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Full text of "The Entomologist's record and journal of variation"

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p?8 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Library of the 

Museum of 

Comparative Zoology 



i^^'B 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
P.A. SOKOLOFF, f.r.e.s. 

Assistant Editors 

J.A. OWEN, F.R.E.S., A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 

& R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. 



Vol. 107 
1995 



CONTENTS 



Acalles rohoris Curt. (Col.: Curculionidae) 

in Cumbria and VC70. R.WJ. Read, 157 
Acherontia atropos L. (Lep.: Sphingidae) 

breeding in Oxfordshire in 1994. D.F. 

Owen, 156 
Acontia lucida Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 

Kent and Dorset. D.F. Owen, 81 
Acontia lucida Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae), the 

Pale Shoulder new to the Isles of Scilly, 

and third record for British Isles. /. Hale 

& M. Hicks, 111 
Aethes francillana Fab. (Lep.: Torricidae) 

bred from Conium maculatum. R.J. 

Heckford, 40 
Agrilus sinuatus 01. (Col.: Buprestidae) at 

Tunbridge Wells, Kent. I.C. Beavis, 203 
American moth in Aberdeen. M. Young, 198 
Amphipoea fucosa paludis Tutt. (Lep.: 

Noctuidae) in Oxfordshire. D.F. Owen & 

M. Townsend, 155 
Ancylois oblitella Zell. (Lep.: Pyralidae) in 

Kent. P. Sokolojf, 292 
Andricus nudus (Hym.: Cynipidae) and 

Taxomyia taxi (Dipt.: Cecidomyiidae): 

Insects new to Ireland. J. P. O'Connor, P. 

Ashe, M.A. O'Connor and S. Wistow, 105 

Apion laevicolle Kirby (Col.: Apionidae) in 
the New Forest. A.A. Allen, 41 

Apion sedi Germar (Col.: Apionidae) in 
Dorset. A.A. Allen, 46 

Aplota palpella Haw. (Lep.: Oecophoridae) 
new to the Midland Plateau. M.G. 
Bloxham, 46 

Autumnal Broad-bordered Bee Hawk, 
Hemaris fuciformis L. (Lep.: Sphingidae) 
in an Essex garden. A. A. Allen, lAl 

Bankesia douglasii Staint. (Lep.: Psychidae) 
in Hampshire. R. Dickson, 202 

Beetles recorded from Kimbers, Maidenhead, 
Berkshire 1964-1994. B. Verdcourt, 299 

Book reviews, 50-56, 102-104, 203, 311 

Breeding experiment with Pararge aegeria 
ab. schmidti Dioz. (Lep.: Satyridae). R. 
Barrington, 179 

Broad-bordered Bee hawks in October 
{Hemaris fuciformis L., Lep.: Sphingidae). 
G.M. Haggett, 24 



Brown Argus butterfly in North-west 
Europe. B. Smyllie, 15 

Butterflies in Jordon, Syria and Lebanon, 
28.V.94 to 7.vi.94. P.B. Hardy, 107 

Butterflies in North-east Greece (28th July - 
4th August 1994). A. Wakeham-Dawson, 
267 

Butterflies of Lanzerote - April 1995. An 
update - two further species recorded. 
G.G. Baldwin, 261 

Camberwell Beauty, Nymphalis antiopa L. 
(Lep.: Nymphalidae) in Hertfordshire and 
beyond. S. Pittman, 310 

Changes in nomenclature of British 
Lepidoptera. D. Agassiz, 142 

Clambus pallidulus Reitter (Col.: 
Clambidae) in South Hampshire and East 
Sussex. /.A. Owen, 197 

Clouded Yellow, Colias croceus Geoff. 
(Lep.: Pieridae) in Devon during 1994. R. 
Bristow, 152 

Coboldia fuscipes Meigen (Nematocera: 
Scotopsidae) feeding on slug eggs. K. 
Ayre, 175 

Coleophora deriella Zell. (Lep.: 
Coleophoridae) - a correction, 131 

Collecting notes 1994. M.D. Biyan, 199 

Comments on a recent record of Sedina 
buettneri Her. (Lep.: Noctuidae). B. 
Skinner, 68 

Cydia lunulana (D. & S.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) 
new to Shropshire (VC40). A.M. Davis, 
240 

Cypha tarsalis Luze (Col.: Staphylinidae) 
new to Britain. R.C. Welch, 185 

Dasychira mendosa Hbn. (Lep.: Lyman- 
triidae); notes on larval foodplants in 
India. G. King, 126 

Data Protection Act, 160 

Devon moth records. R. McCormick, 14 

Drepana binaria Hufn. (Lep.: Drepanidae) a 
third generation. B.K. West, 141 

Drunken Goat-moth larvae. M.R. Young, 253 

Drunken Goats. /. Clarke, 82 

Early emergence of Spring moths. A. Aston, 



Early emergences of butterflies and moths 
in the Isle of Wight during 1995. S.A. 
Knill-Jones, 251 

Early migrant moths in Scotland, 1995. 
M.R. Young, 251 

Ectoedemia amani Svensson (Lep.: 
Nepticulidae) new to Britain. B. 
Dicker son, 163 

Electrophaes corylata Thunb. (Lep.: 
Geometridae), ratio of forms in north- 
west Kent. B.K. West, 153 

Epirrita autumnata Borkh. (Lep.: 
Geometridae): a new variety. R. 
Leverton, 152 

Eric Bradford, 259 

Euchmichtis lichenea Uchenea Hb., 

Feathered Ranunculus (Lep.: Noctuidae) 

in north-east Hampshire. A. Aston, 32 
Eucosma metzneriana Treits. (Lep.: 

Tortricidae) in north Essex. C.W. Plant, 

154 

Eupithecia abietaria Goetz (Lep.: 
Geometridae) in Devon. R. McCormick, 
275 

Eutheia linearis Muls. (Col.: Scymaenidae) 
recaptured at Windsor. A.A. Allen, 147 

Evergestis limbata L. (Lep.: Pyralidae) new 
to mainland Britain. S.R. Colenutt, 197 

Evidence of White Admiral butterfly 
(Limenitis Camilla L.) larvae feeding on 
Aspen (Populus tremula). KJ. Willmott, 
266 

Exceptional dates for British Orthoptera. /. 
Paul, 162 

Extreme f. pan-albisignata Kaaber & H0egh- 
Guldberg in the Durham Argus butterfly, 
Aricia artaxerxes salmacis, Stephens, and 
related observations. H.A. Ellis, 133 

Fall of the Painted Lady. J.W. Hale & M.E. 
Hicks, 189 

Field observations of the "Hilltopping" 
phenomenon in North-west Africa - and 
an introduction to "Ravining" (Lep.: 
Rhopalocera). W.J. Tennent, 57 

First Kent record of Coleophora deviella 
Zell. (Lep.: Coleophoridae). A^.F. Heal, 43 

First Kent record of Cosmopterix lienigiella 
L. & Z. (Lep.: Cosmopterigidae). N.F. 
Heal, 44 



First Kent record of Cosmopterix orichalcea 
Staint. (Lep.: Cosmopterigidae). N.F 
Heal, 193 

First Kentish record of Bankesia douglasii 
Staint. (Lep.: Psychidae). N.F. Heal, 98 

First Kentish record of Phyllonorycter 
insignitella Zell. (Lep.: Gracillariidae). 
N.F. Heal, 101 

First light trap, 1st Century AD. I.C. Beavis, 
155 

Flurry of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier 
(Lep.: Gelechiidae) in Kent. P. A. 
Sokolojf, 14 

Flying times of Laothoe populi L. (Lep.: 

Sphingidae). R.W. Bogue, 256 
Foodplants of Coleophora lusciniaepennella 

Treits. (Lep.: Coleophoridae) in 

Lancashire (VC60). S.M. Palmer, l{il 
Furcula bifida Brahm (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 

Pembrokeshire. A.P. Foster, 157 

Further early emergences of moths. A. 
Aston, 191 

Further notes relating to an Indian Arctiid, 

Bombay, 1994. G. King, 44 
Further observations on Epermenia 

insecurella Staint. (Lep.: Epermeniidae) 

in Wiltshire. S.M. Palmer, 174 
Further observations on the Erebia ligea 

Linn, and other controversies. M.A. 

Salmon, 117 

Further records of Gelechiidae senticetella 
Staudinger (Lep.: Gelechiidae). M.S. 
Parsons, 38 

Further records of Malacosoma castrensis 

L. (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) from Devon. 

R.M. McCormick, 307 
Gertrude Kate Haggett, 158 
Hazards of butterfly collecting - A 

biogeographical anomaly, London 1994. 

T.B. Ear sen, 95 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - a first 
brush with science - Copenhagen, 1958. 
T.B. Larsen, 111 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - butterflies 
witness for Jehova - Nigeria, March 
1995. T.B. Larsen. 249 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - from Rat 
Trap to Barbecue Bottom, Jamaica, 
February 1994. T.B. Ear sen, 150 



Hazards of butterfly collecting - getting the 
shakes - United Kingdom, April 1993. 
T.B. Larsen, 41 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - political 
undercurrents. R.C. Dening, 244 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Stardom at 
last, India, Christmas 1985. T.B. Larsen, 
305 

Heart Moth, Dicycla oo L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
from north-west Kent. P. Jupp & P.A. 
Sokoloff, 40 

Hypena obsitalis Hb., the Bloxworth Snout 
(Lep.: Noctuidae) new to mainland 
Hampshire. A. Aston, 47 

Influx of the Silver Y, Autographa gamma 
L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in South Devon. H.L. 
O'Hejfenian, 100 

It was migration - the exceptional 
abundance of the Large White butterfly, 
Pieris brassicae L. in 1992. H. Mendel, 
192> 

Kent record for the Spanish Carpet, 
Scotopteryx peribolata Hbn. (Lep.: 
Geometridae). S.P. Clancy, 164 

Ladybirds at Ught. P. A. Sokoloff, 311 

Large Tortoiseshell butterfly, Nymphalis 
polychloros L. in Kent. P. Biirness, 255 

Large Tortoiseshell, Nymphalis polychloros 
L. in West Sussex. D. Sheldon, 156 

Large-scale migration of the African skipper 
Andronymus gander Evans near Calabar, 
Nigeria (Lep.: Hesperiidae). T.B. Larsen, 
263 

Larval habits of Leiodes rufipennis Paykull 
{=clavicornis Rye) (Col.: Leiodidae): 
some preliminary observations. R.M. 
Lyszkowski, 39 

Late and partial third broods of butterflies 
and moths in the Isle of Wight during 
1994. S.A.Knill-Jones, 111 

Leg teratology in Galerucella sagittariae 
Gyllenhal (Col.: Chrysomelidae). R.A. 
Jones, 33 

Lepidoptera in Fuerteventura (Canary Isle) 
\99 A. R.G.Ainley,2> 

Liptena priscilla a new Liptenid butterfly 
from Nigeria (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). 
T.B. Larsen, 29 



List of the Chrysomelidae and Curculiodoidea 
(Coleoptera) from Saint Bees Head, West 
Cumbria. R.W.J. Read, 11 

Little-known entomological literature. B.O.C. 
Gardiner, 49 

Little-known entomological literamre. B.O.C. 
Gardiner, 195 

Luperina dumerilii Dup. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
from Cornwall. B. Skinner, 99 

Malacosoma castrensis L. (Lep.: Lasio- 
campidae) recorded from Devon. G. King, 
306 

Meganola albida D. & S. (Lep.: Nolidae) 
from Oxfordshire. CM. Paper, 74 

Microlepidoptera review of 1993 D.J.L. 
Agassiz, R.J. Heckford & J.R. Langmaid, 
207 

Migrant insects in 1995. P. Sokoloff, 304 

Minor infestation of Atropos (Lep.: 
Sphingidae) in Hertfordshire, 1994. D. 
Wilson, 47 

Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. in 
West Sussex. D. Dey, 99 

Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. in 
Somerset. B.E. Slade, 99 

More observations on Eublemma ostrina 
(Hbn.) the Purple Marbled. B. Elliott & B. 
Skinner, 161 

Mothathons in Cornwall. A. Spalding, 223 

Moths as a food resource for hospitalised 
bats. A. Spalding, 193 

National Pyralid Recording scheme. 104 

New species of lepidoptera to the Isle of 
Wight. S.A. Knill-Jones, 76 

New species of Mordellistena (Col.: 
Mordellidae) in Britain. A.A. Allen, 25 

New subspecies of Luperina nickerlii Freyer, 
1845 from south-east England, with notes 
on the other sub-species found in Britain, 
Ireland and mainland Europe. B. Goater 
and B. Skinner, 127 

Note on the authorship of the North African 
satyrid butterfly, Berberia abdelkader ab. 
serrata. (Lep.: Satyridae) as an example of 
nomenclatoric confusion. R.H. Anken, 75 

Notes on finding the larva of Coleophora 
aestuariella Bradley (Lep.: Coleophoridae) 
N.F. Heal, 184 



Nothris congressariella Braund (Lep.: 
Gelechiidae) reared from Lundy. R.S. Key, 
273 

Nvmphalis antiopa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) 
' in Kent. R.W. Bogiie, 298 

Observations on the behaviour of the 
Panoptes Blue, Pseudophilotes panoptes 
Hbn. (Lep.: Lycaenidae). RJ. Morris, 245 

Of all the cars, in all the world. /. Tennent, 11 

Olethreutes mygindiana D. & S. (Lep.: 
Tortricidae) new to Shropshire (VC40). 
DJ. Poynton, 73 

Olethreutes mygindiana D. & S. (Lep.: 
Tortricidae) in South Shropshire (VC40) 
and its suspected parasitoid Glypta 
gracilis Hee. - new to Britain. D. 
Poynton, 307 

On the British Mordellistena humeralis L. 
(Col.: Mordellidae) and its allies. A. Aston, 
181 

One and a half years of Kenyan Orthoptera 
1. Introduction and Tettigoniidae. /. Paul, 
111 

Orthoptera in the London archipelago. John 
Paul, 89 

Outbreak of the Lackey Moth, Malacosoma 
neustria L. (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) in 
Beckton, east London, May 1995. G.E. 
King, 254 

Overwintering Orthoptera and other insects 
in Crete. /. Paul, 221 

Parascotia fuliginaria L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 
in September. B.K. West, 100 

Pedasia fascilinella Hb. (Lep.: Pyralidae): 
two more Kentish examples. 5'. Clancy, 
255 

Phalacrus spp. (Col.: Phalacridae): a 
correction, and remarks on certain names 
in the genus. A.A. Allen, 192 

Pitfall trap for repetitive sampling of 
Hypogean arthropod faunas. J. A. Owen, 
225 

Probable second brood of the Orange-tip 
butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines L. in 
the South of France. M.S. HaiTey, 100 

Psychoides filicivora Meyr. (Lep.: Tineidae) 
and Caloptilia azaleela Brants. (Lep.: 
Gracillariidae) in West Kent. I.C. Beavis, 
156 



Pyralid moths in profile: Part 1 - Sciota 
adelphella Fischer von Roslerstam. B. 
Skinner, 147 

Pyralid moths in profile: Part 2 - Acrohasis 
tumidana D. & S. B. Skinner, 241 

Rear Admiral David Torlesse, 258 

Record of Hermeuptychia cucullina 
(Weymer) from Brazil including some 
remarks on other Hermeuptychian taxa 
(Lep.: Satyridae). R.H. Anken, 237 

Records of Scottish microlepidoptera from 
south-western Scotland, July, 1994. A.M. 

Emmet, 5 

Records of the genus Pedasia (Pyralidae) in 
Devon. A.H. Dobson, 310 

Reproductive cycle of Acerentomon nemorale 
Wom. (Hexapoda: Protura) from soil in 
decidous woodland. P.E. King & K.V. 
Aazem, 83 

Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll. (Col.: Curcu- 

lionidae) in south-east London, a third 

British locality. R.A. Jones, 297 
Scarce Large Blue butterfly, Maculinea 

telejus Bergstr. (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in 

Slovenia. D. Withrington, 88 
Scarcity of Vanessid butterflies. P.B. Hardx, 

257 

Scarcity of Vanessid butterflies. C.J. Smith, 

146 
Scrobipalpa artemesiella Treitschke (Lep.: 

Gelechiidae), a larval description . R.J. 

Heckford, 38 
Scythris picaepennis Haw. (Lep.: Scyth- 

rididae): extended emergence or possible 

bivoltinism in South Wiltshire. S.M. 

Palmer, 243 

Second British record of Mussidia 

nigrivenella Ragonot. (Lep.: Pyralidae). 

S.P. Clancy, 146^ 
Second British record of Peribatodes 

manuelaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). 5. 

Clancy, 98 
Second Kent record of Coleophora fiischella 

L. (Lep.: Coleophoridae). N.E. Heal. 187 

Sedina buettneri Hering (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 

Essex, 1994. /. Firmin, 43 
Serious pests of Urtica divica Linn, at 5500' 

altitude in Kumaon Hills in India. M. Arif 

& N. Kumar, 13 



Sitochroa palealis D. & S. (Lep.: Pyralidae) 
in Oxfordshire. M.A. Easterbrook, 100 

Small Rufous, Coenobia rufa, Haw. (Lep.: 
Noctuidae) in Buckinghamshire. G.E. 
Higgs. 38 

Some entomological jargon exposed. R.A. 
Jones, 205 

Some preliminary notes on Odontognophus 
dumetata Treitschke ssp. hibernica 
Forder. (Lep.: Geometridae). B. Elliott & 
B. Skinner, 1 

Some winter insects. A. Aston, 158 

Southern Chestnut moth, Agrochola 
haematidea Dup. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
Britain - an update. P. Waring, 248 

Sphinx ligustri L. f. albescens Tutt (Lep.: 
Sphingidae) in Hampshire. R. Cook, 292 

Status of Strangalia attenuata L. (Col.: 
Cerambycidae) in Britain. R.R. Uhthojf- 
Kaufmann, 69 

Stigmella continuella Stt. (Lep.: 
Nepticulidae) in Scotland. K.P. Bland, 
253 

Stolen - cabinet drawers and antique books, 
259 

Strangalia maculata Poda var. gibberdi 
nov., (Col.: Cerambycidae). R.R. Uhthoff- 
Kaufmann, 262 

Subcortical fungus beetle basking in 
sunlight. R.A. Jones, 220 

Supplement: The larger moths of Dawlish 
Warren, Devon pp 1-16. R. McCormick, 
229-236, 283-290 

Synanthedon formicaeformis Esp., Red- 
tipped Clearwing (Lep.: Sesiidae), further 
evidence of a two-year life cycle. J.H. 
Clarke, 11 

Synchita humeralis F. (Col.: Colydiidae): a 
second record for west Kent. A.A. Allen, 
201 

Taphropeltus contractus H.-S. (Het.: 
Lygaeidae) in west Cumbria. R.W.J. 
Read, 156 

The Common Blue Damselfly, Enallagma 
cyathigerum and other Odonata records 
from Shetland. M.G. Pennington, 165 

The genus Abantis (Lep.: Hesperiidae): 
some additional central African records. 
R.C. Dening, 143 



The Large Cabbage Butterfly, Pieris 
brassicae extends its range to South 
Africa. B.O.C. Gardiner, 174 

Thera juniperata L. (Lep.: Geometridae) in 
west Gloucester in Autumn 1994. M.N. 
McCrea, 50 

Third British record of Etiella zinckenella 
Triets. (Lep.: Pyralidae) and other 
migrants from VC 1 1 . M. Jejfes, 291 

Two highly notable beetles in West Kent in 
the 1960s. A.A.A//6'/7, 101 

Two new foodplants for Euproctis 
chrysorrhoea L. (Lep.: Lymantriidae) 
noted in east London, March/April, 1995. 
G. King, 276 

Two records of Tipula sp. (Diptera: 
Tipulidae) from Andalucia, Spain. E.G. 
Hancock, 3 

Two species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) 
new to Fiji. /. Clayton, 295 

Unseasonal Lepidoptera records from 
Rothamsted Insect Survey light traps. 
A.M. Riley, 255 

Unusual foodplant for Hedya pruniana Hb. 
(Lep.: Tortricidae). /. Ferguson, 131 

Unusual form of Aglais urticae L. (Lep.: 
Nymphalidae) from Devon. R.W. Bogue, 
292 

Unusual variation in the Light Emerald, 
Campaea margaritata L. (Lep.: 
Geometridae). A.A. Allen, 282 

Up in the clouds. G.G. Baldwin, 296 

Very first light trap, 1565? B.O.C. 
Gardiner, 45 

Waved Black, Parascotia fuliginaria L. 
(Lep.: Noctuidae) in Lancashire. J.G. 
Whiteside, 282 

When small white equals a large, or 
American confusion. B.O.C. Gardiner, 67 

White Admiral, Limenitis Camilla L. (Lep.: 
Nymphalidae) still present near Bexley, 
north-west Kent. A. A. Allen, 282 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Aazem, K.V., 83 

Agassiz, D., 142, 207 

Ainley, R.G., 3 

Allen, A.A., 25, 41, 46, 101, 147, 192, 201, 

247, 282 
Anken, R.H., 75, 237 
Arif, M., 13 
Ashe, P., 105 

Aston, A., 4, 32, 47, 158, 181, 191 
Ayre, K., 175 
Baldwin, G.G., 261,296 
Barrington, R., 179 
Beavis, I.C, 155, 156, 203 
Bland, K.P., 253 
Bloxham, M.G., 46 
Bogue, R.W., 256, 292, 298 
Bristow, R., 152 
Bryan, M.D., 199 
Bumess, P., 255 
Clancy, S.P., 98, 146, 164, 255 
Clarke,!., 11,82 
Clayton, J., 295 
Colenutt, S.R., 197 
Cook, R., 292 
Davis, A.M., 240 
Dening, R.C., 143 
Dey, D., 99 
Dickerson, B., 163 
Dickson, R., 202 
Dobson,A.H.,310 
Easterbrook, M.A., 100 
Elliott, B., 1, 161 
Ellis, H. A., 133 
Emmet, A.M., 5 
Ferguson, I., 131 
Firmin, J., 43 
Foster, A.P., 157 

Gardiner, B.O.C., 45, 49, 67, 174, 195 
Goater, B., 127 
Haggett, G.M., 24 
Hale,J.W., 189,271 



Hancock, E.G., 3 

Hardy, P.B., 107,257 

Harvey, M.S, 100 

Heal, N.F., 43, 44, 98, 101, 184, 187, 193 

Heckford, R.J., 38, 40, 207 

Heffeman, H.L., 100 

Hicks, M.E., 189,271 

Higgs, G.E., 38 

Jeffes, M., 291 

Jones, R.A., 33, 205, 220, 297 

Jupp, P., 40 

Key, R.S., 273 

King, G., 44, 126, 254, 276, 306 

King, P.E., 83 

Knill- Jones, S.A., 76, 171, 251 

Kumar, N., 13 

Langmaid, J.R., 207 

Larsen, T.B., 29, 41, 95, 150, 177, 244, 249, 

263, 305 
Leverton, R., 152 
Lyszkowski, R.M., 39 
McCormick, R., 14, 229, 275, 283, 307 
McCrea, M.N., 50 
Mendel, H., 293 
Morris, R.J., 245 
O'Connor, M. A., 105 
O'Connor, J.P., 105 
Owen,D.F., 81, 155, 156 
Owen,J.A., 197,225 
Palmer, S.M., 174, 202, 243 
Parsons, M.S., 38 
Paul, J., 89, 162,221,277 
Pennington, M.G., 165 
Pittman, S., 310 
Plant, C.W., 154 
Poynton, D.J., 73, 307 
Raper, CM., 74 
Read, R.W.J., 77, 156, 157 
Riley, A.M., 255 
Salmon, M. A., 117 
Sheldon, D., 156 

Continued overleaf 



Skinner, B., 1, 68, 99, 127, 147, 161, 241 Wakeham-Dawson, A., 267 

Slade, B.E., 99 Waring, P., 248 

Smith, C.J., 146 Welch, R.C., 185 

Smyllie, B., 15 West, B.K., 100, 141, 153 

Sokoloff, P., 14, 40, 292, 304, 311 Whiteside, J.G., 282 

Spalding, A., 193, 223 Willmott, K.J., 266 

Tennent, W.J., 27, 57 Wilson, D., 47 

Townsend, M., 155 Wistow, S., 105 

Uhthoff-Kaufmann, R.R., 69, 262 Withrington, D., 88 

Verdsoucrt, B., 299 Young, M.R., 198, 251, 253 



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Tel: 01277-224610 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
P.A. SOKOLOFF, f.r.e.s. 

Assistant Editors 
J.A. OWEN, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



J anuai-y I February 1995 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 

P.A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I.Biol., F.R.E.S. 

4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Assistant Editors 
J.A. OWEN, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, M.A., F.R.E.S. 

Editorial Panel 

A.A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. PJ. Chandler, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

N. Birkett, m.a., m.b. C.A. Collingwood, b.Sc f.r.e.s. 

E.S. Bradford A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d.. f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b.. Ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. B. Skinner 

Registrar 

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NOTES AND ODONTOGNOPHOS DUMETATA 



SOME PRELIMINARY NOTES ON ODONTOGNOPHOS 

DUMETATA TREITSCHKE SSP. HIBERNICA FORDER 

(LEP.: GEOMETRIDAE) 

Brian Elliott' & Bernard Skinner- -^ j.^ 

vD 

' 24 Deerlands Road. Ashgate, Chesterfield, Derbyshire S40 4DFl'T"\/ 
-5 Rawlins Close. Addington. Croydon. Surrey CR2 8JS. 

AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL identification of the unusual duhitata-Wkt 
geometers found by Peter Forder and his wife in Co. Clare in August 1991 
(Forder, 1991), the authors decided that an investigation was merited to 
determine if this attractive moth with its velvety deep slate grey ground 
colour, so perfectly matching the Burren rocks, was indeed a resident species 
and not a migrant. 

A study of the nearest continental subspecies, of which there are a 
number, showed that it was closest to ssp. margaritatus Zemy from Aragon, 
Spain. Going eastwards, the resident form in France is ssp. daubearia 
Boisduval, which is brownish and more lightly marked. Going further east, 
the species tends to become browner and more heavily marked as is the case 
with specimens from the type locality in Dalmatia. In considering its likely 
origin, it presumably is yet another interglacial relict from the late 
pleistocene and is more evidence of a lingering mediterranean fauna on the 
west coast of Ireland. In this respect it is similar to Calamia tridens 
occidentalis Cockayne whose closest affinities appear to be with specimens 
from the Iberian peninsular according to Dr Cockayne (1954) and not to 
closer mainland Europe. 

Culot (1919-1920) gave its foodplant as P hilly rea latifolia L., and the 
larva fully grown in June, but Forster and Wohlfahrt (1981) gave Rhamnus 
sp. as a foodplant as did Seitz (1912). Forster and Wohlfahrt also gave a 
somewhat misleading description of the larva as striped, smooth and flesh 
red, but more accurately, with a dorsal blackish line obliquely flecked with 
yellow. 

During a visit to the Burren in June, 1992, B.E. spent three days searching 
for areas of likely foodplant and both Rhamnus catharticiis L.. and a 
prostrate form of Frangula alnus Mill, were discovered. Several days spent 
beating these potential foodplants producing a variety of larvae including 
Philereme transversata britannica Lempke, Triphosia dubitata L., in great 
abundance and Hemithea aestivaria Hiibn. One possible larva of 
Odontognophos dumetata Trietschke which was fully grown was also 
obtained. This was confirmed when a male, the third Irish specimen, 
emerged on 24.7.92. We now had an idea of where to look. 

We both returned in early August 1992, and spent a total of six nights 
running m.v. in likely areas in very poor weather conditions. Over a period 
of a week, we were able to record a total of eight dumetata males at light. 



2 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

One female was discovered resting near one trap site. As this may have been 
a virgin female it was exposed in a makeshift cage in its habitat for possible 
pairing. No males were attracted and it was presumed that it had already 
paired. During the day, hours were spent unsuccessfully searching rocks and 
peering down nooks and crannies in the Burren locality where it was 
resident, but in this respect, none were seen or disturbed, so we had only the 
one female to rely on for a study of its life cycle. 

About ten days later, the captive female produced many ova which were 
small for the size of the moth and a pale bluish-green in colour. They were 
laid loosely and not attached to any substrate; this was a surprise, since the 
area of the Burren where both moths and larva were found was low-lying 
and subject to winter flooding, judging by the detritus lying around. It would 
have been expected that the ova would overwinter on the twigs of its 
foodplant and hatch in the spring. A local farmer confirmed that in winter, 
the area would be under water for many days. 

By the spring of 1993, it was obvious that the ova were infertile so we 
returned again, this time a little earlier, on the 20th May. Prolonged beating 
of the Rhamnus and Frangula bushes over several days produced only five 
dumetata larvae, which were half to threequarters grown, until realisation 
that larvae only seemed to occur in number where the Rhamnus was subject 
to winter inundation. Subsequently another locality was discovered which 
did not match the original situation, but was heavily sheltered by scrub. 

The larva is somewhat rough looking, similar in texture to Gnophos 
obscuratus D.&S. At full growth it is 25-30mm in length, tapering to head. 
When young it is blackish-blue flecked with yellow dorsally. When fully 
grown, the ground colour is light to dark fleshy-grey with vague longitudinal 
striations running along the length of body. The dorsal line is prominent and 
blackish on segments 1, 2 and 3 and even more marked on 9, 10 and 1 1. On 
the middle segments, there is a yellowish dorsal mark with skin colour 
blackish anterior to it. The head is blackish and speckled dark grey. The 
larva perfectly matches its resting background, a Rhamnus twig, and if 
disturbed immediately drops without a silk thread and forms a characteristic 
U shape. The pupa is stout and reddish-brown and, if given a suitable peaty 
medium, pupates in a silk lined chamber. The first imagines in captivity 
emerged at dusk on 15.7.93 and continued until 4.9.93. Pairings were again 
attempted, but not observed and only infertile ova were produced. 

In conclusion, it is to be wondered what other relict species are as yet 
undiscovered on the west coast of Ireland. It is remarkable that such a large 
moth, widely, if probably thinly spread, can survive undetected despite many 
visits by lepidopterists to the Burren. Professor E.B. Ford (Ford, 1955) 
prophetically stressed the need for entomological exploration in Ireland and 
this shows how right he was. 



NOTES AND ODONTOGNOPHOS DUMETATA 



Finally, we would like to Ihank Anne and Tom Martin of "Villa Maria", 
now becoming well known as a base for lepidopterists, for their essential 
"back-up service" during our visits. 

References 

Cockayne, Dr E.A., 1954. Ent. Gaz. 5: 155. 

Culot, J., 1919-1920. Nocfuelles et Geometres d'Europe 4: 107. 

Ford. Prof. E.B., 1955. Moths p. 166. 

Forder, P., 1993. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 105: 201. 

Forster, W. & Wohlfahrt, T., 1981. Die Schmetteiiinge Mitteleuropas. 5: 263. 

Seitz, A., 1912. Macrolepidoptera of the World. 4: 385. 



Lepidoptera in Fuerteventura (Canary Isle) 1994 

I spent a week on this very arid, very barren Island, from 14th to 21st 
September 1994. It was not surprising, given the nature of the terrain, that 
lepidoptera (and many other forms of wildlife) were extremely scarce. On 
19th and 20th September, I positively identified about six specimens of the 
well-known migrant Catopsilia florella. I record this because Higgins and 
Riley (1983, p.34) state "recorded only from Gran Canary and Tenerife for 
the first time in 1964, and Gomera in 1974". There may, of course, be 
records for Fuerteventura of which I am unaware. 

The only other Lepidoptera found were three specimens of the Lycaenid 
Zizeeria knysna Trimen, and a few Macroglossum stellatarum L. 
Reference: Higgins and Riley. Field guide to Butterflies of Great Britain and Europe 
5th Ed. 1983, Collins. 

- Dr R.G. Ainley, "Burford" Briardale Road, Willaston, Wirral L64 1TB. 

Two records of Tipula spp. (Diptera: Tipulidae) from Andalucia, Spain 

A brief visit to Andalucia in mid-October, 1989, produced just two tipulids. 
They remained unidentified until recently when I received two reprints 
which solved the apparent problems. The two insects were collected while 
the weather was still seasonally dry. Only as we were leaving did a 
thunderstorm and associated rain suddenly fill the dry water courses and 
produce dramatic flash floods. 

Firstly, a small male Tipula with long antennae had eluded any attempt 
even to be put into an appropriate subgenus. I now find that by coincidence 
the same species was collected by Dr Christophe Dufour in the previous 
week and has since been described by him as a new subspecies, Tipula 
(Vestiplex) vaillanti andalucia (Dufour, C. & Oosterbroek, P., 1990, Mitt. 
schweiz.ent.Ges., 63: 233-236). The finding of females allows the correct 
placement of this species within this large genus. The species was described 
from north Africa. My specimen, found on 14th October, 1989, near Mijas, 
was from a stony slope within an old olive grove, which habitat accords with 
the findings of this species to date. 

The other is Tipula (Acutipula) triangulifera Loew, from the maxima 
species group which have been recently treated (de Jong, H., 1993. Ent. 
Scand., 24(4): 433-457). A male was caught at light near Fuengirola, near 



4 



ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD, VOL. 107 



Lii.1995 



Malaga, on the same date, within the geographical range of existing records. 
Its distribution appears to be restricted to southern Spain, predominantly 
Andalucia.- E.G. Hancock, Glasgow Museums, Kelvingrove, Glasgow 
G3 SAG. 

Early emergence of Spring moths 

I can now add details of further early first appearances of non-hibematory 
spring moths at Selbome:- 

MBGBI 
1994 1993 1992 imago 



Orthosia cruda 


27 Feb 


17 Feb 


20 Mar 


Mar, Apr 


Anticlea hadiata 


27 Feb 


6 Mar 


4 Mar 


Mar, Apr 


Orthosia populeti 


1 Mar 


16 Mar 


22 Mar 


Mar, Apr 


Orthosia munda 


4 Mar 


21 Mar 


None 


Mar, Apr 


Trichopteryx carpinata 


7 Mar 


17 Mar 


None 


Apr, May 


Selenia dentaria 


24 Mar 


18 Mar 


28 Mar 


Apr, May 


Anticlea derivata 


29 Mar 


12 Apr 


30 Mar 


Apr, May 


Lampropteijx sujfumata 


11 Apr 


10 Apr 


19 Apr 


Apr, May 


Pheosia tremula 


19 Apr 


8 May 


24 Jun 


May, Jun 


Menophra abruptaria 


22 Apr 


30 Apr 


3 May 


Apr-Jun 


Diaphora mendica 


24 Apr 


22 May 


None 


May, Jun 


Xanthorhoe spadicearia 


26 Apr 


17 Apr 


12 May 


May, Jun 


Lomographa bimaculata 


29 Apr 


25 May 


22 May 


May, Jun 


Ecliptopera silaceata 


29 Apr 


17 May 


7 May 


May-Jul 


Pheosia gnoma 


29 Apr 


29 Apr 


None 


May, Jun 


Eupithecia vidgata vulgata 


29 Apr 


30 Apr 


24 May 


May, Jun 


Thera obeliscata 


2 May 


26 May 


26 May 


May-Jul 


Hada nana 


5 May 


12 Jun 


26 Jun 


May-Jul 


Eligmodonta ziczac 


5 May 


7 May 


26 Jun 


May, Jun 


Eaothoe populi 


5 May 


22 May 


21 May 


May, Jun 


Apamea crenata 


6 May 


24 May 


24 Jun 


May-Jul 


Chloroclystis v-ata 


7 May 


26 May 


30 Jun 


May, Jun 


Spilosoma lubricipeda 


8 May 


9 May 


16 May 


May-Jul 


Eomographa temerata 


10 May 


22 May 


25 May 


May, Jun 


Drymonia dodonaea 


10 May 


22 May 


None 


May, Jun 


Stauropus fagi 


10 May 


22 May 


23 May 


May-Jul 


Aphomia sociella 


13 May 


10 May 


15 May 


Jun-Aug 


Axylia putris 


25 May 


22 May 


15 Jun 


Jun, Jul 


Horisme tersata 


25 May 


28 May 


9 Jun 


Jun-Aug 


Lomaspilis marginata 


1 Jun 


13 May 


14 May 


Jun, Jul 



All observations were made at home. There is a tendency for the dates to be 
progressively early for this locality. Perhaps these data may assist any 
investigation of the causes. 

Reference: Emmet, A.M., 1991. Chapter 3, Volume 7(2), The Moths and Butterflies of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Harley Books, Colchester. 

- Alasdair Aston, Walce's Cottage, Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 



SCOTTISH MICROLEPIDOPTERA 



RECORDS OF MICROLEPIDOPTERA FROM SOUTH-WESTERN 

SCOTLAND, JULY, 1994 

A.M. Emmet 

Lahrey Cottat^c. Victoria Gardens. Saffron Walden. Essex CBl I 3AF. 

WHEN MY SISTER proposed that we should spend a week's holiday, 
touring with bed and breakfast accommodation, in the counties of 
Dumfriesshire (VC72), Kirkcudbrightshire (VC73), and Wigtownshire 
(VC74), I welcomed the suggestion, not least because south-western 
Scotland is one of the parts of the British Isles with fewest records for 
microlepidoptera. However, the holiday was not planned as an 
entomological expedition. The object was to visit some of the notable 
gardens and antiquities of the region and to enjoy the coastal and mountain 
scenery. Nevertheless, I took my light-trap and was able to do periodic 
roadside recordings for spells ranging from a few minutes to an hour or 
more. The gardens were mainly stocked with alien and often subtropical 
vegetation, unwelcome to British Lepidoptera, and my sister and I 
sometimes parted company so that I could search the peripheral native trees 
and plants. 

I wished to ascertain whether the paucity of records was due to to an 
impoverished fauna or lack of recording, and found that both were 
responsible. Leaf-mining species were particularly scarce. I failed to find a 
single mine on hawthorn, hazel, sloe, bramble, rose, poplar or lime. Oak, 
apart from numerous vacated mines of Eriocrania siibpurpurella (Haworth), 
yielded one vacated mine of Stigmella ruficapitella (Haworth) and not a 
single Phyllonoj-ycter species. Sallow gave just one Phyllonorycter mine, 
identified as P. salicicolella (Sircom) when the adult emerged, and one 
larval feeding of Caloptilia stigmatella (Fabricius). Birch produced an 
occasional vacated mine of Stigmella lapponica (Wocke) and one or two 
Phyllonorycter ulmifolieUa (Hiibner); alder only a few widely dispersed 
mines of P. rajella (Linnaeus). Beech and rowan were more productive, 
most of their quota of leaf-miners being present; Caloptilia syringella 
(Fabricius) was abundant, mainly on ash. 

I formed the impression that some species were more selective in their 
foodplant than elsewhere in Britain. For instance, holm-oak abounds in 
Castle Kennedy Gardens and the trees were almost disfigured by the 
innumerable mines of Phyllonoiycter messaniella (Zeller), yet there was no 
trace of its feeding on deciduous oak or beech either there or elsewhere. In 
the Isles of Scilly holm-oak and beech are attacked by this species with 
impartiality. In the same gardens Lyonetia clerkella (Linnaeus) was mining 
cultivated apple in plenty, but I could not find a single mine on other 
rosaceous trees at any locality. 

The scarcity of leaf-mines is not due to seasonal discrepancy between 
north and south, since this part of Scotland has a very mild climate as is 
testified by the lush green vegetation. Such leaf-mines as are present 



6 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 07 Lii. 1 995 

conform in their timing with those in the south. My only other visit to this 
part of Scotland was in July 1975, when my wife and I concentrated almost 
exclusively on nepticulid records, finding them as hard to make then as in 
1994. The late E.G. Pelham-Clinton and Dr J.R. Langmaid were in the area 
in 1988, and the latter tells me that they, too, were struck by the dearth of 
species. Is there an explanation? 

I was able to run my trap on five nights and at four sites, two in VC74 and 
one each in VCs 72 and 73. Three of the cottages where we stayed were in 
rather bleak country, where big catches were not to be expected, but we had 
an excellent site at Holywood (VC72), where I recorded 1 14 species, 38 of 
them microlepidoptera. Yet from trap and fieldwork, in the whole week from 
all three counties, I encountered only 84 microlepidoptera, fewer than I 
recorded with the help of Dr Langmaid in my garden at Saffron Walden on 
the night of 3rd August 1990. These few species produced no fewer than 48 
new county records. When Pandemis heparana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) 
is new from two counties and Cnephasia incertana (Treitschke) from one, it 
is obvious that microlepidopterists have either avoided the region or failed to 
publish their records. The only "good" records I made were Stigmella 
spinossisimae (Waters) and Apotomis semifasciana (Haworth), both from 
VC 74. If the list that follows shames microlepidopterists who have operated 
in this part of Scotland to disgorge their records, a useful purpose will have 
been served. 

The authenticity of my new records up to the end of of the Tortricidae 
should be 100%, since they have been checked against a draft species/vice- 
county table for Scotland prepared last winter by Dr K.P. Bland and others. 
The Pyralidae and Pterophoridae are not yet covered and I have relied on my 
maps for those families. 

I am giving the list of microlepidoptera in full since coverage of the region 
is so poor. I also recorded 83 species of macrolepidoptera, but now that the 
recording scheme operated by the Biological Records Centre has been 
discontinued, I do not know where to send them. The list may be had on 
application. 

There follows a list of the localities from which I recorded. Since I was 
working from a 'A inch map, I give only four-figure map references. They 
are arranged in chronological order. 

13.vii. VC73. Twynholm (3 miles west of village), NX6354. Trap (16 
species, including 3 microlepidoptera). 

14.vii. VC73. Threave Gardens, NX7660, and footpath to Threave Gastle, 
NX7562 (11 species, including 9 microlepidoptera). 

14.vii. VG73. Roadside between Parton and Drumrush, NX6870. A 
potentially good area but rain intervened (11 microlepidoptera). 

14.vii. VG73. Lay-by 1 mile west of New Galloway, NX6277. More rain (1 
microlepidopteron) . 



SCOTTISH MICROLEPIDOPTERA 



15.vii. VC74. Monreith (2 miles east of village), NX3741. Trap for two 
nights (50 species, including 15 microlepidoptera). 

16.vii. VC74. Unnamed tarn north of Mochrum Loch, NX3055. (7 species, 
including 6 microlepidoptera). 

16.vii. VC74. Kirkcowan area, NX3360. (3 microlepidoptera). 

n.vii. VC74. Glenwhan Gardens, Dunragit, NX 1757. (7 microlepidoptera). 

17.vii. VC74. Castle Kennedy Gardens, NX1260. (10 microlepidoptera). 

IS.vii. VC74. Car park adjoining beach, 1 mile south of Ardwell, NX1045 (1 
microlepidopteron) . 

IS.vii. VC74. Logan Botanic Gardens, NX0843. (1 microlepidopteron). 

IS.vii. VC74. Wood north of Aird, NX0961. (2 microlepidoptera). 

IS.vii. VC74. Rough ground by sea, 2 miles north of Innermessan, NX0S66. 
(2 microlepidoptera). 

IS.vii. VC73. Loch Trool, NX4079. (11 species, including 10 micro- 
lepidoptera). 

IS.vii. VC74. Bargrennan, NX3576, on the county boundary, but our hostess 
assured us her cottage was in Wigtownshire. Trap (30 species, including 6 
microlepidoptera) . 

19.vii. VC73. Clatteringshaws Loch, NX5474. (S species, including 7 
microlepidoptera) . 

19.vii. VC72. Maxwelton House Gardens, NXS3S9. (9 microlepidoptera). 

19.vii. VC72. Holywood, NX94S0. (114 species, including 3S micro- 
lepidoptera). 

20.vii. VC72. Lockerbie, NY14S2. (1 microlepidopteron). 

Systematic list 

An * asterisk indicates a new county record. 

Eriocraniidae 

Eriocrania subpurpurella (Haworth) - Vacated mines locally common on 
Quercus. VC72, Maxwelton House. VC73, Threave; Parton; Loch Trool. 
*VC74, Dunragit. 

Nepticulidae 

Stigmella sorbi (Stainton) - Vacated mines on Sorbiis aucuparia. VC72, 
Maxwelton House. VC73, Loch Trool. VC74, Dunragit. 

S. tityrella (Stainton) - Tenanted and vacated mines fairly common on 
Fagus. VC73, Threave. VC74, Castle Kennedy. 



8 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

5". hemargyrella (Kollar) - Tenanted and vacated mines on Fagus. VC73, 

Threave. VC74, Castle Kennedy. 

S. ruficapitella (Haworth) - One vacated mine on Quercus. *VC73, Parton. 

S. spinosissimae (Waters) - Vacated mines and cocoons on Rosa 

pimpinelUfolia. *VC74, Ardwell, the third record from Scotland, the others 

being from VCs 82 and 104. The Wigtownshire locality is in sight of the Isle 

of Man, 30 miles across the sea, where there is a strong colony at the Point 

of Ayr, its most northern extremity. 

S. nylandrieUa (Tengstrom) - Tenanted and vacated mines on Sorbus 

aucuparia. VC72, Maxwelton House. VC73, Loch Trool. VC74, Dunragit. 

S. magdalenae (Klimesch) - A vacated mine on Sorbus aucuparia. *VC73, 

Loch Trool. 

S. lapponica (Wocke) - A few vacated mines on Betula. VC72, Maxwelton 

House. 

Opostegidae 

Opostega salaciella (Treitschke) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

Lyonetiidae 

Leucoptera spartifoliella (Hiibner) - Flying round Cytisus. VC73, Parton. 
Lyonetia clerkeUa (Linnaeus) - VC73, Twynholm, at m.v. light. VC74, 
Castle Kennedy, tenanted and vacated mines common on Malus. 

Gracillariidae 

Caloptilia rufipennella (Hiibner) - M.J. Sterling has recorded it from VC73. 

Although I searched assiduously for it in VC74, where sycamore is 

abundant, I did not observe it. VC72, Maxwelton House; Lockerbie, larval 

feeding abundant on Acer pseudoplatanus. 

C. stigmatella (Fabricius) - A single larval cone on Salix. VC72 Maxwelton 

House. 

C. syringella (Fabricius) - Mines on Fraxinus: the commonest leaf-miner. 

VC73, Threave. VC74, Dunragit. 

CalUsto denticulella (Thunberg) - Mines on Malus. *VC74, Castle 

Kennedy. 

Phyllonorycter messaniella (Zeller) - Mines abundant on Quercus ilex. 

*VC74, Castle Kennedy. 

P. sorbi (Frey) - Mines on Sorbus aucuparia. VC72, Maxwelton House, 

Holywood, at m.v. light. VC73, Loch Trool. *VC74, Dunragit. 

P. corylifoliella (Hiibner) - A single mine on Malus. *VC73, Footpath to 

Threave Castle. 

P. salicicolella (Sircom) - A single mine on Salix cinerea; adult reared. 

*VC73, New Galloway. 

P. maestingella (Miiller) - Mines scarce on Fagus. VC73, Threave. 

P. rajella (Linnaeus) - Mines scarce on Alnus. VC73, Parton. *VC74, 

Kirkcowan; Castle Kennedy. 

P. ulmifoliella (Hiibner) - Mines scarce on Betula. *VC73, Parton; Loch 

Trool. 



SCOTTISH MICROLEPIDOPTERA 



P. geniculella (Ragonot) - Mines local on Acer pseudoplatanus. VC74, 
Dunragit. 

Choreutidae 

Anthophila fahviciana (Linnaeus) - Adults. VC73, Parton. 

Yponomeutidae 

Argyresthia pygmaeella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - One adult. VC74, 

Kirkcowan. 

A. conjugella Zeller - Adults. *VC72, at m.v. light. VC73, at rest on Sorhus 

aucupaha. 

Paraswammerdamia lutarea (Haworth) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood, 

*VC74 Bargrennan. 

Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) - At m.v. Hght. VC72, Holywood. 

Epermeniidae 

Epevmenia chaerophyllella (Goeze) - Larvae on Heracleum. '^VC73, 
Threave, *VC74 Dunragit. 

Coleophoridae 

Coleophora serratella (Linnaeus) - Larval feeding on Betula. VC73, Parton. 
C. laricella (Htibner) - Larval feeding on Lavix. '^VC73, Loch Trool; 
Clatteringshaw Loch. 

C. peribenanderi (Toll) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. 

Elachistidae 

Elachista albifrontella (Hiibner) - Swept from mixed grasses. VC72, 

Maxwelton House. 

E. humilis Zeller - Swept commonly from Deschampsia cespitosa. *VC74, 

Aird. 

Biselachista eleochariella (Stainton) - Swept from damp heathland. *VC74. 

Tarn north of Mochrum Loch. --=s;sss=-^ 

Oecophoridae 

Borkhausenia fiiscescens (Haworth) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Stainton) - At m.v. light. VC72, 

Holywood. 

Depressaha daucella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - Larvae on Oenanthe. 

VC74, Kirkcowan; Castle Kennedy. 

D. pastinacella (Duponchel) - Larvae on Heracleum. VC74. Dunragit. 
Agonopterix alstromeriana (Clerck) - Adults reared from larvae on Conium. 
*VC73, Parton. 

A. assimilella (Treitschke) - At m.v. light. VC72. Holywood. =^VC74, 
Bargrennan. 

Gelechiidae 

Scrobipalpa clintoni Povolny - Larvae in stems of Rumex crispus growing 
on shingle. VC74, Innermessan. 



10 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

MOMPHIDAE 

Mompha raschkiella (Zeller) - Larval mines on Epilobium angustifolium. 
VC73, Clatteringshaws Loch, VC74, Innermessan. 

M. conturbatella (Hiibner) - Adult amongst Epilobium angustifolium. 
*VC73, Parton. 

COSMOPTERIGIDAE 

Blastodacna hellerella (Duponchel) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. 

TORTRICIDAE 

Agapeta hamana (Linnaeus) - At m.v. Ught. VC74, Monreith. 

Pandemis heparana ([Denis & Schiffermtiller]) - At m.v. light. *VC72, 

Holywood. *VC74, Monreith; Bargrennan. 

Aphelia paleana (Hiibner) - Adult. VC73, Clatteringshaws Loch. 

Lozotaenia forsterana (Fabricius) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. 

*VC74, Monreith. 

Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (Fabricius) - Adult. VC74, Logan Botanic 

Gardens. 

Cnephasia stephensiana f. octomaculana Curtis - At m.v. light. *VC72, 

Holywood. 

C. asseclana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

C. incertana (Treitschke) - At m.v. light. '^VC72, Holywood. 

Acleris bergmanniana (Linnaeus) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. 

Olethreutes lacunana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - At m.v. light. VC72, 

Holywood. VC73, Parton, adult beaten from herbage. 

Hedya pruniana (Hiibner) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. VC74, 

Monreith. 

H. dimidioalba (Retzius) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. VC74, 

Monreith. 

H. atropunctana (Zetterstedt) - Adult. VC73, Clatteringshaw Loch. 

Apotomis semifasciana (Haworth) - At m.v. light. The second record from 

Scotland, the first from VCIOI. *VC74, Monreith. 

Bactra lancealana (Hiibner) - At m.v. light. VC73, Twynholm. VC74, Tarn 

north of Mochrum Loch, adults common. 

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Ratzeburg) - Old larval feeding. *VC73, 

Threave, on an unidentified alien Picea species; Loch Trool, on Picea abies. 

Epiblema uddmanniana (Linnaeus) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

E. trimaculana (Haworth) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood, VC74, 

Monreith. 

Eucosma hohenwartiana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - At m.v. light. VC72, 

Holywood. VC74, Monreith; Castle Kennedy, adult. 

E. cana (Haworth) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. *VC73, Twynholm, 

VC74, Monreith. 

Cydia succedana ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - At m.v. light. *VC74, 

Monreith. 



SCOTTISH MICROLEPIDOPTERA 1 1 



Pyralidae 

Chrysoteuchia culmella (Linnaeus) - At m.v. light. VC74, Monreith. 

Crambus pascuella (Linnaeus) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. VC74, 

Monreith; Castle Kennedy, adult. 

C. perlella (Scopoli) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. *VC74, Monreith. 

Agriphila straminella ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) - Abundant in grassland. 

VC72, Maxwelton House; Holywood, at mv. light. VC73, Parton; Loch 

Trool. VC74, Tarn north of Mochrum Loch; Castle Kennedy. 

A. thstella ([Denis & Schiffermiiller]) - VC72, Holywood, at mv. light. 

*VC74, Tarn north of Mochrum Loch, adults. 

Catoptria falsella ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) - At m.v. light. *VC72, 

Holywood. 

Scopaha ambigualis (Treitschke) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. VC74, 

Monreith. 

Dipleurina lacustrata (Panzer) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

Eudonia delunella (Stainton) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

E. mercurella (Linnaeus) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. *VC74, 

Monreith. 

Elophila nymphaeata (Linnaeus) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. VC74, 

Monreith. 

Nymphula stagnata (Donovan) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. 

Evergestis pallidata (Hufnagel) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

Udea lutealis (Hiibner) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

U. prunalis ([Denis & Schiffermuller]) - At m.v. light. *VC72, Holywood. 

Pleuroptya ruralis (Scopoli) - At m.v. light. VC72, Holywood. 

Pterophoridae 

Platyptilia pallidactyla (Haworth) - *VC72, Holywood, at m.v. light. 
*VC73, Clatteringshaws Loch, adults common round Achillea. VC74, 
Monreith, at m.v. light. 



Synanthedon formicaeformis (Esp.), Red-tipped Clearwing (Lep.: 
Sesiidae), further evidence of a two year life-cycle 

Most of the current literature concerning the life-cycle of Svnanthedon 
formicaeformis (Esp.) the Red-tipped Clearwing indicates that the species 
has a one year life-cycle. An observation by Dr Barry Henwood of a larva 
producing frass from June (when the gall was collected) until August and 
then overwintering to a prepupal larva in June of the following year suggests 
that this may not be the case. Fibiger and Kristensen discuss the species and 
refer to "presumably a single hibernation". The life-cycle charts in MBGBI 
volume 7 part 2 describe a one year life-cycle and the description in volume 
2 includes the comment "life-cycle said to be one year". 



12 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

In an attempt to breed this species osier stems with beetle damage were 
obtained from the environs of a gravel pit near to Chichester, Sussex, in 
March 1993. Over the next two months a few imagos emerged and in July 
the mines were dissected to demonstrate the anatomy of the larval mine and 
the position of the cocoon. Whilst splitting the stems a small sesiid larva 
(8mm in length) was encountered in the central portion of one of the thicker 
stems. This was placed in a hole drilled in a small branch (1.5mm in 
diameter) of a sallow in my garden. Some frass was extruded during the 
summer months but there was no sign of the larva the following spring until 
in May a small protuberant mass of frass (projecting only 2mm) held 
together with silk appeared from the place where the stem had been drilled. 
This was the end of the cocoon and the moth emerged in due course. It was 
fascinating how little outward presence of the larva there was; even in the 
spring before emergence there was nothing in the way of gall formation 
although the area drilled had developed some callus in response to the injury. 

This represents further evidence that 5". formica eformis has a two year life- 
cycle and not the one year as suggested by most of the current literature. As 
the woody material was gathered very early in the year (mid-March) well 
before any potential flight period of the imagos, it is not possible to explain 
this observation in terms of there being a fertile ovum already laid on the 
stem when collected which then hatched, neither were imagos left in the 
cage to mate and oviposit. 

After making an observation contrary to received opinion it is tempting to 
suggest that current literature is incorrect. This may indeed be so but 
alternatively the species may have a variable life-cycle with some larvae 
taking one and some two years before reaching maturity. This is a feature of 
some lepidoptera particularly encountered in the pupal stage with pupae 
lying over sometimes several winters before emerging. I have observed that 
in the case of Bembecia chiysidiformis (Esp.) most of the larvae will mature 
(from ovum to adult) in just one year given an adequate food supply but one 
larva took two years to complete the life-cycle. This would seem a sensible 
strategy in survival terms in that it provides a buffer against adverse 
circumstances (climate, predation or parasitism for instance) which might 
operate more during some years than in others. To take an extreme example; 
if a species was wiped out in a locality in a season two larvae or pupae 
overwintering an extra year could in effect reintroduce the species. 

References: Fibiger, M. and Kristensen, N.P. (1974). The Sesiidae (Lepidoptera) of 
Fennoscandia and Denmark, Scandinavian Science Press Ltd; Henwood, Dr P.B. (1993). 
Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 105: 139-140; Heath, J. and Maitland Emmett, J. (1985). The 
Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, 2. Harley Books, Colchester; Heath, 
J. and Maitland Emmett, A. (1991). Ibid. 7, part 2, Harley Books, Colchester. 

- Dr Julian H. Clarke, Oaklea, Felcourt Road, Lingfield, Surrey RH7 6NF. 



PESTS OF URTICA DIVICA 



13 



SERIOUS PESTS OF URTICA DIVICA LINN. AT 5500' ALTITUDE 
IN KUMAON HILLS IN INDIA 

Mohammad Arif and Narendra Kumar (Director) 

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory . P.B. No. 40, Haldwani (Nainital). India - 263139 

URTICA DIVICA Linn, belongs to the family urticaceae and is commonly 
called "Bichhu" grass in the Kumaon hills. This plant is a perennial shrub 
and grows in fallen lands or in the crevices of retaining walls in the northern 
hills at an altitude of 1000-2500 metres. During August and September it 
blooms and young plants are eaten as vegetable and are also fed to cattle and 
goats as fodder grass. Aswal et al. (1987) has reported the biological activity 
of this plant as "Antiviral". Chopra et al. (1984) reported that through 
contact with the skin, stings of this plant result in minor or temporary 
irritation of the skin or painful irritation and inflammation with vesicles or 
blisters depending on the severity of the contact and the susceptibility of the 
individual. Also, this plant occasionally causes dermatitis, more so in 
individuals who are especially susceptible. 

During the survey of insect pests of flora of district Pithoragarh situated at 
5500' altitude in the Kumaon hills of central Himalaya in 1992, large 
numbers of caterpillars of two lepidopterous insects, Aglais kaschmirensis 
Kollar (Nymphalidae) and Arcte coevula Guenee (Noctuidae) were observed 
feeding on the leaves and tender shoots of Urtica divica Linn, in the months 
of July to September. 

The caterpillars were collected and reared on the host plant in the 
laboratory. The detail biology of these insects is given in table 1 . 



Insects 


Average 

larval period 

(days) 


Average 

pupal period 

(days) 


Average 

adult period 

(days) 


Average 

total life span 

(days) 


A. kaschmirensis 
A. coerula 


18 
20 


9.5 

25 


3 
5 


30.5 
50 



Table 1. Biology of Aglais kaschmirensis Linn, md Arcte coerula Decne. 

Average total larvae population of A. kaschmirensis was recorded at 132 
with minimum and maximum variation of 80-210 and 108 with minimum 
and maximum variation 55-138 of A. coerula per plant. These caterpillars 
voraciously feed on plants. In natural conditions A. kaschmirensis pupates on 
stems and underneath the leaves whereas A. coerula pupates under the soil 
fallen leaves on the ground or in the root zone of the plants. From the 
available literature it reveals that the reported insects of the present study 
seem to be the first record of pests on Urtica divica Linn, in the Kumaon 
hills of Central Himalaya. 



14 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

Acknowledgements 

The authors are grateful to Dr J.D. Holloway and the Director of the Institute 
of Entomology, C.A.B., London, for the identification of insects. 

References 

Aswal, B.S., Goel, A.K. and Mehrotra, B.N., 1987. Survey and biological activity of the 
plants of the Garhwal-Kumaon Himalaya. In Westerfi Himalaya vol. 1 , Edited by 
Y.P.S. Pangety and S.C. Joshi, Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital (U.P.), India, P.B. 184- 
217. 

Chopra, R.N., Bhadawar, R-L. and Ghos, S., 1984. Poisonous plants of India. Academic 
Publishers, Jaipur, India. P.B. 762. 



A flurry of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lep.: Gelechiidae) in Kent 

Whilst browsing round a large garden centre at Badgers Mount, north-west 
Kent, on 10th December 1994 I saw a small child collide with a table 
containing dried flower arrangements. Although the child appeared 
undisturbed by this event, the same could not be said for a number of moths 
lurking in the arrangements who rose as one and dashed in all directions. 
Embarrassingly net-less and tube-less I could only watch the exodus, but the 
two or three moths that settled on the low ceiling began running around with 
a characteristically gelechiid gait. On closer inspection they turned out to be 
Sitotroga cerealella, a cosmopolitan but not often seen pest species. 

Although no larval feedings could be found (not unexpected, as the larva 
can develop within a single grain of, for example, wheat), but it seems 
probable that the moths emerged from dried cereals used in the 
arrangements. Sprays of "corn", often dyed with unnatural colours, 
abounded. Another example of the adaptability of moths!- Paul Sokoloff, 
4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Devon moth records 

I would like to record three new and unpublished records for Devon: 
Pedasia contaminella Hbn. (Pyralidae) found commonly on Dawlish Warren 
on 6th, 8th and 23rd August 1994; Mythimna obsoleta Hbn. (Noctuidae) 
previously recorded by B. Henwood at Colyton and A. Spalding at Slapton 
(both Devon localities) - recorded in numbers by myself at Exminster 
Marshes on 26. v and 19. vi. 1994, where it appears to be breeding; Arenostola 
phragmitidis Hbn. (Noctuidae) previously recorded in the 1980s and several 
noted at Dawlish Warren 16.vii.l994, presumably a breeding colony. This 
species has been seen at Berryhead by B. Henwood and R.J. Heckford, 
27.vii.1990; Colyton l.viii.l982; Abbotskerswell 4.viii.l994. 

A species recorded and reported before, although not confirmed as a 
breeding species, is the noctuid Earias clorana. This moth is very common 
on Dawlish Warren, being noted on 15.vi and 17.vii.l994.- R. McCormick, 
36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQM 8NR. 



BROWN ARGUS IN NW EUROPE 15 

THE BROWN ARGUS BUTTERFLY IN NORTH-WEST EUROPE 

Bill Smyllie 

164 DohcroftRoad, Sheffield SI I 9LH. 

Introduction 

A SUBSTANTIAL paper by H0egh-Guldberg, 1966 (OH-G) on the Brown 
Argus in Denmark, Norway and Sweden contains details on many aspects of 
the Ariciae. Among these are results of cross-breeding experiments between 
parents from southern England (^4. agestis), Durham {A. salmacis), north 
Denmark, southern Norway and Sweden, the three latter all forms of A. 
allous according to OH-G. This work was carried out in collaboration with 
F.V.L. Jarvis in Britain. In addition to this a great deal of data is presented 
by OH-G on selected colonies from the above three Scandinavian countries, 
including lunulation and the occurrence of several varieties. 

Lunulation refers here to the series of orange spots near the margins of the 
upper forewing and hindwing with a maximum of six on each. It is generally 
accepted that agestis is well lunulated while allous is poorly lunulated: in 
previous papers the author (Smyllie, 1992a and 1992b) has shown that by 
quantifying upper forewing lunulation it is possible to classify British 
colonies according to the degree of lunulation shown by the whole colony 
rather than by any one individual in it. The main objective in this paper is the 
comparison of OH-Gs lunulation data for Scandinavia with my data for 
Britain, after the figures have been manipulated to allow this. Reasons for 
any modifications are given followed by the resulting Tables A and B. A 
discussion section follows involving the data generated, and including 
descriptions of and comments on four varieties. Broad similarities are shown 
to exist in both varieties and lunulation patterns between Britain and 
Scandinavia. Finally the main conclusions are summarised. 

Lunulation Tables 

In the following tables data is taken or modified from H0egh-Guldberg 
(1966) and Smyllie {loc. cit.). When any English or Scottish counties are 
mentioned, these have the former boundaries. All the 23 museum collections 
examined were completed before the present names and boundaries were 
introduced. The data for the OH-G tables has been originally supplied by 
Helge Rambring, a Swedish lepidopterist, who recorded the total number of 
orange lunules on the upper side of each specimen. Initially I did the same 
but soon dropped the hindwing count as I found that forewing lunulation 
(upfl) was more varied. Both forewing and hindwing lunulation (uphl) can 
vary between and 6. Only occasionally do 6 occur on the uph. The norm 
for 5 and 6 upfl males is 5 uphl. Prints of 22 males with 5 upfl from English 
agestis and salmacis colonies were examined and all had 5 uphl. Females are 
better lunulated than males, and for a 6 upfl female I have not seen less than 
5 uphl. In order to compare lunulation figures, males and females had first to 



16 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

be classified as well lunulated (C) or poorly lunulated (P) from the Jarvis 
terms crassihinulata and panilunulata respectively (Jarvis, 1966). C males 
were required to have 5 or 6 upfl while C females (which are better 
lunuated) needed 6, traces or more counting as a full lunule. It follows that P 
males have 0-4, females 0-5 upfl. In converting the OH-G Tables I have 
counted males with 10, 11 or 12 lunules as C, 0-9 as P, while females with 
1 1 or 12 are C and 0-10 are P. The resulting Table A summarises males (M) 
from any colony/area as MC or MP where MC+MP=MT (T=total). Similarly 
for females FC+FP=FT. These figures are combined on a 50/50 basis by 
reducing the larger proportionally so that MT=FT, and adding up to give 
combined figures CC and CP where CC+CP=CT=2MT or 2FT. 

All figures for any site are amalgamated to compare with my data, and the 
right-hand column gives the CC:CP ratio, a numerical figure which 
expresses the degree of lunulation - the higher the figure the better the 
lunulation and vice-versa. A much more complete Table of British sites is 
given in Smyllie {loc. cit.). 

OH-G has split upfl and uphl into four categories: 

I combinations of 4-6 upfl and 4-6 uphl 

II - IV 0-3 upfl with combinations of uphl. 

Because of the complication of uphl the comparison has to be restricted to 
6, 5 and 4 upfl (category I). This can be matched by selected data from 
Smyllie {loc. cit.) which gives complete numerical details for male upfl for 
several British sites, plus similar information on females from the general 
data bank. Over a wide range of variation it is felt that a combination of both 
sexes gives a more complete picture. Table B gives 4-6 upfl expressed as a 
percentage of the total number checked. The numbers from which 
percentages have been derived are included. The higher the numbers the 
more stable the figures. Although more tentative, low figures (say <15) are 
better than nothing and do give some indication, so have been included. 

Discussion 
Lunulation 

Conclusions from the Smyllie papers have to be stated as a necessary 
preliminary to any comparison of data. The three relevant sub-species of 
Ariciae involved are set out and described. I call them sub-species because 
they are capable of interbreeding - no other reason. They are referred to by 
their specific names for simplicity, and as far as I am aware there are no 
other species in Europe capable of interbreeding :- 

1 . agestis. Well lunulated with a dark upf discal spot. 

2. artaxerxes. Poorly lunulated with a white upf discal spot. 

3. allous. Poorly lunulated with a dark upf discal spot. 

1 . In England agestis occurs from the south coast up to and including three 
univoltine areas, Eyarth Rocks, the Peak District and the Yorkshire Wolds. 



BROWN ARGUS IN NW EUROPE 17 

All these populations have CC:CP ratios >5.0 (Table A), and this figure 
gives a rugged and stable quantified measure of agestis lunulation. 

2. North of this and up to the Scottish border there is a zone with its main 
axis between Durham and north Lancashire where both lunulation and 
CC:CP ratios are very variable (2.41-0.15) even for some colonies close 
together, and much below the 5.0 min. agestis figure. (This is generally 
known as salmacis.) 

3. Further north artaxerxes in south Scotland still shows a moderate 
degree of lunulation, CC:CP approximately 0.5 which reduces going north 
until at Inverness lunulation is low, CC:CP approximately 0.15. 

4. North of Inverness lunulation is lower still and is considered equal to 
allous, even though white discal spots persist, and we are still dealing with 
artaxerxes. 

5. Since agestis is the only well-lunulated sub-species, the above indicates 
penetration as far north as Inverness. This comment is backed up by the 
presence of dark scales to varying degrees in artaxerxes discal spots. 

6. On the other hand discal dots, white scales in the discal spots, are found 
down to the south coast of England (Smyllie loc. cit.). They increase 
somewhat up to the midlands and then significantly in salmacis territory. 

7. Since artaxerxes is the only provider of white discal scales, this 
indicates some artaxerxes penetration right through England. 

8. In addition to the interpenetration mentioned in 5-7, an addition of 
allous is also considered necessary to explain some aspects of the data in 
north England. 

9. From all of the above points, we are dealing with a range of hybrids, not 
distinct species or sub-species. 

Lunulation variation during the flight period. 

The discovery of univoltine forms at Royston has been noted (Jarvis, 1966) 
well inside the agestis zone. Also, although in cross-breeding experiments 
the larvae were normally reared in continuous light, details of larval growth 
under normal conditions were given (Jarvis, 1969) in an experiment where 
Reading (agestis) females were back-crossed with second generation hybrid 
males via Sherburn (salmacis) males and Reading females. The resulting 
larvae showed variation from agestis colouring at one end of the spectrum 
leading to pupation before the winter, to diapause in more than one instar 
where the larvae showed increasing allous features. There was a variable 
rate of growth in the brood as a whole, and this would lead to a flight period 
where individuals with agestis characteristics would emerge first to be 
followed by an increasing trend towards salmacis. I had already noted signs 
of this in the field at Watlington Hill, Oxon (agestis). and in 1992 verified 
that a downward drift in lunulation occurred at Coombs Dale in the Peak 
District through the flight period. This is a univoltine colony with agestis 



18 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

lunulation. Since all colonies show lunulation variation, it seems reasonable 
to state that they will all show a decrease in lunulation during the flight 
period, whether in Britain or in Europe. This decrease will be more marked 
in colonies containing significant percentages of agestis, artaxerxes or 
allous. 

Mendelism is a theory of heredity tending to reduce to numerical law the 
recurrence of inherited tendencies. In aspects of the Brown Argus, the 
possible application of Mendelism has not been overlooked (eg Heslop 
Harrison and Carter, 1924). I consider that when two Brown Argus adults 
mate, their resulting progeny will display variation depending on their 
forebears going back to the time or times when different races were 
changing their ranges due to climatic or other influences. This can have 
happened over many years resulting in a complex application of Mendelism, 
the practical effect being to give a variation in several characteristics, among 
them upf lunulation. In the case of a typical agestis colony the following 
spectrum will apply for males :- 

5 or 6 upf lunules: approximately 4 in 5 (80%). Because of reducing 
lunulation through the flight period which will have a bearing on what 
specimens are available to a collector on any particular date, it is not 
possible to give any meaningful separate figures for 6 and 5. The 0^ figures 
are averages, and individuals will be less likely early on and more likely 
towards the end of any emergence. 

4 upfl: approx. 1 in 6 17% 

3 upfl: approx. 1 in 50 2% 

2 upfl: approx. 1 in 200 0.5% 

upfl: approx. 1 in 700 0.15% 

These figures are not intended to add up precisely to 100%, and arise from 
an analysis of some 800 males from agestis colonies. 

The position in north England is much more varied and cannot be 
expressed so easily. 4-6 upfl will be a maximum of c.90% at the southern 
end of the zone, eg at Perthichwareu, north Wales, reducing to 25% in parts 
of Durham. The 4-6 upfl requirement is not stringent, and for females this is 
100% for agestis colonies and also at Pickering and Perthichwareu where 
reduction in male lunulation starts. Further north it reduces much more 
slowly than with males and in a similar "dappled" manner, ie the reduction is 
not smooth or even. 

Table A 

When the figures in Table A are compared there is a considerable surprise - 
the CC:CP ratios for the Swedish sites are below 2.0. It looks as if OH-G's 
agestis equates broadly with salmacis in north England. As a preliminary to 
any comments the differences in generating the data should be understood. 
Ove H0egh-Guldberg and his co-workers recorded all their dates. The 



BROWN ARGUS IN NE EUROPE 



19 



TABLE A: LUNULATION COMPARISON BETWKKN SWKDKN (S) AM) BRI IAIN 


Locality 


Male 
C 


Male 
P 


Male 
totals 


Female 
C 


Female 
P 


Female 
total 


Combined 


Combined 
P 


Combined 
total 


kdiio ol 

combined 

totals 


1 


Sandhammarcn (S) 


15 


47 


62 


21 


14 


35 


29.5 


40.5 


70 


0.73 


2_ 


Skine less (S) 


10 


10 


20 


12 


3 


15 


19.5 


10.5 


30 


1.86 


3 


S. England 


232 


49 


281 


184 


II 


195 


345.0 


45.0 


390 


7.67 


4 


Surrey 


26 


10 


36 


16 




16 


27.6 


4.4 


32 


6.27 


5 


Peak Districi 


71 


16 


87 


42 




42 


76.3 


7.7 


84 


9.91 


6 


Perthichwareu 


20 


28 


48 


14 




14 


19.8 


8.2 


28 


2.41 


7 


N. Lanes. OSSD47 


23 


78 


101 


22 


26 


48 


32.9 


63,1 


96 


0.52 


8 


Durham: OSNZ43 


10 


75 


85 


39 


23 


62 


46.3 


77.7 


124 


0.60 


9 


Sherbum Hill 


16 


13 


29 


28 


11 


39 


36.8 


21.2 


58 


1.74 


10 


Hart Warren 


2 


15 


17 


2 


13 


15 


3.8 


26.2 


30 


0.15 


11 


S.W. Scotland 


7 


28 


35 


8 


7 


15 


10.3 


19.7 


30 


0.52 


12 


Perthshire 


2 


115 


117 


13 


42 


55 


13.9 


96,1 


110 


0.14 


13 


Europe: ai;eslis 


39 


11 


50 


52 


1 


53 


88.1 


11.9 


100 


7.4 


14 


Europe: allous 


1 


80 


81 


1 


40 


41 


1.5 


80.5 


83 


0.02 



























KEY: C = crassiliinulata P = parvihinidata 

Smyllie data was generated largely from museum collections and no dates 
were recorded, only localities. Both methods will give quite satisfactory 
figures, but OH-G was able to split the Sandhammarcn dates into three to 
provide a first generation agestis followed by univoltine allous followed by 
second generation agestis. Because the English data is for any one site or 
area regardless of dates, the Sandhammarcn figures have been aggregated for 
the whole of one year. If they are split up, the best figure, ie the highest 
CC:CP ratio, works out at 1.38 for the first generation from 24.5 to 18.6. 
This is of course still very much below the 5.0 minimum. OH-G makes the 
point that bivoltine agestis flies at the same site as univoltine allous, and the 
latter has a larger wing-span than the agestis. I suggest that this is similar to 
Royston, but whereas at Royston the univoltine emergence is a small 
percentage of the whole, at Sandhammarcn it is much larger and comes 
within the salmacis description. In the data for Britain only four agestis 
figures are included, numbers 3-5 and 13 while the salmacis sites are 
numbers 6 to 10. Both south Swedish figures seem to be salmacis, but 
another check can be made from Table B. 



Table B 

The paragraph on Mendelism above gave the 4-6 upfl percentage for 
English agestis colonies as approximately 97% from data covering 800 or so 
males. This does not take into account any allowance for chance encounters. 
Without going into statistics, there is little likelihood of agestis colonies 
having a 4-6 upfl percentage of less than 90%. Surrey (15) at 92% has been 
included as the lowest agestis area for which I have data. Perthichwareu, 
north Wales also is 92%, but its CC:CP ratio is well below 5.0. This overlap 
does illustrate the relative lack of focus of the 4-6 upfl percentage which 
does least well at either end of the lunule spectrum and best in the middle. 



20 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



.ii.l995 



TABLE B: COMPARISON OF UPF4-6L% IN BRITAIN, DENMARK, SWEDEN AND NORWAY 


LOCALITY 


LAT 

'N 


MALE 
4-6 L/T 


% 


FEMALE 
4-6 L/T 


% 


COMB. 


CLASS'N 


1 


SSW 


Skine ex Sandh'n 


55.3 


44/53 


83 


26/26 


100 


91.5 


2 


2 


DN 


"agestis" 


56.0 


93/122 


76 


40/40 


100 


88.0 


2 


3 


SSW 


Sandhammaren 


55.2 


59/121 


48 


49/54 


91 


69.5 


7 


4 


SSW 


" 2nd Gen. 


55.2 


18/20 


90 


12/13 


92 


91.0 


1 


5 


sw 


Gotland 


57.5 


7/24 


29 


14/14 


100 


64.5 


-I 


6 


sw 


Oland 


56.5 


9/24 


37 


6/9 


67 


52.0 


t 


7 


SNR 


Jomfruland 


58.8 


6/42 


14 


26/29 


90 


52.0 


2 


8 


sw 


Angermanland 


63.5 


0/8 





5/9 


56 


28.0 


3 


9 


SW 


Uppland 


60.2 


0/19 





3/8 


37 


18.5 


3 


10 


NDN 


Hirsthals 


57.5 


5/241 


2 


25/96 


26 


14.0 


3 


11 


NNR 


Lyngenfjord 


69.5 


0/9 





1/5 


20 


10.0 


3 


12 


ENG 


Peak District 


53.0 


85/87 


98 


42/42 


100 


99.0 


1 


13 


ENG 


The South * 


51.0 


214/223 


96 


137/137 


100 


98.0 


1 


14 


EUR 


ageslis 


- 


48/50 


96 


53/53 


100 


98.0 


1 


15 


ENG 


Suirey 


51.3 


33/36 


92 


10/10 


100 


96.0 


1 


16 


NWA 


Perthichwareu 


53.2 


44/48 


92 


14/14 


100 


96.0 


2 


17 


ENG 


Sherbum. Durham 


54.6 


21/29 


72 


20/20 


100 


86.0 


2 


18 


ENG 


Pickering N. Yorks 


54.2 


36/44 


82 


7/7 


100 


91.0 


2 


19 


ENG 


Witherslack 


54.3 


37/90 


41 


30/33 


91 


66.0 





20 


ENG 


OSNZ44 Durham 


54.8 


25/92 


27 


30/39 


77 


52.0 


1 


21 


SSC 


Solway district 


54.9 


15/35 


43 


13/15 


87 


65.0 


2 


22 


SC 


Fifeshire 


56.3 


5/25 


20 


14/17 


82 


51.0 


~i 


23 


sc 


Aberdeenshire 


57.5 


8/35 


23 


23/41 


56 


39.5 


2 


24 


SC 


Perthshire 


57.0 


16/117 


14 


34/55 


62 


38.0 


-) 


25 


NSC 


N of Inverness 


58.0 


1/13 


8 


6/9 


67 


37.5 


7 


26 


EUR 


alloiis 


- 


7/65 


11 


14/35 


40 


25.5 


3 



NOTES: 

1. Sources: 1-11 OH-G. Tables 18 & 19; 12-26 WJS 

2. T=total; S=south; N=north: DN=Denmark: NR=Norway: SW=Sweden: EUR=Europe: ENG=England: WA=Wales: 
SC=Scotland 

3. Latitudes are to nearest 0. 1 ' at the localities centre 

4. 4-6L/T%s are to nearest whole number. 0.5 rounded down 

5. * indicates south of Thames Estuary and the Bristol Channel 

6. CLASS'N = classification: 1 agesris >95% combined; 2 intermediates 30-95% combined; 3 allous <30% combined. 
Perthichwareu is >95%. but its CC:CP ratio (Table A) is <5. and therefore fails the test for agestis 

The border between allous and intermediates has been selected at 30% combined. This is an arbitrary figure, but seems 
reasonably sensible. 



However, we have to use the data compiled by OH-G to construct Table B. 
With male agestis figures at over 90%, the combined figures will be 95% 
minimum. The highest Sandhammaren figure (4 SSW) is for a second 
generation at 91% combined, and this is equalled by a second generation 
figure for Denmark. Even these selected figures do not equal the 95% 
required for agestis. There is a genuine difference between English agestis 
and the bivoltine Swedish colonies via two different cross-checks, and the 
Danish bivoltine colonies show a similar difference in Table B. 



BROWN ARGUS IN NW EUROPE 21 



Before leaving Table B it is worth commenting on the ssp. vandalica 
colony at Hirsthals. Numbers are high and the values will be stable, well 
within the allous range, and surrounded by colonies with higher lunulation. 
In Durham significant differences occur between colonies quite close to one 
another, and in discussing this previously I suggested that towards the end of 
the climatic optimum after the last ice-age, scrub and woodland had formed. 
This would restrict the movement of open country non-roaming species like 
the Brown Argus so that certain areas might be missed from one approach 
direction and not from another, thus enabling significantly different 
populations to exist relatively near one another. 

Varieties 

Var albiannulata (snelleni) 

In this variety a white ring surrounds the upf discal spot, and examination 
under a microscope shows clearly that the ring is made up of individual 
white scales. In England the variety occurs more in females than males, 
although it can be seen in both. The thickness of the ring can increase with a 
correspondingly smaller dark central area. On the south coast only one 
female in ten or so shows the effect and this increases northwards until in 
Durham/north Lancashire one in three or four is likely. The variety is a stage 
in the progression from a few white dots (scales) associated with the discal 
spot to a point where the whole area is covered with scales as far as the 
naked eye is concerned and the specimen is a "whitespot". This occurs very 
rarely in agestis colonies, and when it does and is noticed it is regarded as 
quite an event. 

OH-G mentions albiannulata as occurring fairly frequently in the 
Jomfruland, south Norway population (in 13 of 71 specimens). The other 
locality mentioned is Hirsthals, north Denmark where (ssp vandalica) it is 
found "fairly frequently". There is no mention of the form with Danish 
"agesti^' or in Sweden. However, in A Field Guide to the Butterflies of 
Britain and Europe (Higgins and Riley, 1970) there is a comment "Rare 
individuals with white discoidal spot have been recorded from various 
localities in central and southern England and southern Sweden". In view of 
this comment I believe examples of var albiannulata should occur at least in 
southern Sweden. 

Var albisignata 

This form occurs regularly in several Scandinavian localities, so is included. 
It refers to white lines on the uph between the fringe and the dark outer area 
of the orange lunules, and occurs in most of the populations looked at by 
OH-G up to Uppland, a little north of Stockholm in Sweden. Further north in 
Sweden there is not enough data to draw any firm conclusions. A check on 
151 British specimens shows that the variety is present in similar levels 
throughout England and also in Scotland. Again there is a higher percentage 



22 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

in females than in males. The similarities between British and Scandinavian 
specimens leads to the conclusion that they are part of similar overlaps 
between sub-species. 

Vars luxurians and unicolor 

There may be alternative words for these forms; luxurians refers to 
specimens with 12 well developed lunules and unicolor to those with no 
lunules on either upper wing. Again both forms are found in Britain and 
Scandinavia. There does seem to be one significant aspect relating to these 
varieties: I find it difficult to envisage examples at the opposite ends of the 
lunulation spectrum without postulating that one of the contributing 
ancestors must have had no lunules, the other 12. Today the one with no 
lunules does not seem to be extant. Even at Lyngenfjord there is some 
lunulation in both males and females. As for 12 lunules A. cramera appears 
to have these but I do not know the species, and the illustrations indicate a 
different venation. So it may be that again the second ancestor is no longer 
with us. Put in a different way, subsequent inter-penetration has been great 
enough to modify the original parents somewhat. 

Summary 

The main conclusions arise from the comparison of quantified upper 
forewing lunulation, and the extra focus which this approach has provided 
has allowed these to be made without taking climate into account. The belief 
that agestis would be bivoltine, and salmacis or allous univoltine has proved 
a significant stumbling block to earlier workers. 

1. In western Europe, Ariciae are represented by agestis in the south and 
allous in the north. 

2. The boundary between these two sub-species is not clear-cut and is 
formed by a significant buffer zone (c450km in Scandinavia and 600km 
in Britain) of intermediate hybrids. For convenience I have used the term 
salmacis in the text to describe the variable race in northern England. I 
would prefer the term "intermediates" since this is less likely to conjure 
up any picture of a distinct sub-species. 

3. From British data, the boundary between agestis and the hybrids is clear- 
cut, and runs from Perthichwareu in north Wales to Pickering in north 
Yorkshire. 

4. The boundary between allous and the hybrids is not clear-cut and has 
been defined in the present work in a somewhat arbitrary way which 
roughly coincides with latitude 59°N. In these circumstances Britain only 
contains agestis and the hybrid zone. 

5. In this simplified situation artaxerxes is considered to be a modification 
of allous. 

6. Since the OH-G work stopped at Denmark it is not possible to determine 
where the change from agestis to the hybrids takes place in mainland 
Europe. This could be in northern Germany. 



BROWN ARGUS IN NW EUROPE 



23 



> f » 



6«I*N 



STH 




KAP 1 H0EGH-GULDBHEG 1966 



^ 



agestls 



alllOUS 




6c^« 



$8°N 



ft«N 






MAP 2 SXYLLlli 1994 



ageiitlB //// intermediat 



allaus 



24 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 l.iLl995 

One question likely to be asked relates to the possibility of different species 
being able to retain their individual characteristics after mixing at any one 
site. Take the case of females which are well lunulated, a "southern" 
characteristic, and yet are also more likely to have vars albiannulata or 
albisignata, both involving extra white scales, a "northern" trend. In aggregate, 
particularly with lunulation which is easier to count, the figures do give sensible 
results, but the above variables are jumbled up as far as individuals are 
concerned. A well lunulated female is perfectly capable of exhibiting 
albiannulata and there is no trend relating these two aspects which are quite 
random. So there is a tension present which does not equate with the 
preservation of individual sub-species in their original form. 

Maps 1 and 2 compare the conclusions reached by OH-G and Smyllie 
respectively. OH-G involves agestis and allous, while Smyllie adds the 
intermediate zone. Without the very adequate data collected by OH-G and his 
colleagues this comparison would not have been possible. My hope is that these 
conclusions represent a few steps forward rather than backward in the road to 
understanding more about our butterfly fauna. This understanding should help us 
to be more aware of, and therefore more caring for, our present heritage. 

References 

Heslop Harrison, J.W. and Carter, W., 1924. The British Races oi Aricia medon (Esper) with Special 

Reference to the Areas in which they overlap. Transactions Natural History Society of 

Northumberland: 89-107. 
Higgins, L.G. and Riley, N.D., 1970. A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Collins, 

282. 
H0egh-Guldberg, O., 1966. North European Groups of Aricia allous G.Hb. Their Variability and 

Relation to A. agestis Schiff. Natura Jutlandica. 13. 
Jarvis, F.V.L., 1966. The Genus Aricia (Lep.: Rhopalocera) in Britain. Proceedings South London 

Entomological & Natural Histoiy Society: 37-60. 

- , 1969. A Biological Study of Aricia artaxerxes ssp. salmacis (Stephens) Proceedings British 
Entomological & Natural History Society: 107-1 17. 

Smyllie, 1992. The Brown Argus Butterfly in Britain - a Range of Aricia Hybrids. The Entomologist 
111: 27-37. 

- , 1992. The Brown Argus Butterfly in Britain with Particular Reference to the Peak District. The 

Sorby Record No. 29: 2-17 -i- plates. 



Broad-bordered Bee hawks in October {Hemaris fuciformis L.; Lep.: 
Sphingidae) 

Mr Ron Hoblyn witnessed two of these moths feeding at Nicotiana flowers 
in his garden at Santon Dowham, Suffolk, on 4th October 1994. The species 
has long been known to frequent the rides and open spaces of Thetford 
Forest and adjoining breckland, where in June and July it could be seen at 
Viper's Bugloss blossom. In recent years moths have appeared at garden 
flowers in locations well away from the forest, and larvae and eggs in the 
forest on honeysuckle in sunny situations as well as in shady woodland. 
Whatever its national status may be, this species continues to do well here 
and has enjoyed some very good seasons.- G.M. Haggett, Meadows End, 
Northacre, Gaston, Norfolk. 



A NEW MORDELLISTINA SPECIES 25 

AN APPARENTLY NEW SPECIES OF MORDELLISTENA 
(COL.: MORDELLIDAE) IN BRITAIN 

A.A. Allen 

49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 HQG. 

Mordellistena (Pseudomordellina) imitatrix sp.n. 
VERY CLOSELY allied to and greatly resembling M. {P.) acuticollis 
Schilsky, from which it differs in the form and disposition of the hind-tibial 
ridges - a character of recognised importance in the genus. The foodplant is 
also different. 

A small black species with yellowish or greyish-yellow pubescence; male 
with clypeus, mouthparts, front coxae and more or less of the femora reddish 
or yellowish, mid-femora often darker reddish or pitchy; female with these 
parts darker to pitchy-black. Antennae with base rather obscurely lighter, 
they and the palpi longer and stouter in male. Hind tibiae with only one pair 
of apical spurs. This will serve equally as a rough description of M. 
acuticollis (cf. also Allen, 1986: 49-50; Batten, 1986: 232-3). Male 
parameres not or scarcely different in the two species, which may be 
separated as follows:- 

1/2 The two upper ridges on outer face of hind tibia thick, straight and 
ending abruptly, the foremost plainly ceasing further from base of tibia 

(aboutas fig. I). On Artemisia vulgaris L imitatrix sp.n. 

2/1 The two upper ridges thinner and longer, not ending abruptly but 
appearing to curve into, or towards, the longitudinal axis of tibia, the 
foremost approaching obviously nearer to the base (about as fig. 2). On 
cirsium arvense Scop acuticollis Schil. 

South-east England: in various localities mostly in west Kent from 1992 
onwards. Holotype male (eventually) in coll. Natural History Museum, 
London: Woolwich Common, west Kent (south-east London), 15.vii.l992, 
A.A. Allen. Paratypes (same locality and captor, 4.vii.l993) in the 
collections of the following persons and institutions: J. Horak (Prague), the 
Natural History Museum (London), Manchester Museum, P.P. Whitehead 
(Pershore), J. Cooter (Hereford), and the author. 

I first encountered this species on 15.vii.92, when two males were shaken 
off different plants of the Artemisia a short distance apart on Woolwich 
Common: no more were found that year. Though appearing to be A. 
acuticollis, the differing host-association raised serious doubts. Only later, 
when the hind-tibial ridges were seen to differ appreciably, was it clear that 
we had here yet another addition to the British Mordellistena spp. - and 
moreover, one not yet identifiable from the available literature. 

The following year, a search on 20th June resulted in two further 
specimens at each of the above sites; from which, on the 23rd, my friend 
Professor J.A. Owen obtained a few. On the warm evening of 4th July, one 
of the two sites yielded numerous examples, the smallest among them 
scarcely larger than M. nanuloides Ermisch. An attempt was made to 



26 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

ascertain the beetle's status on the common, where the foodplant is very 
patchily distributed. It showed M. imitatrix to be, at the time at least, very 
local and almost confined to the two mugwort plants on which it was first 
found. A few specimens occurred in another area well separated from the 
original one; but the species seemed absent from the rest of the common, 
though several scattered but vigorous stands of the Artemisia were well 
worked. A less thorough search in other parts of the general area also gave a 
negative result. Last year, 1994, M. imitatrix was not seen. The very hot and 
extremely drying weather of July may have affected its life-cycle; but in any 
case, it was not actively sought. 

Early in August 1993 Mr P.J. Hodge met with the same insect on the same 
plant along a field edge near Staines, Middlesex, where it was abundant. In 
August 1994 he found it at Addington, near Maidstone, and Professor Owen 
at Darenth in mid-July and early August; at these two places in west Kent it 
was again on the mugwort. 

It will be seen that all finds of M. imitatrix to date (and there may have 
been others unknown to me) have taken place within the remarkably short 
space of three years - a phenomenon pointing to very recent invasion and the 
still active colonisation of new ground. No doubt the beetle is already 
present in many other places in the home counties, and new finds may 
confidently be predicted over the ensuing years. Clearly therefore it is 
necessary to have a name by which to refer to the species, even if it should 
later prove to have been described. Mr Jan Horak, in Prague, is engaged on a 
thorough revision of the genus, but it may be some time before he reaches 
the group to which the present species belongs. 

It can safely be asserted that any Mordellistena with only one pair of hind- 
tibial spurs, occurring inland on Artemisia vulgaris in south-east England, 
will almost certainly be M. imitatrix. Doubt may, however, arise with casual 
specimens taken by general sweeping, and any such will need careful 
inspection as it might prove to be M. acuticollis. This latter, of which only 
three British specimens are yet known, appears to affect Cirsium arvense 
(creeping thistle) - cf. Ermisch, p. 187; Batten, p. 233 - an association not so 
far proved for Britain, however. It must also be remembered that other 
species of the genus may possibly live on A. vulgaris, notably M. panmla 
(Gyll.) - quite apart from M. nanuloides Erm. on the coastal A. maritima. 

In practice, the difference in the hind-tibial ridges may not always be as 
clear-cut and satisfactory as one could wish. Not only is there some 
variation, but the ridges can be hard to see at first, and their appearance may 
change with the angle of incident light and the position of its source. It may 
require a fine adjustment of the lighting to bring them fully into view. They 
often show up best in a specimen mounted on its side; or when a hind leg is 
removed and mounted flat, outer face up. Discrimination may occasionally 
be difficult without a knowledge of the foodplant. 



A NEW MORDELLISTINA SPECIES 



27 







Figs. 1-4: Mordellistena spp. M. imitatrix sp.n.: 

1 . outer face of hind tibia; 3. left paramere; 4. right paramere. 

M. acuticollis Schils.: 

2. outer face of hind tibia. 



References 

Allen, A. A., 1986. On the British species of Mordellistena Costa (Col.: Mordellidae) resembling 

pannda Gyll. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 98: 47-50. 
Batten, R., 1986. A review of the British Mordellidae (Coleoptera). Entomologist's Gaz. 37: 225-235. 
Ermisch, K., 1969. Mordellidae. In Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, ed. H. Freude, K.W. Harde & G.A. 

Lohse, vol. 8. Krefeld. 



"Of all the cars, in all the world . . ." 

Some years ago someone gave me a Times newspaper cutting which related 
how a South African Lycaenid, Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898, had arrived 
in Belgium with, it was thought, a pot of geraniums. I confess it wasn't 
particularly interesting at the time and I gave it no further thought. 

Mid-day in the southern Spanish city of Granada was sweltering on the 
12th of July 1994. The temperature was well into the 40s and I was sat in my 
camper-van at the head of a long queue of traffic, waiting for the traffic 
lights to change. They appeared to have been red for an age and I was idly 
watching the passers-by, when suddenly a tiny grey moth fluttered weakly 
on the inside of the quarterlight next to the driver's open window; it took a 
full second to register that the moth had tails and that it was actually a very 
"foreign" lycaenid butterfly. 

Sod's Law immediately came into play and several things happened at 
once. I made a move to close the window; the butterfly flopped from the 
quarterlight to become lodged behind the altimeter attached to the dashboard 
by a velcro strip and - of course - the lights changed to green. 

Somewhere in my van is a male Plebicula sagratrox Aistleitner 1986, 
which had disappeared down the side of a seat a couple of weeks previously, 
never to be seen again. Having learned that lesson the hard way, there was 



28 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

no way I was going to let it happen again. The busy junction was blocked 
whilst I blundered around in the front of the van, trying to box the butterfly 
and sweating profusely in the sweltering heat which was made worse by my 
having closed all the windows. It didn't take long for the traffic behind to 
become impatient and in seconds the horns were blaring and a small crowd 
had gathered on the pavement to watch. Successful at last, I smiled weakly at 
them - and crossed the junction as the lights changed to amber, leaving 
behind some pretty angry motorists. 

The butterfly turned out to be a freshly emerged female C marshalU 
which I subsequently learned from Michael Tarrier ([F] E - Mijas), is now 
quite common in parts of southern Spain. Judging from the literature, the 
species has gained a strong foothold in the Balearics and is considered a 
potentially serious pest of geranium on the Spanish mainland. Anyone 
wishing to know more about the discovery and subsequent spread of the 
species in Europe should consult the reference at the end of this note. 

Of course I may be wrong; there may have been dozens of marshalli 
stationed at traffic lights throughout Granada, waiting to fight their way into 
passing cars, but at face value, the words made immortal by Humprey 
Bogart (or Max Bygraves or whoever it was) in the film Casablanca, seem 
appropriate - 

"Of all the cars, in all the world, you had to walk into mine . . .! !" 
References: Eitschberger, U. & Stamer, P., 1990. Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898, eine 
neue Tagfalterart fiir sie europaische Fauna? (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), Atalanta, 
Miinnerstadt, 21(1/2): 101-108; Grey, P.R., 1992. The occurrence oi Cacyreus marshalli 
(Lycaenidae) in Menorca. Butteifly Consen>ation News, 52: 8-9; Grey, P.R., 1993. The 
Geranium Bronze, Cacyreus marshalli, (Lycaenidae): a new species in Europe. Bull, 
amat. Ent. Soc. 53: 179; Honey, M.R., 1993. Cacyreus marshalli Butler. A recent 
addition to the European fauna and details of its spread. Butteifly Conservation News, 
53: 19-19; Maso, A. & Sarto i Monteys, V., 1991. Una mariposas amenaza los geranios 
europeos, La Vangerdia, Supl. de Cienca y Tecnologia, 9; Mincke, G., 1991. Cacyreus 
marshalli Butler, 1898, on Mallorca (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), Phegea, 19: 131; 
Raynor, E.M., 1990. The occurrence of a Cacyreus species (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in 
Majorca, Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 102: 250; Sarto i Monteys, V., 1992. El taladro de 
los geranios. Cacyreus marshalli, grave plaga de los geranios europeos: su biologia, 
sintomas y danos. Horticultura, 83: 13-19; Sarto i Monteys, V., 1993a. Primer hallazgo 
en el continente europeo de puestas del licenido sudafricano Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 
1898 (Lep.: Lycaenidae)., SHILAP Revta. lepid., 21(83): 191-197; Sarto i Monteys, V., 
1993b (1992). Spread of the Southern African Lycaenid butterfly, Cacyreus marshalli 
Butler, 1898, (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in the Balearic Archipeligo (Spain) and considerations 
on its likely introduction to continental Europe. J. Res. lepid. 31(1/2): 24-34; Sarto i 
Monteys, V. & Maso, A., 1991. Confirmacion de Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 
(Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae) como nueva especie para la fauna europea. bol. San. Veg. 
Plagus, 17: 173-183; Troukens, w., 1991. Cacyreus marshalli Butler, 1898 angetroffen 
in Belgia (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), Phegea, 19: 129-131; Waring, P. & Thomas, R.C., 
1994. Butterflies and moths of South-east Majorca, 5-1 1th April 1991, Bull. amat. Ent. 
Soc, 53(394): 121-125. 

- WJ. Tennent, 1 Middlewood Close, Fylingthorpe, Whitby, North 
Yorkshire Y022 4UD. 



LIPTENA PRISCILLA 29 



LIPTENA PRISCILLA A NEW LIPTENID BUTTERFLY FROM 
NIGERIA (LEPIDOPTERA: LYCAENIDAE) 

TORBEN B. LaRSEN 
358 Coldharhour Lane. London SW9 8PL. 

Introduction 

A MOST CHARACTERISTIC new species of Liptena has been in the 
collection of Mr R.G.T. St. Leger for more than thirty years. During a recent 
visit to discuss preparatory work on my book on the butterflies of West 
Africa, he asked me to describe it and entrusted me with one of his two 
specimens to be dissected and placed in The Natural History Museum, 
London. 

The species in question belongs to the undularis-snhgrouTp of the very 
large genus Liptena (70 species or so), characterised by being white or cream 
and by having more or less developed parallel black bands on the hindwing 
underside. The group, together with the other white, cream, or ochreous 
members of the genus was comprehensively revised by Stempffer, Bennett 
& May (1974). They recognised three species: L. undulahs Hewitson, 1860 
L. ferry mani Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1891 (with ssp. higoti Stempffer, 1964) 
and L. septistrigata Bethune-Baker, 1903. I have never seen L. fenymani 
bigoti, but from the genitalia drawings in the revision paper, it may well be a 
distinct species. There are also ochreous species with similar underside 
patterns. 

The genitalia of the new species come closest to those of L. fenymani 
bigoti, but they are quite distinctive. The species is recognisable at a glance 
by the much wider dark bands on the hindwing underside and by the colour 
of the dark markings which are light chocolate rather than blackish-brown. 

The purpose of this paper is to describe this interesting new species and to 
place it in context with closely related species. 

Liptena priscilla sp. nov. 
Male upperside: (Fig. 1) Forewing 18.5mm. The ground-colour is off-white 
and the dark markings are light chocolate-brown. Other similar species are 
purer white with darker brown markings. The forewing has slight chocolate 
basal shading. The costa is narrowly chocolate to the end of the cell, where 
there are traces of dark markings, not a prominent tooth as in L. fenymani. 
The relatively large chocolate apical patch has an inner edge that consists of 
a series of steps, forming an angle of 90° along the veins as follows: the 
width is 6mm from the costa to vein 6; in spaces 4 and 5 the width is 4mm: 
in space 3 the width is 2mm; in space 2 it is also 2mm, but incomplete. 
Spaces la and lb have no black margins. The hindwing has a linear dark 
margin, lighter brown than the markings of the forewing. The underside 
pattern is just visible due to transparency. 

Male underside: (Fig. 1) The dark markings on the underside are lighter 
chocolate than on the upperside. The light areas of the forewing apex and of 



30 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



Lii.1995 




Fig. I. Male upperside (left) and underside (right) of the Liptena pnscilla holotype 
(slightly larger than life). 




Fig. 2. The male genitalia of the Liptena priscilla holotype. 



LIPTENA PRISCILLA 31 



the entire hindwing are cream, the basal and discal area of the forewing 
being off-white. The basal third of the forewing costa is brown, with hardly 
any tooth at the end of the cell. Just after the cell the costa is almost white 
for 2mm, till the apical patch begins. This patch is much smaller than on the 
upperside. There is a row of cream apical spots as well as an additional fine 
cream submarginal line. The hindwing has seven almost parallel chocolate 
lines, distinctly wider than in the other members of the group. The fifth of 
these lines is broken just before a wider dark spot on the costa. There is also 
a fine chocolate marginal border. 

Male genitalia: The male genitalia (fig. 2) have the typical configuration of 
the genus, and valves that are allied to those of many members of the group 
revised by Stempffer, Bennett and May (1974). They may, however, be 
recognised at a glance by the deeply bifid saccus. The uncus is broad, with a 
small central depression. The outer lobes of the uncus are drawn out to a 
point, a feature occurring in few other members of the genus. The recurved 
subunci are small and frail, with a slight swelling before the tip. The 
tegumen is very narrowly and loosely attached to the vinculum. The inner 
lobe of the valve is much more massive than in L. feriymani bigoti and the 
outer, more heavily chitinized lobe is almost straight. The broad saccus is 
almost as long as the valves. Its distal end is deeply bifid, more so than I 
have seen in any other Liptena (only in L. batesana Bethune-Baker, 1926 is 
there a slight tendency to being bifid). 

Male holotype: Obudu Plateau, 7.iii.l962 (R.G.T. St. Leger leg., coll. 
Natural History Museum, London) (genitalia no. 29358 - ex Larsen no. 
BBD). 

Paratype: one male, same data (coll. R.G.T. St. Leger). 

The species is dedicated to Mrs Priscilla St. Leger in appreciation of her 
hospitality to the many entomologists who have come to benefit from her 
husband's unrivalled knowledge of the butterflies from the area of Nigeria 
from which she hails. 

Discussion 

Liptena priscilla was caught in forest on the Obudu Plateau, one of the few 
areas of Nigeria which can be described as montane. Many interesting 
butterflies have been found there. The larger species were reviewed in a 
special paper (St. Leger 1965), and additional information on the montane 
zone in Nigeria on the Mambilla Plateau is given by Dowsett et al. (1989). 

The Nigerian montane zones are outliers of the much larger Cameroun 
Mountains. Their specifically montane butterfly fauna (some 40 species) has 
been discussed by Libert (1991); the species number is relatively low and 
very few are endemic to the Cameroun Mountains even at subspecific level. 

Though collected at montane levels on the Obudu Plateau, it is unlikely 
that L. priscilla is limited to montane levels. No members of the Lipteninae 
elsewhere in Africa seem to be strictly montane. There are, however, many 



32 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

species with limited distributions, and the Cameroun-Nigeria border region 
and western Cameroun contain numerous endemic species. It is therefore 
hkely that L. priscilla will be found also in Cameroun. It must be very local 
and scarce. 

The closest relative of the new species, L. fenymani, has quite different 
ecological preferences. It is one of the few West African Lipteninae found in 
the Guinea savannah zone; most of the material in The Natural History 
Museum, London is from as far north as Kaduna. L. septistrigata, however, 
is much more of a forest species. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Mr R.G.T. St. Leger for allowing me to describe the new 

species in this paper, which is no. 12 resulting from preparatory work for the 

book Butterflies of West Africa - origins, natural history, diversity, and 

consen^ation. The Carlsberg Foundation in Denmark supports my own field 

work, for which I am most grateful. I also wish to thank The Natural History 

Museum, London, and especially Messrs P. Ackery and C.R. Smith for their 

help and co-operation. The library of the Royal Entomological Society, 

London, and the assistance of the librarian, Ms Jacqueline Ruffle is also 

invaluable. 

References 

Dowsett, R.J., Hecq, J. & Knoop, D.P., 1989. Ecological notes on two collections of butterflies 
(Lepidoptera) from eastern Nigeria. In A preliminary natural history survey of Mambilla Plateau 
and some lowland forests of eastern Nigeria. Taiiraco research Report, no. 1 . 

Libert, M., 1991. Insularite continentale: le cas des Lepidopteres Rhopaloceres de la Dorsale 
camerounaise. Bulletin de la Societe entomologique de France, 96: 375-398. 

St. Leger, R.G.T., 1965. The larger butterflies of the Obudu Plateau. Nigerian Field 30: 69-81. 

Stempffer, H.. Bennett, N.H. & May, S.J.. 1974. A revision of some groups of Liptena Westwood 
(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Bulletin of the British Museum, Natural History (Entomology), 30: 
109-181 (-Hplates). 



Euchmichtis lichenea lichenea (Hb.) Feathered Ranunculus (Lep.: 
Noctuidae) in north-east Hampshire 

At about 10pm on 8th October 1994 a male specimen of Euchmichtis 
lichenea lichenea flew to light at the cottage here in Selborne. This 
occurrence in north-east Hampshire would seem to represent an extension of 
licheneds previously published range in the south and north-west of the 

county. 

References: Bernard Skinner & David Wilson, 1984. Colour Identification Guide to 

Moths of the British Isles Viking, Harmondsworth; Heath, J. & Emmet, A.M. (eds.), 

1983. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 10 Harley Books, 

Colchester; Goater, B., 1974. The Butterflies & Moths of Hampshire and the Isle of 

Wight, E.W. Classey, Faringdon; Goater, B., 1992. The Butterflies and Moths of 

Hampshire and the Isle of Wight: additions and corrections, Joint Nature Conservation 

Committee, Peterborough. 

- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selborne, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 



LEG TERATOLOGY 33 



LEG TERATOLOGY IN GALERVCELLA SAGITTARIAE 
(GYLLENHAL) (COL.: CHRYSOMELIDAE) 

Richard A. Jones 

]3 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SEJ5 3DE. 

BILATERAL SYMMETRY is one of the most basic rules governing the 
structure, growth and development of insects. Departures from it, as in the 
case of bilateral gynandromorphs and chimeras in the Lepidoptera, are 
highly prized by collectors and valued as perhaps giving some insights into 
developmental and embryological processes. 

Teratological specimens in orders other than the Lepidoptera are not 
common, but do occur; their apparent rarity is probably due to the fact that 
they are difficult to spot in the field and are usually only noticed when 
specimens are mounted or later examined for identification. Usually a single 
specimen shows a unique malformation. 

However, I recently came across two almost identical terratological 
specimens of the leaf beetle Galerucella sagittariae (Gyllenhal) together in 
the same locality. 

Occurrence 

On a visit to Powdermill Reservoir near Brede, East Sussex, on 23rd August 
1994, 1 discovered that what was once open water in the north-westerly third 
of the lake was now standing high and moderately dry. The reservoir is 
owned and managed by South-East Water and the reduction of water levels 
by about six feet had left mud flats exposed for some weeks or months. 
These flats were now covered in a sea of amphibious bistort, Polygonum 
amphibium L. 

The bistort stood knee-high and was being devoured by countless millions 
of the larvae of Galerucella sagittariae. The adults too were present in 
uncountable numbers and I took a sample of eight specimens from a single 
sweep of the net. It was not until these were set later that evening that the 
unusual teratology was noticed. 

Description 

Two of the eight specimens had severely stunted right middle legs (Figs 1 , 
2b & 2c). The remaining five legs and the antennae of each specimen 
appeared to be normal. Detailed examination showed that in both aberrant 
specimens the stunted legs were shorter and slighter. In the two specimens 
the right femora were reduced to, respectively, 77 and 60% of the left, the 
right tibiae to (both) 60% of the left and the right tarsi to 40 and 48% of the 
left. The deformed tarsi were severely shortened and misshapen (Figs. 2b & 
2c). Table 1 gives body and limb measurements of the two aberrant 
specimens compared to the six "normal" specimens. Only the affected 
middle right legs showed a significant size discrepancy being well outside 



34 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



Lii.1995 




Fig. L Aberrant specimen (1) of GaleruceUa sagittariae, showing gross reduction 
right leg size. 



in 



the "normal" range. Aberrant specimen 1 was slightly shorter than all the 
other specimens. 

My father, Mr A.W. Jones was also present with me at Powdermill 
Reservoir that day and had also taken a number of specimens of the 
GaleruceUa. Examination of 1 1 of these showed that they all appeared 
normal. Detailed leg measurements of these specimens are not given, but 
they all fell within or close to the same "normal" range. 



Discussion 

Bilateral gynandromorphs and sexual mosaics or chimeras are uncommon, 
but because they are so distinctive in some Lepidoptera, they are moderately 
frequently captured and identified. Their occurrence is thought to be due to 
loss of the male Y chromosome early on in embyological cell division and 
development leaving some cells of the growing insect with XY genotype, 
hence male phenotype,and others with XO genotype which by default 
exhibits the female phenotype (Ford, 1945). 

Teratological specimens of other orders are also not common, but they do 
occur. They are usually only noticed upon detailed examination long after 
capture and so their apparent rarity is compounded (Jones, 1989, Hancock, 
1992). 



LEG TERATOLOGY 



35 




Fig. 2. Middle right legs of Galerucella sagittariae: a. normal specimen; b. aberrant 
specimen 1; c. aberrant specimen 2. All legs are in dorsal view and drawn to same scale. 

A delightful and curious book by Mocquerys (1880) gives brief 
descriptions and small woodblock figures of numerous beetle "monsters" 
Many of these are malformations of the legs. Each is a unique specimen and 
apart from vague comments on interrupted development or embryological 
breakdown, no detailed explanation is offered for their appearance. 

A model of leg development was propounded by French, Bryant & Bryant 
(1976) to explain supernumerary and other forms of growth produced during 
regeneration after surgery to amphibian limbs. Many of the "monsters" 
illustrated by Mocquerys (1880) show similar supernumerary digitation and 
it is tempting to suggest that the development of such aberrant limbs was 
brought about because of damage during ecdysis or metamorphosis. In the 
case of two almost identical deformations in the leaf beetles discussed here it 
would seem unlikely that two insects could suffer identical injuries to 
identical middle right legs. 

In insects, adult structures such as wings and legs, are represented in the 
larval stage as groups of cells called imaginal discs (eg Gullan & Cranston. 
1994, and other textbooks). These discs are analogous to buds. During 
metamorphosis they are pushed through to the outside of the body and 
change shape by cell reproduction, differentiation and movement. The 
underlying causes of these changes are not precisely known (Bard, 1990), 
but the development of Drosphila fruit fly leg discs from buds to limbs has 
been visualised using scanning electron microscopy (Fristrom, 1976, 1988). 



36 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



l.ii.l995 



Table 1. Body and limb measurements (in millimetres) of six normal and 
two aberrant specimens of Galerucella sagittariae collected together from 
Powdermill Reservoir, 23rd August 1994. 



Measure 


Aberrant 


Aberrant 


Measures of six 


(ventral) 


specimen 1 


specimen 2 


"normal" specimens 












(n=12) 
mean (range) 


Left 


Right 


Left 


Right 


Front femora 


0.99 


0.99 


1.09 


1.13 


1.10 (1.02-1.19) 


tibiae 


1.02 


1.02 


1.19 


1.19 


1.06 (0.95-1.19) 


tarsi 


0.75 


0.78 


0.82 


0.75 


0.79 (0.68-0.89) 


Middle femora 


1.19 


0.92* 


1.30 


0.78* 


1.26 (1.19-1.36) 


tibiae 


1.19 


0.72* 


1.30 


0.78* 


1.26 (1.13-1.36) 


tarsi 


0.85 


0.34* 


0.85 


0.41* 


0.87 (0.78-0.95) 


Hind femora 


1.33 


1.36 


1.36 


1.43 


1.38 (1.23-1.43) 


tibiae 


1.36 


1.36 


1.43 


1.47 


1.41 (1.26-1.47) 


tarsi 


0.82 


0.82 


0.85 


0.85 


0.87 (0.78-0.99) 


Antennae 


2.73 


2.73 


2.73 


2.73 


2.82 (2.73-2.90) 


Body length 




5.53* 




6.33 


6.21 (5.88-6.55) 


(dorsal) 










(n=6) 



Measurements were made using a Meiji SKC-1 microscope and an eye-piece 
graticule (line divided into 100). Limb lengths were ventral, at x 30 
magnification (29.333 units/mm). 

Body lengths were dorsal, at x 10 magnification (8.85 units/mm). 
^Measurement outside of the "normal" range. 

The imaginal disc forms a series of folds representing the various limb 
segments; it then extents telescopically, transforming into a leg. 

Morphological changes during growth and any underlying genetic controls 
have traditionally been studied apart, since it is still not known how the 
subcellular and biochemical changes wrought by the genes bring about the 
gross structural alterations during development. Nevertheless, it is well 
known that shape, size and form are inherited characteristics. 

Drosophila also provides the best studied genetic model for limb 
development in insects, and during many years of genetic and mutational 
experimentation various bizarre genes have been discovered or engineered. 
Several control the embryological development of the various body 



LEG TERATOLOGY 37 



appendages - antennae, wings and legs. Mutants have often been created and 
genetically verified in which the two antennae are replaced with seventh and 
eight legs or the wings multiplied from two to four! I do not know whether 
left or right-legged characters have been identified in the Drosophila 
genome. 

Galerucella sagittariae is gregarious as a larva. After hatching from the 
batch of five to ten eggs, the larvae move in concert up the leaf, nibbling 
away the upper surface until as later instars they feed individually, 
skeletonising the leaves they attack. Since the two aberrant specimens were 
taken in the same sweep of the net, it is tempting to suggest that they were 
siblings and that the stunted legs were the result of a naturally occurring 
mutant gene in the population. However, though one abnormal specimen 
was of normal size, the other was slightly shorter than normal (Table 1), 
hence perhaps nutritional factors are also somehow involved. 

Butterfly and moth aberrations are usually obvious enough to be spotted 
while the insects are alive, offering at least some possibility of studying their 
genetics. Unfortunately, as is too often the case, the oddity of these two 
beetles was not spotted until it was too late to consider such a course of 
action. 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are due to my father, Mr A.W. Jones for supplying further specimens 
of Galerucella sagittariae from Powdermill Reservoir, to Ms C.B. Ure for 
statistical advice and Mr P.J. Hodge for identifying the Galerucella. 

References 

Bard, J., 1990. Morphogenesis. The cellular and molecular processes of developmental anatomy. 

Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. i-xii, 1-314. 
Ford, E.B., 1945. Butteiflies. the New Naturalist. Collins, London, pp. 193-195. 
French, V. , Bryant, P.J. & Bryant, S.V., 1976. Pattern formation in epimorphic fields. Science 193: 

969. 
Fristrom, D., 1976. The mechanism of evagination of imaginal discs oi Drosphila melanogaster. III. 

Evidence for cell rearrangement. Dew Biol. 54: 163-171. 
- , 1988. The cellular basis of epithelial morphogenesis. Tissue and Cell 20: 265-290. 
GuUan, P.J. & Cranston, P.S., 1994. The insects: an outline of entomology. London. Chapman & 

Hall, pp. i-xiv, 1-492. 
Hancock, E.G., 1992. Assymetrical antennae in the hawthorn $hie\Ahug Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale 

(L.). Br. J. ent. Nat. Hist. 5: 93-94. 
Jones, R.A., 1989. [Deviations in the elytral striae of carabids Agonum dorsale (Pont.), Harpalus 

rufibarbis (F.) and Dromius linearis (OL). Exhibit at BENHS Annual Exhibition 19 November 

1988.] Br. J. ent. Nat. Hist. 2: 49. 
Mocquerys, S., 1880. Recueil de Coleopteres anormaux. Teratologie entomologique. Leon Deshays, 

Rouen, pp. i-xvi, 1-144. 



38 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

Scrobipalpa artemisiella (Treitschke) (Lep.: Gelechiidae), a larval 
description 

Stainton (1865, The natural history of the Tineina IX: p214 and plate VII) 
describes the larva of Scrobipalpa artemisiella (Treitschke) (then Gelechia 
artemisiella) as "Greenish, with a dark greyish-green dorsal line, and similar 
subdorsal lines; ordinary spots minute black, in pale rings; the head pale- 
brown, darker behind, with the mouth and sides black; second segment 
yellowish-green, rather marbled with brown." There is no mention of the 
colour of the legs; the thoracic legs appear transparent in the illustration, 
which otherwise follows the description, but the prolegs are not shown. 
Meyrick ([1928], A revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera) follows 
Stainton, in a condensed form. 

I have bred S. artemisiella from west Cornwall on several occasions. Each 
time I have noticed that the larva has not agreed with Stainton's description 
but has been as follows: head and prothoracic plate black; body dull 
brownish-green, dorsal, subdorsal and lateral lines purplish-brown, second 
thoracic segment dark purplish-brown; pinacula small, black; anal plate 
blackish; thoracic legs black; prolegs concolorous with body. 
- R.J. Heckford, 67 Newnham Road, Plympton, Plymouth, Devon PL7 4 AW. 



Further records of Gelechia senticetella (Staudinger) (Lep.: Gelechiidae) 

Langmaid (1994) reviews the first three records of this species in Great 
Britain. On 13th July 1994 and 3rd August 1994 further single examples of 
this species came to actinic light in my back garden at Raynes Park, Surrey 
(VC17). This identification was confirmed by examination of the genitalia of 
the July specimen (a male). These captures constitute a new vice-county 
record for the species. A few other examples of what were probably this 
species were seen at the trap at around the same time, but these were not 
retained or noted as their significance (and indeed identity) was not realised 
at the time. 

Reference: Langmaid J.R., 1994. A third British record of Gelechia senticetella 
(Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Entomologist's Gazette, 45: 36. 
- M.S. Parsons, 3 Stanton Road, Raynes Park, London SW20 8RL. 



The Small Rufous, Coenobia rufa, Haw. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
Buckinghamshire 

On 29th July 1994 I took at light a specimen of Coenobia rufa at Stoke 
Hammond, North Buckinghamshire. 

As far as can be ascertained this appears to be a new county record for this 
species.- G.E. Higgs, The Cottage, Willen, Milton Keynes MK15 9AD. 



LARVAL HABIT OF LEIODES RUFIPENNIS 39 

THE LARVAL HABITAT OF LEIODES RUFIPENNIS (PAYKULL) 

(= CLAVICORNIS (RYE)) (COL.: LEIODIDAE): 

SOME PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS 

R.M. Lyszkowski 

"Glenwood" , 57 Henderson Street, Bridge of Allan, Stirlingshire FK9 4HG. 

THE WRITER, on 26.vi.1986, was looking for Bledius larvae along the Allt 
Cuaich at NN6786 at a site 5km from Dalwhinnie, Inverness-shire. At one 
spot near the edge of the stream, some 2cm below the surface of sparsely 
vegetated sand, three small whitish unfamiliar larvae were found. The larvae, 
along with a sample of the surrounding sand, were collected for further 
study. 

Close examination revealed that the larvae were living in small hollowed 
out cells surrounded by a matrix of sand and microscopic, sand-coloured 
spheres. It was a fair guess that what I had found was some sort of 
subterranean fungus together with the larvae of a Leiodid beetle. Very few 
published observations existed on the relationship between the Leiodinae 
and their larval food (Crowson, 1981), so it was decided to try and rear the 
larvae. 

The mature larvae were roughly 3mm long with well developed head and 
mandibles and spent much of their time with their abdomen arched up and 
over their heads. On being disturbed, a larva would rub the dorsal tip of its 
abdomen to and fro quite rapidly over the anterior part of its head, as if it 
were stridulating in some sort of way. Small tranverse ridges of chitin are 
present on the surface of the last tergite and undoubtedly form a stridulatory 
file, the shape of which, together with the placement of associated bristles, 
could be useful characters for identification. Competing larvae probably use 
stridulation as a warning, thus avoiding injury from the relatively powerful 
mandibles. Of the three original larvae, one succumbed to a bite inflicted by 
one of the others, whilst two successfully pupated. One of the pupae 
collapsed a couple of days later, but the other produced a male Leiodes 
rufipennis (PaykuU) which was kept alive until mature. 

Two problems arose during the rearing. Firstly, the small samples of sand 
and fungus were often covered by the hyphae of Mwc<9/"-like moulds but 
regular brushing of the surface of the sand with a small paint-brush managed 
to keep the mould under control. Secondly, hundreds, if not thousands of 
nematode worms were present in the sand around the fungus samples and at 
times the worms could be seen in numbers at the extremities of grains of 
sand, waving their bodies around in the air. Because of the possibility that 
the nematodes were responsible for the death of the first pupa, the worms 
were regularly removed from the liquid film on the surface of the surviving 
pupa. Paint-brushing proved to be the most effective means of removal. 

A dried sample of the fungus in which the larvae had been feeding was 
eventually sent to Dr C. Walker at the Forestry Commission's Northern 



40 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

Research Station at Roslin, Midlothian via Dr N. Dix (University of Stirhng) 
and Dr R. Wathng (Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh). Dr Walker identified 
the fungus, and added, "It is a typical sporocarp of the species Glomus 
macrocarpum Tulasne & Tulasne, and consists of many hundreds of 
individual chlamydospores bound together (relatively tightly) by a matrix of 
sterile hyphae." Fresh sporocarps are globose, subglobose, elongate or 
irregular, up to 10x10x8mm, and have debris adherent to the surface (Berch 
& Fortin, 1983). A mature specimen recently found by the author also had a 
very pungent smell, somewhat reminiscent of some decomposing fish. 

Acknowledgements 

Dr N. Dix and Dr R. Watling are thanked for the part they played in having 

my fungus sample identified, and I especially thank Dr C. Walker for 

carrying out the identification and also for much useful information 

concerning the fungus together with a copy of the paper by Berch & Fortin. I 

would also like to thank Dr Graham Rotheray (Royal Museum of Scotland) 

for looking over my paper. 

References 

Crowson, R.A., 1981. The Biology of the Coleoptera. Academic Press. 

Berch, S.M. & Fortin, J.A., 1983. Lectotypification of Glomus macrocarpum and proposal of new 

combinations: Glomus australe, Glomus versiforme. and Glomus tenebrosum (Endogonaceae). 

Can. J. Bot. 61: 26m-26\l. 



Aethes francillana (Fabricius) (Lep.: Tortricidae) bred from Conium 
maculatum 

On 29th April 1990 Dr John Langmaid and I were recording micro- 
lepidoptera at Chesil, Dorset. John observed some small round holes in old 
stems of Conium maculatum which we assumed were made by Aethes 
beatricella (Walsingham). As this was a species I had not seen I collected a 
few stems. 

Moths emerged between May and June and I noticed how similar they 
looked to specimens of A. francillana (Fabricius) which I had bred from 
Daucus car Ota in Devon. In January 1994 I dissected a male from Chesil and 
to my surprise found that it was not beatricella but francillana, which I 
believe has not been recorded from Conium maculatum either in the British 
Isles or on the continent.- R.J. Heckford, 67 Newnham Road, Plympton, 
Plymouth, Devon PL7 4AW. 

A record of the Heart Moth, Dicycla oo L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) from north- 
west Kent 

On the night of 12th July 1994 a female Dicycla oo, in excellent condition, 
came to a garden m.v. trap in West Wickham, north-west Kent. Its identity 
was confirmed by Graham Collins. This is an interesting record as there has 
been no confirmed record of its occurrence in Kent since 1919. Chalmers- 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 41 

Hunt {Butterflies and moths of Kent 2: 244-245) gives West Wickham as a 
historic locality, with records from 1896 and 1897. The moth also occurred 
widely in the adjacent localities of Hayes and Bromley at the end of the last 
century. The moth is not known to wander far from its known habitats and it 
is interesting to speculate upon its origin. 

In the adjacent county of Surrey the Heart Moth is quite widely 
distributed, with Ashtead as the most well-known locality (where it is 
sometimes common, and produces ab. renago from time to time). Those who 
have run traps at this site know the moth's disinclination to wander, as it is 
normally found at the top of a hill (a stiff walk with a generator). Those who 
run their light at the bottom of the hill invariably come home empty handed! 
Other localities in Surrey include Thorpe, Virginia Water, Leigh, Dorking, 
Betchworth, Buckland and East Horsley, although at none of these localities 
can it be described as either regular or common. 

We are most grateful to Graham Collins for his helpful comments, and for 
supplying data from the Surrey insect recording scheme- Peter Jupp, 125 
Birch Tree Avenue, West Wickham, Kent and Paul Sokoloff, 4 Steep 
Close, Orpington, Kent. 

Apion laevicolle Kirby (Col. : Apionidae) in the New Forest 

Among a number of beetles taken on 29.vi.1952 at Brockenhurst in the New 
Forest, south Hampshire, but not critically examined until now, I was much 
surprised to find a specimen of the very local and usually scarce Apion 
laevicolle Kb. On that occasion I collected only in the vicinity of Butts Lawn 
and the nearby part of B aimer Lawn, obtaining among other things a good 
series of the uncommon ladybird Hyperaspis pseudopustulata Muls. The 
Apion was probably taken by sweeping, but the type, or types, of situation 
explored were quite unusual for the species, which is chiefly coastal or 
maritime. There are, it seems, no records for the Hampshire mainland; 
Fowler (1891, Col.Brit.Isl. 5: 147) gives three for the Isle of Wight, and one 
as far inland as Windsor. However, it appears to be more especially a Kent 
and Sussex species - I once found several at Deal on a sandy waste slightly 
inland, at roots of herbage, besides one at the Lizard. As the host is thought 
to be white clover, Trifolium repens, the weevil's range is obviously limited 
by factors other than the range of that ubiquitous plant.- A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - getting the shakes - United Kingdom, 
April 1993 

Nine days after returning from six weeks of butterfly collecting in Ghana I 
was not really feeling my best, but then who does when exchanging the 
tropics for the vagaries of the English weather in early spring. A couple of 
aspirin generally kept the discomfort at bay. 

On the tenth morning it was clear that I had a fever and that more radical 
action was called for. While trying to book a doctor's appointment, I 



42 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



Lii.1995 



suddenly got the shakes - and I mean the shakes. A piping hot bath was no 
help. I shook so seriously that the water splashed all over the floor. There 
could be no doubt. This was malaria. 

It took a couple of hours to get to the St. Pancras Hospital for Tropical 
Diseases. By then the fever had shot up to 42° and I could feel my ability to 
reason and act rationally abandoning me. 

Within fifteen minutes of arrival at the hospital I was in bed with an 
intravenous infusion of quinine in my arm and a mild sedative in my 
stomach: "We'll deal with the formalities later". I have little recollection of 
the following day, but two days later I was basically fine, while starting a 
course of Mefloquine, a fancy new anti-malarial. 

The consultant arrived to fill me in. It 
was falciparum malaria, the most 
dangerous and drug-resistant of malaria 
strains, cerebral malaria apart. When I 
arrived at the hospital I had 5.5% of my 
blood cells affected, rising to 9.5% by the 
time the quinine took effect. "So it was a 
good thing I came in straight away", I said 
brightly. "Yes", said the consultant drily, 
"because you'd have been dead in 24 
hours". 

Normally, 1.5% infection is enough to 
lay you low, and at any point above 3.0%, 
death is a distinct possibility. Possibly 
because I have been exposed to malaria 
for nearly fifty years, I had extraordinary 
resistance, which made the whole episode 
so much more dangerous. The speed at 
which the illness developed was 
frightening; from having mild discomfort 
to death's door in less than 24 hours. Imagine it happening 14 days earlier. I 
was then camping in a national park, without transport and without radio. I 
might not have made it in time as my decision-making facilities deteriorated. 
In several of these essays I have stressed that butterfly collecting in the 
tropics is not a macho activity. On the whole, wild animals do not lurk, 
hordes of insects do not engulf you, tropical diseases do not strike you down, 
and the local people are not hostile. In general, transport is the only real 
danger, with poor roads, bad drivers, and cars in frightful mechanical 
condition conspiring to create mayhem - at least fifteen times the number of 
people killed per 100,000 cars than in my native Denmark. 

Malaria, too, is not a great danger if you take your anti-malarial tablets 
correctly. I have regularly lived in or travelled to malarial areas for 45 years 
and never had malaria before. What had happened in this case is that I 




On a steep recovery curve 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 43 

packed my anti-malarials in my checked luggage, despite an overnight stay 
in Cairo, and forgot to take them on the first day in London. Two days of 
letting down the defences, combined v/ith the bad luck of being bitten by a 
very nasty mosquito, was sufficient window of opportunity for the parasites. 
Three days after hospitalisation I felt fine (my wife was deeply relieved 
when I asked her to bring some Indian take-away instead of the awful 
hospital fare), but it took a few more days to get the parasite count down to 
zero. After a total of five days I was back behind my computer as if nothing 
had happened. It had been my first time in a hospital, my first brush with 
serious illness, and the whole episode rapidly began to seem unreal. But I 
now carry a full kit for malaria treatment - quinine and Mefloquine -which I 
still have not needed to use. I have also acquired the nasty habit of 
persistently nagging those of my friends and colleagues who do not maintain 
anti-malarial discipline. At least, they cannot say: "But nobody ever gets 
malaria, anyway."!- T.B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SE9 8PL. 

Sedina buettneri (Hering) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Essex, 1994 

On the night of 16th October 1994 a male Sedina buettneri (Blair's 
Wainscot) was found in the Heath light trap operated by Ms Barbara Lock in 
her garden at Frinton-on-Sea, Essex. She took the specimen to Reg Arthur, a 
member of the Essex Lepidoptera Panel who also runs a light trap at St. 
Osyth on the north Essex coast and he was able to confirm the identity. The 
moth was later photographed by another north-east lepidopterist, Ian Rose, 
before Ms Lock released it at Frinton as she did not wish the specimen to be 
retained. Colour prints of the moth were shown to Essex Lepidoptera Panel's 
animal records meeting on 19th November 1994, for further confirmation of 
identity. This is believed to be the first UK record of S. buettneri since 1966. 
J. FiRMiN, Chairman, Essex Lepidoptera Panel, 55 Chapel Road, West 
Bergholt, Colchester, Essex C06 3HZ. 

First Kent record of Coleophora deviella ZelL (Lep.: Coleophoridae) 

During a visit to the Swale National Nature Reserve at Shellness on 21st 
August 1983, 1 noticed three larval cases on the seeds of Sueda maritima and 
did not recognise them as being one of the common salt marsh species, but 
looking similar to C. deviella, the cases of which I had collected the previous 
October at Peldon, Essex. 

I returned on the 2nd October 1983 and was able to establish that they 
were indeed C. deviella and a concentrated search produced a good number 
of full grown cases, albeit very sporadically distributed. They are very 
conspicuous on the foodplant and as I had not searched this same area for 
several consecutive autumns I can only surmise that at the time it was a 
recent arrival. Further cases were found on 7th October 1984, in the 
company of Michael Chalmers-Hunt. 

The cases are larger than many species, being between 9 and 19mm long 
when full fed, very clean with no sand particles attached; pale whitish- 
ochreous in colour, often with between two and four orange longitudinal 



44 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 l.ii.l995 

"gussets". This description agrees fairly well with an unidentified case 
collected by R.W.J. Uffen at Shellness, Kent on 24th May 1980 but which 
was subsequently misplaced. 

I personally found this to be a most difficult species to bring through the 
winter, and even overwintering suspended on a garden fence in linen bags in 
the time-honoured fashion, a very large proportion of the cases had become 
affected with mould by the spring. 

I believe this to be the first time the species was recorded in Kent. 

- N. Heal, 44 Blenheim Avenue, Faversham, Kent ME 13 8NW. 

First Kent record of Cosmopterix lienigiella L.&Z. (Lep.: 
Cosmopterigidae) 

A single specimen of this species was attracted to m.v. light at Stodmarsh 
National Nature Reserve on 8th July 1984, the first record for Kent. The 
foodplant, Phragmites is abundant, but rather inaccessible at this locality .- 
N. Heal, 44 Blenheim Avenue, Faversham, Kent ME13 8NW. 

Further notes relating to an Indian Arctiid, Bombay, 1994 

Following on from my observations on the Indian Arctiid, Estigmene 
nigricans (More, 1872) {Ent. Rec. 106: 193). The moth was re-identified by 
the BM(NH) in September. It is now known as Estigmene perotteti Guerin. 

As two generations have now been reared through it seems to be of 
importance to detail what foodplants have been accepted by the larvae. 
These are: Buddleja davidii, Mentha, Geranium, Polygonum aviculare, 
white dead nettle, nettle, hawkweed, dandelion and Rorippa aylvestris. 
Plants not accepted have included Jasmine and bramble. Professor Michael 
Boppre has reported successful results with the insect on his own artificial diet. 

The most interesting aspect of the moth must be the amount of variation. 
Four basic "forms" have been noted, these are: a form with a "cream-stripe" 
on the forewings; a "sooty-black" form where the whole wing area of the 
moth is "sooty-black" except the body; the latter form but with "tufts" of 
white as the base of the forewings and a form where there is no trace of 
"pink" either on the abdomen or the wing area and can only be described as 
being "melanic". The normal "pink" being replaced with "grey". 

A couple of examples have in addition been in possession of a broken 
"cream stripe" and in one case only where the "cream" colour has been 
reduced to a single spot on the forewing. The most frequent variety is the 
"cream-stripe", in the F2, 88 examples emerged of this type; the second most 
frequent is the "sooty-black" form, 59 in the F2. 51 examples emerged of the 
third-named. Of the "melanic" form a mere four examples have eclosed. 

Presently, the larvae of the F3 are in first instar on nettle and Rorippa 

sylvestris. 

References: Bergomaz. R. & Boppre, M. A simple instant diet for rearing Arctiidae and 
other moths. Journal of the Lepidopterist's Society No. 3, 40: 1986; Clumo, G. 
Estigmene nigricans More (Lep.: Arctiidae) in Bombay, 1994 Ent. Rec. 106: 193; 
Hutchinson, John. British Wild Flowers. Vol. I. 1955. 

- G. King, 2 Cooper Court, Clays Lane, London E15 2HL. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 45 

The very first light-trap, 1565? 

In 1856 Townend Glover described a lantern type light trap for helping to 
control insect pests of cotton (Glover 1856). This trap was so designed that 
the insects attracted were either burnt or deposited through the open bottom 
into a barrel of molasses or other adhesive substance. Glover then re- 
designed his trap so as to catch the insects alive and so be suitable for 
collectors. He did not publish this but on a visit to London described it to 
H.G. Knaggs who then published an illustrated account (Knaggs 1886). 
According to Wilkinson (1969), this was the first account of a light trap to be 
used for catching insects, but he had not then come across Glover's 1856 
paper (Wilkinson 1974). 

Light, in the form of lanterns of various sorts, either carried or placed in 
windows had been known and used to attract insects for very many years, 
the first traceable account being that of Petiver (1695). That the origin of the 
independent light trap, as well as the knowledge that light attracts moths, 
goes back even further I came across recently by chance. 

Amongst an assortment of books I acquired at a recent auction was a copy 
of The Countrie Farme. "Compleyed in the French tongue by Charles 
Stevens, and John Liebault, and translated into English by Richard Surfleet. 
Now newly reviewed, corrected and augmented by Gervase Markham. 
Adam Islip, London 1616". This book is the English translation of L^r 
Maison Rustique by Charles Estienne and John Liebault first published in 
France in 1565. It is a textbook on husbandry, gardening, beekeeping, 
viticulture, forestry, etc and cannot resist giving medical instructions! 

Browsing through the index I came across the intriguing entry Butteiflies 
eating Bees. Finally locating the reference (which occurs on page 326, not 
226 as stated in the index), I found the following, which is in Chapter LXVI 
"Of the remedies of the diseases that Bees are subject unto". The spelling is 
modernised. 

"The butterflies, which use sometimes to hide themselves in the hives, and do 
kill the bees, will themselves be killed, if when mallows are in flower, and they 
abounding in great quantity, there be set amongst the hives, in the night season, a 
high and narrow mouthed tin-pot, with a burning light in the bottom of it, for 
presently all the butterflies will hasten and fly thither unto the light, and flying 
about it, will bum themselves: for they cannot easily, from a narrow bottom, fly 
right up, neither yet shun and avoid the light, in getting themselves far off from 
it, seeing they are forcibly kept within a narrow scantling, the pot itself being not 
wide, but narrow". 

This is not only an account of a light trap but also an early example of pest 
control, pre-dating Glover by three centuries! From the context it seems 
certain that the "butterflies" concerned are one of the wax moths, most likely 



46 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

Galleria mellonella. The fact that they are called butterflies is easily 
explained by this being a work translated from the French where "Papillon" 
translates as "butterfly", moth being "Papillon de nuit" and all French books 
in my library with "Papillons" in the title deal with both moths and 
butterflies. 

References: Knaggs, H.G., 1866. The new American moth trap. The Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine, 2: 199-202; Glover, Townend, 1856. Insects frequenting the cotton 
plant. In: Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1855, Washington, DC; 
Petiver, James, 1695. Letter to John Scampton, March 17th, Sloane MS 3332.f.l28v; 
Wilkinson, R.S., 1969. Townend Glover (1813-83) and the first entomological light trap. 
The Michigan Entomologist, 2: 55-62; Wilkinson, R.S., 1974. The sources of Townend 
Glover's "American moth trap." The Great Lakes Entomologist, 7: 127-128. 
- Brian O.C. Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

Aplota palpella (Haw.), (Lep.: Oecophoridae) new to the Midland Plateau 

During warm summer evenings when working in my study, it is occasionally 
my habit to leave a window slightly open whilst at the same time switching 
on the 22-watt ring light on my drawing table. It is not improbable that a 
number of readers have done a similar thing when for some reason 
conventional moth trapping is off the agenda: it gives one the feeling of at 
least being partially in touch with what is going on. For much of the time the 
consequences are that the room is invaded by a horde of common insects 
which eventually cause far more trouble than anticipated as they vanish 
behind books and under tables! There are occasional surprises, however, and 
one came my way on the evening of 25th July 1994 when Aplota palpella 
(Haw.) appeared. It was about to be returned to the wilderness of my garden 
as a Depressaria when I realised that something about it was not quite right. 
Being only an occasional lepidopterist, I sent it to Mr R. Warren (Stafford- 
shire County Recorder) and he revealed its identity and significance. 

My garden is in no way unusual. It is bordered by 1700 acres of open 
country in the shape of the Sandwell Valley and our moth list has a number 
of unexpected components, some possibly introduced via garden plantings. It 
would be interesting to know if there is any evidence of an increase in 
numbers or northwards movement of this scarce moth during recent times. 
Maybe it does get overlooked, being mistaken for a Depressaria. My thanks 
go to Mr Warren for his help in this matter.- M.G. Bloxham, 1 St. John's 
Close, Sandwell Valley, West Bromwich. 

Apion sedi Germar (Col.: Apionidae) in Dorset 

Several years ago I discovered that a small Apion which I had long supposed 
(though with no great confidence) must be an undersized and peculiar 
example of the common and variable A. curtirostre Germ., was in fact a 
definite A. sedi Germ. It was taken by grubbing on the Chesil Bank, near the 
Weymouth end, on one of three visits in August 1937. Curiously, this 
seemed to be the first known capture of the species in Dorset, though by now 
probably not the only one. Professor M.G. Morris had not met with A. sedi in 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 47 

the county when I informed him of my find. Elsewhere I have talcen it, again 
singly, at the Lizard, Deal, and in the Suffolk Breck.- A. A. Allen, 49 
Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

Hypena ohsitalis (Hb.) the Bloxworth Snout (Lep.: Noctuidae) new to 
mainland Hampshire 

At 6.50pm on 12th November 1994, as I went into our conservatory 1 saw an 
unfamiliar moth at rest on the outside of the window. It appeared to be a 
medium-sized snout, with pointed wings and strong lines on its underside. I 
hurried out but had only the briefest glimpse of its upperside before it flew 
off in the breeze towards my m.v. lamp. It was not until 8.15pm that 1 
rediscovered it in a patch of shadowed wall and boxed it, recognising it from 
the illustrations as a female Hypena obsitalis Hb., the Bloxworth Snout. I 
was later able to obtain several photographs. 

This Mediterranean species was first noted in Britain on 21st September 
1884 by the Reverend Octavius Pickard Cambridge at Bloxworth in Dorset. 
By 1983, seven further records had been published: Cambridgeshire (1895), 
Dorset (1917 and 1965), Cork (1936), Cornwall (1943), Scilly (1962) and 
Sussex (1983). Bernard Skinner has kindly this week sent me details of four 
more occurrences: 

Shanklin, I.O.W. A.H. Greenham 27th January 1968 

Dover, Kent G.H. Youden 18th August 1985 

Perranporth, Cornwall F.H. Smith 8th November 1987 

Brixham, South Devon B. Henwood 29th July 1989 

The Selbome insect is therefore probably the thirteenth British record as a 
primary immigrant. I am grateful to Barry Goater for confirming the 
identification and for ratifying the new to mainland Hampshire status. 

It is not clear whether this specimen arrived from abroad on the southerly 

airstreams of the preceding week or whether it had been disturbed from 

hibernation by the chopping down of next-door's ivy tods on 11th 

November. As there is plenty of the foodplant {Parietaria judaica, Pellitory- 

of-the-wall) in this village, the discovery of a local resident or temporarily 

resident colony, in addition to those found since 1990 in Devon and 

Cornwall, might be a possibility. A thorough search is intended, since 

absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. 

References: Bernard Skinner & David Wilson, 1984. Colour Identification Guide to 
Moths of the British Isles Viking, Harmondsworth; A.M. Emmet. 1991. The Moths and 
Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 7(2), Ch.3, Harley Books, Colchester; R.F. 
Bretherton, B. Goater & R.I. Lorimer, 1983. Ibid. 10 Harley Books, Colchester. 

- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 

A minor infestation of Atropos (Lep.: Sphingidae) in Hertfordshire, 1994 

I received a call for advice in the village on 27th August this summer, from a 
gardener who had encountered a very large caterpillar devouring his potato 
plants. The description certainly fitted that of Acherontia atropos Linn, so I 



48 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

set off, suitably equipped for great things. A healthy, full grown larva of the 
green form confirmed my telephone diagnosis and I immediately set about 
searching for signs of others, ie stripped potato stems. There were signs on 
several clamps of recent feeding but no trace of the cause. Assuming that 
these larvae were also full fed, I presumed that they had gone down, I was 
assured that I would be informed if more were found and in due course a 
larva and pupa were dug up. 

In the meantime I had begun scouring the area for potato fields and signs 
of larval activity. I was unaware of reports of other atropos in the country at 
this time so was particularly keen to see how strong a local presence the 
moth had established (I suspect most entomologists enjoy a brush with such 
a spectacular insect) in the area. Any creature that beats the "Best kept 
Village" tidy up operation and the tendency of farmers to spray everything 
that moves or might do, is of interest here. Anyway, alert to the old tales of 
great areas of stripped potato plants, I spent several days walking up and 
down furrows of potato fields looking for signs. Two fields looked 
promising, with tops of stems stripped and Mills-bomb like frass (but 
smaller) below in evidence. No sign of larvae made me wonder if sprays had 
beaten them, but the farmer assured me that only fungicides had been used in 
recent weeks. (How I wonder does fungicide affect atropos"}) A short while 
later a defoliant spray was used to kill off the plant tops prior to lifting the 
crop. 

I therefore made plans to be in at the harvesting. This farm still uses an old 
tractor mounted machine that uses a wheel with tines, that spins and throws 
the potatoes sideways out of the soil clamp. A rather violent action only 
limited by the need to avoid cutting the potato in half or bruising it. The 
exposed potatoes are then lifted by hand into crates and taken off the field by 
tractors. A talk to the team of workers and their children, together with a 
small financial incentive created sufficient interest to get pupae put to one 
side rather than destroyed or discarded. Lifting the crop began on a 27-acre 
field on the 3rd October. On the first day only three pupae appeared and it 
was necessary to assure some of the workers that these could not sting. Over 
the next two weeks about 54 pupae were found or reported. Bearing in mind 
the fragility of the pupae and the violent disinterment, it was surprising how 
few were damaged, about 15%. This figure was aggravated by the hands of 
several of the smaller workers, one of whom approached me barefoot, 
wielding a sock which in due course yielded a live but dying, mashed pupa. 
It was interesting to speculate how many pupae were being passed over that 
had remained buried. Certainly there were signs that a very substantial 
proportion of the potato crop remained covered and so lost, crushed and 
ploughed back in. The chances of pupae surviving this treatment or the 
moths being able to reach the surface through impacted mud seems small. 
The declining ground temperature as winter approaches must add to the odds 
against successful emergence. Having studied the excavated soil after the 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 49 

passing of the tractor, 1 would not be surprised if less than half the pupae in 
the field come to light. In captivity and artificial warmth, moths are now 
emerging in the latter half of October. 

It was interesting to note how the pupae were scattered throughout the 
field, but in definite groups. Not particularly more plentiful round the outer 
rows of plants, but of the three varieties of potato grown; Cala, Maris Piper 
and King Edward, the small area put down to the latter produced a notable 
increase in finds. It had not occurred to me that a Death's-head Hawkmoth 
might show a preference for such a good old fashioned spud. Next year this 
farmer will be switching from manual potato lifting to contracted 
mechanised potato harvesters. It will be interesting when the next ''atropos 
year" occurs to see if it is still possible to salvage any pupae.- David Wilson, 
Joyce House, Green Tye, Much Hadham, Hertfordshire. 

Little-known entomological literature 3 

I believe that The Theater of Insects by Thomas Moffett is well-known, if 
not consulted, by many entomologists. It was first published in 1634 as 
Insectorum sive minimorum animalium Theatrum and subsequently 
translated into English by John Rowland when it was then issued in 1658 as 
the third book of Edward Topsell's 2nd edition of his Histoiy of Four-footed 
Beasts and Serpents: Whereunto is now Added The Theater of Insects, or 
lesser living creatures: As Bees, Flies, Caterpillars, Spiders, Worms & c. A 
most Elaborate Work: By T. Muffet, Dr of Physick. Although originally 
published as one volume, the three separate "books" have frequently been 
split over the centuries and The Theater of Insects in particular is often to be 
found individually. What, however, is not so well known is that Topsell's 
History of Serpents contains a considerable amount of entomology and 
although some of this repeats (with embellishment by Topsell!) some of the 
matter in the Theater, it can be argued that to be entomologically complete, 
Serpents and Theater should be kept together. 

The Serpents contains the following entomological matter:- Bee, 14 pages; 
Wasp, 7 pages; Hornet, 4 pages; Cantharides, 4 pages; Caterpillars, 7 pages; 
Scorpion, 7 pages; Spiders, 21 pages: a total of 64 pages or 20% of the book 
and while we can perhaps understand "caterpillars" as being "serpent-like," 
the other insects take a great deal of imagination to fit in with snakes, 
chameleons, crocodiles, dragons and basilisks! 

It is not easy to tie down just how "Moffet" spelt his name or indeed how 
it should be spelt. On the title page of Four-footed Beasts it is as above, but 
on the title page of the Theater it is "Mouffet, Doctor in Physick". Freeman, 
in his British Natural History Books: A Handlist gives "Muffett see 
Moffett". To further confuse us, it is Edward Topsel in Four-footed Beasts 
but Edward Topsell in Serpentsl 

Although the Theater is generally reported to be the first British 
entomological book, this is not so. That honour belongs to The Silkeworms, 
and their flies by T.M. (almost certainly Thomas Moffett) which was 



50 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 1 .ii. 1995 

published in 1599. It could well have been this book that aroused the interest 
of King James I, who made a determined, but not entirely successful attempt 
to establish a silk industry in Great Britain. The failure of this venture was 
perhaps more due to our weather than to any other cause, but its legacy still 
exists in the presence of ancient mulberry trees, usually in the grounds of, or 
on the former site of, large country houses and estates. 

If the honour of being the first entomological book belongs to Silkeworms, 
then surely the second - in spite of its title Serpents - must belong to that 
book in view of its extensive entomological content and the date of the first 
edition which was 1608.- Brian O.C. Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, 
Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

Thera juniperata Linn. (Lep.: Geometridae) in west Gloucester in 
Autumn 1994 

Between 29th October and 5th November 1994, 1 recorded 12 specimens of 
T. juniperata Linn, at light whilst carrying out landscaping work for a 
customer at Whiteshill, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. These were noted 
alongside six Lithophane leautieri Boisd. and numerous Colotois pennaria 
Linn. 

The Juniper Carpet is extremely local in Gloucestershire. Newton, J. 
{Macrolepidoptera of Gloucestershire, Proceedings Cotswolds naturalists' 
field club. 1982) states that "The species has not been recorded in the county 
since Richardson, Nailsworth 25.ix.69." 

The occurrence of this species originated from an introduced juniper bush 
brought from Oxford during March 1994. According to its owner the bush 
was planted in his garden at Whiteshill but failed to establish itself, died, and 
was thrown out. It appears evident that the bush contained ova or more 
probable larvae, which produced the imagines I recorded. 

Juniper is very scarce in this part of Gloucestershire, being restricted to a 
few upland areas of the county. There is no presence of the plant around the 
Stroud area which will undoubtedly lead to this brood being short lived. 

In conclusion I will add that the recent mild weather has produced very 
large numbers of Autographa gamma L. and on 28th October two 
Nomophila noctuella D.&S.- M.N. McCrea, 223 Mathews Way, Paganhill, 
Stroud, Gloucestershire GL5 4DP. 

Invertebrates of Wales by Adrian Fowles. 157pp. Numerous colour and 
monochrome illustrations. A4 Boards. Joint Nature Conservation Committee 
and the Countryside Commission for Wales. 1994. Price £24.50. 
Although dealing with invertebrates in general, much of the coverage relates 
to insects. Wales is divided into three regions: North, Dyfed and mid- Wales 
and the south. This strange division is adopted because it corresponds with 
the former administrative regions of the now defunct NCC! Within each 
region there is a general introduction followed by a habitat-by-habitat 
coverage, typically coastlands, woodlands, lowland grasslands, lowland 
heathlands, open water and its margins, lowland peatlands and uplands. 



BOOK REVIEWS 51 



The main thrust is to look at the rarer and more unusual invertebrates 
found in each habitat, their ecology and general significance. There are 
descriptions of nature reserves and other important sites, a list of 
invertebrates in Wales protected by British and/or European legislation (19 
species!) and a range of indices. 

The text is narrative in nature and very easy to read. There is much useful 
information and comment woven into the text, and it is pleasing to read a 
sensible and balanced view of conservation problems today. Wales contains 
many very interesting species, particularly from the Lepidoptera and 
Coleoptera and these are given full coverage. The book is well illustrated 
with habitat and insect photographs which complement the text. 

Overall a highly recommended book for anyone interested in the fauna of 
Wales, but with much of general interest as well. Surprisingly, the normal 
bibliographic information is absent from the front of the book with the ISBN 
number and publication date only appearing on the back cover. The 
attractive layout is spoiled by the ragged right-hand margins of the double 
columns of text, which should have been right-justified in this type of 
publication. Paul Sokoloff 

Practical hints for the field lepidopterist by J.W. Tutt. A facsimile reprint 
with foreword by Paul Waring and introduction by Brian O.C. Gardiner. 

170pp. 7 plates. A5 Boards. Supplement 8pp. The Amateur Entomologist 
volume 23. Amateur Entomologists' Society, 1994. Price £21.00. 
J.W. Tutt, the founder of The Entomologist's Record, originally published 
this work in three parts between 1901 and 1905. Most extant copies contain 
the 1908 reprint of volume 1 but this facsimile uses the original edition. In 
recent years this work has been increasingly hard to find on the second-hand 
market and as a consequence very expensive when found. So why should 
anyone take the trouble to reprint a practical handbook that is now 90 years 
old? --^.==^- 

Tutt himself was a master field worker and prolific author. As editor of a 
leading entomological journal he had access to all the tips, hints and secrets 
of his readers and he collated these into the Practical hints volumes which 
are still the most comprehensive practical manual on Lepidoptera available 
today. Not only is the book packed with hints and information, but it also 
includes a number of essays by Tutt including collectors, collecting and 
collections; Lepidoptera eggs (from a highly practical point of view), larvae 
and larval stages, and the pupae. Each part deals with finding both micro and 
macrolepidoptera family by family, and month by month. Hints include 
where and how to find early stages and adults and often tips on how to 
successfully breed through. 

Two things have changed dramatically since Tutt first wrote this book. 
Firstly the habitats and abundance of individual species have in many cases 
declined, a sad reflection on the advance of civilisation. Secondly, the 
activities of taxonomists have contrived to make many of the scientific 



52 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

names used in Tutt's day unrecognisable to the modern lepidopterist (can 
you recognise the Noctuid Xylophasia rureal). This makes using the book a 
trial, but the AES has published a supplement which cross-references the 
names used by Tutt with the modern scientific name and the vernacular 
name (although these were not used by Tutt). The supplement can be used 
alongside the main work, saving the irritation of constantly flicking 
backwards and forwards to the index. 

For anyone interested in finding the early stages of Lepidoptera, or any 
other aspect of field work this is an enormously useful book to have. The 
Amateur Entomologists' Society have done a great service in making 
available again this classic work at an affordable price. Paul Sokoloff 

The butterflies and moths of Berkshire by Brian Baker. 368 pp., 3 mono- 
chrome illustrations; 2 maps. A5 Boards. Hedera Press, 1994. Price £25.00 
This welcome local list covers all the Lepidoptera recorded from Berkshire 
(VC22), and adds some 410 species to the 1260 recorded in The Victoria 
County Histoi-y of Berkshire, 1906. After a brief foreword and introduction, 
there is an interesting chapter on the early collectors of Lepidoptera in the 
county followed by a synopsis of the county, notes on the records and 
bibliography. 

The bulk of the work comprises the list of species and records with an 
index of place, English and scientific names. The layout follows that of The 
butterflies and moths of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight published in 1974, 
except that species are listed and referenced by their Log-book number. The 
records themselves are meticulously presented with a comment on 
distribution followed by locality, date and source of record. In this respect, 
and as might be expected from such a well known author, it is a "model" 
local list. So often a reader will consult a local list, find the desired species 
and be confronted with a pithy statement "uncommon" - with no other 
information. In this work you have the locality, date last recorded and 
recorder. More than enough to make a judgement on authenticity or, as is 
often the case, weigh up one's own chances of encountering the insect. An 
essential work of reference. Paul Sokoloff 

UK Nature Conservation No. 3. A review of the scarce and threatened 
Coleoptera of Great Britain by P.S. Hyman, revised and updated by M.S. 
Parsons. Part 1 1992, 484pp, £18.00; part 2 1994, 248pp, £8.00. The Joint 
Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. 

These two volumes summarise available information on the scarce and 
threatened Coleoptera inhabiting England, Scotland and Wales - their 
distribution, ecology and national status. In addition, there is for each species 
an account of the perceived threats to its continued existence in these areas 
and proposals for management and protection of their habitats. The 
information contained in the volumes was obtained from whatever source 



BOOK REVIEWS 53 



was available to the authors but particularly from data supplied by a large 
number of recreational entomologists, duly acknowledged, based on their 
own experience in the field. The two volumes provide the first compre- 
hensive account of many species since the publication more than a century 
ago of The Coleoptera of the British Islands by Fowler over the years 1 878 
to 1891 and, of course, cover many species not known in Fowler's time to be 
British beetles. 

Somewhat selective references to relevant publications are included in the 
accounts of individual species. Conservation matters concerning rare beetles 
in Northern Ireland are not covered, in spite of the fact that these volumes 
are produced by a body purporting from its title - UK.J.N.C.C. - to represent 
Northern Ireland as well as Great Britain. 

The review does not provide accounts of scarce and threatened "water 
beetles" for which a separate list of status gradings is provided. This is an ill 
conceived omission apparently derived from the view that conservation of 
"water beetles" requires different principles to the conservation of other 
beetles, some of which, eg Macroplea spp. have an almost totally aquatic 
existence. At the very least, the two sets of authors should have got together 
sufficiently to ensure that one beetle species {Cercyon atricapillus) is not 
given different status gradings in the two lists. 

Both volumes have twin indexes dealing with beetles and plants 
respectively with entries for both genus and species. The plant index, 
however, contains only scientific names. It would have been better if it 
coped also with ordinary names. Thus, when the Duke of Edinburgh recently 
approved the felling of a number of old lime trees in Windsor, it might have 
been useful in putting forward alternative proposals to have had ready 
reference to those rare and threatened beetle species associated with this tree. 
The plant index, however, gives only one page reference to lime (under the 
entry Tilia) whereas "lime" is not indexed though it is mentioned under 
many species. 

In order to quantitate the need for conservation of individual species, nine 
different grades have been used to express their status. To some, this would 
appear excessive. No doubt it has given satisfaction to those involved in 
defining and assigning the grades but it seems very doubtful to the reviewer 
that the use of this number of grades will contribute any more to the welfare 
of the relevant species than the use of half this number of grades or less. 
Apart from this, the choice of the code RDBI for rare species of currently 
indeterminate status is particular unfortunate because of the potential 
confusion of RDBI with RDBI. The very assignment of grades tends to 
obscure the fact that the many are likely to require continual revision over 
the years as the fortunes of species wax and wane. 

The suggestions offered for management and conservation are for the 
most part repetitive, already known to most conservators and are unlikely to 
be of much practical help. Thus if a species inhabits dead wood in old trees 



54 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

in broad-leaved woodland, it is quite obvious that felling old trees and 
removing the dead wood will have a deleterious effect and it can only be an 
irritation to conservators reading these volumes to have it spelt out 
repeatedly. There is a great deal of repetition in the section headed "Threats" 
and "Management and conservation". For example, these sections are 
repeated word for word for the first three species covered. The publishers of 
the review seem to have forgotten that unnecessary use of paper causes 
unnecessary felling of trees and unnecessary pollution by paper mills and 
printing-ink factories. 

To the reviewer, the most serious worry in using these volumes is the 
reliability of the information, especially that on distribution. Thus it is stated 
(p401) that there are post- 1970 records for the scolytid Pityophthorus 
lichtensteini from south-east Yorkshire and south Aberdeenshire but when 
the reviewer looked into these records both turned out to be spurious. This 
has understandably made him reluctant to accept other distribution data 
without checking it, which rather detracts from the value of the production. 
Such faults lie not with the compilers of the information but on those who 
designed the system to allow information to be collected and reproduced in 
an uncritical fashion. It would no doubt have required extra funding to have 
had all the information checked by experts but these are important volumes 
produced by the British national conservation body and the reliability of the 
information presented warrants rather better treatment than it has been given. 

J.A. Owen 

The butterflies' fly-past by Clive Simson. 127pp. 8 colour illustrations 
painted by Mandy Shepherd. A5 Boards. Peregrine Press, 1994. Price 
£19.00. 

The pages of the Record have seen many reviews of books on butterflies, 
and although the majority of new publications are technically excellent and 
packed with information and advice on life histories and conservation, there 
is a tendency to draw a deep breath before reviewing another butterfly book. 
But this book looked different - the dust jacket said "... a remarkable book 
describing the trials and thrills of studying butterflies in the field . . ." 
reminding the reviewer of the many pleasant hours spent reading the various 
"moth hunting" books by P.B.M. Allan. 

Where better to start than the Foreword, here by Wilson Stephens, former 
editor of The Field. Instead of the normal plaudits and platitudes, the 
foreword launches into a bitter criticism of the "nature establishment" and 
the "nature professionals" as agents for the restrictive practices and erosions 
of civil liberties that progressively beset the field naturalist. This not very 
thinly disguised swipe at the conservation lobby is balanced by reminding us 
of the contributions made by the amateur - exemplified by Gilbert White of 
Selborne - whose enthusiasm for their subject has done so much to advance 
our knowledge of the natural world. If that was the foreword - what would 
the book itself be like? 



BOOK REVIEWS 55 



The author describes his experiences with some 55 species of British 
butterfly under a number of chapters with titles such as "Birth of the Blues" 
and "Skip for Joy" which convey the essentially light-hearted nature of the 
coverage. These experiences are very much personal ones, and into each is 
woven a story, some humour and more often than not, observations on 
behaviour and life history. For many species the author describes his own 
first encounters - the planning, the trip, the pint in the friendly local, the 
excitement, the disappointments, the chase and the capture. 

Clearly aware of the hazards of describing in print how one obtained 
cabinet specimens of such as the Swallowtail and Large Blue, the author 
tackles the issue of collecting head-on in his introduction. As with all other 
topics, he takes a somewhat robust view, quoting Auberon Waugh (writing 
in 1992) the most oppressive piece of legislation since children were hung 
for stealing apples, is the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act. Town dwellers 
are also singled out for their tendency to interfere with the pastimes of 
country folk. That being said, the author is no advocate of collecting long 
series of butterflies, and his views are quite reasonable. 

It would not be fair for the reviewer to judge the merits of this book as any 
reaction is likely to be personal to the reader. Some have commented that it 
is not at all to their taste, totally out of tune with the times and typical of the 
thankfully diminishing "old school" (whatever that means) of collectors. The 
reviewer is happy to admit that he found the book an enjoyable read with 
many interesting observations on behaviour and breeding, and tastefully 
illustrated with paintings of butterflies. The author is refreshingly open and 
honest about his entomological pleasures, and writes with a charmingly 
informal style. 

Paul Sokoloff 

Die Tagfalter Nordwestasiens (Butterflies of North-west Asia) by 
Vladimir Lukhtanov and Alexander Lukhtanov. 440 pages, 56 colour 
plates, coloured frontispiece, compact bound, size A4 (21x30cm), 
Herbipoliana Buchreihe zur Lepidopterologie Band 3, price DM 248. 

In this book, for the first time, the butterflies of one of the most interesting 
areas of the Palaearctic are comprehensively reviewed. 

Dr V. Lukhtanov writes in great detail about 400 species and numerous 
subspecies, which have been shown to exist in north-west Asia. Beginning 
with the original descriptions (including synonyms and disputed taxa). the 
places of discovery, ecology and distribution (with a distribution map of 
each species) to the differential diagnosis between similar species are 
covered. The book is a marvellous publication, and an almost unlimited 
source of previously unpublished information. Some new descriptions 
ipartim with Dr A. Dantchenko) also found their way into the book, and they 
are almost revisionist in character (for example Oeneis). The 561 pictures 



56 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 Lii.1995 

(enlarged 1.33 to 1.5 times) on the 51 plates are from watercolour originals 
by A. Lukhtanov, and are supported by a further five plates. To show 
distinction between difficult species, a further 51 pictures of genitalia 
preparations are presented. 

What is extremely interesting is the information about the geography and 
climate of this heterogenous area. 

The bibliography and detailed species index also make this publication a 
"must". It is a unique work. 

The text in general is written in German, but the main parts of the 
systematic part are also translated into English. 

Ulf Eitschberger 



Scottish Diurnal Lepidoptera Project 

The SDLP is a new initiative, funded by Scottish Natural Heritage, to 
identify sites of scarce butterflies and day-flying moths and to set up a 
framework for monitoring both populations and habitats. The project is 
being managed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, and we would like to 
involve interested individuals or groups in identifying sites, habitat recording 
and subsequent monitoring. 
The main target species are: 

Butterflies: 

Carterocephalus palaemon, Erynnis tages, Ciipido minimus, Aricia 
artaxerxes, Boloria euphrosyne, Eurodiyas aurinia, Erebia epiphron. 

Moths: 

Zygaena species (except Z. filipendulae), Procris statices, Endromis 
versicolora, Coenocalpe lapidata, Epione paralellaria, Semiothisa 
carhonaria, Psodos coracina, Anarta melanopa, A. cordigera. 

Anyone possessing records of any of the above species which have not 
already been submitted to national recording schemes is invited to send 
details to the project co-ordinator at the address below. Entomologists in 
Scotland, or planning to visit Scotland in 1995, who would like to spend 
some time assessing populations of target species, would also be most 
welcome to participate. Further details, including Newsletter and sample 
recording forms, are available from:- Geraldine McGowan, Institute of 
Terrestrial Ecology, Hill of Brathens, Banchory, Kincardineshire AB31 
4BY. 



Contents and Special Index 

The Contents and Special Index for volume 106 (1994) will be 
distributed with the March edition of the Record. 



Contents - continued from hack cover 

Further notes relating to an Indian Arctiid, Bombay, 1994. G. King 44 

The very first light trap, 1565? B.O.C. Gardiner 45 

Aplota palpella Haw. (Lep. Oecophoridae) new to the Midland Plateau. 

M.G. Bloxham 46 

Apion sedi Germar (Col.: Apionidae) in Dorset. A.A. Allen 46 

Hypena obsi talis Hb. the Bloxworth Snout (Lep.: Noctuidae) new to mainland 

HampshiTQ. A. Aston 47 

A minor infestation of Atropos (Lep.: Sphingidae) in Hertfordshire, 1994. D. Wilson 47 

Little-known entomological literature. B.O.C. Gardiner 49 

Thera juniperata L. (Lep.: Geometridae) in west Gloucester in Autumn 1994. 

M.N.McCrea 50 

Book Reviews 50-56 



THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 



The Society was founded in 1935 and caters especially for the 
younger or less experienced Entomologist. 

For details of publications and activities, please write (enclosing 
30p towards costs) to AES Registrar, 5 Oakfield, Plaistow, 
Billinghurst, West Sussex RH14 OQD. 



LEPIDOPTERA RECORDS FOR DEVON 

Could any Lepidopterists who have spent time doing field work in the 
County of Devon please send a list of their records for compilation 
into the county list. Legible field notes, not necessarily in any order, 
with indications of numbers seen and at least a 4-figure map reference 
with any other relevant information would be appreciated. All records 
will be acknowledged, and material returned if requested. 

With thanks, in anticipation, Roy McCormick, 36 Paradise Road, 
Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NR. 



FOR SALE 

Butterfly cabinet with 10 drawers. Glass fronted. Contains butterflies, in 
good condition, collected in the early 1950s in Southern England and France. 

Telephone: Mrs Pirie 01962 853844 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Some preliminary notes on Odontognophos dumetata Treitschke ssp. hibernica Forder. 

(Lep.: Geometridae). B. Elliott & B. Skinner 1 

Records of Scottish microlepidoptera from South-western Scotland, July 1994. 

A .E. Emmet 5 

Serious pests of Urtica divica Linn, at 5500' altitude in Kumaon Hills in India. M. Arif 

& N.Kumar 13 

The Brown Argus butterfly in North-west Europe. B. Smyllie 15 

An apparently new species of Mordellistena (Col.: Mordellidae) in Britain. A.A. Allen 25 

Liptena priscilla a new Liptenid butterfly from Nigeria (Lep. Lycaenidae). T.B. Larsen ... 29 

Leg teratology in Galerucella sagittariae GuUenhal (Col.: Chrysomelidae). R.A. Jones 33 

The larval habits of Leiodes rufipennis Paykull (=clavicornis Rye) (Col.: Leiodidae) 

some preliminary observations. R.M. Lyszkowski 39 

Notes and observations 

Lepidoptera in Fuerteventura (Canary Isle) 1994. R.G. Ainley 3 

Two records of Tipula sp. (Diptera: tipulidae) from Andalucia, Spain. E.G. Hancock 3 

Early emergence of Spring moths. A. Aston 4 

Synanthedon formicaeformis Esp., Red-tipped Clearwing (Lep.: Sesiidae), further 

evidence of a two year life cycle. J.H. Clarke 11 

A flurry of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lep.: Gelechiidae) in Kent. P.A. Sokolojf. 14 

Devon moth records. R. McCormick 14 

Broad-bordered Bee hawks in October {Hemaris fuciformis L., Lep.: Sphingidae) 

G.M.Haggett 24 

All the cars, in all the world. /. Tennent 27 

Euchmichtis lichenea lichenea Hb., Feathered Ranunculus (Lep.: Noctuidae) in north- 
east Hampshire. A. Aston 32 

Scrobipalpa artemesiella Trietschke (Lep.: Gelechiidae), a larval description. 

RJ.Heckford 38 

Further records of Gelechia senticetella Staudinger (Lep.: Gelechiidae). M.S. Parsons 38 

The Small Rufous, Coenobia rufa, Haw. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Buckinghamshire. 

G.E.Higgs 38 

Aethes francillana Fab. (Lep.: Tortricidae) bred from Coniiim macidatum. R.J. Heckford 40 
A record of the Heart Moth, Dicycla oo L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) from north-west Kent. 

P.Jupp&P.A.Sokolojf 40 

Apion laevicoUe Kirby (Col.: Apionidae) in the New Forest. A.A. Allen 41 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - getting the shakes - United Kingdom, April 1993. 

T.B. Larsen 41 

Sedina buettneri Hering (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Essex, 1994. J. Firmin 43 

First Kent record of Coleophora deviella Zell. (Lep.: Coleophoridae). N.F. Heal 43 

First Kent record of Cosmopterix lienigiella h.ScL. (Lep.: Cosmiopterigidae). N.F. Heal. 44 

(Continued on inside back cover) 

SPECIAL NOTICE. The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited number 
of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 01277 224610 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Nos3-4 

^ORY 



'iM i 



I 8 1995 



HARVARD 
UNIVERSITY 



Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
P.A. SOKOLOFF, f.r.e.s. 

Assistant Editors 
J.A. OWEN, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



March/ April 1995 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST^S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 

P.A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I.Biol., F.R.E.S. 

4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Assistant Editors 
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AA. Allen, B.Sc, a.r.c.s. P.J. Chandler, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

N. Birkett, m.a., m.b. C. A. Collingwood, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

E.S. Bradford A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., rr.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b., Ch.B., D.R.C.O.G. 

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Notes for Contributors 

It would greatly help the Editor if material submitted for publication were typed and double spaced. 
Two copies are preferred. Please DO NOT use block capitals and DO NOT underline anything except 
scientific names. Word-processed text should not use italic, bold or compressed typeface. References 
quoted within the text can be abbreviated (eg Ent. Rec), but those collected at the end of a paper 
should follow the standard World List abbreviations (eg Entomologist's Rec. J. Var.). When in doubt 
try to follow the style and format of material found in a current issue of the Record. 

Illustrations must be the original (not a photocopy) without legend which should be typed on a 
separate copy. Photographs should be glossy, positive prints. Authors of long papers, or submitting 
valuable originals are advised to contact the Editor first. 

Contributors are requested not to send us notes or articles which they are sending to other magazines. 

Whilst all reasonable care is taken of manuscripts, illustrations etc, the Editor and his staff cannot 
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Readers are respectfully advised that the publication of material in this Journal does not imply that the 
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HILLTOPPING AND RAVINING 57 

FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF THE "HILLTOPPING" 

PHENOMENON IN NORTH-WEST AFRICA - AND AN 

INTRODUCTION TO "RAVINING" (LEP.: RHOPALOCERA) 

W.J. Tennent 

1 Middlewood Close, Fylingthorpe , Whitby, North Yorkshire Y022 4UD. 

Introduction 

THE PHENOMENON known as "hilltopping", in which butterflies 
congregate, often in large numbers, on the summits of hills, mountains and 
ridges, is well-known to anyone who has collected butterflies in the tropics, 
south Europe, or in the Middle East and other desert localities. The 
phenomenon is not confined to the Lepidoptera and has been noted in other 
insects, including Diptera, Hymenoptera and, less frequently, Coleoptera, 
Odonata and Orthoptera. 

In the case of butterflies, much has been written on the subject, notably by 
Shields (1967), who carried out comprehensive studies in California and 
defined hilltopping as "a phenomenon in which males and virgin or multiple- 
mating females instinctively seek a topographic summit to mate" (Shields, 
1967:150). The behaviour undoubtedly serves to bring males and females 
together to ensure fertilisation and is of paramount value in species which 
have a low population density. 

Other interpretations have been suggested, including that winds and 
updrafts, combined with aimless, non-directional flight, cause butterflies to 
congregate "against their will" on the tops of hills. Shields (1967, pp. 154- 
156) discarded this explanation for good reasons and the author can confirm 
not only that hilltopping takes place on days when there is little or no air 
movement, but that many species fly into even a moderate or strong breeze 
and some species, notably Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758 and P. saharae 
Oberthiir, 1879, may sometimes deliberately seek the windward side of a 
ridge on windy days. The reason for so doing is not clear; perhaps it is easier 
for a resting butterfly to escape potential predators in windy conditions; 
certainly when butterflies are disturbed under such conditions, they are 
whisked away by the wind much more quickly than they could ever escape 
by flying. However, the best explanation for the phenomenon, now generally 
accepted as being the most likely purpose served by hilltopping, is that of 
finding a mate. 

Not all butterfly species hilltop; in the western Palaearctic most 
Papilionidae, many Pieridae and to a lesser extent, Lycaenidae and Satyridae 
do so. Species from other families do so occasionally. Some species 
observed on hill-tops cannot be regarded as truly hilltopping since they are 
transient, flying "up and over", rather than remaining at the summit. 

This paper records the author's observations of an assemblage of 
butterflies on a ridge in the Moroccan High Atlas mountains in June 1994, 
remarkable in terms both of total numbers and diversity of species. General 



58 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

comments on the phenomenon in north-west Africa, based on the author's 
field experience, are incorporated where appropriate. Additional 
observations of a different phenomenon, which may be described as ravining 
and which may serve the same purpose as hilltopping for some species in 
semi-desert regions, are included. 

Observations on Adrar-n-Guinnous 

At 2788 metres, Adrar-n-Guiimous is the highest peak above the Tizi-n-Test, 
a well-known pass which crosses the western end of the High Atlas, from 
north to south; it lies to the east of the road and is reached with difficulty by 
either scrambling up the steep western side, or by walking along the ridge 
from the auberge to the south-west. It is part of a series of ridges and 
summits running west-south-west/east-north-east; the summit consists of a 
narrow ridge some 250 metres in length, slightly higher at the north-east end 
(the actual summit). The ground falls away sharply on the western side and 
there is a very steep drop of several hundred metres to the east. The upper 
slopes have bare, rocky patches, but also support a variety of flowering 
shrubs and other sparse vegetation. The area is largely undisturbed, except 
by the inevitable mixed herds of goats and sheep which, at present, do not 
seem to be sufficiently large or frequent enough to cause serious or lasting 
damage. 

On 1 1th June 1994, the author climbed to the summit in conditions which 
included bright sunshine and, very unusual for this area and altitude, no 
wind. In a period of some four hours, many hundreds of individuals of 32 
species, representing 26% of the total butterfly fauna of Morocco, were 
observed on the summit ridge. Some species were present in small numbers; 
others were in very large numbers and in the case of some species, in 
particular Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, 1758, Nordmannia esculi Hiibner, 
1804, Berberia lambessanus Staudinger, 1901 and Coenonympha vaucheri 
Blachier, 1905, it was difficult to see what advantage was gained by the 
behaviour. 

Annotated list of species seen at the summit 
Hesperiidae: 

Thymelicus sp. (probably sylvestris, Poda, 1761) 

A solitary male seen which could not be said to be hilltopping since it was 
feeding on the flowers of a spiny Astragalus sp. (Leguminosae); two or three 
sylvestris were seen between 2100 metres and 2300 metres lower on the 
mountain. With the exception of Hesperia comma Linnaeus, 1758, 
Hesperiids are only rarely observed hilltopping in north-west Africa. 

Papilionidae: 

Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758 

Four males seen flying swiftly around the summit; the species is a frequent 

hilltopper throughout its range; none were seen lower on the mountain. 



HILLTOPPING AND RAVINING 59 

Pieridae: 

Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, 1758 

Three males on summit; a few individuals of both sexes seen on slopes and 
in a gully between 2000 metres and 2100 metres. Not a species which 
routinely hilltops, single specimens of this strongly migratory butterfly are 
often found wandering aimlessly in apparently unsuitable areas, including 
barren places. 

Pieris rapae Linnaeus. 1758 

Approximately ten males and at least two females, although total numbers 
were difficult to establish in the chaos. The two females were observed for 
some time; they remained on the summit ridge but were not paid any 
attention by the males present. There would seem to be little advantage in 
hilltopping for such a common and widespread species which presumably 
would have no difficulty in finding a mate lower down, without resorting to 
the (presumed) inconvenience of flying to a hilltop. 

Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, 1758 

The most numerous species present, several hundred were dashing around 
the summit ridge, making accurate counting impossible. Most were males, 
although there was a small number of females, possibly as many as 20; no 
courting or mating behaviour was observed. Some 200 metres to 400 metres 
lower down, the species was abundant, with males only slightly more 
numerous than females; most females were being pursued by at least one 
male and many pairs were seen in copula. The species was common almost 
everywhere else on the slopes. 

It certainly was not necessary in this case for "males and females to find a 
topograhic summit to mate" and the only apparent practical advantage for 
the species appeared to be that, with so many males otherwise engaged on 
the summit ridge, females lower on the mountain were able to go about their 
business of egg laying relatively undisturbed. 

Euchloe ausonia Yiv^^nQT, 1^20 

Only three males were seen, although the presence of others may have been 

masked by the enormous numbers of other white Pierids. This was a late 

date for the species here and no other individuals were seen elsewhere on the 

slopes. 

Elphinstonia charlonia Donzel, 1842 

A single male of this notorious hilltopper was observed. At best the species 
is sporadic and uncommon at this level in the High Atlas and is unlikely to 
have found a mate, even though it was generally more widespread than usual 
in 1994 due to a damp spring which ended three years of drought. The 
species is also found well into northern desert regions in Morocco. Algeria 
and Tunisia, where almost every ridge and hill-top in the spring harbours a 
few charlonia males. 



60 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Colias croceus Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785 

Several observed with males and females in approximately equal numbers; it 
was common on the lower slopes. The volume of butterflies made 
observations of individuals somewhat difficult and it may be that the species 
was not truly hilltopping; Shields (1967:161) noted that Colias species 
apparently never hilltop in North America. 

Gonepteryx cleopatra Linnaeus, 1767 

Two males seen. Like P. brassicae and Gonepteiyx rhamni Linnaeus, 1758, 
cleopatra is often seen singly some distance from an apparently suitable 
biotope although the author has never found it defending a territory on a 
hilltop; its presence on high points is probably coincidental. 

Lycaenidae: 

Nordmannia esculi Hiibner, 1 804 

Approximately 15-20 males on the summit resting on bare rocks and 
occasionally feeding on one of the flowering shrubs. The butterfly was 
sporadic below 2500 metres, becoming gradually more numerous lower 
down and very common below 2300 metres in the Quercus forest 
(Fagaceae). The species often swarms in North Africa in June when, in parts 
of the High Atlas and Middle Atlas mountains, dozens of individuals occur 
on almost every patch of thistles. It does not usually hilltop and on this 
occasion there did not appear to be any advantage to the species to do so. 

Lycaena phlaeas hirmsLQus, 1761 

Three males and one female; the species often hilltops; it was quite common 

on the lower slopes. 

Lampides boeticus Linnaeus, 1767 

Seven males and one female; the butterfly is a regular hilltopper, flying at 

breakneck speed around isolated peaks. Seen in small numbers on the lower 

slopes. 

Syntarucus pirithous Linnaeus, 1767 

One male positively identified, although some males tentatively identified as 
the previous species may have been S. pirithous; like boeticus, it frequently 
hilltops and is common at lower levels. 

Aricia agestis Denis & Schiffermiiller, 1775 

Two males feeding at flowers; not usually a hilltopping species. 

Polyommatus icarus Rottemburg, 1775 

Four males and one female; the female was seen to be pursued half-heartedly 

by one of the males for a short time but otherwise remained unmolested. 

Nymphalidae: 

Nymphalis polychloros Linnaeus, 1758 

Three individuals (sex not determined) sailed slowly over the summit 



HILLTOPPING AND RA VINING 6 1 

without lingering. This is quite usual behaviour and the species cannot be 
said to hilltop. It was just emerging in the Quercus scrub at 2000 metres. 

Cynthia cardui Linnaeus, 1758 

Approximately ten seen (sex not determined); the butterfly was common on 
the lower slopes. The species is a regular hilltopper and is often the only 
species to be found in cold weather on isolated barren hilltops. 

Polygonia c-album Linnaeus, 1758 

One (sex not determined); it is not renowned for hilltopping behaviour, even 
though in North Africa it is found only locally and in small numbers and 
would therefore surely benefit from doing so. None were seen lower down. 

Pandoriana pandora Denis & Schiffermiiller. 1775 

Five males were seen flying actively on the ridge and around the summit. 
This species hilltops only sporadically and is usually found only singly on a 
summit when it occurs; it was quite common on the lower slopes where both 
sexes were found in approximately equal numbers. 

Fabriciana auresiana Fruhstorfer, 1908 

One male flying around the summit in company with P. pandora; the author 

cannot recall seeing this butterfly previously on a summit. 

Issoria lathonia Linnaeus, 1758 

Approximately 30-40 individuals, predominantly males but at least five 
females seen in flight, each of which had a stream of three to six males 
following. The species was very common, and was behaving in a similar 
manner lower on the slopes; the ratio of females to males was considerably 
higher lower down, 

Melitaea cinxia Linnaeus, 1758 

Two males and two females were seen and, like most other species seen that 
day, females remained unharrassed by the males. Males often hilltop; 1994 
was an early season and the species was almost over; it was found in small 
numbers in very poor condition at 2000-2100 metres. 

Melitaea didyma Espcr, 1779 

One male observed;none were seen lower down; the species rarely hilltops. 

Satyridae: 

Melanargia ines Hoffmarmsegg, 1804 

An inveterate hilltopper throughout north-west Africa, ca. eight to ten males 
were seen on the summit and ridge; only a solitary female was seen lower on 
the slopes. 

Hipparchia aristaeus Bonelli, 1826 

Three males; the species was only just emerging and only a further three 

males were seen lower down. It commonly hilltops. 

Pseudochazara atlantis Austaut, 1905 

This butterfly hilltops very frequently and in most areas where it is found, 



62 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

the top of each hill supports a small number of males which defend their 
territories vigorously. However, on this occasion only a solitary female was 
seen on the summit ridge (probably one of the first females to emerge), with 
several males occupying a bare, rocky area immediately below. 

Berberia lambessanus Staudinger, 1901 

During the four hours or so that these observations were made, eleven males 
(or possibly a lower number with some individuals appearing more than 
once) came to the summit from the direction of a large stand of Stipa grass 
(Gramineae) ca. 200 metres lower. Each patrolled the summit and a part of 
the ridge for up to 15 minutes, flying leisurely about one to four feet above 
the ground in the manner of males patrolling their more usual habitat in 
search of females. At one point, a female flew up to the summit from the 
Stipa below (it was seen approaching whilst still some distance away 
ahhough not identified as a female until it was on the summit) and settled 
directly on a rock in (presumably) plain view of the two males patrolling at 
the time; she stayed there immobile for almost five minutes and was 
completely ignored by the males, before returning whence she came. The 
species is not noted for hilltopping behaviour; males were quite common on 
the upper slopes and amongst the Stipa slightly lower down; only two 
females were seen, probably because of their more secretive habits. 

Hyponephele maroccana Blachier, 1908 

Three males on the summit; a further two males lower down. The butterfly 

was just emerging and no females were seen. 

Coenonympha vaucheri Blachier, 1905 

Approximately 20-30 males; no females were noted. The butterfly is a 
familiar and persistent hilltopper throughout its range in the mountains of 
Morocco; on this occasion the behaviour appeared to give no advantage to 
the species since both sexes were common and widespread from 2000 metres 
to the summit. Lideed, those males which chose to remain on the top would 
appear to have been at a disadvantage in the sexual stakes. 

Pararge aegeria Linnaeus, 1758 

Three males seen; it was quite common at 2150 metres and occasional on the 

higher slopes. 

Lasiommata megera Linnaeus, 1767 

Another inveterate hilltopper, four males were observed; small numbers of 
males and two females were seen lower on the slopes. The species is found 
on most peaks and ridges in suitable habitats throughout the Maghreb. 

Lasiommata meadewaldoi Rothschild, 1917 

One male was seen on the summit, another male was found at 2500 metres; 
two females were seen at 2200 and 2500 metres. Like other Lasiommata 
species in North Africa, meadewaldoi is a familiar hilltopper and, since its 
population density is generally quite low, the behaviour is probably of 
considerable value to the species. 



HILLTOPPING AND RAVINING 63 

Species flying locally but not on the summit 

The following species were also flying that day, lower on the slopes. None 
usually display hilltopping behaviour. 

Pieridae: 

Pieris segonzaci Le Cerf, 1923 

Flying in small numbers from 1900 to 2150 metres; it often flies at 2800 
metres or more and has been observed by the author above 3000 metres on 
the Toubkal Massif to the north of the Tizi-n-Test. 

Colotis evagore Klug, 1829 

Three seen at ca. 2150 metres; it is generally more frequent at lower 

altitudes. 

Lycaenidae: 

Plebicula atlantica Elwes, 1905 

Quite common in a dry, rocky ravine where the hostplant was common, from 
1950 to 2100 metres. Although some individuals may be found wandering 
some distance from its usual haunts, most remain in the vicinity of its 
hostplant, Anthyllis vulneraria (Leguminosae) (Tennent, pers. obs.). 

Ly Sandra punctifera Oberthiir 1 876 

A few individuals of this common and widespread species were seen 

between 1900 and 2300 metres; it flies in other localities up to 2700 metres. 

Other species which may be found on summits in north-west Africa 

Hesperiidae: 

Hesperia comma Linnaeus, 1758 

This is the only Hesperiid in the region which regularly hilltops. 

Papilionidae: 

Papilio saharae Oberthiir, 1 879 

Like P. machaon, P. saharae persistently hilltops in suitable localities 
throughout Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. On isolated hilltops and ridges 
there may be several individuals which fiercely defend their territories; in 
many places adults are rarely seen other than on high points. 

Iphiclides podalirius Duponchel, 1832 
Another frequent hilltopper. 

Pieridae: 

Euchloe tagis Hiibner, 1804 

None of the three North African races of this butterfly usually hilltop 
although a number of very worn males of E. tagis reisseri Back & 
Reissinger, 1989, were observed by the author flying very swiftly around the 
summits of Djebel Lakraa in the west Rif mountains of Morocco in July 



64 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

1993. The true biotope of the butterfly is considerably lower; it usually flies 
in April/May and has a rather weak flight. The species has been observed 
hilltopping in France in small numbers (Gumey 1907: 196). 

Euchloe falloui AWsiTd, 1867 

Like most Euchloe species in the region, falloui is a constant hilltopper 

wherever it occurs. 

Euchloe belemia Esper 1792 

A common hilltopper, often flying together with E. ausonia, E. falloui and P. 

daplidice. 

Lycaenidae: 

Callophrys rubi Linnaeus, 1758 

Occasionally found on peaks and ridges, but probably not a true hilltopper. 

Tomares mauretanicus Lucas, 1849 

Not usually considered a hilltopper, solitary males have occasionally been 

found on isolated summits in the Moroccan Anti- Atlas mountains. 

Heodes alciphron Rottemburg, 1775 

Males of this local species are often found hilltopping, sometimes in quite 

larger numbers. 

Pseudophilotes abencerragus Pierret, 1837 

Occasionally observed on summits but probably not a true hilltopper. 

Nymphalidae: 

Char axe s jasiusl^mndiQus , 1766 

Commonly found hilltopping in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, usually only 
in the morning (Tennent 1993:259); males are fiercely territorial and return 
time after time to the same favoured rock or low bush on a ridge or summit. 
It is interesting that Shields (1967: 150; 154) reported other large Nymphalid 
butterflies, C. cardui and V. atalanta, only hilltopping in the afternoon. 

Vanessa atalanta Linnaeus 1758 

Very occasionally found hilltopping; not a common species in North Africa. 

Satyridae: 

Melanargia occitanica Esper, 1793 

A habitual hilltopper, often flying in company with M. ines. 

Neohipparchia statilinus Hufnagel, 1766 
Occasionally observed hilltopping. 

Neohipparchia hansii Austaut, 1879 

Li suitable localities, a few male hansii may be found on most high points 

and ridges. 



HILLTOPPING AND RAVINTNG 65 

Coenonympha fettigii Oberthur, 1874 

Sometimes found hilltopping in some numbers, though never as frequently 
as C. vaucheri. The other Coenonympha species found in north-west Africa, 
C. pamphilus, C. austauti and C. arcanioides, have not been noted doing so. 

Lasiommata maer a h\rmdi&\x^, 1758 

This species and L. meadewaldoi are very local and uncommon in North 
Africa and males of both invariably hilltop in areas where they occur, 
including on rugged, rocky peaks and vertical rock slabs. 

Additional comments 

Summit populations are comprised primarily of male butterflies; the 
apparent scarcity of females may be due to the fact that pairs in copula are 
usually inconspicuous or that females only stay long enough to mate, or 
leave the summit with the successful male to complete the mating procedure 
lower down. Shields (1967:153) found evidence that rarer species of 
butterflies are more likely to hilltop than abundant species and the author's 
observations support this view. Indeed, the proposition may be expanded to 
include the probability that common and widespread species are more likely 
to hilltop in those parts of the range (ie in dry, arid areas with sparse 
vegetation) where population density is lower than elsewhere and may rarely 
or never hilltop in parts of the range where, presumably, a mate is easier to 
find using other methods. 

Having said that, there are instances where the circumstances of such 
behaviour do not fit the "searching for a mate" theory well and apparently 
serve no obviously useful purpose. Indeed, in the majority of cases where 
females were observed on Adrar-n-Guinnous, they were not subjected to 
harassment from the larger number of males present. Is this some kind of 
relict behaviour? Or is the urge to find a hilltop strong even when local 
circumstances make it an exercise without apparent value? In this case did 
the volume of individuals and diversity of species present in such a limited 
area override normal behaviour (certainly it would have been difficult, if not 
impossible, to establish and defend a territory in the melee)? It may be that 
in species where males emerge before females, for example P. atlantis, the 
first females are guaranteed a mate at the nearest hilltop, although this 
behaviour might be considerably less important later, when both sexes are 
emerging in larger numbers. 

An introduction to ravining 

In carrying out more than 23 months of field work in North Africa between 
1991 and 1994, the author became aware of a quite different, but possibly 
parallel, phenomenon to hilltopping. In semi-desert areas, a number of 
species were routinely found in dry river beds (wadis) and ravines, under 
circumstances which suggested behaviour primarily designed to ensure 
finding a mate. 



66 ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Some butterfly species may defend territories in wadis in areas where they 
also patrol adjacent slopes in a search for females. For example populations 
of MeUtaea deserticola Oberthiir, 1876, a primarily eremic species, occupy 
geographically well-delineated habitats which might incorporate a number of 
wadis. Adults fly on dry slopes where the hostplant grows and within this 
area, males may patrol sections of a wadi which they defend territorially. 
Both sexes of other, more widespread species, for example Glaucopsyche 
melanops Boisduval, 1828, and Spialia sertorius Hoffmannsegg, 1804, may 
be found commonly in dry wadis and bare slopes in the southern part of their 
range, but occupy woodland, rough open places and flowery slopes further 
north. 

However two species (one confined to the Anti-Atlas mountains of 
Morocco, the other a widespread and common butterfly) were seen to 
occupy dry wadis under circumstances which strongly suggest a parallel 
phenomenon to hilltopping. 

Spialia doris Walker, 1870 (Hesperiidae) 

This species flies in very hot and dry places and, in the Maghreb, is 
apparently confined to the Moroccan Anti- Atlas mountains. The author has 
seen several hundred individuals but on only four or five occasions has he 
seen butterflies other than in a dry wadi. To be fair, adults are inconspicuous, 
fly very swiftly close to the ground and may therefore be overlooked; but it 
is certain that, in the same way that one can almost guarantee to find the 
males of certain hilltopping species by climbing to the summit of a suitable 
hill, so, with a practiced eye, finding S. doris can almost be guaranteed in a 
suitable wadi. 

Each male defends a section of river bed the length of which is directly 
related to the density of the local population. Often, there is no vegetation 
extant in the wadi and males perch on stones, from which they dart off to 
investigate any passing insect; each male has one or more favoured spots 
within the territory. Other males apparently have no territory of their own, 
but fly along the wadi disturbing each resident male in turn as they do so. 

The author has come across female S. doris infrequently, but on two 
occasions observed a female enter a wadi from an adjacent area. On 5th 
March 1994, in a deep gully below the Tizi-n-Tinififft south of Ouarzazate, a 
female was seen to fly from above the lip of a walled section and land on a 
flat rock slab; the resident male was immediately alerted and pounced on the 
female, a short mating "dance" ensued and the pair flew off. The second 
occasion was on the edge of a wadi west of Agdz on 26th March 1994 when, 
very early in the morning, a female, disturbed when it was almost stepped 
on, flew the ten metres or so to the wadi. A male, which had been resting 
close to where she came to rest, immediately flew to her side and they sat 
head to head with wings quivering, for almost a minute. They then remained 
together motionless for several minutes, probably because the air 
temperature had not yet risen sufficiently for butterflies to be active. 



HILLTOPPING AND RAVINING 67 

Although the spiny Convolvulus sp. (Convolvulaceae) hostplant grows in 
profusion at the edge of some wadis or on an adjacent hillside, other river 
beds are several hundred metres from the nearest hostplant. Other than a 
device for finding a mate, there seems to be no obvious explantion for this 
behaviour. 

Melitaea phoebe Denis & Schiffermiiller, 1775 

M. phoebe is a different story. It is a widespread and sometimes common 
butterfly found in a wide variety of habitats throughout the region. In very 
dry and barren places, like the Anti-Atlas mountains or the Tizi-n-Taghzeft 
in the Moroccan High Atlas, females are seldom seen and males are almost 
never seen away from dry river beds; in the Anti-Atlas it often flies together 
with S. doris (and S. sertorius). Although instances of mating behaviour like 
those described under S. doris have not been observed, it is probable that the 
behaviour of M. phoebe serves the same purpose under these conditions. 

This phenomenon does not seem to have been remarked upon previously. 
Shields (1967:151) said ". . . other methods for bringing the sexes together 
for mating besides hilltopping probably includes ... in canyons, stream 
courses, and gullies . . ." and T.B. Larsen (pers. comm.) observed similar 
behaviour in the Lebanon in addition to noting that Lycaena asabinus 
Herrich-Schaffer, 1851, is ". . . usually found in gorges and dried-out water 
courses . . ." in the Lebanon (Larsen, 1974:157). Other than these brief 
references, the author has not seen any record of the phenomenon. 

References 

Gumey, G.H., 1907. Notes on the butterflies of Digne. Entomologist, 40: 194-196. 

Larsen, T.B., 1974. Butterflies of Lebanon. National Council of Scientific Research (CNSR), Beirut, 

Lebanon. 
Shields, O., 1967. Hilltopping. J. Res. Lepid. 6: 69-178. 
Tennent, W.J., 1993. Selected notes on some Algerian and Moroccan butterflies in 1992 including 

Coenonympha austauti Oberthiir, 1881, new to Morocco, Entomologist's Gaz. 44:257-262. 



When a small white equals a large, or American confusion 

Some years ago I noticed that in the Zoology Museum of Cambridge 
University, in the teaching collection, there was an example of the Large 
Cabbage White butterfly {Pieris brassicae) labelled "Small White, Pieris 
rapae.'" This specimen was embedded in plastic and had been supplied by an 
American Biological Supply House. 

Recently, searching the literature for some information, I noticed that in 
two American books, although the text describes and calls them "Cabbage 
White, Artogeia (Sedenko) or Pieris (Simon & Schuster) rapad\ (the two 
books differing on the generic name and we even have Pierus in one of the 
indices!) the illustrations are quite clearly that of our Large White, Pieris 
brassicae. 



68 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

The books concerned are The Butterfly Garden by Jerry Sedenko, 
published by Villard Books 1991 and Simon & Schuster's Guide to 
Butterflies & Moths, by Mauro Dacordi, Paolo Triberti & Adriano Zanetti, 
pubhshed by Simon & Schuster Inc. 1988. In the Sedenko book, while the 
close-up of a head could well be P. (A.) rapae we are shown on the opposite 
page the undersides of a mating pair of P. brassicae while in the Simon & 
Schuster book the illustration for Pieris rapae L. Small White is a female 
underside of P. brassicae. Elsewhere in the book, correctly identified, is an 
upperside of a female brassicae, but to compound their error, although 
perhaps more by omission than intent, is that on two un-numbered pages 
which follow page 71, there is an illustration of several P. brassicae larvae 
(the genetic recessive yellow form, oddly enough) on nasturtium and under 
the P. rapae entry it states "feed on Cruciferae but sometimes also attack 
cultivated Tropaeolaceae (nasturtiums)." Since there is no mention of these 
caterpillars either under the P. brassicae entry, nor in the index, what can an 
un-informed reader infer but that the caterpillars illustrated are those of the 
Cabbage White P. rapael 

One wonders if there are other similar errors in these or other American 
entomological books. Correct identification of these two species is now of 
considerable importance, for, like the African killer bees which have spread 
from south America to the United States, so too has our Large Cabbage 
White, P. brassicae (first established in Chile some 60 years ago) been 
steadily extending its range. Has it, perhaps, already reached the United 
States and not yet been properly identified due to its being confused with the 
Small White? 

- Brian O. C. Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

Comments on a recent record of Sedina buettneri Her. (Lep.: Noctuidae) 

It would appear that the recorder of the recent occurrence of Sedina buettneri 
(Hering) Blair's Wainscot from Essex (Firmin, 1995) had overlooked the 
three published additional records since 1966. These were at Walberton, 
West Sussex on 30th September 1985 (Bretherton and Chalmers-Hunt, 
1986); Lydd, Kent on 2nd October 1987 (Riley, 1991) and Dungeness, Kent, 
on 12th October 1991 (West, 1992). 

It is regrettable that the specimen from Essex was released and such short- 
sighted actions should be strongly discouraged. Past history has shown that 
genitalia examination of some species including migrants has revealed the 
existence of a second species and without voucher specimens to study much 
historical, distributional and scientific data is lost. 

References: Firmin, J., 1995. Sedina buettneri (Hering) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Essex. Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var., 107: 43; Bretherton, R.F. and Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 1986. The Immigration of 
Lepidoptera to the British Isles in 1985. Ibid. 98: 228; Riley, A.M., 1991. Sedina buettneri Her., 
Blair's Wainscot (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Kent. Ibid. 103: 266; West, B.K., 1992. British 
Macrolepidoptera (Exhibition Report). Br. J. ent. Nat. Hist. 5: 57. 

- Bernard Skinner, 5 Rawlins Close, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 8JS. 



STATUS OF STRANGALIA ATTENUATA 69 

THE STATUS OF STRANGALIA ATTENUATA (L.) (COL.: 
CERAMBYCIDAE) IN BRITAIN 

Dr. R.R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann 

13 Old Road. Old Harlow, Essex CMI7 0HB. 

''STRANGALIA ATTENUATA, L., is decidedly doubtfully indigenous. I can 
learn nothing trustworthy about it, and why it is kept in the Catalogue, 
instead of being placed amongst the doubtful species, I cannot understand. 
The specimens in the Power collection are not 5'. attenuata at all, but only 
aberrations of the preceding species". [Strangalia armata (- maculata 
Poda)]. 

That was the opinion expressed nearly a hundred years ago by the young 
and rising Coleopterist, Horace Donisthorpe (Donisthorpe, 1898). There is a 
hint of exasperation, almost peevishness, in such forthright remarks. The 
catalogue referred to was no doubt the latest published in 1893 by Dr David 
Sharp and Canon W.W. Fowler (Sharp, 1893). 

And yet . . . over forty years later the mature Donisthorpe, now an 
eminent and leading entomologist of the day, included the species without 
further remonstrance in his published list of Windsor Forest beetles 
(Donisthorpe, 1939). But this is to anticipate. 

Thomas Marsham, at the beginning of the last century, appears to be the 
first English entomologist to accept Strangalia attenuata as a native species. 
His description, freely translated from the Latin, reads, attenuata. Lep. 
[tura] with tawny-yellow gradually tapering elytra; with four black fasciae , 
yellow legs. Neither length nor habitat is given. He continues: Hind body 
strongly tapered. Head, pronotum, thorax black. Abdomen rust-coloured, 
apex black. Elytra with four yellow fasciae with the same number black. 
Apex of hind femora black. Marsham adds: Perhaps a male form of the 
preceding? This was a reference to Strangalia quadrifasciata (L.) 
(Marsham, 1802). 

Dr Turton (1806), describes S. attenuata as under, but his work, based 
upon Linnaeus and subsequent authors, merely indicates that the species is 
Continental: Shells [elytra] tapering, yellow with four black bands: legs 
testaceous. Abdomen rufous tipt with black, sometimes wholly black (Turton, 
1806). 

In 1819 the beetle's name appears in a list of Cerambycids detailed by 
Samouelle in his Compendium's calendar, with the added information that it 
occurs in July, and a reference to Marsham's work (Samouelle, 1819). 

The species, listed as Leptura attenuata, is included in Curtis' Guide, but 
marked that his cabinet specimen is not of British origin (Curtis, 1837). 

Turning next to Stephen's Systematic Catalogue, published in the same 
year (1829) as the above, the insect, similarly named, is quoted as no. 2071 
in the Stephensian collection (Stephens, 1829). 



70 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 06 25 .iii. 1 995 

S. attenuata is described in considerably more detail by Stephens in his 
Mandibulata, and for the first time it is learned that the beetle is ''Veij rare: 
several specimens have been captured at different periods near Salisbury ..." 
Is it conceivable that the two examples in the Dale collection come from this 
source? Dale pere and Stephens were on friendly terms (Stephens, 1831). 

Li his Manual, published in 1839, Stephens describes attenuata in much 
the same way, adding to the Salisbury locality, Southend, and that it occurs 
on flowers during June, size approximately 14mm (Stephens, 1839). 

Not surprisingly, S. attenuata, because of its great rarity, is not named in 
either Spry and Shuckard's (1840) The British Coleoptera delineated, (or in 
the second edition of 1861) or in Janson (1863). 

In about 1845 a specimen of S. attenuata was found in Windsor Forest, 
Berkshire by T. Desvignes, a competent Coleopterist not likely to have 
mis-identified the species, albeit being better known, perhaps, as a 
Hymenopterist. After his death, his collections were sold at the S. Stevens 
sale in 1868, at which E.W. Janson is beheved to have purchased this beetle, 
according to his son, Oliver Janson, and later bought from Jansons (who 
were entomological dealers in Great Russell Street, London, W.C.) by 
George R. Crotch. His collection of Coleoptera is now in the keeping of the 
University Museum, Cambridge. It is listed in Crotch's 1863 Catalogue. That 
suggests that the latter knew of attenuatds existence, but that he had to wait 
for some years before its acquisition. 

It is relevant to observe that much later, in 1938, Donisthorpe compiled 
the Coleoptera list in the Victoria County History of Cambridgeshire and Isle 
of Ely. This undertaking would surely have entailed a detailed examination 
of the collections and materials held by the Department of Zoology in the 
University Museum: that being so, the Crotch collection would not have 
escaped Donsithorpe's inspection. If he saw Desvignes' attenuata specimen, 
this would serve to confirm his seeming volte face in the preparation of his 
Windsor Forest list. 

But did he? For, this particular beetle is neither in the Crotch nor in any of 
the other collections in the Cambridge University Museum! 

Significantly, too, the beetle is not named in the Coleoptera section of the 
Victoria County History of Berkshire (Holland, 1906). 

In this connection it is not inappropriate to interpolate that of the fifteen 
catalogues of British Coleoptera published between the years 1829-1977, 
only three exclude S. attenuata, of which Donisthorpe's was one in 1904, 
when he evidently convinced his co-author, T. (later Sir Thomas) Hudson 
Beare, that the species be omitted, an exclusion which the latter repeated in 
his own catalogue (Beare, 1904 and 1930). Waterhouse marked the species 
as non-indigenous in his Pocket Catalogue of 1861, but not in his earlier 
enlarged edition (Waterhouse, 1858 and 1861). The two Exchange Lists both 
include attenuata. 

Cox, in his two-volume Handbook of 1874, describes attenuata in terms 
not dissimilar from Marsham's and Stephens', emphasising once again its 



STATUS OF STRANGALIA ATTENUATA 7 1 

black and reddish-yellow elytral banding and a similar coloration of part of 
the abdominal segments: size 10. 5-12. 5mm. He adds, ''Rare'". (!) (Cox, 
1874). 

Referring now to Fowler's monumental work on the British Coleoptera, 
there is a very detailed description of S. attenuata. He quotes Stephens' two 
place-names and its presence on flowers, but comments: "... very rare and 
somewhat doubtfully indigenous . . .; there are one or two other specimens 
in collections without locality." 

Of Fowler's second observation there is no question, so Donisthorpe's 
strictures seem to have had some influence for Desvignes' find is not 
featured, nor does it appear in Fowler's sixth (supplementary) volume 
(containing additional localities), with whom Donisthorpe collaborated in 
1913 (Fowler, 1890 and 1913). 

Omitted from their 1945 Check List, Kloet and Hincks reinstate the 
species in the second edition (1977 - the latest to be published in this 
country), marked as extinct, influenced possibly by Mr Allen's suggestions 
in 1957 and again in 1968 in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (Allen, 
1957 and 1968). 

Other than the missing Desvignes beetle there are only four known 
specimens of S. attenuata of British provenance. These have been examined 
and re-examined on a number of occasions and as recently as the autumn of 
1994: they are undubitably attenuata. 

Two are in the Dale collection kept in the Hope Department, University 
Museum, Oxford. One is a male, simply labelled "Little"; the other, a 
female, is marked "Bumey, 1846". There is no indication as to whether or 
not these beetles were found in Wiltshire or Essex. Both examples are small 
(under 15mm) and badly damaged: their abdominal segments are coloured 
reddish-yellow. In one specimen the hind tarsi are completely missing; in the 
other, the hind tarsi are incomplete, but what remain of the latter are still 
longer than the hind tibiae - an important superficial determinant. Each has 
the typical long, protruding pygidium. 

The remaining two specimens are in the national collections at the Natural 
History Museum, London. They are simply labelled "ex Power coll.". One 
measures 13mm and the other 14.2mm, with an all black abdomen and a 
deep reddish-brown to black abdomen respectively. The coloration of the 
femora, tibiae and tarsi conform with Fowler's description. The pygidia are 
protrusive. 

Since the British Museum examples come from the Power collection, they 
must have been the two upon which Donisthorpe published his initial views 
supra. 

What is it that makes S. attenuata so strikingly different from, say, 5". 
maculata, or indeed, S. quadrifasciatal It is its small and very slender, 
tapering body - this may vary from as little as 9mm to (exceptionally) 



72 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

17mm, its yellow legs, with notably the posterior femora and tibiae tipped 
with black, the hind tarsi, nearly always, but not invariably, considerably 
longer than the hind tibiae and that protruding, quite differently-shaped 
pygidium (Kuhnt, 1913, fig. 90a). There are other distinctions, such as the 
shallow pitted markings along the 5th or 6th - 11th antennal joints, 
unidentifiable "in the field". 

A slender female micromorphous example of S. maculata var. sinuata F., 
which is heavily banded black and yellow (Villiers, fig. 833),might fulfil a 
number of these characteristics: not so S. quadrifasciata. 

In late July, 1982, a beetle of narrow appearance with elytral banding 
similar to that of S. quadrifasciata, but with yellow legs, was found amongst 
grass in Holmbush Forest, Sussex. Two years later, it was identified from a 
coloured illustration in Harde (1984) as Strangalia attenuata (Moon, 1991). 

After an absence from this country of 150 years, this - the determination 
being confirmed - would be a remarkable find. Sadly, the specimen was 
released and not collected. 

Sapiens nihil ajfirmat quod non probet? 

Acknowledgements 

Grateful thanks for their information are extended to Major D.B. Baker; 
Berkshire C.C. Library Services; Dr M. Darby; Dr W.A. Foster, Dept. of 
Zoology, Cambridge University; C. MacKechnie Jarvis Esq; C. O'Toole 
Esq., Curatorial Officer, Hope Collections, Oxford; Mrs J.M. Ruffle, 
Librarian, Royal Entomological Society and Mrs S.C. Shute, Dept. of 
Entomology, Natural History Museum. 

References 

Note: Illustrations of attenuata are difficult to locate. References below marked * figure this beetle. 
Other references not cited in the text contain narrative comment. Some of the lists and catalogues 
cited are notable in their exclusion of attenuata. 

Allen, A. A., 1957. An old Middlesex capture of Strangalia aurulenta F. (Col.: Cerambycidae), 
Entomologist's mon. Mag., 93: 91. 

- , 1968. Notes on the genus Cerambyx (Col.) in Britain, and on the British status of two other 
Cerambycids, Ibid., 104: 216. 

*Auber, L., 1976. Atlas des Coleopteres de France. Belgique, Suisse, 2. Paris. 

Aurivillius, C, 1912. Cerambycidae in Junk, W. & Schenkling, S., Coleopterorum Catalogus, 39: 

240. 
Beare, T. Hudson, 1930. A catalogue of the recorded Coleoptera of the British Isles: 35, London. 
Beare, T. Hudson & Donisthorpe, H. StJ.K., 1904. Catalogue of British Coleoptera: 31, London. 
Bennett, W.H., n.d., circa 1893. A new exchange list of British Coleoptera: 7, London. 
*Bijiaoui, R., 1986. Atlas des Longicornes de France. Realmont. 

Cox, H.E., 1874. A handbook of the Coleoptera of Great Britain and Ireland, 2, London. 
Crotch, G.R., 1863. Catalogue of British Coleoptera: 24. Cambridge. 
Curtis, J., 1837. A guide to the arrangement of British Insects, 2nd edn.: 72, London. 
Donisthorpe, H. StJ.K., 1898. Notes on the British Longicornes, Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 10: 249. 

- , 1939. A preliminaiy list of the Coleoptera of Windsor Forest. London. 

Duffy, E.A.J. , 1953. The immature stages of British and imported Timber Beetles (Cerambycidae). 

London. 
Fowler, W.W., 1890. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, 4. London. 
Fowler, W.W. & Donisthorpe, H. StJ.K., 1913. Ibid., 6 (Supplement). London. 
Fowler, W.W. & Matthews, A., 1883. Catalogue of British Coleoptera: 32. London. 
Freude, H., Harde, K.W. & Lohse, G.A., 1966. Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, 9. Krefeld. 



STATUS OF STRANGALIA ATTENUATA 73 

*Hansen, V., 1966. Danmarks Fauna. Biller, 22. Traebukke. Copenhagen (text in Danish). 

*Harde, K.W., 1984. Afield guide in colour to Beetles (English edn., Hammond, P.M.). London. 

Harwood, W.H., 1903. Coleoptera in Victoria County History of Essex, 1: 131. London. 

Holland, W. & Joy, N.H., 1906. Coleoptera in Victoria County History of Berkshire, 1. 

Hyman, P.S., (revised Parsons, M.S.), 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of 

Great Britain, \. UK Nature Conservation, 3. JNCC. Peterborough. 
Janson, E.W., 1863. British Beetles. London. 
Kaufmann, R.R. Uhthoff-, 1988. The occurrence of the genus Strangalia Serville (Col.: 

Cerambycidae) in the British Isles, Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 100: 63-71. 

- , 1992. Extinct and very rare British Longhom Beetles (Col.: Cerambycidae and Lamiidae), /hid., 

104: 113-121. 
*Klausnitzer, B. & Sander, F., 1981. Die Bockkdfer Mitteleuropas. Wittenberg Lutherstadt. 
Kloet, G.S. & Hincks, W.D., 1945. A check list of British Insects, Coleoptera, 20: 21. Stockport. 

- , (revised Pope, R.D.), 1977. A check list of British Insects. 11: (3), Coleoptera and Strepsiptera, 

2nd edn.: 71. Royal Entomological Society, London. 
*Kuhnt, P., 1913. Illustrierte Bestimmungs Tabellen der Kdfer Deutschlands, Stuttgart. 
Lucht, W., 1987. Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, 14. Katalog: 244. Krefeld. 
Marsham, T., 1802. Entomologica Britannica, 1, Coleoptera. London. 
Moon, B.R., 1991. Longhom hunting in southern England, Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc, 50: 21-28. 
Morris, F.O., 1865. A catalogue British Insects in all Orders {sic): 28. London. 
Newbury, E. & Sharp, W.E., 1915. An exchange list of Coleoptera: 1 . London. 
Pascoe, P.P., 1882. The student's list of British Coleoptera: 32. London. 
Picard, F., 1929. Faune de France, 20, Coleopteres: Cerambycidae. Paris. 
*Planet, L-M., 1924. Les Longicomes de France, Encycl. Ent., 2. Paris. 
*Reitter, E., 1912. Fauna Germanica, Die Kafer des Deutschens Reiches, 4. Stuttgart. 
Rye, E.C., 1866. Catalogue of the British Coleoptera in British Beetles. London. 
Samouelle, G., 1819. The Entomologist's useful compendium. London. 
Sharp, D., 1883. Catalogue of British Coleoptera, 2nd edn.: 35. London. 
Sharp, D. & Fowler, W.W., 1893. Catalogue of British Coleoptera: 27. London. 
Spry, W. & Shuckard, W.E., 1840. The British Coleoptera delineated. London. 
Stephens, J.F., 1829. A systematic catalogue of British Insects: 204. London. 

- , 1831. Illustrations of British Entomology, Mandibulata, 4. London. 

- , 1839. A manual of British Coleoptera. London. 

Turton, W., 1806. A general system of Entomology, 2. London. 
*VilIiers, A., 1978. Faune des Coleopteres de France, 1, Cerambycidae. Paris. 
Walker, J.J., 1932. The Dale collection of Coleoptera. Entomologist's mon. Mag., 66: 106. 
Waterhouse, G.R., 1858. Catalogue of British Coleoptera, 1st edn: 85. London. 

- , 1861. Pocket catalogue of British Coleoptera: 31. London. 



Olethreutes mygindiana (D.&S.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) 
- new to Shropshire (V.C.40) 

The status of the lepidoptera of Shropshire has been reviewed by Riley {A 
Natural History of the Butterflies and Moths of Shropshire, Swan Hill Press 
1991). Although he deals in the main with macrolepidoptera, he includes an 
inventory of the microlepidoptera of which the more recent records tend to 
originate from Whixall Moss. Riley has updated his 1991 publication with 
significant additions and a corrigenda to the Shropshire list (Riley et al - 
Entomologist's Gaz. 45: 167-182, 1994). Having been prompted by Riley's 
book to restart recording macrolepidoptera in the south-west comer of the 
county, I decided in the spring of 1994 to widen my interest to include 
micros. I am pleased to report that the fifth micromoth that I took in 
Shropshire was what I believe to be a first record for the county of 
Olethreutes mygindiana (D.&.S.). 



74 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Over the late May Bank holiday we visited several sites on the west face 
of the Stiperstones, where warm and sunny conditions persisted for over five 
days. On the 29.V.1994 we collected a number of micros at an altitude of 430 
metres in Mytton Dingle and Perkins Beach - an area covered with heather, 
and Vaccinium. Of the specimens collected one has now been identified as a 
well marked female of Olethreutes mygindiana, and another as a slightly 
worn female of the species. Two days later we found a male of the species at 
approximately the same altitude on Nipstone Rock (S03596), an area 
recently cleared of conifers, but which now has a similar flora to that at 
Mytton Dingle and Perkins Beach. 

O. mygindiana lays its ova on the lower leaves of Vaccinium vitis-idaea - 
Cowberry (Emmet - A Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera, B.E. 
& N.H.S., 1988), and as these sites are approximately 3.5 miles apart, it is 
quite probable that this species will be found the full length of the 
Stiperstones, where there are large tracts of the foodplant. In Shropshire, 
Vaccinium vitis-idaea is restricted to only seven 10 kilometre squares, with 
the majority of them being in the Stiperstones National Nature Reserve, 
where it is locally abundant. Other Shropshire sites for Vaccinium vitis-idaea 
include Puleston Bog, near Chetwynd and as single small colonies on Perm's 
Moss, near Whitchurch (Sinker et al, Ecological Flora of the Shropshire 
Region - Shropshire Wildlife Trust, 1991). 

The distribution of O. mygindiana outside Shropshire is noted by Bradley 
et al {British Tortricoid Moths - Olethreutinae , the Ray Society, 1979) as 
confined mainly to the hills and mountains of Staffordshire, Derbyshire, and 
in Wales, from Merioneth and Caernarvonshire. In Scotland it is widely 
distributed from Perthshire to Sutherland, and in Cheshire it is said to be 
locally fairly common at Bosley Cloud, Goyt Valley and Staley Brushes. 
Surprisingly there are no Cheshire specimens in the collection of the 
Liverpool Museum. Of the twenty-nine specimens in the Museum collection, 
eight carry data - all from Scottish localities. G.H. Conquest recorded five 
specimens between 26.V.1911 and 6.vi.l911 at Rannoch, Tayside and more 
recently B. Goater recorded two at Aviemore, Highland on the 27 and 
29.V.1973, and one at Rannoch, Tayside on 8.vi.l973. 

Thanks are due to Bryan Formestone and Mike Hull for their help in 
determining these specimens, and to Tom Wall of English Nature for 
providing access to the Stiperstones National Nature Reserve. Details of the 
Liverpool Museum records were kindly provided by Steve Judd and Mike 
Bigmore.- Dr David J. Poynton, 1A Castlegate, Prestbury, Cheshire. 

A record of Meganola albula D.&S. (Lep.: Nolidae) from Oxfordshire 

A single example of the Kent Black Arches, Meganola albula was attracted 
to a Heath Trap sited at Hartslock Nature Reserve, Goring, Oxfordshire on 
29th June 1994. The habitat is unspoilt chalk downland on a south-facing 
slope.- CM. Raper, 22 Beech Road, Purley-on-Thames, Reading, Berkshire 
RG8 8DS. 



BERBERIA ABDELKADER 75 

NOTE ON THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE NORTH AFRICAN 

SATYRID BUTTERFLY BERBERIA ABDELKADER AB. SERRATA 

(LEPIDOPTERA: SATYRIDAE) AS AN EXAMPLE OF 

NOMENCLATORIC CONFUSION 

Ralf H. Anken 

Zoological Institute. University ofHohenheim, Garhenstr. 30, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. 

AN ABERRATIVE FORM is only of little taxonomic value and therefore 
does not officially rectify a formally accepted authorship. Nonetheless, the 
nomenclature (and the true authorship) of this particular aberration is of 
general interest, since it provides some information about what is true 
confusion in lepidopterology. 

In his well-illustrated, comprehensive and extremely remarkable revision 
on North African subspecies and individual forms of the satyrid butterfly 
Berberia abdelkader (Pierret), Tennent (1994) points out, that B. a. ab. 
serrata was - by all late authors to that date - thought to be described and 
therewith authored by Austaut in 1895 - ie to be cited as "5. a. ab. serrata 
(Austaut)" - although Austaut did apparently not publish any article on 
satyrids that year but was concerned solely with Tibetan Parnassiinae 
(Tennent, 1994) and therefore can under no circumstances officially be 
considered the original author. The first reliable reference on ab. serrata that 
Tennent (1994) could find was a note by Riihl (1895), who himself 
confusingly regarded Austaut to be the original author. With that, Tennent 
consequently considered ab. serrata to be be due to Riihl rather than to 
Austaut - ie: "5. a. ab. serrata (Riihl)". 

As mentioned by Tennent, the topic is considerably complicated by the 
fact that Riihl died without having finished his masterpiece of published 
work. Indeed, Riihl's note on 5. a. ab. serrata occurs on page 822 of his 
work and in a section of the publication which was actually edited, written 
and therefore has formally regarded to be authored by Heyne (Hemming, 
1931). With that, it is Heyne who has to be stated to be the original author. 
The particular butterfly therefore is: ''Berberia abdelkader ab. serrata 
(Heyne)". 

Whilst Heyne has formally to be regarded as the nominate author to date, 
it nevertheless was Riihl or Austaut who practically described the mentioned 
aberration. Since Riihl himself was convinced that Austaut had at that time 
already described the form, two possibilities of the virtually - but not 
formally - true authorship arise: either Riihl did not properly evaluate his 
literature and tentatively described a new butterfly he mistakenly placed 
among Austaut's previous descriptions, or Riihl referred to a butterfly that 
had in fact been previously described by Austaut, the basic reference being 
lost. 

Fortunately, this particular problem only touches the authorship of an 
individual aberration that, according to the given nomenclature rules, may be 



76 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

be cited without giving the name of the author and did not even suffer from 
changing its individual name at all. Unfortunately, such nomenclatoric 
inconsistencies may have happened on species-group levels and possibly 
may have generated new species names. 

References 

Hemming, A.F., 1931. On the dates of publication of F. Riihl's "Die palaearktischen 
GroBschmetterlinge und ihre Naturgeschichte". Anf2. Mag. nat. Hist. 10: 405-406. 

Riihl, P., 1892-1893/95*. Die palaearktischen Grofischmetteiiinge und ihre Naturgeschichte, Band 
1. Heyne, A. ed., E. Heyne, Leipzig. 

Tennent, J., 1994. The Berberia abdelkader (Pierret, 1837) enigma; a review of named forms; 
comments; a solution offered (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Nota lepid. 16: 295-320. 

* "Band 1" of the entire series covers the "Tagfalter" (butterflies), "Band 2" the "Nachfalter" (moths, 
not completed). Riihl himself seems to have authored and edited pages 1-384 and therefore the 
"Lieferungen" (parts) 1-7 of the first volume (1892-1893). A. Heyne edited the concluding parts 8-16 
(pages 385-847) of the same volume (1893/94-1895). Volume 2 was authored and edited by M. 
Bartel (all together 7 "Lieferungen", the last having been published in 1902, comprising some 340 
pages). 



New species of lepidoptera to the Isle of Wight 

On 12th July 1994 Peter Cramp took an example of Mythimna pudorina 
(D.&S.) at his mercury vapour light trap at his home at Godshill. This is the 
first time that species has been taken on the island. 

On 5th August 1994 I took an example of Scopula nigropunctata (Hufn.) 
in my moth trap at Freshwater. There was considerable migrant activity at 
the time and I expect that this specimen was an immigrant. This species is 
both new to Hampshire and the Isle of Wight and is the furthest west that it 
has ever been taken in the British Isles. 

I give below a list of micro-lepidoptera recorded in recent years which are 
new vice-county records: 

Gymnancyla canella (D.&S.). St. Helens, 26.vii.94 in the presence of Peter 

Cramp and Brian Wame. 
Dichomeris marginella (Fabr.). Freshwater, 8.vii.89. 
Lathronympha strigana (Fabr.). Freshwater, 23.vi.92. 
Blastesthia turionella (Linn.). Freshwater, 25. v. 91. 
Aphelia viburnana (D.&S.). Freshwater, 3. & 5.vii.93. 
Aphelia paleana (Hb.) Freshwater, 9.vii.94. 

I should also like to mention the capture of Selenia lunularia (Hb.) by 
Brian J. Wame in his light trap at B instead. This is only the second record 
for the Isle of Wight with the first being taken at Shalfleet in 1911. It was 
also taken on 2nd August 1994 and so must be an example of a second 
brood. It was smaller in size than average with a wing expanse of only 
30mm. I should like to thank my brother Dr R.P. Knill- Jones for identifying 
some of the micro-lepidoptera mentioned above.- S.A. Knill-Jones, 
Roundstone, 2 School Green Road, Freshwater, Isle of Wight. 



WEST CUMBRIAN COLEOPTERA 77 

LIST OF CHRYSOMELIDAE AND CURCULIONOIDEA 
(COLEOPTERA) FROM SAINT BEES HEAD, WEST CUMBRIA 

R.W.J. Read 

43 Holly Terrace. Hensingham, Whitehaven, Cumbria CA28 8RF. 

SAINT BEES HEAD on the west Cumbrian coast lies approximately two 
miles to the south of Whitehaven and forms part of an extensive area of red 
sandstone cliffs which rise to a height of just over 300 feet at the highest 
point. The cliffs are home to many sea birds and a large part of the area is 
now managed as a nature reserve by the Royal Society for the Protection of 
Birds. The habitats on the cliffs are many and varied and include open 
grassland with a rich herbaceous flora, heath, scrub with extensive patches of 
hawthorn and blackthorn, sheer cliff faces and areas of shingle. 

The cliffs are a designated SSSI site and have been relatively well 
recorded both historically and currently. To date, quite a large number of 
invertebrates (including Coleoptera) have been recorded and they include a 
few species which are at their northern limit in this area. The most notable 
being the Dark Bush Cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera and the Isopod 
Halophiloscia couchi. 

With the kind permission of the RSPB, I have carried out a small survey 
of the phytophagous coleoptera of the cliffs and the following list is the 
result of a number of trips made to the area during the past few years. 
Specimens were collected by traditional techniques of sweeping, beating and 
grubbing, and in some cases by careful examination of the recognised host- 
plants. Species were found in the following 1km grid squares NX94.12 (1), 
NX94.13 (2), NX94.14 (3), NX94.15 (4), NX95.il (5), NX95.12 (6), 
NX95.15 (7) and they are referred to in the list by the bracketed number. 
Individual collecting dates have been summarised to months only and are 
indicated by roman numerals. Nomenclature follows Jermiin & Mahler 
(1993), Kloet & Hincks (1977) and Morris (1990, 1991, 1993). 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank the RSPB and English Nature for kindly allowing me to 
collect on the cliffs and Michael Morris and Mike Cox for their help with 
identification of some of the weevils and leaf beetles. 

List of species 

CHRYSOMELIDAE 

Apteropeda orbicidata (Marsham) single specimens on Plantago maritima, 
Calluna bushes and in humus beneath Gorse (2, 6, 7) i,iv,v,ix. 

Chaetocnema concinna (Marsham) one at base of low herbage (3) iv. 

C. hortensis (Fourcroy) several at base of Rume.x acetosa (4) ix. 



78 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Chrysolina staphylaea (Linnaeus) adults and larvae on Plantago lanceolata 
(6, 7) iv, ix. 

Crepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli) in small numbers on Cirsium arvense (7) 
viii. 

Derocrepis rufipes (Linnaeus) two tapped from Vica cracca by cliff top path 
(3) viii. 

Gastrophysa viridula (Degeer) eggs, larvae and adults on Rumex obtusifolius 

(3) vi. 

Hydrothassa glabra (Herbst) one crawling by cliff footpath (5) v. 

Longitarsus pratensis (Panzer) one at base of Plantago lanceolata (4) ix. 

L. suturellus (Duftschmid) one swept from low herbage (1) x. 

Oulema melanopa (Linnaeus) one beaten from Gorse (4), one on the 
footpath (1), one in deep humus beneath Gorse bush (6) iv,vi,vii. 

Phaedon cochleariae (Fabricius) one on Cochlearia officinalis (4) vi. 

P. tumidulus (Germar) adults and larvae in numbers on Aegopodium 
podagraria and Heracleum sphondylium (3,5,6,) iv, vi, viii. 

Sphaeroderma rubidum (Graells) several on leaves of Centaurea nigra on 
cliff top (7) X. 

S. testaceum (Fabricius) one on C. nigra by the footpath (2) viii. 

ATTELABIDAE 

Rhynchites germanicus Herbst: several in deep humus beneath Blackthorn 
bushes (2,4) iv. 

APIONIDAE 

Ceratapion gibbirostre (Gyllenhal) several tapped from Cirsium arvense (7) 
viii. 

Chlorapion virens (Herbst) several by grubbing at base of Trifolium pratense 
(7,3) viii,ix,x. 

Cobosiotherum scutellare (Kirby) beaten from Gorse bushes on steep cliff 

(4) iv. 

Diplapion confluens (Kirby) three under Matricaria (1) x. 

Eutrichapion ervi (Kirby) two tapped from Vicia cracca by cliff path (2) viii. 

Exapion ulicis (Forster) common on Gorse bushes (4,7) i,iv,viii. 

Ischnopterapion loti (Kirby) two tapped from flower heads of Lotus 
corniculatus (7) viii. 

Legaricapion aethiops (Herbst) in small numbers on Vicia sylvatica (1) x. 

Perapion curtirostre (Germar) one by general grubbing amongst low 
herbage on cliff bank (7) i. 



WEST CUMBRIAN COLEOPTERA 79 



P. marchicum (Herbst) one by grubbing at base of Rumex acetosella by edge 
of field (3) iv. 

P. violaceum (Kirby) one by general grubbing on low cliff bank (7) i. 

Protapion assimile (Kirby) two tapped from Trifolium pratense (1,7) viii,x. 

P. apricans (Herbst) several on T. pratense (1) x. 

P.fulvipes (Geoffroy) one beaten from Gorse bush (4) iv. 

Protopirapion atratulum (Germar) in small numbers on Gorse bushes (4) iv. 

CURCULIONIDAE 

Acalles misellus Boheman: several in deep humus beneath Gorse bushes (7) 
xi. 

A. ptinoides Marsham: small numbers in humus and leaf litter beneath Gorse 
(7) vii,xi. 

Alophus triguttatus (Fabricius) several by grubbing at base of Plantago 
lanceolata on cliff tops (4,6,7) iv,vii,ix. 

Anthonomus brunnipennis (Curtis) adults in small numbers on Potentilla 
erecta. Eggs and larvae found in the flower buds of this plant (3) v,vi,x. 

Baryntous squamosus Germar: single individuals by grubbing at base of 
Plantago lanceolata and Rumex acetosella (4,6,7) iv,vii,ix. 

Barypeithes pellucidus (Boheman) by grubbing on grassy cliff bank and 
several found in humus beneath Gorse bushes (7) i,iv. 

Brachysomus echinatus (Bonsdorff) three beaten from stunted Blackthorn 
bushes on cliff top, one in plant roots (4,6) iv. 

Caenopsis waltoni (Boheman) quite common along the cliff tops; specimens 
taken by grubbing at base of Plantains, mainly P. maritima (3,4,6,7) 
i,iv,vii,viii,ix,x. 

Ceutorhynchus contractus (Marsham) three tapped from Cochlearia 
officinalis (4) iv. 

Hypera nigrirostris (Fabricius) one in humus and litter beneath Gorse bushes 
(7)i. 

H. venusta (Fabricius) several on Anthyllis vulneraria; very localised on the 
cliffs (4) iv. 

Leiosoma deflexum (Panzer) one at base of Rannuculus repens by chff top 
path (6) iv. 

Liophloeus tessulatus (Muller, O.F.) one dead specimen in leaf Utter and 
humus beneath Gorse bushes (6) i. 

Mecinus pyraster (Herbst) in small numbers on Plantago lanceolata (7) 
i,v,ix. 



80 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Micrelus ericae (Gyllenhal) three beaten from Calluna bushes on cliff top 

(2) iv. 
Microplontus triangulum (Boheman) one in leaf litter beneath Gorse bush 

(7)i. 
Nedys quadrimaculatus (Linnaeus) in small numbers on Urtica dioica (7) 

viii. 
Orobitis cyaneus (Linnaeus) one tapped from mixed herbage by footpath 

(l)x. 
Orthochaetes setiger (Beck) one dead specimen in leaf litter beneath Gorse 

bushes (7) i. 
Otiorhynchus desertus Rosenhauer: single individuals taken by grubbing at 

base of Plantago lanceolata and P. maritima (4,6) iv,v,vi,ix. 

O. ligneus (Olivier) one at base of Rumex acetosella (4) iv 

O. rugifrons (Gyllenhal) several specimens by grubbing at base of Plantago 
maritima (6,7) i,iv,v,ix. 

O. singularis (Linnaeus) by grubbing at base of low herbage, mainly 
Plantago lanceolata and Rumex spp. (4,6,7) i,iv,v,vii,ix. 

O. sulcatus (Fabricius) one tapped from mixed herbage on bank above the 
shore (1) vi. 

Pelenomus quadrituberculatus (Fabricius) one crawling in open area on 

grassy bank (3) v. 
Philopedon plagiatum (Schaller) one specimen by general grubbing on cliff 

top (6) vii. 

Phyllobius roboretanus Gredler: several specimens tapped from Cirsium 
ai-vense and Urtica dioica around old mine workings (1) vi. 

P. virdicollis (Fabricius) tapped in small numbers from Vicia sepium (1) vi. 

Rhinoncus pericarpius (Linnaeus) in small numbers on Rumex and 
Polygonum spp. (3,7) iv,ix. 

Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) one in humus beneath Gorse bush and one 
by grubbing amongst low herbage on cliff bank (7) i,v. 

Sitona ambiguus Gyllenhal: in small numbers on Vicia cracca and V. sepium 
(1,2) vi,viii,x. 

S. hispidulus (Fabricius) on low herbage, mainly Trifolium spp. (1,3,4) 
iv,ix,x. 

S. lineellus (Bonsdorff) tapped from Lotus corniculatus on cliff top bank 
(6,7) vii,viii. 

S. regensteinensis (Herbst) quite common on Gorse bushes (3,4,6,7) 
i,iv,v,vii,xi. 

S. striate llus Gyllenhal several beaten from Gorse (4) iv. 



WEST CUMBRIAN COLEOPTERA 8 1 

S. suturalis Stephens: several tapped from Vicia sepium (1) vi. 

Strophosoma melanogrammum (Forster) single individuals found in a 
variety of situations; beaten from Gorse, at base of Riimex acetosella, on 
Calluna vulgaris and in humus beneath Blackthorn (1,4,7) i,iv,viii,ix. (A 
species not usually associated with exposed cliffs. Normally found in 
woods on trees and shrubs.) 

Trachyphloeus angustisetulus Hansen: quite common along the cliffs on 
Plantago maritima and also found in association with Thyme and Lotus 
corniculatus (1,4,6,7) iii,iv,vi,vii,ix. 

T. aristatus Boheman one at base of Rumex acetosella (4) iv. 

T. laticollis Boheman in small numbers at base of Plantains, mainly P. 
maritima. Quite widespread on the cliffs (3,4,6,7) iv,vii,viii,xi. 

Zacladus geranii (Paykull) several taken on flower petals of Geranium 
sanguineum (4) v,vi. 

SCOLYTIDAE 

Phloephthorus rhododactylus (Marsham) a few specimens in dead Gorse 
twigs (7) xi. 

References 

Jermiin, L.S. & Mahler, V., 1993. Revised descriptions of the morphology of Trachyphloeus 
bifoveolatus, T. angustisetulus, T. spinimanus and T. digitalis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). 
Entomologist's Gaz. 44: 139-153. 

Morris, M.G., 1990. Orthocerus weevils. Coleoptera: Curculionoidea. Handbk. Ident. BR. Insects. 
5:(16). 

- , 1991. Taxonomic check list of the British Ceuthorhynchinae, with notes, particularly on hostplant 
relationships (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomologist's Gaz. 42: 255-265. 

- , 1993. British Orthocerus weevils: corrections and new information (Coleoptera, Curculioniea). 
Entomologist's mon. Mag. 129: 23-29. 

Pope, R.D. in Kloet & Hincks 1977. A check Ust of British Insects. Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects. 11(3). 



Acontia lucida (Hufnagel) (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Kent and Dorset 

A specimen of the Pale Shoulder, Acomia lucida, was taken by my brother, 
John Owen, in a mercury vapour trap at Eastbridge House, Dymchurch, 
Kent, on the night of 5th August 1994. Another was trapped on the same 
night by Roy Eden at West Bexington, Dorset. The species has been reported 
in southern England about 14 times (only eight records are considered 
reliable) in the nineteenth century. There are apparently no previous records 
for the twentieth century, and no other records for 1994, making the 
occurrence of two on the same night a remarkable coincidence. How many 
more of this presumed immigrant arrived in southern England in early 
August 1994 we shall probably never know. This species is illustrated in 
South, 1961, Moths of the British Isles, plate 126. 

-Denis F. Owen, 42 Little Wittenham Road, Long Wittenham, Abingdon. 
Oxfordshire OX14 4QS. 



82 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Drunken Goats 

Whilst breeding Cossus cossus ('Linn.), the Goat Moth, I encountered two 
unexpected hazards unrecorded in the literature; one is to the larva itself, the 
other emperils one's sartorial elegance. 

The larvae I bred were small second instar larvae found under the bark of 
birch. Obtaining them at this stage was considerably easier than attempting 
to extract fully grown ones which would have required some fairly drastic 
(and destructive) tree surgery. They live both under and in the bark and do 
not burrow into the wood itself until they are larger. The sap runs associated 
with this species have a smell not unlike a good ale and clearly the sugars in 
the sap undergo fermentation to produce alcohols, I was unable to convince 
myself of any resemblance to goat. 

In captivity the larvae were offered raw beetroot which they devoured 
avidly. When changing one of the beets a very strong alcoholic smell was 
noticed and the larvae inside were motionless. Fearing the worst they were 
laid out (in both senses) on a piece of tissue paper and were almost on the 
way to the undertakers when one was observed to twitch. Over the next 24 
hours they revived and seemed none the worse for the experience (although 
it is hard to tell if a caterpillar has a headache!). Sadly the experience was 
repeated a week later with one fatality. The beets ferment very rapidly, 
sometimes within 24 hours. 

In man, alcohol is well known to have effects that relate both to its 
absolute blood level and the habituation of the individual. In small amounts 
it reduces inhibitions, even at low doses reduction in psychomotor abilities 
such as driving (and setting micros!) are apparent on testing, and as the dose 
of alcohol increases the level of alertness falls with eventual 
unconsciousness, inhibition of respiration and finally death. Other 
mammalian species are susceptible to the effects of alcohol and so it would 
seem are lepidoptera. The tradition of a tot of rum added to the sugaring 
mixture is designed to stupefy the moths when they imbibe and vanessids 
feeding from fermenting plums are unusually easy to approach and handle. 

The other problem encountered with the larvae was that when they are 
disturbed they sometimes react by emitting a high velocity stream of 
digested beetroot from the mouthparts. With one particularly large larva 
performing the daily inspection (to prevent the problems referred to above) 
became a very hazardous operation. It seemed to have a remarkable knack of 
knowing when a clean shirt had been donned coupled with an aim of 
uncanny accuracy. Arriving at work to discover one is wearing a shirt 
splattered with semi-digested beetroot can be embarrassing, offering an 
explanation which is socially acceptable or appears remotely sane seems 
utterly impossible.- Dr Julian Clarke, Oaklea, Felcourt Road, Lingfield, 
Surrey RH7 6NF. 



PROTURAN REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES 83 

REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF ACERENTOMON NEMORALE 

WOMERSLEY (HEXAPODA: PROTURA) FROM SOIL IN 

DECIDUOUS WOODLAND 

P.E. King and K.V. Aazem 

Marine, Environmental and Evolutionary Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, 
University of Wales, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP. 

Introduction 

THE PROTURA, first described by Silvestri (1907) were, until relatively 
recently, classified as apterygote insects (Hennig, 1969) but are now 
considered to have class status (Manton, 1970). Their taxonomy has been 
worked upon by Gisin (1960), Tuxen (1964) and Nosek (1973). Worldwide 
there are 500 recorded species (Romoser & Stoffolana, 1994) divided into 
three families, Eosentomidae, Protentomidae and Acerentomidae. Protura 
occur in the soil where there is sufficient moisture present to permit plant 
growth and where decaying organic matter occurs (Berlese, 1909; Strenzke, 
1942; Nosek, 1975). They are frequently present in considerable numbers in 
forest habitats, rich in humus (Nosek, 1975) but are less abundant in 
grassland and agricultural soils (Salt, Hollick, Raw & Brian, 1948; Raw, 
1956; Lagerlof & Andren, 1991). 

Little work has been done on the reproductive biology of proturans but 
Tuxen (1949) working in Denmark on Acerentulus danicus and Eosentomon 
armatum showed that both have five pre-adult stages; a prelarva, two larval 
forms, a maturus junior and a preimago. A. danicus, a surface dweller is 
markedly univoltine reaching maximum density during the summer, the 
juvenile stages succeeding each other in regular sequence from May to 
September and only adults present during the winter. The sex ratio during 
the summer is weighted heavily towards the females but is more even in the 
winter. In contrast Tuxen (1949) showed that all stages of E. armatum are 
present throughout the year and the sex ratios very even. 

Although records of British proturans were published by Bagnall (1912, 
1934, 1936), Brown (1917) and Womersley (1924, 1927, 1928), no work has 
been done on their life cycles. It was thus considered of use to examine the 
life cycle of Acerentomon nemorale Wom., a species present in woodland 
soils. 

Materials and methods 

Soil cores, measuring 5.2cm diameter and 13.5cm long were taken in mixed 
deciduous woodland at Clyne, Swansea, South Wales, SS 911612 
throughout the year. Franz, Haybach and Nosek (1969) showed that the 
majority of proturans occur in the top 10cm of the soil. To extract the 
proturans the soil cores were placed in a Berlese/Tulgren funnel for eight 
days. Specimens were collected in tubes containing 70% alcohol and any 
proturans present, removed. These were then cleared in Essig's aphid 
solution (Nosek, 1973) to facilitate identification of species and develop- 
mental stages. 



84 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 



25.iii.1995 



24- 
22- 
20- 
18- 
16- 
14 - 

8 10H 

8 



Q. 

u. 

E 

3 
C 

C 
(0 
0) 

E 



6 - 
4 - 
2 - 




(a) 



I 11 r r n 




12 - 

10- 

8 - 

6- 
4 - 
2- 









■^-w 




(c) 



1 — I — I — \ — I — r — \ — I — I — r 
JFMAMJJASOND 

n= 6 3 13 14 35 46 22 22 11 12 10 14 



Figure 1. 

Monthly means (±S.E.) of the development stages of Acerentomon nemorale from mixed woodland. 

(a) Larvae 1; (b) larvae 2; (c) maturus juniors; (d) adults (including preimago males). 

n = number of cores taken. 



PROTURAN REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES 



85 




Results 

Adult proturans are minute elongate, whitish, and have entognathous 
mouthparts, no eyes, ocelli or antennae, though "pseudoculi" may represent 
vestigial antennae. Legs have 1 -segmented tarsi and a single claw. The 
abdomen has short, bilateral styli or abdominal appendages on the first three 
segments. Development is ametabolous and anamorphosis occurs. This is 
unique in hexopods but occurs in other arthopods. 



86 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

The number of abdominal segments increases from nine in the early larvae 
to 12 in adults. The characters used to determine the species were, the 
structure of abdominal styli on abdominal segments I, II and III, the 
chaetotaxy of terga VII and sterna VIII and the size, shape and arrangement 
of the sensillae on the fore tarsi (Nosek, 1973; Tuxen, 1964). Acerentulus 
confinis Berl. and Acerentoman affine Bagn. adults were also recorded in the 
soil cores but in much lower numbers (King & Aazem, in prep.). The LI and 
LII of Acerentulus sp. are quite distinct from Acerentomon spp. larvae and 
have been described in some detail by Tuxen (1964) and Nosek (1973). The 
LI and LII of A. affine and A. nemorale are very similar but can be 
distinguished by the size, shape and arrangement of their fore tarsal 
sensillae. As A. nemorale was the predominant species it may be assumed 
that the larval stages of Acerentomon spp. belonged to A. nemorale. 

Nosek (1973) described the five stages of development: 

The Praelarva, presumed to be the first stage although hatching from the 
egg has not yet been observed. It has nine abdominal segments, the 
mouthparts are not fully developed and do not reach beyond the anterior 
border of the head. The fore tarsi and abdominal appendages are less well 
developed. This stage was not observed in the present study presumably 
because of the difficulty in extracting them. 

The first larva (LI) in which the mouthparts, legs and abdominal 
appendages are fully developed and there are nine abdominal segments. 
These were present during every month but showed a peak in May with 
slightly fewer in June and July. There was a second small increase in 
October and November (Fig. la). 

The second larva (L2), which has ten abdominal segments and different 
sclerotization, chaetotaxy and sensillae. These were also present throughout 
the year in larger numbers than larva 1 which suggests that this stage may be 
of longer duration than that of larva 1 . Numbers peak in May and remain 
high during June and July. After a fall in September they increase briefly in 
October and November, coinciding with the increase in numbers of larva 1 
(Fig. lb). 

Maturus junior has 12 segments like the later stages but lacks genitalia, 
has less sclerotization and different chaetotaxy. These peak during May, 
June and July but are missing during some months. This stage is not as 
abundant as larvae 1 and 2 which suggests either that it is a very short stage 
or there is considerable mortality when moulting from larva 2 (Fig. Ic). 

The preimago males differ from earlier stages in possessing genitalia, 
chaetotaxy and sclerotization. These are present from May to August in 
reasonable numbers with a few in October, November and December but 
were not present during the other months. This suggests that males only 
reach maturity during those months (Fig. Id). Some adults are present during 
most months but there was a marked increase in favour of the females 
between May to September (Fig. 2) which coincides with the breeding 
season. 



PROTURAN REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES 



87 



Females 
Males '' 
Males ^ 




8 



E 

3 
C 

C 
(0 
0) 

E 



Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 
n= 6 3 13 14 35 46 22 22 11 12 10 14 

Figure 2. acerentomon nemorale monthly sex ratios (±S.E.). 

Males' = excluding preimago males; Males" = including preimago males. 

n = number of cores taken. 

Discussion 

Comparing the present findings with those of Tuxen (1949) A. nemorale 
shows evidence of a main summer breeding period in common with A. 
danicus, together with a summer sex ratio weighted in favour of the females 
and an overall reduction in adult numbers suggesting a high mortality. It also 
compares with E. armatum in having juveniles present throughout the year. 
Wallwork (1970) suggested that perhaps E. armatum migrates to a depth of 
5cm in the soil profile. Thus, the juvenile stages are protected during the 
winter, whereas juveniles of A. danicus are not. In the present study, cores 
were taken to a depth of 13.5cm which included the entire humus layer, so 
that possible migrations could be allowed for. In contrast to Tuxen (1949) 
larva 2 was the most abundant stage during the winter months. Larva 1 and 
Maturus junior stages are probably of much shorter duration than the others 
and there is a marked post-reproductive mortality amongst the adults. The 
results can possibly be explained by less severe winters in the present habit. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to thank Alison Smith for the collection of the original 
samples. 



References 

Bagnell, R.S., 1912. Some Primitive British Insects. I. The Protura. Knowledge (London) N.S. 1: 
p.215. 

- , 1934. On two species of Eosentomon Berl. (Protura) new to the British Fauna. Entomologists 
Monthly Magazine . 70: 190. 

- , 1936. Notes on Protura I. Annals and Magazine of Natural Histoiy. 17: 210-213. 



88 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Berlese, A., 1909. Monografia dei Myrientomata. Redia, 6: 1-182. 

Brown, J.M., 1917. The Apterygota of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Naturalist, p.63. 

Franz, H., Haybach, G & Nosek, J., 1969. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Proturenfauna der Nord-ostalpen 

und ihres Vorlahdes. Verh. d. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wein, 108-109, 5-18. 
Gisin, H., 1960. CoUembolanfauna europas. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Geneve, 312. 
Hennig, W., 1969. Die Stammesgeschichte der Insekten, Frankfurt-am-Main, Dramer. 
Lagerlof, J. & Andren, D., 1991. Abundance and activity of Collembola, Protura and Diplura 

(Insecta, Apterygota) in four cropping systems. Pedobiologia, 35: 337-350. 
Manton, S.M., 1970. Arthropoda: Introduction. In: Florkin, M. & Sheet, B.J., eds. Chenncal Zoology, 

Vol. 5. Academic Press, 1-34. 
Nosek, J., 1973. The European Protura, their taxonomy, ecology and distribution with keys for 

determination. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Geneve, 345pp. 

- , 1975. Niches of Protura in Biogeocenoses. Pedobiologia, 15: 290-298. 

Raw, F., 1956. The abundance and distribution of Protura in grassland. Journal of Animal Ecology, 

25: 15-21. 
Romoser, W.S. & Stoffolana, J.G., 1994. The Science of Entomology, Wm. G. Brown, 515pp. 
Salt, G., Hollick, F.S., Raw, F. & Brian, M.V., 1948. The arthropod population of pasture soil. 

Journal of Animal Ecology, 17: 139-150. 
Silvestri, F., 1907. Descrizione di un nuovo genere d'Insetti apterygota rappresentante di un nuovo 

ordine. Boll. Labor. Zool. Portici, 1. 
Strenke, K., 1942. Norddeustsche Proturen. Zool. Jahrb (Syst.). 75: 73-102. 
Tuxen, S.L., 1949. Uber den Lebenszyklus und die postembryoanle Entwicklung zweier danischer 

Proturengattungen. Biol. Skr., 6: 1-50. 

- , 1964. The Protura. A Revision of the Species of the World with Keys for Determination. Ed. 
Hermann, Paris, 360pp. 

Wallwork, J. A., 1970. Ecology of Soil Animals, McGraw Hill, 283pp. 

Womersley, H. 1924. The Apterygota of the south-west of England. Pt. 2. Proceedings Bristol 
Naturalists Society, 6: 2. 

- , 1927. Notes on the British species of Protura with descriptions of new genera and species. 
Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, 63: 140-149. 

- , 1928. Further notes on the Bristish species of Promra. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, 64: 113- 

115. 



Scarce Large Blue butterfly, Maculinea telejus Bergstr. 
(Lep.: Lycaenidae), in Slovenia 

Slovenia seems to be on the edge of or possibly outside the range of 
Maculinea telejus, according to distribution maps in the European field 
guides. However, I was lucky enough to find a few specimens on 26th July 
at Ljubljansko Barje. This is a former peat bog, now extensively drained for 
agriculture, just outside the capital city, Ljubljana. 

Since finding this species and M. nausithous Bergstr. in Austria in 1992 
{Ent. Rec. 105: 143-146), I have been looking out for grassland dominated 
by their foodplant Sanguisorba officinalis. Although Sanguisorba was 
present at Ljubljansko Barje, it was much more plentiful in a larger area of 
damp, unimproved grassland at Planinsko Polje, some 25km south-west of 
Ljubljana. Some 50 hectares of meadows were dominated by Sanguisorba, 
but I could not find any Large Blues when I visited on 4th August. 

It may be worth checking this area and nearby poljes at Cemicka and 
Postojna in mid-July.- David Withrington, English Nature, Northminster 
House, Peterborough PEl lUA. 



LONDON ORTHOPTERA 89 



ORTHOPTERA IN THE LONDON ARCHIPELAGO 

John Paul 

4 Stephen Road, Headington, Oxford 0X3 9 AY. 

AT FIRST SIGHT, the urban sprawl of the metropoUs may not appear to be 
a suitable place to study Orthoptera but on closer scrutiny one becomes 
aware of an archipelago of sites that allows analysis of the impact of 
urbanisation on this group of insects. Each locality has its own character, 
history, degree of isolation and orthopterous fauna. Some localities such as 
Richmond Park and Rainham Marshes preserve fragments of semi-natural 
vegetation, possibly little changed for centuries. The Orthoptera faunas 
surviving on them resemble those of comparable rural locations and give one 
an idea of what the original London fauna was like before the growth of the 
city. Comparison with the Orthoptera found at sites more degraded by 
urbanisation suggests which species may be best able to adapt and survive 
and which may be lost as man alters the landscape. Manicured urban parks, 
sportsgrounds, lawns, roadside verges and building plots have been 
completely stripped of their natural vegetation and original Orthoptera. 
Examination of such sites indicates which species are able to disperse 
through an urban environment and exploit these new man-made habitats. 
One can investigate such sites as biologists have studied the colonisation of 
volcanic islands and determine which species have been able to exploit these 
novel habitats. 

Large-scale urbanisation is a very new phenomenon but is only the latest 
in a series of man-made changes to the natural environment and observations 
on the adaption by insects to city life may provide evidence regarding their 
responses to previous upheavals. Very little of the British landscape is truly 
primaeval and most, if not all, of our Orthoptera have needed to adapt to 
man-made landscapes. Some habitats such as lowland heaths and chalk 
downland are of such antiquity that we tend to see them as being completely 
natural. However, they were created and sustained by human activity. 
Urbanisation is prone to degrade such habitats either through neglect of 
traditional rural management systems allowing the natural climax vegetation 
to assert itself or through the recreational pursuits of city dwellers destroying 
fragile plant communities. 

Historic London Orthoptera records are sparse. Stephens (1835) produced 
a pioneering account of British Orthoptera, including several London 
localities. The Dale Collection, in Oxford contains historic specimens from 
the same period. More recently, Payne (1958) wrote a comprehensive review 
of Orthoptera occurring within 20 miles of St. Paul's Cathedral and Farrow 
(1962) surveyed the Croydon district. Skelton (1985) performed a survey of 
the London area and Marshall and Haes (1988) provided distribution maps 
for all the British Orthoptera. Recent reports on London Orthoptera include 
those of Burton (1993), Herbert (1993), Murdoch (1993) and Widgery 
(1978). 



90 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 



25.iii.1995 




Figure 1. Sites examined in relation to the National Grid and the Thames. 



Key: 

a, Stoke Common 

b, M25-M40 junction 

c, Denham 

d, Batchworth Common 

e, Colne Valley 

f, Caldecote ffill 

g, M25-M1 junction 
h, Watling Farm 

i, Esher Common 

j, Richmond Park 

k, Wormwood Scrubs 

1, Colindale 

m, Lockington Road, Battersea 



n. Regent's Park 

o, Brockwell Park and Peabody Hill 

p, Lilford Road, Ruskin Park, Denmark Hill and Champion Hill 

q, Dulwich Hamlet, Dulwich Common and Dulwich Wood 

r, Riddlesdown 

s, Addington Hills 

t, Greenwich Park 

u, Blackheath 

V, Hayes Common 

w, Erith Marshes 

X, Rainham and Wennington Marshes and Ingreboume River 

y, Dartford Marshes 

z, Greenhithe. 



Frequent visits to London in 1993 and a period of being based in the 
capital during 1994, provided an opportunity to sample the London 
Orthoptera and develop ideas on the effects of urbanisation on these insects. 
Sites were selected for investigation which included some sites mentioned 
by Payne (1958) and Farrow (1962) as being of special interest, plus a 
sample of parks, commons, sportsgrounds, wastelands and roadsides. Thus, 
it was possible to compare the present fauna with that described in the 
literature and to compare the spectra of species found in various types of 
habitat. A comparison was also made with a survey of urban Orthoptera in 
the West Midlands (Paul, 1991) in order to assess how London's geography, 
geology and climate might have affected the composition of its fauna. The 



LONDON ORTHOPTER A 9 1 



present account of London's Orthoptera is by no means exhaustive and aims 
to describe the effects of urbanisation by looking at selected sites. All 
records were made by the author and relate to summer 1994 unless otherwise 
stated. 

Species found 

Meconema thalassinum (De Geer) 

Denmark Hill, Champion Hill, Ruskin Park, Greenwich Park, Richmond 
Park. Numerous specimens were found on paths under trees or attracted to 
light. Its existence on horse chestnut and lime trees planted in urban streets 
suggests it to be an effective colonist in the urban environment. 

Tettigonia viridissima (L.) 

Erith Marshes, Rainham. Hundreds were heard stridulating on wasteground 
at Erith Marshes. The former marshland is now occupied by two strips of 
dual carriageway and an industrial estate but enough scrub remains for this 
insect to flourish. At Rainham the species was found in small numbers along 
the River Lmgreboume. This insect can survive in habitat badly degraded by 
urbanisation but does not appear to spread to visually similar adjacent areas. 

Pholidoptera griseoaptera (De Geer) 

Greenhithe, Rainham. Abundant on wasteland at both sides. This insect does 
well in places disturbed by man, where there are nettle beds, brambles and 
rough grassland. However, being flightless, this species seems unable to 
reach new wasteland sites that develop in inner urban areas. 

Metrioptera brachyptera (L.) 

Farrow (1962) gave a gloomy account of how this species was just surviving 
on degraded heathland at Addington Hills, its only London locality. When 
the locality was visited in suboptimal conditions, this species was not found 
but there is a record from 1991 {per. E.C.M. Haes). Just outside Greater 
London, M. brachyptera was found at Esher Common, Surrey and at Stoke 
Common, Buckinghamshire. In Britain, this insect is strongly associated 
with heathland and is one of the first Orthoptera to disappear as heathland 
becomes degraded by trampling or development. However, the species has 
been found in very low numbers at a site devoid of heather on the edge of 
Birmingham (Paul, 1 99 1 ). 

Metrioptera roeselii (Hagenbach) 

Dulwich Hamlet (derelict sportsground), Lockington Road SW8. Richmond 
Park, Riddlesdown, Hayes Common, Regent's Park, Watling Farm (1993), 
Caldecote Hill, M25/M40 junction, M25/M1 junction, Denham (1993), 
Wormwood Scrubs (1984), Dartford Marshes, Greenhithe, Rainham 
Marshes. Long known from the London area (Stephens, 1835), the species 



92 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

had become a rarity by the time of Lucas (1920). Payne (1958) and Farrow 
(1962) referred to a few peripheral localities. M. roeselii has undergone an 
explosive increase in numbers and range in recent decades, exploiting road 
verges, wasteground and hot summers during which macropterous forms 
disperse to new sites. It is now the most common and widespread bush- 
cricket in Greater London. The isolated Regent's Park locality described by 
Widgery (1978) was still present in 1994. The verges of the M25 form a 
huge M. roeselii breeding ground and thousands were heard at the M40 
junction in 1993 and 1994. 

Conocephalus discolor (Thunberg) 

Dulwich Hamlet (TQ331753), where a single hypermacropterous male was 
found on a derelict sportsground. This species has spread inland from the 
South Coast during the last decade, exploiting road verges and neglected 
fields. One may anticipate its establishment on London urban grassland sites. 

Conocephalus dorsalis (Latreille) 

Esher Common, Rainham Marshes. At Rainham, this species is abundant on 

the original marshland (Wennington Marshes) but not on the silt beds. 

Leptophyes punctatissima (Bosc.) 

Colne Valley south of Watford (1993). Not specially searched for and 

possibly overlooked during this survey. 

Tetrix undulata (Sowerby) 

Esher Common, Stoke Conmion. This species and its congener, T. subulata, 
were not specially sought and were possibly overlooked at other sites during 
the survey. 

Stenobothrus lineatus (Panzer) 

Richmond Park. A strong but very localised colony on turf along a broad 

ride. 

Omocestus viridulus (L.) 

Richmond Park, Addington Hills. Limited to well-established, humid 

grassland. 

Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Thunberg) 

Richmond Park, Addington Hills, Hayes Common. Surviving on relict 

heathland and grass-heath. 

Gomphocerripus rufus (L.) 

Riddlesdown; its only known locality in Greater London. 



LONDON ORTHOPTERA 93 



Chorthippus brunneus (Thunberg) 

Colindale, Watling Farm (TQ171945), Lockington Road SW8, Greenhithe, 
Dartford Marshes, Erith Marshes, Hayes Common, Riddlesdown, Addington 
Hills, Esher Common, Richmond Park, Greenwich Park, Blackheath, Lilford 
Road SE5, Brockwell Park, Ruskin Park, Dulwich Hamlet, Dulwich Wood, 
Rainham Marshes. Thrives on hot well-drained grassland in urban areas. 

Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt) 

Peabody Hill, Dartford Marshes, Greenhithe, Batchworth Common, 

Richmond Park, Esher Common, Hayes Common, Riddlesdown, Dulwich 

Common, Stoke Common. Cannot tolerate the arid areas where C. brunneus 

thrives, 

Chorthippus albomarginatus (De Geer) 

Dulwich Hamlet, Brockwell Park, Lockington Road SW8, Blackheath, Erith 
Marshes, Dartford Marshes, Greenhithe, Rainham Marshes. Abundant 
around the Thames estuary, but spreading into neglected grassland in urban 
areas. It can tolerate a combination of flooding in winter and hot dry 
conditions in summer. 

Habitat types in the London area 

Chalk Downland 

Just south of London, the North Downs include many nationally important 
stretches of this Orthoptera-rich habitat. Riddlesdown, where there is a 
colony of Gomphocerippus rufus, is the most important example of chalk 
downland inside Greater London. 

Heathland 

Heathland is of special importance for Metrioptera brachyptera and 
Myrmeleotettix maculatus and is vulnerable to scrubbing over through 
neglect and trampling which destroys the heather. Patches of heath remain in 
Greater London at Hayes Common, at Addington Hills and just outside at 
Esher Common, Surrey and Stoke Common, Buckinghamshire. 

Silaceous grassland (grass-heath) 

Richmond Park contains a substantial and nationally important area of this 
habitat which harbours five species of grasshopper - O. viridulus, C. 
parallelus, C. brunneus and the local M. maculatus and 5'. lineatus. 

Marsh 

The largest area of marshland in Greater London is at Rainham where there 
is marshland of a sort over a wide area between the town and the Thames 
and along the River Ingrebourne. Wennington Marshes, where there is a 
thriving population of C. dorsalis, appear to be the least degraded. 



94 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Elsewhere in London and for some distance downstream of the Greater 
London boundary, the Thames marshes are badly damaged by drainage, road 
schemes and industrial and housing development but important sites for 
Orthoptera still exist at Erith Marshes, Dartford Marshes and near 
Greenhithe. C. albomarginatus and M. roeselii are typical of the Thames 
marshes with C. brunneus, C. parallelus, T. viridissima and P. griseoaptera 
locally abundant. 

Urban Parks 

The larger urban parks usually have patches of rough vegetation somewhere 
that may support C. brunneus, C. albomarginatus, or M. roeselii. M. 
thalassinum may be present on trees. At least one species was found in 
Regent's Park, Brockwell Park, Greenwich Park and Ruskin Park. No 
Orthoptera were found in Dulwich Park and St. James' Park which were both 
unusually well manicured. 

Urban Waste Ground 

Derelict urban plots quickly develop into dry grassland and become 
colonised with C. brunneus, C. albomarginatus, and M. roeselii. All three 
were found on a small plot of wasteground, isolated by urban development, 
at Lockington Road, Battersea. A sportsground at Dulwich Hamlet, derelict 
for about six years, had become colonised with these three species and a 
single C. discolor was also found there. C. brunneus and C. albomarginatus 
were still stridulating on 14.x. 1994. 

Roadside Verges 

Roadside verges typically develop into dry grassland supporting C. brunneus 
and M. roeselii. The banks along the M25 motorway are of special 
importance for M. roeselii which can be heard from slow moving traffic. 

Discussion 

A total of 16 species of Orthoptera Saltatoria were seen at selected sites in 
the London area in 1993 and 1994. Most of the species were somewhat 
localised in their distribution, surviving on relict fragments of semi-natural 
terrain. In particular, M. brachyptera, S. lineatus and G. rufus seem 
vulnerable to habitat change and were probably more widespread before the 
growth of the city. The Dale Collections include a specimen of G. rufus from 
Battersea (a locality now totally unsuitable for this species), supporting 
Stephens' record (Stephens, 1835). T. viridissima, C. dorsalis, O. viridulus 
and M. maculatus are also associated with special semi-natural sites but 
appear to tolerate some degradation of habitat. 

In contrast to these survivors, M. thalassinum, M. roeselii, C. brunneus 
and C. albomarginatus have been able to disperse through urban London and 
exploit the novel habitats provided by wasteland, urban parks and roadsides. 
P. griseoaptera, L. punctatissima and C. parallelus are well-adapted to 



LONDON ORTHOPTERA 95 



disturbed habitat but being flightless have limited capacity to disperse. The 
London Orthoptera fauna is richer than that of the comparable urban area of 
the West Midlands (Paul, 1991), due to London's proximity to the rich and 
diverse areas of the Thames estuary, the North Downs and the Surrey 
Heaths, because of the preservation of fragments of such habitat types within 
Greater London and because of its more favourable climate. In contrast to 
London, only one species, C. brunneus, is abundant and widespread in urban 
areas of the West Midlands. However, M. maculatus occurs on old mining 
waste sites in the West Midlands in a habitat not present in London. It is 
encouraging that several of our rarer Orthoptera have survived on fragments 
of semi-natural habitat in an area as densely populated as London. It is also 
encouraging that several species, including M. roeselii, which was once 
considered a rarity, have been able to exploit new urban sites. Urbanisation 
is an extreme example of human influence on the landscape and observations 
of its effects on groups such as the Orthoptera provides insight into the more 
subtle effects of human activity in the countryside. 

References 

Burton, J.F., 1993. Colonisation of Blackheath, south-east London by Chorthippus albomarginatus 

(De Geer) (Orth.: Acrididae). Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 105: 190-192. 
Farrow, R.A., 1962. Orthoptera of the survey area. Croydon Natural History and Science Society 

Regional Survey. Index number 51. 1-3, 1 pi. 
Herbert, C, 1993. Grasshoppers and crickets of the London borough of Barnet: a provisional atlas. 

Bamet Biological Recording Programme. 
Lucas, W.J., 1920. A monograph of the British Orthoptera. London: Ray Society. 
Marshall, J. A., Haes, E.C.M., 1988. Grasshoppers and allied insects of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Colchester: Harley Books. 
Murdoch, D.A., Lyle, T.J., 1993. Butterflies, dragonflies and Orthoptera in London's East End - 

population changes 1987-1992. Lond. Nat. 72: 69^^84. 
Paul, J., 1991. Orthoptera around Birmingham. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 103: 167-174, 237-242. 
Payne, R.M., 1958. The distribution of grasshoppers and allied insects in the London area. Lond. Nat. 

37:102-115. 
Skelton, M., 1985. Orthoptera in the London area. Unpublished data. 
Stephens, J.F., 1835. Illustrations of British entomology: Mandibulata. 6: London. 
Widgery, J., 1978. Roesel's Bush-cricket Metrioptera roeselii in Regent's Park. Lond. Nat. 57: 57-58. 

I pi. 



Hazards of Butterfly Collecting - A Biogeographical Anomaly, 
London 1994 

Hazards of butterfly collecting are not limited to field work. They lurk in the 
literature and in museum collections as well. In 1956, my late friend Henri 
Stempffer (See Ent. Rec. J. Var., 1992, 104: 171-172) and Neville Bennett 
(who I unfortunately never met, though we corresponded, and he named one 
of my first butterflies new to science) described a new species of butterfly 
from Liberia as Baliochila petersi, accompanied by a good photograph and 
Stempffer's usual meticulous drawing of the male genitalia. Mild surprise at 
finding a Baliochila in Liberia was expressed. 



96 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

Mild surprise! ... I should think so! A Liberian Baliochila is as 
biogeographically anomalous as a penguin in Greenland. All other 
Baliochila and their relatives (more than 20 in all) are from eastern and 
southern Africa, and hardly any are found west of the Rift Valley system. 
Furthermore, this particular Baliochila was from one of the wettest 
rainforests in Liberia, collected in the company of numerous indicator- 
species of extreme rainforest conditions, none of which come within 
hundreds of kilometres of normal Baliochila habitats, which is woodland and 
the relict forests of the East African coast. 

But there we were. There was no reason why the specimen on the 
photograph should not be a Baliochila, and the highly specialised genitalia 
made its assignment to Baliochila quite certain. Though biogeographical 
anomalies do occur, I was never comfortable with the West African 
Baliochila, but there was nothing I could do about it. Only the holotype 
existed. I somehow thought it was in Paris, and made a note evenmally to 
have a look at it. 

I came across it by chance recently in the type collection of the Natural 
History Museum in London while searching for the type specimen of another 
butterfly that gave me problems. My surprise was complete, for the holotype 
of Baliochila petersi was quite clearly the same as Pseuderesia issia 
described by Stempffer in 1969 after a single specimen from Cote d'lvoire. 
The latter is a very scarce butterfly of the wettest West African rainforests, 
with genitalia that have nothing to do with Baliochila. Only about seven 
specimens of Pseuderesia issia are known, but that includes two which I 
recently caught in Ghana, so I rushed to compare. The two were definitely 
the same. So Baliochila petersi becomes Pseuderesia petersi - except that it 
is now placed in the genus Eresiomera - and Pseuderesia issia suffers that 
most ignoble of fates: relegated to synonymy. 

So the genitalia associated with Baliochila petersi MUST have come from 
another butterfly altogether. Now, in 1953 Stempffer and Bennett had jointly 
published a major revision of Baliochila and were continuing work on the 
genus, while at the same time they were collaborating on a paper on the 
Liberian Lycaenidae. Lots of specimens and lots of genitalia slides were 
exchanged between them. Somewhere along the line, the genitalia of the real 
Baliochila petersi were confused with a microscopic slide of a Baliochila - 
such mistakes will happen. 

I suspect that the sequence was along these lines. Since the species was 
obviously new to science, Bennett sent photographs, a description, and the 
(wrong) genitalia to Stempffer in Paris. On the basis of the genitalia, 
Stempffer described it as a Baliochila. Both were taxonomists with little or 
no personal knowledge of Africa and its butterflies in the field, therefore not 
fully appreciating the ecological and biogeographical improbability of a 
West African Baliochila. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 97 




Eresiomera petersi St. (= E. issia). Ghana, Ankasa, vii.1994. 

That Stempffer should have redescribed the species as Pseuderesia issia 
thirteen years later is hardly surprising. It had the typical genitalia of that 
genus, the holotype of Baliochila petersi was in London, and Stempffer 
might never actually have seen it. 

I am delighted that I solved a conundrum that has puzzled me for more 
than twenty years. I am somewhat less delighted that the discovery was 
essentially the result of chance. How much nicer it would have been if it had 
been the end-product of planned research: "You just cannot have a 
Baliochila in West Africa - 1 must get to the bottom of this!" 

But there is a final twist to the story that has not yet been unwound. The 
"wrong" genitalia of the holotype of Baliochila issia do not match those of 
any described Baliochila. They belong to an undescribed species! 
Somewhere in the maws of the natural history museums in London or Paris 
sits the specimen from which the genitalia came - minus its abdomen. They 
may never be matched up - I'll have a go at playing detective when I have 
less pressing work on hand. It would be perfectly legitimate for me to name 
the new Baliochila solely on the basis of the genitalia, but I don't think I 
shall; the genus is quite difficult enough without a species known only from 
its genitalia. So, for the record, here it is - yet another scoop for the 
Entomologist's RecordV. 

Eresiomera petersi (Stempffer & Bennett, 1956); Larsen 1994 
Baliochila petersi Stempffer & Bennett, 1956 
Pseuderesia issia Stempffer, 1969 

Of such tortured sequences stem those occasional changes of usage in 
scientific nomenclature that often enrage amateurs who do not have the full 
background to understand why they need to be made!- T.B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SE9 8PL. 



98 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

First Kentish record of Bankesia douglasii Staint. (Lep.: Psychidae) 

My good friend Lawrence demons casually remarked to me that during the 
first week of March he had often seen several "micros" in the early morning 
flying in the proximity of a sawn railway sleeper fence near Sittingboume 
railway station, Kent. 

I persuaded him to try to capture a specimen and on 6th March 1984 one 
was duly produced which proved to be Bankesia douglasii, a species only 
then previously recorded from Southampton Water many years ago and 
thought possibly to be extinct. This Kent record is the "dot" on the map in 
Heath & Emmet, 1985, The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and 
Ireland 2. 

I visited the fence on several occasions between 8th and 19th March that 
year when dozens were flying only in the early morning, even in light 
drizzle, but could found later in the day at rest on the adjacent fence. It 
seems likely that the male larvae fix themselves elsewhere, possibly low 
down amongst leaf litter, as from a sample of cases collected at random off 
the fence, only females subsequently emerged. 

It is sad to report that the fence has since been removed by British Rail 
and replaced with open chain link, but the colony may still survive elsewhere 
in the railway yard.- N.F. Heal, 44 Blenheim Avenue, Faversham, Kent 
ME13 8NW. 

A second British record of Peribatodes manuelaria H.-S. 
(Lep.: Geometridae) 

On the night of 4th August 1994 a female example of the geometrid moth, 
Peribatodes manuelaria (The Lydd Beauty) was taken by K. Redshaw in a 
mercury vapour trap running in his garden at New Romney, Kent. The first 
British specimen was taken close by at Lydd, Kent by Miss P. Carter on 
27.viii.1990. (This specimen is illustrated in Br. J. ent. Nat. Hist., 1992. 5: plate 
III.) 

In brief, this species can be distinguished from the two other British 
members of this genus by a combination of the lack of an obvious pale 
underside apical mark on the forewing; the shortly pectinate antennae (in the 
male) and the shape of the postmedian lines on the forewing (intermediate 
between P. rhomboidaria and P. secundaria) and on the hindwings which 
are curved markedly around the discal mark. In the two Kentish specimens, 
their small size and generally uniform greyish appearance were good initial 
indicators, although these are apparently not recognised on the continent as 
criteria that can be applied to all examples of this species. All three species 
Peribatodes are illustrated together in Skou, 1986, The Geometrid moths of 
North Europe. 

The 1994 specimen produced a number of fertile ova, and the author 
forced through several of these to slightly undersized adulthood during 
November, feeding them mainly on Silver Birch {Betula pendula). The 
remainder are presently being overwintered naturally as small larvae. A 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 99 

more full account of the occurrence, identification and rearing in captivity 
of P. manuelaria is planned for publication in the Record later this year. 
- S.P. Clancy, Dehli Cottage, Dungeness, Romney Marsh, Kent TN29 9NE. 

A sighting of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. in West Sussex 

On Sunday 11th September 1994, at 1225 I received a call from a friend in 
Keymer, West Sussex who was sure he had sighted a Monarch butterfly in 
his garden. Although chances of my seeing this butterfly were minimal, I 
immediately drove to Keymer with my camera, despite the previously sunny 
weather turning cooler and cloudier. Fortune does occasionally shine upon 
the entomologist, and the butterfly was still there, resting on Hemp 
Agrimony, not feeding as all the flowers had failed. 

After a single photograph the insect took flight, but returned a few moments 
later settling high up in a bush. One more circuit of the garden and a brief 
rest, and this magnificent butterfly rose high into the sky and flew away over 
the rooftops.- D. Dey, 26 Manor Avenue, Hassocks, West Sussex BN6 8NG. 

The Monarch butterfly {Danaus plexippus L.) in Somerset 

After reading Paul Sokoloff s note with regard to a Monarch Danaus 
plexippus in Kent on 25th July 1994 (Entomologists Record 106: 248), I am 
prompted to report the following. 

On the 2nd September 1994, my wife and son saw and successfully 
photographed a fine specimen feeding on Red Valerian Centranthus ruber, 
in our garden at Berrow, Somerset (VC6). On 21st September B.J. Hill 
telephoned me to report a Monarch at Lil stock, Somerset (VC5) while he 
awaited the reappearance of a rare Melodious Warbler Hippolais polglotta. 
This species is of southern origin and perhaps an indicator of the butterflies 
origin.- Brian E. Slade, 40 Church House Road, Berrow, Bumham-on-Sea, 
Somerset TAB 2NQ. 

A record of Luperina dumerilii Dup. (Lep.: Noctuidae) from Cornwall 

I belatedly put on record the capture of a male Luperina dumerilii 
Duponchel (Dumeril's Rustic) from the Lizard Point, Cornwall on 7th 
September 1983. For the statistically minded it is the second record for 
Cornwall and chronologically is the 27th of a total 28 published records for 
the British Isles. 

It is a unicolorous form and lacks the pale stigmata and subterminal 
shading depicted in most illustrations. Because of this it had been 
misidentified as an aberrant L. testacea D.&S. (Flounced Rustic). 

My diary records much migrant activity on this occasion and the species 
listed include Agrius convolvuU L. (Convolvulous Hawkmoth), Mythimna 
loreyi Dup. (The Cosmopolitan), M. vitellina Hb. (The Delicate) and 
Rhodometra sacraria L. (the Vestal). The expertise of Barry Goater and 
Martin Honey is gratefully acknowledged.- Bernard Skinner, 5 Rawlins 
Close, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 8JS. 



100 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

An influx of the Silver Y, Autographa gamma L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
South Devon 

A most unusual immigration was observed at the north end of Slapton Sands, 
Devon, under the cliffs at Strete Gate. On 10th August 1994 an estimated 
500 gamma suddenly arrived, and began feeding on many available flowers, 
including valerian, bedstraw and bramble. Similar numbers were observed 
on each of the next four days, with numbers dropping to around 200 on 15th, 
17th, 19th and 20th August. Thereafter, only single figures could be seen. 

Prior to the 10th August I had noted only two gamma at the site and my 
garden trap, some four miles away, never produced more than 12 gamma in 
a night during the period of abundance at Slapton Sands. 

- H.L. O'Heffernan, 24 Green Park Way, Chillington, Kingsbridge, South 
Devon TQ7 2HY. 

A probable second brood of the Orange-tip butterfly, Anthocharis 
cardamines L. in the South of France 

I was surprised to see, and to capture, a fine male Orange-tip on 31st August 
1994 in the grounds of my house in Vidauban, VAR in France. The garden is 
at an altitude of around 300 metres and some 25km inland from the coast at 
Ste. Maxime. The summer of 1994 in Provence was extremely hot and we 
regularly experienced midday temperatures of 40°C in August. Most of the 
regular species were over by the time we arrived at the end of July, possibly 
encouraged by an equally unusual hot spell in March. 

- M.S. Harvey, 17 Highfields, Ashtead, Surrey KT21 2NL. 

Sitochroa palealis (D.&S.) (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Oxfordshire 

On 3rd August 1994 a single specimen of Sitochroa palealis was found on 
the sticky surface of a pheromone trap in an apple orchard at Milton Hill 
near Didcot, Oxfordshire (GR:SU 487899). 

The trap was being operated for Epiphyas postvittana, but as no other S. 
palealis were caught during the trapping period from June to October, it 
seems that the moth was caught by chance, rather than by any attraction of 
the tortricid's pheromone.- M.A. Easterbrook, Horticulture Research 
International, East Mallmg, Kent ME 19 6BJ. 

Parascotia fuliginaria L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in September 

A distinctly small, fresh male came to my garden m.v. light on 11th 
September 1994, the last of eighteen for the year, the first appearing on 28th 
June, a very early date, and the penultimate specimen on 16th July, although 
the light was not operated from 20th July to 4th August. This late specimen 
is probably a representative of a partial second generation in view of its late 
date, spells of very warm weather in July and August and the considerable 
lapse of time between 5th August and 11th September. A total of 94 
fuliginaria have been noted at this garden trap since 1969, but no others in 
September. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS ] 1 

My trap records indicate that here the species is essentially a July/August 
moth, and this is corroborated by C. Plant (Larger Moths of the London 
area, 1993), whereas for England and Wales in general B. Skinner [Moths of 
the British Isles, 1984) gives June/July. Of the 94 specimens recorded, 66 
were in July, 25 in August, 2 in June (29.vi.1982 and 29.vi.1984) and one in 
September.- B.K. West, 36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DA5 2HN. 

Two highly notable beetles in West Kent in the 1960s 

Mr Keith C. Lewis, of Welling, a coleopterist with whom I have lately 
corresponded, has informed me {in litt.) of certain remarkable captures made 
by himself in West Kent, of which two in particular call for publication and 
comment. 

Panagaeus cruxmajor (L.): Shoreham, 16.viii.67, one example found in a 
stump "at the bottom of a deep slope; the field was very wet, with Marsh 
Orchids (Dactylorhiza incarnata)", pointing to a long-established swampy 
area, though "some years later the field was bone dry and the Orchids gone". 
This handsome Carabid, in contrast to its less rare congener P. bipustulatus 
(F.), is confined to marshy habitats. There is but one record listed in the 
Victoria County History of Kent (1908: 126), namely Shooters Hill, in the 
same vice-county but much farther north-west. The Shoreham record 
appears to be the last for Kent, though for earlier times Fowler (1887, 
Col. Brit. I si. 1: 28) gives Sandgate and Hythe in the eastern vice-county - 
accidentially omitted, it seems, from the VCH list. P. cruxmajor has become 
much scarcer as a British species since the mid-century. 

Staphylimis caesareus Ced.: Joydens Wood, Bexley, one under a birch 
log, 18.vi.64, identified by Mr H.R. Last and confirmed by myself; never 
found again despite very many visits to the locality. This species comes very 
close to the far more frequent S. dimidiaticornis Gem. & Har., which was for 
long mistaken for it in this country, and there are so far very few published 
records of the true S. caesareus in Britain. The present one would seem to be 
the first not only for Kent but also for eastern England. It is true, of course, 
that the old Kent records under the name of caesareus, though probably all 
relating to dimidiaticornis, ought to be checked where possible. I have never 
found even the latter species in the county. 

I am obliged to Mr Lewis for permission to publish these interesting 
captures.- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcahn Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

First Kentish record of Phyllonorycter insignitella Zeller 
(Lep.: Gracillariidae) 

On 15th September 1984, whilst searching amongst clover on north sloping 
ground adjacent to the sea near Heme Bay, Kent, for mines of Parectopa 
ononidis Zell. (which were plentiful) I examined a mined leaf only to 
discover the underside also contained a Phyllonorycter mine. Further 
inspection revealed the presence of mined leaves in relative abundance. 

I decided to leave the mines to mature and adverse weather delayed a 
revisit until 6th October when I collected a good number of mines, which 



102 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

were principally on Trifolium pratense, but a few also on Trifolium repens. 
Confirmation of their suspected identity was obtained when adults force- 
emerged between 29th January and 21st February the following year. 

This appears to be the first confirmed record of insignitella in England for 
over 80 years when the moth was previously recorded only from Co. 
Durham and Yorkshire.- N.F. Heal, 44 Blenheim Avenue, Faversham, Kent 
ME 13 8NW. 

Butterflies and climate change by Roger L.H. Dennis. 302pp. numerous 
figures and tables. 160 x 240mm. Manchester University Press. 1993. 
Hardback £50.00; paperback £19.99. 

Butterflies are particularly sensitive to climate and are important "bio- 
indicators" of climatic change. This book, which develops some of the 
themes in the author's earlier work The British butterflies - their origin and 
establishment (1977), explores how butterflies adapt to climatic gradients 
and weather patterns and how their biogeography and evolution may have 
responded to climate change in the past, and how they are likely to respond 
in the future as the enhanced "greenhouse effect" increasingly alters the 
world's climate. 

The author examines the atmospheric systems in which butterflies live, 
and which impose constraints upon their activity, development and function. 
He examines how butterflies thermoregulate, despite their having very little 
capacity for generating their own heat. Further coverage includes butterflies' 
life history strategies, their adaptations to seasonality, and their tolerance of 
extreme conditions. The discussion, often controversial, ranges over 
population dynamics and species diversity, to the adaptive responses to 
climate and their use in predicting the impact on butterfly populations of 
global warming. 

The coverage and argument used to support the author's views is detailed 
and persuasive, and supported by a massive bibliography. A number of new 
models are proposed - for example to explain how gradients in adult 
morphology and colour patterns relate to gradients in climate, and the 
possible implications of global warming are very interesting. As is usually 
the case with books by Dr Dennis, the language and use of technical terms is 
uncompromising, and apt to put off all but the determined reader. Never- 
theless, this book will be of interest to many professional and amateur 
students of ecology, biology, biogeography and climatology, and is a major 
contribution to our thinking in these areas. Iain Munroe 

Provisional atlas of the lacewings and allied insects (Neuroptera, 
Megaloptera, Raphidioptera and Mecoptera) of Britain and Ireland, by 
Colin W. Plant. 203pp. 73 maps. A5. Limp. Biological Records Centre, 
1994. £6.50 

This is another in the BRC series of Provisional Atlas of . . . whose contents 
belie the somewhat uninteresting title. As is so often the case in books 



BOOK REVIEWS 103 



produced by Colin Plant, the reader gets more than they bargained for. After 
introducing the Lacewing recording scheme, and covering problems of 
identification and validation of records there is a check-list of the 73 species 
covered, followed by the distribution maps and species accounts. For each 
species there is an easy to see distribution map (ie the dots are visible to 
anyone with adequate eyesight!) and a synopsis of the distribution and 
status, habitat, collecting and season. There is an assessment of status and 
Red Data List updating Kirby's original review, and it is pleasing to note that 
many species are recommended for upgrading to more common status on the 
basis of the availability of more comprehensive information. There is a 
bibliography, appendices and index. 

At a very reasonable price this book is a mini-handbook on this group of 
insects and very valuable when combined with other identification guides. 

PAS 

A catalogue of the British Elateroidea (Coleoptera) in the National 
Museum of Wales, by A.H. Kirk-Spriggs & H. Mendel. 26pp. A4. Limp. 
National Museum of Wales Entomology Series No. 3. 1994. £3.50 including 
postage. 

The catalogue lists in full the British holdings of the Elateridae, Throscidae 
and Eucnemidae in systematic sequence, using modem nomenclature. All 
specimens have been re-identified, and the material on the data label has 
been reproduced, and any literature references to the specimen cited. 

There is a lot of material from the important J.R.le B. Tomlin collection, 
which incorporates specimens from many well-known coleopterists 
including Fowler, Joy and Sharp. More modern collections incorporate 
material from A.E. Gardner and F.D. Buck amongst others. The putative 
syntypes of the rare Melanotus punctolineatus are included. An important 
work of reference. 

Danmarks Svirrefluer by Ernst Torp. 490pp. 21 pages of colour 
illustrations. 483 text figures. 180 x 250mm. Boards. Danmarks Dyreliv 
Bind 6. Apollo Books, 1994. Price 300 Danish Kroner, (available from 
Apollo Books, Kirkeby Sand 19, DK-5771 Stenstrup, Denmark). 
This appears to be a revised and updated version of De Danske svirrefluer 
(Diptera: Syrphidae) by the same author, originally published in 1984. The 
work deals with the biology, ecology and systematics of the 270 species of 
Danish hover fly, with keys to the adult flies and early stages. Most species 
are illustrated in colour by photographs of specimens - not always useful for 
identification, especially for those species that are predominately 
unicolorous. Specimens are not in the "set" position as Stubbs & Falk's 
British Hoverflies. There are some excellent photographs of hoverflies taken 
in the wild, and a number of monochrome habitat pictures. 

The text is in Danish and is well laid out. but it is difficult to judge how 
comprehensive the cover is without a significant command of the Danish 



104 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.iii.1995 

language. Helpfully, each figure has an English translation, and there is a 
brief English summary for each of the species described. The keys are 
manageable, with patience and a suitable dictionary although there are more 
accessible works for those interested only in the British fauna. 

The Danes, and particularly Apollo Books have produced some excellent 
entomological texts - some in English and some in Danish. It is not clear 
what governs the choice of primary language, but the current series of 
Danmarks Dyreliv have all been published in Danish (recently including the 
Noctuids, Pyralidae and Oecophoridae - all reviewed in this journal) with 
the exception of the Geometridae {Nordens Malere) which had an English 
version published by E.J. Brill in 1986 (as The Geometrid moths of North 
Europe). It seems a shame that so much useful entomological information is 
rendered inaccessible to the average English reader, whose linguistic skills 
rarely reach even level 1 in the National Curriculum. Paul Sokoloff 

Entomological bygones or historical entomological collecting equipment 
and associated memorabilia by J.M. Chalmer-Hunt. 22pp. 10 
illustrations. Archives of Natural History. 1994. 21(3): 357-378. 
Although not our normal practice to review papers published in journals, this 
item has come to our attention. It describes a collection of some 200 
"entomolgical bygones" collected by Michael Chalmers-Hunt and now 
donated to the Natural History Museum where it will be suitably housed and 
displayed. The paper briefly describes each of the items and their origin, 
with notes and references where appropriate. 

The collection comprises a range of items from pins to pooters, nets, 
cages, light traps, boxes and all manner of other material, with selected items 
illustrated with photographs. Many of the items are fascinating, for example 
the various types of light sources and traps used in the past including a fine 
example of an American moth trap, and an example of Bunnett's wall trap (a 
device for collecting moths that have settled on walls). An interesting paper 
for those fascinated by the materials and apparatus used by yesterdays 
collectors. Paul Sokoloff 

National Pyralid Recording Scheme 

The first newsletter of this newly launched recording scheme was published 
in October 1994. It contains details of how to submit records, a list of the 
species of particular interest - taken from the JNCC Review of scarce and 
threatened pyralid moths for Great Britain, notes on identification and 
establishment of the accuracy of records and details of further newsletters, of 
which two per year are planned. Those submitting records receive the 
newsletter free, with others being charged £3.00. The scheme has no official 
financial backing so those wishing further information are asked to send a 
SAE to Tony Davis, The Rangers House, Cricket Hill Lane, Yateley, 
Camberley, Surrey GU17 7BB. 



THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS* SOCIETY 



The Society was founded in 1935 and caters especially for the 
younger or less experienced Entomologist. 

For details of publications and activities, please write (enclosing 
30p towards costs) to AES Registrar, 5 Oakfield, Plaistow, 
Billinghurst, West Sussex RH14 OQD. 



LEPIDOPTERA RECORDS FOR DEVON 

Could any Lepidopterists who have spent time doing field work in the 
County of Devon please send a list of their records for compilation 
into the county list. Legible field notes, not necessarily in any order, 
with indications of numbers seen and at least a 4-figure map reference 
with any other relevant information would be appreciated. Ail records 
will be acknowledged, and material returned if requested. 

With thanks, in anticipation, Roy McCormick, 36 Paradise Road, 
Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NR. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Field observations of the "Hilltopping" phenomenon in North-west Africa - and 

introduction to "Ravining" (Lep.: Rhopalocera). W.J. Tennent 57 

The status of StrangaUa attenuata L. (Col.: Cerambycidae) in Britain. R.R. Uhthoff- 

Kaufmann 69 

Note on the authorship of the North African satyrid butterfly, Berberia abdelkader ab. 

serrata. (Lep.: Satyridae) as an example of nomenclatoric confusion. R.H. Anken 75 

List of the Chrysomelidae and Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) from Saint Bees Head, West 

Cumbria. R.WJ. Read 77 

Reproductive cycle of Acerentomon nemorale Wom. (Hexapoda: Protura) from soil in 

deciduous woodland. P.E. King & K.V. Aazem 83 

Orthoptera in the London archipelago. John Paul 89 

Notes and observations 

When small white equals a large, or American confusion. B.O.C. Gardiner 67 

Comments on a recent record of Sedina buettneri Her. (Lep.: Noctuidae). B. Skinner 68 

Olethreutes mygindiana D.&S. (Lep.: Tortricidae) new to Shropshire (VC40). 

D.J. Poynton 73 

A record of Me ganola albula D.&S. (Lep.: Nolidae) from Oxfordshire. CM. Paper 74 

New specis of lepidoptera to the Isle of Wight. SA. Knill-Jones 76 

Acontia lucida Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Kent and Dorset. D.F. Owen 81 

Drunken Goats. /. Clarke 82 

Scarce Large Blue butterfly, Maculinea telejus Bergstr. (Lep.: Lycaenidae) in Slovenia. 

D. Withrington 88 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - A biogeographical anomaly, London 1994. T.B. Larsen 95 

First Kentish record of Bankesia douglasii Staint. (Lep.: Psychidae). N.F. Heal 98 

A second British record of Peribatodes manuelaria H.-S. (Lep.: Geometridae). 

S.Clancy 98 

A sighting of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. in West Sussex. D. Dey 99 

The Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. in Somerset. B.E. Slade 99 

A record of Luperina dumerilii Dup. (Lep.:Noctuidae) from Cornwall. B. Skinner 99 

An influx of the Silver Y, Autographa gamma L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in South Devon. 

H.L.O'Hejfernan 100 

A probable second brood of the Orange-tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines L. in the 

South of France. M.S. Han'ey 100 

Sitochroa palealis D.&S. (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Oxfordshire. M.A. Easterbrook 100 

Parascotia fuliginaria L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in September. B.K.West 100 

Two highly notable beetles in West Kent in the 1960s. A.A. Allen ICl 

First Kentish record of Phyllonorycter insignitella Zell. (Lep.: Gracillariidae). N.F. Heal 101 

Book Reviews 102-104 

National Pyralid Recording scheme 104 

SPECIAL NOTICE. 

The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 01277 224610 



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LIBRARY 

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RVARD 
•IJTY 



Entomologist's Record 




Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
P.A. SOKOLOFF, f.r.e.s. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



May /June 1995 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST^S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 

P.A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I.Biol., F.R.E.S. 
4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.s. & A. SPALDING, m.a., f.r.e.s. 

Editorial Panel 

A.A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. PJ. Chandler, b.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

N. Birkett, m.a., m.b. C.A. CoUingwood, B.Sc, f.r.e.s. 

E.S. Bradford A.M. Emmet, m.b.e., t.d., f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley, Ph.D., f.r.e.s. J.A. Owen, m.d., Ph.D., f.r.e.s. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b., ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

B. Skinner 

Registrar 

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Hon. Treasurer 

P.J. Johnson, B.A., A.C.A. 31 Oakdene Road, Brockham, Betchworth, Surrey RH3 7J\' 



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Notes for Contributors 

It would greatly help the Editor if material submitted for publication were typed and double spaced. 
Two copies are preferred. Please DO NOT use block capitals and DO NOT underhne anything except 
scientific names. Word-processed text should not use italic, bold or compressed typeface. References 
quoted within the text can be abbreviated (eg Ent. Rec), but those collected at the end of a paper 
should follow the standard World List abbreviations (eg Entomologist's Rec. J. Var.). When in doubt 
try to follow the style and format of material found in a current issue of the Record. 

Illustrations must be the original (not a photocopy) without legend which should be typed on a 
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INSECTS NEW TO IRELAND ] 05 

ANDRICUS NUDUS (HYM.: CYNIPIDAE) AND TAXOMYIA TAXI 
(DIPT.: CECIDOMYIIDAE): INSECTS NEW TO IRELAND 

'J.P. O'Connor, -P. Ashe, 'M.A. O'Connor and ^S. Wistow 

'c/o National Museum of Ireland, Kildare Street, Dublin 2. 

-Department of Zoology, University College, Dublin 2. 

^"Derrymore" Coliemore Road, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 

Andricus nudus Adier (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) 

Co. Dublin: Castleknock (00837), 15.X.1994, gall on a ten year old 
pedunculate oak {Quercus robur L.) planted in a suburban garden, JPOC. 

The gall occurred on an oak tree which in the authors' experience has been 
remarkable in attracting cynipid species. Purchased as a three year old 
bonzai tree, it was planted in a wild area of the garden in 1987 and has since 
thrived, now standing at circa four metres. The first coloniser was the causer 
of the silk button spangle gall {Neuroterus numismalis (Geoffroy in 
Fourcroy)) in 1992. Only a small number occurred on the leaves but these 
represented the first Irish record of the species which was subsequently 
found to be widespread (O'Connor et ai, 1993). The following year, 
common spangles (N. quercusbaccarum (L.)) and cola-nut galls {Andricus 
lignicola (Hartig)) were noted. By 1994, the former were extremely 
numerous on nearly every leaf and due to crowding, some occurred on the 
upper side of leaves. Oyster galls {Andricus anthracina (Curtis)) are now 
also present. Two other small oak trees of a similar age in the garden are 
unaffected by galls. 

The spindle-shaped gall of A. nudus is a very distinctive one, often 
greenish in colour with reddish streaks as in the present specimen. It is 
readily identifiable using Eady and Quinlan (1963), Darlington (1975), 
Docters van Leeuwan (1982) or Redfem & Askew (1992). Popularly known 
as "Malphighi's galls", they give rise to parthenogenetic females in the 
spring after falling to the ground in the autumn. New to Ireland, A. nudus is 
considered to be rare in Great Britain. However, this may only reflect the 
difficulty of finding the gall which can be very inconspicuous on a tree. The 
Irish specimen was discovered while inspecting the oak for other galls. After 
leaving it to obtain an identification work, a full half-hour was required to 
relocate the gall although its general location was known. No other specimen 
has been found on the tree. A week later, considerable time was spent 
searching for the galls of A. nudus in the Killamey National Park, Co. 
Kerry, but without success. 

Taxomyia taxi (Inchbald) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) 

Co. Kerry: Killamey National Park (V9686), 22.x. 1994, galls common on 
yews on the Muckross Peninsula, JPOC, PA & MAOC. 

The galls of T. taxi were discovered while searching for A. nudus and 
other oak galls in the Park. The species is new to Ireland. The galls occurred 
in large numbers on yews {Taxus baccata L.) growing along Arthur Young's 



106 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

walk on the Muckross Peninsula near the Colleen Bawn Rock. They varied 
in density from tree to tree, some of which were unaffected. The yew is a 
native tree to Ireland and Reenadinna Wood, adjacent to the present site, is 
the only surviving pure yew forest on the island (Nelson & Walsh, 1993). 
Immature and mature two-year artichoke galls predominated but mature one- 
year galls were also present. The latter provide a link between the two-year 
generations but are missing from some populations (Redfem & Askew, 
1992). The life history and morphology of the early stages of T. taxi are 
described by Redfem (1975). The species is widely distributed, occurring in 
northern, western and central Europe (Skuhrava, 1986). In Britain, it 
probably occurs almost everywhere there are yew trees (Barnes, 1951). One 
of the parasitoids, Mesopolobus dijfinis (Walker) which attacks T. taxi 
(Cameron & Redfem, 1978), has been recorded from Ireland (Graham, 
1969) but it was not then known to parasitise T. taxi. 

Voucher specimens of both species have been deposited in the National 
Museum of Ireland. 

Acknowledgements 

The authors are very grateful to D. Kelleher, J. Lamer and P. O'Leary of the 
Killamey National Park for their kind assistance. The O'Connors are also 
indebted to Mrs Alice Norton for her gift of the Castleknock oak. 



References 

Barnes, H.F., 1951. Gall midges of economic importance 5. Gall midges of trees. Crosby, Lockwood 

and Son, London. 
Cameron, R.A.D. & Redfem, M., 1978. Population dynamics of two hymenopteran parasites of the 

yew gaU midge Taxomyia taxi (Inchbald). Ecol. Ent. 3: 265-272. 
Darlington, A., 1975. The pocket encylopaedia of plant galls in colour. Revised edition. Blandford 

Press, Dorset. 
Docters van Leeuwen, W.M., 1982. Gallenboek. B.V.W.J. Thieme & CIE, Zuthphen. 
Eady, R.D. & Quinlan, J., 1963. Hymenoptera Cynipoidea. Key to families and subfamilies, and 

Cynipinae (including galls). Handbk Ident. Br. Insects 8(la): 1-81. 
Graham, M.W.R. de V., 1969. The Pteromalidae of north-western Europe (Hymenoptera: 

Chalcidoidea). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) Suppl 16: 1-908. 
Nelson, E.C. & Walsh, W.F., 1993. Trees of Ireland. Native and naturalized. The Lilliput Press, 

Dublin. 
O'Connor, J.P., O'Connor, M.A. & Wistow, S., 1993. Some records of Irish Cynipidae 

(Hymenoptera) including ten species new to Ireland. //■. Nat. J. 24: 321-325. 
Redfem, M., 1975. The life history and morphology of the early stages of the yew gall midge 

Taxomyia taxi (Inchbald) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). /. nat. Hist. 9: 513-533. 
Redfem, M. & Askew, R.R., 1992. Plant galls. Naturalists' Handbooks 17. The Richmond Publishing 

Co Ltd, Slough. 
Skuhrava, M., 1986. Family Cecidomyiidae. In Soos, A. and Papp, L. (eds) Catalogue of Palaearctic 

Diptera. 4: pp. 12-291 . Akademiai Kiado, Budapest. 



BUTTERFLIES IN JORDAN, SYRIA AND LEBANON ] 07 

BUTTERFLIES IN JORDAN, SYRIA AND LEBANON, 
28.V.94 to 7.vi.94. 

Peter B. Hardy 

]0 Dudley Road, Sale, Cheshire. 

THE BUTTERFLIES of Lebanon and Jordan have been thoroughly 
documented by Larsen (1974) and Larsen and Nakamura (1983) 
respectively. I am unaware of any recent publication on the butterflies of 
Syria. The following notes are from a two-week tour of the three countries, 
and may be regarded as an amplification of some of Larsen's records plus 
some additional ones. They are all sight and/or photographic records; I do 
not collect "specimens". 

The tour was primarily intended for steam railway enthusiasts, and thus 
was based on the main railway systems - the "Hedjaz" line from Amman to 
Damascus via Dera'a, and also southwards from Amman as far as Qatrana; 
the branch lines from Dera'a to Bosra and from Dera'a to Mzeireib; and the 
D.H.P. (Societe Ottomane du Chemin de Fer Damas-Hama et 
Prolongements) line now truncated to the Damascus-Serghaya section but 
which formerly ran from Damascus through to Beirut. The tour also included 
a day excursion by coach from Damascus to Beirut primarily to investigate 
the remains of the western section of this line. 

Vegetation types in Jordan and Lebanon are described by Larsen and 
Nakamura (1983) and Larsen (1974). In the present study, most of the sites 
visited in Jordan fall into Larsen's "Northern Mediterranean" and "Eastern 
Desert" zones, the flora of each of which is depauperate as a result of 
centuries of deforestation and overgrazing, and consists primarily of 
degraded ganigue, with virtually no tree cover and the open country heavily 
grazed especially by goats. Small scraps of grassland with some regeneration 
of natural vegetation occur in and around towns. The area around Petra, in 
Larsen's "Southern Mediterranean" zone, provides a greater variety of 
habitats, ranging from the xeric sandstone of the Roman city to Wadi Musa, 
the main approach from the east, a quite fertile valley but heavily grazed by 
horses which are used to transport tourists into the Roman city. At the west 
end of the site are dry valleys with rocky walls (Wadi es Siyagh and Wadi 
Kharrubet ibn Jubeimer) containing some established vegetation dominated 
by oleanders. 

The Syrian localities are again mostly sun-baked, degraded ganigiie with 
little vegetation, apart from those along the Serghaya line, which starts 
through a quite fertile and well-wooded, but narrow and steep-sided valley; 
then opens out between Tequieh and Zebdani; there is the hillside on the 
south side of the line, with a north-facing slope, referred to in the Chazara 
persephone and Pseudochazara mamwra species accounts; Zebdani is a 
small but "bustling" town but with scraps of greenery; the terminus at 
Serghaya (altitude 1372m) is in agricultural land below the Anti-Lebanon 



108 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

foothills. A further habitat type is provided by an artificially planted "forest 
belt" around the city of Damascus; however, few butterflies apart from the 
vagile Pierids appear to have adapted to this region. 

Of the sites in Lebanon, Rayak is an agricultural area which falls in 
Larsen's "Syrian Beqaa Zone" (500- 1000m), Beirut is in his "Lower 
Mediterranean" zone and the roadside site when crossing the southern 
section of the Mt. Lebanon range would fall under his "Upper 
Mediterranean" zone. The much greater richness of the vegetation in 
Lebanon than in Syria or Jordan is very noticeable and is paralleled by the 
number of butterfly sightings and species recorded during the single day's 
excursion into that country compared with the whole of the remainder of the 
fortnight. The weather throughout the two weeks was hot and sunny, with 
only a few spots of rain one day in Damascus. 

Understandably, most lepidopterists travelling abroad would normally 
plan to visit sites known for their species-richness. I have certainly often 
done so myself. There are, however, also advantages in the alternative 
method of study of taking a general cross-section of a country as a whole, 
without attempting to choose sites for their richness, and being constantly on 
the look-out for whatever butterflies are seen and where. Although the 
species seen on such a visit are unlikely to include many rarities, it is 
possible to gain a much truer impression of just what proportion of the whole 
environment butterflies are still able to utilise, and which species are best 
adapted to utilise it. Butterflies are generally accepted as good "indicator" 
species. Thus a rail tour, with frequent photographic stops along the route, 
chosen for their variety and representative of the "real" country and not 
restricted either to "tourist" sites or to selected nature reserves, can offer an 
ideal opportunity for such a study. 

Species accounts are treated as follows: Scientific name; common name 
(following Larsen, 1974); localities with approximate numbers seen, or "N" 
when several specimens were seen but the exact number not recorded (for 
key to localities see Table 1 . Where sets of initials separated by a dash are 
given, this denotes an unnamed location between the two, for example "R- 
BE" means an unspecified location between Rayak and Beirut). 

Papilio machaon syriacus Verity 1905 (Swallowtail) 
Jordan: M(l). Lebanon: BE(R)(1), J(l). 

No obvious breeding habitat was noted anywhere. Larsen (1974) remarks 
that in Lebanon the species favours disturbed land. Of the three sightings, 
two were opportunist nectaring, one utilising the wild flowers which had 
almost wholly taken over the abandoned main railway yard in Beirut, and the 
other in totally unsuitable habitat outside a cafe in Jounieh, utilising 
ornamental flowers in pots. The third sighting was an individual on passage, 
overflying the station yard at Mafraq during a lunchtime stop on 29.V.94. 



BUTTERFLIES IN JORDAN, SYRIA AND LEBANON ] 09 

Iphiclides podalirius virgatus Butler 1865 (Pear-tree Swallowtail) 

Syria: G(l). 

A single sighting, at 12.52pm on 5.vi.94, overflying Ghazale station on the 

main Damascus-Dera'a railway line, during a half-hour stop there. 

Pieris hrassicae catoleuca Rober 1 896 (Large White) 

Jordan: P(G)(1), P(C)(c.6). Syria: C(l), DC(1), DU(1), T(?). 

Lebanon: R(W)(1). 

The only site where this species was seen in any numbers was Petra, on 

31.V.94. At the entrance to the dry river-valley (Wadi es Siyagh) at the west 

end of the Roman city, several were noted patrolling, around mid-day, and 

were flying in and out of small caves on the shady north side of the valley. 

Elsewhere, sightings were limited to singles in the Damascus area and at 

Rayak. 

Pieris rapae leucosoma Schawerda 1905 (Small White) 
Jordan: A1-4(N), A(H)(N), JE(N), J(A)(1), M(2+l). Syria: B(C)(N), 
B(H)(N), B(S)(1), C(6), D(C)(1), D(S)(l-2), D'A-D(l), D-DU(l), S(N), T(?), 
Z(3), Z-S(N). Lebanon: BE(S)(5), BE(R)(16), R(B)(1), R(S)(N), R(W)(2). 
This species was far more numerous than P. brassicae and able to exploit 
most biotopes apart from open desert. It was to be found in any area of 
cultivation or populated area with some open space. The highest 
concentration seen was in the abandoned railway yard at Beirut, on 3.vi.94. 
At the Jordanian and Syrian sites it frequently occurred with Pontia 
daplidice but was always out-numbered by that species. 

Pieris napi dubiosa Rober 1 907 (Green-veined White) 

Syria: Z(l). 

A single confirmed sighting, at Zebdani, nectaring on a white Crucifer 

growing in a small wet flush beside a road in the outskirts of the town, along 

with several P. rapae. This subspecies is difficult to distinguish from P. 

rapae so could be under-recorded; however, very little of the damper habitat 

normally favoured by P. napi was observed anywhere. 

Pontia daplidice daplidice Linne 1758 (Bath White) 

Jordan: A1-3(N), A(H)(N), DS(1), DV(2), JE(N), LF(N), M(4), P(AR)(N), 
P(G)(1), P(0)(1), P(VC)(N), P(C)(3), QH(1), ZE(1), Syria: B(C)(N), 
B(S)(l-h2), C(14), D'A(N), D'A-D(N), D(C)(1), DER(2), G(2), S(N). 
Lebanon: BE(R)(1), R(S)(N), R(W)(1). 

An extremely successful species; in Jordan and Syria it was the commonest 
butterfly and likely to be seen anywhere including open desert. A site where 
it was particularly numerous was the railway works at Cadem, near 
Damascus. There were a number of weedy as well as some cultivated 
Crucifers around this site; during approximately two hours, fourteen P. 
daplidice, six Pieris rapae and one Pieris brassicae were noted; no other 
butterflies were present here. It was noticeably less frequent, and either 
absent or outnumbered by P. rapae, at the lower-altitude Lebanese sites. 



1 10 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Colotis fausta fausta Olivier 1804 (Salmon Caper) 
Jordan: DS(1), P(G)(6), P(VC)(N), P(C)(2). 

This species is migrant, but a strong seasonal population was present at 
Petra, especially in the dry valley (Wadi Siyagh) leading westwards away 
from the Roman city at its western end; a female was seen ovipositing on a 
tiny plant of Capparis, half-hidden by other vegetation and in the shade of 
the rocks on the north edge of the valley. Males were patrolling this area; 
several males were also seen outside the main habitat, including the very 
deep, vertical-sided gorge (Es-Siq) which provides the main entrance to the 
Roman city, from the east. Some of these disorientated butterflies were 
pausing to nectar on the scant flowers at the side of the gorge. 

Colias croceus croceus Geoffroy 1785 (Clouded Yellow) 

Jordan: LF(1), P(VC)(1). Syria: B(H)(1), D'A-D(2-mating pair), T-Z(l), 

Z(l), Z-S(l helice). Lebanon: R(S)(1). 

Singles of this migratory butterfly were seen in a number of different sites, 

particularly where there was some cultivation. A mating pair, the female 

being a helice, was observed on a chance stop made for the purpose of 

photographing the steam train on the journey from Dera'a to Damascus 

l.vi.94. 

Gonepteiyx rhamni meridionalis Rober 1970 (Brimstone) 

Syria: S(i). Lebanon: BE(H)(1). 

Two sightings only: one was seen from the coach on the descent into Beirut, 

in a suburban area; and another at Serghaya in agricultural land. 

Polygonia egea egea Cramer 1775 (Southern Comma) 

Jordan: J(l), P(VC)(1). Syria: B(C)(1), B(H)(1). 

This is a thermophilic Mediterranean species and all the sightings were at 

xeric sites with much bare ground and stone walls or ruins, providing the 

surfaces on which it likes to bask. 

Pandoriana pandora pandora Denis & Schiffermiiller 1775 (Cardinal) 
Syria: S(l). 

One at Serghaya, just south of the station area, beside a lane with hedgerows 
in agricultural land. The butterfly settled briefly on top of a hedge, flew off 
when approached, made two circuits of the area, again once briefly settling, 
and was then lost. 

Melitaea trivia syriaca Rebel 1905 (Mullein Fritillary) 

Jordan: DS(1). Syria: H(l). Lebanon: BE(R)(2). 

This species was seen in widely differing habitats. A small colony was found 

in the abandoned C.F.L. railway yard, near sea-level in Beirut. Larsen (pers. 

comm.) confirms that old railway yards are ideal for the larval hostplant. 

Another small population was found on the steep, north-facing, sparsely 

vegetated hillside south of the railway line from Damascus to Serghaya, in 



BUTTERFLIES IN JORDAN, SYRIA AND LEBANON 



the Nahr Berada valley; and a single Meliatea, which briefly paused to nectar 
on an isolated thistle flower by the lineside at a photographic stop in the 
desert south of Mafraq was presumably this species. 

Melanargia titea titea Klug 1832 & M. titea palaestinensis Staudinger 1901 
(Levantine Marbled White) 

Jordan: (WM)(wing!). Syria: H(l), S(l), Z(l). Lebanon: R-BE(N), R(S)(1), 
R(B)(1). 

This species gave the impression of being much more widely distributed and 
common in the more fertile Lebanon than in Jordan and Syria. In Lebanon it 
was found at an altitude of approximately 1500m. during a brief stop where 
the main Damascus-Beirut road crosses the range of hills (Jabel el Knisse) 
forming the southern foothills of Mt. Lebanon, as well as in grassland at 
Rayak, in the Beqaa Valley. In Syria it was seen in smaller numbers on the 
north-facing hillside above the railway line from Damascus to Serghaya, and 
also at Serghaya and Zebdani and gave the impression of being generally 
distributed, but not abundant, in that area. The butterfly was not seen alive in 
Jordan, but a single detached wing was found outside the "Petra Forum" 
hotel, Wadi Musa - this could either be an indicator of a local population, or 
else the wing might have inadvertently been carried there in a tourist vehicle 
- the latter explanation is perhaps more likely as Larsen & Nakamura (1993) 
do not give any records of the species in the Petra area. 

Chazara persephone transiens Zemy 1932 (Great Steppe Grayling) 
Syria: H(N), Z(2). 

This species occurred on the north-facing hillside west of Damascus on the 
railway line to Serghaya, flying in company with Pseudochazara mamurra. 
It was also seen in less suitable habitats nearby, including the town of 
Zebdani, giving evidence of a strong local population with powers of 
dispersal. Larsen (1974 and 1983) remarks on it being "very scarce", 
however, he adds (pers. comm.) that when found it may be numerous. He 
has also confirmed my identification of this species from a photograph. 

Pseudochazara telephassa telephassa Hiibner 1819-26 (Telephassa 
Grayling) 

Jordan: A(S)(1-f1-h1), A(CS)(2), A3(1), A4(2), DV(1), P(VC)(1?), QH(1). 
It was worth looking for this species in rocky places in Jordan where the 
topography of the rocks would provide at least some shelter. The small 
engine shed just north-east of Amman station is at the base of a steep, rocky 
hillside, beneath houses and with much dumped rubbish, but even here in a 
scrap of land behind the shed building, which received the early morning 
sun, a single P. telephassa (the same individual?) was seen on three 
mornings. The butterfly appeared to have roosted overnight in a small cave 
and on one occasion was observed to fly back into the cave and settle inside. 
The species was also seen at several other sites along the railway line south 
of Amman and once at a stop in the desert on the way to Qatrana. 



112 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Pseudochazara mamurra larseni Kocak (Buff Asian Grayling) 
Syria: B(C)(2), B(H)(1), H(N), Z(N). 

A Satyrine flying on the steep north-facing hillside above the Serghaya line, 
west of Damascus, in company with Chazara persephone, was tentatively 
identified by me as P. pelopea, but Larsen (pers. comm.) has identified it 
from my photograph as P. mamurra. The butterfly occurred in numbers on 
that hillside, and, like C. persephone, was also seen in marginal habitats 
nearby including Zebdani town. Another locality was Bosra; the xeric 
surrounds of the Roman castle provided suitable habitat and it was also in 
the grounds of the "Cham Palace" hotel. These Bosra examples may have 
been P. pelopea; Larsen (pers. comm.) remarks that P. mamurra usually 
emerges later than P. pelopea and being lighter in colour is often passed over 
as a faded P. pelopea. 

Maniola telmessia telmessia Zeller 1847 (Oriental Meadow Brown) 

Lebanon: R(S)(1). 

A single fresh specimen was seen at Rayak 3.vi.94. Very probably the 

emergence was only just beginning - I had expected this species to be a lot 

commoner. 

Ypthima asterope asterope Klug 1832 (African Ringlet) 
Lebanon: BE(S)(8). 

A localised colony occurred around the old locomotive maintenance pits at 
the former D.H.P. engine-shed in Beirut (port area). None were found 
anywhere else. Larsen (1974) refers to this as an eremic species and 
mentions that it is consistently found in the monotonous ''garrigues'' even 
where there are no small valleys and gorges; he also refers to it as the only 
widespread species in those areas. This Beirut locality, however, was well 
vegetated and quite shady, with regenerating trees around the locomotive 
storage area. 

Pararge aegeria aegeria Linne 1758 (Speckled Wood) 

Syria: DU(1),V(N). 

Seen in numbers in the well-wooded valley (Nahr Berada) followed by the 

Serghaya line north-westwards from Damascus, mainly around Dummar, the 

first station west of Damascus. No suitable habitat for this species was seen 

elsewhere. 

Lasiommata maera orientalis Heyne 1984 (Large Wall Brown) 

Lebanon: BE(C)(2). 

The bomb damage in the centre of Beirut had provided a transient habitat for 

this butterfly and during a brief stop to view the appalling destruction two 

examples were noted, in a small area of grass and regenerating vegetation, 

thermoregulating on the rubble. Not seen elsewhere. 



BUTTERF1.IES IN JORDAN, SYRIA AND LEBANON 1 1 3 

Lycaena phlaeas timeus Cramer 1777 (Small Copper) 
Jordan: A(H)(1). Lebanon: R(W)(1). 

Two sightings, one on a small area of vacant grassland in the residential 
district of Shmeisani, Amman, and one by a roadside at Rayak, Lebanon. 
The Amman site was burnt the following day and searches in similar sites in 
the vicinity failed to find any more. Clearly, however, the butterfly is able to 
find and locate small scraps of habitat in suburban areas amidst largely 
unsuitable environment. The subspecies timeus has the orange ground colour 
of the upperside fore wing heavily overlaid with dark scales. 

Lycaena thersamon omphale Klug 1834 (Lesser Fiery Copper) 

Jordan: Al(l), A2(2), A(H)(2+2), DS(1), M(l), P(0)(2-3), QH(1). Syria: 

B(H)(1+N),B(S)(1),Z(1). 

By far the most successful Lycaenid in the area, much more so than L. 

phlaeas. It was worth looking for in any scrap of green. Larsen (1974) refers 

the race to kurdistanica Riley 1921, mentioning that omphale was probably 

only a seasonal form; however, Larsen & Nakamura (1983) refer it to ssp. 

omphale. Omphale is frequently understood to refer to the form of the 

female with tails to the hind-wing; I saw both tailed and untailed females. 

Lampides boeticus boeticus Linne 1767 (Long-tailed Blue) 

Jordan: A(H)(2). Syria: B(H)(1). 

A migrant species likely to turn up in any suitable habitat; noted at Amman 

(Shmeisani) and in the grounds of the "Cham Palace" Hotel, Bosra. A 

Lycaenid seen briefly in very xeric habitat at Jiza (the station near Queen 

Alia International Airport) was probably this species. 

Tarucus balkanicus balkanicus Freyer 1845 (Little Tiger Blue) 

Syria: Z(l). 

One was seen in Zebdani, nectaring, on rubbish-strewn waste land by a 

stream in a small valley in the suburbs of this town. 

Freyeria trochylus trochylus Freyer 1 845 (Grass Jewel) 

Jordan: A2(l?). 

One unconfirmed sighting beside the railway east of Amman. 

Aricia agestis agestis Denis & Schiffermiiller 1775 (Brown Argus) 
Jordan: A3(1),QH(1). 

Larsen and Nakamura (1983) state that in Jordan this species "is restricted 
to the northern Mediterranean zone and can only be described as rare". 
Having found it by chance in two localities in the Amman area, on tiny 
patches of Geranium growing close to the railway, above the tunnel hill and 
at Qasir um al Heeran station, I incline to the belief that it may be commoner 
than Larsen and Nakamura suggest. 

Polyommatus icarus zelleri Verity 1919 (Common Blue) 

Jordan: Al(2-3), A2(l), A(H)(3-4-hN), J(3), M(l), P(0)(c.3). Syria: T(c.3). 

Lebanon: JOU(l), R(W)(1). 



114 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Like Lycaena thersamon, this species seems well able to exploit small 
patches of habitat. In several localities the two species occurred together, 
including the scraps of wasteland in the Amman area, though P. icarus was 
less widely distributed. P. icarus also shared habitat with L. phlaeas in the 
two sites where that species was found. 

Carcharodus alceae alceae Esper 1780 (Hollyhock Skipper) 
Jordan: A2(l), P(AR)(1), P(0)(N), P(VC)(1), P(C)(3), QH(1). 
Syria: D'A-D(l). 

Petra was an evident stronghold. Others were seen on small areas of 
grassland beside the railway in the Amman area. The only sighting outside 
Jordan was one beside a bridge over the railway during a brief photographic 
stop on the journey between Dera'a and Damascus l.vi.94. It is possible that 
some of the sightings, particularly at Petra, could have been C. stauderi 
ambigua Verity 1925 or C. orientalis maccabeus Hemming 1932. 

Table 1. Localities. 

(a) Jordan. 

A(S) 3r58'N35°58'E AMMAN ENGINE SHED. 

Steep rocky cutting and very small patch of waste ground behind 
shed building, immediately north-east of Amman station. 

A(CS) 3r58'N 35°58'E AMMAN (cutting south-west of station). 
Steep-sided railway cutting through limestone. 

A(l) to AMMAN - sites beside the railway line to Qasir um al Heeran, 
A(3) south-east of the city (distances from Amman station by railway in 

kms): 

A(l) cemetery; adjacent grassland on hillside (0.8). 

A(2) cemetery; adjacent grassland in valley (3.4). 

A(3) west-facing hillside above mouth of short tunnel (6.2). 

A(H) 3r58'N 35°54'E AMMAN - vicinity of Al-Qasr Hotel, 

Shmeisani, north-west of city; small areas of vacant 
grassland/wasteland amidst residential area; grass subject to 
burning. 

DS (DESERT STOPS) - various stops during train journeys, Amman- 

Mafraq. 

DV 3r23'N 36°07'E (DESERT VALLEY) - photographic stop on 

train journey from Amman southwards to Qatrana. 

J(A) 3r42'N 35°58'E JIZA - station on railway south of Amman, 
intended to serve Queen Alia International airport; desert 
vegetation. 



BUTTERFLIES IN JORDAN, SYRIA AND LEBANON ] ] 5 

JE 32°17'N35°53'E JERASH - Roman city and environs. 

LF (LINESIDE FIELDS) - train journey, Amman-Mafraq. 

M 32°20'N 36°12'E MAFRAQ - area around station; very arid; a few 

small trees. 

P 30° 19'N 35°27'E PETRA - Roman city and environs: 

(AR) above ruins 
(VC) Valley and caves 
(C) the Roman city 

(G) the gorge leading into Petra from Wadi Musa 
(O) the open grassland and dry valley above the gorge. 

QH 3r54'N 35°56'E QASIR UM AL HEERAN - suburban station 

south-east of Amman; 12.5km from Amman station by rail; 
adjacent grassland. 

WM 30° 19'N 35°29'E WADI MUSA - the "Petra Forum" hotel. 

ZE 32°02'N 36°06'E ZERKA - area around station. 

(b) Syria. 

B 32°31'N36°29'E BOSRA: 

(C) Bosra castle - Roman citadel, and the grassland below 

(H) the grounds of the "Cham Palace" hotel - several flower-beds 

(S) the area around Bosra station. 

C 33°28'N 36°18'E CADEM (also speh QADAM) - decadent 

railway works near Damascus; still active but the locomotive 
storage yard very over 

D 33°31'N36°18'E DAMASCUS: 

(C)city .-^- 

(S) the main station (Kanawat). 

DA 32°38'N 36°06'E DERAA - border station on the main "Hedjaz" 
Amman-Damascus line; active but with some weedy vegetation. 

(DA-D) various lineside stops between Damascus and Dera'a. 

DER 33°17'N 36°18'E DERALI - station between Damascus and 
Dera'a; desert. 

DU 33°30'N 36°14'E DUMMAR - first station west of Damascus on 

Serghaya line; in wooded valley. 

G 32°44'N 36°12'E GHAZALE - station between Damascus and 

Dera'a; desert. 

H 33°34'N 36°05'E (HILLSIDE) - north-east-facing sloping valley 

side south of Damascus-Serghaya railway line; rocks and sparse 
vegetation. 



1 16 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

S 33°49'N 36°09'E SERGHAYA - current terminus of the former 

DHP (Damas-Hama et Prolongements) railway from Damascus to 
Beirut: agricultural area around station yard. 

T 33°39'N 36°04'E TEQUIEH - station on Damascus-Serghaya line. 

V 33°34'N 36°13'E (VALLEY) - north-west of Damascus the 

railway line to Serghaya initially follows the narrow, wooded 
valley of the Nahr Barada river. 

Z 33°44'N 36°06'E ZEBDANI - small "bustling" town on 

Damascus-Serghaya railway; station yard; cultivation and 
wasteland in valley. 

(c) Lebanon. 

BE(C) 33°53'n 35°30'E BEIRUT CITY - Najmeh district, near post office 
headquarters; severely bomb-damaged streets with much 
pioneering vegetation overgrowing ruins. 

BE(H) 33°51'N 35°32'E - suburban hill near Beirut. 

BE(R) 33°52'N 35°32'E BEIRUT RAILWAY YARD - extensive area of 
sidings around the former C.F.L. (Chemin de Fer de I'Etat Libanais) 
station; disused; now well vegetated with abundant wild flowers. 

BE(S) 33°54'N 35°32'E BEIRUT (SHED) - abandoned DHP locomotive 
depot with stored engines near Beirut port area. 

JOU 33°59'N 35°38'E JOUNIEH - seaside resort north of Beirut. 

R 33°5rN 36°00'E RAYAK - small town in southern Beqaa valley; 

formerly an important railway junction: 
(B) bridge over railway, outside town 

(S) disused station and surrounding area; overgrown sidings; 
agricultural land; grass verges 

(W) works - DHP locomotive store; now controlled by the military; 
adjacent roadside verges. 

Acknowledgements 

I wish to thank G.W. ("Bill") Alborough of TEES Travel Service for 
organising and leading this tour, and Torben B. Larsen for help in 
identifying some of my photographs. 



References 

Larsen, T.B.. 1974. Butterflies of Lebanon. 256pp. National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut. 
Larsen, T.B. & Nakamura, I., 1983. The butterflies of east Jordan. Ent. Gaz. 34:135-208. 



EREBIALIGEA 117 



FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE EREBIA LIGEA (LINNAEUS) 
AND OTHER CONTROVERSIES. 

Michael A. Salmon, fres 

Avon Lodge. Woodgreen, near Fordinghridge, Hants SP6 2AU. 

THE EARLIEST PHOTOGRAPH, consisting of a permanent image of 
paintings on glass, was taken by Thomas Wedgwood in 1802, almost exactly 
one year before the redoubtable Adrian Hardy Haworth was to write, "I have 
recently heard that Papilio Apollo of Linnaeus has been found in Scotland, 
but I have not seen a British specimen." Haworth's image, unlike 
Wedgwood's, was strangely evanescent, but it was to signal the start of 
almost two hundred years during which a number of improbable sightings or 
captures of outstanding butterflies, in unlikely localities, were reported by 
lepidopterists, famous or otherwise. We were to read of Large Coppers in the 
West Country, Large Blues in Ireland and the Hebrides, Apollos in the 
Scottish Highlands and even an Arran Brown at Margate in Kent. These 
reports make fascinating reading and strongly promote the view that man's 
quest for the unicorn goes on and on. 

"Inquisitor", writing in the Entomological Magazine in 1836, deplored the 
fact that butterflies in collections up and down the land, and purporting to be 
British, were often of Continental origin. There was a flourishing market in 
Continental specimens, with exotic but strangely plausible labels, and the 
equally plausible Victorian collectors nurtured a considerable number of 
fraudulent dealers. A group of these became infamous as the "Kentish 
Buccaneers" (Allan, 1943), and they successfully manipulated the market so 
as to undermine the confidence of serious collectors. "Inquisitor" demanded 
a complete revision of the British "List", and suggested that 34 species 
commonly found adorning British cabinets had no right to be labelled 
British. It is of interest to read his comments on two of these. ''Chryseis 
(Purple-Edged Copper): In every collection of any importance, either in 
town or country; sometimes a whole series of males, females and undersides, 
being displayed; to be purchased abundantly of dealers at a price seldom 
exceeding one shilling for a specimen." And again, ''Virgauriae (sic) (Scarce 
Copper): In every collection; I have seen nearly a thousand of this species, 
said to be British; fine recent specimens, said to be taken last year (1835), 
may be purchased abundantly, and at a very low price, of many dealers. I am 
not aware that a single syllable, even hinting at a capture of this insect in 
Britain, has ever been written." "Inquisitor" ended his diatribe with a list of 
"unquestionably" British species, but with the caution that the majority of 
specimens of Pontia daplidice (L.), Argynnis lathonia (L.) and Nymphalis 
antiopa (L.) in British collections were "decidedly and evidently exotic . . . 
and may be purchased for a mere song." 

But to return to A.H. Haworth and his Apoflo butterfly. Edward Newman 
(1870-71) also recalled this specimen when he quoted his correspondent J.C. 



118 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Dale, the squire of Glanvilles Wootton in Dorset. "The late Mr Haworth 
informed me that a lady, whom Mr Curtis believed to be the Marchioness of 
Bute, told him that she had received a specimen from some alpine place on 
the west coast in the north of Scotland." Dale had gone on to add - "Mr 
Curtis was convinced he saw a specimen of Apollo flying over the top of a 
house at the foot of Ben Lawers", while Henry Austin (1856), in a note to 
the Zoologist, begged to inform everyone that he had - "yesterday met a man 
who assured him that he saw Parnassius Apollo at Hanwell six years ago. At 
a time when Apollo's claim to be a British insect is under discussion every 
scrap of information is of value." It was not until G.B. Wollaston (1856) 
wrote to Edward Newman concerning the actual capture and identification of 
an Apollo butterfly in Kent that some sort of peace seemed likely, but 
Wollaston unfortunately failed to stop there. He went on to talk of other 
spectacular captures and Newman was soon on the warpath. Under the 
imposing heading - Capture of Parnassius Apollo at Dover; also Argynnis 
Lathonia, Chrysophanus dispar and Catocala Fraxini, near Chiselhurst, in 
Kent. - he informs us that - "Mr Dale having obligingly given me a clew to 
the history of these splendid captures, I immediately wrote to Mr G.B. 
Wollaston, of Chiselhurst, who was acquainted with the particulars, and 
forthwith received the following most courteous reply :- 

"Chiselhurst, 1st February, 1856 
My dear Sir, 

As you wish for more particulars about the capture of Parnassius, I 
have been to-day to see the person who took it, and hear from his own 
lips all about it. He was lying on the cliffs at Dover, in the end of August 
or the beginning of September, 1847 or 1848 (he cannot remember 
which), when the butterfly settled close to him, and not having his nets 
with him, captured it by putting his hat over it; he then carried it to his 
lodgings and shut window and door, and let it go in the room and 
secured it. He had not the slightest idea what it was till he saw it figured 
in some work afterwards. The insect has all the appearance of having 
been taken as he describes; and as he has no object to deceive, and is a 
person in whom I can place implicit confidence, I have no doubt, in my 
own mind, that the specimen is a British one. It will probably be in my 
own collection before this letter reaches you, when I shall be most happy 
to show it to you at any time you are this way . . ." 

Lepidopterists could not but have been reassured by this letter although 
the identity of the captor has never been revealed. Since then, the history of 
Parnassius apollo Linnaeus in Britain has been critically reviewed by A.M. 
Morley and J.M. Chalmers-Hunt (1959), who unearthed at least one more 
genuine British Apollo (also from Kent) in their review, as well as 
reinforcing the impression that the central theme running through most of the 



EREBIA LIGEA 



early reports was one of vagueness and romantic imagery. If we return to 
Wollaston's letter and read on, we learn that other rarities were out and 
about. After writing about P. apollo he goes on to say - 

"with regard to Argynnis lathonia, I have perhaps, unintentionally, 
misinformed Mr Dale. It was captured in this neighbourhood, not by 
himself, but by an intimate friend and fellow entomologist, now dead. 
He has taken Colias hyale, female, on this common, Chiysophanus 
dispar, male, in this parish, - his friend the female . . ." 
Large Coppers at Chislehurst? Such a claim could hardly inspire confidence, 
but other reports from the West Country were to follow. 

There is limited but compelling evidence that the Large Copper may have 
flourished in the West Country some two hundred years ago. Five specimens 
of Lycaena dispar, together with a single Scarce Copper {Lycaena 
virgaureae Linn.), in the Somerset County Museum, Taunton, are 
accompanied by a pencilled label - "Possibly the specimens of the Large and 
Purple-edged Copper [wrong identification] caught by the Quekett brothers 
at Langport . . ." The Quekett brothers (E.J. and J.T.), of microscopy fame, 
were local collectors who allegedly gave their collection(s) to the museum in 
1876-77. However, the curator at that time, William Bidgood (see Sutton 
1993), wrote to A.E. Hudd (1906), "Early in the last century the late 
Professor [J.T.] Quekett and his brother (a banker at Langport), formed a 
museum in the 'Hanging Chapel' there. This was transferred to our society 
about 1867. The collection had been much neglected, so that when I went to 
take possession I found everything covered with mildew, moth playing 
havoc with the birds and mites with the insects. There were here also, three 
or four dispar which I was assured by the family were taken at Langport ..." 
R.G. Sutton (1993) has examined the evidence relating to the Quekett 
Large Coppers. He suggests that the specimens may no longer exist as their 
distressed condition, when William Bidgood took possession of them, may 
have precluded their addition to the collection. He goes on to say that the 
present museum specimens could be those caught by John Woodland, 
another local collector, who also presented his collection to the museum. The 
Curator's manuscript (still in existence at the Historical Library, Taunton 
Castle) states, "About the year 1864, Mr Woodland gave me a small 
collection of butterflies taken near Langport early in the century; among 
them were two or three L. dispar which he told me were taken by himself. In 
his early days he had taken care of them, but he got old and neglected them, 
so that when they came to me they were dilapidated . . ." Unfortunately these 
facts still do not prove beyond all doubt that the specimens were of Somerset 
origin, and with this in mind we should study the Bidgood list that is still in 
existence today. It includes Parnassius apollo, Argynnis lathonia, Vanessa 
antiopa, Lycaena dispar, Lycaena virgaureae, Polyommatus acis, and 
Polyommatus alexis. This list seems almost too good to be true and leads one 
to ask if the entomological dealers of the day had provided Woodland with 
Continental specimens to fill gaps in his coll'ection. 



120 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

The redoubtable J.W. Tutt (1906) voiced his opinion of the Langport 
Large Coppers - ". . . one would like more authentic information", a 
sentiment that all would surely agree with. If the Queckett brothers and John 
Woodland did take L. dispar in Somerset, they were not alone. Other reports 
followed. In 1857, W.D. Crotch, a prolific writer on matters entomological, 
contributed a startling note to the Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer. 
Under the title "Doings in the West", he described a collecting trip to 
Weston-super-Mare in Somerset (20 miles from Langport). "C. dispar fell 
ignobly, slain by the hat of a friend, who kindly made the spoil over to me, 
in utter ignorance of its rarity, and I much regret that my absence from the 
locality prevents a search, which, if one may trust the aborigines, would have 
had a fair chance of success." This discovery, at a time when the Large 
Copper was nearing the end of its time in the fens of East Anglia should 
have merited a further expedition to Somerset. However, there is no record 
of such a trip - merely the comment, "We gave up hopes of C. dispar, &., 
because the time for T. betulae (Brown Hairstreak) was drawing near, and 
we were in many instances pledged to our numerous correspondents of last 
year to send them, when possible, better specimens . . ." 

W.S.M. D'Urban (1865) in reporting a meeting of the Exeter Naturalist's 
Club commented without further details that a specimen of Chiysophanus 
dispar was exhibited by Mr Wentworth Buller. Apparently it had been 
"picked up dead among sedges at Slapton Lea". As Slapton Lea is one of the 
few places in Devon where the larval foodplant, Rumex hydrolapathum 
Hudson, grows, it is just possible that the Large Copper may have flourished 
in that area, and Slapton Lea is only 60 miles from the Somerset marshes 
where the Quekett brothers were collecting. If the Large Copper had limited 
its resources to East Anglia and the West Country all would have been well, 
but Joseph Merrin cast his net wider. In 1899 he found it at Monmouth. His 
account of this event makes splendid reading. "In that year (1855), 
accompanied by the staff of the Gloucester Journal, of which I was sub- 
editor for 26 years, in celebrating their annual "waze-goose," or outing, we 
called upon Mr Robert Riddle, of Monmouth, a friend of one of the party. He 
had a large case of butterflies and moths hanging up, which he had taken, 
and I was much struck with four specimens of C. dispar occupying a central 
position among them. I had then only recently begun to collect. On my 
drawing his attention to them he said he took them some time previously on 
the slopes of the Doward Hill, bordering the river Wye, not far from 
Monmouth. He seemed to set no great value upon them. My great admiration 
of them appeared to interest him, and I was delighted the next day on 
opening a small packet brought to the Gloucester Journal office by the 
Monmouth coach (there was then no railway) to find two specimens of the 
C. dispar I had admired, which Mr Riddle said, in a short note, he was 
pleased to present to me. The appearance of these specimens, with their 
"poker" pins and slightly damaged antennae, and the circumstances under 
which they were given to me, leave no doubt of their Rritish origin. . . . 



EREBIALIGEA 12 



Some year or two after C. clispar had pleasantly filled a blank in my 
cabinet, I made a three days' holiday tramp along the banks of the Wye from 
Ross to Chepstow, following its windings with the sketches of an amateur 
and the net of a young lepidopterist. In passing over the Doward Hill 1 
reconnoitred the locality as far I was able, and I saw much marsh land 
bordering the Wye, but quite unsearchable unless shod with jack-boots. In 
the hopes of getting a better glimpse of the lower slopes of the hill, I rang the 
bell at the residential gate, but was politely told that as the family were away 
a stranger could not be allowed to examine the grounds, and I had to leave 
with regret, 'neath a broiling sun, what seemed classic ground, and sought 
refuge in the shady streets of old Monmouth ..." 

The past ninety years have seen further remarkable sightings and reports - 
many in the vernacular. P.B.M. Allan, the doyen of entomological gossips, 
related how S.G. Castle Russell had described to him a strange 
entomological event which had occurred some forty years previously. His 
wife, who "had been collecting with me for many years", and a friend, W.G. 
Mills (a biology master whose sons collected butterflies), were motoring in 
Devon and coming to a place somewhat off the beaten track, saw "numbers 
of Large Coppers flying. We tried to knock some down, but they flew too 
fast for us. Flying in the sunshine they looked most beautiful." Details of this 
wonderful event are described in extenso by Allan (1980) in Leaves fi'om a 
Moth-Hunter's Notebook. In 1966, Allan increased the number of sightings 
when he quoted a friend ("whose word could be implicitly relied on"). "My 
wife was driving our car down a single track, a remote lane in the West 
Country, and I was sitting in the back with one of my sons. I had been 
watching the butterflies on the grass verge, feeding on the flowers, when all 
at once, and at closer range, I saw a butterfly which I was convinced was a 
Large Copper. 

I shouted urgently for my wife to stop, but she replied that we were late 
already for lunch with friends, and drove on; and so, the occasion was lost." 
He went on to reminisce, - "I have seen the Large Copper - batavus - flying 
at Wicken fen. What a brilliant insect it is! And I've caught virgaureae in 
Switzerland." Allan was convinced that his friend had seen one of the larger 
Copper butterflies, but once again, there was no capture, and curiously no 
follow-up, to prove it. 

On the 28th of July, 1938, Professor J.W. Heslop Harrison wrote to H.M. 
Edelsten from the Island of Rhum in the Hebrides. He ended his letter with 
an extraordinary postscript. "The most remarkable thing here is Lye. avion. 
We have seen two but did not catch them" (Campbell, 1975). Later, 
however, in a letter to N.D. Riley (25.4.1939) he suggested that he had only 
meant to record "the possible occurrence of M. avion on Rhum . . . Attention 
was merely drawn to the possibility and to the observation of two people so 
that some future worker could verify or disprove our notions." With this 
apparent climbdown, rumour and speculation should have died, but, in 1948, 



122 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Heslop Harrison contributed a chapter to The New Naturalist: A Journal of 
British Natural Histoiy, and in this he mentioned once again "the presence 
on Rhum of such species as the Large Blue butterfly (Maculinea arion) . . ." 
And so, the Large Blue controversy once more came to life. In a masterly 
analysis of the situation, J.L. Campbell (1975) was forced to the conclusion 
that the Professor's ardent and competitive personality had laid him open to a 
student's practical joke. Be that as it may, no specimens of the Large Blue 
butterfly have ever been taken on Rhum or, indeed any of the Scottish 
islands, and no one now seriously believes that it has ever been found north 
of the border. Unfortunately the matter did not rest there and, in 1962, a 
young man called at the National Museum in Dublin and after examining the 
collection informed the Curator that he had discovered the Large Blue 
butterfly at Dunboy in West Cork. He had no specimens to prove this but in 
1963, H.C. Huggins and E.S.A. Baynes explored the locality carefully, 
finding no Large Blues but a number of the very bright coloured Irish form 
of the Common Blue (Polyommatus icarus Rott.? ab. mariscolore (Kane)). 
Huggins (1973) described their search and concluded that the young man's 
sighting, like the Hebridean one, was "very Rhum". Since then, no more has 
been heard of the Irish Large Blue and the matter appears to have been laid 
to rest. 

The Arran Brown (Erebia ligea (Linnaeus)) 

One of the more convoluted histories concerns the Arran Brown. This 
butterfly has proved singularly elusive. Its curious history in Britain has been 
discussed at length by E.C. PeUiam Clinton (1964) and, as a result, much of 
the mystery has been resolved. There are, however, a number of unanswered 
questions. The first published account of E. ligea occurring in Britain is that 
of James Sowerby (1804-06) in his British Miscellany. Under the title 
Papilio blandina he wrote, "This newly discovered species of Papilio, as a 
native of Britain, was caught in the Isle of Arran, one of the Western Islands 
of Scotland." Unfortunately he used the wrong appellation, for Papilio 
blandina was the name used earlier by J.C. Fabricius for Erebia aethiops 
(Esper), and Sowerby's figure is certainly that of E. ligea. A few pages 
further on he figures E. aethiops under the title Papilio ligea; stating that 
"This is another new British insect, procured by A. MacLeay, Esq. Sec.L.S., 
from the same place as the one figured in tab. 3 [should be tab. 2] of this 
work." It remained for E. Donovan (1807) to correct these errors. E. ligea 
was originally discovered on the moors behind Brodick Castle (possibly the 
lower slopes of Goatfell) on the Island of Arran by Sir Patrick Walker, a 
noted collector of the time who apparently possessed "an elegant and select 
collection of Insects, a collection at the time, the second best in the country." 
Sowerby's errors over the naming of E. Ligea and E. aethiops were 
compounded by the discovery of the latter, as that species had been found 
"/« insula Bota. Septembro." (In the Isle of Bute. September) by Dr John 



EREBIA LIGEA ] 23 



Walker, Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, who 
was not related to Sir Patrick Walker. Dr Walker's diaries are in the 
Edinburgh University Library and these suggest that the date of his 
discovery was sometime between 1760 and 1769, some thirty years earlier 
than Sir Patrick Walker's discovery of E. ligea. He showed his specimens to 
J.C. Fabricius, who had commented that they were "different from the Ligea, 
and a species not in Linnaeus." 

Since the discovery of E. ligea, innumerable collectors have searched for 
it on the Island of Arran, but no further specimens have come to hand. 
Indeed, Richard South (1906) suggested that "the captor must have 
exterminated the species, for, although the island has often been closely 
explored, no one has yet been able to detect the 'Arran Brown' again." Sir 
Patrick Walker's collection eventually came up for sale at Stevens' Auction 
Rooms, but the whereabouts of his specimens of E. ligea is unknown. In 
1928, James F. Stephens figured two specimens of the Arran Brown in his 
Illustrations of British Entomology, with the comment, "The only indigenous 
specimens which have come to my knowledge were captured in the Isle of 
Arran, I believe, by Sir Patrick Walker and A. McLeay Esq. The 
accompanying plate was executed from a fine pair in my collection." The 
two specimens in question are in the British Museum (Natural History), but 
without clues as to their origin. E.C. Pelham-Clinton (1964) suggests that 
they are not necessarily British, and from the tenor of Stephens' remarks, are 
probably not. 

If the story of E. ligea had ended with James Stephens in 1828, it would 
probably now be confined to entomological history or even entomological 
folklore. But since then further facts have emerged. In 1929, H. Willoughby- 
Ellis reporting on a meeting of the Entomological Club at Tring, listed a 
number of exhibits arranged by Lord Rothschild. One such was a single E. 
ligea apparently taken at Galashiels in the Borders by A.E. Gibbs. There are 
no further details and the specimen in question is now in the British Museum 
(Natural History). A.L. Goodson, curator of the Tring Museum, suggested 
(Pelham-Clinton, 1964) that it might have been incorrectly labelled. 
However, there is no definite proof of this. In January 1963, A.C. Gillespie 
donated a small collection of Lepidoptera made by his two uncles, A.B. and 
J.W. Gillespie, to the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh. The specimens 
were not labelled and many were in a distressed condition. However, the 
collection included a single female E. ligea, set underside uppermost. Lying 
loose in the collection was a single label which said quite simply ''Erebia 
blandifia/Tsiken on Bute (North End) July 1891." This finding and its 
possible significance have been discussed at length by Pelham-Clinton 
(1964). Whether or not this label had once been attached to the specimen of 
E. ligea or to E. aethiops, of which there were several in the collection, is not 
known. The writing on the label is in the hand of A.B. Gillespie and as he 
had never travelled abroad it is possible that this might be a genuine British 
specimen. 



124 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.V.1995 



In 1977, three specimens of E. ligea were exhibited by T.J. Daley at the 
British Entomological and Natural History Society Exhibition. He had 
caught these in 1969 on the little-known western side of Rannoch Moor in 
north Argyll, and was apparently under the impression that they were E. 
aethiops. As he had never collected abroad, confusion as to their origin 
seems excluded. 

In October 1994, the writer and Dr P.J. Edwards found three specimens of 
E. ligea in the G.H. Simpson-Hayward collection at Malvern College (Fig. 2, 
Plate B). One specimen was labelled ''Ligea Isle of Mull 1860" while the 
other two specimens bore a single label "Taken on the Isle of Mull 1860 and 
62. Wm. Edwards." The Isle of Mull is only about 60 miles from Arran, and 
the writer has no doubt as to the authenticity of the three specimens. When 
placed on the map of Scotland it is seen that, with the possible exception of 
the single record from Galashiels, all the reports of E. ligea are grouped in 




Map. Reported distribution of Erebia ligea (excluding the Kentish records). 



EREBIALIGEA 125 



an area of south-western Scotland and no greater than 60 miles in width. If 
the Galashiels record is taken into account the territory is increased to 90 
miles in width. This is still a very small area and given the nature of these 
new records it now seems reasonable to assume that E. ligea really does 
have a claim to British status. 

Attempts to identify William Edwards have so far failed, but other 
butterflies in the collection that bore his name, were all caught in the 
Malvern or Worcester area. It seems likely that he and G.H. Simpson- 
Hayward both lived in Worcestershire. It is known that Simpson-Hayward 
represented Worcestershire at cricket, and that he was the last player to 
represent England who bowled underarm. The presence of Erebia ligea in 
the British List therefore rests on the cumulative evidence of ten reported 
captures, and from a scrutiny of all this it does seem reasonable to assume 
that the species has British status. One further capture was reported by W.J. 
Mercer in 1875; but it does no more than muddy the waters. Writing in the 
Entomologist, he claimed that, "a specimen of Erebia ligea was taken by me 
in the garden belonging to a house in Margate. I have been assured by 
competent authority that I am correct in the name of my specimen; so this 
will add another locality in which to find this rare insect." Edward Newman 
was quick to protest - "I should like to see the specimen, if Mr Mercer will 
kindly send or bring it." And that was that! Mercer would surely have fooled 
no-one when he reported this montane species from a popular seaside 
watering place, but, erring on the side of caution, Russell Bretherton (1989) 
suggested that, "If genuine, it might have been a wanderer from the Belgium 
Ardennes." 

Acknowledgements 

My grateful thanks to Dr David Carter of the British Museum (Natural 
History) for the photographs of the William Edwards specimens of E. ligea 
reproduced in Figure 2, Plate B. 

References 

Allan, P.B.M., 1943. Talking of Moths. Classey, Newtown. 

- , 1966. Copper Butterflies in the West Country. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 78: 161-166; 198-202. 

- , 1980. Leaves from a Moth-Hunter's Notebook. Classey, Farringdon. 
Austin, H. 1856. Parnassius Apollo at Ealing. Zoologist. 14: 5109. 

[Bretherton, R.F.] 1969, The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. (A Maitland 

Emmett, J. Heath, Editors); 7:(1): 259. Harley Books, Colchester. 
Campbell, J.L., 1975. On the rumoured presence of the Large Blue Butterfly {Maculinea arion L.) in 

the Hebrides. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 87: 161-166. 
Crotch, W.D., 1857. Doings in the West. Ent. Weekly Intelligencer. 2: 165-166. 
Donovan, E., 1792-1913. Natural Histoiy of British Insects. 1-16. London. 
Ford, E.B., 1945. Butterflies. Collins, London. 
Haworth, A.H., 1803-1829. Lepidoptera Britannica. Part 1. London. 
Heslop Harrison, J.W., 1948. "The Passing of the Ice-Age. " The New Naturalist: A Journal of British 

Natural History. Collins, London. 
Hudd, A.E., 1906. The Victoria County Hist oij of Somerset. 1: 87-115. 
Huggins, H.C., 1973. "They were Irish Garmets." Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 85: 234-237. 



126 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

"Inquisitor," 1836. Note on Butterflies questionably British. Entomological Mag., 4: 177-179. 
Mercer, W.J., 1875. Erebia ligea at Margate. Entomologist, 8: 198. 

Merrin, J., 1899. The "Extinct" Chiysophanus dispar. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 11: 208-209. 
Morely, A.N. & Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 1959. Some Observations on the Crimson Ringed Butterfly 

(Parnassius apollo L.) in Britain. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 71: 273-276. 
Newman, E., 1856. Capture of Parnassius Apollo at Dover; also Argynnis Lathonia, Chiysophanus 

dispar and Catocala fraxini , near Chislehurst, in Kent. Zoologist, 14: 5001. 
- , 1870-1871. the Illustrated Natural History of British Butterflies. Allen, London. 
Pelham-Clinton, E.C., 1964. Comments on the supposed occurrence in Scotland of Erebia ligea 

(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 76: 121-125. 
South, R., 1906. The Butterflies of the British Isles. London. 
Sowerby, J., 1804-1806. The British Miscellany. Nos. 1-2. London. 
Stephens, J.F., 1828. Illustrations of British Entomology. (Haustellata). London. 
Stewart, C. 1801-1802. Elements of Natural History. 2 Vols. London & Edinburgh. 
Sutton, R.D., 1993. Were the Large Copper Lycaena dispar dispar (Haw.) and scarce Lycaena 

virgaureae (Linn.) once indigenous species at Langport, Somerset? Occasional Paper no. 7, 

Butterfly Consei'vation, Colchester. 
Tutt, J.W., 1906. A Natural Histoty of the British Lepidoptera. 8: 423. Swan Sonnenschein, London. 
[Willoughby-Ellis, H. =) "H.W.E.", 1929. Report of a meeting of the Entomological Club at Tring, 

27th October 1928. Entomologist, 62; 47. 
D'Urban, W.S.M., 1865. Exeter Naturalist's Club. Ent. mon. Mag., 2: 71. 



Dasychira mendosa (Hiibner, 1934) (Lep: Lymantriidae); notes on larval 
foodplants in India 

According to Nair (1986) this well-distributed Lymantrid is a pest of certain 
important crops in India. He cites millets (Setaria), cowpea (Vigna sinensis), 
Ricinis communis, banana (Musa), mango (Mangifera indica), apple 
{Mains), cacao and coffee. 

I came across a single fully-grown larva on Bridelia underneath a mango 
tree. This plant is in the same family as Ricinis, Euphorbiaceae, so perhaps it 
was not so surprising that it was feeding on it. The insect "spun up" soon 
after, an imago, a female, emerging on my return to London in late June 
1994. 1 was able to identify it by comparing it to a specimen in the BM (NH) 
collection from an example dating back to July 1894 from Kamataka in 
south-west India. 

It was as well that I was able to verify the moth's identity from the imago 
as Nair gives two completely contradictory descriptions of the larva in his 
book. One, relating to its association with banana describing the larva thus, 
"light blueish-brown with reddish-brown spots . . .". Whilst his account of 
the insect on cacao says, "yellow spots and red stripes on thorax and paired 
lateral tufts on segments . . .". My find corresponded with neither, it 
resembled a very large antiqua, but that is only an approximate description. 

I found the larva in Bombay. Dasychira mendosa according to Hampson 
(1892) ranges from India, through to Sri Lanka and Burma to Java and 
south-eastwards to Australia. 

I would like to thank Mark Coode at Kew Gardens for his assistance in 
identifying the larval foodplant. 

References: Hampson, G.F., 1892. Fauna of British India; Moths, Vol. 1; Heywood, V.H., 1993. 
Flowering Plants of the World; Nair, M.R.G.K., 1986. Insects & Mites of Crops in India. 

- G. King, 20 Turnstone Close, London El 3 OHN. 



LUPERINA NICKERLII DEMUTHI ] 27 

A NEW SUBSPECIES OF LUPERINA NICKERLII FREYER, 1845 

FROM SOUTH-EAST ENGLAND, WITH NOTES ON THE OTHER 

SUBSPECIES FOUND IN BRITAIN, IRELAND AND MAINLAND 

EUROPE. 

B. Goater' and B. Skinner- 

' 27Hiltingbwy Road, Chandlers Ford, Hants S053 5SR. 
- 5 Rawlins Close, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 SJS. 

THE PRESENCE of a population of Luperina nickerlii on the salterns of 
south-east England has been known since the early 1980s, following the 
discovery of a series of six moths in the collection of the late R.P. Demuth, 
taken at Little Oakley, Essex, on 4th September 1973, amongst his L. 
testacea ([Denis & Schiffermiiller] 1775). At the same time, it was learned 
that there were two specimens in the collection of A.J. Dewick, from 
Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, taken 22nd August 1963 and 25th August 1964. 
Several entomologists, including the two authors, searched for the species in 
1984-85 in a number of localities on the coasts of Essex and Kent (Skinner, 
1985), and found it in large numbers, at light and resting by night on 
saltmarsh grasses, and the same form has subsequently been found to occur 
in south-east Suffolk, where it was taken in 1972 but not recognised at the 
time (J. Reid, pers. comm.). 

This saltern form of L. nickerlii was clearly different from any other of the 
known British and Irish subspecies (Goater, 1976), and was referred to 
provisionally as the nominotypical form (Skinner, 1984). In late August 
1994, one of the authors (BG) had the opportunity of seeing L. nickerlii near 
its type locality in Prague. The Prokop Valley lies on the southern outskirts 
of that city, surrounded by built-up areas, but remains fairly unspoilt. It is a 
dry calcareous valley, and the steep xerothermic, south-facing slope where 
the moth occurs extends for about 800 metres. On 26th August, BG and his 
wife were kindly conducted to the spot by Dr Ivo Novak, of the Research 
Institute of Crop Production, Ruzyne, Prague. Upwards of 30 individuals 
were seen: both sexes were found at rest on grasses after dark, some drying 
their wings, and males were fairly frequent at light. Nearly all were in fresh 
condition. It was evident at once that the English saltern race was quite 
different, both in appearance and in habitat, and it is described confidently as 
a new subspecies. 

Luperina nickerlii demuthi subsp. nov. (Plate A, fig. 1) 

Wingspan 34-42mm. Thorax greyish fuscous, frons and abdomen similarly 
coloured. Forewing warm huffish; basal area marbled fuscous brown with 
sparse irroration of black scales; area between antemedian and postmedian 
lines similarly marbled but with heavier black irroration, some of which 
forms a somewhat indistinct transverse bar linking the two crosslines in the 
pre-dorsal area. Buff area between postmedian and subterminal lines weakly 



128 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

irrorate brown, and terminal region grey, irrorate brownish grey. 
Antemedian and postmedian lines buff, their facing margins edged with 
black. Subterminal hne irregularly sinuate, conspicuously pale in contrast to 
adjacent areas. A conspicuous pale horizontal bar extends medially from 
base of wing to antemedian line, and there is a shorter black subdorsal bar 
between wing base and antemedian line. Orbicular stigma small, rounded, 
buff, narrowly edged black; reniform stigma conspicuously pale, whitish 
buff, the inner dorsal comer often with a distinct tail extending towards base 
of wing, the inner half of the stigma clouded huffish brown. Termen with a 
series of black intemeural lunules. Fringe buff, with dark grey intemeural 
chequers in outer half. Hindwing pure white with fine dark terminal line; 
fringe pure white. Underside of forewing pale buff, heavily shaded with 
grey, paler beyond narrow, huffish subterminal line. Reniform stigma a 
narrow vertical streak, surrounded by a pale zone. Termen with narrow 
brown intemeural lunules. Fringe pale buff, with dark intemeural chequers 
in outer half. Underside of hindwing off-white, with dusting of dark scales 
towards costa; discal dot formed by a concentration of dark scales. Fine dark 
terminal line which tends to break into separate dark lunules in anterior half. 
Fringe white. 

Holotype male, Sheppey, Kent, 29.8.1984, B.F. Skinner in Natural 
History Museum, London (BMNH). Allotype female, Bradwell-on-Sea, 
Essex, 26.viii.1984, B. Goater, in BMNH. Paratypes: in BMNH, Little 
Oakley, Essex, 22.viii.1984, B. Goater x4 males; Little Oakley, 23.8.1984, 
B.F. Skinner x2 males, Canvey Island, Essex, 28.8.1984, B.F. Skinner x2 
males, Bradwell, Essex, 26.viii.1984, B. Goater x2 males, x5 females, 
Sheppey, Kent, 29.8.1984, B.F. Skinner 1 female; in B. Goater collection. 
Little Oakley, Essex, 22.viii.84 x2 males and Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, 
26.viii.84 x2 females; in B. Skinner collection. Little Oakley, Essex, 
22.viii.84 x2 males, x2 females, and Sheppey, Kent, 29.viii.84 x2 males, x3 
females, Tillingham, Essex, 21.8.1987 x2 males, x2 females. 

Unlike the nominotypical L. nickerUi and the other British subspecies, L. 
nickerUi demuthi is very variable. There is considerable variation in size, and 
some large females are unusually broad-winged. The palest specimens are 
nearly as pale as L. nickerUi gueneei Doubleday, but slightly more strongly 
patterned with the blackish subbasal bar remaining fairly distinct; the darkest 
ones are nearly uniform dark brownish fuscous, with slightly paler 
crosslines, and the most prominent feature is the pale reniform stigma and 
especially its whiter outer half. In some forms, the median area of the 
forewing is darker, recalling L. nickerUi leechi Goater, but we have seen no 
individual that remotely resembles fresh specimens of the Bohemian L. 
nickerUi nickerUi which is nearly black with a conspicuous whitish, dark- 
centred reniform stigma, but otherwise rather indistinctly pattemed, with 
hindwings dusted with fuscous along the nervures and underside much 
darker. This race seems to be invariable. 



LUPERINA NICKERLII DEMUTHI 



129 



The new subspecies occurs abundantly on the sahems around the Thames 
estuary between north Kent and south-east Suffolk, but has not been found 
anywhere else (Map 1). So far, the life history has not been worked out in 
full, but the larvae have been found in rootstocks of Puccinellia maritima 
(Hudson), common saltmarsh grass, and the pupae can be collected from 
tussocks of this grass (J. Platts, pers. comm.). The habitat is regularly 
inundated by the high tide, and all stages of the life cycle must be able to 
withstand this experience! At least one newly-emerged moth has been 
discovered, at night, on a grass stem the base of which was under water, 
indicating that eclosion must have been beneath the surface. 

All the British and Irish subspecies of L. nickerlii are strictly coastal. L. 
nickerlii gueneei and L. nickerlii leechi occur on the sheltered sides of sand 
dunes amongst Elythgia juncea (Linn.) (= Elymus farctus (Viv.) = 
Agropyron junceforme (A. & D. Love)), and the Irish L. nickerlii knilli 
Boursin under grassy sea cliffs where it is probably associated with Festuca 
rubra Linn. On the Continent, L. nickerlii occurs mainly inland, not on 
coasts, but on dry, xerothermic and often calcareous hillsides; Festuca ovina, 
Deschampsia caespitosa and Lolium perenne are given as foodplants in the 
continental literature. The nominotypical L. nickerlii nickerlii Freyer was 
described from Prague and occurs also in Germany and Bulgaria (Ganev, 
1982; Hacker 1989). There are several isolated populations in Germany, all 
differing slightly from one another, but all conforming to L. n. nickerlii (H. 
Hacker, pers. comm.). The figure in Culot (1912), P1.25, fig. 5 is far too pale 
and evidently illustrated from a faded specimen, now in the Natural History 
Museum, London (BMNH), ex Oberthur coll. L. nickerlii graslini Oberthiir 
is a widespread and variable race which extends from the Pyrenees across 




Map 1. The known distribution of Luperina nickerlii demuthi. 



130 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

southern France to the Alps. It was described from the Pyrenees Orientales 
(Oberthiir, [1909]) and was later (Oberthiir, 1929) referred to the specimen 
illustrated on P1.25, fig. 9 in Culot (loc. cit.), now in BMNH ex Oberthur 
coll., which is atypically dark. The type series is in BMNH. This subspecies 
is very variable in size but often rather large; pale sandy or greyish brown 
with indistinct markings. All the specimens seen by EG from Spain, ranging 
from Provs. Huesca and Burgos in the north, through Teruel and Cuenca to 
Granada, appear to conform to subsp. albairacina Schwingenschuss (1962); 
they appear to be fairly constant in appearance with some local variation, 
small, brown and rather weakly marked except for the whitish, dark-centred 
reniform stigma; hindwings pure white. The type locality for L. nickeiiii 
tardenota de Joannis (1925) is near Saclas, Seine-et-Oise (now Essonne), a 
calcareous hillside about 60km south of Paris. It is a small, neat, brightly 
coloured race, closest to our subsp. gueneei in appearance, but we are unable 
to discover how widespread it is. According to Heinicke & Naumann (1981), 
L. nickeiiii also occurs in the southern Alps, central and southern Italy and 
Slovenia (Jugoslavia), but we have been unable to examine material from 
these regions. 

It should be noted that all forms of L. nickeiiii in collections gradually 
fade, and care should be exercised when making comparisons with museum 
material. 

Draudt in Seitz (1934: 167) gives North Africa also for L. nickeiiii 
graslini, but all those under that name in the BMNH, ex Rothschild 
collection, appear to be a different species, L. dayensis Oberthur, and 
certainly not graslini. It is not clear which species Draudt was referring to, 
but we have no evidence that L. nickeiiii occurs anywhere in Africa. 

The association of species on the edge of their range in Britain with 
coastal habitats, there sometimes developing distinctive races or subspecies, 
is seen in species other than Lupeiina nickeiiii. For example, Malacosoma 
castrensis (Linnaeus) (Lasiocampidae), Thetidia smaragdaria (Fabricius) 
(Geometridae), Eilema caniola (Hiibner) (Arctiidae) Hadena caesia ([Denis 
& Schiffermiiller]), H. confusa (Hufnagel), Leucochlaena odites (Hiibner) 
and Cryphia muralis (Forster) (Noctuidae) are all widespread in inland 
localities on the European mainland, yet chiefly or entirely coastal in Britain. 
It is clear that large areas of suitable habitat on the Continent permit free 
gene exchange throughout the population, whereas the isolation of coastal 
territories in Britain where the climate is tolerable to these species inhibits 
gene exchange and therefore favours subspeciation, especially when 
environmentally selective pressures operate on a fraction of the total species 
genome. 

Acknowledgements 

Colour plate A, fig. 1 depicting fresh specimens of L. n. nickerlii and a 
selection of specimens of L. n. demuthi subsp. nov. from the fine series in the 
Skinner collection was made by our colleague Mr David Wilson. 



LUPERINA NICKERLII DEMUTHI 1 3 1 

The authors are grateful to the authorities in Spain who permitted 
entomological studies in their areas, to Dr H. Hacker (Staffelstein, Germany) 
for much helpful advice on the continental distribution of L. nickerlii, to 
Messrs J. Platts and J. Reid for their comments on aspects of the distribution 
and biology of the new subspecies, and to the Trustees of the Natural History 
Museum (London) for permission to study the collections there, and 
especially to Messrs DJ. Carter and M.R. Honey for their willing assistance. 

References 

Culot, J., 1909-1913. Les Noctuelles et Geometres d'Eiirope, Premiere Partie, Noctuelles 1: 220pp. 

Geneva. 
Draudt in Seitz, A., 1931-1938. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, 3. Supplement, vi + 333pp. 

Stuttgart. 
Freyer, C.F., 1845. Neuere Beitr. Schmett. 5: 140; pi. 466, fig. 4. 
Ganev, J., 1982. Systematic and Synonymic List of Bulgarian Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Phegea 

10(3): 145-160. 
Goater, B., 1976. A new subspecies of Luperina nickerlii (Freyer) (Lep.: Noctuidae) from Cornwall. 

Entomologist's Gaz. 27: 141-144, PI. 8. 
Hacker, H., 1989. Die Noctuidae Griechenlands Mit einer Ubersicht iiber die Fauna des 

Balkansraumes (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Herbipoliana, 2. 1-589, i-xii. 
Heinicke, W. & Naumann, C., 1981. Beitrage zur Insektenfauna der DDR: Lepidoptera - Noctuidae. 

Beitr. Ent. 31(2): 395-396. 
de Joannis, J., 1925. Une nouvelle espece de Noctuelle du genre Palluperina Hampson (Luperina, 

Apamea, auct.) appartenant au groupe de testacea Schiff. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 94: 331-38; pi. 1. 
Oberthiir, Ch., [1909] 1908. Observations sur une nouvelle espece frangaise: Luperina graslini [Lep. 

Het.]. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1908: 322-323. 

- , 1923. Catalogue des Lepidopteres des Pyrenees-Orientales. Et. Lep. Comp. 20: ix-xv -i- l-159pp. 
Schwingenschuss, L., 1962. Z. wien. ent. Ges. 47: 6. 

Skinner, B., 1984. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles. Viking, x + 267pp. 
London. 

- , 1985. Luperina nickerlii Freyer: Sandhill Rustic in Kent. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var., 97: 28. 



Coleophora deviella Zell (Lep.: Coleophoridae) - a correction 

In the short note on this species by Norman Heal {Ent. Rec. J. Var., 1995, 
107: 43-44) the size of the fully grown case was quoted ambitiously as being 
between 9 and 19mm long. Whilst such a giant deviella might prove 
attractive to entomologists, the Editor regrets that the typical case size for 
this species is 9 - 10mm when fully grown. A further error crept into this 
note. The second sentence of the second paragraph should read ". . . as I had 
searched this same area for several consecutive seasons I can only surmise 
that at the time it was a recent arrival . . ." Our apologies to Mr Heal for 
these errors. Paul Sokoloff, Editor. 

An unusual foodplant for Hedya pruniana Hb. (Lep.: Tortricidae) 

Two tortricoid larvae were obtained when beating Yew {Taxus baccata) at 
Shoreham, Kent. One spun up without feeding and emerged as, 
unsurprisingly, Ditula angustiorana Haw. The second continued to feed on 
Taxus, eventually producing an adult Hedya pruniana. This appears to be a 
considerable departure from its normal pabulum of Pruniis and other 
Rosaceaous trees. 
- 1. Ferguson, 31 Cathcart Drive, Orpington, Kent BR6 8BU. 



132 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.V.1995 



Luperina nickerlii nickerlii 



Prokop Valley 
Prague 
26.viii.94 
B. Goater 



Prokop Valley 
Prague 
26.viii.94 
B. Goater 



Luperina nickerlii demuthi 



Paratype male 


Holotype male 


Paratype male 


Tillingham 


Sheppey 


Sheppey 


Essex 


Kent 


Kent 


21.8.87 


29.8.84 


29.8.84 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


Paratype male 


Paratype male 


Paratype male 


Little Oakley 


Little Oakley 


Sheppey 


Essex 


Essex 


Kent 


23.8.84 


23.8.84 


29.8.84 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


Paratype female 


Paratype female 


Paratype female 


Sheppey 


Sheppey 


Tillingham 


Kent 


Kent 


Essex 


29.8.84 


29.8.84 


21.8.87 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


Paratype female 


Paratype female 


Paratype female 


Little Oakley 


Sheppey 


Little Oakley 


Essex 


Kent 


Essex 


23.8.84 


29.8.84 


23.8.84 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 


B. Skinner 



Plate A. Figure 1. Luperina nickerlii subspecies. 



COLOUR SECTION 







Fig. 1. 

Luperina nickerlii nickerlii Freyer. (top two specimens) and Luperina nickerlii 

demuthi subsp. no v. (remaining 12 specimens) 

Approximate magnification x 0.8 (Goater & Skinner, 1995). 



PLATE A 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 25.V.1995 








^ A^^,^ /^S^ a^^^^2 



Fig. 2. Erebia ligea (Linn.) The Arran Brown. 
Specimens from the G.H. Simpson-Heywood Collection. Isle of Mull. (Salmon, 1995) 

PLATE B 



COLOUR SECTION 



M^ 


•H 


Wi]Mnk^ 


C 


mf^Wm 


o 


^Vi Ifm^^^^ 


1^ 4J 


'^^wlki^^r^ 


^W^ P^ 




^ 1 




■i^ '^ 


li|HE 


p^ ^ 


(^ ^^^mr^^ 


■■•^ 'H 


iH|V 


•'"■->^ -P 


MsbbbIB! 


I^Rr ' — ' 


flB^HfluH 


^^l^^Mr '**^ 


^^^HH^^Ul 


s^^ptf ,-*^ 


^^^^^^V^ 


v'^flK^ 


V i^K v%i^>^ 


■fl^^ r~> 


P 





C On 



in 





PLATE C 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 106 



25.V.1995 






PLATE D 



VARIATION IN ARICIA 1 33 



AN EXAMPLE OF EXTREME F. PAN-ALBISIGNATA, KAABER & 
H0EGH-GULDBERG, IN THE DURHAM ARGUS BUTTERFLY, 
ARICIA ARTAXERXES SALMACIS, STEPHENS, AND RELATED 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Hewett a. Ellis 

16 Southlands, Tynemouth, Tyne & Wear NE30 2QS. 

THE DURHAM or Castle Eden Argus butterfly, Aricia artaxerxes salmacis, 
Stephens, is a subspecies of the Northern Brown Argus (Jarvis, 1958, 1968, 
1969 & 1974; H0egh-Guldberg, 1966; Selman, Luff & Monck, 1973). Over 
the years many aberrations have been described (Harrison, 1905, 1906 & 
1928; Tutt, 1914; Carter, 1922; Carter & Harrison, 1923 & 1929; Harrison & 
Carter, 1929; Howarth, 1973; Russwarm, 1978). The purpose of this paper is 
threefold:- (1) To describe a rare aberration in an individual Durham Argus 
butterfly recently observed (27th June 1994) and photographed in County 
Durham (VC66) inland at Pittington Hill in the Magnesium Limestone. (2) 
To report the finding of a single further example of the aberration in the 
Scottish Northern Brown Argus, Aricia artaxerxes artaxerxes, Fabricius, in a 
local museum, and (3) To give an account of some related observations on 
the white component of the submarginal lunular markings on the upper wing 
surfaces of Aricia sp. 

Description of the aberration 

The fresh-looking A. artaxerxes salmacis had very dark brown wings and a 
submarginal row of prominent white dashes on the upper surface (Fig. 3, 
Plate C) of each wing: five dashes and a trace of a sixth on each fore wing in 
intemeural spaces 1 to 6 and six dashes on each hindwing in spaces 1 to 6. 
These dashes contrasted markedly with the dark brown background and were 
distinct from the normal white fringes which were chequered where brown 
scales extended along the wing nervures. They were rendered more 
prominent by a reduction in size and number of the usual orange lunules 
which appeared as mere traces on the forewings in spaces 2 and 3, and as 
inconspicuous marks on the hindwings in spaces 1 to 3 plus a trace in space 
4 (ab. semi-allous , Harrison, 1906). The orange traces were not obvious in 
the field and were more readily recognised later in the magnified image from 
the projected colour slides. In addition, on the upper surface, the black discal 
spots were surrounded by a white halo (ab. albi-annulata, Harrison, 1906, = 
snellini, ter Haar), and there was a corresponding faint white spot on each 
hindwing (ab. sub-quadripunctata, Harrison, 1906). These last two features 
occur not uncommonly throughout the Durham range and together were 
named ab. garretti nov. by Carter & Harrison (1929) after Dr F.C. Garrett 
who caught the original specimen at Hawthorn Dene in July 1928. On the 
underside (Fig. 4, Plate C) there was a minimal reduction in the usual black 
markings of the white spots, and in particular on the hindwing the black 
centre of the white spot in space 6 was obsolescent and that in the discal scar 



134 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

was lacking (ab. carteri, Harrison, 1928). Initially the specimen was thought 
to be a male because of the appearance of the tip of the abdomen, but, as 
pointed out by H0egh-Guldberg (1966), this is an unreliable means of sexing 
freshly emerged individuals and later examination of the projected slides 
revealed the segmented tarsi of a female. 

Nature of the aberration 

In order to appreciate the derivation of the white dashes it is necessary to 
consider the anatomical location, colour and composition of the sub- 
marginal lunules in normal individuals and in other aberrations. Most 
popular texts do not describe the lunules in any detail and do not refer to any 
white component (Howarth, 1973). Some recent standard texts (Emmet & 
Heath, 1989) mention that lunules on the hindwings may comprise three 
components - an inner orange patch which partly encloses a dark brown spot 
which in turn distally is white edged. This white component on the hindwing 
was mentioned by Tutt (1914), who stated that occasionally a slight, but very 
distinct outer edging of white may be found beyond the black spots, and this 
was designated ab. albsignata n. He further commented that traces of it are 
very frequently to be seen with a lens. 

Tutt also quotes Hodgson who had observed that the white edging may 
occur not uncommonly in both sexes, though more rarely in the male, 
occasionally though rarely on all the wings, but usually only on the hindwing 
and at the anal angle of the forewing. Harrison and Carter recognised the 
occurrence in Durham of certain specimens (ab. vedrae, Harrison) with these 
white dashes on the hindwing and Harrison designated this form as ab. 
albimaculata (Harrison, 1905). H0egh-Guldberg (1966), whilst studying the 
North European groups of Aricia species, noted that albisignata is not 
uncommon in either sex in A. agestis in Denmark and Sweden and in 
Denmark occurred in 25 to 50 percent of A. allous ssp. vandalica, Kaaber & 
H0egh-Guldberg (1961), in 30 percent of A. allous from Norway, and, 
depending upon the localities, in about 1 to 25 percent in A. allous from 
Sweden. Tutt also refers to the difference in frequency and degree of 
albisignata depending upon the Aricia species and its locality and remarks 
that specimens from Turkestan in the British Museum include some 
conspicuous examples, but that they have no white on the forewings and 
have a good deal of orange, especially on the hindwing. This is unlike the 
present Pittington Hill specimen. 

Personal examination of an additional 1,319 specimens of Aricia species 
(see below) has revealed that all three components are not invariably present 
on the hindwings and may very occasionally occur also on the forewings. 
When present on the hindwings the distal (outer) component is frequently 
some shade of orange rather than pure white. When present on the hind or 
forewings the distal component is normally associated with an orange patch 
and dark spot so that the latter is enclosed by orange. The aberration in the 



VARIATION IN ARICIA ] 35 



Pittington Hill specimen appears to have arisen as a result of a breakdown of 
this normal close relationship between the individual components of the 
lunules. There is a paradoxical undue development of the white distal 
elements forming dashes when the orange component is very reduced or 
absent altogether. The cause of the aberration is uncertain. Jarvis (1958) 
suggested that any reduction in orange lunules may be related to exposure of 
the mature larva or the pupa to low temperatures, but H0egh-Guldberg 
(1966) could not confirm this in his studies which indicated that heredity 
rather than environment determines the degree of lunulation. The 
paradoxical behaviour of the white and orange components of the lunules in 
the present aberration suggests that there are separate controlling genetic 
factors for each component. Jarvis (1974) also noticed a progressive loss of 
black pupillation on the underside spots with increasing duration of 
experimental exposure of pupae to low temperatures. Possibly some 
environmental factors, such as an unusual low temperature at a critical 
period, could have affected the relative dominance of the orange and white 
components of the upper surface lunules. 

Frequency of aberration 

It would appear that the aberration with marked white dashes is rare and is 
not described in the standard books on aberrations of British butterflies 
(Frohawk, 1938; Russwurm, 1978) or in the older literature concerning 
variations in County Durham (Harrison, 1906 & 1929; Carter, 1922; Carter 
& Harrison, 1929). Since 1979 I have observed several hundreds of these 
butterflies at inland and coastal locations in County Durham and this is the 
only one of its kind I have encountered. Sam Ellis (1991), who has a greater 
experience of this species in County Durham informs me that he does not 
know of a similar example. 

In order to check further I have examined an additional 1,319 Brown 
Argus and Northern Brown Argus butterflies in collections at Sunderland 
Museum (1,083 specimens) and the Hancock Museum, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne (199 specimens), together with 37 of my own collection (19 specimens 
plus photographs) Table 1. The museum collections include specimens 
dating back to the first part of this century (including those of Carter and 
Harrison) when the fashion to collect aberrations was probably at its height. 
Examination of 760 A. artaxerxes salmacis specimens, of which 675 were 
from County Durham (and the remainder from Cumbria, Westmorland and 
Yorkshire) failed to reveal another example of the aberration with white 
dashes and reduced orange lunules. Likewise none was present amongst 274 
specimens of A. agestis from Southern England and Wales or 52 specimens 
from abroad (including examples of A. agestis, A. artaxerxes alloiis and A. 
artaxerxes allous ssp. vandalica. However, inspection of 92 specimens of A. 
artaxerxes artaxerxes from Scotland revealed a single additional example of 
the aberration. 



136 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Table 1. 

Summary of sources of 1,319 additional specimens of Aricia species examined. 



Place of origin 


Species 


Number 


• *Coilection 


County Durham 




675 




Coastal 


A. artaxerxes artaxerxes 


92 


SM 90, HE 2 


Coastal 


A. artaxerxes salmacis 


345 


SM 313, HE 32 


Inland 


A. artaxerxes salmacis 


185 


SM 184, HE 1 


Mixed 


A. artaxerxes salmacis 


53 


HM53 


CumbriaA^orkshire 


A. artaxerxes salmacis 


85 


SM 46, HM 39 


S. England/ S. Wales 


A. agestis 


274 


SM213,HM59, HE2 


Scotland 


A. artaxerxes artaxerxes 


92 


SM 67, HM 25 


Overseas 


A. argestis & A. allous 


52 


SM52 


Indeterminate 


A. a. salmacis (mostly) 


141 


SM 118, HM23 



^^Collections: SM and HM, Sunderland and Hancock Museums; 
HE, personal specimens and photographs. 



Description of the Scottish specimen 

The specimen, preserved in the collection of T. Jefferson at the Sunderland 
Museum, carries a data label giving the location as Nigg Sutor (in north-east 
Scotland) and the date as 9th July 1910. Emmet & Heath (1989) indicate in 
the distribution map that records for this area were pre- 1940. The specimen 
is typical of A. artaxerxes artaxerxes, with white discal spots on the upper 
surface of the forewings and reduced black spots on the underside ocelli, but 
there are prominent white submarginal dashes in spaces 1 to 6 on the 
hindwings accompanied by some orange component in spaces 1 to 4 and 
white blurred dashes in spaces 1 to 6 on the forewings with a mere trace of 
orange accompanying those in spaces 1 to 4. The blurring of the white 
dashes, particularly in space 4 to 6 where the white extends onto the adjacent 
wing surfaces near the apices, is not a feature of the Pittington Hill specimen 
but the basic underlying aberration would appear to be the same. 

Nomenclature 

A search of the literature has revealed the description of a similar aberration. 
Kaaber and H0egh-Guldberg (1961) reported a subspecies of A. allous, Hb., 
which they designated A. allous Hb. ssp. vandalica nov. One of their 
specimens (female) had white submarginal dashes on the upper surface of all 
four wings and they designated this f. pan-albisignata nov. Their colour 
plate shows white dashes in spaces I to 4 of the hindwings but those on the 
forewings are relatively inconspicuous and each dash is accompanied by an 
orange patch. H0egh-Guldberg (1966) subsequently reported a further two 
females of this subspecies with the same aberration (combined incidence, 3 
in 377 (0.9 percent) specimens). The changes illustrated were not as striking 
as in the Pittington Hill or Scottish specimens. Nevertheless, the basic 



VARIATION IN ARICIA 1 37 



aberration is the same and it seems appropriate to apply the term ab. pan- 
alhisignata, Kaaber & H0egh-Guldberg, to describe it. The other features, 
particularly the obsolescence of the orange patches and the dark brown 
ground colour, contribute to the overall striking appearance, but, as pointed 
out by Carter (1922), a specimen is best named from the predominant 
aberration, otherwise nomenclature becomes too complicated. In the present 
case it would be ab. pan-albisignata - semi allous - sub quadripunctata, 
simply to account for the upper surface. 

The present aberration should not be confused with colour changes in the 
usual inner orange patches on the hind and forewings which occurs in ab. 
pallidior, Oberthiir (pale lunules, Fig. 17, PI. 8, Russwurm) and ab. graafii, 
ver Huell (white lunules. Fig. 16, PL 8, Russwurm). There were eight 
examples of these colour changes amongst the Sunderland collection of A. 
artaxerxes salmacis from Cumbria, but in none of these were there any distal 
white dashes. 

Furthermore, it should be stressed that the aberration under discussion 
affects the upper surface for there is sometimes a prominent white band on 
the undersurface between the orange lunules and the wing margin as 
described by H0egh-Guldberg (1966) and designated by him f. pan- 
albolimbata no v. 

Further observations on submarginal dashes 

Whilst examining the Sunderland Museum collection for possible examples 
of the Pittington Hill aberration I was impressed by some specimens which 
had pale orange or white outer components to the lunules on the hindwings 
and, less frequently, on the forewings, but with accompanying inner orange 
patches. Therefore I re-examined the Sunderland and my own material to 
determine the frequency of these phenomena in relation to locality and 
Alicia species. I have allocated each specimen to one of three main 
categories:- (1) orange or pale orange outer component to hindwing lunules; 
(2) pure white dashes forming outer hindwing component />, ab. albisignata; 
and (3) pure white outer white dashes on hind and forewings ie., ab. pan- 
albisignata. There were some difficulties because of the presence of trace 
amounts of the outer components visible at higher magnifications and 
sometimes in deciding the colour of the outer component. For the present 
purpose it was decided to include only those specimens with features of each 
category visible to the naked eye, and the dashes had to be pure white to be 
designated ab. albisignata or ab. pan-albisignata. Since all the specimens 
were treated alike the data obtained should permit valid comparisons 
between the different species and localities. 

The results based on the examination of 989 specimens are summarised in 
Table 2. The orange or pale orange outer component occurred on the 
hindwings of some individuals of all the Aricia species, but pure white 
dashes of ab. albisignata were less frequent and, with the exception of the 
County Durham inland specimens of A. artaxerxes salmacis. ab. pan- 
albisignata was uncommon. The Durham coastal colonies are hybrid groups 



138 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.V.1995 



Table 2. 

Incidence and type of outer lunular components according to place of origin and 

Alicia species in 989 specimens. 



Place of origin (Species) 



Number Outer lunular component 

hindwing albisignata pan-albi 
orange/pale signata 



92 


13 (14.1%) 








385 


46(11.9%) 








477 


59(12.4%) 








144 


46(31.9%) 


5 (3.5%) 


14 (9.7%) 


132 


36 (27.3%) 


5 (3.8%) 


14(10.6%) 


621 


105 (16.9%) 


5 (0.8%) 


14 (2.3%) 


46 


11 (23.9%) 








205 


82 (40.0%) 


1 (0.5%) 





10 











67 


9 (13.4%) 





*1 (1.5%) 


18 


8 (44.4%) 








22 


8 (36.4%) 









Durham County 

Coastal {A. a. artaxerxes) 

Coastal {A. a. salmacis) 

Coastal (combined) 

Inland (combined) (A. a. salmacis) 

Inland Sherbum/Shadworth 

Total Durham 
Cumbria & Yorkshire {A. a. salmacis) 
Southern England (A. agestis) 
South Wales {A. agestis) 
Scotland {A. a. artaxerxes) 
Overseas 
** A. agestis 
*** A. allous 

*Nigg Sutor specimen described in text. 

**Pyrenees (8), Portugal (2), Asia Minor (8). 

***Italy (4), Bulgaria (4), Austria (5), N.W. lutland, ssp. vandalica, (9). 

(Dunn & Parrack, 1986) of the two artaxerxes subspecies A. a. salmacis and 
A. a. artaxerxes but the incidence of hind and forewing outer markings was 
the same in both these and in the specimens of A. a. artaxerxes from 
Scotland. The one Scottish exception with extreme ab. pan-albisignata has 
been described above. A. a. artaxerxes constitutes about 5 percent of the 
population on the Durham coast and is due to the presence of a single 
recessive gene (Jarvis, 1974). The relatively large number of such specimens 
available for examination (Tables 1 and 2) reflects the interest of past local 
collectors. 

The inland Durham colonies are all A. a. salmacis and are notably 
different from those at the coast with a greater incidence of outer lunular 
components on the hind and forewings together with the occurrence of ab. 
albisignata and especially of ab. pan-albisignata. The appearances of the 
latter were similar to those described by Kaaber & H0egh-Guldberg (1961) 
with accompanying orange patches and were not as striking as those of the 
Pittington Hill and the Scottish Nigg specimens. The specimens of A. a. 
salmacis from Cumbria and Yorkshire did not include any examples of ab. 
albisignata or ab. pan-albisignata. Specimens of A. agestis from South 
England had a higher incidence of the orange or pale orange outer 
component on the hindwings but ab. albisignata was rare and ab. pan- 
albisignata was not found. The incidence of the hindwing outer component 



VARIATION IN ARICIA 1 39 



was remarkably similar throughout twelve counties (from 33.3 to 44.4 
percent). Three specimens (one from Royston, Hertfordshire dated 1925 and 
two from Folkestone, Kent dated 1923) showed pale orange outer 
components on both the hind and forewings. The only ab. alhisignata was 
from Chipstead, Surrey dated 1923. 

The main interest centres on the County Durham inland specimens from 
Sherbum and nearby Shadworth with the highest incidence of ab. alhisignata 
and ab. pan-albisignata. As with any retrospective study there are problems 
in knowing whether the collections are representative of wild populations. 
One suspects that the high incidence of the aberration in inland locations in 
comparison with coastal locations is genuine for collectors in the past would 
surely have been equally interested in collecting "variations" at the coast as 
inland. The presence of so many A. a. artaxerxes specimens in the coastal 
collections supports this view. It is perhaps significant too that the original 
specimen which stimulated my interest in these matters was observed at an 
inland site at Pittington Hill, which is only about 2.8km from Sherbum. All the 
inland populations are separated from those at the coast (for example, at 
Blackhall and Castle Eden Denemouth) by a distance of about 10.3km. 

Possible effects of white dashes 

It is unclear whether the presence of prominent white dashes has any 
beneficial or adverse affects for the individual. The normal wing markings 
play an important role in the well-being of a colony, for example, by 
facilitating recognition between individuals of the same species (and hence 
mating). Also Aricia species bask with open wings and in more northern 
latitudes there are fewer orange lunules (Smyllie, 1992) which facilitates 
heat absorption and presumably makes them less conspicuous to predators 
whilst basking. The amount of white contributed by the white dashes must 
be too small to significantly interfere with absorption, but could possibly 
render the individual more conspicuous to predators whilst basking. 

Summary and conclusions 

Ab. pan-albisignata, Kaaber & H0egh-Guldberg, occurs in several species 
of Aricia. Lesser degrees with obvious associated inner orange patches are 
not that uncommon in certain species and localities - notably in inland 
colonies of the Durham Argus, A. artaxerxes salmacis, Stephens. Rarely the 
submarginal white dashes are very marked and there is a paradoxical 
reduction in the inner orange patches as described in two specimens, one of 
A. a. salmacis from Pittington Hill in County Durham and the other of A. a. 
artaxerxes from Nigg in Scotland. Complete absence of the inner orange 
patches would serve to give maximum emphasis to the white dashes, but I 
have no knowledge of such a specimen. 

In the past, attention has been given to the geographical variation in wing 
submarginal lunulation, including the presence of ab. alhisignata, as a means 
of investigating the possible relationship between North European groups of 



1 40 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 07 25 .v . 1 995 

A. allous and A. agestis (H0egh-Guldberg, 1966). Most workers, however, 
have concentrated on the inner orange lunular component in similar studies 
(Jarvis, 1969; Smyllie, 1992). Further studies of the outer lunular component 
and its aberrations might prove to be useful in improving our understanding 
of the possible relationship between the different species and subspecies of 
Alicia. Caution is needed in interpreting the data, however, since opinions 
differ as to whether variation in wing lunulation occurring in different 
localities is the result of hybridisation between species (Smyllie, 1992) or is 
a response to geographic isolation of good species associated with differing 
environments (Shreeve, 1993). 

Acknowledgement 

I am grateful to Les Jessop, Keeper of Biology, Tyne & Wear Museums, for 
his help and permission to examine the collections at the Sunderland 
Museum and Art Gallery and at the Hancock Museum, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

References 

Carter, W., 1922. The Brown Argus. Some notes on Aricia medon {Astrarche) and its varieties with 

illustration and diagram. Vasculum 8(2): 37-42. 
Carter, W. & Harrison, J.W.H., 1923. Further forms of Aricia medon from County Durham. 

Entomologist S6: 107-108. 

- , 1929. Further studies in the variation oi Aricia medon Esp. Vasculum 15(1): 16-17. 

Dunn, T.C. & Parrack, J.D., 1986. The Moths and Butterflies of Northumberland and Durham, Part 

1: Macrolepidoptera. Vasculum Supplement No. 2, pl2. 
Ellis, S., 1991. The distribution and abundance of butterflies on the magnesium limestone grasslands 

of County Durham. Vasculum 76(3): 20-32. 
Emmet, A.M. & Heath, J., 1989. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. 7(1). 

Hesperiidae-Nymphalidae. The Butterflies, (Harley Books), pp 152-156. 
Frohawk, F.W., 1938. Varieties of British Butterflies. Ward Lock, London. 
Harrison, J.W.H., 1905. Some British aberrations of Polyommatus astrarche. Bgstr. Entomologist's 

Rec.J.Var.\l:2m-2U. 

- , 1906. Variations of Polyommatus astrarche, Bgstr. in Durham. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 18: 
236-237. 

- , 1928. Two new aberrations in our local Lycaenids: Aricia medon ab. carteri and Polyommatus 
icarus ab. carteri. Vasculum 14: 138-139. 

Harrison, J.W.H. & Carter, W., 1929. Further studies in the variation of Aricia medon Esp. 11. 

Vasculum 15(4): 146-148. 
H0egh-Guldberg, O., 1966. North European groups of Aricia allous G.-Hb. Their variability and 

relationship to A. agestis Schiff. Natura jutlandica 13: 1-184. 
Howarth, T.G., 1973. South's British Butterflies. Wame, London, pp. 80-82. 
Jarvis, F.V.L., 1958. Biological notes on Aricia agestis (Schiff.) in Britain. Parts I & 11. 

Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 70: 141-148 & 70: 169-179. 

- , 1968. The stams of Polyommatus salmacis Stephens (Lep.: Lycaenidae). Entomologist 101: 21-22. 

- , 1969. A biological study oi Aricia artaxerxes ssp. salmacis (Stephens). Proc. Brit. Ent. Nat. Hist. 
Soc.2: 107-117. 

- , 1974. The biological relationship between two sub-species of Aricia artaxerxes (F) and 
temperature experiments on an F2 generation and on A. artaxerxes ssp. salmacis. Natura jutlandica 
17: 121-129. 

Kaaber, Sv. & H0egh-Guldberg, O., 1961. Aricia allous Hb. ssp. vandalica nov. A/'/c/a-studier 3. 

Flora eg Fauna 67: 122-128. 
Russwurm, A.D.A., 1978. Aberrations of British Butterflies Classey, Faringdon. pp. 1-151. 
Selman, B.J., Luff, M.L. & Monck, W.J., 1973. The Castle Eden Dene Argus Butterfly Aricia 

artaxerxes salmacis Stephens. Vasculum 58: 17-22. 



VARIATION IN ARICIA ] 4 1 



Shreeve, T.G., 1993. Confusing the geographic variation within species oi Aricia for hybridisation. 

Entomoloiiist 112(2): 75-80. 
Smyllie, B., 1992. The brown argus butterfly in Britain - a range of Aricia hybrids. Entomologist 

111(1): 27-37. 
Tutt, J.W., 1914. A Natural History of the British Butterflies. Their Worldwide variation and 

geographical distribution. 4. Elliot Stock, London pp. 224-299. 

Notes on the illustrations 

Fig. 3, Plate C. Northern Brown Argus, Pittingham Hill, Co. Durham, 
27.6.94 - upper surface, white submarginal dashes on all wings (ab. pan- 
albisignata), white discal spot with black centre on forewing and faint white 
on hindwing (ab. sub-quadripunctata), reduced orange patches (ab. semi- 
allous). 

Fig, 4, Plate C. Same - under surface, reduced black central mark of 
hindwing discal scar and of spot in space 6. 



Drepana binaria Hufn. (Lep.: Drepanidae) a third generation 

This moth is described as being bivoltine in England and Wales, with a first 
generation in May and June, and a second in July and August, except that 
Barrett (The Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 1893) gives August and early 
September for a partial second generation; L. and K. Evans {A SwTey of the 
Macro-lepidoptera of Croydon and north-east Surrey, 1973) and Chalmers- 
Hunt {The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, 1968) state that the second 
generation is the more numerous, and the records of my garden m.v. trap 
support this. J. Heath (Ed) {The Butterflies and Moths of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Vol. 7(b), 1992) mentions that there is an occasional small 
emergence in late October, but offers no evidence for the statement. 

What may be representatives of a small third generation of D. binaria 
have appeared at my garden trap in four of the last five years, and two 
singletons in earlier years. In 1990 I recorded an early first generation in 
May and a prolific second generation from 13th July to 4th August, if the 
seven specimens noted from 20th to 31st August be regarded as their 
progeny; the light was operated nightly after 4th August until 3rd September 
when it was discontinued until October. However, the curious gap in records 
between 4th and 20th August may have been coincidental, all the specimens 
being of the second generation. The following cases refer to September 
moths which appeared after a considerably longer hiatus. 

In 1992 second generation specimens were noted from 5th July until 8th 
August, to be followed by fresh looking specimens on 9th, 15th and 17th(4) 
September. In 1993 the second generation was in evidence from 13th July to 
8th August, and was followed by a singleton on 9th September. In 1994 the 
last August specimen on 10th August was followed by moths on 4th, 23rd 
(3), and 24th September. 



142 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

In the two decades before 1990 the second generation usually appeared 
confined to July and August, and occasionally the first few days of 
September. However, perhaps not surprisingly in 1976, after the memorable 
long, hot summer, when the last second generation specimen appeared on 
14th August, a further moth came on 29th September, while in 1982 
specimens were seen on 5th and 6th September, having been previously last 
noted on 1 1th August. 

Two isolated late records have appeared in this journal in the last half 
century; C. de Worms {Ent. Rec. 89: 144) reported a binaria for Woking, 
Surrey, 20.ix.l976, and A. Riley and M. Townsend {Ent. Rec. 103: 242) for 
Hertfordshire in mid-September, 1992, after a six week gap.- B.K. West, 
36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DA5 2HN. 

Changes in nomenclature of British Lepidoptera 

Many readers of the Entomologist's Record may not have seen a recent 
article which may be of interest, and perhaps some annoyance. Kauri 
Mikkola and Martin Honey have made a very detailed examination of the 
Noctuidae in the Linnaean collection, including study of the pins on which 
specimens are mounted which determine the original specimens of Linnaeus, 
with a view to providing an authoritative statement on the identity of the 
Linnaean names. They say "we realise that the work we have undertaken 
should have been done at least 70 to 80 years ago." 

The chief changes are listed, English names being given so that there is 
less doubt about which species are involved. Unfortunately two species pairs 
are involved where there has been previous confusion. 

Hada plebeja (Linnaeus, 1761) 

= nana (Hufnagel, 1766) The Shears 

Pseudoips prasinana (Linnaeus, 1758) 

- fagana (¥dbncm?,, 1781) Green Silver-lines 

Bena bicolorana (Fuessly, 1775) 

= prasinana sensu auctt. Scarce Silver-lines 

Abrostola tripartita (Hufnagel, 1766) 

= triplasia sensu auctt. The Spectacle 

Abrostola triplasia (Linnaeus, 1758) 

= trigemina (Wemeburg, 1864) Dark Spectacle 

hi the article the terminations prasinanus and faganus are used to make the 
specific name agree in gender with the genus; however the original spelling 
is given above, in accordance with recent British checklists where specific 
names are regarded as nouns in apposition. 

Reference: Mikkola, K. & Honey, M.R., 1994. The Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) described by 
Linnaeus. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 108: 103-169. 

- David Agassiz, hitemational histitute of Entomology, 56 Queen's Gate, 
SW7 5JR. 



THE GENUS AB ANTIS 1 43 



THE GENVS ABANTIS (LEPIDOPTERA: HESPERIIDAE): 
SOME ADDITIONAL CENTRAL AFRICAN RECORDS 

R.C. Dening fres 

20 Vincent Road, Selsey. West Sussex PO20 9DQ. 

THE REVISION by Collins and Larsen (1994) of the Ahantis hismarcki 
group of skipper butterflies prompts me to put on record the data from my 
own African collection and notes. 

While Abantis bamptoni was undoubtedly rare during my time in Zambia 
(1947-71), A. zambesiaca and A. venosa were both locally common, with A. 
paradisea occurring only occasionally. 

Abantis bamptoni 

I have two specimens, both female. The first, relatively fresh, was taken on 
the 9th February 1954, in woods at Mwinilunga Government Station, in the 
far north-west of Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia). I have a note that it rests 
on the upperside of leaves with wings open, in shaded woodland. This 
specimen is illustrated in Fig. 5, Plate C. 

The second specimen was taken on 27th May 1964, in riverine forest at 
Isombo, near Kalene Hill, in the extreme north-west of Mwinilunga District. 
This was well after the end of the wet season, and the specimen was very old 
and damaged. 

Otherwise, I had never seen this species in my five years in Mwinilunga, 
nor anywhere else in Zambia, even though the foodplant, Uapaca kirkiana, 
is very widespread. 

Other Abantis species 

In those days, the late Mr C.M.N. White mbe, in collaboration with Dr C.B. 
Cottrell FRES (then a student), and myself, had compiled and periodically up- 
dated a draft Check List of the Butterflies of Northern Rhodesia, which 
included 122 species of skipper (at least 12 more have been recorded 
subsequently). 

In this list, A. bismarcki was recorded from Mwinilunga, Kabompo 
(immediately to the south), and the Kalungwishi river (in Kawambwa 
District in the Luapula catchment). 

All these specimens are likely to be referable to A. bamptoni, as also two 
mentioned by White as being in the BMNH, from Solwezi and Mpika, under 
A. arctomarginata. 

Of the 14 other African species of Abantis described by Evans (1937), 
five were recorded from Zambia: 

Abantis tettensis Hopffer, 1855. Collected by Cottrell at Lusaka. 

Abantis zambesiaca Westwood, 1874 (Fig. 6, Plate C). My own specimens 
of this attractive bluish species are from Mwinilunga, dated March 1951. I 



144 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

also recorded it from four other sites around the district, dated 7th April, 
mid- September, 17th November and 5th December. 

Elsewhere, I found it at Mumbwa, west of Lusaka on 22nd December 
1956, and on 15th March 1957, where it was common on a lantana hedge; on 
17th April 1957, in the Chisamba Forest Reserve, north of Lusaka; and at 
Ngwerere Hill, near Lusaka on 8th September. It can probably be regarded 
as widespread and common on the plateau, over the northern part of the 
country (1200-1300 metres altitude). 

Abantis paradisea Butler, 1870 (Fig. 6, Plate C). My own specimens are 
from Mumbwa, taken on a lantana hedge on 22nd December 1956, and from 
Sumbu, at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika, on 17th May 1969. White 
comments briefly, "widespread and common". While this may be true in the 
extreme south, in my experience it occurs only sparsely on the main 
Zambian plateau. 

Abantis lucretia Druce 1909, ssp. lofu Neave, 1910. The type is in the 
Oxford Collection from Northern Rhodesia (Evans, 1937, p. 54), and seems 
to be the only known specimen. 

Neave collected it in a patch of dense forest on the plateau between the 
Lofu River and Lake Tanganyika, on 24th August 1908, latitude 9°S, in the 
extreme north-east of Zambia. 

Later maps show the name of the river as Lufubu, a fairly common river 
name. This may have led to confusion, because this particular Lufubu River 
is nowhere near Lake Bangweulu (not Lake Benguela). 

On the other hand, the putative female of this subspecies, now recognised 
as A. bamptoni, was collected by Neave to the east of the Lake. 

Abantis venosa Trimen, 1889 (Fig. 6, Plate C). My specimens are from 
Ikelenge, north-west Mwinilunga, on 30th March 1952; Chombwa, near 
Mumbwa, on 15th March 1967; form fulva from Ngwerere Hill, near 
Lusaka, on 8th September 1968; form vidua from Kanongesha, in western 
Mwinilunga, on 7th December 1951. 

It was common in December at other sites in Mwinilunga District. I also 
found it in the Chisamba Forest Reserve, north of Lusaka, on 15th April 
1965; at Kalambo Falls, in the far north near Lake Tanganyika, on 14th April 
1967; and at Kaindu, north Mumbwa, where it was numerous on patches of 
dung on 12th January 1957. 

White classes it as widespread and common. 

The latitude of all records lies between 8° and 16°S, and the altitude 
mainly between 1,200 and 1,300 metres. The attached map indicates the 
approximate position of the localities mentioned. All species except A. 
lucretia are illustrated in Pennington (1978) and Lewis (1973). 



THE GENUS ABANTIS 



145 



ZAIRE 



ANGOLA 




MALAWI 



ZIMBABWE 



NAMiniA 



BOTSWANA 



Notes on the illustrations 

Fig. 5, Plate C. A. bamptoni, female from Mwinilunga, Zambia, ii.l954 
(R.C. Dening coll.). 

Fig. 6, Plate C. Top left: A. bamptoni, as Fig. 5. Top right: A. zambesiaca, 
male from Mwinilunga, Zambia, iii.1951. Bottom left: A. paradisea, female 
from Mumbwa, Zambia, xii.1956. Bottom right: A. venosa, male from 
Ikelenge, Mwinilunga, Zambia, iii.1951. (All R.C. Dening coll.) 



References 

Collins, S.C. and Larsen, T.B., 1994. The Abantis bismarcki group of skipper butterflies, with a 

description of Abantis bamptoni sp.nov. (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Entomologist's Rec. J. \'ar. 

106: 1-5. 
Evans, W.H., 1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidae in the British Museum. British Museum 

(Natural History), London. 
Lewis, H.L., 1973. Butterflies of the world. George G. Harrap & Co., London. 
Neave, S.A. 1910. Zoological collections from Northern Rhodesia and adjacent territories: 

Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera. Transactions of the Zoological Society, London. 1910: 2-86. 
Pennington, K.M., 1978. Pennington's butterflies of Southern Africa. A.D. Donker, Johannesburg & 

London. 



146 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

A second British record of Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot 
(Lep.: Pyralidae) 

A female of the pyralid moth Mussidia nigrivenella was taken at Ught at 
Dungeness Bird Observatory on 12th August 1994. This is only the second 
British record of this species, and the first "at large" for this pest species. 
The last record was in a London cocoa warehouse in 1930. The moth is 
illustrated in Goater, 1986, British pyralid moths. Other immigrant species 
were noted on the night of capture, including the Tawny Wave, Scopula 
rubiginata Hufn. My thanks to Mark Parsons and Bernard Skinner for their 
help in identifying this moth.- S.P. Clancy, Delhi Cottage, Dungeness, 
Romney Marsh, Kent TN29 9NE. 

The scarcity of Vanessid butterflies 

I would like to accord to an extent with the views of Mr A. A. Allen {Ent. 
Rec. 106: 228), in his observation that Vanessid butterflies seem to be rather 
more scarce than they were a few years ago, or at least in my youth, which is 
not more than a decade ago. Despite a general decline in butterfly numbers, 
the so called "garden" species have done relatively well, we are led to 
believe. However, though they may be thirsty visitors to the buddleia, they 
rarely breed in gardens, and I suspect that their breeding sites are where the 
problems lie. 

Nettles are less common where I live than when I was a teenager. Then, I 
would collect larvae in June to allow them to mature, as the local cricket 
club declared war on nettles beyond the boundary line, where they grew in 
the classic sheltered comer, and where females of Aglais urticae and Inachis 
io would deposit their ova each year. This was done easily enough by 
chopping them down. Now totally unnecessary spraying has destroyed the 
nettle patch, and so many like it, and I have looked for the larvae in the 
immediate area for five years and not found them. One imagines this has 
been a familiar story in thousands of such settings, and thus many suburban 
environments have become hostile for these species. 

The vanessidae do not seem to like the clumps found in fields, in the 
exposed middle, and in many agricultural settings pesticide residues are 
likely to be high. We have not yet seen results from set-aside, but farmers 
are allowed to limit the growth of plants they con..ider undesirable, and I 
suspect that nettles fall into this category. So even these most far-ranging 
and opportunistic of butterflies may, if my observations and those of Mr 
Allen are representative, have found themselves pushed out of their humble 
havens on waste ground and other marginal land. 

We should, as a society, become alarmed when our scarce butterflies 
became rare: We did bolt the stable door, but only when some of the stalls 
were empty. How alarmed should we feel about the degradation and 
impoverishment of our environment now that today's common butterflies 
look like being tomorrow's rarities?- Dr C.J. Smith, 20 Gately Road, Sale 
Moor, Cheshire M33 2RQ. 



PYRALID MOTHS IN PROFILE 1 47 

PYRALID MOTHS IN PROFILE: PART 1 - SCIOTA ADELPHELLA 
(FISCHER VON ROSLERSTAM) 

Bernard Skinner 

5 Rawlins Close, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 8JS. 

Introduction 

THIS IS THE FIRST in a series of occasional articles on the British 
Pyralidae under the general heading Pyralid moths in profile. The series is 
intended to cover species where our knowledge of the status, distribution and 
immature stages in Britain appears to be inadequate. The series will also 
cover species where the true status has been distorted by erroneous recording 
either as a result of misidentification or muddled nomenclature. 

Included in the early series will be Crambus pratella (L.) (England only); 
Crambus verellus (Zincken); Udea fulvalis (Hbn.); Salebriopsis albicilla 
(H.-S.); diVid Acrobasis tumidana (D.&S.). Details of unpublished records for 
any of these species will be gratefully received and acknowledged on 
publication. 

Profile no. 1 - Sciota adelphella (Fischer von Roslerstam) 

Past history and present status 

This species was first recognised in Britain as distinct from Sciota hostilis 
(Stephens) in 1988 (Brotheridge, 1988) and single records were cited from 
Wiltshire and Essex. An initial response to the discovery brought to light 
eight further specimens, one from Suffolk and the rest from Kent (Jewess, 
1989 and Chalmer-Hunt, 1990). 

In 1990 I researched this species visiting or consulting many major 
museums and private collections, and further investigating all unusual 
records of S. hostilis. In all, fifteen specimens were found to have been taken 
before 1990. These comprised a single inland record from Wiltshire; the 
others being mainly from coastal sites in Suffolk, Kent and Essex. There 
is some supportive evidence that most, if not all, were the result of 
immigration. 

After a two year absence of records a small influx occurred on the south- 
east coast of Kent in July 1992 and in August a larva, the first and so far the 
only one reported from Britain, was found feeding on white willow, Salix 
alba at Greatstone, Kent. In 1993 six more specimens were reported from 
the same general area. 

More sightings in 1994 suggested that the species was possibly 
established in at least four localities, Greatstone, Littlestone, Dymchurch and 
New Romney. 

Similar species 

The adult of adelphella is similar to S. hostilis and Pempelia formosa 
(Haw.). However, adelphella has a distinctly brighter orange basal patch and 



148 


ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 


107 25.V.1995 




The British records of S. adelphella 1948-1993 


6.1948 


Hamstreet, Kent 


J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 


Chalmers-Hunt Coll. 


28.6.1957 


Lydd, Kent 


S. Wakely 


Univ. Mus. Cambs. 


29.6.1959 


Bradwell, Essex 


A.J. Dewick 


Dewick Coll. 


3.8.1963 


Dover, Kent 


G.H. Youden 


Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 


16.7.1964 


Thorpeness, Suffolk 


J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 


Chalmers-Hunt Coll. 


7.7.1970 


Dover, Kent 


G.H. Youden 


Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 


c. 1975 


Dymchurch, Kent 


J. Owen 


Chalmers-Hunt Coll. 


6.7.1976 


Newington, Kent 


P. Jewess 


Jewess Coll. 


26.6.1984 


Stodmarsh, Kent 


J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 


Chalmers-Hunt Coll. 


21.7.1984 


Stodmarsh, Kent 


N.F. Heal 


Heal Coll. 


21.7.1984 


Stonelees, Kent 


J.M. Chalmers-Hunt 


Chalmers-Hunt Coll. 


4.7.1985 


Murston, Kent 


P. Jewess 


Jewess Coll. 


29.6.1986 


Dover, Kent 


G.H. Youden 


Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 


15.7.1987 


Wroughton, Wilts. 


D.J. Brotheridge 


Brotheridge Coll. 


7.7.1989 


Thorpeness, Suffolk 


J.L. Fenn 


Fenn Coll. 


8.7.1992 


Greatstone, Kent 


B. Banson 


Clancy Coll. 


8.7.1992 


Dungeness, Kent 


S. Clancy 


Clancy Coll. 


10.7.1992 


Lydd, Kent 


K. Redshaw 


Clancy Coll. 


15.7.1992 


Greatstone, Kent 


B. Banson 


Clancy Coll. 


18.7.1992(2) 


New Romney, Kent 


K. Redshaw 


Clancy Coll. 


23.8.1992 (L) 


Greatstone, Kent 


B. Skinner 


Skiimer Coll. 


24.5.1993 


Dungeness, Kent 


M. Parsons 


Parsons Coll. 


6.6.1993 


New Romney, Kent 


K. Redshaw 


Clancy Coll. 


6.1993 


New Romney, Kent 


K. Redshaw 


Redshaw pers. comm. 


8.6.1993 


Densole, Kent 


A. Rouse 


Rouse Coll. 


26.6.1993 


Dymchurch, Kent 


J. Owen 


Owen Coll. 


3.7.1993 


Dymchurch, Kent 


J. Owen 


Owen Coll. 



an inwardly concave antemedian line absent in hostilis. The two discal spots 
are not united as is the case in P. formosa. Sciota hostilis and 5'. adelphella 
are illustrated in Figure 7, Plate D. 



Life history 

Captive pairing of wild caught British specimens have been obtained, and 
the complete life history observed. In captivity the small, pale straw coloured 
eggs are laid singly or in small batches on the underside of the leaf either 
side of the midrib and hatch in six to seven days. 

The full grown larva measures 19mm and is yellowish-green with 
reddish-brown dorsal and ventral stripes. The head is reddish-brown. It 
would appear to be quite distinct from the dull brownish larva of hostilis 
described by William Buckler (Buckler, 1901). A fully grown larva is 
illustrated in Figure 8, Plate D. The larva lives inside a transparent, silken 
tube within a flimsy tent comprised of two or more lightly spun leaves. 
Several larvae will share a "tent" in captivity and possibly do so in the wild. 



PYRALID MOTHS IN PROFILE 1 49 

After approximately 30 days the larva pupates within a soft papery and 
opaque cocoon. The typically chestnut-brown pupa is glossy and measures 
11- 12mm (Fig. 9, Plate D). The pupation site in nature is unknown, but in 
captivity the larva forms its cocoon on the side of the breeding container. 
The moth overwinters in the pupal stage. 

References 

Brotheridge, D.J., Corley, M.F.V., Dewick, A. J., 1988. Sciota adelphella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in 

England. Entomologist's Gaz. 39: 271. 
Buckler, W., 1901. The larvae of the British butterflies and moths. IX. plate 159, figure 7a. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 1990. in The 1989 Annual Exhibition. Br. J. ent. Nat. Hist. 3: 70. 
Jewess, P., 1989. Records of Sciota adelphella F.v.R. from North Kent. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 

101: 173. 



Eutheia linearis Muls. (Col.: Scydmaenidae) recaptured at Windsor 

As long ago as 1935 {Entomologist's mon. Mag. 71: 65) I recorded a single 
specimen of this rare insect from Windsor, the only one (apparently) known 
up to now from the locality in spite of all the collecting done there. To 
enlarge somewhat upon this capture: it was, incidentally, the first beetle 
taken on my first visit to the area, on 21st May 1934! It occurred under bark 
on a smallish oak stump, just inside the piece of forest to the south of the 
road at Highstanding Hill. The specimen is a female and was readily named 
from Joy (1932, Pract. Handb. Brit. Beetles 1: 479-480) and Fowler (1889, 
Col. Brit. I si. 3: 89), but it must be noted that at that period the shorter, more 
strongly and abruptly clubbed antennae were mistakenly assigned to males 
in the genus - a point later corrected in the literature. 

E. linearis has a different habitat from the closely similar E. 
scydmaenoides Steph., being subcortical instead of saprophilous, and has 
been accorded Grade 1 Old Forest Indicator status. Most of our specimens 
were collected under bark of oak logs in Sherwood Forest last century by 
W.G. Blatch, and it has occurred in the New Forest, but a remarkable recent 
record from the woods fringing Loch Lomond, Stirlingshire, is seemingly 
unconfirmed (Hyman & Parsons, 1994, Rev. Scarce & Threatened Col. Gt. 
Br. 2: 91). 

It is of interest, therefore, to report a second find of the species at 
Windsor, where I took another female under bark of an oak log or branch in 
a wood-pile in the Great Park, 4.vii.l984 -just half-a-century after the first. 
The Eutheia was almost buried in the outer layers of very fibrous "bast", 
from which it was extracted with some difficulty. Unaccountably, it appears 
to have passed at the time as E. scydmaenoides, despite the habitat which 
should have alerted me to its true identity, but a recent overhaul of my 
material revealed it as undoubted linearis. One of the clearest distinctions 
lies in the fact that while the pronotum is more strongly punctate than the 
elytra in scydmaenoides, the reverse is the case in linearis, as Joy {I.e. supra) 
indicates.- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



150 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.V.1995 



SAVE OUR FORESTS! 

SAVE THE GIANT 

SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY 



Hazards of butterfly collecting - from Rat Trap to Barbecue Bottom, 
Jamaica, February, 1994 

When you have just toured Cambridge, Manchester, Falmouth, Mandeville, 
Wakefield, Maidstone, Northampton, Newcastle, Bristol, Bath, Hampton 
Court, Richmond, Hampstead - and, just a bit further on, Highgate - there 
can hardly be much doubt in which part of the world you are. And surely 
Galloway, Inverness, and Culloden are only just north of the border? 

But then there are also Alexandria, Aboukir, Balaclava, Lititz, 
Schwallenburgh, and Montpellier. Not to mention Santa Cruz, Rio Grande, 
Rio Buena, and the Copocabana Beach, all of which confuse the issue a bit. 
The Bengal Bridge, Pondicherry, and the Hardwar Gap appear to add a 

slightly Indian flavour to the 
cocktail. 

The local names are more 
of a giveaway: Rat Trap, Good 
Design, Maggotty, Gutters, 
Barbecue Bottom, Wait-a-Bit, 
Heartease, Burnt Savannah 
and Quick Step - the latter in 
the district of Look Behind in 
Cockpit Country! Anyone who 
does not now know where we 
are may choose to be exiled to 
either Lilliput or the Hellshire 
HiUs. 

It is, of course, Jamaica, to 
which I found myself 
transported with the sole, but 
pleasant, objective of being 
nice to my wife. She has 
visited Jamaica four times 
over the past year and a half 
setting up an action research 
project on peer-education on 
AIDS. She loved the place. 
She had made many friends. 
The project was going well. I 
just had to come and see for 
myself! There was also an 
element of guilt; Nancy had 
spent Christmas and the New 




GIANT SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY (Papilio homerus) 
..The Jamaican Giant.. 

The Giant Swallowtail butterfly of Jamaica is one of 
the most spectacular butterflies in the world. As it 
flies through the forests the Jamaican Giant is 
unmistakable. 

Immaculately gold and black (or dark brown) this 
largest of New World butterflies spans an incredible 
fifteen (15) cm - (six (6) inches) from one wing tip to 
the other. Like all other swallowtail butterflies, it has 
the distinctive projections on the lower wing tips that 
give this family of butterflies it's name. 



Year with me in Ghana and I am afraid that butterflies took more pride of 
place than they ought to have done. 

After ascertaining that the peer-educators were great (I have rarely seen so 
well-motivated, confident, and well-spoken youngsters anywhere), and after 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 5 1 

meeting my wife's collaborators (who were running good programmes on 
shoestring budgets), we set off in a hired car to seek the elusive American 
concept of quality time, for which Jamaica certainly provides the setting, so 
the rest was up to us. 

Butterflies were thus rather incidental to the exercise, but collecting was 
done while meandering all over the island, which is much smaller than it 
seems on the map - there are hardly any road signs, and we kept 
overshooting our plotted landmarks. 

There are many lovely butterflies in Jamaica. As so often in the tropics 
one of the Swallowtails (Papilio andraemon) has gone onto citrus and flies 
everywhere. Beautiful Sulphurs {Phoebis spp.) in yellow and gold flock 
about flowers. And several Grass Yellows {Eurema spp.) with exactly the 
same habits as in Africa and Asia. The Heliconids are not many, but they are 
very prominent in the landscape. The orange Diyas iulia and Agraulis 
vanillae swoop to flowers while the large light green Philaethria dido seems 
more fond of fruit, just as the Red Admiral in Europe. Every forest edge and 
river valley has the widely distributed Heliconius charitonia patrolling 
ceaselessly. 

The main Nymphalid is the ubiquitous Antanartia jatrophae, but there are 
also Buckeyes or Pansies {Junonia evarete) behaving just as they do in 
Africa and Asia. Lycaenids are very thin on the ground except for Leptotes 
cassius, in a genus shared between all the tropical continents. Among the 
Skippers are the little Pyrgus oileus, the only member of its genus at home in 
the tropics, and the large, long-tailed Urbanus proteus. 

The total catch came to 36 species. Yes - only 36! How so? A similar tour 
in Ghana would have yielded at least 270 species - about a third of the total 
fauna - with the same expenditure of energy. We actually did 
proportionately better than that, since there are only 75 resident butterflies on 
Jamaica. This is the island effect, and it is much stronger than one should 
think. Each of the smaller Caribbean Islands has a fauna of but 20-30 
species, Jamaica and Puerto Rico about 75, and even the much larger islands 
of Cuba and Hispaniola only just over 100. By contrast, tiny Costa Rica has 
more than 1500! The relationship between species numbers and the 
logarithm of the surface area of each island is linear. 

What we did not come across was the endemic Jamacian Giant 
Swallowtail {Papilio homerus), one of the largest butterflies in the world. It 
is restricted to river valleys in relatively unspoilt forest of difficult access 
and is decreasing in numbers. It feeds on one single plant, the Water Mahoe 
{Hernandia catalpaefolia - Hemandiaceae) that is limited to these habitats. 
It has apparently decreased in numbers in recent times, at least in its more 
accessible haunts. 

However, you do come across its image everywhere else - on tourist 
literature, posters, wayside billboards, and even on pre-paid telephone cards. 
For this butterfly has been made the flagship species for conservation of the 
remaining upland forests of Jamaica, especially the Blue Mountains/Jim 



152 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Crow National Park, though it also occurs in Cockpit Country. As explained 
to me by Janet Bedasse of the Jamaican Conservation and Development 
Trust, it is also the main theme in organising local support for the National 
Park and for involving youngsters in nature conservation. There is even a new 
dance called "the butterfly", a very sexy dance - watch those pheromones fly! 
Papilio homerus is world famous - at least aU over Jamaica. It richly 
deserves to be. And how nice to see a butterfly spearheading general 
conservation measures with such evident success.- Torben B. Larsen, 358 
Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Epirrita autumnata Borkh. (Lep.: Geometridae): a new variety 

On the evening of 4.xi.94, an unusual variety of Epirrita autumnata, the 
Autumnal Moth, was found on a lighted window at my home address in 
Banffshire. The specimen was a male of normal size and wing pattern, but it 
was entirely of a sandy reddish colour instead of the usual tones of grey. 
This was very pale on the underside, hindwings, and the ground colour of the 
forewings, where there was a dusting of whitish scales in the median area. 
The crosslines, discal spot and veins were in deeper shades of the same 
sandy-red colour. There was no hint of grey or blackish anywhere on the 
moth. 

As this is such a distinct variety, and apparently unrecorded, I propose to 
name it even at the risk of being thought unfashionable. It is an erythristic 
form, so the name ab. eiythrata seems appropriate. Many moths which 
appear in autumn are orange or reddish, but the Epirrita species are an 
exception, perhaps because they rest on tree trunks rather than among leaves. 
This variety suggests that autumnata does have the genetic capacity to adopt 
a reddish colouration likewise, if at some future time natural selection were 
to favour it. 

I thank Bernard Skinner for consulting the world list of named aberrations 
on my behalf, and Lt. Colonel A.M. Emmet for vetting the suggested name. 
- Roy Leverton, Whitewefls, Ordiquhill, Comhill, Banffshire AB45 2HS. 

The occurrence of the Clouded Yellow {Colias croceus Geoffrey) (Lep.: 
Pieridae) in Devon during 1994 

Whilst 1994 was not generally regarded as an exceptional year for Clouded 
Yellows, they were seen in fair numbers from late June to early October in 
Devon, and it was probably their fifth best year since 1955 (see Bristow, 
Mitchell and Bolton, 1993, p. 38). However, the number of recorders in 1994 
was down on previous years, and a comparison of total numbers of Clouded 
Yellows seen will almost certainly be misleading. One recorder alone (Mr 
Maurice Edmonds) is responsible for 55 (25%) of the sightings. In summary, 
I have 103 records of some 232 individuals from 69 localities by 32 
recorders. 

The first Clouded Yellows were seen at two localities (Morchard Bishop, 
SS7760 and Chittlehampton SS6226) in mid-Devon on 25th June, followed 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 53 

by two sightings at Lydford (SX4882) on the following day and one at 
Torrington Common (SS 4819) on 29th June. There were a few scattered 
records from all over the County in July (2nd at Aylesbeare Common 
SY0689, 10th at Copplestone SS7703, 1 1th at West Down SX4870 and 16th 
at Higher Metcombe SY0692). 

A second, and much bigger, immigration occurred in August, with 
sightings almost daily from 5th August until 7th September. There were 
several sightings during the rest of September until the 27th, and then 
singletons, all on or close to the coast, on 1st, 5th 8th and 15th October. A 
singleton seen on 15th December at Dawlish Warren by J. Fortey remains an 
enigma. 

Several var. helice were recorded; it was one out of four of my own 
observations, and four out of 55 of Maurice Edmond's. Maurice also 
witnessed ovipositing on young clover at Paignton on 7th September. 

Reference: Bristow, C.R., Mitchell, S.H. and Bolton, D.E., 1993. Devon Butterflies. Tiverton: Devon 
Books. 

- Roger Bristow, Davidsland, Copplestone, Devon EX 17 5NX. 

Electrophaes corylata Thunb. (Lep.: Geometridae), ratio of forms in 
north-west Kent 

I had for many years the general impression that in south-east England the 
banded form of this moth was the overwhelmingly prevalent one. However, 
this impression was not relevant to north-west Kent where it seems the moth 
has been exceedingly scarce during this century, until very recently. The 
species did not appear in my garden m.v. trap until 1983, its fifteenth year of 
operation. Another solitary specimen arrived in 1984, and numbers have 
increased, slowly at first, until in 1994 as many as ten would be noted in a 
single night. Chalmers-Hunt {The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, 3: 1981) 
corroborates this scarcity, but for Kent generally gives the proportions of the 
banded form and ab. ruptata Hbn. as equal, and more recently C. Plant (The 
Larger Moths of the London Area, 1993) suggests this is true of this region 
also, and which includes Dartford. 

1 have noted the numbers of these two forms for the past three years. In 
1992 25% of 52 specimens were ab. ruptata, in 1993 23% of 35, and in 1994 
26% of 84 individuals. An explanation of this discrepancy may be the 
situation of this part of Dartford in relation to incidence of atmospheric 
pollution. The banded form appears slightly darker, melanistic compared 
with ab. ruptata; the situation will be monitored in future years; the ratio 
may change. 

A limited count made in late May 1988 on Granish Moor, near Aviemore, 
Inverness, showed the proportions roughly reversed, yet this would seem to 
be contrary to Barret's comment {The Lepidoptera of the British Islands, 
1902) ". . . in hill districts from Cannock Chase northwards the ordinary 
form is almost entirely replaced by one in which ... the central band is 
usually complete." However, to the north of Cannock Chase lie the industrial 



154 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

areas of Lancashire and Yorkshire noted for their production of melanic 
forms of many species. What has been the relative incidence of the two 
forms of corylata there? Has the complete banded form reached 75% in 
some of these industrial areas of the Midlands or North? Finally, in parts of 
the Highlands of Scotland a third form, I believe usually infrequently, 
appears; this is ab. albocrenata Curtis, paler still, having the central band 
virtually absent; does it ever occur more commonly than 1% or 2% of the 
total population? 
- B.K. West, 36 Briar Road, Dartford, Kent DA5 2HN. 

Eucosma metzneriana Treitsche (Lep.: Tortricidae) in north Essex 

It seems worth placing on record the capture of a male Eucosma metzneriana 
Tr., which came to a Robinson pattern m.v. light-trap at the Essex Wildlife 
Trust's Rushey Mead Nature Reserve, North Essex, at around 22.30 hours on 
28th June 1994. This appears to be only the fourth British example of this 
attractive grey moth, and the first record of a male. 

The species was added to the British list at the Gog Magog Hills, 
Cambridgeshire (a chalkland site some 34 kilometres north of Rushey Mead) 
on 22nd July 1977 by R.J. Revell, when a single female in good condition 
came to light {Ent. Rec. 89: 329-330, Plate 1). A second (worn) female was 
recorded at Southsea, South Hampshire by John Langmaid on 21st June 
1982 (Ent. Rec. 94: 202) and a third (condition not recorded) at Rye 
Harbour, East Sussex, by Mark Parsons on 14th July 1989 (Ent. Rec. 101: 
254). The Rushey Mead example was in good condition, apart from the 
symmetrical absence of the tomal region of both fore wings, suggesting that 
the insect had perhaps been pecked at by a bird or other predator. 

The exact status of this species in Britain is unclear, and evidence may 
suggest that it occurs solely as an immigrant. The two south coast records 
perhaps fit this pattern quite well, though neither Gog Magog Hills nor the 
Rushey Mead Nature Reserve are areas noted for their immigration of 
Lepidoptera and there was certainly no migrant activity at all in the latter 
area around 28th June 1994 (three Robinson traps which run nightly at 
different nearby gardens within two kilometres failed to detect a single 
immigrant moth a fortnight either side of the capture date). 

In continental Europe, the larva feeds from August to May in the tip of a 
shoot of an Artemisia plant, causing the shoot to abort and resulting in a 
swelling which is distinctive. The larva then leaves the swelling and pupates, 
spun-up in the lower part of the stem (Bradley et al, 1979 British Tortricoid 
Moths 2: 185-186. London: Ray Society) or in the larval habitation (Emmet, 
1991 in Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 7(2): 158-159. 
Colchester: Harley Books). Both Artemisia absinthium and A. vulgare are 
recorded. Because of a variety of circumstances, (the most notable being the 
presence on the trip of my own two larvae and au pairl), the trap at Rushey 
Mead was set during the particular night in question adjacent to the entrance 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 155 

gate in an area where the car may be safely parked. This area is blessed with 
a reasonable quantity of thinly scattered plants of A. vulgare. Though the site 
has been well worked by myself and colleagues in the last two years, careful 
examination of my diaries indicates that we have never before operated in 
the "mugwort zone", even though we have trapped on nine occasions during 
1993 and 1994 between 21st June and 22nd July - the first and last recorded 
dates for the species in Britain. The possibility that the species is an 
extremely local resident should not be overlooked though subsequent 
searching for swollen tips of foodplant has proved fruitless to date. 

I should like to thank the Essex Wildlife Trust for permission to record 
invertebrates at their Rushey Mead Nature Reserve and the reserve's 
Warden, Colin Taylor, for his enthusiastic help and assistance on site. It 
should be added that a permit is required to collect insects at all Essex 
Wildlife Trust nature reserves.- Colin W. Plant, 14 West Road, Bishops 
Stortford, Hertfordshire CM23 3QP. 

Amphipoea fucosa paludis Tutt (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Oxfordshire 

Three specimens of the Saltern Ear, Amphipoea fucosa paludis, were 
collected from mercury vapour traps in a garden at Long Wittenham, 
Oxfordshire, the first on 31st July 1990, another on 20th August 1992 and 
the third on 30th July 1994. Their identity was confirmed by examination of 
the genitalia. Evidently these are the first records of this species for 
Oxfordshire. The moth is normally associated with coastal areas, especially 
salt marshes, where it can be common, and its occurrence so far inland is 
remarkable unless, of course, it has been overlooked and mistaken for A. 
oculea (L.) which, in the event, is rare at the Long Wittenham site, with only 
one record since trapping began in July 1989. Possibly the moth has 
extended its range up the River Thames (which passes within 500 metres of 
the garden), as has the Brown-tail, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) 
(Lymantriidae), another mainly coastal species regularly recorded at the 
same site.- Denis F. Owen and Martin Townsend, 42 Little Wittenham 
Road, Long Wittingham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire 0X14 4QS. 

The first light trap, 1st century AD 

I was interested to read Brian Gardiner's account of a 16th century 
description of a light trap to catch wax moths {Ent. Rec. J. Var. 107: 45-46). 
The passage he quotes is in fact a fairly faithful translation from the Roman 
author Columella's treatise on agriculture written in AD60-65 {De Re 
Rustica IX. 14.9). Columella does not claim to be the inventor of the 
technique in question, although he is the earliest surviving author to mention 
it, closely followed by his contemporary Pliny {Natural Histoiy XXI.81). 
Wax moths were well known to the bee-keepers of the ancient world and are 
described by a number of Greek and Latin authors, as discussed in my 
Insects and other invertebrates in classical antiquity, Exeter, 1988. 
- Ian C. Beavis, 104 St. James' Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 



156 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Psychoides filicivora (Meyr.) (Lep.: Tineidae) and Caloptilia azaleella 
(Brants.) (Lep.: Gracillariidae) in West Kent 

Both of these introduced species have occurred fairly regularly since 1989 at 
my garden m.v. trap here in Tunbridge Wells. P. filicivora has appeared in 
late April, May, August and November, while C. azaleella has appeared in 
every month from May to September and in November. On 27th November 
1994, both species appeared in the trap together, the latest date for each. I 
understand from A.M. Emmet that this is likely to be the first record of 
filicivora from VC16 (West Kent). Records of azaeella were always 
problematic, as the species does occur indoors on imported plants. As far as I 
am aware these and others from Petts Wood in the west of the county (taken 
by D. O'Keeffe) are the only specimens caught in the open from VC16. 
- Ian C. Beavis, 104 St. James' Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 

A possible sighting of the Large Tortoiseshell, Nymphalis polychloros L. 
in West Sussex 

During a sunny spell in my garden, on 14th March 1995, 1 saw a butterfly in 
flight that I took to be a Painted Lady. Shortly afterwards, it settled on a 
windowsill, and closer examination showed that it was neither Painted Lady 
nor Small Tortoiseshell. My hesitation is because despite an interest in 
butterflies that has spanned some 60 years, I have never before seen 
polychloros and thought that the species is probably extinct in this country. 
March is also a typical post-hibernation date for the species. This specimen 
was distinctly larger than urticae, lacked the blue lunules on the hind wings 
and had no white colour on the underside.- David Sheldon, 9 Greyfriars 
Close, Worthing, West Sussex BN13 2DR. 

Acherontia atropos (Lep.: Sphingidae) breeding in Oxfordshire in 1994 

On 24th August 1994, John HiU obtained two fully-fed larvae of the Death's- 
head Hawk, Acherontia atropos, at East Hendred, Oxfordshire. They had 
been feeding on jasmine, Jasminum officinale (Oleaceae), an alien 
ornamental from southern Asia and an unusual foodplant for a species 
which, at least in northern Europe, is especially associated with the 
Solanaceae. In the tropics, many different foodplants are utilised. Thus, in 
Sierra Leone I found larvae on Lantana camera, Cleorodendrum fallax (both 
Verbenaceae) and Heliotropium indica (Boraginaceae); on the Seychelles I 
found them on Zinnia (Compositae).- Denis F. Owen, 42 Little Wittenham 
Road, Long Wittenham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX 14 4QS. 

Taphropeltus contractus (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Het.: Lygaeidae) in west 
Cumbria 

On 22nd of January 1 994 while searching for weevils on South Head, Saint 
Bees in west Cumbria (NCR NX956.1 17), I found one aduh specimen of the 
small ground bug Taphropeltus contractus. The insect was found in a deep 
accumulation of leaf Utter and humus beneath stunted gorse bush growing on 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 57 

a low, south-facing cliff bank. This appears to be a new record for Cumbria 
and the first for VC70 Cumberland. There is no record for Cumbria of this 
bug in F.H. Day's list of the Heteroptera of Cumberland (1928, Trans. 
Carlisle nat. Hist. Soc. 4: 108-130) and there are no specimens from the 
county in the collections of F.H. Day, James Murray and G.B. Routledge in 
the Tullie House Museum at Carlisle. 

According to Southwood and Leston (1959, Land and water hugs of the 
British Isles, Wame, p. 114) T. contractus is widely distributed throughout 
Britain and is associated mainly with dry habitats. 

I wish to thank Mr Stephen Hewitt (Keeper of Natural Sciences at the 
Carlisle Museum) for kindly identifying the bug for me and for information 
regarding its status and distribution.- R.W.J. Read, 43 Holly Terrace, 
Hensingham, Whitehaven, Cumbria CA28 8RF. 

Acalles roboris Curtis (Col.: Curculionidae) in Cumbria and vice-county 70 

On 9th December 1994 I found two specimens of this notable (Nb) weevil in 
Talkin Head Wood (SSSI), Cumbria (NOR NY544.561). The beetles were 
sieved from a sample of leaf litter and general humus collected from the base 
of a few sessile oak trees growing on the side of a steep bank above the 
River Gelt. This would appear to be a new record of the weevil from vice- 
county 70, Cumberland. There are no specimens of A. roboris in the 
collections of local Coleoptera in the Tullie House Museum at Carlisle, and 
this species is not recorded in F.H. Day's list of Cumberland Coleoptera, 
(1923, Trans. Carlisle nat. Hist. Soc, 3: 99-105). The weevil has been 
recorded from VC69, Westmorland and is known from two sites in the 
county: Roudsea Wood Nature Reserve (SD38) and Cunswick Scar (SD39). 

I wish to thank Mr Stephen Hewitt (Keeper of Natural Sciences) Carlisle 
Museum for kindly allowing me access to the museum collections, and I 
would also like to thank Mr John Miles for introducing me to the Talkin 
Head site.- R.W.J. Read, 43 Holly Terrace, Hensingham, Whitehaven, 
Cumbria CA28 8RF. 

Furcula bifida Brahm (Lep.: Notodontidae) in Pembrokeshire 

The recent record of this species from Cardiganshire (Miles, Ent. Rec. J. 
Var. 106: 202) prompts me to report the occurrence of this locally distributed 
moth in the neighbouring county of Pembrokeshire, also during 1994, when 
a single example was attracted to m.v. light on 13th June at Blackpool Farm, 
Blackpool Mill (grid ref. SN061144). The distribution map provided in 
Heath & Emmet (1979, The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain & 
Ireland, volume 9, Curwen) does not illustrate any records for F. bifida in 
Pembrokeshire, and neither have I been able to trace any recently published 
records for the county. I am indebted to Philip Miles and Dr M.R. Wilson 
(National Museum of Wales) who also checked for previous Pembrokeshire 
records on my behalf.- A.P. Foster, 61 Pittsfield, Cricklade, Swindon, 
Wiltshire SN6 6AW. 



158 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

Some winter insects 

In mild conditions at 1pm on 25th November 1994 a male Gonepteryx 
rhamni was flying above an ivy hedge in Gracious Street, Selbome. An 
unexpected arrival at light here on 12th December was a single specimen of 
Orthosia gothica, a species not previously seen by me earlier than 29th 
January. Another surprise was the re-appearance in January (after three 
weeks' absence) of Poecilocampa populi, with males on 9th and 13th. 
Agriopis leucophaearia on 14th January beat my previous earliest date of 
29th January, whilst Agriopis marginalia on 1st February pre-dated my 
previous first on 10th February 1994.- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, 
Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 

GERTRUDE KATE HAGGETT 

There will not be many lepidopterists today who may recall the work done 
by my mother during the 1940s, '50s and into the '60s. Her interest in moths 
grew from catches at a vertical sheet hung on our Arundel, Sussex, clothes- 
line to accurate and ready identification of m.v. trap contents that succeeded 
it: the site was rich with polychloros regularly in March and the odd iris at 
the waterbutt in July, w-album sat in numbers on the water-lily leaves and 
alpium and quadra and even one l-nigrum came to the lights. It was in the 
early days of arceuthata larvae on the Cypress and the heyday of Ham 
Street. She stood in for me while I was on military service, and following a 
week with me combing Ham Street woods for nigropunctata and only 
finding males, she returned after I had rejoined my unit to catch the much- 
sought female - one could flush only the odd moth then in contrast to the 
present Folkestone abundance. She would venture alone into the Arundel 
woods at night, armed only with a paraffin lantern, for larvae and especially 
for spring moths. On one occasion she was examining moths shaken from 
sallow blossom when her lantern light picked out the boots of a tramp who 
fortunately went peacefully on his way, an encounter that could not be risked 
today. 

She was a frequent attender at the annual exhibition of the South London 
and was well-known to the fraternity of those days, which included Eric 
Classey, Michael Chalmers-Hunt, Norman Riley, Bernard Kettlewell, 
George Hyde, Charles de Worms, Robert Saundby and Robin Mere, and it 
was Sir Robert who remarked that he had never seen or heard of any 
collector go into bushes at night and come out with so many larvae. She was 
one of few to find the wild larva of Nola albula. A.J. Wightman lived but a 
few miles distant at Pulborough and there was a constant, almost 
uninterrupted quest of larvae, part of a happy system of mutual benefit of a 
small group who embarked on forming collections of larvae from all parts of 
the British Isles. During my many absences my mother would go on 
collecting trips with AJW, who was never the most particular of motorists 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 59 

and whose reversing success depended upon contact: thus it was how she 
found musculosa sitting in cold dew on wheat stooks while nothing flew to 
light. 

It was larvae that she liked so much and which she was to share in our 
attempt to rear all the British macros; we soon found the literature sadly 
wanting and we eagerly absorbed both figures and text of Buckler's volumes, 
then to realise how much work was required to bring that most wonderful of 
masterpieces up to date. There was an explosion of activity and adventure 
then, rather similar to the present-time chain of discoveries, so illustration 
and description of species was possible of so many of those not depicted by 
Buckler. My mother shared much of the rearing with AJW and she kept 
detailed notes on their habits and instars: she handled from the egg many of 
the species new to Britain at that time as well as the Kent specialities /r^xm/, 
lunaris and salicalis, the first breeding of luctuata and finding the first wild 
larva of hucherardi. 

Large-scale rearing came naturally to her as she was fastidious with 
hygiene and fresh food: she reared all the broods of vitellina that we used in 
temperature experiments. Later she took the lacteata strain of alternata 
through ten generations, and she made large-scale rearings of pyramidea 
while AJW looked after berbera, so enabling us confidently to state their 
larval distinctions: otregiata was another big-brood success while still 
scarcely-known. For all subjects she used old-fashioned techniques of 
rearing in closed containers that necessitated daily cleaning and feeding, but 
which gave her the opportunity of making daily counts which she pains- 
takingly always did. Her skill in rearing the most difficult and delicate 
subjects became well recognised and widely appreciated: further successes 
included viciae argyllensis and the two-year larva of loti scotica, the 
overwintering of puppillaria and fimbrialis, with ravida, venustula, 
musculosa, nickeiiii and C. tridens, all from the egg. And there was the 
continuous handling of the fruits of each season's work that occupied long 
hours of dedication. 

Removal to Lincolnshire in 1971 saw an abrupt end to field work and 
rearing, which was accentuated a few years later when damage to both hips 
resulted in immobility and decline, but her resilience and tenacity for life 
kept her going following the move to Norfolk until the need for further 
surgery on hip and a broken femur put her into hospital again. She died from 
a stroke at the age of 94 at the Norfolk and Norwich hospital on 18th 
February 1995. 

The Record has in its long history paid tribute to spouses and associates 
who, while not themselves primarily entomologists, did sterling work to 
illuminate their interests. I am especially privileged to add this testimony for 
an intrepid lady who loved her caterpillars as she did her flowers, and some 
of whose joy with water-colours has been passed on.- G.M. Raggett, 
Meadows End, Caston, Norfolk. 



160 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.V.1995 

If Changes in editorial staff \\ 

With this issue. Professor John Owen retires as Assistant Editor after three 
years in the post. During this period, the Record has enjoyed the benefits of 
his many years experience in editing scientific papers, and his extensive 
knowledge of the British Coleoptera. The editor is most grateful for his help 
and support over the years, and looks forward to seeing the fruits of 
retirement in the form of many notes and papers on British beetles gracing 
these pages. 

Fortune does indeed smile upon the Record as we are pleased to welcome 
Richard Jones as Assistant Editor replacing Professor Owen. Richard needs 
little introduction as a well-known writer, editor, photographer, broadcaster 
and entomologist with a strong leaning towards the Coleoptera. He currendy 
edits the British Journal of EntomoloQy and Natural History. 

Forthcoming Events 

The following three entomological "events" have come to our notice: 

The West of England Creepy Crawly Show 

Billed as "A major herpetological and entomological show for captive 
breeders and conservationists". To be held at Newton Abbot racecourse, 
Devon, on Saturday 24th June 1995. 10.00 - 17.00. 
Further details from Richard Rogers on 01626 332775 

The 8th International Exhibition of Insects at Paris 

A weekend event that anticipates over 50,000 visitors this year. To be 
held on 7th and 8th October 1995 at the Pare Floral of Paris in Vincennes. 
Further details from Pierre-Emmanuel Roubaud, BEPP, 59 Rue de 
Faubourg Poissonniere, 75009 Paris. 

The Amateur Entomologist's Society Annual Exhibition 

To be held this year on 7th October at Kempton Park Racecourse, 
Sunbury, Middlesex, from 11.00 to 17.00. 

Further details from Roy McCormick, 36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, 
DevonTQ14 8NR. 

Data Protection Act 

Will readers please note that the names and addresses of all subscribers are 
now held on computer. No other information on individuals is held, and the 
data is used to produce address labels for despatch of the journal, and to 
provide current subscriber lists for the Editor and his staff only. Names of 
subscribers are not released to any other organisation. If any subscriber does 
not wish his or her name to be held on our computer, will they please contact 
the Registrar whose address is on the inside front cover. 



Contents - continued from back cover 

A possible sighting of the Large Tortoiseshell, Nymphalis polychloros L. in West 

Sussex. D. Sheldon 156 

Acherontia atropos L. (Lep.: Sphingidae) breeding in Oxfordshire in 1994. D.F. Owen... 156 

Taphropeltus contractus H.-S. (Het.: Lygaeidae) in west Cumbria. R.W.J. Read 156 

Acalles roboris Curt. (Col.: Curculionidae) in Cumbria and VC70. R.W.J. Read 157 

Furcula bifida Brahm (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Pembrokeshire. A.P. Foster 157 

Some winter insects. A. Aston 158 

Gertrude Kate Haggett 158 

Changes in editorial staff 160 

Forthcoming events 160 

Data Protection Act 160 



FOR SALE 

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A very large and nearly complete collection of British Lepidoptera and a 

smaller collection of exotic Lepidoptera. 

For details, please send a stamped, addressed envelope to: 

BOX 100, The Entomologist's Record, 
4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 



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duvets, blankets and pillows. 

Bring your own duvet covers and sheets, pillow cases and towels. 

Many shops in nearby Rothesay. Taxis reasonably priced. 

Hire charges per week: 



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For further details apply: Mrs Gordon Hamilton. 
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(Tel: 01700 504735). 
Frequent ferries to Rothesay from Wemyss Bay or Colintraive. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Andricus nudus (Hym.: Cynipidae) and Taxomyia taxi (Dipt.: Cecidomyiidae): Insects 

new to Ireland. J.P. O'Connor, P. Ashe, MA. O'Connor and S. Wistow 105 

Butterflies in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, 28.V.94 to 7.vi.94. P.B. Hardy 107 

Further observations on the Erebia ligea Linn, and other controversies. M.A. Salmon 1 17 

A new subspecies of Luperina nickerlii Freyer, 1845 from south-east England, with 

notes on the other sub-species found in Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe. 

B. Goater and B. Skinner 127 

An example of extreme f. pan-albisignata Kaaber & H0egh-Guldberg, in the Durham 

Argus butterfly, Aricia artaxerxes salmacis, Stephens, and related observations. 

H.A. Ellis 133 

The genus Abantis (Lep.: Hesperiidae): some additional central African records. 

R.C.Dening 143 

Pyralid moths in profile: Part 1 - Sciota adelphella Fischer von Roslerstam. B. Skinner .. 147 



Notes and observations 

Dasychira mendosa Hbn. (Lep.: Lymantriidae); notes on larval foodplants in India. 

G.King 126 

Coleophora deviella Zell. (Lep.: Coleophoridae) - a correction 131 

An unusual foodplant for Hedya pruniana Hb. (Lep.: Tortricidae). /. Ferguson 131 

Drepana binaria Hufn. (Lep.: Drepanidae) a third generation. B.K. West 141 

Changes in nomenclature of British Lepidoptera. D. Agassiz 142 

A second British record of Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Lep.: Pyralidae). 

S.P.Clancy 146 

The scarcity of Vanessid butterflies. C.J. Smith 146 

Eutheia linearis Muls. (Col.: Scymaenidae) recaptured at Windsor. A A. Allen 147 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - from Rat Trap to Barbecue Bottom, Jamaica, February 

\99 A. T.B. Ear sen 150 

Epirrita autumnata Borkh. (Lep.: Geometridae) a new variety. R. Leverton 152 

The occurrence of the Clouded Yellow, Colias croceus Geoff. (Lep.: Pieridae) in Devon 

during 1994. R. Bristow 152 

Electrophaes coiylata Thunb. (Lep.: Geometridae), ratio of forms in north-west Kent. 

B.K.West : 153 

Eucosma metzneriana Treits. (Lep.: Tortricidae) in north Essex. C.W. Plant 154 

Amphipoea fucosa paludis Tutt. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Oxfordshire. D.F. Owen and 

M. Townsend 155 

The first light trap, 1st Century A.D. LC. Beavis 155 

Psychoides filicivora Meyr. (Lep.: Tineidae) and Caloptilia azaleella Brants. (Lep.: 

Gracillariidae) in West Kent. LC. Beavis 156 

(Continued on inside back cover) 

SPECIAL NOTICE. 

The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited number of back issues. 

Printed in England by 
Cravitz Printing Company Limited, 1 Tower Hill, Brentwood, Essex CM14 4TA. Tel: 01277 224610 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 



Entomologist's Record 




Nos7-8 



Y 



gcp \ 2 1995 






Journal of Variation 



Edited by 
RA. SOKOLOFF, f.r.e.s. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, F.R.E.S. & A. SPALDING, F.R.E.S. 



July/ August 1995 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

Editor 

P.A. SOKOLOFF, M.Sc, C.Biol., M.I.Biol., F.R.E.S. 
4 Steep Close, Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Assistant Editors 
R.A. JONES, B.Sc, F.R.E.S., F.L.S. & A. SPALDING, M.A., F.R.E.S. 

Editorial Panel 

A.A. Allen, b.Sc, a.r.c.s. P.J. Chandler, b.Sc. f.r.e.s. 

N. Birkett, m.a., m.b. C.A. Collingwood, b.Sc. f.r.e.s. 

E.S. Bradford A.M. Emmet, m.b.e.. t.d.. f.r.e.s. 

J.D. Bradley. Ph.D.. f.r.e.s. J.A. Owen, m.d., Ph.D., f.r.e.s. 

J.M. Chalmers-Hunt, f.r.e.s. C.J. Luckens, m.b., Ch.B., d.r.c.o.g. 

B. Skinner 

Registrar 

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Hon. Treasurer 

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WHERE TO WRITE 



EDITOR: All material for publication and books for review. 

REGISTRAR: Subscription changes of address and non-arrival of the Journal. 

HON. TREASURER: Advertisements and subscribers' notices. 



Notes for Contributors 

It would greatly help the Editor if material submitted for publication were typed and double spaced. 
Two copies are preferred. Please DO NOT use block capitals and DO NOT underline anything except 
scientific names. Word-processed text should not use italic, bold or compressed typeface. References 
quoted within the text can be abbreviated (eg Ent. Rec), but those collected at the end of a paper 
should follow the standard World List abbreviations (eg Entomologist's Rec. J. Var.). When in doubt 
try to follow the style and format of material found in a current issue of the Record. 

Illustrations must be the original (not a photocopy) without legend which should be typed on a 
separate copy. Photographs should be glossy, positive prints. Authors of long papers, or submitting 
valuable originals are advised to contact the Editor first. 

Contributors are requested not to send us notes or articles which they are sending to other magazines. 

Whilst all reasonable care is taken of manuscripts, illustrations etc, the Editor and his staff cannot 
hold themselves responsible for any loss or damage. 

Readers are respectfully advised that the publication of material in this Journal does not imply that the 
views and opinions expressed therein are shared by the Editor, the Editorial Board or the publisher. 



EUBLEMMA OSTRINA IVICKl 



MORE OBSERVATIONS ON EUBLEMMA OSTRINA (HUBNER) - 

THE PURPLE MARBLED (LEP.: NOCTUID^Ek a n -qqc 

'Brian Elliott and -Bernard Skinner 

'24 Deerlands Road, Ashgate, Chesterfield, Derbyshire S40 4DF. 

-5 Rawlins Close, South Croydon , Surrey CR2 8JS. HARVARD 

MENTION WAS MADE in a previous paper of the !diM>Vef^£?3lTY 
temporary colony of Eublemma ostrina Hiibner in the Burren District of 
Western Ireland (Elliott & Skinner, 1993) and the purpose of these notes is 
to expand our knowledge of this species in the field and give a more detailed 
description of the larva and pupa. All the larvae found were in the flower 
heads of Carlina vulgaris L.; Cirsium vulgare Ten. was also present, but not 
tenanted. Only fully grown larvae or pupae were located. 

The initial search for larvae was instigated by the capture of a fresh 
specimen to paraffin light on the 15th August combined with the knowledge 
of a small immigration of adults to the English mainland which had occurred 
earlier in mid-May. The locality supported scattered stands of Carlina 
vulgaris and almost the first mature flower head opened contained a small 
noctuid pupa of the correct size to be our quarry. Continued search over the 
next few days yielded over twenty more larvae or pupae. It soon became 
obvious that those seeding flower heads that were distorted with raised 
florets with darkly discoloured bases were those most worthy of dissection. 
A closer inspection occasionally revealed the presence of a small amount of 
frass issuing from between the base of the flower and stem. 

No more than one larva was ever found per flower head although several 
heads of a multi-headed plant could be tenanted. All the larvae pupated 
within the heads with one exception and this constructed a papery boat- 
shaped cocoon, reminiscent of the Chloephorinae, on the side of a plastic 
container. 

The full-grown larva measures 15mm, is sparsely setose and greyish-green 
with a broad pale green dorsal stripe. The narrower sub-dorsal and sub- 
spiracular lines are of the same colour. The head is dark brown and the 
thoracic plate freckled dark-green and brown. The pupa measures 10.5mm 
long and is glossy light-brown with distinctly darker wing cases. 

Apart from the original capture at light our only other encounter with an 
adult was coming across a specimen at rest on the top of a large rock in the 
full glare of the sun. Despite a very cautious approach it took off backwards 
and upwards and it was impossible to follow the rapid flight. 

The resulting adults displayed the full range of colour variation known in 
this species from the dark purplish-pink type to the yellow ab. carthami 
Herrich-Schaffer which included the extreme aberration shown on plate III, 
figure 10, Br. J. ent. nat. Hist. 6: 1993. 

Reference 

Elliott, B. & Skinner, B., 1993. Migrant Lepidoptera in the west of Ireland in 1992. Entomologist's 
Rec.J.Var. 105: 179-181. 



162 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Exceptional dates for British Orthoptera 

Exceptionally late dates for British Orthoptera were reviewed by Haes 
(1974; 1980) who recorded many of our native species as late as November 
and some as late as early December. All of these extremely late records 
relate to the survival of small numbers of insects in unusually mild areas in 
the south and west. In inland areas, Orthoptera seldom survive far into 
November. In 1993, for example, autumn in Oxfordshire was typical with a 
significant number of frosty nights in October. Pholidoptera griseoaptera 
(De Geer) was heard in good numbers at Headington on 19.x. 1993 but 
searches at the same site in early November were fruitless. In cool autumn 
weather, Orthoptera are barely active and difficult to find. On 2.xi.l993, in 
the company of Mr E.C.M. Haes, careful searching revealed two female 
Gomphoceiippiis rufus (L.) on downland near Goring, Oxfordshire and three 
female Omocestus rufipes Zetterstadt and two male Chorthippus brunneus 
(Thunberg) among leaf litter in Bagley Wood near Oxford. These are late 
dates for an inland county. The very mild, humid autumn of 1994 was not 
particularly suitable for the prolonged survival of grasshoppers but was ideal 
for the bush-cricket Pholidoptera griseoaptera. About six males were heard 
on a sheltered bank in Headington on 19.xi and a single male was heard on 
21.xi.l994, which is exceptionally late for Oxfordshire. A single male was 
heard in a nettle-bed in Glamorgan on 23.xi.1994 and this insect probably 
survived even later in coastal counties in 1994. 

Apart from species that overwinter as adults or nymphs it is unusual to 
find mature Orthoptera before the middle of June. Omocestus viridulus (L.) 
is the first species to mature and the most likely grasshopper to be heard in 
early June. After a very mild winter and warm spring, adult male and female 
O. viridulus were found in the New Forest on 26.V.1990. However, a visit to 
the Somerset Levels on 28.V.1990 was truly exceptional. Both O. viridulus 
and Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstadt) were adult and calling in large 
numbers at Street Heath. A few male C. brunneus were adult and stridulating 
also. The scene was somewhat unreal for an English May; a heat-haze rising 
off the peat moors, the loud chorus of scores of grasshoppers, one Marsh 
Fritillary, Eurodiyas aurinia (Rottemburg) already well-worn and pairs of 
Meadow Browns, Maniola jurtina (L.) performing courtship rituals in 
woodland shade. 

Insects and in particular the relatively long-lived Orthoptera are sensitive 
indicators of climatic variation. There may be more than just curiosity value 
in the recording of exceptional dates for Orthoptera. More systematic 
monitoring of their dates of maturation and survival may provide valuable 
data for studying the effects of climate on insect populations and such data 
collected long-term may provide evidence of climatic change. 

References: Haes, E.C.M., 1974. Late records of native Orthoptera. Entomologist's Gazette. 25: 200- 
203; Haes, E.C.M., 1980. Late Orthoptera records in West Sussex 1979. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 
92: 191. 

- John Paul, 25 Newport Mews, Brighton Road, Worthing BNll 2HN. 



ECTOEDEMIA AMANI - NEW TO BRITAIN ] 63 

ECTOEDEMIA AMANI SVENSSON, 1966 (LEP.: NEPTICULIDAE) 

NEW TO BRITAIN 

Barry Dickerson 

27 Andrew Road, Eyneshiiry. St. Neots, Himtini^don. Cambridgeshire PEI9 2QE. 

ON 12th JULY 1994, a warm evening with a minimum temperature of 17°C, 
I decided to run a moth-trap in Waresley Wood. Waresley Wood lies in the 
south-eastern comer of the vice-county of Huntingdonshire, VC31, and is 
owned by the local Wildlife Trust. 

Some work had been done on the moth fauna of this wood during the 
years 1983 to 1989 when 293 species had been recorded. I was sure that this 
total could be increased considerably, so I considered carrying out a full 
recording programme in 1995. As the 12th July 1994 was an ideal night for 
moth trapping and my other sites had all been trapped recently, I decided to 
sample the moths in Waresley Wood to see if it would be worthwhile 
running the proposed year's recording programme during 1995. 

In recent years the local Trust has started to manage the wood, rides have 
been widened and areas coppiced. The increased light levels have led to an 
increase in the number and diversity of both flowering and non-flowering 
plants. Insects have become more abundant and the rides are being used by 
an increasing number of butterflies and other insects. 

I arrived at the wood with a friend at 22.00hrs. We set up the equipment, a 
125 watt mercury vapour lamp on a pole standing two feet six inches above 
a white sheet, on the main ride close to an area that had been coppiced about 
three years previously. We switched on the light at 22.15hrs and made a note 
of each species as it flew to the light. Those not readily identified were 
caught for inspection the following morning. The light was switched off at 
00.45hrs and we returned home. 

After a few hours sleep I checked those brought home and identified all 
but six. These were put aside for dissection at a later date while the others 
were released that evening. One of those dissected could not be identified 
and was placed to one side until the New Year. 

I then recognised it as a member of the Nepticulidae, a group of moths 
that rarely comes to light. I looked through my copy of Johansson et al. 
(1989) and found an illustration which matched the dissection before me. 
Looking at the name Ectoedemia amani and finding it not to be on the 
British list I at first discounted it, but several further checks through the book 
failed to find any other genitalia that matched the one I had here and besides 
it states in the text that the genitalia of the male, which mine is, is very 
characteristic. 

I photographed the genitalia and showed the print to David Manning, the 
Bedfordshire Microlepidoptera recorder, and he agreed with my 
identification, so I contacted A. Maitland Emmet. Copies of the photograph 
were then sent to Maitland and on his advice to Dr Erik J. van Nieukerken in 
the Netherlands; both agreed with my identification. 



164 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Ectoedemia amani feeds under the bark of Ulmus spp. making a relatively 
straight gallery in smooth thin branches, probably with a two-year cycle. A 
search for mines at Waresley Wood on 11 th February 1995 proved fruitless 
apart from the finding of a thin branch of English Elm with two possible old 
mines. The bark had split with growth, preventing positive identification, but 
there appeared to be grains of old frass here and there under flakes of bark in 
the supposed galleries. The larva also mines Wych Elm which has smoother 
bark and might offer a better chance of success. The moth is found during 
July and August. It has now been recorded very sparingly in all northern 
European countries and Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Macedonia, 
eastern Siberia and France (Dr E.J. van Nieukerken pers. comm.). 

The species belongs to the subgenus Zimmermannia Hering, 1940, which 
comprises the nepticulids which mine the bark of trees. The following 
description of the adult is based on Johansson et al. (loc. cit.). 

Wingspan 7.5-lOmm, the largest European nepticulid. Head and collar 
orange to ochreous, therein differing from the other members of the 
subgenus, which have the head dark brown or black. Forewing uniform 
brown irrorate white, lacking the white markings present in other 
Zimmermannia species. Hindwing pale grey; male with a snow-white hair 
pencil at the base of the costa. 

The species should follow Ectoedemia atrifi'ontella (Stainton) with the 
Log Book number 41a, though these numbers are now of limited value 
because of the systematic revision of the family (see Bradley & Fletcher, 
1986). 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks are due to David Manning for checking my dissection, to Dr 
E.J. van Nieukerken for confirming my identification and supplying me with 
additional information and to A. Maitland Emmet for his help and advice 
and for reading through the draft of this report. 

References 

Bradley, J.D. & Fletcher, D.S., 1986. An indexed list of British butterflies and moths, 119pp. 

Kedleston Press, Orpington. 
Johansson, R., Nielson, E.S., Nieukerken E.J. van, and Gustafsson, B., 1989. The Nepticulidae and 

Opostegidae (Lepidoptera) of North West Europe. Fauna ent. scand. 23: 1-739. 



A first Kent record for the Spanish Carpet, Scotopteryx peribolata Hbn. 
(Lep.: Geometridae) 

On 6th September 1994, a specimen of S. peribolata was taken by Mr B. 
Banson in his garden trap at Greatstone, Kent. This is the first Kent record 
for this immigrant species which is resident in the Channel Isles. 
- S.P. Clancy, Delhi Cottage, Dungeness, Romney Marsh, Kent TN29 9NE. 



ODONATA IN SHETLAND 1 65 

THE COMMON BLUE DAMSELFLY ENALLAGMA CYATHIGERUM 
AND OTHER ODONATA RECORDS IN SHETLAND 

M.G. Pennington 

9 Daisy Park, Baltasound. Unst, Shetland ZE2 9EA. 

THE ONLY member of the order Odonata resident in Shetland is one of the 
damselflies, Zygoptera, the Common Blue Damselfly Enallagma 
cyathigerum (Charpentier). This is one of the most commonest and most 
widespread of the damselflies, especially in Scotland, where it is often the 
only species present at some sites (Hammond, 1983). The first published 
reference to its occurrence in Shetland is by Godfrey (1899) who said the 
species was "observed in some abundance at the lochs of North Delting and 
the peat-holes of Gluss Isle" in 1896 and 1897. Unfortunately, the exact sites 
involved were not recorded. Since then nothing further has been published 
about the occurrence of the Common Blue Damselfly in Shetland. Shetland 
records are usually lacking in published distribution maps {e.g. those in 
Hammond, 1983), although some recent records are held by the Biological 
Records Centre, who are responsible for the compilation of dot distribution 
maps. 

Three species of dragonfly have also been recorded in Shetland and their 
occurrence illustrates the vagrancy potential of certain species of Odonata. 
The stronger-flying and more highly migratory dragonflies are more likely to 
occur as vagrants than the damselflies, and they are unlikely to be confused 
with Shetland's resident damselfly. However, it is important that observers 
are aware of the potential for other species to be recorded in Shetland. 

Damselfly sites 

The following sites are all those which are currently known for the Common 
Blue Damselfly in Shetland. Records from areas within 1km of each other 
have been included as one site and any proof of breeding and indication of 
numbers involved are also included. Many of the sites are also breeding sites 
for Red-throated Divers Gavia stellata (L.) which are particularly 
susceptible to human disturbance. 

Loch of Houlland, Eshaness (10-km square HU 27) 

Most records come from one or more of the small un-named lochans to the 
south-east of the Loch of Houlland, although it is not always clear exactly 
which body of water is referred to. Six, including a mating pair, were 
recorded here on 24.vii.1983 (C. Gomersafl). In 1986 there were "dozens" 
recorded on 13.vii (M. Henry), and seven, including a mating pair, recorded 
on 21.vii. (D. Carstairs). Dave Carstairs also recorded three blue individuals 
at the Loch of Houlland itself on the last date. 

Hamnavoe Hills, Eshaness (10-km square HU 28) 

A blue individual was recorded at a lochan here on 23.vii.1983 (R. Wynde). 



166 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.vii.l995 



Tingon (10-km square HU 28) 

There are several sightings at one regularly visited site with records dating 
back to at least the 1970s and the most recent record in 1994 (P.M. Ellis, 
J.D. Okill). In July 1992 damselflies were also recorded at three adjacent 
sites about 1km to the north-east (H. Harrop). 



Gluss Isle (10-km square HU 37) 

This is one of the original sites mentioned by Godfrey (1899). Local 
residents have also reported more recent sightings from within the last 30 
years (per J. Swale). Most recendy, several damselflies were seen here on 
one day in the warm weather of June 1992 (W. Scott). 



Esfaanessvi 



'5 



m 




HP 
HU 



Distribution of Common Blue Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum in Shetland by 10km 
squares. 



ODONATA IN SHETLAND ] 67 

Scatsta (10-km square HU 37) 

There are occasional sightings, most recently in 1988 (J.D. Okill). It was 
presumably this site that was referred to by a correspondent of Bobby 
Tulloch's in the 1960s, and it is also presumably one of the sites referred to 
by Godfrey (1899). 

Many Crooks, North Roe (10-km square HU 38) 

In early June 1992 damselflies were seen at four small lochans all within 
0.5km of each other (J. Swale). At one lochan there were over 100 
individuals, including many copulating pairs and newly emerged (teneral) 
adults. At the two sites nearest to this one there were also copulating pairs 
and teneral individuals, but only seven and ten individuals respectively were 
present. At the most remote site of the four there were only two blue 
individuals. 

Beorgs of Skelberry, North Roe (10-km square HU 38) 

There are occasional sightings, most recently in 1989 (J.D. Okill). 

Mill Burn, Laxo (10-km square HU 46) 

One blue individual was seen flying along the bum in June 1992 (F. Spence). 
The sighting is unusual in that it is about 10 km from any other site, whereas 
all other sites of sightings are in small clusters. 

Hill of Garth (10-km square HU 47) 

There are occasional sightings at this site, which is now on the edge of the 
Sullom Voe Terminal (P.M. Ellis, J.D. Okill). In July 1986 there were only 
about four individuals present, but this did not include a copulating pair. The 
most recent sighting was in 1987. This is presumably one of the sites 
referred to by Godfrey (1899) last century. In addition, the Scottish Natural 
Heritage office in Lerwick holds a file note which states that locals could 
recall seeing large numbers of damselflies around peat pools "near the 
American coastguard station" (now demolished) in the 1960s and 1970s. 
This presumably refers to the same site. 

Cro Water and Lunga SkoUa, Yell (10-km square HU 48) 

Damselflies have been recorded at some of the small lochans to the south of 
Cro Water but not in recent years (R. Tulloch). There are also records from 
two adjacent sites about 1km away, in the vicinity of the bum of Lunga 
Skolla (J. Ballantyne). This bum flows out of Cro Water and damselflies 
have been seen here on 29.vi.1978, 10.viii.l984 (four individuals), 
17.vi.l985 and 14.viii.l993 (two). 



168 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Burn of Arisdale, Yell and Burn of the Kame, Yell 
(10-km square HU 48) 

Singles seen along the mid-reaches of the Arisdale valley in 1988 (P.M. 
Ellis) and along the Bum of the Kame in June 1992 (S. Smith) were most 
likely wanderers from other Yell sites. 

Kame of Sandwick, Yell (10-km square HU 48) 

Damselflies were recorded at a small lochan at the south end of this ridge on 
5.vii.l982 (C. Gomersall) and in July 1994 (RSPB). 

Una Stacka Houlla, Yell (10-km square HU 48) 

There are two records from this area, on 4.vii.l977 (J. Ballantyne) and 
further sightings of single damselflies at two lochans about 0.5 km apart on 
3.vii.l983 (C. Gomersall). The grid references imply three different pools 
were involved in the sightings. 

Upper reaches of Burn of Setter and Shinniwersdale, Yell 
(both 10-km square HU 48) 

Singles seen flying along the appropriate bums in June 1992 (S. Smith) were 
probably wanderers from other sites. 

Graveland, Yell (10-km square HU 49) 

Two blue individuals were recorded at a small lochan near Birka Lees on 
8.vii.l989 (G. Bundy). There are other sightings by the Leicester 
Polytechnic expeditions to the south of this area at Raga, but without any 
details. 

Laxa Burn at Mid Yell (10-km square HU 59) 

One seen flying along the stream at the small dam in June 1992 (S. Smith). 

The known sites so far fall into three main areas. There are a series of 
records from the north-west coastal areas of Northmavine (the sites at 
Eshaness, Tingon and North Roe), a few sites around the inlet of SuUom Voe 
(the sites at Gluss Isle, Scatsta and Hill of Garth) and a number of sites in the 
southern half of the island of Yell. One site, at Laxo, does not fall into any of 
these broad categories. What is perhaps most surprising is the relatively 
restricted area the sightings fall in. Although limited research and increased 
awareness over the last few years have increased the number of known sites, 
they still fall in a small area of north Mainland and south Yell. There is no 
obvious reason why the damselflies are restricted to this area of Shetland. 
Indeed, the richer more eutrophic waters of south Mainland, or the more 
heavily vegetated lochs of west Mainland would appear to be more likely for 
Odonata. The discovery of populations of damselflies outside the known 
areas is not impossible, but is highly unlikely that they will be discovered in 
relatively populous south Mainland. 



ODONATA IN SHETLAND ] 69 

Proof of Breeding 

Proof of breeding can be obtained in a number of ways. Most obviously the 
aquatic, immature stages can be located. However, locating nymphs would 
require netting and would probably cause an unwarranted degree of 
disturbance to the breeding site. One way of proving the presence of nymphs 
without netting is by locating exuviae, the final shed skin of a nymph which 
is usually left on vegetation close to the water's edge. However, although 
searching for exuviae has an advantage over searching for adults as it need 
not be restricted to fine weather, finding exuviae in Shetland before they are 
blown away may be difficult! Adult sightings may also provide proof of 
breeding in two ways: sightings of newly emerged, teneral adults or of 
copulating pairs can be taken as proof of breeding as neither are likely to 
travel any distance from the true breeding site. 

Of the approximately 20 sites where damselflies have been recorded in 
Shetland, the documented evidence available only proves breeding at three: 
Loch of Houlland, Many Crooks and the Hill of Garth. However, regular 
sightings at Tingon, Scatsta, Beorgs of Skelberry and the various areas on 
Yell suggest that these sites may be safely considered as breeding sites. The 
situation on Yell is particularly uncertain as there is no actual confirmation 
of breeding on the island, and sightings are extremely erratic in both their 
location and their timing. 

Habitat 

Habitat requirements have not been examined in any detail, but most of the 
sites are very similar in appearance. Typically, sites consist of small, deep, 
permanent lochans, less than 0.2 ha in extent and set amongst deep peat 
moorland. The edges of the loch are well vegetated with a growth of 
emergent vegetation such as rushes Juncaceae and sedges Cyperaceae, and 
they are not grazed to the water's edge. There is usually an extensive growth 
of floating vegetation such as pondweeds Potamogeton, bur-reeds 
Sparganium or Bogbean Menyanthes trifoliata (L.), The presence of floating 
vegetation is probably one of the most important factors as it is used by the 
female as a platform for egg-laying. Occasional sighting over larger areas of 
water may just refer to wanderers from adjacent, smaller pools. Sites such as 
those described above are not unusual in Shetland. Indeed, every island and 
parish in Shetland has habitat such as that described. This makes one wonder 
why damselflies are found in such a restricted area of Shetland. 

Flight Period 

Little information is available on the flight period in Shetland. In southern 
Britain the Common Blue damselfly flies from May to October (Hammond, 
1983), but it is likely that they have a shorter flight period in Shetland. 
Indeed, the erratic nature of sightings even at frequently visited sites 
suggests that the relatively poor Shetland summer severely restricts the 
activity of the imagines. 



1 70 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 07 1 5 . vii. 1 995 

Most sightings in Shetland are in June to August during the course of 
other field work. The large numbers seen at Many Crooks in North Roe in 
early June 1992 suggest that this may be the main emergence period in 
Shetland. There were a number of other sightings elsewhere in the same 
month, which was unusually warm and sunny. Very few visits will ever have 
been made to damselfly sites before June or after August. Adult activity 
probably ceases early in the autumn, most likely following the first autumn 
gale. 

Dragonfly Records 

Three species of dragonfly (sub-order Ansioptera) have occurred as vagrants 
in Shetland on single occasions. 

A Common Hawker Aeshna juncea (L.) was collected from Fair Isle on 
24.vii.1955 and sent for identification to Cynthia Longfield. Although not a 
renowned migrant, other members of this genus are, and the Common 
Hawker does occur as close as Orkney (Berry, 1985). 

Another dragonfly was obtained on Fair Isle just three years later when a 
Four-spotted Chaser Libellula quadrimaculata (L.) was recorded in July 
1958. This species is a well known migrant from the continent into southern 
Britain in many years (Hammond, 1983), so its occasional appearance as a 
vagrant elsewhere is expected. 

Finally, a specimen of the African and Asian dragonfly, the Migrant 
Emperor Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister), another member of the family 
Aeshnidae, was obtained on Fetlar in about 1970. The specimen is now in 
The Natural History Museum. Although it is an essentially tropical and sub- 
tropical species, this dragonfly is a famous migrant and vagrants occur in 
variable numbers in Europe every year, although it remains a great rarity 
anywhere in Britain. It is, in fact, the only species of dragonfly to have 
occurred in Iceland (Wolff, 1971). 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank the following for providing information: J, Ballantyne; 

Biological Records Centre (Monks Wood); G. Bundy; D.N. Carstairs; P.M. 

Ellis; J. Fowler; H. Harrop, M. Henry; C. Gomersall; N.J. Riddiford; Royal 

Society for the Protection of Birds; W, Scott, E. M. Smith (Scottish Recorder 

for the Odonata Recording Scheme); S. Smith; Scottish Natural Heritage; 

Shetland Entomological Group; G. & F. Spence; J. Swale; M. Telfer; R.J. 

Tulloch and R.M. Wynde. D.R.A. Rushton provided the details of the 

obscurest reference. 

References 

Berry, R.J., 1985. The natural history of Orkney. Collins, London. 
Godfrey R., 1899. Enallagma cyathigerum in Shetland. Ann. Scot. nat. Hist. 1899: 1 15. 
Hammond, CO., 1983. The dragonflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester. 
Wolff, N.L., 1971. The Zoology of Iceland, volume 3, part 45, Lepidoptera. Munksgaard, 
Copenhagen. 



ISLE OF WIGHT 17 



LATE AND PARTIAL THIRD BROODS OF BUTTERFLIES AND 
MOTHS IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT DURING 1994 

S.A. Knill- Jones 

Roundstone , 2 School Green Road, Freshwater, Isle ofWif>ht PO40 9AL. 

THE YEAR 1994 will be remembered for having a prolonged summer 
comparable to those in 1983, 1989 and 1990 and for having nearly the 
sunniest October on record and the warmest November since records began 
in 1918. As in 1983 the fruit trees flowered again in October and the first 
frost did not occur at Freshwater until the night of 14th December, although 
a local frost was recorded much earlier at Binstead on 4th and 5th October. 
This warm autumn and early winter caused many late appearances of 
butterflies and some out of season records of moths. Eighteen species of 
butterflies were recorded after 1 st October and I shall now describe the more 
interesting sightings. 

Just over an hour denied October from being the sunniest on record with 
170 hours of sunshine at Ryde. This did not quite beat the record year of 
1921 which had 171.1 hours of sunshine. However during the latter part of 
the month there was 4.05 inches of rain which was nearly a third more than 
the average rainfall of 3.19 inches for the whole month. The warmest day 
was 12th October with a maximum of 64.9T and the coldest was 4th 
October with 52.3 °F. 

There were three species of butterfly out during October which I had not 
observed before in that month. On 4th October I saw a freshly emerged 
Brown Argus {Aricia agestis D.&S.) on Compton Down which could have 
been an example of a partial third brood and on the same day I observed a 
female Adonis Blue (Lysandra bellargus Rott.), which must have been a late 
second brood example. The third butterfly was the Small Heath which had an 
excellent year with abundant numbers of both broods. I saw this butterfly as 
late as 18th October on Compton Down. The Chalk Hill Blue {Lysandra 
coridon Poda) was seen as late as 15th October although this species is 
known to occur into the third week of this month in favourable years. The 
last third brood Small Copper (Lycaena phlaeas L.) was seen on 28th 
October on Knighton and Compton Downs and this may be compared with 
the very late date of one recorded at Freshwater on 6th November 1983. 

November was by far the warmest month since records began on the 
island and it was also the dullest with only 41.4 hours of sunshine compared 
with the average of 71.9 hours. The mean maximum temperature was 56.8°F 
which was 5.8°F above the 5 IT average, and the mean minimum 
temperature of 5 IT was 9T above the long-term average and 2.4T above 
the previous highest in 1938. The highest maximum temperature of 62. 2T 
occurred on 2nd November just below the record 63 T recorded on 1st 
November 1960 and 2nd November 1969. The total rainfall of 3.06 inches 
was less than the long-term average of 3.67 inches. 



172 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

The Clouded Yellow {Colias croceus Geoff.) had a very good year with 
the first being seen at Rockenend, Chale on 6th June. Brian Wame witnessed 
over one hundred of the first brood between 26th July and 2nd September 
near his home at Binstead, and I saw thirty-four of the second brood 
including two helice between 4th October and 1st November on Compton 
Down. This was the best year on the island for this butterfly since the record 
year of 1983 when there was also a second brood during October. The last 
one was seen at the Cliff Tops Hotel at Shanklin on 10th November. 

The Comma (Polygonia c-album L.) had a good year and the last was seen 
as late as 15th November at Freshwater and Firestone Copse. This compares 
to 6th November in 1983. 

The Speckled Wood {Pararge aegeria L.) had an excellent year with the 
first being seen as early as 26th March and the last on 17th November in the 
garden at Freshwater. This last date is the latest that this butterfly has been 
observed in mainland Britain although it was seen on 3rd December in 
Northern Ireland during 1983. 

December was warmer, wetter and sunnier than average. Like November, 
it had well above average temperatures and both the mean maximum for the 
month of 52. IT and the mean minimum of 43. IT were 5T warmer than 
average. The mean maximum was close to the 75-year old high of 52. 7T in 
December 1934, with the highest day temperature of 57.4T on 11th 
December. The air temperature fell below freezing on two nights, with a low 
of 29.8 T on Christmas night. With 5.3 inches of rain falling in 20 days at 
Ryde the month's rainfall was one-third more than the long-term average of 
3.48 inches. The total sunshine of 66.1 hours was above the average of 54.6 
hours for December. 

There were sightings of only two butterflies during this month. The 
Peacock {Inachis io L.) was seen in early December at Ryde (actual date not 
known) and the last butterfly to be recorded was the Red Admiral {Vanessa 
atalanta L.) at Puckpool, Ryde on 16th December. 

Table 1 shows a list of the latest dates of the eighteen species of butterflies 
observed from 1st October 1994 in chronological order. 

There were several instances of out-of-season appearances of moths 
during this period, and on 19th October an example of Pleuroptya ruralis 
(Scop.) and the Mouse Moth {Amphipyra tragopoginis CI.) were taken at my 
light trap at Freshwater. An example of a third brood Garden Carpet 
{Xanthorhoe fluctuata L.) was seen on the kitchen window on 25th October 
at Freshwater. I also took the first ever recorded specimen of the Swallow- 
tailed Moth {Ouraptei-yx samhucaha L.) in November on the 2nd at my light 
trap. This was an example of a second brood which occurs occasionally in 
favourable years, and was much smaller than normal with a wing expanse of 
33mm, nearly half the average size. Lt Cdr J.M. Cheverton noticed a second 
brood specimen of the Bright-line Brown-eye (Laconobia oleracea L.) in his 
house at Shanklin on 27th November. I recorded the Double-striped Pug 



ISLE OF WIGHT 



:73 



Table 1. Latest butterfly sightings on the Isle of Wight in 1994. 
Date Species Locality 



October 

4th 



12th 
15th 

16th 
18th 
23rd 
24th 
28th 



Brimstone {Gonepteryx rhamni L.) 
Adonis Blue {Lysandra hellargus Rott.) 
Brown Argus {Aricia agestis D.&S.) 
Common Blue {Polyommatus icarus Rott.) 
Chalkhill Blue {Lysandra coridon Poda) 
Meadow Brown {Maniola jurtina L.) 
Large White (Pieris brassicae L.) 
Small Heath {Coenonympha pamphilus L.) 
Small White {Pieris rapae L.) 
Wall {Lasiommata megera L.) 
Small Copper {Lycaena phlaeas L.) 
Painted Lady {Cynthia cardui L.) 



November 

10th Clouded Yellow {Co lias croceus Geoff.) 

15th Comma {Polygonia c-album L.) 

17th Small Tortoiseshell {Aglais urticae L.) 

Speckled Wood {Pararge aegeria L.) 

December 

Early Dec. Peacock {Inachis io L.) 

16th Red Admiral {Vanessa atalanta L.) 



Locks Green, Porchfield 

Compton Down 

Compton Down 

West High Down 

Compton Down 

Compton Down 

Totland Bay 

Compton Down 

B instead 

Binstead 

Knighton & Compton Down 

Knighton Down 



Shanklin 

Freshwater & Firestone Copse 

Knighton Down 

Freshwater 



Ryde 
Puckpool, Ryde 



{Gymnoscelis rufifasciata Haw.) in my trap on 28th November which must 
have been an example of either a partial third or fourth brood. The first one 
of the year was taken on 18th March but in 1993 I took it as early as 6th 
February. An extremely out-of-season White Ermine {Spilosoma lubricipeda 
L.) came to Brian Wame's moth trap at Binstead on 29th November. Finally 
there were some December records of three of our commoner migrants taken 
at light at Freshwater with the Silver Y {Autographa gamma L.) on 2nd 
December; the Dark Sword Grass {Agrotis ipsilon Hufn.) on 12th December 
and a very late Udea ferrugalis (Hiibn.) on 16th December. 

So ends an extraordinary year for late appearances of butterflies and moths 
made even more unusual when Gladioli flowered in November, and wall- 
flowers and Celandines were out at Christmas in the garden at Freshwater. 

Acknowledgements 

I should like to thank my mother for reading and commenting on the 
manuscript and Mr B. Angell, Dr D.T. Biggs, Mr D.A. Britton, Lt Cdr J.M. 
Cheverton, Mr Fred Joiner, Mr I. Rippey, Dr J. Waring and Mr B.J. Wame 
for their useful records and information which has helped me in writing this 
paper. 



174 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

The Large Cabbage White, Pieris brassicae, extends its range to South 
Africa 

Only recently, in an article in this volume {antea 107: 67-68) I remarked that 
our Large Cabbage White, Pieris brassicae, has been steadily extending its 
range. How true this statement has turned out to be, for, since I wrote the 
article, there appeared in the September last issue of the South African 
Journal Metamorphosis (Vol. 5 p.93) an item by Graham Henning recording 
that he and others have seen eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of this butterfly in 
the Western Cape region of South Africa. Seen in August the adults were of 
our spring form. In view of the fact that it has now invaded two continents, it 
seems to be following in the footsteps (wingbeats?) of the Small White, Pieris 
rapae which now has a pretty well world-wide distribution. Australia and 
New Zealand should start to keep a watchful eye out for it. 

- Brian O.C. Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

Further observations on Epermenia insecurella Stainton (Lep.: 
Epermeniidae) in Wiltshire 

Back in 1982 I had my first introduction to this species when I netted a small 
moth (whose identification eluded me) near Therfield in Hertfordshire. As I 
lived in north-east Scotland at that time, I took it to Dr Mark Young who 
prepared a genitalia slide. He passed it on to the late E.C. Pelham-Clinton 
who kindly identified the species for me. 

In 1983 I moved to Wiltshire and it was not until 1990 that, following a 
prompt from Dr John Langmaid, I came across insecurella again, this time on 
Salisbury Plain {Ent. Rec. 102: 290-291). Due to fencing erected to exclude 
cattle from the tumuli, the area became very overgrown. Grazing was 
resumed in 1994 following representations made to the MOD by Phil Sterling 
and myself and some careful vegetation clearance was carried out by 
members of the Larkhill and Westdown Conservation Group. The foodplant 
of insecurella, Thesium humifusum, is still present, but it remains to be seen if 
insecurella is still there. 

A seven-year survey of Wiltshire's flora (Gillam, 1993) found Thesium to 
be locally widespread on unimproved chalk downland, particularly in the 
south of the county. To date, however, the moth has only been noted from 
three locations: near Greenlands Camp on Salisbury Plain (1990); Great 
Cheverill Hifl (1991) (Godfrey and Michael Smith) and, most recently, 
Porton Down in 1994 (all VC8). (There was an old record from near 
Marlborough in 1889). Due to its retiring nature the moth is almost certainly 
under-recorded but this is also the case for Thesium as the plant had not been 
noted from that portion of Porton Down where the moth was attracted to m.v. 
light. 
Reference: Gillam, B., 1993. The Wiltshire Flora. Pisces Publications. 

- S.M. Palmer, Roselyn, 137 Lightfoot Lane, Fulwood, Preston, Lancashire 
PR4 OAH. 



SLUG EGG PREDATOR ] 75 



COBOLDIA FUSCIPES (MEIGEN) 
(NEMATOCERA: SCATOPSIDAE) FEEDING ON SLUG EGGS 

K. Ayre 

JO Cumbrian Avenue, Seabwn Dene, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear SR6 8JZ. 

A NUMBER of Diptera are known to be parasites of slugs and slug eggs. As 
part of an investigation into the natural enemies of slugs, I collected a 
number of small Diptera to determine their role as parasites of slug eggs. 
The flies were collected in September 1992 from various sites around Close 
House Field Station, the University of Newcastle, Northumberland. 

The flies were gathered with a pooter and transferred to a large conical 
glass flask containing moist filter paper and a batch of freshly laid eggs of 
the slug Deroceras reticulatum (Miiller). A small beaker containing 
sweetened water was also placed in the flask. The mouth of the flask was 
covered with a piece of nylon net, held in place with a rubber band. 

The flies were removed from the culture after they had all died. A few 
days later a number of scatopsid larvae were observed feeding on the slug 
eggs. The larvae were bred through to adults and the flies identified as 
Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen). 

As the adults emerged, they were transferred to flasks containing moist 
filter paper with a fresh batch of slug eggs. The flasks were incubated at 
20°C. 

Scatopsid eggs were laid in batches of between 30 and 60 under the moist 
filter paper, but never in proximity to the slug eggs. Emerging larvae crawled 
over the filter paper and attacked the slug eggs with side-to-side movements 
of the head capsule. 

Successful penetration of the slug eggs appeared to depend on the number 
of larvae attacking the egg. When individual first-stage larvae were isolated 
on slug eggs, they would die without penetrating the eggs. However, when 
the slug eggs were punctured (with a pair of forceps), the larvae entered the 
eggs to feed. Individual third and fourth-stage larva were able to penetrate 
the slug eggs themselves. 

First and second-stage larvae were often observed completely submerged 
in a slug egg. Third and fourth-stage larvae were often found submerged in a 
slug egg with just their posterior spiracular projections above the egg 
surface. Bovien (1935), thought that long posterior spiracles were an 
adaption to damp habitats, and that the length of the spiracles in individual 
specimens was determined by the experimental conditions - longer spiracles 
in wetter conditions. However, larvae of all stages were free ranging and 
moved over the egg surface. Third and fourth-stage larvae often left the slug 
egg mass and crawled over the filter paper. After several days the slug egg 
mass was liquified and eventually consumed. 

Larvae left the slug egg mass to pupate on the filter paper. At 20°C 
approximately ten days passed between the larvae hatching and pupating. 



176 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Larvae developed and pupated at 8, 12, 16 and 20°C, development time 
being shortest at 20°C. 

At 20°C the pupation period from the first generation was between four 
and eight days. However this had increased to between 10 and 13 days by 
the second generation. The reason for this was unclear as the culture (which 
had arisen from a single gravid female) was still viable and a high 
emergence rate was evident even after several generations. 

Several subsequent generations of C.fuscipes were cultured on eggs of D. 
reticulatum and eggs of the slug Arion hortensis (Ferussac). When eggs of 
both slug species were presented to the larvae together, A. hortensis eggs 
were preferentially attacked and consumed before those of D. reticulatum. 

Unfortunately, A. hortensis eggs became increasingly hard to find as 
winter progressed. A Drosophila culture medium was successfully used to 
rear several more generations of C. fuscipes. The larvae ate the culture 
medium in preference to A. hortensis eggs. 

Larvae of C. fuscipes (= Scatopse fuscipes Meigen) have been found on a 
variety of decaying plant and animal materials (Cook, 1974), including green 
ginger (Lyall, 1929), wasp nests, bulbs and onions, excrement, wastes from 
fruit and wine canneries. 

Keilin (1921) gave an account of a number of Diptera larvae which fed on 
Mollusca. Trelka & Berg (1977) gave a detailed account of two Tetanocera 
species (Sciomyzidae) attacking slugs. Stephenson (1965) reported larvae of 
Tetanocera elata Loew infected 14% of D. reticulatum collected on an 
abandoned allotment at Rothamsted. Reidenbach et al. (1989) gave an 
account of Euthycera cribrata (Rondani) (Sciomyzidae) attacking D. 
reticulatum. 

Robinson & Foote (1968) detailed the mode of attack of the phorid 
Megaselia aequalis (Wood) on eggs of the slug Deroceras laeve (Miiller). 
Between one and three phorid eggs were laid on a slug egg. The larvae 
penetrated the slug egg using a small sclerotised spine. The first and second- 
stage larvae were confined to feeding on the egg. Third-stage larvae left the 
egg to assume a more predatory role and broke into other eggs with repeated 
slashing movements of their mouthhooks. This slashing movement was 
observed in the present study with C. fuscipes larvae, however, the inability 
of first and second-stage larva to penetrate slug eggs individually rules out 
any degree of specialisation, 

I believe this is the first time that a scatopsid has been reported to feed on 
slug eggs. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank Mr Nigel Wyatt of the Natural History Museum for 
identifying the flies and Jan Woodward for her help in culturing the flies. 
This work was completed whilst I was supported by a MAFF studentship. 



SLUG EGG PREDATOR ] 77 



References 

Bovien, P., 1935. The larval stages of Scatopse (Diptera: Nematocera). Viden.sk. Meddr dansk. 

natiirh. Foren. 99: 33-43. 
Cook, E.F., 1974. A synopsis of the Scatopsidae of the Palaearctic . Part III. The Scatopsini. J . nat. 

//m. 8:61-200. 
Keilin, D., 1921. Supplementary account of the dipterous larvae feeding upon Mollusca. Parasitolof>y 

13: 180-183. 
Lyall, E., 1929. The larva and pupa of Scatopse fusclpes Mg. and a comparison of the known species 

of scatopsid larvae. Ann. app. Biol. 16: 630-638. 
Reidenbach, J.M., Vala, J.C. & Ghamizi, M., 1989. TTie slug killing Sciomyzidae (Diptera): potential 

agents in the biological control of crop pest mollusc. 1989 BCPC Mono. No. 41. Shifts and snails 

in world agriculture. 
Robinson, W.H. & Foote, B.A., 1968. Biology and immature stages of Megaselia aequalis. a phorid 

predator of slug eggs. Ann. ent. Soc, Am. 61: 1587-1594. 
Stephenson, J.W., 1965. Rothamsted Report for 1964. page 188. 
Trelka, D.G. & Berg, CO., 1977. Behavioural studies of the slug-killing larvae of two species of 

Tetanocera (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 79: 475-486. 



Hazards of butterfly collecting - a first brush with science - 
Copenhagen, 1958 

It was summer, 1958. I was on holiday with my parents in Denmark, 
otherwise being at boarding school in an obscure village in the Nilgiri 
Mountains of southern India. I was fourteen. In those days there was not yet 
the present jetting around the world at the drop of a hat. A two-year tour was 
just that. For two years no visits to Denmark, and no visitors from Denmark. 
I had little opportunity for museum and library researches. Thirty years later, 
more than a dozen friends and relatives paid visits to Delhi during a two-year 
tour, and I was in Denmark for consultations twice. 

From the Nilgiris I had brought with me a Neptis butterfly that I was quite 
certain ought not to be found there. That genus has only two members in 
Europe, but even they have been known to cause confusion. Asia and Africa 
has a plethora of Neptis which are very much worse. 

I had plucked up the courage to phone the Zoological Museum in 
Denmark to set up an appointment with the insect curator, Dr S.L. Tuxen, 
who will be familiar to many readers through his famous book on the 
genitalia of insects. He was a kind and patient man who was always willing 
to help budding entomological talent, and soon we were in his laboratory, 
surrounded by dozens of cases of Neptis. A little later, scores of butterfly 
books and obscure papers Nvere dug out. Was it this one? That one? Well, 
yes, but no! After an hour or so, Dr Tuxen said "Look young man - I'm 
afraid that you have me stumped. I don't think I can tell you what it is". 
• I was shattered by the enormity of this statement! Here was a scientist, and 
he could not identify a butterfly I had caught! Tuxen must have sensed my 
disquiet. He patiently explained to me some of the intricacies of taxonomy 
and identification, and for the first time I realised that even in the scientific 
world things are not as clear-cut as our school books would have us believe. 
Tuxen also enrolled me in the Danish Entomological Society and waived the 
membership fee for as long as I remained in India. 



178 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.vii.l995 



Because of my itinerant lifestyle we met only at year-long intervals, but 
Tuxen patiently encouraged my interest in butterflies, and steered it in a 
scientific direction. Around 1982, he suggested that I should submit my work 
for a doctorate at the University of Copenhagen, and helped me navigate 
through the complex, academic system - the Faculty of Biology had never 
before been approached by an economist for a doctorate in the butterflies of 
the Middle East. He died before the official defence of my thesis, which I 
dedicated to him. 

It was only in 1986, after a six-month investigation into the butterflies of 
the Nilgiri Mountains, that I nailed the culprit from 1958 as Neptis nata. It 
was already known from there. I caught a single male in exactly the same 
spot as I did thirty years ago. It is very rare in southern India, and usually 
stays well out of reach. Reading the tangled web of this butterfly's taxonomic 
history, as traced in Colonel Eliot's splendid monograph of the Oriental 
Neptini, fully absolves Tuxen from any responsibility for not being able to 
help me in 1958. 

I still have problems with the genus Neptis. My recent book on Kenyan 
butterflies (Oxford University Press) had to go to press with two Neptis 
remaining unidentified. I would love to pin a name on them, or to describe 
them if necessary. I fear that to do so would involve me in an exercise as 
ambitious as that of Colonel Eliot's, and I may never summon the necessary 
courage and stamina for that.- T.B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London 
SE9 8PL. 




These are supposedly one species from one locality. That is what jVe-prw throws at you! 



PARAGE AEGERIA AB. SCHMIDTI ] 79 

A BREEDING EXPERIMENT WITH PARAGE AEGERIA L. 
AB. SCHMIDTI DIOZ. (LEP.: SATYRIDAE) 

Rupert Harrington 

JOl Egerton Road, Bishopston, Bristol. Avon BS7 8HR. 

P. AEGERIA AB. SCHMIDTI is characterised by having the eyespots on all 
wings enlarged to a significant degree. This is most noticeable in the band of 
ocelli on the upper surface of the hindwings. It would appear to be a rare, or 
at least a very local, aberration. There is a single, female, example in the 
RCK Collection of British Butterflies at the Natural History Museum (bred 
by G.B. Oliver, 1952, in an F3 generation from an original type parent 
captured in Hampshire) and A.D.A. Russwurm has a particularly extreme 
captured example (A.D.A. Russwurm, New Forest, August 1966) in his 
collection that is beautifully illustrated in two publications (Howarth, 1973 
and Russwurm, 1978). I have seen no other specimens in collections. 
However it is unlikely to be quite as rare as this paucity suggests since this 
species is rarely worked consistently for aberrations. 

A worn female ab. schmidti was taken in a Wiltshire woodland on 5th 
September 1993. It was a well developed example and rather striking. She 
laid 14 eggs and the larvae were put out onto a pot of grass and left until 
mid-December when I returned from abroad. Thirteen larvae were still 
surviving and these were brought indoors. They gave rise to an Fl of 13 
adults in late January. The spotting ranged from typical to slight enlargement 
in the nine females and entirely typical in the four males. Pairings between 
the males and best females were achieved easily under electric light and eggs 
were laid on cut grass. Approximately 60% were infertile and an F2 brood of 
about 50 adults resulted. This contained mainly typical examples and minor 
aberrations with just two significant aberrations, one of each sex. The male is 
not striking as the spots are invariably smaller in this sex. The female 
however (Figs. 1 and 2) is a fair development of the form although less 
extreme than the wild parent. 

A number of the minor aberrations were put in the breeding cage but their 
behaviour was quite unlike that of the Fl adults. They flew very little and 
tended to sit still in the most shaded part of the cage. No pairings were seen 
and no eggs were laid. 

Given the graded nature of the broods it would seem that ab. schmidti 
Dioz is a multifactorial form, probably combined with a weakening effect. 

Figs. 3 and 4 are added to show the opposite end of development of the 
spotting in this species. This form, ab. paniocellata Lempke, tends to have a 
greater effect on the hindwing spotting than on the apical spot of the 
forewing. A.M. Jones has bred this aberration on two occasions (Jones, 1990 
and 1992) and found it to be controlled by a pure dominant gene. Two fine 
examples are illustrated on the plate for the 1989 Annual Exhibition of The 
British Entomological and Natural History Society (Vol. 3, part 2, plate III, 
April 1990). 



180 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.vii.l995 







Fig. L Parage aegeha ab schmidti Dioz. Female upperside. Bred F2. 

Fig. 2. Parage aegeria ab schmidti Dioz. Female underside. Bred F2. 

Fig. 3. Parage aegeria ab paniocellata Lempke. Male upperside. Gloucester 1994. 

Fig. 4. Parage aegeria ab parvioceilata Lempke. Male underside. Gloucester 1994. 



Acknowledgement 

I am most grateful to David Carter for allowing me full access to the RCK 
Collection of British Butterflies at the Natural History Museum, London. 



References 

Howarth, T.G,, 1973. The Colour Identification Guide to Butterflies of the British Isles. Viking. 
Jones, A.M., 1990. (Parage aegeria L. ab. parvioceilata Lempke, results of breeding. Exhibit at 

BENHS Annual Exhibition 1989). Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 3: 63-64 and Plate III, Figures 1 and 2. 
- , 1992. (Parage aegeria L. ab. parvioceilata Lempke, results of breeding. Exhibit at BENHS 

Annual Exhibtion 1 99 1 ). Br. J. Ent. Nat. Hist. 5: 52. 
Russwurm, A.D.A., 1978. Aberrations of British Butterflies. Classey. 



MORDELLISTENA SPECIES 



ON THE BRITISH MORDELLISTENA HUMERALIS (L.) 
(COL.: MORDELLIDAE) AND ITS ALLIES 

A. A. Allen 

49 Montcalm Road. Charlton, London SE7 HQG. 

THE OBJECT of this paper is twofold: to draw attention to an apparently 
unrecognised colour-form of the above variable species, which has given rise 
to confusion; and to clarify the distinctions, in part unsatisfactory hitherto, 
between that species and M. variegata (P.). A third species also, M. 
neuwaldeggiana (Panz.) is involved to the extent that the aforesaid form of 
humeralis has been mistaken for it, the body-colour and general aspect being 
similar in the two. 

This overlooked form of humeralis has the upper surface, including the 
head, wholly testaceous or brownish yellow, apart from the usual darkening 
of the elytra towards the apex. It does not seem to be recognised by 
Continental authors, whose keys to this group {e.g. Ermisch, 1969) do not 
allow for it. Similarly Batten (1986: 231-2) places humeralis under the 
rubric "Colour variegated . . .". By this key, for instance, these pale 
humeralis (as it is convenient to call them) are indeterminable, since they run 
to neuwaldeggiana but do not fit on antennal coloration. I sent Mr Batten an 
example of this form, and he replied that it could only be humeralis; I 
gathered that he had not previously seen such specimens. In the British 
literature, however, it has been briefly and somewhat incidentally mentioned 
by myself (1987), but is now accorded the more prominent notice it merits. 
My statement there that this is the usual British form (p. 39) may turn out to 
have been rather premature, but appears true for south-east England at least. 

A small series of this deceptive form, from Windsor Great Park, for many 
years stood as M. neuwaldeggiana in my collection; the beetles were 
obtained from Heracleum umbels in a small area unaccompanied by any of 
the typical, black-headed humeralis which would have given a clue to their 
identity. Not only that, but also the series standing over the former name in 
the British Coleoptera collection at the Natural History Museum was found 
to be mixed, about half of them (an entire row derived from the Champion 
collection, from various southern localities) being "pale" humeralis. It is 
evident, therefore, that this form may well be doing duty for neuwaldeggiana 
in other collections, and that records of both species ought as far as possible 
to be checked. The fact that where these pale humeralis occur, they seem 
thus far to exclude the recognised forms of the species, increases the chance 
of error. 

Partly (or largely?) because of confusion on the one hand with M. 
neuwaldeggiana as above, and on the other with M. variegata (see below) - 
as in Joy (1932: 311), who treats the two species as one, M. humeralis has up 
to now been regarded as rare in Britain. That does seem to have been the 
case until fairly recently. Batten (1986: 233) had seen it only from Monks 



182 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Wood, Huntingdonshire (D. Tozer, coll. Allen) and added the caution 
"previously published records ... are unreliable due to confusion with 
variegata". I first took several at Windsor as above (vii.1945), followed by 
two at Effingham, Surrey (21.vii.47) which, like those from Monks Wood, 
are of the typical form with head black except in front and contrasting well 
with the clear rufous pronotum. Here in the south-east suburbs of London, at 
least in the last several years, the species - always in its yellow-headed form 
- can occur in profusion at times though only very locally. I have already 
noted it from Charlton, and it occurs chiefly in one area of Oxleas Wood (a 
strip bordering the main Shooters Hill road) on flowers of Umbelliferae, 
where also its two allies are to be found but less frequently. On 1st August 
1992, in this site, an isolated umbel oi Angelica (the first of this plant seen 
there by me) was found to be swarming with Mordellistena; even the air 
above it was abuzz with the beetles. The small sample taken for examination 
consisted of "pale" humeralis with a few variegata intermixed. Mr R.A. 
Jones, also, met with the former abundantly at Nunhead Cemetery, south- 
east London, at about the same time, but I have not seen any of these*. It is 
noteworthy that the two colour forms of M. humeralis now known to occur 
with us appear so far to inhabit different localities. 

Mordellistena humeralis is such a perplexing species because it is 
decidedly more variable than its allies not just in coloration, but also in 
certain minor structural points - the latter insufficiently realised up to now. 
They include length and stoutness of antennal and palpal segments (possibly 
correlated with body-size, and apparently more pronounced in the typical 
form); and the basal curvature of the pronotal side-margins, i.e. whether 
slightly sinuate with acute hind angles, or not at all sinuate with the angles 
obtuse (the latter more common). This would normally constitute a specific 
character in the genus, but here, exceptionally, it is inconstant. M. variegata, 
on the other hand, though on the Continent very variable in colouring like its 
close relative ("sehr veranderlich gefarbte Art", Ermisch p. 185), appears less 
so in Britain. The well-marked humeral yellow patches and mostly dark 
pronotum distinguish at a glance all those I have seen. In contrast I have not 
seen British humeralis with mainly dark elytra or any dark colour on the 
pronotum, but it is too early to assert that they do not occur. 

In practice, therefore, if the above is borne in mind, the separation of these 
two species (I refer only to British material) should seldom pose any 
problem. Doubts may, however, arise if some of the key-characters given by 
authors are taken at face value. Thus, variegata may have antennae almost as 
dark as humeralis. Nor are pubescence characters always free from 
confusion: a purple iridescence on the hairs is attributed by Fowler (p.93, 
following Thomson) to humeralis, but by Buck (1954: 16) to variegata; 
Ermisch and Batten describe the pubescence as smooth in humeralis but 
rough {i.e. a little raised) in variegata. I would call it more shining and 
conspicuous and more obviously yellow in the latter species. Whilst the 

* See editorial postscript. 



MORDELLISTENA SPECIES 1 83 

alleged antennal differences can be hard to appreciate, the palpal character is 
good but relates to males only. 

An excellent criterion (already known to the older authors but not referred 
to by Ermisch or Batten) is to be found in the arrangement and extension of 
the three black or fuscous ridges on the outer face of the hind tibia, viewed 
in the lateral or slightly ventro-lateral aspect. Because of their dark colour 
against the yellow background of the tibia, they normally stand out very 
clearly. There is, admittedly, some variation: the ridges can be poorly 
developed or defined, a little broken up or confused, or rather indistinct, e.g. 
if the tibia is abnormally dark. One or two of them may be abbreviated, or a 
rudiment of an extra ridge be present. But, in over 15 specimens of each 
species examined, no case of "overlapping" was found, so that separation 
should always be possible (and as a rule easy) on this character alone. The 
points to note are the position, relative length, and especially the 
obliqueness, of the ridges; and the area of the tibia occupied by them, which 
differs markedly in the two species. Only Buck (p. 15, figs. 28, 29) illustrates 
this important character, but most unfortunately his figures are quite 
inadequate, too little different, apparently confused, and in any case 
unusable. New figures are therefore required, and are provided here. 

Below is a simplified key to the three species considered, designed to 
accommodate the neuwaldeggiana-like form of M. humeralis, and omitting 
characters that seem to be of doubtful utility :- 

1/2 Head and whole of antennae rufotestaceous or brownish-yellow; 
antennal segments beyond the base strongly elongate, linear. 
(Male maxillary palpi as variegata, hind tibial ridges about as 

humeralis.) neuwaldeggiana 

111 If head rufotestaceous or brownish-yellow (many humeralis), 
then antennae dark beyond the base or at least darker towards 
apex, segments less elongate and less linear. Otherwise head dark 
except in front. 
3/4 The dark ridges on outer face of hind tibiae about as in Fig. 1; 
male with segment 2 of maxillary palpi simple, or if noticeably 

broader than 3, not circularly dilated humeralis 

4/3 The dark ridges on outer face of hind tibiae about as in Fig. 2; 
male with segment 2 of maxillary palpi broadly, almost 
circularly, dilated variegata 





Figs. 1 - 2. Outer face of right hind tibia oi Mordellistena spp. 
1. humeralis (L.); 2. variegata (¥.). 



184 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

References 

Allen, A. A., 1987. Anaspis costai Em. and MordelUstena humeralis L. (Col. Mordellidae) in S.E. 

London. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 99: 38-39. 
Batten, R., 1986. A review of the British Mordellidae (Coleoptera). Entomologist's Gaz. 37: 225-235. 
Buck, F.D., 1954. Coleoptera: Lagriidae to Meloidae. Hanclhk. Ident. Br. Insects 5(9). 
Ermisch, K., 1969. In Die Kdfer Mitteleuwpas, Vol. 8. ed. H. Freude, K.W. Harde & G.A. Lohse. 

Krefeld. 
Fowler, W.W., 1891. The Coleoptera of the British Islands, Vol. 5. London. 
Joy, N.H., 1932. A practical handbook of British beetles, Vol. 1. London. 

Editorial postscript 

Having had a chance to examine Mr Allen's very interesting paper in 
advance of publication, I took the opportunity of re-examining the series of 
MordelUstena that I took in Nunhead Cemetery in 1992, {Br. J. Ent. nat. 
Hist. 1992; 5: 189-190). Using Batten's key (Ent. Gaz. 1986; 37: 225-235) 
they still worked, more or less, to M. humeralis (L.), but examination of the 
dark ridges of the hind tibiae showed that, in fact, they were all specimens of 
M. variegata (F.). It is always galling and embarrassing to have to retract 
and correct an identification, especially a published one, but Mr Allen's 
paper should make such events less common in this particular species 
complex- Richard A. Jones, 13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 
3DE. 



Notes on finding the larva of Coleophora aestuariella Bradley 
(Lep.: Coleophoridae) 

On 3rd October 1981, I found five small and most peculiar-looking 
Coleophora cases feeding upon the ripening seeds of Suaeda maritima on 
the extreme tidal edge of the saltings at Harty, North Kent. They were about 
5mm long, very flat-oval and undecorated with debris. A substantial 
proportion of the cases were strikingly coloured a bright magenta. Whether 
or not this was a result of hollowing out a purple bract of the foodplant 
remains to be determined, although it is to be noted that the cases are 
similarly coloured whether feeding on "red" or "green" plants. Possibly it is 
caused by a pigment change as the plant dies. 

The larvae overwintered in captivity by encasing their cases within a 
rough silken cocoon between the layers of tissue provided. Further 
observation is needed under natural conditions to establish whether it buries 
itself in the mud, similar to Coleophora clypeiferella Hufn. and C. 
salicorniae Wocke which escape as adults with the aid of spines present on 
the underside of the abdomen. 

Two males and a single female were subsequently bred between 7th and 
24th July 1982 and were described as a species new to science (Bradley, 
J.D., 1984. Entomologist's Gazette 35: 137-140.- N.F. Heal, 44 Blenheim 
Avenue, Faversham, Kent ME13 8NW. 



CYPHA TARSALIS - NEW TO BRITAIN ] 85 

CYPHA TARSALIS LUZE (COL.: STAPHYLINIDAE) 
NEW TO BRITAIN 

R. Colin Welch 

The Mathom House, Hemington, Peterborough PEH 5QJ. 

THE ADDITION to the British List of three species of Cypha {Hypocyphtus) 
during the 1960s - C. imitator Luze (Kevan, 1962); C. nitida (Palm) 
(Johnson, 1967) and C. hanseni (Palm) (Johnson, 1968), prompted me to 
examine material from most of the major British collections over the next 
decade or so. In the course of this study I found many specimens to be 
misidentified, including two from the British collections in the Natural 
History Museum, collected by G.C. Champion on St. Mary's, Scilly Islands, 
and identified by him as C. laeviuscula (Man.). Fortunately both were males. 
Dissection revealed them both to possess a heavily built aedeagus totally 
unlike the slim delicate organ of that species. They were clearly identifiable 
as C. tarsalis Luze (Palm, 1966). Later comparison with a Norwegian male 
from the Manchester University Museum, collected by Andreas Strand at 
Bronnoy, Asker, confirmed this determination. 

Apart from the locality, Champion's carded specimens carry no other data 
although, from his publications, it appears that his only visit to the Scilly 
Islands was from 6th to 15th July 1897 (Champion, 1897). However, he does 
not include C. laeviusculus in the list of species recorded during that visit 
and Blair (1931), in summarising Scilly Island Coleoptera records, only 
credits Champion with C. longicornis (Payk.) from St. Mary's. The only 
published record of C. laeviuscula from the Scilly Islands is that of Joy & 
Tomlin (1912) who recorded it from Tresco in June 1912. I have recently 
been able to examine all the specimens of C. laeviuscula from the J.R. le B. 
Tomlin collection in the National Museum of Wales, amongst which I found 
a single specimen labelled Tresco. Upon dissection this also proved to be a 
male C. tarsalis, thus confirming this species from both main Scilly Islands. 
As a consequence, until such time as a specimen of C. laeviuscula from a 
Scilly locality is found in some other collection, this species should be 
deleted from the Scilly Island beetle fauna. 

A number of species of Cypha can only be identified with certainty by the 
ujse of male characters, principally the structure of the aedeagus. The 
aedeagus of one of Champion's C. tarsalis from the Scilly Islands is depicted 
in figure 1. Among the known British fauna only the smaller C. ovulum Heer 
has an aedeagus at all similar in shape, but it lacks the bifurcate ventral 
process projecting forward from the basal capsule. Care must be taken when 
dissecting out the aedeagus as the two arms of this process may become 
detached during separation of the parameres. 

The very common C. longicornis, should be readily identifiable to most 
coleopterists by its long, narrow, antennae with poorly differentiated club. 



186 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.vii.l995 



Of the three remaining British species of Cypha with dark antennae and legs, 
C. ovulum can be separated on its small size, being consistently less than 
1mm in length. In C. imitator the elytra are shiny with the fine punctures 
widely spaced and any microsculpture present not forming meshes. C. 
laeviusculus and C. tarsalis should separate off together as having their 
elytra only weakly shining with fine close puncturation, between which there 
is a distinct microsculpture forming a reticulated network of meshes. These 
two species can be separated as follows (based on Lohse, 1974):- 

tarsalis Luze. 1 - 1.4mm, blackish-brown, often with sides of pronotum and 
hind body paler. Elytra slightly shorter than pronotum, with strong and 
moderately thick rasp-like puncturation and a ground sculpture of 
shagreened meshes. Segment 1 of hind tarsus as long as rest together and 
segment 1 of front tarsus strongly dilated in male. 

laeviusculus Mannh. 0.9 - 1.1mm, black, elytra often brown, sides of 
pronotum and abdomen paler. Elytra not shorter than pronotum, with 
puncturation fine and moderately thick, but not rasp-like, and 
microsculpture of simple rhomboid meshes. Segment 1 of hind tarsus 
shorter than rest together. 

NB - The apex of the aedeagus of the three British specimens is less sharply 
pointed than in that figured by Palm (1966) and Lohse (1974). 





(c) 



Fig. 1. Cypha tarsalis Luze (Col.: Staphylinidae): 

(a) aedeagus side view (b) paramere side view (c) aedeagus ventral view. 



CYPHA TARSALIS - NEW TO BRITAIN 1 87 

Cypha tarsalis is widely distributed in middle and south Europe and 
southern Scandinavia, and Horion (1967) records it from forest and meadow 
soils under leaves, moss and decaying vegetable matter, and in humus 
(without Sphagnum) in birch moorland. He also notes that in the north it 
appears to be associated with coastal regions. Although the Scilly Island 
localities are clearly maritime I have never found further specimens in many 
years of intensive collecting around the coast of mainland Scotland, Orkney 
and the Hebrides. In contrast C. laeviusculus appears to be common in 
Scotland and northern England where it is distributed from the pine forests 
of Speyside to coastal dunes on Tiree. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to past and present members of staff at the Natural History 
Museum, to Colin Johnson of Manchester University Museum, and John 
Deeming of the National Museum of Wales for readily making material from 
the collections in their care available to me over the years. 

References 

Blair, K.G., 1931. The beetles of the Scilly Islands. Proc. zool. Soc. London. 121 1-1258. 

Champion, C.G., 1897. A preliminary list of Coleoptera and Hemiptera of the Scilly Islands. 

Entomologist's mon. Mag. 33: 217-220. 
Horion, A.D., 1967. Faunistik der Mittelewopdischen Kdfer, XI: Staphylinidae . 3. teil: Hahrocehnae 

his Aleocharinae (Ohne Sub-Tribus Athetae). Uberlingen - Bodensee. 
Johnson, C, 1967. Hypocyphtus nitidus Palm (Col.: Staphylinidae) in Oxfordshire: an addition to the 

British List. Entomologist 100: 193-195. 
- , 1968. Six species of Coleoptera new to the British List. ibid. 101: 28-34. 
Joy, N.H. & Tomlin, J.R. le B., 1912. Further additions to the list of Scilly Coleoptera. Entomologist's 

mon. Mag. 58: 257-258. 
Kevan, D.K., 1962. Cypha (Hypocyphtus) imitator Luze (Col.: Staphylinidae, Tachyporinae) new to 

the British List, ibid, 98: 51-52. 
Lohse, G.A., 1974. In Die Kdfer Mitteleuropas, ed. H. Freude, K.W. Harde & G.A. Lohse, Vol. 5. 

Goecke & Evers, Krefeld. 
Palm, T., 1966. Svensk Insektfauna 9 Skalbagger. Coleoptera Kort\ingar: Fam. Staphlinidae. Hafte 

4, Underfam. Habrocerinae, Trichophyinae , Tachyporinae. Almqvist & Wiksells, Uppsala. 



A second Kent record of Coleophorafrischella L. (Lep.: Coleophoridae) 

General sweeping of clover situated adjacent to the sea near Heme Bay on 
11th August 1984 produced several coleophorids which included a single, 
fresh Coleophora frischella as well as several C. deauratella L. & Z. and C. 
mayrella Hb. {=spissicornis Haw.). Mr J.M. Chalmers-Hunt informed me at 
the time that as far as he was aware there was only one other previous record 
from Kent based upon a single male in the J.F. Stephens and H.T. Stainton 
collection (In the Natural History Museum, London) from 20th June 1850, at 
Lewisham. 

I also collected seedheads of TrifoUum repens on 15th September but only 
succeeded in breeding a single mayrella- N.F. Heal, 44 Blenheim Avenue, 
Faversham, Kent ME 13 8NW. 



188 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Fall of the Painted Lady 

Life on St. Agnes, Isle of Scilly, is very much influenced by the seasons. In 
spring, the first visitors are awaited with the same anticipation as hearing the 
Cuckoo. At the end of October, as the last birdwatcher departs, we know that 
summer is over and hours of back aching flower picking are about to start. It 
is also time to start recording our last sighting of the various butterflies that 
have brightened our island during the spring and summer months. Thus it 
was as I wrote 5th November for our "last" Painted Lady Cynthia cardui L. 
Little did I realise at the time that by the end of the month, I would have seen 
more than the rest of the year combined. 

Diary of events: 

Thursday, 24th November. Wind SE 2, overcast 14 °C. 

09.30 A single insect feeding on ivy blossom. 13.00 - 14.00 A total of twelve 
insects were observed during a walk along the coast, with five at once in P. 
Killier (J.W. & P.J. Hale). Others were seen later in the day at a variety of 
locations. An estimated total of 50 on the island. I spoke to Will Wagstaff, a 
fellow naturalist on St. Mary's, who confirmed that is was not a local 
phenomenon as there were many there too. Dr Frank Smith, the Cornwall 
Recorder had not, so far, received any reports of sightings on the mainland. 

Friday, 25th November. Wind SE 213, clear-sunny 14115 °C. 
07.30 When emptying the moth trap we found it contained a Painted Lady 
together with:- three Dark Sword-grass Agrotis ipsilon Hufn., four White 
Speck Mythimna unipuncta Haw., four Silver Y Autographa gamma L., and 
a Pearly Underwing Peridroma saucia Hbn. besides the usual resident 
species. 08.30 One found on long grass, dew covered and torpid, having 
presumably spent the night there. 10.00 A total of seven viewed from the 
tractor as I drove the half mile to meet the supply launch. 10.30 At least six 
were observed coming in off the sea at Horse Point, the most southerly part 
of the island (per M.E. Hicks). 

Saturday, 26th November. Wind SSW 3, clear-sunny 14115 °C. 
10.00 A total of six were seen as I drove to launch. 1 1.00 A total of eleven 
seen as I drove to launch. 14.00 During a walk four were seen together, 
dancing among the Tamarix (Tamarix gallica) branches in the sunshine a 
real home from home! Reports from other islanders confirmed similar sights 
elsewhere on the island. 15.30 During a grocery delivery to various parts of 
the island (we run the island shop), singles were recorded from nearly every 
field and garden. I would estimate that at least 100 insects were present on 
St. Agnes alone. One of our farmers visiting St. Mary's reported 30/40 in one 
field of flowering narcissi (F.H.D. Hicks). 

Sunday, 27th November. Wind SW 3, overcast cooler 11 V. 
07.30 One fluttering weakly in long grass, no other sightings. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS ] 89 

Monday, 28th November. Wind SW 3/4, cool J J V. 
One (M.E. Hicks). 

Tuesday, 29th November. Wind SW 3, Sunny am, warmer 13114 V. 
Up to four recorded from various parts of the island. I also saw three during 
a visit to St. Mary's in the morning sunshine. Cooler windy weather 
prevailed until Saturday, 3rd December when at least two were seen in the 
weak sunshine. Silver Y moths were also flying in the evening. Storm force 
winds (SW force 10 gusting to 11) and cold driving rain prevented all but the 
essential outside work to be abandoned until the 9th December. 

Friday, 9th December. Wind SW 314, milder 13 V. 

At least four different individuals were seen, possibly six, at various parts of 
the island. I saw two on the way to launch at 10.15. Considering the weather 
we have experienced recently I did not expect any more sightings this year. 
"Resilient little devils" as one islander put it. 

Monday, 1 2th December. Wind SW5, mild 14/15 V. 

Two on the way to launch, plus one from a different part of the island. 

Saturday, 24th December. Wind SE 2, sunny, mild 13/14 V. 

One on the south end of Gugh, by MEH. It could have been one from the 

"fall" but equally possible it could have just arrived. 

Behaviour 

Although some of the butterflies were observed feeding, the majority were 
resting in sheltered areas on concrete, granite or dark tree trunks sunning 
themselves and absorbing the reflected heat and warmth from the weak 
winter sun. They were easily put to flight which was fast and direct making it 
extremely difficult to photograph them other than at dawn when the light 
was poor (Some good video shots and photographs were eventually 
obtained). Feeding was observed on the following species:- Ivy (Hedera 
helix), Escallonia (Escallonia macrantha), Pittosporum (Pittosporum 
crassifolium) and various Narcissus sp. grown as a crop by the local farmers. 

Discussion 

During the spring we often experience falls of Willow Warblers 
Phylloscopus trochilus when the weather conditions are "right", but none of 
the islanders have ever experienced anything like the above fall of Painted 
Ladies, particularly so late in the year. Although not active naturalists most 
of the islanders are aware of the life around them and soon notify me of 
anything unusual. Over the years many eminent specialists have visited the 
island so it is almost by osmosis that a wide range of knowledge has been 
acquired. 

An examination of the weather maps for the period showed a large 
anticyclone over the Bay of Biscay of 1040mb with isobars linking northern 
Spain to the Isles of Scilly. The light clockwise winds flowing from Iberia to 



190 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

the islands were probably responsible for the Painted Ladies and the migrant 
moth species mentioned earlier, drifting to the islands. Whether any insects 
returned from whence they came when the winds changed we may never 
know. It is clear that they can withstand the rigours of a good "Scilly blow" 
with the accompanying low, for us, temperatures. It is possible some may 
hibernate, as do some of our Red Admirals Vanessa Atlanta, under 
favourable conditions. We await the warm sunny days of January and 
February to see if we do have any early sighting of the Painted Lady as it is 
usually mid to late April before we have our first arrivals. 

Postscript 

Since writing the details of our Fall of the Painted Lady we are pleased to 
report that at least two and possibly four individuals have successfully 
overwintered on our island. On Sunday, 19th March, 1995 two were seen 
together, and a singleton at a different site. Singletons were also seen on 20th 
March, at different locations. 

We base our conclusions on the following facts: 

Weather conditions have not been suitable for migration since 6th 
February when we had a small influx, including our second ever specimen of 
the immigrant Pyralid, Euchromius ocellea (Haw.). The wind has been in the 
west-northerly quarter since then and mostly force four or more, mainly 
force six plus. The temperatures have been low but there have been 
occasional days of sun when insects have been flying. No Painted Ladies 
were observed although Speckled Woods were seen on 12th and 13th March. 
It was not until 1 9th and 20th March that any quantity of butterflies emerged 
when Small Tortoiseshell, Peacock, Speckled Wood and Painted Ladies 
were seen. If there had been an influx it would be reasonable to expect Red 
Admirals too as they are usually our first migrant butterfly species; none 
have been recorded. 

Our island is frequently used as a stopping and resting place for migrant 
birds. In spite of daily coverage, no migrants were seen until 21st March 
when at least seven Black Redstarts, a Wheatear, White Wagtails and a 
Fieldfare all appeared late in the day following a day of gentle south-easterly 
wind. If there had been any migration earlier then some if not all of these 
birds would have been seen on Sunday given the hours of observation at this 
time of year. More significant than what has so far been seen, is what has not 
yet arrived. One of the earliest of migrants is the Chiffchaff, but so far there 
has been no obvious increase in their numbers. We have had nine over- 
wintering on the island. 

The species of moth trapped on the night of 19th March 1995 were as we 
would expect at this time of year, including Orthosia gothica L. (Hebrew 
Character), Selenia dentaria Fab. (Early Thorn), Phlogophora meticulosa L. 
(Angle Shades) and Agrotis ipsilon Hufn. (Dark Sword Grass). This latter 
species presumably arrived with the early February immigration. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 



The winter as a whole has been wet, windy but without any frosts or 
snow. It is therefore feasible that some of the large influx of Painted Ladies 
which arrived in late November and stayed through into December could 
well have survived and emerged on the first spring-like day in March. 
- John W. Hale and Mike E. Hicks, St. Agnes (I.O.S.) Study Group, St. 
Agnes Post Office Stores, St. Agnes, Isle of Scilly TR22 OPL. 

Further early emergences of moths 

I wrote recently on the early emergence of spring moths (Aston, 1995) in 
Selbome. As the 1992-94 seasons progressed, the tendency towards early 
emergence continued here as follows: 











MBGB&I 




1994 


1993 


1992 


imago 


Caradrina clavipalpis 


29th Mar 


5th May 


26th Jun 


Apr-Oct 


Eupithecia subfuscata 


28th Apr 


23rd May 


7th May 


May, Jun 


Xanthorhoe fluctuata 


1st May 


7th May 


23rd May 


Apr-Sep 


Aethalura punctulata 


4th May 


None 


18th May 


May, Jun 


Ochroplewa plecta 


9th May 


23rd May 


8th Jun 


Apr-Jun 


Dasychira pudibunda 


10th May 


8th May 


24th May 


May, Jun 


Spilosoma lutea 


10th May 


25th Apr 


23rd May 


May-Jul 


Colostygia pectinataria 


12th May 


30th Apr 


17th May 


May-Sept 


Semiothisa clathrata 


13th May 


26th May 


None 


May, Jun 


Perizoma affinitata 


13th May 


23rd May 


None 


May-Jul 


Petrophora chlorosata 


13th May 


30th Apr 


14th Apr 


May, Jun 


Nola confusalis 


14th May 


27th Apr 


None 


May, Jun 


Cerura vinula 


15 th May 


22nd May 


None 


May-Jul 


Lacanobia oleracea 


15 th May 


9th Jun 


14th Jun 


May-Jul 


Ligdia adustata 


15th May 


27th Apr 


19th May 


May, Jun 


Acronicta rumicis 


15 th May 


27th May 


None 


May-Jul 


Charanyca trigrammica 


16th May 


22nd May 


5 th Jun 


May-Jul 


Acasis viretata 


19th May 


23rd May 


None 


May, Jun 


Epiblema cynosbatella 


19th May 


23rd May 


25th May 


May-Jul 


Thera bntannica 


20th May 


22nd May 


24th May 


May-Jul 


Diarsia rubi 


21st May 


24th May 


30th May 


May, Jun 


Caradrina morpheus 


22nd May 


27th May 


24th Jun 


Jun-Aug 


Apamea sordens 


22nd May 


3rd Jun 


23rd Jun 


May, Jun 


Hepialus lupulinus 


23rd May 


25th May 


28th May 


May-Jul 


Axylia putris 


25th May 


22nd May 


15th Jun 


Jun, Jul 


Autographa pulchrina 


1 St Jun 


8th Jun 


5th Jun 


Jun, Jul 


Peribatodes rhomboidaria 


6th Jun 


9th Jun 


18th Jun 


Jul-Sep 



Some of the early first appearances in 1994 would seem to have left 
sufficient time for several species uncharacteristically to produce second 
generations during the later months. All observations were made at home. 
The m.v. light is operative on most nights of the year. The emergences are 
regarded as early in so far as they are early for this locality. 

References: Aston, A., 1995. Early emergence of Spring moths. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 107: 4; 
Emmet, A.M., 1991. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 7(2). Harley Books, 
Colchester. 

- Alasdair Aston, Wake's Cottage, Selbome, Hampshire GU34 3JH. 



192 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Phalacrus spp. (Col.: Phalacridae): a correction, and remarks on certain 
names in the genus 

In 1952 I recorded as Phalacrus substriatus Gyll. a specimen taken at Blean, 
East Kent. However, since receiving from the late Philip Harwood a pair of 
that species, it became evident that the Blean insect was different, and was in 
fact P. championi GuilL (which I had previously taken on Otford Downs, 
West Kent). An additional reason for making this correction is the possibiUty 
that the inclusion of Kent in the distribution of P. substriatus by Thompson 
(1958: 9) was based on the above record. 

The nomenclature of one of our species is singularly troubled, so much so, 
as to invite a few critical comments amplifying those made in my note of 
1952. The species in question was added to our list in 1872 as P. brisouti 
Rye, and later equated (correctly) with P. hybridus Flach (1888); although 
Newbury (1907), in introducing the latter as new to Britain, rejected Rye's 
species as merely a form of P. corruscus (Panz.), a mistaken idea, as I 
pointed out in my 1952 note. Joy (1932) must have overlooked Newbury's 
paper, since he ignores hybridus and, quite indefensibly, places corruscus as 
a synonym of fimetarius (F.), a name little used in British works up to then. 
However, Thompson (1958: 5), in his excellent revision of our Phalacridae, 
. shows the latter to be the earliest available name for brisouti Rye, which is 
placed as "syn. n." of fimetarius (F.). Strangely, the name hybridus Flach is 
omitted from the synonymy, an evident oversight as it is included in the 
bibliography, and likewise from our later catalogues. 

As if all this were not enough, one finds (with a sense almost verging on 
despair) that Vogt (1967), who, incidentally, makes use of all Thompson's 
figures without published acknowledgement, reinstates the name brisouti, 
with 'fimetarius Thompson" as a synonym. No authority is cited or reason 
given for the change-back, notwithstanding that Mr Thompson had 
obviously examined the Fabrician type of fimetarius in the Banks collection 
at the Natural History Museum, London; and until his identification is shown 
to have been incorrect, I think that we should continue to abide by it. 

Authors are divided over the correct spelling for Panzer's species above, 
with a distinct majority in favour of coruscus as against corruscus. Both 
Thompson and Vogt adopt the single "r", though the former notes it as an 
emendation due to Paykull (1800). The Latin word does indeed have only 
one "r". However, if the rules of nomenclature are to be followed. Panzer's 
original spelling must stand; especially as this choice involves no violent 
break with existing usage. 

Phalacrus fimetarius appears to show an interesting divergence in 
distribution and incidence between Britain and mid-Europe. With us, it is 
widely spread over most of southern England and in some parts commoner 
than P. corruscus; that is the case for instance, in this district and in at least a 
large area of north Kent. This contrasts curiously with the data given by 
Vogt for mid-Europe: known only from warm slopes of the Kyffhauser and 
in the Rhineland, very rare (my translation). 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 93 

References: Allen, A. A., 1952. Phalacrus siihstriatiis Gyll. (Col.: Phalacridae) in Kent; and a few 
discrepancies, etc., relating to other species. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 88:18; Joy, N.H., 1932. A 
practical handbook of British beetles, 1: 528, London; Newbury, E.A., 1907. Phalacrus hybridus, 
Flach, an addition to the list of British Coleoptera, with a revision of the British species of Phalacrus, 
Paykull. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 43: 223-5; Thompson, R.T., 1958. Coleoptera, Phalacridae. 
Handbk Idem. Br. Insects 5 (5b): 5,9; Vogt, H., 1967. In Freude, H., Harde, K.W. & Lohse, G.A. 
(eds.) Die Kdfer Mitteleiiropas 7: 1 60, Krefeld. 

- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

First Kent record of Cosmopterix orichalcea Staint. (Lep.: 
Cosmopterigidae) 

On 6th July 1985 sweeping the general foliage of a floating marsh at Gibbins 
Brook near Ashford in Kent, produced precious little until about 1 600 hours 
when a single Cosmopterix glistened in the net and which thereafter proved 
to be fairly common. Later examination showed the species to be orichalcea, 
not previously recorded from Kent. 

Normally regarded as a May /June insect, the late date was an indication of 
the atypical season that year. Other entomologists directed to the site 
reported finding larvae aplenty on 13th September 1985 and I collected a 
number on 28th September. The foodplant was later identified by Eric Philp 
of the Maidstone Museum as Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass), 
a previously unrecorded foodplant for this species.- N. Heal, 44 Blenheim 
Avenue, Faversham, Kent ME 13 8NW. 

Moths as a food resource for hospitalised bats 

I last wrote a brief note about the feeding habitats of bats and their 
preferences for particular kinds of moths in 1990 {Entomologist's Record 
102:19-20), following a field trial feeding a tame Noctule bat with moths 
caught at a m.v. lamp. This bat was kept under licence by Ginni Little who 
runs a bat hospital in Penzance. The bat hospital has expanded considerably 
in recent years; Ginni has to find what sources of food she can to assist the 
bats in their recovery and moths play an important part in their diet. Moths 
are so easily caught in the spring and summer that they provide a ready 
source of food. 

Ginni has furnished me with a list of moths eaten by the hospitalised bats 
as part of their diet between 1989 and 1991. Forty-seven different species 
were accepted by the five different bat species (Table 1). All the moths were 
killed and put in food bowls for the bats. Other insects such as lace wings 
were released, even though these are taken by bats in the wild. All the 
species chosen for feeding to the bats are common species in Cornwall 
except Euxoa obelisca. The different moths taken reflected the abundance of 
the various species in the Penzance area; what was given to the bats 
depended on what was found in the trap, but Geometers were generally 
released because experience showed that they were a less popular food- 
source. There is no way of telling if these feeding patterns are replicated in 



194 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Table 1. The moth diet of five species of bat in the Cornwall Bat Hospital. 
May 1989 to September 1991 

Bats 

Moth species A B G D E 

Acronicta rumicis '^^^M Y 

Agrotis clavis Y Y Y 

Agrotis exclamationis Y Y Y 

Agrotis puta Y 

Amphipyra pyramidea Y 

Apamea monoglypha Y Y 

Autographa gamma Y 

Autographa pulchrina Y 

Caber a pusaria Y 

Ceramica pisi Y Y 

Colostygia pectinataria Y 

Diachrysia chrysitis Y 

Diaphora mendica Y Y 

Diarsia hrunnea Y 

Diarsia mendica Y 

Diarsia ruhi Y Y 

Eilema lurideola Y 

Euxoa obelisca Y 

Gortyna flavago Y 

Hadeiia bicruris Y 

Hadena rivularis Y 

Hepialus lupulinus Y 

Hoplodrina ambigua Y 

Hydraecia micacea Y 

Lacanobia oleracea Y Y 

Lasiocampa quercus Y 

Macrolythacia rubi Y 

Mesapamea secalis Y Y 

Mythimna ferrago Y 

Mythimna impura Y 



Mythimna pal tens 


Y 




Noctua comes 


Y 




Noctua fimbriata 


Y 


Y 


Noctua janthina 




Y 


Noctua pronuba 


Y 





Y 



Ochroplewa plecta 




Y 


Y 


Omphaloscelis lunosa 


Y 






Orthosia cerasi 


Y 






Orthosia gothica 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Phalera bucephala 


Y 


Y 




Photedes pygmina 


Y 






Phlogophora meticulosa 
Scoliopteryx libatrix 


Y 
Y 


Y 




Spilosoma lubricipeda 
Xanthia togata 
Xanthorhoe montanata 


Y 
Y 


Y 


Y 


Xestia triangulum 


Y 







Total moth species count 28 3 19 2 17 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 95 

Key to bats 

A = Brown Long-eared; B = Daubentons; C = Noctule; D = Natterers; E = Pipistrelle 

the wild. The number of different moth species taken by each bat species is 
partly a reflection of how many bats there were at the hospital and how long 
they survived. 

In the wild, moths form a large part of the diet of the Brown Long-eared 
bats, along with beetles, caddis flies and other insects. Pipistrelles eat mainly 
Chironomid flies, along with caddis and various other flying insects, 
including some moths. There is an obvious relationship between bat size, 
size of individual moth prey and size of appetite. This is shown in captivity, 
where the Noctule appears to be able to eat the most moths at one sitting. On 
the 9th August 1989, she ate the following species: Noctua janthina, 
Ochropleura plecta, Acronicta rumicis, Agrotis exclamationis , Lacanohia 
oleracea and Mythimna ferrago. The Noctule was the only bat to manage 
Lasiocampa quercus and Macrolythacia ruhi. On the same night, a Brown 
Long-eared ate the following species: Mythimna pallens, Gortyna flavago, 
Noctua comes and Xanthia togata. On 26th May 1990, A Brown Long-eared 
bat ate Phalera bucephala, Diaphora mendica, Hadena rivularis, Xestia 
triangulum, Diarsia hrunnea and Orthosia gothica. 

The bats have now lost their diet of moths. Regular trapping in the garden 
showed a reduction in moth catches and a local expert and moth-provider 
moved away from the district. The patients are now fed on mealworms and a 
water-soluble canned product suitable for sick cats, dogs and hedgehogs. It 
may seem cruel to feed moths to bats in this way, but as well as being a 
natural part of the food chain it also serves to emphasise the importance of 
insects in the conservation of other, more cuddly creatures.- Adrian 
Spalding, Tremayne Farm Cottage, Praze-an-Beeble, Camborne, Cornwall 
TR14 9PH. 

Little-known entomological literature 4 

There have been a number of books published in the past, perhaps even 
today, whose titles bely that there is an entire or substantial entomological 
content. The following are a few which have come to my notice. 

A Sister's Stories (1833). Published by Arthur Foster, Kirkby Lonsdale. 
No author is stated but known to be by Selina Martin. Freeman (1980) in his 
British Natural History Books: a Handlist, under the title, says, "see Selina 
Martin" but there is no entry of her in his book. The text consists of elder 
sister Georgiana giving entomological lessons to her younger brother and 
sisters, with them asking appropriate questions. It commences with a 
description of a pet tree-frog and how it caught insects. There is a delightful 
illustration of one leaping up to do just this. The reniainder of the book takes 
us through most orders of insects and ranges from the British swallowtail 
through Ornithoptera priamus from Amboina to a South American Morpho. 



196 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

There is a surprising amount of information on both hfe-histories and 
usefulness (silkworms) and destructiveness (clothes moths). There are 30 
wood-cut plates in the book. 

June: a book for the country in summer time (1856) by H.T. Stainton, 
Longman, Brown, Green & Longman, London. The author of this book is of 
course very well known for his numerous works on the lepidoptera, but this 
is his least known work and appears to be the rarest, most of his others 
having been published by van Voorst. It is basically a collecting travelogue 
of various regions (Devon: Lake District; Scotland etc.) mentioning plants, 
insects, books to read on the way. It is a charming read and gives us an idea 
of what our countryside was like in the middle of the last century when 
railways had opened it up, thereby giving quick access to near, and easy 
access to distant parts of the countryside, but when urban sprawl and 
motorways had not yet taken it over and in many cases destroyed the reason 
for going! 

The four little wise ones (1853), published by James Nisbet & Co., 
London. No author stated, but as the book is dedicated to the children of her 
brother, clearly a lady. A substantial book of 427 pages it deals with ants, 
including termites, locusts, spiders and (not entomological!) conies. Each 
subject illustrated with a plate. It contains, for the period, a surprising 
amount of information on the life-history, habits and inter-relationships of 
the insects concerned. It is not in Freeman's Handlist. 

hrough a pocket lens by Henry Scherren. Published by The Religious 
Tract Society in 1897 with a second issue in 1904. Profusely illustrated. 
While the subject could be about almost anything, apart from a chapter on 
Crustacea, this book is all about insects and how to look at them and their 
various appendages. It contains too a considerable amount of information 
also on collecting, life histories and other aspects of insect life/behaviour and 
quotes a number of references to authorities on entomology of the period. 

Tiny toilers and their works by G. Glenwood Clark, published by J. Coker 
& Co., London. Not dated but around the 1920's. A simplified account, 
written for young children, of the doings and activities of various insects 
such as wasps, ants, spiders, caddis, antlions and processionary moths. 

Poems by Joses Badcock published by James Paul, London, not dated but 
1840's. One has the impression that this was meant as a "follow-on" to 
Erasmus Darwin's Botanic Garden but, in view of the book's rarity and as far 
as I am aware, no later editions, this rather tedious poetry was not greatly 
sought after! The various chapters cover all aspects of natural history; that 
headed entomology covers 35 pages. 

The twelve sisters and other stories (1923) by Carl Ewald. Published by 
Thornton Butterworth this is the English translation from a Danish author. 
Illustrated by coloured plates and other illustrations. The 12 sisters are in fact 
cockchafers and the other chapters deal with locusts, bees, spiders. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS ] 97 

caterpillars, aphids, ants and - a mixed bag! - "the empty room" mentioning 
a number of different insects in conservation. Basically the book deals with 
life-histories as told by the insects themselves. 
- Brian O.C. Gardiner, 2 Highfield Avenue, Cambridge CB4 2AL. 

Evergestis limbata (L.) (Lep.: Pyralidae) new to mainland Britain 

July 1994 proved to be one of the warmest on record on the Isle of Wight 
with mean maximum temperatures of 23.3°C (20.6), and the mean minimum 
of 15.5°C (13.3). Rainfall figures were below average and wind came from 
the south between lst-12th, and 25th-31st, and from the north between 
13th-25th. Numbers of moths recorded at an m.v. light trap run in my 
garden at Chale Green in the south of the Isle of Wight were good with 
several counts of 95-100 species of macro-moth per night. Good numbers of 
common migrant species such as Udea feirugalis, Nomophila noctuella, 
Autographa gamma and Agrotis ipsilon were recorded. 

On the 23rd July I trapped an unfamiliar Evergestis species. After some 
research the species was still a mystery and I stored the specimen ready to 
pass on to S. Knill- Jones. To my amazement I trapped another specimen on 
30th July. This latter individual was associated with a large arrival of A. 
gamma, as well as numbers of other probable migrants such as Evergestis 
extimalis, Idaea vulpinaria atrosignaria, Ostrinia nuhilalis, Rhodometra 
sacraria and Heliothis peltigera. I passed the two specimens on to S. Knill- 
Jones who showed them at the BENHS annual exhibition where they were 
identified as Evergestis limbata. 

These two specimens (now held in the collection of S. Knill- Jones at 
Freshwater, Isle of Wight) represent the first and second mainland British 
records. The only other record is a single trapped on Guernsey on 18th July 
1990 by T.D.N. Peet. The species ranges over central, south-eastern and 
parts of southern Europe, where it is said to be abundant and feeds on 
Sisymbrium, Alliaria petiolata, Isatis tinctoria and Genista tinctoria. 

My thanks to S. Knill-Jones for his help.- Simon R. Colenutt, Green 
Edge, Chale Green, Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

Clambus pallidulus Reitter (Col.: Clambidae) in South Hampshire and 
East Sussex 

Members of the family Clambidae are minute beetles (0.8- 1.8mm) which 
characteristically roll up into a ball when disturbed, looking like a small 
black mite. C. pallidulus was first recognised as a British species by Johnson 
(1966, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 101: 185). Previously, British examples 
had been confused with C. minutus Sturm. So far, it has proved to be the 
rarest of the eight members of the genus occurring in Britain. Johnson (1966, 
Handbk. Ident. Br. Insects 4: pt 6a) refers to records from only four vice- 
counties: West Kent, East Kent, Berkshire and Oxfordshire. More recently. 
Whitehead (1990, Entomologist's mon. Mag. 126: 236) reported finding a 
single specimen at Little Comberton, Worcestershire. 



198 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

Two further vice-counties can now be added. In May 1980, 1 found a male 
pallidulus at Bishops Waltham, South Hants. Mr Colin Johnson very kindly 
confirmed my identification. On 6.iv.95 in company with Mr Peter Hodge, I 
took a single Clambus on Mailing Down, East Sussex. On dissection, this 
proved to be another male pallidulus. 

In Britain, members of the genus Clambus have been found mainly in 
decaying vegetation of various forms but very little is known of the 
preferences of individual species. The example of C. pallidulus found by 
Whitehead (loc.cit.) occurred in wood-mould in a hollow apple tree. The first 
specimen found by the author was extracted from debris in a rotten elm 
stump in a long-disused chalk pit. The second specimen was obtained from 
pooled sievings of moss growing on the ground among rotten logs beneath a 
sallow tree and of moss growing on an open chalky slope. 

I thank Mr Johnson for confirming the identification of my first specimen 
and Mr Hodge for introducing me to the site on Mailing Down.- J. A. Owen, 
8 Kingsdown Road, Epsom, Surrey KT17 3PU. 

An American moth in Aberdeen 

On 9th June 1994 I was brought a specimen of a large black and white moth 
that had been found resting close to a light on the outside wall of a 
warehouse at Aberdeen docks. This proved to be Ecpantheria scribonia 
(Stoll, 1790) (= Hypercompe deflorata auth., nee Fab. 1775) (Hodges et al., 
1983) which ranges across central and eastern USA, where it is known as the 
"great leopard moth". 

The wings of the moth were stained with the pink colour that is 
characteristic of meconium and so it seems likely that it had recently 
emerged in an enclosed space. The warehouse, where it was found, handles 
crates destined for offshore oil platforms and had taken delivery of a 
shipment originally from Dallas, Texas two or three days previously. 
Although Dallas is rather further west than is usually quoted for the range of 
this species, the contents of the crates came from various locations in USA 
and it is probable that a larva had climbed into a crate and pupated, prior to 
shipment. 

The specimen has been donated to the National Museum of Scotland 
(NMS), Edinburgh. There it joins another apparently similar specimen 
labelled "USA-found dead 18.7.74. J. Tilley. Neil Dryborough and Sons Ltd. 
In container of American oak." This label seems to have been attached by 
the late E.C. Pelham-Clinton but there is no indication of exactly where Neil 
Dryborough and Sons have their premises. I am indebted to Dr K.P. Bland 
for this information. 

Now the mystery deepens, for the specimen in the NMS is labelled 
''Hypercompe deflorata (Fab.)", which seems to deny the synonymy 
suggested by Hodges et al (1983). To complicate matters further, there is a 
record in Heath and Emmet (1979), (in the chapter on Arctiidae written by 
the late C.G.M. de Worms), of a larva, subsequently bred on 8th August 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 1 99 

1969, imported on American oak by an Edinburgh firm of coopers. This 

record is quoted on the personal authority of E.G. Pelham-Clinton - is it a 

different specimen from that now in the NMS labelled by Pelham-Clinton 

"found dead on 18th July 1974"? The details of the two records suggest that 

they refer to separate specimens but the earlier one is apparently not held by 

the NMS, where Pelham-Clinton would surely have placed it, and it is 

puzzling that he did not pass the later record to de Worms, for a book not 

published until 1979. 

The name used by de Worms is also ''Hypercampe deflorata (Fab.)" but 

he gives the type location as "India", which seems unlikely for the American 

moths. Presumably Hodges et al (1983) subsequendy corrected the confused 

nomenclature and all our three (or two) imported examples should now be 

referred to as Ecpantheria scribonia (Stoll, 1790). 

References: Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M. (eds.) 1979. Moths and Butterflies of Great 
Britain and Ireland. Vol. 9. Curwen Books, London; Hodges, R.W. et al. (eds.) 1983. 
Check List of Lepidoptera of America north of Mexico. E.W. Classey Ltd., Oxon. 

- Mark Young, Culterty Field Station, University of Aberdeen, Newburgh, 

Ellon, Aberdeenshire AB41 OAA. 

Collecting notes 1994 

The first trip of the season was a very wet family holiday to Cornwall in late 
May. Heavy rain prevented use of the moth trap, but on one sunny morning I 
managed to find larvae of the Grass Eggar (Lasiocampa trifolii D.&S.), Oak 
Eggar (L. quercus Linn.) and Drinker {Philudoria potatoria Lirm.) in some 
numbers on the cliff top near Gunwalloe. 

On 10th June, David Keningale and I returned to the beautiful forests 
which lie to the east of Langres in Haute Mame. This huge area of deciduous 
woodland supports a rich and varied wildlife. It also supports the hotel 
Cheval Blanc wherein Madame lavishes care and excellent cooking upon 
Monsieur Papillon et son amil 

We hoped to find the elusive Poplar White Admiral {Limenitis popuU 
Linn.) and we were not disappointed. Suitable stretches of forest drive to 
search could be identified by tall aspens above and Pine Marten droppings 
below. The reputedly shy Martens could be seen and approached by day as 
they marked their territorial boundaries along the lanes. L. populi could not 
resist the droppings upon which they fed during the afternoon heat. The 
tenacity of populi whilst so engaged was underlined by the number of 
specimens (all males) found pressed into the surface of the road by the tyres 
of infrequent, but very rapid, French cars. Most were either on or .within a 
few inches of their precious Marten droppings! 

Whilst awaiting the arrival of populi from the tree-tops a number of other 
butterfly species were noted. These included the abundant Black-veined 
White {Aporia crataegi L.), Black Hairstreak {Strymonidia pruni Linn.), 
Heath Fritillary (Melitaea athalia Rott.), False Heath Fritillary {Melitaea 



200 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

diamina Lang.), Lesser Marbled Fritillary {Brenthis ino Rott.) and 
Camberwell Beauty (Nymphalis antiopa Linn.). We failed again to find 
larvae of the latter (what is the secret?) but did find larvae of the Large 
Tortoiseshell {N. polychloros Linn.) and Comma {Polygonia c-album Linn.). 

I did not operate a moth trap on this visit but day-flying moths noted 
included Red-necked Footman {Atolmis ruhricollis Linn.), Wood Tiger 
{Parasemia plantaginis Linn.), Pretty Marbled {Lithacodia deceptoria 
Scop.), Silver-barred {Deltote hankiana Fabr.) and the Black-veined moth 
(Siona lineata Scop.). The latter species was abundant in one damp meadow 
and I easily obtained ova from a number of females. I also obtained ova from 
a small Burnet moth which bore an uncanny resemblance to the Slender 
Scotch {Zygaena loti Hbn.). The adults were feeding on Lotus and their 
larvae are hibernating as I write. Could it be loti Hbn? 

I returned to Somerset on 17th June to find that the season had not 
improved in my absence. I added Small Seraphim {Pterapherapteiyx 
sexalata Retz.) to the garden list on 29th June. A promising, warm night on 
2nd July added Cloaked Carpet {Euphyia hiangulata Haw.) and Lobster 
Moth {Stauropus fagi Linn.) to the list. The latter was a surprise as the 
nearest woodland is about one mile away. 

I set out again for France on 22nd July for a family holiday in Charente. 
This was at "La Folatiere", near Ruffec, which is the home of Brian and 
• Stella Smith. La Folatiere consists of thirty acres of woodland, meadow and 
quarry managed entirely for the benefit of local wildlife, especially the 
butterflies so beloved by the Smiths. We noted 39 species whilst there - 
surely testimony to the success of the Smiths' endeavours! 

I was primarily interested in the macromoths on the site. In the space 
available here I cannot describe in detail the 190 species which 1 recorded. 
The moths abounded. On a couple of warm, thundery nights I had to switch 
off the trap as there were too many specimens filling it! (That was a first for 
me!) Fellow collectors, well versed in the writings of Richard South, Tutt, 
and P.B.M. Allen, could not fail to be moved by meeting, alive and 
fluttering, such legendary species as the Three-humped Prominent {Tritophia 
tritophus D.&S.), Large Dark Prominent (Notodonta ton'a Hb.) and Dusky 
Marbled Brown {Gluphisia crenata Esp.). Equally exciting were rare visitors 
to the UK such as Dusky Hook-tip (Drepana cwvatula Borkh,), Tawny 
Prominent (Harpyia milhauseri Fabr.) and Black V Moth {Arctornis l- 
nigrum Mull.). Amongst my favoured Noctuidae were Great Dart {Agrotis 
crassa Hb.), Small Ranunculus (Hecatera dysodea D.&S.), Scarce Dagger 
{Acronicta auricoma D.&S.), Orache {Trachea atriplicis Linn.), Dewick's 
Plusia {Macdunnoughia confusa Steph.) and Light Crimson Underwing 
{Catocala promissa D.&S.). 

Amongst the numerous visitors to the trap, I recognised 15 "non-British" 
species. These included the spectacular Pine Tree Lappet {Dendrolimus pint 
Linn.) and Odonestis pruni Linn, a pretty orange version of the Drinker 
whose larvae feed upon a range of trees. Gnophos fui-vata Schiff. is a huge 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 20 1 

"Annulet" which favours limestone areas. Lythria pwpwaria Linn, just 
scrapes on to the British list (two specimens in Perth in 1861) and is 
illustrated in South (1961). A fourth Chocolate-tip, Clostera anastomosis 
Linn, was not uncommon whilst a "marbled brown" Diymonia querna Fabr. 
was represented by only two specimens. L'Homme (1923) suggests that the 
latter is more common in the south of France. 

Two processionary moths turned up, the Pine {Thaumetopoea pityocampa 
Schiff.) and the Oak {T. processionea Linn.). I found these difficult to 
separate using the plates in my copy of Sietz (1913). A "pale and 
interesting" species is the Lymantriid Ocneria rubea Schiff. The Arctiid 
Paidia murina Hb. resembles a very large version of the Round-winged 
Muslin moth {Thumatha senex Hb.). Noctuidae were represented by the 
beautiful green Polyphaenis sericata Esp. and the striking Ephesia fulminea 
Scop. The Latter is a Catocalid with yellow and black hindwings. The larvae 
favour Blackthorn and L'Homme (1923) suggests that they prefer the oldest 
trees. The Pale Shoulder {Tarache lucida Hufn.) is another species which 
just scrapes on to the British list and is illustrated in South (1961). 

I failed miserably to rear larvae of the Black V moth. Ova were easily 
obtained from females in the trap, but many first instar larvae refused to feed 
when offered a range of leaves. Those that did feed died during the next 
instar. They showed no sign of "spinning up" for the winter. Any 
suggestions as to an explanation for this failure would be gratefully received! 

Every good trip should leave some lasting memories. Two remain vivid 
from La Folatiere. The first is sitting by the trap in a snow storm of moths 
listening to the Lerots (Garden Dormouse, Eliomys quercinus Linn.) playing 
a noisy version of tag in the nearby trees. The second is emptying the trap 
early in the morning whilst a few feet away Large Blues {MacuUnea avion 
Linn.) were opening their wings to receive the first warmth from the sun. 
How I pity those that cannot enjoy such recollections! 

We returned to Somerset on 7th August - it was still a disappointing 
season. I added only a dozen new species to the garden list in 1994. I am 
beginning to suspect that being surrounded by arable farmland is not 
conducive to building up a long list of garden moths. The sprays so liberally 
applied are not specific to one pest species, nor are they only applied on calm 
days. A visit to south Devon in October produced no migrants. Indeed, the 
only migrant I recorded was a male Vestal {Rhodometra sacraria Linn.) in 
the garden trap on 30th August. Let us hope that 1995 proves a more 
memorable season. Needless to say, my trips to France are already booked! 

References: L'Homme, L., 1923-1935. Catalogue des Lepidopteres de France et Belgique; Seitz, A., 
1913. Macrolepidoptera of the Palaearctic Fauna; South, R., 1961. The Moths of the British Isles. 

- M.D. Bryan, "Extons", Taunton Road, Bishops Lydeard, Somerset. 

Synchita humeralis (F.) (Colydiidae): a second record for West Kent 

This beetle is now by far the rarer of our two species of Synchita in the 
south-east, owing to the recent spread of S. separanda Reitt. to new habitat, 



202 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

and any find of the true S. humeralis in Kent (see below) is decidedly 
notable. I was therefore surprised to detect an example of that species among 
some insects sent by my correspondent K.C. Lewis from the woods near 
Bexley. On learning of its interest, Mr Lewis most kindly insisted that I 
retain the specimen. It was taken by sweeping tall grass at the edge of a field 
bordering Chalk Wood, 24. v. 1994. To find a Synchita at large is of course 
very exceptional, and one must suppose that the insect had been induced, 
probably by sultry weather, to emerge from its normal habitat under bark and 
take flight. 

The previous certain Kent record is of a specimen bred by our Editor, Paul 
Sokoloff, from the fungus Daldinia concentrica on dead and dying birch at 
Keston, March 1984. There are in the literature two much older records for 
the county; but as I have shown (Allen, 1964: 41), the first - Tunbridge 
Wells 1882 - may really have referred to S. separanda, while the second has 
proved erroneous. 

References: Allen, A. A., 1964. The genus Synchita Hellw. (Col: Colydiidae) in Britain; 
with an addition to the fauna and a new synonymy. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 100: 36- 
42; Sokoloff, P.A., 1985. [Exhibit at Br. Ent. Nat. Hist. Soc. Annual Exhibition, 27th 
October 1984] Proc. Trans. Br. ent. nat. Hist. Soc, 18: 6. 
- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 

Foodplants of Coleophora lusciniaepennella (Treitschke) (Lep.: 
Coleophoridae) in Lancashire (VC 60) 

Whilst searching for moth larvae on the Lytham St Annes sand-dune nature 
reserve in Lancashire on 25th May 1994 I was amazed at the proliferation of 
Coleophora lusciniaepennella {= viminetella Zell.) larvae in their cases on 
Salix repens. On the reserve, a single seedling of Betula pendula (about four 
feet high) showed signs of Coleophora feeding on the leaves. 

After a short search two cases resembling those of Coleophora 
lusciniaepennella were found actively feeding on the Birch. These were 
reared and subsequently produced two Coleophora lusciniaepennella. A 
Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera (Emmet. A.M., 1988) makes 
reference to lusciniaepennella feeding on Betula, in Scotland but this 
appears not to have been noted in England before. Whether the eggs had 
been laid on the Birch or the larvae had just moved onto it from the Salix is 
not known, but there was no shortage of Salix repens in the immediate 
vicinity of the Birch seedlings.- S.M. Palmer, 137 Lightfoot Lane, 
Fulwood, Preston, Lancashire PR4 OAH. 

Bankesia douglasii Stainton (Lep.: Psychidae) in Hampshire 

N.F. Neal reports Bankesia douglasii Staint. new to Kent (Ent. Rec. 106: 98). 
This species was discovered by A.H. Stainton near Warsash, on the eastern 
shore of Southampton Water in 1867. It was last seen near the end of the 
century (B. Goater, the Butterflies and Moths of Hampshire and the Isle of 
Wight, 1974). 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 203 

I'm pleased to report it has returned - or has it simply been overlooked? 

My son, Luke, caught one flying in our garden in morning sunshine on 
20th March 1994. I did not recognise it at the time. It did look a bit like 
Eriocrania sparrmannella Bosc. (to me anyway) and its flight was not unlike 
that species. I mentioned this to my friend Dave Appleton, who almost at 
once took one on his way to work at Segensworth, three miles from its 
ancient haunts, on 10th March this year. Inspired by this, I took my morning 
cuppa to the bottom of the garden and found it flying (as originally reported) 
in sunshine from shortly after 7.30am for about an hour and a half, but only 
in near calm conditions. I found no cases, nor was there any obvious place to 
look. It wouldn't be an easy species to find if you were not local. I wonder if 
there is any significance in its re-discovery near a railway station?- Richard 
Dickson, 39 Serpentine Road, Fareham, Hampshire P016 TED. 

Agrilus sinuatus (Ol.) (Col.: Buprestidae) at Tunbridge Wells, Kent 

On 25th August 1994 I found a single specimen of this attractive metallic 
purple beetle on the edge of Folly Shaw, a small piece of undisturbed 
woodland in Hilbert Recreation Ground, Tunbridge Wells. It was sitting 
conspicuously on nettle foliage, having presumably been washed down from 
nearby hawthorns by a recent shower. This species would appear to be a 
relatively new arrival in this area, since there are no examples in the 
comprehensive collection of local Coleoptera assembled by R.A. Crowson 
between 1938 and 1947 and held at Tunbridge Wells Museum. 
- Ian C. Beavis, 104 St. James' Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 

Die Schmetterlinge Baden-Wiirttembergs. Edited by Giinter Ebert. Band 
(volume) 3, Nachtfalter (moths) I. 518pp., 344 colour photographs, 166 
diagrams and drawings, 64 distribution maps, hardback, size 17x24cm. Price 
DM 79. Band 4, Nachtfalter II. 535pp., 488 colour photographs, 204 
diagrams and drawings, 122 distribution maps, hardback, size 17x24cm. 
Price DM 79. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, 1994. 

Following on the publication in 1991 of the sumptuous first two volumes 
covering the butterflies (Tagfalter) of the south-western German state of 
Baden-Wiirttemberg, work on this opulent and monumental series has 
continued with the moths (Nachtfalter). In December 1994, the first two 
volumes, embracing the Hepialidae, Cossidae, Zygaenidae, Limacodidae. 
Psychidae, Thryididae, Bombycidae, Endromidae, Lasciocampidae, 
Lemoniidae, Satumidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Dilobidae, 
Thaumetopoeidae, Drepanidae, Thyatiridae, Lymantriidae, Nolidae and 
Ctenuchidae, were published and launched at a reception given by the 
publisher in the State Natural History Museum in Karlsruhe, Germany, 
attended by Giinter Ebert and his co-authors, and the State Minister for 
Nature Conservation. It is the financial support it has received from the 
latter's ministry and the state museum which has kept the price of these 



204 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15.vii.l995 

superbly produced and lavishly illustrated books down to DM 79 (less than 
£35) per volume. Three further volumes, covering the Geometridae and 
Noctuidae, are in advanced preparation. 

As with the butterfly volumes, which I reviewed for this journal (antea 
1992, 104: 87), the wealth of first-hand ecological and biological 
information contained in these new books makes them invaluable to 
entomologists living and working in those many parts of Europe, including 
the British Isles, where the Baden- Wiirttemberg species (the majority of 
them) also occur. The format follows that of the butterfly volumes, the main 
part consisting of a detailed systematic treatment of the Baden- Wiirttemberg 
species, with superb colour photographs taken, mostly in the field, within its 
borders of all stages from egg to imago, and of the typical habitats of each 
species with locality and date specified, also distribution maps compiled 
from computerised data and flight-period histograms showing regional 
variations. The text covering each species is a mine of up-to-date ecological 
and behavioural information based on studies made within Baden- 
Wiirttemberg, plus verified lists of larval foodplants. The past and current 
status of each species, and the conservation measures needed to be 
undertaken to ensure their survival are also discussed. 

The illustrated introductory sections in the first volume include one (Part 
2) dealing with methods for observing moths (including attracting imagines 
through the use of pheromones) and observations on the natural food sources 
of imagines; another (Part 3) concerning aspects of food competition 
between species and the niches occupied by them, and the relationship 
between microclimate, landscape history and the changes in the distribution 
of species; while Part 4 contains a checklist of the species treated in the two 
volumes, a list of their German names, a table showing their habitat 
preferences, a list of the flowers visited by imagines and a discussion of their 
habitats, status and conservation, including a revised Red Data List for 
Baden- Wiirttemberg. 

Although naturally this work is written in German, the first volume 
contains sections in English and French to enable those who only speak 
those languages to obtain the maximum information from the text and 
figures without needing to understand German. With a minimum of help, in 
addition, from a German-English dictionary the non-German reader will gain 
access to much valuable information not readily available elsewhere. 

Once again, GUnter Ebert of the Karlsruhe State Museum of Natural 
History and his collaborators and publishers have earned the gratitude of 
European lepidopterists for these two latest volumes in their magnificent 
seven-volume work; they have maintained the extremely high standard set 
by the first two on the butterflies. I recommend them without hesitation. 
They may be ordered direct from the publisher Verlag Eugen Ulmer, 
Postfach 700561, 7000 Stuttgart 70, Germany. 

John F. Burton 



Contents - continued from hack cover 

Synchia humeralis F. (Col.: Colydiidae): a second record for West Kent. A.A. Allen 201 

Foodplants of Coleophora lusciniacpennella Treits. (Lep.: Coleophoridae) in 

Lancashire (VC 60). S.M. Palmer 202 

Bankesia doiiglasii Staint. (Lep.: Psychidae) in Hampshire. R. Dickson 202 

Agrilus simiatus Ol. (Col.: Buprestidae) at Tunbridge Wells, Kent. LA. Beavis 203 

Book review 203 



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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

More observations on Eiiblemma ostrina (Hbn.) the Purpled Marbled. B. Elliott & 

B. Skinner 161 

Ectoedemia amani Svensson (Lep.: Nepticulidae) New to Britain. B. Dickerson 163 

The Common Blue Damselfly, Enallagma cyathigenim and other Odonata records in 

Shetland. M.G. Pennington 165 

Late and partial third broods of butterflies and moths in the Isle of Wight during 1994. 

SA.KniU-Jones 171 

Coboldia fuscipes Meigen (Nematocera: Scatopsidae) feeding on slug eggs. K. Ayre 175 

A breeding experiment with Parage aegeria ab. schmidti Dioz. (Lep.: Satyridae). 

R. Barrington 179 

On the British Mordellistena humeralis L. (Col.: Mordellidae) and its allies. A.A. Allen .. 181 
Cypha tarsalis Luze (Col.: Staphylinidae) new to Britain. R.C. Welch 185 

Notes and observations 

Exceptional dates for British Orthoptera. /. Paul 162 

A first Kent record for the Spanish Carpet, Scotopteryx peribolata Hbn. (Lep.: 

Geometridae). S.P. Clancy 164 

The Large Cabbage Butterfly, Pieris hrassicae extends its range to South Africa. 

B. O.C.Gardiner 174 

Further observations on Epermenia insecurella Staint. (Lep.: Epermeniidae) in 

Wiltshire. 5.M. Pfl/w^T 174 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - a first brush with science - Copenhagen, 1958. 

T.B.Larsen 177 

Notes on finding the larva of Coleophora aesturariella Bradley (Lep.: Coleophoridae). 

N.F.Heal 184 

A second Kent record of Coleophora frischella L. (Lep.: Coleophoridae). N.F. Heal 187 

Fall of the Painted Lady. J.W. Hale & M.E. Hicks 189 

Further early emergences of moths. A. Aston 191 

Phalacrus spp. (Col.: Phalacridae): a correction, and remarks on certain names in the 

genus. A.A. Allen 192 

First Kent record of Cosmopterix orichalcea Staint. (Lep.: Cosmopterigidae). N.F. Heal 193 

Moths as a food resource for hospitalised bats. A. Spalding 193 

Little-known entomological literature 4. B.O.C. Gardiner 195 

Evergestis limhata L. (Lep.: Pyralidae) new to mainland Britain. S.R. Colenutt 197 

Clamhus pallidulus Reitter (Col.: Clambidae) in South Hampshire and East Sussex. 

J. A. Owen 197 

An American moth in Aberdeen. M. Young 198 

Collecting notes 1994. M.D. Bryan 199 

(Continued on inside back cover) 

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September/October 1995 



ISSN 0013-3916 



THE 

ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 

AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

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ENTOMOLOGICAL JARGON 205 

SOME ENTOMOLOGICAL JARGON EXPOSED 

Richard A. Jones 

/.•? BelhvoocI Road. Nuiilwcul. Lmidoii SKI 5 .U)E. 

SEVERAL YEARS AGO, an eminent lepidopterist sidled up to me at an 
entomological meeting, confessed he had come across a beetle description 
and asked me in hushed tones "What colour, exactly, is ...", he hesitated, 
"...testaceous?" He pronounced it carefully so that I, a supposed 
coleopterist, should know precisely what he was talking about. 

At the time, I was astounded that he should need to question me on the 
matter, and quickly gave my sheepish answer. Afterwards I wondered what 
could have possibly caused this confusion. In my naivety, I had not grasped 
what to many was so obvious - each of the entomological disciplines has its 
own terminology, its own distinctive set if words and terms, its own 
obfuscating and elitist jargon. 

Lepidopterists are guilty of a few minor transgressions into idiom. The 
quaint use of the word "imago" may not be a problem, but when I first 
stumbled across the plural "imagines", imagine my confusion at what I 
thought was some surreal flight of transcendental fancy. And if I am still not 
absolutely sure where a tornus might be, at least I can look it up in most 
standard books on insects. 

On the other hand, coleopterists have accumulated a wide vocabulary of 
strange and alien-sounding terms, not least in one of the most basic and 
important areas of description - colour. Faced with "testaceous", my learned 
colleague had been stumped. Most 19th and 20th century beetle books rely 
almost entirely on such terms to describe colours, but sure enough, most 
standard entomological texts ignore these seemingly archaic words. 

In looking through a few Coleoptera books and in particular the many 
articles on beetles in entomological journals, I quickly came to the 
conclusion that it is sometimes difficult for a new-comer to the subject to 
fully appreciate what are really very good descriptions of these insects. I did, 
however, find several of them mentioned in the glossary provided by Cooter 
et al. (1991 ) (derived in part from that in Fowler, 1887) and the "orismology, 
or explanation of terms" in Kirby & Spence (1826). The Oxford English 
Dictionary (OED) also offers some definitions, but these are sometimes at 
odds with entomological use. 

To dismiss the use of such terms as needlessly confusing would be to 
denigrate part of the varied and colourful language of description, better 
perhaps to give them a fresh airing and make them more widely known. 
With this in mind, 1 offer up the following short glossary gleaned from 
various sources. 

Aeneous: brassy: from the Latin aeneus meaning "brazen" {OED), also 
perhaps a more metallic golden green (Cooter et al.). 



206 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 07 1 5 . ix . 1 995 

Castaneous: ruddy-brown; the deep rich brown which makes sweet 
chestnuts (Castanea) so appetizing on the brazier and horse chestnuts 
(hippocastanum) so irresistible when found found lying beneath a conker 
tree. 

Ferrugineous: reddish or pinkish; sometimes described as rust-red (Cooter 
et al.). 

Fulvous: reddish yellow (OED) tawny or dirty orange (Kirby & Spence). 

Fuscous: dull brown, tawny (Cooter et al.) or dusky (OED). 

Piceous: dark brown; despite its origin in pix, the Latin word for pitch, 
actually a shade less black than pitchy (see below); with a tinge of red 
(Kirby & Spence), green or yellow (Cooter et al.). 

Pitchy: very dark brown, almost black; the true colour of pitch or tar. For 
some unknown reason "pitch-black" has come to mean a blackness deeper 
than pitch really is. 

Rufous: red; either brownish (OED) or pale (Kirby & Spence). 

Sulphureous: pale yellow; the colour of sulphur (OED) as in the bright 
yellow bands of the hedge snails, Cepaea; or perhaps tinged with a shade of 
very pale green much like the Brimstone butterfly (Kirby & Spence). 

Testaceous: dirty yellow, yellowish-brown, light reddish-yellow. Various 
dictionaries describe this as the colour of dull terracotta pottery, reflecting 
the etymology of the word from testa, the Latin for "tile". Some earlier 
entomological works {e.g. Kirby & Spence) use it thus. 



References 

Cooter, J. et al., 199L A coleoptehst's handbook. 3rd edn. Amateur Entomologists' 

Society, Feltham, pp. 276-286. 
Fowler, W.W., 1887. The Coleoptera of the British Islands. Reeve, London. Vol. 1, 

pp. ix-xv. 
Kirby, W. & Spence, W. 1815-1926. An introduction to entomology: or elements of the 

natural history of insects. Longman et al. London, Vol. 4, pp. 257-354. 



MICROLEPIDOPTER A REVIEW - 1 993 207 

MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW OF 1993 

David J.L. Agassiz', Robert J. Heckford^ and John R. Langmaid^ 

'International Institute of Entomology 

(an Institute of CAB INTERNATIONAL). 56 Queen's Gate, London SW7 5JR. 

-67 Newnham Road, Plympton, Plymouth, Devon PL7 4AW. 

7 Dorrita Close, Southsea, Hants P04 ONY. 

TWO SPECIES WERE ADDED to the British Hst of microlepidoptera in 
1993, Batrachedra parvulipunctella Chretien and Cochylis molliculana 
Zeller. The first may be an adventive, whereas the second appears recently to 
have colonised the south coast of England. It is much harder to say how 
many have become extinct, for we can only declare such an event after an 
interval of some decades. As studies of rare species are made it is saddening 
to find some which have not been recorded for 20 years. 

Following its discovery a year earlier, Mompha bradleyi Riedl continues 
to be found though we cannot yet say that its distribution is fully known. 
Further records of Bohemannia auriciliella (Joannis), Athrips rancidella 
(Herrich-Schaffer), Gelechia senticetella (Staudinger) and Sclerocona 
acutellus (Eversmann) are interesting, but do not tell us enough about their 
status or distribution. 

Homoeosoma nimbella (Duponchel), so easily overlooked on account of 
its similarity to closely related species, is confirmed in its known disjunct 
localities in the extreme south-west and on the east coast of England, but we 
wonder whether it is still more widespread. Phlyctaenia stachydalis 
(Germar) is one of those little-seen species which one feared was declining, 
but new localities provide encouragement. 

Spreading species continue: Parocystola acroxantha (Meyrick), 
Dioryctria schuetzeella Fuchs among them, but not in a dramatic way. The 
absence of records of Caloptilia rufipennella (Hiibner) and Phyllonorycter 
leucographella (Zeller) in the list of records submitted in no way marks a 
cessation of their movement, for populations have been observed to increase 
by many workers. 

New information on the life history of Coleophora lassella Staudinger fills 
what was one of the more remarkable gaps in our knowledge since it was the 
last in its family whose biology was undiscovered. This may lead to a better 
understanding of its distribution. 

Migration records are included in other articles in this journal and there 
are none of which we are aware worthy of special comment. 

Literature published since our last Review includes Volume 8 of 
Microlepidoptera Palaearctica which covers part of the Phycitinae 
(Pyralidae) but no species recorded from the British Isles is included. 
Additions and corrections to the lepidopterous fauna of Shropshire by A.M. 
Riley and R.M. Palmer were published in the Entomologist's Gazette 45: 
167-182. The Moths and Butterflies of Berkshire by B.R. Baker is a fine 



208 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

county list containing many interesting records of microlepidoptera. An 
unpublished, but widely circulated list of additions to the Lepidoptera of 
Orkney was produced by Ian Lorimer not many months before his death. As 
usual an important source of records is the report of the Annual Exhibition in 
the British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 7: 154-159 and this 
list contains a number of new vice-county records which are not repeated in 
this article. 

The full systematic list includes records submitted by recorders and those 
which have been published in entomological journals. Many thanks to those 
whose records are included; as always these are identified by their initials: 
D.J.L. Agassiz, B.R. Baker, H.E. Beaumont, K.P. Bland, K.G.M. Bond, E.S. 
Bradford, M.F.V. Corley, P.A. Crowther, B. Dickerson, A.M. Emmet, A. P. 
Foster, B. Goodey, E.F. Hancock, R.J. Heckford, M.W. Harper, R.P. Knill- 
Jones, J.R. Langmaid, D.V. Manning, D.O'Keeffe, R.M. Palmer, S.M. 
Palmer, M.S. Parsons, A.N.B. Simpson, B.F. Skinner, F.H.N. Smith, R.A. 
Softly, D.H. Sterling, M.J. Sterling, P.H. Sterling and M.R. Young. 

Journal titles are abbreviated for economy of space: Ent. Gaz. for the 
Entomologist's Gazette, Ent. Rec . for the Entomologist's Record and Journal 
of Variation, and BJENH for the British Journal of Entomology and Natural 
Histoiy. Numbers in the left-hand column are those from A checklist or label 
list of British Lepidoptera by J.D. Bradley and D.S. Fletcher, 1986. 

Again an attempt has been made to identify new vice-county records; 
these are in bold type. The maps held by A.M. Emmet have been used for 
this purpose and we are grateful to Maitland Emmet for providing this 
information, and also for proof reading. 

Copies of the full list of records submitted are available from David 
Agassiz. 



Systematic List 
ERIOCRANIIDAE 

7 E. chiysolepidella (Zell.) - Beetham (69) vacated mines 25. v. 91 & 
23.V.92 - M.R. Shaw & KPB, Ent. Gaz. 45: 272 

8 E. unimaculella (Zett.) - Nahilla (H30) 19. v. 93 larvae on Betula - 
KGMB 

9 E. sparrmannella (Bosc.) - Easton Homstocks (32) one, 23.iv.93 - 
AME, MSP, PHS & JRL 

10 E. salopiella (Staint.) - Yardley Chase (32) 18.V.93 - DVM 

12 E. sangii (Wood) - Nahilla (H30) 19.V.93 larvae on Betula - KGMB; 
Yardley Chase (32) 18.V.93 - DVM 

13 E. semipurpurella (Steph.) - Nahilla (H30) 19. v. 93 larvae on Betula - 
KGMB 



MICROLEPIDOPTER A REVIEW - 1 993 209 

NEPTICULIDAE 

33 Bohemannia auhciliella (Joann.) - Lover (8) 24.vi.93, third British 

specimen - MFVC, BJENH 7: 1 55 
23 Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zell.) - Nagles Mts (H4) 17.x. 93 - KGMB 
25 E. intimella (Zell.) - Copt Oak (55) many tenanted mines on Salix 

cinerea 3\.\.93 - AME & JRL 
39 E. heringi (Toll) - Copt Oak (55) a few tenanted mines on Quercus 

31.X.93 - AME & JRL; Yardley Chase (32) 19.X.93 - DVM 
45 Trifurcula subnitidella (Dup.) - Tory Hill (H8) 25.vi.93 - KGMB 

53 Stigmella splendidissimella (H.-S.) - Copt Oak (55) a few tenanted 
mines on Ruhus idaeus 3 1 .x.93 - AME & JRL 

54 5. auromarginella (Rich.) - Portland (9) 12.vi.93, mines on Rubus 
fruticosus agg., moths bred - RJH & JRL 

88 S. samiatella (Zell.) - Emer Bog (11) vacated mines on Castanea 
sativa 26.X.93 - DHS & JRL 

89 S. basiguttella (Hein.) - Bourne (53) one tenanted mine on Quercus 
l.xi.93-AME&JRL 

103 S. nylandriella (Tengst.) - Lings Wood (32) 30.ix.93 - DVM 

109 S. prunetorum (Staint.) - Salome Wood (31) mine on Prunus spinosa 

22.X.93 - D. Evans per BD 
114 S. glutinosae (Staint.) - Newtown Linford (55) a few tenanted mines 

on Alnus glutinosa 3 1 .x.93 - AME & JRL 

OPOSTEGIDAE 

120 Opostega auritella (Hiibn.) - Barton Broad (27) one at m.v.29.vii.93 
- MJS 

INCURVARIIDAE 

145 Nemophora minimella ([D. & S.]) - Mount Cabum NNR (14) 

8.viii.93 - MSP 
152 Adela rufimitrella (Scop.) - Brackley Lough (H30) 20.V.93 - KGMB 

HELIOZELIDAE 

156 Heliozela resplendella (Staint.) - Newtown Linford (55) a few 
vacated mines and cut-outs on Alnus glutinosa 31. x.93 - AME & 
JRL; Ballivor (H22) mine on Alnus glutinosa 23.viii.93 - KGMB; 
Yardley Chase (32) 12.X.93 - DVM 

PSYCHIDAE 

180 Diplodoma herminata (Geoff.) - Little Cawthorpe (54) one 25.vi.93 - 

PHS & JRL 
175 Narycia monilifera (Geoff.) - Easton Homstocks (32) a few cases 

23.iv.93 - AME, MSP, PHS & JRL; Yardley Chase (32) 13.iv.93 - 

DVM 
185 Lujfia ferchaultella (Steph.) - Collingham, Wetherby (64) larval cases 

25.vi.93, many reared - D.H. Smith per HEB 



210 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

TINEIDAE 

228 Monopis weaverella (Scott) - Easton Homstocks (32) 15.vii.93 - C. 
Gardiner per MSP; Yardley Chase (32) 20.V.93 - G.E. Higgs per DVM 

229 M. obviella ([D. & S.]) - Eynesbury (31) 1 .vii.93 - BD 

LYONETIIDAE 

264 Bedellia somnulentella fZell.) - Fineshade (32) 14. vii.93 - DVM 

BUCCULATRICIDAE 

266 Bucculatrix nigricomella Zell. - Strandhill (H28) vacated mine on 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum 21. v. 93 - KGMB 

GRACILLARIIDAE 

283 Caloptilia betulicola (Hering) - Edzell, Gannochy Gorge (90) 
spinnings on Betula 2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 

284 C. rufipennella (Hiibn.) - Deffer Wood, Bamsley (63) many larval 
cones 22.ix.93 - HEB; Leckford (12) vacated cones on Acer 
pseudoplatanus 7.viii.93 - DHS & JRL 

285 C. azaleella (Brants) - Petts Wood (16) common v. & viii.93 - DO'K 

286 C. alchimiella (Scop.) - Wittering Copse (32) 14.viii.93 - MSP per 
DVM 

287 C. robustella Jackh - Larvae mining Castanea sativa - JMC-H, Ent. 
Rec. 106: 180 

289 C. falconipennella (Hiibn.) - Petts Wood (16) six bred from Alnus 

glutinosa ix-x.93 - DO'K 
294 Aspilapteryx tringipennella (Zell.) - Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe (54) a 

few mines in Plantago lanceolata 23.vi.93 - PHS & JRL; Brampton 

Wood(31)29.viii.93-BD 
305 Parornix scoticella (Staint.) - Lings Wood (32) 30.ix.93 - DVM 
315 Phyllonorycter harrisella (Linn.) - Leemount (H4) mines on Quercus 

petraea 16.X.93 - KGMB 
321 P. messaniella (Zell.) - Cannon Hall Park, Bamsley (63) mines 

frequent on Ulmus 22.ix.*5'3, moths reared - HEB 
324 P. sorbi (Frey) - Copt Oak {S5) many mines on Sorbus aucuparia 

31.X.93 - AME & JRL; Lings Wood (32) 30.ix.93 - DVM 

330 P. cerasicolella (H.-S.) - Edlington Wood, Doncaster (63) mines on 
Cerasus, moths reared iii.93 - HEB 

331 P. lamanella (Schr.) - Yardley Chase (32) 28.X.93 - G.E. Higgs per 
DVM 

354 P. emberizaepenella (Bouche) - Colsterworth (53) one mine on 

Symphoricarpus 1 .xi.93 - AME & JRL 
357 P. stettinensis (Nic.) - Wadenhoe (32) lO.x.93 - DVM 

GLYPHIPTERIGIDAE 

391 Glyphipterix simpliciella (Steph.) - Achiltibuie (105) 28. v. 93 - Mary 
Harrop, Ent. Rec. 106: 31 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW- 1993 21 1 

392 G. schoenicolella Boyd - Slepe Heath, Hartland Moor, Studland 
Heath (9) larvae on Juncus bufonius 26.vii.93 - PHS, RJH & JRL, 
Ent.Gaz. 45: 1-3. 

397 G. thrasonella (Scop.) - Rossie Moor (90) many 4.vii.93 - KPB, 
RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL; notes on the species - A. Spalding, Ent. 
Rec. 106: 184 

DOUGLASIIDAE 

398 Tinagma ocnerostomella (Staint.) - Shrewton FoUey (8) 13.vi.93 - 
M.H. Smith, Ent. Rec. 106: 76 

YPONOMEUTIDAE 

410 Argyresthia hrockeella (Hiibn.) - Edzell, Gannochy Gorge (90) a few 

2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
417 A. spinosella Staint. - Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe (54) several 23.vi.93 

- PHS & JRL 
435 Zelleria hepariella Staint. - Freshwater (10) 14.vii.87 - S.A. Knill- 

Jones, Ent. Rec. 106: 77 
437 Swammerdamia caesiella (Hiibn.) - Copt Oak (55) a few vacated 

larval spinnings on Betula 3 1.x. 93 - AME & JRL; Yardley Chase 

(32)7.x.93-DVM 
439 S. compunctella H.-S. - Sandwich Bay (15) 10.viii.93 - ESB; 

Feshiebridge (96) larvae abundant in spun tips of Sorbus aucuparia 

20.V.93 - DO'K 

442 Cedestis gysseleniella (Zell.) - Fineshade (32) 6.vii.93 - DVM 

443 C. subfasciella (Steph.) - Fineshade (32) 23-26.vii.93 - DVM 

444 Ocnerostoma piniariella Zell. - Edzell (90) one 3.vii.93 - KPB, 
RMK-J, MRY, & JRL 

449 Prays fraxinella (Bjerk.) - Little Cawthorpe (54) one 25.vi.93 - PHS 
&JRL 

468 Rhigognostis incarnatella (Steud.) - Chopwell Wood (66) 28.vii & 
l.viii. 92, 3.viii.93- T.C.Dunn £/2r.i?ec. 106.- 152 

469 Eidophasia messingiella (F.v.R.) - Famborough (12) 8.vi.93 - R.W. 
Parfitt per JRL 

471 Digitivalva perlepidella (Staint.) - Steep (12) one 21 .v.93 - JRL, Ent. 

Gaz. 45: 36 
473 Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zell.) - Famborough (12) 8.viii.93 - R.W. 

Parfitt per JRL 
476 Acrolepia autumnitella Curt. - Newtown Linford (55) a few vacated 

mines on Solanum dulcamara 3 1.x. 93 - AME & JRL 

EPERMENIIDAE 

483 Epermenia chaerophyllella (Goeze) - Westmuir (90) a few larvae on 
Heracleum 3.vii.93 - RMP, MRY & JRL 



212 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

SCHRECKENSTEINIIDAE 

485 Schreckensteinia festaliella (Hiibn.) - Easton Homstocks (32) 
26.vi.93 - MSP 

COLEOPHORIDAE 

494 Coleophora coracipennella (Hiibn.) - Yardley Cliase (32) 18. v. 93 - 
DVM 

495 C spinella (Schrank) - Little Cawthorpe (54) a few larval feeding on 
Crataegus 25.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 

496 C. milvipennis Zell. - Rannoch Moor (88) feeding on Betula nana, an 
unusual foodplant - KPB 

504 C. lusciniaepennella (Treits.) (= C. viminetella Zell.) - Larkfield 
(H30) cases on Myrica 21. v. 93; Coom Wood (H3) cases on Myrica 
2.vi.93 - KGMB 

511 C. orbitella Zell. - Haldon Hill (3) 23.vii.93 - RJH 

512 C. binderella (Koll.) - Weaveley Wood (31) 28.vii.93 - BD 

514 C. ahenella Hein. - Wiltshire, four localities (8) cases 1992-93 - SMP 

515 C. albitar sella Zell. - Fineshade (32) 1 6. vii.93 - DVM 

516 C. trifolii (Curt.) - Ballavolley (71) at m.v. 15.vii.93 - KGMB 

517 C.frischella (Linn.) - Fineshade (32) l.vi.93 - DVM 

518 C. mayrella (Hubn.) - Fineshade (32) 1 l.vi.93 - DVM 

519 C. deauratella L. & Z. - Fineshade (32) 19-23.vii.93 - DVM 

524 C. lithargyrinella Zell. - Bray Head (H20) cases on Silene maritima 
19.iv.93 - KGMB; Fovant Wood (8) one case 21.iv.93 - SMP 

535 C. ibipennella Zell. (= ardeaepennella Scott) - Fineshade (32) 
2.vii.93 - DVM 

539 C. conspicuella Zell. - Grove Park, SE16 (16) cases abundant on 
Centaurea nigra, also near Bickley (16) 1993 - DO'K. 

551 C. galbulipennella Zell. (= otitae Zell.) - Hythe Ranges (15) 6.vii.93 
-MSV.Ent.Rec. 105:286-7 

552 C. lassella Staud. - Hartland Moor, Slepe Heath, (9) cases on Juncus 
bufonius 26. vii.93 - JRL, RJH & PHS, account of its biology Ent. 
Gaz. 45: 1-3 

555 C. follicularis (Vallot) - Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe (54) a few larval 
feedings on Pulicaria 23.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 

556 C. trochilella (Dup.) - Fineshade (32) 28-29.vii.93 - DVM 

559 C. peribenanderi (Toll) - Enniskerry (H20) one at m.v. 1. vii.93 - 
KGMB; Fineshade (32) 1 l.vi.93 - DVM 

560 C. paripennella Zell. - Little Cawthorpe (54) larval feedings on 
Centaurea nigra 25.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 

561 C. therinella Tengst. - Fineshade (32) 10.vii.93 - DVM 

565 C. saxicolella (Dup.) - Fox Holes (31) 8.viii.93 - BD; Fineshade (32) 
6-10.vii.93- DVM 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1 993 213 

568 C. versurella Zell. - Fineshade (32) 2.vii.93 - DVM; West Melton, 

Rotherham (63) 3.vii.86 & 14.vii.92 - HEB 
574 C. cieviclla Zell. - Gibraltar Point (54) two 22.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 

58 1 C. taeniipennella H.-S. - Yardley Chase (32) 20.iv.93 - DVM 

582 C. glaucicolella Wood - Fineshade (32) 14.vii.93 - DVM 

584 C. alticolella Zell. - Slepe Heath (9) cases on Juncus hufonius 

26.vii.93 - PHS, RJH & HRL, Ent. Gaz. 45: 1-3. 
587 C caespititiella Zell. - Fineshade (32) 7.vi.93 - DVM; Slepe Heath 

(9) cases on Juncus hufonius 26.vii.93 - PHS, RJH & JRL 

ELACHISTIDAE 

592 Stephensia hrunnichella (Linn.) - Grays (18) a few vacated mines on 
Clinopodium 18 .vii.93 - DJLA & JRL 

593 Elachista regificella (Sire.) - Dura Den (85) mines on Luzula 
sylvatica - KPB 

601 E. alhifrontella (Hiibn.) - Edzell, Gannochy Gorge (90) one 2.vii.93 - 

KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
611 E. triatomea (Haw.) - Tory Hill (H8) 6.viii.93 - KGMB 
622 E. adscitella Staint. (= revinctella Zell.) - Weaveley Wood (31) 

26.vi.93 - BD 
624 Biselachista trapeziella (Staint.) - Slish Wood (H28) mines in Luzula 

sylvatica 21.V.93 - KGMB 
632 Cosmiotes consortella (Staint.) - Confirmed as at least bivoltine - 

Rm, Ent. Gaz. 4S\ 196 

OECOPHORIDAE 

638a Denisia alhimaculea (Haw.) - Marlborough Downs (7) 28.vi.93 - D. 

Brotheridge Ent. Rec. 105: 285 
648 Endrosis sarcitrella (Linn.) - Edzell (90) a few 2-3.vii.93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
656 Parocystola acroxantha (Meyr.) - Berrow (6) 31.viii.93 - B.E. Slade, 

Ent. Rec. 106: 35 
658 Carcina quercana (Fabr.) - Frampton (53) one larva on Crataegus 

22.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 
666 Semioscopis avellanella (Hiibn.) - Easton Homstocks (32) 20.iv.93 - 

MSP 
672 Depressaria pastinacella (Dup.) - Frampton {53) a few larvae on 

Heracleum 22.vi.93 
674 D. badiella (Hubn.) - Porton Down (8) 14.viii.93 - SMP 
676 D. pulcherrimella Staint. - Fineshade (32) 19-23.vii.93 - DVM 
689 Agonopterix ciliella (Staint.) - Yardley Chase (32) 1993 - G.E. Higgs 

per DVM 
691 A. purpurea (Haw.) - Ballynacourty (H6) 6.V.93 - KGMB 
700 A. pallorella (Zell.) - Folkestone Warren (15) bred from Centaurea 

scabiosa vii.91 -DO'K 



214 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

705 A. ulicetella (Staint.) - Rossie Moor (90) many larvae on Ulex 

4.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
708 A. carduella (Hubn.) - Folkestone Warren (15) bred from Centaurea 

scabiosa vii.91 - DO'K 
713 A. angelicella (Hiibn.) - Den of Airlie (90) larvae on Angelica 

3.vii.93 - RMP, MRY & JRL 
715 A. capreolella (Zell.) - Chestfield (15) 27.iii.71 - ESB 

GELECHIIDAE 

724 Metzneria lappella (Linn.) - Easton Homstocks (32) 29.vi.93 - MSP 
726 M. metzneriella (Staint.) - Tory Hill (H8) several at m.v. 26.vi.93 - 

KGMB 
727a M. aprilella (H.-S.) - Bamack Hills & Holes NNR (32) 24.vi.92 - C. 

Gardiner per MSP 
735 Monochroa tenebrella (Hiibn.) - Rossie Moor (90) one 4.vii.93 - 

KPB, RPK-J, MRY & JRL 
747 Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunb.) - Spurn (61) 26.ix.92, larvae 

mining leaves of Halimione, a previously unrecorded foodplant, 

moths reared iv.93 - HEB, Ent. Rec. 105: 226 

756 Parachronistis albiceps (Zell.) - CoUyweston Great Wood (32) 
10.vii.91-DVM 

757 Recwvaria nanella ([D. & S.]) - Famborough (12) several vii.93 - 
R.W. Parfitt per JRL i 

760 Exoteleia dodecella (Linn.) - Edzell (90) two 2.vii.93 - RMP & JRL, 

one 4.vii.93 - KPB 
761a Athrips rancidella (H.-S.) - Richmond Park (17) 23.vii.93 - MSP 
762 A. moujfetella (Linn.) - Corby (32) 32.vii.93 - DVM 
77 1 Teleiodes alburnella (Zell.) - Corby (32) 5.vi.93 - L. Bassenger per BD 
780 Bi-yotropha similis (Staint.) - Little Paxton (31) 5.vi.93 - L. 

Bassenger per BD 
787 B. terrella ([D. & S.]) - Frampton (53) one 22.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 

790 Chionodes fumatella (Dougl.) - Winterton (27) one at m.v. 27.vii.93 
-MJS 

791 C. distinctella (Zell.) - Winterton (27) two at m.v. 28.vii.93 - MJS 
794 Lita sexpunctella (Fabr.) - Y Llethr, Merioneth (48) 15. vii.93 adult 

on Calluna - APE 
796 Aroga velocella (Zell.) - Famborough (12) 14.viii.93 - R.W. Parfitt 

per JRL 
801a Gelechia senticetella (Stand.) - Southsea (11) one at m.v. 3.viii.93 - 

JRL, Ent. Gaz. 45: 36 
812 Scrobipalpa instabilella (Dougl.) - Baltray (H31) larvae on 

Halimione 1 l.iii.93 - KGMB 
822 S. acuminatella (Sire.) - O'Donnell's Rock (H29) 20.vi.93 - KGMB 
828 Caryocolum viscariella (Staint.) - Fineshade (32) 19-23.vii.93 - DVM 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1 993 215 

830 C.fratemella (Dougl.) - Fineshade (32) 28-29.vii.93 - DVM 

843 Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hubn.) - Clogher Head (H31) larvae on 

AnthylUs 20.iv.93 - KGMB 
857 Anarsia lineatella Zell. - Lizard (1) 20.viii.93 - larva in nectarine, 

moth bred - RJH 

861 Telephila schmidtiellus (Heyd.) - Mount Cabum NNR (14) a few 
larvae on Origanum 9.V.93 - MSP & JRL 

862 Dichomeris marginella (Fabr.) - Corby (32) 17.viii.87 - D.H. 
Howton per DVM 

866 Brachmia hlandella (Fabr.) - Easton Homstocks (32) 8.vii.93 - C. 
Gardiner per MSP; Werrington (32) 1991-92 - P. Waring per DVM 

870 Oegoconia quadripuncta (Haw.) - Famborough (12) 14.vii.93 - R.W. 
Parfitt per JRL 

871 O. deauratella (H.&S.) - Fineshade (32) 29.vii.93 - DVM; 
Famborough (12) 10.vi.93 - R.W. Parfitt per JRL 

BLASTOBASIDAE 

874 Blastobasis decolorella (Woll.) - Edzell (90) a few 2-3.vii.93 - KPB, 
RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL; Famborough (12) 8.vii.93 - R.W. Parfitt 
per JRL; Northfield Wood, Onehouse (26) 3.viii.91 - A. Aston, Ent. 
Rec. 106: 150 

MOMPHIDAE 

879a Batrachedra parvulipunctella Chretien - Cadgwith (1) 18.viii.91 - 
RJH, BJENHS 7: 156; Ent. Gaz. 45: 261-265, New to Britain 

880 Mompha langiella (Hiibn.) - Ashurst (11) larvae on Epilobium 
parviflorum & Chamaenerion angustifoUum 12.vii.93 - JRL, Ent. 
Gaz. 44: 256 

88 1 M. terminella (H. & W.) - Dinton Wood (8) 1993 - SMP 

885 M. conturbatella (Hubn.) - Den of Airlie (90) one 3.vii.93 - RMP, 

MRY & JRL 
889a M. bradleyi Riedl - Stapleford (20) galls on Epilobium hirsutum 

21.viii.93 emerged ix.93; Woodwalton Fen (29) galls 3.ix.93, one 

emerged 4. ix.93 - MJS; Stratford-upon-Avon (38) pupae in galls of 

E. hirsutum 4. ix.93, moths bred - RJH 

COSMOPTERIGIDAE 

898 Limnaecia phragmitella Staint. - Brackley Lough (H30) larvae on 

Typha 20.V.93 -KGMB 
902 Glyphiptei-yx lathamella (Fletch.) - Manvers Site, Bolton-on-Deame 

(63) 16.vi & 5. vii.93 - J.D. Coldwell, det HEB 

TORTRICIDAE 

921 Trachysmia inopiana (Haw.) - Kettering (32) l.vi.92 - D.H. Howton 

per DVM 
927 Piercea minimana (Caradja) - Tory Hill (H8) 25.vi.93 - KGMB 



216 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

928 P. permixtana ([D. & S.]) - Tory Hill (H8) 6.vii.93 - KGMB 
942 Aethes piercei Obraztsov - Tory Hill (H8) 25.vi.93 - KGMB 
945 A. cnicana (Westw.) - Edzell, Gannochy Gorge (90) one 2.vi.93 - 

KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
947 A. smeathmanniana (Fabr.) - Fineshade (38) 25. v. 93 - DVM 
949 A. dilucidana (Steph.) - Easton Homstocks (32) 29.vi.93 - MSP 
951 A. beatricella (Wals.) - Fineshade (32) 28.vi.93 - DVM 
954 Eupoecilia angustana (Hiibn.) - Westmuir (90) many 3.vii.93 - RMP, 

MRY & JRL 
960 Falseuncaria ruficiliana (Haw.) - A new larval foodplant Rhinanthus 

minor -M.H. Smith, Ent. Rec. 106: 26-28 
964 Cochylis dubitana (Hubn.) - Castor Hanglands (32) 25.vii.85 - MSP 

per DVM 
964a C. molliculana Zell. - Southsea (11) one at m.v. 21.viii.93 - JRL, 

BJENH 7:157; Ent. Gaz. 45: 255-258; Portland (9) 24.vi.91 - RJH, 

Ent. Gaz. 45: 259. Lyme Regis (9) 8.vii.93 - B.P. Henwood Ent. Gaz. 

45: 259; Fareham (11) 25.viii.93 - R.J. Dickson, Ent. Gaz. 45: 260. 

New to Britain 

967 C. pallidana Zell. - Myrtleville (H4) 24.vi.93 - KGMB 

968 C. nana (Haw.) - Westmuir (90) a few 3.vii.93 - RMP, MRY & JRL 
970 Pandemis cerasana (Hubn.) - Edzell (90) a few 2-3.vii.93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
974 Argyrotaenia Ijungiana (Thunb.) - Cladagh River (H30) 20. v. 93 - 

KGMB 
985 Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hiibn.) - Corby (32) x.92 - D.H. 

Howton per DVM 
987 Ptycholomoides aeriferanus (H.-S.) - Eccleshall Wood, Sheffield (63) 

3.vii.93-HEB 

990 Aphelia unitana (Hiibn.) - Douglas River (H4) several v.vi.93; Tory 
Hill (H8)25.vi.93- KGMB 

991 Clepsis senecionana (Hiibn.) - Larkfield (H29) 20.V.93 - KGMB 
994 C. consimilana (Hiibn.) - Frampton (53) one 22.vi.93 - PHS & JRL; 

Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J RMP, MRY & JRL 
998 Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.) - Famborough (12) several v.-x.93 - 
R.W.. Parfitt per JRL; Cottingham (61) 24.X.93 & two, 7.xi.93 - 
PAC; Haxby, York (62) ix.-x.93 - T.J. Crawford det HEB; notes on 
its history in Cornwall (1 & 2) - A. Spalding, Ent. Rec. 106: 29 

1001 Lozotaeniodes formosanus (Geyer) - Castor Hanglands (32) 1991 - 
MSP per DVM; West Melton, Rotherham (63) 8.vii.93 - HEB 

1002 Lozotaenia forsterana (Fabr.) - Edzell (90) one 3.vii.93 - KPB, RPK- 
J, RMP, MRY & JRL 

1011 Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (Fabr.) - Edzell, Gannochy Gorge (90) 
one 2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 



MICROLEPIDOPTER A REVIEW - 1 993 217 

1016 Cnephasia longana (Haw.) - Corby (32) vii.89 - D.H. Howton per 

DVM 
1018 C. commimana (H.-S.) - Friday Wood, Colchester (19) 6.vi.93 - BG 
1023 C. genitalana P. & M. - Winchester (11) six specimens between 3 & 

21.viii.93 - DHS, Eut. Gaz. 45: 68 
1030 Eana incanana (Steph.) - Colly weston Great Wood (32) 10.vii.91 - 

DVM 

1034 Spatalistis hifasciana (Hubn.) - Colly weston Great Wood (32) 
3 1 .V. 92 - C. Gardiner per DVM 

1035 Acleris hergmanniana (Linn.) - Frampton (53) a few 22.vi.93 - PHS 
&JRL 

1045 A. notana (Don.) - Easton Homstocks (32) 17.ix.91 - MSP per DVM 
1052 A. umhrana (Hiibn.) - Heybrook Bay (3) larvae on Prunus spinosa, 

moths bred 4.viii, 1 l.ix & 24.ix.93 - RJH, Ent. Gaz. 45: 106 
1067 Celypha cespitana (Hubn.) - Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, 

RMP, MRY & JRL 
1079 Olethreutes hifasciana (Haw.) - Fineshade (32) 14.vii.93 - DVM 
1083 Hedya dimidioalba (Retz.) - Frampton (53) one 22.vi.93 - PHS & 

JRL; Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
1087 Orthotaenia undulana ([D. & S.]) - Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
1089 Apotomis semifasciana (Haw.) - Tory Hill (H8) 6.vii.93 - KGMB 
1092 A. turhidana (Hubn.) - Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - KPB, RPK-J, RMP, 

MRY & JRL 
1097 Endothenia gentianaeana (Hiibn.) - Frampton (53) one 22.vi.93 - 

PHS & JRL 

1 109 Lobesia littoralis (H. & W.) - Corby (32) 14.vi.93 - DVM 

1110 Bactrafwfurana (Haw.) - Ashton Wold (32) 3 1 .vii.92 - BD per DVM 
1113 Eudemis profundana ([D. & S.]) - Bedford Purlieus (32) 1987 - per 

DVM 
1118 Ancylis uncella ([D. & S.]) - Larkfield (H29) 21.V.93 - KGMB 
1132 Epinotia subocellana (Don.) - Rossie Moor (90) one 4. vii. 93 - 

KPB, RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
1136 E. immundana (F. v. R.) - Rossie Moor (90) one 4. vii. 93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY 7 JRL 
1 142 E. tedella (Clerck) - Colsterworth (53) a few larvae on Picea abies 

l.xi.93-AME&JRL 
1146 E. rubiginosana (H.-S.) - Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - RMP & JRL; 

Brampton Wood (31) 8.vi.93 - BD 
1 155 E. brunnichana (Linn.) - Corby (32) viii.86 - D.H. Howton per DVM 
1 157 Crocidosema plebejana Zell. - Freshwater (10) 18.vi.90 - S.A. Knill- 

Jones, Ent. Rec. 106: 77 
1174 Epiblema cynosbatella (Linn.) - Edzell (90) one 2.vii.93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 



218 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

1181 E. grandaevana (L. & Z.) - Spurn (61) 9.vi.93 - B.R. Spence per HEB. 
1 184 E. scutulana ([D. & S.]) - Rossie Moor (90) a few 4. vii. 93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
1 184a E. cirsiana (Zell.) - Little Cawthorpe (54) two 25.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 
1199 Eucosma pupillana (Clerck) - Tophill Low, Watton Carr (61) 

22.vii.93 - PAC; Bucks (24) G.E. Higgs, Ent. Rec. 106: 151 
1205a Spilonota laricana (Hein) - Ballavolley (71) 14.vii.93 - KGMB 
1212 Rhyacionia pinivorana (L. & Z.) - Edzell (90) a few 2.vii.93 - KPB, 

RPK-J, RMP, MRY & JRL 
1215 Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyr.) - Freshwater (10) 29.x. 89 - S.A. 

Knill-Jones, Ent. Rec. 106: 1 14 
1219 Lathronympha sthgana (Fabr.) - Den of Airlie (90) several 3.vii.93 - 

RMP, MRY & JRL; Tory Hill (H8) 25.vi.93 - KGMB 
1221 Strophedra weirana (Dougl.) - Collyweston Great Wood NNR (32) 

21.vi.92 - C. Gardiner per MSP 
1225 Pammene obscurana (Steph.) - Havant Thicket (11) one at m.v. 

30.iv.93 - JRL; Ham Street (15) 24.V.93; Dartford Heath (16) three 

beaten from Betula 6.V.93 - DO'K 
1229 P. albuginana (Guen.) - Friday Wood, Colchester (19) 29.V.93 - BG 
1241 Cydia compositella (Fabr.) - Lough Nagirra (H8) 6.vi.93 - KGMB 

1245 C.janthinana (Dup.) - Ballavolley (71) at m.v. 14.vii.93 - KGMB 

1246 C. tenebrosanu (Dup.) - Bourne (53) larval feeding signs in fruits of 
Rosa l.xi.93 - AME & JRL; Haughend (90) 2.vii.93 - KPB 

1247 C. funebrana (Treits.) - South Cave, Beverly (61) 26.iv.93 - D.B. 
Cutts per HEB 

1248 C. molesta (Busck) - Edinburgh (83) ex French apple purchased 
3.X.92, emerged 7.vi.93 - KPB 

1255 C. succedana ([D. & S.]) - Huntingdon (31) 29.V.93 - BD 

1265 C. cognatana (Barr.) - Glen Quoich (92) a few 1 .vii.93 - RMP, MRY 

& JRL 
1278 Dichrorampha sequana (Hiibn.) - Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe (54) a 

few 24.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 
1281 D. simpliciana (Haw.) - Corby (32) 14.vii.93 - DVM 

PYRALIDAE 

1297 Crambus uliginosellus Zell. - Dalcroy Promontory (88) actively 

flying 16.vii.93 - KPB; Skipworth Common (61) 17.vii.93 - HEB 
1307 Agriphila latistria (Haw.) - Corby (32) 24.viii.89 - D.H. Howton per 

DVM 
1323 Pediasia contaminella (Hiibn.) - Famborough (12) 17.vii.93 - R.W. 

Parfitt per JRL 
1326 Platytes cerussella ([D. & S.]) - Bretton, Peterborough (32) 10.vi.93 

- P. Kirby per MSP 
1328 Schoenobius gigantella ([D. & S.]) - Werrington (32) 30.vi.93 - P. 

Waring per DVM 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA REVIEW - 1 993 219 

1337 Eudonia alpina Curt. - Occurrence at low altitude - S. Clancy, Ent. 

Rec. 106: 6 & D. Howton ihid. 106: 101-102. 
1358 Evergestis pallidata (Hufn.) - Hazelborough Forest (32) 27.vii.90 - 

D.H. Howton per DVM 
1363 Pyrausta ostrinalis (HUbn.) - Tory Hill (H8) 26.vi.93 - KGMB 
1368 Margaritia sticticalis (Linn.) - A possible resident of Suffolk and 

Norfolk - M.R. Hall, Ent. Rec. 106: 31 
1374a Sclerocona acutellus (Evers.) - Virginia Water (17) 13.vi.89, second 

British specimen - P.J. Baker, BJENH 7: 35 
1380 Phlyctaenia perlucidalis (Hiibn.) - Marlow (24) 7.vii.83 - D. Wedd 

per MVA 
1384 P. stachydalis (Germ.) - Colly weston Great Wood (32) - 2.vi.92 - C. 

Gardiner per DVM; Montgomeryshire (46) - JMC-H, Ent. Rec. 105: 

285 
1387 Nascia cilialis (Hubn.) - Petts Wood (16) 24.V.93 - DO'K; Details of 

its life history in Norfolk and Suffolk (25-28) - G.M. Haggett, Ent. 

Rec. 106: 28-29. 
1396 Mecyna flavalis ([D. & S.]) - Winchester (11) 21 & 31.vii & 

10.viii.93-DHS 
1408 Palpita unionalis (Hiibn.) - Dungeness (15) ll.ix.93 - S. Clancy per 

BFS; Littlestone (15) lO.x.93 - K. Redshaw per BFS 
1430 Paralipsa gularis (Zell.) - Boscombe Down (8) 8 & 25.V.93, possibly 

originating from bird food in nearby shed - SMP 
1435 Acrobasis tumidana ([D. & S.]) - Pagham (13) 14.viii.93 - BFS 

1444 Pempelia obductella (Zell.) - Mount Cabum NNR (14) 8.viii.93 - 
MSP 

1445 P.formosa (Haw.) - Fineshade (32) 1 l.vi.93 - DVM 

1451 Pyla fusca (Haw.) - Castor Hanglands (32) 1991 - M. Hillier per 

DVM 
1454a Dioryctria schuetzeella Fuchs - Ambersham Common (13) 16.vii.93 

- BFS; Freshwater (10) 14.vii.85 - S.A. Knill-Jones, Ent. Rec. 106: 
114 

1455 D. mutatella Fuchs - Corby (32) 16.vii.87 - D.H. Howton per DVM 

1456 Epischnia bankesiella Rich. - Lleyn Peninsula (49) 12.vii.93 - APF 
& K.N. Alexander Ent. Rec. 105: 254 

1461 Assara terebrella (Zinck.) - Castor Hanglands (32) 10.ix.93 - C. 

Gardiner per DVM 
1469 Euzophera cinerosella (Zell.) - Addington (17) 10.vi.93 - BFS 
1482 Homoeosoma nimbella (Dup.) - Winterton (27) two at m.v. 27.vii.93 

- MJS; St. Mary's, Isle of Scilly (1) 4.vi.93 - RJH, Ent. Gaz. 
45: 106 

1485 Phycitodes maritima (Tengst.) - Worlick Farm (31) 6.viii.93 - 
D. Evans per BD 



220 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

PTEROPHORIDAE 

1504 Platyptilia pallidactyla (Haw.) - Little Cawthorpe (54) a few 25.vi.93 

-PHS&JRL 
1506 Stenoptilia saxifragae Fletch. - Stockport (58) 20.vii.91 - S. Hind 

per ESB 

1509 S. pterodactyla (Linn.) - North Walney (69) one 26.vi.93 - RWJU & 
JRL 

1510 Pterophorus thdactyla (Linn.) - Tory Hill (H8) 25-26.vi.93 - KGMB 
1523 Oidaematophorus lithodactyla (Treits.) - Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe 

(54) one larva on Pulicaria 24.vi.93 - PHS & JRL 

Corrections to 1992 list 

68, 626 & 628. Substitute: N. Uist (110) for (100) 



A subcortial fungus beetle basking in sunlight 

Mr Allen's comment {Ent. Rec. J. Var. 1995; 107: 201) on the unusual 
appearance of a subcortical beetle in the sweep-net reminded me that I had 
recently seen a most unlikely insect out and about, sunning itself on a tree 
root. On a visit to Beckley Woods, near Peasmarsh, East Sussex on 
27. iv. 1995 I noticed a shiny pea-sized beetle sitting in the sun on a root at 
the foot of a small ash tree. As 1 approached within about ten feet, it dropped 
from its sunny position the few inches onto the leaf mould around the tree. It 
proved to be a specimen of Scaphidium quadrimaculatum Ol. 

This pretty little beetle is moderately common, at least in Sussex, but is 
more usually found under the thick bark of fungoid trees and logs; I have 
never found it "out in the open". 

As with the subcortical beetle which Mr Allen reported - the colydiid 
Synchita humeralis (F.) - there is no doubt that Scaphidium must 
occasionally leave the sanctuary of its normal habitat beneath the bark, to fly 
off and colonise new sites, but occasions are rarely seen or recorded. Some 
dead-wood and fungus-feeding beetles are well known for their flight near 
dusk and are regularly caught by evening sweeping. Among these are 
Pselaphidae, Scydmaenidae and, in particular, the Leiodidae, many of which 
are practically subterranean. 1 have taken the delicately marked anobiid 
Hedobia imperial is (L.) several times by sweeping late in the evening. 
However, on this occasion, the Scaphidium, was "out and about" during late 
morning; although the sun was warm, the brisk wind had a chilling edge to it 
and very few insects were on the wing. 

It may be interesting to remark that whereas previously the Scaphidiidae 
has been regarded as a separate family, it has recently been suggested that 
the group should be accorded only sub-family status within the 
Staphylinidae - a group of diverse habit, including under fungoid bark, 
which nevertheless take to the air at the least invitation from a cool April 
sun.- Richard A. Jones, 13 Bellwood Road, Nunhead, London SE15 3DE. 



OVERWINTERING INSECTS IN CRETE 22 1 

OVERWINTERING ORTHOPTERA AND OTHER INSECTS IN 

CRETE 

John Paul 

Dowiisflint. Hij^li Street. Upper Beedini>. West Sussex BN44 3WN. 

BEING A LARGE ISLAND at the extreme south-eastern corner of Europe, 
with habitat zones ranging from Mediterranean Uttoral to Alpine, Crete may 
be expected to have a diverse Orthoptera fauna (Willemse, 1984, Willemse 
& Kruseman, 1976). Most members of this fauna, especially the montane 
species, are European in origin and pass the winter as eggs to become adult 
in summer. A significant proportion of Cretan Orthoptera in the hotter 
coastal habitats are northern outliners of taxa associated with Africa and the 
Middle East whose strategy is to breed during the wet season or whose life- 
cycle is unrestricted by a need for winter diapause in the egg stage. Around 
the Meditteranean, such species are adult during the winter and early spring 
(Uvarov, 1966). A visit to Crete in April 1994 yielded adults of nine species 
of Orthoptera as follows: 

TETRIGIDAE 

Paratettix meridionalis (Rambur). Lake Kournas, 21.iv., abundant on the 
lake shore; Georgopolis, 25. iv., one pair collected from reedbed. 

PYRGOMORPHIDAE 

Pyrgomovpha conica (Olivier). Phaistos, 23. iv., one female; Agia Triada, 
near Phaistos, 23. iv., one male; Oasis Beach, Chania, 24. iv., one male (not 
collected); Stavros, 26. iv., two males. 

ACRIDIDAE 
TROPIDOPOLINAE 

Tropidopola longicornis (Fieber). Georgopolis, 25. iv., two males, from 
reedbed. These grasshoppers cling to reed stems and shuffle round to the 
opposite side of the stem when approached. When disturbed, they fly in a 
caddis-like fashion to another plant. 

EUPRECOCNEMINAE 

Heteracris littoralis (Rambur). Kommos, 23. iv., two males, two females, 
from among low shrubs in sand dunes. 

CYRTACANTHRIDINAE 

Anacridium aegyptium (Linnaeus). Abundant in rough vegetation. Kalives; 
Lake Kournas; Chania airport; Georgopolis. 

OEDIPODINAE 

Aiolopus strepens (Latreille). Abundant in grassland. Kalives; Lake 

Kournas; Georgopolis. 

Acrotylus insubricus (Scopoli). Golden Bay, Chania, 24.iv., one male. 



222 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

GOMPHOCERINAE 

Ochrilidia tibialis (Fieber). Stavros, 26. iv., one male, one female. 

Chorthippus bornhalmi Harz. Phaistos, 23. iv., one male; Georgopolis, 25. iv., 
one female. Willemse (1984) assigned the Chorthippus species which is 
widespread on Crete to C. brunneus (Thunberg) but later doubted its true 
identity (Wilemse, 1985). A second Chorthippus sp., which is morpho- 
logically quite a distinct form C. brunneus, C. biroi (Kuthy), is known to be 
endemic to montane areas of Crete. Recently the taxonomy of C. brunneus 
and closely related European species has been shown to be far more complex 
than formerly supposed. The sibling species which occur north of the Alps, 
C. biguttulus (Linnaeus) C. brunneus and C. mollis (Charpentier), are 
replaced in southern Europe by morphologically similar species that have 
different songs (Ragge & Reynolds, 1988). The song of the male collected at 
Phaistos was kindly recorded by Mr Nigel Tucker at the BBC Natural 
History Unit, Bristol and the recording analysed by Dr David Ragge. The 
song was indistinguishable from reference recordings of C. bornhalmi, a 
species already known from mainland Greece and the Balkans (Ragge et al., 
1990). It was concluded that the Cretan specimen, which was 
morphologically similar to reference specimens of C. bornhalmi, in the 
collection at BM(NH) should be assigned to this species, thus extending its 
known range to Crete. 

Of the nine species collected as adults, C. bornhalmi is exceptional in 
representing a typically northern palaearctic genus and is presumably much 
more common on Crete during the summer. Heteracris littoralis, 
Tropidopola longicornis and Ochrilidia tibialis are widespread in North 
Africa and the Middle East and reach the fringes of southern Europe. The 
other species listed are widespread around the Mediterranean but all may be 
considered northern outliers of a tropical or subtropical fauna. 

ODONATA 

Only two species were seen: Ceriagrion tenellum Selys and Ischnura 
elegans van der Linden; both at Georgopolis in coastal seepages, 

RHOPALOCERA 

Although not especially sought, the following butterflies were recorded: 
Papilio machon L. - Laki; Phaistos. Iphiclides podalirius (L.) - Laki; 
Vamos. Zerynthia cerisyi cretica (Rebel) - Kalives; Vamos; Lake Koumas; 
Omalos; Laki; Asi Gonia; Spili; Akrotiri (most records were of single 
specimens but there were good colonies on a partly quarried hillside at 
Vamos and on the hills between Laki and Omalos). Artogeia rapae (L.) - 
common and widespread. Euchloe simplonia (Hiibner) - Golden Bay, 
Chania; Georgopolis. Colias croceus (Geoffroy) - widespread. Polyommatus 
icarus (Rott.) - Vamos. Polygonia egea Cramer - Omalos. Vanessa atalanta 
(L.) - widespread. Cynthia cardui (L.) - common and widespread. Pararge 



OVERWINTERING INSECTS IN CRETE 223 

aegeria (L.) - Kalives. Lasiommata megera (L.) - Kalives. This species list 
is similar in its composition to the detailed account of Hardy (1994). 

Crete is a fascinating island for the entomologist with species derived 
from several zoogeographical zones and with endemic elements. Several 
species of Orthoptera reach their northern limits in the reedbeds of the 
Cretan coast. They are vulnerable to the rapidly expanding coastal 
development of the island and should be considered in any conservation 
projects to save such habitats. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank Dr S. Nicholls and Mr N. Tucker of the BBC Natural History Unit, 
Bristol for obtaining a recording of the male Chorthippus bornhalmi and Dr 
D.R. Ragge for his analysis of the recording and subsequent identification of 
C. bornhalmi. 

References 

Hardy, P.B., 1994. Butterflies in Crete, April 1994. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 106: 203- 

211. 
Ragge, D.R. & Reynolds, W.J., 1988. The songs and taxonomy of the grasshoppers of 

the Chorthippus biguttulus group in the Iberian Peninsula (Orthoptera: Acrididae). /. 

nat. Hist. 11: 897-929. 
Ragge, D.R. & Reynolds, W.J. & Willemse, F., 1990. The songs of the European 

grasshoppers of the Chorthippus biguttulus group in relation to their taxonomy, 

speciation and biogeography (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Bol. San. Veg. Plagas (Fuera de 

serie) 20: 239-245. 
Uvarov, B., 1966. Hibernation of active stages of Acridoidea in temperate climates. Atti 

della Accademia Gioena di Scienze Naturali in Catania. 18: 175-189. 
Willemse, F., 1984. Catalogue of the Orthoptera of Greece. Fauna Graeciae. I: i-xii, 1- 

275. Hellenic Zoological Society, Athens. 
- , 1985. Supplementary notes on the Orthoptera of Greece. Fauna Graeciae. la: 1-47. 

Hellenic Zoological Society, Athens. 
Willemse, F. & Kruseman, G., 1976. Orthopteroides of Crete. Tijdschrift voor 

Entomologie. 119: 123-164, pi. 1-10. 



"Mothathons" in Cornwall 

As moth recorder for the Caradon Field and Natural History Club (formed 
1984), I organised "mothathons" in 1987 and 1988 in south-east Cornwall. 
These were attempts to record as many moths and butterflies in a 24-hour 
period from midnight to midnight, in as many different habitats as were 
reasonably practical in this area. There was some discussion over the ground 
rules, so that the attempt one year could be replicated the next, introducing 
an air of competition. One of our number did not approve of the competitive 
angle and so only took part in one of the sessions. 



224 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

It would have been possible to maximise the catch by using a large 
number of lamps and setting out several Heath traps which we could inspect 
in the morning. However, we decided to limit moth trapping to the results of 
a single lamp set up over a white sheet. For a species count, all the 
participants had to see it; this was especially important during the day for 
moths and butterflies flying some distance away. 

Moth trapping started at midnight. There was a strong temptation to cheat 
by running the light before midnight, switching off the lamp as midnight 
approached and then starting again by counting all those moths still on the 
sheet at 12 o'clock. Reluctantly, we decided against this. In 1987, we started 
on 11th July on Portwrinkle Beach. With 34 species recorded after ten 
minutes, we sped off to Lydcott Wood in the Seaton Valley. Counting only 
new species, our count was up to 55 by 1.45am, including Prays fraxinella 
(the Ash Bud Moth). Despite cold weather, we moved to the Looe Valley, 
recording another 15 species, then on to Bodmin Moor which unfortunately 
was shrouded in thick mist. The only moth that came to light there was the 
Bright-line Brown-eye {Lacanobia oleracea). By this time only five of us 
(the maddest ones) were left. On to a nearby wood where we added six new 
species, including a Peppered Moth {Bistort betularia) flying after the dawn 
chorus at 5.15am. 

At 5.30 we took a break for sleep, meeting at 10.30 looking for Chimney 
Sweeper (Odezia atrata) and other day-flying species on St. Cleer Down. 
Then onto Bodmin Moor for just two species including the Silver Hook 
{Eustrotia uncula), followed by a trip to the iron-age hillfort at Cadsonbury 
where we recorded Four-dotted Footman {Cybosia mesomella), disturbed 
from the heather, then to Luckett Nature Reserve for the Heath Fritillary 
{Mellicta athalia). A break for tea followed, and we started again at 9.30pm, 
looking for dusking Geometers and running a lamp until 11.30 before 
dashing to the final pre-arranged site for the last 20 minutes lamping and 
three new species. For all this hard work our total was only 1 15 moths and 
15 butterflies. 

The next year we ran the mothathon on 14th May, trying for different 
species. Due mainly to the unseasonably cold weather, we recorded only 84 
species. The highlight was probably the reaction of campers to our small 
party (five strong) when we set up the lamp at 2.30am just by their tent in a 
small clearing. Not only did we wake them up, but the police (attracted by 
our light) turned up and moved them on. 

We have made no more attempts to improve our record. A team working 
the whole of Cornwall including dune habitats, cliffs, reed-beds and woods 
should be able to beat these totals easily, as could someone working in 
habitats with greater biodiversity, eg the New Forest. In fact, the total of 130 
only just beats my species total for a single night's trapping in ComwalL- 
Adrian Spalding, Tremayne Farm Cottage, Praze-an-Beeble, Camborne, 
Cornwall TR14 9PH. 



PITFALL TRAP 225 



A PITFALL TRAP FOR REPETITIVE SAMPLING OF HYPOGEAN 

ARTHROPOD FAUNAS 

J. A. Owen 

S Kin^sclown Road. Epsom. Surrey KTI7 3PU. 

PITFALL TRAPS set at ground level are widely used in sampling surface 
arthropod faunas. Some arthropods, however, including several British 
beetles spend some of their lives beneath the surface of the soil. Some of 
these can be found in decaying vegetable material in the soil such as old seed 
potatoes, as was pointed out sometime ago by Wood (1886). Not all of them, 
however, can be found in this material and, anyway, their presence in such 
situations is not readily amenable to quantitative studies. 

Recently, Thompson (1995) has described the capture in the London area 
of two specimens of the hypogean weevil Raymondionymus marqueti (Aube) 
using a pitfall technique described by Kuschel (1991). This involved leaving 
an opened jar below ground for up to ten months. The method, however, 
requires a somewhat complicated procedure every time the trap is emptied 
and is not really suitable for repeated sampling. This note describes a type of 
pitfall trap designed to provide repetitive sampling of soil arthropods to a 
depth of at least 0.5 metres. If desired, the contents of the trap can be 
examined on a daily basis. 

Construction of the trap 

In brief, the trap is a hollow cylinder with mesh walls, set vertically into the 
soil. At the bottom of the cylinder is an open-topped, removable container 
(see photograph) which traps beetles and other arthropods which have made 
their way from the surrounding soil through the mesh walls and fallen down. 
The mesh allows them to gain access to the trap while preventing soil 
surrounding the trap from falling into the container. 
The major items used in making the trap are: 

LA short piece of rigid plastic pipe, diameter 7- 10cm, as used for domestic 
rain-water down pipes, obtainable from builders' suppliers and DIY stores. 

2. A piece of strong plastic netting. The material used by the author was 
monofilament nylon net (cloth no. N2000\53) obtained (some time ago) 
from Begg, Cousland & Co. Ltd, 636 Springfield Road, Glasgow G40 
3HS. This netting is woven from nylon thread diameter 0.75mm and has a 
mesh count of 3.6 per cm, giving an open area 53%. 

3. A screw-cap, polythene bottle, with a capacity of 200-300 ml and with a 
diameter just less than the internal diameter of the rigid pipe, obtainable 
from camping or domestic hardware stores. 

The cylindrical part of the trap is in two sections joined together - a long 
upper section made from the plastic netting and a short lower section 
comprising a piece of the rigid pipe cut to be 3 -4cm longer than the height of 



226 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

the bottle. The plastic netting is cut into a rectangular strip of length equal to 
the depth to which sampling is required and of width about 20% more than 
the circumference of the rigid pipe. The netting is rolled into a cylinder 
somewhat wider than the diameter of the bottle and wound round with two 
or three bands of self-adhesive PVC tape to maintain the cylindrical shape. 
The lower 2cm of the netting is fitted over the upper end of the rigid pipe 
(see photograph). The junction is sealed by a band of "Blue-tack" adhesive 
wound round the rim of the pipe before the netting is slipped over its end and 
the junction securely bound with self-adhesive tape. 

The polythene bottle forms the container in which beetles and other 
arthropods are trapped. Openings are made in the shoulder of the bottle by 
making three vertical cuts with a hacksaw or sharp knife just clearing the 
neck of the bottle (see photograph) and three horizontal cuts just below the 
shoulder of the bottle. Care must be taken in making these cuts to leave three 
bands of polythene at least 1cm wide between the neck of the bottle and its 
walls so as not to weaken it unduly. In operation, the bottle must fit into the 
pipe in such a way that small creatures falling on to it cannot escape 
downwards between the outside of the bottle and the internal wall of the 
pipe. To achieve this, PVC tape is wound round the bottle in a band 
immediately below its shoulder until the bottle just slides into the pipe. 

In the operation of the trap, the bottle is lowered into the device, or 
withdrawn from it, by means of a loading rod. This consists of a piece of 
wooden dowelling, 2-3cm in diameter, to one end of which the cap of the 
bottle is attached by a screw passing through a hole bored in the centre of the 
cap. The cap is attached with its outside next to the rod so that the bottle can 
temporarily be attached to the loading rod by applying the cap to the bottle 
and turning the rod clockwise. Before the trap is set into the soil, the bottle 
attached to the rod is inserted into the trap and a mark made on the rod 
corresponding to top of the mesh cylinder. This serves to indicate how far 
the bottle must be inserted when the trap is in operation in the ground. 

Operation of the trap 

To set up the trap, a vertical hole, wide enough to take the trap, is dug with a 
hand trowel in the selected spot. When the chosen depth has been reached 
(the upper edge of the netting should be just below the level of the 
surrounding soil), the cylinder is inserted into the hole and the soil packed 
tightly round the outside of the rigid pipe with a piece of wood such as the 
free end of the loading rod. The space between the outside of the netting 
cylinder and the sides of the hole is then carefully filled up with some of the 
soil removed in making the hole, packing the soil as far as possible to its 
normal consistency. The bottle with preservative is then attached to the 
loading rod and lowered into the device. When it is in position within the 
rigid tube, the loading rod is turned anti-clockwise until the cap is free and 
the loading rod withdrawn. A jam-jar lid is then placed over the top of the 
netting cylinder and a paving stone slab placed over the whole for protection. 



PITFALL TRAP 



227 




The photograph shows the region of the trap at the junction of the netting and the rigid 
pipe. A piece of the netting has been cut away to show how the collecting bottle sits 
neatly in the rigid pipe at the bottom of the trap. 



228 ENTOMOLOGISTS RECORD. VOL. 1 07 L'^ . i x . 1 995 

To examine the contents of the trap, the loading rod is inserted after the 
cover has been removed. The rod is twisted clockwise to attach the cap to the 
bottle and the latter then withdrawn. Small amounts of soil falling down 
during removal or replacement of the bottle are accommodated at the bottom 
of the rigid pipe which is a few centimetres longer than the height of the 
bottle. 

If the trap is to remain in place for more than a few days, the bottle must 
contain some preservative. Thompson (1995) used a mixture of sherry and 
vinegar which probably acted as an attractant as well as a preservative. 
Clearly there are many other possibilities to be investigated. 



Results and discussion 

Capture of the following beetles trapped over a few weeks by two prototype 
traps set in the author's garden and loaded with a sherry-vinegar mixture 
illustrates the sampling potential of the device: 

Kissister minimus (Aube) - 1 ex. 
Ptenidium laevigatum Erichson - 7 exx. 
Parabathyscia wollastoni (Janson, E.W.) - 1 ex. 
Langelandia anophthalma (Aube) - 10 exx. 
Raymondionymus marqiieti (Aube) - 3 exx. 

The ability of the trap to capture small creatures is shown by the presence 
in the catch of P. laevigatum, a minute beede about 0.4mm high by about 
0.5mm wide. 

It will be obvious that the trap as described will be open to soil inhabitants 
living at all levels from the soil surface down to the lower edge of the 
netting. If it is desired to exclude creatures living above a certain level, the 
device can easily be modified by winding a spiral of PVC insulating tape 
around the netting from the top down to the critical level. 



Acknowledgement 

I thank Mr Richard Thompson for confirming my provisional diagnosis of R. 
marqueti, for telling me about his own searches for this beetle and for 
helpful discussion on the significance of this species in the London area. 



References 

Kuschel, G., 199L A pitfall trap for hypogean fauna. Curculio 31: 5. 

Thompson, R.T., 1995. Raymondionymidae (Col.: Curculionoidea) confirmed as British. 

Entomologist's man. Mag. 131: 61-64. 
Wood, T., 1886. Langelandia anopiithalma, Aube, at St. Peter's , Kent; a species of 

Coleoptera new to Britain. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 23: 93. 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN (229) 



THE LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN, DEVON 

R.F. McCORMICK 

36 Paradise Road. Tei^nnwuth. Devon TQM HNR. 

Introduction 

DAWLISH WARREN, in the county of Devon, is an unusual double sand 
spit, about 1.5 miles long forming part of the estuary of the river Exe. It is 
the largest sand dune system in Devon. The spit and surrounding area are of 
great importance to wildlife both vertebrate and invertebrate being an 
internationally important site for wading birds and wildfowl. The site 
contains a Local Nature Reserve and most of Dawlish Warren and the 
intertidal surrounds are designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest 
(SSSI), forming part of the Exe Estuary's Special Protection Area and 
RAMSAR wetland of international importance. 

A sketch map of the area is shown in figure 1 . 

The habitat is varied and includes sandy beach, mobile dune, fixed dune 
with grass and heathland, scrub, damp meadow, reedbed, freshwater ponds, 
saltmarsh, mudflat, stony and waste ground. 

According to a recent survey (de Lemos, 1992) there are 350 species of 
flowering plant, of which three are rare, 29 scarce and 87 notable in Devon. 
250 species of fungi have been found of which ten are rare or restricted, two 
were new to Britain, and five new to science! Thirty-six species of mosses 
and liverworts have been recorded. 

There are good stands of sallow and alder with birch and a few isolated 
oaks - including pedunculate, turkey and holm oaks. Isolated specimens of 
ash and sycamore can be found, but elm and beech are absent. A few 
conifers are present. 

There is a good growth of the Ericacea on the golf course with some small 
encroachment onto the main dune. 

The survey 

Despite its importance and attractiveness as an entomological habitat there 
has been no systematic attempt to record the lepidopterous fauna of the 
Warren. Isolated records can be found in the literature. The Dawlish Warren 
Nature Reserve maintains a card index of reported species, which includes 
moths. 

Status of records 

When regular light trapping commenced at the Warren, it was hoped to 
amalgamate all records to form a definitive list. Scrutiny of the historic 
records revealed the presence of a considerable number of highly improbable 
species, and it was felt that these could not be uncritically incorporated into a 
list. It was therefore decided to split the list into three sections: 



2 (230) 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.ix.l995 



• species recorded and personally confirmed by the author; 

• species which have been recorded and are likely to occur, but which 
have not been personally confirmed by the author; 

• species for which records exist, but whose occurrence is highly 
improbable. 



CocKwood 



EXEMOUTH 




Mudflats 




^?kim 


Saltmarsh 


\-^^^=^^^ 


Fixed Dune 


r r-l 


Mobile Dune 


!«« "* iii] 


Sandy Shore 


|,-,.-.i 


Railway 







Scale = half a mile 



Figure 1 . The Dawlish Warren Nature Reserve, Devon. SX 9879 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN (23 1 ) 3 

For each species listed a brief note of its distribution and abundance 
within the British Isles is given. There is insufficient data to comment of the 
abundance of most species with the Warren itself. Larval foodplants are 
included for interest. These are taken from the national literature and do not 
necessarily reflect the natural foodplant within the Warren. 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks to Keri Walsh, warden of the Dawlish Warren Nature Reserve for 
her help and support, my wife Mavis for her help, and Bernard Skinner and 
Paul Sokoloff for their general help and advice. 

References 
Barrett, C.G., 1906. Lepidoptera. Victoria County History 1: 208-230 
Emmet, A.M. & Heath, J., 1991. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland 

vol. 7 part 2. Harley Books, Colchester. 
Goater, B., 1986. British Pyralid moths - a guide to their identification. Colchester. 
Howarth, T.G., 1973. Colour identification guide to British butterflies. Wame, London. 
Lemos, M. de, 1992. The flora of Dawlish Warren local nature reserve. Teignmouth 

District Council & Devon Wildlife Trust. 
Normand, A., 1992. Selected macrolepidoptera, Dawlish Warren LNR. 
Parfitt, E., 1878. The fauna of Devon: Lepidoptera. Rep. Trans. Devon, ass. Advmt. Sci. 

10:411-588. 
Skinner, B., 1984. Colour identification guide to moths of the British Isles. Viking, 

Middlesex. 
Stidson, S.T., 1952. A list of the Lepidoptera of Devon, introduction and part I, 74pp. 

Torquay. 
- , 1954-1962. Various insect records and additions and corrections to the list (Stidson, 

1952) were published in the Reports and Transactions of the Devon Association for 

the Advancement of Science. 



Part 1 

Records from Dawlish Warren based upon confirmed 
sightings in the period from 1982-1995. 

HEPIALIDAE 

0017 Hepialus lupulinus Linn. Common swift 

Common resident; larva feeds on roots of grasses and other plants. 

COSSIDAE 

0161 Zeuzera pyrina Linn. Leopard 

A widespread species in England as far north as Yorkshire; two 
records for the Warren. The larva feeds internally over a number of 
years in a range of trees such as Apple and Pear. 



4(232) ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

ZYGAENIDAE 

0169 Zygaena filipendulae ssp. anglicola Trem. Six Spot Burnet 
Common resident; larva feeds on Birds-foot Trefoil. 

0170 Z. thfolii ssp. decreta Verity. Five spot burnet. 

A widespread and often common species in south-west England; larva 
feed on Lotus uliginosus. 

SESIIDAE 

0371 Sesia hemhiciformis Hb. Lunar Hornet Clearwing 

Widespread but locally common throughout the British Isles; larva 
feeds internally in Sallow; old exit holes were found by Dr B. 
Henwood in 1992. 

PYRALIDAE 

1293 Chrysoteuchia cidmella Linn. 

Common resident, larva feeds on culms of various grasses forming 
silken galleries. 

1 294 Cvamhus pascuella Linn. 

A common resident throughout the country; the early stages are 
apparently undescribed. 
1 302 C. perlella Scop. 

Common resident and migrant; larva feeds on bases of stems of 
grasses from a silken tube. 

1304 Agriphila straminella D. & S. 

Common resident; larva feeds on grasses especially Sheep's Fescue. 

1305 A.tristellaD.&S. 

Common resident especially where tall grasses abound; larva feeds on 
bases of grass stems. 

1306 A. inquinatella D. & S. 

Common resident; larva feeds on roots and bases of smaller grasses, 
especially Sheep's Fescue. 

1307 A. latistria Haw. 

Local but fairly common where it occurs; small numbers seen on the 
Warren; larva feeds on roots of grasses especially Bromus ssp. 

1309 A. geniculea Haw. 

Common resident; larva feeds on grasses. 

1313 Catoptria pinella Linn. 

Widespread but local resident; larva feeds in dense tufts of Cotton 
Grass, Tufted-hair Grass and other grasses. 

1323 Pediasia contaminellaWh. 

Recorded from Devon {Ent. Rec. 106: 14) and formerly by T. Dobson 
25.7.1990 and 17.7.1991. Local on dry grassland; larva feeds on 
Sheep's-fescue Grass and other grasses. Noted in some numbers and 
probably breeding on the Warren. 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN (233) 5 

1329 Schoenohius forficella Thunb. 

Locally fairly common resident; larva feeds on Common Reed, 

Sweet-grass and sedges. 
1332 Scoparia suhfusca Haw. 

Common throughout the British Isles; larva feeds on roots of Ox- 
tongue and Colts-foot. 
1 336 Eudonia pallida Curt. 

Widespread resident, sometimes common as on the Warren; larva 

unknown; supposed to feed on mosses and lichens. 
1338 Diplewina lacustrata PanzQT 

Common resident; larva feeds on mosses attached to stone walls and 

tree trunks. 
1 344 E. mercurella Linn. 

Common resident; larva feeds on mosses in most situations. 
1 350 Parapoynx stagnata Don. Beautiful China-mark 

Common near water; larva, aquatic, feeds on Reeds, Water Lilies and 

other plants. 
1356 Evergestis forficalis Linn. Garden Pebble 

Common resident; larva feeds on Cruciferae and can be a pest. 

1375 Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. European Corn-boxer 

Formerly a very rare immigrant but now firmly established but mainly 
in the south-east; the species is to be found in Hampshire and now 
Devon. 

1376 Eurrhypara hortulata Linn, small Magpie 

Common resident; larva feeds on Common Nettle and other plants. 
1378 E. coronata Hufn. 

Common resident; larva feeds on Elder. 
1385 Ebulea crocealisWh. 

Widespread and locally common; larva feeds on Fleabane in marshy 

areas. 
1 390 Udea prunalis D. & S . 

Common resident; larva feeds on a variety of foodplants including 

bramble. Elder, Nettle, Dogs Mercury, Deadnettle and several others. 
1395 U.ferrugalis Hb. 

A migrant species which probably breeds during the warmer months; 

larva feeds on a wide variety of low growing plants. 

1 397 Mecyna asinalis Hb. 

Resident, mainly associated with the west of the British Isles; larva 
feeds on Wild Madder. 

1398 Nomophila noctuella D. & S. Rush Veneer 

A migrant species which probably breeds during the warmer months; 
larva feeds on Clover and Knotgrass. 
1405 Pleuroptya ruralis Scop. Mother of Pearl 

Common resident; larva feeds on Common Nettle. 



6(234) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

1413 Hypsopygia cos talis Fabr. Gold Triangle 

Locally common resident; larva feeds on stored clover and hay, and in 
Squirrels dreys and probably thatch. 

1414 Synapke punctalis Fabr. 

Common resident; larva feeds on terrestrial mosses. 
1424 Endoj'icha flammealis D. & S. 

Common resident; larva feeds on Greater Birds-foot Trefoil and 

several species of deciduous trees and shrubs. 
1428 Aphomia sociella Linn. Bee Moth 

Common resident; larva feeds on cells of wasps and bees (usually 

Bombus sp.) nests and occasionally on detritus. 
1432 Anerastia lotella Hb. 

A.H. Dobson, 26.6.1961. Devon Association Ent. Section 14th report; 

larva feeds amongst rootstock of grasses such as Sheep's Fescue and 

Marram. Recorded recently in July 1994 and on 24.6.1995. 
1469 Numonia advenella Zinck. 

Locally common but few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 

Hawthorn and Rowan. 
1443 Pempelia genistella Dup. 

Very local on south coast localities and probably breeding on the 

Warren; larva feeds on Gorse. 
1452 Phycita roborella D. & S. 

Locally common in Oakwoods but often found in other habitat; larva 

feeds on Oak, Pear and Crab Apple. 
1458 Myelois cribella Hb. Thistle Ermine 

Locally common resident; larva feeds on thistle. 
1484 Phycitodes saxicola Vaugh. 

Widespread on the coast; several seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 

flowers of Compositae. 

PTEROPHORIDAE 

1495 Marasmarcha lunaedactyla Haw. 

Common resident; larva feeds on Rest-harrow. 
1524 Emmelina monodactyla Linn. 

Common resident; larva feeds on Lesser Bindweed. 

HESPERIIDAE 

1526 Thymelicus sylvestris Poda. Small Skipper 

Common resident; larva feeds on grasses. 
1531 Ochlodes venata Brem, & Grey, Large Skipper 

Common resident, larva feeds on grasses. 

PIERIDAE 

1545 Colias croceus Geoffr. Clouded Yellow 

A migrant species seen in most years in southern England and 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLLSH WARREN (235) 7 

beyond, breeding when conditions permit; larva feeds on Clovers and 
Trefoils but cannot survive the winter. 
1546 Gonepteryx rhamni Linn. The Brimstone 

Identified by Mr & Mrs Normand in August 1986; larva feeds on 
Buckthorn and Alder Buckthorn and is usually a common species 
where its foodplant occurs. 

1549 Pieris brassicae Linn. Large White 

Common resident and migrant; larva feeds on Brassicae ssp. 

1550 P. rapae Linn. Small White 

Common resident; larva feeds on Brassicae ssp. and Nasturtium. 

155 1 P. napi Linn. Green-veined White 

Common resident; larva feeds on Cruciferae ssp. and other plants. 
1553 Anthocharis cardamines Linn. Orange Tip 

Common resident; larva feeds on Hedge Mustard and Cruciferae ssp. 

LYCAENIDAE 

1555 Callophrys rubi Linn. Green Hairstreak 

Recorded in Devon Butterflies and seen by Mr Normand in 1 990; in 

the main the butterfly is generally distributed; larva feeds on a wide 

variety of plants including Gorse, Broom and Birds-foot Trefoil. 
1561 Lycaena phlaeas Linn. Small Copper 

Common resident; larva feeds on Docks and Sorrels. 
1571 Plebejus argus ssp. argus Linn. Silver-studded Blue 

Specimen captured by W.A. Eley on 29.8.81 and now in the 

collection of Clifton Park Museum, Rotherham; larva feeds on 

Sheep's-fescue Grass. 
1574 Polyommatus icarus ssp. icarus Rott. Common Blue 

Common resident;larva feeds on Birds-foot Trefoil. 
1580 Celastrina argiolus Linn. Holly Blue 

A widespread species that has been found in many areas in Devon; 

recorded by Mr Normand in 1992; larva feeds on Holly and Ivy. 

NYMPHALIDAE 

1590 Vanessa atalanta Linn. Red Admiral 

An annual and usually common migrant that breeds here in the spring 
and summer months; it probably overwinters as an adult. Larva feeds 
on Nettle and Pelitory. 

1591 Cynthia cardui Linn. Painted Lady 

A common migrant species which breeds when conditions permit; 
larva feeds on Thistles and other plants. Imago is not known to 
hibernate here. 
1593 Aglais urticae Linn. Small Tortoiseshell 

Common resident; larva feeds on Common Nettle. 

1596 Nymphalis antiopa Linn. Camberwell Beauty 

An uncommon migrant species; recorded by Mr Normand on 26.7.82. 

1597 /«ar/z/5 /6> Linn. The Peacock 
Common resident; larva feeds on Nettle. 



8(236) ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

1598 Polygonia c-album Linn. The Comma 

Widespread and relatively common throughout Devon and other 
counties; larva feeds on Nettle, Hop and Elm. 

SATYRIDAE 

1614 Pararge aegaha Linn. Speckled Wood 
Common resident; larva feeds on grasses. 

1615 Lasiommata megera Linn. Wall Brown 

Uncommon resident; with a few recorded on the Warren; larva feeds 
on grasses. 
1620 Melanargia galathea Linn. Marbled White 

Recorded in Devon Butterflies and seen by Mr Normand in 1992, on 
the grassy area near the bird hide; larva feeds on grasses. 

1625 Pyrona tithonus Linn. The Gatekeeper 
Common resident; larva feeds on grasses. 

1626 Maniola jurtina ssp. insularis Thompson. Meadow Brown 
Common resident; larva feeds on grasses. 

1634 Malacosoma neustria Linn. Lackey 

Common resident; larva feeds on a wide variety of trees and shrubs. 

LASIOCAMPIDAE 

1637 Lasiocampa quercus ssp. quercus Linn. Oak Eggar 

Locally widespread resident; larva feeds on a wide variety of trees 
and shrubs including Bramble and Sallow. 

1640 P hi ludoria potatoria Linn. Drinker 

Common resident; larva feeds on various grasses and reeds. 

DREPANIDAE 

1645 Falcaria lacertinaria Linn. Scalloped Hook Tip 

Widely distributed and moderately common over much of the British 
Isles; larva feeds on Birch. 

1646 Drepana binaria Hufn. Oak Hook Tip 
Common resident; larva feeds on oak. 

1648 D.falcataria Linn. Pebble Hook Tip 

Common resident; larva feeds on Birch and occasionally Alder. 

THYATIRIDAE 

1652 Thyatira batis Linn. Peach Blossom 
Common resident; larva feeds on Bramble. 

1653 Habrosyne pyritoides Hufn. Buff Arches 
Common resident; larva feeds on Bramble. 

1654 Tethea ocularis ssp. octogesimea Hb. Figure Of Eighty 
Widespread in southern England and several seen on the Warren; 
larva feeds on Poplar and Aspen. 

1657 Ochropacha duplaris Linn. Common Lutestring 

Widely distributed with a few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
Birch, Oak and Alder. 



HERMEUPTYCHIA CUCULLINA IN BRAZIL 237 

A RECORD OF HERMEUPTYCHIA CUCULLINA (WEYMER) FROM 

BRAZIL INCLUDING SOME REMARKS ON OTHER 

HERMEUPTYCHIAN TAXA (LEP.: SATYRIDAE) 

Ralf H. Anken 

Zooloi^ival Institute. University ofHohenheim, Garhenstr. 30, 70593 Stuttgart. Germany 

THE NEOTROPICAL BUTTERFLY genus Hermeuptychia (Satyridae: 
Euptychiini Miller) was erected by Forster (1964) in the course of a 
remarkable - and up to now sole - attempt to bring about some order into the 
confusingly vast genus Euptychia Hiibner that so far comprised over 200 
described species. The type of//, cucullina (Weymer) (191 1: plate 48C, Fig. 
2) was described from specimens taken in Columbia, and other samples have 
so far only been known from the Bolivian Yungas (Forster 1964: plate 30, 
Figs. 8, 9). 

On the 26.x. 1993, the author of the present note encountered H. cucullina 
in the rain forest by Foz do Iguacu, state of Parana, Brazil. This site lies in 
the close vicinity of the Iguacu Falls that represent the Brazilian border with 
Paraguay and Argentina. It may be assumed that the species does not care 
about political frontiers, so that Paraguay and Argentina may formally be 
regarded to be inhabited by the species. The true ecological distribution 
range of //. cucullina cannot yet be even estimated, since it can be easily 
mistaken for other hermeuptychian species: D'Abrera (1988: p. 777), e.g. 
mistakenly figures //. gisella (Hay ward) (1957: Fig. 2) as "//. cucullina' . In 
the same work, true //. cucullina is figured as "//. hermes hermesina" 
Staudinger i. I. (D'Abrera 1988: p. 777). D'Abrera argues that "//. h. 
hermesina'' might only be a seasonal form of "//. cucullina". Indeed, true H. 
h. hermesina resembles //. gisella to some extent' and therewith D'Abrera's 
"//. cucullina". H. cucullina, however, does not exhibit seasonal forms 
(Forster 1964). If D'Abrera had known H. gisella, the mentioned confusion 
probably would have never arisen. True //. h. hermesina from the Bolivian 
Yungas is given with the central figure of//, hermes in D'Abrera's work. The 
right hand H. hermes individual on the same plate resembles a form having 
been recorded from the Bolivian lowlands by Forster (1964: p. 90), that had 
in the meantime been described and figured from Brazilian Mato Grosso do 
Sul (//. hermes Isabella Anken 1994: Fig. 3). This example clearly 
demonstrates, how easily the hermeuptychian taxa mentioned can be 
mistaken for others. 

Since - as a matter of fact - only the correct identification of a given 
butterfly may shed some light on its ecology and distribution, //. cucullina is 
once more figured in the given paper in order to help avoiding further 
inconsistencies and misinterpretations. Additionally, an identification key of 
the mentioned hermeuptychian taxa including similar //. fallax (Felder) 
(1862: plate 30, Fig. 7, 10), //. helena Anken (1994: Fig. 1) and H. fallax 
marinha Anken (1994: Fig. 5), based on wing markings, is tentatively 
provided. It is strongly recommended, that the key mentioned may only be 



238 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

used as a rough guide. A secure identification is only possible by combining 

features of outer appearance and such of the male genital apparatus 

(therefore comp. Forster 1964 and Anken 1994). 

Key to extremely similar specific and subspecific taxa of the genus 

Hermeuptychia as mentioned in the text: 

Note: The given characters of presumably diagnostic importance only 
cover outer appearance. While evaluating the key, the reader should bear 
in mind that worn specimens tend to fade and therefore may not be readily 
identified without examination of the male genital apparatus. 



Key to similar species: 

1: 4 to 5 distinct ocelli on the forewing verso and 6 
ocelli on the hindwing verso clearly exhibited ("4-5 
and 6" - pattern), two of them (on veins 6 and 2 on 
the hindwing verso) considerably pronounced in 

comparison to the others 2 

1': less ocelli 3 

2: verso discal and postdiscal brown bands more or less 

straight: H. gisella 

2': verso bands considerably crooked: H. hermes 

3: verso discal and postdiscal brown bands straight: H. Helena 

3': bands crooked 4 

4: postdiscal band extremely wavy and pattern of ocelli 

alike 0-1/3-4: H.fallax 

4': postdiscal band more straight; pattern alike 0/3: H. cucullina 



Key to similar subspecies: 

H. hermes: 

1: All ocelh of approximately the same size: H. h. Isabella 

1': the ocellus on vein 7 on the forewing verso and 

the ocelli on veins 6, 2 and Ic on the hindwing verso 

somewhat pronounced 2 

2: verso surface light brown, ocelli on veins 5 and 4 on 

the forewing verso reduced: H. h. hermesina 

2': All ocelli clear, exhibiting a dark centre including 

a light nucleolus; overall verso surface dark brown: H. h. hermes 

H. fallax: 

1: Discal and postdiscal bands on the verso surface 

bowing towards mediad: H.f. fallax 

V\ bands straight: H.f. marinha 



HERMEUPTYCHIA CUCULLINA IN BRAZIL 



239 




Fig. 1: A female specimen of Hermeiiptychia ciiculUna (Weymer) from Foz do Iguacu, 
Parana, Brazil (26.x. 1993), Upperside. 
Fie. 2: As Fie. 1, Underside. 



240 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 07 L5 . i x . 1 995 

Acknowledgements 

I should like to dedicate the content of the given note to Bernard D'Abrera 
and his masterpiece on Neotropical butterflies. My criticism on his work 
ought to be seen simply as a partial achievement of D'Abreras intention, 
which is to provide a foundation for others. 

References 

Anken, R., 1994. Neue Taxa des Genus Hermeuptychia Forster aus Brasilien 

(Lepidoptera: Satyridae). Entomol. Z. 104: 283-29 L 
D'Abrera, B., 1988: Butterflies of the Neotropical Region. Part V: Nymphalidae (cont.) 

& Satyridae. Victoria, Australia (Hill House Publishers). 
Felder, C. v., 1862. Specimen fauna lepidopterologicae riparium fiuminis Negro 

superioris in Brasilia Septentrionali. Wien. ent. Monats. 6: 175-192. 
Forster, W., 1964. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna Boliviens XIX. Lepidoptera 

III. Satyridae. Verojf. Zool. Staatssammlg. Mtinchen 8: 5 1-188. 
Hayward, K., 1957. Nuevas Euptychia de Bolivia. Revta. Chil. Ent. 5: 107-121. 
Weymer, G., 191 1. In Seitz, GroBschnnetterlinge der Erde 5: 173-277. 



Cydia lunulana (D.&S.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) new to Shropshire (VC40) 

On the afternoon of 24th May 1994 during the Dipterists' Summer Meeting, 
a small group visited Frees Heath Site of Special Scientific Interest, 
Shropshire (SJ5536). The weather was cool and overcast and there were few 
Diptera to be found so my attention was drawn to a small moth disturbed 
from some bushes; this was later identified as Cydia lunulana (D.&S.). Riley 
(1991) does not list this species for Shropshire and no records are given in 
Riley & Palmer (1994). The distribution of C. lunulana is given in Bradley 
et al (1979) as Herefordshire, Yorkshire, Cumberland, Durham and 
Northumberland northwards to Sunderland as well as around the coast of 
North Wales. Emmet (1991) gives the recorded foodplants as Lathyrus spp. 
especially L. montanus (Bitter Vetch), Vicia cracca (Tufted Vetch) and 
Pisum sativum (Garden Pea). It was noted that vetches were common at 
Prees Heath especially on the more disturbed areas. 

I would like to thank Dr John Langmaid for identifying this specimen. 
References: Bradley, J.D., Tremewan, W.G. & Smith, A., 1979. British Tortricoid 

Moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. The Ray Society, London. 
Emmet, A.M., 1991. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 7 (2), 

Harley Books, Colchester. 
Riley, A.M., 1991. A Natural Histofj of the Butterflies and Moths of Shropshire. Swan 

Hill Press. 
Riley, A.M. & Palmer, R.M., 1994. Recent Significant Additions and Corrigenda to the 

list of Lepidoptera recorded in Shropshire. Ent. Gaz. 45: 167-182. 
- A.M. Davis, The Rangers House, Cricket Hill Lane, Yateley, Camberley, 
Surrey GU17 7BB. 



PYRALID MOTHS IN PROFILE 24 



PYRALID MOTHS IN PROFILE: PART 2-ACROBASIS TUMIDANA 
(DENNIS & SCHIFFERMULLER) 

Bernard Skinner 

5 Rawlins Close, South Croydon. Suire\ CR2 HJS. 

ACROBASIS TUMIDANA D. & S. is readily separated from the similar A. 
repcmdana by the prominent ridge of raised reddish scales near the 
antemedian line and at the base of the forewing. Although the former may be 
partially flattened by setting these characters these are normally visible to the 
naked eye especially in live specimens. Nevertheless numerous specimens of 
repandana have been erroneously identified as the much rarer tumidana 
despite the obvious absence of these raised scale tufts. Accurate recording 
has been further confused by nomenclature name changes with repandana 
being known formerly as tumidella. 

Before detailing those records supported by a correctly identified voucher 
specimen it is best to eliminate those published records of tumidana which 
on investigation have proved to be erroneous. 

1 5. vii. 1 90 1 , Glanvilles Wootton, Dorset (Dale, 1 90 1 ). 
1920-1957, Aldershot district, Hampshire (Richards, 1957). 
7-14.viii.1935, (three) Fritton Lake, Suffolk (Morley, 1937). 
3.ix.l962, (two) Buckingham Palace, London (McClintock, 1964). 
15.vii.l964, Westonbirt, Gloucestershire (Newton, 1972). 
18.viii.l987, Dinton, Wiltshire (Agassiz, 1989). 

Authenticated specimens from the last century (Total 13) 

From September 1858 it was taken, sometimes commonly, for at least four 
years, probably longer, in the environs of south-east London near Forest Hill 
by Messrs Robert McLachlan and Howard Vaughan. (McLachlan, 1861 and 
Barrett, 1903). Five specimens in the BM(NH) support this occurrence. It 
should be mentioned here that in the latter reference Barrett gives details of 
an additional example from Portsmouth, Hampshire, but this was later found 
to be incorrect (Huggins, 1958). 

Other specimens in the collections of BM(NH) are: 
17.viii.l873, Darenth (Kent), A.B. Fam. 
viii.1875, (four), Darenth (Kent), A.B. Fam. 
No date. West Wickham (Kent), Bond, Purdey Coll. 
17.vii.l898, (two). Heme (Kent), Purdey Coll. 

Authenticated specimens post 1900 (Total 16) 

vii. 19 18, Malvem Link, A. Day, Ford Coll. BM(NH). 

1934, Tile Hill Wood, Warwickshire, J.W. Saunt, Coventry Museum. 

2.viii.l951, Orlestone Wood, Kent, E.G. Hare. 

28.vii.1989, Portland, Dorset, Portland Bird Observatory. 

I.viii.l991, Dungeness, Kent, B. Skinner. 



242 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

27.viii.1991, Greatstone, Kent, R. Turley. 
3.ix. 1991, Studland, Dorset, B. Skinner. 
I.viii.l992, Greatstone, Kent, B. Banson. 
10.viii.l992, Portland, Dorset, Portland Bird Observatory. 
10.viii.l992, Greatstone, Kent, B. Banson. 
17.viii.l992, Dungeness, Kent, D. Walker. 
15.viii.l992, (three), Pagham, Sussex, R. McCormick. 
14.viii.l993, Pagham, Sussex, B. Skinner. 
4.viii.l994, Christchurch, Hampshire, M. Jeffs. 
Il.viii.l994, Pagham, Sussex, B. Skinner. 

An analysis of these records would suggest that tumidana was at some time 
during the last century established in south-east London and north-west 
Kent. One cannot rule out the possibility that these residents were the result 
of colonisation by immigrants, but the location makes it more likely that they 
were relict populations destined to be doomed by habitat destruction. At that 
time much of Forest Hill and surroundings were dominated by the oak 
woodland of the Great North Wood and Darenth from its past history must 
have been an entomological Shangri-la. 

The origin of both records from central England taken during the first half 
of this Century is not easily explained, perhaps they too were the last 
survivors of relict populations; certainly this Century has seen the demise of 
other resident species of Pyralid in the Midlands. 

On the remaining captures, all post 1950, there is enough evidence to 
accept most of them as immigrants; only the most recent from Sussex might 
indicate a possible colonisation. 

For the sake of completeness the final list details those published records 
which because of the absence of voucher specimens cannot be confirmed or 
disproved. 

28.viii.1895, Shoreham, Sussex, A.C. Vine (Goss & Fletcher, 1905). 

31.viii.l895, Shoreham, Sussex, A.C. Vine (Goss & Fletcher, 1905). 

Pre 1905, Charmandean, Sussex, H.B. Fletcher (Goss & Fletcher, 1905). 

Pre 1908, Folkestone, Kent (Goss & Bower, 1908). 

7.viii.l904, Studland, Dorset, F.H. Fisher (Richardson, 1913). 

18.vii.l936, Henswood, Wiltshire (Anon, 1939). 

1952, Tile Hill Wood, Warwickshire, S.E.W. Carlier (Robbins, 1992). 

1978, Claret Lodge, Leicestershire, H. Weston-Bird (McPhail, 1993). 

The records from Lancashire and Cheshire in (Ellis revised Mansbridge, 

1940) are the result of muddled nomenclature, see (Ellis, 1890) and 

(Day, 1903). 

References 

Agassiz, D., 1989. Microlepidoptera - A Review of the Year 1987. Entomologist's Rec. 

J.Var.lQl: 151. 
Anon, 1939. Hand list of the microlepidoptera of the Marlborough district. Rep. 

Marlboro. Coll. nat. Hist. Soc. No. 87: 90. 



PYRALID MOTHS IN PROFILE 243 

Barrett, C.G., 1903. Acrohasis venucella Hb. & ruhrotihiella Fr. as British Insects. 

Entomologist's mon. Mag. 39: 164. 
Dale, C.W., 1901. Additions to the Lepidoptera of Glanvilles Wootton since 1890. Ibid. 

37: 276. 
Day, CO., 1903. A list of lepidoptera found in the counties of Cheshire, Flintshire, 

Denbighshire, Caernarvonshire and Anglesea. Proc. Chester Soc. Sci. 5: 104. 
Ellis, J.W., 1890. The lepidopterous fauna of Lancashire and Cheshire. Reprint edition 

1890:77. 
Ellis, J.W. revised Mansbridge, W., 1940. The lepidopterous fauna of Lancashire and 

Cheshire. Lanes. & Cheshire Ent. Soc, reprint 1940: 160. 
Goss, H. & Bower, B.A., 1908. The Victoria history of the County of Kent. 1: 198. 
Goss, H. & Fletcher, W.H.B., 1905. The Victoria history of the County of Sussex. 1: 193. 
Huggins, H.C., 1958. Notes on Microlepidoptera. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 70: 136. 
McClintock, D. et ai, 1861. Natural history of the garden of Buckingham Palace. Proc. 

Trans. S. Lond. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 1963 (2): 67. 
McLachlen, R., \H6l . Rhodophaea rubrotibiella Mann. Entomologist's Wkly intell. 10: 164. 
McPhail, J., 1993. Provisional atlas of the Leicestershire microlepidoptera. 

Leicestershire ent. Soc. 1993 (7): 237. 
Morley, C, 1937. Final catalogue of the lepidoptera of Suffolk. Mem. Suffolk nat. Soc. 

1937: 123. 
Newton, J., 1972. Microlepidoptera in Gloucestershire. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 84: 

279. 
Richards, A.W., 1957. The lepidoptera of the Aldershot district of N.E. Hampshire. Ibid. 

69: 203. 
Richardson, N.M., 1913. Second supplement to the Lepidoptera of the Isle of Purbeck. 

Proc. Dorset nat. Hist, antiq. Fid Club 34: 65. 
Robbins, J., 1992. Provisional Atlas of The Lepidoptera of Warwickshire Part 3. 

Warwickshire B.R.C. p. 142. 



Scythris picaepennis (Haw.) (Lep.: Scythrididae): extended emergence or 
possible bivoltinism in South Wiltshire 

Between 1986 and 1991 I recorded Scythris picaepennis from four separate 
locations in South Wiltshire (VC8). Records from three of these sites 
corresponded with the stated imago emergence period, i.e. July (Meyrick, 
1927; Emmet, 1988 and Emmet, 1991) and mid- June to end of July 
(Bengtsson, 1984). However at the fourth site, Boscombe Down, the moth 
was occasionally found to be quite common well beyond the end of July (see 
list below). It should be borne in mind that these were casual observations 
and not exhaustive searches. 

3rd July 1989-1 10th July 1990-1 

3rd August 1989-6 1 7th July 1 990 - 1 

1 0th August 1989-30 29th August 1 990 - 1 5 

5th September 1989-18 5th September 1990-1 

13th September 1990-1 

In northern Europe the Scythrididae are mostly univoltine but a few may 
be bivoltine; in any case they have a very extended flight period (Bengtsson, 



244 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD. VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

1984). S. picaepennis may therefore take advantage of suitable weather and 
habitat to produce a second brood or, at least, considerably extend its flight 
period. The location where this phenomenon was noted is a sheltered south- 
facing disused railway bank where the moths could mostly be found in the 
flower-heads of Ranunculus repens or Helicmthemum nummularium. 
References : Bengtsson, B.A., 1984. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. Vol. 13; 
Emmet, A.M., 1988. A Field Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera: Emmet, A.M., 
1991. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 7 (2); Meyrick, E.M., 
1927. Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera. 

- S.M. Palmer, 137 Lightfoot Lane, Fulwood, Preston, Lanes. PR4 OAH. 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Political undercurrents 

Before I left Zambia in 1971, I took some local leave for a final visit to my 
old haunts in Mwinilunga District, in the far north-east. At that time the 
politics of the district were somewhat confused. The United National 
Independence Party (UNIP) governed the country, appointed district 
governors, and maintained a presence wherever possible. It was a one-party 
State. However, much of Mwinilunga District still staunchly supported the 
African National Congress (ANC). The latter had an armed wing, which 
based itself in neighbouring Angola, although at that time most of the arms 
seemed to consist of bows and arrows. 

I made a bee-line for the Isombo Stream, nor far from Kalene Hill 
Mission, the home of exotic rainforest fauna from Zaire to the north. 1 
camped in my Peugeot 707 stationwagon not far from the village which 
controlled the area, and which of course supported UNIP. However, 1 then 
found I had camped right beside a track used by the armed wing of the ANC 
to infiltrate back into Zambia. They greeted me in a secretive manner and 
went on their way. 

During the course of the day's collecting I had acquired a thorn in my foot 
and I went to the nearby stream to wash and try to remove it. Two large 
gentlemen smartly dressed in green uniforms appeared and proudly 
announced themselves as members of the Angolan Army, on a friendly cross 
border visit. They volunteered, could they help me remove the thorn? 

Which all goes to show that Christian charity and even tolerance of 
political disagreement can survive in disturbed times, and that foreigners who 
maintain a neutral stance do not need to feel alarmed or even out of place. 

On another occasion, during a weekend on an official tour, I was, all by 
myself, collecting dragonflies for Elliot Pinhey at a roadside pond on the 
Zambia-Malawi border. A smart looking local politician on a bicycle 
appeared and wanted to know who I was? I said I was an economist from 
Lusaka. "A communist", he said, "my word, I have never met one of them 
before". I am still not sure I convinced him that the two words are not 
synonymous! 

- R.C. Dening, 20 Vincent Road, Selsey, West Sussex PO20 9DQ. 



BEHAVIOUR OF PANOPTES BLUE 245 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE PANOPTES 
BLUE BUTTERFLY, PSEUDOPHILOTES PANOPTES (HUBNER) 

(LEP.: LYCAENIDAE) 

R.J. Morris 

Christ's College, Camhridge CB2 2BU. 

CONTINUOUS OBSERVATIONS on the behaviour of an individual 
Panoptes Blue butterfly, Pseudophilotes panoptes, were noted over a period 
of four hours, to see if this species showed thermoregulatory behaviour 
characteristic of small butterflies as described by Heinrich (1993). The time 
spent in various thermoregulatory activities was recorded, along with details 
of territorial and feeding behaviour. The fieldwork was carried out in March 
1994 on a disturbed habitat near Malaga, in southern Spain. 

Butterflies need to elevate their thoracic temperature in order to fly. They 
do this by basking. Basking posture varies with family and in the Lycaenidae 
lateral basking, in which the wings are closed dorsally and tilted sideways to 
present the underside of the wings at right angles to the sun, is common. 
Blues of the genus Everes and Glaucopsyche bask with wings partially open 
to the sun (Heinrich 1993). It has been suggested that in this posture the 
wings act as reflectance panels that focus heat onto the body (Kingsolver 
1985a,b), but Heinrich (1990) has shown that the wings in fact act as 
convection baffles to retard cooling. Small-bodied butterflies have only a 
limited flight range of a few seconds because they cool rapidly by 
convection. The range per flight is temperature dependent; individuals bask 
for longer and make shorter flights at low ambient temperatures (Ta) 
(Heinrich 1993). 

The Panoptes Blue spent 91.4% of its time basking on low plants about 
5cm above the ground, more frequently with fully opened wings, than with 
partially opened wings (Figure 1). The butterfly orientated itself with its 
thorax facing the sun, maximising the interception of solar radiation. Often a 
complete circle was turned after landing before the most favourable position 
was found. Some lateral basking behaviour was also observed. When the sun 
temporarily disappeared behind clouds, or there was a sudden gust of wind, 
the wings of the Panoptes Blue were closed to a greater degree which may 
have further decreased convective cooling. In strong gusts of wind the wings 
were completely closed, with the forewings drawn up between the 
hindwings, thus decreasing the surface area exposed and perhaps minimising 
heat loss. This posture may also have made the butterfly less susceptible to 
being blown away. Complete closure of the wings also occurred in 
extremely hot conditions and this may have prevented overheating. Taking 
to flight may achieve the same result by causing heat loss (dependent on Ta). 

The Panoptes Blue is a small butterfly and flies in a fluttering manner for 
only a short period of time (2.1% of total time observed) (Figure 1) before 
landing to bask. 



246 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.ix.l995 



Aggressive behaviour was observed in the Panoptes Blue (0.7% of total 
time observed) (Figure 1). The individual studied remained in the same area 
(approximately Im-) of open ground for the duration of the four hour period. 
That area can be called a territory for the purpose of this study. When a 
second butterfly of the same species entered that territory a particular 
sequence of behaviour was observed. First the two butterflies flew straight 
upwards together in close proximity, appearing to be in physical contact at 
times. Then they separated before spiralling downwards and flying upwards 
together again. Each of these interactions lasted several seconds and was 
followed by a brief rest period of basking before the sequence started again. 
The intruder was eventually chased away every time; in one case it had to be 
chased several metres away before it gave up. Interspecific aggressive 
behaviour was also observed. The Panoptes Blue was seen to chase a 
Spanish Festoon, Zerynthia rumina L., much larger than itself, out of its 
territory. 

The Panoptes Blue was observed feeding several times, mainly on 
Euphorbia species within the territory (5.9% of total time observed) (Figure 
1). The purpose of the aggressive behaviour may have been a defence of 
foodplants. No female Panoptes Blues were seen during the study, but the 
behaviour could have evolved in relation to courtship. When feeding the 
butterfly did not always adopt a basking posture orientated with respect to 
the sun; sometimes it did not adopt a basking posture at all. This is consistent 
with the results of Pivnick and McNeil (1987) who found that when thoracic 

Figure L Proportional allocation of time by the Panoptes Blue butterfly, Pseudophilotes 
panoptes, over a four hour period. 

5.9% _ 

Fi?I basking 

0.7% 
2.1% S feeding 

I fighting 
■ flying 

9 1 .4% 




Note: it was not always possible to distinguish between basking and resting. 



BEHAVIOUR OF PANOPTES BLUE 247 

temperature (and thus Ta) was high enough, adult Essex Skippers, 
Thymelicus lineola Ochsenheimer, were able to feed with their wings closed. 
These observations on the behaviour of the Panoptes Blue butterfly, 
Pseudophilotes panoptes reveal thermoregulatory behaviour consistent with 
that proposed by Heinrich (1993) for small butterfly species. Since so little is 
known about the behaviour of this continental species, this may be the first 
documented record showing that the behaviour of the Panoptes Blue 
includes components characteristic of thermoregulation in many small- 
bodied butterflies. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank Dr S.A. Corbet and G.W. Danahar for their helpful comments on 
earlier drafts of this paper. 

References 

Heinrich, B., 1990. Is "reflectance" basking real? Journal of Experimental Biology, 154: 
31-43. 

- , 1993. The Hot-Blooded Insects. Springer- Verlag, Berlin. 

Kingsolver, J.G., 1985a. Thermal ecology of Pieris butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): a 
new mechanism of behavioural thermoregulation. Oecologia. 66: 540-545. 

- , 1985b. Thermoregulatory significance of wing melanisation in Pieris butterflies 
(Lepidoptera: Pieridae): physics, posture, and pattern. Oecologia. 66: 546-553. 

Pivnick, K.A. and McNeil, J.N., 1987. Diel patterns of activity of Thymelicus lineola 
adults (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in relation to weather. Ecological Entomology. 12: 
197-207. 



An Autumnal Broad-bordered Bee Hawk, Hemaris fuciformis L. (Lep.: 
Sphingidae), in an Essex Garden 

In the course of correspondence Dr R.R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann recently 
informed me of his sighting of a Bee hawk moth in his front garden in Old 
Harlow, Essex, on 29th September 1994. This may, perhaps, be of interest in 
connection with the note by G.M. Haggett {antea: 24) reporting the species 
in good numbers in recent years in the Norfolk/Suffolk breckland, including 
its appearance for about the first time in gardens and one, exceptionally, in 
October last. At about 10.30am in sunshine the moth arrived "from 
nowhere" and fed for at least a minute at flowers of variegated "busy lizzies" 
{Impatiens sp.) in a tub. The hindwings appeared to have large "eye-spots" - 
applicable to H. fuciformis only. Dr Kaufmann adds that there was at the 
time a local newspaper report of several other residents in the Harlow area 
having seen Hummingbird Hawkmoths in their gardens, and suggests with 
reason that some at least of these may have been Bee Hawks. A small (?) 
autumn brood would have been a likely product of the very hct weather of 
July 1994.- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



248 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 1 07 1 5 . i x . 1 995 

An update on the Southern Chestnut moth Agrochola haematidea Dup. 
(Lep.: Noctuidae) in Britain 

Further searches were made for the Southern Chestnut Agrochola 
haematidea in 1994 but it has still not been found away from the sites on 
which a strong colony was discovered, for the first time in Britain, in 1990, 
{British Wildlife 3: 112-114, 307-308, 5: 53; Ent. Gaz. 44: 183-203, 1993). 
Not a single individual has been reported amongst the migrant moths which 
turn up at our coasts and elsewhere. The moth was seen again in numbers in 
1994 at its single site but there is some concern at the numbers of 
lepidopterists visiting simply to obtain specimens. Collectively, it appears 
that well over a hundred moths were removed from the site in 1994, 
probably more, and larvae were also collected. 

So far the moth has sustained the collecting which has taken place, but this 
is not through any planning or co-operation. The latter would enable the 
efforts of visiting lepidopterists to be directed at improving our knowledge 
of moth and its distribution on the site and enable a check on numbers seen 
and numbers removed. Visits could be spread over the season and over the 
years to ensure the population is monitored rather than over-collected. The 
population appears to be strong at present but a continuation of unco- 
ordinated visits and removal of specimens at recent levels, as more collectors 
learn of the confidential locality, could lead to a ban on collecting this 
species, which would be unfortunate for all concerned. 

This happened, for not dissimilar reasons, with the Sussex Emerald 
Thalera fimbrialis which was added in 1992 to the list of moths protected by 
the Wildlife and Countiyside Act 1981 (Brit. Wild. 4: 322). The latter was 
seen in good numbers again in 1994 at its single site. Other species which 
may await discovery in Britain may prove less able to withstand similar 
bouts of collecting. Colin Pratt, county moth recorder for Sussex has offered 
to co-ordinate visits for the Southern Chestnut and to be a link with the local 
English Nature office who advise the landowners. His aim will be to 
maintain a record of the numbers seen and taken and to direct recording to 
maximise usefulness, to ensure that the moth becomes better understood and 
is not over-exploited. He can be contacted at 5 View Road, Peacehaven, 
Newhaven, East Sussex, Tel: 01273 586780. He will not be giving away 
details of the site however. 

For those unfamiliar with moth collecting issues, it must be emphasised 
that it is the amateur collectors and recorders of moths that provide virtually 
all the information on the status of moths in Britain and who discover the 
new species such as the Southern Chestnut. The aim here is to develop a 
situation where the discoverers of exciting new species can feel confident 
about announcing their results without fear that, on the one hand, a swarm of 
collectors will descend on the site the following season, and on the other, 
that the moth will automatically end up on the protected list if it is only 
found on one site. 
- Paul Waring, 1366 Lincoln Road, Werrington, Peterborough PE4 6LS. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 249 

Hazards of butterfly coUecting - Butterflies witness for Jehovah - 
Nigeria, March 1995. 

I was papering more than 130 different butterflies caught that day in the tiny 
village of Old Ekuri on the edge of the Oban Hills National Park in eastern 
Nigeria. It had been an amazing day, not so much in terms of the number of 
species - 130 in a day is commonplace in the Oban Hills - but in terms of 
quality. Dozens of skippers and blues that I had not previously seen, at least 
two new to science. 

There are probably few things more scruffy-looking than yours truly 
papering butterflies and making field notes after a whole day in the forest. 
But daylight ends at six, work has to be finished before then since electricity 
is not one of the luxuries with which Old Ekuri is endowed. There are, in 
fact, no luxuries at all in Old Ekuri. 

My scientific work apart, I also carry the brief for popularising the 
National Park with the communities living near the park, making them 
understand the importance of conservation. They generally respond well to 
my findings that of all areas of similar size anywhere in Africa, there are 
more butterflies in "their" park than anywhere else. Biodiversity writ large! , 

That afternoon a most amazing apparition bore down upon me. A dapper 
young gentleman in a black three-piece suit and matching tie. He might have 
been a London City gent from the 1950s, minus the bowler hat. He was, as it 
happened, a missionary of the Jehovah's Witnesses, having just walked in 
from the next village, 20km away. I gave him an overview of the Oban Hills' 
butterfly situation (at least 950 species), the African one (3,700 species), and 
the world (18,000 species). He gave my butterflies a good look-over: "I beg 
to differ" he said, "There are 150,000 species of butterflies". I mumbled 
something about that having to include moths as well, but he was adamant: 
"And from where do you have this statistic?". From Awake, the Jehovah's 
Witnesses magazine (average printing 12,900,000, published in 73 
languages!). 

We left it at that. I had another three splendid days at Old Ekuri. Driving 
back the next day, we were flagged down in the next village by the 
missionary. "I am terrible sorry" he said, "I was wrong... you are right". 
Awake had actually stated that there were 15,000 butterfly species, not 
150,000. He had inadvertently added a zero. He was deeply contrite. He 
gave me a copy of the relevant issue. 

The article in question gives a fair account of mimicry, a rather less fair 
account of scientific controversy concerning mimicry, ending - predictably - 
with a strong creationist message: "You created all things, and because of 
your will they existed and they were created". -Revelations 4: 1 1. 

My Jehovah's Witness friend and I now roughly agree on the world 
butterfly community of 15-18,000, though I am not absolutely convinced 
that God created all of them, retaining a sneaking suspicion that evolution 
played a rather significant role. I spent much of my childhood in southern 



250 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.ix.l995 




The centre-spread of the magazine I was given in the village. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 25 1 

India at a Danish missionary school. Every year, all Danish missionaries 
in India summered there. When you went butterfly collecting after church on 
Sunday (having already lost valuable collecting time), you were subject to 
sudden ambushes from middle-aged gentlemen, clamping a hand m your 
head and demanding with menaces "Well Torben, how is your relationship 
with the Lord this morning?". The experience put me off religion, especially 
of proselytising variety, for life. 

But, like it or not, you really have to hand it to the Jehovah's Witnesses. 
The issue of Awake that I saw had a lot of genuine information - such as an 
accurate resume of Balkan history since Grand Duke Ferdinand was 
murdered in Sarajevo. Their 12,900,000 copies end up in parts which no 
other printed matter reaches. And the gracious apology from my friend on 
the little matter of butterfly numbers will remain in my memory.- Torben B. 
Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London SW9 8PL. 

Early migrant moths in Scotland in 1995 

Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), the Dark Sword Grass moth, is usually recorded as a 
casual immigrant in Scotland in mid-late summer but one came to light near 
Kincraig, Strathspey on 6th April 1995; three were present in an m.v. light 
trap at Sands of Forvie National Nature Reserve, Aberdeenshire on 13th 
April 1995 and four were present in a similar trap at Oldmeldrum, 
Aberdeenshire on 14th April 1995. No other known migrant moth species 
were recorded on the same occasions but some of the first Sand Martins and 
Wheatears were seen in Aberdeenshire on the 13th and 14th April after a 
period of unseasonally warm weather and light winds. 

Skinner (1984. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles. 
Viking, Middlesex) suggests that the species may occasionally survive mild 
winters in Britain. However, the 1994/95 winter has been of average severity 
in Scotland and Aberdeenshire is an unlikely location for overwintering 
migrants! It therefore seems probable that these specimens were primary 
migrants.- M.R. Young, Culterty Field Station, University of Aberdeen, 
Newburgh, Ellon, Aberdeenshire AB41 OAA. 

[Large numbers of A. ipsilon were also recorded at light and on sugar at Loch Rannoch 
on 8th April 1995, when the hills were still covered with snow. - A.S.] 

Early emergence of butterflies and moths in the Isle of Wight du»'ing 
1995 

The winter of 1994-5 was one of the wettest though warmest in recent years. 
The first half of April was influenced by a large area of high pressure which 
resulted in warm sunny days causing an early emergence of butterflies and 
moths in this very forward spring. 

The most exceptional record of the winter was that of Selenia dentaria 
(Fabr.) which was taken at Binstead by Brian Wame on 14th January. An 



252 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15. ix. 1995 



example of Vanessea atalanta (L.) was seen at Firestone Copse, Havenstreet 
on 2nd February which supports further evidence that this species hibernates 
in this country during mild winters. A specimen of Cynthia car did (L.) was 
observed at Luccombe Down on 4th February. Two of our commoner 
migrant moths also appeared during this month namely Agrotis ipsilon 
(Hufn.) on 6th February at Freshwater and Nomophila noctuella (D.&S.) on 
22nd February at B instead. 

The warm and sunny April caused the exceptionally early emergence of 
Pieris napi (L.) at Whitefield Woods, Ryde and Callophrys ruhi (L.) in the 
chalk-pit at Compton Down on 12th April, and Pyrgus malvae (L.) on 14th 
April also at the latter locality. Amongst the moths the most outstanding 
were Acronicta psi (L.) at Ryde, Aethalura punctulata (D.&S.) at Whitefield 
Woods, Aspitates ochrearia (Rossi.) on Compton Down on 14th April; 
Spilosoma luteum (Hufn.) at Binstead on 25th April and Xanthorhoe 
spadiceaha (D.&S.) at Cranmore on 27th April. 

I now give below a list of early emergents taken on the island during 
1995. 



Date 


Species 


Locality 


January 






14th 


Selenia dentaha (Fabr.) 


Binstead 


February 






2nd 


Vanessa atalanta (L.) 


Firestone Copse 


4th 


Cynthia cardui (L.) 


Luccombe Down 


8th 


Xylocampa areola (Esp.) 


Cranmore 


22nd 


Nomophila noctuella (D.&S.) 


Binstead 


April 






8th 


Menophra abrupt aria (Thunb.) 


Binstead 


12th 


Pheosia gnoma (Fabr.) 


Binstead 




Pieris napi (L.) 


Whitefield Woods 




Callophiys rubi (L.) 


Compton Down 


13th 


Ochropleura plecta (L.) 


Binstead 


14th 


Acronicta psi (L.) 


Ryde 




Aethalura punctulata (D.&S.) 


Whitefield Woods 




Agrotis puta (Hb.) 


Freshwater 




Aspitates ochrearia (Rossi) 


Compton Down 




Pyrgus malvae (L.) 


Compton Down 


15th 


Pterostoma palpina (CI.) 


Freshwater 


23rd 


Lasiommata megera (L.) 


Compton Down 


24th 


Eligmodonta ziczac (L.) 


Binstead 


25th 


Spilosoma luteum (Hufn.) 


Binstead 


26th 


Notodonta dromedarius (L.) 


Binstead 


27th 


Xanthorhoe spadicearia (D.&S.) 


Cranmore 


28th 


Aids repandata (L.) 


Whitefield Woods 


30th 


Tyria jacobaeae 


Arreton 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 253 

May 

1st Phalera bucephala (L.) Freshwater 

3rd Coenonympha pamphilus (L.) Compton Down 

6th Noctua pronuba (L.) Cranmore 

8th Hadena perplexa (D.&S.) Freshwater 

I should like to mention the following observation that I witnessed on 
Compton Down on 14th April. This was a pair oi Phragmatobia fuliginosa 
(L.) in copula settled on the grass accompanied by five other males crawling 
over the unfortunate couple. This is the first time that I have seen this species 
assemble in this way. 

Finally I should like to record two very early sightings of the Large Red 
Damselfly {Pyrrhosoma nymphula). Andy Butler saw two at Alverstone on 
9th April and my mother noticed one in the garden at Freshwater on the 
following day.- S.A. Knill- Jones, Roundstone, 2 School Green Road, 
Freshwater, Isle of Wight. 

Drunken goat moth larvae 

I have also had occasion to resuscitate "drunken" goat moth larvae, {vide 
Clerck, J., 1995. Drunken goats. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 106: 82). Mine 
were fed on wholemeal bread and apple, in the recommended fashion, but 
the container was rather tall and narrow and, on one occasion, the apple 
became somewhat decayed. Fumes of some sort overcame my larvae and 
one morning I found them insensible. They were apparently completely 
lifeless but not flaccid or misshapen, as may happen with disease. Suspecting 
that they were merely intoxicated, I placed them on some absorbent paper 
and gently massaged them, so as to cause air to be forced in and out of the 
spiracles. After about 30 minutes they began to wriggle slightly and after a 
further 30 minutes had made a full recovery. Since then they have again fed 
voraciously and are now (April 1995) just becoming active after the winter. I 
wondered how much the effect was due to alcohol fumes, of which the 
container certainly smelt, and how much to CO^ anaesthesia.- M.R. Young, 
Culterty Field Station, University of Aberdeen, Newburgh, Ellon, 
Aberdeenshire AB41 OAA. 
[Note: All three moths duly emerged in July 1995 - M.Y.] 

Stigmella continuella (Stt.) (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) in Scotland 

In September 1988, Mark Young introduced Stigmella continuella (Stainton, 
1856) to the Scottish list when he discovered mines of this species on the 
Glenfarrar NNR (VC96) and Ariundle NNR (VC97) (Agassiz, D. (1990) 
Ent. Rec. J. Var. 102: 131). Last year this species turned up in two further, 
widely separated localities. On 10.ix.l994 the author found two vacated 
leaf mines of this species on Birch at Camghouran (Grid Ref. NN5455), 
Rannoch, Perthshire (VC88). On 21.ix.94 a survey for a Forestry 



254 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

Authority/Scottish Natural Heritage research project, conducted by David 
Barbour, Allan Watt and Colin McBeath, yielded vacated mines of this 
species in Birch in two separate localities in Knapdale. The first was in a 
spruce plantation with 30% mix Birch near Loch Buic (Grid Ref. NR7988) 
and the other was in a birchwood besides Daill Loch (Grid Ref. NR8189), 
both in Knapdale Forest, Kintyre (VClOl). 

These new records could possibly indicate a recent invasion of Scotland 
by this species, although my own opinion is that it is a low density species 
that is under-recorded. At the Perthshire site both mines were close together 
on the succulent leaves of small shoots arising directly from the main trunk. 
The location of the mines at the other sites was not recorded.- K.P. Bland, 
35 Charterhall Road, Edinburgh EH9 3HS. 

An outbreak of the Lackey moth, Malacosoma neustria L. 1758 (Lep. 
Lasiocampidae) in Beckton, east London, May 1995 

Early in May 1995 whilst checking the infestation of Euproctis chiysorrhoea 
(L. 1758) in Beckton, east London, I was surprised to see so many active 
"nests" of the Lackey, Malacosoma neustria (L. 1758). I had already 
collected a batch of ova of this moth from Sloe in February in the same area, 
but did not expect to be greeted by such an apparent population explosion. 
Soon after the initial sightings I counted the number of larval "nests" to be 
found. As the larvae were already well advanced, a "nest" for our purposes 
was any clearly-defined group of larvae feeding separately from another. As 
some of the larval clusters were so close together it cannot be assumed that 
they were not originally from the same egg batch. 

Sixty-six were counted in all in a very small area alongside a busy main 
road, roughly running opposite the recently inaugurated Docklands Light 
Railway. The following foodplants were noted along with the numbers of 
larval "webs": Sloe 43; Rose 11; Hawthorn 5; Hazel 2; Oak 1. 

E. chrysorrhoea and M. neustria did not seem to be in competition as 
larvae were seen to share facilities on more than one occasion i.e. the 
Brown-tails would sit on the Lackey's "web". Outside the Beckton area, 
larvae were noted singly on Hawthorn and on Prunus en masse in 
Walthamstow, also in May 1995. 

Plant (1993) mentions M. neustria as an "...occasional pest species which 
can reach plague proportions in some years, although normally it causes 
little more than local defoliation of hedges". Gomez de Aizpurua (1988) 
cites this species as being a pest in Spain on "numerous occasions". Soria 
(1987) details "an enormous quantity of larvae found in Mazarambroz 
(Toledo) in 1981 on Oak and describes serious outbreaks on Oak, 
specifically, Quercus pyrenaica Willdenow, in the sixties. In 1987, more 
than 20,000 hectares of Oak were attacked north of Madrid in the Sierra de 
Guadarrama, leading to defoliation on a massive scale. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 255 

References: Gomez de Aizpiirua, C, 1988. Biologia y Morfologia de las Orugas. Tomo 
VI. MAPA, Madrid; Plant, C, 1993. Larger Moths of the London Area. London Natural 
History Society; Soria, S., 1987. Lepidopteros Defoliadores de Quercus pyrenaica Will. 
1805, MAPA, Madrid. 

-Gareth E. King, 22 Stoney Meade, Slough SLl 2YL. 

Pediasia fascelinella (Lep.: Pyralidae): two more Kentish examples 

Following the first county record of this species that came to my light at 
Dungeness on 3rd August 1990 ( Ent. Rec. J. Var. 103: 51-52), I can report 
two more specimens recorded in Kent during 1994. The first was taken by 
John Owen at Dymchurch on 2nd July, and the second was taken by myself 
at Dungeness on 30th July. 

The nearest existing British colony of this pyralid is in Suffolk (Parsons, 
1993. A review of the scarce and threatened pyralid moths of Great Britain), 
and as all three of the Kentish records have occurred out of habitat and with 
immigrant species, I would suggest the Continent as their most likely place 
of origin.- Sean Clancy, "Delhi" Cottage, Dungeness, Romney Marsh, 
Kent TN29 9NE. 

Large Tortoiseshell butterfly, Nymphalis polychloros L. in Kent 

During the early afternoon of Sunday 9th April 1995 Pamela Stafford and 
myself were exploring the old church at Elmsted in Kent when my attention 
was drawn to a dead Peacock butterfly in the central aisle. 

Looking up at the windows we saw several more Peacocks and Small 
Tortoiseshells, presumably attracted to the warmth and light. We carefully 
removed them to a warm, horizontal gravestone in the churchyard and within 
a short time most had become active and flown away. 

Using a broom we gently coaxed the higher butterflies down from the 
window, and during this operation a large butterfly dropped to the floor, and 
slowly opened its wings. We were astonished to see the unmistakable wing 
pattern of a Large Tortoiseshell. After removal to the gravestone, it sunned 
itself for a little while, allowing us ample opportunity to examine it closely, 
and then, in good light, it strongly flew away. 

In all, 25 Peacocks and six Small Tortoiseshells and, of course, the Large 
Tortoiseshell, were "rescued".- Peter Burness, 1 Hinton Close, West Park, 
Eltham, London SE9 4SE. 

Unseasonal Lepidoptera records from Rothamsted Insect Survey light- 
traps 

On 6.xii.l994 a single Orthosia cerasi Fabricius was caught in the RIS light- 
trap at Hamstreet, Kent (Site No. 472, O.S. grid ref. TR004 334) and oi.e 
Cerastis rubricosa Denis & Schiffermiiller was caught at Rhandirmwyn, 
Dyfed (Site No. 346, OS grid ref: SN782 441). Both species usually fly in 
March and April. These extraordinarily early records probably result from 



256 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



15.ix.l995 



the very mild weather prior to the date of capture. At Rothamsted, the 
highest mean November temperature for over 100 years was recorded and at 
Rhandirmwyn, minimum temperatures rarely fell below 10°C. 

Waring, P. (1995, British Wildlife 6(4): 257-258) cites other early records 
including that of an Orthosia gothica on 12.xii.l994. This species also 
usually flies in March and April. 

It would be of value to read of further unusual records resulting from the 
mild early winter weather of 1994 as they may give some indication as to 
which species are affected by such conditions and to what extent. 

Thanks are extended to Mr David Davies and Mr Michael Tickner for 
operating the traps at Rhandirmwyn and Hamstreet, respectively.- Adrian 
M. Riley, Department of Entomology & Hematology, lACR-Rothamsted, 
Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ. 



A note on the flying times of Laothoe populi L. (Lep. Sphingidae) 

Following the recent discussion of the voltinism of L. populi in the pages of 
this Journal by West (106: 41-45) and Spalding (106: 126), I examined my 
m.v. trap records from west Devon to see whether they added anything to the 
debate. They do not, as I rarely operate the trap late enough in the year, but 
they nevertheless show a curious monthly distribution pattern which seems 
worth placing on record. 

The figure shows my 242 light trap records covering the period 1988- 
1994, with each month being divided into halves. This illustrates a clear 




Trap catches of hawkmoths: 

Top: Laothoe populi; Left: Deilephila elpenor; Right: Sphinx ligustri. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 257 

peak in the second half of May in addition to that expected in July. I took 
this to be a reflection on my somewhat erratic trapping pattern but to check, I 
analysed my records of Sphinx ligustri L. (163 records) and Deilephila 
elpenor L. (320 records), two other locally common sphingids that appear 
frequently in the trap with populi. These are also shown and indicate the 
expected type of distribution. This, surely, eliminates any sampling effects. 
My curiosity aroused, I re-examined West's and Spalding's data. The former 
show a minor late May peak in four of the ten years where full data are 
available (1987, 1989, 1991 and 1992), whilst Spalding's figure shows a 
somewhat later, minor peak in the first week of June. These observations are 
obviously inconclusive but suggest that this moth, in some years and in some 
parts of the country at least, exhibits an unusual pattern of emergence. 
Perhaps other readers will examine their own records to see how widespread 
this phenomenon is, or suggest an explanation.- R.W. Bogue, Kingston 
House, Tuckermarsh, Bere Alston, Devon PL20 7HB. 

Scarcity of Vanessid butterflies 

I refer to the observation "The scarcity of Vanessid butterflies" by C.J. Smith 
{Ent. Rec. J. Var. 107: 146), who I note is another resident of Sale, and who 
in particular makes a point that in a local sports field hostplant-habitat of 
Aglais urticae (Linn.) and Inachis io (Linn.) has been destroyed. 

Close to my home is another sports field, Crossford, where I have done 
some studies on these species. It is owned by the local authority and is in the 
Mersey Valley. The eastern section of the field is on a slightly higher level 
than the western and the two sections are separated by a shallow north-south 
drain (SJ792930/1) in which, in spite of the grass either side being regularly 
mown, extensive beds of nettles are normally allowed to grow unhindered. 
Forming a west-facing bank, in early spring the drain receives the full rays 
of the afternoon sun, and forms a microclimate considerably warmer than the 
surrounding area. As a result, every year one or both of these butterfly 
species congregate here post-hibernation, sometimes in considerable 
numbers. It is generally accepted that A. urticae and /. io are highly mobile 
and do not form permanent breeding populations restricted to a small area, 
therefore I suggest that each year individuals moving through the Mersey 
Valley, probably from some distance, are able to single out this small site 
from the surrounding environment because of its combination of suitable 
features (chemical/ olfactory cues from the nettles; aspect; insolation level). 

I find that this concentration of the butterflies occurs only in the spring - 
later in the year, when the ambient temperature in the Valley is higher, the 
need for the butterflies to seek out the warmest spots is less and they are 
more generally distributed. 

Normally the spring sighting of adults is followed by the appearance of 
larvae on the nettles, though this does not occur every year - sometimes 
when A. urticae imagines have been abundant no larvae have been seen, and 



258 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 15.ix.l995 

sometimes only /. io. This year 1995, however, although in the whole of this 
area A. urticae numbers post-hibernation were very much down on previous 
years (I only had a couple of sightings in the sports field) and I was unable to 
locate any broods of larvae elsewhere in the neighbourhood, a very fine 
brood appeared and fed to pupation on these nettles. 

I would suggest that the "scarcity" of the Peacock and Small Tortoiseshell 
in this area, which Smith mentions as having occurred in recent years, is due 
more to cyclical fluctuations caused by climatic variations and/or parasite 
numbers than to habitat destruction; numerous suitable sites exist in the 
Mersey Valley. In my experience, /. io has considerably increased in the last 
decade, and although A. urticae has been quite scarce at times especially this 
last year, at other times, notably 1989-91, it has been very numerous and 
much more so than in, say, 1986-7. I would however agree with Smith that 
there is no room for complacency and that habitat destruction does pose a 
considerable threat to even the most familiar butterflies: there was a recent 
plan to remove Crossford sports field from the "green-belt" and offer it for 
private development, and along with many other sites in the Mersey Valley it 
stands to be considerably damaged if current proposals to widen the M63 
motorway, which runs behind it, go ahead.- Peter B. Hardy, 10 Dudley 
Road, Sale, Cheshire. 



ERIC BRADFORD 

We were saddened to hear, as we went to press, of the tragic death 
of Eric Bradford in a road accident, on 12th August 1995. Although 
best known as a microlepidopterist, Eric had a deep interest in all 
forms of wildlife and its conservation - his large garden was 
converted into a wildlife haven, and he purchased some woodland 
within the Blean complex in Kent as a reserve. A skilled artist, his 
paintings of lepidoptera were much admired, and more recently he 
published a series of papers jointly with the editor of the Record 
illustrating the British Gelechiidae. It gave him considerable 
pleasure to paint some of his illustrations with brushes acquired 
from the late Stanley Jacobs, also a well known illustrator. He was 
amongst the most knowledgeable microlepidopterists in the 
country, but never considered himself an "expert", even though this 
was deserved in some areas. Eric was a generous man, freely giving 
his advice, time and friendship to those who shared his interests, 
and he will be sorely missed by those who knew him. 

Paul Sokoloff 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 259 

STOLEN 

Cabinet Drawers and Antique Books 

At times we all experience minor crises with our collections (when the 
forceps fall into a drawer they invariably land on something worthwhile) but 
never did I envisage the ransacking of a large quantity of drawers from 
within the sanctity of ones own home. 

Antique books come into another category, although their loss will often 
be brought to mind for most of them were in the nature of gifts from old 
friends over many years. 

Whereas these books have been very carefully selected by the miscreants 
the same cannot be said of the cabinet drawers. Those containing my British 
hawkmoths could be deemed attractive to anybody, but why take five small 
drawers from a W & D six drawer deal cabinet with specimens going back to 
schooldays? The same might be said for two drawers of Nymphalids 
compared with fourteen drawers of micros containing predominantly 
Gelechiids which are of extreme interest to a small number of entomologists. 
Unless, and this is possible, a clean sweep had been intended for 24 drawers 
containing a mixture of families were still stacked up the centre of our sitting 
room and gratefully found there by ourselves upon return. 

This is not the kind of article I ever dreamt of putting in The Record, but I 
thank our editor for giving me space whereby we can draw the attention of 
all fellow entomologists to the dire things which can happen these days! 
Lock up your larvae and check your insurance policies! 

For subsequent sighting of any of the undermentioned items please contact 
your local police station referring them to WPC Roberts of Reading Police 
(01734 536000). 

Details of drawers of Lepidoptera and Antiquarian Books 
stolen between 29th July and 3rd July 1995. 
Type Contents 

Gumey 18" x 17" 6 drawers black lined British butterflies 

Gumey 18" x 17" 10 drawers black lined British Lasiocampids and Geometers 

Brady 1 83/4" x 17" 3 drawers black lined British Sphingids 

Hill 18" X 18" 13 drawers white/black Micros. BRB and Reading Museum 

labels 
Hill 18" X 16" 1 drawer white lined Micros. Phyllonorycters. J. Newton 

labels 
W & D 1 23/4" X 73/4" 5 drawers white lined Beginners material 
W & D 18" X 18" Wallcase Far Eastern lepidoptera 

Large storebox with two large setting boards bearing five Far Eastern Sphingids 

Antiquarian Books 
Author Title Markings 

Distant, W.L. Rhopalocera Malayana Inscribed L.M. Parlett 

Frohawk, F.W. Complete Book of British 

Butterflies 1 934 Inscribed "To Bri from Dad Xmas 

1936" 



260 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 15. ix. 1995 

Frohawk, F.W. Natural History of British Butterflies 

2 vols. 1924 Inscribed with Reading Mus. Ace. Nos. 

Barrett, C.G. Lepidoptera of the British Islands 

1 893- 1 907 1 1 vols. Inscribed Craske and separately WLR 

Buckler, W. Larvae of the British Butterflies 

and Moths 8 of the 9 vols No markings 

Lang, H.C. Butterflies of Europe 2 vols Inscribed L.M. Parlett 

Morris, P.O. A History of British Butterflies 1865 Inscribed L.M. Parlett 

Morris, P.O. A Natural History of British Moths 

1 872 4 vols Inscribed L.M. Parlett 

Tutt, J.W. Practical Hints for the 

Field Lepidopterist Inscribed C. Runge 

Bright, P.M. A Monograph of the Chalkhill Blue 

& Leeds, H.A. Butterfly 1938 No markings 

Brian Baker, 25 Matlock Road. Reading, Berkshire 



REAR-ADMIRAL DAVID TORLESSE, 1902-1995 

We were sad to hear of the death of Rear-Admiral David Torlesse, 
CB, DSO on 19th July at the age of 93. A distinguished naval 
aviator, his career began with service in the Dreadnoughts during 
the First World War, subsequently serving both at sea and on land 
bases. After serving before the Second World War on the ill-fated 
Hood he was appointed second-in-command of the heavy cruiser 
Suffolk in 1939, seeing action in the Norwegian campaign. Then, 
after a spell at the naval air station at Lee-on-the-Solent and the 
Admiralty, he took command of the escort carrier Hunter initially 
in the Aegean and then the Far East towards the end of the war. 
Later he commanded the fleet aircraft carrier Triumph which joined 
the US Seventh Fleet during the Korean conflict. His final tour in 
the early 1950s saw him as Flag officer responsible for all Fleet Air 
Arm Training. 

Despite the intense demands of a naval career, he had a lifelong 
interest in entomology. He lived for many years in the Hampshire 
area, subscribing to the Record for over 40 years. He began 
contributing to the Journal in 1954, recording a capture of the 
Lunar Double-stripe, Minucia lunaris from his garden trap. He 
published a number of accounts of collecting trips in the Midlands, 
on Mull and in Western Ireland. Modem-day moth collectors 
would no doubt raise an eyebrow at his account {Ent. Rec. J. Var. 
74: 19) of experiences operating an SOW m.v. trap from his car 
battery through a rotary convertor, and managing to achieve some 
three hours of collecting before the battery gave out. His last 
contribution to the Record was in 1980, when he captured the first 
authentic specimen this century of the plusiid Syngrapha 
circumflexa. Paul Sokoloff 



PEMBERLEY BOOKS 

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THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

Some entomological jargon exposed. R.A. Jones 205 

Microlepidoptera review of 1993. D.J.L. Agassiz, RJ. Heckford & J.R. Langmaid 207 

Overwintering Orthoptera and other insects in Crete. /. Paul , 221 

A pitfall trap for repetitive sampling of Hypogean arthropod faunas. /. Owen 225 

A record of Hermeuptychia cucuUina (Weymer) from Brazil including some remarks on 

other Hermeuptychian taxa (Lep.: Satyridae). R.H. Anken 237 

Pyralid moths in profile - Part 2 - Acrobasis tumidana D. & S. B. Skinner 241 

Oberservations on the behaviour of the Panoptes Blue, Pseiidophllotes panoptes Hbn. 

(Lep.: Lycaenidae). RJ. Morris 245 



Notes and observations 

A subcortical fungus beetle basking in sunlight. R.A. Jones 220 

Mothathons in Cornwall. A. Spalding 223 

Cydia lunulana (D.&S.) (Lep.: Tortricidae) new to Shropshire (VC40). A.M. Davis 240 

Scythris picaepennis Haw. (Lep.: Scythrididae): extended emergence or possible 

bivoltinism in South Wiltshire. S.M. Palmer 243 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - political undercurrents. R.C. Dening 244 

An autumnal Broad-bordered Bee Hawk, Hemaris fuciformis L. (Lep.: Sphingidae) in 

an Essex garden. A.A. Allen 247 

An update on the Southern Chestnut moth. Agrochola haematidea Dup. (Lep.: 

Noctuidae) in Britain. P. Waring 248 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - butterflies witness for Jehova - Nigeria, March 1995. 

T.B.Larsen 249 

Early migrant moths in Scotland. 1995. M.R. Young 251 

Early emergences of butterflies and moths in the Isle of Wight during 1995. 

S.A.Knill-Jones 251 

Drunken Goat-moth larvae. M.R. Young 253 

Stigmella continuella Stt. (Lep.: Nepticulidae) in Scotland. K.P. Bland 253 

An outbreak of the Lackey Moth, Malacosoma neustria L. (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) in 

Beckton, east London, May 1995. G.E. King 254 

Pedasiafascilinella Hb. (Lep.: Pyralidae): two more Kentish examples. S. Clancy 255 

Large Tortoiseshell butterfly, Nymphalis polychloros L. in Kent. P. Burness 255 

Unseasonal Lepidoptera records from Rothamsted Insect Survey light traps. A.M. Riley . 255 

A note on the flying times of Laothoe populi L. (Lep.: Sphingidae). R.W. Bogue 256 

Scarcity of Vanessid butterflies. P.B. Hardy 257 

Eric Bradford 258 

Stolen - cabinets, drawers and antique books 259 

Rear Admiral David Torlesse 260 

Supplement: The larger moths of Dawlish Warren. Devon, pp 1-8. R. McCormick (229) - (236) 

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ENTOMOLOGIST^S RECORD 

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NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 26 1 

A Change of editor 

With this issue, the current editor is standing down to make way for new 
blood in the editorial chair. After ten years of editing The Entomologist's 
Record it is time for the "mantle of Tutt" to fall on other shoulders, and we 
have been very fortunate in securing the services of Colin Plant as the new 
editor. A well-known entomologist, he is the author of, amongst others. The 
Butterflies of the London Area, Provisional atlas of Lacewings and the 
seminal work, Larger moths of the London area. 

I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the friends and 
correspondents of the Record for their support and forbearance over the 
years, and remind them that we always need your notes and papers for 
publication. All material in the pipeline, or in the post to me will find its way 
to the new editor! 

Paul Sokoloff 

Butterflies of Lanzerote - April 1995. An update - two further species 
recorded 

It had been six years since I was last in Lanzerote. During this time our 
friends with the Time-Share there have continued their annual April visit to 
the island and I have regularly asked them if there have been many 
butterflies. They are not specialists but they know how it was in 1988 when 
one could not drive on the inland roads without passing through clouds of 
Clouded Yellow Colias croceus Geoff, and Painted Lady Vanessa cardui 
Linn, and when the heights at Mirador del Rio were alive with thousands of 
Common Blue Polyommatus icarus Rott. {Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 103: 
79-81). Each year, since 1989, the answer has been that there had not been 
many butterflies about. 

With a further invitation from our friends to join them this year, there has 
been opportunity to check in person on the situation. We were there from 
13th to 27th April and during that time I was able to visit the known haunts 
that had shown good numbers of butterflies in 1988. The weather was mixed 
- through the first week the mornings generally started overcast, with fairly 
strong winds, then coming out by midday to hot sun. Most of the time there 
was the stiff breeze associated with the island. 

The season bore out our friends' assessments of recent years - there were 
very few butterflies about. In our drives to various parts of the island. I do 
not recall seeing from the car a single butterfly of any species. There was just 
one occasion when my wife said she had seen a "brown" butterfly - I 
stopped the car and hunted around but I could find no trace of it. At the 



262 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Mirador fel Rio (16th April), on a rather cool day, there were some Blues {P. 
icarus) on the low vegetation at the side of the road, but only in small 
numbers - I saw perhaps twenty or so, mostly males. Later the same day, in 
some fallow-field site near Maguez - good for several species in 1988 - this 
year I saw only three Blues. 

Altogether, we saw, in different locations, perhaps half a dozen C. croceus 
but nor a single V. cardiii throughout our visit. However, there were 
occasional moments of excitement - on the 17th, a Red Admiral settled on 
the outer wall of our neighbour's villa and sat sunning itself long enough to 
be clearly identified as Vanessa indica vulcania God. Then, on another 
occasion (25th April) in the dry gully of the Barranca de Manguia (again, a 
good spot in 1988) there was one (and possibly a second, seen by friends) of 
what I identified as Pontia daplidice Linn. One of these was very kind and 
perched long enough on a flower stem for me to get quite a decent close-up 
shot of it on the video camera. However, besides the Whites, all we saw, 
during an hour walking in the gully, were four C. croceus and one P. icarus. 

All-in-all, it does look as though 1988 was a unique year for the number 
of butterflies about in Lanzerote.- G.G. Baldwin, 22 Edgerton Grove Road, 
Huddersfield, West Yorkshire HDl 5QX. 



Strangalia maculata (Poda) var. gibberdi nov., (Col.: Cerambycidae) 

During the hot and sultry weather experienced towards the end of June, a 
small number of Strangalia maculata (Poda) were taken in flight and settling 
on Heracleum in a woodland glade adjoining the Gibberd estate: 26. vi. 1995, 
near Sheering, north Essex (Mrs EHzabeth Uhthoff-Kaufmann). They 
included a small male, clearly maculated as follows: 

The anterior band at the elytral margin vestigial, 
faintly tinted brown; medianly, with three spots forming 
the apices of an equilateral triangle, slightly tilted 
Mm I towards the elytral suture but not contiguous with it, of 

which the uppermost is the largest and ovoid. Above this 
triangulation, placed equi-distantly between the elytral 
boss and scutellum, is a very distinct micro-maculation. 
The remaining fasciae are normal as in the type form. 

This new variety is named after the late Sir Frederick 
Gibberd, architect of Harlow New Town. 
- Raymond R. Uhthoff-Kaufmann, 13 Old Road, Old 
Harlow, Essex CM 17 OHB. 

Upper half of right-hand elytron of Strangalia 
maculata (Poda) var. gibberdi nov. 




BUTTERFLY MIGRATION 263 

A LARGE-SCALE MIGRATION OF THE AFRICAN SKIPPER 

ANDRONYMUS GANDER EVANS, 1946 NEAR CALABAR, NIGERIA 

(LEPIDOPTERA: HESPERIIDAE) 

TORBEN B. LARSEN 

358 Coldharhoiir Lane. London SW9 HPL. 

Introduction 

I SPENT ALL OF MARCH, 1995 surveying the butterflies of the Oban Hills 
Cross River National Park, Nigeria. The Park lies just north of Calabar, the 
type locality of numerous African butterflies from the past hundred years and 
more. The Park is by far the largest forest area in Nigeria and one of the 
largest in West Africa. The habitat is wet evergreen forest in good shape and 
the park is being conserved and developed by grants from the European 
Union and Germany, with technical assistance from, among others, the 
Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF). 

It is one of the centres of biodiversity in Africa. I recorded about 430 
butterfly species during my own trip. However, many other collectors have 
been active in the area, so the total confirmed checklist stands at almost 650. 
My own "discovery curve", my knowledge of the habitat, and the 
distribution of other butterflies both east and west of the Park make the 
prediction that at least 950 species are found in the Park area quite safe. 

The lowland wet evergreen forest of the southern Nigeria/Cameroun 
border is almost certainly the richest habitat anywhere in Africa for 
butterflies - and by implication other arthropods as well. Nowhere in Asia 
are as many butterflies found in one locality, but in the Neotropical Region 
up to 1300 may be found in some localities (Beccaloni & Gaston 1995). 

Migration observation at Mkpot 1 

At 15.30 on 13th March I was heading my team back to the village of Mkpot 
1 in the centre of the park after an excellent, though exhausting day of 
collecting, having covered nearly 20km. We were walking along a fairly 
broad, cleared forest path, but one wholly covered by the canopy. Just as we 
came into the first small open clearing at the edge of the viflage, hordes of 
small insects came straight at us with the speed of bullets. They emerged 
from the continuation of the path on the other side of the clearing and 
continued along the path we had just walked. They were medium-sized 
brown Hesperiidae, though only just recognisable as such since I have seen 
migrating Borbo in southern India (Larsen 1988). 

"Catch as many as you can!", I shouted to my team, as I began to collect a 
sample. This was no easy task. The speed was more rapid than anything I 
have seen before. However, so dense was the swarm that backswipes with 
the net would usually land a few specimens. 

After a while, I looked back at my team - a local guide, a research 
assistant and two park rangers, all equipped with nets - to see how they were 
getting on. They were not. They were prostrate on the ground with butterfly 



264 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

nets over their heads. Rather sheepishly they confessed they thought we had 
met a swarm of aggressive bees! Back in camp, I found the following 
quotation in respect of the almost identical A. neander Plotz, 1884 from 
Tanzania on the computer: "In February, 1984 I watched swarms continually 
flying over the Mafwemiru Forest in the Rubehos for two days. Sometimes 
so thick that they reminded me of swarming bees." (Kielland 1990). My 
team felt somewhat exculpated! 

The entire event lasted only six minutes. As far as I could make out, the 
butterflies were limited to the width of the path. I saw none flying high. They 
came at us at a density of 10-15 a second, for a total of 3,600 to 5,400 on the 
1.5 metre-wide path. 

Sex and condition of migrants at Mkpot 1 

The sample collected consisted of 14 males and nine females, indicating a 
normal sex ratio. This is interesting since collections of Andronymus usually 
contain many more females than males (Evans 1937; Fox et al. 1965; Usher 
1980). 

Of the sample taken six were perfect, 12 worn, and five in very poor 
condition. This is also interesting, since migrations usually consist of freshly 
hatched individuals. 

Other observations 

That afternoon, as I was entering the day's field notes, another flight overflew 
Mkpot 1, this time quite high, several metres above the ground. The front 
was only about 40 metres wide, and it lasted only from 17.36 to 17.42. The 
butterflies were more dispersed than on the path and must have contained 
another 5,000 to 10,000 individuals. 

Three days later we trekked the 22km north to the friendly little village of 
Itaka. Here we were told that a huge migration of "bee-like" butterflies had 
been flying towards the north-east on the 1 3th. It was not possible to get very 
precise details, but evidentially it was a larger, wider, and more long-lasting 
event than at Mkpot 1 . 

Back in Calabar, 35km to the south of Mkpot 1, I was told of a north- 
easterly migration by four independent observers ("so you saw it too"). 
Some talked of rather broad-based migration several metres above ground, 
others emphasised that the migration had snaked through a narrow gap 
between two houses. Again, the width and duration of the migration 
appeared wider and longer than that at Mkpot 1 . 

Discussion 

During the ten days preceding the migration, I had collected just four or five 
individuals of the migrating species. I saw none on the ten-hour walk north 
from Mkpot 1 to Itaka. I was very interested in them, since they did not quite 
seem to be the expected species, A. neander, a known migrant. They turned 



BUTTERFLY MIGRATION 265 

out all to be A. gander, a species not previously recorded from Nigeria 
(mainly known from Congo, Zaire and western Tanzania). Recording a 
species new to any country is nice, doing it by the million must be rather 
unusual! 

The migration obviously took place over a large front - at least 50km 
across, judging from the observations at Calabar and Itaka. Millions must 
have been involved (though not billions as I saw with Catopsilia florella 
Fabricius, 1793 in Botswana (Larsen 1992)). The comportment of the 
migrants was not quite typical; sometimes they flew quite high, over broader 
fronts, sometimes they flew low and adapted to local contours such as paths 
and houses. 

There are a number of records of migrating Andvonymus from Cameroun 
(Fox et al. 1965) and the Calabar area (Ried, Kunzel, & Kunzel 1990) 
(almost certainly A. neander in Cameroun, possibly A. gander in Calabar), 
but especially from East Africa (Kielland 1990; Williams 1976). The only 
other rainforest butterfly that is a regular migrant is Lihythea lahdaca 
Westwood, 1851. There are similarities. L. lahdaca sometimes migrates over 
a wide front, sometimes adapts to local contours. Also, many L. lahdaca 
migrations take place just before the rains, which is when the current 
observations were made (Larsen 1977, 1981). 

The main remaining impression is the usual one. What happened was 
phenomenal, and obviously important to the species in question. Being 
privileged to observe such a migration was gratifying. Being unable to 
explain where and why was the origin, where and why was the destination, 
and what were the underlying causes remains deeply frustrating. 

Acknowledgements 

This is the 16th paper in preparation of my book on the Butterflies of West 
Africa - origins, natural history, diversity and conservation. My field work 
benefits greatly from grants from the Carlsberg Foundation and the National 
Research Councils in Denmark, for which I am most grateful. My thanks to 
staff of the Oban Hills National Park project, especially Clive Williams, 
Klaus Schmitt and Emmanuel Bebiem are deepfelt. 

References 

Beccaloni, G.W. & Gaston, K.J., 1995. Predicting the species richness of Neotropical 

forest butterflies: Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) as indicators. Biological 

Conservation 71: 77-86. 
Fox, R.M., Lindsey, A.W., Clench, H. & Miller, L.D., 1965. The butterflies of Liberia. 

Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. 19: 1-438. 
Kielland, J. 1990. The butterflies of Tanzania. Hill House, Melbourne & London. 
Larsen, T.B., 1977. A migration of Lihythea labclaca Westwood in Ghana (Lep.: 

hxhyxhtiddit). Atalanta, 9: 148-149. 

- , 1981. A migration oi Lihythea lahdaca Westwood in Nigeria. Atalanta. 12: 94-96. 

- , 1988. The anatomy of a major butterfly migration in southern India. Atalanta. 18: 267- 
281. 

- , 1992. Migration of Catopsilia florella in Botswana (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Tropical 
Lepidoptera. 3: 2-11. 



266 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Reid, J.C, Kunzel, S. & Kunzel, T. 1990. A mass flight of the butterfly Andronymus sp. 

at Calabar (probably A. neander). Nigerian Field, 55: 83-84. 
Usher, M.B., 1980a. The Andronymus caesar complex of species (Hesperiidae). 

Systematic Entomology, 5: 291-302. 
Williams, C.B., 1976. The migration of the Hesperiine butterfly Androntmus neander 

Plotz in Africa. Ecological Entomology, 1: 213-220. 



Evidence of White Admiral butterfly (Limenitis Camilla L.) larvae 
feeding on Aspen (Populus tremula) 

Whilst searching honeysuckle {Lonicera periclymenum) leaves in a well- 
known Surrey locality, following up resulting larvae of the White Admiral 
{Limenitis Camilla) from hatched eggs located on 17th July 1995, I noticed 
two nearby leaves of Aspen {Populus tremula) with feeding damage of 
exactly the same nature as on the honeysuckle leaves - a long exposed bare 
midrib with leaf eaten well down either side. The classic and unmistakable 
feeding pattern of the White Admiral. Unfortunately both larvae were absent 
from their midrib "seats", as indeed were three out of four known larvae in 
similar situations on the honeysuckle which was in close proximity to the 
aspen. The White Admiral suffers high mortality as a first instar larva, as I 
have ascertained from regularly searching for larvae in July and August prior 
to their hibernation in September. 

It is interesting to note here that the larval foodplant of the European 
Poplar Admiral {Limentis populi) is most commonly aspen and there is an 
illustration in the excellent Swiss book Tagfalter unci ihre Lebensraume 
(Arten, Gefahrdung, Schutz 1987) of an aspen leaf damaged by the larva of 
this species. It is identical to the leaves located by myself in Surrey and I am 
certain that they were utilised by the larvae of the White Admiral. 

An extensive search of the surrounding aspen growth was undertaken 
without finding similar feeding damage or an extant larva. There was a wide 
variety of feeding patterns on the leaves, ranging from mere holes, edge of 
leaf, to a complete strip bar leaf veins, leaving a skeletal appearance. There 
was no comparison on the aspen leaves to the unmistakable feeding pattern 
of the early instar White Admiral larva. It is important to note that the aspen 
leaves were in such a highly suited position for ovipositing White Admirals 

- dappled shade, next to an already well utilised spray of honeysuckle 
leaves. A rarely found combination which perhaps led to this unusual 
ovipositing choice? 

Are there any other records of White Admiral larvae being found or 
suspected of feeding on aspen? Initial literature searches by myself have yet 
to reveal any. The aspen leaves were photographed and then pressed for a 
permanent record. The same site will be visited a little earlier next year with 
the hope of finding an actual deposited egg or feeding larva. 

- K.J. WiLLMOTT, 3 Yarm Court Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 8NY. 



BUTTERFLIES IN GREECE 267 

BUTTERFLIES IN NORTH-EAST (iREECE 
(28th JULY - 4th AUGUST 1994) 

Andrew Wakeham-Dawson 

The Game Conservancy Trust, Fordin^hrid^e, Hampshire SP6 lEF. 

Introduction 

GREECE has an interesting butterfly fauna which includes (1) 
representatives of the European sub-continent's fauna, (2) representatives of 
Asia-Minor's fauna and (3) endemic mountain species (Brown & Coutsis, 
1978). The present paper lists the 84 species of butterfly found on three 
mountains in north-east Greece between 28th July and 4th August 1994. Of 
these, two species are not recorded on the lists of Bretherton (1967, 1968, 
1970), Coutsis (1969, 1972, 1973), Dacie et al. (1970, 1972, 1979, 1982), 
Koutsaftikis (1974) and de Worms & Bretherton (1975). These are Lycaena 
dispar rutila Wemeberg and the more recently described Pseudochazara 
orestes de Prins & van der Poorten. 

List of species 

Key to symbols used in this list: 

*, identification confirmed by examination of male genitalia 

CW, common with widespread distribution 
CL, common with localised distribution 
UL, uncommon with localised distribution 

F, Mount Falakro near Drama 

O, foothills of Mount Orvilos on the Greek-Bulgarian border 

V, Mount Vrontous near Seres 

D, deciduous woods, 500- 1200m 

M, maquis (arid scrub), 500- 1000m 

P, road through pine woods, c600m 

R, flower-rich roadside in pine zone, 1700m 

51, lush stream valley, c800m 

52, lush stream valley through pine zone, 1600m 
SA, sub-alpine pasture, 1700-2200m 

SKI, ski-slope through pines to pasture, 1700- 1800m 
SP, stony pasture above tree-line, 1200- 1400m 

Aglais urticae L. - UL, F, V, SA, SKI. 

Agrodiaetiis amanda Schneider - A single male, F, D. 

A. escheri Hiibner - A single female, F, SI. 

A. ther sites Cantener - CL, F. M. 

Aphantopiis hyperantus L. - UL, F, SI. 

Arethusana avethusa D. & S. - UL, V, M. 



268 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Argynnis paphia L. - Including female f. valesina Esper, CW, F, V, D, R, S 1 . 

Aricia agestis D. & S. - *, CW, F, O, V, D, M, SI. 

A. anteros Freyer - CL, F, M, P, SI. 

Artogeia mannii Mayer - '^, CL, F, M, SI. 

A. rapaeL.-CL,F, M, SI. 

Boloria graeca Staudinger - UL, F, SA (1700m- 1900m). 

Carcharodus alceae Esper - *, CL, F, M, SI. 

Celastrina argiolus L. - CL, F, M, SP. 

Chazara briseis L. - CW, F, V, D, M, SI, SKL 

Clossiana dia L. - UL, F, S 1 . 

Coenonympha arcania L. - UL, V, M, SKL 

C. pamphilus L. - CW, F, V, D, M, S 1 . 

C. rhodopensis Elwes - *, UL, F, SA (1750-1900m). 

Colias australis Verity - UL, F, S 1 . 

Colias crocea Geoffroy - Including female f. helice Hiibner, CW, F, V, M, 

R, SI. 
Cupido minimus Fuessly - CW, F, V, D, M, S 1 , SP. 
Cyaniris semiargus Rottemburg - UL, V, S2. 
Cynthia cardui L. - CW, F, M, SI, SA. 
Erebia ewyale Esper - Males only, *, UL, F, SA (1750m). 
E. melas Herbst. - Females rare, CL, F, SA (1700- 1800m). 
Erynnis tages L. - CW, F, S 1 , D. 
Eumedonia eumedon Esper - UL, F, SA (1800m). 
Everes alcetas Hoffmannsegg - *, UL, F, SI. 
Fabriciana adippe f. cleodoxa Ochsenheimer - UL, V, S2. 
Heodes alciphron Rottemburg - *, UL, V, R, S2. 
H. tityrus Poda - CL, O, V, D, M. 
H. virgaureae L. - CL, V, R, S2. 

Hipparchia aristaeus senthes Fruhstorfer *, CW, F, O, V, D, SKI. 
H.fagi Scopoli - *, UL, F, P. 
Hyponephele lycaon KUhn. - *, CL, F, SA, SP. 
Inachis io L. - UL, F, V, S 1 , SKI. 
Iphiclides podalirius L. - CW, F, V, D, M, SI. 
Issoria lathonia L. - CW, F, O, V, D, R, S2, SA, SKI. 
Lampides boeticus L. - UL, F, S 1 . 
Lasiommata maera L. - *, UL, V, D. 
L. m^^^/Y?L.-CW, F, D, SI. 
Leptidea sinapis L. - CW, F, O, M, D. 
Libythea celtis Laicharting - CL, F, O, D, S 1 . 
Limenitis reducta Staudinger - CW, F, V, D, M. 
Lycaeides idas L. - *, UL, V, SKI. 
Lycaena dispar rutila Wemeburg - UL (probably second brood), F, SI. The 

male genitalia of this species are illustrated in Fig. la. 
L. phlaeas L. - CL, F, M, SA. 



BUTTERFLIES IN GREECE 



269 




1mm 




1mm 



Fig. 1. (a) The male genitalia of Lycaena dispar nitila Wemeberg, from north-east 
Greece in July/August 1994. 
(b) The male genitalia of Pseudochazara orestes de Prins & van der Poorten, 
from north-east Greece in July/August 1994. 



Lysandra bellargus Rottemburg - UL, F, M, S 1. 

L. coridon Poda - *, CW, F, O, V, D, SI, SA. 

Maniola jurtina jwtina L. - Females brightly coloured like M. jurtiua 

hispuUa Esper females, *, CW, F, O, V, D, M, R, SI. 
Melanargia galathea L. - Including f. procida Herbst, CW, F, V, D, SKI. 
M. larissa Geyer - CL, F, M, SP. 
Meleageha daphnis D. & S. - Including female f. steeveni Treitschke, CW, 

F, V, D, P. SI. 
Melitaea phoebe D. & S. - UL, F, S 1 . 
M. didyma Esper - A small race, *, CL, F, M, S 1 . 



270 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD. VOL. 107 25. xi. 1995 

M. trivia D. & S. - *, CL, V, M. 

Mesoacidalia aglaja L. - CW, F, V, D, R, SI, SA. 

Neohipparchia fatiia Freyer - *, UL, F, M. 

A^. statilinus Hufnagel - *, UL, V, O, D. 

Nordmannia ilicis Esper - CL, F, P. 

Nymphalis antiopa L. - UL, V, SKL 

Ochlodes venatus Turati - CL, F, M, SI, SP. 

Palaeochiysophanus hippothoe leonhardi Fruhstorfer - *, a single male, V, R. 

Pandoriana pandora D. & S. - CW, F, V, R, SI, S2. 

Pieris brassicae L. - CW, F, V, M, SI, SA, SKL 

Plebejus argiis L. - *, CW, F, V, M, SI, SA, SKL 

Plebicula dorylas D. & S. - CL, F, M, SI, SA. 

Polygonia c-album L. - CW, F, V, D, R, SI. 

P. egea Cramer - UL, F, S 1 . 

Polyommatus eroides Frivaldski - CL, V, SKL 

P. icariis Rottemburg - ^, CW, F, V, D, M, SI. 

Pontia daplidice L. - CL, F, M. 

Pseudochazara orestes de Prins & van der Poorten - *, CL, F, D, SP. The 

male genitalia of this species are illustrated in Fig. lb. 
Pseudophilotes baton schijfermuelleri Hemming - *, CL, F, M. 
Pyrgus armoricanus Oberthur - *, CW, F, V, M, P, SI, S2, SA (1700- 

1800m). 
Pyronia tithonus L. - CW, F, V, M, SI. 
Satyrus ferula F. - CL, F, V, SA (1700m), SKL 
Spialia orbifer Hiibner - *, CL, F, SI. 
Tarucus balkanicus Freyer - UL, F, M. 
Thymelicus acteon Rottemburg - *, UL, F, M. 
T.flavus Brunnich - UL, V, M. 
T. lineola Ochsenheimer - UL, V, SKL 
Vanessa atalanta L. - CW, F, V, R, SI, SA. 

Acknowledgements 

I thank the Greek Government for permission to conduct this study and 
collect material (Research License 76205/2348), and the Trustees and Staff 
of the British Museum (Natural History) for allowing the use of the National 
Collections and the Entomology Library for the present work. 

References 

Bretherton, R.F., 1967. A visit to Greece in late April 1967. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 
79: 191-198. 

- , 1968. More about Greek butterflies, June 1968. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 80: 273- 
281. 

- , 1970. Butterflies in central Greece, June 1970. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 82: 277-285. 
Brown, J. & Coutsis, J.G., 1978. Two newly-discovered Lycaenid butterflies 

(Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from Greece, with notes on allied species. Entomologist's 
Gazette 29: 20\-2\ 3. 



BUTTERFLIES IN GREECE 27 1 

Coutsis, J.G., 1969. List of Grecian butterflies. Entomologist 102: 264-268. 

- , 1972. List of Grecian butterflies: additional records 1969-1971. Entonioloi>ist's Rec. J. 

Var. H4: 145-151. 

- , 1973. List of Grecian butterflies: additional records 1972. Entomologist's Rec. ./. Var. 
85: 165-168. 

Dacie, J.V., Dacie, M.K.V. & Grammaticos, P., 1970. Butterflies in Greece, May 1969. 
Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 82: 54-58. 

- , 1972. Butterflies in northern and central Greece, July 1971. Entomologist's Rec. ./. 
Var. 84: 257-266. 

Dacie, J.V., Dacie, M.K.V., Grammaticos, P. & Coutsis, J., 1982. Butterflies in northern 

Greece, July-August 1980. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 94: 18-20. 
Dacie, J.V., Dacie, M.K.V., Grammaticos, P., Higgins, L.G. & Higgins, N., 1979. 

Butterflies in northern Greece, June-July 1978. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 91: 311- 

314. 
Koutsaftikis, A., 1974. Recent butterfly records from Greece. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 

86: 15-17. 
de Worms, C.G.M. & Bretherton, R.F., 1975. A fortnight's collecting in Greece. July, 

1974. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 87: 77-85. 



Acontia lucida Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae), the Pale Shoulder new to the 
Isles of Scilly and third record for British Isles. 

Following a period of gently south-easterly winds during the previous two 
days, we successfully recorded an interesting variety of migrants on the 
night of 5/6th August 1995. Included in our trap were P alpha unionalis Hbn. 
(Pyralidae), two Rhodometra sacraria Linn., the Vestal (Geometridae) and 
singletons of the noctuids Mythimna albipuncta D. & S., the White Point and 
Heliothis peltigera D. & D., the Bordered Straw. At the same time both 
Icterine and Melodious Warblers were recorded on the island together with 
many more common migrant birds. 

It was not until the night of 10/1 1th August that we were able to operate 
the trap again but the wait was worthwhile. The catch included another 
White Point, The Cosmopolitan (Mythimna loreyi Dup.) and an unfamiliar 
noctuid. We sent this specimen to Dr Frank Smith who, together with Adrian 
Spalding, determined it as the Pale Shoulder, Aconita lucida. Subsequent 
communications with Bernard Skinner revealed that not only was this the 
first record for the Isles of Scilly but only the third British record this 
century, the others being at West Bexington, Dorset on 5.viii.l994 and 
Dymchurch, Kent on the same date. 

The moth has since been sent to Mr David Carter at the Natural History 
Museum. An examination of our mid- July to mid-August data for migrant 
species such as the Silver Y {Autographa gamma L.) and the Diamond- 
backed Moth {Plutella xylostella L.) (Figures 1 and 2) clearly indicate a 
large influx of moths during that period. This rise in numbers was not due to 
freak catching conditions as the almost uniform catches of our residents 



272 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.XL1995 



clearly shows. Once again the incidence of large numbers of migrant moths 
coincided with the appearance of a variety if interesting birds. Long may it 
continue!- John Hale and Mike Hicks, St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly TR22 OPL. 



,^ "^ 

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C3 to 

^ c ^ 

!-H ^ <" 




00 

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NOTHRIS CONGRESSARIELLA 273 

NOTHRIS CONGRESSARIELLA (BRAUND, 1858) (LEPIDOPIERA: 
GELECHIIDAE) REARED FROM LUNDY. 

Roger S. Key 

Eui>lish Nature, Norlhminster House, Peterborough PHI I UA. 

BALM-LEAVED FIGWORT, Scrophulaha scorodonia, is listed in tiie 
Vascular Plant Red Data Book (Perring & Farrell, 1983) and is a coastal 
"Lusitanean" species, occurring on the coasts of Portugal, Spain, western 
France and the south-west of Britain. In Britain it is found in the Scilly 
Islands, parts of Cornwall and Devon, Lundy, on one island off the 
Pembrokeshire coast and on the Channel Islands. On Lundy it is common on 
the eastern "Sidelands" (undercliffs), growing in areas of disturbance, 
usually cliff slippages, and also in wet flushes. 

The gelechiid moth Nothris congressaviella is specific to this foodplant in 
Britain, making larval spinnings in terminal and lateral shoots of the plant. 
Its distribution and ecology is summarised by Parsons (in press) who 
describes it from several of the Scillys, as well as from three sites in 
Cornwall and from Herm and Guernsey in the Channel Isles and includes the 
Lundy record described here. It is classed as Red Data Book category 3 - 
Rare. 

In May 1986 Dr Keith Alexander of the National Trust's Biological 
Survey Team noted that a high proportion of the plants of Scrophulavia 
scorodonia on Lundy had terminal shoots spun together, each containing a 
micro-moth larva (National Trust, 1986). At the time, Nothris 
congressaviella was known only from the Scilly Isles and Channel Islands 
and Alexander speculated that these larvae might be of that species or of a 
polyphagous other species but no attempt was made to try and rear the 
larvae. 

On 22nd - 26th May 1993, I visited Lundy with Dr Stephen Compton of 
Leeds University, Miss Lynne Farrell and Mrs Rosy Key, both of English 
Nature, in order to monitor the populations of protected plants on Lundy, 
and to initiate an investigation into the interaction of Lundy Cabbage, 
Coincya wrightii, with its insect fauna. Keith Alexander recommended that 
lepidopterist Robert Heckford accompany us to search for larval spinnings 
on Scrophularia scorodonia and attempt to determine their identity but 
unfortunately he was unable to come and the task fell to us. 

We similarly noted larval spinnings on a very high proportion, perhaps 
70%, of the plants of Scrophularia scorodonia, many plants supporting 
between one and five young larvae, which were photographed. Fortunately, 
English Nature's main office at Peterborough maintains a display collection 
of scarce British plants in its forecourt, including one specimen of 
Scrophularia scorodonia. 

On leaving the island, six specimens of larvae were collected and taken to 
Peterborough, where they were reared on cut shoots in water of Scrophularia 



274 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.xi.1995 




Fig. 1 . Nothhs congressarieUa - adult. 




Fig. 2. Nothris congressarieUa - larvae. 



scorodonia, sleeving on the live plant being impossible owing to the 
continual public access to the forecourt display plant. The larvae 
successfully created new spinnings on the soft young shoots, but these had to 
be frequently changed as they deteriorated rapidly once removed from the 
plant. Only one larva was eventually successfully reared, pupating on 3rd 
June within the larval spinning and the pupa was removed to prevent fungal 



NOTHRIS CONGRESSARIELLA 275 

infection from the deteriorating foodplant. It emerged on 14th June, was 
photographed and its identity was confirmed as Not his congressariella by 
Mr Mark Parsons of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. 

Mere (1959) describes the larvae leaving the foodplant and pupating near 
the soil surface. In the artificial conditions in which I reared it, no conclusion 
can be made concerning its pupation in the larval spinnings. 

I returned to the island in July 1993 with Robert Heckford and in June 
1994 and on both occasions found abundant larval spinnings, although in 
1994 the number of plants present was significantly lower than in the 
previous year, especially in the populations on the flushes. Such variations in 
numbers are not an uncommon feature of plant species dependent on soil 
disturbance. 

On a holiday to Brittany in August 1993 I found Scrophularia scorodonia 
was abundant around the Golfe de Morbihan and most plants there had larval 
spinnings with larvae apparently identical to those of Nothris 
congressariella. On a visit to Lundy in late September 1994, no trace of 
spinnings or larvae could be found, nearly all of the plants of Scrophularia 
scorodonia having been reduced to the loose rosette of older leaves in which 
form it overwinters. 

I am indebted to Keith Alexander for the suggestion to look on Lundy for 
the species and to Mark Parsons for the confirming the identity of the 
specimen. 

References 
Mere, R.M., 1959. Nothris congressariella Bruand on Tresco. Entomologist's Rec. J. 

Var. 71: 35-57. 
National Trust, 1986 (unpublished). Biological Survey - Lundy, Devon. Natural Trust 

Estates Adviser's Office, Cirencester, 140pp. 
Parsons, M.S., (in press). A Review of th& Scarce and Threatened Ethmiinae, 

Stathmopodine and Gelechiid Moths of Great Britain. UK Nature Conservation 16. 

Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. 
Perring, F.H. & Farrell, L., 1983. British Red Data Books: I Vascular Plants. 2nd ed. 

Royal Society for Nature Conservation, Lincoln. 



Eupithecia abietaria Goeze (Lep.: Geometridae) in Devon 

During an examination of a collection of a local collector. Mr Peter 
Franghiada, I discovered three specimens of E. abietaria taken at Haldon. a 
Forestry Commission (Forest Enterprise) site. Dates were 24.vi.1985, 
7.vii.l986 and 12.vii.l986. He kindly donated one of the specimens to me. 
as Devonshire recorder. I visited the site on 10.vii.l995, but although over 
170 species of Lepidoptera were seen, albietaria was not amongst them. I 
did, however, take a worn example of this species at Believer Forest. 
Dartmoor, on 18.vii.l995.- R. McCormick, 36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, 
Devon TQ14 8NR. 



276 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25. xi. 1995 

Two new foodplants for Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. (Lep.: Lymantridae) 
noted in east London, March/April 1995. 

The winter and early spring of 1995 were spent gathering data for my MSc 
study on the factors responsible for the distribution of this infamous 
Lymantrid pest species in east London. Between January and March of this 
year, data collated on a total of 1,637 hibemacula found throughout the 
London borough of Newham, gave eighteen plant species suffering from the 
ravages of this insect. Nine of these plants were rosaceous. Two other shrubs 
are not known as hostplants for this moth; these being Cormis sanguinea and 
Laurus sp. Two small "webs" were seen on Cormis in late March in the 
Canning Town area, their presence being confirmed a month later. More 
surprisingly still, was the sight of a small "nest" on Laurus, again in Canning 
Town in March. An undersized hibemaculum might be regarded as an 
aberration, however, its status as an unrecorded larval foodplant should be 
taken much more seriously with the finding of several hundred larvae on a 
laurel hedge on 25th April, not so very far from the original record. A 
subsequent 76 fully-grown larvae, in addition to 14 "pupal webs" were also 
noted on this plant on 9th June in the same London area on Silvertown Way. 
Laurus is a member of a principally tropical family, the Lauraceae, none of 
which are known to be attacked by E. chiysorrhoea. 

Of other unusual foodplants of this species. West (1992) mentions larvae 
bein? seen on Buddleia davidii at Barking in 1977. I have never noted the 
moth on this plant in east London despite the latter's abundance. Plant (1993) 
does not include either Laurus or Cornus in his resume of Brown tail moth 
hostplants, neither do Gomez Bustillo (1978) nor Gomez de Aizpurua 
(1986). The latter author does mention another unfamiliar foodplant, that of 
Ligustrum. The only experience I have of this as a possible hostplant is an 
encounter with three females on privet in Granville, northern France, in July 
1994. Although the females had already oviposited on the leaves, the 
neonates refused to eat it. I have certainly never come across it in London on 
privet. Carter (1984) cites Forsythia, which is in the same family, that of 
Oleaceae. 

References 

Carter, D., 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe with special referenceto the British Isles. 

Dr W. Junk, Dordrecht. 
Gomez de Aizpurua, C. 1986. Biologia y Morfologia de las Oriigas. Tomo II, MAPA. 
Gomez Bustillo, M.R., 1978. Mariposas de la Peninsula Iberica. Heteroceros II. 

ICONA, Madrid. 
Heywood, V.H., 1993. Flowering Plants of the World. Batsford, London. 
Hutchinson, J., 1955. British Wild Flowers. Pelican. 

Plant, C, 1993. Larger Moths of the London Area. London Natural History Society. 
West, B.K., 1992. Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. (Lep.: Lymantriidae); Larval infestation in 

the Kentish Weald. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 104: 330. 
- G. King, 22 Stoney Mead, Slough SLl 2YL. 



KENYAN ORTHOPTERA 277 



ONE AND A HALF YEARS OF KENYAN ORTHOPTERA 
1. INTRODUCTION AND TETTIGONIIDAE 

John Paul 

Downsflint, High Street. Upper Seeding , West Sussex BN44 SWN. 

WHILST RESIDENT in Nairobi from 1991 to 1993 I was able to study the 
Orthoptera of Kenya. A representative collection was assembled despite 
pressure of work and other commitments which limited entomology to 
occasional weekends and holidays. I had previously entomologised in Kenya 
during short visits in 1985 and earlier in 1991 before taking up residence. I 
concentrated on the Acridoidea as these were conspicuous members of the 
fauna in virtually all habitats during all seasons but other orthopteroids were 
not neglected and it was impossible to ignore the other vibrant insect life, 
especially the butterflies. 

Kenya is an equatorial country with an enormous variety of environmental 
conditions ranging from the humid tropical torpor of the coast to grassland, 
thorn scrub, semi-desert, forest, upland pasture and snows of Mount Kenya. 
Nairobi, at 5,500 feet on the edge of the Central Highlands, has two wet 
seasons - the "short rains" around November and the 'long rains" from 
March to May. It is cool and overcast in July and August whilst from 
January until the start of the long rains it is sunny, hot and dry. In the west it 
is warm and wet all year round, whilst on the Indian Ocean, the long rains 
may be torrential but the rest of the year dry. Parts of the Rift Valley, whose 
axis transects the whole country, are inhospitable semi-deserts. Transport is 
a major consideration when planning a collecting trip. A four-wheel-drive 
vehicle is necessary to reach many of the areas of special entomological 
interest. Two guidebooks (Moore, 1982; Oberle. 1991) available in Nairobi 
bookshops, are excellent sources of information on localities outside the 
usual tourist areas. The 50,000 scale Survey of Kenya maps should reward 
anyone with the time, patience and diplomatic skills needed to obtain them, 
which in my case involved a Kafkaesque visit to the Survey headquarters, 
making enquiries in its numerous offices, presentation of letters in request of 
maps and an interview with the Deputy Director, during which time I was 
not allowed to see any maps for security reasons. Two weeks later, I was 
given permission to collect half the sheets I had requested and at a very 
reasonable price. Other problems for the entomologist include potentially 
irritating or dangerous wildlife and humans. Mosquitoes, with the threat of 
malaria, and tsetse flies may be a nuisance. Outside the game parks 
dangerous mammals are seldom encountered but snakes are a hazard when 
entomologising. Even in the remotest places, entomological activities often 
attract human attention, generally good-natured but inhibiting to the 
collector. 

Identifying Kenyan Orthoptera is daunting to the amateur, requiring 
reference to scores of papers and access to museum specimens. Many groups 



278 



ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 



25.xi.1995 




Fig. L Highland forest at Eburru, 8,800 feet, home to Horatosphaga longipes. 

are unrevised, rendering accurate speciation impossible. The National 
Museum in Nairobi houses a superb entomological collection which is in 
good order and is actively used by a group of dedicated Kenyan 
entomologists on the museum staff. I am especially grateful to Mr Michael 
Mungai for sharing his expertise and I regret that I was unable to collect with 
him in the field. 

Tettigoniidae (bush-crickets) 

The Conocephalinae and Phaneropterinae are well-represented in Kenya but 
the Tettigoniinae (including the former Dectiinae), which dominate the 
British and European fauna are quite absent. 



Conocephalinae 

Conehead bush-crickets are locally and seasonally abundant in Kenya 
wherever there is grassland. A small representative sample of specimens was 
collected. 

Conocephalus conocephalus (L.) 

Sokoke Forest, Kenya Glass Track, l.xii.l991, in long grass, two males, one 
female. Tumu Tumu, near Karatina, 27.ix.1992, in long grass, two males, 
three females. 

C. iris (Serville) 

Malindi, vii. 1985, one female. 



KENYAN ORTHOPTERA 279 



C. maculatus (Le Guillou) 

Masai Mara, vii. 1985, one female. Kakamega Forest, 11.x. 1991, one 

female; 7-9.ii.l992, one male, three females. Malindi, vii. 1985, one female. 

Phlesirtes merumontanus Sjostedt 

Ngong Hills, on pasture, 19.i.l992, two males, one female. 

Gatamayu Forest, 8,000 feet, on pasture, 13.ix.l992, one male. 

These examples are indistinguishable from specimens in BM(NH) labelled 

Phlesirtes merumontanus Sjostedt, from Limuru in the Kenya highlands. A 

number of species of this unrevised genus have been described from East 

Africa, some of which may be synonyms. 

Ruspolia sp. 

Masai Mara, vii. 1985, one female. 

Ol Doinyo Sabuk, in long grass, 25. i. 1992, one female. 

This difficult genus is seasonally abundant in grassland. After the rains they 

can be heard from moving traffic on the road to Nairobi airport. 

Phaneropterinae 

Phaneropterines do not generally draw attention to themselves, either by 
their calling songs or by their activity. Several species were collected, mostly 
through chance finds on shrubs where they often sit motionless, relying on 
their green colouring for camouflage. The genus Horatosphaga Schaum in 
the group Acrometopae is of special interest because of its marked sexual 
dimorphism and East African endemism. Identification of most of the 
material was rendered relatively straightforward by the clearly presented 
revisionary works of Ragge (1960, 1964, 1980) and by reference to material 
in BM(NH). I am grateful to Dr David Ragge for identifying some of the 
more difficult specimens. 

Catoptropteryx aurita Huxley 
Kihfi, in tree, xi-xii,1991, one male. 

Dionconema ornata Brunner 

Sokoke Forest, Jilore Track, on shrubs, 16.V.1992, one female. Known from 

Tanzania and the Kenya coast, this insect has distinctive dark and blue-green 

markings. 

Horatosphaga gracilis (Sjostedt) 

Tigoni Falls, on shrubs, 29.xii.1991, one male. Endemic to the central 

highlands of Kenya. 

H. leggei (Kirby) 

Ngong Hills, on nettles, 19.i.l992, one female, one nymph. Widespread in 

the highlands of east and central Africa. 

H. longipes (Bolivar) 

Eburru (Doinyo Buru), near Naivasha, on shrubs, 6.xii.l992, one male. 

Endemic to the Kenya highlands. 



280 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Lamecosoma inerme Ragge 

Makuyu, near Thika, grassy roadside ditch, 5.vii.l992, one male. This 
species was collected alongside Tylopsis rubrescens, which it superficially 
resembles on account of its attenuated form and colour pattern of green with 
a reddish-brown dorsal stripe. 

Peronura clavigera Karsch 

Makuyu, near Thika, grassy roadside ditch, 5.vii.l992, one nymph. Peponi 
Road, Nairobi, on shrubs, 19.1.1992, one female. Ol Doinyo Sabuk, on 
shrubs, 25.1.1992, one female. 

Phaneroptera sparsa Stal 

Peponi Road, Nairobi, on shrubs, 19.1.1992, one female. Kakamega forest , 
at light, 7-9.ii.l992, one female. Saiwa Swamp, at light, 12.x. 1991, one 
male. Ngerenya, Kilifi, in dry grass, 21.iii.l992, one male. Nguruman 
Escarpment, on shrubs, 11.x. 1992, one male. Widespread in Africa 
northward to the Iberian peninsula. 

Terpnistria sp. 

Samburu National Reserve, attracted to light of camp fire, vii.1985, one 
nymph. This extends the recorded distribution of this otherwise southern 
genus north of the equator. The distinctive broad spines on the legs and 
keeled and patterned pronotum place the specimen in Terpnistria Stal but 
being a nymph it is not possible to determine the species. 

Tylopsis rubrescens Kirby 

Makuyu, near Thika, grassy roadside ditch, 5.vii.l992, one male. Wide- 
spread in Africa. 

T. irregularis Karsch 

Split Crater, near Lake Elmenteita, in long grass, 13.xii.l992, one male. 

Widespread in Africa. 

Localities: 1. The Central Highlands 

The Central Highlands are a land of red volcanic soils, tea plantations, 
upland pasture and forest. Nairobi at 5,500 feet sits at the interface of the 
highlands and the plains. Within Nairobi itself Orthoptera occur in suburban 
gardens and on wasteland. From my own small garden in Hurlingham the 
following grasshoppers were recorded: Thericles sp., Heteracris brevipennis, 
Parepistaurus sp., Morphacris fasciata, Trilophidia conturbata, Aiolopus 
thalassinus, Gastrimargus verticalis, Gymnobothrus sp., Gymnobothroides 
sp. Nearby, along the Kirichwa Kabwa River, Catantops curvicercus, 
Paracinema tricolor, Paratettix sp. and the phaneropterine Peronura 
clavigera were found. Orthoptera found at other sites in the city include 
Cyrtacanthacris tatarica, Acanthacris ruficornis, Heteropternis couloniana, 
Cataloipus sp., Acrida sulphuripennis, Acrotylus patruelis. These species are 
typical of disturbed and degraded habitat in the Central Highlands. The 



KENYAN ORTHOPTERA 28 1 



Ololua Forest at Karen (6,()00ft) is a precious remnant ot tiie original Nairobi 
forest. I was able to visit the area regularly under permit from the Director of 
the Institute of Primate Research and access to this superb locality helped to 
make city life more tolerable. During the rains, clouds of butterflies 
including Papilio mackinnoni, P. nohilis, P. jacksoni, P. phorcas, Charaxes 
candiope and Tirumala formosa glide along the forest trails. Notable forest 
grasshoppers include the coptacridines Paracoptacris caiita and 
Parepistaurus sp. and the impressive catantopid Pseudopropacris vana 
which is metallic olive green in colour with bright red wings. 

Well north of the city at Tigoni Falls (7,000ft) relict riverine forest has 
highland endemics, the attractive grasshopper Aresceutica vansomeveni and 
the phaneropterine Horatosphaga gracilis. The glossy green pyrgomorphid 
grasshopper, Parasphena kinangopa is abundant on adjacent pasture. Further 
north is Gatamayu (Katamayu) Forest (8,000ft), a wonderful slab of 
submontane forest with streams and tree-ferns. Two highland forest 
grasshoppers, Aresceutica vansomereni and the sexually dimorphic 
Kinangopa jeanneli are present. Continuing westwards across the Rift 
Valley, another outstanding highland locality is Eburru (8,800ft). Here, the 
butterflies Lycaena phlaeas and Pontia helice add a hint of the distant 
Palaearctic to the local fauna. The Kenyan endemic Horatosphaga longipes 
occurs on bushes and the rich grasshopper fauna includes Parasphena sp., 
Phymeurus naivashensis, Acoiypha granulatus, Gastrimargus verticalis and 
Acrotylus patruelis. 

To the south and east of Nairobi, two important highland outliers, the 
Ngong Hills and Ol Doinyo Sabuk rise from the plains. The upland pasture 
along the Ngong ridge (8,000ft) holds large populations of grasshoppers 
including two local endemics, Pezocatantops ngongi and Parasphena 
ngongensis, whilst the T^hdinQxo^iQxmQ Horatosphaga leggei was collected 
from woodland on the northern slopes. The summit of Ol Doinyo Sabuk 
(7,000ft) is alive with Clouded Yellows, Colias electo. Interesting 
grasshoppers include Heteracris hrevipennis, Aiolopiis longicornis and 
Acrotylus somaliensis. The phaneropterine Peronura clavigera occurs in the 
scrub zone lower down. 



References 
Moore, R.D., 1982. Where to watch birds in Kenya. Nairobi. 
Oberle, p., 1991. On safari: 40 circuits in Kenya. Nairobi. 
Ragge, D.R., 1960. The acrometopae of the Ethiopian region: a revision, with notes on 

the sexual dimorphism shown by the group (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Bull. Br. Mus. 

nat. Hist. (Enr.) 8: 267-333. 

- , 1964. A revision of the genus Tylopsis Fieber (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Bull. Br. 
Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 15: 297-322^ 

- , 1980. A review of the African Phaneropterinae with open tympana (Orthoptera: 
tettigoniidae). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 40: 67-192. 



282 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

The White Admiral, Limenitis Camilla L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) still 
present near Bexley, north-west Kent 

My correspondent Keith C. Lewis mentioned {in lift.) his sighting of a 
female of this butterfly on 6th July last at the edge of Chalk Wood in the 
above district; he was able to watch it ovipositing on honeysuckle. Had it 
been (say) 1947, there would have been nothing remarkable in this, for in 
that year it was seen in scores in the neighbouring Joydens Wood by D.F. 
Owen (Chalmers-Hunt, 1960, The Butterflies and Moths of Kent, Ent. Rec. 
72, Supplement: (57)). I do not know what is the present status of Camilla in 
north-west Kent, but 1995 is half-a-century on and it seems unlikely that the 
butterfly's large increase during the 1 940s has held steady ever since, at least 
in that part of the county where it was previously very rare or absent. Mr 
Lewis added that it was the first time he had seen the White Admiral in his 
many visits to the locality.- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, 
London SE7 8QG. 

The Waved Black, Parascotia fuliginaria L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in 
Lancashire 

I was pleased to note a single specimen of the Waved Black moth in my 

garden m.v. light-trap on 5.viii.l995. The only place I have seen this moth 

before was at Wixall Moss, Shropshire on 12.viii.l979. I am not aware of 

any other Lancashire records, and other records of its occurrence in more 

northern counties would suggest the species is a migrant here. 

- J.G. Whitside, Dover Farm, Blackburn Old Road, Hoghton, Preston, 

Lancashire. 

Unusual variation in the Light Emerald, Campaea margaritata L. (Lep.: 
Geometridae) 

On the night of 17th August last a fresh and rather small male of what 
appeared to be the above moth was boxed from a lighted window of my 
study, the first I have encountered in this way (I have not had the species at 
m.v. light). Examining it while it was still alive, I was struck by the colour of 
the fringes - a pronounced coral-red throughout; but thinking it must be 
normal, though previously overlooked by me, I duly released the moth. 
However, the point seemed worth following up, especially when a large 
female from this district that I happened to have kept was found to have 
fringes of the expected whitish tint. Barrett {Lep. Brit. Isl. 7: 112), whose 
accuracy and attention to detail is well known, says that, apart from a 
chestnut spot at tip of forewing, the cilia are silky white; and mentions no 
sexual difference in this feature. I now regret not having kept the red-fringed 
male - was it an aberration, or even a different species from margaritata? I 
would be very interested if some lepidopterist reader can throw light on the 
matter.- A.A. Allen, 49 Montcalm Road, Charlton, London SE7 8QG. 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN (283) 9 

Records from Dawlish Warren based upon confirmed sightings in the 
period from 1982-1995 continued. 

GEOMETRIDAE 

1663 Alsophila aesciilaria D. & S. March Moth 

Common resident; larva feeds on a wide variety of deciduous trees. 

1665 Pseudoterpna pruinata Hufn. Grass Emerald 

Common resident; larva feeds on Gorse, Broom and Petty-whin. 

1666 Geometra papilionaria Linn. Large Emerald 

Common resident; larva feeds on Birch and occasionally other trees. 
1669 Hemithea aestivaria Hb. Common Emerald 

Common resident; larva feeds on a variety of trees and shrubs 
including Hawthorn, Blackthorn, Birch and Sallow. 

1673 Hemistola clvysoprasaria Esp. Small Emerald 
Common resident; larva feeds on Travellers Joy. 

1674 Jodis lactearia Linn. Little Emerald 

Common resident; larva feeds on Birch, Hawthorn and Bilberry. 
1679 Cyclophora porata Linn. False Mocha 
1682 Timandra griseata Peters. Blood Vein 

Common resident; larva feeds on Dock, Sorrel and Knotgrass. 

1689 Scopula mahginepunctata Goeze, Mullein Wave 

Occurring throughout southern England. Recorded by David C.G. 
Brown in July 1989; larva feeds on Mugwort, Yarrow, Plantain and 
other low-growing plants. 

1690 S. imitaria Hb. Small Blood-vein 

Common resident; larva feeds on Privet and a variety of low-growing 

plants. 
1692 S. immutata Linn. Lesser Cream Wave 

Widespread, but local, throughout the British Isles; larva feeds on 

Meadowsweet and Common Valerian. 
1702 Idaea biselata Hufn. Small Fan-footed Wave 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bramble, Dandelion and a variety of 

low-growing plants; prefers shrivelled foliage. 
1705 /./z/5C6>v^/zc5'(3 Goeze, Dwarf-cream Wave 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bramble and Dandelion. 

1708 /. dimidiata Hufn. Single-dotted Wave 

Local in south-west England and several seen on the Warren; larva 
feeds on Cow Parsley and Burnet Saxifrage. 

1709 /. subsericeata Haw. Satin Wave 

Moderately common resident: larva feeds on Dandelion, Knotgrass 
and Plantain. 
1712 /. emarginata Linn. Small Scallop 

Locally widespread but few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
Bedstraw and other low-growing plants; prefers shrivelled foliage. 



10(284) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

1713 /. aversata Linn. Riband Wave 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bedstraw, Chickweed and 

Knotgrass. 
1716 Rhodometra sacvaria Linn. The Vestal 

A regular migrant species which breeds when conditions permit; larva 

feeds on Dock and Knotgrass. 
1719 Orthonama obstipata Fab. The Gem 

A migrant species which breeds when conditions permit; larva feeds 

on a variety of garden weeds. 
1722 Xanthorhoe designata Hufn. Flame Carpet 

Found, not uncommonly, throughout the British Isles; larva feeds on 

Cruciferae. 

1724 X. spadicearia D. & S. Red Twin-spot Carpet 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bedstraw and other low plants. 

1725 X.feiTugata CI. Dark-barred Twin-spot Carpet 

Generally distributed and several seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
unspecified low-growing plants. 

1727 X. montanata D. & S. Silver-ground Carpet 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bedstraw and Primula ssp. 

1728 X.fluctuata Linn. Garden Carpet 

Common resident; larva feeds on Cruciferae ssp. 

1732 Scotoptei-yx chenopodiata Linn. Shaded Broad-bar 

Moderately common throughout the British Isles; larva feeds on 
vetches and clovers. 

1735 Catarhoe rubidata D. & S. Ruddy Carpet 

A thinly spread species that has occurred in Teignmouth; larva feeds 
on Hedge and Lady's Bedstraw. Recorded 28.6. 1995. 

1736 C. cuculata Hufn. Royal Mantle 

Locally common but few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
Bedstraws. 
1738 Epirrhoe alternata M\x\\. Common CdLV^Qi 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bedstraws including Cleavers. 

1740 Epiirhoe galiata D. & S. Galium Carpet 

Locally common resident and several seen on the Warren; larva feeds 
on Bedstraws. 

1 742 Campto gramma bilineata Linn. Yellow Shell 

Common resident; larva feeds on Dock, Chickweed, and other low- 
growing plants. 

1746 Anticlea badiata D. & S. Shoulder Stripe 

Found most frequently in the southern half of England; larva feeds on 
Wild Rose. 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN (285) 1 1 

1747 A. derivata D. & S. The Streamer 

Widespread southern England resident, a single specimen only seen 

of the Warren; larva feeds on Wild Rose. 
1752 Cosmovhoe ocellata Linn. Purple Bar 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bedstraws. 
1754 EuUthis primata Linn. The Phoenix 

Local species but found in good numbers on the Warren; larva feeds 

on Black and Red Currant, also Gooseberry. 

1758 E. pyraliata D. & S. Barred Straw 

Moderately common resident and several seen on the Warren; larva 
feeds on Sallow, Creeping Willow and Birch. 

1759 EcUptopera silaceata D. & S. Small Phoenix 

Found commonly throughout England and Wales; larva feeds on 
various species of Willowherb. 

1760 Chloroclysta siterata Hufn. Red-green Carpet 

Local species and few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on Oak, 
Rowan and other deciduous trees. 
1762 C. citrata Linn. Dark Marbled Carpet 

Rather local in southern England, otherwise widespread and 
moderately common throughout the British Isles. Recorded by Mr & 
Mrs Normand in June 1984 with a voucher specimen to support; 
larva found on Sallow, Birch, Bilberry and Wild Strawberry. 

1764 C. truncata Hufn. Common-marbled Carpet 

Common resident; larva feeds on a variety of trees and shrubs. 

1765 Cidaria fulvata Forst. Barred Yellow 
Common resident; larva feeds on Wild Rose. 

1766 Pleymria rubiginata D. & S. Blue-bordered carpet 

Widespread and locally common throughout England, Wales and 
Ireland; larva feeds on Alder and Blackthorn. Recorded 4.7.1995. 

1768 Thera obeliscata Hb. Grey-pine Carpet 

Common resident and several seen on the Warren; larva feeds on Pine 
and other conifers. 

1769 T. britannica Turn. Spruce Carpet 

Common resident and several seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
Spruce and other species of Picea. 
1774 Colostygia olivata D. & S. Beech-green Carpet 

Recorded by Mr & Mrs Normand in August 1992. Very local in 
southern England and most frequently seen along the coast of Devon 
and Dorset; larva feeds on Bedstraw. 

1776 C. pectinataria Knoch, Green Carpet 
Common resident; larva feeds on Bedstraws. 

1777 Hydviomena fiircata Thunb. July Highflyer 
Common resident; larva feeds on Sallows. 



12 (286) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25. xi. 1995 

1778 H. impluviata D. & S. May Highflyer 
Locally widespread; larva feeds on Alder. 

1779 H. ruberata Freyer, Ruddy Highflyer 

Local and infrequent in south-west, one seen on the Warren, and 

specimen taken for identification; larva feeds on Sallows especially S. 

aurita. 
1781 Horisme vitalbata D. & S. Small Waved Umber 

Mostly found on chalky soils but suspected to be breeding on the 

Warren; larva feeds on Travellers Joy. 
1789 Hydriomena undulata Linn. Scallop Shell 

Locally widespread in England, Wales and southern Scotland, has 

been taken in Devon, specimen recorded by Mr & Mrs Normand; 

larva feeds on Sallow, Aspen and Bilberry. 
1792 Philemera transversata Hufn. Dark Umber 

Widespread and generally common in the southern half of England. 

Recorded by Mr D. Brown in August 1982, although the specimen 

was not retained; larva feeds on Buckthorn. 
1796 Epirrita christyi Allen. Pale November Moth 

Widespread and locally common resident; adults can only be rehably 

identified by examination of the genitalia, but larvae of this species 

have been taken on the Warren; larva feeds on Maple, Blackthorn, 

Hawthorn and several other species. 
1799 Operophtera brumata Linn. Winter Moth 

Common resident which was at pest proportions during 1994; larva 

feeds on a wide variety of trees and shrubs; on the Warren it feeds 

mainly on the Sallows. 
1803 Perizoma alchemillata Linn. Small Rivulet 

Generally distributed and moderately common throughout the British 

Isles; larva feeds on the flowers and seeds of Hemp Nettle. 
1 808 P. flavofasciata Thunb. Sandy Carpet 

Generally distributed resident although not many seen; larva feeds on 

seed pods of Campions. 
1811 Eupithecia tenuiata Hb. Slender Pug 

Locally common and a few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on Sallow 

catkins. 
1813 E. haworthiata Doubl. Haworth's Pug 

Locally widespread and breeding on the Warren; larva feeds on 

Travellers Joy. 
1816 E. Unariata D. & S. Toadflax Pug 

Widely distributed and locally common in England and Wales; larva 

feeds on Common Toadflax. 
1825 E. centaureata D. & S. Lime-speck Pug 

Common resident; larva feeds on the flowers of many herbaceous 

plants. 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWSH WARREN (287) 1 3 

1830 E. ahsinthiata CL Wormwood Pug 

Widespread resident but few specimens seen at the Warren; larva 
feeds on flowers of Mugwort, Golden-rod, Ragwort and many others. 

1833 E. expallidata Doubl. Bleached Pug 

Local in southern England and only one seen on the Warren; larva 
feeds on the flowers of Golden-rod. 

1834 E. vulgata Haw. Common Pug 

Common resident; larva feeds on Sallow, Hawthorn, Yarrow and 
Bilberry. 

1837 E. suhfuscataWdiyN.Gvty^ug 

Common resident; larva feeds on the flowers and leaves of a wide 
variety of trees and shrubs. 

1838 E. icterata Vill. Tawny-speck Pug 

Common resident although not many seen; larva feeds on the leaves 
and flowers of Yarrow. 

1839 E. succenturiata Linn. Bordered Pug 

Widespread and common in the southern half of England; larva feeds 

on Mugwort. 
1846 E. nanata ssp. angusta Prout. Narrow-wing Pug 

Common resident; larva feeds on flowers of Heather. 
1855 E. phoeniceata Ramb. Cypress Pug 

This species first appeared in Cornwall in 1959 and has since spread 

eastwards along the coast; larva feeds on Cypress. 
1858 Chloroclystis v-ata Haw. V-Pug 

Common resident; larva feeds on the flowers of a wide variety of 

plants. 
1860 C. rectangulata Linn. Green Pug 

Common resident; larva feeds on the flowers of wild and cultivated 

Apple and Pear. 
1862 Gymnoscelis rufifasciata Haw. Double-striped Pug 

Common resident; larva feeds on the flowers of a wide variety of 

plants including Gorse, Broom, Ragwort and Heathers. 
1866 Chesias legatella D. & S. The Streak 

Generally distributed but only one confirmed specimen seen on the 

Warren in 1994; larva feeds on Broom and Tree Lupin. 
1 874 Euchoeca nebulata Scop. Dingy Shell 

Locally widespread and only a few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 

Alder. 
1879 Lobophora halterata Hufn. The Seraphim 

Well established in the southern half of Britain; larva feeds on Aspen 

and, occasionally, Poplar. 
1881 Thchopteiyx carpinata Borkh. Early Tooth-striped 

Common resident; larva feeds on Honeysuckle, Sallow, Birch and 

Alder. 



14(288) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

1882 Pterapherapteiyx sexalata Retz. Small Seraphim 
Common resident; larva feeds on Sallow. 

1883 Acasis viretata Hb. Yellow-barred Brindle 

Widespread but not common, few seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
the flowers and leaves of Holly, Ivy, Wild Privet and Dogwood. 

1884 Abraxas grossulariata Linn. The Magpie 

Common resident, larva feeds on Currant, Gooseberry, Hawthorn and 

other plants and shrubs. 
1887 Lomaspilis marginata Linn. Clouded Border 

Common resident; larva feeds on Sallow and Aspen. 
1890 Semiothisa alteniaria Hb. Sharp-angled Peacock 

Common resident; larva feeds on Sallow, Blackthorn, Alder and Sea 

Buckthorn. 
1893 S. liturata CI. Tawny-barred Angle 

Common resident although usually in conifer areas; only one or two 

seen at the Warren; larva feeds on Scots Pine and Spruce. 
1902 Petrophora chlorosata Scop. Brown Silver-lines 

Common resident; larva feeds on Bracken. 

1906 Opisthograptis luteolata Linn. Brimstone Moth 

Common resident; larva feeds on a variety of trees and bushes. 

1907 Epione repandaha Hufn. Bordered Beauty 

Widespread and locally common; only two or three seen at the 
Warren; larva feeds on Sallow. 
1910 Apeira syringaria Linn. Lilac Beauty 

Locally widespread but only one seen at the Warren; Larva feeds on 
Honeysuckle and Wild Privet. 

1912 Ennomos quercinaha Hufn. August Thorn 

Locally widespread in England. Identified by Mr & Mrs Normand in 
July 1983 and by other recorders in 1982 and 1986; larva feeds on a 
variety of trees and shrubs. 

1913 E. alniaria Linn. Canary-shouldered Thorn 
Common resident; larva feeds on Birch and other trees. 

1915 E. erosaria D. & S. September Thorn 

Generally distributed and moderately common in the southern half of 
England and Wales. Identified by Mr D. Brown in July 1989 and by 
other recorders in 1983; larva feeds on Oak, Lime and Birch. 

1917 Selenia dentaria Fabr. Early Thorn 

Common resident; larva feeds on a variety of trees and shrubs. 

1919 S. tetrahinaria Hufn. Purple Thorn 

Usually common but only two seen on the Warren; larva feeds on 
Birch, Oak, Alder and other trees. 

1920 Odontopera hidentata CI. Scalloped Hazel 

Common resident although few recorded at the Warren; larva feeds 
on Oak, Birch, Garden Privet and other trees including conifers. 



SUPPLEMENT: LARGER MOTHS OF DAWLISH WARREN (289) 15 

1921 CrocaUis elinifuana Linn. Scalloped Oak 

Common resident although few recorded at the Warren; larva feeds 
on a wide variety of trees and shrubs. 

1922 Ourapteiyx sambucaha Linn. Swallow-tailed Moth 

Common resident; larva feeds on Ivy and a variety of trees and shrubs. 

1923 Colotois penncuia Linn. Feathered Thorn 

Common resident but one female seen on the the Warren; larva feeds 

on various trees and shrubs including Hawthorn, Birch and 

Blackthorn. 
1931 5/5r<9/z /76'/'z//<7/7<7 Linn. Peppered Moth 

Common resident; larva feeds on a wide variety of trees, shrubs and 

plants. 
1933 Aghopis aurantiaria Hb. Scarce Umber 

Generally distributed and moderately common in England and Wales; 

larva feeds on a variety of trees. 

1936 Menophora abruptaria Thunb. Waved Umber 

Widespread and not uncommon in the southern half of England and 
Wales; larva feeds on garden Privet and Lilac. 

1937 Peribatodes rhomboidavia D. & S. Willow Beauty 

Common resident; larva feeds on a wide variety of trees and shrubs 

including Gorse, Hawthorn and Birch. 
1941 Aids repandata Linn. Mottled Beauty 

Common resident; larva feeds on Birch, Bilberry, Bramble and many 

other plants. 
1945 Cleorodes lichenaria Hufn. Brussels Lace 

Widespread and locally common in south-west England; two or three 

seen on the Warren; larva feeds on Lichens growing on Oak, 

Blackthorn and old fences. 

1947 Ectropis bistortata Goeze, Engrailed 

Found more or less commonly throughout the British Isles. Recorded 
by Mr & Mrs Normand in July 1982 and 1984, and also by other 
recorders; larva feeds on a variety of trees and shrubs. 

1948 E. crepuscularia D. & S. Small Engrailed 

Locally widespread in England, Wales and Ireland. Recorded by Mr 
& Mrs Normand in June 1984 and also by other recorders; larva feeds 
on a variety of trees and shrubs. 

1955 Cabera pusaria Linn. Common White- wave 

Common resident; larva feeds on Birch. Sallow, Alder. Oak and other 
trees and shrubs. 

1956 C. exanthemata Scop. Common Wave 

Common resident; larva feeds on Sallow and Aspen. 
1958 Lomographa temerata D. & S. Clouded Silver 

Common resident; larva feeds on Hawthorn, Blackthorn and other 
Prunus ssp. 



16(290) ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

1961 Campaea margaritata Linn. Light Emerald 

Common resident; larva feeds on Oak, Birch and many other trees 
and shrubs. 

1962 Hylaea fasciaria Linn. Barred Red 

Widespread and not uncommon throughout the British Isles. 
Identified by Mr & Mrs Normand in July 1983; larva feeds on Scots 
Pine, Norway Spruce and probably other Conifers. 
1968 Aspirates ochrearia Rossi, Yellow Belle 

Widespread and locally common, few found on the Warren; larva feeds 
on Wild Carrot, Buck's-hom Plantain and probably other low plants. 

SPHINGIDAE 

1972 Agrius convolvuli Linn. Convolvulous Hawk 

A migrant species which occasionally arrives in some numbers; a 
specimen found dead in 1990 at the Warren; larva feeds on 
Convolvulaceae and Field Bindweed. 

1980 Smerinthus ocellata Linn. Eyed Hawk 

Common resident; larva feeds on Willows and Sallows. 

198 1 Laothoe populi Linn. Poplar Hawk 

Common resident; larva feeds on Poplar, Sallow and Willow. 
1984 Macroglossum stellatarum Linn. Humming-bird Hawk 

A migrant species which flies by day feeding in brilliant sunlight; 
seen on the Warren in 1994 by the Wardens; larva feeds on Hedge 
and Lady's Bedstraw. 

1991 Deilephila elpenor Linn. Elephant Hawk 

Common resident; larva feeds on Willow Herb and Bedstraw. 

1992 D. porcellus Linn. Small Elephant Hawk 

Widely distributed but rarely common; only two seen on the Warren; 
larva feeds on Bedstraw. 

NOTODONTIDAE 

1994 Phalara hucephala Linn. Buff Tip 

Common resident; larva feeds on Sycamore, Sallow, Oak and many 

other deciduous trees. 
1997 Furculafurcula CI. Sallow Kitten 

Generally common resident but only a few seen on the Warren; larva 

feeds on Sallow, Aspen and occasionally Poplar. 
2000 Notodonta dromedarius Linn. Iron Prominent 

Common Resident; larva feeds on Birch, Alder, Hazel and Oak. 
2003 Eligmodonta ziczac Linn. Pebble Prominent 

Common resident; larva feeds on Sallow, Willow, Aspen and Poplar. 
2005 Pevidea anceps Goeze. Great Prominent 

Widely distributed in the southern half of England. Recorded by Mr 

and Mrs Normand in May 1983; larva feeds on Oak and occasionally 

Beech. 



THIRD RECORD OF ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA 29 1 

A THIRD BRITISH RECORD OF ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA 
TREITSCHKE (1832) (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) AND OTHER 

MIGRANTS FROM VCll. 

M. Jeffes 

44 Windsor Road. Christclmrch. Dorset BH23 2EE. 

WINDSOR ROAD is situated some 100 metres from the River Stour and 
approximately 3km from the Stour and Avon estuary. A small and rather 
worn specimen of Etiella zinckenella was found on the morning of 1 1 th 
August 1995 in a Robinson light trap. The first recorded British specimen 
was captured on 23rd October 1989 in Essex (Bretherton & Chalmers-Hunt, 
1989) by A.J. Dewick whilst the second was caught on 2nd October 1990 in 
Warsash, Hampshire by P.M. Potts (Potts, 1992). 

This came at the end of a period of migrant activity, amongst which was a 
single specimen of Trachea atriplicis (Linnaeus 1758) on 31st July 1995. 
Earlier in the year another new record for VCll turned up, namely Hypena 
obsitalis (Hiibner 1813) on 2nd May. During 1994 a single Scopula 
rubiginata Hufnagel (1767) occurred on 5th August and another singleton, 
this time of Heliothis armigera (Hiibner 1803), on the 27th September. 

A Robinson trap has been run regularly at nearby Hengistbury Head for 
about four years and as well as the annual regular migrants, possibly the 
most interesting records are oi Mythimna vitellina (Hiibner 1808) from the 
period September 1992 to November 1993. As well as fairly large numbers 
in the autumn of 1992 several were also noted in June 1993 and again many 
from September to November 1993. Coupled to that there have been none 
before or since, could this have represented an overwintering population? 
Another home-bred migrant could have been an unusually dark chocolate 
coloured Heliothis peltigera (Denis & Schiffermiiller 1755) found on 29th 
September 1994. 

From 1989 to 1993 I lived in Totton, near Southampton and some of the 
more unusual migrants that occurred there, near the Test Valley were: 

Idaea degeneraria (Hiibner 1799) 26th August 1990. 

/. vulpinaria (Herriich-Schaffer 1851) 1 4th August 1991. 

Drepana cun'atula (Borkhausen 1790) 22nd August 1994. 

Euplagia quadripunctaria (Poda 1761) 6th September 1991. 

Trichophisia ni (Hubner 1803) 25th July 1992. 

Pehcallia ricinii (Fabricius) 31st July 1992. 

The record of the Indian tiger, P. ricinii is most interesting as the probable 
origin is via Southampton docks, some three miles away. This species 
apparently is not a known pest on foodstuffs from the Indian subcontinent so 
on what import it came over will remain a mystery. 



292 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25. xi. 1995 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Mr Barry Goater for his regular help with the positive 
identification of many specimens, not just the ones mentioned above. I 
would also like to thank Mr David Goodger at The Natural History Museum 
for supplying extra information concerning P. ricinii after the Entomology 
Department had positively identified the specimen. 

References 

Bretherton, R.F. & Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 1989. Immigration of Lepidoptera to the 

British Isles in 1989. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 102: 153. 
Potts, P.M., 1992. Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke, 1932 sic.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a 

second British Record. Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 105: 67-68. 



An unusual form of Aglias urticae L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) from Devon 

On 15th August 1995 I noticed a very distinctive variety of Aglias urticae L. 
(Small Tortoiseshell), flying in the company of numerous typical examples 
around a buddleia bush at my home in Devon. The butterfly was a fresh 
female and featured a continuous black band linking the central costal black 
mark to the spot in space lb. It appears to be the form referred to in Emmet: 
Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland Vol. 7 (1) as ab. connexa 
Cabeau.- R.W. Bogue, Kingston House, Tuckermarsh, Bere Alston, Devon 
PL20 7HB. 

Sphinx ligustri L. f. albescens Tutt (Lep.; Sphingidae) in Hampshire 

A specimen of this rare form in which the pink colour is replaced by white 
on the hindwings and abdomen only was taken on 21st June 1995 whilst 
running a mercury vapour trap with J. Chainey near Emery Down, 
Hampshire. Another specimen was taken this year on 22nd June at 
Brockenhurst by M. Middleton and D. Russwurm who tell me that his is the 
fourth example they have seen there since 1976.- R. Cook, 11 Greensome 
Drive, Femdown, Dorset BH22 8BE. 

Ancylosis oblitella Zell. (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Kent 

I was rather surprised to find a fresh specimen of A. oblitella in my garden 
trap on the morning of 2nd September 1995. I have not seen this species in 
the garden since it became temporarily abundant all over southern England 
in 1976 (Ent. Rec. 88: 318). It is mildly interesting that 1995 has been 
compared frequently, though not always accurately, with 1976 for its pattern 
of prolonged hot, dry weather. 

In recent years, this species has been rather scarce with small numbers 
being noted along the Thames estuary.- Paul Sokoloff, 4 Steep Close, 
Green Street Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 



MIGRATION OF PIERIS BRASSICAE 293 

IT WAS MIGRATION - THE EXCEPTIONAL ABUNDANCE OE 
THE LARGE WHITE BUTTERELY PIERIS BRASSICAE (L.) IN 1992 

Howard Mendel 

The Museum, liii^h Street. Ipswich. Suffolk IP J 3QII. 

IN CONSIDERING the exceptional abundance in Britain of the Large White 
Butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.) in 1992, Pollard (1994) asked, "Was it 
migration?" He concluded that "The question posed . . . has not been 
resolved conclusively" but suggested that "the similarity and regularity of 
the pattern of counts over wide areas of southern England suggest emergence 
within the country rather than immigration from abroad". In his paper 
Pollard treats naturalists' observations and reports from other interested 
members of the general public as "anecdotal". A growing number of 
professional entomologists give undue weight to mathematics and statistics, 
preferring numbers to less easily quantified first-hand observations. 

What is the evidence for a massive immigration of P. brassicae from the 
Continent in 1992? I first became aware of a sudden, unusual abundance of P. 
brassicae around the middle of July when, on leaving my house at 
Martlesham Heath (about ten miles from the Suffolk coast) one morning, I 
noticed that the large bed of lavender in my front garden was covered with 
them. A telephone call to Mr S.H. Piotrowski (then Suffolk Butterfly 
Recorder) confirmed that this sudden appearance of butterflies was not 
confined to my garden. He had seen similar large concentrations along the 
Suffolk coast and had heard reports of others both within and outside Suffolk. 
For example, on the 18th July Mrs E.M. Parsons reported "huge and extra- 
ordinary numbers of P. brassicae" feeding on sea lavender on the saltings 
adjoining Hamford Water, Little Oakley, North Essex. On the very same day, 
Mr J.P. Bowdrey {in litt.) at Dunwich in Suffolk witnessed "hundreds of 
brassicae coming in off the sea, flying up the cliff and then crowding onto 
any available flower to feed. Weather conditions were sunny and warm with 
only a slight breeze from the sea". There were numerous similar reports and 
the build-up of interest prompted the Suffolk Naturalists' Society to issue a 
press release, "Invasion of Cabbage Butterflies", on 20th July. 

The press release generated a tremendous response, both locally and 
nationally. Records came in to Ipswich Museum, to the Suffolk Biological 
Records Centre and to Butterfly Conservation who, by that time, realised 
something unusual was happening. Most of the reports referred to large 
concentrations of butterflies along the Suffolk coast but detailed information 
supplied by Mrs J.M. Hannaford {pers. comm.) was more enlightening. On 
14th July she was on a yacht, sailing with friends from Woolverstone, via 
Harwich Harbour, to Holland. Between 6pm and 7pm they were about half a 
mile past the Sunk Light Vessel (located 14 miles south-east of Harwich at 
SrSl'N r35'E). For two to three miles they sailed through a huge swarm of 
P. brassicae heading towards the east coast of Britain. Some of the 
butterflies were floating on the water, others touched down but managed to 



294 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

take off again. Interestingly, some of the butterflies were in cop and others 
were attempting to copulate. Most of the butterflies were in flight six to ten 
feet above the water. The wind was from the south-west, force 2-3. 

Nigel Odin (in lift.) of Landguard Bird Observatory, near Felixstowe on 
the Suffolk coast, recorded "probably thousands" of P. brassicae at 
Landguard on dates in July. "Large numbers were seen flying over the sea" 
and he is in no doubt "that a vast migration of Large Whites took place". The 
report of Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory (Batchelor, 1994) on the south 
Kent coast is both detailed and fascinating - "15th July heralded the start of 
an immense immigration of these butterflies . . . many thousands were 
observed flying in off the sea from the E.N.E. and continuing inland to the 
west-south-west . . . With no sign of diminution in numbers the next day, a 
series of one-minute spot counts was made over a 200 yard stretch of beach 
at Princes which resulted in an average passage of 362 insects per minute . . . 
The movement continued apparently unabated for the next ten days". Clearly 
the network of Bird Observatories in Britain has a valuable part to play in 
monitoring butterfly migration as well as bird migration. 

It is not my intention to comprehensively review the evidence for a 
massive immigration of P. brassicae in July 1992, although that would 
certainly be worth doing. I merely want to make the point that there is ample 
evidence that there was a massive immigration of P. brassicae from the 
Continent (quite likely originating in France) in July 1992 - in spite of 
Pollard's analysis of data from the Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the 
counts made through an office window on Felixstowe Docks that he uses. 
Neither is it my intention to diminish the value of the Butterfly Monitoring 
Scheme. It records numbers not origins and simply was not designed to 
"recognise" immigration. The Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is very useful in 
many ways but does not replace the data provided by the army of amateur 
recorders and observers who still have a most valuable part to play in the 
study of our insect fauna. The information that they supply augments and 
tests the work of that scarce species, the professional entomologist. With a 
little effort it is not difficult to substantiate much of their data which might 
otherwise be condemned as "anecdotal". 

Acknowledgements 

My thanks to Mr J.P. Bowdrey (Assistant Curator of Natural History, 
Colchester Museums), Mrs J.M. Hannaford, Nigel Odin (Landguard Bird 
Observatory Warden), Mr E. Parsons (then Suffolk Naturalists' Society Press 
Officer) and Mr R. Stewart (Suffolk Butterfly Recorder) for supplying me 
with information for this note. 

References 

Batchelor, D.M., 1994. Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory butterflies in 1992. Sandwich 

Bay Bird Observatory Report, 1992, pp. 88-92. 
Pollard, E., 1994. Was it migration? - the exceptional abundance of the large white 

butterfly Pieris brassicae (L.) in 1992. The Entomologist 133: 211-216. 



SPHINGIDAE NEW TO FIJI 295 

TWO SPECIES OF SPHINCilDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) NEW TO FIJI 

John Clayton 

University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. 

TWO ADDITIONAL SPECIES of Sphingidae (Hippotion scropha 
(Linnaeus) and Theretra nessus (Drury)) have been recorded from Fiji. The 
level of previous recording in Fiji makes it difficult to assert positively that 
these have recently arrived in the country, but the frequency and/or ease with 
which they were taken suggests that this is probably the case. 

Previous systematic recording of Lepidoptera in Fiji has been limited. In 
the last 20 years, the only substantial published work has been that of 
Robinson (1975). In this, he records ten species of Sphingidae. Earlier, 
Phillips (1930), published a list of species of Lepidoptera occurring in Fiji. 
The Fijian word ruru is used to refer generically to all night-flying species of 
Sphingidae, and no information concerning the occurrence of individual 
species has been available from local knowledge. However, it is difficult to 
believe that neither Phillips nor Robinson would have recorded these species 
if they had occurred in their present numbers. 

Since early 1991, light-trapping has been carried out in areas easily 
accessible from Suva. In addition, a small amount of collecting has taken 
place occasionally in other parts of Fiji and the South Pacific when these 
were visited. The observations described in the following paragraphs refer to 
this programme. 

Hippotion scropha (Linnaeus). Five specimens of this species were taken at 
house lights on a single evening at a house at Uciwai Beach, about 15km 
south of Nadi, grid reference L28/4604 on the night of 23.vii.1994. The area 
is one of sugar cane fields adjacent to a sandy beach. The surrounding area is 
cultivated, mostly with sugar cane. — — - 

Theretra nessus (Drury). Specimens of this species were taken as follows: 
Suburban garden locations in Suva. Six specimens were taken on two 
occasions during 1991 (31.iii.l991 and 17.xii.l991) at GR 029/7076 and 
one (24.iv.1995) at GR 029/6772. 

Reef Resort, Korotogo, a resort hotel, on the southern coast of Viti Levu 
(GR L29/7369). A single specimen was taken at a room light on the night 
of 25.xii.1991. The resort is situated in an area of mixed agriculture, with 
some sugar cane. 

Nukurua Forest Reserve, Tailevu (GR 028/7397). This is an area of 
extensively modified lowland rain forest. A total of ten specimens were 
taken (12.ii. 1993, 4.xi.l993, l.iii.l994 and 6.xi.l994). 
Galoa Forest Plantation, Serua (GR M29/1867). This is an area of 
extensively modified rainforest, situated at an altitude of around 500m. 
Two specimens were taken on each of two occasions (21.iv.l993 and 
20.i.94). 



296 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Namosi Highlands (N29/3978). Relatively undisturbed rainforest at an 
altitude of around 600m. Six specimens were taken (28. iv. 1995). 

In a recent published work (Common, 1990), the following observations 
are made about the distribution of these species in the South Pacific: 

Hippotion scropha is a common species throughout mainland Australia 
and Tasmania, and also occurs in New Caledonia, the New Hebrides and 
occasionally on Norfolk Island. 

Theretra nessus . . . ranges from India through south-east Asia to New 
Guinea, eastern Queensland, north-eastern New South Wales, the New 
Hebrides, the Loyalty Islands and New Caledonia. 

The following additional information has been obtained about the 
distribution of these species in the Pacific. The collection of the Bishop 
Museum in Honolulu, Hawaii (Miller, pers. comm.) contains specimens as 
follows: Hippotion scrofa, New Caledonia and Theretra nessus, New 
Caledonia and New Hebrides (now Vanuatu). Theretra nessus appeared in 
Hawaii for the first time in 1974 (Reimer, pers. comm.) and spread rapidly 
through the group, although it is interesting to note that the species still 
appeared to be absent from Fiji in 1975 (Robinson, pers. comm.). Robinson 
also recorded Hippotion scrofa from Vanuatu in 1 97 1 . 

When so many species are suffering from reductions in ranges, it is 
encouraging to find these two species extending their distribution. 

References 

Common, I.F.B.,1990. Moths of Australia, pp. 414-415. 

Phillips, R.H., 1930. Private list in the Fiji Department of Agriculture Libraiy. 

Robinson, G.S., 1975. Macrolepidoptera of Fiji and Rotuma. 



Up in the clouds 

In my article some years ago on Butterflies in Lanzerote (Entomologist's 
Rec. J. Var. 103: 79-81) I remarked on the reaction of a fellow holidaymaker 
to the statement that a certain species "usually flew at 1500 feet". It became 
apparent that he took this to mean there was a sort of layer 1500 feet up in 
which the butterflies generally flew. 

Now, I find that I have, myself, once been caught in a similar misunder- 
standing! 

When we were little my father kept what he called a Children's Diary - a 
little notebook in which he jotted down our sayings and doings. An entry for 
August 1932 (I would have been seven and we were on holiday at Austwick) 
reads: "Mr Cheetham, the entomologist, told Geoff that some flies come in 
clouds. Geoff, in all innocence, enquired 'how he got up there to get them'!" 
- G.G. Baldwin, 22 Edgerton Grove Road, Huddersfield, West Yorkshire 
HDl 5QX. 



RHINONCUS ALBICINCTUS IN LONDON 297 

RHINONCUS ALBICINCTVS GYLL. (COL.: CURCULIONIDAE) IN 
SOUTH-EAST LONDON, A THIRD BRITISH LOCALITY 

Richard A. Jones 

13 Bcllwood Road. Nimhead. London SEJ5 3DE. 

AS PART of a biological survey of Beckenham Place Park, in the borough 
of Lewisham, south-east London (VC16, West Kent), I visited the area on 
24. V. 1995 to examine a small pond. Much of the park is given over to a golf 
course, and the pond sits between one of the greens, a car park and the 
narrow boundary woodland abutting houses and flats. It is surrounded by a 
high chain-link fence with thick hawthorn hedge and is overshadowed by a 
large oak and many other trees. The narrow banks between hedge and water 
are overgrown with bramble and other shrubs and emergent vegetation is 
limited to a small area of woody nightshade and yellow flag in a few places. 
I was. therefore more than a little surprised to discover that along with 
numerous specimens of the common waterside weevil Poophagus sisymhrii 
(F.) I had swept a single specimen of the enigmatic Rhinoncus albicinctus 
GyU. 

R. albicinctus is associated with the amphibious bistort Persicaria 
amphibia (L.) Gray (Formerly Polygonum) in its aquatic form natans 
(Morris, 1976), but as far as I could remember at the time, this plant had not 
been present in the pond. A return visit on 19.vi.l995 failed to find either the 
plant or further specimens of the weevil, although the Poophagus was still 
found commonly by sweeping the meagre vegetation. 

After ascertaining the whereabouts of some Persicaria in the Park, a 
further return visit was made on 27. vi. 1995. Sure enough small patches of 
the foodplant were growing along the banks of the River Ravensboume, 
about 1km east of the pond. However, these were all of the upright terrestrial 
growth form and they produced only a couple of specimens of the common 
Rhinoncus pericarpius (L.). 

Rhinoncus albicinctus was first recorded as British from a small site on the 
banks of Virginia Water, Berkshire, where it was found in 1972 (Allen. 
1974). However, the weevil has subsequently been discovered at the 
Powdermill Reservoir between Brede and Seddlescombe in East Sussex 
(Hodge, 1992). This large lake contained plenty of P. amphibia f. natans 
during 1992, but by 1994 the water level had dropped several metres and the 
exposed mudflats were covered in a blanket of the non-aquatic form of the 
plant. Nevertheless the weevil was still present and a single example was 
swept from this now exposed site on 23.viii.1994 (Jones. 1995). It is 
obviously breeding successfully in its Sussex locality, and although only a 
singleton could be found in Beckenham Place Park, its breeding status is 
suggested by the fact that the lone specimen was slightly teneral. 

In both the insect red data book (Morris, 1987) and the recent review of 
scarce Coleoptera (Hyman & Parsons, 1992), R. albicinctus was accorded 



298 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

red data book (RDB) status 1, "endangered", on the grounds that it was then 
known from just the single Berkshire locality. With its discovery at yet 
another site, it is possible that the beetle's status needs to be re-examined. It 
is intrinsic, albeit ironic, that with every new discovery a rare insect becomes 
less rare, and it is debatable whether an RDBl species found in two new 
widely separated localities suggests a revised status of RDB2 "vulnerable" 
or RDB3 "rare". It is also possible that the weevil is, in fact, a newcomer to 
the British fauna and is now only beginning to spread; in which case it 
would not qualify for even "notable" status! Having said this, the foodplant, 
Persicaria amphibia, is common and widespread and were the weevil a true 
immigrant it is likely that it would have been discovered elsewhere before 
now. Only a retrospective analysis in, say, ten to twenty-five years, will 
illuminate the issue. 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Mr Bernard Bligh of Lewisham Borough Council for 
bringing the small pond to my attention and to Mr Nick Bertrand for 
information on Persicaria. Mr Peter Hodge kindly confirmed my 
identification of the weevil. 

References 

Allen, A. A., 1974. Rhiiwncus albicinctus Gyll. (Col.: Curculionidae) new to Britain. 

Entomologist's mon. Mag. 109(1973): 188-190. 
Hodge. P.J., 1992. A second British locality for Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll. 

(Curculionidae). Coleoptehst 1(3): 5. 
Hyman, P.S. & Parsons, M.S., 1992. A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera 

of Great Britain. UK Nature Conservation No. 3. p. 293-294. UK Joint Nature 

Conservation Committee, Peterborough. 
Jones, R.A., 1995. [Specimen of Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll., and comments on its 

foodplant. Exhibit at British Entomological and Natural History Society meeting. 13th 

December 1994.] Br. J. Ent. nat. Hist. 8: 138. 
Morris. M.G., 1976. A note on the habits of Rhinoncus albicinctus Gyll. (Col.: 

Curculionidae). Entomologist's mon. Mag. 111(1975): 14. 
- , 1987. Rhinoncus albicinctus. In British red data boo/<s. 2: insects, ed. D.B. Shirt, pp. 

253-254. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough. 



A sighting of Nymphalis antiopa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in Kent 

Walking with a friend and her dogs at Ide Hill, Kent, on 2.viii.95, my 
attention was caught by a large yet unfamiliar butterfly. This turned out to be 
a fine example of Nymphalis antiopa L. (Camberwell Beauty). It approached 
from the south and was visible for around ten seconds, before vanishing into 
the birch saplings that are now colonising the open ground left by the 1987 
hurricane.- R.W. Bogue, Kingston House, Tuckermarsh, Bere Alston, 
Devon PL20 7HB. 



BERKSHIRE BEETLES 299 



A LIST OF BEETLES RECORDED FROM KIMBERS, 
MAIDENHEAD, BERKSHIRE 1964 -1994 

B. Verdcourt 

Royal Bolaiiic Gardens, Kew, Surrey TW9 3AB. 

SINCE RETURNING from Kenya in 1964, 1 have lived on the edge of town 
at Spring Cottage, Kimbers Lane, Maidenhead (vice-county 22, SU 884793, 
35 metres altitude). The lane, bordered by a ditch, has remained relatively 
rural. It was once bordered by elm trees, a species now represented only by 
suckers, but hawthorn and sallow are common. Intermittent springs keep the 
area damp. The soil rests on heavy clay and although there has probably 
been a seat at Kimbers since the fifteenth century, oak woods continuous 
with Windsor Forest must have covered the area. 

I have not actively collected but have attempted to name anything which 
caught my attention. For a thirty-year period the list is very short; I have in 
fact been very desultory in writing down the records but it is possible that at 
least a few of them will add a dot to a distribution map. 

I am grateful to Mr A. A. Allen, not only for identifying species which had 
defeated me and confirming others, but also for reading through the list and 
checking the nomenclature. 

CARABIDAE 

Cychrus caraboides (L.) - viii.1968. 

Carabiis violaceiis L. - regular resident, also one in toilet basin, 31.vii.l994. 

Leistiis feiTugineus (L.) - in barbecue pit, 28. iv. 1984. 

L. rufomarginatus Duft. - found dead in herbaceous border, 13.xii.l992. 

Notiophilus biguttatus (Fabr.) - very common on lawn and bare damp soil. 

Bembidion biguttatiim (Fabr.) - under log in adjacent field subject to 

flooding, 25. ii. 1979. 
Badister bipustulatus (Fabr.) - 6. v. 1990. 
Harpalus ajfinis (Schrank) - fragment in hall, viii.1994. 
H. rubripes (Duft.) - in house (usually on sandy, chalky or gravelly soil). 
Bradycellus verbasci (Duft.) - at light, 25.viii.1990; in house, 8.viii.l992; 

numerous at light between 10 and 1 1pm, early viii.1994. 
Amara ovata (Fabr.) - 3. i. 1990 (tibiae dark but narrow shape). 
A. aidica (Panz.) - vii.1991. 
Pterostichiis madidus (Fabr.) - very common. 
Calathusfiiscipes (Goeze) - 8.x. 1991. 
C. melanocephahis (L.) - in web, 25.viii.1990. 

Dromiiis quadrinotatiis (Panz.) - dead in branchlet of privet, i.l991: 1994. 
Metabletiis foveatiis (Geoffr.) - on white wall, l.vi.l994. 

DYTISCIDAE 

Agabiis nebidosiis (Forst.) - small pond reservoir of garden fountain, 
24.vi.1994. 



300 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

A. bipustulatus (L.) - ditto, 24.vi.1994; flying, 28.vii.1981. 
Ilybius fuliginosus (Fabr.) - dead in sunroom, 1994. 
Colymbetes fuscus (L.) - 24.viii.1994; 6.xi.l994. 

HYDROPHILIDAE 

Helophorus aequalis Thomson - under stones around fountain, on car roof 

{Ent. mon. Mag. 119: 1 10 (1983) & 129: 1 18 (1993)). 
H. brevipalpis Bedel - with last. 
H. minutus Fabr. - with last. 

SCYDMAENIDAE 

Scydmaenus tarsatus Miill. & Kunze - 17.vi.l981; 15.viii.l981. 

STAPHYLINIDAE 

Proteinus ovalis Steph. - in fungus, x.1991. 

Phloeonomus punctipeimis (Thomson) - under bark of old wet logs of Pinus 

radiata, 10.iv.l994. 
Carpelimus pusillus (Grav.) - under bark, 20. iv. 1994. 
Oxytelus sculpturatus Grav. - 30. i. 1991. 
Stenus similis (Herbst) - 5.vii.l991. 

Ocypus ater Grav. - dead in garden, viii. 1989; sunroom, 24. iv. 1994. 
O. morsitans Rossi {=compressus Marsh.) - at light, 16. viii. 1991. 
O. olens (Miill.) - Common. 

Tachyporus chrysomelinus (L.) - in house, 26.1.1991. 
Tachinus rufipes (Degeer) - vii.1983, in house; 27.vii.1994. 

HISTERIDAE 

Hister mevdarius Hoffm. - 13.V.1965. 

LYCIDAE 

Platycis minutus (Fabr.) - on tomato leaves in vegetable patch, 16. viii. 1993 
(Notable B). 

MALACHIIDAE 

Malachius bipustulatus (L.) - on nettles, 6.V.1990. 
Anthocomus fasciatus (L.) - bathroom, 24. iv. 1966. 

ELATERIDAE 

Athous haemorrhoidalis (Fabr.) - Spring Hill, Juncus patch, 27. iv. 1990. 

Agriotes acuminatus (Steph.) - ditto. 

A. lineatus (L.) - hibernating in sunroom, 5.ii.l994. 

BUPRESTIDAE 

Agrilus pannonicus (Pill. & Mitt.) - dead in sunroom, 19.vii.l991, (Notable 
A) {Ent. mon. Mag. 128: 184 (1992)). 

DERMESTIDAE 

Attagenus pellio (L.) - in house, frequent. 
Megatoma undata (L.) - in house, 19.vi.l972. 



BERKSHIRE BEETLES 301 



Anthrenus verhasci (L.) - very abundant in house, allies ele. 
A.fuscus Ol. - 13.vi.l965, on Hcraclcum, 18.vii.l981. 

BYRRHIDAE 

Byrrhus pilula L. - in dustbin, l.vii.l985; under stone near folly, 22.iv.1994. 

NITIDULIDAE 

Brachypterus glaber (Steph.) - abundant on nettles every year. 

Meligethes aeneus (Fabr.) - 27.viii.1984, vast numbers mostly in yellow 

flowers, Spartium etc., 14.vii.l985. 
M. flavimanus Steph. - 1 0. vi. 1 994. 
Epuraea aestiva (L.) - 12.iv.l992. 

RHIZOPHAGIDAE 

Rhizophagus bipustulatus (Fabr.) - xii.1964. 

CRYPTOPHAGIDAE 

Cryptophagus scanicus (L.) - in stored apples, 23. iv. 1994. 
Antherophagus nigricornis (Fabr.) - on bramble, 15.vi.l990. 

LATHRIDIIDAE 

Aridius nodifer (Westwood) - vi.l981; 9.V.1981. 

A. bifasciatus (Reilter) - ix.l965; vi.l981; in study, 2.vii.l990. 

Lathridius anthracinus (Mann.) - in bathroom, 4.viii.l992. 

MYCETOPHAGIDAE 

Pseudotriphyllus suturalis (Fabr.) - x. 1991. 

Litargus connexus (Geoffr.) - 1977. 

Mycetophagus quadripustulatus (L.) - one in a blewitt, 27.viii.1984. 

COLYDIIDAE 

Aulonium trisulcum (Geoffr.) - flying, 20.vii.l977 (Notable A) {Ent. mon. 
Mag. 114: 16(1979)). ^ 

ENDOMYCHIDAE 

Endomychus coccineus (L.) - under elm bark, viii.1966, 27.iii.1967. 

COCCINELLIDAE 

Subcoccinella vigintiquattuorpunctata (L.) - Spring Hill, marshy ground. 

14.V.1990. 
Rhyzobius litwa (Fabr.) - Spring Hill, marshy ground with J uncus, 

27.iv.1990, 7.V.1990. 
Tytthaspis sedecimpunctata (L.) - in lawn. 7. v. 1990: Spring Hill, in Juncus 

tussocks, 27. iv. 1990: pine needle litter on sunroom roof (dead). 25.1.1992. 
Adalia decempunctata (L.) - 30.iv.l990, 25.vii.1990. 
A. bipunctata (L.) - common every year, red on black ll.iii.l990. species 

less common than 7-spot, formerly hibernated in bedrooms in numbers but 

double-glazing and central heating has nearly stopped this. 
Coccinella septempunctata L. - very common every year, hibernating 

17.ii.l990 then active 23.ii.1990, vast numbers in cop, 30.iii.l990. 



302 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Harmonia quadripunctata (Pont.) - 25.vi.1990. 

Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata (L.) - 25.vi.1990, Spring Hill, on thistles, 

16.vii.l990. 
Propylea quattuordecimpunctata (L.) - common every year on nettles. 
Exochomus quadripustulatus (L.) - on small Christmas tree planted after use 

for decoration, 1 1 .iii. 1990. 

LYCTIDAE 

Lyctus brunneus Steph. - 27.x. 1979. 

ANOBIIDAE 

Xestobium rufovillosum (De Geer) - old beam lying in lower pasture field, 

21.iii.l967, 21.V.1967. 
Anobium punctatum (De Geer) - old beams in house, constantly about. 
Ptilinus pectinicornis (L.) - from elm log in log bin, 21. v. 1984. 

OEDEMERIDAE 

Ischnomera cyanea (Fabr.) (probably) - on Robinia, 18.vi.l985 (Notable B). 

PYTHIDAE 

Lissodema quadripustulatum (Marsh.) - elm log infested with Ptilinus, 

20.V.1984. 
Rhinosimus planivostris (Fabr.) - on dead Euayphia and numerous under 

bark, 6.iii.l983; ditto, with mites, 10.vii.l992. 

PYROCHROIDAE 

Pyrochroa serraticornis (Scop.) - mostly on nettles, 21. v. 1981, 27. v. 1985, 
14.vi.l986, 25.V.1987, 17.V.1990, 5.vi.l994. 

MORDELLIDAE 

Mordellistena pumila (Gyll.) - on oak and Vicia, 5.vi.l965. 

SCRAPTIIDAE 

Anaspis frontalis (L.) - recorded. 

A. garneysi Fowler - 27. iii. 1990. 

A. pulicaria Costa - v. 1992. 

A. geojfroyi MiilL - wall of house, 18. vi. 1981. 

A. maculata Geoffr. - in house, 29. iii. 1992. 

MELANDRYIDAE 

Melandrya caraboides (L.) - under log near stream, 20.V.1966. 

LAGRIIDAE 

Lagria hivta (L.) - at light, 16.vii.l994. 

TENEBRIONIDAE 

Scaphidema metal licum (Fabr.) - under bark, iii. 1966. 
Corticeus bicolor (Ol.) - 1977. 



BERKSHIRE BEETLES 303 



Tenebrio molitor L. - in study, 18.vii. 1994. 

SCARABAEIDAE 

Aphodiiis rufipes (L.) - garage, 22.xi. 198 1 . 
A. contaminatiis (Herbst.) - on damp washing, 2.x. 1994. 
Trox scaher (L.) - at light, 12.vii.l983. 
Serica hrimnea (L.) - wine store, 22.vii.1984. 

Melolontha melolontha (L.) - only two seen in 30 years, 10. v. 89, one in 
house, 9/1 0.v. 1994. 

LUCANIDAE 

Lucanus cervus (L.) - in garden, Kimbers Lane and Spring Hill, 20. vi. 1981 
(male), 5.vii.l981 (female, eaten by magpie), 23.vi.1985 (female), 
15.viii.l985 (female), 5.ix.l986 (female), 3.vii.l990 (female), 10.vii.l990 
(male), 27.viii.1990 (females), vi.l991 (female), none seen in 1994, 
(Notable B) {Ent. mon. Mag. 124: 36 (1988); 126: 196 (1990)). 

Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.) - a regular resident and often plentiful, old logs 
in garden, 24.ix.1966 (female), 30.vii.l967 (female), 2.vi.l984 (male), 
10.vii.l985, on wall, 19.vii.l988, Spring Hill, old elm stumps riddled with 
holes, 16-17.V.1990, ll.v.1991. 

CERAMBYCIDAE 

Molorchus minor (L.) - on paeony bud. 

Clytus avietis (L.) - once present every year but not seen recently although 

the vast area of brambles would appear to be very suitable for it. 
Anaglyptus mysticus (L.) - in house, probably from elm log, 5. v. 1984; 

garden, 25.V.1992 {in cop), 5.vi.l993 (Notable B). 
Pogonocherus hispidus (L.) - 20.ix.l972. 

Grammoptera ruficornis (Fabr.) - every year on hawthorn in mid-May. 
Phytoecia cylindrica (L.) - 27.iv.1990 (Notable B) {Ent. mon. Mag. Ill: 143 

(1991)). 
Tetrops praeusta (L.) - dead in sunroom, 10.vi.l994. 

CHRYSOMELIDAE 

Lema cyanella (L.) - under elm bark, 7.xi.l981; Spring Hill, und^r Jiincus, 

27.iv.1990. 
Lilioceris lilii (Scop.) - 15. v. 1983, not seen again until outbreak on lilies in 

tub, 23-24.vii. 1994. 
Chrysolina staphylaea (L.) - 18.ix.l992. 
C oricalcia (Miill.) - on Anthrisciis, 14.vi.l985; in house, 17. ix. 1989 

(Notable B) {Ent. mon. Mag. 129: 243 (1993)). 
Cassida rubiginosa Miill. - on spear thistle. 

CURCULIONOIDEA 

Rhynchites aequatus (L.) - recorded. 

Apion curtirostre Germar. - on Trifolium, 4.vi.l965; on oak and Vicia 

5.vi.l965. 
A. seniculus Kirby - on Trifolium, 4.vi.l965; on Vicia and oak, 5.vi.l965. 



304 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25. xi. 1995 

A. carduorum Kirby - recorded. 

A. apricans Herbst. - on Trifolium 4.vi.l965. 

A. assimile Kirby - on Trifolium, 4.vi.l965. 

Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus (Goeze) - 1977. 

O. sulcatus (Fabr.) - sunroom, 15.vi.l986. 

Phyllobius virideaeris sensu Joy - on oak and Vicia, 5.vi.l965. 

P. pyri (L.) - on Vicia and oak, 5.vi.l965; in paeony flowers, 7. v. 1991; 

Spring Hill, abundant on white poplar, 27.iv.1990. 
P. pomaceus Gyll. - on Vicia and oak, 5.vi. 1965. 
Baiynotus ohscurus (Fabr.) - on wall, 8.vii.l991. 
Sitona hispidulus (Fabr.) - 25. v. 1991. 

Euophryum confine (Broun) - on front door, 6.vi.l982, 5.vi.l993. 
Doi-ytomus taeniatus (Fabr.) - on sallow, 1977. 
D. dejeani Faust. - Spring Hill, Juncus site, 27. iv. 1990. 
Anthonomus pomorum (L.) - recorded. 
Balanobius salicivorus (Payk.) - 16. v. 1992. 
Hylohius ahietis (L.) - 5.vi. 1992. 
Liosoma deflexum (Panz.) - on garage wall, 24.iv.1990. 
Cidnorhinus quadrimaculatus (L.) - 3.vi.l965, 13. v. 1990. 
Ceutorhynchus pollinarius (Forst.) - 7. v. 1990. 
Gymnetron pascuorum (Gyll.) - on oak and Vicia, 25. vi. 1965. 
Cioniis tubevculosus (Scop.) - Spring Hill, Juncus site, 27. iv. 1990. 
C. scrophulariae (L.) - Spring Hill, Juncus site, 27.iv.1990; garden and 

neighbouring ditch, on Scrophularia, occurs most years. 
Rhynchaenus alni (L.) - on Vicia and oak, 5.vi.l965. 
Scolytus scolytus (Fabr.) - elm hedge, mid 1960s. 
Hylastes ater (Payk.) - 11.x. 1991; on washing 13.iii.l993; in house with 

mite 25. iv. 1993; garden vmAtx Pinus radiata log, 28.x. 1993. 
H. attenuatus Erichson - on washing, 30.iv.l993; in house, 10. v. 1993. 



Migrant insects in 1995 

Although very few records of migrant insects have reached the offices of the 
Record it is clear some species have had a very good year - and at the time 
of writing the autumn influxes are still to come. Elsewhere in this issue we 
record the third British record of the pyralid Etiella zinckenella Treits. and 
the third record this century of the noctuid Acontia lucida Hufn. Even The 
Times of 10th August 1995 carried a feature entitled Heatwave prompts an 
invasion of long-lost butterflies. An interesting aspect of this article was the 
source of information, particularly for sightings of the Camberwell Beauty, 
Nymphalis antiopa. Many of the records came from the Bird Information 
Centre and, as illustrated below, the Rare Bird Alert. Dutch entomologists, 
who have similarly seen many migrant antiopa in Holland have recorded the 
sightings on the Internet - the international computer network. In addition to 
sightings of the Camberwell Beauty, The Times article carries reports of over 
70 Yellow-winged Darter Dragonflies (Sympetrum flaveolum Muller) from 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 305 

Dungeness, Kent and Great Yarmouth, Norfolk (a note on this will appear in 
the January issue). After a refreshingly interesting piece on butterflies and 
dragonflies, The Times concludes with both gravity and perversity that the 
hot weather had been affecting Crows who had been hammering on 
windows at dawn with their beaks!- Paul Sokoloff. 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Stardom at last, India, Christmas 1985. 

In 1985 I was invited to do a twenty-minute programme on butterfly 
migration on All-India Television, which was running a nature series 
financed by the Canadian International Development Agency. A fee of 
Rupees 250- was at some point mentioned, just enough for a crate of beer, 
though it never materialised. Nor did reimbursement of Rs 17.50 costs. 

It should be thus clear that this was cut-price television. The whole show 
was taped in the studio during a single afternoon, with me, a microscope, 
some books, some butterflies, and a handful of slides as the only props. It 
came out somewhat better than might have been expected, and the Canadian 
tax-payers certainly had bang for their bucks. 

There is probably no part of the world where migration plays such an 
important part in the ecology of butterflies as in lowland, peninsular India. 
There is significant migratory activity every year, sometimes reaching 
spectacular proportions. Mostly, it would appear, butterflies from the wetter 
parts of the country migrate north-east just before the onset of the main 
south-west monsoon, breeding in areas where they are not permanently 
present, some moving back south as the monsoon retreats. One large 
migration somewhere near Bombay was even picked up by a large cyclonic 
system and liberally sprinkled over the whole of eastern Arabia (Larsen & 
Pedgley, 19^5, Ecological Entomology 10: 235-8). 

I wanted to learn more about this phenomenon, matching my own 
observation in Dehli and elsewhere with those from other parts of India, so I 
ended the programme by asking for information about butterfly migration, 
and giving my address. 

The decision to give the address was not lightly taken. I had visions of 
serried ranks of postal officials staggering through the garden with sackfuls 
of mail - after all, there are a potential 850 million viewers out there! But 
then no address, no information. 

In the event, I received less than 100 letters, though of the broadest 
possible spectrum. Disappointingly few pertained to the matter of butterfly 
migration, some girls sending nice paintings of butterflies, with covering 
letters obviously prompted by ambitious mummies, were rather thicker on 
the ground. There was also a polite reminder from a manager of a 
matrimonial introduction agency that my spousal market-value as a "cele- 
brated television personality" had markedly increased. Several astrologers 
proferred their services, emphasising that these were available "by invitation 
only to prominent people". 



306 ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

Most of the mail did not lend itself so readily to categorisation, consisting 
of rambling paeans and panegyrics to the wonders of nature and/or "your 
goodself '. One of the more cogent and precise of these missives read as 
follows: 

Mr Torben 
J-17 Hauz Khas 
New Dehli 16 

"ARISE, AWAKE AND STOP NOT UNTILL (sic) THE GOAL 

IS REACHED". 

The Savant, 

"I have roamed from country to country keeping 
HER in the love of my heart, and around HER have 
risen and fallen the growth and decay of my life". 
HER really refers to the butterfly in your life. 

Your research (butterfly migration) is the 
burgeoning source to me and it helps me to 
conclude that really a research can be carried out 
on such topics, which (concerning butterfly) was 
and is my rampant quality and interest. 

I am a student (20 yrs) studying statistics. 
Please let me know if I can be of help to you. 

With my obeissance and veneration, happy X-mas, 

loads of love 
yours 

Debasis . 

During a recent visit to India, I learnt that the tape is still regularly shown 
on educational TV (there was also some talk of repeat fees). They may have 
left out the address, since I get no more feed-back - or possibly the present 
inhabitants of J- 1 7 Hauz Khas enjoy the correspondence. 

Be that as it may, I must confess to missing the endearing, naive 
crankiness that is an ever-present component of the incredible cocktail that 
life in India mixes- Torben B. Larsen, 358 Coldharbour Lane, London 
SW9 8PL. 

Malacosoma castrensis L.(Lep.: Lasiocampidae) recorded from Devon 

Fully-grown larvae of M. castrensis were found on a variety of plants 
including Rumex crispus, Daucus carota and Salix sp. growing on the 
shingle beach at Seaton, Devon. Skinner {Colour identification guide to 
moths of the British Isles) gives the distribution of this lasiocampid moth as 
being the coastal areas of north Kent, Essex and Suffolk. Over 100 larvae 
were seen on 24th June 1995.- G. King, 22 Stoney Meade, Slough SLl 2YL. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 307 

Further records of Malacosoma castrensis L. (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) 
from Devon 

Following the report of this species near the mouth of the river Axe in 
Devon by Mr King {autea: 306) I have two further records of larvae of this 
species - one by Dr Dennis Owen who saw them on the saltings at Axmouth 
on 17.vii.l995 and a further by Dr Owen who reports further sightings by Dr 
Colin Dawes on 26.vi.l995 at the same locality. Subsequently light traps 
were run on the saltings at Axmouth on 31st July, and adults of both sexes 
were obtained. Interestingly, the ground colour seem.s more straw-coloured 
than those from the north Kent coast. 

The records are extraordinary given the distribution of this species. It is 
possible, but unlikely, that the species has always been resident - or could 
they have been introduced by some irresponsible person?- R. McCormick, 
36 Paradise Road, Teignmouth, Devon TQ14 8NR. 

Olethreutes mygindiana D. & S. (Lep.: Tortricidae) in South Shropshire 
(VC40) and its suspected parasitoid Glypta gracilis (Hellen) - new to 
Britain 

In a previous paper (Poyton, Ent. Rec. 107: 73) the first and second records 
of O. mygindiana in Shropshire was reported from two locations separated 
by about 5 kms. I speculated that with the occurrence of its foodplant 
Vaccinium vitis-idaea along the Stiperstones hills I would not be surprised to 
find O. mygindiana to be more widely distributed than indicated by the 
specimens previously reported. 

By collecting the larval spinnings along the length of the Stiperstones. 
from the Rock (SO 351964) in the south, to Crowsnest Dingle (SJ 375018) 
in the north this assumption has proved to be correct, with O. mygindiana 
quite common in the area. Additionally an apparently host-specific parasitoid 
Glypta gracilis (Hellen) has been reared from the larval spinnings, which is 
believed to be new to Britain. 

On the 16th April 1995 patches of Vaccinium vitis-idaea were examined 
for the characteristic spinning of the larva at the top of a shoot (H.N. 
Michaelis, The Entomologist, 1963: 11-14), with a number collected along 
the length of Nipstone Rock at an altitude of 350 metres from SO 351964 to 
SO 358971. On 18th April further spinnings were collected as we walked 
from Cranberry Rock (S0355981) to the Devils Chair (SO 357992). and the 
search finally completed on 6th May by sampling from the Devils Chair to 
the head of Crowsnest Dingle (SJ 375018) in the north. The spinnings from 
these three areas were kept in separate cylinder cages and all yielded both 
male and female specimens of O. mygindiana, with emergence generally in 
the late afternoon. The distance between the Rock and Crowsnest Dingle is 
some 6 kms. 

During the collection of the larval spinnings and the subsequent 
emergence, the following points were noted: 



308 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

• The spinnings were most apparent on open patches of Vaccinium vitis- 
idaea and were easily seen by looking for a brown leaf on top of the 
shoots. Those patches intermixed with Calluna vulgaris did not appear to 
contain spinnings, or were much more difficult to locate, as no spinnings 
were collected from such patches. 

• The most productive areas of Vaccinium vitis-idaea were approximately 
two to five square metres in area, where a variety of spinnings were noted. 
Some were spun on single shoots, whilst others showed a number of 
shoots spun together. In a five-square-metre patch of Vaccinium vitis- 
idaea at Crowsnest Dingle, about 25 spinnings were noted, but no attempt 
was made on this occasion to prove occupancy. (Since this was the first 
time we had looked for O. mygindiana we were not sure we were 
collecting the correct species!) 

• During the collections on the 16th and 18th April most of the spinnings 
still contained larvae, although the occasional pupae were found. 

• It was clear that the occurrence of the larval spinnings was greater in the 
area from the Rock to the Devils Chair. As we headed further north from 
the Devils Chair towards Crowsnest Dingle it became increasingly 
difficult to find the larval spinnings - probably due to the reduction in 
ground cover of Vaccinium vitis-idaea. 

• Emergence of O. mygindiana started on 3.V.1995 and was complete by 
18.V.1995. The majority emerged over the period lO.v to 15. v. 1995. In all 
a total of 16 imagos were obtained of which 25% were female (the cages 
had been stored in a warm room 48 hours after collection and left there 
subject to normal fluctuations from day to day in a domestic residence). It 
appears that during emergence of O. mygindiana the pupal cases is worked 
free of the larval "tent of leaves", as a number of empty pupal cases were 
found on the bottom of the cages and one was found just held within the 
spun leaves by the base of the empty pupal case. 

• The only other insect noted emerging from the spun leaves within all the 
cages was a small Ichneumonidae - the males of which started to emerge 
on 13. V. 1995 and the females some three days later. Examination of the 
larval "tent of leaves" showed that those which had contained a parasite 
exhibited a 1.5-2. 0mm freshly cut circular hole through a leaf - 
presumably the point of emergence of the Ichneumonidae. 

Samples of the parasitoid were sent to Dr M.R. Shaw at the National 
Museum of Scotland who positively identified it as a species of Glypta 
(Ichneumonidae: Banchinae) in the subgenus Conohlasta. All the specimens 
sent were of the same species and were keyed-out to a couplet that separates 
Glypta gracilis (Hellen) from Glypta ceratites (Gravenhorst). Separation is 
apparently on leg colour, with the black coxae Shropshire specimens 
apparently gracilis, not ceratites (which have red coxae, occasionally black 
in the hind leg only). Glypta ceratites is a common species from Britain and 
elsewhere whilst Glypta gracilis is known from Finland, Switzerland, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 309 

Hungary and Rumania. Hellen's G. i^racilis was not described until 1915. He 
gave no host and none has apparently been reported to date. 

The Shropshire specimens are the same species as the long series of about 
40 reared from O. mygindiana by W.H.B. Fletcher from Rannoch last 
century and treated as an unnamed variety of Glypta certites (Gravenhorst) 
by J.B. Bridgman in 1866. (Further additions to the Rev. T.A. Marshall 
catalogue of British Ichneumonidae, Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of London, 1866: 335-373.) The all-black coxae of the Shropshire 
specimens suggest that they may, in fact, be the closely related Glypta 
(Conoblasta) gracilis Hellen, a species that has not yet been recognised as 
British nor formerly recorded as having been reared (M.R. Shaw, pers. 
comm.). 

Acknowledgements 

I am grateful to Mark Shaw of the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh 
for the identification of the Ichneumonidae and the information related to the 
Glypta species. My thanks also to Tom Wall of English Nature and Forest 
Enterprises, South and West England for permits to collect on the 
Stiperstones and Nipstone. Last but not least to Veronica, Mark and Andrew 
Poynton for their help in collecting the larval spinnings in less than ideal 
weather conditions.- Dr David Poynton, 1A Castlegate, Prestbury, 
Cheshire SK10 4AZ. 



Camberwell Beauty, Nymphalis antiopa Linn. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in 
Hertfordshire and beyond 

Following reports of rare migrant Odonata such as the Yellow-winged and 
Vagrant Darters {Sympetrum flaveolum Linn, and 5'. vulgatum Linn.) in Great 
Yarmouth cemetery on 2.viii.l995, an easterly immigration of Camberwell 
Beauties was also reported from the same site. 

It was therefore an extremely exciting encounter I had with my friend 
Mike Watson with N. antiopa in Hitchin town centre, Hertfordshire on the 
morning of 4th August. This was not just a chance encounter as we were 
deliberately exploring the "Buddleia forest" that exists in the main street on 
some derelict land behind the main shops. The huge number of bushes were 
attracting large numbers of Painted Lady {Cynthia carclui Linn.) (27 seen) as 
well as the expected commoner nymphalids and satyrids. 

It is interesting to note that in the last great Camberwell Beauty year of 
1976 when over 300 were recorded, the first arrivals from the Baltic via 
Denmark also appeared in Great Yarmouth, although earlier on 27th June 
(Chalmers-Hunt, 1977, Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 99: 89-105). 

I have compiled a list of other sightings from both personal 
communications and the Rare Bird Alert: 



310 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25.xi.1995 

August 

2nd Cheadle, Manchester (2) 

3rd Dunstable, Bedfordshire (1); Dungeness, Kent (1) 

4th Hitchin, Hertfordshire (1); Great Yarmouth, Norfolk (2); Holkham, 

Norfolk (1) 
5th Gosport, Hampshire (1); Greatstone, Kent (1); Huddersfield, 

Yorkshire (1); Tayside (1); Hitchin, Hertfordshire (2) 
6th Hickling, Norfolk (3); Heysham, Lancashire (1); Tyne & Wear (1) 

7th Bangor, Co. Down (1) 

13th Flamborough Head, Humberside (1) 
20th Landguard, Suffolk ( 1 ) 

21-22nd Cley, Norfolk (2); Waxham, Norfolk (1); Long Melford, Suffolk (1) 
24th Gorleston, Norfolk ( 1 ) 
"Aug" Warwickshire, various (8) 
31st- 
5th Sept. Hopton-on-sea, Norfolk (1); Salthouse Village, Norfolk (1) 

September 

6th Portland, Dorset (1) 

18th Holkham, Norfolk (1); Blakeney Point, Norfolk (1) 

23rd Walton-on-Naze, Essex (1) 

October 

2nd Salthouse, Norfolk ( 1 ) 

- Stuart Pittman, 101 Old Hale Way, Hitchin, Hertfordshire SG5 IXR. 

Records of the genus Pedasia (Pyralidae) in south Devon 

I was pleased to read that R. McCormick found Pedasia contaminella Hbn. 
commonly on Dawlish Warren {Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 107: 14), 
confirming that it still exists there. I found the species commonly in the dune 
slacks on the Warren on 25.vii.1960 and 17.vii.l961. 

On 24.vii.1968 at the same locality I found Pedasia ahdella Thunb. 
{salinellus Tutt) commonly on the edge of the golf course next to the 
salterns. These records were unpublished. There were 19th century published 
records for both these species in VC3, but as the species were often confused 
these old records cannot stand.- A.H. Dobson, 282 Britten Road, 
Basingstoke, Hampshire RG22 4HR. 

Ladybirds at light (Col.: Coccinellidae) 

Amongst the sporadic beetle visitors to my garden mercury vapour trap there 
is the very occasional ladybird. I was therefore surprised to find three 
specimens quiecent amongst the egg boxes in the trap on the morning of 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS 3 1 1 

August 1995, following a warm but breezy night. Two were Anatis ocellata 
Linn, (the Eyed Ladybird), and the third was Myzia ohloni^o^uttata Linn, 
(the Striped Ladybird). Interestingly both are associated with conifers, 
although only garden cultivars and hedging plants occur locally. I have 
beaten A. ocellata from Spruce in Andrews Wood, some three to four miles 
away but this is first time I have come across M. ohlongoguttata in North- 
west Kent. Dr M.E.N. Majerus (pers. comm.) tells me that during the ten 
year recording period for the Cambridge Ladybird Survey, between 1984 
and 1994, there were no records of M. ohlongoguttata from Kent. In an 
interesting paper Dr Majerus {Bull amat. ent. Soc. 1990. 49: 197-199) 
describes a number of species of ladybird that have been found in mercury 
vapour traps.- Paul Sokoloff, 4 Steep Close, Orpington, Kent BR6 6DS. 

Subscriptions 1996 

An invoice for the 1996 subscription is included with this issue. Despite 
rising costs, we have managed to hold the subscription level to a very 
modest level. We hope readers will continue to support the journal by 
renewing promptly, encouraging others to subscribe, and - of course - 
continuing to send us notes, observations and papers. PAS 

The Type-Material of Diptera (Insecta) Described by G.H. Verrall and 
J.E. Collin by Adrian C. Pont. Oxford University Museum Publication 3. 
223pp. 8 black and white plates. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995. Price 
£65.00. 

This work was necessary because of the difficulty of deciding the extent of 
type material of many species described by these authors, who wrote during 
a period when the importance of clearly designating types was not fully 
appreciated. Few holotypes were established and perhaps more surprisingly 
remarkably few lectotypes have been designated by subsequent authors. 

George Verrall and his nephew (son of his wife's sister) James Collin 
dominated the study of British Diptera for more than a century. They 
described between them about 900 species of Diptera belonging to many 
families and from many parts of the world, over the period from the 1860s to 
the 1960s. Many of the specimens identified as syntypes are in their joint 
collection housed at the Hope Department in Oxford, although others are 
dispersed through most of the major Diptera collections in this country' and 
abroad. 

Adrian Pont has successfully identified much of the syntype material and 
labelled it accordingly. Most of the text is devoted to detailed accounts of 
each species, arranged in alphabetical order of specific names, eliminating 
the need for an index. A taxonomic list indicating synonymy is also 
provided, as well as a list of all British localities, with grid references, for 
syntypic material. 

The value of the work is greatly enhanced by the introductory chapters 
which provide biographical details of Verrall and Collin, including much 
fascinating information about their family background previously 



312 ENTOMOLOGIST'SRECORD, VOL. 107 25. xi. 1995 

unavailable to diperists. A description is also given of the present state of 
their collections. The photographs were well chosen to illustrate this section 
and include shots by Ian McLean of their residences in Newmarket, and 
favourite collecting sites. 

The family photographs are unfortunately undated. The most recent 
photograph of Collin (Plate 6) was taken at Chippenham Fen in the early 
1950s (it includes Cyril Hammond who only went there in 1951 and 1952) 
and shows him with three of the best known dipterists of his latter years, 
who are otherwise unmentioned in the text as they did not collect any 
syntype material. One of the appendices, however, comprises brief 
biographies of nineteen of the collaborators of Verrall and of Collin's earlier 
years, which further help to place their work in the context of their times. 

The work appears very thoroughly researched and accurate so few 
discrepancies have been noted, although there are inevitably some loose ends 
and leads that other reseachers may usefully follow. The current 
nomenclature given for each species is, however, often based on the 
Palaearctic Catalogue and is not always up to date, e.g. some craneflies are 
now placed in different genera and Suillia dumicola Collin is said to be a 
synonym of S. mikii Pokomy, although Phil Withers has established that 
dumicola is a good species (1987, Proc. Brit. ent. nat. hist. Soc. 20: 91-104). 
Francis Jenkinson's locality of Logic is incorrectly stated to be in Fife; it was 
usually cited as "Logic in Elgin" and is by the river Findham, accounting for 
the range of central Highland species recorded there. 

The information packed into this volume will be of enormous value to all 
future researchers in the wide range of dipterous families covered. 

Peter Chandler 

Tenth European Congress of Lepidoptology 
Miraflores (Madrid, Spain), 3rd-7th May 1996 

The Council of the Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica (SEL) kindly 
invites all SEL-members to attend the Tenth European Congress of 
Lepidopterology to be held in Miraflores (Madrid, Spain) from 3rd to 7th 
May 1996. The site of the Congress is in the University Hostel "La 
Cristalera", at Miraflores de la Sierra, which is situated in the Sierra de 
Guadarrama, about 50km north of Madrid city. 
Main topics will be: 

• General and specific problems of taxonomy and evolution 

• Ecology, endangered species and species protection 

• Holarctic zoogeography and local faunistics 

• New discoveries in Microlepidoptera 

• Tropical Lepidoptera 

• Applied lepidopterology 

For more details please contact: Tenth European Congress of 
Lepidopterology, Department of Biology, Universidad Autonoma, E-28049 
Madrid, Spain. Tel: +34-1-3978281, Fax: -f34- 1-3978344. 



Contents - continued from hack cover 

Malacosoma castrensis L. (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) recorded from Devon. G. Kin^ 306 

Further records of Malacosoma castrensis L. (Lep.: Lasiocampidae) from Devon. 

R.McCormick 307 

Olethreutes my<^indiana D. & S. (Lep.: Tortricidae) in South Shropshire (VC40) and its 

suspected parasitoid Glypta gracilis Hee. - new to Britain. D. Poynton 307 

Camberwell Beauty, Nymphalis antiopa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in Hertfordshire and 

beyond. S. Pittman 310 

Records of the genus Pedasia (PyraUdae) in Devon. A.H. Dohson 310 

Ladybirds at light. P. Sokoloff 31 1 

Book review 31 1 

Supplement: The larger moths of Dawlish Warren, Devon pp 9-16. R. McCormick (283) - (290) 



THE AMATEUR ENTOMOLOGISTS' SOCIETY 



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For details of publications and activities, please write (enclosing 30p 
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Talephone: 0181-672 4024 

FOR THE ENTOMOLOGIST - Books, Cabinets and Set Specimens 

Price lists are issued from time to time so if you would like to receive them please drop me a 

line stating your interests. 

Mainly a postal business hut callers are welcome by appointment. 

Member of the Entomological Suppliers' Association 



FOR SALE: 

A quantity of natural history books, mainly entomological, including 
some antiquarian titles. Also some natural history slides. 

For lists please send sae to: 

Ms. S.J. Patel, 

Laburnums, 34 Queen's Avenue, King's Lynn, Norfolk. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST'S RECORD 
AND JOURNAL OF VARIATION 

(Founded by J.W. TUTT on 15th April 1890) 



Contents 

A large-scale migration of the African skipper Andronymiis gander Evans near Calabar, 

Nigeria (Lep.: Hesperiidae). T.B.Larsen 263 

Butterflies in North-east Greece (28th July - 4th August 1994). A. Wakeham-Dawson .... 267 

Nothris congressariella Braund (Lep.: Gelechiidae) reared from Lundy. R.S. Key 273 

One and a half years of Kenyan Orthoptera 1 . Introduction and Tettigoniidae, /. Paul .... 277 
A third British record of Etiella zinckenella Triets. (Lep.: Pyralidae) and other migrants 

from VCl 1. M. Jejfes 291 

It was migration - the exceptional abundance of the Large White butterfly, Pieris 

brassicae L. in 1992. H. Mendel 293 

Two species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) new to Fiji. J. Clayton 295 

Rhinoncus alhicinctus Gyll. (Col.: Curculionidae) in South-east London, a third British 

locality. R.A. Jones 297 

A list of beetles recorded from Kimbers, Maidenhead, Berkshire 1964-1994. B. Verdcourt... 299 

Notes and observations 

Editorial 261 

Butterflies of Lanzerote - April 1995. An update - two further species recorded. 

G.G.Baldwin 261 

Strangalia maculata Poda var. gibberdi nov., (Col.: Cerambycidae). R.R. Uhthoff- 

Kaiifmann 262 

Evidence of White Admiral butteifly {Limenitis Camilla L.) larvae fedding on Aspen 

(Popitlus tremula). K.J. Willmott 266 

Acontia lucida Hufn. (Lep.: Noctuidae), the Pale Shoulder new to the Isles of Scilly, and 

third record for British Isles. /. Hale & M. Hicks 271 

Eupithecia abietaria Goetz (Lep.: Geometridae) in Devon. R. McCormick 275 

Two new foodplants for Eupvoctis chrysorrhoe L. (Lep.: Lymantriidae) noted in east 

London, March/April 1995. G. King 276 

The White Admiral, Eimenitis Camilla L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) still present near Bexley, 

north-west Kent. A.A. Allen 282 

The Waved Black, Parascotia fuliginaria L. (Lep.: Noctuidae) in Lancashire. 

J.G.Whiteside 282 

Unusual variation in the Light Emerald, Campaea margaritata L. (Lep.: Geometridae). 

A.A. Allen ^.. 282 

An unusual form oi Aglais urticae L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) from Devon. R.W. Bogue 292 

Sphinx ligiisth L. f. albescens Tutt (Lep.: Sphingidae) in Hampshire. R. Cook 292 

Ancylois oblitella Zell. (Lep.: Pyralidae) in Kent. P. Sokolojf 292 

Up in the clouds. G.G. Baldwin 296 

A sighting of Nymphalis antipoa L. (Lep.: Nymphalidae) in Kent. R.W. Bogue 298 

Migrant insects in 1995. P. Sokoloff 304 

Hazards of butterfly collecting - Stardom at last, India, Christmas 1985. T.B. Larsen 305 

[Continued on inside hack cover) 

SPECIAL NOTICE. 

The Editor would be willing to consider the purchase of a limited number of back issues. 

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-!T\ 



THE 



Entomologist's Record 

AND 

Journal of Variation 

SPECIAL INDEX 

Compiled by Lieut. Colonel W.A.C. Carter 

Vol. 107 
1995 



Newly described taxa (species, genera, etc.) are 

distinguished by bold type. Taxa new to Britain or newly 

recognised as British are denoted bv an asterisk. 



Page 

LEPIDOPTERA 

Abantis 143 

abdelkader 75 

abencerragus 64 

abietaria 275 

abruptaria 4, 252, 289 

absinthiata 287 

acis 1 19 

acroxantha 207, 213 

actaeon 270 

acuminatella 214 

acutellus 207, 219 

adelphella 147 

adippe 268 

abscitella 213 

adustata 191 

advenella 234 

aegeria 62, 112, 172, 179, 223, 236 

aeriferanus 216 

aescularia 283 

aestivaria 1,283 

aestuariella 184 

aethiops 122 

affinitata 191 

agestis 15, 60, 113, 171, 173, 268 

aglaja 270 

ahenella 212 

albarracine ssp 130 

albiannulata ab 21, 133 

albiceps 214 

albicilla 147 

albifrontella 9, 213 

albimaculata ab 134 

albimaculea 213 

albipuncta 271 

albisignata ab 21, 134 

albitarsella 212 

albocrenata ab 154 

albuginana 218 

albula 74 

albumella 214 

alceae 114, 268 

alcetas 268 

alchemillata 286 

alchimiella 210 

alciphron 64, 268 

alexis 1 19 

allous 15 

alniaria 288 

alpina 219 

alstromeriana 9 

altemaria 288 

altemata 284 

alticolella 213 

amanda 267 

*amani 163 

ambigua 194 



Page 

ambigualis 11 

anastomosis 201 

anceps 290 

andraemon 151 

Andronymus 264 

angelicella 214 

angustana 216 

angustiorana 131 

anteros 268 

anthyllidella 215 

antiopa 1 17, 200, 235, 270, 298, 309 

apollo 1 17 

aprilella 214 

arcania 268 

arcanioides 65 

arctomarginata 143 

areola 252 

arethusa 267 

argiolus 235. 268 

argus 235, 270 

argyropeza 209 

Aricae 15 

aridella 310 

arion 121,201 

aristaeus 61. 268 

armigera 291 

armoricanus 270 

artaxerxes 133 

artemisiella S 38 

asabinus 67 

asinalis 233 

asseclana 10 

assectella 211 

assimilella 9 

asterope 112 

atalanta .... 64, 172, 190, 222, 235, 252, 270 

athalia 199.224 

atlantica 63 

atlantis 61 

atrata 224 

atrifrontella 164 

atriplicis 200, 291 

atropos 48. 156 

atropunctana 10 

aurantiaria 289 

auresiana 61 

auriciliella 207, 209 

auricoma 200 

aurinia 162 

auritella 209 

auromarginella 209 

ausonia 59 

austauti 65 

australis 268 

autumnata 152 

autumnitella 211 

avellanella 213 



Page 

aversata 284 

azaleella 156, 210 



B 



badiata 4, 284 

badiella 213 

balkanicus 113,270 

bamptoni 143 

bankesiella 219 

bankiana 200 

basiguttella 209 

batavus 121 

batesana 31 

batis 236 

baton 270 

beatricella 40, 216 

belemia 64 

bellargus 171, 173,269 

bembeciformis 232 

bergmanniana 10,217 

betulaeT 120 

betularia 224, 289 

betulicola 210 

biangulata 200 

bicolorana 142 

bicruris 194 

bidentata 288 

bifasciana 217 

bifasciana S 217 

bifida 157 

bigoti ssp 29 

bilineata 284 

bimaculata 4 

binaria 141,236 

binderella 212 

biselata 283 

bismarcki 143 

bistortata 289 

blandella 215 

blandina 122 

boeticus 60, 113,268 

Borbo 263 

bradleyi 207, 215 

brassicaeP 67, 69, 109, 173, 174, 

235, 270, 293 

briseis 268 

britannica 191, 285 

brockeella 211 

brumata 286 

brunnea 194, 195 

brunnichana 217 

brunnichella 213 

bucephala 194, 195,253,290 

buettneri 43, 68 



Page 

C 

caesia 130 

caesiella 211 

caespititiella 213 

c-album 61, 172, 173, 200, 236, 270 

Camilla 266, 282 

cana 10 

candiope 281 

canella 76 

caniola 130 

capreolella 214 

cardamines 100, 235 

carduella 214 

cardui 61, 173, 188, 222, 235, 252, 

262, 268, 309 

carpinata 4, 287 

carteri ab 134 

carthami ab 161 

cassius 151 

castrensis 130,306,307 

celtis 268 

centaureata 286 

cerasana 216 

cerasi 194,255 

cerasicolella 210 

cerealella 14 

cerisyi 222 

cerusella 218 

chaerophyllella 9, 211 

charitonia 151 

charlonia 59 

chenopodiata 284 

chlorosata 191,288 

christyi 286 

chryseis 117 

chrysidiformis 12 

chrysitis 194 

chrysolepidella 208 

chrysoprasaria 283 

chrysorrhoea 155, 254, 276 

cilialis 219 

ciliella 213 

cinerosella 219 

cinxia 61 

circisiana 218 

citrata 285 

clathrata 191 

clavipalpis, 191 

clavis 194 

Cleopatra 60 

clerkella 5, 8 

clintoni 9 

clorana 14 

clypeiferella 184 

cnicana 216 

coerula 13 

cognatana 218 



Page 

comes N 194, 195 

comma H 58, 63 

communana 217 

compositella 218 

compunctella 21 1 

confusa 130,200 

confusalis 191 

congressariella 273 

conjugella 9 

connexaab 292 

consimilana 216 

consortella 213 

conspicuella 212 

contaminella 14, 218, 232, 310 

continuella 253 

conturbatella 10, 215 

convolvuli 99, 290 

conwagana 10, 216 

coracipenella 212 

coridon 171, 173,269 

coronata 233 

corylata 153 

corylifoliella 8 

cossus 82 

costalis 234 

cramera 22 

crassa 200 

crassilunulata ab 16 

crataegi A 199 

crenata 4, 200 

crepuscularia 289 

cribrella 234 

crocealis 233 

croceus 60, 110, 152, 172, 173,222, 

234, 262, 268 

cruda 4 

cuculata 284 

cucullinaH 237 

culmella 11,232 

curvatula 200, 291 

cynosbatella 191, 217 

D 

daphnis 269 

daplidice 58, 59, 109, 1 17, 262, 270 

daubearia ssp 1 

daucella 9 

dayensis ssp 130 

deauratellaC 187,212 

deauratella 215 

deceptoria 200 

decolorella 215 

deflorata 198 

degeneraria 291 

delunella 11 

*demuthi ssp 127 



Page 

dentaria 4, 190, 251, 252, 288 

denticulella 8 

Depressaria 46 

derivata 4, 285 

deserticola 66 

designata 284 

deviella 43, 131,213 

dia 268 

diamina 200 

didoP 151 

didyma 61, 269 

dilucidana 216 

dimidiata 283 

dimidioalba 10,217 

dispar (Lycaena) 118, 267, 268 

distinctella 214 

dodecella 214 

dodonaea 4 

doris 66 

dorylas 270 

douglasi 98, 202 

dromedarius 252, 290 

dubitana 216 

dubitata 1 

dumerilii 99 

dumetata 1 

duplaris 236 

dysodea 200 

E 

egea 110,222,270 

eFecto 281 

eleochariella 9 

elinguaria 289 

elpenor 257. 290 

emarginata 283 

emberizaepenella 210 

eroides 270 

erosaria 288 

erythrata ab 152 

escheri 267 

esculi 58, 60 

eumedon 268 

euryale 268 

evagore 63 

evarete 151 

Everes 245 

exanthemata 289 

exclamationis 194 

expallidata 287 

extimalis 197 

F 

fabriciana 9 

fagana 142 



Page 

fagi H 268 

fagi S 4, 200 

falcataria 236 

falconipennella 210 

fallax 237 

falloni 64 

falsella 11 

fascelinella 255 

fasciaria 290 

fatua 270 

fausta 1 10 

ferchaultella 209 

ferrago 194 

fen-ugalis 173, 197,233 

ferrugata 284 

ferrymani 29 

ferula 270 

festaliella 212 

fettigii 65 

filicivora 156 

filipendulae 232 

fimbrialis 248 

fimbriata 194 

flammealis 234 

flavago 194, 195 

flavalis 219 

flavofasciata 286 

flavus 270 

florella 3, 265 

fluctuata 172, 191, 284 

follicularis 212 

forficalis 233 

forficella 233 

formicaeformis 11 

formosaP 147,219 

formosaT 281 

formosanus 216 

forsterana 10, 216 

francillana 40 

fratemella 215 

fraxinella 211, 224 

fraxini 118 

frischella 187, 212 

fuciformis 24, 247 

fucosa 155 

fuliginaria 100,282 

fuliginosa 253 

fulminia 201 

fulvalis 147 

fulvata 285 

fumatella 214 

funebrana 218 

furcata 285 

furcula 290 

furfurana 217 

furvata 200 

fusca 219 



Page 

fuscescens 9 

fuscovenosa 283 

G 

galathea 236, 269 

galbulipenella 212 

galiata 284 

gamma 50, 100, 173, 188, 194, 197, 271 

gander 262 

garretti ab 133 

geniculea 232 

geniculella 9 

genistella 234 

genitalana 217 

gentianaeana 217 

gigantella 218 

gisella 237 

glaucicolella 213 

Glaucopsyche 245 

glutinosae 209 

gnoma 4, 252 

gothica 158, 190, 194, 195, 256 

graafi ab 137 

graeca 268 

grandaevana 218 

graslini ssp 129 

griseata 283 

grossulariata 288 

gueneii ssp 128 

gularis 219 

gysseleniella 211 

H 

haematidea 248 

halterata 287 

hamana 10 

hansii 64 

harrisella 210 

haworthiata 286 

helenaH 237 

heliceC 110, 153, 172 

heliceP 281 

hellerella 10 

hemargyrella 8 

heparana 6, 10 

hepariella 211 

heringi 209 

hermes 237 

Hermeuptychia 237 

herminata 209 

hibemica ssp 1 

hippothoe 270 

hohenwarthiana 10 

homerus 151 

hortulata 233 



Page 

hostilis 147 

humilis 9 

hyale 1 19 

hyperantus 267 



I 

ibipenella 212 

icarus 60, 1 13, 173, 222, 235, 262, 270 

icterata 287 

Idas 268 

ilicis 270 

imitaria 283 

immundana 217 

immutata 283 

impluviata 286 

impura 194 

incanana 217 

incamatella 211 

incertana 6, 10 

indica 262 

ines 61 

ino 200 

inopiana 215 

inquinatella 232 

insecurella 174 

insignitella 101 

instabilella 214 

intimella 209 

io 146, 172,235,257,268 

ipsilon 173, 188, 190, 197, 241, 252 

issia 96 

iulia 151 



jacksoni 281 

jacobaeae 252 

janthina 194 

janthinana 218 

jassius 64 

jatrophe 151 

juniperata 50 

jurtina 162, 173,236,269 



K 

kashmirensis 13 

knilli ssp 129 

knysna 3 



labdaca 265 

lacertinaria 236 

lactearia 283 

lacunana 10 



Page 

lacustrata 11,233 

lambessinus 58, 62 

lanceolana 10 

langiella 215 

lantanella 210 

lappella 214 

lapponaria 5 

lapponica 8 

laricana 218 

laricella 9 

larissa 269 

lassella 207, 212 

lathamella 215 

lathonia 61, 117, 268 

latistria 218, 232 

leautieri 50 

leechi ssp 128 

legatella 287 

leucographella 207 

leucophaearia 158 

leucotreta 218 

libatrix 194 

lichenaria 289 

lichenea 32 

lienigiella 44 

ligea 117, 122 

ligustri S 257, 292 

limbata 197 

linariata 286 

lineata S 200 

lineatella 215 

lineola T 247, 270 

Liptenia 29 

lithargyrinella 212 

lithodactyla 220 

littoralis 217 

liturata 288 

Ijungiana 216 

1-nigrum 200 

longana 217 

loreyi 99. 271 

lotella 234 

loti 200 

lubricipeda 4. 173. 194 

lucida 81. 201. 271. 304 

lucretia 144 

lunaedactyla 234 

lunosa 194 

lunulana 240 

lunularia 76 

lupulinus 191. 194.231 

lurideola 194 

lusciniaepennella 202, 212 

lutaraea 9 

lutea 191 

lutealis 1 1 

luteolata 288 



Page 

luteum 252 

luxorians ab 22 

lycaon 268 

M 

machaon 57,58, 108,222 

mackinnoni 281 

maedewaldoi 62 

maera 65. 1 12, 268 

maestingella 8 

magdalene 8 

malvae 252 

mamurra Ill, 112 

mannii 268 

manuelaria 98 

margaritata 282,290 

margaritatus ssp 1 

marginaria 158 

marginata 4, 288 

marginella 76, 215 

marginepunctata 283 

mariscolore ab 122 

maritima 219 

maroccana 61 

marshalli 27, 28 

mauretanicus 64 

mayrella 187. 212 

megera 62, 173, 223, 236, 252 

melanops 66 

melas 268 

mellonella 46 

mendica (Diaphora) 4, 194, 195 

mendica (Diarsia) 194 

mendosa 126 

mercurella 11,233 

mesomella 224 

messaniella 5, 8, 210 

messingiella 21 1 

meticulosa 190, 194 

metzneriana 154, 214 

micacea 194 

milhauseri 200 

milvipennis 212 

minimana 215 

minimella 209 

minimus 268 

molesta 218 

molliculana 207, 216 

monilifera 209 

monodactyla 234 

monoglypha 194 

montanata 194,284 

morpheus 191 

mouffetella 214 

munda 4 

muralis 130 



Page 

murina 201 

mutatella 219 

mygindiana 73, 307 

N 

nana 4, 142,216 

nanata 287 

nanella 214 

napi 109, 235, 252 

nata 178 

nausithous 88 

neander 263 

nebulata 287 

Neptis 177 

nessus 295 

neustria 236, 254 

ni 291 

nickerlii 127 

nigricans E 44 

nigricomella 210 

nigrivenella 146 

nigropunctata 76 

nimbella 207, 219 

nobilis 281 

noctuella 50, 197, 233, 252 

notana 217 

nubilalis 197 

nylandriella 8, 209 

nymphaeata 11 

O 

obductella 219 

obelisca 193, 194 

obeliscata 4, 285 

oblitella 292 

obscurana 218 

obscuratus 2 

obsitalis 47, 291 

obsoletaM 14 

obstipata 284 

obviella 210 

occitanica 64 

ocellataC 285 

ocellata S 290 

ocelleaE 190 

ochrearia 252, 290 

ocnerostomella 211 

ocularis 236 

oculea 155 

odites 130 

oileus 151 

oleracea 172, 191, 194,224 

olivata 285 

ononidis 101 

oo 40 



Page 

orbifer 270 

orbitella 212 

orichalcea 193 

ostrina 161 

ostrinalis 219 

orestes 267, 270 



palealis 100 

paleana 10,76 

pallens 194, 195 

pallida 233 

pallidactyla 11,220 

pallidana 216 

pallidata 11,219 

pallidior ab 137 

pallorella 213 

palpella 46 

palpina 252 

pamphilus 65, 173, 253, 268 

pan-albisignata ab 136 

pan-albolimbata ab 137 

pandora 61, 1 10, 270 

panoptes 245 

paphia 268 

papilionaria 283 

paradisea 143 

paripennella 212 

parvilunulata ab 16 

parviocellata ab 179 

parvulipunctella 207, 215 

pascuella 11, 232 

pastinacella 9, 213 

pectinataria 191, 194,285 

Pedasia 310 

pelopea 112 

peltigera 197, 271, 291 

pennaria 50, 289 

peribenanderi 9, 212 

peribolata 164 

perlella 11, 232 

perlepidella 211 

perlucidalis 219 

permixtana 216 

perotteti 44 

peqjlexa 253 

persephone Ill 

petersi B 95 

petersi E 97 

phlaeas 60, 1 13, 171, 173. 235, 268, 281 

phoebe 67. 269 

Phoebis 151 

phoeniciata 287 

phorcas 281 

phragmitella 215 

phragmitidis 14 

Phyllonorycta 5 



Page 

picaepennis 243 

piercei 216 

pinariella 21 1 

pineila 232 

pini D 200 

piniO 200 

pinivorana 218 

pirithous 60 

pisi 194 

pityocampa 201 

plantaginis 200 

plebeja 142 

plebejana 217 

plecta 191, 194,252 

plexippus 99 

podalirius 63, 109, 222, 268 

polychloros 60, 156, 200, 255 

populeti 4 

populi L 4, 256, 290 

populi (Limenitis) 199, 266 

populi P 158 

porata 283 

porcellus 290 

postvittana 100.216 

potatoria 199.236 

prasinana 142 

pratella 147 

priscilla 29 

processionea 201 

profundana 217 

promissa 200 

pronuba 194.253 

pronubana 216 

proteus 151 

pruinata 283 

prunalis 11. 233 

prunata 285 

prunetorum 209 

pruni 199 

pruniana 10. 131 

pseudospretella 9 

psi 252 

pterodactyla 219 

pudibunda 191 

pudorina 76 

pulcherrimella 213 

pulchrina 191. 194 

punctalis 234 

punctifera 63 

punctulata 191.252 

pupillana 218 

purpuraria 201 

purpurea 213 

pusaria 194.289 

puta 194. 252 

putris 4. 191 

pygmaeella 9 



Page 

pygmina 194 

pyraliata 285 

pyramidea 194 

pyrina 231 

pyritoides 236 

Q 

quadripuncta 215 

quadripunctaria 291 

quercana 213 

quercinaria 288 

quercusL 194, 199,236 

quema 201 

R 

rajella 5, 8 

rancidella 207, 214 

rapae .. 59, 67, 109, 173, 174, 222, 235, 268 

raschkiella 10 

ratzeburgiana 10 

rectangulata 287 

reducta 268 

regificella 213 

renago ab 41 

repandana 241 

repandaria 288 

repandata 252, 289 

resplendella 209 

rhamni 60, 110, 158, 173, 235 

rhodopensis 268 

rhomboidaria 98, 191,289 

ricinii 291 

rivularis 194, 195 

roborella 234 

robustella 210 

rubea 201 

ruberata 286 

rubi C 64, 235, 252 

rubiD 191, 194 

rubiM 194 

rubidata 284 

rubiginata 146,285,291 

rubiginosana 217 

rubricollis 200 

rubricosa 255 

rufa 38 

ruficapitella 5, 8 

ruficiliana 216 

rufifasciata 173,287 

rufimitrella 209 

rufipennella 8, 207, 210 

rumicis 191, 194 

rumina 246 

ruptata ab 153 

ruralis 11, 172,233 



Page 

S 

sacraria 99, 197, 201, 271, 284 

sagratrox 27 

saharae 57, 63 

salaciella 8 

salicicolella 5, 8 

salicomiae 184 

salmacis 15, 133 

salopiella 208 

sambucaria 172, 289 

samiatella 209 

sangii 208 

sarcitrella 213 

saucia 188 

saxicola 234 

saxicolella 212 

saxifragae 220 

schmidti ab 179 

schmidtiellus 215 

schoenicolella 211 

schutzeella 207, 219 

scoticella 210 

scribonia 198 

scropha 295 

scutulana 218 

secalis 194 

secundaria 98 

segonzaci 63 

semi-allous ab 133, 141 

semiargus 268 

semifasciana 6, 10, 217 

semipurpurella 208 

senecionana 216 

senex 201 

senticetella 38, 214 

senticolella 207 

septistrigata 29 

sequana 218 

sericataP 201 

serrata ab 75 

serratella 9 

sertorius 66 

sexalata 200, 288 

sexguttella 214 

sexpunctella 214 

silaceata 4, 285 

similis B 214 

simpiciella 210 

simpliciana 218 

simplonia 222 

sinapis 268 

siterata 285 

smaragdaria 130 

smeathmanniana 216 

snellini ab 133 

sociella 4, 234 

somnulentella 210 



Page 

sorbi P 8, 210 

sorbi S 7 

sordens 191 

spadicearia 4, 252, 284 

sparrmannella 208 

spartifoliella 8 

spinella 212 

spinosella 211 

spinosissimae 6, 8 

splendidissimella 209 

stachydalis 207, 219 

stagnata 11,233 

statilinus 64, 270 

stellatarum 3, 290 

stephensiana 10 

stettinensis 210 

sticticalis 219 

stigmatella 5, 8 

straminella 11,232 

strigana 76, 218 

subfasciella 211 

subfusca 233 

subfuscata 191, 287 

subnitidella 209 

subocellana 217 

subpurpurella 5, 7 

sub-quadripunctata ab 133 

subsericeata 283 

succedana 10,218 

succenturiata 287 

suffumata 4 

sylvestris 58, 234 

syringaria 288 

syringella 5 

T 

taeniipennella 213 

tages 268 

tagis (sic) 63 

tansversata 1 

tardenota ssp 130 

tedella 217 

telejus 88 

telephassa Ill 

telmessia 112 

temerata 4, 289 

tenebrella 214 

tenebrosana 218 

tenuiata 286 

terebrella 219 

terminella 215 

terrella 214 

tersata 4 

testacea 99 

tetralunaria 288 

tettensis 143 

therinella 212 



Page 

thersamon 113 

thersites 267 

thrasonella 21 1 

titea 1 1 1 

tithonus 236. 270 

tityrus 268 

togata 194, 195 

torva 200 

tragopoginis 172 

transversata 286 

trapeziella 213 

tremula 4 

triangulum 194, 195 

triatomea 213 

tridactyla 220 

tridens S 1 

trifolii C 212 

trifoliiL 199 

trifolii Z 232 

trigemina 142 

trigrammica 191 

trimaculana 10 

tringipennella 210 

tripartita 142 

triplasia 142 

tristella 1 1. 232 

tritophus 200 

trivia 110,270 

trochinella 212 

trochylus 113 

truncata 285 

tumidana 147. 219. 241 

turbidana 217 

turionella 76 

U 

uddmanniana 10 

ulicetella 214 

uliginosellus 218 

ulmifoliella 5. 8 

umbrana 217 

uncella 217 

uncula 224 

undulana 217 

undularis 29 

undulata 286 

unicolor 22 

unimaculella 208 

unionalis 219. 271 

unipuncta 188 

unitana 216 

urticae A 146, 173, 235, 257, 267, 292 

V 

vandalica ssp 21. 134 

vanillae 151 

v-ata 4, 287 



Page 

vaucheri 58, 62 

vedrae ab 134 

velocella 214 

venata 234, 270 

venosa A 143 

verellus 147 

versurella 213 

vibumana 76 

viminitella 202 

vinula 191 

viretata 191, 288 

virgaureae 268 

virgauriae (sic) 117 

viscariella 214 

vitalbata 286 

vitellina 99, 291 

vulgata 4, 287 

vulpinaria 197,291 

W 

weaverella 21 

weirana 218 

X 

xylostella 9, 271 

Z 

zambesiaca 143 

ziczac 4, 252, 290 

zimmermannia 164 

zinckenella 291 

COLEOPTERA 

Acalles misellus 79 

ptinoides 79 

roboris 157 

Adalia bipunctata 301 

decempunctata 301 

Agabus bipustulatus 300 

nebulosus 299 

Agrilus pannonicus 300 

sinuatus 203 

Agriotes acuminatus 300 

lineatus 300 

Alophus triguttatus 79 

Amara aulica 299 

ovata 299 

Anaglyptus mysticus 303 

Anapis frontalis 302 

gameysi 302 

geoffroyi 302 

maculata 302 

pulicaria 302 

Anatis ocellata 31 1 

Anobium punctatum 302 

Antherophagus nigricomis 301 



Page 

Anthocomus fasciatus 300 

brunnipennis 79 

pomorum 304 

Anthrenus fuscus 301 

verbasci 301 

Aphodius contaminatus 303 

rufipes 303 

Apion apricans 304 

assimile 304 

carduorum 304 

curtirostre 46, 303 

laevicolle 41 

sedi 46 

seniculus 303 

Apteropeda orbiculata 77 

Aridius bifasciatus 301 

nodifer 301 

Athous haemorrhoidalis 300 

Attagenus pellio 300 

Aulonium trisulcum 301 

Badister bipustulatus 299 

Balanobius salicivorus 304 

Barynotus obscurus 304 

squamosus 79 

Barypeithes pellucidus 79 

Bembidium biguttatum 299 

Brachiptems glaber 301 

Brachysomus echinatus 79 

Bradycellus verbasci 299 

Byrrhus pillula 301 

Caenopsis waltoni 79 

Calathus fuscipes 299 

melanocephalus 299 

Carabus violaceus 299 

Carpelimus pusillus 300 

Cassida rubiginosa 303 

Ceratapion gibbirostre 78 

Cercyon atricapillus 53 

Ceutorhynchus contractus 79 

pollinaris 304 

Chaetocnema concinna 77 

hortensis 77 

Chlorapion virens 78 

Chrysolina oricalcia 303 

staphylaea 78, 303 

Cidnorhynus quadrimaculatus 304 

Cionus scrophulariae 304 

tuberculosus 304 

Clambus minutus 197 

pallidulus 197 

Clytis arietis 303 

Cobosiotherum scutellare 78 

Coccinella septempunctata 301 

Coccinellidae 310 

Colymbetes fuscus 300 

Corticeus bicolor 302 

Crepidodera ferruginea 78 



Page 

Cryptophagus scanicus 301 

Cychrus caraboides 299 

Cypha hanseni 185 

imitator 185, 186 

laeviuscula 185 

longicornis 185 

nitida 185 

ovulum 185 

*tarsalis 185 

Derocrepis rufipes 78 

Diplapion confluens 78 

Dorcus parallelipipedus 303 

Dorytomus dejeani 304 

taeniatus 304 

Dromius quadrinotatus 299 

Endomychus coccineus 301 

Epuraea aestiva 301 

Euophryum confine 304 

Eutheia linearis 149 

scydmaenoides 149 

Eutrichapion ervi 78 

Exapion ulicis 78 

Exochomus quadripustulatus 302 

Galerarucella saggitariae 33 

Gastrophysa viridula 78 

Grammoptera ruficomis 303 

Gymnetron pascuorum 304 

Harmonia quadripunctata 302 

Harpalus affinis 299 

rubripes 299 

Hedobia imperialis 220 

Helophorus aequalis 300 

brevipennis 300 

minutus 300 

Hister medarius 300 

Hybius fuliginosus 300 

Hydrothassa glabra 78 

Hylastes ater 304 

attenuatus 304 

Hylobius abietis 304 

Hypera nigrirostris 79 

venusta 79 

Hyperaspis pseudopustulata 41 

Ischnomera cyanea 302 

Ischnopterapion loti 78 

Kissister minimus 228 

Lagriahirta 302 

Langelandia anophthalma 228 

Lathridius anthracinus 301 

Legaricapion aethiops 78 

Leiodidae 220 

Leioides rufipennis 39 

Leiosoma deflexum 79 

Leistus ferrugineus 299 

rufomarginatus 299 

Lema cyanella 303 

Lilioceris lilii 303 



Page 

Liophloeus tessulatus 79 

Liosoma deflexum 304 

Lissodema quadripustulatum 302 

Litargus connexus 301 

Longitarsis pratensis 78 

suturellus 78 

Lucanus cervus 303 

Lyctus brunneus 302 

Macroplea 53 

Malachius bipustulatus 300 

Mecinus pyraster 79 

Megatoma undata 300 

Melandrya caraboides 302 

Melanotus punctolineatus 103 

Meligethes aeneus 301 

flavimanus 301 

Melolontha melolontha 303 

Metabletus foviatus 299 

Micrelus ericae 80 

Microplontus triangulum 80 

Molorchus minor 303 

Mordellistena acuticollis 25 

humeralis 282 

imitatrix 25 

nanuloides 25 

neuwaldeggiana 181 

pumila 302 

variegata 181 

parvula 26 

Mycetophagus quadripustulatus 301 

Myzia oblongoguttata 311 

Nedys quadrimaculatus 80 

Notiphilus biguttatus 299 

Ocypus ater 300 

morsitans 300 

olens 300 

Orobitis cyaneus 80 

Orthochaetes setiger 80 

Otiorhynchus desertus 80 

ligneus 80 

rugifrons 80 

rugosostriatus 304 

singularis 80 

sulcatus 80. 304 

Oulema melanopa 78 

Oxytelus sculpturatus 300 

Panagaeus bipunctulatus 101 

cruxmajor 101 

Parabathyscia wollastoni 228 

Pelenomus quadrituberculatus 80 

Perapion curtirostre 78 

marchicum 79 

violaceum 79 

Phaedon cochleariae 78 

tumidulus 78 

Phalacrus 192 



Page 

Phalacrus brisouti 192 

championi 192 

coruscus 192 

fimetarius 192 

hybridus 192 

substriatus 192 

Philopedon plagiatum 80 

Phloeonomus punctipennis 300 

Phloephthorus rhododactylus 81 

Pholidoptera griseoaptera 77 

Phyllobius pomaceus 304 

pyri 304 

roboretanus 80 

virideaeris 304 

viridicollis 80 

Phytoecia cylindrica 303 

Platycis minutus 300 

Pogonocherus hispidus 303 

Poophagus sisymbrii 297 

Propylea quattuordecempunctata 302 

Protapion apricans 79 

assimile 79 

fulvipes 79 

Proteinus ovalis 300 

Protopirapion atratulum 79 

Pselaphidae 220 

Pseudotriphyllus suturalis 301 

Psy llobora vigintiduopunctata 302 

Ptenidiium laevigatum 228 

Pterostichus madidus 299 

Ptilinus pectinicomis 302 

Pyrochroa serraticomis 302 

Raymondionimus marqueti 228 

Rhinoncus albicinctus 297 

pericarpius 80, 297 

Rhinosimus planirostris 302 

Rhizophagus bipustulatus 301 

Rhychaenus alni 304 

Rhynchites aequatus 303 

germanicus 78 

Rhyzobius litura 301 

Scaphidema metallicum 302 

Scaphidium quadrimaculatum 220 

Sciaphilus asperatus 80 

Scolytus scolytus 304 

Scymaenidae 220 

Scydmaenus tarsatus 300 

Serica brunnea 303 

Sitonia ambiguus 80 

hispidulus 80, 304 

lineellus 80 

regensteinensis 80 

striatellus 80 

suturalis 81 

Sphaeroderma rubidum 78 

testaceum 78 



Page 

Staphylinus caesareus 101 

dimidiaticomis 101 

Stenus similis 300 

Strangalia armata 69 

attenuata 69 

maculata 71, 262 

quadrifasciata 69 

Strophosoma melanogrammum 81 

Subcocinella vigintiquattuorpunctata .... 301 

Synchita humeralis 200, 220 

separanda 201 

Tachinus rufipes 300 

Tachyporus chrysomelinus 300 

Tenebrio molitor 303 

Tetrops praeusta 303 

Trachyphloeus angustisetulus 81 

aristatus 81 

laticollis 81 

Trox scaber 303 

Tytthaspis sedecempunctata 301 

Xestobium rufovillosum 302 

Zaclades geranii 81 

DIPTERA 

Coboldia fuscipes 175 

Drosophila 35 

Euthycera cribrata 176 

Megaselia aequalis 176 

Taxomyia taxi 105 

Tetanocera elata 176 

Tipula triangulifera 3 

vaillanti 3 

HEMIPTERA 

Taphropeltus contractus 156 

HYMENOPTERA 

Andricus anthracina 105 

lignicola 105 

nudus 103 

Glypta ceratites 308 

^gracilis 308 

Neuroterus numismalis 105 

quercusbaccarum 105 

ISOPODA 

Halophiloscia couchi 77 

ODONATA 

Aeshnajuncea 170 

Ceriagrion tenellum 222 

Euallagma cyathigerum 165 

Hemianax exphippiger 170 



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Ischnura elegans 222 

Libellula quadrimaculata 170 

Pyrrhosoma nymphula 253 

Sympetrum flaveolum 304, 309 

vulgatum 309 

ORTHOPTERA 

Acanthacris ruficomis 280 

Acorypha granulatus 281 

Acrida sulphuripennis 280 

Acrotylus insubricus 221 

patruelis 280 

somaliensis 281 

Aiolopus longicomis 281 

strepens 221 

thalassinus 280 

Anacridium aegyptium 221 

Arescentia vansomereni 281 

Cataloipus 280 

Catanops curvicercus 280 

Catoptropteryx aurita 279 

Chorthippus albomarginatus 93 

biguttulus 222 

biroi 222 

bomhalmi 222 

brunneus 93, 162, 222 

mollis 222 

parallelus 93, 162 

Conocephalus conocephalus 278 

discolor 92 

dorsalis 92 

iris 278 

maculatus 278 

Cyrtacanthacris tatarica 280 

Dionconema omata 279 

Gastrimargus verticalis 280, 281 

Gomphocerripus rufus 92, 162 

Gymnobothroides 280 

Gymnobothms 280 

Heteracris brevipennis 280, 281 

littoralis 221 

Heteropterus couloniana 280 

Horatosphaga gracilis 279, 281 

leggei 279,281 

longipes 279,281 

Kinangopa jeanneli 281 

Lamecomsoma inerme 280 

Leptophyes punctatissima 92 

Meconema thalassinum 91 

Metrioptera brachyptera 91 

roeselii 91 

Morphacris fasciata 280 

Myrmeleotettix maculatus 92 

Ochrilidia tibialis 222 

Omocestus rufipes 162 

viridulus 92, 162 



Page 

Paracinema tricolor 280 

Paracoptacris cauta 281 

Parasphena 281 

Parasphena kinangopa 281 

ngongensis 281 

Paratettix 280 

Paratettix meridionalis 221 

Parepistaurus 280, 281 

Peronura clavigera 280, 281 

Pezocatanops ngongi 281 

Phaneroptera sparsa 280 

Phlesirtes merumontanus 278 

Pholidoptera griseoaptera 91, 162 

Phymeurus naivashensis 281 

Pseudopropacris vana 281 

Pyrgomorpha conica 221 

Ruspolia 279 

Stenobothrus lineatus 92 

Terpnistria 280 

Tetrix undulata 92 

Tettigonia viridissima 91 

Thericles 280 

Trilophidia conturbata 280 

Tropidopola longicomis 221 

Tylopsis irregularis 280 

rubrescens 280 

PROTURA 

Acerentomon affine 86 

nemorale 83 

Acerentulus confinis 86 

danicus 83 

Eosentomon armatum 83 



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