 
and Methop in July. 

Halia vauaria (wavaria). — Generally distributed, and common in 
July. 

Strenia clathrata. — Local; near Warton, on the L. & N.W. Railway 
batters, in May and early June. 

Penagra petraria. — Common at Clougha, Quernmore, &c, in June. 

NumerLa puheraria. — Not common ; occurs at Arnside, Methop, 
and Witherslack in April and May. 

Scodiona belgiaria. — Fairly common at Witherslack ; less so and 
very local near Clougha in June. 

Selidosema ericetaria {plumaria). — Fairly common on the Wither- 
slack mosses in July. 

Ematurga atomaria. — Abundant on the mosses at Witherslack, 
Methop, Heysham, &c, and on the moors at Clougha and Quernmore 
from May to August. 

Bupalvs piniaria. — Common at Grange, Methop, Arnside, and 
Quernmore, in the fir-woods in June. Our form has a white ground 
colour. 

Perconia (Aspilates) stngillaria. — Plentiful on Methop and Wither- 
slack Mosses ; less common at Heysham in June. 

Abraxas grossulariata. — Abundant everywhere in lanes and gardens 
in July and August. This species is subject to great variation ; I 
have forms bred from larvae found near Warton on blackthorn (Prunus 
spinosa) which are very dark, with coalesced spots, and others from 
Grimshaw Lane, very light with few spots. 

A. sylvata (ulmata). — Local; near Halton and Methop and about 
Yealand. The moth is on the wing in June and July. 



MACR0-LEPID0PTERA OF LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 183 

Lomaspilis marginata. — Generally distributed and fairly common 
throughout the district in June and July. 

Hybemia rupicapraria.— Abundant about hedgerows in February 
aud March. 

H. leucophcearia. — Fairly common in Aqueduct Wood, Quernmore, 
near Clougha, Blea Tarn, &c, in February and March. 

H. aurantiaria. — Generally distributed ; Arnside, Witherslack, 
Clougha, County Asylum grounds, &c, in late October. 

H. marginalia (progemmaria). — Generally distributed and very 
common ; comes to light freely in February and March. 

H. defoliaria. — Fairly plentiful and generally distributed in October. 

Anisopteryx ascularia. — Local; Aqueduct Wood and near Clougha 
in April. 

Cheimatobia brumata. — Plentiful about hedgerows, and comes freely 
to light in October, November, and December. 

C. boreata. — Generally distributed, and comes freely to light in 
November. 

Oporabia dilutata. — Generally distributed, and common everywhere, 
end of October. 

0. JUigrammaria. — Uncommon. I have only taken this species on 
the moors near Clougha in August. 

Larentia didymata. — Abundant in Grimshaw Lane, County Asylum 
grounds, Clougha, &c, in July. 

L. multistrigaria. — Not common ; near Blea Tarn, Clougha, Rush- 
a-lee, &c, in April and May. 

L caaiata. — Abundant on the rocks about Clougha in July. 

L. flavicinctata. — I have only taken this species about Clougha — 
where it is scarce— in July. 

L. salicata. — Generally distributed ; Silverdale, Blea Tarn, Clougha, 
&c, in August. 

L. olivata. — Fairly common at Witherslack and Arnside ; not com- 
mon near Clougha in July. 

L. viridaria (jpectinitaria), — Generally distributed and common in 
July. 

Emmelesia affiniUtta (nvidata). — Fairly common about Lancaster, 
Blea Tarn, Arnside, Witherslack, &c, in July. 

E. alchemillata. — Local; near the County Asylum and at Wither- 
slack in July. 

E. albulata. — Fairly common ; Clougha, Grimshaw Lane, &c, in 
June. 

E. decolorata. — Fairly common and generally distributed in June. 

E. tmniata, — Local ; near Arnside and Silverdale in early July. 

Tephroclystia (Eupithecia) venosata. — Uncommon ; near Witherslack 
and at Arnside in June. 

T. {E.) linariata. — Local ; near Witherslack in June. 

T. (E.) pulchellata. — Occasionally in Grimshaw Lane, at Arnside 
and Silverdale in June. 

T. (E.) castigata. — Fairly common at Witherslack and near Methop 
Bank in July. 

T. (E.) virgaureata. — Not common ; occasionally near Methop in 
early June. 

T. [E.) constrictata. — Local at Witherslack in early July. 



184 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

T. (E.) nanata. — Fairly common at Clougha, Quernmore, &c, in 
May aud June. 

T. (E.) vulgata. — Fairly common near Clougha, Grimshaw Lane, 
&c, in June. 

T. (E.) minutata. — Common near Clougha, Witherslack, &c, in 
June. 

T. (E.) abbreviata. — I have only hred this species from larva 1 
beaten from oak near Clougha in June. The moth appears in April. 

T (E.) exiguata. — Common about hedgerows of whitethorn in June. 

T. (E.) sobrinata. — Common at Warton, Witherslack, and Arnside 
about juniper (Juniper us communis) in July. 

Chloroclystis (E.) rectangulata. — Common at Witherslack, County 
Asylum grounds, &c. The larvas feed in the buds of pear and apple- 
trees in May ; the moth appears in June. 

Lobophora carpinata (lobulata). — Common in Corporation Wood, 
Quernmore, in April. 

L. polycommata. — Local, I have only taken this species near Methop 
in May. 

Thera juniper at a. — Local. " Near Warton about junipers in Octo- 
ber " (G. L.) 

T. simulata. — Arnside in August. 

T. variata — Local. I have only taken this species in a fir- wood 
near Quernmore in late May and early June. 

Hypsipetes sordidata (elutata). — Abundant everywhere ; very vari- 
able in colour and markings. Some of the moorland forms — from 
near Clougha— are very beautiful. 

Melanthia bicolorata (rubiginata). — Local. I have only taken 
specimens in the County Asylum grounds in July. 

M. ocellata. — Generally distributed throughout the district in July. 

M. albicillata, — Common near Warton ; less so at Witherslack, 
Lancaster, and Halton, in late June. 

Melanippe hastata. — " Scarce at Witherslack in June " (G. L.) 

M. tristata. — Local, but common near Clougha in June. 

M, sociata [subtri statu). — Abundant everywhere in May and July. 

M.montanata. — Abundant throughout the district in June and July. 

M. galiata, — I took this species in June, 1904, for the first time, in 
Grimshaw Lane ; probably overlooked previously for montanata. 

M. jhietuiita, — Abundant on walls, &c, in July and August. 

Anticlea badiata. — Fairly common in the County Asylum grounds, 
near Blea Tarn, Quernmore. &c, in May. 

A. nigrofasciaria. — Not common : Arnside, Witherslack, Lancaster, 
in April. 

Coremia designata. — Uncommon; Quernmore, Witherslack, &c, in 
July. 

C. ferrugata. — Common everywhere in May and August. 

C. unidentaria. — Less common than the preceding species ; Blea 
Tarn, Quernmore, County Asylum grounds, &c, in August, 

Camptogramma bilineata. — Abundant at Heysham, Arnside, Halton, 
&c, in July. This species shows considerable variation. 

PMbalapteryx vitalbata. — Local; at Witherslack and near Methop 
in July and August. 

Triphosa dubitata. — Common at Witherslack and Lower Kellet ; 
comes freely to ragwort flowers in August and September. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 185 

Eucosmia undulata. — Local ; I have only bred this species from 
Methop and Witherslack larvae taken in September. The moth 
appears in June. 

Cidaria siderata (psittacata). — Not common. " Witherslack and 
Methop in October. This species comes to ivy-bloom " (Or. L.) 

C. miata. — " Not plentiful in Witherslack in October at ivy-bloom " 
(G. L.) 

C. corylata. — I have bred this species from larva? beaten from 
blackthorn (Primus spinosa) in Grimshaw Lane. Fairly common at 
Witherslack in June. 

C. truncata (russata). — Fairly common about hedgerows in Grim- 
shaw Lane, Rush-a-lee, Halton, Arnside, &c, in August. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Exotic Earwigs Wanted. — I am preparing a revision and mono- 
graph of the Dermaptera or Forficularia of the world, and would very 
gladly receive any material for examination, especially from Australia, 
China, and Central and South Africa. — Malcolm Burr ; 23, Blomfield 
Court, Maida Vale, W., June 24th, 1905. 

Ova of Butterflies Wanted. — I should be greatly obliged to 
anyone who would kindly give or lend me the ovum of any of our 
butterflies, except those mentioned below, for the purpose of figuring. 
Micro-photographs, or ordinary photographs if the object is clear and 
well-defined, would be useful. Species of which the ovum has been 
figured : — Euchlo'e cardamines, Gonepteryx rhamni, Argynnis ewphrosyne, 
Vanessa urtica, Pararge egeria, P. megcera, Coenonympha pamphilus, 
Callophrys (Thecla) rubi, Chrysophanus phlceas, Lycama icarus, L. bellar- 
gus, Hesperia malvce, Thanaos tages. — Richard South ; 96, Drakefield 
Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Note on Zanclognatha grisealis. — Barrett (vol. vi. p. 300) throws 
doubt on a remark of Buckler to the effect that Z. grisealis passes the 
winter in the pupal state. I beat three or four larvae of this species 
from oak in August last ; they all pupated in September, and emerged 
end of May to June. — H. V. Plum ; Epsom College, June 7th, 1905. 

Larva of Thecla rubi on Dogwood. — Early in July last I beat from 
dogwood some half-dozen larvae of what I thought at the time were 
Lycana argiolus ; they fed well on the berries, quite ignoring the 
leaves ; in due course they pupated, and last month produced fine 
specimens of Thecla rubi. Is not this an unrecorded food-plant for 
this species? — E. C. Joy; 34, Fairholt Road, Stoke Newington, N. 

Aberration of Euchelia jacob^je. — At Warton, on June 8th, I 
boxed a fine aberration of Euchelia jacobaa,. The specimen, which is 
a female, has the fore wings rosy red, with a shaded black central band. 
The left fore wing is slightly rubbed, otherwise the example is in fine 
condition. She had deposited a batch of ova when I reached home at 
night. — C. H. Forsythe ; The County Asylum, Lancaster. 

ENTOM. — JULY, 1905. Q 



186 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Deilephila livornica in Gloucester, 1905. — Last year I reported 
the capture of One specimen of this species, which was subsequently 
notified from many other localities widely separated. This year I was 
shown another specimen caught in the yard of some ironworks here by 
one of the workmen, and given to a friend of mine. I notice in the 
current number of the ' Entomologist ' that the species has already 
been noticed from other districts again, so that it appears likely that 
D. livornica may become firmly established with us. — A. Lionel Clarke ; 
Gloucester, June 1st, 1905. 

Cerura bicuspis in Lancashire. — AtHaverthwaiteMoss.on June 9th, 
I took a male specimen of Cerura bicuspis at rest on a birch twig. It 
was in the finest condition. — C. H. Forsythe; The County Asylum, 
Lancaster. 

Selenia lunaria in the Lancaster District. — While collecting at 
Warton, near Carnforth, on June 8th, I took a male example of Selenia 
lunaria. This species is new to me in this district. — C. H. Forsythe; 
The County Asylum, Lancaster. 

Notes from Australia. — I have recently spent a short holiday in 
Southern Queensland after insects, and doubtless some short account 
would be of interest to readers of the ' Entomologist.' Leaving Wel- 
lington on Dec. 24th, 1904, by the s.s. ' Wimmera,' we had a pleasant 
run across to Sydney, which was reached the following Wednesday 
morning. Here, whilst waiting for the northern train, I took a walk 
in the beautiful Botanical Gardens, where I noticed Papilio sarpedon, 
Vanessa kershawii, and several small Lycamidse ; also several examples 
of the beetle Anoplognathus pcctoralis lying dead on the paths. The 
run north is mostly through open country, with gum-trees scattered 
sparingly about. The following day I reached Warwick, on the 
Darling Downs, where I stayed a day or two, Here a large dark 
Papilio (P. egtrjeus) was fairly common, and was especially fond of 
coming into the shade under the balconies. The male of this insect 
was difficult to catch when in good condition, although its flight was 
generally slow and floppy. I also obtained P. sthenelus, Acraa andro- 
mache, Terias smilax, Junonia veleda, and the beautiful Talmenes evajous, 
I next went on to Brisbane, where Pajnlio sarpedon was very common, 
and almost impossible to catch. Here I obtained a beautiful example 
of Charaxes sempronius. There is very little to be done just around 
Brisbane, altbough a fair number of beetles are to be obtained about 
the electric lights at the railway station. One day I visited the coast, 
but insects (except mosquitoes) were very scarce : a few Euploces and 
Danais archipjnis and D. affinis were our only captures. I then decided 
to go on to Eumundi, about seventy miles further north, which is in a 
belt of dense tropical scrub which occurs here. This country is entirely 
different to that through which I had recently passed, and consisted of 
figs, palms, and climbing plants ; whilst many of the trees supported epi- 
phytes and parasites, amongst which were a few orchids and the handsome 
stag-horn fern. Here I found many more insects, amongst which were 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 187 

Papilio capaneus and P. leosthenes (somewhat worn), Hypoeysta metirius, 
Danais taygetus, and a curious butterfly with a beautiful leaf-like under 
side (Doleschalia australis), which was fond of taking short flights and 
then returning to some favourite perch ; but my finest capture was a 
male (unfortunately slightly chipped) of the magnificent Ornithoptera 
richmondii. This latter was fairly common round a group of trees 
bearing a white flower very like orange-blossom, but seldom descended 
within reach of the net. I also obtained a fair number of Coleoptera, 
including some very rare species, and one or two fine Longicorns which 
seem to be unknown. I then returned south, again staying a few days 
at Warwick, where I now found Gharaxes sempronius fairly common, 
and managed to capture three more examples. The weather, which 
during the first part of my trip had been very hot (about 103° or 104° 
in the shade), had now become much cooler (80° or 85° in the shade), 
and the sky had clouded over, so that few insects were obtainable whilst 
here. The previous hot dry weather had had a very unfavourable effect 
upon both beetles and butterflies, a very large number of the latter 
being worn, whilst both were scarce. After a pleasant run across from 
Sydney, I arrived in Wellington Jan. 18th, having had a most enjoy- 
able holiday. I may add that immense numbers of locusts occurred 
everywhere, many of them with very beautiful under wings, especially 
one brilliant yellow one on the Darling Downs. — Hubert W. Simmonds; 
17, Aurora Terrace, Wellington, N.Z., March 23rd, 1905. 

Notes from the Chester District for 1904 (concluded from p. 165). 

Aplecta nebulosa. — From June 8th to the 18th twenty-three moths 
were reared from black parents with grey fringes (var. robsoni, Collins). 
Four were of the type-form, five were intermediate between the type 
and var. robsoni, ten were robsoni, and four were the form thompsoni 
(Arkle) — that is, jet-black, with white margins and white fringes. 
Another typical specimen emerged on the 29th — total, twenty-four 
insects. From twelve larval from type parents twelve moths emerged, 
June 14th to June 27th. Eleven were typical, and the twelfth an 
intermediate between vars. robsoni and thompsoni. The curious thing 
is that the black forms were, as a rule, the first to appear. All my 
larvae were kept in a couple of breeding-cages, with plenty of moss at 
the bottom for them to hide in by day. They began to wander about 
the cages early in January, occasionally eating, very sparingly, of dock 
or dried sallow-leaves up to March, when they began actively feeding 
on dock. The larvae prefer spinning up in dry moss. All were kept 
in a cold outhouse, with plenty of ventilation. A number of larvae 
from thompsoni parents are now (February, 1905) showing themselves 
after their short hybernation. The chief object is to see if the white 
margins will be increased in the resultant moths. It has been found 
that the variety robsoni may occur at the rate of ten per cent, from 
wild Delamere larvae, and the form thompsoni in the proportion of 
three per cent. ; therefore, although the chances are at present small, 
the result, whatever it may be, with reference to the white margins, 
may occur in nature. In fact, I should not be surprised if one or other 
of these forms of .4. nebulosa ultimately supplants the type, as in the 
case of Amphidasys betularia. At any rate, it is significant that 
melanism has already been referred to, in the Chester district, as 



188 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

being " rampant." Whatever be the cause, it cannot be attributed to 
smoke, and there are those who claim that we have not an excess of 
moisture. 

Boarmia repandata. — The larva? mentioned (Entom. xxxvii. 74) 
from mid-Northumberland were kept through the winter, as in the 
case of A. nebulosa, but in flower-pots covered with gauze. They did 
well until March, when they nearly all died off, and I only reared nine 
moths (June 8th to June 18th), but beautiful specimens, well marked, 
blotched, and dusted with brown-black on a grey ground — four males 
and five females. The larva? showed signs of awakening from hyber- 
nation on February 22nd, swaying to right and left, but not relaxing 
hold of the withered sallow-leaves and twigs, which they grasped by 
their anal claspers. Like A. nebulosa, they are night-feeders, and 
prefer to spin up in dry moss. 

Abraxas grossulariata. — I had two dozen black larva), but the moths 
reared were as typical as they well could be. 

Amphidasys bctularia. — A dozen of the green form of the larva, 
taken in Delatuere Forest, all produced the black variety of the moth 
(doubledayaria) ; in fact, we appear to get the black form of this 
species. 

Odontopera bidentata. — Common in Delamere Forest, on Scotch fir, 
in September and October. The pine-feeding bidentata are very unlike 
the smooth light brown larva? found earlier on birch ; they are rougher, 
with tubercles. They vary in colour — sooty black, ochreous brown, 
with dorsal diamond pattern, and reddish or dark green patches. The 
moths reared from these pine-feeders show a marked tendency towards 
melanism. I have a sooty brown, almost black, specimen. 

Bupahts piniaria. — Plentiful on Scotch fir, Delamere Forest, in 
September and October. On October 1st I took an example of the 
yellowish olive-green form. 

Therafirmata and Kllopia f»'osapiaria = fasciaria. — Very common on 
Scotch fir, Delamere Forest, in September and October. They are 
then very small, and hybernate on the branches among the foliage, but 
are difficult to bring through the winter in confinement. They are 
best obtained after hybernation, in April, although their numbers are 
then apparently thinned. 

Macaria liturata. — Fairly common in Delamere Forest, on Scotch 
fir, in September and October. The usual colour is green, with 
whitish yellow lines and stripes and reddish head. The last men- 
tioned feature easily separates the species from the other pine-feeders ; 
but there is a variety almost as common as the type, to the discovery 
of which I am indebted to my friend Mr. J. Thompson, of Chester. 
Some three or four years ago, to prove their identity, he placed twelve 
in a flower-pot by themselves. The results were nine dark imagines 
(var. nigrofulvata, Collins) ; two types and the remaining pupa died. 
The following is a description of this variety of the larva : — Pale 
pinkish grey or brownish, green entirely absent. Head dark purplish 
black-brown, almost black. Lines and stripes as in the green form, 
but paler grey than the general colour of the caterpillar. The side 
stripes are interrupted by triangular patches of dark purplish brown. 
The dorsal segment divisions are the same dark purplish brown. Legs 
and clasuers brown. 



SOCIETIES. 189 

Dragonflies : — There was no appreciable diminution in the num- 
bers of the district species, except in the case of sEsehna grandis. 
Why this dragonfly should have been comparatively scarce it is 
difficult to say. — J. Arkle ; Chester, Feb. 17th, 1905. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — June 1th, 1905. — Mr. F. 
Merrifield, President, in the chair. — Herr Ludvig von Gangelbauer, 
of the Vienna Museum, was elected an Honorary Fellow; aud Mr. 
Charles J. Grist, of " Apsley," Banstead, Surrey; Mr. Vernon Parry 
Kitchen, of the Priory, Watford, Herts ; and the Bev. W. Mansell 
Merry, M.A., of St. Michael's, Oxford, were elected a Fellows of the 
Society. — Mr. M. Burr exhibited an earwig, Apterygida arachidis, 
Yers., found by Mr. Annandale, of Calcutta, in a box of specimens 
received from the Andaman Islands. When placed in a small box, 
it was alone, but next morning there were five larvae present ; two 
disappeared, apparently being consumed by the parent ; and the 
remaining three were those exhibited. — Mr. Burr also showed a 
locustid of the family Pseudophyllidffi from Queensland, taken among 
twigs and plants which it greatly resembled, together with a photo- 
graph of the insect in its natural position. — Mr. E. C. Bedwell showed 
three examples of Gnorimus nobilis, L., taken at Woolwich; and a 
malformed specimen of Lochmaa snturalis which had the left posterior 
tibia bifid for about one-third of its length, and two tarsi, one of which 
had the joints considerably enlarged. — Mr. 0. E. Janson brought for 
exhibition a living specimen of Omophlus betulcc, Herbst, a beetle not 
known to occur in Britain, found by his son near Covent Garden, and 
probably imported. — Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited one male and three 
females of Agrion armatum taken this year by Mr. F. Balfour Browne, 
and sent to him alive. — Mr. G. C. Champion showed four specimens 
of the rare Acrognathus mandibularis, Gyll., captured on the wing 
towards sunset near Woking at the end of May. — Mr. Selwyn Image 
exhibited two aberrations of Biston hirtaria, CI., both females, taken 
at rest on tree-trunks at Mortehoe, North Devon, April 23rd, 1905. 
The first aberration was tolerably normal in general coloration, but 
the anterior half of the fore wings was much suffused with fuscous, 
and at the costa broadly emphasized with rich black. The second 
aberration was semi-transparent black all over both fore and hind 
wings, the veins strongly delineated with black, powdered with 
ochreous.— Mr. W. J. Kaye showed a number of empty pupa-cases of 
Zonosonm pendularia to demonstrate the wide variation of methods in 
the placing of the silken girth round the pupa. — Professor E. B. Poul- 
ton, F.R.S., exhibited leaves of strawberry, Berberis japonica, and 
cherry-laurel, which had been sent to him by Mr. W. B. Grove, of 
Handsworth, Birmingham. The leaves had been attacked by a minute 
fungus, which, in the case of the Berberis, had been identified by Prof. 
S. H. Vines, F.E.S., as Phyllosticta japonica, Thnem. The attack 
was local, and followed by the death and disappearance of the central 
portion of the leaf-tissue of each patch, leaving a roundish or oval 



190 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

window outlined with brown, sometimes in the form of a narrow line, 
sometimes spreading peripherally into the leaf for a greater or less 
distance. In the strawberry leaves the edges of the windows were 
somewhat ragged, but those of the other two leaves had smooth 
contours and strikingly resembled the oval transparent areas upon the 
fore wings of Kallima inachis, paralekta, &c. — surrounded most con- 
spicuously with a marginal zone of modified colour varying greatly in 
tint and in extent in different individuals. Professor Poulton had 
believed that these "windows" of Kallima represented holes gnawed 
by larvas, and that the altered marginal zone reproduced the effect of 
the attacks of fungi entering along the freshly exposed tissues of the 
edge. But he now desired to withdraw his earlier hypothesis in favour 
of the more probable and convincing suggestion made by Mr. Grove. — 
Professor Poulton also showed a photograph of the fungus-like marks 
on the wings of the Oriental Kallimas prepared under his direction by 
Mr. Alfred Robinson, of the Oxford University Museum. — Dr. Karl 
Jordan communicated a note upon the variability of the genitalia in 
Lepidoptera. — Dr. G. B. LongstafY detailed his observations on scents 
in the male of Gonepteryx, and mentioned that whereas in the male 
G. cleopatra, the odour was strong, he had been unable to detect 
any appreciable fragrance in G. rhaimii. Such a difference, he said, 
seemed to imply a physiological difference of the two forms point- 
ing to specific distinction. — Dr. F. A. Dixey, in connection with'Dr. 
Longstaff's observations, exhibited the several forms of Gonepteryx 
occurring in the palaearctic region, and demonstrated the variation of 
wing coloration in the respective forms ranked as species. — Mr. 
H. J. Elwes, F.R.S., read a note on the geographical affinities of 
Japanese butterflies, numerous examples of which, taken by himself, 
he also exhibited. Summing up his remarks, he said that during the 
winter and spring months the plants and insects of Japan were, like 
the climate, palaearctic in character, yet during the summer and 
autumn they were tropical. — • Professor Christopher Aurivilius com- 
municated a paper on " New African Lasiocarupidae in the British 
Museum." — Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy communicated a " Memoir on the 
Rhynchota taken by Dr. Wyllie chiefly in Beira and Lifu." — 
H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
May 11th. — Mr. Hugh Main, B. Sc, F.E.S., President, in the chair.— 
Mr. Bevins, of Ongar, Essex, was elected a member. — Mr. Sich ex- 
hibited the flowering spike of an asphodel which had grown in a 
sheltered position in his garden at Chiswick. It originally came from 
the West of Prance, but Dr. Chapman said it was not the same species 
which formed the pabulum of Hastula hyerana in the Esterels. — Mr. 
R. Adkin, the lantoscope recently brought out by Dr. Connold to 
facilitate the examination of lantern-slides. — Mr. P. Noad Clark, an 
old work on Microscopy, dated 1771, ' Micrographia Illustrum,' by 
Geo. Adams, and called attention to the curious illustrations. — Dr. 
Chapman, a short series of a moth, Metoptria monoyramma, allied to 
Euclidia glyphica. They were taken in Sicily at the end of April. — 
Mr. Main; enormous larvae in spirits from the West Coast of Africa, 
probably of some large species of Longicoru. — Mr. Lucas, the delicate 



SOCIETIES. 191 

and beautiful Entomostracon, Branchipus stagnalis, taken on May 10th 
from a cart-rut of water at Claygate. It is generally rare in this 
country. — Mr. Gilbert J. Arrow, various species of Coleoptera to illus- 
trate an address which he afterwards gave, entitled " Some Social 
Beetles." A discussion took place as to the use of sound apparatus 
in larva?, the suggestion being that they were more or less directly 
protective. 

May 25th. — The President in the chair. — Messrs. Harrison and 
Main exhibited a large number of species of Lepidoptera captured or 
bred this season, comparing those from South of England localities 
with those from the neighbourhood of Liverpool. — Mr. Carr, series of 
spring Lepidoptera from the New Forest. — Mr. Joy, a short bred series 
of Thecla rubi from Folkestone, the larva? of which fed on dogwood, 
which had led him to think they were Cyaniris argiolus. — Mr. Hy. J. 
Turner, a short series of Cucullia lychnitis, bred from larva? taken at 
Box Hill in June, 1904. The larva? were fed up in the hottest sun- 
shine in a conservatory, and grew extremely fast. When found they 
were studded with ova of ichneumons, but after considerable trouble 
these were successfully removed. He also showed larva? of Leioptilus 
septodactylus (lienigianus), a local plume moth, feeding on Artemisia 
vulgaris. They were found at Croydon feeding in the open. — Mr. 
Edwards, specimens of the Ampkio.ms, and read notes on their struc- 
ture, position in nature, and habitat. — Dr. Chapman, a series of 
Depressaria thapsiella, bred by him from larva? obtained in Sicily, 
where it fed in countless numbers on Thapsia gargania. — Mr. Sich, 
larva? and pupa? of Acvptilia spilodactyla from the Isle of Wight, feeding 
on Marrubium vulgare. — Mr. Wright, a larva of a large species of 
Coleoptera feeding in the wood of a sugar-box from the West Indies. — 
Hy. J. Turner, lion. Rep. Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — The fourth 
ordinary meeting of the Session was held in the Royal Institution, 
Liverpool, on April 17th, Mr. Ed. Wilding, Vice-President, in the 
chair. — Drs. Win. Bell, J. P., of Rutland House, New Brighton, and 
P. F. Tmne, of Mostyn, Aigburth, were elected members of the Society. 
An invitation to exhibit at the meeting of the Liverpool Microscopical 
Society to be held on May 5th was accepted with thanks, the following 
amongst others promising to represent the Society : — Miss Birch, and 
Messrs. F. N. Pierce, F.E.S., H. B. Prince, H. B. Score, F.R.G.S., 
Rd. Wilding, and E. J. B. Sopp, F.R.Met.S. Donations to the library 
were received from Professor T. Hudson Beare, B.Sc, F.E.S., and 
Messrs. Score and Sopp ; and a donation to the micro-slide cabinet from 
Mr. C. M. Adams, F.I.C. — The paper of the evening was by Dr. Geo. 
E. J. Crallan, M.A., F.S.A., of Bournemouth, " On the Life-history of 
Ophiodes (Pseudophia) lunaris," which was illustrated with beautiful 
coloured figures by the author, including the egg in three stages (actual 
size and magnified thirty- two diameters), the larva in six stages, imago, 
upper and under side of both sexes, &c. In opening, Dr. Crallan 
referred to the fact that this is the only species of the genus that has 
occurred in Britain, the first specimen having been taken in Hampshire 
in 1832, and several having occurred since. In Spain it is said to be 
common in the cork woods, and in Austria occurs amongst oaks. In 



192 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

confinement the moth appears from April to June from eggs laid on 
oak or poplar ; when laid the egg is of a beautiful green colour, but 
after a week the colour changes to red or plum, and still later to drab. 
The changes in colour and appearance of the larva at the different 
ecdyses were graphically described, and much interesting information 
given on habits throughout the life of the insect in all its stages. On 
the motion of the chairman a very cordial vote of thanks was accorded 
Dr. Crallan for his valuable contribution to our knowledge of the life- 
history of this rare British moth. — Among exhibits shown were a box 
of insects from Trinidad, exhibited by Miss Birch on behalf of her 
brother ; eggs of T. opima on hawkweed by Mr. H. B. Prince, and on 
yarrow by Mr. Mollinson, who also showed larvre of L. liiorolis ; 
Pluda moneta (bred) and Lycccna avion from S. Devon, by Mr. Pierce ; 
and a queen wasp in a state of hybernation, by Mr. Score. — E. J. B. 
Sopp and W. D. Harrison, Hon. Secretaries. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — April 10th. — Mr. G. T. 
Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. E. C. Rossiter was 
elected a member of the Society. — Mr. J. T. Fountain gave an 
account of some work he had been doing, which showed how much 
collecting might be done in the winter. On December 2nd he saw 
at Sutton more moths than he had ever seen before, chiefly 
Cheimatobia brumata, L., but including also Scopelosoma satellitia, L., 
and Orrhodia vaccinii, L. On March 4th he sugared at Chelmsley 
Woods, and the last two species came in numbers. — Mr. "W. E. 
Collinge showed Collembola ; Sminthnrus malmgreni, Tulbb., from 
Knowle, a species new to England ; and Lipura ambulans, L., from 
Solihull, where it occurred in thousands in connection with some' 
cauliflowers suffering from finger-and-toe disease.— Mr. Gilbert Smith 
gave an account of the coleopterous genera Efiocephalus and Asenum, 
illustrating it by drawings and specimens of the species in various 
stages. — Colbran J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Proceedings of the South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society. 1904-5. Pp. i-xvi, 1-104. The Society's Room, 
Hibernia Chambers, S.E. 1905. 

Contains several interesting contributions on entomological subjects, 
the most important perhaps being a paper on the genus Coleophora by 
Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S. In his address the President (Mr. Sich) first 
reviews the principal events of the year, so far as these concern the 
British Fauna ; he then discourses on " the joy of animal existence " 
and the triumph of animal life. 

Several field-meetings were held during the year, and reports of 
these are given. That referring to the Eynsford meeting is accom- 
panied by a capital map of the district. 



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The WAND TELESCOPIC NET— An innovation in Butterfly Nets.— We beg 
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CONTENTS. 

Description of a New Species of Lygseidse from South Africa, W. L. Distant, 169, 
Descriptions of Three Undescribed Genera of Ichneumonidre from Borneo, 
P. Cumeron, 170. A Guide to the Study of British Waterbugs (Aquatit 
Ivhynchotal (continued), G. W. Kirkaldy, 173. Dragonfly Season of 1904, 
li". J. Lucas, 178. A List of the " Macro-Lepidoptera" of Lancaster and 
District (continued), C. H. Forsythe, 180. 

Notes and Observations. — Exotic Earwigs Wanted. Malcolm Burr, 185. Ova o: 
Butterflies Wanted. Richard South, 185. Note on Zanclognatha grisealis 
H. V. Plum, 185. Larva of Thecla ruhi on Dogwood, E. C. Joy, 185. Aber 
ration of Euchelia jacobajse, C. H. Forsythe, 185. 

Captures and Field Beports. — Deiiephila livornica in Gloucestershire, 1905 
A. Lionel Clarhc. 186. Cerura bicuspis in Lancashire, C. H. Forsythe, 186. 
Selenia lunaria in the Lancashire District, C. H. Forsythe, 186. Notes from 
New Zealand, Hubert W, Simmo'iidd, 186. Notes from the Chester District 
for 1904, J. ArMe, 187. 

Societies. — Entomological Society of London, 189. South Loudon Entomological 
and Natural History Society, 190. Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological 
Society, 191. Birmingham Entomological Society, 192. 

Recent Literature, 192. 

CENTRAL PARAGUAYAN SPECIMENS. 

Mr. WILIAM FOSTER will arrive in London about end of June with 
a large Collection of Central Paraguayan Mammals, Birds, Lepidoptera, 
Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, and a number of Hemiptera and) 
Hymenoptera. 

Students of South American forms would do well to revise their collec- 
tions and make their wants known to — 

CHARLES A. FOSTER, 9, Austin Friars, London, E.C. 

A. LIONEL CLARKE, 

NATURAL-HISTORY AGENT, STROUD ROAD. GLOUCESTER. 

(Opposite Post Office.) 
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Vol. XXXVIII] AUGUST, 1905. 



No. 507. 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 



Jlittstateb Journal 



GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 



EDITED BY RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 

HUBERT ADKIN, F.E.S. W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

W. L. DISTANT, F.E.S., Ac, G. W. KIHKALDY, F.E.S. 

EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S. j W. J. LUCAS, B.A., F.E.S. 

F. W.FROHAWK, F.E.S., M.B.O.U. I Dk. D. SHARP, F.R.S., F.E.S ., Ac. 

MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S. | G. H. VERRALL, F.E.S. 

" By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done and great discoveries made." 



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190 190 190 

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Apply, HARRY ELTRINGHAM South Shields, England. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII. ] AUGUST, 190 5. [No. 507. 

DESCRIPTION OF LYCMNA ARION PUPA, 3. 
By F. W. Frohawk, M.B.O.U., F.E.S. 



While collecting on July 12th, in company with Mr. A. L. 
Ray ward, in Cornwall, we determined on a systematic search for 
the pupa of Lyccena avion, and were rewarded by the discovery 
of a living pupa, of which I have the pleasure of giving the 
following description and above figures. 

It bears a general affinity to the pupa of L. cegon, excepting 
its much larger size, measuring half an inch long. 

Fig. 1. — Dorsal View. Across the middle its greatest diameter is 
T 3 T in. The head is obtuse, base of wings slightly angular and swollen, 
wing slightly concaved, abdomen swollen at third and fourth segments, 
then attenuating and rounded posteriorly. Fig. 2. — Side View. It 
measures y\ in. across the middle, the head rounded, thorax convex 
rising into a slight dorsal ridge, meta-thorax and first abdominal 
segment sunken, abdomen swollen at the middle and curving to pos- 
terior segments which are rounded ; anal segment is compressed to 
ventral surface, cremastral hooks absent ; wing ample, swollen, and 
rounded across the middle and extending to the fifth abdominal 
segment. 

The entire surface is minutely granulated and covered with very 
fine reticulations of a deep amber colour ; spiracles are prominent and 

ENTOM. — AUGUST, 1905. Ii 



194 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

blackish, the surface posteriorly adjoining them is beset with a number 
of shining raised bead-like processes, some bearing minute amber- 
coloured spines, which have the apical half branched with extremely 
small bristles. 

The colour when first found was uniformly ochreous, with 
the eyes dark leaden grey ; it gradually turned darker on the 
head, thorax, and abdomen ; the wings remained ochreous, but 
showed leaden-grey hind margins ; then the median wing-spots 
appeared, and soon the whole pupa began to deepen more 
uniformly, until it assumed a deep leaden-grey all over, and 
remained unchanged for over thirty hours ; finally a perfect 
male emerged at 8.30 a.m. July 16th. 

With the interesting discovery of this hitherto unknown 
pupa Mr. A. L. Rayward's name must be coupled, for we had the 
joint pleasure of not only finding the living pupa, but also, in 
close proximity, a pupa-case of a freshly emerged female, which 
my friend detected at rest, and which paved the way to our 
success. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF ARADIDiE 
FROM CEYLON. 

By W. L. Distant. 

The following description refers to a species which I received 
from my ever-helpful friend Mr. E. E. Green, subsequent to my 
dealing with the Aradida? in the Rhynchota of British India, 
and which, for that wide area, constitutes the second known 
species of Aneurus. 

Aneurus greeni, sp. n. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum, and sternum, black ; abdomen, apex 
of head, coxa?, and apices of tibia? piceous-brown ; tarsi ochraceous ; 
corium stramineous, its base black, its apex and longitudinal veins 
very dark fuscous ; membrane pale hyaline and reflecting the pale 
brown disk of the abdomen above ; head finely punctate, most strongly 
so behind eyes, distinctly longitudinally sulcate on each side of the 
median lobe ; antenna? with the basal joint very strongly incrassate, 
second joint longer than third, fourth longest; pronotum with a broad 
central transverse depression, the anterior angles prominently rounded, 
the lateral margins moderately concavely sinuate, the posterior angles 
broadly rounded, a little prominent, centrally very finely transversely 
striate, obscurely punctate, most distinctly so on lateral areas and at 
anterior and posterior angles ; scutellum very finely and thickly 
granulate, about as broad as long, its margins very obscurely piceous- 
brown. 

Hah. Ceylon; Pundaluoya (Green). 

Differing from the Burmese A. indicus, Bergr., the only 
other known species in the fauna of British India, by the 
absence of the central carination to the scutellum, the more 



CURKBNT NOTES. 195 

rounded and less prominent posterior pronotal angles, the more 
strongly incrassated basal joint of the antennas, the stramineous 
corium, &c. 



CURRENT NOTES. 
By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

(Continued from p. 132.) 



1. C. P. Lounsbury: "Report of Govt. Entom. for 1903" 

(Cape of Good Hope Dep. Agr. pp. 1-46 ; pis. i-vii 
(1904)). 

2. Ditto : " Transmission of African Coast Fever " (Agr. 
Journ. Cape of Good Hope [sep. pp. 1-7] 3 plates 
(1 coloured) (Apl. 1904) [Arachnida] ). 

3. C. J. S. Bethune [Ed.] : " Thirty-fourth Ann. Rep. Ent. 

Soc. Ontario, for 1903" (Ontario Dep. Agr. pp. 1-11G ; 
portrait, pis. i-iii and text-figs. 1-60 (1904) ). 

4. A. L. Herrera [Ed.] : "Las Plagas de la Agricultura " 

(Com. Paras, agric. Mexico ; pp. 1-705, pis. i-xvi, and 
many text-figs (1904) ). 

5. A. Zimmermann : " Untersuchungeii fiber tropische Pflan- 

zenkrankheiten " i. (Ber. Land- Forstwirtschaft Deutsch- 
ostafrika ii. pp. 11-36, pis. i-iv (1904) ). 

6. E. P. Felt & L. H. Joutel : " Monograph of the genus 

Saperda " (Bull. N. York State Mus. 74, pp. 1-86 ; pis. 
1-7 coloured and 8-14 plain; text-figs. 1-7 [Col.] ). 

7. L. de la Barreda : " El picudo del Algodon " (Circ. Com. 
paras, agric. Mexico, 6, pp. 1-35 (Apl. 7 1904) [Col.]). 

8. C. Dawydoff : " Note sur les organes phagocytaires de 
quelques Gryllons tropicales " (Zool. Anzeiger xxvii. pp. 
589-93, text-figs 1-3 (June 3, 1901) [Dermapt.] ). 

9. C. P. Lounsbury : "A new Oak-tree Pest " (Agric. Journ. 
Cape Good Hope [sep. pp. 1-4] 1 plate (Dec, 1903) 
[Hem.] ). 

10. A. W. Morrill : " Notes on the immature stages of some 

Tingitids of the genus Corijthuca " (Psyche, x. pp. 127-34, 
pi. 3 (1903) [Hem.]). 

11. S. Mokrzecki : Thryptocera (Gymnopareia) pomonellre 

Schnabl & Mokrz., sp. nov., male and female (Diptera, 
MuscidaO [sep. pp. 1-4] (1903) [Lep. & Dipt.] ). 

12. R. E. Snodgrass : " The Hypopygium of the Tipulidae " 

(Trans. American Ent. Soc. xxx. pp. 179-236, pis. viii-xviii 
(Aug., 1904) [Diptera] ). 

13. T. W. Kirk: "Report of . . . Biologist" (Ann. Rep. New 
Zealand Dep. of Agriculture, xii. pp. 247-309 [Diptera] 
(1904)). 

r 2 



196 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

14. M. E. Fountaine : " The Butterfly hunter in search of a 
long-lost local rarity" (Pall Mall Mag. xxxiii. pp. 253-8; 
2 text-figs. (June, 1904)). 

15. E. Zander: " Zuni Genitalapparat der Lepidopteren " 

(Zool. Anzeiger xxviii. pp. 182-6, text-figs (Oct. 21, 1904)). 
. 16. 0. Schultz : " Uebersicht ueber die bisher bekannt ge- 
wordenen Falle von Gynandrornorphismus bei pala- 
arktischen Macrolepidopteren nach Farnilien, Gattungen 
und Species " (Allg. Zeitschr. fiir Entom. ix. pp. 304-10 
(Aug. 15, 1904)). 

17. C. Schroder: " Kritische Beitrage zur Mutations, Selek- 
tions- und zur Theorie der Zeichnungs-phylogenie bei den 
Lepidopteren iii " (op. tit. pp. 281-97 ; text-figs. 19-28 
(Aug. 15, 1904)). 

18. L. C. H. Young : " The distribution of Butterflies in 
India " (Journ. Bombay Nat. History, xv. pp. 594-601 
(June 27, 1904)). 

19. B. S. Hole: "Two notorious Insect Pests" (op. tit. pp. 
679-97, pis. A to E (June 27, 1904) [Lepidoptera] ). 

20. K. Malkoff : " Die Cicade Tettigonia viridis L. als 

Schadiger der Obstbaume in Bulgarien " (Zeitschr. fur 
Pflanzenkrankheiten, xiv. pp. 40-3 ; 1 text-fig. (March 7, 
1904) [HernipteraJ ). 

21. A. L. Embleton : " Cerataphis latanice, a peculiar Aphid " 

(Journ. Linnean Soc, Zool. xxix. pp. 90-107, pi. 12 (Oct. 
31, 1903) [HernipteraJ ). 

22. E.Bohler: "Die Antennalen Sinnesorgane von Tryxalis " 

(Zool. Anzeiger, xxviii. pp. 188-92 ; text-figs. 1-4 (Oct. 
21, 1904) [Dermaptera] ). 

23. G. Enderlein : "Die Copeognathen des Indo-Austra- 
lischen Faunengebietes " (Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungar. I. 
pp. 179-344, pis. iii-xiv [1 of these coloured) and text-figs. 
1-12 (1903) [Neuroptera] ). 

24. Ditto : " Zur Kenntniss Amerikanischer Psociden (Zool. 
Jahrb. Abth. fiir Syst." xviii. pp. 351-64, pis. 17 (coloured) 
and 18 (1903) [Neuroptera] ). 

25. Ditto : " Zur Kenntniss Europaischer Psociden " (op. tit. 
pp. 365-82, pi. 19 (col.) and text-figs. A — J (1903) 

[Neuroptera] ). 

26. N. Ya. Kusnenov : " rasvitii glastshatikh pyaten gusenits 
Dilephila nerii, Linn., i. Pergesa porcellus, Linn." (Iiuss- 
koe entom. obosr. iv. pp. 154-62; text-figs. 1-6 (Aug. 
1904) [Leipdoptera] ). 

27. D. Pomerantsev : " Biologisheskiya samyitki o zhukakh 
polesnikh b' lyisovolstv, zhivoshtchikh pod koroi derevev 
VII." (op. tit. pp. 85-9 (May, 1904) [Coleoptera] ). 

28. S. Alferaki : " Byigliya krititcheskiya samyitki k' kata- 
logu tchemuekrilikh gg. Staudinger'a i Bebel'ya 1901, g." 
(op. tit. pp. 1-10 (Feb., 1904) [Lepidoptera] ). 



CUKRENT NOTES. 



197 



29. A. A. Yakhontov : " Pieris napi L. var. intermedia 
Krul." (op. cit. pp. 15-8 [Lepidoptera] ). 

The title of the finely illustrated paper of Felt and Joutel (6) 
is slightly misleading, as it is really a monograph of the Ameri- 
can species only, some of which, however, are also European. 
The descriptions, synonymy and bibliography, habits, &c, are 
very fully worked out, and the numerous plates are well executed. 
Barreda (7) discusses the cotton boll-weevil (Anthonomus grandis) 
in a practical manner. He mentions that one estate in Coahuila 
lost one thousand seven hundred dollars in four years, while 
another in San Luis Potosi lost one hundred thousand dollars 
last year. Morrill (10) has given us valuable information on a 
subject very little studied, the metamorphoses of heteropterous 
Hemiptera. 

It is well known that in certain forms there exist, as well 
as free leucocytes, very curious special structures named by 
Dawydoff (8) " phagocytary organs" (lymphatic glands). Ap- 
parently these glands are not circumscribed and defined in the 
cockroaches and mantids (at least in some of them), the same 
being the case in the nymphs of Gryllodea. In certain adults of 
the latter suborder these organs are well defined and limited; in 
others, however, this is not the case {Gymnogryllus). 

Lounsbury's latest publications deal principally with ticks, 
the Annual Report (1) treating specially of malignant jaundice in 
dogs. The transmission of African Coast fever (2) is attributed 
to the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, which is considered 
" the principal, and, perhaps, the only natural transmitter of 
a highly fatal cattle disease." 

Phylloxera corticalis is noted as a new oak-tree pest in South 
Africa, where it has been causing considerable damage (9). 
Owing to the fact that the South African oak {Quercus peduncu- 
lata) has been propagated in that country only from seed, it 
has remained singularly free from pests, only one other insect, 
and that also an aphid (Callipterus quercus), being confined 
to it. 

Zimmermann's paper (5) deals mostly with fungous diseases, 
but also with noxious insects, viz. : Sphinx nerii on Cinchona 
(pi. iv. figs. 6-8), Displunctus on Piper capeuse (figs. 3-5), Helo- 
peltis sp. on Bixa orellana (figs. 9-12), and Thrips spp. on 
coffee. 

The Commission of Agricultural Parasitology in Mexico has 
issued a substantial volume (4) of over seven hundred pages on 
the pests to Agriculture in that country. These are assembled 
under plant headings, the latter being arranged alphabetically. 
Sixteen crowded plates and a number of text-figures illustrate 
the written matter. The introduction is dated Nov. 1901, the 
cover 1903, but the title-page 1904 ! Mokrzecki (11) describes 



198 • THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in Latin and Russian a new dipterous parasite from Taurian 
Belbek, bred from pupae of Carpocapsa pomonella, L. 

Snodgrass (12) restricts the term " hypopygium " to the ninth 
abdominal segment only— that is, the segment that carries the 
intromittent and clasping organs of the male. The general 
shape in the Tipulidae is that of a cup opening posteriorly, the 
cavity being the genital chamber, which is produced simply by 
the invagination of the posterior face of the segment, which 
carries into the depression the tenth segment, which morpho- 
logically terminates the abdomen. After a general description 
of the parts, seventeen genera are discussed at length and 
illustrated by one hundred and sixty- one figures. 

T. W. Kirk's report (13) is specially mentioned here, since 
it contains (pp. 306-9) descriptions of three new Diptera by 
T. Brown, viz. : Tepli rites xanthodes, introduced from Rarotoga 
and Viti; Lonchcea splendida, introduced from New South Wales ; 
and Drosophila ampelophila, from Australia. 

Miss Fountaine (14) describes a brief tour in Crete, and the 
chase of Lyccena psylorita. Zander (15) discusses the genital 
apparatus of Gastropacha quercifolia. Schultz (16) catalogues 
the known cases of gynandromorphism in palrearctic Macro- 
Lepidoptera ; while Schroder (17) continues his papers on 
pattern-phylogeny in the same order. Young (18) considers the 
distribution of Indian butterflies. 

Hole (19) discusses very fully two dangerous enemies of the 
teak-tree, viz., the moths Pyrausta machceralis and Tlyblcea puera 
There are five excellent plates, of which one is coloured. 

Malkoff (20) describes the damage done to fruit-trees by 
Tetigonia viridis ; while Miss Embleton (21) discusses at length 
the remarkable Aleyrodid-like aphid, Ceratapihis latanite. This 
has also recently occurred on Latania near Honolulu. 

Rohler (22) describes and figures some sensory organs on the 
antennas of Ac rida {Tryxalis). 

Enderlein (23-25) has published three interesting articles on 
Psocidaa, illustrated by excellent plates. No. 23 is prefaced by a 
general introduction to the family. Kusnezov (26) discusses in 
Russian the development of ocellated spots in the larvas of the 
sphingids Deilephila nerii, Linn., and Pergesa porcellus, Linn. 
Pomerantsev (27) furnishes biological notes, also in Russian, on 
Cantharidas and Tenebrionidae living under bark, and useful in 
sylviculture. Two further papers in Russian (28 and 29) may 
be commended to the Lepidopterist : Alferaki's contains critical 
observations on Staudinger and Rebel's 1901 Catalogue, while 
Yakhontov discusses at some length the variety intermedia of 
Pieris napi. 



199 



A LIST OF THE " MACKO-LEPIDOPTERA " OF 
LANCASTER AND DISTRICT. 

By C. H. Foksythe. 

(Concluded from p. 160.) 

C. immanata. — Common and generally distributed in July. 

C. suffumata. — Fairly common in the County Asylum grounds, 
Blea Tarn, Quernmore, &c., in April and May. This species comes 
to light. 

C. silacmta. — Fairly common at Arnside and Witherslack in May. 

C. fulvata. — Common everywhere about hedgerows in July and 
August. 

C. dotata (pyraliata), — Not common; Halton, County Asylum 
grounds, Blea Tarn, &c, in July. 

Lygris (Cidaria) prunata. — Not common; Arnside, near Quernmore 
and County Asylum grounds in June. 

L. (C.) testata. — Abundant on the moors at Clougha and Quern- 
more in August. 

L. (C.) populata. — Local ; it is abundant near Clougha in July and 
August. 

L. (C.) associata (dotata). — Fairly common and generally distributed 
in June. This species comes freely to light. 

Pelurga comitata. — Plentiful in some years in the County Asylum 
grounds, Grimshaw Lane and Blea Tarn, July and August. 

Eubolia cervinata. — This species comes to light, but is not common ; 
Halton and County Asylum grounds in late August and September. 

E. Umitata (mensuraria). — Generally distributed; abundant in 
Grimshaw Lane, near Halton, in August. 

E. plumbaria (palumbaria). — Common at Heysham, Torrisholme, 
Blea Tarn, &c, in June. 

Carsia paludata (imbutata). — Locally plentiful at Heysham and 
Witherslack on the mosses in July. 

Sterrha sacraria. — Extremely rare, " I took a specimen at Wither- 
slack some years ago. It went into Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson's collec- 
tion " (G. L.) 

Anaitis plagiata. — Common at Arnside, Witherslack, &c, in July. 

Tanagra atrata (charophyllata). — Common near Carnforth and 
Witherslack about chervil (ChcBrophyUwn ternulum) at the end of June. 

Hyria muricata (auroraria) . — Local but abundant at Witherslack; 
less common at Heysham in July. 

Asthena luteata. — Uncommon ; near Clougha and at Witherslack in 
June. 

A. candidata. — Fairly plentiful and generally distributed in June. 

Acidulia dimidiata (scutulata). — Common in Grimshaw Lane, 
Quernmore, Halton, &c, in June. 

A. bisetata. — Plentiful in Grimshaw Lane, Halton, Heysham, 
Clougha, &c, June and July. 

A. subsericeata. — Uncommon; odd examples at Witherslack in June. 

A. inmnttaia. — Uncommon ; occasionally at Witherslack and 
Methop in June. 



200 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A. remutaria. — I have only taken this species near Clougha and at 
Heysham, and bred it from Methop larvre. The imago appears in 
May. 

A. fumata. — Common; at Heysham, Clougha, and Witherslack in 
July. 

A. aversata. — Common everywhere in July and August; also var. 
spoliata. 

Pseudvterpna pruinata (cytisaria). — Fairly common in Grimshaw 
Lane, County Asylum grounds, Halton, Quernmore, (fee, in July. 

Geontetra papilionaria, — Not common ; I have only taken examples 
at light near the County Asylum in July. 

Nemoria viridata. — Local, but common at Methop and Witherslack 
in June. 

Tholera (lodis) lactearia. — Common in Grimshaw Lane, Eidge 
Lane, Halton, Arnside, &c,, in July. 

Ilemithea strigata (thymiaria). — Fairly common in Freeman's 
Wood, and at Heysham, in June and July. 



THE LEPIDOPTEEA OF BERLIN. 
By E. M. Dadd, F.E.S. 

One constantly reads in the magazines of the experiences and 
captures made by entomologists in Switzerland, the South of 
France, Italy, Spain, the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, and 
other distant places, which are mostly quite beyond the reach of 
the ordinary entomologist with probably only a short holiday at 
his disposal. 

Having read with avidity the brilliant successes achieved by 
his more fortunate brethren in the Eldorados above mentioned, 
it may occur to him that perhaps if he did not go quite so far 
afield he might yet enjoy a good deal of sport, and at the same 
time not waste a large portion of his holiday in travelling. 

It has always been somewhat of a surprise to me that none of 
the gentlemen who make annual trips to the Continent have 
thought Germany worthy of their attention. Although its 
butterfly fauna is certainly not so rich as that of Switzerland, 
still it is very rich, and on any sunny day during the summer 
insects swarm in such countless numbers that one is at a loss 
what to catch next. 

It has been my good fortune to be removed from London to 
Berlin, a district which is remarkably rich in Lepidoptera, as 
will be seen from the fact that the latest list of the Macro- 
Lepidoptera (Bartel and Herz) records eight hundred and thirty- 
two species as occurring in the district, to which have since been 
added several more ; and in the present paper I should like to 
give entomologists an idea of what can be had here all the year 



THE LBPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 201 

round. As I have collected here fairly regularly from June 1st, 
1902, till the end of the 1904 season, I think I may fairly claim 
to have a good idea of what can be done in this district. 

What is understood as the Berlin district is the tract of 
country contained within about a twenty-mile radius of the 
centre of the city. This includes a very varied country both as 
to soil and vegetation, which accounts for the richness of the 
fauna. The greater portion is of course the usual sandy soil of 
the Great Plain of Prussia, but by Riidersdorf in the east there 
is an outbreak of chalky limestone, forming downs fairly similar 
to our Kentish or Surrey ones, and it is here, of course, that 
such species as Lyccena corydon, L. minima, the three rare 
Zygoeme, &c, appear. The whole district is fairly well wooded, 
the greater portion being pine or fir woods, but there are also 
magnificent oak and beech woods, and in the swampy portions, 
which are fairly frequent, alder and birch predominate. Here 
and there over the whole district, and especially by Bernau in 
the north, there are extensive heaths, and these are sometimes 
covered with juniper bushes. In the larger pine woods there is 
frequently a thick undergrowth of bilberry ; in the deciduous 
woods, of raspberry and buckthorn. Whitethorn, blackthorn, 
and the wild briar are conspicuous by their absence ; only on 
the downs at Piiidersdorf do they appear to grow wild. Bramble 
and sallow much rarer than in England ; willow is also extremely 
rare. Aspen, lime, and black poplar are all common all over 
the district. The commonest tree after pines and firs is un- 
doubtedly the birch. Notable absentees amongst low plants are 
the primrose, foxglove, bracken, and gorse. By far the com- 
monest plant on open uncultivated land is Artemisia vulgaris, 
the food-plant of Cucullia argcntea and C. artemisice, Eupitliecia 
innotata, &c. 

Fenland and water-side vegetation is frequent, seeing that 
two rivers, the Spree and the Havel, and about ten large lakes 
are in the district. 

During the winter months very little collecting could be done, 
but searching the trunks of oaks and alders produced cocoons of 
Iloplitis milhauseri and Cerura bicuspis, and, when the lakes are 
frozen over, and one can get at the reeds, the larvae of Senta 
maritima and Leucania obsoleta may be secured in numbers. The 
former is obtained by searching the old burrows of Nonagria 
gcminipuncta, in which they conceal themselves ; the larvae are 
easily reared on shredded steak, apple, and other unlikely sub- 
stances, but must be provided with reeds to hide in, as they 
otherwise die. L. obsoleta is far easier detected ; the reeds 
inhabited by the larva?, probably owing to its having eaten 
through the skin to form its exit, are generally bent over, 
probably by wind, and all one has to do is to cut the reed low 
down. This larva hybernates full-fed, and is easily reared ; it 



202 THR ENTOMOLOGIST. 

is, however, advisable to split the reed, or keep it standing in 
water, as otherwise it contracts and kills the pupa. 

On February 28th I made my first outing after moths ; for 
some days the temperature had been fairly mild, and the early 
Geometers, such as Phigalia pedaria, Hybernia Icucophcearia, and 
H. marginata, were not uncommon. I was away during nearly 
the whole of March, and it was not until the 22nd of that month 
that I again had an opportunity of collecting. Besides the species 
above mentioned, which were now getting over, Brephos par- 
thenias, Asphaliaflavicornis, 'Tephrosia crepuscularia, and Astero- 
scopus nubecidosus were obtained. Of the latter rare species 
eleven specimens were found sitting on alder- trunks. On the 
29th the first male Endromis versicolor and one B. notha were 
the only new species, sallowing in the evening being an absolute 
failure. On April 12th an outing to Buch was very unremunera- 
tive, the weather being too cold ; one male Endromis versicolor, 
four Tephrosia crepuscularia, and two Larentia carpinata being 
the total bag, except a few larvae of Sesia scolicej'ormis from 
birch-boles. The next day was even worse, only two Tephrosia 
punctularia and one Boarmia cinctaria being seen ; sallows still 
being quite useless. On the 19th, at Spandau, T. punctularia 
was fairly common, and two E. versicolor and a very fine variety 
of Strenia clathrata were also obtained ; this appears to me a very 
early date for the latter species. 

On April 22nd, 28rd, and 24th sallows at Spandau were well 
visited, T(Cniocamp.i opinia, T. gracilis, T. incerta, T. gothica, 
T. pulverulenta, T. stabilis, Pachnobia rubricosa, Dasycampa rubi- 
ginea, Orrhoclia erytlirocepliala and 0. vaccinii, Xylina furcifera, 
Calocampa vetusta, and C. cxoleta all being plentiful. I saved the 
two D. rubiginea for ova, but was unsuccessful. The P. rubri- 
cosa were remarkable, all being of a deep bluish black colour, 
with just a tinge of red in them. They are also much smaller 
than our English rubricosa, which is here classified as var. 
rufa, and I should not be surprised if they proved to be a 
distinct species. 

On May 3rd, a delightfully warm day, a visit was paid to 
Finkenkrug, the locality for Aglia tan, in the hope of obtaining 
this species, and it was soon observed flying wildly about in the 
beech woods, and several males, all more or less worn, were 
captured. Other insects were scarce; Pieris napi and Antho- 
charis cardamines were flying in the meadows, one Araschnia 
levana was netted over nettle, and Larentia tristata, Minoa muri- 
nata, and Ematurga atomaria were observed. 

May 10th was very rainy, so that nothing could be done 
during the morning, but it cleared up during the afternoon, and 
we paid a visit to the bilberry-scrub growing amongst the pine- 
woods. Sweeping produced the larvae of Ilalia brunneata in 
numbers, but the desired Eupithccia coronata was not found. 



THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 203 

Larvse of Anchocelis helvola were also obtained, as well as one 
solitary Lasiocampa quercus. The only imagines seen were 
Larentia {Coremia) ferrugata and Thalera putata, both common. 
The latter was still emerging, and a nice series of fresh speci- 
mens were boxed ; unfortunately, it seems quite impossible to 
preserve the exquisite green tint of this species. It is perhaps 
worth noting that this species leaves the pupa between four 
o'clock and dusk, and are easily observed drying their wings 
under bilberry-leaves ; they quickly lose their colour, and during 
the forenoon only faded specimens will be seen. The eleven 
specimens I set, in spite of the greatest care, have all somewhat 
faded. Is there no way of preserving their colour? 

On May 24th I went for a walk round one of the lakes in the 
neighbourhood of Potsdam with my friend Mr. Wadzeck, and we 
found that the spring Geometrae were commencing to get com- 
mon, Acidalia remutata, Asthena candidata, A. luteata, Eupisteria 
heparata, Larentia Jiuctuata, L. designata, L. ocellata, and Bapta 
taminata all being more or less common. Sugaring in the 
evening was fairly unproductive, Iladena genistce and II. oleracca, 
Dipterygia scabriuscula, Cymatophora or, and Hypena prubosci- 
dalis being the only visitors. 

May 31st is a day I shall never forget. My friend Herr 
Zobel, my brother, and myself started, about 11 a.m., from 
Spandau through the oak and pine woods to Niederneundorf. I 
have never seen Geometme so common, or in such variety. One 
really did not know what to take and what to leave, and my 
"glass tops " had to be emptied several times to make further 
collecting possible. Amongst the bilberry, Acidalia fumata, A. 
remutata, Thalera putata, Ematurga atomaria, Epione advenaria, 
and Larentia hastata were everywhere, and I devoted myself 
especially to the two latter, and soon had a fine series. A small 
Noctua was seen dashing about, but was very difficult to capture ; 
at length one was boxed, and it proved to be Erastria deceptaria. 
We had originally started with the intention of visiting a locality 
for the Hesperid Carterocephalus sylvius, which had been added 
to the Berlin fauna the previous year by Herr Zobel, and which 
he had succeeded in turning up in considerable numbers during 
the present spring. Arrived on the scene, we were disappointed 
in only rinding one worn female, it evidently being over. Other 
butterflies were, however, well in evidence, and, besides the three 
common whites and A. cardamines, Chrysophanus dorilis and C. 
phloeas, Cyaniris argiolus, LyccBna semiargus and L. icarus, Hes- 
peria malvcs, Augiades comma, Argynnis sclene, and hybernated 
Vanessa io were abundant. 

We then turned our attention to a wood composed mostly of 
oak, alder, and birch, but with a sprinkling of other trees, and 
notably a fairly thick undergrowth of bramble, raspberry, and 
nettles. To say that Geometry swarmed will give really no idea 



204 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of their abundance. At the edge of the wood Acidalia immutata, 
A. immorata, and Strenia clathrata had been netted ; iu the wood 
itself we were kept constantly busy with Ephyra punctaria, 
Timandra amata, Larentia ocellata, L. variata, L. Jiuctuata, L. 
montanata, L.ferrugata, L. sociata, L. unangulata, L. albicillata, 
L. tristata, E. obliterata, A. luteata, Hypsipetes trifasciata, Cidaria 
corylata, Tephroclystia satyrata, Collix sparsata, Abraxas margi- 
nata, Deiliwa pusaria and D. exanthemata, Semiotliisia notata 
and S. alternata, Boarmia luridata, T. punctulata, and Pechipogon 
barbalis ; while one male specimen of Macrothylacia rubi was 
found drying its wings, and another was netted, and a pair of 
Phalera bucephala were found in cop. 

On the way home a few additions were made, notably one 
specimen of Triphosa dubitata, M. murinata, Panagra petraria ; 
and also, flying in the dusk, one each of Drepana falcataria and 
D. binaria were netted. 

Monday, June 1st, being the Whitsun Monday, I had arranged 
with several friends to visit the beech woods of Brenau, our 
principal quarry being Tephrosia consonaria. Although sunshine 
was scarce, it was a very close hot day, and not at all agreeable 
for collecting. To reach the beech woods in question we first 
had to traverse a fairly long stretch of tall pine woods, which 
had a thick undergrowth of bilberry. Here and there were also 
open patches of heather. Butterflies were not much in evidence, 
the principal ones noted being Ccdlophrys rubi (very worn), and 
Chrysophanus dorilis and C. phlceas. 

Geornetras by no means swarmed as they had done on the day 
previous, and, with the exception of T.putata and A. remutata, 
very little was seen at first ; however, in the first patch of 
bilberry a fine Larentia hastata was netted, and almost immedi- 
ately afterwards something started up out of the bilberry, which 
was not recognized. After a long stern chase this was netted, 
and proved to be apparently Ortholitha plumbaria, a very large 
bluish-grey form, and quite different to our English ones. As 
the time of appearance — beginning of June — and getting worn 
are so entirely different to the habits of what we know as this 
species in England, where I have always found it at the end of 
July and during August, and besides which the insect seems 
quite different to our English plumbaria, being larger, more 
bluish in colour, and not so variegated, I consider that this may 
possibly be a distinct species. My friend Herr Herz, to whom I 
mentioned my doubts, is also of opinion that there is something 
queer here, as he had captured our English form at the end of 
July on the sea-coast. I would be much obliged if some English 
entomologist would obtain eggs of 0. plumbaria during the coming 
season, and I will try and elucidate the matter. 

Several specimens of this interesting form were obtained ; 
meanwhile L. hastata, Epione advenaria, and Eucosmia undulata 



THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 205 

were fairly common, the latter being by no means easy to capture, 
as, although a conspicuous insect, its colour harmonizes well 
against a background of bilberry and pine-trunks, and it is more 
often lost sight of than captured. Another conspicuous species 
easily lost sight of is L. hastata ; its habit is to fly about twelve 
feet from the ground, and it has a very undulating flight ; con- 
sequently, when flying amongst trees with the light shining 
through them, it easily eludes capture. Nothing further of 
interest was observed until we reached the restaurant where we 
were to dine, when my brother, who had been for a stroll round 
the lake, brought me a fine fresh specimen of Lithostege farinata, 
Hum. 

After dinner we made tracks for the beech woods, and while 
crossing a small meadow I observed Ino statices in some numbers 
on flower-heads. The beech woods unfortunately proved a 
failure as far as T. consonaria was concerned, not a single speci- 
men being found by four diligent searchers ; but Demas coryli, 
Dasychira pudibunda, Lithosia aureola, and Ephyra trilineata 
were found in odd specimens, and an occasional Tephrosia luri- 
data raised our hopes in vain. Larentia variata was found in a 
small pine wood, but nothing further of note. On the way home 
E. undulata was more easily captured, as it adopted the habit of 
flying lazily along the road. Amongst the bilberry, T. putata 
was, as usual, freshly emerging, and I started up, but lost a fine 
specimen of Bomolocha fontis. 

On June 6th, 8th, and 11th I sugared, with my friend Zobel, 
in the neighbourhood of Bernau ; the locality chosen, at first 
sight, did not look at all promising, the sugared trees being on 
the border of an extensive pine wood ; adjoining was a barren 
waste of land, overgrown with rank grass and, what appealed 
especially to us, patches of heather ; the insect we had hope of 
getting beiug Agrotis molothina, an ally of A. strigula, and up to 
then only known in four or five specimens by Berlin. We had 
already sugared this spot about five times without any result 
worth speaking about. However, patience was at length rewarded, 
as on the three nights in question not only did we get our A. 
molothina in thirty to forty specimens, but also discovered four 
other insects, which are reckoned amongst Berlin's rarities ; 
they were Mamestra aliena, Hadena adusta var. baltica (probably 
a good species, as it is quite different to English adusta), Cara- 
drina selini var. milleri, and Agrotis candalarum. All these 
species were abundant ; in one evening alone my take was forty- 
four C. var. milleri, twelve M. aliena, and fifteen var. baltica. 
But this by no means ends the list ; other lesser stars were also 
in abundance : — Acronycta abscondita, A. rumicis, Agrotis strigula, 
A. linogrisea, A. orbona (subsequa), A. cinerea, A. exclamationis, 
A.ypsilon, A. segetum, A. prasina, A. occulta, Mamestra leuco- 
phcea, M. advena, M. nebulosa, M. brassicce, M. albicolon, M. 



206 THK ENTOMOLOGIST. 

oleracea, M. dissimilis, M. thalassina, M. contigua, M. pisi, M. 
trifolii, M. dentina and var. latenai, Neurid reticulata, Miana 
strigilis, Hadena sordida, H. rurea and var. alopecurus, H. basi- 
linea, H. gemina and var. remissa, Dipterygia scabriuscula, Trachea 
atriplicis, Leucania pollens, L. comma, L. conigera, Grammesia 
trigrammica. Eusina tenebrosa, and Cymatophora or. 

During the latter part of June and the first fortnight in July 
the butterfly season is at its height, and we made many excur- 
sions to the localities above mentioned. The 13th was a lovely 
sunny day, which we again spent at Finkenkrug. One of the 
first butterflies captured was a fine specimen of Papilio machaon ; 
a specimen of Mamestra glauca was found at rest on a tree-trunk, 
and almost immediately afterwards -we were in the thick of the 
Melitaeas — at present only M. aurinia and M. cinxia ; while 
Lyccena amanda, L. iearns, Chrysophanus hippothoe, and C. alci- 
phron are abundant. The tree-trunks are now frequently tenanted 
by Psychid cases — Sterrhopteryx Jiirsutella, Acanthopsyche opa- 
cella, Canephora unicolor, Bacotia sepium, Ejriclinopteryx pulla, 
and E. nitidella. A peculiarity about C. unicolor is that only 
the males select tree-trunks to spin up on ; the female cases are 
always found spun up amongst herbage. Geometry seem to 
have tailed off, the only Larentias observed being tristata, ocellata, 
and sociata. In the meadows, however, Acidalia immorata was 
fairly common, with occasional A. omata and A. immutata, S. 
clatkrata and M. murinata. On tree-trunks, A crony eta p si, A. 
leporina, A. abscondita, Momaorion, Sphinx pinastri, and Boarmia 
consortaria were frequent : one specimen of Drymonia chaonia 
and two of Lophopteryx camelina beaten out of oak, and D. 
lacertinaria netted. Larva-beating was almost too trying owing 
to the heat, and very little worth mentioning obtained. Oak 
produced Catocala sponsa (full-fed), and Zephyrus quercus, while 
Herr Wadzeck was fortunate enough to beat a larva of Arctornis 
(Laria) l-nigrum from lime. In the afternoon a case of Psyche 
viciella was found among herbage, several worn specimens of 
Hemaris bombyliformis netted, while a grove of old aspens pro- 
duced the larva? of Trochilium melanocephalum in plenty. The 
method of obtaining these latter is fairly simple ; the lower 
twigs and branches die off in the same manner as do those of firs, 
and all one has to do is to break off these twigs, and examine 
the fracture for the fresh galleries of T. melanocephalum. In 
this manner we obtained about a dozen larvae in a very short 
time. The smaller aspens were beat for larvae of Apatura ilia 
and Limenitis populi, and a few of each were obtained. 

Sugaring one night at Wusterhausen was very successful, 
and the following were obtained in numbers -.—Acronycta psi, A. 
menyanthidis, A. auricoma, A. abscondita, A. rumicis, Agrotis 
obscura, A. simidans, A. cinerea, A. exclamationis, A. segctum, A. 
primula, Mamestra leucophtea, M. nebidosa, M. brassicce, M. albi- 



THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 207 

colon, M. oleracea, M. genista, M. dissimilis, M. thalassina, M. 
dentiua, Neuria reticulata, Iladena sordida, II. basilinea, H. 
gemina, D. scabriuscida, Hyppa rectilinea, Trachea atriplicis, 
Euplexia lucipara, Leucania pattens, L. albipuncta, G. trigrammica, 
Rusina tenebrosa, Tceniocampa incerta (very worn), Erastria 
fasciana, Plusia gamma, Pseudophia lunaris, and Metopsilus por- 
cellus. The sugaring was so good that we kept at it all night, 
and were rewarded by a good series of P. lunaris each, though 
they were getting over. 

As soon as it was daylight we commenced bumping trees for 
" prominents," and the following were brought down : — Hoplitis 
milhauseri (worn), Drymonia chaonia, Notodonta dromedarius, N. 
trepida, Spatalia argentina, Lophoj)teryx camelina, Hylophila 
prasinana, H. bicolorana, DasycJura pudibunda, Boarmia consor- 
taria, B. extersaria, &c. 

Towards the end of June the butterfly season commenced in 
earnest, and a long day spent in the woods near Spandau pro- 
duced the following in abundance : — Pieris brassicce, P. napi, P. 
rapce, Leucophasia sinapis, Gonepteryx rhamni (worn), Apatura 
iris, A. ilia and var. clyte, L. popidi (the four latter attracted by 
Limburger cheese), Araschnia levana, Melitaa aurinia (worn), 
M. cinxia, M. didyma, M. athalia, M. aarelia, M. dictynna, 
Argynnis selene, A. ino, A. lathonia, A. dia, A. aglaia, A. niobe, 
Pararge egeria, Ccenonympha iphis, C. arcania, C. pamphilus, C. 
tiphon, Chrysophanus hippothoe, C. alciphron, C. dorilis, C.p>ldceas, 
Lyc(cna astrarche, L. eumedon, L. icarus, L. amandus, L. scmi- 
argus, L. alcon, Heteropterus morphcus, Adopcea lineola, A. tliau- 
mas, Augiades comma, A. sylvanus, Hesperia alveus, H. malvce. 
The burnets were also commencing to get about, though only 
Zygcena meliloti and Z. trifolii; LitJiosia muscerda and L. griseola 
were common. Acidalia emarginata and A. aversata were perfect 
scourges, single examples each of Ephyra pendularia, Hemithea 
strigata, and Geometra papilionaria were netted. While beating 
a small birch tree I had the good fortune to beat out a freshly 
emerged Sesia scoliteformis. 

In the marshy spots favoured by C. tiphon and M. dictynna, 
Bankia argcnhda, Hydrelia uncula, and Erastria venushda were 
not infrequent, as also a large " fanfoot," which turned out to be 
Herminia tentacularia. Tree-trunk searching results in a few 
odds and ends, Moma orion, Boarmia consortaria, B. roboraria 
and var. infuscata, and Larentia trifasciata being turned up ; but 
Geometry, for some unknown reason, appeared to be very rare 
at this season, only L. sociata being at all commou. On the 
homeward journey two L. quadrifasciaria were found at rest. 

Another outing at the beginning of July found most of the 
above-mentioned butterflies getting over, but C. disparv&Y. rut ibis 
was in fine condition ; one specimen of L. sibylla was netted, and 
Dryas paphia was fairly frequent. 



208 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

During the latter half of June and the beginning of July we 
sugared pretty regularly in oak and alder woods by Spandau ; 
most of the insects above mentioned continued to come, but the 
weather was unfavourable, and we did not have more than two 
or three favourable nights. The new arrivals were as follows : — 
Acronycta tridens, A. leporina, Agrotis signum, A. ianthina, A. 
linogrisca, A. fimbria, A. augur, A. pronuba, A. brunnea, A. tri- 
angulum, A. prasina, A. occulta, Mamestra advena, M. tincta, M. 
nebulosa, M. persicar'ue, M. splendens, M. contigua, Dianthcecia 
cucubali, Hadena monoglyplia, II. lateritia, H. lithoxylea, H. sub- 
lustris, H. scolopacina, H. unanimis and H. pabulatricula, Cloantha 
polyodon, Ncenia typica, Leucania impudens, L. impura, L. stra- 
minea, L. l-album, L. lithargyrea, L. turca, Toxocampa pastinum, 
Lithosia complana, L. muscerda, Cymatophora or, and Asphalia 
duplaris. A somewhat unexpected visitor was a large female 
Cossus ligniperda (cossus) ; is this species frequently attracted to 
sugar ? 

About the middle of July we deserted our sugaring ground at 
Spandau, and selected a new one at Buch. The ground in 
question was the border of an extensive pine wood which ran for 
about half a mile along a rye field. About the middle of this 
field was a small pond overgrown with rushes, reeds, and marsh- 
grass, and the extreme border of the field was bounded by. a 
small stream overgrown with alder, oak, and other deciduous 
trees. Be}^ond one end of the wood was an extensive clearing 
which had been recently deforested, and was now covered with 
rank growth. At the further end the ground was again crossed 
by another brook, about which were several reed-grown meadows. 
"We sugared this spot fairly regularly from the middle of July to 
the end of August, and, taken all round, the results were very 
good. Quite a different lot of insects were obtained here. II. 
lateritia and H. furva were in countless numbers ; II. mono- 
glyplia and //. lithoxylea were also abundant, but H. sublustris, 
which had been so common at Spandau, was never seen. Other 
absentees were A. prasina, L. turca, L. pudorina, and L. impura. 
A fine variety of C. or was taken here, the figure of 80 being 
bright yellow. 

Among others, we captured during this period Acronycta 
leporina, A. megacephala, A. auricoma, A. abscondita, A. rumicis 
(all second brood), Agrotis obscura, A. orbona, A. baia, A. c- 
nigrum, A. xanthographa, A. plecta, A. tritici, A. obelisca, A. 
segetum, A. occulta, Mamestra advena, M. oleracea, M. aliena 
(one female, second brood), M. dissimilis, M. trifolii, M. dentina, 
Miana ophiogramma, M. strigilis, M. bicoloria, Bryophila alga, II. 
furva, H. monoglyplia, H. lateritia, II. lithoxylea, H. gemina, H. 
secalis, T. atriplicis, B. meticulosa, II. leucostigma, II. nictitans, 
Tapinostola hellmanni, T.fulva, L. pollens, L. comma, L. coni- 
gera, L. albipuncta, L. lithargyrea, Garadrina quadripunctata, C. 



THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 209 

milled, C. morpheus, C. alsines, C. taraxaci, C. ambigua, Amphi- 
pijra tragopogonis, A. pyramided, Calymnia trapezina, Cosmia 
paleacea, Dyschorista suspecta, D. fissipuncta, Pyrrhia umbra, 
Catocala nupta, Aventia flexula, Zanclognatha tarsipennalis, and 
Z. emortualis. A fine specimen of Cerura furcula was found at 
rest on a pine-trunk. Neuroma cespitis, N. popularis, Plusia 
chrysitis, P. festucce, a,nd G. papilionaria came to light. Rhodo- 
strophia vibicaria, Scotosia vetulata, Cidaria prunata, C. populata, 
C. associata, C. dotata, C. truncata, Larentia fumata, L. didymata, 
L. vittata, L. bilineata and L. comitata, Phibalapteryx polygram- 
mata, Ellopia prosapiaria, Semiothisa liturata, Boarmia roboraria, 
B. lichenaria, Gnophos obscuraria, Bupalus piniarius, Perconia 
strigillaria, Acidalia bisetata, A. deversaria, A. emarginata, and 
A. marginepunctata were netted while putting on the sugar. 

On July 27th a visit was paid, with a couple of friends, to the 
limestone hills of Eiidersdorf. The day was delightful, and 
butterflies were in profusion. Dryas paphia, Argynnis aglaia, 
and A. niobe were in fine condition; Epinephele jurtina, C. 
arcania, C. ijihis, and C. pamphilus were in countless numbers. 
Chrysophanus virgaurece was in fine condition. The blues were 
somewhat scarce, only two Lycana cyllarus, two L. arion, and 
about a dozen L. argus being boxed . Up a stony path a fine 
A. lathonia was netted as it was sunning itself on a stone, and 
then I saw for the first time that fine butterfly, Satyrus alcyone, 
sailing majestically through the air. It is fairly difficult to cap- 
ture ; one must wait till it settles, and then approach carefully. 
In about half an hour four fine specimens were netted. Its near 
relative, S. semele, was also about. Both these species have the 
habit of settling on pine-trunks, and are then quite invisible. 
Later in the season we frequently found S. alcyone sitting on the 
old sugar patches when putting on the sugar, and a good series 
were thus secured. A few worn M. athalia and M. didyma were 
also obtained. All this time a small Hesperid had been dashing 
about : this we at first left severely alone, believing it to be the 
common A. thaumas, but a chance capture apprise us of the 
fact that it was A. actceon, and a fine series was soon obtained. 
Butterflies are common enough, but they cannot compete with 
the burnets, which are now out in full force. Zygcena meliloti, 
Z. purpuralis, Z. lonicerce, Z. trifolii, and Z. filipendidce are all 
about equally common, the latter being perhaps the commonest ; 
Z. meliloti and Z. trifolii were getting worn. 

Our objective being the limestone hills, we had to leave this 
Eldorado, and for about an hour our way led through a fairly 
gloomy pine wood. Much to my astonishment, a species of 
Melitaa was fairly common, together with C. arcania, all through 
these woods. I captured a good many, and they proved very 
variable, some striking varieties being amongst them ; but the 
question is what are they — M. athalia or M. aurelia? I confess 

ENTOM. — AUGUST, 1905. S 



210 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I cannot say, and my Berlin friends all differ. We at length 
came to the edge of the lake, and a few each of S. alcyone, 
S. semele, and a freshly emerged Vanessa polychloros were 
netted. 

A steamer carries us across the lake, and in ten minutes we 
are on the limestone hills, which remind one very much of our 
Kentish or Sussex downs. Here the entire fauna is changed as 
if by magic. Lyccena corydon, L. minima, Melanargia galatea, 
Vanessa articce, and Epinephele jurtina seemed to be the only 
butterflies about ; an occasional worn L. icarus was observed. 
To make us appear more at home, Ortholitha (Eubolia) bipunc- 
taria, 0. (E.) limitata, and L. (M.) galiata are frequent. Burnets 
are still common, and as three special species occur here, and 
constitute our quarry, these are all netted for examination. 
Z. purpuralis seems to be the favourite here, and many are 
netted and let go, until finally we are rewarded by the first 
Z. achillcB. It seems to be too early for this species, and there 
are no signs of Z. carniolica and Z. ephialtes var. berolinensis ; 
so we decide to shift our quarters. A fairly thick spinney 
attracts our attention next, and we beat patiently through it in 
the hope of Geometrte, but nothing but Larentia bifaieata rewards 
our efforts. Sweeping the herbage at this point produces Sesia 
ichneumoniformis in some numbers ; also a male of Malaco- 
soma castrensis. Prothymnia viridaria is fairly common ; one 
Emmelia trabealis and one Acontia luctuosa are netted, and 
one Endrosa irrorella and Cybosia mesomella found at rest on 
herbage. 

While my two companions are still engaged with S. ichneu- 
moniformis, I discovered a deep dell in the hillside which had 
escaped the scythe. A large " skipper " is flying about, which 
proves to be Hesperia cartJiami, and another is captured a few 
minutes later ; and, the other two coming up, a systematic 
search is made for it without further result. Shortly after this 
the first Z. carniolica is secured, and other specimens are obtained 
sparingly. Z. var. berolinensis is also found in a few odd speci- 
mens, but it is evidently too early for these two species. It now 
being nearly five o'clock, all our boxes being full to overflowing, 
and we very tired and hungry, we decide to give up collecting for 
the day, which for the writer of these notes, at least, had been a 
very prolific one. 

As my bag of Lyccena arion had been confined to one speci- 
men, and as I was very desirous of getting a long series of this 
beautiful "blue," I decided to devote the following Sunday 
(August 3rd) to a visit to Bernau, where I was told the insect 
abounded. This is rather an awkward locality to reach, as after 
leaving the train one has a good hour's walk through open corn- 
fields before reaching the woods, and this is no fun when the sun 
is doing his best. On the roadside few butterflies were in evi- 



THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 211 

dence — chiefly E.jurtina and C. phloeas — the only thing I netted 
being a worn specimen of Emmelia (Agrophila) trabealis. 

Arrived at length at the woods, things soon commenced to 
improve ; Dry as paphia was everywhere, though somewhat worn, 
and the patches of thyme were covered with E. jurtina, C. 
arcania, C. phloeas, C. virgaurece, and L. argus; as yet, however, 
no signs of L. arion. 

At length a worn specimen was netted ; a fine Grapta c-album 
is next added to the bag, and then my attention was caught by a 
very small E. jurtina, which on being netted turned out, to 
my delight, to be the local E. lycaon. A good series of this 
insect was soon collected, and of L. arion some dozen specimens 
were captured, all, however, considerably worn. A very worn 
specimen of C. rubi showed the second brood of this insect was 
getting over, and then, to my utter surprise, I netted a fine 
female Zephyrus quercus on the thyme. I had never seen this 
species so low before, and, to make matters still more extra- 
ordinary, there were no signs of oak for miles, so to speak. A 
specimen of Pararge megcera was netted ; this species, as far as 
my experience goes, seems to occur everywhere in isolated 
specimens. 

Whilst searching the heather a specimen of Agrotis strigula 
was started up and netted ; two more were secured in the same 
manner, as also a specimen of A. vestigialis. On a piece of 
waste ground a few specimens of Coscinia striata and C. cribrum 
were netted, and here Argynnis niobe, A. aglaia, Satyrus alcyone, 
and S. semele were abundant. Geometry were conspicuous by 
their absence, only an odd E. atomaria of the second brood being 
observed. 

During this month the lamps in the Thiergarten proved very 
attractive, and were regularly besieged by Euproctis chrysorrhoea, 
whose larvaB had defoliated the Thiergarten earlier in the year. 
The visitors were principally Lymanfcrids--i£. chrysorrhoea, E. 
aurifiua, Stilpnotia salicis, Lymantria dispar, and L. monacha : 
but I also saw a specimen of Rhyparia purpurata, and obtained a 
few specimens each of (Enistis quadra, Malacosoma neustria, Odo- 
nestis pruni, Dendrolimus pini. Luperina testacea, Epineuronia 
popularis, Hydrcecia micacea, and Caradrina morpheas seemed to 
be the only Nocture attracted, Boarmia repandata (worn), and 
Ennomos quercinaria the only Geometry. 

About this time I went for a short holiday to the Glatzer 
Gebirge, a portion of the Eiesengebirge. Everything in the 
butterfly line seemed worn to rags. Z>. paphia, Argynnis 
lathonia, A. niobe. A. aglaia, Melitcea athalia, Chrysophanus 
virgaurece, C. hippothoe, Lyccena hylas, L. semiargus, L. icarus, 
L. amanda, and Melanargia galatea were all practically over, and 
scarcely a good specimen could be obtained. Pararge mar a was, 
however, just nicely out, and I was very pleased to meet with 



21'2 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Erebia Ugea for the first time. This insect was fairly common 
everywhere on the lower slopes, but unfortunately getting worn, 
and a good many had to be netted and examined before a nice 
series of both sexes was obtained. Geometrse were fairly plentiful, 
however, and especially on the hillsides amongst the bilberry a 
good many could be beaten out. By diligent working I obtained 
a fair series of the following: — Acidalia perochraria, A. strami- 
nata and A. degeneraria, A. immutata, Ortholitha limitata and 0. 
bipunctaria, Anaitis prceformata, Lygris populata, L. reticulata 
and L. associata, Larentia didymata, L. ccssiata, L. unidentaria, 
L. verberata, L. unifasciata, L. adcequata, L. minorata, Gnophos 
obscuraria, Thamnonoma wavaria, and Odezia atrata. 

I did not sugar once, but tried light, with very indifferent 
results — two Arctia caia, one Amorpha popidi, several Plusia 
chrysitis, CE. quadra, B. lichenaria, and some common Nocture. 

Once we made an excursion to the top of the Schneeberg, 
5600 ft., but the day was unfavourable,, and very little was 
about. As one commenced to get higher up Erebia Ugea was 
replaced by E. euryale, and I obtained a line series of this 
species in grand condition. Pyrameis cardui was everywhere, 
but difficult to capture ; Pararge mcera was also in fine con- 
dition, and several pupae of this species were found attached to 
boulders. 

A sight I will never forget was a single isolated boulder with 
an overhanging surface about two yards square. Settled on this 
surface I counted no less than forty-seven specimens of Larentia 
ccesiata in all sorts of conditions. I secured about a dozen whilst 
the rest were decamping. 

Arrived at the top of the Schneeberg, the sun disappeared for 
good, and only a few isolated specimens of Erebia euryale were 
observed. The flora was quite alpine here — yellow violets, a 
very hairy Campanula, a large hairy hawkweed, and, above all, 
a fine large pinky- white spike (a species of knotgrass), which was 
growing everywhere. This latter proved exceedingly attractive 
to a species of Agrotis, which was here flying about in broad 
daylight, and settling on these flowers. I secured a fair series, 
but have not yet determined the species, but it is probably 
A. collina. 

The last entomological experience was the discovery of an 
immense colony of Vanessa antiopa, which produced in good 
time seventy-four imagines, all perfectly typical. They were 
feeding on birch and sallow, and, as far as I could see, were 
perfectly free from ichneumons. 

(To be concluded.) 



213 

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The University of Oxford has already conferred academic honours 
on more than one entomologist. To the ranks of the Masters of Arts 
must now be added Commander J. J. Walker, E.N., F.L.S., and one 
of the Secretaries of the Entomological Society of London, upon 
whom was conferred the degree " honoris causa," at a Convocation 
held in the Sheldonian Theatre on Thursday, June 29th. Introduced 
in a Latin speech which did justice to the recipient's world-wide work 
in the service of entomology, Commander Walker, as he emerged in 
his crimson hood aud Master's gown, received the congratulations of 
several members of the Council of the Society who were present for 
the occasion, including Professor E. Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S, ; Dr. F. A. 
Dixey, M.D. ; Mr. H. Rowland-Brown, M.A. ; and Mr. G. C. 
Champion, F.Z.S. Meanwhile it is pleasant to note the encourage- 
ment given to entomologists in Oxford just now ; and it is only to be 
hoped that the sister university will presently develop a similar enthu- 
siasm. The Entomological Society of Londou, indeed, has found a 
number of valuable recruits of late years at Oxford, in rather striking 
contrast to the small number of resident graduates enlisted at Cam- 
bridge.— H. R. B. 

Phalonia (Argyrolepia) badiana, Hb. — Stainton (1859) says in 
Manual, "Larva in the stems and roots of burdock." Wilkinson 
(1859) says, "The larva feeds in the stems and roots of Arctium 
lappa." Meyrick (1895) says, " Larva in stems aud roots of Arctium 
lappa. 1 ' Last autumn I brought home a few seed-heads of burdock 
which had some Tortrix larva? feeding in them. From these I have just 
bred this species.— T. A. Chapman; " Betula," Reigate, June 26th. 

Ova of British Butterflies Wanted. — Among other ova that I 
am anxious to obtain figures of are those of Anjijnnis aijlaia, A. 
adippe, Limenitis sibijUa, Apatura iris, Erebia cithiops, Satyrus semele, 
Epinephele tithonus, Cyaniris argiolus, Augiades comma, Adopaa thaumas, 
A. actceon, and Pamphila palmnon. If any one has an egg or two of 
either of these to spare, and would kindly send them to me, I should be 
greatly obliged. — R. South; 96. Drakefield Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

The National Collection of British Lepidoptera. — Among some 
useful insects presented by Mr. Eustace Bankes is the type of Noctua 
subfusca, Haw., which the donor recognizes as a dark form of Agrotis 
corticea. Mr. Prout has also added some specimens from ancient collec- 
tions, and of them one is Phytometra lutescens, Haw. (arcuosa, Haw., var.). 

The Entomological Club. — A meeting was held at the ' Hand and 
Spear ' Hotel, Weybridge, on July 11th, 1905. Mr. G. T. Porritt, of 
Huddersfield, was the chairman and host of the evening. Of the seven 
guests Messrs. Adkin and Donisthorpe Were the only other members 
of the Club present. 

Migration of Lepidoptera. — Living, as I do, on the south-east 
coast of England, I take an interest in this question and lose no oppor- 
tunity of watching any fresh species that comes in my way. The 
wind here is a great drawback to the collector of Lepidoptera, but pos- 
sibly it is a benefactor as well. For some years past I have watched 



214 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the gas-lamps close to my house, one of which is conveniently situ- 
ated under the trees at my front door, and early this month I was 
suprised to notice, inside a lamp, three or four specimens of Euchrtia 
jacob(B(B, an insect I have never seen in Margate daring the twenty-five 
summers that I have been resident here ; nor have I heard of one 
being seen by any other collector — novice or otherwise. I examined 
ten or twelve gas-lamps, and E. jacoba® had found its way into several 
of them, and in all I saw about a dozen specimens. I may say that 
our gas-lamps are fitted with incandescent burners, so that insects 
cannot well reach the flame, but I should say suffer from the heat ; 
and the posts are not suitable for "swarming." One specimen only 
was outside a lamp, and this I captured. Considering that there is 
not much ragwort on the outskirts of Margate, I am wondering 
whence these specimens came. The following day we had a drench- 
ing rain (two inches in a little over the twenty-four hours), and I have 
not seen another specimen since. I am inclined to think the trains 
may bring the parents of visitors of this kind, as the specimens were 
all seen within a hundred yards of the railway, and most of them 
within fifty yards — at lamps on each side of the railway. The wind 
and rain have hindered entomological work very much this June, but 
on Thursday (the 15th inst.) we had an ideal "lamp" night. One 
lamp — on the railway-bridge — occasionally attracts Neuria saponaria 
(reticulata) early in June ; on this evening it produced six examples, 
and the ironwork was well carpeted with Acidalia promutata {inargine- 
punctata). First broods were also in evidence at other lamps : for 
example, Aspilates citraria (ochrearia), Agrotis puta, and Acontia lac- 
tuosa, besides a goodly number of common species ; but I was most 
interested in the novelties which appeared. The first was a shark, 
inside the lamp, so I fetched my ladder, and to my satisfaction it 
proved a good specimen of Cucullia cha mom ilia, and this was followed 
by Hadena genista, also good, both fresh to my local list. But what 
surprised me most of all, just as I decided to go to bed, was a Sphinx, 
in a very wild state — I almost took it for a bat at first. I had the good 
fortune to get it in my net, and it proved to be a male S. convolvuli. I 
have taken this insect once before in June, at rest on a post near Worth 
Mill, Sandwich, but in that year I had no autumnal specimens 
brought to me. The question arises, Is this specimen a migrant, or 
has the pupa lain over for the winter in this country ? Vanessa cardui 
has been commoner in Margate lately than in ordinary seasons ; the 
specimens are very thinly scaled, which also points to migration. — 
J. P. Barrett; St. John's Villas, Margate, June 18th, 1905. 



CAPTUKES AND FIELD EEPORTS. 

Phtheochroa (Commophila) rugosana in Surkey. — On June 2nd, 
1904, when walking over the Kenley downs, a small moth took wing 
from among the long grass, and settled again a few yards away. It 
was ultimately secured, and proved to be a fine fresh example of 
P. rugosana. So far as I could ascertain, there was no bryony, the 
larval food-plant, in the immediate vicinity. The only previous Surrey 
record that I am aware of is that in the ' Victoria History of the 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 215 

Counties of England,' vol. i. Insecta, p. 138, where it is stated that 
this species was once taken by Mr. Sydney Webb near Dorking. — 
Richard South; 96, Drakefield Eoad, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Limacodes testudo in Gloucestershire. — As I find that Mr. Barrett 
does not mention this county as a locality for this species, it may be of 
interest to record that a very fine female example was beaten out of an 
oak-tree on June 5th last near here by the Rev. E. M. Smith.— C. 
Granville Clutterbuck ; Gloucester. 

Cymatophora octogesima (ocularis) in Epping Forest. — It may be 
of interest to record the capture of two specimens of C. octogesima, one 
on the evening of June 30th, and the other on the following evening 
(July 1st). I believe that this species is found, as far as Epping 
Forest is concerned, only at the south end of the wood, and my two 
were taken on sugar in the garden at " Normanhurst," Chingford, 
where I am residing. I might mention that I took the female on 
June 30th, and, thinking that a male might be in the neighbourhood, 
I sugared again on the following night, and was successful in taking a 
very good example of that sex. I believe there are few records of 
0. octogesima having been taken in Epping Forest. — R. T. Baumann. 

Leucania favicolor, Barrett. — A fine example of this species flew 
into my room, attracted by the light, on July 4th, at 10.50 p.m. An 
example of the red form, ab. rufa, Tutt, flew into the same room, and 
at about the same time, last September. Of the six or seven individuals 
which I have previously captured at different times here, all have been 
ab. rufa. I am indebted to Mr. Eustace Bankes for having last autumn 
first called my attention to the fact that I had taken favicolor, always 
having supposed these red forms to be a variety of L. pallens, and I 
think it quite probable that I have hitherto overlooked the type. — 
(Rev.) A. P. Waller ; Henley Rectory, Woodbridge, July 19th, 1905. 

Aporia crat5lgi. — Lovers of the Diurni will be pleased to learn 
that the present season has been the best I have known for the " black- 
veined white" since I first took it in this corner of Kent in 1901. On 
June 28th I went prospecting. This means discovering an orchard, 
with a clover field adjoining, preferably white Dutch clover, for the 
combination of these two things appears a requisite in order to get 
more than a stray specimen. I was lucky enough to capture a single 
male specimen which had just emerged from the chrysalis, and was 
quite limp, and which fell an easy prey outside an orchard of big 
plum-trees. On July 3rd (the first sunny day afterwards) I got to the 
clover field nearest the spot, and bagged sixteen. Rain and cloud kept 
me at home for several days, and at my next visit the clover had been 
cut, and this necessitated a long walk in the broiling sun, for the 
"combination" is not common. However, I discovered another field, 
where I beat record, and secured twenty-one specimens. Again the 
horse-mower dogged my heels, and sport was gone. A third spot was 
discovered, and that field produced a dozen. I had to make haste, for 
the driver was having his dinner preparatory to cutting, in this case, a 
crop of mixed red clover and lucerne. Last Monday I got a few stray 
specimens, but when I reached my fifty I decided to leave the rest in 
peace. — J. P. Barrett ; St. John's Villas, Margate, July 12th, 1905. 



216 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SOCIETIES. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
June 8th, 1905. — Mr. Hugh Main, B.Sc, President, in the chair. — 
Mr. Kaye exhibited a bred series of Zonosoma pendularia, shewing con- 
siderable variation, with pupa- cases in sitti on the leaves, and referred 
to the variable position of the girth. — Mr. West (Greenwich), examples 
of the rarely met with Coccinella distincta, which he had taken at 
Darenth Wood, together with Mordeliestina abdominalis, a coleopteron 
parasitic in bees' nests. — Mr. Sich, the exceedingly small ovum of 
Lithocolletis quercifoliella. — Mr. Main, the tracheal tubes of the silk- 
worm, which had been dissected out by means of a solution of potash. 
He also shewed a case of insects from West Africa. — Mr. Step, a 
photograph of the party who attended the Field Meeting at Seal Chart 
on May 27th. 

June 22nd. — Mr. Alfred Sich, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the chair. — 
Mr. Piayward exhibited a larva of Thecla w-album spun up for pupation, 
and also a pupa, and shewed the remarkable mimetic resemblance to a 
crumpled, shrivelled leaf. — ■ Mr. Turner, a long series of Colius eury- 
tkeme vars., including var. eriphyle and var. heewaydin? sent to him by 
Mr. A. J. Croker, from Assiniboia, and read a short paper on the spe- 
cies and its allies. He also shewed C. philodice, C. palamo, C. erate, 
('. hyale, 0. edusa, C. electra, C. phicomene, and Meganostoma casonia. — 
Mr. Edwards, a number of species of Colias. — Mr. Stonell, (1) a 
specimen of Euchelia jacobcetc from Oxshott, with the apical, hind 
marginal, and costal streaks united ; (2) a very pale Amorpha populi ; 
(3) Angerona prunaria, females with male coloration; (4) Boarmia 
abietaria var. sericearia ; (5) Acidalia humiliata from the Isle of Wight; 
(6) larvas of Nyssia lapponaria from Kannoch ; and (7) larvae of Apatura 
iris from North Hants. — Dr. Chapman, larvae of Arctia villica from ova 
laid by a female captured in April at Taorina, in Sicily ; and also 
imagines of Graellsia isabellm bred from larvas taken at Bronchales, 
together with ova laid by them. — Mr. Adkin gave a short account of 
the Annual Congress of the S.E. Union of Scientific Societies held at 
Keigate, June 6th to 10th. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Bep. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — May 15th, 1905. — Mr. G. T. 
Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. — Mr. A. H. Martineau exhibited 
a rare sawfiy (Schizocera furcata, female), taken by Mr. C. J. Wain- 
wright in Wyre Forest on May 26th, 1890. It had been named for 
him by Bev. F. D. Morice, who told him that only two specimens had 
previously been known from the British Isles. He also shewed a 
specimen of Tenthredo livida, male, which had only one antenna with 
the normal white tip to it, the other being quite black. He also 
shewed various exotic Aculeates, &c. — Mr. J. T. Fountain shewed a 
series of Biston hirtaria, CI., bred from ova received from Yorkshire. 
He said that the females were decidedly later than the males in 
emerging (about ten days on the average). He also shewed a beautiful 
series of Dianthcecia cdbimacula, Bkh., from a locality he could not 
mention. — Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker exhibited a collection of butter- 
flies of the genus Ogyris from the Australian region, and gave an 
interesting account of their peculiar life-history, their association with 
ants, &c. — Colbkan J. Wainweight, Hon. Sec. 



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CONTENTS. 

Description of Lycaena avion Pupa, male (with illustration), F. W. Ffohawk, 193. 
Description of a New Species of Aradidae from Ceylon, W. L. Distant, 194. 
Current Notes (continued), G. W. Kirkaldy, 195. A List of the " Macro- 
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Lepidoptera of Berlin, E. M. Dadd, 200. 

Notes and Observations. — University of Oxford and Entomology, H. R. B., 213. 
Phalonia (Argyrolepia) badiana, Hb., T. A. Chapman, 213. Ova of British 
Butterflies Wanted, Richard South, 213. The National Collection of British 
Lepidoptera, 213. The Entomological Club, 213. Migration of Lepidoptera. 
J. P. Barrett, 213. 

Captures and Field Reports. — Phtheochroa (Commophila) rugosana in Surrey, 
Richard South, 214. Limacodes testudo in Gloucestershire, 215. Cymato- 
phora octogesima (ocularis) in Epping Forest, R. T. Baumann, 215. Leucania 
favicolor, Barrett, Rev. A. P. Waller, 215. Aporia crataegi, J. P. Barrett, 215. 

Societies, 216. 



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Vol. XXXVIII.] SEPTEMBER, 1905. [No. 508. 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 



Illustrate | ounutl 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII.] SEPTEMBER, 1905. [No. 508. 

NEW AUSTRALIAN BEES OP THE GENUS NOMIA. 
By T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Ten species of Nomia have been recorded from Australia, all 
described by F. Smith, and published in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 
one in 1862, and nine in 1875. Smith remarked that N. generosa 
was probably the male of N. mcerens, and I believe that N. rufi- 
comis (smithella, Gribodo, 1894) is the male of N. nana ; so the 
list probably includes only eight valid species. It is evident, 
however, that it does not do justice to the actual facts, for the 
British Museum collection contains quite a series of hitherto 
unreported forms, which I describe below. The Austro-Malay 
islands (including Celebes, the Moluccas, New Britain, the Aru 
islands, &c.) are rich in species of Nomia (twenty-one described), 
but, so far as I am able to ascertain, none of these are quite 
identical with those of Australia, nor is any species very widely 
spread among the islands. 

The following table separates the species now described : — 

Hind margins of abdominal segments pearly green ; hind 
femora incrassate and humped above ( $ ) 

pulchribalteata subsp. austrovagans, Ckll. 
Hind margins of abdominal segments not so . . 1. 

1. Tegula3 very large, light fulvous; sides of face covered 

with white tomentum ( $ ) . . . . . lepidota, Ckll. 
Tegula? not especially remarkable .... 2. 

2. Tibire and tarsi red, the former with a suffused blackish 

mark in front ; face covered with fulvous tomentum ; 
abdomen with rufo-fulvous hair-bands ; hind legs 
hardly deformed (cf ) . . • • rufocognit a, Ckll. 

Tibiae and tarsi not red, or not distinctly so . . . 3. 

3. Black species ; abdomen without well-developed hair- 

bands ($) tenuihirta, Ckll. 

Abdomen distinctly banded with hair, or the segments 

whitish margined . . . . . . . 4. 

ENTOM. — SEPTEMBER, 1905. T 



218 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



4. Black 5. 

Wholly or in part green or blue ..... 6. 

5. Hind margins of second and following abdominal seg- 

ments broadly yellowish white ; second submarginal 
cell extremely small ( ? ) . . . . semijiallida, Ckll. 

Hind margins of second and following abdominal seg- 
ments not white ; second submarginal cell larger ( <? ) 

hypodonta, Ckll. 

6. Mesothorax black (<? ? ) . australica, Sm., var. regina, Ckll. 
Mesothorax green or blue ...... 7. 

7. Mesothorax yellowish green (<?) . . . flavoviiidis, Ckll. 
Mesothorax blue or greenish blue (cf ? ) 

flavoviridis var. doddii, Ckll. 

Nomia (Hoplonomia) pulchribalteata, var. austrovagans, n. subsp. 

<?. Length about 8h mm. (the position of the specimen makes it 
difficult to measure) ; black, head and thorax with sordid yellowish- 
white pubescence, the scanty short hair on thorax above dark ; tongue 
long and slender ; eyes red ; face very broad above, strongly narrowed 
below ; clypeus with a keel ; mandibles and antenna? black, the latter 
not especially long, not crenulate ; vertex dullish, granulo-punctate ; 
mesothorax dull, very densely punctured ; scutellum with a pair of 
widely separated short (subpyramidal) spines ; post-scutellum covered 
with white tomentum, and provided with two long black spines, much 
closer together than those of the scutellum ; basal area of meta- 
thorax extremely short, with little transverse (antero-posterior) ridges ; 
tegula? fuscous in the middle, then fulvous, and the margin white- 
hyaline ; wings rather yellowish, the apex a little darker ; stigma and 
nervures piceous, second submarginal cell higher than broad, but not 
far from square ; legs black, hind tarsi and outer and apical part of 
hind tibia? ferruginous, the red brightest on the tibia? ; hind femora 
swollen, strongly humped above, but not toothed beneath ; hind tibia? 
gradually broadened to the apex, with a prominent convex keel on the 
outer side, but the inner apex is blunt, not toothed ; abdomen black, 
strongly and coarsely punctured, the hind margins of the first five seg- 
ments with smooth pearly light green bands, shining purple in some 
lights, and appearing white in others, the first band narrowest ; sixth 
segment with a very broad and deep semicircular median emargina- 
tion ; apical part of venter ferruginous. The third and following 
abdominal segments have black hairs overlapping the bands. 

Hab. Adelaide (F. Smith collection, 79. 22). 

This is the first Australian Hoplonomia. It is very close to 
N. westwoodii, Gribodo, from Bengal, and N. pulchribalteata, 
Cameron, from New Britain ; it is, in fact, so close to the latter 
that for the present I treat it as a subspecies. It will be known 
by the purple tints of the abdominal bands, resembling in this 
respect N.formosa, Sm., from Celebes. 

Nomia lepidota, n. sp. 

5 . Length, 7 mm. or rather more ; black, the hind margins of 
the abdominal segments narrowly reddish ; head broad, minutely 



NEW AUSTRALIAN BEES. 219 

rugoso-punctate, eyes strongly converging below ; sides of face, adjacent 
to the eyes, with very broad bands of white tomentum, but clypeus and 
middle of face without this tomentum ; anterior margin of clypeus 
with some shining pale golden hairs ; mandibles faintly reddish in the 
middle ; flagellum obscure ferruginous beneath ; tubercles covered 
with white tomentum ; pleura with white hair, not entirely concealing 
the surface ; mesothorax and scutellum bare, with very large punc- 
tures ; post-scutellum entirely covered with white tomentum ; meta- 
thorax with large punctures, its basal area reduced almost to nothing ; 
tegula? very large (about three-quarters the length of mesothorax), 
being broadly produced backwards, light fulvous, dark only about the 
base of attachment ; wings slightly dusky, stigma rufous, nervures 
dark, second submarginal cell rather large ; legs very dark reddish, 
with white hair, that on inner side of basal joint of hind tarsi very pale 
orange ; abdomen with a thin white pubescence, but no distinct hair- 
bands, but on each side of the first segment is a very conspicuous patch 
of white tomentum. 

Hab. Sydney; F. Smith collection, 79. 22. The numbers 
cited are the accession-numbers of the British Museum. Readily 
known by the large tegula? and bandless abdomen. 

Nomia rufocognita, n. sp. (or generosa, var. ?). 
$ . Length about 9 mm. ; black, the tibia? and tarsi bright ferru- 
ginous, the tibia? with a blackish spot in front ; head broad ; face 
covered with fulvous tomentum, occiput with fulvous hair ; mandibles 
simple, curved and very sharp, ferruginous, blackened at the apex ; 
labrum ferruginous ; antenna? very long, wholly dark, flagellum 
crenulated, the apical part very strongly ; hair of thorax fulvous, 
tubercles covered with tomentum, as also the post-scutellum, but on 
the latter it is white ; mesothorax and scutellum with strong close 
punctures of moderate size ; tegulse ordinary, bright ferruginous, the 
margins subhyaline ; wings rather yellowish, ample, stigma and ner- 
vures dark reddish brown, second submarginal cell much higher than 
broad ; legs with thin fulvous hair ; hind legs scarcely deformed, their 
femora rather stout, their tibia? flattened, the posterior edge convex, 
the anterior concave ; abdomen strongly and very densely punctured, 
with fulvous pubescence, the hind margins of the segments whitish 
hyaline (those of the second and third very broadly so), and having 
thin bands of fulvous hair ; venter simple. 

Hab. Queensland, 94. 61 ;. also marked 312, and what looks 
likeHy. Closely allied to N. generosa, Sm., but distinguished 
by the fulvous pubescence ; it may possibly be only a variety. 
The scutellum is bigibbose. 

Nomia tenuihirta, n. sp. 

$ . Length about 8 mm. ; black, even to the tarsi, the flagellum 
obscure brownish beneath ; front rugoso-punctate ; face covered with 
white tomentum, except the anterior part of clypeus, and a median 
longitudinal band below the antenna?, m the middle of which is a 
raised shining line; mandibles black; last antennal joint with an 



220 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

oblique shining truncation ; mesothorax and scutellum with extremely 
close minute punctures ; scutellum not at all bigibbose or depressed in 
the middle ; mesothorax with a good deal of appressed white hair, 
very conspicuous but not covering the surface ; tubercles and post- 
scutellum covered with coarse white hair ; basal area of metathorax 
reduced to a narrow baud, with little transverse keels ; punctures on 
posterior face of metathorax large ; tegulas reddish brown centrally, 
otherwise yellowish hyaline ; wings almost clear, a little dusky at 
apex; stigma rufous, nervures dark rufous; second submarginal cell 
much higher than broad, receiving the first recurrent nervure before 
its end ; legs with white hair ; spurs black ; hind legs scarcely modi- 
fied, the tibiae somewhat produced at apex beneath, the spurs arising 
from beneath the point ; abdomen shining but well punctured, the 
punctures large on the first segment, smaller on the second, and 
successively smaller and fainter on the following ones ; no distinct 
hair-bands, but a scattered white pubescence, especially on the apical 
half, and conspicuous erect white hair on the base and sides of the 
first segment ; apex broadly truncate, with rounded corners ; no 
ventral teeth, but first ventral segment raised in the middle. 

Hab. Queensland, 94. 61 ; also labelled Kidg., and 638. 
Easily known from N. argentifrons by the normally formed hind 
legs and the absence of pale reddish colour on the clypeus, 
legs, &c. 

Nomia semipallida, n. sp. 

$ . Length about 8 mm. ; black, the tarsi dark reddish, the 
claws fulvous tipped with black ; head broad ; eyes yellowish brown ; 
face covered with white tomentum, which appears yellowish white and 
dull seen from in front, but shining snow-white seen obliquely from 
the side ; a longitudinal keel between antennae ; cheeks with yellowish- 
white hair, and a very narrow silvery band along the orbital margin ; 
vertex dull ; antennae wholly dark ; mandibles light ferruginous with 
the apex black ; tongue long and slender ; hair of thorax white at 
sides and beneath, pale ochreous above, rather abundant but incon 
spicuous on mesothorax ; post-scutellum covered with a dense band of 
white tomentum, and an oblique band of the same at each side of the 
scutellum ; basal area of metathorax shining, with transverse ridges ; 
punctures of mesothorax distinct, uniform, and very close ; tegulae pale 
rufous, with a dark basal spot ; wings dull hyaline, iridescent, stigma 
and nervures rufous, second submarginal cell very small and narrow, 
receiving the first recurrent nervure before its end ; marginal cell 
bluntly rounded at end ; legs with white hair ; spurs ferruginous ; 
abdomen broad, rather shining, rugoso-punctate, the first segment 
rounded, and with much erect white hair ; hind margins of second 
and following segments broadly whitish hyaline, not provided with 
well-defined hair-bands ; ventral segments also white-margined. 

Hab. Queensland, 91. 16 ; also labelled 315 Hy. Easily 
known by the whitish margins of the abdominal segments. 

Nomia liypodonta, n. sp. 
$ . Length about 8 mm. ; black, the abdomen blue-black, with 
the hind margins of the segments pure black ; pubescence of head and 



NEW AUSTRALIAN BEES. 



221 



thorax white, a little yellowish on face, vertex, rnesothorax, and 
scutellum ; the rnesothorax and scutellurn, seen from above, look bare, 
but viewed from the side they are seen to have rather abundant short 
fuscous hair ; mandibles black, ferruginous at apex ; labrum shining 
black, strongly emarginate ; vertex granular ; antennae long and 
slender, entirely black, third joint shorter than fourth ; rnesothorax 
dullish, minutely granulo-punctate ; post-scutellum with a delicate 
white tomentum ; sides of metathorax with a large patch of loose 
white fluff; basal area of metathorax rather large, shining, with 
numerous raised lines or keels, its hind margin in the middle with a 
pair of rounded excavations ; tegulae rather large, deep red-brown, the 
inner hind angle pointed ; wings hyaline, the apical margins faintly 
dusky, stigma and nervures fuscous ; second submarginal cell higher 
than broad, but not small, receiving the first recurrent nervure at its 
apical corner ; legs black, with white pubescence, the basal part of the 
claws ferruginous, the spurs light ferruginous ; second to fourth joints 
of anterior tarsi triangular ; hind femora extremely swollen and con- 
vex above, beneath with a concave area, flattened in a transverse 
direction ; hind tibiae much thickened, with a large and a small tooth 
beneath towards the base, and the spur-bearing apical lobe incrassated ; 
abdomen minutely roughened, with a subsericeous surface, the apical 
margin of the first segment minutely punctured, and having a little 
patch of white hair at each extreme side ; the apical margins of the 
second and following segments with bands of pure white hair, but that 
on the second is extremely widely, that on the third rather widely, and 
that on the fourth slightly, interrupted ; third ventral segment with a 
pair of prominences, each terminating in a short sharp spine ; fourth 
ventral segment emarginate, with the hind lateral angles pointed. 

Hab. Queensland (E. Saunders), 93. 49 ; also marked Hy, 
308. Close to A T . dentiventris, Sm., but the pubescence is of a 
different colour, the hind femora do not present a large swelling 
beneath, and the ferruginous colour on the legs is lacking. 

Nomia australica, Sm., var. rcgince, n. var. 

? . Length about 1H mm. ; flagellum ferruginous beneath ; scape 
dark rufous ; face with a slender keel or raised line extending from 
level of antennae to apex of clypeus ; clypeus all black, the anterior 
part shining, with very large punctures ; tongue dagger-shaped, very 
broad at base ; rnesothorax shining black, with large scattered punc- 
tures, and very minute close ones ; tegulae testaceous and subhyaline, 
fuscous basally, fulvous in the middle ; second submarginal cell almost 
square ; abdomen dark blue, the broad hind margins of the second to 
fourth segments brass-colour, with hair-bands which are fulvous 
except laterally, where they are white ; the hair-band on the second 
segment is entire, but thin in the middle ; spurs black, those of hind 
legs curved at apex. 

$ . Mesothorax very densely and quite strongly punctured, the 
punctures not of two sizes ; anterior part of clypeus whitish hyaline, 
the extreme edge ferruginous ; truncate process on hind tibiae not so 
long as Smith figures for the type. 

Hab. Queensland ; one female, five males. The female is 



222 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

marked E. Saunders, 93. 49, and 317. The males are marked 
as follows : (1.) 91. 16, Hy. 316 ; (2.) 91. 16, 317 ; (3.) E. Saun- 
ders, 93. 49, 317 ; (4.) same as 3 ; (5.) F. P. Dodd, 1902. 319 ; 
Townsville, 22. 10. 01. 

The Adelaide form of this insect is to be considered the type ; 
Smith himself remarked on the geographical variation of this 
species. The Queensland race is readily distinguished in the 
female by the wholly dark clypeus and the entire hair-band on 
the second abdominal segment. 

Nomia flavoviridis, n. sp. 
S . Length about 7h mm. ; head and thorax dull yellowish green ; 
abdomen blue-green (largely blue on first segment), with the hind 
margins of the second and following segments broadly yellow-green, 
or the yellow-green colour may suffuse the segments broadly ; vertex 
and mesothorax grauulo-punctate ; face and cheeks covered with snow- 
white hair, that on vertex dull pale yellowish grey ; antennae long, 
fiagellum dull brown beneath ; anterior part of clypeus pale yellowish 
hyaline, the edge ferruginous ; apical half of mandibles dark ferru- 
ginous ; tongue dagger-shaped ; hair of mesothorax and scutellum 
yellowish fuscous, not conspicuous, hind edge of mesothorax with two 
patches of white tomentum ; post-scutellum covered with white tomen- 
tum ; a large patch of white hair- on each side of metathorax, and hair 
of pleura white ; area of metathorax rather large, covered with ridges, 
the posterior margin at middle with two slight excavations (as in 
jY. hypodonta, but less marked); tegulae rufo-fulvous, the inner hind 
angle pointed ; wings clear, stigma sepia brown, nervures dark brown ; 
second submarginal cell nearly square, first recurrent nervure meeting 
second transverse-cubital ; legs with white pubescence ; femora metallic 
green, the knees ferruginous ; tibiae ferruginous with more or less green 
suffusion ; tarsi entirely ferruginous ; spurs white ; hind femora 
swollen ; hind tibiae broadened, long-triangular, the inner edge sharply 
keeled ; hind margins of abdominal segments with white marginal 
bands, that on first represented only by a patch on each extreme side ; 
venter not dentate. 

Hab. Queensland, 91. 16; two specimens, both numbered 
434. Distinguished from N. cenca, Sm , by its strongly metallic 
colours, the stouter femora, and the pure white abdominal hair- 
bands. 

Nomia flavoviridis var. doddii, n. var. 

$ . Length about 7 mm. ; dark blue, with the third and following 
abdominal segments ohve-green ; legs coloured as in N, flavoviridis, 
the tarsi variable, sometimes dark, sometimes quite bright ferruginous ; 
tongue dagger-like ; second submarginal cell square, the first recurrent 
nervure meeting second transverse-cubital. 

? . Length about 7^ mm. ; head, thorax, and abdomen entirely 
dark blue ; apex of abdomen fringed with pale chocolate hair ; anterior 
half of clypeus black ; legs very dark rufo-fuscous ; mesothorax with 
minute punctures, and scattered larger ones, in the manner of N. 
a astral ica. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PSEUDAGENIA. '223 

Hab. One female, Parry Harbour, C. Bougainville, 92. 4 : 
six males, Townsville, Queensland, 8. 12. 01 (P. P. Dodd) ; 1902. 
319. The colour is uniformly very different from that of N. 
flavoviridis, but there are no satisfactory structural characters. 

Nomia rubroriridis, n. sp. 
? . Length about 1(H mm., rather broad; black, the hind mar- 
gins of the first four abdominal segments with very broad entire 
emerald-green bauds, the first two being suffused on their anterior 
half with vermilion ; the fifth segment has a dense fringe of ochreous 
hair, and the apical segment is covered with the same. Sides of face, 
area between antennae, cheeks, prothorax including tubercles, pleura, 
post-scutellum, and nearly all of metathorax covered with coarse 
sordid-white, more or less tinged with ochreous ; a delicate raised line 
extends down middle of face to apex of clypeus ; antenna? dark ; man- 
dibles with the subapical region dark red, the apex feebly bidentate ; 
mesothorax dull, with dense small punctures ; scutellum also dull, 
slightly depressed in the middle, but not tuberculate or spined ; post- 
scutellum with a prominent bifid median process, directed backwards, having 
much the shape of a fish-tail, ; tegulae large, the inner hind corner 
pointed, the base fuscous, the middle ferruginous, the outer hind part 
broadly creamy white ; wiugs somewhat dusky, stigma and nervines 
dark rufo-fuscous ; second submarginal cell fairly large, a little higher 
than broad, receiving the first recurrent nervure much before its end ; 
legs black, with pale pubescence ; anterior spur of hind tibia longer than 
the other, stout and nearly straight, with a little divergent reddish spine 
arising from the side of its apex ; hind spur curved, simple ; black parts 
of abdomen dull, only moderately punctured ; hind margins of ventral 
segments dark and fringed with hair. 

Hab. Australia, north-west coast ; 69. 50. A very distinct 
and beautiful species, superficially resembling a small Anthophora 
of the zonata group, with which, in fact, I had accidentally 
mixed it. It is not precisely a Hoplonomia, but it is probable 
that the diagnosis of that group should be modified to permit its 
inclusion. In the colour of the abdominal bands it strongly 
recalls N. opulenta, Sm., and N. elegans, Sin., from Morty Island 
and Celebes respectively. 

Boulder, Colorado : May 7th, 1905. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PSEUDAGENIA 

(HYMENOPTERA— POMPILIDjE) FROM NATAL. 

By P. Cameron. 

PSEUDAGENIA NATALENSIS, Sp. 110V. 

Black, the prothorax, except the sternum, mesonotuin, scutellum, 
the mesopleurae above the oblique furrow at the base and slightly 
below it, the post-scutellum and a line on either side of it, reaching to 
the pleurae, rufous; the sides of the first abdominal segment testaceous; 



224 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the four anterior knees testaceous ; the fore tibiae and tarsi obscure 
white behind ; the calcaria and the apical segment of the abdomen, 
clear white ; wings hyaline, a cloud along the transverse basal and 
transverse median nervure, one in the basal third of the radial cellule, 
extending into the cubital cellule below, occupying it, except the lower 
basal corner, and into the upper apex of the discoidal cellule, where 
it becomes fainter ; and there is a faint cloud in the apex of the 
wings. $ . Length, 7 mm. 

Covered with a silvery pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus 
narrowly white, broadly rounded. Hind ocelli separated from each 
other by a distinctly less distance than they are from the eyes, which 
converge above where they are separated by about the length of the 
second and third antennal joints. Palpi black. Apex of pronotum 
arcuate, narrowly edged with yellow. The second abscissa of radius 
is about one-fourth shorter than the third ; the first transverse cubital 
nervure is roundly curved ; the second is straight, obliquely sloped ; 
the first recurrent nervure is received at the apex of the basal third of 
the cellule ; the accessory nervure in hind wings is received shortly 
behind the transverse median. The long spur of the hind tibia3 is 
half the length of the metatarsus. 

Bassus hetatorius, Fab., in Cape Colony. — This common 
British ichneumon I find in the collection of the South African 
Museum from Cape Town, where it has been taken so far back 
as 1874. It has now been found in nearly every part of the 
globe and in many of the islands. It would be interesting to 
know what its host may be outside Europe. Probably some 
equally cosmopolitan dipteron. 






A NEW STEGOMYIA FEOM THE TEANSVAAL. 
By Fred. V. Theobald. 

Stegomyia simpsoni, nov. sp. 

Head black, with a median white area and white at the sides. 
Proboscis black, unhanded. Thorax deep brown with a large silvery- 
white anterior lateral patch, a smaller one behind just before the root 
of the wing, a small silvery median spot close to the head, two 
yellowish median parallel lines, a short silvery one on each side over 
the smaller lateral patch, a silvery line on each side of the bare space 
in front of the scutellum. Scutellum with silvery-white scales in three 
patches. Pleurae with white puncta. Abdomen blackish with basal 
silvery-white bands. Legs basally banded white. 

? . Head clothed with black scales except for a median white area 
and grey lateral areas, a few white scales bordering the eyes. Antennae 
deep brown, the basal segment black with a patch of silvery-white 
scales on the inside ; clypeus and proboscis black. Palpi black-scaled 
with white-scaled apices. Thorax black, clothed with bronzy, broad 
elongate curved scales and ornamented with a large patch of broader 
silvery-white scales on each side in front, a smaller patch on each side 



A NEW STEGOMYIA FROM THE TRANSVAAL. 225 

just before the roots of the wings, and a small white median spot near 
the head, from which run two parallel dull yellow median lines to the 
bare space in front of the scutellum, and a short silvery line on each 
side over the roots of the wings ; the sides of the bare space in front 
of the scutellum bordered with white. Prothoracic lobes with flat 
white scales. Scutellum with the large median lobe black-scaled, with 
a prominent border of silvery-white ones, lateral lobes with large flat 
white scales, border-bristles brown. Metanotum deep brown. Pleurae 
deep brown with prominent silvery-white puncta. Abdomen deep 
blackish-brown with silvery-white basal bauds, except the first segment, 
which is all deep brown with pallid bristles, large basal lateral white 
spots to each segment ; posterior border-bristles brown, inconspicuous. 
Legs with the anterior femora and tibia? black, metatarsus and first 
tarsal with broad basal white bands, last three tarsi black, a trace of a 
pale basal area on the tibia ; in the mid legs the femora are pale at the 
base and have a small round white spot towards the apex which is 
white, remainder as in the fore legs ; hind legs with the femora white 
along the basal half, an oval elongate silvery-white spot towards the 
apex, the latter snowy white, base of metatarsus and first and second 
tarsi broadly white-banded, third tarsus all black, fourth pure white. 
Ungues all equal and simple. Wings with the first submarginal cell 
louger and narrower than the second posterior cell, its base nearer the 
base of the wing than that of the second posterior, its stem about one- 
third the length of the cell, stem of the second posterior cell about as 
long as the cell ; posterior cross-vein about two and a half times its 
own length distant from the mid cross- vein ; the median vein- scales 
on the fifth, where the branch arises, in two prominent lines. Halteres 
with pallid base and dusky scaled knobs. Length, 3 # 5-4-5 mm. 

$ . Thoracic adornment similar to that of the female. Palpi 
black with a white patch at the base of the two apical segments on one 
side only, that at the base of the apical one largest, and a broader 
white band towards the base, and another small one still nearer the 
base ; the two apical segments nearly equal, the apical one slightly the 
shorter, both and the apex of the antepenultimate with long scattered 
brown hairs, apical segment rounded at the tip. Antennas with deep 
brown plume hairs and pale internodes. Abdomen and legs as in the 
female. Fore and mid ungues unequal, simple, the larger one in the 
fore pair rather more curved than the larger of the mid ; the hind pair 
small, thick, curved, and equal. Claspers of male genitalia shortish 
and rather broad, straight on one side, curved on the other, with a 
very small nearly terminal dark process ; between the basal lobes a 
large spine with expanded base. Length, 3'5-4,'5 mm. 

Habitat. — Transvaal (collected by Mr. Simpson, Government 
Entomologist). 

Observations. — Evidently common from the large number 
sent in a collection forwarded by Mr. Simpson. It superficially 
resembles S. fasciata, but the thoracic ornamentation, the simple 
female ungues, the different adornment of the male palpi at 
once separate it. The female palpi are composed of three 
segments, of which the apical is very marked, being suddenly 
contracted at the tip and ends in a round truncated surface. 



226 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A NEW RACE OF MORPHO ADONIS, Cram. 
By Percy I. Lathy, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

MORPHO ADONIS Vai". MAJOR, nOV. 

$ . Much larger than typical M. adonis, measuring 32 millim. 
more than the largest specimen in Mr. Adams' series ; the white 
markings on costa of fore wings above larger and a submarginal row 
of white spots, in this respect approaching ab. adonides, Stgr. ; the 
wings of a deeper blue and not so silvery as in adonis. Under side 
with the pale bands silvery. 

? . Also much larger than typical adonis, and the pale yellow 
markings reduced. 

Exp. $ , 148-152 millim. ; ? , 160 millim. 

Hob.— La Merced, Peru ; 2500 ft. 

I received two males and one female of this very beautiful 
form of M. adonis from Mr. H. Watkins, my collector in Peru ; 
the three specimens are now in the collection of Mr. Herbert J. 
Adams. One of the two males has traces of a second row of 
submarginal spots. 



THE LEPIDOPTERA OF BERLIN. 
By E. M. Dadd, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 212.) 

During the latter part of August very little entomological 
work was done. An outing to Bernau found the heather just 
commencing to bloom, and a piece of waste ground overgrown 
with thistles proved to be very productive. Lyccena argus and 
L. agon were both abundant, the males easily distinguished by 
the breadth of the black border to the wing ; the females practi- 
cally indistinguishable. Several cegon var. unipuncta were among 
the captures; besides these two interesting "blues," Chrijso- 
phanus virgaurcea, L. dorilis (two females), G. phlceas, Hesperia 
thaumds, H. lineola, Epinephele lycaon, Satyrus scmele, S. alcyone, 
Argynnis latona, and Thalera Jimbrialis were obtained. The last- 
named is an especially fine " emerald," and the two specimens 
I obtained were in the pink of condition. Rhodosirophia vibicaria 
was obtained in the pine woods, but mostly worn. 

A week later, at Potsdam, Erebia cethiops and Colias hyale 
were the only new species. 

Sugaring was of very little use during the latter part of 
August and commencement of September. Catocala sponsa, C. 
promissa, and Amphipyra pyramidea came to sugar in oak woods. 
An avenue of all sorts of trees along a country road was more 
productive, Acronycta meiiyaiithidis, A. rumicis, A. megacephala, 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF GASTERUPTION. 227 

A. auricoma, Dychorista suspecta, Agrotis vestigialis, A. baia, 
Ilaclena scolopacina, H. monoglypha and dark vars. being 
obtained. 

About the middle of September sugaring again became pro- 
ductive, and we sugared the ground at Buch and Schulzendorf 
alternately with great success until about the middle of October, 
when bad weather set in. Acronycta rumicis, Agrotis pronuba, 
A. c-nigrum, A. xanthographa, A.plecta, A. nigricans (worn), A. 
tritici (worn), A. ypsilon, A. segetum, Charceas graminis, Epi- 
neuronia popularis, E. cespitis (more to the lamps), Mamestra 
oleracea, M. dissimilis, M. trifolii, Calcena haworthii, C. matura, 
Hadena porphyrea, Aporophyla lutulenta, Ammoconia ccecimacula, 
Dichonia aprilina, Dryobota protect, Brotolomia meticulosa, Ncenia 
typica, N. jaspiclea, N. celsia, Hydrcecia nictitans, Tapinostola 
fidva, Leucania pallcns, L. album, L. albipuncta, Caradrina am- 
bigua, Amphipyra trayopogonis, Orthosia lota, 0. circellaris, 0. 
lielvola, 0. nitida, 0. Levis, 0. litura, Xanthia citrago, X. lutea, X. 
fidvago, X. ocellaris and var. lineago, Orrhodia erythrocephala and 
var. glabra, X. vaupuiictatum, X. vaccinii, O. rubiginea, Scopelo- 
soma satellitia, Xylina socia (furcifera), X. omitopus, Calocampa 
vetusta, C. cxoleta, C. solidaginis, Catocala fraxini, and C. nupta. 
Luceria virens was not unfrequent at rest on grass-stems in pine 
woods, and by the aid of an acetylene lamp a fair series of this 
beautiful insect was captured. Eupithccia sobrinata swarmed on 
the street-lamps, as also one worn De?idrolimus pini. Ennomos 
angularia and E. autumnaria were frequently netted. 

Very little was to be done during the daytime ; butterflies 
were as good as over, only Vanessa antiopa, V. io, V. urticce, 
Grapta c-album, and Argynnis lathonia still being worth cap- 
turing. In the pine woods Larentia var. obeliscata was fairly 
common, and occasional larvae of Macrothyalacia rubi were 
picked up. 

Beating Rhamnus was fairly productive ; full-fed larvaa of 
Eupithccia abbrcviata, Macaria alternata, and Cyaniris argiolus 
were obtained. Heather produced larvae of Eupithecia nanata, 
E. goossensiata, Anarta myrtilli, Acronycta menyanthidis, and 
Nemeophila sanio. 



DESCUIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF GASTER- 
UPTION (EVANIID/E) FKOM CAPE COLONY. 

By P. Cameron. 

Gasteruption lissocephalus, sp. nov. 

Black, the mandibles, four anterior femora, tibife and tarsi, and the 
narrowed basal part of the hind tibire, and the apices of the second, 
third, and fourth abdominal segments broadly, rufous ; wings hyaline, 
the stigma and nervures, testaceous. $ . Length, 11 mm. 



228 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Head shining, the front and vertex smooth, the former with a deep 
furrow on its upper half ; the face and clypeus closely, but not strongly 
punctured, covered with a white down. Apex of clypeus with a round 
wide incision. Malar space distinct, fully as long as the second 
antennal joint. First antennal joint slightly shorter than the third, 
about one-third longer than the second, which is twice longer than 
wide ; the fourth slightly, but distinctly longer than the third. Temples 
shorter than the eyes ; abruptly, obliquely narrowed behind ; the 
occiput roundly incised. Collar very short, keeled down the middle ; 
irregularly reticulated. Mesonotum irregularly rugosely punctured, 
the centre at the base finely closely transversely striated ; the sides 
closely punctured. Scutellum closely punctured, its apex irregularly 
reticulated and bounded by two curved keels laterally. Metanotum 
transversely reticulated ; more distinctly in the centre than on the 
sides ; the middle with a fine distinct longitudinal keel. Propleurrc 
irregularly striated above, sparsely punctured below. Upper part of 
mesopleura3 irregularly punctured and striated, the rest and the meta- 
pleune closely longitudinally rngosely punctured. First abdominal 
segment finely closely rugose, as long as the following two segments 
united. Hind metatarsus somewhat shorter than the four following 
joints united; covered below with a dense fulvous pile. Anterior 
discoidal cellule narrowed sharply at the apex ; longish ; the posterior 
is shorter than it, being clear of its base and apex. Hind coxse 
closely distinctly puuctured, the punctures running into striae towards 
the apex. 

The head and collar are shorter, and the mesonotum more 
coarsely distinctly rugosely punctured-reticulated than in any 
of the African species known to me. 



LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN CENTRAL AMERICA. 
By Arthur Hall. 

During the summer of 1904 I made an entomological trip to 
Central America, spending some six weeks in Southern Mexico, 
about the same time in Western Guatemala, and a month in 
Costa Rica. The results were fairly successful, nearly seven 
hundred species of Rhopalocera being obtained. The following 
were among the most interesting of those met with :— 

Papilio asdepius, Hubn. — This fine species is not uncommon 
at Cuautla, Mexico, at an elevation of about 4000 ft. It 
frequents gardens on the borders of the town, and is fond of 
flying at a great height round the tall mango trees which abound 
there. 

P. pharnaces, Doubl., is peculiar to the Mexican plateau and 
was not uncommon in the State of Oaxaca in June. It has a 
curious habit of Hying with great rapidity round in a circle, and 
very seldom settles. 



LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN CENTRAL AFRICA. 229 

P. americns, Kolt. — A number of specimens were bred in 
Costa Eica, from larvfe feeding on the leaves of orange. 

Archonias tereas, Godt. — Appears to mimic Papilio mylotes, 
which it resembles in flight and habits. 

Eurema mexicana, Bois. — A specimen with the fore wings 
entirely black was captured at Orizaba, Mexico. 

E. westwoodii, Bois. — In the drier parts of Mexico this 
species and several others of the same genus congregate in damp 
cavities in the rocks, where as many as a hundred may some- 
times be found together. 

Perrhybris viardi, Bois., was found only on the Pacific slope 
of Guatemala. The male is of the usual Pierid pattern, but the 
rare female mimics the common Heliconius charitonia, L., for 
which I at first mistook it. 

Kricogonia lyside, Gdt., which was common at Salina Cruz, 
Mexico, and in parts of Guatemala, has a habit of hiding in 
thick bushes, from which it may be driven out by beating. An 
entirely yellow aberration of the female was not uncommon. 

Clothilda insignis, Salv. — A specimen was found near the 
summit of the volcano of Cartago in Costa Piica, at an elevation 
of nearly 12,000 ft. 

Microtia elva, Bates. — A local race occurring at Salina Cruz, 
Mexico, has the fulvous markings much more extensive than in 
the typical form. 

Chlosyne kyperia, Fabr. — This species, which was very abun- 
dant in the State of Morelos, Mexico, shows much less variation 
than some of its allies, but several specimens have a large red 
blotch on the hind wings, thus forming a transition to C.janais, 
Dru. The latter species, although abundant in many places, 
was not found in the same localities. 

C. gaudialis, Bate. — An extraordinarily local species. It was 
abundant in one field at Escuintla in Guatemala, but not 
another specimen was seen nearer than Mazatenango, 170 miles 
distant, where it was again abundant. 

Pyrameis atalanta, Linn. — This old familiar friend was found 
at Orizaba, Cuautla, and Cuernavaca, in each case at an eleva- 
tion of about 4000 ft. In the last-named locality Vanessa 
antiopa also was met with. 

Junonia coenia, Linn. — In the table-land of Western Mexico 
I obtained specimens of a melanic form, some having the upper 
side almost entirely black. 

Bulboneura sylphis, Bates. — Met with only in the State of 
Guerrero, Mexico, where it was rare. It is fond of settling on 
the rocky sides of the canons. 

Catagramma pitheas, Latr. — Specimens from the Pacific 
slope of Guatemala have much more red on the hind wings than 
Colombian examples. 

Ageronia atlantis, Bates.— Occurs in the States of Oaxaca 
and Guerrero, Mexico, but very scarce. 



230 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Ectima liria, Fabr. — Kather common in Costa Eica. It 
settles on tree-trunks, with the wings expanded after the manner 
of the Ageronias. 

Adelpha demialba, Butl. — This curiously marked species is 
peculiar to Costa Eica. It is apparently a mimic of Megalura 
merops, Bois. 

Smyrna karwinskii, Hiibn. — Common in Southern Mexico. 
It much resembles the Vanessse in its habits, having a partiality 
for fruit-trees, sunny walls, and gardens, and will also come to 
sugar. It will conceal itself under the leaves of bushes and fly 
out suddenly on being approached. 

Ancea callidryas, Feld. — Three specimens were obtained in 
different localities in Western Guatemala. It cannot be dis- 
tinguished from a white Catopsilia when on the wing, a fact 
which may partly account for its rarity. 

A. elara, Godm. & Salv., Trans. Ent. Soc, 1897, p. 244.— 
Two pairs of this, the largest of the " green " Anreas, at Carrillo, 
in Costa Eica. The female is tailed, as Messrs. Godman and 
Salvin rightly assumed. 

Z aretes ellops, Men. — The female of this species, which is 
common in Guatemala, undoubtedly mimics the same sex of 
Catopsilia eubule, L. 

Hypna iphigenia, H.S. — A specimen of this Cuban species 
was taken on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. 

Siderone ide, Hiibn. — Two specimens, taken at Escuintla, 
Guatemala, do not differ in any respect from the Colombian 
form. 

Protogonius cecrops, Doubl. & Hew. — Evidently a mimic of 
Lycorea atergatis, Doubl. & Hew. Both species fly together in 
the same localities in Guatemala and Costa Eica, and are 
difficult to distinguish on the wing. 

Morpho polyphemus, Doubl. & Hew. — Widely distributed in 
Southern Mexico, but scarce. It has a very slow, graceful flight, 
but generally keeps twenty or thirty feet above the ground. 

M. octavia, Bates. — Not uncommon on the Pacific slope of 
Guatemala, but extremely local. I found it from sea-level up 
to an elevation of nearly 4000 ft. Unlike most species of the 
genus it flies close to the ground, but its flight is rather fast and 
very erratic. 

M. cypris, Westw. — Met with near Santo Domingo, on the 
Pacific slope of Costa Eica ; rare. 

Caligo memnon, Feld. — Common at Escuintla and other 
parts of Guatemala. During rain it often comes into houses, 
apparently for shelter. 

Lymnas acroleuca, Feld.- Common in the State of Morelos, 
Mexico, where it evidently mimics an abundant moth of the 
genus Melanchroia. 

Mesene macularia, Bois. — A little butterfly which is exceed- 



GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS. 231 

ingly like the common European Venilia maculata, L. in size and 
colouring. It occurred in Costa Rica, but was scarce. 

Pythonides sallei, Feld. — This is the most interesting of the 
one hundred and sixty species of Heperida3 obtained. My 
specimen was taken at Escuintla, Guatemala, and one was seen 
at Cuautla, Mexico ; a,s it is recorded from Eastern Peru, its 
range would seem to be very extensive. 

Thysania agrippina, L.— This giant Noctuid, one specimen of 
which is ten inches in expanse, was captured at Old Guatemala, 
a locality which must be very near the most northern limit of its 
range. 

In conclusion I may remark that the comparative scarcity of 
Lepidoptera at moderately high elevations was very striking, and 
difficult to explain. At upwards of 5000 ft. very few species 
were to be found, whilst above 7000 ft. a few small Lycrenidre 
alone were met with, despite the fact that the vegetation is 
luxuriant up to an elevation of above 10,000 ft. Neither the 
Alpine species of the Neoarctic region, nor the Andean forms of 
Colombia and Peru, have more than a few isolated representa- 
tives in Central America. 

June 24th, 1905. 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS 
(AQUATIC HEMIPTERA OR RHYNCHOTA). 

By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

(Continued from p. 178.) 

The Corixida3 form a well-marked group, which has sprung, 
apparently, from a Naucoroid stem. They are characterized by 
the narrow, somewhat flattened form, the obscurely segmented 
rostrum,* modified anterior legs, &c. The head is strongly 
defiexed, and varies in form in the sexes, except in Micronecta. 
The pronotum is usually large, the anterior margin being more 
or less concealed by the posterior margin of the vertex, while 
its posterior margin conceals all but a very small part of the 

:;; Bonier (" Zur Systematik der Hexapoden," 1904, in Zool. Anzeiger, 
xxvii. 522) has instituted a special suborder — Sandaliorrhyncha — for the 
Corixidse, on account of the short obscurely segmented rostrum, deeming it 
a link between the Homoptera and the Hetcroptera. This is far from correct, 
the Corixidte being, as Handlirsch properly points out (" Zur Systematik der 
Hexapoden," 1904, in Zool. Anzeiger, xxvii. 746), a terminus of one of the 
heteropteral lines. The rostrum is merely a protecting sheath for the 
piercing and sucking organs, and has no functions, apparently, as a pump. 
In certain terrestrial forms with flexible rostrum (Miridse, &c.) the living 
bug may be seen bending its rostrum at the junction of the second and third 
segments, at more or less of an acute or obtuse angle, according as the bug 
desires to pierce more or less deeply into the food substance. 



232 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

scutellum, except in Micronecta, where the scutellum is almost 
entirely exposed. The tegmina (elytra) are usually ornamented 
with more or less regular, vermiculate or straight, transverse 
lines, these being often broken up into series.* In Micronecta, 
&c, there are few markings, these being generally more or less 
longitudinal and generally more or less obscure. In Micronecta, 
Cymatia, and Corixa, the tegmina, and also the pronotum, are 
more or less smooth and polished, sometimes punctured ; but in 
the other genera these parts are either partly, or wholly, very 
finely rastrate [i. e. striated like a file, this character being seen 
best in an oblique position). The anterior legs and their stridu- 
latory areas have already been described and figured by me t ; 
the intermediate legs are long and slender, and are terminated 
by two long claws ; the proportionate lengths of these parts form 
good secondary characters for the discrimination of certain 
species. The posterior legs are modified for swimming, even 
more than are those of the Naucoridre.; they are flattened, 
dilated, and thickly fringed with ciliate hairs. 

In the females the abdominal segments are regular, but in 
the males are broken up and disordered. The asymmetry is to 
the left in Corixa, to the right in all the other genera. The 
strigil has been discussed in my paper cited last. 

Although the Corixidre are so well known and have so often 
been dealt with systematically, their biology has been little 
studied in detail. 

The whitish ova of Corixa geoffroyi are to be found in any 
suitable piece of water from March onwards to June attached to 
the stem or leaves of various pondweeds by means of a glutinous 
substance ; the pedicle seems to be extensile. They are more or 
less onion shaped, the apical end being drawn out into a point. 
They have been briefly described and figured by Dufour (p. 350, 
pi. xvi. f. 186, under the specific name of striata), and by Leuckart 
(1855, Miiller's Archiv. pi. viii. f. 23, as Coriza (!) striata). The 
internal development of the egg has been studied by Metshnikov at 
some length (1866, Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool. xvi. pp. 129 and 422-36, 
pis. 26 and 27 a) ; a very brief precis is given by Packard (1898, 
' Text-book of Entomology,' fig. 493). Leuckart also describes the 
egg of Arctocorisa nigrolineata, while Dufour describes that of 
A. lateralis (hieroglyphica, Duf.) as being pointed, elongate oval 
(fig. 187). The ova of A. mercenaria have been for centuries 
used for food by the Mexicans; while an Egyptian species, un- 

* This pattern is not modern, being well shown in " Corixa" elegans, 
Schlechtendal (1894, Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle, xx. 21G ; pi. xiii. f. 4), from 
the Aquitanian (Kainozoic) formations of the Siebengebirge in Germany. 

| See "The Stridulation of Corixa'' 1 in Entom. xxxiv. 9(1901), and 
" The Stridulating Organs of Waterbugs (Rhynchota), especially of Corixida^ " 
in Journ. Quekett Micr. Clnb (2), viii. 33-46, pis. 3 and 4, where other papers 
are referred to. 



GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS. 233 

described, has been mentioned by Motschulsky as being utilized 
for similar purposes. I have discussed this at some length, and 
have also figured an egg of A. mercenaria.* 

The nymphal stages are not specially remarkable. De Geer 
(torn. 3, pi. 20, figs. 16 and 17) figures some, but modern de- 
tailed figures are needed. The metamorphosis of the Corixidae 
takes some three months or so, or perhaps less ; the species all 
hybernate in the adult stage except (according to F. B. White) 
those of Micronecta. 

The Corixidae have a distinctly "buggy" smell — and taste! 
Dufour says that they are carnasial : I think that small worms, 
Rotifera, &c, form a large part of their food. The internal 
anatomy is described by Dufour, also by Burmeister (1835, 
Handb. der Entom. ii. 186), for punctata (i.e. geoffroyi). 

The Corixidae breathe in a peculiar manner, which has been 
well described t by A. S. Packard, whose recent death everyone 
will deplore. The Corixid "takes in the air so suddenly that it 
is impossible without long and patient observation to see the 
mode, which we have been unable to find described. It rises to 
the surface in a horizontal position, and no sooner is the surface 
reached than it darts to the bottom, and in one instance remained 
there for ten minutes by the watch, and then darted up again, 
leaving an air bubble in its wake, which rose to the top after- 
wards. It carries down with it a broad silvery streak along the 
side of the body. The air is really introduced under the head 
and front thorax. The head is large and very movable, as well 
as the prothorax. It slides back and forth on a thin membrane, 
from the surface of which it can be raised. So with the hinder 
edge of the prothorax, which rides over the membranous hind 
thorax, which it nearly conceals. When the Corixa rises to the 
surface it floats in a horizontal position, the hind edge of the 
head and the prothorax rising slightly above the surface. Now 
slightly raising the back of the head and the hind edge of the 
prothorax, a space appears in front of and behind the prothorax, 
by which the air passes into the breathing-holes beneath. This 
is proved by the small bubbles of air remaining in these two 
cracks. Two minute spiracles may be detected in deep pits, one 
on each side, just above the insertion of the legs, and from which 
the tracheae arise, each one dividing into three irregular short 
branches, as may be seen by detaching the segment and holding 
it up to the light." 

Corixidae are often used as hosts by Hydrachnid larva?, which 
are attached as in the Naucoridae. Ouchakoff describes, but 

'■'■'■ See " An Economic Use for Waterbugs " in Ent. Mo. Mag. (2) ix. 
173-5 (1898), and " Snr quelques hemipteres aquatiques nouveaux on pen 
connus" in Revue d'Entom. 1899, p. 95, and fig. 6. 

f " Half-hour Recreations in Natural History — Half-hours with Insects," 
p. 141. 

ENTOM. — SEPTEMBER, 1905. U 



234 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

does not name, a form found on C. geoffroyi (as striata),* but 
his note is of little value. 

Six genera of Corixidse are British, and may be separated as 
follows : — 

Males. 

1. Minute species ; scutellum covered by pronotum only 

at anterior margin; face convex ; [strigil present] 

(1) Micronecta, Kirkaldy. 

1 a. Larger species ; face excavated ; scutellum more or 

less membranous, concealed, except at posterior 
angle, by the pronotum ..... 2. 

2. Strigil present 4. 

2 a. Strigil absent. ....... 3. 

3. No stridular area ; posterior tarsus not marked with 

black (2) Cymatia, Flor. 

3 a. Stridular area present ; posterior tarsus marked con- 

spicuously with black [the tarsal segment itself, 

not the hairs only] . . . . (4) Callicorixa, White. 

4. Palar stridulator composed of pegs ranging in form 

from short peg-top shape to bristly, the transition 

gradual . . . . . (3) Gl.enocorisa, Thomson.! 

4 a. Palar stridulator composed of more regular pegs, 

never bristle-like, although elongate ... 5. 

5. Asymmetry to right. Pronotum and tegmina more 

or less rastrate . . . . (5) Arctocorisa, Wallengren. 

5 a. Asymmetry to left. Pronotum and tegmina smooth, 

shining (6) Corixa, Geoffroy. 

Females. 

1. Face flattened 2. 

la. Face convex 3. 

2. Shining, smooth ; pronotum without markings (2) Cymatia, Flor. 
2a. Rastrate, dull ; pronotum with impressed transverse 

lines . . . . . . (3) Gl^nocorisa, Thomson. 

3. Scutellum not covered, except at anterior margin, by 

pronotum . . . . . (1) Micronecta, Kirkaldy. 
3 a. Scutellum concealed, except posterior angle, by pro- 
notum ........ 4. 

4. Pronotum and tegmina smooth, shining . (6) Corixa, Geoffroy. 
4rt. Pronotum and tegmina more or less rastrate . . 5. 

5. A conspicuous black spot on posterior tarsus (4) Callicorixa, White. 
5a. Posterior tarsi pale, fringing hairs often black (5) Arctocorisa, Wall. 

:|: " Notice sur un Insecte parasite " in Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 
vii. 392 (1834). 

f The chief generic character in this is that in the female the face is 
flattened. 



GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF BRITISH WATERBUGS. 235 

Micronecta, Kirkaldy.* 
( = Sigara of some former authors.) 

Face convex in both sexes. No apparent stridular area on 
anterior femora. Palas subovate, terminated by a powerful knife- 
shaped claw (in the male), which is jointed with the pala and is 
turned right back, in repose, into an excavation in the pala ; on 
the pala there are only bristly hairs. In the female the palse 
are elongate cultrate. A character separating this gentis from 
all the other British genera is that the metapleura are simple, 
while in the others they are deeply impressed posteriorly, so 
deeply in fact that Fieber mistook the impression for a true 
suture, and termed the posterior lobes the "parapleural The 
venation of the wings is also much simpler. 

Little is known of the habits of Micronecta beyond the fact 
that it stridulates. F. B. White states that it hybernates in the 
nymphal instars t ; and Westwood \ has described M. ovivora 
(as a Corixa) from the Canara Paver, Madras, naming it from 
its supposed destructive habits of devouring fish ova. 

There are two British species : — 

1. Length, 1^-2 mill. ; pronoturn nearly as long as 

vertex ; the lateral margins of the former longer 

than half the posterior margin of an eye (1) minutissima (L.). 

2. Length, 2-2J mill. ; pronoturn much shorter than 

the vertex ; lateral margins of the former scarcely 

perceptible ..... (2) scholtzii (Scholtz). 

1. M. minutissima (Linne). 

This species is the Notonecta minutissima of Linne, the Sigara 
minuta of Fabricius, and the S. lemana of Fieber. A slight 
variety is the S. poweri of Douglas and Scott. It is figured by 
Douglas and Scott, by Saunders, bv Herrich-Schaeffer (1850, 
Wanz. Ins. ix. pi. 295, f. 907), and by Fieber (1845, " Entomo- 
logische Monographien " in Abh. bohm. Ges. Wiss. (5) 3, pi. 1, 
figs. 11-19). Further figures may be found in Duda's " Analy- 
ticky prehled ceskych plostic vodnich " in Klubu prirodov. Praze 
1890 (1891), fig. 6 (on p. 30). 

Distributed from Hastings to Braemar and Norfolk to Ireland. 
It is not uncommon in the south of Surrey. 

2. M. scholtzii, Scholtz. 

This is the S. meridionalis, Costa, 1860, of Puton's 'Cata- 
logue ' ; it was also fully described the same year — whether 

:;: Greek mikros, small ; nektcs, a swimmer. See ' Entomologist,' 
1897, 260. 

f " Notes on Corixa" in Ent. Mo. Mag. x. 80 (1873). 
\ Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. iv. 



236 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

earlier or later I do not know — by Fieber as S. scholtzi, and 
mentioned by Scholtz in 1847,* who says that it is larger than 
minutissima, and has different habits, i. e. it lives in still water 
with muddy bottom [minutissima does live here, though !] , not 
in clear river water. He further mentions that he has not heard 
a perceptibly audible chirp like minutissima utters. f 

I have never seen this alive, but Saunders states that it 
occurs from Lincoln to Sussex, from Somerset to Norfolk. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Habits of Asilid^e. — There are certain insects, such as the 
Meloid beetles of the genus Cantharis, aud the Pentatomid bugs, which 
appear to be generally protected from enemies by their disagreeable 
odour or taste. I was interested to observe, when at Pecos, New 
Mexico, that this protection apparently did not extend to the robber 
flies or Asilida3. At Pecos I found a specimen of Ospriocerus abdomi- 
nalis, Say, preying on Cantharis biguttatus ; and in the Pecos Canyon 
(at 7300 ft. alt.) I found Stenopogon inquinatus, Loew, preying on adult 
Thyanta perditor. In both cases I am indebted to Mr. Coquillett for 
the names of the flies, and it may be added that both are new to the 
fauna of New Mexico. — T. D. A. Cockerell. 

The Name Aldrichia. — With reference to the Culicid Aldrichia 
error (cf. p. 142), it may be noted that the name Aldrichia is a homo- 
nym, having been previously used twice — by Coquillett in 1894, and 
by Vaughan in 1900. — T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Collecting Diptera at Light. — Being in the City of Washington 
on the night of June 10th, I opened my window wide, hoping to get 
some moths which might be of service to the British Museum. For 
some unexplained reason, not a single moth appeared, but, instead, a 
great number of small flies, all Chironoinidae. I collected a series, and 
they have been very kindly identified by Mr. Coquillett. He tells me 
that they are all common ; but little seems to be known of the distri- 
bution of these minute things, as will be seen by the published records, 
quoted from Aldrich's ' Catalogue of North American Diptera,' which 
has just been published : — (1) Chironomus modestus, Say. Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, New Hampshire, Montreal, Canada. (2) Tanytarsus tenuis, 
Meigen. Europe, Greenland. (3) Tanytarsus sp. (4) Tanypus bellus, 
Loew. District of Columbia, (5) Tany pus choreas, Meigen. Europe, 
"North America." (6) Tanypus monilis, L. Europe, Pennsylvania, 

* " Prodromus zu einer Ebynch. -Fauna von Scblesien pt. 1 " in 
Uebers. Arb. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Kultur, 1846, p. 106 (p. 2, sep. copy, 
usually quoted). 

f " ob unsere art, gleichwie S. minuta, eindeutlich wabrnehmbares 
Schwirren horen lasse, nabm ich bisber nocb nicht wahr." I have only 
recently refreshed myself with this reference, which has been ignored in the 
papers devoted to hemipterous stridulation. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 237 

"Wisconsin, New Jersey, New Hampshire. No doubt this list of six 
species could be much increased by a little more collecting. With one 
exception, all the species are boreal, which I should not have expected 
so far south as Washington. — T. D. A. Cockerell. 

Migration of Lepidoptera. — The interesting note of your corre- 
spondent Mr. J. P. Barrett in the current number of the 'Entomologist,' 
referring to a possible migration of Euchelia jacobcea, induces me to 
place on record an observation which I should not otherwise have 
considered very remarkable. About 11 p.m. on May 31st I saw several 
specimens of this species (E. jacobace) settled on and flying round the 
incandescent gas lamps near here. Two of these were captured, and 
proved — somewhat to my surprise, considering the date — to be a good 
deal rubbed. During a residence of seven years I had not noticed 
this species in the neighbourhood previously ; there is, moreover, no 
ragwort near where they were taken. Is it possible that my specimens 
formed part of a migratory flight from the Continent, which also 
reached Margate '? In this connection I may add that in September, 
1903, when V. cardui was extremely plentiful in Essex, while sailing 
off the Essex coast I saw several specimens out at sea, an easterly wind 
prevailing at the time. It would be interesting to know the direction 
of the wind off the south-east coast on the date mentioned above ; but 
I have not the information at hand, and made no note of it at the 
time. — W. S. Gilles ; The Cottage, Docking, near Draintree, Essex, 
Aug. 9th, 1905. 

Notes on Larvae of Nyssia lapponaria and Orgyia antiqua. — 
I exhibited at the meeting of the South Dondon Entomological and 
Natural History Society on about June 23rd three larva3 of Nyssia 
lapponaria ; they were chosen on account of their fine size, the largest 
specimen attaining a growth of 2J in. before going down. These were 
from a large batch of ova from a wild Eannoch female, and were 
sleeved on birch almost from the egg. Six or seven of the larva) grew 
more rapidly than their fellows, so I removed the smaller specimens 
to another sleeve, and opened the bottom of the sleeve containing the 
large ones to a receptacle holding about eighteen inches of light earth, 
into which they descended in the course of a day or two. One of the 
rest of the brood that had been removed, having suddenly attained a 
length of about 2 in., was placed back in the sleeve over earth, and 
soon went down, the remainder of the brood being then about 1^ in. 
in length, some rather under this measurement. Imagine my surprise 
on examining the sleeve three days later to find that one larva had 
pupated on the gauze, and four others were lying at the bottom 
shortened and shrivelled, apparently perishing for want of earth in 
which to go down. I at once changed them into the sleeve containing 
earth, and several went down at once, none of which exceeded 1^- in. 
in length. Surely this disparity in the size of the full-fed larvas of 
this species is very strange ! Perhaps some of our Scottish collectors 
can give us further information on this interesting subject. Last 
season the willow tree that I usually reserve for nearly full-fed larvae 
of Smerinthus ocellatus seemed to be the chosen favourite of every 
willow-feeding gall-fly in Clapham, for by the middle of July I think 
I can safely say every leaf had a gall on it, and on some leaves 



238 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I counted six and seven. These galls soon became the homes — if I 
may be allowed the expression — of a number of larvre of 0. antiqua; 
these ate out the interiors of the galls, and then ensconced themselves 
in the space thus provided. As they increased in size their habitations 
became too small for them; but this difficulty was overcome by eating 
a hole opposite that by which they entered the gall, and they then 
rested with the head projecting from one side of the gall, and the last 
segments and anal tuft from the other. They presented a most curious 
appearance when in this position, reminding me irresistibly of a tortoise. 
B. Stonell ; 25, Studley Koad, S.W., July 9th, 1905. 

Abundance of Pieris brassica in West Meath. — I should like to 
call the attention of practical naturalists to the swarms of Pieris brassica 
which are at present hovering over the cabbage-plots and fields in West 
Meath, and laying millions of eggs, the caterpillars from which, the 
moment they are hatched, begin devouring the young plants. In our 
own case, after paying fifteen shillings for the cabbage-plants, we do 
not expect to save even a portion of the crop. This is bad enough, 
but it is far worse for the poor people who have planted their little 
gardens and lost all their cabbages. Handpickmg seems to be the only 
effectual remedy, and daydabourers cannot spare time for that. Lime, 
washing soda, &c, and many other remedies have been tried in vain ; 
and now the caterpillars are swarming up the walls of the houses to 
form chrysalids, and doubly devastate next season, unless some real 
remedy can be suggested. Where can the clouds of butterflies have 
come from, as of late years brassica; has been rather scarce, and what is 
to be done? — Francis J. Battersby; Cromlyn, Rathowen, West Meath. 

We understand that Mr. G. 0. Day, of Knutsford, who is no doubt 
known to many of our readers, is going abroad to reside in Vancouver 
Island, B.C., and has placed his valuable and extensive collection of 
British Lepidoptera in the hands of Mr. Stevens for sale by auction 
shortly. Mr. Day has been an occasional contributor of articles to 
this magazine, and, although he is leaving England, we trust that his 
interest in the pursuit of entomology will be continued, and that he 
may find in the new country something noteworthy for these pages. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD EE PORTS. 

Cymatophora ocularis and Agrotis ravida at Hitchin. — Thinking 
it may be of interest, I am writing to report the capture here at sugar 
of C. ocularis (pctogesima) on the following dates, viz. June 20th, 21st, 
and 28th; July 2nd, 11th, and 28th. I have also been taking A. ravida 
at sugar. — H. R. Grellet ; Orford Lodge, Bancroft, Hitchin, Aug. 1st, 
1905. 

Plusia bractea in Selkirk. — On July 12th, as a friend of mine and 
I were netting P. chrysitis, which were swarming over some tall plants 
of Stachys palwtris, he caught a fine specimen of P. bractea, which I 
recognized while bottling. P. iota and P. pulchrina were very common 
at the time, and also in a less decree Abroxtola urticcE. — *B. Weddell. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 239 

Lepidoptera captured at Clapham. — I have much pleasure in 
adding three species to my list published ante, p. 66. On June 3rd 
I took a specimen of Bapta temerata at rest on a shop window in the 
Clapham Road, and on June 29th a specimen of Larentia pectinitaria 
in practically the same spot ; but I think the most interesting addition 
is Abraxas ulmata. A specimen of this species, in poor condition, was 
given me alive by Mr. Broomfield, enclosed in a cardboard box with a 
few specimens of other species. He captured the specimen on July 7th 
on the window of his shop at 266, Clapham Road, and, not knowing it 
to be something uncommon, took no special care of it. I should like 
to add I have never reared A. ulmata, and, so far as my knowledge 
extends, there is no other collector residing in the neighbourhood from 
whom it might have escaped. — B. Stonell; 25, Studley Road, Clapham, 
S.W., July 9th, 1905. 

Phtheochroa rugosana in Surrey. — This insect used to occur on 
Wimbledon Common. I find that I took it in that locality on July 4th, 
1876, and again on May 15th, 1878. — F. G. Whittle; 7, Marine 
Avenue, Southend, Aug. 5th, 1905. 

Phtheochroa rugosana in Surrey. — I have taken P. rugosana at 
Nunhead some years ago, but this year I obtained the species in Coombe 
Warren. — Percy Richards; "Wellesley," Queen's Road, Kingston 
Hill. 

Phtheochroa rugosana in Surrey. — I note in this month's 
' Entomologist ' that P. rugosana seems to be regarded as a rarity 
in this county. Certainly one seldom finds the imago, although it 
may be found at rest in the hedgerows where bryony is common (the 
female plant), and sometimes on the wing at dusk; and on two 
occasions I have taken worn specimens in the kitchen here, attracted 
by light. During August is the time to get the very much more often 
found larva ; I usually have a look for it during the first week of the 
month. Find a field hedge where the female (i. e. the berried) plant 
is growing, and pull out the long trailers well laden with berries ; if 
the larva is there, it will generally be found in the little bunches of 
spun-together berries, or sometimes between the stem and a leaf drawn 
over it. They are not difficult to breed if kept in the open in a flower- 
pot half full of mould, and a few pieces of bark on the top ; but they 
are often very restless, and spin a lot of useless web round the rim of 
the pot. They sometimes spin up on the sides of the pot, sometimes 
on the book-muslin cover, and sometimes amongst the bark, and nearly 
always come out most disappointingly small. — A. Thurnall ; " Mas- 
cotte*," Whitehall Road, Thornton Heath, Aug. 2nd, 1905. 

Phtheochroa rugosana in Surrey. — Referring to Mr. South's note 
(ante, p. 214), I would like to say that I find from my note-books that 
during the month of June, 1887, I netted six specimens of P. rugosana 
in a field at Sanderstead ; and in the month of June, 1888, I netted 
seven examples of the species in the same field. — W. D. Cansdale ; 
Sunny Bank, South Norwood, S.E., Aug. 17th, 1905. 

Notes from Cornwall. — I should like to record a curious variety of 
Eupithecia rectangulata, which I took in North Cornwall this year. The 



240 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ground colour of all the wings is white, the basal half of fore wings 
blotched with light green, and of the hind wings with grey. The 
specimen was quite fresh, and looks as if it had been bleached. Most 
of the E. rectangulata in the same locality have a lovely pink tinge, but 
it is very fugitive. We noted a remarkable abundance of Acidalia sitb- 
sericeata in the finest condition. One could hardly move a step without 
stirring up a specimen or two. Lycana avion, at least in the early part 
of its season, was distinctly less plentiful than in former years. Is it 
not time that this insect should be placed on the protected list ? In 
1903 I know that something like a thousand specimens were taken 
away from the district, and I should imagine that not many butterflies 
could stand much of that kind of thing. E. jasioneata occurred rather 
sparingly, but perhaps was not fully out. Agrotis lucernea was taken 
flying, and the form is a very dark one, considerably darker than some 
I have from Aberdeen. All common insects seemed to be very abun- 
dant. — W. Claxton ; Navestock, Romford. 

DlCHRORAMPHA FLAVIDORSANA, Kliaggs — D. QU^STIONANA, Zeller, AT 

Folkestone. — On the evening of July 28th, whilst being wheeled round 
my garden, I noticed a number of little Tortrices flying over a clump 
of tansy, and, on securing some of them, identified them as my D. 
jlaridorsana, a decision in which Mr. Purdey subsequently agreed. 
I believe that this once overlooked insect will prove to be an abun- 
dant species, and also probably widely distributed. — H. G. Knaggs ; 
Folkestone. 



OBITUARY. 



It is with much regret that I announce the death, in his ninetieth 
year, of my venerable and valued friend Mr. W. Johnson, who passed 
away on August 6th at his residence at Wigan. About fifty or sixty 
years ago there existed in Lancashire and Cheshire a well-known and 
enthusiastic band of entomologists, amongst whom were W. Johnson, 
N. Cook, B. Cook, L. S. Gregson, N. Greening, J. B. Hodgkinson, &c. 
Mr. Johnson was one of the eleven who met at my house on February 
24th, 1877, when the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society 
was founded. He always took a deep interest in the Society, and was 
a regular attendant at the meetings, and on his removal to Wigan in 
1889 he was honoured by being appointed an honorary member. 
Mr. Johnson was thorough in anything he undertook. I believe he 
was for thirty years in the engineering department of the Mersey 
Docks and Harbour Board, from whom he was in receipt of a pen- 
sion up to the time of his death. Mr. Johnson leaves behind him 
a collection of Lepidoptera, which is now for sale. Amongst a number 
of interesting specimens is one of Eromene ocellea, which is one of the 
three recorded by Mr. Barrett as captured near Liverpool, and I 
believe was taken by himself. 

Samuel James Capper. 

Huyton Park : August 25th, 1905. 



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Vol. XXXVIII.] OCTOBER, 1905. [No. 509. 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST 



GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 



EDITED BY RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXXVIII.] OCTOBER, 1905. 



[No. 509. 



LYGMNA ORBIT ULUS, Prun., L. var. OBERTHURI, 
Stgr., AND L. PYRENAICA, B. 

By H. Rowland-Brown, M. A., F.E.S. 




1. L. orbitulus, g- . 3. L. 'pyrenaica, $ . 5» L. var. oberthuri, $ . 

2. ,, under side. 4. ,, under side. 6. ,, ,, under side. 



Of the examples figured, 1 and 2 are from Berisal ; 3 and 4 
from Gavarnie ; 5 and 6 from Cauterets. Both species are 
subject to considerable variation, but I have endeavoured to 
bring out the main points of difference as they present them- 
selves in the specimens included in my cabinet series. 

L. orbitulus, Prun., of the Alps and Eastern Pyrenees. 

$ . Upper wings almost wholly suffused, or sprinkled with 

hyacinthine blue on a light cinnamon-brown ground. Marginal border 

broadish and brown-black. Discoidal spot whitish ocellated. Lower 

wings : same coloration ; peacock eyes on hind margin discernible on 

BNTOM. — OCTOBER, 1905. X 



242 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

most of my specimens more or less strongly — generally more. Under 
side upper wings : yellowish grey. Unbroken line of ocellated anti- 
marginal spots and marginal spots p -shaped, faint and ill-defined ; two 
discoidal spots, black ocellated white. Under side lower wings : very 
variable, darker brownish grey to dark brown ; two costal spots black, 
ocellated white. Outer, margin yellowish-ochre peacock eyes, and 
iuteriorally white spots ocellated black. Broad white fringes all the 
wings. 

L. orbitulus var. oberthuri, Stgr. 

Described in Staudinger's Catalogue "major," but I have speci- 
mens from the Swiss Alps equal in size to those taken by me at 
Gavarnie and the Lac de Gaube, as figured. Superficially an entirely 
different insect to pyrenaica, with which it sometimes flies, e.g., at 
Gavarnie. 

$ . Ground colour of all the wings upper, and under side deeper ; 
and blackish rather than brown. The discoidal spot on the upper 
side of the hind wings very much more definite than in the type, 
which does not occur, according to M. Eondou, in the Central and 
Western Pyrenees. Under side : in most of my specimens the costal 
spot on the lower wings is not ocellated, thus suggesting a connecting- 
link with pyrenaica. 

L. pyrenaica, B. 

$ . Upper wings uniform slaty-blue with faint brownish shading 
at outer margins. Marginal border sharply defined, and dead black. 
Discoidal spot dead black, and not ocellated. Lower wings : same 
coloration. Hardly any trace of peacock eyes ; in most of my speci- 
mens, none. Under side upper wings : faint dove-grey coloured; series 
of antimarginal spots, more curved outwardly than in orbitulus, and 
wanting in some examples between the nervures occupied iuteriorally 
by the discoidal spots. Marginal spots round. The second in the 
outer margin duplicated, thus . . but ? constant. Under side lower 
wings : colour yellowish grey. Trace of very slender black marginal 
border at anal angle only. One costal spot white without ocellation. 
Antimarginal spots blotched, and also unocellated. Two or three 
bright orange-yellow spots on hindmarginal triangular white blotches. 
Broad white fringes all wings. 

M. Oberthur, in his ' Etudes,' — which are unfortunately in- 
accessible to most collectors, there being no copy at present in the 
library of the Entomological Society, — differentiates L. pyrenaica, 
? , as follows : — " Pyrenaica, 2 , est toujours en dessus d'un gris 
blanchatre uni et satine avec un serie submarginale d'eclaircies 
intranervarales, et un lisere noir marginal tres fin, tandisqu' 
Orbitulus a le fond des ailes entierement noiratre avec le disc 
saupoudre d'un semis serres d'atomes bleu argente. De plus 
dans les deux sexes la serie transversale de points noir intra- 
nervaraux aux ailes superieurs est toujours moins droite dans 
pyrenaica que dans orbitulus." 



243 



A BUTTERFLY HUNT IN THE PYRENEES. 
By H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., F.E.S. 

The Pyrenees have received from collectors of Palasarctic 
Rhopalocera but scant attention of late years as compared with 
the Alps of Central Europe. The fact is the more remarkable, 
because the range is quite as accessible as the remoter regions 
of Switzerland and the Tyrol, while many years' experience of 
the latter as a touring entomologist leaves no doubt in my mind 
thai for convenience and accommodation the advantage is all 
with the Pyrenees. A month in July and the early days of 
August, commencing at Le Vernet in the east and terminating 
at Biarritz in the west, has left a wholly satisfactory impression 
of comfortable hotels, clean and well found beyond anything 
that can be procured at the price in the Alps, though there 
is of course this disadvantage, that they are situated for the 
most part on the lower levels ; not dotted about among the higher 
elevations within easy reach of alpine fauna. With the exception 
of the town of Andorra, which is not French and indescribably 
primitive and dirty, I can recall no single halting place where 
the kitchen and menage generally were not sufficient and for the 
most part admirable. Then, again, it is a pleasure, after col- 
lecting in less favoured mountain places in the Cevennes and 
parts of Southern Austria, to come upon localities where species 
are represented not " in single spies, but in battalions." The 
uplands, in fact, as well as the fertile valleys, simply teem with 
insect-life in summer, and I found this the case wherever I went 
during the little expedition which I propose to describe. 

Unlike the greater part of France, the departments included 
in the Pyrenean region have been welWorked by French ento- 
mologists. M. Ch. Oberthur, in his ' Etudes,' has figured and 
described numerous local forms of butterflies and moths found by 
him during many years' systematic and local collecting ; while 
M. Rondou — " instituteur-naturaliste " and schoolmaster of 
Gedre in the central area — has collected and reprinted from his 
series of records, published in the ' Transactions ' of the Linnean 
Society of Bordeaux, a full and accurate catalogue of the Macro- 
Lepidoptera, which I found invaluable as a guide wherever 
I went. Then Mr. H. C. Elwes, in the ' Transactions ' of the 
Entomological Society of London, published a comprehensive 
list of the butterflies in 1887 ; but I do not find in our magazines 
any detailed notices of recent date, and hope therefore that my 
own experiences may prove useful, and induce others to follow 
in my footsteps. 

Arriving on July 9th at the Hotel du Pare, Le Vernet, after 
a not unpleasant journey via Toulouse and Perpignan, collecting 

x2 



244 THE KNT0MOL0GI8T. 

commenced the following day. Driving up from Villefranche-le- 
Conrluent, the nearest station, I noticed a specimen of Satyr us 
briseis by the roadside, but did not come across the species again. 
For I had no opportunity of revisiting the hot enclosed valley in 
which this and other typically southern or Mediterranean insects 
are known to occur, such as Epinephele ida, E. pasiphae, and 
Satyrus fidia. My rambles, indeed, were generally directed up the 
valley of the Vernet stream, not only because the ground appeared 
to promise the best results, but to avoid in the cooler hills the 
great noontide heat. The opening of the campaign, however, was 
scarcely propitious, for, having taken the only wrong road pos- 
sible, I endeavoured to make a short cut across the torrent, and 
while doing so dropped my net into a boiling whirlpool, and 
lost it altogether. However, I was well supplied, and, having 
repaired losses at the hotel, set out under a cloudless sky up 
the narrow road which leads from Le Vernet to Casteil and the 
Col du Cheval Mort. Melanargia lachesis swarmed everywhere, 
but very few females appeared to have emerged at this date ; 
nor did I find them at all common at any time during the week, 
while the form predominant was more heavily marked than 
specimens I have seen from Pont du Gard, and would, I assume, 
be the var. canigulensis of Oberthur ; nor was it unusual to meet 
with the aberration in which the ground colour of the wings is 
faint yellow in place of the normal pearly white. 

Among the Spanish chestnuts and upon the ash trees, which are 
quite a feature in the riverside meadows, males of Lcesopis roboris 
were disporting themselves in the sunshine, but they were already 
on the wane ; and Mr. A. H. Jones, who preceded me by about a 
fortnight at Le Vernet, tells me he found them in perfect condition 
then ; so that M. Eondou's note for " June and the beginning of 
July " is no doubt more accurate than Kane's " May-June-July " 
inclusive ; while it is now established that the food-plant of the 
larva is ash and not oak, as stated in ' European Butterflies.' 
Of the Theclids, T. ilicis was as usual common upon the sedum 
flowers, but I did not notice any examples of ab. cerri. I also 
took a couple of females of T. acacia close to Casteil, but they 
were more or less passees. Near the same place I also netted and 
released a single female Thais var. medesicaste, the date — July 
10th — being the latest I have ever encountered this charming- 
insect. Among a herd of commoner things also, an occasional 
Melitcea deione was still upon the wing, though M. dictynna var. 
vemetensis, Oberth., described as " a constant race differing from 
the type," and much less obscurely coloured, was evidently over. 
Upon the trailing clematis Argynnis daphne disputed the place of 
honour with A. paphia, and here also Cyaniris argiolus was to be 
seen in numbers, while the dusty mule-path was alive with Satyrus 
alcyonc, rather more definitely marked than the alpine form, 
and with the yellowish stain more pronounced. ' Every patch 



A BUTTERFLY HUNT IN THE PYRENEES. 245 

of moisture, too, was crowded with thirsty butterflies, Pap'dio 
podalirius and the commoner Hesperiids being perhaps the most 
persistent. However, the Lycasnids usual to such places were 
rather sparsely represented, though I picked up individual fine 
specimens of Lampides bceticus, Lyccena argiades, L. hylas, and L. 
amandus, among the less common, but all males ; flying with them 
were also Carcharodus altlue<e, Hesperia alveus, and H. sao. But far 
and away the commonest butterfly on the wing was Erebia stygne, 
which evidently follows immediately on the heels of E. evias, of 
which I only observed a few worn females ; nor did I meet with 
the var. pyrenaica, Buhl., at these levels. But for size and 
brilliancy of colouring these typical stygne exceed any I have 
ever taken ; the females being especially fine, and the ocellations 
of the upper side of the wings large and numerous. 

On July 13th I made the ascent of the Canigou, the imposing 
isolated rock which surveys the Mediterranean from Barcelona to 
Montpellier, going by way of the Col du Cheval Mort, by far the 
easiest and most agreeable route in my opinion, as it abounds in 
streams and springs, in striking contrast to the road by Fillols and 
the Col des Cortalets, which is for the greater part shadeless and 
arid. The day promised for the best when I leftLe Vernet at 5a.m., 
and continued fine until I was within half an hour of the top six 
hours later. At that time, however, a gale of wind had sprung 
up, and, though no rain fell, mist and cloud gathered upon the 
mountains, and were not dispelled until late in the afternoon. 
The circumstance was all the more disappointing, as I had hoped 
for at least three hours' collecting on the rocks where the higher 
Erebias are recorded. However, I did disturb a few fine specimens 
of typical E. lappona, close to the summit (9135 ft.), and, afcer 
fighting against a furious wind for about an hour on the way to 
the chalet hotel of Les Cortalets, I came to a sheltered stony 
waste just above the tree-line, where males of Erebia melas var. 
pyrencm, Oberth., were flying singly, and very difficult to catch. 
The one specimen netted I associate with this variety ; it is 
smaller than the forms of E. lefebvrei taken by me elsewhere, 
and there is no trace of the normal ocellations on the upper side 
of the hind wings. But Mr. Elwes (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1898), in 
his "Eevision of the Genus Erebia" has proved conclusively 
that Erebia melas, Hbst., does not occur in the Pyrenees, and 
Dr. Chapman has also determined that, organically, Erebia 
lefebvrei is a good species, with which therefore the vars. pyretuea, 
Oberth., and intermedia, Oberth., should be associated, and not, 
as in M. Bondou's list, with melas. The only other typically 
alpine butterfly I encountered on this occasion was Argynnis 
pales, flying over the alpine rose, now in full bloom, as was the 
dwarf broom — a combination of colour at once gorgeous and 
effective. Lower down on the route above Casteil, where I did 
most of my collecting, Euchhe euphenoides was not uncommon, 



246 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the females in fine condition, and showing some considerable 
variation from those caught by me on the Mediterranean littoral 
and at Digne. In my Vernet specimens the flush at the apex of 
the fore wings only shows obscurely and subordinate to the 
heavy black markings, whereas in all my lowland females the 
colour scheme is exactly reversed. Again, the contour of the 
wings appears to me to be rounder than is the case with speci- 
mens from Vesubie, Cannes, and Digne, and to approximate 
more closely in shape to that of E. eupheno from Algeria. Lastly, 
the suffusion of the lower wings is rather primrose than orange, 
and the black markings generally, as well as the discoidal spot, 
are more definite and pronounced. 

A visit to the Valley of St. Martin close by concluded my 
excursions at Le Vernet, but I did not come across Libythea 
celtis, which Struve reports as "not rare," though I am almost 
certain I put up a specimen of this interesting butterfly on the 
road to Casteil aforesaid. The valley and its approaches, how- 
ever, afforded excellent sport, Parndssius apollo and Chryso- 
phanus virgaurece, with Satyi-us circe, Goncpteryx clcopatra, and 
again Lccsopis roboris being abundant everywhere. 

From July 17th to July 22nd I added nothing to my bag, 
being engaged on an expedition to Andorra, though I should 
certainly have waited a day or two to explore the mountains 
about Montlouis (5280 ft.) had distances been less great and the 
weather more settled. With the last of the road from Villefranche 
to this place the southern character of the fauna changes, nor did 
I notice any butterflies other than of the commoner species on the 
ten hours' march through the tiny Republic, locked in the heart 
of the mountains, where the pastures were gay with the great 
purple Spanish iris, which is such a feature of the Pyrenees when 
once across the Mediterranean watershed. I was, however, already 
on the look-out for Lyccena pyrenaica, but the " blues " I saw on 
the Col de Puymorens were typical orbitulus, and, as far as I 
could observe from superficial examination on the wing, in nowise 
different from the orbitulus of the Alps. By the 21st — one of the 
hottest days I can remember, and spent for the most part in a 
slow stuffy train — I had changed my venue from the eastern to 
the central Pyrenees, and the next day, after a pleasant drive 
from Luz, cooled by a sharp and welcome thunderstorm, arrived 
at Gavarnie, where I remained until the 29th. 

The marked difference between the eastern and the central 
and western slopes of the Pyrenees cannot fail to impress those 
who make the journey of the chain from end to end. Le Vernet 
and the lower valleys around Perpignan are more or less Medi- 
terranean and meridional in the matter of flora and fauna. The 
almond shares with the vine the fruitful red soil ; the parched 
uplands are fragrant as gardens with the scented lavender and 
odorous herbs common to these regions. Crossing from Roussillon 



A BUTTERFLY HUNT IN THE PYRENEES. 247 

into the Cerdagne, and descending into Beam, the whole character 
of the country is transformed. The fields are thick with corn and 
maze ; the copses composed of beeches, hazel, and other wood- 
land trees familiar to English eyes; while patches of purple 
heather replace the cistus and the lavender upon the lower hills. 
Gavarnie itself stands at quite a respectable altitude (5085 ft.), 
but the best collecting ground is at least a thousand feet higher on 
either side of the famous "Cirque," to the eastward in the Vallee 
d'Estaube, to the west in the Vallee de Poueyespee. About two 
hours' walk up steep grassy slopes, on the morning of the 23rd, 
brought me to the best part of first-named locality, and I made 
a second expedition thither on the 25th. The day was eventful, 
for I took for the first time three butterflies not hitherto met 
with by me anywhere else, and the three which belong exclusively 
to the Pyrenees — Erebia lefebvrei (type), E. gorgone, and Lycana 
pyrenaica. The former I found here, as elsewhere, on the stony 
"shoots" of loose stones which lie just under the snow patches 
at an elevation of perhaps 7500 ft., and I found the chase as 
difficult, as tiring, and as elusive as of that Erebia glacialis 
var. nicholli of Campiglio which the males so closely resemble 
as to have deceived the most experienced entomologists into 
considering the two identical. Superficially no doubt the re- 
semblance is near enough ; but the females — which, unlike 
glacialis, were at least as frequent as the males — exhibit a 
very marked contrast both to those of var. nicholli or of var. 
alcc'to. My series from this valley and from the Poueyespee 
— where it was much commoner and came lower down, but was 
distinctly smaller and brighter — is composed of strongly coloured 
specimens, with the ocellations well marked on a bright band of 
reddish chestnut. M. Oberthur has made this form the type, 
but the richness of pigmentation and the number of eye-spots is 
extremely variable, and I can by no means determine from the 
thirty or forty odd specimens captured at Gavarnie where his 
var. intermedia is intended to begin and where to end. Mean- 
while, it is perhaps worth noting that whereas E. lefebvrei was 
taken only riving or settling on the stones, where E. gorge was 
also not uncommon, the closely allied E. gorgone was wholly 
confined to the grassy hillocks and slopes, where it occurred in 
profusion ; and above the Lac de Gaube at Cauterets, where I met 
with it again, it exhibited the same peculiarity. Some of the 
males certainly bear an extraordinary resemblance to those of 
gorge on the under side, but there is no mistaking the females 
with the pronounced white venation. Gorge is here also a much 
finer insect than the familiar types of the Alps, though M. Rondou 
avers that farther east it approximates closely to the form taken 
on the Puffelberg. The ab. erinnys, Esp., in which the apical 
eyes are obsolete, or nearly so, and the var. triopes, Spr., how- 
ever, have not been reported so far. Aud it is also noteworthy 



248 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

that while all specimens seen or taken of E. tyndarus apper- 
tain to var. dromus, H.-S., examples of E. lappona correspond 
invariably to Graslin's bandless ab. sthennyo, the type appar- 
ently not occurring west of the Canigou region. I was not 
fortunate enough to take more than a half-dozen L. pyrenaica at 
Gavarnie, and they were all males, the brood evidently being 
hardly yet emerged ; but they are enough to illustrate the marked 
differences of shape and coloration as between it and the closely 
allied orbitulus. L. pyrenaica, again, which has a special taste 
for animal droppings, is by no means confined to the heights, 
for among the many butterflies collected together on a muddy 
piece of the way to the Cirque just outside Gavarnie, I could one 
day have taken several had not an intrusive mule splashed into 
the middle of the covey ! Carcharodus lav ate r a also swarmed at 
the same place, and I had no less than half a dozen in my net 
at the same moment, though I found scarcely one of them to be 
in cabinet condition, and pill-boxing this species generally ends 
in the prisoner dashing itself to pieces. 

An excursion to the Vallee d'Heas was, entomologically 
speaking, a failure, redeemed, however, by the spectacle of 
countless flights of Parnassius apollo ; nor did the long weary 
tramp back to Gavarnie over mountain pastures burnt brown 
afford a compensation. But the Vallee de Poueyespee was pro- 
ductive enough to encourage a second visit, and here I met 
Colias phicomone, E. var. cassiope, nice well-marked examples 
which may be referred to var. pyrenaica, H.-S., and some more 
fine females of E. lefebvrei, the best, however, being confined to 
a sort of rocky amphitheatre high up on the right bank of the 
Gave des Tourettes, where a snow-fed torrent descends from Les 
Sarradets. Slightly lower down occurred also M. parthenie var. 
varia, with occasional A. pales, and a very distinctive form of 
E. tyndarus var. dromus. 

I left Gavarnie and the comfortable Hotel des Voyageurs with 
regret, but already the sands of holiday time were running out, 
and I wished for a glimpse at least of Cauterets before turning 
my homeward footsteps towards Biarritz. The most interesting 
route from Gavarnie lies across the mountains by the Ptoute du 
Vignemale ; but a multiplicity of baggage, a camera, and my ento- 
mological apparatus precluded the dispatch of fragile impedimenta 
round by Pierrefitte, so I took the road and the electric railway 
in the ordinary way. A single fine day, however, at the Lac de 
Gaube was destined to be the finale of my mountain experiences, 
and I climbed thither with the more eagerness, inasmuch as 
M. Kondou had informed me of the discovery there a few days 
previous by M. Oberthur of L. zephyrus var. lycidas, a Lycamid 
hitherto not known to inhabit the Pyrenees. But, though I 
hunted diligently over the ground for three hours, I am unable 
to confirm this interesting news personally, and I conclude that 



NEW GENUS OF HEMITELINI FROM CAPE COLONY. '249 

I did not go high enough above the torrents which feed the 
lovely lake, and beside which lycidas had been observed and 
captured. But I turned up some interesting species all the 
same — Pieris callidice, larger and more vividly marked with 
green on the under side than Stelvio and Swiss specimens in my 
collection ; L. eros ; and some fine M. dicti/nna, darker and 
more intensely banded than any yet encountered. Unfortunately 
the next two days were wet, and on August 1st I was due in 
Biarritz. 

(To be continued.) 



A NEW GENUS OF HEMITELINI (ICHNEUMONLD.E) 
FKOM CAPE COLONY. 

By P. Cameron. 

I have had for some time under observation an ichneumon 
whose systematic position was not at all clear to me. The recent 
examination of some fresh material has enabled me to refer it 
to a new genus of Hemitelini, allied to Lienella, Cam. It is 
readily known from all Ichneumonidae by there being only three 
abdominal segments, and by the last being stoutly spined 
laterally. The form of the abdomen reminds one of the Braconid 
genus Spinaria. The Hemitelini without an areolet (as in the 
present genus and in Lienella) appear to be well represented in 
Cape Colony. 

Acanthoprymnus, gen. nov. 

Abdomen with three segments of equal size, the apex of the last 
transverse, the sides ending in a sharp spine ; the first segment broad 
at the base, half the width of the apex ; there are two stout keels 
down the centre. Wings without an areolet ; the recurrent nervure 
is received distinctly beyond the transverse cubital ; the transverse 
median received shortly beyond the transverse basal. Transverse basal 
nervure in hind wings broken distinctly below the middle. Median 
segment short, areolated, the areola large, 6-angled, obliquely narrowed 
towards the base, the apex transverse ; there are two large area on 
either side of it ; the apex is bordered by a stout keel. The whole 
segment is stoutly striated ; its spiracles are small, oval — its base is 
deeply depressed. Scutellum keeled at the base. Parapsidal and 
pleural furrows deep. There is a distinct malar space. Hinder ocelli 
separated from the eyes by about the same distance as they are from 
each other. Occiput margined. The clypeus is not separated from 
the face; there is a distinct fovea on either side of it ; its apex trans- 
verse. Mandibles with a minute subapical tooth. There is a broad 
curved transverse furrow on the middle of the second, and a narrower 
one on the third. Wings uniformly fuscous. Discoidal cellule closed 
at apex. The antenna} unfortunately are broken off. 



250 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Acanthoprymnus violaceijjennis, sp. nov. 
Black; the pro- and mesothorax red; the apex of the last abdo- 
minal segment and the spines white ; the four front legs, except at 
the base, rufo-testaceous ; the hinder black, with the basal fifth white. 
Antennal scape dark rufous, as are also the mandibles ; the palpi dark 
testaceous. ? . Length, 7 mm. 

Face and clypeus closely rugose, intermixed with strife ; the vertex 
and upper part of front much more coarsely rugosely punctured ; the 
lower part of the depressed front closely, strongly, transversely striated. 
Temples wide, obliquely narrowed. Mesonotum transversely, irregularly, 
rugosely striated ; the sides punctured. Scutellar depression deep, wide, 
with four stout keels ; the scutellum deeply, bun not very closely, punc- 
tured. The basal depression of the metanotum stoutly, closely striated ; 
the areola has a long central and a shorter lateral keel ; the others are 
closely, irregularly reticulated-striated. Pro- and mesopleura3 closely, 
strongly punctured, more or less striated ; the metapleune closely, 
rugosely reticulated. The first abdominal segment between the keels is 
stoutly striated, the strife clearly separated ; the sides are in two parts, 
separated by an oblique keel ; the apical part is the larger, and is 
more depressed ; both are irregularly, obliquely, widely striated ; the 
other segments are closely, strongly, longitudinally striated ; the 
degression on the second segment is more widely striated ; the 
longitudinal stride are intersected by finer transverse ones, forming 
reticulations ; the white apex, between the spines, is smooth. The 
alar nervures and stigma are black ; the latter is narrowly white at 
the base. Tegulse red. The sides and middle of the mesosternum 
are black. 



RHOPALOCERA AT BARCELONA, MONTSERRAT, AND 
VERNET-LES-BAINS. 

By R. S. Standen, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Barcelona. 

What made us select Tibidabo as the scene of our operations 
I really don't quite know. At first I think we were captivated 
by a sort of quaint ring about the name, and we kept on repeat- 
ing it to ourselves — at least I did — like schoolboys. Then it was 
the highest ground, with a rough scrubby look about it, within 
easy reach of the city. There was an electric tram to the very 
foot of it — about three miles distant — and on the top, as we 
afterwards discovered, a restaurant of great restorative powers 
after a two hours' climb in the sweltering heat. We collected 
for two days (May 30th and 31st) on this hillside on our way to 
Majorca, and again one day (June 12th) on our return. In 
these three days we took twenty-seven species of butterflies, 
which, although comparing unfavourably in point of numbers 
with three days' collecting in almost any Swiss valley, are inter- 
esting in so far that six of them are unknown in Switzerland. 



RHOPALOCERA AT BARCELONA, ETC. 251 

In one respect — viz., in the absence of water and the con- 
sequent xerophytic character of the vegetation — this locality 
had much in common with Majorca, and when we come to 
compare the species we tind that ten out of the thirteen taken in 
Majorca occurred here also ; and doubtless, with a wider search, 
the three absent species, G. rhamni, G. cleopatra, and E. ida, 
would also have been observed, which seems to confirm the 
theory — if any doubt ever existed about it — that the islands 
were formerly joined to the mainland. The dissolution of the 
partnership appears to have had a disastrous effect upon the 
isolated partner as far as Lepidoptera are concerned. 

To me it was a great joy to see, for the first time, that lovely 
little thing Euchloe euphenoides on the wing. We were probably 
late for it, as I only saw two, but those two seemed to lift the 
parched-up landscape out of the commonplace into (I had almost 
said) a terrestrial paradise. Melanargia syllius, too, was new to 
me, and new also its method of flight, which generally left me 
much worsted in the race. But the most interesting capture was 
JMelitcp.a aurinia var. iberica, a large and beautiful endemic form. 
The butterflies captured here were as follows : — Papilio machaon, 
L. ; one fine specimen. Pieris rupee, L.; several. P. daplldice, 
L. ; several. Euchloe belia, gen. sestiv. ansonia, Hb. ; one only. 
E. euphenoides, Stgr. ; two males. Leptklia sinapis, L. ; several. 
Colias edusa, F. ; a few. Pyrantels cardui, L. ; occasional speci- 
mens. Melitcea aurinia var. iberica, Obth. ; abundant — a large 
and beautiful purely Spanish form, with a deep orange-red 
ground colour on both sides, many of them rather worn. M. 
yhoebc, Knock ; several, very fine. M. athalia, Eott. ; a few. 
Melanargia syllius, Hbst. ; common, but getting worn on our 
second visit. Pararge cegeria, L. ; common and fine. P. megcera, 
L. ; common and fine. Epinephele jurtina var. hispulla, Hb. ; 
abundant and fine, replacing the type. E.pasiphae, Esp. ; very 
abundant and fine. Thecla ilicis, Esp. ; a few. T. ilicis var. 
cesculi, Hb. ; one or two. CJirysophanus phheas, L. ; occasionally. 
Lampides telicanus, Lang ; one fine female. Lycana astrarchc, 
Bgstr. ; very common ; marginal row of red spots very bright ; 
finer if anything than the Corsican form. L. icarus, Bott. ; a 
few. L. cschcri, Hb. ; fairly common. L. coridon, Poda ; fairly 
common. Cyaniris argiolus, L. ; a few. Adopcea thaumas, Hufn. ; 
a few. Thanaos tages, L. ; a few, very fine. 

MoNTSERRAT. 

There was not much to detain us in Barcelona. Having, on 
our previous visit, exhausted our stock of adjectives over the 
wonders of the cathedral, with its magnificent cloisters and 
sacred ducks, over its fine promenades lined with palms and the 
oriental sycamore, and its bewildering network of trams, Jones 
and I decided to do a pilgrimage to the monastery of Montserrat. 



252 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Nicholson was still staying on for three or four days in Majorca, 
to tear a few more mosses off the rocks, to try to run to earth 
some of the talayots, a kind of dolmen for which the south of the 
island is famous, and to visit the stalactite caves at Manakor. 
A journey of two hours brought us to the main line station of 
Montserrat, whence we embarked on a "funiculaire," and 
crawled up in serpentine fashion to the monastery, taking just 
an hour to cover the five miles. 

The vast agglomeration of buildings was so ensconced in a 
towering amphitheatre of conglomerate rocks that we only became 
alive to their existence on arriving at the little station below the 
church. A uniformed official was there to escort us to the bureau, 
where the reverend father who presided at the office-desk allotted 
to us a fairly spacious cell in the block dedicated to Santa Teresa 
de Jesus. On the ground floor of this block, in a dark arcade, 
was a series of little shops, where pilgrims who catered for them- 
selves could purchase all necessary comestibles and cooking 
apparatus, and this was supplemented every morning by a vege- 
table and fruit market outside. For those to whom, like our- 
selves, the culinary department was an unfathomable mystery, 
there was an excellent restaurant at one end of the courtyard. 
We lost no time in testing its capacities for the midday meal, 
and then set out with our nets for a ramble up the western slope, 
which towered up to 4000 ft. — 1000 ft. above the monastery 
itself. The way was arduous and long, but we were always 
buoyed up with the hope of a possible Erebia — if not new to 
science, at least with characteristics befitting the isolated situa- 
tion of the vast pile of limestone on which we stood. It was no 
doubt a futile hope at this comparatively low elevation, and our 
toil went unrewarded. In a round of about five miles our captures 
were limited to a few Lycczna astrardie, L. icaras, L. coridon, 
Melitcea aurinia var. iberica, and Pararge megeera. 

We got back just in time for vespers at the magnificent 
Basilica attached to the monastery. In the choir were about 
thirty boys and twenty monks. The entire service, which lasted 
rather over the hour, was choral, accompanied by a fine organ, 
and the music was some of the most wooing and soul-enthralling 
I ever listened to. It is said that nothing finer can be heard 
out of Madrid, and we attended the same service on the two 
following days. 

There are only two roads out of Montserrat, one east and the 
other west, and, as we had already explored the latter, with 
divergences to right and left, and a minimum of success, we 
now decided to take the eastward road, which brought us in 
about four miles to the Convent of St. Cecilia. Collecting here 
was of a very different character, and, if the number of species 
was not very great, many of them were very abundant. First 
and foremost among these were Melitcea aurinia var. iberica, a 



RHOPALOCERA AT BARCELONA, ETC. 253 

very fine form, already mentioned as occurring at Barcelona ; 
then came Euchloe euphenoides, very fresh and fine, the males 
preponderating largely over the females ; next, in point of num- 
bers, Lyccena astrarche, L. icarus, L. coridon, Leptidia sinapis, 
Melitcea athalia, Pararge cegeria, P. megcera, P. mcera, and Melan- 
argia syllius, The road was flanked on our left with huge over- 
hanging pudding-stone rocks, and on the right stretched away a 
rich warm-coloured panorama of alternating broken ground 
and cultivated fields, terminating with the limitless horizon of 
the sea. 

So attractive was this route, so soft the air, and so delightful 
the intervals of shade afforded by the trees which here and there 
intercepted our view across the plains, that we decided to devote 
to it our third and last day also. On this occasion we extended 
our walk for about a couple of miles beyond the convent, and 
were rewarded with a few solitary examples of Colias edusa, 
Limenitis Camilla, Vanessa poly chloros, Thecla ilieis, and others. 

Near the convent was an excellent little restaurant, where we 
obtained an omelette, cutlets, bread and cheese, cherries, and 
delicious peaches brought up that morning from an orchard 
down below, with a delicious red wine and coffee, for the ridiculous 
sum of Is. 6d. apiece. On our way home we were treated to a 
line specimen of a mountain thunderstorm, and got fairly 
drenched, but in a quarter of an hour the sun was out as hot as 
ever, and we had walked ourselves dry by the time we reached 
the monastery. The next morning (June 16th) we returned by 
an early train to Barcelona. 

The butterflies taken at Montserrat were as follows : — Aporia 
cratcegi, L. ; a few. Pieris rapce, L. ; fairly common near the 
monastery. P. daplidice, L. ; one fine male. Euchloe euphe- 
noides, Stgr. ; male very abundant, female scarce. Leptidia 
sinapis, L. ; common. Colias edusa, F. ; occasionally. Gonepteryx 
cleopatra, L. ; not common. Limenitis Camilla, Schiff. ; two or 
three specimens. Pyrantels atalanta, L. ; one specimen. Vanessa 
poly chloros, L. ; one very fine specimen, just emerged, June 14th. 
Melitcea aurinia var. iberica, Obth. ; the most abundant butterfly 
on the wing, and for the most part in much better condition than 
those taken at Barcelona. M. cinxia, L. ; two specimens, paler 
than English examples. M. athalia, Eott. ; fairly common. 
Melanargia syllius, Hbst. ; occasional worn specimens. Pararge 
cegeria, L. ; fairly common. P. megcera, L. ; fairly common. 
P. mcera, L., gen. aestiv., Hb. ; one only, a very beautiful form, 
in which the fulvous area of both wings is much larger ; appa- 
rently a connecting-link with megcera. It occurs also at Vernet 
and in the Cevennes, and replaces the type in both places. 
Ccenonympha arcania, L. ; a few. Lyccena argus, L. ; three or 
four specimens. L. icarus, Rott. ; fairly common — one interest- 
ing variety. L. escheri, Hb. ; occasionally. L. bellargus, Rott. ; 



254 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

a few. L. coridon, Poda ; a few. Adopcea thaumas, Hufn. ; a 
few. Hesperia malvce, L. ; a few. Thanaos tages, L. ; occa- 
sionally. 

(To be continued.) 



A NOTE ON SOME SPECIES OF PEEPONA. 
Percy I. Lathy, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Herr Fruhstorfer, in the ' Iris,' 1905, pp. 304, 305, places 
P. garleppiana, Stgr., as a subspecies of P. neoterpc, Honrath, and 
places two other species, P. brooksiana, Godm., and P. deiphile, 
Godt., between that species and P. enagoras, Hew. 

This is incorrect, as enagoras, Hew., should follow garleppiana, 
Stgr. ; on the under side there is very little difference between 
neoterpc, Honrath, and enagoras, Hew., and garleppiana, Stgr., 
but these three forms may at once be separated from Godman's 
and Godart's species by the extremely irregular postmedian line 
of fore wing below. According to Fruhstorfers own showing, 
deiphile, Godt., cannot come between garleppiana, Stgr., and 
enagoras, Hew., as it possesses yellow tufts, while the latter 
species have dark brown, almost black tufts, and Fruhstorfer 
divides the genus into two sections by this character, Sect. B. 1 
with black, and Sect. B. 2 with yellow tufts. Garleppiana, Stgr., 
is more like enagoras, Hew., than neoterpc, Honrath ; in fact, 
the only way it differs from the former is that it has metallic 
blue bands on both wings above, but it possesses the submarginal 
orange spots and costal streak, both of which are wanting in 
neoterpc, Honrath. 

Fruhstorfer may not know the true garleppiana, Stgr., as two 
or three years ago several specimens of neoterpc, Honrath, were 
sent out by a German dealer as Staudinger's species. If this 
error was not corrected, it would have caused confusion. As 
I write I have before me Honrath's type and a co-type of 
Staudinger's, and I have also seen Staudinger's type at Dresden. 

I am inclined to think either that Staudinger was right in 
supposing garleppiana to be an aberration of enagoras, Hew., 
or that it is a hybrid between that and neoterpc, Honrath. 

Fruhstorfer gives Columbia as the only locality of P. prceneste, 
Hew. I am able to add New Granada, the original locality; 
Zamora, Ecuador, one specimen taken in July, 1886, by the 
Abbe" Gaujon ; and San Bemon, Peru, two specimens taken in 
July, 1903, by Watkins and Tomlinson, and one by Watkins 
in 1904. 

The specimens from the different localities exhibit slight 
differences. The Ecuador example has a much narrower red 
fascia on fore wings above, and both Ecuador and Columbian 



CURRENT NOTES. 255 

specimens want whitish spots beyond middle of hind wings 
below; while those from Peru have the red fascia as wide as in 
buckleyana, Hew., and the spots on under side of hind wings 
almost as conspicuous as in that form. The blue on the wings 
above is brighter in the Peruvian specimens. In one buckleyana, 
Hew., are three small red spots near margin above the fascia. 
There is little doubt that specimens will eventually be procured 
linking all the forms. 



CURRENT NOTES. 
By G. W. Kirkaldy. 



1. Haeckel, Ernst: "The Wonders of Life," translated by 
Jos. McCabe, pp. i-xi and 1-485 ; Harper, London and 
New York (Jan. 1905). 

2. Carpenter, G. H. : " Injurious Insects and other Animals 
observed in Ireland during the year 1903 " (Economic 
Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. i. pp. 219-66 ; pis. xxi-xxii ; 
text-figs. 1-7 (July, 1904)). 

3. Felt, E. P. : " Mosquitoes or Culicida3 of New York 
State " (Bull. N. Y. State Mus. [No. 79 ; Entom. No. 22] , 
pp. 241-400; pis. 1-57; text-figs. 1-113 [Diptera] 
(1904)). 

4. Wesche, W. : "Some New Sense Organs in Diptera" 
(J. Quekett Micr. Club (2), ix. pp. 91-104; pis. 6 and 7; 
6 text-figs. (Nov. 1904)). 

5. Breddin, G. : " Rhynchoten aus Ameisen- und Termiten- 
bauten " (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xlviii. pp. 407-16 ; 1 
text-fig. (1904) [Hemiptera, Hymen., Neuroptera] ). 

6. Bueno, J. R. de la Torre : " Notes on Tlydrometra 
lineata, Kirk. (= lineata, Say) " (Canad. Entom. pp. 12-15 ; 
text-figs. 3-4 (Jan. 1905) [Hem.]). 

7. Arrow, G. J.: "Sound-production in the Lamellicorn 
Beetles" (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, pp. 709-50; pi. 36 
(Dec. 23rd, 1904) [Coleoptera]). 

8. Manders, N. : " Some Breeding Experiments on Catopsilia 
jjijranthe and Notes on the Migration of Butterflies in 
Ceylon" (op. cit. pp. 701-8; pis. xxxiv-v [Lepidoptera] ). 

9. Green, E. E. : " Notes on Australian Coccidse," &c, No. 1 
(Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxix. pp. 462-5 ; pi. xvii. 
(Dec, 16th, 1904) [Hem.] ). 

10. Goding, F. W., & Froggatt, W. W. : " Monograph of the 
Australian Cicadidre" [op. cit. pp. 561-670; pis. xviii-xix 
(Dec. 16th, 1904) [Hem.]). 

11. Girault, A. A. : " Anasa tristis, De G. ; History of Con- 
fined Adults ; Another Egg Parasite " (Ent. News, xv. 
pp. 335-7 (Dec. 1904) [Hem., Dipt., Hymen.]). 



256 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

12. Muckermann, H. : " Formica sanguinea subsp. rubicunda, 
Em., and Xenodusa cava, Lee. ; or the Discovery of 
Pseudogynes in a District of Xenodusa cava, Lee." (op. cit. 
pp. 339-41; pi. xx [Hymen., Coleopt.] ). 

13. Handlirsch, Anton : " Zur Systematik der Hexapoden " 
(Zool. Anzeiger, xxvii. pp. 733-59 (July 12th, 1904) ). 

Haeckel's " Wonders of Life " (1) is a supplementary volume 
to " The Riddle of the Universe," dealing more particularly and 
fully with certain biological problems and phenomena, and is a 
work that no thoughtful entomologist can afford to lay aside 
without study. The book is divided into four sections, viz. 
Knowledge of Life, Nature of Life, Functions of Life, and 
History of Life. Apart from a general consideration of certain 
phenomena, there are many entomological notices, as, e.g., in 
the chapter on Reproduction. Prof. Carpenter's report (2), the 
price of which is nominal, should be in the hands of every 
British entomologist. Some fourteen insects, belonging to five 
orders of insects and to the Acarina, are treated of in detail. The 
plates represent photos of Gortyna ochracea (Lep.), Chionaspis 
salicis (Hem.), &c. 

Felt (3) furnishes a full and detailed account of the mos- 
quitoes of New York State, considered systematically, biologically, 
and economically ; elucidated by three hundred and thirty-one 
separate figures. Although treating of American species, the 
work will be indispensable to British students. 

Breddin (5) describes a number of Neo-tropical, Oriental, and 
Sudanese ant- and termite-nest living Hemiptera, including a 
number of immature forms. Bueno (6) extends the observations 
of Martin * on the life-history and habits of the North American 
Hydrometra martini, and finds that the more southern var. 
australis of Say is a good species, figuring the male genital 
segments of both forms. 

Green (9) describes an interesting Coccid, Antonina australis, 
from nut-grass (Cyperus rotundas). This nut-grass has recently 
found its way into Honolulu, where it is a terrible nuisance. 
Green designates it "n. sp." ; at least two previous descriptions 
have, however, appeared in print, the earliest being in Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xxviii. p. 686 (April 28th, 1904). Goding and 
Froggatt (10) have monographed the Cicadidae of the Australian 
continent. There are one hundred and nineteen species distri- 
buted among twenty-one genera ; four genera and forty- seven 
species are described as new. Melampsalta, Kolenati, should be 
replaced by Cieadetta of the same author. 

Girault (11) observed Hadronotus carinatifrons, Ashmead, 
ovipositing in the eggs of the American Lygalid Anasa tristis ; 

* See 'Entomologist,' xxxiii. pp. 175-6 (June, 1900). 



CURRENT NOTES. 



257 



at another time a tacbinid fly issued from the abdomen of a 
female Anasa which had previously copulated. 

Arrow (7) gives an interesting account of sound-producing 
organs in Lamellicorn beetles, a large proportion being novel. 
There is an appendix of two new genera and seven new species, 
and a list of stridulating Lamellicorn genera. 

Manders (8) briefly discusses the migration of butterflies in 
Ceylon, illustrated by a map (pi. xxxv.). 

Handlirsch (13) devotes considerable attention to the syste- 
matics of the Hexapoda, in particular with regard to Boerner's 
peculiar views. Without going deeply into the paper, which would 
indeed require almost a full translation to do it justice, a repro- 
duction of the orders, &c, adopted will be of interest : — 

Class I. Collembola (Lubbock). 
Order 1. Arthropleoua (Boerner). 
,. 2. Syrnphypleona (Boerner). 

Class II. Campodeoidea, Handlirsch. 
(— Archinsecta, Haeckel.) 
Order 1. Dicellura (Haliday). 
,, 2. Rkabdura (Silvestri). 

Class III. Thysanura (Latr.). 

Subclass 1. Orthopteroidea, Handlirsch. 

Order 1. Orthoptera (Olivier). 

,, 2. Pkasmoidea, Handlirsch. 

,, 3. Dermaptera (De Geer). 

,, 4. Diploglossata, Saussure. 

,, 5. Thysaiioptera, Holiday. 



Subclass 2. 

Order 1. 

,, 2. 

„ 3. 

» 4. 

„ 5. 

.. 6. 

Subclass 3. 

Order 1. 

Subclass 4. 

Order 1. 

„ 2. 



Blattffiformia, Handlirsch. 
Mantoidea, Handl. 
Blattoidea, Handl. 
Isoptera, Comst. 
Corrodentia (Burnt.). 
Mallophaga (Nitsch). 
Siphunculata, Meinert. 

Hymenopteroidea, Handl. 
Hymen optera, Linn. 

Coleopteroidea, Handl. 
Coleoptera (L.). 
Strepsiptera, Kirby. 



entom.- 



Subclass 5. 
Order 1. 

Subclass 6. 
Order 1. 
-OCTOBER, 1905. 



Embioidea, Handl. 
Ernbiaria, Handl. 

Perloidea, Handl. 
Perlaria, Handl. 



258 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Subclass 7. Libelluloid6a, Handl. 
Order 1. Odonata, Fabr. 

Subclass 8. Ephemeroidea, Handl. 
Order 1. Plectoptera, Pack. 

Subclass 9. Neuropteroidea, Handl. 
Order 1. Megalopterre (Latr.). 
,, 2. • Bhaphidioidea, Handl. 
,, 3. Neuroptera (Linn.). 

Subclass 10. Panorpoidea, Handl. 
Order 1. Panorpatre, Brauer. 

,, 2. Pbryganoidea, Handl. [=|| Trichoptera. 

,, 3. Lepidoptera, L. 

,, 4. Diptera, L. 

,, 5. Suctoria, He Geer. 

Subclass 11. Heruipteroidea, Handl. 
Order 1. Hemiptera (L.). 
„ 2. Homoptera (Leach). 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Pupation of Smerinthus tilis:. — On August 27th, while taking a 
short stroll iu "Warmer, I found a Coss-Hs-infected elm, in the bark of 
which were holes through which the moths had made their exit. On 
removing the bark from one of these holes I, of course, found the 
cocoon of ligniperda, hut in it I found a perfect and apparently newly- 
turned pupa of tilice. The pupa was very lively, and certainly a fresh 
one. Surely this is a singular method of pupation for this insect ? — 
E. A. Jackson; Hollingbourne, September 9th, 1905. 

A new Pest of the Orange. — Last May, Professor V. A. Clark sent 
me a larva which was eating the leaves of orange trees at Phoenix, 
Arizona, doing some damage. Only the young trees were affected, the 
old ones going unharmed. I bred the moth in due course, and it proves 
to be Chloridea obsoleta (Fabr.) var. umbrosa (Grote) — more generally 
known as Heliothis armigera umbrosa. The insect is common, but I had 
not before known it to attack the orange. — T. D. A. Cockerell. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Notes on the Season 1905. — Although I have not taken any 
special notice of the Rhopalocera during this season, except, perhaps, 
of the Hesperids, I think more butterflies have come under my notice 
this year in England than for many years past. Almost every plant 
of Bhamnus noted in Surrey or Sussex was tenanted by Goneptenjx 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 259 

rhamni, either in the egg or larval stage. Perhaps the spring brood 
of Cyanins araiolus was not quite so common in Chiswick as it was a 
year or two ago, but some specimens were seen of the July brood, 
which is here usually very scarce. Pieris rapes, has been as abundant 
as usual, but P. napi and P. brassica have not perhaps occurred in 
their usual quantity in this neighbourhood. Ccenonympha pamphilus 
was very abundant in Richmond Park, and Aphantopus (Epinephele) 
hyperanthus in plenty at Chalf'out Road. But perhaps the most 
unusually abundant species is Aglais (Vanessa) urtiew. The first seen 
was at Clandon, July 15th, and several have been seen, even at Chis- 
wick, since. There were eight fine specimens, probing the blossoms 
of Sedum telephium, in the garden on September 13th. Though 
common enough elsewhere, such a congregation is rare within six miles 
of Charing Cross. Pyrameis atalanta, too, is certainly more numerous 
than it has lately been in this district. Pamphilus sylvanus was really 
numerous on Putney Heath towards the end of July. I noticed a 
specimen, on August 5th, resting quite exposed on a bramble-leaf, 
with the wings closed over the back while the rain was falling fast ; but 
though the leaf was wet, the butterfly was perfectly dry. I should 
have expected it would have crept under the leaf. Among the Hetero- 
cera the larvae of Phalera bucephala have been an exceptional plague in 
the gardens here, on rose, lime, and birch. Their habit of stripping 
certain branches on one side of the trees causes the shrubs to become 
very unsightly. The larva of Mamestra trifolii (chenopodii) has been 
quite common on its food-plant, but I have only seen one larva of 
Pelurga comitata. On the walls and fences in the neighbourhood a few 
Catocala nupta appear every year, but this year the number has been 
quite doubled. The larvae of Acronycta aceris have also been rather 
commoner than usual. This species, both here and on the Continent, 
appears to be quite suburban. After having been almost scarce for 
the last two or three years, the larva of Spilosoma menihastri is again 
becoming common. — Alfred Sich ; Corney House, Chiswick, Sep- 
tember 15th, 1905. 

Note on Second Emergences. — It would be interesting to know 
the experiences of other entomologists as to second emergences this 
season. I have had the following : — On August 20th, Stauropus fagi, 
and a few days later a second example ; Pterostoma palpina in August, 
date not noted; on September 11th, Hypena pruboscidalis ; and on 
August 2Gth I found a larva of Purthesia similis (auriflua) half grown, 
which spun its cocoon on September 2nd and is now a pupa, and the 
imago will doubtless emerge shortly. — Francis C. Woodbridge ; North- 
croft, Uxbridge. 

Partial Second Brood of Pseudoterpna bajularia. — On July 5th 
last, at 10 p.m., I took a female of the above, and obtained ova. These 
hatched on the 12th of that month, and were fed in a glass cylinder 
indoors on oak (the room faced north-east). Some of the larvae fed up 
much quicker than others — in fact, to-day, September 11th, to my 
great surprise, a beautiful male specimen (full-sized) emerged, and 
yet some of the larvae are still very small, and have every appearance 



260 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of hybernating as larvae. Is not this very unusual? — Arthur 
Bordu; 39, Elm Grove Koad, Barnes, S.W., September 11th, 1905. 

Sphinx convolvuli at Bournemouth. — I had a male specimen of 
S. convolvuli sent me on August 25th, which had been found resting 
on the front door of Linden Hall, Bournemouth, by the hall porter, on 
opening it in the morning. It was in good condition when found, but 
was sent to me in a small box, alive, and on its arrival it was much 
damaged. — C. B. Holland; 12, Lawson Boad, Sheffield, August 29th. 

Acherontia atropos in London. — This morning I have had a fine 
specimen of A. atropos brought to me. It was taken on the stone- 
work of Westminster Bridge. — J. Miller; 44, Longfield Street, 
Wandsworth, S.W., September 1st, 1905. 

Plusia moneta in Lewisham. — On the evening of August 29th last 
Mrs. Chittenden was passing under the electric lights in High Street, 
Lewisham, when she saw a moth flying just above the pavement. 
Clasping hands together, she caught the insect, and brought it home. 
I at once saw that it was a specimen of P. moneta, and, although it 
was damaged, the fringes were in good condition. — D. Chittenden ; 
98, Court Hill Boad, Lewisham, S.E. 

Second Broods of Lepidoptera. — Has it been noticed elsewhere 
that there were an unusual number of, apparently, second broods of 
Lepidoptera this year ? Such occurrences have been quite a feature 
in this district. — G. Brooks ; Ivyside, North Finchley. 

[Perhaps our correspondent will kindly supply further details, as 
the subject is of considerable interest. — Ed.] 

Notes from Essex. — I went over to Foulness on Sept. 22nd last, 
more for the purpose of having a look round than for specimen hunting. 
I noticed many webs of Porthesia chrysorrhcea on the whitethorns; a 
case of Epichnopteryx pulla on one of the sea-wall grasses ; a larva of 
Pseudoterpna smaragdaria ; two or three cases of Coleophora artemisiella, 
and evidence of the presence of Catoptria candidulana among the 
flowers of sea-wormwood; a larva of Cucullia asteris on flowers of 
sea-aster; and, on the church wall, a defunct pupa of Vanessa urtica. 
Although Foulness is rather difficult of access, I hope next season to 
see a good deal more of it. The fine show of Aster tripolium was, in 
my opinion, well worth the visit, apart from the novelty of half an 
hour's drive across the sands from Wakering Stairs. — F. G. Whittle ; 
7, Marine Avenue, Southend, Sept. 24th, 1905. 



SOCIETIES. 



South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Julyldth, 1905.— Mr. Hugh Main, B.Sc, President, in the chair.— 
Mr. Joy exhibited larvae of Thecla rubi feeding on the berries of buck- 
thorn. He had also found them feeding on the buds of bramble and 



SOCIETIES. 261 

dogwood. They made holes to extract the contents. — Mr. Stonell, an 
Abraxas sylvata (ulmata) taken recently in the Clapham Koad. — Mr. 
Sich, the ova of Coleophora gryphipennella on a rose-leaf. It was an 
upright egg and abundantly supplied with gum. — Mr. Main, living 
larva? of Papilio machaon at different ages ; and also an old stem of an 
umbellifer, containing cells of a species of carpenter-bee. — Mr. Step 
distributed copies of the photograph of the members who attended the 
field-meeting at Seal Chart on May 27th. 

July 27th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Carr exhibited the 
larva? of Epione advenaria, from Seal. — Mr. Stonell, a putty-coloured 
larva of Odontopera bidentata, from Yorkshire ; and reported that he 
had taken a fair number of Canobia rufa at Worcester Park. — Mr. 
Main, a photograph of a colony of the larva? of Engonia (Vanessa) 
polychloros in the New Forest, from which larva? he had already bred 
more than sixty imagines. — Mr. Noad Clark, photographs of (1) the 
ova Coleophora gryphipennella on leaves of rose; (2) a much-magnified 
photograph of the micropyle of the same; and (3) the ova of Algeria 
(Sesia) chrysidiformis. — Mr. Sich said that the larva of C. gryphi- 
pennella was at first a true miner, boring direct from the base of the 
ovum into the leaf. 

August 10th. — The President in the chair. — Mr. Main exhibited the 
larva? of Hadena cuntigua, from ova laid by a female specimen obtained 
in the New Forest. The colour-variation was most extreme. — Mr. 
Sich, living larva? of (1) Nisoniades tages and (2) Syrichthus malvce, both 
feeding well on garden strawberry. They fed at night and retired in 
the daytime into " tents " of leaves loosely spun together. The former 
hybernated as a larva, the latter as a pupa. — Mr. West (Greenwich), 
two very local species of Hemiptera, taken at Yarmouth in July ; 
Gnathoconus picipes, at roots of violets ; and Chorosoma schillingii, on 
marram grass. Mr. Turner, (1) a species of Mdipoda which was very 
common at Gavarnie in the Hautes Pyrenees, and (2) a living speci- 
men of Locusta viridissima taken by him at the same place. A discus- 
sion took place as to the latter species, and it was considered to be 
carnivorous rather than vegetarian in its diet. — Mr. R. Adkin read a 
short note from Mr. Kirkaldy on " The Entomology of the Lowlands of 
Oahu (Hawaiian Islands)." — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Secretary. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Sept. 5th, 1905.— The President in the chair.— The Rev. G. H. Raynor 
and Mr. Charles Capper were nominated for membership of the Society. — 
Rev. C. R. N. Burrows exhibited living pupa? of Ochria ochracea taken 
in thistle-stems at Mucking, Essex; he remarked on the fact that in 
this district the species does not seem to feed on burdock (Arctium 
lappa) or mugwort (Artemisia vulgar is). ^-Mr. J. A. Clark, Lgcmia icarus 
from Folkestone, including abs. obsoleta and striata. — Mr. A. W. Mera, 
Acidalia rusticata bred from larva? reared on dandelion ; the specimens 
were generally considered to be larger than the average of captured 
imagines. Mr. Mera also exhibited Agrotera nemoralis from Brentwood, 
a capture he considered somewhat remarkable for this locality. — Mr. V. 
E. Shaw (on behalf of Mr. Newman, of Bexley), two hybrid imagines, 
the offspring of Notodonta dromedarius, female, and N. ziczac, male ; 
the exhibitor stated that part of the brood emerged in the autumn of 



262 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

1904, and proved to be all females ; while the balance hybernated as 
pupa, and 'emerged during May, June, and July, all being males.— 
Rev. G. H. Rayiior reported that the second brood of Cyaniris argiolus 
had been abundant at Maldon ; he found that the larva fed up readily 
on unopened buds of ivy. — Mr. C. P. Pickett, during a recent visit to 
Torquay, had observed large numbers of Pyrantels cardui and Vanessa 
urtictc visiting the valerian that grows on the rocks in this district. 

Sept. 19th.— The President in the chair.— Rev. G. H. Raynor and 
Mr. Chas. Capper were unanimously elected members of the Society. — ■ 
Rev. C. R. N. Burrows exhibited a very dark aberration of Notodonta 
ziczac, and a very pale form of Hadena sordida ; also living larvse of 
Cerura furcula, N. ziczac, Pterostoma palpina, Lophopteryx camelina, and 
Gastropacha quercifolia (all from Mucking, Essex). — Mr. J. A. Clark, a 
very pale ab. of N. ziczac and a dark specimen of Calymnia trapezina. — 
Mr. A. W. Mera, female specimen of Porthesia similis with a black spot 
at the base of fore wings. — Mr. W. J. Kaye, a bred series of Thccla 
pruni from larvae taken at Monkswood, Herts ; four examples of 
Macaria Kturata, ab. nigrofulvata, from Delamere, Cheshire; and a 
long and variable bred series of Zonosoma pendularia from Oxshott. 
Mr. Kaye mentioned that the emergence of the T. pruni extended over 
three weeks from June 15th onwards, and pointed out that three of 
the Z. pendularia were part of a second brood, the remainder of which 
was still in pupa. — Mr. C. P. Pickett, an abnormally large specimen 
of P. cardui, some unicolorous chocolate-coloured abs. of Ematurga 
atomaria, and several abs. of Lycama corydon, one of which had the 
dark marginal band on the right fore wing about twice as deep as that 
on the left wing. — Mr. V. E. Shaw, living imagines of Oenophila v-flava 
taken in a city wine-vault, the larvae of this species feeding on corks in 
wine-bottles ; also Spilote (Abraxas) grossulariata var. varleyata. — Rev. 
C. R. N. Burrows reported that sugaring in the Mucking haunt of 
Cirrhmdia xerampelina had proved a complete failure. — Mr. J. A. Clark 
recorded the capture of Peronea cristana in Epping Forest. — The 
Honorary Secretary drew attention to the fact that sugaring in the 
New Forest was now prohibited by order of the Deputy Commissioner 
of Woods and Forests in that district, the rangers having been 
instructed to daub clay on the sugar patches in the event of their 
warning to any individual lepidopterist being ignored. Mr. P. H. 
Tautz confirmed this by stating that he had been interrupted recently 
while sugaring in the Forest. — S. J. Bell, lion. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

A Catalogue of the ErycinidcB. By Levi W. Mengel. Pp. 161. 
Reading, Pa., U.S.A. 1905. 
The author of this valuable catalogue is to be congratulated on the 
completion of his laborious undertaking ; he has earned the thanks 
of all students of the Erycinidas ( = Lernoniida3, Kirby, = RiodinidsB, 
Grote). Although he holds the opinion that there are too many 
genera, and that the number of species should be much reduced, he 
leaves everything pretty much as he found it. 



KECENT LITERATURE. 263 

A Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Northumberland, Durham, and 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. By John E. Robson. Vol ii. — Micro- 
Lepidoptera. Part i. — Pyralidina and Tortricina. Pp. 106. 
[Natural History Transactions of Northumberland, Durham, 
and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Vol. xv., part i.] Williams & Nor- 
gate, London. 1905. 

Again we have to compliment the author on the very satisfactory 
manner in which he has brought his work to its present stage. 
"Micro" Lepidoptera are not favourites with the collector generally, 
and the consequence of this is that the distribution in Britain of the 
Pyralidina, Tortricina, and Tineina is only imperfectly known. This 
unfortunate state of things has created a difficulty with which Mr. 
Robson had to contend in the compilation of the instalment of this 
list under notice. He has managed, however, to get information as 
to the occurrence of nearly two hundred species of Tortricina in the 
area discussed. Under Pyralidina seventy-six species are treated, but 
of these some had been referred to in previous sections, and one or two 
belong to the Noctuina. We shall be glad to see the remainder of this 
important catalogue. 



The Insects of Jethou, pp. 1-3 ; The Insects of Herm, pp. 1-14 ; and 
the Fauna and Flora of the Samian Islands, pp. 1-6. 
The above are three reprints from the ' Transactions ' of the 
Guernsey Society of Natural Science for 1904. The first two are by 
W. A. Luff, but the third is without compiler's name. 



Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. 
Edited by John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. Vol xii., part 
iv, pp. 137-168. London : Dulau & Co. 1905. 
Among the contents are several papers on entomological subjects ; 
two of these deal with the Coleoptera found in the county, one by Mr. 
A. E. Gibbs and the other by Mr. E. George Elliman. The former 
author also gives some very interesting notes on Lepidoptera observed 
in Hertfordshire in the year 1904, a resume of which was published in 
this Journal last year (xxxvii. 139). There is also " Notes on 
Variation in Melitaa aurinia" by Mr. V. P. Kitchin, which is ac- 
companied by a plate. 



Transactions of the City of London Entomological and Natural History 
Society for the year 1904. Pp. 1-56. The Society : London 
Institution, Finsbury Circus, E.C. 
In addition to a large amount of exceedingly useful matter com- 
prised in the " Reports of Meetings," the present volume contains the 
following papers : — " Are the attacks of Lepidopterous Larva) beneficial 
to the plants they attack? " by Dr. Chapman; " Venusia cambrica and 
its Alles," and " Supplementary Notes on Cidaria," both by Mr. L. B. 
Prout ; and " Aid to the Study of Lepidopterous Leaf-miners," by Mr. 
Alfred Sich. All these are of much importance to the student, and 
will be of considerable interest generally. 



264 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



OBITUARY. 

We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr. Ambrose Quail at 
Tamworth, New South Wales, on the 11th of February, 1905, at the 
early age of thirty- three. 

He had to leave England some nine years ago owing to the 
breakdown of his health, and resided for some years at Palmerston 
North, New Zealand. Unfortunately a series of bad seasons caused 
a return of his complaint, and after a brief visit to England in the 
autumn of 1903 he returned to the colonies, obtaining some benefit 
from a short residence in Queensland, but dying six months after 
taking up work at Tamworth. 

Mr. Quail was a rising and brilliant student belonging to the 
newer school of lepidopterists, following the methods of Drs. Dyar and 
Chapman in larval and pupal description ; and there is no doubt that 
had he lived he would have occupied a place in the foremost ranks of 
entomologists. Added to great keenness of observation and wonder- 
ful patience in his researches, he was also possessed of remarkable 
skill as a draughtsman, as the profuse and beautiful plates illustrating 
his papers testify. His published contributions include several papers 
in the ' Transactions ' of the Entomological Society of London, others 
appearing in the pages of this Journal, ' Natural Science,' and the 
'Entomologists' Kecord.' He also contributed to the 'Proceedings' of 
the Eoyal Society of Queensland, and the 'Transactions' of the New 
Zealand Institute. The latest and probably best known of his work 
was that dealing with the Hepialidae and Cossida?, groups that had 
always been especial favourites, and which his residence in Australia 
and New Zealand afforded him special opportunities to study. His 
loss is keenly felt by all who were personally known to him, and it 
will be a matter of regret to the wider circle of his readers that so 
energetic and capable a personality was not longer spared to enrich 
the world's knowledge in his special line of research. 

John William Douglas passed away, at the ripe age of ninety 
years, on August 28th last. Although perhaps chiefly interested in 
Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera, almost all orders of the 
Insecta received some share of his attention. He contributed im- 
portant monographs and other valuable writings to the ' Transactions ' 
of the Entomological Society of London, the ' Entomological Magazine,' 
the ' Zoologist,' and the ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.' He was 
part author of the ' Natural History of the Tineina ' (13 vols., 1855- 
1873), and, in conjunction with Scott, produced ' British Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera' (1 vol., 1865). In 1856 he published 'The World of 
Insects,' a small but excellent entomological manual. He was co- 
editor of the ' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine,' and in this position 
he had been associated with the Journal from the year 1874, when Dr. 
Knaggs terminated his connection with it. He had been President, 
and also Honorary Secretary, of the Entomological Society of London, 
to which he was elected in 1845. Few men have done so much to 
foster or awaken appreciative interest in the world of insects. 



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Vol. XXXVIII] NOVEMBER, 1905. [No. 510. 


THE 


ENTOMOLOGIST 


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Vol. XXXVIII.] NOVEMBER, 1905. [No. 510. 



ABERRATION OF EUCHELIA (HIPOCRITA) 
JACOB MM. 




Mr. Forsythe, of Lancaster, has sent for inspection a most 
interesting series of E. jacobace that be had obtained in the early 
part of June last. In all the specimens the ground colour is 
much greyer than usual, some being especially pale in coloration. 
In these paler examples the hind wings are pale pink, the sub- 
costal streak and the two outer marginal spots being still paler 
pink. 

He also sent the specimen referred to ante, p. 185, and this, 
as will be seen by the excellent figure drawn by Mr. H. Knight, 
is a remarkable aberration of this usually constant species. The 
crimson subcostal streak is continued to subapical spot, and the 
immediate area below it is thickly powdered with crimson scales, 
as also are the outer and inner marginal areas. 

The late Mr. W. Fowler once sent, us a somewhat similar 
specimen of E. jacobcea, but it was without the crimson powder- 
ing on the marginal areas. 

Richard South. 



KNTOM. — NOVEMBER, 1905- 




266 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ORTHOPTERA IN 1904. 

By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

Though no addition was made during 1904 to the list of 
British Orthoptera, yet one event of more than ordinary interest 
i occurred in the rediscovery of the 

earwig Apterygida media (= albi- 
pennis) in Kent. About 1840, in 
June, the late Prof. Westwood took 
a few specimens near Ashford ; but 
the insect was not again met with, 
and it was feared that we could no 
longer claim it as British. About 
1889, however, Mr. J. Edwards 
took a pair near Norwich ; but 
again no more were taken, until 
Mr. A. J. Chitty found them plenti- 
fully in the autumn of last year in 
the same district in which West- 
wood obtained them more than half 
a century before. Mr. Chitty tells 
me that they occur throughout the 
district in suitable localities, which 
appear to be in the valleys where 
the soil is light and chalky, and 
where there is plenty of vegetation. 
They are generally on the sunny 
side of the valley, or at any rate sun seems necessary for them. 
A few were found in an old stump ; but they are generally 
obtainable by sweeping herbage, especially where plants like 
marjoram are growing. The largest haul was from some hop- 
bines after the hops had been picked ; but they had previously 
been swept from the sunny bank below the hedge of this hop- 
garden. The female is more abundant than the male. They 
occur with the common earwig, Forficula auricidaria. 

A. media is smaller and brighter in colour than F. auricidaria, 
and the male forceps are very different from those of the latter. 
The figure, however, will shew the difference better than a 
description. The male forceps of Chelidura arachidis resemble 
somewhat those of A. media, but arachidis is much smaller, 
and, being an alien from a warmer clime, does not venture out 
of doors in the two or three localities in which it is found. In 
ordinary circumstances A. media keeps its forceps spread open, 
not more or less closed at the tip, as is the custom with the 
common earwig. 

At Queenborough Commander Walker found Anisolabis annu- 
lipes and Chelidura arachidis still holding their own, while the 





ORTHOPTERA. IN 1904. 267 

same strenuous entomologist added Oxfordshire to the list of 
counties in which Forficula lesnei was known to occur, by taking 
it at Beckley on September 10th. 

Twice during August the locality near Christchurch was 
visited for the shore earwig, Labidura riparia, and specimens 
were found without much difficulty. Often their presence might 
be guessed by small holes in the sand leading under the stones 
beneath which they pass the day. When two are found together 
in one lair, they seem to be male and female. On being exposed 
to the li^ht the hind part of the abdomen, with the forceps, is 
often thrown back, giving the insect a very strange appearance — 
this being, no doubt, a " terrifying attitude." Several immature 
examples were found, one being very tiny. One such, obtained 
on August 12th, was very white, the point of the face and the 
tips of the forceps, however, being slightly darker, and the eyes 
quite dark. Some kept in captivity ate meat, rice-pudding, and 
banana, but would not touch grass. On one occasion, after 
fasting for twenty-four hours, a female seized a cinnabar moth 
(Euchelia jacobcecs) larva of fair size and commenced eating it at 
the head. It held the caterpillar with the forceps, and seemed 
to be purposely stretching it. Sometimes it appeared to experi- 
ence a difficulty in getting its forceps free. Another female came 
up, when a fight with the forceps commenced between them. 
They went more or less backwards to the attack, the head, how- 
ever, being turned a little on one side, so that they might see 
what they were doing. After a time two females and an immature 
specimen were eating at the same larva, but not then holding it 
with their forceps. Notwithstanding the fact that it was a 
cinnabar larva — orange and black — they ate of it greedily ; but 
another cinnabar larva put in with a male and a female was not 
touched, though left with them all night. 

As regards the cockroaches, little was noted. An immature 
Ectobia panzeri, which seems to be essentially a coast species, 
was taken in the south of the New Forest on August 26th. On 
September 8th Mr. H. Main gave me a prettily marked but 
wingless and apparently immature cockroach, which arrived in 
a sugar vessel from Java. It died without maturing on January 
5th, 1905. Mr. E. J. B. Sopp received from Liverpool Docks on 
December 30th five Blatta americana (including one large nymph 
and one female with ootheca protruding) and one Leucophaa 
sarinamensis. Apparently they were introduced amongst grain 
from San Francisco. No doubt numbers of Orthoptera are 
introduced in this way every year. It is always interesting to 
note them, but they are seldom likely to affect our fauna. 
Occasionally, of course, one may come to stay, as did Blatta 
orientalis, B. americana, B. australasice, and Phyllodromia ger- 
vianica, and as possibly L. sarinamensis may succeed in doing ; 
but climatic conditions are usually quite unsuitable. 

z 2 



268 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

It is not till about mid-July as a rule that we begin to find 
mature grasshoppers. In 1904 I noted them first at Oxshott on 
July 15th, the species being Stenobothrus viridulus, S. pwallelus, 
and Gomphocerus maculatus. At Merrow Downs, near Clandon, 
the somewhat rare S. lineatus was taken on July 26th (one 
female). S. rufipes was found on August 9th at one spot amongst 
heather by the side of a fairly open stream in the New Forest. 
It is perhaps usually found in the rides, or by the margin, of a 
wood. Mecostethus grossus was, as usual, plentiful in August in 
the New Forest, and was discovered in at least one entirely new 
locality. On September 11th, at Bookham Common, I for the 
first time met with Gomphocerus rufus. The male is readily 
known by the heavily clubbed antennae, the club being dark with 
a pale tip. In the female the club is much less pronounced, 
while the wings do not quite reach to the apex of the abdomen. 
In this latter point the females somewhat resemble the same sex 
of Stenobothrus elegans, but one glance at the pronotum will 
prevent confusion with females of that species. There were 
noted from Beachy Head Stenobothrus parallelus (E. Adkin), and 
in addition S. bicolor and S. viridulus (F. Stevens). Of the long- 
horned grasshoppers, Platycleis grisea was taken amongst the 
debris fallen from the cliffs near Milton in Hants ; and Rev. 
F. C. R. Jourdain reports Thamnotrizon cinereus as common at 
Broadwindsor, in Dorset, between September 15th and 17th. 
The last grasshoppers noted were Gomphocerus macidatus, Esher 
Common, Surrey, on September 21st, and Meconema varium, 
near Oxshott, on October 1st. Stenobotlirus parallelus, S. viridulus, 
and Gomphocerus rufus fed readily on grass in captivity, holding the 
blade with the fore legs, and eating downwards along the margin. 

Concerning the crickets there is nothing to relate, except that 
about half-grown specimens of Nemobius sylvestris were found in 
the New Forest in April. 

Description of Figoiies. — 1. Forceps of £ Forficula auricularia. 2. Forceps 
of $ Apterygida media. 3. Forceps of $ Chelidura aracliidis. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF 
BRACONID^E FROM CAPE COLONY. 

By P. Cameron. 

Holcalysia, gen. nov. 
$ . Antennae 26-jointed, longer than the body ; the joints elongate, 
the third distinctly shorter than the fourth. Mandibles bidentate; the 
upper tooth large, gradually narrowed, the lower short, bent inwardlv. 
Occiput not margined. Eyes large, oval; the malar space short. 
Parapsidal furrows short, narrow ; beyond them, and reaching to the 
scutellum, is a long deep depression or fovea, deepest in the centre 
and narrowed at the base and apex. Scutellum large, not much 



NEW BRACONIDiE FROM CAPE COLONY. 269 

raised. Post-scutellum raised, conical, clearly separated. Lower part 
of mesopleuraa with a large, long, deep depression or furrow. Eadial 
cellule long, reaching to the apex of the wings ; it issues from shortly 
beyond the middle of the stigma; the first abscissa is minute. Stigma 
large. There are two transverse cubital nervures ; the first cubital 
cellule is the smaller, the third the largest. Transverse median nervure 
received shortly beyond the transverse basal ; the recurrent nervure is 
interstitial. Second discoidal cellule open at the apex below ; the 
discoidal nervure is received beyond the recurrent nervure. The 
cubitus and radius in hind wings do not reach to the apex of the wing. 
Palpi long, slender ; the maxillary 6-jointed. The second abscissa of 
the radius is longer than the first transverse cubital nervure ; the 
cubital cellules are separated from the discoidal. The second ab- 
dominal segment is smooth and shining like the others ; it has no 
transverse furrow. The large radius is gradually narrowed towards 
the base and apex. In the hind wings there is a closed pnebrachial 
cellule ; below it are two cellules, a shorter closed basal and a longer 
apical one open at the apex below. 

Characteristic of this genus is the strongly tuberculate or 
raised post-scutellum. The only genus with this feature is 
Hoplitalysia, Ashrn., but that differs in some essential particulars 
from the genus here described. In the table of Szepligeti (Gen. 
Braconidfe, p. 202) my genus would run near to Phcenocarpa and 
Adelura, but these genera have not a tuberculate post-scutellum. 
The large deep central furrow on the apical half of the mesonotum 
is noteworthy. 

Holcahjsia testaceipes, sp. nov. 

Black, shining ; the outer orbits, except at the centre of the eyes, 
the inner more narrowly and more obscurely, the oral region and 
mandibles, rufo-testaceous ; the palpi and legs of a paler, more yellowish 
testaceous colour ; wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma black ; the 
apical and transverse nervures paler ; the antenna? are thickly covered 
with white pubescence. $ . Length, ± mm. 

Antenna? longer than the body, smooth and shining ; the meso- 
notum at the sides of the scutellum, the median segment and the 
basal abdominal segment closely, strongly aciculated. The large, 
wide mesopleural depression is also aciculated ; in it, near the middle, 
are two clearly separated, not very distinct, keels ; at the upper side 
of the apex is a distinct furrow ; the upper side of the apex is longer 
than the lower, it being obliquely sloped. The first abdominal segment 
is about two and a half times longer than wide ; the centre is raised ; 
the depressed sides finely, closely, longitudinally striated. 

New Names for Hymenoptera. 

Zethoides, Cam. (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxx. 93) non Fox = 
Plesiozethus, Cam. 

Nomia metallica, Cam. (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, 247) non Smith 
= N. Willeyi, Cam. 

Cerceris himalayensis, Cam. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Feb. 1905) 
nbii Bing. = assamensis, Cam. 



270 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

NEW AUSTRALIAN BEES, IN THE COLLECTION OF 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

By T. D. A. Cockekell. 

Paracolletes roseoviridis, n. sp. 

$ . Length about 8 mm. ; in all respects very close to P. carina- 
tulus, Ckll. (from Queensland), but differing thus : more robust, with 
a broader abdomen ; head, thorax, and abdomen yellowish green 
instead of blue-green, the abdomeu with the hind margins of tbe first 
two segments, and all the segments beyond, suffused with a rosy tint, 
which covers the fourth and fifth segments with a rich glow, and shows 
a little purple ; stigma more brightly coloured ; second submarginal 
cell less narrowed above ; second recurrent nervure joining third sub- 
marginal cell a little distance from its end (at its end in carinatulus) ; 
area of metathorax not only transversely carinate, but also with con- 
spicuous transverse grooves or deep stria?, especially just below the 
keel; hind tibiae and anterior tibiae in front, ferruginous, but the 
middle tibia?, and anterior tibia? behind, dark ; hind femora ferruginous, 
with the basal half strongly suffused with black. Other characters 
are : hair of face and thorax above light fulvous or orange-tinted, but 
that of vertex long and grey-black; flagellum brownish beneath, the 
last joint a little rufescent ; b. n. meeting t. m. ; first r. n. joining 
second s. m. at its middle ; wings clear ; tarsi ferruginous ; lateral 
pieces of genitalia shaped rather like the end of a finger seen in out- 
line, fuscous basally and subhyaline apically ; median piece with its 
rounded apical part dark reddish centrally, and hyaline at the mar- 
gins ; nearly the lower half of clypeus black, but the rest green. 

Hab. W. Australia, 68. 6. The numbers cited are the 
accession numbers of the Museum. 

Halictus dampieri, n. sp. 

$ . Length about 6 mm. ; head and thorax dark olive-green, the 
front and mesothorax dullish, with a satiny lustre ; apical part of 
mandibles reddish ; antenna? entirely dark ; clypeus shining black, 
with a few punctures, except its upper margin, which is broadly green ; 
tegula? rufous, blackened basally ; area of metathorax large but not 
well defined, coarsely granular, with an inconspicuous and minute sub- 
reticulate sculpture ; wings quite clear, brilliantly iridescent, stigma 
and nervures dark fuscous ; b. n. falling some distance short of t. m. ; 
first r. n. meeting second t. c. ; third t. c. and second r. n. very weak ; 
legs black, with white hair, yellowish on under side of tarsi ; claw- 
joints ferruginous ; hind spur with short stout spines ; abdomen dark 
green, practically hairless, except at the apex, though there is a fringe 
of hair along the lateral margins, at the dorso-ventral suture. With 
the compound microscope, the front and mesothorax are seen to be 
very minutely tessellate all over, with very few scattered shallow 
punctures ; the area of metathorax is evidently reticulate in the 
middle, the reticulations weakening and giving way to spots and dotted 
stria? laterally ; the surface of the abdomen is impunctate, and covered 



NEW AUSTRALIAN BEES. 271 

all over with very minute cross-striae, which are here and there joined 
by short lines, like the elongate cells in the stem of a plant. 

Hab. Queensland (Gilbert Turner ; Ridg. 5. 91, 706). Allied 
to H.floralis, Sm., but readily known by the dark colour of the 
thorax. From H. fiindersi and H. murrayi it is readily known 
by the granular (not coarsely wrinkled) appearance of the area 
of metathorax. It will be observed that this and the following 
species of Halictus are named after Australian explorers. 

The genus Halictus is so large, and many of the species are 
so much alike, that the ordinary methods of description are 
often unsatisfactory. I find that the use of the compound 
microscope reveals details of sculpture which are of great assist- 
ance in defining the species, and it seems that this method of 
examination should be generally employed. 

The small group of Australian species having metallic (blue 
or green) colours on the thorax exhibits the following micro- 
scopical characters : — 

(1.) Sculpture of front. — The front in II. dampieri is minutely 
tessellate, with very few shallow punctures ; in H. fiindersi and 
H. murrayi it is coarsely striate, but with this important differ- 
ence, that in fiindersi the striae are transverse just below the 
central ocellus, and just below this is a delta-shaped space 
without regular striae ; whereas in murrayi the striae run right 
down from the central ocellus, covering the surface. 

(2.) Sculpture of mesothorax. — In H. dampieri minutely tessel- 
late, with very few scattered punctures ; in II. fiindersi ? minutely 
tessellate, with short transverse plicae at the places of insertion 
of the hairs, becoming more distinct in the $ , which has quite 
long and very distinct plicae, more or less oblique. In II. murrayi 
and H. urbanus baudinensis the mesothorax is coarsely micro- 
scopically tessellate, with numerous distinct punctures super- 
imposed. For the most part these punctures are about as far 
apart as the breadth of one, or perhaps a little more distant. 

(3.) Sculpture of second abdominal segment. — In H. dampieri 
and H. fiindersi transversely striatulate, with oblique cross-lines, 
rather more numerous in the. latter. II. fiindersi also has some 
very faint punctures about the middle. 

Halictus fiindersi, n. sp. 
$ . Length 6 mm. or a little more ; head, thorax, and abdomen 
shining purple-blue, the upper part of the clypeus and the anterior part 
of the mesothorax peacock-green, and the face in general more or less 
green ; puhescence white, long, and abundant, the hairs with curled 
ends, on the under side of the abdomen, but elsewhere only moderately 
abundant ; apical half of mandibles dark reddish ; antennae dark, the 
flagellum dull reddish apically beneath ; mesothorax shining, with the 
median impressed line distinct ; metathorax truncate, the truncation 
with a sharp edge, the area strongly longitudinally (antero-posteriorly) 



272 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ridged; legs black, with quite abundant greyish-white hair, that on 
tarsi beneath yellowish, the basal joint of hind tarsi with a conspicuous 
little orange brush at its apex ; hind spur with three strong teeth ; 
tegulae shining piceous, more rufous behind ; wings clear ; stigma and 
nervures fuscous ; stigma very large ; basal nervure very strongly 
bent, falling a rather long distance short of t. m. ; first r. n. meeting 
second t. c. ; second r. n. and third t. c. subobsolete ; abdomen shining, 
almost free from hair above except apical segment, which is very hairy ; 
no hair-bands or patches. 

$ . Length scarcely over 5 mm., more slender ; abdomen darker, 
little metallic ; thorax greener, but vertex dark blue ; clypeus without 
yellow or white ; antennae coloured as in female. 

2 , var. a. Mesothorax and scutellum entirely Prussian-green. 

Hob. Queensland (Gilbert Turner, Seaf. 1. 90 ; 440 and 439). 
Both sexes, and the two forms of the female, were evidently taken 
at the same time and place. 

Halictus murrayi, n. sp. 

2 . Length about 5 mm. ; head and thorax dark blue, granular, 
and little shining ; clypens largely purplish ; anterior part of meso- 
thorax rather shiny, with blue-green tints ; legs and abdomen piceous 
or brown-black ; pubescence white, short and not dense, not forming 
bauds or patches on the abdomen ; apical part of mandibles reddish ; 
antennae black as far as third joint (the rest broken off); head broad; 
area of metathorax with strong ridges, the intervals wrinkled ; tegulae 
small, reddish ; wings clear, faintly dusky apically, nervures and stigma 
very dark brown ; stigma very large ; b. n. falling a long way short of 
t. m. ; first r. n. meeting second t. c, but a little on the outer side ; 
second r. n. and third t. c. very weak ; abdomen with much white hail- 
beneath. 

Hab. Adelaide River (J. J. Walker, 5138). Structurally 
allied to H. urbanus baudinensis, but that has the tegulae, tibiae, 
and tarsi clear red, which is not at all the case in murrayi. 
There is also some resemblance to H. inclinans, Sm., and H. 
limatus, Sm. 

The following series of species has the thorax black, not 
metallic* : — 

All the tibiae and tarsi clear ferruginous ; hind mar- 
gins of abdominal segments more or less pallid or 

reddish 1. 

Not so ; legs dark, and abdomen without colour-bands 2. 

1. Larger, abdomen with broad reddish bands (Melbourne) 

bicingulatus, Sm., 2 • 
Smaller, abdomen with obscure bands (Adelaide) . oxleyi, Ckll. 

::: While on black Halichis, I will take the opportunity of stating that 
Lucasius, Dours, the name of a subgenus of these bees found in Europe, is a 
homonym, and may be altered to Lucasicllus. The first use of the name 
Lucasius was in Crustacea (1859). 



A BUTTERFLY HUNT IN THE PYRENEES. 2?3 

2. Abdomen with distinct hair-bands, or lateral patches 

at the bases of the segments .... 3. 

Abdomen without hair-bands or patches. Spp. to be treated later. 

3. Size very small . hitmei, Ckll. 

Size medium 4. 

4. Male ; more hairy ; area of metathorax rugoso-re- 

ticulate ....... lanuginosus, Sin. 

Females ; less hairy; area of metathorax striate . 5. 

5. Thorax very coarsely sculptured (Victoria) . . gilesi, Ckll. 
Thorax finely sculptured (Hobart, Tasmania) . repmsentans, Sm. 

(To be continued.) 



A BUTTERFLY HUNT IN THE PYRENEES. 
By H. Rowland-Brown, M.A., F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 240.) 

The collecting ground here is not easy to discover at once, so 
much have the market and villa gardens encroached upon the 
heaths of late years. A morning at Anglet was wasted in the 
attempt to find a suitable country, and it was more by accident 
than intention that I struck a really good locality to the south 
of the town on the road to St. Jean de Luz, and hard by the 
Bois de Boulogne. I spent an afternoon and morning on the 
boggy slopes which extend from the pine woods to the bamboo 
swamps, now more or less composed of oozing mud. Among the 
heather Satyrus dryas was flapping heavily, while »S'. arethusa 
was enjoying a sun-bath wherever there was an interval of dry 
sand. But Ccenonympha cedippus, which haunts the damp and 
shady hollows, was nowhere to be seen. One worn female, 
however, which I kicked up from the grass, revealed the fact 
that I was too late for the species, and the same may be said 
of Heteropterus morpheus, for, though I took a dozen or so of 
these odd butterflies, they were nearly all worn to rags, and 
therefore liberated. Lampidcs boeticus, again, presented the same 
lamentable appearance, but among a host of Cyaniris argiolus 
I took a splendid fresh male Lyccena alcon, for which Biarritz 
is not given as a locality by M. Rondou, though Mr.Elwes men- 
tions it among his captures there in July, 1886. The next day 
the weather broke up, and, as there seemed no chance of an 
immediate improvement, I turned northwards on the 5th, well 
satisfied with the results of my wanderings, both entomological 
and otherwise. Not counting varieties and local forms, M. 
Rondou includes 158 species in his catalogue of the Rhopalocera 
of the Pyrenees. I took or observed 109 in what was little 
more than a fortnight's collecting, made up as follows :— 



274 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

PAPiLioNiDiE. — Papilio podalirius, P. machaon, Thais rumina 
var. medesicaste* (Vernet), Pamassius apollo. 

PiERiDiE. — Aporia cratcegi, Pieris brassiccs, P. napi, P. rapes, 
P. callidicc, P. daplidice (Villefranche), Euchloe cardamines* 
(Cauterets), E. euphenoides (Vernet), Leptidia sinapis var. dini- 
ensis (Vernet), Colias phicomone (Canigou and Gavarnie), G. hyale 
(Andorra), C. edusa, Gonepteryx rhamai, G. cleopatra. 

Nymphalidje. — Limenitis Camilla* (Vernet), Pyrameis atalanta, 
P. cardui, Vanessa io, V. urticee, V. polychloros, V. antiopa, Poly- 
gonia c-albnm, Melitcea phoebe, M. didyma, M. deione, M. athalia, 
M. parthenie and var. varia, M. dictynna, Argynnis selene (Cani- 
gou and Biarritz), A. euphrosyne, A. pales, A. dia, A. ino (Vernet), 
A. daphne, A. lathonia, A. aglaia, A. niobe and ab. eris, A. adippe, 
A. paphia, Melanargia lachesis and var. canigulensis, M. galatea, 
Erebia epiphron var. pyre naicaf and var. cassiope, E. stygne, E. 
evias (Vernet), E. lefebvrei] and var. pyrencea,\ and (?) var. inter- 
media^ E. gorgone,\ E. gorge, E. euryale* (Vernet), E. lapputia, 
and (Gavarnie) var. sthennyo, E. tyndarus var. dromus ; Satyrus 
circe (Vernet), S. hermione, S. alcyone, S. briseis* S. semele, S. 
arethusa, S. dry as (Biarritz), Pararge egeria, P. megcera, P. mcera 
and var. adrasta, Aphantopus hyperanthiis, Epinephele jurtina and 
(Vernet) var. hispulla, E. lycaon (Cauterets), E. tithonus (omitted 
from M. Eondou's catalogue, doubtless by an oversight, as it is 
common everywhere), Ccenonympha cedippus, C. arcania, C. pam- 
philus and var. lyllns. 

TuYCMmviE. — Lcesopis roboris (Vernet), Thecla ilicis and var. 
cesculi (Vernet), T. acacice (Vernet), Ghrysophanus virgaurece, C. 
hippothoe, C. alciphron var. gordius (Vernet), C. phlceas and var. 
eleus, C.dorilis, C. s ubalpina (Cauterets), Lampides bceticus, Lyccena 
argiades, L. argyrognomon (argus auctorum), L. baton (Gavarnie), 
L. orbitulus (Col de Puymorens), and var. oberthnri, Stgr.,f 
L. pyrenaicaf (Gavarnie), L. astrarche, L. eros (Cauterets), 
L. amandus, L. hylas, L. escheri, L. bellargus, L. corydon, L. 
minimus, L. semiargus, L. alcon* (Biarritz), L. avion, Cyaniris 
argiolus. 

Hesperiim;. — Heteropterus morpheas (Biarritz), Adopcea line- 
ola, A. thaumas, Augiades comma, A. sylvanus, Carcharodus lava- 
term, C. alccece, C. althcece, Hesperia carthami, II. sao, H. alveus 
and var. fritillum, Thanaos tages (Biarritz). 

The following forty-nine complete the species included in 
M. Eondou's catalogue : — Papilio alexanor* reported from 
Bayonne — probably an imported or escaped bred specimen, 
as it has not been observed south-west of the Ehone Valley 
so far as lean discover; Pamassius mnemosync; Euchloe belia, 
with vars. ausonia and simplonia; E. tagis var. bcllezina, very 

• : Single specimens only. 

| Not reported from the Alps of Central Europe. 



PHALONIA (argyrolepia) badiana. 275 

doubtful; Colias palceno, even more so; Apatura iris; A. ilia, 
with ab. clytie and ab. metis ; Limenitis sibylla ; Meliteea aurinia, 
with vars. provincialis and merope ; M. cinxia; Argynnis hecate ; 
A. pandora; Melanargia syllius ; Erebia manto and var. cacilia, 
Hb. ; E. oeme, with vars. ccecilia, Esp., and spodia; E. glad- 
alix var. alecto, Hb. ; .E. prono'e; E. neoridas and ab. v/wr- 
garita, Oberth.* (ranked as a species) ; E. cethiops ; Satyrus 
statilinus and var. alliouia ; $. jfofa'a ab. monticoia, Th. Mieg. ; 
S. acfcea and var. podarce ; $. cordula (ranked as a var. of 
aetata) ; Pararge hiera ; P. achine ; Epinephele ida ; £. pasiphae ; 
Coenonympka iphis ; C. dorus ; Libythea celtis ; Nemeobius lucina ; 
Thecla spini ; T. iv-album; T. pruui; Callophrys rubi ; Zephyrus 
quercus ; Z. betulce ; Lampidcs telicanus ; Lycana argus ; L. orio« ; 
Zj. eumedon ; L. damon; L. cyllarus; L. melanops ; Pamphila 
palcemon ; Adopcea actceon ; Hesperia proto ; iJ. serratulce ; //. 
cacalia ; and iJ. malvce ; to which must now be added Lyaena 
zephyrus var. lyeidas. 



PHALONIA {ARGYROLEPIA) BADIANA, Hu. 
By Eustace E. Bankes, M.A., F.E.S. 

Dr. T. A. Chapman's note (a/tta, p. 213) under the above 
heading, in which he says that he has recently bred this 
species from seed-heads of burdock {Arctium lappa), revives 
one's scepticism as to the accuracy of the statement published 
in Wilkinson's ' British Tortrices,' p. 292 (185'J), copied into 
Stainton's 'Manual,' ii. p. 270 (1859), and recopied into Meyrick's 
' Handbook,' p. 548 (1898), that the larva feeds in the " stems 
and roots " of Arctium lappa (burdock). The late Mr. W. P. 
Weston's statement in Entom. xiii. p. 295 (1880), that the larva 
feeds " in the roots " of A. lappa, is, I imagine, derived from the 
same source, in which case Wilkinson must be held primarily 
responsible for the widespread belief in the reputed larval habit 
in question, which has, so far as we are aware, received no 
confirmation during the last forty-six years. Snellen, in ' De 
Vlinders van Nederland,' Micro-Lepidoptera, p. 246 (1882), merely 
says of the larva, " According to Stainton it lives in the stems 
and roots of Arctium lappa," and remarks that it is "still un- 
described"; but four years later Sorhagen supplied the omission 
by publishing a detailed description of the larva in ' Die Klein- 
schmetterlinge der Mark Brandenburg,' p. 86 (1886). 

In opposition to Wilkinson's account of the larval habits 
we have, in addition to Dr. Chapman's recent experience, the 
following facts, recorded by some of our most careful and reliable 
observers. In Entom. xix. p. 295 (1886), Mr. Alfred Thurnall, 

'■'•' Single specimens only. 



276 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in his ' Notes on Micro-Lepidoptera,' says : "A. brtdiana, larvas in 
seed-heads of burdock beginning of October, with lappella. I 
fancy the books are wrong in saying that this larva feeds in the 
stems and roots of burdock. I can only find them in the seed- 
heads ; perhaps they gnaw into the roots or stems for the purpose 
of pupating." Mr. W. G. Sheldon also, in Entom. xx. p. 33 
(1887), remarks : " Argyrolepia badiana: what I presume to be 
the larva of this species was very common in the seed-heads of 
burdock {Arctium lappa) during September. Iu common with 
many another entomologist, I have searched long and diligently 
in the roots and stem for this larva (following the advice of the 
standard works on the subject), with, of course, no success " ; to 
which the late Mr. W. Machin replied, on pp. 110-1 : " I beg to 
say there are two species of larvae, viz., A. badiana and Parasia 
lappella, feeding in September in the seed-heads of burdock 
{Arctium lappa), both of which I have bred in some numbers for 
many years past. The larvae of A. badiana, when full fed, leave 
the heads and spin their cocoons amongst the rubbish at the 
roots of the plant. . . ." Again, Sorhagen {loc. cit.) says of 
this species : "The larva on Arctium Lappa, in the stems and 
roots (Stainton), or seed-heads (Maling*). I found it in September 
not infrequently in a meadow near a wood, in the seed-heads of 
Cirsium oleraceum, on the seeds of which Bossier had already 
guessed that it lived. The frass remains in the domicile. It is 
full fed before winter, and pupates in spring in its domicile." 
In Tutt's 'Practical Hints,' part i. pp. 83-4 (1901), we read, 
" The seed-heads of burdock {Arctium lappa) should be collected 
in September for the larvae of Argyrolepia badiana, which pupate 
among rubbish at the roots of the plant " ; this hint being 
doubtless based on Mr. Machin's note, which is quoted above. 
Lastly, in ' Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, Durham, and 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' xv. pt. i. p. 101 (1905), Mr. John E. 
Eobson remarks of .1. badiana, ". . . among burdock, on which 
the larva feeds. Meyrick says in the stems and roots ; Mr. 
Gardner says in the seeds. I believe it really feeds on the seeds, 
but pupates near the roots." 

A careful review and comparison of all the above evidence, 
which proves conclusively that the normal habit of the larva 
of A. badiana is to feed in the seed-heads of Arctium lappa (in 
Britain), or of Cirsium oleraceum (in Germany), and to pupate 
either amongst the rubbish at the roots of the food-plant (Machin), 
or else in its domicile in the seed-heads (Sorhagen), seem strongly 
to warrant the assumption that the old idea of its feeding in 
the "stems and roots" is a fallacy, which probably originated 
in its habit, observed by Machin, of spinning up near the roots ; 

• ;: Having failed to find or to trace through friends in the North of 
England, where Maling lived, the note by him to which Sorhagen alludes, I 
should be grateful if any one could give nie the reference to it.— E. E. B. 



RHOPALOCERA AT BARCELONA, ETC. 277 

for it seems impossible to believe that, in the case of this single- 
brooded species, the larva, which is indisputably addicted to the 
former method of feeding, would also adopt the latter. 
Isle of Wight : September 25th, 1905. 



RHOPALOCERA AT BARCELONA, MONTSERRAT, AND 
VERNET-LES-BAINS. 

By R. S. Standen, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 254.) 

Vernet-les-Bains, Pyrenees Orientales. 

On June 17th we left Barcelona for Yernet, a tedious journey 
of twelve hours' duration, including a wait of three hours at the 
fine old fortified town of Perpignan, the capital of the famous 
Roussilon country. And here we had another sample of the 
kind of thunderstorm that is manufactured in the south. The 
thunder and lightning were accompanied by such torrents of rain 
that in five minutes the streets were rushing rivers, and the 
natives, caught unawares, like drowning rats. Happily this 
storm and the one at Montserrat were the only rains we had 
during the five weeks we were away. 

It was dark when we reached Vernet, and we had seen nothing 
to prepare us for the enchanting prospect which greeted us the 
next morning. In front of us lay the public gardens — or park, 
as it is here called — with spreading lawns of the freshest of 
untrimmed grass, dotted about with large round beds of roses, 
and intersected with meandering gravel paths. On one side a 
mountain torrent tore along in a deeply channelled bed, a small 
kiosk crowning a huge pyramid of rocks piled up in the centre 
of it. Throughout the park, and all down one side of it, were 
grouped tall forest trees, through the openings of which could 
be seen two glistening sheets of water. Here and there were 
pretty decorative villas embowered in foliage, and all round the 
outskirts were some half-dozen large hotels — the Hotel du Pare, 
in which we were located, being one of them — a casino, and the 
grand Etablissement des Bains. Looking across the torrent the 
grim old town rose up, tier upon tier, dominated by the very 
ancient Eglise de St. Saturnin, and a still more ancient Roman 
keep; whilst immediately behind us towered Mont Canigou, 
9000 ft.— the highest point of the Eastern Pyrenees. 

The Rhopalocera of Vernet and Mont Canigou have been so 
well described and catalogued by Rondou, Oberthur, Elwes, 
De Graslin, and others, that there seems nothing left to say 



278 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

about them. It may be interesting, however, to any who may 
select the latter half of June for their visit to know exactly what 
species they may expect to find at that period, and the kind of 
localities in which they occur. 

We thought it best to work the lower elevations first, so we 
spent two long mornings in the scrubby plantations and low- 
lying meadows on either side of the road to the Villefranche 
station. 

Our joy over results was not precisely delirious here ; we 
were perhaps rather late for the successful working of these dry 
stony levels, and the only insect at all common was Ccenonympha 
arcania, in the little grassy and shrubby copses on the right- 
hand side of the road ; but neither of the vars. darwiniana or 
satyrion occurred. There were a few Aporia cratcegi, Melitaa 
athalia, one or two commoner blues, a Melanargia lacliesis, and a 
single very fine female Lceosopis roboris. 

The next morning we pursued a winding path through the 
shrubberies leading from the eastern corner of the hotel, which 
brought us in five minutes to an open sandy tract sparsely covered 
with Cistus, Lavandula stoccas, and several coarse grasses. A con- 
duit, which brought water down to the hotels, had in places over- 
flowed, and made damp patches on the sand. Here the lovely 
Papilio var. feisthamelii came to take her morning dip. Anything 
more dainty, more fascinating, than the evolutions in the air of 
this graceful creature before settling down on the wet sand it is 
difficult to imagine ; and so shy that, if the first swoop of the 
net failed, she never came again, and I am not sure that I have 
not more than once rejoiced at her escape. How different was 
the bold, dashing P. machaon ! Jones declares that he might 
have put his net over half a dozen at one time. Here, too, were 
Melitcea pliosbe and athalia, Pararge esgeria, Epinephele jurtina 
var. hi