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Full text of "The entomologist's monthly magazine."

FOR THE PEOPLE 
FOR EDVCATION 
FOR SCIENCE 



LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 



nil 



4 



THE 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S . 



MONTHLY MAGAZINE: 



C0J5DTJCTED BY 



H. G. KNAGGS, M.D., F.L.S. E. C. EYE. 

R. McLACHLAN, E,L,S. H. T. STAIJSTTON, F.R.S. 



VOL- V. 



" We mast take species separately, and study the nature of each." 

Aristotle, on Animals, Book I, chap. vii. 



LONDON: 

JOHN VAN VOOBST, 1, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



1 8 6 8-9. 



LONDON : 



PRINTED BY A. NAPIER, SETMOUB STBEET, EUSTON SQUARE. 



PREFACE. 



At the conclusion oi the fifth volume, we beg to express our thanks 
to our supporters, to whom is due the steadily increasing useful- 
ness of the Magazine ; hoping also that the termination of a second 
lustrum will find us enjoying then, as now, the same amicable relations 
with them, and the same unity of purpose amongst ourselves ; with 
the satisfaction of knowing that, in having constantly held in view 
the advancement of Entomology, we have maintained an independence 
of party feeling, the entertainment of which, even in the slightest 
degree, is fatal to scientific progress, and a thing to be eschewed by 
all true naturalists. 

"We regret exceedingly that for many numbers of this volume we 
were unable, througb extreme pressure, to give prompt attention to 
many important communications, and this notwithstanding the issue 
of several enlarged numbers : our correspondents will please bear in 
mind that our constant aim is to clear off accumulations of materials 
as soon as possible. 

In answer to enquiries as to the financial condition of the under- 
taking, we simply say that experience seems to prove that each 
volume recoups its expenses (and nearly exhausts our present limited 
impression) in about four years, a result we had scarcely Hoped for 
at our commencement, and which gives an additional guarantee for 
a long existence. 

We have felt, with our supporters, some slight inconvenience 
from the fact of our year commencing in June instead of January, 
and would gladly obviate this, but the large number of subscribers 
in advance renders it now almost impossible to make a new arrange- 
ment, and we must therefore ask our friends to bear with us in this 
respect. 

1, Paternoster Row : ZOth April, 1869. 



) 



INDEX. 

INDEX TO GENERAL SUBJECTa 

PAGK 

A. fui'ther reply to Mr. Dunning's remarks on tho gender of Acanthosoma, &c. 234 

A rejoinder to tho Rev. A. Marshall's reply on tho gender of Acanthosoma 230 

A reply to Mr. Dunning's remarks on the gender of Acanthosoma . , 208 

Abbotia, Note on the genns, of Leach ....... 168 

Abraxas grossulariata, Superabundance of 24 

„ tho larva of, distasteful to frogs , . . . 131 

Abundant of •certain insects in certain years. On the ..... 134 

„ „ Colias Hyale in 1868 . 106, 130 

„ „ SphingidiB in Japan during the past summer, Note on , . 173 

J, „ Sphinx convelvuli near Exeter , . . , . . 128 

„ „ the larva© of Melitaea Cinxia ....... 24 

Abuses in Nomenclature = 148 
Acanthosoma haemorrhoidalis or haemorrhoidale ?, with a word or two on the 

perpetuation of blunders in nomenclature , . . , . , 181 

Acanthosoma ^ the beginning of the end 254 

Acheroatia Atropos at Dumfries, Occurrence of 171 

„ „ „ Folkestone . 171 

»> „ Margate , , 147 

„ ,5 Capture of, on the wing , , . , . . 130 

Acidalia, Notes on the genus, with description of the larva of A. holoserioata 95 

„ emutaria at King's Lynn 107 

„ holosericata, Desmption of the larva of ..... 95 

Acontia luctuosa, Notes on the earlier stages of 75 

Acronycta alni, &c, in Sussex 107 

„ „ near Manchester 105 

„ „ Note on 208 

„ „ On the natural history of 144 

Addition of eight species of Coleoptera to the British List . . . 100 

„ to the list of British Trichoptera (Agrypnia picta, Kolen.) . . 125 
Additions, Note on four, to the list of British Coleoptera . . . .196 

„ Two, to the British Trichoptera 277 

Agabus affinis, Payk., Note on 17 

Agrotera nemoralis, Capture of 106 

Agrotis cinerea at Folkestone 78 

Agrypnia picta, Kolenati, Note on 125, 143 

Amphydasis betularia, Note on variation in 148 

Analytical view of the Lepidopterous Fauna of Haslemere and its vicinity 211 

Aphodius nemoralis and A, constans, Note on 19 

„ porcus, a cuckoo parasite on Geotrupea stoi'corai'ius . . , 273 



ii. 

PAGE 

Aphodina villosoB, Captnro of 44 

Apion cerdo, Occurrenco in Britain of 124 

„ „ „ of, near Newcastle-on-Tyne .... 142 

„ sorobicollo, Gyll., Note on 276 

Argynnia Euphrosyno, Notes on the earlier stages of 125 

„ Lathonia at Colchester 106, 131 

„ „ „ Folkestone, Occnrrcnco of 130 

„ ,y i, Margate 105, 171 

„ „ „ Ilamsgato ......... 106 

Atoniaria fermginea and A. fimctarii in Yorkshire, Capture of . . . 143 

Attagcnus mcgatoma. Fab., Occurrence of, in London ..... 101 

Balaninus ccrasonira and B. rubidus, Note on ..... 218 

Bcdeguar galls, Query respecting ........ 143 

Bibio, Dosci-iption of a new species of ...... . 268 

Birch-Wood Dinner ........... 51 

Blunders in nomenclature, A word or two on the perpetuation of . . 181 

Botys asinalis. Abundance of the larvae of, at Bishopstowe .... 205 

Brazilian insects ........... 51 

British Coleoptera, Notes on (Motschulskian) 197 

„ Gyrinidas, On the 52 

„ Ilalticida?, Notes on the ......... 163 

„ Hcmiptcra : additions and corrections 259, 293 

„ species of Malthodes, Notes on the ...... .18 

„ „ „ Scoparia 291 

„ Syrphi, Notes on some 7 

Bruchus pisi, Note on 20 

" Bullettino della Society Entomologica Italiana ; " anno primo : Review . 285 

Cfficilius atricornis, A new species of Psocidae inhabiting Britain, Description of 196 

Captures at Colchester, Early Lepidopterous 23 

„ of Coleoptera during the past season ...... 219 

., „ near Manchester ....... 200 

of Lepidoptera at Howth 78 

„ „ Taplow 224 

„ „ „ Witherslack 49 

„ „ in various localities in March, April, and May . 49 

„ „ near Perth in 1868 224 

,, of rare Lepidoptera . 104 

1868 147 

„ ., Neuroptera and Trichoptera ...... 125 

'* Catalogue of the Insects of Northumberland and Durham ; Aculeate 

Hymenoptera." : Review 301 

" Catalogus Coleopterorum," Tom. ii., Notes upon Gemminger & Von Harold's 247 

" Catalogus Ilynicnopterorum Europa?," auctoro L. Kirchuer : Review . 153 

C'athoniiiocerus eocius. ;i true British species ...... 68 



iii. 

PAGE 

Catocala fraxini and other rarities in Cheshire, Occurronco of . . • 128 

„ „ at Ipswich 128 

„ „ near Manchester ........ 173 

Cecidomyia, On the spinning of the larva of a ..... 220 

Cerostoma scabrella near Croydon ......... 131 

Ceuthorhynchus urticae. Capture of 45 

Charoeas graminis, Note on the larva of ....... 225 

Choiropachus quadrum, Note on the pairing of 297 

Choerocampa Celerio at Birmingham 172 

„ Huddersfield 150 

„ „ near York 173 

Elpenor, Query concerning 108 

„ nerii at St. Leonards ........ 172 

„ porcellus near Tynemouth ....... 72 

Chrosis euphorbiana bred . ......... 106 

Chrysopa tenella, Schneider, Note on British examples of . . . . 251 

Cicindelidae from tropical America, with descriptions of four new species 

(Gen. Odontocheila and Pseudoxycheila) 297 

Cilix spinula and Notodonta trepida in Klircudbrightshire .... 299 

Clytus arietis, Live, in Museums 123 

Coccinella labiHs, Re-occurrence of . . 45 

Coccyx hyrciniana, Habits of ........ . 206 

Coleoptera &c., near Putney, Further notes on 45 

Colias Edusa, Note on 77 

„ Hyale, Abundance of, in 1868 106, 130 

„ „ and Argynnis Lathonia at Colchester 106 

„ „ and Sphinx convolvuli at Haslemere ..... 130 

„ „ in 1868, Notes respecting the abundance of . . . . 253 

„ „ near Birmingham 107 

„ „ „ London . ......... 205 

,. „ „ Eamsgate .......... 107 

„ „ Observations on the occurrence of, in Britain . . . 175 

Collecting in Bui*nt and Bishop's Woods in StaflFordshire, Notes on . . 48 

,, Sherwood Forest, Eesults of a day and a night's ... 79 

„ Management, &c,, Notes on (Lepidoptera) : The Caterpillar state . 14 

Colletes cunicularia, L,, Discovery of a new British Bee .... 276 

Collix sparsata, &c., near York 77 

Cosmia pyralina in Suffolk ......... 23 

Crambus rorellus at Folkestone ......... 150 

Croesus septentrionalis, Note on ........ 21 

Cryphalus binodulus and Hylurgus pilosus. Notes on . . . . .198 

Ctenicerus pectinicornis and C. cupreus^ Habitats of 276 

Curious capture of Lucanus 124 

„ locality for Ischnomera melanura 20 

Currant-gall on Salix herbacea, Note on the 21 

Curtis's, The late John, Entomological Drawings 209 



iv. 

PAGE 

Cynips, Discovery of a male . ^ 298 

„ lignicola, Economic use for the galla of 171 

Cynthia cardui, Abundance of . ........ 205 

„ ,, Curious variety of the larva of . . . . . 278 

„ „ Extraordinary variety of 229 

Dasycampa rubiginea, Notes on the earHer stages of . . . . . 206 

Death of Cliarles Turner .......... 25 

„ Thomas Desvigncs, Esq .25 

Deaths of Foreign Entomologists 26 

Deilephila linoata, Acronycta alni, &c., in Sussex 107 

„ „ at Guestling ......... 106 

„ „ „ Marlborough 128 

„ Newport, I.W 129 

„ » >» Torquay 104 

„ „ in Derbyshire 130 

„ „ „ Kildare 105,162 

„ „ „ Scotland 172 

„ „ near Derby 105 

Deleaster diohrous, Capture of 20, 21 

„ in Scotland 142 

Departure of a collector to Ecuador and Bolivia ...... 25 

Depressaria subpropinquella and rhodochrella. Note on ... . 105 

Description of a new species of West African Papilio, hitherto considered 

to be the P. Zenobia of Fabricius . 60 

Desvignes, Thomas, Esq., Death of 25 

Desvignes's Collection of Ichneumonidae, The late Mr 51 

Dianthoecia Barretii, Capture of 47 

„ csesia. Capture of 47 

„ capsophila bred 24 

„ irregularis Ilufn. (echii, Bork), Capture of, in Britain . . . 220 

Dicrorampha flavidorsana, Knaggs, near Exeter, Occurrence of . . . 128 

Diflference in shape of thorax in sexes of Hydroporus elegans, &c. . . 169 

Dilar, On a neuroptcrous insect from N.W. India belonging to the genus . 239 

Dipterous larvae voided by the human subject 144 

Donacia geniculata and D. la^vicollis of Thomson, Note on the . . . 218 

Double broods in hot seasons. Note on 107 

Dytiscus lapponicua in Ireland 141 

Early and late appearance of Lepidoptera 48 

Early appearance of Eupithecias 280 

„ appearances — Saturuia carpini — Smerinthus tiliae .... 21 

„ Lepidopterous captures at Colchester ...... 23 

Economic Entomology, French exhibition of . . . . . . .50 

„ use for the galls of Cynips lignicola ...... 171 

Elachista paludum bred 78 

Elater new to the British Lists, Occurrence in Morayshire of an . . 193 



V. 

PAGE 



Enoicyla pusilla, the terrestrial Trichopterous insect, bred in England . 143 

„ „ Further note on 170 

Entomological Society of London, Proceedings of . . 26, 51, 80, 180, 210, 238 

258, 285, 301 

Ephemeridae, An outline of a re -arrangement of the genera of . . .82 

EpuroBa, Habitat of 169 

Euperia fulvago in Scotland, Occurrence of 131 

Eupithecia consignata bred in Belgium 107 

„ „ Description of the larva of 72 

„ „ Note on the pupa of 73 

,, irriguata, &c., at Glanvillo's Wootton ...... 205 

Eupitheciae, Early appearance of ....... . 280 

„ taken in Derby and the neighbourhood, List of : with notes . 22 

Eupoecilia, Notes on some British species of ..... . 244 

European species of Syrphus allied to S. ribesii 190 

Euthemonia russula. Abnormal brood of ...... . 131 

" Faune Entomologique Frangaise, Lepidopteres," par M. E. Berce ; Review . 49 

Fecundity of the Queen Bee, On the 71 

Fidonia pinetaria. Hub. (brunneata, Steph,), Description of the larva of . 108 

Fir-feeding Lepidoptera, Notes on the larvae of some .... 178 

Formica nigra, An early swarm of 298 

French Exhibition of Economic Entomology . . . . . , 50 

Further notes on Coleoptera, &c., near Putney 45 

Gall-bearing British Plants, A list of 118 

„ ,, Plants, Second list of ........ 216 

Gall Lisects, Notes on. . . 132 

Galls of Cyrupa lignicola, Economic use for the 171 

General Information 25, 50 

Geotrupes stercorarius, Aphodius porcus, a cuckoo parasite on . . . 273 

Glaciers, Insects found on ... i7o 

Grapta C-album in Devonshire 147 

GyrinidaB, On the British .......... 52 

Gyrinus aeneus, Steph., On 217 

Habits and transformations of Hylesinus crenatus, H. fraxini, and H. vittatus. 

Observations on the .......... 120 

„ of Hylesinus, Note on the ........ 20 

„ Satumia carpini in Orkney, Note on the ..... 49 

Hadena atriplicis, &c., Note on ......... 79 

„ peregrina at Lewes 150 

Halticidae, Notes on the British ......... 163 

Heliophobus popularis, Charaeas graminis and Luperina cespitis, Note on the 

larvae of 225 

Heliothis peltigera at Exeter 130 



VI . 

PAGE 

Hemiptera, British ; additions and corrections 259, 293 

„ in Palestine and Syria, List of captures of : together with de- 
scriptions of several nevir species 27, 65, 114, 135 

Hepialus hectus, Natural history of 177 

Hereditary variation, Note having reference to 148 

Hermaphrodite Satyrus Somele, Capture of an ..... 105 

Heterocerous Lepidoptera, New species &c., of, from Canterbury. Now Zealand, 

collected by Mr. R. W. Fereday 1, 88, 61, 92 

Homalota rufotestacea, Kraatz, Occurrence in Britain of .... 218 

Hybernia defoliaria, Late appearance of 253 

Hydroporus elegans, &c., On difference in shape of thorax in sexes of , .169 
Hylesinus crenatus, H. fraxini, and H. vittatns, Observations on the habits 

and transformations of . . . . . . . . . .120 

„ Notes on the habits of 20 

Hylurgus pilosus, Notes on Cryphalus binodulus and ..... 198 

Hymenoptera, Notes on some parasitic ; with descriptions of new species . 154 
Hypermccia angustana of Hiibner, Capture in England of the true : and cor- 
rection of synonymy ...... ... 251 

Hyponomeuta vigintipunctata, Note on . . . . . . .228 

IchnenmonidoG, The late Mr. Desvignes' collection of .... . 51 

Imhoff, Dr. Ludwig, Obituary notice of ....... . 150 

Insects found on Glaciers 170 

Ischnomera melanura, Curious locality for ....... 20 

Lamellicorn Beetles (Rutelidae) from N. Australia, On two new species of . 8 

Larentia salicata in North Devon ......... 205 

Larva of Abraxas grossulariata distasteful to frogs 131 

„ Acidalia holosericata, Description of tho 95 

„ Charaeas graminis, Note on the ....... 225 

Eupithecia consignata, Bork., Description of the .... 72 

„ Fidonia pinetaria, Hub. (brunneata, Steph,), Description of the . 108 

„ Luperina cespitis, Note on the ....... 225 

„ Lycajna Artaxerxes, Description of the ..... 176 

„ Polia nigrocincta, Capture of the ....... 77 

„ Vanessa cardui. Curious variety of the 278 

„ Zygsena nubigena, Observations on the habits of the ... 73 
Larvse of Heliophobus popularis, Chareeas graminis and Lupernia cespitis, 

Note on the 225 

some fir-feeding Lepidoptera, Notes on the ..... 178 

Lepidoptera at Guestling, in 1868 174 

„ „ Haslemcro, Stray notes on 227 

„ bred and captured in the spring of 1868 .... 48 

„ &c., in the spring ........ 77 

„ captured in ]\Iorocco 299 



vii. 

PAGE 

Lopidoptora, Descriptions of species of, confounded with others described by 

Linua3U3 and Fabricius 270 

„ from " Goolmurg " in Cashmere, Notes on 33 

,, inhabiting Ross-shiro, Notes on the. ..... 281 

„ swarming on rushes 22 

„ taken at Guestling, near Hastings, in 1867 .... 23 
Lepidoptorous Fauna of Haslcmere and its vicinity, An analytical view of the 211 

Leucania albipuncta, W.V., a species new to Britain, Capture of . . 173 

at Yaxley 278 

Libollula (Diplax) vulgata, Note on a British example of . . . . 220 

Limenitis Sibylla, Note on the earlier stages of ..... . 226 

List of captures of Hemiptera in Palestine and Syria, together with descrip- 
tions of several new species 27, 66, 114, 135 

„ „ Eupitheciai taken in Derby and the neighbourhood : with notes . 21 

„ „ gall-bearing British Plants 118, 216 

„ „ Noctuidae observed in Morayshire 201 

Lithobius forcipatus mothing 170 

„ „ Note on 197 

Lithocharis maritima near South Shields, Capture of . . . . .19 

Lithocolletis Bremiella on Orobus tuberosus 22 

Lithosidae, Notes on the earlier stages of some species of ... . 109 

Live Clytus arietis in Museums 23 

Localities for Mesites Tardii 99 

London Lepidoptera . . 49 

Lucanus, Curious capture of 124 

Luperina cespitis. Note on the larva of 225 

Lycaena ^gon, Natural history of 241 

„ „ Arion, New locality for 78 

„ Artaxerxes, Description of the larva of ... . 176 

„ „ Medon (Agestis) and Artaxerxes, are they distinct ? . 187 

Macaria notata in Scotland 104 

Macroglossa stellatarum in the North of England 172 

Macro-Lepidoptera at Rannoch ......... 221 

Magdalinus duplicatus, Germar, in Scotland, Occurrence of . . . 168 

Malthodes fibulatus, Kies., Capture of ]01 

,j „ New locality for ...... . . 101 

,, Notes on the British species of . 18 

Melitaea Cinxia, Abundance of the larvae of 24 

Mesites Tardii, Localities for 99 

„ „ on our North Eastern Coast, Capture of ... . 71 

Mild winter, Note on the effects of ........ 254 

Morocco, Lepidoptera captured in . 298 

Moths at Nettles 76 

Movements of British Entomologists 25 



Vlll. 



PAGE 

Nepticula minuaculella at Cheshnnt 280 

Nenronia clathrata in England, Note on 251 

Neuropterous insect from N.W. India, belonging to the genus Dilar . . 239 

New British saw-fly ; Tenthredo olivacca of King ..... 44 

„ loealitj for Lycjena Arion ......... 7S 

„ species of Lamellicorn Beetles (Rutelidae) from N. Australia, On two . 8 
„ Zealand, New species, Ac, of Heterocerous Lepidoptera from Canterbury 

collected by Mr. E. W. Fereday 1, 38, 61, 92 

Noctuidao observed in Morayshire, A list of ..... . 201 

Nomenclature, A word or two on the perpetuation of blunders in , . . 181 

„ Abuses in ......... . 148 

Northern British Lepidoptera, Notes on ....... 102 

Notes on Cicindelida3 from tropical America 287 

„ collecting, management, &c., (Lepidoptera) ; the caterpillar state 14 

„ effects of mild winter 254 

„ Lepidoptera at Ashford, Kent ....... 223 

„ „ „ Carmarthen 204 

„ „ „ Wicken Fen 223 

„ Mr. Jenner Fust's " Distribution of British Lepidoptera " . . 147 

„ Scotch Lepidoptera 204 

some British Syrphi 7 

„ the British species of Malthodes 18 

„ „ „ Scoparia (Lepidoptera) . . , ► 291 

„ „ currant-gall on Salix herbacea 21 

„ „ earlier stages of some species of Lithosidae .... 109 

„ „ pairing of Cheiropachus quadrum 297 

Obituary notice of Dr. Ludwig ImhoflT 150 

Occurrence in England of the larva of a terrestrial Trichopterous insect ; 

Enoicyla pusilla, Burmeister 43, 14S 

of a genus of Coleoptera new to Britain .... 44 

Octotemnus glabriculus, Note on the oviposition of .... . 297 

Odour emitted by Sphinx convolvnli ........ 206 

Omias new to Britain, Capture of a species of 44 

Orthosia suspecta at West Wickham ........ 150 

Outline, An, of a re-arrangement of the genera of Ephemeridse . . 82 

Oviposition of Octotemnus glabriculus. Note on the 297 

Ovipositing of Pamphila Sylvanus, Note on the 129 

Pamphila Sylvanus, Note on the ovipositing of 129 

Parasitic Hymenoptera, Notes on some, with descriptions of new species . 154 

Penthina capraeana and other Lepidoptera bred from sallow . . . 229 

Peronea umbrana in Westmoreland 224 

Phalacrus substriatus, Occurrence in Yorkshire of 143 

Philhydras, Description of a new species of 240 

PhlcBodes crenana, Note on ......... 23 



ix. 

PAGE 

Pliosphronns liemiptorua, Note on ........ 70 

Pieris Daplidico near Margate, Capture of . . . . . . . 105 

Plnsia new to Britain, Occurrence of (P. ni) 107 

„ A few notes on the new (P. ni) . . . . . • • 127 

„ ni, Further notes on ......... . 128 

Poha nigrocincta, Capture of the larva of 77 

Potaniinus substriatus near Scarboroxigh, Occurrence of ... . 143 

Prices of rare British Lepidoptei-a 25 

Pseudopsis sulcatns at Scarborough, Occurrence of 142 

Psocidae, Description of a new species of (Cacilius atricornis) inhabiting 

Britain 196 

Queen-bee, On the fecundity of the . . ..... 71 

Kailway train stopped by caterpillars ........ 230 

" Keport on the Culture of Bombyx Yama-Mai." : Eeview . . . 301 

Eesults of a day and a night's collecting in Sherwood Forest ... 79 

Rhynchites megacephalus, Germ., in Japan, Occurrence of. . . . 169 

Rhynchophora on the South East Coast, Notes of spring .... 70 

' Rygmodus, White, Note on the genus ....... 194 

Saprinus (Gnathoncus) pnnctulatus, Thorns., Note on 250 

Satumia carpini, Early appearance of ....... 254 

„ ,, in Orkney, Note on the habits of ..... 49 

Satyrus Semele, Capture of an Hermaphrodite 105 

Scoparia angustea, New locality for ....... . 131 

„ Note on the British species of . 291 

„ (Sc. Zelleri, Wocke) new to Britain, Occurrence of . . . . 131 

„ Zelleri at Norwood ......... 131 

Note on 149 

Scoria dealbata : correction of an error ....... 253 

Scottish Lepidoptera, &c Notes on .... . ... 104 

Scydmaenus fimetarius taken near Newcastle-on-Tyne .... 246 

Second broods ? . . 175 

Sesia myopaeformis in hawthorn 78 

„ „ ? in Mountain-ash 173 

Sialis fuliginosa in Worcestershire ........ 125 

Sigara minutissima, Fab., Capture of ....... . 142 

Sinodendron cylindricum, Note on the habits of, during oviposition, &c. . 139 

Species of Trichopterygia new to the British list, On some ... 9 

Sphingidge in Japan during the past summer, Note on the abundance of . 173 

Sphinx convolvuli. Abundance of, near Exeter ...... 128 

„ „ and a second specimen of Deilephila lineata in Kildare , 162 

,, „ and Acherontia Atropos at Folkestone .... 171 

„ „ and Colias Hyale near Birmingham .... 107 

„ „ and Deilephila lineata at Guestling .... 106 

at Alloa, N.B . 162 



X. 

PAGE 

Sphinx convolvnli at Haslemere 130 

„ „ Marlborongh 128 

„ Reigate, Capture of ...... . 172 

„ „ Note on ........ . 254 

„ „ Observations on the occurrence of, in Great Britain . 160 

„ „ Odour emitted by 206 

„ „ taken at sea . . . . . . . . .17 

Spilonota lariciana 146 

Spinning of the larva of a Cecidomyia, On the ...... 220 

Spring Rhynchophora on the South East Coast, Notes on ... . 70 

Stanropus fagi, Note on .......... 23 

Superabundance of Abraxas grossulariata ...... 24 

Syrphus, European species of, allied to S. ribesii 190 

Tapinostola elymi at Cleothorpe, Occurrence of ..... 205 

Tenthredo olivacea of Klug, A new British saw-fly ..... 44 

Tephrosia crepuscularia, Early appearance of ..... . 253 

Terrestrial Trichopterous insect, Occurrence in England of the larva of a ; 

Enoicyla pusilla, Burmeister 43, 143. 

*' The American Entomologist," edited by B. D. Walsh & C. V. Riley : Review 152 
« The Butterflies of North America," by W. H. Edwards : Review . . 78, 180 
" The Canadian Entomologist," issued by the Entomological Society of 

Canada : Review ........... 153 

" The Record of Zoological Literature," vol. iv., part 2. Arachnida, Myriapoda, 

Insecta : by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. : Review 179 

Thyamis, Description of a new species of 133 

Trichoptera, Two additions to the British 277 

Trichopterygia new to the British list, On some species of .... 9 

Trogosita, A, destructive to silk 276 

Turner, Charles, Death of 25 

Vanessa Antiopa at Godmanchester 224 

„ Atalanta, Small specimen of ....... . 147 

„ cardui, Curious variety of the larva of ..... 278 

Variation in Amphydasis betularia. Note on ...... . 148 

„ Note having reference to hereditary 148 

Variety of Cynthia cardui, Extraordinary 229 

Winter captures ........... 280 

Xylina conformis. Note on 278 

„ Zinckenii, Another .......... 252 

Xylomyges conspicillaris, &c. 24 

Yama-Mai culture 149, 252 

Zyga3na nubigena. Observations on the habits of the larva of . . . 73 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS NOTICED IN THE PROCEEDINGS OF 
THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

PAGE 

Acheta destructive to forest-trees in Madras, Species of 26 

Agrypnia picta captured at Highgato 

Amazon Yalley, Fauna of 

Anax mediterraneus in Italy, Appearance of swarms of 

Anniversary Meeting ■^'^^ 

Antispila Rivillei, a vine-leaf miner 26 

Aphid£D attacking vines, Species of 259 

Arctia villica, Variety of 

Ateuchus sacer, Habits of 

Bees and Wasps from India, Nests of 238 

Birds and larvas, On the relations between 286 

Blatta melanocephala destrnctive in Orchid-houses 302 

Bombi and Apathi, IMimetic relations between 302 

Bombyx Yama-mai • • • 286 

Britis]i Lepidoptera, Varieties of ^Ij 238 

Butferflies, Notes on eastern 

Buprestidae, New species of 238 

Csenis macrura. Anatomy of 

Castnia, Transformations of 

Catocala fraxini, from Eastbourne 210 

Cerostema gladiator, destructive to forest-trees in Madras 26 

Chalcididae, Large exotic species of 81 

Choerocampa Celerio, captured at Brighton 180 

Coflfee-tree, Various larva3 destructive to the 26 

Colletes cunicularia, a new British Bee 302 

Conocephalus from West Africa, found alive in England 285 

Cork, A substitute for 286 

Crambus myellus, new to Britain 210, 238 

Dianthoecia Barrettii from Ireland, Specimens of 238 

Dilar Hornei, from North-west India 286 

Drilua flavescens, 2 S and 1 ? simultaneously in copula 81 

Enoicyla pusilla, a new British Caddis-fly 51, 210 

Entomological nomenclature 210 

Ephemeridse from Yeragua, Gigantic species of 301 

„ Microscopic preparations of , 81 

European Butterflies, Varieties of , 302 

Gastrophysa polygoni in Cambridgeshire, Swarms of larva of 210 

Glow-worm in February, Luminous larva of 286 

Heliothis armigera, from various parts of the world 286 

Hestina Zella, from India ; a new species 259 

Heteromera, New species of 51, 81, 180 

Homalota, British species of 302 

Honey-Bees, European and exotic species of 286 

„ On the duration of life in 27 



xii. 

PAGE 

Hymenoptera, New and curious forms of 210 

„ New species of Australian acnleate 27 

Hypercallia Christiernana 51, 81 

Ichneumon larva externally parasitic on a spider 238 

Isle of Man, Dwarf Lepidoptera from the 180 

Lasiocarapa quercfts, Gynandromorphus example of 180 

Lepidoptera, Dwarf, bred in 1868 286 

„ New species of Diurnal 302 

Leucania albipuncta, from Folkestone ; a new Britiah species 180 

Limenitis Sibylla, Melanism in 210 

Lucanidge, New genus and species of 286 

Marshall, Rev. T, A. ; Vote of condolence with 286 

Micropeplus staphylinoides, Larva of 81 

Monochamus taken alive in London, Exotic species of 81 

Nicaragua, Butterflies from 286 

NycteribidaB, from Ceylon .. 285 

Odynerus, Nest of, in a letter clip 81 

Ommatomenus sericatus ; a new genus and species of Prionidas 286 

Ophion macrurus, bred from cocoons of Bombyx Cynthia 81 

Otiorhynchus picipes damaging rosea 51 

Ovipositor, Structure of the 238 

Pachetra leucophaea, from Eed-hill 259 

Panorpa, European species of 302 

„ New species of, from Java 302 

Papilio Machaon and allied species from Japan , 302 

„ ,, in Hudson's Bay 210 

„ Zalmoxis, from Old Calabar 302 

Phytophaga, New species of 302 

Polia nigrocincta from the Isle of Man 210 

Preserved larvae 26, 81 

Proctotrupidse, Pupae of, attached externally to a Xantholinus larva . . . . 26 

Psyche crassiorella at Homsey 51 

Saturnidae, Bred specimens of various species of 81 

Scoparia Zelleri, captured at Norwood 180 

Setina irrorella. Variety of 80 

Sibyllina, Affinities of 238 

South African insects 180 

Tachyris Jacquinotii, Note on 27 

Tangiers, Insects from o 81 

Tapinostola elymi from near Yarmouth 210 

Tipulae, Swarms of larvae of , 286 

Trichoptera, Contributions to a knowledge of European 180 

Vanessa Atalanta, habits of, at Mentonc, &c 302 



XIll. 



SPECIAL 



COLEOPTEEA. 



PAGE 

Abbotia georgiana 168 

Paykulliana 168 

Abdera bifasciata 219 

Adelotopus 52 

Agabus aflinis 17 

nigro-iBneTis 46 

unguicularis 17 

Agathidium globosum 250 

Aleochara brevipennia 46 

lygaea 101 

Amara fusca 196 

Anisotoma vittata 250 

Anoplognathus aeneus 8 

Anthonomus ulmi (black var.) 200 

Aphodius constans 19 

nemoralis 19 

porous, parasitic on Geo- 
trupes stercorariua 273 

scrofa 100 

villosus 44, 201 

Aphthona caerulea 164 

cyaaella 165 

venustula 165 

Apion oerdo 124 

near Newcastle-on-Tyne 142 

craccae 71 

diasimile 219 

filirostre 219 

GyUenhali 219 

minimum 46 

scrobicolle 276 

BimUe 219 

Apteropeda globosa 201 

Aridius noduloaus 197 

Athous rhombeua 201 

Atomaria ferruginea 143 

fimstarii 143 

Attagenus megatoma 101 

Balaninus cerasorum 218 

rubidua 218 

Baridius picicornis 219 

Barynotus Schonberri 200 

Bembidium obliquum at St. Leonard's 219 



INDEX. 

PAOB 

Bledius bicomis 201 

Brachytaraua scabrosus 47 

Bruchua pisi 20 

Bryaxis assimilia 249 

nigricomis 249 

Waterhousei 249 

Calloodes Atkinsonii 9 

Carabua anglicua 198 

Cassida hemisphserica 219 

Cathormiocerus socius 68 

Cercyon laterale 47 

terminatum 47 

Ceuthorhynchua Chevrolatii 71 

crux 219 

impressicollis 201 

punctiger 71 

tarsalis 71 

terminatus 71 

urticae 45, 220 

Chaetocnema confusa 219 

Choleva frater 250 

nubifer 250 

aoror 250 

Chrysomela marginata .- 219 

Cionus verbasci 46 

Clambus coccinelloides 250 

nitidus 250 

Clytua arietis alive in museums 1 23 

Coccinella labilis .. 45 

Coeliodea exiguus 70 

Colenia latifrons 250 

Coleoptera, Notes on British species 
of, in Gemminger and Von 

Harold's catalogue 247 

Conopalpua testaceus 79 

Yigorsii 79 

Corticaria borealis 198 

CorylopbuB sublaevipennis 197 

Cryphalus binodulua 198, 220 

'"""^ I 198 

ahietis ) 

Cryptohypnus pulchellua 139 

sabulicola 100 



xiv. 



CoLEOPTERA (continued). 

PAGE 

Ctenicerus cupreus ) 

. . . > habitats of 276 
pectmicomis ) 

Cypbon coarctatus J ) 

fuscicornis ? j 



Deleaster dicbrous 20, 21, 142 

Diglossa mersa 201 

Donacia geniculata 198, 218 

IsBvicollis 198, 218 

sparganii 201 

Dytiscus lapponicus, in Ireland 141 

Eledona agaricola 201 

Elleschus bipunctatus ... 46 

Epursea limbata, habitat of 169 

melina 46 

Erirhinus salicis 46 

schirrosns 46 

Eros affinis 201 

Euplectus Kunzei 219 

Euthia plicata 219 

Evaesthetua laeviusciiliis 46 

ruficapillus 46 

Graptodera ampelopbaga 163 

montana 163 

Gyranetron beccabungoe, type 200 

Gyrinus aeneus 217 

bicolor 57 

caspius 57 

colymbus 58 

distinctus 57 

marinus 58 

mergus 56 

minutus 55 

natator 56 

opacus 59 

urinator 55 

Halticidoo, notes on the British 163 

Harpalus servus 71, 219 

Hister marginatus 219 

Homalium mesomelas 248 

Homalota angusticollis 219 

cclata 219 

la)vana 219 

oblita 219 



PAGE 

Homalota rufotestacea 218 

Thomsoni 219 

Hydraena concolor 248 

pulchella 143 

Hydroporus elegans, difference in the 

shape of thorax of sexes of 169 

Hylesinus crenatus 20, 120 

fraxini 20, 120 

vittatus 20, 120 

Hylurgus pilosus 198 

Hypophloeus castaneus 201 

Ischnomera melanura 20 

Lasioderma testacea 220 

Lathridius piui 198 

undulatus 198 

Lathrobium angustatum 197 

rufipenne 197 

Limnebius papposus 4-6 

Liodes orbicularis 201 

Lithocharis maritima 19 

Lucanus, curious capture of 124 

Magdalinus barbicornis 219 

duplicatus 168 

Malthodes atomus 19 

biguttatus 18 

dispar 19 

fibulatus 19, 101 

flavoguttatus 19 

guttifer 19 

minimus 18 

misellus 19 

mysticus 19 

nigellus 19 

pellucidus 19 

Mantura chrysantherai 201 

obtusata 201 

Meligethes subrugosus 100 

Mesites Tardii 71, 99 

Murmidius ovalis 219 

Mycetoporus punctus 219 

Mylla)na minuta 46 

Necrophorus galLicus 197 

microccphalus 197 

sepulchralis 249 



CoLEOPTERA (conUnued.) 

PAGE 

Nitidula 4-pustulata 46 

rufipes 219 

Octotemnus glabriculus, oviposition of 297 

Ocypus picipennia 249 

Odoutocheila bipunctata 288 

cayennenaia 288 

Oseiyi 289 

rubcfacta 287 

rugatula 289 

trochanterica 289 

Omias pellucidus 44 

Orchcsia minor 201 

Orectochilus villosus 59 

Otiorhynchus monticola iu Ireland... 142 

Oxypoda flavicornis 101 

Waterhousei 248 

Oxystoma genistaB 46 

Pachyrinus comari 46, 200 

Phalacrus substriatua 142 

Philhydrua pnnctatua 240 

Pidlonthua cinerascens 46 

nigrita 46 

nigriventria 101 

signaticornia 46 

Philorhinnra aubpubescena 249 

Phloeotrya Stepbensii 79, 201 

Phoapliaenua hemipterua 44, 70 

Phratora cavifrona 100 

Phyllotreta antennata 165 

obacurella 165 

Phymatodea variabilia 201 

Phytonomua fasciculatua 70 

snspicioana 71 

Plectroscelia laevicollia 198 

aubcaerulea 165 

Potaminua aubstriatus near Scarboro' 143 

Psendoxycheila taraalia 290 

Pseudopsis aulcatua ... 142 

Paylliodea cuprea 167 

instabilia 167 

Ptilium Halidaii 12 

minutum 250 

Ptinua aexpanctatua 47 

Quediua fuscipea 47 



I Quedius micropa 248 

nigricornia 248 

Bcitua 201 

Raphirua nigricornia 248 

Rhygmodua modeatus 195 

pedinoidea 195 

Bihynchites cupreua 79 

megacephalus iu Japan. . . 169 

Saprinua punctulatua 250 

rotundatua 250 

Scydmaenua fimetariua 216 

Wetterhali 249 

Scymnua nigrinua 200 

Silpha carinata 249 

Sinodendron cylindricum, habita of, 

during ovipoaition 139 

Sitonea cambricua 71, 201 

Smicronyx cicur 219 

Sphaeroderma testacea 164 

Staphylinua chalceocephalua 249 

Stenolophua anglicua 197 

Teutonua 46 

Stenua aceria 249 

asaimilia 249 

fomicatua 45 

incanua 197 

incrassaiua 45 

latifrona 45 

longitaraia 46 

melanarius 45, 219 

nitidiusculua 45 

pallitaraia 249 

picipennia 45 

plantaria 45 

rm-alia 249 

aulcicollia 249 

Stilicua geniculatua 46 

orbiculatua 46 

Strangalia 4-fa8ciata 201 

Tacliinua elongatulus 219 

Tachyuaa constricta 200 

Tarua vaporariorom in Ireland 142 

Telephoraa abdominalia 201 

Telmatophilua Schonherri 201 



xvi. 

CoLEOPTERA {continued). 



PAGE 

Thyamis absinthii 165 

agilis 133 

patruelis 166 

Tomicus micrographns 219 

Tracliya troglodytes 100 

Trichius fasciatus 104 

Tzicliopteryx anthracina 11 

Gueriiiii 10 

obscsena 12 

Trogosita sp. (?) in silk 276 

Tropiphorus carinatua 71, 200 

mercurialis 200 

Trox sabulosua 46 

Xylophilas popnlneua 219 

Xyloterua quercua 201 



DIPTERA. 

Anthomyia larva voided by the hu- 
man subject 144 

Bibio anglicus 268 

Syrphus confusus 7 

diaphanua 191 

grossulariae 1 91 

lasiophthalmua 7 

latifasciatus 192 

lineola 191 

maculicornis 7 

melanostoma 192 

nigritarsis 194 

nitens (?) 193 

nitidicoUia 192 

ochrostoma 192 

ribosii 191 

vitripennis 191 

vittiger 191 



HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA. 
Atractotomua magnicomia 264 

Calyptonotus aBthiopa 65 

sanguineus 32 

Camptobrochia serenus 135 



PAGE 

Corixa borealie 293 

decora 265 

dubia 266 

Fabricii 267 

intricata 295 

perplexa 267 

Sharpi 295 

venusta 265 

Whitei 294 

Deraeocoris amoenus 115 

EmesaDohmii 136 

Grypocoris Pieberi 29, 117 

Lasiocoris Flori 67 

Leprosoma Stali 29 

Litosoma obsoleta 263 

Lochus (n.g.) squalidus 138 

Lygseosoma Tristrami 31 

Mimicus (n.g.) nitidus 66 

Monanthia simihs 259 

Phytocoris marmoratus 261 

Pithanus Marshalli 114 

Psallus Whitei 263 

Sciocoris Cambridgeii 30 

Sigara minutissima 142 

Poweri 296 

Scholtzi 296 

Stiphrosoma amabilis 136 

Teratocoris Saundersi 260 

HYMENOPTERA. 

Aptesis graviceps 155 

hemiptera 157 

stenoptera 156 

Cheiropachus quadrum 297 

Colletes cunicularia 276 

Crcesua septentrionalis, Note on 21 

Cynips, Discovery of a male 298 

lignicola, Use for galls of 171 

Formica nigra early swarm of 298 



xvu. 



Hymenoptera {continued). 



PAGE 

Ichneumon crassipea 155 

Megaspilua atelopterua 159 

Phygadeuon orrator 154 

„ scoticua 154 

Tonthi'edo olivacea 44 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

Abraxas grossulariata 24, 131 

Acherontia Atropoa 130, 147, 171 

Acidalia bisetata, larva of 98 

emutaria 107 

holosericata, larva of 95 

scutulata, larva of 98 

Acontia luctuosa, larva of 75 

Acronycta alni 105, 107, 144, 208 

auncoma 174 

Agrotera nemoralia 106, 174 

Agrotis admirationis 38 

ceropachoides 39 

coerulea 38 

cmerea 78 

Alysia specifica 3 

Amphydasis betularia 148 

Anthocliaria Belemia 299 

Douei 271, 299 

Eupheno 271, 299 

Argynnis Euplirosyne, larva of 125 

Jainadeva 34 

Jerdoni 34 

Kamala 34 

Lathonia ... 105, 106, 130, 131, 
147, 171 

Asthena mullata 42 

Aulocera Swaha 35 

Weranga 35 

Bactra uliginosana 105 

Botya asinalia 205 

Calligenia miniata, larva of Ill 

Camptogramma fuscinata 92 

stinaria 92 

Catocala fraidni 128, 173 



PAGE 

Catoptria aspidiacana 49 

Cerostoma acabrolla 131 

Choerocampa Colerio 150, 172, 173 

Elpenor 108 

nerii... 172 

porccllua 172 

Chara^as gratninis, larva of 225 

Chrosis euphorbiana, bred 106 

Chryaophanua Kasyaha 37 

Cidaria bulbulata 94 

delicatulata 94 

pyramaria 93 

Cilix spinula, Scotch 299 

Coccyx hyrciniana, habita of 206 

Colias Edusa 77 

Hyale...l06, 107,130, 175, 205, 253 

Collix sparsata 77 

Coremia ardularia 63 

deltoidata 64 

inamoenaria 63 

pastinaria 64 

ypsilonaria €4 

Cosmia pyrahna 23 

Cosmopteryx Lienigiella 105 

Crambus rorellus 150 

Cynthia cardui 205, 229, 278 

Dasycampa rubiginea, larva of 206 

Dasyuris partheniata 93 

Deilephila lineata...l04, 105, 106, 107, 128, 
129, 130, 162, 172, 300 

Depressaria rhodochrella 105 

supropinquella 105 

Dianthcecia Barrettii 47, 79 

csesia 47 

capsophila, bred 24 

echii 220 

irregularis 220 

Dicrorampha flavidorsana 128 

Elachista paludum, bred 78 

Epinephile Goolmurga 36 

Maiza 36 

Neoza 35 

Euchloe Calleuphenia 271 

Crameri 271 

Eumichtis sisteus 39 



xviii. 



Lepidoptera [continued). 

PAGE 

Euperia fiilvago 131 

Eupithecia ciclariaria 62 

consignata 72, 73, 107 

larva of 72 

irriguata 205 

Eupoecilia anthcmidana 104 

ciliella "\ 

Degreyana ' critically ) 

Heydeniana V compared j 



subroseana 
Euthemonia russula 131 

Fidonia pinetaria 104 

larva of 108 

(?) servularia ... 43 

Gelechia latliyri 104 

Gnophos pannularia 42 

Gonepteryx Nipalensis 33 

Grapta C -album 34, 147 

Hadena atriplicia 79 

nervata 40 

peregrina at Lewes 150 

Helastia enpitheciaria 95 

Heliophobus popularis, larva of 225 

Heliothis armigera 147 

peltigera 130 

Hepialus hectus, larva of 177 

Hybemia boreophilaria 61 

defoliaria . 253 

Hypercallia Christiernana, bred 105 

Hypermecia angustana, the true 251 

Hyponomeuta vignitipunctata 228 

Larentia catocalaria 62 

corcularia 61 

infantaria 62 

salicata in N. Devon 205 

Leptosoma antislata 2 

Leucania albipuncta 173, 278 

Limenitia Ligyea 35 

Sibylla, larva of 226 

Litbocolletia Brcmiclla 22 

Lithosia aureola, larva of 113 

griaeola, larva of 110 

helveola, larva of 112 



PAGE 

Lithosia mesomella, larva of Ill 

molybdeola (sericea) larva of 109 

plumbeola (complanula), lar- 
va of. Ill 

Luperina cespitis, larva of 225 

Lycaena ^gon, larva of 241 

Arion 78 

Artaxerxes, larva of 176, 187 

Medon (Agestis) , . 187 

Macaria notata 104 

Macroglossa stellatarum 172 

Meliana flammea 104 

Melitsea Cinxia 24 

Nascia cilialis 105 

Nepticula minusculella at Cheshunt 280 

Nitocria bicomma 4 

epiplecta 6 

exundana 5 

limbosa 5 

nana 6 

Noctua pyropliila 203 

Nonagria juncicolor 2 

propria 2 

Notodonta trepida, Scotch 299 

Nyctalemon Zampa 273 

zodiaca 273 

Orthosia suspecta 150 

Pamphila Sylvanua 129 

Panagra scisaaria 43 

Papilio cypraQofila 60 

zonaria 271 

Penthina capreana 229 

Peronea umbrana 224 

Phloeodes crenana, bred 23 

Pielua umbraculatua 1 

variolaria 1 

Pieria Daplidice 33, 105 

Gliciria 33 

Sabellica 33 

Pluaia Ni 107, 127, 128 

Polia nigrocincta 77 

Polygonia Fortinata 41 

Polyommatua Ariana 37 

Nazira 37 



Lepidoptera (continued). 



PAGE 

Polyommatus Nycula 37 

Pyrrhopyga Verbeua 272 

Retinia pinivorana, larva of 179 

Turionana, pupa of 178 

Roslerstammia Erxlebella 104 

Satumia carpini 49, 254 

Satyras Semelc, hermaphrodite 105 

Scoparia angustea 131 

notes on the British species 

of 291 

Zelleri 131, 149 

Scoria dealbata 223, 253 

Sesia myopasformis 78, 173 

sphegiformis 48 

Sphinx convoMi ... 106, 107, 128, 130, 
160, 162, 171, 172, 
206, 254 

Spilonota lariciana 146 

Stauropus fagi 23 

Sterrha sacraria at Wallasey 129 

Talseporia pubicornis 78 

Tapinostola elymi at Cleethorpe 205 

Tephrosia crepuscularia 253 

Thais nimina 299 

Tryphsena snbsequa 203 

Vanessa Antiopa 224 

Atalanta 147 

cashmirensis 34 

V-Album 34 

xanthomelas 34 

Xylina confoi-mis 278 

Zinckenii 252 

Xylocampa cncnllina 40 

inceptnra 40 

Xylomiges conspicillaris 24 

Zygaena nubigena, larva of 73 



xix. 

NEUROPTERA (in the Lvnnoean sense). 



I'AGE 

Agrypnia picta 125, 143 

Btietis, genus 88 

Bajtisca, genus 89 

Caocilius atricornis 196 

Campsurus 83 

Chimarra marginata 125 

Chrysopa tenella 251 

Cloeon, genus 87 

Caenis, genus 82 

Coloburus, 89 

DilarHornei 239 

Enoicyla pusHla 43, 143, 170 

Ephemera, genus 85 

Ephemerella, genus 87 

Halesus auricollis 277 

Hemerobius concinnus 125 

Heptagenia, genus 90 

Hexagenia, genus 85 

Leptophlebia, genus 86 

Neuronia clathrata 251 

Oligoneuria, genus 83 

Palingenia, genua 84 

Pentagenia, genus 85 

Polymitarcys 84 

Potamanthus, genus 86 

Setodes testacea 125 

Sialis faliginosa 125 

Siphlonurus 89 

Tinodes Schmidtii 277 

Tricorythus 82 



AlHs, T. H 

Armstrong, W. G. 

Baker, George 21 

Barrett, C. G. . 22, 130, 175, 178, 205, 206, 
211, 227, 228, 229, 244 
Bates, H. W., F.Z.S., Pres. Ent. Soc. 2^7 

Bax, E. B 205 

Baxendale, D 47 

Bishop, T. G 21 

Blackburn, J. B 48, 130, 172, 221 

Blackburn, Thomas 23, 102 

Blackmore, Trovey 299 

Bloomfield, Eev. B. N., M.A.. . 22, 23, 106, 
172, 174, 175 

Bold, T. J 19, 24, 142, 170, 172, 246 

Borthwick, R 162 

Boyd, W. C 147, 280 

Briggs, T. H 173 

Brown, Edwin 251 

Buckler, W... 75, 125, 176, 177, 225, 226, 
241, 279 

Butler, A. G., F.L.S., &c 6}, 131, 270 

Campbell, Charles 24, 48, 280 

Carrington, T. J 77 

Champion, G. C 45, 101, 219 

Chapman, T. Algernon, M.D. . 20, 120, 139, 
198, 273, 277 

Chappell, Joseph 48, 205 

Clarke, A. H 224 

Cottam, A 105 

Courtice, J. L 131, 148 

Cox, H. R 147 

Cox, Julia E 105 

Crewe, Rev. H. Harpur, M.A 72 

Cruttwell, G. T 150 

Dale, C. W 77, 208, 280 

Dallas, J 147 

De Grey, Hon. T., M.A., M.P..104, 105, 251 

Dembski, E 78 

D'Orville, H 128, 148 

Douglas, J 105, 162 

Douglas, J. W. . 27, 63, 114, 135, 259, 293 
Dunning, J. W., M.A., F.L.S., &c. . . 181, 

230, 254 

Eaton, A. E., B.A 82, 298 

Edmunds, Abraham 24 

Ecdle, Thomas 49 



PAGE 

... 172 
105, 130 



Fletcher, J. E 125, 147 

Caviller, A 171 

Greening, Noah 77 

Greene, Rev. J., M.A 73 

Grinstead, Rev. C, M.A 79, 104 

Guenee, Achille 1, 38, 61, 92 



Harwood, W. H 23, 106, 131 

Hearder, G. J., M.D 131, 144, 204 

Helling, Rev. J., M.A. . . 73, 95, 107, 108, 
109, 130, 160, 197, 206 

Herd, W 253 

Hislop, R 139, 163 

Hodgkinson, J. B 49, 78, 224 

Hopley, Catherine C 70 

Hopley, E 105, 149, 173, 252 

Horton, Rev. E., M.A 203 

Hutchinson, E. S 131, 254 

Inchbald, Peter 21 

Jagger, W 224 

Jeffrey, W. R 223, 253 

J enner-Fust, H., jun. , MA 24 

Jones, A. H 107 

Jordan, R. C. R., M.D 134, 146 

Kenrick, G. H » 107 

Kidd, H. W 118, 216 

Kirby, W. F 47, 148 

Knaggs, H. G., M.D., F.L.S.. . 14, 78, 127, 
131, 173, 291 

Lang, Capt. A. M., R.E 33 

Lawson, R 143 

Leigh, J 105 

Lennon, W 171 

Lewes, V. B 253 

Lewis, George 173 

Llewelyn, J. T. D., M. A., F.L.S. . . . 253 
Longstaff, G. B 77, 221 

McLachlan, R., F.L.S. ..43, 44, 125, 143, 
170, 196, 220, 239, 277 

Marsh, J. G 101 

Marshall, Rev. T. A., M.A. . 154, 170, 208, 
234 

Mathew, G. F 14? 

Matthews, A 108 



INDEX TO CONTRIBUTORS. 



PAGE 

278 
106 



Enock, F 

Evans, Henry 



PAGE 

Matthews, Rev. A., M.A 9 

Meek, E. G 150 



Meek, Martha 150 

Merrifield, F 107 

Moberly, E.H 129 

Montagu, H 49 

Morley, T 20 

MiiUer, Albert . . 118, 132, 143, 150, 171, 
216, 220, 276 

Norman, George 201 

Pasley, L. M. S 24 

Pelerin, W. G 44 

Phillipps, F 254 

Porritt, G. T 150 

Prest, W 173 

Preston, Rev. T. A., M.A 128 

Pryer, H 143, 149 

Purdey, W 106, 130 

Eagonot, E. L 76, 128, 229 

Robinson, W. Douglas 299 

Rye, E. C. . . 20, 44, 45, 68, 123, 124, 133, 
169, 197, 218, 247, 250, 276 

Sang, John 78 

Scott, John..20, 27, 65, 114, 135, 259,293 



Sharp, David, M. B.., 17, 18, 52, 100, 124, 
196, 217, 240 



xxi. 

PAGE 

Sidobotham, Joseph 44, 99 

Slater, J. W 276 

Smith, Rev. B 208 

Smith, Frodorick . . 71, 130, 172, 276, 298 

Smith, P. Basden 106 

Somerville, J. E., B.D 141, 142 

Stainton, H. T., F.R.S., &C 107, 300 

Stowell, Rev. H.A., M.A. 144 

Taylor, A. H 107 

I Taylor, J. Kidson 200 

Todd, Rev. E. H., M.A 23 

Traill, J 49 

Tylden, Rev. W., M.A 70, 169 

Tyrer, R. and W 79 

Ullyett, H 129, 171 

Tanghaii, Howard 131 

Verrall, G. H 7, 190, 268 

Wallace, Alexander, M.D 252 



Waterhouse, CO 8, 168, 194 

Waterhouse, G. R., Y.P.Z.S.,&c 163 

White, F. Buchanan, M.D... 104, 131, 204, 

224, 281 

White, Rev. W. Farren, M.A 

Wilkinson, Thomas 71, 142, 143 

Wollaston, T. Y., M.A., F.L.S 101 

Wormald, Percy C 125, 251 

Zeller, Professor P. C 187 



LIST OF NEW GENERA 
IN THIS 



COLEOPTERA. 

tJENUS. PAGE 

AcTiDiuM, Matthews 12 

SPECIES. 

Anoplognathus aeneus, C. 0. Water- 

Tiowsd 8 

Calloodes Atkinsonii, C. O.W. 9 

Odontocheila rubefacta. Bates 287 

rugatula, B 289 

trochanterica, B 289 

Philhydms punctatas, Sharp 241 

Pseudoxycheila tarsalis. Bates 290 

Ptilium Halidaii, Matthews 12 

Thyamis agilis, Rye 133 

Trichopteryx anthracina, Matthews 11 



DIPTERA. 
Bibio ajiglicus, Verrall 268 



AND SPECIES DESCRIBED 
VOLUME. 

HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA. 



GENEEA. PAGE 

Grypocotiis, Douglas ^ Scott 116 

LocHUS, D. ^ 8 138 

Mniicus, B. ^ S 65 

SPECIES. 

Calyptonotus sethiops, Douglas 8f 

Scott 28, 65 

sanguineus, D. ^ S...28,S2 
Camptobrochis serenus, D. S...29, 135 

Corixa boreaUs, D. ^ S 293 

decora, D. ^ S 265 

dubia, D. ^ S 266 

intrisata, D. ^ S 295 

perplexa, D. ^ S 267 

Sharpi, D. ^ S 295 

venusta, D. ^ S 265 

Whitei, D. ^ S 294 



xxii. 



PAGE 

DersDocoris amoenuB, D. ^8.... 29, 115 



Emesa Dohrni, D. ^ 8 29, 136 

Grypocoris Fieberi, D. ^ 8 29, 117 

Lasiocoris Flori, D. ^ 8 28, 67 

Leprosoma Stali, D. ^8 27, 29 

Lochus squalidus, B. 8r 8 29, 139 

Lygseosoma Tristrami, D. 8f 8... 28, 31 

Mimicus nitidus, D. 8f 8 28, 66 

Monanthia similis, D. ^ 8 259 

Phytocoris marmorattis, D. 8c 8. ... 261 
Pithanus Marshalli,D.^/S. 29(FZoW), 114 

Psallus Whitei, D. Sf 8 263 

Sciocoris Cambridgeii, D. Sf 8....2B,, 30 
Stiphrosoma amabilis, D. ^ S....29, 136 

Sigara Poweri, D. ^ 8 296 

Scholtzi, D. ^ S 296 

Teratocoris Saundersi, D. 8f 8 260 



HYMENOPTERA. 

Aptesis graviceps, Marshall 155 

Btenoptera, M , 156 

Mcgaspilus atelopterns, M. 159 

Phygadeuon errator, M 154 

Bcoticns, M. 154 



LEPIDOPTEEA. 

GENEEA. 

Alysia, Quen4e 3 

Dasyuris, Q 92 

Helastia, G 94 

NiTOCRis, Q 4 

POLYGONIA, G 41 

SPECIES. 

Agrotis admirationis, Guenie 38 

ceropachoides, G 39 

coerulea, G 38 

Alysia specifica, G 3 

Argynnis Jerdoni, Langf 34 

Asthena mullata, Guen^e 42 

Camptogramma fuscinata, G 92 

stinaria, G 92 

Cidaria bulbulata, G 94 

delicatulata, G 94 

pyramaria, G 93 

Corcmia ardularia, G 63 

inainocnaria, G 63 



PAGE 

Coremia pastinaria, G 64 

ypsilonaria, G 64 

Dasyuris partheniata, G 93 

Epinephile Goolmurga, Lang 36 

Maiza, L 36 

Neoza, L 35 

Eucbloe Calleuphenia, Butler 271 

Crameri, B 271 

Eumiclitis sistens, Guen6e 39 

Eupithecia cidariaria, G 62 

Fidonia (?) servnlaria, G 43 

Gnophos pannularia, G 42 

Hadena nervata, G 40 

Helastia eupitheciaria G 95 

Hybernia boreophilaria, G 61 

Larentia catocalaria, G 62 

corcularia, G 61 

infantaria, G 62 

Nitocris bicomma, G 4 

epiplecta, G 6 

exundans, G 5 

limbosa, G 5 

nana, G 6 

Nonagria juncicolor, G 2 

Nyctalemon Zampa, Butler 273 

zodiaca, B 273 

Panagra scissaria, Guende 43 

Papilio cyproeofila, Butler 60 

zonaria, B 271 

Pielus umbraculatus, Guenie 1 

variolaris, G 1 

Polygonia fortinata, G 41 

Pyrrhopyga Verbena, Butler 272 

Xylocampa cucullina, Guen4e 40 



NEUROPTERA (in the Linnsean sense). 
GENERA. 

Campsurus, Eaton 83 

COLOBURUS, E 89 

POLIMITARCYS, E 84 

SiPHLONURUS, E 89 

Tricorythus, E 82 

SPECIES. 

Caecilius atricornis, McLachlan . . . 196 

Dilar Horuoi, McL 239 



xxiii. 



ADDITIONS TO THE BRITISH INSECT FAUNA 
NOTICED IN THIS VOLUME. 



COLEOPTERA. 



GEXTJS. PAGE 
Phosph^nus 44 

SPECIES 

Agabu3 aflfinis 17 

Aleochara lygasa 101 

Amara fusca 196 

Aphodius scrofa 100 

Apion cerdo 124 

scrobicollo 276 

Attagenus megatoma 101 

Cathormiocerus socias 68 

Coryloplius subloevipennia 197 

Ciyptobypnus pulchcllus 139 

sabulicola 100 

Graptodera montana 1 63 

Gyrinua caspius 57 

distinctus 57 

mergus 56 

Homalota rufotestacea 218 

Lathrobium angustatum ]97 

Magdalinus duplicatus 168 

Malthodes guttifer 19 

tnisellus 19 

Meligethes subrugosus 100 

Murmidius ovalis 219 

Omias pellucidus 44 

Oxypoda flavicornis 101 

Philhydrus punctatus 241 

Philanthus nigriventris 101 

Phosphsenus bemipterus 44, 70 

Phratora caTifrons 100 

Ptilium Halidaii 12 

Stenus incanus 197 

Thyamis agilis 133 

Tracbys troglodytes 100 

Tricbopteryx antbracina 11 

obsceena 12 



DIPTERA. 

Bibio anglicus 268 

Syrphus confusus 7 

lasiopbtbalmus 7 

latifasciatus 192 

macubcornis 7 

nitens (?) 193 



HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA. 

Corixa borealis 293 

decora 265 

dubia 266 

Fabricii 267 

intricata 295 

perplexa 267 

Sbarpi 295 

vennsta 265 

Whitei 294 

Litosoma obsoleta 263 

Monanthia similis 259 



PAGB 



Phytocons marmoratus 261 

Psallas Wbitei 263 

Sigara Poweri 296 

Scboltzi 296 

Teratocoris Sanndcrsi 260 

GENEKA. HYMENOPTERA. 

Aphanogmus 160 

Ceraphron 159 

Trichosteresis 158 

SPECIES. 

Aphanogmus hyalinipennis 160 

tenuicornis 160 

Aptesis graviceps 155 

stenoptera 156 

Ceraphron bispiuosus 159 

nanus 159 

nigricepa 159 

Colletes cunicularia 276 

Habropelte striolata 158 

Lagynodes pallidus 159 

Lygocerus pubescens 158 

ramicornis 158 

serricomis 158 

Megaspilus abdominalis 158 

alutaceus 159 

arcticus 158 

atelopterua 159 

borealis 158 

crassicomia 159 

cursitans 158 

fuscipes 158 

halteratus 158 

melanocephalua 158 

rufipes 159 

syrphi 158 

thoracicua 158 

Phygadeuon errator 154 

scoticus 154 

Tenthredo olivacea 44 

Trichoateresia glabra 158 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

Dianthoecia irregularis 220 

Hypermecia augustana 251 

Lencania albipuncta 173 

Nepticula minusculella 280 

Pluaia ni 107, 127, 128 

Scoparia Zelleri 131, 149 



GEiruS. NEUROPTERA. 

EvoicYLA 43, 143, 170 

SPECIES. 

Agrypnia picta 125, 143 

Caeciliua atricornis 196 

Enoicyla pusilla 43, 143, 170 

Tinodes Schmidtii 277 

Haleaua auricollis 277 



xxiv. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Dilar Hornei, anal appendages of ^ 240 

Scopariaalpina . . plate 1, fig. 18. 

„ ambigualis . . „ „ „ 5. 

angustea . . „ „ „ 19. 

„ atomalis . . „ „ „ 8. 

„ basistrigalis „ „ „ 6. 

»> )) . (explanatory diagram, A) 292 

„ cembrso . . „ „ „ 4. 

„ cratsegella . . „ „ „ 13. 

a „ . . (explanatory diagram, E) 292 

„ dubitalis . . „ „ „ 3. 

„ « . . (explanatory diagram, C) .... 292 

„ gracilalia . „ „ „ 16. 

„ ingratella . . „ „ „ 2. 

„ lineola . . „ „ „ 17. 

„ „ . , (explanatory diagram, F) 292 

„ mercurella . „ „ „ 11. 

„ murana . . » « n 1^. 

„ „ . (base of wing, explsmatory diagram B) . . 292 

„ palUda . . „ „ „ 1. 

„ pha3oleuca . . ,j „ „ 10. 

„ „ . . (explanatory diagram, D) 292 

„ resinea . . . „ „ „ 9. 

„ truncicolella . „ „ „ 14. 

„ „ . . (explanatory diagram, B, omitting base of wing) 292 

„ ulmella . . „ „ „ 12. 

„ Zelleri . . . „ „ „ 7. 



REVIEWS. 

Faune Entomologique Frangaise, Lepidopteres. — Berce 49 

The Butterflies of North America.— Edwards 79, 180 

The Canadian Entomologist .......... 152 

The American Entomologist 152 

Catalogus Hymenopterorum Europse. — Kirchner ...... 153 

The Record of Zoological Literature, Vol. iv, pt. 2.— Dallas . . . 179 

Bullettino della Society Entomologica Italiana 285 

B/eport on the Culture of the Japanese Silk-worm, Bombyx Tama-mai. — 

Wallace 301 

A Catalogue of the Insects of Northumberland and Durham (Aculeate Hy- 

menoptera). — Bold. 301 



THE 




NEW SPECIES, &c., OF HETEROCEROUS LEPIDOPTERA FROM CANTER. 
BURY, NEW ZEALAND, COLLECTED BY MR. R. W. FEREDAY. 

by achille guenee. 
Family HEPIALID^ * 
G-enus Pielus. 
PiELUs UMBEACULATTJS, Guenee, n. 8. 

Ala testacea : anticce litura longitudinali albida, irregularis nigro 
infra adumhrata : posticce omnesque subtus testacecBt hasi pilis Icetiorihus. 
Femina major et dilutior. 50 millimetres. 

The examples that I have seeu of this species present two well-marked types. 
In the first the anterior wings of the male are dense, testaceous, sprinkled with an 
infinitude of paler scales, and the only marking is an unequal whitish band placed 
in the cellule, commencing as a point and finishing as a dash, the whole broadly 
shaded with black beneath. The posterior wings are nearly of the same tint, but 
less dense, with a brush of hairs, more yellow in colour, at the base. The body 
and the legs are concolorous. The female is larger, and extends to 60 mill. All 
thfi wings are much paler than in the male, and the anterior much less dense. 

The second type is uniformly pinkish-gi'ey, with fringes concolorous, and pre. 
ceded (on the superior wings) by isolated black points. Besides, one sees, at the 
apex of the band, a transverse series of intermediate black points or streaks. I do 
not know the female of this form. 

Pielus vaeiolaris, Guenee, n. s. 

AlcB modo castanecd, modo grisece vel mgrieantes,Jlmbriis intersectis : 
anticce guttis disco albescent e numerosis irregularibus sparsis, albidis nigro 
cinctis, lineaque subterminali nigra margines non attingente : postica 
subtus costa fiavo-brunnea. 40 mill. 

I only know the male, which varies greatly. The anterior wings are ordinarily 
chestnut-brown, with the disc whitish ; but the brown often passes into blackish- 
grey ; the wings are sprinkled with little irregular whitish spots, outlined with 
black, and other yet smaller spots entirely black ; the largest are in the cellule, and 

* The British Museum Catalogues indicate many species proper to New Zealand, a country which 
appears to be very rich in Noctumi. I am able to recognize some of them, but the greater part of those 
sent to me seem new ; it may be that the locality where Mr. Fereday collects is dlfiPerent to those which 
Messrs. Bolton, Colengo, and Sinclair visited, or that I have not been able to recognize many of theuj; 
from the too often little precise descriptions by Mr. Walker.— A. G, 



NE, 1868. 



2 



[June, 



tlieir number and sizes vary very greatly ; besides these there is generally a black 
subterminal line well marked, and sometimes interrupted, which does not reach the 
apex or the inner margin ; another similar line, but less constant, precedes it, com- 
mencing on the inner margin, but scarcely extending to a thii'd of the breadth of 
the wing ; the fringe is intersected with black, and preceded by black dots, which 
alternate with these marginal marks, and which, in well-marked specimens, are 
outlined with whitish : the inferior wings have the same intersections and the same 
dots ; they are blackish, but beneath the costa ^nd nervnres are covered with 
castaneous hairs. The body is castaneous, as well as the antenna3, which, as in 
Pielus in general, are formed of thick triangular joints, and are pubescent at the tips. 

Family LEPTOSOMID^. 
Leptosoma annulatum, Bdv. 
Bdv., voy. de I'Astrolab., pi. 5, fig. 9. 
Nyctemera Douhledayi^ Walk. Cat. Brit. Mus., p. 392. 

This New Zealand species is the true L. annulatum of M. Bois- 
duval, and Mr. Walker has erred in transferring that name to the species 
from New Holland, which differs in the patagia being bordered with 
white as well as the inner margin of the anterior wings ; in the yellow 
fringe, the spots much less extended, the broader yellow abdominal 
bands, the yellow face. &c. 

Thus it is the Australian insect which is unnamed, and I have long 
designated it in my collection as L. plagiatum. 

I do not know the larva of annulatum^ but the chrysalis which 
Mr. Fereday sent with the moth has (with the cocoon) great analogy 
with those of our species of Setina. 

NOCTTIELITES. 
Trifidce. 
Family i. LEUCANIDiE. 
Genus Nonagria. 

NONAGRIA propria. 

Leucania propria, Walk., p. Ill, 80. 

Mr. Walker says that the collar has a line of small black dots. 
I find here a continuous black line, edged superiorily by a white dash. 
He says nothing of the under-side, which is, however, very characteristic, 
the anterior wings being blackish -grey, and the inferior pale ochreous- 
white, with a black cellular dot ; all with a well-marked series of black 
terminal dots. 

Nonagria juncicolor, Guenee, n. s. 
Statura conspeciusque LEUCANIJE. Ales anticcv pallide testacecB, 



1868.] 



3 



juncicolores, nervulis paulo nigricantihus, serie transversa puncttdorum 
nigricantium, -fimbria concolori, absque punctis : posticcB supra sub- 
concolores, subtus pallidiores ; omnes subtus immaculafee, corpore concolori, 
piloso. 

Size of paludicola. All tbo insect is of the colour of imsh or dry reed. Body 
hairy, uniform, and without spots. Anterior wings oblong, rounded at Jihe hinder 
margin ; the only markings are a series of little blackish-grey dots on the nervures in 
the place of the olbowed-line, a dot at the apex of the cellule, and sometimes 
another on the sub-median vein near the base ; sometimes the nervures are more 
or loss powdered with grey ; fringe concolorous, without dots : inferior wings almost 
concolorous above, but paler beneath, without markings. Antennae with robust, 
but small, lamina?. I have only seen the male. 

N.B. — It is scarcely possible that this can be Leucania unica, 
Walker, p. 112, in which the anterior wings are without spots, and the 
abdomen much paler than the thorax. 

Family hi. APAMID^. 
Grenus Alysia, Guenee, nov. gen. 

Antennas of the ^ long, crenulated, each crenulation carrying a 
tuft of hairs at the tip, and a longer one in the middle ; those of the 
$ cylindrical, pubescent, each joint carrying two longer hairs. Palpi 
thick, ascending, robust, hairy ; the third joint very distinct, scaly. 
Haustellum small, robust. Thorax broad, somewhat depressed, quadrate, 
strongly hairy, but not bristly ; breast very hairy. Abdomen of the 
^ long, smooth, silky, not crested, laterally hairy, not conical ; that of 
the ? conical, thick, and hairy. Legs robust ; the tarsi with spines. 
"Wings oblong, thick ; the superior slightly prolonged at the apex ; the 
inferior sinuated at the hinder margin. 

A genus of a very ambiguous aspect, and oscillating between the 
LeucanidcB, ApamidcB, and Noctuidce. At first sight it resembles Xylo- 
pliasia, but the non-crested abdomen, unicolorous palpi, &c., will not 
permit its being united to that genus. Not knowing the earlier states, 
and being able to examine only one imperfect female, I place it pro- 
visionally after Lu^perina ; but it will not be astonishing if, hereafter, it 
shall be transferred to another position in the Apamidce^ or even in the 
Leucanida. I direct attention to the structure of the male antennae. 

Alysia specifica, Guenee, n. s. 
AlcB anticce grisece, fimbria extima alba spatio medio levissime rubri- 
cante, macula reniformi vice conspicua pallidiore, punctis transversis mi- 
nutis nigricantibus : posticce pallidiores, subtus fere albidce, lunula media 
obscuriore : coi'pus griseum, immaculatum. 



4 



[June, 



Very large ; the female especially, equalling the species of Aplecta in size. 
All the insect is dusky-gi'ey, powdered with paler scales or hairs, and without any 
dark spot : the superior wings are oblong, almost toothed at the hinder margin ; the 
fringe concolorous, not preceded by dots, but the extremity is white in fresh indivi- 
duals ; all the markings are very faint, the median and basal spaces only being 
slightly tinted with pale red, thus showing the elbowed line, which is followed by 
a series of blackish dots, edged with white, and placed on the nervures ; the reni- 
form stigma indicated by some pale scales : the inferior wings paler grey, with slight 
darker clouds ; the under-side is entirely whitish, with a large grey cellular Innule, 
and traces of a median line. The thorax, head, and palpi uniformly grey, without 
markings. The ? is similar to the male, but much larger. 

Family y. N0CT[JID^. 

Genus Nitoceis, G-uenee, nov. gen. 

Antennae slender, pointed, simply pubescent in the male. Palpi 
robust, slightly ascending ; the second joint broad, scaly, glossy, spotted 
with black exteriorly ; the third short, but very distinct. Haustellum 
rather short. Thorax quadrate, scaly, and glossy, with a raised collar ; 
the patagia very short, distant, and ordinarily spotted with black at 
the extremity. Abdomen not crested, slender in the , broad, flattened, 
and with protruding oviduct in the ? . Legs with spiny tarsi, the spurs 
long but slender. Wings smooth : superior oblong, almost as broad at 
the base as at the hind margin, which is rounded; the orbicular 
stigma very small and punctiform ; the reniform becoming eroded 
inferiorily, and clearly defined on the exterior border, which appears 
to emit a point beneath ; the terminal space broadly pale : the inferior 
wings marked on the under-side with a broad black spot at the internal 
angle. 

An exclusively Australasian genus. At first sight one would place 
it in the ApamidcB by the side of Gelcena and Mamestra, and I think that 
Mr. Walker has placed in the latter genus all the species known to 
him. To my eye they seem true Noctuidce, related intimately with the 
genus Noctua by our pled a, which should perhaps be added to them. 
Perhaps one should thus adopt the generic term Ochropleura of Hiibner, 
that Mr. Walker has used iov plecta and its allies. 

In order to give a more complete idea of this new genus, I describe 
here all the species I possess, although they do not all pertain to New 
Zealand ; besides I think it probable that nearly all may be found there, 

NiTOCRis BICOMMA, Gucnee. 
Mamestra comma, Walker, p. 239, 40 ?. 

Ala anticce nigro-cinerece^pulverulentce^ strigis duahus geminis nigris, 



1808.) 



5 



angulosis, sub-terminalique nigro intus Umhata, macula orbicuhiria testacea, 
punctiformis ; reniformi alba : posticce cinerecBy fimbria pallida, subtus 
macida interna diffusa. 

Size of Agrotis exclamationis. Superioi' wings blackish-grey, with the two lines 
(extra-basal and elbowed) composed each of two distant black threads, forming 
very evident elbows and angles, especially between the cellule and the sub-median ; 
the subterminal line is scarcely siuuated, shaded on the inner side with black, which 
colour extends more or less according to the individual, from which emanate small 
nervural dashes of a still deeper black ; the orbicular stigma is very small, either 
concolorous or of a nut-brown ; the reniform stigma is soiled with black below, nut- 
brown above, edged exteriorily by a white line : inferior wings blackish, with the 
fringe shining and almost white, save at the internal angle ; their under-side dusted 
with black and with a cellular dash ; the large spot at the internal angle much 
diflfused. Thorax obscure, grey, with the first half of the collar dai^ker, and the 
patagia uniform. 

The ? is darker, almost black, so that all the lines and shades are nearly 
absorbed. 

I think this species is the comma of Mr. Walker ; but, as that name 
cannot be retained, it being already employed for a European Leucania, 
I have modified it in the least possible manner. Mr. Walker knew the 
female only. 

NiTOcms LIMBO SA, Gucnee, n. s. 
Staiura N. bicommcd, sed paulo minor. Alee anticcB cinerecB, nigro- 
nebulosce, spatio terminali excepto^ lineis undulatis et angulatis nigris inter- 
ruptis, maculis ordinariis unicoloribus, orbiculari minima, reniformi lineola 
alba scepius limbata : posticce grisece subtus macula interna quadrata nigra. 
Thorax cinereus ; collari apicibusque Jiumerorum nigris. 

This is closely related to hicomma, but smaller ; of a paler grey, especially on 
the terminal space, which is very distinct, because the ground colour is not clouded 
there, whereas it has a black appearance everywhere else ; but the costa, the space 
between the ordinary lines, and the principal nervures, remain grey ; the white 
thread of the reniform stigma is often prolonged on to the nervure which follows 
it, which does not occur in hicomma : the inferior wings are paler, almost white, 
and beneath the spot at the internal angle is very distinct. The colours of the 
thorax are more marked, and the patagia are especially shorter, more notched ex- 
teriorily, and marked with a black spot at the extremity. 

The female is altogether similar to the male, or if anything paler rather than 
darker. 

Australia. 

NiTocBis EXUNDANS, Gucnee, n. s. 

Staiura iY. limhosce. Aloi anticceporphyreo-brunnece, nicfro-marmoratoej 
lineis undatis gemdnatis nigris, macula orbiculaH albo ; thorax caputque 
brunnei. 



6 



[June, 



I know the ? only. Size and shape of limhosa. Superior wings wood-green, 
slightly violaceous, mixed with scorched black-brown ; the ordinary lines are much 
less angular, and the space between the elbowed line and the sub-terminal forms a 
complete violet-black band ; the orbicular stigma is white and vciy apparent ; the 
reniform yellow-brown, with a pinkish tinge, fuller and not bordered with white, at 
least in my example ; a blackish track follows the sub-median ; the fringe is con- 
colorous, and is preceded by black dashes ; the inferior wings are as in limhosa. The 
thorax and the head uniform in colour, wood-brown dusted with black. Palpi flesh- 
coloured, with the black spot less apparent than in allied species. 

Australia. 

NiTocRis NUNA, Guenee, n. s. 

Alee anticoe griseo-violacece, costa limboqtie pallidioribus, strigis angulosis 
nigris, macula reniformi alhida ardata, lineam hifuscatam longitudinalem 
jiingente, collari in medio alho-macidato. 

Slightly smaller than the species which precede. Superior wings blackish- 
grey, violaceous, with the costa and the terminal space paler ; ordinary lines black, 
sinuated and angulated ; sub-terminal simply waved, and preceded by small black 
nerval dashes ; all the cellule is filled in with black, in which are seen the two 
ordinary stigmata, in colour dirty white; the orbicular extremely small ; the reniform 
much narrowed above, connected beneath with a nervure of the same colour forked 
at its extremity ; all this divided in the middle by a greyish-violet dash ; a black 
trace in the ordinary place of the basal line : inferior wings grey, paler at the base ; 
their imder-side almost white, with the cellular lunule, and the spot at the internal 
angle, black. Thorax blackish-grey, violaceous, uniform, with a white space on the 
middle of the collar on the upper-side of the head. 

Australia ; one ^ . 

NiTocms EPiPLECTA, Guenee, n. s. 

Ochropleura roristigma, "Walker, p. 409, 8 ? ?. 

Statura affinitasque, N. plectce. Alee anticce violaceo-nigricantes, lituris 
duahus hasalihiis albidis nigro adiunbratis, costa albida, ccllnla longe nigra^ 
punctum orbicularem album, retiigeramque dimidio albidam includente. 
Thorax griseus ; scapulis violaceo-nigris. 

It resembles our Nodua plecta. Superior wings dull violet-black, the terminal 
space paler, and the base whitish violet-coloured, divided into three markings by 
deep black, firstly in the cellule, afterwards by a dash below the median vein, and 
lastly by a smaller one beneath the sub-median ; the two ordinary spots yellowish- 
white ; the orbicular punctiform strongly conspicuous in the black cellule ; the 
reniform divided by a brown dash, and filled in with brown infcriorily, and rests on 
the median vein ; some black dashes indicate the upper portion of the subterminal 
line ; the inner margin is yellowish-white, as in our A. cmpyrca : inferior wings 
white, soiled with grey, especially on the hinder margin ; beneath with the lunule 
and the spot strongly marked. Thorax whitish-violet, with the patagia and the 
anterior part of the collar deep shining black. 

Swan River ; one . 

{Tn be continued.) 



1868. 



7 



NOTES ON SOME BRITISH SYRPHI. 

BY G. IT. VERRALL. 

Amongst the Diptera I collected last year, I have found five species 
of Si/rphus to which I wish to call attention. I cannot call tliem new 
to England, aa most of them occur in any collection, but none are 
recorded as species in Walker's " Diptera Britannica." They are, 
certainly, all allied to other acknowledged British species. 

Under S. auricollis, Meig., occur the true species of that name, 
and maculicornis, Zett. ; the latter may be at once distinguished 
by the abdominal bands being entirely interrupted, whilst in auricollis 
they are only deeply notched on the hinder edge. Both the species 
occur in gardens near London, maculicornis being much the commoner. 

Under umbellatarum, Fab., may also commonly be found lasioph- 
tJialmus, Zett., which has slightly hairy eyes in the male, and also has 
the abdominal spots and epistoma yellower. The epistomal middle 
line is also more distinct, and the whole insect rather more hairy. 

Under ductus, Fall., I think it most probable we have none of 
the true species, but only cinctellus, Zett. Walker certainly, amongst 
his varieties of cincfics, gives both species, but I have never yet seen 
the true form. Cinctellus has the antennae brown above, a black spot 
on the front just above the antennae, and the scutellum clothed with 
brownish hairs. Should any entomologist find specimens witli wholly 
yellow antennae, no black spot above them, and the scutellum clothed 
with yellow hairs, he has the true ductus, for which I should be much 
obliged. Cinctellus is common. 

Under vitripennis, Meig., or rihesii, Linn, is occasionally to be 
found nitidicollis, Meig., which may be known by its having a brightly 
shining thorax, and the epistoma ( ? generally) partly black. This insect 
has also a handsomer appearance than its allies, probably from its pubes- 
cence being darker. I believe it is rather rare ; it has been recorded as 
British by Stephens and Curtis. 

Under albostriatus, Fall., is also confusus, Egger, if the latter can 
be considered a separate species. Schiner confesses that n character 
taken from the colour of the legs of a Si/rphus is a very uncertain one, 
but says that among a large number of specimens of these two species 
he can find no tendency to vary. They differ only as follows : Albo- 
striatus has the femora of the four front legs black at the base, and of 
the hind legs with a broad blackish ring, and also a small dark ring on 
the hind tibiae. Confusus has the same parts wholly yellow, with the 



8 



rjutie, 



exception of the liind femora, which have only a narrow, distinctly 
marked ring. I have very poor material to work upon, having only one 
of each. They, however, agree exactly with the above distinctions. 

The above remarks show a little of what remains to be done among 
even the larger species of Diptera ; and it seems to me that the Ento- 
mological Society can scarcely hope to be able to publish a satisfactory 
catalogue of them within some years, unless more workers appear on 
the field. 

The Mulberries, Denmark Hill, S., Sth May, 1868. 



ON TWO NEW SPECIES OF LAMELLICORN BEETLES {RVTELIBJE) 
FROM N. AUSTRALIA. 

BY CHARLES O, WATERHOTJSE. 
AnOPLO GN ATHU S . 

A. iENEUS, sp. nov. 

Ovaius, convexm, nitidits, supra ceneus ; clypeo sat dense, capite 
parce, punctatis ; thorace disco parce, later a versus gradatim fortius 
densiusque punctato ; scutello loevi, elytris ad scutellum parce, lalera 
versus gradatim fortius punctatis. Subtus cupreics, sat dense alho- 
puhescens. Long. 15^ lin., lat. 9 lin. 

Above glossy, aeneous. Head sparingly but distinctly punctured ; 
clypeus somewhat thickly punctured, the angles much rounded, the 
margin scarcely reflexed. Thorax convex, broadest behind, gradually 
contracted in front, the sides gently rounded, the extreme margins 
thickened, the posterior margin reflexed, except near the scutellum ; 
the whole surface of the thorax punctured, the punctures small on the 
disc, become larger and deeper towards the sides. Scutellum with only 
a few small punctures near the base. 

Elytra convex, gradually increasing in width towards the posterior 
two-thirds, rounded posteriorly ; suture smooth ; extreme lateral mar- 
gins coppery, incrassated, especially immediately below the shoulders. 

The punctures on the elytra are small near the scutellum , but 
gradually increase in size and depth towards the margins ; the shoulders 
and apical callosities very delicately punctured. 

Pygidium coarsely punctured, very sparingly covered with white 
hair. Under-side coppery, clotlied with white pubescence, the central 
part of the abdomen less densely covered. 

This insect, which, from the outer claw of the anterior tarsus being 



186B.J 



9 



bifid, I believe to be a female, must be placed next to Calloddes, although 
in some respects it slightly resembles A. viridi-ceneus, ? . 
Brit. Mus. 

Hab. N.E. Australia (Rockingham Bay) ; collected by E. D. 
Atkinson, Esq. 

Calloodes, White, 
Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., XV, p. 38. 
C. Atkinsonii, sp. nov. 

Viridis,nitidus,ovatus, sub-depressus; clypeo antice, thoracis laterihus, 
elytrorumque marginibus testaceo micantihus ; pedibus cceruleo-viridihus, 
nitidis. Long. 9—10 lin., lat. 5 lin. 

Above glossy, green. Head distinctly but not very thickly punc- 
tured ; clypeus truncate in front with the angles rounded, the anterior 
margin reflexed, shining with testaceous. Antennae glossy, brown. 

Thorax contracted in front, green, very sparingly and delicately 
punctulate, the sides reflecting testaceous, the extreme margin thickened; 
the hind margin of the thorax reflexed, except the central portion. 
Elytra broadest immediately below the shoulders, narrowing towards 
the apex, moderately thickly punctulate, except at the extreme margins 
and the suture, which are smooth. The margins of the elytra thickened 
except at the basal portion. The elytra are slightly dehiscent at the 
extreme apex, which in each elytron is slightly produced. Pygidium 
acuminate, rugosely punctured, and clothed with short white hair. 
Under-side shining with aeneous and fuscous, more or less covered with 
white pubescence, except on the sternum and central part of the 
abdomen. Legs dark green, glossy ; the four posterior tibiae with a 
few large punctures on the outside. 

Brit. Mus. 

Hab. N.E. Australia (Eockingham Bay) ; collected by E. D. 
Atkinson, Esq., after whom I have named the species. 

British Museum, May IWi, 1868. 



ON SOME SPECIES OF TRICHOPTERYGIA NEW TO THE BRITISH LIST. 
BY THE BEV. A. MATTHEWS, M.A. 

The season of 1867 proved that our indigenous Tricliojpterygia are 
not yet thoroughly worked out ; and also proved, if proof had been re- 
quired, the singular eccentricity of their distribution. In Sherwood 
Forest I met with two species hitherto only known as inhabitants of 



10 



[Juue, 



Madeira, and the Canary Islands, viz., T. ohsccena, Wollaston, and T. 
antliracina, Matthews, of the latter of which I was lucky enough to 
find many specimens, though of the former I obtained but one. T. 
anthracina is a distinct and well-marked species ; it belongs to the first 
division of the genus, which comprises T. atomaria, and others, whose 
thorax is much dilated at the base, with its posterior angles produced 
beyond the shoulders of the elytra ; but from all these it may be easily 
known by its small size, deep black colour, and short black antennae. 

T. ohsccBna belongs to a group of which T. Guerinii may be con- 
sidered the type, and all of which have pale or rufescent elytra, and 
the thorax scarcely dilated at the base. In noticing this species I must 
apologize to Mr. Wollaston for having formerly led him into error. 
When, some years ago, he kindly sent me his specimen of T. ohsccena 
for examination, I returned it to him with the observation, that I did 
not consider it distinct from T. Guerinii ; and, in consequence of this 
advice, Mr. Wollaston has since quoted his ohsccEna as a synonym of 
Guerinii. 

At the period alluded to I was just entering upon the arduous, 
and then almost hopeless, task of separating the confused mass of in- 
sects which had already poured in upon me from all quarters of the 
world, and I naturally felt anxious to avoid all unnecessary separation 
of species ; but I soon discovered that it would be impossible to adhere 
to such a system, and that the only method of arriving at any thing like 
a true classification would be to follow the example of Col. Motschulsky, 
and to divide wherever persistent characters could be observed sufficient 
to justify a division. I found also that one of the most distinctive 
specific characters exist in the superficial sculpture ; for, where this 
proves to be identical, every other mark, such as shape and colour, will 
always agree as a natural sequence. 

When I mounted the specimen I had taken at Sherwood, I was 
much struck by the appearance of its sculpture ; this led to further 
examination, and I found that, though differing from Guerinii, it coin- 
cided exactly in this respect with ohsccena, and that both also diff'ered 
from Guerinii in the comparative length of the elytra, and a few other 
points of minor importance. I therefore feel no doubt that ohsccena is 
distinct from Guerinii, and that Mr. Wollaston's name must be restored 
to the species. 

A third species new to our list (also from Sherwood Forest) is an 
extremely pretty Ftilium, allied to Pt. angulicolle, but easily distin- 
guished by two deep converging lateral lines on the thorax, which is 
nearly destitute of any central channel. It was found by Mrs. Matthews 



1808. J 



11 



under the bark of a dead oak tree, and seems to be very rare, for, 
though we carefully examined the greater part of the same tree, we 
were unable to find a second specimen. 

In my present notice I shall only give a summary of the characters 
of these species, as the time must soon arrive when they will be de- 
scribed at greater length. To them I will also add the diagnostic 
characters of a genus, which I have separated from Ftilium, to contain 
the following species, viz., Pt. transversale, Erichson, Ft. concolor, 
Sharp, and Ft. coarctatum, Haliday ; these all differ widely from Ftilium 
in every anatomical detail ; the most obvious distinction exists in the 
base of the thorax, which is not, as in the true Ptilia, fitted to the 
shoulders of the elytra, but overlaps and lies upon them, so as partly 
to conceal the scutellum. It is not unlikely that the name of the last 
of these three, Act. coarctatum, will have to be altered ; in 1855 Mr. 
Haliday described this species, in the Dublin Natural History Eeview, 
p. 124, under the name of Ptilium coarctatum, and in the same year, 
M. Thomson described it, in the Ofvers. af Yet. Acad. Forhl., p. 339, 
under the name of Ptilium elongatum ; the priority must therefore be 
determined by the month of publication, and this I have not yet been 
able to ascertain : that the names are merely synonyms of a single spe- 
cies there can be no doubt, for M. Thomson has very kindly sent me 
his unique example of elongatum for comparison, and it is specifically 
identical with Mr. Haliday's type of coarctatum. 

This species is another remarkable instance of eccentric distribu- 
tion ; it was discovered almost simultaneously by Mr. Haliday in 
Ireland, and M. Thomson in Sweden, and has subsequently been taken 
by M. Aube on the shore of the south of France, and by Col. Mots- 
chulsky in Egypt. As I have made this species the type of the new 
genus, I have termed the latter Actidium, in reference to its habits ; its 
allies, though not strictly littoral, are found amonoj sand and gravel on 
the margins of rivers and lakes. 

TmcHOPTEBTx AifTHKACiNA, Matthcws, Eut. Mo. Mag.,ii, 35, 1865. 

L. c. lin. Ovata, maribus postice valde attenuata, valde con- 
vexa, nigra, nitida, pilis brevibus argenteis parce vestita, capite modico, 
antice elongate, oculis sat magnis, prominulis ; pronoto modico, valde 
convexo, postice dilatato, tuberculis sat magnis, ordinibus irregulariter 
sinuatis confertim dispositis, interstitiis nitidis, subtiliter reticulatis, 



12 



lJune, 



omato, lateribus rotundatis, late marginatis, augulis posterioribus valde 
productis, acutissimis ; elytris lougioribus, maribus valde attenuatis, 
ordinibus sat remotis, sinuatis, modicc asperatis, lateribus fere rectis, 
leviter mai'ginatis, apicibus vix dilutioribus, vix rotundatis ; pedibus 
laete flavis ; autennis brevioribus, piceo-nigris. 

Trichoptertx obsc.5:na, Wollaston. 
Acrotrichis ohsccena, Woll., Cat. Mad. Col., p. 35, 1857. 

L. c. lin. Oblonga, elongata, valde convexa, capite atque pro- 
noto nigris, elytris uigro-castaneis, pilis brevibus flavescentibus paree 
vestita, capite magno, sat elongate, prominulo, oculis vix prominen- 
tibus ; pronoto modico, postice vix dilatato, tuberculis sat maguis, ordi- 
nibus interruptis dispositis, interstitiis nitidis, confertim reticulatis 
ornato, lateribus levissime marginatis, leviter rotundatis, angulis pos- 
terioribus acutis, vix productis ; elytris brevioribus, quadratis, baud 
attenuatis, ordinibus transversis, interruptis, sat profunde asperatis, 
sutura elevata, apicibus valde rotundatis ; antennis brevioribus, nigro- 
piceis ; pedibus flavis, 

Ptilium Halidaii, sp. nov. 

L. c. lin. Elongato-ovale, gracile, valde convexum, laete cas- 
taneum, nitidum, pilis brevissimis pallidis sparse vestitum, capite modico, 
sat elougato, punctis foveolatis profunde impresso, oculis baud promi- 
nentibus ; prouoto parvo, brevi, capite vix longiori, aut latiori, profunde 
foveolato-punctato, antice linea mediali, valde indistincta, ad medium 
baud extensa, postice lineis duabus iateralibus, profunde impressis, 
ultra medium extensis, atque antice convergentibus, notato, lateribus ad 
basim fortiter constrictis, angulis posterioribus sat acutis, prominentibus ; 
elytris sat longis, angustis, ordinibus densis, transversis, sat profunde 
asperatis, ante medium latissimis ; pedibus atque antennis laete flavis. 

AcTiDiuM, gen. nov. 
Characteres diagnostici. 

Antenn(B ll-articulata?, articulo 3''" ad basim valde incrassato, 9"° vix 
incrassato. 

Palpi maxillares 4-articulati, sat parvi, articulo ultimo aciculari, brevi, 
fortiter bisinuato, penultimo oviformi, apice extreme truncate. 

Palpi lahiales 4-articulati, sat breves, articulo basali valde incrassato, 



imj 



13 



penultimo profunde bifido, apicibus acutissimis, ultimo exiguo, 
couico, acutissimo. 

Lingua magna, palpis longior, ac multo latior, truncato-conica, apice 
minute bidentato. 

Paraglossce modicsD, apicibus obtusis. 

MandibulcB sat magnae, robusta?, vix uncinatse, acie sinuata, leviter ex- 
cavata, angulo prsebasali fere obsolete, dorso fortiter denticulate. 

MaxillcB modica?, trilobatsB, lobo exteriori sat gracili, incurvato ; inter- 
medio medico, 4-articulato, articulo ultimo sat late, longe ciliato, 
aut potius pectinate ; interiori sat magno, cultriformi, dentibus 
quatuer validis, acutissimis, fortiter curvatis, ad apicem armato. 

Mentum magnum, sub-quadratum, lateribus profunde bisinuatis, angulis 
productis, seta unica apicali utrinque instructum. 

Caput sat magnum, sat porrectum. 

Fronotum parvum, ad basim valde contractum, basi humeris elytrorum 
incumbenti. 

Elytra longa, integra, epipleuris latis. 

Prosternum modicum, receptaculis coxarum marginalibus, semi-excisis, 
atque confluentibus. 

Mesosternum parvum, late carinatum, carina triangulari, postice acumi- 
nata, basi ad collum extensa, epimeris subtus sat longe inflexis. 

Metasternum Ion gum, quadratum, inter coxas breviter productum, apice 
excavate, angulis productis, acutissimis. 

Coxes anteriores contingentes. 

intermedice baud contingentes, obliquse. 

posteriores breviter remotse, sat parvse, vix productse, margine 
exteriori sinuata, ad apicem levissime laminata. 

JPedes robusti, femoribus ad apices angustissime laminatis ; tibiis valde 
dilatatis ; tarsis perbrevibus, triarticulatis, articulis basalibus in- 
crassatis. 

Sp. typica, Act. coarctatum, Haliday. 

(sjn.) Pt. elongatum, Thorns. 
filiforme, Aube. 

Gumley : A^ril, 1868. 



14 



[June, 



NOTES ON COLLECTING, MANAGEMENT, &c., {LEPIDOPTERA). 
BY n. G. KNAGGS, M.D., F.L.S. 
THE CATERPILLAR STATE. 
{Continued from Vol. iii., page 41.) 
MANAGEMENT. 

With the exception of those mysterious maladies, muscardine and cholerine, 
concerning which untold volumes have been written, with the minimum of practical 
result, the ailments of larvae have been so little studied that, were it not that the 
subject of " Management " seems to demand that attention at least should be 
called to them, I would prefer to omit them altogether from these notes. 

Direct injuries, such as mutilations, wounds, bruises, &c., resulting from 
accidents, bites of other larvae, attacks of enemies, unlucky knocks by the beating 
stick, or otherwise received, are not necessarily fatal, and to the lovers of malfor- 
mations, may even be productive of cherishable abnormities in the future imago. 
We can do little more than leave them to take their chance, placing them out of 
the way of further harm, and stopping the flow of exuding lymph by the application 
of powdered chalk to the wound, but of course the scab formed afterwards will 
interfere with the next moult, so that whenever that event comes about, the larva 
(if worth saving) may be assisted by means of warm moisture and the mechanical 
measures mentioned further on under *' moulting sickness." 

Stings of Ichneumons, &c., come next, and when the eggs of the para- 
sites are not too deeply deposited, and of course before they have hatched, it is 
often no diflficult job to destroy them either by crushing them with finely pointed 
scissors or pliers, or removing them by the aid of a darning needle, it being some- 
times necessary to steady the larva by holding it gently between the finger and 
thumb of the free hand ; but I see no reason why the subject (especially if it be of 
an irritable temperament) should not be placed under the influence of pure (not 
methylated) chloroform, since larva) are readily afiected by, and readily recover 
from the efiects of, this agent. 

Frost bite. It has been stated that larvae, which have been so stiflBy frozen 
that they might have been easily bi'oken, have been known to recover. The chief 
thing to be remembered in the treatment of such cases is that the thawing should 
be efiected very gradually — rapid thawing being dangerous ; the best thing I can 
suggest is to cover them up in snow ; we should remember that prevention is better 
than cure, and that the larva3 of species which naturally inhabit warm situations 
cannot bear and ought to be protected from any great degree of frost. 

Suffocation. This of course happens whenever the passage of air through 
the spii'acles becomes obstructed, the most common cause being submersion, for 
larvae have an unaccountable propensity to commit suicide in the water vessels of 
breeding cages whenever they can get a chance ; still after being immersed for 
even ten or twelve hours, their case is not utterly hopeless, for though they may 
appeal- bloated and stifi'ened with water, yet if they be dried gently on a piece of 
blotting paper, keeping them in motion the while, and exposing them to the sun, 
the chances are that, if they be not too far gone, they will recover ; and, for aught 



1868.] 



15 



T know to the contrary, the school-boy's old romody of resuscitating drowned flies 
by covering them up with salt and exposing them to the rays of the sun might 
prove effective, only I have my doubts as to the effect of damp salt on larval 
surfaces. 

Starvation. This may depend on defective supply of food, or the use of an 
improper diet, or the presence of excess or deficiency of light, as the case may be, 
may cause the subject of it to sulk and pine away. The treatment is, generally 
speaking, obvious enough, but sometimes we find larvae feeding well enough for a 
time on some particular kind of food, and then unaccountably falling off their 
appetite ; under such circumstances change of diet should be tried, ventilation, &c., 
should be attended to, light (and even in some cases, rays of the sun) should be. 
admitted ; rinsing the food in fresh water, or exposing it to a shower of rain : and 
as many larvas have a predilection for sweets, the food may be washed with syrup 
and allowed to dry, or sugar or treacle may be added to the contents of the water 
vessel Tvith a view to imparting a flavour to the food ; in the latter case, however, 
we must be careful that the mixtm-e become not mouldy or acetous. 

Surfeit. Many larvae, especially such as are large and smooth, when per- 
mitted to gorge themselves with too juicy food, have a tendency, particularly when 
about three-quarters grown, to become dropsical and die. The remedy would 
appear to be to feed them on dry mature leaves gathered from bleak exposed 
situations, and moisture should be excluded from the cage. 

Cramp. A night passed on a cold surface is often sufficient to paralyse the 
pro-legs of larvae, especially of such as are young and tender ; under these circum- 
stances they are unable to retain their hold when placed upon their food : perhaps 
the best plan is to put them on some such surface as a piece of blotting paper, in 
a temperate situation, fresh leaves of the food-plant being strewn about within 
reach of the sufferer. 

Low Fever. Undoubtedly larvae suffer from a contagious disease very 
analogous to this. Some species are more liable to it than others, and it appears 
to be very fatal among the members of any affected batch, though apparently not 
communicable from one to another, and distinct, species. It is doubtless engen- 
dered by bad feeding, ill ventilation, proximity of decaying vegetable or animal 
matter, &c. ; the indications therefore are that these should be removed as early as 
possible, and the healthy larvae should be kept separate from those which show the 
slightest signs of the disease. The use of a small quantity of Condy's disinfecting 
fluid in the water vessel, too, could do no possible harm, and might prove beneficial. 
Somebody has suggested that immersion in cold water has a beneficial effect in this 
disorder. 

Irritability. Some larvae are naturally of a waspish, irritable disposition, 
biting and striking violently at anything or any other larvae which may cross their 
path or come in contact with them ; others become ill-tempered during, and for a 
short time after, their moults, when the skin appears to be very sensitive ; or this 
irritable state may be due to the recent sting of ichneumons, the presence of 
acari, &c., requiring our attention. Larvae thus affected should be kept as little 
crowded as possible, and, indeed, if necessary, confined in separate cages. 



16 



IJune, 



Moulting Sickness. Larvoe of some species, even in confiueraent, appear 
to experience but little difficulty in casting off their effete skins ; others, on the 
contrary, and of these chiefly those of the Butterflies, Sphinges, Bomhyces, and 
Pseudo-lomhyces, apparently naturally undergo a comparatively tedious and painful 
process of ecdysis ; the appetite of the caterpillar thus affected leaves it, it fre- 
quently seeks some retired spot, and having spun a fewer or greater number of 
silken threads, attaches the hooks of the pro-legs thereto, and then, after the lapse 
of a longer or shorter interval, bursts the now useless covering which invests it, and 
makes its exit. During all this the larva should, as a rule, be left to its own re- 
sources, but sometimes it may bo observed that it is incapable of freeing itself, in 
which case assistance must be rendered before prostration takes place, by slitting 
the old skin with a couple of needles carefully manipulated, cutting, by very fine 
pointed scissors, the skin round any scab which may have been formed over a 
wound, and pegging down the skin in cases where the pro-legs may have become 
detached from the transverse silken threads, assisting meanwhile the operation by 
moisture and warmth. It is very important to discriminate between the above 
sickness and cases of starvation, since the treatment I'equired in the latter case is 
necessarily converse of the above, and a conclusion respecting this may safely be 
arrived at by attention to the following : — In the starved larva the capital segment 
is comparatively of hydrocephalic proportions — it is, in the moulting larva, very- 
small, the skin is plump and tense in the latter, while that of the former hangs 
loosely ; the silken transverse threads too are absent in the victim of starvation, 
which also exhibits a restless desperation in searching for food to appease its hun- 
ger, sometimes snapping at pieces of frass and other substances, and as hastily 
casting them aside, the moulting larva, on the other hand, remains stationary. 

DiarrllOD^. This is generally caused by improper feeding with too juicy or 
too relaxing food ; in such cases, dry stunted foliage gathered from bleak exposed 
situations, mature leaves, astringents, such as dark-coloured oak leaves, madder, &c., 
should be tried with such larvae as will partake of them, or the food may be sprinkled 
with powdered madder, chalk, &c. The converse of this complaint requires to be 
treated with the young, juicy, immature leaves of the food-plant, and, in certain 
cases, mostly among the Noctuce, the administration of lettuce and other natural 
purgatives will have a salutary effect. 

Fungus. This is particularly apt to attack haiiy larvas, especially such as 
hybernate, the subject — having doubtless first become unhealthy from confinement 
in a damp, ill-ventilated atmosphere — is attacked by a species of didivm, after 
which it is generally " all up," I do not know how far the use of hyposulphurous 
acid or the hyposulphites might be applicable, but their effect might be tried. The 
natural preventive is, doubtless, exposure to the sun's rays, and most collectors 
must have noticed that the hybernating larvae of Arctia, Spilosoona, and others, take 
every opportunity of sunning themselves, as if for the purpose of drying their 
coats ; when there is no sun visible, currents of dry air will, probably, be the best 
remedy. 

Soils, &c., for the use of Larvae about to change to Pupse. 

Considerable diversity of opinion, respecting the substances, mixtures, &c., 
best adapted for this purpose, exists among Entomologists — probably at one time 



18f.8.] 



17 



one is preferable, at another another ; that which is most suitable for one species 
may be objectionable in the case of otlicrs. In selecting our soil we should be 
gnidecl by the natural habits of the species for whose benefit we are cogitating, the 
nature of the soil which it naturally inliabits, the position, wet, dry, hot, cold, east, 
west, south, &c., which it naturally selects for its tr;insformation. For the rest I 
must leave the choice to the reader, merely contenting myself with an enumeration 
of the most approved kinds : leaf-mould — sand, silver-sand, or " ballast," the latter 
is however apt to " cake " — loam — the rubbish from the roots of oaks and forest 
trees, rotten wood, bran, cocoa-nut fibre — birch catkins (rubbed between the hands 
into light flakes) or combinations of two or more of them. AH soils should be first 
well baked to destroy animal life (such as acari, slugs, eggs of lai-vaj of Tineoe, 
spiders, wire worms, &c.), they should then be placed in closely fastened canvass 
bags, damped, and kept in a moist situation until required for use. Where it is 
required to keep up a certain degree of moisture, the soil should be covei^ed with 
damped moss or a layer of cocoa-nut fibre, the latter being a capital means of pre- 
venting the soil beneath from becoming too dry. 

For such larvae as spin up, the most approved appliances have been already 
noted under the heading " cages." 

(To he continued.) 

Note on Agabus offinis, PayTc.— In this month's "Entomologist" Mr. G. R. 
Crotch has published a most interesting list of certain of Thomson's additions to 
the Swedish Fauna, accompanied by a few remarks which, while indicating a great 
deal of research, are far too concise for those who like Entomology made easy. 
Among them is one to the efi"ect that all Mr. Crotch's examples of Agahus affinis 
belong to the newly-described Eriglenus unguicularis of Thomson. I had within 
the last few weeks examined my Hydradephaga with the assistance of Schaum's 
recently published posthumous work, and had, satisfactorily enough, considered 
all my British examples of Agab tis affinis as the affinis of that author. 

I have, however, just captured four specimens of an Agahus so closely resembling 
my series of aflnis that only an educated eye would notice any difference of facies ; 
and, on consulting Thomson's work, I have satisfied myself that these four speci- 
mens are to be referred to his Oaurodytes affinis, while all my other specimens 
must, like Mr. Crotch's, be considered Tlriglenus unguicul vris. 

I hope the following characters may help entomologists to distinguish the two 
insects. Being of about the same size, A. affinis is rather narrower in proportion 
to its size than A. unguicularis ; it is of a more parallel form (the sides of the 
thorax behind, and the sides of the elytra, being straiter and less rounded), the large 
punctures on the elytra are more evident towards the base in affinis, and there is 
some (though not a very considerable) difference in the shape of the laciniae of 
the metastemum. Besides these characters pointed out by Thomson, which are 
certainly not veiy easy to appreciate, my specimens show another by which the 
species can readily be distinguished, viz., that the broad turned-under margin of 
the base of the elytra is of a rather obscure red in unguicularis, while it is quite 
black in affinis. I should add, that affinis is altogether of a darker and blacker 
colour than the brassy-black unguicularis. Closely allied as these two insects are, 



18 



[June, 



it will be noticed from my remarks that Thomson places them in diflferent genera,-— 
Eriglenus and QaiMrodLytes. These genera (as Schaum remarks) most certainly cannot 
be retained, being founded only on the differences in the shape of the laciniae of the 
metasternum. Now, if A. guttatus and femoralis be examined, it will be found 
their difference in this respect is very evident, but the shape of the lacinae varies 
in the other species, and in Agahus affinis is pretty nearly intermediate. The 
structure of the claws in the males of affinis and unguicularis is similar ; and 
is correctly enough described by Schaum in his description of A. affinis ; and 
incorrectly by Thomson in the descriptions of the two species. I should add that 
Schaum*s description of A. affinis (Ins. Deutsch., i, ii, p. 110) refers without doubt 
to the species I am inclined to consider Thomson's unguicularis. Affinis is one of 
Paykull's species, and Thomson is therefore likely to be right in his identification 
of it. In this case the synonymy will be as follows : — 

1. Agahus (Eriglenus) unguicularis, Th., Sk. Col., ix, p. 101. 

affinis, Schaum (and of British collections). 

2. „ affimis, Tayk., Th. (Gaurodytes). 
— D. Sharp, Thornhill, Dumfries, May 6th, 1868, 

Notes on the British species of Malthodes. — Till Herr von Kiesenwetter under- 
took the revision of the European species of Malthodes, that genus was one of the 
most neglected ; this arose principally from the fact that the different species 
composing it greatly resemble one another, and consequently are difficult to dis- 
tinguish. Kiesenwetter, by examining the structure of the abdominal segments in 
the male, has discovered and pointed out characteristics which serve readily to 
separate the different species, as far at least as the males go ; the females are still 
most difficult to determine with certainty, and the one fact that they differ some- 
times very considerably from their males, added to the other that three or four 
species often occur together, does not diminish the difficulty. Indeed I scarcely 
can understand how Kiesenwetter or any other entomologist could have accom- 
plished the task satisfactorily, had the males been without well-marked characters, 
as is the case with the very closely allied genus Malthinus. It must be added that 
the structure of the terminal segments in the males is subject to little or no 
variation, and is of so marked a character as to leave no room for doubting the 
distinctness of the species. The following list of our species will probably prove to 
be incomplete, but is, I think, the best that can be now given : — 

1. minimus, Linn., Fall., Kies. 

sanguinolemtus, Wat. Cat. 
Common in woods and plantations all over the country. 

2. 'biguttatus, Linn., Thomson. 

*marginatus, Latr., Kies., Wat. Cat. 

Generally distributed and common. 



* Kiesenwetter cites Cantharit bigutiata of Linnaeus under the head of Malthinu* biguttula, 
Panz. Of course, if the Linnaean dest rii)tion really does apply to the species linown biguttula, Fanz., 
Kiesenwetter should have adopted the Linnaean nanae for that epecieB in place of I'anzer'fl niuit 
recent one. 



1868] 



19 



8. pellucidus, Kies. Occurs ia the birch wooda of the Highlands, Rannoch, &c. 
abundant in Strathcannich, Invernesahire. 

4. mysticus, Kies. Discovered by Mr. Bold in Northumberland ; Galloway and 

Strathcannich, rare. 

5. guttifer, Kiea. Rare, Galloway, Strathcannich, Garelochead. 

6. cUspar, Germ. Sparingly both in England and Scotland; Weybridge, Cam- 

bridge, Galloway. 

7. flxivoquUatns, Kies. Galloway and Beauly in Invernesshire ; occurs likewise, 

I believe, in Cornwall. 

8. misellus, Kies. The only locality for this species at present is, I believe, 

Dumfries, where I found half-a-dozen specimens in May, last year ; all 
were males. 

9. fihulatus, Kies. Introduced into Mr. Crotch's Catalogue on the authority of 

specimens found by Mr. Wollaston at Withington. I have captured it 
myself at Eastbank, near Edinburgh. 
10. atomus, Thorns. 

hrevicolUs, Kies., Wat Cat. 
Tolerably common both in England and Scotland. A very considerable fact 
with respect to this species is the disparity in the number of the sexes. Kiesen- 
wetter says that though he has examined hundreds of females he has seen but three 
males, one of which was taken in copula with a female. I have myself seen several 
scores of the female found in this country, but only a single male ; this was taken 
by Dr. Power (near London, I believe). 

The above 10 species comprise all the Malthodes I am able to speak of with 
certainty as found in this country. In Mr. Crotch's Catalogue there is included 
one, M. nigelluSy Kies. (= hrevicolUs, Pk.), of which I have made no mention, the 
unique specimen on which it was introduced having been unfortunately destroyed, 
so that all I can do is to call attention to the fact that this species is not improbably 
to be found in Britain. In Dr. Power's collection are specimens of a species closely 
allied to atonius, Th. ; they are all females, and I am therefore unable to say 
whether they are a distinct species or merely a variety of atomus. In the col- 
lections of Messrs Rye and Crotch are specimens of the female of a species of this 
genus, with which I am unacquainted, unless they should prove to be the female 
of M. misellus, a species only taken once in this country, and of which all the 
specimens then found were, as I have stated above, males. — Id. 

Capture of Lithocharis maritima near South Shields. — I have in my collection 
two specimens of Lithocharis maritima, Aube (castanea, Wat. Cat.), which I took 
on the sands, near South Shields, in May. — Thos. J>ro. Bold, Long Benton, New- 
castle-on Tyne, May I2th, 1868. 

Note on Aphodius nemoralis and A. constans. — I have a specimen of Aphodius 
nemoralis, Er., which was taken near Elgin, Morayshire ; and a fine male of 
AphodA,iAS constans, Duft., found by myself, on the sea-coast, a little to the north of 
Whitley, Northumberland, in April. — Id. 



20 



[June, 



Curious locality for Ischnomera raelanura. — This insect is now taken occasionally 
out of the floor of a calenderer's shop hero ; which floor is constructed of octagonal 
blocks of wood, once forming the pavement of St. Ann's Square in this city of 
smoke, and which were taken up about twenty years ago and sold by the Corpora- 
tion. I should never have thought of such a locality for it. — T. Morley, 29, John 
Street, Pendleton, Manchester, A'pril, 1868. 

Note on Bruchus pisi. — Mr. C. G. Barrett, of Haslemere, has sent mo several 
specimens of this insect, which, though acknowledged to be an introduced species, 
cannot be very generally distributed in England, as I have never seen a live speci- 
men before. It is readily separable from the common B. rufimanus by the red 
colour on its middle legs, its silvery pygidium with two black spots, &c. Mr. 
Barrett notices that some of the peas in which he found the beetles (and which 
were bought at Guildford, and at first believed to have been grown in Essex, — 
though further enquiry throws the suspicion of a possibility of Canadian origin 
upon them) had a covering of skin still remaining over the round hole wherein the 
Bruchus was ensconced ; showing that each beetle must have fed up in a single 
pea, and not have commenced from the outside. Considering the bulk of the 
insect, Mr. Barrett remarks, with reason, that this amount of food seems very 
small.— E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W. 

Note on the habits of Hylesinus. — H. fraxini is now busy depositing eggs in an 
old ash-tree here. The beetles bore into the deeper bark and then drive a transverse 
gallery, branching from the entrance about equally in opposite directions. In each 
gallery there are invariably two of the beetle, which, from their difference in size 
(for I can see no other character), I suspect are male and female. Eggs are laid 
in both branches of the gallery ; and there is sometimes a beetle in each branch, 
though sometimes both are in one. Out of some scores (I may say hundreds), I 
have never found either one beetle or three beetles in a gallery. In the same tree 
I found one gallery of H. crenatus, also containing two beetles, apparently male and 
female. The pretty little H. vittatus abounds here in bark of a wych-elm. — 
T. Algernon Chapman, Abergavenny, 7th May, 1868. 

Capture of Deleaster dichrous. — I have had the pleasure within the last fortnight 
of taking about 40 examples of this, I believe, hitherto esteemed rare Staph. It is 
to be found flying between the hours of five and seven o'clock in the evening, and 
is, no doubt, where it occurs, exceedingly common ; as at Croydon, where I took my 
specimens on two occasions, with an interval of a week between each, their 
numbers seemed not to have diminished. The mode I adopted was to stand in 
one place facing the sun, and watch them come sailing gently along. A net was 
not requii'ed, as I could catch them in my hat (once to the terror of a horse). As 
soon as the eye gets used to their flight, they are readily to be separated from the 
numerous other creatures on the wing at the same time, such as the small Labia, 
&c. Of course the weather must be bright, and not a breath of wind stirring. — 
John Scott, 23, Manor Pari:, Lee, Lewisham, S.E., 12f;j May, 18G8. 



1808.] 



21 



Cajpture of Delcaster dichriius. — I have recently taken several specimens of this 
beetle flying about my window here in the evening. — T. G. Bishop, 22, Thurston 
Road, Lewisham, S.E., Uth May, 1868. 

Note oil Croesus septentrionalis. — In September of last year our alder bushes 
were defoliated by the larvas of a saw-fly, the leaves being completely eaten, with 
the exception of the mid-ribs. The larvse, on being approached, assumed a menacing 
aspect by raising their tails. They were similar in colour to the well-known pest 
of our gooseberry- and currant-trees, though larger in size. I picked ofi" about a 
score, and placed them with their food-plants under a bell-glass on a flower-pot. 
They soon burrowed into the soil, and in the course of a month or so had spun 
their pupa-cases. These ai-e brown, felt-like, exteriorly glazed, of lighter brown 
interiorly. The black spotting of the larva is retained in the pupa, so that it looks 
like a shrunk larva throughout its pupahood. The imago began to emerge about 
the close of April, just as the alders were beginning to leaf. I naturally expected 
Hemichroa alniy but it proves to be Croesus septentrionalis. — Peter Inchbald, The 
Lodge, Hovingham, near York, 

Note on the currant-gall on Salix herhacea. — Last summer, in July, I found on 
the very summit of Grassmoor, looking down on Crannock Lake and Buttermere, 
a pretty little willow, Salix herhacea, that clings closely to the bare top of the 
mountain, rooting itself firmly among the stones, and throwing up here and there 
its little floss-covered catkins. The leaves of this willow are round, or nearly so, 
and shining. The gall is formed on the mid-nb of the small leaves, and is 
about the size of a red-currant. I picked several of these galls and put them in 
my botany-box. By degrees the leaves withered and the galls turned brown. 
They were placed in a glass-topped box and occasionally moistened, and left thus 
till spring. I had little hope of rearing the tenant, having previously failed. 
April came, however, and one of the gall-insects emerged in the form of a small 
saw-fly, black, with pale legs. On opening another of the galls I found the pupa 
of a second insect ready to emerge. Thus another of Nature's secrets is revealed. 
—Id. 

Mr. Inchbald has kindly placed the saw-fly in my hands. It is a small 
species of Nematus, but I am uncertain if it have been described. The late Mr. 
Aa'mistead had also found the gall, but, I believe, had not reared the insect. — 
R. McLaciilan. 

A list of Eupithecice taken in Derby and the neighbourhood ; with notes. — It may 
be interesting to some of your readers to know the number of " Pugs " that I have 
taken in this locality. The following were, with one or two exceptions, taken in 
the larva state : — E. venosata, in seeds of Silene infiata, July ; E. linariata, in seeds 
of Linaria vulgaris, July and August j E. pulchellata, in flowers of Foxglove, July 
and August ; E. centav/reata— I took a female of this species September 8th, at 
light, and obtained eggs from which I bred a good series ; E. subfulvata, on leaves 
and flowers of Yarrow, September and October ; E. plumbeolata, on flowers of 



22 



[June, 



Melampyrum pratense, July and August ; E. isogramniata— this species has been 
taken here, but not by myself ; I met with it, however, in Ti-entham Park Gardens, 
Staffordshire, very commonly in buds of the ClemoMs vitalha, August ; E. castigata, 
on Heath, Angelica sylvestris, and many other plants, September and October ; E. 
trisignata, on seed-heads of Angelica sylvestris, September and October ; E. alhi- 
punctata, also on seed-heads of Angelica ; E. valerianata, on flowers of Valeriana 
officinalis, July ; E. pimpinellata, on seed of Pimpinella saxifraga, August and 
September ; E. fraxinata — This species I take in the pupa state all through the 
winter under moss and loose bark of ash ; E. nanata, on Heath, September and 
October; E. suhnotata, on flowers and seeds of Chenopodium, August and Sep- 
tember; E. vulgata, on Hawthorn and many other plants, August and September ; 
E. dbsinthiata, on flowers and seeds of Senecio Jacohcea, September and October ; 
E. minutata, on Heath, September and October ; E. assimilata, on Wild Hop, 
August ; E. exiguata, on Hawthorn, September ; E. sohrinata, on Juniper, both 
Irish and Chinese, May ; E. rectangulata, on Apple-flowers, April and May ; I also 
take the pupa of this species under moss and loose bark of Apple, May and June. 
Through the kind assistance of some friends, I have also bred E. lariciata, inV- 
gaxvreata, campanulata, and tenuiata. — Geo. Baker, 47, Kedleston-street, Derby, 
March IQth, 1868. 

Lithocolletis Bremiella on Orohus tuhei'osus. — On October 19th last, I found in a 
lane several leaves of Orohus tuherosus mined by a Lithocolletis. From that time 
until the snow and hard frost came on in December I continued to find them very 
sparingly, and at that time, even, some of the larvae were not full-fed. The mines 
were large, occupying sometimes the whole of the leaflet, and therefore found six 
times as large as those in the leaflets of Vicia sepium growing close by, yet they 
produced the same species {Lithocolletis Bremiella) this spring ; and the specimens 
had not profited at all by their abundant supply of food, being precisely like, in 
size as well as colour, those bred from the Vicia. 

1 have never taken the perfect insect at large, but think that it must be out 
very late in the autumn, as there are young larvae almost in the middle of winter, 
and many must, I think, be killed by the hard frost. This was the case with some 
that I attempted to feed up in confinement. — C. G. B.a.rrett, Haslemere, Surrey, 
April 28th, 1868. 

Lepidoptera swarming on rushes. — "The last fortnight in July we spent "at 
" Lowestoft, when I went out mothing every night with a lantern, &n., to the low 
" marshy ground just at the back of our lodgings. I set eighteen dozen insects, for 
" they swarmed from nine to ten o'clock, so as to make the rushes (Juncus effu^us) 
" look full of various coloured flowers. I could have taken hundreds every evening, 
" for they sat perfectly still, extracting something from the heads of these rushes — 
" then past flowering, and all I had to do was to make a selection, and box all I 
" wished for." 

I hope you will be able to find a corner for the above extract from a letter 
received from my late friend Mr. Skepper, of Bury, wishing, ere July comes, that 
others may profit by it, if this is not an exceptional case. — E. N. Bloomfield, 
Guestling Rectory, Hastings, May, 1868. 



1868. 



23 



Lepidoptera taken at Q nestling, near Hastings, in 1867. — April 3rd, Tceniocarnjja 
miniosa, 3 at sallow. May 4th, Macaria notata, the only speuimen I saw this year ; 
8th, Eupithecia dodoneata, 1 specimen. June 1st, Cidaria picata ; 9th, Pt<rrophorus 
acanthodactyliis ; 12th, Cymatophora or, 1 at sugar; lSth,Aplecta tincta, 1 at sugar. 
July 1st, Acronycta leporina, 1 at rest; 2nd, Pempelia palumbella ; 5th, Botys 
lancealis, 2 specimens ; 6th, Pyralis glaucinalis, several ; 20th, Macaria alternata, 
1 rather worn, in a wood at Fairhght ; 3l8t, Demas coryli, ; Melanthia albicellata, 
1 specimen. August 9th, Acidalia vnomata. Also Eupithecia virgaureata, Pterophorus 
microdactylus, and P. tephradactyhis, without note of date. — Id., April 8th, 1868. 

Cbstnia pyralina in Suffolk. — I bred this from a pupa found at Great Gleuham, 
In Suffolk. I mention this insect to correct an error in my former record. I should 
have said that some years ago I used to take it at Great Glemham, not uncommonly, 
at light. — Id. 

Note on Phlceodes crenana. — While collecting last autumn in the neighbourhood 
of Richmond Park, I beat from a birch-bush a Tortrix pupa, which had been in the 
cavity of a curled-up leaf. After a few days a fine specimen of PJilceodes crenana, 
emerged from it. I beHeve this insect is generally regarded as a sallow-feeder, and 
it is just possible that the individual in question may have been so, for there were 
sallows growing up mingled with the boughs of the bush from which I beat it. 
The leaf in which it had spun was, however, birch. It is worthy of note, also, that 
early spring is the recorded time of appearance of this insect in the perfect state. — 
T. Blackburn, Grassmeade, Wandsworth. 

Note on Stauropus fagi. — I believe it is generally supposed that the larva of 
this insect feeds only on beech, oak, and birch, and that it spins up between the 
growing leaves, and with them falls to the ground in autumn. Last autumn I was 
digging at the roots of an elm, when I turned up a cocoon, unfortunately cut with 
the digger. On opening it, I was much surprised to find an unturned larva of 
S.fagi. The cocoon almost exactly resembled that of P. palpina. — E. Hallett 
Todd, Aldsworth on the Cotswolds. 

Earhj Lepidopterous captures at Colchester. — I send the following jottings from 
my note-book for 1868, on the chance of your thinking them worth inserting in the 
" Entomologist's Monthly Magazine " : — 

January 28th, took P. pilosaria ; SOth, took P. pilosaria ; H. leucophearia on oak 
trunks. February 12th, saw V. urticce ; 22nd, A. cescularia out ; 25th, T. hyemana, 
common ; E. scutulana larvae not rare in thistle stems March 10th, bred T. 
rrmnda; 12th, took A. prodromaria, P. hispidaria, H, leucophearia, and D. fagella. 
March 14th, took 9 A. prodromaria on oak trunks, just emerged, between two and 
six p.m. ; have searched in vain for others since ; took also 4 S. illunaria, &c., in 
the evening; 15th, bred a very curious pale bufi'-coloured variety of N. camelina; 
16th, took 2 X. lithoriza, and 2 9 A. (ssculana, &c.— W. H. Harwood, St. Peter's, 
Colchester. 



24 



[June, 



Ahundaiice of the Im'voe of MelitcBa Cinwia. — The cliffs near Ventnor are now 
literally swarming with the larvae of Melitoca Cinxia, feeding on the narrow-leaved 
plantain, in the orthodox manner. They are in all stages of growth, from quite 
small to nearly full-grown. It is impossible to walk from Ventnor to St. Lawrence 
by the cliff-walk without finding thousands. I have not seen any of the chrysalides. 
Excepting these, there do not seem to be many insects here ; unless, perhaps, oil- 
beetles.— L. M. S. Pasley, St. Lawrence, Ventnor, Isle of Wight, April 20th, 1868. 

Xylomyges conspicillaris, ^c. — I bred a very fine example of Z. conspicillaris 
on the 4th of this month. I did not expect this reward for my last autumn pupa- 
digging, for in no other season in my life did I ever meet with so few pupae. After 
a day's march and toil, the result was generally only about eight or ten Tceniocampce : 
some days T turned up a Smerinthus or an Amphidasis. Upon the 22nd February 
I bred a crippled ? A. prod/romaria, very early, I thought, as the pupa was kept in 
a cold northward room. I placed her upon the bole of an elm tree in my garden, 
and in the morning a (J was in attendance close by her side. This, too, was very 
early for its appearance, after the middle of Mai'ch being the usual time, about 
which period I bred several this season ; also T. populeti, T. mimda, 8. illuno.Ha, and 
other common spring species. Some of the V. urticce that liybemated in my house 
took flight more than a fortnight ago, others yet remain waiting for warmer 
weather, as wc have had severe frosts nearly every night during the last three 
weeks. Two or three fine Q. lihatrix are still lodging upon my cellar walls. I have 
been sugaring several times, but not one moth appeared. — Abraham Edmunds, 
Cemetery House, Astwood Road, Worcester, April lK>th, 1868. 

Dianthoscia capsophila bred. — During the month of April I bred a few fine 
dark varieties of this species. The first insect appeared on the 1st, and the last on 
the 29th, of that month — Chas. Campbell, 14, Blackburn Street, Upper Moss Lane, 
Hulme, Manchester, May 11th, 1868. 

Early appearances. — Saturnia carpini. — A female came to light on April 24th, 
near Bromley, Kent ; she deposited a few eggs next day. Smerinthus tilia;. — A 
male was taken near this place May 4th.— H. JeNner-Fust, jun., Hill Court, 
Berkeley, May 9th, 1868. 

Superabimdance of Abraxas grossulariata. — We have this year a perfect plague 
of the larva of this common insect, which has appeared in immense numbers in all, 
the gardens hereabouts. I have seldom noticed it to attack anything but the red- 
and white-currant bushes, but this year scarcely anything has escaped its ravages ; 
red, white, and black currants, gooseberries, apple-trees, hollyhocks, cabbages ; 
indeed, there is scarcely a vegetable or flower which has not more or less of the 
pest upon it. In our own garden the larvae came out veiy early, feeding updn the 
unopened buds of the gooseberry, which they devoured so effectually that many of 
the smaller bushes never showed a leaf, and latterly many of the larger ones have 
been completely cleared of foliage, fruit, and young shoots. — T. J. Bolp. 



1668.] 



25 



6cnn'al Information. 

Pi-ices of rare British Lepidoptera. — At the sale by Mr, Stevens of Mr. Chant's 
Collection, on the 21th April, Sesia asiliformis and S. allanfiformis, against the 
Britisli origin of which there was not a breath of suspicion, were knocked down, 
after great competition, at the enormous figure of £5 10s. each (single examples) ; 
Mr. Henry Evans, of Darley Abbey, Derby, being the purchaser. In the Lists of 
the Continental dealers asiliformis is marked at prices equivalent to less than 
sixpence l—allaatiformis seems to be less abundant, and is not priced. 

Movements of British Entomologists.— Frof. Westwood and Mr. Hewitson have 
returned from a visit to Vesuvius. The mountain was sulky, and would not exhibit 
its performance before the English savans, although it was too lively after they 
left. Mr. Pascoe is wandering somewhere about the south of Europe. Mr. 
Stainton has just left on a six weeks tour, with the intention of visiting Venice and 
Vienna. 

Departure of a collector to Ecuador and Bolivia. — Mr. Buckley, who has had 
considerable experience in collecting insects in India, &c., has started for Guyaquil, 
with the intention of working the interior of Ecaador and Bohvia ; and we doubt 
not that he will find many interesting things, especially in Uhopalocera. He goes 
out under the auspices of Mr. Hewitson ; Mr. Higgins is his London agent. 

Death of Charles Turner. — This well-known collector died in King's College 
Hospital during the last month, from the efiects of a paralytic seizure, over the age 
of 60. His history was a strange one, and some years since he earned a precarious 
livelihood by gathering moss for the bird-stuflfers. When engaged in this pursuit he 
fell in with the late James Foxcroft, who induced him to collect insects ; and 
latterly his attention was principally directed to wood-boring beetles, in the col- 
lecting of which he attained great proficiency, and found many species new to the 
British Lists. One of his captures was described as Zev.gophora Turncri by Dr. 
Power, but it has been considered as probably only a form of Z. scv.tellaris, Sufil 
Turner died, as he had always lived, in great poverty. 

Death of Thomas Desvignes, Esq. — We regret to announce the death of Thomas 
Desvignes, Esq., at his residence at Woodford, in Essex, on the 11th May, aged 56. 
Some quarter of a century ago Mr. Desvignes was best known for his magnificent 
series of varieties of Peronea cristana. In those days every fresh variety of that 
inconstant insect was duly named and described as a new species. Mr. Desvignes 
inclined, however, to the opinion that certain groups of these varieties might be 
referred to separate species, and in the Zoologist for 1845, p. 840, he proposed a 
scheme of grouping, restricting the number of species of the " crested Button " to 
11; and he even hinted at the possibility of "the whole being but one variable 
species." 

Of late years his attention had been almost exclusively devoted to the Ichneu- 
monidoi, and twelve years ago he prepared a Catalogue of the British Ichneuraonid/z 
in the British Museum, which was printed by order of the Trustees in 1856, and 
extends to 120 pages 8vo. 



26 



June, 



Mr. Dcsvignes also commuuicated sevei-al papers on Ichneumonidce to the 
Transactions of tlie Entomological Society of London ; and the last volume of this 
Magazine contains descriptions of two new species from his pen, viz., Ichneumon 
cavihrensis, at p. 130, and Pimpla opacellata, at p. 174. 

His collection of British Insects will shortly be sold at Stevens'. Altogether, 
it is a fine one, and in tlie Ichncumonidae, as may be supposed, the finest ever 
formed of the British species. In the Aculeate Hymenoptera it is also good, in- 
cluding, as it does, the types of Shuckard's Fosso7'es ; and in the Coleoptera it is 
rich in Elateridce and Xylopliaga, containing many rare species in other groups, and 
including Shuckard's collection. There is also a good collection of Diptera, to which 
order Mr. Desvignes at one time paid considerable attention. 

Deaths of Foreign Entomologists. — Three North European Entomologists of 
some note have recently passed away — Von Tiedemaim, of Dantzic ; Sommer, of 
Altona ; and Westermann, of Copenhagen. All three must have been well advanced 
in years j the latter had attained the great age of 87. 

Entomological Society of London, 4th May, 1868. H. T. Stainton, Esq., 
F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Trimeu exhibited a cocoon of Saturnia pavonia-minor, with the abdomen 
of the imago protruding from one end. This cocoon was spun in a small box, and 
the imago, failing to eflfect its escape head- foremost, had turned and endeavoured 
to emerge tail first, and had died in the attempt. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited a collection of the larvae of Lepidoptera, preserved in 
a most life-like manner by Mr. Davis, of Waltham Cross. 

Mr. Stainton called the attention of the Meeting to a species of Antispila 
mining the leaves of the vine in the island of Malta ; the details of the life-history 
of which were published in 1750 in the Memoires de 1' Academic des Sciences de 
Paris, in a letter to Eeaumur from M. Godeheu de Riville. This larva had not 
since been observed. Mr. Stainton proposed to call the species A. Rivillei. 

Mr. McLachlan said he had recently received a pamphlet from Chevalier 
Ghiliani, of Turin, respecting the appearance in Italy, last year, of immense swarms 
of the dragon fly, Anax Mediterranens. This insect had been originally described 
from an example supposed to have been taken in Sardinia ; but the species had 
been erased from the European List. 

Mr. Smith exhibited the larva of a Xantholinus, to the under-side of which 
were attached the pupa? of a species of Proctotrupidce ; also the larva of Cerostemo 
gladiator, and a species of Acheta, destructive to forest-trees in Madras. 

Dr. Cleghoru, Conservator of Forests in the Madras Territory, detailed an 
account of the ravages of these insects, and said, in answer to doubts expressed of 
the likelihood of an Acheta causing damage to trees, that this insect bit ofi" the 
leading shoots. Mr. Trimen had noticed a somewhat similar habit in an allied species 
in South Africa. 

Mr. Smith exhibited a collection of eight kinds of larvoe destructive to coflfee- 
trees in India. One of these was a Zenzera, and there were two other Lepidopterous 
larva). The remaining five pertained to the Coleoptera, and included the notorious 
•' white borer," Xylotrechus quadripes. Respecting this latter insect, Dr. Cleghorn 



1868.] 



27 



and Captain Taylor gave an interesting account of its habits, and of the immense 
damage it was occasioning in India. The opinion of the meeting seemed to be that 
the " borer " probably attacked only those trees that were in a sickly condition, 
and that remedial measures should bo applied towards improving the general health 
of the trees. That the trees were in a morbid condition was rendered extremely 
probable, inasmuch as the three years immediately preceding the greatest amount 
of borer-mischief were notorious for drought. 

Dr. Wallace, of Colchester, stated that he would be happy to forward eggs of 
Bomhyx Yama-mai to any member wanting them, on receipt of three postage stamps. 

Mr. Smith read " Descriptions of Aculeate Hymenoptera from Australia." 

Mr. J. G. Desborough communicated Notes " On the duration of life in the 
Honey-bee." 

Mr. Hcwitson sent a note on Tachyris Jacquinoti. 



Erratum in Vol. iv. — In Messrs. Douglas & Scott's paper on New British 
Hemiptera at p. 271, dele the word ''Head" at the beginning of the description of 
Corixa Scotti. 



LIST OF CAPTURES OF HEMIPTERA IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA; 
TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIONS OP SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 

BY J. W. DOUGLAS AND JOHN SCOTT. 

Our mutual friend, tlie Eev, O. P. Cambridge, having visited 
Palestine and Syria during tlie months of March, April, and May in 
the year 1865, collected, besides insects of other orders, the following 
species of Hemiptera, which he kindly placed in our hands for determi- 
nation, and, where new, for description. With but very few exceptions, 
only a single example of each species has been captured, and it is 
extremely interesting to find that out of the whole number at least 
one-fourth of them appear to be new. "We annex an entire list, and 
afterwards proceed to describe the novelties. 

HEMIPTEBA-RETEEOPTEBA. 
Section ScuTATiiy'A. 

1. Odontotarsus grammicus, L. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

2. Eurygaster maurus, L. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

3. GrapJiosoma Uneata, L. Sea of Galilee, in April. 

o 

4. Leprosoma Stall, n. s. On the road from Jerusalem to Nablous, 

in April. 

5. Sehirus duhius, Scop. Jerusalem, &c., under stones, March and 

April. 



28 



June, 



G. Sciocoris marginatus , Fab. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

7. Sciocoris Camhridgei, n. s. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

8. JEurydema ornota, L. Hebron, in April. 

9. Murydema rugulosa, A. Dohrn. E-oad from Rasheiya to Damascus. 

10. Oncoma German, Kol., Fieb. Jerusalem, in March. 

11. Mormidea nigricornis, Fab. Nazareth, Carmel, &c., in April. 

12. Mormidea varia, Fab. Eoad from Jaffa to Jerusalem, in March. 

o 

13. Veterna (Stal) ornafttla, H. Sch. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

Section Coeeina. 

14. jPalefhrocoris disciger, Kol. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

15. Cercinthus (Stal) Lehmanni, Kol. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

16. Gentrocarenus spiniger, Fab. Nazareth, in April. 

17. FhyllomorpJia laciniata. Oetl. Nazareth, in April. 

Section Ccecigenina. 

18. JPyrrJiocoris a'pterusy L. Jerusalem, &c., in April. 

19. Fyrrliocoris j^gyptiiis, L. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, by 

sweeping, in April. 

Section Ltg^ina. 

20. Lygceus militaris, Fab. Jerusalem and several other localities, in 

March and April. 

21. Lygmus equestris, L. Hebron, in April. 

22. Ccenocoris (Fieb.) JVerii, Germ. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, 

by sweeping, in April. 

23. Lygceosoma Tristrami, n. s. Road from Nablous to Nazareth, in 

April. 

24. Calyptonotus sanguineus, n. s. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

25. Calyptonotus j^tliiops, n. s. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, by 

swce])ing, in April. 

26. CalyiJtonotus quadratus, Fab. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

27. Mimicus nitidus, n. s. Eoad from Nublous to Nazareth, in April. 

28. Dieuclies (A. Dohrn) melanotus, Fieb. Eoad from Jerusalem, in 

April. 

29. Dicuches (A. Dohrn) pulcher^ H. Sch. Mount Carmel, in April. 

30. Lasiocoris Fieri, n. s. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, by sweeping, 

in April. 



1HG8.I 



29 



Section (/APSiNA. 

31. Pithanus Flori, u. s. Nazareth, at the roots of a dwarf thorny- 

plant ; abundant in April. 

32. BcrcBocoris scxpiinctatus, Eab. Mount Gerizim, Hebron, plains of 

Jordan, and other places, in April. 

33. Bercpocoris amoenus, n. s. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, by- 

sweeping, in April. 

34. Grypocoris Fieheri, n. s. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, by 

sweeping, in April. 

35. Dioncus neglectus, Fab. Plains of Jordan, in April. 
3G. Capsus riitilus, H. Sch. Beyrout, in May. 

37. Camptohrochis serenus, n. s. Near Baalbec, in May. 

38. Stiphrosoma amabilis, n. a. Hebron, in April. 

Section Eeduvina. 

39. Emesa Bohrni, n. s. Amongst water weeds on the edge of the 

stream running from " Elisha's Fountain," in April. 

o 

40. Sastrapada (ELarpagocharis) Bdrensprungi^ Stal. Do. 

41. Ampliilohis venator, King. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

42. HolotricJiiis tenehrosics, Burm. Sea of Galilee, in April. 

43. Loclius squalidics, n. s. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

44. Reduvius (Harpactor) variegatus, Pieb. Kefr Menda (near Cana- 

el-jelil), in April. 

45. Metastemma ceneocolle, Stein. Plains of Jordan, on low plants, by 

sweeping, in April. 

46. Oncocephalus thoracicus, Pieb. Beyrout, in May. 

REMIPTERA-ROMOPTEBA. 

1. Cixins nervosus, L. Plains of Jordan, in April. 

2. Triecphora sanguinolenta, L. Beyrout, in May. 

o 

4. — Lepeosoma Stali, n. s. 

? Breve, latum, suh-depressiim, verrucoso-punctatum, opacum ; capite 
testaceo, loho medio breviori, apice emarginato ; ocellis minutis, remotis, 
vix infra marginem anteriorem pronofi profunda insertis ; j^i'onoto antice 
ocliraceo, postice saturatiori ; scutello in angulis hasalibus tubercuJo ovato, 
subohliquo, testaceo, carina media apicem liaud attingente ; elytris um- 
brinis, profunde nigro-punctatis ; sterno rugoso-punciaio ; pedibus 



30 



July, 



ochraceis, jmtictis magnis irregnlarihts nigris ; femorihus nigro suh- 
cinctis ; tihiis leviter denticulatis ; connexivo leviter o^eflexo. (Antenmr 
desunt ) Long. 3i lin. 

? . Short, broad, sub-depressed, verrucose punctate, not shining. 
Brown. 

Head yellowish-brown, somewhat elongate, the central lobe shorter than the side 
lobes which meet in front, leaving a small notch, and enclose it. Eyes small , 
brown, viewed from above somewhat hemispheric. Ocelli minute, remote^ 
placed in a deep cavity beyond the eyes, and almost under the anterior margin 
of the pronotum. {Antennce wanting.) 

Thorax — Pronotum ochreous, almost perpendicular in front, with a dark brown 
curved line behind the anterior margin ; posteriorly the disc is dark brown ; 
anterior margin concave ; sides divergent, concave ; hinder angles dilated and 
rounded ; posterior margin straight across the scutellum ; longitudinally the 
posterior portion of the disc straight. Scutellum,, the raised basal portion 
triangular, with slightly rounded sides, to which is joined a central keel 
tapering towards and dying out before reaching the apex ; at the basal angles 
an ovate, somewhat oblique, brownish-yellow nodule ; disc dark brown at the 
base, fading into brownish-yellow as it approaches the apex. Elytra hrowmah- 
yellow deeply punctured with black ; membrane suture narrowly dark brown. 
Membrane pale. Sternum ochreous, rugose-punctate. Legs ochreoUs, with 
large, irregular, black punctures, especially on the thighs, which are almost, 
banded. Tibice vfinely denticulated. Tarsi yellow. Claws black. 

Abdomen — connexivum above pale brownish-yellow, slightly reflexed, much rounded 
and widened posteriorly, the anterior margin of each segment broadly dark 
brown ; under -side convex, yellow, the anterior margin of the connexivum 
vex'y naiTowly dark brown. 

On the road from Jerusalem to Nablous, in April. 

The above description has been draAvn up from a single example, 
and named by us after the talented author of the " Hemiptera Africana." 
The genus is one invented by Barensprung, and fully characterized in 
the Berlin Entomologische Zeitschrift for 1850, p. 336. It stands 
near, as he says, to the genera Euri/gaster and Graphosoina, Lap. He 
enumerates two species, one of which, from Sarepta, he describes as L. 
inconspicuum, but the diagnosis is very brief and unsatisfactory ; the 
other he simply refers to as from Egypt, and in the Eoyal Collection. 

7. — ScrocoRis Cambridgeii, n. s. 

Ovaius,tesfnceus,opacus, supra et infra dense leviter et rrgularilcr rufo- 
punctatus ; capile sphcerico-triangulaio ; antennis fuscis, iuherculo necnon 
articulo primo icstaceis ; ocellis mimdis ; pronoto snbconvexo, avtice sulco 
transversa sulsinv.ato interrupto, imp>iinctatr> ; scuteVo corii longitudine, 



18(>S.] 



31 



macula pa rva alba ad angulos hasales ; membrana pallida, pellucidn, nervis 
dilute testaceo-marginatis ; femoribus subtus (prcdsertim anticis viediisque) 
spinis brevissimis ferrugifieis instruct is ; abdomine subtus subconvexo, 
stigmaiibus concoloribus ; segmentorum 3, 4, 5, et 6 angulo basali cxteriori 
macula j^rirva nigra ornato. Long. 3 tin. 

Oval, dull testaceous, thickly, finely and regularly punctured with 
red on hoth the upper- and under-side. 

Head spherical triangular, with a short, flat, unpunctnrcd channel on the outside 
and in front of the ocelli. Antennce pale fuscous-brown, except the 1st joint 
and tubercle, which are testaceous ; 3rd joint rather more than f the length 
of the 2nd. Eijes pitchj-black, small, their outer margin in a lino with the 
outer angle of the pronotam. Ocelli minute, somewhat indistinct. Rostrum 
testaceous, apex piceous. 

Thorax — Pronotum flat, convex, with a transverse, slightly wavy channel in front 
on each side of the centre. Scutelhirti as long as the cerium, the centre with 
a short faint channel ; within the basal angle a small white spot. Elytra — 
Membrane pale, very transparent ; nerves very delicately margined with pale 
testaceous. Sternum redder than the pronotum. Legs testaceous-yellow. 
Thighs underneath, especially the 1st and 2nd pairs, with very short brown-red 
spines. Tibice, spines red-brown. Tarsi testaceous-yellow. 

Abdomen beneath somewhat convex, not so thickly punctured towards the centre 
as on the sides ; stigmata unicolorous. Connexivum reddish-testaceous, slightly 
reflexed ; outer basal angle of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th segments above and 
below with a small black spot. 

A single specimen taken on the plains of Jordan in April. "We 
have much pleasure in naming this insect after its discoverer. It bears 
a great resemblance to the *S'. ochraceus, Fieb., Europ. Hem. p. 357, 7, 
but it has not " the marginal line of the head, pronotum and abdomen 
and stigmata, white," nor is the " membrane dirty white," as in that 
species, — characters at once sufficient to separate them easily. 

23. — Ltg^osoma Tristkami, n. s. 

JVigro ruhroque varium, leviter puuctatu?n, aureo-pubescens ; capite 
antennisque nigris ; pronoto antice macula magna lunata, marginibus 
lateralibus late, margine posteriori anguste, carinisque mediis, riibris ; 
scutello nigro, apice ruhro ; elytris rubris ; clavo maculaque subquadrata 
in medio corii, nigris ; membrana nigra, margine exferiori, linea brevi in 
angulo interiori, maculaque rotunda ante medium, alb is ; sterno nigro, 
marginibus lateralibus rubris ; pedibus nigris ; abdomine nigro, connexivo 
rufo. Long. 2 J lin. 

Red and black, delicately punctured throughout, and clothed with 
a short, fine, depressed, golden pubescence. 



32 



July. 



Ilead black. Anteimce black. Ocelli pitchy-red, sliiuing. Rostnivi pitcliy-black. 

Thorax — Pronotum in front with a black, lunate patch, extending to the transvei-se 
concave channel, behind which, on each side of the central keel, a large black 
patch; lateral margins broadly, posterior margin narrowly, and central keel 
red, the colour continued into a spot on the anterior side of the transverse 
channel. Scutellum black, with an arrow-shaped red patch at the apex. 
Elytra — clavus black ; corium red ; nearly in the centre an almost square black 
spot. Membrane black ; extreme outer margin and a short narrow .streak 
along the margin of the inner posterior angle white ; disc with a round white 
spot a little above the centre, and from the membrane suture a little inside 
the posterior angle of the corium, a short, white, diagonal streak running 
towai'ds the upper margin of the central spot. Sternum black, lateral mai-gins 
red. Legs black. Tihioi clothed with short, depressed, yellowish hairs. Tarsi 
piceous. 

Abdomen underneath black, finely punctured, clothed with short, depressed, yellow 
hairs. Connexivum, upper- and under-side red. 

A single specimen on the road from Nablous to Nazareth, in April. 

With much pleasure we name this insect after the Eev. H. B, 
Tristram, into whose possession this collection has passed, and in whose 
work on Palestine all these new species will be figured. 

24. — Calyptonotus sanguineus, n. s. 
Ruber, nit ens ; capite nigro, leviter punctato ; antennis nigris ; pro- 
noto antice nigro, postice ruhro, plus minusve nigro-infuscato, marginihus 
lateralihus reflexis ; scutello nigro, suhconvexo, medio depresso, carina 
hrevi posteriori ; elytris ruhris, clavo linea lata suturali nigra ; corio 
leviter nigro -punctato, macula magna suh-rhomhoidali in angulo interiori 
posteriori nigra ; memhrana picea : sterno, pedihus abdomineque nigris. 

Long. 3f I'm. 

Red, sliining ; corium posteriorly with a large black, somewhat 
rhomboidal spot. 

Head and Antenna} black, the former finely punctured. 

Thorax — Pronotum sides margined and reflexed ; anterior half black ; posterior 
half red, more or less clouded with black, which appears to shine through 
from the mesonotum, the extreme marginal edge narrowly black ; hinder 
angles rounded ; posterior margin concave j disc flattish, convex, finely punc- 
tured, the punctures in the posterior portion black. Scutellum black, finely 
punctured, depressed in the centre, with a slight central keel springing from 
the base and extending to about the middle. Elytra — claxms red, next the 
inner margin, which is narrowly red, a broadish black streak, minutely punc- 
tured, extending almost to the scutellar angle ; next the suture a row of 
minute black punctures. Corium red minutely punctured with black ; disc 
posteriorly at the inner angle with a large, somewhat rhomboidal black spot 



33 



joined to tho black posterior mai'gin. Membrane \nceo\xs. Leg.-ih]a.ck. Thi'jhs, 
1st pair, spindle-shaped, with a tooth on the under-side near the apex, and a 
row of shoi-t dark hairs. Tihice, 1st pair on the under-side only, 2nd and 3rd 
with long, black, spinoMO hairs. 
Abdomen underneath black, in certain lights with a golden reflection. 

A single specimen taken on the plains of Jordan, in April. 

(To he covMnued.) 

NOTES ON LEPTDOFTERA FROM " GOOLMURG," IN CASlIMEliE. 
BY CAPT. A. M. LANG. 

Gooliiuirg is a large, open, flowery glade at an altitude of 9000-1't. 
above sea level, on the north-eastern slopes of the spurs of the " Pir 
Punjal" range of mountains which shut in and overlook the " Vale of 
Cashmere " from the south. 

It is surrounded hj thick forests of Finus excelsa, Picea Wehhiana, 
Pavia indica, Acer, Taxus, &c. 

During the months of July and August, 1867, Dr. T. C. Jerdon 
was encamped at Goolmurg, and took, as characteristic specimens of 
the Diurnal Lepidoptera frequenting the place, the following species : 

Papilio Machaon. C(]mmon throughout the north-western Himalaya. 

GojsEPTERYX NiPALENSis. This species has a range along the whole 
extent of the Himalaya, from Bhootan to Cashmere. 

PiEEis Nabellica. This insect occurs but sparingly in Kunawur, 
where it has been taken by me at altitudes of about 9000 or 10,000 
feet in the AVungur, Kazhang, and Buspa valleys. It has a slow, 
heavy flight, and is fond of pitching on the late umbelliferous 
plants, which rise above the dense masses of flowers carpeting the 
glades in these wooded valleys during the rainy months of July 
and August. The specimens from Cashmere appear to be lighter 
in colour than those from Kunawur. 

PiEEis Daplidice. Of this wide-spread species, specimens occur in 
Dr. Jerdon's colleijtion, though taken in the valley of Cashmere, 
and not at Goolm, irg. These are (contrary to their congener, 
Nahellica) darker than the individuals of this species taken in the 
village fields of Spiti and Tibet to the eastward. 

PiERis Gliciria. This is abundant throughout the Himalayas, and 
does not appear to vary. 



[July, 



Grapta C-album (?). This Orapta, though apparently common at 
Goolnmrg, occurs but rarely iu Kunawur, where, however, I have 
taken it at several localities far apart, and of diverse altitudes and 
climates. Thus one very fine fresh specimen was taken on the 
bleak Hungrung Pass, at about 15,000 feet altitude ; while others 
were taken 200 miles away on the lower, well-wooded ranges of 
the Simla district. The species varies considerably in the colouring 
of the under surface. 

Vanessa Y-albxim. This species appears to be new to the Indian 
Fauna : I have never taken it myself, or seen it in any collection 
made in this country. Two fine specimens were taken by Dr. Jer- 
don at Goolmurg. 

A^ANESSA XAifTHOMELAS. One specimen of this species appears in 
this series. It is also taken in the Simla district, where, however, 
it is not common. 

Vanessa cashmieensis. This insect abounds along the whole range 
of the Himalaya, and is as common in these mountains as the 
scarcely distinguishable V. urticce is in Europe. 

Aegtnnis Jainadeva. The Cashmere specimens do not in any way 
„ Kamala. 3 difi'er from those taken in the Simla, Kuna- 
wur, and districts. 

Argynnis Jeedoni, sp. nov. This species is represented by only 
one individual (not in good condition) in Dr. Jerdon's series. 
I have never myself taken it, or seen it in any other collection. 
It is a small Fritillary, allied to Semale, and belonging to the 
second section of the genus Argynnis, as defined in AVestwood's 
" Genera;" the second subcostal nervule is thrown ofi" beyond the 
end of the cell. 

Uppek-side — fulvous, markings black. Fore-wing — base, and interior margin, below 
submedian nervure, dark fuscous ; two spots (first circular, second lunular) 
•vvitliin, and a streak closing, the cell ; a large spot below the origin of tlic first 
median nei'vule ; a transverse, curved, discal series of seven spots ; a suffused 
spot on costa at two-thirds from the base ; a nearly straight, exterior, trans- 
verse series of seven spots ; a submarginal series of lunules ; and a very slender 
marginal line, which expands into an angle at the end of each nervule. Hind- 
iving — the basal half dark fuscous, with a sinuous exterior margin ; an exterior, 
transverse series of six spots ; a submarginal series of five lunules ; and a 
very slender marginal line expanding into an angle at end of each nervule. 

Undek-siue — Fore-wing pale fulvous ; markings as above, with the exception of the 



35 



liiscous of tlio base and interior margin, which is waiiLing, but is ropUiccd by 
an additional narrow, hmular, basal mark within tho cell, Ilind-iving fulvous ; 
base deep ferruginous, including a basal scries of throe small silvery spots ; 
a broad, curved, transverse, discal fascia (with acutely aiigulated black mar- 
gins), silvery -white, except where interrupted by two yellowish- white 
patches; an exterior transverse curved series of six small ocelli; tho sixth 
(near anal angle) geminated ; ocelli black, with minute white pupils ; marginal 
series of large silvery spots, each bordered interiorly with a narrow black 
lunule. 

Thorax, abdomen, palpi, antenna?, dark fuscous ; the latter with ochreous tips to 
the largo, Hat, pyriform clubs. Expans. corp. ^" ; alar. 1^-". 

Hab. Goolmurg" (Cashmere). 

LiMEXiTES LiGYES. This species is represented by ouly one much 
mutilated specimen in Dr. Jerdon's series, which resembles the 
dark " Kunawur" rather than the light " Simla" variety ; but it 
differs from all that I have yet seen, in having an exterior trans- 
verse series, nearly obsolete in fore-wings, but very distinct in 
hind-wings, of ochreous-red spots, one being placed at the apex of 
each of the black borders of the submarginal lunulcs. The under 
surface is also suffused with ochreous-red. 

This species is subject to a considerable amount of gradual varia- 
tion. At the commencement of its range near Simla, all the individuals 
accord well with the description of L. Trivena, Moore (Ent. Mo. Mag. 
Nov., 18G4,) having ht^oad white fasciae occupying nearly one-third of 
the wing ; while at the extreme northern limit of the range, Tibetwards 
(as also apparently to the west in Cashmere), the fascia is narrow and 
only macular, and the insects have a dark sombre look. The food-plant 
of the larvas is Lonicera tatarica, which has a wide range in the N. W. 
Himalaya. 

AuLOCEEA SwAHA. This is one of the commonest insects of the N. W. 
Himalaya, and does not appear to vary ; the Cashmere specimens 
exactly resembling those from Simla, Kunawur, Gurhwal, &c. 

AuLOCERA Weraj^ga. This appears to be a rare species. One spe- 
cimen in Dr. Jerdon's Goolmurg series, and three individuals 
taken by me in Upper Kunawar, are the only specimens known 
to me. 

EpiNEPHiLE Neoza, sp. nov. This small species oi Epinepliile appears 
to be common at Goolmurg, although in Kunawur it seems to 
be rare, and confined to only a few localities. On the upper 
surface it has considerable resemblance to E. Davendra ? , which 



36 



rjuly, 



is much smaller, and want the strongly dentated margins and bright 
white cilia) of the hind-wings of that species. Davendra ? has 
moreover often (though not always) a second black spot near pos- 
terior angle of fore-wings, which never appears in this species. On 
the under surface of the hind- wings they are very distinct. 

(J TJprER-siDE — greyish-brown. In the fore-wincj t\iQ discal portion is broadly suf- 
fused with a satiny brownish ferruginous ; a single apical spot black. 

Under-side — fore-wing with markings as above ; but the disc is brightly ferruginous 
and separated from the grey-brown exterior margin by a nai'row, sinuous 
darker line ; and the apical spot has a minute white pupil and diffused yellowish 
iris. A transverse fine, scarcely distinct fei-ruginous line, strongly angulated 
outwards below the ocellus, crosses the wing beyond the middle. Hind-wings 
greyish-brown, minutely striated and freckled, with three transverse, sinuous 
and dentated lines darker ; the first basal, the second discal, the third simula- 
ting a sub-marginal series of connected lunules. 

? . Markings generally as in the male ; but the disc of fore-wings above brightly 
ferruginous, the apical spot larger, and with an indistinct paler ferruginous 
iris. On the hind-wings the submarginal lunular line of the under surface ap- 
pears very indistinctly (or not at all) on the upper surface. 

Expans. corp. 4^'" ; alar, 1'' 6'". Form of E. Davendra, but with less acutely den- 
tated margins. 

Hab. Kunawur and Cashmere. 
Epinephile Goolmtjega, sp. nov. 

? Upper-side — dark brown. Fore-wing with two rather large black spots, broadly 
encircled with pale ferruginous ; one subapical, the other near posterior angle. 

Under-side — greyish-brown. Fore-wing with discal portion ferruginous ; ocelli as 
above, but with irides smaller, and with minute white pupils ; an indistinct 
streak closing the cell, and beyond it a transverse discal line, angulated ex- 
ternally between the ocelli. Hind-wing irregularly and indistinctly tinted with 
fuscous, ferruginous, greenish and glaucous ; but a large, medial, ferruginous 
patch near base ; a curved discal series of seven irregular cuneiform spots, 
pale yellowish ferruginous, and an incomplete submarginal series of small 
ocelli, black with yellowish irides ; two below apical and two above anal, angle. 

Head, thorax, abdomen, palpi, and antennae, brown ; eyes ferruginous. 

Expans. corp. 4^'" ; alar. 1" 6"'. 

Hab. " Goolmurg " (Cashmere) 

Epinephile Maiza, sp. nov. {an prcBcedentis var. ?) . 

? Upper-side — as in Qoolnmrga, but with the irides of the ocelli much smaller and 
darker. 

Under-side — generally as in Goolmurga ; but in the fore-wing the greyish-brown 
borders and the transverse discal line are much broader and darker. In the 



\hGS. 



37 



hind-wing the colour is clear, unclouded brown ; the basal ferruginous patch is 
larger, the discal series of cuneiform spots is incomplete and indistinct, formed 
of smaller, darker spots, and the foui- submarginal ocelli are entirely wanting. 
Expans. and Hab. as in Ooohnurga. The fore-wing is slightly broader, and has 
a more rounded apex and more convex exterior margin than in Goohniirga. 

Were these insects ^ and ? they would be indubitably set down 
as sexes of one species ; but both appear to be $ : they may, however, 
pertain to oue species, which is variable, and of which a larger series 
must be obtained before its character can be correctly defined. 

PoLTOMMATUs Aeiana. ) Thcsc (or this ?) species are widely spread 
„ Naziea. ) through the N. W. Himalaya, and shows 

everywhere a considerable tendency to variation in the colouring 
of the under surface. The Goolmurg specimens accord with those 
from Simla and Kunawur. 

PoLYOMMATUs Ntcula. This vcry lovely species is common at G-ool- 
murg. In the Simla and Kunawur districts it is not widely spread, 
but appears in some abundance in certain localities. The rich 
blue appear to far outnumber the dull brown ? , which are 
easily taken. 

PoLXOMMAxrs sp. ?. Only two specimens (not in good condition) oc- 
curred in Dr, Jerdon's series. I have seen it nowhere else. 

Chetsophajstjs Kastapa. This beautiful little " copper," though rare 
in Simla and Kunawur, seems to be very common at Goolmurg. 

This series of twenty-three species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, although 
it cannot be supposed to comprise all the species which fly at Goolmurg 
in the months of July and August, may be assumed to represent all 
but the rare ones, and fully to characterize the Lepidopterous Pauna of 
the region. It will be seen that there is no tendency to tropical, or to 
truly Indian, forms ; but that, on the contrary, the collection is entirely 
suggestive of the European Pauna : in some cases the species being 
identical with well-known European forms, while the rest are nearly 
allied Himalayan representatives, closely resembling their European 
congeners. 

Such collections as this, formed at various points along the Hima- 
laya, Hindoo Koosh, and ranges westwards to the Caucasus, would be 
very interesting, as determining exactly where and under what conditions 
the closely-allied eastern and western congeners first appear, either in 
contact or in close proximity. 
Lucknow, 1868. 



38 



NEW SPECIES, Ac, OF IlETEROCEROUS LEPIDOPTERA FROM CANTER- 
BURY, NEW ZEALAND, COLLECTED BY MR. R. W. FEREDAY. 

BY ACHILLE GUENEE. 
{Continued from page 6). 

Genus Agrotis. 

AGEOTIS (SPiELOTIs) C(ERULEA, GuGDee, n. s. 

A Ice anticce cceruleo-grisece, lineis mediis inaculisque ordinariis vix ex- 
pressis pallidiorihus, saturate cinctis ; suhterminali nulla, vel jmnctulis solum 
indicata : posticce maris lutece, margine late griseo, subtus omnes in mare alho- 
ochracece^in fcemina alho-grisece. Abdomen maris utrinque luteum. Palpi 
crassi. 

Size and aspect of our hirivia, which is the European species to which it is most 
nearly allied. The S lias the superior wings distinctly bluish-cinereous, the fringe 
ooncolorous j the half line and the two median ones are faintly marked by whitish 
atoms, and bordered on each side by darker grey ; the orbicular stigma is large, 
whitish, and well marked, and almost contiguous to the extra basal line ; the reni- 
form stigma is much less visible, and is separated from the preceding by a square 
group of dark atoms ; the subterminal line is obHterated or scarcely indicated by 
little unequal whitish dots ; other dots, smaller but more visible and more regular, 
follow the elbowed line : inferior with the ground colour ochraceous, but much 
obscured by a broad grey band and vague median line : the under-side of all the 
wings is yellowish-white without markings. Thorax bluish-grey, and the abdomen 
full yellowish-ochrcous on each side. Antennae almost entirely filiform. 

The $ differs much from the male. Its anterior wings are somewhat slaty- 
grey, with the fringe whitish, and the under- side of all the wings white^ scarcely 
yellowish, powdered almost everywhere with grey atoms, as is also the abdomen. 

But that which best distinguishes this pretty species is the form of the palpi, 
which varies enormously in the sexes. In the ? they are extremely thick but 
glossy, and project strongly beyond the front ; the second joint spongy, strongly 
rounded at the apex, and the third joint is scarcely visible, but in the place of it 
one sees only a sort of lateral opening. In the $ , on the contrary, they are of the 
ordinary form, and the third joint is very apparent, ovoid, and directed forward. 

Ageotis admieationis, Guen^e, n. s. 

Suh-affinis A. corticece. Ala^ anticce grisecc, lineis mediis distantibits, 
macida orbiculari elongata, renigerain fere attingente, clavi/ormi longa : 
jtosticce griseoe, fimbria albida ; subtus albidce, lunula cellnlari, lineaque media, 
fuscis. 

I have seen only one specimen in rather poor condition. It is rather sinaller 
than corticea. Superior wings smoky-grey, with the ordinary lines much sinuated, 
blackish and edged with greyish-white atoms ; the two median lines very distant, 
almost parallel ; the elbowed line not angulated inferiorily ; the three stigmas pale 
grey encircled with black ; the reniform almost touches the elbowed line, and is 
surrounded by blackish shades ; the orbicular very oblong, pyriform, and its apex 
almost reaching the reniform; the claviform is very oblong and distinct ; the sub- 



89 



terminal lino vaguo ; the hinder margin marked with black dots : inferior wings 
uniformly grey with whitish fringes preceded by vague black dots ; beneath they 
are whiter with a well-marked cellular spot and median shade. Thorax very 
robust, grey mixed with black, with a blackish line on the anterior part of the 
collar. The head is darker, and so are the palpi, the last joint of which is long and 
truncated. Antennas strong, pectinated. 

Agbotis ceropachoides, Guenee, n. s. 

Alee anticce pulverece, gy^iseo-mhvirescentes, punctis terminalibiis nigris, stihtus 
albidce, litura media nigricanti : posticce grisece, fimbria albida, atomis 
nigris ; thorax griseus ; antenncB pectinatce. 

I have only one example of this Agrotis, which at first sight has the appearance 
of a Cymatophora allied to fiavicornis. Superior wings somewhat dark grey, but 
entirely covered with long sulphur-coloured or greenish scales which obliterate all 
markings save the large black dots on the hinder margin ; however, with attention, 
one is able to see traces of the reniform stigma, and it is possible that, in better 
marked individuals, the other markings would be visible ; the fringe is long, grey, 
with the extremity white : the inferior wings are unifoi'mly grey, with the fringes 
likewise long, whitish, divided by a dark line : beneath, all the wings are greenish- 
grey, powdered with black atoms on the costa; the superior have in addition, under 
the costa near the middle, a vague median cellular blotch, and a black dot at the 
base of the bristle. The thorax is broad, quadrate, darker grey than the wdugs, 
like the head, without any line. Palpi very hairy ; the third joint thin, lost amid 
the hairs of the second. Antennae long, acute, and furnished with long ciliated 
laminaj. 

Genus Eumichtis, Walker. 

Ettmichtis sistens, Guenee, n. s. 

Ala integrcB : anticce suhvirescenti-grisece, lineis mediis serratis nigris, 
subterminali pallida, maculis bene notatis, orbiculari rotunda, reniformi 
magna, claviformi exigiia : posticce grisece, lunulis marginalibus nigris. 

The facies of this species is somewhat ambiguous, and its definite position de- 
pends upon the discovery of the larva. Perhaps it should be placed in the Hade- 
nidcc near H. sodce. At present it appears best to locate it in its present position. 
It has some affinity with Mamestra alhicolon. 

Not larger than H. sodce. The thorax and superior wings testaceous-grey, with 
a greenish appearance ; all the markings are well defined, especially the elbow line, 
which is formed of little black lunules slightly separated ; the two ordinary spots 
are large, grey encircled with black ; the orbicular is round, marked with a sub- 
costal black dot ; the reniform broad, filled in with black below ; beneath it it is 
the median shade which forms a series of zig-zags to the inner margin ; the sub- 
terminal line is slender, pale, sometimes preceded by small isolated black dots ; 
other dots, somewhat lunulate, precede the concolorous fringe : inferior blackish- 
grey, with terminal black dashes. Collar with a slight black line. Antenna? thick, 
and, with the lens, thickened ciliated denticulations are perceptible. Abdomen 
without crests. 



40 



[July 



The ? is slightly paler ; its abdomen very thick, bcueath with two lateral 
series of black markings. The antennas have only slight, scarcely perceptible 
ciliations. 

Family viii. HADENID^. 

Genus Hadena. 
Hadena neevata, Guenee, n. s. 

Statura H.mutantis ; alee antics hrunnece, costa^nervis omnibus, macii- 
Us, lineisque ordinariis albis, nigro limbatis : posticce testacece. Thorax 
albo, brunneo nigroque varius. Antennce pectinatce. 

This pretty Hadma resembles our Neuria saponarioe in its markings. Superior 
wings wood-brown, the costa and all the nervures white, strongly defined, as arc 
also the ordinary lines, which are bordered with small black dashes ; the two first 
lines somewhat confused, the elbow line is better distinguished by the small black 
lunulas which margin it ; lastly, the subterminal line is the best marked in a zig- 
zag, and forming a ^ between the second and fourth nervules ; the reniform and 
orbicular stigmas are very conspicuous, white, brown in the centre and bordered 
wdth black ; the claviform is confused with the basal markings : inferior wings pale 
brown with white fringe ; beneath nearly white, with a dark cellular spot and median 
line. Thorax brown, with black lines, edged with white on the collar and on the 
patagia. Antennae spatulated and pubescent, furnished with slender but long 
laminae. 

The ^ differs from the S only in its simple antennae. 

Family XYLINID^. 
Genus Xylocampa. 
Xylocampa inceptuea, Walker. 

I have before me both sexes of a species which I think identical with that de- 
scribed by Mr. Walker (Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., p. 1736), although the examples present 
some differences ; notably the absence of the black basal line and terminal dots. 
The $ , which Mr. Walker has not described, is of a duller grey than the S , and 
the median lines, which are scarcely visible in that sex, are here plainly marked in 
geminated zig-zags. The third joint of the palpi, which, in the S , is very thick 
and spatulate, is here more slender and linear. 

This species, and the following, are not true XylincB^ and to me 
appear to have more affinity with my genus Xylocampa ; i. e. until the 
discovery of their earlier states, and of other analogous species, shall 
justify the creation of a separate genus proper to Oceania. 

Xylocampa cucullij^a, Guenee, n. s. 

Statura X. incepturai. Ales anticce cinere<e, costa, lineolis, margineque 
nigro-punctatis, maculis distinctis : posticee fuHginos(B,Jimbria alba : subtus 
albid(B, lunula cellulari limboque nigricantibus. Articulus iertius j^al- 
porum sub-lnjlatus, secundo minor. 



41 



It ia scarcely the size of inceptuni, and the wiii^js are rather more obtuse. 
Superior cinereous, with intensely black terminal clots ; the costa also marked 
with black dots, which indicate the origin of the ordinary lines, which are little 
visible ; the half-line is the most apparent, formed of two arcs, one placed above 
the other ; no basal lino ; subterminal indicated by a series of wedge-shaped 
blackish spots ; and the central shade by a black dot on the inner margin ; the two 
ordinary spots are visible, and of the normal form : inferior smoky-grey, without 
markings, and with a white fringe ; their under-side whitish, with a large black 
cellular lunule, and a strongly defined border, which resembles that of the species 
of Anarta. Antennae stout, scarcely ciliated. The terminal joint of the palpi 
strongly projecting, but much shorter than the second, naked, and somewhat club- 
shaped. Thorax with a black line on each patagium. 

PRALENITES. 
Tamilt II. ENNOMID^. 
Genus Poltgonia, Guenee, n. g. 

Larva ?. Imago — palpi long, straight, connivent, forming a 

beak ; second joint thick, hairy ; third filiform, acute. Antenna? of the 
^ rather short, slender, and completely filiform. Pody very slender. 
Tliorax scarcely broader than the abdomen, short, scaly. Abdomen 
very long, not conical. Legs very long and very slender, not pilose, 
almost equal ; the spurs robust. Wings strongly angulated and incised, 
glossy, shining ; the markings mostly well marked. 

A genus which appears to be proper to Oceania, and which has 
but little analogy to others. It seems to agree a little with Ennomos, 
Selenia, Ryperetis, and Entomopteryx, after which it appears to place 
itself in the order adopted in my " Species. 

POLTGONIA FOETINATA, Gueuec, U. S. 

Alee valde dentatcs et angulatcB^violaceo-cervince : anticce lineis nigris 
maxime expressis, 1^ bidentata, 2* sinuato-hidentata, puncto nigro ante- 
cedente lituraque costali fuscis : posticce pallidiores, linea media incom- 
pleta : suhtus omnes Jlavcd, ferrugi7ieo-varias, lineis distinctis. 

This charming Phalenite is a most curious species. The wings are cut in an 
altogether peculiar manner. Superior having each at the apex two triangular ex- 
cisions, the first of which is very deep (the inferior have also two excisions near 
the middle) ; they are testaceous-yellow, more or less tinged with violet, and with 
two deep black, well marked median lines ; the first line forms, above and beneath 
the median nervure, two very acute angles ; the second forms also two corres- 
ponding angles, but more open and blunter, and is bordered on the inside with paler ; 
between the two lines is a brown mark on the costa, and a black dot beneath it ; 
opposite to the second angle of the elbowed line are two more black dots, and 



42 



[July, 



finally some black markings near the terminal excision : inferior with only one line, 
which becomes obliterated near the middle of the wing. In well-marked specimens 
there is also a pale subterminal line common to all the wings. 

The under-side is of a more lively yellow, strongly vai-ied with ferruginous, 
with the same lines and dots as the upper-side, but less marked and reddish : on 
the inferior is a median band, toothed inferiorily and surmounted, in the cellule, by 
an oval ferruginous dot, traversed by a fine white line, which divides the cellule in 
two parts, and is prolonged to the apical margin. The whole body is coloured as in 
the wings. I have not seen females of this insect. 

Family v. BOAEMIDJE. 

Genus Gnophos. 

GNOPnos PANNULARiA, Gueiiee, n. s. 

Statura G. ohscuratce. AI(b omnes latce, deniatce, griseo-testaceoe, 
striatoe ; margine laio, hrunneo-ruhricante : anticce macula quadrata termi- 
nali alha. Antennce pectinatce. 

It is as large as the largest ohscuroda. All the wings are strongly toothed, 
testaceous -grey, powdered with fine blackish atoms. The base of the superior and 
the last half of all the wings are tinted with reddish-brown, forming a kind of vague 
border, which, on the superior, has the appearance of being denticulated inwardly, 
and is narrower opposite to the cellule : beneath, this border does not extend to the 
mai>gin, and thus forms a subterminal band; there is here, on all the wings, a 
cellular black dot, which is larger on the inferior. Body colom'ed as in the wings, 
without markings. Palpi little prominent, as in all species of the genus. Antennae 
furnished with long, but fine, pubescent pectinations. 

Family xi. ACIDALIDiE. 
Genus Asthena. 
AsTHENA MTJLLATA, Gueuee, n. 8. 

Statura A. risatce. Alee omnes ruhro-paleacece, lineolis mult is un- 
diilatis griscis parallelis ; duahus mediis griseo scepe infuscatis ; imnctiilo 
cellular i nigro : anticcD litura media vix conspicua ferruginea. Frons 
hrunnea. Antennce hasi albce. 

This little species approaches more to the true AcidalicB than do its congeners 
ordinata and risata, yet its wings have the same form : they arc pale straw colour 
rather than reddish, and ai*e traversed by a multitude of grey parallel lines, which 
are nearly straight, but composed of little lunules j the two median ones are more 
blackish-grey, and, behind these, between the second and third nervules, is a more 
or less distinct geminated ferruginous mark ; a small round, very distinct, cellular 
dot, and other similar terminal ones : beneath the lines are distinct only from the 
cellular dots to the terminal border, and the base of the superior wings is suffused 
with black. Front cinnamon-brown, and contrasting with the vertex, which is 
paler than the rest of the head, and whitish, as is also the base of the antenna". 
I say nothing about the latter, believing that I have only females. 



1808. J 



43 



Family xv. FIDONTD.E. 
Genus Panagra. 
Panagra scissaria, Gueuee, n. s. 

Al^ suh-angustatce, alhidce, sericem : anticce linca imhraia longi- 
ludinali pu7ictisque cellular i terminalibusque nigris. 

It approaches group 11 (Lozogramma) . Superior wings rather narrow, acute 
at the apex, slender and silky ; bone-white, with the fringe concolorous, preceded 
by little rounded interneural black dots ; a similar dot in the cellule j a black lon- 
gitudinal lino parts from the base, and is directed towards the apex, which it does 
not reach, conspicuous above, but obliterated beneath : inferior wings equally nai'- 
row, somewhat prolonged at the anal angle, paler than the superior, and without 
markings. Auteunaj furnished with fine, but long, ciliatious. Front glossy and 
rounded. 

Genus Fidonia. 
FiDONiA (?) SERVULARTA, Guenee, n. s. 

Ales omnes pahacecc, nitentes, margine fasciaque terminali interrupta 
nigro-griseis ; linea media jnmctoque cellulari : suhtus co7icolores, fascia 
media pallida. Antcnnce peciinatcd. Palpi aczUi. Corpus gracile. 

I have only one sex of this small species, and dare not affirm that 
it really belongs to the Fidonidce. It has a deceptive appearance of an 
Acidalia. 

All the wings are entire, shining, straw-yellow with blackish markings, form- 
ing at first a common border, which is rather unequal, and afterwards another 
similar unequal band on the superior, greatly interrupted, and leaving sometimes 
only a line on the inferior : the superior have, in addition to the elbow line, a cellu- 
lar dot and two markings on the inner margin : the under-side of the four wings 
have the markings of the upper, and a distinct median band of the ground colour 
is there seen, but the colour is paler on the inferiors. Body slender, concolorous. 
Antcnnce furnished with long pubescent pectinations. Palpi forming a moderately 
prominent, but veiy acute, beak. 

(To he continued.) 



Occurrence in England of the larva of a terrestrial Trichopterous insect; prooahhj 
Enoicyla pusilla, Burmeister. — I have several times called attention to the existence, 
on the Continent, of a Caddis-fly {Enoicyla pusilla) which, in the larva state, lives 
out of the water amongst moss at the roots of trees ; — the exception in these insecta 
which proves the rule. I believe I can now assert that this is a British insect. 
Mr. Fletcher, of Worcester, has obligingly sent me several living larvse and their 
cases found in the moss and lichens near the root of willow-trees, and these cases 
exactly resemble those of Enoicyla pusilla, from Bavaria, in my collection : they 
are of a very ordinary form — slightly curved cylinders made of fine sand. It only 
remains to breed the insects (which should appear late in the autumn) to enable 
us to add this most interesting species to the British Fauna. As might naturally 
be expected, the larva is destitute of the external respiratory filaments common to 
almost all caddis-worms, but the spiracles are not very evident. E. pusilla is also 
remarkable inasmuch as the female is wingless and little resembling the male. 
Several authors, before its transformations were shown, remarked on the occuirence 



44 



[July, 



of the pei'fect male insect, a small creature with little power of flight, iu localities 
where water was absent. According to a letter received from M. Snellen Van 
VoUenhoven, the larva occurs " in millions " in the wood of La Haye, in Holland. 
May I ask observers to keep a look-out for this most peculiar insect? — R.McLachlan, 
20, Limes Grove North, Lewisham, Jtcne, 1868. 

Tenthredo olivacea of Klug, a new BHtish saw-flxj. — Of this I took a single 
specimen at Rannoch, in June, 1865, and have received five examples from. Dairy, 
Ayrshire, taken by Dr. Sharp. It much resembles the common and variable T. 
scalaris, but may be at once distinguished by its olive-green, instead of bright 
green, ground-colour, and by the thoracic black markings, which here form only 
slender lines marking the sutures of the lobes ; whereas in scalaris they ai*e more 
conspicuous, and form distinct blotches, even in the least-marked individuals. — Id. 

Occurrence of a genus of Goleojptera new to Britain. — I have just received for 
determination from Miss Catherine C. Hopley, of Lewes, a ^ specimen of Phospha^- 
nus hemipterus, GeolF., captured in her garden at that town. Another example has 
been taken. This luminous beetle occurs commonly in France and Germany, and 
is distinguishable from the " Glow-worm" by its much smaller size and long and 
stout antennae, and the very short gaping elytra of its male. A full account will 
appear in our next No. from Miss Hopley's pen. — E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, 
June, 1868. 

Capture of a species of Oniias new to Britain. — During the last and the early 
part of the present month, I have taken in Hackney Marshes a few examples of 
both sexes, including a pale form, of an Omias evidently different from our recorded 
species, and which Mr. Rye thinks is to be referred to the 0. pelliicidus of Schbnherr. 

Of those already known as British, it most resembles 0. hrunnipes, from which 
it may readily be distinguished by the thin scattered grey hairs on its elytra. It 
is a little larger than that abundant insect (pallid forms of which have, I believe, 
before now been mistaken for it), dark pitchy-brown in colour, with reddish-yellow 
antennae and legs, a strongly-punctured rostrum, which is furrowed towards the 
apex ; a wide, flattish, laterally much rounded, strongly and somewhat irregularly 
punctured thorax, and strongly punctate-striate elytra. The anterior femora are 
untoothed, but the tibiae are curved inwardly towards the apex, where they terminate 
in a sharp point. The male is much narrower than the female. I observe that 
Stephens, in the " Manual," describes 0. pellucidus, Schon., and does not prefix his 
desideratum mark ; but, from the absence of the insect in our more reliable i-ecent 
Catalogues, I presume that in Ihis case, as in many others, he copied the descrip- 
tion from the original author, under the erroneous idea that he really possessed 
the species. — W. G. Pelerin, 55, Sandringham Road, Dalston, June, 1868. 

Capture of Apliodius villosus. — I captured a very few examples of this rare 
species on the 8th inst., crawling over the dry sand-hills at Llandudno. It is just 
ten yeai'S since Mr. Cooke found his single specimen under similar circumstances 
at Southport. — Jos. Sidebotham, 19, George Street, Manchester, 16th June, 1868. 



18f).S.l 



45 



Re-occ\i)rence of Coccinella lahih's. — I took ten speciraens of tliis insect on the 
1st inst., at the same place where I took it before, viz., a wood lying between 
Whitstable and Canterbury. I found them, as before, on heath, but only when the 
sun was out, in the middle of the day. In cloudy weather I could not find any, by 
beating the heath or otherwise. They were confined within the space of a few 
yards, on a few plants growing at the side of a narrow path ; and searching the 
woods for miles in other directions failed to produce any more. The insect seems 
to vary somewhat in size. — G. C. Champion, 274, Walworth Road, June, 1868. 

Capture of Ceiithorhynchus urticos. — At the end of last April, by sweeping 
mixed herbage in Headley Lane, Micklehara, I took two specimens of a Ceuthor- 
hyncJius, which, as they correspond with the late Mr. Walton's type of C. v/rticce in 
the National Collection, must, I think, be referred to that species. They at first 
sight resemble Cceliodes didymus, but are considerably narrower than that common 
insect. — Id. 

Further notes on Coleoptera, ^c, nea/r Putney. — In some former notes upon Coombe 
Wood I mentioned a small stream, forming the extreme western boundary of 
Wimbledon Common, and in which I have found many running- water Hyd/radephaga* 
This stream crosses the Kingston Koad at Beverley (or Bavely) Bridge, skirts 
Richmond Park on the east, thence arrives at Barnes Common, where it is divided 
on the northern side of that waste into two or three channels, and eventually 
disembogues itself into the Thames under the first of those narrow iron bridges so 
diflBcult to pass on University Boat-race days. In a small portion of one of the 
Barnes Common channels above alluded to, which receives the drainage of a part 
of the Common and abounds vnth the Sweet-Rush, I have found several beetles 
which are not universally abundant, and whereof a few particulars may not be 
uninteresting. I have been astonished at the number of species of Stenus to be 
found in the above-mentioned limited collecting-ground. Of that genus I have 
already taken twenty-two species in it, — some not of the most trivial. Of them, 
6. melanarius is the best ; of which I have taken my row, by single specimens 
mostly. Buphthalrmis, witli which it is very likely to be confounded, must be 
bottled indiscriminately by those who wish to take this insect, which may be 
recognised at home from its plebeian congener by the darker basal joint of its 
palpi, its rather less robust build, thinner legs, rather longer elytra (which are not 
so closely punctured, and exhibit scarcely a trace of the confluent rough punctures 
behind) and not quite so closely punctured abdomen. These characters are liable 
to the stigma of " cramhe repetita;'* but it may possibly be of help if I again draw 
attention to them. Next to melanarius, the suddenly bloated, quaint little fomicatus, 
whose white knees give the idea of a solution of " continuity " between body and legs, 
has here rejoiced my eyes ; a,ndplantaris, which I never before heard of as occurring 
near London, picipennis (most " stumpy " of Steni) and latifrons (whose body, d la 
Kiesenwetteri, it is impossible to elongate too much), both in profusion, and incraS' 
sat'us, Sire the next in degree ; nitidiusculus, canaliculatus, melanopus (a most active 
•creature) , pusilhis, the continentally much-vexed ossium, hifoveolatus (the real one, 
alas ! ) and hinotatus heading the profanum indgus, — Juno, speculator, Rogeri, 



46 



[July, 



tarsalis, oculatus, hrunnipcs, fulvicornU, luplifhahnns (novr almost extinct) and 
cicindeloides, — the last-named in myriads. Evcesthetus Iceviuaculus and ruficapilhis, 
StilicHs geniculatus and orhiculatus, Tachyporus solutus and scitulus, Myllceno. 
hrevicornis and minuta (hard to get and harder to set), the common marsh Quedii 
and Trogoplilcei, Lesteva punctata, fmA VMlonthus varius, var. hipustulatus^ cinerascens 
and signaticomis, complete the note-worthy Brachelytra. P. signaticornis seems 
very rare : it occurs in matted grass-roots, and may be known from villosulus by 
the usually darker base of its antennae, its darker legs, and its duller, because more 
closely punctured, elytra and abdomen. Of the Geodephaga, Stennlophus Terdonus 
s.nd Anchonienus atratus are the best ; and of the Rhynchop1iora,Erirhiniis sc^l^rrhos^ls 
(not uncommon), Pachyrinus comari and the black-necked Cionus verhasci : Hydro- 
novius, Phytonomus pohjgoni and pollux (as at Hammersmith marshes, accompanied 
by its plainly striped form), and other vulgarities abounding. Donacia sericea, 
Telmatophilus caricis, ChcetartJiria and Cyclonotum in swarms, Simplocaria, Praso- 
curis heccahungcB (also not seen by me so near London before), Cassida ohsoleta, 
Phyllotreta hrassicce, Corticaria denticulata and Bryaxis juncorum, though all common, 
will help to swell the list. 

I have also found here what I suppose to be Limnehius papposus, conspicuous 
for the inflation of the middle joint of its palpi. Of the authorities at my command, 
I can only find mention in Redtenbacher of this peculiarity ; indeed, the equal size 
of the joints of the palpi appears to be one of the generic characters of Leach's 
Limnebius. 

In the Hemiptera I was surprised to find, commonly, the little enigmatic Hehrus. 
This does not seem to have been observed near London before. Of some species of 
Salda to be taken here, elegantula, readily to be known by the suddenly incrassated 
apical joints of the antenna?, is not uncommon, with Monantliia humuli. S. Flori 
occurs in grass at the edge of the Thames Bank ; the specimens with partially 
yellow apical joints to their antennae being apparently varieties of the ? . 

On Wimbledon Common I was much pleased to light upon a little colony of 
the strident Trox salulosus, in and under a very small and desiccated dead lamb. 
This curious beetle, after foolishly giving notice of its whereabouts by its peculiar 
squeak, shams death pertinaciously. The grass beneath a very small tuft of wool 
harboured three specimens. In digging up the roots I found Corymhites hoJosericeiis, 
just out of pupa, with its larva. The dry carcase above mentioned also contained 
several of the pretty Nitidula quadripustulata , with other commoner carrion-feeders. 
On the sallows I found Erirhinus salicis, plentifully; replaced in a week by Elleschus 
hipunctatus. Apion viinimum and EpiLrcea melina also accompanied these species ; 
and Oxy stoma genistoi was not uncommon on small spiny broom. In a marshy 
place, not before examined, I took some Philontlnis nigriia, and P. sanguinolentits 
with its elytral spots confluent ; and, at the old pond near the Mill, Tachyusa atra, 
Stenus longitarsis, and a nest of Aleochara hrevipennis. When the small scattered 
ponds here dry up, many Agabi, Hydropo'n, Hydrochi, &c.,are easily and plentifully 
to be taken. In this way I have found Agahus nigro-cenexis, i^Iarsh., considered 
specifically distinct from chalconotus hy continental authors, but not recorded 
otherwise than as a var. of that insect in our modern lists. Hydropoinis lepidus is 
particularly abundant here. 



IStjfi ] 



47 



Tho rare little Qaedius fascipes, in hay-stack refuse, and Sllusa, at its usual 
Cosi-«6-baunts, have occurred to me near my house ; in the garden of which I have 
captured Cercyon laterale and C. terminatum on the wing. Attagenus occasionally 
exhibits itself indoors, with the elegant Ptinus sex-ptmctatus, which, alas ! exhibits 
a fatal attachment to the bottoms of window-frames, thereby coming to grief. 

I have also found both sexes of Brachytarsus scahrosus in an old red thorn tree 
in my gai'dcn, round which males of Smerinthus tilioe (there are contiguous limes) 
are not rarely observed. I have also noticed this hawk-moth on Wimbledon 
Common.— E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W., May, 1868. 

Capture of Dianthcecia cccsia. — In the beginning of June I visited tho Isle of 
Man, in company with Mr. Birchall, for the purpose of getting this species. The 
insect was rather scarce and very wild, as may be imagined from the fact that one 
night we did not capture a specimen. We succeeded, however, in procuring suffi- 
cient for our own wants, with some over. — D. Baxendale, Akroydon, Halifax, 
June loth, 1S68. 

Capture of Dianthcecia Barrettii. — Mr. Birchall has been staying at Howth for 
a few. days this week, and has succeeded in capturing D. Barrettii. On Tuesday 
evening, when collecting in his company, I took a specimen of D. conspersa, which 
has hitherto been placed in the Irish list only, on the authority of a single specimen 
recorded by Mr. Bristow, supposed to have been taken near Belfast. — W. F. Kirby, 
Dublin, June 18th, 1868. 

Lepidoptera bred and captured in the sprin<j of 18G8. — The present season 
opened auspiciously with the capture of six males and one female of N. hispidaria 
in Richmond Park. Unfortunately, however, all my efforts to establish a brood 
proved unavailing. 

At the end of March I recovered my larvae of 0. fasceliria, D. olfuscata, and C. 
Caja from their tiny outhouse, the remnant of the first-named numbering about a 
score, of ohfuscata ten, of Caja two. More miserable invaHds than the fascelina I 
never beheld. Wood-lice had worked fearful ravages, too, among the ohfuscata, 
but what survived appeai-ed to be strong and well. The young budding shoots of 
broom were partaken of with avidity by the latter — very languidly indeed by the 
former. Time, however, worked wonders, and the end of May saw a dozen fat 
fascelina ready to spin, while seven fine ohfuscata dived among the long moss in 
their flower-pot and disappeared. Qaja, too, fed up rapaciously after the manner 
of its kind. 

At West Wickham, in March, I captured a beautiful jiair of E. avellanella and 
a series of T. crepuscularia ; while at Shirley my friend Mr. Stanley Leigh took 
B. paHhenias and P. hippocastanaria. 

In April one of my breeding-cages yielded P. lacertula, T. opima, and B. hirtaria. 
From Rannoch larvae I obtained fine specimens of N. ziczac ; and from larvae taken 
nearer home, dromedarius. At the same time there emerged, beautiful among bred 
Insects, A. myrtilli and A. porphyrea, and richly-coloured examples of A. ruhidata, 
together with many S. ligitstn. Now, too, a goodly supply of ^E. alhipunctata, 
adorned my setting-boards, shortly afterwards succeeded by centaureata, nanata, 
exiguata, minutata, assimilata, and absynthiata. 



48 



lJulj 



In May, two lovely specimens of H. contigua made their appearance, and C. 
reclusa came out freely. About the same time I bred D. capsincola, cucuhalij 
conspersa, and carpophaga, the first-named in considerable numbers. About the 
middle of the month a large brood of E. fuscantaria crept from the shell, and three 
Kttle cannibal colonies are now established on a privet hedge in the garden. 

While staying at Oxford I took H. uncana and P. agestis, both freshly out ; and 
my friend Mr. Leigh met with H. harhalis, in as good condition as possible, at 
Bagley Wood. 

N. Lucina, whose time had just commenced, we unfortunately missed, a 
moment's view of one richly-coloured spechnen being only sufficient to assure us 
that the pretty little fritillary was out. On a lamp by the New Museum I found 
the darkest male of 0. pudibunda T have ever seen. 

At Coombe Wood, the other day, my brother fell in with P. ramana, and at the 
end of the month the first H. chenopodii emerged from the pupa.— J. B. Blackburn, 
Grassmeade, June, 1868. 

"Notes on collecting in Burnt and Bishop's Woods, in Staffordshire. — I give some 
results of a week's collecting in J une in the above-mentioned woods. 

In Trichoptera, I again found one Neu/ronia clathrata (beaten out of birch), and 
had the pleasure (if pleasure it can be called) of seeing another, but failed to 
captui'e it. Stenophylax alpestris was beaten rather freely in a marshy place, with 
neither streams nor ponds in the vicinity. Limnephihis omricula and L. vittatus 
were beaten from Scotch fii* in exceedingly dry situations.* L. luridus was found 
in the greenhouse at Willoughbridge. Most of the usual species of Coleoptera were 
found ; but I did not see Calosoma inquisitor, which was abundant last season, 
running on the branches in search of Lepidopterous larvae, and falling to the ground 
with the larvae still in their jaws on the application of a blow from the beating-stick. 
In Lepidoptera, I had the pleasure of taking Sesia sphegiformis in both woods. The 
insect rests upon low plants in the neighbourhood of alder, and one specimen was 
found among birch, far from alder, hovering over a tuft of Calluna about 4 p.m. ; 
it is also upon the wing in the evening, flying rapidly and undulating like M. stella- 
tarum. Angerona prunaria was in profusion. Macaria notata rather sparingly; 
together with Bwpithecia pVumheolata, pulchellata, and lariciata. The larva of 
Trachcea piniperda was abundant ; the pupa is decidedly subterranean. Hymenoptera 
were plentiful. Diptera very abundant. I captured one Asilus forcipatus carrying 
Tenthredo livida in its mouth; also Chrysotoxum marginatum rather sparingly, 
hovering and flying in and out of the heather like some wasps. Tipula crocata was 
abundant on dusty roads ; all females but one, which was beaten from fir. — Joseph 
Chappell, 8, Richmond Road, Greenheys, Manchester, 12th June, 1868. 

Early <md late aippearances of Lepidoptera. — Saturnia carpini occurred on Chat 
Moss from the 5th to the 12th April ; A. lepoHna I found stretching on the 25th 
May ; and the same evening I saw T. gothica at rest on the trunk of an Alder ; 
one specimen each of T. populeti and ruhricosa emerged from the pupa on the 18th 
and 20th of May. The latter pupae were dug during the winter, and had been 
kept in a warm room. — Chas. Campbell, 14, Blackburn Street, Upper Moss Lane, 
Hulme, Manchester, June 8th, 1868. 



* The species of Limnephiltis seem to fly any distance to rest in Scotch-fir. No other tree offers 
such adTantages to the collector of these insects.— R. McL. 



I8C8. 



49 



Note on the liabits of Saturnia carpini in Orkney. —Of eleven pupae of S. carpini 
that I reared from larva) found by me in July, 1806, four produced /emaies last year 
(23/5/67 to 16/6/67), four contained ichneumons, and the remaining three pro- 
duced males in April this year. Is it generally the case that the males remain a 
year longer in the pupa state than the females ? 

I do not know if this note be worth insertion in your magazine, but have sent 
it, as it is new to me, and may perhaps be so to others. — J. Trail, Manse of Harray, 
Orkney, 12th May, 1868. 

Captures of Lepidoptei'a at WitherslacTc. — On May 9th, 17th, and 18th, I took 
five specimens of Catoptria aspidiscana ; they needed close searching. The weather 
was glorious, and I met with my usual assortment of Micros, &o. E. Kilmunella, 
0. Loganella and scoticella, P. unca/nay C. rusticana, C. vaccimana, L. miscella, L. 
decorella (?)y 3 larvae of P. tephradactylus on golden rod, a dozen or two cases P. 
Verhuelella and one of D. inarginepunctella, a dozen beautifal N. viridata and E. 
octomaculalis, A, derivata^ C. miata, E, virgaureata, exiguata, and lai'vae of sobrinata 
and of T. coniferata, A good number of common species had put in appearance 
(considering the season was early), and so had the vipers, of which many came to 
grief with my stick, to the wonder of the natives, who dread them. — J. B. Hodg- 
KiNSON, 15, Spring Bank, Preston, 20th May, 1868. 

Capt/ures of Lepidoptera in various localities in March, Aprils and May. — At 
Richmond, P. hispidaria and A. prodromaria. At Loughton, and other parts of 
Epping Forest, D. unguicula, E. trilinearia, G. temerata, A. pictaria, A. derivata^ 
8. perlepidana, S. aureola, &c. At Wimbledon Common, E. porata, A. cuprella, S. 
radiella, and J., siculana. AtWickham, P. lacertula, P. hippocastanaria, E.pusillata, 
At Leith Hill, T. riLbmcosa, T. leucographa^ T. populeti^ T. gracilis, T. munda, T. 
miniosa. — Thomas Eedle, 9, Maidstone Place, Goldsmith Row, Hackney, May, 1868. 

London Lepidoptera. — My brother knocked down in our orchard here, some 
days ago, a fine female specimen of the Orange-tip butterfly. Is not this a peculiar 
locality ? A week ago I saw a Bumet-moth under circumstances still more peculiar. 
It was flying in the hot sunshine within two or three yards of the Portland Road 
Station of the Metropolitan Railway.— H. Montague, Stockwell, 4th June, 1868. 

Faune Entomologique Frangaise, Lepidopteres, 'par M. E. Beece ; dessins et gravures 
par M. T. Deyrolle. Vol. i. Rhopaloceres (Paris: Deyrolle fils, 1867). 12mo. 
18 plates. 

The first volume of this series (Coleopteres, par Faii-maire et Laboulbene) has 
long been considered very useful to Coleopterists ; and we are glad to find that 
the long-suspended issue is recommenced by the publication of the first of four 
projected volumes of Lepidoptera. We hope that the editors will not stop here, 
but complete the series of Coleoptera and Hemiptera which are stated to be in 
progress, and that the other orders of insects will in turn receive their due atten- 
tion, so as to afibrd a complete Entomological Fauna of France. 



50 



[July, 



A good Manual of French LepidoiAera has long been wanted. De Villiers and 
Guenee's book i.s not sufficiently portable for convenient use, and, moreover, was 
discontinued at the end of the RJiopalocera. The entomological traveller in France 
may now possess himself of a convenient little manual, which, even when completed, 
will add but little to his baggage. 

The first hundred pages are chiefly occupied with directions for collecting, taken 
from the "Nouveau Guide do I'Amatour d'Inscctos," and other introductory matter, 
the value of which is much increased by the woodcuts illustrative of apparatus, 
neuration, &o. 

The plates represent about 80 species, sometimes giving the different species 
or varieties, and frequently both surfaces of the wings ; and in most cases are very 
well executed. A serious defect, however, which greatly impairs the value of the 
book, especially to the purchasers of uncoloured copies, is, that the insects figured 
are rarely described in the text ; a reference to the figure being apparently con- 
sidered sufficient. We hope this omission will be remedied in the succeeding 
volumes and in future editions. It is true that almost any figure would be sufficient 
to identify Lihythea Celtis or Vanessa lo ; but no one could be expected to recognize 
Erehia Ligea from a plate which does not show the peculiarly characteristic white 
markings of the under-side of the hind-wings. 

The arrangement followed throughout is nearly that of Staudinger. We are 
glad to observe that M. Berce does not adopt the practice (which we find in some 
French books of Natural History) of popularizing everything, even to the Latin 
names. 

There are numerous notices of the food-plants and times of appearance of the 
larvas j but, except under the genera, we can find no descriptions of larva). It is 
to be regretted that M. Berce has passed over without notice various known larvao 
(Thecla W-alhum and Coenonympha Davus for instance) ; and in some cases (as in 
those of Polyommatus Eurydice and Po.rnassius Mnemosyne), he has added 
" chenille ?," or even " chenille inconnue," to species of which the lai'vae have been 
well described and figured, as both P. Eurydice and P. Mnemosyne have been 
by Freyer. 

Notwithstanding these slight blemishes, we believe the book will be found 
useful to those interested in European Lepidoptera, and especially to the entomo- 
logical tourist. 

©ettcral Ittformntton. 

French exhibition of Economic Entomology. — We have received a circular 
announcing that the Societe d'Insectologie Agricole" (could not our neighbours 
have invented a better terra than " Insectologie " ?), of which Dr. Boisduval is 
president, intends to hold an exhibition of useful and noxious insects, and their 
products and depredations, with the agents that benefit or injure us by destroying 
these insects, and the artificial means employed in destroying the direct or indirect 
destroyers. It will be held in the Palace of Industry at Paris, and is to be open 
during the whole of the month of August next. This exhibition will no doubt be 
worthy of a visit from any entomologist who may be in Paris during August ; Dr. 
Boisduval's reputation is a sufficient guarantee that no means will bo spared to 
render it instructive alike to the agriculturist and entomologist. 



1SG8.J 



51 



Brazilian insects. — Mr. ITcinrich nnrmcistcr, son of tlio well-known author of 
the " Ilaudbuch," who has resided twelve years in Brazil, intends to emulate the 
example of Messrs. Bates and Wallace, by collecLiiig in Brazil, chiefly in the 
province of Espirito Santo, with visits to other parts of the South American 
Continent. Mr. Burmeistcr has ali'eady devoted all his spare time to the breeding 
of Lcpidoptera, and has thus accumulated a mass of facts of the greatest importance 
with regard to the natural position of many genera. 

The Birch-wood Dinner. — The annual dinner of the Entomological Club will bo 
held, as usual, at " The Bull," at Birch-wood Corner, on Friday, the 3rd of July. 
Osbert Salvin, Esq., will preside. 

The late Mr. Desvignes' Collection of Ichneumonidm. — We have great satisfaction 
in stating that this important Collection has been purchased by the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

Entomological Society of London, \st June, 1868. H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

G. P. Shearwood, Esq., of Stockwell, and II Cavaliere Francfort, of Pallanza, 
Lago Maggiore, were elected Members. 

Mr. Jenner Weir called attention to a Report of a Meeting of the Scientific 
Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society, in which were some rather remark- 
able misapprehensions of the habits of the larva of Coleophora hemerohiella. It was 
explained that none of the Entomologists who are Members of that Committee 
were present at the Meeting in question. 

Mr. F. L. Keays exhibited specimens of Psyche cra.ssiorella from Hornsey, and 
stated that the oaks were there much disfigured by the curled leaves in which 
Attelahus curculionides deposits its egg. 

The Hon. T, Do Grey exhibited pupas of Hypercallia Ohristiernana ; the larva3 
he had found near the end of May feeding on Poly gala vulgaris near Shoreham, in 
Kent. Mr. ]\tcLachlan mentioned that he had recently found the larvae in the 
same locality. 

Mr. A. G. Butler exhibited varieties of Nemeohius Lucina and of Anthocaris 
cardamines from Herne Bay ; the latter were remarkable for the great size of the 
central black spot of the anterior wings ; the posterior pair also showing an indica- 
tion of this spot. 

Mr. H. Bui'meister (son of Professor Burmeister), who was present as a visitor, 
exhibited many drawings of the transformations of South American butterflies, 
together with the pupa-skins and perfect insects of some of them. He mentioned 
that he had bred a species of Castnia, which he exhibited, from a larva feeding in 
the interior of the pseudo-bulbs of Orchidaceoe. 

Mr. Butler mentioned that Otiorhynchus picipes had been causing great damage 
to roses near Manchester, by eating off the young shoots. 

Professor Westwood made some remarks on the habits of Ateitchu,s saccr, as 
obsei'ved by him at Cannes. 

Mr. McLachlau exhibited lai'vaj of a caddis-fly which he attributed to Enoicyla 
pusilla of Burmeister, the only authenticated instance of one of these insects living 
out of the water in the larval condition. These had been sent to him by Mr. J. E. 
Fletcher, of Worcester, who found them at the roots of willow-trees. 

Mr. Frederick Bates communicated " Descriptions of New Genei'a and Species 
of Hetcromera," from Australia. 



52 



[July. 



ON THE BRITISH QYllimBM. 
BY D. SHARP, M.B. 

The GyrinidcB must be considered as one of the most peculiar and 
interesting of all the groups of beetles which are found in this country. 
The family, though it contains very few genera and species, is among 
the most sharply defined ; indeed, though it possesses points of resem- 
blance on the one hand with the Dytiscida, and on the other with the 
Parnid(je, it is so distinct as to forbid the idea of its being descended 
(in a Darwinian sense) from either of them, unless we suppose that an 
extremely free disappearance of connecting links, of which we can now 
find no trace, has taken place. It is also interesting to notice that a 
genus of Carabidcd, Adelotopus of Hope, more resembles the Gyrinidcs in 
general appearance than do any insects of either of the two families to 
which it is allied : not only is the facies of Adelotopus that of Gyrinus, 
but both possess two separate eyes on each side the head, a peculiarity 
of structure almost, I believe, without parallel in the rest of the 
Coleoptera ; the antennae, too, of Adelotopus are very short and com- 
pressed, so as to show a great resemblance to those of Gyrinus ; indeed 
the similarities hetsveQn Adelotopus and the Gyrinida appear to be 
exactly of the character that has been called mimicry ; and it is also 
worthy of note that the GyrinidcB, or the insects mimicked, exhale a 
peculiar nasty-smelling fluid when handled. As the Gyrinidce inhabit 
exclusively the surface of the water, and Adelotopus lives "Under the 
bark of trees, no theory of protection founded on natural selection can 
account, I should imagine, for this remarkable reproduction of peculiar 
characters in very distinct groups. 

Thomson (Skandinaviens Coleoptera, Vol. II. ) places the Gyrimidce 
•along with Parnus, Keterocerus, and others in a group which he calls 
Amphihii; but they are now generally considered a distinct family, and, 
along with the Dytiscidce, form the group called Hydradepliaga. The 
characters by which the GyrinidcB are distinguished from the other 
Hydradepliaga are so very peculiar, that, though my object at present 
is only to call attention to the characters of our British species, it is 
impossible to pass over these interesting points without some short 
notice of them. 

1st. The structure of the trophi is different from what holds in any of 
the Dytiscidcdi though not very peculiarly or decidedly. 

2nd. The Gyrinidce possess a pair of eyes on each side of the head, and 
these are placed so that the upper ones enable the insect to see 



1«68. 



53 



above it, in front of it, and laterally ; while the under ones make 
it possible for it to see at the same time directly downwards as 
it swims on the surface of the water. 

3rd. The structure of the antenna) is remarkable, and differs greatly 
from that of the Dytiscidcd, though it is very like what we find in 
Parnus. Each is inserted in a cavity at the side of the head ; 
the first joint is very small, the second is large and dilated, and 
the third, also large, is inserted at the side of the second, while the 
remaining joints are so compressed and soldered together that it is 
not decided whether the antenna? consist altogether of ten or 
eleven joints. 

4th. While in the Dytiscidce the mesosternum is small and feeble, and 
the metasternum is lai'gely developed, in the Gyrinidcd the meso- 
sternum is large, while the metasternum is correspondingly reduced 
and small. 

5th. The structure of the legs is most remarkable in the Gyrinidce, 
and afi*ords in several respects one of the most interesting examples 
of the modification of organs to serve special functions that could 
well be instanced ; w^iile the four posterior legs are formed into 
powerful swimming organs, the anterior are quite different — they 
are elongate, and are so placed that they can be packed under the 
body so as to off'er not the least impediment to the most rapid 
motion, while by one or the other being thrust out the course of 
the insect is instantly changed, or when both are thrust out 
retarded, and thus the Gyrini are enabled to perform those rapid 
and eccentric motions which have attracted the attention of all 
who have eyes and can use them. This rudder-like function of 
the front legs is also perfected by the peculiar position in which 
they are placed, a position so strange that what should be the 
under surfaces of the anterior tarsi look towards one another, 
instead of downwards : dependent on this is also a peculiar modifi- 
cation of the tarsi, which are compressed laterally, so that, not- 
withstanding the peculiar position of the legs, the broad aspects 
of the tarsi are presented upwards and downwards as in other 
beetles ; still stranger is the fact that what is in reality the side of 
the tarsus is thickly furnished in the male with peculiar hairs such 
as are placed in other beetles on the real under surface of the tarsi. 
Had these hairs been placed in a position anatomically the same as 
they are in other beetles, they could have been of no use for the 
purpose for which they are intended ; thus they are in a position 



54 



[July, 



which, though abnormal, enables them to be of service to thu 
creature. In the entire absence of connecting links, it requires a 
considerable amount of faith to believe that these changes can 
have been brought about by natural selection, especially as it 
requires a liberal use of the imagination to conceive the steps by 
which they could have been effected. 

The four posterior legs differ entirely from the anterior ; they 
are short, compressed laterally, so as to resemble considerably the 
fins of a fish ; and while in the Dyliscidce swimming is facilitated 
• by the attachment of peculiar hairs to legs but slightly modified 
from the ordinary type, in the Gyrinidce swimming hairs are also 
present, but the entire leg is remarkably modified, and developed 
into an organ exclusively suited for the purposes for which it is 
destined. Moreover, in the Dytiscidce only the hind pair of legs 
are specially modified, while in the Gyrinidce this is the case with 
both the middle and hind pairs. 

Though the peculiar distinctness of the Gyrinidce as a group, and 
the absence of anything like connecting links between them and other 
beetles, would seem to be opposed to the idea of their being connected 
by descent with other CoUoptera, yet the fact that within the bounds of 
the group the species are very closely allied, yet variable, and that it is 
not easy to fix with certainty the limits of some of the species, appears 
to be favourable to the theory that all the Gyrinidce may have descended 
originally from some one species. The difficulty above adverted 
to of distinguishing the species of Gyrinus from one another is not 
diminished by the fact that they are generally found in little colonies, and 
that these colonies often consist of two or three species ; sometimes 
the most allied species being found together, and at other times the 
most dissimilar. 

We have in Britain two genera of this family ; they are very easily 
distinguished by the following characters : — 

1. Body entirely destitute of pubescence, extremity of abdomen broad, 

and rounded at its apex — GxEiNrs. 

2. Body covered with a thick, short pubescence, extremity of abdomen 

conical — Oeectochilus. 

1. — HyRiycs, Geoffroy. 
Our species of Gyrinus may be arranged in three groups — 

* Under surface entirely testaceous — G. minutus and urinator. 



1868.] 



55 



** Under surface entirely or in greater part black ; inflexed margin 
of elytra light rufo-testaceous — G. natator, hicolor, distinctus, 
caspius, and colymhiis. 

*** Under surface entirely or in gi'eater part black ; inflexed margin 
of elytra reneous — G. marinus and opacus. 

* — Under surface entirely testaceous. 

1. G. minutus. Fab. Oblong ovate, tolerably convex, above of a bluish- 

black colour, scarcely shining, the sides of the body and front of 
the head metallic, the elytra strongly and equally punctate striate, 
under-side and legs entirely rufo-testaceous. 

Long. U— 2i-'"; lat. 1— U'". 

The smallest of our species, and one that is readily distinguished 
from all the others of the genus. The upper surface is densely and 
finely coriaceous, so that the insect is less shining than any other of 
the species, the head is bluish-black, more or less brassy in front, the 
sides of the thorax are brassy and rugose, and there are some evident 
rugosities at its base in front of the scutellum ; the scutellum has at 
its base a broad, well-marked carina. The elytra are brassy at the 
sides, strongly punctate striate, the external striae a little more marked 
than the inner ones, the striae are also rather more marked at the apex 
than at the base. The under-side, including the inflexed margin of the 
elytra, together with legs, is entirely testaceous ; sometimes the basal 
segments of the abdomen are a little infuscated. My specimens show 
but little variation. 

I have found this species abundantly in Tnvernesshire, and it occurs 
in various other parts of Scotland, though it is very local. I have never 
found it in England. 

2. G. iirinator, 111. Ovate, convex, very shining, above of a somewhat 

purple-black, the front of the head, the sides of the elytra, and 
some lines along the striae of the latter, coppery ; the elytra are 
finely punctate-striate, the striae being entirely obliterated, except 
at the sides and apex ; under-side and legs entirely rufo-testaceous. 

Long. 3—31"' . lat. 1^—1%"- 
This is also a very distinct species, and is easily distinguished from 

all our other species (except G. minutus) by the colour of the under-side ; 

its very shining appearance and the fine punctuation of the elytra 

prevent its being confounded with minutus. 

The front part of the head is brassy and dull, the vertex black and 

shining ; the thorax black and shining, coppery towards the side, with 



56 



[July, 



a long central transverse impressed line, and behind this a shorter one 
at each side. The elytra are coppery at the sides, suture, and along 
the course of the striae ; the latter are finely punctate, the punctures 
being only visible at the sides and apex. The under surface, including 
the iuflexed margin of the elytra and the legs, reddish testaceous. 

This species, which is more properly a native of the south of 
Europe, is taken by Mr. Bold in the Duabon near Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
I have never found it myself, and indeed know no other locality for it. 
It appears to vary but little. 

**— The greater part of the under surface black, the inflexed margin of 
elytra and claws of the tarsi bright reddish-testaceous. 

3. G. natator, Scop. Ovate, convex, above bluish-black, with the sides 
brassy ; elytra punctate striate, the internal striae much fainter 
than the outer ; under-side black, with the margins of the elytra, 
and the legs, and sometimes the breast and apex of abdomen, 
reddish-testaceous. Long. 2| — 3i'" ; lat. H — If". 

Of this species there are two well-marked races, considered by 
Erichson and SufFrian as distinct species, viz. : — 

(a) G. mergiis^ Ahr. Broad, not so much narrowed before and 
behind, the inner striae evidently finer than the outer, espe- 
cially towards the suture, but always distinct and perceptible 
for their whole length. 

(b) G. natator. Narrower, the sides more rounded, and the internal 
striae very obsolete or entirely wanting towards the base of 
the elytra. 

G. mergus is the common form in the south of England, but does 
not occur at all in Scotland. 

G. natator is abundant in Scotland, but rare further south. I have 
it from Cambridge, but not from the south of London. I have, however, 
a small series of specimens taken at Deal which agree closely with one 
another, and possess the form of G. natator with the punctuation of 
G. mergus. 

This species also varies in the colour of the under-side, the extremity 
of the abdomen being nearly always, and the breast very often, ferru- 
ginous ; while on the continent the colour of the under surface is 
generally black. A variety in which the upper-side is of a dark 
unicolorous-black also occurs. 

Very common everywhere throughout the year ; the two races 
having apparently a different distribution. 



1668. 



67 



4. O. bicolor, Payk. Oblong, the sides nearly parallel, convex, above 

bluish-black, shining, the sides brassy, the elytra punctate-striate, 
all the striaj evident, but the internal rather finer than the external, 
under-side black, inflexed margin of elytra and thorax, and legs 
rufo-testaceous. Long. 3-j — 4"' ; lat. li — If". 

Tar. Extremity of abdomen and breast reddish. 

This species is distinguished by its elongate and parallel form, by 
its very long elytra, the apices of which are more rounded than in the 
allied species. Sometimes the extremity of the elytra is obscurely red. 

It appears to be rare, most of the specimens standing under this 
name in our collections being the next-mentioned insect. Mr. Bold 
has a few specimens taken in Durham, and there are also some in Mr. 
Crotch's collection. 

5. G. distinctuSj Aube. Oblong, ovate, the sides sub-parallel, convex, 

above bluish-black, shining, the sides brassy, the elytra'punctate- 
striate, all the striae evident, the internal finer than the outer, 
especially towards the base, under-side black, legs and inflexed 
margin of elytra reddish. Long. 2f — 3i'" ; lat. li— 

Vars. Colour above entirely black, the breast and extremity of abdomen 
being sometimes red ; also differs considerably in size and form. 
This is, I think, only a variety of the preceding (G. bicolor). The 
characters by which it is said to be distinguished from it are, that G. 
distinctus is smaller, with the sides more rounded, the elytra shorter, 
and their apices not so rounded, so that the external angle is more 
evident. Some of my specimens show all these characters plainly 
enough, so that I do not think I am in error in calling them G. dis- 
tinctus ; but, as variations in all these points occur. I think it will have 
to be united with G. bicolor. 

Common in various parts of the country. Brighton, Deal, Edin- 
burgh, Newcastle ; sometimes in brackish, sometimes in fresh, water. 

6. G. caspius, Aube. Oblong ovate, tolerably convex, above bluish- 

black, not very shining, the sides brassy, the elytra punctate- 
striate, the internal striae very evidently finer than the outer, the 
interstices obsoletely but thickly punctured, under-side black, 
margins of thorax and elytra, extremity of abdomen and legs, red. 

Long. 31 ; lat. \\\ 
This species very closely resembles the preceding, but it is not so 
shining, and when examined under a good magnifying-glass, the inter- 
stices are found to be obsoletely though thickly punctured ; whereas ia 



68 



[August, 



both the preceding species they are quite impunctate and shining. The 
internal striae are also finer, and the punctures placed rather more 
closely together. 

Two $ specimens in Mr. Crotch's collection are all I have seen ; 
but I have two ^ examples from the Continent under the name of 
distinctits ; as, however, Kiesenwetter remarks that the interstices in 
Q. distinctus are entirely impunctate, I am inclined to consider them 
as rather G. caspius. Kiesenwetter remarks, also, that Q. caspius and 
distinctus may probably have to be united ; but if I am correct in my 
determination of the present species, the punctuation of the elytra 
opposes this view. 

7. G. colymhus, Er. Ovate, not very convex, above bluish-black, 

slightly shining, the elytra punctate-striate, tne internal strise 
rather finer than the outer, the interstices thickly and evidently 
punctured, almost transversely strigose, so that the upper-side is 
not so shining as in the other species ; under-side black, margin of 
thorax and elytra, and legs (including the claws), breast, and 
extremity of abdomen, rufo-testaceous. 

Long. 3— 3i'" ; lat. 1|— 2'". 
This is a very distinct species, presenting at first sight the greatest 
resemblance to G. marinus, which it much approaches in size and form ; 
the colour of the under margin of the elytra, and of the claws, however, 
readily distinguish it from that species ; the striae of the elytra, also, 
are finer, and the interstices are more evidently punctured than in 
marinus ; the peculiar sculpture of the elytra distinguishes it from all 
the other species. 

Six specimens in Mr. Crotch's collection, taken apparently at 
difi'erent times, are all I have seen of this insect. These specimens are 
certainly broader than they should be according to the description in 
measurements given by Kiesenwetter and Sufirian of G. colymhus ; in 
other respects, however, they agree. 

*** — Under margin of elytra brassy, claws (anterior at base, the 
others entirely) black. 

8. G. marinus, Gyl. Ovate, not very convex, above bluish-black, shining, 

the sides brassy, the elytra strongly punctate-striate, the internal 
striae being scarcely finer than the outer ; the striae are deep, 
especially posteriorly, so that there the interstices are even convex ; 
under-side brassy-black, legs red, with the exception of the claws. 

Long. 2|-3r"; lat. W-W". 



18A8. 



59 



. Shining, the interstices being very obsoletely punctured. 
Sub-opaque, the interstices being thickly punctured. 
Varies greatly in size, the males being generally smaller than the 
females. Local, but common, when found, in England Horning and 
Deal. I have not found it in Scotland. 

9. G. opacm, Sahl. Ovate, not very convex, above bluish-black, 
shining, the sides brassy, the elytra rather finely punctate-striate, 
the internal stria? being evidently^ finer, especially towards the 
base, than the outer ; under-side brassy-black, legs red, with the 
exception of the claws. Long. 2i— 3"'; lat. 1^ — 15'". 

. Shining, the interstices being very obsoletely punctured 
$ . Not so shining, the interstices being thickly punctured. 
Yar. The upper surface being altogether dull and opaque. 

This species is very closely allied to the preceding, and, like it, 
varies considerably in size ; it is, however, on the average considerably 
smaller, and the striae of the elytra are finer, especially the inner ones ; 
some of the varieties, however, come very close to one another. Local, 
but common, in Scotland — Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Galloway. 
Also at Horning, in company with G. marinus ; I have not noticed it, 
however, from farther south. I think I am right in my determination 
of this species. Moreover Suff'rian recorded it as British twenty-five 
years ago, though it has not yet made its appearance in oui* Catalogues. 

The dull variety is very curious, resembling G. minutuSt in whose 
company it was found at Invercannich, Tnvernesshire. 

2. — Oeectochilus, Lacordaire. 

The generic characters readily suffice to distinguish the single species, 
O. villosus, Fab. It is oblong, ovate, convex, the upper surface 
pubescent, and tolerably thickly and finely punctured, fuscous in 
colour, the elytra without any strije, the under surface and legs 
reddish-testaceous. Long. 3"'. 

This species is local and of nocturnal habits. I have seen it 
gyrating by moonlight in Loch Ken, in Galloway. It surpasses any of 
the Gi/rini in agility, so that when disturbed, the eye fails to be able to 
follow its motions. In the day-time it remains concealed under stones 
and logs by the side of the water, but the instant it is disturbed it darts 
away, so that it is very difficult to secure. By lifting, however, very 
gently the logs and stones where it occurs and dropping them instantly 
into a net, a good number may be procured. I captured in Galloway, 
last summer, between 30 and 40 specimens on the under-side of a single 



60 



[Augusf, 



log in this way. It occurs also in Devonshire and Derbyshire, as well 
as in other parts of Scotland, in quickly running streams. 

With this I conclude my remarks on our British Gyrini, regretting 
very much they are of so unsatisfactory a character ; this cannot, how- 
ever, I think, be helped, as the species are very closely allied and yet 
variable. A good collection, containing series of the different species 
from various parts of the country, would be very interesting ; but these 
insects appear to be much neglected by collectors. 
Thornhill, Dumfries, May, 1868. 



DESCRIPTION" OF a NEW SPECIES of WEST AFRICAN PAPILIO, HITHERTO 
CONSIDERED TO BE THE P. ZENOBIA OF FABRICIUS. 

BY. AETHUB G. BUTLER, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

In his " Systema Entomologise," p. 503, n. 255 (1775) Fabricius 
has characterized a Papilio under the name of Zenobia, as follows: — 

" Alee nigrse, fascia lata alba, anteriorum interrupta, nec marginem at- 
" tingit. Margo sinuhus albis. Subtus concolores, at posticae basi 
"flavae, nervis striisque atris." 
" Habitat in Sierra Leone. Mus. Banks." 

From a comparison of the type-specimen, which perfectly answers 
to the above description, with the specimens named as Zenobia in the 
National Collection, I find that it entirely differs from them, being 
identical with P. Messalina of Stoll (Suppl. Cramer, pi. xxvi., figs. 2, 
2 b) ; the latter will therefore become a synonym of Zenobia, whilst 
our insect hitherto supposed to represent the Fabrician species will 
have to be re-named. I accordingly characterize it as 

Papilio Ctpe(eofila, sp. nov. 
Alae supra nigrse; fascia discali continua lutea, anticarum 
venis intersecta, intus sub-integra vel in venas fusco indentata, extus 
semper inter venas dentata ; posticarum extus denticulata, intus in- 
tegra : margine externo inter venas luteo maculate, maculis posticarum 
multo majoribus : corpus nigro-fuscura, prothorace albo-punctato. 

Alse subtus pallidiores, fuscae, inter venas nigro striatae ; venis 
nigris ; fascia discali continua luteo-albida, anticarum intus iotegra, 
aliter velut supra, macula autem discoidali quadrata fasciam attingente ; 
posticarum extus irregulariter marginata ; macula interrupta sub-ovali 
apud fasciam discali ; area basali fulvo-brunnea, venis striisque nigris : 
corpus albo maculatum, thorace nigro, abdomine fusco. 

Exp. alar. unc. 4,'. 

Sierra Leone and Ashantee. 
British Museum ; June, 1868. 



1868.] 



61 



NEW SPECIES, &c., OF HETEROCEROUS LEPIDOPTERA FROM CANTER- 
BURY, NEW ZEALAND, COLLECTED BY MR. R. W. FEREDAY. 
BY ACHILLE GUBNEE. 
(ConUnued from page 43). 

Family xix. HYBEENID^. 
Genus Hybernia.. 
TIybeenia boeeophilaria, Guenee, n. s. 

H. leucophaarice paulo minor. Alee griseoe^ nigro-atomosoe ; lineia 
incequalihus nigris : anticce duabus mediis infra confluentibus : posticcB 
tribus sub-parallelis. Antennce ciliis longis, disiantibus. Foemince alee 
valde reductce, securiformes^ pilosce. 

It has some analogy with our leucophcearia, but the wings are festooned, the 
inferior almost toothed. All the wings are powdery-grey, and more or less sprinkled 
with black atoms. Supei-ior with four black lines, the two median of which are 
ii'regular, and converge inferiorily somewhat as in our Boarmia rhomhoidaria. In* 
ferior with only three lines, the median finer but more interrupted, than the others : 
under-side somewhat paler, with the markings eflfaced. Body concolorous. An- 
tennae furnished with long, but slender and distinct, pectinations. 

In some varieties the lines are partly suppressed, and lost in the atoms of the 
ground colour. 

The ^ has the wings greatly abbreviated, elongated and narrow, dilated sud- 
denly at the apex, and furnished with bristly hairs on the margins. The black 
lines can be distinguished very plainly ; three in number on the superior, and two 
on the inferior. Abdomen terminating in a long and strong oviduct ; with a double 
row of black spots. 

Family xx. LAEENTIDJE. 
Genus Laeentia. 
Laeentia COE0T3LAEIA, Gueuee, n. s. 
Statura vix L. salicatce^ cui affinis. Alee integrcBy cinerecB^ sub-nitentes ; 
Uneolis dentatis sub-interruptis griseis, mediis duabus saturatioribus, punc- 
tulis venalibus albis : posticce supra lineis indistinctis, subtus albidce, lineia 
interruptis. Palpi porrecti, longitudine capiti cequales. Antennce pectinatce. 

It has some relationship with our salicata, of which it has scarcely the size, but 
almost the colour. One sees in it almost the same lines, which are equally denti- 
culated and badly marked ; the two median are better marked, or rather it should 
be said that the space they limit tends to become darker in their vicinity ; small, 
very fine white dots follow the elbow line, and others indicate the subterminal ; the 
fringe is lightly sinuated with blackish : inferior wings slightly paler, with the lines 
little distinct ; beneath they are whitish-gi-ey, with the same punctiform lines. 
Palpi forming a sort of beak almost as long as the head. Antennee famished with 
long and very fine pectinations. 

The ? resembles the <J , but the amenues are filiform. 



62 



(August, 



Laeentia infantabta, Guenee, n. s. 

Minima. Alee sericece, cinereo-grisece, nervis nigro albidoquc punctu- 
latis, lineis mediis saturatiorihus undulato-dentatis^ puncto minimo cell/u,- 
lari : posticce unicolores. Palpi prominuliy dbtusi. Antennce simpUces. 

It is the smallest of the Larentios, and does not exceed an Eupithecia in size. 
All the wings are silky, grey, very slightly greenish, the fringes concolorons : su- 
perior traversed by many fine sinuated and toothed lines, the two most evident of 
which border the median space, which includes two others and a dot ; behind this 
space the nervures are dotted with black and pale : inferior a little paler, unicolo- 
rous above, with traces of lines beneath. Body grey, without markings. Palpi 
sensibly produced beyond the head, and forming a blunt triangular beak. Antennae 
filiform ; but I think the specimen before me is a female. 

Larentia catocalaria, Guenee, n. s. 

Media. Alee anticce grisece, lineis punctisque saturatiorihus: posticce 
aurantiacce, margine lineolisque 2 vel 3 nigris : subtus omnes aurantiacce^ 
margine lineisque distinctissimis nigris. Antennae pectinatee. 

This charming Larentia resembles in its colours our species of Catocala with 
yellow inferior wings. Superior blackish cinereous, with the ordinary lines of the 
Larentits ; the two median darker: inferior beautiful bright fawn-colour, with a 
naiTOw toothed blacked border, and black fringe ; two median lines sinuated, black ; 
afterwards is the commencement of a third. Beneath all the wings are golden 
yellow, with a cellular dot, two fine wavy lines, the border, and the fringe, black ; 
all the markings very distinct. Body grey above, whitish beneath, without mark- 
ings. The antennae of the S are strongly pectinated ; those of the ? filiform. 
The latter sex diflfers only by its scarcely paler colour. 

Genus Eupithecia. 
Eupithecia cidariaria, Guenee, n. s. 
Alts suh-angustatce : anticce apice prolong at ce, pallide virescenfes, 
taenia siih-discali completa brunnea, tunc spatio medio albo-virescente, lineolis 
denticulatis nigris notato, spatio sub-terminali lituris 3 hrunneis distantibus : 
posticce grisece, puncto cellulari lineolisque analihus nigricantibus. 

It has almost the size and cut of our abhreviata, and its mai'kings, which are 
very distinct, resemble those of certain Cidarice. Superior wings pale green and 
testaceous mixed, but this last colour is probably only faded green ; the base and 
spaces between the lines green and black ; afterwards comes a broad arcuated and 
strongly interrupted brown band, touching the two margins, and denticulated ex* 
teriorily ; the space which follows is greenish-white, traversed by several green 
denticulated lines, the last but one of which is mixed with black in several places, 
especially in the cellule, where that colour forms a very distinct arc ; the rest of 
the win? is (livi»]p<l by the .<?nbterminal line, which is pale, fine, denticulated, and 



1868.] 



63 



preceded in three places by a broad brown mark, the intermedian following it to 
the fringe, which is interrupted with black ; these three marks are connected by a 
very fine, black, denticulated, scarcely visible line : inferior resembling those of 
many Eupithecice, that is to say, they are pale grey, with denticulated lines 
everywhere on the abdominal border, becoming soon obsolete, and with a small 
cellular dot: under-side of the four wings pale grey, with a cellular dot, and 
traces of several lines, of which the median is black and interrupted. Body green, 
mixed with black. The abdomen has a dark spot occupying the second and 
third segments, and small black dots on the following ones. Antennae furnished 
with very long ciliations placed in pairs. 

It was already in my collection. I have also before me two other 
species, but I dare not describe them from single, badly-preserved in- 
dividuals. 

Genus Coeemia. 

COREMIA ABDULAEIA, GueueC, U. S. 

Media. Alee anticce pallidcs, apice acuta haud falcato, lineis indis- 
tinctis : jposticce supra pallidissimce absque lineis, suhtus carneoe^ lineis vix 
distinctts, nigro punctulatis, punctoque cellulari. Palpi prominuli. An- 
tenn(B ciliatcB. 

Smaller than munitata. Wings silky, very pale pinky-grey, with very india- 
tinct traces of lines, save the two median ones, which are blackish upwardly and 
enclose a black dot, very near the extra basal ; subterminal absent, preceded by a 
series of very small black nervural dots ; below the apex is an indistinct greyish 
dash : inferior yet paler, without markings on the upper-side ; pale flesh-coloured 
beneath mixed with black atoms, and with an indistinct median line formed of black 
atoms, and a cellular dot placed very near the costa. Body concolorous, without 
markings. Palpi prominent, as long as the head. Antennae with very fine but 
long pectinations, filiform at the apex. 

I have seen only the male. 

One variety has the markings yet more indistinct, with the under-side of the 
inferior wings rosy, and without markings. 

CoEEMiA iNAM^NAEiA, Guenee, n. s. 

Farva. Alee anticce viridi-grisece, pallidce, lineis vix expressis punc- 
toque cellulari, fimbria sub-vinosa : posticce pallidiores, grisecs, lineis in- 
distinctis ; suhtus vinoso-tinctcB, puncto cellulari nigro. 

Superior wings entire, acute at the apex, greenish-grey (perhaps quite green 
in fresh examples) ; all the ordinaiy lines present, but very iudistinct, the two 
median ones rather more sensible, and the elbowed line darker above ; fringes, in 
good examples, violaceous, divided by a line in the middle : inferior wings whitish- 
grey, powdered with violet atoms ; some examples have a faint trace of lines, with 
the fringe, as in the superior, preceded by indistinct geminated dots. The under- 



side of all the wings is in part tinted with violet, with a cellular point and traces 
of two lines. Body concolorous, without markings. Palpi scaly, projected in the 
form of a beak. Antennae of the female completely filiform. 

I have seen only females of this small and insignificant species, and 
am not quite sure, without seeing the male, that it really belongs to 
Coremia. 

CoREMiA TPsiLONARiA, Guenee, n. s. 
Statura C. munitatce. Alee anticcB maris pallide carnece, vel griseo- 
vio-laeecB, fascia media brunnea Y-formi, lifura nigra, punctoque minima 
cellulari: 'posficce paleacece unicolores: suhtus lineis indistinctis punctoque 
nigris. Abdomen seriatim bipunctatum. Palpi incumbentes. Antenncd 
pectinated. 

Size and aspect of mtmitata. Superior wings dull whitish flesh-coloured or 
somewhat straw-colour, but very pale ; the markings wood-brown, consisting of a 
space near the base terminated by a black oblique line, a median band constricted 
in its lower, open in form of a Y in its upper, portion, enclosing a little cellular 
dot placed between two black marks, of which the external forms a i, with filled-in 
triangle ; there is also a series of little nervural dots, and an oblique sub-apical 
streak surmounting a faint brownish border : inferior wings slightly smoky, without 
markings : under-side of all the wings more obscure, especially the first half, which 
is limited by a vague line ; inferior with a cellular point and two faint sub-terminal 
parallel lines, scarcely visible on the upper- side. Abdomen marked with geminated 
black dots. Palpi produced, but incumbent. Antennae furnished with long pecti- 
nations in their basal three-fourths, affcerwai-ds filiform. 

I have seen one male, considered by Mr. Fereday as a variety. Its superior 
wings are greyish-violet, the brown band rather diflferent in form, the margin much 
darker : the inferior more yellow and more smoky : the under-side reddish, with 
the lines more distinct. 

CoEEMiA DELTOiDATA, Walker. 
This species varies excessively, and the individual described by 
Mr. Walker is a very pronounced form. I possess a second, which has 
only one spot, commencing on the costa and constricted in the cellule, 
where it has a little black streak encircled with white. That which I 
consider as the typical form has, on the contrary, the band entire, with 
sinuated margins, paler in the middle, and traversed by two intermediate 
lines tending to form rings. 

CoEEMiA PASTiNAEiA, Guenec, n. s. 
Al<B anticcB lignicolores, Uneolis numerosis undulatis notatce ; vittis 
duabus albidis, linea brunnea divisis, spatium medium includentibus, hoc 
macula cellulari cinereo-punctato notato, linea sub-terminali alba irregulari : 
posti^a pnllido-ochracea: : subfus albidw, lineolis incompletis. 



1868.1 



65 



Size of deltoidata . Superior wiuga entire, the terminal margin straight, not 
falcate ; wood-brown, traversed by a multitude of slender undulated brown lines ; 
the median space circumscribed by two narrow bands of a dirty white, each divided 
in the middle by a brown line ; this space, which includes several dark lines (of 
which the exterior two tend to form rings), encloses, in the cellule, an ashy-grey 
spot, prolonged and constricted on the costa, and marked in its centre by a black 
dot ; the sub-terminal line is whitish, but very irregular, thickened in its lower 
portion, and divided above by an oblique black mark ; the fringe is preceded by 
black festooned marks, regular, but isolated by the nervures : inferior wings ochreous- 
yellow, somewhat shining, also bordered by black festoons, but with only faint 
traces of lines ; beneath they are whitish-yellow, with the same faint traces of lines 
formed by brown dots, and with a black cellular mark. Palpi rather broad, the 
second joint flattened and securiform, the third forming a very short tubercle. 
Abdomen marked with a row of geminated black dots. I have seen only the ? . 

(To 1)6 concluded^ in owr next.) 



LIST OF CAPTURES OF HEMIPTERA IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA; 
TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 

BY J. W. DOUGLAS AND JOHN SCOTT. 

(Continued from page 33.) 

25. — Caltptonotus jethiops, Doug. & Scott. 
? . Niger ^ opacus, dense Icevissimeque punctatus ; elytrorum mem- 
brana picea, hasi extus striga hrevi pallida notata. Long. 3 J lin. 

? . Entirely black, not shining, very finely and thickly punctured 
throughout. 

Head — Antenna, insertion of each of the joints piceous, extreme apex of 1st, 2nd, 
and 3rd joints with a few short, erect, piceous hairs. 

Thorax — Pronotum with a narrow, transverse channel behind the anterior margin ; 
side margins reflexed ; disc convex. Scutellum convex, slightly depressed, and 
transversely wrinkled towards the apex. Elytra less finely punctured than the 
pronotum. Claims with three rows of punctures between the inner margin and 
nerve, the central one somewhat irregular, and between the nerve and the 
suture a single row ; nerves somewhat prominent and unpunctured. Mem- 
hrane piceous, with a short pale streak next the posterior margin of the corium 
at the outer angle. Sternum and Legs black. Thighs with a bent tooth on the 
under-side near the apex. Tihice, 2nd and 3rd pairs with black spinose hairs. 

Aldomen, underneath black, in certain lights having a piceous appearance. 

The description has been drawn up from a single $ specimen, 

taken by sweeping low plants on the plains of Jordan in April. 

Genus Mimictjs, n. g., Doug. & Scott. 
Corpus oblongum, depressum. Caput mediocre, porrectum, ad oculot 



66 



[August, 



immersum. Antennce graciles, tuherculis prominulis, articulo primo longo 
capitis apicem longe superante, secundo longiori. Oculi mediocres, paulo 
prominuli. Hostrum ad coxas mediasusque extensum, articulo primo capite 
paulo hreviori. Fronotum transversum^ sul-quadratum, margine antico 
capite latiori. 'Elytra medio longitudinaliter valde depressa. Pedes 
mediocres, femoribus anticis incrassatiSj subtus spinis tribus gracilibus in- 
structis, tarsormn posticorum articulo primo duobus alteris duplo longiori. 

Oblong, depressed, sides sub-parallel. 

Head porrected, (including the eyes) not so wide as the pronotum, 
middle lobe short, yet longer than the side lobes, the ends of the 
rostral channel projecting beyond its apex. Antennce slender ; 
tubercle large, distinct; 1st joint stoutest, long, three-fourths the 
length of the head, more than one-half its length reaching beyond 
the apex of the face ; 2nd one-third longer than the 1st; 3rd ra- 
ther longer than the 1st ; 4th wanting. Eyes moderate, projecting 
a little, inserted close to but not touching the pronotum. Ocelli 
small, distant, on the posterior margin of the head near the eyes. 
nostrum reaching to the 2nd pair of coxae, 1st joint not quite ao 
long as the head, 2nd and 3rd sub-equal, each a little longer than 
the 1st, 4th sub-equal with the 1st. 

Thorax — Pronotum transverse, the breadth rather more than the length, 
slightly convex, more so in front ; sides straight, margins hardly 
perceptible, anterior angles rounded ; anterior and posterior mar- 
gins straight. Scutellum long- triangular, flat. Elytra scarcely so 
long as the abdomen, depressed aloug the region of the claval su- 
ture : Corium outwardly deflected : Membrane short. Sternum — 
mesosternum xyphus short, triangular, depressed in the centre ; 
we^fls^erwwTW xyphus longer, with a middle keel. Legs— Ist pair, 
thiffhs moderately incrassated, beneath with a channel on the an- 
terior half, of which the inner edge has three contiguous spines, 
the 1st short, the other two long and thin throughout : tibics with 
distant fine spines, the 1st pair (which are straight) on the under- 
side only: tarsi long, slender; 1st joint on the 1st and 2nd pairs 
longer than the 2nd and 3rd joints together, on the 3rd pair twice 
as long; 2nd and 3rd joints in length sub-equal. 

This genus has a gresit prima facie resemblance to Calathus {Coleop- 
tera) ; its affinities seem nearest to our new genus Lamproplax. 

27. — MiMicus NiTiDUs, Doug. & Scott. 
Niger, nudus, nitidus, supra cum pectore distincte punctatus ; elytris 



18G8J 



67 



piceis, anfennis,rostro pedibusque pallide piceis ; memhrana IuciJa,albida, 
basi nigra. Long. 2\ Hn. 

Head delicately punctured. Antennm pale piceous, pubescent, and also with some 
fine projecting hairs. Eyes rufous. Bostrum pale piceous. 

Thorax — Pronotum finely punctured, disc anteriorly smooth. Scutellum with ir- 
regular punctures. Elytra dark piceous : clavus with three irregular rows of 
punctures, posterior margin bright piceous ; claval suture broad, distinct : 
corium, anterior and posterior margins paler piceous, the outer nerve strong on 
the basal half, the other nerves fine ; the punctures next the claval suture in 
two or three rows, and rather deeper than those which cover the disc, which 
are irregular but close : membrane lustrous, whitish, diaphanous, broadly 
blackish at the base. Sternum deeply punctured throughout. Legs piceous 
tihioi and tarsi paler. 

Abdomen shining, longitudinally crenulate, delicately punctured. 

Described from a single specimen, ? , taken on the road from Na- 
blous to Nazareth in April. 

30. — Lasiocoris Floei, Doug. & Scott. 

$ . JElongatus, sub-ovatus, pallide testaceus, dense diluteque fusco- 
punctatus ; capite nigro^ capillis longis erectis instructo ; antennis crassis^ 
capillis sub'depressis, alteris longis erectis admixtis^ arficulo ultimo exceptOy 
dense vestitis ; articulo nigro, 2^^ testaceo, apice fusco, 3'*^ nigro, basi 
testaceo, 4'*' brunneo ; pronoto campanulato, capillis longis erectis vestitOy 
margine ciliato, disci dimidio antico nigro, posteriori stramineo, marginibus 
lateralibus anguste flavis ; angulis posterioribus nigris, nitidis, impunc- 
tatis ; scutello nigro, sub-convexo, medio depresso, carina postice instructo ; 
corioJiavOy capillis sub-erectis vestito, macula magna, rotunda,juxta angulum 
posterior em interiorem, necnon membrance sutura, nigris; membrana nigra, 
margine exteriori late albo ; sterno, pedidus, abdomineque nigris. 

Long. 4 lin. 

$ . Elongate, somewhat oval. Yellow, thickly and finely punc- 
tured with black. 

Head black, finely punctured and clothed with long, fine, erect haii's. Antennce 
stout, the first three joints clothed with shortish sub-depressed hairs, inter- 
spersed with long erect ones ; 1st joint black ; 2nd brownish -yellow, apex 
fuscous ; 3rd black, base brownish-yetlow ; 4th brown. Eyes, viewed from 
above, somewhat oval, from the side hemispheric. Rostrum pitchy-black, base 
of each joint very narrowly brown. 

Thorax oampanulate. Pronotum clothed with long, fine, erect hairs ; ciliate ; apical 
half black, thickly punctured ; basal half yellow, thickly and finely punctm-ed 
with black ; extreme edge of the lateral margin yellow ; posterior angles 



68 



{August, 



black, not punctured, shining. Scutellum large, triangular, flattisli convex, 
black, thickly punctured, depressed in the middle ; behind the depression a 
round callus, to which is attached a distinct keel extending to the apex. 
Elytra — clavus yellow ; between the inner margin and nerve (except a small 
spot at the base) black as far as the sutural angle ; the nerves with a row of 
punctures on each side. Corium yellow, finely punctured with black, and 
clothed with almost erect hairs shorter than those on the pronotum ; extreme 
base, a large round spot next the posterior inner angle, and the membrane 
suture black, the colour in the latter widest at the apex. Membrane black ; 
outer margin broadly white. Sternum black, thickly and deeply punctured and 
clothed with a yellowish pile. Legs — coxa black, apex brown, at the base, 
outwardly, a brown spot. Fulcra black. Thighs black, clothed with long, fine, 
almost erect hairs ; 1st pair beneath with three or four small teeth, of which 
the penultimate, from the apex, is the longest. Tibice — 1st pair brown-yellow, 
clothed with long, fine hairs, apex black ; 2nd brown, with long, stout, spinose, 
black hairs, interspersed with longer fine ones ; apex black ; 3rd black, the 
hairs as in the 2nd pair. Tarsi clothed with pale hairs ; 1st and 2nd pairs 
brownish-yellow, apex of the 1st and 2nd joints piceous ; 3rd joint of all the 
pairs and claws black. 

Abdomen — beneath black, very thickly and finely punctured, and clothed with a 
yellowish pubescence. 

Plains of Jordan, on low plants while sweeping for spiders and 
Coleoptera in April. 

We have named this insect after Dr. Flor, from whom we have 
received several acts of kindness, and whose work, the " Ehynchoten 
Livlands," has placed him in the first rank of the authors on Herniptera. 

'This species is very closely allied to the Beosus (jeneiceps described 
by Barensprung in the Berlin. Ent. Zeitschrift for 1859, page 333, pi. 
6, fig. 5, but it may easily be distinguished from that insect by the 
differences in the antennae and legs. 

(To be continued.) 



Cathormiocerus socius a true British species. — My friend Mr. Montague, in the 
early part of the summer of last year, captured a single male specimen of a 
Strophosomo-Trachyphloeoid Curculio (now, thanks to his liberality, in my possession) 
at Freshwater, I. of Wight, which, on its being brought before my notice, I at once 
felt inclined to refer to the much-vexed species above-named, but refrained from 
bringing forward, as I was unable to reconcile it with the description in Schonherr's 
Syn. Ins., vii. (Supp.), 121, 2, on account of its possessing certain most evident 
characters in the structure of its antennas and the bristly clothing of its elytra not 
referred to by that author. 

The recently published work on cei'tain of the Otiorhynchidoe by Georg 
Seidlitz (Berlin. Ent. Zeitschr., Jahrg. xii., 1868, Beiheft), however, enables me 
now to bring it forward without further hesitation. 



69 



C. sociuSy originally deacribed (as above referred to) by SchoulieiT, with the sole 
locality " Anglia. Mus. Bom. Walton^'^ has always been regarded with doubt as 
British, not only on account of its genus being apparently exclusively South- 
European, but because there was no reference to it in Mr. Walton's " Notes," and 
no representative of it (apparently) in his collection (the types of which are now 
in Brit. Mus.) ; and, possibly, because, in the Stettin. Ent. Zeit., 48, p. 346, he 
states that the origin of the specimen ceded to Schonherr was unknown to him. 
Seidlitz, 1. c, 134, notices this remark of Walton, and (note) explains that by 
mistake socius is quoted in the Stett. Ent. Z. as horridus ; and from these data he 
reasonably considers the reference of socius to England as founded on error. 
Seidlitz's only locality for the species is the Sierra Nevada. 

Mistake seems to have followed C. socius hitherto in all its references ; but I 
imagine that the I. of Wight specimen above-mentioned will enable me to sub- 
stantiate the authenticity of the species as British. On inquiring at the Brit. Mus. 
I am informed that Walton's single specimen was retained, by Schonherr, who 
founded the species on it. This agrees with the statement by Seidlitz, that 
Schonhen-'s type-example is labelled " Anglia. Walton." This type appears, 
according to Seidlitz, to be an abraded male, structurally entirely identical with 
males from the Sierra Nevada, with the exception of an evidently individual ab- 
normal formation of the rostrum ; and, according to the same author, it entirely 
agrees with Schonherr's description, with the exception of reference to this 
peculiarity, and to the structure of the scape of the antennae. 

There can be no doubt, however, that Mr. Walton possessed two specimens, 
both abraded, of this insect ; since, on the sale of his general collection, Mr. G. R. 
Waterhouse purchased, amongst other insects, one labelled (erroneously) " Ccenopsis 
Waltoni,'^ in Mr. Walton's own handwriting, which is distinctly (being a male, 
luckily) identical wdth my recent I. of Wight example. Some accidental confusion 
of labelling, possibly at a time when Mr. Walton was not so well acquainted with 
these insects, must have taken place, in order to account for this palpable mistake 
(the insect in no way agreeing with the well-known C. Waltoni) ; and it is evident 
fi'om Mr. Walton's statement in the Stett. Ent. Zeit. that he knew nothing of his 
possessing this second specimen, — which, indeed, is so exceedingly bereft of scales 
and bristles as to be likely to escape attention. 

C. socius seems distinguishable from all its congeners but the Pyrenaean and 
instantly separable cordicollis by the shape of the antennal grooves, which are not 
linear, but pit-like, irregulai', and conspicuous from above. In the male the 
scape of the antennae is suddenly and angularly dilated close to the base, and 
curved. In a fresh example, Hke mine, the thorax has the sides and a middle line 
yellowish, and the elytra densely covered with scales, presenting a dull and somewhat 
tesselated appearance, the interstices being set with light bristles. The only British 
species with which it could by accident be confounded is Trachyphlceus squamulatus^ 
from which its rather larger size, longer and less obtusely rounded elytra, &c., will 
serve to distinguish it, — apart from its evident structural diflferences. 

Seidlitz remarks that the granuliform, connate, somewhat shining clothing of 
the under-side of all the species of Cathorraiocerus will always serve to distinguish 
them from their allies.— E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W., July, 1868. 



70 



Augii;*t, 



Note on Phosphoenus hemipterus. — The following is an account of tlie capture 
of the insects recorded by Mr. Rye in the last No. of the Ent. M. Mag. 

Whilst watering plants in my garden late on a hot evening in May last, I 
observed a spot of phosphorescent light at the foot of a wall, but failed to detect 
its origin. On 12th June, when again watering the garden, after dark, I again 
noticed a similar but moving light ; smaller, though not less bright, than that of a 
glow-worm. This light I found to proceed from an insect then unknown to me, 
possessing two equal luminous spots at its tail. I kept it alive for six days, but it 
did not seem to eat anything, or to notice food, though engaged in restless un- 
ceasing explorations of its prison, as if in search of something. Each night the 
light grew fainter, which I attributed to physical exhaustion. On the 18th June 
a second example was found by one of the servants, crawling over a white cloth 
left on the bricks. This, though finer than the first, gave a smaller hght, but was 
equally active. Occasionally it moved its short wing-cases, but its long and sub- 
stantial antennae appeared to be the more important and sensitive organs, acting 
as guides and aids. When they became laden with moisture or dirt, the insect 
began at the base, and combed and cleansed each to the very last joint; when up 
they went with a flourish, and recommenced their incessant vibrations. In crawling 
along the edges of leaves the insect used its mandibles as assistants. At first I 
thought it was going to eat, but found that it was only as a means of clinging 
more closely in a dangerous position that these extra limbs were used. Also its 
long flexible body became by turns lever, balance, drag, propeller, or claw. On the 
upper-side the colour was so exactly that of the earth that, unless in motion, the 
insect was most difficult to see, — it was somewhat paler towards the tail ; and 
beneath, between the joints or rings, showed a decided pink. 

Against the light the semi-transparent tail showed two black spots where the 
light was fixed, and these were equally bright above and beneath when shining. 
I believe I am safe in asserting that only when disturbed the insect showed its 
light, and then not for a continuance, or with an even glow. This second specimen 
I unfortunately lost ; but, on the evening of the 25th June, I found a third example 
in the water-butt ; and the following evening a fourth near where the first was 
found. 

I can discover no means by which these insects, or any larvae, can have been 
introduced into our garden — a small square between four high walls ; except that 
in June, 1865, 1 brought home some ferns from the Jersey hedges : but, to diminish 
their weight, all loose earth was shaken from the roots, which, besides, after being 
several days in a tub of water, were packed in wet rags for the journey ; and 
again stood in water for some days previous to planting. I can scarcely imagine, 
therefore, that these insects can have then been introduced, in any stage, especially 
as they are known to have the carnivorous habits of the glow-worm, and do not 
frequent plants. — Catherine C. Hopley, 6, Albion Street, Lewes, Jidy, 1868. 

Notes of spring Rhynchophora on the south-east coast. — At the beginning of the 
present month I had a day's collecting on the Deal sand-hills, but without any 
great success. Phytonomus fasdculatus appeared under its accustomed "crane's- 
bill," and near it CceUodes erigmcs. C. gera-nii I have never found in East Kent. 



1868.] 



71 



I went to Deal on the chance of finding Ceuthorhynchus ta/rsaUs in the locality 
where it had occurred a few years ago, and beat diligently every food-plant I could 
see, but without success. About a fortnight afterwards the insect turned up upon 
the S. E. R., between the Ilythe and Shorncliffo stations, not a plant of Sisymhrium 
being, so far as I could ascertain, within sight. I only procured a single specimen. 
Upon the same bank, at various spots and various times since the 1st of May, have 
occurred the following : — Ceuthorhynch(ide)us punctiger and Chevrolatii (=respec- 
tively, I suspect, to marginatus and troglodytes) ; C. terminatus, the first time I have 
seen the insect alive ; Tropiphoriis carinatus, a very hermit among beetles, and 
apparently quite indifferent as to his quarters, so that there be no partner to 
share them. I have taken it repeatedly during the last ten years, — from bare 
chalk and long grass, damp wood and dry banks, — and at almost all seasons : moss 
in the winter months affording the best chance ; but I never found more than 
one at a time, in spite of strict searching. 

Phytonomus suspiciosus is scarce hereabouts ; Apion craccce, also scarce ; but 
Grypidius equiseti and Sitones camhricus are not veiy rare in this neighbourhood. 
I may also mention that both Poophagi have appeared in a new locality, a private 
watercress bed belonging to a friend and neighbour of mine ; which is the more 
satisfactory, as the old habitat is quite hopeless — the cress having been entirely 
ousted by stinging-nettles. 

I have just beaten a red-'^dng-cased Uarpalus servus, Stunn, from hazel, on 
a chalk bank near Covert Wood, East Kent ; and make a note of this, under the 
impression that the insect has hitherto been recorded only as a littoral species, 
and, therefore, not amongst the tree-climbing OeodepJiaga. I am ready to exhibit 
the specimen should any doubt be felt as to its correct identification. I have no 
such doubt myself, having examples fi'om Romney Sands wherewith to compai'e 
it.— W. Tylden, Stanford, Hythe, 19th June, 1868. 

Capture of Mesites Tardii on our north-eastern coast. — During the first week of 
this month, Mr. Lawson and I went in search of wood-feeding beetles in Hayburn 
Wyke, six miles north of Scarborough. The first likelr-looking tree we came to 
was an alder, which had been blown down, and partially lay across the " beck." 
We set to work, taking off the loose bark, and were astonished to find Mesites 
Tardii by hundreds. The beetle was also making large galleries in the solid wood, 
in which all stages of the insect occurred together. 

The next tree we tried was a dead ash ; and in it was the beetle, in equal 
abundance, accompanied by Clerus formicanus. We next found it under loose bark 
of maple ; also under loose bark of oak ; also in the solid wood of the roots of the 
latter tree, which had been cut down about two years ; — so 1 presume no tree 
comes amiss tq the beetle. In my experience of wood-feeders, I have never before 
met with any species so numerous. — T. Wilkinson, 6, Cliff Bridge Terrace, Scar- 
borough, June 26th, 1868. 

[This is pleasant for the " Atlantic Fauna " theory. — E. C. R.] 

On the fecundity of the Queen- Bee. — At the meeting of the Entomological Society 
on the 4th of May, a paper on the economy of the Hive-Bee, by Mr. Desborough, 



72 



[August, 



was read ; among other interesting matter, the author's experience as to the 
fecundity of the queen, during life, was given as 108,000 eggs. This, to any one 
uninitiated in the wonders of the hive, would appear to be a very large number. 
Mr. Desborough in his prize essay, I believe, calculated the duration of the life of 
a queen as averaging about five years, giving an annual deposition of eggs at about 
21,600. Since this estimate was published, in the report of the Proceedings of the 
Society, the Devonshire Bee-Keeper has published his experience, and it is truly 
marvellous to contemplate the two results. We are not told by Mr, Desborough 
what was the pai'ticular description of time thai furnished these results. "We may 
confidently rely upon the information of both parties ; bat we cannot but feel 
certain that either the calculations were made under very difierent circumstances, 
or that the fecundity of queens varies immensely. 

According to the experience of the learned German Apiarian, Dzierzon, the 
average duration of life in the queen is four years, and that a prolific queen lays 
not less than 1,000,000 eggs; and this opinion is endorsed by the Devonshire Bee- 
Keeper. He further informs us that it is nothing unusual to see from 15,000 to 
20,000 cells occupied by brood during three months of the year. Then we are to 
add to this period the spring and autumn months, when breeding takes place ; 
during the first in an increasing ratio, and during the latter in a decreasing ratio ; 
until, in October or November, it entirely ceases. Then we are to consider that, 
during this period, the tenants of the brood-cells are removed every three weeks. 
From this calculation we are enabled to form some idea of the fecundity of a 
prolific queen. — Fredk. Smith, British Museum, June, 1868. 

Description of the larva of Eupithecia consignata, Boric. — Towards the end of 
May, Mrs. Hutchinson, of Grantsfield, kindly sent me seven eggs of Eup. consignata, 
laid by a ? taken in Herefordshire by her daughter. They all hatched in the 
course of a few days ; and I have reared six larvae, all of which have now spun up. 

I have much pleasure in sending you a description of this hitherto almost 
unknown larva. 

" Long, slender, tapenng slightly towards the head. Ground colour grass- 
green, slightly tinged with yellow. Segmental divisions yellowish. Central dorsal 
line very slender, dark purplish-red, enlarged at the base of each segment into a 
spear-head shaped blotch. Dorsal blotches bordered with yellow, and becoming 
confluent on the capital and caudal segments. Head somewhat broad, green, very 
slightly marked with purplish-red. 

Spiracular line puffed, rather paler green than the rest of the body ; blotched 
into purplish-red on a few of the central segments, and more or less bordered with 
straw colour. Central ventral line whitish. Body somewhat wrinkled, studded with 
a very few short, slender whitish hairs. Fed on apple. Full-fed June 14th — 19th." 

Some few years since I beat two of these larva? from oak in Suffolk, and another 
from hazel in Hampshire. I suspected at the time that they were the larvae of 
Eup. consignata ; but, as they died in the pupa state, I was unable to verify my 
suspicions. This larva closely resembles that of Eup. exigicata. — H. Harpur Crewe, 
The Rectory, Drayton- Beaucharap, Tring, Jvne 22nrf, 1868. 



1888. 



73 



Note on the pupa of Eupithecia consignata. — In the last number of the " Ento- 
mologist," Mr. Crewe gives a description of the larva of tliis species. Through 
the generous kindness of Mr. Hutchinson, I have also reared a few larvae. My 
object in writing these few lines is to draw attention, not to the liirva, but to the 
pupa. It is quite unlike that of any Eupithecia with which I am acquainted. It 
is more like that of a Tortrix than of a Geometra, very long and slender, and 
twisting the abdominal portion in a very active manner. I think there is little 
doubt but that the pupa might be found in orchards, under moss, or behind loose 
bark. The admirers of the genus Eupithecia are greatly indebted to the discoverer 
of the larva of this veiy pretty species.— J. Greene, Cubley Rectory, Sudbury, 
Derby, July, 1868. 

[Mr. Crewe's contribution reached us too late for insertion in the July number 
of the Magazine ; and it is contrary to our rule to print any communication of this 
nature that may have already appeared in another publication. Mr. Greene's note 
renders it advisable that we should relax the rule in this instance. We ask our 
contributors to bear in mind, that unless their papers be received by the 18th of 
each month, they stand little chance of appearing in the following number. — Eds.] 

Observations on the habits of the larva of Zijgcena nvMgena. — Through Mr. 
Birchall's kindness in sending me the eggs, I am enabled to give some account of 
the early stages of this species, but the discrepancies that exist "between my 
account and those of other observers show how desirable it is to make further 
investigation. 

A small batch of eggs {small because I could not undertake many) received 
July 4th, 1867 ; the larvse hatched on the 10th of the same month. Finding, from 
the " Chapter on Minos," in Stainton's Annual for 1862, that it was likely either 
Thymus serpyllum or Fimpinello. saxifraga would prove to be the proper food, I 
procured both, but there was no doubt as to which these larvae preferred ; the 
thyme was eaten at once, whilst I could not see that the Pimpinella was even 
tasted. 

These larvee, about ten in number, grew very slowly, and (with one exception, 
who had grown to twice the size of his fellows, but came to grief,) were no 
bigger than a leaf of the wild thyme, and indeed of pretty much the same figure in 
outline, when they settled down for hybernation about the beginning of September. 
They assembled in two little groups of four or five each, and spinning some silk on 
the under-side of the stoutest stems of their food-plant, rested quietly till near the 
end of February. Mr. Birchall had warned me that in their native locality they 
probably had little experience of frost, so I placed the flower-pot with large glass 
cylinder, which enclosed the plant of thyme, in a garden-frame under a high wall 
with south aspect ; there was no hotbed in the frame, but as it received all the 
rays of the sun from about 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., a considerable amount of warmth was 
kept up in it, compared to the temperature outside. In fact the thyme continued 
to grow and thicken all through the winter, until my little larvae were quite hidden ; 
and it would at any time have taken a sharp eye to distinguish them, whilst 
hybernating, from a withered thyme-leaf, so much were they of the same colour, 
and furnished with little hairs of the same length. 



74 



August, 



About February 20th, 1868, I noticed four or five of them moving in the 
sunshine, and some of the tender shoots of the thyme showed marks of their jaws 
being at work ; and at this date I noted down the following description : — Length, 
i inch ; colour, all over a pinkish-brovm ; some faint traces of sub-dorsal rows of 
black and yellow spots ; hairs arranged in little tufts. March 7th : larva? sickened 
for moulting ; about 14th all appeared in a new dress ; colour immediately after 
moult a dull blackish rifle-green, the upper spots showing like black velvet, and the 
lower row being now distinct and of a primrose-yellow ; some of the hairs black, 
some whitish. As they fed and grew, their colour became lighter, and about this 
time four of the nine disappeared — I suppose having sickened and died ; but the 
thyme was now so dense I could not find them. April 1st : the five survivors moulted 
again — as before, coming out almost black, and gradually paling to dark olive- 
green. April l5th : they moulted again (as I have before noticed in the case of 
Z. trifolii, the moult takes place by the skin splitting all along the back), and again 
came out darker than before. 

About the end of April they had attained their largest growth, — somewhat 
less, I imagine, than would have been attained in a state of nature, the heat of 
their position hastening their changes ; they were of the usual fat, soft Zygcena 
figure, measuring in length, when in motion, f inch, when at rest f . Colour all 
over a rich dark olive-green ; dorsal line dirty whitish, showing broadest and palest 
at commencement of each segment ; on each side of it a row of eleven black velvet 
round dots placed on front of each segment from 3rd to 13th ; below this a row of 
eight yellow spots on segments 4th to 11th, placed on the hinder part of the seg- 
ments in such a way that the yellow spot of each comes just below the black dot 
of the segment behind it ; the spiracles black ; the belly rather paler than the 
back ; the usual dots not visible ; each segment bearing in a transverse row eight 
fascicles of stiff white hairs, five or six in a fascicle. 

I noticed throughout their growth these larvee moved and fed with most 
energy in the sunshine. 

May 2nd. The four I retained begin to spin, fixing themselves on their glass 
cylindei', and not on their food-plant ; two placed themselves horizontally, and the 
other two in a perpendicular position ; the cocoon is dirty-white in colour, glis- 
tening, and shorter — more truncate in form than that of trifolii or filipendulcB ; 
and the pupa is brown in colour, the wing-cases being rather darker than the body, 
and different individuals varying in depth of tint. When the moths, which are 
rather under-size specimens, emerged (May 29th— June 1st), the empty pupa- 
cases were not left sticking in the cocoons, but had fallen down near them. I was 
not lucky enough to see a moth in the aot of emerging. 

With Mr. Buckler's kind assistance I have drawn up a short account of the 
various descriptions and figures we could obtain of the larva of Minos and its sup- 
posed varieties, from which it will be seen that the Irish larva is not quite like any 
hitherto recorded. 

In the Annual for 1862 there is Zeller's account of whitish larvao on Pimpinella, 
and yellow larvae found later on Thymus ; also Freyer's account of yellow, white, 
and whitish-blue larvao, all of which ate Pimpinella by preference ; also Hering's 
fuller description of the larva on Thymus, which comes nearer to our larva than 
the others, though the ground-colour is yellow instead of olive-green, and there is 



1868.] 



75 



no mention of yellow spots. This description, however, agrees to some extent with 
Hiibnor's figure of one variety, represented by him as citron-yellow, with a sub- 
dorsal row of brown spots, and a broad stripe of yellow paler than the ground 
running just below them. Hiibner has also figured a whitish variety with blackish 
spots, but placed on the hinder part of each segment. And Boisduval gives in his 
figures the ground-colour as pale yellowish or citron-green, with two black dots 
instead of one on each segment, and yellow spots above, not below them, a 
black dorsal line and some black curves above the legs. — John Hellins, Exeter, 
June 10th, 1868. 

Notes on the earlier stages of Acontia luctuosa. — I am greatly indebted to 
Mr. Howard Vaughan for kindly giving me the opportunity of figuring and de- 
scribing larvae of this species, as well as for furnishing some interesting details 
concerning their earlier stages. 

The eggs were laid on the 7th and 8th of June, 1868, and hatched on the 16th 
and 17th of the month. 

The young larvge at first appeared to be veritable loopers, twelve legs only 
being visible ; but, as they grew larger, the other legs became appai*ent, though 
still in walking they did not use the first pair of ventral legs. 

They appeared to be nocturnal feeders, eating the flowers and seeds, as well as 
the leaves, of Convolvulus arvensis ; they reposed, lying along and closely embracing 
the stems of the food-plant, close to the ground, and in this position would easily 
escape observation. 

The full-grown larva is about one inch and a quarter in length, slender, and 
stoutest in the middle, and tapering a little towards the head (which is smaller 
than the second segment), and more to the posterior extremity; the folds and 
divisions moderately indented on the first four or five segments, but hardly notice- 
able on the remainder. 

The two hinder pairs of ventral legs more developed than the two preceding 
pairs. 

The ground colour on the middle of the back is a pale greyish-ochreous, 
brownish-grey, or reddish-grey, the sides being darker and browner; the dorsal 
stripe tapers at each extremity of the larva, but is narrowest on the anterior 
segments, the stripe itself being of the pale ground colour above-mentioned, but 
faintly outlined interruptedly by short dots or lines of black ; sometimes towards 
each segmental division it is delicately freckled with a slightly deeper tint of the 
same, and, in some examples, two short black streaks, i-ather thicker than those 
that outline the stripe, appear at the beginning of each segment, almost forming 
a V> pointing forwards. 

The pale region of the back assumes a kind of chain pattern from being 
bounded on each side by a rather broad sinuous border of dMrh grey-brown, on 
which are placed the anterior pairs of tubercular dots, being large and very pale 
greyish, delicately margined with blackish ; the posterior pairs small and black. 

The sub-dorsal stripe is but little paler than the dark ground colour of the 
sides, and chiefly towards the head, and just a little at the beginning of each 
segment, the stripe is edged with a line of dark brown ; beneath this, again come 
three other dark brown Unes, the lowest of which is the spiracular, and is thicker 



76 



[August, 



than the others ; the upper two are slightly sinuous, and the second bears a pale 
tubercular spot at the anterior part of each segment, and also touches the spiracular 
line in the middle of the segment. 

The spiracles are black and circular. Below them is a broad stripe of very 
pale brownish-grey, edged above with a paler thread, and below with a little darker 
stripe of reddish or greyish-brown, followed by another close above the legs of 
paler greyish-brown. The belly slightly deeper greyish-brown, with a central 
brown stripe bearing on the middle of each segment beyond the fourth a blackish 
round spot. Legs pale brownish-grey ; prologs similar, and with a dark brown 
dot above their fringes. 

The head slightly hairy, and very pale greyish, having on each side four lines 
of black dots in continuation of dark stripes on the body. The second segment 
has a semi-lunar dull dark brown plate, through which run conspicuously the dorsal 
and sub-dorsal pale stripes. 

The pupa is subterranean. — Wm. Buckler, Emsworth. 

Moths at Nettles. — The Rev. J. Greene, in his interesting little " Insect Hunters' 
Companion " mentions, among other plants, nettles as a good bait for moths, which, 
he says, appear to imbibe something not from the flowers but from the leaves : why 
they evince a partiality for the latter he could not understand. Whether the reason 
has since been discovered and published I know not, but I have satisfied myself 
that it is not the leaves " pur et simple " which attract the moths, but that their 
eflficacy is owing to a little white plant-louse which sometimes covers them, and 
the exudations commonly termed " honey-dew " is what the moths are so fond 
of ; that this is the cause I have further proved by the fact that, whilst moths were 
plentiful on some ^^?iis-covered nettles, not one was to be seen on adjoining but 
clean plants. 

Most of the moths which come to " sugar " also come to nettles, though some 
species, apparently, are not so fond of them as of sugar, for they come more 
sparingly. 

On one or two nights last month, when I paid a visit to some nettles in a field 
close to the Wallasey sandhills, I found moths literally swarming at them, as fast 
as I boxed those I wanted, some other tooths came to take their place. Certainly, 
the majority of them were such commoners as A. exclamationis, X. polyodon, &c., 
but I took pretty freely coriicea and alhicolon, as well as several each of L. littoraliSf 
L. commay L. impura, L. Uthargyria, A. putris, H. dentina, Q. trilinea, A. hasilinea. 
Id. strigilis, N. jplecta, N. triangulum, N. C-nigrum, X. rurea, N. augur, A. valligera^ 
L, paUens, H. adusta, C. morpheus, N. festiva, E. lucipara, one C. rimhratica, A. ge- 
mina, and some other common species. 

This list does not include many " good things," but such as they were, they 
were all the species to be got at sugar in that neighbourhood, at that time, so that 
nettles, in more favoured localities, may prove better worth working. It is cer- 
tainly a very economical method of obtaining moths, but I find that " sugar " is a 
more powerful bait, for when laid in the neighbourhood of the nettles, the moths 
abandon them for the stronger smelling compound. 

Several of my friends complain that they get nothing at sugar ; why, I cannot 
conceive, unless it is that they choose unfavourable nights for their expeditions ; I 



1868.] 



77 



liave found moths veiy common at sugax' this summer, indeed, 1 have never seen 
albicolon, corticea, and littoralis so common as they were last month ; it is also a 
very early season for many things ; valligera, in particular, I have never seen before 
the end of July, and it is common in August with tritici at ragwort flowers, whilst 
many of the specimens which I captured last month were more or less woni. 

The corticea vary wonderfully in colour and max-kings — one which I took is 
nearly black, whilst others of the same sex (males predominate) are very pale. 

I would recommend incipient collectors to examine at night all kinds of plants 
infested with Aphides, and not confine their attention solely to nettles, for the 
" honey-dew " found on other plants is also very attractive, but in various degrees. 

I am prompted to send you these remarks in the hope that they may prove 
useful to some of your readers, remembering, as I do, when I began collecting, how 
the sight of a fine bed of nettles made my heart jump, but I was continually 
doomed to disappointment, never having succeeded nntil lately in finding any moths 
on the nettles, as mentioned in Mr. Greene's little work. — E. L. Ragoxot, 130, 
Conway Street, Birkenhead, July 8th, 1868. 

Lepidojptera bred, 8fc., in the spring. — I began the year by breeding Eupithecia 
alhipunctata on January 27th (forced), from larvae collected in Coombe Wood. I 
have been very successful with this species, as — though IVIr. Harpur Crewe says 
only one in every ten escapes ichneumons — I succeeded in breeding more than half 
mine ; the last emerged on April 28th, or three months after the first ! 

In the early spring I collected, near Eugby, a number of spruce-fir cones, from 
which I have bred a fine series of Coccyx strohilella. 

On Wimbledon Common Adela cuprella has been out in far larger numbers 
than last year ; while, at the sallows, Tceniocampa gracilis and rubricosa were at 
home as usual, — and a specimen of the latter occurred at the lamps. 

During April, Clostera reclusa, Eupithecia mimUata, and others, appeared in 
my breeding-cages, from larvae taken on Wimbledon Common and Combe Wood 
last autumn. — G. B. Longstaff, Southfields, Wandsworth, S.W. 

Collix sparsata, Sfc, near York. — In five nights' collecting during last week I 
obtained a good series of C. sparsata in very fine condition ; also series or pairs of 
most of the following : — H. unca, by sweeping long grass ; on the wing, P. syrin- 
garia; at sugar, amongst others, A. leporina, A. rwmicis \a.T. saUcis, L. pudorina 
(frequent), X. hepatica, M. abjecta, M. anceps^ Agrotis suffusa (one, apparently just 
out), D. cucubali, and A. adusta. — T. J. Carrington, 1, Melbourne Terrace, York, 
June 13f7i, 1868. 

Capture of the larva of Folia nigrodncta. — I had the good fortune, this after- 
noon, again to find the larva of P. nigrocinctu. — N. Greening, Isle of Man, 
19t^ June, 1868. 

Note on Colias EdAisa. — I found a caterpillar of C. Edusa feeding on Melilot 
last October at Charmouth ; it changed to a pupa on our journey home, and died 
in the act of emerging at the end of March. — C. W. Dale, Glanvilles Wootton, 
6th June, 1868. 

[This interesting fact tends to prove that Edusa in this country is double- 
brooded, or partially so ; or that all the examples taken in spring and early summer 
have not necessarily hybernated.— Eds.] 



78 



r August, 



New locality for Lycama Arion. — It will be interesting to British Lepidopteriats 
to bear that Mr. Wells, a pupil of this college, took a specimen of L. Arion last 
year near this place ; but was not aware of his good fortune until I discovered the 
insect amongst his butterflies. Yesterday we took a walk to the same locality, and 
found eight fresh specimens.— E. Dembski (French Master), The College, Chelten- 
ham, 2nd July, 1868. 

Elachista paludum bred. — I have had the pleasure of breeding Elachista 
paludum, from larva? I found here in Carex (? riparia). I first found the larva 
last autumn, and sent one up to Mr. Stainton ; but it having died before reaching 
him, he could not decide it, but inclined to the belief, suggested by myself, that it 
was the young larva of Oelechia arundinetella. However, on searching this spring, 
I found the larva more fully matured, and saw at once they were Elachistce : in 
due time paludum appeared, — much to my delight. I do not recollect seeing any 
other locality for them than Ranworth and Beccles, where they were found by 
Mr. Winter. It is possible that, if specially looked for, they may turn up elsewhere. 
They are scarce, and difficult to find, as they seem to grow up all at once, and are 
fearfully subject to ichneumons, &c. — Joun Sang, Darlington, June ISiTi, 1868. 

Captures of Lepidoptera at Howth. — During Whitsuntide, Mr. Gregson and I 
spent a few days at this locality for Irish novelties ; and, by dint of hard and 
weary work, we succeeded tolerably well. We both took Dianthcecia Barrettii. 
This cannot be, as has been suggested, a form of conspersa ; it flies in quite a 
difierent manner, and, when the wings are closed, the blotch — like that in H. atri- 
plicis — is very striking. We each got three examples. Below I give a summary 
of our captures, and remark that the single specimen of the rare Taleporia puhi- 
cornis was taken by Mr. Gregson j this is quite new to the Irish list, and has been 
found in only one English locality. . 

C. porcellus, S. pliilanthiformis, L. caniola and complana (larvae), 0. hidentata 
(light var.), A. suhsericeata (common) and promutata, E. venosata and constrictata, 
M. galiata, A. plagiata, M. furva, D. capsophila, Barrettii, and cucuhali, H. nimhella, 
P. subomatella, S. littorana and sp. (?), 8. PenzioMa (pupa), E. albicapitana and 
atricapitana, A. Baumanniana, T. pubicomis, P. roboricolella, D. marginepiindella, 
D. subpropinquella and capreolella (bred), Q. mundella, instabilella, and artemi- 
siella, B. grandipennis and fusco-cuprea, 0. tringipennellay C. discoidella and 
gryphipennella, E. Gregsoni (?), collitella, and consortella, P. pterodactyhis. I have 
a larva now feeding which may be that of D. Barrettii. — J. B. Hodgkinson, Preston, 
July 7th, 1868. 

Sesia myopa^formis in Hawthorn. — Have any of the readers of " The Magazine " 
reared this clearwing from hawthorn ? In the piece of gi'ound at the back of our 
house I, a few days since, met with some empty pupa cases protruding from the 
trunk of a double red-may tree ; these are evidently those of myopceformis, which 
is common enough in some neighbouring apple and pear trees. — H. G. Knaggs, 
Kentish Town, July lOih, 1868. 

Agrotis cinerea at Folkestone. — About two mouths ago I captured a female 
example of this local species iu the WaiTon at Folkestooc. I mention this, partly 



1868. 



79 



because I am under tlie impression that the insect has never been recorded as having 
occurred at Folkestone, and partly on account of the sex of the individual ; female 
cinerea not being, I believe, caught eveiy day. — Id. 

Note on Eadena atriplicis, ^'c. — I have lately reared a fine series of Hadena 
atnplicis, from eggs deposited by a female caught at Cambridge last year. I 
should not have troubled you with this communication had not a well-known 
Cambridge entomologist informed me that his bred specimens of this insect were 
always both small and badly coloured ; while mine, on the contrary, are of the 
average size, and well marked. 

Last week I took a male H. dominula at Lustheigh, in good condition. From 
the fact that this insect has been captured at Exeter, Teigiiraouth (i.e., Great and 
Little Waldon), and that it is common at Ashburton, [ am inclined to think it is 
common throughout the moorland parts of the county. — Charles Grinstead, 
Torella, Torquay, 22nd June, 1868. 

Results of a day and a night's collecting in Sherwood Forest. — The old forest is 
now in its glory, and well worth a visit from even the most apathetic of Nature's 
admirers. For miles you may wander among grand oaks, some " stag-homed," 
but majestic in their ruin ; others in the fall vigour of life, interspersed with the 
gi-aceful birch, whose tall, silvery stems gleam white far away in the distance ; 
with here and there an alder, mountain-ash, or white-thorn. Few flowering plants 
are seen, the ground being chiefly covered with fern, five or six feet high, or in the 
open places with tall, waving grass. Among the latter we sprung a few Euthemonia 
russula, all apparently fresh from the pupae : they were easily caught, flying very 
lazily. A. Adippe was just out, but in the glowing sunlight a chase was not very 
agreeable : we got, however, about a dozen specimens. From the oaks we beat 
a few specimens of Conopalpus testaceus, and a single example of Phlceotyra 
rufipes. The mountain ash gave us Rhynchites cupreus. Wading through 
the fern was no joke, and we hailed with joy the spire of Edwinstowe Church 
peeping through the trees. After lunch, we re-opened our campaign, but, with 
the exception of a single specimen of Conopalpus Vigorsii, and a pair of Drepana 
falcataria and of Eepialus velleda, nothing of much importance fell to our lot. 
There was a perfect plague of flies ; the only remedy was a vigorous fumigation, 
and I should advise all entomologists who come this way to remember their pipes. 
As evening drew on, we obtained a good many fair specimens of Cyhosia mesornella 
flying in the open places ; and at sugar, among hosts of common things, we got 
Thyatira hatis and derasa, Ne^iria saponarice^ and two Hadena contigua. One tree 
hterally swarmed with the male Lampyris noctiluca ; as fast as we could bottle 
them they came flying : we saw but one female, and she was accompanied by four 
or five males. We intend to try the bark in a few weeks, and will report progress. 
— Richard and William Tyrer, Grove House, Mansfield, June 2oth, 1868. 

The Bidterflies of North America ; with coloured drawings and descriptions. By 
Wm. H. Edwards. Philadelphia : the American Entomological Society. London : 
Tmbner & Co., Paternoster Row. 



80 



August, 



Under this title Mr. Edwards, well kuown for his devotion to the study of the 
North Amencan Diurnal Lepidoptera, of which he has the largest collection in 
existence, proposes to issue a series of coloured illustrations of all the species at 
present known, accompanied by descriptions and notes on geographical distribution ; 
a work much wanted, since the number of described North American species has 
been doubled during the last few years ; the descriptions are scattered through 
various publications. The first part, which was issued in April of the present year, 
gives promise of great excellence, both as to the execution of the figures and the 
information contained in the text. 

In size and general appearance, the work resembles Hewitson's *' Exotic 
Butterflies ; " but each part is to consist of five plates instead of three. The 
parts are to be issued quarterly, and the genera to follow in irregular order, not 
following any system of classification ; but a classified synopsis of all the species 
is promised as portion of the text, to be commenced with Part 3. 

With regard to the figures, it is not too much to say that they will bear com- 
parison with the best that have ever been given in iconographical woi'ks. They 
are correct in outline and drawing, and coloured with great truthfulness and 
sobriety ; the general effect, too, is most pleasing and artistic ; in short, if illus- 
trated works of so much beauty and accuracy as this can be produced on the other 
side of the Atlantic, it behoves Natural History Iconographers in our old Europe 
to look to their laurels. 

The letter-press accompaniment to the plates is also remarkably well done. 
The synonymy is carefully and, so far as the work has proceeded, accurately worked 
out ; the closely-allied species luminously discriminated ; the descriptions good ; 
and the details of occurrence and distribution of the species full of interest. The 
text, in fact, forms pleasant reading. Under the head of one species, Argynnis 
Dicma, the afl&nities of a fossil allied butterfly, found in the miocene beds of Croatia 
in Europe, the so-called Vanessa Pluto of Heer, are discussed ; the author giving his 
reasons for believing this to be an Argynnis allied to the somewhat anomalous 
North American A. Diana ; and hence deduces another fact in support of tke 
hypothesis, that, in tertiary times, the organic productions of Europe and North 
America much more closely resembled each other than they do at present. 

The first part is devoted to the genus Argynnis; and most of the species 
have never before been figured. The second part is to consist, also, of Argynnis, 
with the addition of a new Apatwa^ and a number of new Colias. The third part 
will contain a continuation of Argynnis, and a number of previously unfigured 
Thedoe, &c. 

No student of this beautiful and favourite tribe of insects will fail to obtain 
this interesting work ; and we hail its appearance as a true advance in the science 
of Entomology. 

Entomological Society of London, 8th July, 1868. H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Bond exhibited an extraordinary variety of Sctina irrorella, from near 
Croydon ; it was very pale, with but few dots, but with a strong dark sub-terminal 
fascia : also a variety of Arctia villica, bred from a larva found at Wormwood 



1868.) 



81 



Scrubs, the ground colour being pale fulvous or cream-coloured, with scarcely a 
trace of dark markings : also two males and one female of Drilus flavescens from 
Freshwater, the three having been found simultaneously in copuZd ; he mentioned 
other analogous instances, notably that in which Dr. Knaggs had found a male 
ea,ch of Tortnx heparana and T. viridana coupled with one female of the latter 
species. 

Mr. McLachlan exhibited 12 bred specimens of HypercalUa ChrisUemana from 
larvae found at Shoreham, in Kent ; he had bred 19 in all. 

Mr. Davis (present as a visitor) exhibited a fine collection of preserved larvse 
of Lepidoptera. 

Mr. Wood (visitor) exhibited bred specimens of various species of ScdurnidoB, 
including Cynthia, Promethea, Cecropia, and Polyphemus. The species, he remarked, 
all possessed a more or less strongly developed moveable spine attached near the 
base of the inner side of the fore-tibiae, and lying in a groove in the tibia itself The 
insects used this appendage as a comb, drawing their antennae between the spine 
and tibia, and thus cleansing them from dust, &o. 

Mr. Jenner Weir exhibited a large exotic beetle of the genus 3Ionochamus 
which flew into the London Custom House very recently ; it had no doubt bred in 
imported timber. 

Mr, Blackmore exhibited a collection of insects, of all orders, formed by him 
at Tangiers, in Morocco. 

Mr. Eaton exhibited microscopic preparations of the anatomy of several genera 
of EphemeridoB. 

Professor Westwood exhibited two extraordinary forms of Chalcididm, from 
Australia and the Amazons respectively ; they were remarkable for very large size, 
and for aberrant development of the abdomen. 

Mr. Smith sent for exhibition specimens of Ophion macrurus bred from American 
cocoons of S. Cynthia ; the species was more properly parasitic upon the American 
S. Cecropia, but had adapted Cynthia to its purpose on the introduction of that 
insect into America. One of these Ophions had stung Mr. Smith with such severity, 
as to lead to the belief that poison was introduced into the wound. 

The Secretary exhibited a wooden letter-clip, sent to him by an anonymous 
correspondent, in the notch of which an Odynerus had formed her nest. 

Keports on the ravages of the ** coffee-borer," by Dr. Bidie, Government Com- 
missioner, were read by the Secretary. 

Sir John Lubbock communicated a paper on the larva of Micropeplus 
staphylinoides, with drawings ; the form of the larva of this anomalous genus of 
beetles tended to prove that it was wrongly placed in Staphylinidce, and belonged 
more properly to the Nitidulidce. 

Mr. Eaton read a paper on the anatomy of the imperfect condition of Ccenis 
macrura. 

Mr. F. Bates sent a continuation of his paper on AustraUan Heteromera. 

Mr. Kirby sent a tabular comparison of some representative species of Diurnal 
Lepidoptera in Europe, Asia, and North America. 

This was the last meeting before the recess ; the next will be on the 2nd 
November. 



82 



[August, 



AN OUTLINE OF A RE-ARRANGEMENT OF THE GENERA OF 
EPHEMERIDjE. 

BY A. E. EATON, B.A. 

The principal object of the present communication is the settle- 
ment of the generical nomenclature of the E'pTiemeridw. Their geo- 
graphical range is only subordinate to the design ; for so circumscribed 
are the sources whence information on this subject is obtainable, that 
it would not be worth one's while to treat of this alone. Doubtless 
the unsightly appearance of the dried insects has something to do with 
the carelessness with which they are regarded by most collectors, and 
with the scantiness of our knowledge of their distribution. My notes 
are limited to the recent genera ; and, unless the contrary is specified, 
the neuration of the anterior wings alone is taken into consideration. 
The terminology of the neuration is that of Sundevall, as elucidated in 
his paper, " Om Insekternas Extremiteter," in the Stockholm Transac- 
tions for 1862. 

G-enus C-enis, Steph. 

Syn. Bracliycercus, Curt. ; Oxycypha, Burm, &c. 
Type G. macrura, Steph. 

Distrib. — England, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland; N. China, 
Ceylon ; Indiana, Florida. 

Genus Teioobtthus,* nov. gen. 
Syn. Ccd?iis,p., Pict. 
Type T. varicauda, Koll. Mss. ; Pict. 

Distrib. — Egypt. 

The type of this genus differs from Ccdnis in the neuration of the 
wings. The anterior rib of the vas ulnare is bipartite. Its posterior 
division is simple ; but the anterior vein gives off an alternately pin- 
nate, three-branched veinlet backwards and outwards, near its middle, 
and forks at the commencement of its apical fourth. These nervures 
are connected together by numerous cross-veinlets. The second ulnar 
rib is either bipartite (Savigny, fig. 6), or completely divided (Id. fig. 7), 
and each of the resulting veins sends two simple veinlets backwards to 
the outer margin. The anterior vas internum is simple ; the posterior 
omits two or three simple veinlets backwards (see Savigny, in " Descrip- 
tion de I'Egypte," ii., Nevropteres, tab. 2, figs. 6 and 7). No posterior 
wings. 



* Tricorythut (Qr )— tri-Koruthos ^ triple-plumed. 



186S.] 



83 



Genus Oligoneuria, Pict. 

Type, 0. anomala, Koll. Mss. ; Pict. 

The typical species has two simple ulnar ribs, and two simple* vasa 
interna. 

Distrib. — Brazil, 1 sp. 

Section B, 0. Shenana, Imhoff. 
The robust anterior and the slender second ulnar ribs are bipartite. 
The divisions (veins) of the second rib closely accompany the first and 
the third ribs respectively. Prom this last a slender vein is sent to the 
internal margin. Between these ribs and veins a very coarse reticula- 
tion is obscurely indicated. The anterior vas internum accompanies 
the third ulnar rib and its vein : the posterior is very short, and has 
two strong veins and a feeble one. The ulnar ribs are connected 
together by a few cross-veinlets. The has four-jointed forceps, 
whose proximal joint is upwards of twice the length of the remaining 
three together. 

Distrib.— Central Europe, 2 sp. 

Section C, 0. Trimeniana, McLachlan. 

The first and the third ulnar rib is bifid ; the second is obsolescent 
and bipartite, as in O. Rhenana. The anterior division of the second 
rib emits a veinlet nearly parallel with the posterior division of the 
first rib, which vanishes before it attains the outer margin, and is met 
obliquely by the cross-veinlets of an obscure coarse reticulation that 
occupies the space between the two most prominent ribs. There are 
two simple vasa interna. 

Distrib. — Natal, 1 sp. ( ? only known). 

Genus CAMPSUETJs,t nov. gen. 
Syn. Paling enia, Burm., Pict., part. 
Type C. latipennis, Walker. 
Distrib. — The Amazons, 6 sp. 

The first ulnar rib is bipartite ; its bifurcate anterior division includes 
a simple supplementary vein; its posterior division separates into an 
anterior simple, and a bipartite veinlet. Tlie second ulnar rib is bipar- 
tite, and is produced over the third rib to anastomose with the comm.on 

* T am inclined to regard the first of these an ulnar ; but have followed above M. Pictel's eiplana- 
tion of the neuration, not having seen the type. 

t Campsurus (Gr.)— Kampse-oura = bent-tailed. 



84 



[August, 



basis of the vasa interna. In its first fifth the third ulnar rib runs close 
to the first vas internum ; it is then curved outwards, and sometimes 
receives a simple supplementary vein from before. Shortly after this, 
it either becomes trifid or is resolved into an anterior simple, and a 
posterior bipartite vein. The posterior of the moderately straight vasa 
interna sends a recurrent vein towards the base of the wing. From 
the costa to the vas ulnare inclusive the reticulation is well defined. 
Forceps of ^ slender and jointless (apparently). Legs feeble and 
short. The two caudal setas are horizontally patent in the dried . 

Section B, C. curtus, Hdig&n,— Paling enia curta, Hag. List of S. Americ. 

Neuropt. ; Smithsonian Miscel. Coll. 1861, p. 304. = Pal. 
alhifilum, var., Walk. Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Distrib. — The Amazons, 1 sp. 

In this species the cross-veinlets are numerous throughout the 
extent of the anterior wings ; and the forceps of the are moderately 
stout and two- or three-jointed. 

Genus Polymitaecys,* nov. gen. 

Syn. Palingenia, Burm., part. 
Type P. virgo, 01. 
Distrib. — Europe and Egypt, 2 or 3 sp. 

The anterior ulnar rib is bifid, and is met in front, near its base, 
by a bipartite supplementary vein whose fork includes several veinlets. 
The fork of the rib includes one supplementary vein. Second ulnar 
rib simple. The posterior division of the bipartite third rib is itself 
bipartite, and is followed by upwards of four supplementary veins. 
These are succeeded in their turn by some irregular veinlets from the 
internal margin. The recurrent vein from the robust second vas in- 
ternum receives two or three simple veinlets from the inner margin. 
Yasa interna moderately straight, and simple. Eeticulation rather fine. 
Forceps of ^ four-jointed ; their second joints the longest. 

Genus Palingei^ia, restricted, Westwood. 
Syn. Palingenia, Burm., part. 
Type P. longicauda, 01. 
Distrib. — Europe, 1 sp. ; Asia Minor, 1 sp. ? ; Silhet and Borneo, 
1 sp. (three species in all) ; and, perhaps, one or two S. American 
species. 



Polymitareyi (Gr.)— poIyinitos*arku« = a net conslating of many threads. 



1868.] 



86 



The neuration of the anterior wings is somewhat like that of the 
preceding genus ; the vasa interna, however, are connected together by 
a larger number of cross-veinlets. Forceps of three-jointed ; their 
basal joints much the longest. $ with the central seta rudimental, 
not well developed, as in Polymitarcys. 

Genus Pentaqenia, Walsh. 
Syn. Falingenia, Subgen. A., Walsh, 1862. 
Type P. vittigera^ Walsh. 

The first ulnar rib is bipartite ; its bipartite anterior, and its bifid 
posterior, veins, both include a simple supplementary vein in their forks, 
and the one in addition includes two or three supplementary veinlets. 
The simple posterior ulnar rib is met not far from its origin by a simple 
supplementary vein, which is suddenly curved forwards towards the 
point of contact (as in Ephemera). The very convex outermost veinlet 
from the recurrent vein of the third vas internum, which is succeeded by 
some very irregular, feeble veinlets, is distinctive of this genus. Forceps 
of four-jointed, their second joints the longest. 

G-enus Hexagenia, Walsh. 
Syn. Falingenia, p., Pictet ; Idem subgenus B., Walsh, 1862. 
Type H. limhata, Guer. 
Distrib. — Arctic America, Canada, United States, and the Amazons. 
The most obvious differences between the neuration of the anterior 
wings of Hexagenia and Ephemera are the excess in number of the 
more or less crowded, parallel, straight, veinlets extending from the 
third vas internum perpendicularly to the internal margin, over those 
which unite it and the second supplementary rib. The recurrent 
vein of the third vas internum gives off several nearly straight 
parallel veins. The ^ has the second joints of the four-jointed forceps 
the longest, and both sexes reject the central seta. 

Genus Ephemera, De Geer. 

Syn. Ephemera, Liu., part. 

Type E. vulgata, Lin. 

Distrib. — Europe; N. China, Hindostan, Ceylon (aberrant); 
Canada, Illinois. 

The forceps of Ephemera are similar to those of Hexagenia, but 
the central seta is sub-equal to the others. The cross-veinlets between 



86 



[September, 



the second supplementary rib and the third vas internum are more 
numerous, and the veinlets from the third vas fewer in number, than 
the last genus ; and, lastly, these veinlets are usually opposite to one 
another. 

Genus Potamanthus, Pietet, restricted. 
Syn. PotamantJius, Pict., part. 
Type P. lutea, Lin., Pict. 
Distrib. — England, Italy, Germany, 2 sp. 

The second vas internum near the base of the wing anastomoses 
with the third, instead of with the first, as in Ephemera. The thii'd, 
after receiving the second, gives off a simple vein on each side. Pos- 
terior to the third vas internum there is, at the fewest, one bifid veinlet 
[? from the recurrent vein of the third vas]. This genus is further 
distinguishable from JEphemera by the ascalaphoid eyes of the male, 
and by his three-jointed forceps, whose proximal joints are much longer 
than the other two together. 

Genus Leptophlebia, TVestwood. 

Syn. JPotamantTius, Pict., part. 

Baetis, Burm., Pict., part. 
Type L. vespertina, Lin. 

Distrib. — Lapland, Italy, England, Austria ; Canada, United 
States, Newfoundland. New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Cape of Good 
Hope. 

The vas ulnare consists of a simple posterior, and a bipartite an- 
terior rib. Of the divisions of this last the foremost is bipartite at the 
commencement of its second fourth, and includes in its fork two or 
three supplementary veins and veinlets ; whilst the other is bifurcate, 
and includes one such vein. A supplementary rib, very like the pos- 
terior ulnar rib, intervenes between the vasa interna and the vas ulnare. 
It is preceded and followed by two shorter veins. These last are united, 
either with the supplementary rib or with the first, very convex, vas 
internum. The former arrangement prevails in species inhabiting 
the southern hemisphere (which also usually have the marginal and 
sub-marginal areas coloured), the latter in the larger of the American 
and European species. Forceps three- or four-jointed, the basal joint 
the longest. Eyes of the ^ double.* The central seta is rather the 
longest. 



* Ascalaphoid. 



1868.] 



87 



Section B, L.fusca, Curt. 

Distrib. — England, Switzerland, Austria (Carniola), 2 sp. 

The posterior wing has the costa curiously excised in its apical 
half ; and the basal joint of the forceps, instead of being upwards of 
thrice as long as the other two together, equals them in length only. So 
long as the subaqueous stages of development remain unknown, it seems 
advisable to retain the species in the genus Leptophlehia. 

Genus Ephemeeella, Walsh. 

Syn. Fotamanthus, Pict., part. 
Baetis, Walker, part. 

Type E. excrucians, Walsh = invaria, Walker. 

Distrib. — Hudson's Bay, Illinois, 2 sp. ; England, Spain, Switzer- 
land, Grermany, 3 sp. 

The neuration differs from that of LeptopJilehia principally in the 
following particulars. The foremost vas internum, instead of curving 
forwards when it nears the base of the wing, and thus receding from 
the second vas internum, runs straight up to the thickened root of the 
wing alongside the second : it gives off a bipartite vein, and is itself 
bifurcate. The second vas internum is simple, the third bipartite, and 
united with the second by a cross-veinlet. The has 3-jointed forceps 
(whose second joints are the longest), and ascalaphoid eyes (Mr. Walsh 
^ says those of invaria are simple). In its later subaqueous stages of 
development the immature insect has six pairs of complex branchial 
appendages, which are made up of a trapezoidal plate furnished under- 
neath with a bipartite process, which supports several imbricated 
lamellse arranged lengthwise. 

Genus Cloeox, Leach. 

Syn. C/oe, Burm., Pict., part. 

Chloeon, Lubbock. 

Cloeopsis, Etn., oHm. 
Type C. dipterum, Lin. 

Distrib. — Lapland, Egypt, Madeira, France, Austria ; N. China ; 
2 or perhaps 3 sp. A species (1 specimen in Brit. Mus.) is reputed 
to be from S. Australia. 

Dipterous. During their later aquatic stages of development the 
insects have six double pairs and a seventh single pair of branchial 
plates. A series of short, solitary, supplementary veinlets is situated 



88 



[September, 



on the outer margin of the wings. The has the third joints of its 
4-jointed forceps the longest, and the upper divisions of its double eyes 
turbinate. Egg-valve of ? bipartite. 

Genus Baetis,* Leach. 

Syn. Baetis, B, Steph., Curtis. 
Cloe, B, Burm. 
Brachyphlehia, Westw. 
Cloeon, Hagen, p., Etn. 

Type B. hioculatus, Lin. 

Distrib. — Europe ; Madeira, Egypt ; Hindostan ; Hudson's Bay. 

Section A, B. luteolus, Miiller, = 0. translucida, Pict. 

Eorceps as in Cloeon, egg- valve entire. Posterior wings acute, with 
two simple veins. Branchial plates of the aquatic insect single. A 
series of short, solitary, supplementary veinlets proceeds from the 
outer margin of the anterior wing. 

Distrib. — England, Denmark, Switzerland, 1 sp. ; Germany, 1 sp. 

Section B, B. hioculafus, Lin. 

Syn. Brachyplilelia, "Westw. 

Species conforming to this, the typical section of the genus, differ 
from the former group in the following particulars only. Anterior 
wings with the short supplementary veinlets on the outer margin in 
pairs. Posterior wings obtuse, with two or three longitudinal veins 
(the second of which is either simple, bifid, or bipartite, according to 
the species), and with more or fewer short supplementary veinlets at 
the apex. The fourth joint of the forceps seems never to be pyriform 
as it is in Cloeon, and in the preceding section of Baetis. 

Section (?) C, B. tristis, Hagen, = Cloe tristis, Hagen. 
Distrib. — Ceylon. 

I have only seen a $ sub-imago of this species, which may typify 
a separate genus. 

Mr. "Walsh and Dr. Hagen have described several N. American 
species of Cloe\ but I have not seen any representatives of the sections 
in which they have arranged them. 



* Probably a misreading of Beetis, the Latin name of a Spanish river (the Guadalquivir), which Ifl 
used in Bonie atl««es. 



186S.] 



80 



Genus B.iiTiscA, Walsh. 
Syn. Baetis, part., Say. 
Type B. ohesa, Say. 
Distrib. — United States. 

The anterior ulnar rib is seemingly tri-partite. (The anterior di- 
vision is probably a supplementary vein, which, with its foremost parti- 
tion, is bipartite, and includes a simj^le supplementary vein ; its second 
division is simple). The second partition of the first ulnar rib is bifurcate, 
and includes a simple supplementary vein : its third partition is simple. 
The simple posterior ulnar rib is succeeded by two supplementary ribs, 
the hinder of which sends several simple veinlets, parallel one with 
another, to the internal margin. There are two straight, simple, vasa 
interna. The forceps of the ^ seem to be 3-jointed, and to have the 
second joint the longest, as in Ephemerella (but that which appears to 
be the proximal joining may be a fold in the integument only, in which 
case the first joint would be by far the longest, and would present an 
obtuse spine on its under-surface, like the first joint of the forceps of 
some species oi Leptophlehid). A jointless remnant of the central seta 
is retained. 

Genus Colobueus,* nov. gen. 
Syn. Palingenia, Burm., part., Walker. 
Type G. humeralis, Walker. 
Distrib. — New Zealand. 

The vas uliiare resembles somewhat that of the preceding genus in 
its manner of branching. It is followed by two supplementary ribs, 
and two supplementary veins. The first of these ribs sends down three 
or four bent, simple (or slightly bifurcate), veins to the internal 
margin ; the second of them resembles a vas internum. There are 
about four, slightly curved, vasa interna, some simple, others bifurcate, 
or even bifid. The outer setae are upwards of fifteen times longer than 
the central one. The J has 4i-jointed forceps, their second joints are 
the longest ; eyes double. 

Genus Siphlonueus,! nov. gen. 
Syn. Baetis J Ed. Pict., part. 

Ephemera, Zett., part. 
Type S.Jlavidus, Ed. Pict. 

Distrib.— Sweden, England, Ireland, Spain, 1 sp. ; Prussia, 2 sp. ; 
United States. 



* Kolobourot (Or.) = stump-tailed. 



+ Sip hie our a (Gr.) = defective in the tail. 



90 



[September, 



The neuration of the fore- wings, and the proportions of the forci- 
pal joints, are very similar to those of the last genus. But the eyes of 
the are simple, and the central seta is rejected. The sides of the 
dorsal arcus of the last well-formed segment of the abdomen are pro- 
longed posteriorly so as to form an acute, more or less flattened, spine 
on each side in all of the genera from Bcetisca to the present genus 
inclusive. 

Genus Heptagenia, "Walsh. 
Syn. Baetis, auct. part. 

Ecdyurus (misspelt Ecdyonurus) Etn. 
Distrib.— N. Hemisphere ; and, according to M. Blanchard, Chili. 
The principal difference between this genus and the preceding, in 
the neuration of the wings, is that the first of the supplementary ribs 
between the vas ulnare and vasa interna terminates at some distance 
in advance of the angle of the wing, and supplies with veiulets no part 
of the internal margin; that portion of the inner margin which is 
included by the two supplementary ribs receiving upwards of four 
supplementary veins and their veinlets. The first joint of the 3-jointed 
forceps is the longest. Egg-valve entire. Central seta rejected. Eyes 
entire in the male. 

Type H.flavescens, "Walsh. 

Distrib. — England, 4 sp. ; Germany, &c., N. America. 

Lobes of the penis divergent. "Wings of the sub-imago with the 
cross- v^einlets not margined with a darker colour than that of the rest 
of the wing, and of the same colour as the wing until shortly before the 
last moult. 

Section B, H. venosa, Eab. 
Syn. Ecdyurus, Etn. 

Distrib. — England, 3 sp. ; Europe, &c. 

Lobes of the penis slightly separated, horizontally flattened and 
triangular. Cross-veinlets in the wings of the sub-imago conspicuously 
margined with a darker colour, in most species. At the time when I 
proposed the name Ecdyurus for this genus, I imagined that Mr. Walsh's 
Heptagenia was a dismemberment of Falingenia, Burm. ; but he having 
kindly forwarded to me, for the British Museum, types of his new genera, 
I find that Heptagenia is the same as Baetis, Burm., Pict. 

Having now surveyed the genera, I will attempt to point out the 
affinities presented by them one to another. The family seems to con- 



1868.] 



91 



aist, us it were, of two or three distinguishable groups welded together. 
Perliaps their relations may be indicated by means of punctuation : 
thus — 

Ccenis, Tricorythus, OU^oneuria, (CampsurusJ ; CampsuruSj Polymi- 
tarcySj Palingenia, Pentagenia, Hexagenia, Epliemera ; Potamanthm^ 
Leptophlehia, Ephemerella, Cloeon,Baetis ; (Leptophlehia) ^ Bcetiscaj Colo- 
hums, Siphlonurus, Reptagenia. 

Equivalents. 
1st: Wing nervures. 
Costa, Sundevall = margo ala? antica = la costale, Pictet. 
Vas sub-costale, Sundevall = sub-costa = la sous-costale, Pictet. 
Vas radiale, Sundevall = radius ; la mediane, Pictet. 
Vas ulnare, Sundevall = ramus thyrifer, Kolenati = la sous-mediane, 
Pictet. 

Vasa interna, Sundevall =cubitus, Kolenati==ranale,et accessories 
de I'anale, Pictet = veins on the post costa, "Walsh. 

[Yas post costale, Sundevall = the anterior margin of the wing 
between the pterostigma and the cubital point, Haliday, in Lihellulidce.l 

Supplementary veins are such as proceed from the outer margin, 
but do not reach the root of the wing, nor are derived from the principal 
veins of the wing. 

Supplementary ribs reach the base of the wing. 

2nd : Margins of "Wings. 

Margo antica = costa. 

Margo externa = apical margin, M'Lach. 

Margo interna = post costa, Walsh. 

3rd : Divisions of a Vein. 

Primary veins are called rils, 

Their branches, veins. 

Their subordinate ramifications, veinlets. 

4th : Modes of Division of Veins. 
Divided, separating at the very commencement (e. g. twice divided.) 

Partite, or parted, dividing almost at its origin (e. g. bi-partite, 
dividing into two). 

-Fid, dividing nearly in the middle of its length (e. g. tri-Jid). 

'Furcate, or forked, dividing near its extremity (e. g. bijurcate, 
ending in two simple prongs). 

Reading : June 6^7^, 1868. 



92 



I September, 



NEW SPECIES, &c., OF HETEROCEROUS LEPIDOPTERA FROM CANTER- 
BURY, NEW ZEALAND, COLLECTED BY MR. R. W. FEREDAY. 

BY ACHILLE GUENEE. 
(Concluded from page 65). 

Genus Camptogea:m:ma. 

Camptogeamma fuscinata, Guenee, n. s. 

Statura hahitusque C. strangulatcB. AJcBanticce lilacino-hrunnece ; mar- 
ffine, Uneaque media angulata intus diluta, hrunneis ; puncto cellulari : 
posticce diliif lores, immaculatce : suif fis paleacecs, atomis lineolisque duahus 
hrunneis. Aiitennce ma^ns vix puhescentes. 

Size and aspect of C strangulata, for a dark variety of wliicli, at first sight, it 
might be mistaken. Superior wings marked in a precisely similar manner, but 
with the ground colour pale lilac-brown, which, from the median line to the base, 
becomes wood-brown. Inferior wings much paler, without lines ; but beneath they 
are ochrcous-yellow, strongly sprinkled vrith ferruginous atoms, which, accumulating 
between the cellule and the margin, form two short parallel lines. Antennae and 
palpi as in C. strangulata, of which it is perhaps strictly only a modification. 

Camptogeamma stinakia, Guenee, n. s. 

Media. Alee omnes integrce, lutecs : anticce lincis duahus albis nigro- 
limhatis : posticce supra immaculatce : suhfus rufce, lineis sex ferrugineis. 
Antennoe pectinatce. 

Size and habit of C. insulata. Superior wings ochreous-yellow, suffused with 
blackish ; the only markings are two distant lines, the first forming a single angle 
in the cellule, the second simply wavy, these lines are slender, white, narrowly 
bordered with black on the costa, where they approach nearer one to the other, and 
followed by a brownish tinge ; extremity of the fringes finely marked with white ; 
inferior wings ochreous-yellow, without markings above, but beneath they are pow- 
dered with red, and traversed by six parallel lines, of which the four first are placed 
close together and discoidal, the two others isolated and toothed. Body concolo- 
rous, without markings. Antenna? of the male furnished with long pubescent and 
spatulated pectinations. 

Geuus Dastueis, Guenee, nov. gen. 

AntennsB of the simple, granulated, scarcely pubescent. Palpi 
moderately long, connivent in form of a beak, hairy, tlie joints distinct. 
Haustellum robust. Body thick, velvety. Thorax robust, broad, hairy ; 
abdomen scaly, banded, laterally velvety, truncated at the apex. Legs 
long, scaly, spurs robust ; tarsi spiny. Wings stout, entire, with long 
fringes, the markings similar on both pairs, colours bright, even on the 
under-side. 



1868.] 



93 



I establish this genus on a pretty species from New Zealand, to 
which may be added my Coremia euclidiata, glypJiicata, and heliacaria. 
All have a peculiar fades, which approaches that of some FidonideCj 
and even some Noctuce. 

Dasturis paetheniata, Guenee, n. s. 

Al(BfuhcD,Jimhriis albis, nigro interrti^tis : anticcc lineis fasciisque 
nigricantihus : posticcB margine lineisque, ultima interrupta ; suhtiis flavo- 
albidce, nervis pallidis,fasciis interruptis nigricantihus. 

28 millimetres in expanse. Wings stout, fulvous, orange, the fringes interrupted 
with black and whitish. Superior wings traversed by thick angulated blackish lines, 
which accumulate on the median space, which they in part invade, leaving a distinct 
cellular dot ; afterwards there is a band of the ground colour, and lastly a broad 
blackish border divided by the subterminal line, which is fulvous and formed of 
unequal spots : inferior wings more lively in colour, with a toothed border ; on the 
upper-side there is a narrow unequal band of atoms, interrupted in the middle, 
afterwards two lines, and the base powdered with blackish ; beneath these wings 
are pale yellow, traversed by whitish rays, with the bands interrupted and blackish, 
on which the nervures are distinctly paler ; the superior wings show these nervures 
only on the terminal space, the rest being occupied by three bands corresponding 
to those of the upper-side, and there is a black cellular dot. Body black, clothed 
with greenish-yellow hairs ; the abdomen bordered laterally with white hairs, and 
narrowly zoned with the same colour. Antenna3 of the male granulated and 
scarcely pubescent. 

Genus Cidaeia. 

CiDAEiA PYEAMAEiA, Gucnee, n. s. 

Media. Alee anticcd lignicolores,fasciolis quinque undatis strigaque 
ohliqua apicali alhidis : posticce pallide ochracea, immaculatcs, lineoUs ter- 
minalibus nigris : siihtus albidcs, macidis basalibus discalibusque seriatim 
dispositis fuscis. Antennce pectinatce. 

Perhaps the prettiest species of the genus. Superior wings divided by wavy 
and toothed bands, alternately white and wood-brown, these last palo and dark ; 
on the third white band is a black cellular dot touching the brown band ; the fourth, 
which in reality borders the median space, is more sinuous than the others ; the 
last, or sub-terminal, is toothed in a nearly regular manner, and is traversed, be- 
neath the apex, by an oblique white streak j fringe interrupted with whitish and 
blackish, and preceded by black marks : inferior wings pale uniform silky yellow, 
the fringe, which is interrupted, separated by well-defined little black marks ; the 
under-side of these wings is dirty white, from the base proceed two brownish waves, 
of which the second is deeply divided as far as the cellular dot, afterwards is a 
series of smaller waves, also brown, shaded with white exteriorily. Abdomen 
marked with indistinct geminated black dots. Antennae furnished with long and 
very slender pectinations. 



94 



[September, 



CiDARiA BULBULATA, Guenee, n. s. 

Statura vix C. interrupted. Alee anticce lignicolores, variegatcBy lineis 
qyuatuor alhis sinuafis, tertia gemina angulata ; punetis numerosis termi- 
7ialihus nigris : posticce lutece, immaculatce : subtm omnes liitece, absque 
lineis, posticce puncto cellulari serieque media punctulorum nigris. 

I have seen only the female, which is one of the smallest of the genus ; but 
the male is no doubt larger. 

Superior wings wood-brown, varied with pale and dark ; the fringe ooncolorous, 
preceded by small geminated black dots ; there are four white linos, the two first 
parallel and somewhat angulated, the third forming a band, divided by an interrupted 
white thread and followed by another very slender brownish line, the fourth simple, 
continuous and slightly shaky, no sub-apical line : inferior wings dark ochreous- 
yellow without any line, and simply with black terminal markings : under-side of 
all the wings ochreous-yellow without markings, excepting that on the inferior there 
is a little cellular dot, and a series of very small and distant black dots. Abdomen 
grey with several black atoms. 

CiDAEiA DELicATTJLATA, Gruenee, n. s. 

Statura C.silaceatce: alee anticce Juscm,lineolis multisparallelisallidis, 
spatio medio lato furcula alhida nervulari diviso, macula apicali pallida : 
posticce ochracece immaculatce ; suhtus rufescentes,punctulo cellulari lineo- 
laque media dentatafuscis. Abdomen immaculatum, 

I have only the female of this pretty species, conspicuous for its delicate 
markings. It is almost of the size of the European C. silaceatay but has the cut of 
the Australian species. 

Superior wings slightly falcate at the apex, pale brown varied with black 
markings ; the two principal nervures are tinged with whitish, and the median 
forms a little fork in the median space, which is very broad, and enclosing several 
black markings (of which the lower ones tend to form rings), and also the cellular 
marking, which is bordered all round with whitish ; on each side of the median 
space is a fascia formed of very slender, undulating, parallel, and closely placed, 
whitish lines, at the base are two other lines, almost straight and distant, and 
on the terminal space is a fine line, which is continuous, and descends from a 
broad triangular apical spot ; little geminated black dots, encircled with pale grey, 
precede the fringe, but without touching it : posterior wings dirty ochreous, the 
fringe silky, and preceded by scarcely evident little grey triangular spots j the 
under-side of these wings is tinged with rosy, with traces of parallel lines, of which 
one, median, is formed of little slender blackish arcs. Body concolorous, without 
dots or lines. 

Genus Helastia, Gueu6e, nov. gen. 
Antennae of the rather short, furnished with long, robust, but 
very distant, pubescent pectinations. Palpi very scaly, hairy, connivent 
in form of a beak, acute. Abdomen and legs as in Scotosia. Wings 



18G8. ) 



95 



broad, entire : the superior pair acute at the apex, the lines sliglitly 
sketched : inferior pair with scarcely distinct lines, the uervures not 
punctated : neuration of Scotosia. 

I establish this new genus on a small New Zealand species, which 
is not larger than an Eupitkecia, but which has the aspect of a Scotosia, 
although the pectinated antenna) and entire wings distinguish it at first 
sight. 

Helastia eupitheciaeia, Guenee, n. s. 
Statura Eupithecice impuratce. Alee cano-grisece, fimhria concolori : 
anticcd fasciis tribus incompletis denticu/atis pimctoque cellulari nigris : 
posticce concolores lineolis vice distinct is : suhtus anticce nigricanteSj posticce 
alhida lineis duahus denticulatis pimctoque nigris. 

Size of Eii/pitUecia impurata. Superior wings greyish-white, with an olivaceous 
tinge ; three parallel sinuated and toothed blackish bands, rather well marked as 
far as the middle of the wing, but becoming afterwards indistinct ; the third is the 
best marked and the most sinuated ; the sub-terminal is only indicated by slight 
groups of atoms ; the cellular dot very small ; fringe concolorous, preceded by in- 
distinct geminated dots : inferior wings paler and more whitish, above with only 
traces of gi'eyish lines, but beneath there are two sinuated and toothed median 
lines, and a cellular dot, rather well marked, on a pale, sometimes white, ground 
colour, while this side of the superior wings is suffused with blackish-grey. Body 
concolorous ; abdomen with ill-defined, blackish, geminated dots. 

I have already described the antennae of the <J j the only ? I possess has lost 
them ; it resembles the S . 

Chateaudun, 1868. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS ACIDALIA, WITH DESCRIPTION OF THE LARVA 
OF A. HOLOSERICATA* &c. 

BY REV. J. HELLINS, M.A. 

To Mr. A. E. Hudd, of Clifton, I am indebted for the opportunity 
of watching the earlier stages of another Acidalia, viz., holosericata ; 
and his kindness is the more thankworthy, in that he supplied me with 
eggs three years in succession, until I could succeed in breeding the 
moths. "Whilst engaged with this species, I took in hand some others, 
hisetata, scutulata, and interjectaria (as we must now call what used to 
pass in this locality for osseata), and made notes of their various stages ; 
also imitaria and immutata, but having described these before, I now go 
no further with them than the egg. 

• It does not please one's sense of the fitness of things to see the two forms of the same word, 
Holosericata and S^xxbsericeata, standing so close to one another in our lists, but I have not thought 
myself at liberty to insert the e in the former after receiving the following information from Mr. 
Doubleday: — "I suppose Holosericata was the name given to this species by Duponchel, but I think 
" it was probably written so in mistake for Holosericeata ; the synonymes stand thus in Dr. Staudinger's 
" Catalogue : ' ^'o. 78, Holosericata Dup. iv., p. 109, pi. 59, 7. 

Gn. I. 468, Holosericearia H. S. 80—81.' 
" This is all the information I can give you on the subject."— J. H. 



96 



[September, 



I confess I am not satisfied with what I have done about the egga. 
More careful labour with the microscope than is in my power to bestow 
is needed to make good work here : I should like the micrometer to be 
brought into use for the more accurate comparison of dimensions, and 
a good equipment of condensers and reflectors will be required to make 
quite sure of the colouring and markings of the surface ; and, after all, 
I fancy it will be found that while certain genera — Ennomos and Acidalia 
for example — furnish interesting studies in this stage, there are others in 
which the allied species cannot be safely distinguished in the egg. 

The eggs of holosericata reached me July 17th, 1867 ; larviE hatched 
on the 25th. They fed on the rock rose, Helianthemum vulgar e, and their 
habit was to congregate three or four together near the bottom of a 
shoot, strip it for some distance of its bark or skin, and then feed on 
the withered leaves at the tip of the shoot as it hung down : but of 
course I cannot say whether in nature they are to be found singly or in 
company. They ceased feeding during the winter, and were at all times 
very sluggish and quiet in their habits. They moulted for the last 
time about the end of March, spun up during May, and the moths ap- 
peared June 20th to 29th, 1868. 

Interjectaria. — Eggs obtained here July 12th, 1867 ; others sent 
me by Mr. Brown, of Cambridge, July l7th: larvae hatched on 24th 
and 26th : fed on dandelion and scarlet pimpernel, prefering withered 
leaves, and indeed would eat almost anything withered : spun up in 
May, 1868, and moths appeared June 24ith to 29th. 

Scutulata. — Eggs laid July 12th, 1867; larvae hatched on 17th, ate 
withered dandelion, and in the spring seemed very fond of a mouldy 
slice of turnip, which had been put into their flower-pot to catch an 
intruding slug: spun up during May and June; moths out June 8th 
to July 2nd 

Bisetata. — Eggs sent me by Mr. Doubleday July 26th, 1867 ; larvae 
hatched on 30th ; fed on Polygonum aviculare, and withered bramble 
leaves ; spun up in May ; moths out June 20th to 25th. 

The egg of holosericata is almost barrel-shaped, and perhaps more 
evenly flattened at the ends than any other of the Acidalice ; it is 
covered with a coarser reticulation than interjectaria, and in colour is 
decidedly yellow. 

Interjectaria— the egg is flattened at either end, but not so de- 
cidedly, the reticulation finer, the colour pinkish. 

Scutulata — rather longer in sliape, one end flattened, the other more 
conical, covered with minute pits or depressions ; colourwhitish, mottled 
with brownish-pink. 



1808.] 



97 



Bisetata — obtusely oval iu outline, not quite cylindrical, but rather 
depressed ; irregularly covered with fine shallow reticulation ; colour 
salmon-pink, with large spots of deeper tint. 

Immutata—a long cylindrical shape, flat at one end, more conical 
at the other, strongly ribbed, with transverse reticulation ; colour pale 
buff, speckled with strawberry-pink. 

Imitaria — somewhat pear-shaped, but flattened at the smaller end ; 
strongly ribbed, and irregularly reticulated between ; colour glistening 
white, with small blotches of delicate pink. 

The larva of liolosericata belongs to the shorter type of Acidalia, 
and is perhaps the plainest in dress of all this very plain family. "When 
full-grown, the length is a little over half-an-inch, in figure tapering 
considerably towards the head, which is small and notched, tucked 
under when at rest, thrown forward when in motion ; skin most wonder- 
fully wrinkled and warted, the warts being on the wrinkles, and so 
arranged that they form on the back a double ridge on each segment, 
which contracts to a single median ridge at each fold, and another more 
prominent ridge at the spiracles ; the segmental divisions very decidedly 
cleft ; bristles short and clubbed : the larva feels very stiflT and firm ; 
when disturbed it curls in the front segments in the same plane with 
the rest of the body, and not on one side, a^ the longer Acidalia do. 
In colour it varies little throughout its growth, being generally a veiy 
muddy reddish-brown, but just after moulting almost black, the mark- 
ings few and indistinct: the hinder^ segments are somewhat paler than 
the rest of the body, the segmental folds are darker : there is a paler 
dorsal line edged with black threads, which show most distinctly on 
the hind segments ; and the dorsal ridges are paler than the ground. 

When full-fed the larvae retired into some sandy soil to undergo 
their pupation. 

Interjeetaria. — This is also one of the short, stiff larvae, in figure 
much like holosericata. "When full-grown, length about half-an-inch ; 
tapering towards head, which is small, notched, and moveable : skin 
very rugose, and ridged with warts not quite so prominent as those of 
Jiolosericata ; bristles slightly clubbed. Colour a brownish-grey, hinder 
segments paler ; a pale dorsal line with dark edges interrupted at the 
four middle folds by a whitish dot, behind which comes a black X, the 
arms of which reach beyond the dorsal ridges of warts ; the spiracular 
ridge is paler than the ground, below it some oblique blackish dashes. 
Pupa in a cocoon just below the surface of the fine soil. 



98 



r September, 



Scutulata — though still belonging to the stifFer type, is yet an 
advance toward the other ; being more slender and elongated in form, 
while still retaining the spiracular ridge, the great rugosity of skin, 
and the tapering to the head. When full-grown, about three-quarters 
of an inch long ; slender, flattened, front segments more rounded, head 
notched and moveable ; the front and hinder segments very short, so 
that the legs appear as if placed close together at either extremity. 
In repose it keeps the front segments bent down, but the head and 
neck turned up again, in an uncomfortable-looking attitude, suggestive 
of a "crick" in the neck. Colour pale ochreous, a brown double 
dorsal line, showing strong on the head, faint on the front segments, 
confluent and strongly marked behind ; a brown sub-dorsal line, very 
plain and strong on the head to the fourth segment, then almost lost 
till it becomes strongly marked again on the hinder segments, but its 
place is marked at the segmental folds by a pair of dots ; on segments 
5 to 9 pale brown oblique dashes reaching from the dorsal to below the 
sub-dorsal line ; the spiracles black, placed on a whitish ridge ; belly 
darker than the back, being suffused with blackish, some darker dashes 
under the spiracles, and a darker, irregular central line. 

These larvae formed compact little cocoons in the sand, and one 
bit up a piece of paper, and made itself a very neat little envelope. 

Bisetata. — Putting imitaria in its place as the lengthiest of the 
Acidalia larvae, and rusticata as the stumpiest, hisetata seems to occupy 
a middle station, and, as far as I have seen, to form the connecting 
link between the two forms ; being more slender and of more uniform 
bulk than the short larvae, and more rugose than the long ones. 

When full-grown, length about three-quarters of an inch, in form 
slightly flattened, slender, tapering very gently towards the head, 
which is notched, and scarcely smaller than second segment ; skin 
rugose; bristles slightly clubbed; position in repose something like 
that of scutulata. The colour is variable ; I think I have seen three 
good varieties. 1. Ground colour dingy drab, warmer on the back, 
and duller below ; the six segmental folds between 4 and 10 showing 
as broad blackish-brown bands round the body, and shaped on the back 
by some dark oblique dashes, which reach to the spiracles, into a sort 
of broad, clumsy A, pointing forward ; there is a double dark brown 
dorsal line to be traced where the ground in the middle of each segment 
allows it to be seen. 2. This variety was so dark on the back that the 
segmental folds were no darker than the ground, but the space between 
the double dorsal lines was distinctly paler throughout, and the oblique 



1868.J 



99 



dashes, which in the first variety, outlined the As, could still be traced. 
3. A pale variety sent to Mr. Buckler by Mr. G. T. Porritt, of Hudders- 
field. Ground colour pale ochreous ; the broad bands wanting : the 
double dorsal line very fine, most distinct at the folds, the sub-dorsal 
line and the oblique dashes fine also, all brown in colour ; under the 
spiracles a clouded, irregular, blackish stripe, shading off to the pale 
grey of the centre of the belly, with some oblique dashes. 

The pupa, as in the other species, just under the surface of the 
fine, loose soil. 

Exeter : Mj, 1868. 



Localities for Mesites Tardii. — From the editorial note appended to Mr. Wilkin- 
son's recent communication about Mesites Tardii, I imagine that a list of the 
localities of this species may not be uninteresting. Accordingly I send a few notes 
with reference to such of them as have come under my individual notice. The first 
specimens I possessed were said to have been taken in Ireland, but I know not in 
what part, or by whom they were taken. Afterwards I had a large series from my 
friend Mr. E. C. Buxton, taken by him out of a holly-tree, at Sheringham Park, 
Norfolk, many years ago. The first specimens I saw from the north were some 
brought to me by the same gentleman, who had found them abundant, but dead, in 
an ash-tree in the grounds of Furness Abbey. The year afterwards I took a single 
specimen (a very small one) when sweeping in the woods on Bound way Hill, 
Devizes. 

In the spring of 1865, my friend Mr. Edleston and I went to spend a few days 
at Grange, near Lancaster; after tea on the evening of our arrival we set out for a 
short walk, and had not gone many yards from the inn, when Mr. Edleston stooped 
down to examine an old stump of a tree built into the wall, close to the church, and 
from it produced a fine specimen of Tardii. I returned to the inn for our diggers, 
and we soon found other specimens ; but the position of the stump prevented our 
doing much, so we proceeded on our walk, and were astonished on our return to 

the stump had disappeared, its place being filled with stone. On reaching our 
sitting-room we found two immense hampers on the table, containing the portions 
of the stump ; a kind Mend, who had heard of our trouble, having planned this 
surprise for us. On splitting up the logs we found M. Tardii in great numbers 
Thei'e was another ash-tree much perforated, and no doubt containing the beetle, 
but the large black ants had also effected a lodging there, making examination 
unpleasant. 

My next acquaintance with this species took place at Beaumaris, Anglesea ; 
where I met with it plentifully in the roots and stumps of several ash-trees ; it was 
also ahundant in trees near Nant, and on the north-west of the island. Mr. Buxton 
has since met with it near Capel Curig, and I found a stump of ash this year near 
Llanrwst, containing some broken, dead specimens. Omitting the Irish locaHty, of 
which I know nothing, this will give at least seven distinct localities extending from 
Wiltshire to Lancashire, and from the east coast of Norfolk to the island of Anglesea 
on the west. — Joseph Sidebotham, Beech Grove, Bowdon, 1st August^ 1868. 



100 



[September, 



[The locality given by Stephens is Powerscourt Falls, Ireland, in holly. It has 
been taken in profusion at Killarney by Mr. E. Birchall, and conimonly at Mount 
Edgcumbe, Plymouth, by Mr. T. V. Wollaston.— E. C. K.] 

Addition of eight species of Coleoptera to the British list. — The following names of 
beetles are entitled to a place in our catalogue, though they do not at present 
appear therein : — 

1. Meligethes suhrugosus, Sturm. ; Er., Ins. Deutsch., iii, 178, 10. 

A species remarkable for the transverse striae of the elytra, occurring in Germany 
and Sweden. Found by mo on the banks of the Water of Ken, in Galloway. 

2. Aphodius scrofa, Fab. ; Er., Ins. Deutsch., iii, 85, 44. 

This insect has a very wide distribution in Europe ; and is given as a British 
species in Stephens' works. But no specimens having occurred of late years, it has 
been rejected from our recent Catalogues ; unjustly, however, for Mr. Sidcbotham 
took a specimen two or three years ago at Southport. Though a very distinct and 
remarkable species, it is small, and might be easily overlooked. 

3. Trachys troglodytes, Schon. ; Kies., Ins. Deutsch., iv, 109, 3. 

Closely allied to the rare T. pygmceus, but of a different colour and form, and at 
once to be distinguished from that species by the furrow on the front of its head 
being continued to the margin of the thorax. It occurs on the Continent and in 
Sweden, but is generally rare. I captured a specimen about three miles from 
Tliornhill, in a marshy place, during March of the present year. The family 
Buprestidce was before only represented in Scotland by a single species, AgriVus 
viridis ; a sad contrast to the thirty-one species Sweden possesses. 

4. Cryptohypnus sahulicola, Boh. ; Thomson, Sk. Col. vi, 113. 

This remarkably fine species cannot be confounded with any at present in our 
lists. It is, however, pretty closely allied to C pulchellus, from which it can be 
distinguished by the following characters : — 

C. sahulicola is very much larger, the posterior angles of the thorax are shorter, 
and are not in the least directed outwards, the raised line commencing at the 
posterior angle only extends about one-third the length of the thorax, and the 
sculpture of the thorax is much coarser, especially on the disc. The deep furrows 
with which the elytra are ornamented reach to the apex. 

Hitherto C. sahulicola has occurred only in Sweden, and there rarely ; it 
appears to have been unknown to Kiesenwetter at the time of publication of the 
Insecten Deutschlands, and it finds no place in the last edition of Schaum's Cata- 
logue of European Coleoptera. I have taken twelve specimens on the banks of the 
Nith here, but only after many days' unprofitable searching for it. The first speci- 
mens I found in some heaps of flood refuse, and have since, at different times, 
found a specimen or two at large. Mr. W. Lennon has also found two specimens 
on the banks of the river at Dumfries. It is not only very rare, but most diflSicult 
to secure when seen, for it is very wary, but most active. 

5. Phratora cavifronSy Thoms., Sk. Col., viii, 278. 

Distinguished from P. vulgatissima by its smaller size, regularly striated elytra, 
different male characters, &c. : from P. vitellvna^ by the long antemiao, more oblong 



1868. 



101 



form, and the broad excavation on the front of the head. It is, I believe, not 
uncommon, though it is difficult to understand how we can have confounded it 
with our other two species. Thomson restores Kirby's name, Phyllodecta, for 
the genus. 

6. Aleocliara lygcea, Kraatz, 

I sent, last winter, a specimen of this insect as an Aleochara new to us, to Mr. 
Crotch, when he informed me that he had two specimens of it already in hia 
collection, and that it agreed with a specimen of Aleochara hfgcea he had received 
from Dr. Kraatz : this latter specimen he kindly sent for my inspection, and a 
comparison left me no doubt as to the specific identity of the specimens. Having 
all the appearance of A. moesta, A. lygcsa is closely allied to A. lanuginosa^ but has 
the abdominal segments throughout densely punctured, and one or two other 
differences of foi-m and structure not very easy to appreciate. I have found it very 
rarely in this neighbourhood. 

7. OxypodafiavicomiSf.Kv., Ins. Deutschlands, ii, 185. 

Of this species I have two specimens which I captured among decaying fir 
branches on the Pinkard Hills, late in the autumn of 1864. 

8. PhilontTms nigriventris, Th,, Sk. Col., ix, 147. 

Near P. cephalotes, but smaller, darker coloured, and with very thickly punc- 
tured elytra. It has the colour of P. sordAdus, but cannot be confounded with that 
species on account of the close punctuation of the elytra. I have found it sparingly 
here in a dead partridge, and also in a heap of cut grass in the garden, in company 
with P. addenduSf mihi, and twenty-two other species of the genus. — D. Sharp, 
Thomhill, Dumfries, August Zrd, 1868. 

Occiim-ence of Attagenus megatoma, Fab.^ in London. — Seeing that this insect is 
found in almost all parts of Europe, and in Syria, North America, the West Indies, 
Madeira, Gomera (Canaries), &c., I have often wondered that it has not been 
detected in this country ; especially as it is of domestic habits, Uke its congener, 
pellio, and others of its allies in our lists which have no better claims to be con- 
sidered as truly indigenous. 

In July last I caught a male specimen of it in Finsbury Circus, London. 

Its average smaller size, narrower shape, entirely unspotted surface, and (ia 
the male) the very long apical joint to its antennae, at once separate it from the 
common A. pellio. — T. V. Wollaston, Teignmouth, August, 1868. 

Capture of Malthodes fibulatus, Kies. — I took three specimens of Malthodes 
fihulatus (named for me by Mr. G. E. Crotch) by beating, at Mickleham, in the 
middle of May last. — G. C. Champion, 274, Walworth Eoad, London, S., 22nd 
July, 1868. 

New locality for Malthodes fibulatus. — On the 15th May last I took two speci- 
mens of this beetle, by sweeping, at Headley Lane, near Mickleham, which I believe 
to be a new locality for the species.— -J. G. Maksh, 842, Old Ktnt Read, S.E., 
August, 1868. 



102 



[September, 



Notes on Northern British Lepidoptera. — The following account of an entomo- 
logical expedition may be interesting, as it relates to a district of Great Britain 
farther north than the usual range of Lepidopterists, and records the capture of 
various insects in a higher latitude than they have yet been stated to occur, so far 
as I know, as well as of some that deserve notice on account of their rarity. 

The campaign commenced in the Shetland Islands, on 30th May, a time at 
which the night, so-called, is not dark enough there to tempt nocturnal insects 
abroad. 

In the hotel where I stayed I remarked the upstart CEcophora pseudo-spretella 
with its ubiquitous companion End. fenestrella, and those were the only Lepidoptera 
I met with on the mainland. On the Wart of Bressay, a fiae bold hill on the island 
from which it takes its name, I was more successful, as Ananrta melanopa occurred 
not uncommonly ; doubtless this species is abundant there, for during my visit it 
could only be obtained by being beaten from the heather, — the weather being 
eminently unfavourable for day-flying insects. Atnphisa Oerningiana fi'equents 
the same locality, accompanied by Anchyl. unguicana. 

Bidding farewell to these barren and treeless islands, I landed at Aberdeen 
early in June, and proceeded into Ross-shire, where I found the aspect of tho 
country much more promising for entomological results. The south-eastern part 
of the county is very mountainous, and richly wooded with pine, birch, and oak. 
The fertile spots are, however, oases (large ones certainly) in the midst of as bleak 
a district as I have ever seen, and the mountains differ from the prolific summits 
of Perthshire by being extremely dry, — resembling in this respect almost all the 
northern Scotch mountains. The climate is, I am informed, remarkably equable 
and mild, and this may account for the occurrence of some of the insects presently 
to be named. I was fortunate enough to have the companionship of Dr. White of 
Perth, well-known for his researches in Scotch Entomology and Botany, with whom 
I spent some of the pleasantest days I can remember. 

Of the butterflies, few occurred deserving of notice. Argynnis Euphrosyne 
and Selene were both common, and Cynthia cardui and Thcmaos Tages were 
occasionally met with, besides others well known in northern localities. 

The long-protracted twilight rendered "sugaring" a laborious process, but we 
persevered on twenty evenings during little more than three weeks, the moths 
generally beginning to fly about 11 p.m., so that the time of reaching home 
again was about 1.30 a.m. Usually about eighty trees presented the sweet 
allurement, and the general character of the weather was favourable, — cloudy 
and warm with westerly winds, though they were often stronger than I quite 
like them to be. The result I consider satisfactory, as the average number of 
guests at the feast cannot have been less than a hundred and fifty. Cymatophora 
duplaris was not uncommon, and C. or put in an occasional appearance. Of the 
genns Acronycta there were the following : — leporina, megacephala (which has been 
stated not to occur in Scotland), ligustri (in large numbers), and menyanthidis. 
Mamestra anceps, the only representative of its genus, visited the sugar freely. Of 
the Noctuidce many species occurred, — the best being Rusina tenehrosa (in immense 
numbers), Agrctis porphyrea, Noctua augur (nearly black), trianguliim (a scarce 
Bpccios in Scotland), brunnea (very common), and hella. The Hadenidce proved the 
most numerous family, the following being taken : — Ihi^plexia hicipara (extremely 



1808. 



108 



abundantly), Aplecta occulta (four or five) and tincta (very commonly), Hadena 
adusta (in vast numbers), contigua (commonly), and rectilinea (sparingly). Besides 
those named, many species less noteworthy occurred, in all about forty, and various 
"casuals," as Macaria notata, several Eupithecioe, groat numbers of Boarmia, 
repcmdata (which came as steadily as any Noctv/x), and numerous Tortrices and 
TinecB. 

The sides of the hills, near rivers, proved the best ground for collecting by 
day. Some of these wore thickly covered with fine birch woods mingled with 
sallows and poplars, and here many insects were to bo found, notably the fol- 
lowing: — Acronyctaleporina (on treo trunks, &c,), ikfacana notata (rather commonly, 
but always on birch), J.spiiaies strigilla/ria, Ephyra pendularia, Cidaria psitticaria, 
Platypteryx lacerti7iaria, Drepana falcataria^ Antithesia corticana aud praelongandy 
Anchylopera ramana, Phlosodes immundana, Mixodia palustrana, Lithocolletis vi- 
nunetorum, &o. Higher up, where the ground was covered knee-deep with heather, 
Euthemonia russwJa flew madly about, with occasional specimens of J.rcim plam,taginis. 
Eudorea atomalis and murcma, Antithesia similana, Anchylopera unguicana, Eupoe- 
cilia suhroseana, and other species, wore also located in the same parts. 

Not far from Contin, there are some large fields of broom and furze, which 
produced several interesting results, especially Chesias [ohliqtiaria ; of this, three 
or four specimens occurred at dusk, flying slowly over the bushes. DepressaHa 
assimilella was there in profusion, as also Cemiostoma spartifoliella and Dicrorampha 
plumhagana^ — the latter finding its food, no doubt, in the undergrowth at the foot 
of the broom. 

In meadows we met with Emmelesia alchemillata and Orthotcenia antiquan<i, 
and a few specimens of Adela fihulella, with many common Tortrices ; while oak 
woods produced Halias prasinana and Tischeria complanella, — the latter in pro- 
fusion. Of the former I took a most remarkable variety, in which the green colour 
was replaced by pale sulphur, giving the insect so unusual an aspect, that, when seen 
flitting along in the twilight, it greatly resembled Rumia cratcegata. 

Fir woods contained their usual inhabitants, Ellopia fasciaria and Macaria 
liturata, with infinite swarms of Melanippe hiriviata and a few tristata. 

Many species frequented flowers at dusk ; the most attractive blossoms being 
those of Lychnis, nettle and honeysuckle. Among other insects, Plusia pulchrina 
and Abrostola urticce were common ; but the rest formed a party more numerous 
than select. 

About fern-covered slopes on hills Hepialus velleda was common at dusk ; 
Lithosia mesomella occurred near the River Blackwater; Cleora lichenaria in 
various places ; Fidonia hrunneata near Contin ; Larentia coesiata in various places ; 
L. salicaria on Ben Wyvis ; Coremia mxmitata near Loch Achilty ; and Coleophora 
alhicosta in several localities. In my room (Ecophora minutella was not scarce. 
High up on various hills Antithesia sauciana was to be taken freely ; and on an 
elevated marshy spot Ewpithoeda pumilata was in extreme abundance, — I think I 
never before saw a small piece of ground so perfectly " alive " with a single'species. 
On the same spot PUsia festiicce was to be taken in the pupa state. 

The principal larvae that occurred were Cheimatohia horeata, Thera juniperata, 
and Chesias spartiata. 

On the whole the country seems very productive of insects, and repays a visit 



104 



(September, 



as well by entomological results as by the rugged grandeur of its scenery. The 
general type of Lepidoptera appeared less boreal than might have been expected. 
Truly northern species were generally in small numbers, while many decidedly 
southern occurred— usually in profusion. — Thos. Blackburn, Southfields, Wanda- 
worth, S.W. 

Notes on Scottish Lepidoptera, Sfc. -^Macaria notata in Scotland. — This insect, 
not hitherto, I believe, recorded as a Scottish species, has turned up in this northern 
district. As far as I am aware, it is not found even in the north of England, per- 
haps not farther north than Staflfordshire. I should be glad of information on this 
point. 

Fidonia pinetaria (hrunneata) has, to the best of my knowledge, only been 
found at Rannoch. This district is a second British locality for this very local 
species. It is not uncommon in this neighbourhood. 

TricJiius fasciatus also occurs here, and has, I suppose for the jBrst time, been 
bred. I reared a specimen from a pupa found under the bark of a fallen birch-tree, 
on the wood of which tree the larva probably feeds. I have also bred Quedius 
Icevigatus and Pissodes pini from pupae found under bark of pine trees. 

The following additions and corrections are necessary to my note of the 
Lepidoptera at Rannoch, last year : — 

The larvae of " Acronycta myricce ?" produced only A. menyanthidis. Additional 
species are, Ceropacha or, bred from pupa found at a poplar. Hadena gla/tica bred. 
Eupithecia assimilata bred from larvae found on black currant. — F. Buchanan 
White, M.D., Achilty, Dingwall, Rosshire, July, 1868. 

Deilephila lineata at Torquay. — Yesterday, at dusk, I h ad the good fortune 
to capture Deilephila lineata, in perfect condition ; it was hovering over the 
flowers of the common scarlet geranium in my garden. — Charles Grinstead, 
Torella, Torquay, July 20th, 1868. 

Captu/res of rare Lepidoptera. — The following list of rare and local species, 
which I have been fortunate enough to meet with in the course of a few spare days 
devoted to collecting Lepidoptera, seems to me to show that this has been a most 
unusual season. I only include in this list my captures up to the end of June. 

May 9th, Darenth Wood. Eupcecilia suhroseana ?, Buc. Dema/ryella, Nep. regiella, 
Rdslerstammia Erxlehella, &c., &c. 

May 15th and 16th, Norfolk. Meliana fiammea, Coccyx distinctana. Con. 
Smeathmanniana, and specimens of what may turn out to be a new species of 
EupcBciUa ; it seems to be intermediate between roseana and rufidliana ; &c. 

May 29th and 30th, Norfolk. ExvpcBcilia anthemidana, Phycis ahietella, &c., &c. 

June 6th and 8th, Norfolk. Acidalia ruhricata, Agrophila sulphuraUs, Spilodes 
sticUcalis, Eup. notulana, Ser. ? herhana, Oel. lathyri, and Qel. pictella, &c., &o. 

June 13th and 15th, Folkestone. T. chrysidiformis, T. Bondii, Eud. ingratella, 
Ser. euphorhiana, C. micrograrmnana, A. decemguttella, Eup. rupicola, larvae of O. 
hippophdeella, Ac, &c. 

June 20th, Norfolk. A. suhsei'iceata, Ac, inornata, Ar. cnicana, 0. reliquella 
1 specimen. 



1868. 



105 



Jnno 27th, Wicken Fen. M. a/rundinis, Ac. immutata, Hyria auroraria, Collix 
spa/rsata, Nascia cilialis, Bactra uliginosana, A. funerella, C. Lienigiella^ Qelechia 
suhdecurtellay suffusella, aud inornatella. 

I also bred If. Christiernana from larvae found at Shoreham, on May the 21st. — 
Thomas De Ghey, 23, Arlington Street, S.W., July 16th, 1868. 

Note on Dejpressaria suhpropinquella and D. rhodochrella. — I collected at Folke- 
stone, this year, on the 15th of June, a number of larvae Depressaria suhpropinquella, 
and from them bred a nice scries of the perfect insects : among them came out one 
specimen of Depressaria rhodochrella, with the very conspicuous dark head and thorax 
which distinguishes that supposed species. As there was nothing in the box in 
which my larva) were kept but thistle leaves, I think we must be satisfied that D. 
rhodochrella is only a variety of D. suhpropinquella. — Id. 

Acronycta alni near Manchestei . — Among other pupae obtained in the winter 
months was one of D. ahii, which produced an imago in the middle of June. — 
Joseph Leigh, 27, Tomlinson Street, ETulme, 16th July, 1868. 

B&ilephila lineata near Derhy. — A specimen of D. Uneata was brought to me 
alive on the 2nd of August, by my young friend Mr. F. Balgny, who lives about a 
mile from Derby. This is the first record of the species that has come to my 
knowledge in this neighbourhood. — Henry Evans, Darley Abbey, Derby. 

Deilephila Uneata in Kildare. — I captured, on Saturday evening last, a fine 
specimen of D. lineata ; it was hovering over Verbena flowers, at about 8 p.m. — 
John Douglas, Kilkea Castle, Kildare, l^th August^ 1868. 

Capture of an hermaphrodite Satyrus Semele. — It may interest the readers of the 
Magazine to learn that a fine example of hermaphrodite Satyrus Semele (right side 
<J , left 9 ) has been captured this season by Mr. James Garrett, on his garden 
wall, situated in the Woodbridge Koad, Ipswich. The species abounds on Kushmere 
Heath, some two miles from the spot ; and perhaps it may be open to conjecture 
if the peculiar organization of this specimen may explain its being found so far away 
from its home and relatives ? — Edward Hopley, 14, South Bank, Regent's Park, 
August 7th, 1868. 

Capture of Pieris Da/plidice near Margate. — While hunting Colias Hyah, Acontia 
hictuosa, and Aspilates citiaria, in the lucerne fields near Marsh Bay, Margate, last 
Wednesday, I captured a female specimen of this rarity. Unfortunately it is not in 
good condition. — Jui-ia E. Cox, West Dulwich, S., 6th August, 1868. 

Pieris Daplidice^ Argynnis Lathonia, Sfc, at Margate. — On the 27th July I 
started for a morning's ramble along the cliSs to the east of Margate. Just beyond 
the Newgate Coast-Guard Station there are some patches of lucerne, and I had 
hardly reached the first patch before I took a male C. Hyale. A high north-easterly 
wind had prevailed for some days previously, in spite of which I had on the Saturday 
taken a Hyale, the first I had ever captured or seen ahve, and my hope was that I 



106 



[September, 



might perhaps catch another, which led me to the lucerne patches. I did not 
then know that Hyale was so abundant this year. In Marsh Bay, about a mile 
and a-half to the west of Margate, I saw them flying by dozens, but by the 7th 
August they were so much worn as to be hardly worth catching. But to return to 
the morning of the 27th July. I had hardly boxed my first specimen of Hyale 
when I saw upon a spray of lucerne, just in front of me, a beautiful Argynnis Lathonia ; 
this I caught, and within ten minutes, and within a few yards of the same spot, I 
took a female Pieris Daplid/ice, a very fine specimen, measuring two inches across 
the wings. Both this and Lathonia were in splendid condition. I fancy it has not 
often fallen to the lot of a collector to take Hyale, Lathonia, and Daplidice within 
the space of half-an-hour. — Arthue Cottam, Stone Grove Cottage, Edgware, 
August IZth, 1868. 

Argynnis Lathonia at Ramsgate. — On the 7th of this month I captured A. 
Lathonia at the above locality. On the 30th ult. I found Lyccsna Corydon in Hyde 
Park. — W. G. Armstrong, 92, King's Road, Chelsea, August, 1868. 

Ca/ptwre of Agrotera nemoralis. — I captured a poor specimen of this rare insect 
on the 11th of June, at the same spot where I took one in 1866, as recorded in the 
Magazine [Vol. iii., p. 207].— "E. N. Bloomfield, Guestliug, August 10th, 1868. 

Sphinx convolvuli and Deilephila lineata at Ouestling. — On Thursday last I had 
brought to me a very fine specimen of S. convolvuli, which had flown into a house 
in an adjoining parish ; and this morning, just before day-break, I took D. lineata 
hovering at scarlet geranium flowers in my garden : the humming noise it made 
when flying was very marked. — Id. 

Chrosis euphorhiana bred. — I have much pleasure in recording the fact that I 
have lately been successful in rearing Chrosis euphorhiana, from larvas which I 
found feeding in the heart of Euphorbia amygdaloides in this neighbourhood, — 
W. PuRDEY, 15, Grove Terrace, Folkestone, August 13th, 1868. 

CoUas Hyale and Argynnis Lathonia at Colchester. — It will probably interest the 
readers of the " Entomologist's Monthly Magazine " to learn, that on Saturday last, 
August 15th, I captured in this neighbourhood one specimen of Colias Edusa, 
twelve of Colias Hyale, and one of Argynnis Lathonia. The Lathonia appeared to 
me, when it first settled down on a lucerne blossom before my astonished eyes, to 
be the freshest and loveliest specimen I had ever beheld ; but either this was my 
fancy, or else I must have been exceeedingly clumsy in capturing it, for after killing 
it, I found it was not in such good condition as I had hoped.— W. H. Harwood, 
St. Peter's, Colchester, August 17th, 1868. 

Abundance of Colias Hyale in 1868. — In some lucerne fields in the neighbour- 
hood of Gravesend I have found C. Hyale tolerably abundant this month. On the 
5th, being accompanied by a friend, fifty specimens, including several fine females, 
were taken between us, in the course af about two hours' collecting in the morning. 
C. EdAisa has also been plentiful. My friend, Mr. Howard Vaughan, has also taken 
both species in the same locality. — P. Basdkn Smith, Admiralty, Somerset House, 
15th August, 1868. 



1868.] 



107 



Cohas Uyale near Ramsgate. — On the 10th inst. my bi'othor captured, in a 
lucerne field situated between Ramsgate and Deal, 22 Colias Hyale (18 <J and 4 $ ), 
mostly in very fine condition. One ? has very fortunately desposited about 40 
ova. — Albert H. Jones, Eltham, Idth August, 1868. 

Deilephila lineata, Acronycta alni, ^c, in Sussex. — On some Ontario poplars 
which I had planted last spi'iug in a rough, heathy field, I found two young larvae 
of 0. bifida, which fed up well, and three eggs of the same, which, however, did 
not hatch. Walking through the same field on the 9th August, about one o'clock, 
I started a hawk-moth, which flew a few yards, and, on being captured, proved to 
be D. lineata, in good condition. A larva of A. alni was found in a wood near, and 
kindly given me by its finder, a few days before. — F. Merrifield, Belair, Cuckfield, 
mh August, 1868. 

Sphinx convohmli and Colias Hyale near Birmingham. — On August 8th a female 
Sphinx convohmli was brought me, w^hich had been found by a gardener near here, 
in a conservatory, probably attracted there by some Petunias. Yesterday morning 
(August 11th) I caught a fine specimen of Colias Hyale (male) flying gently in a 
clover field close at hand. Is it not very unusual for a maritime butterfly like this 
to be taken so far inland? — George H. Kenrick, Church Road, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham, ISth August, 1868. 

Acidalia emutaria at King's Lynn. — This pretty little species is still rather 
scarce in most collections, and few localities are known for it. Mr. E. L. King, of 
King's Lynn, met with one specimen last year, and this year has taken two, June 
23rd and 26th, about 9 p.m., in his garden, which is situated not far fi-om the salt 
marshes. The specimen captured by Messrs. Fenn and Jones, which furnished the 
eggs firom which the Rev. J. Hellins reared the larvae (see E. M. M., vol. iv., p. 88) 
was taken in a marshy locality. — H. T. Stainton, Mountsfield, Lewisham, July 
9th, 1868. 

Eupithecia consignata bred in Belgium. — When passing through Brussels last 
week, Dr. Breyer asked me the name of a Eupithecia he had bred ; I replied, 
" consignata," but immediately enquired from what he had bred it, and did he 
know the larva ? He replied that he did not know the larva, but had bred the 
moth from a pupa found under the bark of an apple-tree. At that time he and I 
were alike ignorant that the species had been already bred in this country. — Id. 

Note on doicble broods m hot seasons. — I had a full-grown larva of Sra&nnthus 
populi at the end of last June, which became a chrysalis during the first week in 
July, and was much surprised to find the perfect insect emerged yesterday. 

I do not suppose this is a singular instance, and quite expect to hear that many 
species which appear as early in the year as S. populi are this season exceptionally 
double-brooded. — A. H. Taylor, Folkestone, 3rd August. 

Occurrence of a Plusia new to Britain. — Mr. D'Orville has asked me to foi-ward 
to you a Plusia caught by him in his garden, and considered by us to be something 
new. — John Hellins, Exeter, August 21$t. 

The above is a fine example of Plusia ni, Engramelle. — H. G. K. 



108 



[September, 



Que>-y concerning Choerocam^a Elpenor. — A friend of mine had a larva, about an 
inch long, of C. Elpenor^ brought to him about three weeks since, which was found 
on log-beam near here. We afterwards found about twenty at the same spot, and 
also three or four feeding on bed -straw. I had four pupse from these, and this 
morning, to my surprise, two imagos had emerged. Has any other entomologist 
experienced this unusual occurrence ? 

My friend had a Smerinthus populi, apparently fresh from the pupa, given to 
him about a week since. Could this be from a last year's larva ? — A. Matthews, 
Oxford, August 5th, 1868. 

*#* We have no doubt that these insects pertained to a second brood, de- 
veloped through the unprecedented heat of the present summer. Similar instances 
constantly occur in hot seasons [vide preceding note]. — Eds. 

Description of the larva of Fidonia pinetaria, Huh. (hrunneata^ Steph.J. — In 
October, 1867, Mr. Buckler sent me five eggs of this species, which had been kindly 
given to him by Dr. Buchanan White, of Perth. On receiving them, I examined 
them carefully under my microscope, and made the following description : — 

The egg is oval in outline, but flattened, the upper-side being even depressed 
in the middle ; the whole surface covered with reticulations — generally hexagons, 
but some only pentagons, in shape ; and at each angle where the lines of the 
reticulation meet, there is a little raised bright white knob (a peculiarity I have 
not yet observed in any other egg), the whole egg looking as if set with tiny pearls, 
on a ground-colour of shining salmon-pink. 

About the end of February, 1868, the eggs grew darker, and between March 
2nd and 8th four larvas emerged, the fifth dying unhatched. After a little hesitation 
they began to eat buds of whortle-berry (7acciniummi/riiZlws), but somehow, within 
a few days, two of them died. The two survivors, however, grew on steadily ; and 
from being dark brown at their first appearance, after a moult or two began to 
assume a striped dress : the ground-colour was now pale grey — almost white ; the 
dorsal and supra- spiracular lines almost black, with an intermediate sub-dorsal line 
of brown j and the spiracular stripe tinged with yellow. 

About April 24th the larger of the two larvae seemed full-grown. At that 
time it was rather over half-an-inch in length, of uniform bulk, cylindrical, the head 
horny, the skin smooth, but puckered along the spiracles. The colomdng was 
disposed in a multiplicity of fine lines, which I now give in duo order. 

The dorsal line — widening in the middle of each segment — dark green, closely 
edged with almost black threads j then a thin white hne ; then the sub-dorsal line 
of pale pinkish-brown outlined with darker brown ; then another thin white line ; 
then three olive -brown lines (the middle one palest, and the lower one dai-kest), 
partly showing distinct, and partly run together, so as to form a stripe just above 
the spiracles. 

The spiracular line broad, white, but tinged with yellow in the centre of each 
segment. The belly of a dirty white, with some oblique dashes, and lines of brown. 

This larva went to earth at the end of April, and the moth from it appeared on 
June 1st. — J. Hellins, Exeter, June 23r(i, 1868. 



1868.] 



109 



NOTES ON THE EARLIER STAGES OF SOME SPECIES OF LITIIOSIDJE. 
BY THE REY. JOHN HELLINS, M.A. 

The lichen-feeding Lithosid(S are generally so troublesome to 
manage, that I feel a sort of satisfaction in announcing that I have this 
summer succeeded in obtaining the imago of four out of the five species, 
whose eggs last year came into my care. Not that I have very much 
to boast of, for although in the case of griseola I believe I stumbled upon 
one at least of its natural pabula, and so kept alive nearly twenty larvsB ; 
of the other species it was but a scanty remnant that appeared in the 
winged state, and mesomella perished before half grown. 

Lithosia molijhdeola (Gin.), sericea (Gregson). Mr. Doubleday 
most kindly transmitted to me some eggs he had received of this species, 
and by the time the parcel reached me (July 26tli, 1867,) the young 
larvre had appeared. Most of the brood must have soon perished, but 
the three which lived till September were tben about half-an-inch long ; 
and the two final survivors spun up before the end of May, and appeared 
as moths on July 3rd and 4th, 1868. 

I could never see that they ate any food I gave them freely ; but 
at difi"erent times I saw that they had eaten a little of various lichens 
from trees or banks, wall moss, withered sallow and oak leaves, slices of 
turnip and carrot, and knot grass, and they must have thriven as well 
as they would have if they had been at large, for the two bred moths 
were not at all smaller than captured specimens.* 

I noticed, not in this species only, but in all the LitJiosidce larvae I 
had, that the characteristic markings and tints were assumed very early 
— long before they had attained a quarter of their growth. 

When full-grown this larva is rather more than three quarters of 
an inch in length ; moderately stout, uniform in bulk ; head very hard 
and shining ; all the tubercles crowned with tufts of short hairs, mixed 
with a few longer ones ; of the dorsal tubercles the front pair are small, 
and the hinder pair very large. 

The ground colour, when seen between the tufts of hair, is a dead 
blackish-grey ; but the segmental folds are black ; there is a rich vel- 
vety, very black, dorsal stripe ; the sub- dorsal line, being broken on 
each segment by the hinder tubercle with its tuft of hair, must be 
rather called a row of elongated particoloured spots, each beginning on 
the hinder part of a segment, and continued across the fold into the 
next segment, until stopped by the tubercle ; the colours being white 



* I trust, from what Mr. Doubleday tells rae, that Mr. Greening has now a clue to the right food. 



110 



[October, 



for about half the spot, and the tint of a robin's red breast for the 
remainder, but owing to the position of the white portion so near the 
segmental fold, only the red hinder part of the spot is to be seen, except 
when the larvae is stretched out in walking ; on segments 2 to 4 these 
spots are altogether whitish ; immediately below comes another velvety 
black stripe, broadest at the centre of the body, and tapering consider- 
ably towards the head, but less so towards the tail ; just above the feet 
comes a greyish-ochreous interrupted stripe, edged on both sides with a 
dark brown line ; the tubercles and short hairs are brown, the longer 
ones black. 

The pupa stout, reddish-brown in colour ; enclosed in a very slight 
web of silk, under cover of a stone or piece of moss. 

Lithosia griseola. Eggs kindly sent to me by Mr. Doubleday, 
August 11th, 1867, larvae hatched August 15th ; by the end of Novem- 
ber nearly half-an-inch in length ; full grown during May, moths out 
June 14th to 27th, 1868. 

The larvae fed at first on withered leaves, especially delighting to 
riddle decaying sallow leaves full of holes ; but I saw them also eat a 
little clover, knot grass, and various lichens and mosses ; early in the 
spring they attacked vigorously some slices of turnip, but afterwards 
on attaining some size, they fed away steadily on Lichen caninus, which 
I have since learnt has been noticed to occur where the moth is most 
abundant, and no doubt forms part of the natural food of the larva. 

When full grown the length is quite an inch, the figure stout and 
uniform ; the head small ; all the tubercles tufted with stiff" hairs, which 
are short on the back, and longer on the sides, with a few of extra 
length on the second and thirtenth segments. 

The colour is a rich velvety blackish tint above, dingy blackish- 
brown below ; the central portion of the back is, however, to be dis- 
tinguished as a stripe of more intense black than the rest ; there is a 
sub-dorsal orange-ochreous stripe, which being interrupted by the tu- 
bercles appears on segments 4 to 12 as a row of wedge-shaped marks ; 
but on the 2nd segment there is no interruption, and on the 3rd the 
whole dorsal area is occupied by a large orange patch, bisected for a 
part of its length by the deep black dorsal line ; and on the 13th the 
sub-dorsal wedges are replaced by two large squarish marks ; the hairs 
are dark brown ; the head a most brilliant black. 

Some of the larvae had the orange marks very faint indeed ; and 
two of them had no orange marks at all, except on segments 2, 3, and 
13, thus presenting a good variety. 



1861] 



111 



The pupa short, stout, reddish-brown in colour, the anal segments 
still enveloped in the cast larva skin (I notice this to be the case with 
the other species also), enclosed in a thin web, in which bits of moss 
and lichen were sometimes inwoven, and placed under any protecting 
cover, such as a stone. 

The moths I bred were very fine, much larger than any I ever 
captured, and although varying somewhat among themselves in the 
depth of their grey tints, yet uoue of them were at all like stramineola. 

LitJiosia mesomella. On two or three previous occasions, I kept a 
larva or two alive from summer till after Christmas, having fed them on 
sallow leaves, green or decaying ; and last spring I managed to retain 
one even until the new sallow leaves were out again, but it would not 
resume feeding after hybernation, and so died ; it was then quite half- 
an-inch in length ; in colour a velvety-black all over, and covered on 
every segment, save the head and 2nd, with tufts of singular spatulate 
dark grey hairs. I should much like to procure some sort of food on 
which this species would feed up, for they would never take to any sort 
of lichen I gave them. 

Lithosia plumheola (complamdd) , I will only remark that the 
larva of this species assumes its lateral reddish-orange stripe at its first 
or second moult, when but little over a line in length ; also that it 
seems to feed and grow more slowly than the other species. 

Oalligenia miniata. Eggs obtained from a female captured July 
18th, 18t)7 ; the larvae hatched before the end of the month ; fed slowly 
but almost continuously till the end of May, by which time six out of 
nineteen survived to spin up ; the moths out June 19th — 30th. 

The food chosen at first was a sallow leaf, which had become damp 
and rotten by being kept in a glass stoppered bottle ; afterwards when 
placed outdoors in a flower-pot they ate withered oak and sallow leaves 
and various lichens ; in spring they nibbled the slices of turnip put in 
with them as traps for slugs, and at last settled down steadily to eat 
the red waxy tips of Lichen caninus, and fed up to quite full size on 
thisTood. In a state of nature I understand they are found feeding 
upon the lichens that grow on the boles of oak trees. 

The eggs of miniata are very diff*erent from the usual round pearly 
beads of the Lithosice, being more fusiform in shape, rich yellow in 
colour, and placed on end with great regularity at a little distance 
from each other in rank and file ; my batch of eggs was deposited in 
four rows, viz., three of five eggs each, and one of four. 



112 



[October, 



The larvae from the first were little dingy foggy -looking fellows, 
with a quantity of fine hair on their backs ; and although after the 
last moult their plumes became denser and darker than before, yet a 
description of the last stage is applicable throughout. 

"When full-grown, the length is a trifle over half-an-inch, the hairs 
that project before and behind making it look a little longer, the figure 
stout, uniform in bulk ; the skin very shining, but densely covered with 
plumes ; segments 2 and 13 are furnished only with short simple hairs, 
but the other segments have each six whorls of wonderful plumose 
verticillate hairs, those on 3 to 7 being full one-eighth of an inch 
high, and those on 8 to 1 2 a little shorter, while along the sides and 
just above the feet are tufts of plain hairs ; when looking at one of 
them in motion, I could not help mentally comparing it to an animated 
hearse with palish plumes. 

The colour of the skin, when it can be seen, is a waxy dark drab ; 
the plumes from the head to segment 7 are blackish mouse colour, and 
the rest a paler tint of the same. "When disturbed, the larva puts its 
nose and heels together, bending itself into a circle, with the tufts 
standing out apart. 

The cocoon is a long oval in shape, very slight but close in texture, 
the silk wonderfully interwoven with the cast-ofi" plumes stuck upright, 
so that whilst fresh and uninjured by rain it might at first sight be 
mistaken for the larva ; one which I watched in progress was com- 
pletely finished, so far as outward appearance went, in four-and-twenty 
hours. The pupa is short, reddish-brown in colour, the cast larva-skin 
adhering to the anal segments. 

Mr. Buckler kindly allows me to incorporate with my notes the 
following descriptions made by him of two other species of Lithosia, 
which he has lately figured from specimens supplied by the kind libe- 
rality of Mr. Machin. 

Litliosia helveola. Youv larva), not fiir from full growth, received 
on June 13th ; their food being a large coarse lichen growing on the 
bark of yew trees. In a few days they had spun rather loose cocoons, 
with a few grains of earth attached to the silk, on the under-side of the 
pieces of bark. The moths appeared July 2nd— Gth. 

AVhen full grown, the larva is nearly three quarters of an inch in 
length, moderately stout, with the posterior segments tapering slightly 
towards the tail. All the tubercles furnished with tufts of hair. 



1868. 



118 



The ground colour of the back varies — being pale grey, whitish- 
grey, or white ; and the colour of the sides and belly is grey, brownish- 
grey, or greenish-grey ; there is a sub-dorsal stripe of black, separating 
the white back from the grey sides, and itself interrupted by one of the 
hinder pair of tubercles on the back of each segment ; down the centre 
of the back run two black lines, which represent the dorsal stripe, ap- 
pearing united at the hinder end of all the segments, as well as on the 
front of all, except the last four, and interrupted through the middle of 
the others ; and between these lines and the sub-dorsal stripe comes 
another fine black line on the hinder half of each segment ; on the 4th 
segment the space between the dorsal lines is filled up with black, form- 
ing a conspicuous lozenge-shaped mark ; on the 8th segment is another 
black mark, but triangular in outline ; and on the 9th segment the sub- 
dorsal black stripe is interrupted by a white spot, which extends some- 
what into the grey colour of the side ; and along the side run two dark 
brownish interrupted lines ; the head is dark brownish-grey, lobed and 
freckled with black ; the tubercles are grey or brownish-grey, and the 
tufts of hair growing from them are of the same tint. 

Lithosia aureola. The larva received on 19th August feeding upon 
lichens attached to oak. 

This larva is very active in its habits ; not yet mature, being but 
little more than five-eighths of an inch in length, rather slender, and of 
nearly uniform thickness, but tapering very little posteriorly. The 
tubercles all tufted. 

The ground colour of the back is white, but this appears only as 
four white lines separating the black dorsal, intermediate, and broader 
sub-dorsal stripes ; and this pattern is interrupted at the 4th, 8th, and 
12th segments by dark brownish-black patches covering the back, and 
on the 4th and 12th looking almost like humps from the greater dense- 
ness of the tufts of hair ; and on the 9th segment the dorsal stripes 
are absent, leaving the whole area as a conspicuous whitish spot ; the 
sides, belly, and legs are brownish-grey ; the folds between segments 3 
and 4 are white ; there is a white spot just above the legs on the 3rd, 
and a white blotchy line similarly placed on the 4th ; the 2ntl segment 
is dark brown, with a reddish margin in front, and a longitudinal short 
streak from it of the same tint on the sub-dorsal region ; the dorsal 
tubercles of all but the three dark segments are orange-red, bearing 
brownish-grey hairs, the first of each dorsal pair being small in size, 
and the second behind very large, so as to project beyond the sub-dorsal 
stripe, on which they are placed, into the side, and behind each tubercle 



114 



LOctober, 



of this pair comes a white dot ; along the sides are two rows of similar 
tubercles, the lowest being just above the legs, thickly furnished with 
brownish-grey hairs ; a few hairs longer than the rest proceed from the 
thoracic and anal segments ; the head itself is blackish-brown. 

This species spins up in autumn, and passes the winter in the pupa 
state. 

Exeter : September Bth, 1868. 

P.S. — Eggs or larvse of complana or stramineola would be most ac- 
ceptable now. 



LIST OF CAPTURES OF HEMIPTERA IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA; 
TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 

BY J. W. DOUGLAS AND JOHN SCOTT. 

{Continued from page 68.) 

Section Capsina. 

Division Bicelluli. 

Family PITHANID^. 

Genus Pithands, Fieb. 

31. — Species Pithanus Marshalli, Doug. & Scott. 

( Forma incompleta ) Niger ; elytris membrana carentihus, clavo indis- 
tincto, corio valde abbreviato, postice rotundato, margim antico posticoqiie 
dilute stramineis ; pedibus dilute piceis, coxis nigris, apice fiavido ; antennis 
nigris, articulo primOf bad excepto, dilute stramineo, secundo lurido. 

Long. 2^ lin. 

Undeveloped form black. 

Head shining ; between tlie eyes two short, transverse, oblique, brownish-yellow 
streaks. Antennce clothed with very short hairs ; 1st joint pale yellowish- 
white, base black ; 2nd pale fuscons -yellow, base and apex somewhat darker ; 
3rd and 4th black, base of the 3rd fuscons-yellow ; behind each eye, on the 
under-side, a yellowish spot. Rostrum yellowish, 1st joint and the apex nar- 
rowly piceous. 

Thorax — Pronotum with a faint central keel, disc next the anterior margin flattened 
into a somewhat collar shape, finely wrinkled transversely, and with a deep 
depression on each side of the centre in a line with the inner margin of the 
eyes, posteriorly very much constricted ; the central portion sub-globose, with a 
puncture in the middle on each side of the central keel. Scutellum convex in 
front, flattened posteriorly and veiy finely wrinkled transversely. Elytra 
abbreviated, only covering the Ist segment of the abdomen. Clavus flat, not 
distinct from the corium. Corium rounded posteriorly, the entire anterior and 
posterior margins yellowish-white, broadest at the basal angle. Sternum 
black. Prosternwm xyphus, at the apex brown. Legs brownish-yellow. Coxae 



1863. 



115 



black, apex yellow. Thighs, 3rd pair at the base on the undor-side piceous, 
each pair with two longitudinal rows of piceous spots on the upper, and one 
on the under-side. Tihice yollowisli, clothed with long, fine, erect, brown 
hairs ; apex of all the pairs very narrowly brownish. Tarsi, 1st and 2nd 
joints yellowish, 3rd and claws piceous. 

Abdomen — above black, underneath black, the centre, as far as the genital segments, 
broadly yellowish white. Connexivum yellow. 

Taken at Nazareth at the roots of a dwarf thorny plant, where it 
was abundant in April. 

Extremely like P. Mdrkeli, but easily separated from that species 
by the differences in the antennse, and the rounded and entirely pale 
margin of the elytra. 

We have named it after the Rev. T. A. Marshall, whose collection 
of Hemiptera has been always at our service. 

Note. — At page 37, for Fithanus Flori, read FitJianus MarsJiali. 

Family DEE^OCORID^. 

33.— Species Der^ocoeis amcenus, Doug. & Scott. 

^ . Stramineiis et niger, dilute pui esc ens ; capite nigro, linea media 
in maculam parvam postice crescente straminea ; antennis piceis ; pronoto 
nigro, collari nec non fascia pone callum, stramineis ; corio dilute stramineOy 
vitta magna triangulari maculaque inter ior i piceo-nigr is ; cuneo Icste stra- 
mineo, apice anguste nigro, memhr ana piceo-nigr a, extus saturatiori ; sterno 
piceo-rufo ; pedihusrufo-hrunneis^fulcris, nec non femorum apice, piceis ; 
tihiis luridis, hasi apicegue piceis ; ahdomine suhtus stramineo, segmentibiis 
ultimis nigris. Long. 3^ lin. 

^ . Pale yellow and black, somewhat sparingly clothed with short, 
depressed, pale hairs. 

Head black, shining. Crown with a small yellow spot in the middle of the poste- 
rior margin, to which is joined a fine central line, extending to the central lobe 
of the face. J.nie7incB piceous ; 1st joint pitchy-brown. Rostrum pitchy-red, 
apex piceous. 

Thorax — Pronotvm black, shining, collar and an irregular broad band behind the 
callosities yellow ; disc posteriorly convex. Scutellum convex, yellow, considera- 
bly raised above the clavus, anterior portion concealed beneath the posterior 
margin of the pronotum. Elytra — Clavus pitchy-black, between the inner 
margin and the nerve almost flat, disc very finely wrinkled transversely, the 
sutural nerveat the apex, and the apex itself, very narrowly pale yellow. Corium 
pale yellow, almost white, anterior margin piceous, except the basal portion, disc 
with a large triangular pitchy-black patch extending to the anterior margin, its 
inner margin convex, apex abrupt, slightly concave, its base occupies the entire 
width of the cuneus suture ; on the margin at the inner posterior angle a small 
black spot. Cimeus bright yellow, apex narrowly black. Membrane pitchy- 



116 



[October, 



black, with a darker triangular patch next the anterior margin extending to 
the apex ; inner marginal and cell nerves black ; apex of the large cell with a 
pale margin, below which, is a short, transverse, dark streak ; between the apex 
of the cell nerves and the anterior margin a pale blotch divided by a transverse 
pitchy-black line, reaching the latter a little below the apex of the cunens. 
Sternum pitchy-red. Legs brown-red. Fidcra piceous. Thighs piceous at the 
apex. TiUcB dusky yellow, with short, somewhat spinose, black hairs ; base 
and apex of all the pairs piceous. Tarsi and claws piceous. 
Abdomen underneath yellow, clothed with fine, pale hairs, genital segments black. 

Nearly allied to Z). sexguttatus, Fab., to which it bears a great 
resemblance. 

The above description has been drawn up from a single ^ specimen 
taken in the plains of Jordan by sweeping low plants in April. 

Genus Getpocoeis, Doug. & Scott. 

Gor'pus elongatum. Caput, oculis inclusis, triangulare, loho medio 
longOt ante clypetm convexim valde producto. Antennce corporis longitu- 
dine, articulo secundo clavato,primo trijjlo longiore. Rostrum inter coxas 
jposticas extensum. Pronotum elongatum, collari angusto, callisque duohus 
instructum, laterihus antice constrictis, angulis posticis acutis, elevatis. 
Scutellum triangulare, sul- equilateral e. Elytra maris ahdomine longiora. 
Fedes postici longissimi,tarsorum posticorum articulo ultimo longissimo. 

Elongate, sides narrowing posteriorly. 

Mead, including the eyes, triangular, measured through their centre 
almost equilateral. Crown flattish convex. Clgpeus very convex, 
apex in a line with the base of the anteiinse; antenniferous pro- 
cesses short, in a line with the centre of the lower half of the eyes. 
Face, central lobe long, very prominent, projecting considerably 
in front of the clypeus, convex, base acutely rounded, side lobes 
longish, rounded outwardly. Antennce as long as the body, 1st 
joint cylindrical, shorter than the pronotum, slightly curved out- 
wardly, rounded and narrowed at the base on the inside ; 2nd three . 
times as long as the 1st, slightly thickened towards the apex ; 3rd 
and 4th filiform ; 3rd two-thirds the length of the 2nd, 4tli more 
than one-half the length of the 3rd. Uges somewhat prominent, 
viewed from above semi-oval, from the side oval. Rostrum reaching 
to the 3rd pair of coxae, 1st joint stout, almost reaching to the 
xyphus of the prosternum. 

TJiorax — Rronotum longish, as wide on the posterior margin, as long, 
with a narrow collar and two callosities, sides constricted in front to 
behind the latter, then gently sinuate to the acute, raised hinder an- 



1S68. 



117 



gles ; posterior margin almost straight across the scutellum, rounded 
towards and at the hinder angles ; disc posteriorly flattish, convex, 
deflected to the callosities. Scutellum triangular, almost equilateral, 
convex. Elytra longer than the abdomen. Ouneus long, triangular. 
Sternum — Prosternum xyphus, triangular, concave in the centre, 
the sides slightly rounded and margined. Mesosternum slightly 
elevated posteriorly, convex above, and with a central channel, 
sides flattish, posterior margin slightly rounded. Metasternum 
convex, centre convex, with a depression on the sides, apex rounded. 
Legs longish, 3rd pair longest, 1st and 2nd sub-equal. Tarsi, 3rd 
joint of the 3rd pair longest, 1st and 2nd sub-equal. 

34.— Getpocoeis Tiebeei, Doug. & Scott. 

^ . Griseo-ochraceus et niger. $ . Sanguineus et niger. 

. Gapite nigro nitido ; antennis piceis, articulo primo medio, se- 
cundo hasi, ochraceia ; pronoto dilute ochraceo, medio triangular iter, callis 
margineque postica piceo-nigris ; scutello dilute ochraceo nitido ; clavo 
fusco, nervo stramineo ; corio dilute griseo-ochraceo, vitta juxta clavum 
fusca ; cuneo dilute ochraceo, apice anguste nigro ; memhrana fusco-nigra ; 
sterno rufo ; pedihus ftrrugineis. 

? . Similiter picta, nisi quod color sanguineus pro ochraceo accidit. 
Long. 3i, ? 4 lin. 

^ pale greyish-yellow and black, $ deep red and black. 

S Head black, shining. Antennce, 1st joint pale yellow, base and apex narrowly 
piceous ; 2nd black, base yellow ; 3rd and 4th piceous, base of the 3rd yellow. 

Eostrum reddish-yellow j 3rd and 4th joints piceons. 

Thorax — ^ronotum pale yellow, very sparingly and delicately punctured, collar pale 
yellow, callosities pitchy-black, joined together in front by a short, broad, 
transverse keel, posterior margin and hinder angles pitchy-black, disc with a 
triangular pitchy -black patch in the centre, its apex next the callosities, its 
base on the posterior margin. Scutellum shining, anterior portion black, con- 
cealed beneath the posterior margin of the pronotum, posterior portion pale 
yellow. Elytra longer than the abdomen, rather sparingly clothed with very 
short, sub-depressed, blackish hairs. Clavus fuscous, finely shagreened, inner 
margin piceous, nerve pale yellow, the colour broadest at the base and apex. 
Corium pale gi'eyish-yellow, extreme anterior margin piceous, 1st nerve slightly 
piceous at the base, disc with a longitudinal, bi'oad, fascous streak between the 
claval suture and the centre, the colour becoming darker towards and at the 
posterior margin, the base pale greyish -yellow ; inner posterior angle next the 
claval sutui-e slightly grey-yellowish, the colour vanishing ; posterior margin 
along the base of the cunous piceous. Cuneus pale yellowish, anterior margin 
faintly piceous, apex nai'rowly black. Membrane deep fuscous black, inner 



118 



[October, 



marginal and cell nerves black ; cells and a triangular patch next the anterior 
margin, extending from below the former to the apex, almost black. Sternum 
reddish-brown. Prosternum xyphus fuscous, margins pale yellowish. Meso' 
sternum somewhat fuscous in the centre. Legs ferruginous. Thighs, 1st 
pair with two longitudinal rows of brown spots on the inside ; 2nd same as the 
Ist, with the addition of a row along the upper-side ; 3rd slightly flattened on 
the sides, with two rows of brown spots on the inside, one down the middle on 
the outside, and one along the upper-side. Tihice, apex fuscous, with stoutish, 
somewhat spinose black hairs. Tarsi fuscous-brown, 1st joint fuscous. Claws 
brown. 

Abdomen, underneath yellow, last genital segment brown. 

9 . The characters are precisely as in the other sex, except that the yellow 
markings are here replaced by deep carmine red, and the margins of the ab- 
dominal segments at the base black. Elytra as long as the abdomen. 

There are only a ^ and $ in the collection taken on the plains of 
Jordan by sweeping low plants in April. 

(To he concluded in our next.) 



A LIST OF GALL-BEARING BRITISH PLANTS. 
BY H. W. KIDD* A2iD ALBERT MULLEE.f 

Hoping in the course of a few months to commence a descriptive 
list of galls, we beg your insertion of the following Catalogue of Plants. 
The majority of them we know possess galls in Great Britain from 
personal observation. Those marked with a note of admiration (!) are 
plants said on reliable authority to possess galls ; while those marked 
with a note of interrogation (?) require inspection, either from the 
fact of their possessing galls on the continent, or upon which grow 
excrescences of doubtful origin, or having been hinted at as probably 
possessing galls. 

Plants, not indigenous, possessing galls in this country, are 
ceded by an asterisk. 



pre- 



Eanunculus bulbosus, Linn. 
Papaver dubium, L. 

rhaeas, L. 
Barbarea vulgaris, Br. 
Brassica oleracea, L. 

rapa, L. 
Sinapis arvensis, L. 
Reseda lutea, L. 
Viola odorata, L. 
canina, L. 



L. 



Silene nutans, 
Althiea rosea. 
Tilia intermedia, D. C. 

graudifolia, Ehrh. 
Acer campestre, L. 

pseudo-platanus, L. 
jEscuIus hippocastanum. 
Geranium sanguineum, L. 
Ehamnus catharticiis, L. 
Sarothamnus scoparius, Koch. 



* Godalming, Surrey. 



t 1, Camden Villas, Penge, 8.E. 



18C8.] 



119 



! Ulcx nauiis, Auct. 

Genista tinctoria, L. 
? anglica, L. 

Medicago lupulina, L. 
! Lotus corniculatus, L. 
? Astragalus glyciphyllus, L. 

Yicia cracca, L. 
! sepium, L. 

? Prunus spinosa, L. 
? cerasus, Auct. 

Spiraea ulmaria, L. 
! filipendula, L. 

! Potentilla reptans, L. 
Eubus spec. 
Rosa spinosissima, L. 
micrantha, Sm. 
canina, Auct. 
? Mespilus germanica, L. 

Crataegus oxyacantha, L. 
? Pyrus malus, L. 
? aria, Sm. 

! aucuparia, Gtn. 

Epilobium, spec. 
! Circsea, spec. 
? Tamarix. 
! Bryonia dioica, L. 
! Corn vis sanguinea, L. 

Daiicus carota, L. 
? Sambucus nigra, L. 
? Viburnum opulus, L. 
? lantana, L. 

! Galium verum, L. 

saxatile, L. 
aparine, L. 
? Hieracium pilosella, L. 
? murorura, Auct. 

umbellatum, L. 
boreale, Fries. 
? Taraxacum officinale, Wigg. 
Arctium lappa et bardana. 
Carduus arvensis, Curt. 



Centaurea nigra, L. 
? Artemisia campestris, L. 

vulgaris, L. 
? Chrysanthemum leucanthe- 
mum, L. 
Achillea ptarmica, L. 

millefolium, L. 
Phyteuma orbiculare, L. 
! Yaccinium oxycoccos, L. 
? Ilex aquifolium, L. 
! Ligustrum vulgare, L. 
? Fraxinus excelsior, L. 

Convolvulus, spec. 
! arvensis, L. 

? Veronica beccabunga, L. 

chamaedrys, L. 
Linaria vulgaris. Mill. 
*! Salvia officinalis. 

Thymus serpyllum, L. 
? Origanum vulgare, L. 
! Teucrium, spec. 
! Lamium galeobdolon, Crantz, 
Stachys sylvatica, L, 
Nepeta glechoma, Benth. 
? A triplex, spec. 
! Polygonum aviculare, L. 

amphibium,L. (var, 
terrestre). 
Eumex acetosella, L. 
Euphorbia cyparissias, L. 
Buxus sempervirens, L. 
Urtica dioica, L. 
TJlmus suberosa, Ehrh. 

montana, Sm. 
Quercus robur, L. 
Fagus sylvatica, L. 
Corylus avellana, L. 
Alnus glutinosa, L. 
Betula alba, L. 
Populus tremula, L. 
nigra, L. 



120 



lOclobcr, 



Salix fragilis, L. 



* Abies communis, L. 



cinerea, L. 
aurita, L. 
caprea, L. 
repens, L. 
herbacea, L. 



? Juniperus communis, L. 



Taxus baccata. 



! Juncus, spec. 



? Triticum repens, L. 



Pteris aquilina, L. 



! Piuus syivestris, L. 

In conclusion, we may add that we shall be greatly obliged to any 
observer who will kindly furnish us with notes respecting galls on any 
of the plants marked " ! " or " ? " (also on plants not mentioned at all 
in our list), either in the pages of the Magazine, or, still better, by 
letter to either of us, so that the information may be incorporated in 
our proposed Catalogue in its proper place ; and if such communication 
can be accompanied by specimens of the gall or insect, or both, we shall 
feel doubly obliged. 
August, 1868. 

Ohservations on the habits and t/ranfor)nations of Hylesinus ci'enatus, H.fraxini and 
H. vittatus. — As the above mentioned species occur plentifully in this district, I 
have been induced from time to time to make notes of their habits in their earlier 
stages ; which notes, without any claim beyond original observation, may possibly 
interest others, as they have interested me. I am quite aware that the ceconomy 
of these insects has been elaborated by both Continental aud English authors. 

Most Entomologists are, of course, well acquainted with the fact that the 
perfect insect of the species of Hylesinus forms a burrow or gallery in the cambium 
layer of the bark of recently fallen trees, along the sides of which the eggs are 
deposited ; the larvae feeding in the inner bark during the ensuing months, whilst 
it still retains a modified vitality, and completing their metamorphosis in, time to 
renew the same cycle the ensuing year. They form their burrows transversely to 
the fibres of the tree, but the species of most of the other genera of the family 
form them parallel with the fibre. The larvae, starting at right angles to the parent 
burrow, form theirs in the reverse direction, or nearly so ; their increase in size 
making them diverge from each other and producing rather a fan-shaped marking. 

The two species to which I have directed most attention, Hylesinus crenatus 
and H. Jraxini, are attached to the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) . The other species, 
Hylesinus vittaius, is attached to the elm, and is fairly abundant in this district. It 
is difl&cult, however, to say of any species of the Xylophaga whether it be abundant 
or not ; as, however, difficult it may be to find it, when found, it is almost certain 
to be in some numbers. Thus, though H. crenatus is a somewhat scarce species, I 
could have taken it last winter in almost unlimited numbers. H. jraxini is, never- 
theless, an undoubtedly abundant species. At this season (May 22) it may be 
found on any recently felled ash timber, busily engaged in oviposition, appearing 
very decidedly to prefer recently fallen timber to the gi'owing tree, and even 
attacking wood that has been cut many months. Early in May the perfect beetles 



lt)C8. J 



121 



are often to be seen swarming about fresh ash logs ; they arrive on the wing, 
preferring the warm sunshine of the early morning for their flight, and often 
travel considerable distances. They bore very rapidly into the bark. The femalo 
commences the gallery by boring obliquely towards the wood, usually in a 
slightly upward direction, in large timber choosing the deepest part of a crevice 
of the bark ; in younger wood a knot or other irregularity determines the preference, 
80 that, unless the frass lies about the aperture, they are difficult to detect. 
Usually before the female beetle has quite bm-ied itself in the bark, the male 
arrive^, and is waiting to enter the burrow ; if not, the female bores down to the 
wood, and there awaits his coming ; and I believe I have met with burrows 
uncompleted because the male insect did not appear. In a few days the two beetles 
are to be found rapidly extending the gallery in both directions from the aperture 
of entry, close to the wood and usually slightly in it, and transversely to its fibres. 

I suspect each of the beetles excavates a branch, but I have found no means of 
observing them at work, as opening the gallery always stops them ; and it is 
possible that the female does the greater part of the excavation, since I have 
always found her further from the aperture of entry when both were in the same 
branch of the burrow ; the male is also oftener at its opening, and eggs are laid 
along each as rapidly as it is formed. Not unfi-equently the branches of the 
gallery are of very unequal length, so much so that sometimes there is practically 
only one branch, possibly both beetles working togethier. Undoubtedly the gi^eater 
part of the excavated material is eaten ; and I find that in captivity the beetles 
will hve a long time with fresh ash bark, though without it they soon die. Most 
insects on thefr escape from the pupal state contain their eggs ready to be laid and 
requiring only fertilization, but in these, as in many more active Colec/ptera, the 
eggs are developed after attaining the perfect state. In the case of H. fraxini the 
female is often bulkier when the burrow is half completed than on entering it, 
and the eggs laid by a single beetle must often exceed in aggregate mass the 
original bulk of the female. The domestic habits and family relations of these 
beetles deserve further attention. The following suggestive experiment was made : 
a burrow was opened, in which some few eggs had been laid ; each beetle was then 
blockaded by a bit of bark in a branch of the burrow, and for each sufficient space 
was left for air and the discharge of frass. A week after, each beetle had eaten a 
narrower buiTow just long enough to hold it, merely to sustain life, contrasting with 
the wider burrow outside ; but no eggs had been laid. 

The eggs are laid along both sides of the burrows, usually at very regular 
intervals, in little hollows dug out to receive them, leaving the gallery of full size 
for the beetles within it. They are covered with a gummy material, which soon 
gets a coating of finer frass. These eggs being laid in rotation, form a good series 
for observing the development of the larvae within the egg, the first being often 
hatched and the young gi-ub boring into the bark before the last is laid. The eggs 
laid in one burrow vary from 15 to 40 or 50, or even GO to 100. The gallery 
is fijiished and the eggs laid in fi'om ten to twenty days. During the ejection of the 
frass, particles adhere by a gummy matter, and form an operculum to the mouth of 
the burrow, leaving only a minute opening for frass, which on the completion of 
the burrow is stopped up. Both beetles then usually die in the burrow ; the 
female always does so. The dead beetles may still be found lying in the burrows 
after several years. 



122 



[Octebep, 



I have observed that, when the eggs are hatched (or rather before that time), 
the young larvao have their heads towards the bark, in which, during the summer 
they busily feed. They are straight, white, footless, fleshy grubs, with a distinct 
head and powerful mandibles, and I have observed them to be hatched about the 
third week in May. In the autumn they assume the pupa state, and shortly after- 
wards that of the imago. The perfect beetles, however, usually remain during the 
winter months at the ends of the burrows formed by the larvaj, and emerge in 
spring to continue their ravages, leaving a very distinct circular aperture ; on a 
sculptured piece of bark all the very obvious holes are apertures of exit, those of 
entry being obscure. 

It often happens that the parent beetles have made their burrows so close 
together that the supply of bark is quite inadequate to the wants of the lai-vae, so 
that their very abundance is its own remedy, and most of them perish. In other 
instances the vitality of the bark ceases before the larvae are full fed, the tree 
having fallen too long when attacked, so that but a small proportion usually come 
to maturity. 

I have remarked the preference of H. fraxini for fallen timber, nevertheless it 
does occur on living trees. On almost any young ash tree I have found marks 
shewing that a burrow had been formejd and a brood perfected, and that the tree is 
now exfoliating the destroyed bark. Sometimes I think the growth and vigour of 
the trees appear to have been decidedly checked by them j and, though I have not 
met with an example, I doubt not that trees are occasionally killed by this beetle. In 
other instances trees with these marks appear to be uninjured. Where they are 
injurious, they may be extirpated by cutting down affected trees, stripping off and 
burning the bark, &c, ; but as I suspect that it is the want of dying timber which 
forces them to attack living trees, I would suggest that placing fresh logs, during 
the spring months, in the neighbourhood of affected trees, as traps, and destroying 
the beetles which come to them, would be more effectual. 

1 have found one tree which owed its fall to the operations of H. crenatus. The 
beetle had obviously been in possession many years ; it had commenced the attack 
near the foot of the tree, and destroyed the bark round more than half its 
circumference, and to a height of 15 or 20 feet, the hmb above being dead. The 
portion of bark longest destroyed had fallen away, — the wood beneath being in 
possession of Sinodendron and Dorcus, and rapidly rotting. The tree was blown 
over in one of the gales of last winter. I have also found H. crenatus sparingly in 
several other trees, all pollarded or otherwise sickly. Unlike H. fraxini, H. crenatus 
takes two years to undergo its transformations, the larvae assuming the pupal state 
at the end of the second summer, so that at present full-grown larvao and perfect 
beetles are both to be met with. Felled timber would be unable to support this 
long larval existence. H. crenatus accordingly is never met with except in living 
trees ; and, while an affected tree continues alive, I believe that none of the 
beetles desert it for another. They economise it as much as possible, the destroyed 
bark being more completely riddled and devoured by them than by any other 
beetle of the family I am acquainted with ; the burrows of the larvao are much 
more irregular also, so that it is impossible to find one of those perfect maps of their 
voyages (as in H. fraxini) which have secured for the XylophcLga as a family the 
name of " typographers." Last winter the blown down tree I have mentioned 



1868.] 



128 



oontainod hundreds of the perfect insect ready to emerge on the approach of 
spring, and but for the fall of the tree would have made their burrows in it again ; 
but now they have all lefl it, so that last week I had difficulty in finding a 
specimen. H. fraxmi, of which odd specimens only were to be found during the 
winter, now on the contrary abounds in it. The parent galleries of H. crenatus are 
proportionally much shorter than those of H. fraxini, and more frequently consist 
of only one branch, the male and female both entering the burrow as with 
H. fraxini, but the male usually leaving before the gallery is quite completed. The 
egg are fewer than with fraxini, and laid in a deeper cavity, and so thickly covered 
with a layer of frass as to require looking for, 

H. crenatus appear to be generally distributed in this district, but is hardly 
likely to prove very destructive ; if found to be so, the tree on which it has formed 
a settlement cannot be rescued without a process of barking, — as serious as the 
ravages of the beetle. They are not likely to attack neighbouring trees till driven 
out of their strongholds on the fall of an affected tree, therefore they should be 
destroyed, or they will establish themselves in others. At the same time I would 
enter a protest against waging war with any species that is to be regarded as 
scarce or local. 

H. vittatus attacks fallen elm as H. fraxini does the ash ; its buiTOWs are 
shorter, and the two branches are very uniformly of equal length, rarely exceeding 
y of an inch long ; the number of eggs laid is seldom as many as 20, and, being 
usually placed more widely apart than those of H. fraxini, the burrows of the larvae 
are nearly parallel, giving little of the fan form seen in the burrows of that species. 
It appears much less common than H. fraxini, though I find their burrows abun- 
dantly in a piece of elm fallen about the end of April. The operculum of frass 
which closes the mouth of the burrow is more complete than in H. fraxini. They 
complete their changes in one year. I have been unable to find any evidence 
of their attacking living trees, so that from an (Economic point of view they must 
be regarded as very unimportant. 

The decay and destruction of fallen timber is much facilitated by these Hylesini 
and their allies. They partially or wholly destroy the bark; their frass-fiUed 
burrows absorb and retain much moisture, which is almost essential to decay, and 
usually the bark is so much loosened that, after a longer or shorter time, it falls off. 
This rarely takes place before the wood is much injured by fungi, for which the 
damped-destroyed bark has been the nidus, and by the various sub-cortical species 
of insects for which the beetle burrows, have opened a way. The wood is then 
easily attacked by the numerous wood-feeders, various Longicornes, and Anohia^ 
Sinodendron, &c., which soon complete its destruction. But the necessity for a 
natural method of clearing the ground of dead and dying timber has so long ceased 
in this country, that we have difficulty in regarding these insects as other than 
noxious pests. — T. Algernon Chapman, M.D., Abergavenny, May, 1868. 

Live Clytus arietis in Museums. — Lately, when looking over some old numbers 
of our venerable predecessor, " The Entomological Magazine," I was irresistibly 
reminded of the trite maxim that " Histoiy repeats itself," by seeing a note of Mr. 
Denny's (at p. 114 of Vol. ii, 1833) on the occurrence of three specimens of ClytxLS 



124 



r October , 



arietis crawling about in one of the oases in his museum on oak branches upon 
which stuffed birds were placed. These cases appear to have then been put up 
for nearly five years, and the last branches put in them were procured three years 
before the insects were seen, and had been well dried over a stove and in a drying- 
house. 

Our readers may remember a similar occurrence of this Clytus in the British 
Museum, recorded at p. 286 of Vol. iv. of this Magazine, after an interval of 35 
years. The beetle may surely adopt " Tempora mutantur, nos haud mutamur in illis" 
for a motto.— E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W. 

Curious capture of Lucanus. — Prospecting yesterday for beetles in Wimbledon 
Park, I found a ? of Lucanus cervus, quite dead, but still moveable as to its limbs, 
firmly imbedded in an enormous hard white fungus growing at the root of an old, 
dead, dried-up beech-tree. The fungus had imprisoned the beetle so tightly (" Quo 
diable allait-elle faire dans cette Galore ?") that, when I opened it (with a knife and 
difficulty), I found a perfect cast of the outline of the thorax, scutollum, elytra, &c. 
—Id., nth September, 1868. 

Occurrence in BHtain of Apion cerdo. — It is with much pleasure that I find 
myself able to record the discovery of another species of Apion new to Britain. It 
is a large species, of the subulate rostrum group, its place being between craccce 
and suhulatum ; and, judging from the monograph by M. Wenckcr of the European 
species of the genus, I have little hesitation in calling it Apion cerdo, Gerst. It can 
only be confounded with craccce and suhulatum; from the former of which, inde- 
pendently of other characters, it will be readily distinguished by its more entirely 
black colour, and the fact that in both sexes only the first and second joints of the 
antennae are obscurely ferruginous, the other joints being quit2 black. It has much 
the appearance of a rather large and robust 4. suhulatum, but is readily distinguished 
by the very different structure of the rostrum. Confusion is likely to arise, however, 
from the fact that in suhulatum the structure of the rostrum is very different in the 
two sexes ; that organ in the ^ being evidently dilated beneath at the base, and 
thence gradually narrow to the apex ; whilst in the $ it is scarcely dilated at the 
base, and is longer and thinner than in the <J . Comparing the sexes of A. cerdo 
with A. suhulatum, I find that the <J much resembles the ? of that species, but 
has the rostrum thicker and more evidently dilated underneath ; the ? s of the 
two species are, however, very different, for the ? of A. cerdo, instead of the long 
thin rostrum of A. suhulatum, has its rostrum very broad and dilated at tho baso 
(nearly as much so as in A. craccce), and suddenly constricted at the insertion of 
the antennae. I have found both sexes here on Vicia cracca, in the month of July ; 
but it appears to be very rare, many visits to the field where I took it having pro- 
duced me only seven specimens. This is not the first time, however, that the 
insect has been taken in this country, for Mr. Lennon captured an example in some 
flood refuse at Dumfries, early in the spring of this year. Tliere is also a specimen 
of the ? in Mr. G. R. Crotch's collection, taken by Mr. Wollaston, at Killarney. I 
took a specimen of A. suUilatum on a common species of Vicia with yellow flowers 
in the same field where I found the A. cerdo— B. Sharp, Bellevue, Thornhill, 
Dumfries, Septemhcr 1st, 1868. 



IH08.] 



125 



Addition to the list of British Triclioptera (Agrypnia picta, Kolen.J. — Mr. Pryer 
oapiurtfd at a gas-lamp at Highgato, in Angaat, a ^ example of this insect, which 
was submitted to mo by my frienrl Mr. Wormald. It is a North European species 
of considorablo size, with the facies of a true Phryganea (in a generic sense), and 
it will be remembered that the species was before erroneously brought forward as 
British, a speciraan of Phry. ohsoleta having been mistaken for it. There is no doubt, 
however, as to Mr. Fryer's insect. Where it may have been bred is uncertain : perhaps 
the intense heat had dried up the water in its usual haunts, probably at some dis* 
tance from London, and it was in search of some congenial locality. Trichoptera 
have been unusually scarce this season, the water in many places where they 
ordinarily abounded having disappeared altogether. — R. McLachlan, Lewisham, 
&th September, 1868. 

Sialis fuUgmosa in Worcestershire. — I have three specimens of a SmZis which 
accords very well with the characters of S. fuliginosa given in Mr. McLachlan's 
" British Neuroptera-planipennia" — J. E. Fletcheb, Worcester. 

CaptvA-es of rare Neuroptera and Trichoptera. — llemerobius vnconspicuus, McLach. 
On the 25th June last I met with a single example of this species in Addington 
Park, Surrey. The only locality given by Mr. McLachlan in his excellent " Mono- 
graph of the British Neuroptera-Planipennia'^ (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1868, pt. 2) is 
Bournemouth, where it has been found by Mr. Dale in old furze bushes. My speci- 
men was beaten from a fir-tree. 

Hemerohius condnnus, Steph. I beat from a fir-tree a fine specimen of this 
species at the same time and place as H. inconspicuus. 

Setodes testacea^ Curt. When at Llangollen, North Wales, in the second week 
in July, I beat from an alder on the banks of the Dee a single specimen of this 
rather rare species. 

Chimarra marginata, L. I also captured at Llangollen some dozen specimens 
of this local species. I took them by beating alders on the banks of the Dee, and 
invariably where water was running rapidly beneath the bushes. — Percy C. Wor- 
mald, 35, Bolton Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Notes on the earlier stages of Argynnis 'Euphrosyne. — The pleasure one always 
feels in striking off another species from the list of desiderata, is in this case greatly 
enhanced by the fact that for some years Euphrosyne eluded the care and search — 
not of myself only, but of several of my friends. 

We never had any difiiculty in getting the ? to lay its eggs, or the young 
larvae to begin feeding, but the disappointment lay in the hybernation ; we never 
could get a single larva to feed up in spring, nor could we, with all our searching 
in fit localities, at that season, ever detect a lai-va feeding at large. However, our 
attempts, though fruitless in one point of view, made us acquainted with the earliest 
stages, which I will give before proceeding to the full-grown larva. 

The egg is of a blunt, conical shape, with its lower surface, which adheres to 
the leaf, flattened, its sides are ribbed ; at first it is of a dull gi-eenish-yellow colour, 
becoming afterwards brownish. Towards the end of June the larva is hatched, 



126 



(October, 



then being of a pale greenish tint ; after its first moult it becomes browner-green, 
and about the middle of July attaches itself to the stem of the plant, and ceases 
to feed. 

On one occasion I prevented this early beginning of hybernation by keeping a 
laiTa in a hot sunny Avindow, and at the end of July I had the satisfaction of seeing 
it half-an-inch long ; it was then black and spiny, with a faint indication of a dull 
whitish stripe along the sides above the feet, but unluckily, after its hybernation 
commenced, it was killed by mould settling on it ; and up to last spring this was 
all I had to record. 

But on April 1st, 1868, I had the indescribable pleasure of receiving a larva of 
this species, most kindly presented to me by Mr. VV. H. Harwood, of Colchester, 
and which he had found during a walk through a wood ; his attention having been 
for a moment arrested by a leaf of primrose being much eaten, and, on turning it 
up, he detected the larva adhering to it. 

From its size and appearance being similar to the one above-mentioned, I felt 
sanguine in having now a chance of observing and rearing a larva to the perfect 
state. When received it was barely half-an-inch long, covered with spines and 
black, excepting a stripe formed of whitish freckles running along above the legs ; 
but on the thoracic segments only were they so thick as to make the stripe appear 
there much whiter than on the others. 

A very faint edging of greyish rendered visible the black dorsal stripe. 

The spines and legs black, and large in proportion j the prolegs of a dark 
smoky tint, inclining to reddish. 

It at first refused to eat when placed on growing plants of dog-violet and 
primrose, but within twenty-eight hours it moulted ; and then when the stm shone 
on it, its appetite returned. Its pace when walking was very rapid ; and sometimes 
it fed for a while on the dog-violet leaves, and sometimes rested quite still, basking 
in the sun's rays ; when these were withdrawn it retired to the under-side of a leaf, 
and there remained, apparently without motion, till the hour (viz., 2 p-m) of the 
next day which brought the sun round to the window in which its cage was placed, 
and then at once it came forth and actively walked about — fed and basked as 
before. After a few days it began to appear nuAvell, ceased to feed, remained on 
the earth, and kept out of sight for about four or five days. 

Towards evening of April 12th it re-appeared, and rejoiced mo greatly by 
showing itself on the side of its glass cylinder in a new coat of black velvet, orna- 
mented with a sub-dorsal row of bright greenish-yellow spines vrith black tips and 
branches, all the other spines being wholly black ; the prolegs now appeared dull 
pinkish. 

By the 16th of April its pale stripe above the legs had become visible, but 
greyish in tint, the whitest portion being on the third and fourth segments ; the 
whole of the back remaining of a deep velvety-blackness. The greyish-white stripe 
above the legs is formed by a series of whitish spots vrith black centres, and as 
they are more or less aggregated, so the appearance is whiter or greyer. The 
anterior legs black ; prolegs black, with their tips brovrnish and semi-ti-ansparent ; 
the ventral surface brownish-black. 

Towards the end of April it attained its full dimensions— about an inch long, 
and rather thick when in repose, but when stretched out and walking, one inch and 



1868.1 



127 



a quarter in length. As it approached its full growth the whitish lateral stripe 
became more and more visible, and appeared divided into two by a blackish, rather 
interrupted line, running through it from the fifth to the anal segment: faint 
greyish indications appeared of a sub-dorsal line, especially at the segmental divisions 
when stretched out, and the black dorsal stripe was also made visible by its edging of 
greyish : the sub-dorsal spines remained greenish-yellow with black tips and 
branches to the last, the front pair slanting a little over the head ; the head itself 
black, and beset with short, obtuse black spines ; the lateral and sub-spiracular 
rows of branched spines were brownish-black, and all slanted a little backwards. 

At the end of the month it seemed rather sluggish, and on May 3rd it dis- 
appeared amongst the leaves of the dog-violet, which had formed its whole 
sustenance, with, I believe, only one exception, when I saw it eat out a small piece 
from a leaf of primrose. 

On May 5th it had changed to a pupa, suspended by the tail to a circular mass 
of silk spun upon the side of the glass cylinder, hanging about three-quarters of 
an inch fron the earth. 

The pupa, five-eighths of an inch in length, was moderately stout and rather 
sharply pointed, and curved at the tip of the abdomen, and with a depression next 
the thorax ; the wing-cases long in proportion and dull-brown in tint, with two rowa 
of pale greyish dots near their margin ; the spiked processes of head and back of 
thorax pale gi'eyish ; the back of abdomen brown, with sub-dorsal rows of blackish 
spikelets, bordered on each side by a stripe of pinkish-grey, and near the under- 
sides of abdomen another such stripe. 

The butterfly came forth on the morning of 23rd May. — Wm. Buckler, 
Emsworth. 

A few notes on the new Plusia. — Plusia ni, Hiibner (first noticed by Engramelle 
under the name L'ajoutee) is closely allied to our common P. gamma, for a variety 
of which it might easily at first sight be passed over. It also presents some slight 
points of resemblance to P. interrogatianis, a.udi between these two species it will 
have to be placed in our lists and cabinets. As it can only be confounded with 
gamma — and then, mind, only at first sight — I have thought it advisable to lay 
before our readers some of the more striking points wherein it differs from that 
species, which I hope may call attention to its peculiarities, and perhaps lead to the 
detection of other examples in our collections. 

The alar expanse is less than that of gamma, the fore-wings are less acute at 
their dlpices, and lack the smooth, burnished, bronzy lustre of gamtna ; or, to put it 
the other way, the contrast between the ground-colour, which is blackish, and the 
markings, which are, say, rosy-ferruginous, gives ni a duller and more mottled 
appearance ; the letter-mark in the specimen before me is shaped somewhat as in 
V-aureum — thus or 9 (j-, but I find, on examining a series, that though this cha- 
racter is usually pretty constant, it is by no means invariably so. The hind-wings 
ai*e much as with gamma, but blacker in hue : the palpi are smaller, the antennae 
finer ; and in the abdomen of the S we find still better characters ; here the dorsal 
tuft is of a.yellow-ochreous colour, and tufts of ochreous scales fringe the sides of 
the last segments, tei-minating underneath the anal segments in an ochreous 
patch.--H. G. Knaggs, September 9th, 1868. 



128 



! October, 



Fwriher notes on Flusia ni. — Having captnred a specimen of Plusia fesUiC(JB on 
the evening of the 13th inst., on flowers of red valerian, in my garden, I again, 
just at dusk on the evening of the 14th, was on the watch for others of the same 
species. There were P. gamma, P. chrysitist and another festuccB, which I captured ; 
and the Plxisia sent to you through our friend Mr. Hellins was captured that same 
evening. The flight offestucce is so diflerent from that of gamma, that by carefully 
watching I can generally distinguish them on the wing, and I captured the stranger, 
taking it to be a,festncce; for it was then too dark to make out what it really was. 

I have since captured and slaughtered some scores of gamma, hoping to meet 
with another stranger, but no other has yet turned up. 

P. festucce must this year have been double-brooded, as I had two in my garden 
in June. — H. D'Orville, Alphington, pear Exeter, August 25t/i. 

Occurrence of Dicrorampha flavidorsana, Knaggs, near Exeter. — Two years ago 
I met with a specimen of the Dicrorampha sent to you by Mr. Hellins, and placed 
it in my cabinet with Petiverella, marked doubtful. 

On the 19th June, this year, I beat from the Artemisia absinthium, many 
plants of which I have in my garden to attract Oucullia ahsinthii, the same insect, 
and finding it to differ so much from alpinana and Petiverella, thought it was, and 
find it to be, D. flavidorsana, Knaggs. 

As the species was taken by Mr. Meek, in August, and I took mine in June, I 
should infer it to be double-brooded, and I am on the look-out for others, as I know 
several moths escaped my net in June. — Id. 

Abundance of Sphinx convolvuli near Exeter. — I have not seen so many con- 
volvuli since 1859, when I captured 17. Within the last ten days — that is, from 
the 15th to the present — I have captured 17, good and bad. They are three weeks 
earlier than in 1859. — Id. 

Sphinx convolvuli at Marlborough. — Two specimens have been taken here ; one 
on the 25th August, on a door in the town, the other about the 31st of August, at 
Tottenham House. — T. A. Preston, Marlborough College, September 9th, 1868. 

Deilephila lineata at Marlborough. — Two children who were playing in a 
stubble-field, about the 26th of August, found a specimen of D. lineata. They 
took it to a bird-stuffer in the town, who added to the damage done to it by the 
children by cutting off the tail and stuflfing some cotton into the body. Under these 
circumstances the specimen is not in very good condition. — Ibid. 

Catocala fraxini at Ipswich. — Mr. J. Balding, of 5, Lyme Koad, Ipswich, 
writes:— Sir, — I thought perhaps it might be interesting to some of your ento- 
mological readers to know that a specimen of Catocala fraxini w&s captured on 
Saturday last at the back of my house.— Extracted from the " Daily News" 26th 
Augiist. 

Occurrerice of Catocala fraxini and other rarities in Cheshire. — The season of 
1868 will be remembered as a remarkably forward one— a season which rendered 
calendars, diaries, &c., comparatively useless, since nearly all insects came out bo- 



1868. 



129 



foro thoir usual time. Altogether, 1 think we may consider it a very good Kcason 
if we take as a criterion the occurence of such rarities as A. Lathonia., P. Daplidice, 
B. liyieata, D. Bairettii, &c., and the abundance of those generally scarce insects, 
A. Iris, C. Hyale, &c. — indeed, this appears to have been a wonderful season for 
butterflies. This district, however, is not rich in Diurni, and we have nothing to 
boast of in that respect, but my friend Mr. Wm Lello had the good fortune to meet 
with a fine specimen of C. Edusa, var. Helice, on the Sandhills at Wallasey on the 
llth August; this specimen is smaller, and not as dark as those taken in the south. 
It is very extraordinary that it should have occurred here, since the typical Edusa 
is hardly ever met with in this locality, and has not been seen this year. 

On the same day I obtained, by " raking " a sand bank, a wonderful variety of 
F. cardAd, a description of which 1 hope to give in the next number. 

In this district sugaring was not of much use during the summer months, on 
account of the wind being generally unfavourable — indeed, we have not had a single 
favourable evening since the end of August. The ragwort flowers, usually such a 
fine bait, seemed to have lost their attractiveness, perhaps through the excessive 
drought. 

I have taken several pretty good insects in this district this season, among 
which I may mention E. unifasciata (1), E. dolohrmia (1), A. suhsericeata^ Ewp^ 
suhfulvata, E. fasciaria, C. xerampelina (3), T. subtusay and I have supplied my 
friends with our noted local insects, such as B. trifolii, M. alhicolon, L. litoralisy 
A. corticea, E. Uchenea, &c. 

Of S. sacraria, which I had hoped to take this season, I did not see a single 
specimen, but my friend, Mr. C. S. Gregson, took a fine one at Wallasey towards 
the end of July. 

My best " take" this season has been a specimen of that great rarity Catocala 
fraxini — unfortunately it is in a very dilapidated state. I took it at sugar in East- 
hand Wood on the 12th inst., and so little did I expect such an insect on that 
evening, that when I saw it at a distance I made sure it was a bat, as I had seen 
several flying about at twilight, and I knew these little animals sometimes indulged 
in the sweet intoxicant so attractive to their prey, the moth. 

The same evening Mr. Lello, who was with me, took a fine specimen of X gil- 
vago, a species which has not hitherto been captured in this locality. I dare say 
we should have been more successful had the wind not been N.E. — E. L. Eagonot, 
130, Gonway Street, Bii-kenhead, September ISth. 

Note on the ovipositing of Pamphila Sylvanus. — As I was resting awhile on the 
WaiTen, last July, with a perfect shower of butterflies round me, I had a good 
opportunity of watching a $ P, Sylvanus deposit her eggs. She flew from one stem 
of grass to another several times, as if she were rather particular in her selection, 
and, having found a suitable one, she slid gently down it. The movement was so easily 
yet so quickly done, that I could scarcely see whether it was performed by means of 
the legs or the wings, but I rather think the former. When she was gone I opened 
the sheath formed by the leaf round the stem, and found therein about thirty small 
white eggs deposited in a line. — Henry Ulliett, Folkestone. 

Deilephila lineata at Newport, I. W. — On August llth I caught a specimen of 
DeilepMla lineata, rather faded, hoveriug over a bed of geraniums in the twi- 



130 



[October, 



light ; and on the 15th I caught another epecimen, very much larger, and of more 
brilliant colours. Surely it is very uncommon to take two specimens of so rare an 
insect at so short an interval ? From the fact of having also seen lately two speci- 
mens of Sphinx convolvidi, and a great abundance of stellatarum, I hope to see 
some more Hawk-Moth rarities before the season is over. — E. H. Moberly, 
Brixton, Newport, Isle of Wight, 19th August, 1868. 

Deilephila Uneata m Derbyshire. — Referring to my note in last month's number, 
a second Derbyshire specimen of D. lineoM, taken by Mr. Wood (a gentleman's 
butler) near Burton-on- Trent, two years ago, has been given to me. — Henry Evans, 
Darley Abbey, Derby, September 2nd, 1868. 

Abundance of Colias Hyale in 1868. — Among the notices of Lepidoptera in the 
September No. of the Entomologist's Magazine, I observe more than one on the 
capture of Colias Hyale in some abundance at Colchester, Gravesend, and near 
Ramsgate. As it will probably be found that this species has been unusually 
abundant in many other localities, I think it may prove scientifically useful if all 
such appearances are recorded. I therefore add that a week ago I observed 
Hyale in great numbers near Cromer, in Norfolk, I could have captured dozens, 
but only took an example to convince my friends that I was not mistaken in the 
species. All that I saw were in fields bordering the cliffs to the west of Cromer. 
I did not observe one on the eastern cliffs. I may add that Pyrameis cardui was 
to be seen in every locality within six or eight miles of Cromer ; in fact it was the 
most abundant butterfly at that time on the wing. — Frederick Smith, British 
Museum, 1st Septeniber, 1868. 

Colias Hyale and Sphinx convolvuli at Haslemere. — Hyale has appeared here ; 
I have taken a lovely set, but it is not numerous. Sphinx convolvuli has also been 
found. — C. S. Barrett, Haslemere, 22nd August, 1868. 

Heliothis peltigera at Exeter. — H. pcltigera has again occurred here this season, 
but only one or two specimens have been captured. — J. Hellins, Exeter. 

Capture of A. Atropos on the wing. — A friend of mine, Mr. Basil P. Fielding, 
came to me this morning to show me a moth which had entered at the window of 
a brightly lighted room near Reigate, last night. The specimen, successfully pre- 
served in a bottle, where, I must say, it looked anything but comfortable, proved 
on examination to be a fine A. Atropos. Misgivings evidently possessed my friend's 
mind as to the next step to be taken in dealing with his unwieldy capture, and he 
frankly offered to entrust me with the task of its destruction. Scarcely had I 
touched it with the solution of oxalic acid when the loud squeak, which sounded very 
like a remonstrance, became audible : and the strange sound was continued with 
unusual distinctness until the powerful poison had done its work. — J. B. Blackburn, 
Grassmeade, Wandsworth, 7th September, 1868. 

Occurrence of Argynnis Lathonia at Folkestone. — On the 7th iust. I had the good 
fortune to capture a large female of this spccios in the Warren hero. — W. Purdey, 
Folkestone, Sept. lUh, 1868. 



1808.] 



131 



Another capture of Argynnis Lathonia at Colchester. — Since I last wrote I have 
bad the pleasure of taking another beautiful specimen of A. Lathonia, and have also 
met with Spilodes sticticalis, and a few pupae of Cymatophora ocularis. — W. H. Ear- 
wood, St. Peter's, Colchester, 16th September, 1868. 

Abnormal brood of E. russula. — Some of the larvse from a batch of eggs of this 
insect, sent to me in the third week of last June, fed up with marvellous rapidity. 
Many of them assumed the pupal state early in August, and the first imago 
emerged on the 15th of that month. This species usually passes the winter in the 
form of a small larva, and feeds up in the next spring. — Mrs. Hutchinson, Grants- 
field, Leominster, September, 1868. 

Occmrence of Euperia fulvago in Scotland. — About the end of last July I found 
a specimen of this handsome moth on the flowers of Erica tetralix ; and subse- 
quently, by working hard, took a few more on the flowers of the same plant and of 
Calluna vulgaris. Two specimens also came to " sugar." This species, which 
seems to be very local in England, is, I believe, unrecorded hitherto as Scottish. — 
F. Buchanan White, M.D., Achilty, Rosshire, September, 1868. 

'New locality for Scoparia angustea, Steph. ; 8fc. — During the past week I have 
met with this species at Folkestone, where it appeared to be by no means uncom- 
mon ; but, believing the locality to be new, think the occurrence should be recorded. 
I may mention that I also found several larvae of Sericoris euphorbiana in the closed 
heads of Euphorbia amygdaloides, and that a female Galleria mellonella made its 
appearance in the house. — Howard Yaughan, Kentish Town, 11th September, 1868^ 

Cerostoma scabrella near Croydon. — During a short stay at Croydon, last July, 
I was lucky enough to meet with three specimens of Cerostoma scabrella, on an old 
fence in the vicinity of Croham Hurst. — James L. Courtice, Camden Tovm, N.W., 
September Zrd. 

Occurrence of a Scoparia (Sc. Zelleri, WoclceJ new to Britain. — One evening in 
July, my fi:-iend Mr. Horton captured here, in my dining-room, a fine example of a 
Scoparia, as large as, or even larger than. Sc. cembrce, but grey in tint, like Sc. 
am,bigtialis. Dr. Knaggs informs me that it is identical with specimens in his 
possession received from Dr. Staudinger, under the above name. — George J. 
Hearder, Joint Counties' Asylum, Carmarthen, August 27th. 

Scoparia Zelleri at Norwood. — A second example of this species was left with 
me for determination some time since. It was taken at IS orwood by Mr. Pryor 
who will perhaps, when this meets his eye, favour us with an account of its capture. 
— H. Guard Knaggs, September ISth, 1868. 

The larva of Abraxas grossulariata distasteful to frogs. — At a recent meeting of 
the Entomological Society, when the question of the distasteful nature of certain 
insects and their larvee was being discussed, I mentioned that three individuals of 
the green lizard formerly in my possession had always shown a particular aversion 
to certain caterpillars. Amongst those invariably rejected I especially noticed A. 
grossulariata ; this, too, seemed particularly strange, inasmuch as they never refused 
to devour the pei'fect insect of the same species. 



182 



LOctober, 



Yesterday I had the pleasure of observing the same fact in the case of two 
frogs which I now keep in my old lizard-house to destroy slugs, woodlice, spiders, 
&c., — all of which they swallow with the greatest avidity. 

When they first became aware of the introduction of the caterpillars of 
grossulariata, they seemed greatly excited, sprung forwards, and licked them 
eagerly into their mouths ; no sooner, however, had they done so, than they seemed 
to become aware of the mistake that they had made, and sat with gaping mouths, 
rolling their tongues about, until they had got quit of the nauseous morsels, which 
seemed perfectly uninjured, and walked off* as briskly as ever. 

After this, it was useless to attempt to persuade the frogs to touch one of 
these caterpillars. — Arthur G. Butler, British Museum, May 18th, 1868. 

P.S. — Since writing the above I have tried other larvas from gooseberry, with 
exactly the same result ; such as those of the gooseberry saw-fly, and of Halm 
vauaria. May it not be possible that the plant transmits some peculiar acid to the 
larvf© which feed upon it, such as to cause their rejection as food by small reptiles, 
&c. ?— A. G. B., Srd July, 1868. 

Notes on gall insects. — There exists in the library of the Museum at Basle an 
octavo volume, presented in 1854 by Professor Wackermagel, whioh contains a 
nicely-arranged series of insect productions, such as mines, galls, distorted shoots, 
cut leaves, &c., of various Swiss plants. Years ago it was my great delight to 
study the numerous biological lessons of this volume, but time and change of 
residence had almost obliterated my recollection of its contents, until, on a recent 
visit, my attention was recalled to it through the courtesy of Professor Peter, 
Herian. Acting on the maxim that " repetitio mater studiorum est," I perused it 
parefuUy. Memoranda made on the spot and specimens compared since my return 
to England, enable me now to add another link to the solution of two of the queries 
I advanced in the May No. of the " Zoologist " (p. 1201), I there called attention 
to tubular galls on the upper-side of beech leaves (West Wickham) covered with a 
reddish pubescence, &c. These will have to be referred to Cecidomyia annuUpeSy 
Hartig, or to a closely allied species. Mention was also made (Zool., p. 1201) of 
discolom-ed and rolled leaflets of the common Bracken (Allonby, Cumberland), which 
I can now ascribe to a Haltica. 

It rests with successful breeders to verify these surmises. 

In the same volume, my eye was struck by a leaf of Qiiercus pedunculata, 
bearing on its upper surface numerous spangles of Neuroterus Malpighii, Hartig. 
This display of instinct at fault is of rare occurrence with the insect named, so far 
as I know, but I shall be glad to hear what other observers hare to say. My other 
memoranda must be left for some future time, but a thought suggested by tho 
handling of the said collection, in whioh Bremi's name occurs in almost every page 
may fitly close this notice. 

It is to be hoped that the valuable legacy of unpublished biological essays by 
this naturalist, preserved in another Swiss library, at Zurich, will soon be made 
accessible, in some way or other, to the entomological public. No one can look 
over the list of these papers in Dr. Hagen's laborious " Bibliotheca Eutoraologica " 
without forming some such expectation. "Wlicn will it be realized f — Albert 
MuLLER, Penge, S.E., August llth, 1868. 



1868.] 



133 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THYAMIS. 
BY E. C. EYE. 

Amongst a series of most of the then known British Halticidco, sent 
in November, 1863, by Mr. G. 11. Waterhouse to Herr Kutschera of 
Vienna (and recently returned with certain remarks, of whicb a notice 
from the pen of the former gentleman will appear in our next Number), 
was an example of a large species of Thyamis, taken, as far as I am 
aware, only by myself,* — which Herr Kutschera considers to be distinct 
and undescribed. I, accordingly, characterize it as follows : — 

Thyamis agilis, n. s. 

Alata, ovata, convexa, nitida ; ItLvide testacea^ oculis nigris, suh- 
tus picea, antennarum feinorumque posticorum late apicibus piceis ; 
thorace evidenter putictulato ; elytris confuse, sat fortitei\ minus con- 
fertim punctntis, humeris vix prominulis, apice singulatim suh-rotun- 
datis ; tihiis posticis calcari brevissimo, crassmsculo, instructis. 

Var. capite elytrorumque siiturdvel rufescentibus vel picescentibus^ 
tibiaruin tarsorumque apicibus picescentibus. 

Long. corp. Ij — IJ lin. (Anglic). 

T captured about a dozen specimens of this conspicuous insect in 
September, 18G3, by sweeping in Headley Lane, Mickleham ; but have 
subsequently only found one other example, in the same place. 

It is about tbe size of T. jacobcece, Waterhouse (tabida, Auct.), 
which, however, it exceeds in comparative width ; but it is most closely 

allied to T. tabida, Fab., TVaterh. (verbasci, Auct.), which it resembles 

very much in appearance and structure. Compared with that insect, 

it is considerably smaller, the largest example of it being rather less 

than the smallest verbasci ; its colour is not so light ; its thorax is more 

evidently and its elytra more strongly and less closely punctured ; the 

second and third joints of its antennae are equal in length, instead of 

the third being rather longer than the second ; and the spur terminating 

the posterior tibiae is very much shorter and scarcely perceptibly curved. 

The smallest examples, which are about equivalent in size to large 
specimens of T. melanocephala, may readily be known from that species 
by their less defined colouration, wider and less acuminate elytra — 
which are more shining, owing to their wider punctuation— stouter an- 
tennae, light posterior tibiae, &c. 

The testaceous Ralticidcd are so liable to get discoloured after 
death, that it is extremely difficult to define their exact tints. The 
lightest in colour of my specimens has the five apical joints of the an- 

* Dr. Power appears to h : ' ''wo very old specimens of this insect in his collection, taken at " Gog 
Magog,' Cambridge. One of m^ Ivfkkleham examples, given to him by me, has been sent by him to M. 
Allard, who has returned it as verbasci, var., having apparently failed to perceive the structural differ- 
ences between the two insects.— E. C. R. 



134 



[November, 



tennsB and the upper apical portion of the posterior femora pitchy-black, 
and the suture very slightly rufescent ; whilst in the darkest, the an- 
tennse, head, posterior femora almost entirely and anterior and middle 
femora slightly, apex of all the tibije and tarsi, and the suture (especially 
behind), are pitchy. This darkness, however, I suspect must principally 
be attributed to a mere suffusion of fluids in drying after death. 
7, Park Field, Putney, S.W. : Uth October, 1868. 



ON THE ABUNDANCE OF CERTAIN INSECTS IN CERTAIN YEARS. 
BY E. C. E. JOEDAN, M.D, 

It was formerly a favourite hypothesis with me that either the eggs 
or pupae of some insects lay dormant until a favourable season for their 
development ; but I am growing more and more weaned from this idea 
yearly. I do not wish to deny that the pupae of Eriogaster lanestris, 
for example, may pass over a year when February and March are 
unusually bleak, but this latent state is not the reason for the periodic 
abundance of certain insects. Every moth lays a vast number of eggs, 
and generally the greater number of these perish before arriving at 
maturity, the usual time for such destruction is probably the very young 
stage of larval life, and a heavy rain about that period may cause great 
mortality ; in some years all circumstances prove favourable, and the 
usually rare insect becomes abundant. Some lepidopterous insects are 
peculiarly subject to this periodic plenty, such as Golias B.yale and 
Edusa (both I believe always abundant on the continent). Sphinx convol- 
vuli, Agroiis saucia, insects of the genus Heliothu, and many others. 
These remarks have occurred to me " in populous city pent," and with 
too much work to touch entomology for the season, from the unusual 
abundance of two insects in the streets of this town. They have been 
Chrysopa perJa and Goccinella septempunctata. Of the former I counted 
more than twenty on each of two consecutive lamps one night, and 
every other lamp seemed to have an equal number ; as for the latter, 
they have been so plentiful that I have seen children of ten collecting 
them from the walls in little baskets and paper bags. Now it is well 
known that the larvae of these two insects are subject to very similar 
conditions as far as regards the general " struggle for existence," widely 
different as the perfect states may be. These few remarks are given in 
the hope that some interesting observations may be drawn out from 
entomologists as to their experiences during the very peculiar and 
almost tropical summer through which we have just passed. &yrphus 
pyrastri has been only a little more plentiful than usual. 
35, Harborne Road, Birmingham : Sept. \2thy 1868. 



1868.] 



135 



LIST OF CAPTURES OF HEMIPTERA IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA; 
TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 

BY J. W. DOUGLAS AND JOHN SCOTT. 

{Concluded from page 118.) 

Family LYGID^, 
Genus Camptobeochis, Eieb. 
37. — Camptobeochis seeenus, Doug. & Scott. 

$ . Cinereus, nitidus ; capite ocTiraceo, linea media necnon margine 
postico stramineis. Antennis nigris articulis primo et secundo medio 
hrunneis aut rujis ; pronoto nigro, margine antica maculaque conjuncta 
palUde stramineis ; scutello nigro, apice pallide stramineo ; clavo griseo- 
hrunneo, apice piceo-nigro ; corio dnereo, postice fascia lata picea ; cuneo 
apice late piceo-nigro ; membrana pallida, nervis hrunneis ; pediius rufo- 
hrunneis. Long. 1\ lin. 

? . Greyish-white, shining, with remote black punctures, those 
on the pronotum deeper than those on the corium. Thighs not banded. 

'Read brownish-yellow. Crown with a pale yellow central streak, posterior margin 
pale yellow, widest in the centre. Face, central lobe with a pale yellow cen- 
tral streak. Antenncs, 1st joint red, base and apex narrowly pitchy -black ; 
2nd, 3rd, and 4th pitchy-black, 2nd with a broad brown band in the middle. 
Eyes pitchy-brown. Rostrum brownish-yellow, apex piceons. 

Tliorax — pronotum black, collar and a triangular spot behind it, separated by a nar- 
row transverse black line, pale yellowish-white ; lateral margins broadly 
brownish-grey, widest at the posterior margin, the latter narrowly pale yellow, 
disc convex, callosities not punctured. Scutellum raised above the clavus, 
black, convex, sparingly punctured in the centre, sides and a diamond shaped 
patch at the apex pale yellowish-white. Elytra, clavus pale brownish-grey, 
inner margin narrowly, as far as the scutellar angle, pitchy -black, from the 
latter to the apex a narrow triangular patch, pitchy-black. Corium, extreme 
anterior margin piceous, posteriorly with a broad piceous band, its posterior 
margin lun'ate, its anterior margin with a tooth in the middle, extending for 
some little distance along the centre of the disc. Cuneus punctured, apex 
broadly pitchy-black. Membrane pale, iridescent, cell nerves browTi, at the 
apex broadly margined with brown interiorly. Sternum — Prostemum xyphns 
and inner margin pale yellowish-white, sides black, punctured. Mesosternvm 
piceous, punctured exteriorly, margined with pale yellowish-white. Meta- 
sternum piceous. Legs reddish-brown. Thighs red-brown, paler towards and 
at the apex. Tihioe yellowish ; Ist pair, from the base a brown streak extends 
about half-way down their length, apex brown j 2nd pair, at the base with a 
brown streak on the outside, terminating in a half-band, apex brown ; 3rd with 
a broad band in the middle and the apex brown. Tarsi and claius piceous. 



136 



[November, 



Abdomen — undenieath picoous, sparingly clothed with fine, depressed yellowish 
hairs. 

Described from a single ? example taken near Baalbec in May. 

Family STIPHEOSOMID^. 

Genus Stipheosoma, Eieb. 

38.— Stipheosoma amabilis, Doug. & Scott. 

? . Nigro rubroque varia, nitida, pilis hrevihus, erectiSy dense vestita ; 

antennis piceis, articulo primo ruhro, secundo stramineo apice nigro ; cafite, 

pronoto scutelloque ruhris ; elytrorum clavo nigro ; corio nigro, mar- 

gine antico ruhro ; cuneo ruhro, apice piceo ; sterno ruhro, metastei^ni mar- 

ginihus lateralihus nigris ; pedihus mils, tihiis stramineis hasi rufis. 

Long. 2i lin, 

$ . Black and red, shining, thickly clothed with short, erect, 
black hairs. The junctions of the corium and cuneus, and cuneus and 
membrane, deeply notched. 

Head red. AntenncB — let joint red, 2nd yellow, apical third black, 3rd and 4th 
piceous. Eyes black. Rostrum brownish-red, base slightly and apex piceous. 

Thorax — Pronotum red, punctured, somewhat crenate — punctate towards and at the 
posterior margin, callosities separated by an x-shaped depression, deepest in 
the centre. Scutellum red, convex, raised above the clavus, wrinkled trans- 
versely. Elytra finely crenate — punctate longer than the abdomen, considerably 
deflected from the apex of the claval suture. Clavus convex, black. Corium 
black, anterior margin reflexed, red, broadest at the base. Cuneus red, rounded 
at the base, leaving a notch next the corium, extreme apex piceous. Membrane 
pitchy -black, cell nerves black, between the apex of the cuneus and the ceD 
nerves a white vanishing streak. Sternum shining. Pro and Mesostemum red. 
Metastemum black on the sides. Legs red, clothed with longish, depressed, 
pale hairs. Tihice yellow, base reddish, at intervals with a few stoutish, black 
hairs. Tarsi piceous, 1st joint yellow. Claws black. 

Abdomen — underneath black, shining, clothed with fine, erect, black hairs ; last 
genital segment red. In certain lights the hairs have a yellowish appearance. 

A single ? example taken at Hebron in April. 

Section Eeduvina. 
Family EMESID^. 
Genus Emesa, Fab. 
39.— Emesa Doheni, Doug. & Scott. 
Supra JIavescenti-brunnea, suhtus fusco-hrunnea ; capite linea longi- 
tudinali fusca oculis interrupta ornata ; antennis longis, pallide fuscis ; 
pronoto linea media angustd rufo-hrunnea ; elytris dilute ochraceis,ahdomine 
dimidio patdlo longioribus, nitidis, diaplianis.pnnctisatomisque fuscis, cellula 



1868. 



137 



apicali sub-rhomboidali,fuseo-marginata ; pedihus testaoeis, tihiis anticis 

Uneis maculisque fuscis, necnon ante medium dente longo inst^^uctis. 

Long. G lin. 

Linear, subcylindric, pale yellowisli-brown. 

Head— divided into two almost equal portions by a deep curved channel between 
the eyes ; viewed from above the anterior portion has its Bides parallel, the 
posterior portion somewhat arcuate and tapering towards the thorax, with a 
very narrow central line and a broader one on each side extending almost to 
the posterior margin ; viewed from the side ovate, sub-rhomboidal, with a fus- 
cous line throughout its entire length, interrupted by the eye. Antennos very 
long, filiform, pale fuscous. Eyes small but prominent, shining, deep pitchy- 
black. 

Thorax— Pronotum — anterior margin concave, produced on the sides, side margins 
constricted towards and at the collar j disc with a fine brownish-red central 
Hue extending over the collar. Mesonofum — sides divergent, with a distinct 
margin widest at the apex. Scutellum minute, basal angles rounded. Elytra 
a little more than one-half the length of the abdomen, nervures strong ; base, 
anterior and interior margins as far as the nerve, pale yellowish and somewhat 
shagreened ; disc whitish, almost diaphanous, shining, somewhat iridescent, 
with a row of fuscous spots next the inner marginal nerve, and one or two 
spots, parallel with the other row, nearer the middle of the disc ; longitudinal 
nerves on the inside and the nerve at the apex enclosing a rhomboidal cell, 
margined on both sides with fuscous. Sternum yellowish-brown, more or less 
mottled with fuscous-brown. Legs pale yellowish-brown. Thighs — 1st pair 
on the outside with large, irregular, fuscous-brown patches. Tibice with ir- 
regular, diagonal, fuscous-brown streaks and spots more or less confluent, 1st 
pair on the under-side before the middle with a long tooth, and between it and 
the apex a double row of short teeth, with, at intervals of about every fifth 
tooth, a longer one, the shoi-t teeth entirely and the apex of the others blaok. 
Tarsi with a brown band at the apex. Claw readies to the long tooth, apical 
half pitchy-brown. Tarsi of the 2nd and 3rd pairs at the apex and the claws 
piceous. 

Abdomen — above fuscous-yellow, with a narrow red central line and one down each 
side next the connexivum, between the central and side lines an interrupted 
fuscous line, penultimate segment sHghtly green ; underneath fuscous-brown, 
clothed with minute yellow hairs, central line pale, corinexivum margin pale 
brownish-yellow, base and apex of the segments, and five or six oblong spots 
of various sizes, placed at irregular inteiwals, fuscous-brown, at the junctions 
of the segments a small, round, shining, fuscous wart. 

We have much pleasure in naming this insect after Dr. A. Dohrn, 
the author of the admirable monograph of the Family, which was pub- 
lished in the Linnaea Entomologica, vol. xiv. 

The description has been drawn up from a single specimen, taken 
in April amongst water weeds on the edge of the stream running from 
Elisha's Fountain. 



138 



(November, 



Family EEDUVIID^. 

Genus Lochtjs, Doug. & Scott. 

Corpus ovatum, Ireve. Caput pronoti longitudine^ medio latissimum, 
partibus ante-oculari et lyost-oculari ceque longis^i nter oculus linea profunda 
impressum, postice nodiformi, inter antennas tuber culis duohus minutisin- 
structum. Antennce articulo primo capite paullo hreviori, hasi loho pen- 
dente instructo. Bostrum crassum^ curvaium, inter coxas anticas extensum^ 
articulo ultimo longissimo. Pronotum hreve, transversum, longitudinaliter 
valde convexum, margine anteriori carinato. Scutellum hreve, transversum, 
depressum, postice rotundatum. (Mgtra brevissima : alee nullce) . Pedes 
— femoribus anticis incrassatis,Jemorihus tibiisgue posticis valde elongatis, 
tar sis omnibus curvatis , articuUs primo et secundo brevissimis, ultimo valde 
elongato. Abdomen latum, ovatum, supra valde concavum, infra convexum, 
connexivo lato, margine serrato. 

Head almost as long as the pronotum, hindwardly a little and gradually 
narrowed, but not produced into a neck, anteriorly the sides are 
sub-parallel, the widest part is across the eyes, which are equidistant 
from the base and front of the crown, between them a deep linear 
impression produced forwardly in the middle, posterior to which 
the crown is raised into a node. Face decumbent. Antennce short, 
each set on a stout, obtuse tubercle; 1st joint stoutest, rather 
shorter than the crown, curved, scarcely clavate ; 2nd a trifle lon- 
ger than the 1st, 3rd and 4th filiform, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th with 
fine, projecting hairs : from the base of the tubercle a swollen, 
free, lobe-like protuberance hangs over the sides of the face : be- 
tween the antennsB two small tubercles. Eyes small but promi- 
nent. Ocelli posterior to the eyes, on e£ ch side of the basal node. 
Rostrum stout, curved, reaching to between the anterior coxa; ; Ist 
and 2nd joints very short, 3rd longer than the 1st and 2nd together ; 
4th longest. 

Thorax — Pronotum short, transverse, longitudinally very convex, anterior 
margine carinate. Scutellum short, transverse, flat, rounded be- 
hind, the margins slightly reflexed {Elytra rudimentary : Wings 
wanting). Legs — 1st and 2nd pairs in length moderate, thighs (of 
the 1st pair especially) incrassated ; 3rd pair, thighs and tibia 
thinner, both one-half longer than the 2ud pair ; all the tibice with 
fine, short, projecting hairs : tarsi — Ist and 2nd joints very short, 
3rd nearly three times the length of the 1 st and 2nd together. 



1868. 



139 



Abdomen very broad, oval, above concave, but raised along the dorsal 
line ; connexivum broad, the margin obtusely serrate ; under-side 
convex. 

43. — LocHUS sQUA.LiDi:s, Doug. & Scott. 
Niger, impunctatm ; nodo verticis et appendicibus antennarum hrun- 
tieis ; ahdomine supra lividi-brunneo, lineis bt^evibus fransversis angulis^ue 
posticis segmentorum connexivi late nigris. Long. 5^ lin. 

Black, except the abdomen, without punctures. 

Head — the posterior node obscurely, and the lobes attached to the antennas light 
brown. 

Ahdomen — above, livid testaceous-brown, on the posterior margin of each segment 
on each side of the raised middle a black spot, and two short black linear marks 
on each segment towards the connexivum ; and on the latter the posterior outer 
angle of each segment has a large triangular black spot. 

The whole insect is so thickly clothed with closely-adhering grains 
of sandy matter, which is extremely difficult to remove, that the colour 
and markings cannot be given more accurately than above. From its 
earthy investiture it may be presumed that this insect lies hidden in 
the soil waiting for its prey ; and it is equally eaSy to believe that its 
long posterior legs enable it to spring upon its victims. 

A single specimen ( ? ), only, taken on the plains of Jordan by 
sweeping low plants in April. 
Lee, S.E , 1868. 



Occurrence in Morayshire of an Elater new to the British lists. — In the beginning 
of June last I had the pleasure of capturing, on the banks of the Findhom, Moray- 
shire, two specimens of a Cryptohyprms which differed from any species of that 
genus with which I was acquainted. Knowing that Dr. Sharp possessed types of 
the European species, I sent these specimens to him for determination, and he 
informs me that they are, in his opinion, to be referred to C. pulchellus, Linn. 
Though given as British by Stephens, in his Manual, that species does not seem to 
be in his, or in any other, indigenous collection, as it has been omitted from all the 
subsequently published Catalogues. Indeed, Stephens' description does not 
apply to the insect in question, which is about the size of C. 4-pustulatus, with 
its elytra not deeply punctate-striate with their interstices slightly raised, but 
deeply sulcate at the base, after the fashion of C. sahulicola. Thorns., recently 
recorded by Dr. Sharp in this Magazine. — R. Hislop, Blair Bank, Falkirk, loth 
October, 1868. 

Note on the habits of Sinodendron cylindricum during oviposition, ^c. — In former 
communications I mentioned an old ash-tree as destroyed by Hylesinus crenatus^ 
and containing Sinodendron cylindricum in the rotten wood, both in the larval and 



140 



[November, 



imago states. In March last I cut off from thia tree all parts then harbouring the 
latter insect, — leaving, however, plenty of wood unattackcd, and in this I have 
since been observing Sinodendron depositing its eggs. On May 23rd I found two 
burrows, easily detected by the heaps of frass outside, each containing a pair of the 
beetle, — which, as I left none in or about the tree, were, of course, bred elsewlicre. 
The burrows entered the exposed rotten wood for a short distance at right angles 
with the surface, and then turned upwards along the fibres of the wood ; they 
were three or four inches long, and wider iu places, as if for " shunting." In these 
and other burrows found afterwards, before any eggs were laid, the female beetle 
was always at the side of the burrow with her head at its extremity, as if con- 
tinuing the excavation, and the male always had his head directed towards the 
opening and often close to it,— the remarkably flat front of his thorax nicely fitting 
the burrow, and with sawdust sticking to it, as if it were used for pushing out frass. 
It is not unlikely that the supposed shunting-places may have been eaten out by 
the male for nourishment. On the same day I found a solitary ? , who had only 
burrowed her own length into the wood. I replaced her in an artificial burrow 
made with the knife (after examining burrows, I usually replaced the beetles in this 
way, but doubt not that my proceedings disturbed them very much). The next 
day there was a S also in this burrow, and on the 25th I found this pair in cop. at 
the top of a burrow about three inches deep. On the 24th there was a burrow 
containing a solitary , just as that of the 23rd contained a solitary $ , and, by 
the next day, thia burrow contained a pair of beetles, the ? , as usual, furthest in. 
In opening the burrow I destroyed the of this pair, but on the 28th, two days 
after, there was another male in the burrow. On the 31st there was a $ only in 
this burrow, which I accidentally killed : no eggs had been laid. 

On two other occasions I found burrows commenced by males only ; but ray 
proceedings so disturbed them that they were gone the next day. I believe the 
normal length of burrow to be four to six inches, but my opening them so often 
made some of them burrow twelve or eighteen inches. On June 11th I opened 
the burrow commenced May 23rd by the solitary ? , and found the extremity of 
the burrow for about three-quarters of an inch tightly packed v^-ith frass or sawdust, 
in which were four eggs. The ^ beetle had backed close up against the extremity, 
and the $ was busily excavating a new branch of the burrow, which left the 
other just in front of the S • On June 2Svd I opened another burrow, in which I 
found only a ? , excavating a branch. In another was about three-quarters of an 
inch of tightly packed frass containing nine eggs ; in a third, a smaller quantity of 
frass with one egg. Probably in both of these cases the ? was bringing sawdust 
from the new branch of the burrow to put into the one in which oviposition was 
going on. It appears that the galleries are always excavated by two beetles, and 
that they meet first after the burrow is commenced ; but what seems somewhat 
remarkable to me is, that the burrow is commenced indifferently by either the S 
or ? beetle. The ^ usually, I suspect, when undisturbed, remains until ovi- 
position is well advanced. 

In a rotten ash-log, just attacked by Sinodendron, I have subsequently found 
several burrows which enable me to supplement my observations. One of these 
burrows was a very fine one, about six inches long, besides branches packed with 
eggs, of which I was able to examine two carefully. These brandies were each 



1868.] 



141 



about two inches in length, the upper one containing at least twenty eggs, laid 
with great regularity in spiral lines round the sides of the chamber, each against a 
slight depression in the rotten wall, about one-eighth of an inch from its neighbour, 
and carefully packed round with frass. The centre of this branch contained only 
frass, and no eggs, and its entrance fi'om the main burrow was packed with frass 
for about three-sixteenths of an inch, as a plug or stopper. The lower branch con- 
tained twenty or thirty larvae, which had been hatched for several days, and had 
commenced to bore into the wood : they had not at all disturbed their bed of frass. 
The $ beetle, still alive, occupied the main burrow, but the S was not to be found. 

Sinndendron evidently only attacks wood that is really rotten. I have found 
it boring into poplar and beech, as well as ash. 

The eggs are white and opaque, ovoid in form, one-twelfth of an inch in length, 
and one-twentieth in diameter. — T. Algerjson Chapman, Abergavenny, July, 1868. 

Dytiscus lapponicus in Ireland. — I have pleasure in recording the capture, for 
the first time, of Dytiscus lapponicus in the " Emerald Isle." During last August 
I spent several days in the " Wilds of Donegal," where a combination of sceneiy, 
on the one hand of the wildest grandeur, and on the other of the bleakest desola- 
tion, may be found, perhaps unmatched in the three kingdoms. The possibility of 
finding a slug (not a Limax) in one's hat seems very much to have prevented 
tourists and even naturalists from visiting its romantic cliffs. After a drought of 
three months I was not surprised to find insects of all kinds scarce. There is no 
sort of country which is so much injured entomologically by long want of rain as 
treeless moorland and mountain-side. The very peat-holes, the loved abode of 
Hydropori, were dried up. During my visit, however, the weather broke, and, oh ! 
such rain ! 

The loughs and tarns of Donegal are innumerable, but nearly all are so 
stocked with trout, that beetles have a hard lot. Having searched several tarns 
without success, I ceased to expect anything ; but happening to pass a small one 
from which no stream seemed to issue, I gave a passing look (having no net at the 
time) for any signs of entomological life. My sm-prise was gi-eat when, at the first 
glance, a Dytiscus came paddling towards me, and was at once recognised as lap- 
ponicus. He was speedily secui-ed with the hand (for he was quite unsophisticated), 
and a regular hunt commenced. I was rewarded ere long with a good number. 

Next day, through a perfect "tempest torrent whirlwind" of the elements, I 
returned with my net, and, amidst the sohtude broken only by the hiss of the wind 
along the mountain side, the rattle of the rain-drops on the surface of the water, 
and the roar of the Atlantic on the cliffs below, I spent several hours hunting, 
being up to the knees in water. Success, howevei', sweetened all disagreeables. 

I was much struck by the very close resemblance between the appearance of 
D. lapponicus, while at rest at the bottom, and the half- withered leaves of Pota- 
mogeton natans. The yellow striae on the elytra of the fi-eshly emerged males 
almost exactly mimic the venation of the leaf. Doubtless this has frequently saved 
them from the attack of herons and gulls. 

As I once before noticed (Ent. Monthly Mag., March, 1868), the females were 
very much less numerous than the males, being in the j proportion of 1 to S.^The 
only other beetles I observed in the tarn were Acilius sulcatus, Gynnus natator and 
Q. raimitus : the last was very abundant. 



142 



[NoTember, 



In one of the neighbouring peat-holes, further up the mountain, I was as- 
tonished at finding Dytiscus manjinalis, which, beside his boreal brother, looked 
gigantic. Along with him were several of the common Agahi and Hyd/ropori. 

On the slopes of the same hill I took Tarus vaporarioinim, Synuchus nivalis^ 
Trechus ohkisus, Calathus micropterus, and Otiorhynchus monticola ; tho last men- 
tioned, along with Olisthopus rotundatus, occurs on tho very summit of high hills, 
and also on the sea-shore. I suppose we must account for this in the same way as 
for the similar occurrence of Armeria maritima and Silene maritima. 

I may perhaps mention, for the benefit of those of other tastes, that the 
attractions of Donegal are multifarious. Of ferns, Osmunda regalis is a common 
one, growing in great luxuriance, sometimes in clumps 20 feet in circumference 
and 5 or 6 feet high. In the sea caves the fronds of Asplenium marinum attain 
the extraordinary length of 2 feet, and show some fine varieties. The rocks of 
mountain limestone are literally packed full of fossils; while round the cHflfs 
the chough, with its glossy black wing and red bill and feet, flies in flights, with 
an occasional sea-eagle, peregrine, and raven. — J. E. Someeville, 11, South Park 
Terrace, Glasgow. 

Deleaster dichrous in Scotland. — I took a specimen of this insect in tho be- 
ginning of June, flying at the entrance to tho West-End Park of our city. This is 
rather a northern locality for it, though it has been recorded before in Scotland, I 
believe. — Id. 

Occurrence of Apian cerdo near Newcastle-on-Tyne. — This fine Apion has been 
taken sparingly in three widely separated localities in this district. I have, in my 
collection, specimens from Gibside, Gosforth, and Bothall, all taken on Vicia cracca, 
in July. These examples were taken many years ago, and I have often swept up 
the same insect since, but, looking upon it as merely A. cracccc, it was generally 
allowed to escape. I have also noticed it to occur about Lanercost, in East Cum- 
berland. — Thos. Jno. Bold, Long Benton, Newcastle-on-Tyne, October 7th, 1868. 

Occurrence in Yorkshire of Phalacrus suhstriatus. — During the last week in 
July and the first week in August last, I met with this somewhat local beetle on 
one of our moor bogs, in some abundance, frequenting the flowers of the common 
Bog Asphodel, Narthecium ossifragum. Though widely distributed and abundant 
when it does occur, the insect seems by no means generally common. — T. Wilkinson, 
6, Clifi' Bridge Terrace, Scarborough, September lUh, 1868. 

Occurrence of Pseudopsis sidcatus at Scarborough. — My friend, Mr. Lawaon, and 
I took a fine series of this interesting species, by sifting the refuse at tho bottoms 
of haystacks, in the months of January, February, and March last. It is a most 
wretched creature to detect ; as it lies so long on the sifting-shcet before it will 
move. We found it in various localities in the neighbourhood. — Id. 

Capture of Sigara minutissima, Fab. — It may be interesting to some of the 
readers of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine to know that this somewhat local 
species has turned up here in some plenty, towards tho end of June and the be- 
ginning of July, in Scalby Beck, amongst Confervas. The only recorded localities 
that I know of, for it, are by Mr. G. R. Crotch, in the Cambridge Fens.— Id. 



1868. 



143 



Ca}->ture of Atomcvria ferntginea and A. fimetarii in Yorkshire. — During the month 
of May, 1867, I captured a fine series of A. ferrvginea, by shaking moss at the roots 
of ash-trees, in a very damp part of one of our woods. I had the satisfaction of 
again finding it the other day in the same place, in some plenty. There are no 
ants' nests, either in the trees or in the ground, near where I found the Atomaria. 
In the same neighbourhood, in May, 1867, I had the good fortune to take a fine 
example of Atomaria fimetarii. — Id. 

Occurrence of Potaminus suhstriatxis near Scarborough. — I have taken this very 
interesting and local species in Scalby Beck, scantily, from January last up to the 
present time, amongst moss growing on a timber waterfall, also on submerged 
pieces of wood, accompanied by Elmis VolTcmari, parallelopipedus, and ceneus, and 
Hydra^na pulchella. — Robert Lawson, 58, St. Thomas Street, Scarborough, October 
mil, 1868. 

Query respecting Bedegiuir galls. — There being reasons for supposing that other 
roses (especially cultivated varieties) besides the dog-rose, sweetbriar, and Rosa 
spinosissima, are infested with *' Bedeguars " in this country, any information or 
authenticated specimens, throwing light on this subject, would be very acceptable 
to me. I particularly wish to ascertain if grafts of the moss-rose have ever been 
found thus diseased. — Albert Mullee, 2, Camden Villas, Penge, S.E., October 
iSth, 1868. 

[With reference to this query I may remark, that I believe to have seen the gall 
on Rosa arvensis, but am not quite certain. In observations on standard " roses, 
it should be noted whether the galls are on the head of the plant, above the point 
of "budding," or on shoots or " runners " from the root or base of the stem. — 
R. McLachlan.] 

Enoicyla pusilla., the terrestrial Trichopterous insect, bred in England. — At page 
43 of the present volume I noticed the finding by Mr. J. E. Fletcher, of Worcester, 
of the larvae and cases of a terrestrial caddis-fly, which were probably those of 
E. pxisilla, Burm. Both sexes of that insect have now been bred bv Mr. Fletcher 
from these larvae. He found about 200 cases, and remarks that the larva feeds on 
moss and lichens at the lower part of the trunks of trees growing in damp situa- 
tions. When it ceases feeding, it stops up both ends of its case and burrows into 
friable earth, or moss, if the earth is not suitable, but only to a sHght depth. Some 
images appeared early in October, though at that time some of the larvae had not 
turned to pupae. This insect is the most important addition to our Trichopterous 
fauna that has yet been made. Through the kindness of its discoverer I have 
received a living example of both sexes ; the female (Dromophila montana, Heyden) 
has the merest rudiments of wings, and a stoutly developed abdomen, looking 
something like certain Coleopterous larvae (e.g., Crioceris), but with long pon-ected 
antennae. The larva has no external respiratory filaments. — R. McLachlan, Lewis- 
ham, lith October, 1868. 

Note on Agrypnia picta, Kolenati. — In noticing my capture of Agrypnia picta 
(E. M. Mag., Oct., p. 125), Mr. McLachlan has made a slight error. He says I 



144 



[November, 



took the insect "in August," but it should be " in June.'* Mr. McLachlau would 
appear to think that it must have come from a distance, but there is plenty of 
water about Highgate — the seven large ponds communicating with each other, for 
instance, besides other pools, with reeds, rushes, &c., gi'owing in them. — H. Pryek. 

Dipterous larvce voided by the human subject. — The enclosed larva was sent to 
me from Gloucester to be named ; can you assist me ? It was taken from between 
the bed-sheets of an old imbecile patient who was very dirty in his habits. During 
life it was of a faint cream-colour, with a black spot on the head. It was very 
active. — G. J. Hearder, Joint Counties Asylum, Carmarthen, Aug. 21th, 1868. 

[This larva is evidently Dipterous, and Professor Westwood, to whom we 
submitted it, says it is tliat of an Anthomyia (MuscidceJ, and was no doubt voided 
from the intestines of the patient. Similar instances are recorded in his " Intro- 
duction," vol. ii., p. 571, and a table of the numerous records of like occurrences 
may be found in a paper by the Rev. F. W. Hope, in the Transactions of the Ento- 
mological Society of London, ser. 1, vol. ii., pp. 266-268, in which the fanciful term 
" Myasis " is used to denote the supposed disease occasioned by Dipterous larva) 
in man. Their presence is no doubt due to depraved and vicious appetite. They 
live naturally in animal excrement, decayed vegetable matters, &c. — Eds.] 

On the Natural History of Acronycta alni. — On Monday evening, July 20th, I 
was looking over some standard roses growing upon a bank on one side of the drive 
in front of this house, when I noticed upon a leaf what appeared to be a recent 
deposit of the same nature as that, which proved so injurious to Tobit's eyesight. 
A nearer inspection, however, resolved it into a nondescript Lepidopterous larva, 
half doubled round upon itself, and resting upon a slight silken pad. I will 
endeavour to describe it. Its length was about 10 lines : head small, dark brown, 
somewhat deeply notched above : body rather slender, of uniform thickness : colour 
dark dirty brown, gradually paler towards the belly, except the last three segments, 
which were white, with the ground colour faintly showing through : upon each 
segment were conspicuous black warts, small but conspicuously raised, bearing 
short slender brown bristles of the ordinary type, except those on the post-capital 
segment, which were slightly clubbed. Legs sixteen. Whole body very glossy, 
appealing as if varnished, 

I confess that I was quite at fault, and unable to " put a name on " the 
creature (as they say in the Isle of Man), even after consulting every available 
book ; and I must regret that I did not at the moment indite a more minute des- 
cription of this — the early stage, which seems to be little known, of a famous 
caterpillar, for before morning it had effected a wondrous transformation indeed, 
and appeared as a full-blown and unmistakeable larva of A. alni. 

Its sombre garb doflfed, and in due course devoured, after the manner of its 
kind, my capture presented itself to my delighted eyes in black velvet suit, broadly 
slashed with gold, and bristling with those pecuhai- tags which are the distin- 
guishing badge of A. alni in embryo. For food, it at once selected the leaves of the 
lime from the many submitted to its choice rejecting entiivly those of the rose, upon 
which it was found, and of the Spanish chestnut, which was the nearest tree whence 



1SG8.] 



145 



it could havo fallen. There was no lime tree, I may observe, within twenty yards 
of the spot. It fed well, aud throve accordingly, till the 27th, on which day, 
having previously ascertained that its features were still a desideratum in Mr. 
Buckler's (Lepidoptero-) ancestral portrait gallery, I dispatched it per post to that 
gentleman to sit — or rather recline — for its likeness. I enclosed in its travelling 
carriage a piece of dead bramble-stick for its edification, if constructively inclined, 
en route. Of this it appeared to have availed itself without loss of time, for Mr. 
Buckler writes me word that, on its arrival at Emsworth next day, it had half 
buried itself therein, and was hard at work throwing out the dust of its excavation. 
With some difficulty it was safely withdrawn from its " Adullamite " habitation in 
" the cave," and duly depicted. Again at liberty, after a slight refection to recruit 
its strength, it speedily returned to its engineering, which it prosecuted so 
vigorously, that it soon emerged at the other end of its tunnel, and turned a 
homeless pupa after all upon the debris of its work on the 1st August. 

P.S. — Thus far the individual A. alni in question j whose capture further set 
me searching to learn as much as I could of the history of this somewhat eccen- 
tric species. Perhaps a summary of the results, as gleaned from the pages of the 
Zoologist, Intelligencer, Magazine, and Entomologist, may interest some of your 
readers. 

I find the capture of about 75 specimens recorded since 1844 ,• of which 57 
were taken in the larval and 15 in the perfect state, — the pupa having been met 
with only three times. The earliest recorded capture of the larva is by Mr. Hawley 
on July 27th, 1846 (Zool., p. 1659), so that mine on the 20th of the same month 
must be regarded as exceptionally early, — one of the results of a precocious sum- 
mer. Mr. Douglas, indeed (perhaps in error ?) writes of it as occurring in the 
New Forest on oaks in June (Zool., p. 3587). It has been met with at Sutton 
Park, near Birmingham, as late as September 10th, 1851 (Zool., p. 3334). Mr. 
Firby, of Wetherby, alone seems to have noticed the earlier stage which I have 
attempted to describe. He writes (Entom., Sept., 1865, p. 287), " Whilst beating 
at Bishop's Wood, near Selby, on the 27th of July, I had the good fortune to 
obtain one lai-va of A. alni, feeding on alder; it was changing its skin for the last 
time. I must confess I could not make it out until after the change, so totally 
unlike in colour, and also minus the clubbed hairs, with the exception of two very 
small ones on the second segment." The trees and bushes, from which the larva 
has been taken, and upon which it is said to have fed, have been oak, elm, alder, 
hazel, hawthorn, beech, lime, Spanish chestnut, horse-chestnut, sycamore, black 
poplar, sallow, willow, and bramble ; apparently showing a general preference for 
the four first named. It has also been picked up upon buckthorn, holly, dock, and 
grass ; upon gateposts, walls, palings, and, lastly, upon a gentleman's coat. At 
least a dozen seems to have chosen a death by starvation to the prison-fare offered 
them. 

Whimsical as appear to be its tastes in the matter of diet, its vagaries in 
entering upon the next stage of its existence are even more remarkable. In fact, 
it would seem to set about the work of pupation without any fixed rale or principle 
of proceeding, at least in a state of captivity. Thus (premising that rotten wood 
for the formation of its cocoon seems generally to have been regarded by its captora 



146 



f November, 



as a sine qud non) we find Mr. Hawley'e capture, already referred to, gladly availing 
itself of the provision thus made for it ; while Mr. Bedell's, on the contrary, de- 
clining the sapid material, devoted its constructive energies to dead leaves (Zool., 
p. 1140). Another of Mr. Hawlcy's retired into the earth (Zool., p. 1228). Other 
four, taken near York, 1856 — 1858, all turned pupse, in Mr, Anderson's words, "on 
or under the earth without the least appearance of a cocoon " (Zool., p. 6284). A 
bark wigwam was the selected resting-place of one which fell to Mr. Barrett's lot 
(Ent. Mo. Mag., iii., p. 37). So much for its metamorphotio efforts in ccvptivity. 
Or its natural doings we have, fortunately, one record to guide us in spelling out 
its true history. Mr. H. Moore was the lucky observer. " Going along a sandy 
lane here (Albury, Surrey) on September 1st (writes that gentleman), I observed 
what appeared to be sawdust sprinkled on some bramble-leaves. I thought it 
probably the work of a larva, and so looked for some stem whence it might have 
fallen. I now found an old dead bramble-stick, one end of which was hollowed. 
I split this down about a couple of inches, and disclosed a full-fed larva of Acronyda 
alni. On looking at it two or three days later I found it had changed. The pupa is a 
rich deep chestnut colour, and is head uppermost in the stem. There is no ap- 
pearance of silk or cocoon, and the thin layer of pith above the pupa is very 
slightly stuck together." (Zool., p. 8211.) The reason why my recent capture 
deserted its prickly abode was doubtless that suggested by Mr. Buckler, viz., that 
the stick provided was not long enough to satisfy its energies, and to afford it the 
complete concealment it desired. The three recorded finds of the pupa throw no 
further light upon the matter. One is stated to have been " off hawthorn" (Zool., 
p. 2883), whatever that may mean ; the other two are without particulars. 

Its appearance in the imago state seems to take place between the middle of 
May and the middle of June ; May 22nd and June 23rd being the earliest and 
latest dates of its capture at large noted. All such captures appear to have been 
*' at sugar." Once only do I find an autumnal emergence to have occurred. The 
larva, to which reference has been made as captured by Mr. Hawlcy on Juno 27th, 
spun up the next day in rotten bark, and emerged September 18th of the same 
year. One taken by the late Mr. Stone, and kept in a warm room, made its 
appearance February 22nd (Zool., p. 7972) j and Mr. Pickard-Cambi-idgo has had 
it out on the 22nd of May in captivity. 

In one state or other Acronyda alni has occurred in most of the southern and 
midland counties of England ; but, apparently, not farther north than Lancashire 
and Yorkshire ; — which last county, however, seems, singularly enough, to bo the 
Bntish metropolis of the species, since considerably more than a fourth of the 
recorded captures have been made within its limits. It has not been reported from 
Wales ; and only a solitary specimen from Ireland. 

This about exhausts all I have been able to learn of the natural history of this 
interesting species. — H. A. Stowell, Breadsall Rectory, near Derby, September 
8th, 1868. 

Spilonota laridana. — This insect is not rare amongst the larches on the Lickey 
Hills near here, and has a black variety like its near neighbour. Is this a species, 
or is it not rather like LHtula angustioraiux, an example of an insect feeding on 



1868.] 



147 



Rosacece and Coniferce alike ? Zelleria hepcmella seeems, like thia latter insect, to 
affect the yew. — R. C. R. Jordan, M.D., 35, Harborno Road, Birmingham, 
Sejptemher 12th, 1868. 

AcheronticL Atropos at Margate. — Whilst staying at Margate the end of Angnst 
last, eight fine pupoD of this insect were brought to me by boys who had found them 
in potatato fields there. We have been successful in breeding four splendid 
specimens ; the fifth has no wings, and the remaining three pupoo are dead. They 
all had very powerful voices, and we were once awoke in the night by their loud 
" squeaking " the moment they came out. — H. Ramsay Cox, West Dulwich, Srd 
October, 1868. 

Small specimen of Vanessa Atalanta. — On the 7th September I captured here a 
dwarf specimen of this species. It is quite perfect in its markings, but is remark- 
ably small, measm-ing only 1 inch and 8 lines. — James Dallas, Heworth, York, 
September mh, 1868. 

Qrapta C-album in Devonshire. — I have much pleasure in recording the capture 
of Grapta C-album at Dartmouth. It is not included in Mr. J. J. Reading's 
Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Devon and Cornwall ; but that gentleman remarks, 
at page 23 of Part 1, that it is reputed to have occurred in the district ; so it is 
very satisfactory to be able to add another butterfly to the fauna of the two counties. 
The insect in question was taken yesterday by my friend J. W. Peers, Esq., while 
it was regaling itself on some ivy blossom, in company with many brilliant V. 
Atalanta. Mr. Peers saw another, but was unable to catch it, as the ivy was 
growing on the top of an old ruin, and the greater part of it was out of reach. I 
should have gone to look for more to-day, but it has rained incessantly. — Geevase 
F. Mathew, H. M. S. " Britannia," Dartmouth, 6th October, 1868. 

Captii/tes of rare Lepidoptera in 1868. — The following is a list of species captured 
this season by myself and brother. Margate — Argynnis Lathonia (A. G. Boyd), 
September 7th ; Heliothis armigera (ditto), end of August j Argyrolepia sub-Bauman- 
niana, A. Dubrisana. Heme Bay — Eupithecia subumbrata (2). Cheshunt — Deile- 
phila Uneata, August 25th ; Acentropus niveus ; Achroea grisella, by mothing ; Hypo- 
nomeuta vigintipunctella, bred ; Depressaria caprosolella (15) February 28th to 
April 15th ; D. pastinacella, at light j Qelechia rhombella, common on apple trees ; 
Laverna decorella, in thatch ; Phyllocnistis suffusella and saligna ; Coleophora argen- 
tula, bred; Nepticula centifoliella, bi-ed.— W. C. Boyd, Cheshunt, October Ihth. 

Notes on Mr. Jenner Fust's '^Distribution of British Lepidoptera.'" — On looking 
through Mr. Jenner Fust's paper on the " Distribution of Lepidoptera in Great 
Britain and Ireland," in the " Trans. Ent. Soc," 3rd ser., vol. 4, I observed that a 
few species which occur in Worcestershire are not indicated as occurring in sub- 
province 14, of which this county forms part. There are also a few I have captured 
here which are indicated with a mark of doubt, and one which is said to rest on 
only one authority. These species I give as follow : — 



148 



[Novem her. 



L. lurideola (complanvla) , common; A. interjectaria, not rare ; A. inornata, I 
have taken four; E. consignoia, one; E. linaHata, two; E. dondoncBata, three or 
four ; S. vetulata, two ; X. suhlustris, one ; N. saponaricB, two ; C. morplieus, com- 
mon ; C. alsines, attracted to light in three localities — in one plentiful ; A. aquilina, 
common at flowers, especially Ccntrantlius macrosiphon ; A. porpTiyreo, one at light ; 
E.fulvago, one; C. pyralina, one at light; P. ccespitalis, one. — J.E.Fletcher, 
"Worcester, \2th August, 1868. 

Abuses in nomendaiure.—l write to call the attention of the readers of the 
Entomologist's IVIonthly Magazine to abuses of nomenclature, which are growing to 
such magnitude among both British and foreign Entomologists as to threaten soon 
to become of very serious inconvenience. I do not intend to quote many instances, 
but I hope this protest may not be altogether useless. 

In the first place it is very common, when a name is required for a new species 
or genus, to combine it out of that of an old one. Thus we have for prefixes, in 
both species and genera. Hypo-, Pseudo-, Anti-, Epi-, Neo-, Hetero-, and many 
others ; and for afiixes, -oides, -ides, -ina, -ideus, -ella, -ilia, &c. I will give just 
one instance of the absurdity of this practice. In my Manual of European Butter- 
flies, I adopted the MS. name of Hypoxanthe for a new Chrysophanus. The true 
Xaoithe, by the revolutions of synonymy, had already changed its name, so that tho 
new species had worse than a nonsense-name ; it had a name that tended, if any- 
thing, to perpetuate error and confusion. 

Another practice existing alongside with the other, and, if possible, likely to 
become moi'e serious, is that of using the name of a genus as the specific name of 
a new species in another genus (often the next) which has some superficial re- 
semblance to it. This custom, which is, I believe, much more prevalent abroad 
than at home, is most objectionable, for it is highly probable that iu some instances 
at least, the supposed superficial resemblance may prove real, and the species may 
find itself in the genus whose name it already bears, necessitating that greatest of 
evils in nomenclature, a change of the name of a species. 

Again, I wish to ask, is it allowable, when a careless author has founded 
innumerable bad genera which have been ignored by common consent for fifty 
years, to upset well-established genera combining several of his, to restore liis 
obsolete names, merely because one of his types happens to fall into some good 
modem genus ? I shall be glad to have the opinions of others on these points.— 
W. F. KiRBY, Dublin, August 25th. 

Note having reference to hereditary variation. — Our fi-iend Mr. Harrison sent mo, 
last year, some eggs of a hetularia that had " selected " a black partner, and this 
spring I bred from them two black females and one black male, and five others 
very darkly mottled. — H. D'Orville, Alphiugton, near Exeter. 

Note on variation in Amphydasis hetularia. — My friend, tho late George Gibson, 
received from Mr. Harrison of Manchester, through Dr. Knaggs, some eggs of A. 
hetularia which were intended to produce an intermediate variety in the imago. 
He fed the larvse, I think, on birch, and at his death the pupee were handed over to 



1868.; 



149 



me. The motlis have lately emerged, and the result is, that for every Bpeoimen of 
the ordinary type five negroes have appeared, but not one of the intermediate 
variety. Perhaps you may think this worth a corner in your Magazine. — J. L. 
CouRTiCE, 22, College Street West, N.W. 

Note on Scoparia Zelleri. — The specimen of Scoparia Zelleri mentioned by Dr. 
Knaggs in this month's " Entomologist's Monthly Magazine," p. 131, was captured 
by me in the station at Norwood junction, on the 17th August, last year (1867). 
My friend, Mr. Wormald, was with me at the time, and we were just returning 
from a rather unsuccessful expedition to West Wickham, the night being rather 
cold for the time of year, with an east or north-east wind blowing. We had only 
reached the station a minute or two, when we observed the insect flying near a 
lamp. Mr. Wormald had folded up his net, and I was about to do the same, when 
I eflFected the capture. On examining it some days after, we thought it could not 
be Scoparia cemhrce ; so on the 27th of the same month we took it to Dr. Knaggs, 
aiid as he appeared uncertain about it I left it with him, ho kindly offering to see 
if he could identify it with any described species. It has been in his possession 
ever since, and I suppose he must have overlooked the fact of his having had it so 
long, as he calls it a " second specimen." — H. Pryer, Holly Village, N.W. 

Tama-Mai culture. — As many of your readers may have heard of, or experienced, 
considerable disappointment in the attempt to rear these useful creatures, perhaps 
a few words from one who has been more fortunate may not be devoid of interest. 

I am indebted to my ft'iend Mr. Gascoyne, of Newark, for fifty fine eggs, the 
pi'oduce of his own English-bred examples. They were nearly all fertile, hatching 
out young lai-vee of such a size as to make it more than usually mysterious how 
their receptacle, large as it was, could contain them. The young worms were 
placed at once upon shrubs of the common oak (forced forwards some six weeks in 
anticipation of their emergence), and were never subsequently touched. The little 
trees were in a large pedestal fernery of glass, between three and four feet in 
diameter and height, and with a perforated zinc window before and behind. They 
fed pretty well until their first moult, when many died. 

I had been cautioned to keep them dry ; and, beyond an occasional watering 
carefully applied to the oaks at their roots, this advice was implicitly followed. 
At each succeeding moult many failed, until ten individuals alone comprised my 
whole stock. By this time their trees had been nearly bitten bald, but having a 
Turkey oak in the garden (then in tender green leaflets), pending the providing 
other pabulum, I gathered some bunches, and, saturating asponge, tied it round 
their stems. Two circumstances struck me. First, they left what remained of 
their previous food, and attached themselves so entirely to their later, that the 
English oak took heart to bud out again, and even get into small leaves. 

Next, I constantly observed them (big fellows now) drinking away at the 
sponge, like haymakers at their beer-keg ! From that time I sprinkled their 
boughs occasionally ; their succeeding moults were accomplished without the loss 
of a single specimen ; with one exception, all the rest spun noble cocoons, and I 
had no further anxiety about them. 



150 



[NoTember, 



I therefore venture, under correction, to differ from those who counsel dryness* 
and suspect the losses sustained during their earlier changes to be owing to the 
want of a certain vigour occasional moisture might supply. 

They gracefully swathe two or more oak-leaves round their silken tabernacle, 
which is suspended from above by a substantial ligature. The moth generally 
escapes by nine a.m., effecting its exit much in the manner of Satumia carpini. 
The mechanism employed at the top of the cocoon with a view to easy liberation 
appears more simple than that of carpini, judging from the very large aperture 
which the mere internal pressure of the enclosed insect produces in a moment 
where no external signs of one was visible. 

Surely a little practice might establish the worm in Ireland, and make it a 
source of considerable profit to a peasantry not inclined to severe manual labour. — 
Edward Hopley, 14, South Bank, Regent's Park, Octoher 12th, 1868. 

Hadena peregrina at Lewes. — A Noctxia, which proves to be H. peregrina, was 
taken on the downs at the back of my house, by one of my school children. — 
Maktha Meek, Lewes, Septemhe)\ 1868. 

Cramhus rorellus at Folkestone. — At the end of May last, I was fortunate 
enough to capture a fine specimen of this rare species at the above locality. — E. G. 
Meek, Old Ford, E., Odoher, 1868. 

Ortliosia suspecta at West Wickhami, — On July 15tli of this year, I took, at 
sugar, a couple of specimens of 0. suspecta in West Wickham Wood, in good con- 
dition and fresh. The same night I took Acronycta Ugustri. — Chas. T. Ckuttwell, 

Chcerocampa Celerio at Hucldersfield. — I beg to inform you that a specimen of 
Choerocampa Celerio was taken by a woman, in one of the streets of this town, on the 
26th of last month.— Geo. T. Porritt, Clare Hill, Huddersfield, 19th Octoher, 1868. 

Obituary notice of Dr. Ludwig hnhoff. — On Sunday, the 13th September, 1868, 
at about three o'clock in the afternoon, there died at Basle, Ludwig Imhoff, Dr. 
Med. et Phil., after a few weeks' illness, aged 67. 

A contemporary of the gifted J. J. Hagenbach, the continuance of whose 
" Symbola fauna) Insectorum Helvetiae " he undertook ; a fellow-student and sub- 
sequent collaborator with Prof. L. Agassiz (Nomenclator Zoologicus, Hymenoptera), 
his name will for all time be connected with most of the Entomological undertakings 
in Switzerland for the past thirty years or so, as he belonged to that small but 
energetic band of naturalists who, between 1830-40, undertook to work out the 
different branches of the Swiss fauna, the Orthoptera and Eymenoptera being his 
chosen share. And if to this day we possess but fragments of his labours in these 
groups, the fault does not altogether lie with him. As regards his doings in other 
departments, the pages of the standard special works by Pictet, Hagen, Heer, and 
a host of other workers, afford ample evidence of his constant energy in collecting 
and observation ; and his universal knowledge of general Entomology is well shown 
by his own works, " Die Insccten der Scliwciz," '* Gattungen der Riisselkafer," and 
" Schweizerische Kiifergattungen," all fully illustrated hy Labram. 



1868.] 



151 



As a comprehensive handbook, his " Versuch einer Einfuhrnng in das Stndium 
der Koleopteren" deserves also special mention ; and a list of his smaller papers 
will be found in Hagen's " Bibliotheca Entomologica." 

Of late years, though always fully and diligently collecting all orders, Dr. 
Imhoff had devoted most of his time to the Hymenoptera, especially to the Aindoe, 
as shown, for instance, by recent papers on Swiss Andrenid(B, etc., in the *' Mit- 
theilungen der Sohweiz. Entom. Gesellschaft." 

But to my own mind, leaving literary attainments and professional activity — 
on both of which I am quite incompetent to speak — out of the question, the chief 
merit of Dr. Imhoff's scientific career seems to centre in the unwearied zeal he 
year after year brought to bear upon the discharge of his entomological lectureship 
in the Basle University. 

The study of insects is not attractive to the many ; the smallness of tlie objects 
deters all superficial curiosity ; there is to the outsider but little inducement to 
enter an arena where drudgery is the fii-st prize : it is therefore not to be expected 
that every one, even of the few earnest students who annually clustered round his 
chair, should become an entomologist, though several such instances did happen. 
Nevertheless, many have gathered a general acquaintance with the science there, 
and the fact remains, that the departed teacher voluntarily kept the flame of 
entomological lore burning steadily for a considerable period, and through good 
and evil report, besides attending uninterruptedly to the collections of insects in 
the Basle Museum. 

If but few would answer as disciples to his call within the pale of the University, 
his influence in other scientific circles was all the greater ; and there are few Swiss 
entomologists and collectors, alive or dead, of the present and past generation, who 
have not, at some time or other, derived both instruction and benefit from their 
intercourse with him. A certain undefined reserve, perhaps pure modesty, has 
often prevented Dr. Imhofi" from communicating, himself, the results of his life- 
long labours and ripe experience to the entomological world ; but the initiated can 
plainly see where others have reaped the fruits of his toil. 

Fully interested in the progress of natural science, as Dr. Imhoff was, he, as 
a matter of course, did study the tide of modem thought ; and it speaks well for 
the independence of his mature judgment, and for the freshness of his mind to the 
last, that although trained in the received belief of the immutability of species, he 
did not shut his ears to modern views, as held by Darwin and others ; and, cautious 
to the extreme as he was, he did go more than once so far as to observe to the 
writer, that although quite unprepared to fall in with Darwin's notions, he yet did 
not see why so much animosity should be imported into this discussion, considering 
that so many facts in nature seemed to militate in favour of the Englishman's 
views. 

Finally, a word as to Dr. Imhoff's behaviour to beginners, as experienced years 
ago by the wi-iter himself. Constant cheering-up, though in few words ; an appre- 
ciation of every step forward j no proud looking down upon the opinion of others ; 
but a steady, gentle way of instruction by word and deed : such were the leading 
features of my late friend's teaching ; and, only in June last, on an excursion to 
the Ursern Valley, this long established intercourse was again cemented by an 
eight days' daily exchange of ideas. 



152 



[NoTember, 



To-day his family, his numerous private and scientific friends at home and 
abroad, mourn for the departed ; and no doubt a full account of his active life will 
soon be in the hands of all who knew him in science ; but, bearing thankfully in 
mind how much I owe him, and how many acts of unrecorded kindness on his part 
have fallen to my lot, I pay ray sincei-e tribute to the respected mumoiy of a man 
whom I shall ever be proud of referring to as having been my steady friend and 
first mentor in matters entomological.— Albert Muller, Penge, S.E., Sept., 1868. 

The Canadian Entomologist : Toronto ; issued by the Entomological Society of 
Canada. 1868. 

We have received a half-sheet (8 pages) forming the first part of this publica- 
tion, which is to appear *' not oftener than once a month, and only when there is a 
suflaciency of suitable matter." It is edited by the Eev. C. J. S. Bethune, Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Society, and, if conducted with spirit, should do much towards 
fostering a taste for Entomology in Canada. " Exchanges," of course, take a pro- 
minent place. Under this head two things will strike a British reader as curious : 
one correspondent asks for *' any Lyccena excepting phlceas,*' reminding us of the 
excessive abundance of that species here this season, notwithstanding the prophecies, 
in which the reviewer joined a few years since, of its gradual extinction : another 
demands Pieris rapes, the newly -introduced Canadian ; what would he think of the 
state of our cabbages at the present moment ? 

The American Entomologist : St. Louis, Missouri. Edited by B. D. Walsh and 
C. V. Riley. 1868. 

The "Practical Entomologist," published by the American Entomological 
Society (late the " Eut. Soc. of Philadelphia"), would seem to have expired after 
two years existence, and its place is supplied by the above-named publication, of 
which we have received the first part (20 pages). The editors hold the position of 
" State Entomologists " for Illinois and Missouri respectively, our American cousins 
being more fully alive than we are to the necessity of having scientific advisers on 
the subject of insect depredations. This periodical, which is to be continued 
monthly, is devoted to information on the habits of the noxious insects of America, 
with investigations into the most Kkely means of arresting their ravages ; combined 
with sound popular articles on general entomology ; and is illusti-ated with numerous 
well-executed woodcuts ; all for the low price of one dollar per annum. We cor- 
dially wish it a longer life than its predecessor. One " practical " hint strikes us 
as well worthy the consideration of our apple-growers, as oflfering a possible means 
of "stamping out" the apple grub (Cai'pocapsa pomonana), which has been more 
than usually destructive here during this season. In an article headed " Hogs 
versus Apple-worms," the editors, on the experience of many orchard-keepers, 
strongly advise turning hogs into the orchard at the time when the infested fruit 
falls from the trees j these animals greedily devour the " fallings " before the larva 
has time to escape from the apples, and thrive thereon. Many instances are quoted 
to show the good efi'ect of this plan, and it is applied also to peach-orchards, to 
destroy a weevil-grub which causes great damage. The only drawback is the 



1808.J 



153 



unsightliness caused by the " rooting " of the ground by the hogs ; but this might 
probably be partially avoided were the plan of " ringing," used by English pig- 
keepera, adopted there. 

We hope again to have occasion to notice this useful publication. 

Catalogus Hymenopterorum EuROPiE, auctore L. Kirchner, Herausg. von der 
K. K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. in Wien, Vindobonae. ]867. 

This work gives in 285 pages the genera and species of Hymenoptera, with the 
author's name to each, and frequently, but not always, a sufficient indication to 
enable us to find the description. To the parasitic groups is added the name of 
the insect preyed upon j this, however, is not done so fully as might have been 
expected. The idea is excellent, and if the execution were in any respect equal to 
the design, a most valuable contribution would have been made to the literature of 
the Order. Even as it is, some assistance may be derived from it, but the mistakes 
and omissions are so frequent, that little confidence could be placed in it as a 
standard of reference, or as an oracle for the solution of knotty points. Opening 
the work at page 38 (IchnevmonidcB), we observe that the two first genera, Eristicus 
and EwpalamuSy Wesm., are retained, although expressly discarded by their original 
author in his subsequent works, and their species distributed among Ichneumon 
and Eimjlahus. On p. 39, Ichneumon^ sp. 1 is spelt abator, Desv., instead of ohator, 
whereby the alphabetical arrangement is broken, and the real ohator, sp. 173, is 
sought for in vain. Sp. 5, alhicinctus, Gr., and 7, albila/rvatiis, Gr., should have 
been placed under Phygadewn. Sp. 20, Ichn. AU'opos, Newport, should have been 
placed under Trogus ; Curtis, and not Newport, is the author of the name, which 
after all is a mere synonym of Tr. Vutorius, Fab. Sp. 32, Ichn. Ininnicornis, Gr., is 
repeated on p. 49, as Herpestomus hrunnicornis, Gr. Spp. 46 and 47 have the 
same name, comis, Wesm. Next to the genus Ichneumon is placed Acrodactyla, 
Hal., which belongs to the Pimplarice, and should stand close to Polysphincta ; the 
typical sp. A. madida, Hal., is omitted. On p. 48 we &nd Eiirylahus dims, Wesm., 
which figures previously on p. 38 as Ewpalamus dims, Wesm. On p. 59 Microleptes 
splendidulus, Gr. (an Ichneumonoid form), is given as a synonym of Pterocormus 
means, Gr., among the CrijptidcE, the blunder being caused by a typographical 
error in Desvignes' Catalogue, corrected in the errata of that work. Nearly all the 
names of Stephens, Curtis, and Haliday appear to be omitted, unless they chance 
to be quoted by some continental writer. Ex pede Herculem ; we have given 
enough to show the general style of the book, which in its present state can only 
serve to mislead and confound. It requires a thorough revision, to be carried out 
not by the mere perfunctory copying of names, but by actually reading the cir- 
cumjacent matter, which alone can give meaning and arrangement to those names. 
The task undertaken by the author is a great one, perhaps too much for the powers 
of any individual. So formidable a list coald not be thoroughly purged of errors. 
But the duty of a cataloguer requires that he should at least faithfully represent 
the results attained by the authors whose works he undertakes to examine, leaving 
them responsible for their own conclusions. We regret to observe that this obvious 
duty is very far from being fulfilled by the work before us. It is conceivable that 
a future edition might be more carefully prepared from so laborious a ground- 
work, which would be hailed with pleasure by students of the Hymenoptera, and 
would go far to place them in the comparatively happy state of certainty enjoyed 
by the Coleopterists and Lepidopterists. 



164 



(NoTember, 



NOTES ON SOME PARASITIC HYMENOPTERAy WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF 

NEW SPECIES. 

BY THE EEV. T. A. MAKSHALL, M.A. 

Phtgadeuon scoticijs, n. sp. 

Ph. niger, sub-depressus, capite coriaceo, remote punctulato ; meso- 
tJioracis disco punctata, paru7n nitido ; alarum squamulis, segmentis 2*° et 
sequentibus, trochanterum femorumque apicihus, tibiis tarsisque, castaneis ; 
alis fuscO'hyalinis, stigmate et radio fuscis, radice pallidiore ; areola 
penfagona, nervo externa obsoleto ; terebra segmento V paulo longiore. 

? Long. 3 — 3^ lin. (terebra excl.) 

Metatborax rugulose ; areolce spiraculiferce and pleurales distinct, 
the others obsolete. Spiracles orbicular. Carinated margin of the 
declivity of the metathorax distinct, single, not laterally toothed. 
Vertex with a broad shining fovea behind the antennje. AntennsB 
stout, filiform, a little longer than the head and thorax, fuscous. Palpi 
castaneous. Body sparingly clothed with fulvous hairs. Tubercles of 
the first segment of the abdomen inconspicuous ; all the segments 
aciculated, not shining ; the apical segments sometimes slightly infus- 
cated ; the anus whitish. 

Allied to P. abdominator, Grr., andobscuripes, Tasch {= abdominator, 
var. 3, G-r.) , but is larger, wanting the white ring of the antenna), and 
with the abdomen opaque, etc. 

Two specimens from the Black Wood of Eannoch. 

Phtgadetjon eeeatoe, n. sp. 

Ph. niger, abdomine rufo, polito, apice sub-compresso ; segmento V^" 
nigro, apice rufo ; pedibiis rujis, femoribus 4 posterioribus prceter basin et 
apicem, tibiis posticis prceter basin, tarsis iisdem totis, nigris ; alis fusco- 
hyalinis, stigmate et radio fuscis, radice et squamida rufis, areola penta- 
gona, nervo externa obsoleto ; antennis fusca-ferrugineis, annulo alba ; 
terebra segmento 1"° paulo longiore. 

$ Long, fere 4i lin. (terebra excl.) 
Metathorax and vertex as in the preceding. On the inner vertical 
orbit of each eye, above the antennae, is a rufous line. Antennae mode- 
rately stout, filiform, fusco-ferruginous, joints 7 — 12 white, joint 7 fus- 
cous beneath. Palpi rufous. Metathorax and abdomen on the sides 
with a few pale hairs. Abdomen elongate, impunctate, shining, red ; 
1st segment black, long, and slender (for a Fhygadeuon), red at the 
middle of the apex, tubercles not prominent. 



1868.] 



155 



Might be an iGhneimon, but for its exserted ovipositor. Allied to 
Pliygadeuon desertor, Gr., from which it differs in the number of white 
joints of the antennae, the coloration of the legs, the sculpture of the 
metathorax, etc. 

One specimen from the London district. 



The following strange piece of synonomy among the IchneimonidcB 
deserves mention, if only for the purpose of inviting criticism. Of its 
truth I have thoroughly convinced myself, although unwillingly. 

$ Ichneumon crassipes, Gr., i, 622. 
^ Ichn. latrator, Gr., i, 572 {excl. ? ). 

$ Var. with short wings, Brachyj)terus means ^ Gr., i, 675 ; 
Ste. Mand. vii, pi. 40, fig. 2 ; Pterocormus means, Forst., 
Mon. Pez., 24. 

The original description of JBrachypterus means was drawn up by 
Gravenhorst from a single specimen sent him by the Eev. F. W. Hope 
from Netley, in Shropshire. A similar form does not seem to have 
occurred on the Continent ; but I fortunately possess four, taken long 
ago somewhere in the Midland Counties, — I believe at Bridgenorth. 
They agree ad amussim with I. crassipes, even in the sculpture of the 
metathorax, the most certain proof of identity. My specimens of /. 
crassipes are undoubtedly rightly named, havin^ passed through several 
examinations, including one by the late Mr. Desvignes. 



Genus Aptesis, Forst., Mon. Pezom., 34. 

The insect named Fezomachus hemifterus by Gravenhorst (ii, 874) 
was described from a single German specimen, now lost. Upon the 
strength of that description only, it is placed in Forster's genus Aptesis ; 
he rightly remarking that it cannot be assigned to any other. It cannot 
be assigned even to Aptesis, unless the following character of the genus 
be modified, " das erste Segment punktirt, nicht langsrunzlig," for the 
first segment of A. hemiptera is most distinctly wrinkled longitudinally. 
One of the new species here to be described exhibits the same rugosity, 
and it is only by claiming for them the same pri\ilege as for hemiptera 
that I can allow myself to refer them to this genus. 

Aptesis geaviceps, n. sp. 
A. nigra, capite maximo, antennis piceis, hasi testaceis, alho semi- 
annulatis ; ahdomine picescente, segmentis V apice, 2^" disco, plus minus 



156 



[November^ 



dilutiorihus ; alis metatJiorace longiorihus^ fusco-hi/alinis, stigmate et 
radio pallide fuscis, areola irregulari, suhtus aptrta, vel punctiformi, 
ohsoleta ; pedihus testaceis ; terebra segmenti 1"°' longitudine. 

$ Long. 1 lin. (terebra excl.) 

Head very large, twice as broad as the thorax, and with the thorax 
and 1st segment of the abdomen finely punctulate. Antennae tri- 
colorous, joints 1 — 3 — 4 testaceous, the rest blackish, 7 — 8 white above. 
Areolae of the metathorax distinct ; areola superomedia short, small ; 
posteromedia hexagonal, narrow above, widest in the middle, and slightly 
decreasing in width thence to the apex ; areolce spiraculiferce bisected 
by a transverse carina; all the areolae distinctly punctulate. First 
segment of the abdomen with the tubercles inconspicuous, medial; 
three times wider at the apex than the width of the petiole, punctulate, 
with 2 abbreviated longitudinal carinae, and 2 lateral longitudinal fur- 
rows; apex glabrous. Segments 2, etc., hardly punctulate, shining, 
black, sometimes more or less pitchy. Terebra fulvous, the sheaths 
testaceous, tipped with black. Fore-wings with a triangular stigma ; 
the apical nervures imperfect (in one specimen the radial cell is closed 
on the right ride, and open on the left) ; areolet transverse, 4 angular 
or irregular, the lower nervure incomplete (in one individual the areolet 
is obsolete, reduced to a puncfciform knot ; the same insect has also 
rather shorter wings). 

I took four of this distinct and unnoticed species last month, in a 
wood near Milford Haven. 

Aptesis stenopteea, n. sp. 

A. nigra, antennis fuscis, basin versus testaceis ; pedibus, abdominis 
segmento 1°** apice, 2'^° toto, testaceis ; segmentis 3*"° et sequentibus fus- 
cescentibus ; alis angustis, metatJiorace longioribus,fusco-Jigalinis, stigmate 
et radio pallide fuscis, areola irregulari, extus aperta ; terebra abdominis 
longitudine. $ Long. \\ lin. (terebra excl.) 

Head broader than the thorax ; both finely punctulate, almost 
coriaceous. Joints 1 — 5 of the antennae testaceous, the rest dusky, 
darker at the apex. Areolae of the metathorax not so distinct as in the 
preceding ; the superomedia irregularly hexagonal, slightly narrowed 
above ; areola spiraculi/erce bisected as in the preceding ; all these 
areolae shining, nearly impunctate. First segment of the abdomen 
with the tubercles medial, inconspicuous ; only twice as broad at the 
apex as at the base of the petiole ; sub-rugulosclg punctulate ; black, the 
apex testaceous, glabrous ; 2 lateral carina? not reaching the apex. 



1M8.] 



157 



Second and following segments glabrous, shining, the 2nd testaceous, the 
8rd and following testaceous suffused with fuscous (the dark intestines 
shining through). Aculeus as long as the abdomen, red, the sheaths 
dusky. Fore-wings narrow, not widened beyond the middle ; areolet 
transverse, open exteriorly ; beneath it is an oblong whitish spot, which 
also invades the areolet. 

Resembles A. hracJiyptera, Gr., but may be known by the absence 
of a white ring on the antennae, by the black 1st segment, the longer 
terebra, and the differently constructed wings and metathorax. 

Two specimens taken, last year and this, near Milford Haven. 

Having captured no less than 8 of A. hemiptera in this neighbour- 
hood (some with developed wings), I think it worth while to note some 
of their characters, by way of supplement to the description of Graven- 
horst, made from a single short-winged specimen. 

Aptesis hemipteea. 
Pezomachus hemipterus, Gr., ii, 874. 
Aptesis hemiptera, Eorst., Mon. Pezom., 39. 

A. alis vel hremhus apice infuscatis, his albido maculatis, vel com- 
pletis, fuscisy fasciis 2 alhidis ; stigmate alho nigrociue ; nigra ; anten- 
narum hasij segmentis 2 et 3, pedibusque, rufis ; geniculis posticis nigris. 

? Long. 1\ — 2|- lin. {terebra excl.) 

AntennsB with joints 1 — 7 — 8 fulvous ; the rest blackish. Meta- 
thorax distinctly areated, as in A graviceps {supra), First segment of 
the abdomen longitudinally rugose. Six specimens. 

Var. $ . Alee ahdomine longiores. 

Fore- wings fuscous ; one-half the stigma, a transverse fascia beneath 
it, and a large indeterminate apical spot, or fascia, whitish. The neu- 
ration is that of Hemiteles, to which genus the insects would be referred, 
if not necessarily identified with the hemipterous form. Two specimens. 

The species of Ceraphrontidce^ almost entirely neglected in this 
country, have found describers on the Continent in Nees von Esenbeck, 
Boheman, and C. G. Thomson. The following indications will show 
the genera and species I have hitherto ascertained to be British, in- 
cluding a new Megaspilus : — 

I. Antennas ? 11-jointed. 

i. Mesothorax with three dorsal lines. Wings (if any) with a 
broad stigma. 

I. Metathorax with a bifid spine beneath the scutellum. 



158 



I December, 



Gen. Habeopelte, Thorns., Ofv., 1858, p. 288. 

Ceraphron, Boh., — Megaspilus, AYestw., Forst. 

Sp. 1. DUX, Curt., B.E., 249, No. 1 = scutellaris, Boh., Handl., 1831, 

p. 325, ? = tibialis. Boh., ibid., p. 326, 
Sp. 2. STRiOLATA, Thoms., Ofv., 1858, p. 288. 

2. Metathorax with a short simple spine. 
a. Radius shorter than the stigma. 

Gen. Trichosteresis, Forst., Hym. St., ii, p. 99. 
Ceraphron, Boh.,Nee8 ; Tklihoneura, Thoms. 

Sp. 1. GLABRA, Boh., Handl., 1831, p. 328 = O. clandestinus, Nees, 
Mon., ii., p. 276. 

h. Radius longer than the stigma. 

t Antennae ramose or serrated. Eyes ? glabrous. 
Both sexes winged. 

Gen. Ltqoceeus, Forst.,Hym. St.,ii, p 99. 
Ceraphron, Thoms. 
Sp. 1. Halidati, Curt.,B.E., 249, fig. 

Sp. 2. Carpenteri, Curt., B.E., 249, No. 10 = hasalig, Thoms., Ofv., 

1858, p. 290. 
Sp. 3. RAMicoRNis, Boh., Handl., 1831, p. 329. 
Sp. 4. SERRicoRNis, Boh., ibid., p. 334. 
Sp. 5. PUBESCENS, Thoms., Ofv., 1858, p. 292. 

ft Antennae ^ not ramose or serrated. Eyes ? 
hairy. The $ often apterous. 

Gen. Megaspilus, Westw., Phil. Mag., ser. iii, vol. i, p. 128. 
Sp. 1. ABDOMiKALis, Boh., Haudl., 1831, p. 330 = tenuicornis, Boh., 
ibid., p. 332. 

Sp. 2. STRPHI, Bouche, Naturg., 175, pi. vii, fig. 33, 36—39, and 41 = 

Eupelmus syrphii, Nees, Mon., ii, p. 420. 
Sp. 3. BOREALis, Thorns., Ofv., 1858, p. 297. 
Sp. 4. ARCTicus, Thoms., ibid., p. 295. 
Sp. 5. EUSCIPES, Nees, Mon., ii, 278. 
Sp. 6. CURBITANS, Nees, Mon., ii, 284. 

Sp. 7. iiALTERATUS, Boh., Haudl., 1831, p. 336 = hrevipennis, Nees, 

Mon.,ii, p. 283, ^ = lonfficornis, Boh., Handl., 1831, p. 337, 
Sp. 8. MELANOCEPHALUS, Boh., ibid., p. 337. 

Sp. 9. THOEACicus, Nees, Mon., ii., p. 283 = halleratus, var. g, Boh., 
Handl., 1831, p. 336. 



1868. 



159 



Sp. 10. ALDTACEUS, Thoms., Ofv., 1858, p. 296. 

Sp. 11. CEASSicoRNis, Boh., Hand!., 1831, p. 331 = sulcatus, Neea, 

Mon., ii, p. 277. 
Sp. 12. EUFiPEs, Nees, Mon., ii, p. 277. 

Sp. 13. Megaspiltis ateloptehus, n. ep. 

M. piceo-tesfaceus, capite et thorace nigris ; antennarum articulis 2 
primis piceo-testaceis, 3 — 7 rufo-nigris, ccdteris nigris, scapo capite longiore ; 
fronte et thorace alutaceis ; alls angustis,fere halteriformibus, abdominis 
basin paulo excedentibus ; pedibus cum coxis piceo-testaceis ; abdomine 
thorace latiore et longiore, basi striolato. $ Long, f li7i. 

Front broadly excavated above the antennae, and with a small fovea 
below the foremost ocellus. Antennae stout, sub-clavate, nearly as long 
as the body, the two apical joints sub-equal. Disc of the mesothorax 
sub-rufescent. Scutellum large, depressed, somewhat shining. Ab- 
domen glabrous, sub-pellucid, pale pitchy, ovate, depressed at the base, 
at the apex sub-compressed, acuminate, and recurved. First segment 
occupying two-fifths of the length of the abdomen ; the 2nd and following 
gradually shortened to the apex. Hinder femora and tibiae incrassated. 
Head deflexed, vertex transverse, as broad as the thorax. 

In a wood near Milford Haven ; August. Distinguished from large 
individuals of M. thoracicus, Nees, by the stouter antennae, with the 2 
apical joints sub-equal ; by the broader and entirely pale abdomen, etc. 

There are several more species of Megaspilus, not yet known to me 
by name. 

ii. Mesothorax with one dorsal line. "Wings with a linear stigma ; 
? apterous. 

Gen. Lagtnodes, Forst., Hym. St., ii, p. 98. 
Microps, Hal., Thoms. 

Sp. 1. PALLiDCs, Boh., Handl., 1831, p. 338. 

II. Antennae $ 10-, 11-jointed. Stigma linear or none. Both 
sexes winged. 

* Mesothorax with an impressed dorsal line ; scutellum mar- 
gined. 

Q-en. Ceraphbon, Jur., — Forst., Hym. St., ii, 98. 
GalliceraSy Nees, Thoms. 
Sp. 1. BispiNOSTTs, Nees, Mon., ii, p. 280. 

Sp. 2. NANUS, Nees, ibid., p. 284 = Call, pallida, Thorns., Ofv., 1858, 
p. 302. 



160 



[December, 



Sp. 3. NiORiCEps, Thorns., ibid., p. 302. 

Besides several more not yet ascertained. 

** Mesothorax with an almost invisible dorsal line j scutellum 
not margined. 

Gen. Aphanogmus, Thorns., Ofv., 1S58, p. 305. 

Sp. 1. HTALrcriPENNis, Thoms., ibid. 
Sp. 2. TENUicoENis, Thoms., ibid. 

There are more British species of this genus not yet ascertained. 
They are the minutest of the group, averaging less than half-a-line in 
length. 

College, Milford Haven : September, 1868. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF SPHINX CONVOLVULI IN 
GREAT BRITAIN. 

BY THE EEV. JOHN HELLINS, M.A. 

My friend, Mr. D'Orville, having seen and captured in his garden 
an unusual uumber of s])ecimens of this fine moth during the past 
autumn, has endeavoured to make some observations which may tend to 
throw some light on its appearance in this country ; and he has kindly 
placed his notes in my hands for publication. 

Between August 15th and September 28th of this year, he cap- 
tured 27 males and 29 females, and 2 more were brought into his house 
by the cat ; but a very large proportion of the total number were en- 
tirely unfit, from their battered state, to be preserved as cabinet 
specimens. 

But this is to be remarked, that the good and the battered speci- 
mens of both sexes occurred together throughout the whole period ; it 
was by no means the case that the first taken were the finest, and 
the last the worst. 

The first moth was taken on August 15th, a female, with its abdo- 
men so flat, that Mr. D'Orville concluded it had deposited all its eggs. 
A few days later, on capturing a battered female with abdomen equally ij 
flat, he dissected it, and found in it 220 well-formed eggs, thus proving 
his first conclusion to have been too hasty. On the 21st August, he 
dissected another female, and found its ova to be quite undeveloped, \ 
mere small green gelatinous spots. On September 8th, he tried a fur- 
ther experiment ; he shut up a damaged female in a large box, supplying 
her with diluted honey and sugar for food ; on the fourth day after he 
found her dead, but he found also that she had laid eight eggs in the j 
box ; and when he proceeded to open her body, he found not one 



1868.] 



161 



single egg remaining in it— thus showing that she must have deposited 
by far the greater portion of her burden before her capture. 

On 10th September, he shut up another female in the same way, 
which also died on the fourth day, without depositing any eggs, and on 
dissection was found to contain a quantity of eggs, with shells, but 
not fully developed. On 1 6th September, he shut up a third female, 
which lived five days, and being then at the point of expiring, was 
pinned to a cork, when she laid three eggs ; on dissection, 160 well- 
developed eggs were found in her, and carefully extracted. On 24ith 
September, a fourth female was shut up ; she died on the third day, 
and when opened had no eggs in her. 

Of the eight eggs he obtained from the first female, Mr. D'Orville 
gave me five, which, to my great sorrow, shrivelled up ; from two of the 
remaining three, larvae were produced on September 26th, a period of 
something less than three weeks having elapsed since their deposition ; 
none of the other eggs, whether laid or extracted, proved good. 

These little larvae— white in colour, with long, black caudal horns, 
were put on a growing plant of Convolvulus arvensis, and during the 
following night placed themselves in position on the under-side of a 
leaf, and ate little holes through it ; however, they soon died, one after 
four days', and the other after ten days' existence. 

To these notes made recently, Mr. D'Orville adds one made in 1859. 
In that year he captured nineteen moths, and from one of the females 
obtained a single egg ; the larva from which was hatched on September 
27th, and after feeding ten days on Convolvulus arvensis, died in its 
first moult. And on October 13th of the same year he found a larva 
about one-third grown, in a potato field, on a spot where Convolvulm 
arvensis was entangled with the potato haulms ; it was covered with 
wet dirt, as if it had been in hiding under the earth. A few days later, 
a larger larva, more than two-thirds grown, but dead, was found in a 
similar situation, and brought to me. 

From these facts Mr. D'Orville draws the following conclusions : 
first, that the imago, in this respect unlike S. ligustri, and the three 
species of Smerinthus, does not emerge from the pupa with ova fully 
developed, but rather in a very unformed state, and that they become 
gradually formed in the body of the female — perhaps after impregnation 
has taken place. And here I may notice that the egg of convolvuli is 
not more than tw^o-fifths of the size of the egg of ligustri, so that even 
when a female has her full number (somewhat between 200 and 250) 
ready for extrusion, she would by no means show so stout a figure as a 
female of ligustri in similar circumstances. 



162 



Ukcember, 



The next deduction is that the larvcB are hatched in the autumn, 
and Mr. D'Orville suggests that perhaps they hybernate— retiring 
underground for j)rotectiou from cold ; but this I am inclined to doubt, 
thinking rather that if the weather permits they feed up before winter, 
but that if frost sets in they die prematurely. 

And lastly, Mr. D'Orville concludes, that the moth itself does not 
hybernate, but dies about the end of September. He has his garden full 
of flowers, for the purpose of attracting moths, at all seasons of the year 
when there are flowers to be had, and he is most indefatigable in watch- 
ing for l{3pidopterous visitors of all kinds, and yet he has, in a period of 
eleven or twelve years, never once seen convolvuli, save in the months 
of August and September, although their especial favourites — the white 
Petunia and the Marvel of Peru, remain in full bloom nearly through- 
out October, and would still supply them with food. And I remember 
myself finding in a bed of white Petunias, in 1858, a dead specimen of 
the moth, which had apparently come to a natural end, without violence. 
It is but fair to say that, on looking through the ten volumes of the 
*' Intelligencer," I find two instances recorded of the capture of the moth 
about IMidsummer ; yet in the face of the overwhelming majority of 
autumn captures, these instances must be regarded quite exceptioual. 

As to the British origin of his specimens Mr. D'Orville has no 
doubt ; some of them, as I can testify, were so fine, with the fringes of 
the wings so perfect, that they could not have flown many hours before 
he took them. The larvsB or pupae, therefore, must have been in hiding 
near at hand, and yet his off'er of a reward for either has never pro- 
duced any result. 

I will only add (without comment— serious or joking) that on 
measuring the tongues of five or six moths, I found them to vary in 
length from 2f to 3j inches, the males apparently being longer tongued 
than the females. 

Exeter : November 11th. 



Sphinx convolvuli at Alloa, N. B. — I liave to inform you that a very fine spe- 
cimen of Sjphinx convolvuli was brought me on the 5th of this month. It was got 
at rest in a garden here ; it measures about five inches across the \\'ings, and with 
the exception of being a httle rubbed from being carried in the hand, is a perfect 
specimen. There was also one captured at StirHng, about seven miles from here, 
on the 1st of the month. — Richard Borthwick, Alloa, October 16th, 1868. 

Sphinx convolvuli, and a second specimen of Deilephila lineata in Kildarc. — I 
captured five fine convolvuli here, in September. They were all taken at a bed of 
Petunias in the dusk of the evening. Another specimen of lineata was taken by 
me the day after I reported the former capture to you. It was on the grass lawn, 
alive, at the middle of the day, and one of our peacocks attempted to eat it. — 
JoifN Douglas, KiJkea Castle, Kildare, Ociohcr 26tU, 18G8. 



1868.3 



163 



NOTES ON THE BRITISH EALTICID^. 

Learning in October, 1863, that Herr Kutschera, of Vienna, was engaged upon 
a Monogi-aph of the Halticidce, I thought it desirable he should see a series of our 
British species, and that I should obtain his opinions relating to them. T therefore 
made up as complete a collection of them as I was able, at the time, to do, and 
forwarded it to Vienna, together with such observations on the species as I thought 
might possibly be useful to him. This collection is now returned to me, with the 
accompanying names and observations kindly furnished by Herr Kutschera. They 
will, no doubt, interest many of the readers of the " Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine." 



Species sent bj 
Mr. Waterhouse, 
the names being those of 
his Catalogue. 



consobrina ... 
ampelophaga 



SP 

sp 

oleracea 



eP 

mercurialis. 

transversa 
ferruginea 
rufipes 



nitidula 
helxines 
aurata . . 



sp 

Modeeri 



pubescens 
atropso 



Names and Observations retui-ned by Herr Kutschera, 



Graptodera. 

consobrina f 



ericeti . . . 
longicolHs 
pusilla . . . 



montana 

Heem^ophaga. 



Crepidodera. 



Crepidodera (Chalcoides) 



chloris , 

Crepidodera (ffipjpurtp^iZa) 



Crepidodera (Epitrix). 



Foudr., Allard (non Kutschera), 
Dufts. ? 

Guer., Allard. Scarcely specifi- 
cally distinct from the French 
specimens, though differing a 
little in the punctuation of the 
elytra, the formation of the fron- 
tal tubercles, and the anterior 
angles of the thorax. 

Allard. 

Allard. 

Dufts. Qielianthemi, Allard, noa 
oleracea, Auctorum). 

Foudras (cognata, Kutschera). 
Fab. 



Marsham. 

Scop. 

Linn. 

Linn. 
Linn. 

Marsh., Foudr . {versicolor, Kutsch.) . 

N.B. — fulvicornis, Fab. may be 
identical with C. aureola, Foudr. 

Foudr. 

Linn. 

Ent. H. 
Foudr. 



* Herr Kutschera expresses him'^elf dissatisfied with the determinations of the species of Orapto- 
dera hitherto made, and solicits the loan of specimens, with the view to re-examination of the group. 

+ Where the name in the second column would correspond wilh that in the first, it is omitted in 
the remaining portion of this paper. 



164 



[December, 



Species sent by 
Mr. Waterhouse, 
the names being those of 
his Catalogue. 



ventralis 

salicarias 

rustica 

rustica, var. 

obtusata 

chrysanthemi 
Matthewsii . . . 

rubi 

aerata 

fuBcipea 

fuscicornis ... 

testacea 

centaureaB . . . 



lutescens , 
pseudacori 



Names and Observations returned by Herr Kutschera. 



Ceepidodera (Ochrosis) 
Mantura. 

rustica, var. 8emia3nea.. 

Batophila. 

podagbica 

Sph^roderma. 

oardui , 

testacea , 



Aphthona. 




lUig. 
Payk. 

Linn. 
Fab. 
Gyll. 
Ent. H. 
Curtis. 

Payk. 
Marsh. 

Fab. 
Linn. 

Gyll. 

Fab. N.B.— Although the two 
types of Sp. testacea in the Bank- 
sian collection agree with 8p, 
cardui, a change in the nomen- 
clature is not justified, because 
Sp. testacea is very distinctly 
characterized in the Ent. Syst. 
and Syst. El. by the words " tho- 
race et elytris loevissimis,'^ which 
character certainly cannot be 
applied to Sp. cardui. 

Gyll. 

Payk. var. (non violaceay Ent. H.) 
The specimens communicated 
under Nos. 113 and 194* are 
indeed not specifically distinct 
from A. ca^ulea of Paykull, and 
are a very interesting variety of 
the same which is not mentioned 
elsewhere ; therefore the state- 
ment of M. Allard that Ch. pseu- 
dacori of Marsham belongs to 
Aph. ccerulea of Paykull is per- 
fectly correct, and confirmed by 
the habitat of the insect on the 
Iris pseudacon.is ; whilst Apth. 
violacca, Ent. H., has a very dif- 
ferent form, being more broadly 
rounded, and has a very different 
sculpture ; and lives on Euphor- 
bia palustris : nevertheless, it 
exhibits similar variations in the 
colour of the base of the anten- 
naa and legs. 



• The Hpeclmena sent under \o. 113, are the dark-IeRged var. common on the IrU pseudacorut in 
the neighbourhood of London; the specimens marked 194 were from Deal, and have the legs entirely 
testaceous, exeej)ting the posterior femora and the bases of the anterior femora, which are black.— 
G. a. W. 



1868. 



165 



Species sent by 
Mr. Waterhouse, 
the names being those of 
hi8 Catalogue. 



Names and Observations returned by Herr Kutschera. 



venustula 



cyanella. 



Phyllotreta. 
antennata .... 



obscurella 



Plectroscelis. 



Ch^etocnema. 
subcserulea* .. 



Thyamis. 



absynthii. 



Kutsch. (euphorhicB, Allard ; cya- 
nella, Foudr.) var. with the an- 
terior thighs entirely red. I 
have identified the H. ev/pliorhice 
of Schrank with the species 
which is very common in Austria 
on Ev/pJwrhia cyparissias, syno- 
nymous with Aphth. ovata of 
Allard and Foudr. 

Eedt. (atro-cceruleay Allard ; euplwr- 
hice, Foudr.). 

Steph., Allard. 

Curtis {cam^anulce, Eedt. in Coll.) 

Ent. H. (nodicornis, Marsh.). 

Ent. H. 

Illig. 

Illig., Foudr. (pceciloceras, Comolli, 
Allard). 

Payk. 

Foudr., Allard. 
Eedt. 

Kutsch. (fiexuosa, Foudr., Allard.) 

Linn. 

Comolli. 

Eedt. 

Curtis(ea;cisa,Eedt.,Foudr., Allard) 
Fab. 

Marsh. 

$ 

Kutsch. (non SahTbergii, Gyll., 
Foudr., Allard). 

Payk. 

Bohem. 

Linn. 

Fab. 

Fab. 

Payk. 
Kutschera. 

Eosenh., Allard, Kutsch. (pulex, 
Foudr.). 

Payk. 



* This (which proves to be a new species very nearly allied to Sahlbergii) is described by Herr 
Kutschera from the specimens sent by me, and some others from Steiermark by Herr Kahr. My speci- 
mens were chiefly taken in a marshy part of Wimbledon Common, in the month of Jnne, 1857.— 
G. li. W. 



166 



[December, 



Species sent by 
Mr. Waterhouso, 
the names oeiiig those 
his Catalogue. 



Names and Observations returned by Herr Kntschera. 



oastanea 

fuscula . 
brunnea. 



membranacea 
rubiginosa 



Waterhousei 



tabida, var. thapsi 



nov. spec, 
femoralis 



gracilis 



thoracica 



lateralis . 



Foudr., Kntacb. (probably Lnt?mf a, 

Dufts.). 
Kutschera. 

Redt., Ed. 2 j Foudr., Kutsch. (Iw 

rida, Gyll., exparte; probably 

castanea, Dufts.). 
Foudr., Kutsch, (teucrii, AUard, 

non minusculay Foudr.). 
Foudr., Kutsch. (fiavicorniSyAllard) 
Dufts., Kutsch. {succinea, Foudr., 

Allard). 
Kutsch. 

Foudr., Kutsch. {testacea, All.). 

Waterh. Catal. (tahida, Illig.). Ac- 
cording to your testimony the 
0. tahida, Fab., belongs to a 
species hitherto denominated 
verhasci by authors. We may 
adopt the name jacohace, as 
thereis no other. 

Fab., hitherto verhasci, Panzer. 

Marsham. Scarcely to be admitted 
as a distinct species from T. 
tahida, as similar variations of 
colouring may be observed in 
other species. 

A very distinct species,* at all 
events different from T. tahida 
{verhasci) . 

Marsh., Kutsch. The name exoleta 
of Linn, cannot be kept up in 
the face of the contradictions in 
the first and second editions of 
Linnaeus' Fauna Suecica. 

Kutschera.f 

Marsham. 

Marsham. 

Allard, Kutsch. 

Gyll. 

Foudr., Kutsch. 
Fab. 

Marsh., Allard, Kutsch. (ni^ricollis, 
Foudr.). 

Allard, Kutsch. {melanocepJialaf 

Redt., Foudr.). 
Gyll., Allard, Kutsch. (Juscicollis, 

Foudr.). 
111., Foudr., All., Kutsch., var.J 



* T. agilis. Rye, i;ut. Mo. Mag., toI. t., p. 133.— Q. R. W. 

t Described from specimens found by me at Mickleham, in Surrey, on the Ragwort {Senecio 
Jacobeca), in the bf(;innin(i of September, 1S63.— O. R. W. 

{ I took several .specimens of this species in Darentli Wood in May and June, l^CO, ou the leaves 
of a species of Verbascum, Specinuns sent to M. Allan! were returned to me a.s the II. laternli* of 
Illiger, but as none of my specimens exhibited the slightest trace of any dark mark on the sides of the 
elytra, as described by Illiger, I was not satisfied with tlie identification,' and mentioned my doubts in 
my notes aceompanying the collection sent to Herr Kutschera.— G. R. W. [This is the insect recently 
described aa T.pairMlit by M. Allard.— £. C. li.] 



1868.) 



167 



Species sent by | 

tlie names bdngThose of ! Names and Observations returned by Herr Kutschera. 
his Catalogue. | 



atricapilla 



melauocephala 

dulcamarse 

chalcomera 

napi 

hyoscyami 

chrysocephala 

chrysocephala,var. 2 
sp. 6 (from Lundy 

Island) 

marcida 

cupronitens 



picipes 

attennata 
atricilla , 
luteola . . . , 
picina ,., 



gramims 



splendida 
muscornm 



PSYLLIODES. 

nigricoUis .. 
luridipennis 
cuprea 



instabilis 



affinis. 



Aptekopeda 
orbiculata .. 

Mniophila. 



Allard (non Dufts.). This is the 
species descnbed by Foudras as 
T. atricilla, aad certainly dif- 
ferent from T. picipes, Foudr., 
Kutsch. {atricapilla, Redt., Ist 
Ed.). 

Gyll. {atricapilla, Dufts., Kedt. 
2nd Ed., Foudr.). 

Ent. H. 

HHg. 

Ent. H. 

Linn. 

Linn. 

Marsham. 

Kutschera. 
Illig. 

Ent. H. Your opinion regarding 
this species is perfectly correct, 
and M. Allard is in error. It is 
apparent, from specimens sent 
by him to me, that he really re- 
garded this species as cuproni- 
tens of Forster. There is, at all 
events, confusion. I have never 
yet seen a specimen of cuproni- 
tens of Forster. The cuprea, 
Ent. H., has been groundlessly 
referred by Foudras and Allard 
to a species which is short-ovate, 
and which I have not seen. 

Foudr., Allard, Kutsch. (non pi- 
cipes, Redt., Foudr., Allard). 

Ent. H. 

Payk., Ent. H. 

Miiller. 

Marsh., Allard, Kutsch. (rufilah-is, 
Ent. H., 111., Redt., non Foudr., 
nee Allard ; picea, Redt,, Kiister, 
Foudr. ; rufo-picea, Letzn.) 

Marsh., Foudr., Kutsch. {graminis 
Ent. H., Dufts. ; ciliata, Oliv., 
hederce, II].). 

Allard, Kutsch. ; glohosa, Foudras. 
Ent. H. 



G. R. Watekhouse, British Museum, October, 1868. 
[It will be observed, that the length of time occupied in the examination of the 
above Halticid<e has allowed of the introduction of certain of Herr Kutschera' s 
alterations and additions from other sources.— Eds.] 



168 



f December, 



Occurrence of MagdaUnus duplicatus, Qermar^ in Scotland. — Last year I re- 
corded among my Morayshire captures that of Magdalinus carbonarius. This was 
a mistake, for the correction of which I am indebted to Dr. Sharp, to whom I sent 
an example for comparison with his Dumfries specimens of that insect. By him, 
also, I was furnished with extract descriptions, from Thomson's work, of several of 
the Swedish species that seemed most nearly allied to it. From a carefal perusal 
of these, I concluded that M. duplicatus was probably identical with the Morayshiro 
stranger, and accordingly requested Dr. Power to compare my specimens with 
those representing that species in the British Museum. This he has been kind 
enough to do, and his unhesitating verdict confirms my conjectures. I subjoin a 
description of the specimens. 

Blackish-blue, linear elongate. Head sparingly punctured, slightly depressed 
between the eyes. Rostrum much bent, black, shining and punctulated. AntennaD 
about the length of the head and thorax, scape rather suddenly bent just before its 
swollen tip, inserted near the middle of the rostrum. Prothorax as broad as long, 
bisinuate at the base, with the hinder angles produced ; sides nearly straight for 
about two-thirds of its length, then rounded towards the anterior edge, beliind 
which a faint constriction is observable on the sides and beneath, slightly convex 
above, closely punctured and dull. Scutellum rather narrow, punctured, and gene- 
rally shining. Elytra blue, sometimes nearly black, pimctate striate, punctures 
oblong, interstices flat, finely coriaceous, slightly shining, and generally with only 
one row of shallow, squarish, punctures. Under-side coriaceous and punctured. 
Legs nearly black, thighs dentate. Length 2i — 2^ lines. 

Antennae of female inserted immediately behind middle of rostrum. 

Found sparingly on Scotch fir in Morayshire. 

At first sight the colour and sculpture of my insect suggest our M. pMegmaticus ; 
but on further examination, the more cylindrical body, shorter head, and bent ros- 
trum serve to distinguish it from that species. It seems to be more closely allied 
to M. violaceus of the European list, which, however, has the head smooth, and, in 
the male, the rostrum straightish, with the antennas inserted at about a third of 
its length from the tip. 

The uniformly black colour and sulcate elytra of M. carhonarivs, Linn., not to 
mention other important characters, will pi'event any one who sees the two species 
from confounding them. M. memnonius, Fald., formerly M. carbonarius, Fab., is 
said to frequent Pinus sylvestris. It is not improbable, therefore, that it, and per- 
haps others of the genus, may reward future investigators in our northern forests. 
— RoBT. HiSLOP, Blairbauk, Falkirk, 7th November, 1868. 

Note on the genua Abbotia of Leach. — Having lately had to answer a question 
concerning the genus Abbotia of Leach, I may here note, in order to savo persons 
studying the Ilisteridce the trouble of searching, that the types of Dr. Leach's two 
species of Abbotia are in the British Museum, and appear to belong to the genus 
Platysoma ; the species A. Paykulliana being identical with P. depressa, and A. 
georgiana with P. oblonga. 

Dr. Leach (Trans. Plymouth Inst., p. 155) gives the locality for both species 
as Georgia in America, but this is probably a mistake, the insects perfectly agreeing 
with the European species above alluded to. As a possible reason for these 
apparent errors I may refer to the statement at p. 458 of Dr. Hagen's " Bibliotheca 
Entomologica." — CiiAs. O. WAXJtEUOUSE, British Museum, November 14t/t, 1868. 



1868.] 



1G9 



On difference in shape of thorax in sexes of Hydroporus elegans, ^c. — I have 
lately noticed that in the ? of Hydroporus elegans (depressus, Fab.) the thorax is 
widest towards the front, with the sides strongly rounded and mnch contracted 
behind, whilst in the <J the sides are comparatively slightly (sometimes scarcely 
perceptibly) rounded, the thorax in a few instances being even widest behind. This 
posterior dilatation is especially conspicuous in all my dark vars. of the species in 
question, all of which are males. I find, however, some ? examples of the dark 
var. amongst a number of the insect recently sent to me by Mr. Bold. These were 
taken in a small Cumberland lake, called " Talkin Tarn," and present a somewhat 
diflferent facies to ordinary brook specimens, being larger, proportionately longer, 
and altogether darker in tone. Schaum, Ins. Deuts., 1, p. ii, notes that the Swedish 
specimens are commonly longer than the German, with the black colour pre- 
dominating ; and abandons his former idea that these might be referable to a 
distinct species. I do not observe any similar sexual thoracic discrepancy in 
the allied H. 12-pustulatus, Bavisii, assimilis, &o. ; nor can I find any record of 
the fact, as to JJ. elegans, in Gyll., Aube, Eedt., Fairm., Schaum, or Thomson, all 
of whom state the thorax to be strongly rounded at the sides. The latter author, 
in his Skand. Col. Supplement (IX, p. 75), simply notes the very elongate, unequal, 
anterior claws of the <J ; in which sex the anterior and intermediate legs are, also, 
more robust. With regard to the dark var. above mentioned, I notice a curious 
error in Aube's Gyr. et Hydroc, 507, where he states that the ordinary testaceous 
spots sometimes disappear, and are replaced by testaceous lines, — "ce qui constitue 
la var. h. de Gyllenhal." But Gyll., Ins. Suec, i., 526, thus indicates his var. h. — 
** elytris pallidis, nigro-lineatis," and " elytra pallida, lineis quatuor disci nigris," 
— a form which has not come under my notice in this country. Schaum, 1. c, says 
that the black sometimes predominates, the yellow forming mere lines ; the insect 
then being Gyll.'s depressus. The form in which the yellow predominates he refers 
to elegans, 111. 

In Lcemophlceus, of which the sexual thoracic difference of oatline ia welJ 
known, it is the ^ that has the thorax most contracted behind. This, I presume^ 
is due to the fact that the head, as frequently happens in Coleoptera, exhibits an 
excess of development in that sex, and requires a proportionate widening of the 
front of the thorax for its reception. The latter segment thus seems to be much, 
narrowed behind, though in fact its posterior part is of the same outline as in the 
? .— E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W. 

Habitat of Epuraa. — Illiger, Verzeich. der Kaf. Preuss., 383, notes the frequent 
capture of Epurcea limhata by Kugelann, under bark of apple and pear trees, in 
company with Synchita juglandis. The former insect is not uncommon with us in 
fiingi ; but, knowing, as we do, the parasitic habits of certain of its congeners 
(e. g., E. angustula on Xyloterus, E. ohlonga 2in.di pusilla on Hylastes, &c.), this record 
of association may not be altogether without interest, especially as the Synchita is 
of such great rarity in this country. — Id. 

Occurrence of Rhynchites megacephalus, Germ., in Japan. — I was rather sur- 
prised to find among some Bhynchophora from Japan obtained by me from Mr. 
Higgins, of Bloomsbury Street, specimens of a Rhynchites which I am unable to 



170 



[December, 



separate from the well-known European megacephalus. Mr. Rye, to whom I shewed 
these exotics, without notice of their origin, was, like myself, quite unable to find 
any differential charsicters for them. I believe other British species of Coleoptera 
have been observed from Japan; and readers of this Magazine will remember 
Mr. Lewis' notes on the singular resemblance to (and even identity with) certain 
of our indigenous beetles afforded by some of his Chinese captures. — W. Tylden, 
Stanford, Hythe. 

Fwrther note on Enoicyla pv^lla. — Mr. Fletcher writes me that he has bred 
fifty or sixty of this insect. He says the insects pair almost as soon as the ? 
emerges, but remain united for only a short time. In confinement the $ deposits 
her eggs under moss near the earth ; they are excluded in a conical, amber- 
coloured mass, which is almost half the size of the insect. 

In my previous note {ante p. 143) an error has crept in involving an impos- 
sibility, viz., the sentence in which the larva is said to burrow into the earth after 
having closed hath ends of its case. The facts are that the larva ceases feeding 
early in June, then stops the ventral end of the case, and burrows ; afterwards, in 
September, it closes the other end, and changes to a pupa. — R. McLachlan, 
Lewisham, Noveynher, 1868. 

Insects found on glaciers. — Perhaps it is worth while to mention that, last July, 
while ascending the Maladetta, I observed on the final snowy dome of the glacier, 
at the height of about 11,000 feet, great numbers of a common-looking Chrysopa, 
both flying and crawHng on the snow. Lower down there were none to be seen, 
during the two days I spent in those regions. Their occurrence in such a situation, 
and nowhere else, seemed quite unaccountable. On a former occasion I obtained 
fix>m the glacier of the Vignemale, at a nearly equal height, a fine series of Ich- 
neumon antennatoriusy Grav. They were picked up at intervals of a few yards, 
alive, but feeble, each one being at the bottom of a small pit or depression in the 
snow. With them, and in equal abundance, was a moth, I forget what species, but 
probably Plusia gamma, which swarms in the Pyrenees. There were also a few of 
LygcBUs equestris, which Ramond mentions having noticed, together with a BupestriSy 
in his break-neck attempt to scale the Touqueroue glacier leading up to Mont 
Perdu.— T. A. Marshall, Milford, October, 1868. 

Lithohius forcipatus mothing. — One of my friends, in June last, had " sugared" 
a strip of wall, near Newcastle, to attract moths, and was considerably astonished 
when he returned with his light, to find himself forestalled by this centipedoid 
wretch, which had ascended the wall and captured the only moth attracted by the 
sweets ; the moth, a large Noctua, was making the most violent efforts to escape, 
but all in vain, as the Lithohius appeared to hold it with the greatest ease, only 
quitting its grip when ray friend, afraid of losing his specimen, put an end to 
the struggle by seizing the moth. — T. J. Bold, Long Benton. 

[Mr. Bold's note reminds me of a somewhat analogous (but -post-mortem) in- 
stance of unexpected insect hunting that occurred in my house this autumn. For 
three consecutive nights I found recently-mounted beetles that had been left out to 
dry on a setting board carefully placed so as to be unassailable by marauders, as 



1868. 



171 



I fancied,) neatly dissected away from their cards ; rows of tarsal and antennal 
tips testifying to the dexterity of the unknown operator. The insects being merely 
common species, and my curiosity piqued to discover what it was that caused the 
mischief, I allowed the setting board to remain for a fourth night, during which a 
sudden visit with a candle disclosed a large eanvig, unctuously scooping out the 
abdomen of a Myrmedonia. " His end was pieces." — E C . R.] 

An economic use for the galls of Cynips lignicola. — I do not remember to have 
seen it mentioned anywhere that ornamental baskets made of wire, and covered, 
instead of beads, with rows of the galls of Cynics lignicola, are hawked about for 
sale in the streets of London. 

The thought has struck me, that were the more regular specimens of this gall 
carefully picked before the imago escapes, or rather before the titmouse disfigures 
them in its search for the tasty morsel within, they might, after destruction of the 
inmate by heat, serve as a cheap substitute for the turned wooden balls of similar 
size, so often employed in ornamental woodwork. 

For this purpose they might be sorted according to size, and employed, par- 
ticularly in cases where lightness would be desirable, and where their fragility 
would not be exposed to too severe a trial : for instance, as inner borders on the 
frames of looking-glasses and pictures, &c. — Albert Muller, Penge, S.E., Nov. 
9th, 1868. 

Argynnis Lathonia at Margate. — It may interest many of your readers to know 
that my friend, the Rev. G. Lewis, took at the above place, during September, two 
fine specimens of A. Lathonia ; besides some dozens of CoUas Hyale. — Augustine 
Gaviller, Manor Road, Stamford Hill, 21st October, 1868. 

Occurrence of Acherontia Atropos at Dumfries. — On the arrival of the mail train 
on the evening of 27th September last, one of the employes about the station 
noticed on one of the carriages a large insect at rest, which turned out to be A. 
Atropos, and, through the attention of a kind friend, is now in my collection. It is 
a very large specimen, measuring over five inches across the wings. — W.Lennon, 
Crichton Institution, Dumfries, October 6th, 1868. 

Sphinx convolvuli and Acherontia Atropos at Folkestone. — I had a fine specimen of 
8. convolvuli brought me last month by a boy. Acherontia Atropos has not been at all 
rare, I have heard of several captures of larvae and images. One specimen of the per- 
fect insect was found by a boy among the grass in the Warren, and brought to me. 
I kept it a few days, and it died a natural death. It frequently emitted the sounds 
peculiar to its species, always raising the thorax and bending down the head and 
abdomen as it did so. When breathing its last it gave out a long succession of 
sounds growing fainter and fainter, just like a succession of breathings, giving me 
the impression that the noise was produced, not by friction, but by inspiration or 
respiration of air. It made the noise when I first had it every time I merely touched 
it with my finger, but when it got accustomed to such treatment, it never made it 
without rather rougher handling.— Heney Ullyett, Folkestone, October, 1868. 



172 



[Decembei 



Capture of Sphinx convolvuU near Reigate. — On Friday morning my friend Mr. 
Fielding again called my attention to a largo moth, taken by a little country girl at 
the same place where Acherontia Atropos occurred, and proving to be Sphinx con- 
volvuU. Considering the rustic manner of his capture, the illustrious stranger had 
fared well. Shortly after being brought to mo, he indulged in a rigorous mid-day 
flight, and was suffered to remain alive for some hours. 

Can any gentleman resident in Scotland tell us whether a parallel has occurred 
this year to the extreme profusion of Deilephila galii (40 specimens) reported to 
have occurred not many years since at Perth ? — J. B. Blackburn, Grassmeade, 
Wandsworth, 12th September, 1868. 

Sphinx convolvuU taken at sea. — A fine specimen of this moth was taken on 
board the "Lord Raglan" steamer on the 29th September last, when she was 
about five miles off Tynemouth, and is now in the collection of Mr. J. Hamilton 
Shieldfield, Newcastle. I have among my odds and ends a large individual of the 
same species, which was captured as it fluttered round the binnacle light of a sailing 
vessel, when she was making for the Tyne, and at a considerable distance from 
land. — Thos. John Bold, Long Benton, Newcastle-on-Tyne, October 14th, 1868. 

Choerocampa porcelhis near Tynemouth. — Three specimens of the perfect insect 
were taken on the sea banks, near St. Mary's Island, in the last week of July, and 
towards the end of August its larvae was found feeding upon Oaliu7n venim, some- 
what further to the south, near Whitby. — Id. 

Macroglossa stellatarum in the north of England. — This insect has been rather 
common here this year, and a good many larvae collected ; these were very easy to 
real , only requiring to be plentifully supplied with the plant on which they were 
taken, Galium verum. — Id. 

Deilephila lineata in Scotland. — I learn from my friend Mr. Dalziol Pearson, 
that he took a good specimen of the insect on August 10th at Dunbar ; and that 
he *' has heard of two more specimens of it being captured in the neighbourhood." — 
Eev. E. N. Bloompield, Guestling, November 2nd. 

Choerocampa Celerio at Birmingham. — I have just taken off the setting board a 
very fine and perfect specimen of Choerocampa Celerio, which was caught October 
2nd and brought to mo, alive, the next day ; a little boy had found it (as he de- 
scribed, asleep) on a shutter of a butcher's shop in the Horse Fair, Bristol Street, 
Birmingham, one of our busiest thoroughfares ; he said it did not seem at all in- 
clined to fly away, so he had no diflBculty in putting it in a box, without injury. 
I have no doubt but that the lighted windows had lured it into so busy a place, as 
it was just getting dusk (6 p.m.) when he found it. — Frederic Enock, 75, Rylands 
Road, Birmingham, October 18th, 1868. 

Choerocampa nerii at St. Leonards. — Through the kindness of Dr. Bowerbank, 
we have received a specimen of Choerocampa nerii (the Oleander Hawk Moth) . It 
was captured in the garden of Decimus Burton, Esq., by his gardener, a few weeks 



1868. 



173 



ago, on an Oleander plant, at his residence, Maze Hill, St. Leouarda-on-tho-Sea 
and presented to the British Museum by Mr. Wood, of North Lodge, St. Leonards. 
I send a notice of this capture, in order that a correct list of the specimens taken 
during this remai-kablo season may appear in the Ent. Monthly Mag. — FaEDEitiCK 
Smith, British Museum, 6th Novcmher, 1868. 

Charocampa CeleHo near York. — A specimen of this rare species was taken by 
a woman on the 2nd of October last. It was found sitting on the window blind 
inside a cottage on Haworth Moor, near York, and was taken to Mr. Dosser, who 
got it alive : it is a very fair specimen, and Mr. Dosser has since kindly added the 
specimen to my collection. — W. Brest, York. 

Note on abwfidance of SpMngiduB in Japan during the past summer. — As I have 
frequently noticed records of insects, generally more or less rare, being observed 
simultaneously here and in England, I should like to note that the present season 
has been most prolific in Sphingidce. Sphinx convolvuU has been exceedingly 
abundant in the imago state, and I collected 50 larvas of the " Death's Head," in 
ten minutes, from a small patch of Sesamum orientale. It was equally common 
everywhere on this plant. The " Eyed Hawk," and another Smerinthus very 
similar to it, but wanting the " eyes," have in the larval state stripped various trees 
of their leaves. I cannot name others that I have found abundantly. A Japanese 
artist has figured the larvae and pupae of 18 species ; and these, with two others, 
which I have not met with in their earlier stages, complete a list of 20 Sphingidce 
noticed this season in the immediate neighbourhood. All but three or four have 
occurred in profusion. — G Lewis, Nagasaki, 10th Septerriber, 1868, 

Sesia myopceformis ? in Mountain-ash. — We have a Mountain-ash apparently 
attacked by this clearwing. Next season I propose to make certain of the species 
by enclosing the affected parts of the tree with network. — H. G. Kxaggs, Kentish 
Town, N.W. 

Catocalafraxini near Manchester. — The records of 1868 certifying to several 
examples of this sensational species, perhaps the following authentic anecdote of a 
capture of a fine specimen may be new to many. Some five years back, a collector 
near Manchester had an admirable example brought him, discovered by a little girl, 
who, being afraid to touch it, captured it safely and conveyed it some distance 
with — a pair of tongs ! The bold and beautiful thing, experiencing, probably, a 
sense of intrusion, would seem to have fanned up its indolent wings at the moment 
best suited to the fireside forceps. — Edw. Hopley, 14, South Bank, Regent's Park. 

Capture of Leuca^tvia alhipuncta, IT.F., a species new to BHtain. — I took one 
specimen at Folkestone, at sugar, on August 15th, 1868- A second, very much 
worn, example was taken at the same place, by my brother, on or about October 
the 5th. A third, supposed to be seen by my brother and myself in the same place, 
escaped.— T. H. Briggs, St. John's College, Oxford, November, 1868. 

[This insect is closely allied to lithargyria, and is more common than that 
species in some continental locahties, — Eds.] 



174 



[December ' 



Lepidoptera at Guestling in 3868. — I send herewith a list of the rarer insects 
which 1 have met with this year, if you should think it worth insertion in the 
Magazine. Taken in conjunction with my former notices, it will give a very fair 
idea of the rarer insects occurring at Guestling. I have this year met with nearly 
50 species of Macros, which I had not previously seen here, showing how little a 
visitor or stranger can speak to the whole number of insects occurring in any 
locality. Tliis number of novelties, after three previous years collecting in the same 
locality, is pretty well, I think. 

Dunng the spring insects were very scarce ; in fact, several species which are 
usually pretty common at sallows, were either absent or represented by o«e or two 
specimens only. As summer approached, however, insects became abundant. 

In the following notes the first day on which the species was observed is given 
in each case. 

March 6tb, Tepli/rosia hiundularia ; several specimens on tree trunks > the 
summer brood appeared as early as June 20th. April 21st, Evpithecia dodoneata ; 
one specimen only. April 30th, Platypteryx lacertula; Stainton's Manual gives 
end of May, but I see it occuiTed here on May 3rd, in 1865. May 8th, Tephrosia 
consonaria, on the trunk of a tree. May 16th, Flatypteryx hamula. May 18th, 
He'iminia harhalis ; three among underwood. May 19th, Selenia lunaria ; four, all 
females, as were the few I have taken in former years. May 25th, Arciia villica ; 
I met with five specimens this day ; I believe it is abundant here. May 26th, 
Chcerocampa porcelkts, flying, at dusk. May 28th, Eiirymene dolabraria; three 
taken — one by mothmg, one at light, and one at sugar. May 30th, Eupisteria 
hepa/rata ; this seems common here among alders ; unfortunately I did not search 
for it early enough, and hence most of the specimens were much worn. June Ist, 
Tephrosia extersaria ; came not uncommonly to sugar ; Botys lancealis, several p 
Pterophorus tephradactylus, this is plentiful here. June 2nd and 3rd, Boarmia 
rohoraria, a pair at sugar ; Cymatophora fiuctuosa^ several were taken, but were 
very restless when boxed. June 5th, Aplecta herhida ; three came to sugar. 
June 6thy Diphthera Ch-ion ; two at sugar. June 11th, Agrotera nemomlis ; one 
worn specimen. June 24th, Cidaria dotata. June 27th, Limacodes testudo, by 
mothing; and Acronycta ligustvi and RodopJiaea tumidella, at sugar. July 2nd, 
Cledeohia angustalis ; plentiful in one spot on the beech at Pelt. July 7th, Phycts 
rohorelta ; several by mothing and at light. July 1 3th, Ennomos erosaria^ two 
females ; insects came pretty freely about this time to light ; among them werer 
single specimens of Arctia fuliginosa, Notodonta ziczac, Cidaria silaceata, Macaria 
notata, and Ennomos fuscantaria (22nd) j also several Eupithecia sxLccenturiatay 
Eupithecia centaureata, Tethea suhtusa, Ptilodontis palpina, Notodonta camelina, 
Platypteryx hamula, Pyrausta purpuralis, Paraponya stratiotalis, and Acronycta 
auricoma ; the latter insect was very restless, and most of the few specimens taken 
were much injured. July 30, Tethea retwsa, and August 1st, Ennomos tiliaria ? by 
mothing. August 6th, Sphinx convolvuli, a very fine specimen ; and August 10th, 
Deilephila lineaia, as recorded (Ent. Mo. Mag. for September). August 26th, three 
Sphinx convolvuli appeared in my garden, preferring petunia and scarlet geranium ; 
they were observed almost every night for a week cm* so, when two out of the 
three disappeared ; but one has been seen occaaionally up to the present tnne. — 
N. Bloomfield, Guestling Rectory, near Hastings, Saptember 23r<?, 1868. 



186t.3 



176 



Second broods ? — August 29th I took, in a wood noar Polegate, specimens of 
Melitcea Athalia and Sesia cynipiformis 9 . Is it not very late for both these 
species ? — Id. 

Observations on the occurrence of Colias Hyale in Britain. — The occurrence of 
Colias Hyale in such unusual numbers and localities this year seems naturally to 
suggest the idea of a migration of this species, which, however, does not seem to 
be confirmed by the accounts of its appearance in different localities. 

For instance, on page 107 of the present volume of the Magazine, a corres- 
pondent states that he took Hyale in fine condition at Margate on or before July 
27th, and that in a few days afterwards it was common, and by August 7th so worn 
out as to be hardly worth catching. 

At Haslemere, thirty miles inland, and at a considerable elevation above the 
level of the sea, the first specimens were met with on August 5th, beautifully fine ; 
and others from day to day until August 15th, all in good condition. After this 
date the weather became rough, and they disappeared. 

On August 31st Mrs. Hutchinson tells me a specimen was taken by her son at 
Leominster, which, when first seen, was perfectly fine, and was only injured a 
little in catching. 

Now, if this had been a migration of Hyale, and it had become worn so early 
as August 7th on the south-east coast, it could not well have appeared in fine con- 
dition at Haslemere from August 5th to 15th, much less at Leominster on August 
3 1st. Neither, for the same reason, could the specimens taken inland be stragglers 
from its usual breeding places on the coast. 

On the oth-er hand, it is absurd to suppose that eggs or pupa© could have laid 
for years waiting for an exceptionably hot sumtaer to bring them to perfection, even 
supposing that the clover fields, in which they appear to feed, were permanent, 
instead of being sown in rotation with other crops. 

The only way, therefore, in which I can explain its appearance in such unusual 
and widely separated localities, is by supposing that when engaged in egg-laying, 
the female must forsake the ordinary habit of the species, of flying up and down 
one or two clover or lucerne fields for hours and, indeed, days together, and fly, as 
it can, very rapidly across the country, laying a few eggs here and there in the 
various clover fields over which it passes, and that the larvae, in a favourable, i. e, 
hot and dry summer, feed up rapidly, escaping their worst enemy in this climate — 
mould, and so the perfect insects are found, earlier or later according to the climate, 
one, two, or three in a clover field in the inland districts, and in large numbers in 
those coast districts in which the insect usually occurs. 

Thus I am compelled, contrary to my will and usual practice, to offer a theory 
in explanation of this unusual visitation, and can only hope that it will be found, 
ultimately, to be borne out by facts ; but I can give one fact slightly to the point. 

A young friend of mine, Master Stuart Nicholson, of Liphook, near Haslemere, 
showed me a female which he had taken there on the railway embankment, and 
said that he disturbed it from a small hollow, and that its wings were not sufficiently 
hardened to enable it to fly far, so that it flew heavily very short distances and was 
soon caught ; and the appearance of the specimen, its exquisitely perfect condition, 
and the brilliancy of its reddish fringes, are strong confirmation of his statement. 
It certainly never could have flown far. 



I December. 



That butterflies may sometimes bo disturbed before their wings are dry I 
know, for last July a Vanessa cardui tempted me across a large field before it was 
secured, by its curiously heavy and short flights, and when captured, its wings were 
80 limp, that it seemed impossible it could have used them for flying.— Charles G. 
Barrett, Norwich, Noveiyiher 6th, 1868. 

• 

Description of the larva of I/yccena Artaxerxes. — On the 8th May, 1868, Mr. 
Doubleday kindly presented me with three larvjB of Artaxerxes, about half-grown, 
which had been sent to him by Mr. Wilson, of Edinburgh, who found them on 
Helianthemum vulgarc. 

They fed well on this plant, and were always on the under-sides of the leaves, 
to which they assimilated so well as to be difl&cult of detection. 

The larva is of the usual Lyccena shape, somewhat onisciform, short and thick, 
being arched on the back, sloping on the sides, the spiracular region swollen, and 
projecting laterally much beyond the ventral legs ; tlie segments appear deeply 
divided, especially on the back, down which are two rows of rather peaked cone- 
like eminences, with a dorsal hollow between them, the second segment simply 
rounded above, and rather longer than the other, and tapering a little near the 
head, which is very small and retractible ; the anal segment tapers very little, 
is rounded behind, and hollowed above on the sides ; the twelfth segment has a 
small and prominent wart on each side. 

The half-grown larva is from three to four lines in length, pale green in colour, 
and clothed with very fine and short whitish bristles. The dorsal line, beginning 
on the fourth and ending on the twelfth segment, is of a faint brown, though wider 
and more strongly marked just at the beginning of each segment, and widest at its 
termination on the penultimate. 

On the sides of the fifth to the tenth segments are double oblique lines slanting 
backwards and downwards, of paler green in front and darker green behind, than 
that of the ground colour. At this stage of growth the lateral projecting ridge of 
swellings broadly pink, with scarcely an indication of a central paler stripe ; the 
belly and ventral legs pale yellowish-gi'een ; the anterior legs flesh colour. The 
head black, base of the papillsB flesh colour, and a streak of the same above the 
mouth. 

On approaching full-growth its length is about half-an-inch ; the oblique stripes 
gradually disappear, and its green colour becomes rather darker ; a pinkish-white 
sti-ipe runs along the lateral prominences, broadly bordered above by a stripe of 
rose-pink, and beneath by a broader stripe of still darker pink ; the spiracles aro 
flesh-colour, situated in the upper pink stripe, very minute and inconspicuous. 
The ventral legs green, and the anterior legs pinkish spotted with brown. 

Two changed to the pupa-state on May 2l8t, and the third a week later, all in 
nearly perpendicular positions, amongst, and slightly attached to, the stems of the 
Helianthemum by a few silk threads near the ground. 

The pupa is about four lines in length, smooth, and without polish, rather 
thick in i)ropoition, the head rounded and prominent, the thorax rounded abovo^ 
the abdomen plump and curved a little backwards, its extremity being hidden in 
the shiivelled lai-va-skin which adheres to it. The colour of the head, thorax, and 
wing-cases blue-green, a black curved streak obliquely placed on each side of the 



1868.] 



177 



head ; tlie abdomen yellowisb-flesh colour, a deep pink stripe at the sides enclosing 
a central white one, which can also be seen showing through part of the wing- 
covers. 

Two of the butterflies appeared on June 13th and 14th.--WM. Buckler, 
Emsworth. 

Natural history of H&pialus hectus. — To the very arduous, long-continued, and 
valuable exertions of Mr, Joseph Steele, of Congleton, in elucidating the history 
of this species, I am deeply indebted. 

The eggs are globular, small, and bluish-black, and are laid by the ? over fern 
brakes towards the end of June. 

The young larva is hatched about the middle of July, and is then of a drab 
colour, with brown head, and plates on the second and anal segments, and, with 
the aid of a lens, the hairs on its body are easily seen. 

It burrows in the lower part of the stem, and feeds in the root of Pteris 
aquilina, and grows but slowly its first season. , 

When a year old it makes good progress, and by or before the end of its second 
autumn it has apparently attained its full dimensions ; it then ceases to feed, and 
quits the root, not however going beyond two or three inches from it, and there in 
the earth remains doi*mant until the following spring. 

In April it re-commences feeding, aud continues to about the end of May or 
beginning of June, according to the locality and season, though not feeding in the 
root as before, but attacking the young shoots of the fern ; the parts bitten are 
oval excavations, about five or six lines long in a vertical direction, and from two 
to three lines broad, and hence considerable exudation of sap ensues, which probably 
forms part of the sustenance of the larva, as at this time it is found quite wet, and 
the stem and soil are even saturated. 

At the end of May or early in June it is full fed, leaves the fern, and just on the 
surface of the earth, amongst dead leaves, and often under moss, spins an oblong 
cocoon, lined with silk, and covered with light vegetable or earthy matter. It 
remains but a short time in the pupa state, as the perfect insect is disclosed during 
the month of June. 

The full-grown larva is about an inch and one-eighth in length, cylindrical, 
slender, and tapering a little towards the head, and also just towards the anal 
extremity ; the head being broad in front and rather flattened, the sides rounded. 

The transverse wrinkles on the segments beyond the fourth are so regularly 
and uniformly indented, that the segmental divisions cannot well be distinguished 
from them, the body appearing like a series of rings, each segment being sub- 
divided into four, the second in front being the widest, and the rest of equal width. 

Its colour is a pale drab, — more or less pale in individuals, — and opaque, 
becoming on the thoracic segments only a little transparent and shining, and 
they are funiished with brilliantly-polished plates or horny markings in the fol- 
lowing order. A black or blackish-brown plate, rounded behind, covering the 
upper surface of the second segment ; the third and fourth have each a transverse 
dorsal narrow oblong plate in front, and a very small one on each side below it ; 
and a little further back, on each side, is a drop-shaped plate, and just above the 
legs an oval or circular one ; all of these plates, besides one on the anal tip, are 
dark brown, as also is the head, and highly lustrous, contrasting with the dull 
appearance of the rest of the body. 



178 



I December, 



The tubercniar blackish dots are very small, each emitting a fine hair of great 
sensitiveness. The spiracles very small and black. 

The larva is extremely difficult to inspect carefully, and evinces the greatest 
aversion to light, and makes rapid efiforts to hide itself; at such times, if one of 
its hairs be touched with a finger, most violent contortions ensue, or else it springs 
backwards, and will run that way quite as rapidly as forwards, — and in its twistings 
and wrigglings it rivals the most nimble of Tortrices. 

The papa is about five-eighths of an inch or little more in length, very slender, 
and of about uniform bulk throughout ; the head and back of thorax a little pro- 
minent ; the abdomen but slightly curved backwards, long, and scarcely tapering 
at the end, which is obtusely rounded. 

The wing-cases very short in proportion. 

On the back of each abdominal ring are two transverse ridges of minute 
curved points or hooks, and a pair of them on the under-surface of each wing, the 
penultimate having a ridge of them in addition, and a circlet of them on the blunt 
and rounded tip. 

The colour of the pupa is rather dark brown, but the golden blotches begin to 
appear through the wing-covers, and increase in brightness as the hour draws near 
for the disclosure of the imago, the pupa previously making its way nearly out of 
the cocoon in readiness. The moths bred were all out from the 26th of June to 
6th of July.— Id. 

Notes on the larvce of some fir-feeding Lepidoptera. — Guided by information re- 
ceived from my friend Mr. Machin, I went to work in the beginning of April last 
to search for larvse or pupae of Retinea turionana in shoots of Scotch fir. On the 
9th, at Woolmer Forest, I found the shoots of the young trees much infested with 
larvae which I supposed to be those of that species, and accordingly collected a lot 
of them. Afterwards, however, being informed that these were probably only 
young larvao of Bxioliana, I desisted from collecting them (which I have since had 
cause to regret), and confined myself to searchiug for the pupse of turionana, which 
I soon learned how to obtain. 

Now I know very well that some years ago Mr. Machin carefully described the 
habits of this species in the " Intelligencer," but as it is necessary to my purpose 
to give an outline of them here, I hope I shall be pardoned the repetition. 

The larva of turionana feeds during the winter inside the centre shoot at the 
tip of a branch of Scotch fir, generally selecting the topmost centre slioot of a 
young tree. This it hollows out, eating its way quite down into the pith below the 
ring of side shoots, which it leaves untouched, and makes a hole at the side of the 
woody part, among the needles, through which the excrement is ejected, and 
around which the resinous sap exuding from the wound forms a thick lump with 
the round hole through it. The pupa state is assumed in the centre shoot, but when 
the moth is ready to emerge the pupa works its way down the pa.ssage and out 
through the resinous tube, till it hangs free all but the last segment or two, which 
retain a hold in the passage, so that the moth, when it emerges, has no need to 
touch the resin, to which it might otherwise adhere. Before this, however, the 
circle of shoots has begun to grow, leaving in the centre the dead one, forming a 
natural conical cocoon, and this seems to betray the whereabouts of the pupa. 



1868.] 



179 



When this is broken oflf the pupa, if there be one, will be visible, as it liardly forma 
any web, and fills the space in the shoot ; but if, as is more often the case, the 
larva has beeu destroyed by an ichneumon^ a flat, pellucid membrane will be visible 
inside the shoot, and within this the ichnetbmon pupa lies. After working where- 
ever I could find young firs for three weeks, with various success, finding few pup89 
and many ichneumons, with occasionally a larva different from the ordinary ones, 
I chanced, on May 1st, to find a pupa in a side shoot (one of the circle), and by 
close searching procured one or two more. These were light brown pupae (those 
of ti(/rionana being dark brown) , and instead of lying in the shoot with the head 
downwards, were in the reverse position, the head being towards the tip of the 
shoot, the hard inside of which had been carefully gnawed away, leaving a passage 
of escape for the moth, but safely closed from any intruder by the natural bracts. 
From these, in the middle of May, I bred Retinia pinivorana ; turionana, having 
commenced to emerge a fortnight earlier. 

In the meantime the larvae collected first had been feeding voraciously, re- 
quiring plenty of fresh food, but at the same time being very restless, and had 
now most of them spun up ; and, to my great surprise, I bred from them nearly 
twenty pinivorana. Thus I had accidentally hit upon both the larva and the habits 
of the pupa of this species. Supposing the larva to heB^ioliana, I did not take any 
description, but they were dark red or liver coloured, and, if I recollect right, 
without markings, but with the ordinary brown head and plate. 

My good fortune did not end here, for on June 26th a pinicolana emerged, and 
in July two of Phycis abietella. This last must, I think, have been produced from 
a pale grey larva with darker longitudinal stripes, and I think a few short scattered 
hairs, which had rather a different form to the other larvae ; but as it fed in the 
shoots in the same way, I had concluded it to belong to an allied species. 

The only other insect that I bred from this lot of fir-shoots was Sericoris 
urticana ! ! Polyphagous as the larva is, I did not expect it from such a pabulum 
as this. — Chas. G. Barrett, Haslemere, 16th September^ 1868. 

The Recori) of Zoological Literature, vol. iv. ; part 2, Arachnida, Myriapoda, 
Insecta; by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. London: John Van Voorst, 1868. 

The hopes we previously expressed that this elaborate Record would be divided 
into sections, so as to enable students of one branch of Natural History to know 
what their fellow-workers were doing without having to pay for a bulky volume, 
a considerable portion of which would be useless to them, have been realized, and 
the portion recording the work done in the above-mentioned classes during 18G7 
can now be had separately, as can the two others concerning the VertehratOf 
Crustacea, and lower animals respectively. As it is, the present part extends to 
300 pages, almost totally occupied by the Insecta. We feel sure that entomologists 
will duly appreciate the boon accorded to them. It may be worthy of consideration 
whether the size and price might not yet be much reduced with advantage, 
by omitting the brief abstract of the characters of the new genera. It suf- 
fices that a worker at any order or family should know what has been done, and 
where to find the special paper he may require : moreover, as it is impossible that 
one man can duly appreciate the relative value of characters in all orders of insects. 



KsO 



December, 



BO we find occasionally that in the condensed diagnoses given in the Record, the 
most important points are omitted, and undue prominence given to minor charac- 
teristics. We throw this out as a hint, knowing at the same time that Mr. Dallas 
performs an Herculean labour in a most conscientious and able manner. 

The Butterflies of North America ; by Wm. H. Edwards. The American 
Entomological Society, Philadelphia. London : Tmbner & Co. 4to. 

At page 79 we had occasion to notice the first part of this magnificent pubU- 
cation. We have now received the second part, which, for beauty of the figures, 
and letter-press replete with information, fully sustains the favourable idea we had 
previously expressed. The five plates are occupied by figures of Argynnis 2 sp., 
CoUas 4 sp., and Apatura 1 sp. Perhaps the most cui-ious of all is the little Colias 
Behrii from the Yo Semite Mountains at an elevation of 10,000 feet ; it belongs to 
the dusky-green group of the genus, peculiar to northeim and Alpine regions. If 
the author continue to maintain the same excellence of description, and fidelity 
of illustration, any further recommendation we can give him will be superfluous. 

Entomological Society or London, 2nd November, 1868. — H. W. Bates, Esq., 
F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Stevens exhibited an example of Chcerocampa Celerio captured by Mr. 
Swaysland at Brighton on the 21st of September last ; and an insect from the lato 
Mr. Desvignes' Cabinet, which was probably a var, of Strenia clathrata. 

The President exhibited dwarfed specimens of Vanessa urticoe and Antlirocera 
filvpendidce from the Isle of Man, where these forms appeared to be the ordinary 
condition of the insect, at any rate during the last season. They were sent by 
Mr. Birchall, who communicated notes on the subject. 

Mr. John Wilson, R.A., of Woolwich, sent a note respecting a gynandromor- 
phorua example of Lasiocampa quercUs ; left side , right side $ . 

Mr. Briggs exhibited a Leucania captured at sugar at Folkestone on the 15th 
August ; another having been found, much wom, in October (since identified as 
L. alhipuncta, W. V., and new to this country ; a species more common in France 
than Utiiargyria, to which it is closely allied). 

Mr. Pryer exhibited Scoparia Zelleri captured at Norwood, and Agrypnia picta 
captured at Highgatc, both new to BHtain. 

Mr. Mosse exhibited a collection of insects from New York. 

Mr. Roland Trimen sent, from the Cape of Good Hope, dmwings of an extra- 
ordinary orthopterous insect, apparently pertaining to Gray's genus Anostcstoma. 
He also sent a paper containing remarks on certain South African Satyrid<£, with 
reference to their position and synonymy in Mr. Butler's recently-published Cata- 
logue of Satyridoe. 

Mr. Fercday, of New Zealand, sent a communication soliciting duplicates of 
British Insects for the Museum at Christchurch, Canterbury, N. Z. 

Mr. Miiller sent a letter requesting information respecting British galls ; he 
and Mr. H. W. Kidd being engaged on a work on the subject. 

Mr. F. Bates communicated *' Descriptions of New Genera and Species of 
Heteromera." 

Mr. McLachlan read " Contributions to a knowledge of European Trichoptera 
(part 1)." 



18C8.] 



181 



Acanthosoma hcemorrhoidalis or hcemorrlioidale ? with a word or two on the 
perpetuation of blunders in nomenclature. — At the last meetiug of the Entomological 
Society, I had the pleasure of reading a paper written by my colleague in the 
Secretaryship. When I came to the genus Sericostoma, my memory recalled a 
vigorous passage on the gender of Acanthosoma (Ent. Mo. Mag. iv, 260), and it 
was only after a timorous glance round the room had convinced me of the absence 
of the Rev. T. A. Marshall that I dared to give utterance to the name Sericostoma 
Carinthiacum, 

When my friend's " few words on bad spelling " were published in the Magazine 
for April and May last, I was prevented by the pressure of other matters from 
adding a fe w words of my own. If not too late, I should like to do so now. 

I may remark that Mr. Marshall has given to his papers a title too restricted ; 
the range and scope of his criticisms extend far beyond " bad spelling ;" many of 
the " flagrant instances of cacography* in names " which he adduces are incurable 
malformations, which must be either retained or rejected, but cannot be amended. 
The spelling of a mis-spelt name may be corrected, but it remains the same name ; 
reform a malformation, and you make in fact a new name. 

(1) I agree that " the ill-used letter H might be easily reinstated in such 
words as Ahrostola and Yponomeuta,'^ and ought to be. In the " Accentuated 
List of British Lepidoptera " published in 1858 by the Entomological Societies of 
Oxford and Cambridge, Mr. Marshall will find Hahrostolaf Hyponomeuta, Hyp- 
sipetes, &c. 

Suppose that, at a meeting of our Society, Mr. Dash were to announce that 
on a recent visit to 'Ampstead 'Eath he had caught a new 'Ighflyer, which he 
intended to describe a.s ' Ypsipetes ' Ampsteadiensis . I not only deny Mr. Dash's 
right to bind me by his pronunciation, but I think it would be within my duty if, 
before leaving Burhngton House, I caused search to be made on the floor for the 
dropped H's, and announced tlie new Highflyer in the " Proceedings " as Hamp- 
steadiensis. And if, instead of a verbal announcement, Mr. Dash had sent to a 
Magazine a description of ^Ampsteadiensis, and the Editors (omitting to sweep the 
carpet) had published it, I deny the right of Mr. Dash (either with or without the 
Editors thrown in) to bind me by his spelling. But unless Mr. Dash has the right 
to bind me throughout all time, both in writing and speaking, to drop the H of 
Hampsteadiensis, why should he have the right to bind me to drop the H of Hypsipetes ? 

(2) Again, I agree that "printer's errors might be rectified," and ought to be. 
For instance, (BucculatrixJ frangulella, so named by Goetze because the larva 

feeds on the alder buckthorn {Rhamnus frangula), was first published as frangutella. 
Can absurdity much further go than to ask us to perpetuate a misprint like this ? Yet 
it was years before the Historian of the Tineina could be induced to abandon it ; 
and there are still some who cling to the t. What would these gentry have done 
if the printer had made it frangnlell-a ? 

In the " Accentuated List " Mr. Marshall will find Argyrotoxa. Argyrotoza, 
however, was not a printer's but an author's error. Stephens made the same sub- 
stitution of z for X in other cases, e.g., Lozotcenia, in each instance giving correctly 



• Qu. Is not " calligraphy usually taken to mean good writing in the sense of good penmanship? 
and " cacography," I presume is the opposite of calligraphy. But the opposite of "orthography" is 
here intended. 



182 



[Dumber, 



the Greek word which he professed to be Latinizing. The unfortunate similarity, 
in many founts of type, of the diphthongs ce and oe leads to constant confusion. 
And nomeuclators occasionally forget that the Greek ai is represented in Latin by 
the dipthong ce, and the Greek oi by 02 ; thus we have Oinophila where we ought 
to have (Enophila. Mistakes like these ought, in my opinion, to be rectified. And 
it may be worth while to add that I regard it as perfectly proper to cite Argyrotoxa 
and (Enophila of Stephens. 

(3) Mistakes in the spelling of proper names are not uncommon — sometimes 
the printer, sometimes the author himself, is at fault. Example, Stiymodera Yarelli, 
Lap. and Gory, for Tatrellii. In a note at p. 32 of Trans. Ent. Soc, 1868, I have 
sufficiently indicated my opinion as to the retention of blunders like this. 

(4) But some Medes and Persians are so enamoured of the " law of priority " 
that they will not even permit an author to correct his own mistakes. It is only 
on this hypothesis that the retention of Psocus can be supported ; since Latreille, 
who published Psocus in 1794, himself gave the correct form PsocJms in 1796. 
Here, again, I should like to ask what must have been done if the printer, 
instead of dropping out the h, had omitted (say) the 0, thereby reducing the name 
to Pschus ? Must Latreille, and all the world besides, have for ever continued to 
sputter over the genus Pschus ? 

(5) " Lastly (says Mr. Marshall) a vicious practice has been imported from the 
Continent, and is daily gaining ground. It is that of making genera which end in 
-TOMA, -OMA, or -SOMA, neuter, instead of feminine. This extraordinary and illogical 
vagary seems founded on some confused notion that all Greek words ending in 
-DMA must be neuter because soma is so. It seems necessary to point out that 
the gender of the diflFerent nouns forming a compound can have no influence on 
the gender of the compound when formed. The latter depends for gender on its 
own termination, and nothing more. [And is moreover supposed to bo Latin, 
whatever its derivation. — Eds.] Acanthosoma is feminine by the form of the 
word, irrespective of the gender of Acantha or Soma ; to make it neuter is to mis- 
understand the use of words. It would not be more ludicrous to argue that a 
carriage must be feminine, because it has a lady inside. Nevertheless a German 
iUuminato has gravely propounded this rule, and by way of correction, as a legitimate 
principle in nomenclature." (Ent. Mo. Mag. iv, p. 260). 

En passant f the neutrification of Acanthosoma has nothing to do with " bad 
spelling." 

I may observe that in the aforesaid " Accentuated List " we did not alter, 
from feminine to neuter, the gender of such generic names as these, but retained 
Di/plodoi^ia marginipunctella, Dasystoma salicella, Homoeosoma nehulella, &c. On the 
other hand, in the 3rd series of the Trans. Ent. Soc, there are many such forms 
treated as of the neuter gender, and I have not attempted to induce the 
authors to make them feminine. Hitherto, then, I have been indifferent on the 
point, or perhaps I ought to say, passively, if not actively, inconsistent. But now 
that the question has been so pointedly raised by Mr. Marshall, I feel compelled to 
throw off my indifference, and range myself on one side or the other. 

The question does not appear to me so simple as Mr. Marshall seems to think ; 
and though I can quite understand my friend's view, I see nothing ludicrous in 
that of the " German illuminato." I should like to hear the said German argue 
the point ; failing that, I will (for the sake of ventilating the subject) try to place 
myself in his position. 



1868.] 



183 



So far as I am aware, the practice of making " genera which end in -toma, 
•oma, or -soma, neuter " has been applied only in cases where the name of the 
genus is a compound of two Greek words of which the latter is a noun substantive 
of neuter gender ; as Ortho-stoma, Di/plo-doma, Acantho-soma. This is the case 
which I propose now to consider, leaving those (if any) who hold the " confused 
notion " above mentioned to defend their own " vicious practice " and " illogical 
vagary." 

What then is, or ought to be, the gender of Acantlwsoma ? 

The proposition that " the gender of the different nouns forming a compound 
can have no influence on the gender of the compound when formed ; the latter 
depends for gender on its own termination, and nothing more," is stated too 
broadly, as shown by Mr. Marshall himself, in the note at p. 281, where he says 
I>iFSOCORis=thirst-bug ; a compound noun substantive, which, therefore, must 
have some gender or other ; it takes its gender from the subject (bug) .... the 
word involves both subject and predicate ; the subject is a hug, whereof it is predi- 
cated that he is thirsty." It is clear, then, that where the subject is expressed, 
the gender of that subject not only has influence on, but determines, the gender of 
the compound. 

But Mr. Marshall distinguishes Acanthosoma from Dipsocoris on the ground 
that " in Acanthosoma the subject is not contained, but understood. Acanthosoma= 
spiny -bodied ; a compound noun adjective, agreeing with some substantive under- 
stood, or supposed to be understood, and in this instance, from the termination, 
supposed to be feminine. Of this subject it is predicated that it has a spiny body. 
Body is not the subject, but part of the predicate." 

In other words — a name which denotes what a thing is, is a noun substantive j 
a name which denotes what a thing has^ some property or quality which it possesses, 
is a noun adjective. 

But is this necessarily and universally so ? A " blackbird "is so called because 
it is a black bird ; a " redbreast " is so called because it has a red breast ; a " wag- 
tail" because it has a tail and wags it. Are not "redbreast" and "wagtail" as 
much nouns substantive as "blackbird?" May not Acanthosoma be a substantive, 
just as much as Dipsocoris ? 

The real question is this — Is Acanthosoma an adjective or a substantive ? 

That it may be an adjective I do not deny. Such forms as disomos and me- 
galosomos (for disomatos and megalosomatos) occur in some late Greek writers, and 
there is good authority for distomos and megalostomos. By analogy we have acan- 
thosomos, and, Latinizing this, we obtain acanthosomus, -a, -um, as an adjective to 
express " spine-bodied." [Spine-bodied, not spiny-bodied ; spinicorpus, not spinosi- 
corpus. I apprehend that, properly, Acanthosomus means " having a body like a 
spine," or " spine-shaped" — not " spiny," or " covered with spines."] 

But conceding that Acantlwsoma may be an adjective, does it follow that it 
must be ? 

Why may I not say " AcANTHosoMA=spi'ne-bo(i?/, a compound noun substantive, 
which, therefore, must have some gender or other" of its own ? 

When, as in the days of Moses Harris, Papilio Machaon and Anthocharis Carda- 
mines were called respectively " the swallow-tailed " and " the orange-tipped," 
their vernacular names were " compound nouns adjective, agreeing with some sub- 
stantive understood." But surely " swallow-tail " and " orange-tip," " blue-bottle," 
*' cow-lady," and " lady-bird," are themselves nouns substantive. 



184 



[ Dt'cember, 



It cannot be said that the Greek language does not recognize compound nouns 
substantive. And if it be wislied to form in Greek the compound substantive 
corresponding to the English spine-hody, what would it be, if not Acantlwsoma ? 

Is there any reason why a compound noun substantive may not be taken for 
the name of a genus, when a simple noun substantive may ? If Harma will do, 
why not Chalccmna ? If Phasma, why not Neophasma ? 

The word Trigonaspis may be either a substantive (a triangular shield), or it 
may be an adjective denoting the possession of a triangular shield. The mere 
compounding of trigones with aspis does not make the compound trigonaspis an 
adjective any more than compounding " long " and " bow " makes *' longbow " an 
adjective. Trigonaspis is as good a substantive as Aspis, Micromix as good as Omix. 

If Micromix had been applied to a genus of birds, Mr. Marshall's Dipsocoris 
argument would have run thus : — " Micrornix = little-hird, a compound noun 
substantive, which, therefore, must have some gender or other ; it takes its gender 
from the subject (bird) j the word involves both subject and predicate ; the subject 
is a bird, whereof it is predicated that it is little." If, instead of a genus of birds, 
the name were given to a genus of moths — as, in fact, the name Ornix has been — 
then, as a moth is not a bii-d, the argument would be that " in Micrornix the subject 
is not contained, but understood ; of this subject it is predicated that it is like a 
little bird ; bird is not the subject, but part of the predicate." The result is, that 
as the name of a bird Micromix is a substantive, vnth a gender of its own — as the 
name of a moth, Micrornix is an adjective, depending for its gender on some 
imaginary substantive understood ! 

Suppose that instead of compounding acantha and soma, the author had formed 
his name from acantha and thorax. Adopting the same mode of composition as in 
Acanthosoma, we obtain Acanthothorax. By a similar process we have Uropteryx. 

The three genders of the adjectives Acanthothorax and Uropteryx would be 
identical. Whatever, then, " the substantive understood, or supposed to be under- 
stood," might be, whether masculine, feminine, or neuter, the name of the genus 
would still remain Acanthothorax or Uropteryx. The founder of Acanthothorax 
might understand a feminine substantive, and make the name feminine ; the 
founder of Uropteryx might have understood a masculine substantive, and matle the 
name masculine. Would Mr. Marshall allow Acanthothorax spinosa or Uropteryx 
samhucarius to stand ? If not, why not ? If he would, he must equally allow 
Spilothorax punctaturti and Micropteryx pv/rpurellum. We should then have three 
genera, say, Ceratothorax masculine, AcantliotJwrax feminine, and Spilothorax neuter ; 
and in like manner with the compounds o£ pteryx. Nay, further, wo might have all 
three genders in the same genus. A., an author of a masculine turn of mind, might 
call his species Acanthothorax niger ; B., more pai-tial to the feminine gender, 
might insist upon naming another species Acanthothorax alba ; whilst C., an epicene, 
might have a preference for Acanthothorax rufum. And if this noun-adjective 
principle of the gender being '* dependent on the termination and nothing more" be 
sustainable, no one of the trio can say that either of the other two is wrong. 

Is not AcanthotJiorax a noun substantive of masculine gender, and masculine 
because thorax is masculine ? Uropteryx & noun substantive of feminine gender, 
and feminine because pteryx is feminine? Acanthosoma a noun substantive of 
neuter gender, and ncntor bncnn=:o a^vfn is neuter ? 



185 



Mr. Marshall is careful to point out (p. 282) that Harma, as a generic name, is 
ueutcr; the only reason being that the Greek noun substantive /larma is neuter.* 
If any one were to tiike Soma for the name of a genus, this, by parity of reasoning, 
would be neuter. If Soma is properly made neuter, why is Acanthosoyna to be 
made feminine ? Is not Chalcarma of the same gender as Harma ? 

To Mr. Marshall's assertion that the compound depends for gender on its own 
termination and nothing more, the Editors of the Magazine add the further argu- 
ment that the word is " supposed to be Latin, whatever its derivation." Admitted 
— but what then ? The name Harma is supposed to be Latin. Do the Editors wish 
to argue that Harma should be feminine? If so, I leave them for the present 
to settle their little difference vrith Mr. Marshall. In fact, the suggestion of 
the Editors leaves the question precisely where it was j for if Acanthosoyna 
be a substantive, the termination does not decide its gender j I need scarcely 
remind the Editors that there are plenty of Latin substantives ending in -a 
which are masculine, and plenty which are neuter. Acantlvosoma as a Greek 
noun substantive would undoubtedly be neuter ; and if that word had been adopted 
in Latin, the neuter gender would have been retained. Just as we have Mni^ma 
(n.), gen. (snigmatis ; i:>ha$ma (n.), -atis ; psalma (n.), -atis ; so we should have 
Acanthosoma (n.),gen. Acanthosomatis. 

On the adjectival hypothesis, we are bound to make the genitive case Acantho- 
somce ; but I presume Mr. Marshall would say Harma, gen. Harmatis, I see that 
at p. 274 of the Magazine he sends glechomce of Linne to the right about, and 
properly writes Aulax glechomatis. If, then, there were an Acanthosoma which 
affected the plant Glechoma, Mr. Marshall must make the genitive case of its name 
to be AcantliosomcB Glechomatis. 

I have purposely omitted any discussion of the " carriage with the lady inside." 
But so far from seeing anything " ludicrous," " illogical," or indicative of " misun- 
derstanding the use of words" in making this name neuter, I must confess that 
Acanthosoma, as a Latinized word of Greek origin, a noun substantive of the third 
declension and of neuter gender, a term absolute, not depending on any other word 
understood, seems to me admissible ; and if the matter were res integra, and we 
were now beginning our nomenclature, I should not hesitate (as at present advised) to 
adopt the neuter substantive in preference to the feminine adjective ; though I beg 
to reserve to myself the fullest right to go over to the feminine camp when I have 
heard Mr. Marshall in reply. 

My present impression is that Acanthosoma, as the name of a genus of bugs, 
may be deemed to be either an adjective or a substantive, may be made either 
feminine or neuter — that either of the opposing views is rational, neither of them 
ludicrous. It may be that in the existing state of nomenclature, expediency and 
the balance of convenience are in favour of the retention of Acanthosoma, fern, 
(gen. case, Acanthosomce, Fam. Acanthosomida;), and the rejection of Acanthosoma, 
neut. (gen. case, Acanthosomatis, Fam. Acanthosomatidce) j at all events, it is desirable 
that there should be uniformity in the practice. 

(6.) To pass now to Mr. Marshall's "further words" (vol. iv, p. 280), I find 
some difficulty in discovering, and I hope we shall be further informed, how far my 

* For the purpose of this argument I adopt Mr. Marshall's suggestion that the genus Arma of Hahn 
ought to be written Harma. I do not find that Hahn himself professes to derive the name fromharma, 
nor do I know on what ground Mr. Marshall adopts this derivation. It is not justifiable to impute 
error on conjecture, if any explanation not inrolving error is forthcoming. If Jrma can be explained, 
we ought not to resort to flarwia ; and at least two derivations may be suggested for Arma without 
the H. 



186 



[December^ 



friend desires to go in altering names that are already current. Viewed as canons 
for future guidance, I agree in the main with Mr. Marshall's propositions ; but 
framing rules for future nomenclators, and applying those rules retrospectiveJy to 
established names, are very different matters. I desire to see scientific nomen- 
clature scientifically constructed, and think that enough has already been said to 
show that I am not bigottedly conservative of blunders, however venerable from 
antiquity ; at the same time, considerations of convenience render me averse to 
making altei-ations in some, at least, of the instances classified by Mr. Marshall. 
Take his first class of " barbarism " — words without meaning, or formed from 
Chinese, Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Arabic roots. These are said to be incurable. Is 
it, then, proposed to root them out ? Though not enamoured of such names, I am 
scarcely prepared for their wholesale excision from our Lists. True, it is difficult 
to say where we must stop ; if we admit Chinese and Hebrew, why not Zulu ? or 
even American ? I have some recollection of having seen printed descriptions of 
beetles under the specific names of " Copper-head " and "Know-nothing!" Not 
long ago I read in this Magazine, (iv, 246) a description of an Aulocera Werang ; 
the context showed that Werang is the name of an Indian mountain-pass where 
the butterfly had been captured. What would be thought of a Pa^piUo Haminersmith, 
a Piens Mont-Blanc, or a PoVyommatus Jungfrau ? A few years ago certain French 
authors gave such names as Cetonia Hope^ Lomcuptera Latreille, Gnathocera Macleay ; 
but subsequent writers have properly converted these into Hopii, Latreillii, Macleaii 
£N.B. Not Hopei, &c.], and this seems to point out the appropriate mode of treat- 
ment for the Werangs, whose nakedness should at least be clothed in a garb of 
mediaeval Latinity. 

(7.) Again, take Mr. Marshall's 6th class. *' Compounds of two nouns, in 
which the subject is placed first, and the subordinate idea last, thereby destroying 
the sense. Let any one try this inversion upon the English compounds London- 
Bridge, watch-pocket, black-beetle, &c., and the result will be similar to that of 
CorimelcBua for MelanocoriSy Derephysia for Physodem." Is the " destruction of the 
sense" by inverting " river-horse " into ** horse-river" sufficient to induce us to 
abandon hippopotamus ? Is rhinoceros to be turned into ceratorhimcs ? To substitute 
Physodera for Derephysia is to make a new name, not to correct the spelling of the 
old one. 

(8.) As to the 7th class, perhaps a little more explanation is requisite, lest it 
should be supposed that Mr. Marshall had laid it down that every compound of two 
Greek nouns is barbarous unless the two are connected by the letter O. It might 
be well to point out the distinction between Acctropis^ Qonianotiis, &c , and such 
existing Greek forms as Oidipous, Calliope, caUigraphoSy andrapodon, sciagraphoSj 
acesphoros, aspidephoros, sagephoros, &c. 

(9.) Again, Mr. Marshall says JEliodes should be ^lioides; the termination 
-odes means * full of similarity is expressed by -oides.** But surely the termination 
'odes (with omega) not nnfrequently expresses similarity, being in fact nothing but 
a contraction of 'Oeides (with omicron) . Thus isthmodcs, cimodes, cnclodes, sphecodeSf 
chalcodes = isthmoeides, &c. ; and such instances, occurring in classical authors of 
repute, if not worthy of imitation, seem to me sufficient warrant for allowing 
JEUodes to stand. 

But I fear my discursive remarks are running to too great a length ; they 
should have been shorter had I had more time. — J. W. Dunning, 24, Old Buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn, 13</i Novetnber, 1868. 



1868.] 



187 



LTC^NA MEDON (AGESTIS) AND ARTAXERXES, ARE THEY DISTINCT? 
BY PKOF. P. C. ZELLEB. 
(Translated and extracted from the " Stettiner Ent. Zeitung" 1868, pp. 401 — 405. 

Englishmen consider it as now proved,* and Staudinger in his 
Catalogue follows their precedent, that Artaxerxes is only a variety of 
Medon, the transition to which is formed by Salmacis, Steph. That 
the latter belongs to Medon cannot be doubted ; but the former does 
not yet seem to me so sure as not to necessitate confirmatory experi- 
ments. What probably constitutes the rule with Salmacis, namely, 
that white scales border the black median spot of the fore-wings on 
both sides, I notice only in some specimens of Medon from the South 
of Europe and Asia Minor, where it is more or less finished on the inner 
side by a few white scales. But that, as in Artaxerxes, the whole 
black spot should be missing, and the white scales so much increased 
instead, as to form a white oval spot, has probably nowhere been 
observed on the continent. The natural history of Artaxerxes is, 
at all events, well known to Englishmen. Stainton writes (Manual, 
p. 62) — "Larva pale bluish-green, with a green dorsal line and a 
pinkish lateral one ; head glossy black. On Selianthemum vulgare in 
May ; time of appearance of imago June and July." I doubt not but 
that in some one of the many English publications, which I am sorry 
to say are mostly unknown and unused on the continent, the natural 
history is given at length. The same is no doubt the case with Medon; 
for, if the description of its larva taken from Westwood, and in the 
Manual, — " green, with a pale angular dorsal row of patches, and a 
yellow-brownish dorsal line," — should still be considered as correct, it 
is not to be understood how people in England could have their doubts 
about the most complete specific difference between Medon and Arta- 
xerxes. The natural history of our common Medon I have carefully 
observed from the egg, and described in the Ent. Mo. Mag., vol. iv., 
pp. 73 — 77. I therefore mention here only the following. Stainton 
has indicated the correct food-plant, but the full-grown larva must be 
thus described : — " Lively pale green, finely white-haired ; the head 
black ; the dorsal line purplish-brown ; with two very pale green 
oblique lateral lines, and broad purplish-red lateral swellings." 

It is owing to the kindness of my friend, Mr. Henry Doubleday, of 
Epping, that I have become acquainted with the caterpillar of Arta- 
xerxes in nature ; I got from him four larvae, which, after having probably 



* In Stainton's Manual I. (1857) L. Agestis (Medon) and Irtaxerxet were still kept separate. 



188 



rjanuary, 



first made the journey from Edinburgh to Epping,* arrived on the 
16th May safely at Meseritz. The indications of " frass " showed that 
a few had partaken of food on the way. On the fresh food, which I 
secured on the very day of their arrival, no trace of " frass " could be 
observed, and yet one of them could not have been quite full grown, 
as it only became a pupa on the 29th May. Can it have disliked the 
Helianthemum grown on a sandy loam, and not on limestone ? 

The first turned to pupa the afternoon following its arrival ; it did 
not fix itself by a thread, neither did the following ones ; but the fourth 
fixed itself in a corner of the box with a weak thread round the middle 
of the body. So it sat quite still, having become of an unicolourous 
pale green, with apparently very deep-lying dorsal vessel. Each of the 
four pupjB had the hinder extremity inserted in the cast-ofi" larva-skin, 
which had become pale greyish-yellow, with yellowish bristles. 

The caterpillars are pale green, and amply covered with whitish 
bristles. The dorsal vessel forms a considerably broad longitudinal 
line, dark green, narrowed in the segments, fading away before the 
end of the anal shield ; which line is laterally accompanied on each 
segment by a swollen hump, apparently more thickly bristled. The 
lateral swelling, deeply notched behind each segment, has a reddish- 
white line, running lengthways, bordered on both sides with dark rose 
colour, making the colour of the whole lateral swelling appear rose 
colour when superficially viewed. This colour does not reach round 
the anal shield, nor does it extend to the thoracic segments. Between 
it and the dorsal sweUings pale faint lines descend from above obliquely 
downwards and backwards. The ventral legs are somewhat paler than 
the ground colour of the body ; the anterior legs are yellowish-brown, 
their tips quite pale. The pupa is slightly polished pale green, on the 
back darker and purer ; on the abdomen paler, and shading into 
yellowish, on the wing-covers into whitish. The abdomen shows very 
slender small yellowish bristles sparsely scattered ; on the face they 
are somewhat longer, straight, and stiff; on the neck shorter, and 
much sparser. Over each eye a blackish streak, curved backwards, 
ranges from the upper border to the lower one. The dorsal vessel, 
only visible on the abdomen, is dark grey, widened on each segment in 
the middle, but it is not visible either on the first or last segment. The 
lateral swQlling of the abdomen, which disappears under the wing- 
cases, is very pale rose colour. Above it the spiracles appear as small 
whitish raised dots. 



• We believe these larrae were forwarded from Scotland by Mr. Andrew Wilson, of Edinburgh — Eds. 



1869.] 



189 



During the development of the butterflies the wing-covers became 
at first whitish, and not transparent, and the eyes dark. On the third 
day before the last the thorax became of a brown colour, the wing- 
cases and the abdomen pale dirty yellow. Over the brown eyes the 
the darker curved streak was still visible. The leg and wing-cases 
had each received a broad longitudinal line, and the tips of the an- 
tennaa showed themselves as two brown, elongated, longly-elliptical, ^ 
small spots, between the ends of the wing-cases. On the day before 
the last the wings and the end of the abdomen had taken a brown 
colour.* The first butterfly (a female) appeared on the 31st May. 
According to the time of extrusion of these four specimens, the 
duration of the pupal state of the first generation (if there be a 
second) is 12 — 14 days. The butterflies (2^,2 $ ) were true Arta- 
xerxes. Only, one of the males had on the upper-side of the fore-wing, 
instead of the white spot, nothing but a very small whitish dot, scarcely 
perceptible, but, like the others, no trace of the black mark always 
present in Ifedon. 

If I now compare the descriptions of the larvse of Medon and 
ArtaxerxeSj made after a number of specimens, the difference in the 
colour of the dorsal stripe is first noticeable ; purple-brown in Medon, 
dark green in Artaxerxes ; and in the latter it is even differently formed, 
— at least, I find in my memoranda about Medon nothing mentioned 
about a narrowing of the same in the segments. 

But this being a difference of colouring, I lay no stress upon 
it, any more than upon the colour of the lateral swelling, which in 
Medon is simply purplish-red throughout, instead of being lighter in 
the middle, as in Artaxerxes. The difference in the build, and in the 
pubescence of the swellings, is much more important. It is said of 
Medon, that those (swellings) situated near the dorsal stripe bear 
numerous bristles of unequal length ; of Artaxerxes, that they have 
only apparently thicker bristles than the rest of the body. I am sorry 
that, relying upon the exactness of my last year's description of Medon 
larvae, I have not drawn up that of Artaxerxes, with my notes upon 
the former before me, and that, therefore, to make quite sure, new 
descriptions will have to be taken. 

I therefore omit to point out also the other small differences, 
which perhaps lie more in the words than in the reality. But supposing 
that both larvae are built quite alike, and that the colour of the dorsal 

* The larva and pupa of Artaxerxes were described by Mr. Buckler in our last number (p. 176) ia 
his usual careful manner, but we insert Prof. Zeller's description for the sake of comparison ; it will be 
observed that the two agree in all Imoortant points, the diflferences being more those of words than of 
reality.— Eds. 



190 



[January, 



stripes and the lateral swellings is changeable ; that, further, a gradual 
transition can be put together in the images, from the true Artaxerxes 
to the Medon of the continent, then full certainty can only be obtained 
through breeding from the egg. 

Tlie Helianthemum, as food of the larva, no doubt produces L. 
Artaxerxes, the Erodium (in southern countries, besides cicutarium, 
certainly also other species), L. Medon. That the latter does not lay her 
eggs with us on Relianthemum, I may assert as certain ; and there is 
every probability that Artaxerxes does not select Erodium. 

But we have a right to expect that, if the young larvae, from the 
egg forward, accommodate themselves to one or another food unusual 
to them, their butterflies will also take the distinctions (or, to allow its 
right to the influence of the climate, at least some of them) of the 
species living upon that food-plant, thus establishing the proof of being 
the same. Whether Artaxerxes appears in a second brood, as it 
ought to do if it form the same species with Medon, I do not find 
indicated. As hybernation (according to my observations on Medon) 
is not at all easy, it will be best to choose the summer brood for 
this experiment. The females of the Diurncs like best to lay their 
eggs in the hours of the forenoon. Where this has been observed, 
nothing is wanted but to cut carefully a few days later all the plants 
near the spots, and to shake them over a white cloth, so as to secure 
the number of larvse wanted. 

If the result answer my expectations, the Medon larva? will 
all prefer to die of hunger rather than accept the Helianthemum ; 
which means that Artaxerxes will turn out to be a species difterent from 
Medon, however much their larvfe may resemble each other in build, 
pubescence, and colouring. 



ON THE EUROPEAN SPECIES OP SYRPHUS ALLIED TO S. EIBESIT. 
BY G. H. VEEEALL. 

The " riimi "-group of the genus Syrphus contains several species, 
which, though closely allied, aff'ord nearly always, when carefully ex- 
amined, good tangible points of distinction. By this group I mean 
those species which have the eyes bare, and the abdomen elliptical (that 
is, broadest in the middle) with at least three bands, of which only the 
firbt is in either sex separated into distinct spots. The male of S' 
corollce approaches this group, as the spots on the abdomen of that are 
frequently strung together, but in the female they are always decidedly 
separate. The group is most widely distributed, rihesii itself being 



1S69. 



191 



said to occur in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. There are about 
a dozen European species, of which only three, grossularice, ribesii, and 
vitripennis, are recorded as British in Walker's Diptera Britannica ; 
Stephens and Curtis, in their catalogues, mention a fourth, nitidicollis, 
which 1 reinstated in the June number of this Magazine for last year, 
and I have now to add a fifth in latifasciatics, and perhaps a sixth in 
nitens. Most, if not all, of the rest may be expected to occur in the 
British Isles. The European species are — 

1. Lineola, Zetterstedt, Dipt. Skan., ii, 714,16(1843). 

2. Vittiger, Zetterstedt, loc. cit., 714, 17 (1843). 

These two may be distinguished from all the rest by their black 
epistomal middle line ; lineola has a darker stigma and duller thorax 
than vittiger. Zetterstedt and Schiner record lineola as widely dis- 
tributed in Skandinavia, and rare in Austria, while vittiger is the 
rarer in Skandinavia, and the commoner in Austria. 

3. O-rossularice, Meigen, Sys. Bes., iii, 306, 48 (1822). This may be 

known by its entirely black antennae, dull coloured thorax, wholly 
yellow epistoma, and completely entire abdominal bands, without 
the trace of a notch. The base of the femora and the coxse being 
black, distinguish it from its nearest ally diaphanus. It is found 
uncommonly over nearly all Europe. Walker records it as British, 
but only says "Eare; in Mr. Saunders' collection (E. S. I.)." 
I have seen one female specimen, probably from Sussex, but the 
usual British representatives are only large ribesii. 

4. Diaphanus, Zetterstedt, Dipt. Skan., ii, 711, 12 (1843). Distinguished 

from the preceding by its smaller size, yellow front, and entirely 
yellow legs in the female, and with only the coxse dark in the male. 
It is found rarely in Sweden and Austria, and probably over all 
central Europe, though generally in single specimens. 

5. Bihesii, Linne, Fauna Suecica, 1816 (1761). This is probably the 

commonest species of the genus throughout Europe ; it may be 
known by its entirely yellow epistoma, dull thorax, antennae with 
the third joint pa'e beneath, scutellum clothed with mostly dark 
hairs, and slightly emarginate abdominal bands. There may be 
two species still under this, as specimens collected in large woods 
may nearly always be distinguished at a glance from those collected 
in gardens, by their darker and more compact appearance. Com- 
mon throughout England. 

6. Vitripennis, Meigen, Sys. Bes., iii, 308* 50 (1822). I must say, 1 



192 



[January, 



cannot satisfactorily distinguish this from the preceding ; all authors 
seem to say it may be a variety of it, but are not sufficiently satis- 
fied in their own minds to unite them. The distinctions most in- 
sisted upon are the smaller size, more pellucid wings, and blacker 
femora ; but they vary much in the femora, and I have specimens 
fully as large as ribesii with wholly pellucid wings, and others 
smaller than the general run of vitripennis with dark wings. I 
hope, however, next summer to come to some conclusion concerning 
the variations of this and the preceding species. Zetterstedt says 
himself (Dipt. Skan., ii, 708) that the confinis described by him in 
the Ins. Lapp., 602, 15, is only a variety of this, rather larger and 
with darker antennae. It is more common than ribesii in gardens, 
but perhaps less so in woods and open country. 

7. Nitidicollis, Meigen, Sys. Bes., iii, 308, 51 (1822). This species may 

be known from the four preceding by its brightly shining thorax. 
The epistoma has also the cheeks more or less dark. The scutellum 
being clothed with dark hairs separates it from ochrostoma, mela- 
nostoma, and latifasciatus. For its distinction from nigritarsis and 
nitens, see the notes upon those species (Nos. 11 and 12). It 
occurs sparingly probably over all Europe, never seeming to be 
abundant. It has occurred not rarely at Darenth "Wood, and oc- 
casionally in Sussex, and even here (Denmark Hill) almost in 
London. 

8. Ochrostoma, Zetterstedt, Dipt. Skan., viii, 3133, 12, 13 (1849). This 

may be distinguished from all the preceding by its yellow-haired 
scutellum. It has also the whole epistoma yellow, which distin- 
guishes it from its nearest ally nitidicolUs, and from all the fol- 
lowing species. It is found very rarely in Northern and Alpine 
districts. 

9. Melanostoma, Zetterstedt, Dipt. Skan., ii, 711, 13 (1843). This is 

allied to the two preceding species, but may be distinguished by 
its yellow-haired scutellum and black cheeks and peristoma. It is 
separated from latifasciatus by its abdominal bauds being straight 
behind instead of notched. It is found in similar situations to 
the last, also rarely. 

10. Latifasciatus, Macquart, Dipt, du Nord de France, 94, 28 S (1827). 
This species was described as affinis by Loew in the Isis for 1840, 
and in 1849 the male was again described by Zetterstedt as excisus, 
and the female as ahhrcviatus* The latifasciatus of Macquart has 
hitherto been considered a doubtful synonym of corolla, but the 

• And also by Rondani (Dip. Prod. Ii, 153), in 1857, eajlavicept.-^. H. V. 



1869.] 



193 



wording of his original description " abdomen a trois bandes jaunes, 
" fort larges— la deuxieme sans echancrure anterieurement (male) — 
" Epistome d'un jaune luisant, bord anterieur de la bouche noir — 
" troisieme et quatrieme (segments de Tabdomen) a bande tres 
" large, atteignant les cotes pres du bord anterieur, legerement 
" ecbancree du c6te posterieur — ventre a bords des segments et 
" taches trans versales noiratres. Pieds fauves ; hanches et base 
"des cuisses noires," is I consider quite conclusive as to the 
identity of his species : he says it may be the male of topiarius, but 
the words " yeux nus " render that impossible. The reinstation 
of this name will also improve a doubtful piece of synonymy, as 
Fabricius in the Ent. Syst. described a Syrphus affinisy which, 
however, is a Phasia (Muscidcs) ; and, in consequence of that, Schiner 
rejects Loew's name, adopting Zetterstedt's name excisus for the 
male. The species may be known from its allies by its yellow- 
haired scutellum, black cheeks, and emarginate abdominal bands. 
I believe it is widely distributed, and common in England. I have 
captured it in two or three localities in Sussex, and also near 
Richmond. It is frequently to be noticed in British cabinets under 
the name of corollcB. 

11. Nitens, Zetterstedt, Dipt. Skan.j'^Tl^, 14 ? (1843). In the original 

description of this species, a single female only was described, 
which appeared to be very closely allied to nitidicoUis, the only 
tangible distinctions then given being the rather smaller size and 
the much greater blackness of the femora. To this description 
was afterwards added (Dipt. Skan., viii, 3137), that the vertex is 
evidently narrower than in the allied species, and that the epistoma 
has a rudiment of a brown middle line ; and a male was described, 
probably belonging to this species, concerning which it was stated 
that there are two oblique brown spots above the antennae, and 
that the abdominal bands are rather undulated. The bright thorax 
and black-haired scutellum distinguish it from all but nitidicoUis 
and nigritarsis. In August, 1866, I captured in Sussex a female 
very similar to nitidicoUis, with the vertex very slightly narrower, 
with twe oblique brown spots above the antenna?, and with the 
abdominal bands distinctly undulated and much narrowed at their 
ends ; the epistoma has a trace of a dark middle line, the wings 
are more pellucid, and the pubescence in general is darker, the 
black hairs predominating on the abdomen, and the four anterior 
femora are fringed with black hairs instead of all yellow, the ab- 
domen is also broader. All these distinctions might show the spe- 



194 



[January, 



cimen to be nitens, but it is sccarcely smaller and has the femora 
quite as yellow as in nitidicollis ; I have very little doubt, however, 
but that it is a female nitens. The species seems only to have been 
observed by Zetterstedt and Bonsdorff in the extreme north of 
Europe. This is most similar in appearance to Utifasciaius, but 
may be known from that immediately by its black-haired scutellum. 

12. Nigritarsis, Zetterstedt, Dipt., Skan., ii, 710, 11 (1843). This spe- 
cies differs from nitidicollis in the tarsi being wholly, and the 
femora for the basal third, black ; the wings are more pellucid, the 
thorax not quite so bright, and the hinder tibiae have a faint ob- 
scure ring. It differs from nitens in the broader abdominal bands, 
rather larger antennie, black tarsi, &c. If distinct from nitidi- 
collis, it is probably overlooked, as it is only recorded from the 
extreme north of Europe by Zetterstedt, Bonsdorff, and Malm. 

I believe the above 12 species are all that have been recorded as 
European, the first ten are well known to Entomologists, the last two 
are probably overlooked. Crenatus^ of Macquart (Dipt, du Nord de 
France, 95, 29) might at first be considered to belong to this group, but 
I believe it to be only a synonym of corollce, as I have specimens of 
the latter agreeing exactly with Macquart's description. 

In the previous descriptions the colour of the hairs is always, to 
a certain extent, yellow, so when I say that the scutellum is clothed 
with yellow hairs, I mean all yellow, and when I say black hairs, I 
mean some black, generally the majority, as the character is a very 
constant one. 

The Mulberries, Denmark Hill, London, S, 
November, 1868. 



NOTE ON THE GENUS RTGMODUS, WEITE.* 
BY CHAS. 0. WATEEHOUSE. 

Having had occasion to examine the type specimens of the supposed 
Heteromerous genus Rygmodus\ in the British Museum, I find that the 
position of the genus is with the SydrobiidcB, having, I believe, all the 
characters of Ri/drohius, except the simple claws ; i. e., the antennae 
are 9-jointed ; the 1st joint being elongate, the 2nd short, thick, 3rd, 
4th, and 5th scarcely longer than the 2nd, sub-equal, 6th very short, 
and 7th, 8th, and 9th forming a club. The abdomen is composed of 

* See " Vojage of the Erebus and TeiTor," pt. Insects, p. 118.— C. O. W. 

t Till' Urifish Musouin id now indebted to the liberality of Major Parry for the type specimen of 
R. mode»iit*.—C. 0. W. 



18C9.J 



195 



five segments. The tarsi are all 5-jointed, slender ; the 2nd joint of 
the four posterior tarsi being long, and the basal joint (especially of the 
hindermost tarsus) very short ; the claws are appendiculated. 
I add descriptions of Mr. White's two species — 

E. MODESTTJS. 

Black, with the elytra dark metallic green. Head finely and some- 
what thickly punctured, slightly contracted in front, the front margin 
very gently emarginate, the anterior angle obtuse ; clypeus with two 
small impressions behind. Eyes prominent. Thorax gently convex ; 
the sides flattened, much contracted in front, nearly straight, the an- 
terior angles obtuse, the posterior very little so; posterior margin 
gently lobed in the middle, the lobe bounded on each side by a some- 
what deep puncture near the margin. Disc of the thorax very deli- 
cately and somewhat sparingly punctured, the punctures more distinct 
and more frequent towards the sides. Scutellum elongate, acuminate, 
sparingly punctured. Elytra gently convex, at the base as broad as the 
base of the thorax, broadest at the basal third, then gradually con- 
tracting to the apex ; each elytron with ten punctate striae, the striae 
somewhat strongly and not very closely punctured, the interstices mo- 
derately convex, sparingly and finely punctured near the suture, more 
distinctly and thickly towards the sides ; the striae deeper at the apex 
of the elytra, the 10th stria confused with the punctures at the base 
of the elytra. Legs pitchy, very long ; claws pale, furnished beneath 
with a blade. Palpi and the two basal joints of the antennae testaceous. 

Length 2| lin. (6 mill). Breadth 2i miU. 

Habitat, N. Zealand (Wellington). 

E. PEDrN-OTDES. 

This species diff'ers from the former in being rather larger and less 
contracted behind. The two impressions on the clypeus are wanting, 
and supplied by two punctures between the eyes. The thorax has the 
lateral depressions more distinct at the posterior angles, which are a 
little more obtuse ; the sides are fuscous. The elytra are darker, and 
tinged, especially at the sides, with fuscous ; less contracted posteriorly, 
and less acuminate at the apex ; the striae are deeper and more strongly 
and less regularly punctured, the interstices are more convex and ex- 
tremely delicately punctured (almost smooth) , the 10th stria is scarcely 
abbreviated at the base. The legs are shorter. The antennae have the 
six basal joints fuscous. Length 3 lin. (6| mill.). Breadth 3 mill. 

N. Zealand (under stones). 
British Museum : December llth, 1868. 



19G 



January, 



DESCRIPTION OF a NEW SPECIES of PSOCID^ {C^CILIUS ATRICORNIS) 
INHABITING BRITAIN. 

BY E. M'lACHLAN, F.L.S. 
C^CILIUS ATEICOENIS, n. sp. 

Eufo-flavus, nigro-varius. Antennae sat robustse, alis diinidio lon- 
giores, atrsB, ( <^ ) pilis concoloribus brevibus vestitae ; articulo tertio ad 
apicem testaceo. Caput rufo-flavum, supra nigro-cinctum, nitidum ; 
fronte palpisque flavis baud signatis ; oculis rufo-fuscis. Mesotborax 
antice niger, postice rufo-flavus. Metatborax rufo-flavus, nebula antica 
lineaque transversal! postica nigris. Abdomen rufo-flavum, supra 
linea utrinque basali, stria mediana longitudinal!, punctoque anali, 
nigris. Pedes rufo-flavi, genubus picescentibus, tarsorum articulo ulti- 
mo nigricanti. Alae byalinae, vix fuliginoso-flavescentes, impunctatae ; 
venis venulisque flavis, setis nigricantibus brevibus instructis : anticarum 
spatio pterostigmatical! elongato, apicem versus dilatato ; cellula ellip- 
tica parva. Long. corp. IV" ; exp. alar 2^'". 

Hab. in insula Vectis, mense Novembris jam novo, rima instant!. 

Several examples of this little species were taken by Mr. Dale and 
his son at Freshwater, in the Isle of "Wight, on the 5th of November, 
when the frost was on the ground. It appears to be perfectly distinct 
from any previously described species, and comes nearest to ohsoletus of 
Stephens, but is at once to be separated therefrom by its more robust 
form, by the black markings on the head, thorax and abdomen, and by 
the much stronger and intensely black antenna), which in the (the 
only sex I have seen) , are more strongly pilose ; from Jiavidus of 
Stephens it is abundantly distinct, vide Ent. Mo. Mag. vol. iii, p. 271. 
It is not a little surprising that so small and delicate an insect should 
resist a temperature below freezing point. 
Lewisham : \st December, 1868. 



Notes on four additions to the list of British Coleoptera. — The following species 
are entitled to places in our Catalogue : — 

1. Amarafusca, Dej. 

I possess an example of this species, given me by Arthur Adams, Esq., who 
captured it at Swansea. It is allied to A. ingemui, and was presented to mo under 
that name. All the British specimens of A. ingenua that I have seen are really 
4. /usca, and come from the same source as my own. Dawson, however, records 
A. ingenua as occurring in Scotland ; but I have never seen a Scotch specimen ; 
and, if the species be really indigenous, it must be of the greatest rarity. A very 
good description of A. fusca will bo found in the Ins. Deutschlands, vol. i, p. 537. 



18O0.J 



197 



2. Lathrohium aiigustatum, Boia. ; Kr., Ins. Deutsch., ii, 678. 

Tliis species occurs rarely in various parts of the centre and soutli of England. 
It is placed in some collections as L. rufipenne, to which it bears, however, a resem- 
blance only in size and colour. L. angustatvm is more slender than L. rujvpenne^ 
with long joints to the antennae ; it has a narrower head, which is more densely 
and finely punctured, &c. I have seen specimens of L. rufipenne in the collections 
of Dr. Power and Mr. Crotch, besides in my own. The only locality I know of for 
it is the Norfolk fens. 

3. Stenus incanus, Er., Gen. et spec. Staph., 700, 19. 

I have found a few specimens of this species on the banks of the Nith here. 
It belongs to Kraatz's group of black-legged species with simple tarsi. 

4. Corylophus suhlcevipennis, Duv. 

This species was captured last autumn by Mr. Crotch and myself, under some 
flood refuse, near Weymouth. — D. Sharp, Thornhill, Dumfries, 9^72- Deceynher^ 1868. 

Note on Litholms forcipatus. — Mr. Bold's note on LitJiohius forcipatus (p. 170) 
reminds me that on several occasions I have seen a Lithohius at sallows, bent on 
the same errand as myself ; and occasionally I have seen a Hyhemia projemmaHob 
held tight in the centipede's jaws, but I never saw a noctua — not even Tceniocampa 
cruda — captured by it. And I have known spiders attack fresh specimens on my 
setting-boards. — J. Hellins, Exeter, December, 1868. 

Notes on (MotschulskianJ British Coleoptera, Sfc. — Among the voluminous 
references to Insects contained in Part 2 (by Mr. W. S. Dallas) of " The Kecord of 
Zoological Literatm-e," vol. iv, 1867, are the following, which can hardly fail to 
interest British Coleopterists. 

(p. 231) Stenolophus anglicus, Voet, occurs in Denmark, according to Schiodte, 
who figures its larva in Naturh. Tidsskr., 3rd Ser., iv, 535, pi. 22, figs. 12 — 18. 

T am not aware to what recognized species Voet's Buprestis anglicus is properly 
referable. It does not appear in any shape in Harold's recently published compre- 
hensive Cataloge. From the plate (xxxv, fig. 18) in Voet's Cat. Syst. Col. (vol. i, 
p. 67, 18), the insect would seem to be one of the Oeodephaga, and possibly, there- 
fore, a Stenolophus; but the description is ludicrously vague, and no locality 
whatever is given for the species. 

There is another of Voet's species, Bwprestis erythrocephalus Anglus, figured in 
pi. xxxvi, fig. 26, stated distinctly to occur in England, and which is clearly recog- 
nizable as Brachinus crepitans. If Linneeus' name were not a trifle earlier in date, 
I suppose Schiodte would have proposed to adopt Voet's names for this insect, — or 
one (and, if so, which ?) of them. Fabricius (Spec. Insect.) quotes Voet for this 
species, but ignores the " anglicus.'^ 

(p. 242) Necrophorus gallicus, Duv., and N. microcephalus, Thoms., are respectively 
referred as vars. to N. fossor and N. ruspator by Grenier, in Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., 
1867, p. X ; an opinion anticipated by myself in Ent. Annual, 1866. 

(p. 246) Motschulsky, Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc, xxix, 2, p. 225, thinks the Lathridii 
most nearly allied to the Trichopterygidce. He founds a new genus, Aeidius 
(1. c, p. 260), of which our L. nodifer is the type, and describes and figures a 
new species, A. nodulosus (p. 261, pi. 6, fig. 7) from England. 



198 



[January, 



(p. 249) Motschulsky also describes (inter alias) the following new species : — 

Lathridius pini, 1. c., p. 236, pi. 6, fig. 3, Russia and England. 

L. undulatiis, p. 242, England and South Russia. 

Corticaria horealis (Wollaston, M. S.), 1. c., xl, i, p. 70, England, 
(p. 246) Myrmecoxenus, still apparently gemcs incertce sedis, is transplanted by 

Motschulsky to the Cucujidce from the Lathridiiy to which it was referred by 

Lacordaire. 

(p. 255) Melolontha hippocastani is incidentally referred to by Perty (Mitth. Naturf. 

Ges. in Bern, 1867, 305) as M. vulgaris, var. 
(p. 261) Cyplion coarctatiis and C. fuscicornis are S n,nd ? of the same species, 

teste Kies., Berl. Ent. Zeit., 1867, p. 407. 
(p. 281) Cryphalus ahietds, Ratz., and C. tilicc, Gyll., arc identical, teste Feri^ri, 

Col. Hefte, ii. 

(p. 296) Donacia geniculata and D. l(Bvicollis, Thomson, Sweden, = D. sericca, 

partim. We shall of course fi.nd these two novelties here, 
(p. 301) Plectroscelis Icovicollis, Thomson. Coleopterists must examine their P. 

concinna for this insect. 

It may probably be not generally known that Motschulsky, in Bull. Soc. Nat. 
Mosc, xxxviii, 2, p. 291, describes a new species of CaralmSy viz., C. anglicus, taken 
near London ! Vide Record Zool. Lit., 1866, p. 299. It is, of course, most likely 
that in this i-efcrence, as in some, at least, of his other localities, he has made 
some mistake. — E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W., December, 1868. 

Notes on Cryphalus hinodulus and Hylurgus pilosus. — On some aspens growing 
near Abergavenny I have detected certain beetles, which are interesting not only 
on account of their rarity but also on account of their habits. Last spring I 
observed that two of these trees, which arc from 20 to 30 years old, had been 
blown over in a manner similar to that in which poplars often suffer, viz., they had 
been snapped across at about the level of their lower branches ; one of them had 
fallen last winter, the other during the previous one. On both I found evidence 
of their having began to decay before they pelded to the stonn, but the more 
recent one was still so far alive as to be attempting to throw out leaves, yet many 
of its branches had long been dead and one side of the stem was so also ; this I 
soon foimd to be caused by a small beetle belonging to the family Hylesinidw. This 
beetle, Cryphalus hinodulus, Ratz., appears not to have been taken in England 
since its original capture by Mr. E. W. Janson at Highgatc ; and I may observe 
that very few of my specimens present the (sexual) spines at the apex of the 
elytra ; and that, when present, the spines are very small. This species, unlike 
Eylesinv^ crenatus, which commences its attack close to the ground, first attacks 
the branches, and then advances downwards. A colony is probably commenced 
by one, or by a few pairs ; but they rapidly multiply. There are about a dozen of 
the young aspen trees {VopuVii^ tremula) on which I find them, and of these, 
besides the two already mentioned, they have this season killed a third tree. The 
leaves which it threw out abundantly last spring are now all black and dead, and 
I suspect that this is entirely the work of the present season. A fourth tree is 
far gone, and several others are invaded. Like most of the Xylophaga, it only 



1869.] 



199 



attacks the bark. In the genus Ilylesinus, and others of this family, the parent 
beetles make a long straight burrow, and the eggs are deposited more or less 
regularly along either side. Unlike these, Cryphalus hinodulus makes what may 
be called a little irregular cavern rather than a burrow. This is always imme- 
diately beneath the outer bark, and does not penetrate to the wood. I find 
invariably a pair of beetles in each cavern, even when nearly all the eggs are 
deposited, or when the eggs are hatched ; these are laid in little confused heaps in 
the recesses of the cavern, sometimes all in one heap, generally in three or four, 
and to the number of from 30 to 60. The larvae when hatched burrow without 
any regularity, but tend to travel in a vertical direction. They are footless grubs, 
with strong jaws, and a distinct head like the larvae of the other Xylophaga. I 
found that the eggs laid in May had in August produced some perfect beetles, 
though many still remained in the larval and pupal states. This has also been the 
case this season with Hylesinidce. I have been watching, and I suspect that this 
species, like the others, does not usually come to maturity until a month or two 
later, and then hybemates before emerging. This species appears only to attack 
the living trees, and though so minute, is from its numbers able to cause the des- 
truction of any tree it colonises. A branch is usually first attacked by several 
pairs, whose progeny then, laying their eggs in it, complete its destruction. 
Wherever a brood has been reared a wide rough crack is observable in the bark, 
and a destroyed branch presents the same appearance in an exaggerated form ; the 
whole bark looks bloated and cracked, and is pierced by the exit holes of the 
beetles. A branch is probably often attacked in sufficient force to destroy it in 
one season, and I have already mentioned my belief that the destruction of a whole 
tree has been accomplished during the present season. The trunk is rarely at- 
tacked till most of the branches are dead, and its vitality is then so much reduced 
that no distortion occurs from their ravages, except of course that it soon becomes 
quite decayed. 

On the same aspen trees that were blown over there was a quantity of ivy, 
and the bending'of its stems, where it was torn down, had proved as injurious to 
it as if it had been cut across. This has fallen a prey to Hylurgus jpilosus, rare as 
a British insect. Odd specimens occur ; but as no one in this country has remarked 
upon its habits, it has never been found in any quantity. I have found it in almost 
any ivy that was in proper condition for its attack. Neither healthy living ivy, nor 
faggots cut from the tree, suit its taste, but when sickly and dying, it is at once 
attacked. There is a fashion of treating ivy, observed in many districts, of simply 
cutting across or removing an inch or two from the stem, the result of which, as 
is well known, is not the immediate death of the plant, which usually survives for 
a year or two. The back of either the upper or lower (but usually the upper) 
section of ivy so treated is a favourite habitat of Hylurgus pilosus. In this the 
parent beetle makes a burrow of about an inch in length, often half round the 
stem, and the eggs are laid rather irregulai-ly along its sides and covered over with 
frass. The larvae eat galleries at right angles to this, and sometimes travel as 
regularly and symmetrically as those of Hylesinus fraxini. When examining ivy 
for the beetle last spring, I found several shallow grooves, usually on smaller stems 
not suitable for oviposition, and along the side in contact with the supporting tree. 
These were often untenanted, and had been obviously merely eaten as food by the 



200 



January, 



beetles, whioh had temporarily sheltered themselves behind the stems, and aban- 
doned them for more promising material at the first opportunity. 

All the Xylopliaga appear to oat largely while in the perfect state, and, unless 
they find a nidus for oviposition at once, commence to browse on any food at hand. 

I have found that daring tho past warm summer many species have emerged 
at the end of July, which do not usually become perfect until September, and then 
do not emerge before tho next spring. Every season, probably, a small proportion 
is perfected early, as tho majority have been during the past season ; the rest, 
following their usual habit, remaining till spring. What do these prematurely- 
developed specimens do? 

In August I found Cryphalus hinodulus engaged in oviposition just as they 
were in May ; and Hylurgus pilosus^ Hylesinus crenatus and H. fraxini eating 
galleries, in each of which there was only one beetle, and, as the bark was not 
such as they usually choose for oviposition, and there was no sign of that process 
being carried on, I conclude that they intend to hybeniato in these galleries, and 
to postpone oviposition until spring. Though Hylurgus piniperda and ScolytiLS 
destructor had almost all emerged, I have had no opportunity of tracing them 
further. 

In Hylesinus and Cryphalus hinodnilus^ I always find a pair of beetles in each 
burrow. During the entire period of its construction, Hylurgus pilosus is often in 
pairs, but tho male usually leaves before oviposition is complete, though with this, 
as with the former species, pairing occurs in the burrows, and probably only there. 
The economy of Hylastes palliatus is similar. In the burrows of Hylurgus pini- 
pe^-da, I have rarely found both beetles, and then only when the burrow was just 
commenced. Of Scolytus destructor, I have only found a pair in a burrow on one 
occasion, and am inclined to doubt whether the male often enters the burrow at 
all. In my former notes, p. 140, line 10, the word "side" should be "end" or 
"far end." — T. Algernon Cuapman,* Abergavenny, October, 18G8. 

Captures of Coleoptera near Manchester, ^c. — Scymnus nigrinus, S. discoideus, 
and Coccinella hieroglyphica, beaten out of Scotch fir ; April and May. Ips 
4fpunctata^ abundantly under bark of freshly-cut pine stumps, accompanied by 
Epunva pusilla and E. deleta. Tomicus hidens, completely undermining the tops, 
downwards, of Scotch fir. Pachyrhinus 4:-tulcrctilatus, by sweeping in damp 
meadows all round the district. P. comari (one specimen), at Hale. Two very 
curious black varieties of Anthonomus ulmi, one beaten out of a hedge surrounding 
an orchard apparently containing no elm, and the other obtained by sweeping in 
the Bollin valley. Tropiphorus mercurialis, sparingly ull over the district. T. 
carinatusy at Chorlton and in tho Bollin valley, on each occasion singly. Halipltis 
elevatus, common in the river Bollin. Tachyitsa constricta, abundant on the banks 
of the Bollin, accompanied in muddy places by Oeoryssus and Hetcroccrus margin- 
atits. Barynotus Schbnherri, occasionally, by single specimens. Bemhidium 
paludos^an and punctulatumy Bledius longulus, and B. suhtcrraneus, in profusion, 
banks of the Bollin. Clivina cullaris, on all our river banks. Qymnetron hecca- 
hungw, type form, a single specimen by sweeping in the Bollin valley ; the var. 

* 1 can Bend live or unset flpccimens of (he Cryphalus to any Coleopterist in need of the Bpecien; 
and should myself be glad to receire any duplicate wood-feeders, Longicomt or Lamcllieomt.—'S. A. C. 



1869.) 



201 



veronica; being oommon on Veronica. Apteropeda glohosa^ a few specimens by 
sweeping in damp meadows, Bollin, in the spring. Mantura obtusata, Bollin valley 
and Chatmoss ; M. chrysanthemi, Chatmoss. Corymhites pectinicomis, damp mea- 
dows, Bollin. Sitones canibricus, sparingly distributed in sandy places. Donacia 
dentipes and D. sagittarice, Halemoss. Psylliodes attenuata^ Bollin valley. Ceuth. 
impressicolUs ; four or five specimens have occurred in this district to Mr. Hardy 
and myself. Silpha rotundata, a single specimen of the pitchy variety, Llangollen. 
Clythra 4-punctata, beaten oS hazel, with Acalles misellus, Orchesia minor^ Tele- 
pliorus abdominalisy and Pyrochroa coccinea. 

At Sherwood forest in June, — Eros affmis, in rotten birch. Jn decaying fungus, 
both Tiyphylliy Colenis^ Liodes humeralis^ THplax russica, Scaphidium 4<-maculatim,, 
and Thymaliis. Liodes orbicularis, under birch bark, and Tritoma bipustulata in 
fungus under birch bark. ScoVytus intricatus, Trypodendron domesticuniy and Xylo- 
terus quercds, on felled oaks. A single specimen of Quedius scitus, and Bolitochara 
hidda, under bark, in decaying fungus. StrangaUa 4:-fasciata, in a rotten birch. 
Under felled trees, Phymatodes variabilisy Athdus rhomheuSy and Phloeotrya Stephensii. 
A single specimen of Hypophloeus castaneus under bark. In boletus, Eledona 
agaricola. 

At Cleethorpe. — Cicindela maritima, sparingly. In mud, between tide marks, 
Bledius tricomis and bicornis, both commonly. B. arenarius in immense numbers, 
accompanied by Diglossa mersa. A single specimen of Aphod/ius villosus occurred 
to me in dung. 

At CKffcon, a few miles from Manchester, Donacia bidens and spargcmii have 
been met with in some numbers j and, at Stalybridge, Aphodmis fcetidus and Nehria 
Qyllenhalid. 

Tehnatophiles ScTionherri and Eri/rhimis nereis have been taken at Mobberby. 
— J. Kidson-Taylor, Thorn Cottage, Lime Grove, Longsight, Manchester, Oct., 1868. 

A List of NoctuidcB observed in Morayshire. — It will be seen from the following 
list of captures that my attention has been exclusively directed to the Noctuce. 
A few other insects certainly were noticed, but mostly common species — for 
instance, N. plantaginis and P. fuliginosa were both common enough ; while in 
the Altyre Woods, E. versicolor was seen in great abundance. I succeeded, how- 
ever, in capturing only four specimens — one <J and four ? , the latter sitting quietly 
on the bare birch twigs in April. The males were far too lively for me. Some 
eggs were procured, but, owing to my want of knowledge in rearing the young 
larvae, only one lived into the pupa stage. E. Blandina, H. Semele^ C. Davus, 0. 
cardui, V. Atalanta, A. Selene, A. Ev/pTirosyney T. rubi, all abundant in suitable 
localities ; and V. lo was, I believe, seen on one occasion in Altyre Forest. T. popuU 
abounded in the larva state ; those found on Populus alba wonderfully matching 
the colour of its food-plant, being of a pale glaucous-white hue, sometimes blotched 
with red. S. convolvuU was, I believe, frequent throughout the county. I had 
three specimens sent me which had been captured hovering over Petunia. M. stel- 
latarum was observed on several occasions in similar localities. A. betulaHa and 
0. bidentata both very frequent. All the British species of Eepialus were taken, 
five specimens of H. velleda occurring at rest in the crevices of birch trees in 
Altyre Woods. C. Ugnvperda larvae abundant all over the country, doing great 



202 



[January, 



mischief to tho birch and oak trees. I do not recollect whether a Cossws-infested 
birch has been noticed before to bo such an excellent trap for Noctiue. One small 
tree on my hunting-gronnd was nightly visited by hosts of moths, and what is 
remarkable enough, certain species were taken there and nowhere else; for 
instance, I only took five specimens of N. glareosa, the whole of which occurred on 
this wounded birch, which also yielded one night no fewer than six E. nigra. Tho 
larv8B of N, querents were very abundant on heather ; one specimen only, however, 
out of some 20, yielded the perfect insect on 20th July. The remainder are still in 
their pupa state. P. populi scarce, only one pupa at foot of poplar tree. T. pavonia 
minor not very common, smaller and less richly coloured than Yorksliire specimens. 
C. spartiata very abundant. 

The subjoined list of Noctuce will show that this locality is a very promising 
one. Being, however, my first season's collecting after an interval of some 25 
years, I was imperfectly read-up in the modem system of collecting larvaB and 
pupae, otherwise the hst of species might have been considerably augmented. 

A notable fact was the remarkable scantiness of most of the insects which, 
with few exceptions, were fully four or five weeks in advance of their usual time 
of appearance, owing, no doubt, to the heat of tho season. 

The date is that on which the first specimen was observed. 
T. hatis, 20th June, scarce, two specimens at rasp blooms. C. duplaris, 27th 
June, frequent at sugar ; or, 20th June, frequent at sugar ; fiavicomis, 30th March, 
rare at rest, afterwards many larvae on birch. A. tridens (?), 27th June, at sugar : 
I suspect I am right in referring this to tridens, being darker than the next. ; psij 
4th July, not uncommon at sugar, also at rest on birch trees ; leporina, 25th May, 
at rest in Altyre Forest, afterwards many larvae on birch ; ligustri, bred from pupaB 
taken on ash trees ; rumicis, 25th May, two at rest ; salicis, 17th June, rare at 
sugar ; mynccd, 16th June, rare, one specimen at rest near Dallas. L. lithargyria, 
27th June, very abundant at sugar ; conigera, 4th July, not uncommon flying near 
Lychnis vespertina, and at sugar ; itnpura, 4th July, not common, sugar ; pallensy 
3rd July, very abundant at sugar and flowers. H. nictitans, 7th August, not un- 
common at sugar ; micacea, 2nd August, several specimens at sugar. X. rurca, 
25th May, common at rasp blooms and sugar ; polyodon, 23rd June, very abundant 
at sugar and at rest. C. graminis, taken last autumn on rag-wort. L. tcstacedy 
18th August, abundant at light. M. anceps, 25th June, not unfrequcnt at sugar ; 
hrassiccVf 23rd June, occasionally at sugar and at rest. A. hasiUnea, 2nd June, 
veiy common at rasp blooms ; fibrosa, 29th June, rare at sugar ; oculca, 2nd July, 
very abundant at sugar. M. strig His, 6th. July, not common, sugar ; fasciuucula, 
11th June, very abundant at sugar ; litcrosa, 25th July, common at sugar. C. 
cuhicularis, 19th June to October, over flowers, at sugar, and swarming in hay- 
fields. R. tenchrosa, 7th June, very common over rasp blooms, also at sugar. A. 
valligera, 27th July, not abundant, sugar, several beautiful varieties ; suffusa, 2 1th 
July until October, not uncommon at sugar ; scgetuirij 25th July, not common, 
sugar; lunigeray 28th July, rare at sugar; exclamationis, 24th June, not common, 
sugar ; corticca, 26th June, not common, sugar ; nigricans, 17th July, not rare at 
rest and at sugar; tritici, 26th July, sugar, frequent; agathina, 14th August, not 
uncommon on heather, but very difficult to take ; porphyrca, 8th June, swarming 
over heather : pupa) very plentiful, under moss on heaths j pra:cox, 7th August 



1869.] 



rare at rest. N. pyrophila, Ist July, rare. T. janthina, 25th July, not uncommou, 
lime blossom and at Bugar ; fimbria, 18th July, common at sugar ; suhsequa, 1st 
August, not uncommou at sugar : unfortunately, I did not recognize the moth in 
time to secure many specimens ; one evening I saw five on one round, but did not 
box one, thinking it only a variety of orhona ; orhonaf 16th J une, swarming at 
engar, and varying both in colour and markings to an extraordinary degree ; pro- 
nuha, 23rd June, very abundant at sugar. N. glareosa, 26th August, several at a 
birch tree infested with Cossus ; clepuncta, 24th July, not uncommon at sugar ; 
auguvy 1st July, frequent at sugar ; plecta, 21st June, rare, flying over grass. C- 
nigrum, 22nd June, not uncommon at sugar ; triangulmn, 4th July, rare at sugar ; 
hrunnea, 12th June, frequent at rasp blooms and at sugar. N. festiva, 16th July, 
not uncommon at sugar ; confiv.a, 6th July, not rare at sugar j Dahlii, 27th July, 
swarming at sugar, and presenting an extraordinary range of variation in colour 
from bistre brown to dark maroon purple, — scarcely two are precisely alike in 
markings; h ella (rithi), Isi August, common at sugar, varying much in colour j 
umhrosa, 17th July, rare at lime blossoms, also at sugar; haja, 22nd July, common 
at sugar ; negleda, 26th July, not uncommon at sugared rags placed on the heath ; 
xa/nthographa, 20th July, swarming at sugar, and varying much in colour and mar- 
kings. T. piniperda, 28th March, very abundant at sallows, ranging in colour from 
brick red to grey and light green : pupae under moss at pine trees. T. gofhica-, 
26th March, common at sallows, also at sugar ; ruhricosa, 17th April, not common, 
on sallows, Califer Hill; instahilis, 27th March, frequent at sallows; stabilis, 28th 
March, swarming at sallows, and after at sugar. 0. macilenta, 12th Sept., not 
common, sugar. A. rufina, 27th August, very abundant at sugar ; Utura, 12th 
August, swarming at sugar. C. vaccinii, 13th Sept., swarming at sugar, and very 
valuable ; spadicea^ 16th Sept., plentiful at sugar. S. satelUtia, 7th Sept., swarming 
at sugar. H. cerago, 6th July, not common, sugar ; fermginea, 28tli August, fre- 
quent at sugar. E. fulvago, 8th August, not rare at sugar. C. trapezina, 23rd 
July, swarming at sugar. D. capsincola, 29th June, not uncommon, hovering over 
Lychnis vespertina, in the capsules of which the larvae abounded. D. cucuhalif 
19th August, one specimen bred from larva found in July. P. chi, 31st July, very 
abundant at rest on pine trees, also at sugar. E. nigra, 12th August, very abundant 
at sugar. M. oxyacantluB, 8th Sept., frequent at sugar. A. apriZina, 16th Sept., 
frequent at sugar. P. meticulosa, 23rd Sept., frequent at sugar. E. lucipara, Ist 
July, rare at sugar. A. occulta, 15th August, rare at sugar ; nehulosa, 13th August, 
rare, saw but missed at sugar, H. adusta, 30th May, rare at rest ; protea, 5th 
August, swarming at rest on pine trunks, also at sugar j oleraceay 4th July, rare, 
sugar; thalassina, 22nd June, not common at rest and at sugar. C. vetusta, 
22nd August, common at sugar, but not nearly so frequent as the next ; last season, on 
the contrary, exoleta, was the rarest of the two ; exoleta^ swanning in vast numbers 
at sugar ; one night I counted more than 200 in one round of my trees. It also 
occurred in the spring at sugar and sallows. X. rhizoUtha, 28th Sept., rare at 
sugar. C. umhratica, 1st July, rare over Lychnis vespertina. A. myrtilli, 8th June, 
common flying over heaths : the larvae very common. B. parthenias, 5th April, 
very abundant in Altyre Forest flying over the birch trees ; notha, 16th April, same 
locality as the above, but not so frequent. A. urticx, 26th June, flying over rasps. 
P. chrysitis, 16th July, rare flying over flowers ; festuccc, 30th June, rare flying over 



204 



[January, 



Lychnis vespertina ; iota, 25th Juno, rare over flowers ; pulchrina, 24tli June, com- 
mon flying over Lychnis vespertina ; gamma, 25th May, very abundant over flowers, 
and occasionally at sugar. A. tragopogonis, 18th July, abundant at sugar and lime 
blossoms. This reminds me that I have seen, and frequently killed, mice at my 
sugared trees 4 and 5 feot from the ground. Squirrels were also seen licking the 
sugar, but only by day. S. anomala, 12th August, not uncommon at sugar. P. 
cBnea, 16th May, not unconmion flying over heather. — Geo. Norman, Cluny Hill, 
Forres, N. B. 

Notes on Scotch Lepidoptera. — The following notes on some common Lepidoptera 
may perhaps be not devoid of interest to the readers of the Magazine. 

Calocampa exoleta. — In rearing some larva) of this insect from the eggs, I was 
surprised to find that at first sight the two front pairs of ventral prologs were 
undeveloped. This fact may be as new to some of the readers of the Magazine as 
it was to me, so will give all the notes made on the subject. I do not know 
whether the larvee of all the Noctuina are developed in the same manner, or 
whether it is a peculiarity of the genus Calocampa. 

The following are the notes made. 1868, April 15th — Ova of C. exoleta hatched. 
Larvae with only 12 legs ; the first two pairs of ventral prologs being absent. 
April 18th — First two pairs of prologs beginning to appear, bat not used. April 
20th — First two pairs of prologs now about half the size of the second two pairs ; 
the coronet of hooks also beginning to be visible. April 22nd — Larvse moulted ; 
first two pairs of prologs bigger, but not yet used. April 26th — Larva3 moulted ; 
second pair of prologs slightly used, first pair not yet used. April 28th — First pair 
of prologs in use, but not quite so large as second pair. At this date an accident 
unfortunately befell the larva3, and they all perished. 

Selenia ilhinaria. — Some moths of this species emerged about the end of March 
and laid some eggs. The young larvae appeared April 15th, fed rapidly, and spun 
up about May 21st. At this time the imagines were still flying out of doors, so I 
thought that my brood would be probably developed as perfect insects in June. 
However, June passed and was followed by July, and no appearance of iUunaria. 
On the 7th of August one ? came out, and several other larva) appeared at in- 
tervals since — the last on the 15th of October. The pupse wore not subjected to 
cold in any way, being in a cool room and in the same box with a pupa that pro- 
duced Hadena protea on August 7th. 

Melanthia ocellata. — Found a pair in cop., about the end of Juno. Eggs 
hatched early in July. The larvee fed on Oalium till the beginning of August, then 
they spun rather open cocoons, brought their heads and tails together, changed to 
a dirty whitish colour, and (as regards the majority) have remained in the same 
condition over since, quite healthy. A few, however, changed to pupsB in Septem- 
ber, and one moth appeared October 14th. They have betn left in a cold room 
without a fire. — F. Buchanan White, Perth, October, 1868. 

Notes on Lepidoptera at Carmarthen. — A few notes regarding the Lepidoptera 
found in this neighbourhood, a locality almost unknown entomologically, may prove 
interesting to some of the readers of the !RIagazine. The collecting was confined to 
the gi-ouuds of this asylum, excepting two days spent on the Saud Burrows at 



1869.] 



205 



Perabrey. My great expectations of the Burrowa were doomed to almost complete 
disappointment ; I got a good series of A. ripce, under pieces of wood lying on the 
sand, but nothing else worth mentioning. The asylum grounds have proved much 
more productive, and the very little time devoted to collecting yielded some good 
things. In July a specimen of P. isodactylus was beaten out of a hedge. A day or 
two later the British specimen of Scoparia Zelleri, previously recorded as having 
been captured by the Rev. E. Horton, appeared at light; and the same agent has 
since attracted a specimen each of E. fuscantaria, L. cespitis, D. Terrvpli, E. luim- 
lenta, and Diasemia literalis. These, with a multitude of commoner species, show 
the richness of the district, and will serve as an incentive to greater exertion 
next season.— George J. Heardeii, Joint Counties' Asylum, Carmarthen, December 
1st, 1868. 

CoUas Hyale near London ; abundance of Cynthia ca/rdAi% Sfc. — A friend of mine 
saw a specimen of Colias Hyale (now in my possession) caught in the waste ground 
between Finchley and Edgware Road Railway Stations. I have also heard of two 
other specimens having been taken there, and I was on the spot when another was 
taken this morning. Colias Edusa is not of unfrequent occurrence in the same place. 
I saw it also in our garden about the middle of J uly. 

I suppose that every entomologist and collector has noticed the extreme abun- 
dance of Cynthia cardui all over England this year. In a clover field near Kenil- 
worth (where I have been staying during the last month) I and some other col- 
lectors who were in the same field caught nearly twenty in one morning ; it was 
also very common near here last month, but is not taken nearly so frequently now. 
— Ernest B. Bax, 12, Mansfield Villas, Hampstead, September 8th, 1868. 

Occurrence of Tapinostola elymi at Cleethorpe. — I am happy to inform you that 
the above-named insect is to be taken freely at Cleethorpe, in Lincolnshire. The 
larva feeds on the sand-reed {Elymus arenarius)^ and the perfect insect may be 
shaken out of that plant in the day-time, and is found at rest on it at night. Time — 
the beginning to end of July. — Joseph Chappell, 8, Richmond Street, Greenheys, 
Manchester, 2Srd November, 1868. 

Eupithecia irriguata, ^c, at Qlanvilles Wootton. — I have taken here, during 
this year, E. irriguata, Macaria alternata, Phycis abietella, &c. ; Heliothis dipsacea 
was bred on June 4th from a pupa found in October, at Charmouth, amongst 
melilot. — Chas. W. Dale, Glanvilles Wootton, Sherborne, November 12th, 1868. 

Lwrentia salicata in North Devon. — Among some insects taken by my young 
friend Master Arthur Chandler, at Challcombe, North Devon, where he is at 
school, I find several specimens of Larentia salicata. These, he tells me, were 
taken about a sand-pit on the borders of Exmoor, where they were common. The 
occurrence of this species so far south seems worth recording. These show hardly 
any variation from northern specimens. — Chas. G. Barrett, Norwich. 

Abundance of the larvce of Botys asinalis near Bishopstowe. — Rubia peregrina, 
the food-plant of B. asinalis, is very abundant on the rocks and in the hedges just 
below Bishopstowe, and there is scarcely a plant but has been attacked by the 
larvse ; the white patches caused by them in the dark green leaves of the plant are 
quite a feature in the landscape. — E. Horton, Powick, Worcester, Nov. l^th, 1868. 



206 



[Janosry, 



Odour emitted by Sphinx convohniU. — I omitted to add to the notes on Sphinv 
eonvolvuli, wliich appeared in the last number (p. 168), the fact that two or three 
male specimens of the moth, caught in my garden this autumn, whilst alive, and 
held between my finger and thumb, gave forth a very perceptible odour of musk, as 
was remarked by several members of my family besides myself; I did not perceive 
the same smell with the females, but not having been able to procure any more 
specimens after my attention had been drawn to the males, I do not like to say 
positively that the sexes differ in this respect. — J. Hellins, Exeter, Becembery 1868. 

Habits of Coccyx hyrdniana—H the spruce fir is examined early in the spring, 
many of the needles will be found to be eaten out and turned brown, and carefully 
laid down parallel with the shoot, so as to form a covered way for the protection of 
the larva. This larva seems hard to find, although its traces are plentiful enough, 
but I believe it to be that of Coccyx hyrciniana, which I have bred by keeping a 
lot of the infested shoots in a bottle.— Charles G. Barrett, Norwich. 

Notes on the earlier stages of DcLsycampa rubiginea. — I well remember the 
curious mixture of satisfaction and disappointment with which I once saw a larva 
of Cidaria pyraliata fall into my net, after having for three seasons vainly tried to 
procure one, in order that Mr. Buckler might be enabled to complete a set of 
figures of that genus : there was satisfaction that the long-desired species was 
obtained, disappointment somehow that now there was no other Cidaria to be 
looked for — reticulata, of course, excepted ; but that seemed, and stiU seems, so 
far out of reach, that it did not come into my reckoning. And I must confess to 
something like a return of the same mixed feelings, as I take up the pen to 
chronicle my observations on the earlier stages of Dasycampa rubiginea, for one of 
my longest desiderated secrets is now gained, and a twelve years' pursuit has 
come to an end. Throughout that period scarcely a year has passed ^vithout some 
one of us in this neighbourhood taking a specimen of the moth, but eggs we could 
not get. If a female were taken at ivy in the autumn it was no good, for she 
could not be kept alive till the pairing time in spring. Mr. Norcombe once shut 
up six moths, with the sole result of getting just so many wasted specimens for the 
cabinet ; and if we took a moth at sallows in the spring, it always turned out to be 
a male. So it had gone on, as I said before, for twelve years. However, this 
season, Mr. Thos. Terry, of Babbicombe, has been more successful, and to his 
generosity I am indebted for my present knowledge. 

On Mai'ch 21st, 1868, he took a female at sallows, and shut her up in a glass- 
topped box about six inches square, putting in for her food a little plum-jam. On 
March 28th he saw two eggs had been laid on the box ; on the 30th, three more ; 
on April 1st, two more on the box, and four on a spi-ig of blackthorn which he had 
supplied. These were followed by three or four more, for wliich I have no dates, 
and were all laid singly, on the underside of a leaf, or under any little projection in 
the box. How, after this again, the unhappy moth stuck in the jam, and perished 
miserably with 87 eggs in her stUl unlaid ; how, of the few secured, bad luck 
pursued nearly one-third, either before or just after the hatching of the larvjc, I 
will not relate at length : I mention these mishaps only to enhance Mr. Teny's 
liberality in still sparing eggs and larvoe to Mr. Buckler and myself. 

The larvae were hatched between April 19th and 23rd ; fed freely on plum- 
leaves, and not so well on sloe, sometimes taking to knotgrass, and became full-fed 
from June 15th to 20th ; and the moths appeared between September 8th and 20th. 



1869.] 



207 



The egg is unusually large for a Noctua, quite as large as that of Xylocampa, 
litharhizx ; in shape round and full above, but rather flattened below ; the surface 
is glistening, and ornamented with more than thirty slight longitudinal ribs, of 
which more than half terminate before reaching the apex ; these ribs are connected 
by very slight transverse reticulations. The colour at first is whitish, faintly tinged 
with yellow, but it soon becomes blotched with brownish buff, in some specimens 
irregularly, in others more regularly with a central spot at the top, and a broad 
belt round the middle, and to the naked eye the egg now appears something the 
colour of a grain of wheat : after a time the blotches turn to puce, and finally the 
whole egg becomes pale purplish. 

The larva at first is of a semi-translucent purplish tint, with brown shining 
head, and the usual dots black and distinct, each emitting a long wavy whitish 
hair. The first food eaten is the empty egg-shell, but after the larva has begun to 
eat leaves its colour soon becomes greenish. After a few days the colour changes 
to brown, and the hairs show golden in the sunshine ; and after another moult the 
brown becomes darker, and the transverse rows of tubercular dots show to the 
naked eye like dark bands. When about f inch in length it assumes a waxy 
shining appearance, reminding one of an Agrotis, with the head and collar shining 
black, but after the next moult it comes out at first nearly black all over 3 this 
nigritude does not, however, last long ; in a day or two the skin becomes paler, 
and from this time till it attains the length of l^- inch the description is as follows : — 
The ground colour ochreous-brown, with rather pale dorsal, sub-dorsal, and spira- 
cular lines ; the head dark brown, a dark brown dull plate on second segment, also 
on tip of the anal segment ; the tubercular dots black and very distinct, the first 
dorsal pair of them in each segment after the fourth being placed in a blackish- 
brown transversely oval patch, which interrupts the dorsal line j the body thinly 
covered with very fine silky, brown hairs : in some specimens the oval dorsal 
patches are replaced by pairs of oblong dots, separated by the dorsal line. The 
length of the full-grown larva is li inch when at rest, but more than 1^ when in 
motion, its powers of self- extension or contraction being much greater than those of 
any other Noctua larva with which I am acquainted : the figure stoutest at the 
twelfth segment, and thence tapering regularly to the head, which is the smallest 
segment, and the thirteenth tapering rapidly behind, the anal pair of legs being 
remarkably close together ; the skin is soft, and each segment swells out plump in 
the middle, all the tubercles and the plate on 13th segment have disappeared, and 
amongst the long fine silky hairs there is now a growth of shorter ones. The 
colour is now purplish-brown, glistening in certain positions with a faint violet, 
mealy gloss ; the pulsating, dorsal vessel shows as an indistinct paler line ; the 
dark patches down the back have become in some instances a thick, clumsy X on 
each segment, in others a pair of curved blotches, and there are also pairs of 
smaller and fainter dots on segments 2, 3, and 4, those on 4 being the largest, and 
of a square form ; the head is intensely black ; the region of the back is curiously 
freckled with very fine blackish-brown curved marks, which, however, do not touch 
the X marks, but allow them, as it were, to stand out more distinctly ; and in the 
same way the sub-dorsal and spiracular lines are to be distinguished by the absence 
of these freckles from the ground colour, rather than by any decided line of another 
tint ; the spiracles small, black, and shining ; the belly paler than the back, and 
somewhat tinged with green ; the hairs are all of a beautiful golden brown. The 
habit of the larva seemed to be to hide itself by day, in spite of its silky, Bombyx- 
like clothing, and to feed and move at night ; and I fancy its food, when at large, 
must consist of low plants, rather than trees or shrubs, otherwise we should hear 
of its captm*e. 



208 



[January, 



The Zoological Record (vol. ii, 1865) does indeed contain notices, extracted 
from Berl. Ent. Zeits., 1865, p. 112, and Stett. Ent. Zcit., 1865, p. 113, of its being 
found in ants' nests, those of Formica fuliginosa ; but its voluntary presence in 
such a situation is more than I can comprehend. 

When about to change it spins a thin cocooq on the surface of the. ground, 
working in moss or leaves above, and bits of earth, &c., below, but still keeping it 
of a tolerably oval form. The pupa is about f inch long, moderately stout, cylin- 
drical, but a little depressed at the junction of the back of the thorax with the 
abdomen ; from this point the abdomen rather swells out in size for about two- 
thirds of its length, and then tapers to a somewhat obtuse point, which is armed 
with a single tiny spike, and attached by two or three threads to the lining of the 
cocoon; the surface is shining; the colour dark purplish-brown. — John Hellins, 
Exeter, November 26t\ 1868. 

Note on Acronycta alni. — In reference to the interesting summary of what is 
known of this insect by Mr. Stowell, I may add to the last " locality " named for 
the larva, viz., *' a gentleman's coat," another, and the only one where I have found 
it, and that is " a gentleman's hoot /" A friend of mine was sitting one September 
afternoon, in 1851, on a branch in a plantation in Staffordshire, when I happened to 
pass by, and he called my attention to a larva, crawling on his hoot. I soon pro- 
duced a pill-box, and secured the unknown stranger. A sycamore was overhead, 
and probably this full-fed larva of A. alni (for such it proved) had fed thereon. 
The above made a cocoon of some bits of rotten wood, in the corner of a box, and 
came out a fine <J , the following June, I believe. Another scrap of information I 
can contribute about this insect, viz , that it has come to sugar in one instance 
during the current year, as late as July 3rd, and in this case the specimen was a ? , 
two others being missed on the following night. I have a suspicion that this larva 
may be like that of A. aceris, which clings very closely to the leaf on which it 
rests, and is difficult to dislodge by beating. If so, it may be one of those larvae 
that should be looked for under the leaves, or even "upon" them, as Mr. Stowell's 
narrative seems to suggest. — Bernaed Smith, Marlow, November 27th, 1868. 

P.S. — After writing the above, it strikes me that the larva of ahii above 
mentioned may be the same as the one recorded in the Zoologist, as taken in 1851. 
The example is still in my possession, and as fresh as ever. — B. S. 

A Reply to Mr. Dunning's Remarlcs on the Gender of Acanthosonia. — This 
somewhat important question of nomenclature having been again raised, I hope 
to be indulged with space for a reply, as short as I can make it. To save trouble, 
I will take several of Mr. Dunning's questions collectively, as they all depend upon 
the same principles. 

1. Are not Redbreast and Wagtail as much nouns substantive as Blackhird ? 

2. May not Acanthosoma be a substantive just as much as Dipsocoris ? 

3. Is Acanthosoma an adjective or a substantive ? 

4. Why may I not say Acantliosoi^ia=Spinehody, a compound noun substantive, 

which therefore must have some gender or other of its own ? 
Blackbird is a compound noun substantive, grammatically and logically correct. 
But such words as Redbreast, Wagtail, Spinebody, Longshanks, Lackland, Bluebeard, 
etc., — common in English, and some of th m sanctioned by usage, — are not gram- 



1869. J 



209 



matical or logical. They belonged originally to the language of the vulgar, and of 
children, and are mere familiar nicknames. Their incorrectness consists in their 
not containing the real subject, — whether bird, bug, or man. Instead of this they 
put forward (graphically and poetically) a new subject — hreast, tail, body, heard, 
etc., — from which our extensive knowledge and reading enable us to infer the real 
subject of discourse with much readiness. Thus by Redbreast and Wagtail we 
understand certain birds ; by Longshanks and Lackland,, two EngUsh kings ; and 
by Bluebeard, a celebrated Eastern potentate. These names are only tolerable in 
English because the language has no genders. We get into no difficulty by speaking 
of the yellow Wagtail : the gender of yellow is undetermined, and the difficulty ia 
concealed. So also Bluebeard may be spoken of as a man, — no matter what gen- 
der his beard may have. But this slovenly idiom is impossible in languages with 
three genders, Hke Greek and Latin. The difficulty which is concealed in English 
becomes in them fearfully apparent. We might nickname an individual Brazenbeard ^ 
having no fear of genders before our eyes. But in Latin Ahenobarba,-CB, f., will 
not do for a man's name. His name, like himself, must be masculine, and accor- 
dingly we have the adj. Alienobarbus, taking its gender from the real subject, from 
the man, and not from his beard. Similarly all other words, containing only some 
attribute of the subject, must in Greek and Latin be adjectives, agreeing in gender 
with their jreal subject, and with nothing else. And this actually amounts to 
no more than that golden rule of our youth, than an adj. agrees with its subst., &c. 
If this rule is to be evaded in zoological names, as it is in English, the whole 
system of genders becomes absurd, and there is no end to the incongruities which 
will occur. Let us take a few published names of genera, such as Lonchostemus, 
Dasysterna, Dactylo sternum ; Barynotus, Aloconota, Cyclonotum ; Stylosomus, 
^gosoma j Amblystomus, Sericostoma ; Chasmatopterus, Dictyoptera, Liojpterum. 
Those in italics are, according to Mr. Dunning, substantives neuter, because Ster- 
non, Noton, Soma, Stoma, and Pteron, are neuter. What shall we say then for the 
others ? They must be equally neuter, notwithstanding their terminations, or 
what becomes of the rule of the " German illuminato ? " — Or if some of the above 
words are substantives and some not, wdll Mr. Dunning kindly point out which is 
which, and why ? That he will see the impracticability of this, I am well assured, 
and I have good hopes that he will avail himself of his reserved right to a change 
of opinion, after hearing the other side, and will henceforth agree with me that 
such words must be treated as adjectives. 

To conclude, let me for a moment revert to the most presumptuous of the 
claimants of the rank of noun substantive, viz., Acanthosoma. 

The subject of this woi-d is a certain group of bugs. This subject is not con- 
tained in the word Acanthosoma, but is understood. Every noun that does not 
contain the subject, must contain the predicate, or it has no meaning at all. And 
if it contains only the predicate, it is what grammarians call an adjective. There- 
fore Acanthosoyna is an adjective. Q. E. D. 

I have something to say to other interesting matters mentioned by Mr. Dunning, 
but for want of time and space I must leave them for the present. — T. A. Marshall, 
College, Milford Haven, December, 1868. 

[Mr. Marshall's remarks upon the other points raised in Mr. Dunning's paper 
will appear in our next No. — Eds.] 

The late John Curtis' s Entomological Drawings. — The original coloured drawings 
of the plants and insects delineated by Mr. Curtis in the " British Entomology " 
have been, since his decease, in the possession of his widow, who is now desii'ons 



210 



[January, 



of diepoBing of them. We heartily hope they will fall into the possession of some 
Institution that will render them available for the purposes of science, or become 
the property of a liberal-minded private gentleman. Beautiful as are the engraved 
copies, they give no idea of the artistic skill and truth to nature exhibited in the 
originals. Curtis was Nature's artist par excellence. Information respecting them 
will bo gladly furnished by Mr. F. Smith, of the British Museum. — Eds. 

Entomological Society of London, November 16th, 1868. H. W. Batks, Esq., 
F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Bond exhibited Tajnnostola elymi, captured near Yarmouth, and a strange 
variety of Dianthcvcia ca/psincola, bred by Mr. Greening, having the wings unequally 
coloured ; also seven specimens of Folia nigrocincta^ bred by Mr. Greening, from 
Isle of Man larvas. 

Mr. McLachlan called attention to a statement by Mr. Edwards, in the 
" Canadian Entomologist," respecting the occurrence of Fainlio Machaon at Fort 
Rupert, in Uudson's Bay ; and also concerning the gradual spread of Pieris rapx 
on the American continent. He exhibited a fine series of bred examples of Enoicyla 
pusilla, the terrestrial caddis-fly, with the apterous females, and larva? and cases. 
These had been sent to him by Mr. Fletcher, of Worcester, to whom we are indebted 
for the discovery of this curious insect in England. 

Mr. Bond mentioned the occurrence of a vast swarm of Oastrophysa poVygoni 
at Whittlesford, in Cambridgeshire. 

Professor West wood exhibited drawings and read descriptions of new and 
curious forms of llymenoptera. 

7th December, 1868. H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

A. G. Butler, Esq., F.L.S., Assistant in the Zoological department of the 
British Museum, and Dr. Buchanan White, of Perth, were elected Members. 

Mr. Bond exhibited some extraordinary cases of melanism in Limenitis Sibylla, 
from Ipswich ; also strange foi-ms of Lyccena Adonis, and the gynandromorphoua 
example of Lasiocampa quercds mentioned at the first November meeting ; this 
latter was a perfect and beautiful combination of the sexes. 

Mr. E. Saunders sent for exhibition an example of Crambus myelins of Hiibncr, 
taken by Mr. N. E. Brown, near Aberdeen, and new to Britain. (It is a species 
allied to pinetellus, but differs in the possession of a sub-apical transverse silvery 
line.) 

Mr. Dutton exhibited a beautiful example of Catocala fraxini, captured at 
Eastbourne this last autumn. 

Professor Westwood exhibited some remarkable parasitic Hymenoptera from 
tho Amazons, belonging to the genus Aulacus, &c., of which he read descriptions. 

Mr. Kirby communicated a paper on entomological nomenclature, especially 
referring to the question as to which was the type-species intended by Linne, 
Fabricius, Latrcille, &c., in their genera of E/iopaZocera, now that these genera were 
so greatly subdivided. A long discussion ensued, in which the President, Professor 
Westwood, and Messrs. Pascoe, Stainton, Butler, Janson, Dunning, McLachlan, 
and others, took part, the general opinion being, that in the absence of a special 
type noted by the authors, the generic names should bo restricted in accordance 
with the views of the succeeding writer who first subdivided the old genera, and 
that tho sweeping changes suggested by Mr. Kirby would retard instead of benefit 
science. 

The Secretary annoimced the death of Prof. Boheman, of Stockholm (one of 
tho Honorary Members), on the 2nd Norember last, aged 72. 



1869.] 



211 



AN ANALYTICAL VIEW OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAUNA OF 
HASLEMERE AND ITS VICINITY. 

BT CHAHLES 0-. BAEEETT. 

The neiglibourhood of Haslemere, in which very small country 
town I had the good fortune to reside for upwards of six years, is 
interesting as having been, in its entomological aspects, previously 
almost unknown, although lying nearly midway between the London 
district, the New Forest, and the Sussex downs and coast, all of which 
have been more or less thoroughly worked, and because it includes 
elevated ground that in climate and botanical productions resembles 
some parts of the north of England. The hills and heaths are on the 
lower greensand, and the vallies and oak-woods on the "Wealden clay^ 
the two formations occupying almost the entire district. 

The area over which I collected extends from six to ten miles in 
various directions round Haslemere, and includes the woods and lanes 
towards Godalming and round the village of Chiddingfold, and towards 
Midhurst, in Sussex ; the heathy hills and marshy vallies of Hindhead 
and Blackdown, a small portion of Hydon Heath, with its junipers, and 
the wide heaths and boggy hollows of Milford Heath, in Surrey, and 
part of Woolmer Forest, Hants, with its abundant fir woods. 

The total number of species of Lepidoptera observed in this district 
is 1,088, being nearly five-eighths of the whole number recorded as 
British up to the present time. The various groups are, however, very 
unequally respresented. 

Of the Diurni there are 42 species — two-thirds of the entire 
British list, and, excluding Colias Hyale and Argynnis Aylaia, which 
appeared only in the past exceptional season, all may be called regular 
residents. None of the great rarities seem to have occurred, Apatura 
Iris, Limenitis Sibylla, Leucophasia sinapis, and Nemeobius Lucina being 
about the best species. Colias Edusa is of uncertain appearance, and 
never very common. Arge Oalathea and Lyccsna Gorydon are very 
rare, a singular contrast to the usual rule where they occur ; but this 
is accounted for by the absence of chalk. The extreme rarity of 
Argynnis Aglaia seems inexplicable, as the country appears as though 
especially suited to it. Only two specimens, however, occurred. 

Of Sphingidce only 14 species — less than half the list — have been 
found, the great deficiency being in the genus Sesia, of which but three 
have been noticed, tipuliformis and culiciformis both rarely, and hembe- 
ciformis only by its burrows in the sallow poles. Smerinthus tiliod 
seems to be absent, — probably from the scarcity of elms— and Chcero- 



212 



[February, 



campa porcellus very scarce. Deilephila lineata, however, has been 
taken, and several Sphinx conwlvuli and Aclierontia Atropos, as well as 
the three Macroglossce. 

The Bomhyces are very little better represented in my list, which 
must, I think, arise partly from the extreme difficulty of collecting 
much by means of light. I have little doubt that several more species 
in this group and the Pseudo-Bombyces might be obtained at gas-lamps, 
if ever the place should have the good fortune to be thus illuminated, 
or by more careful working for the larva). The proportion is a little 
over a half, being 46 species. The Lithosice are fairly represented by 
nine species, qiiadra and complana being found at Woolmer Forest, 
where also Limacodes testudo occurs. Endromis versicolor I have cer- 
tainly seen flying in the middle of April, although I never took it ; and 
Nola sfrigula has been found on oak. Anthrocera trifolii is abundant 
in marshy pastures, while, strange to ^^j,Jilipendul(S is hardly to be 
found in the neighbourhood ; and Liparis salicis and Nola cucullali^ are 
equally rare. All the Sepialidcs occur, including the more abundantly 
northern velleda and its variety carnus. 

The Geometrcd are well represented by 175 species, nearly two- 
thirds of the list, several entire genera being found — Selenia, Tepkrosia, 
Epliyra and Sihernia, for instance. Of the genus Eupithecia 30 species 
have been met with, irriguata and fraxinata being the best ; but, oddly 
enough, centaur eata is one of the scarcest, for until this season, when 
one specimen occurred, it seemed to be entirely absent. Epione 
advenaria and EmmeJesia alcliemillata are plentiful in the woods, and 
Bericallia syringaria not scarce ; and of better species, Selenia lunaria 
and illustrariay Eurymene dolohraria, Ennomos erosaria, Cleora glahraria 
Boarmia ahiefaria and consortaria, Ephyra orhicularia, Acidalia strami- 
nata and immutata^ LohopJiora sexalata and viretata, and Campioyramma 
flumata^ may all be met with occasionally. 

The DrepanulcB are represented by 4 species — two-thirds of the 
list, and the B send o -Bomhyces by 10 — about one-third. Of these the 
best are Notodonta carmelita, trepida, dictceoides and dodonea, all scarce. 

To the Drepance I believe unguicula ought to be added, and I 
feel sure that I have seen it flying about beeches, but could never get 
at it. Notodonta dictcea and dromedarius have not been found, but I 
cannot believe them to be entirely absent. 

The Noctu(s are very unequally represented, owing to the abun- 
dance of woods and the almost total absence of fen or mar^h hind. 
The number of species found is 160— about one-half the entire list ; 
and of these the wliole of the first i2jm\\y^ thQ Xoctioo-Bombycidce, dLte 



1869.] 



213 



to be found, with the exception of Ceropacha ocularis \ while on the 
other hand, of the 30 species of LeucanidcB, I have met with but 6,-5 
Leucanice and 1 Nonagria. 

The NoctuidcB are well represented for an inland place by 28 species, 
of which Agrotis saucia and agathina, and Noctua ditrapezium, are the 
best. It is worthy of remark that Noctua ruhi and augur, and Agrotis 
nigricans seem to be decidedly scarce ; also that Hadena oleracea was 
supposed to be entirely absent until last July, when, like Eupithecia 
centaureata^ one specimen occurred. 

The Cosmidcd, with the exception, of course, of trapezina, are absent 
or unaccountably scarce, the only other species found being affinis, and 
that very rarely. This, with the absence of diffinis, is doubtless owing 
to the scarcity of elms, but the TethecB and other species might have 
been expected in a country so abounding with sallow. Of the better 
species occurring in other groups may be noticed Acronycta alni, Neuria 
saponarice, Caradrina alsines, Tceniocampa leucograpJia and mimosa^ Dasy- 
campa ruhiginea, Roporina croceago, Dianthoecia conspersa, Hadena con- 
tigua and genistce, Cucullia lycJinitiSi asteris, and chamomillce^ Heliothis 
marginata and peltigera, and Stilhia anomala. 

The Deltoides are well represented by 11 species of the 14 in the 
list, and conspicuous among them is my favourite, Madopa salicalis, for 
which I worked hard, year after year, with more or less success. Both 
Sypenodes occur in damp woods, and SchranJcia turfosalis in bogs on 
Woolmer Forest, where also the single representative of the next 
family, Aventia flexula, is found. 

In contrast to the Deltoides, the Pyralides are very poorly repre- 
sented, half the list — 36— being all that I have met with, and among 
these is not a single scarce species, while several that are usually most 
abundant are decidedly uncommon here : Hydrocampa lemnalis^ Botys 
verticalis and urticalis and Elulea samhucalis, for instance. The best 
are Fyralis glaucinalis, Fyrausta octomaculalisj Pionea stramentalis, and 
Botys lancealis, all scarce ; Botys pandalis rather common in the woods ; 
Eudorea resinalis and basistrigalis. 

Of the Cramlites only 28 species have been noticed, being 
but three-eighths of the list, and of these 16 belong to the genus 
Oramhus, which is therefore weU represented, falsellus, dumetellus, 
adipellus, hamellus, latistrius, uliginosellus, and selasellus being of the 
number. Of the remainder of the group the best noticed were Crypto- 
hlabes listriga, Phycis ahiefella, and Oncocera alienella ; but possibly 
more might be taken by means of light. 



214. 



[February, 



This neighbourhood is rather rich in Tortricea — in quality, how- 
ever, rather than in quantity, since only half the list have been taken — 
177 species ; but this includes a long list of good ones. Ralias quer- 
cana^ Tortrix cratcegana and cinnamomeana^ Dichelia Grotiana, Lepto- 
gramma literanay Peronea aspersana, Ditula semifasciana, Fenthina 
capreana, pr<Blongana, sauciana, marginana, and carhonana, Sericoris 
hifasciana and micana, Eoxana arcuana, Euchromia purpurana^ Flwx- 
opteryx siculana, hiarcuana, diminutanay derasana, and ramana, Grapholita 
ohtusana and gemmana, Halonota nigricostana, tetragonana, and ephip- 
pana, Oiindia ulmana, Retinea pinicolana, turionana, and pinivorana 
Garpocapsa grossana^ Stigmonota perlepidana, puncticoatana^ and Oerma- 
rana, Dicrorampha alpinana and sequana, Aylopoda pariana, Lohesia 
Servillana, Eupwcilia amhiguana, curvistrigana, udana, rupicola^ and 
subroseana, Chrosis Audouinana, Argyrolepia Baumanniana^ Dubrisana, 
cnicana, and csneana. and two additions to the British list, Dicrorampha 
/lavidorsana, and Eupoecilia Heydeniana. 

The Tineina are also fairly represented, as I have observed 370 
species, considerably more than half the list, and feel sure that if the 
genera Gelechia, Coleophora, ElacJiista^ and JSFepticula were properly 
worked (by breeding especially) many more would be added. 

The district seems poor in FsychidcBj 4i species only having been 
met with, and of one of these — opacella — only cases, which produced 
nothing but a few Ichneumons. On the other hand, the Tineida show 
50 species, including the entire genera Lampronia and MicropteryXj 
all of Incurvaria, Nemophora^ and Adela^ except one species each. Of 
the Oelechidce the genus Depressaria is well represented by 30 species ; 
Oelechia not so well by 48. Of the Oracilaridce 20 species have 
occurred, and of the genus Lithocolletis 32. 

The list of good species is so long as to be in danger of becoming 
wearisome, but in it are included 3 novelties — Depressaria olerella, 
Gelechia Knaggsiella, and Coleophora graminicolella ; also Xysmatodoma 
melanella and argentimaculella, Ochsenheimeria Birdella, Scardia carpine- 
tella, Tinea albipunctella, fulvimitrella,&nd nigripunctella, Incurvaria tenui- 
cornis, Micropteryx mansuetella and salopiella, Nernotois cupriacella and 
minimella, Hyponomeuta vigintipunctatus and plumbella, Eidophasia 
Messingiella, Hypsolopha alpella and lucella, Harpipteryx scabrclla, 
Fteroxia caudella, Depressa^-ia pallorella, carduella, pimpintll(je,pulcherri- 
mella, and pastinacella, Psoricoptera gibbosella, Gelechia lentiginosella, 
sororculella, basaltinella, 7'honibella, Lyellella, and voriicella, Macrochila 
fasciella, Butalis senescens, Pancalia Latreillella, Roslerstamviia Erxlebelloy 
Glyphipteryx oculatella,Echmia dentella, Tinagma resplendella^ Gracilaria 



1869.] 



215 



falconipennella, populetorum, and phaeianipennella, Goriscium citrinell/am^ 
Coleophora Wockeella^ genistce, inflatce, apicella, fusco-ctiprella, and hadii- 
pennella, Batrachedrapinicolella, Ghauliodus IlUgerellus, Laverna lacteella, 
Baschlciella, decorella^ suhhistrigella, and rhamnella, Elachista mag^iificella, 
gangabella, rhynchosporella^ triatomea, and ochreella, Lithocolletis irradiella 
and comparella, Gemiostoma Wailesella, Opostega crepusmilella, Nepticula 
intimella and gratiosella, Trifurcula atrifrontella and pulverosella. 

Nearly half the Pterophorina — 13 species — are found, the best 
being PteropJiorus punctidactylus, Loewii, tepJiradactylus and paludum ; 
and the little Alucita polydactyla is, of course, plentiful. 

This paper would be incomplete without a distinct notice of those 
species usually considered to belong to northern districts, but which 
are found on the hills and heaths of this neighbourhood, and also of 
those that might be expected to be common here, but are comparatively 
or absolutely rare, or even not observed at all, 

Of species, more commonly northern, found here, I may mention 
Hepialus velleda and Abraxas ulmata, both rare ; Tortrix viburnana, Pen- 
thina sauciana, Mixodia Schulziana, Phoxopteryx unguicana and myrtil- 
lana, Goccy» vacciniana^ Stigmonota coniferana, Butalis incongruellay 
Glyphipteryx Haworthana, Elachista hilmunella, and rhynchosporellaj 
Lithocolletis irradiellay Gemiostoma Wailesella, and Pterophorus Loewii. 

There are also a few apparently wanderers from the chalk, Arge Galathea, 
Lycoena Cory don, Argyrolepia Dubrisana, and Ghrosis tesserana. 

Of insects rare here that might reasonably be expected to be common, the 
following are noticeable : — Argynnis Aglaia, Sesia tipuliformis, Liparis 
salicis, Anthrocera filipenduloe, Nola cucullalis, Eupithecia centaureata, 
Hydrcecia micacea, Noctua glareosa, augur, and rubi, Hadena oleracea, 
Brephos parthenias, Gatocala nupta, Noenia typica, Hydrocampa lemnalisy 
Botys verticalis and urticalis, Ebulea sambucalis, Gartella bilu7iana. Tinea 
granella, Swammerdamia ccesiella, Acrolepia granitella, Ghauliodus cheer o- 
phyllellus, and Lithocolletis spinolella. 

And of those conspicuous by their apparent absence I may mention, 
Smerinthus tilice, JVemeophila plantaginis, Gastropacha quercifolia, Gortyna 
flavago, Miana furnncida, Agrotis puta, Noctua Dahlii, Orthosia ypsilon, 
Anthocelis lunosa, Gosmia dijffinis, Hecatera dysodea, Polia jlavocincta, 
Hadena chenopodii, Galocampa exoleta, Habrostola triplasia, Scopula lutealis, 
Tortrix costana, Sphaleroptera ictericana, Stigmonota regiana, Eupoecilia 
roseana, Argyrolepia badiana, the whole of the species of the genus Gochylis 
(except inopiana, which occurs among fleabaue). Tinea biselliella (happy 
Haslemere !), Plutella porrectella, Gelechia fraternella, Batrachedra prcean- 
gusta, and Gemiostoma scitella, not one of which I have ever met with in 
either larval or perfect state. 



216 



February, 



This scarcity or absence of usually common species is, however, less re- 
markable when we take into account the fact, that, though so very many 
species are found, the great majority of them are individually scarce, so that 
insects are really far less abundant than in many other places. Hardly any 
species, comparatively, are pests, while great numbers in my list are repre- 
sented by but one or two specimens. 

Norwich, 10th November, 1868. 



A SECOND LIST OF GALL-BEARING PLANTS. 
BY H. W. KIDD AND ALBEET MULLEE. 

In the October number (vol. v, p. 118) of this Magazine we have 
attempted to give a list of indigenous and other plants known, or 
strongly suspected to bear galls, in Great Britain.* 

A few additions to this first list will be found in the enumeration 
below, which, besides, contains the names of many native and intro- 
duced plants on which^ as yet, no galls have been found in these 
islands, but which are known to harbour such abroad. All the latter 
species are marked with a note of interrogation (?), but, with the kind 
help of other observers, we hope to be able to remove this doubtful 
mark, after the lapse of next season, from many of them. We have 
therefore postponed the publication of our descriptive lists, that we 
may give our readers the opportunity of communicating any discoveries 
they may make during the summer, and of increasing our own know- 
ledge ; though, of course, we are well aware that we cannot expect 
that all these plants will eventually become known to us as really 
possessing galls in this country too. "We simply submit this list as a 
guide, to be followed, but by no means to be implicitly trusted ; and 
we shall at all times bo glad to hear of any additions or alterations 
concerning the same. The asterisk marks non-indigenous plants. 



? Berberis vulgaris, L. 

?* Yitis vinifera. 

? Alyssum, spec. 

? Nasturtium sylvestre, Br. 

? Helianthemum vulgare, G-aert. 

? Arenaria trinervis, L. 

?* Cytisus laburnum. 

? Prunus padus, L. 

? Potentilla argentea, L. 

? verna, L. 



? Eubus idaeus, L. 

Kubus caesius, L. 

Rubus fruticosus, Auct. 
? Eosa arvensis, L. 
? Poterium sanguisorba, L. 
? Pyrus communis, L. 

Epilobium montanum, L. 
palustre, L. 
parviflorum, Schrcb. 
? Eryngium campestre, L. 



* In the nomenclature of native plants of thii and our last Hit we haTe followed the " London 
CaUlogue." 



1869.] 



217 



? 
? 
? 
? 



Heracleum sphondylium, L. 
Lonicera xjlosteura, L. 
Galium mollugo, L. 
Cichorium intybus, L. 
Serratula, spec. 
Carduus nutans, L. 
Centaurea cyanus, L. 
Solidago, spec. 
Senecio sylvaticus, L. 



Pimpinella saxifraga, L. 
magna, L 



? Nepeta cataria, L. 

? Plantago maritima, L. 

? Aristolochia clematidis, L. 



CJrtica urens, L. 
? Salix pentandra, L. 




alba, L. 



? triandra, L. 

? purpurea, L. 

? viminalis, L. 



lapponum, L. 



viscosus, L. 
Campanula rapunculoides, L. 
trachelium, L. 



Yinca minor, L. 
Yerbascum nigrum, L. 
Yeronica serpyllifolia, L. 



? * Larix europaea. 

?* Juglans regia. 

? Alisma plantago, L. 

! Arundo phragmites, L. 

? Poa nemoralis, L. 

? Festuca ovina, L. 

! Triticum junceum, Auct. 



? Orobanche rapum, Thuill. 

In such cases where the British Elora does not possess the identical 
species on which the gall occurs abroad, we have mentioned the generic 
name only as a hint to examine all the indigenous members of the genus. 

P.S. — The insertion of the genus Circcea in our last list was 
founded in error. We know of no galls on any of the species. 

On Gyrinus cBneus, Steph. — In the " Entomologist's Annual " for 1869, p. 23, 
Mr. Rye has noticed Gyrinus oeneus, Staph., stating that it is quoted and the 
name adopted by Aube, in the Iconographie, &c. This is perfectly correct, but 
I think that Aube's support of Stephens' species must be shelved altogether, 
for Aube's aneus is certainly not Stephens' ceneus, as a glance at the two 
descriptions renders indubitable. In short, Aube committed an error in citing 
G. ceneus, Steph., as identical with the insect he himself described under the same 
name. How Aube came to make so curious a mistake, it would be useless to 
speculate on here. G. oeneus, Aube, as noticed in the " Annual," is recognized 
generally as Dejeanii, Brulle, a species confined to the south of Europe. It remains 
then to ascertain what Stephens' ceneus is, and I fear that we shall only find that 
this is one of the numerous cases in which Stephens' work must be considered as 
non-existent. 

Stephens, in 111. Mandib., ii, 95, quotes Gr, ceneus of Leach, M.S.S., 1842. Suffrian, 
in the best paper which has yet been produced on the European Gyrini, informs us 
that he has received from Dr. Leach an example of G. ceneus, Leach, M.S., and that 
it is a specimen of G. opacus, Sahl. Bearing in mind this, then we refer to Stephens, 
expecting to find a corroboration of this ; but no, his descriptions indicate un- 
doubtedly (as far as they indicate anything) that Gyrinus ceneus, Steph.^G. marinus, 
Gyl]., while Gr. marinus, Steph. = G. opacus, Sahl., and this, though he not only 
quotes without doubt Dr. Leach's ceneus as his own ceneus, but gives localities 
where Dr. Leach captured the species. Hence it is better not to notice Stephens' 
ceneus at all, or we shall introduce to our continental friends a discrepancy in 
Stephens' work not at all likely to increase his prestige with them.— D. Sharp, 
Thornhill, Ith Jounuary, 1869. 



218 



[Febroary, 



Occurrence vti Britain of Homalota rvfotestacea, Kraatz. — I have identified an 
insect taken by Mr. G. C. Champion (by casual sweeping in Headley Lane, Mickle- 
hanij in the month of April) with tlie above-mentioned elegant species, of which a 
description will be found in Ins. Dontschl., ii, p. 245, 4-8. 

It belongs to Dr. Kraatz's 4th group of the genus, in which the six penultimate 
joints of the antenna? are strongly transverse, the elytra are larger than the thorax, 
the abdomen is parallel, &c. The normal size appears to be about that of H. 
elongatula, and the whole insect is elongate, linear, with smooth shining abdomen, 
and quadrate thorax. In colour it is pitchy-brown, with the antenna?, front of 
head, legs, and apex of abdomen testaceous ; the thorax is rufo-testaceous, and 
the abdomen has the 5th segment and the margins of some of the other segments 
usually pitchy. 

Mr. Champion's insect seems to difier from Kraatz's description solely in size, 
it being considerably smaller than 1^ lin. (Germ.). — E. C. Rye, 7, Park Field, 
Putney, S.W., January, 1869. 

I^ote on Balaninus cerasorum and B. ruhidus. — Referring to my remarks upon 
these two insects in the " Annual " for 1869, I may add that M. J, Desbrochers 
dos Loges, in his recently commenced monograph of the European Balaninidxe and 
Anthonomidoi (Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, viii, 1868, 358 et seq.) gives them 
as separate species without the slightest commentary of suspicion as to the possi- 
bility of their identity. He refers to the sexes of each, and gives for ruhidus (on 
account of the slight sexual difference in the length of its rostrum, which he notes) 
the following additional male characters : — " Pygidium more exposed and pubescent, 
and Butural angle of elytra more marked." M. des Loges, in addition to the 
characters mentioned by me, states that the eyes are farther apart and the frontal 
depression is deeper in ruhidus than in cerasorum; he also refers to a difference in 
the club of the antennae of the two insects, which he describes as oval, slightly 
elongate, acuminate at the apex, and sub-rotundate at the base in the former, and 
merely as oval and contracted at each extremity in the latter. 

M. des Loges adopts the name of tesselatus, Fourcroy, for the insect known to 
us as B. turhatus, and reinstates Marsham's glandiwuy which is much prior in date 
to vcnosus, Germ. — Id. 

Note on the Donada ge^iiculata and D. IcBvicollis of Thomson. — The reference to 
these species, from the Zoological Record, to which I drew attention at page 198 
of the present volume, though correct in fact, is not snflBciently explanatory. 

An examination of Thomson's descriptions (Sk. Col. viii, p. 123) shews that 
the former of them is the D. aquatica of Waterh. Cat. {Comari, Ahrens, Suffr.), and 
the latter is the universally recognized D. seHcea {ProteuSy Steph.). D. aquatica of 
Linurrus, which Mr. Waterhouso has identified, by means of the collection of that 
author, with the insect known to us by that name, is refen-ed to dentipes^ Gyll., by 
Thomson, who remarks that the so-called original examples of aquatica have little 
or no weight, since Mr. Waterhouse gives Comari, Suffr., as a synonym of that 
species, notwithstanding Linnaons' description clearly shows that he had deritipes 
before him, under which species Gyllenhal also quotes Linna?ua' aquatica. 

LinuDeus' sericea Thomson considers inapplicable to any Swedish species, on 



18G9.] 



219 



account of the expression " elytris subfastigiatis ;* and Gyllonhal's he rejects, 
because the variation in the sculpture of the prothorax allowed by that author 
would include both the species. Supposing, however, that these reasons were 
allowed as suflficient to disestablish such well-known species, there would still 
remain the names proposed for them by authors subsequent to Linnaeus and 
Gyllenhal ; and (without endeavouring to substantiate others) Comari, Suffrian, 
for the one (though utterly ignored by Thomson, save in the above-mentioned 
reference), and Proteus, Steph., for the other, would effectually bar such sharp 
practice as that in which Thomson has indulged in the present instance. 

M. Marmottan, in the " Excursion de 1866 dans les Vosges et I'Alsace" (Ann. 
Soc. Ent. de Fr., 1867, vii, p. 679), speaks of the existence of an opinion as to 
Comari being only a simple var. of sericea (!) ; he also states that, up to the time 
of its capture at the lake of Lispach, it was only known as occurring in Germany. 
"Discovered by the late James Foxcroft, in Perthshire, in May, 1854," is the 
statement in Ent. Annual, 1861, on its being recorded as British by Mr. Janson. — Id. 

Captures of Coleojptera during the past season. — At Shirley and "Wickham I have 
taken the following species : '-Murmidius ovalis, one specimen, by sifting heaps of 
dead leaves, cut grass, &c., accompanied by Euthia plicata (Dr. Power appears to 
have long ago taken a specimen of M. ovalis, at Madingley Wood, Cambridgeshire), 
Mycetojporus puncUis, Euplectus Kvmzei, Tachyrmus comari, Ceuthorhynchus crux, 
Miarus campanulce, Homalota angustula, divisa, triangulum, and coriaria, Olihrus 
pygmceus, Stenus pallipes, and S. circularis, in sand-pits. Salpingus castaneuSf 
Phlceophthorus, and Tormcus micrographus, by beating fir branches. Tachinus 
elongatulus (1) , by sweeping under fir trees. 

At Mickleham, Homalota rufotestacea, ohlita, angusticollis, and divisa, by sifting 
dead leaves. Apliodius porous, about a dozen specimens, in dung. By promiscuous 
sweeping I have taken Apion filirostre and J., atomarium, Baridius picico^mis, Tracliys 
namis, Ceuthorhynchus cochlea/rice, crux, terminatus, and alliarice, Cassida hemi- 
sphcerica, Mantura Matthewsii, Gymnetron melanarium and E. noctis, Phyllotreta 
nodicornis and P. ochripes, Crepidodera ventralis, Thyamis gracilis, Coccinella hiero- 
glyphica, and Psylliodes attenuata. 

At Weybridge, Homalota lcBvana,'\ celata, Thomsoni, and sodalis. Smicronyx 
cicur and Haploglossa rufipsnnis, by sweeping the heath. Pachyrinus 4:-tu'berculatus, 
by sweeping in damp places. Erirhinus agnathus, on sallows. 

At Lee, Magdalinus harhicomis, by beating hedges ; and Xylophihzs popuVneus, 
by casual sweeping. At Heme Bay, Apion Gyllenhali (in some numbers), A. similOf 
and Ceuthorhynchus terminatus, by sweeping on the coast. At Birch Wood, Nossi- 
diwm, in profusion, by sifting dead leaves, and Lycoperdina in fungus. At Gravesend, 
Hister marginatus, by sweeping in damp places on the river banks, and Nitidula 
rufipes in a dead animal. At Cobham, Kent, Abdera bifasciata. At Wimbledon, 
Stenus melanoA^us (2) and Chcetocnema confusa (2). At Southend, Harpalus servus 
(2) and Chrysomela marginata, under stones on sand-hills. At Sevenoaks, Apion 
dissimile. At St. Leonards Forest, Sussex, Bembidiwm obliquum (3), on the banks 

* I am not sure that I exactly appreciate this word : but faatigium may, I think, mean " a ridge;" 
and the elytra of tericea can certainly be considered as exhibiting traces of transverse ridges. Or, it 
may mean " a gable in which case Linnaeus would possibly refer to the arc of the two elytra. — E. C. B. 

[t These difficult species, were, we beliove, named by Dr. Sharp ; and may, therefore, be relied 
upon.— Ed3.] 



220 



[Februftry, 



of a small pond. I have also fonnd a few specimens of Lasiodertym testacea in ginger. 
A specimen of Cryphalus hinodiilus was found crawling on a wall near Peckham, 
last antumn. 

The specimens of a Ceuthorhynchus recorded by me with some little doubt in 
the Ent. Mo. Mag. as C. urticoe, I have since found are undoubtedly to bo referred 
to that species. — G. C. Champion, 274, Walworth Road, S., January, 1869. 

Note on a British example of Lihellula (DiplacDj vulgata. — Among some British 
Dragon-flies obtained at the sale of the late Mr. Desvignos' collection, I find one 
male of this species, extremely rare in Britain ; but can give no clue as to its 
locality. That this common north Continental insect should be so little known here 
is extraordinary. From its great resemblance to our abundant L. striolata it may 
possibly be overlooked ; yet I have, at various times and in many localities, cap- 
tured and examined scores of the latter, in order to obtain its rare ally, but always 
without success. It may be remarked that, apart from the slight structural 
diflferences in this species, vulgata may bo recognised by the reddish colouring of 
the principal nervures, as seen when the light is thrown on the wings in a particular 
direction, a character to which scarcely sufficient importance has been given. — E. 
McLachlax, Lewisham, 30<?i November ^ 1868. 

On the spinning of the larva of a Cecidom/yia. — Winnertz, in his elaborate 
" Beitrag zu einer Monographie der Gallmiicken" (Linnaoa Ent., vol. 8, p. 170)» 
mentions that, according to his observations, no Cecidomyian larva possesses spin- 
organs, and he finds additional proof for this in the fact that no thread is per- 
ceptible in the silken envelopes of the pupae. 

There is now standing before me a corked bottle, containing a quantity of the 
woody green galls on the mid-ribs of the leaves of Salix dnerea, collected in this 
neighbourhood in the middle of October last. From these polythalamous galls the 
pale orange larvas of a Cecidomyia are now making their escape, some peacefully 
to undergo their metamorphosis at the bottom of the bottle, in what I consider 
their spun cocoons (as these are neatly attached by threads to the glass, and not 
loosely lying about), others of a more restless disposition forming little "points 
d'appia," or steps of silken ladders, all up the smooth, perpendicular sides of the 
bottle. Some gymnasts among them are hanging at their ease, in a curved posi- 
tion, on threads of their own, which are one inch, and even longer, and are attached 
to the top of the bottle. In short, there are at least three distinct exhibitions of 
spinning operations to be seen. 

This ocular demonstration strengthens the misgivings I have on the statement 
heading this note ; and it now rests to be seen whether spinning powers are the 
exception or the rule with the larvae of the numerous other Cecidomyia. — Albert 
MuLLEE, Penge, S.E., November 11th, 1868. 

Capture of Diam,tha;cia irregularis, Hufn. (cclni, Borkh.) in Britain.— I have 
been informed that the Rev. A. IT. Wratislau captured an example of this insect 
in Suffolk last year. The name has been' in our lists before, but has long been 
placed among the " reputed " species. According to Gnen^e, the larva feeds on 
the flowers (seeds ?) of Oypsophila paniculatay not a British plant ; but it probably 
also affects other Caryophyllacea:. — R. McLaculan, Lewisham, January, 1869. 



1369.) 



221 



Macro-Lepidoptera at Rannoch. — At the somewhat gloomy oloso of a fine day 
early in July, we left the road which borders Loch Rannoch, and crossed the rough 
fields which lead to Camachgonran. We had reached the end of a somewhat 
harrassing journey, and it was vrith feelings of intense satisfaction that we saw 
the collecting-cases and portmanteaux, containing all necessaries for a Scotch 
campaign, laid on the stone floor of our little abode. Our kind hostesses very soon 
put before us a meal, such as all who have visited Camachgonran will vividly re- 
member J and the sight of the newest of milk and the freshest of eggs* urged us 
to recruit before we turned out, as we had resolved to do, for a few hours' collecting 
on our first night. 

To one of us the scenery, and, better still, the insects, of the district were 
quite new ; and, as we passed down the long barley-field beyond which lies the 
great sugaring-ground of Rannoch, the other set himself to combat the slightly 
gloomy impression conveyed to the mind by the grand mountain solitudes and 
sloping moors veiled partially, as we saw them now, by uncomfortable looking masses 
of cloud. Turning to the left, we reached two very different tracts of land separated 
by the high road : that next the loch being grass-grown, and covered with fine 
birch trees, while the other produces a mingled mass of heather, reeds, and fern, 
amongst which grow, singly or in clumps, birch, fir, and alder trees. Here, at 
nine o'clock, sunlight had scarce faded from the sky : dark banks of cloud were 
still shot with vivid lines of light ; the air was soft and warm, and the loch lay 
motionless, almost at our feet. Some eighty trees, near the loch's edge, received 
an application of the sugar, and we retired among the heather and woods in the 
background to " moth " until the charm should have exerted its sway. Here a fine 
0. papilionaria crossed our path and was safely boxed, and somewhat peculiar 
forms of B. repandata occurred commonly. 

Darkness had come on about a quarter to eleven sufficiently to warrant a first 
visit to the sugar ; anxiously, and with darkened lamps we drew near to the first 
tree. Former experience told us that sugaring at Rannoch was not quite profitless. 
One held the net below the sweet tract of bark, the other flashed a sti'eam of light 
upon it : both peered with eyes as greedy as the most ravenous polyodon. A 
Carahus drew back, and politely stopped eating ; two *' daddies " buzzed off, and 
banged against the lamp ; and a great snail seemed to be regarding contemplatively 
the shmy traces of his own ascent ; but there were no moths. 

Tree No. 2 surprised us with a goodly sight. The brothers Uncta and occuUa 
absorbed sugar side by side, both in the loveliest of condition ; N. confiua^ C. cuhi- 
cularis, and X. rurea having dropped in to complete the party. At the next 
" spread" we found tincta and nelulosaj a lovely H. contigua, B. tenehrosa, and T. 
pronuha. This first night was, indeed, undeniably good. Tincta was common ; 
occulta, of the deepest shade of blackness, and without a rub, not by any means 
rare ; and a fair sprinkling of duplaris, contigua, tenehrosa, festiva, conflwi, cuhi- 
cularis, rurea (and var. combusta), polyodon, adusta, and augur. 

It was not long before we made an expedition to *' Grayvel," the " lion " of 
the mountains in that district. On the lofty summit, a few P. trepidaHa resulted 



* Milch-cows and productive hens appear to have been imported since our experience In 1865. — 
R. McL. ; E. C. R. 



222 



[February, 



from a determined search ; S. alpinalis was not rare on the aides and on the base ; 
C. popidata swarmed among the bilberries half-way up ; C. furcatellus was also 
common on the summit j and by good luck we secured some six or eight specimens 
of S. pcuralis. Descending, we visited a hollow on which the sun just then shed 
warm and friendly rays, and here E. Epvpliron sported to and fro in considerable 
numbers, its little black form being very conspicuous against the bright green grass. 

Our sugaring continued to be good throughout the whole four weeks of our 
stay. For some time A. tincta and occulta were of frequent occurrence, and few 
insects, when in faultless condition, present a more striking appearance than the 
latter. H. contigua and ackista were not rare ; viminalis came out in some num- 
bers ; of each of N. neglecta, M. farva, C. Haworthit, C. duplaris, and 0. suspecta^ 
we secured a few specimens ; and S. anoinala, with the last traces of respectability 
rubbed out of him, one night surprised us by a visit. R. tenehrosa was common 
(and, as usual, far from fine), and N. conflua not scarce. 

The " vulgar herd," most of them constant attendants, comprised N. augur, 
haja, C-nigrum, hrunnea, xanthographa, j^^ecfa, and festiva ; X. polyodon and ru/rea 
(both species represented by very fine varieties) ; T. orbona, janthina, and pronxiba ; 
C. cuhicularis ; A. porphyrea ; and H. pisi. 

The following " trespassers " came to sugar: — L. ccBsiata, C. russata, M.fiuc- 
tuata, B. repandata, M. ma/rgaritata, R. cratcegata, L. pectinitaria, C. populata, L. 
olivata, and H. elutata. 

Several other interesting captures fell to our lot among the Noctuina. H. 
reciilinea, and P. interrogationis, were discovered resting on stumps and stones 
during dull days. Of the latter, which, when fresh from the pupa, is scarcely to 
be sui-passed for delicate shading, we accumulated a remarkably lovely series. 

S. anomala occurred freely on the moors, and remained for three days in 
exquisite condition, after which it was almost over. From a small poplar tree wo 
took about a hundred larvae of C. or, many of which have now disappeared beneath 
the soil. A. hicernea, attracted, probably, by a great jar of treacle which stood by 
the front door of our cottage, paid us a visit one night, and led oflf a lively pursuit 
round the room, which lasted a quarter-of-an-hour, but by which he was in no way 
harmed. 

E. Blandina and C. Davus were both common ; and of the former, a male 
occurred with the fulvous patch on one side spotless. 

The full-fed larvae of S. carpini, L. calluna;, and C. reclusa, were in some num- 
bers here and there ; nor were those of H. adtbsta any rarities. C. psittacata was 
beaten from mountain ash, and soon entered the pupa state. A. menyanthidis 
resulted from a sweeping of heath, and N. ziczac was to bo obtained from the sallow 
bushes, where also C. furcula was rather common. 

Among the Oeometrina our captures were numerous. D. ohfuscata was scarce, 
but a few fine ones consented to come within range ; and from two females there 
sprang a fine brood of larvae, at present in winter quarters. Certain larvao beaten 
from alder would seem to be S. ilhvstraria, but presented a most curious variety of 
colour. E. hlandiatay together with E. sxiccenturiata, occurred at Kinloch ; and E. 
cricetaria was very common in all directions. A. fumata, of course, swarmed in 
places ; as, to an almost incredible extent, did L. ccesiata. C. munitata frequented 



1869.] 



223 



the sides of mountain streams, and the stony ground at tho foot of Grayvol. F. 
hrunneata was common, but exceedingly local. E. fasciaria flow rather freely at 
night in tho neighbourhood of fir trees. L. oUvata was obtainable, both at rest 
and flying by the loch side at night. 8. helgiaHa sat at rest among the heath by 
day, and E. tenuiata was beaten from sallows. 

From the bark of a birch tree near Camachgouran we cut an empty pupa of 
T. scoliceforme, — rather a tantalizing operation at best. 

The Bombycina were but sparingly represented : — E. russula, flying about 
ferns and heather ; N. plantaginis, actively buzzing over the open heaths (one at a 
height of 2,000 feet) ; and a fine brood of D. fascelina larvae marching out of the 
eggs, and arrested in the act of separating to pursue their respective courses in 
life, comprised about all our captures. 

8. turfosalis, which occured on marshy land near the loch, C. margaritellus, 
common throughout the district, P. carlonariella, common among burnt heather, 
and P. pinguinalis, at rest in the kitchen of our cottage, are worth of notice among 
our lesser friends. 

The Micro-Lepidoptera must be reserved for another paper. — George B. Long- 
STATF, New College, Oxford ; J. B. Blackbukn, Grassmeade, Wandsworth, S.W., 
November, 1868. 

Notes on Lepidoptera at Ashford, Kent. — Choerocanvpa porcelUis, June 13th. 
Euthemonia russula, not uncommon, June 12th and 13th. I obtained eggs which 
hatched in ten days, and, feeding up rapidly, produced moths at the end of August. 
Scoria dealhata ; this local insect was out in some numbers, and I had an oppor- 
tunity of observing its habits, and seeing the females deposit their eggs on blades 
of grass. They are very sluggish on the wing, but fly reluctantly in the sunshine, 
and, after taking a short flight, would settle on a blade of grass ; then commence 
sliding down in a series of grotesque jerks for about two-thirds of the distance, 
when, bending the abdomen round, they deposited from two to six eggs in a row 
on the edge of the concave side of the grass. They would then fly away and repeat 
the process elsewhere, but when alarmed mounted high in the air and flew to a 
considerable distance. I gathered several pieces of grass after seeing the eggs 
laid on them. I believe they were most partial to Brachypodium sylvaticvm^ but it 
seemed strange that when the young larvae were hatched, and I oflered them this 
and other grasses, they would not feed. I oflered them Polygonum aviculare and 
Lotus corniculatus and major, on which last they did well. I have some at the 
present time about an inch long. The slow flight and conspicuous appearance of 
this insect makes it an easy prey to birds. One just rising from the grass was 
pounced upon and carried oflF by a bird. Stauropu^ fagi ; I found a splendid male 
on a beech-tnink near Wye, on the 13th June, Notodonta cuculUna ; a fine female 
on a leaf of sycamore on Westwell Downs, June 10th. She laid a batch of eggs on 
the following day, which hatched in nine days. The larvae fed quickly on sycamore, 
producing rather small moths in the beginning of August. — William R. Jeffrey, 
Saflfron Walden, December 12th, 1868. 

Notes on Lepidoptera at Wicken Fen. — One or two hurried visits to this locality 
in July last produced the following results : — Papilio Machaon ; rather common on 



224 



L February, 



the wing, and the handsome larvro abundant at the same time on Pcucedanum 
palustre. I also found the eggs on the same plant. Acidalia i/mmututa ; several 
specimens, from which I obtained eggs, and had the moths out again in September. 
Simyra venosa ; the larva of this insect was abundant on Cladium mariscus and 
Arundo. Hyd/relia tmca ; one larva swept up ; fed for some time on Carev, but it 
did not live. — Id. 

Vanessa Antiopa at Qodmanchester. — A specimen of V. Antiopa was taken in 
September last, by Mr. Gerald Hunnybun, of Godmanchester, at rest on a pear- 
tree, early in the morning. I saw it soon afterwards. — W. Jagqer, St. Ives, Hunts, 
eth January, 1869. 

Captures of Lepidoptera at Taplow. — This summer I was at Taplow. I cannot say 
that I found Lepidoptera unusually abundant, though, on the other hand, I had very 
little time for collecting. Yet I tried sugar on several very favourable evenings, but 
with little or no result ; in fact, within my experience there has not been a good 
year for sugaring since 1865. Cardui was very common towards the end of July. 
I noticed one thing during the very hot weather, viz., that butterflies (I speak 
particularly of Alexis, Megcera, rapes, napi, and Argiolus) were flying about in as 
great abundance at seven in the morning as they usually are at eleven. This was 
only on the hottest days ; I noticed this particularly ; I went by the same path at 
the same hour every morning. 

The only captures at all worthy of record are D. carpophaga, at light, in the 
middle of May ; cucuhali, also at light, in May and early in June, and also on July 
loth (I may mention that the various species of Silene are very common near 
Taplow) ; E. venosata, on May 27th ; T. cinctalis, on Juno 9th ; P. iota, June 13th ; 
0. samhucaria, on June 17th, i. e. earlier than usual j T. rhanmata, very common 
at light, between June 18th and July 13th ; and L. Argiolus, June 19th and 20th. — 
A. H. Clarke, 16, Furnivals Inn, E.G., November, 1868. 

Peronea umhrana in Westmoreland. — I met with P. umhra'tia at Witherslack 
last autumn, but omitted to note it in the list for the " Annual." I believe this 
species has not previously occurred in Westmoreland. — J. B. Hodgkinson, Preston. 

Ca/ptures of Lepidoptera near Perth in 1868. — In looking over the captures of 
Mr. W. Herd (one of the most active of our collectors), I was surprised to find that 
he had taken a specimen of Euperia fulvago. This species has, therefore, curiously 
appeared in three distinct localities in Scotland in the same year. Several other 
species not hithei'to observed in this neighbourhood have, I suppose, been developed 
by the long-continued heat : these are Nola cxicullatclla, EuhoUa cervinaria, aud 
Orthosia lota. Lycccna Artaxerxes was very abundant j and among other species 
taken by Mr. Herd and Mr. James Stewart wei'e Dasydia ohfuscata, Eupithecia 
tenuiatay Melanippe tristata, Coremia munitatat Cidaria silaceata, Bicra/nurafurcxda, 
Agrotis saucia, Nodua glareosa&nd Dahlii, Orthosia macilenta, Cirradia xerampclina, 
Ennychia cingulalis, &c. The season ended with Phigalia pilosaria i , taken by 
Mr. Stewart, at light, on the 6th of Deoombcr ! Does this species usually appear 
so late in the year ?— F. Buchanan White, Perth, \2.th January, 1869. 



l«60.j 



225 



Note on the larvce of HeUophohus popularis, Cha/rceas gra/tmrnSf and Luperina 
cespitis. — Through the kindness of correspondents, I have been supplied in diflferent 
years with the eggs of all these three species, and have reared the larvae from 
them to full growth : and as I became acquainted with one species after another, I 
could not help being struck with the great similarity of appearance presented by 
all three when full grown. 

In fact, from not being at the first prepared for this similarity among them, I 
found it necessary to rear each species a second time in order to make sure of the 
distinctive markings of each ; but this having been done, and several figures 
having been carefully delineated, I feel I can now offer a few remarks, which may 
be of use in helping others to separate them. 

The early history of each is similar; the straw-coloured eggs are laid in 
autumn, and undergo one or two changes of colour — the last not long before the 
larvse are hatched — some time in spring, the exact date varying according to the 
character of the season. 

They all feed on grass — shovsdng no decided preference, beyond that of choosing 
the smooth and hard grasses rather than hairy and woolly species ; they feed up in 
summer, retire underground, and make neat oval chambers for their retreat during 
pupation, — and the moths appear at the latter end of summer or beginning of 
autumn. 

When young, the larv39 all show a greenish hue, with whitish lines, — graminis 
and popularis being of a paler — more olive tint, while cespitis is of a bright clear 
full green, with the lines also of a purer white than in the other species. 

I have noticed that popularis, when about half-grown, shows a very beautiful 
opalescent pinkish gleam of colouring about the ventral legs and belly itself which 
I have not observed in the other two. By degrees, in all of them, the green 
becomes dai-kened with brown, and a metallic or bronzy lustre makes its appear- 
ance, until at last the full dress is assumed, which I now proceed to describe. 

In shape all are similar; the head is full and rounded, the body stout and 
cylindrical, thickest in the middle, and tapering towards each extremity ; when 
disturbed they do not curl up, but bend their head and tail together on one side. 

But in size, as might be expected from the moths, they differ : thus popula/ris, 
when full grown, measures full If inch in length j cespitis 1\, and graminis li, — 
and their bulk is in proportion to their length. 

Next as to colour and ornamentation j all three are much alike in hue, and all 
have five conspicuous stripes arranged as dorsal, sub-dorsal, and sub -spirac alar. 
The colour of the head is brown ; and that of the back, as far as the spiracles, is 
a deep brown-greenish or smoky brown, bronzy and very shining j a black (or, at 
least, dai'ker than the ground colour) semi-circular plate on the second segment, on 
which commence the dorsal and sub-dorsal stripes, in colour pale pinkish-grey, 
greyish-ochreous, or pale brownish, widening a Httle in the stoutest part of the 
body, and gradually narrowing again, till they converge and meet at the tip of the 
anal flap, which is covered with another black plate ; these stripes are edged with 
black, and freckled with grey or brown along their middle. The spiracles are black, 
and immediately beneath them comes the sub-spiracular pale stripe, edged and 
freckled like those already described. 

The legs and prologs are greyish-green or brown, the latter ringed with darker 



226 



[February, 



brown, or with a brown spot above their extremities ; the ventral snrfaoe varying 
in tint, but in all shining and semi-translucent. 

Owing to the brilliancy of their skin, the play of light on the polished surface 
makes a close scrutiny indispensable to detect all the distinguishing marks of each 
species, — still such are to be found, especially in the region of the sub-dorsal and 
sub-spiracular stripes. 

Popularis then has a rather pale narrow line, edged with blackish, running 
along midway in the space above mentioned, all the pale stripes being uninterupted. 
Perhaps, too, the bronzy gloss of the back is warmer in this species, while the belly, 
though paler than the back, is more dusky than in the others. 

Qraminis has also a pale line running between the spiracles and the sub-dorsal 
stripe. In this species the segmental folds oflfer a good character, being smoother, 
and of a diflferent tint from the back, — in fact, catching the eye as narrow trans- 
verse bands ; the whole skin also is much wrinkled transversely ; and there are 
transverse pale streaks in the space alluded to between the sub-dorsal and sub- 
spiracular stripes, viz., three above the pale line, and two below it, on each segment. 
The sub-spiracular stripe is wider than in the other species (and the belly seems to 
have rather a pale golden-brown gloss). 

Cespitis has, in the space between the sub-dorsal stripe and sub-spiracular, 
three ragged and irregular, rather paler, longitudinal lines, a little meandering in 
character, and edged here and there with darker, and being more or less obscure ; 
and the belly and legs in this species are decidedly tinted with green. — Wm. Buckler, 
Emsworth. 

Note on the earlier stages oj Limenitis Sibylla. — Some years ago this butterfly 
was plentiful enough in the woods in this vicinity, and thinking I could at any time 
be able to study its history, I postponed any attempt to obtain its egg or larva 
nntil I should have worked out other species sent to me from a distance, and 
which I could not hope to have always at hand. 

But since that horribly cold and wet season of 1860-1, I have never seen a 
single specimen, and apparently, as far as this locality is concerned, Sibylla (and 
I may add A. Iris also) was then exterminated. 

However, through the kindness of Mr. C. G. Barrett, and his indefatigable 
exertions whilst at Haslemere, I have been able to study and figure the larva, my 
notes on its appearance when full grown, as well as on the pupa, having been 
already published, E. M. M., vol. iv., 33 ; and I would now offer some account of 
it at an earUer stage— not as being able to disclose something entirely new, but as 
describing exactly what I have seen. 

The hybemaculum which Mr. Barrett sent me, was placed as he describes it, 
"three or four huds down from the tip of a twig shooting out from the main stalks 
of a great honeysuckle-bine, which climbed up a fir tree ; the twig chosen for this 
purpose sloped a little upwards, but he could not discover any hybemaculum that 
could be fairly called pendulous. 

The one I have before me is made of a honeysuckle leaf, which had boon first 
partly bitten through near its axil, and then securely fixed by its two edges for 
about half its length to the twig from which it grew, and across which its edges 
were firmly bound with a spinning of strong silk ; the remainder of the leaf curved 



1869.) 227 

oflf from the twig at an angle of about 40°, being divided along the mid-rib for 

about -j^jj inch fi'om the tip, — thus forming two littlo hare's ears as it were, — and 
from them up to the twig, having its two edges firmly spun together ; just at the 
point where this half of the leaf meets the under-side of the twig there is a cir- 
cular aperture, apparently designed by the larva for its egress in the spring. 

As the leaf withers, the hybernaculum assumes a puckered fusiform shape, 
scarcely more than half-an-inch in length, being convex on the upper outline, and 
scarcely concave below ; with the middle irregularly swollen, and the little hare's 
ears hanging apart j but I am sure, from the firmness with which the whole struc- 
ture is fixed to the twig, it could not have swung with an independent motion of 
its own. Its natural appearance of a small shrivelled leaf clinging to the dry stem 
would readily escape ordinary observation. 

On waking in April, sooner or later, acording to the season, the little occupant 
leaves its abode, but goes no farther than to the upper-side of the twig immediately 
above the aperture it has quitted, and at this time is about three lines long, 
spiny, and is wholly of a reddish-brown colour. 

Its first proceeding is now to cast ofi" its winter coat, and accordingly it attaches 
itself to a spinning of silk on the twig, and by degrees crawls out of its old skin> 
which is left adhering to the silk, not shrivelled up, but still looking much like 
a larva. 

It is now a much fresher looking creature ; and after feeding on the just 
bursting buds of its twig, it is, by the beginning of May, half-an-inch long, brown 
on the back, with spines of the same colour, and yellowish-white along the sides, 
on which the blackish spiracles appear very distinct ; just above the ventral legs 
it shows a reddish-brown stripe ; the legs and belly are rather paler brown. In a 
few days it again moults, and then assumes a miniature resemblance of the adult 
larva, as formerly described. — Id. 

Stray notes on Lepidoptera at Haslemere. — Being at Woolmer Forest on May 
1st, and the season being forward, I had a look over the wild honeysuckle, and 
soon found young larvae of Limenitis Sibylla, some only just moving from their 
hybernacula, and still in their dark winter dress (which I leave to Mr. Buckler to 
describe). A week later they were growing well, and larvae of Pericallia syringaria 
appeared ; and I also found a bristly-looking green larva, with white dorsal lines 
and a geometric aspect, which however, as it grew, became an exceedingly smooth 
larva of a beautiful green with broad white dorsal and sub-dorsal fines, and with two 
others, which I afterwards found produced lovely Plusia V-aureum in the beginning 
of J une. In the meantime the larvae of syringaria had turned up not uncommonly, 
and in most lovely variety j some very pale brown or drab, others a rich velvety 
brown or dark red, and some of intermediate shades, while one of the light-coloured 
specimens was blotched with green at the sides. 

These begun to spin on May 17th, and emerged early in June. How the 
larva can enclose itself, dorsal hook and all, in a cocoon which shall fit tightly to 
the proportionately small pupa, is a mystery ; but so tightly does it fit, that the 
cast skin is only shuffled ofi" without being wrinkled up, and, as is well known, 
remains like a long tail attached to the pupa. 



228 



[February, 



But, to return to Sibylla. By the raidfllo of May some of the larvao were fully 
grown, and about the 20th they began to spiu up. My cxpcrienco last year led rao 
to put them into a warm room, where they got a good deal of sun, but this year 
the heat was too great, and certainly caused many of them to spin up before they 
were fully mature, so that some died in changing, and those bred were smaller than 
ordinary captured specimens. On June 3rd the first imago made its appearance, 
and by the 20th all had emerged. On June 16th I was riding down one of its 
favourite glades in Woolmer Forest, and wondering whether any had appeared at 
largo, when one glided over my shoulder, and was, to my own astonishment, secured 
by a rapid and almost involuntary stroke of the net. It was a most lovely specimen, 
just out, and I should think one of the earliest ever seen at liberty in this countiy. 
A week later they were common, as also was Argynnis Paphia ; and by July 11th, 
when in ordinary years they would have been in their greatest force, there was 
hardly even a worn-out specimen to be seen. 

Tlio great heat had the effect of bringing out several other species of butterflies 
before their usual time. Thus the second brood of Leucojphasia sinapis appeared 
on June 29th, and that of Lyccena Argiolus on July 11th. Moreover, I met with 
what I had never before seen, namely, second brood specimens of Argynnis Euphro- 
syne and Selene, and Thanaos Tages on July 15th, 28th, and 30th respectively. 
This must be a very rare occurrence in the cold climate of Haslemere. 

I. cannot tell whether Apatwa Iris was tamed a little by the heat, but my 
friend Mrs. Frascr discovered it settling along a wood-path, on alder and chestnut 
bushes from twelve to twenty feet high, and there we managed to secure at 
diflferent times seventeen specimens; while in another wood a magnificent female 
condescended to settle within reach of my net, and was secured. 

Early this month a third brood of Satyrus Megcera appeared, and is still flying 
in plenty. The males are unusually dark. 

Of moths, I think that every one who has had time for collecting this autumn, 
will have found many that have re-appcared unusually late. I myself have observed 
several species that are generally only single-brooded. — Chas. G. Barrett, Hasle- 
mere, 16th Septemherj 1868. 

Note on Hyponomeuta vigintipunctatus. — From larvas found last autumn on 
Sedum telephium, I bred, in the spring, a host of Hyponomeuta vigintipunctatus. 

Wishing to obtain eggs, I kept a dozen specimens alive for several days in 
company, but as no results appeared, turned them out, on April 25th, upon some 
Sedum which I had planted in the garden, and a day or two afterwards turned out 
several more. 

From this time till May 20th — nearly a month — whenever I looked at the 
plants some of the moths would be visible, settled on the leaves. More utterly 
inert creatures I never saw. Although I watched them at all times in the day and 
in the evening, I never saw one move unless disturbed. If touched they would 
dart down to the ground, and crawl up again soon after, but without using their 
wings. They did not become worn nor very much faded, and must have died at 
last from sheer want of energy to keep alive. From all this I feared that they had 
not paired, and that I should not get a brood, so was much pleased in June to see 



1800.] 



229 



a few larva? ou tlio plants. Thcso fed up very fast in tho hot weather, and, before 
I expected it, had gone into pupa, but where I could never find out, nor did I sec 
one of the moths of that brood ; indeed, I was too much occupied at that time of the 
year to notice them much, but in August the plants were nearly smothered with 
the webs of the second brood of larvas, which devoured all the leaves and even 
attacked the seeds, and spun up (in confinement this time) just in time to escape 
starvation, for their brethren at large, encouraged, I suppose, by the hot weather, 
had utterly eaten up and destroyed the fine patches of plants upon which I had 
reckoned for a fresh supply of food, and it was as much as I could do to find tho 
dead stems. Unless they were full-fed, this will make them rare next year. — Id. 

Penthina capreana and other Lejpidoptera bred from sallow. — Mr. Machin 
having given me some hints how to find the larvae of Penthina capreana, I spent 
some time and pains in searching for them at the end of April. Being, however, 
unable to find any, even in the places where the perfect insect had occurred, I went 
to work and picked every rolled-up leaf and spun up shoot of sallow that I could 
find, till I had a good quantity, which I put into flower-pots in a cool place, and 
supplied fresh leaves when these di'ied up. 

From this lot of sallow shoots I bred, early in June, plenty of Hypermecia 
angustana and Argyresthia pygmcBella, and a fine Ptycholoma Lecheana ; from the 
20th to the end of the month, several Penthina capreana, Tortrix cratcegana, Spilo- 
nota dealhana, Epunda viminalis, and Gelechia populella ; and in the middle of 
July a dozen Semasia populana. The last appearance is Orthosia lota, just out, and 
there are still a lot of pupae, which I expect will produce only Cheimatohia hrumata; 
but this seems a considerable number of species, with a very wide range of appear- 
ance, to be obtained from one lot of sallow shoots. — Id. 

Extraordinary variety of Cynthia cardui. — I beg to send you a description of a 
fine variety of C. cardui, which I had the good fortune to capture on tho 8th 
of August last, on the sand-hills at Wallasey. Fore-wings, base, and inner margin 
yellowish-brown, much paler than in ordinary specimens ; disc yellowish-red, paler 
in the discoidal cell, and quite free from dark markings, except a small blotch on 
the costal nerve in tho cell, and an additional one from the sub-median nerve 
hardly reaching the third inferior nerve : the apical portion of the wing and hind- 
margin nearly normal. 

Hind-wings yellowish-red, paler near the hind-margin. The usual dark 
markings are totally absent, except the marginal blotches, which are normal, and 
the sub-marginal, which, in this specimen, are pyriform. The two nervures at the 
upper margin are streaked with black, and between them is a white streak. Body 
yellowish-brown . 

UricZers^cZe— Fore-wings. Base ashy-white ; centre of the discoidal cell red, 
the remaining portion, bounded by a dark streak, pale ; disc reddish-ochreous, 
inclining to red towards the base. There are no dark markings, except a small 
blotch on the costal nerve in the discoidal cell. Apical portion of the wing and 
hind-margin tawny, with patches of ashy and blackish scales, but the whole much 
suffused, and with no distinct markings. 



230 



I February, 



Hind-wings. Ground colour ashy-white. The only normal markings are 
those at the extreme base and the two blotches at the junction of the nervnres. 
The spaces between the nervnres are more or less suffused with brownish scales. 
The ocelli are distinctly outlined, and several are only indicated. Body ashy-white. 

The specimen is in good condition, and as only very few specimens have mado 
their appearance on our sand-hills this year, I may congratulate myself that tho 
only one which I took should prove so remarkable. — E. L. Eagonot, 130, Conway- 
street, Birkenhead. 

A railway train stopped by caterpillars ! — We think the following extract from 
the Melbourne "Argus" (Australian paper), of October 13th, 1868, {worthy of 
being reprinted here : — " One day last week, the hairy caterpillars that are so 
destructive to barley at a late period of the year were crossing the Sandhurst 
railway in such numbers, a few miles from town, that they stopped a train, not by 
the magnitude of the obstruction, but by rendering it impossible for the engine to 
grip the rails, as the caterpillars were crushed beneath the wheels." We have no 
means of ascertaining the name of this larva, but it probably belongs to the Bomhyces. 
— Editors. 

A Rejoinder to the Rev. T. A. Marshall's Reply on the gender of Acanthosoma. — 
I am much obliged to Mr. Marshall for his answers to some of my questions ; but 
if they prove anything, they prove too much, and they plfice me in this dilemma, 
that if I accept them as satisfactory, I cannot see that our old friend Barma is 
anything but an adjective, and if so, I cannot detect why it is neuter, as Mr. Marshall 
has told us it is. 

The contention is, that Acanthosoma cannot be, but that Earma is, neuter. 
Substitute Harma for Acanthosoma in the demonstration, ante, p. 209, and it stands 
thus : — 

" The subject of this word is a certain group of bugs. This subject is not 
contained in the word Earma, but is understood. Every noun that does not contain 
tho subject, must contain the predicate, or it has no meaning at all.* And if it 
contains only the predicate, it is what grammarians call an adjective. Therefore 
Earma is an adjective. Q. E. D." 

I venture to think that, both here and at page 209, Q. E. D. must be read 
Quod est dubitandum. But if Earma be really an adjective, is it not as feminine as 
Acanthosoma ? 

The same line of argument would prove with equal conclusiveness that redhreast 
and wagtail are adjectives ; though I cannot quite make out whether Mr. Marshall 
considers them to be adjectives, or admits them to rank as substantives, but sub- 
stantives " not grammatical or logical," tainted with " incorrectness." 

As the word " illogical " did not alarm me on the former occasion, the word 
" ungrammatical " does not frighten me now. I care not to inquire whether it bo 
true that redbreast and wagtail " belonged originally to the language of the vulgar 

* Mr. Marshall can scarcely say that ITarma has no meaning at all. He would ncrer hare pro- 
posed to reject llahn's significant Jnna for the meaningless //nrwia. I hare been reminded that (here 
is a genus Harma oi butterflies; which is another ground for retaining Arma.—J. W. D 



1869. J 



231 



and of children, and are mere familiar nicknames." Mr. Marshall admits them to 
be now " sanctioned by usage " — 

— USU8, 

Qnem penes arbitrium est, et jus, et norma loquendi. 

Many familiar, nay many contemptuous nicknames, h ave become honourable 
and hereditary surnames. Whatever the origin of redbreast may have been, it is 
now the recognised vernacular name of a particular species of bird, given as a noun 
substantive in all dictionaries, used as a noun substantive by all writers ; and I 
make bold to proclaim my adhesion to redbreast as a compound noun substantive, 
as grammatically correct, and (if logic has anything to do with the question) as 
logically correct as blackbird. If it be not, will Mr. Marshall favour us with the 
grammatical, logical, and correct name of that which in " the language of the 
vulgar " is called the redbreast ? It seems to me an utterly untenable doctrine 
that the name of every bird is ungrammatical, illogical, or incorrect, if it do not 
contain the subject, bird. I hold thrush to be as good an English substantive as 
blackbird, eagle as good as butcher-bird, swan as good as lyre-bird ; just as I hold 
shark to be as good an English substantive as swordfish, crab as crawfish, moth as 
butterfly. 

But let us leave the redbreast and go to the bluebeard. " We might nickname 
an individual Brazenbeard, having no fear of genders before our eyes. But in 
Latin Ahenobcbrba, -cb, fem., will not do for a man's name. His name, like himself, 
must be masculine, and accordingly we have the adj. Ahenobarbus, taking its gender 
from the real subject, from the man, and not from his beard.'* It is quite true 
that the Romans had a Domitius Ahenobarbus ; it is equally true that they had an 
.^milius Barbula, who was probably " downy " in more senses than one. They 
might equally well have had an -^milius Ahenobarbula or Ahenobarba. I am not 
aware that any one has ever argued, certainly there is nothing in my previous remarks 
to suggest, that in Latin the name of a man could be feminine. Barbula, as the 
name of a Roman Consul, was masculine, as Ahenobarba would have been. There 
was a distinguished man, Q. Fabius Maximus by name, who had a wart on his 
lip, was cautious in war, and possessed a mild temper ; from these peculiarities 
he acquired three surnames or nicknames (I care not which they are called), 
Yerrucosus, warty ; Cunctator, tarrier ; and Ovicula, the lamb. And if a few 
more examples be required of a " slovenly idiom" which is said to be "impossible 
in Latin," take L. Pontius Aquila, Cn. Com. Scipio Asina, L. Calpumius Bestia, 
Martianus Felix Capella, P. Cornelius Dolabella, P. Com. Lentulus Sura, and two 
or three Emperors, such as C. Csesar Caligula, M. Aur, Ant. Ca/racalla, and Serv. 
Sulpicius Galba. The itaHcized feminine nouns substantive, when applied as names 
of men, were, of course, masculine. 

The next sentence of Mr. Marshall's reply, that " words containing only some 
attribute of the subject must in Greek and Latin be adjectives, agreeing in gender 
with their real subject, and with nothing else," simply begs the question at issue 
between us. (It will be observed that there are now two subjects — the real 
SUBJECT, and the graphic or poetic subject.) I have never disputed " that golden 
rule of our youth, that an adjective agrees with its substantive, &c.," or urged that 
this rule " is to be evaded in zoological names." If Acanthosoma be an adjective, 



232 



[February, 



by all means make it agreo with its enbstantivo. But the question is this, " Is 
Acanthosoma an adjective, or a substantive ?" Is sotna the subject, or only part of 
the predicate ? 

But though the name of an individual of the male sex must necessarily be 
masculine, what ore wo to do when we have to coin a name — not for a single 
individual of one sex — but for a collection of individuals, containing males and 
females, if not neuters also ? The name of a group of bugs, unless it contain the 
real subject, hug, must, according to Mr. Marshall, be an adjective, agreeing in 
gender with that real subject. But there are real bugs male, and real bugs female. 
Are we to call the male bug Acanthosomus verrucosus, and the female Acanthosoma 
verrucosa ? Mr. Marshall can scarcely mean this. We must then have some name 
for the insect which is independent of the sex or gender of the individual. Are we 
to understand Coris or Cimcx, according as the name we give to the genus is 
derived from the Greek or the Latin ? in other words, are we bound to make the 
name of every genus of bugs of the masculine gender ? This is a new principle of 
nomenclature, quite at variance with the practice hitherto. And if not Coris or 
Cimex, what is the imaginary substantive, meaning hug, that is " understood, or 
supposed to be understood ?" The Greek Coris, which Mr. Marshall tells us is 
masculine,* and the Latin Cimex, which also is usually masculine, though some- 
times made feminine, were used collectively to include all bugs, females as well as 
males. We are guilty of no greater violence when we call a genus of bugs, including 
both sexes, by a masculine name, or when we call another genus by a feminine 
name. 

Are we to abandon the practice of taking for names of genera the names of 
persons and places, which I have always imagined to be nouns substantive ? Or do 
Cercyon,\ Lucanus, RIkbIus, Euterpe, and Europa — for want of the subject, beetle — or 
Harpalyce and Phigalia — for want of the subject, moth — become adjectives, when 
taken for the names of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera respectively ? 

Mr. Marshall refers to " Lonchosternus, Dasystema, Bactylostemum ; Barynotus, 
Aloconota, Cyclonotum ; Stylosomus, Mgosoma ; Amblystoraus, Sericostoma ; Chas- 
matopterus, Dictyoptera, Liopterum. Those in italics are, according to Mr. Dunning, 
substantives neuter, because Sternon, Noton, Soma, Stoma, and Pteron, are neuter. J 
Wliat shall we say, then, for the others ? They must be equally neuter, notwith- 
standing their terminations, or what becomes of the rule of the * German illiiminato ?' 
Or if some of the above words are substantives, and some not, will Mr. Dunning 
kindly point out which is which, and why ?" The last question ought to have run 
thus : — " If some of the above words are neuter^ and some not, will Mr. Dunning 
kindly point out which is which, and why ?" The sequel will answer the question 
in both forms. 



* Yet there is some authority for the feminine gender ; so that, after all, Corimelana is not quite 
80 black as she has been painted. — J. W. D. 

t By the way, why do Coleopterists make Cercyon neuter? Cercyon was the son of somebixly, and 
was ((lain by .somebody else ; after the exploit of the latter somebody, the corpse of the robber, perhaps, 
ha<l little masculine vigour left, but this is scarcely sufficient ground for making the genus Cercyon 
iieuter,— J. W. D. 

[This is corrected in Qemminger and Harold's Catalogue. — Eds ] 

X I presume Mr. Marshall will agree with me that Dactylottemum, Cyclonotum , and Lioptcrum, 
are neuter, whatever may be the gender of ^Effotoma and atricostoma.—J. W. D. 



1869.1 



233 



But before doing that of which I ought to sco the impracticability," may I 
inquire, who is the " German illuminato," and where and how has he enunciated 
his " rule ?" So far as my argument is concerned, it by no means follows that 
because Soma is neuter, therefore Stylosomus is neuter ; or that because Pteron ia 
neuter, therefore Dictycyptera is neuter. I have never argued that every compound 
name, into the latter member of which there enters some modification of, or some 
word formed from, a neuter noun substantive, must necessarily be neuter, notwith- 
standing its termination. On the contrary, I say that (whether they be substantives 
or adjectives) Lonchostemus, Barynotus, Stylosomus, Amblystomus, and Chasma- 
topterus, are masculine ; Dasystema, Aloconota, and Dictyoptera, are feminine ; 
and Dactylosternum, Cyclonotum, and Liopterum, are neuter. And the reason why ? 
Because Latin nouns ending in -us are (as a rule, with few exceptions) masculine ; 
Latin nouns ending in -a are (as a rule, but with exceptions) feminine j and Latin 
nouns ending in -um (at this moment I do not remember an exception) are neuter. 

But I further say that Mgosoma and Sericostoma may be either neuter or 
feminine, according as we regard them as substantives or adjectives. The Graeco- 
Latin neuter substantive denoting " spine-lody," and the feminine gender of a 
Gra3Co-Latin adjective denoting " spine-hodied" are identical in form ; and Acantho- 
soma may be either one or the other. But neither Acantlwsomus nor Acanthosomum, 
can be " spine-hody." 

Keverting to the argument that no name of any group of bugs can be a noun 
substantive unless the name contains the subject, hug, let me ask, how comes " bug" 
to be a substantive ? The bugs are only a group of insects. By parity of reasonings 
no name of any group of insects can be a noun substantive unless the name contains 
the subject, insect. Ergo, "bug" is not a substantive! Similarly "insect,'' 
" bird," " fish," man," " animal," are not nouns substantive ! ! And I suppose we 
should ultimately conclude that there is not such a thing as a noun substantive 
at all ! ! ! 

If I were not afraid of making Mr. Marshall's hair stand permanently on end, I 
would suggest that the name of every genus is a noun substantive. I maintain that 
a naturalist who has to name a new genus is at liberty to take any one or more 
Greek word or words, or any one or more Latin word or words, and to apply to the 
genus such one word or a compound of such two or more words formed by analogy 
with the compound formations of the Greeks and Romans respectively ; that the 
gender of the generic name is independent of the gender of the Greek or Latin 
word for hug, hird, or whatever the group may be ; that, whether the word taken or 
coined was originally a substantive or an adjective, or a compound of each, from the 
time of its assumption as the name of the genus, it becomes and is a collective noun 
substantive. It used to be said that " the name of whatever we can think of or 
speak about is a noun substantive ;" whilst an adjective is a word added to a sub- 
stantive to signify some quality or circumstance thereof. I think of a group of 
bugs, and I wish to speak about that group ; I give it a name ; the group com- 
prises individuals of two genders j the name of the group can have but one gender ; 
the gender of the name must be independent of the gender of the group, which has 
no one gender, independent of the gender of the individuals forming the group^ 
which are of two genders ; the name is a noun substantive, and has a gender of 
its own. 



234 



[February 



I apprehend that all names of things were originally derived from eomo 
attribute of the things' In the inception of language, names of qualities would 
naturally precede the names of things ; nouns adjective would precede nouns 
substantive. When a word denoting some particular quality was once applied to a 
particular thing, in process of time the reason for the original application was lost 
sight of, nevertheless the word adhered to the thing, and became the name of the 
thing. The adjective became a substantive. In many cases, not only the reason 
for, but the very meaning of, the name, is lost, so that we feel some difficulty in 
grasping the notion that the now unmeaning name must, at some time or other, 
have been a significant word. 

The process of the formation of new substantives in the manner above indicated 
is continually going on amongst us, and may be detected by comparing the usage 
of the same word at different epochs. Take, for instance, the Latin hidens, originally 
an adjective, applicable to any animal possessing a certain formation of teeth ; aa 
time wore on, it came to be confined to the sheep ; with the older writers it was 
an epithet, in later days it became a substantive, a synonym of ovis. Take, again, 
denarius, originally an adjective " containing ton ;" then nummus denarius, the 
coin containing ten asses ; soon nummus was dropped, denarius became the snb- 
etantive name of the coin, and was retained, though the coin was afterwards made 
to contain eighteen asses. The Greek entoma {zoa, understood), and the Latin 
insecta (anvmaliay understood) were no doubt adjectives at first ; but afterwards 
became recognised as, and were deemed to be, substantives. Similarly the names 
of the subdivisions of Entoma or Insecta are nouns substantive, and, moreover, 
substantives of difierent genders ; thus — as groups of Entoma, n., we have Oistros 
and Coris, m., Melissa and Myia, f. ; and as groups of Insecta, n., we have the 
corresponding (EsUnis and Cimex, m., Apis and Musca, f. 

By whatever process " bug," the name of a group of insects (not containing 
the subject, insect), became a noun substantive, by the same process may " spine- 
body," the name of a gi'oup of bugs (not containing the subject, hug), become a 
noun substantive. In whatever way or in whatever sense Coris and Cimex are 
substantives, in the same way and in the same sense (I submit) may Acantliosoma 
be a substantive. 

I am therefore still unable to agree that Acanthosoma must be an adjective. 
But, consistently with the views here propounded, it is still open to me to agree 
with Mr. Marshall that Acanthosoma should be treated as feminine. — J. W. Dunning, 
24, Old Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, 11th January, 1869. 

A Further Reply to Mr. Ihmning^s Renuxrks on the Gender of Acanthosoma, Sfc — 
There are a few other points in Mr. Dunning' s ingenious paper upon which I should 
like to speak, if it can be done within moderate compass. I will endeavour to con- 
fine myself to such of his propositions as do not depend upon the principles which 
I last stated, although it may hardly be possible altogether to keep within these 
limits. 

1. Mr. Dunning says (at p. 283) :— " So far as I am aware, the practice of 
making genera which end in -toma, -oma, or -soma, neuter, has been applied only 
in cases where the name of the genus is a compound of two Greek words of which 



1869.3 



235 



the latter is a noun substantive of neuter gender ; as Ort}io- stoma ^ Diplo'doma, 
Aca/nthosoDia." 

My original objection was meant to include a class of words like Phanerotoma 
dentatnm, Pentatoma bipuQCtatum, nigricorno, vernalc, Tapinoma erraticum, and 
so forth. The list could easily be extended, but these examples will suffice. It is 
plain that Phanerotoma, Pentatoma, &c., cannot be excused upon the ground of 
their ending with a neuter substantive, and consequently that their adjectives are 
made neuter at the expense of the ordinaiy rules of gender. 

2. " Is thei'e any reason why a compound noun substantive may not be taken 
|br the name of a genus, when a simple noun substantive may ? If Harma will 
do, why not Chalcarma ? If Phasma, why not Neophasma ?" — I see no objection 
to either word. 

It appears that all zoological names are capable of being referred to one or 
other of the two following classes. 

A. SUBSTANTIVES, which may be, as to their form, either simple or compound j 
and as to their meaning, either literal or figurative. Ex. gr. 
a. Simple or compound substantives taken literally : — 

Ursus Bear. Tragelaphus Goat-deer. 

Cynomyia Dog-fly. Psammosaurus Sand-hzard. 

Haliaetus Sea-eagle. Lampyris Glow-worm. 

h. Simple or compound substantives taken figuratively : — 



Scymnus a whelp. 

Sphaeridium a little ball. 

Mormolyce a hobgoblin. 

Phasma an apparition. 

Neophasma a new Phasraa. 

Harma a chariot . 

Chalcharma a brazen chariot. 



Ctenidium little comb. 

Micrornix little bird. 

Helluo glutton. 

Nautilus sailor. 

Machaon ^ 

Artaxerxes > ...proper names. 
Feronia J 

B. ADJECTIVES, which express only some attribute of their subject (i. e. the 
creature designated) and never the whole of the subject, — which if they did, they 
would cease to be adjectives. Ex. gr. 

Atomogaster Without abdominal incisions. 

Endocephalus Having the head turned inwards. 

Platycephala Broad-headed. 

Lepidoptera Having scaly wings. 

Quadrumana Four-handed. 

Tetratoma Quadripartite. 

Otiorhynchus With an auriculated rostrum. 

HyjKjphloeus Living under bark. 

Haplocnemus Having the tibiae simple. 

Epilachna Coated with down. 

Aphanogmus Indistinctly sulcate. 

Polyphylla With multifoliate (antennae). 

Acanthosoma Having a spiny body. 

Trigonaspis Having a triangular scutellum. 

Chasmatopterus With gaping elytra. 

Lasioptera With hairy wings. 

Liopterum With glabrous wings. 

Uropteryx Having caudated wings. 



23G 



IPebruary, 



Tho principles upon wliich tbo interpretation of such words depends belongs 
to Logic and not to grammar. Some of them may grammatically be taken either 
for substantives or adjectives, as Trigonaspis. But is is plain that the author here 
meant to refer to the triangular scutelhim which is an attribute of the insect. 
Hence the word is to be taken as an adjective. To call such an insect a triangular 
shield, would be far fetched, and inappropriate. Similarly if there bo any genus 
named Chalchanna (better than Chalcarma), it must be taken as a substantia 
used metaphorically, " Brazen-chariot," — which includes the whole subject. For 
to speak of an insect as having a hrazen chariot, or brazen- charioted, like one of 
Homer's heroes, verges upon absurdity. And herein fails Mr. Dunning's analogy 
between Chalcharma and Acanthosoma, both formed alike, grammatically ; that 
logically, tho former contains the subject by a metaphor, while the latter does not, 
i. e. it is an adjective. 

3. Mr. Dunning says (p. 184) 

[If Micrornix had been applied to a genus of birds, Mr. Marshall's 
Dipsocoris argument would have run thus : — " Micrornix = little-bird, a 
compound noun substantive, which, therefore, must have some gender or 
other ; it takes its gender from the subject (bird) ; the word involves both 
subject and predicate ; the subject is a bird, whereof it is predicated that 
it is little." If, iiistead of a genus of birds, the name were given to a 
genus of moths — as, in fact, the name Omix has been — then, as a moth is 
not a bird, the argument would be that " in Micrornix the subject is not 
contained, but understood ; of this subject it is predicated that it is like 
a little bird ; bird is not the subject, but part of the predicate." The 
result is, that as the name of a bird Micrornix is a substantive, with a 
gender of its own — as the name of a moth, Micrornix is an adjective, 
depending for its gender on some imaginary substantive understood !] 

I am afraid that the above passage involves a fallacy, which leads in one case 
to a wrong conclusion. The error lies in the statement that if Micrornix be used 
as the name of a moth, then, because a moth is not a bird, Micrornix does not 
contain the subject, i. e. is not a substantive. The fact is that tho word Micrornix, 
whether used of a bird or a moth, contains the subject equally, — in the former case 
literally, and in the latter metaphorically. See above, paragraph 2, A. b. I submit 
then that wo have in the above passage an ingenious mixture of two syllogisms, in 
each of which orntic bears a diflferent sense; (I) Literally, PircZ; and (2) Meta- 
phorically, Moth. Exhibiting these syllogisms separately, as follows, we obtain for 
each a just conclusion : — 



Micrornix (Bird) is a substantive. 

Every substantive contains its own 
subject. 

Therefore Micrornix contains its own 
subject, 

viz. Bird. 



Micrornix (Moth) is a substantive. 

Every substantive contains its own 
subject. 

Therefore Micrornix contains its own 
subject, 

viz. Moth. 



The form Micromis would be preferable, as omix is only a dialectic variation, 
and comparatively unusual. 

4. — Acanthothorax and Uropteryx are adjectives, whoso gender, as remarked by 
Mr. Dunning, is not shewn by their termination. Tho nomenclator in this case 



1869.] 



237 



would have to bo guided by liia own good taste, and if he felt himself at a loss, ho 
might remember a precept, devised to meet a similar difficulty, viz., Tliat the 
masculine gender is more worthy than the feminine, &c., &c. This would be my 
argument for making the names masculine. For making them feminine or neuter 
I should not be able to give any reason. 

5. As to the word Harma, chariot, — I adopted the reading because " chariot " 
is an apt similitude for the form of tho insect. The only meanings of Arma are 
(1) A medical term for patient's food, and (2) Union of the sexes. Neither of these 
significations are likely to have been in the author's mind. The Latin word, 
meaning " weapons," is still less reasonable, on account of its being plural. 

6. If there were an Acanthosoma which affected the ground ivy, I should, as 
Mr. Dunning rightly infers, make its gender to be Acanthosomos Glechomatis. 

7. I am unable to propose any remedy for Chinese and other unclassical names 
generally current, or for badly-constructed words like Derejpliysia. It would require 
a much higher authority than mine to procure their rejection, or probably the con- 
current authority of some of the great " head-centres " of entomology. But if by 
calling attention to them I could be the humble instrument of checking the forma- 
tion of such names for the future, I should consider that I had effected a good 
thing. 

8. Mr. Dunning quotes the word HiiJpojpotamiis as a case in point, subversive 
of the rules for compound terms which I brought forward. I need hardly say that 
these rules are not of my invention, but are to be found in many gi'ammatical 
works, and apply to languages generally, as being essential to the process of human 
thought. Hvppopotamtis means Horse-River and not River-Horsc. It is an incorrect 
compound, used only by Strabo and Galen, and must have sounded strangely to 
Greek ears. Better writers called the animal Hippos potamios. The wart-hog of 
South Africa in the Regent's Park probably does not know that he stands ticketed 
as a River (Choeropotamus) , instead of a porcine animal. Nevertheless we shall 
continue to speak of the Hippopotamus without much self-reproach, and may throw 
the blame upon the blundering ancients, who ought to have known better. 

9. Mr. Dunning asks the question (p. L86) whether " Rhinoceros is to be turned 
into Ceratorhinus ? " For no reason that I can see. Both words are correct, and 
are equivalent terms, differing only in their arrangement of the parts of the 
predicate. 

E/itnoceros=IIaving a nasal horn. 

Cerator7itmts=flaving a horned nose. 
Like Bjlnnoc&ros is Monoceros, having a single horn, and Diceros having two horns. 
In a Greek author we have Diceros Selene, the two-horned Moon. Such words are 
of course adjectives, and, like our names of genera, only become substantives 
conventionally. 

10. As to the difference between such names as Acetropis, Oonianotus^ &c., 
and the classical forms not compounded with an o, (Edipus, Calliope, &c. The 
subject is much too extensive to be entered upon here, and is of little interest to 
entomologists. They will seldom be wrong in compounding names from Greek 
nouns by the intervention of the letter o, elided before a vowel. Those who wish 



238 



[February 



to know more must consult Greek grammars, and Donaldson's New Cratylus, 
])p. 491 — 529, where the various ezceptioDB are fully treated. Lastly, the dis- 
tinction of the endings -odes and -o'ides (not oides) is unimportant, as pointed out 
by Mr. Dunning. The former termination is (in Greek) only a contraction of the 
latter. The canon mentioned by mo was laid down by Burmeister, I believe, but 
have not the book at hand. I shall bo glad to leave the word ^liodes as it stands^ 
I may take this opportunity of objecting to another class of words, scattered 
sparingly through entomological works, viz., formicceformis, rrmscceformis, tipulcn- 
formis, for formiciformis, musciformis, and ti/pidiformis. I have also noticed athalics- 
j)erda for athaliiperda. — T. A. Marshall, Barnstaple, January, 1869. 

Entomological Socikty of London, 4th January, 1869. H. W. Bates, Esq., 
F.Z.S., President, In the Chair. 

W. F. Kirby, Esq., of the Royal Dublin Society (formerly a subscriber), and 
E. Holdsworth, Esq., of Shanghai, were elected Members. 

Mr, Bond exhibited examples of Vanessa urticce of very small size ; he had 
bred a large number from one brood of larvae during 1868, and attributed the 
diminutivenesB of the imago to rapid development owing to the hot season. He 
also exhibited varieties of Apatu/ra Iris and Pamphila comma. 

Mr. Meek exhibited two beautiful specimens of Dianthoecia Barrettiiy captured 
by Mr. C. S. Gregson, in Ireland. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited an example of Cramhus myellus, captured by his 
cousin, Mr. Adam Boyd, near Blair Athol. 

Mr. Home, late judge in N. W. India (present as a visitor) exhibited a fine 
series of the nests of many species of Indian bees and wasps, accompanied by 
specimens of the insects forming them, and by drawings made from the fresh 
nests. Among them were nests formed in the hollow interior of the handle of an 
earthenware vase, in the interior of the hay-nest of a mouse, attached to a signet- 
ring, &c., &c. Mr. Home remarked on the abundance of these insects in India, 
and on the rapidity with which they seized upon available positions for nest-building, 
such as the interior of door-locks, &c. 

Professor Westwood said that apropos of the bees-nest in the interior of a 
mouse-nest, he had observed a contrary instance in his own bee-hives, a mouse 
liaving chosen one of them as a place wherein to build its nest ; apparently killing 
the bees, but devouring only their heads. 

Mr. Eaton sent a note on the structure of the ovipositor, bearing upon the 
writings of Dr. Packard, M. Lacaze-Duthiers, and his own, on that subject. 

]\Ir. F. Smith read a paper upon the affinities of SibyUina, an anomalous 
Hymenopterous genus described recently by Professor Westwood. Mr. Smith 
combated Prof. Westwood's suggestion that the genus pertained to the Vespida?, 
and was inclined to refer it to the Ichneumonidce, as having some affinity with 
Anomalon, &c. Prof. Westwood remarked that Mr. Cresson had recently described 
a genus which he believed to bo identical with SibylUna,&iid also referred it to the 
Ichneumonida- 

Professor Westwood exhibited drawings of various anomalous forms in Coleop- 
tera, and of an Ichneumon, the larva of which was an external parasite on a spider. 
^Ir. E. Saunders read " Descriptions of nine new species of Buprestida:.'^ 



1869.] 



239 



ON A NEUROPTEROUS INSECT FROM N. W. INDIA, BELONGING TO 
THE GENUS DILAR. 

BY R. McLACHLAN, F.L.S. 

The species of the singular genus Dilar are apparently extremely 
rare, and until recently I had never seen a representative of that 
genus, and do not think that any existed in this country, either in 
private or public collections. Up to the present time five species 
have been described. 1. D. nevadensis, Eambur, from the Sierra 
Nevada in the South of Spain (the typical species) ; 2. D. meridional^, 
Hagen, from the same locality (unique) ; 3. D. turcicus, Hagen, from 
Armenia and Syria ; 4. D. partheiiopcBus, Costa, from Naples, perhaps 
identical with No. 3 ; 5. D. Nietneri, Hagen, from Ceylon {vide Hagen 
in Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1866, p. 291 et seq.). Within the last few weeks 
I have found another species, from North-West India, in a collection 
made by Mr. Horne, but only represented by males. All the species 
are much alike, differing chiefly in the formation of the anal parts, a 
character not easy to discriminate in dry specimens. 

The males of Dilar, which at first sight look much like species of 
Hemerohius, are especially remarkable for longly pectinate antennae, 
which are found elsewhere in Neuroptera only in some species of 
Chauliodes* 

Mr. Home's insect I describe as follows : — 

DiLAB HOENEI, n. sp. 

Fusco-castaneus, abdomine pilis longis pallide-Jlavis vestito. An" 
ienncB griseo-fusccB, plus minus ^^-articulatce ; articuUs 4 — 21 singulatim 
processu elongato instructis. Alee anticce albido-grisece, griseo confertim 
punctatcevel reticulates ; punctis duohus discalihus {quorum unumin medio, 
alterum basin versus situm) punctisque circum marginem apicalem, satura- 
tioribus : posticce punctis prceter disco-medianum fere obsoletis. Pedes 
Jlavi, pilis longis concoloribus vestiti. Abdomen fuscum ; valvis analibus 
jimbriatis,flavis. Long. corp. 2'"; exp. alar. 11"'. 

Kead castaneous, sometimes slightly suffused with blackish ; a 
large rounded tubercle on each side of the middle, and the raised hinder 
margin, yellowish with yellow hairs ; face fuscous, a deep and broad 
transverse sulcus before the clypeus ; mandibles prominent, yellow, 
produced into an acute piceous point. Antennce grey, with short 
greyish-yellow pubescence; about 27-jointed; basal joint fuscous; 
third joint with a short tooth, the 4th to the 21st, each with a long 



* Euptilon, which is foundtd on a figure in Drury, and is represented with pectinate antennae, is 
most probably mythical.— R. McL. 



240 



[M»rch, 



flexible process, twice longer than tlie individual joint. Meso- and 
meta-thorax usually, but not always, with tbe surface of tbe lobes 
somewhat blackish. 

Wings greyish-white : anterior wings with very numerous short 
transversely-elongate spots, which are more or less confluent ; in the 
middle of the disc is a larj^er and darker spot, which bears in its centre 
a horny blackish dot most visible on the under-side ; towards the base 
is another similar but smaller spot, and there are also larger and darker 
spots round the apical margin ; neuratiou yellowish, the veins and 
margins shortly fringed with yellow : posterior wings with the darker 
spots almost obsolete, more evident in the apical portion ; the pteros- 
tigmatical region yellowish-grey ; a vestige of the median dark spot 
with horny centre, as in the fore-wings; the fringe of the inner margin 
much longer, yellow. 

Legs pale lemon-yellow, with long yellow pubescence \ the knees 
and tarsal articulations marked with blackish. 

Abdomen fuscous, densely clothed with long pale yellow hairs. 
The last dorsal segircut apparently carries in the middle a very small 
yellow lobe : the lateral valves are very large, 
concave, yellow, and with long yellow fringes ; 
in the middle, above, they seem to be joined 
together by a band which leaves an open space 
between it and the margin of the last segment, 
in which space is seen the small lobe men- 
tioned above ; when viewed from above, these 
lobes appear to end in a long curved process, 

Apex of abdomen of Dilar, -i • i • n i ji • j. j 

iiornei, McL., 6 . which IS really only the in-turned upper mar- 
gin J when viewed from beneath, they form two large rounded lobes, 
not connected in the middle : the parts in the cavity formed by these 
lobes are piceous, with two small triangular piceous appendices, the 
tips of which are somewhat mucronate and turned outwards. 

I have seen three males, taken by Mr. Horne. 
20, Limes Grovo North, Lewisham, S.E. ; February, 1869. 




DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PHILH7DRU3. 
BY D. BHARP, M.B. 

I can find no description of the following species of Philhydrus 
(HelocJiares)j which is confounded in our collections with H. lividus. 



18G9.] 



241 



H. PUNCTATUs (nov. spec). 
OllongO'Ovalis, supra fusco-testaceus, capite, palyorurnqxie apicibus 
riigricantihus ; confertim, csqualiter, sat fortiter punctatus. 

Long. 21—21 lin 

Mas, tarsorum unguiculis elongatis. 

I give a diagnosis of H. lividus, in order to show tlie characters 
of the two species. 

H. LiviDUS, Torst. 

Oblongo-ovalis, supra livido-testaceus, palporum apicibus anguste 
nigricantibus ; confertim vix fortiter punctatus, elytrorum apice subtiliter 
par ciusque punctata. Long. 2| — 3 lin. 

Mas, tarsorum unguiculis elongatis. 

H. punctatus, though generally distributed in England, appears to 
be not so common as H. lividus. I have specimens from Whittlesea, 
Mere, Cambridge, London, and the New Forest.* 

Thomhill, Dumfries j \2ih February, 1869. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF LTCJENA MGON. 
BY WILLIAM BUCKLES. 

On the 31st July, 1867, Mr. C. G-. Barrett, then at Haslemere, 
most kindly sent Mr. Hellins and myself some eggs of JEgon, which, b}^ 
an ingenious contrivance, he had induced a $ to deposit on twigs of 
heather. 

Being in doubt as to the proper time for their hatching, I kept 
those I had in an ordinary room for daily inspection until the approach 
of winter. 

On the 23rd February, 1868, Mr. S. Hudson obligingly forwarded 
me three eggs, part of a small batch he had obtained from a $ during 
the previous summer, near Epworth, and with them the welcome intelli- 
gence that he had satisfied himself by experiment that the larvae were 
alive and stirring within the shells, and that he expected them shortly 
to hatch. 

I immediately removed all I had to a cooler place than they had 
previously been in, so as to retard their progress until something could 
be learned about the proper food. 

Considering the small size of this butterfly, the egg is rather large 

* It is curiouo to ohserve how all our species of Philhydrus run in pairs, v'\z.,niaritimug, testaceus ; 
meUinoetyhnlus, riiz/ricnns ; mnrgintilis, oval is ; itnd I'Vidus and tlie at>ov<;-descrit)e(i insect. Of my 
shorr series ol lividui ahuut o;.e-liitll .ui^wci wt ll to Dr. Sharp's description of punctatui. 1 fancy I 
perceive in them that the eyes and palpi are more bulky than in lividus,— C. K. 



242 



L March, 



in proportion ; it is white in colour, of a circular form, flattened and 
depressed in the centre both above and below, ribbed and beaded 
boldly at the sides, and from thence more finely by degrees to the centre. 

The egg does not change colour, but retains its pure dead-white 
appearance even after the exit of the larva ; a small hole showing like 
a black spot on the side of the shell alone betraying the escape of the 
little creature. 

Mr. Hudson informed me of one of hia larvae being hatched on the 
29th February, which was followed by others on the 3rd March ; and 
all were placed on various little plants from the locality where the 
parent butterfly had been taken, but from want of the right food, and 
partly by accidents, they were starved and lost. 

On the 28th February Mr. Hellins reported that one larva had 
hatched, and that it soon after died ; and another on 6th March, which 
was placed on heather, Lotus corniculatuSy and one or two other vetches, 
but with no success. On the 18th March two of my eggs hatched, and 
the larvae were placed with a variety of food, but they died without 
eating, and others soon followed in the same way, with Mr. Hellins 
and myself. However, shortly after, Mr. Hellins acquainted me with 
the fact of his having seen one distinctly eat a tiny hole in the leaflet 
of a small vetch, Ervum tetraspermum, growing in his garden, and he 
sent me one of the plants, and upon this, for some days, the young 
larva) as they were hatched were placed ; but instead of eating they 
wandered away or fell off" into the earth below, where it was impossible 
to find them. 

Meanwhile we were not idle in ventilating the subject amongst 
our friends, in what seemed a forlorn hope of obtaining a clue to the 
proper food-plant, when fortunately at this critical juncture, Mr. 
Doubleday kindly gave us the benefit of his excellent memory and 
observation, in recalling the fact of his having seen, twenty years ago, 
in some place, this little butterfly flitting over Oeiiista anglica and 
Ornitliopus perpusillus, and that on the latter he had noticed some 
females alight. 

In the midst of my trouble at losing the young larvae daily, and 
being unable to find the desired Ornithojmsy I fortunately happened to 
mention the subject to Dr. F. B. "White, of Perth, and he with great 
good nature and promptitude despatched me a tin full of the plants. 
These were at once potted and sprinkled with water, the remaining six 
or seven eggs put on them in a sunny window, and in a day or two, by 
aid of a lens, tlie young larvae were soon detected. By the 3rd May 
some small transparent blotches were visible on the leaflets, on which 



1869.] 



243 



they had fed, and from that time all went well : and after Mr. Hudson's 
attention had been directed to Ornitkopus perjpusillus, he satisfied him- 
self that in his locality the butterfly did not occur away from that 
plant ; so it seems there is little doubt of its being the natural food. 

When first hatched the larva is about three-fourths of a line 
long, thick in proportion, of equal bulk and rounded at either end, 
hairy and of a dull bluish-green colour, its powers of locomotion of the 
very feeblest description. 

By May 3rd they had become rather more than a line in length, of 
a drab colour, and hairy like the leaflets on which they were feeding. 
By May 29th they had grown to about a quarter to three-eighths of an 
inch in length, eating not through the leaflets, but only the green 
cuticle : at this time they were of a deep yellowish-grey, and the dorsal 
stripe blackish olive edged with whitish, and a whitish line along the 
lateral ridge above the legs ; the sub-dorsal stripe being triple, i. e., 
two lines of blackish-olive with a whitish-grey one between them. The 
surface generally studded with minute blackish points, each bearing a 
fine short hair. 

By June 11th to 15th they had all assumed their last coats. 

The full-grown larvae is about seven lines long, thick in proportion, 
and of the usual onisciform or Lyccena shape. 

The head small, and retracted when at rest or alarmed, the second 
segment the longest, rounded, and very slightly flattened above ; the 
others as far as the tenth with raised prominences on each side of the 
back, and a dorsal hollow between them ; the sides sloping to the lateral 
ridge ; the ventral surface rather flattened ; the legs all placed well 
underneath. The three last segments without dorsal ridges, and sloping 
gradually to the sides and anal extremity, their sides rather concave, 
a very prominent wart on each side of the twelfth; the segmental 
divisions not observable on these last, but well cut on all the others. 

In colour the larva is now a bright yellow-green, with the dorsal 
stripe blackish-brown edged with whitish from the beginning of the 3rd 
to end of the 10th segment, it is widest on the 3rd and 4th, being on 
them of a rather rounded lozenge form, with a whitish dot near the 
edge on each side ; a dull dark-brown small plate in front of second 
segment, and a broad semi-lunar shaped blotch of same colour a little 
behind and divided in the middle by a fine line of the green ground 
colour. The dorsal stripe on the eleventh segment becomes broad and 
squarish, but resumes its linear shape on the twelfth and thirteenth. 

The sub-dorsal line is visible from the beginning of the third to the 
end of the eleventh segment as a greenish-yellow line running between 



two green ones darker than the ground colour. At the bottom of the 
sides along the lateral ridge, commencing on the third segment and 
continued round the anal extremity is a whitish line. Between the 
dorsal and sub-dorsal, on segments three to ten, are faintly paler oblique 
lines of yellow-green, viz., one on each segment sloping downwards and 
backwards ; the warts on the twelfth segment are very often suddenly 
projected considerably, and then a circle of fine short hairs is visible 
on their extremities. The surface of the body is also clothed witli 
similar hairs. The head is black, having the base of papillae and a 
streak across over the mouth of buff colour. They had all turned to 
pupae by 24th June, one of them slightly attached to a stem of the 
plant by the anal extremity, and lying, like the others, amongst a few 
loose threads at the very bottom of the stems and partly in the earth. 
The pupa is about five lines long, smooth but without polish, the top 
of the head slightly projecting, the thorax rounded, the abdomen 
plump, curving on the back outwards and backwards towards the tip, 
which is hidden in the larva skin ; the wing-cases prominent and long 
in proportion ; it is of a dull green tint, with a dark brown dorsal 
line of arrow-head marks. 

The butterflies appeared July 5th to 17th. 

Emswortli : Fehruo.ry, 1 869 . 



NOTES ON SOME BRITISH SPECIES OF EUPCECILIA. 
BY CHAS. a. BAEHETT. 

Although my friend Mr. McLachlan, in concluding his valuable 
paper on the genus JEupoecilia, in the Annual for the present year, 
states that the descriptive part is " sufficiently well done in Mr. "Wil- 
kinson's w^ork," I think there is still room for a few words on the 
distinctive characters oi ciliella (rnjiciliana) , suhroseana, and their allies, 
the two new species noticed by Mr. McLachlan especially, because I 
have found that great confusion exists in collections among them, and 
also because, in the case of suhroseana, the localities given, both in that 
work and in the Manual, appear to belong to ciliella and certainly not 
to suhroseana. 

I will therefore endeavour to point out the distinctive characters 
of the four suhroseana, Heydeniana, Degreyana, and ciliella, 

between which the confusion seems principally to exist, and may in the 
first ])laco explain it by the fiict that they all have certain leading 
characters almost alike ; for instance, all four have the upper part of 



1860.] 



245 



the head and thorax very pale ochreous or whitish, the ground colour 
of fore-wings whitish tinged with grey or ochreous, and a fascia rising 
on the inner margin of fore-wings a little before the middle, and crossing 
the wing nearly parallel with the hind margin. Briefly I would de- 
scribe them as follows : — 

Suhroseana, Haw. Fore-wingg broad, costa and hind margin rounded. Gronnd 
colour whitish-ochreous, tinged with reddish beyond the middle, and with the 
entire apical portion reddish-brown. Fascia broad, reddish-brown, not very 
oblique, and barely touching the costa. Apical fringes dull ochreous spotted 
with reddish-brown. Hind-wings dark grey. 

Heydeniana, H-S. Fore-wings broad, costa and hind margin rounded, v/hitish, 
delicately reticulated with grey, and with a faint rosy or pinkish suffusion, 
especially towards the apex. Fascia greyish-brown, slender, slightly inter- 
rupted and bent back near the costa. Apical fringes very sliort, ochreous 
dotted with grey, and with a distinct darh line along their base. Hind-wings 
pale grey. 

In this species I cannot entirely confirm Mr, McLachlan's descrip- 
tion. The rosy suffusion is very distinct in my specimens, but totally 
different from the rich orange-red or reddish-brown of the apical portion 
of the wings of s\Llroseana. 

Ciliella, Hiib. Fore-wings long and narrow, and much pointed at the apex. Costa 
and hind margin nearly straight. Whitisli-ochreous, fascia very oblique, 
parallel indeed with the hind margin, and barely reaching the costa ; yellowish- 
brown or reddish, varying greatly in colour and distinctness. Beyond it, on 
the inner margin, and before the anal angle, is a triangular spot, and along 
the hind margin an indistinct band, both of the same colour as the fascia. 
Apical fringes very long, dull yellow. Hind-wings pale grey. 

Degreyana, McL. Fore-wings long and narrow, margins nearly straight. Greyish- 
white with a pink tinge, which becomes very decided towards the apex. 
Fascia reddish-brown, I'crj/ slender, indistinct beyond the middle of the wing, and 
becoming obsolete before the costa. Apical fringes binght ochreous. Hind- 
wings dark grey. 

Thus suhroseana and Heydeniana have broad wings and rounded 
margins, the former having an orange-red apex and spotted fringes, 
and the latter very short fringes with a dark line at their base. 

Degreyana and ciliellahsiYe long narrow wings with straight margins, 
the former a slender abbreviated fascia and pink apex, and the latter a 
broad entire fascia and marginal band, both parallel with hind margin. 

Finding last spring that the supposed suhroseana which I have 
been in the habit of occasionally taking was likely to prove a novelty 
{Heydeniana), I resolved to work carefully for it, and, if possible, take 
a lot for my friends, this being apparently practicable, since it appears 



24G 



[March 



at intervals all tlie summer, and seems to have three broods. In this, 
however, I was partially disappointed, as pressure of business prevented 
my working more than the first brood to any purpose. The first speci- 
men occurred on May 20th, and was followed by occasional specimens 
till May 30th, when I took two much worn, and after which they dis- 
appeared. Three days afterwards, however, in a damp portion of the 
same wood, I took a lovely specimen of the true suhroseana, and in the 
next fortnight half-a-dozen more. This was most fortunate, as I had 
never taken it before, and, from meeting with the two species so nearly 
together, was able to compare them when fresh, and see how very 
distinct they really are. 

As far as my experience goes, both are truly wood frequenting 
species. Although heath is most abundant around Haslemere, I never 
saw a specimen of Heydeniana among or near it, and cannot, therefore, 
confirm Mr. McLachlan's habitat for this species. 

With reference to the localities given in the Manual for sulroseana 
(and in Wilkinson's Tortrices they are similar), "Ambleside and near 
Airthrey, in healthy places," when we began carefully to examine these 
species, Mr. Stainton, with his invariable kindness, sent me one of his 
Scotch specimens. This I found to be totally distinct from siibroseana, 
but of precisely the /om of ciliella, but much yellower and more sufi'used. 
By the kindness of Dr. White, of Perth, and Mr. Chapman, of Glasgow, 
I have since received specimens taken near Kirkwall and at Dunoon, 
and these specimens form connecting links from this to the ordinary 
English type of ciliella, aud prove conclusively, I think, that these 
localities pertain properly to that species. 

Norwich, February, 1869. 



Scydmariius fimetarius taken near Newcastle-on-Tyne. — I take here, by no means 
unfrequently, and always on boards lying on the edges of hot-beds, an insect which 
accords with the description, by Thomson, Skand. Col. iv, 89, of his Euconnusfime- 
ta'i-ius, and which has been recently added to the British list by Mr. G. R. Crotch, 
but rather doubtingly admitted by Mr. Rye in this year's " Annual." It appears, 
however, to be a good species, and, in addition to the characters pointed out by 
Thomson, has the elytra proportionately narrower than its near ally, hirlicolli$i of 
which a Norfolk example has been kindly furnished mo by Dr. Sharp. — Thos. Jno. 
Bold, Long Benton, Newcastle-on-Tyne, January 26th, 1869. 

[^Ir. Bold refers, I presume, to my remarks with regard to Thomson's apparent 
inconsistency in attnbuting so much specific value to the very moderate difference 
in habitat between S. hirticolUs and S.fiinctoHus, whilst disregarding a more marked 
difference in habitat in the case of Bemhidium ceiieum and biguttatum. In the 



[m.\ 



247 



Norfolk specimen of hirticollis above-mentioned, kindly sent for examination by Mr. 

Bold, I noticed that the joints of the antennae are comparatively longer and thinner 
than in fimetarius ; and Dr. Sharp, who subsequently sent me also a fen hirticollis, 
remarks the same character. He has also taken hirticollis at Weybridge, in moss 
on the banks of a large pool. All my former so-called " hirticollis " are fimetarius. 
The majority came from Suffolk, but the insect occurs at Putney, in an open 
meadow, in vegetable matter, far from any hot-bed. I suspect that the true 
hirticollis will be found to be rare in our collections. Denny has the right species. 
— E. C. R.] 

Notes upon Oemminger and Von Harold's " Catalogus Coleopterorum,^' Tom ii. — 
There are several points in and connected with this work which deserve the special 
1 attention of British Entomologists. Notably, it is worthy of remark that Baron 
I Von Harold, who, during his visit to this country, accurately examined (amongst 
1 other things) the Stephensian Coprophaga, appears to have satisfied himself of the 
I correctness of the view of the Kirbyan and Stephensian species taken by Mr. 
Waterhouse, in his " Catalogue." Accordingly, we find the British names, so 
well known to us, at last recognised to the fullest extent in the most comprehenive 
Continental Catalogue that has ever been published. From internal evidence, 
however, it is tolerably clear that, in some of the groups comprised in the volume 
now under notice, Mr. Waterhouse' s Catalogue has been adopted without reference 
to corrections from time to time made in many of the species contained in that 
work subsequent to its publication ; and certain supposed species, passed over in 
silence by Mr. Waterhouse, are again brought foi-ward as good. This is, perhaps, 
somewhat to be regretted, in spite of the authors' evident intention to give a place 
to every species that is either recognized or has not clearly been accounted for ; 
inasmuch as a little additional trouble (and very much trouble has clearly been 
taken) would probably have enabled the authors to have effectually disposed of 
these pseudo-novelties, and to have thereby made their useful work of still 
greater use. 

The localities given for the different species are at first sight very puzzling, 
purely English authors appearing to have described continental species, and con* 
tinental writers, who never mention English insects, having " Anglia " after their 
references. The authors' scheme seems to be to give after the name of a species 
and its synonyms the widest geographical points of the recorded localities for that 
species, in many cases irrespective of the prima-facie deductions from the names 
of the authors quoted, except in the case of recognized varieties, when the country 
is noted from which each such instance is recorded by the author given. The 
method adopted by De Marseul, attributing to each species, synonym or variety, 
the country in which it is stated by the author quoted to occuf, seems to me the 
more preferable of the two. 

Some grammatical corrections, fearlessly introduced (e. g., Rhantus, IlyohiuSi — 
for Rantus, IVyhius, — &c.), will delight many and doubtless displease others j and 
the addition of their derivations to the generic names can hardly fail to correct 
certain prevalent abuses (e, g., Cercyon, a proper name, should not have neuter but 
masculine termination to its species ; — a correction noted also recently in our 
columns by Mr. Dunning). 



248 



[^larch 



The following specific points also occur to me among the Hydradephaga and 
Pliilhydrida : — 

Our rejected Eydropori, minutissimus, and hisulcatus (bju. of our equally re- 
jected unistriatus) are still credited to us. H. derelictus, Clark, is (as in Schaum) 
attributed to erythrocephalus, Linn. ; but, from an examination of Dr. Power's 
original specimen, I must say I think this assertion of identity cannot be sustained. 
My suggestion (Ent. Ann., 1869) that AgabiLS nigro-osnms, Er., should bo re-named 
Erichsoni, in consequence of the priority of the same Marshamian name, is here 
anticipated. Helophorus dorsaliSy Marsh., is reinstated, but dorsalis, Muls., is 
erroneously attributed to it as a synonym. The latter has long been re-named 
Mulsanti by me, a correction adopted by Mr. Crotch. Ochthehius rufimarginatus, 
St., Er., is (erroneously, as I think) considered a var. of 0. hicolon. Germ. 0. 
Jiihernicus, Curtis, is exalted over the Stephensian punctatus ; — De Marseul and 
Stein separating the tw», and giving the former as a syn. of hifoveolatus, Waltl., a 
species not yet recorded as British, as far as I know. In Wat. Cat. they are given 
as identical, punctatus having the priority. Hydrosna concolor, Waterhouse, Ent. 
Mag., I, 1833, 293, not appearing in the synonymy of Wat. Cat., is given as a dis- 
tinct species. From an examination of Mr. Waterhouse's notes, I find that this 
insect is H. riparia, apparently immature, and accidentally omitted from his Cat. 

Among the Brachelytra I find the following : — 

Ischnoglossa corticalis, Steph., and Mycetoporus hrunneus, Marsh., respectively 
recognised as identical with I. rufo-picea, Ktz., and M. rujicornis, Ktz., are never- 
theless deposed in favour of the two latter names, in spite of the evident priority 
of the former. Aleochara Kirhyi, Steph., erroneously coupled with grisea, Ktz., — 
the aXgarum of Fauvel (really identical with and posterior in date to the former) 
being erroneously given as a distinct species. Oxypoda nigrofusca, Waterhouse, 
seems to me to require re-naming, on account of the prior insect of that name of 
Kirby and Stephens, which, however, appears to be a synonym of 0. longuiscula. 
For the former species I accordingly propose the name Waterhousei.^' Homalota 
planifrons and platycephala, of Waterhouse are erroneously given as distinct species : 
Mr. Waterhouse withdrew the latter name, originally proposed by him for his 
insect, on account of platycephala, Thorns. The wind-bags, Homalota picea, Mot- 
Bchulsky, and Euplectus Easterhrookianv^y Leach, are again inflated. Will no one 
puncture them? Qyrophazna Poweri, Crotch, Stenus annulatus, Crotch, Lathrohium 
Jansoni, Crotch, and Homalium crassicome, Matth., are omitted. Bryoporus Hardyi 
is inserted under the genus MycetoporuSy though J5)T/oportts is recognized as a dis- 
tinct genus. QuMius microps, Grav., Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1847, is accredited to 
Britain. 

Raphirus (Quedius) nigricomis, Holme, Trans. Ent. Soc. iii, pt. 2, 1842, p. 127, 
and Homalium mesomelas, Holme, 1. c, 1841, 128, are respectively given as good 
species. Neither of them is accounted for in the synonymy of Wat. Cat., though 
Philonthus eericeus, Holme, is therein recognized. Tho Quediv^ is stated by Holme 
to be barely 2 lines long, and to be distinguished from all others of tho genus, 
except fuscipes, by its black legs and antenna). Stephens' exponent of it appears 
to be a very small block form of Q.fidgidxis. Tho Homxilium is by Holme himself 
stated to be possibly a highly coloured variety of H. sordidnm, Kirby, Steph., — tho 
typo of which insect appears to be Philorhinum Jtumile^ Er., and which is repre- 
sented by H. iopterum in Steph. Coll. 



18(I».J 



249 



Staphylintis ochropterus, Germar (a synonym of chalceocephalus, Fab.) is attri- 
buted to England. Ocypus sericeus. Marsh., is reco^ized as a synonym of pici- 
pennis, Fab. Philonthus chalceus, Stcph., following Wat. Cat., is made a syn. of 
carhonariusy Gyll., — the carhonarius of Wat. Cat. being succicola, Thorns., here given 
as distinct. To add (how unnecessarily !) to the confusion re Philonthus puncti- 
ventris, Ktz., it would seem that that insect (if distinct from temporalis, Muls., as I 
am informed by M. Fauvel that in the opinion of himself and other continental 
authors, it is not) will require to be re-named, as there is a prior P. punctiventris 
of Kirby and Stephens, which is, however, only a variety of varians. In that case, 
rhcBticus, Stierlin in litt., may stand. Othius punctipennis, Lac, is identified with 
and yet improperly placed before Stephens' Iceviusculus. 

Stenus aceris, Steph., Lac, &c., is given as distinct, though long ago shown by 
Messrs. Waterhouse and Janson (Trans. Ent. Soc, iii, n. s., p. v, xvi, 1855) to be 
synonymous with impressus, Germ., and so recognized by Kraatz ; and this in 
spite of Stephens' suhrugosus and tenuicornis being correctly placed as synonyms of 
impressus in the work now being noticed. Stenus assimilis, Stephens, is given 
as distinct, though it is not recognizable or known to British Entomologists : in 
Steph. Coll. it is represented by his own Irunnipes. Stenus dehilis, Dietrich in 
litt., is attributed to me ; and to it opacus, Waterh. in litt., is added as a synonym, 
evidently in error. S. pallitarsis, Kirby, Notes and Coll., Stephens 111. and Coll., 
is rightly adopted instead of plantaris, Er. S. 8hep(h)erdi, Crotch, is stated to be 
? of ruralis, Er. 8. sulcicollis, Steph., is given as a species, though, accordinjif to 
Waterh. and Jans., 1. c, there is no description, but only a diagnosis of it in Kirby's 
MSS., which is copied with slight alterations by Stephens, whose description in 
Illust. probably refers to small gonymelasy and whose exponent in Coll. is melanopiis. 
Bledius Ruddiiy Steph., is given as a syn. of taurus, instead of hicornis, possibly 
through printer's error in Wat. Cat. Philorhinum subpuhescens, Steph. (111. and 
Coll.), is apparently correctly adopted instead of humile, Er. Homalium ocellatum, 
WoU., and Allardi, Fairm., are considered identical j erroneously, as I think, — having 
examined Mr. WoUaston's type. 

Among the Necropliaga, &c., I note the following : — 

Bryaxis assimilis, Curtis, Brit. Ent., vii, t. 315, Schaum, Zool., 1847, p. 1933, 
and B. nigricomis, Vigors, Zool. Jouru., ii, p. 453, are given as good species, and, 
of course, British. Bryaxis simplex, Waterh., will require to be re-named, on 
account of the prior species from the East Iiulies of that name, described by Mot- 
sclmlsky, Bull. Mosc, 1851. I accordingly propose the name " Waterhousei" for 
it. It is quite a mistake to suppose this insect can possibly be xantlwptera, 
Beichenb. ; and I am surprised that the late Dr. Schaum should have overlooked 
its sexual character. Scydma^ntbs fossiger, and others, Leconte, are not unlikely to 
mislead through their locality, " Cambridge" Amhiguam tellure nova Salamina 
futuram"). 

S. Wetterhali, Gyll., through its syn., quad/ratus, Miill. et Kunze, is attributed to 
Britain. Necrophorus sepulchralis, Charpentier, by its syn., anglicus, Steph. (not in 
Wat. Cat.), is referred to this country, — possibly through an ohrutor, another of its 
synonymies, being in Steph. Man Silpha Grieshachiana, Steph., and recta. Marsh., 
are attributed without doubt to carinata, 111., which, therefore, is to be ranked as a 
British species, — apparently because Stephens has so referred his insect (not in 



250 



[March, 



Wat. Cat. syn.), thongh with a query. C^wleva grandicolliSy &o., of Murray, 
erroneously attributed as varieties to chrysomeloides ; most likely through a 
misunderstanding of the remarks of that author, who says there are forms 
of chrysomeloides corresponding with the type as he (erroneously) considers 
grandicollis, &c., to correspond with tristis. C. Kirbyi (roUmdicollis) is again sunk 
as a var. of tristis. C.frater, Newman, Ent. Mag., 1, 1853, 507 (not in Wat. Cat.), 
is given as a good species. This, and C. soror and nuhifer of Newman, 1. c, are 
only incidentally mentioned in Murray's introductory remarks, wherein he states 
that he has not seen types of them, but that Mr. Little had specimens of soror and 
nuhifer, named by Stephens, which were respectively to be referred to C. nigricans 
and C. velox. Apparently in accordance with this inconclusive identification, 
C. soror and nuhifer are here placed as synonyms of the latter two species. . C. frater^ 
from the hopeless description, would seem possibly to be either small nigricans or 
coraciniLS. It is likened by its describer to C. fornicatus, — a name which I cannot 
find in Murray or Wat. Cat,, but which, I presume, signifies C. nigricans, Spence. 
All three of Mr. Newman's species are stated to have been taken at HaHfax, and 
to be in the Cabinet of Mr. Davis. 

Anisotoma vittata, Curtis, Ann. Nat. Hist., v, 1840, 276, not being in syn. of 
Wat. Cat., is given as a good British species. I presume it is A. litura, Steph. 
Colenis latifrons, Curtis, 1. c, also given as a good species, is C. dentipes, teste Wat, 
Cat. Liodes axillaris, Steph., is stated to be a variety of L. castaneus (an insect 
not known to occur in Britain until late years), but is <J humeralis. Agathidium 
convexum. Sharp, is placed as a synonym of glohosum, Muls. et Key. Clamhus 
coccinelloides and nitidus, Steph., 111. Brit. Ent., ii and v, not in syn. of Wat. Cat., " 
are given as good species ; and Ptilium minutum, Steph., 1. c. iii, 61, is in the 
same rank. 

Finding so many note-worthy subjects in this volume, I propose to look 
through the first vol. in like manner, and will publish the results of my exami- 
nation.— E. C. RYt, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W. 

Note on Saprinus fGnatlioncus) punctulatus, Thorns. — Among some insects 
Bent to me for examination by Mr. Jos. Chappell of Manchester, I find a specimen 
of a Saprimis (taken at Lytham) which has raised in my mind a certain amount of 
doubt as to there being sufficient specific distinction between S. punctulatus 
(already recorded as British, from the London district, Ent. Ann., 1867), and 
rotundattis, Thomson's chief characters for his punctulatus, as compared with the 
latter, appear to be its smaller size (L lin. as against IJ lin.) and lighter antenuce, 
legs, and hinder parts of the elytra, which are more sparingly punctured, and have 
no sutural stria. Now Mr. Chappell's insect is quite 1^ lin. long (my London* 
district specimens averaging 1 line only), has the antennce, legs, and hinder part 
of elytra darker, and the punctuation of the elytra closer (being quite confluent 
behind) than in my above-mentioned smaller examples, — so far agreeing with the 
differential characters for rotundatus. But its sutural stria is so very short that it 
may bo considered as absent, for it requires a " Coddiugton " to show that it is 
represented by the confluence of three basal punctures only. Now, in the much 
smaller London examples above alluded to (all of whicli have lighter legs and apox 
to elytra, and less closely punctured elytra), the sutural stria varies considerably, 



1869.] 



251 



being in Bomo as obsolete as in the above-mentioned larger insect, and in othera 
(though always abbreviated) very well marked and distinct. It seems to me, 
therefore, that Gyllenhal was probably right in ascribing the insect characterized 
by him as " longe minor, elytrorum apice pedihusque piceis " as a variety of I'o- 
tundatus. He evidently knew both forms; and, referring to the striae in his 
diagnosis including both, says " suturali nulla." Thomson is, curiously enough, 
quite silent as to Gyllenhal's note on the smaller form. Yet for rotundatus he 
quotes him (converting the " suturali nulla " into " suturali ahhreviatd") , and also 
quotes Erichson, who by the sizes given (1 — 1^ lin.) clearly includes both forms, 
and who says in his diagnosis " stria suturali ohsoleta/* and in his description " der 
Nathstreif fehlt gewonlich ganz, hochstens ist hinter der Mitte eine geringe Spur vor- 
Jianden." After seeing Mr. Chappell's insect, I am inclined to think Gyllenhal and 
Erichson more likely to be right in ascribing considerable variations to rotundatus 
than Thomson {more suo) in splitting it into two species. — Id. 

Note on Neuronia clathrata in England. — I have two specimens of this caddis- 
fly, captured many miles from Mr. Chappell's locality, but still in Staffordshire. I 
thought at the time that they pertained to the above species ; and the illustration 
in the last "Annual" places the matter beyond a doubt. They were taken on a 
" moss " where there is scarcely a rill of running water and no pool, but it is never- 
theless very wet. — E. Brown, Burton-on-Trent, 7th February, 1869 

Note on British examples of Chrysopa tenella, Schneider, — On re-arrranging my 
collection of Neuroptera-Planipennia according to Mr. McLachlan's lately published 
"Monograph" of the British species of that group, I found that four specimens of 
Chrysopa which I had labelled as tenella, Schneider, did not appear to be referable 
to any of the species described by him. I therefore submitted them to him for his 
opinion, and he pronounces them to.be truly that species. Three of the examples 
have been in my possession under that name since 1862, having been captured by 
myself, in the neighbourhood of Hampstead, in June and July of that year ; 
and a record of their capture wiU be found in the " Zoologist," at p. 8311 (1862). — 
Percy 0. Woemald, 35, Bolton Koad, St. John's Wood, 1st February, 1869. 

[I had overlooked Mr. Wormald's record of this species. A short description 
of the species is to be found in Dr. Hagen's Synopsis in the " Annual " for 1858, p. 
22 J where it is noticed as British on the authority of *' a doubtful specimen in the 
collection of the British Museum," which I have been unable to find. It is the 
smallest native species. — R. McLachlan.] 

Capture in England of the true Hypermecia augustana of Hiibner ; and correction 
of synonymy. — In August, 1866, I took one specimen of a Tortrix, which in July of 
the following year I sent to Mr. Doubleday, for his opinion upon it. He kindly 
informed me in a letter dated July 4th that " he believed it was the true H. 
augustana of Hiibner, of which he did not possess a specimen ; he had, however, 
carefully compared it with Herrich Schaffer's figure, with which it agreed very 
■well.'* In a second letter, dated July 9th, he adds, " The species which has been 



252 



[March, 



called augustana in this country is the exccecana of Herrich Schaffer, and probably 
the cruciana of Linnaeus." The discovery of the true H. augustana in this country 
therefore adds another species to our lists, where the two should bow stand as in 
Dr. Staudinger's Catalogue. 

" No. 1037. Cruciana, Linn. Exccecana, H. S. Viminana, Gu. 
No. 1038. Augustana, H. S. 205. H. S. 262." 

In the hope of re-visiting the spot where I took my specimen and finding more, 
I have, up to the present, omitted to mention the circumstance, but was reminded 
of it by receiving a copy of Dr. Herrich Schafier's work this morning from Mr. Van 
Voorst, which enabled me to compare the specimen with his figure 262, pi. 51. 

I took the insect at High Force, near Middleton Teesdale, in the county of 
Durham, in August, 1866. It seems very distinct from the species which has been 
hitherto accepted as H. augustana. — Thomas de Grey, Merton Hall, Thetford, 3rd 
February, 1869. 

Another Xylina Zinchenii. — The following must be amongst the earliest captures 
of this rarity. A brother collector, a neighbour, lately brought me, as a present, 
what he and his friends at the time (October, 1865) considered a strange example 
of Acronycta psi. At this date it may be borne in mind that Dr. Knaggs had not 
identified anything British bom with X. Zinckenii. 

It appears that my friend was out pupsD digging in the northern environs of 
London, when, rising from the root of a poplar, he was surprised to observe this 
fine example of what stiuck him as one of a second brood of A. psi at rest upon 
the bark. He had neither pill nor collecting box— merely a small cradle for his 
" diggings." However, he fortunately found a pin between the walls of his waist- 
coat, and a cylinder hat, in which the illustrious stranger was duly installed. Until 
kindly taken out for me, it had ever since remained in his duplicate box. — Edwaed 
HoPLEY, 14, South Bank, Regent's Park, February IQth, 1869. 

Yama-mai culture. — I have received the following notes on Yami-mai culture : — 

"I had 22 eggs, and 15 larvae hatched out from May 16th to June 2nd. 
I fed them on the common oak, in a wooden box 18 x 14 x 8 inches, the front 
was wire-cloth, and the branches were inserted through holes in the bottom 
of the box into a basin of water. Fresh food was supplied at first every Ist 
or 2nd day, but afterwards every 3rd or 4th day. There was no thermometer in 
the room, nor fire, nor artificial heat ; a quantity of cotton and woollen cloths and 
yarns were kept in the eame room. It has been a very warm season, and the 
temperature would range high ; the attic in which they were kept faced south, and 
measured 21 x 18 x 8 ft., the windows were open by day, the door generally open, 
there was but little draught, and the room was not exposed to the sun's rays. 
I have four cocoons, spun July 16th, 17th, and 20th. The worms seemed healthy 
when hatched ; two died before moulting ; the rest all attained a good age. The 
disease shewed itself by changing the worm to a greenish-white, and the dark- 
spots shewed themselves and spread up the worm till they became soft and black 
all over. I have no proof that the disease was infectious ; I tried every means to 



1869.) 



253 



avoid infection by separating and cleaning. One day, when the number of the 
worms was reduced to five, I found one diseased in close embrace with a healthy 
one ; I separated them at once, and the healthy one remained so, and spun July 
16th, and emerged subsequently." — (from Thos. Scott, HamiUon, Scotland.) 

'* I had 12 eggs ; 8 worms hatched out early in May ; the eggs were kept in the 
quill in which they were sent, and kept in an envelope in a north room. About 
May 2nd the first larva hatched, and died, not being seen in time. The worms were fed 
on common oak, indoors ; the leaves were given three times a week, in a shallow 
box kept in the shade in an upper sitting-room, having a south-east aspect, 16 feet 
square ; doors and windows frequently open, as the weather was veiy warm. 
During an absence from home 3 worms died, and 2 escaped. I am afraid they were 
exposed to a hot sun. On my return 2 only were left ; they throve well, till one, 
after moulting, drank some water which was accidentally spilt : its head swelled 
up and became of a dirty brown colour, and it wasted away. The last worm I put 
on a branch of an oak inserted in a pot ; it soon began to spin, and emerged, a fine 
(J, August 30th." — (from Wm. Cotton, Carogh Glebe House, Ireland.) 

Dr. A. Wallace, Colchester : February ^ 1869. 

Scoria dealhata; correction of an error. — In my communication respecting the 
habits of this species (p. 223), a mistake has occurred. Instead of "but fly 
reluctantly in the sunshine," should have been printed " but fly naturally in the 
sunshine." I particularly notice this as I had understood that the insect was generally 
disturbed from the long grass when walking amongst it ; and this I found was the case 
on dull days : but when I saw most of them it was in the forenoon, hot, and the sun 
shining brightly. They were then to be seen starting up on various parts of the 
hill-side, where there was nothing to disturb them ; so that it is most certainly a 
true day-flying insect.— W. R. Jeffrey, Safi'ron Walden, February 3rd, 1869. 

Early a^ppearamce of Tephrosia cr^puscularia. — This species made its appearance 
in the wild state on February 5th, this year ; but in ordinary seasons it does not 
occur before March ; the earliest specimen I have hitherto noted having been on 
February 15th, 1864. 

Last year I reared from the egg a good series of the dark smoky variety of 
this species, and should any of your readers wish for any, I shall be happy to give 
them away. — John T. D. Llewelyn, Ynisygerwn, Neath, February Sth, 1869. 

Late apTpea/ra/nce of Hybemia defoliaria. — In contrast with the precocity of P. 
pilosaria (see p. 224), H. defoliaria (J was found on the 10th inst., apparently fresh 
from the puparium.— W, Heed, Perth, January 18</i, 1869. 

Hotes respecting the abundance of CoUas Hyale in 1868.— Having just read Mr. 
C. G. Barrett's interesting observations on the occurrence of C. Hyale in Britain, 
in the December number of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, I thought the 
following would be of use, as it occurred to me at a much later date than any men- 
tioned by Mr. Barrett. 



254 



[March 



On the 24th of September, 1868, 1 was collecting in a lucerne field five miles 
from Canterbury and three from Faversham, and while kneeling down to pin a 
specimen of C. Edv.sa^ I saw C. Hyale hanging downwards from a stalk of lucerne 
and drying its wings. On being disturbed it flew about a yard and settled again, 
upon which I took it, and found its wings to be so soft and limp that I should not 
have thought it would have been able to fly at all. Soon after this I took two 
more C. Hyale, flying heavily, and found, in both cases, that their wings were soft 
and limp, they having evidently come out the same morning. I may further add, 
that the entire week before the 24th had been dull and gloomy, and though having 
visited that field nearly every day, I had not seen a single specimen of C. Edusa or 
C. Hyale. I have since found that two days afterwards a friend of mine visited the 
same spot, and took several 0. Hyale, but all rather worn and dull. Those I took 
on the 24th were the most perfect specimens I have seen, the pink fringes to the 
wings being especially perfect. — Y. B. Lewes, 76, High Street, Hampstead, Dec, 
1868. 

Note on Sphinx convolvuli. — In the December number of this Magazine the 
Eev. J. Hellins has favoured us with some " Observations on the occurrence of 
Sphinx convohmli in Great Britain." Here, as in Devonshire, a large number of 
this fine insect occurred last year in August and September. His very full and 
interesting facts leave me nothing to record so far as last season is concerned, for 
his dates of its appearing and disappearing very nearly agree with my own ; and 
here also " the good and battered specimens occurred together throughout the whole 
period but it may interest Mr. Hellins and others to learn that in the year 1861 
a fine and nearly perfect S. convoVvuli was found, on the morning of October 19th, 
in a torpid state, near some flower-beds, upon a lawn in this neighbourhood. The 
insect was sent to me, and, when it had been for some time in a warm room, revived 
and flapped its wings. This is a later date than the insect appears to have been 
seen by either Mr. Hellins or Mr. D'Orville. — E. S. Hutchinson, Grantsfield, Leo- 
minster, February, 1869. 

Note on effects of mild vnnter. — Is it not unusual for the larvae of Pieris rapce to 
occur in the winter ? One was taken in my garden on the 29th of last December, 
and became a healthy but very small pupa on January 3rd. Doubtless the more 
than common mildness of the season accounts for its late appearance, as well as 
for the fact that an imngo of Eup. alhipunctata emerged on January 14th, and a fine 
$ A. prodromaria on the 29th, quite without forcing. — Id. 

Early appearance of Satumia carjnnt. —Perhaps it may be worthy of notice 
that on the 5th of the present month I bred Satumia carpini. It had been kept 
in a room facing north, which had not had any fire in the whole winter ; whilst, as 
a rule, the window was open.— Fbank Phillips, Forest Hill, Idth February, 1869. 

Acanthosoma; the beginning of the end. — From the concluding paragraph of 
Mr. Marshall's paper, referring to other matters " mentioned by me, and the 
editorial note, referring to "other points " {ante, p. 209), I was under the inipres- 



1869.] 



255 



sion that the " Reply on the Gender of Acanthosoma,^^ as published in the January 
number of the Magazine, was complete ; had I known that there was more to follow 
on the same matter and the same point, I would have waited for the "Further 
Reply;" and I trust that Mr. Marshall will pardon the seeming discourtesy of my 
having interrupted before he had finished. 

1. It is quite true that Mr. Marshall's original objection included words like 
rhanerotomaf Pentatoma, and Tapinoma ; it is equally true that such words were 
excluded from my attempt to maintain the neutrality of Acanthosoma. {vide ante, p. 
183). I agree that Phanerotoma, Pentatoma, and such words, are feminine j but I 
hold them to be, as names of genera of insects, feminine substantiveB. 

2. No doubt Mr. Marshall will object to the assertion (ante, p 230) that " the 
subject is not contained in the word Harma, but understood." He will now say that 
Harma does contain the subject, not literally, but figuratively or metaphorically. 
But if figure and metaphor are admissible, why are we to stop short at a chariot ? 
It is allowable to call one bug Harma, " chai-iot," or even Chalcarma,* " brazen- 
chariot," but it is "far-fetched and inappropriate " to call another bug Trigonaspis, 
" triangular-shield ! " Many will be apt to think this a distinction without a dif- 
ference. The difi'erence upon which Mr. Marshall relies is this— in the one case the 
whole animal is shaped like a chariot, in the other a part only of the animal ia 
shaped like a three-cornered shield. If the whole insect had been shield- shaped, 
Trigonaspis would have been a substantive, " containing the subject by a metaphor j" 
but as part only of the insect is shaped like a shield — metaphor, away ! — Trigonaspis 
is an adjective, expressing only an attribute of the creature, it does not denote " the 
whole of the subject." 

But if recourse may be had to a figure of rhetoric to explain Harma, why not 
also to explain Trigonaspis ? Metaphor is the figure by which one thing is put for 
another ; synecdoche is the figure by which part is put for the whole — as caput for 
homo, tectum for domus. If metaphor be admissible, why is synecdoche to be ex- 
cluded? 

After all, what for the present purpose is the diSerence between a name which 
" contains the subject by a metaphor," and a name which " expresses only some 
attribute of the subject ?" Harma is said to contain the subject by a metaphor ; 
in fact it only denotes the possession by the subject of a particular attribute. 
"Harma, chariot,t is an apt similitude for the form of the insect." Being of the 
form of a chariot is an attribute of the insect, and it is that attribute, and that 
alone, to which the name refers. 

Again, the Greek soma signifies the hodxj as a whole, the whole body. Acan- 
tliosoma therefore expresses the whole of the subject or creature designated j and 
doing so {vide ante, p. 230), it " ceases to be an adjective." 

* Mr. Marshall says "Chalcharma (better than Chalcarma)." I am not aware that the noun sub- 
stantive anywhere occurs in Greek ; but ihe adjective is used by Pindar as an epithet of the god of war. 
Pindar makes it Chalcarmatos Ares, not Chalcharmatos. I can therefore continue to write Chalcarma 
••without much self-reproach, And throw the blame upon the blundering ancients, who ought to have 
known better." Air. Marshall does not like Chalcarma perhaps some one will say that even Chal- 
charma is capable of improvement ; what if Clialcoharma were suggested ?—J. W. D. 

t It is a still more apt similitude for the form of the butterfly ; the outline of the wings, when 
elevated in repose and close togetiier— the side view of the butterfly— is exactly that of a chariot.— J.W Di 



256 



[Marcb. 



" The principles upon whicli the interpretation of suoh words depends belongs 
to logic, and not to grammar." I agi-ee. The question of what a name is gram- 
matically, is distinct both from the interpretation of the word, and from the reason 
why the name is given. And it seems to me that the name of a group of animals 
may well be a noun substantive, even though it express only some attribute of the 
subject, or even though it were selected by reason of some peculiarity of a part 
only of the subject. Ctenidium, as the name of a beetle, is a " substantive taken 
figuratively," the genus being named " little comb " either jocularly, because it 
comea near Trichopteryx, " hair-vrixxg" or because the fringed apex of the wings 
(not the whole beetle) resembles a comb j it would be none the less a " substantive 
taken figuratively " if applied to a moth with pectinate antennae. If I may be 
allowed to say so, Mr. Marshall's argument confounds two different things — the 
name, and the reason for the name. I name a moth Uropteryx because it has caudate 
wings ; but it does not follow that Uropteryx means " having caudated* wings," or 
is an adjective. I am at liberty to take the substantive UropteryXy " tail-wing," 
as the name of a moth which has tailed wings, just as I may take the substantive 
Harma as the name of a bug which has the shape of a chariot. 

Mr. Marshall's division (A. h.), p. 235, includes "proper names" among the 
" substantives taken figuratively." Whatever its derivation or meaning, the name 
of a genus is a " proper name," and therefore a noun substantive. 

3. Mr. Marshall submits that the Micrornixf passage {ante p. 184) is a " mix- 
ture of two syllogisms" which are exhibited separately at p. 236. The syllogisms 
involved in my argument are distinct enough, as follows : — 

Micromix (Bird) is a substantive. 



Every substantive has a gender of its 
own. 

Therefore Micromix (Bird) has a gender 
of its own. 



Every substantive contains its own 
subject. 

Micromix (Moth) does not contain its 
own subject. 

Therefore Micromix (Moth) is not a 
substantive. 



The second syllogism at p. 236 is in fact the reverse of that contained in my 
argument. It may bo that, on the metaphorical theory, which when I wrote had 
not been developed, the " passage involves a fallacy," owing to the double sense in 
which, on this theory, Omix is used. I need scarcely say that the passage, like the 
demonstration at p. 230, was intended as a reductio ad ahsurdum of the contention 
— taken literally, as I then understood it, not metaphorically, as it is now explained 
— that the name of a bird or bug, if it be a substantive, must contain the subject, 
bird or bug, as the case may be. 

But now it is conceded that the subject may be expressed by a metaphor, and 
I begin to think the day may come when Mr. Marshall will admit Acanthosoma as a 
substantive. The metaphorical "chariot" will open the way for the figurative 
" shield," and leave a passage for the graphic " spine-body " and the poetic " red- 
breast." It is not disputed that a compound noun substantive may be taken as 
the name of a genus, or that acanthosoma. is the corz*ect form of the Greek noun 

* Query, caudate. — J. "W. D. 

+ Mr. Murbhall says " the form Micrornit would be preferable." I thought the reference to the 
Lepiilopterou"* genus Ornta- was sufficient to show why I took the foini Micromix. If " Omix is only 
a dialectic variation and com|)arat,vely unusual," I would not change tlie established name Omix into 
Omit, though I might prefer the latter, if the name were now for the first time being published.— J. W. D. 



18(19. J 



267 



substantive corresponding to " spine-body," oi that acantJiosonm, as a Greek uoun 
substantive, would be neuter. In truth, i is as good a Greek substantive as 
neophasma, and of the same gender. The fact that the nomina trivialia are in the 
genus Acanthosoma made neuter, shews that the author had in his contemplation 
the neuter substantive acanthosoma, and not the feminine gender of any such 
adjective as acanthosomxis. And if a compound noun substantive, correctly formed, 
may he applied, and has been applied, are we justified in rejecting the author's own 
indication of the origin and meaning of his name, simply because we, in framing a 
name to express the same idea, might have arrived at it by a difierent process 
which would have given it a different gender ? 

4. Mr. Marshall intimates that he would himself have made both Acomthothorax 
and Uropteryx masculine, on the principle of the masculine gender being more 
worthy than the feminine. This strikes me as a new application of that " precept." 
But what I am most interested to know — particularly with reference to the pro- 
jected Catalogue — is, whether it is proposed that Uropteryx samibucaria shall be 
changed into U. samhucarius, and so on vrith the rest ? 

5. Harma may be a more reasonable name for the bug than Arma ; but that is 
not the question. Agassiz gives a derivation for Arma (I do not say a satisfactory 
one) different from any of those mentioned by Mr. Marshall. If Hahn had written 
either Arma luridum or Harma lurida, there would have been stronger ground for 
supposing that the generic name was derived from the Greek word for a chaiiot ; 
but the supposition seems to me to be rebutted by (1) the absence of the initial 
aspirate, and (2) the deliberate adoption of the feminine gender. The case is not 
like Hyponomeuta, where Stephens himself gives the derivation, and if he had not, no 
other is possible. That the feminine gender was advisedly used by Hahn is shown 
by the change of the Fabrician Cimex luridus into Arma lurida, which Mr. Marshall 
now wishes to change into Harma luridum. 

6. As to the rejection of barbarian and badly constructed names, I am afraid 
it would be impossible either to obtain the concurrence of the " great head-centres 
of Entomology," or with such concurrence to procure such rejection. 

Mr. Marshall's opening sentence (iv, 259), " the publication of a Catalogue of 
British Insects under the auspices of a scientific Society offers an opportunity for 
getting rid of a number of flagi'ant instances of cacography in names, which it is 
to be hoped will not be neglected" — and the passage (iv, 280) respecting the 
"adoption" of certain "corrections to the nomenclature of British Heteroptera,'* 
and of the case with which "a similar reformation" might be effected in other 
Orders — led me to suppose that the rejection of all the specified " instances of 
cacography " was proposed ; and it was particularly with reference to the prepa- 
ration and publication of the said Catalogue that my enquiries were made as to the 
extent to which it was wished to carry the expurgation of our Lists. If the object 
was to *' check the formation of such words" for the future, I have only to express 
my heartiest wish that this object may be effected, and to repeat what I said 
before (p. 186) — " "Viewed as canons for future guidance, I agree in the main with 
Mr. Marshall's propositions." 

7. I referred to hippopotamus, not as being a correct compound, or as "sub- 



258 



[March, 



versive of the rule for compouna terms," but for the purpose of showing the necessity 
ior caution in the retrospective application of the rule to current names. If Choero- 
potamus is to be changed, Hippopotamus ought to go also ; if Choeropotamus is not 
to be inverted, why should CorimeJcena or Derephysia ? 

There is a manifest distinction between the hippos potamios of Herodotus and 
the hippopotamus of Strabo ; the former was a compendious description of a newly 
discovered animal, fluvial in its habits, and supposed to be a horse ; the latter is 
the name given to the animal when it was found not to be congeneric with the horse, 
and to require a name of its own. 

8. My question as to rhinoceros was asked only in view of the abandonment of 
hippopotamxis being insisted on. Both rhinoceros and ceratorhinus are correct, but 
I think they are not quite " equivalent terms." The name Rhinoceros, " nose-horn," 
was doubtless given to the animal from its " having a nasal horn ;" but Rhinoceros, 
the name of the animal, is a substantive. So Monoceros, " having a single horn," 
is a substantive, when used as the Greek name of the better-known Latin unicorn. 
In diceros Selene, the two-horned moon, diceros is no doubt an adjective ; but as the 
name of a genus of Cetoniidoe, Diceros* is a substantive. Mr. Marshall allows that 
" such words, like our names of genera, become substantives conventionally " — it is 
by the same convention which makes Hippopotamus a substantive, or Hippos a 
substantive, which makes a substantive of the name by which we denote any other 
existing thing. 

9. I am glad that attention has been again called to formicaeformis^ iipuloeformis, 
&c. As bearing on this, and the intervening letter o in compounds from the Greek, 
I may mention that when, in the " Accentuated List " before alluded to, Ourapteryx 
was changed into Uropteryx, and formic oif or mis into formiciformis, a reverend critic 
indignantly enquired (I forget in which of the then existing serials) upon what 
principle such innovations had been made !— J. W. Dunnikg, 24, Old Buildings, 
Lincoln's Inn, 13t7i February, 1869. 

[This paper must form not only " the beginning of the end," but the end 
itself, of this most interesting controversy. May the spirit in which it has been 
conducted by both gentlemen be emulated by all who enter the arena of argument 
on scientific questions ! — Eds.] 

Entomological Society of London; Jam,uary 25</i, 1869. (Anniversary 
Meeting.) — F. Smith, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Hon. T. De Grey, M.P., and Messrs. Pascoe, A. R. Wallace, and Wormald 
were elected into the Council in the room of outgoing Members. The President 
and other of&cers were elected as before. The Secretary read the report of the 
Council, and also an address by the President (who was unavoidably absent) on 
the progress of Entomology during the past year ; and the Meeting terminated 
with the usual votes of thanks to the Council and OflBcers. 

February \st, 1869. ^H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. The 
President nominated Messrs. Pascoe, Smith, and A. R. Wallace as his Vice-Presi- 
dents for the ensuing year. 



* Unfortunately Oorj and Percheron mis-spelt It DicJiero$.—J. W. D. 



1869.] 



259 



Mr. E. Saunders exhibited a good example of Pachetra leucophcsa, taken by Mr. 
N. E. Brown from off a gas-lamp at the Red-Hill Station, on 14th May, 1868. 

Mr. Homo (present as a visitor) narrated an account of the antagonism 
existing between rats and scorpions in India. He had confined the animals under 
a glass case, in order to observe their movements, and found that the rat invariably 
disabled the scorpions by seizing them by the tail, after which it proceeded to pull 
off the legs ; but did not eat the creatures. 

Mr. Pascoe made some observations on the genera Aprostoma, Mecedanum and 
Qempylodes regarding the possible identity of the genera. He exhibited a species 
of Hemiptera (perhaps an Odontoscelis) from Toulon, which he could not find 
described in any work. 

The Secretary read a letter addressed to him by Dr. Butterfield, P. 0. Box 
No. 1473, Indianopolis, Indiana, wherein the writer expressed his desire to give a 
tolerably complete collection of the Lepidoptera of his State, in exchange for a 
similar one of British species. 

Mr. Butler communicated a description of a new species of Hestina from India, 
which he proposed to call H. Zella. It bears a strong mimetic resemblance to 
Danais Juventa. 

Professor "Westwood exhibited drawings of a minute insect belonging to the 
family Aphidce, which was causing great damage of the vineyards of the south of 
France, and also occurs in England. He had first became acquainted with the 
creature in 1863, when he received some vine-leaves attacked by it. A puncture 
being made in the upper cuticle, the wounded part thickens, bulging out beneath, 
and forming a concavity above, round the edges of which small imbricated scale- 
like growths are produced, closing over the cavity ; in this nidus the insect pro- 
duces its young. In the spring of last year he read a paper on the subject before 
the Ashmolean Society, and applied the name of Peritymhia vitisana. But it is under 
other circumstances that the greatest damage is done. The same species (for he 
could detect no difference whatever) is subterranean also, then sucking the ex. 
tremities of the young root-fibres, thus threatening the life of the plants. Under 
this condition the French had termed it RhizapMs vastatrix. Dr. Signoret con- 
sidered it to be a species of Phylloxera. 

Mr. Smith mentioned that he had observed a parallel instance of great 
diversity of habit in Cynvps aptera, which ordinarily makes more or less agglomerated 
masses of galls on the roots of the oak. But he had once found small galls formed 
of imbricated scales on the surface of the principal stem under-ground, and from 
them had bred an insect which he could in no way separate from the ordinary 
C. aptera. 

BRITISH EEMIPTEBA: ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 
BY J. W. DOUGLAS AND JOHN SCOTT. 

Section 6, — Tingidina. 

PaMILT 2. — TiNGIDIDiE. 

Genus 1. — Monanthia. 
Species 9. — Monanthia similis, n. sp. 
Ochreous-grey, with small black marks on the reticulation and 



260 



[Marrh, 



keels ; side margins of ih^ pr on of um and anterior margin of the elytra 
wide, with four rows of meshes, the circumference of the former broadly 
rounded anteriorly. 

In structure, marking, colour, and size, this species is very like 
M. ampHata, from which it differs in the following respects. The 
antennae are perceptibly thicker, and much shorter, the spines on the 
head [longer and sharper, the side margins of the pro7iotum more 
rounded at the front, the curve being continued regularly to the hood 
(in ampliata the margin projects anteriorly in an obtuse angle, and then 
goes in an oblique straight line to the hood). 

Two specimens taken by Mr. Wollaston, but the place and date of 
capture are not recorded. 

Section 9. — Capsina. 

Family 3.— Mieidje. 
Genus 2a. — Teeatocoeis, Fieb. 
Species 2. — Teeatocoeis Saundeesi, n. sp. 

Bright green, shining, sparingly clothed with short, sub-erect, 
yellow hairs. 

^ , Bead — With a black central line extending throughout its entire length, widest 
at the posterior margin ; round the insertion of the antennaa narrowly black. 
Antennce, 1st joint green, clothed with short dark hairs ; base with a narrow black 
ring, apex more or less pitchy-red ; 2nd brownish-pink, apex brown ; 3rd 
and 4th pitchy-black. Eyes reddish-black. Rostrum greenish-yellow, apex 
black. 

Thorax — Pronotum green, with a black central line extending throughout its entire 
length ; at the anterior angles a short, somewhat oblique black streak reaching 
to the callosities, the latter with a slight fovea near the centre ; collar and 
posterior portion of the disc finely shagreened. ScutellHm green, with a more 
or less distinct short black streak between the base and the transverse channel ; 
at the basal angles a deep fovea. Elytra green, as long as the abdomen, finely 
shagreened. Claws, inner margin very narrowly black. Membrane with 
only one cell, pale fuscous with a purple iridescence. Cell green, almost 
entirely subcoriaceous and finely shagreened; cell nerve green. Sternum 
green. Prostemum, on the sides towards the front, with a short, cnneate, 
black patch. Legs green, clothed with short, sub-depressed, dark hairs, 
Thighs, at the apex, more or less inclined to reddish ; Ist and 2nd pairs, on the 
underside, with a row of erect hairs. TibicB greenish or greenish-yellow, 
thickly clothed with short, sub-depressed, brownish-yellow hairs ; 2nd and 3rd 
pairs frequently inclined to brownish-pink or yellow at the apex. Tarsi 
brownish -yellow, apex of 3rd joint black. Claws brown. 

Abdomen green underneath. 



186ft.] 



261 



? . Developed form. Head and pronotum as in the <J , the central line of the 
head not so distinct. Scutellum without a central line ; apical portion trans- 
versely wrinkled. Elytra longer than the abdomen. Membrane with two cells, 
the lesser one very narrow, and almost forming an isosceles triangle. All the 
other characters as in the $ . 

? . Undeveloped form. Head, pronotum, and scutellum without the black central 
line ; posterior margin of the callosities blackish. Elytra shorter than the 
abdomen. Cuneus not distinct from the corium. All the other characters as 
in the developed form. Length S 2— 2i; ? 2i — 3 lines. 

Most nearly allied to T. antennatus, Boh. (Fieb. Europ. Hem. 
246, 1), but the absence of the streak along the margin of the abdomen, 
and the blood-red hinder tibiaB, will at once enable any one to separate 
them. 

We have much pleasure in naming the species after Mr. Edward 
Saunders, its captor, who took a few examples at Deal, by sweeping 
among rushes, &c., at the end of June and beginning of July. He has 
also an undeveloped $ , taken near Aberdeen. 

Genus 3. — Lopomoephtjs. 

We now believe that the insect described in the British Hemip- 
tera," page 224, 1, as Lopomorphus carinatus, is only a small and curious 
variety of L. ferrugatus, to which the description must also apply. 

Eamilt 4. — Phttocoeid^. 
Genus 2. — Phttocoeis, Pall, 
Species 2a. — Phttocoeis maemoeatus, n. sp. 

Pale green, with large irregular black patches, sometimes almost 
covering the entire elytra ; at others, having somewhat of a banded 
appearance ; clothed with depressed white hairs, slightly curled, and 
disposed in a confused manner, and interspersed with sub-erect black 
ones. 

Read — pale yellowish or greenish- white at the posterior margin, and adjoining each 
eye a small piceous or blackish spot. Antennce black, as long as the body j 
1st joint a little more than half the length of the second, with one or two 
small, somewhat round white spots towards the base, and two or three oblong 
ones towards the apex on the upper side, and a few long, erect, black hairs ; 
apex slightly piceous, 2nd with a narrow white ring at the base, and another, 
whitish or brownish- white, of about the same size beyond the middle ; 3rd 
about two-thirds the length of the second, base narrowly white ; 4th shorter 
than the 1st j below the eyes and beyond the aide-lobes of the face a black 
streak. Rostrum pale-yellowish or greenishowhite, apex piceous. 



262 



[March, 



Thorax — Pronotum black, collar pale green except at the Bides ; posterior margin 
white, in the centre forming a triangular patch, and on either side, next the 
posterior angle, a lunate one ; disc with an oblique green streak on each side 
of the centre, terminating in a round spot on the callosities ; sometimes the 
entire centre is pale green, of a trapeziform shape, or having, in addition 
thereto, a black X-shaped patch between the callosities. Scutellum green, 
base as far as the transverse channel piceous or black, except a narrow streak 
within the basal angles ; on each side, before the apex, a short, oblique black 
streak, becoming fuscous as it approaches the centre, from which it is sepa- 
rated by a pale narrow line ; apex white. Elytra green. ClaviLS with a large 
irregular black patch next the suture, interrupted by about three short, oblique 
green streaks, sometimes dividing it into separate patches, or, almost entirely 
black with the exception of the three short streaks and a narrow line exteading 
from the scutellar angle to the apex, which last is always black. Corium, 
anterior margin with four or five black spots of irregular size, sometimes fewer, 
apex broadly black ; disc with an irregular broadish black band generally 
opposite to the apex of the scutellum, and more or less marbled with small 
green spots of irregular shape ; below the band and next the claval suture a 
few more or less confluent black spots, the obtuse rhomboidal patch at the 
apex margined with black on its inner margin and along the membrane 
suture as far as the inner basal angle of the cuneus, where it terminates in a 
black spot, sometimes detached, between this and the apex of the anterior 
margin generally rosy. Cuneus broadly and irregularly black at the apex, in 
which are some minute green spots ; extreme apex pale. Membrane pale, 
inner basal angle blackish ; the entire lower half of the disc with irregular 
confluent blackish spots and patches, darker towards and at the apex of the 
anterior margin ; below the apex of the cuneus a small triangular blackish 
patch. Cell nerves pale green ; large cell nerve for about two-thirds its length 
blackish ; lesser cell nerve hlach ; base and apex of the large cell more or less 
and the lesser cell entirely blackish. Sternum — Prosternum on the sides 
broadly black, xyphus green. Mesosternum black or deep pitchy-black. Meta- 
sternum on the sides black. Legs greenish-white or yellow. Coxcc at the base 
on the outside with a piceous spot. Thighs clothed with fine, short, depressed 
pale hairs, intermixed with long, erect brown ones ; apex naiTowly pale ; 1st 
pair marbled with black for more than one-third of their length, generally 
leaving a narrow black ring before the apex, the colour carried along the 
upper- and under-side, in a more or less interrupted line, nearly to the base j 
2nd with a narrow black ring before the apex, the marbling not encircling the 
limb generally, but interrupted on the inner and outer sides by the longitudinal 
farrow, the colour carried in a more or less interrupted line along the under- 
side nearly to the base ; 3rd with a broad, oblique pale ring, and between it 
and the apex, next the under-side a round pale spot, the marbling carried 
along the upper- and under-sides somewhat broadly for about three-quarters 
of their length. TibicB, all the pairs with three black rings, and clothed with 
long, erect, bro\\Ti hairs ; Ist pair, at the base on tlic inside with a small black 
spot, a ring a little distance from the baae, a second in the middle, and a third 



1869.] 



263 



at the apox, tlio latter picoous ; 2nd, the knee on the under-side blackisli or 
piceous, a ring a little way from the base, a second in the middle, and a tliird 
about its own width from the apex ; 3rd, the rings placed as in the 2nd pair, 
the 1st ring generally continued to the base as a Hne on the under-side ; 
upper-side with one or two pale spots. Tarsi piceous, 2nd joint yellowish. 
CloAJos brown. 

^b(Zowen— Underneath black, with a broad green central streak. 

? paler than the $ . Length 2|— 3 lines. 

This insect is very nearly allied to P. tilice and dubius, but it is 
most likely to be mistaken for the former. Its general darker appear- 
ance may serve to distinguish it from that insect and from P. duhius 
by its unicolorous head and black base of the 1st joint of the antenna). 

A few examples have been taken on palings at Bl ackheath, in 
Bexley Eoad, and round Lewisham, between the end of July and 
end of August. 

PaMILT 6. — LiTOSOMIDiE. 

Oenus 1. — LiTosoMA. 
Species 6a. — Litosoma obsoletus. 
Oethottltjs obsoletus, Pict. and Mey., Tieb., Europ. Hem., 289, 4. 

Elongate, somewhat parallel. Greyish or yellowish-green, thickly 
clothed with short depressed white hairs, intermixed with longer, erect 
black ones. Cells of the membrane pale golden yellow. 

HeacZ— Posterior margin keeled. AntenncB pale yellow, 3rd and 4th joints brownish. 
Eyes pitchy-black. Rostrum pale yellow, apex piceous. 

Thorax — Pronotum, callosities prominent, the transverse channel behind them deep. 
Elytra — Memlrane very pale fuscous ; cell nerves yellow. Cells pale golden 
yellow. Legs pale greenish-yellow. Thighs clothed with short, depressed, 
white hairs. Tihice pale yellowish. Tarsi yellowish, 4th joint and claws brown. 

Abdomen — Underneath foscous-green. Length 2i lines. 

This insect may be distinguished from L. concolor^ to which it is 
closely related, by its larger size and duller appearance {concolor being 
of a deep, somewhat bluish-green colour, and having a much darker 
membrane), and its unicolorous cell nerves. \ 

"We have only seen a single example which we can refer mth any 
certainty to this species. It was taken in Bexley Eoad, Kent, on the 
5th August, and was probably beaten out of sallow. 

Family 12. — PsALLiDiE. 
Gemcs 3. — Psalltjs. 
Species 8a. — Psallus "Whttei, n. sp. 
Eed or reddish-yellow, clothed with short, depressed, yellow and 
black hairs intermixed, the latter sub-erect. Elytra with a distinct 
trapeziform blackish patch. 



264 



[April, 



Bead — pitchy-black, posterior margin yellowish- white. AntenncB pale yellowish, 
1st joint at the base narrowly black, 4th at its insertion blackish. Rosti-um 
yellowish, 1st joint and apex black. 

Thorax — Pronotum broad, callosities red, disc posteriorly inclined toreddish-yellow. 
Scutellum red, flattish convex, anterior portion in the middle piceons. Elytra — 
Clavus reddish-yellow, inner margin at the base narrowly blackish, sutnre at 
the apex slightly piceous. Corium, anterior margin as far as the 1st nerve 
red, posterior margin narrowly white, disc reddish-yellow, next the first nerve 
very narrowly yellowish, below the centre a distinct trapeziform blackish 
patch, its lower side almost in a line with the apex of the clavus. Cuneus red, 
base nan-owly white. Membrane black, between the apex of the cuneus and 
the lesser cell nerve a wJiite triangular patch, to the apex of which is attached 
a short oblong whitish patch, in the middle of the disc, and extending from in 
a line with the apex of the large cell to almost the inner margin, a broad, 
curved, whitish patch ; inner marginal nerve blackish. Cell nerves red, apical 
half of the large cell nerve black ; lesser cell almost entirely black, large cell 
black at the apex. Legs red. Thighs, 1st pair neirrowly yellowish at the apex, 
3rd with a blackish patch in the middle of the inner side near the apex. Tihioe 
pale yellowish, with erect, somewhat spinose black hairs, 3rd pair in addition 
with black spots, apex narrowly brown. Tarsi brownish-yellow, 3rd joint and 
claivs blackish. 

Abdomen — Underneath red, with a piceous line along the sides as far as the genital 
segments. Length If line. 

Eesembles P. varians, but is of a deeper red colour (more like 
roseus), and the blackish patch in the corium is of a different shape to 
that in the latter species, besides which the Hack head is sufficient to 
enable any one to distinguish it. 

"We have only seen a single specimen ( ? ), taken by Dr. Buchanan 
"White at Eannoch, after whom we have much pleasure in naming it. 

Family 18. — Capsidje. 

Genus 5.— Atbactotomv a. 

Species 1. — Atbagtotomus magnicoenis. 

The description (without the synonyms) at page 435 of the 
" British Hemiptera," and figure 4, plate 14, of the same work, will 
both require to be transferred to A. mall, Mey. The latter insect literally 
swarmed on apple-trees during the past season, and from a careful 
comparison of a long series of specimens with the insect described under 
the former name we have satisfied ourselves that it is an error. 

AVith two exceptions, the distinctness of the following species, 
determined more than a year ago, has been confirmed by Dr. Fieber. 



1869.] 



265 



Aquatilia. 

Section 5. — Coeixina. 

Family 1. — Cortxid^. 
Oenus 1. — CoRiXA, Geoff. 

CORIXA VENUSTA, n. Sp. 

Broad, oval, dark browu with ochreous markings, delicately ras- 
trate ; pronotim with 6 — 7 straight yellow lines, corium with very fine 
transverse yellow lines interrupted by black longitudinal streaks, of 
which one across the posterior inner angle and one at the angle are the 
most conspicuous. 

Head oclireous ; crown brownish ; facial depression in tho S oval, deep, extending 
the whole length of the face, far up between the eyes. 

Thorax — Pronotum with 6 — 7 straight, entire yellow lines, the dark intervals 
scarcely reachiHg the sides ; disc in front with a very small carinate elevation. 
Elytra — Clavus with narrow, oblique, parallel yellow lines, those in the middle a 
little shortened inwardly. Corium with very fine, somewhat contorted, trans- 
verse yellow hnes, and broad, dark intervals, traversed longitudinally by a long, 
broad black vitta across the posterior inner angle, a short line at the angle, a 
narrow long line just within the anterior margin, all black, and an indistinct 
dark interruption down the centre of the disc ; marginal channel pale Uvid 
yellowish, somewhat infuscated outwardly and at the base, apex yellow- 
Membrane with small, hieroglyphic, ochreous and black markings, on the inner 
margin straight and parallel lines ; the disc traversed longitudinally by two 
more or less distinct black lines. Sternum ochreous, fuscous in the middle, 
scapulw, pleurce, and parapleurce, pale yellow. Legs brownish-yellow ; jpalce of 
the <J short, broad, roundly cultrate ; 2nd pair, tihicB and tarsi black afe the 
apex, 3rd pair, cilia of tarsi brown-black. 

Abdomen ochreous, fuscous at the base. Length 2j — 2? lines. 

Allied to C. semistriata, Fieb. 

Of this pretty and well-marked species, two examples were taken 
in small streams near Eothsay, Isle of Bute, in September, 1866 
iJDoiLg. ^ Scott) ; aDd one was captured near Carlisle, in 1868 
Sunter). 

COEIXA DECOEA, n. Sp. 

Narrow, parallel- sided, brown-black, rastration pronotum, clavus, 
and corium \erj fine. JPronotum with seven fine undulating lines ; 
Clavus and corium with fine, broken, yellow lines ; marginal channel 
pale, infuscated at the base. 

<? . Head fuscous-brown, facial depression slight, flat, with a fine ridge in front. 

Thorax — Pronotum short, rounded behind, in front with a very small elevation^ 
disc with seven transverse, narrow, entne, yellow lines, the front ones undu- 
lating, the black intervals of about equal width. Elytra — Clavics with narrow 



266 



[April, 



yellow linos scarcely reaching the inner margin, three or four of them at tho 
base broader, oblique, and entire, the rest less regular, shorter, and interrupted, 
Borae outwardly furcate. Corium with short, interrupted, transverse, yellow 
lines, forming on tho inner margin a longitudinal row of small linear spots, 
exterior to which is a narrow longitudinal black line, the posterior discoidal 
markings finer and somewhat twisted ; marginal channel pale, infuscatcd on 
the base and edge, posteriorly with faint transverse lines ; membrane suture 
yellowish, narrow, ill defined. Membrane covered with hieroglyphic markings, 
outer margin black. Sternum, scajoulcc, x>^eurce, and parapleuroe ochreous. 
Legs pale yellow ; paZce, S > short, roundly cultrate j 2nd pair, apex of tihice 
and tarsi, and the cilia of the posterior tarsi, black- 
Abdomen fuscous-black, indistinctly ochreous in the middle. Length 2^ lines. 

Allied to O. limit ata, Fieb. 

A single taken in September, 1866, in a small stream running 
into Loch Pad, Isle of Bute (Scott). 

CoEixA DUBIA, (Fieh.), n. sp. 
Black with yellow niarkings. Pronotum, clavus, and corium finely 
rastrate ; pronotum with a distinct short keel, and 6 — 7 alternate, 
narrow, irregular, black and yellow lines ; clavus with straight lines 
throughout ; coriim with interrupted unparallel lines ; marginal channel 
pale, black at base. 

(J . Eead yellow, brownish on the posterior margin of the crown ; facial depression 
flat, extending just beyond the angle of the eyes. 

Thorax — Pronotum in front with a fine, distinct, sharp keel, extending about one- 
third of the length ; disc with 6 — 7 narrow, irregular, yellow lines, separated 
by as many similar black ones, tho former being interrupted in places by the 
confluence of the points of the latter, some of the black Hues being also 
abruptly shortened. Elytra — Clavus with narrow, obhque, parallel, 'yellow 
lines throughout, all more or less shortened inwardly, sometimes two or three 
furcate outwardly ; corium with transverse, not parallel, subfurcate yellow 
lines, twice interrupted — first near the inner margin, leaving there a longi- 
tudinal row of short lines ; second, in a less degree and less regularly, just 
within the outer margin ; marginal channel pale, black at the base, and some- 
what infuscated posteriorly ; membrane-suture yellow, distinct ; membrane 
covered with twisted, hieroglyphic characters, straight and parallel on tho 
inner margin ; outer margin black. Stei-num black, sca^ulce, pleura;, and 
parapleura; pale yellow, black inwardly. Legs yellow ; paZcc of tho <J rather 
broad, roundly cultrate ; 2nd pair, tibia} and tarsi, at the apices black ; cilia 
of the posterior tarsi brown. 

Abdomen black. Length 2i lines. 

Allied to C. livutafa, Fieb. A single ^ taken in September, 1866, 

in a small stream running into Loch Fad, Isle of Bute (Scott). 



1869.] 



267 



COEIXA PERPLEXA, 11. Sp. 

Broad, ochreous with black markings ; pronotum^ clavus, and corium 
finely rastrate ; pronotum with 7 — 9 very fine, irregular, confluent lines ; 
clavus with oblique, irregular lines ; corium with short, twisted lines 
interrupted on the inner posterior angle ; marginal channel livid 
ochreous. 

<J . Head ochreous, brownish at the base of the crown, facial depression shallow, 
flat, reaching to the angles of the eyes. 

Thorax — Pronotum wide, rounded behind, in front a very short keel, disc with 7 — 9 
very fine, irregular black lines, confluent in places, the ochreous intervals rather 
wider. Elytra — Clavus with oblique black lines ; those at the base narrow, 
straight, with clear ochreous intervals, the remainder broader, irregular, undu- 
lating, sometimes furcate outwardly j corium throughout with irregular, abbre- 
viated, twisted, transverse, black lines, their outer ends more or less joined 
together ; inwardly, on the inner posterior angle, the Hues are traversed by, 
and joined to, a short, irregular, longitudinal black line, and there is a still 
shorter one at the apex of the clavus ; marginal channel livid ochreous ; 
membrane suture distinct, ochreous ; membrane covered with short, twisted, 
hieroglyphic markings, the inner and posterior margins with short, straight, 
close, parallel black lines. Sternum, scapulae, pleura;, and parapleurcB pale 
ochreous. Legs pale ochreous ; palce, <? , narrow, roundly cultrate ; 2nd and 
3rd pairs, tihics rather infuscated j 3rd pair, tarsi, cilia black. 

Abdomen black, posterior segments fusco-ochrcous in the middle. 

Length 2^—2^ lines. 

Allied to C. limifata, Fieb. 

Two specimens taken in a small stream at the road-side, near 
Eothsay, Isle of Bute, in September, 1866 (Douglas). 

CoEiXA Fabeicii. 

CoEisA Fabeicii, Fieb., Spec. Coris., 33, 38, t. 2, fig. 16 (1851). Flor, 
Ehyn. Liv., i, 796, 9 (1860). 

CoEiSA FABEiciijWalleng., Oefv., K. Yet. Akad., 149, 16 (1854). Fieb., 
Europ. Hem. 98, 31 (1861). 

? CoEiSA ABDOMiNALis, Fieb., Syn. Coris., No 22 (1848). 

Brown-black. Fronotimj clavus, and corium rastrate. Pronotum, 
with 7 yellow lines, marginal channel of the elytra black, tlie basal 
inner half yellowish. 

Head yellowish, with the crown brown, or entirely brown j facial depression in the 
<J extending a little beyond the lower angles of the eyes, flat, not hollowed 
out, on the front margin carinate. 
Thorax— Tronotum rounded behind, in front a small keel, disc with seven, mostly 
straight, yellowish lines, sometimes interrupted or obscured. Ehjtra with a 



268 



[April, 



few whitislx hairs ; clavus, as far as the middle, with entire, straight, rather 
oblique, parallel, yellowish lines, posteriorly the lines are slightly undulating, 
and sometimes shortened on the inner side ; corium with fine undulating, 
or broken and angularly confluent, transverse yellowish linos, interrupted near 
the inner margin, and there forming a longitudinal scries of very short marks, 
posterior inner angle narrowly black ; marginal channel black, the basal inner 
half and the apex yellowish ; membrane -suture narrowly yellow j membrane 
covered with small, irregular pale markings ; exterior margin black. Stemwm, 
black J scojpidoB, pleurce, and parapleurce black inwardly, more or less broadly 
pale yellow outwardly. Legs yellow or brown, anterior thighs with a fuscous 
blotch at the base ; paloe in the (J short, roundly cultrate, in the 9 narrower, 
longer, and more acute. Length 2^ — 2f lines. 

Allied to C. moesta, Eieb. 

Taken at Eannoch, by Mr. E. C. Eye and Dr. F. Buchanan White ; 
also in Fifeshire, by Dr. Power. 

Note. — Fieber described this species in 1848 (Synopsis Corisarum 
EuropjB) under the name of Corisa ahdommalis, but in 1851 (Species 
Generis Corisae) he redescribed it under the name of C. Fahrieiij without 
giving any reason for the change. Wallengren and Flor have since 
adopted the latter name, as also has Fieber again in the " Europaischen 
Ilemiptera," so that as the species has become generally known as O. 
Fahricii, we have not revived the prior name, prefixed to a short and 
somewhat meagre description, although in strictness the latter should 
be the name used. 

{To he concluded in owr next.) 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF BIBIO. 
BY G. H. YEEEALL. 

On the wings of this and allied species of Bihioy only two blackish, 
strongly-marked veins reach the margin, the first of these (the sub- 
costal) ends in the stigma, the other (the cubital) springs from the 
first at about two-thirds of its length, and ends before the tip of the 
wing. From the base of the wing another blackish vein (the discoidal) 
starts, which becomes indistinct about the middle, shortly afterwards 
forking and ending in two indistinct veins below the tip ; this vein, at 
the end of its blackish portion, is connected with the base of the cubital 
by a blackish oblique transverse vein, — which I call the transverse vein, 
as in the whole order of Diptera it is the chief connecting vein between 
the front and hinder portions of the wing. 

B. ANGLicus ; ater, pedihus concolorihus, nigro-pilosus ; $ rufa, nujro- 
pilosa, capite, pleuris, scutello, pedibusque nigris ; nervo transverso 
parte nervi cuhitalis hasali longiori. Long. corp. 3 — 3^ lin. 

The only described European species witli black males and red 

females having black legs are the common hortulanus, Lin., and siculus, 

Lw. From hortidanus it differs as follow^* : — 



1869.] 



269 



ANGLICUS. 

c? ? . Smaller size, averaging ^ 3 J lin., 
alar. 6^ j ? 3J, alar. 6|. 

Transverse vein about 1^ times as long 
as the baaal portion of the cubital 
vein. 

Cubital vein rather wavy. 

Indistinct portion of cubital vein before 
the fork longer. 

Edge of the alulae blackish. 

Sub-costal vein with several bristles on 
it, and costal pubescence stronger. 

Knob of the halteres narrower. 

Joints of the antennae more distinct. 

3. Pubescence on all the abdomen 
blackish. 

Pubescence on the under-side of the 
thorax blackish. 

Hairs on the scutellum all black. 

Belly duller, rather hairy. 

Legs stouter, and all over more thickly 
beset with stronger bristles or hairs, 
which are all black ; the hinder tro- 
chanters are more even at their edge, 
the femora are rougher, hind pair 
sHghtly more clavate,the middle pair 
of legs is especially more thickly 
beset with bristles; the tarsi are 
shorter and stouter, and the close 
short pubescence beneath them is 
blackish-grey. 

Wings not so decidedly milky-white. 

? . Hairs on the abdomen all black, ex- 
cept on the sides of the basal seg- 
ment, where they are pale. 

Few hairs on thorax and tip of scutel- 
lum stronger and darker. 

Pubescence about the head shorter and 
blacker. 

Front rough and dull. 

Legs rather more bristly; tarsi thicker 
and shorter. 

Wings with darker uniform tinge. 



nOETTJLANUS. 

<J ? . Larger size, averaging (J 4 lin., alar. 
1\ ; ? 3|, alar. 8^. 

Transverse vein about J the length of 
the basal portion of the cubital vein. 

Cubital vein nearly straight. 

Edge of the alulae not very dark. 
Sub-costal vein bare or nearly so. 



$ . Pubescence at the base and sides of 
the abdomen whitish. 

Pubescence on the under-side of the 
thorax pale. 

Hairs mostly pale on the scutellum. 

Belly shining, almost bare. 

Legs thinner, and all over more sparingly 
beset with bristles and hairs, which 
are evidently pale on the anterior fe- 
mora ; the hind trochanters are some- 
what notched, the femora are more 
shining ; the middle pair of legs is 
very sparingly clothed with bristles ; 
the tarsi are longer and thinner, and 
the close short pubescence beneath 
them is whitish-grey. 

Wings milky -white, except near the costa. 
? . Hairs on the abdomen all pale. 

Few hairs on thorax and tip of scutellum 
weaker and paler. 

Pubescence about the head partly pale. 

Front smooth and shining. 

Legs slightly less bristly ; tarsi thinner 
and longer. 

Wings with the tip evidently paler. 



270 



[April, 



Loew's variety Mrtipes of Tiortulanus only approaches it in the more 
abundant bristles on the legs, it being larger than the true hortulanus 
with whiter wings, and more white-haired abdomen. 

Erom siculus (Loew, Linnsca i, 344) the female may be at once 
known by the colour of the thorax, which is black, but the male is not 
so readily distinguished ; Schiner (Fauna Austriaca Diptera, ii., 859) 
says that it has the base of the abdomen always more or less with a 
pale pubescence, that the transverse vein is longer than the basal por- 
tion of the cubital vein, and that the wing is darker about the costa, 
but Loew, in the original description says, that the base of the abdomen 
is only sometimes white haired ; siculus is also the same size as hortu- 
lanus, therefore larger than anglicuSj and is confined to the south of 
Europe in Sicily and Dalmatia. The male of marci may be at once 
distinguished by its much larger size and difi'erent neuration of the 
wings, whicli resembles hortulanus. 

I'he species is very abundant in the neighbourhood of London, 
occurring in a garden here (Denmark Hill) by hundreds on leaves of 
shrubs, principally on currant bushes ; the female is, as usual, much 
more sluggish, and therefore apparently rarer than the male, which, on 
sunny days, is continually flying and hovering about the bushes. It 
appears about the third week in April, lasting about a fortnight, almost 
disappearing before the time for hortulanus^ which latter comes out 
about the third week in May ; I believe it is common all over the south 
of England, as it is represented in all collections under hortulanus^ 
though in the British Museum there happen to be only females, which 
may perhaps account for its having been overlooked. There is certainly 
no species described by Meigen, Macquart, Loew, or Zetterstedt, with 
which this can be identical, nor can I find a single description of hortu- 
lanus but what says " allopilosus " or its equivalent ; I call it anglicusy 
not that I approve of local names, but I think it suits well here in op- 
position to siculus, and even supposing it should eventually be found on 
tlic continent, it will show that the species was first noticed in England, 
and is abundant here. 

Denmark Hill, Londou : March, 1869. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES OF LEPIDOPTERA, CONFOUNDED WITH 
OTHERS DESCRIBED BY LINN^US AND FABRICIUS. 

BY ARTHUR G. BUTLER, F.L.S.; Aseistant, Zoological Department, JirU. Mus. 

The following species are some that I have determined during the 
]nvpavatioii of a Catalogue of the Hhopnlocera of Faliriclus : many of 
the errors committed being due to the fact of some authors having 



1869.] 



271 



omitted to examine the figures by Clcrck as compared with those of 
Drury or Cramer, and also the types of the Fabrician species in the 
Banksian collection. 

Genus Euohloe, Hiibner. 

1. — JEucliloe Calleuphenia, Butler. 

^ ? , Anthocharis Eupheno, Hiibner, Samml, Eur. Schmett., 1, pi. 
84, figs. 421—3 (1805) ; but not of Linna)us. 

^ , Germany (obtained from Herr J. J. Becker) ; $ , Gibraltar 
(obtained 18G6 from Mr. Whitcly). B. M. 

This species difiers from UupJieno, Linn, (the male of Selia, Linn.) 
in the male having the prothorax reddish, the orange area of the front 
•wings limited by a blackish streak extending nearly to the anal angle ; 
in UtipJieno the orange is cut off obliquely before it reaches the angle : 
below, both sexes have the hind-wings yellow, varied with white spots 
and marbled with greyish olivaceous ; Eupheno has the hind-wings yel- 
low, not spotted with white, and with three interrupted angulated 
fulvous streaks crossing the wings at regular distances ; Mr. Blackmore, 
who has taken a good many specimens of the latter species in Tangier, 
has generously presented four fine males and a female to the collection : 
this species is figured by Pierret under the name of Douei. 

2. — Euchloe Crameri, Butler. 

Fapilio (D. C.) Belia, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 4, pi. 397, figs. A, B 
(1782) ; but not of Linnaeus.* 

Alee supra alhcet cid basin cinerecs ; anticce maculd disco-cellulan, 
punctis minutis costalihiis apiceque obscure cinereis, maculis tribus pu?ic- 
tisqice ciliaribus albis: posticcd immaculat<s : corpus cinereum,prcB-virescens, 
argenteo-liirtum ; antennce cinerecs, albo-squamoscd, pwicto ad apicem 
clavcsfulvo. 

AlcB anticcs siibtus albcs, macula disco-cellular i, pupilld a^yented^ 
punctisque costalibus nigris ; area apicali olivaceo-viridi, maculas octo 
marginales, sub-argenteas, incequales, limitante: posticce olivaceo-virides, 
maculis plurimis incequalibus argenteis ornaicd : corpus albido-virescens. 

Exp. alar. unc. 1, lin. 10. 

S. Europe (obtained from Herr J. J. Becker). B. M. 

Genus Papilio, Eabricius. 

3. — Papilio zonaria, Butler. 

Fapilio (E, A.) Sino7i, partim , Cramer, Pap. Exot., 4, pi. 317, figs. 
C, D (1782); but not of Eabricius. 



* The Ausonia of lliibncr cannot, stand for this species, but for Dr. lioisduval's Simplonia.—k. G. B. 



272 



[April, 



Alee supra nigrcB,fasciis duahus angustis reef is (quarum onediana 
latior, apud costam hifurcata), lineold intermedia discoidali necmn altera 
(cum puncto) suh-apicali,Jlavido-alhidis ; maculis octo anticis sub-margi- 
nalihus pallidiorihus ; lunulis sex {sexto duplici) postieis alhidis ; macula 
elongatd suh-anali interna coccined : caudd alarum apice ciliisqtce analihus 
alhis. Corpus fuscum, lateraliter pallide fulvo-striatum ; antennae nigrce, 
puncto apicali alhido. 

Ales suhfus multo pallidiores, hrunnece, maculis fasciisque supernis 
partim nigro-marginatis alhidis ; posticcB stria coccined, alam transerrante, 
sul-interno-hasali, ad angulum analem angulatd : corpus fulvo-alhidum. 

Exp. alar. unc. 3, lin. 2. 

St. Domingo (obtained 1855 ; collected by Mr. Tweedie). B. M. 

This is tbe Sinon of Doubleday's list, but a comparison of it with 
the type of the Fabrician species in the Banksian collection shows it to be 
abundantly distinct ; indeed, Mr. Doubleday subsequently became aware 
of this fact, as is evident from a note in his private copy of Boisduval's 
Species G-eneral, " Another sp. see Bank. Cabt." I am indebted for 
this, and many other interesting notes upon Fabrician butterflies, to 
Mr. Osbert Salvin, in whose possession Mr. Doubleday's copy of the 
above work now is, and who kindly lent it to me, to assist me in my 
Catalogue of the Rhopalocera of Fabricius. Zonaria is most nearly 
allied to Pkilolaiis, from which, however, it is abundantly distinct. 

Q-enus Pyeehoptga, Hiibner. 

4. — PgrrJiopgga Verbena, Butler. 

Papilio (P. U.) Fhidias, partim, LinnaBUS ; Clerck, Icones, pi. 44, 
figs. 3, 4 fl764). 

$ Alee supra fuscce, (sneo-nitentes^ posticce ohscuriores ciliis omnibus 
niveis: corpus fuscum, collo anoque coccineo-liirtis ; antennce nigrce. 

Ala subtus fusees, anticarum basi posticarumque area interna ceneo- 
nifentibus, ciliis albis : posticce fascia externo-costali coccinea : corpus aneo- 
fuscum, capite, punctis lateralibus anoque coccineis. 

Exp. alar. unc. 2, lin. 1. 

S. America (from Mr. Milne's collection). B. M. 

This species is closely allied to Acasftis of Cramer, but differs in its 
more robust form, in the wings being more brassy in colouring, with 
scarcely a trace of the blue shot, and in the hind-wings below having a 
scarlet (not yellow) band upon the outer margin. Mr. Hewitson pre- 
ferred that I should describe this species. "We have a good series of 
AcastuSj both sexes, not differing in colour. 



im.] 



278 



Genus Ntctalemon, Dalman. 

5. — N'yctalemon zodiaca, Butler. 

^ $ Al(S supra nigrcB, ad basin virescentes, fascia media commtmi 
lata, aureo-viridi ; anticcd fascia altera lineolari, sitb-apicali, pallidiorej 
striolisque costalihus ad basin aureo-albidis : posticcB caudd cceruleo-albdj 
ciliis albis ; macula squamisque sub-marginalibus analibus : corpus virescens, 
abdomine pallidiore. 

Alee subtus pallide virescentes, fasciis fere velut in JSF. Orontarid^ 
Hiibner {Orontes, Linn.), maculis autem posticis sub-apicalibus in margi- 
nem sub-rotundatis viridibus : corpus thorace albido, abdomine aurantiaco, 
cirrhis maris analibus perlongis, ochreis. Exp. alar. unc. 4, lin. 7. 

JN". China (obtained 1857, from Mr. Fortune's collection). B. M. 

This is the Orontes of Mr. "Walker's catalogue, but is quite distinct 
from the Orontes of Linnaeus and Clerck . 

6. — Nyctalemon Zampa, Butler. 

JPapilio (JSr.) Patroclus, Drury, 111., 1, pis. 7, 8, fig. 1 (1770) ; 
Walker, Lep. Het., 1, p. 8, n. 2 (1854) ; but not of Linnaeus. 

? Alee multo majores, pallidiores, colore fundi discalis postfasciam 
mediam magis difiiso, aredque apicali angustiore ; subtus, fascia media 
alba latior, aliter velut in mare. 

Exp. alar. unc. 6, lin. 7 ; unc. 5, lin. 11. 

Silhet (obtained 1845, from the Eev. J. Stainsforth). 
$ , ? (from Mr. Children's collection). B. M. 

This species is evidently quite distinct from the Patroclus of Lin- 
naeus (Clerck's Icones, pi. 37, fig. 1), which may possibly be the female 
of Patroclaria, Hiibner {Patroclus, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 2, pi. 109, figs. 
A, B), this species, however, seems again distinct from its near ally the 
Hector of "Walker, which we have from Borneo and the Philippines. 

British Museum : March, 1869 



ApJiodiusporcus, a cuckoo parasite on Geotrv/pes stercorarius. — Last autumn, I ex- 
amined the economy of Geotrupes stercorarius in the matter of oviposition,and in doing 
so met with the unexpected fact that Aphodius porcus was parasitic upon it. As such 
a habit must be regarded as a highly abnormal one in a LamelHcorn beetle, and 
consequently requires a considerable amount of proof to establish it, I have given 
my observations somewhat fully, and have added an account of the oviposition of 
Geotrupes stercorarius, both because it is necessary towards understanding the 
proceedings of Aphodius porcus, and because, though supposed to be known by 
everyone, no one appears to be acquainted with the details of it, nor have I been 



274 



(April, 



able to find these recorded, albeit G. stercorarius is, T suppose, abundant in every 
meadow. To observe properly the burrows and tunnels of G. stercorarius^ requires 
the careful raising of considerable pieces of turf, a work of some labour, and not to 
be regarded as beneficial to pasture land. 

Under a patch of cow or horse droppings, I frequently found a Qeotrupes, alone, 
in a burrow of several inches in length ; but, whenever the carrying down of 
pabulum and the deposition of ova were going on, there were invariably a male and 
female beetle in the burrow. 

This buiTow extends nearly vertically downwards to a depth of from six to eight 
or even twelve inches ; and as many as five or six pairs of beetles are sometimes 
at work under one dropping. This vertical burrow is almost always made without 
any excavation, simply by the thrusting of the earth aside as the beetle forces its 
way down. It often happens that, when the mouth of the burrow is beneath the 
centre of the dropping, this opening is kept free for the supply of pabulum, and a 
subsidiary canal is carried along the surface of the ground from this point to the 
edge of the dropping, where the removed earth is ejected. The cavities wherein 
the eggs are laid branch horizontally from the bottom of this burrow in various 
directions, and at slightly varying heights, to the number of six or eight, the lower 
ones being made last. Each branch is about an inch wide, and four or five inches 
long. The earth is removed from these tunnels, and forms the little heaps so con- 
spicuous beside the droppings beneath which stecorarius is at work. Each of these 
horizontal tunnels contains one egg, and a store of pabulum. The rounded further 
end of the tunnel is firmly packed with concentric layers of dung. In the centre 
of these is a cavity, half-an-inch deep, and three-eighths high. Its slightly hollowed 
floor is semi-circular behind, and in front nearly straight. The arched roof descends 
behind to the floor, and the front of the cavity is a perpendicular wall. This cavity 
is carefully lined with, perhaps I ought rather to say is formed of, a layer of earth 
worked to a clay-like consistence, and marked very often inside by the front tibia) 
of the beetles, as if they had been used as trowels. 

The total capacity of the cavity would be sufficient to hold half-a-dozen eggs, 
one only, however, lies loose on the floor j it is quite unsoiled by the earth, nor is 
a loose particle of earth often to be found in the cavity. How the beetles close it 
without allowing earth to fall in, I have been unable to devise any method of 
observing ; it is done comparatively loosely, whereas, as I have mentioned above, 
the dung previously arranged round the end of the tunnel is tightly packed, as is 
also that which afterwards is packed, layer upon layer, into the remaining part of 
the tunnel. The last half or three-quarters of an inch of the tunnel next the 
pei-pcndicular burrow is filled, not with dung, but with earth. 

The egg is -j^^ of an inch in length, rather thicker at one end (where it is -j'u 
inch in thickness, than at the other), and shghtly contracted in the middle ; it is 
of pale straw colour, veiy delicate and easily broken. Before the young larva is 
hatched, the egg increases slightly in length, and becomes of nearly double the 
previous diameter, viz., about ^ inch. This appears to arise from imbibition of 
fluid, and possibly also partly of air. 

These arrangements, so carefully made by Geotruj^es stercorarius^ arc turned to 
their own benefit by A2^hodius jporcus. At or about the time the egg cavity is being 
closed, the $ of A. 2>orcns arrives and makes her way into it, usually, I think, by 



1869.1 



276 



forcing her way through the earthon wall just after it ia closed in. There she eats 
the egg of stercomrius, a mass as large as herself, greater, I suspect, if reckoned 
by weight. My observations do not show how long this takes her, but I should, 
judging from the different stages at which I have seen the operation, consider a 
week as about the time employed. When this is completed, she succeeds in quitting 
the tunnel. The eggs of A. porcus are laid, each by itself in a little spherical 
cavity, as carefully formed as that of stercorariuSy though not lined with earth, but 
similarly much larger than the egg itself, which is almost a sphere of a little under 
inch [in diameter. These little cavities are irregularly disposed in the pabu- 
lum surrounding the cavity made by stercorarms, the space of which is, finally, 
almost entirely used up in affording tne spaces around porcus^ eggs. I have 
counted as many as ten porcus* eggs so disposed, and believe there were frequently 
more, in instances in which I did not count them. In the mean time, the egg of 
stercomrius becomes flaccid and finally disappears j and I have several times seen 
A. porcus' nose applied to it, as if discussing its contents. 

As to the extent to which A. porcus destroys the eggs of stercomrius, I have a 
note, dated Sept. 21st, 1868, that I brought home the contents of 29 tunnels, on ex- 
amining which, 15 appeared undisturbed, 6 contained porcus at work, and 8 had 
been visited and quitted by porcus. In these, the only cavities present were those 
around porcus^ eggs. No trace of stercorarius' eggs remained, and only the dis- 
turbed clay represented its surrounding cavity, 4. _pomts having completed her work 
and disappeared. 

On another occasion (Oct. 6th), I took 13 A. porcus in the tunnels of 0. ster- 
corarius, under one patch of cow dropping. In this instance, only a fourth of 
stercorarius eggs were undisturbed by A. porcus. On two occasions, I have found 
three A. porcus in one egg cavity, and several times two. I did not ascertain 
whether these were <J and 9 > but suppose them to be females accidentally met on the 
same errand. 

I have never taken A. porciis elsewhere than in the egg cavity of G. stercorarius' 
nest, except on one occasion, when, for the purpose of making this comparison, I 
instituted a careful search for it in the loose dung lying on the surface. In about 
an hour I found four. I then devoted an equal time to a search in their favourite 
habitat beside stercorarius' egg, and found twelve. Though several common 
Aphodii and other beetles swarmed in the droppings beneath v^hich stercora.rius was 
at work, I never found any other beetle in his burrows, except an occasional elytron, 
as though only the remains, after some predaceous beetle had devoured it, had been 
accidentally brought down with the stores of pabulum. I once found the remains 
of a beetle squeezed flat against the end of a burrow, obviously by the tight-packing 
process of G. stercorarius. This, on examination, proved to have been an A.porcus^ 
which had probably gone down a little too soon. In undisturbed tunnels, no traces 
of such eggs as those of porcus could be found, though a smaU larva {Aphodiam, ? ) 
occasionally occurred somewhere in the length of the burrow, the egg having 
probably been accidentally brought down. These observations prove that A. porcus 
destroys the egg of G. stercorarius, replacing it by her ovm. Some doubt may 
exist as to her eating it, as it is possible that it is injured by hertibiee, &c., and that 
its contents soak into the sm'rounding matei'ial. Still, were this so, the egg would 
surely sometimes escape : its disappearance would not exist paripassii with porcus* 



276 



[April, 



oviposition ; and, where there is so little room for snperflnoTiB flnid, the draining 
away of tho egg-contents would surely leave some trace. I have, therefore, little 
hesitation in asserting that the egg is eaten by Apliodius porcus. — T. Algernon 
Chapman, Abergavenny, March, 1869. 

Habitats of Ctenicerus pectinicomis and C. cwpreus. — Stephens in his " Manual 
of British Beetles " assigns as locality for the former of these species ; " grassy 
places in elevated districts and to the latter, " similar situations with the 
foregoing." I have, however, always found C. cupreus at considerably higher 
altitudes than C. pectinicomis. Thus the latter abounds in June, in meadows about 
Stockport and Staleybridge ; but, on ascending the flanks of Shaw Moor, it ia 
entirely replaced by C. cupreus, at the height of about eight hundred feet above the 
sea level. In central Europe the same rule appears to hold good, C. pectinicomis 
prevailing at the base of the mountains in Bohemia, whilst cupreus (along with 
castaneus in smaller numbers) ascends to about two thousand feet above the sea. — 
J. W. Slater, Lord Street, Halifax, ^th January, 1869. 

A Trogosita destructive to silk. — On a recent visit to Basle, ray friend Mr. H. 
Knecht presented me with a specimen of an apparently undescribed Trogosita, 
several of which were found alive in the interior of a bale of raw silk imported 
direct from China. The beetles (or their larvce ? ) had gnawed through some of tho 
tightly packed layers of silk, thus materially injuring its value for industrial purposes. 
— Albert Muller, Penge, S.E., March, 1869. 

Note on Apion scrohicolle, Gyll. — This insect, of which the sole recorded locality 
is England, appears to have hitherto escaped a place in our lists. It was described 
by Gyllenhal in Schdnherr's Syn. Ins., v, p. 379, 9, and a translation of that des- 
cription is to be found at p. 13 of the recent monograph of the Apionides (* L'Abeille') 
by M. Wencker, who places it next to A. suhulatum, in the second section (having 
the rostrum gradually subulated, and the tarsi black in both sexes) of his first gi'oup, 
Subulirostres. M. Wencker reproduces Gyllenhal's locality without addition or 
comment ; and the insect is accredited to Britain only in De Marseul's catalogue, 
which of course also follows the latter author. It is described as black, almost 
glabrous, with a short wide head, of which tho vertex is convex and smooth ; a 
rostrum as long as the head and thorax, slightly curved, distinctly subulate towards 
the apex, and briUiant ; a transverse thorax, almost half as wide again as long, 
strongly and closely punctured, with a short deep stria in the middle of its base ; 
wide elytra, rounded at the shoulders and extremity, with projecting humeral callus, 
rather deep punctured striae, and flat, finely shagreened, glabrous, slightly shining 
interstices ; and long, stout, black legs.— E. C. Eye, 7, Park Field, Putney, S.W., 
Ma/rch, 1869. 

Discovci'y of a new British Bee (Colletes cunicularia, L.). — The announcement 
of an addition to the list of the British Apidce is an incident of rare occurrence ; 
in my opinion this should not be the case, and I am satisfied it would bo otherwise if 
Entomologists, when visiting remote or rarely-frequented localities, particularly at 
early periods of the year, were to capture a few Hyuienoptcra as well as the insects 
of the more favourite orders, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. 



1869. J 



277 



On the Ist of March I received from Mr. Nicholas Cooke, of Liscard, near 
Birkenhead, a pair of bees, which he informed he could not find described in my 
book on the Bees of Great Britain, and as this opinion was verified by his brother, 
Mr. Benjamin Cooke, he felt satisfied they were likely to prove new. The bees 
were forwarded to me, and I at once recognized them as an unrecorded British 
species of the genus Colletes ; the Apis cunicularia of Linne, and the C. hirta of 
most continental authors : it is a fine addition to our fauna, being the largest spe- 
cies found in Europe. 

Without an account of its capture, it would appear strange that so conspicuous 
an insect should not have been previously discovered. Mr. Cooke informs me that 
in 1867, his son Isaac (accompanied by his friend Mr. Samuel Holdsworth, Jun., a 
Lepidopterist,) was on an entomological excursion at the Underclifi", Isle of Wight, 
and that between Yentnor and Niton, in the month of May, his son captured four 
males and five females ; this is an early period of the season, when entomologists 
rarely visit distant localities — I allude to those who make annual excursions for 
fresh air and exercise ; this is usually done about the end of summer or during the 
autumn. This fact will, in some degree, account for the Colletes having remained 
previously undiscovered. All the species of the genus delight in forming colonies 
in sandy banks, or olio's j therefore, the chance of others finding the new bee is 
rendered more probable than if it belonged to a group of the more solitary species 
of the family. I hope myself to have at least the pleasure of searching for it 
during the coming season. — Frederick Smith, British Museum, March, 1869. 

Two additions to the British Trichojptera. — I have recently received the two 
species noticed below. 

1. Halesus auricollis, 'Tictet (Phry. auricollis, Pict., Recherch., p. 141, t. 8, fig. 1 ; 
Hal, nigricornis, Brauer, Neurop. Aust., p. 47, nec. Pictet), belonging to the true 
genus HalesuSy as restricted by me {i.e. posterior wings of S without a pouch). A 
moderately large dark insect, with shining smoky-grey anterior wings, with darker 
pterostigma, and with a large and conspicuous white spot at the thyridium, and 
indistinct paler irrorations. Taken in some numbers at Rannoch, Perthshire, by 
Dr. Buchanan White, to whose kindness I am indebted for a fine series. A detailed 
description is postponed for my proposed first supplement to the "Trichoptera 
Britannica." I have carefully compared it with Pictet's type in the Biitish Museum, 
and with Brauer's types in my own collection, and consider it to agree sufiSciently 
well, though there are some very slight discrepancies. The suspicion expressed by 
me in the " Annual " for 1868, p. 4, that my guttatipennis might be identical with 
Pictet's species, is unfounded. That species is thoroughly distinct, and my exponent 
of it still unique as British, though I have since seen Swiss examples. 

2. Tinodes Schmidtii, Kolenati, (Potamaria Sch^nidtii, Kol., Gen. et spec. Trichop., 
pt. 1, p. 100, pt. 2, p. 229 ; Diplectrona Schmidtii, Brauer, Neurop. Aust., p. 38). 
A small insect belonging to the group of T. piisilla, diff'ering totally from our re- 
corded species by its dark coloration ; the wings being smoky -black with a more or 
less distinct half-moon-shaped golden spot in the apical half, formed by haii's of 
that colour. Notwithstanding its diversity in colour from most other species of the 
genus, it is a true Tinodes, as the appendices alone would prove, these being all 



278 



[April, 



arranged after one plan in all the species ; other black species arc known on the 
Continent. I have seen five examples taken at the end of the summer of 1868, in 
Monsall Dale, Derbyshire, by Mr. Edwin Brown, who liberally presented mo w ith 
a pair. It affects mountainous districts, and is common in central Europe. I have 
a fine series from Carinthia, taken by Professor Zeller, and types from Herr Brauer, 
— R. McLachlan, Lewisham, 1st March, 1869. 

Note on Xylina conformis. — Mr. E. Newman seems to think that very little 
is known about this rarity ; so I will iaform your readers that I had an old 
example which was taken near Halifax, in spring, many years since. I did 
not know what it was, but felt sure it was new to our list. It was seen soon after- 
wards by several London lepidopterists, but was considered by them as only a 
variety of X. rMzolitha (lamhdaj ; this I never agreed with, but put it aside, for 
further information ; it shows the reniform stigma distinctly red, as do the more 
recent ones. Some years since my old friend Mr. John Scott was in Wales, and obtained 
a fine pair of conformis from the original captor : one of these Mr. Scott most 
kindly gave to me ; and as soon as I saw it, my attention was called to my old 
hybernated specimen. On comparison, I found the latter much paler, but still 
preserving the character of the Welsh insect ; there is a marked difference between 
that and the continental examples that I have seen, which latter are broader in 
the fore-wing, and more silvery ; the Welsh specimens are darlc rich chocolate. 
When I received Mr. Scott's example, I gave my original one to my friend Mr. 
Thomas Wilkinson, of Scarborough, who still has it. I should like to know whether 
the specimens of the allied species, ZincTcenii, taken in England, vary in the same 
manner ? 

T have seen four or five British individuals of X. conformis. The late Eev. G. 
E. Eead had a specimen from the original captor ; at his death it was still among 
his duplicates, and when I packed up his insects to send to Mr. Stevens for sale, I 
put it in its right place in the cabinet, it was sold with the others, but I know not 
who bought it.— T. H. Allis, Osbaldwick, York, March 3r(Z, 18G9. 

Leucania alhivuncta at Yaxley. — In 1862 or 1864, which, I am not quite sure, 
it was one of my last visits to Yaxley, I happened to want a few fresh specimens of 
L. lithargyriaj and on picking them out, took, what I thought, a small variety, which 
I have had in my cabinet ever since. Early this year my friend II. Doublcday was 
kind enough to send me a foreign type of alhipuncta, (a ? darkly coloured), as soon 
as I saw this, it called to mind this example, which I sent to Mr. Doubleday to ex- 
amine. I have his reply to day, that it is a male of alhipuncta. This is curious, as it 
is the oldest recorded capture of this rare insect in tliis country.— Id. 

Curious variety of the larva of Vanessa cardui. — The following note contains 
tho solution of one enigma, but presents another for investigation and solution in 
its turn. 

On July 17th, 1865, Dr. Knaggs sent me (from Folkestone) a larva ho had 
found feeding on Mallow {Malva sylvestris). It was then half-an-inch long, with 
seven rows of spines, all black in colour, except those in the dorsal and sub-dorsal 
rows on tho 6th, 8th, and 10th segments, which were palo primrose-yellow ; tho 



1809.] 



279 



head and upper surface of body black, with a double dorsal stripo of pale yellow, 
and a stripe of same colour above tho legs ; the belly and prologs deep olive-brown. 
Unfortunately it died when about to moult, and though at the tinae I reported it 
as an immature V. cardui, yet my figure remained doubtful. 

This then was my enigma — to settle whether this larva was cardui or not. 

In the last week of September, 1868, the Kev. E. Horton sent me some of a 
number of larva) he had recently taken, varying considerably in growth, but all 
quite similar to the one above described, and found also on the same food, MaVva 
sylveatris. The mallow plants were growing chiefly on tho top of a hilly grass 
field near a hedge, and Bome in a clover field on the other side of the hedge, all 
witliin a radius of fifty yards ; and Mr. Horton's attention was arrested by tho 
mixed-up appearance of certain of the leaves. 

On examination, he found the edges of some were drawn together by threads 
into a kind of purse, each containing a larva ; and he noticed that in every case 
but one, the larva was eating away the upper-surface of the leaf within the purse. 
The youngest of those I had the pleasure to receive from Mr. Horton on the 25th 
of September was precisely like the figure taken in 1865, but had attained nearly 
an inch in length, and showed indications of a narrow, short, oblique yellow streak 
from near each spiracle backwards, and the tips of the yellow spines were black. 

After moulting, the change in its appearance was very great ; and its manner 
of constructing a kind of tent by spinning three or four mallow leaves together, 
and its habit of feeding concealed therein until its ravages had partly exposed it to 
view, and then abandoning its ruined abode and making another with fresh leaves, 
reminded me so much of Atalanta, that I now began to think I had been quite 
wrong in supposing the species to be ca/rdui. 

The growth was very rapid, the primrose-yellow and the black spines were 
replaced by others uniformly of a dirty greenish-yellow tint ; the whole skin of 
the upper part of the body was now black, but the extraordinary and puzzling 
feature now assumed was a dense covering of pale grey hairs, nearly as long as 
the spines, and almost hiding them ; such «, combination I had not seen before, but 
here I had larvae both spiny and hairy. 

I will here confine myself to the details of one, which will do for all the others. 

October 9th, larva full grown, about If inch long, and moderately stout in 
proportion ; the second segment bearing only two spines, snb-spiracular in position ; 
the third and fourth each bearing four spines, sub-dorsal and spiracular ; but all the 
other segments, save the thirteenth, bearing seven spines, of which the middle or 
dorsal one stands a little in advance of the rest, close to the front edge of each 
segment ; all these spines were branched and bulbed at the base, and the sub- 
spiracular series formed the centres of fascicles of hairs nearly as long as them- 
selves. The body blackish above, with a deep black dorsal stripe, and a primrose- 
yellow stripe running above the legs, but hardly indicated on the thoracic 
segments ; the belly and ventral legs deep olive-brown, marked with golden- 
ochreous, generally much hidden from view by the grey hairs diverging from around 
the base of each sub-spiracular spine, which there interrupts the before-mentioned 
yellow stripe ; a little above the said stripe there is on each segment a slight 
streak of yellow, sloping upwards to the segmental divisions. The spines arc dirty- 
greenish in colour, with their bases showing slightly pinkish. 



2A0 



I April, 



Tho Bpiracles aro grocnish-grey, with black centres. The head black, and, liko 
the body, covered with pale grey hairs. 

October 10th, after first suspending itself to the top of its dwelling, the larva 
selected for description left its cave and crawled to the gauze cover of its cage, and 
on the 11th suspended itself there, and became a chrysalis on the 13th. 

Tbe pupa about an inch in length, moderately stout, and of the usual Vanessa 
form. 

Tho ground colour rather dark brown, abdominal divisions bluish, a narrow 
interrupted stripe of ash colour down the back of the abdomen, and two broader 
pale ashy stripes along the sides, the superior margin of each wing-cover pale ash 
colour, the antennoo cases and their knobbed tips marked with ashy, an obscure 
streak of same tint on the middle of the wing covers, the spikelets ashy, but glossed 
with gold or silver according to the angle of light The dark portions of wing cases 
blackish, the thorax and abdomen sprinkled with atoms of black. 

Early in the first week of February, 1869, Vanessa cardui came forth ; no doubt 
prematurely, from being kept in a warm room. 

My other pupa? are still alive, but Mr. Horton having kept his out of doors has 
not been so successful, and reports them all dead. 

My old puzzle of 1865 is thus made clear, but as Mr. Horton suggests, there 
now arises a question as to the how and the why of the larva's hairy coat. 

Had these mallow-eaters become hairy through eating the downy mallows, 
whilst the thistle-fed specimens, as I have seen more than once, are clothed with 
spines alone ? 

Or were they a second brood, thus clothed for protection against possible cold 
in late autumn ? 

How do the second brood of cardui manage in the South of Franco ? — Wm. 
BucKi-ER, Emsworth, March, 1869. 

Winter Cojptwres. — I send a list of some of my winter captures, as follows : — 
Borhonis pedestris, December 10th ; Exapate gelatella, ? , December 15th, ^ , Jan- 
uary 7th ; Gracilaria elongella, Decemhcr 30th', Hylernia leiicophcearia and Tortri- 
codes hyemana, January 20th ; E. progemmaria^ February 6th ; Cidaria psittacata, 
February 9th ; Eriogaster lanestris, February 22nd. — C. W. Dalf, Glanville's 
Wootton, Dorset, 12th March, 1869. 

Ea/rly appearance of Eupithecia^. — E. fraxinata ; on the 17th January a friend 
brought me a fine ? fresh from the pupa. E. helveticaria ; this species appeared 
in my breeding cage on January 19th. E. denotata; a fine $ appeared February 
4th. E. alhipunctata ; Manchester may be fairly added to the list of localities for 
this species, an example having appeared on February 28th, from larva) collected 
here last autumn.— Chas. Campbell, 11-, Blackburn Street, Hulme, Manchester, 
nth March, 1869. 

Nepticula minusculella at Chcshunt.— On February 22nd I bred a specimen of 
Ne2->ticula minusculella, from larvoe in pear leaves collected at Cheshunt last August. 
— W. C. Boyd, Cheshunt, Herts, March, 1869. 

[This species must therefore now be added to the Bntish list. Previously 
having seen only captured specimens, I was cautious on the subject— see Nat. 
Hist. Tincina, vii, p. 166.— H. T. S.] 



18«!9 I 



281 



Notes on the Lepidoptera inhabiting Rosshire. — Wishing to learn something of 
tho Insect Fauna of the North of Scotland, I, in the beginning of June, 1868, 
transferred my Lares and Penates (to wit, nets, setting-boards, et id genus omne) 
to the picturesque parish of Contin, in the county of Ross ; and pitched ray tent 
beside the birch-clad rock of Tor Achilty. Before beginning an enumeration of 
the Lepidoptera observed, a few words on the character of the country may not bo 
out of place, besides being of use to any future explorer. Taking the picturesque 
little Loch Achilty as a convenient centre, we find a series of rocky heath-covered 
hills sloping down on all sides to the lake. These hills are nearly to their summits 
clad with bii-ch forests, but one, from its numerous oak trees, is appropriately named 
" the rock of the oaks," (Craig Darroch). To the north and south of the Loch run 
the rivers Conan and Blackwater, bordered by hills of the same nature as those 
surrounding the Lake. Nine miles to the north-east of Achilty lies the great dome- 
shaped mass of Ben Wyvis (" the extraordinary Mountain"), famed for being one 
of the few mountains in Britain that always possesses snow. Altogether the 
scenery is among tho best in Scotland, and good scenery I think enhances con- 
siderably the pleasures of collecting. Few things are more enjoyable than tho 
*' pipe " while watching the hills getting bluer and bluer in the twilight, and the 
shades of night slowly enveloping the sugared trees, while one thinks of all the 
rare beauties fast flying to the treacherous feast. The soil of the district is very 
sandy and rocky, and the climate dry and noted for its remarkable mildness. I 
was told by a French botanical friend that the place greatly resembled in appear- 
ance the Forest of Fontainebleau, a fact, which taken in connection with the 
occurrence of certain insects here and with the character that Mr. Stainton gives 
of Fontainebleau, is rather curious. What Mr. Stainton remarks in the " Annual " 
for 1868, is to the following effect : " that Fontainebleau, with its sandy soil and 
numerous rocks, is a particularly warm locality and that some insects occur here which 
are not again met with till the collector has proceeded 250 miles further towards the 
south." The insects I refer to are Acronycta megacephala, Macaria notata, &c., which 
seem to be found from the south nearly to the north of England, appearing again 
here in the north of Scotland, without (as far as our knowledge extends) inhabiting 
any intermediate localities. In connection with the appearance here of southern 
species, I may mention that I found, among plants, Rhamnus frangula, hitherto a 
doubtful native of Scotland (recorded from Ayrshire), and Fumaria hihemica, not I 
believe recorded from any locality in Britain north of Derbyshire ; and among land 
Mollusca, Helix aculeata, Zonites excavatus, Pupa ringens, &c., none of which were 
supposed to occur so far noi-th in Britain. 

Sugar proved very successful, especially in June (Mr. T. Blackburn's untiring 
energy contributing greatly to this desirable result, while his pleasant company 
enlivened the time when waiting for the darkness that luowZdnoi come). Altogether 
59 species of Noctuina visited the sugar, as well as 13 other species of Lepidoptera 
(including Orgyia antiqua entangled by the wings). I also noticed a squirrel one 
day paying attention to the old sugar. Honeysuckle and heather blossom produced 
many species, and the burrows of the goat moth a few. 

In the following Ust I have mentioned every species (to the end of the Tort-dcina) , 
as few, if any, of the insects of this northern county have been recorded previously : 
the Diumi and Nocturni are few in number as compared with succeeding groups. 



2S2 



[April, 



About half of the Scottish Oeometrce are represented. Both of the 2 Scottish 
DrepanulcE. One-third of the British Pseudo-Bomhyces. Half of the Scottish 
species of Noctuce, and but a small portion of the remaining groups. It must be 
remembered, however, that I was but a short time in the district, and that the 
country worked was all of one character. The numbers of species in the difierent 
groups are : — 

Diumi, 13. DrepanulcB, 2. Deltoides, 1. Cramhites, 7. 

Nocturn% 19. Pseudo-Bomhyces, 9. Pyralides, fi. Tortrices, 39. 

QeometrcB, 72. Noctuce, 81. 
Pieris hrassicce. P. rapo}. P. napi. 

Argynms EitpJirosyne, June 5th j A. Selene, both common ; Euphrosyne is by 
no means a common species in Scotland, whilst Selene is perhaps one of the com. 
monest of those " not common everywhere." Vanessa urticce, 2nd brood July 9th. 
Pyrameis Atalanta, not very common. Pyrameis cardui, June 22nd ; hybernated 
larvae, in July. Satyrus Semele, one worn specimen, August 17th. 8. Janira, 
June 23rd, very abundant. Chortohius Davus, June 20th (the northern form, C. 
Typhon), C. Pamphilus June 3rd. Lycccna ^Zeicis, June 16th. Thanaos Tages, June 5th, 
not common, a rare butterfly in Scotland. Smerinthus populi, June 9th ; larvse in 
August, on aspen. Sphinx convoVvuli, a dead specimen brought to me in Sep- 
tember J the ova — it was a female — were well developed. Macroglossa stellatarum, 
larvae on Galium vervm. Cossus Ugniperda, larvae in birch trees. The sap exuding 
from the burrows, as usual, was a great source of enjoyment to many insects, 
five or six species of Lepidoptera being among the number. The toads (whose names 
were legion) seemed to be aware of the insect-alluring powers of the infested trees, 
and held nocturnal revels among them. One tree, which I passed almost every 
night in returning from sugaring, had seldom fewer than four of these bright- 
eyed monsters in attendance. Hepialus hectus, June 30th ; scarce. H. sylvinus, 
June 19th ; H. velleda, June 19th (H. humuU, which I especially wished to find, 
thinking there might be some tendency to variation, did not turn up). 

Litlwsia mesomella, June 22nd, not common. The half-grown larvae in October. 

The food of the caterpillar seems not to be entirely confined to cryptogamic 
plants, as I found one on the common heather (Calluna), the leaves of which it 
devoured with a good appetite, not only while in my possession, but when in the 
hands of Mr. Buckler, to whose tender care it was consigned. Euthemonia russula, 
June 4th j larva in October. Chelonia plantaginis, June 20th ; 0. caja, June 28th. 
On July 26th saw some larvae of C. caja about the third of an inch long, feeding on 
black currant leaves — rather a strange selection of the mother moth ! Arctia 
fuliginosa, June 19th, common. Larvae common in September. A. menthastri, 
June 8th (at Perth, May 2nd) ; larvae full-fed August 16th. Orgyia fascelina, larvae 
not common June and October. 0. antique,, August loth, very common. From 
the number of batches of infertile eggs to be seen on the birch trees, many females 
seem to die unimpregnated ; yet their power of attracting the opposite sex is 
great. On various occasions I placed a female on a plant just outside of the 
window, and in less than half-an-hour one or more males would appear and hunt 
about till the object of attraction was discovered. At other times not a male 
would be seen near the house— probably not nearer than about 200 yards off. One 



1809.) 



curious thing to be noticed in regard to the power of attraction is, that it wa» 
apparently stronger at a distance than quite close to the female, for the maleg 
seemed to find their way easily to the window, but when there it took them some 
little time and trouble to find the exact situation of the lady. Demas coryli, larvas 
not scarce. Pcecilocampa populi, larvae, Bombyx ruhi, June 9th. Bomhyx calluna^^ 
larvae common, but no moths seen. Saturnia carpini, imago and larvee, Runvia 
craicegata, Venilia, maculata, June 4th. Metrocampa margaritata, June 12th j 
Ellopia fasciaria, June 3rd. Odontopera hidentata, June 3rd, Selenia Vmaria,* 
larvas : Crocalli§ elinguaria, July 31 st. Ayriphydasis hetulariaf June 6th, Cleora 
Uchenariaj June 22nd, Boarynia repandata, June 4th. Gnophos obscurata, Aug, 
4th. Geometra papilionaria, June 29th, Ephyra pendularia, June 4th. Acidalia, 
hisetata, July 7th. A. fumata, June 5th, A. aversata, July 1st. Cabera pusaria 
June 3rdf , Macaria notata, June 3rd. M. Uturata, June 5th. Fidonia atomaria, 
June 2nd.t F. piniaria^ June 3rd jf F, pinetaHaj June 26th ; everywhere in the 
district, among Vaccinium myrtillus Aspilates strigillaria^ not common. Lomaspilis 
marginata, June 6th. Cheimatohia horeata^ a few larvae. Oporobia dilutata, Oct. 
12th. La/rentia didymata, July 22nd. L. coesiata, June 8th. L, salicata, June 
20th, Ben Wyvis. L. oUvata, July 28th. L. pectinitaria June 4th. Emmelesia 
alcTiemillata, June 11th. E. ericetata^ not common, July 27th. E. hlandiataj rare, 
June 27th. Eupithecia ncmata, June 3rd. Eupithecia succenturiata, E. dbsynthiata, 
July 9th, E. tenuiata, July 17th, not common. E. sobnnaia, July 31st. Eupithecia 
satyrataj E. pumilata, June 5th, very abundant in one place. E. rectangulata^ June 
29th. Thera juniper ata, September. T. simulata, July 1st. T. variata, June 4th.'j' 
Eypsipetes impluviata, June 6th.t H. elutata, July 10th. Melanthia ocellata, June 
3rd. Melanippe tristata, June Srd.f M. suhtristata, J une 16th. M. montanata, June.f 
M. Jluctuata, July 2nd, brood ; Coremia munitata, June 11th, not uncommon in the 
garden ; rare on the hill sides. C. ferrugata, June 2nd.f Camvptogramma hilineataf 
June 26th. Phibalapteryx lignata^ July 16th. Cidaria psittacata, September 23rd. 
C. miata^ October 2ud. C. corylata (larvag) , and mr. albo-crenata, June 3rd. C. rus- 
sata, June 13th. 0. immanatay July 3rd. 0. prunata^ July 14th. C. testata, July 
31st, C.fulwata^ July 1st. C. dotata, July 2nd. Eulolia mensuraria, July 18th, rare. 
E. palumbaria, June 3rd, very common. Anaitis plagiata, June 26th. Chesias 
spartiata, September 26th. C. obliquaria, not common, June 18th. Platypteryx 
lacertula, June 6th, larvae on birch. P. falcula, June 3rd, larvae on birch. Bicra- 
nura furcula, larvae not common. D. vinula, larvae common. Pygaera bucephala^ 
June 6th, larvae. Clostera reclusa, larvae on aspen and sallow. Notodonta 
eameUna, larvae. N. dictcBa, larvae on aspen. N. dictoBoides^ larvae on birch. 
N. dromedarius, July 7th, larvee on birch. Ptilodontis palpina, larvae. Thy- 
atira hatis, July 6th, Cymatophora duplaris, July l7th. C. or, June 8th, larvae 
on aspen. C. jlavicornis, larvae. Acronycta psi, July 18th. A. leporina, June 6th, 
larvae on birch. A. megacepJialay June 12th, larvae on aspen ; apparently the only 
Scottish locality for this species. A. ligustri, June 9th, larvae and pupae from ash. 
A. rumicis, June 5th, larvae. A. menyanthidis, June 5th, larvae on Myrica. A. myricce^ 
July 7th, one at sugar, in good condition — surely very late? Leuccmia pallenst 
August 5th. L. lithargyria^ June 20th. Hydroecia nictitans, August 16th, H. 

* There is no doubt of the species, as the imago has emerged (under the influence of artifldal heat> 
— F. B. W. 

i Not the earliest appearance ; examples seen in Perthshire some time previously.— F. B. W. 



284 



[April, 



micacea, Angust 11th. At light, Xylopliasia rutea, June 6th. X. polyodon, June 
23rd. Matnestra anceps, June 27th. Apamea hasilinea, June 8th. A gemina, 
June 15th; A. nnanimis, June 12th. Caradrina cuhicularis, June 22nd,* and 
September 22nd, 2nd brood. Rusina tenehrosa, June 8th. Agrotis suffusa, June llth. 
A. exclamationis, June 10th. A. aq^iilina, August 10th. A. porpliyrea, June 19th, 
larvae. Triphcena fimbria, August 3rd. T. orhona, Jtme 29th. T. pronuha, Jnly 
27th. Noctua augur, June 23rd. N. plecta, June 3rd, and larvae. N. c-nigrum, 
June l7th. N. triangulum, June 24th. N. hrunnea, June 12th. N. jestiva, June 
20th. N. confiua, July 2 let. A moth that puzzled me is, Mr. Doubleday kindly 
told me, apparently a curious variety or aberration of this species. N. Daklii, July 
21st. .N". rui;i, June 21th. A^. wmi^rosa, July 16th. ^. 6a ja, July 27th. N.neglecta, 
August 1st. N. xanthographa, July 27th ; altogether the genus Noctua was well 
represented. Orthosia suspecta, July 25th. 0. macilenta, September 25th. An- 
chocelis rufma, Sepcember 22nd. A. litura, September 22nd. Oerastis vacdnii, 
September 25th. Xanthia ferrvginea, September 22nd. Ewperia fulvago, July 
31st. Dianthcecia capsincola, larvsB in capsules of Lychnis vespertina. Not more 
than one or two of this plant were to be found in the neighbourhood, and yet they 
had been found out by the Dianthcecia. Epunda nigra, September 22nd, males 
scarce, females common. Miselia oxyacanthoe, October 2nd. Agriopis aprilina, 
Phlogophora meticulosa, June 10th. Euplexia lucipara, June 8th. Aplecta occulta, 
June 22nd. Aplecta tincta, June 16th. Eadena adusta, June 8th. H. protea^ 
August 7th. H. dentina, June 9th. H. oleracea, June 8th, and larvae. H. pisi, 
June 23rd. H. thalassina, June 4th, and larvae. H. contigua, June 12th. R. 
rectilinea, June llth. Cloantha solidaginis, August 12th. Calocampa vetusta, 
September 22nd, larvae. C exoleta, September l8th. Cucullia umhratica, June 
24th. Anarta myrtilli, June llth, larvae. Hahrostola urticoi, June 23rd. Plusia 
chrysitis, July 6th. P. festucce, P. V-aureum, June llth. P. gamma, June 9th j 
August 7th, 2nd brood. P. interrogationis, July 9th. Amphipyra tragopogonis, 
August 10th. Mania typica, July 7th. Stilhia anomala, August 5th. PJiytometra 
anea, June 5th. Hypena prohoscidalis, June 12th. Pyrausta purpuralis, Pyrausta 
ostrinalis, June 3rd. Botys fuscalis, June 2nd. Pionea forficalis, June 29th. 
Scopula lutealis, Scoparia amhigualis, 8. atomalis. Crambus pinetellus, July 8th. 
C. Warringtonellus, scarce, or more probably overlooked. C. tristellus, July 10th. 
C cuhnellus, C. pratellus, June 2nd. Phycis ahietella, July, one bred. Melid 
sociella, July 8th. Halias prasinana, June 8th. Sarrothripa revayana, July 31st, 
one beaten out of an oak. Tortrix corylana, common at sugar. T. ministrana, 
June 3rd. T. adjunctana, one or two specimens, July 10th. Leptogramma Tre- 
veriana, a few near aspens, August 16th. Peronea mixtana, P. variegana, August 
7th. P. maccana, September l7th. P. ferrugana, August 10th. Teras caudana, 
T. contaminana, Penthina picana, June 26th. P. 6e<ule<ana, July 18th. P. prce- 
longana, June 5th. P. pruniana, P. ochromelcena, June 3rd. P. sauciana, Pardia 
tripunctana, June 8th. Sericoris micana, Mixodia Schulziana, M. palu^trana, Juno 
26th J no fir trees within a mile or two of this reputcd-fii'-haunting species' 
localities. Orthota;nia antiquana, Cnephasia mv^culana, ,Juno 3rd. Phoxopteryx 
unguicana, June 2nd. P. uncana, P. myrtillana, P. ramana, Uyperm^cia angustana, 



• May 9th, at Perth 



1869] 



285 



Pcvdisca solandriana, J u]y 18th. Epld'irpii'iliora himacxiJarm, Kn^nt 15th. Coccyx 
ustoniaculana, Dicrorampha plwnhagana, June 3rd. Orapholita ulicetana_ 0. Scopo- 
liana, Xyhypoda Fahriciana, Eupoecilia ciliella, beginning of June, end of June, and 
end of July, among heather. I sent a specimen of this to Mr. Barrett,* as E. 
subroseana, as he had expressed a desire to see the heath-frequenting species re- 
corded under this name (vide E. M. M., vol. v, p. 246). He, however, kindly told 
mo that it was the above species. The few specimens I took vary much. The 
true subroseana does not appear to be a northern or heath-frequenting species. 
Argyrolepia suhhaumanniana, Aphelia pratana. — F. Buchanan White, Perth, Marchy 
1869. 

Bullettino della Socictd Entomologica Italiana ; anno primo ; Firenze, 1869. 

We announced some time since that, through the exertions of Mr. A. H. Haliday, 
long resident at Lucca, combined with those of leading Italian Entomologists, an 
Entomological Society had been established in Italy ; and we recently had the 
pleasure of receiving the first part of their Bulletin, which is most creditable. It 
is occupied, as it should be, chiefly by articles on Italian insects, by various authors, 
among whom we see the well-known names of Rondani, Piccioli, and Ghiliaui, with 
others not yet so familiar. A coloured plate is devoted to a Hymenopteron de- 
scribed by Piccioli as Astata Costce (is not this a $ of J., oculata, Jurine? ). Four 
parts, of 80 pages each, will be published annually. We have private information 
that the second will contain a paper by Mr. Haliday, on a new species of Cassida^ 
collected by him in Sicily, which he proposes to name C. sucedce, accompanied by 
figures of the larva; it frequents Suceda fruticosa. 

The establishment of this Society institutes a new era in Italian Entomology. 
Hitherto the numerous valuable memoirs by the workers in that, by nature, much- 
favoured land, have been almost useless to most students, through having been 
published in some one or other of the Transactions of the Academies devoted to 
general science, and which exist here in very few libraries ; the Bulletin of the new 
society will, on the contrary, gain a wide circulation. 

Mr. Wilson Saunders, of Hillfield, Reigate, has, with his usual generosity, 
undertaken to act as agent of the Society in England, and gentlemen desirous of 
becoming members should communicate with him, or with Mr. Haliday, YillaPisani, 
Lucca. The annual subscription is ten shillings in England, for which the Bulletin 
will be forwarded free. 

ENT0M0L0GICA.L SOCIETY OF LoNDON ; IZth Fehruaryy 1869. — H. W. Bates, Esq., 
F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Wynne Foot, of Dublin, was elected a Subscriber. 

Mr. Butler exhibited a living locust belonging to the genus ConocepTialus, which 
had been found in the beginning of the month, on board a vessel arrived from the 
West Coast of Africa. According to the captain's account, a swarm of these insects 
had alighted upon the vessel, and several had arrived alive in the Thames ; the 
specimen exhibited had not eaten anything since being in Mr. Butler's possession. 

Professor Westwood exhibited two NycteHbidoe, from Ceylon, parasitic upon bats, 
a Strehla and a Nyctei-ihia. These insects were prepared as microscopic objects, by 
first being squeezed between the leaves of a book, afterwards placed upon the slide, 
and hot canada-balsam poured upon them. 

* Mr. Barrett h is inadvertently stated in hi.s interesting notice of certain species of EupoecUia, that 
I took this species near Kirkwall. It should have been near Diugwall.— F. B. W. 



286 



Mr. Smith exhibited a collection of honey-beea (Apis) from all parta of the 
world, together with pieces of the comb of several species. Being engaged on the pre- 
paration of a supplement to his monograph of the genus published a few years 
since in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, he solicited the assistance of 
any gentleman who possessed specimens of exotic honey-bees. The species 
exhibited were A. mellifica ; A. Ugustica in all sexes; A. fasciata in Sill sexes (con- 
sidered by Gerstacker as only a form of Ugustica,^ but, in Mr. Smith's opinion, quite 
distinct) ; A. indica, male and worker from Calcutta ; A. nigrocincta (according to 
Gerstacker, only a var. of indica) ; A.floraliSy the smallest species (worker=Zobafa 
of Smith) ; A. dorsaliSf the largest species {testacea. Smith var.) ; all forms of a 
species from the Cape, which might possibly be only Ugustica j and a queen from 
Japan, sent by Mr. Lewis, which was probably only mellifica. 

Mr. Druce exhibited a collection of butterflies from the Chontales mines, 
Nicaragua, formed by Mr. Belt. The President made some remarks on this col- 
lection, and also on the beetles collected by Mr. Belt at the same place ; the lattei* 
were numerous and fine, which was to be accounted for by the wood-cutting 
operations connected with the mines in the vicinity. 

Mr. E. T. Higgins communicated a description of a new genus and species of 
Prionidce from the mouth of the Niger. He called it Ommatomenus sericatus. 

A vote, expressing the sympathy and condolence of the Society with the Rev. 
T. A. Marshall, who had recently lost the whole of his collections and library through 
the foundering of the vessel which was conveying them from Milford to Barnstaple,' 
was unanimously passed. 

Is* March, 1869.— H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., President, in the Chair, 
Charles Home, Esq., of Upper Norwood, was elected a Member. 

Mr. Bond exhibited examples of HeliotMs armigera, from the Isle of Wight, 
Java, and Australia, this cosmopolitan species showing no appreciable local conditions. 

Mr, McLachlan exhibited three males of Dilar Hornei, (described by him in tho 
March No. of this Magazine) from N.W. India. Mr. Home, in answer to a query 
respecting its habits, said the insect occurred among grass on damp hill-sides. 

Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited dwarf examples of Vanessa wrticB, Pygcera bucephalaj 
&c., &c., bred during the hot season of 1868. 

Mr. Home exhibited a substitute for cork, useful in cases when the latter be 
not procurable ; it was the inner bark of the Indian Pinus longifoliaj which se- 
parated into large sheets, and was tolerably soft. 

Dr. Wallace exhibited a number of cocoons of Bomhyx Yama-Mai, together 
with the moths ; he had bred between forty and fifty in 1 868. Also B. Pernyiy 
from China, on which he hoped to be able to make experiments as to its possible 
utility as a silk-producer. Further, he exhibited a specimen of Satumia pyretorum, 
which he had reared from a parcel of cocoons given to him by Dr. Hooker as those 
of the insect producing the silk-worm gut in China. 

Mr. Weir exhibited a number of larvae of Tipulce from Blackheath, where many 
acres of ground were so greatly infested that there appeared to be more grubs than 
earth, and the birds in the neighbourhood did not diminish their numbers. Mr. 
Bond said he had once seen four hundred of these larvaa taken from the crop of a 
pheasant. 

Professor Westwood mentioned that he had seen, last month, a luminous larva 
of the glow-worm, this being remarkably early. 

Mr. C. 0. Waterhouse read a paper " On a new genus and some species of 
Lucanidce.** 

Mr. Weir read a paper " On insects and insectivorous birds, particularly in the 
relation between colour and edibility of Lepidopterous larvae." 

Mr. Butler read a paper " On some Caterpillars, &c., which are unpalatable to 
Lizards, Frogs, and Spiders." 

These two papers went to prove that the larva of Abraxas grossulariata (among 
others) was extremely distasteful botli to birds and reptiles. A long discussion 
ensued, in which the President, and Messrs. A. R. Wallace, Home, McLachlan, &c., 
and Dr. Wallace, took part. 



1869.) 



287 



NOTES ON CICINBELID^ FROM TROPICAL AMERICA, WITH DESCRIP- 
TIONS OF FOUR NEW SPECIES (GEN. OBONTOCHEILA AND 
PSEUDOXYCHEILA). 

BY H. W, BATES, F.Z.S., PEES. ENT. SOC. 

The Oicindelidce of the wooded plains of Equatorial America 
belong chiefly to the genera Odontocheila, TetracJia, and Gtenostoma ; 
the true Gicindelce being there few in number, and not remarkable for 
size or beauty. This accords with the local conditions of the country, 
viz., wide plains, uniformly covered with lofty forest and traversed by 
immense rivers fringed with sandy beaches. The Otenostomce are 
exclusively arboreal insects, searching for prey along the slender 
branches of trees ; the Odonfocheila are shade-lovers, running along 
the pathways of the forest and occasionally flying to the bushes on 
either side ; the TetrachcB live on sandy shores, burrowing deep in the 
light soil, and coming forth only at night. The Gicindelce proper are 
creatures of the sunshine, and abound in species and individuals only 
in warm countries, where there is a varied surface, not too much over- 
shadowed with forest. It is on the sandy beaches of rivers that the 
few members of the genus Gicindela inhabiting the Amazons region are 
found ; these tracts occupy a large portion of the surface of the country, 
at least in the dry season, but the uniformity of the conditions they 
offer is not favourable to the multiplication of forms. Of Gicindela 
only 7 species are found in the Amazon region ; of Tetraclia, 16 ; of 
Gtenostoma, 12 ; and of Odontocheila, 21 ; two Iresicd and one Aniara 
complete the fauna in this department. 

The OdontocheilcB are distinguished structurally from Gicindela only 
by the advanced and strongly-toothed labrum and the grooved tarsal 
joints ; but their general appearance, or facies, is very difierent ; they 
are of elongate, cylindrical form, generally roughly sculptured and of 
dark bronzed hues. Some of the most beautiful (as O. Bafesii) are 
found only on the margins of brooks in the deep forest, and are rare 
and local ; others swarm in incredible numbers, like house-flies in 
Autumn, in dry paths near villages. The species change in a singular 
manner from district to district ; closely-allied but constant forms 
representing each other in difl'erent areas. 

The following descriptions comprise a few Odontocheila from the 
Amazons which have not hitherto been published, and I have added 
some synonymical notes. 

Odontocheila eubefacta, n. sp. O. cayennensi (F.) simillima, 
differt autem antennarum articulis quatuor hasalibus pedibusque riifis. 
Cytindrica, cajpite thoraceque supra creherrime subtiliter punctato-rugosiSy 



288 



[May 



rubro-ctcpreis, laterihus viridi-cemis ; capite inter ociilos strigoso ; elytris 
ut in O. cayennensi grosse creherrimeque punetatisjusco-cupreis, laterihus 
viridi-ceneis et cupreis, macula alba unica marginali ; labro rufo ; pedibua 
rujis, tibiis posticis pallidioribus, tarsis anticis Icete violaceis ; protTiorace 
subtits nigro-cyaneOypectore abdomineque piceo-violaceis, hoc apice pallidiori. 

Long. 7 — 8 lin. ^ ? . 

This species belongs to the cayennensis group of the genus, — 
having the thorax rectilinear and the surface of the elytra even, — but 
difiers from all its allies by the fine ruddy-copper hue of its head and 
thorax and the four red basal joints of the antennae. In the colour of 
its legs it does not differ from O. erythropus, Chaud. ; the breast, how- 
ever, and abdomen except towards its apex, are of a pitchy-violet colour, 
instead of red, as in that species. 

From Tunmaguas and other places on the banks of the Huallaga, 
Upper Amazons ; taken first by M. Barraquin, and afterwards by Mr. 
E. Bartlett. It appears to represent in that district the 0. cayennensi* 
of Guiana. 

Odontocheila catennensis. 

Cicindela cayennensis,Ygbb., Mantissa, 1, 187 (1787). 

id., Oliv., Ent., No. 33, p. 23, pi. 1, f. 2 (1790). 
„ bipunctata, Eab., Ent. Syst., i, p. 174 (1792). 
„ bipunctata, Dej., sp. gen., i, 22 (1825). 

„ bipunctata, Chaud., Bull. Mosc, 1860, p. 51 (separata) (1860). 
„ bipunctata, Gemminger and Harold, Cat. Coleop., i, p. 30. 

I give the above synonomy to indicate the confusion that has crept 
into the nomenclature of this group, owing to Eabricius having given 
two names to one and the same species. He first described O. cayen- 
nensis in his Mantissa, and afterwards re-named Olivier's figure of the 
same species, or rather misquoted Olivier as describing a " Cicindela 
bipunctata,'' this latter author having done nothing of the kind, but 
described and figured a species as C. cayennensis of Fabricius, which 
appears from the description really to be that species. Dejean de- 
Bcribed two species under the two Eabrician names, giving the term 
bipunctata to the one that seems really to be the species described by 
the older author. The Baron Chaudoir has lately treated both as 
varieties of one species, unfortunately retaining the erroneous name of 
bipunctata for it. I think, however, the two Dejeanian species are 
really distinct ; and, in this case, his cayennensis ought to receive a 
new name. 



289 



Odontocheila Osebti, Lucas, Voyage de Castelnau, Entom., p. 37 
(nec fig. 7, pi. 1, a). 
This is a fine and distinct species of the cayennensis group, dis- 
covered by the Castelnau expedition in 1846, and recently obtained in 
considerable numbers at Pebas, Upper Amazons, by Mr. J. Hauxwell. 
The figure given by Lucas is totally opposed to his description with 
regard to colours, and seems to have been taken from 0. ruhefacta, mihi ; 
O. Oseryi has the legs of a rich dark blue, with the sole exception of 
the hindmost tibiae, which are saffron-yellow. 

Odoj^tocheila tegchanteeica, n. sp. O. margineguttatce {Dej.) 
forma et colore similis, differt autem trochanterihus anoque testaceo-albis, 
Cylindrica, thoracis laterihus rectis : supra fusco-cuprea, thoracis elytro- 
rumque laterihus cyaneis, horum marginihus alho-tri-guttatis ; suhtus 
saturate ccerulea, trochanterihus anoque alho-testaceis, pedihus violaceis, 
genuhus tihiisque posticis ohscure rufo-testaceis, lahro antice rufo-testaceo. 

Long. 5|- lin. ^ $ , 

This was a common species in dark forest pathways at Para, flying 
and running on the sandy ground, and over bushes. The description is 
taken from 8 examples perfectly agreeing with each other. 

Odoistocheila etjgattjla, n. sp. 0. margineguttatce affinis, sed 
miyior. Gi/lindrica, nigro-cuprea, pedihus cyaneis, trochanterihus femori- 
busque hasi rujo-piceis ; lahro ohscuro, marginihus late testaceis ; thorace 
angusto, medio apicem versus paulo rotundato, supra suhtilissime trans- 
versim strigoso, margins postico Icete cupreo ; elytris marginihus cyaneis^ 
albo-tripunctatis, puncto mediano magno, triangulari ; supra vix incsquali- 
bus, creberrime punctato-rugosis, rugis suturam versus longiorihus magisque 
distinctis ; suhtus omnino cyanea. Long. 4| — 5 lin. $ . 

Allied to O. margineguttata, but smaller, the elytra much shorter 
in proportion, the median marginal spot much larger, surface blacker 
in colom' and more distinctly rugulose. It resembles also O. eximia 
(Lucas) in size and general colour, but diff'ers in the finer punctuation 
and less uneven surface of the elytra. The colour is a blackish bronze, 
with the sides of the etytra gradually shading into brassy-green, then 
into blue, and finally, on the margin, into violet. As in O. margine- 
guttcda, the abdomen is wholly dark blue ; the legs are also of this 
colour, with the exception of the trochanters and extreme base of the 
femora, which are dark pitchy- red or brown. 

Common at Obydos, on the northern side of the Lower Amazons ; 
all the specimens examined agree in the characters above given. 1 
did not find the species on the Upper Amazons or at Para. 



290 



[May, 



Many of the new species of Odontocheila obtained by me hav© been 
described by the Baron de Chaudoir, in the Bulletin d. 1. Soc. Imp. des 
Nat. de Moscou, 1860, but the following complete list will be useful in 
comparing the productions of the Amazons region in this genus with 
those of other parts of Tropical America. 

1. O. Oseryi, Lucas ; Pebas, Upper Amazons. 

2. O. ruhefacta, Bates ; R. Huallaga. 

8. O. femoralis, Chaudoir ; St. Paulo, Upper Amazona. 

4. O. ocreata, Eeiche ; R. Tapajos. 

5. O. erythropus, Chaud. ; Ega. 

6. O. rujipes, Dejean ; Para. 

7. O. postica, Chaudoir ; St. Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

8. 0. Trilby ana ^ Thomson ; Upper Amazons, common. 

9. O. distinguenda, Chaudoir ; Para. 

10. O, trochanterica, Bates ; Para. 

11. O. margineguttata, Dej. ; Ega. 

12. O. confusaj Dej. ; common throughout the Amazons region. 

13. O. ruyatula, Bates ; Obydos, Lower Amazons. 

14. 0. eccimia, Lucas (rJiytijptera, Chaud.j ; St. Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

15. O. cyanella, Chaudoir ; Ega, rare. 

16. 0. amahilis, Chaudoir ; Ega, rare. 

17. 0. Batesii, Chaudoir ; St. Paulo, Amazons. 

18. O. Castelnaui, Lucas (=0. Batesii, local var.) ; Pebas, Upper 

Amazons. 

19. 0. Lacordairei^ Gory ; general throughout the Amazons region. 

20. O. cJirysis, Eab. ; St. Paulo, Amazons (agreeing precisely with 

Surinam specimens). 

21. O. egregia, Chaud.; Amazons, from Obydos westward; in cacao 

groves. 

PsEUDOXTCHEiLA TAESALis, n. sp, Saturate-ccBrulea, elytris plages, 
magna atro-velutina^ maculam parvam transversam pallide-ocJiraceam 
includenti ornatis ; apice prolongatis, suturd in dentem latum 

recurvum productd ; tarsorum intermediorum et posticorum articulis basali- 
hus dmhus paulo incrassatis, subtus nudis, grosse punctatis. 

Long. 8 lin. ^ . 

Differs from the allied species m its rich dark indigo-blue colour, 
and the pale hue of the elytral spot. In the ^ > also, the apex of the 
elytra at the suture is much prolonged, and forms a broadish tooth 
curved a little outwards. The underside is rich dark blue, and the 
legs are shining black. A remarkable feature is the perceptible thicken- 



1869.] 



291 



ing of the first two joints of the middle and hind tarsi, which, instead 
of being clothed with bristles beneath, are naked, and marked with 
several large punctures. The elytra have a few raised points on the 
shoulders, and shallow punctures near the apex ; the apical part, as in 
the allied species, is glossy. Costa Rica, Central America ; taken by 
the collectors of Mr. O. Salvin. 

40, Bartholomew Koad, Kentish Town, N.W. 
March, 1869. 



NOTES ON THE BRITISH SPECIES OF SCOPARIA (LEPIDOPTERAJ. 
BY H. GTTAED KlfAGGS, M.D., F.L.S. 

The great stumbling-block to the study of the ScoparicB is un-» 
doubtedly the difficulty experienced in procuring decent specimens^ 
owing to an unfortunate tendency many of them have of quickly 
divesting themselves of characteristic markings when pill-boxed and 
conveyed in the usual fashion. To prevent this disappointment, the 
necessity of killing, pinning, and even setting the captures on the spot, 
is advocated ; and it cannot be too strongly urged that none but good 
examples should be preserved, for of all things a miserable array of 
irrecognisable objects is calculated to bewilder and repel those who 
might otherwise take an interest in the genus. In the present sketch 
an attempt will be made to show that the various species comprised in 
this group of little JPyrales are by no means so difficult of separation 
as is generally supposed ; and it is hoped that, when collectors begin to 
see their way to a knowledge of their distinctive characters, they will 
then regard them with a less unfavourable eye, and consequently de- 
vote a fairer share of attention to them than they have yet received at 
the hands of British Entomologists. 

Of one thing there can be no doubt, namely, that the bulk of 
European Scoparice affect high altitudes and boreal latitudes, and it ia 
therefore but natural to expect that our mountains and northern dis* 
tricts will yield many species as yet unsuspected to occur here — some, 
perhaps, altogether new. 

The fore-wing of a Scoparia is divided into three tolerably equal 
areas by two lines, termed " first " (cut A, 1) and " second " (cut A, 2), 
the former being nearest the base of the wing : these areas may be 
respectively designated basal (cut A, 3), medial (cut A, 4), and apical 
(cut A, 5). It is in the medial area that the most important characters 
are found, but the other two render us occasional assistance in the 
determination of closely allied species. 



292 



IMay. 



In the medial area are contained three stigmata (similar to those 
observable in the N'octuce), which are here correspondingly spoken of 
as the orbicular (cut A, 6), claviform (cut A, 7), and reniform (cut A, 8) ; 
and we shall find that the disposition of the two former in relation to 
tbe first line will enable us readily to separate the species into groups ; 
thus : — 

I. Both orbicular and claviform 
stigmata attached to first line (cuts 
A and C). 

II. Orbicular attached, claviform 
detached (cuts B and E). 

III. Neither orbicular nor clavi- 
form attached (Plate fig. 16). 

IV. Orbicular detached, claviform 
attached (cut Fj. 

In the next place the form of 
these two stigmata themselves will 
help us to a further subdivision ; 
for instance, in group I. 

a. Orbicular and claviform both 
linear (pi. fig. 1). 

h. Orbicular and claviform both 
open (cut C). 

c. Orbicular open, or partially so, 
claviform dash-like (cut A). 

d. Orbicular and claviform in- 
distinct, owing to shading beyond 
first line (pi. fig. 11). 

Similarly group II. 

e. Claviform dot-like (cut E). 
/. Claviform dash-like (cut B). 

Again in group III. 

g. Both orbicular and claviform dot-like (pi. fig. 9).* 

h. Orbicular open, claviform dot- like (pi. fig. 15). 

i. Claviform dash-like (pi. fig. 16). 

And again in group lY. 

k. Orbicular dot-like (pi. fig. 18). 
I. Orbicular open (cut F). 

Of these sub-divisions 7 represent single species, viz., I a = pallida. 




^ This species is misplaced in the plate. The numerous dark scales beyond the first line originally 
led me to include it in the fourth subdivision— Group I, but I now see that both its stigmata are dis- 
tinctW detached from thi' tirst line.— H. G. K. 



I 



ENT . UONlH.yiAC Vol.VP].! 



1 




,t Sc 1869 



1869.1 



393 



II e = cratcsgella. l\f= truncicolella. Ill g = resinea. Ill h = 
murana. Ill i = gracilalis. IV k = alpina. Four groups yet remain 
to be separated : — 

Firstly — duhitalis and ingratella, tlie latter being separable from the 
former by its larger size, broader fore-wing, and by the almost 
entire absence of black markings. 

Secondly — 5 species, of which amhigualis is the type, namely, that 
species cevihrce, hasistrigalis, Zelleri, and atomalis. Cemhrcs is 
pretty easily distinguished from amhigualis by its fuscous tints 
and indistinct markings ; hasistrigalis by the first line being pro- 
duced along the costa, towards the base of the wing ; Zelleri by its 
large size ; atomalis by its small size. 

Thirdly — 3 species, of which mercurella is the type. From the latter 
ulmella is at once separated by the form of its renal stigma, which 
is as in group I h (cut C) ; phcdoieuca by the whiteness of its 
ground colour and pretty rounded fore-wings. 

Fourthly — 2 species, lineola and angustea, the latter having very narrow 
fore-wings, and otherwise difi'ering much from the former. 
For the rest the reader is referred to the plate. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 



Fig. 1. Scoparia pallida, Stp. 



Fig. 11. Scoparia mercurella. Linn. 



2. 


ingratella, Zell. 


12. 


ulmella, Dale. 


3. 


dubitalis, Hiib. 


13. 


crataegella, Hiib. 


4. 


cembrae, Haw. 


14. 


truncicolella, Stainton 


5. 


ambigualis, Treits. 


15. 


murana, Curt. 


6. 


basistrigalis, Knaggs. 


16. 


gracilalis, Dbld. 


7. 


Zelleri, Wocke. 


17. 


lineola. Curt. 


8. 


atomalis, Dbld. 


18. 


alpina, Dale. 


9. 


resinea, Haw. 


19. 


angustea, Stp. 


10. 


phaeoleuca, Zell. 







BBITISH HEMIPTERA : ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 
BY J. W. DOUGLAS AND JOHN SCOTT. 
{Concluded from page 268.) 
COEIXA BOEEALIS, U. Sp. 

Black, shining ; pronotum, clavus, and cerium, finely rastrate ; 
pronofum with 8—9 obscure yellowish lines; all the other yellowish 
markings obscure. 

9 . Head and eyes tawny. Vronohim short, rounded behind, in front with a 
slight, short keel, disc with 8 — 9 interrupted or confluent, obscure yellowish 
lines, the black intervals with a depressed line on each. Elytra — clavus and 



294 



[May, 



corium with a few short, whitish hairs. Clavus with obscure, yellowish, 
transverse lines, 3 or 4 at the base straight, the rest irregular, interrupted, 
and rarely reaching the inner margin. Corivm with transverse, irregular 
lines, straight at the base, then becoming more and more irregular to the 
apex, on the inner margin forming a longitudinal row of short streaks, the 
posterior angle clear black ; marginal channel pale livid tawny ; membrane- 
suture very narrow, yellow. Membrane filled with short, curved and twisted 
yellowish marks, inner margin broadly black. Sternum black; scapuloPy 
pleurae, and jpara^pleurcB pale yellow. Legs brown-black ; thighs tawny at the 
base ; palcB narrow, round-cultrate. 
AMomen tawny-black. Length 2i lines. 

. Unknown. 
Allied to C. Fahricii, Fieb. 

Two specimens, received by Mr. Brewer, were captured in Shetland, 
in 1866, by Mr. E. Smith. 

CoEiXA Whitei, n. sp. 
Tawny-black, with obscure yellowish markings, shining. Fro- 
notum, clavus, and corium finely rastrate. Fronotum with 7 — 8 scarcely 
perceptible yellowish lines, the middle ones interrupted ; clavus and 
corium with indistinct, fine, yellowish lines, on the former straight, 
much shortened inwardly, on the latter short and sinuous ; marginal 
channel pale. Sternum entirely pale ochreous. 

Head — Crown brown, posteriorly raised into a sub-acute point, on each side of the 
elevation a row of 4 or 5 punctures ; face yellowish. 

Thorax^Pronotum in front with a short keel ; disc with 7—8 obscure yellowish 
lines, straight, except 2 or 3 in the middle, which are interrupted by the 
junction of the narrow, incised, intervening black lines. Elytra — clavus 
with fine, distant, oblique, straight yellowish lines, all visible on the outer 
margin, but so much abbreviated inwardly that the disc appears black. 
Corium with short, sinuous, interrupted, transverse yellowish lines, some- 
times connected by longitudinal streaks ; inner posterior angle wholly black ; 
marginal channel pale ; membrane-suture distinct, yellowish. Membrane 
with very fine, short, hieroglyphic markings. Sternum, scapula;, pleurae, and 
parapleurce pale ochreous. Legs tawny-brown ; thighs paler at the base j 
1st pair, palcB, $ , narrow, roundly cultrate ; 2nd pair, tibiw black at the 
apex ; 3rd pair, cilia of tarai dark brown. 

Abdomen fuscous, ochraceous at the sides. Length 2i lines. 

Intermediate between C. Falricii and C. moesta. A single $ taken 
by Dr. F. Buchanan White, at Rannoch, in 1867. 



The next two species belong to the section of the genus in which 
the pronotum has a long middle keel — not hitherto represented in our 
collections by British examples. 



1869.] 



295 



CoRiXA Shaepi, n. sp. 
Black-brown, shining. Pronotum, clavus, and corium, at the base, 
finely rastrate ; pr on of urn carinate nearly throughout the length, with 
10 — 12 yellow transverse lines, the posterior ones obliterated. Elytra 
with very fine, short, yellowish lines in longitudinal series. 
? . Head above, black-brown, face yellow. 

Thorax — Pronotum long, rounded behind, disc with a slight middle keel nearly 
throughout the whole length, and 10 — 12 narrow, transverse, yellow lines, 
several of the posterior ones obliterated by the dark ground colour. Elytra — 
Clavus and corium with many long, distant hairs ; clavus with fine, hiero- 
glyphic, yellow markings, straight at the base ; corium with very fine, 
twisted, transverse, yellowish lines, broken into longitudinal series, of which 
4 are visible at the widest part ; marginal channel dull, pale brownish- 
yellow ; membrane -suture broadly clear. Memhrame with very fine, short, 
twisted, yellowish lines, on the inner margin especially disposed in a 
parallel series. Sternum black ; scapidce, jpleurce, and parapleurce pale yel- 
lowish outwardly. Legs brownish ; thighs paler at the base ; palcB long, 
narrow, cultrate ; cilia of the 3rd pair of tarsi black. 

Abdomen brown, paler at the sides, basal segments black. Length 4 lines. 

Male unknown. 

Of this fine, distinct species, a single $ , captured by Dr. Sharp, 
and presented by him to us, is the only example known. Allied to 0. 
carinata, Sahib. 

COEIXA TNTEICATA, U. sp. 

Shining, black-brown with ochreous markings, and many fine, 
light, decumbent hairs. Fronotum distinctly rastrate, a middle keel 
on the anterior half, and 8 — 9 fine, black, transverse lines, which, 
except 2 or 8 in the middle, are entire. Elytra wholly covered with 
similar close, fine, irregular, twisted lines, broken by 3 fine longitudinal 
black lines ; clavus, and corium at its base, very delicately rastrate, 
marginal channel pale. 

Head ochreous, crown brownish, posteriorly raised sub-angularly, on each side of 
the elevation a short row of close punctures ; facial depression wide, ovate, 
reaching beyond the lower angle of the eyes. 

Thorax — Pronotum long, with a middle keel extending perceptibly on the anterior 
half, but only indicated posteriorly, and 8 — 9 transverse, fine black lines 
straight and entire, except 2 or 3 in the middle, which are abbreviated and 
confluent. Elytra entirely covered with similar, close, fine, short, angularly 
twisted, transverse yellow lines. Corium, viewed lengthwise, the fractures 
of the lines appear as 3 longitudinal, fine, irregular, jagged, black lines ; at 
the apex the transverse lines are more straight and parallel ,• marginal nerve 
(next the channel) black. Marginal channel pale yellow, infuscated shghtly 



296 



[May, 



at the lower end of the embolium ; membrane-suture obliterated by the 
markings. Membrane covered with longer and more angular yellow lines, 
less closely in the middle, on the inner margin the lines are straight and 
parallel ; outer margin narrowly black. Sternum, coxce, scapulce, plexirce, and 
pa/rapleurce entirely pale yellow. Legs pale yellow; Ist pair, <? , ti&^ce thick- 
ened to the apex, curved ; pales long, narrow, round-cultrate j 9 > tibico not 
thickened, pala narrower than in the S ', 2nd pair, end of the thighs, tihicB, 
and tarsi brown or blackish ; 3rd pair, cilia of the tarsi black. 
Abdomen pale ochreous, first 3 segments fuscous-black, posteriorly pale. 

Length 3i lines. 

Three ^ and one ? taken by Dr. Power, in Loch Gelly, Fifeshire, 
August, 1868. 

Allied to 0. German, Fieb,, which is 4 lines long, has the facial 
depression extending scarcely beyond the angles of the eyes, the 
middle of the sternum and the inner side of the scapulfe and pleurfc 
black, the anterior tibiae swollen, the hairs of the posterior tibiae 
(? tarsi) yellowish, the membrane suture yellowish, &c. 

Family 2.— SiGAEiDiB. 
Gemis 1. — Stgaea, Fab. 
Species 2. — Sigaea PowEEi, n. sp. 
Ochreous, with well-defined black-brown markings, dull. 
Head ochreous ; crown, in the middle, with a large wedge-shaped brown mark, its 
widest part at the base of the head. 

Tliorax — Pronotum brown-black, in the middle an ochreous line widened posteriorly 
into the pale hinder margin, the sides also broadly pale ochreous. Scutellum 
black. Elytra — clavus black -brown, a small spot posteriorly, and the entire 
inner margin, ochreous ; claval suture narrowly pale. Corium ochreous, at 
the base a dentate patch, across the middle another, more iiTcgularly dentate, 
the longest lobe on the inner side, followed by two curved, sublinear spots, 
all brown-black ; marginal channel pale, with two long, dark streaks opposite 
the large brown patches. Membrane infuscated, gradually darker to the 
apex. Legs yellow. Length 1 line. 

Yery like S. minutissimn, but by its general habit, larger bulk, and 
definite markings, appears to be distinct, 

A single specimen was captured by Dr. Power, in the New Forest, 
in 1866, in company with Agahus hrimneus. 

Species 3. — Sigaea Scholtzi. 
Sigaea Scholtzi, Fieh., Europ. Hem. 90, 4 (1861). 

Pale ochreous with ill-defined fuscous spots, shining. 
Head, including the large black eyes, wider than the pronotum ; crrown in the 
middle of the posterior margin raised to a point, which is brown ; front, on 
the curve, with 3 brown longitudinal streaks. 



18(i9.] 



297 



Thorax — Pronotitm in the middle and on the posterior margin pale ochreotis, the 
remainder of the disc fuscous. Scutellum pale, sometimes with an obUque 
fuscous streak on each si'de. Elytra delicately punctulate. Clavus fuscous, 
the base broadly, the inner margin narrowly, and the claval-suture indis- 
tinctly, pale ochreous. Corium with 3 long, fuscous, longitudinal streaks, 
of which the longest is on the posterior inner angle, the other 2 shorter, 
less distinct, on the middle of the disc, all 3 more or less confluent ; anterior 
margin pale, with a long fuscous streak in the middle, and one before the 
apex. Membrane pale, fuscous in the middle and inwardly. Logs ochreous, 
posterior tarsi with brown cilia. Length rather more than 1 line. 

Distinguished from S. minutissima especially by its larger size, 

greater breadth of the head, and lighter colour. Varies according to 

maturity in the darkness of the markings, very young examples being 

almost wholly pale. 

A few examples were taken by Dr. Power, at St. Leonard's Forest, 

Sussex, in 1866. 

Erratum. 

At page 261, 10th line from the bottom, insert a comma after " white " and 
erase the one after " margin." 

Page 263, 15th line from the bottom, for " 4th " read " 3rd." 

Lee, April, 1869. 

Note on the oviposition of Octotemnus glahricuhos. — Last autumn, I had a portion 
of a thick white tough fungus {Polyporus containing this beetle abun- 
dantly, several of them being engaged in oviposition. The female beetle by herself 
makes a sinuous gallery of rather more than her own width ; the eggs, each of 
which is of a somewhat flattened ovoidal form, its longest diameter being about 
one-fifth the length of the beetle, are laid at the bottom of little cavities, ii-regularly 
disposed along the sides of the burrow. The egg, laid on its flattened side, just fits 
the bottom of the cavity ; the remainder of the cavity, which is wide towards the 
burrow, is filled up level with its wall with the finely comminuted fragments of 
fungus removed from the end of the bm'row, and so firmly packed, as easily to come 
out in one mass ; six was the largest number of eggs I found so placed along one 
burrow, but I had no reason to suppose this to be the full number, as the beetle 
was still at work. Having placed some beetles on a fresh portion of fungus, I 
found, at the end of a week, that a newly -formed burrow contained three eggs. — 
T. Algernon Chapman, M.D., Abergavenny, April, 1869. 

Note on the pairing of Cheiropachus quadrum. — Some months ago I picked up a 
few branches broken from an apple tree, which were completely infested by Scolytus 
rugulosus ;* beneath the bark were numerous Chalcididous larvae, which had preyed 
on the ScoVyti, so numerous, that they must have destroyed quite half of them. 
Having kept them in a warm room, though the Scolytus is only just beginning to 
appear (April 8th), the parasites emerged during February ; they were chiefly 
Cheiropachus quadrum, of which a dozen or two came out every day for some time. 
As the opportunity of making the following observation cannot be frequent, I think 
it is probably worth recording. 



I shall be happy to send the Scolytut to any one who will enclose return postage.— T. A. C. 



298 



(May, 



On February 15th, I observed two specimens of Cheiropachus face to face on a 
piece of stick, their antennae, though bent downwards, 'as in the position of repose, 
were in active tremulous motion, and the insects occasionally advanced so that those 
organs touched. They frequently touched the wood also with their antennal tips ; 
and, on looking closely, I saw a minute orifice in the bark, in which I soon made 
out a pair of jaws working. Tliis hole was enlarged rapidly, and the head of a 
Cheiropachus soon became visible. On the head emerging, the antennae of those 
outside worked even more vigorously, and seemed to increase the eflforts of the 
enclosed Cheiropachus to escape. 

On the thorax of the latter (which proved to be a female) appearing, it became 
obvious that the two outside were sworn foes, each alternately edging the other oflf 
for a little way, the antennse continuing vigorously working, and now all the time 
touching the female. Suddenly the two males seized each other by the jaws, and 
for a moment were quite still, just as the female completed her escape. The next 
movement was so extremely rapid, that I could not see the details — the female 
came out so quickly, that it appeared as if she would have got away ; but in an 
instant one of the males completely disappeared, the other was seated on the back of 
the female, and pairing had occurred ; the whole transaction having lasted less 
than a minute, though possibly my observations disturbed them. Several other 
specimens were close by, apparently males, whose size and strength were unequal 
to a competition with the two in possession. I may remark that Cheiropachus is 
able to leap a distance of nearly an inch. The above observations explain at least 
one use of that power, and also that in a winged species of Chalcis pairing occurs 
immediately on the exclusion of the female, as it is well known to do in some 
apterous and partly apterous species. — Id. 

Discovery of a male Cynips. — Through the kindness of Mr. Darwin I have 
received both sexes of a species of Cynips ; they were bred from the Black Oak 
(Quercus spongijica) by Mr. Benjamin D. Walsh, the American Hymenopterist. The 
gall from which the male and female {Cynips aciculata) were obtained is larger 
than the bullet-gall of the oak so common in England, being two inches or more in 
diameter. According to Mr. Walsh's observations the males are only obtained from 
those galls which develope flies early in the season, two months before the great 
autumnal brood appears ; the latter all being invariably of the female sex. Follow- 
ing up this hint, we may hope this year to obtain males of Cynips lignicola, — 
F. Smith, British Museum, IQth April, 1869. 

An early swarm of Formica nigra. — I was walking yesterday through the 
Botanical Gardens here, when my attention was suddenly attracted by some winged 
ants running up the glass of the Cactus-house. Many male and female specimens 
were struggling in the webs of sundry gaunt, hungry-looking spiders. Upon 
inquiry I ascertained from one of the attendants that they had begun to swarm 
about the 2nd inst. Their nests seem to be situated close to the hot-water pipes, 
which have maintained a temperature in the house, during the last two or three 
months, of 60°— 65° Farenht. by day, and 55°— 60° by night. The attendant has 
not been aware of the existence of the nests for more than a fortnight ; but, unless 
memory fails me, this ant used to remain active all through tlie winter in the 
neighbouring Palm-houso, which is scarcely, if at all, warmer. — A. E. Eaton, The 
Union Society, Cambridge, April 9th, 1869. 



1869.] 



299 



CiUx spinula and Notodonta trepida w KircudbrightsJiwe. — In his interesting 
list of Rosshire Lepidoptera, Dr. F. BuchanEui White mentions Platypteryx lacertula 
andfalmda as the only two Scottish Drepanuloe. There are, however, at least 
thi*ee, as CiUx spinula is found in Kircudbrightshire. I found, under oak, last 
autumn, two pupae of Notodonta trepida in the same county, one of which emerged 
on the 3rd April. — W. Douglas RojiiNSON, Edinburgh, 5th April, 1869. 

Lepidoptera captured in Morocco. — During the spring of the year 1868, I 
resided for two months (February, March, and beginning of April) in Tangier 
(Morocco) ; and although the state of my health did not permit me to devote much 
time or energy to entomological pursuits, still I made a point of capturing such 
insects of all orders as happened to fall in my way ; and thinking that a list of the 
Lepidoptera thus secured may not prove uninteresting to the readers of the Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine, I have much pleasure in contributing the following, 
in which I have adopted the arrangement and nomenclature of Staudinger and 
Wocke's " Catalog der Lepidopteren Europa's und der angrenzenden Lander, 1861." 

Rhopalocera. 

Papilio Podalirius. — One specimen of the var. FeisthoAnelii (Dup.), taken in a 

deserted garden near Tangier beginning of April. 
Thais rumina (L.) — Of the typical form of this beautiful species I met with but 
two examples. The variety Medesicaste (111.) was common during the month 
of March in lanes in which the food-plants of the larva, the Aristolochioe, were 
growing profusely, and I captured several fine and unusually large specimens. 
Fieris hrassicce (L.) — Yery abundant both in the larva and imago state. 
„ rapce (L.) — Abundant. 
„ napi (L.) — Not common. 

„ Daplidice (L.)— I saw, but did not capture, several specimens of a Pieris, 
which I imagine must have been this species, early in February. 
Anthocharis Belemia. — The var. Glance (Hb.) not uncommon on waste land end of 
March. 

Anthocharis Douei (Pierret). — The <? occurred frequently throughout the months of 
February and March. The ? was very scarce, and I only obtained three 
specimens. Mr. A. G. Butler has pointed out to me that this species is the 
true Anthocha/ris Evpheno of Linnaeus, whose typical specimens were captured 
in Barbary, and whose description answers exactly to Pierret's Douei, and to 
the specimens the occurrence of which I now record. A new name must 
now be assigned to the very distinct South European species which has hitherto 
represented A. Eupheno (L.) in our collections, and the name Douei (Piex-ret) 
must sink into a synonym for Anthocharis Eupheno (Linn.). (Vide ante p. 271). 
It is extremely probable that both species occur on the European continent. 

CoUas Edusa (Fab.) — Common at the end of February on the Dar-al-Clow, a range 
of hills lying some twenty miles S.W. of Tangier. A few specimens taken 
close to Tangier a month later. 

Bhodocera rhamni (L.) — Common in February. 
„ Cleopatra (L.) — Ditto ditto. 

Thecla ruhi (L.)— Abundant ; March. 

Thestor Ballus (Fab.) — Common in the beginning of March; its favourite habitat 
being rubbish-heaps near the town. 



aoo 



Pohjommatus Phlcsas (L.) — Very abundant ; February and March. 

Lyccena Argiohis (L.) — Common j Maroh. 

Vanessa Atalanta (L.) — Very abundant. 
„ cardui (L.) — Ditto. 

Pa/rarga Egeria (L.) — Of the typical form of this species I did not observe a single 
specimen, but the var. Meone (Hb.) was excessively abundant dnring the whole 
time of my stay in AMca, and of this variety I secured a fine series. 

Coenonympha arcanoides (Pierret). — Not uncommon in the hills in the neighbour- 
hood of Cape Spartel; March and April. 

Sptlothyrus malvarum (111.) — I met with a few examples of the var. australis (Zell.) 
early in February in the village of Marshen, near Tangier. 

Heteeocera. 
Sphinges. 

Deilephila Livornica (Esp.) — Several specimens, in fine condition. This insect 
seemed especially to afiect the flowers of the various kinds of lupin with 
which the hills in the neighbourhood of Tangier are clothed during the month 
of March. Is this species usually double -brooded ? I observe many notices 
of its capture in England last season, most of which are recorded in August. 

Macroglossa stellatarum (L.) — Common. 

BOMBYCES. 

The only example of this family which I obtained was a large insect, apparently 
of the genus Bombyx, to which I cannot at present assign a cognomen. Should it 
prove to be a new species, it may form the subject of a further communication to 
the E. M. M. I met wi^h several colonies of a processionary caterpillar, I presume 
of the genus Cnethocampa, on the plain of Had-el-Gharbeea, 30 miles S. of Tan- 
glier, but, unfortunately, I had no opportunity of rearing them to the imago state. 

NOCTU^. 

Agrotis ravida (W.T.) — One specimen ; February. 

,, pronuha (L.) — Common at light, 

„ Puta (Hb.) — One specimen at light; March. 
Uypena Uvidalis (Hb.) — One specimen; March. 

„ ohsitalis (Uh.) — Several specimens ; March. 

GEOMETR^a:. 

Acidalia incanaria (Hb.) — I met with one specimen of the var, (?) calcearia (Zell.) 
in April. 

Eupitliecia pumilata (Hb.) — Common j early in April. 

Crambina. 

Botys femigalis (Hb.) — Abundant; March. 

Nemopliila vnctuella (W.V.) Ihyhridalis Hb.]— Abundant.— Trovky Blackmoke, 
The HoUies, Wandsworth, S.W. 

[Tinkina. 

The following species, collected at Tangier, in March, have been kindly handed to 

me by Mr, Blackmore : — 
Tinea p>ellionella, L. 

Micropteryximperfectella, Staudinger, Stett, E. Z. 185i>,p. 236, H.— S., N, Schm., f. 
113. Of this pretty little species I did not previously possess a specimen. 
Dr. Staudinger met with it in the S, of Spain, in May. 



1S6».] 



301 



Phitella erueiferanim, Z. 

Lithocolletis pomifoUella, Z. and a single Bpecimen of another LithocolletiSy which 
does not seem referable to any known species. Mr. Blackmoro informs me that 
CoronUla was one of the commonest plants where he took these insects, and 
possibly the undetermined Lithocolletis may be attached to that plant. I 
throw out the suggestion for future travellers. — H. T. Stainton, Mountsfield, 
Lewisham, March 20th, 1869.] 

Eeport on the Culture of the Japanese Silk-avorm, Bombyx Yama-Mai, in 1867-8, 
IN England ; by Alexander Wallace, M.D., M.E.C.P. Colchester, Ben ham and 
Harrison; 8vo. pp. 64. 1869. 

In this bulky but inexpensive pamphlet Dr. Wallace gives the experience of 
two years' efiforts to rear this fine Japanese silk- worm in England, by himself 
and by numerous other gentlemen who take an interest in the praiseworthy 
attempt to introduce among us a new branch of industry. If these endeavours 
should not meet with the success they deserve, it will not be for want of enthusiasm 
on the part of the author, who has for years devoted all his spare time to his 
favourite pursuit. We recommead this pamphlet to the notice of country gentle- 
men especially. Space will not admit of extracts ; but we remark that the excessive 
heat of last season seems to have been anything but favourable to Dr. Wallace's 
object. 

A Catalogue of the Insects of Northumberland and Durham (Aculeate 
Hymenoptera). Newcastle -on-Tyne, 1869. T. J. Bold. 

The Natural History Society of Northumberland has for many years afibrded 
an excellent example to other local Societies by publishing thoroughly scientific 
and well-worked Catalogues of the productions of its district ; and the pamphlet 
now under notice will add considerably to its renown, as being probably the first 
attempt towards a local^ Catalogue of the Aculeata in this country. Its author, Mr. 
T. J. Bold (well known in connection with the Catalogue of Coleoptera published 
by the same Society, and who luckily continues to work indefatigably at Entomology, 
as our columns testify), has wisely followed the arrangement used by Mr. F. Smith 
in his Museum Catalogues, and chronicles 133 species, being little more than one- 
third of those recorded as inhabitants of Britain. The strong points are evidently 
the VespidcB and Sociales, whilst the ScoUadcB, Sapygidce, Sphegidce, Larridce, Philan- 
thiouB, and Andrenoides appear to be utterly unrepresented. Mr. Bold expects to 
add considerably to his list, and attributes the dearth of Fossores, &c., chiefly to the 
clay sub-soils, which are unfavourable for burrowing. 

It would be as well if the printer of future Catalogues issued by the Northum- 
berland Society were more carefully looked after, the present excellent little work 
being disfigured by certain mistakes, which are evidently merely typographical. 

Entomological Society of London, 16th 2Iarch, 1869. H. W. Bates, Esq., 
F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

H. Grose Smith, Esq., of Surbiton, was elected a Member. 



802 



VAmj, IMO. 



Mr. MoLachlan exhibited a gigantio Bpeoies of the family Ephemeriday measuring 
3 inches in expanse of wings, sent from Veragua. He thought it might possibly be 
Paling enia Eecuha of Hagen. 

Mr. F. Smith exhibited the new British Bee, Colletes cunicularia, collected in 
the Isle of Wight by Mr. Cooke, jun. 

Mr. Butler exhibited varieties of several European Butterflies, captured by 
himself in Switzerland. 

Mr. Stainton mentioned that in the neighbourhood of Mentone, &o., early in 
the year, Vanessa Atalanta was the commonest butterfly, and scarcely appeared to 
hybernate, whereas in England hybernated examples were rarely seen until the 
early summer. 

The President exhibited a collection of Papilios from Japan, sent to him by 
Mr. Ward, of Halifax. They consisted of P. Machaon, P. Xuthus, and P. Xuthulus ; 
in Japan P. Macliaon was very variable, and shewed a tendency to approach its 
allies in coloration, whereas in Europe it was very constant. He looked upon that 
country, therefore, as the one which was the most favourable to the formation of 
incipient species in this group. For comparison he had added examples of the 
allied P. Zelicaon and P. Asterias, from N. America. 

Mr. Hewitson communicated " Descriptions of new species of Diurnal Lepidop- 
tera from Nicaragua and Ecuador." 

The President read " Contributions to a Fauna of the Amazon Valley." 

Mr. McLachlan read a Synopsis of the European species of Panorpa ; and a 
description of a new species from Java. 

5th April, 1869. H. W. Bates, Esq., F.Z.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Pascoe exhibited curious and interesting forms of Curculionida. 

Prof. Westwood exhibited an example of the new species of Panorpa (P. nema- 
togaster) from Java, described by Mr. McLachlan at the last meeting ; this was 
from the Oxford Museum. Also examples of a Blatta (B. melanocephala) which 
had been found destructive in Orchid-houses in this country. 

Mr. Bond exhibited Sciaphila communana, H. — S., new to Britain, captured in 
Wicken Fen. 

Mr. Druce exhibited two males of the very rare and magnificent Pa/pilio Zal- 
moxis from Old Calabar. 

Mr. Smith exhibited a series of British Bomhi, with their respective parasitic 
Apathi. He mentioned, with regard to B. suUerraneus, muscorum, and lapidariusy 
that the parasitic Apathi — campestris, vestalis, and rupcstris, exhibited all the grada- 
tions of variation common to their respective foster-parents ; whereas with B. pra- 
torum, a moss-builder, the parasitic Apathus Barhutellus was considembly different. 
This latter Bomhus was, however, a very good-tempered bee, whereas the others 
were very irritable ; hence the non-necessity of exact mimicry. 

Mr. A. R. Wallace read " Notes on eastern Butterflies." Mr. Hewitson read 
*' Descriptions of new species of Diurnal Lepidopto-a" 

Mr. Baly communicated " Descriptions of new Phytophaga." 

Dr. Sharp communicated a " Revision of the British species of Hovialota," 
enumerating and describing 157 species, 29 being ne/Jfr to science. 

END OF VOL V. 



11 



AMNH LIBRARY 




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